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TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



(INCORPORATED). 



VOL. LI. 

With Twenty Plates, and One Hundred and Fifteen Figures in the Text.J 



'EDITED BY PROFESSOR WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S. - 
Assisted by ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

| The Editor of the Transactions is directed to make it known to the Public 

that the Authors alone are responsible for the facts and opinions contained in 

their respective Papers.] 



$Efi%% 






PRICE, TWENTY-SIX SHILLINGS. 



Adelaide : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, ROYAL SOCIETY ROOMS, NORTH TERRACE, 

DECEMBER 23, 1927. 



Printed by Gillingham & Co. Limited, 106 and 108, Currie Street, 
Adelaide, South Australia. 



Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Australia from the United States 
of America can be forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

(INCORPORATED). 



VOL. LI. 

[With Twenty Plates, and One Hundred and Fifteen Figures in the Text.] 



FDITED BY PROFESSOR WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S. 
Assisted by ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

[The Editor of the Transactions is directed to make it known to the Public 

that the Authors alone are responsible for the facts and opinions contained in 
their respective Papers.] 




PRICE, TWENTY-SIX SHILLINGS. 

Adelaide : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, ROYAL SOCIETY ROOMS, NORTH TERRACE, 

DECEMBER 23, 1927. 



Printed by Gillingham & Co. Limited, 106 and 108, Currie Street, 
Adelaide, South Australia. 



Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Australia from the United States 
of America can be forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

(incorporated). 



Patron: 

HIS EXCELLENCY LIEUT.-GENERAL SIR G. T. M. BRIDGES, 
K.C.B., K.C.M.G., D.S.O. 



OFFICERS FOR 1927-28. 

President: 
PROF. J. B. CLELAND, M.D. 

Vice-Presidents: 

EDGAR R. WAITE, F.L.S., C.M.Z.S. L. KEITH WARD, D.Sc. 

Hon. Editor: 

PROF. WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S. 

Hon. Treasurer: Hon. Secretary: 

B. S. ROACH. R. H. PULLEINE, M.B., Ch.M. 

Members of Council: 

ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

SIR JOSEPH C. VERCO, M.D., F.R.C.S. 

PROF. T. HARVEY JOHNSTON, M.A., D.Sc, Representative Governor. 

J .M. BLACK. 

C. FENNER, D.Sc. 

PROF. J. A. PRESCOTT, M.Sc, A.I.C. 

Hon. Auditors: 
W. C. HACKETT. H. WHITBREAD. 



CONTENTS. 

Page 

Rogers, Dr. R. S. : Contributions to the Orchidology ol Australia .. .. .. .. 1 

Tinpale, Norman B., and Harold L. Skk.akd: Aboriginal Rock Paintings, South Para 
River, South Australia. Plates i. and ii. .. .. .. .. .. .. ..14 

Sheard, Harold L. : Aboriginal Rock Carvings at Devon Downs, River Murray, .South 

Australia. Plates iii. to v. . . ■ . - - . - - . ■ ■ - . . • 18 

Alderman, A. R. (Communicated by C. T. Madigan) : Petrographic Notes on Tonal ite 
from the. Palmer District and Biotite-Norite from South Black Hill .. .. ..20 

Cleland, Prof. j. B., and J. M. Black: An Enumeration of the Vascular Plants of Kan- 
garoo Island. (Orchids by Dr. R, S. Rogers) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 

Cleland, Prof. J. B. : Notes on a Collection of Australian Myxomycetes. identified by 
Miss Gulielma Lister . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 

Adelaide University Field Anthropology ; Central Australia— 

Campbell, Dr. T. D., and Cecil j. Hackf.tt. No. 1, introduction: Descriptive and 
Anthropometric Observations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 

Ray, Dr. William. No. 2, Physiological Observations .. .. .. .. ..76 

ClelaNB, Prof. J. B. No. 3, Blood-Grouping- of Australian Aboriginals at Oodnadatta 
and Alice Springs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 

Davj.es., Dr. E. Harold. No. 4, Aboriginal Songs . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 

Lea, Arthur M. : On New Species of Emplesis (Curculionidae) .. .. .. ..93 

Chapman, Fredk. : On a New Genus of Calcareous Algae, from the Lower Cambrian (?), 
West of Wooltana, South Australia. Plate vi. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 

Goode, B. F. (Communicated by Sir D. Mawson) : The Mannum Granite .. .. .. 126 

Johnston, Prof. T. Harvey: New Trematodes from an Australian Siluroid .. .. 129 

Sheard. Harold L. ; Aboriginal Rock Shelters and Carvings — Three Localities on the 
Lower Murray . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 

Clkland, Prof. J. B.. and Cecil J. Hackett : Observations on a New-born Australian 
Aboriginal Infant. Plates vii. and viii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 

Lea, Arthur M. : The Clawdess and Apparently Clawless Curculionidae oi Australia .. 144 
Mountford, C. P. : Aboriginal Stone Structures in South Australia. Plates ix. and x. . . 169 
Sheard, H, L., C. P. Mountford, and C. j. Hackf.tt: An unusual disposal of an Aborig- 
inal Child's Remains from the Lower Murray, South Australia. Plates xi. and xii. . . 173 
Jennison, Rev. J. C. : Notes on the Language of the Elcho Island Aborigines .. .. 177 

Fenner, Dr. C. : Adelaide, South Australia : A Study in Human Geography . . . . 193 

Macklin, Ellen D.: A Revision of the "Distyla Complex 11 of the Genus Casuarina. 

Plate xiii 257 

Prescott, Prof. J. A.: The Reaction of South Australian Soils .. .. .. .. 287 

Rogers, Dr. R. S. : Contributions to the Orchidology of Australia .. .. .. .. 291 

Cleland, Prof. J. B. : Australian Fungi: Notes and Descriptions. No. 6 .. .. .. 298 

Fauna of Kangaroo Island, South Australia — 

Hale, H. M. : No. 1, The Crustacea 307 

Waite, E. R., and Prof. F. Wood Jones. No. 2, The Mammals 322 

Watte, E. R. : No. 3, The Reptiles and Amphibians . . . . . . . . . . 320 

Howchin, Proe. W. : The Sturtian Tillite in the Neighbourhood of Eden, and in the Hun- 
dreds of Kapunda, Neales and English, South Australia. Plates xiv. and xv. . . . . 330 

Elston, A. H. : Revision of the Australian Elateridae. Colcoptera. Part ii. . . . . 350 

Einlayson, H. H. : Observations on the South Australian Members of the Subgenus 
"Wallabia." Plates xvi. to xviii. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 

Black, J. M.: Additions to the Flora of South Australia. No. 25 378 

Mawson, Sir D.: Geological Notes on an Area along the North-eastern Margin of the 
North-eastern Portion of the Willouran Range . . . . . . . . , . . . 386 

Mawson, Sir D. : The Paralalia Hot Spring. Plate xix. .. .. .. . . .. 391 

Madigan, C, T. : The Geology of the Willunga Scarp. Plate xx. .. .. .. .. 398 

David, Prof. T. W. Edgewortii : Note on the Geological Horizon of the Archaeocyathinae 410 
Miscellanea . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . „ . . . . . 414 

Abstract of Proceedings .. .. .. . ,. .. .. .. .. .. .. 415 

Ann ual Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 

Balance-sheets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 425 

Obituary Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427 

Donations to Library . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430 

List of Fellows ♦ . .... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 437 

Appendix — 

Field Naturalists' Section : Annual Report, etc, . . . . . . . . . . . . 440 

Thirty-ninth Report of the Flora and Fauna Protection Committee .. ., ., 441 
Annual Report of the Shell Colleetors' Committee . . . . . . . . . . . . 442 

Index 444 



Transactions 

of 

The Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated) 



VOL. LI. 

CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ORCHIDOLOGY OF AUSTRALIA. 

By R. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D., F.L.S. 
[Read November 11, 1926.] 

Sarcochilus (§ Eu-Sarcochilus) spathulatus, Rogers, n. sp. Species 
cpiphytica. Radices elongatae, filiformes, flexuosae, glabrae. Caulis brevis, 
circiter 1*5 cm. longus, omnino vaginis persistentibus truncatis foliorum obtccto. 
Folia 4 vel 5, crecto-patentia, falcata vel elliptico-falcata, circa 4-5 cm. longa, 
1 '0-1-3 cm. lata, ad basin sensim attenuata, acuta. Inflorescentia racemosa, phiri- 
rlora. Flores parviusculi, odorati, in diametro circa 1*3 cm., perianthio subviridi- 
brunneo, labello albido cum notationibus purpureis. Sepalum dorsale erectum 
vel subretroflextim, oblongo-ellipticum, obtusum, subconcavuin, 3-nervium, circiter 
6 mm. longum, 2*75 mrn. latum; sepala lateralia obtuse faleo-oblonga, concava, 
sub labello porrecta, libera, basibus antico dimidio pedis columnae adnata, 3- 
nervia, circiter 7 mm. longa. Petala retroflexa vel patentia, obtuse falcata, 
3-nervia, sepalo dorsali subaequalia. Labellum mobile, unguiculatum, apice pedis 
columnae adnatum, sepalis lateralibus subaequale, 3-lobatum ; lobi laterales erecti, 
spathulati, circiter 4 mm. longi, lobum intermedium et autheram multo superantcs, 
apicibus abrupte dilatati; lobus intermedins brevis, pulvinatus, dcnte incurvo 
instructus, antica notationibus purpureis conspicuis ornatus ; protuberantia plana, 
carnosa, late oblonga, obtusa, cava. Columna brevissima ; clinandrium amplum. 
Anthera opereularis, abrupte rostrata. Pollinia 4, didynia. Ovarium cum 
pedicello gracile circa 6 mm. longum. 

A small epiphyte. Roots elongated, filiform, flexuose, glabrous. Stems 
short, in my specimen about 1*5 cm. long, entirely covered with dry persistent 
truncate bases of leaves. Leaves erecto-patent, falcate or elliptic-falcate, acute, 
about 4-5 cm. long, 1 -0-1*3 cm. wide, gradually narrowing towards the base, 
Inflorescence racemose, several-flowered, pedicel with ovary about 6 mm. long, 
slender. Flowers small, about 1*3 cm. in diameter, with greenish-brown perianth 
and cream labellum with purple markings, scented. Dorsal sepal erect or slightly 
retracted, oblong-elliptical, blunt, slightly concave, 3-nerved, about 6 mm. long, 
2*75 mm. wide; lateral sepals bluntly falco-oblong, concave, porrect below the 
labellum, free, obliquely aclnate to the distal half of the foot of the column, 
3-nerved, about 7 mm. long. Petals retroflexed or spreading, bluntly falcate, 
3-nerved, about as long as the dorsal sepal. Labellum attached by a short movable 
claw to the tip of the slender column-foot, about as long as the lateral sepals. 
3-lobcd ; lateral lobes large, erect, narrowly oblong or linear-spathulate, about 
4 mm. long, much longer than the middle lobe and greatly exceeding the anther 
in height, abruptly dilated at the apices; middle lobe short, cushion-like with an 



inturned tooth, its anterior margin convex conspicuously purple and pubescent 
with 2 purple vertical tooth-like markings immediately below it; the protuberance 
flat, blunt, oblong, hollow. Column very short, not reaching above the middle 
of the lateral lobes of the labellum, its foot slender and greatly elongated; 
clinandrium capacious. Pollinia 4, attached to the gland by a common rather 
long broad caudicle splitting at the polliniar end into two short elastic divisions. 

Queensland. Tambourine Mountains, Miss H. Geissmann; epiphytic on 
shrubs in company with S. olivaccus, Lindl. ; 8th Oct., 1925. 

New South Wales. Barrington Tops, Rev. H. M. Rupp ; October, 1925. 

Miss Geissmann, to whom botanists are indebted for many rare plants from 
her native mountain, has the honour of having first discovered this charming little 
plant. Mr. Rupp discovered it independently in N.S. Wales a week or two later. 

It approaches S. olivaceus, Lindl., very closely, but differs in the relative 
length of the lateral sepals to the labellum and in the site of their attachment to 
the column-foot. The shape of the lateral lobes of the lip and the purple mark- 
ings on the face of the latter are also characteristic. The specific name has 
reference to the spathulate lateral lobes of the labellum. 

Bulbophyllum Elisae, F. v. M., in Fragm. vi., 120. This species has 
very characteristic pseudobulbs, no clear description of which appears to have 
been published, and which are difficult to recognise even in Fitzgerald's otherwise 
excellent illustrations. Though hardly crowded, they are rather closely 
approximated on a shortly creeping rhizome, about 1*5-1*75 cm. high, and 
1*1-1-3 cm. wide, more or less ovoid in shape, and beset with shortly pointed 
tubercles arranged in about 7 somewhat irregular vertical rows with furrows 
between them. This appearance is natural to the mature pseudobulb, and is not 
due to "wrinkling" following its decline. The single apical leaf is smooth, rather 
rigid, blunt, moderately thick, frequently flat, oblong or oblong-elliptical, from 
about 5-7 cm. long, and 1 '0-1*25 cm. wide. 

The inverted flowers are usually, but not invariably sectmd, green in colour 
but acquiring a yellowish tint with age and may be at once distinguished by the 
great disproportion in length between the dorsal and lateral sepals (1:4 in my 
specimens). The diminutive petals are completely concealed by the sepals. The 
short, fleshy, reddish-brown, tongue-shaped labellum forms a marked contrast to 
the prevailing colour of the perianth-segments. There is no evidence of any 
tendency to "twisting" of the lateral sepals, such as occurs in Cirrho pet alum, 

Lindl. 

The column is produced upwards at the back of the clinandrium into a tooth, 
to which the anther is lightly affixed, and on each side in front the column-wings 
terminate above in a short truncate tooth. The stigma lies at the back of a large 
deep cavity below the floor of the clinandrium. Pollinia 4, unequal, in 2 pairs. 

If this plant is to be retained in Bulbophyllum, Thou., taxonomic difficulties 
will arise, and a special section will probably have to be created for it. On the 

other hand, Bentham appears to think that it should be excluded from Cirrho- 
petalum, Lindl., owing to the absence of some of the essential characters of that 
genus. 

Some plants received by me from Miss Geissmann, Queensland, bloomed on 
some debris from a wood-heap in Adelaide, with unexpected case, and without 
care or attention. The identity of the pseudobulbs was thus definitely established. 
Fitzgerald states that he has found it growing on "fig trees" in the Blue Mountains. 

Queensland. Tambourine Mountains, Miss H. Geissmann. 

New South Wales. Dunn's Creek, near Paterson, Rev. H. M. Rupp. 

Gastrodia sesamoides, R. Br. As was anticipated, this plant has at 
last been discovered in South Australia. It has also reached me from New 
Zealand, and every State in Australia, except the Northern Territory. It has 



therefore a very extensive geographical range. So far as is known, it is the sole 
representative of the genus in the Commonwealth, having covered this vast area 
without modification/ 1 > A second species, G. Cunninghamii, Hook f., has also 
been recorded from New Zealand. 

Like other members of the genus, our species is leafless and saprophytic. 

Its mode of fertilization does not appear to have received consideration, 
although in the case of an orchid so widely distributed and so suggestive in 
structure, this problem should not present insuperable difficulties in a locality 
where it is common. 

The inconspicuous flowers are arranged on short pedicels in a loose^ raceme. 
They are brownish-yellow in colour with whitish tips and bell-shaped in form, 
owing to the union of the perianth segments. In some living material before me, 
the uppermost flowers on the inflorescence are usually erect, the others nodding 
with the labellum above (inverted). The lateral sepals are united for a little 
more that half their length and are gibbous at the base ; the other segments are 
more completely united, but their blunt apices are free. Thus a V-shaped space 
is left between the free portions of the lateral sepals, affording easy access 
between the labellum and column, the apices of which are exactly the same height. 
When the (lower is erect the labellum falls a little away from the anther; when 
the flower nods, it rests ever so lightly against the latter, and in such a way that 
it may be easily raised by an insect attempting to enter the bell. It would also 
have the effect of causing such a visitor to brush against the granular pollen 
extruded between the front of the anther-cap and the smooth anterior margin of 
the column summit. In the erect position, any pollen escaping from the anther 
must fall downwards on the stigma, which is situated on a sloping surface at the 
extreme base of the elongated column. The stigmatic surface is very moist and 
this exudate may be attractive to insects. As the column is 1 cm. in length, the 
distance between pollinia and stigma is very considerable. The anterior margin 
of the column top is horizontal, reflexed against itself, and is not at all viscid. 
It does not therefore serve the function of a rostellum. The column itself is flat 
and erect but quite hollow throughout its length, being traversed by a wide 
stigmatic canal. It is dilated at the summit in both diameters, so as to form a 
sort of cup, which receives the anther. It is produced into a blunt tooth at 
the back of the anther, and into a similar tooth on each side of the latter in front. 
The anther which is lid-like and hemispherical sits on the summit between these 
three teeth, and only appears to be attached by a little mucus to the posterior one. 
It is capable of easy removal. It is bilocular, each cell being incompletely sub- 
divided by a short septum from its vault. The pollinia are very granular and 
remarkably like those of the genus Prasophyllum. There are 4 masses, united 
by a little mucus by their apices just above the anterior margin of the column 
summit. Their under surfaces are freely exposed over the pseudo-clinandrium, 
which in turn communicates freely with the wide stigmatic canal. There is no 
caudicle or definite disc. The pollinia may be extracted en masse with little 
difficulty, especially if the tip of the needle be first brought into contact with the 
stigmatic exudate. 

The labellum is white and movable on a wide claw;, which is adnate to the 
gibbosity at the base of the sepals. Including the claw, it is 1 cm. long, straight, 
erect against the column, ovate-oblong in outline or obscurely 3-lobed, apex 
truncate; margins upraised, lacerated or fringed; lamina with a conspicuous 
raised yellow central guide-line from apex to the middle of the lamina, where it 
bifurcates as far as the base; at the base and on the claw there are two large 
undulate or sigmoid yellow callosities. 

(!) Bailey described from Queensland a species G. ovata, but this is now known to belong 
to the genus C heir o sty lis, Bl. 



The plant is evidently capable of cross-pollination, but like Prasoph\lhim 
gracile, Rogers, it may have other means of effecting this purpose. 

South Australia. Flinders' Chase, Kangaroo Island; Prof. F. Wood 
Jones. October 31, 1924. 

The genus itself, extends northwards to India, Malay Archipelago, New 
Guinea, Celebes, Philippines, China, and Japan. 

Calochilus imberbis, Rogers, n. sp. Species terrestris, subrobusta, 
habitu C. Robertsonii, Benth., circiter 20-37 cm. alta. Caulis glaber, prope 
medium bractea elongata subulata. Folium subrigidum, carnosum, canalicu- 
latum, exteriore cariuatum, lineari-lanceolatum. ad basin inflorescentiae vulgo 
attiugens. Infloresccntia raccmosa. Flores 3 vel 4, virides vel subvi rides, longe 
pedicellati, bracteis 1 "3-4*0 cm. longis. Sepalum dorsale erectum, ovatum, 
acutum, cucullatum, pluri-nervium, circiter 1*6 cm. longum, 1-0 cm. latum; sepala 
lateraiia libera, sub labello patentia, divaricata, circiter 1*5 cm. longa, 6 mm. lata, 
pluri-nervia. Petala late triangularia, falcata, erecta. obtuse uncinata, concava, 
nen/is purpureis parallelis conspicuis ornata, circiter. 7 mm. longa, 4 mm. lata. 
Labellum petaloideum, sessile, planum, ovatum, acutum, patens, marginibus 
integris, concavum, nervis purpureis conspicuis ornatum, circiter 1*1 cm. longum, 
6 mm. latum, cailis nullis. Columna brevis, post basin antherae producta. ant ice 
alis lamina conspicua scutiforme alta conjunctis, utrimque glandula purpurea. 
Anthera obtusa, breviuscula. 

A rather stout species with the habit of C. Robertsonii, Benth. About 20-37 
cm. high. Stem with a long loose subulate bract near the middle. Leaf some- 
what rigid, fleshy, channelled, keeled on the outside, linear-lanceolate, reaching 
to about the base of the inflorescence. Inflorescence racemose ; with 3 or 4 green 
or greenish flowers, on rather long slender pedicels, subtended by a floral bract 
l'3-4'0 cm. long. Dorsal sepal erect, ovate, acute, hooded, plurinerved, about 
16 mm. long, 10 mm. wide; lateral sepals free, ovate, acute, concave, spreading 
below the labellum, divaricate, about 15 mm. long, 6 mm. wide, plurinerved. 
Petals widely triangular-falcate, erect, uncinate, coneave, traversed by conspicuous 
purple veins, about 7 mm. long, 4 mm. wide. Labellum petaloid, sessile, simple, 
ovate, acute, spreading, margins entire, with 7 conspicuous purple nerves, concave, 
lamina without calli hairs or other processes, about 11 mm. long, 6 mm. wide. 
Column short, produced behind the base of the anther ; the wings connected in 
front by a high conspicuous shield-like plate, a purple gland at the base of each. 
Anther blunt and rather shorter than in C. Robertsonii, slighly inclined forward. 

Victoria. Rushworth, Mrs. Fred. Rich, October 3, 1923 ; Ringwood, 
Mrs. Coleman, October, 1924. 

This plant is well separated from other members of the genus by its beardless 
labellum, and by the conspicuous plate at the base of the column. The flowers, 
though not so regular as in the genus Thelymifra, Sw., show an approach to actino- 
morphy which is very unusual in orchids. The lip is distinctly petaloid, but the 
lateral petals retain the shape which is common to all known species of Calochilus. 
It apparently occurs in considerable numbers and has been found in two distant 
localities. Mrs. Rich reports that it was found growing in association with 
C. Robertsonii, Benth., the pelorial state of which it may prove to be the repre- 
sentative. 

Thelymitra chasmogama, Rogers, n. sp. Species terrestris, gracilis, 
glabra, basi scapi vagina scariosa, 25-30 cm. alta. Folium anguste lineare, sub- 
temie, subrigidum, canaliculatum, acutum, circiter 10-12 cm. longum, basi vaginalis. 
Caulis carneus, subflexuosus vel fere strictus ; bracteae 2, subulatae, vaginantes. 
Flores circiter 2, carnei, ill is T. earneae, R. Br. similes, libere chasmogami; pedi- 
celli graciles ; ovaria subgracilia, teretia; bracteae parvae, acutae. Segmenta 
perianthii circiter 1*2-1 '3 cm. longa, elliptica. Columna circiter 6'5 mm. longa, 



5 

cucullata ; lobi laterales penicillati, lutei, illis T. luteociliatae, Fitzg, similes ; 
cueullus tubiformis, marginibus integris, inter lobos laterales productus. Anthera 
obtusa, sub lobis penicillatis apice conspicuo ; pollinarium facile deportatum. 

A slender glabrous plant with a scariose scale at the base, from 25-30 cm. 
high. Leaf with a closely sheathing reddish cylindrical base, about 5 cm. long; 
its free lamina greenish-yellow, narrow-linear, about 10-12 cm. long, rather thin 
and rigid, acute, channelled. Stem pinkish, with tendency to angulation or nearly 
straight; bracts 2, simulate, closely sheathing. Flowers 2. on slender pedicels, 
each subtended by small acute sheathing bract, a floral rudiment at the base of 
the uppermost bract; ovaries rather slender, terete; pink in colour, resembling 
those of T. carnea, R. Br., opening freelv at very moderate temperature (78 c P.) ; 
segments of perianth about 1*2-1 "3 cm. long, cllipticah the inner ones much wider 
than the outer. Column about 6" 5 mm. long, the lateral wings carried forwards 
and upwards into 2 yellow penicillated processes, as in T. lutcociliata, Fitzg. ; the 
hood produced forwards into a yellow tube with smooth entire margins. Apex 
of anther prominent and blunt, showing distinctly from the side and in front 
below the hairtuf ts ; anther-case carried high above the stigma, dehiscing and 
leaving the pollen-masses attached to the viscid disc and partly hidden by the 
stigma. Stigma semi-oval, viscid disc in a slot in its upper border. Pollinia 
attached directly to the disc without intervention of a caudicle. 

South Australia. Golden Grove; Dr. and Mrs. Rogers, October 23, 1921. 

This plant may be the plains representative of T. Inteociiiata, Fitzg., which 
is a mountain form. It differs from the latter in the shape of the hood, which 
is incomplete in Fitzgerald's plant. It likewise completely differs in the structure 
of its pollinarium, which is adapted for cross-pollination, whereas in the hills 
form self-pollination is accomplished very early in the bud-stage, and the flowers 
very rarely open, and then only for a brief interval. It is easily separated from 
T. carnea, R. Br., by the presence of penicillate lateral lobes. 

In three plants, all fully expanded, which I examined, the pollima were still 
in situ, but were easily removed on a needle. Such removal is impossible in 
T. hiteociliata, Fitzg. 

Thelymitra Elizabethae, F. v. M ., in Vict. Nat., vii., 1890, p. 116. In 
his very brief and imperfect description of this plant, the Baron refers to it as 
"a variety of T. carnea, R. Br., or as a distinct species." I am of opinion that it 
is a valid species and should be regarded as quite distinct from 7\ carnea, R. Br. 
It is not included in "A Census of the Plants of Victoria," 1923, issued by the 
Field Nat. Club. As the. column and appendages dry more or less black, the dis- 
crepancies regarding colour details, between the following description (made 
from living material) and that of the. Baron (probably made from dried material) 
will be understood. 

A very slender species, 12-18 cm. high. Leaf reddish at the base where it 
embraces the stem, terete, or linear-terete and very slightly channelled, 8-9 cm. 
long, usually erect. Stem very slender, usually reddish, straight or slightly 
flexuose, with 2 closely sheathing subulate bracts. Flower solitary, very rarely 2, 
very small, red (not pink), on large elongated ovary; perianth segments about 
7 mm. long. Column about 4 mm. long, pink, with a yellow apex; the latter 
3-lobed; the middle lobe yellow, imperfectly hooded, arched, slightly denticulate, 
with concave anterior margin and smooth dorsum; lateral lobes yellow, oblong, 
blunt, smooth on outside, edges minutely dentate, about as high as the anther and 
a little higher than intermediate lobe. Lower margins of the column wings united 
in front to a much higher level than in T. carnea. Base (only) of the anther 
concealed by the stigmatic plate, the apex showing prominently between the lateral 
lobes. A self-pollinating species, absorption of the rostellum proceeding in 
flowers under examination. 



Victoria. Ringwood; A. J. Tadgell, October 28, 1923. 

The rediscovery by Mr. Tadgell, of this plant, which seems to have been lost 
sight of for many years, is interesting. It is much more slender than T. camea, 
with a different leaf and much smaller flowers, the latter being slightly smaller 
than those of T. flexitosa, Endl. 

In several specimens staminodia representing anther a 3 were present. 

Microtis orbicularis, Rogers. The range of this orchid has now been 
considerably extended by its discovery in the Western State. Until recently it 
had only been found in the Myponga district. It is now known to occur also at 
Encounter Bay. 

South Australia. Encounter Bay, November 3, 1924, J. B. Cleland. 

Western Australia. Kcnwick, O. Sargent, September 10, 1921 ; High- 
bury, growing in water in winter swamp, Col. B. T. Goadby, end October, 1924. 

Cryptostylis subulata (Labill.), Reichb. f. Beitr. 15. Synonyms. 
— Mai axis subulata, Labill., PI. Nov. Holl., ii., 62, t. 212; Cryptostylis longifolia, 
R. Br., Prod. 317. 

Diuris fastidiosa, Rogers, n. sp. Species terrestris, humilis, gracillima, 
circa 5 •5-20 cm. alta. Folia 7 vel 8, setacea, ad 11 cm. longa. Caulis glaber, 
basi vagina cylindrica scariosa ; bracteae 2, infera laxa elongata subulata, supera 
breviore vaginante. Flores 1-3, racemosi, lutei, notationibus badiis ornati ; pedi- 
celli longi gracillimi ; ovarium anguste elongatum pedicellos excedens. Sepalum 
dorsale subovale, erectum. subacutum, apice recurvum, basin columnae amplexaus, 
9-nervium, inferiore dimidio notationibus badiis ornatum, circiter 11 mm. iongum, 
6 mm. latum, labellum aequans ; sepala lateralia subviridia, linearia, parallela, 
patentia, canaliculata, circiter 1*75 cm. longa, segmenta cetera multo excedentia. 
Petala 7-nervia conspicue stipitata, circa 1*3 cm. longa, scpalis lateralibus 
breviora; lamina elliptica, lutea; stipes badius, circa 4 mm. longus. Labellum 
verticale vel subverticale, notationibus badiis irregularibus ornatum ; 3-lobatum, 
bene supra basin divisum; lobi laterales oblongi, obtusi, marginibus cxterioribus 
leviter dentati, circa 6 mm. longi, dimidium labelli paululo excedentes ; lobus inter- 
medins obtuse spathulatus, inter lobos laterales in unguem abruptc attenuatus, 
marginibus mtegris, circa 11 mm. longus; unguis lobi intermedii lineis duo late 
separatis elevatis pubescentibus parallelis instructus. Anthera obtusiuscula, in 
altitudine rostellum ct lacinias laterales aequans. Laciniae laterales columnae 
late membranaceac, apice longe subulatae, marginibus irregularibus. 

A small species, very slender, from 5*5-20 cm. high. Leaves 7 or 8, setaceous, 
about half the height of the scape. Stem glabrous with 2 bracts, one loose 
elongated subulate, the other much shorter and closely sheathing, a membranous 
cylindrical sheath at the base. Flowers racemose, 1-3 in my specimens, on long very 
slender pedicels, yellow with dark-brown markings ; ovary narrow elongated ; bracts 
loose subulate exceeding the pedicels. Dorsal sepal more or less oval, erect, sub- 
acute, recurved at the apex, clasping the column at the base, 9-nerved, brown 
markings in the lower half, about 11 mm. long, 6 mm. wide, equalling the labellum 
in length ; lateral sepals greenish, linear, parallel, spreading, channelled above, 
about 1*75 cm. long, greatly exceeding the other segments, no tendency to cross. 
Petals 7-nerved, markedly stipitate, about 1*3 cm. long, shorter than the lateral 
sepals; lamina yellow elliptical, stipes dark brown about 4 mm. long. Labellum 
vertical or subvertical, with irregular brown blotches or markings; 3-lobed, the 
division well above the base ; lateral lobes oblong, blunt, slightly dentate on the 
outer margins, about 6 mm. long, slightly exceeding half the length of the labellum ; 
middle lobe obtuse spathulate, narrowing posteriorly between the lateral lobes into 
a claw, margins entire, about 11 mm. long; lamina with 2 well separated pubescent 
raised parallel lines on the claw of the middle lobe, succeeded by a single keel to 
the apex. Anther rather blunt, equalling in height the rostellum and lateral 



appendages. Lateral appendages membranous, wide with irregular borders and 
long subulate apex. 

Victoria. Tottenham, W. H. Nicholls. Blooms August and September. 

This species approaches D. palachila, Rogers, very closely in the flower, but 
is well separated bv its setaceous leaves and lowly habit. Whereas the lateral 
sepals are about equal in length to the petals in D. palachila, they are considerably 
longer than all the other segments in the new species, and there is no tendency to 
cross. Mr. Nicholls states that "all the flowers point to the sky," i.e., the labellum 
is more or less vertical. From this habit, the specific name is derived. Another 
closely related species with setaceous leaves, D. setacea, R. Br., is a native ol 
Western Australia ; but here the lateral sepals and petals arc about equal m length, 
and the raised lines are closely contiguous; likewise the intermediate lobe of the 
lip is trapeziform in shape. From D. palustris, LindL, another species with 
setaceous leaves, there is no difficulty in distinguishing the Tottenham plant, owing 
to the extremely short petals and large lateral lobes of the lip in Lmdley's 

plant. i , . . c . 

Prasophyllum validum, Rogers, n. sp. Specimma mca imperfecta, bpica 
validissima, ad 17 cm. longa, 28-flora. Flores in genere inter maximos, sublaxu 
sessiles; bractca parva, acuta, appressa. Sepalum dorsale ovatum, acutum, 
incurvum erectum, in floribus senilibus recurvum, 1 '3 cm. longum, 4 "75 mm. latum ; 
sepala lateralia arcuata, patentia, inferne ultra medium connata, apicibus hberis, 
circiter 1*35 cm. longa, 5 mm. lata (conjuncta), acuminata. Petala crecta, mcurva, 
lineari-lanceolata, sepalis angustiora et brcviora. Labellum breviter unguiculatum, 
in ambitu subovatum, apice subacutum, basi contractum, in dimido mfenore 
erectum concavum, deinde horizontale patens; pars callosa^ conspicue viridis, 
elevata, triangularis, propc apicem abrupte terminans ; margincs albidi, lati m 
dimidio inferiore integri, deinde crenulati, flexu latcralitcr contractu Anthera 
badia, apiculata, apice recurva, rostello multo brevior ; laciniae laterales oblongo- 
falcatae, erectae, lobo basilare satis magno, rostello breviores, antheram aequantes ; 
rostellum erectum, subgracile, apice discum conspicuum geraus ; caudicula 
moderate longa. 

Specimens incomplete, stem and leaf absent. Spike very robust, upwards of 
17 cm. long, with about 28 flowers. Flowers amongst the largest in the genus, 
green, not crowded, sessile, subtended by a small acute appressed bract. ^Dorsal 
sepal erect, ovate, acute, incurved, later recurved, about 1*3 cm. long, 4"75 mm. 
wide; lateral sepals spreading, arched, connate to within a short distance of the 
apex, about 1*35 cm. long, 5 mm. wide (conjoined), acute. Petals erect, incurved, 
linear-lanceolate, narrower and shorter than the sepals. Labellum shortly clawed 
somewhat ovate in outline, subacute at tip, contracted at base; in the lower half 
erect, concave, thereafter recurved at right angles; callous part conspicuous, 
green, triangular from the base, elevated, ending abruptly near the apex ; margins 
white, voluminous, entire in lower half, thereafter crenulous, laterally contracted 
at the bend. Anther reddish-brown, apiculate, apex retracted, much shorter 
than the rostellum; lateral appendages oblong-falcate, erect, with a rather large 
rounded basal lobe, shorter than the rostellum, about equal to the anther ; rostellum 
erect, rather slender, with a distinct disc at its apex; caudicle moderately long. 
Lateral index=82. 

South Australia. Melrose, Dr. J. B. Cleland, October 27, 1926, 
This plant has the robust habit of P. elatum, R. Br., but with a very different 
labellum. The flower in its structure most closely approaches the prune-coloured 
P. constrictum, Rogers, a plant which I received some years ago from Tailem 
Bend in this State, but the flowers are very much larger, differ in colour, con- 
siderably in the column, and in several important respects also in the labellum. 



Prasophyllum Hartii, Rogers, n. sp. Species validissima, ad 60 cm alta 
Folium erectum, mfloresccntiam vulgo excedens. Inflorescentia laxiuscula 
15-30-flora; bracteae appressae obtusissimae. Flores majusculi, badii subsessiles ' 
ovarium magnum, vinde, obconicum, turgidum. Sepalum dorsale erectum apice 
recurvo, ovatum, acutum, concavum, circa 5-nervium, dorso glandulosum', circa 
8 mm. longum, 5*25 mm. latum ; sepala lateralia elliptico-falcata, acuminata libera, 
10 mm. longa, 3 mm, lata, 3-nervia, intus concava, patentia, parallela. Petala 
erecta, elliptico-falcata, obtusiuscula.. 8 mm. longa, 2*5 mm. lata. Labellum 
breviter unguiculatum, purpureum, ovatum, acutum, basi ample ventricosum fere 
erectum, margimbus integris latissimis; in parte tertia terminali recurvum ; pars 
callosa flexu conspicue elevata, hastata, carnosa, perglandulosa. Columna 
brevissima, jatissima. Anthera badia, ovata, erecta, subplana. obtusiuscula, 
rostello brevior. Lacmiae columnae latissime oblongae, erectae vcl incurvac basi 
bilobulatae; apices sublaceratae, truncatae, dente posteriore parvo subulato 
mstructae, rostellum aequantes. Rostellum erectum, bindum. Caudicula 
mediocris gracilis. 

A very robust species, attaining a height of 60 cm. Leaf usually exceeding 
the inflorescence. Inflorescence not crowded, consisting of about 20-35 reddish- 
brown or prune-coloured flowers rather large for the genus. Flowers subsessile, 
subtended at the base by a short very obtuse bract. Ovary relatively large, green 
and turgid. Dorsal sepal erect, but recurved at the apex, ovate, acute, concave, 
about 5-nerved, glandular on the outside, about 8 mm. long, 5 -25 mm. wide; 
lateral sepals elliptic-falcate, acuminate, free, 10 mm. long. 3 mm. wide. 3-nerved,' 
concave on the upper surface, spreading, parallel. Petals erect, elliptic-falcate, 
rather blunt, 8 mm. long, 2*5 mm. wide. Labellum shortly and broadly clawed, 
prune-coloured; the basal two-thirds more or less erect, voluminous, ventricose, 
very concave, the margins very wide rounded and entire; thereafter recurved at 
right angles into a triangular acute tip with somewhat crenulatc narrow margins; 
callous part conspicuously raised, hastate, with thickened very glandular margins, 
extending a little beyond the bend. Column more or less prune-coloured, very 
short and wide. Anther dark brown, ovate, erect, rather flat, not apiculate, dis- 
tinctly shorter than the rostellum and lateral appendages. Lateral appendages 
very widely oblong, erect or incurved; apices truncate, notched or lacerated, with 
a small subulate tooth posteriorly; basal lobe rounded about half the height of 
anterior lobe. Rostellum erect, bifid. Caudicle slender, of medium length. 
Lateral index 80. 

Victoria. Bairnsdale, Mr. T. S. Hart, M.A., November 9, 1925. 

This prasophyllum is not likely to be confused with any other published species. 
Its robustness, colour of flowers, most characteristic and 'extremely wide labellum 
cause it, in my opinion, to stand apart from all other members of the genus. The 
contrast between the green ovary and the dark flowers is noticeable even in dried 
specimens. 

Corysanthes undulata, Cunng. Among some orchidaceous material 
received in 1924 from the Rev. II. M. Rupp, of New South Wales, there was 
found an apparently midescribed species of the genus Corysanthes, R. Br. 

r \ he investigation of this plant rendered it necessary to refer to Cunning- 
ham's original description of C. priiinosa, which appeared in that short-lived and 
long forgotten publication, the New South Wales Magazine, No. 1, 1833, p. 41. 
A photostat copy, supplied by the Public Library, Sydney, unexpectedly revealed 
the description of another orchid. C. undulata, Cunng., which had evidently been 
overlooked by the earlier botanists, and had consequently not passed into current 
literature. There was little difficulty in recognising in this the description of the 
plant under observation. 



9 

In appending Cunningham's description of this long-lost species, I take the 
opportunity of also including that of C. pmv.wsa, which immediately preceded it, 
as the reference appears to be little known to botanists: — 

"C\ pruinosa labello ecalcarato, infra cucullato, supra di!ata.to, disco hirsuto, 
marginihus inflcxis fimbriatis, galea basi attenuata erecta, apice mucronato." 

''C. undulata labello basi bicalcarato. infra cucullato, ■ supra dilatato, mar- 
ginibus inflexis undulatis." 

Thfi species must probably be regarded as the smallest Australian member 
of the genus, as my specimens are hardly as large as C. unguiculaia, R. Br. 

To meet modern requirements Cunningham's brief description should be 
amplified as follows: — Leaf variable in size, definitely cordate, subpeltate. upper 
surfacc green, grey below, about 7-12 Trim, long, 6-10 mm. wide; an intramarginal 
vein led by others radiating from the insertion of the stem, Flower single, 
dark-purplish red except for a whitish disc on anterior surface of labellum, about 
10-12 mm. high from leaf to top of galea. Dorsal sepal scaphoid, very concave, 
galeate, only slightly concealing labellum, attenuated towards the base, margins 
entire, quite blunt or slightly apiculatc at apex, about 6-10 mm. long; lateral sepals 
vestigial, white, membranous, linear-lanceolate, erect between the spurs, about 
3*5 mm. long. Petals minute, white, membranous, shorter than the lateral 
sepals, about 1*75-2*5 mm. long. Labellum voluminous, margins at the base in 
apposition forming an erect split tube around the column ; rather sharply recurved 
about the middle and expanding into a trumpet-shaped orifice with minutely 
denticulated margins; lamina of the recurved part furnished with a large whitish 
glandular pubescent boss in the centre; produced on each side at the base into a 
short spur. Column very short, about 2"5 mm. high. 

New South Wales. Bulladclah, Rev. H. M. Rupp, June 10, 1924, "grow- 
ing in a scrub of Melaleuca nodosa, on hard damp clay/' 1 Mr. Rupp adds that the 
species appeared numerous, but difficult to find on account of its small size. 

An examination of my specimens shows a tendency to lobulation of the leaf, 
so common in members of this genus. 

Caleana Sullivanii, F. v. 2/L, in Melbourne Chemist and Druggist, 1882, 
p. 68. Apart from the description by the author of this species, the plant 
remained practically unknown until it was rediscovered by Mr. C. W. D'Alton 
forty-two years later. As the plant appears to be of extreme rarity, it may be of 
interest to supplement the original description from my observation of living- 
material recently supplied by Mr. D'Alton : — 

Plant very slender, with the habit of C. minor, R. Br., reddish-green, entirely 
glabrous, about 8-10 cm. high. Leaf rusty-green, basal or nearly so, very narrow- 
linear, about 4 cm. long, 0v5 mm. wide. Stem erect, reddish-brown, ebracteate. 
Flowers inverted, usually 2 or 3, with a floral rudiment within the uppermost 
flower-bract; pedicels slender, about 4-5 mm. long, subtended by a short subacute 
and relatively wide bract; unpollinated ovary ellipsoidal, about equal in length 
to the pedicel. Sepals subequal, narrow linear in lower half, dilated above, about 
6-7 mm. long; dorsal sepal subulate, erect or slightly incurved, subacute; lateral 
sepals erect, their bases entirely adnate to the column-foot, angulated, narrow- 
linear, subacute. Petals narrower and rather shorter than the other segments. 
Labellum cuneate-ovate, attached by its rather long and claw-like base to the apex 
of the column-foot, without the intervention of a movable joint; the margins 
entire; lamina more or less horizontal, about 6 mm. long (including the basal 
part), dome-shaped above, tapering into a bare rather blunt triangular apex, 
traversed along the middle of the convex surface by more or less numerous sessile 
purplish glandular calli arranged in 2-4 ill-defmed rows; the lower surface very 
concave. Column subequal in height to the lateral petals; refracted almost at 
right angles with the ovary; very widely winged as high as the stigmatic base and 



10 

produced on each side of the latter into wide blunt membranous lobe ; the apex 
split transversely into 2 short unwinged stipes, the longer or posterior one bearing 
the anther, and the anterior bearing the stigma ; produced at the base into a 
definite, though not very long foot. Anther erect, stipitate. Stigma large, 
ovate, pediccllated, forming a prominent disc in front of the basal part of the 
anther. 

Victoria. On Wonderland Range in the Grampians, C. \V. D' Alton, 
December 19, 1924. 

The above locality is within 20 miles of Mount Zero, where it was first dis- 
covered in 1882. 

Mr. D 5 Alton found it growing very sparingly, in company with many speci- 
mens of C. minor, R. Br., "in mossy crevices on open rock-surfaces, facing the 
sun, which they evidently like." 

In C. minor, R. Br., there is no transverse splitting of the summit of the 
column, which is widely winged throughout, the stigma being sessile. It is possible 
that this orchid may have been overlooked by collectors owing to its close super- 
ficial resemblance to C. minor, with which it is found associated. 

Eriochilus cucullatus (LabilL), Reichb. f. Beitr. 27. Synonyms. 
— Epipactis citcullata, LabilL, PI. Nov. Holl., ii., 61, t, 211, f. 2; Eriochilus 
autumnalis, R. Br., Prod. 323. 

Caladenia triangularis, Rogers, n. sp. Herba terrcstris, circa 17 cm. alta. 
Folium oblongum, hirsutum, subacutum, circa 4-5 cm. longum, 0*7 cm. latum. 
Caulis subrigidus, hirsutus, propc medium bractea laxa subulata circa 1*5 cm. 
longa. Flos solitarius, albidus, lineis porphyrcis ornatus, in diametro fere 8 cm.; 
bractea appressa, circa 1*0 cm. longa; pedicellus cum ovario gracilis, circa 2*7 cm. 
longus ; segmenta perianthii similia. Sepalum dorsale erectum, in medio 3 lineis 
porphyreis longitudinalibus, circa 3*4 cm. longum, deorsum dilatatum, sub- 
breviter acuminatum, apice glandulosum; sepala lateralia patentia, in medio linea 
porphyrea, sepalo dorsali latiora sublongioraquc. Petala patentia, in medio linea 
porphyrea, sepalo dorsale subangustiora. Labellum unguiculatum, in ambitu 
triangularc, circa 1*5 cm. longum, 1*0 cm, latum, 3-lobatum; lobi laterales sub- 
longe pectinati ; lobus intermedins subiongus, plus minusve breviter dentatus ; 
lamina basi lineis porphyreis radialibus ornata; calli lineares biseriati lutei, medium 
uon transeuntes. Columna circa 1*0 cm. alta, incurva, plus minusve erecta, in 
dimidio superiore late alata ; basi biglandulosa. Anthera longe mucronata. 

Species terrestrial, with the habit of C. Patersonil, R. Br., about 17 cm. high. 
Leaf oblong, hairy, subacute, stem with a single loose subulate bract about 1 *5 cm. 
near the middle. Flower solitary, cream-coloured, with reddish-brown lines, 
relatively large, nearly 8*0 cm. in diameter; flower-bract about 1*0 cm. long, 
appressed ; pedicel with ovary slender, about 2*7 cm. long; segments of perianth 
nearly similar. Dorsal sepal erect, traversed by 3 reddish longitudinal lines, about 
3*4 cm. long, dilated below, contracting gradually into a moderately short 
glandular point as in C. hirta, Lindl. ; lateral sepals similar to dorsal sepal, but 
wider and rather longer, spreading. Petals similar, spreading, rather narrower 
than dorsal sepal, with one red longitudinal line. Labellum clawed, ovate- 
triangular in outline, about 1*5 cm. long, 1*0 cm. wide; the lateral lobes rather 
deeply combed; middle lobe triangular, rather long, subacute, shortly fringed or 
dentate; lamina with radiating red lines at the base; calli linear, orange, in 2 rows, 
not extending beyond the middle. Column about 1 *0 cm. high, curved, more or 
less erect, widely winged above, more narrowly below ; 2 yellow glands at the base. 
Anther with long point. 

Western Australia. Highbury, between Wagin and Narrogin; Colonel 
B. T. Goadby; late September, 1924. 



li 

I am indebted for this plant to the kindness of the well-known botanist, Col. 

B. T. Goadby, of Western Australia. It belongs to the Section Calonema, but 
inasmuch as it has the habit of C. Patersonii, R. Br., the perianth segments of 

C. hirta, LindL, and thebiseriate calli of C. filamentosa, R. Br., it is rather difficult 
to arrange in orderly sequence. I think for the present it had better precede 
C. hirta^Lmdl. It is readily distinguished by its habit and short segmental points 
from C. filamentosa-, R. Br., on the one hand, and on the other from C. Patersonii, 
R. Br., and C. hirta, Lindl., by its calli. 

Caladenia lavandulacea, Rogers, n. sp. Species terrestris, gracillima, 
circa 22*5 cm. alta. Folium angustc lineare, hirsutum, canaliculatum, circa 11 cm, 
longum. Caulis badius. gracillimus, hirsutus, supra medium bractea subulata 
gracilis. Flos solitarius, tavandulaceus, fere 5 cm. diametro, lineis atro- 
laA^andulaceis conspicue ornalus. Segmenta perianthii clavata, lavandulacea, 
lanceolata, apicibus glandulosis, simiiia, subaequalia ; sepalum dorsalc circiter 2-0 
cm. longum, retroflexum ; segmenta cetera patentia. Labellum gracillime unguicu- 
latum, fere transverse ovale, marginibus intcgris ; lobi laterales magni, rotundati ; 
lobus intermedins parvissimus, obtusum, recurvum, atro-purpureum ; lamina nervis 
radialibus atro-lavandulaceis conspicuis ornata. Calli atro-pupurei, carnosi, 
stipitati, ad basin laminae in linea mediana conferti, prope unguem in laminis 
geminis duobus instruct!. Columna basi retracta, incurva, dimidio superiore late 
alata, basi 2 glandulis luteis. Anthera subluteo-viridis, obtusissima. 

A very slender species with the habit of C. Rod, Benth., but differing from 
that species in the segments of the perianth, in the conspicuous vcining of the 
labellum and in the calli of the disc. Height in my specimen, 22*5 cm. Leaf 
narrow-linear, acute, hairy, channelled, 11 cm. long. Stem reddish, very slender, 
hairy, with a single slender subulate bract above the middle. Flower lavender, 
of medium size, nearly 5 cm. in diameter, conspicuously ornamented with radiating 
lavender lines. All segments of the perianth with conspicuously clavate dark 
glandular tips, lavender in colour, traversed by darker longitudinal lines, lanceolate, 
subequal in length and similar in shape; dorsal sepal about 2 cm. long, retracted 
backwards, the other segments spreading; petals rather narrower than dorsal sepal. 
Labellum mobile, very slenderly clawed, almost transversely oval in outline, with 
entire margins, large rounded lateral lobes; the middle lobe relatively very small, 
blunt, dark purple, recurved; lamina with conspicuous radiating dark lavender 
veins. Calli dark purple, fleshy, stipitate, compactly crowded along the posterior 
half of the middle line of the lamina as in C. Roei, Benth., at the very base of the 
lamina the calli enlarged and fused, so as to form 4 plates arranged didymously. 
Column at first retracted, then incurved, about 1*0 cm. long, widely winged in the 
tipper half, 2 yellow glands at the base. Anther very blunt, greenish-yellow, 

Western Australia. Between York and Narrogin ; Miss Winnie Dedman ; 
end of September, 1926. 

The new species, for which I am indebted to Mr. E. E. Fescott, differs from 
C. Roei, Benth., in the colour of the flower; in the clubbing and spreading of all 
perianth-segments, which are also subequal in length; in the very great disparity 
between the length of the dorsal sepal and the column; in the conspicuous veining 
of the labellum and the arrangement of the large calli at the base of the lamina. 

In C. Doutchae, Sargent, the leaf is glabrous on the upper surface, but hairy 
on both sides in the new species. Also in the former only the lateral sepals are 
clavate, the other segments being finely acuminate and the apices of the petals 
circinate; the colour of the flower is greenish-red and the calli are long linear and 
very slender with little tendency to fusion and without the 4 conspicuous fleshy 
plates near the claw of the labellum. 

C. lavandulacea, Rogers, and C. Doutchae, Sargent, appear to constitute mem- 
bers of a new Section, grouping themselves around C. Roei, Benth., and all 



12 

possessing an exceedingly wide, short labellum, with calli arranged in the posterior 
half of the median line of the lamina. 

Caladenia alpina, Rogers, n. sp. Species terrestris, robustiuscula, circa 
12-27 cm. alta. Caulis subruber, hirsutus, unibracteatus. Folium elliptico- 
lanceolatum vel falco-lanceolatum, suberectum, ad basin inflorescentiae vulgo 
attingcns, leviter hirsutum, circa 0*6 cm. -1*0 cm. latum. Flores 1 vel 2, raro 3, 
vulgo nivei vel carnei ; pedicelli graciles, longiusculi ; bracteae acutae. Segmenta 
perianthii cxtrinsecus glandulosa, minute hirsuta. Sepalum dorsale late ovatum, 
cucullatum, multo incurvum, apice obtusum, 1-2 cm. longurn, 0*9 cm. latum; 
sepala lateralia libera, elliptico-lanceolata. patentia circa 1*5 cm. longa, 
0*6 cm, lata. Petala falco-lanceolata, patentia, 1*3 cm. longa, 0*6 cm. 
lata. Labellum brevitcr unguiculatum, obscure 3-lobatum, late ovatum, 0*9 cm. 
longurn. 0*7 cm. latum, basi ad columnam erectum, versus apicem recurvum ; lobi 
laterales obscuri, marginibus intcgris ; lobus intermedius serratus. breviter 
triangularis; lamina notationibus transversis carneis vel punctis ornata ; calli 
lineares, albi vel flavi, 4~seriati, prope apicem sensim sessiles. Columna sepalo 
dorsali obtecta, circiter 0"7 cm. longa, incurva, late alata. Anthera mucronata. 

A moderately robust plant for the section to which it belongs, 12-27 cm. high. 
a cylindrical membranous sheath investing the base. Leaf usually reaching at 
least to the base of the inflorescence, elliptic-lanceolate to oblong- or falco- 
lanceolate, suberect, sparsely hirsute, ribbed, 5-10 mm. wide. Stem reddish, hairy; 
a loose or sheathing acute bract at or near the middle. Flowers usually 1 or 2, 
rarely 3; usually pale pink or steely-white ; pedicels rather long and slender, sub- 
tended by an acute bract, the latter sometimes including a floral rudiment. 
Segments of perianth beset on the outside with minute glandular-tipped hairs. 
Dorsal sepal broadly ovate, cucullate, very much incurved over the column, blunt 
at the apex, about 9 mm. wide, 12 mm. long; lateral sepals free, elliptic-lanceolate, 
spreading, about 13 mm. long, 6 mm. wide. Labellum on a short claw, broadly 
ovate, about 9 mm. long, 7 mm. wide, partly hidden by the dorsal sepal, erect 
against the column in the lower three-fourths, thereafter recurved; lateral lobes 
erect, not well defined, their margins entire except for 2 or 3 small anterior crenu- 
lations; middle lobe shortly triangular, much recurved, dentate or serrate; lamina 
with transverse interrupted red or purple stripes or sometimes spotted ; calli 
linear or golf-stick type, yellow or white, in 4 rows, gradually becoming sessile 
and irregular, extending almost to the tip; apex not very acute. Column hidden 
by the dorsal sepal, about 7 mm, long, dorsum red-spotted, incurved, rather widely 
winged. Anther incumbent, mucronate. 

Victoria. Mount Hotham and Mount Bogong, Mr. A. J. Tadgell, 
December, 1921, January, 1924; Baw Haws, W. H. Nicholls, January 3, 1925. 

New South Wales. Mount Kosciusko. Mr. G. V. Scammell, January. 
1924. 

Mr. Tadgell, to whom we are indebted for this alpine species, writes: — "It 
is fairly plentiful, but only on ridges or stony rises; sometimes sheltered, but 
more often in the open; sometimes 20 to 30 plants together, but usually only 
2 or 3. Collected at an elevation of 5,000-5,500 feet.' 5 

Mr. Nicholls, who collected on the Baw Baws, states that the flowers never 
remain open for more than 2 days, and that in this station they are always white, 
"the petals on the outside with a pale purple line down the centre and very pale 
green shading on each side of it, on the inside all segments pure white. Labellum 
white except for yellow-headed calli and purple transverse markings. Column 
white with purple markings, the wings pale green near the stigma. Bracts dark 
purple, stem purple. Leaf dark green." 

The new species approaches very closely to C. cucullaia, Fitzg., and C. 
augustaia, LindL, in both of which, however, the leaf is narrow-linear. From the 



13 

former it is also to be distinguished by its long slender flower-pedicels, the mark- 
ings on the lahellurn and absence of the fimbriated calli ; and from the latter by 
its wide blunt and extremely incurved dorsal sepal and by the transverse markings 
on the lamina. 

Caladenia carnea, R. Br. When we consider the extensive range of this 
well-known orchid, throughout the entire eastern half of Australia and as far 
north as Java, it is rather remarkable how persistently some of its minor characters 
are transmitted, and how otherwise trivial are the variations in regard to form 
and colour. Slight differences in the degree of ac.uteness of the perianth segments 
are often observed, and albino forms are not uncommon; occasionally also four 
rows of calli are to be found instead of two, but the transverse bars on the 
labellum and the markings on the column arc rarely absent, and characterise even 
allied migrant forms, such as occur in Timor and New Zealand. Perhaps, how- 
ever, the most notable variations have reference to size and development. The 
two extremes are represented by the pigmy form on the one hand, measuring from 
3-5 cm. in height, and on the other, the vigorous plant which may attain a height 
of 53 cm., and perhaps more. Such extreme variations are to be found in my 
folders with a considerable degree of frequency, and do not appear to depend 
on nutritional factors, as in this State at all events, their occurrence is very 
localised and the pigmies are to be found growing in small colonies in the 
immediate vicinity of ordinary individuals, which measure from 10-15 cm. high. 

I have received these diminutive forms from other States, and am of opinion 
that they, as well as the giant forms, are sufficiently important to be recognised 
as varieties. 

C. carnea, R. Br. var. pygmaea, Rogers, n. var. An extremely slender 
plant, from 3-5 cm. high, with flowers much smaller than in the type. 

South Australia. Scott's Creek, Dr. and Mrs. Rogers, November 13, 1908. 

Victoria. Healesville, Mrs. Coleman and Mr. Williamson, November 2, 
1923; Mr. J. B. Howie, October 10, 1926. 

Tasmania. Flinders Island, Dr. C. S. Sutton, November, 1912. 

C. carnea, R. Br., var. gigantea, Rogers, n. var. A sparsely hairy plant, 
attaining a height of 53 cm., flower larger than in the type, perianth segments 
rather acute. 

New South Wales. Bulladelah, Rev. H. M. Rupp, September, 1924. 



14 



ABORIGINAL ROCK PAINTINGS, SOUTH PARA RIVER, 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Norman B. Ttndai.e and Harold E. S heard. 

[Read November 11, 1926.] 

Plates I. and II. 

This paper places on record several relics of aboriginal art in rock shelters 
along the course of the South Para River between Yatalunga and Gawler. 

We recently examined the river for a distance of 10 miles, in company with 
Mr. P. Stapleton. Many shelters were noticed, four of which contain paintings, 
the pigments used being red, white, and black only. Two of this series of shelters, 
namely, the upper and lower ones at Yatalunga, have already been recorded by 
the late Sir Edward Stirling W and by the late Mr. F. R. Zietz.< 2 > The Upper 
Yatalunga shelter is situated on the northern bank of the river in a conspicuous 
position at the lower end of a river flat about 4 chains above the junction of 
Tenafeate or Stars' Creek (Section 1786, Hundred of Barossa). Most of _ the 
paintings have been figured by Stirling, but several are shown again for comparison 
with new discoveries. Text figs. 14-21 represent tracings (reduced by camera 
lucida to about one-sixth natural size) ; No. 21, in white pigment, is rather 
indefinite and may be due in parts to weathering action. 

On the floor, which had been previously disturbed, were found several 
hammer stones showing definite but slight signs of use. Zietz (I.e.) records 
having found emu egg-shells and the jaw of a bandicoot in the floor of one of 
the shelters at Yatalunga. The talus in front of the shelter yielded emu egg- 
shells and several mussel shells (Unto angasi). A few quartz clippings were 
found here; one example, although crude, was evidently intended tor a round 
scraper. Interspersed with the earthy debris were regular layers of charcoal, 
going down at least 2 feet, showing that the slope had been used for camping 
purposes on various occasions and had not been previously disturbed. 

'The lower shelter is about 150 yards down stream on the same bank. 
Entrance is gained up a steep slope of about 25 feet. Detritus and large slabs 
of slate have fallen from the roof, probably in recent years, so that no paintings 
now remain in the eastern half of the shelter. PI. i., fig. 1, shows many of the 
paintings. Reduced tracings are shown in text figs. 1-13. Stirling figured only 
four of" these, namely, Nos. 3, 4, 9, and 13, and we disagree with the rendering 
of some of these. 

Text fig. 1 shows a complicated group of designs executed partly on a black 
background; the figures being in black and red outlined in white. Several 
striking examples are noticeable, the central figure being that of a bird, probably 
an emu. The bird is partially framed by a painting having some resemblance to 
a snake, and there is a boomerang design on the other margin. The white area 
in the centre represents a weathered portion of the rock. The application of the 
white over black has tended to flake off the whole of the pigment, leaving the 
white lines in part represented by the bare rock surface. Text fig. 2 is shown m 
its proper position to the right of fig. 1. The characteristic circle and line, the 
latter either curved or straight, is repeated several times in this and other caves. 
Text iig. 5 is situated on the roof of the small hole shown on the extreme left of 

CD Stirling, Sir E., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 26, 1902, pp. 20S-211, pis. 3, 4. 
(2) Zietz, F. R., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 41, 1917, p. 667. 



15 




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Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 192/ 



Vol. LL, Plate 1. 




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Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



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Fig. 2. 

Cillinjrhani <V Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide 



\7 

pi. i., fig. 1. Teatt fig. 6 probably represents a bird track or foot. Figs. 7 and 8 are 
the more definite pictures on a badly weathered portion. Text fig. 10 represents 
a series of nearly vertical parallel lines which are alternately red and white and 
are crossed bv at least two red bands. Text fig. 11, which is badly weathered, 
may represent a human foot or track. Text fig. 12 shows another example of 
the circle with an appendage. 

The third shelter is situated about three miles from Yatalunga on the 
left or northern bank just below the big ox-bow bend near Waters' 
homestead ( Section 1033, Hundred of Munno Para) . The bank here 
is somewhat precipitous, and the shelter, which is well hidden from 
casual observation, opens out on to a ledge about 30 feet above the stream (pi. ih 
fig. 1). It is 20 feet wide., 7 feet high at the entrance, with an overhang of 
about 10 feet. Only seven drawings occur here, but at least three are well pre- 
served and remarkably vivid in colour. Text fig. 22 has the form of a circle 
with a long appendage ; it is executed in red outlined with white, and contrasts 
strongly with fig. 23, which is in close proximity. The latter is of similar form 
to text'fig. 6, but is unusual in being blaek. Text fig- 24 is snake-like in outline 
and similar in some respects, including length, to that shown in text fig. 1. Figs. 
25 and 26 are further examples of the circle and line; both are badly preserved 
and the outlines are approximate. Text fig. 27 is much faded and has been 
traced from a sketch. It represents a circle with two V-shaped appendages 
above four nearly vertical short strokes. 

From the floor of this shelter Mr. P. Stapleton dug several quartz chippmgs, 
including one verv imperfect scraper ; there were numerous river pebbles inter- 
spersed with charcoal in the debris, and, as in the Yatalunga shelters, Unio shells 

were common. 1 

The fourth shelter is within two miles of Gawlei\ on the northern bank; 
four similar cavities occur here, but only one contains designs. These are indistinct 
and onlv red ochre patterns are visible; the camera shows, however, that formerly 
they were outlined in white, as in the previous examples. PI. L, fig. 2, shows the 
best preserved portion of the design, and text figs. 28-31 the whole of the work. 
\t one end there is a plain red circle. Text figs. 28, 30, and 31 are connected by 
continuous red lines, which fade away to the right. Fig. 30 may represent the 
framework of a native hut, and the horse-shoe shaped marks of fig. 29 are similar 
to those said to represent wurleys or huts, in northern rock paintings 

Little information is available regarding the natives who inhabited the 
localitv The Wirra tribe, or local group of the Adelaide tribe, ranged over the 
country between Angaston, Lyndoch, Port Adelaide, Yatala, and Tea- free Uilly, 
and its members were probably responsible for the rock paintings. 1 he name 
Yatalunga is probably derived from the words yertala unga, meaning flood 
place/' and the name Yatala has evidently a similar derivation. 

About three miles above Gawkr there is a camp site where a few crude 
hammer stones and quartz clippings were found. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES I. and II. 

Plate I. 

P%. I. Lower rock shelter at Yatalunga. 
Fig. 2. Rock paintings near Gawler. 

Pjatk II. 
Fig. 1. Watery' rock shelter viewed from up stream. 
Fig. 2. Rock painting? at Waters' shelter. 



18 



ABORIGINAL ROCK CARVINGS AT DEVON DOWNS, RIVER MURRAY, 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Harold L. S heard. 

[Read November 11, 1926.] 

Plates III. to V, 

This paper records a scries of aboriginal carvings on the Lower Murray. 
With the single exception of a brief note by Hale and Tindale^ nothing has 
previously been reported from this locality, but in my opinion a thorough search 
of the cliffs between Mannum and Swan Reach would reveal further examples 
of this type of aboriginal art. 

The situation of the rock shelter herein described is about the border-line of 
the Hundreds of Nildottie and Forster, on the eastern bank of the Murray, and 
may also be located from the river immediately opposite Lehmann's Landing. 
Approaching by road it is about 12 miles from Swan Reach following down 
stream. An entrance can be made from the road to the river flats except at 
flood times and a car may be driven to within a chain of the rock shelter. There 
is a slight bend in the river and the main channel leaves the cliffs at this point. 
The shelter is at the extreme end of a series of river flats, and a little further 
up stream the cliffs rise sheer from the water. 

The shelter is the result of erosion., probably when the river was at a higher 
level, and extends to 70 feet in length, with an overhang of 16 feet in the deepest 
place. The floor to a depth of 3 feet is composed of ashes from old fires and a 
small amount of detritus from the cliff. This on being partially examined was 
found to contain quantities of bivalve shells (Unto angasi) , kernels of the native 
peach (Santalum acuminatum), bones of the Murray cod (Oliyorus macquari- 
cnsis), many broken fragments of burrrt stones, and small animal bones. One 
crude upper millstone and a few rough flakes were observed, these being the only 
native implements discovered. The height from the present surface of the floor 
to the roof varies from 3 feet to 7 feet. The whole of the roof and the walls 
are smoke-blackened, and a grey tinge ascends right to the top of the cliffs. This 
smoke stain, while often much weathered, is a good guide to aboriginal occupa- 
tion; wherever the cliffs show blackened markings,, the ground beneath shows 
signs of former aboriginal habitation. 

^ PL in., fig. 1, shows the shelter from the north, and in fig. 2 the camera was 
facing directly into the cave in a north-easterly direction. The rock is a soft 
fossiliferous limestone of Miocene age, and may be easily scratched or carved 
with any hard implement. Portions of the original surface most exposed to the 
weather have been eroded, and in several places complete intaglios have been 
recently hewn from the rock. Everywhere within reach has been carved by the 
natives, the marks varying from mere scratches to cuts from 1 inch to 2 inches 
wide and about an inch deep. The work appears to have been executed many 
years ago, and the natives at present at Swan Reach on being questioned had 
no knowledge of the place. 

Few of the intaglios are complete pictographs, but are mostly connected one 
with the other by long curving lines which radiate in all directions. PI. iv., fig. 1, 

U) Hale, H. M., and Tindale, N. B., Records of South Australian Museum, iiL No 1, 
1925, pi. iv., fig. 4. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Anstr., 1927. 



Vol. LI., Plate III. 




Fie. 1- 



■■■* 'fc jf 










I 






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4*? :- 



4 * sfc 



Fier. 2. 



GilKngham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1927. 



Vol. LL, Plate IV. 




Fig. 1 




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« 






•4 












Fie. 2. 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



TratiH. tiucl I 'roc. Roy. Sue. S. Austr., 1927 



Vol. LI., i'latc V. 




Fir. 1. 





l-ij 



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19 



shows a portion of the. ceiling about 6 feet by 4 feet and is typical of much of 
the work A good idea of proportion will be gained by a comparison of size 
with the nests of the Fairy Martin (Fetrochelidon and) shown in this plate 
Natural holes and excrescences have frequently been used and accentuated m the 
designs Series of short parallel strokes and rows of round holes were observed 
Sal places, as seen in pi. v., fig. 2. The intaglio in pi. iv„ fig. 2, is situated 
on the cliff face near the centre of the shelter. The irregu ar cjrcle therein , 
15| inches in diameter with radiating lines which vary from 4 inches to 6 inches 
in length. The deep cut on the right of this plate is due to a recent abandoned 
effort to hew away a portion of the rock. PL v., fig. 1, is located at the southern 
end of he shelter; and is so placed as to extend from the cliff face to right under 
he roof, and then continue in the usual curved lines. ^^^ t^TciS 
measures 39 inches in length, and is a series of lines and ho es with a dectded 
node about the centre. This intaglio may be clearly seen m pi. m., fig. £, at tne 
top and a little to the left from the centre of the plate. 

The design shown in pi. v., fig. 2, is situated beyond the southern end of the 
shelter on the cliff face, and was partially outlined in chalk for the photography 
The central figure measures 8 inches, the circle therein 3-| inches in diameter, and 
a hole bored in the centre 3 inches deep. The vertical lines on each side measure 
from 6 inches to 9 inches in length and terminate m small round holes. 

Carvings fern-like in outline similar to those previously reported by Hale and 
Tindale [see footnote (1)] were also observed at this place. 

The cliff face was examined on both the north and south sides from the 
shelter On the northern side manv scratchings and holes were observed, bird 
tracks being prominent; but the work here was more exposed to the weatnei 
and only a few places remained where large surfaces were complete ; _ these did 
not appear to present the care and minuteness ot detail noticed within the shelter. 
Fires had been frequent and the. old rock surfaces were smoke-stamed. 

On the southern side the cliff retreats from the river and about 3 or 4 chains 
from the shelter merges into a rough weathered limestone boulder torm^ 1 ™; 
Two other cavities were examined here, but these were so situated as to be more 
exposed to the weather, and very little of the original surface remained. A tew 
scratchings were observed but no carvings of importance. Both these sheltcis 
contain huge beds of ashes about 3 feet deep, but a superficial search revealed 
nothing of consequence. 

On the opposite side of the river sand drifts have exposed old camp sites 
and burial grounds where skeletal remains were observed. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES 111. to V. 

Plate III. 
Fis 1 Rock shelter opposite Lehmanns Landing looking south. 
Fi|! 2. Interior of rock shelter opposite Lehmann s Landing. 

Plate IV. 

Fig. 1. Portion of roof of shelter. 
Fig. 2. Pictograph on cliff face. 

Plate V. 

Fig. 1. Pictograph on roof of shelter. 
Fig. 2. Pictographs on wall of shelter. 



20 



PETROGRAPHIC NOTES ON TONALITE FROM THE PALMER DISTRICT 
AND BIOTITE-NORITE FROM SOUTH BLACK HILL. 

By A. R. Alderman, B.Sc. 
(Communicated by C. T. Madigan. ) 

[Read November 11, 1926.] 

\„ J]! C r ° C A S descr j bed in this P a P c r occur within the County of Start South 
fZl t \u ! Gratters of the rocks are very unusual among the i,neou, 

rocks of the southern part of this State, they were deemed worthy of che n ical 
analysis and petrographical description. } cnurncaJ 

I. In Section 380, Hundred of Finnis, a whale-back outcrop of lieht-coloured 

SSfS r °h ; ° l W T 1C faC, 'f S may be ° bserved ad i acent to the 1 11 SI roS 
half-way between the townships of Mannum and Palmer. The same rock mav be 

traced for a constable distance south of this locality (the outcrop lino verv 

Cr2' sSiotilS 'uLTf ?^ ^T^ "^ at a waterSl'm R S 
ccek, Section 533. Hundred of hmms. Owing to the geographical position and 

be of tterest Mannum, notes on the petrographical character should 

In Section 380, whence the specimens, here described, were obtained the 

SfSTdSas"^ 40 yards across ' and shows ^ ***** " is 

When examined in the hand specimen the rock appears coarsely holo 
crystalline ol somewhat porphyritic habit. Large white felspars often tab it r" 

some appearance. Granular quartz seems to show the effects of crushing The 

importance. Idack b otite mica may readily be recognised on account of its 

™?- ,r d v fSf but T n " f r mec1 ' tabuiar c ^ ° f bLnSh&f 

measu ting up to half a centimetre, are equally prominent. Small crystals of s 
red colour, resembling sphene, are occasionally visible. Y 

Microscopical Description. 

very variab le k si; S o C0 Tr ft holocr y st * m ™> and the crystal components are of 
hi L rock. Pai ' S are by far the most plenliful ™ als P re ^t 

to a varylr/ extend TrT — P ^ £dW ' and bei "& dust - v ' is decomposed 

ccaJn fltwl J 6 tWlnn ' ng 1S aIm ° St ent '' rel y on the a,bilc fcw, although 

occasional Carlsbad twins are present. Extinction angles determined in a 

An ^Tnorr ^ H° 01 ° %T th - e rom P '^on of the plagioclase as Ab" 
feffl IS 3 v" e - , 1! ? e rc | racti ™ ind « i« higher than that of Canada 
the Section com P osltlon ot the plagioclase seems to be constant throughout 

brthoclase is present but to a far less extent than the plagioclase Manv 
secaons ot the former have suffered extreme kaolinisation. The orthochse 'it 
always present m subhedral or anhedral forms, and the dimensions of the indi- 
viduals are less than those of the plagioclases. 

Microcline h represented by a few small crystals which show the char- 
acteristic cross hatching, due to both pericline and albite lamellae. 



21 



After the felspars quarts is the most important mineral in the rock. It 
occurs irregularly in grains and generally shows the effects of severe strain, the 
extinction being"' shadowy. For the most part the quartz appears to he inter- 
stitial, but it very rarely shows a graphic intergrowth with the plagioclase felspar. 

Of the ferromagncsian minerals biotite and green hornblende are present in 
approximately equal proportions. 

The biotite shows no particular orientation and is present in its usual flaky 
form. The pleochroism is normal and strong. In some sections the biotite has, 
in part, undergone change to chlorite, which is light green and pleoehroic, 
and retains the micaceous cleavage. Pleochroic haloes, surrounding minute 
crystals of apatite, are occasionally to be observed in the cleavage flakes. 

Primary, green hornblende is present in euhedral or subhedral crystals, which 
show the cleavage net characteristic of hornblende, and also marked pleochroism. 
Occasional crystals are twinned. This mineral appears to have been very resistant 
to decomposition, but a very small amount of chlorite, evidently derived from the 
hornblende, may occasionally be found connected with that mineral. 

Titaniferous iron occurs in irregular masses and is evidently a primary con- 
stituent of the rock, although a small amount seems to be associated with the 
ehloritization of the ferromaguesian minerals. That the iron is titauiferous is 
proved by the change to leucoxene. 

Apatite as an accessory mineral is plentifully distributed, both as irregular 
grains and rods, and occasional hexagonal crystals. Very often the apatite is 
enclosed by biotite or hornblende. 

Sphene is a notable constituent. In the hand specimen it appears in reddish 
crystals, with occasional wedge-shaped outlines. Microscopically, it is present in 
subhedral fragments, with occasional euhedral crystals of a light-brown colour. A 
weak pleochroism is shown. 

The Chemical Analysis. 

Percentage. Percentage. 

Silica <Si0 2 ) 63*88 Water (combined) .. .. 0*45 

Alumina (Al a O s ) 16*37 Water (hygroscopic) .. .. 0*21 

Ferric oxide (Fe a 3 ) . . . . 1*99 Carbon dioxide (CO ? ) • . None 

Ferrous oxide (Fed) . . . . 2*96 Titanium dioxide (TiO a ) - . 0*86 
Magnesia (MgO) .. .. 2*24 Phosphorus pentoxide (P»0 5 ) 0*23 

Calcium oxide (CaO J .. .. 5*18 Manganous oxide (MnO) .. 0*07 

Soda (Na a O) 3*66 

Potash (K 2 0) 1*61 Total . . . . 99*71 

The specific gravity is 2*792. 

The Norm. 
Percentage. 

Quartz . . . . . . . . 21-66 Q — 21-66 , ., r r 

Orthoclase 9*45 , * \ ^S^ 

Albite 30*92 F =s 64*00 \ ^ b % 

Anorthite 23 "63 ) 

Diopside 0"89 > p ___ g.^g \ 

Hypersthenc 7*54 \ ' ~ I T * . ** 

i\/ 4.'* ->*t\o , ' hemic Group— 

Magnetite fg M = 4-69 ; 13-46% 

Ilmenite 1*5/ J ! 

Apatite .0*34 A = 0*34 

Water 0*66 

Total .. .. 99*78 



In the C.l.P.W. classification, the rock is therefore II., 4, 3, 4. The mag- 
matic name is Tonalose. 

Discussion of the Analysis. 

As might have been expected from the general nature and appearance of the 
rock, it is not quite acid enough to be classed in the Acid Group. The high per- 
centage of lime, a considerable quantity of which evidently forms part of the 
hornblende, and the low potash content, gives the dominance of calc-alkali felspar 
over potash felspar. Titanium has a high percentage, but with a rock containing 
notable amounts of titaniferous iron and sphene, this should be expected. 

From the chemical nature of the rock, the dominance of andesine felspar 
over the potash varieties, and the presence of notable quantities of biotitc and 
hornblende, the rock must be classed with the quartz diorites, and may thus be 
referred to as a Tonalite. 

II. In Section 240, Hundred of Ridley, at the locality known as the South 
Black Hill, a stock of biotite norite forms a very prominent feature of the 
landscape. This rock occurs as an inlier in the surrounding Tertiary and alluvial, 
and unfortunately no contact rocks can be observed. The character of the rock 
over all the outcrop is very uniform, and only one specimen (not in situ) was 
collected which showed any variation from the main mass. 

The mineralogical character of the rock has been briefly described by Dr. C. 
Chewings, (1) but owing to the striking nature of the rock it deserves more detailed 
investigation. 

When examined macroscopically the rock is coarsely crystalline, melanocratic, 
and of hypidiomorphic texture. Minerals distinguishable are (1) black pyroxene 
and iron ore, (2) felspar, (3) biotite mica. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The most plentiful mineral in the rock is the pyroxene diallage. It is of a 
light-green colour with weak pleochroism, and contains numerous inclusions of 
magnetite which are mostly arranged parallel to the cleavage. Also included 
in the cliallage are small fragments of biotite and rods of apatite. Chlorite is 
present as a decomposition product. 

Hypersthcne is very nearly as plentiful as diallage and shows a distinct pink 
to green pleochroism. This mineral has been somewhat decomposed to a fibrous 
aggregate of bastite. Inclusions of magnetite, apatite, and biotite are common. 
The hypersthcne evidently crystallised before the diallage. It occasionally shows 
lamellar twinning due to intense strain. 

Of the felspars plagioclase is predominant, and the maximum extinction 
angles observed on a plane normal to 010 give the composition as a labradorite. 
This mineral exhibits the usual polysynthetic twin lamellae, following the albite 
law. 

Carlsbad twins are also of frequent occurrence. The effects of strain are 
shown by bending of the albite lamellae, and the development of "secondary 
twinning."^ The dusty appearance of the felspars is due to slight decomposition. 

Orthodase is mainly interstitial and gives a shadowy extinction. It contains 
numerous inclusions and was the last mineral to crystallise. 

Biotitc is present in its usual platy form, but occasional radiating and plumose 
aggregates are visible in the section. The biotite is intimately associated with, and 
mostly includes, opaque iron ore. The pleochroism is very strong, and some 
sections show complete absorption. . 



WC> Chewings, Beitragc Zur Kcnntniss Geologic Siid-und Central-Au.slraliens, Petro- 
graphischer Anhang, Heidelberg, 1894, p. 39. 

(& Judd, Q.J.G.S., 1885, pp. 363-366. 



23 



Ihnenite, in large grains, is very plentiful, and is included in most of the 
ferromagnesian minerals. It exhibits decomposition to leitcoxene. Ilmenite was 
probably the first mineral to crystallise. 

Apatite in subhedral crystals is a very frequent accessory. 

This description agrees in almost every respect with that of Chewmgs. 



The Chemical Analysis. 



Silica (SiO s ) 
Alumina (Al a 3 ) - . 
Ferric oxide (Fe 3 O a ) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Magnesia ( MgO ) 
Calcium oxide (CaO) 
Soda (Na 3 0) 
Potash (K a O) 
Water (combined) 



lie 



Percentage. 

. 53*37 

. 14-25 

. 2-55 

. 7-44 

. 5-04 

. 8-87 

. 2-50 

. 2-96 

. 0-19 
specific gravity is 3'128 



Percentage 

Water (hygroscopic) . . . . 0-22 
Carbon dioxide (C() ? ) .. None 

Titanium dioxide (Ti0 3 ) . . 1*70 
Phosphorus pentoxide (P 3 O s ) F24 
Ferric disulphide (FcS 2 ) . . Trace 
Manganous oxide (MnO) .. 0*15 



Total 



100-48 



The Norm. 



Percentage. 

Quartz 3-84 

Orthoclasc 17-79 

Albite 20-96 

Anorthite 18*63 

Diopside 14*56 



O = 3-84 ■) c ,. ,.. , 
~ f Salic Minerals: 

K = 57-38 I 61 "22% 



Hypersthene 

Ilmenite 

Magnetite 

Apatite 

Water 



14*57 
3*19 
3*71 
2-69 
0*41 



P = 29*13 



M 
A 



6*90 
2*69 



^ Femic Minerals 

38-72°/, 



Total .. .. 100-35 
In the C.l.P.W. classification the rock is therefore III., 5, 3, 3. 
The magmatic name is Shoshonose-Kentallenose. 

Discussion of the Analysis. 
The analysis shows several points of interest, of which the most notable 
feature is the comparatively high potash content. This may, however, be 
accounted for, firstly, in the orthoclasc, and secondly, in the biotite, which may 
contain up to 10 per cent, of potash. Silica appears higher than would be 
expected in such a rock, and the high percentages of titanium and phosphorus 
are also notable. 



24 



AN ENUMERATION OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF 
KANGAROO ISLAND. 

By J. B. Cleland, M.D., and J. M. Black. 
(Orchids by R. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D.. F.L.S.) 

[Read April 14, 1927. j 

The present contribution is a list with localities of the recorded vascular 
plants of Kangaroo Island, with the nomenclature brought up to date so as to 
conform with the new Flora of South Australia now Hearing completion, and 
with the addition of a number of species (about 79 in number) not hitherto 
recorded for this locality. No attempt is made in this paper to discuss the 
peculiarities or affinities of the plants of this region. This list is merely the 
"jumping-ofT ground" brought up to date for workers on the ecology and'other 
aspects of the vegetation. 

To the late Professor Ralph Tatft we owe most of our systematised know- 
ledge of the plants of Kangaroo Island. He, Dr. R. S. Rogers, and the late 
J, G. O. Tepper have been its most extensive botanical collectors. The work 
of our predecessors has been incorporated in this list. It is therefore advisable 
to show what this work was and how we have utilised it. Our starting point 
has been Professor Ralph Tate's paper on "The Botany of Kangaroo island" in 
these Trans., vi., 1882-3, pp. 116-171. He has summarised the work of his 
predecessors. Robert Brown, the Baudin Expedition, Messrs. Sealey, Bannier, 
and Ileuzenroeder, and Mr. F. G. Waterhouse. These workers were responsible 
for recording 160 species of plants. Tate's first list brought the total up to 350 
with 40 additional introduced species. To these Trans, for 1888-9 (xii., pp. 62-66) 
Tate contributed "A Revision of the Flora of Kangaroo Island and other Botanical 
Notes relating thereto," which brought the known native species to 513. Tate's 
records, including those of his predecessors, appear in this paper thus (R. T\), 
the name of his predecessor where necessary appearing in brackets after the 
locality. 



T 



epper contributed three papers on this subject to these Trans., viz., vii., 



1883-4, pp. 50-53; ix., 1885-6, pp. 114, 115; and x., 1886-7, pp. 288-292. ' The 
species were identified for him by Baron von Mueller. Tate revises some of the 
determinations in his second paper. Tepper's records appear as (Tepper). 
Pepper's extensive collection of plants, including many of those gathered on 
Kangaroo Island, is now in the possession of the Field Naturalists' Section of 
this Society, to whom we are indebted for permission to examine them. Localities 
unrecorded otherwise and based on these herbarium specimens appear as (/Tepper 
Herb.). 

The late j. H. Maiden, in "A Contribution to the Botanv of South Australia'' 
(these Trans.., xxxii., 1907-8, pp. 252-258), gave a number of localities, and a 
few new records, and described a new species. ( ). H. M.) indicates (his source. 
Dr. R. S. Rogers (these Trans., xxxiii., 1908-9, pp. 11-17) brought the knowledge 
or the orchids of the Island up to date and described two new' species. To him 
we are indebted for revising the list of orchids and supplementing the published 
list with his records since that date. We are also greatly indebted to him for 
allowing us to use his typescript, "Flora of Kangaroo Island," with its additional 
MSS. notes, in compiling the present list. Apart from the orchids, his extensive 
collections on the Island were in many cases identified either by Ralph Tate or 
by J. Ik Maiden. (R. S. R.) indicates this source of information/ 



25 

One of us (J. M. B.) has recorded and described various species and varieties 
of plants from the Island in his "Contributions to the Flora of South Australia" 
appearing in these Trans. These, tog-ether with plants collected by Prof. T. G. 
B. Osborn, one of us (J. B. C), and other collectors, which have been identified 
by J. M. B., are responsible for records of the locality "Kangaroo Island" in the 
new "Flora of South Australia/' in those cases where such species have not 
previously been recorded for Kangaroo Island by others. We are specially 
indebted to Prof. Osborn, who has made extensive collections of plants on Flinders 
Chase, at the western end of the Island, in his study of the ecological aspects of 
the flora, for enabling us to make use of his material. Much of his collecting is 
embodied in the new Flora, but further additions of localities appear under his 
name. This list will, we hope, aid him in his special studies. One of us (J. B. C.) 
has had two opportunities of collecting in the western half of the Island — with 
Dr. R. S. Rogers in November, 1924, and with Dr. A. Lendon in March, 1926. 
This has enabled a number of localities to be tabulated, has added about 52 species 
of native plants, as well as 21 species of introduced plants, to the flora, and has 
resulted in the discovery of two, probably three, new species, necessarily, as yet 
at least, confined to Kangaroo Island. The following list shows that the vascular 
plants of Kangaroo Island now total : — 

653 native species, of which 8 &n* doubtful, with 19 additional varieties, and 
72 introduced plants, with 1 additional variety. Introduced plants are indicated 
by *, new records (mostly found by one of us) by x or j*. As,, in the much smaller dis- 
trict of Encounter Bay, nearly 530 native species are now known to occur, it may 
be considered certain that many more native species than the 653 included in this 
list will be eventually found on Kangaroo Island. We might hazard the guess 
that further exploration will reveal a total of about 750. 

The localities given for a particular species, and the number of collectors 
who have recorded it, are in a measure indicative of its geographical distribution 
and abundance. In a number of cases, it will be seen that a plant has only been 
recorded as having been found on one occasion. This usually indicates that the 
species is rare, perhaps nearing extinction, unless in some of the earlier records 
it be due to a misdetermination. 

in the present paper, there has been a division of labour between the authors. 
Dr. R. S. Rogers has kindly revised the orchids, J. B„ C. has been responsible 
for the gathering together of previous records which have then been revised 
by J. M. B. The former's collections on the Island, totalling approximately 350 
native species (including varieties) and 39 introduced, have been in great part 
examined by the latter. New records have thus passed under the view of the 
second author. 

Plants fo.r Kaixcaroo Island. 

x, new record ; *, introduced. 

Ftltcales. 

xLindsaya linearis, Swartz. — (J. B. C.) Rocky River, telegraph line to Cape 
Borda. 

Adicmiitm acthiopicum, L. — (R. Brown) K.I. ; (R. T.) Stun 7 Sail Boom 
River; (Tepper Herb.) Karatta (13/11/86); ( R. S. R.) Western 
River; (J. B. C.) S.W. River. 

Chcllanthcs temtifolia, Swartz. — (R. T.) American River, North Dudley Pen- 
insula. Deep Creek, Hog Bav River. Dc Mole River; ( |. B. C.) Vivonne 
Bay. - 

Vieridium aquilinmn, (L.) Kuhn. — (R. T.) Western Cove, American River, 
Harriet and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers, De Mole River; (J. B. C.) near 
Kingscotc, Middle River, Ravine des Casoars. 



26 

Blcchnmn discolor, (Willd.) Keys.— (R. T.) Stun' Sail Boom River, De 
Mole River. 

B. capense, (L.) Schlecht.— (R. T.) Stun' Sail Boom River; (Tepper Herb.) 

Ravine des Casoars ; (J. B. C) Ravine des Casoars. 
Gymnogramme leptophylla, (L.) Desv. — (R. T. as Grammitis leptophylla) 

Deep Creek and gullies on N.W. coast of Dudley Peninsula. 
?xGleichenia circinata, Swartz, doubtful records only. — (J. B. C.) Mouth of 

Breakneck River (teste Mr. May), young plants ( ?) at the ford between 

Vivonne Bay and Rocky River. 
Schizaea fistulosa, Labill.— (Tepper) Head of S.W. River. 
Ophioglossum coriaceum, A. Cunn. — (R. T. as 0. vulgatimi, L.) Karatta 

(coll. Tepper); (Tepper Herb.) Capsize Creek (4/11/86). 

LVCOFODIALES. 

Lycopodium latcrale, R. Br.— (R. T.) Head of South-west River (coll. 

Tepper). 
Phylloglossum Drummondii, Kunze. — Flinders Chase, swamp near Rocky 

' River (T. G. B. O.). 
SelagineUa Preissiana, Spring.— (R. T.) Murray Lagoon and Karatta (coll. 

Tepper). 
Isoctes Drummondii, A. Br.— Flinders Chase, swamp near Rocky River 

(T. G. B. O.). 

12. PlNACEAE. 

Callitris enprcssiformis, Vent., var. tasmanica, Benth. — (R. T. as the type) 
Four miles from Cygnet River towards Birchmore Lagoon; (J. B. C.) 
Rockv River. 

C. robusta, R. Br— (R. T. as C. verrucosa) Hog Bay River to American 

Beach and American River, Western Cove, Bay of Shoals; (J. H. M. as 
C. propinqua) Hog Bay. 

13. Tyvhaceae. 

Typha angustifolia, L.— (Tepper) South-west of Karatta (Harpur) ; 
(J. B. C.) Cygnet River. 

14. POTAMOGETONACEAE. 

yiZostera nana, Roth. — (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 
?xZ. tasmanica, Martens. — (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 

Althenia Preissii, (Lehm.) Graebn.— (Tepper as Lepilaena Preissii) Karatta. 
xCyttoodocea antarctica, (Labill.) Endl— (J. B. C.) Middle River. 
xPosidonia australis, Hook, f— (J. B. C.) Bay of Shoals, very broad leaves, 
washed up, possibly a new species, Middle River (ordinary leaves), Pen- 
nington Bay (very narrow leaves). 
Polamogeton ochreatus, Raoul.— (R. T. as P. ohtusifolins) Cygnet River; 

(J. B. C.) Lower Cygnet River (Feb.). 
P. pectinatus, L.— ($L T.) Cygnet and Eleanor Rivers. 

P. Tepperi, A. Benn. in Tate's Census for K.I. — (R. T.) P. nutans for Lower 
Cygnet River and Stun' Sail Boom River presumably refers to Tate's 
later reference in the Census to P. Tepperi; (Tepper) Cygnet and Stun' 
Sail Boom Rivers. 
xP. tricarinatus, A. Benn.— (T. G. B. O.) Harriet River; (J. B. C) Cygnet 
River. 
Ruppia maritima, L.— (R. T.) Cygnet, Eleanor, and Hog Bay Rivers, Deep 
Creek; (Tepper as Vallisneria, teste Tate) Karatta. 

17. SCHEUCHZERIACEAE. 

Triglochin striata, Ruiz et Pav.— (R. T.) Cygnet, Eleanor, Stun' Sail Boom, 

and Hog Bay Rivers. 
T. mncronaia, R. Br.— (R. T.) For K.I. in Fl. Austr. 



27 

T. centrocarpa, Hook.— (R. T.) N.W. Dudley Peninsula. 
T. procera, R. Br. — (R. T.) Cygnet, Eleanor, and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers; 
(J. B.C.) Rocky River; (R. S. R.) Western River. 

19. HVDROCHARITACEAE. 

Ottelia ovalifolia, (R. Br.) L. C. Rich.— (R. T.) Cygnet River; (J. H. C) 
Lower Cygnet River, Rocky River. 
IsVallisneria spiralis, L— (J. B, C. ) Lower Cygnet River (not in flower). 
Halophila ovalis, (R. Br.) Hook f.— (R. T.) Bay of Shoals, Nepean River; 
(J. B. C.) Kingscote. 

20. Gramineae. 

\x?Themeda triandra, Forsk. — (J. B. C.) K.L ? requires confirmation.] 

■\Neurachne alopecuroides, R. Br. — (J. B. C.) Between Kingscote and Vivonne 
Bay (Nov.). 
Spinifcx hirsutus, Labill.— (R. T.) Bay of Shoals, Nepean Bay, D'Estrees 
Bay, etc., American Beach; (J, H. M.) Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) Bay of 
Shoals, Beatrice Island. 
Microlaena stipoides, (Labill.) R. Br. — (R. T, as Ehrharta stipoides) Cygnet 
River, shady places throughout Dudley Peninsula; (Tepper as Aristida 
Behriana, F. v. M., teste Tate) Karatta ; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
*Pha!aris minor, Retz.— (R. TV) Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) K.I. 
*Ph r canariensis, L. — (R, T.) Dudley Peninsula. 
*Ph. par ado xa, L. — Kingscote in Black's Flora. 
■\Stipa elegant is sima, Labill. — (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 
S\ teretifolia, Steud.— (R. T.) Rocks by the sea, north coast of Dudley Penin- 
sula; (J. B. C.) Near the sea, Flog Bay, Bay of Shoals, Pennington Bay. 
fS. cremophila. Reader.— (J. B. C.) Kingscote (Nov.), 
S, pubescens, R. Br. — (R. T. as S. a-ristiglumis) American River, Discovery 

Flat, throughout Dudley Peninsula. 
S. semibarbata, R. Br. — (R. TV) Between American River and D'Estrees 
Bay; (J. H. M.) Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers); (J. B. C.) 
near Vivonne Bay. 
S\ McAlpinei, Reader!'— (J. B. C) "One Year Grass," on recently burnt soil, 
Rocky River (Nov.). 
jS\ variabilis, Hughes. — (J. B. C.) Between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 
Echinopogon ovatus, (Forst.) Beauv. — (R. T.) Cygnet and Hog Bay Rivers. 
Sporobolus virginictts, (L.) Kunth.— (R. T.) Cygnet and Eleanor Rivers, 
north and north-west coasts of Dudley Peninsula, Hog Bay River, De 
Mole River; (J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay (March). 
**Polypogon monspeliensis, Desf. — (J. B. C.) Besides streams, Cygnet River, 
between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 
Calamagrostis fdiformis, (Forst.) Pilger. — (R. T. as Agrostis solandri) 
Towards FYeestone Range, Nepean Bay, American River, Cygnet River, 
Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
jC. fdiformis, var. Billardieri, Maid, et Betche. — (J. B. C.) Cape du Couedic, 
near the sea. 

C. quadriseta, (Labill.) Spreng. — (R. T. as Agrostis quadriseta) Cygnet and 

Stun' Sail Boom Rivers; (J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). 
fC. minor, Benth, (J. M. Black).— (J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). 
Dichelachne crinita, (L. f.) Hook. L— (R. T.) North of Dudley Peninsula, 
Rocky Point, Hog Bay River. 

D. scinrea, (R. Br.) Hook, f.— (R. T.) Heath near American River, through- 

out Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 



28 

*Lagnrits ovatus, L. — (Tepper) Queensdiff; (R. T.) Roll's Point, Telegraph 
Reserve, Eleanor River; (J. H. M.) Kingscote. well acclimatised ; 
(j. B. C.) widespread, Bay of Shoals. 
HAira caryophyllca, L.— (J. B. C.) K.L 
' : \4vcna fatua, L. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula. 
Amphibromiis ncrvosus, (R. Br.) Hook. 1, — (R. T. as Danthonia nervosa) 
Cygnet and American Rivers. 
■fDajithonia carphohies, F. v. M. — (J. B. C. ) Rocky River. 
/.), pcnicillata, (Labill.) F. v. M. — (R. T.) American River, Eleanor and 
Cygnet Rivers, throughout Dudley Peninsula; (J. H. M. as var. sctacea) 
Kingscote; (J. B. C. ) Rocky River, Kingscote. 
*Briza maxima, P.— (j. B. C. ) K.L 

-B. minor, L.— (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) K.I. 
*xDactyhis glomcrata, L.— (J. B^ C.) K.L 

Distichlis spicata, (L.) Greene. — (R. T. as D. marilima) K.L (Heuzen- 
roeder). Bay of Shoals, Nepean Bay, north coast of Dudley Peninsula; 
(J. B. (*.) Yivonne Bay. 
Poa caespitosa, Forst. — (R. T. ) Sea cliffs along south coast, Bay of Shoals, 
throughout Dudley Peninsula; (J. IT. M.) Cape du Couedic (coll. 
R. S. Rogers) ; (J. B. C.) between Kingscote and Rocky River, Cape du 
Couedic ( Nov. ) . 
P. caespitosa, var. Billardieri, Hook. f. — Sea coast of K.L in Black's Flora; 
(J. B. C.) Cape du Couedic (Nov.). 
*P. annua, L. — (R. 1Y) Dudley Peninsula. 
P. lepida, F. v. M. — (Tepper) Cape Willoughby (coll. Horswill). 
Clyceria strfcta, Hook. f. — (Tepper as Poa syrtica, F. v. M.) Beach, Brown- 
low to Cygnet River. 
Fesiuca littoralis, Labill. — (R. T.) Sand-dunes at Hog Bay River. 
*F. bromoides, L. — (R. T.) Freestone Hill Range and throughout Dudley 

Peninsula. 
*F. elatior, L. v var. arnudinacea } Hack. — Tate records F. elatior (?) for 

Dudley Peninsula. 
*F, rigida, (L.) Kunth. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula. 
Bromus arenaritts, Labill. — (R. T.) Sand-dunes at Hog Bay and American 
Beach. 
W. hordcaceus, L.— (R. T. as B. mollis) Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) K.L 
*B. maxinms, Desf. — (R. T. as B. slcrilis) Dudley Peninsula. 
*Lolinm temidentum, L.- — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula. 
*L. pcrennc, L. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula. 
S. scnlpiiis, Boech. — (R. T.) By runnels, heathy ground. Central Dudley 

Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Bay of Shoals. 
Agropyruni scabrum, (Labill.) Beauv. — (R. T.) Towards Freestone Hill, 

American River, throughout Dudley Peninsula. 
*Hordeum imtrinum, L. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay; 
(J. B. C.) Kingscote, Beatrice Island. 

21. Cyperaceae. 

xCyperus vaginatus, R. Br. — (J. B. C.) Middle River. 
S 'choc nits apogon, Roern et Sch.— (R, T.) Centra! Dudley Peninsula; 

(J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
5". scidptiiS; Boech. — (R. T.) By runnels, heathy ground, Central Dudley 

Peninsula. 
6". miens, (R. Br.) Poir. — K.L. in Black's Flora. 

S. Tcpperi, F, v. M.— (R. T.) De Mole River, near D'Estrees Bay, White 
Lagoon, frequent in open heath land to beyond the Eleanor River. 



20 

S. discifer, Tate. — (R. T.) Central Dudley Peninsula. 
xS. brevifoliuSj R. Br. ? — (J. B. C.) 20 miles east of Cape Borda. 
S. fltiitans, Hook, f.— (Tepper) Head of South-western River; (J. B. C. ) 

Breakneck River. 
Hclcocharis sphacelata, R. Br. --(R. T.) Cygnet, Harriet, and Stun' Sail 

Boom Rivers; (J. B. C. ) Cygnet River, Squashy Creek 27 miles east of 

Cape Borda, between Vivonne Ray and Rocky River, Rocky River. 
II. acuta, R, Br. — (R. T.) Cygnet River at the "Sheep-wash." 
II. multicaulis, Sm. — (R. T.) Stun' Sail Room River; (J. B. C.) Squashy 

Creek 27 miles east of Cape Borda. 
Scirpus fluilans, L.— (R. T.) Cygnet, Stun' Sail Boom, and Hog Bay Rivers; 

(j. B. C.) Tin Hut (on telegraph line to Cape Borda) ; (T. G. B. O.) 

Harriet River. 
S. setaceits, L. — (R. T.) Central Dudley Peninsula. 
S. cerniius, Vahl. — (R. T. as S. riparius) Eleanor River, Hog Bay (soakageat 

Frenchman's Rock, Central Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
S. antarcticus, L.— (R. T. as S. cartilagineus) North Dudley Peninsula, 

American River; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
S. inundatus, (R. Br.) Poir. — (R. T.) Cygnet and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers; 

(j. B. C.) Rocky River, Squashy Creek and Tin Hut (27 and 35 miles 

respectively from Cape Borda). 
S. nodosus,Iiorth.—(Jl,i:.) Nepcan Bay, American River, Vivonne Bay, 

American Beach, Hog Bay River; (J. R. C.) between Vivonne Bay 

and Rocky River, etc. 
Chorizandra enodis, Necs.— (R. T. ) Discovery Flat, Rirchmore's Lagoon, 

White Lagoon; (J. B. C.) near Cygnet River; (T. G. B. O.) Harriet 

River. 
Cladimn junceum, R. Br.— (R. T.) Between Eleanor and Stun' Sail Boom 

Rivers; (J. B. C.) Rocky River, Tin Hut (35 miles east of Cape Borda). 
fC. Gunnii, Flook. f.— (J. B. C) Squashy Creek (27 miles east of Cape 

Borda). in Black's Flora it is stated that Bentham recorded this species 

for the Mount Lofty Range, "but it does not appear to have been found 

since." 
jC. arcuatum, J. M. Black.— A new species; (J. B. C) Rocky River. 
C. capillaceum, (Benth. ) C. B. Clarke.— (Tepper as Schoenus capillaris, 

F. v. M.)— Head of South-western River; (J. B. C.) Tin Hut (on 

telegraph line to ("ape Borda). 
C. filum (Labill.J R. Br.— (R. T.) De Mole River, White Lagoon, Hawk's 

Nest, Mount Pleasant near Karatta. 
C. leiragonum, (Labill.) J. M. Black. — Tepper as C. letraquctrum) Head of 

South-western River; (J. B. C.) Squashy Creek (27 miles east of Cape 

Borda ) . 
C. acutiim, (Labill.) Poir. — (Tepper as C. schoenoides) Cape Borda, Lime- 
stone Hills; (R. T. as C. schoenoides) De Mole River. 
Gahnia trifida, LzhiW. — K.I, in Black's Flora; (J. B. C.) Tin Hut (35 miles 

east of Cape Borda). Perhaps some of Tate's records of Cladimn fihtm 

refer to this species. 
G. dei(sta,(R, Br.) Benth. — (R. T. as Clad htm deustum) Coast cliffs between 

Pennington Bay and Flog Bay River, stony ground between Mount 

Pleasant and Eleanor River; (J. R. C. ) in sandy soil near Cape du 

Couedic. 
yC. psiliaconini, Labill. — (J. B. C.) Tin Hut and other creeks along the 

telegraph line to Cape Borda. 
tC iiystrix, J. M. Black. — A new species; (J. B. C) Cape du Couedic (Nov.). 



30 

Caustis pentandra, EL Br. — (R. T.) De Mole River, between American River 

and D'Estrees Bay, near White Lagoon, Karatta; (J. B. C.) near 

Vivonne Bay, between Vivonne Bay and Rocky River, telegraph line 

20 miles east of Cape Borda; (R. S. R.) South-western River. 
xLepidosperma exaltatuni, R. Br. — (J. B. C.) Rocky River, Breakneck River. 
L. gladiatum, Labill. — (R. T.) Between Hog Bay River and False Cape; 

(J. B. C.) Pennington Bay. 
xL. concavum, R. Br. — (J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay. 
L. lineare, R. Br. — (Tepper) Hundred of Haines and elsewhere, larger than on 

the mainland as at Clarendon. 
L. viscidiim, R. Br. — (R. T.) Throughout the main mass of the Island; 

(J. B. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 
L. canescens, Boeck. — K.I. in Black's Flora; (J. B. C.) Kingscote, Vivonne 

Bay road. 
xL. semiteres, F. v. M. — (J. B. C.) Tin Flut on Cape Borda telegraph line, 

near Vivonne Bay. 
L. carphoides, F. v. M. — (Tepper) Mount Pleasant; (J. B. C.) between 

Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 
L. filiforme is given by Tate as common for Dudley Peninsula, also for 

De Mole River, but there are no specimens in the Tate Herbarium, and 

none have been found since. 
Carex apprcssa, R. Br. — (R. T. as C. panic ul at a) De Mole River; (Tepper 

as C, paniadata) Ravine des Casoars ; (J. B. C.) banks of Rocky River, 

creek along Cape Borda telegraph line. 
C. iereticaidis, F. v. M. — (R. T.) Stun' Sail Boom River. 
C. pseudocyperus, L. — (R. T.) Stun' Sail Boom River. 

22. Lemnaceae. 

Lemna trisitlca, L. — (Tepper) Karatta. 
L. minor, L.— (Tepper) K.I. 

23. Restionaceae. 

Leptocarpus tenax, R. Br. — (Tepper) Karatta, Birchmore's Lagoon. 
Hypolaena fastigiata, R. Br. — (R. T. as Calostrophus fastigiatus) De Mole 

River, between American River and D'Estrees Bay, White Lagoon, near 

Karatta; (J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). 
Lepyrodia sp. — (Tepper) Grassy Creek. 

24. Centrolepidaceae. 

Trithuria submersa, Hook. f. — (R. T.) By runnels, heath ground, Central 

Dudley Peninsula. 
Brisula gracilis, (Sond.) Hieron. — (R. T. as Aphelia gracilis) By runnels, 

Central Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 

B. piimilio, (F. v. M.) Hieron. — (R. T. as Aphelia pumilio) Mossy banks 

in gullies, and cliffs by the sea, north Dudley Peninsula. 
Centrolepis polygyna, (R. Br.) Hieron.— (R. T.) With the last, North Dudley 
Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). 

C. aristata, (R. Br.) Roem. et Schult— (R. T.) De Mole River, Central 

Dudley Peninsula; var. pygmaea, sea slopes south of Kangaroo Head; 
(J. B. C) Rocky River (Nov.). 
xC. fascicularis, Labill— (J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.), creek near Ravine 
des Casoars, Tin Hut (35 miles east of Cape Borda). 
C. strigosa, (R. Br.) Roem. et Schult.— (R. T.) De Mole River, North 
Dudley Peninsula, American River; (J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). 
28. Juncaceae. 

Juncus bujonius, L. — (R. T.) American River, Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) 
Rocky River. 



31 

xJ. plamfoVius, R. Br.— (J. B. C) Squashy Creek (27 miles east of Cape 
Borda), Roclcy River. 
J, caespiticius, E/Mey. — (Tepper) Ravine cles Casoars. 
/. maritimus, Lamk., var. australiensis, Renth.— (Tepper as the type) Karatta ; 

(J. B. C.) widespread. 
/. pallidas, R. Br.— (R. T.) Common throughout the Island, De, Mole River; 
(J. B. C.) widespread, 
f/. polyanfhemm. Buck— (J. B. C.) Tin Hut (35 miles east of Cape Borda). 
p. pauciflorus, R. Br.— (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
Lunula campestrls, DC— (R. T.) Throughout Dudley Peninsula. 

29. LlLTACEAE. 

DianeUa rcvohtfa, R. Br.— (J. H. M.) Kingscotc, Hog Bay; (J. B. C) 
between Vivonne Bay and Rocky River, etc. 

D. laevis, R. Br. — (R. T.) Cygnet River, Western Cove, towards D'Estrees 
Bay,' Karatta, Dudley Peninsula; (R. S. R.) Kingscote (Sept.). 

Burchardia umbellate, R. Br.— (R. T.) Near D'Estrees Bay, Central Dudley 
Peninsula, Hog Bay River; (J. B. C.) Breakneck River (Nov.); 
(R. S. R.) Kingscote (Sept.). 

Anguillaria dioica, R. Br. — (Tepper) Karatta; (R. S. R.) near Cape Borda 
(Sept.), Ravine des Casoars. 

Thysanotus Patersonri, R. Br.— (R. T.) De Mole River; (R. S. R.) Harvey's 
* Return (Oct.). 

Th. tiiberosus, R. Br. — (Tepper) Karatta. 

Th. dichotomus, (Labill.) R. Br.— (J. H. M.) Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) between 
Kingscote and Vivonne Bay (Nov.); telegraph line to Cape Borda 
(Feb.). 

Chamacscilla corymbosa, (R. Br.) F. v. M— (J- B. C.) K.I. 

Tricoryne elatior, R. Br. — (Tepper) Mount Taylor. 

Bulbine semibarbata, (R. Br.) Haw.— (R. T.) De Mole River; (J. H. M.) 
Hog Bay; (R. S. R.) Middle River (Oct.) ; (J. B. C.) between Kings- 
cote and Vivonne Bay. 

Dichopogon strkttts, (R. Br.) J. G. Bak. — (R. T. as Arthr op odium strictmn) 
North-west parts of Dudley Peninsula, gorge of Hog Bay River. 

D. fimbriates, (R. Br.) J. M. Black.— In Tate's list as Arthro podium laxum, 
Kingscote Point. 

Bartlingia sessilflora, (Dene) F. v. M. — (Tepper) Karatta; (J. B. C.) K.I. ; 
(T. G. B. O.) Harriet River. 

Xanthorrhoea quadrangiilata, F. v M. — (R. T., probably X. Tateana is meant) 
South side of Cygnet River to D'Estrees Bay and Stun' Sail Boom River, 
Central Dudley Peninsula; (|. II. M.) Hog Bay. 

X. Tateana, F. v. M.— (R. T. as X. Tatei) De Mole River; (J. B. C.) Rocky 
River, Vivonne Bay, etc. 
Iridackae. 

Patersonia glauca, R. Br. — (R. T.) White Lagoon, near Karatta, De Mole 

River; (J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). 
Qrthrosanthns multiflorns, Sweet. — (R. T. as Sisyrinchiiim cyaneum) K.L 
(R. Brown), widely distributed throughout Dudley Peninsula, common 
on the north coast and extending to Karatta, occasionally at Mount 
Mary and American Beach; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay; (R. S. R.) Kings- 
cote (Sept.), Harvey's Return (Sept.); (J. B. C.) Kingscote (Nov.), 
Rocky River, Cape Borda. 
Orchidaceae. 

xGastrodia sesamoides, R. Br.— (R. S. R.) Flinders Chase (Prof. Wood 
Jones), Oct. 



32 



Calochilus Robcrtsonii, Benth.— Middle and Western Rivers Cane Borda 
(Nov.)- ' 

xThelymiira ixioides, S\v\— (R. S. R.), Cape Borda (Oct) 

T. hUeociliata, Fitzg.— Kingscote, Birchmore Lagoon, a swamp form, blooms 
September. 

T. grandiflora, Fitzg.— Ironstone Hill, near Western River. Numerous in 
this locality, with exceptionally large leaves. In bud at end of Sep- 
tember. Bloomed early in October when transplanted to Adelaide 

T. artstata Lindl.— Hog Bay River (South Coast) . September and October 

1 . longifoha, Forst— Dudley Peninsula. October and November 

T. paucifiora, R. Br.— Kingscote, Ravine des Casoars Creek. September 

/. fusco-lutea, R. Br.— Ironstone Hill, near Western River, Cape Borda 
(Nov.); (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase and between Kingscote and 
Vivonne Bay (ironstone tablelands). 

T. carnea, R. Br. — Stun* Sail Boom River. October. 

T. flexuosa, End!.— Widely distributed on the tableland between Ravine 
Creek and Tin Hut. October. 

T. antennifera, Hook. £.— Widely distributed; Stokes' Bay. Stun' Sail Boom 
River, Western River, S.W. River, Harriet River, limber Creek Dudley 
Penmsula. September and October. 

Microtis porrifolia, R. Br.— Dudley Peninsula, Kingscote, Cygnet River, 
Salt Creek, Stokes' Bay, Western River. October and November 
xM. pann flora, R. Br.— (R. S. R.) Vivonne Bay. November 

Prasophyllimi auslrale, R. Br.— (R. S. R. ) Harriet River. December and 
January. 

P. elahtm, R. Br.— Snug Cove, Harvey's Return, Cape Borda, Dudley Penin- 
sula. Almost black m colour. Locally known as the "Blackboy " I 
have not so far met the lighter-coloured forms which are found on the 
mainland. October and November. ( T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase 
near Rocky River. October. 

P. patens, R. Br.— Kingscote, Dudley Peninsula. October. 

P. fiiscimt, R. Br. — Retla's Lagoon, Kingscote. October 

P. nigricans, R. Br.— It seemed probable that the smaller species of Praso- 
phyllimi would be represented on the Island., especially as one of these 
occurs on Yorke Peninsula. I was fortunate enough to find a single 
late bloom in May when on a visit to Harcus Camp, on the tableland 
south-west of the Kohinoor Mine. It was not the Peninsula species. 
however, but one much more widely distributed. Later we found it 
in seed at Kingscote in September. 

Corysauthcs pntinosa, A. Cunn.— Swamp near Harvey's Return (Mrs. R. S. 
Rogers). July and August. Pate bloom in September. 

Acianthus caudalus, R. Br. — De Mole River. September. 

A. exscrtns, R. Br. — Hog Bay River, Kingscote, Harvey's Return. Ma\, 
June, and July. 

Cyrtostylis rcnifonnis, R. Br. — Dudley Peninsula, Harvey's Return, Ravine 
des Casoars Creek. July to September. 

Lyperanthus nigricans, R. Br.— Hog Bay River, Stokes' Bay, Harriet River. 
Eleanor River. Mount Pleasant, Retta Lagoon, and Cygnet River. 
September and October. 

Eriochilas autumnalis, R. Br. — I have found this species at Harcus Camp in 
seed in May; probably it has a much wider distribution, but has not been 
recorded owing to its early time of blooming. 
Leptoccras fimbriata, Lindl. — Leaves fairly numerous at Stokes' Bay and 
Rocky River. Should be looked for in May and June. 



33 

Caladenia cardiochila, Tate- — Kingscote. 

C. ovata, Rogers. — I have not seen this species on the North. Coast, but have 
found it in considerable numbers on the South Coast about Wilson River 
and the Eleanor. I have never met it on the mainland. It blooms in 
September and October. 

C. reticulata, Fitzg.— Cygnet River,. Mount Pleasant, Eleanor River. 
September. 

C, Patcrsonii } R. Br, — This species has so long been considered a legitimate 
dumping-ground for divergent forms, that perhaps no apology is required 
for placing still another under this heading. The Kangaroo Island form 
may conveniently be placed here for the present, although it seems to 
me a very distinct type. So far, I have been unable to discover the 
presence on the Island of the forms which arc so prevalent on the con- 
tiguous mainland, e.g., Yorke Peninsula. As in the case of C\ filamentosa, 
the only place in the State in which I have known the Kangaroo Island 
form of C. Patcrsonii to occur is Monarto, where I have collected it 
at about the same time of the year. It has a narrow leaf, varying from 
linear-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate. The flower is usually solitary, 
the general colouring being yellow with red markings. The latter are 
shown by a red line running down the middle of each perianth segment, 
by the strongly-marked red clavate points of each sepal, and by the red 
tip of the labcllum. There are four rows of calli. and the margins of 
the labellum are denticulated, though not deeply so. The caudae are 
comparatively short, and not hairy, as in the typical forms of C. Patcr- 
sonii. Next to C. filamentosa this is the most prevalent "spider" west 
of Kingscote. 

C. dilatata, R. Br. — Dudley Peninsula, Kingscote, Ravine des Casoars. Sep- 
tember and October. 

C. filamentosa, R. Br. — This beautiful dark crimson form is widely dis- 
tributed throughout the Island. I know only one locality on the 
mainland where it is to be found, pis., Monarto, near Murray Bridge. 
It has struck me as an interesting fact that C. tentacidata, a closely allied 
light-coloured species, so common around the northern and western 
sides of the Gulf, does not occur on the Island. I have found both forms 
at Monarto. September and October. 

C. hicalliala, Rogers. — A single specimen of this dainty little orchid was 
found by Mrs. R. S. Rogers near Kingscote on September 20, 1908. It 
was growing in rather sandy soil near the roadside on the margin of 
the scrub. 

C. Mensiesii, R. Br. — Stokes' Bay, Cape Borda, Ravine des Casoars, Harvey's 
Return. September and October. (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase, near 
Rocky River. 

C. latifolia, R. Br. — Kingscote, Harvey's Return, Ravine, des Casoars Creek, 
and very common on Dudley Peninsula. September. 

C. carnea, R. Br.— Not common, but widely distributed. I have found it on 
Dudley Peninsula, Kingscote, Rocky River, vicinity of Cape du Couedic, 
South-west River, Harriet River. September. 
xC. cacrulca, R. Br. — (R. S. R.) Flinders Chase (Prof. F, Wood Jones). 
September. 

C. deformis, R. Br. — This probably shares the place of honour with Diuris 
longifolia in being the most common orchid on the Island, some parts 
being literally converted into blue carpets in September, when it is at its 
best. It became scarcer as we skirted the Western Coast, but is repre- 
sented cvervwhere. 



B 



34 

Diuris longifolia, R. .Br.— This orchid is extraordinarily prolific and is to 

he found in vast quantities from one end of the Island to the other. 

September and October. 
I), brevi folia, Rogers. — (R, S. R.) Flinders Chase. November. 
x/.l sulphured, R. Br. — (R. S. R.) Harriet River. December. 
P. nutans, R. Br.— Ravine des Casoars Reserve, Cape Borda. A few good 

blooms last week in September. 
Pierosiylis nana, R. Br. — Widely distributed throughout the Island. August 

and September. 
xP. pedunculaia, R. Br. — (R. S, R.) Harvey's Return, Cape Borda. August. 
P. furcata. Bind!. — Late blooms found in January near Karatta on Stun' Sail 

Boom River. I described this orchid as a species new to the State in 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1907, vol. xxxi., p. 125, pi. xxii. 
P. rcflexa, R. Br. — Harvey's Return (Mrs. R. S. Rogers). June, July, and 

August. 
P. data, (Labill.) Reichb. L— (R. S. R.) Dudley Peninsula. Ravine Creek. 

May, June, and July. 
P. obtusa, R. Br. — Ravine Creek, near Cape Borda, in moist shady ground. 

Half a dozen withered specimens found end of September, 1908 (Mrs. 

R. S. Rogers). Blooms probably July and August. This species lias 

only been previously recorded from the Port Victor district. 
P. barbala, LindL— Hog Bay River, S.W. River, Harriet River, Eleanor 

River. September and October. 
P. longifolia, R. Br. — This plant bears rather a striking contrast to our 

mainland form, the flowers being much smaller (galea 1 cm., or even less ) 

and the habit exceedingly slender. The height varies from about 10-30 

cm. Late blooms found at Kingscote in September. 
P. -c'ittata, LindL — Widely distributed throughout the Island. June and 

August. 

33. Casuarinaceae. 

Casnarina strirta, Ait. — (R. T. as C. quadrivalvis) Salt Lagoon. Kingscote 
Point, Western Cove, American River, north coast of Dudley Penin- 
sula, Hog Bay River; (J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay, Harvey's Return. 
?C Muclhriana, Miq. — (R. T. This and the next species are included under 
C, distyla) Cygnet River to D'Estrees Bay, and Stun' Sail Boom River, 
Central Dudley Peninsula; (L B. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne 
Bay. 
C. sp. — (J. B. C. ) Between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 

35. Urticaceae. 

Pariciaria debilis, G. Forst. — (R. T.) KL (in Fl. Austr.), throughout 
Dudley Peninsula; (T. G. B. C). ) Harriet River. October. 
*Urtica urens, L. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C. probably) Rocky 
River; (R. S. R.J near Cape Borda. 
U. incisa, Poir. — (R. T.) Lower Cygnet River ; (J. B. C. ) Ravine des 
Casoars. 

36. Proteaceae. 

Petrophlta multisccta, P. v. M.--(R. T.j K.l. ( Waterhouse), Cygnet River, 
eastward to American River, and south-west to Sam' Sail Boom River, 
De Mole River ; (J . B. C. ) between Kingscol e and Vivonne Bay. 
Rocky River. 

Isopocion ccraiophxUus, R. Br.— (R. T.) De Mole River; (|. B. C.i Rocky 
River, Cape Borda; (R. S. R.) Ravine des Casoars (Oct.. 1908). 



35 

Adcnanthos scricca, Labill., var. brevifolia, Benth.— (R. T-, as A. scricca) 
K.I. (Waterhouse), Cygnet River to Red Banks, American River, and 
D'Estrees Bay, thence to Eleanor River, etc.. De Mole River; (J. B. C, 
flowers pinky-red, not yellow as in the generic description in Black's 
Blora) 20 miles east of Rocky River; (R. S. R. ) Kingscote (Sept., 
1908), near Cape Borda (Sept.', 1908), Cape du Couedic (Oct.. 1908), 
Stokes' Bay to Western River. 

A. tcrminalis, R. Br.— (R. T. ) De Mole River; (J. B. C. ) between Vivonne 

Bay and Rocky River. 
Couospcrmum patens, Schlechtd. — (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse }. near 

D'Estrees Hay, north of Mount Pleasant, near Karatta, De Mole River; 

( |. B. C.) Kingscote, Vivonne Bay road, Rockv River, near Cape Borda; 

(R. S. R.) Western River. 
KHakea villain, R. Br. — { J. B. (V) Vivonne Bav. 
II. rosfrata, F. v. M. ( R. T.) American River and along the South Coast, 

Central Dudley Peninsula, De Mole. River ; (J. R. C. ) K ingscote. 

Vivonne Bay road, Cape Borda. Harvey's Return. 
U, rugosa, R. Br.— (R. T. ) K.I. (Waterhouse'), American River to D'Estrees 

Bay, South Coast of Central Dudley Peninsula (coll. R. S. Rogers); 

(J. B. C.) K.I.; (T. B. G. O.) Blinders Chase, Rocky River, and 

Breakneck Creek (Nov.). 
H. idicina, R. Br. — (|. B. C, ) Vivonne Bay, Rockv River. Cape Borda. 
H. -iiliaua, var. fiexilfs, E. v. M— (R. T, as"//, plexitis) K.l. (Waterhouse), 

west of Bay of Shoals, south of Cygnet River to Birchmore Eagoon, 

Murray Eagoon, and thence to Karatta; (J. B. C.) Rocky River, Cape 

Borda. Tepper records II. ulicina, var. carinata, for Cape Borda. 
kII., near H. multilineala, Meisn. — (J. B. C. ) Several small plants, showing 

no signs of flowering, on heath)- ground 4 or 5 miles north of Rocky 

River Homestead, leaves differing (Prof. Osborn and Miss Macklin) 

microscopically from those of S.A. specimens of II. niultilineata. 
Bauksia marginata, Cav. — ( R. P.) K.I. (Waterhouse). Cygnet River to 

D'Estrees Bay and Stun; Sail Boom River, De Mole River; (R. S. H.) 

Rocky River; (J. B. C. ) near Harvey's Return. 

B. araata, E. v. M. — (R. T.) K.L (Frag. Pkyf.) ? Cygnet River, and Birch- 

more I .agoon, between American River and D'Estrees Bay. \\ hii.e 

Eagoon. and frequently to Stun' Sail Boom River, De Mule River; 

(J. B. C.) near Cape Borda, etc. 
Grevillea ilia folia, R, Br.— (R, T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Kingscote. south 

of Cygnet River, American River, White's Lagoon to Eleanor River; 

(L B. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay (flowers greenish), 

Vivonne Bay, Rockv .River; (P. S. R.] Stokes' Bay to Western River 

(Oct., 1908). 
(L parviflora, R. Br. — ( R. T, as var. ?) K.L (Waterhouse), Stun' Sail Boom 

Riyer at Karatta; K.L (Black's Flora). 
(r. harviflora, var. aataria, E. v. M. — ( R. T.. as above, probablv in part') 
' K.L* (Black's Elora); (J. II C. ) Rocky River; ( T. C. B. CXj in 

dense scrub, Flinders Chase (Oct., 1924). 
G. pauciflora, R. Br.-— (Tepper) Head of the S.W. River; (R. S. R.) S.W. 

River, Cape clu Couedic (Oct., 1908), near Karatta. Ravine des Casoars; 

( |. B. C.) between Cape du Couedic and Rock}- River, near Cape 

Borda. 
G. qiiiaqucncrvis, J. M. Black. — Snug Cove and near Cape Borda (Black's 

Flora); (L B. C.) Rocky River, near Cape Borda. 
G. aspera, R. Br.— ( R. T.) De Mole River. 



36 

G. lavandulacea. R. Br.— (R. T.) De Mole River. 

G. Rogcrsii, Maiden.— (R. S. R.) Harvey's Return (Oct., 1907), Ravine 
des Casoars; (J. B.C.) Harvey's Return, Kingscote-Vivonne Bay road. 

37. Santalaceae. 

Exocarpus cupressiformis, Labill. — (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), Stun' Sail 

Room River, throughout Dudley Peninsula; (J. B, C.) Cvgnet River, 

between Vivonne Bay and Rocky River. 
Lcptomcria aphylla, R. Br. — (R. T. ) Near the Eleanor River, Karatta ; 

(J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
Ch or drum glomeratimi. R. Br. — (R. T.) Bay of Shoals, Kingscote to 

D'Estrees Bav and Stun' Sail Boom River, Central Dudley Peninsula, 

De Mole River; (J. H. M.) Kingscote; (J. B. C) Bay of Shoals, 

Harvey's Return; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase. 
Ch. spicatum, F. v. M.~(.R. T.) K.I. (Bannier) ; (J. B. C), Rocky River, 

Cape Borda, near Harvey's Return. 
P asanas acuminatus, R. Br.— -In Tate's Census for K.I. 
I : . persicarius, F. v. M. — (Tepper) Cape Willottghby (coll. Horswill). 

38. Oeacaceae. 

Ola.v Bcnthamiana, Miq. — (Tepper) Scrub land near Cape Borda ; 
(J. H. M.) Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers); (J. B. C) near Cape 
Borda. 

40. PoLYGONACEAE. 

Rnmc.v Brozvnii, Campd. — (R. T.) K.I. (Ileuzenroeder), Cygnet River, 
throughout Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
*x/?. crisp us j L. — (J. B. C.) Kingscote, Middle River. 
*x#, Acetosella, P.— (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
^Polygonum avicitlare, P. — (R, T.) Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C. ) Rocky 
River. 
Muchlcnbeckia adpressa, (Pabill.) Meisn. — (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), 
bushy places and heath ground, especially near the sea, malice scrub and 
thickets throughout Dudley Peninsula; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay, Cape 
Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers); (B B* C.) Ravine des Casoars, etc.; 
(T. G. B. O.) Rocky River. 

41. Chenopodiaceae. 

fRIwgodia baccata, (Pabill.) Moq. — (J. B. C. ) Vivonne Bay, Pennington 
Bay, Kingscote. 

Rh. crassifolia, R. Br.— -(R. T.) K.I. (R. Brown), seacliffs and salt swamps 
from American River to Bay of Shoals, North and West Dudley Penin- 
sula; (J. B. C.) Kingscote, Vivonne Bay, American River; 
(T. G. B. O.) Cape du Couedic (Nov., 1923). 

RL nutans, R. Br. — (R. T.) K.P (R. Brown), rocks by the sea on north 
coast of Dudley Peninsula and to American Beach; (J. B. C. ) Bav of 
Shoals (?). 

Chenopodium carinahmi, R. Br.— (R. T.) K.I. (ft Brown as Ch pitmilio, 
R. Br., grassy slopes by the sea on north coast of Dudley Peninsula). 
(Probably a small form of the preceding. — J. M. B.) 
*xC7/. mural e, P.— (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 
*Ch. glaucinn, Lu— (R, T.) K.P, probably Cygnet River (Waterhouse), 
Dudley Peninsula; (Tepper as Rhagodia parabolica) (teste Tate), 
Kinch's, Cygnet River; (j. B. C. ) mouth of Cygnet River, Bav of 
Shoals (?), Middle. River. 



37 

Atriplex paludosmn, R, Er. — (R. T.) K.I. (R. Brown, Waterhouse), Bay 

of Shoals, north coast of Dudley Peninsula to American River; 

mouth of Cygnet River, Beatrice Island. 
A, cincrciim, Poir. — (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), Kingscote Point, Bay of 

Shoals, Hog Bay, American Reach; (j. B. C.) Kingscotc, Vivonne 

Bay, Pennington Bay. 
A. prostrahim, R. "Br.— (R. T.) K.I. (R. Brown). 
Kochia op positi folia, F. v. M. — (R. T.) Rocks by the sea between Penne- 

shaw and Kangaroo Head; (J. B. C.) American River, mouth of 

Cygnet River, Bay of Shoals. 
xSalsoIa kali, L. — (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 
Sitae da australis, (R. Br.) Moq. — (R. T. as S. maritima) Rocks by the sea, 

north coast of Dudley Peninsula, sandhills at American Beach and Hog 

Bay. 
Enchylacna tomentosa, R. Br. — (R. T.) Kingscote, Christmas Cove and 

American Beach, Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Kingscote (yellow 

fruits) , Beatrice Island. 
Thrclkeldia diffusa, R. Br. — In Tate's Census for K.I. 
fArikrocnemum kalocnemoides, Nees. — (J. B. C.) Near Kingscote. 
A. arbusada, (R. Br.) Moq. — (R. T. as Salicornia arhuscuhi) Nepean Bay, 

American River, Christmas Cove; (J. B. C. ) American River (?). 
Salicornia australis, Banks et Sol.— (R. T. ) Common in salt swamps; 

(J. H. M.) Kingscote; (J. B. C.) American River, Eleanor River (?), 

forming low green patches left bv the receding tide at Bay of Shoals; 

(T. G.'B. O.) Cape du Couedic "(Nov., 1923). 

42. Amarantaceae. 

Hemichroa pentandra, R. Br— (R. T. as Polycnemon pentandrum) Saline 
swamp at head of Bay of Shoals, east of Pelican Lagoon; (J. B. C.) 
Vivonne Hay (March), Bay of Shoals (probably). 

Trichiniiim Beckerianum, p. v. M. — (R. T. as Pl'dotus Beckcri) On iron- 
stone gravel after fire, about Mount Pleasant, and hence to Eleanor 
River. 

A. dew licit lata, R. Br. — (R. T. as A. triandra) Banks of Cygnet River. 

44. Phytolaccaceae. 

Didynwtheca thesioides, Hook. f. — (R. T.) Hog Bay Rivei to Rocky Point, 
American Beach; (j. B. C.) near Pennington Bay, between Kingscote 
and Vivonne Bay, Rocky River (Nov.). 

Gyrostcnion australasicits, (Moq.) Heimerl. — (R. T. as Didynwtheca 
plciococca) K.T. (Waterhouse), between American River and D'Estrees 
Bay, between White Lagoon and Hawk's Nest, towards the Eleanor and 
Stun' Sail Boom Rivers; (R. S. R.) Kingscote, Parrot Paddock; 
(J. B. C.) near Pennington Bay, between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay 
(Nov.). 

45. AlZOACEAE. 

Mescmbrianthcnium acquilaicrale, Haw.— (R. T.) Sand dunes, common; 

(J. H. M.) Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) Bay of Shoals, etc. 
M. australe, Soland. — (R. T.) Bay of Shoals, Nepean Bay, north coast of 

Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; (J. H. M.) Cape du Couedic (coll. 

R. S. Rogers) ; (J. B. C) K.I. 
Tctragonia implexicoma, (Moq.) Hook. f. — ( R. T.) D'Estrees Bay, north 

and west coasts of Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) widely distributed near 

the coast. 



38 

46. PORTUEACACEAE. 

Calandrima volnbilis, Benth. — ('R. T, as Claxiouia volubiiis) North coast of 

Dudley Peninsula. 
C. calyptrata. Hook. f. — (R. T. as Claytonia ealvptrata) Kangaroo Head, 

gorge of the Hog Bay River, Dc Mole Riven 

47. (.'aryopttyi/laceae. 

Sagma procumbens, P. — K.R in Black's Flora. 

A\ apetala, Ard.— ( R. T.) Western Cove, Nepean Bay,, throughout Dudley 
Peninsula, especially near the coast. 
*Ccrastium glonieratum, Thuill. — ( R. T. as C. rulgatam) Dudley Peninsula. 
Stcllaria pahtstris, Retz.— (R. T. as S\ glauea) Christmas Cove, gullies of 
North Dudley Peninsula, Hog Bav River. 
*6\ media, (L.) Vill.— (R. T. ) Dudley- Peninsula. 
Spergularia rubra, (L.) |. et C. Pre'sl. — (R. T. ") North coast of Dudlev 

Peninsula; (j. B. C. ) Middle River (?). 
,V. marginata, (DC.) Kitt. ( ?).— (R. T. as S. -marina) Saline swamps. Bay 
of Shoals. Nepean Bav, salt-water creeks. North Dudley Peninsula. 
*Silcnc galliea, P.— (R. P.) Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C. ) K.I. 
*Titnica pro/if era, (P.) Scop. (Dianihus prolifer, P.) — (J.B. C. ) Kingseote, 
Rocky River. 

49. Raxcnculaceae. 

Clematis mierophylla, DC— ( R. 'J.') Comiiioii near the coast; (|. It. M. i 

Hog Bay; (j. B. C) Kingscote. 
i?Ranitncubus tricJiophyUus, Chaix— (J. B. C) Reaves in water at Ravine 

des Casoars suggesting this species. 
A\ rivitkiris, Banks et Sol. — (Pepper) Ravine des Casoars; (R. T. ) De 

Mole River; (j, B. C) between Vivonne Bay and Rockv River; 

(P. G. B. O.) in peaty swamp. Rocky River (Oct, 1924). 
A', parviflorus, P. — ( R. T..J Near Kangaroo Head. 

50. Faii-iaceae. 

Cassytha glabella, R. Br.— (R. P.) K.I, (SealcyF sandv heaili ground. 

parsitic on I .cpidospenna fdiforwe chiefly; (J. B. C ) widely distributed. 

Vivonne Bay, Rocky River, Cape Rorda. 
C. pubeseeas, R. Br. — ( R. P. ) Parasitic on small heathy shrubs and Melaleuca 

aneinafa, De Mole River, etc.; (Tepper as Cassvtlia sp.. teste Tatty), 

Karotta ; (j. IP M.) Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers ) ; ( |. R. C ) 

between Kingscoie and Vivonne Bay, Vivonne Bav. 
C meiantlia, R. Br. — (R. P.) Parasitic on the smaller Pucalvptus chieriv ; 

(j. B. C ) Ray of Shoals. 

51. Papavekaceae. 

Papaver acuieatum, 'idmnb.— ( R. T.) Sandhills at American Beach and rockv 
ground northward to Kangaroo Head, Kingscote, IPFstrees Bav. 
*P. Jiybridum, P.— ( R. S. R.J Cape du Couedic (Oct.. 1908). 

52. Crucieerae. 

^Sisymbrium officinale. P.- (R. P.) Dudley Peninsula. 
*^L)iplotaxis muralis, (P.) DC— (J. B. C )" Kingscote. 

Lepidium foliosum, Desv.— (R. P.) K.I. ( Bannier J ; (J, H. M. ) Cape du 

Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers) ;' (J. B. C) mouth of Cvgnet River. 
L. pseado-ruderalc, Thell— (R. P. as L. ruderale) Dudley Peninsula.- Flour 
Cask Bay, Eleanor River. Kingscote. Bay of Shoals. 
*Capsella Bursa-pastoris, (P.) Moench. — (R.'P.) Dudley Peninsula. 
Hitlehinsia proeumbeus, (P.) Desv. — (R. P as Cap sella proeumbens and in 
the Census as C. eUiptiea) North Dudlev Peninsula, near Pelican Racoon. 



39 

*Coronopus didynms, (L.) Sm.— (R. T. as Scnivbiera didyma) Dudley 
Peninsula. 
Cakilc maritime;, Scop.— (R. T. ) D'Estrees Bay; (}-, II C ) Vivonne Bay, 
Pennington Bay. Middle River. 

54. Resedaceae. 

* Reseda alba, L— -(J. H. M.) Kingscote. 

55. Droseraceae. 

xDrosera binata, Eahill. — (J. B. C.) Breakneck River. 
I), qlandidiqera, Lehm. — (Tepper) Karatla, near Ktnch's Station; ( R. S. R,) 
' Middle River (Oct., 1908) ; (T. G. B, O.) Harriet River (Oct... 1922). 
/.). WJiittakcn, Planch.— (R. T. ) Dudley Peninsula (coll. R. S. Rogers), near 

D'Estrees Bay. 
P. pvgmaca, DC- -{R. T.) Central Dudley Peninsula. De Mole River; 

(j. B. C) Breakneck River, Squashy Creek (27 miles east of Cape 

Borcla). 
/), Planchomi, I Took 1. — (R. T. as D. Mmsicsli) Near D'Estrees Kay, near 

Kingscote (coll. R. S. Rogers); (R. S. R. \ Harvey's Return (Oct., 

1908), Middle River. Western River. Ravine'des Casoars. 
I), auriculata, Backh.— (R. T. ) Central Dudley Peninsula, near D'Estrees 

Bav, Kingscote, De Mole River; (R. S. R. ) Middle River (Oct., 1908) ; 

CP R. C.) Rocky River. 
I), pdtata, Sm.— (R."S. R. ) Middle River (Oct., 1908). 

5^. Crassut.achae. 

Crassitla Sieheriana, (Schult.) Ostenf.— (R. T. as Tillaea veriieiUaris) 

Dudley Peninsula, Bay of Shoals, Western Cove, De Mole River. 
C. bonariensis, (DC.) Camhess. (as Tillaea purpurata). — (R. S. R.) Cape cltt 
Couedic (Oct., 1908). 
' C. reeurva, (TTook. f.) Ostenf.— (R. T. as Tillaea recurva)^ Eleanor River. 
C, macrauiha, (Hook, f.) Diels et .Pritzel.— (R. T. as Tillaea macraniha) 
Gullies of North Dudley Peninsula. 

57. Saxifragaceae. 

Baitcra rubioides. Andr— (Tepper) Grassy and other creeks and at the head 
of the SAY. River; (J. B. C) Breakneck River, Squashy Creek (27 
miles east of Cape Borcla) ; (T. G. 13. O.) in peaty swamp near Rocky 
River. October and November. 

58. Pxttosporaceae. 

Pittosporum phillyre aides, DC— (R. T.) K.I ( Waterhouse ), east side of 

Bav of Shoals, about Salt Lagoon. 
Bursana spinosa, Cav.- ( R. T.) Sandhills at Hog Bay, banks of Hog Bay, 

Cygnet, Harriet, and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay; 

(j. B. C) Cygnet River, Vivonne Bay, and Rocky River. 
Marianthus bignoniaecus, E. v. M.— (R. T.) Thickets under the shade of 

sugar-gum trees at Harriet and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers; (J. B. C) 

Rocky River (Nov.). 
Chcirauihera linearis, A. Cunu,— (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse). 
Ch. volubilis, Benth.— (R. T.) Scrub in K.L (Waterhouse); (J. B. C) 

between Breakneck and Rocky Rivers (Nov.). 
Hillarditra cxmosa, E. v. M— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), throughout 

Dudley Peninsula,, Kingscote, American River, Harriet and Stun' Sail 

Boom Sivers; (J. B C) between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay (Nov.). 
B. seandens, Sm.— (Tepper) West of Cape Willoughby. Karatla ; (J. B. C) 

between Kingscote and Vivonne Bav (Nov.); ( r \ . G. B. O. ) Rocky 

River, (Nov., 1922). 



40 

59. ROSACEAE. 

Rutins parvifolius, L— (R. '}%) Hog Bay River 
*x/?. frntkosus, L. (Blackberry).— (T. B.'C.) Middle River 
*xftosa rubigmosa, L. ( Sweetbriar).— ( f. B. C.) Cygnet River 
*Alchernilla arvensis, Scop.— (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula 
Acaena ovwa, A. Cunn.— ( R. T.) Pasture slopes bv the sea, south of Kan- 
garoo [lead. 
A. Sangiiisorhae, (I, f.) Vahl.— (R. T.) K.I. (R. Brown), Dudlev Penin- 

/ t a i T ^!r n P? ote ' etc " Mount PIeasam to Stun' Sail Boom River; 
(J. H. M.) Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) Cygnet River. 

60. Leguminosae. 

Acacia armata, R. Br.— (R. T.) K.I. (R. Brown), common throughout the 

Island forming dense thickets in the calciferous sand-rock formation; 

(J. B. C.) Kmgscote, Bay of Shoals, Ravine des Casoars ■ (R S R ) 

Karvey's Return (Oct., 1908). 
A. acinacca, Lindl.— Near Mount Thisbe (coll. H, Griffith) 
A. mkrocarpa, F. v . M.— (R. T.) Between Rocky Point and Salt Lagoon, 

Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) ? Vivonne Bay. 
A. spinescens, Benth.— (R. T.) Central Dudlev " Peninsula ; (R S R) 

Harvey':, Return, Ravine des Casoars (Get* 1908), 
A. dodomjrifolia, (Pers.) Willd.— (R. T.) K.I. (Raudin's Expedition); 

(R. S. R.) Middle River, Stokes' Bay, Western River (Oct., 1908). 
A. brachyboirya, Benth.— (R. T.) Murray's Lagoon (A. acinacea (?) of 

lepper's List, White's Lagoon, is, teste Tate, probably this species). 
A, rhettnodes, Schl.— (R. T. as A. retinodes) K.I. (Waterhouse), thickets 

along watercourses in south-western parts, sandhills round Vivonne Bav 

and Hog Bay River, De Mole River; (J, B. C) Rocky River, between 

Kmgscote and Vivonne Bay, Ravine des Casoars; (R. S. R.) Ravine 

des Casoars. 

A. lif/ulata, A. Cunn.— (Tepper as A. salicina, Lindl.) Karatta; (R S R as 
A. salictna, var. Wayae, Maiden) K.I.; (). B. C.) Bav of Shoals, Kings- 
cote, Rocky River. 

A. myrtifolia, (Sm.) Willd., and as var. augiistifolia, Benth— (R T as 4 
myrtifoha with note) De Mole River; (Tepper) between Grassy Creek 
and Ravine des Casoars; (J. B. C.) between Kingscote, Vivonne Bav 
and Rocky River, widely distributed; (R. S. R.) Stokes' Bav, Western 
River (Oct., 1908), Mount Pleasant, Rocky River (all as A myrtifolia) 
Snug Cove (Oct., 1908), Sandy Creek, S.W. River (as var. angles ( if oliaf 

A. pyenantha, Benth.— (R. T.) North Dudley Peninsula; (J B C) Cygnet 
River, Rocky River; (R. S. R.) Rocky River. 

A. notabilis, F. v. M.— (Tepper) Near Brownlow and elsewhere; (R S R , 
identified by J. H. Maiden) Stokes' Bav, Western River. (Oct., 1908), 
Mount Pleasant. 

A. calamifolia, Sweet, var. euthycarpa, J. M. Black.— (R. T. A. calamifolia 
is presumably the variety) K.L (Flora Austr.), Bav of Shoals, south 
ot Cygnet River. White's Lagoon; ( R. S. R. as A. calamifolia) Kingscote 
(Sept., 1908), Stokes' Bay, Western River (Oct., 1908). 

A. rnpicola, F. v. M.— (R. T.) Mount Mary, Karatta; (J. B. C.) Vivonne 

Bay. 

A. farinosa, Lindl— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse); K.I. in Black's Flora; 

(R. S. R.) Harriet River, S.W. River, Western River, Middle River. 

Stokes' Bay (Oct., 1908); (Tepper) as A. IVhanii, F. y. M. ( south- 
west of Birchmore's Lagoon. 



41 

A. verticillata, (LTIer.) Willd.— (R. T.) Near Karatta ; (J. B, C.) Squashy 
Creek; (R. S. R.) De Mole River, Stokes' Bay (Oct., 1908) Mount 
Pleasant; (T. G. B. O.) Rocky River (Nov., 1923). 

A. longifolia, (Andr.) Willd., var. Sophorae, F. v. M. — A. brevifolia, Tepper's 
List, Stun' Sail Boom River, is, teste Tate, probably A. longifolia. 
(Tepper) White Gum Valley, south of Hog Bay; (j. B. C.) between 
sandhills near the coast, Middle River, Vivonne Bay, Pennington Bay. 

Compholobvmn minus, Sm. — ( R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), between American 
River and D'Estrees Bay, between Birchmore's Lagoon and Mount 
Pleasant, De Mole River; (J. B. C) flowers salmon coloured, sometimes 
yellow (on mainland usually yellow), Kingscote, Vivonne Bay, Rocky 
River road, Rocky River. 

Viininaria denudata, Sm. — (J. B. C.) Breakneck River. 

Davie sia corymb osa, Sm.— (Tepper as var. mimosoides, R. Br.) Karatta, 
Stun' Sail Boom River. 
%D, idicina, Sm.— (R. S. R.) Harvey's Return (Oct., 1908); (j. B. C) 

Rocky River. : 

fiX pectinata, Lindl.— (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 

D. incrassata, Sm. — (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Karatta. 

D. genislifolia, A. Cunn. — (R. T.) Near Kingscote, between Eleanor and 
Stun' Sail Boom Rivers, Central Dudley Peninsula; (R. S. R.) Stokes' 
Bay, Western River (Oct., 1908); (J. B. C ) between Kingscote and 
Vivonne Bay, Rocky River. 

D. brevifolia, Lindl. — (R. T.) Between American River and D'Estrees Bay, 
towards Eleanor River, De Mole River; (J. B. C.) between Kingscote 
and Vivonne Bay; (R. S. R.) Ritta's Lagoon (Oct., 1908), Timber 
Creek. 

Eutaxia mkrophylla, (R. Br.) J. M. Black. — (R. T. as E. empetrifolia) 
Kingscote, Mount Pleasant, Eleanor and Harriet Rivers, Central Dudley 
Peninsula, Hog Bay River. De Mole River; (J. B. C) Middle River, 
Vivonne Bay road, Rocky River; (R. S. R.) Stakes' Bay (Oct., 1908), 
Western River. 

Pultenaea daphnoides, Wendl.— (R. T.) De Mole River; (Tepper) head 
of S.W. River; ( R. S. R.) De Mole River (Oct., 1908); (J. B. C. ) 
between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay, Rocky River. 

P. scabra, R. Br. (uncertain).— (Tepper) Head of S.W, River; "known 
by a single specimen in leaf only, collected in 1886 near Birchman's 
(Birchmore's) Lagoon, and therefore uncertain" (Black's Elora). 

P. teretifolia, II. B. Williamson, var. brachyphylla, H. B. Will. — Harriet 
River (coll. J. G. O. Tepper). 

P. involucrata, Benth. — P. prostrata in Tepper's List, QueensclirT, is this 
species (Tate). 

P. riqida, R. Br. — (Tepper as var. angitstifolia, F. v. M.) Mount Tavlor; K.T 
in Black's Flora; (R. S. R.) Western River (Oct., 1908) ; (J. B. C. ) 
Rocky River. 

P. villifera, Sieb., var. glabrescens, ]. M. Black. — Western River in Black's 

Flora; (T. G. B. O.) Cape clu Couedic (Nov., 1923). P. villifera of 

Tepper's List, Harriet River, is P. canalicidata, probably (teste Tate ?) 

this variety. 

jP. laxiflora, Benth. — (J. B. C.) Rockv River, between Kingscote and Vivonne 

Bay. 
fP. laxiflora, var. pilosa, H. B. Williamson. — (J. B. C.) Between Kingscote 
and Vivonne Bay. 

P. acerosa, R. Br. — (R. T.) Near D'Estrees Bay, Central Dudley Peninsula. 



42 

P. acerosa, var, acicidaris, H. B. Williamson. — Harriet River (coll. T, G. B. 

Osborn). 
P. dens-i folia, F. v. M. — Harriet River (coll. J- G. O. Tepper). 
P. trifida, J. M. Black. — Snug Cove and telegraph track 12 miles east of Ckpc 

Borda (coll. H. Griffith), head of Cygnet River (coll. J. G. O. Tepper) ; 

(J. B. C.) between Kingscote and Yivonne Bay. 
P. vcstita, R. Br.— Near Karatta (coll. Mrs. Avliffe). 
P. viscidida, Tate.— (R. T.) De Mole River'; (J. B. C. ) Rocky River; 

(T. G. B. O.) Hundred of Ritchie and Breakneck Creek (Nov., 1923). 
P. tenuifolia, R. Br.— (R. T.) K.I. (Bannier). 
P. cymbifolia, j. M. Black. — Between Kingscote and Hundred of Cassini ( coll. 

"H. W. Andrew). 
\P. (iff. hibbertioides.— (R. T.) Sugar-gum forests at Karatta.] 
Pliyllota plearandroidcs, V. v. M. — (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), south of 

Cygnet River, thence common to D'Estrees Bay and Stun' Sail Boom 

River; (J. B. C.) near Cape Borda, Rocky River. 
Uiliwynia hispida, Hindi. — (Tepper) Eleanor River; (R. S. R.) Cape Borda. 
I), floribunda, Sm.— (R. T.) K.l. (Waterhouse). near D'Estrees Bav, Dudley 

Peninsula (T. Willson), De Mole River; (R. S. R.) Rocky River, Cape 

du Couedic (Oct., 1908), De Mole River (Oct., 1908), Western River. 

Stokes' Bay (Oct., 1908); (J. B. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne 

Bay. Rocky River (plant with rose-coloured flowers). 
Plalvlobittm obtu sang alum, Hook.— (R. T.) K.l. (Waterhouse). Eleanor 

River to Karatta, De Mole River; (R. S. R.) Middle River, Stokes' 

Hay, Western River (Oct., 1908) ; (J. B. C.) between Kingscote and 

Vivonne Bay. 
Tcmpletonia relusa, (Vent.) R. Br. — -(Tepper as Tcmpletonia, probably T. 

retusa) West of Mount Thisbe, K.L (in Black's Flora). 
Goodia lotifolia, Salisb. — (R. T. as G. medicaginea) K.I. (Waterhouse). 

Kingscote, Cygnet River, throughout Dudley Peninsula; (J. Ik C. ) 

Kingscote, Rocky River, Ravine des Casoars ; (R. S. R.) De Mole River, 

Cape du Couedic, Harvey's Return, Middle River (Oct., 1908). 
*xTrifolium procutnbcns, L. — (J. B. C.) Middle River. 
*Melilotu$ indica, All. — (R. T. as M. parviflorus) Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C. ) 

Rocky River. 
*Medicago denticukita, WilM. — (R. T.) Dudley's Peninsula. 
Lotus attstralisj, Andr. — (R. T.) K.l. (Waterhouse), Hog Bay River; 

(J. B. C.) Pennington Bay. 
Swainsona Icssertiifolia, DC— (R. T.) Hog Bag, American Beach to Hog- 
Bay River, American River, Eleanor River, Mount Mary; (J. B. C. ) 

Middle River. Rocky River, Cape du Couedic (Nov.) ; (R.S. R*) Stokes' 

Bay, Ravine des Casoars (Oct., 1908). 
*Vicia sativa, L.— (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula; (J. H. C.) K.l. 
*~\'V . sativa, var. angustifolia, Wahl. — (J. B. C.) Between Vivonne Bav and 

Rocky River. 
Kcnnedya prostrata, R. Br. — (R. T.) Mount Pleasant to Eleanor River. De 

Mole River; (j. B. C.) K.L; (R. S. R.) Middle River (Oct., 1908). 
Ilardenbergia monophylla, (Vent.) Benth.— (R. T. as Kennedva monophylla) 

South-west of Rocky Point, Dudley Peninsula. American River ; 

(R. S. R.) Cape du Couedic and Stokes' Bay (Oct., 1908), Western 

River, Rocky River. 

61. Gerantaceae. 

Geranium pilosum, Eorst., var. potentilloides, Benth. (var. australc, Ostent.J. 
— (R. T. as G. GaroHnianiun) Dudley Peninsula. 



43 

Erodium cygnorum, Nees. — [R. T.) K.I. in Fi. Austr. 
*/I. cicitlarhim, (I,.) LTIer. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula. 
Pelargonium australe, Willd. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula; (R. S. R. ) Cape 

du Couedic (Oct., 1908). 
/\ australe, var. erodioides, Benth, — (ft, T.) Kingscote, American River, 

D'Estrees Bay,, Mount Mary, Dudley Peninsula; (J. 15. C.) Rocky River, 

Kingscote, Vivotme Bay road. 

62. OXAL! OACKAK. 

Oxalis eornkulata, L. — (R. T. ) Cygnet River, Dudley Peninsula; (R, S. R. ) 
Harvey's Return; (J. B. C. ) Rocky River, Bay of Shoals. 

64. Zycopii yllaceae. 

Nitraria Schoberi, L.~(R. T.) Kingscote, American Beach; (J. B. C. ) 

Kingscote, The Spit (Beatrice Island). 
Zygophvllnm BUlardieri, DC— (R. T. ) K.I. (R. Br.). D'Rstrees Bav; 

(R. S. R.) Ravine des Casoars (Oct., 1908); (J, B. C.) Pennington 

Bay, Cape du Couedic (Nov.). 
Z. ammophilitm, F. v. M. — (Tepper) Coast hills, Karatta ; K.I, (R. S. R.). 
|x?Z. prismatotheemn, F. v. M. — ( R. S. R., so identified by J. H. Maiden. Black 

gives this species for Leigh's Creek to Marree onlv) ('ape du Couedic 

Oct., 1908) J. 

65. RUTACKAE. 

Zicria veronicea, F. v. M.— ( R, T.) K.l. in FL Austr.. between American 
River and D'Estrees Bay. 

Boronia Edzjardsii, Benth.— (R. T.) De Mole River; (Tepper) head of 
S.VV. River; (R. S. FO Stokes' Bay, Western River, Snug Cove (Oct., 
1908) ; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 

B. carrulescens, F. v. M. — (R. T.) Between American River and D'Estrees 
Bav. 
xfl. polygalifolia, Sm.— (K. S. R.) Near Cape Borda (Sept., 1909). 

B. filifolia, F. v. M— ( R. T. ) K.I. (Waterhouse). D'Estrees Bay, Hawk's 
Nest and Mount Pleasant to Stun' Sail Boom River, Dudley Peninsula 
(T. Willson), De Mole River; (R. S. R.) Kingscote (Sept., 1908), 
Cape du Couedic (Oct., 1908), S.W. River; (J. B. C.) between Kings- 
cote and Vivonne Bay; (T. G. B. O. ) Flinders Chase, on ironstone 
tablelands (Nov.). 

B. palustris, Maid, et Black.— (R. T. as B. parvi flora, probably), De Mole 

River, western part of K.J. in Black's Flora; (J. B. C.) in swamps, 
Breakneck River. 
Corrra aemula, (Lindl.) F. v. M.— (Tepper) Head of S.W. Jviver ; (J. B. C. ) 
on banks of Breakneck River over water; (T, G. B. O.) banks of 
Rocky River in dense scrub (Nov.). 

C. alba, Andr. — (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Dudley Peninsula. Kingscote 

(coll. R. S. Rogers), Cygnet River, Western Cove to American River; 
nR- S. R.) Cape du Couedic (Oct., 1908). 
C. rubra, Sm. — (R. T. as C. speciosa) Cygnet River, between Rirchmore's and 

White's Lagoons, Fleanor, Harriet, and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers, Mount 

Marv, De Mole River ; (Tepper) Queenscliff to American Beach ; 

(R. S. R.) Harvey's Return (Oct.. 1908). Rocky River; (J. B. C.) Cape 

du Couedic. 
C. rubra, var. glabra, B.etith. — (Tepper) Queenscliff; (R. S. R.) Middle River, 

Stokes' Bay (Oct., 1908), Western River, Parrot Paddock, Ravine des 

Casoars. Rocky River; (J. B. C.) Kingscote; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders 

Chase. Vivonne Bay (Oct.). 



44 

C. dccumbens, F. v. M.— (R. T.) K.I. (Watcrhouse) ; (J. B. C.) Breakneck- 
River, Vivonne Bay. 
Astcrolasia muricata, T- M, Black.— On Kingscote road, near Mount Thisbe 

(coll. H. Griffith). 
Eriostemon brcvifolius, A. Cunn. — (R. T, as il. difformis) De Mole River; 

(R. S. R. as £, difformis) Stokes Bay, Middle River (Oct., 1908), 

Western River; (J. B. C.) near Vivonne Bay. 
Phebalium pnngens, (Lindl.) Benth.— De Mole River (coll. H. Griffith). 
Microcybe pauciflora, Turcz. — (R. T. as Erlostcmon capitatus) D'Estrees 

Bay, between Mount Pleasant and Eleanor River; (J. B. C. ) between 

Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 
Ccijcra linearifolia, (DC.) Black.— (R. T. as G. parviflora) Kingscote, fev 

of Shoals. 

66. TuEMANDRACEAE. 

Teiratheca ericifolia, Sm. — (R. T.) K.L (Heuzenroeder) ; (R. S. R.) Stokes' 
Bay, Middle River (Oct., 1908), Western River, Snug Cove; (J. R. C ) 
Rocky River (also a scabrous form as mentioned by Bentham) ; 
(T. G. B. O.) Elindcrs Chase, uncommon on ironstone tablelands (Nov.). 

T. halmaturina, j. M. Black.— Cape Cassini (coll. H. Griffith); (J. B. C) 
between Vivonne Bay and Rocky River, Rocky River. 

67. POLYGALACEAE. 

Comespcrma volubile, Labill.— (R. T") South parts of Dudley Peninsula. 

Western Cove, Kingscote, Salt Lagoon; (J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). 

Kingscote. 
C. calymega, Labill.— (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), Central Dudley Peninsula, 

near D'Estrees Bay; (J. B. C.) Rocky River, between Kingscote and 

Vivonne Bay (Nov.). 
C. polygaloides, F. v. M.— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse). 

68. EUPHORIUACEAE. 

Phyllanthus australis, Hook. f. — (R. T.) White's Lagoon, Eleanor River; 

(J. B. C.) Rocky River, between Kingcote and Vivonne Hay. 
P. thymoides, Sieb. — (R. T.) Central Dudley Peninsula (not given for S.A. 

in Black's Flora). 
*iEuphorbia pephts, L. — (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 

Adriana Klotzschii, (F. v. M.) Muell. Arg.— (R. T. as A. quadripartita) 

K.L (Waterhouse), Hog Bay River, Mount Mary; (J. B. C.) Middle 

River, Rocky River, between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 
Poranthcra microphylla, Brongn. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula, American 

River; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
P. ericoides, Klotzsch. — (R. T.) D'Estrees Bay, White's Lagoon, between 

Mount Pleasant and Eleanor River; (R. S. R.) Harvey's Return (Oct.. 

1908), Parrot Paddock; (J. B. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 
Micranthemum demissum, F. v. M., var. microphyllum, Griming. — Snug Cove 

(in Black's Flora), Tate's record of M. hcxandrum, between Harriet 

and Eleanor Rivers, is this species ; (J. B. C.) Rocky River ; (T. G. B. O.) 

ironstone tablelands near Timber Creek (Oct.). 
Beycria Lcschcnaultii, (DC.) Baill. — (R. T. B. opaca refers probably to this 

species on the Island) Common on sandy and stony heath ground,. 

bushy places and by the sea coast; K.I. (in Black's Flora) ; (J. B. C.) 

Vivonne Bay, between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay, Rocky River, Bay 

of Shoals. 
B. subtccia, j. M. Black.— Cygnet River (in Black's Flora). 



45 

Bcrtya rotundifolia, F. v. M. — (R. T.) Cygnet River (Waterhouse), Kings- 
cote to American River and Stun Sail Room River; (J. B. C ) Lower 
Cygnet River, Vivonne Bay; (R. S. R.) Stokes' Bay and Middle River 
(Oct... 1908), Western River. 

70. Stackttousiaceae. 

Stackhousia monogyna, Labill. — (R. T. as S. linariifolia. Records of S. flava 
are probably also this species) Kingscote, Eleanor River, near D'Estrees 
Bay (as var. ?). De Mole River (as S. flava); (R. S. R.) Harvey's 
Return, Middle River, Stokes' Bay; (J. B. C) Cape du Couedic, Rocky 
River, between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 

S. spallntluta, Sieb. — (Tepper) Cape du Couedic (coll. A. Molineux) ; 
(J. B. Ci) Cape du Couedic, Rocky River. 

71. Sapindaceae. 

Dodonaea z'iscosa, L. — (R. T.) K.l. (Sealey, Waterhouse). See under 
D. attcnuata; (R. S. R.) Kingscote. 

D. attenuata, A. Cunn. — (R. T. D. viscosa, chiefly in the form attcnuata) 
Kingscote, Western Cove, American River, Hog Bay River, American 
Beach, in thickets in the elevated parts of the interior as between 
Birchmore's and White's Lagoons, along the banks of the south-western 
rivers and North Dudley Peninsula; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) 
Kingscote; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase, damp places near Rocky River. 

I). Baucri, End. — (R. T. ) About Kingscote to Emu Creek, American River; 
(J. B. C.) Kingscote. 

I), bursariifolia, Behr. et F. v. M— (Tepper) Ravine des Casoars. 

1). humilis, End. — (R. T.) Near D'Estrees Bay, Eleanor River, Hog Bay 
River to Rocky Point, American Beach; (j. H. M.) Cape du Couedic 
(coll. R. S. Rogers); (R. S. R.) Cape du Couedic (Sept., 1908); 
(J. B. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne Ray. Rockv River. 

72. RlTAMNACEAE. 

Pomaderris haUnahirina, j. M. Black. — (J. M. B.) Cygnet River and Hog 
Bay River; (R. T. as P. apetala, obviously this species) K.l. (Water- 
house). 

P. raccmosa, Hook. — (R. T.) About American River and Mount Mary, near 
Rocky Point, American Beach; var., shady banks of the Cygnet River, 
gorge of the Hog Bay River and Deep Creek, Dudley Peninsula. 

P. obcordata, Fenzl. — (R. T.) Sand-dunes, Mount Mary, between American 
Beach and Salt Lagoon, Dudley Peninsula; (R. S, R.) Timber Creek, 
Mount Pleasant (Oct., 1908), Parrot Paddock; (J. B. C.) Cape du 
Couedic. 

Trymalium Wayi, F. v. M. et Tate. — Near Kingscote (coll. H. Griffith). 

Spyridiitm spathidatum, F. v. M. — (R. T. as S. spathitlatum) K.L (Water- 
house), Kingscote, American River, etc., to Stun' Sail Boom River, 
Central Dudley Peninsula; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) Vivonne 
Bay road. 

S. thymifolium, Reiss. — (R. T. as S. obovatum) Forest on the Stun' Sail 
Boom River; (Tepper as Spyridiitm pomaderroides, Reiss. (?), and 
S. coactilifolhim), F. v. M., which, teste Tate, are Cryptandra obovata, 
i.e., S. thymifolium) Grassy Creek, scrub west of Harriet River. 

S. vexilliferum, (Hook.) Reiss. — (R. T. as S. vexilliferum) American River, 
Kingscote, De Mole River; (J. II. M.) Hog Bay (from J. M. Black), 
Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers), Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers) ; 
(R. S. R.) De Mole River, Rocky River. 



46 

S. fcxillifcntuu var. latifoliitm, Bcnth — (J. B. C.) Several places on overland 
telegraph line to Cape Borda. 

S. phylicoides, Reiss. — (J. R. C.) Vivonne Bay road, Rockv River. 

S. crioccphahtm, Fenzl — (J. H. M.) Hog Bay (from J. M. Black). 

S, crwcephalmn, var. qlabrisepalmn, |. M, Black. — Cvgnet River (coll IT. 
Griffith). 

S. halmaturinum, f. v. M.— (R. T.) K.L (Sealey), Freestone Hill Ra. 
(Waterhouse), Western Cove to American River and D'Estrees Bay. 
Cygnet River to the south-west coast, near Rockv River, Dudley Penin- 
sula; (R. S. IV) S.W. River; (J. B. C. ) Vivonne Bay. Rocky River, 
near Cape Borda. 

S. iialmatnrhuim, var. scabridum, (Tate) J. M. Black. — Between Kingscote 
and Karatta (coll. Mrs. Ayliffe), near Cape Borda (coll. S. A. White 
and IT. Griffith) ; (Tapper as Spyridium hi fid win, F. v. M.. which, teste 
Tate, is Cryptandra scabrida, i.e., S. hahnahirinum, var. scabridum) 
Karatta; (J. B. C. ) near Cape Borda. 

S. halmaturinmn, var. intcgrifolium, ]. M. Black. — Near 'Harvey's Return 
(coll. IT. Griffith) ; (J. B. C.) Cape Borda (March). 

Cryptandra hispiduhi, Reiss. — (Tepper) Diggers' Camp, scruh south-west of 
Kinch's. Cygnet River (as C. amtara. which, teste Tate, is C. hispidula) ; 
(J. R. C.) telegraph line 20 miles east of Cape Borda (March), creek 
near Ravine des Casoars. 

C. leucophracta, Schlecht. — (R. T. as Spyridium Icucophractum) K.T.( Water- 
house), towards the Eleanor River. 

C, Waterhousci, F. v. M. — (R. T. as Spyridium Watcrhousci) At the foot 
of the Freestone 1 J ill Range ( Waterhouse), American River, White's 
Lagoon, thence to the forest of sugar-gum trees at Karatta, Central 
Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; (J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay road, near 
Cape Borda; (R. S. R.) Kingscote. Middle River, Stokes' Bay. 

74. Malvaceae. 

Lavatcra plcbcja, Sims. — ( R. T.) Hog Bay River; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
*Malva rotundifolia, L.— Tate records M. rotund if alia, as introduced, for 

Dudley Peninsula. ( This is an error of very long standing for *jV£. 

parvifolia, P., or *M. nicacensis. All. — j. M. B.) 
Plagianthus spicatus, (Hook.) Benth.— (R. T. ) Salt Lagoon, Emu Creek, 

between Kingscote and Cygnet River; (J. B. C. ) Curly Creek on Vivonne 

Bay road, Rocky River, Bay of Shoals, Pennington Bay, American River. 

75. Sterculiaceae. 

Lasiopctahwi discolor, Hook. — (R. T. ) K.L (Waterhouse), near Kingscote; 
(J. B. C.) Cape du Couedic (Nov.) ; (R. S. R.) Cape du Couedic. 
Ravine des Casoars; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase. 

L. Bchrii, F. v. M.— (R. T. ) K.L (Waterhouse) ; (R. S. R.) Kingscote. 

L. Baucri, Steetz. — (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Dudley Peninsula and west- 
ward to Kingscote and Stun 7 Sail Boom" River; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay; 
(J. B. C.) Kingscote (Nov.) ; ('J'. G. B. ().) between Kingscote and 
Vivonne Bay. 

L, Schulzcnii, F. v. M.— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), near Rocky Point, at 
American Beach, American River, and elsewhere near the coast, rarely 
in the interior parts, De Mole River; (R. S. R.) Kingscote. Western 
River, Timber Creek, near Karatta, Harvey's Return; (J. B. C. ) Kings- 
cote (Nov.), between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay; (T. G. B. O. ) 
Minders Chase. 



47 

Thomasia pctalocalyx, F. v. M. — (R. TV) K.T. (Waterhouse .). American 
River, near D'Estrees Bay, Harriet, Eleanor and Stun' Sail Room Rivers, 
Cygnet River, towards Freestone Hill Ra., De Mole River ;(]* B. C. ) 
Kingscote. l)etween Kingscote and Vivonne Hay (Nov.) ; (T. G. B. ().) 
Flinders Chase. 

76. DlLLENJACKAE. 

Hibbcriia scricea, ( R. Br.) Bentli. — ( R. T, as H. dcnsiflora ; see under 
//. virgata, var. crassifolia) Near American River; ( R. S. R. ) Cape du 
Couedic (Oct., 1908), Parrot Paddock, Rocky River. Sandy Creek; 
( 1. 11 C-> Rocky River. 

//. scricea, var. major, J. M. Black.— (J. M. B. ) K.L 

11. scricea, var. scabrifolia, \. M. Black.— Cape Borda (coll. H. Griffith); 
(J. B. C.) Rocky River! 

//. stricta, R. Br. — (R. T;) Common on sandy and stony heath ground, De 
Mole River; (J. Id, M.) Hog Bay. Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers;) 
(J. B. C.) Kingscote, Vivonne Bay road, Rocky River. 

H. stricta, var. glabriiiscula, Benth. — (J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay road. 

11, stricta, var. oblonga, J. M. Black— (J. M. B.) Ravine Creek. 

If. Billardicri, F. v. M.--(R. T.) Not uncommon on sandy heath ground. 
De Mole River; (R. S. R.) S.W. River, De Mole River, Harvey's 
Return, Western River (Oct., 1908); (J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay road. 

Rocky Rvra\ 
II, virgata, R. Br. — (Tepper) Karatta ; (R. S. R.) Harvey's Return (Oct., 

1908), Parrot Paddock. 
11. virgata, var. crassifolia, (Benth.) J. M. Black. American River (in Tate 

Herb, as U H. densiflora vel stricta'). 
H. fasciciilata, R. Br.— (R. T, as H. fascicularis) Wet heath ground three 

miles east of Karatta, Harriet River; (R. S. R.) De Mole River (Oct., 

1908); (J. B. C.) in grassy glade on bank of Rocky River, telegraph 

line 20 miles from Cape Borda. 

77. GUTTl FERAE. 

Hypericum gramincmn, Forst £- — (I*- T -> probably, as II. japonicwm) 
Among rocks on the upland country about American Beach; K.E (in 
Black's Flora) ; (Wood Jones) Rocky River. 

79. Fkankeniaceae. 

Prankenia paitciflora, DC — (R. T. as P. lacvis) Bay of Shoals, Nepean Bay, 
Flour-cask Bay. Pelican Lagoon ; (J. H. M.) Cape du Couedic (coll. 
R. S. Rogers); (J, B. C.) mouth of Cygnet River, Middle River. 

80. VlOLACEAE. 

Viola hedcracca, Labill.— (R. IV) K.J. (Waterhouse), De Mole River; 
(R. S. R.) Ravine des Casoars ; (J. B. C.) Cape du Couedic, Rocky- 
River. 
xF, Sicbcriana, Spreng. — (j. B. C.) Rocky River. 

81. TlTYMELAEACEAE. 

Pimclea glauca, R. Br.— (Tepper) Coast hills, Karatta; (J. H. M.) Cape 

Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers), Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers); 

(J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay road, Rocky River. 
P. stricta, Meisn.— (R. T.) K.L (Heuzenroeder) ; (R. S. R.) Stokes* Ray 

Middle River, S.W. River. 
P. spathidata, Labill. — (R. TV) Near American River, Kingscote (coll. R. S. 

Rogers), Dudley Peninsula. De Mole River. 



48 

P. macrostcgia, (Benth.) J. M. Black,— (J. M. B.) K.I.; (R. T. has P. 
ligiistrina) Sandy scrub, K.L (Waterhouse), Hawk's Nest, Eleanor 
River, De Mole River; (R. S. R.) S.W. River, Ritta's Lagoon; (J. B. C.) 
Vivonne Bay road. 

[P. microccphala, R. Br.— ( R. T.) K.L (R. Brown).' In spite of R. Brown's 
record its occurrence seems doubtful. In Black's Flora the species is 
given for Murray lauds and north thereof.] 

P. flava, R. Br.— (R T.) Near American River (Waterhouse), Mount 
Pleasant to the Eleanor River, Central Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; 
(J. B. C.) Rockv River; (R. S. R.) Middle River, Western River, 
Sandy Creek; (T. G. B. O.) Harriet River (Oct.). 

P. serpyllifolia, R. Br. — (R. T.) Kingscote (coll. R. S. Rogers), between 
American River and D'Estrees Bay, Vivonne Bay, coast tracts of Dudley 
Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Kingscote, between Vivonne Bay and Rocky 
River. Middle River; (R. S. R.) Ravine des Casoars. 

P. curvi flora, R. Br.— (R. T.) Hog Bay River. 

P. ociophylla, R. Br.— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Cygnet River, Redbauks 
to American River and D'Estrees Bay and along the south coast, De 
Mole River; (R. S. R.) Stokes' Bay, Middle River, Sandy Creek; 
(J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay Road; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase (Nov.). 

P . phylicoides, Meisn. — (R. T.) Between American River and D'Estrees Bay. 
De Mole River; (J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay road, Rocky River. 
&2. Lythraceak. 

xLythritm Hyssopifolia, L. — (J. B. C.) Lower Cygnet River. 

83. MVRTACEAE. 

Bacckea ramosissima, A. Cunn. — (Tepper as B. diffusa, Sieb.) Dudlev 
Peninsula; (R. T. as B. diffusa) De Mole River; (J. B. C.) Rocky 
River; (R. S. R.) Harvey's Return, Western River. 

B. cricaea, F. v. M. — (R. T. as B. crassifolia, probably really B. ericaea) 
K.L (Waterhouse). 

Lcptospermum coriaceum, (F. v. M.) Cheek— (R. T. as L. laevigalum) 
K.L (Fragm. Phyt.) ; (Tepper as L. erubescens, which, teste Tate, 
is L. laevigatum, i.e., L. coriaceum) head of S.W. River. 

L. scopariitm, Forst. et L — (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), common on the 
wet sandy heaths of the main mass of the Island, De Mole River ; 
(J. B. C.) between Vivonne Bay and Rocky River, telegraph line to 
Cape Borda. 

L. pubescens, Lamk. — (R. T. as L. lanigcrum) Margins of the south-western 
rivers; (J. B. C.) between Vivonne Bay and Rocky River, Stun' Sail 
Boom River, Rocky River, Squashy Creek (27 miles east of Cape 
Borda), widespread in marshes. 

L. myrsinoides, Schk— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Stun' Sail Boom River; 
(J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay road. 

Kunzea pomifera, F. v. M. — (R. T.) Sandhills, Vivonne Bay; (J. B. C. ) 
Pennington Bay, between Vivonne Bay and Rocky River. 

Cailistemon rugidosus, DC. — (R. T. as C. coccineiis) K.L (in Fl. Austr.), 
claypans throughout the Island, Hog Bay River, Central Dudley Penin- 
sula; (J. II. M. as Cm coccineus) Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) Bay of Shoals, 
Middle River, Vivonne Bay road, widely spread; (T. G. B. O.) Rocky 
River (Nov.). 

Melaleuca gibbosa, Labill.— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Common on heathy 
ground and around claypans; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay. Cape du Couedic 
(coll. R. S. Rogers); (J. B. C.) near Vivonne Bay; (R. S. R.) 
Kingscote. 



49 

M. dccussata, R. Br., var. ovoidea, J. M. Black. — (Tepper, probably, as 

M, dccussata) Mount Tisbet; (J. B. C.) widespread on barren hills, 
M. squarrosa, Donn.— (R. TO K.L (R. Brown); (J. H. M.) Kingscote. 
M. acuminata, F. v. M.— (R. T.) K.L (R. Brown, Waterhouse), Kings- 

cote, common throughout Dudley Peninsula. 
M. halmaturorum, F. v. "M.— (R. T. as M. pustulata) K.L (Waterhouse), 
generally distributed in salt swamps and by the. sea., Murray's Lagoon, 
about Mount Pleasant; (J, B. C) near salt water, widely distributed. 
Af. squamea, Labill. var. glabra, Cheel. — (Tepper as L. squamea, Labill) 
S.W. River; (J. B. CO in swamps, Tin Hut and Squashy Creek (on 
telegraph line to Cape Borda), Rocky River. 
M, pubescens, Schau.— (R. T. as M. parviflora) K.L (Waterhouse), Kings- 
cote to the Freestone Hill Ra., Mount Mary, common throughout Dudley 
Peninsula; (Tepper as M. ericifolia, Smith, which, teste Tate, is 
M. parviflora) Kingscote, Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers) ; 
(I. B.C.) widely distributed, known as "Black Tea-Tree," Kingscote, 
Vivonne Bay road, etc. 
M. uueinata, R. Br.— (R. IV) K.I. (Waterhouse), the chief constituent of 
the sandy heath ground, Central Dudley Peninsula; (J. H. MO Hog 
Bay; (J, B. C.) abundant along the Vivonne Bay road, but not extending 
far along the telegraph line to Cape Borda. 
M. fasciadiflora, Benin.— (J, B. C.) Prostrate shrubs a few inches high on 
exposed slopes at Cape du Couedic and Cape Borda, 5 feet high and 
upright between Rocky and Breakneck Rivers. 
[M. cylindrical reported by Tate for "K.L, R. Brown," is an error as to 

locality, vide Black's Flora. | 
Eucalyptus oblique L'Herit— (R. T.) Dividing ridge between Birchmore s 
Lagoon and Mount Pleasant, De Mole River; (J. B. C.) Tin Hut 
(telegraph line to Cape Borda). 
E. diversifoha, Bonpl— (R. T. as E. santalifolia) K.L (R. Br.), chiefly near 
the coast around Dudley Peninsula, Cygnet River, American River, White 
Lagoon; (J. B. CO between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay, Rocky River 
(also as a small fruited form with clean stems on hills). 
E Baxteri, (Benth.) Maiden et Blakely.— (R. T. as E. capitcllata) Between 
Mount Pleasant and Stun' Sail Boom River, De Mole River; (J. B. C. ) 
telegraph line to Cape Borda, Rocky River. 
\E largiflorens, no author.— Cygnet River (Waterhouse), mentioned by late, 
cannot be the River Box of the Murray, E. largiflorens, F^v.M,, syn. 
E bicolor A Cunn. Perhaps it is E. fasciculosa (see Blacks Flora)]. 
E odorata, Behr et Schlecht— ( Tepper) Near Antechamber Bay. 
\E hemiphloia, K.L (R. Brown), The Wells, Western Cove, Nepean Bay, of 
Tate's List, is not likely to be E. microcarpa, Maid., syn. K hemiphloia, 
F. v. M., partly, of Black's Flora.] 
E leptophylla, F. v. M.— (Tepper as E. imcinata, Turcz.) Scrub west of the 

Harriet River; (R. S. RO Harriet River. Timber Creek. 
E cneorifolia, DC— (R. T.) K.L (R. Brown), northern and western parts 
of Dudley Peninsula and westward along the north coast to Smith s 
Bay (T B C ) near Kingscote to 24 miles on Vivonne Bay road, to 
American River, and to about 10 miles on the Middle Bay road at 
Wishanger. 
E. oleosa, F. v. M.— K.L (in Black's Flora). 

E cladocalyx, F. v. M.— (R. T. a& E. corynocalyx) Freestone Hill Ka., 
American River, chief constituent of the forest growth on the Cygnet 
Eleanor and other rivers, De Mole River; (J. B. C) widely distributed 
on better land. 



50 

E. cosmophylla, F. v. M.— (R. T.) KM. (Waterhouse), a chief constituent 

of the scrub on stony ground, from the Cygnet River to American Rivcr 

and Stun' Sail Boom River, De Mole River; (R. S. R.) Harriet River. 

Timber Creek; (J. B. C.) widely distributed. 
H. rostrata, SchL— (R. T.) Cygnet River (Waterhouse, Tate), Discovers 

Flat; (J. B, C.) Lower Cygnet River. 
E. viminalis, Labill.— (R. T.) K.I. (R. Brown), Cygnet River among 

E. corynocalyx; (J. B. C.) Rocky River, Cygnet River. 
E. angulosa, Schau— (R. T. as E. incrassaia, probably in part; see under 

E, dumosa); (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
E. couglobata, (R. Br.) Maiden, var. anceps, (R. Br.) Maiden.— {K. T., 

E. imrussafa, probably in part; see under E. dumosa) ; (j.B. C ) 

Rocky River. 

E. dumosa, A. Cunn. — (R. T. as E. incrassala, chiefly) K.L (Baudin's 
Exped.), Freestone Hill Ra., Bay of Shoals, American River, Eleanor 
River. The varietal form dumosa constituted the chief mass of the 
mallee scrub throughout the Island; (J. B. C.) Cygnet River. 
E, claeophora, F. v. M.— (Tepper as E. goniocal\.\\ F. v. MA Hog Bav 
River; K.l. (in Black's Flora). ^ " " 

E. ovata, Labill.— K.l. (in Black's Flora) ; (J.B. C.) on flats, Rocky River. 
E. latcoxylon, F. v. M.— ( R. T.) Western and southern parts of Dudley 
Peninsula, Twelve-tree Flat between Bay of Shoals and Cygnet River, 
banks of Cygnet, Eleanor, and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers (probably 
var. maerocarpa included) ; (J. B. C.) Eleanor River, Stun' Sail Boom 
River (probably var. macrocarpa included). 
E. leucoxylon, var. macrocarpa, J. E. Brown.— K.L (in Black's Flora). 
E. calycogoua, Turcz.— (R. T. as E. gracilis, probably) Stony heath ground 

from Mount Pleasant to Stun' Sail Boom River. 
B. faseiculosa, F. v. M.— (R. T. as E. panicidaia) Banks of the Cygnet 

River (Waterhouse); (j. B. C.) Rocky River. 
[E. Sieberiana, F. v. M., recorded by Tepper for Harvev's Return and in 
Tate's Census for K.L and the south-east of S.A., may be E. viirca, 
R. T. Baker. The locality (Harvey's Return) will" hardlv fit R. 
aicorifolia.] 
Darwinia micropctala, (F. v. M.) Benth.— (R. T.) K.I. (Bannier) ; (J. B. C. ) 
Vivonne Bay, Rocky River, telegraph line to Cape Borda ; (R. S. R.) 
Timber Creek. 
Micromyrhts ciliata, (Sm.) J. M. Black— (R, T. as Thryptomcur ciliata) 
De Mole River. / 

Thryptomenc cricaca, F. v. M,— {11, T.) K.I. (Bannier, Waterhouse), heath 
near Kingscote and American River; (J. B. C.) Vivonne Bay road; 
(R. S. R.) Ritta's Lagoon, Timber Creek. 
Calythrix teiragona, Labill.— (R. T.) K.L (in Fl. Austr.), Kingscote. Bav 
of Shoals, American River, Mount Pleasant to Karatta, Hog Bay River"; 
(Tepper as Calycothrix sp. or var., which, teste Tate, is not distinct from 
C. tetragona except by its smaller pubescent leaves) west of Western 
River; (J. H. M.) Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers); (J. B. C) Cape 
Borda, Vivonne Bay, widely distributed; (R. S. R.) Stokes' Bay, 
Harvey's Return, Middle River, Western River. 
Lhotskya glabcrrmia, F. v. M. — (R. T.) K.L (Bannier), sandy heath ground 
near D'Estrees Bay and from Mount Pleasant to Karatta; (J. B. C. ) 
Vivonne Bay road, Vivonne Bay; (R. S. R. ) Kingscote. 



51 

/ glabcrrlma, var. maqniscpala, ]. M. Black.— Middle and western end of 
' K.l. (Blacks Flora); (J. B, Cj near Cape Borda (March), Vivonnc 

Hay road; (T. (J. B. O. ) Flinders Chase, sandy soil on road to Cape du 

Couedic (Nov.). 
L. Smcaioniana, F. v. M. — (Tepper) Karatta. 

84. Oejnotitkraceak. 

*x()enotfiera, probably O. odoraia, jacq.— (J. B. C. ) Rocky River. 
xBpUobium junceitm, Sol. — (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
E. glabellum, Forst.— (R. 1\, probably as 1L tctragomtm) Inundated ground 
throughout Dudley Peninsula, Discovery Flat, Cygnet River, Hawk's 
Nest, American River; K.L (in Black's Flora) ; (T. G. R. O.) Flinders 
Chase, by waterhole in Rocky River (Oct.). 

85. Halorrttac.idaceae. 

Loudonia Behrii, Schlecht.— (R. T.) K.L ( YYaterhouse). American River to 

Karatta, De Mole River; (R. S. R.) Kingscote, Middle River; (Tepper) 

Karatta (15/11/86); (J. B. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay, 

along telegraph line to Cape Borda, Rocky River. 

[L, aurca, Lindl. — (Tepper) Banks of a lagoon south of the head of the 

SAW 'River, head of Cygnet River to Karatta (4/3/86). Not given for 

K.L in Black's Flora.]" 
Hahrrhagis tetragvna, (Labill.) Hook. L— (R. T.) Discovery Flat; (J. B. C.) 

Rockv River; (T. G. B. O.) Harriet River. 
H tciicrioides, DC. — (R. T.) Kingscote to D'Estrees Bay and Eleanor River, 

Central Dudlev Peninsula, De Mole River; (j. H. M. ) Cape Borda 

(coll. R. S. Rogers); (j. R. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay, 

Lake Ada. 
H, teucrioides, var. mcziaua, (Schind.) J. M. Black.— K.L (in Black's Flora). 
H. micraniha, (Thunb.) R. Br.— i j. R. C) Squashy Creek (telegraph line to 

Cape Borda). 
H. data, A. Cunn.— In Tate's Census; ? (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
xli. hcicrophvlla, Brongn.— (J. B. C.) Rocky River, 
PL mucronata, (Nees) Benth.— (R. T.) K.L (R. Brown). 
H. Brownii, (Hook, f.) Schindl.— K.L (in Black's Flora); (J, B. Cj 

Squashv Creek (27 miles east of Cape Borda). 
H, acutangida, K. v. M.— (J. B. C.) Tn sandhills, Rocky River. 
Myriophylhnu amphibiitm, Lab.— ( 1- B. C.) Creek near Ravine des Casoars 

(March, 1926). 
M. propinquum, — (R. T. as M. variifolium) Eleanor and Stun' Sad Boom 

Rivers; (J. B. C. ) Rocky River, Squashy Creek (27 miles east of Cape 

Borda). 
M. elaiinoides, Gaud.— (R. T.) Cygnet River; (T. C. B. O.) Flinders Chase, 

waterhole in Rocky River (Nov.). 
M. iMueUcri, Soud.™ (Tepper) Stun' Sail Boom River (Oct., 1886); 
(J. B. CO Lower Cygnet River; (T. G. B. 0-) fresh-water swamp near 

Harriet River (Nov.). 

Umreeetferae. 

Centella astatic a, .(L.) Urb. — (R. T. as Hydrocotyle asiatica) Cygnet and 
Eleanor Rivers. 
xXanthasia pifsilla, Bunge.— (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
X. dissecta, Hook. f.— (R. T. ) K.L (in FI. Austr.), near American River, 
Eleanor River; (Tepper) Mount Pleasant to Birchmore's Lagoon 
(8/11/86), Ravine des Casoars (28/2/86) ; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 



52 



Hydrocotyklaxiflm-a, DC.-(R. T.) Under Eucalyptus leuco.vylon m the 
gorge ot the Hog Bay River, ' 

//. Mrta, R • Br.-(R T.) 'lockets, White Gum Valley. Dudley Peuinsula. 

H. comocarpa, P. v. M — (Tepper) KI 

H. tnpartita R. Br.-(R T.) Cygnet, Eleanor and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers 

H. caWarpa, Bunge (R T.) Mossy banks in gullies, under shade of 
thickets and wet heath ground. Central Dudley Peninsula; (Tepper) 
Karatta (15/11/86); (1. B. C.) Rocky River P1 

H. crassiuscula P. v. M-(R. T.) Heath ground, Central Dudley Peninsula- 
(J. ii. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). 

//. capillaris F. v. M.-(R. T.) K.I. (in PI. Austr.), wet banks of creeks. 
Dudley enmsula, on burnt heath ground, Central Dudley Peninsula 

H. diantha, DC— (leppcr) Karatta (9/11/86) 

Peninff^' (DC) F " *' M '^ (R - T/) Xear Rock T Poi <^ D "dley 
Lilaeop.m ausiralica (P. v. M.) A. W. Hi!l._(R. T. as CrantrJa tineaia) 

Harriet River, Cygnet and Eleanor Rivers 
Eryngmm rostratum, Cav.— K.I. (in Black's Flora) 
h. vesiculosum , LabiH.-(R T.) Birchrnore's Lagoon, Hawk's Nest, Eleanor 

and Stun Sail Boom Rivers; (Tepper) Karatta (5/3/86) 
Daucus gloehuhatus , (LabiU.) Fisch.-(R. T. as D. brachials) Emu Creek, 

Kmgscote, Dc Mole River, Western Cove, American River, throughout 
»_ ,P"dley Peninsula; (Tepper) Karatta (16/11/86) 
*lonhs nodosa, (L.) Gaertn.— K.l. (in Black's Flora) 
rrachymene heterophils, F v. M.-(R. T.) Between' American River and 

D Estrees Bay, \Mute Lagoon, Eleanor River; (J, B. C. ) Cape Borda. 
Apmm australe, Pet.- fhou.-(R. T. as A. prostratum) Salt Lagoon, Bav of 

Shoals, etc., seachffs on the south coast. Cygnet, Eleanor, and other 

uvers, throughout Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; (I H M) Ho«- 

n 7 r C R Wf^ Ka / Et ^ .( 15 /1V86); (j. B. C.) Middle River" 
(l. O-. B. U.) tape du Couedic. 

^Foeniculum vulgare, Mill— (J. B. C) Ray of Shoals. 

87. Epacridaceae. 

Styphelia exarrhena, V. v. M., var. hirtella, J. M. Black.— (Tepper as 
Styphelia hirtella) Scrub lands, Mount Pleasant. 

Astrolonm hitmifusum, (Cav.) R. Br.— (R. T. as Styphelia humifusa) KI 
(in >i. Auatr.), common on heaths, sandhills at Mount Mary : (I B C ) 
Vivonne Bav. * 

A. conostephiotdes (Sond.) F. v. M.-(R. T. as Styphelia Sondcri) K.I. 

(m bl Austr.), heathy grounds at American River, Mount Pleasant. 

Eleanor River and Central Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River: (I H M ) 

Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers); (J. B. C.) K.L; (T. G.' b'o'i 

blinders Chase, m dense scrub (Oct. and Nov ) 
Lissanthe strigosa (Sm ) R .Br.-(R. T. as Styphelia strigosa) Mount 

PleaJan! ; ' ™ h& &eek ' St ° keS B ^' Mou,lt 

Leucopogon parviflons, (Andr.) Lindl.— (R. T. as L. Richei) KI (in Fl 

Austr.), sand-dunes, Nepean Bay, American River, Vivonne Bav 

American Beach ; (R. S. R. as L. Richei) Ravine des Casoars. 
.L. lanceolahis (Sm.) R. Br.— See remarks in Black's Flora on a small 

specimen from Rocky River, K.I., which may be this species. 
L. hirsutus, Sond.— (Tepper as Stvphelia hirsuta, F. v. M ) On the banks of 

swampy rivulets; K.T. (in Black's Flora). 



53 

L. costatus, F. v. M. — K.L (in Black's Flora). 

L. coneurvus, F. v. M. — (R. T. as Styphelia concurva) Stony heath ground, 

Harriet and American Rivers, stringy-bark scrubs near Birchmore's 

Lagoon, De Mole River; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase. 
L. riifiis, Lindl. — (R. T. as Styphelia rufa) K.I. (Sealey, Watcrhousc), 

sandy heath ground, near American River, Birchmore's Lagoon to Mount 

Pleasant and Karat la, Central Dudley Peninsula; (P. G. B. O.) Vivonne 

Bay (Oct.) 
L. Woodsii, F. v. M. — (Pepper as Styphelia Woodsi) Limestone hills west of 

Mount TisbeL 
L. Clelandii, Cheel. — Described from Coonalpyn (in flower). A specimen 

from K.L in fruit only appears to be the same species (Black's Flora). 
(Styphelia striata, Spreng. (L. stria-tits, R. Br.), is given by Pate for heaths 

about American River and from Mount Pleasant to Karatta. Jn his 

Flora he refers it to his W. District (west of Lake Torrens). Perhaps 

a confusion with L, cosfalus.) 
Acrotriche semdata, (Labill.) R. Br.— (Tepper as Styphelia serndata, Lab., 

var.) Head of South-western, etc.; (J. B. C.) Middle River. 
A. patula, R. Br. — (R. T. as Styphelia patula) K.L (in Fl. Austr.), Western 

Cove, stony ridge south of Rocky Point, Dudley Peninsula. 
A. cordata, (Labill.) R. Br. — (R. T. as Styphelia ovalifolia) Sand-dunes,. 

Vivonne Bay. 
A. depressa, R.Br. — (R. T. as Styphelia depressa) K.L (R. Brown), widely 

distributed, Dudley Peninsula, Kingscote, White Lagoon, etc; (J. B. C.) 

Bay of Shoals, telegraph line to Cape Borda, etc. ; (P. G. B. O.) Flinders 

Chase, in dense scrub. 
A. fasciculi flora* (Regel.) Rcnth. — (R. P.) De Mole River; (Pepper) 

Grassy Creek. 
Brachyloma ericoides, (Schlecht) Sond. — (R. T.) K.L (in Fl. Austr.), 

sandy heath ground between American River and D'Kstrees Bay. 
Epacris impressa, Labill. — (R. T,) De Mole River, S.W. River (coll. 

Tepper) ; (J. B. C.) near swamps in centre of the Island; (R. S. R. ) 

Middle River, Stokes' Bay, Western River, Rocky River, Snug Cove. 
Sprengelia incarnata, Sm. — (R. T.) S.W. River (coll. Tepper) ; (J. B. C.) 

Squashy Creek (27 miles east of Cape Borda) and other swamps along 

the telegraph line; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase, peaty swamp near 

boundary at Rocky River. 

88. Primulaceae. 

*Anagallis arvensis, L. — (R. T.) Dudlev Peninsula; (J. PI. M.) Hog Bay; 
(J. B. C) K.L 
*fil. femina, Mill.— (J. B. C.) Cygnet River. 

Samolus repens, (Forst.) Pers. — (R. T.) Cygnet River, Hay of Shoals, 
Murray's Lagoon, Eleanor River, Salt Lagoon, seaclirls at Hog Bay 
River, Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Middle River, clills at Cape du 
Couedic. 

91. LodANIACEAE. 

Mitrasacme paradoxa,Ii. Bt. — (R„ T.) Mossy banks and wet sandy heath 

ground, Dudlev Peninsula, De Mole River; (Pepper) Karatta 

(15/11/86). 
M. distylis, F. v. M, — (R. T. ) K.L (coll. Pepper, recorded by Baron von 

Mueller, Vict. Naturalist, 2-1889). 
Logania crassifolia, R. Br.— (R. P.) Seaclirls, D'Estrees Bay; (J. B. C.) 

Vivonne Bay, cliffs at Cape du Couedic. 



54 

I, ovata, IL Br.— (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse }, American River. White's 
Lagoon, Mount Pleasant to Karatta, between Rocky Point and Salt 
Lagoon, Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; (Tepper. ?L. crassifolia) 
Karatta (15/11/86), Ravine des Casoars ; (J. B. C.) Cygnet River, 
Rocky River, between Kingscote and Vivonne Pay; (R.' S. R. ) De 
Mole River. Middle River, Stokes' Bay. Ravine des' Casoars. 

L. iinifolia, Schlecht.- K.L (in Black's Flora). 

/,. insularis, J. M. Black,— Cape Borda (Oct.) (in Black's Flora) ; (J. B. C. ) 
Cape Borda. 

92. Gentianaceae. 

Scbaca ovata, R. Br. — (R. T.) K.L (Heuzeuroeder), Eleanor River. 
D'Estrees Bay, throughout Dudley Peninsula; (Tepper) Karatta 
(14/11/86); (J. II. M.) Cape du Couedic (coll. R S Rogers); 
(J. B. C.) Rocky River. 

Eryihraea australis, R. Br. — (J. H. M.) Hog Bay. 
*x£. Centaurhtm, Pers. — (]. B. C.) Rocky River. 

Villarsia exaltata, (Sims) F. v. M— (Tepper as Limnanihemum sp., pro- 
bably) Ravine des Casoars; (Tepper Herb.) Karatta (16/11/86). head 
of SAY. River (3/3/86); (J. B. C. ) Squashy Creek (27 miles east of 
Cape Borda), Rocky River; (T. G. B. (3.) Harriet River. Flinders 
Chase ( Breakneck River ) . 

93. Apocynaceae. 

Alyxia buxifolia, R, Br.— (R. T. ) Seacliffs, Bay of Shoals. Kingscote, 
Western River, American River; (J. H. M.') Kingscote; (L 13. C) 
Kingscote. Middle River. 

95. CoXVOLVULACEAE. 

Convolvulus erubescent, Sims. — (Tepper) Coast hills, Karatta (12/11/86), 
Bay of Shoals, Queenscliffe (20/11/86) ; (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 

Dkhondra re pens, Forst. et f.— (R. T.) Throughout Dudley Peninsula. Free- 
stone Hill Range, Kingscote. American River, Eleanor River; (Tepper) 
Karatta (15/11/86) ; (J. B. C.) Cygnet River. 

IVilsonia humiUs, R. Br,— {R. T.) Salt Lagoon by Pelican Lagoon. 

IV. rotuudifoHa, Hook.— (R. T. ) Bay of Shoals and Salt Lagoon. Murray's 
Lagoon. 

IV. Backhousei, Hook. f. — (R. T.) Margin of Salt Lagoon by Flour-cask 
Bay. 

96. BORRAGIXACEAE. 

Halgania lavandttlacea, Endl. — (Tepper) Head of the SAY. River to Ravine 
(28/11/86). 

Myosotis australis, R. Br. — (R. T.) Shady gullies and thickets throughout 
Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; (Tepper) Karatta (2/11/86). 
*Eithospcrmum arvense, L. — (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula. 
98. Labiatae. 

Ajuga australis, R. Br.— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Cygnet River, Hog 
Bay River. 

-Mamtbiitm vulgare, L.— (R. T. ") K.L; (J. H. M.) Kingscote; (J. B. C, ) 
Bay of Shoals. Pennington Bay. 
Scutellaria humilis, R. Br.— (R. T. ) K.L (R. Brown, Sealey), thickets on 
the sand-dunes at Hog Iky and American Beach, at Hog Bav River. 

Mopehawk Gully. 



$5 

Proslanihera spiriosa, F. v. M— (R. T„) Near Wallans Hut and Cygnet 
Ray (Waterhouse, in Frag. Phyt), bushy places. Cygnet and Stun' Sad 
Boom Rivers, etc., heath ground from Mount Pleasant to Karatta, De 
Mole River; (Tapper) Diggers' Camp (26/2/86), Karatta (Nov., 
1886), Cygnet River (28/2/86); (J. H. M.) Cape Borda (coll. R. S. 
Rogers; (|. B. C.) between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay; (R. S. R.) 
Ritta's Lagoon, Harvey's Return, Middle River; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders 
Chase, in dense scrub (28/10/24). 

P. aspalaihoidcs, A. Cunn. — (R. T. as P. cocciuea, see below) Sandy scrub 
(Waterhouse), common about Kingscote and American River, near 
Rocky Point, Dudley Peninsula; K.I. (in Black's Flora). 

P. microfhvUa, (R. Br.)" A. Cunn. — (R. T. as P. coccinca, see above) ; K.L 
(in Black's Flora). 

P., chlorantha, F. v. M.— (R. T.) Cygnet River (Waterhouse) ; (J. B. C.) 
between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay (Nov.). 

Wcstringia an gush 'folia, R. Br.— (R. T„ W. rigida, refers to this species 
or the following or both) Dudley Peninsula (T. Willson). 

IV. Dampieri, R. Br.— Coast of K.I. (in Black's Flora). 

99. SOLANACEAK. 

Solatium nigrum, P.— (j. H. M. ?) Kingscote; (J. B. C. ) Wishanger. 
S. simile, E. v. M. — (R. T.) K.I. (R. Brown), towards Kangaroo Head and 
Hog Bay River, Kingscote, American River, Eleanor River; (Miss 
Featherstone) MacGillivray (Sept.) ; (J. B. C.) Rocky River, Kingscote, 
Vivonne Bay road. 
*£ sodomaeiim, L.— (R. T.) K.L; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay. 
Lxciuni australc, F. v. M. — (J. II. M.) Kingscote. Hog Bay. 
*xL. fcrocissium, Miers. — (J. B. C. ) Kingscote, Beatrice Island. 
*xl)atnra Stramonium, L. — (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 

Nicoliana suaveolens, Lchm.— (R. t.) By the sea shore (Leschenault ). rocks 
by the sea. north and north-west coasts of Dudley Peninsula, gorge of 
the Hog Bay River. 
Anthoccrcis myosotidea, F. v. M— (R. T.) Wet sandy heath between Ameri- 
can River and ITFstrees Bay. 

100. SCROFHULARIACEAE. 

*xVerbascum virgatum, With. — (J. B- C.) Wishanger. 
*Cehca cretica, L. f.— (R. T.) K.L 
Mimidus rcpens, R. Br.— (R. T.) Hog Bay, Cygnet and Fleanor Rivers; 

(J. B. C.) Lower Cygnet River. 
Gratiola peruviana, L. — (R. T. ) K.L (Waterhouse), Cygnet and Stmr Sail 

Boom Rivers; (J. B. C.) Cygnet River, Rocky River. 
Limosella aquatica, L. — (R. T.) K.I. (R. Brown). 
Clossostiqma spathidalmn, Wight et Arm— Creeks and swamps, K.L (in 

Black's Flora). 
Veronica Derzventia, Anclr. — (Tepper) Ravine des Casoars ; (J. B. C.) 

Rocky River, Ravine des Casoars. 

V. distans, R. Br.— (R. T.) Sand-dunes and calciterous sandrock, Hog Bay 

River, Rocky Point, American River, Mount Mary; (Tepper Herb.) 
Eleanor River (18/11/86), Karatta coast hills (12/11/88), Mount 
Taylor (13/11/86), Cape du Couedic (coll. A. Molyneux ) (14/11/86) ; 
(].' B. C.) Vivonne Bay, Cape du Couedic (in bare, soil, sending out 
rooting runners), Rocky River. 
V. calyciua, R. Br. — (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse). 



56 

Euphrasia collina, R. Br.— (R. T. as E, Brownii) Seacliffs, D'Estrees Bay ; 
(Tepper Herb.) Karatta coast hills (12/11/86), cliffs. Cape du Couedic 
(Nov.); (T. G. B, O.) Flinders Chase. 

[Buechnera linearis, R. Br. ?— (J. Id. M.) In fruit only, doubtful in absence 
of flowers, Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers).] 
Lextirulariaceae. 

Utricularia dichotoma, Labill.— (Tepper) S.W. River, Karatta (17/11/86); 
(Tepper Herb.) head of Cygnet River (3/3/86); (J. B. C.) Break- 
neck River, Squashy Creek (27 miles east of Cape Borda). 

Polypompholyx tcnella, Lehm. — (R. T. ) Margin of runnels on heathy ground, 
Central Dudley Peninsula. 

106. Myoforaceae. 

Myoporum insularc, R. Br.— (R. T.) By the coast around Dudley Peninsula, 
Nepcan Ray, etc.; (J. H. M.) Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) common near the 
coast, between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay, Ravine des Casoars. 

M. viscosmn, R. Br.— (R. T.) K.I. (in Frag/Phyt.), Kingscote, American 
River, Cygnet, Eleanor and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers, sand-dunes at 
Mount Mary, common in the mallee scrub, Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) 
Kingscote; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase, in dense scrub by Rocky 
River, Harriet River. 

M. parvifolinm, R. Br.— (R. T.) Iiawk's Nest; (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 

Eremophila Behriana, F. v. M. — (R. T.) K.J. (Waterhouse), ' wet heath, 
D'Estrees Bay. 

E. glabra, (R. Br.) Osteal— (R. T. as E. Broivnii) K.I. (Waterhouse), 
common on heath and coast plains, rare in mallee scrub on the north coast 
of Dudley Peninsula; (R. S. R.) Kingscote; (J. B. C) Kingscote. 

107. Peantaginaceae. 

Plantago varia, R. Br.— (R. T.) KJ. (R. Brown as P. parviflora), 
(Waterhouse), Discovery Flat, Cygnet River, Eleanor River, Dudley 
Peninsula, De Mole River; (J. B.*C) Pennington Bay. 
•P, lanceolata, (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula; (J. B. C.) Cygnet River. 

108. Rubjaceae. 

xOpcrcularia scabrida, Schl. — (J. B. C.) Rocky River. 
O, hispida, Spr.— (J. H. M., determination doubtful, seeds like those of 

O, aspcraj Hog Bay. 
O. varia, Hook.— (R. T.) Central Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; 

{Tepper as O. ovata, J. Hook., which, teste Tate, is this species) 

Karatta; (J. B. C.) Lake Ada, Kingscote, Vivonne road. Rockv River. 
Asperitla Gunnii, Hook, f.— (R. T. as A, oligantha, F. V. M.) 

K.I. (coll. Tepper), the leaves four in a whorl' and broadly ovate; 

(J. B. C.) Rocky River (Nov.). Kingscote, Vivonne Bay road. 
A. scoparia, Hook. f. — K.I. (in Black's Flora). 
Galium iimbrosum, Sol. — (R. T.) Western Cove, American River, Dudley 

Peninsula. 
jG. umbrosum, Sol., var. niuriciilahtm, Benth.— (J. B. C) On tops of cliffs, 

Cape du Couedic; (R. T. as G. australe) Western Cove, Dudley 

Peninsula. 
G. Gaiidichaudii, DC— K.I, (in Black's Flora). 
G. australe, DC— (R. T.) K.I. (in Fl. Austr.). 
C, ciliare, Hook, f.— (J. B. C) Cape du Couedic. 
*xG t nuiralc, DC — (T. G. B. O.) Rocky River; (R. T. as G. umbrosum) 

Dudley Peninsula. 



57 

111. Dtpsaceae. 

*x$cabiosa maritima. — -(], B. C. ) Kingscote, 

113. Campanulaceae. 

Lobelia rhombifolia, De Vricse.— (Tepper) Karatta, plentiful on burnt 
ground; (R. S. R.) Kingscote (Sept., 1908), Middle River (Oct 
1908); (J. B. C) Kangaroo Island; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase, by 
Breakneck River (Nov.). 

L. gibbosa, Labill. — (R. T. as L, microspcrma, F. v. M.) K.J. (Waterhouse), 
Cygnet River to Mount Pleasant, etc., grassy slopes bv the sea, D'Estrees 
Bay; (J. H. M.) Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers). 

L. anceps, Thunb.— (R. T. ) K.L (Waterhouse), wet banks of Ho? Bay, 
Cygnet, Eleanor and other western rivers, seacliffs, Hog Bay River'; 
(J. B. C.) Cygnet River, Rocky River. 

L, pratioides, Benth. 

Pratia ptaty calyx, Benth.— (R. T.) Mud-banks of the Cygnet River. 

Wahlenbergia gracilis, DC— (R. T.) Cygnet River. American River, common 
throughout Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; (J. B. C. ) K.L 

114. GOODENIACEAE. 

Goodcnia ample xans, F. v. M., var. angusii folia, Krause.— (R. T.) De Mole 
River; (J. H. M.) Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers) ; (R. S. R ) Harvev's 
Return (Oct., 1908), Western River; (J. B.\.\) Wishangcr (March.) , 
Ravine des Casoars, Cape Borda. 

G. ovata, Smith. — (R. T.) Cygnet River (Waterhouse, Tate), American 
River, Eleanor, Harriet and Stun' Sail Boom Rivers, Dudley Peninsula; 
(J. H. M.) Hog Hay, Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers)"; (J. 11, C. ) 
Kingscote. 

G. varia, R. Br.— (R. T.) SeaelifLs of D'Estrees Bav ; (R. S. R.) Kingscote 
(Oct., 1908), Cape du Couedic (Oct., 1908); '(T. B. C.) Cape Borda; 
(T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase. ' 

G. genie data, R. Br. — (R. T. ) Sandy heath ground bv Cygnet River, at 
White Lagoon, Mount Pleasant, De Mole River; (R. S. R.) Cape' du 
Couedic (Oct., 1908), Middle River (Oct.. 1908), Rockv River: 
(J. B. C.) K.L 

G. prinudacea, Schlechtd.— (R. T.) W r et heath between American River 
and D'Estrees Bay. 

Sellicra radicans, Cav.— (R. T.) Cygnet River, Murray Lagoon, Eleanor and 
Stun' Sail Boom Rivers; (J. B. C.) K.L (with rust J ; (Wood Jones) 
Rocky River. 

Scacvola crassifolia, Lab.— (R. T.) Coast hills, Pennington Bay and east- 
ward, Vivonnc Bay; (J. H. M.) Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers) ; 
(J. B. C.) Middle River; (T, G. B. O.) Flinders Chase, amongst malice. 

6\ actnula, R. Br.-— (R. T.) About Mount Pleasant and towards Mount 
Mary, abundant over area of burnt heath, Central Dudley Peninsula, 
De Mole River; (J. H. M.) Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers)'; (R. S R ) 
Kingscote (Sept., 1908), Middle River (Oct., 1908), Western River. 
Rocky River; (T. G. B. O.) Stirling's, on ironstone tableland. 
IS. hmuilis, R. Br.— (Tepper) Low ground near Lashmar's Lagoon and 

Antechamber Bay. 
S. microcarpa, Cav. — (J. H. M.) Hog Bay. 

S. linearis, R. Br.— (R. T.) K.L (Waterhouse). wet sandv heath ground 
between American River and D'Estrees Bay; (jf B. C.) K.L; 
(T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase, on ironstone tableland. 



58 

Dampicra lauccolata, Cunn.— (R. T.) Near D'Eslrees Bay, sandy ground bv 
the sea near Rocky Point, Dudley Peninsula; (R. S. R.J S.W . River, 
near Karatta (Oct., 1908), Middle River (Oct., 1908). Stokes' Bay 
(Oct., 1908); (J. B. C) K.I. 

1 1 6. STYLIDl ACEAE. 

SivHdhtm graminifolium, Swartz.— (R. T. as Candollca graininifolium) \Xcl 
sandv heath near D'Estrees Bay and between the Harriet and Stun' Sail 
Boom Rivers; (J. B. C. ) Rocky River, telegraph line to Cape Borda. 

S. Tcppcriauum, F. v. M. — (Pepper) Mount Taylor, in hssures and hollo\\> 
of the limestone filled with sand. 

,S\ calcaratum, R. Br.— (R. T. as Candollca calcarata) Central Dudley 
Peninsula. 

S. despectmn, R. Br. — (R. T, as Candollca despecta) Central Dudley Penin- 
sula, De Mole River. 

Lcvcnhookia pusilla, R. Br.— (R. T. as Lcc-zvcnhockia ditbia) Grassy slopes 
bv the sea, north-west coast of Dudley Peninsula. 

117. C'OMPOSTTAE. 

Olcaria tabid! flora, Benth, — (Pepper as Aster iabidiflorus, P. v. M.} Sandy 
scrub near Brownlow, etc. 

(). axillaris, F. v. M.— (11 T. as Aster axillaris) K. I. (R. Brown), near the 
coast, Kingscote and American River, widely distributed, Dudley Penin- 
sula; (}. ti. C.) Vivonne Bay, Middle River; (T. G. B, O.) Cape dn 
Couedic, 

(). ramulosa, Benth. — (dapper as Aslcr ramidosns, Labill.) Cape Wltlcmghhy 
(coll. Horswill); (J. H. M. ) Hog Bay; (j. B. C.) Kingscote, wide- 
spread. 

(). Horibunda, Benth. — ( R. T. as Aster floribiindns) Harriet. Eleanor, Stun' 
Sail Boom and De Mole Rivers. 

O. tcrctifolia, P. v. M .— (R. T. as Aster tcrehfolius) K.P (Walerhouse >. 
American River, White's Lagoon, generally distributed throughout Dud- 
lev Peninsula; (j.H. M.) Hog Bay, Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers); 
(R. S. R.) Kingscote (Sept., 1908) ; (j. B. C. ) Rocky River (Nov.). 

(). rudis, F. v. ML— (R. T. as Aster exsul) Hog Bay River to American 
Beach and American River, Kingscote (coll. K. S. Rogers), and sand- 
dunes at Mount Mary; (j. H. M.) Kingscote; (R. S. R.) Ravine 
des Casoars (Oct., 1908) ; (j. B. C. ) Kingscote (Nov.) ; (P. G. B. O. I 
Flinders Chase, near Rocky River LPS. 

O. ciliata, P. v. M— (R. P. as Aster Hucgclii) K.P (Waterhouse) , American 
River and adjacent south coast, between Mount Pleasant and Eleanor 
River; (J. B. C. J between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay. 

Vittadinia australis, Rich.— (R. T.) Kingscote and Salt Lagoon to Discovery 
Flat, Murray's Lagoon, Mount Mary, widely dispersed over Dudley 
Peninsula; (J. H. M.) Kingscote; '(J. B. C. ) Kingscote, Cape du 
Couedic. 

Achnophora Tatci, P. v. M.— (R. P.) Wet heathy ground, two miles east 
from Karatta, De Mole River; (P. G. B. O.) Harriet River, forming 
tussocks bv salt creek. 

Lagcnophora stipiiata, (Labill.) Druee.— (R. P. as L. BiUardieri) Mos,y 
banks in gullies and under shade of gum trees and thickets. Dudley 
Peninsula; (]. B. C. ) Rocky River (Nov.). 

L. iSmmii (Hook, f.) n. comb. (Emphysopus Gunnii, Hook. t. (1847); 
Lagenophora emphysopus, Hook. f. (I860).) — (R. P. as L. emphysopus) 
Pasture slopes by the sea, south of Kangaroo Head. 



59 

Brachycomc cunci folia, Tate. — (R. T., ''showing slight differences from the 
type") K.I. (coll. Tepper). 
^Siegcsbeckia aricntalis, T,.— (j. B. C.) Ravine des Casoars. 

Cotida filifolia, Thunb. — (R. T.) Northern coast of Dudley Peninsula, basin 
of Deep Creek; (T. C. 15. O.) Flinders Chase, in swamp of Rocky 
River. 

C. enronopifolia, I.,.— ( R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), Cvgnet River, throughout 
Dudley Peninsula; (J. IP M.) Hog Ray; (J, B. C.) Cygnet River; 
(T. (]. R. (J.) Flinders Chase, in swamp of Rocky River. 

C, australis, Hook, f- — (R- T.) Throughout Dudley Peninsula, towards 
Kangaroo Plead; (J. B. C. ) K.I. 

Ccntipcda Cunningham!, V. v. ML — (R. T.) K.P (Waterhouse), throughout 
the Island; (J. II C. ) Rocky River. 

Isoctopsis (jraimnifoJia, Turez.— (R. T.) Pasture slopes by the sea south 
of Kangaroo Plead. 

Myrioccphalus rhizoccphahts, Benth. — (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), in- 
undated ground. Cygnet River and Salt Lagoon. 

Angianthns Prcissiauns, Benth. — (R. T. ) Margins of the salt waler creeks 
and clay flats throughout Dudley Peninsula. 

A. strictus, Benth. — (R. T.) Pasiure slopes by the sea, north and west coasts 
of Dudley Peninsula. 

CaJocephalus 'Brownii, F. v. M. — (R. T.) K.I (in PL Austr. ), rocks by the 
sea, north-east coast of Dudley Peninsula. Kingscote and D'Estrecs Bay, 
De Mole River; (J. PI. M.) Hog Bay, Cape dn Couedic (coll. R. S. 
Rogers); (J. B. C.) Middle River. Cape Borda. 

Cassinia lacz'is, R. Br. — (R. T v also as Hmnca punctulafa and as Cassinia 
punctidata, F. v. M. and Tate) Murray's lagoon, on ealciferons sand- 
stone. Hog Bay River; (J. B. C.) Kingscote" ( ?). 

C. spectabilis, R. Br. — (R. T.) K.P (in Fl. Austr. ), on burnt ground, through- 
out Dudley Peninsula, American River, Kingscote, and Emu Creek, 
sparsely distributed as far west as Eleanor River; (J. PP M.) Kingscote; 
(J. B. C.) Bay of Shoals, Beatrice Island. 

Eriocldaniys Btkrn, Sond. et F. v. M. — (R. T.) Cliffs by the sea. D'Estrecs 
Hay, and near Hog Bay River. 

Toxanthus Mitelleri, Benth.— (R. T., by inadvertence recorded first as 
T. pcrpitsillus) Crassy slopes by the sea, south of Kangaroo Head. 

Mill alia temiifolia, ("ass. — (R. T. ) Sandy soil near the coast at Western Cove 
and American. River, wet banks and thickets. Dudley Peninsula. 

Ixiolaciia sitpina. ■ F. v. M.— (R. T.) K.T. (in Fh Austr.'), seaclitfs around 
Dudley Peninsula arid D'Estrees Bay, De Mole River; (j. H. M.) J log 
Hay, Cape Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers); ( R. S. R.) Cape, du Couedic 
(Oct., 1908), Harvey's Return (Oct,, 1908). 

Ixodia achiUcoides, R. Br. — (JR.. T.) K.I. (in Fl. Austr.), verv abundant 
throughout the Island, De Mole River; (T. P!. M.) Hog "Bay, Cape 
Borda (coll. R. S. Rogers, a very distinct form with narrow linear, almost 
filiform, leaves), Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers); (J. R. C) 
widespread, near Cape du Couedic (Nov.). 

Podospcrma a ngusti folium, Pabill. — (R. T.) Sand ridges, shores of Western 
Cove, American Beach and American River, sand-dunes at Mount Mary, 
in ealciferons sandstone, Hog Bay River. 

Pod ale pis rugata. Lab. — (R. T.) Seacliffs of D'Fslrces Bay; {}. PL. M.) 
Cape du Couedic (coll. R. 8. Rogers) ; (J. B. C.) Rocky River, between 
Kingscote and Vivonne Bay (Nov.). 

P. acuminata, R. Br.— ( R. S. \i.) Rockv River (Oct., 1908}. 



60 

'xlnitla graveolens, Desf. — (J. E. C.) K.T. 
Hclichrysum obi it si folium, Sond. ct F. v. M. — (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhousc). 

near Western Cove, Nepean Bay, between Mount Pleasant and Eleanor 

River; as var. tcphrodcs, De Mole River; (R. S. R.) S.W. River (Oct, 

1908), Timber Creek. 
H. bract eatuin, (Vent.) Andr. — (R. T. as II. lucid um) Smith's Bay ; 

(R. S. R.) Stokes* Bay, Western River. 
II. leacopsidinm, DC. — (R. T.) Pasture slopes by the sea, D'Estrees Bay 

and towards Hog Bay River, sand-dunes, Vivonne Bay and American 

Beach; (T. G. E. O.) Cape du Couedic, Kingscote. 
//. adenophorum, F. v. M. — (R. T.) Scrub near Wallan's Hut (Waterhouse), 

Smith's Bay, heathy ground from Cygnet River to Mount Prospect, and 

the Stun' Sail Boom River; (J. B. C.) near Lake Ada, Cape Borda. 
II. apieulatmn, DC. — (Tepper) Coast hills, Karatta ; (J. B. C.) Middle 

River; (T. G. B. O.) Vivonne Bay. 
II. semipapposum, DC— (R. S. R.) Western River. 
H. rctasum, Sond. et F. v. M.— (R. T.) Heathy ground at Kingscote, and 

Red-banks to American River, mallee scrub, North Dudley Peninsula. 

near Rocky Point; (J. H. M.) Kingscote, Hog Bay; (J. B. C) Kings- 
cote (Nov.). 
Heliptcrum cxiguum, F. v. M.— In Tate's Census for K.I. 
H. mtstralc, (A. Gray) Ostenf. — (R. T. as H. dimorpholcpis) Grassy slopes 

by the sea, south of Kangaroo Head. 
Gnaphalhtm luteo-album, L. — (R. T.) K.I. (in FI. Austr.), American River 

and about Mount Mary, widely dispersed over Dudley Peninsula; 

(R. S. R.) Harvey's Return (Oct., 1908). 
Gn. japonicum, Thunb.— (R. T.) K.I. (Waterhouse), Discovery Flat, White's 

Lagoon. Eleanor River, common on Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River; 

(J. H. M.) Hog Bay; (J. B. C) Cygnet^River. 
Gn, indutum. Hook. f. — (R. T.) Cliff slopes in the north and west coasts, 

clay flats and under shade of thickets, Dudley Peninsula. 
Stitartina Muclleri, Sond. — (R. TV) Dudley Peninsula (as for Gnaphalhtm 

indutum) De Mole River. 
Erecht kites prenanthoides, DC. — (R. T.) Sandy ground. Cygnet River, 

sparsely distributed throughout Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River ; 

(R. S. R.) Harvey's Return (Oct., 1908). 
E. picridioidcs, Turc. — In Tate's Census for K.I. ; (I. B. C.) Rocky River 

(March) ; (T. G. B. O.) Flinders Chase (Oct.)". 
E. arguta, DC— (R, T.) K.l. (in Fl. Austr.), Kingscote, Cygnet River. 
E. qitadridentata, DC. — (R. TV) Open mallee scrub and extending to heathy 

ground, North Dudley Peninsula. 
■\Scnccio magnificns, F. v. M. — (J. B. C) Breakneck River. 
.S\ lautus, Sond. — (R. T.) K.I. (in Fl. Austr.), seaclifls D'Estrees Bay to 

Hog Bay River, north coast of Dudley Peninsula, sand-dunes of Vivonne 

Bav; (J. H. M. ) Cape du Couedic (coll. R. S. Rogers, very succulent) ; 

(li. S. R.) Cape du Couedic (Oct., 1908), Ravine cles Casoars ; (J. P>. G) 

Rocky River. 
S. Georgianns, DC — In Tate's Census for K.L; (T. G. B. O.) Vivonne Bay 

(26/10/24). 
5\ odorattis, Horn. — (R. T.) K.T. (R. Brown), bushy places, widely dis- 
tributed; (J. H. M.) Kingscote; (J. B. C) Rocky River, Kingscote. 
.V. Cimninghamn, DC — (R. T.) Ravine des Casoars (coll. Tepper) ; (J. R. C) 

Ravine des Casoars. between Kingscote and Vivonne Bay, Rocky River. 



61 



Lymbonotus Lazvsomanus, Gaud.— (R .T.) Natural pasture lands and grassy 

glades m mallee scrub throughout Dudley Peninsula, De Mole River. 
*Cryptoslcmma calendulaccmn, R. Br.— (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula* (1 H M ) 

Hog Bay; (J. B. C.) K.L ' " ' J 

*Silybum mariamim, Gaertn.— (J. H. M. as Carditus marianus, L.) Hog Rav 
*Onopordon acanthhtm, L.— (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula, "known during the 

last two or three years (i.e., about 1880) about the Gap." 
*Cirsium hmccolatum. Scop.— (J. H. M. as Cardmts lanceolatus), Ho~ Bay ■ 

(J. R. C) Kingscote. J ' * "' 

xCarditus temtiflorus, Curtis. — (J. B. C.) K.I. 

*C'enfaiirea melitensis, L.— (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula; ("|. PI. M.) Hog Bay. 
Microscris scapigera, (Forst.) Schultz-Bip.— (Tepper as M. Forstcri) Coast 

httls, Karatta, and at the coast, Queenscliffe, but rare and very dwarfed; 

(T. (i. B. (_).) Flinder Chase, in sandy soil near Rocky River "(27/1/23). 
xHypochacris radicata, P.— (J. B. C.) Kingscote. 
*//. glabra, P.— (R. T. ) Dudley Peninsula;" (P B. C.) K.L 
*Sonchus oleraceus, L.— (R. T.) Dudley Peninsula; (]. B. C. ) K.L 
xS. asper, Hill, V ar. littoralis, J. M. Black.— ( T. B."('\) Pennington Bay ■ 

(T. G. H. O.) Cape du Couedic (Nov.). 
*Picris hicracioides, P.— (P. T.) K.L (Waterhouse), Discovery Plat, Dudley 

Peninsula. 



62 



NOTES ON A COLLECTION OF AUSTRALIAN MYXOMYCETES. 

(Identified by Miss Cidiehna Lister.) 

By J. Bl'rtox Clelaxd, M.D. 
[Read April 14, 1927.] 

During the collection of Basidiomycetes in Australia, the writer lias pre- 
served a number of Myxomycetes, of which he submitted duplicale specimens 
to Miss G. Lister, who kindly reported on them, lie has now arranged the 
results of Miss Bister's identifications, adding where possible the exact localities 
and dates where and when the specimens were obtained. He has also added, 
where these were noted, the colours and some other macroscopic features, as 
well as his own notes on the size and characters of the spores as these were 
examined shortly after collection. The gatherings contained altogether 31 species. 
Miss Lister records Badhamia foliieola, B. eapsulifera, Physarum reniforme, 
P. didermoides (probablv), P, einereum, and Mneiliujo spongiosa as new for 
Australia, and several species as new for particular States. 

Ccratiomyxa frittieulosa, (Muell.) Machr. — Branches with numerous pro- 
jecting spines 12 /Jong. Spores very white, finely granular, subspherical to oval or 
egg-shaped. N.S. Wales: Mummulgun;, Dec. (Xo. 61); Mosman. Dec. (No. 
35); Narrabeen. Jan.; Neutral Bay, Mar. (No. 54). 

Badhamia ea'psnlifera. Berk. — Spores spherical, somewhat triangular, finely 
rough, with a cap of stronger warts, 10'S -p. Orange, N.S. Wales, Oct.. 1916 
(No. 14). Not recorded before for Australia. 

B. foliieola. List. — Bright orange-yellow when immature, turning dark grey. 
On grass, twigs, etc.. Mount Lofty, S.A.. June, 1920. Spores purplish, slightly 
rough, subspherical, 10 to \0'7 p.* "Very near B. utrieularis, but with spores 
paler, smoother, and very little if at all clustered. The plasmodium also feeds 
on decayed leaves, not on living fungi. New for Australia" (No. 28). 

Ph'xsanim viride, Pers. — Milson Island, Ilawkcsbury River, Nov., LM4. 

sulphur-yellow, spores spherical, finely watted, dark purplish, 7*8 to 8'2/.t (No. 

57). " 

P. didennoides, Lost. — Wollongbar, N.S, Y\ ales. ( No. 13. ) New u>r 

Australia. 

P. nutans, Pers.- - Xeutral Bay. Sydney, Mar.. 1919 (No. 6). _ 

P. eompressirm, A. and S. — Spores subspherical, warty, purplish. 10"4 to 
15*5/*. Middle Head, Sydney, Aug. (No. 15). "I have no record of this before 
for New South Wales, though it has been found in South Australia." 

P. renifonne. List'. — Wollongbar, N.S. Wales ( No. 13) ; oil mulberry, Milson 
Island, Ilawkcsbury River. June, 1913. spores 13 to 15/*, very dark, with patches 
of clustered warts (No. 388). New for Australia. 

P. einerenm, Pers— Milson Island, April. 1913 (Xo. 22). "A- handsome 
gathering on a Eucalypt leaf; the first record for Australia, apparently." 

Puli(jo septiea, Gmel. — Spores ymous purple, usually smooth., spherical. 
7 to 10/*! Queensland: Imbil, near Gympie, Aug., 1920 (No. 103). N.S. Wales: 
Milson Island, liawkesburv River. April, 1913 (No. 23), bright canary-yellow; 
same location, Feb., 1915/ (No. 73), and Nov., 1914 (No. 86); liawkesburv 
Liver, Nov., 1914 ( Xo. 85); on stump of tree, The Spit, Sydney, April, 1913 
(Xo. 71); Xeutral' Kay, Sydney, Nov., 1917 (No. 24), bright orange-yellow, 
becoming sahnony-red when bruised, several inches long and wide and -\ inch 
high, with a peculiar rather seminal smell; on Fames on a log, Tuggerah, Nov., 



63 

1914 (No. 49) ; at base of an Acacia, Kendall (?), Feb., 1917 (No. 21) ; Narra- 
heen. April, 1916 (No. 79), canary-yellow. Tasmania: Minders Island, Bass 
Straits., Nov., 1912 ( No. 70). South Australia : On dead pine stump, Beaumont. 
Mar., 1920 (No. 65). more lemon-coloured than crocus; on dead pine stump. 
Glen Osmond, Dec, 1920 (No. 102) ; Kuitpo, Mar., 1915; National Park, Mar, 
1921 ; Myponga, Dec, 1923; loc (?), Mr. Zietz. Western Australia: Doc. not 
stated (No. 26). 

F. scplica, var. Candida, Fr— N.S. Wales: Milson Island, Jan. (No. 74); 
Mroken Hill, on grass, April. 1917 (No. 16). Tasmania: Flinders Island, at 
roots of grasses in damp soil (No. 67), typical pale spores, 6 to 7 p diam. Western 
Australia (No. 25). 

F. cincrca, Morg. - -N.S. Wales: Milson Island, April, 1913 (No. 19a); on 
dung. Neutral Bay, Mar., 1914 (No. 34). spores spherical, 10 to 11 /a. South 
Australia: Beaumont, on ground. Mar., 1921 (No. 93), spores rough, 11 to 12/*. 

Diachca Icucopoda, Rost. — N.S. Wales: Neutral Bay, Dec, 1917 (No. 27), 
spores smooth, vinous, Bjll. apparently new for N.S, Wales. 

Didy-mium nigripes, Dr., near var. xanthopus, List. — N.S. Wales: National 
Park, May, 1919 (No. 2), spores dark greyish-brown, smooth, round, 8*5 ft ; 
intermediate between the type and the variety which was found by Air. Cheeseman 
several times in N.S. Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. 

Mucilago spongiosa, Morg., var. soFida, List. — Queensland: Imbil State 
Forest near Gympie, spores finely rough, 12 ^ (No. 100). "This is a weak form 
with the capillilium consisting of membranous expansions enclosing crystalloid 
deposits of dime' instead of the usual network of dark threads. Not recorded 
previously for Australia." 

Stcmonitis spleudens, Rost. — X.S. Wales : North Bridge, Sydney. April, 

1919 (No. 1), spores brown, smooth, spherical, 7*5 \t,\ Narrabeeu (Dr. Darnell- 
Smith), Nov., 1912 (No. 11), spores warted, purple-brown, 7 \o 7*2 ja. South 
Australia: Glen Osmond, May, 1920 (No. 89), spores purple, smooth, spherical, 
7-2/i. Tasmania: Flinders Island (No. 8). Doc (?) (No. 19), "wirh so broad 
a surface net Lo the capillitium as to be almost var. JVcbberi, List." 

N. Jicrbatica, Deck.— N.S. Wales: Neutral Bav, Mar.. 1914 (No. 5); 
Mosman, Oct., 1916 (No. 69). 

Comatricha typhoides, Rost.— N.S. Wales: Neutral Bav, Mar., 1914 
(No. 5). 

Tabifcra ferruginosa, Gmel. — N.S. Wales: On trunk. Neutral Bay, June, 
1913, immature (No. 56). Tasmania: Launccston, Nov., 1912 (No. 46), grow- 
ing through cracks in a log. nearly resembling in colour Polvsticlus cinnabariinis 
in an early stage but soft, spores spherical, 7 to 11 [x. 

Dictydiacthaliinn pbumbcitm, Rost. — South Australia: Mount Lofty, Sept., 

1920 (No. 101), dried when immature, when fresh rather a coral-pink turning 
(_ arnelian Red (Ridgway's Colour Standards, pi. xiv.), surface finely granular; 
Mount Lofty, June, 1917, and National Park, June, 1917 (No. 30), immature; 
Mount Lofty, June, 1920 (No. 62), immature. Light Coral-Red (Ridg., pi. xiii.j, 
finely warted under a lens. 

Reticular ia Lycopcrdon, Bull. — N.S. Wales: Neutral. Bay, Sydney (No. 84) ; 
same locality, May, 1913 (No. 87), on a tree, spores irregularly spherical, warted, 
7 to 11 fx. N.S. Wales (?): (No. 92) , spores regularly spinuloses, spherical to 
oval, ( : r8/x. South Australia: Beaumont, Mar., 1920 (No. 64), spores brown, 
spherical, very slightly rough, 7'2fi. 

Lycogala epidendrum, Fr. — Aethalium at first pallid brown with minute topaz 
warts, spores spinulose, 5*2 to 7 \l. N.S. Wales: Llawkesbury River, Dec, 1914 
(No. 37); Athol Gardens. Sydnev (No. 68 ) ; Comboyne, Sept.. 1918 (Nos. 29 



64 

and 32); Mount Irvine (Dr. Darnell-Smith), Jan., 1915 (No. 36): Mosman, 
Oct., 1916. 

Trichia verrucosa, Berk. — N.S. Wales : Kurrajong Heights, Aug., 1912 
(No. 78); locality not stated (No. 76), spores 17 /x. 

1\ varia, Pers. — N.S. Wales: Leura, June. 1916 (No. 60), spores finely 
warted, 13 to 14 x 9 fx. 

T. floriformis, (Schw.) G. Lister (syn. T. Botrytis, var. latcritia, List. — 
N.S. Wales: Neutral Bay, Mar., 1914 (No. 5) ; Katooinba, Dec, 1916 (No. 4). 

Arcyria fcrruginca, Sant. — N.S. Wales: On bark, Neutral Bay, May. 1913 
(No. 82), spores colourless, elliptical. 11 to 12 x 8 to 9 fx. 

A. cincrea, Pers.— N.S. Wales: Narrabeen, Jan., 1915 (No. 53), very 
immature, spores colourless, rather oval, capillitium warted. 

A. denudata, (L.) Wcttstein. — N.S. Wales: Mount Kembla (Dr. Darnell- 
Smith), Nov., 1914 (No. 83), spores colourless, smooth, 7~5 p, capillitium branch- 
ing, rough with warts, 3*4 ju. thick; Leura, June, 1916 (No. 10), spores pallid., 
smooth, 8 it, capillitium warted, 4 f x thick; no locality (No. 81), spores whitish, 
irregularly spherical, 7 fx. 

A. insignis, Kalchbr. and Cooke. — Probably N.S. Wales (No. 51), "rare in 
Europe." 

A. nutans, Grev.— N.S. Wales: Neutral Bay, Mar., 1919 (No. 7) ; no locality 
(No. 80). 

Perichaena depressa, Lib. — N.S. Wales : Hawkcsbury River (No. 41 ) . 
yellow, rounded, finely echinulate spores, 10^, "new to N.S. Wales, found by 
Mr. Checseman in Victoria." 



65 



ADELAIDE UNIVERSITY FIELD ANTHROPOLOGY: 
CENTRAL AUSTRALIA. 

No. 1.— INTRODUCTION: DESCRIPTIVE AND ANTHROPOMETRIC 

OBSERVATIONS. 

By T. D. Campbell D.D.Sc, and Cecil J. Hackett. 

[Read April 14, 1927.] 

The Adelaide University Field Expedition to Central Australia in the early 
part of this year for anthropological research was made possible by an allocation 
from the Rockefeller Fund and a private donation. The Anthropological Com- 
mittee of the Australian National Research Council allotted a sum for field work 
in physical anthropology in this State and Central Australia. Also through the 
generosity of Mr. E. W. Holden, B.Sc, it was possible to engage the services of 
a professional photographer, and so secure some cinematographic, as well as 
ordinary photographic records. 

The success of the Expedition was in no small measure due to the hearty 
co-operation obtained from various interested helpers ; the Board for Anthrop- 
ological Research and members of the party are much indebted to the following 
for their very generous assistance:— 

Mr. Ernest Kempe (manager Macumba Station) ; Messrs. Wallis Fogarty 
and Staff; Sergeant R. Stott and Mr. E. Kramer, of Stuart Town; the Board 
of Governors S.A. Museum; Dr. L. Keith Ward; and Mr. Biyth (manager S.A. 
Phonograph Coy.). 

In arranging for the work of the Expedition advantage was taken of benefits 
derivable from "team work" organisation. The work undertaken was largely 
physical anthropology, and the following constituted the personnel for this section 
of the work: — Drs. T. D. Campbell and C. J. Hackett, descriptive and anthropo- 
metric observations; Dr. W. Ray, physiology and pathology; Prof. J. B. Cleland, 
blood grouping and tests ; Dr. E. H. Davies undertook a study of native songs 
and music; and Mr. F. Jeffrey acted as official photographer and cinematographer. 

The party left Adelaide on December 30, 1926, and returned on January 19, 
1927. The localities at which observations were made were: — (1) Ross Water- 
hole, on Macumba Station, and about 40 miles north-east of Oodnadatta ; (2) 
Stuart Town, Central Australia. 

On the first stage of the trip — spent at Ross Waterhole — routine observations 
were made on a number of natives ; also cinema films were exposed on various 
ceremonies associated with the Lartna, or circumcision rite — the initiation of a 
youth having synchronized with our visit to the locality. 

Through the kindness of Mr. and Mrs. E. Kempe, the arrangements for our 
stay and work at Ross Waterhole were greatly facilitated, and valued results 
were secured. 

The latter part of the available time was spent at Stuart Town, Alice Springs, 
where a plentiful supply of full-blooded natives was available for routine work. 
In this location, through the kindness of Sergeant Stott, the school-room served 
as a field laboratory, and so working conditions were made comparatively com- 
fortable. Both localities have been occupied for a long time by natives chiefly 
of the Arunta tribe, and the ethnography of this group has been lengthily dealt 
with by Spencer and Gillen, Strehlow, and others. 

c 



66 

The present paper deals with descriptive notes and measurements of the 
natives; also certain useful individual details are included. The results of other 
branches of the work undertaken will be dealt with in other papers of this series. 
In order that correlative study may be made, the other records are "Physiological 
Observations," by Dr. W. Ray; "Blood Grouping," by Dr. J. B. Cleland ; and 
"Aboriginal Songs/' by Dr. E. II. Davies. These follow in the present issue. 

Other papers are likely to be published at an early date dealing with 
Pathological Observations, Platycnemia, Dental Notes, and Oral Pigmentation. 

Full face and profile photographs were taken of each native examined in 
detail, and besides these, various interesting- conditions and views of the natives 
were recorded. 

Motion pictures were taken of various ceremonies concerned in the Lartna, 
or circumcision rite, also other important features associated with the perform- 
ances. Native crafts such as riremaking (two methods), string making from 
human hair, shelter building, and other items were recorded in detail cincmato- 
graphically. An unusual and interesting motion picture record was also secured 
on a length of film depicting the striking method of locomotion involved in an 
extreme case of platycnemia. 

A few objects of ethnological interest were collected. A quantity of chipped 
flakes was obtained at Ooraminna Waterhole. Insects, plants, and ornithological 
notes were taken en route. 

Natives Examined. 

Tribal classification. —The aboriginals subjected to detailed examination were 
nearly all members of the Arunta tribe, the remainder being chiefly Luritchas. 
They were all more or less semi-civilized, a condition which is advantageous. 
rather than undesirable, when the acquiescence and understanding of the subject 
under examination are somewhat necessary factors in the type of investigation 
undertaken on this occasion. 

With a few intentional exceptions, all examined were full bloods (in so fat- 
as careful discrimination could effect) and adults. 

Number. — A total of 57 were subjected to routine detailed examination, 
while, in addition, various others were dealt with for some special purpose, such 
as a blood test, or recording some abnormal or pathological feature. 

Sex. — Of the above total 44 were males and 13 females. 

/{g e , — The ages given are, of course, in most instances only approximate, but 
care was taken to secure all evidence wdiich might lead to a correct estimate. 

Personal details. — In Table I., given below, are set out various details of each 
individual, and the key number will serve for identification in the various sections 
of this and associated papers. 

Descriptive Observations. 

Descriptive notes were made on each subject and are set out in Table II. 
In these observations w r e have followed, to a large extent, the suggestions of 
Hrdlicka (1). 

Skin colour. — For conveniently recording skin colour a shade guide devised 
by the present writers was used. It consisted of small cards, each having a 
coloured disc on a neutral grey ground. Adjacent to each disc, a circular hole 
of similar diameter was made in the card. By placing the card over the skin to 
be examined, a circular patch of skin can be compared with the coloured disc. 
Many colour tones were made, and each card being numbered, the skin colour 
can be simply recorded. These shades were later compared with those of 
Ridgway (2), and thus a standard nomenclature applied to the colour recorded. 
Thanks are due to Mr. L. Howie, Director S.A. School of Arts and Crafts, for 
his assistance in determining the nomenclature for the colours of the guide. 



67 



Tabt/k I. 
Subjects Examined. 



Key 


Sex 


Age 


White Name 


Native Name 


Tribe 


Group 


Totem 




1 


M 


55 


Sandy 


Winyooli 


Arunta 


Panunga 


- 




2 


M 


30 


Macumba Jack 


Jakarra 


Kaitish 


— 


, 




4 


M 


ajjed 


Charlie 


Mare Una 


Luritcha 


, . 


. 




5 


H 


60 


John 


Deneriga 


Arunta 




Emu 




6 


M 


40 


Big Mick 


Wilbilli 


Urabunna 


— 


Go anna 




10 


M 


35 


George 


Kutakulla 


Luritcha 


. . 


Emu 




11 


M 


35 


Louis 


Kuljakulja 


Arunta 


Panunga 


Emu 




12 


M 


— 


Billie Johnson 


Akareepa 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


Dingo 




15 


F 


— 


Judy 


— 


Arunta 


— . 







16 


M 


35 


Ted 


Ortda 


Arunta 


Kumar a 


Rain 




17 


M 


55 


Tim 


Chimpaliga 


Arunta 


Kumar a 


Rain 




18 


M 


55 


Joe 


Murrunyuli 


Arunta 


Kumara. 


R a in 




19 


^ 


40 


Dolly 


Aringjilyika 


Arunta 


Kuniara 


Rain 




21 


F 


35 


Annie 


Angkilya 


Arunta 


Panunga 


Snake 




22 


F 


18 


Fanny 


Angiyoorupu 


Luritcha 


Bukhara 


Snake 




23 


F 


25 


Lottie 


t.Tnroha 


Luritcha 










24 


M 


25 


Dinny 


Botalyi 


Kaitish 


Panunga 


Emu 




25 


M 


55 


Jack 


Ankarra 


Arunta 


Pnrula 


Kangaroo 




26 


M 


50 


Mick 


Qnorra 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


Rat 




27 


M 


40 


Sambo 


Lanya 


Arunta 


Pur u la 


Rain 




28 


M 


25 


Ted 


Wongarra 


Arunta 


Panunga 


Corkwood 




29 


M 


60 


Blind George 


Yearamba 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


_ 




30 


M 


48 


Charlie 


Orra-orra 


Arunta 


Appungerta 


Corkwood 




31 


M 


50 


Old Bill 


Andnnna 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


Corkwood 




32 


M 


25 


Johnnie 


Illowia 


Arunta 


Ungalla 


Kangaroo 




33 


M 


25 


Jockey Jim 


Orranga 


Arunta 


Purula 


Euro 




34 


JV1 


30 


Jacky 


(Tbalyamma 


Arunta 


Kumar a. 


Witchetty grub 




35 


M 


55 


Bob 


Angtjarra 


Arunta 


Umbitchana 






36 


M 


50 


Charlie Cooper 


Erkakura 


Arunta 




Yalta (a small 


plant) 


37 


M 


45 


Frank 


Karra-indana 


Arunta 


Umbitchana 


Emu 




38 


M 


30 


George 


Kuinanya 


Arunta 


Ungalla 


Corkwood 




39 


M 


60 


Bird Jack 


Ungotarrinyi 


Arunta 


Umbitchana 


Witchetty grub 




40 


M 


18 


Toby 


Yarma 


Luritcha 


— 


— 




41 


M 


35 


Jack 


Modna 


Arunta 


Kumar a 


Witchetty grub 




42 


M 


16 


Burnbi 


Ortoo 


Arunta 


Bulthara? 


___ 




43 


M 


20 


Ralph 


— 


Arunta 


Ungalla? 


— 




44 


M 


25 


Mullcr 


^._. 


Arunta 


Kumar a 


Emu 




45 


M 


18 


Willie 


Balyunk 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


Witchetty grub 




46 


M 


55 


Jack McKay 


— 


Arunta 


Appungerta 


Euro 




47 


M 


60 


Peter 


Olterberga 


Arunta 


Umbitchana 


Kangaroo 




48 


M 


25 


Barney 


— 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


Yalta 




49 


M 


60 


Multa 


Ooabiti 


Aran ta 


Umbitchana 


Yam 




50 


M 


50 


Bob 


— 


— 


— 


— 




51 


M 


65 


Charlie 


Jenia 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


Wallaby 




52 


M 


24 


Peter 


— 


Nelpara 


Appungerta 


Wallab> 




53 


M 


50 


George 


— 


Arunta 


Purula 


Tectrec 




51 


AT 


26 


Dudley 


Jawarta 


Arunta 


Ungalla 


Witchetty grub 




?5 


M 


27 


Arthur 


Olbalyoroo 


Arunta 


Kumar a 


Witchetty grub 




56 


M 


50 


Waggon Jack 


Ayumba 


Arunta 


Umbitchana 


— 




57 


F 


40 


Annie 


Oderquondu 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


— 




58 


F 


35 


Mary 


Ngumete 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


Wallaby 




59 


F 


48 


Marion 


Ngtangaramka 


Arunta 


Ungalla 


Witchetty grub 




60 


F 


' 50 


Polly (old) 


Ngingara 


Arunta 


Purula 


Kangaroo 




61 


F 


43 


Jinnie 


Kunoowi 


Arunta 


Purula 


__ 




62 


F 


42 


Polly (young") 


Wungara 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


Water 




63 


F 


48 


Maria in 


OKnga 


Arunta 


Bulthara 


— 




64 


F 


50 


Chic kin a 


Orkatnaka 


Arunta 


Appungerta 


Grub 





68 



Table II. 

HAIR. 



No. 



Head. 



Beard and Moustache. 



Chest. 



1 
2 
4 

5 
6 
10 
11 
12 
16 
17 
18 
19 
21 
22 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
31 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 



Colour. 



Bl.c.Wli. 

Black 

White 

Grey 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Br. BL 

Br. Bl. 

Black 

Grey 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

White 
Grey 
Black 
Br. Bl. 
Br. Bl. 
Black 
Grey 
Br. Bl. 
mack 
Br. Bl. 
White 
Dk. Br. 
Br. Bl. 
Br. Bl. 
V. i)k. Br 
Dk. Br. 

Grey 
Grey 
Br. Bl. 
Grey 
Bl.c.Wh. 
White 
Black 
Grey 
Br. Bl. 
Grey 
Dk. Br. 
Dk. Br. 
Dk. Br. 
Grey 
Br. Bl. 
Dk. Br. 
Dk. Br. 
Grey 



Character. 



Wh. 



L.W. 

D.W. 

LAV. 

Straight 

(Cut) 

L.W. 

L.W. 

(Cut) 

M.W. 

D.W. 

Curly 

L.W. 

L.W. 

L.W. 

L.W. 

(Cut) 

D.W. 

L.W. 

L.W. 

M.W. 

D.W. 

D.W. 

(Cut) 

(Cut) 

D.W. 

D.W. 

M.W. 

(Cut) 

(Cut) 

M.W. 

D.W. 

L.W. 

M.W. 

L.W. 

L.W. 

L.W. 

D.W. 

D.W. 

L.W. 

L.W. 

Curly 

L.W. 

Curly 

M.W. 

(Cut) 

L.W. 

L.W. 

L.W. 

(Cut) 

Curly 

D.W. 

L.W. 

L.W. 

M.W. 



Colour. 



White 

Black 

White 

Grey 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 

Grey 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Grey 

Grey 

Bl.c.Wh. 



Black 

Wh.c.Bl. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 

White 

Grey 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 

Black 

White 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Br. Bl. 

White 

Black 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 



Br. Bl. 
Grey 

White 

White 

Grey 

White 

Black 

Grey 

Black 

Grey 



Character. 



Colour 



White 



Straight 

L.W. 

Straight 

Straight 

Straight 

(Cut) 

L.W. 

L.W. 

Frizzy 

Straight 

L.W. 



(Cut) 

(Cut) 

M. copious 

M. copious 

M. copious 

Straight 

M.W. 

L.W. 

(Cut) 

(Cut) 

(Cut) 

L.W. 

Straight 

Frizzy 

M. copious 

L.W. 

Scant 

(Cut) 

Scant 

(Cut) 

(Cut) 

Scant 

Straight 

Straight 

(Cut) 

L.W. 

Frizzy 

Straight 

(Cut) 

Straight 

M. Medium 

Straight 



Scant 



SI. Bald 



White 



White 


White 


Black 


Bl.c.Wh 


Bl.c.Wh 


Bl.c.Wh 


Bl.c.Wh 


Bl.c.Wh 



Black 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bt.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 

Black 

Black 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 

Black 

Black 

White 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 

Black 

White 

White 
Black 
Black 
Black 



White 

Black 

White 

Bl.c.Wh. 

White 

Black 

Grey 

Bl.c.Wh. 



Quantity. 
Marked 

Nil 

Scant 

Scant 
Scant 
Medium 
Medium 

Medium 

Scant 

Scant 

Marked 



Nil 

Scant 

Medium 

M edium 

Marked 

V. scant 

V. scant 

Scant 

Marked 

Medium 

Scant 

Medium 

Medium 

Medium 

Medium 

Marked 

Marked 

V. Scant 

Scant 

V. scant 

V. scant 

Medium 

Nil 

Nil 

V. scant 

V. scant 

Scant 

Medium 

V. scant 

V. scant 

Marked 

Nil 

Medium 



Nil 



Nil 
NIT 



Forearm. 



Colour. 



Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 
White 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Black 

Black 

Black 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 

Bl.c.Wh. 



Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
Black 
White 

Black 
Br. Bl. 
Black 
Dk. Br. 
Dk. Br. 

White 

Dk. Br. 

Black 

Bl.c.Wh. 

White 

Black 

Black 

Black 

Black 

Black 

Black 
Black 



! Black 
! Black 



Quantity. 

Medium 
Medium 
Scant 

Scant 
Scant 
Medium 

Medium 

Medium 

Marked 

Scan t 

Marked 

V. scant 

V. scant 

V. scant 

Medium 

Medium 

Medium 

Marked 

Medium 

Medium 

Marked 

Medium 

Marked 

Scant 

Marked 

Medium 

Medium 

Scant 

Marked 

Scant 

V. scant 

Medium 

Scant 

Scant 

Scant 

V. scant 

Nil 

V. scant 

Scant 

Scant 

Medium 

V. scant 

V. scant 

Medium 

V. scant 

Medium 

V. scant 

V. scant 
V. scant 
V. scant 
V. scant 
V. scant 
V. scant 



69 



Table II 



Eyebrows. 



SKIN COLOUR. 



1 
2 
4 
5 
6 
10 
11 
12 
16 
17 
18 
19 
21 
22 
24 
25 
26 
27 
28 
29 
30 
11 
32 
33 
34 
35 
36 
37 
38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 
46 
47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 



„.,. — 1 
Quantity. 


Face. i 


Deltoid. 


Medium 


Z% 


dd 


Scant 


ff 


ee 


Medium 


ff 


ee 


Scant 


IT 


dd 


Medium 


gg 


ee 


Medium 


^ 


dd 


Medium 




— 


Scant 


ff 


dd 


Marked 


ff 


cc 


Medium 


ff 


dd 


Medium 


— ■ 


dd 


Medium 


dd 


dd 


Medium 


dd 


dd 


Medium 


dd 


dd 


Medium 


aa 


ff 


Medium 


ff 


dd 


Medium 


ee 


bb 


Scant 


dd 


bb 


Marked 


aa 


aa 


Scant 


aa 


dd 


Medium 


ee 


aa 


Medium 


a a 


a a 


Medium 


a a 


bb 


Medium 


hh 


dd 


Scant 


aa 


dd 


Medium 


aa 


dd 


Medium 


aa 


aa 


Scant 


a a 


dd 


Medium 


aa 


dd 


Scant 


fT 


dd 


Marked 


aa 


ff 


Medium 


ff 


ff 


Marked 


aa 


a a 


Medium 


aa 


ec 


Medium 


hh 


ee 


Marked 


' ee 


dd 


Scant 


! « 


ff 


Scant 


ff 


dd 


Medium 


i fr 


dd 


Scant 


ff 


dd 


V. scant 


aa 


ff 


Sea n t 


hh 


aa 


Medium 


aa 


gg 


Medium 


aa 


dd 


Medium 


aa 


dd 


Scant 


aa 


aa 


M edium 


dd 


dd 


Medium 


ce 


dd 


Scant 


— 


— 


Medium 


aa 


aa 


Medium 


aa 


ee 


Medium 


aa 


aa 


Scant 


aa 


aa 


Medium 


dd 


aa 



Body Build. Nasal Septum. 



Scars. 



Biceps. 

ff 
ee 

dd 
ff 
dd 
bb 

dd 

dd 

dd 

dd 

bb 

bb 

dd 

hb 

dd 

dd 

bb 

ff 

dd 

aa 

aa 

bb 

bb 

bb 

bb 

a a 

dd 

dd 

dd 

ee 

dd 

ff 

ec 

dd 

dd 

dd 
dd 
dd 
dd 
ff 

aa 

ff 

dd 

dd 

aa 

dd 

dd 



Medium 

Muscular 

Lank 

Plump 

Muscular 

Muscular 

Plump 

Medium 

Muscular 

Obese 

Muscular 

Medium 

Medium 

Plump 

Medium 

Muscular 

Muscular 

Plump 

Muscular 

Plump 

Muscular 

Medium 

Muscular 

Muscular 

Muscular 

Plump 

Muscular 

Medium 

Muscular 

Medium 

Muscular 

Muscular 

Medium 

Muscular 

Muscular 

Muscular 

Slim 

Plump 

Medium 

Medium 

Muscular 

Medium 

Muscular 

Muscular 

Medium 

Muscular 

Medium 

Medium 

Plump 

Plump 

Plump 

I 3 lump 

Medium 

Slim 



N.P. 


Nil 




P. 


Chest, 


Abdomen 


P. 


Chest 




P. 


Chest, 


back 


N.P. 


Nil 




N.P. 


Chest, 


abdomen 


N.P. 


Nil 




N.P. 


Nil 
Nil 




N.P. 


Chest 




N.P. 


Deltoid 


P. 


Back 




P. 


Chest 




N.P. 


Chest, 


abdomen 



P. 

N.P. 

N.P. 

N.P. 

P. 

N.P. 

N.P. 

N.P. 

P. 



N.P 



N. 


P- 1 


N. 


P. 


P. 




P. 




N. 


P. 


P. 




P. 




P. 




P. 




P. 




N 


P. 


N 


P. 


P. 




P. 




N 


P. 


N 


P. 


P. 




N 


P. 


P 





Chest, abd., delt., scapula 
Scapula, abdomen 
Chest, abdomen, scapula 
Chest, abdomen 
Chest, deltoid, abdomen 
Chest, L. scapula, abdomen 
Deltoid, back, abdomen 
Chest, abdomen 
Abdomen 

Nil 

Chest, deltoid, back, abd. 

Chest, deltoid, scapula 

Deltoid, abdomen 

Abdomen 

Chest, scapula, back, abd. 

L. scapula 

Chest, delt., L. scap., abd. 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Nil 

Chest, 

Chest, 

Nil 

Chest, delt., abd., L. scap. 

Chest, delt., abd., L. scap. 

Chest, delt., abd., L. scap. 

Abdomen, deltoid 

Chest, delt., abd., L. scap. 

L. Deltoid 

Abdomen 

Chest, abdomen 

Chest, abdomen 

Deltoid, abdomen 

Nil 

Chest, deltoid, abdomen 

Nil 

Chest, abdomen 

Chest, abdomen 



deltoid, abdomen 
L. scapula, abdomen 



70 

Hair samples. — A collection of fifty samples of hair was obtained, represent- 
ing the head and other parts of the body. These should provide useful material 
for detailed work on this subject. 

Data recorded. — The majority of the descriptive observations are set out in 
Table II., the remainder being more conveniently recorded in subsequent para- 
graphs. 

Key to colours recorded. — The skin colours are recorded in Table TI. as 
double letters. It was found very difficult to match exactly the colours of our 
guide with the browns given in Ridgway, therefore the following small table is 
provided to make clear the nature of our findings : — 

Variation from Ridgway. 
Darker than standard 
Warmer and lighter than standard 
Warmer and lighter than standard 



Shade guide. 


Ridgway. 


aa 


Vandvke Brown . 


bb .. 


Mars Brown 


cc 


. . Bister . . . 


dd .. 


Warm Sepia 


ec 


Vandvke Brown . 


a 


Light Seal Brown 


Kg 


Bone Brown 


hh .. 


Vandvke Brown . 



Warmer than standard 
Warmer and lighter than standard 
Warmer and darker than standard 
Warmer and lighter than standard 

Abbreviations used in Table II. — The following are used in connection with 
hair colour: — Bl. — Black; Wh.=W r hite; Bl.c.Wh.=Black with sparse White; 
Br. BL=Brownish-black; Dk. Br.=Dark Brown. 

Hair character : — L.W.=low waves ; M.W.^medium waves ; D.W-. 
=deep waves. "M. copious" denotes beard shaved off, with a copious moustache. 

Nasal septem :— P= pierced ; N.P.=not pierced. 

From Table II. the following conclusions may be arrived at : — 

Head &aw\— Usually black, with an increase of white hairs with advancing 
years. Several white-haired old natives were included in the scries. The hair 
character varied generally between low and deep waviness. 

Body hair taken generally cannot be considered very marked in quantity, 
for the remarks under chest, forearm, and eyebrows show that "scant" and 
"medium" predominate, the "marked" condition being only occasionally recorded. 

Skin colour. — Face, "Vandyke Brown" and "Light Seal Brown" predominate ; 
deltoid region, "Warmer Sepia" and "Vandyke Brown" predominate; inner biceps 
region, "Warm Sepia" predominates. 

Body build. — Taking into consideration the quantity of food apparently 
available to the natives, the state of nutrition was at once noticed. With very few 
exceptions, most were noted as "plump" or "muscular." Subcutaneous "tissue 
was nearly always sufficient to round off any bony or muscular prominences. 

Nasal septum.— -Of 43 observations, in 20 cases the nasal septum was pierced. 
In several instances the lower border of the perforation was broken through. 

The following features were also noted : — 

Darwinian tubercle. — Out of 53 observations, the tubercle was present in 
5 cases and absent in 48. 

Ear lobule. — Fifty-three observations showed that the lobule was adherent 
in 14 instances, and free in 39. 

Supraorbital ridges.— r rhe§£ were fairly consistently "pronounced" excepting: 
—"Medium," Nos. 1, 5, 6. 11, 12, 19, 21, 22. 28. 38, 41, 45, 47; "very pronounced," 
Nos. 44, 52, 55, 60. 

Lip protrusion. — "Pronounced" in 44 cases; "very pronounced" in 6, and 
"medium" in 4. 

Breasts. — In all the females the form of the breasts was full and pendulous. 



71 



Hand.—\r\ all cases the "longest digit" was the third; the "second longest 
digit" was the fourth in 32 cases, the second in 5 cases; in 11 the second equalled 
the fourth. 

foot, — The "longest digit" in 30 instances was the first, in 20 the second, 
in one case the first equalled the second. 

Eye colour. — In the younger suhjects the iris colour was a light chocolate- 
brown, but appeared to become much darker with advancing age. The colour was 
frequently obscured by corneal opacities. The conjunctiva in the young subject 
is bluish-white, but became yellowish in the adult and a dirty yellow colour with 
approaching senility. 

Anthropometry. 

Measurements adopted. — The measurements used on this occasion are in 
accordance with the suggestions of the International Agreement (sec Hrdlicka), 
and the set chosen is almost identical with the series used on previous occasions 
by one of the present writers as collaborator with F. Wood Jones (3) and A. J. 
Lewis (4). Those adopted in the present record are given in Table III. 

Instruments -used. ^Martin's stature rod, spreading and sliding calipers, and 
a non-metallic tape. For the loan of most of these instruments we are indebted 
to the Board of Governors, S.A. Museum. 

Data recorded. — The results of this section of the work have been set out in 
Tables IV. and V. The mean values of each observation are given at the bottom 
of the columns. 

Comparative notes. — The following lists will show a comparison between the 
results of the present work and the figures published by Wood Jones and 
Campbell, and Campbell and Lewis. Only a few of the more important measure- 
ments are tabulated. 

Table III. 



Body 


A .. 


Stature 


Head 


BB 


. . Breadth 




B .. 


Sitting height 




cc 


. . Height 




C .. 


Height to supra sternal 


Face 


D.D 


. . Height meuton crinion 






notch 




EE 


. . Height meuton nasion 




D .. 


Shoulder height 




FF 


. . Diameter minimum frontal 




E .. 


Shoulder breadth 




GG 


. . Diameter bizygomatic 




F .. 


Arm span 




HH 


. . Diameter bigonial 


Arm 


G .. 


Total length arm 




II 


. . Maximum interorbital 




H . . 


Length upper arm 




JJ 


. . Maximum intercanthal 




I .. 


Length lower arm 




KK 


. . Minimum intercanthal 


Hand 


J -- 


Length 




LL 


. . Bi-orbito-nasal arc 




K .. 


Breadth 


Nose 


MM 


. . Length 


Leg 


L .. 


Total length leg 




NN 


. . Height 




M . . 


Length upper leg 




OO 


. . Breadth 




N .. 


Length lower leg 


Mouth PP 


. . Breadth 


Foot 


O .. 


Length 




QQ 


. . Height 




P . . 


Breadth 


Ear 


RR 


. . Length 


Head 


AA .. 


Length 




SS 


. . Breadth 






Wood Jones and 


Campbell 


and Campbell and 


Obs 


ervation. 


Campbell. 




Lewis. Hackett, 






Number. Mean. 


Numbe> 


r. Mean. Number. Mean. 


Stature 


.. 309 1636 


25 




1593 56 1630 


Head 


length 


.. 173 187-9 


25 




187 56 189-6 


Head breadth ..173 137 "6 


25 




135 56 142 


Nose 


height 


. . 10 44-6 


25 




43*2 57 52-1 


Nose 


breadth 


i . . 10 46-3 


25 




44-8 57 48-6 



72 



It will be seen from these figures that the natives in the regions of the present 
enquiry give (a) a mean stature close to the other records; (b) closely similar 
head length, but relatively greater breadth; (c) mean nasal measurements which 
show a larger nose than that indicated by the other records, this probably being 
due to the marked numerical preponderance of males over females in the present 
data. 

Indices. — A number of the more important indices have been derived from 
the figures obtained. They are set out in the table given below, and for com- 
parison the results of the two papers referred to above are also included. 





Wood 


Tones and 


Campbell and 


Campbell 


and 


Index. 


Campbell. 




Le 


wis. 




Hackett. 




Number. 


Mean. 


Number. 




Mean. 


Number. 


Mean 


Cephalic 


. 81 


73-3 


25 




72-2 


56 




74-7 


Facial 


. 51 


86 


25 




817 


57 




81-3 


Nasal 


. 81 


100-7 


25 




104-6 


57 




93 


Ear 


. 50 


56-6 


25 




53-1 


57 




52-7 


Radio-humeral 


10 


81-4 


25 




81-5 


57 




75-8 


Tibio-femoral . 


. 10 


95-9 







— 


57 




89-4 



From these results it will be seen that the natives of the present enquiry come 
under the following classifications: — 

Head . . . . . . • ■ Dolichocephalic 



Face 

Nose 

Ear 

Ratio lower to upper arm 

Ratio lower to upper leg 



B:L 81*3% 
Platvrhinic 
B:L 52-7% 
Mesatikerkik 
Dolichocnemic 



Taking the present figures and those of Campbell and Lewis in the above 
table, two definite regions are represented, namely, Central Australia and an area 
north of Ooldea on the Trans-Australian Railway. The indices for Central 
Australia show a relatively broader head, similar breadth of face, narrower nose, 
similar ratio for ear dimensions, and a relatively shorter forearm. The figures 
given by Wood Jones and Campbell represent a compilation of all the available 
data from various localities up to the time of publication. 

Summarized data. — By combining the data given for three investigations, we 
may derive some appreciable estimation of certain physical characteristics as 
indicated by their index values ; that is, based on data which have been recorded 
in a manner at all conformable with standardized requirements. 





Number 


of 


Mean of 




Feature. 


Observations. 


Indices. 




Head 


. 162 




73-6 


Dolichocephalic 


Face 


. 133 




83-1 




Nose 


. 163 




98-6 


Platyrhinic 


Ear 


. 132 




54-2 




Radius : humerus 


. 92 




77-8 


Mesatikerkik 


Tibia: femur 


. 67 




90-3 


Dolichocnemic 



General Summary. 

In investigations of this nature, the ultimate aim should be, we believe^ to 
arrive eventually at some clearly-cut account which tells just what a typical 
Australian native looks like : this, rather than express his physical features in 
abstruse biometric formulae, or, on the other hand, to describe him in long 



73 



Table IV. 
Body and Limbs. 



4 .... 

5 .... 

6 .... 

10 .... 

11 .... 

12 .... 
15 .... 
16.... 

17 .... 

18 .... 

19 .... 

21 .... 

22 .... 

23 .... 
94 

25 .... 

26 .... 

27 .... 

28 .... 

29 .... 

30 .... 

31 .... 

32 .... 

33 .... 

34 .... 

35 .... 

36 .... 

37 .... 

38 .... 

39 .... 

40 .... 

41 .... 

42 .... 

43 .... 

44 .... 

45 .... 

46 .... 

47 .... 

48 .... 

49 .... 

50 .... 

51 .... 

52 .... 

53 .... 

54 .... 

55 .... 
56.... 



A 

1578 

1674 
1673 
1597 

1733 
1671 
1651 
1731 
1487 

1616 
1591 
156 l 

1459 

1561 
1 = 63 

1S30 
1686 
1611 
1707 
1639 
1602 
1616 
1538 
1657 
1578 
1663 
1562 
159-1 
1611 
1613 
1582 
1661 
1738 
1703 
1787 
1726 
1684 
1704 
1661 
1650 
1659 
1627 
1666 
1672 
1646 
1656 
1662 
1689 



B 

779 
829 
760 
820 
818 
868 
850 
820 
752 

782 
811 
791 
793 
778 
775 
891 
811 
840 
832 
805 
854 
815 
739 
846 
812 
831 
763 
793 
807 
812 
746 
822 
849 
819 
895 
879 
834 
854 
815 
822 
806 
823 
775 
823 
787 
822 
852 
861 



57 .... 


1537 


763 


1278 


58 .... 


1560 


763 


1299 


59 .... 


1=59 


810 


1311 


60 .... 


1562 


755 


1313 


61 .... 


1609 


763 


1371 


62 .... 


1475 


739 


1227 


63 .... 


1564 


740 


1316 


64 .... 


1589 


761 


1337 


Mean 


1630.4 


806.3 


1362.5 



1298 
1405 
1399 
1336 
1424 
1386 
1357 
1441 
1230 
1379 
1348 
1317 
1288 
1289 
1311 
1303 
1537 
1419 
1324 
1458 
1366 
1320 
1326 
1287 
1361 
1312 
1366 
1296 
1333 
1330 
1343 
1317 
1384 
1476 
1423 
1504 
1428 
1418 
1424 
1393 
1379 
1395 
1373 
1387 
1401 
1369 
1368 
1386 
1393 



1317 
1402 
1413 
1322 
1424 
1413 
1360 
1436 
1223 
1400 
1339 
1321 
1334 
1289 
1322 
1297 
1542 
1421 
1317 
1424 
1382 
1333 
1323 
1260 
1344 
1304 
1380 
1323 
1305 
1317 
1328 
1318 
1371 
1456 
1417 
1480 
1419 
1408 
1425 
1403 
1370 
1406 
1354 
1408 
1375 
1374 
1372 
1400 
1394 
1292 
1299 
1314 
1313 
1368 
1219 
1305 
1345 

1359.8 



354 

393 
386 
354 
392 
384 
375 
368 
317 
371 
390 
323 
328 
316 
314 
328 
369 
371 
368 
377 
354 
331 
374 
312 
369 
339 
362 
350 
345 
345 
350 
341 
366 
381 
351 
400 
376 
374 
350 
330 
349 
334 
349 
335 
358 
324 
368 
341 
355 
314 
311 
324 
327 
328 
301 
314 
300 



1660 
1834 
1790 
1686 
1846 
1921 
1750 
1885 
1532 
1849 
1762 
1657 
1440 
1568 
1594 
1670 
1973 
1S39 
1738 
1853 
1738 
1628 
1757 
1629 
1754 
1644 
1787 
1658 
1702 
1709 
1712 
1703 
1799 
1872 
1803 
1946 
1851 
1818 
1799 
1771 
1775 
1742 
1760 
1799 
1773 
1786 
1760 

1783 
1613 
1644 
1567 
1627 
1716 
1504 
1644 
1619 



G 



739 
794 
81S 
750 
772 
794 
745 
842 
659 
815 
751 
771 
724 
697 
678 
745 
876 
809 
751 
80S 
766 
690 
738 



725 
778 

755 
756 
753 
748 
735 
792 
840 
809 
869 
818 



780 
775 
792 
773 
766 
840 
783 
794 
792 
762 
789 
695 
727 
69S 
719 



IT 



322 
344 
348 
330 
353 
| 345 
316 
361 
284 
340 
308 
300 
313 
300 
300 
300 
367 
34 7 
317 
353 
342 
306 
| 311 
759 j 324 
745 I 316 



313 

332 
319 
327 
314 
308 
306 
339 
356 
345 
365 
350 



786 328 



334 
337 
341 
326 
320 
349 
342 
330 
332 
328 
316 
317 
315 
280 
314 
752 | 304 
666 | 286 
714 j' 309 
749 | 311 



349. 



T 

222 
253 
273 
232 
233 
251 
241 
273 
209 
253 
253 
233 
233 
226 
210 
265 
337 
279 
237 
259 
238 
236 
237 
251 
238 
232 
253 
250 
226 
251 
251 
219 
253 
267 
269 
281 
267 
258 
259 
247 
250 
256 
242 
284 
259 
254 
254 
250 
265 
197 
221 
231 
240 
256 
211 
213 
246 



1736.5| 766.3] 325.6)247.0 

I I ! 



178 
202 
192 
188 
198 
193 
185 
200 
161 
207 
189 
ISO 
166 
165 
169 
170 
201 
195 
197 
191 
185 
175 
191 
182 
184 
175 
188 
178 
198 
189 
192 
177 
192 
197 
192 
209 
198 
193 
197 
184 
195 
185 
193 
197 
178 
193 
192 
177 
198 
173 
171 
177 
176 
181 
167 
174 
180 

186.6 



K 

85 
S9 
84 
91 
93 
93 
91 
92 
71 
92 
92 
86 
76 
76 
78 
76 
89 
91 
91 
90 
87 
84 
89 
80 
89 
82 
91 
87 
87 
83 
85 
82 
88 
89 
88 
101 
92 
89 
S2 
92 
87 
SI 



847 
94S 
946 
873 
978 
906 
894 
988 
820 
922 
919 
866 
850 
816 
846 
879 

1030 
954 
860 

1013 
903 
839 
883 
853 
860 
852 
913 
876 
884 
868 
885 
905 
911 
956 
958 
975 
905 
938 
923 
916 
904 
931 
887 
960 
910 
990 
923 
924 
917 
852 
862 
823 
862 
903 
798 
869 
876 



M 

410 
458 
462 
427 
501 
474 
444 
408 
386 
434 
456 
433 
413 
377 
434 
453 
510 
455 
459 
506 
418 
403 
483 
413 
425 
411 
465 
435 
441 
397 
433 
433 
430 
448 
461 
■180 
437 
465 
447 
455 
442 
454 
425 
453 
448 
488 
455 
458 
429 
409 
411 
394 
414 
428 
372 
410 
433 



N 

382 
427 
430 
378 
422 
365 
379 
404 
372 
429 
399 
377 
376 
380 
357 
367 
457 
429 
338 
426 
418 



O 

246 

259 
273 
258 
261 
273 
242 
272 
222 
286 
264 
239 
242 
217 
238 
236 
280 
270 
255 
269 
258 



97 
98 
97 

102 

104 

105 

91 

99 

88 

102 

105 

93 

89 

84 

90 

92 

97 

100 

112 

109 

100 



85. 6| 902.6[ 438.8] 



367 


244 


95 


339 


256 


94 


377 


238 


91 


363 


260 


105 


379 


228 


92 


376 


266 


103 


378 


246 


95 


375 


255 


99 


398 


255 


103 


384 


245 


94 


393 


247 


94 


414 


256 


104 


434 


278 


100 


431 


259 


102 


421 


282 


108 


417 


266 


101 


391 


268 


100 


414 


258 


98 


388 


245 


99 


394 


245 


95 


407 


258 


96 


383 


269 


99 


446 


262 


100 


393 


256 


88 


420 


269 


102 


403 


263 


105 


405 


259 


89 


412 


262 


109 


382 


234 


89 


393 


225 


83 


368 


2 65 


89 


393 


234 


79 


394 


241 


99 


364 


228 


82 


403 


237 


89 


387 


240 


88 


394.5 


253.8 


96.9 



74 



Table V. 



Head. 





AA 


BB 


cc 


DD 


EE 


1 
FF 


GG 


HH 


II 


JJ 


KK 


LL 


MM 


NX 


OO 


PP 


GQ 


RK 


ss 


1 .... 


188 


138 


128 


185 


112 


97 


138 


102 


117 


87 


30 


105 


55 


55 


59 


57 


is 


79 


40 


2 .... 


194 


146 


134 


181 


106 


100 


136 


99 


112 


91 


30 


130 


52 


48 


47 


59 


14 


62 


36 


4 .... 


209 


148 


125 


192 


115 


114 


145 


108 


116 


102 


41 


140 


56 


54 


63 


76 


11 


74 


39 


5 .... 


199 


142 


135 


178 


116 


97 


134 


107 


111 


S5 


31 


130 


56 


53 


51 


53 


12 


69 


39 


6 .... 


199 


144 


129 


163 


115 


113 


137 


106 


115 


93 


39 


140 


59 


53 


48 


68 


16 


69 


39 


10 .... 


195 


146 


123 


200 


131 


104 


143 


111 


122 


101 


31 


140 


54 


57 


53 


64 


21 


72 


38 


11 .... 


202 


147 


134 


181 


113 


107 


137 


106 


110 


87 


35 


130 


51 


51 


44 


5S 


17 


64 


33 


12 .... 


203 


143 


131 


192 


117 


101 


143 


95 


121 


98 


31 


130 


54 


55 


50 


62 


10 


72 


56 


15 .... 


187 


143 


128 


169 


113 


101 


127 


89 


104 


84 


34 


125 


19 


52 


44 


55 


31 


63 


36 


16 .... 


191 


— 


— 


184 


109 


107 


147 


101 


125 


103 


33 


130 


59 


59 


51 


59 


13 


76 


36 


17 .... 


196 


139 


131 


191 


116 


99 


143 


113 


115 


95 


33 


130 


56 


53 


58 


58 


13 


69 


39 


18 .... 


185 


142 


133 


197 


124 


101 


133 


96 


109 


91 


33 


120 


54 


57 


47 


62 


19 


64 


34 


19 .... 


183 


138 


122 


165 


102 


101 


131 


94 


131 


81 


29 


115 


50 


49 


39 


55 


14 


63 


31 


21 .... 


179 


142 


128 


166 


105 


96 


127 


93 


104 


80 


32 


115 


50 


50 


40 


51 


13 


62 


31 


22 


188 


138 


121 


168 


102 


101 


129 


96 


108. 


94 


34 


120 


46 


48 


46 


53 


16 


62 


32 


23 .... 


181 


132 


114 


169 


101 


99 


125 


87 


106 


84 


31 


110 


50 


50 


39 


50 


16 


63 


33 


24 .... 


196 


145 


136 


181 


114 


106 


144 


91 


113 


94 


29 


125 


51 


53 


50 


50 


18 


69 


36 


25 .... 


182 


148 


118 


193 


117 


96 


147 


95 


117 


87 


31 


120 


59 


57 


49 


62 


5 


67 


40 


26 .... 


184 


142 


130 


195 


123 


99 


139 


96 


112 


91 


35 


115 


55 


55 


47 


57 


16 


66 


33 


27 .... 


190 


142 


127 


189 


118 


94 


142 


116 


112 


93 


31 


125 


54 


56 


53 


60 


5 


65 


29 


28 .... 


195 


145 


128 


191 


120 


99 


145 


96 


116 


97 


32 


125 


57 


57 


48 


61 


16 


69 


38 


29 .... 


186 


145 


123 


209 


122 


108 


147 


102 


119 


93 


35 


125 


57 


58 


49 


54 


15 


64 


35 


30 .... 


189 


146 


121 


187 


119 


100 


143 


115 


116 


86 


35 


115 


54 


55 


45 


55 


18 


58 


32 


31 .... 


187 


142 


116 


204 


114 


100 


143 


102 


114 


95 


37 


125 


57 


56 


53 


66 


12 


73 


33 


32 .... 


195 


148 


124 


174 


108 


104 


145 


117 


112 


95 


34 


125 


50 


48 


54 


58 


14 


62 


35 


33 .... 


182 


141 


125 


185 


105 


93 


136 


94 


112 


86 


28 


117 


51 


50 


46 


53 


14 


64 


34 


34 .... 


192 


138 


139 


191 


116 


105 


139 


111 


116 


91 


31 


117 


56 


53 


51 


63 


18 


68 


34 


35 .... 


188 


141 


142 


202 


110 


97 


140 


99 


116 


92 


34 


125 


55 


53 


49 


67 


14 


71 


39 


36 .... 


194 


142 


131 


186 


114 


105 


142 


97 


114 


90 


35 


120 


53 


55 


48 


62 


14 


70 


35 


37 .... 


186 


151 


126 


206 


117 


106 


144 


100 


113 


92 


36 


120 


57 


54 


54 


64 


8 


72 


34 


38 .... 


187 


133 


109 


179 


113 


92 


135 


96 


112 


91 


31 


120 


55 


56 


50 


62 


10 


62 


3-1 


39 .... 


185 


138 


111 


190 


116 


97 


145 


103 


114 


89 


32 


115 


53 


55 


57 


70 


17 


70 


34 


40 .... 


195 


143 


124 


197 


113 


100 


127 


93 


111 


95 


34 


120 


52 


54 


49 


57 


21 


65 


36 


41 .... 


193 


145 


117 


185 


107 


101 


143 


104 


113 


102 


33 


103 


54 


54 


50 


57 


16 


67 


37 


42 .... 


188 


145 


123 


181 


115 


108 


135 


97 


111 


96 


34 


120 


54 


54 


45 


54 


20 


66 


39 


43 .... 


203 


145 


128 


198 


123 


in 


140 


96 


116 


98 


36 


125 


50 


52 


48 


57 


21 


68 


37 


44 .... 


201 


135 


130 


189 


118 


101 


136 


109 


114 


91 


30 


123 


51 


51 


46 


59 


10 


68 


35 


45 .... 


192 


139 


128 


183 


117 


106 


137 


102 


114 


98 


37 


125 


50 


50 


47 


51 


21 


62 


37 


46 .... 


188 


148 


135 


175 


103 


93 


140 


99 


115 


S6 


32 


120 


53 


52 


4 6 


60 


10 


70 


4 


47 .... 


191 


141 


133 


185 


112 


104 


148 


102 


118 


93 


34 


125 


49 


49 


50 


64 


11 


81 


37 


48 .... 


196 


143 


133 


175 


107 


106 


137 


94 


108 


89 


28 


110 


50 


51 


45 


54 


16 


67 


34 


49 .... 


190 


143 


131 


215 


120 


107 


141 


107 


114 


90 


33 


120 


55 


54 


51 


64 


18 


70 


36 


50 .... 


193 


147 


121 


197 


106 


109 


144 


113 


123 


95 


32 


130 


54 


53 


50 


65 


19 


71 


36 


51 .... 


198 


153 


133 


198 


120 


105 


144 


98 


115 


91 


34 


120 


54 


53 


53 


69 


W 


79 


40 


52 .... 


192 


138 


131 


175 


106 


99 


142 


93 


109 


88 


30 


115 


46 


41 


46 


58 


17 


60 


31 


53 .... 


187 


133 


124 


191 


103 


105 


137 


100 


111 


89 


31 


125 


53 


51 


60 


66 


25 


74 


38 


54 .... 


193 


144 


119 


184 


118 


107 


141 


104 


117 


98 


32 


125 


54 


53 


47 


63 


16 


64 


35 


55 .... 


191 


148 


123 


181 


117 


106 


147 


108 


117 


93 


35 


125 


50 


49 


47 


57 


14 


58 


36 


56 .... 


195 


143 


129 


186 


116 


104 


151 


104 


124 


95 


3 5 


132 


5 6 


55 


51 


62 


11 


76 


35 


57 .... 


192 


130 


113 


165 


104 


95 


124 


87 


104 


81 


32 


115 


50 


49 


42 


59 


17 


59 


32 


58 .... 


184 


138 


116 


167 


103 


98 


131 


94 


109 


85 


30 


112 


47 


46 


45 


58 


15 


61 


3 3 


59 .... 


188 


137 


121 


176 


111 


103 


139 


105 


111 


87 


31 


120 


52 


51 


48 


63 


17 


71 


38 


60 .... 


183 


136 


114 


160 


101 


96 


135 


96 


111 


S7 


33 


115 


47 


45 


52 


62 


14 


74 


32 


61 .... 


192 


145 


127 


171 


101 


102 


132 


94 


109 


87 


35 


120 


49 


48 


42 


63 


24 


72 


36 


62 .... 


176 


140 


119 


175 


115 


107 


132 


89 


108 


87 


34 


115 


53 


51 


47 


57 


13 


60 


35 


63 .... 


18S 


137 


115 


173 


105 


99 


128 


93 


105 


80 


31 


112 


53 


47 


44 


50 


15 


65 


34 


64 .... 


173 


142 


121 


172 
184.2 


102 
112.2 


97 

1 

] 102.0 


129 
138.1 


91 

100.0 


102 


75 


34 


110 


45 


44 


41 
48.8 


57 
57.7 


16 

15.5 


66 


32 


Mean 


190.5 


142.1 


! 122.2 


113.3 


91.1 
_ 


32.9 


121.7 


52.7 


5,1 
___ 


67.4 


35.: 



75 

drawn-out descriptive detail, the value of which is often too much distorted by 
the personal equation. 

The data we now have available, based on systematic recording, are, as yet, 
quite insufficient to constitute anything in the nature of a comprehensive survey ; 
nevertheless, we are gradually attaining a stage when some tentative analysis of 
the observations on certain physical features may be granted. Without relying 
too much on mathematical expression or lengthy description, we may safely say 
that from the data available, the Australian native seems to present fairly con- 
sistently the following physical characteristics:— 

in stature he is slightly less than the average human height (1675 mm., 
.H addon). 

He is definitely dolichocephalic or long-headed. 

He is always platyrhinic, that is "flat-nosed/' and generally has a relatively 
broad face. His supraorbital ridges are pronounced and his lips protrusive. 

I he character of his scalp hair varies from low to deep waves and is only 
occasionally curly, and seldom frizzy. 

His general bodily hirsutcness is by no means marked, and excessive hairiness 
seems to occur with no greater frequency than in white persons. 

His skin is a dark-brown colour, or more definitely, a Vandyke brown, but 
rarely approaching a real black. 

References. 

(1) Hrdlicka, A., "Anthropometry," 1920. 

(2) Ridgway, R., "Colour Standards and Colour Nomenclature/' Washing- 

ton, 1912. 

(3) Wood Jones, F., and Campbell, T. D., Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Austr., 

vol. xlviii., 1924, pp. 303-12. 

(4) Campbell, T. D., and Lewis, A. J., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 1., 

1926, pp. 183-191. 



76 



ADELAIDE UNIVERSITY FIELD ANTHROPOLOGY: 
CENTRAL AUSTRALIA. 

No. 2.— PHYSIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

By William Ray, M.B, B.Sc. 

[Read April 14, 1927.] 

While physical measurements were being made by members of the University 
Anthropological Expedition, in January of this year, it was felt that some observa- 
tions on full-blooded Australian natives from the physiological point of view 
might be valuable. It was, moreover, felt that such observations might answer 
the question whether full-blooded natives, in a comparatively native condition, 
could be brought to submit to more extensive observation requiring aid to the 
observer on their part, such as the determination of basal metabolic rates. 

The observations here made were : — 

(1) Blood pressure. 

(2) Pulse-rate. 

(3) Vital capacity measurements. 

(4) Haemoglobin estimations. 

(5) Temperature. 

(1) The blood pressure was measured by a Tycos instrument with spring 
pressure gauge on the right arm with the subjects resting quietly. No difficulty 
was experienced with the natives whatever in obtaining muscular relaxation, 
nor did any psychic factors enter, judging from the steadiness of the pulse-rates. 

The average pressure of the males, 42 in number, was: — 

Diastolic .. .. 79-07 mm. of mercury. 

Systolic .. .. 125-3 mm. of mercury. 

Pulse pressure .. 46*3 mm. of mercury. 

Of the females, 13 in number, the pressures were slightly smaller, being: — 
Diastolic .. .- 73*5 mm. of mercury. 

Systolic .. .. 116-0 mm. of mercury. 

Pulse pressure .. 42'5 mm. of mercury. 

These pressures almost exactly coincide with the standards given for healthy 
Europeans, but arc distinctly lower than healthy white Australians by 5-10 mm. 
of mercury. 

The highest systolic pressure recorded in the males was 150 mm. The 
highest diastolic, 90 mm. 

The lowest systolic (males) was 105 mm. 

The lowest diastolic (males) was 65 mm. 

The ratio of the pulse pressure to the diastolic and systolic pressures is what 
is regarded as theoretically perfect for normal Europeans. 

No relationship can be traced in this small number of observations between 
the blood pressure and height and weight. 



77 

(2) The pulse was taken in the sitting posture. The averages were: — 
Males (48), 84 per minute; females (12), 88 per minute. These are slightly 
above the European standard. 

(3) Vital capacity. It was here that great trouble was experienced, and 
only a proportion of the natives could manage the required breathing and exhaling 
through the spirometer. The same difficulty was experienced in measuring the 
chest expansion. This is in great contrast to the facility with which they can 
control the movements of the abdominal muscles, their abdominal respiration 
being extremely complete. The observations recorded are of those natives who 
"seemed" to understand the manoeuvre required and where several observations 
upon each native showed that he had reached the limit of his respiratory capacity. 
The obviously inaccurate measurements have been completely deleted. 

The vital capacity, judged on European standards, is low, the maximum effort 
3800 cc. in a native weighing 176 lbs. 

Dividing them into weight groups the following were the figures : — 

Weight range. Individuals. Av. weight. Av. vital capacity. 

(1) 100-120 lbs. 4 113 lbs. 2562 cc. 

121-140 lbs. 6 129 lbs. 2936 cc. 

141459 ib s . 8 149 lbs. 3382 cc. 

Over 160 lbs. 4 166 lbs. 3425 cc. 

The impression was gained that if further metabolic experiments are to be 
done a strict selection of natives must be made, and the greatest watch kept for 
"auspumpung" and other disturbing factors. 

(4) The haemoglobin estimations were made with a Tallquist Haemoglobino- 
meter. and though this method does not give absolute results, yet they are 
sufficiently accurate, and we may judge from the figures that the haemoglobin 
percentage is 100 per cent, when compared with European standards. Out of 
41 individuals there are 5 below 90 per cent. 

Per cent. Males. 

100 26 

95 

90 3 

85 2 

80 1 

70 1 

33 8 41 

(5) The temperatures were taken in the mouth and were higher than those 
of the party by 0"6 of a degree Eahr. The temperature of the room in which 
the work was done varied from 93°-97° Fahr. 

The males showed the same temperature as the females, the respective 
figures being:— Males (21), 99*4; females (8), 99'5. 

The average temperature of the members of our party during the same period 
was 98*9° Fahr. 



Females. 


Total 


5 


31 


1 


1 


1 


4 





2 


1 


2 





1 



78 



ADELAIDE UNIVERSITY FIELD ANTHROPOLOGY: 
CENTRAL AUSTRALIA. 

No. 3.— BLOOD-GROUPING OF AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINALS AT 
OODNADATTA AND ALICE SPRINGS. 

By J. Burton Cleland, M.D. 

[Read April 14, 1927.] 

During the recent University Expedition, financed in part by the Rockefeller 
Foundation through the Australian National Research Council, the blood group?, 
of 57 pure-blooded aboriginals and of 3 half-castes were determined. The pure- 
blooded aboriginals all belonged to Group II. (27) or Group IV. (30) of Moss' 
Classification. Of the three half-castes one belonged to each of Groups II. , 
III., and IV., and it is rather interesting to note that the Group III. indivdual had 
a father who was half a Japanese. 

During the trip an estimation of the blood groups had to be undertaken 
frequently under difficult conditions. The weather almost throughout was 
intensely hot, ranging usually from about 105° to 111° in the shade. This intense 
and dry heat caused rapid evaporation of any fluids. Nineteen tests carried out 
at our camp at Ross' Waterhole, on the Macumba River, near Oodnadatta, had 
to be done in the open air, and it was sometimes difficult to escape from wind 
and dust. Forty-one tests carried out at Alice Springs were done under better 
and more comfortable conditions through the kindness of Sergeant Stott, who 
placed at our disposal a suitable room. 

The method adopted in carrying out the tests consisted in drawing blood from 
a needle-prick of the pulp of one of the fingers of the left hand and running a 
small quantity into a narrow tube containing citrated saline. Following on this 
the finger was dried and further blood collected in a dry, narrow-bored tube in 
which it was allowed to clot, and the separated serum was then used for testing 
with citrated red cells of Groups II, and III. In this way the red cells of the 
aboriginals were obtained for testing against known sera of Groups II. and III., 
and reversing, the aboriginals* serum was obtained for testing against citrated 
red cells belonging to known Groups II. and III. 

No difficulty whatsoever was experienced in obtaining blood from adult 
aboriginals, either male or female. They had probably been told at both localities 
where we carried out the tests that they were to allow us to carry out such 
examinations as we required, though they were not in any way forced to 
acquiesce. We explained to them in pigeon English that we wanted to see 
whether the blackfellow's blood was more like the white man's than that of a 
Chinaman or an Af ghan, and they all assented by nods to our request for obtaining 
samples of blood. Some jumped when the puncture was made, and one strong 
young man vomited suddenly and unexpectedly a large quantity of watery fluid 
apparently as a reflex act. When, however, we desired to obtain blood from the 
children, "these proved so unwilling and frightened that we had entirely to desist. 

The results may be briefly tabulated as follows, it being noted that Moss' 
Classification is adopted, and not that of Jansky. In jansky's Classification 
Group L, of Moss, becomes Group IV., and Group IV. becomes Group I. : — 

Of 57 pure-blooded aboriginals 27 belonged to Group II. and 30 to 
Group IV. ; 13 of these were women, 7 belonging to Group II. and 6 to 
Group IV. 



79 

16 pure-blooded aboriginals examined on the Macumba River near 
Oodnadatta showed 8 belonging to Group II. and 8 to Group IV. 

3 mixed bloods (a father and 2 sons), all with an intermixture of Japanese, 
belonged respectively to Groups II., III., and. IV. 

41 natives tested at Alice Springs showed 19 of Group II. and 22 of 
Group IV. 

The key sera belonging to Groups II. and III. had been prepared before 
leaving Adelaide from two members of the Expedition, the writer of this article, 
who belonged to Group II., and Mr. Ilackett, who belonged to Group III. The 
Expedition thus had with it and constantly on tap the blood of individuals known 
to belong to Groups IL and III. As far as possible it is intended that these two 
individuals shall be the source of supply of serum and corpuscles during further 
investigations. As members of the medical profession both will be available, and 
any anomaly or peculiarity in reaction occurring with white people's bloods and 
their serum or corpuscles can be noted. It will be seen that certain anomalous 
results have been met with in testing the aboriginals w T hich will necessitate some 
further comparative work on white Australians. 

Employing key sera IL and III. the issues of all the tests with the aboriginal 
red cells were clear cut, except on one occasion where a Group II. man gave no 
agglutination with the Group III. serum owing to the corpuscles being too 
numerous, but gave agglutination when they were fewer. 

To confirm the grouping determined by employing Group II. and Group III. 
sera, the reverse was attempted, the serum being obtained from the aboriginal 
and the citrated red cells belonging to Group II. and Group IV. from the two 
members of the Expedition. This reversing yielded some anomalous results of 
considerable interest. When using Group II. citrated red cells the positive and 
negative results were always clear cut, and only once was a positive recorded 
as rather weak. The agglutination usually occurred more quickly and was more 
marked and coarser than that with the Group III. reds. 

Using the Group III. red cells we found that the agglutination of these by 
an aboriginal Group IV. serum was recorded in 4 out of the 30 individuals of 
this group as being "fine and slow," or "rather fine and slow," and once as "rather 
weak" (in this case the agglutination with the Group II. red cells was also rather 
weak), and once a negative result was obtained when the red cells were too con- 
centrated, agglutination occurring on repeating with more diluted red cells. 

The remaining 24 gave typical agglutination results. 

The 27 aboriginals belonging to Group II. , which should all have agglutinated 
the Group III. red cells, gave the following results: — 

In 16 the agglutination was definite and no comments were made indicating 

any departure from what was expected. 
In 3 agglutination took place slowly and the clumping was fine. 
In one it is called "fine." 
In one "rather fine." 

In one "very fine, appearing only with much dilution." 
In 2 it was "line and rather slow/' and the use of the compound microscope 

showed only some of the corpuscle clumped. 
In one the compound microscope showed the corpuscles mostly clumped. 
Once no agglutination occurred, the test being repeated four times with 

two separate samples of blood. 
Once there was no agglutination to the naked eye, but examined with a 

compound microscope occasional doubtful clumps were seen. 



80 

(It may be mentioned here that the compound microscope was only used occasion- 
ally in doubtful cases, the issue being usually perfectly clear cut to the naked eye, 
or, if a little doubtful at first, a hand lens would reveal the presence or absence 
of agglutination.) 

As the result of the examinations made by us on this Expedition it would 
appear that in our Southern Australian aboriginals the agglutinable substance A 
characteristic of Group II. is present in nearly half of the individuals examined, 
the red corpuscles of the other half lacking both agglutinable substances A and B. 
Now with the presence of the agglutinable substance in the red corpuscles there is 
the necessary absence from the serum of the corresponding agglutinin. When 
both agglutinable substances are present in the corpuscles both the corresponding 
agglutinins are absent. When only one agglutinable substance is present in the 
corpuscles, the agglutinin corresponding to the other agglutinable substance is 
present in the serum in the case of most human races. When both agglutinable 
substances are absent from the corpuscles, both kinds of agglutinins would be 
expected to be present in the serum. In our Southern Australian aboriginals we 
found that nearly half contained only the agglutinable substance A characteristic 
of Group II. ; the other half contained no agglutinable substance in their red cells. 
In the serum of the former we should expect to find the agglutinin A capable of 
clumping the corpuscles of Group II. individuals, and in the serum of the latter 
we would expect to find the presence of both agglutinins A and B. 

The sera of our Group IV. aboriginals showed characteristically the presence 
of agglutinin A. The presence of the agglutinin B was also found in all cases, 
though the amount of this agglutinin seemed sometimes less than the amount of 
agglutinin A. 

The 27 sera of our aboriginals of Group II. should all have contained the 
agglutinin B for Group III. red cells. In the majority of instances (16) the 
serum did contain this agglutinin. In 9 cases it was present, but apparently 
in diminished amount. In one case it was almost entirely absent, and in one case 
it could not be detected. It is seen, therefore, that in our Southern Australian 
aboriginals the agglutinin B is present in the serum of Group IV. individuals, but 
sometimes in somewhat diminished amount, and in the serum of Group II. indi- 
viduals in an appreciable number of cases it is diminished in amount and 
occasionally cannot be detected. It is interesting to see here the presence sometimes 
in the serum of an agglutinin the corresponding agglutinable substance of which 
has not yet been detected in our Southern Australian aboriginals. 

We have now tested 158 full-blooded aboriginals of Central Southern Aus- 
tralia, and these have all belonged to Groups II. and IV. of Moss' Classification, 
namely, 82 to Group II. and 76 to Group IV. 

Summary. 

Fifty-seven pure-blooded aboriginals were tested, of whom 27 belonged to 
Group II. and 30 to Group IV. (Moss' Classification), The sera of all the 
Group IV. individuals showed the presence of the agglutinin A for Group II. red 
cells. All of the 57 individuals should have shown the presence of the agglutinin B 
for Group III. red cells, but this agglutinin was sometimes poorly developed or 
even absent in Group II. individuals. Of three half-castes with Japanese blood, 
one was found to belong to Group III. The results obtained support still further 
the view of the Australian aboriginal being a pure race in whom only Groups II. 
and IV. (Moss' Classification) occur. 



81 



ADELAIDE UNIVERSITY FIELD ANTHROPOLOGY: 
CENTRAL AUSTRALIA. 

No. 4.— ABORIGINAL SONGS. 

By E. Harold Davies, Mus.Doc, Elder Professor of Music, 
University of Adelaide. 

[Read April 14, 1927.] 

I.— Introduction. 

An investigation into the vocal characteristics, musical susceptibilities, and 
folk-songs of the natives of a portion of South Australia and the Northern 
Territory has formed one part of the work of the University Anthropological 
Expedition, under Dr. T. D. Campbell, which journeyed from Adelaide to Alice 
Springs (Northern Territory) in December, 1926. 

The Expedition— made possible by a special grant of the Rockefeller 
Foundation— was more in the nature of a preliminary survey, and although the 
scope of its observations was limited to a comparatively brief period, mainly 
spent at Macumba River (40 miles N.E. of Oodnadatta) and at Stuart, in the 
Northern Territory, it served to establish the existence of large and fruitful 



,.,.. .. Territory, 

fields for further investigation. In South Australia and the Northern Territory, 
more than in any other part of the Commonwealth, it appears that the living 
subject is still easily accessible, and available for research. Surely, therefore, no 
opportunity should be lost in the immediate pursuit of this important work. 

On the particular matter to be now dealt with, the following tentative observa- 
tions, though carefully considered, are put forward as a basis only for more 
detailed and comprehensive study. . # 

And such study, besides securing the fullest possible records of aboriginal 
songs, might also be extended to the more general questions of phonetics and 
speech peculiarities. 

Hitherto very little appears to have been done along these hues. Sir V\ . 
Baldwin Spencer, in various expeditions, has made a number of phonographic 
records (now lodged in Melbourne Museum). A. W. Howitt in "Native Tribes 
of South-East Australia" devotes only a few pages of his monumental work to 
"Songs and Song-Makers," quoting in all three songs, taken down from dictation 
by the late Dr. Torrance, who also submitted an aboriginal — Berak — to certain 
auditory muscial tests. , 

Passing reference to corroboree songs may also be found in such standard 
books as "Savage Life in Central Australia," Home and Alston; "Natives of 
Australia" N. W. Thomas; "North Queensland Ethnography/' by W. E. Roth; 
and "Aborigines of Victoria/' Brough Smyth; while Dr. Herbert Basedow 
devotes a whole chapter of his "Australian Aboriginal" to the subject of "Music 
and Dance," discussing certain features in a general way. In none of these 
works, however, is there any detailed analysis of individual songs, nor any critical 
estimate of their value in relation to the evolution of the art of music. Even 
such scientists as the authors of these various treatises are seldom competent to 
deal with a purely musical investigation ; nor, on the other hand, are musicians 
often disposed to the pursuit of ethnology. 

Yet it may be strongly urged that, beyond the mere objective evidence ot 
musical tendencies in a primitive race, there is the deeper subjective interest; 



and the question must be constantly asked— if not immediately answered— "Why 
does the aboriginal do these things?'* 

II. — The Recording of Songs. 
(a) Apparatus used. — In connection with the present Expedition much pre- 
liminary time w&& spent in searching for, and experimenting with, a machine 
suitable for work in the field under any possible conditions. 

Mr. Blyth, Manager of the South Australian Phonograph Company, was 
able to furnish a second-hand Edison phonograph of the old cylinder type, and 
with his enthusiastic help this was brought to a point of comparative efficiency. 
The recording horn was the subject of close attention, and no less than four 
horns of different shapes and calibre were made, and tried out, before the final 
choice was reached. This consisted of the bell of a euphonium (a large-sized 
brass band instrument) which was lengthened by the addition of a tapering cone 
of block tin to about 2 feet over all. Of all the horns tried, this proved to be the 
most sensitive acoustically, as well as freest from "blasting," but further experi- 
ment may result in considerable improvement of this most important part of the 
apparatus. (1) 

It was also found that the two-minule speed of recording was better than the 
four-minute speed, cutting a wider track and giving a greater margin of safety 
over possible irregularities on the surface of the wax cylinder. 

In actual operation this machine gave fair results, though all the recording 
was done at a temperature of 100 degs. or more in the shade, while dust and 
grit were a constant hindrance to its smooth working. The intense heat also 
caused a rapid perishing of the fine rubber gaskets on either side of the 
diaphragms in the sound boxes used both for recording and reproducing. 

It is very necessary that the attention of those who are skilled in the making 
of apparatus for sound recording purposes should be directed to the production 
of a simple and reliable instrument for field uses. A portable battery, with a 
microphone and a long length of flex, might conceivably be devised as an exten- 
sion for readily securing more delicate sounds, as well as those which cannot be 
brought into close proximity to the horn of the ordinary phonograph, in any 
case, simplicity and reliability are absolutely essential. 

(b) Recording methods adopted. — In previous attempts at securing aboriginal 
songs, such as those of Sir Baldwin Spencer, the great majority of the records 
made consist of the whole body of singers taking part in each song. 

( From the outset I felt sure that better results might be obtained by selecting 
an individual singer who could be seated directly in front of the recording horn. 
The following reasons will make this clear : — 

(1) In massed singing of relatively untrained performers, there are always 
many of inferior ability who mar the general effect of the song. This may be 
observed even among our own people, where in popular airs such as the "National 
Anthem" or "Auld Lang Syne" the total result is very far from being a true 
representation of the musical value of the song itself. Further, in listening to 
collective aboriginal songs, it is always easy to single out the song leader (pre- 
centor) who commences each strophe, and is immediately followed by the others. 
It is certain, therefore, that such a leader, performing alone, would "give a truer 
rendering of the song to be recorded. 

(2) Again, in massed singing without instrumental support, the pitch of the 
song is both fortuitous and arbitrary. It may chance to be too low at the outset, 
and then the lowest notes in the descending scale of sounds become an almost 
inaudible rumble. Or, on the other hand, commencing too high, the voices of 

O) Note. — More recent experience goes to show that a covering of soft felt on the 
recording horn is of much value in obviating the tendency to "blast." 



S3 

the chorus are strained upwards, with ludicrous and unmusical effect. (Again 
one may observe that such accidents as these are not peculiar to aboriginal folk.) 
Frequently the songs heard showed a sudden change of pitch "in medns rebus, 
clue to the impulse of the singers to secure either greater effect, or a more com- 
fortable range of tones. Thus great care was necessary in order to determine 
the true melodic outline of the song. For this reason also an individual performer 
offers the safer course. If his initial pitch be either loo low or too high, it can be 
corrected by suggesting another note for the starting point; and this L fre- 
quently did, . , 
On the whole, very little difficulty was experienced in securing the songs, and 
the onlv persuasion necessary was at the very outset. The plan was to begin 
with a chosen man, who, after a little preliminary discussion, would usually be 
willing to quietly hum through a song, beating the rhythm on two sticks. _ He was 
then gradually induced to repeat it more and more loudly until, by judicious 
encouragement (and the prospect of reward) he reached such a point ot con- 
fidence as to sing right into the horn of the phonograph. Immediately the_ record 
had been made it was reproduced for his own hearing, and the effect was instant. 
Not only was he gratified and willing to make further records, but his pride was 
soon communicated to other natives, who came forward quite readily at later 
sittings. The lubras were more difficult, and in some cases (as at Alice Springs) 
a good deal of patience was required before they could be persuaded to sing. 
However, the course described above was ultimately effective, and one of the 
young lubras proved quite a valuable ally in obtaining other subjects. A portable 
gramaphone, with a varied selection of records, was also an excellent aid m 
developing both interest and confidence. It was further of some value in deter- 
mining aboriginal reactions to European music. 

III. — Tttk Songs. 

(a) Their general character.— -Of the thirty records taken at Macumba River 
and Alice Springs (certain of these being duplicates and variants) all were made 
by members of the Arunta tribe, the largest and most widely diffused tribe of 
Central Australia. The principal facts noted as to their general character were 
as f ollow : — 

(1) No trace of a purely lyric impulse was observable, and apparently the 
emotions of love, of grief, or of joy, to whatever extent they exist among 
paleolithic men do not find instinctive expression through this medium. Further 
enquiries, however, may prove otherwise. (2) 

The songs examined show a mildly epic (narrative) or descriptive tendency, 
suggestive of the child mind. They are not usually heroic, but rather sung to 
words which speak of obvious natural things (as might be expected from their 
association with the infinite variety of totems.) It is not safe to dogmatise on 
the strict meaning of these words; in fact, it would often seem that they are 
traditional and not always fully understood by the singers themselves. Careful 
questioning, however, elicited such slight explanations as the following:— 

Goanna Song— Meaning "Him run away in the bush— catch 'urn, make 'urn 
fat and eat 'urn." 

Rai Song — Meaning "Rat come out of your hofc/ ? 

(2) N tc— It is to be understood that the study of the words of the songs was not 
the immediate object of this investigation, and the opinions here expressed may theretore 
be considered as open to challenge. However, a very exhaustive review ot their verbal 
text is available, published m the Proceedings of the Stadtischen Volker-Muscum, Frank- 
furt am Main, 1907, by Carl Strchlow, Missionar at Hennarmsburg, and Von Leonhardi. 
A perusal of the many Arunta totem songs therein quoted only serves to support the 
impressions here set down. 



84 

Witchetty Grub Song — Meaning "Grub gone away into roots of the tree 

can't find him." 
Old Lubra's Song — Meaning "Tell 'urn all come together in one camp" and 

then later "walk along the track." 
Dead Man's Song — Meaning "Dead man all smashed up, lubras dance 

around"; or "Dead man buried, all finished." 
Wild Dog Song — Meaning (addressing another pack of dogs) "This is my 

country — you go away." 

The colloquial "pidgin" renderings are the actual words used by native 
interpreters, but whatever reliance may be placed on such translations, they 
certainly suggest a very elementary association of ideas; nor would they tend to 
such a level of emotional excitement as might naturally produce the "sing-song" 
(recitative) or "chant" style of declamation. It is more likely that the exalted 
feeling necessary to song belongs rather to the actual ceremonials with which the 
various chants are so closely linked, and that the several dances and ritual 
observances (calling, as they do, for concerted utterance and movement) are 
responsible for the tendency to sing words which intrinsically are not in the least 
emotional. This suggestion of a concerted utterance gains strength also from the 
rhythmic stick beating on the ground which is an invariable accompaniment. 

(2) No rhapsodic songs were met with, but all of those recorded were of 
fairly definite form, and strophic in character, consisting apparently of brief 
versus sung to the same music over and over again. Except for slightly varying 
inflections the only difference noted in any given song was an occasional sudden 
change of pitch — generally to a higher key— incidental to an access of excitement; 
but the melodic outline remained virtually the same. Furthermore, in the great 
majority of cases— but with a few notable exceptions — the commencement of 
each song was a relatively high note followed by a gradual falling of pitch until 
the lower octave was reached, the final note being reiterated at some length with 
a diminishing intensity of tone which at last died away to nothing. In most 
instances a middle note (corresponding to the "dominant" of the Greek and 
European systems) was also strongly emphasised, and even returned to from 
below, before the final drop. Two outstanding observations are, first, the strong 
insistence on the relationship of the octave ; and, second, the natural perception 
of the cadence as a falling progression. 

(b) Rhythm. — Some kind of rhythmic reinforcement was an inevitable 
feature of all the songs that were heard. It is evidently an instinctive association, 
since, when deprived of it, the men singers who made the various records were 
obviously uneasy. Two small sticks always sufficed to supply the need, and in 
one case a native picked up an empty condensed milk tin lying on the camping 
ground, as the nearest thing to hand/and hummed through his song, at the same 
time drumming with two fingers on the bottom of the tin. 

In the collective songs of the various ceremonials that were witnessed the 
stick-beating showed a constant synchronism with the pulse of the song. The 
strength of the beats was always proportioned to the fluctuating intensity of the 
feeling, but occasionally, as the excitement rose to a climax, or the speed of the 
song increased, the single pulse beat was exchanged for a two-pulse beat of 
tremendous emphasis, thus : — 

> > 



'> 








^r % * 


i % - 


^ 


£ - 


4- 1 


$ 






r i 









At the same time the accented note, with its associated syllable, was "pounded 
out" in a manner more suggestive of vociferous speech than song. 



85 



Most of the songs showed a simple duple rhythm, but in one or two cases 
a remarkable variant was heard consisting of a duple beat to a song m triple 
rhythm, thus: — 

■&G-2 Song xii&Lse. 



s 



I 



The relative complexity of such an association of sounds and beats is interesting; 
and since it happened both at Macumba and Stuart (350 miles apart) it could 
hardly be regarded as due to accident or lack of attention on the part of the 
performers : — 

Apart from this unusual departure from the normal coincidence of song- 
pulse and stick-beat, the only other noteworthy peculiarities of rhythm occurred 
at Macumba, where one of the men sang a "Witchetty Grub" song m triple 
measure, accompanying it with a syncopated beat, thus : — 



£ x 3 



Of* 



I 



X- 



j£Z§ 



glggl 



And again, a "Pelican" song in 6/8 time, beating thus :- 



£:. 



m 



fefcfe£=^= 



Both of these are unusual variations of the more normal and primitive rhythms, 
indicating a considerable advance in mentality. The first of them should, how- 
ever, be viewed with some caution, since the native in question had possibly 
caught the more difficult rhythm from chance hearing of the ubiquitous 
gram aph one. 

IV. — Aural Impressions. 
Before making any phonograph records, I was present at certain ceremonials 
belonging to the initiation of a young man into tribal mysteries. Rough notes 
were made of a few of the songs associated with these rites, and although close 
attention was given to their main characteristics, only a limited value may attach 
to such casual observations, jotted down in the midst of an aboriginal drama ot 
surpassing interest, viewed for the first time. The following are, therefore set 
out for what they are worth, each of them embracing only one or two outstanding 
features of the song in question. 

1 Initiation Softg.—Msin compass from middle C down to the octave (tenor 
C), with occasional but very definite use of the upper D as an ornamental note, 
thus :: — 



ExS 



p 



55 



and also frequent 
corresponding em- 
phasis on the middle 
notes A & G, thus :— 



£x6 




2. Women's Corroborce.-S\* women danced, the men only singing ^a con 
tinuous series of short strophes (led by a precentor) each las mg about three- 
quarters of a minute, with a half-mmute interval between the verses, the 



86 



initial pitch remained constant, commencing with a definite A and clearly embracing 
the following notes in various rhythmic permutations: — 



Etc 7 



EdcS 



I 



»* 



but rising at times to 
a corresponding: — 



| 



x 



3 



d 



The pitch of the note marked with an asterisk was indefinite, suggesting again an 
ornamental function. The striking feature is the decisive descending fourth 
interval and an incomplete tetrachord evolving out of it by the use of an additional 
decorative note. Furthermore, two such incomplete tctrachords linked together 
give rise to the pentatonic scale which is prominent in certain of the phonographic 
records made later. 



i 



-mt 



■w 



A persistent aural impression, increasing with the subsequent hearing of these 
records, would indicate that while each song presents certain notes of very definite 
pitch (and clearly related) the in-between notes, used ornamentally, are of more 
elastic pitch (enharmonics), and while one cannot speak with absolute conviction, 
the feeling seems to grow that in unaccompanied songs these enharmonic intervals 
present a richer and more varied effect than the mathematically ordered sequence 
of conjunctive tones and semi-tones belonging to the European system. 

3. Kurdaitcha (man-killing) Song presents different features. 



Main compass :- 
Ex 10 



i 



A new rhythmic opening :- 
Exit 



3£ 



^ 



Jggg 



* 



Followed by the now familiar 




suggesting A and E as the principal notes with B and F as ornamental. 
Sudden bursts of high pitch thus : — 

E~& JT I J. 1 | _ 



-f-* — *F* — *— 


d J J 


A ^ 


W w 


IAt/1 Ste^Jif toe*** 




VV4- 




O X 


3 



It was in these momentary frenzies that the normal crotchet or quaver stick- 
beating gave place to the furious emphasis of the single minim. 



87 



4. Kangaroo Song, pitched very high : — 

> > 



£dc/# 



p 



^rrrr.% 



or varied :■ 



Extf 



MfClM i Ttl 



dropping presently with more or less of a vocal slide to the lower octave. The 
whole song was rather rhythmic than melodic, but one significant feature appears 
in the following quite startling: — 

£1x16 s,. 



| 



4 J1J/JIJ/J 



# 



indicating a very decisive sense of the major 3rd*. 

It remains to cite one or two further notes taken of individual songs. 

Emit- Song. 

Ex/7 -*. -^ 



^MVHV|V^ 



In varying degrees and with a suggestion of patterning on its downward progress. 
Possum Song, all the quaver beats being tapped. 



Eorl8 



'•■'j l .uii'.r^'i jj. 1 j. 



Rain Song ("Old Cloud") shows an unusual rhythm:- 






4h-0- 



$P± 



-& 



""J J J J I J J J J J 



Again with a downward patterning. 

Witchctty Song presents an opening phrase of quite remarkable melodic 

Eoc2Q. 



beauty :- 




^u^ j 



? 



V. — The Records Secured. 

Of the thirty or so of actual records, about a third are good reproductions, a 
similar number being less satisfactory, and the balance more or less defective and 
unreliable. A faithful transcription of those which are entirely good presents 
many difficulties: — (1) The speed is often from "Allegro" to "Presto," and the 
slight changes of inflection in the many ornamental notes are extremely elusive ; 
(2) the constant use by the singer of a sliding progression between two firmly 
intoned sounds— it may be a 3rd or 4th apart — is almost beyond reproduction in 
printed terms, especially at the rapid tempo; (3) additional to these are subtle 
rhythmic deviations, of comparatively frequent occurrence. 

To the musical hearing, however, a purely melodic art seems rather to gain 
by the greater elasticity of such devices, and while the effect of a certain indefinite- 
ness is always perceived, it is only just enough to veil the clear rhythmic and 
tonal outlines underlying. The following songs are submitted in their entirety:— 

1. "Rat" Song, sung by an aboriginal at Stuart, consists of a single phrase 
repeated six or eight times without a pause : — 



ffif ^ l -'^ l ^ 



The interest of this is wholly tonal, since it presents the widely used pentatonic 
scale characteristic of Gaelic and Chinese music equally. Rhythmically and 
structurally it is quite elemental. The pitch relations were faultlessly intoned. 

2. ''Possum" Song, by the same singer, has a slightly more organic character, 
showing a sense of phrase balance, as well as the "pattern" instinct: — 

Eoc22 Pnesfo 




etc/ lib 



I 



fcfe 



J j rj. J JJ l i 



i 



In this there is also the clearest possible indication of the hexatonic scale, which 
occurs again in the "Ring Neck" Song. 

3. "Ring Neck Parrot" Song, by a lubra at Stuart, first as a solo, three times 
repeated, and then by a chorus of four lubras, twice over: — 

Eoc23 GncUtnfe 



ffit^n 



^^ 



■* 



o 



m 



I 



%-6 



ES 



W 



Mr ^ 



s 



3 



33 



WJE 



& m 



&—0 



111 this example, besides its definite tonal formation, is seen a more highly 
organised structure, and the rhythmic diversity of the interpolated 6/4 bars, as 
well as the figure of bar 3 repeated in bar 5, seem to indicate an instinctive sense 
of the universal art principle of "variety in unity." 



89 



4. "Witchetty Grub" Song, by a native at Macumba, in its several repeats 
presents many slight variations of detail, but in substance is as follows:— 



Ex2/£ arh€£*xn£e GsJb&e&s-itfo 




it 5 1 j J i Urm-j^ 



AAi^i- 1 i,-j ji g jj jj ijj j ^ain 1 ^ 



y^ 



3* 



« 



» 



^_= ^ 



^S* 



The whole song suggests a novel pentatonic formation :- 
fiic 2 5 




5. "Pelican" Song, a rollicking and vigorous tune, sung first as a solo, and 
then repeated as a chorus with great gusto: — 



pg 



%■ % ^^ % I % 4fc 



1Z J \ %% ^ 



s 



ss 



•H% 



3 



g^wg 



§ 



#" — 0- 



*—* 




W ol/± 



r J*j. J. J ^ JrJ^ ^"33- 



533^ 



'&^rio 



The stick beat accompanying this song was uniformly maintained, thus : — 



EorZy 



p 



(i /' I / 



s 



fr-fT 



t # i > m ^ 



Cs 



s 



Its tonal interest specially lies in the use of the melodic minor scale, the sense of 
which is so strongly enforced by the sound of the initial note. As usual, slight 
variations of both time values and inflections are frequent, but the above notation 
is substantially accurate. 



90 



Since making the records above, I have had an opportunity of visiting 
Swan Reach, on the River Murray, and of obtaining there what is probably the 
only remaining song of the River Murray tribes. This is now submitted as 
follows : — 



Ex-28 jmmf&& 




,1 1 1 § 



-*4- 



% % 



± 



^ 



p 



3 



h 



h 



$ 



gl 1 J^4£L^ 



p 



*t 



s 



+—£■ 



~m 



It may be noticed that the general structure of this song, sung by an old 
blackfellow named Fletcher, nearly 70 years of age, is practically identical with 
many of the songs obtained in Central Australia, although a thousand 
geographical miles lie between them. The range of the song covers the compass 
of an octave, with stress on an ornamental note above the upper keynote, and 
emphasis also upon the middle note G. The resemblance is very remarkable, 
and points to a prevailing idiom which has evolved out of common experience. 



VI. — General Musical Susceptibility of Natives. 

On this point a few observations may be offered. Many tests were made 
such as those mentioned by Howitt, and it was found that the aboriginal readily 
responded to the pitch of' any given note. In order to ascertain this, a single 
sound was either sung, or a tuning fork struck, and in most instances the native 
immediately imitated the sound at an absolutely true pitch. In certain eases 
two or three attempts were necessary before succeeding, and it was curious to 
watch the gradual process of co-ordination between the auditory and vocal nerve 
centres, the difficulty being obviously not in a true hearing but rather in conscious 
voice-control. Further tests showed an equal ability to imitate two, three, or 
more, successive sounds of different pitch, proving the existence of a ready 
susceptibility to the various degrees of our own scale systems. 

As bearing upon and confirming this natural sensibility, it was also noticed 
that the aboriginal has a highly developed ear in the matter of vowel distinctions. 
While endeavouring to pronounce words in the Arunta language, I was corrected 
time after time, with the utmost patience and insistence (always good-humored) 
on the part of the blackfellow, until he had secured the exact inflection desired. 
These distinctions resembled the delicate differences between the French nasals 
an, en, and in, which are often almost insuperable to an Englishman. 

In the matter of reactions to various types of European music, no extensive 
trials were made, but it was noticed that a general preference was shown for 
the more serious gramaphone records, especially of good songs, to which the 
aboriginals listened with avid interest, frequently asking for their repetition. 
Beyond this, no serious attempt was made to gauge their sense of musical 
appreciation. 



91 

VII. — The Voices of the Natives. 

Usually a remarkable difference exists between the voices of Australian 
natives in speech and in song. In speech there is not the slightest trace of harsh- 
ness, but rather a uniformly beautiful and musical quality, suffused with a slight 
breathiness, or huskiness, which rather adds to its charm. The voices are never 
raised (except in calling at a distance, or possibly in recrimination), but more 
often sink to a whisper. In actual song, however, the voice often suffers an 
unpleasant transformation, due entirely to an ignorance of methods of voice 
production. From the beautiful natural speech quality it is often raised to a 
high nasal whine, in which a forced use of the chest register is the prominent 
fault. The higher the pitch of the song the more unpleasant the sounds become. 
That this is abnormal was proved in several instances. One of the singers at 
Macumba, who was responsible for several phonographic records, in preliminary 
attempts sang in a natural way, with a tone that was definitely musical and 
agreeable to hear. Similarly, at Stuart a young lubra instinctively used her 
medium, register to hum through a little song called the "Ring-necked Parrot, " 
and then, when placed in front of the recording horn, instantly started off in high, 
forced, chest notes which completely destroyed the purely musical effect of her 
performance. That a very little teaching will correct this habit is proved by my 
own previous experience of two aboriginal children who, under civilized influences, 
have developed singing voices of real beauty, as well as showing a quick aptitude 
for our own musical idioms. 

In point of range the men's voices showed a baritone or tenor quality, no 
deep bass voices being heard. 

VIII. — Brief Notes on Phonetics. 

In passing it may be noted how rich the Arunta language is in vocal (vowel) 
content. The following translation of the first two verses of the Song of Mary, 
Luke i. 46, 47,^ will make this clear: — 

46. Mariala ilaka tuta: Guruna nukanala lnkatana tnantjama. 

47. Ltana nuka arganerama Altjira, lunaluna nukibera tuta. 

(And Mary said: "My soul doth magnify the Lord 
And my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.") 

The overwhelming prevalence of the full-throated "ah" (an invariable 
terminal), as well as the total absence of sibilants (S and Z) and the consonants 
F and V combine to intensify the musical effect. The free use of double initial 
consonants such as tm, tn, nt, nk, nd, ng, nib, etc., also suggest a likeness to 
certain African languages. 

Incidentally it is a matter of much speculative interest as to how far natural 
musical tendencies in a race may be reflected in the character of its language. 
That languages differ very markedly in vocal content is clear; a comparison 
between English and Italian affords convincing evidence of this fact. And 
since the only essential difference between speech and song lies in the lengthening, 
or sustaining, of the vocals at definite musical levels, it follows that that language 
which is richest in vowels (vocals) may be so simply by virtue of a primeval song 
instinct, developing co-incidentally with speech. On the other hand, it may 
appear that such languages will subsequently favour an earlier development of 
the art of music in those who speak them. 



(3) Note. — The Gospel according to St. Luke has been rendered into Arunta by Carl 
Strehlow, of the Hermannsburg Mission, and is published by the British and Foreign 
Bible Society. 



92 

IX. — Native Mustcal Instruments. 

No musical instrument was used in any of the songs that were heard, nor 
was any trace of one seen on the present Expedition. Enquiries among available 
sources of information disclose the fact that a hollow, tree branch or bamboo 
(producing a single note, like a horn blast) is sometimes used, and this I have 
heard in certain of Sir Baldwin Spencer's records. Mr. Johannsen, an old 
resident of Central Australia, also states that a rude pan-pipes made of hollow 
bones was occasionally to be met with, never, however, played alone as a musical 
instrument, but rather (as in the case of the horn) to add to the general noise, 
and particularly to enforce the rhythmic pulsation of the songs. 

It would, therefore, seem to be certain that the various pitch relationships, 
corresponding to those in use in the European musical system, have been arrived 
at by the Australian aboriginal from an instinctive sense of effective tone con- 
trast, and as a result of purely vocal experience. This fact is of considerable 
importance, since the general view of musical evolutionists has hitherto been that 
the existence of rude instruments (either strings or pipes) would probably 
precede, and lead to, definite pitch associations iri the form of organised melody. 

X. — Summary. 

In brief, the following conclusions may be advanced from the materials now 
presented : — 

1. A considerable variety exists in the general character of the songs, tonally 
and rhythmically, as well as in their emotional content; and these marked 
differences are apparent in spite of a certain sameness of idiom due (a) to the 
prevalent falling progression from an upper keynote to the octave below, and 
(b) to the prominence of the downward fourth interval, coupled with the orna- 
mental notes immediately above both key note and fourth below. 

That the aboriginal himself is conscious of wide differences in the character 
and identity of his songs is proved by his ability to make two strongly contrastive 
records on the same cylinder, with only a moment's pause between. This hap- 
pened in three or four instances, and notably at Stuart, where both rhythm and 
tonality were changed in quick succession by the same singer. 

2. In point of form (structure) the songs are quite definite, and for the most 
part strongly coherent and logical. With the exception of No. 1 cited above, 
which is limited to a single phrase, they are well organised and surprisingly 
effective. 

3. Such a development of the expressive sense in so primitive a race is 
worthy of further enquiry and close study. Vocal utterance of the purely 
instinctive order is apparently not confined to language only. 

It is hoped at a later time to add to the examples here given which, though 
few in number, are of great evidential value. 

The material of the records already made is by no means exhausted as yet, 
and doubtless there will be future opportunities of securing many further records 
from other localities. 

It will also be necessary to convert the highly perishable wax cylinders into 
some more permanent substance, perhaps re-recording them in disc form, with 
such amplification of tone as will secure their effectiveness for public hearing. 



93 



ON NEW SPECIES OF EMPLESIS (CURCULIONIDAE). 

By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum.) 

[Read June 9, 1927.1 

The genus Emplesis consists of a large number of small weevils, many of 
which live beneath the bark of eucalypti, and may be obtained in very large num- 
bers. In general it appears to be close to Storeus, and at one time I proposed 
amalgamating the two genera. As the claws, however, are simple, except for a 
slight basal swelling, in Emplesis, and truly appcndiculate, in Storeus (although 
it is often necessary to use a compound power to examine them), I recently again 
separated them, and dealt with the species of the latter genus in the Records of 
the Queensland Museum. 




Fig;-. A. Claws of species of Emplesis. 1, filirostris, Fasc. ; 2, scolopax, Pasc. ; 
3, assimilis, Blackb. ; 4, mundas, Blackb.; 5, 6, amoena, Lea; 7, bifoveata,Lea; 
8, composita, Lea; 9, grata, Leu; 10,/afa, Lea; 11, lithostrota. Lea; 12, Ion gicoUis, 
Lea; 13, microsiicta, Lea; 14, maltiarticidata, Lea; 15, nigrofasciata, Lea; 16, 
parilis, Lea; 17, parvidem, Lea; 18, picta, Lea; 19, tibialis, Lea. 

Emplesis assimilis, Blackb. 
Numerous specimens from the Fortescue River (North-Western Australia) 
appear to represent a variety of this species; they differ from typical specimens 
in being somewhat more brightly coloured, and with the rostrum of the female a 
little longer. They are also extremely close to E. aenigmatica. On the apical 
segment of the abdomen the clothing in some lights appears golden. 



94 

Emplests ignohtlts, Lea. 

The type of this species was in rather poor condition. Numerous specimens 
now under examination (from New South Wales, Tasmania, and South Aus- 
tralia) have the scales mostly of a rusty-red colour, with numerous ochreous and 
black spots alternately arranged, especially on the odd interstices, on the third 
there are usually four black and five ochreous ones (but on several specimens the 
contrasts are not very obvious) ; on the pronotum there are two dark triangles 
at the base, and a conspicuous median line. On the head there is a remnant of a 
crest, fairly distinct but much less elevated than on E. scolopax. The female 
differs from the male in having the rostrum much longer, strongly curved, polished 
and almost impunctate, abdomen gently convex and the fifth segment shorter. 
The species is slightly larger than E. sufuralis, the rostrum of both sexes is longer, 
and the blackish spots on the elytra are more numerous and isolated. The rostrum 
of the female is somewhat shorter than on E. dispar and more curved. The type 
was stated to have the "elytra without lines of setae." They are, however, present, 
although depressed on it, but on many of the fresh specimens they are conspicuous. 

Emplksis nigkofasciata, Lea. 

Some specimens from Lucindale (South Australia) are larger, up to 3*5 mm., 
than usual. 

Emplests biachyderes, Lea. 

A male from Mount Lofty (South Australia) has the three vittae of the 
pronotum darker and more conspicuous than usual, and the dark scales of the 
elytra more numerous. One from Gosford (New South Wales) is unusually 
small, 2- 75 mm. 

Emplesis ovalisticta, n. sp. 

I . Dark reddish-brown, metasternum more or less blackish. Densely 
clothed with ochreous-brown scales variegated with paler and darker spots, and 
with a conspicuous sub-oval blackish patch beginning at the suture on the basal 
half of the elytra; scales on under surface and legs stramineous or whitish. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, slightly dilated 
between antennae and base; with fine costae, alternated with rows of squami- 
ferous punctures to insertion of antennae, at apical third, beyond which there 
are only punctures. Prothorax widely transverse, apex suddenly narrowed and 
sub-tubular; with crowded, concealed punctures. Elytra elongate, base Insinuate 
and not much wider than widest part of prothorax; with regular rows of large, 
partially concealed punctures. Two basal segments of abdomen with a wide 
shallow depression, continued on to metasternum. Femora stout, grooved and 
edentate. Length, 4-4*5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having rostrum longer, much thinner, more strongly curved, 
without ridges, with minute punctures, and clothed only at extreme base ; antennae 
inserted just perceptibly nearer base than apex of rostrum; abdomen evenly 
convex, and fifth segment slightly smaller. 

Australia (J. Faust from C. A. Dohrn). Queensland: Atherton (Dr. E. 
Mjoberg), Stradbroke Island (J. H. Boreham), Brisbane (T. G. Sloane). Type, 
T. 16237, in South Australian Museum, cotypes in Queensland and Stockholm 
Museums. 

A tessellated species, but distinct by the dark and more or less oval patch on 
the elytra, slightly variable in extent, but constant on the 48 specimens under 
examination. On the elytra of specimens in good condition there are numerous 
pale and dark spots, and the former form one or more feeble wide V's on the 
apical half ; on the pronotum the clothing is slightly variegated, but there is a 
narrow blackish triangle on each side of the base. 



95 

On this and all the other new species, unless otherwise noted, the prothorax 
has dense punctures more or less concealed by the scales ; the elytra have regular 
rows of punctures of moderate or large size, but always appearing much smaller 
through the clothing and often simulating striae on the sides; the punctures on 
the interstices are small and always concealed except where scales have been 
removed. The antennae are uniformly coloured, or at least the club is not black. 
The femora are edentate, and grooved, the grooves distinct on the hind ones, 
less distinct on the middle ones, and feeble or absent from the others. 

Emplesis suturalis, n. sp. 

$ . Dark reddish-brown. Densely clothed with rust-brown scales, con- 
spicuously variegated with paler and darker spots; under surface and legs with 
whitish scales. 

Rostrum feebly curved, parallel-sided, slightly longer than prothorax; with 
fine ridges, alternated with rows of squarniferous punctures from base to apical 
third (where the antennae are inserted), thence with dense, sharply defined, naked 
punctures. Prothorax strongly transverse, sides parallel to near apex, which is 
suddenly sub-tubular. Elytra"" elongate, base feebly trisinuate. Abdomen with 
a shallow depression common to two basal segments, fifth slightly longer than 
second and third combined. Femora stout, the hind ones strongly grooved. 
Length, 3*5-4 mm. 

5. Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, more curved, clothed 
only at extreme base, without ridges and almost impunctate ; antennae inserted 
almost in exact middle of sides of rostrum; abdomen evenly convex and fifth 
segment shorter than second and third combined. 

Western Queensland (Blackburn's Collection). Type, I. 16238, in South 
Australian Museum, cotype in Queensland Museum. 

A tessellated species* with the sutural clothing dark throughout ; two or three 
wide V's formed by pale spots may be traced on the elytra, there are four distinct 
dark spots on the third interstice, and they are fairly numerous on the sides and 
apical slope; on the pronotum two narrow dark triangles are conspicuous, and 
there is usually a narrow and moderately dark median line. The clothing of the 
scutellum, as on most of the tessellated" species, is conspicuously whitish. The 
rostrum of both sexes is shorter than on E. acnigmatka, and the clothing is 
brighter; on that species the dark spots on the elytra are isolated, on this species 
many of them are obliquely connected with the suture. 

var. meridionalis, n. var. 

Some specimens from South Australia appear to represent a variety of this 
species, the general clothing is slightly paler and the rostrum of the male is very 
slightly shorter; on several of them the pale V's extend quite to the suture. 

South Australia: Lucindale (B. A. Feuerhccrdt), Mount Lofty Ranges (N. 
B. Tindale), Gawler (A. M. Lea). 

Emplesis cylindrirostris, n. sp. 

$ . Dark reddish-brown, suture infuscated. Densely clothed with muddy- 
grey scales, variegated with paler and darker spots, and with a fairly large dark 
fascia crowning the apical slope of elytra; under surface and legs with whitish 
scales. 

Rostrum almost straight, the length of prothorax, parallel-sided, apical third 
with naked punctures, elsewhere with dense scales, partly concealing punctures 
and ridges. Prothorax strongly transverse, almost parallel-sided to near apex, 
which is suddenly narrowed. Elytra narrow, base feebly trisinuate. Abdomen 



96 

with a shallow depression common to the two basal segments, fifth slightly longer 
than second. Femora stout, feebly grooved. Length, 3-3*25 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum considerably longer and thinner, almost 
impunctate, antennae inserted slightly nearer base than apex (instead of at apical 
third), basal segments of abdomen flat in middle and fifth no longer than second. 

Queensland: Townsville (F. P. Dodd), Magnetic Island (A. M. Lea). Type, 
I. 16239. 

A narrow, faintly tessellated species, with the rostrum almost straight in 
both sexes. The dark fascia extends across about four interstices on each elytron, 
but on two (of the five) specimens before me is rather feeble; it is followed by 
a narrower fascia of pale spots, between it and the base the pale spots are fairly 
numerous but feebly defined ; on the pronotum the median line and the two dark 
basal triangles are inconspicuous. 

Emplesis submunda, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish-brown, metasternum slightly darker than abdomen. Densely 
clothed with brownish scales, variegated with paler and darker spots, under 
surface and legs with whitish scales. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, feebly curved, parallel-sided ; with 
narrow ridges, alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third 
(where the antennae are inserted), in front with naked, sharply defined punctures. 
Prothorax moderately transverse. Elytra rather narrow, parallel-sided to beyond 
the middle, base feebly trisinuate. Abdomen with a feeble depression common to 
first and second segments, fifth distinctly longer than second and third combined. 
Legs short and stout. Length, 3 mm. 

Queensland: Mount Tambourine. Type (unique), I. 16240. 

A narrow, tessellated species, in general appearance like small narrow 
E. munda, but rostrum distinctly shorter and thicker. The elytra have pale spots 
in three oblique series on each, or four if a less distinct sub-apical series is 
included, the darker spots are very feeble ; on the pronotum the variegation is 
feeble, and the two basal triangles are ill-defined. 

Emplesis intermixta, n. sp. 

S . Reddish-brown, metasternum somewhat darker. Densely clothed with 
variegated scales, becoming almost white on under surface and legs. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, slightly curved, parallel-sided, with narrow 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where the 
antennae are inserted), apex with small, sharply defined, naked punctures. Pro- 
thorax moderately transverse, sides gently rounded to near apex, which is sub- 
tubular. Elytra somewhat wider than prothorax than is usual, base feebly 
trisinuate. Abdomen with a shallow depression common to two basal segments, 
fifth very little longer than second. Length, 3*5 mm. 

Queensland: Cairns. Type, I. 16241. 

A tessellated species, with the dark scales, except for a few small spots, 
covering the median half of the pronotum; on most of the elytral interstices 
there are small dark-brown spots, alternated with longer and paler ones, and 
there is a fairly large dark spot crowning the apical slope, followed by a fascia 
of pale spots. At first glance it seems fairly close to some of the darker forms 
of E. acmgmatica, but, in addition to the different tessellation, the claw joint of 
the front tarsi scarcely projects beyond the lobes of the third, the claws themselves 
appearing to rest on its fringe. The eyes are separated less than the width of 
the base of rostrum. 



97 

Emplesis subuniformis, n. sp. 

$ . Dull reddish-brown, suture narrowly infuscated. Moderately clothed 
with pale brownish-stramineous scales, feebly variegated on upper surface, and 
slightly paler on under surface and legs. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided; 
with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures between base 
and apical third (where the antennae are inserted), in front with dense, naked 
punctures. Prothorax strongly transverse, sides gently rounded, apex sub- 
tubular. Elytra elongate, base feebly trisinuate. Abdomen with a shallow 
depression, common to the two basal segments, the fifth slightly longer than 
second and third combined. Length, 3 -25-5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum thinner, longer and strongly curved, 
antennae inserted just perceptibly nearer apex than base, rows of punctures and 
ridges feeble behind them, almost impunctate in front, abdomen evenly convex) 
and apical segment shorter than second and third combined. 

Queensland: Blackburn's Collection. Type. T. 16242. 

The tessellation is so faint that the clothing might almost he regarded as 
uniform, nevertheless on some of the lateral interstices the alternation of pale 
and dark spots is fairly distinct; the two dark spots at the base of the pronotum 
are scarcely evident. In some lights some of the scales on the head and front 
of pronotum have a faint golden lustre. The rostrum of the female is strongly 
curved, almost as on E. femoralis, to which in other respects it is fairly close, 
except for the weaker tessellation; it is larger than E. mediocris, and the female 
rostrum is more strongly curved. 

Emplesis bituberculata, n. sp. 

<$ . Dull reddish-brown, antennae and tarsi paler. Densely clothed with 
stramineous, brown and blackish scales, becoming whitish on under surface of 
body and of legs. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, almost straight, parallel-sided, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical fourth (where 
the antennae are inserted), in front with crowded, naked punctures. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, sides gently rounded but apex sub-tubular. Elytra 
nowhere quite parallel-sided, base feebly trisinuate. Under surface with a 
depression continuous from near base of metasternum to apex of abdomen, and 
deeper on basal than on apical half, on each side of it on basal segment of 
abdomen a conspicuous rounded tubercle. Length, 3*25-3 '5 mm. 

Queensland: Mount Tambourine (II. Hacker in November, A. M. Lea in 
January). Type, I. 16243, in South Australian Museum, cotype in Queensland 
Museum. 

A tessellated species, but readily distinguished from all previously described 
ones by the bituberculate abdomen. There is a large elongate patch of black 
scales on the side of each elytron, elsewhere brown and stramineous scales are 
irregularly mingled ; on the pronotum the usual two basal dark triangles are 
scarcely defined. 

var. tasmaniensis, n. var. 

Four specimens from Tasmania evidently represent a variety; they differ 
hi being considerably darker, blackish, except for the antennae and tarsi, but the 
elytra are without black patches of scales, stramineous and dark-brown ones 
being irregularly intermingled on the upper surface, the rostrum is slightly longer 
and the depression on the under surface is not continued beyond the second seg- 
ment of abdomen, the apical segment is longer, and the two basal tubercles are 
slightly larger. 



98 

$ . Differs from the male in having the rostrum longer, thinner, cylindrical, 
polished black, and without punctures or ridges, antennae inserted nearer base 
than apex of rostrum, abdomen gently convex, non-tuberculate, and apical seg- 
ment not as long as second and third combined, instead of slightly longer. 
Tasmania: Hobart and Burnie (A. M. Lea). 

Emplesis alphabetic^, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish-brown, rostrum, antennae and tarsi somewhat paler. Moder- 
ately clothed with stramineous-brown scales, variegated with paler and darker 
spots ; on under parts uniformly whitish. 

Rostrum slightly curved, about the length of prothorax ; with narrow ridges 
alternated with squamiferous rows of punctures to apical third (where the 
antennae are inserted) ; in front with dense, naked punctures. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, sides comparatively strongly rounded and apex not 
suddenly sub-tubular. Elytra narrow, basal third parallel-sided, base very feebly 
trisinuate. Abdomen more convex, and with a smaller depression than is usual 
on two basal segments. Legs comparatively short and stout. Length, 2 - 5 mm. 

Queensland: Dalby (Mrs. F. H. Hobler), unique. 

A small, tessellated species, narrowly elliptic in appearance, although the 
outlines of the prothorax and elytra are not continuous. On the middle of the 
fifth interstice, on each elytron, there is a narrow whitish spot, and one on each 
interstice to the suture half-way down the apical slope, the whole forming a 
rather conspicuous V; there are also a few other pale spots on the elytra, the 
dark spots are more numerous but less conspicuous ; on the pronotum there are 
two dark basal spots and a less distinct median line, with a few feeble scattered 
spots. 

Emplesis pulicosa, n. sp. 

£ . Of a dull, pale reddish-brown. Densely clothed with stramineous-grey 
scales, the elytra conspicuously tessellated, and with a deep black patch crowning 
the apical slope, scales on under surface and legs almost white. 

Rostrum rather thin, parallel-sided, slightly curved, almost the length of 
prothorax; ridged and punctate to insertion of antennae (at apical third), thence 
w r ith rather dense punctures. Prothorax slightly transverse, sides almost parallel 
to near apex. Elytra thin, base very feebly trisinuate, basal third parallel-sided. 
Two basal segments of abdomen feebly depressed in middle, the fifth not quite 
as long as second and third combined, .legs short. Length, 2"5 mm, 

Queensland: Longreach (A. M. Lea). Type (unique), I. 16244. 

A narrow, tessellated species. The pale scales on the elytra form numerous 
narrow spots, alternated with smaller dark ones, similar in colour to the derm; 
the patch of black scales extends across about six interstices on each elytron, and 
the pale spots preceding and following it are more conspicuous than the others ; 
on the pronotum the two dark sub-triangular basal marks are distinct, and there 
is a fairly distinct median line, narrowing in front, the setae are numerous and 
give the surface a speckled appearance, although of much the same colour as the 
scales amongst which they are set. The clothing of the rostrum completely conceals 
the sculpture of the basal fourth, and from there to the apical third the ridges 
are distinct, but the scales thin out. The tessellation is more conspicuous than 
on E. cylindrirostris, there is more black on the elytra, the rostrum is more curved 
and the size is less. 

A female from New South Wales (H. J. Carter) probably belongs to the 
species. Its rostrum is slightly longer, thinner, and more curved on the male, 
and its abdomen is evenly convex ; its elytra have the suture blackish, and the 
irregular black patch at the summit of the apical slope appears as a black spot on 
each elytron, separated from the suture by the second and third interstices. It 



99 

is considerably narrower than E. sublecta, but the markings approach those of 
some specimens of that species. 

Emplesis curvirostris, n. sp. 

2 . Reddish-brown, metasternum and club blackish. Clothed with 
stramineous and brownish scales, becoming white on under surface and legs. 

Rostrum long, thin, strongly curved, glabrous and minutely punctate. 
Antennae inserted just perceptibly nearer apex than base of rostrum. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, sides rounded, apex about half the width of base. Elytra 
elongate-subcordate. Fifth segment of abdomen scarcely longer than second. 
Length, 2 mm. 

Queensland: Hribie Island (H. Hacker and A. M. Lea). Type, I. 16245, 
in South Australian Museum, cotype in Queensland Museum. 

A small species, apparently intermediate between the tessellata and nwekeps 
groups. The pale spots on the elytra are narrow, and each is confined to a single 
interstice, as on other tessellated species, but they are not sharply defined ; several 
of them may be regarded as forming a feeble fascia just before summit of apical 
slope, and another half-way down it ; on the pronotum two dark basal marks are 
fairly large, and there is a median line, but they are not sharply defiried, the rest 
of its surface has a speckled appearance. 

Five specimens, all females, were obtained, but the species is distinct by the 
small size, long curved rostrum and black club ; it is about as long as E. impotens, 
but is wider. 

Emplesis macrosticta, n. sp. 

2 . Dull reddish-brown, metasternum darker. Densely clothed with whitish 
scales, a large black spot on elytra, and some feeble brownish ones. 

Rostrum long, thin, moderately curved ; with rows of fine punctures to 
insertion of antennae (slightly nearer apex than base), and glabrous, except at 
extreme base. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides rather strongly rounded. 
Elytra, for the genus, comparatively wide, base very feebly trisinuate. Fifth 
segment of abdomen the length of second. Length, 2*75 mm. 

Northern Queensland (Blackburn's Collection). Type (unique), I. 16246. 

This should probably be regarded as a tessellated species, but the tessellation 
is feeble and confined to the apical half of elytra. The large spot commences 
near the base, terminates before the middle, and is sharply terminated by the 
third stria on each elytron, the clothing margining it is whiter than elsewhere ; 
on the pronotum there is a median line, and two sub-triangular basal spots of 
brownish scales. 

Emplesis squamivaria, n. sp. 

£ . Blackish-brown, legs, rostrum and antennae obscurely paler. Densely 
clothed with variegated scales, becoming sparser and almost white on under surface 
and legs. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, slightly curved, parallel-sided, with 
fine ridges alternated with squamiferous rows of punctures from base to apical 
third, where the antennae are inserted, in front with small naked punctures. 
Prothorax strongly transverse. Elytra elongate-subcordate, base moderately tri- 
sinuate. First and second segments of abdomen with a wide depression continued 
on to metasternum, and feebly on to third and fourth, fifth slightly longer than 
second and third combined and with a large round depression. Femora stout, 
the middle and hind ones distinctly grooved. Length, 3*5 mm. 

Northern Territory: Darwin (G. F. Hill and W. K. Flunt). 

A fairly stout somewhat tessellated species. The clothing of the upper sur- 
face is white, ochreous and brown irregularly mingled, and on the elytra there is 
a large black spot on each side, although not quite as on E. bituberculata. The 



100 

derm of the type is almost entirely blackish; the second specimen is much paler, 
being pale reddish-castaneous (probably from immaturity) ; its clothing is less 
variegated, the dark elytral spots being scarcely black, and the scales of the pro- 
notum being silvery-white and brown, in irregular alternate vittae. 

Emplesis vitticollis, n. sp. 

3 . Dark reddish-brown, antennae and tarsi somewhat paler. Densely 
clothed with slaty-white, stramineous and brown scales, becoming white on under 
parts. 

Rostrum rather stout, slightly shorter than prothorax, almost straight, 
parallel-sided; ridges and punctures completely concealed by scales to apical 
fourth, where the antennae are inserted, tip with dense and small but sharply 
defined punctures. Prothorax almost as long as the basal width, sides gently 
rounded but strongly narrowed at apex. Elytra thin, almost parallel-sided to 
beyond the middle. Abdomen with a shallow depression continuous from near 
base to base of fifth segment, fifth slightly longer than second and third combined. 
Length, 2*25-2'75 mm. 

Northern Territory (Capt. S. A. White). Type, I. 16249. 

A narrow somewhat obscurely tessellated species. The clothing on the inner 
half of the elytra is irregularly intermingled, on the sides the tessellation being 
more pronounced ; on the pronotum there are three fairly well-defined dark vittae 
and two pale ones, the sides being irregularly spotted. The prothorax is longer 
than is usual and the claws are more strongly exserted. In appearance it is fairly 
close to E. submunda, but the tessellation of both prothorax and elytra is on a 
somewhat different plan, and the rostrum is stouter. 

Emplesis microsticta, n. sp. 

Blackish, antennae (club blackish) and tarsi obscurely reddish. Densely 
clothed with ochreous scales intermingled with small black and white spots, under 
parts with stramineous clothing. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided, with 
seven distinct ridges alternated with rows of punctures between base and antennae 
(at apical fourth), in front with numerous sharply defined punctures. Prothorax 
about as long as the basal width, sides rather strongly rounded. Elytra elongate- 
subcordate, sides nowhere parallel. Abdomen somewhat flattened but not 
depressed along middle, third and fourth segments combined slightly longer than 
fifth and decidedly longer than second. Legs somewhat longer than usual; front 
femora moderately, the others deeply grooved. Length, 4*5 mm. 

New South Wales: Blue Mountains (Dr. E. W. Ferguson), unique. 

A speckled species somewhat resembling Storeus albosignatus on an enlarged 
scale, but with claws swollen at the base instead of appendiculate. The^ seriate 
punctures on the elytra are narrower than usual and "each contains a thin seta. 
On the elytra the black and white spots are about equally numerous, but the white 
ones are usually smaller and more conspicuous, occasionally a single white seta 
is isolated; on the pronotum there are no white scales, and the black ones are 
irregularly distributed; on the head the clothing is entirely ochreous. The 
abdomen is without a longitudinal depression and its fifth segment is compara- 
tively short, these being feminine characters, but the structure of the rostrum 
(although the seriate punctures are not squamiferous), and the insertion of 
antennae appear to render it certain that the type is a male. 

Emplesis brevimana, n. sp. 
| . Pale reddish-castaneous. Densely clothed with pale buff scales 
tessellated with pale-brown ones, on under parts becoming white. 



101 

Rostrum long, rather thin, moderately curved, with fine ridges alternated 
with rows of squamifcrous punctures on basal half, slightly beyond which the 
antennae are inserted, apical half with small naked punctures. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, apical third rather strongly narrowed. Elytra rather 
narrow, base feebly trisinuate. Abdomen shallowly depressed along middle of 
first and second segments, fifth slightly longer than second and third combined. 
Legs short, femora feebly grooved, claw joint of front tarsi just passing lobes of 
the third, of the others not at all. Length, 2-2' 5 mm. 

9 „ Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, more strongly curved, 
glabrous and almost impunctate, without ridges, antennae inserted slightly nearer 
its base than apex, and fifth segment of abdomen shorter than first and second 
combined. 

New South Wales: Barcllan (A. M. Lea), Bogan River (J. Armstrong). 
South Australia: Quorn (A. H. Elston). Type, 1. 16250. 

A small species, with soft tessellated scales, and without seriate rows of 
elytral setae; about the size of E. javenca, but very distinct by the unusually 
short claw joint. The tessellation of the scales is fairly sharply defined, although 
the two colours are not strongly contrasted ; but the pattern is not alike on any 
two specimens before me. The type male, from Barellan, has the metasternum 
no darker than the adjacent parts; of two females from the Bogan River one 
has the metasternum slightly darker than the adjacent parts, but on the other it 
is black. A male, from Quorn, has the metasternum and part of the abdomen 
black; the tessellation of its upper surface is so faint that the clothing might 
fairly be regarded as uniform. 

Two males and a female have just been received from the Bogan River; of 
these the males have the metasternum and abdomen (except the apical segment) 
black, densely covered with white scales; the female has the metasternum only 
black, and the tessellation of its upper surface fairly pronounced. 

Emplesis nigrirostris, n. sp. 

? . Black, apex of prothorax, claw joints, scape and basal joint of funicle 
reddish. Densely clothed with sooty and whitish scales, irregularly intermingled 
on upper surface; on scutellum and under parts white. 

Rostrum distinctly longer than prothorax, thin, strongly curved, shining and 
impunctate; antennae inserted scarcely perceptibly nearer base than apex. Pro- 
thorax strongly transverse, sides strongly rounded. Elytra feebly trisinuate at 
base, basal third almost parallel-sided. Abdomen gently convex, fifth segment 
almost as long as second and third combined. Middle and hind femora very 
feebly grooved, the others not at all. Length, 4 mm. 

Victoria: Mount Buffalo (Rev. T. Blackburn). Type (unique), I. 16253. 

The type was named, although a female, as it is very distinct by the black 
colour of its body and most of its antennae. It has the strongly curved and 
polished black rostrum and partly black antennae of E. monticohi, but is larger, 
elytra black and clothing different. Parts of the elytra might be regarded as 
obscurely tessellated. 

Emplesis squamirostris, n. sp. 

$ . Black, antennae and claw joints reddish. Densely clothed with muddy- 
grey scales, feebly tessellated with sooty-brown spots, becoming almost white on 
under parts. 

Rostrum distinctly longer than prothorax, almost straight, parallel-sided, 
with a conspicuous swelling at base, clothed almost to tip with the ridges and 
seriate punctures concealed, tip with small crowded punctures. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, sides gently rounded, but apex suddenly narrowed. Elytra 
rather narrow, basal half parallel-sided, base very feebly trisinuate. Abdomen 



102 

flattened but not depressed along middle, fifth segment slightly shorter than 
second and third combined. Length, 3-3 "5 mm. 

Victoria: Birchip in July (J. C. Goudie). 

A dingy species like E. gravis, but the rostrum much as on E. tubercidifrons; 
the elytra, however, have but two obscurely contrasted shades of colour, not 
three distinct ones, as on that species. On E. scolopax the interocular clothing 
is in the form of fascicles and the general clothing is paler. E. lineigera is 
evidently allied, but appears to be a paler and more conspicuously tessellated 
species. The clothing of the rostrum is continued well beyond the insertion of 
antennae (at apical two-fifths), a rather unusual character. There are lines of 
setae on the elytra, but being pressed flat amongst the scales they are inconspicuous, 

Emplesis nigriclava, n. sp. 

S . Black, antennae (except club) and tarsi reddish. Densely clothed with 
dark-brown and stramineous scales, becoming whitish on under parts and snowy 
on scutellum. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, slightly curved, parallel-sided; with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures from base to insertion of 
antennae (at apical two-fifths) beyond which the punctures are crowded and 
naked. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides rather strongly rounded. Elytra 
comparatively wide, base gently trisinuate, sides now r hcre quite parallel. Abdomen 
with a wide depression on first and second segments, continued on to meta- 
sternum and feebly on to third and fourth, fifth about as long as second and third 
combined. Legs stout, femora scarcely grooved. Length, 3 -5-4 mm. 

$ . Differs in having the rostrum considerably longer, thinner, strongly 
curved, shining throughout, rows of punctures faint behind antennae (these 
median) and not squamiferous, abdomen with a smaller and shallower depression 
and fifth segment smaller. 

Victoria: Gisborne (A. H. Elston from G. Lyell). New South Wales: 
Forest Reefs (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 16318. 

An obscurely tessellated species, with the black rostrum club and under sur- 
face of E. monticola, but with a wide median space on the pronotum clothed with 
dark scales, conspicuously bounded on each side by a patch of pale ones ; the 
elytra also have a fairly distinct, interrupted, pale fascia (sometimes reduced to 
isolated spots) crowning the summit of the apical slope. At first glance it is 
somewhat like the Tasmanian variety of E. bitubercitlata, but the abdomen is non- 
tuberculate and the club is black. The elytral setae are numerous but distinct 
only from the sides. 

Emplesis interrupta, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish-brown, metasternum darker. Densely clothed with dingy 
stramineous scales becoming whitish on under parts and snowy on scutellum. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, slightly curved, parallel-sided, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures on basal half, apical half 
with naked punctures. Antennae inserted two-fifths from apex of rostrum. 
Prothorax moderately transverse, sides well rounded. Elytra rather thin, base 
not trisinuate, parallel-sided to beyond the middle. Two basal segments of 
abdomen shallowly depressed in middle, fifth as long as second and third combined. 
Length, 2*5-3 mm. 

2 . Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, moderately curved, punc- 
tures very feeble, clothed only at extreme base, antennae inserted in middle of 
rostrum and abdomen gently convex with the fifth segment shorter, 

Victoria: Birchip (J. C. Goudie, No. 217). 

A tessellated species with markings faintly suggestive of E. dorsalis. On 
the elytra there is a fairly large but much interrupted dark patch that is terminated 



103 

just below the summit of the apical slope by a fascia of paler scales than else- 
where ; on the pronotum there are three dark longitudinal markings, but only 
the median one is complete, the rest of its surface has a speckled appearance due 
to setae; all the setae on the upper surface are sub-depressed. On the male the 
metasternum is black, on two females it is scarcely darker than the. adjacent parts. 

Emplesis medfasciata, n. sp. 

1 . Reddish-castaneous. Densely clothed with rusty-brown scales becoming 
paler on under parts, elytra with a conspicuous black median fascia, beneath which 
the derm is also darker than the adjacent parts. 

Rostrum distinctly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided, 
with distinct ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical 
fourth, where the antennae are inserted, beyond which there are no ridges and 
the punctures are naked. Prothorax strongly transverse, sides moderately 
rounded. Elytra moderately robust, base distinctly trisinuate, parallel-sided to 
beyond the middle. Abdomen depressed along middle, the depression continued 
on to metasternum but faint on third and fourth segments, these unusually short, 
fifth slightly longer than second to fourth combined. Femora scarcely grooved; 
front tibiae longer and more curved than usual, the hind ones with a distinct 
swelling in middle of under surface. Length, 4*5-5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum longer (fully twice the length of pro- 
thorax), strongly curved, thinner, punctures sparse and small, the seriate ones 
smaller and naked ; antennae inserted in middle of rostrum ; abdomen flat along 
middle, third and fourth segments of normal size and the fifth very little longer 
than second ; and tibiae normal although somewhat longer than usual. 

South Australia: Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt and F. Seeker), Mount Lofty 
Ranges (S. PI. Curnow), Kangaroo Island. Type, I. 16259. 

An unusually distinct species with a conspicuous black median fascia occa- 
sionally broken up into irregular spots, beyond which the surface is faintly 
tessellated, due more to alterations in density of clothing than to colour. The 
unusually long and curved rostrum of the female passes well beyond the meta- 
sternum ; the abdomen and tibiae of the male are also distinctive. On some 
specimens the head and parts of the under surface are infuscated. At the apex 
of the abdomen of the male there are two bristles, much as on many species of 
Melanterius and Lybaeba. 

Emplesis costirostris, n. sp. 

$ . Dark piceous-brown, some parts almost black, antennae and tarsi paler. 
Densely clothed with rusty-brown, ochreous, blackish and white scales ; the 
under parts with sparser stramineous ones. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided, with 
seven distinct ridges alternated with rows of punctures to antennae (at apical 
two-hfths), beyond which the punctures are crowded and narrow. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded. Elytra elongate-subcordate, sides 
nowdiere quite parallel. Two basal segments of abdomen feebly depressed in 
middle, fifth slightly longer than second and third combined. Length, 4-5*5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer, abdomen gently convex, 
and fifth segment slightly shorter than second and third combined. 

South Australia: Mount Lofty Ranges (S. H. Curnow and A. H. Elston), 
Port Lincoln (Rev. T. Blackburn). Type, I. 16260. 

At first glance the derm beneath the scales appears to be black. On the 
pronotum the scales are irregularly intermingled ; on the elytra there is a fairly 
large dark patch, sharply limited at the summit of the apical slope by an ochreous 
or rusty-red patch, the front edge of which is biarcuate, the dark patch is vague 
elsewhere and has scattered white specks on it; there is also a fairly large black 



104 

patch on each side ; on the head the clothing is denser and paler between the eyes 
than elsewhere. The sexes are less defined than usual in Emplesis; two specimens 
with a slight depression on the abdomen are evidently males, the others on which 
it is gently convex arc evidently females, but they have the rostrum very little 
longer, quite as sharply ridged, and the insertion of antennae almost the same ; 
on both sexes the rostrum is squamose only near the base. The species is about 
the size of the preceding one, but the blackish patch is more posterior, and the 
front tibiae are not sub-falcate, are considerably shorter, and the hind ones are 
simple. It is also somewhat like E. microsticta in general appearance, but the 
rostrum is shorter, the antennae are inserted less close to the apex, and the apical 
clothing of elytra is different. 

A female from Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt) evidently belongs to the 
species; it differs from the others in being smaller, prothorax quite black, with 
black and white scales only, and the black patch on the elytra sharply defined 
throughout and sub-triangular in shape. 

Emplesis interocularis, n. sp. 

2 . Dark reddish-brown, antennae and rostrum somewhat paler. Densely 
clothed w T ith pale dingy-brown scales, tessellated with paler and sooty spots, and 
not much paler on under parts than on upper ones ; head bif asciculate between 
eyes, 

Rostrum very long (about twice the length of prothorax), thin, strongly 
curved, basal fifth squamose, elsewhere with minute but fairly sharp punctures. 
Antennae inserted slightly nearer base than apex of rostrum. Prothorax strongly 
transverse, sides feebly rounded but suddenly narrowed at apex. Elytra rather 
narrow, sides nowhere quite parallel, base distinctly trisinuate. Abdomen with a 
slight depression common to first and second segments, fifth scarcely longer than 
second. Length, 3*5 mm. 

South Australia: Mount Loftv Ranges (N. B. Tindale). Tvpe (unique), 
I. 16261. 

The species of Emplesis that are crested between the eyes appear to have 
females that are quite as distinct as their males, so the type of this species was 
described without hesitation. It is slightly longer than E. tuhercitlifrons, and the 
tessellation is somewhat different, the rostrum longer and strongly curved. The 
female of E. scolopax, as identified by Blackburn, has a considerably shorter and 
much less curved rostrum. The club is slightly paler than the rest of the antennae. 
The paler and darker spots are more conspicuous on the three first interstices on 
each elytron than on the others ; on the pronotum there is a continuous sooty 
median line, and two shorter sub-triangular marks touching the base. The 
clothing of the under parts is denser and darker than usual and normally conceals 
the punctures; even on the scutellum the scales are not distinctly whitish. 

Emplesis illota, n. sp. 

£ . Reddish-brown. Densely clothed with stramineous-brown scales, with 
numerous dark spots, under parts with whitish clothing. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided, 
with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical two- 
fifths (where the antennae are inserted), beyond which there are numerous naked 
punctures. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded. Elytra 
rather narrow, for a short distance parallel-sided, base trisinuate. Abdomen with 
a shallow depression on first and second segments, fifth distinctly shorter than 
second and third combined. Femora not grooved, tibiae unusually short. Length, 
2*25-2*75 mm. 



105 

$ . Differs in having the rostrum much longer, thinner, strongly curved, 
glabrous, with minute punctures, antennae inserted slightly nearer base than apex, 
and abdomen evenly convex. 

South Australia: Murray Bridge (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 16265. 

A narrow dingy species, the dark spots on the elytra more or less conjoined 
to form several V's, but not as on E. suluralis, which is a larger species, with the 
rostrum of the female shorter and much less strongly curved ; some narrow spots 
are slightly paler than the adjacent parts, but at first glance the tessellation of 
the elytra appears to be due to two shades only; on the pronotum there are three 
inconspicuous dark marks, of which the median one only is continuous from base 
to apex. 

Emplesis grisea, n. sp. 

S . Reddish-brown. Densely clothed, with slaty-grey scales feebly mottled 
or tessellated with darker spots ; under parts with paler and sparser clothing. 

Rostrum long, almost straight, parallel-sided, with fine ridges alternated with 
rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where the antennae are inserted), 
beyond which the punctures are dense and naked. Prothorax moderately trans- 
verse, sides gently rounded. Elytra rather narrow, parallel-sided to about the 
middle, base feebly trisinuate. Abdomen with a wide, shallow and almost con- 
tinuous depression, but very faint on third and fourth segments, fifth scarcely 
longer than second. Hind femora very feebly grooved. Length, 2'5-3 - 5 mm. 

$ . Differs in having the rostrum thinner and much longer (almost twice 
the length of prothorax), slightly more curved, bright castaneous, glabrous, almost 
impunctate, antennae inserted slightly nearer its base than apex, prothorax more 
transverse, elytra less parallel-sided, and abdomen flat along middle. 

South Australia: Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt), Yorke Peninsula (Capt. 
S. A. White), Port Lincoln (Rev. T. Blackburn and A. M. Lea). Type, I. 16266, 

The clothing oi the upper surface is sometimes almost uniformly greyish, 
on some specimens the paler scales form feeble V's ; on the pronotum the median 
line is usually very faint, and there may be but one dark mark on each side at the 
base, but on many specimens the sides are rather distinctly mottled. Blackburn had 
specimens of this species mixed with E. scolopax, and in a note on that species 
remarked "the well-defined fascicles of coarse scales . . , these, however, 
are very easily rubbed off." Many of the specimens before me are quite evidently 
in perfect condition, and although the scales between their eyes may be regarded 
as forming a feebly depressed pad, this is very different from the erect fascicles 
of scolopax ; the general clothing is also of a more slaty-grey colour. The general 
appearance is sometimes much as on E. cylindrirostris, but the rostrum of both 
sexes is longer and less straight. E. macrostyla (from Western Australia) has 
rostrum of the male (the only sex known) and abdomen somewhat similar, but 
its tessellation is of the usual kind. On an occasional female (usually immature) 
there is a slight sprinkling of scales on the basal half of the rostrum. 

Emplesis invenusta, n. sp. 
$ . Dark brown, antennae paler, metasternum and abdomen black. Densely 
clothed with slaty-grey scales, obscurely mottled with darker ones, becoming 
whitish on under parts ; briefly bifasciculate between eyes. 

Rostrum scarcely longer than prothorax, parallel-sided, slightly curved, with 
fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical two-fifths 
(where the antennae arc inserted), beyond which the punctures are rather dense 
and naked, Prothorax moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded. Elytra 
rather narrow, nowhere quite parallel-sided, base slightly trisinuate. Two basal 
segments of abdomen feebly depressed along middle, fifth distinctly shorter than 
second and third combined. Femora very feebly grooved. Length, 2'5 mm. 



106 

South Australia: Karoonda to Peebinga (G. E. H. Wright) Murray River 
(H. S. Cope). Type, I. 16254. 

In general appearance like E. sqiiamirostris on a reduced scale, but rostrum 
slightly shorter and more curved, clothed only to insertion of antennae, its base 
feebly fasciculate instead of with a distinct swelling, and legs and rostrum entirely 
reddish. It is also somewhat like the preceding species, but the rostrum is shorter, 
the abdomen is more faintly depressed, and, with the metasternum, is black. The 
tessellation of the elytra and three marks on the pronotum are faint on both 
specimens under examination. 

Emplesis intricata, n. sp. 

Dark brown, rostrum, antennae and legs somewhat paler, metasternum almost 
black. Densely clothed with slaty-grey and brown scales, becoming white on 
scutellum and under parts. 

Rostrum scarcely the length of prothorax, slightly diminishing in width from 
base to insertion of antennae (slightly nearer apex than base), basal half with 
sculpture concealed by scales, apical half with numerous small punctures. 
Prothorax as long as basal width, sides moderately rounded. Elytra rather 
narrow, sides nowhere quite parallel, base almost truncate. Abdomen rather 
strongly convex, a narrow inconspicuous impression along middle, fifth segment 
no longer than second, and with two minute apical bristles. Length, 3 mm. 

South Australia: Kangaroo Island. Type (unique), I. 16268. 

The tessellation of the elytra is fairly strong, although the scales are of but 
two colours; on the pronotum there are five longitudinal marks (of which the 
outer ones are interrupted) and a transverse one, but all are more or less connected. 
The colours of the scales are much as in E. grisea and E. cylindrirostris, but the 
pattern is not the same and the rostrum is stouter and wider at the base. The sex 
of the type is doubtful, but it is probably a male. 

Emplesis apiciventris, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish-castaneous ; scutellum, a fairly large patch on elytra, meta- 
sternum and base of abdomen black. Densely clothed with rusty and stramineous 
slightly variegated scales, becoming sparser and whitish on under parts. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, feebly curved, parallel-sided, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where the 
antennae arc inserted), in front with crowded naked punctures. Prothorax about 
as long as the basal width, sides strongly rounded. Elytra narrow, almost parallel- 
sided to beyond the middle, base almost truncate. Under surface with a depres- 
sion from middle of metasternum to apex of abdomen; fifth segment of the latter 
almost as long as second to fourth combined. Femora feebly grooved. Length, 
2' 5 mm. 

South Australia: Mount Lofty Ranges (S. H. Curnow). Type (unique), 
I. 16269. 

The black patch is somewhat oval in shape, extends across three interstices 
on each elytron from the base to about the middle, but is in part interrupted by 
the suture; it is somewhat like that of E. ovalisticta in miniature. There are two 
slight pale V's on the elytra; one partly on the apical slope, the other (a very 
feeble one) on the black patch ; on the pronotum the mottling is very feeble. The 
median ridge of the rostrum, although very narrow, is traceable almost to the apex. 

Emplesis alternata, n. sp. 

i . Dull reddish-brown. Densely clothed with dull stramineous and 
brownish scales, becoming whitish on under parts. 



107 

Rostrum slightly shorter than prothorax, parallel-sided, gently curved, with 
fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where 
the antennae are inserted), in front of which are numerous naked punctures. 
Prothorax moderately transverse, parallel-sided to near apex, which is sub-tubular, 
Elytra thin, almost parallel-sided to beyond the middle, base feebly trisinuate. 
Abdomen with a fairly wide depression on two basal segments, fifth almost as long 
as second and third combined. Length, 3 mm. 

South Australia: Gawler (J. Faust's No. 499 from Blackburn's Collection). 
Type (unique), I. 16270. 

The markings are somewhat as on E. liihostrota and H t cylindrirostris, but 
the rostrum is differently curved and is shorter than on most species of the genus. 
The third interstice has four dark spots conspicuously alternated with pale ones, 
on the rest of the elytra the tessellation is less distinct ; on the pronotum there are 
three longitudinal marks of which only the median one is continuous, bill it is 
rather ill-defined. 

Emplesis sublecta, n. sp. 

3 . Reddish-brown, suture black except close to base. Densely clothed with 
slaty-grey or stramineous scales, and with brownish spots, becoming whitish on 
under parts. 

Rostrum feebly curved, no longer than prothorax, parallel-sided, basal half 
squamose, apical half with small naked punctures. Antennae inserted two-fifths 
from apex of rostrum. Prothorax as long as the basal width, sides moderately 
rounded. Elytra parallel-sided to beyond the middle, base feebly trisinuate. 
Abdomen flattened along middle, fifth segment slightly longer than second. 
Length,, 2 - 25-2 *5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer than the prothorax, thinner, 
cylindrical and polished castancous, antennae inserted distinctly nearer base than 
apex, prothorax slightly wider, and apical segment of abdomen shorter. 

South Australia: Owieandana (H. M. Ilale and N. B. Tindale), Ouorn 
(A. H. Elston). Type, 1. 16273. 

A small species distinct by the black suture. The tessellation of the elytra 
is rather faint, but there are two or three white spots on the suture, on the pro- 
notum there is a faint median line and two short basal vittae. The convexity of 
the abdomen scarcely differs sexually. Two specimens, sexes, from the Murray 
River (Elston), differ from the types in having a black fascia extending across 
four or five interstices on each elytron at the summit of the apical slope, and with 
five longitudinal marks on the pronotum, of which, however, each outer one is 
very feeble. 

Emplesis miscella, n. sp. 
$ . Reddish-brown. Densely clothed with pale slaty-grey scales variegated 
with brown, and becoming white on under parts. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, almost straight, parallel-sided, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where 
the antennae are inserted), in front of which are small naked punctures. Pro- 
thorax as long as wide, sides gently rounded. Elytra narrow, nowhere quite 
parallel-sided, base faintly incurved to scutellum but not trisinuate. Two basal 
segments of abdomen slightly depressed along middle, fifth slightly longer than 
second. Hind femora feebly grooved. Length, 2'5 mm. 

South Australia: Hughes (A. M. Lea). Type (unique), I. 16276. 

About the size of the preceding species and with similarly coloured scales, 
although on a different pattern. The legs are shorter, and the prothorax longer 
than usual. There are two large dark sutural spots: one before the middle, 
surrounded by short pale spots, and a smaller one at summit of apical slope; on 
[he rest of the elytra the tessellation is almost regular; but from some directions 



108 

there appear to be three pale irregular fasciae. On the pronotum the dark 
markings consist of a narrow median line, and two transverse series of four 
spots: the first slightly nearer apex than base, the second basal, with the inner 
spot much larger than the others. The setae of the upper surface are all 
depressed, and so are not distinct from the sides. 

Emplesis rectirostris, n. sp. 

£ . Reddish-brown, rostrum and antennae paler, suture, a spot on each 
elytron, metasternum and most of abdomen black. Moderately clothed with 
scales similar in colour to the derm, with stramineous tessellation ; on under parts 
becoming white. 

Rostrum long (almost twice the length of prothorax), thin, cylindrical, 
almost straight, polished, glabrous and with sparse, scarcely visible punctures. 
Antennae inserted slightly nearer base than apex of rostrum. Prothorax slightly 
wider than long, sides moderately rounded. Elytra elongate-subcordate, sides 
nowhere quite parallel, base slightly trisinuate. Fifth segment of abdomen the 
length of third. Length, 2*75-3 mm. 

South Australia: Mount Lofty Ranges (N. B. Tindale), Lucindale (B. A. 
Feuerheerdt). Type, I. 16277. 

A prettily marked species with an unusually long and practically straight 
rostrum. It is slightly padded between the eyes, not fasciculate as in E. scolopax. 
The rostrum is almost as long as in the females of E. filirostris and E. dispar. 
The black spot on each elytron is sub-lateral, postmedian, and varies in size and 
intensity. The darker scales on the elytra arc so similar to the derm on which 
they rest, that the only distinct ones are those forming narrow stramineous spots, 
of which several are compacted to form irregular fasciae. On the pronotum 
the stramineous scales are in irregular patches on the sides, and form two small 
spots on the disc. 

Emplesis inscripta, n. sp. 

$ . Pale reddish-castaneous, club, metasternum and most of abdomen black. 
Moderately clothed with inconspicuous brown scales, conspicuously variegated 
with stramineous spots ; under parts with white scales. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, parallel-sided, slightly curved; with 
fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where 
the antennae are inserted), beyond which the punctures are dense and naked. 
Prothorax moderately transverse, sides rather strongly rounded. Elytra narrow, 
base slightly trisinuate. Abdomen with a large depression on two basal seg- 
ments, continued on to metasternum, fifth slightly longer than second. Legs 
short and stout. Length, 2-2-25 mm. 

$ . Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, more curved, shining, 
and sparsely clothed only near base, antennae inserted almost in exact middle, 
abdomen more convex, the depression on the basal segments smaller and shallower, 
and the third and fourth slightly larger. 

Tasmania: Hobart (Rev. T. Blackburn). Type, I. 16256. 

About the size of E. impotens but tessellation on a somewhat different plan, 
and more of under surface black. E. cyphirhina has very different tessellation. 
In general appearance it is like E, apiciventris, but the club is black. The 
stramineous spots are unusually short and distinct on the elytra, and in places are 
compacted to form feeble fasciae; on the pronotum the paler scales are so placed 
as to form an M, or three V's, of which the outer two are inverted. A male 
from Mole Creek (A. M. Lea) evidently belongs to this species, but it is immature ; 
it is almost flavous, with only the club and sutures of metasternal episterna black. 



109 

Emplesis leucophaea, n. sp. 

S . Reddish-brown, suture and club black. Densely clothed with whitish- 
grey scales, faintly tessellated on upper surface, becoming white on under parts. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, comparatively wide, parallel-sided, moder- 
ately curved, with fine ridges (the median one continuous to apex), alternated 
with rows of squamiferous punctures, becoming naked on apical half. Antennae 
inserted two-fifths from apex of rostrum. Prothorax slightly transverse, sides 
moderately rounded. Elytra not much wider than widest part of prothorax, 
parallel-sided to beyond the middle, base feebly trisinuate. Abdomen with a large 
depression on two basal segments, continued on to metastcrnum, fifth almost as 
long as second and third combined. Length, 1*75-2 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner (but not quite cylindrical), 
ridges and squamiferous punctures on basal fourth only, antennae inserted not as 
close to apex (but distinctly nearer apex than base), abdomen evenly and strongly 
convex, and third and fourth segments longer. 

Tasmania: Strahan (H. J. Carter and A. M. Lea), Karoola (Aug. Simson), 
Burnie, Ulverstone, Nubeena, Huon River (Lea). Type, I. 16321. 

A minute species, with a distinct suggestion of pale and very small Orthor- 
hinus cylindrirostris. It is one of the very few in which the antennae of the 
female are inserted nearer the apex than the base of rostrum. The elytral 
clothing is so dense that the black of the suture is often concealed; the tessellation 
is faint, and more distinct on and near the suture than elsewhere; on several 
specimens the clothing appears to be almost uniformly greyish, as on E. niveiceps, 
and allied species. 

Emplesis pallida, n. sp. 

S . Reddish-castaneous. Densely clothed with greyish-white scales, faintly 
tessellated on upper surface. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, gently curved, parallel-sided, basal half 
with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures, in front with 
naked punctures. Antennae inserted about two-fifths from apex of rostrum. 
Prothorax moderately transverse, sides rather strongly rounded in front. Elytra 
narrow, almost parallel-sided to beyond the middle, base scarcely trisinuate. 
Abdomen with a wide shallow depression on two basal segments, fifth almost as 
long as second and third combined. Hind femora very feebly grooved. Length, 
2*25-2' 5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, more strongly curved, 
cylindrical, glabrous to base, with minute punctures ; antennae inserted nearer 
base than apex; abdomen gently and evenly convex, and fifth segment shorter. 

North-western Australia: Fortescue River and Roebourne (W. D. Dodd). 
Type, I. 16257. 

A small, pale, faintly tessellated species, approaching Thcchia in appearance. 
In general appearance it is strikingly close to the specimens commented upon as 
probably being E. interioris, but the abdomen of the male is normal. On several 
specimens the metasternum appears to be slightly infuscated. The darker spots 
on the elytra are short and inconspicuous, on the pronotum a median line and two 
sub-triangular basal spots are just discernible. 

Two specimens, sexes, from Cue (H. W. Brown), possibly belong to this 
species; the male is scarcely distinguishable from the type, but the female has 
the rostrum slightly more curved, and the elytra with a pale and two dark fasciae, 
composed of spots, on and about the summit of the apical slope. 



110 

Emplesis sordida, n. sp. 
$ . Dark reddish-brown, antennae and parts of tarsi paler. Densely 
clothed with dull stramineous scales, and with numerous inconspicuous brown 
spots ; under parts with whitish clothing. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, gently curved, parallel-sided; with 
fine ridges, alternated with rows of punctures to apical third (where the antennae 
are inserted), in front with numerous small punctures, basal half squamose. 
Prothorax moderately transverse, sides rather strongly rounded. Elytra elongate, 
almost parallel-sided to beyond the middle, base trisinuate. Abdomen with a 
shallow continuous depression but scarcely traceable on third and fourth segments, 
fifth slightly longer than second and third combined. Length, 4'5-5 mm. 

9 . Differs in being slightly wider, rostrum longer (almost twice the length 
of prothorax), slightly more curved, thinner, polished castaneous, glabrous and 
almost impunctate, antennae inserted nearer base than apex and abdomen almost 
evenly convex. 

Western Australia: Swan River (J. Clark and A. M. Lea). Type, I. 16322. 

A large dingy species, slightly padded but not fasciculate between the eyes. 
There are from three to five brown spots on most of the elytral interstices, but 
the tessellation is usually inconspicuous. In some lights faint depressions may 
be seen on the abdomen of the female. It is larger and wider than E. filirostris, 
rostrum shorter and clothing duller; E. dispar is thinner, with longer and 
straighter rostrum (both sexes) ; E. ignobilis (fresh specimens) has clothing of 
a more reddish tone and somewhat shorter rostrum (both sexes) ; £. fcmoralis 
is smaller and narrower, 

Emplesis tibialis, n. sp. 
S . Pale reddish-castaneous, under surface usually darker. Moderately 
clothed with stramineous scales ; with numerous small brown spots on elytra, and 
a median line and two basal spots on pronotum ; under parts with uniform whitish 
clothing. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided ; 
with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical fourth 
(where the antennae are inserted), beyond which the punctures are small and 
naked. Prothorax about as long as the. basal width, strongly narrowed in front. 
Elytra elongate-subcordate, base not trisinuate, sides nowhere quite parallel; 
seriate punctures larger than usual. Abdomcu with a wide shallow depression 
on two basal segments, and another on fifth ; the latter segment as long as second 
and third combined. Legs longer than usual, front tibiae thin, with an acute 
projection on middle of lower surface. Length, 2'5-3'S mm. 

$ . Differs in being somewhat stouter ; rostrum longer, thinner, more 
curved, ridges and seriate punctures much finer, glabrous, prothorax more trans- 
verse, abdomen evenly convex, and front tibiae unarmed. 

Tasmania: Strahan, West Tamar (Aug. Simson), Hobart (C. E. Cole and 
A. M. Lea). Victoria: Dividing Range (Rev. T. Blackburn), Somerville (Lea). 
South Australia: Adelaide. Type, I. 16278. 

A slightly tessellated species readily distinguished from all others of the 
genus (except the following one) by the armed front tibiae of the male, those of 
the female, although not armed, are decidedly longer than on females of most 
species. 

Emplesis subtibialis, n. sp. 
$ . Reddish-brown, club somewhat infuscated. Densely clothed with pale 
slaty-grey or stramineous scales, more or less variegated, becoming white on 
under parts ; the elytra with rows of erect setae on the alternate interstices. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, parallel-sided, gently curved, 
sculpture concealed by clothing to apical fourth (where the antennae are inserted), 



Ill 

in front with naked punctures. Prothorax slightly transverse, sides moderately 
rounded. Elytra sub-oblong, base scarcely trisinuate. Abdomen with a very 
shallow depression on first and second segments, fifth as long as second and third 
combined. Legs of moderate length, front tibiae with an acute projection on 
lower surface two-fifths from apex. Length, 2-2" 5 mm. 

9 • Differs in having rostrum longer, thinner, more curved, clothed only on 
basal third, elsewhere minutely punctate, antennae inserted two-fifths from apex, 
abdomen evenly convex, fifth segment the length of second and front tibiae 
simple. 

Tasmania: Ulverstone and King Island (A. M. Lea). 

The front tibiae of the male are armed, but the projection is nearer the apex 
than on the preceding species, the tibiae themselves (both sexes) are shorter and 
the clothing is denser and usually conceals the seriate elytral punctures. The 
clothing is not exactly alike on any two of the six specimens taken ; on three of 
them it is opaque and slightly tessellated; on the others many of the scales, 
especially on the head, have a slight golden gloss; on the type there are three 
fasciae of dark spots, of which the widest is curved and crowns the apical slope, 
a sub-apical one is less distinct and a postmedian one still less so ; on the others 
the dark spots are sparser and more scattered. On two specimens the meta- 
sternum is darker than the abdomen. There arc some erect setae on the rostrum 
of the male. 

Emplesis obliqua, n. sp. 

I . Dark brown, legs paler, suture, metasternum and abdomen black. 
Densely clothed with scales of several colours, becoming white on under parts. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, parallel-sided, moderately curved; with 
fine ridges alternated with rows of punctures to apical third (where the antennae 
are inserted), with dense punctures in front, densely clothed only on basal fourth. 
Prothorax slightly transverse, sides strongly rounded. Elytra parallel-sided to 
beyond the middle, base feebly trisinuate ; seriate punctures larger than usual. 
Abdomen with a large, sharply defined depression on two basal segments, fifth 
very little longer than second. Length, 2-25-3 mm. 

$ . Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, more curved, seriate 
punctures smaller and for a shorter distance, glabrous throughout, antennae 
inserted only slightly nearer apex than base ; abdomen evenly convex, and fifth 
segment slightly shorter than second. 

Tasmania : Launceston (Aug. Simson) , Mount Wellington (A. M. Lea) . 
Victoria: Yarra River (C. French, sen.), Noble Park in October (F. E. Wilson), 
Wonthaggi (T. G. Sioane), Warburton in October (C. Oke). South Australia: 
Lucindale (F. Seeker and B. A. Feuerhccrdt), Mount Lofty Ranges (S. H. 
Curnow), Adelaide (Rev. T. Blackburn). North Queensland (Blackburn's 
Collection). Type, I. 16280. 

A conspicuously marked species with oblique fasciae suggestive of Ephrycus 
obliquus; the elytral markings are somewhat like those of Storens captiosus, but 
that species has dentate femora and appendiculate claws. There are two rather 
large blackish patches on each side of the elytra, with a conspicuous wdiite patch 
between, the white patch sometimes obliquely connected with its fellow on the 
suture, just below the summit of the apical slope; much of the elytral clothing is 
of a rusty-red colour, on the suture it is alternately black and white. On the 
pronotum most of the clothing is whitish, with two fairly large black spots on 
each side of the middle, and some smaller ones on the sides ; but often the clothing 
on the median half is almost entirely black; on the head there is usually a dark 
median spot and snowy scales between the eyes ; on the scutellum also the scales 
are snowy. On slight abrasion, how r evcr, many of the markings are obscured. 
There are numerous sub-erect setae on the elytra, some of the white ones being 



112 

very distinct. On two small specimens, from Mounts Wellington and Lofty, the 
elytral markings are less sharply denned, and the clothing of the pronotum is 
almost entirely stramineous and whitish ; their club is pale. One from Won- 
thaggi, with similar clothing, has the club black, but the metasternum and abdomen 
no darker than the legs. 

Emplesis albifrons, n. sp. 

S . Dark reddish-brown, suture and sides of elytra and under surface black 
or blackish ; with slaty-white and dark-brown scales, becoming white on under 
parts. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided, 
with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures on basal half, 
punctures small and naked elsewhere. Antennae inserted two-fifths from apex 
of rostrum. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides rather suddenly narrowed 
to apex. Elytra thin, base bilobed, sides almost parallel to beyond the middle. 
Two basal segments of abdomen slightly depressed in middle, fifth almost as long 
as second and third combined. Hind femora very feebly grooved. Length, 
2-2*25 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, more curved, shining and 
glabrous throughout, antennae inserted nearer base than apex, and abdomen 
evenly convex, with the fifth segment shorter. 

South Australia: Port Lincoln (Rev. T. Blackburn and A. M. Lea), Wood- 
chester (E. Ashby), Murray Bridge (Lea). Type, I. 16283. 

A minute species with somewhat tessellated markings and usually a fairly 
large dark patch on the basal half of elytra. The dark sutural part is clothed 
with dark scales, but about the middle is traversed by a white fascia, and there 
are a few other whitish scales on it ; on the rest of the elytra the clothing is 
whitish with sparse and small brown spots, on the pronotum there are sometimes 
three dark patches, of which the two outer ones are short, or the three may be 
conjoined in front, or the clothing may be pale only on the sides, or almost entirely 
pale. Most of the scales on the head are dark, but the interocular ones are 
snowy ; on one female most of the cephalic scales are whitish, but even on this 
one the interocular patch is distinctly whiter. 

Emplesis picta, n. sp. 

$ . Black, parts of elytra, antennae (club excepted) and legs reddish. 
Densely clothed with white and black scales, the elytra in addition with some 
brownish ones, on under parts entirely white. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided ; 
with fine ridges, alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third 
(where the antennae are inserted), in front with fairly dense naked punctures. 
Prothorax almost as long as the basal width, sides strongly rounded. Elytra sub- 
oblong to near apex, base feebly bilobed. Two basal segments of abdomen with 
a shallow depression on which the clothing is finer than elsewhere, fifth slightly 
longer than third. Femora stout, all more or less distinctly grooved. Length, 
2*5-2*75 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum thinner and paler but scarcely longer, 
clothed only near base, but seriate punctures distinct to antennae, these inserted 
about two-fifths from apex, club paler, abdomen evenly convex, fifth segment 
smaller, and femora Jess stout. 

Tasmania: Hobart (A. M. Lea). 

A conspicuously marked species with sexual differences of the rostrum less 
pronounced than usual. The reddish parts of the elytra are not sharply defined 
and are mostly clothed with white and brownish scales. On the pronotum the 
scales are black, with a fairly large white patch on each side of the base, and two 



113 

small median spots. On the elytra there is a large black humeral patch (on each 
side dilated to cover the marginal fourth), a sub-oblong antemedian sutural patch 
and a large trilobed fascia crowning the apical slope, the white scales are inter- 
spersed with small dark spots scarcely distinguishable from the derm. The head 
of the male has been forced back and its base is concealed, but between the eyes 
and on the rostrum the scales are snowy ; on the female the scales are black, 
with a median line and the interocular ones snowy. 

Emplesis albifasciata, n. sp. 

9 . Black, rostrum, funicle, scape, and parts of legs reddish. Densely 
clothed with black, rusty-brown and white scales, becoming snowy on under parts. 

Rostrum thin, moderately curved, about the length of prothorax, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures on basal half, elsewhere 
with naked punctures. Antennae inserted two-fifths from apex of rostrum, 
Prothorax slightly shorter than basal width, sides strongly rounded towards apex. 
Elytra rather wide, nowhere parallel-sided, base (except for incurvature at 
scutellum) truncate. Abdomen evenly convex, fifth segment scarcely longer 
than second. Femora feebly grooved. Length, 2-5 mm. 

Victoria: Alps (Rev. T. Blackburn). Type (unique), I. 16284. 

A prettily marked species, allied to the preceding one, with similar clothing 
on the pronotum, and the rostrum sculptured as its female, but elytra decidedly 
wider, the black patches different, and with a conspicuous white fascia. On the 
pronotum the scales are black, with a distinct white patch on each side of the 
base, and a few scales scattered singly, on the elytra there is a complete white 
median fascia, wide and angular about the suture, and running obliquely to each 
side slightly in advance of the middle; there is also a small white sub-apical spot 
on the suture, and some whitish scales at the base ; there is a large black spot on 
each side behind the fascia and some inconspicuous blackish scales about the 
shoulders and basal half, the rest of the elytra having rusty-brown scales. On the 
head the scales are black, becoming white between and close behind the eyes. 

Emplesis pictipennis, n. sp. 

Reddish-brown, suture (narrowly), parts of metasternum, base of abdomen, 
and club black. Clothed with stramineous or somewhat darkey scales, with 
whitish markings on upper surface, under parts with entirely whitish scales. 

Rostrum thin, slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where the 
antennae are inserted), in front with distinct naked punctures. Prothorax as 
long as wide, apex about half the width of base. Elytra rather narrow, base 
bilobed. Fifth segment of abdomen slightly longer than second and third com- 
bined. Length, 2*25 mm. 

Western Australia: Mullewa (W. D. Dodd). Type (unique), T. 16285. 
Allowing for the notches at the junction of the prothorax and elytra the 
outlines are elongate-elliptic, much as those of E. belhdus, but the markings are 
not the same and the abdomen is almost entirely pale. The general appearance 
is as some specimens of Storeus variabilis, but the femora are edentate. Onthe 
pronotum most of the scales arc obscurely coloured; on the elytra there is a 
distinct white semi-circle about the scutellum, and a bisinuate fascia crowning 
the apical slope, elsewhere the white scales form rather feeble spots. The sex 
of the type is doubtful; the rostrum is thinner than is usual in males, but its 
sculpture and clothing appear masculine; the two basal segments of abdomen 
are not concave in the middle, but the apical segment is longer and the third and 
fourth shorter than usual in females. 



114 

Emplesis lilliputana, n. sp. 

3. Pale reddish-castaneous. Moderately clothed with stramineous and 
brownish scales, becoming white on under parts. 

Rostrum rather thin, slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, 
parallel-sided; with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures 
to apical third (where the antennae are inserted) ; in front with numerous small, 
naked punctures. Prothorax as long as greatest width, sides strongly rounded- 
Elytra with sides rounded throughout, base slightly bilobed and much wider than 
prothorax. Abdomen with a feeble depression on two basal segments, fifth 
almost as long as second and third combined. Length, 1*75 mm. 

Queensland: Mount Tambourine (A. M. Lea). Type (unique), I. 16288. 

A minute, sub-tessellated species, with base of elytra much wider than base 
of prothorax. The clothing of the upper surface is not of conspicuously con- 
trasted colours; on the pronotum it is mostly stramineous, but there is an ill- 
defined whitish spot on each side of the base ; on the elytra there are two whitish 
spots, adjacent to those on the pronotum, the clothing on the apical half is mostly 
dark, with a few pale spots interspersed. Setae are apparently absent from the 
upper surface, and the scales are so closely pressed to the derm that at first it 
appears to be stained rather than clothed. 

Emplesis angusta, n. sp. 
& . Reddish-brown, suture blackish. Densely clothed with whitish and 
stramineous scales and with a few dark spots; under parts sparser and white. 

Rostrum scarcely as long as prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided; 
with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third 
(where the antennae are inserted), in front with sharply defined naked punctures. 
Prothorax almost as long as wide, sides moderately rounded. Elytra narrow, 
sides feebly rounded, base almost truncate. Abdomen with a fairly large 
depresssion on two basal segments, fifth slightly longer than second and third 
combined. Length, 2 mm. 

9 , Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, with ridges 
and seriate punctures on basal half, and clothed only on basal fourth, antennae 
inserted two-fifths^ from apex, prothorax more transverse, and abdomen evenly 
convex, with the fifth segment scarcely longer than the second. 

South Australia: Lucindale (B. A. Eeuerheerdt). Type, 1. 16287. 

A minute, sub-tessellated species with a pale V-shaped patch on elytra out- 
lining a rather narrow dark triangle about scutellum ; on the male the V is 
extended to an M ; behind the first V there arc remnants of a second, and then a 
few scattered spots; on the pronotum there are two sub-triangular dark basal 
spots and a feeble median line. The outlines (allowing for slight notches at the 
junction of the prothorax and elytra) are narrowly elliptic. To a slight extent 
it resembles E. panmla, but the markings are on a different plan. 

Emplesis trisinuata, n. sp. 
$ . Reddish-brown, metasternum infuscated. Densely clothed with stram- 
ineous, white and sooty scales, becoming sparser and uniformly whitish on under 
parts. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, slightly curved, parallel-sided, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of punctures (squamiferous on basal third) to inser- 
tion of antennae (at apical two-fifths), in front with sharply defined naked 
punctures. Prothorax about as long as wide, base and apex sub-equal. Elytra 
rather narrow, sides nowhere quite parallel, base distinctly trisinuate. Abdomen 
with a small depression on two basal segments, fifth almost as long as second and 
third combined. Length, 2 "5-2 '75 mm. 



115 

? . Differs in having the rostrum conspicuously longer, thinner, less curved, 
ridges and rows of punctures less pronounced and for a shorter distance, antennae 
inserted almost in exact middle of rostrum, prothorax slightly transverse, and 
abdomen evenly convex, with the fifth segment no longer than third. 

South Australia: Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt). Type, I. 16286. 

There is a large dark patch on the elytra extending from the base to about 
the middle, and across two or three interstices on each side of the suture, pos- 
teriorly it is bounded by a curved row of white spots, then on the suture there is 
a small black spot, followed by a white one, then a black one, then to the apex 
the sutural clothing is stramineous ; there is a narrow angular blackish strip near 
each side, on the rest of the elytra the clothing is slightly tessellated. On the 
pronotum there is a sub-quadrate discal blackish patch, with the sides stramineous, 
but there are a few stramineous scales on the black patch, and some dark scales 
elsewhere. The dark elytral patch is about as large in proportion as on 
E. ovalisticta, but the species is much smaller and differs otherwise. _ In some 
respects it approaches E, dorsalis, but the abdomen is not black, A specimen from 
Quorn (Rev. T. Blackburn) probably belongs to the species, but the clothing on 
the apical fifth of elytra is black. 

Emplesis basipennis, n. sp. 

S . Reddish-brown, metasternum slightly infuscated. Densely clothed with 
stramineous or rusty, and sooty-brown scales. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, moderately curved, parallel-sided, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where the 
antennae are inserted), in front with dense, naked punctures. Prothorax about 
as long as wide, sides gently rounded. Elytra rather thin, nowhere quite parallel- 
sided, base gently and evenly arcuate. Two basal segments of abdomen flattened 
(not concave) along middle, fifth as long as second and third combined. Length, 
2*75 mm. 

South Australia: Adelaide (N. B. Tindale), Lucindale (F. Seeker), type, 

I. 16333. 

A tessellated species at first glance apparently belonging to the preceding one 
or to E. dorsalis; from the former it is distinct by the rostrum slightly more 
curved, base of elytra gently and uniformly arched (except for the scutellum), 
with the large dorsal patch longer and more interrupted and the prothoracic mark- 
ings different ; the latter species has a somewhat shorter rostrum and the abdomen 
black. On the elytra the dark scales form a patch from the base to about one- 
fourth from the apex, where it is interrupted by a fascia of pale spots; it extends 
across four or five interstices on each elytron, but is not uniform, as there are 
many thin spots of pale scales, or single ones, giving the patch a mottled appear- 
ance ; on the rest of the elytra the clothing is slightly tessellated. On the 
pronotum there is a thin median line of dark scales, then an irregular vitta, and 
then some fragments of others. The head is feebly padded between the eyes. 
On the scutellum and under parts the clothing is paler than elsewhere. 

Emplesis setipennis, n. sp. 

Pale reddish-brown, club infuscated. Densely clothed with pale, almost white 
scales, with darker markings, and with numerous sub-erect setae. 

Rostrum thin, moderately curved, slightly longer than prothorax, with small 
naked punctures on apical half, basal half clothed. Antennae inserted two-fifths 
from apex of rostrum. Prothorax as long as wide, sides gently rounded. Elytra 
elongate-subeordate, base bilobed, sides nowhere quite parallel. Two basal seg- 
ments of abdomen flattened along middle, fifth slightly longer than third. Length, 
2 mm. 



116 

New South Wales: Illawarra (G. Compere). Unique. 

A conspicuously setose species; brighter than E. cryptorhyncha, and with a 
large pale patch on each side of prothorax. On the elytra there are three fairly 
large dark spots : one median, one postmedian, and one sub-apical, the latter semi- 
double, elsewhere there are a few feeble spots. On the pronotum there is a large 
dark median patch extending from base to apex, but with numerous pale scales, 
the patch intensified by a dense strip of pale scales on each side. In some lights 
some of the scales, especially those near eyes, have a golden lustre. The setae are 
quite as numerous on the prothorax as on the elytra, but on the latter they are 
more conspicuous. Except for the notches at their junction the outlines of the 
prothorax and elytra are elongate-elliptic. The sex of the type is doubtful. 

Emplesis cordipennis, n. sp. 

$ . Flavo-castaneous, club infuscated; with stramineous and brownish scales 
irregularly intermingled on elytra, on pronotum the darker scales forming three 
feebly defined vittae. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, parallel-sided, moderately curved, with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where the 
antennae are inserted), in front with distinct naked punctures. Prothorax almost 
as long as wide, sides moderately rounded. Elytra elongate-cordate, base bilobed. 
Two basal segments of abdomen with a feeble median depression, fifth slightly 
longer than second. Length, 1*75-2 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum considerably longer, thinner, more curved, 
ridges and rows of squamiferous punctures confined to basal third, punctures 
elsewhere sparse and minute, antennae inserted just perceptibly nearer apex than 
base and abdomen evenly convex, with the fifth segment shorter. 

New South Wales: Wollongong (A. M. Lea). 

A minute species intermediate between the tessellated and niveiceps groups. 
It is about the size of E. canalicidaia, and also has a dark club, but the clothing 
is less ashen, and the derm is paler; the suture on some specimens, however, is 
feebly infuscated. The darker clothing on the upper surface is scarcely different 
in colour from the derm on which it rests, and the spots of both colours are not 
sharply limited, as on so many of the tessellated species. 

Emplesis nana, n. sp. 

Reddish-brown, scutellum, metasternum and four basal segments of abdomen 
black. Densely clothed with greyish-white scales, variegated with brown; on 
under parts entirely white. 

Rostrum thin, parallel-sided, slightly longer than prothorax, moderately 
curved; antennae inserted two-fifths from base, behind which the scales partly 
conceal fine ridges and rows of punctures. Prothorax slightly wider than long,, 
sides moderately rounded. Elytra elongate-cordate, base bilobed, sides nowhere 
quite parallel. Abdomen moderately convex, fifth segment slightly longer than 
second. Length, L5 mm. 

Queensland: Bundaberg (A. M. Lea). Type (unique), I. 16291. 

A minute species of the size of E. canaliculata, but scutellum and most of 
under surface black and the club pale. The derm of the upper surface is almost 
entirely concealed by the clothing (which could hardly be regarded as tessellated), 
but the suture appears to be infuscated. On the elytra the dark scales form a 
very feeble V at the base, then remnants of a darker V, followed by remnants of 
a reversed V, and then a still fainter mark near the apex. On the pronotum 
three short vittae are indicated, but dark setae cause the surface to appear slightly 
speckled. The type is probably a female. 



117 

Emplesis bifoveata, n. sp. 

8 . Dark brown, sometimes almost black, rostrum, antennae and tarsi paler. 
Densely clothed with rusty-brown scales, varying to sooty and stramineous. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, thin, parallel-sided, slightly curved; 
with fine ridges and rows of squamiferous punctures to apical fifth (where the 
antennae arc inserted), beyond which the punctures are dense and naked. Pro- 
thorax strongly transverse, sides dilated from base to near apex, and then 
suddenly narrowed. Elytra not quite parallel-sided to beyond the middle, base 
trisinuai:e; each with a small tubercle half-way down the apical slope. Abdomen 
with a median depression, dilated on two first segments and on fifth, the latter 
almost as long as second to fourth combined. Femora rather stout, tibiae longer 
and thinner than usual. Length, 3*5-4 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum longer, thinner, more curved, glabrous 
throughout, and with much smaller and sparser punctures, antennae inserted 
two-fifths from apex, abdomen rather strongly and evenly convex, and fifth seg- 
ment shorter. 

New South Wales: Illawarra and Newport (H. J. Carter), Wollongong, 
Mittagong and Sydney (A. M. Lea). Queensland: Bunya Mountains (H. 
Hacker), Brisbane (A. P. Dodd). Type, I. 16325, in South Australian Museum, 
cotypes in Queensland Museum. 

In appearance fairly close to Storcits ma jus cuius, but claws simple, front 
tibiae of male not ciliated, and club pale. The under surface is usually obscurely 
reddish,, but is sometimes black. The rostrum of the male is almost straight to 
the insertion of antennae, beyond which it is slightly bent. The clothing varies 
considerably, on some specimens it is almost entirely sooty-brown or rusty-red, 
the setae are often white, and with the blackish spots give the surface a speckled 
appearance (on some examples resembling Storcits albosignatus), often the apical 
two-fifths of elytra are stramineous, except that the scales on the tubercles are 
black; frequently the scales on the sides of the prothorax are pale and like a 
reversed A. There is a rather conspicuous "peep-hole" on each side in front of 
the prosternum. 

Three specimens, sexes, from the National Park of Queensland appear to 
represent a variety ; they differ from the others in being somewhat narrower with 
most parts black or blackish, but speckled in places, especially about the summit 
of the apical slope. 

Emplesis tarsalis, n. sp. 

$ . Dark reddish-brown, tip of rostrum, antennae and parts of legs 
somewhat paler. Densely clothed with pale brown and sooty-brown, tessellated 
scales, becoming uniformly pale on under surface of body and of legs; basal 
joint of hind tarsi with a conspicuous fascicle at its inner apex. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, curved only at apex; with fine 
ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where 
the antennae are inserted) ; in front with numerous small punctures. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, sides evenly rounded, suddenly becoming narrower in 
front. Elytra elongate, base feebly trisinuate and distinctly, but not much, wider 
than prothorax. Abdomen with a feeble depression on two basal segments, third 
and fourth combined slightly longer than second or fifth. Femora stout, edentate. 
Length, 3*25-3-5 mm. 

2. Differs in being somewhat more robust; rostrum decidedly longer, 
thinner, strongly curved, paler, with ridges and squamiferous punctures only near 
base; antennae inserted in middle of sides of rostrum, abdomen more convex, 
and hind tarsi non-fasciculate. 

Victoria: Mooroopna in April, Melbourne in August (F. E. Wilson). Type, 
I. 16420. 



118 

At first glance quite an ordinary-looking species, but very distinct by the 
fascicle on the hind tarsi of the male, this being quite as long as the claw joint, 
The tessellation of the elytra is of the usual kind, but on several specimens the 
paler markings form several wide V's ; on the pronotum there are three dark 
vittae, of which only the median one is continuous, but in addition there are 
sometimes one or two feeble spots on each side ; the head is not fasciculate 
between the eyes, but the clothing is denser there than elsewhere. 

Emplesis ferruginea, n. sp. 

$ . Dark brown, some parts almost or quite black, apex of rostrum and 
antennae reddish. Densely clothed with rusty-brown, feebly tessellated scales, 
and with numerous small dark spots; under surface of body and of legs with 
almost uniformly pale scales. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, gently curved ; with fine ridges 
alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where the 
antennae are inserted) , in front with numerous small punctures. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, sides evenly rounded to near apex, which is suddenly 
narrowed. Elytra elongate-cordate, base gently trisinuate ; with regular rows 
of large, partially concealed punctures. Abdomen with a shallow depression on 
first and second segments, third and fourth combined slightly longer than second, 
and distinctly shorter than fifth. Femora stout, edentate. Length, 4-4*5 mm. 

2 . Differs in having the rostrum decidedly longer, thinner, more curved, 
paler, and clothed only close to base, abdomen evenly convex and legs slightly 
thinner. 

New South Wales: Dubbo (H. J. Carter), Bogan River (J. Armstrong). 
Type, I. 16419. 

In general appearance fairly close to E. snturalis, but larger, clothing less 
variegated, and different between the eyes; the head could scarcely be regarded 
as fasciculate, but there is a fringe of short scales at the side of each eye. It is 
almost as large as E. sordida, but the rostrum (both sexes) is shorter and the 
clothing is of a brighter colour. Slightly larger than E. aenigmatica f rostrum of 
male less curved, and clothing somewhat different. The tessellation of the elytra 
is faint, but is rendered fairly distinct by small blackish spots, of which there are 
from ten to twelve on each elytron, on the pronotum there are three short and 
usually inconspicuous vittae. The setae on the upper surface are numerous, but 
being pressed flat amongst the scales they are not very distinct. From some 
directions the scutellum appears as a small white spot. There are two pale setae 
at the apex of the abdomen of the male. 

A female from Tooloom (New South Wales) in the Queensland Museum, 
taken by Mr. H. Hacker in January, is rather more brightly coloured than the 
Dubbo specimens, and the clothing on its under surface is less pale. 

Emplesis masculina, n. sp. 

| . Reddish-brown, club and glabrous portion of rostrum not much paler. 
Densely clothed with greyish-white and stramineous scales, tessellated on elytra, 
but posteriorly with darker spots or blotches ; pronotum with three dark vittae, 
of which the median one is longer than the others but less distinct ; under surface 
and legs with uniformly whitish scales. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, derm concealed 
behind antennae (at apical third) ; in front with crowded, sharply defined 
punctures. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides rather strongly rounded, 
especially near apex. Elytra elongate-subcordate, base slightly trisinuate; with 
rows of large punctures, appearing much smaller through clothing. Abdomen 



119 

with a shallow depression on two basal segments, third and fourth combined the 
length of second and slightly shorter than fifth. Legs stout. Length, 3-3 * 5 mm. 
$ . Differs in being slightly more robust, in having the rostrum slightly 
longer, thinner, and more curved, antennae inserted two-fifths from apex of 
rostrum, and abdomen evenly convex, except for a slight depression on apical 
segment. 

North-western Australia: Fortescue River and Roebourne (W. D. Dodd). 
Type, I. 16421. 

There are 56 specimens before me from the Fortescue River, and 15 from 
Roebourne, and by the examination of the rostrum alone, they would appear to 
belong to males of two species, owing to the female having the rostrum clothed 
almost to the insertion of antennae, but the sexes may be distinguished with 
certainty by the abdomen. The female resembles the males of several other 
species of the genus, and strongly resembles the male of E. femoralis, and I can 
only distinguish them with certainty by the abdomen; the female of femoralis, 
however, differs from the female of the present species in having a considerably 
longer and more strongly curved rostrum, with the antennae median, and the 
clothing of the rostrum less pronounced, although denser than is usual on females 
of the genus. The tessellation of the elytra (which is easily disarranged) is more 
conspicuous about the middle than elsewhere, but it varies considerably, the 
stramineous parts sometimes change to a rather dark brown, and on such specimens 
the dark apical spots are almost black. On many the majority of the scales on the 
apical slope are dark brown, variegated with light brown or slaty-grey. Although 
the derm of the rostrum is quite concealed behind the antennae, it is evident by 
the arrangement of the scales that hidden ridges and rows of punctures are present, 
these being indicated even on the females. 

Emplesis parvidens, n. sp. 

£ . Black, parts of elytra and of abdomen, rostrum, antennae and legs red- 
dish. Densely clothed with black, whitish and stramineous scales. 

Rostrum comparatively stout, slightly shorter than prothorax, parallel-sided, 
with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third 
(where the antennae are inserted), in front with dense naked punctures. Pro- 
thorax moderately transverse, sides gently rounded to near apex, which is about 
half the width of base. Elytra elongate-subcordate, sides almost parallel to 
beyond the middle, base almost truncate. Two basal segments of abdomen 
depressed in middle, fifth slightly longer than second. Femora feebly dentate ; 
front and middle tibiae each with a small projection on middle of lower surface- 
Length, 2' 5 mm. 

South Australia : Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt). Type (unique), 1. 16296. 

A beautiful species approaching E. amoena, but narrower, less white on elytra, 
and abdomen partly reddish posteriorly. The black elytra patches are much as 
on E. nigrofasciata and Storeus contortus, but the white ones are different, and 
the prothorax is very differently clothed. The middle and hind femora are feebly 
dentate, the front ones just perceptibly so. On the elytra the clothing is mostly 
stramineous, with a large black postmedian spot on each side, small dark spots 
alternated with whitish ones on the suture, and a few similarly coloured spots 
elsewhere. On the pronotum the clothing is black, with a pale V and some small 
spots on the sides. On the head and rostrum the clothing is black, becoming 
conspicuously pale between the eyes. On the under parts it is mostly whitish. 

On this and the seven following species the femora, or at least some of them, 
are dentate; the claws of all have been carefully examined and usually at least 
one has been detached for examination under a high power. 



120 

Emplesis parilis, n. sp. 

5 . Black, parts of elytra, tip of abdomen, antennae, tibiae and tarsi more 
or less obscurely reddish. Densely clothed with scales varying from white to 
black on upper surface, white on under parts. 

Rostrum almost the length of prothorax, parallel-sided, slightly curved; with 
fine ridges, alternated with rows of squamifcrous punctures to apical third (where 
the antennae are inserted), in front with dense, sharply defined punctures. Pro- 
thorax slightly longer than basal width, sides dilated to near apex and then 
suddenly narrowed. Elytra elongate-subcordate, base slightly bilobed. Abdomen 
with a wide depression common to two basal segments, fifth slightly longer than 
second. Femora acutely dentate; front and middle tibiae each with an obtuse 
projection in middle of under surface. Length, 3*5 mm. 

5 . Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer, glabrous throughout, 
ridges and seriate punctures well defined to insertion of antennae (at apical two- 
fifths), punctures in front smaller but the median ridge distinct to apex, abdomen 
more convex, the sub-basal depression much smaller and fifth segment somewhat 
smaller. 

Tasmania; Tunny (Rev. T. Blackburn), Hobart (A. M. Lea). Victoria: 
Killara (C Oke). Type, I. 16295. 

Allied to but larger than the preceding species, rostrum and legs darker, 
elytral and prothoracic markings somewhat different, and femora more strongly 
dentate. In general appearance it is fairly close to Storens amoenus and contortus, 
but the claws are not appendiculate. The projection on the tibiae is quite as 
distinct on the male as on the female, not confined to the former as on E. tibialis 
and subtibialis. The majority of the scales on the elytra of the male are whitish 
or stramineous (some with a slight golden lustre in certain lights), there are two 
large much interrupted black spots (or an irregular fascia) just before the apical 
slope, on the slope itself the scales are mostly stramineous, on the suture the 
clothing is alternately black and white, and some brownish spots are scattered 
elsewhere. On the pronotum the scales are black, with a white patch on each side 
at the base. There are a few ochreous sloping scales between the eyes, but not 
a crest, very different from the white patch of S. amoenus. On the female the 
clothing is brighter, the black and white elytral spots are more sharply limited, 
and the prothoracic clothing is more variegated and uneven, and on each side 
forms the remnant of an inverted A. 

Emplesis longicollis, n. sp. 

Black, rostrum, tarsi and parts of elytra obscurely reddish, antennae some- 
what paler, but club slightly infuscated. Densely clothed with black, dingy-white 
and somewhat stramineous scales. 

Rostrum the length of prothorax, thin, moderately curved; with fine ridges 
alternated with rows of punctures (squamiferous only close to base) to between 
antennae (these inserted at apical two-fifths), in front punctures small but still 
seriate. Prothorax slightly longer than wide, sides feebly dilated to near apex, 
and then strongly narrowed to apex itself. Elytra elongate-subcordate, base 
faintlv trisinuate (almost evenly arcuate). Abdomen evenly convex, fifth seg- 
ment no longer than second. Femora acutely dentate. Length, 3 mm. 

Western Australia: Yilgarn (Blackburn's Collection from E. Meyrick). Type 
(unique), L 16297. 

The elytral markings approach those of E. amoena, but the prothorax is very 
different. "There is a fairly large postmedian black patch towards the side of 
each elytron, on the suture and some of the odd interstices there are some small 
black spots, elsewhere the white and stramineous clothing is obscurely mixed; 
on the pronotum the markings are not sharply defined (possibly through partial 



121 

abrasion) ; the head is densely clothed with white scales between the eyes, but 
its base is concealed. The type appears to be a female, although the ridges on 
the rostrum are rather sharply defined. 

Emplesis composita, n. sp. 

Reddish-brown, metasternum and first and part ot second segments of 
abdomen black. Densely clothed with whitish scales, on the upper surface slightly 
mottled with brownish and stramineous ones. 

Rostrum glabrous, about the length of prothorax, moderately curved, parallel- 
sided, with dense punctures becoming seriate near base. Antennae inserted one- 
third from apex of rostrum. Prothorax slightly transverse, sides rather strongly 
rounded. Elytra narrow, sides nowhere quite parallel, base gently and evenly 
arcuate. Fifth segment not as long as second and third combined. Femora 
slightly dentate, the hind ones more strongly and acutely than the others. 
Length, 3 mm. 

New South Wales: Forest Reefs (A. M. Lea). Unique. 

The darker spots of clothing on the upper surface are small and ill-defined, 
and cause it to appear slightly mottled, rather than tessellated; somewhat as on 
Storens scutcllaris, but the club is pale and the claws are not appendiculate. The 
type is probably a male; the tip of the first segment of its abdomen is slightly 
notched, as on the females of several species of the genus. 

Emplesis grata, n. sp. 

6 . Black, rostrum, antennae, legs and parts of elytra obscurely reddish. 
Densely clothed with white scales, in parts somewhat stramineous, and with con- 
spicuous black markings. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, parallel-sided, moderately curved, 
with fine ridges alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third 
(where the antennae ai*e inserted), in front with dense punctures. Prothorax as 
long as wide, sides moderately rounded. Elytra elongate-cordate, base bilobed. 
Abdomen scarcely flattened along middle, fifth segment scarcely longer than 
second. Femora acutely dentate. Length, 2 mm. 

? . Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer and more curved, clothed 
only near base, antennae inserted two-fifths from apex and abdomen more convex. 

South Australia: Lucindale (A. M. Lea). Type, L 16298. 

A minute, beautifully marked species, smaller than E. amoena, and the 
others with a large black patch on each elytron; the patch is irregularly tri- 
angular, postmedian and sub-lateral ; there arc also some small blackish markings 
on other parts of the elytra and on the pronotum. 

Emplesis lata, n. sp. 

<5 . Black, tip of rostrum, antennae and tarsi obscurely reddish. Densely 
clothed with scales varying from almost white, through muddy-brown to black; 
almost uniformly white on under parts. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, moderately curved, with fine ridges 
alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where antennae 
are inserted), in front with crowded, sharply defined punctures, the median ridge 
continuous to apex. Prothorax strongly transverse, sides strongly rounded, apex 
less than half the width of base. Elytra wide, sides nowhere parallel, base 
trisinuate, alternate interstices slightly elevated. Abdomen with first and second 
segments feebly depressed along middle, fifth as long as second and third com- 
bined, with a fairly large shallow depression. Front femora edentate, middle 
pair slightly, the hind ones more strongly dentate. Length, 3*5 mm. 

New South Wales: Bogan River (J. Armstrong). Type (unique), I. 16294. 



122 

A fairly large, unusually wide species, about the size of Storeus variegatus, 
but with very different markings. 1 here are no large patches of any colour on 
the upper surface, most of the scales being muddy-brown or stramineous-brown, 
mottled with numerous darker spots; there are a few pale spots on the elytra. 
The setae are mostly black, and there is a small cluster of them on l he front of 
the pronotum, causing its middle to appear almost pointed. 

Emplesis stenoderes, n. sp. 
$ . Blackish-brown, most of elytra, abdomen, rostrum, antennae and legs 
more or less obscurely reddish. Densely clothed with variegated scales, becoming 
uniformly pale on under surface and legs. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, slightly curved, with tine ridges 
alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to apical third (where the 
antennae are inserted) ; in front with numerous small sharply denned punctures. 
Prothorax slightly longer than wide, sides gently rounded, front moderately 
narrowed. Elytra rather narrow, but distinctly wider than prothorax, elongate- 
subcordate, base feebly trisinuate; with rows of large, sub-approximate, but 
partially concealed punctures. Abdomen with a rather large depression on two 
basal segments, second slightly shorter than fifth and slightly longer than second 
and third combined. Front femora edentate, middle ones feebly, hind ones 
moderatelv dentate. Length, 3 mm. 

South Australia: Mount Remarkable in October (F. E. Wilson). Type 
(unique), I. 16417. 

In some respects close to E. caphosus, but the prothorax is slightly longer 
than wide; on that species it is transverse. On the pronotum the scales are 
mostly sooty, irregularly interspersed with whitish ones, on the elytra the scales 
are mostly stramineous, with feeble dark spots, but there is a large dark one on 
the basal half bounded posteriorly by a sub-fasciate patch of snowy scales, and 
at the base, and on the third interstices near base with whitish ones, the base of 
the rostrum and the head between the eyes are densely clothed with stramineous 

ones. 

Emplesis leucomela, n. sp. 

$ . Black, rostrum and abdomen obscurely paler, antennae and tarsi reddish. 
Densely clothed with sooty scales, becoming pale (but not white) on under surface 
and base of femora, a conspicuous white triangular spot on each side of base of 
prothorax, and a short white fascia just beyond the middle of elytra, a few white 
or whitish scales behind it and on the shoulders. 

Rostrum slightly shorter than prothorax, almost straight; with fine ridges 
alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures to beyond antennae (these 
inserted at apical two-fifths), with rather dense punctures in front. Prothorax 
almost as long as its greatest width, sides moderately rounded, becoming suddenly 
narrower in front. Elytra elongate-cordate, base feebly trisinuate. distinctly 
wider than prothorax; with regular rows of large sub-approximate, partially 
concealed punctures. Abdomen without sub-basal depression, third and fourth 
segments combined slightly longer than second and fifth. Femora rather stout, 
front ones edentate, hind 'ones feebly dentate. Length, 3*5 mm, 

Victoria: Woori Yallock (F. E. Wils.on). Type (unique). I. 16418. 

Distinct from the other species with dentate femora, by its sooty clothing, 
with white patches. The rostrum is less curved than on E. parilis. The pro- 
thorax is longer than usual, but shorter than on the preceding species. The tooth 
on each hind femur is small and distinct from but few directions, the middle 
pair are almost edentate. The upper surface has dense sooty setae, but they are 
distinct only from the sides. From some directions the scutellum appears as a 
small white spot. 



123 



ON A NEW GENUS OF CALCAREOUS ALGAE, FROM THE LOWER 
CAMBRIAN (?), WEST OF WOOLTANA, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Fredk. Chapman, A.L.S., F.G.S., 
Hon. Fellow Royal Society South Australia. 

[Read June 9, 1927.] 

Plate VI. 

Introduction. 

Although those, thallophytes which secrete a considerable amount of cal- 
careous material in their tissues are recognised as important rock-forming 
organisms, they have not been so intimately studied as they deserve. There is, 
indeed, a great field for research in this respect amongst the oldest Australian 
rocks, and we are further reminded of this by Sir Douglas Mawson's recent 
discovery of a unique type of calcareous alga in the Flinders Ranges. There is 
little doubt that we have in this ancient thallophyte a form which, instead of 
growing with a ball-like or sub-spheroidal contour, was actually frondose, the 
separate segments of which can be plainly seen in sections prepared from the 
rock specimens. 

It was on account of its peculiar segmented appearance that Sir Douglas 
Mawson compared this limestone-forming alga with Halimeda, one of the jointed 
and frondose green algae so abundant in coral lagoons. Referring to the dis- 
covery of this fossil in his paper on "Evidence and Indications of Algal Contri- 
butions in the Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian Limestones of South Australia" 
(Mawson, 1925, p. 188), Sir Douglas Mawson says, under the heading 
"Limestones West of Wooltana" :— 

"In another area in the Flinders Ranges, some 35 miles north of Italowie 
and about 9 miles west of Wooltana Head Station, is a region of calcareous strata 
superior to the Proterozoic tillite horizon. Thereabouts curious markings were 
noted in the rocks in several places suggestive of organic origin. In the case of 
some boulders in the creek at McLeaclVs Well, the markings in the rock very 
closely resemble the packed fan-shaped segments of Halimeda" 

One of these limestone specimens and some microscope slides have been 
very kindly sent to me by Sir Douglas Mawson, and upon these I have based the 
following notes: — 

Macroscopic appearance of the Rock. 

The cut surface of the limestone shows it to consist of a mass of thick-jointed 
segments of the alga. From the way the separate segments follow one another 
in the matrix, and sometimes slightly diverge or radiate, there is no doubt of its 
character as a jointed organism. There is very little cement or matrix to the 
rock, and this is well seen in a weathered surface, where the dark-coloured 
infillings or mineralised interspaces consist of less pure calcareous material than 
the algal, and so stand out as a rudely polygonal network in relief around the 
whitened algal particles. 



124 
DESCRIPTION OF THE ORGANISM. 

Class CHl.OROPHYCEAE. 

Genus Mawsonella, n. g. 

(For generic characters see below, in description of genotype.) 

Mawsonella wooltanensis, n. g. et sp. 

PL vi. 

Description. — Thallus calcareous, consisting of numerous ovoid joints, 
attached by short, intervening, thread-like connections which, when the joints are 
detached, resemble small priekles with blunt heads. In thin section the internal 
structure of these joints is seen in a few instances in a very well-preserved 
condition. 

There is no division into an external and an internal layer of cells, as in 
Sphaeroc odium, but an almost invariable coating of small dolomite or calcite 
crystals around the joints may indicate a cuticular differentiation. The cellular 
structure of the thalloid substance is very minute, and although there is a rudely 
reticulate arrangement throughout the mass, there are portions where the cells 
branch and dichotomise after the manner of Epiphyton (Chapman, 1916, p. 82). 
In one or two places there may be seen asteroidal groupings of the cells; in most 
others it is a reticulate arrangement. 

The elements which connect the joints of the thallus appear to be of closer 
or more solid texture than the mass of the thallus, and accordingly appear darker 
in section. In the basal portion of the larger joints there is often a linear system 
of denser cells starting from a vesiculate scries that later breaks up into cervicorn 
prolongations and thence into distal radiate lines. These radiate lines occasionally 
show curved transverse connections, which give to them a vesiculate character. 

Dimensions — Largest joints measure 5X4 mm. Average size of joints, 
circ. 3X1 2 VGSXL. 

Observations. — The substance of the thallus is, in many cases, invaded by 
crystallisation. This is in the form of numerous tiny spicular and lath-shaped 
forms and probably calcitic. 3n other cases large crystals of calcite, generally 
distinctly twinned and sometimes zoned, are seen occupying a large portion of 
the original thallus, often to the extent of cutting the segment in halves. 

The matrix of the rock was probably once a calcareous mud, intermingled 
with quartz grains. The mud has since crystallised, almost to the obliteration of 
any other organisms that may have been present. There is, however, an interesting 
example of a foraminifer occurring in one of the slides, which seems to have been 
preserved by being included in the basal part of a joint of the alga; this is perhaps 
referable to the genus Truncatidina. 

Relationships. — So far as I have seen, the nearest forms to the present algal 
type is that of the fossils named by Dr. Chas. D. Walcott, (1 > ? Sphaerocodhtm^ 
and which he found in the Middle Cambrian of Burgess Pass, British Columbia. 
He described two species (Walcott, 1919, p. 243, pi. lix., figs. 1, la-c, and hg. 2) 
as ? Sphaerocodmm praecursor and ? S. cambria. Neither of these forms appears 
to be really referable to the genus Sphaeroc odium, since the tubular cells of the 



U) Since these notes were written I have learned with the deepest regret of the death of 
Dr. C. D. Walcott, the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution at Washington. Dr. Walcott 
has rendered me great service through his ever-ready and kindly advice on matters pertaining 
to the Cambrian faunas, on which he was undoubtedly the highast authority, and I take this 
opportunity of expressing my warmest feelings for his genial friendship and encouragement 
in our common work . 



Tratis. and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr. 1927. 



Vol. LL. Plate VI 




1'- C Phutfj 



New Calcareous Alga from the Cambrian of S.A. 

Ulninsfcaia & Co. LimitciL EVhitcr*. AdelafJo. 



125 

thallus, although apparently interlacing, are very minute and crowded, and there 
is no external layer of saccate cells, as in the recent genus Codimn. 

One of Dr. Walcott's species, however, namely, ? $ t praecursor, bears more 
than a fancied resemblance to the present algal fossil from South Australia. In 
point of size the thallus of ?6". praecursor as figured by Walcott is about one- 
third the dimensions of the present species, whilst the tubes are of about the same 
diameter. 

Some years ago I described another species of Sphacrocodium from the 
Middle Devonian limestone in North-east Gippsland, Victoria, as S. gippslandictim 
(Chapman, 1920, p. 182, pi. xvi., fig. 1) ; this I am now inclined to regard as 
possibly belonging to a new genus, on account of the internal filamentous cells 
being dendroid rather than interlacing, as in the living Sphaerocodium. This 
Devonian form does not, however, show any marked resemblance to the present 
genus Mawsonella, and, moreover, the tubes of the interior of the thallus are 
about ten times the diameter of that genus. 

Bibliographic References. 
Ch:apman, F. 

1916 — Report on a Probable Calcareous Alga from the Cambrian Lime- 
stone Breccia found in Antarctica at 85° S., Geology (vol. ii.), 
Brit. Ant. Exped., 1907-8, pp.. 81-83, pi. i. 
1920— Palaeozoic Fossils of Eastern Victoria, Part IV., Records Geol. 
Surv. Vict., vol. iv., pt. 2, pp. 175-194, pis. xvi.-xxxii. 
Mawson, D. 

1925 — Evidence and Indications of Algal Contributions in the Cambrian 
and Pre-Cambrian Limestones of South Australia, Trans. Roy. 
Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlix., pp. 186-190, pis. xiii.-xv. 

Walcott, C. D. 

1919 — Middle Cambrian Algae, Cambrian Geology and Palaeontology, 
Ser. IV., Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections, vol. lxvii., 
No. 5, pp. 217-260, pis. xliii.-lix. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE VI. 

Fig. 1. Weathered surface of a fragment of limestone containing MaivsoncUa. Xl|, 

Fig. 2. Section of limestone, magnified, showing general appearance of the joints and 
the secondary crystallisation around them. X26. 

Fig. 3. A basally attached joint, showing coarse cystoid strands. x26. 

Fig. 4. The same, more highly magnified, showing the fine strumose cell-structure of 
the main body of the thalloid segment. X52. 

Fig. 5. Another joint, showing fine cell-structure and an included forammifcral test, 
( ?) Triincatulina. x?2. 



126 



THE MANNUM GRANITE. 

By B. F. Goode, B.Sc. 
(Communicated by Sir Douglas Mawson.) 

[Read July 14, 1927.] 

This granite outcrops over a comparatively small area on the slope of the 
eastern bank of the River Murray on Section 156. Hundred of Younghusband. 
The location is about two and a quarter miles up stream from Mannum township. 

Erosion of the overlying Tertiary beds has laid bare a narrow strip of the 
granite, about three-eighths of a mile in length, with a maximum width of nearly 
one hundred yards. There is also a smaller patch a quarter of a mile to the 
northwards. The extent of the occurrence, small though it is, is not at first 
sight apparent, as the rock itself is exposed only on the slope of the river bank, 
being elsewhere covered by soil and detritus. Overlying and immediately 
surrounding this granite are the highly fossiliferous yellow limestones of the 
Murray plains. It is obviously related to the Murray Bridge and Swanport 
granite outcrops, and undoubtedly dates from Palaeozoic or pre-Palaeozoic times. 

Numerous bands of fine-grained aplite traverse the granite in its north- 
eastern portion. These are parallel and strike in a direction 140 degrees east 
of north. The maximum thickness observed was 30 inches. 

At the opposite end of the outcrop, and extending parallel to the aplite, is a 
dark, basic dyke about 2 feet in breadth. Also in a quarry face are exposed basic 
segregations and a coarse-grained aplite. The granite is quarried and used in 
the building of locks now under construction along the River Murray. These 
quarrying operations have exposed many drusy vughs containing fine crystals 
of orthoclase, biotite, pyrites, and smoky quartz. 

Macroscopic Features. 

The granite is a medium to coarse, fairly even-grained rock containing 
numerous small miarolitic cavities. The most obvious mineral is orthoclase 
present in coarse crystals which show fine cleavage faces and lend to the rock 
a pinkish colour. Plagioclase is less obvious but present in smaller crystals. 
Quartz is plentiful with a decidedly smoky appearance ; mica is comparatively 
scarce, and is scattered through the rock in small dark flakes ; small grains of 
pyrites are numerous, and iron ore is discernible with a lens. 

Round the edge of the intrusion, the granite has more of a grey colour; 
porphyritic crystals of pink orthoclase are numerous, but are all partially altered 
and surrounded by an outer white zone. In a few cases complete kaolinization 
is indicated. The groundmass is almost felsitic, relieved by coarser grains of 
quartz and biotite. Biotite is more plentiful than in the normal rock. 

Microscopic Features. 

It is a hoiocrystailine, medium-grained, allotriomorphic granular rock, of 
medium to coarse grain size. The minerals contained are quartz, orthoclase, 
microcline, plagioclase, biotite, sphene, magnetite, pyrites, chlorite, apatite, and 
zircon. 



127 

Quartz is present in numerous irregular grains, mostly clear, but many 
exhibit relics of former cracks and contain fine dust-like inclusions. Rarely, 
fragments arc met with graphically interwoven felspar. Abundant orthoclase 
appears in perfectly fresh and clear anhedral crystals. Some few of the larger 
pieces are turbid through alteration to aggregates of fine grains of sericite, kaolin, 
and quartz. Much of the orthoclase is perthitically intergrown with albitic 
plagioclase in large individuals. In these cases the orthoclase is turbid. Micro- 
cline occurs in rare crystals exhibiting the characteristic cross-hatching under 
crossed nicols. 

Plagioclase occurs mainly perthitically intergrown with orthoclase. but is 
present also in small subhedral pieces. These are quite clear and show no sign 
of alteration; under crossed nicols they show fine lamellae due to albite twinning 
and, in rare examples, pericline twinning. The fineness of the stripes suggests 
a highly sodic variety, and in the perthite it has a maximum extinction angle of 
12 degrees, determining it as albite. 

The plagioclase crystals, apart from that of the perthite, have a maximum 
extinction of 10 degrees on sections cut perpendicular to the OK) face, showing 
that it is albite-oligoclase. 

Riotite mica is present in small quantity. It occurs in small flakes containing 
a few inclusions and is pleochroic from brown to pale brown. It is slightly 
altered to chlorite. 

Sphene occurs in fairly numerous highly refracting wedge-shaped crystals, 
pale brown in colour. Apatite is present as extremely fine lath-like crystals. 
Magnetite is not plentiful, but a few fairly large irregular grains and cubes are 
to be seen. Pyrites is comparatively plentiful in grains and cubes. Zircon is 
rare. Chlorite appears as occasional green flakes, due to alteration of biotite. 

Chemical Composition. 
A chemical analysis of the granite gave the following results: — 

Constituents. Percentage. Constituents. Percentage. 

SiO a . . ., .. 70-77 H.O— -36 

\1 a O, 13-69 TiO, '72 

Fe 3 3 1*97 P 2 5 -11 

FeO -97 FeS 3 -17 

MgO .. .. -• '34 MnO "28 

CaO "94 ZrO, tr. 

Na a O 3-70 

K 3 Q 5-68 Total . . 100-15 

H" 04- -45 



Most of these figures are quite normal for a granite, the magnesia is low but 
is explained by the paucity of mica and the absence of other ferro-magnesian 
minerals. Of the alkalies, potash seems to predominate to a greater extent than 
is usual in South Australian granites. The molecular proportions of potash and 
soda are equal, and in microscopic sections orthoclase and plagioclase are roughly 
equal in amount. The apparent predominance of orthoclase is due to the abund- 
ance of perthite. 



128 



The Norm. 

The calculation of the norm yields the following minerals and their per 
centages : — 

Quartz . . . . 25*32 Ilmenite 



Orthoclasc 

Albite . . 

Anorthite 

Enstatite 

Magnetite 

Haematite 



33*36 

31-44 
3-89 

•90 
2-09 

■48 



Pyrites 
Apatite 
Water 



1-37 
•17 
■34 
-81 



Position in C.I.P.W. Classification 

Class I. . . 
Order 4 . . 
Rang 1 . . 
Sub-Rang 3 



Total 



Persalane 
Britannare 
Li pa rase 
Liparose 



100-17 



The Mode. 

Microscopic measurements carried out by the Rosiwal method gave the 
following actual percentage mineral composition : — 

Quartz . . .. 25-99 Sphene 1-86 



Orthoclase . . 


. . 34-09 


Plagioclase . . 


. . 30-75 


Biotite . . 


.. 3-13 


Iron Ores 


3-33 



Apatite 



'62 



Total 



99-77 



From these figures it will be seen that the values of quartz and orthoclase 
correspond almost exactly with the norm. Plagioclase is slightly lower but is 
approximately equal. Ferromagncsian minerals are much higher, but this 
inaccuracy is due,, perhaps, to the large and scattered nature of the flakes of 
biotite. Iron ores are of the same order. Sphene, on reduction to ilmenite, 
corresponds in the ratio of 1'44 in the mode, 1*37 in the norm. Apatite has 
almost twice the value in the norm, but the fineness of the crystals renders it 
difficult to measure them. 



129 



NEW TREMATODES FROM AN AUSTRALIAN SILUROID. 

By Professor T. Harvey Johnston, University of Adelaide. 

[Read July 14, 1927.] 

The Australian freshwater jewfish, or catfish, Tandanus (or Copidoglanis) 
tandanus, has a wide distribution in the eastern half of the continent, and several 
parasites have been recorded as occurring in it, viz., a Gyrodactyloid trematode, 
Anchylo disc us iimdani, Johnston and Tiegs, from the gills ; a Caryophyllaeid 
cestode, Lytocestus (Balano taenia) bancrofti, Johnston, from the intestine; a 
trematode, Isoparorchis sp., Johnston, from its gas bladder; and a Trypanosome, 
T. bancrofti, Johnston and Cleland, from its blood — all from Queensland locali- 
ties. Most of the material referred to above, as well as most of that described 
in this paper, was collected by Dr. T. L. Bancroft, or his daughter, Dr. M. J. 
Mackerras, to both of whom thanks are due. The paper contains an account of 
two species of trematodes which occur in the gas bladder of this fish. 

Isoparorchis tandani, n. sp. 

A. Figs. 1-4. 

This is a large trematode, specimens examined measuring 30 mm. by 15 mm. 
(somewhat compressed), 25 mm. by 12 mm., and 21 mm. by 11 mm., while the 
smallest measured 17 mm. by 8 mm. and possessed abundant ripe eggs. The 
anterior end is thickest and somewhat pointed, the posterior being rounded. 
There is little variation in the width of the parasite from the region of the testes 
to that of the ovary, though compressed specimens may show a considerable 
widening in the middle third. 

The body (when preserved in formalin) is more or less transparent, the 
darkly-coloured uterus and intestine showing through very plainly, while the 
rounded whitish testes are also very obvious, especially from the dorsal aspect. 
The cuticle is smooth. In the case of the larger worms the diameters of the 
anterior and ventral suckers were 1"7 mm. and 2T mm. respectively (ratio 
1:1*2); 1*6 mm. and 2*1 mm. (ratio 1:1*3); 1*0 mm. and 1*2 mm. (ratio 
1:1*2). The prominent ventral sucker is situated at about one-fifth the body 
length from the anterior end. The genital pore lies in the midventral line and 
at a distance from the oral sucker about one-third the interval between the latter 
and the acetabulum. There is a muscular pharynx, about 0*6 mm. in diameter, 
continuous with the oral sucker which it partly overlies, and is succeeded by an 
extremely short oesophagus which overlies it dorsally. The latter soon branches 
into two long simple intestinal caeca which are thrown into a fairly regular series 
of curves — a slight one between the two suckers in the vicinity of the genital 
pore, then the limbs of the intestine approach the ventral acetabulum sucker very 
closely; then follows a wide loop partly investing the corresponding testis; this 
being followed by four others, the last being slight, while the one anteriorly to 
it lies in the vicinity of the ovary. The ends of the caeca approach very closely 
to the excretory vesicle at the posterior extremity of the worm. The extreme 
anterior portion of each caecum is specialised as a "'glandular stomach" and differs 
in appearance from the rest of the tube. 

The main excretory canal is long and sinuous, extending from the rather 
large excretory vesicle to a point near the middle of the length of the parasite, 
where it bifurcates, each limb passing forwards in a series of curves near the 
intestinal loops. 



130 




A. Figs. 1-4. 



131 

The testes are rounded, entire and approximately equal, measuring 1*5 mm. 
to 2 mm. in diameter, They lie on either side of the acetabulum, their anterior 
border being more or less on a level with the middle of the sucker. They are 
closely invested by the intestinal loops. The vasa efrcrentia arise from the inner 
anterior margins and pass just in front of the ventral sucker as very narrow tubes 
which soon join to form a swollen vesicula seminalis. The latter is thrown into 
a number of close coils and then becomes a very delicate, rather long, ejaculatory 
duct which travels in a sinuous or slightly coiled course above the uterine coils, 
and then diverges somewhat from the latter to enter the muscular genital sac. 
It terminates beside the uterine pore, at the bottom of the ductus hermaphroditicus. 

The ovary is a long tubular organ, more or less bent in various directions, 
measuring over 9 mm. in the longest specimen examined, and over 6 mm. in the 
next longest. The width is about 0*25 mm. It may lie on either side, since in 
four mature specimens it was found on the right, and in two on the left. Its 
general position is more or less transverse, though the outer end may be bent 
posteriorly. Its inner portion becomes markedly narrowed into a short oviduct 
whose lumen is only 0*01 mm., sufficiently wide to admit the passage of an 
ovarian egg, the latter measuring about 0*015 mm. in diameter, but capable of 
elongating as it travels down the duct. The latter soon receives the vitelline duct 
and becomes sharply bent back on itself as the- ootyp, which is very narrow (about 
0*012 mm. in diameter). This uterine duct passes beside and immediately above 
the oviduct for a short distance, and then widens into the uterus in the vicinity 
of the lower (i.e., inner) part of the ovary, becoming thrown into a series of 
coils and loops, some of which overlie the uterine duct. The uterus is a very 
long, rather narrow, duct thrown into a series of wide curves passing across the 
worm between and slightly beyond the intestinal caeca and dorsally to them, 
each curve being thrown into a scries of smaller undulations. In the vicinity 
of the acetabulum the tube becomes narrow again, passing above dorso-laterally 
to the sucker, thence forwards below the vesicula seminalis and ejaculatory duct 
to enter the muscular genital sac and terminate at the ductus hermaphroditicus. 

The genital sac, which, apparently, is homologous with the cirrus sac of 
other trematodes, is a very muscular organ, 0*8 mm. to 1 mm. wide, surrounding 
the terminal part of both male and female ducts, particularly the latter. The 
ductus is eversible, as some preparations show the organ partly extruded as a 
wide structure projecting through the genital pore. The enclosed portion of the 
uterus and ductus is surrounded by a layer of deeply-staining ( ? glandular) cells. 

The two vitelline glands are greatly branched and lie in the posterior quarter 
of the parasite, the one on the ovarian side being rather more posteriorly situated 
than its fellow, and, besides, it invades the other side somewhat. The glands 
are markedly dendritic, each consisting of about five main branches which sub- 
divide two or three times and terminate in a great number of short processes, so 
that the two glands appear somewhat like an irregular broken network occupying 
the space behind the uterus and ovary and between the intestinal crura, though 
they overlap parts of the latter and may extend laterally beyond them. Except 
in the vicinity of the shell gland no part of the ovary or uterus is covered by the 
vitellarium. The two glands are connected by a swollen duct from the narrower mid- 
region of which a common vitelline duct is given off ventrally to curve forwards and 
after a short course join the oviduct, as it enters the shell gland. At the junction 
there is given off dorsally a short Laurer's canal terminating blindly in a rounded 

DESCRIPTION OF TEXT FIG. A. 
References to the lettering will be found at the end of the article. 

Isoparorchis tandanu 
Fig. 1: Entire worm, ventral view. 2: Female organs. 3: Male ducts, etc. 4: Junction 
of oviduct and other ducts. 



132 

or pyriform receptaculum seminis, T2 mm. in diameter, which lies ventrally to 
parts of the vitellarittm. The shell gland is not a very obvious structure in stained 
preparations, though it occupies a considerable area, about 1 mm. by '65 mm. Eggs 
are thin-shelled and measure 45 /* to 52 p by 25 /a to 27 p. At the end opposite 
the operculum, the shell shows a small rounded apical thickening. The miracidium 
while enclosed in the shell is about 40 p long. 

The species obviously belongs to Isoparorchis, Southwell (1913), whose type 
species, /. trisimilitiibis , occurs in the gas bladder of an Indian Siluroid, Wallago 
attit. The form herein described was recorded by me (1914) under its generic 
name only, from Tandanus tandanus, obtained from the Condamine River 
(Murray-Darling system) in Southern Queensland, and later (1916) from the 
same host species in the Dee (Dawson-Fitzroy system) and Burnett Rivers which 
belong to the Pacific slopes. 

In 1920 Kobayashi (p. 396) described a new genus and species, Leptolecithum 
eiirytremnm as infesting the gas bladder of certain Japanese Siluroids. In June, 
1926, Bhalerao announced the synonymy of the two genera, tabulated the chief 
characters of the two parasites, and concluded that they belonged to Southwell's 
species. He also mentioned that the ovary was situated on the right in the Indian 
parasite, and that perhaps Kobayashi may have been in error in describing the 
organ as lying on the left in the Japanese material examined. I have shown 
above that both men may have been correct in their statements, as the organs 
may be placed either on the left or on the right side in the Australian species. 
A comparison of the figures given by Southwell and Kobayashi, together with 
the distribution of the hosts in each case, leads one to disagree with Bhalerao's 
view as to the identity of the species. There are marked differences in regard 
to the general outline of the worms ; the relative sizes of the two suckers and 
their distance from one another in relation to body length; the size of the testes; 
and the position at which the main excretory stem bifurcates. It is in all of these 
points that both I, trisimilitubis, Southwell, and /, eurytremns (Kobayashi) differ 
from /, tandani. All known members of the genus occur in the gas bladder 
("gall bladder" in Bhalerao's table, p. 247, being obviously a misprint for gas 
bladder) of Siluroids. 

Kobayashi placed his genus in the Hemiuridae and stated that it was related 
to the Distomum clavatum group. This latter assemblage has been assigned to 
Hiriidinella, and was regarded by Odhner (1911) as belonging to an undesignated 
subfamily, but Nicoll (1914) listed it under Accacoeliinae. Manter pointed out 
many similarities to the Azygiidae except in regard to the form of the vitellaria 
(which are tubular in Hiriidinella) and the position of the ovary and testes, the 
latter being immediately postovarian. The strongly muscular body of Hiriidinella 
as well as the position of the various sex organs mark the genus off sharply from 
Isoparorchis. In Accacoeliitm the testes are postacetubular, one behind the other, 
the ovary a little distance posttesticular and the vitellaria dendritic along each 
side of the body. Except for the position of the vitellaria, Isoparorchis shows 
certain similarity to Leuceruthrus (which -is usually placed in the Azygiidae in 
spite of the relative positions of the testes and ovary, though Goldberger, 1911, 
regarded it as probably representing a new family), and especially to Halipegits. 

Isoparorchis does not seem to fall into any of the known subfamilies of 
Hemiuridae, though it appears nearer to the Accacoeliinae. It is suggested that 
a new subfamily Isoparorchinae be erected to receive the genus, a provisional 
diagnosis being; — Hemiuridae; body weakly muscular; posterior region not 
telescopic ; testes preovarian, near acetabulum ; ovary posttesticular ; vitellaria 
dendritic, postovarian ; uterus preovarian. 

Both Halipegus, Looss, and Derogenes, Luhe— especially the latter — show 
affinities with the new subfamily, though the form of the vitelline glands differs 
in each case, being dendritic in Isoparorchis, rounded in Derogenes, and composed 



133 

of a few short rounded lobes in Halipegus. It is of interest to note that Luhe 
(1909) placed these two genera in the vicinity of the Dicrocoeliinae and 
Hemiuridae, whereas Pratt (1902) included Derogenes in the latter and regarded 
Halipegus and Accacoelktm as related to the Syncoeliinae. Nicoll (1910, p. 348) 
seems to have been in doubt regarding the systematic position of Derogenes, as 
he listed it under "subfamily (Derogeninae)," though he subsequently (1914, 
p. 487) placed it under the Syncoeliinae, as also did Manter (1926, p. 100). The 
absence of a cirrus sac in Halipegus, and the presence in Derogenes of a muscular 
organ surrounding the ends of both male and female ducts, as in Isoparorchis, 
should be noted. 

Tandanicola bancrofti, n. gen., n. sp. 

B. Figs. 1-5. 
This semi-transparent trematode was collected from the gas bladder of 
Tandanus tandanus, from the Burnett River, at Eidsvold, by Dr. Bancroft and 
his daughter, Dr. J. ML Mackcrras, while Mr. II. Tryon forwarded some from 
the same host species from the Condaminc River, near Warwick, Queensland. 

Preserved specimens are very pale, strongly flexed ventrally, the oral sucker 
more or less underlying the acetabulum, and the posterior end may also be bent 
somewhat ventrally, while the lateral edges may be slightly inturned. The largest 
specimen, when slightly compressed, measured about 3 -8 mm. in length by 2 mm. 
in breadth, the greatest width being in the vicinity of the acetabulum, which is 
situated in the midbody. The anterior end narrows somewhat, but the posterior 
is rounded. The mouth is subterminal. Both suckers are well developed, 
especially the ventral, their respective diameters being 0*38 mm. and 0*48 mm., 
the ratio being about 4: 5. The cuticle is smooth, except anteriorly, where it is 
very minutely scaly (under high power). 

The pharynx, which has a diameter of about 0*17 mm. and a length of about 
0*15 mm., is succeeded by an oesophagus 0*2 mm. to 0*3 mm. long; the latter 
branching into the two intestinal crura, which are fairly even in diameter and 
extend only slightly beyond the acetabular level. The inner portion of each cms 
may be somewhat crinkled. 

The excretory canals form a U with very long, wide limbs with sacculate 
walls and extending anteriorly almost to the pharynx, and lying laterally from 
the intestinal crura. The pore is terminal. 

The testes are slightly elongate, nearly elliptical, measuring 0*4 mm. by 
0*22 mm., lying side by side, being separated by the uterine canal. They are 
situated just in front of the acetabulum, whose anterior border they may partly 
overlie. There is a prominent elongate swollen vesicula seminalis on the right 
of the median line, extending from the region of the shell gland forwards beside 
the ovary, between the latter and the genital sac. It may underlie portion of 
the ovary, while its anterior region is closely adjacent to and may partly overlie 
the sac. It then enters the latter to become a rather wide elongate rounded 
structure with markedly glandular walls, presumably constituting a prostatic 
region. There arises a very short duct from its anterior end to terminate in 
a "strongly-folded pouch lying in anterior portion of the genital atrium, some 
distance in front of the papilla. The arrangement of the various parts is some- 
what like that occurring in Levins eniella. 

The genital sac is a conspicuous organ whose size varies in different speci- 
mens (0T5 mm. long by 0T3 mm. broad; 0"4 mm. by 0*2 mm.). It possesses 
abundant longitudinal and circular muscle fibres, while its exterior is provided 
with numbers of large cells which are especially numerous around the posterior 
end of the organ. They appear to be glandular. Projecting into the lumen of 
the sac is a very prominent copulatory papilla which is not traversed by the male 
duct. It varies in form in the different specimens examined, being broadly 



134 




B. Figs. 1-5. 



135 

rounded in some and more or less conical in others (0*08 mm. long by 0'09 mm. ; 
0*08 mm. by O08 mm.; 0-18 mm. by 0*07 mm., an elongate conical form), 
according to the degree of retraction. Its cavity contains abundant longitudinal 
muscle fibres inserted into the tip of the organ, while the surrounding copulatory 
sac is richly supplied with circular muscle fibres. The lumen of the atrium 
varies in dimensions according to the degree of retraction of the papilla; but 
its walls, like those of the papilla, are very strongly chitinised. They are also 
thrown into a scries of very prominent longitudinal or spiral ridges when the 
papilla is retracted. The lumen is not straight, the outer part being bent or 
twisted more or less spirally, and projecting anteriorly to the genital pore which 
partly underlies the sac. Into the anterior part of the atrium there enter the 
uterus (metraterm) and the ejaculatory duct adjacent to a strongly folded pouch- 
like part of the wall in each case. The genital pore lies in the midline about 
midway between the two suckers, and is an insignificant aperture when the 
papilla is fully retracted. It then has strongly infolded walls like those of the 
atrium, but when the papilla is protruded through it, the lumen becomes more 
circular. The pore possesses a strong sphincter. 

The ovary consists of three larger and one or two smaller rounded vesicles, 
some of which partly overlie others, the organ being situated on the right side 
in front of the right testis and between the intestine and vesicula seminalis, 
sometimes overlying part of the latter and of the genital sac. The oviduct travels 
inwardly and somewhat posteriorly towards the midline, to receive the common 
yolk duct or reservoir, then passes upwards to enter the shell gland, which 
measures 0*8 to 0*13 mm. in diameter. The latter lies ventrally to the yolk 
reservoir and is situated between, or just in front of, the anterior borders of the 
testes. Laurer's canal arises ventrally, immediately before the oviduct enters 
the shell gland, and curves around the latter dorsally as a very delicate tube 
which becomes swollen into one or more receptacula seminis and then fairly long 
and canal-like. The ootyp continues backwards in a slightly undulating course 
as a narrow uterine duct, at first above the shell gland and later lying between 
the testes or below one of them, thence above or to one side of the acetabulum, 
behind which it becomes widened into the uterus. The latter is thrown into a 
series of loops and coils occupying the midregion of the postacetabular part of 
the parasite, excepting the posterior end. The duct eventually travels forwards 
as a fairly wide canal above the acetabulum or to one side of it, thence below the 
left testis and vitelline duct, and then on the left side of the genital sac to 
terminate as a narrow tube opening into a cuticular pouch in the anterior part 
of the atrium. Eggs are thin-shelled, abundant, and measure 0'042 mm. by 
0-025 mm. (uterine eggs, 0*032 mm. by 0'025 mm.). 

The yolk glands lie laterally in the second quarter of the worm and consist 
on each side of 20 to 30 follicles, lying directly above the intestine. They arc on 
approximately the same level as the testes, being preacetabular and postovarian. 
The main duct from each side passes directly inwards into the anterior border 
of the corresponding testis, the two ducts meeting just above the shell gland. 
They may overlie the ventral lobe of the ovary, the uterus, and the posterior part 
of the vesicula seminalis, but are ventral to the main mass of the ovary. The 

DESCRIPTION OF TEXT FIG. B. 
References to the lettering will be found at the end of the article. 

Tandanicola hancrofti. 
Fig. 1 : Entire worm, ventral view. 2: Entire worm, lateral view. 3: Female organs (in 
part), also copulatory sac, etc., from a teased specimen. 4: Copulatory sac, etc. 4u : Sketch 
to indicate course of genital atrium from genital pore. 5 : Another form of copulatory papilla, 
less retracted than those indicated in figs. 3 and 4. 

Figs. 1 and 2 are drawn to scale indicated beside fig. 1 ; figs. 3, 4, and 5 to scale drawn 
beside fig. 3. 



136 

united duct may be swollen to constitute a vitelline reservoir which narrows 
immediately before joining the oviduct as it enters the shell gland. 

In several specimens amphitypy was observed, the ovary, shell gland, and 
terminal portion of the uterus being on the left of the median line, instead of 
the right. 

The general topography of the organs indicates that the worm belongs to 
the Brachycoeliidae, as diagnosed under subfamily title by Luhe (1909, p. i IS) . 
The absence of a typical cirrus sac and the position of the ovary and testes 
exclude it from Brachycoeliinae (s. str.). Though the Phagicolinae are devoid 
of a cirrus sac, yet the positions of the other organs prevent the inclusion of the 
parasite in that subfamily, and this remark would apply to the Lecithodendriinae. 
The parasite seems to be more nearly related to the Microphallinae in regard to 
the structure of the cirrus sac (Ward, 1901 ; Luhe, 1909), but the postacetabular 
position of all organs except the uterus and genital sac in the subfamily definitely 
eliminates the Australian parasite from it. A new genus Tandanicola and sub- 
family Tandanicolinae are therefore proposed for its reception, the following 
provisional generic diagnosis being suggested. Tandanicola, n. gen., Brachy- 
coeliidae : Cuticle more or less minutely spiny; suckers well developed; 
prepharynx absent ; pharynx and oesophagus present ; intestinal crura extending 
to vicinity of acetabulum ; testes compact, lying at same level, prcacetabular, 
postovarian ; ovary consisting of a few rounded lobes, pretesticular ; cirrus sac 
absent, replaced functionally by a muscular copulatory sac with well-developed 
copulatory papilla; genital pore preacetabular ; vitellaria consisting of compara- 
tively few follicles, lying laterally above intestinal crura, preacetabular ; uterus 
mainly postacetabular, restricted to midregion • excretory vesicle practically 
U-shaped. Type, T. bancrofH. 

References to lettering : a.s., anterior sucker ; c.p. f copulatory papilla ; c.s., cirrus 
sac; copulatory sac; c.v.d., common vitelline duct; d.h., ductus hermaphroditicus ; 
ej.d. } ejaculatory duct; ex.c, excretory canal; ex. v., excretory vesicle; g,at* f 
genital atrium; gl.c, gland cells (?) ; gl.int., glandular region of intestine; g.p., 
genital pore ; int., intestine ; L.c, Laurer's canal ; od. } oviduct ; oes., oesophagus ; 
ooi., ootyp; ov., ovary; ph., pharynx; pr., prostatic portion of male duct; r.s., 
receptaculum seminis ; s.g., shell gland; t., testis; lit., uterus; v.d., vas deferens; 
v.eff., vas efferens; viL, vitelline glands; vit.d., vitelline duct; vs., vitelline 
reservoir; v.s., ventral sucker; v.sem., vesicula seminalis. 

Literature References. 

1926 — Bhalerao, G. D. : "On the Synonvmy of the Genera Isoparorchis, etc." 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 17, pp' 246-250. 

1914 — Johnston, T. H. : "Notes and Exhibits, Trematoda." P.R.S. Q'land, 
26, p. 69. 

1916 — Johnston, T. H. : "Census of Endoparasites recorded as occurring in 
Queensland, etc." P.R.S. Q'land, 28, pp. 31-79. 

1920 — Kobayashi, H. : "On some Digenetic Trematodes in Japan." Para- 
sitology, 12, pp. 380-410. 

1909 — Luhe, M. : "Trematoda," in Susswasserfauna Deutschlands, 17. 

1926 — Manter, H. W. : "Some North American Eish Trematodes." 111. Biol. 
Monogr., 10 (2). 

1910— Nicoll, W.: "On the Entozoa of Fishes from Firth of Clyde." Para- 
sitology, 3, pp. 322-359. 

1914 — Nicoll, W. : "Trematode Parasites of Fishes from the English Channel." 
Jour. Mar. Biol. Assoc, 10, pp. 466-505. 

1901 — Ward, H. B. : "On the Structure of the Copulatory Organs in Micro- 
phallus." Tr. Amer. Micr. Soc, 22, pp. 175-187. 



137 



ABORIGINAL ROCK SHELTERS AND CARVINGS— THREE LOCALITIES 

ON THE LOWER MURRAY. 

By Harold L. Sheard. 
[Read July 14, 1927.] 

The first of the rock carvings and shelters herein described, namely, the Won- 
gulla Series, was discovered on a recent trip to the Murray in company with 
Messrs. C. P. Mountford, P. Stapleton, and N. B. Tindale. At their joint request, 
I undertook the recording of this discovery. A second visit was made in company 
with Mr. Mountford, when the Wongulla Series was found to be more extensive 
than at first supposed, and two further occurrences were discovered at Fromm's 
Landing at Scrubby Flat. A subsequent trip with Mr. Tindale allowed further 
investigations at Fromm's Landing. 

In a previous paper < 1} the author recorded a series of aboriginal intaglios at 
Devon Downs (Section 89, Hundred of Niidottic). These markings cover prac- 
tically the whole available surface on a rock shelter 70 feet in length ; those recorded 
in this paper, while similar in technique, cover much smaller rock surfaces, but 
extend over a much wider field and embrace several new designs. 

The Wongulla Series. 

This includes three shelters and intermittent markings on the cliffs at various 
points. The locality is opposite the Wongulla Landing, and extends on the eastern 
side of the Murray for about a quarter of a mile in Sections B and C, Hundred of 
Forster. Wongulla is about two miles south of Devon Downs, following down 
stream. 

The river here has a north and south direction, and a mud flat, about a mile 
long and a quarter of a mile wide, extends along the eastern side. This is some- 
times covered with water, forming a billabong, and is bounded on the eastern 
extremity by the cliffs, which rise sheer, for about 200 feet, from a bank which 
is fringed with tall gum trees and undergrowth, giving protection to the rock 
dwellings which have weathered out at the base of the cliffs. These appear to 
have been much occupied by the aborigines. In places large blocks of rock have 
fallen from the cliffs and encumber the banks. 

The cliffs are formed of a fossilifcrous limestone laid down in Miocene times. 
This can be readily scratched or marked with any hard implement, and forms a 
suitable background for the native art. 

Starting at the northern end, the first markings noted are a number of short 
straight line cuts, varying from 3 to 7 inches in length, mostly perpendicular, but 
sometimes being crossed by oblique cuts forming double crosses. Characteristic 
bird tracks (singly and in short connected rows) and fern frond-like designs were 
also observed. This area is 5 feet in length and is situated directly on the cliff 
face about 3 feet high. 

A hundred yards further south is the first shelter showing definite signs of 
occupation. This is 30 feet in length, with an overhang in the widest place of 
12 feet. The present height at the entrance is 10 feet and curves down to meet 
the floor. It is 25 feet above the level of the billabong, and the highest flood on 



(1) Sheard, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1927, p. 18. 



138 

record did not wash the floor, although other shelters near it were inundated. The 
walls and roof are smoke-blackened, and a grey smoke stain ascends the cliffs 
lodging thickly on every ledge. The floor is composed of a bed of ashes and 
detritus 3 feet in depth. 

The ashes on being examined show a tendency to banding which would suggest 
intermittent periods of occupation. Fragments of hammerstones, rough quartz 
chippings, and bones of the Murray cod (Oligorus macqitariensis) were discovered, 
and bivalve shells (Unio angasi) were numerous. Two roughly flaked quartzite 
stones were also found, and these reproduced exactly the markings and holes when 
scratched or bored against the cliffs. 

The main group of markings occupies an area of 11 feet by 3 feet 6 inches on 
the curving wall of the shelter, about 7 feet above the floor. A complicated intaglio 
measures 23 inches by 29 inches. A portion of this has weathered at the lower 
end ; A semicircular design situated slightly above this measures 12 inches long by 
7$ inches wide. Three inverted V-shaped markings bisected by a longer line 
measure 7 by 6 by 12 inches, 5 by 5 by 9 inches, 6| by 5 by 8 inches, respectively, 
these are all new designs, nothing similar having been previously observed. A 
characteristic row of round holes borders this series on the lower side. .This con- 
tains thirty-eight holes, some of which are connected. They vary from three- 
eighths to 1 inch in diameter and from a half to 1 inch in depth. Other short 
series of holes, including double rows, were also observed. 

For the following six chains or so along the cliff only occasional intermittent 
markings and scratches of little consequence were noticed. 

The second shelter is then reached. The roof in this is only about 3 feet in 
the highest place, and the entrance extending for about 20 feet was merely 12 to 
15 inches m height. It was interesting to observe on the northern wall the cuttings 
figured by Hale and Tindale.< 2 > 

Several rows of holes, straight-line cuts, and a few tracks were also noticed 
As is usual, m all these shelters ashes and debris formed the floor, and the rocks 
were much smoke stained. 

Three chains further south another shelter was located. This was from 3 to 
J feet m height, about 12 feet deep, and approximately 25 feet long, the roof bein- 
supported m the centre by a column of rock which had withstood the action of 
the weather. 

Every available space on this column was decorated chiefly with round holes 
arranged m a variety of patterns and designs, but scratches, straight-line markings 
irregular crosses, and bird tracks were present. Similar markings and patterns 
existed in the shelter. 

A few chains further south the mam channel of the river curves in and washes 
the base of the cliffs. The intervening space contains, at intervals, numerous 
markings, but nothing different from what has already been described. 

Notes ok Shelters at Fromm's Landing. 

This is situated on Section 302, Hundred of Ridley, on the western bank of 
the river about five miles below Wongulla. A mud flat and billabong, similar to 
but more extensive than those at Wongulla, extend along the western side of the 
river. This is bounded by the cliffs, which have the usual bank at their base. 

The cliffs here are about 100 feet high, and weathering (possibly when the 
river was at a higher level) has eroded several shelters. One is 90 feet in length 

(2) Hale, H. M., and Tindale, N. B., Records of South Australian Museum jii 1925 
pl. 4, fig. 4. ' 



139 

and 5 feet 6 inches in height at the entrance, extending under the cliffs for about 
12 feet. This is the largest shelter that has yet been observed by the author in 
any locality on the Murray, and singularly, except for a few round holes on the 
northern end and a few doubtful markings, contains no carvings. 

This shelter bears every indication of a very long occupancy. A continuous 
bed of ashes and debris extends the whole length, and appears to be much deeper 
than usual The bank is also deeply covered with ashes. Allowing for the removal 
of ashes by the occupants, also the natural action of the wind (and this is con- 
siderable, as the floors are invariably very dry and dusty), a very long period must 
have transpired since this shelter was first tenanted. Further, a thick pall of 
smoke has blackened the rock surface, and even the holes referred to were prac- 
tically filled with soot. It is possible that were some of this matter removed, 
scratches may be visible. The shelter faces due east and the bank being well over- 
grown, efficient protection would be obtained in all weathers. 




Fromms Landing 



As our time was limited only part of this locality was examined. The author 
remembers observing (when passing this district by boat several years ago) a few 
fern-like markings on the cliffs about a mile to the south of this shelter. 

On a subsequent trip to Fromm's Landing, Mr. Tindale obtained a section 
from the floor deposits of the large shelter described above. As nothing of this 
type has been previously published, this is included as being typical of many 
Murray shelters (see text fig-.) . 

The deposits at the entrance total 6 feet 4 inches, resting on the Miocene rock. 
The first 17 inches (marked a in figure) consist of sterile sand weathered from 
the cliff. Above this was 30 inches (b) of intermittent layers of burnt sand and 
charcoal. This abruptly changed to 25 inches (c) of continuous ashes, etc., show- 
ing regular banding, the whole being covered with 4 inches (d) of recent disturbed 
ashes and debris. 



140 

At 26 inches from the base rock a fragment of burnt slate, and at 24 inches a 
piece of coarse granite were obtained, both of which are foreign to this locality. 

Three chains up-stream a shelter was located, at the entrance of which scratch- 
ings were observed. These consisted of bird tracks singly and connected, straight- 
line cuts, and round holes, but were not numerous. 

The Scrubby Flat Series. 

This locality is in Section H, Hundred of Forster, and is situated on the 
eastern bank of the river slightly north of Frorrrm's Landing. A mud flat borders 
the river, at the northern end of which the landing is situated. A few chains 
further north the main channel encroaches on the cliffs. 

The intervening space is filled with the ragged end of the cliff much broken 
and distorted. This creates several small shelters, one of which was crowded with 
carvings. This shelter was approached by climbing over a rough boulder-like 
formation and measured 12 feet in length, the overhang being about 6 feet and 
the roof 8 feet high. 

A leaf-shaped design differed from those previously observed; it is 10 inches 
wide and 16 inches in length, and is bisected and crossed by oblique lines radiating 
from a round hole in the centre. This hole is 4 inches deep and \\ inches in 
diameter. 

An unusual A-shaped design is apparent. This type has not been previously 
observed, and may be due in part to vandalism. Both these designs appear to 
have been partly re-cut with steel tools. A fern-like design and many other cut- 
tings were observed. This shelter is situated beyond flood level," and the debris 
of the floor yielded kernels of the native peach (Santalam acuminatum) , bones 
of the Murray cod, animal bones, and many Unio shells. A hammerstone was also 
found at another point. Smoke stains occur throughout this and other shelters 
and on many faces of the rocks. Some of the fallen rocks bear markings, and in 
many places about the cliffs intermittent cuttings were seen. Just before the river 
is reached, low down on the cliffs, several marks of the straight-line type were 
observed, these being much weathered, probably by water, and all show smooth 
rounded edges. 

Conclusion. 

Three new. localities, each containing shelters decorated with a comparatively 
recently recorded type of aboriginal markings, have been described, and several 
new designs noted. A typical section of the debris from the floor of one shelter is 
included. 

I desire to acknowledge the assistance of my three colleagues; only their 
insistence has made me the sole recorder of these discoveries. 



141 



OBSERVATIONS ON A NEW-BORN AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINAL INFANT. 

By J. B. Cleland, M.D., and Cecil J. Hackett. 

[Read July 14, 1927.] 

Plates VII. and VIII. 

Through an arrangement kindly made by Mr. F. Garnett, Chief Protector 
of Aborigines, a pure-blooded aboriginal woman who was expecting her confine- 
ment was transferred from Point McLeay to Adelaide. On arrival she was 
taken direct to the Queen's Home, and after two or three days' retention there 
to enable measurements to be taken and observations made, she was sent down 
to await the onset of labour at a Home in North Adelaide. At about 10 o'clock 
on Sunday night, May 22, labour commenced and she was re-admitted to the 
Queen's Home. The abdomen was of enormous size, the patient herself being 
a rather stout woman. At 5 a.m. the next morning labour was in progress, and 
one of us was notified by telephone. In spite of vigorous pains progress was 
slow. The presentation was found to be a right occipito-posterior, which was 
rectified. Forceps had finally to be applied by Dr. Bernard Dawson, under whose 
care the patient was. Difficulty was found with the head, and still greater diffi- 
culty was experienced in delivering the shoulders, and even the breech stuck to 
some extent. These difficulties were almost entirely due to the large size 
of the baby, whose weight at birth was 12^ lbs., and the length 25 inches. The 
child was still-born, due apparently to the delay and difficulties attendant on the 
birth. A full obstetrical account will be published elsewhere, the present paper 
dealing merely with the characteristics of the infant, which was of full-blood. 
The parents belonged to the tribes inhabiting the Lower Murray. Observations 
were commenced immediately after delivery, but more detailed ones, together 
with the matching of colours, were made about four hours later. A water- 
colour sketch could only be made on the succeeding day, the infant being mean- 
while kept in the freezer. The specimen has been preserved by injections and, 
together with the placenta and cord, is in the custody of the Pathology Department 
of the University. 

The infant was an exceptionally large male child in a good state of nutrition. 
The weight, 12-J lbs. (5*556 kilos.), and the height, 25 inches (63*5 cm.), indicate 
the unusual size. This is of exceptional interest, owing to the difficulty 
experienced in delivery. With expert attention in an up-to-date hospital, the 
child died. In the country, at a distance from early medical attention, a result 
fatal to the mother might have occurred. In a savage state the death of the 
mother would have been almost inevitable. In the absence of any skilled obstetrical 
attention whatsoever over a period of many thousands of years, one would have 
expected that natural selection in our aborigines would have eliminated almost 
entirely the occurrence of infants of such a size as to render their delivery difficult 
or impossible. It seems hardly likely that the civilised conditions in which this 
woman was living could account for the unusual size of the baby. Possibly she 
may have been a month over her time, and she was certainly a fortnight later 
than had been expected, but even this would not account for the whole of the 
increase in the size. Evidently from time to time amongst the Australian 
aboriginals unduly large newly-born children do occur still, in spite of the efforts 
of natural selection to eliminate them. 

General Observations. — The face was plump with well-marked cheeks, and a 
deep groove ran transversely across the somewhat squat nose at the level of the 



142 

nasion. The eyelids and lips were closed. On opening the eyelids the iris was 
seen to be of an earthy-brown colour, partly obscured by a bluish haziness which 
appeared to be in the tissues in front. On parting the slightly pigmented lips 
the gums were seen to be pale and prominent as if teeth were immediately sub- 
adjacent. The chin formed a rounded prominence with a sulcus surrounding 
its upper aspect. The lobule of the ear was well-marked, rounded, and free. 
The vault of the skull, compared with that of a f ull-term white infant, felt unduly 
resistant to compression, no well-marked bridge of soft tissue being palpable along 
the region of the sagittal suture. The anterior fontanelle measured, roughly, 
2 x 1*5 cm. Over the left occipito-parietal region was a moderate caput 
succedancum. Apart from the usual skin creases about joints, two other sites 
were readily noticed. There was one sulcus on each forearm just below the 
middle of the flexor surface, which was deep on the radial side but faded out on 
the ulnar margin. The other sulcus was at the junction of the middle and lower 
thirds of the thigh on the inner aspect. The hands were of the simian type, that 
is, the second longest digit was the ring finger. The second digit of the foot was 
the longest. The nails projected beyond the nail-bed by about 1 mm. The skin 
creases on the palms and soles are well shown in the accompanying photographs. 
There was a well-marked inter-spinous crease on the abdomen. 

Pigmentation. — The general colouration of the skin was at once noticed at 
birth as presenting a light cyanotic tinge (near Avellaneous, Vinaceous Buff, 
Ridgway's Colour Index, pi. xl.). Pressure had no effect on it. This was 
emphasised by certain parts being markedly pigmented. At the junction of the 
skin with the amniotic covering of the cord was a pigmented ring about 3 mm. in 
width, the colouring being most marked at the junction line. Around each nipple 
was an area of sooty pigmentation (Fuscous Black, pi. xlvi.) 7 mm. in diameter. 
The skin of the scrotum, penis, and prepuce showed a dark pigmentation with a 
vinous tinge (more Vinaceous than Fuscous Black, pi. xlvi.). The prepuce was 
fairly long and the glans was exposed with difficulty. The mucous lining of the 
prepuce and glans showed a reddish colouration. There was slight pigmentation 
in both axillae indefinite in outline. The hands and feet, and especially the palms 
and soles, were very pallid (Tilleul Buff, pi. xl). The limbs appeared more 
dusky than the trunk, perhaps due to the presence of more hair on the former. 
It was thought that the pigmentation had become somewhat darker or duskier 
some hours after birth, but no definite statement can be made that this was so. 
The sacral region was not pigmented. 

Hair. — On the scalp the hair was black and varied in length up to S cm. Many 
of the tresses showed more than a complete circle or curl towards their distal end, 
the circle having a lumen that would close on a slate-pencil. The remainder showed 
an open deep wavy curve. Finer and shorter hairs occurred on the forehead, their 
direction being downwards in the midline, and laterally horizontally outwards 
parallel with the eyebrows. These hairs contributed to the duskiness of the fore- 
head. Fine hairs covered the well-developed ears. There were a few fine hairs 
in the parotid region in front of the ears and on the sides of the face. 

On the trunk there was more hair on the dorsal aspect where its general 
direction was from the flanks inwards towards the midline, curving down slightly 
when approaching the spine. In the sacral region this direction was less definite. 
On the anterior aspect of the thorax the hair ran downward and inwards in a 
curved direction tending to surround the nipple. There was but scanty hair on 
the abdomen. With the arm by the side, the hair appeared to radiate forwards 
from the posterior axillary fold over the shoulder and deltoid region and down the 
arms. There was more hair on the external aspect of the armband forearm than 
on the inner side. With the thigh at right-angles to the trunk, the direction of the 
hairs on it seemed to radiate from the anterior superior iliac spine to the natal 



Trans, ami Proc. Roy. Sue. S. Austr., 1927. 



Vol, LI., Plate VII. 




■< 



< 



y. 



Gillinghara X- Co, Limited, Printers, Arlefoitli*. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1927. 



Vol. LI., Plate VIII. 




^»r T * «a«fc 



Gillingham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



143 



63*5 


cm. 


Nose — Breadth 


2*7 


cm. 


13-5 


>j 


Height 


1*9 


jy 


12-0 


j> 


Ear — Height 


5-2 


>> 


9-5 


?? 


Breadth 


2-9 


>» 


9*5 


)> 


Minimum inter-canthal 


2-3 


;j 


8-5 


if 


Maximum inter-canthal 


6-6 


jj 


8-5 


y> 


Vertex to rump 


41-0 


D 


11-5 


j j 


Hand — Length 


6-9 


>y 


9*2 


jj 


Breadth 


4-0 


jj 


5*2 


a 


Foot — Length 


9*2 


f j 


2-9 


SrJ 


Breadth 


3-4 


13 


1-1 


)> 









cleft and down the thigh anteriorly. Below the knee the direction was downwards. 
The inner aspect of the thigh and leg was relatively free from hair. 
The following measurements were taken: — 

Vertex to heel (with tape) 63*5 cm 

Occipito-mental 

Occipito-frontal 

Suboccipito-bregmatic 

Biparietal 

Bitemporal 

Fronto-temporal 

Cervico-bregmatic 

Menton-crinion 

Menton-nasion 

Mouth — Breadth . . 
Height 

The Cord and Membranes. — The cord measured 73 cm. in diameter and 
became smaller in section as the placenta was approached from the foetus, being 
2*5 cm. in diameter near the foetus, and near the placenta before it divided 1*5 cm. 
Within about 7 cm. of the placenta a branch came off at right angles to the cord, 
and this and the main stem each divided into three rather tortuous series of vessels 
which eventually ramified over the placenta from the lateral attachment, that is, 
the placenta was of the battledore type. No pigmentation of the cord or membrane 
was observed. 

The Placenta,— This measured 20 cm. x 2*3 cm., and was roughly circular. Its 
chorionic aspect showed gross lobulation and a couple of small infracted areas the 
size of marbles. 

The Liquor Amnii. — No actual measurement of this could be taken, although 
an attempt was made. As far as could be judged only a slight excess, if any, was 
present. Meconium was mixed with it even in the waters first passed, and the 
result was a greenish-brown discolouration. Miss Long found the presence of 
abundant bile pigment in the liquor. 

Blood was collected from the mother and from the foetal end of the cut 
umbilical cord. Unfortunately citrate solution was not at the moment available 
so as to be able to use the red cells for testing purposes. The serum that separated 
showed that the mother belonged to Group IV. of Moss' Classification, as this 
serum caused clumping of red cells belonging to Groups II. and III. The separated 
serum of the infant, on the other hand, did not agglutinate the red cells of either 
of these Groups even under the microscope. It cannot be inferred from this, 
however, that the infant belonged to Group I. of Moss' Classification — a Group 
that we have not yet met with amongst the Southern Australian aboriginals. It 
would appear that it is some time after birth before the blood-grouping of the 
infant can be decided. 

We would like to express our indebtedness to Mr. Garnett, Chief Protector 
of Aborigines; to Dr. Bernard Dawson, the Honorary Medical Officer in charge 
of the case; to Dr. Wallace, R.M.O. ; and to the Matron of the Queen's Home, 
for the facilities they have granted us and for their interest in this aboriginal birth. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES VII. and VIII. 

Photographs in various positions of the Aboriginal Infant showing the General 

Appearance, various Skin and Subcutaneous Creases, and the contrast between the 

general Pallid Colour and such deeply Pigmented vVreas as the Nipples, Scrotum 

and Ring round the Umbilical Cord. 



144 



THE CLAWLESS AND APPARENTLY CLAWLESS CURCULIONIDAE 

OF AUSTRALIA. 

By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum.) 

[Read August II, 1927.] 

A singular feature that occurs in several genera of several subfamilies of 
Australian Curculionidae, is the absence, or apparent absence, of the claw joint, 
so that each tarsus consists of but three joints, with the third wider than the 
others, its apex completely rounded, and the fourth joint truly absent; or the tip 
of the third may be slightly notched at the apex, and with or without a rudiment 
of the fourth joint in it. 

The apparent or real absence of the claw joint is often accompanied by the 
loss of ^ a joint in the funicle, this being six-jointed instead of seven, or even 
(Anarciarthrum) five-jointed. Other genera of weevils, however, have less than 
seven joints in the funicle but with normal tarsi; Clonus five-jointed, many Cos- 
sonides with five or six joints, or even (Dryopthorus) four. 

Of the genera, Misophrice, Anarciarthrum, and Micraonychus occur on 
plants of the genus Casaarina (shedaks and bulloaks), Syarbis, Aolles, Zeopus, 
Atelicus, and Thechia on species of Eucalyptus (gum trees), and Aonychus on 
species of Hakea (needle-bushes) and Atriplex (salt-bushes). Geochus occurs 
under fallen leaves. 

The previously described species are as follows : — 

GON1PTERIDES. 
Syarbis, Pasc. (Acroteriasis, Roel.). 
albivittis, Lea plumbeus, Lea 

alcyone, Lea nubilus, Roel. 

deyrollei, Rod. brevicomis, Lea 

EMARGINATUS, Roel. PACHYPUS, Pasc. 

eucalypti, Lea porcatus, Lea 

fasctculatissimus, Lea postiiumeralis, Lea 

GONIPTEROIDES, PasC PULCHELLUS, Lea 

goudiei, Lea pulchripennis, Lea 

HAAGI, Roel. PUNCTJPENNIS, Rod. 

plumbeus, Lea sciurus, Pasc. 

sciurus, Pasc, var. semiltneatus, Pasc. 

nervosus, Pasc. simulans, Lea 

niger, Roel. subnitidus, Rod. 

DIABATHRARIIDES. 

Atelicus, Waterh. 

abruptus, Pasc. guttatus, Pasc. 

atropiius, Pasc. inaequalis, Waterh. 

crassipes, Pasc. miniatus, Pasc. 

ferrugineus, Waterh. variabilis, Lea 



145 



ERIRHINIDES. 



MlSOPHRICE, 
ALTERNATA, Lea 

amplicollis, Lea, vars. A, B, C 
amplipennts, Lea 
apionoides, Lea 
argentata, Blackb. 
arida, Lea 
blackburni, Lea 
brevisetosa, Lea 
carterl, Lea 
clathrata, Lea 
cristattfrons, Lea 
cylindrica, Lea 
dispar, Blackb. 
dissentanea, Lea 
dubia, Lea 
evanida, Lea 

FENESTRATA, Lea 

gloriosa, Lea, vars. A, B, C, D, E, 

Griffith^ Lea 

hispida, Pasc. 

hobleri, Lea 

inconstant Lea 

inflata, Lea 

insularis, Lea 



Pasc. 

minima, Lea 
mukda, Blackb. 
nigriceps, Lea 
ntgripes, Lea, vars. A, B, C 
nigriventris, Lea 
oblonga, Blackb. 

ORTHORRHINA, Lea 

parallela, Lea 
quadraticollis, Blackb. 
rufiventris, Lea 
setosa, Lea 
setulosa, Blackb. 
soror, Lea 
spilota, Blackb. 
squamibunda, Lea 
squamiventrjls, Lea, vars. A, B 
squamosa, Blackb. 
F submetallica, Blackb. 
tuberculata, Lea 
v-alba, Lea 
variabilis, Blackb. 
vicina, Lea 
viridisquama, Lea 
vitiata, Lea 



Anarctarthrum, Blackb. 
viride, Blackb. 

Theciiia, Pasc. 

alternata, Lea ( ? Cenchrena) latipennis, Lea 



bimaculata, Lea 
brevirostris, Lea 
cinerascens, Lea 



longirostris, Lea 
minimus, Lea 
moestuSj, Lea 
nuceus, Pasc. 
orbiculatus, Lea 
ornatipennis, Blackb. 



longirostris, Lea 
pygmaea, Pasc. 

HAPLONYCIDES. 

Aolles, Pasc. 

puncttcollts, Lea 

RUBIGINOSUS, Pasc. 

tibialis, Lea 
trifasctatus, Lea 
uniformis, Lea 



variegatus. Lea 



Zeopus, Pasc. 
storeoides, Pasc. 

CRYPTORHYNCHIDES. 

Aonyciius, Schon. 

argus, Lea luctuosus, Pasc. 

hopei, Boh. paciiypus, Pasc. 

var. bicruciatus, Lea striatus, Lea 

lineatus, Pasc. 



146 

Micraonyciius, Lea. 

castjarinae, Lea nigrirostris, Lea 

cinerasceus, Lea rufimanus, Lea 

decipiens, Lea sordtdus, Lea 

maculatus, Lea 

Atelicus. 

In a note on Strongylorrhinus Waterhouse C1) comments as follows on two 
species of Atelicus: — "In the total absence of claw joint to the tarsi. Here the 
large dilated third joint to each tarsus is entire, showing neither the apical notch, 
nor the groove on the upper surface." In his diagnosis of Atelicus he notes 
"tarsis triarticulatis . . . articulo terlio fere rotundato" In the description 
of A. inaequalis and A. ferrugineus the third joint was not mentioned. The 
former species being the first described is presumably the type of the genus, and 
was so accepted by Lacordaire, who wrote of its tarsi (2) "3 C article des tarses 
orbiculaire, le 4 e nul ?> ; in the figure (3 > the tarsi are also shown as three-jointed. 
Lacordaire correctly described the funicle as being composed of six joints with 
the following one contiguous to the club, in fig. 2b, however, it is shown as 
seven-jointed. 

There are before me several specimens from Tasmania that agree so well 
with the characters noted by Waterhouse, except in the tarsi, that I think they 
must belong to A. inaequalis. A similar specimen from Victoria bears Black- 
burn's name label "inaequalis, Waterh.," and there are others before me from 
New South Wales. The tarsi at first glance appear to have the third joint entire 
and to be without a claw joint, but on close examination the third joint on each 
tarsus is seen to have a thin wedge-shaped notch extending almost half-way to the 
base, the notch completely occupied by a claw joint, which is covered with similar 
clothing to that of the adjacent surface; claws, if present, are obscured by the 
apical fringe. 

Specimens identified by Blackburn and myself as A. ferrugineus have some- 
what similar tarsi, but the clothing of their upper surface being more closely 
compacted the claw joint is even less distinct, and on some specimens is scarcely 
indicated on close examination. In fact, the tarsi on all species of the genus 
appear to be three-jointed, but on close examination a claw joint or remnant of 
same becomes visible. It is probable, however, that it could not be seen when 
the tarsi arc mealy or greasy. 

Atelicus inaequalis, Waterh., var. 

A specimen from Tasmania appears to represent a variety of this species ; 
its elytra, from the base almost to the subapical tubercles, are clothed with 
uniformly whitish scales, having in some lights a golden gloss; just before the 
subapical tubercles and on the apical declivity there are patches of chocolate- 
brown scales. On each elytron the third interstice from near the base to near the 
subapical tubercles, and the fifth from near the base till it joins the subapical 
tubercle, are almost evenly elevated instead of with interrupted elevations ; the 
basal projections are slightly more produced than on the typical form, but not 
quite as strongly elevated. 

Atelicus cuttatus, Pasc. 

Described from Tasmania and as having "Elytris maculis apicalibus." Ten 
specimens before me from Tasmania (Launceston and West Tamar), New South 



(i) Waterhouse, Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., 1862, p. 228. 

(2) Lacordaire, Gen. des Coleop., vi., p. 408. 

(3) Atlas, pi. 70, f. 2, a, b, c. 



14; 

Wales (Galston), and South Australia (Lucindale) may belong to the species, 
they vary considerably in size (3-6 mm., without the rostrum) ; each of them has 
a small narrow spot of white scales on the fifth interstice on each elytron, about 
the summit of the apical slope ; each also has a medio-basal spot on the pronotum, 
connected with a bisinuate basal strip of similar scales. Of these specimens one 
has the head and rostrum black, another has the head and part of the rostrum 
black, and a third has the head only black ; all the others have the head and 
rostrum coloured as the prothorax and elytra. Two other specimens from Tas- 
mania (Georgetown and Launceston), in addition to the subapical spots, have 
the suture wdiite at the apex ; the Launceston specimen has the head and rostrum 
black. 

Atelicus fusiformis, n. sp. 

Reddish, antennae somewhat paler than other parts. Closely covered with 
scales similar to the derm on upper surface, becoming white on under parts. 

Rostrum almost parallel-sided, moderately curved, slightly longer than pro- 
thorax; with crowded, partially concealed punctures. Prothorax moderately 
transverse, sides gently rounded and subcontinuous with those of prothorax 
and elytra; with large punctures. Elytra narrow, parallel-sided to near apex, 
separately strongly rounded at base, apical slope long and gradual; with regular 
rows of large punctures. Length (excluding rostrum), 4 mm. 

Western Australia: Perth (C. French, sen.)- Unique. 

A narrow fusiform species with the apical slope more gradual than usual. 
A. miniatus, with similar clothing, is decidedly wider, with outlines much as those 
of the species here identified as probably A. guttatus. The scales on the upper 
surface so closely resemble the derm that at first sight the latter appears to be 
glabrous, on close examination they cause it to appear finely granulated or even 
shagreened. 

Atelicus latericollis, n. sp. 

Reddish, coxae and clubs blackish. Closely covered with scales similar to 
the derm on upper surface, but with small white spots ; under parts mostly with 
whitish scales. 

Rostrum distinctly curved, slightly longer than prothorax; with coarse, 
partiallv concealed punctures. Prothorax strongly transverse, base strongly 
bisinuate and much wider than apex, sides gently incurved; with coarse and 
rather dense punctures. Elytra rather thin, almost parallel-sided to near apex; 
with regular rows of large, deep punctures ; apical slope scarcely the length of 
prothorax. Length, 5 mm. 

Tasmania: Cradle Mountain (A. M. Lea). Unique. 

There is a small white spot on the fifth interstice on each elytron at the 
summit of the apical slope, as on the species supposed to be A. guttatus, but in 
addition there are many small white specks scattered about, especially on the 
sides; from that species, however, as from all others of the genus, it is distinct 
by the sides of the prothorax being gently incurved, instead of rounded. 

Misophrice. 
The genus Misophrice is one of the most abundantly represented in Aus- 
tralia, and its minute, slow-moving species may confidently be looked for wherever 
trees'or shrubs of the genus Casuarina >:4) occur. By its clawless tarsi and six- 
jointed funicle it may be readily distinguished from all other described Erirhimdes. 
Anarciarthrum with the funicle five- jointed is very close to it, and quite possibly 
some of the species at present standing as Misophrice may be found to belong to 

(4) I did not, however, find it in Fiji on C. equisctifolia, the only species I was able to 
examine there. 



148 

it. Thechia with the funicle seven-jointed has a somewhat different appearance, 
and the species occur on Eucalypti. The species of Micraonychus also have claw- 
less tarsi, are to be taken on Casiiarinae, and at first glance appear to belong to 
Misophrke, but as they have a well-defined pectoral canal, the genus was referred 
to the Cryptorhynchides. Two tables of the genus were given by Blackburn (5) 
and myself (6) each dealing with comparatively few species ; with over fifty now 
known, and many of them variable, I am unable to prepare a satisfactory table, 
but the following division of the species into groups should simplify the task of 
identifying them : — 

Group 1. Elytra tuberculate. 
tubercxtlata, Lea. 

Group 2. Elytra with numerous erect bristles. 

allernala, Lea ; argentata, Blackb. ; hispida, Pasc. ; hobleri, Lea ; 
setosa, Lea. 

Group 3. Derm of elytra entirely concealed by clothing. 

cristatifrons, Lea ; orthorrhina, Lea ; squamibunda, Lea ; squami- 
ventris, Lea. 

Group 4. Derm of elytra entirely black. 

arida, Lea; gloriosa, Lea; griffithi, Lea; insularis. Lea; parallela, 
Blackb.; soror, Lea; viridi squama, Lea. 

Group 5. Derm of elytra with isolated dark spots or vittae. 

amplicollis, Lea; apionoides, Lea; blackbumi, Lea; carteri, Lea; 
inflate, Lea ; ritfiventris, Lea ; spilota, Blackb. ; vicina, Lea ; 
viiiuta, Lea. 

Group 6. Derm of elytra at most with base and suture dark. 

amphp ennis , Lea; brevisetosa, Lea; clathrata, Lea; cylindrica, Lea; 
dispar, Blackb. ; dissemtanea, Lea ; dubia, Lea ; evanida, Lea ; 
fenestrate Lea; inconstans, Lea; minima, Lea) munda, Blackb. ; 
nigriceps, Lea; nigripes, Lea; nigriventris, Lea; oblonga, 
Blackb.; setulosa, Blackb.; subrne tallica, Blackb.; V-alba, Lea. 

Notes on above Groups, 

amplipennis, Lea. An occasional specimen has the derm of the elytra almost 

black. 
gloriosa, Lea. Some specimens might be regarded as belonging to Group 2. 
qitadraticollis, Blackb. Unknown to me, by the description it evidently 

belongs to Group 6. 
squamiventris, Lea. On some specimens there are a few erect setae on the 

apical half of the elytra. 
squamosa, Blackb. Described as piceo-nigra, so evidently belongs to Group 4. 
variabilis, Blackb. Very variable in size and colour, specimens before me 

could be referred to Groups 4, 5, and 6. 

Misopttrtce oelokga, Blackb., var. 

Two specimens from Queensland appear to belong to this species but are 
unusually small. One, from Bribie Island, is but 1 mm. in length, its prothorax 
is somewhat infuscated and its scales arc without metallic gloss. The other, from 
Mount Tambourine, is very little longer, its pronotum is normally pale, and most 
of its scales are bluish. 



(5) Blackburn, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1890, p. 354. 

(6) Lea, Trans. Roy. Soe. S. Austr., 1899, p. 159. 



149 

Misophrice soror, Lea, var. 

Three specimens from Rribie Island are distinctly smaller (1 mm.) than 
usual, 

Misophrice gloriosa, Lea, var. G. 

Four specimens from the Upper Williams River (New South Wales) appear 
to represent another variety of this species ; on three of them the sutural clothing 
is denser than on the rest of the elytra, but is not quite continuous to the base, 
and on the rest of the elytra it is bluish. On the fourth specimen it is dense on 
the suture to the extreme base, but on the rest of the elytra is more or less golden; 
on all four of them the prothorax is non-vittate, but it has numerous black specks 
owing to the exposure of the derm. 

Misophrice ursa, n. sp. 

& . Brownish-red, tarsi darker. Densely squamose and setose. 

Rostrum slightly shorter than prothorax, moderately curved, with fine ridges 
alternated with row T s of punctures almost to apex, but concealed on basal half. 
Prothorax slightly longer than the apical width and slightly shorter than the 
basal, sides moderately rounded; with dense and rather coarse, concealed punc- 
tures. Elytra oblong-cordate, not much wider than prothorax; with rows of 
large, subquadrate punctures, appearing much smaller through clothing. Legs 
stout. Length, 2 ■ 5-3*0 mm. 

South Australia: Ooldea and Tarcoola (A. M. Lea). Western Australia: 
Kalgoorlie (W. du Boulay). 

A fairly large, densely squamose species, with stout, erect setae, and so 
belonging to Group 2. The general outlines are much as on M. squamibunda, 
but the clothing is different; on an occasional specimen of that species, however, 
there are a few setae on the apical slope of the elytra. The clothing is so dense 
that (except on the apical half of the rostrum) it is only where abrasion has taken 
place that the derm becomes visible. On the upper surface the scales are mostly 
of a pale rusty-red, with more or less conspicuous paler and darker spots ; on 
the under parts they are paler (almost white on some specimens). On the elytra 
the suture is pale throughout, and there are whitish spots or short vittae forming 
a postmedian series on the even interstices, immediately before and behind those 
on the second and fourth there are darker spots ; the clothing on the basal third 
of the fifth interstice is whitish, and it is mostly whitish on the apical slope. On 
most parts the scales are evenly placed, but on the elytra they are so placed that 
two or more converge to form angles or minute arrow-heads; although dense 
the scales are so large that the arrangement is quite evident. On several speci- 
mens two ill-defined vittae are traceable on the pronotum. The setae are stiff, 
erect, and numerous, but irregularly distributed, they are absent from the white 
spots or vittae on the elytra, are fairly numerous at the apex of prothorax, between 
the eyes, and on the legs; on the elytra, viewed from behind, they appear to 
form six small fascicles across the middle on the even interstices, but from the 
sides they are seen to be scattered. Three specimens have the tip of an oedeagus 
protruding, but their abdomen is without a depression. The only specimen from 
Tarcoola is apparently a female, it differs from the others in having less of_ the 
rostrum clothed, and the apical segment of abdomen with a shallow depression. 

Misophrice vittata, n. sp. 

Densely clothed with rusty-brown scales with conspicuous whitish vittae, 
under surface with silvery-white scales; elytra with very short, depressed setae, 
less numerous on pronotum. 



ISO 

Rostrum moderately curved, about the length of prothorax; apical half 
glabrous and with minute punctures. Prothorax almost as long as its greatest 
width, sides moderately rounded. Elytra with basal half parallel-sided ; with 
rows of large punctures, appearing much smaller through clothing. Apical seg- 
ment of abdomen with a semi-circular apical depression. Length, 3 mm. 

South Australia: Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt, No. 723). Unique. 

A conspicuously-marked species allied to M. sqvtamibunda. It belongs to 
Croup 3, as the setae on the upper surface are so short and slope at such a slight 
degree from the horizontal that they are inconspicuous, even from the sides. 
The derm is almost everywhere concealed, but where a slight amount of abrasion 
has taken place, it is seen to be of a dingy red, as is the apical half of the rostrum. 
The pale scales on the upper surface form a conspicuous median vitta on the 
pronotum, and an interrupted one on each side; on the elytra they clothe the 
median third of the suture, the basal third of the second and third interstices, 
the median fifth of the fifth, the median three-fifths of the seventh, the post- 
median portion of the eighth, and most of the ninth and tenth ; the postmedian 
portion of the third is also paler than the adjacent parts; the scales surrounding 
the eyes are also conspicuously pale. There are two feeble crests between the 
eyes. The type is probably a female. 

Misophrice albolineata, n. sp. 

Densely clothed with variegated scales, becoming uniformly pale, but scarcely 
white, on under parts. With numerous short, subdepressed, inconspicuous setae. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, moderately curved ; apical half 
shining and punctate, basal half with rows of concealed punctures. Prothorax 
almost as long as the greatest width, sides strongly rounded, punctures normally 
concealed. Elytra oblong-cordate, distinctly wider than prothorax; seriate 
punctures probably large, but appearing small through clothing. Length, 
2' 5-2*75 mm. 

Queensland: Mount Tambourine, in January (A- M. Lea). 

A beautiful species of Group 3, with sharply contrasted markings on the 
elytra; it is allied to M. orthorrhina, but the rostrum is decidedly longer and 
moderately curved; on M. squamiv&ntris the rostrum is distinctly longer and 
thinner. On the upper surface most of the scales are of a pale-fawn colour; 
on the pronotum there is a conspicuous dark median vitta ; on each elytron there 
are silvery-white vittae occupying the median half of the third, fifth, and seventh 
interstices (on the type interrupted on the fifth and seventh), the adjacent scales 
being mostly black, but with small whitish spots. The elytral setae are distinct 
only from the sides. The legs, rostrum, antennae, and the normally concealed 
base of head are more or less reddish, but elsewhere the derm is completely 
concealed. The two specimens obtained are probably females, as the only 
depression on the abdomen is a slight apical one. 

Misophrice lata, n. sp. 

Dark reddish-brown, rostrum and legs somewhat paler, antennae still paler. 
Densely clothed with pale ochreous-grey scales, somewhat variegated on upper 
surface, becoming uniformly pale on under parts. With numerous short, sub- 
depressed, dark setae, distinct only from the sides. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, moderately curved; with fine ridges 
alternated with rows of punctures almost to apex, but concealed on basal fourth. 
Prothorax distinctly transverse, base about one-fourth wider than apex, sides 
moderately rounded ; punctures crowded but normally concealed. Elytra rather 
wide, oblong-cordate ; seriate punctures appearing small through clothing, but 
probably of large size. Length, 3 - 25 mm. 



151 

Queensland: Dalby (Mrs. F. H. Hobler). Unique. 

Belongs to Group 3, and is one of the largest of the species without erect 
setae ; the elytral markings are somewhat as on M. V-alba, but the elytra them- 
selves are decidedly wider in proportion, and the rostrum and legs are shorter. 
On the middle of each elytron, narrowed to the suture, there is a large sub- 
triangular space, on which the scales are mostly whitish, but they are not very 
sharply contrasted with the adjacent ones, and appear more as mottlings than as 
distinct vittac. The middle of the pronotum has been partly abraded, but from 
the scales left at the base was apparently clothed with darker scales than on the 
adjacent parts. As the only depression on the abdomen is a slight apical one 
the type is probably a female. 

Misophrice grisea, n. sp. 

Black, rostrum and legs obscurely reddish, scape paler. Densely clothed with 
pale-greyish scales mixed with a few darker ones, and becoming paler on under 
parts. 

Rostrum about one-fourth longer than the prothorax, rather thin and 
moderately curved ; with rows of punctures almost to apex, but concealed on 
basal fifth. Prothorax distinctly transverse, sides moderately rounded, apex 
about one-fourth narrower than base. Elytra oblong-cordate; with rows of 
large, partially concealed punctures. 

South Australia: Mount Lofty Range (N. B. Tindalc). Unique. 

A rather wide species of Group 4, larger and with different clothing from 
all other members of that group. The clothing of the elytra consists of true 
scales, without an admixture of setae, even as viewed from the sides ; they are 
mostly in double (in places treble) rows on the interstices, but are sparser on 
the first, second, fourth, and sixth than on the others; on the sides of both the 
upper and under surfaces they have a faint bluish or greenish gloss. On the 
elytra most of the odd interstices are wider than the even ones. As the only 
depression on the abdomen is a small one at the apex the type is probably a female. 

Misophrice subvariabilis, n. sp. 

S. Black; part of abdomen, of legs, and of antennae obscurely reddish. 
Moderately clothed with thin whitish scales or depressed setae, becoming green 
on under parts, but absent from rostrum (except close to base), and from parts 
of the two basal segments of abdomen. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, thin, evenly curved and shining; 
with a row of distinct punctures on each side of base, becoming feeble in front. 
Prothorax small, moderately transverse, sides strongly rounded in front; with 
crowded punctures only partially concealed. Elytra large, slightly dilated to 
beyond the middle ; with regular rows of large punctures. Two basal segments 
of abdomen with a wide shallow median depression, with distinct punctures, and 
traversed by many fine striae. Length, 2-2*75 mm. 

? . Differs in having the rostrum distinctly longer than the prothorax, 
thinner and with less distinct punctures; abdomen rather strongly convex, with 
the depression on the two basal segments greatly reduced in size and with a small 
apical one, more evenly (although not densely) clothed, and with the punctures 
and striae less evident. 

South Australia: Ooldea, Barton, Tarcoola (A. M. Lea). 

Var. A. Elytra reddish except for the base suture and a spot on each side 
which are blackish, or at least infuscated, legs more reddish than on typical form 
and portion of rostrum more or less distinctly reddish. 

Specimens of this variety are mostly but not entirely females. 



152 

Var. B. As variety A, except that the elytral spots are changed to vittae, 
and are continuous almost to base and apex. 

Specimens of this variety vary considerably in intensity of colour, and there 
are many connecting ones between the typical dark form and variety A. About 
half of them are males. 

Var. C. As variety A, except that the elytra are without isolated dark spots. 

One male and two females are before me; but some specimens of variety A 
have the spots so faint that they might almost be referred to this variety. 

Of the 187 specimens of this species before me about half have the elytra 
entirely dark, or so dark that the spots or vittae are scarcely indicated. Com- 
paring them with long series of M. variabilis the following differences are 
apparent: Average size smaller, average colour darker, prothorax always black, 
rostrum slightly shorter and thinner (sex for sex), spotted specimens more 
numerous than vittate ones. The clothing of the upper surface appears to be 
always white, but on the under parts is sometimes bluish or greenish. Most of 
the specimens with black elytra are males, most of those with partly red elytra 
are females, but the sexes cannot be distinguished by the colour alone ; although 
each sex has a depression on the two basal segments of abdomen, that of the 
male is considerably larger (but not deeper) and conspicuously glabrous. Typical 
specimens may be distinguished from M. arida, parallela, and soror, by their 
larger size and partly red legs, and from the others of Group 4 by the clothing 
more like depressed setae than true scales. Those of varieties A and B from 
M. carteri and rufiventris by the positions of the spots or vittae, and from the 
others of Group 5 by the entirely black prothorax. 

Misophrice dispar, Blackb. 

Numerous specimens beaten from a species of Casnarina growing beside a 
river at Paipa (near Noumea) agree perfectly with specimens of this species 
from Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia. 

Misophrice obliquialba, n. sp. 

$. Black; elytra (except base, sides, and suture), abdomen, legs (except 
tarsi), and antennae (except club), reddish. Rather sparsely clothed with whitish 
scales, but with a conspicuous white oblique vitta on each side of mesosternum, 
and another on each side of apex of prosternum. 

Rostrum evenly curved, about the length of prothorax; with rows of punc- 
tures and glabrous except at extreme base. Prothorax slightly shorter than the 
greatest width, sides strongly rounded in front ; with numerous sharply defined 
punctures. Elytra distinctly wider than prothorax, slightly dilated to beyond 
the middle; with regular rows of large punctures. Length, 1 "75 mm. 

New Caledonia: Paipa, near Noumea (A. M. Lea). 

A small species of Group 6. The oblique white lines are very conspicuous; 
somewhat similar lines are faintly indicated on the Australian M. nigripes, but 
on that species the legs are entirely dark. The species is about the size of 
M. dispar, but more parts are black. 

Two specimens that are probably females of the species differ m being 
slightly larger, in having most of the scales green (variation in colour of scales 
is a common feature in Australian species of the genus), the tarsi infuscated 
instead of black, and the rostrum longer and more curved. Another specimen 
probably also belongs to the species, but its prothorax is somewhat reddish, less 
of the elytra dark, and rostrum no darker than the femora and tibiae. Each of 
the three specimens has the oblique white lines of the typical form, but they are 
less sharply contrasted, owing to the density and colour of the adjacent scales. 



153 

Misophrice sordida, n. sp. 

Black; elytra, except base and suture, rostrum and abdomen, obscurely 
reddish, legs and antennae, except club, somewhat paler. Sparsely clothed with 
whitish scales. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax, evenly curved ; with a distinct row 
of punctures on each side, and glabrous except near base. Prothorax moderately 
transverse, sides strongly rounded in front ; with dense, sharply defined punctures. 
Elytra oblong-cordate, parallel-sided to beyond the middle; with regular rows of 
large punctures, becoming smaller posteriorly. Two basal segments of abdomen 
with a shallow median depression. Length, 1*75-2 mm. 

New Caledonia: Paipa (A. M. Lea). 

A dingy species of Group 6, about the size of the preceding one, but elytra 
wider at base and less dilated posteriorly, tarsi no darker than tibiae, and meso- 
sternum without white lines. The type is probably a male, a second specimen 
is probably a female, it has the rostrum slightly longer, more curved and black, 
and the abdomen more convex. 

Misophrice wardi, n. sp. 

Pale castaneo-flavous ; head, rostrum (the ends darker than the middle), 
scutellum^ metasternum, club and tarsi more or less deeply inf uscated. Densely 
clothed with whitish scales, in parts with a greenish or coppery gloss. 

Rostrum thin, moderately curved, and about one-fourth longer than pro- 
thorax. Prothorax slightly transverse, sides rounded and dilated from apex to 
base, which is conspicuously trilobecl ; punctures normally concealed. Elytra 
parallel-sided to beyond the middle, the width of base of prothorax, base deeply 
trisinuate, with regular rows of fairly large punctures. Two basal segments of 
abdomen with a shallow median depression. Length, 2 mm. 

^ Central Australia, on "desert oak" Casnarina decaisneana (C. Barrett). 
Unique. 

A pale fusiform species with the base of the prothorax conspicuously trilobed 
and^ consequently the base of the elytra as deeply trisinuate, characters at once 
distinctive from all other species of the genus. The green scales are most notice- 
able on. the metasternum, but they probably vary in extent; the pronotum has a 
somewhat speckled appearance; on the elytra the scales are usually in two rows 
on each interstice. The type appears to be a male. 

At Mr. Barrett's request I have pleasure in dedicating this species to Dr. L. 
Keith Ward, Government Geologist of South Australia, and who, with him, 
accompanied the recent "Reso" expedition to Central Australia, and helped to 
collect some of the insects. 

Misophrice barretti, n. sp. 

Blackish, some parts obscurely diluted with red, antennae (club excepted) 
and tarsi paler. Densely clothed with bright-green scales, but a wide median 
space on the under surface glabrous. 

Rostrum thin, rather strongly curved, and much longer than prothorax. Pro- 
thorax distinctly transverse, sides moderately rounded; punctures normally 
concealed. Elytra slightly wider than prothorax at base, sides feebly dilated to 
beyond the middle; with rows of large partially concealed punctures. Length, 
1-50-L75 mm. 

Central Australia, on "desert oak" Acacia decaisneana (C. Barrett). 

A beautiful species in general appearance strikingly close to Anarciar thrum 
viride, but with the f unicle six-jointed. M. viridisqitama has somewhat similar out- 
lines, but the elytral scales are thinner and not placed in two even rows on each 
interstice, as on this species. On M. insularis the elytra are parallel-sided and the 



154 

scales are in single rows. Two specimens were obtained, apparently sexes, as 
the abdomen of the smaller specimen is less convex than that of the larger one, 
and its apical segment has a small depression, the elytra are less dilated posteriorly 
and the rostrum is slightly shorter; it is also obscurely reddish near the tip. 

Thechia cinerascens, Lea. 
Several specimens of this species are now before me from New South Wales 

(Newport and Forest Reefs) and Victoria (Warburton, from moss). On the 
specimen from Forest Reefs 'the markings are more conspicuous than on the 
type. On its pronotum there is a narrow pale median line, followed on each side 
by a broad slaty-brown one, a narrow pale one, then a narrower dark one 

(invisible from above) ; on each elytron the suture, sides, and a median vitta 
are pale, but the pale -and dark parts are less sharply limited than on the pro- 
notum. The specimen from Warburton is smaller than the type, and the scales 
on its upper surface are even less contrasted. The type is a male; the female 
differs in having the rostrum longer and thinner, clothed only near base, and the 
two basal segments of abdomen evenly convex, instead of with a shallow median 
depression. 

In the species the scrobes are turned underneath the rostrum and meet at its 
base, as a result of which, when the antennae are set out, the base of the under 
surface appears conspicuously notched from the sides; a character that may 
eventually be considered as of generic importance. 

Thechia mollis, n. sp. 

$ . Black. Densely clothed with muddy-brown and whitish scales, becom- 
ing uniformly white on under parts. 

Rostrum moderately thin, gently curved, the length of prothorax; punctures 
concealed by clothing. Prothorax slightly wider than long, sides gently rounded, 
but more strongly at apex; punctures crowded but normally concealed. Elytra 
parallel-sided to beyond the middle and then oblique to apex, which is notched; 
with rows of large punctures, appearing as feeble striae through clothing. Two 
basal segments of abdomen large, the first slightly longer than second and as long 
as three apical ones combined. Length, 2" 75-3 "0 mm. 

Western Australia: Swan River (A. M. Lea). 

Structurally close to T. cinerascens, but slightly narrower, the rostrum some- 
what shorter and stouter, clothed to the apex, and not notched at the base of its 
lower surface. On the type the clothing on the head and rostrum is almost 
uniformly dingy-brown, on the pronotum there is a pale median line and the sides 
are widely pale"; on the elytra there are some pale irregular spots on the shoulders, 
at the basal third, and on and about the suture at the apical third. On a second 
specimen the clothing of the head and rostrum is much as on the type, but on each 
elytron the white spots are so numerous that they form a mass from the shoulder 
to the apical third, where it is deflected to the suture, with a few scattered singly; 
on its under surface the scales have a faint bluish gloss. As on both specimens 
the rostrum is clothed throughout, and there is a shallow depression common to the 
metasternum and two basal segments of abdomen, they are evidently males. 

Cratoscelocis, n. g. 

Head small. Eyes rather small, elliptic-ovate, lateral, finely faceted. Rostrum 
rather long and thin but somewhat flattened, almost straight; scrobes deep and 
oblique, beginning in middle of sides and terminating at lower edge of eyes. 
Antennae rather short, scape as long as funicle, which is composed of six joints, 
club briefly ovate. Prothorax transverse, without ocular lobes. Scutellum 
small. Elytra parallel-sided to near apex, base trisinuate. Basal segment 



155 

of abdomen large, second and fifth subequal, third and fourth small. 
Legs short and stout, front coxae almost touching, middle ones moderately 
separated, the hind ones widely so ; femora edentate ; tibiae unusually short and 
stout, tarsi apparently three-jointed. Irregularly squamose. 

Apparently belonging to the Erirhinides, and near Thechia, but the funicle is 
six-jointed; Misophrice also with it six-jointed has much thinner legs. The 
tibiae are stout, and from some directions their widest part appears to be close to 
the base, the front ones are feebly bisinuate on the lower surface, and each is 
terminated by an obtuse hook, but their sculpture is obscured by the dense 
clothing; the tarsi appear to be three-jointed, but the third joint is very feebly 
notched, and under the microscope the remnant of a claw joint becomes visible, 
it differs slightly in colour from the adjacent part, and does not extend to the 
apical fringe, claws apparently are not present; from directly behind the front 
coxae arc seen to be slightly separated, but from most points of view they appear 
to be in contact. 

Cratoscelocis foveicollis, n. sp. 

Reddish-castaneous. Irregularly clothed. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, punctures concealed on basal half 
and very fine elsewhere. First joint of funicle stouter than the others, and about 
as long as the second and third combined, second slightly longer than third, fourth 
to sixth moderately transverse. Prothorax with extreme base almost twice as 
wide as the median length, obliquely narrowed to apex, near apex with a con- 
tinuous narrow impression, traversed by large deep punctures or small foveae 
(partly obscured by clothing), elsewhere with minute punctures. Elytra not 
much wider than base of prothorax; with regular rows of large deep punctures, 
usually slightly wider than the interstices. Length, I* 5-1 -75 mm. 

New South Wales: Sydney (II. J. Carter), National Park (A. M. Lea). 

The head and part of rostrum, all margins and a median line an pronotum, 
suture, shoulders, and tips of elytra are clothed w r ith greyish-white scales, the 
rest of the upper surface being glabrous; on the under surface and leg% the 
clothing is denser, with a muddy or paste-like appearance. 

A specimen from the Blue Mountains (Dr. E. W. Ferguson) is larger 
(2*5 mm.), somewhat darker, and with a slightly wider rostrum, but apparently 
belongs to the same species. 

Aolles. 

The tarsi of most species of this genus at first appear to be three-jointed, 
with the third joint large but slightly notched, on wetting them, however, the notch 
becomes more distinct and usually a small claw joint, but its claw or claws are 
usually not very distinct amongst the marginal fringe. On examining the tarsi 
from below the third joint appears to have a fine median suture, at the extremity 
of which a claw appears as a somewhat finer seta than the adjoining ones. On 
several species the claw joints with a single claw are distinct. I think it probable 
that several of the species referred by Chevrolat to his sixth division of 
Haplonyx, really belong to Aolles. On A. tibialis two claws to each tarsus may 
be seen, and it is probable that on other species two claws are so close together 
that they appear single. It is probable, therefore, that the only valid distinction 
between Aolles and Haplonyx is in the antennae. The Australian genera of the 
subfamily may be thus distinguished : — 

Funicle seven-jointed, claw joint distinct. 

Each claw joint with a single claw . . . . . . . . . . Haplonyx 

Each with two claws apparently conjoined at base . . . . Sigastus 

Funicle six-jointed, claw joint inconspicuous or wanting. 

Rostrum long, thin, and conspicuously curved . . . . . . Zeopus 

Rostrum wider and straight or almost so - - - . - - . . Aolles 



156 

Aolles ornatipennis, Blackb., formerly Haplonyx. 

'J "he claw joint of this species is thin and inconspicuous and the funicle is six- 
jointed; it is therefore an Aolles. It is also, I think, the species named by 
Chevrolat as Haplonyx nigrirosiris (an earlier name). A specimen from Arno 
Bay (South Australia) probably belongs to the species, but has the median fascia 
interrupted at the suture, and the submedian tooth of the front tibiae more acute 
and slightly nearer the base than on some cotypes. 

Aoli.es tibialis, Lea, formerly Haplonyx. 

On examining the tarsi of this species from below each claw joint is seen to 
be thin and terminated by two small unequal claws; from above the joint and its 
claws are indistinct, the claws appearing like some of the setae fringing the third 
joint. The funicle is certainly six-jointed, so the species should stand in Aolles, 
unless a new genus should be considered necessary for it. 

Aolles puncticollis, Lea. 

Additional specimens from Bowen, Cairns, and Thursday and Horn Islands 
are smaller (3-3 "25 mm.) than the type, and some of them have the dark humeral 
patch extended narrowly to the scutellum ; on the base of the third interstice on 
each elytron, of all of them, there is a short vitta of white scales. 

Aolles minimus, Lea, var. 

A specimen from Mount Victoria (New South Wales) apparently belongs to 
this species, but differs from the type and five other specimens in having the head, 
rostrum, and parts of the legs blackish. 

Aolles unieormis. Lea. 

The type of this species has pale and almost uniformly coloured scales 
densely plating the derm; but there are now before me numerous specimens 
from South Australia (Mount Lofty Ranges, Callington, Moonta, and Kangaroo 
Island), that appear to belong to the species, but differ in having two transverse 
series of irregular brownish spots or mottlings on the elytra, the sub-basal series 
sometimes appearing as a rather wide fascia; on other parts of the elytra, and 
on the pronotum, there are also more or less distinct mottlings. The seriate 
punctures on the elytra are in very weak striae (as on A. longirostris) , but the 
rostrum is decidedly shorter in both sexes than on that species. The white vittae 
on each side of the scutellum of that species are sometimes faintly indicated, but 
are usually absent. Two specimens, from Melrose and Lucindale, have almost 
uniformly pale rusty-brown scales on the upper surface, with feeble pale spots 
on the elytra, and a few dark scales scattered singly. One from Quorn has the 
whole of the upper surface mottled. Another, from Murray Bridge, has the 
head, rostrum, scutellum, abdomen, and parts of the legs black; there are 
numerous spots of dark scales on its elytra, and the compaction of some of these 
into the fasciae is rather slight. 

Aolles longirostrts, Lea. 

The types of this species are females. The male differs in having the rostrum 
slightly wider, about one-third shorter, and with coarser punctures on the basal 
half. The clothing about the basal half of the elytra is usually variegated with 
blackish spots, with a short white vitta on each side of the scutellum. The species 
occurs in Victoria and South Australia, as well as in Western Australia. 



157 

AOLLES ORBICULATUS, Lea. 

On typical specimens of this species the elytra are clothed with sooty scales, 
sharply outlined by a white marginal fringe; but on many specimens there are 
numerous irregularly distributed whitish scales about the apex, and these become 
more numerous, till occasionally the scales on the apical half are more than two- 
thirds white, and there are numerous other white scales towards the base; the 
white ones, however, never seem to form a median fascia. The rostrum and legs 
vary from reddish to deep black. 

Aolles marmoratus, n. sp. 

S . Reddish-brown ; head, scutellum, suture, and most of under surface 
black or blackish. Moderately clothed with slightly variegated scales, becoming 
paler on under parts, and very dense on sides of mesosternum and metasternum. 

Rostrum broad, straight, and about the length of prothorax; with thin ridges, 
and coarse, confluent, partially concealed punctures on basal two-thirds, then with 
smaller but still crowded naked punctures. Prothorax strongly transverse, sides 
almost evenly oblique to apex, which is about half the width of base. Elytra 
cordate, outlines subcontinuous with those of prothorax; with rows of large 
punctures, mostly partly obscured by clothing. Length, 3-4 mm. 

$ . Differs in being somewhat larger, rostrum thinner, slightly longer, with 
shorter ridges and finer punctures (although coarse), which are naked to the base. 

South Australia: Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt and F. Seeker), Mount 
Lofty Ranges (S. H. Curnow). Victoria: Portland (H. W. Davey). 

The scales on the upper surface are mostly stramineous or pale ochreous, 
mixed with paler ones where they are densest, as on the sides of the prothorax 
(which are feebly vittate) and middle of elytra (where there is a feeble fascia) ; 
there are also some rounded snowy scales in the striae. Owing to the varying 
density of the clothing the surface to the naked eye appears somewhat mottled. 
On several specimens the second and fourth interstices on each elytron, beyond 
the median fascia, have a vittate appearance, owing to their scales being denser 
and paler than on the adjacent ones. On one of the many Lucindale specimens 
the rostrum is entirely dark. The granules on the prothorax and elytra are dense 
and small, and normally obscured or concealed by the clothing. It is allied to or 
perhaps a variety of A. riihiginostis, but the average size is consistently a little 
larger, the median fascia is composed of white or whitish scales, and the white 
scales in the striae are sparser and less conspicuous. 

On this and all the following species the femora are stout and strongly dentate 
and, unlike most species of Haplonyx, are without a supplementary tooth in the 
notch, the front tibiae arc short and distinctly bisinuate on the lower surface, or 
really trisinuate, as there is a short notch between the subapical tooth and the 
terminal hook, so that the tibiae appear tridentate; the middle and hind tibiae 
have an apical fringe of black setae, as on most species of Haplonyx. Unless 
otherwise noted the claw joint is inconspicuous, except that at right angles its 
single claw appears as a median seta not projecting beyond the apical fringe of 
the claw joint. In all of them the funicle is certainly six-jointed. 

Aolles fasciatus, n. sp. 

Reddish-brown, some parts black. Densely clothed with variegated scales, 
the darker ones forming four large spots or two interrupted fasciae on elytra. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, almost straight ; with five thin ridges 
alternated with coarse punctures on basal half, in front with crowded, partially 
confluent punctures. Prothorax strongly transverse, sides strongly rounded, base 
more than twice the width of apex. Elytra short, outlines continuous with those 



158 

of prothorax; with rows of large punctures, mostly obscured by clothing. Length, 
3-3*5 mm. 

South Australia: Leigh Creek (Rev. T. Blackburn), Lucindale (F. Seeker), 
Tintinara (J. G. O. Teppcr), Murray Bridge (A. M. Lea). Victoria: Sea Lake 
(J. C. Goudie). New South Wales (Blackburn's collection): Lake Victoria 
(Capt. S. A. White). 

An ovate or briefly elliptic species, somewhat shorter than the preceding one, 
elyiral outlines evenly continuous with those of prothorax, the base more con- 
spicuously trisinuate and the darker fasciae due to clothing. From A. rubiginosus 
it is also distinct by the elytral clothing, including the absence of snowy scales 
from the striae. The clothing is denser than on A. ornatipennis. The head and 
under surface are black on most specimens, but occasionally the abdomen is 
obscurely reddish ; about half of them have the rostrum black, on the others it is 
more or less reddish. The clothing on the upper surface is mostly rusty-yellow 
or pale ochreous, often with sooty scales sprinkled on the disc of the pronotum, 
and white or stramineous ones (sometimes condensed into feeble vittae) on its 
sides. On the elytra there are large patches of sooty scales, which, near the base, 
form a rather wide fascia, interrupted near the suture, then there is a pale median 
fascia beyond which the sooty scales form a very irregular fascia or two large 
irregular spots. On the under surface and legs the clothing is whitish, becoming 
slightly ochreous on the sides, and very dense on the mesosternum and meta- 
sternum. Some specimens have the rostrum slightly longer and thinner than on 
others, with the punctures slightly less coarse and the ridges slightly shorter, they 
are probably females, but the sexual differences are not very pronounced. The 
prothoracic punctures are normally almost concealed, and also the elytral granules, 
but the latter are fairly distinct on the dark parts. The specimen from I^ake 
Victoria has only the head black; the scales on its under surface and pronotum 
are pale stramineous, except that a few sooty ones are on the front of the latter ; 
on the elytra there is a rather broad dark sub-basal band, but beyond it the median 
fascia and postmedian spots are feeble and irregular. 

Aolles pictus, n. sp. 

Black; legs, antennae, and parts of upper surface reddish. Densely clothed 
with rusty-red scales, with conspicuous blackish patches on upper surface, on 
under surface and legs mostly whitish. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, feebly curved ; basal half with fine 
ridges and series of large punctures, apical half: with dense, partially confluent 
punctures. Prothorax at base more than twice as wide as long; densely granulate 
punctate. Elytra closely applied to prothorax; with rows of large punctures, 
interstices with numerous granules, in parts concealed. Length, 3*75 mm. 

South Australia: Ooldea (A. M. Lea). Unique. 

A beautiful species ; the elytra with red basal median and apical fasciae 
clothed with reddish or ochreous scales, the adjacent parts and the suture black 
and clothed with blackish scales, the apical fascia, however, is joined to a yitta 
on each side of the suture, which extends almost to the median fascia, on the right 
elytron appearing like the letter L. On the pronotum much of the discal clothing 
is dark, but there is a narrow median line of reddish scales, and the sides are 
densely clothed with them. It is entirely without the snowy scales in the striae 
characteristic of A. rubiginosus. The general outlines are as in many species of 
the genus. 

Aolles rufirostris, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish, under surface usually darker, head black. Moderately clothed 
with whitish or stramineous scales, with sooty ones on the elytra, forming a wide 
fascia from near base to near middle, and a large spot on each side of apical half. 



159 

Rostrum rather wide, about the length of prothorax ; basal two-thirds with 
five thin ridges, alternated with rows of punctures, apical third with crowded 
punctures. Prothorax and elytra with outlines, punctures, and granules much 
as on two preceding species. Length, 3-3*5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer, thinner, and with shorter 
ridges. 

Queensland: Dalby (Mrs. F. H. Hobler). 

The elytral clothing is slightly variable, the paler scales are fairly dense on 
the base, margin the sides, and form a median fascia, connected rather widely 
along the suture with the apex, the darker scales cover more than half of the 
surface. To a certain extent the elytral markings are somewhat as on the pre- 
ceding species, but on that species the sutural scales are dark, without interruption 
by the fasciae. The rostrum has conspicuous ridges and is red to the base, in 
sharp contrast with the black head. There are some denticules between the 
median projection and the subapical tooth of the front tibiae. 

Aolles maculipennis, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish, head black. Moderately clothed with stramineous scales, 
on the elytra irregularly mixed with dark ones, middle of pronotum with many 
dark scales; under surface with whitish scales, becoming stramineous, denser 
and larger on sides of mesosternum and metasternum. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax ; with five thin ridges, alternated 
with rows of coarse punctures on basal two-thirds ; on apical third with crowded, 
partially confluent punctures. Prothorax and elytra with outlines, punctures, 
and granules as on most species of the genus. Length, 3 '5-4*0 mm. 

2 . Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer, thinner, and with shorter 
ridges. 

South Australia: Parachilna (E. L. Savage), Leigh Creek, Quorn (Black- 
burn's collection). 

Possibly a variety of A. orbiculatus, but consistently larger, and much of the 
elytra clothed with pale scales, although, except that they are uniformly dense at 
the base, they arc very irregularly distributed, and do not form fasciae; on the 
apical slope they are quite uniform on several of the interstices on most of the 
specimens; on several the darker scales are in the majority. On an occasional 
specimen, usually a male, the rostrum and parts of the under surface are blackish. 

Aolles basalis, n. sp. 

$ . Black or blackish, some parts reddish. Densely clothed with variegated 
scales. 

Rostrum about the length of prothorax ; with fine ridges alternated with 
partially concealed punctures on basal two-thirds, apical third with smaller but 
more sharply defined ones. Prothorax and elytra with outlines, punctures, and 
granules as on most species of the genus. Length, 3-3*5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer and thinner, with less 
defined ridges and smaller punctures. 

South Australia: Ooldea (A. M. Lea). 

A beautiful species, in appearance approaching some specimens of A. orbicu- 
latus, but with snowy-white scales individually larger and more rounded (much 
as those in the striae of A. rubiginosus), they are dense at the base of pronotum 
and rusty-red on the rest of its surface, the two colours of varying extent and 
irregularly conjoined, with a few sooty scales scattered about; on the base of 
elytra (but not on the scutellum, which appears as a black spot), on the apical 
third, and irregularly on the sides the scales are white, elsewhere, except for a 



160 

few scattered white ones, they are sooty ; on the under surface and leg's they are 
white, becoming stramineous on the sides of sterna. Of the five specimens taken, 
two have the rostrum black, two have it red, and the other has it dark reddish- 
brown; the antennae in all are red, except that the apical half of the club is 
infuscated. 

Aolles basipennis, n. sp. 

Dark reddish-brown, antennae somewhat paler. Densely clothed with 
stramineous, sooty, and white scales. 

Rostrum rather wide and straight, slightly longer than prothorax; with 
dense punctures, sharply defined in front, larger and more confluent posteriorly; 
with feeble, irregular basal ridges. Prothorax and elytra with outlines, punctures, 
and granules as on most species of the genus. Length, 4 mm. 

Queensland: Bowen (Aug. Simson). Unique. 

The rostral ridges are shorter and less distinct than usual. On A. sobrius 
(^ about the same size and with somewhat similar elytral clothing, except at the 
base), the rostral ridges are longer and more conspicuous than usual In general 
the species is close to A. orbiculatus, except that the marginal fringe of pale scales 
is absent from the sides and apex of elytra. On the head and pronotum the scales 
are stramineous, with a few dark ones scattered about; the elytra are clothed with 
sooty scales, except for a narrow basal strip of stramineous ones, present also on 
the scutellum, and a few white ones in the striae ; on the under surface and legs 
the scales arc white, becoming denser, longer, and stramineous on the sides of the 
mesosternum and metasternum. The type is probably a female. 

Aolles vertebralis, n. sp. 

Reddish. Densely clothed with rusty-yellow and sooty scales, becoming- 
whitish and stramineous on under parts. 

Rostrum wide, quite straight, and very little longer than prothorax; basal 
half with feeble ridges, alternated with coarse punctures, apical half with smaller 
and more sharply defined punctures. Length, 2*5 mm. 

South Australia: Gawler (J. Faust). Unique. 

On the pronotum the scales are mostly rusty on the sides, with a large median 
patch on which they are mostly sooty ; on the elytra they are sooty except for a 
narrow sutural vitta of rusty ones. The general outlines are much as on most 
species of the genus, but the series of punctures on the elytra are, if present, 
entirely concealed on the type, except near the base; the elytra also appear to have 
no granules. 

Aolles quinquecarinatus, n. sp. 

$ . Reddish. Moderately clothed with white and stramineous scales on 
upper surface, becoming denser and uniformly white on under parts. 

Rostrum wide, straight, and the length of prothorax; with five strong ridges, 
alternated with rows of punctures to apical third, on which the punctures are 
smaller but more sharply defined. Prothorax at base twice as wide as the median 
length; densely granulate-punctate. Elytra with outlines continuous with those 
of prothorax; with rows of large, deep punctures, becoming smaller posteriorly, 
the interstices multigranulate. Length, 3' 5 mm. 

Queensland: Bluff (A. M. Lea). Unique. 

In general appearance, largely owing to the coarse elytral punctures, like some 
of the smaller non-fasciculate species of Haplonyx, but the funicle is distinctly 
six-jointed; each claw appears as a thin seta in the marginal fringe of the third 
tarsal joint, but the claw joints themselves are very inconspicuous. The rostral 
carinae are unusually well defined. On the upper surface most of the scales are 
thin and stramineous, or slightly rusty; on the sides of the prothorax they are 



161 

mostly white, and form irregular vittae, there is also a thin white line down its 
middle, continued on to the scutellum. 

Aolles albus, n. sp. 

Pale reddish-castaneous, head somewhat darker. Densely clothed with white 
scales. 

Rostrum almost straight, the length of prothorax; basal three-fifths with fine 
ridges, alternated with rows of coarse punctures, apical two-fifths with crowded, 
sharply defined punctures. Prothorax and elytra with normal outlines, punctures, 
and granules. Length, 3 mm. 

South Australia: Murray Bridge (A. M. Lea). LTnique. 

The scales are dense on most parts and uniformly white, except that there 
are a few inconspicuous dark ones on parts of the elytra. 

Aolles ferrugineus, n. sp. 

Black, most of antennae reddish. Densely clothed with rusty-red scales, on 
upper surface variegated with whitish and darker ones, on parts of under surface 
whitish. 

Rostrum wide, short and straight, no longer than prothorax; with fine ridges, 
alternated with rows of coarse, partially concealed punctures on basal two-thirds, 
elsewhere with smaller crowded punctures. Prothorax and elytra with outlines, 
punctures, and granules as on most species of the genus. Length, 3-5 mm. 

King Island (A. M. Lea). Unique. 

In some respects close to A. varic gains, but larger, clothing denser, more 
rusty, and on the sides of the prothorax vittate. From A. omatipennis, which is 
probably a synonym of A, nigrirostris, it differs in the entirely black derm, in its 
clothing, and its shorter and wider rostrum. Each thin claw joint with its claw 
does not project beyond the lobes of the third tarsal joint, but is sufficiently distinct 
when the tarsi are viewed at right angles. Most of the clothing on the upper 
surface is of a rusty-red colour, variegated with whitish suhvittate spots on the 
sides of the prothorax, and scattered white scales, mostly in the striae, on the 
elytra, there are but few sooty scales, although they appear to be more numerous 
than they really are owing to exposures of the derm. On the abdomen, except at 
the sides of the basal segments, and on the middle of the metasternum, the scales 
are whitish; on the rest of the under surface, and on the legs, they are not much 
paler than the rusty ones on the upper surface. 

Aolles rostralis, n. sp. 

Dark reddish-brown, antennae somewhat paler. Densely clothed with large, 
soft, stramineous, or pale rusty-yellow scales, becoming paler on under parts; 
elytra with a broad, dark, sub-basal fascia, and a large spot on each side near apex. 

Rostrum slightly curved, comparatively thin, slightly longer than prothorax 
and scutellum on male, still longer on female ; with crowded punctures throughout, 
and with feeble ridges on basal half. Length, 3*5-3*75 mm. 

South Australia: Leigh Creek (Rev. T. Blackburn). 

A densely squamose species,, with a dark sub-basal fascia on the elytra, and a 
dark postmedian spot on each side, the latter sharply defined on two specimens, 
broken up into spots with a faint tendency to become fasciate on two others; the 
markings, therefore, are somewhat suggestive of those of A, fasciatus, but the 
clothing is much denser, and the rostrum is decidedly longer and thinner. The 
rostrum is unusually long and thin for the genus, and is also somewhat curved, 
although not as in Zeopus. The general outlines and the punctures and the 
granules are apparently as on most species of the genus, but the derm is almost 
everywhere concealed by the clothing. 



162 

Aolles multimaculatus, n. sp. 

Reddish-brown ; antennae, except part of club, paler. "Rather densely clothed 
with whitish or stramineous and sooty scales, irregularly mingled on upper surface, 
becoming almost uniformly white, on under parts. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, gently curved ; with crowded punc- 
tures, and on basal half feeble ridges. General outlines as on most species of the 
genus. Length, 2* 5-2 '75 mm. 

Victoria: Sea Lake (J. C. Goudie). 

In general appearance like some of the varieties of A. orbiculatiis, but the 
rostrum is noticeably curved. On the prothorax the paler scales are in the 
majority on the sides, but not in the middle; on the elytra the dark scales are 
most numerous, the white ones forming small irregularly distributed spots, with 
the tendency to form a feeble postmedian fascia, and a short vitta on each side 
of the scutellum. The elytral punctures are apparently of moderate size, but 
they are considerably obscured by the clothing, although the rows are more distinct 
than on A. vertebralis. The notch of the third tarsal joint is sufficiently distinct, 
but the claw joint and its claw are not evident, at least the claw does not appear 
as a median seta in the apical fringe. 

Aolles intermedius, n. sp. 

i . Black, antennae reddish. Clothed with white, stramineous, and sooty 
scales on upper surface, snowy-white on under parts. 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, slightly wider than each eye, 
moderately curved; with fine ridges alternated with rows of punctures behind 
antennae, with comparatively small but sharply defined punctures in front. Pro- 
thorax more than twice as wide as long, base not quite twice the width of apex ; 
with crowded and mostly concealed punctures. Elytra with outlines continuous 
with those of prothorax, base trisinuate ; with rows of fairly large partially 
concealed punctures; interstices finely granulate. Length, 2*75-3 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the rostrum about one-third longer, thinner, more 
shining, with smaller punctures and shorter ridges, and antennae inserted in 
middle of sides of rostrum, instead of two-fifths from apex. 

South Australia: Port Lincoln (Rev. T. Blackburn and A. M. Lea). 

In general appearance like many specimens of A. orbicidatus and A. basi- 
pennis, but rostrum longer, thinner, and moderately curved. At first glance 
resembling some varieties of Zeopus storeoldes, but the rostrum of the female is 
not much more than half the length of that of the male of that species, and con- 
siderably less than half of that of its female ; it is, however, decidedly more curved 
than on any previously described species of Aolles. On the pronotum the 
stramineous scales cover most of the sides, the sooty ones most of the middle; 
on the elytra the stramineous ones cover a narrow part of the base (including 
the scutellum) and the sides, elsewhere, except for some scattered white scales, 
the clothing is sooty. The third tarsal joint appears to be rather widely notched, 
but this is due to the absence of fringing setae from its middle; the claw joint 
is concealed, but its claw appears as a finer seta than any of those in the apical 
fringe. The female from Port Lincoln has parts of the derm obscurely reddish, 
but probably the derm varies as in most species of the subfamily. A second 
female from Monarto is slightly larger, with pale scales of upper surface almost 
white, and in sharper contrast with the black ones, its rostrum is slightly longer, 
although much shorter than on the male of Z. storcoides. 

Aolles intermixtus, n. sp. 

Reddish-brown. Densely clothed with variegated scales, becoming almost 
uniformly white on under parts. 



163 

Rostrum wide, straight, and slightly longer than prothorax ; with fine ridges,, 
alternated with rows of punctures on basal two-thirds, elsewhere with crowded 
punctures. Prothorax more than twice as wide as long, sides oblique to apex, 
which is about half the width of base; with crowded, but normally concealed 
punctures. Elytra with outlines continuous with those of prothorax; with rows 
of large, partially concealed punctures, interstices With fine, normally concealed 
granules. Claw joints thin and distinct. Length, 4 mm. 

North-Western Australia: Fortescue River (W. D. Dodd). Unique. 

A fairly large species, with white, rusty-yellow, and sooty scales on the elytra, 
irregularly distributed, but to the naked eye appearing in feeble zones or fasciae; 
there is a fairly wide sooty zone near the base, and a smaller one beyond the 
middle, and the scutellum appears as a round dark spot; on the pronotum there 
are only whitish and rusty-yellow scales, also irregularly mingled. The base of 
the elytra, except for the incurvature at the scutellum, is almost straight, instead 
of distinctly trisinuate. 

On this and on the three following species, the thin claw joint with a single claw 
projects well beyond the lobes of the third joint of each tarsus, and the general 
appearance is as of non-fasciculate species of Haplonyx, but as the funicle is 
certainly six-jointed (all have been examined under the microscope) they have 
been referred to Aolles. 

Aolles latirostris, n. sp. 

Reddish. Densely clothed with variegated scales on upper surface, becoming 
uniformly white on under parts. 

Rostrum wide, straight, and the length of prothorax, sides gently incurved 
to middle ; with fine ridges, alternated with rows of squamif erous punctures to 
insertion of antennae, in front with dense, naked punctures. Prothorax and 
elytra with outlines, punctures, and granules as on most species of the genus. 
Claw joints distinct. Length, 2*75 mm. 

Queensland: Longreach (A, M. Lea). Unique. 

In general appearance like the preceding species on a reduced scale, and with 
the claw joint equally prominent; the clothing is of much the same colours, but 
is opaque, and less intermingled, with the scales on the scutellum white. On the 
pronotum the scales are mostly dark stramineous, with a few wdiitc spots on the 
sides, and white ones scattered singly elsewhere ; on the elytra most of them are 
of a rusty-yellow, with an irregular dark fascia at the basal third, and short, 
white vittae forming feeble fasciae at the base, beyond the middle, and near the 
apex. 

Aolles parvus, n. sp. 

Reddish. Densely clothed with variegated scales, becoming white on under 
parts. 

Rostrum wide, straight, and about the length of prothorax ; with fine ridges, 
alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures on basal three-fifths, elsewhere 
with crowded, naked punctures. Prothorax and elytra with outlines, punctures, 
and granules as on most species of the genus. Claw joints distinct. Length, 
2 '25 mm. 

Northern Territory: Roper River (N. B. Tindale). Unique. 

Smaller than the preceding species, and with about half of the elytral scales 
black. On the upper surface the scales are rusty-yellow, white and sooty, on the 
pronotum they are mostly rusty, with white vittae on the sides, and two small 
white submedian spots, on the base there are three small feeble dark spots. On 
the elytra there is a wide, irregular, black fascia, extending from near the base to 
near the middle; beyond the middle the black, white, and rusty scales are 
irregularly mingled, about the base they are rusty, with a few white ones. Directly 
from behind rows of snowy scales may be seen in the striae. 



164 

Aolles inconspicuus, n. sp. 

Black, some parts obscurely diluted with red, antennae reddish. Densely 
clothed with somewhat rusty and sooty scales, becoming white on under parts. 

Rostrum wide, straight, and the length of prothorax ; basal three-fifths with 
fine ridges,, alternated with rows of squamiferous punctures, elsewhere with 
crowded naked punctures. Prothorax and elytra with outlines, punctures, and 
granules as on most species of the genus. Claw joints distinct. Length. 2*25 mm. 

Queensland: Brisbane (H. J. Carter). Unique. 

The size of the preceding species, but head and rostrum black, the elytral 
clothing of two colours only, and most of the discal scales of the pronotum sooty. 
The clothing is as on many specimens of A. orbicidatiis, but each claw joint pro- 
jects well beyond the lobes of the third. On the pronotum the paler scales form 
two oblique vittae on each side, with a few scattered singly on the disc; on the 
elytra they rather narrowly clothe the base (including the scutelium), the margins 
on the basal half, and form small irregularly distributed spots elsewhere. 

Aonychus picatus, n. sp. 

5 . Black. Densely clothed with black and white scales on upper surface, 
white on lower surface and legs. 

Rostrum rather thin, moderately curved, the length of prothorax; with some 
strong punctures about base. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides strongly 
rounded, base strongly bisinuate and about twice the width of apex; punctures 
normally concealed. Elytra cordate, distinctly wider than prothorax; with scries 
of fairly large, concealed punctures. Two basal segments of abdomen with a 
shallow T median depression, clothed with setae instead of scales. Length, 
4-5-5-5 mm. 

2 . Differs in having the rostrum slightly longer, with sparser punctures 
about base, and two basal segments of abdomen strongly and evenly convex. 

Western Australia: Cunderdin, in September and October. 

A multimaculate species with deep black and snowy-white scales. On the 
head they are mostly white, with a round black patch in front ; on the pronotum 
the white scales form a median line on the basal half, and two large spots on 
each side, but the spots are connected with the white mass below ; the scutelium 
appears as a white spot ; on the elytra the white spots are numerous, and so placed 
as to appear irregularly fasciate, and to enclose round or subquadrate black spots. 
On A. hicixwsits the black scales of the elytra are more conspicuouls about the 
suture than elsewhere, and the white ones are somewhat longitudinally arranged; 
on the present species they could be regarded as forming very irregular transverse 
or zigzag fasciae. There are other specimens in the Western Australian Museum, 
No. 8278. 

Aonychus barbatus, n. sp. 

6 . Blackish-brown, parts of antennae paler. Densely clothed with sooty- 
brown and white scales on upper surface, entirely white on under surface and 
legs. Rostrum with an apical fringe on each side of about eight, rather long, 
yellowish bristles. 

Rostrum thin, strongly curved, sides slightly incurved between antennae and 
apex. Prothorax and elytra with outlines and sculpture as on the preceding 
species, except that the series of punctures on the elytra are less concealed by the 
clothing. Length, 6 mm. 

Northern Territory: Bathurst Island, in October (G. F. Hill). Unique. 

Readily distinguished from all other species of the genus by the bearded 
rostrum, which, however, is probably confined to the male. The dark scales 
clothe the front of the head, median part of pronotum, except for remnants of a 



165 

white cross, and most of the elytra, on the latter the white ones form short vittae. 
and interrupted fasciae, so placed that there appear to be two large, quadrangular 
sutural spots on the basal half, and a small square spot at the basal third on the 
fifth interstice; on the apical slope the white spots are small and numerous. There 
is a slight flattening in the middle of the two basal segments of abdomen, but they 
are without the usual setose depression of the males of the genus. 

Aonychus lituratus, n. sp. 

| . Black, parts of antennae obscurely reddish. Densely clothed with black 
and white scales on upper surface, white on under surface and legs. 

Rostrum rather long and thin, rather strongly curved ; with a short ridge 
near base, on each side of wdiich the punctures are dense and rather coarse, else- 
where with fine punctures. Prothorax slightly transverse, base strongly bisinuate 
and about twice the width of apex ; with crowded, concealed punctures. Elytra 
cordate ; with regular rows of large, partially concealed punctures. Two basal 
segments of abdomen with a shallow median depression, clothed with scales instead 
of setae. Length, 6 mm. 

Queensland: Claudie River (J. A. Kershaw). Type (unique), in National 
Museum. 

In general appearance fairly close to the preceding species, but the dark 
scales blacker, the white ones differently disposed, and the rostrum not bearded. 
The black scales form a round spot on the front of the head, clothe the median 
part of pronotum, and most of the elytra; on the pronotum the white ones on 
the sides are advanced in a zigzag manner on the disc, there are also two minute 
median white spots and a medio-basal one; on the elytra the white spots are 
small and irregularly distributed, except that some are united to form an irregular 
T or short broad Y, on and near the suture about the summit of the apical slope. 

MlCRAONYCHUS. 

In the original diagnosis of this genus it was noted that the funicle should 
probably be considered as seven-jointed rather than six-jointed. I have recently 
re-examined some of the types and many fresh specimens (including M. maculatits, 
sordidits, decipiens, and nigriro sir-is) } as well as several new species, and now con- 
sider that the funicle should be regarded as really six-jointed, as it certainly 
appears to be under a fairly high power; the eighth joint of the antennae is 
usually closely applied to the club, and apparently forms part of it, as on 
Misopkrice, although it is usually without the fine sensitised pubescence of the 
club, its derm generally has the appearance of the funicle, rather than of the club. 
In M. maculatits , however, it is slightly narrower than the sixth joint of the 
funicle, and distinctly narrower than the following joint, and, although it appears 
to belong to the club, its clothing is different. 

Mtcraonychus ntgrirostris, Lea. 
Three specimens evidently belonging to this species, from Queensland (National 
Park and Mount Tambourine), are smaller than usual, on one of them many of 
the scales are of a brilliant green, on another many are of a coppery-red, on the 
third many are coppery, and others green. The species is distinct by its black 
rostrum. 

Micraonychus illotus, n. sp. 

Dull brownish-red; head and metasternum darker; club, most of funicle, 
and tarsi black. Moderately clothed with muddy-grey scales, becoming paler on 
under surface. 



166 

Rostrum slightly longer than prothorax, thin, curved, shining, and with rows 
of distinct punctures on basal half, smaller scattered ones elsewhere. Funicle 
distinctly six-jointed. Prothorax almost as long as wide, base strongly bisinuate 
and almost twice the width of apex; with crowded, partially concealed punctures. 
Elytra oblong-cordate, sides gently dilated to near middle; with rows of large, 
partially obscured punctures, alternate interstices feebly elevated. Pectoral canal 
deep, ending abruptly in middle of metasternum. Length, 3*5 mm. 

South Australia: Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt). 

A large, dingy species ; at first glance the type looks like a large, dirty speci- 
men of M. cincrasceiis, but its pectoral canal is shorter; on that species it extends 
to the abdomen. 

Micraonychus interruptus, n. sp. 

Dull reddish-brown, rostrum and scape paler, rest of antennae and tarsi black. 
Densely clothed with silvery-w T hite scales, in parts obscured by muddy-grey ones. 

Rostrum thin, the length of prothorax, moderately curved; with rows of 
punctures on basal half, sparse and small elsewhere. Funicle six-jointed. Pro- 
thorax almost as long as wide; punctures crowded but normally concealed. Elytra 
not much wider than prothorax, parallel-sided to beyond middle ; with regular 
rows of large punctures, appearing much smaller through clothing. Pectoral canal 
deep, ending abruptly before middle of metasternum. Length, 2"5-2'75 mm. 

Tasmania: Launceston (F. M. Littler and Aug. Simson). 

Most of the derm is normally concealed. On specimens in good condition 
the white scales form a median line on the pronotum and are dense on the sides; 
on the elytra they are dense, leaving parts of the suture, fifth and seventh inter- 
stices bare (and consequently appearing vitiate), a bare antemedian part of the 
seventh is directed obliquely backwards, to join in with a bare postmedian patch 
on the fifth. Rubbed or dirty specimens are difficult to distinguish from rubbed 
or dirty ones of M. decipiens. 

Micraonychus coelosternus, n. sp. 

Black; elytra, parts of under surface, femora, tibiae, apical half of rostrum 
(the base obscure), and scape more or less obscurely reddish. Moderately clothed 
with whitish scales, with a slight bluish tinge. 

Rostrum thin, curved, shining, the length of prothorax, and with rows of fine 
punctures. Funicle six-jointed. Prothorax about as long as wide, sides rounded 
and somewhat narrowed to apex; with crowded punctures. Elytra oblong- 
cordate, but rather narrow ; with rows of large, partially obscured punctures. 
Pectoral canal deep and fairly wide to middle of metasternum, thence connected 
with abdomen by a narrow T groove. Two basal segments of abdomen with a 
large, shallow depression. Length, 2 mm. 

New South Wales: Upper Williams River (A. M. Lea). Unique. 

Evidently allied to M. rn-finianns , but without the large soft scales char- 
acteristic of that species, and with a longer pectoral canal, which is narrowly con- 
nected with the abdomen. The partly red rostrum distinguishes from M. nigrl- 
rosiris. The clothing is not very dense, and the individual scales are seldom 
distinct, except on the under surface, where some of them have a slight metallic 
gloss. The abdominal depression is probably a masculine feature. 

Geochus, Broun, Man. N. Z'land Col., iv., p. 931. 
Two species of this genus were first referred to Geophihis, but finding that 
name had already been used, Broun proposed the name GeochusS 7 ^ The species 

(?) Broun, N. Z'land Jour. ScL I, 1882, p. 128. 



167 

are remarkable for their flattened, broad forms, widely separated front coxae, 
and three-jointed tarsi. The genus was originally placed in the Diabathrariides, 
but in the systematic index to the Manual at the end of the Cylindrorhinides. It 
really appears to be an aberrant one of the Cryptorhynchides. Twenty-six species 
are known from New Zealand, and one can now be added from Lord Howe 
Island, taken from fallen leaves, as were most of the others. 

Geochus howensis, n. sp. 

Black ; antennae, except club, reddish. In parts sparsely and obscurely 
clothed. 

Head small, with dense punctures. Eyes small, lateral, with coarse facets. 
Rostrum short, dilated to near apex, with three longitudinal ridges. Antennae 
inserted near apex of rostrum, scape dilated at apex; funicle seven-jointed, first 
joint subglobular. Prothorax transverse, flat, base evenly curved and twice the 
width of apex; with crowded, deep punctures of moderate size, and with a feeble 
median ridge. Elytra closely applied to prothorax, sides dilated to basal third 
and then oblique to apex ; with rows of large, rough punctures, wider than inter- 
stices, these somewhat irregular. Femora rather stout, edentate ; tibiae with a 
small terminal hook, tarsi short, apparently three-jointed. Length, 1*5-2*0 mm. 

Lord Howe Island, eleven specimens from fallen leaves (A. M. Lea and wife). 

Differs from G. inaequalis and G. marginalus, New Zealand species, in the 
elytra. The legs, tip of abdomen, and sometimes parts of the elytra, are obscurely 
diluted with red. Seen directly from above more than half of the elytra appears 
as a large triangle, owing to the sides being obliquely cut off from the basal third, 
the interstices are in parts uneven, although hardly tuberculate, the irregularity 
being most noticeable at the basal third. The distance between the front coxae 
is more than the width of a coxa. One of» the specimens has the elytra more 
strongly sculptured than the others, the second interstice on each elytron is 
flattened except for a sudden elevation at the basal third, the third is elevated to 
the basal third, then suddenly interrupted, and then with two elevations, the fifth 
is conspicuously elevated from the base to beyond the middle, and the" sixth is 
also elevated in part. 

Achelocis, n. g. 

Head small, round. Eyes small, lateral, with coarse facets. Rostrum rather 
long, thin, and moderately curved; scrobes deep and oblique in front, then shal- 
lower on under surface almost to eyes. Antennae rather thin; scape almost as 
long as funicle and club combined; funicle seven-jointed; club moderately long. 
Prothorax transverse, base strongly and evenly rounded, sides strongly rounded. 
Scutellum minute. Elytra slightly wider than long, sides strongly rounded, 
surface uneven. Mesostcrnum semi circularly emarginate at apex, without a 
median groove. Metasternum very short, episterna not apparent. Abdomen 
rather small, first segment as long as second and third combined, third and fourth 
combined the length of second and slightly longer than fifth. Legs moderately 
long; front coxae almost touching, middle ones moderately, the hind ones widely 
separated; femora rather stout, neither grooved nor dentate; tibiae slightly 
bisinuate on lower surface, apical hook small; tarsi three-jointed. Coarsely 
sculptured and sparsely clothed. 

The type is a singular insect, for which at present I am unable to suggest a 
subfamily, although it is probably near the Cryptorhynchides. In its general 
appearance it has somewhat the look of the rough, granulate species of Tentegia, 
of that subfamily, and its general outlines, rostrum, and abdomen are much as 
those of Cycloporopterus, but the total absence of a pectoral canal should forbid 
its being referred to the Cryptorhynchides. The upper surface of the third tarsal 



168 

joint appears to be almost evenly rounded, and under the microscope I cannot 
see even the rudiment of a claw joint; the under surface is densely padded and 
feebly notched in the middle. 

Achelocis rudis, n. sp. 

Black; antennae, tibial hooks, tarsi, and parts of elytra reddish. Sparsely 
clothed with pale setae. 

Head with coarse punctures and a small median fovea. Rostrum slightly 
longer than prothorax, somewhat thickened, and with coarse, crowded punctures 
about base, elsewhere smaller and more or less lineate in arrangement. Funicle 
with two basal joints moderately long and subequal, their combined length 
slightly less than that of the five following ones. Prothorax with numerous fine, 
transverse, irregular ridges, in front of which are coarse punctures, but with 
coarse punctures only on sides. Elytra strongly and almost evenly rounded; 
with shallow striae, containing large, irregularly spaced punctures, the interstices 
with irregular series of small, round, shining granules. Sterna and two basal 
segments of abdomen with coarse, irregular punctures. Length, 3 '5 mm. 

Queensland: Cairns (Dr. E. W. Ferguson). Unique. 

A briefly ovate, strongly convex, rough-looking species. In certain lights 
there appear to be three obscurely reddish irregular fasciae on the elytra, one at the 
base, one near and one slightly beyond the middle, and irregular patches elsewhere; 
the elytral granules are in single series, but all more or less irregularly interrupted. 



169 



ABORIGINAL STONE STRUCTURES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By C P. Mountford. 

[Read August 11, 1927.] 

Plates IX. and X. 

Aboriginal monuments of stone are practically unknown in South Australia, 
and the examples about to be described have not been previously recorded. Wood 
Jones ^ shows photographs of stone cairns on the Gungra claypan which are 
apparently about 2 feet high and in the centre of a complex arrangement of stones 
laid in place by the aborigines. 

The examples now described are, however, quite distinct and represent a new 
type of stone structure. They were first noticed by the author, when, in company 
with his father, Mr. C. Mountford, and Mr. H. L. Sheard, he was searching for 
native rock carvings near the Weroonee Range, about 173 miles, 11° east of north 
of Adelaide, and, approximately, 13 miles due north of Paratoo, on the Broken 
Hill railway line. While examining an example of aboriginal intaglios on the 
property of Mr. G. Fuller, at Wabricoola, Mr. Fuller mentioned that his father 
had shown him, many years previously, some stones structures, and told him that 
they had been used by the aborigines during rain-making ceremonies. He kindly 
accompanied us to the foot-hills of the Weroonee Range, and although unsuc- 
cessful himself in locating them, roughly indicated their position to us. After 
some trouble we found six stone structures, situated on a low foot-hill to the north 
of the Weroonee Ranges, at a point about 5^ miles south-west of Wabricoola 
Station. Three of the examples had been erected on the top of the hill ; the 
remaining three were grouped close together on the western slope. The accom- 
panying diagram shows the relative position of each structure in the group: — 




Plan of Aboriginal Stone Structures at Weroonee Range, 

Nos. 1, 2, and 3 were in a straight line, oriented approximately north-east. 
The first w r as 54 yards, and the third 50 yards, from No. 2. No. 4 was 80 yards 
south-east from No. 3, and No. 5 was 5 yards further on in the same direction. 
No. 6 lay 14 vards south-westward from No. 5. 



(i) Wood Jones, Prof. R, Journ. Anthrop. Inst. Gt. Brit., vol. lv., 1925, p. 123, 



170 



1 lie bases of all the structures were square, with the corners directed towards 
the four points of the compass. Four of the stone piles were partly dismantled. 
No. 3 almost totally so, while Nos. 2 and 4 were complete. The example 
No. 4 was the most perfect example of the group, and, at the instance of Prof F 
Wood Jones, and with the help of Messrs. C. Mountford and P. Stapleton, was 
dismantled and presented to the South Australian Museum (pi. ix.). 

The stone pile was constructed in a remarkable manner, and while dis- 
mantling it we had an excellent opportunity of noticing several peculiarities. In 
the first place, a floor had been laid down with flat slate stones and two narrow 
stone slabs, about 3 feet 6 inches long, 6 inches wide, and 2 inches to 3 inches thick 
were placed upon them parallel to each other and, approximately, 3 feet apart.' 
I wo similar stones were arranged on the top of, and at right angles to these, about 
the same_ distance apart, allowing the ends to overlap a little. The construction 
was continued in this manner, each pair of stones being at right angles to the 
previous ones and of decreasing length for 28 layers, forming a pile 3 feet 8 inches 
high, which was 3 feet square at the base and 1 foot 6 inches square at the top 
with a hollow down the middle. The rule shown in pi. ix. is 6 inches long. 

More care was taken in building this structure than appeared at first glance 
the stones having been chosen of decreasing length to make a building of the 
shape shown m pi. ix. It was also noticed that where the slates did not bed pro- 
perly, small packing pieces had been inserted to prevent rocking. No mortar or 
any form of fastening was used, the weight of the stones keeping the construction 
together. A large flat stone 15 inches by 24 inches was noticed on the ground 
adjacent to this example. We dug the ground upon which the pile had been 
erected, but found nothing; in fact the earth appeared to have been previously 
undisturbed. The rocks in this locality weather out into long narrow slates, which 
are particularly suitable for building the special form of structure; in fact, thev 
probably determined us form. The collecting of the stones over an extensive 
area to provide sufficient material for this and the other examples must 
have entailed considerable time and labour. 

No. 1 structure was partly demolished, only ten layers of stone standing the 
remainder lying around in confusion. The base was 12 inches square and the 
height was 16 inches. The method of construction was somewhat different from 
that of the previous example, and although the stones were disarranged, there 
were strong indications that a smaller structure had been built on the 'north- 
eastern side and joined to the main one by stones laid parallel to each other. A 
large flat stone 40 inches long was noticed lying adjacent to this example. 

After having photographed this arrangement, the stones lying about were 
utilised to reconstruct the pile, and it was found that the remaining loose ones 
made it 3 feet high and comprised 30 layers, 

Structure No. 2 was built in a different manner from the other examples 
being solid, similar to the base of a European tower or cairn of a similar shape' 
It was rectangular in form, 3 feet 6 inches by 4 feet and 18 inches high, and was 
composed of stones more or less rectangular in shape. The long slates utilised 
m the other examples were not used in this case, and no loose stones were noticed 
lying around it. 

The structure called No. 3 was almost totally dismantled, only a few stones 
remaining to indicate the former existence of a stone erection similar to but 
somewhat smaller than No. 4. 

< No. 5 was similar to No. 1, except that there were no indications of an addi- 
tional arrangement on the side. It was partly broken down, only twelve rows 



171 

being in place, the remaining stones lying beside it in disorder. It was about 
12 inches square at the base and the undisturbed portion was 20 inches high (pi. 
x.. rig. 4). As in Nos. 1 and 4, a large flat stone was lying adjacent to the 
structure. This measured 24 inches by 30 inches. 

The last example, No. 6, was very similar to No. 5, being 12 inches square 
at the base and about 20 inches high, with fourteen rows left standing, the 
remainder lying about as in the other examples. A flat stone similar to those 
near the other three was noticed (pi. x., fig. 3). 

Mr. P. Stapleton has since described to the author a similar structure, one and 
a half miles north-west of Beltana and 70 yards from the railway line. Another 
was within sight to the west on the side of a hill. He also kindly supplied 
a photograph (pi. x., fig. 1) which shows that although the long narrow slates 
were not available, a similar manner of building was used; that is, two stones 
were placed parallel and the next two laid on top at right angles to them. Mr. 
Stapleton also mentioned that he saw quite a number of similar examples in the 
Flinders Ranges between Wilpena and Copley, and on enquiring from local resi- 
dents he learned that they extended from Wilpena in the south to Woollana in 
the north. 

Mr. H. M. Hale, of the South Australian Museum, presented the author with a 
photograph of a similar structure (pi. x., fig. 2) taken when visiting the country 
at the Owienagin Pound. The construction of this was very similar to that of 
the Weroonee examples, and was also situated on a hillside. 

Motives for Building the Structures. 

That these arrangements are the work of aborigines cannot easily be denied 
in view of Mr. G. Fuller's information, received from his father, that the natives 
had used them during rain-making ceremonies, and in connection with these 
ceremonies had sprinkled animal blood on the stones. It may be of interest to 
note that Spencer and Gillen (2) record customs of sprinkling human blood over 
stones during the Intichiuma ceremony of the Kangaroo and Hakca flower totems. 

Mr. E. Buttfield (whose father was a former Protector of Aborigines), and 
who had himself spent his boyhood among the natives of the Flinders Ranges, 
told the author that, when a young man, he had seen stone structures similar to 
those shown in the photographs. He had asked the natives regarding them, and 
had been told that they had been made by "old man blackfeliow long time ago." 
When questioned regarding their use, the natives professed ignorance. They 
denied the idea that white men had made them. 

The Surveyor-General was personally interviewed and shown photographs of 
the Weroonee structures, and he gave his assurance that his surveyors did not 
build cairns of this type. The occurrence of similar structures over such a wide 
area in the Flinders Ranges seems to indicate the existence of a former aboriginal 
custom of building stone piles possibly for ceremonial purposes. Enquiries 
among the few remaining aborigines may give information regarding their use 
and name, for in view of the information received it seems likely that they may 
have been used during rain-making ceremonies. 

The following points are noteworthy: — As previously mentioned, structures 
Nos. 1, 4, 5, and 6 each had a large flat stone nearby, and it seems as if these had 
been placed in position for some definite purpose. Examination showed that 
although structures Nos. 1, 5, and 6 were partly dismantled, the stones had not 

( - 2 ^ Spencer, Sir Baldwin, and Gillen, F., "Native Tribes of Central Australia," 1899, 

pp 184-201. 



172 

been removed, and there were sufficient numbers lying around to enable us to 
reconstruct the buildings to the height of the others. No. 3, however, was almost 
totally demolished, very few of the stones remaining, and it would appear that 
the material taken from it had been utilised to construct some other example. 

Another striking feature noticed was that ail the structures were built with 
the corners pointing to the four points of the compass. The fact that every 
building was similarly placed would indicate that the builders had some definite 
object in view, which had influenced them in their orientation of the piles. 

The author wishes to acknowledge the great help received from Mr. C. 
Mountford, sen., Mr. H. L. Sheard, Mr. G. Fuller, and Mr. P. Stapleton, in finding 
these remarkable remains of aboriginal craft. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES IX. and X. 

Plate IX. 
Aboriginal Stone Structure, No. 4, Weroonce Ranges. 

Plate X. 
Fig. 1. Aboriginal Stone Structure, Beltana. 
Fig. 2. Aboriginal Stone Structure, Owienagin 
Fig. 3. Aboriginal Stone Structure, No. 6. 
Fig. 4. Aboriginal Stone Structure, No. 5. 



[Note. — Since the reading of the above paper certain statements have been made 
which raises some doubt as to the rock-structures described in the paper having been con- 
structed by aborigines, or at least by aborigines uninfluenced from association with the 
white races. It is possible, as suggested by some, that the structures were erected as 
sub-"trigs" by the early surveyors, but being auxiliaries only, were not marked on the 
official charts. Other origins have also been suggested. The object of the present note 
is to prevent a possible misinterpretation of these objects and to suspend judgment until 
more definite evidences can be obtained as to their origin and intention.— C. P. M.] 



Trans, and Proc, Roy, Soc. S. Austr., 1927. 



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173 



AN UNUSUAL DISPOSAL OF AN ABORIGINAL CHILD'S REMAINS 
FROM THE LOWER MURRAY, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Harold L. Sheakd, C. P. Mountford, and Cecil J. Hackett. 

[Read August 11, 1927.] 

Plates XL and XII. 

This paper records the discovery of an aboriginal child's remains hidden in 
a cleft in the cliffs of the River Murray, near Fromm's Landing. As far as we 
are aware, a similar occurrence has not been recorded. Fromm's Landing is 
situated on the western side of the Murray, about half-way between Swan Reach 
and Mannum, on Section 302, Hundred of Ridley. 

Travelling up the river, precipitous cliffs, about 100 feet high, abut on the 
stream on the western side. The main channel of the stream leaves the western 
cliffs, just after the landing is reached, and continues in a north-easterly direction. 
The cliffs recede and a large billabong, or backwater, is thus f ormed. This slowly 
rises, forming extensive mud flats, which terminate in a bank of debris at the 
cliffs. 

Erosion has hollowed out several extensive shelters at the base of the cliffs, 
and these have been the habitations of aborigines for very long periods. Ttie 
shelters of this locality have been previously described/ 1 ) It was when these 
shelters and the cliffs were being examined for traces of aboriginal rock carvings 
that the remains were discovered. 

In one place, about 2 chains above the large shelter, ( i.) a huge mass of the 
cliff had become detached. This had moved sufficiently to form a fissure, about 
3 feet wide, extending the whole height of the cliffs. This cleft was filled with 
boulders (evidently disconnected from the mass when the fissure was formed), 
creating a series of irregular ledges (see pi. xi., fig. 1). When this place was 
examined a small white object was observed resting on one of the boulders. 
Closer examination revealed that a child's remains had been hidden or interred on 
this ledge of rock, which was about 12 feet above the present bank. This bank 
has been considerably augmented in recent times by drift sands pouring- over the 
cliffs (the result of agriculture in this semi-arid district). Possibly when the 
remains were first deposited the position was more inaccessible than when found 
by us. 

Many places in this cleft and about the cliffs had afforded shelter to opossums 
(Trichosurus vulpe cuius), the peculiar excreta from which mixed with sandy 
debris weathered from the rocks had formed a pavement 2 to 3 inches in thick- 
ness on the corpse of the child, firmly cementing it to the. rock on which it had 
been placed. By chipping away the edges of the excreta it was possible to lift 
away the whole mass. This, on being reversed, revealed the manner of disposal 
of the remains. 

A net bag constructed from vegetable fibre (see Appendix), woven into a two- 
ply twist with an 8 cm. mesh (see text fig. 1 and pi. xii., fig. 1), had been partially 
filled with long grasses ; on these the body had been placed in a crouched position, 
resting on the left side, and the whole, covered with a further layer of loose 
grasses and the hide of a wallaby. The bag was drawn up and tied at the feet, 

CD Shcard, Harold L., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1927, pp. 137-140. 



174 

further covered with grass, and deposited in the cliff completely beyond casual 
observation. 

The wallaby skin wrapping the body had been prepared in the well-known 
manner, with hammered lines forming a regular diamond pattern over its surface. 
At one time it had evidently formed a shallow oval container (30 x 45 cm.), since 
it still has attached to it a thick, coarsely twisted rush-fibre handle which is lashed 
on at each end by passing it through transverse slits in the skin (3 cm. in length). 
When the body was packed up the handle was swung under the container away 
from the child, and now lies partly concealed in the grass packing. 

The excreta of the opossums had practically hermetically sealed the remains 
and overhanging rocks had sheltered them from the weather. The fibre bag and 
grasses, while fragile, are almost complete, and it may be observed that nothing 
that would indicate contact with civilization was present. In another fissure, 
some 10 yards away, the desiccated remains of an opossum were found preserved 
in a similar manner beneath a layer of dung. 

The exhibit has been presented by H. L. Sheard and C. P. Mountford to the 
South Australian Museum, and at their request Mr. C. J. Hackett kindly con- 
sented to add the following anatomical notes. 

We are indebted to Mr, N. B. Tindale for assistance in the preparation of 
this paper. 





Fg. 1 



Notes by C. J. Hackett. 

The specimen as at present exhibited in the Adelaide Museum is not in the 
position in which it was originally found, but lies with its lower surface upper- 
most. In this position I will briefly describe it (pi. xii., fig. 2). 

The body is lying on its right" side in a state of advanced desiccation, with 
the spine slightly flexed in the dorsi lumbar regions and extended in the cervical 
region so that the occiput is looking somewhat downwards. The left side of the 
thorax, part of the left side of the pelvis, and the left foot are missing, and the 
left lower limb is not in siln. The left upper limb is extended and is lying along 
the anterior part of the spinal column. The lower limbs are apparently flexed at 
the hips and knees. Most of the soft parts are missing, except some skin over 
parts of the extremities, right flank, and part of the skull. The hands are prac- 
tically intact, and are flexed and ulnar-deviatcd on the forearms; the right foot 
is less complete. There is a dried, reticulated, structureless mass, lying anterior 
to the spine; being, perhaps, the remnants of the contents of the thorax and 



175 

abdomen. The whole is lying on the dried, leathery material, mentioned above, 
and is surrounded by grass, with occasional gum leaves, except along the dorsal 
aspect. A net covers the grass and is drawn together at the feet, but is missing 
along the dorsal aspect of the body. 

The SkuIL—With the exception of the symphysis menti not any of the visible 
sutures are closed. X-ray photographs indicate that perhaps the metopic suture 
is closed. The sutures between the prcmaxillae and maxillae are open. The 
sagittal suture is discrete, no membrane being present, except at the anterior 
fontanelle, which is roughly '75 cm. in diameter. The posterior fontanellc is 
closed. On following the sagittal suture posteriorly it is found to deviate 
to the right some 3 cm. above the lambda, and here the left parietal bone 
is thinned out and slightly overlaps the right. At this, the postero-median 
border of the left parietal is an oval depression 3x4 cm., its longest dimension 
being lateral. ^ Its boundary is more defined on the left, where it is 2 mm. below 
the surface of the surrounding bone; to the right, it shelves away deflecting and 
squamosing the sagittal suture and also involving the right parietal for about 
1 cm. The right border of the depression, on the right parietal, in its upper part, 
is marked by an oval crater '75 x *5 x '2 cm. The surface of the bone, at the 
left edge, is finely pitted, but elsewhere the surface of the depression is smooth 
and shiny with a suspicion of striae radiating to the right. By transillumination, 
the bone in the depression is seen to be thinner than elsewhere. The bone around 
is apparently normal and not thickened. 

Teeth. — In the upper jaw the lull first dentition has erupted, but some are 
missing. The first permanent molars are seen in the alveolus, as are the per- 
manent incisors. A similar condition is present in the lower jaw. 

All the epiphyses of the long bones, vertebrae, and pelvis are separate. X-rays 
show no bony abnormality at the epiphyseal lines. 

Conclusion. — It would be justifiable to conclude from the above that the 
remains are those of a child approximately two years of age. The bones are too 
immature to give them a sex. The period which has elapsed since its death 
would be difficult to assess on account of the unusual condition of its interment. 
Taking; into consideration the good condition of the net work and grass, it may 
not have been so very long; but one must not neglect the possibility that the 
trappings in which it was found do not date from the death of the child. 

There is no clue as to the cause of death. One more point remains; that is, 
the curious depressed area in the parietal bones. From its appearance one would 
exclude any inflammatory lesion ; one then thinks of a fracture, and, if a fracture, 
it must have occurred before the membranous part of the bone had ossified ; that 
is, within the first twelve months of life. 

Skiagraphs, kindly taken at the Adelaide Hospital, support the view that the 
condition is a fracture (sec pi. xi.. figs. 2 and 3). Whether it was some accident 
or a deliberately inflicted injury is impossible to say, but one thing is clear, that 
is, it was not the direct cause of death. 

In closing, I wish to thank Messrs. H. L. Sheard and C. P. Mountford for 
the opportunity to make these notes. 

Mr. N. B. Tindale supplies the following note concerning remains of another 
child from the Murray cliffs: — 

"Wc recently found the remains of an aboriginal child, of some 10 to 12 
years of age, in a small cave or rockhole at Wongulla (Section B, Hundred of 
Forster). This cavity is situated at a height of 10 feet from the base of the 
cliff, 100 yards downstream from the main native shelter on the eastern bank 
of the river. All the bones, except those of the feet, were burnt and broken. 
The lower jaw with some of its teeth was present, but no other parts of the skull 



176 , 

were recovered. Bat-dung from a ledge above the remains had covered and 
preserved in part some soft grass and an open-meshed fibre bag; evidently the 
wrappings and container in which the bones had been stowed away. The meshes 
of the net were approximately 3 inches across, and the same type of "knot had 
been used in its construction as in the bag containing the desiccated child recorded 
above. Two broken pieces of trimmed stick were found with the bones. 

"The evidence points to the fact that in this case the body had been burned. 
and the remains (including the feet, which had partly escaped the flames) had 
been packed in grass, placed in a net-bag, and deposited in the rock-cleft." 

Appendix. 

The following extracts from literature are here added as bearing on the 
■subject: — 

Meyer/ 2) discussing the manufacture of nets, writes: — "The string of which 
they are made is composed of the fibres of a kind of flag. It is prepared by roast- 
ing the leaves and afterwards chewing them; the leaf is then divided longitudinally 
into four, two of these are twisted by being rolled upon the thigh, 
and are then twisted together by being rolled the contrary way ; other lengths 
are added until as much line is made as is required. In the operation of netting 
the twine is wound round a short stick which answers the purpose of a needle, 
.and the meshes are formed and the knot tied by passing the string over and 
between the fingers." 

Angas/ 3 ) in his account of his early-day experiences along the Murray, near 
Wellington, writes: — "We met ... a mother, wandering in search of roots, 
with her digging stick in her hand. . . . She carried a heavy load at her back. 
Night and day she bore her burden, . . . though it was a loathsome and 
decaying corpse. ... . It was the dead body of her son, a child of 10 years ; 
.she had carried it for three weeks in her bundle as a tribute of her affection." 

Meyer t2) further records : — "Children stillborn, or that have been put to 
death immediately after birth, are burned. If a child dies a natural death, it is 
carefully packed up, and the mother or grandmother carries it about with her 
for several months or a year, after which it is exposed upon a tree until the bones 
are completely cleaned, after which they are buried." 

Wyatt (4) states:— "The women more especially are so strongly attached to 
relatives that they hesitate for a long time to part with a dead body ; and mothers 
are often known to carry about their persons dead infants, carefully wrapped up, 
for many months, while offensive decomposition must undoubtedly be going on." 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES XT. and XII. 

Plate XL 
Fig. 1. Fissure in cliffs where remains were found (x). 
Figs. 2 and 3. Radiographs of skull. 

Plate XII. 

Fig. 1. Under surface of specimen (as found) showing grass and net work. 

Fig. 2. Specimen with covering thrown back showing remains (as exhibited 
in S.A. Museum). 

(2) Meyer, H. E. A., "The Native Tribes of South Australia," 1879, pp. 193, 198. 

(3) Angas, G. F., "Savage Life ... in Australia," vi., 1847, p. 75. 

(4) Wyatt, William, "The Native Tribes of South Australia," 1879, p. 165. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1927. 



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177 



NOTES ON THE LANGUAGE OF THE ELCHO ISLAND ABORIGINES. 

By Rev. J. C. Jennison. 

[Read August 11, 1927.] 

The language of the Kokalango Mala, the name by which the Elcho Island 
people call themselves, conforms to the general characteristics which have been 
noted in other Australian aboriginal dialects : — 

(1) There is an entire absence of sibilants, so that in writing the language 

the letter "s" is not needed. 

(2) Apparently "f," also, is not required. I have no record of any word 

having "f" in it. 

(3) Only one occurrence of the "th" sound, and that soft, came under my 

notice. The word was always given to me with the same pronunciation, 
and I have had to record it so. It is the word for soak, thinpi. To soak 
through is thiripi uroka warnderi. I am inclined to think this word 
is of Malay origin. To percolate, as water through a filter, is m 
Malayan tiris. In Fijian tiri is to drip. 

(4) The glottal stop, as in Tongan and some other South Sea languages, is 

common. It most frequently, occurs in verbs ending m yun; i.e., 
jeai'vun. to split open; nger'yun, to breathe; rur'ruryun, to sprinkle. 
In the latter instance the pause is carried forward from its usual 
penultimate position to separate the duplicated syllables rur'rur. In 
my opinion it most often indicates the position of an elided "t." In 
other cases where there is no penultimate stop the ( 't" is heard in that 
position; baraityun, to throw a spear with the hand; tuptun, to throw 
a spear with a woomera ; and so on. 

In the vocabulary here presented I have included phrases and sentences 
giving various forms'of the words as I heard them in common speech. The 
vocabulary is far from complete. The records were made during _ intervals of 
brief leisure amidst the many pressing duties incidental to the establishment of a 
mission station in wild country 400 miles from the nearest source of supplies. 

A point of general interest, namely, the intrusional influence of the Malay 
language in Arnhem Land, may be dealt with here. Writing in 1866, or there- 
about, the Rev. John Mathew declared the existence of traces of Malay influence 
in the native languages of New South Wales and other parts of Australia. D r - ^. 
W. Howitt, in "The Native Tribes of South-East Australia," writes :— "He 
(Mathew) says that they (the Malay words) are not numerous, are not met with 
in the extreme North- West, where they might be expected, but turn up in unex- 
pected parts of Australia far removed from casual intercourse with Malays. In 
order to account for this Malay element he introduces parties of Malays who, 
either from choice or necessity, landed and became naturalised at various spots on 
the East, North, and West coasts of Australia. These Malays are thus supposed 
to have modified the speech of the people, first, immediately around them, and 
then landwards." After stating Mr. Mathew's views in these terms, Dr. Howitt 
cites the statement of the Rev. R. H. Codrington in his "Melanesian Languages," 
who shows that "of the twelve words selected by Mr. Mathew in support of his 
contention three of them, the words for sun, moon, and rain, are found also m 
Melancsian. Of the others, the only one that is unquestionably Malayan is bapa 



178 



(father), but this, or a similar term for father, is found in languages the world 
over." 

Of those quoted by Mr. Mathew only one, bapa, is found in Kokalango, the 
language of the Elcho Islanders. 

Dr. Ilowitt proceeds to quote the Rev. Mr. Threlkeld, "than whom," he says, 
'"no one has obtained so great a knowledge of an Australian language," as denying 
that Australian languages have any affinity with the Malay either in word or con* 
struction. ^This opinion," says Dr. Howitt, carries weight not only by reason 
of his special qualifications, but because it relates to the languages of South- 
Eastern New South Wales, where Mr. Mathew finds a strong Malay clement." 
Continuing the subject Dr. Howitt quotes Crawfurd, author of a "Grammar and 
Dictionary of the Malay Language" (1852), who, he says, "speaks on the question 
with authority and no uncertain voice." He states that Crawfurd examined 
thirty languages from all the then discovered parts of Australia in quest of 
Malayan words without finding one or the trace of one. "They might," he con- 
tinues, "have been expected in the language of Raffles Bay, not distant' from the 
trcpang fisheries of the natives of Celebes, but were absent from this as all other 
of the languages." 

My opportunities of collecting the vocabularies of the Western Am hem 
languages were limited to a few months spent on Coburg Peninsula and Goulburn 
Islands, but my records show unmistakable Malay influence. In Kokalango 
(Elcho Island) and Mau (Goulburn Islands) languages I noted the following:— 



English. 


Malay. 


Mau. 


Kokalango 


Boat 


Kapal 


Kabala 


Kapala 


Steamer or launch 


Kapal api 


Kabala bibi 


Kapala wipi 


Master ("boss") 


(Balinese) Pun- 








gawa 


— 


Bunggawa 


Bow and arrows 


Anak panah 


— 


Buna pana 


Gun 


Senapang 


— 


Tchinapung 


Money 


Rtipia (rupee) 


— 


Rupia 


Bread 


Roti 


: 


Roti 


East 


Timor 


Jimuru 


Timoro 


South 


Galatal 


Selatan 





West 


Bar at 


Bara 


Bara 


Loose coat, as py- 








jama coat, etc. 


Baju 


Bujubuju 


Baitubaitu 


Father 


Bapa 


— 


Papa 


Book 


Surat 


Diura 


Diura 


Earring 


Anting-anting 


— 


Jingjing 


Tobacco pipe 


Pamadutan 


— 


Pamatuka 


Flag 


Bandera 


— 


Bandira 



I have no doubt further investigation would extend this list considerably. 

I had no opportunity to collect the vocabulary of the Wurrugo, the tribe 
inhabiting the Coburg Peninsula, in whose language, as recorded at Raffles Bay 
and Port Essington, Crawfurd states he did not find a Malay word or the trace 
of one, but judging by the above results obtained at Goulburn Islands, 140 miles 
to the eastward, I feel sure careful search would reveal the existence of quite 
as many correspondences in the language of the Wurrugo. 

I have noted a few comparisons with other native languages. The most 
striking- instance of similarity is in the word for water, kapu. This word comes 
to light again in several of the languages of Central Australia, and with slight 
modifications is found in the languages of tribes well down in South Australia. 



179 

Dr Basedow rives the word for water in Wongapitcha, the language of the 
Ullparidja tribe of the Tompkinson and Mann Ranges, on the Western Australia 
and South Australia border/" as "kapi." Among the Gerard Range (South 
Australia) <natiVes the word for water, as given by Captain S. A. White/ is 
"coppi." 

EnCLISTI KOKAT.AKGO. 

A Vocabulary of the Language of the Elcho Island Aborigines who call 
themselves Kokalango Mala (the Kokalango Tribe), 

The Language. 
All the sounds of the Kokalango language have their equivalents in English. 
They can be accurately written without recourse to the use of other letters than 
are used in writing the Western European languages. 

1 The glottal stop occurs in many words. It is indicated by the sign , as m 
-ei'yun (embrace), tir't'yun (dip-up), where it occurs both before and after 
the "t" sound, ngal'yun (climb), etc. The elision appears ^ to take ^ place mostly 
in verbs, and I suggest the elided sound is of either "t," "k," or "d,*^ _ 

2 Ng, soft, as' in singer, is written ng; when hard, as m linger, it is written 
ngg; All words of the. latter type are also written, as in Fijian, in which q is 
used for ngg. These appear in brackets following the ordinary spelling. 

3. Where double consonants are used the second is always the first letter of 
the next syllable; i.e., watta (wind), wat-ta, except in the case of double r, 
where the 'second "r" is used to express the lengthened roll of the r, as m 

tortorr (heart). . A 

4. The language is without sibilants, therefore the letter s is not required 
in writing it. The absence of the sibilant is strange, seeing the natives find no 
difficulty in pronouncing such words as sit, stand, Sam, sing, and so on. 

5. In the language, as far as I was able to record it, I once only heard the 
sound of "th" (soft as in through). It occurs in the first word of the phrase 
"To soak through," Thiripi-uroka warnderi. . « w 

6 All the vowels have the "Continental" values. U has always the oo 
sound. The soft "u" sound, as in unicorn, is written "iu," as m muerda (stmging 

bee), honey. 

7. "Au" has the sound of "ow" in cow in all words where the two vowels are 
not separated by a hyphen. Where the latter is the case each vowel has its own 
distinct value. 

English— Kokalango (Language of Elctto Island Tribe). 

A Alligator (crocodile), baru. 

Absurd, (?) manganga. And, a: wa (?) after vowels. 

After, durdekuro. Angry, manvuna. 

You come after: Ni durdekuro. Ankle, dulkun. 

Ateer Island, Balangara: Macassar name, Another, werepungu. _ 

Dambalia. ~ Ant, koiikoii (kot-i-koi-i). 

Alive, walngatiri. Ant, green, ngarti ; (Oecophda smarag- 
Allot bauwana: to allot work, bauwana dina). t , 

wao - H Anxious, anxiously, ngoiyakan. 

All/daruwa. Arm (human), wurna 

All done, bill Arm > UK**. nea f ^ oulder > n ™' . 

All finished, bill banewina. Armbands, plaited grass, bako : of 
All here (are)? tuana bili. Is that all? string, narrow, jail, 

tuana bili. Armpit, worde. 



d)"The North-West Expedition, v Dr. Basedow 
m "In the Far North-West/' Capt. S. A. White. 



180 



Around, liu. Paint around it : burdekuro 

liu ngone. As water around an island, 

liuyun marama : water all around, kapu 

liuyun marama. (See race.) 

Arnhem Bay trepanging camp, Long- 

go-ja. 
Artery, kurkur. 
As (like), nakuna. 

All the same as, balanyei (balan-ye-i). 
Ask, tabirikaityuro ("t" very faint). 
Ashamed, kora ("o" very broad). 
Asleep, ngurauakur. 
Aunt, father's sister, mokul : mother's 

sister, ngama. 
Away, go away, maritji katchu. 
Axe, takul. 

B. 
Baby, little, karngoto. 
Baby, yuerto. 
Bad, yaikuro. 
Bandicoot, warntgura. 
Banyan Island, Kawilingura. 
Bark (of trees), darau ; kulnga. 

Stringy bark, gulikaiu (gu-li-kai-u). 
Bay, ( ?) likairayun (lika-ira-yun). 
Basket, cabbage palm, guntgun or 
guntkgun. 

Like dilly bag but thick and strong, 
timbouka. 
Bat, dikarr. 
Bathe, luptun. 

Beard, ( ?) dau-ur (see hair of armpit). 
Beautiful, mintijinmeri ; a beautiful sky, 
mungan mintijinmeri. 

Birrtyuruna (birrt-yu-runa). 
Be quick, bunda. 

Bee, stinging, tauwarr. Product of this 
bee, niuerda. 

Stingless, yarapan; "sugar bag" 
from this one, koko. 
Belch, kapoanga. 
Believe, mariwalti : I believe Jesu's word, 

Ngara mariwalteri Jesu taro. 
Belly, human, kurlun. 
Belong, tiako. 

Nangoui: these boxes belong to Mr. 
Jennison. Batimala nangoui : Mis- 
ter Jennison — go. 
Betroth, to a man, wawainguma (wa- 

wainguma q-ng-g). 
Big, dumuru; iyindi. 

Very big, mardumuru ; miritiri. 
Big mob (people), yurlngo gurlko : i.e., 

yurlngo, plenty, big; gurlko, people. 
*'Big Plain" tribe name, Indingur. 



Bird, warakan. 

A small bird, orange-green back, 
white under, black head with 
white band around back of head, 
tchikai. These are sometimes 
caught in spider webs. (?) Lun- 
ated honeyeater. 
Black, moal. 

Blind, bambai (bam-bai). 
Blood, manggo, manqo (nq— ng-gj. (See 

menses.) 
Blow nose, ngoritji. 
Blue, milkomin. 
Boast (to boast), lurugoityun. 
Boat, kapala. Launch, kapala wipi, cf. 
Malay; steamer, kapal api. Malay 
origin. 
Body, human, yuwal. 
Boil, to, bungbungdun. 
Boil (abscess), kuyal. 
Bone, ngaraka. 
Book, diura. (See letter.) Balinese 

origin. 
Boomerang, hooked, niunarn. 
Boomerang, ordinary type, karligarli. 
Known to, but not used by Elcho 
natives. 
Born, buko-walma; cf. sunrise, walu- 
walma. 

Has been born, bili yuptun. 
Borrow, ngankdun. 

I borrow, ngara ngankdun. 
Boss, bungawa. Malay origin. 
Bow down, yurktun. 
Bow, of bow and arrows, used as a play- 
thing, bunapana (of Malay origin). 
Boy, diangi. That boy, nako diangi. 

Little boy, kardako. 
Boys (N.T. usage, youths or men), 

yurlngo. 
Bosom, between the breasts, gumur. 
Brag, lurugoityun. 

Bread, roti (Malay), dampa (damper). 
Break (as by bending a stick when man 
is the agent), tau'yun; (of itself), 
dauyuro. 
Breast, woman's, ngamini. 

Middle of, above breast bone, 
gumur (bosom). 
Breathe, to, nger'yun. 
Bright, ririgul (as a bright light). 

Lanyin (shining as when metal is 
cleaned and polished). 
Bring, ngango ; imperative, kango. Bring 
me, kango rako or kango rakala. 



181 



Bring back, rongan mura. 
Broad, mardumuru (or o final). 
Brother, if older, wawa ; if younger, 
yukoyuko. 

Mother's brother, kawal (uncle). 
Father's brother, papa (regarded as 
father). 
Bucket, bajikali. 
Buffalo, katapanga. 
Build, pochama. 
Bullroarer, burralla (bur-rala). 

Used in initiation ceremonies, kuna- 

bibbi. Women are not allowed to 

see it. The burralla is sometimes 

used as a paddle. 

Bundle or sheaf of grass or green twigs, 

etc., rulu. 
Bury, kurlkuma. 

Bush (i.e., forest or scrub country), 
yirpilh 

To go bush, maritji yirpili. 
Butterfly, burnba. 
Buttocks, durde. 

Buy (lit. give something), kuropan. 
By and by, yallala. 

C. 
Cabbage palm (on Elcho Island few and 

small), darrang-ngi (dar-raqi). 
Cadell's Strait — 1, between Elcho and 
mainland, Maiyung; 2, between How- 
ard Island and mainland, Gurrar. 
Calf of leg, yangara. 
Call, watun (wa-tun). 

I call, watun mukatara. 
You (sing.) call, ni waturo. 
You (plu.) call, waturana. 
Calm, George, "Water like glass, no 

wind," wapurara. 
Camp, warnga. 
Canoe, lipalipa. 

To cut out a canoe, jaralktun dulmo. 
Capture game, nga;atama. 
Caterpillar, a very large kind, dapelin; 

a small green kind, dalaikman. 
Carry (you), carry load, kurokongo. 
T carry, ngara kurokama. 
You carry, ni kurokongo. 
To carry on head, kurokama liye. 
Cartridge (gun), ngak-ngana. 
Cave, gurnda maer (gurnda, stone or 
rock).. 

A refuge cave, mertlili ; running to 
refuge cave,warnderi kari mertlili. 
Centipede, laitjin. 
Cheek, takal. 



Cheeky (insolent), marakari. 

Chew, nyank'dun. 

Child, little, karnggoto (karnqoto) ; little 

boy, kardako; little girl, yuertua; 

bigger child of about four to nine 

years, tumurana. 
Chin, taumanupman. 
Choke, karaktan. 
Chuck away, jalkturu. 
Circumcision corrobboree, jungguwan 

(junquwan). 
Circumcise, kurka daktunaui. 
Clap hands, lur'yun. 
Chiton (Sqitamosiis), jirika ; (Acanfho- 

pleura), karlkiya. (See Woodward, 

pi. xi., No. 29.) 
Clean, daritjal. 

Clean it (imp.), daritjal nggo (nqo). 
ClifT, tarndar. 
Climb, to, ngal'yun. 
Clock, walu (sun). 
Close up (near in time), barait. 
Close up dead (N.T. phrase, nearly 

dead), barait tinggama (tinqama). 
Close up (near in distance, nearby) , 

kalki. 
Cloud, mungan (mung-an). 

Big, mungan dumuro ; little, mungan 
ituala. 
Cockatoo, black ( Calyptorhynchus funer- 

eus), arteli ; white (Kakatoe galerita), 

tang-gi (tanqi). 
Cockles, ngakainu. 

Cockroach, bordok (both o's short). 
Cold, ngolwit. 
Cold wind, watta ngolwit. 
Come over, burapturana. When did you 

come over? (across the strait) Natan 

numa burapturana? 
Come, maritji go. 

Come to the house, maraitjini 
balalili. 
Come quickly (imperative), maritji 

burndi. 
Come back (imperative), rongi. 
Coming again, Jesus is coming again, 

Jesus mukato maritji. 
Constellations, names of — 

Milky way, Baduro (river). The Arn- 
hem native says the Milky way is a 
river. 

Orion's belt, Julpan. Elcho people say 
it is a canoe. 

Orion's sword, Yaratar. A fish caught 

by the man in the canoe. 



182 



Pleiades, Jungarliwar. A baling shell, 
Fusus antiquus (Woodward, pi. 
v., 8). 
Southern Cross, Wurdegugu. Natives 
say fire is burning there all the time. 
Commit adultery, nukulu. 
Command against (forbid), yaka ni. 
Conns marmoreus, bermulla. 
Coral, karrar (kar-rar, a's very broad. 

See dew). 
Cover up, belturo. 
Cousins : Man speaking — 

My father's younger brother's son (I 

call him), yukoyuko. 
My father's younger brother's daughter 

(I call her), yapa. 
My father's younger brother's daughter 

(she calls me), wawa. 
My father's elder brother's son (I call 

him) wawa. 
My father's elder sister's son (1 call 

him), duwai. 
My father's elder sister's daughter (I 

call her), duwai. 
My father's younger sister's son (I 

call him), duwai. 
My father's younger sister's daughter 

(I call her), duwai. 
The duwai would call me kalai. 
The duwai child is called kurung. 
Crawl on hands and knees, ngar-nung; 

karl'yun. 
Creek, maiyung. 
Creeper, edible root, heart-shaped leaf. 

bar w ting. 
Crescent, crescent-shaped, ngarlindi. 
Crocodile Island Group, called by Elcho 

people Warnba. 
Crooked, jari-pi. 
Cross, f, maitkar or matkar. 
Crossed sticks, nggarndro matkar komar 
(Sticks, nggarndro, nqarndro). Jesus 
died on the cross, Jesus tinggama 
maitkangura. 
Crow fCorz'its), wark, sometimes wark- 

wark. 
Cry (weep), ngarti. (See ant.) 
Cut, as with axe when felling a tree, 
tanggiritun (taqiritun) ; with knife 
as in sharpening a pencil, raiuntjun; 
with knife or axe as in shaping timber, 
jaruktun. 
Cuttlebone, ngun-ar-au-ar. 
Cut open, raktun. 



Cunningham Islands — 

South Cunningham, Karlu. 
Middle Cunningham, Pumoka. 
North Cunningham, Tauwuru. 

Cycad (Cycas media), ngato ; fronds, 
barng ; fruit, warakar ; pineapple- 
shaped top, burlgo. 

Cyclone, jarwan. 

Cypress pine (CalHslris), lanapo. 

D. 

Dance, as in corrobborec, kerechcri or 

kerejeri. 
Dark, muna, muna-u ; of sky when heavy 

rain is coming, moal. 
Day, bun-gu-gu or bungonyu ; mid-day, 

walupi. 
Daughter, kato. 
Dead, ting-gama (tinqama). 
Deaf, buturomiru. 
Decide, ngurkama. 
Delirium (of sickness), bau-watun. 

Watun, call. 
Desire, sexual, form of expressing, batan 

durana. 
Devildevil, morkoi. 
Dew, mendok. 
Die, tinggama. 
Dig (as digging yams, grubbing trees, 

etc.), bclama. 

Dig a well, me-el belama. 
I dig a hole, Ngara belama mer. 
You dig a hole, ni belango mer. 
Charlie dug a hole, Charlie ka 
bclama mer. 
Dilly-bag (of pandanus leaf), yarlka; 

(made of string), kaikua (final ' ( a" 

almost silent). 
Dingo (tame), wartu; (wild), wakin-gu. 
Dip up in hand, tirtTm. 
Dirty, moimeri (or moimiri), kanot. 

(I) have dirty water, kapu kanot 
mir-ra. 
Disrobe, yupmarango. 
Dive (to), luptun. 
Do, bi. 
Dog, wartu. 
Door, durwarra. 
Dove, ku-kuk. 
Down, yirpturu. 
Drag, lundo maritji ngora. 
Drank, ngulkturo. 
Dream, bokawai (bo-ka-wai. accent on 

second syllable). 



183 



Dress (woman's), kopaia. 
To dress, neroluna. 
Put on (this) dress, neroluna kopaia. 

Drink, ngulktun (imperative). 

Drinking (noun), ngulkturuna. 

Is (your) drinking finished? Hilina 
ngulkturuna? 

Drop (of water, etc.), jurl'yun (some- 
times a "k" is heard, jurlktun). 

Drop, to, yuptun. 

Drop and break, buluwang-duruna (some- 
times sounds like buluwank ) . 

Dry, jurro. 

Dry season, ngaraner. 

Drysdalc Island, Yeringa. 

Duck, mutali. 

Dumb, torngulu. 

E. 

Ear, botoro. 

Ear-ring, jingjing. (Think this used of 
gold ear-rings only.) Having gold ear- 
rings, boton jingjing meri. 

Earthquake, warnga waraka kurkuriun. 
(See Camp.) 

Eat, luka (*V short). 

Edged tool (as chisel), yiki. 

Elbow, likan, nurnggur (nurnqur). 

Elcho Island, Kaliwinko. Macassar 
name, Takarina. 

Elcho tribe, call themselves Kokalango 
Mala. Includes the Drysdale islanders. 

Embrace, to (with arms), gei'yun. 

Emu, urpan. 

Encourage (make strong), darlkongo. 

End, boko. (See hill.) 

Enemy, tu wall yait marikari. 

English Company's Islands, Wartuta. 

Knpugli, bilna dunung, nabili ; that is 
enough, tu wali nabili; hilina. 

Eucalyptus, kuderi (has very broad 
leaves). 

Evacuate (stool), berltun. 

Everlasting, dunggara raradara (dun- 
qara ) . 

Everybody, limarurgo, or rungo by itself. 

Every night, munamuna. 

Every day, biako bili. 

Extinguish, bunwaiokongo. 

Extract, to (as letter out of envelope), 
jauwarikuro. 

Exchange (swop), bokoyurlk. 

Exchange of lubras (a native custom), 
boko-yurlk meal. 

Excreta, kurla. 

Eye, mel (pr. male). 



Eyebrow, milkiningin. 
Eyelid, milparamba. 

E. 
Fall, down (as off a cliff), kalkcri. 
Falsify (gammon), nyartyun. 

It is false, yaka tu wali nyarl. (Yaka, 
no, not.) 
Fan-palm ( IJvistona inermis), wuriara. 
Far away, barako. 
Fat (noun), gutarr; marlngo. Yinda is 

used with both, gutarr yindi. 
Fat (stout), marlngo. 

Fat white man, marlngo yindi 
balanda. 
Father, papa (first "a" very broad). 
Feared (high) ground; e.g., hill on north 

side of Waiya (N. Goulburn Island), 

warnga boko marakari. 
Feel, to, ngaiyatama. 
Feel about, kongalgal yuro. 
Feeling, gar. 

Feeling sick, erikton gar. 
Female organ, dala. 
Fig (wild), kaitji. 
Fight, to, bonameri (accent on second 

syllable). 
Finish (the), belina. 

"Close up finish," tauwartyuna. 
Finished, bili. 
Fingers, turnggal ( tu rnqal ) . 

To close fingers, nggundau yura. 
Finger nail, darerr. 
First (as in front), ngatili. "I first," 

Ngara ngatili. 
Fire, kurlta. 
Firefly, jangapun. 

Fish (any kind), kuya (some times pro- 
nounced guya). 

A brown spotted fish, ngurtali. Salt- 
water. 

A small freshwater fish, burrija. 

Another freshwater fish, rimu. 

A small saltwater fish, lopa. 

A short white saltwater fish, dur-apa. 
Fishing, 'Tom (wants) to go fishing," 

Tom kuya lili marit ji ; "Tom has gone 

fishing," Tom kuya lili maritjina. 
Fish-hook, bikang. 
Fishing line (European make), balandi. 

(See White man.) 
Fish spear, makur ("a" short). This 

spear is made with three or four points. 
Flag, bandira. (Of Malay origin.) 
Flames, burdaivala. 



184 



Flash, flashing; of lightning only, mclk- 

melkdun. 
Float, to, burktun. 
Flower, wurki. 
Fly, to, burtun. 

Flying ant, jangapun. (See Firefly.) 
Flying fox (Ptcropus), dikarr. (See 

Bat.) 
Fog, karran. 
Follow, malturo. 
Follow me, maltnro rakala. 
Folds of flesh or hollows of the groin, 

gurnbai. 
Food, ngata. "(Where is) George's 

food?" Nganaka George-go? 
Fool, malton. 

"You are a fool!" Ni yait-bili 

malton. 
"You fool !" Tu-wali bili nungu 
malton. (Lit. That fool belong 
you.) 
Foot, punggina (punqina), jalkari. 
Footmark, luk-or. 
Forehead, boko. (See hill.) 
Foreskin, ba-ru-warn. 
Forget, moma, norma or mongo. 

"You must not forget," Yaka ni 
mongo. 
Forbid, vaka-jama. 
Former ' (N.T. phrase, "first") time, 

ngoli jurlktun. 
Fornicate, nukanaui (nuka-nau-i). Used 
with maritji, come; maritji nukanaui. 
Forsake, woteri. 

Four, murnda-bulal-murnda-bulal. 
Frightened, burarei or bararei. 
Froth of waves, white, karrara. 
Fruit, any kind of bush fruit, burlgor. 
Fruit tree with large soft ivy-shaped 

leaves, tanqi. 
Fruit tree, leaves, compound (triple) 

oval; fruit, good; urndarn. 
Fruit tree, oval leaves, rough bark, 

barmarang. 
Sandpaper tree, good fruit, mut-tc. 
Full up, tangang. 
Fur, kangaroo's, bulkar. 



Get ready, bundinini (second and last "i" 
short). 

"You get ready quickly," Amonga 
meriuar bundi. 
Get up, rur'uro. 

Girl, little white, yurto itchuala-nong. 
Girl, little black, nimukurnin. 
Give, kuropan, ngaiyatulu, kuropulu. 

"I give you (this) kangaroo," Ngara 

nongo kuropan wirti. 
"(You) give me that," Ngaiyatulu 

tu-wali. 
"Give me a fish," Nga-rako guya 

ngaiyatulu. 
Kuropulu is a Howard Island langu- 
age word. It is quite often used 
by the Elcho islanders; e.g., "You 
give me a knife," Ni kuropulu lati 
nungu. 
Glad ("heart glad"), ngoi ngamati. 

"I am glad"; lit., "I am glad along 
heart" in the Kokalango idiom, 
Ngara ngoi ngamatina. 
Goanna, janda. 

Go away! (imperative) Katchoi ! 
Go away, bili maritji. (The) spirit goes 

away, Berimber beli maritji. 
Go bush, maritji yirpili. 
Go wrong (i.e., take wrong track), yait 

jangu maritji. 
Good, men-mak (pr., mainmack). Second 
"a" very short ; used for nice, pleasant, 
and so on. 
Good, namakuli (Jambarapi section of 
tribe) ; namakuro (Kopapiungo sec- 
tion), excellent in quality, as good 
timber. A word of loftier meaning 
than menmak, 
Good, makolili, in the sense of perfect, 

finished completely. 
Goose (Anseranas semipalmatus) y kuro- 

murtji. 
Goulburn Islands, Manggauuta. 
Grass, waimi. 
Great, dumuro. 
Green, karnamintji. 
Green ant (Oecophila smaragdina), 



G. 

Gammon, to, nyartyun. 
Gate, tokai. 

Generous, tapinya (accent on second 
syllable ) . 



Green ant's nest, yal-lu. 

Ground, tjurlka. 

Growl, to (in N.T. to scold or rate a 

person), marivuna. 
Gun, tchinapung. (Malay, senapang.) 



185 



II. 
Hair of head, mura or mara (both right). 

If short, jamari marawat. 
Hair of puberty: male, balmar ; female, 

ngulomurung, 
I [air of armpit, dau-wurr. 
Hairbelt, martart. 
Hammer, to, wuttun. 
Hand, kong. 

"Hold out (your) hand," Kong 
layiro. 
Handle (as of lantern, bucket, etc.), 

jimurndi. 
Happy (to make), burltyun. 
Hard, ngundungar. 
Hat, jorngo. 

Has, appears to be indicated by the suffix 
meri in the case of possession by some, 
thing, not a person. The bucket has a 
hole, baket turdi dalkameri. 
Have, I have, ngara kala. 

You have, no kala. N.B. — It is no 

kala, not ni kala. 
He has, nanu kala. 
We have, limaru kala. 
Hawk, white-breasted sea-hawk, tamala. 
He, ngama ; tu, reflexive, follows the 

name, subject. 
Head, liya. 

On head, as (carry load) on (your) 
head, liye. 
Head man, ngura darwarlango. 
Heap, boko ngalp-mera. 
Hear, I hear, ngara ngama. 
You hear, ni ngama. 
He hears, ngaii ngama. 
I did hear (I heard), ngara ngoli 

ngama. 
They hear, nguna wallala ka ngama. 
I shall hear, ngara galkun yallala 
ngama. 
Heart, tor-torr ; "r\s" rolled. 
Heaven, karu-warr ; "£'$*' rolled. "Camp 

along Heaven, " warnga karuwarr. 
Heavy, ngornung. 
Help, to, gun-gat-yuro. 
Here, duala. 
Hermit crab, gormo. 
Hers, nguroko. This flour is hers, tuwala 

roti nguroko. 
His, nguno. His dog, nguno wurtu. 

tiaki. This flour is his, tuwala roti 
tiaki. 
Hit, to, (I) hit, wuttun. 
(You) hit, wurtero. 
(He or thev) hit, wu-tu-rana. 



Hold out (in hand), layiro. 

Hole (in garment, bucket, etc.), dalakar. 

Hole (in ground), mer (pr. mare). 

Hole (in septum to put ornament 
through), nguro dalakar. 

Stick for insertion in same, nguro 
kandrupmeri. The "p" is scarcely 
heard. 

Honey, koko, niuerda. (See Bee.) 

Honour (respect), namakuli. 

Honour, to, waga tarlti dari tunupa. 

Horn, horns, tandurung. 

Hornet, niuwa-niuwa. 

Hot, nara ; gormur. 

House, bala. 

How? naltjan? Usually followed by ni. 

How far? dika warnganja? 

Howl (as dingo), n'yoiyun. 

Hungry, jungara. That boy is hungry, 
tualayurlngo jungartina. I am hungry, 
ngara jungarteri. 
I. 

I, ngara. 

"I say!" (a call to draw attention), wal- 
lala ! 

Idle, yakurtumuru. 

Jn, ngain (nga-in). "In the name of," 
ngain yako. 

In, taramulo. 

Initiation ceremonies, gormul. 

Initiation ceremonies, corrobboree, kuna- 
bibbi. 

Inside, deripi. 

Instead of, maltun. "Instead of him," 
ngara maltun nango. 

Island, takal. 

Island between Elcho and Drysdale 
Islands; two names are in use appar- 
ently, Karuwuru, Niukar-meringora. 
Up to 1921 this island had been no 
more than very indefinitely indicated 
on the Admiralty charts. 

Island north of Drysdale Island, 
Bukunkna. 

Island north of Bukunkna, Wuntberi. 

It, ngone. 

j. 

Jabiru, the black and white crane of the 

Territory, kanji. 
Jaw, darno. 

Jawbone, darno ngaraka. 
Jealous, man-otchi-di'yun (manotchidi- 

'yun). 
Jelly fish, murlul. 
jelly fish, a stinging variety ("cheeky 

fellow"), gaiwarr. 



186 



Jerk, wariuk-wariyun (the "k" is barely 
heard; . 

Job, jama. (See Work.) 

Jolly, biarima. 

Jowl, lakal. Same word as for island. 

Jov, ngoi-ngamateri. 
K. 

Kangaroo, narrko. 

Kill, wut-turra. 

Kill with spear, tarpungo. 

Kind, meluiyuna tumuru. 

Kindle (a fire, etc.), malpulo (kurlta 
malpulo). 

King (head man), Karc. The tribes do 
not have kings and there is no heredit- 
ary leadership. The man of strongest 
personality for the time being is the 
leader. The whites have introduced 
the term, and the natives now use it in 
an indefinite way. 

Kiss, to, junkjungdun. 

Knife, lati. 

Knob, bur-lon-gun. 

Know, murngi ; 1 know, ngara mvtrngi. 

Kookaburra, N.T. species, karokal. 

L. 

Lame, karnung. 

Lamp, landira. 

Late, too, ? toritna ; "You come too late," 
Yallala toritna maritji. 

Laugh, to, kitkityun. 

Lead, to, unagama. 

Leg, muk-ar. 

Lend, korng kuropan wariko. 

Letter, diura. Malay, surat. 

Letter stick, karndru nga-munga-me-en. 

Lie down, nguri. 

Life, walngar. 

Lift, to, lau'murra. 

Lift! (imperative) Lau! 

Light (glow or flames), burdaiyala. 

Light, to (Light a fire!), tongur (im- 
perative). 

Lightning, melkdun. 

Lily roots, derepu (der-c-pii). 

Lip, tu-wu-ar-ra. 

Listen, ngama. 

Listen /'Everybody listen," butiro bidjiro. 

Little, itjuala. 

Little, very little, mar-it juala. 

Lizard, kurnjulu. 

Load, to carry, kurokama. 

Load, to carry on head, kurokama liye. 

Load (noun), meltun. Big load, miritiri 
m el tun. 



Loincloth, jarijari. 

Long, lamberi, wiyin, gurere. 

Long, very, maroiin (mar-o-i-in, possibly 
the correct form of the word is 
marowiyin). 

Look, I look, ngara nama. 
You look, ni nango. 
He looks, ngurunga nangala. 

Look ! or look here ! inguna ! 

Lose, morma. 

Loudly, ? meritiri. Surf roars loudly, 
kapu rirakai meritiri. 

Love, to (transitive), ngoingamatiri. 
This term agrees very imperfectly with 
our word "love." It appears to mean 
more exactly "rejoice in or over" or 
"find pleasure in." (See Joy.) 

Lubra, meal. "That lubra is sick," 
tuali meal erikton. 

M. 
Macassar (country), Kambomaliko. 
Make (you make), kabuma. 
Make water, wariyun. 
Make a sail out of bark, ngamungamai- 

yun. 
Man, yurlngo. Old man, arlapal. 
Mason bee, e-ring-a (accent on second 

syllable). 
Maternal grandfather, ngati. 
Maternal grandmother, mari. 
Me, rako. You give me a fish, Ngar, 

(?) you ; rako, me ; guy a, fish ; 

ngaiyatulu, give. 
Mean (adj.), laidal. Mean man, laidal 

yurlngo. 
Melo diadema (shell), (Woodward, pi. 

vii., fig. 11), kurn-ngari. 
Menses, first occurrence of, miliwirin. 

After first child, manggo (manqo). 

(See Blood.) 
Message, daw r o. 
Messenger, dawo gango. 
Middle, bura. 
Midwife, ngaiatama. 
Milk, ngamuntgur. 
Mine, narako. "This flour is mine," 

tuwali roti narako. 
Mistake (to) one thing for another, 

burdait. 
Mob (people), yurlngo gurlko; lit., big 

mob. 
Money, rupia (of Malay origin). 
Moon, full or nearly full, walmura. Said 

to be a man, the sun's husband. 
Moon-rise, walmura walmar. 



187 



Moon, new, ngalindi. 

More, bulo. "I want more," ngara ngai 

bulo. 
Morning star, banober. 
Mosquito, generic term, melkmelk. 
Mosquito, anopbeline; (stands upright 

to pierce), tanbul. 
Mosquito screens, cone-shaped, ngun- 
murra or gunmurra. First discovered 
by the compiler of this vocabulary on 
Murungga Island, 14th September, 
1921. 
(To) Mother (i.e., as lubras sometimes 
mother orphaned children), nggong 
(nqong). 
Moth, gunba. 

Mouse, manbul ("u" short). 
Moustache, bulotchomi. 
Must, mar. ''You must go," ni mar 

maritji. (See Very.) 
Mould (on boots and fungoid growth), 

borloko. 
My, rako. "Bring my water," Kapu 

rako ngango. 
My, arakora. "My little girl," nrakora 
yertua. 

N. 
Name, yako. New name, yieurta yako. 
Narrow, goarlbar. 

Native companion (bird), gurdurko. 
Nautilus radiatus (Woodward, pi. ii., 
fig. 10), ngarlindi. The opening is 
crescent-shaped, hence also the new 
moon is called ngarlindi. 
Navel, giniger. 

Near by, kalki (actually near). Rela- 
tively near, kalkina. Sometimes the 
word is pronounced galki, galkina, etc. 
Near house, bala kalki wait. 
Near, dikana (galki). When used of 
person coming apparently means now 
arrived or present. 
Nearly finished, galkina or kalkina. 
Near, "Joni is near," Joni kalkina. 
Neck, maiyang. 
Nest, yelo ; sometimes pronounced like 

yaelo. 
New, yiurta. 

New moon, ngalindi (crescent). 
News, dao. 

Night, munau (mun-a-u). 
Nipple (of breast), nguro ngamini. 
No ; yaka. 
No good, yaikuro. 
No matter ! baidi ! 



Nothing, na-miren. 
Nose, nguro ; kamuro. 
Nose stick (worn through septum), 
nguro kandru (p) meri ; hole in sep- 
tum for same, nguro delakai. 
Nostrils, nguro dalakar. 
Now, tuanavela. 

O. 
Old, ngartilingo. 
Old man, arlarpal. 
Old woman, karkarung. 
One, wanggain (wanqain), nguna. 
Oneself as agent; the suffix yuro signifies 

done by oneself. 
Only one, wanggain (wanqain) ; bini 

wang-gain. 
One belong everybody, riako runggo, 

bili (runqo). 
Open, to open, as door, laupmurra. 
Orchid, grows on Cycad boles, fine 

flower, jalkur. 
Others', other man's, werepungua. 
Out, go out, warlma ; take out, dauwari- 

murra. 
Outside, warngul. 
Over, ngapalili. 

P. 
Paddle, marowala ; to paddle, guruma. 
Paint, yellow, butalak (last "a" short). 
White, kapirn. 

To paint a design on a person, 
burdei'yun. pronounced almost as if 
"t" preceded the "y" 
Red ironstone paint, miku (mik-u). 
Palm of hand, tungal tulmur. 
Pandanus (Pandanus adoralissimus), 

kung-gar (kunqar), 
Paperbark tree (Melaleuca) , parokala ; 

bark of, rakala. 
Parrot, bilit. 
Parrot-fish, lalu. 
Past (time), jurlktun. 
Path, tokar; in jungle, partuar. 
Paternal grandfather (father's father) , 
marikmo ; grandmother ( father's 
mother), mormo. 
Pay, baiyara. 

Peace time, diangubela daurdauyun. 
Peace, daurdauyun. 
Peace come, bonameri limuru ka belina ; 

lit.. Our fight is finished. 
Pearl, gulawu. Accent on second syllable. 
Pearlshell, rimurralngo. 
Penis, kurka. 
Picture, mali. 



188 



Pigeons, brown, laparr ; black and white,, 

rombura. 
Pine, cypress, dwarf variety, pundit. 
Place, feared, warnga marakari. 

The hill on Waira (North Goulburn 
Island), held in superstitious fear 
by the local natives, was spoken 
of by the Elcho people as "Warnga 
boko (hill) marakari. 
Plane, to, wirityun. 

Plate, manggo (manqo) ; same as blood. 
Play, bultyun. 

Please (give me), ngalewa rako. 
Plenty, gurlko. 
Plug (or bung), tungouna. 
Point, as of land, karmuru. 
Policeman, upata. Crocodile Is., upaja. 
Pony, yaraman. 
Pour, to, rariyuro. 

Pray, wanga; lit., talk. (N.B. camp, 
warnga.) 

We pray, wanganaui. 
They have become accustomed to 
the use of the English word, but 
use it with the vernacular suf- 
fixes : Ali pre-ena, we two pray ; 
limur pre-ar, we (small number) 
pray; pre-a-lili, we (many) pray. 
Presently, tura. 
Present (time), diangubela. 
Pretty, mintijimeri or mitjimarmaipa. 
Protector, as shepherd of sheep, jaga; 

lit., watcher. 
Promise in marriage to a man, wawaing- 
guma (wawaing-guma, wawaingquma). 
Prow of canoe, ngoru. (See Nose.) 
Pumice, mundomundo. 
Putrid, burpar. 

Q. 
Quarrel, to, worlworliyun ; yaityaiyun. 
Quarrelsome, mcriteri yaityaiyun; mure, 

bitjan bitjan bili. 
Question, to (ask), tabirikaityuro. 
Quick, bundi (come). 

R. 
Race, wurndiri. 
Race winner, wurndiri julktnarama or 

wurndiri jurlkton. 
Rain, barlman. 
Rainbow, papijari ; lit., Papi's stripes. 

Papi, a snake. 
Rat, marawurti. (See Dog.) 
Raw, tarngodiko ("i" short) ; tarn-go- 

dik-o. 



Red, mikopmeri (the "p" is hardly 
heard) . 

Red paint, nipirn. 

Reef, gurndalili. Gurnda, stone. Lili 
appears to signify a quantity of. 

Remember, kuiyanga. 

Reside ("sit down"), kanina or kan- 
nina. (See Rest.) 

Rest, "I rest," ngara kannina. 

Revolver, tchilitchilika. Apparently on- 
omatopoetic. An endeavour to repro- 
duce the sound of the lock action. 

Reward (pay), baiyara. 

Rib, maderi. 

Ridge of house, dentji. 

Meeting in a ridge, A tunaui. 

"Right-o," pana. 

Road, tokar. 

Roar of surf, rirakai (ri-rakai). 

Roof, double-sided, 1 A 2 . malakmalak 
tunaui. 

Root, big roots, tap root, etc., mukar. 

Root, small, fibrous, raki or rake. 

Rope, rake (ra-ke). Native rope is two- 

ply " * ■ 

Rough, as timber before planing, ngai- 

yakngaiyak. 

Round (circular), belkbel. 

Rub, yarragaityun. 

Run. warndi or warnderi. 



Sail of boat, canoe, etc., karoro. 

To sail, kakarkaji (accent on last 
syllable). 
Saliva, larakura. 
Salt, jl'la (almost jiala). 
Sand, munata. 

Sandbank in sea or channel, barala. 
Sandfly, kaitcheri mindikmindik. 
Sandhill, boko munata. 
Saviour, Walna ; your (one) Saviour, 
Walna kuma; our Saviour, Walna 
kunaemeri. 
Saw, to (verb), teregeyun. 
Say, bitjan. 

"I sav" (calling a person's atten- 
tion), Murnda. "Hello!" 
Scrape (verb), yiripan. 
Scrub plant, lanceolate leaves, yanyeri. 
Scrub tree, very hard wood, tomomo. 
Scoop up, with hand as when drinking, 

tir't'un. 
Scorpion, jartam. 



189 



Screen for baby, tilt j i. This is a pic-dish- 
shaped screen of plaited pandanus 
leaves used to screen children from 
mosquitoes, flies, etc. It is made in 
the same way as the gunmurra (cone- 
shaped screen), but differs in shape. 
It is also used as a carrier for very 
young babies, and for that purpose is 
simply inverted, the child lying in the 
concavity ; when so used, it is called 
a tolmi. 

Scrotum, burrungur. 

Sea, tirlavan. Malay, colloquial; lautan. 

Seaweed found on boat bottoms, niuarl. 

Seaweed or growth like miniature trees 
of a substance resembling horn, 
bongavato. 

Seasick, wanuruma. 

Seed, seeds, ngaraka. 

Seed cups of eucalypts, gorngaro (gor- 
ngaro). 

Sell, mali. 

Semen, dien. 

Send, I send you, ngara nuna datum 
You send, ni daturo. 

Sexual intercourse, nukan. 

Sexual intercourse, to solicit female, 
nukanaui. 

Shadow, mali. Also used of photo- 
graphs and pictures. 

Sheaf, rulu. 

to tie in a sheaf, rulu garepin. 

Shell (Fissiirella listeria Orb., Wood- 
ward, pi. v., 1), tungo. 

Shin, baka. 

Shining, or flashing, of lightning only, 
melkmelkdun. 

Shining, of things generally, mirra. 

Shirt, baitjubaitju. Malay origin. 

Short, kureri. Short stick, karnduro 
kureri. 

Shovel, to (stir up with shovel as when 
mixing concrete), kaliwu. 

Shovel (noun), jiru. 

Shoulder, milipi (mi-lip-i ) ; accent on 
the second syllable. 

Shout, to, wartun. 

Show, kuro. 

Shut, kungama. 

Shrub, a yellow-flowering, titi (tit-i). 

Sick, eriktun. "Are you sick?" Anakar 
ni ka eriktun ? 

Silly, manganga. 

Silverfish (insect), burclok. 

Silver-leaf tree, yau-un. 



Sin, ngardi; jiri. 

Sink ( in water ) , kourokouhun ( some- 
times gourogouliun). 

Sink or dive, luptun. 

Sinker for fish line, lato. 

Sing, miyaman. 

Sister, yapa. 

Sister of father (aunt), bapa. 

Sister of mother, mokul. 

Sit, nini. Sit in row. wanggai nini. 

Skate (fish), barndro. 

Skin, barowan. 

To skin, lulukmurra. 

Sky, kunduru. 

Slack (verb), to slack off rope, yali- 
yalktun. 

Slack (adjective), yalk. 

Sleep, ngura. 

Sleeping two together in camp fashion 
(i.e., fire, man, man, fire, man, man, 
fire, and so on), ngalingura galki. 

Sleeping (or stumpy-tailed) lizard, year- 
gali. Another kind with pointed tail, 
lergar. 

Slow, bulnar. Come slowly, bulnar 
maritji. Note, adverb precedes verb. 

Smash (as smash a plate), buluwank 
durana. 

Smoke, ngurmar. 

Smooth (adjective) of surfaces such as 
a planed board, boiyowoiyo. 

Sneeze, aitjiri. When a person sneezes 
they say, "Someone is calling." The 
sneeze is supposed to be the involun- 
tary response, equivalent to "Yes, 

haiio r 

Snipe (bird), turing-ga (turinqa). 
Soak through, thiripi uroka warnderi; 

soft "th." 
Soldier (fighting man), nopanmeri. 
Sole of foot, tulmo jalkeri. 
Soft, yalngi. 
Son, if own son, kato ; if another's, kato 

mcringo. 
Something, na-kakari ; na-kangura. 
Sorrow, warugogo. 
Sour, lerakaiyuna. 
Spatula, jiru. They are generally made 

of wood and used as spoons in eating 

food. 
Spear, karra. 

To spear fish, turtle, etc., bile. 
Spider, large black and white, catches 

small birds, karr ("r's" rolled). 
Spiderweb, maraluma. 



190 



Spill, ngurkungu. 

Spit, narakura. 

Spirit, bcrimber. 

Split, to split open, jeai'yun (je-ai-'yun), 

Springs at Mission Bay, Elcho Island. 

Wung-gung-gul ( Wunqunqul) . 
Sprinkle, yur'tyun ; rur'ruriyun. 
Squeeze in hands, meritjan. 
Stand. Stand up ! tara. 
Star, ng-gainyu (nqainyu). 
Steady ! go steady ! bulna. 



l< est ram 



! not 



so 



hard ! kung-ga 



(kunqa). 
Steal, munangi. 

Steps (as the front steps of the Mission 
House), toka. 

To be distinguished from tokarr, 
track. 
Stern, of canoe, etc., hinderpart (tail), 

durde. 
Stick (wood), karndro or kandru. 
Long stick, nullanulla. 
Sticks crossed (i.e., two sticks laid 
across each other), matkar komar. 
The cross (Christian sign) is called 
matkar. 
Stingaree, kaukalung. 
Stomach (belly), kulun. 
Stone, gurnda. 
Stone spear, ngarnbi. 

Stone head of spear, ngarnbi. 

Shaft of spear, warrawurra. 

Wax used for fastening head to 

shaft, kalanyon. 
String for same, raki. 
Socket depression in shaft end for 
taking woomera hook, milak. 
Storm, bauuto (bau-uto). 
Story, dawo ; dao. 

"To tell a story, dao lakrama; raka 
lakrama. 
Straight lines, — =, tunopa wariuro. 

To saw straight, tunopa dakturo. 
String, kurkir. 

Another kind, used in dilly bags, 
wait J a. 
Stringy-bark tree (Eucalyptus niacrorr- 
hynchajj garaika. 
Bark of, gulikaiu. 
Strand, to, run ashore or on reef, etc., 

ngalyun gurndalili. 
Strong, miritiri dahl (or darl). 
Make strong, darlkongo. 
"Come strong again," gain strength 
after illness, etc., dahltcrina 
maritji. 



Striped in colours like rainbow, jari; jari 
daruwur. 

Suck, bointbointyun. 

Sugar-bag corrobboree token, barangol. 
Used to summon tribes to the cor- 
robboree. 

Sugar-bag (honey), from the non- 
stinging bee, koko; from the stinging 
bee, niuerda. 

Sulu (loincloth), jarijari. 

Sun, walu. 

Sunrise, walu walmar. 

Sunset, walu karina. 

Sundew, naman. 

Suppose, goli. 

Swallow, to, dalokaroroandi. 

Swallow (bird), mulunda. In Howard 
Island dialect, jiirrpari (ji-irr-pari). 

Sweet, takai menmak. 

Swim, to, waiiTun (wai-i'-tun). 

Swelling in groin, durkulo. 

Table, pati. 

Tail, paka. Bird's tail, durde wien. 

Take, marangala. ''Who took the axe ?" 

Yurlto marangala takul ? 
I take, ngara maraina. 
You take, ni manngo (man-ngo), 

manangi. 
He takes, ngurungo marangala. 
Take wrongfully (to ) , to steal, kango 

munangi. 
Take off dress (undress), yapmarango. 
"Take this letter to Yoram,"Dura tuwala 

kango Yorain-wala. 
Tale (story), dao, tao. 
Talk, to, wanga. 
Tame (adj.), ngamakuru. 
Task, jamauwa (ja-mau-wa). 
Taste, to, karamun (kar-a-mun). 
Tea-leaf, kokoa. 
Tears, milkari. 

Tell, lakrama; wanga or wangi. 
Tell (talk), wangi. 
Tempt, ngaiyan. 
Testicles, kumanga. 
Thank you, tapi ("a" short). 
That, yali ; tuwali. 
The, nuna. 
Theirs, wallalango (wal-la-lango). 

That bread is theirs, tuwali roti 
wallalango. 
There, nguna. 
They, wallalango. 
Think about, reckon, kuyangi. 
Thing, na. 



191 



This, tuwala. 

Throw away, jalkturu. 

Throw spear, baraityun (with the hand, 

not woomera). 

With woomera, tuptun. 
Throw stone or missile, ngorkongo ; 

ngorkama. 
Thumb, yindikngo. 
Thunder, nira (both syllables strongly 

accented). 
Thwart of canoe or boat, wurda. 
Tide, riyalla (ri-yal-la). 

Flowing, riyalla ngruteri. 

Ebbing, riyalla tokaiaieri (to-kai- 

ai-eri). 
Tie in sheaves, (rulu) garcpin. 
Tight, tanaitmurra. 
Tight enough, bilina tanait-tura (lit., 

finish tightening). 
Tired, kalnga gurkurir. 
Toadstool, barngani (bar-nga-ni) . 
Tobacco pipe, pamatuka (Malay, pama- 

dutan). It is the Malay type. 
To (a place), suffix ona to place name: 

Tom went to Kaliwinko, Tom tarara 

unuma Kaliwinkona. 
To-day, gatura. I saw them to-day, 

ngara nangala gatura. 
To-morrow, yorng-gongo. 
To me, rakala, rako. 
Toe, toes, pirning. 
Tongue, mata. 
Too late, toritna. You (are) too late, 

ni toritna. 
Too much, meriteri. 

Tooth, lerra, or learra (le-arra). Some- 
times pronounced lira. 
Top. ngapunguru. 
Tortoise shell, karopo. 
Track (pad, path), tokar, tokara. I 

know the track, ngara nguni marangi 

tokaro. 
Track, jungle track or road, patuar. 
Track of animal, warmalinggar (war- 
ma-ling-gar). 
Tree, generic term, gaiyu. 

Small tree, oval leaves, white under- 
side, mottled bark, kuramula. 
Tree, thick foliage, caulking gum 
extracted from roots, maipin. 
Trees from which rope is made — 

1, balgoro, the "sandpaper tree"; 2, 
baro ; 3, barata. The bark of the 
barata is used for sails. 
Trepang, boleri. 



True (of self), bili ; (of others), yual. 
It is true (of something the speaker 

has said), nar ko bili. 
Jesu's word is true, Jesu taro yual. 

Trumpet, native wooden drone pipe, iraki. 

Turn away, ngapabilyun. 

Turn over, ngurkungu. 

Twitching of muscles, tovi. Said to 
have sinister meaning or otherwise 
according to what muscle is affected. 

Twist, as in making string, berereyun. 
One's own arm, wurnar bilyuro. 

Two, bulal. 

U. 

Ugly, yaitkuro. 

Uncle, mother's brother ("brother along 
mother"), kawal (ka-wal). 

Under, an. 

Undo, yeupmurra. 

Undress, yupmarango or ycupmarango. 

Up, ngalturo. 

Upper, ngapunguru. 

Use (verb), kaluki. 

Urinate, wariyun. 

Us (many), limurung-go (li-mu-rung-go) 

Uttermost, da-ultun. 

V. 

Vein, veins, kurkur. 

Very, mar. 

Very good, mar anamakuru. 

Vine, wild, kanima. Fruit of, borum. 

Vomit, danguruyuptun. 

W. 

Wait, kalkun. 

Wake up! tari (lit., stand up). 

Walk, tjitjarion or tjitjariyun. 

Want, desire, maramba. 

Want., ngai ; as "I want a drink," Ngara 
ngai kapura ngultun (lit.. I want water 
to drink). 

Wash, ruruwaiyun. 

Wash all over, to, bili ruruwaiyun. 

Washing (the), ruruwaiyurina (as in the 
sentence, 'T have finished the washing." 

Watch, to, meltun. 

Watch, to (as a shepherd over his flock 
or a sailor on a boat), jagga (jag-ga). 

Wfttev, fresh, kapu ; sometimes pro- 
nounced kapo. 

I want to drink water, ngara ngai 
kapura ngultun. 

Water, salt, kapu murnok ("o"very short) 

Wattle tree, balara. 

Wave (noun), buambang. 



192 



Wave, waves ; big waves, breakers ; 

tor go. 
Wax, korng-gi (korqi). 
Way (track), tokar. 

Long way, barkwalla. 
We two, ngali. 
We three (or more), limuru. 
Wet, mulkar. 
Wet, jurro. 

To get wet with drops from grass 
or trees, karra. (See Fog.) 
Wet season, bara (Malay origin). 
Wetnurse, to, ng-gongdo maranauwi 

(nqongdo). 
Weep, ngarti. 
Well again (after sickness), marana 

makurina. 
Went to, tarara unuma. 
Wessel Islands^ 
South Wessel Island, Rarakula. 
North Wessel Inland, Murtjenba. 
Small island north of North Wessel 
Island, Walwal. 
Whale, wimeri. 
What, nar. 

What is that? Nar du (or tu) wali? 
What is this? Nar tu wala? 
What is there ? Nar nguna ? 
What is your name? Yuer ni yako? 
What is his name? Yuer muka ni yako? 
When, nata, natan. 

When did Tom go away? Nata Tom 

maritjina? 
When did you come across? Natan 
numa burapturana lurkon. 
W T here, anaka, nganaka, nganakana. 

Where is Charlie ? Nganakana 
Charlie ? 
White, wattarr (Vs" rolled). 
White ant, minyukolungo. 
White man, balanda. 
White woman, nuna. 
White froth all over sea as in a big storm, 

karrarameri (lit., all white). 
Why, nganala, naltjara. 
Who, yurlto. 
Wicked, maremba. 
Wide (as, wide table), belkbelk ; goar- 

lyindi. 
Wild, wakingu. 

Wild fellow walk about bush, 
yindipwi, wirdikno (or wurdik- 
vun). 
Will, bulu. 
Willywagtail, jirabijirabi. 



Wind, watta (wat-ta). 

South or south-east wind, tinioro. 
West or north-west wind, bara. 
North wind, long-guruma (lonqu- 

ruma). 
South wind, tong-gara (tonqara). 
Windpipe, nerinnerin. 
Wing, wings, bidenbur. 
With child, kolun. 

Big with child, kolun yuertomeri. 
Woman (lubra), meal (me-al). 
Old woman, karkarung. 
White woman, nuna. 
Wood, karndro. 
Woomera, mangal (mang-al), bunbun. 

To throw spear with, toptun. 
Word, taro. 

Worfc (verb), near at hand, jamauwa 
(ja-mau-wa) ; at a distance, jamaka 
(ja-mak-a). 
Working, is, jamaka. Tommy is work- 
ing for Bob Moy, Tommy jamaka Bob 
Moya. 
Working, jama. Where are you working? 

Ngana ni jama? 
World, wonga ngaraka (or wanga 

ngaraka). Wanga or warnga. camp. 
Wound (hurt), kartpur. 
Writing (noun), wokeri. 

Y. 
Yam, kang-guri (kanquri). At Karnapi 
this kind was found amongst the rocks 
on the slope of Point Bristow. 

Another kind, muliangara. Has five- 
lobed leaf with serrated edge. 
Year, tung-gara (tunqara). 

One year, wang-gan (wanqan), utng- 

gara. 
Two years, tung-gara bulul (bul-ulj. 
Yellow, kang-gul (kanqul). 
Yes, yo, io. The latter, io, is the same 
as yes in Fijian. Sometimes owing to 
nasal pronunciation, ea. 
Yesterday, bapuro. 
Young men, yauwerin. 

In Mau (Goulburn Islands), warion. 
You. ni ; nongo ; niki ; no kala; namalina. 
Your, yours (singular), nungo. This 
flour is yours, Tuwala rod nungo ; 
(plural) numalang-go (numalanqo ). 
You come with me, Ni rako malturo. 
You sit down (singular), Ni nini; 

(plural, "big mob"), Nini numa. 
You sit down in (one) line, (plural) 
Wangain nguru numa nini. 



193 



ADELAIDE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA: A STUDY IN HUMAN GEOGRAPHY. 

By Charles Fenner, D.Sc. 



IV 



VI. 



VII. 



[Read September 8, 1927. J 
Contents. 



I . Introduction 



II. Scope of the Paper 

III. Special Characters of the "Rift Valley" (figs 



The "Gulp Region" (figs. 3 and 15) 

(a) Eyre Peninsula 

(b) Yorke Peninsula 

(c) Fleurieu Peninsula 

(d) Spencer Gulf 

(e) St. Vincent Gulf 

(e) Gulf St. Vincent 

(g) Tectonic Unity of Structure 

The Adelaide Plains (figs. 4, 5, 7) 

(a) The Coastline .. 

(b) The Outer Sand Dunes 

(c) The Lower Deltaic Plain 

(d) The Older Sand Dunes 

(e) The Higher Deltaic Plain 

(f) The Para Fault Block . . _ 

(g) Factors determining the City Site . . 
(h) Factors influencing the Plan of the City 
(k) The Rocks of the Adelaide Plains . . 

(i.) Cambrian, etc. 
(ii.) Tertiary 
(Hi.) Recent 

The Mount Lofty Ranges (figs. 6, 7, 8) 

(a) Introduction . . ■ . . 

(b) General Plan 

(c) Rock Characteristics .. 

(i.) Overmass : Tertiary 
(ii.) Under mass : Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian 

(d) Main Structural Characters 

(e) The Bu-rnside Fault and Block 

(f) The Main Scarp Faults 

(g) The Bclair Fault and Block . . 
(hi The Sturt Fault and Block .. 
(k) The Mount Lofty Fault and Block 



CD 
(m) 



The Willunga Fault and Block 
The Bull's Creek Fault and Block 



(n) Sections across the Area . . . . 

(o) Economic Influences of the Mount Lofty 
(p) Selection of the Murray Bridge Site 
(q) Selection of the Hills Railway Route 



1 and 2) 



Ranges 



The Torrens and its Estuary (figs, 8, 9, 10, 11) 

(a) General Survey of the Drainage System of the 

(b) Physiographic Evolution of the Area 

(c) The Torrens River Valley 

(i.) The Upper Torrens 

(ii.) The Torrens Gorge 

(Hi.) The Klemzig Valley 

(iv.) The Lower Torrens 

(v.) The Patawalonga Creek 

(d) The Development and Drainage of the Plains 

(i.) The Rivers of the Plains 
(ii.) The Port River Estuary- 



Adelaide 



Area 



Page 
194 

194 

195 

199 
199 
199 
200 
201 
201 
201 
202 

203 
203 
205 
206 
207 
207 
208 
209 
210 
211 
211 
211 
211 

212 
212 
213 
215 
216 
216 
216 
217 
217 
218 
218 
219 
220 
220 
220 
222 
225 
226 

227 

227 
227 
231 
231 
232 
232 
233 
234 
234 
235 
236 



194 

VIII. The Torrens Tributaries and Associated Streams (figs. 9 and 10) 

(a) Torrens Tributaries 

(i.) Sturt River 

(ii.) Brownhill Creek 
(Hi.) First to Fifth Creeks 
(iv.) Sixth Creek 

(v.) Upper Tributaries 

(b) Associated Streams 

(i.) Little Para River 
(ii.) Dry Creek 
(mi.) Onkaparinga River . . 

IX. Effects of Geographic Controls (figs. 12, 13, 14, IS, 16) 

(a) Adelaide in its Relation to the State 

(b) Climatic Conditions 

(i.) Rainfall and Evaporation . 
(ti.) Sunshine and Temperature . 
(Hi.) Winds and Tides 

(c) Transport and Communications 

(d) The Growth of the City Population 

(e) The Occupations of the People 

(f) The Distribution of the Population 
X. List of References 

Chief Maps and Plans Consulted 



Page 

240 
240 
240 
241 
241 
242 
242 
242 
242 
242 
243 

243 
243 
244 
244 
246 
246 
247 
249 
250 
251 
255 
256 



I.— INTRODUCTION. 

During the past twelve years the writer has been collecting material 
regarding the physiographical development of the Adelaide area. In 1924 
he prepared a brief account of these features for publication in the Handbook 
of the Adelaide meeting of the Australasian Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science. As far as the physiography is concerned, the present paper 
is in part an elaboration of the general outlines there set down, with con- 
siderable extension and development of detail. 

Throughout the paper attention is given to the influence of the geographic 
factors on the settlement, growth, and development of the city and surround- 
ings. The economic aspect is emphasised, and the whole subject is dealt with 
from the points of view of cause, development, growth, and influence on 
human activity. 

The science of human geography deals specifically with the present ; in 
discussing causes and origins, there must, however, be continued considera- 
tion of both the geological and the historical past ; while the ultimate value of 
the study lies in the richness of its suggestions regarding the possibilities of 
the future. 

II.— SCOPE OF THE PAPER. 

It will be necessary first to refer to the great structural unit of which the 
Adelaide region forms a part, and in this connection some peculiar characters 
of the so-called "Rift Valley" will be pointed out (figs. 1 and 2). The Adelaide 
Plains will then be considered in relation to the "Gulf Region" of the State 

( fi g- 3 )- . . . 

The main body of the paper will be concerned with a discussion of the 
Adelaide area under the various divisions named below, which will be dealt 
with broadly, keeping in view the human influences of the various physio- 
graphic and climatic factors. These divisions have been set down as follows : — 

(a) The Adelaide Plains; 

(b) The Mount Lofty Ranges; 

(c) The Torrens and its estuary ; 

(d) The tributaries and associated streams. 

The general climatic conditions will be summarized, and note made of the 
modes of transport, communications, and occupations. Finally, the growth 



195 

and distribution of the present population of the Adelaide area will be con- 
sidered in conjunction with a "spot map" of the city and suburbs. 

Tribute must be paid to the geological and physiographic work bearing 
on this area published by Howchin, Mawson, Benson, Teale, and others; to 
the numerous Mines Department maps, and publications by Brown, Ward, 
and Jack; and to historical accounts by Blacket, Gill, Grenfell Price, and the 
numerous writers of the first decade of South Australian history. The work 
of Professor Howchin on the geology and physiography of this area has 
extended over almost fifty years, his first geological paper having been pub- 
lished in 1886.< 1} For most of the fundamental geological knowledge that 
underlies this paper, much of which is implied rather than expressed, acknow- 
ledgment must be made of indebtedness to the work done in this area by 
Professor Howchin and Mr, H. Y. L. Brown. The writer is also greatly 
indebted for advice and information, readily given, by Sir Douglas Mawson 
and Dr. Keith Ward. This paper is an effort to correlate many facts already 
known, to add the writer's own observations and conclusions, collected during 
the past ten years, and to present a concise account of the human geography 
of this important area. 

III.— SPECIAL CHARACTERS OF THE "RIFT VALLEY." 

In order to deal more fully with the structural features of the Adelaide 
area, it is necessary first to describe the great central structural unit of the 
State, of which the Adelaide area forms a small part. The unit in question 
is the one which has come to be known as the "Great Rift Valley of South 
Australia," with its associated highlands (vide "The Dead Heart of Aus- 
tralia," J. W. Gregory, 1906, pp. 236-245). 

The conception of this axial area as a rift valley, which w r e owe to Pro- 
fessor J. W. Gregory, has greatly simplified geological and geographical 
descriptions of the State, and has added enormously to our understanding of 
many of its problems. It may be pointed out, however, that this so-called rift 
valley has many peculiar characters — characters which are not usually asso- 
ciated with a rift valley proper. 

For instance, a "rift" as generally described implies a let-down block of 
country, longer than it is wide, with relatively uplifted highland areas on 
either side, and with bounding faults that are more or less parallel. In the 
area under discussion we have to deal with something quite different, as will 
be realised from a description of figs. 1 and 2. 

Fig. 1 shows the Lake Torrens — Spencer Gulf— Gulf St. Vincent area, 
with geological and topographical data taken from the S.A. Mines Depart- 
ment's geological and contour maps. Geologically, the horizontally shaded 
areas consist of Palaeozoic and older rocks, while the unshaded land areas 
represent Tertiary and Recent deposits. Some Cretaceous rocks occur in the 
north, and also a small let-down pocket of Triassic coal-bearing rocks at 
Copley (Leigh's Creek), but these do not affect the discussion. The broken 
line is the approximate 500-foot contour line. 

It will be noted that most of the Tertiary area consists of low plain, 
almost level, and that the greater part of the higher land is Cambrian and 
Pre-Cambrian. Actually the 500-foot contour line so nearly coincides with 
the boundary line between the Tertiary exposures and the Palaeozoic out- 
crops that for our purposes they may be considered the same. We may, 

(1) Professor Walter Howchin arrived in South Australia in 1881. During hisfirst 
six months' residence he contributed to the daily Press several leading articles on "The 
Geological Survey of South Australia"; shortly afterwards a Mines Department was 
established and a Government Geologist appointed. The paper above referred to was 
entitled, "Remarks on a Geological Section at the New Graving Dock, Glanville," Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. x., Dec, 1886, p. 31. 



196 



p^ Palaeozotc^c. 

| ] Cret,T«rt,Recent 
— • -*.^*500'Contour 
Scale 

20 40 60 

' ■«■■■■ 



*£*&*>+. 




Fig. 1. 

The area of the South Australian "Rift Valley," showing the essential features 

of the geology and topography, as described in the context. 



197 

therefore, speak of (i.) The Highlands of Palaeozoic rocks, (ii.) The Plains of 
Tertiary rocks. 

In the western half of the area shown in fig. 1 we have a broad platform 
of Palaeozoic and older rocks, really a portion of the great relatively stable 
Pre-Cambrian Foreland — the Continental Shield that extends for many 
hundreds of miles to the north-west and west. In the central zone we have 
the sunken areas of Lake Torrens, Spencer Gulf, and Gull; St. Vincent, with 
associated alluvial plains. 

In the east we have a huge double arc of highlands of Palaeozoic rocks, 
shaped like an open "3", the bottom portion being much the larger and con- 
taining within its curve the secondary and lower highland of Yorke Peninsula. 
Within this highland area there are many elongated alluvial tracts, par- 
ticularly in the "Lower and Middle North/' parallel to the course of the 
mountains, of high economic value, constituting some of the best agricultural 
areas of the State. In the south, towards Investigator Strait, there are several 
patches of Tertiary deposits, roughly triangular, occupying let-down areas on 
the tilted fault blocks; the Copley Triassic is a similar triangular let-down 
block in the north (see Brown's 1899 map). This great highland belt of 
Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian rocks has long been recognised as a very definite 
horst, of about Pleistocene age (the Kosciusko uplift). 

The "Rift Valley" is seen, therefore, to be of a quite unusual and irregular 
shape. This is resolved into its simplest aspect in fig. 2. The relatively 
raised and sunken blocks and the chief boundary fault lines are clearly defined. 
Concerning these, the physiographic evidence alone is sufficient demonstration 
of their existence, and this is supported in every way by the geological 
evidence, as already shown in fig. 1. Names are given to these features as 
follows (see fig. 2) : — 

The western boundary faults — The Torrens Fault, the Lincoln Fault. 
The eastern marginal highlands — The Flinders Horst, the Mount Lofty 

Horst. 
The central lower tongue — The Yorke Peninsula Horst. 

It will be seen that within these highlands the "Rift Valley" really con- 
sists of two semi-circular sunken areas such as are termed sunklands. In the 
southern sunkland, the Yorke Peninsula block is simply one of the sunken 
segments, relatively less depressed than its neighbours; its existence does not 
destroy the essential unity of the southern semi-circular sunkland. The two 
sunklands are connected by the narrow "Port Augusta Corridor." 

For purposes of definiteness in discussion these two great half-moon 
depressions have been called "The Torrens Sunkland" and "The Spencer- 
Vincent Sunkland." In the east of the area described there are two highland 
"spurs" (distinct in their structural characters from the main horsts) which 
curve away to the north-east from the Flinders and Mount Lofty Horsts. 
They may be called the Yudnamutana Spur and the Olary Spur, respec- 
tively; the latter is much the lower and carries the Peterborough-Broken Hill 
railway line. 

The Torrens Sunkland does not come any further into the present dis- 
cussion, and the Spencer-Vincent Sunkland is dealt with in greater detail in 
the section dealing with the Gulf Region. With reference to these peculiar 
structural features — bounded on the west by a straight-cut fault along a rela- 
tively stable foreland, and having a down-warped or step-faulted sunkland 
of semi-circular shape, margined to the east by an arcuate horst — it is 
suggested that they constitute structural units of somewhat common 
occurrence, and possibly worthy of a distinctive name. 



198 



SCfcLE 



-MU44 



STABLE 



FORELAND 




Fig. 2. 
The same area as fig. 1, showing the chief structural features in broad outline. 



199 

Taylor has described such a feature in Lake George and the Cullarin 
Fault in New South Wales (ref. 18). The writer's own observations of the 
Victorian Grampians lead him to believe that similar structures control the 
physiography of these interesting ranges. It may further be suggested that 
the great highland arc of the East-Australian Cordilleras, with its included 
tectonic basins, and the stable foreland of the western half of the continent, 
constitute a somewhat similar feature on an enormous scale. 

This in turn gives rise to the idea — since there is a general agreement that 
all these features are closely associated in time — that there is a genetic con- 
nection between them. Possibly they are related to outward (tensile) crustal 
movements from the stable Westralian "Shield" towards the founderings of 
the continental margin in the Coral and Tasman Seas to the east, in Upper 
Tertiary time. 

IV.— THE GULF REGION. 

The Gulf Region of South Australia is not a "natural region" in the 
geographic sense, but comprises portions of several geologically and climati- 
cally distinct types of country. Although the physiographic features are also 
of very varied characters, it has been suggested in the previous section that 
the greater portion constitutes a physiographic unit — the "Spencer-Vincent 
Sunkland." This suggestion will be further elaborated here. 

The Gulf Region is, moreover, the heart of the State of South Australia 
— its most varied and most fertile area. Although comprising little more than 
5% of the total land area of the State, it is at present the home of nearly 90% 
of the population (see fig. 15). 

As will be seen from fig. 3, the area may be broadly simplified into three 
southward-pointing peninsulas and three northward-pointing gulfs. We shall 
first briefly describe these, geologically and physiographically, and then 
emphasise the tectonic unity of structure of the whole of the Gulf Region. 

(a) Eyre Peninsula.— This is included in part only. The peninsuk is 
broad-based to the north, and triangular in shape, with an irregular coastline 
and many off-shore islands ; it is of low relief, mostly less than 500 feet, but 
rising in places to just over 1,000 feet ; streams are rare ; geologically it is very 
ancient (a Pre-cambrian complex), usually regarded as part of the great 
Continental Shield — the Foreland — that dominates the western half of Aus- 
tralia. Though relatively stable, the eastern portion of Eyre Peninsula has 
undergone considerable fracturing in past ages. The overlyingTertiary and 
recent deposits are thin and of varied character. The vegetation is mostly 
"Mallee" — scrub eucalypts and acacias, with casuarinas, banksias, and asso- 
ciated undergrowth; it is developing as a wheat-growing area. The great 
mineral masses of Iron Knob and Iron Monarch occur here. The rainfall 
varies from 25 inches in the south to 10 inches in the north. The geological 
and physiographic facts provide evidence of the existence of a great N.E.-SW. 
fault roughly parallel with the Port Lincoln-Whyalla coast, and a little way 
inland (F.)— the "Lincoln Fault" (fig. 3). 

(b) Yorke Peninsula. — An almost parallel-sided peninsula, roughly leg- 
and-foot shaped. For the most part it has a very regular coastline, with but 
few indentations or islets. It is of low and even relief, the highest point being 
a gentle rise little more than 400 feet above sea-level. The area is practically 
streamless, and of uniform character. The foundation is of Pre-Cambrian, 
Cambrian, later Palaeozoic, and Plutonic rocks — highly resistant to weather- 
ing. The peneplahed surface of these ancient rocks is now covered by a rela- 
tively thin sheet of Tertiary limestones and gravels, with recent travertines ; 
the surface is thus a young and almost undissected plain of deposition. There 
is no notable physiographic evidence of later Tertiary faulting within the 
peninsula itself, but the whole block consists of an irregular-shaped horst, its 



200 



probable relations to the Mount Lofty arc of uplift having already been dis- 
cussed. The vegetation was of uniform mallee type ; this has almost wholly 
disappeared, to be replaced by wheat fields and grazing lands. In the north, 
rich copper deposits were mined for sixty years ; the poorer lands of the south 
are valuable for the output from their salt and gypsum lakes. The rainfall 
is very even — 15 to 20 inches over the whole peninsula. 




Fig. 3. 

Plan showing the main geographical and structural features of the "Gulf Region." 
The site of Adelaide is indicated by the letter A. The dotted portions are alluvial 

plains within the sunkland. 

(c) Fleurieu Peninsula.— This is best considered in connection with its 
northern continuation, the Mount Lofty Ranges, and its southern extension, 
Kangaroo Island. Thus we have a curved westward-pointing peninsula — the 
southern-most limit of the great arcuate horst shown in fig. 3. This peninsula 
is economically the most important portion of South Australia. It is of highly 



201 

varied relief — level plains, high scarp faces, broad valleys, and deep gorges — 
the highest point reaching 2,334 feet. Geologically it consists of the same 
materials as Yorke Peninsula, but in the highlands the very resistant Pre- 
Cambrian and Palaeozoic rocks are generally exposed, the less resistant over- 
mass of Tertiary limestones having been almost completely stripped oft (as 
later described in detail). 

The physiographic structure is varied, and is dominated by a series of 
curving faults. Backstairs Passage is probably due to a sunkland between 
radial faults, though Benson has suggested marine erosion in softer Permo- 
carboniferous rocks (ref. 1). The site of Adelaide is on the alluvial plains 
that lie within the curve of the Mount Lofty Horst (see A, fig. 3). _ The 
physiographic, geological, and climatic variety of this area is reflected in the 
vegetation, minerals, and general products. The native vegetation is of the 
mallee and callitris suites on the plains, with salt-bush in the more arid 
north-eastern parts, and eucalyptus forest on the highlands, where Eucalyptus 
elaeophora, obliqua, and rostrata are dominant. Gold, silver-lead, and copper 
have been mined in various areas; building stones, slates, clays, and cements 
are produced. Orchards and gardens flourish in the highland valleys ; vines, 
olives, stone-fruits, oranges, etc., in the lower valleys and on the plains. The 
rainfall varies from 15 to 47 inches, as later described in detail. 

(d) Spencer Gulf. — A long, acutely terminated gulf, penetrating the con- 
tinent for 200 miles. It is shallow and shoaled, with a maximum depth of less 
than 40 fathoms at its wide island-studded mouth, and averaging less than 
20 fathoms throughout. The boundaries, except where modified by delta 
accumulations, are controlled by faults. Port Lincoln, an inlet near the mouth 
of this gulf, was a keen competitor for the site of the capital of the State, 
but was rejected by Colonel Light for reasons given in detail on pages 31-33 
of his i( J ourna1 /' an d elsewhere. Several important ports are situated in this 
gulf, including Port Pirie, Wallaroo, and Port Lincoln. 

(e) Gulf St. Vincent. — This gulf is considered in conjunction with its 
natural approach, Investigator Strait. The two bodies of water together form 
a broad, shallow, boomerang-shaped inlet. Although 40 fathoms deep at the 
entrance, it is rarely more than 20 fathoms elsewhere, and averages 16 fathoms 
or less. It is shallower towards the west than towards the east. The coasts 
are precipitous where they meet the resistant highland mass, on the south 
and south-east, from Marino to Cape Jervis and on Kangaroo Island. There 
are low cliffs also on the up-tilted eastern face of Yorke Peninsula; elsewhere 
the coast is very low, with mangrove swamps and mud flats or sand dunes. 
The outlines are tectonic, modified by deltaic accumulations on the east, and 
by some amount of marine erosion. 

In the northern extremity there is excellent evidence of a recent marine 
recession of several miles (an area that was made the subject of an interesting 
botanical survey by Osborn and Wood, Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. XLVIL, 
p 244). For reasons given in his "Journal," Colonel Light early decided that 
the most advantageous place for a settlement in South Australia was upon 
this gulf, on its eastern shores — a decision confirmed by his belief (un- 
fortunately erroneous) that it afforded easy communication with the Murray 
Valley. Doubtless Light was influenced in his decision by Sturt's accounts. 
This gulf is not so well provided with ports as is its western neighbour ; the 
single suitable site for an important port is on the Port River Estuary. On 
the western side, where the gulf is more shallow throughout, there are several 
small ports, chief of which are Edithburgh and Ardrossan. 

(f) Encounter Bav.—A. blunt, widely-open bay, to be considered ^ in 
conjunction with its " one-time northward extension — now the lacustrine < 
and deltaic area of the Murrav Mouth. This bay was uppermost in the 



202 



thoughts of many of the founders and pioneers of South Australia as 
the most suitable locality for the future capital Since the stimulus of Sturt's 
Murray River journey of 1831 had so much to do with the founding of South 
Australia, and as the minds of the founders turned so strongly to the Murray 
Basm this can be readily understood. With that remarkable "topographical 
instinct with which Light has been credited, he was able to sum up in a few 
phrases his reasons against an Encounter Bay site, these reasons being- 
supported by his belief that the southern Adelaide Plains were provided with 
easy access to the Murray Basin. 

It is urged to-day, with much logic, that the capital citv of South Aus- 
tralia should have been placed at the mouth of the Murray Valley That is to 
say, it should be in the region of Encounter Bay. We must remember how- 
ever that Light had to find a harbour where safe and immediate anchorage 
could be found for the many immigrant ships that were following so closely 
on his heels. In his "Journal" he wrote under date December 17, 1836 (pp 36- 
37): "As much as Encounter Bay and Lake Alexandrina had been talked of 
m England, I never could fancy for one moment that any navigable entrance 
from the sea into the lake could possibly exist. On looking at Flinders' 
chart and considering the exposed situation of the coast, open to the whole 
Southern Ocean, great danger must always attend the approaching it with 
fresh breezes; moreover, the very circumstance of so large a lake being there 
was a convincing proof to me that the Murray could not have a passage suffi- 
ciently deep or wide to discharge its waters into the sea. These ideas I 
mentioned m England, and often during our passage, but when I saw the 
sandy shore to the eastward of Encounter Bay from the "Rapid" as we stood 
over, beating against strong northerly winds, and seeing that this shore of 
sand was open to several thousand miles of the Southern Ocean, where south- 
west winds prevailed during eight or nine months of the vear, T was more 
than before convinced that no good and accessible harbour' could exist, con- 
trary to the general laws of nature. Deep and fine harbours, with' good 
entrances on the sea coast, are only found where the shore is high, hard, or 
rocky; in other cases such harbours must be in large rivers or gulfs; sand 
alone can never preserve a clear channel against the scud of the sea, and 
particularly such as must inevitably be thrown on the coast about Encounter 
Bay." This point is dealt with at some length, for geographically the one 
flaw that has been revealed by ninety years 1 experience of the site of Adelaide 
is the barrier that exists between that city and the Murray Basin and the 
geographical necessity for a deep-water Murray port. 

(g) Tectonic Unity of Structure of the Gulf Region. — In a paper previously 
referred to (ref. 8) the writer described "the great arcuate horst of the Mount 
Lofty Ranges, with its shadow or echo in the less elevated and less regular 
arc of the Yorke Peninsula Horst nestling within it." This description 
emphasised the need for an explanation of these relations from the genetic 
point of view. Such an explanation has been attempted in the previous section. 
The connection between the northern end of the Yorke Peninsula Horst 
and the main Mount Lofty Horst is somewhat obscure, and will probably 
remain so until more detailed geological and contour maps are available. 
West of Port Wakefield the eastern margin of the Yorke Peninsula Horst 
appears as a low but very definite fault scarp; this rises suddenly into the 
Hummocks Range, and continues northward as the Barunga Ranges. The 
available evidence, plus personal observations in the field, suggest that the 
broad block of the peninsula tapers towards the north, possibly due to plung- 
ing, and the faults of the eastern and the western margin appear to unite and 
to meet tangentially with the western faults of the main horst in the Red Hill- 
Crystal Brook area. 



203 



It may happen in block-faulted areas, as pointed out in Section III., that 
a depressed block is sharply faulted down along one straight marginal face, 
but step-faulted or warped down on all the other sides, withm a semi-circular 
area the main displacement fading out laterally and the whole feature form- 
ing as it were an inverted semi-dome. Thus we get a "D-shaped sunkland, 
as already described and figured. 

In the "Gulf Region" we have as the north-western straight-edge 
boundary the Lincoln Fault; the semi-circular eastern boundary is the horst 
■of the Mount Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island, broken to the south-west 
by the tectonic movements associated with the foundering of the Jeffrey Deep. 
Within the semi-circle we have a series of depressed blocks, more or less con- 
centric with one segment uplifted relatively to its neighbours, giving the 
Yorke Peninsula Horst. Thus we have a close genetic relationship between 
the varied features of the whole of the "Gulf Region/' constituting the 
Spencer-Vincent Sunkland, with its associated highlands. 

V.— THE ADELAIDE PLAINS. 
The site of the city of Adelaide is in the apex of the triangular area of 
alluvial plains that lie within the curve of the Mount Lofty Ranges, boundeo 
on the west bv the eastern shores of Gulf St. Vincent (see fig. 3) The four 
natural divisions involved are The Gulf r The Plains, the Highlands, and Ihe 
Streams Fig 4 has been drawn to show the Adelaide Plains. This area will 
be discussed under the following headings: (a) The coastline; (b) The outer 
sand dunes; (c) The lower deltaic plain; (d) The older sand dunes j (e) The 
higher deltaic plain; (f) The Para fault block; (g) Factors determining the 
city site; (h) Factors influencing the plan of the city; (i) Ihe rocks of the 

Ad'elaide Plains. .* 

(a) The Coastline.— Gulf St. Vincent has already been described m some 
detail The chief features that concern us here are the eastern shores, from 
the mouth of the Gawler River south towards Cape jervis. This coast com- 
prises two types: — 

(i.) Low coasts with sand dunes to the north. 
(ii.) Precipitous rocky coasts to the south. 

The division between the two types comes at the appropriately-named 
suburb, Seacliff, where the Mount Lofty Ranges are obliquely truncated by 
the coastline. Northward of this point the coast of Gulf St. Vincent is low, 
with ridges of sand dunes, occasional sand-barred stream mouths, muddy 
mangrove flats, and the notable and important major break of the Port River 
Estuary. , _. L 

The shape of the coastline is at first sight somewhat puzzling, inasmuch 
as the alluvial deposits west of Adelaide do not extend as far west as one 
would at first expect. The whole area of Gulf St. Vincent has already been 
described as a down-faulted, boomerang-shaped segment, doubtless a series of 
blocks (a compound sunkland). This assumes the eastern shore, like the 
western to have been to some extent determined by fault boundaries, and 
such evidence from the floor of the gulf as is provided by the data given m the 
Admiralty Charts is in support of this. The difficulty is that, if the present 
trend of this eastern coast to Cape Jervis has been determined by a fault, this 
fault does not run concentrically with its better known neighbour faults m 
the highlands, but cuts obliquely across them. 

Important evidence is provided by the fine series of truncated spurs, of 
o-reat scenic beauty, that occur from Carrickalinga Head southward. Sup- 
porting evidence of a minor but suggestive character is provided by a small 
fault (parallel to the present coast) that forms the eastern boundary of the 



204 



let-down Permo-carboniferous and Tertiary rocks of Plallett's Cove. The 
close resemblance of the general coastline features to those of faulted coasts 
in New Zealand, as described by Cotton ("Fault Coasts in New Zealand/' 
Geographical Review, vol. I., No. 1), suggest: — 

(I) That this cliff-bound coast has been determined by a fault-line; 
(ii.) That the fault was somewhat subsequent in time to the main 
Mount Lofty Faults; 

(Hi.) That it may be in part the southerly continuation of what is 
called in this paper the Para Fault. 




Fig. 4. 
Plan of the Adelaide Plains showing the physiographic zones, as described in 
Section V. The site of the city proper is indicated on the plan. The boundaries 
between the various zones are determined by differences of both elevation and 

geological structure. 

^ This southern precipitous, wave-cut, upward-faulted coast of highly- 
resistant, silicified sediments, etc., from Seacliff to Cape Jervis, provides a 
few small gently-curving bays, such as Rapid Bay, Yankalilla Bay, and others 



205 

and these were carefully explored in 1836. As would be expected from such 
a physiographic history, there is reasonably deep water close inshore in many 
places ; but there are no real inlets. The coast is exposed to the full force of 
the western seas, and the fault-truncated spurs have suffered considerable 
marine erosion. There are some fine wave-cut platforms, as at Hallett's Cove. 
A site on this coast (Marino) was, in the early 1900's, the chief competitor 
with the present Outer Harbour site. 

Almost equally unpromising from the point of view of harbour facilities 
is the rising coastline of low alluvial that lies to the north of Seacliff. The 
only chance for a harbour, therefore, is a protected estuary. Fortunately, the 
discovery of the Port River Estuary by Collet Barker (ref. IS), and its re- 
discovery and description by Captain Jones in 1833 (see Proc. Roy. Geog. 
Soc. S. Austr., vol. XXII. , 1923, p. 73), plus the subsequent persistent and 
successful quest of Light for this harbour in 1836, gave to us the two chief 
harbours of the State which, together, constitute the fourth port of the 
Commonwealth. 

After a preliminary use of Holdfast Bay (which is practically open sea), 
the Port River (at the so-called "Port Misery," and elsewhere) functioned 
as the main port of the Province. The present inner harbour, in the Port 
River, was declared "open to the world's shipping" by Governor Gawler in 
1840. The Outer Harbour, built on the southward curving continuation of the 
Port. River, discovered in 1836 and known as Light's Passage, was similarly 
declared open to the world's shipping in January, 1908. The same under- 
water features, namely, Light's Passage and the curiously-shaped shoal 
bordering its mouth on the east (see fig. 11), that have been utilised for the 
building of the Outer Harbour, were the locus of an ambitious scheme for an 
Ocean Dock presented to Parliament by George Chamier, C.E., as far back 
as 1882. 

It is interesting to note, that in the report of Sir George Buchanan, 
K.C.I.E., to the Commonwealth Government, dated October 9, 1926, he 
suggests that the whole of the northern end of LeFevre's Peninsula, from 
the present Outer Harbour round to the sites of the Electric Supply Co.'s 
Works, should be made a line of wharves, with the implied ultimate linking 
up of the outer and inner harbours as one continuous system. 

Such a broadly conceived scheme would mean the utilisation to a high 
degree of the natural facilities that are provided by "Jones' Harbour" and 
"Light's Passage." Sir George Buchanan remarks on the "immense stretches 
of water available for deep water wharves," and adds : "Very few ports are 
so admirably situated as Port Adelaide for development at moderate capital 
cost. The river apparently can be dredged to any depth, and so far as I can 
judge from the information available, there will be practically no maintenance 
dredging." The detailed physiography of the estuary is further described in 
Section VII. 

(b) The Outer Sand Dunes. — From Seacliff and Brighton, through 
Glenelg, Henley, Grange, Semaphore, and Largs to Outer Harbour, and again 
to the north of the estuary, there is an almost continuous ridge of sand dunes 
(see fig. 4), Apart from the break where the Patawalonga enters at Glenelg, 
these dunes are remarkably regular and even — about 10 chains in width, nearly 
20 miles in total length, and averaging 30 to 40 feet in height. 

The highest dunes (50 feet) are at Brighton and at a point north of 
Estcourt House. Where the dunes have not been interfered with by settle- 
ment, they usually show three more-or-less well-defined parallel ridges. They 
flatten out to the north of Semaphore and Largs, and help in forming the flat, 
square-nosed area known as LeFevre's Peninsula. At Semaphore, the coast- 
line bulges out to the west, forming Point Malcolm and giving rise to the 



206 

Wonga Shoal. Under the influence of the prevailing south and south-west 
winds and associated currents, this long sand spit has been slowly built up 
from Seacliff northward. The building of this dune barrier was one of the 
most important factors in the growth and development of the lower Adelaide 
Plains. 

The northern portion of LeFevre's Peninsula, from Largs onward, was 
for many years a despised and neglected locality, and is still largely waste 
land. It needs no special gift of prophecy to foresee that the natural geo- 
graphical advantages of this area will be more fully utilised in the future, and 
that this peninsula must play an important part in the development of the 
city and the State. The western (sand dune) portion is the higher; on the 
east there are extensive samphire swamps. 

The outer sand dune belt has greatly influenced settlement, as may be 
noted from the long line of seaside suburbs listed above; the linear extension 
of many of these suburbs is most marked (see tig. 4), particularly where land- 
ward extension from the dune area is prevented by the swampy, low-lying 
areas of the lower deltaic plain. The dune belt, as befits our Mediterranean 
climate, bids fair to present, in due course, one continuous line of seaside 
residential suburbs and pleasure resorts from SeaclirT to Outer Harbour. 
There are excellent beaches, that are greatly appreciated despite the draw- 
backs of western aspect and lack of shade. With the population and climatic 
conditions of Adelaide, it is natural that this outer sand dune belt should be 
made the subject of a comprehensive foreshore-improvement scheme. 

(c) The Lower Deltaic Plain. — This area may be defined as that lying 
between sea level and the 40-foot contour line — the latter line being arbitrarily 
chosen as a convenient boundary. The whole of the Adelaide Plains is deltaic 
in origin. There is abundant evidence of the eastward extension of the sea 
in recent times (vide "Notes on a Recurrent Transgression of the sea at Dry 
Creek/' W. Howchin, Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 36, 1912, p. 34), and of 
oscillations in the relation of sea and land. Meanwhile the Torrens and 
associated streams have gone on depositing their abundant sands, silts, and 
muds, so that there is now an enormous accumulated thickness of these delta- 
building deposits. 

Some portions of the lower deltaic plain are now high and dry, as in the 
growing suburban areas of Woodville and West Torrens. In o*ther places 
building has gone on in the face of much difficulty and inconvenience, as at 
Port Adelaide and suburbs, and in the more easterly suburbs of Glenelg. 
While flat mud banks, close to sea level, are not promising sites, it must be 
remembered that great sea ports, such as Amsterdam and Venice, have been 
built in such areas. 

There is a belt of country, one to two miles wide, running northward 
from between Glenelg and Morphettville through the Reedbeds to Port 
Adelaide. This is liable to winter floods, is mainly an area of considerable 
fertility, and must remain sparsely settled, mostly used for grazing, for many 
years. These are the "Cowandilla Plains" of the early settlers; they con- 
stitute a feature of what is called the "Floodwaters Problem," and their special 
geographic characters are further dealt with in Section VII. 

Finally, there is the portion of the deltaic plain that is below the 10-foot 
contour line, mainly muddy mangrove flats surrounded by embankments 
—an area that is at present neither sea nor land ; this is also dealt with in some 
detail in Section VII. The lower deltaic plains contain our chief port and 
most of the important manufacturing suburbs, as well as large areas of 
orchard cultivation and grazing lands. Here, also, is the site of an important 
aerodrome, and of many sports grounds. 



207 

One of the more valuable positions for city growth within the sand-dune 
and lower delta areas appears to be the northern portion of LeFevre's 
Peninsula, where zoned extensions are now slowly proceeding northwards 
towards Outer Harbour — factory sites along the river front, residential 
suburbs along the seaward front on the west, and potential wharfage and 
railway areas around the northern end. 

(d) The Older Sand Dunes. — Naturally, there was more than one belt of 
coastal dunes formed during the westward and north-westward extension of 
the Adelaide Plains. Such features are mostly transitory, and few traces of 
them remain. There is, however, one belt of old sand dunes that should be 
mentioned, since it evidently marks a physiographic feature that existed for 
a considerable period of time. This belt of old dunes is of some economic 
significance, in that they provide garden sand, building sand, etc., and also 
because they provide dry and varied areas on the otherwise swampy plain. 
Because of their reddish colour, they are very noticeable features of the delta 
plains as viewed from the hills. Where they occur in the lower parts of the 
deltaic plain, the raised, dry areas are suitable for settlement and are so used 
in places. 

These dunes are up to SO feet in height, but have been for the most 
part levelled down. In no less than three localities— Seaton. Glenelg, and 
Kooyonga — they have provided sites for golf-links. The dune belt is irregular 
and discontinuous. It extends from the east of Glenelg, roughly parallel to 
the coast, northward to Port Adelaide, and possibly forms the higher western 
portion of Torrens Island; it is about 1-| to 2 miles back from the present 
coastline, and may mark the last lengthy period of still-stand of the shoreline. 

(e) The Higher Deltaic Plain. — This is defined as the area between the 
40-foot contour line and the 100-foot contour line (vide contour plans, vertical 
interval two feet, of the Hydraulic Survey, and the Commonwealth Military 
Contour Sheet of Adelaide). It is really the older, and therefore the higher- 
level portion of the plain eastward of the "lower deltaic plains" above 
described, and running up to the Para Fault Scarp (sec fig. 4). 

Since the Para Scarp disappears to the south of Adelaide, the 100-foot 
contour line may there be taken to provide a suitable boundary. The building 
up of the deltaic plains has been the work of at least three agencies : — 

(i.) The rising coastline ; 

(ii.J The accumulation of river-borne deposits ; and 

(Hi.) The building up of sand-dune deposits under the influence of the 
prevailing southerly and south-westerly winds and tidal sweep. 
The higher deltaic plain really consists of widespread fan-deltas extend- 
ing outwards from the mouths of" the streams, where they emerge from the 
higher fault-block adjoining to the east (see fig. 4). The chief of these fan- 
deltas, clearly to be seen on the contour maps referred to, are of (a) Little 
Para River (to the north of the area here described, but shown in fig. 4) ; 
(b) Dry Creek; (c) Torrens River, economically the most important; and 
(d) the less well-defined fan-deltas of Brownhill Creek and Sturt River. 

Each of these fan-delta areas is economically important. The Little Para 
Fan provides the site for the village of Salisbury, and its fertile surroundings ; 
the Dry Creek Fan is mainly occupied by the Municipal Abattoirs and asso- 
ciated "settlements. On the Torrens Fan are the important and thickly- 
settled suburbs of Hilton, Mile End, Thebarton, Hindmarsh, Bowden, Croy- 
don, and Kilkenny. On the area farther to the south we have the residential 
and' manufacturing areas of Richmond, Plympton, and Edwardstown, and the 
beautiful vine and orchard districts of Marion. 



208 

(f) The Para Fault Block. — This is the third and the most important zone 
of the Adelaide Plains proper. It comprises a broad belt of country sloping 
southward from the Para Hills (north-east of Adelaide), gradually becoming 
lower until, to the south of the Torrens River, this block of ground merges 
into the general levels of the plain (see geological sections, fig. 7). 

For purposes of definition it may be regarded as that area within the 
100-foot and the 500-foot contours (see fig. 4). It must be remembered, how- 
ever, that the 500-foot contour line, which bounds the foot of the main Mount 
Lofty Scarp from the opening of the Torrens Gorge to that of the Brownhill 
Creek (10 miles), bends outward from the foot of the range where it passes 
to the north of the Torrens Gorge, and extends, into the range to the south of 
Brownhill Creek. North of the Torrens Gorge, to the Little Para River, 
the 1,000-foot contour marks the eastward boundary of the Para Block. East 
of this line rises the steep western face of the Mount Lofty Horst. 

The Para Block is composed of highly resistant Cambrian and older 
sediments, heavily folded and very perfectly peneplaned. The visible portion 
of the block extends from beyond Gawler southward for 25 miles to Adelaide. 
It borders the western scarp front of the Mount Lofty Ranges and is fairly 
uniform in width — about fixe miles. The profile of this block may be seen 
to advantage from the Port River and thereabouts. The general surface level 
is some hundreds of feet above the plain at Gawler, 400 feet above the plain 
at the Little Para, gradually plunging downwards until it disappears below 
the plain at Adelaide, 

In addition to its southward plunge, this block is, particularly from 
Golden Grove southwards, tilted easterly towards the range, a matter that 
has had important consequences. 

The western scarp face of the Para Block is a marked feature of the 
landscape for its whole length, and has been one of the chief controls of all 
road and railway communication in its neighbourhood. This southward- 
plunging, eastward-tilted block is the most important of all the purely 
structural factors in the settlement and development of the city and suburbs 
of Adelaide. In a previous paper the writer referred to this as the Yatala 
Block (ref. 8, p. 12) ; Howchin has referred to its buried portion as the 
"Adelaide Shelf" (ref. 12, p. 148). From the point of view of the exposed 
portion of the fault block, the name "Para," however, seems the most fitting, 
being a native name (meaning water, vide Cockburn's "Nomenclature of South 
Australia") and having been associated with the geographical nomenclature 
of the block since the earliest days of settlement (sometimes spelt Parra, vide 
1841 map). The block has undergone youthful dissection along the scarp 
face, with deeper valleys where it is crossed by the Little Para River, Dry 
Creek, and the Torrens River. 

South of the Dry Creek Gorge the Para Fault Block shows little or no 
exposures of the bedrock of which it is for the most part composed. It 
becomes covered with soils and travertines, and the uplifted western edge 
forms the long northern ridge along which the residential area of Prospect, 
Nailsworth, Enfield, and other suburbs is spreading so rapidly. To the east 
and south-east the covering of younger rocks and of river gravels and alluvial 
materials becomes deeper and deeper owing to the southerly plunge and 
easterly tilt of the block, until its character is entirely lost in the general 
alluvial plain. 

The effect of this tilted block on the Torrens River has been to divert it 
to the south-west; in its passage across this block we have the most beautiful, 
the most fertile, and the most historic portion of the whole Torrens Valley. 
The physiographic conditions at the western edge of the Para Block provide 
that this super-imposed river should there form a "gorge." This has been 



209 

done, but the block is so low, and the rocks here forming it — Tertiary lime- 
stones, alluvial, and travertine — are relatively so soft that the "gorge" is wide 
and mature-looking, bounded on the north of its mouth by Montefiore Hill 
and the adjoining elevated area of North Adelaide, and on the south by what 
we may call, for purposes of reference, the Newmarket Hill. This portion 
of the Torrens Valley has become the gateway through which passes the 
whole of the railway communication of the capital city. It was reserved by 
the founder for Park Lands and Public Buildings, and is largely so used. 

(g) Factors determining the City Site. — We shall endeavour to show how 
the foregoing factors influenced or controlled the selection of the site of 
Adelaide. The earlier historical aspects will not be dwelt on at any length, 
since they have already been set down so fully in such papers as Grenfell 
Price's "Geographical Problems of Early South Australia' 7 (Royal Geo- 
graphical Society of Australasia, S. Austr. Branch, vol. XXV.), and else- 
where (refs. 15, 16, 17). 

The successive factors in the selection of the site of Adelaide were: — 
(L) Gulf St. Vincent (shelter and central position). 

(ii.) The Adelaide Plains (wide fertile spaces). 

(in.) The Port River Estuary (secure harbour). 

(iv.) The Torrens River (supply of fresh water). 

(v.) The Para Block (high level ground). 

Colonel Light has set out the reasons that led him to favour the eastern 
shore of Gulf St. Vincent in preference to all other available sites, having in 
view the main factors of harbour facilities, fertile soil, water supply, and 
access to the Murray Valley. Price (ref. 16, 17) has shown that Sturt, before 
this, had expressed favour towards the eastern shores of Gulf St. Vincent. 
In this, Sturt and Light showed that, topographic knowledge and instinct for 
which both men have already been noted. 

The next factor was to discover a harbour for the sheltering of the 
immigrant ships that were following so closely. Here Light's observations 
and information led him to favour Barker's Inlet ("Sixteen Mile Creek"), 
discovered in 1831, mostly referred to by Light as "Jones' Harbour" (because 
of Jones' account of 1833). The fertile and beautiful plains of Adelaide all 
the more strongly inclined Light to find a harbour in their vicinity — fertile 
spaces being first among all the factors of human geography. 

The search proved an elusive undertaking, on account of the peculiar 
physiographic features of the lower delta of the Torrens, and the fact that 
the chief arm runs parallel, and not normal, to the coast. The harbour was 
ultimately discovered, and, setting aside the vicissitudes of the search for the 
best site within the inner port, this decision formed the second step in the 
selection of the site of the "first city." 

The next requirements were fresh water and good ground for a settle- 
ment. The lower deltaic plains were rejected for obvious and excellent 
reasons. The higher deltaic areas (above the 40-foot contour) were con- 
sidered, were favoured by Governor Hindmarsh, but were ultimately rejected 
by Light because of the signs of occasional flooding. The Torrens promised 
to provide a water supply adequate for all requirements for some time, there- 
fore it was decided that the settlement should lie along the river, A good 
city site should have some eminence and freedom from floods ; thus the Para 
Fault Block came into the discussion. The site must also be as near as 
possible to the harbour. 

For all these reasons it came about that the point nearest the harbour, 
where the uplifted western edge of the Para Fault Block is intersected by 
the Torrens Valley, was the determining point in the selection of the site of 



210 

Adelaide proper, and here, on February 11, 1837, somewhere about the corner 
now occupied by the Newmarket Hotel, the survey of Adelaide was begun. 

This place, called "Newmarket Hill" in a previous paragraph, is a very 
slight rise (30-40 feet), but it is a most significant rise; it is the southward 
continuation of the scarp that appears across the valley in Montefiore Hill. 
It covers the position of a great north-south fault, the Para Fault, in which 
the adjoining western block (the Croydon Shelf) is thrown down some two 
thousand feet (ref. 12). On the Adelaide Plains, Nature provided almost ideal 
geographical conditions for the site of a city; Colonel Light wisely interpreted 
those conditions. 

(h) Factors influencing the Plan of the City. — A variety of theories has 
been propounded and many strange stories told about the reasons for 
Adelaide being laid out as it is. Some of these accounts appear to be based 
on the quite unnecessary assumption that Light must have "copied" his plan 
from some other city. Others, possibly emphasising the fact that Light was 
a soldier, and forgetting that he was also a surveyor (and, as we know, an 
intelligent town-planner), have striven to see in the plan hidden ideas regard- 
ing fortifications, defences, range of guns, and many other matters for which 
we have no evidence. In this connection, the "stepped" arrangement of East 
Terrace has provided material for a number of theories. 

It is desired to show, and to establish from Light's own words, that he 
designed the city to suit the physiographic conditions of the site, and that no 
military or other external considerations entered into the matter. This is 
exactly the attitude of mind with which we should have expected a trained 
and capable man to enter on his job. 

The first important decision was to build the city in two parts, using the 
high level land (average height 140 feet above sea level) on both banks of the 
river, with the larger portion on the southern side (see fig. 4). This was 
determined by the lay of the land (consult military or hydraulic engineer's 
contour maps). The Para Fault Scarp being the western boundary, the angle 
at which the river came down from the north-east left a smaller elevated area 
north of the river than was available on the south. Light's first scheme, as 
shown in his map of February 7, 1837 (reproduced in Gill's "Biographical 
Sketch of Light"), was to make the smaller rectangular North Adelaide area 
parallel with the southern larger rectangular area of South Adelaide. 

When the survey got down to details the finer points of the relief of the 
area naturally asserted themselves. North Adelaide was brought closer to the 
river, and tilted to one side to suit the contours of the country. Considerable 
additions (towards Pennington Terrace and Lower North Adelaide) were 
also made on the sunny east-facing slopes of the Torrens Valley. This 
brought the north-western corner of North Adelaide along the sloping face 
of the fault scarp; consequently Mills Terrace was "stepped off/' as we know 
it now, by leaving out some of the blocks so that it would fit the contours. 

The north-eastern corner of the proposed South Adelaide rectangle was 
also found to lie along a valley (the small valley that runs through the East 
Park Lands into the Botanic Gardens), and here also some blocks had to be 
left out, and East Terrace is thus "stepped off* 1 to suit the contour of the site. 
The important part played by the contours in this lay-out may further be 
gauged by the emphasis placed on the shading of the more important slopes 
in Light's first detailed map of Adelaide, the one that shows the numbered 
acres (ordered by the House of Commons to be printed, January 26, 1838). 

In the interior arrangement of streets and squares, and the setting aside 
of Park Lands, it is, of course reasonable to assume that memories of such 
cities as Catania and others played a part (vide "City of Adelaide Year Book, 
1927." p. 232). But there can be no doubt that the general plan of the present 



211 

city of Adelaide was determined by a wise and thoughtful man seeking to 
make the best use of the geographical advantages of the site selected. 

He has told us that he moved his camp to the site of Adelaide on January 
3, 1837, so as to be near his work, and he then wrote in his "Journal" 
(p. 43) : — "From this time to January 111 was employed in looking repeatedly 
over the ground, and devising in my own mind the best method of laying out 
the town according to the course of the river and the nature of the ground." 

There is possibly no other city in the world, of similar importance, where 
the various geographical factors determining the site can be so easily recog- 
nised and so readily confirmed from the words of the founders themselves. 
Having completed our account of the origin of the city on the Adelaide 
Plains, we shall briefly consider the rocks of the plains and then pass on to a 
survey of the adjacent mountain ranges and the rivers, returning in a later 
section to the question of the growth and development of the city and suburbs. 

(k) The Rocks of the Adelaide Plains. — For the purpose of a survey of 
the rocks of the Adelaide Plains, we may consider the latter as comprising 
that triangular portion south of Dry Creek, and enclosed between the main 
Mount Lofty Scarp face and the sea (see fig. 4). These paragraphs should 
be read in conjunction with fig. 7, which shows five geographical sections 
across the plains. Dealing with the rocks, their resistance to erosion, their 
economic value, and the nature of their soils, we have : — 

(i.) Cambrian and Older Rocks. 
(ii.J Tertiary Rocks. 
(Hi.) Recent Rocks. 

(i.) Cambrian and Older Rocks. — In this area the Cambrians and Pre- 
Cambrians consist largely of hard and massive quartzites, as seen in the Dry 
Creek quarries. They are intensely resistant to erosion, apart from the fact 
that they are usually very much jointed and fractured. They prove to be of 
little use as building stone, on account of the difficulties of quarrying and 
dressing. They are much used as ballast and as a road metal, but are of 
inferior quality for the latter purpose. They break down to form a porous 
sandy soil, characteristic of the plains. 

(ii.) Tertiary- Rocks.— These, as will be explained later, overlaid the 
whole of the Mount Lofty region in middle Tertiary times, and possibly up 
to the beginning of the Pleistocene. On the northern portion of the Para 
Fault Block they have been quite stripped off by Pleistocene and Recent 
erosion. South of the Torrens, on the buried portion of the Para Fault Block, 
these even-bedded fossiliferous limestones and clays still occur, overlying the 
peneplaned Cambrians and Pre-Cambrians ; they are recorded in the well and 
bore sections in the area (vide Mines Department publications). 

The beds outcrop with an easterly strike and a gentle southerly dip on 
the south bank of the Torrens, behind what is now Government House, but 
these outcrops are not now visible, the quarries having been covered over by 
later constructional work. These rocks were relatively easily eroded. They 
have been used with success as building stones ; and they added to the value 
of the deltaic soils of which they formed part. 

(in.) Recent Rocks. — Recent deposits consist almost wholly of the water- 
borne accumulations consequent upon the uplift in early Pleistocene times of 
the various fault blocks of this area. Thus we have thick fault-apron con- 
glomerates and fan-delta accumulations along the base of the main scarp 
front; gentler fan deltas, with gravels, sands, and silts, extending over the 
Para Block, and outward from the base of the latter to the sea, modified in 
their distribution by wind and tide and stream as already detailed in the 
preceding sections. 



212 

The later alluvial deposits of the Adelaide Plains are of wide variety, 
varying from the fine muds of the mangrove flats, upwards through silts, 
sands, gravels, and conglomerates, to huge blocks weighing 5 to 6 tons. The 
latter have been described by Howchin (Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol 45, 
1921, pp. 29-32). Over certain areas beds of clay predominate near the surface, 
and give rise to the so-called "Bay of Biscay" land, where buildings are liable 
to cracks owing to variations in the seasonal conditions of the soils. There 
is a wide belt of country in the eastern suburbs, from Prescott Terrace to the 
foothills, remarkable for the number of water-worn boulders, up to 6 inches in 
diameter. An excavation for deep drainage, open at the time of writing, shows 
an extraordinary accumulation of large boulders, at depths of from 2 feet to 
10 feet, along Greenhill Road, from the Mental Hospital eastward. 

The only other recent rock types worthy of mention are the travertines. 
These appear to be the modern relics of the tertiary overmass of limestone 
that once covered the whole of the Para Block; in other parts they overlie 
these limestones. They are quite close to the surface and shallow in depth, 
and are a result of the wet winter and dry summer of this area. They are 
specially marked in a belt extending through North and South Adelaide 
proper, and although friable and without any controlling joint planes, they 
were at one time used extensively for building purposes. The silts of the 
delta plains and the Torrens Valley provide beautiful orchard and garden 
soils, though clay belts of less value occur ; the clays were, in the early days, 
used for pise and brick dwellings, and later for making roofing tiles ; the 
manufacture of bricks and tiles is still carried on. 

The story of the progressive development of building materials is a most 
interesting one. The present cityi of Adelaide is built almost wholly of brick, 
stone, and cement. It is by far the most solidly built city of the Common- 
wealth (vide "Commonwealth Year Book"), possibly because of the combined 
facts of timber scarcity and abundance of brick and stone. According to the 
1911 census, the following were the relative percentages of stone (including 
brick and concrete) houses in the various States: — South Australia, 85; 
Western Australia, 43; New South Wales, 42; Victoria, 36; Tasmania, 23; 
Queensland, 3. The early settlers used canvas tents and imported wooden 
houses. The use of brick and rammed earth (pise) came in very early. 
Travertine, the handiest stone of the plains, followed. Then came the Ter- 
tiary limestone, and later the fine building stones of the quarries of the Mount 
Lofty Ranges— Glen Osmond, Mitcham, and Tapley's Hill slates and mud- 
stones. Brick dominated the next period, and is still the chief building 
material, though stone is considerably used, with cement concrete for more 
important edifices. 

VI.— THE MOUNT LOFTY RANGES. 

(a) Introduction. — These ranges have been described in a general way in the 
opening section dealing with the Gulf Region and the Fleurieu Peninsula. 
We are here concerned only with the section reaching from the Torrens River 
area south to Cape Jervis. The Mount Lofty Ranges constitute one of the 
chief assets and one of the most keenly appreciated beauties of the Gulf 
Region of South Australia, and indeed of the whole State. The values of the 
"Hills" were eloquently, though briefly described by Sir Samuel Way (Unveil- 
ing of Light Memorial, June, 1905) : — . . . "One of the finest plains in the 
world, under the shelter of the beautiful hills which have moderated the 
climate. They have secured us from drought, have furnished us with a 
beautiful water supply, and with a glorious picture." There is a popular belief 
that these ranges are of great geological age ; actually they are young geologi- 



213 

cally (Pleistocene), although the rocks of which they are built are very 
ancient. 

(b) General Plan. — The general plan of the Mount Lofty Horst is shown 
in figs. 1, 2, and 3. The chief facts of the geology and the structure are 
excellently set out in H. Y. L. Brown's 1899 Geological Map of the State, and 
in subsequent maps published by Dr. L. K. Ward (Director of Mines). The 
structural features have been dealt with by Benson, Howchin, Mawson, Teale, 
and others. The economic aspects have been described in various Bulletins 
by Mr. R. Lockhart Jack. Even before the structural fault-block features of 
the range had been observed, the relationships between the Tertiary and the 
more ancient deposits, as shown in Brown's map, had been set out in a most 
illuminating manner. 

The step-faulted character of the Mount Lofty Ranges can be readily 
seen from any vantage point in Adelaide, as shown in the sketch (fig. 6). In 
fig. 7 five sections, with diagrammatic geological details, have been drawn 
from the available topographic information; these illustrate the step-faulted 
characer of the front of the range. That the early settlers recognised this 
structural peculiarity is shown by the name of "The Tiers," that used to be 
applied to the ranges. This name has quite gone out of use, except in the 
case of the more remote "Hindmarsh Tiers," still so called. 

Benson, in his "Notes descriptive of a Stereogram of the Mount Lofty 
Ranges (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol 35, 1911, p. 108, ref. 1), recognised 
many of the outstanding fault lines. He recognised also that Mount Lofty 
and Kangaroo Island were one great tectonic unit, and not two (a north- 
south and an east-west) as sometimes supposed. Much additional assistance 
to the physiographer has since been given by the Commonwealth one-inch 
military contour map of Adelaide, and Edmunds' valuable form-line maps, 
that cover a greater area. The Lands Department's general form-line map 
of the hills district of 1897 is an invaluable aid. The large-scale contour 
plans (V.I. 2') of the Hydraulic Engineer were kindly allowed to be trans- 
ferred to a one-inch scale (V.I. 10'), which was carried out by Mr. J. A. 
Tillett, and this has been of great value in working out the physiographic 
history of the plains. Further survey work must be done in the hill areas 
before the whole story, even in general outline, can be told. 

The main "blocks" of the ranges have been set out by Nature on broad 
and sustained lines. The differential movements of the various blocks are 
abrupt, as seen in sections across the range (fig. 5), but consists of gentle 
warping and plunging in direction parallel with the main fault line. Dr. 
Walter Geisler, of the University of Halle, who is familiar with block moun- 
tains on the Continent of Europe, told the writer that he knew of no place 
where the tectonic structures were to be seen so plainly and diagrammatically 
as are those of the Mount Lofty Ranges from a vantage point such as 
Chandler's Hill. The two frontal blocks (Burnside and Belair Blocks) are 
narrow and roughly flat-topped. Having ascended the latter at, say 
O'Halloran's Hill, the eastern blocks may be seen rising with long even sky- 
lines (the old peneplain levels) one behind the other. The steep scarp faces 
slope to the west, and the long peneplain faces lie towards the east. 

The ultimate working out of the physiography of these ranges will 
involve long and detailed work for three reasons: — 

(i.) The valleys are in many cases partly tectonic, i.e., dominated by 
crustal movements, as in the major part of the Onkaparinga 
Valley; 
(u.) In the southern portions they are influenced (vide Howchin, 
Teale, and Mawson) by the re-exposed fossil landscapes of 
Permo-carboniferous times ; and 



214 



(Hi.) Over all these the influence of Pleistocene and recent erosive 

work and river capture have been exerted to bring about a 

harmonious drainage system ; the conditions are particularly 

favourable to extensive captures. 

The present writer does not follow Benson and Howchin in the belief 

that the old pre-uplift river system in the Mount Lofty Ranges \vas 

dominantly meridional, that is, that such rivers ran more or less parallel with 

MT. LOFTY HORST 



ADELAIDE PLAINS 



ST.VlNCeNTG-ULF 




Fig. 5. 
Block diagram of the area showing the Adelaide Plains, some of the tilted blocks 
of the Mount Lofty Horst, and the Torrens and Onkaparinga Valleys. This 
figure is purely diagrammatic, and is intended to suggest the leading structural 

features of the area. 

the fault scarps, and he here puts forward an alternative explanation. It is 
quite possible that on the pre-Pleistocene limestone plain there was no river 
system whatever, just as we find on similar limestone plains to-day. 



215 

Wherever the writer has investigated block faulting in this and other 
States, an outstanding feature has been found to be the fault-apron of alluvial 
that lies along the base of each fault scarp (particularly along the Greendale 
and Bacchus Marsh series of faults, ref. 9) quite irrespective of the later 
development of the drainage networks. These alluvial accumulations might 
easily be mistaken as marking the courses of old linear streams running 
parallel to the fault scarps, whereas they have actually been deposited by 
short steep streams that developed on the scarp face, flowing at right angles 
to the lines of the alluvial deposits in question. 

_ (c) The Rock Characteristics. — The various rock types, described as far as 
their resistance to erosion is concerned, are as follow.' They are divided into 
two main groups:— 

(i.) The Overmass. 
(n.) The Undermass. 

A consideration of the facts as at present known regarding southern 
Australian physiography brings one to the inevitable conclusion that the 
whole of the great Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian complex, with later rocks 
protected m down-faulted or down-warped "pockets/' had been planed down 
to a most perfect peneplain by the end of Oligocene time. 

Over large areas in South Australia and Victoria this peneplain was 
depressed below sea-level in Mid-Tertiary times, when the shallow seas, 
known as the Murravian Gulf, extended eastward over southern Victoria and 
westward over probably the whole area that is set out as the "Gulf Region" 
m fig. 3. Thus the Mid-Tertiary coastline of South Australia was consider- 
ably to the north of the present coastline. This shallow sea slowly became 
dry land during the upper Tertiary period, and from then onwards up to the 
culminating period of the Kosciusko Uplift in the earlv Pleistocene, the over- 
mass of level-bedded Tertiary limestones, perhaps three hundred or' more feet 
m thickness, was uplifted. Where it covered the main horsts and was exposed 
by elevation it has subsequently been stripped off by erosion from almost the 
whole area, particularly in the case of the Mount Lofty Ranges. 

The subsequent discussion of physiographic features necessitates a 
determination regarding this "overmass." Its existence appears to have been 
recognised (vide Howchin, in "An Outlier of Older Cainozoic Rocks near 
Mallala," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol 36, 1912, p. 14), but its profound 
influence on the subsequent physiographic history of the area does not appear 
to have been stressed. 

The evidence for this "overmass" may be summarised as follows :— 

(a) The Tertiary limestones come close up to the fault scarps that 
bound the eastern and western sides of the Mount Lofty Ranges. 
(In this connection see Bryan and Whitehouse, "Later Palaeo- 
graphy of Queensland," P.R.S.Q., vol. XXXVIII., No. 10, map 
on page 113.) 

(b) The uplift (Pleistocene) is known to be younger than the lime- 
stones (Miocene). 

(c) The limestones have been involved in the fault movements as 
shown by folded and tilted beds at various places along the 
Willunga-Noarlunga coast, as described by Howchin (Trans Roy 
Soc. S. Austr., vol. XXXV., 1911, p. 47; also vol. XL., 1916, p. 258). 

(d) The overmass of limestone still remains in those places where the 
beds have been protected from erosion as on the plunging and 
dipping Mount Lofty Block at Port Willunga, on the Para Block 
where the limestones exist intact beneath the site of Adelaide, and 
on the depressed Croydon Shelf to the west. 



216 

(e) An outlying remnant of the uplifted limestones exists at the head 
of the Hindmarsh River, recorded by Howchin, Benson, and 
others, at an altitude of 900 to 1,000 feet. Elsewhere travertine 
deposits possibly bear witness to relics of the old Tertiary over- 
mass, as suggested to the writer by Mr. P. S. Hossfeld. 

(f) The great difference in the powers of erosion-resistance between 
this limestone overmass and the Cambrian undermass should 
satisfactorily account for the completeness with which the 
stripping has been carried out. (For accounts of the complete 
disappearance of overmass on uplifted blocks in other areas see 
refs. 5 and 9.) 

The rocks are : — 

(i.) Overmass — Tertiary rocks. 
(ii.) Undermass — Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian rocks. 

Tertiaries.— These have already been described or referred to in different 
places; they are relatively weakly resistant to erosion, level-bedded, and con- 
sist of limestones with interbedded clays and gravels, etc. They may be seen 
characteristically as low marine and river cliffs at Port Willunga, and at the 
mouth of the Onkaparinga. 

Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian. — The younger of these two ancient series, as 
shown on current geological maps, lies mainly along the inner curve of the 
Mount Lofty arc, with the more complex older rocks to the east. The linear 
arrangement of the granitic masses of the Pre-Cambrian suggests that the 
same curving structure that is so characteristic of the latest tectonic block 
movement was originally impressed during the crustal movements of the 
early palaeozoic mountain-building epochs. 

The rocks themselves are abundantly described elsewhere ; they consist 
of grits, conglomerates, quartzites, slates, limestones, tillites, schists, gneisses, 
and plutonic rocks, all highly indurated, w r ith silicification and recrystalliza- 
tion ; they are extremely resistant to erosion. 

All the beds are not, of course, of the same order of resistance ; thus, in 
the scarp front that faces Adelaide, the less resistant argillaceous limestones, 
calcareous slates, and mudstones give us rounded hills and smooth-sided 
valleys, such as Green Hill — the vantage point from which Light surveyed the 
Adelaide Plains in February, 1837. The quartzites give us bold, high, scrub- 
covered hills such as Black Hill, and precipitous valleys and waterfalls as at 
Slape's Gully and Morialta. In addition, though it does not closely concern 
the Adelaide area, mention must be made of the Permo-carboniferous glacial 
deposits, readily eroded, and thus presenting once more to the air large areas 
of later palaeozoic landscape features (fossil landscapes), as first recognised 
by Howchin in 1910, and later described by him in the "Journal of Geology," 
Chicago, 1912, p. 200. 

(d) Main Structural Characters. — An effort has been made to indicate the 
outstanding structures in a block diagram (fig. 5). From west to east we 
have : — 

The Adelaide Plains and Estuary. 

Para Scarp and Para Block. 

The Burnside Fault Block. 

The Main Scarp Fault, from the Little Para Gorge to Seacliff. 

The Belair Fault and Block. 

The Sturt Fault and Block. 

The Mount Lofty Fault and Block. 

The Willunga Fault and Block. 

The Bulls Creek Fault and Block. 



217 



This summary does not attempt to cover the more obscure areas where 
minor or more eroded fault scarps are suggested. An effort is made to con- 
solidate the present position by detailed descriptions of the blocks and 
reference to their economic significance. 

The Adelaide Plains and the Para Block. — These features and their economic 
influences have already been dealt with in detail in Section V. 

(e) The Bumside Fault and Block, — The Burnside block is really no more 
than a narrow "fault splinter"; it is described by Howchin (ref. 12). It has 
been so obscured by fault aprons and gravels that it is not easy to define the 
limits of either the block or its western boundary fault; but the bedrock is 
here and there exposed by quarrying operations. On account of the clays in 
the covering deposits, there is a row of brick kilns following along the line 
of this block (see figs. 6 and 7). 

(f ) The Main Scarp Faults. — This set of faults constitutes a tectonic feature 
of high importance; it dominates the geography of the whole Gulf Region. 
Within the area of fig. 3, it has a linear extent of over 100 miles, and the 
maximum movement along its face (in which, of course, more than one fault 
plane is involved) is of the order of 2,000 feet. In order of importance the 
Para Fault might be considered next, since this appears to be the dominating 
feature of portion of the eastern contour of the Gulf, and involves an additional 
downthrow of some two thousand feet. The Willunga Fault possibly comes 
third; a continuation of this line probably forms the northern face of Kan- 
garoo Island (see fig. 3, and Admiralty Chart No. 2389). 



5TURT BLOCK 



WEN HtlL 



BEUIR BLOCK 




Fig. 6. 

Sketch of portion of the Mount Lofty Scarp Face as seen from Adelaide, showing 

Mount Lofty and the step-faults; drawn from a photograph. This view covers 

only two or three miles of the scarp front, in its most deeply dissected part. 

Viewed from Adelaide, the main scarp front is gracefully capped by the 
twin domes of Mount Lofty (2,334 feet) and Little Mount (see fig. 6). The 
old peneplain levels can be readily seen on the Sturt and Eclair Shelves. The 
distinction between the treeless and the timbered areas that is so noticeable 
a feature (not indicated in fig. 6) is largely a matter of rock types. The lime- 
stones, mudstones, and slates have produced gentler slopes and better soils, 
with grass and trees, and perhaps also with a greater temptation to clear off 
the timber so that the grazing value of the land might be increased. The 
timbered areas, that appear dark in the distance, are covered by thick native 
scrub and undergrowth ; the timber in such places is scrubby and not worth 
moving for its own value nor for grazing purposes; such dark-coloured hills 
are almost wholly of massive quartzites. 

^ A very superficial examination of the spurs and gullies of the main scarp 
indicates to the geologist that any one fault-block, as here described, consists 



218 

in reality of a maze of blocks, a marquetry or mosaic of varying rock types 
and structures (see Howchin, Trans. Roy. Soc. of S. Austr., vol. XXVIIL, 
1904, p. 253, and Plate XLIV.). Positive details on these points can be 
determined only by an adequate geological survey. It is this variety of rock 
type and structure that gives to the western aspect of the range much of its 
beauty, with its graceful skyline and bold front forming a magnificent back- 
ground for the city of the plains. 

(g) The Belair Fault and Block, — The nomenclature which has been applied 
to these tectonic blocks is varied and confusing. While the name of the 
Belair Block has remained fixed, others have not been so treated. This is 
partly due to the varying aspects from which the features have beenregarded. 
For instance, one author gives two different names to the same portion of one 
scarp within the limits of one paper. The present writer has adopted what 
seemed the most distinctive name, and has given to the western fault of each 
block the same name as the block. 

The Belair Block rises to about 1,000 feet. It also is a narrow block, a 
mile or so in width, but broadening towards the south. The peneplain surface 
is remarkably well preserved in many places, so much so that on this much 
dissected area it has been found possible to establish golf links. These links 
are really set out on a remnant of the pre-Miocene Plain, an area carved down 
by slow' processes of wave and running water millions of years ago, The 
Belair Block becomes one with the Sturt Block as it slopes downwards 
towards the south, where it forms the fiat top of O'Halloran's 1 Hill, a site that 
has been used for aeroplane landings. The block tapers and plunges, more 
gently, to the north, dying out towards Black Hill. 

There are two features of special economic interest in the Belair Block. 
On an alluvial plain such as that on which Adelaide is built, the provision of 
material for roads and paths is most important. Thus it comes about that, 
because the nearest supplies of rock for such purposes may be obtained on 
the Belair Block, every other spur and gully has its quarry and rock-crushing 
plant. Along this block also are several of the chief pleasure grounds, rela- 
tively easy of access and providing a scenic change for the people of the plain; 
the chief are those of National Park (Belair), Waterfall Gully, and Monalta 
(see fig. 16). Towards the sea, limestones enter largely into the composition 
of the block, and give us gently-sloping grassy hills; here, also, are the 
Brighton Cement Works and the important limestone quarries established by 
the Local Government Department near Hallett's Cove. 

(h) The Sturt Fault and Block.— This also is a long narrow block, but some- 
what wider than the Belair Block, rising behind the latter towards Mount 
Lofty (see fig. 7). It is continuous towards the north, beyond the Torrens 
Gorge, where its western face probably becomes the main bold scarp that 
abuts on the Para Block. Towards the south the Sturt Fault dies out and the 
Sturt Block merges into the Belair Block. Where the two blocks become one, 
there occurs the extensive erosion of Coromandel Valley and the Sturt tribu- 
taries that come down from the National Park. 

Some of the rocks here are more easily eroded, and the most southerly 
point at which the Sturt Fault is traceable is along the 1,000-foot line within 
the National Park, Belair; Picnic Point is on the Sturt Block, and the Pmes 
Oval is on the Belair Block. In its highest portion (fig. 6) the Sturt Block 
is a deeply gullied one— a multitude of steep-sided valleys all running normal 
to the scarp faces ; but from certain distant views,. particularly from the north, 
the remnants of the level surfaces of these blocks can be clearly differentiated. 
The southern extension of the Sturt Block is occupied by a small longi- 
tudinal stream that is important as the site of one of the chief reservoirs of 
the metropolitan water supply. The nomenclature of this valley or stream 



219 

is worthy of mention. It is well known to geologists as Field River; in a map 
of the State dated 1841 it is called Hurtle Vale; recent maps, such as the 
Military Contour Map, call it Hallett's Creek; while to the water supply 
authorities it is known as Happy Valley. In its lower reaches it is noted for 
its exposures of contorted Cambrian, or older, sediments, made famous by 
Mr. J. Greenlees' excellent photographs. There, is some evidence that this 
valley was at one time the southern extension of the Sturt Valley. 

(k) The Mount Lofty Fault and Block. — This is a broad block, very heavily 
dissected. It is the most elevated portion of the horst. It has been suggested 
that Mount Lofty and the Little Mount were monadnocks, residuals on the 
ancient peneplain, or alternatively that they were smaller single blocks that 
projected high above the general level and had been shaped by subsequent 
erosion. From the evidence presented by the summit levels throughout the 
ranges regarding the regularity of the pre-Miocene peneplain, and because the 
rocks of Mount Lofty, etc., are not of specially higher resistance than those of 
neighbouring eroded areas, the writer is inclined to regard them simply as the 
remains of the most highly elevated portion of the Mount Lofty Scarp (see 
fig- S). 

The Mount Lofty Block as a whole is highly resistant. Its outline 
dominates the appearance of the mountain skyline from the west, just as the 
block itself is chief of the difficulties of communication across the range (see 
fig. 6), and makes of the whole horst the barrier that it is between Adelaide 
and the Murray Basin — a barrier which still presses heavily on the economic 
welfare of the State. The block extends northward through Breakneck Hill 
and Mount Gawler towards Barossa, and on its northern extension the well- 
known Humbug Scrub occupies its western portion. 

It is dominantly a quartzite block, but other varieties of rock (including 
limestones, phyllites, schists, and "diorites") occur, as seen in the fine section 
that is presented in the Torrens Gorge. To the southward it extends in a 
well-dissected ridge to Noarlunga, near which place it is cut through by the 
gorge of the Onkaparinga. In this locality, where some geological mapping 
has been done in detail by Professor Howchin, the mosaic character of the 
numerous interlocking blocks is prominently shown. 

In its southern portion this broad block is tilted strongly to the east, 
abutting against the high Willunga Scarp. This eastward tilt provides the 
tectonic valley that is occupied by the Onkaparinga River for a considerable 
part of its course. The recognition of this character in the Onkaparinga 
explains much that would otherwise appear anomalous. As far as the avail- 
able evidence goes, it would appear that the Onkaparinga may be regarded 
in part as a superimposed river, but its course has been profoundly affected by 
the faulting; its present valley is largely tectonic. Its superimposed character 
is suggested by the fact that it has been necessary, and possible, for it to carve 
a course through the rising western edge of the Mount Lofty Block, giving 
us the gorge near Noarlunga. The alternative possibility of this being due 
to capture by headward erosion must not be lost sight of.' 

Another interesting feature of this Mount Lofty Block, well shown in 
the block diagram in Teale's paper (Bull. No. 6, Dept. of Forestry, Univ. of 
Adelaide, 1918), is the formation, at the base of the Willunga Scarp, towards 
the sea, of a triangular area now filled by alluvial material overlying the 
Tertiary limestone overmass, here largely preserved (see fig. 5). 

^ From its shape and its alluvial content the McLaren Vale triangle of 
plain has been referred to as the old estuary of the Onkaparinga. There is 
excellent evidence in favour of its tectonic origin, with the filling partly due 
to residual overmass and partly to rock waste from the surrounding ridges. 
The shape of the area presents none of the irregularities of an estuary, but 



220 



on the contrary is exactly defined by the faces of the adjoining tectonic blocks. 
Though the chief feature of this triangular area is its tectonic origin, the writer 
is not prepared to maintain that the Onkaparinga did not at one time flow 
into it, with subsequent diversion, or capture by headward erosion. 

In its extension northward towards the Torrens Gorge, the Mount Lofty 
Block is occupied in part by the valley of Sixth Creek. From Upper Sturt, 
through Crafers, Stirling, Piccadilly, Summertown, Uraidla, to Cherryville, 
the sloping and dissected surface of the Mount Lofty Block is occupied by 
many fertile valleys with orchards and gardens that provide most of the fruit 
and vegetable requirements of Adelaide. 

Before closing the account of the Mount Lofty Block, the writer would 
like to record his belief that there are certain definite minor blocks and fault 
scarps within this main larger block, as in the Mount Bold Ranges, the Forest 
Ranges, and Mount Gould. He has been unable up to the present to collect 
sufficient evidence to establish these suggested relationships. The decipher- 
ing of the detailed block structures of the Mount Lofty Horst will take many 
generations for its accomplishment. The present effort aims to be no more 
than one step forward on the work done by Benson (ref. 1). 

(1) The Wilhmga Fmlt and Block.— This is a remarkable physiographic 
feature as we see it developed behind Willunga and at Sellick's Hill. The 
scarp loses its boldness and definiteness as we proceed northward. It has 
been greatly reduced by erosion in the upper reaches of the Onkaparinga and 
the Torrens, but possibly reappears more strongly in the ranges about Mount 
Crawford. 

(m) The Bull's Creek Fault and Block,— Beyond the Willunga block to the 
east rises the level-topped scarp of the Bull's Creek Range. The continuation 
of this range along the general direction of the fault system, the physiographic 
evidence of the western front of the range, and its almost unbroken stretch 
along the Mount Torrens Range to the maturely dissected country about 
Mount Pleasant, suggest this to be another great tectonic unit. This portion 
of the area has not been examined in detail by the writer, and the fault is 
assumed purely on physiographic evidence. To the eastward there are indica- 
tions of other blocks, sinking gradually to the Tertiary plain, but the country 
is more broken up, and not sufficient geological nor physiographic data have 
been collected to attempt any detailed definition. 

(n) Sections across the Area. — One of the most productive aids to physio- 
graphic study is the construction of sections in areas where a detailed contour 
survey has been made. In fig. 7 five such sections are presented. These run 
from west to east across the Adelaide area, and are parallel to one another. 
They are drawn from the data given in the Commonwealth Military Map of 
Adelaide. The geology shown in the sections is purely symbolic, and does 
not suggest the rich variety of Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian rock types that 
actually occurs. A section through the ranges, showing the rock types and 
dips, has been made by Mr. R. Lockhart Jack, Deputy Government Geologist, 
but has not been published. The sections shown in fig. 7 pass respectively 
through the following localities :— (1) Golden Grove, (2) Port Adelaide, 
(3) Adelaide, (4) Mount Lofty, and (5) Belair. t , 

These sections convey definite and valuable physiographic information, 
and little additional explanation or description is necessary. Evidence pro- 
vided by them has been repeatedly used in the discussion of the physiographic 
features already dealt with : — 

Section 1 passes through the low swampy areas of the Port River Estuary 
across the fan delta of the Little Para, reaching bed-rock in the uplifted Para 
Block, about 11 miles from the sea. On this block are the piedmont sands 
and gravels that extend down to Golden Grove, and which, from their 



221 

peculiar character (a general mixture of all sizes), have been found specially 
suitably for the making of certain types of modern roads. Beyond Golden 
Grove rises the bold timbered scarp face of the main range. 

Section 2 passes through the sand dunes of Semaphore and the site of 
Port Adelaide. Six miles to the east, the Para Scarp is met at a lower 
elevation than in Section 1. The Para Block here appears to be much wider 
than it is in the first section, but this is partly due to minor variation in the 
directions of the fault lines. The exact relations between the frontal faults 
north of the Torrens Gorge (Sections 1 and 2) with those to the south (Sec- 
tions 4 and 5) have not yet been worked out. 

Section 3 commences on the outer dune belt at South Henley, and passes 
through the swampy area known as the Reedbeds (the Lower Deltaic Plain). 



1300 ' 
900' 

600' 



LEFEVRE5 



SHALtOW REACH 



PEN*- 



PORT 



'&$ ; R- T.I. 



lift T r T 



SWAMP 




1200 " 

-32£ SEMAPHORE 



600' 
300' 



PORT RIVER 

PORT ADELAIDE 



| PORT AM 



DELTAIC PLAIN 

T 



HENLEY BEACH 



152PJ 

1200! 
9QQ 1 

^ | THE REED BEDS 






^TJfr J "" I " m ' aH ' :M '-" T - 



21flff 

1800' 
I BOO' 
1200' 

**-' HOLDFAST WAWWWAtt 

aOQ' BAY I / STURTR. 



isorf 

I20Q ' 
900' 

2£S£ 



DUNES 

i 



rrwr-^.-r^.^X-^r? a-? H-VA-r-X-T-XVXifca 



scale: ,one mux 



P^CAMBRIAH, HTIffTlARY. S^StR 



Fig. 7. 

Parallel sections drawn from east to west across the Adelaide area. From 
topographic details given in the Adelaide Sheet of the Commonwealth Military- 
Survey. Each section represents 16 miles from west to east and lies exactly 
south of the one preceding it; the geological details are symbolic of rock ages 
but not of rock types and structures. 



Five miles from the coast is noted the slight rise that is due to the buried 
Para Block. This is the rise that determined the position of the capital. The 
section then passes across the alluvial that overlies the Para Block, with the 
higher piedmont accumulations covering the Burnside Block (500 feet) and 
rises rapidly to the Belair level (1,000 feet), then to the Sturt Block (1,500 
feet) and finally in a less well-defined rise to the Mount Loftv Block (see 
fig. 6). 

Section 4 crosses a narrower portion of the plain; the Para and Burnside 
Blocks are here hidden below the surface, and the main scarp of the range 
is met with seven miles from the coast. A much greater width of the ranges 



222 

comes into this section, owing to the south-west curve of the horst, The 
Belair Block is well denned; the Sturt Block is deeply dissected, and the 
massive Mount Lofty Block is here seen at its greatest elevation. 

Section 5. — The alluvial plains in this section are narrower and the sand 
dunes are higher. The main scarp face is more gentle (here used for the 
trunk railway line), and is only five miles from the coast. The Belair Block, 
still at 1,000 feet, is wider; the Sturt Block here consists largely of glacial 
accumulations, and is more dissected. On the Mount Lofty Block are seen 
some of the tributary valleys of the south-flowing Onkaparinga. 

(o) Economic Influences of the Mount Lofty Ranges. — The influence of the 
ranges on the rainfall and general climatic conditions of the main settled 
portions of South Australia is profound. An examination of a series of 
weather maps, and of the correlation between the isohyets and the contour 
lines as shown, say, on Ward's 1917 map of South Australia (see also rainfall 
graph in fig. 12), provides convincing evidence in support of the contention 
of the writer (A.A.A.S. Handbook, 1924) that "the very existence of the State 
of South Australia, as we know it, is dependent on the uplift of this arc- 
shaped highland belt," and the associated tectonic movements that formed 
the sunklands. 

To come to details, we may consider the economic influences of the 
Mount Lofty Ranges under two heads: — (i.) those influences that are favour- 
able to the State, and (ii.) those that are unfavourable. The favourable ones 
may be dealt with under five sub-headings ; the unfavourable needs but one. 

(i.) — Favourable : (a) Climatic influences. 

(b) Water supply. 

(c) Farm and garden areas. 

(d) Health resorts. 

(e) Scenic beauty. 

j^y — Unfavourable : (a) A barrier to communication with the cast. 

The climatic influences have already been referred to. In brief, the 
climate of the eastern Gulf Region is cooler and the rainfall higher because 
of these ranges. Possibly the aspect of the country for ages prior to the 
Kosciusko Uplift was little different from the present-day aspect of the 
Nullarbor Plains or perhaps the Murray Mallee. 

The account of the water supply needs little elaboration; the catchment 
areas are set out clearly in the map on fig. 8, made from plans published by 
the Hydraulic Engineer's Department. From the figure it will be seen that 
the greater part of the valleys of the two chief streams — the Torrens and the 
Onkaparinga — have been already utilized as catchment areas. The heavy 
broken line (B) represents the division between the highlands and the plains, 
whereon the site of the city of Adelaide is indicated at A. 

It is along the line B (fig. 8) that the all-important geographical control 
of "height" becomes manifest. Water flows from a higher to a lower level; 
rain falls more abundantly in higher regions. Thus the higher region cast 
of the fault line B gives us at the same time the double advantage of con- 
veniently situated catchment areas with a rainfall up to 47 inches per annum 
(the highest in the State), and sites for high-level reservoirs. Thus the 
hundreds of thousands of people who live crowded together on the small 
triangle of plains west of the line B are able to obtain the abundant supplies 
of good water without which their existence would be impossible. 

In fig. 8, G represents the Upper Torrens catchment that is diverted into 
the Millbrook Reservoir, the latter being shown with its own small catch- 
ment area at F. A second weir near the mouth of the Torrens Gorge draws 
upon the catchment area of the Torrens and Sixth Creek (E), the water being 



223 

diverted into Hope Valley Reservoir (C), and Thorndon Park Reservoir (D). 
These three reservoirs are also shown in the section accompanying fig. 9. 
The Onkaparinga Valley (J) is dammed at the Clarendon Weir, and diverted 
into the Happy Valley Reservoir, shown with its own small catchment area 
at (H). Fig. 8 indicates very clearly the extent to which the N.E.-S.W. 
tectonic lines have affected the shapes of the catchment areas concerned. 




Fig. 8. 
Map showing river catchments and reservoirs of the metropolitan water supply, 

as described in the context. 

The main frontal scarp streams, including the Sturt and Little Para, run 
but little except in the heavy winter rains, and are then heavily laden with 
suspended material ; these streams have at present no value from the water 
conservation point of view. Future extensions for the water supply will 
possibly be to. the southward. The catchment areas to the north are already 
utilised, the Warren and Barossa Reservoirs being just beyond the area 
shown in fig. 8. The streams shown in the figure as falling eastward to the 
Murray basin are, with the exception of the Finniss, lower both in rainfall 
and in elevation. 



224 

The following are the details of the water supply of the metropolitan 
area, as published by the Hydraulic Engineer's Department; it will be realised 
that in the Torrens Valley the catchment areas overlap; the heights given 
are from sea-level (L.W.S.) : — ■ 

(i.) Millbrook Reservoir.— Torrens Valley; catchment area, 88 square 

miles; low water, 916 feet; high water, 999 feet; capacity, 

3,647,000,000 gallons. 
(ii.) Hope Valley Reservoir. — Torrens Valley; catchment area, 135 

square miles; low water, 295 feet; high water, 346 feet; capacity, 

765,000,000 gallons. 
(Hi.) Thorndon Park Reservoir. — Torrens Valley; catchment area same 

as Hope Vallev; low water, 282 feet; high water, 323 feet; capacity, 

142,000,000 gallons. 
(iv.) Happy Valley. — Onkaparinga River; catchment area, 170 square 

miles; low water, 448 feet; high water, 485 feet; capacity, 

2,803,000,000 gallons— plus 390,000,000 gallons below low water 

level. 
(v.) Proposed Myponga Reservoir. — Catchment area, 43 square miles; 

low water, 650 feet; high water, 715 feet; capacity, 3,621,000,000 

gallons. 
(vi.) In dry years the underground supplies of the Adelaide sub- 
artesian basin, in the Sturt district, have been tapped and pumped 

into the mains. 
The numberless valleys of the upland areas, enjoying an abundant rain- 
fall, abound with orchards, farms, and gardens, which provide the city of 
Adelaide with a fresh supply of varied foods. The less fertile highlands are 
the sites of week-end cottages and holiday resorts, furnishing welcome relief 
during the long hot summer months. Many country residences have also 
been built in these hills, where good motor roads make rapid communication 
possible for light traffic, despite the heavy grades. The scenic beauty pro- 
vided by the foregoing features are an outcome of the varied structure and 
materials of the hills. There is a peculiar charm and variety in the har- 
monious way in wdiich the hill villages blend with their physiographic and 
botanical environment, but the chief claim of the range to beauty lies in its 
position as a background to the plains of the city of Adelaide. 

The unfavourable aspect of the range is unfortunately one that is of 
extraordinary importance. It constitutes a mighty barrier against com- 
munication with the Murray Valley and with the larger communities of _ the 
Eastern States. This is a serious aspect from the economic point of view. 
The difficulty has been emphasised and exaggerated by the series of happen- 
ings, spread over the last fifty years, that led to the main railway line being 
carried over what we know to be almost the highest and most difficult portion 
of the whole range. From the geographical point of view it is debatable 
whether the genius of the mechanical engineer, as expressed in mountain 
engines and heavy lines, etc., can overcome, in the most effective and 
economic way, the barrier presented by grades of 1 in 37, when a route with 
grades of 1 in 80 is known to exist. 

It is of interest to dip back into the past in the attempt to discover: — 
First, why the main river crossing came to be at "Edwards' Crossing," or 
Murray Bridge as we now know it; and, second, why the route was chosen 
over the highest portion of the range. It is difficult to learn from the maze 
of parliamentary papers and contemporary documents, and from the columns 
of parliamentary debates, how far human motives, open and hidden, affected 
the position, and how far geographical factors and engineering advice was 



225 

allowed to come into the question. One thing is certain : A reasonably good 
contour map of the hills district, from Kapunda to Cape Jervis, would have 
greatly influenced the decisions made, and must have resulted in far-reaching 
economies as far as the choice of route was concerned. Unfortunately, no 
such map was, or is, available. 

(p) The Selection of the Site of Murray Bridge. — The question of a harbour 
near the Murray Mouth is one that received the earnest consideration of the 
founders of South Australia, and it is one that becomes increasingly 
important with the expansion of settlement in the great Murray Valley. It 
is a remarkable fact that the Murray Basin — the greatest and most important 
geographical unit in Australia — has never received the political and economic 
consideration due to it. This arises largely from the political fact that the 
basin is divided arbitrarily into four areas, controlled by four States — these 
areas being separated, for the greater part, by the most unreal of boundaries, 
namely, meridians and parallels. Further, the State that holds the territory 
of the Murray Mouth is weak in numbers compared with the competing 
Eastern States (see S.A. Parliamentary Papers, 38/17 and 32/21). 

The four capital cities controlling these four portions of the Murray 
Basin are all separated from it by high mountain barriers, over which the 
produce of the basin is hauled, at great cost, to the seaside. Two new r factors 
have arisen to support the efforts that have been made to secure the natural 
geographical requirements of an exit for the Murray Basin via a port at, or 
near, the Murray Mouth. One of these new factors is the- existence of a 
powerful and well-constituted body, the Murray River Waters Commission, 
and the second is the existence, for the first time, of a capital city (Canberra) 
within the Murray Basin. 

From the Adelaide point of view, it may be argued that it is possible for 
Adelaide to be the Murray River port, as it does indeed to some extent 
function at the present time. Militating strongly against this possibility are 
two things: The existence of the main trunk line, the "Hills Railway," over 
a high and difficult range, with grades of 1 in 45 (without allowing for 
resistance on curves; actually 1 in 37). The second difficulty is the existence 
of the river port at Murray Bridge. The reasons for the present positions of 
the town and port of Murray Bridge are of interest ; they tell the same story 
as the Hills Railway Line — a happy-go-lucky method of progress under the 
urge of local requirements and political expediency. Contemporary docu- 
ments show that there was little, if any, regard for the more important con- 
siderations of the establishment of a Murray River port and the provision of 
Interstate communications. 

A study of old Parliamentary Papers shows that the chief incidents in 
this story took place about sixty years ago. In September, 1864 ? it was con- 
sidered that the traffic over the ferry at Wellington justified the building of 
a bridge over the Murray to enable communications to be made "with the 
South-East and with the land across the river/' The traffic crossing the 
river at Wellington that year is set down as: — 7,119 people, 852 carriages, 
14,375 great cattle, and 83,638 small cattle. It is notable that no opinion was 
expressed regarding the possibility of the bridge site developing as a river 
port, The river was not considered as a mode of communication, to be so 
utilised, but purely as an obstacle or barrier, to be overcome. 

From Parliamentary Paper 148/64 we learn that a select committee was 
appointed by Parliament to enquire into the Murray River Crossings : "as 
to the best site for establishing crossing places at the Murray and Lakes, 
en route to the South-East district, whether by bridge or £e£ry./ It was then 
considered that the passage of stock and the horse-and-dray traffic justified a 
bridge. There were five competing sites : Wellington (where there was a 

H 



226 

ferry), Thompson's Crossing (sites 1 and 2), Mason's Crossing, and Edwards' 
Crossing. These crossings were examined and reported on by Mr. C. F. G. 
Ashwin, Superintending Surveyor of the South-Eastern district. The reports 
were accompanied by river sections, that gave no information except the 
depths and widths of the river. 

The whole matter seems to have been decided at last in terms of cost. 
The Wellington bridge would cost £22,436, the most expensive, while the 
cheapest (by £700 only) was that at Edwards' Crossing. And so the road 
bridge came to be at that place, and this same bridge was later used for the 
railway, until 1925; and there the town of Murray Bridge grew up, and 
naturally became the chief river port. Later the old road bridge was found 
unsuitable, and a new and separate railway bridge was built at the same site. 
The whole story is an example of the manner in which important geographical 
factors remain unconsidered, owing to the pressure of immediate necessities 
and political expediency. 

(q) The Selection of the Route for the "Hills Railway" — As early as 1836 
Sturt, Light, and others considered the question of the best means of com- 
munication between the Adelaide Plains and the Murray Valley. It was 
thought that an easy passage lay to the north (beyond Gawler). By 1880 
railway transport had become all-important, and the need for more railway 
communication and the selection of a route for the "hills railway" had become 
a burning question. In Parliamentary Papers of that period the plans of the 
range areas are crossed by a maze of competing routes, from Burra-Morgan 
in the north, to Adelaide-Milang in the south. As Sir Douglas Mawson has 
pointed out (Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. XLVIL, 1923, p. 372), the easiest 
route appears to be still further south — a route that was not then considered. 

We may narrow down our consideration of the possible routes to four: — 
(i.) Where the ranges fall away to the north— the "Kapunda Gate." 
(ii.) The Torrens River Valley route. 
(Hi.) The Brownhill Creek, Sturt, Onkaparinga route. 
(iv.) Where the ranges fall away to the south. 

(i.) The Northern Pass. — This is used as a road and railway route, and 
is of great value; it is, however, too long (Brunhes gives "distance" as second 
in importance of all geographical controls, ref. 3), penetrates too much into 
the drier areas, and taps the river too far to the north (Morgan, 9 inches per 
annum) to be a satisfactory pass between Adelaide and the East. 

(ii.) and (Hi.).— In Parliamentary Paper 175 (1874) Mr. H. C. Mais, 
Engineer-in-Chief, reported that "Nature has very broadly indicated two 
practicable routes, one through the hills via the Torrens Gorge, and the other 
via Brownhill Creek." He appears to have personally favoured the route that 
is for all practical purposes the one followed to-day. but which was first 
planned to go out easterly through Norwood and Glen Osmond, and up 
through the Brownhill Creek Valley, then onwards much as we have it now to 
"Edwards' Crossing" over the Murray, where the road bridge then was. 

The trouble seems to have been that the railway route had to be con- 
sidered largely from local points of view; "the railways follow the trade." 
Two great geographers, Ratzel and Brunhes, have emphasised the fact that 
railways are first built in short disconnected sections. Man's primal tendency 
is to think in terms of local needs; trunk lines are later developments. The 
Murray Valley and the Eastern States did not come very largely, if at all, 
into the picture. When the hills railway was under consideration, the 
important factors were the communities then established in the hills and 
beyond, and the existence of the road bridge over the Murray. Thus the 
present route was favoured (P.P. 226A) because it "would serve a better 
district, a larger population, and secure a greater amount of traffic than any 



227 

other line south of Gawler." Later, when rail communication with Melbourne 
was decided upon, the road bridge at Edwards' Crossing, and the established 
"Hills Railway Line" were naturally utilised on the score of expediency. 

(iv.) The Southern Passes. — Of these Sir Douglas Mawson wrote in the 
paper already referred to (ref. 14) : "At Peter's Creek the Meadows Valley 
may be entered at an elevation a little over 1,100 feet above sea level. By 
continuing down the Meadows Creek to the Finniss River, the Mount Lofty 
Range can be crossed without rising to any greater height. This is the lowest 
passage available across the range, and is the natural route for trunk line 
communication from one side to the other." The route referred to by Sir 
Douglas Mawson has been surveyed by the Engineer-in-Chief's Department, 
and referencfts to same may be found in Parliamentary Papers 32/23 and 
34/22. In the absence of a complete topographic survey of the hills, it cannot 
be decided that even this route is the best, but according to the data available 
from the records above quoted it has many advantages over the present 
route. It provides, for instance, a 1 in 80 compensated grade, compared with 
the 1 in 37 compensated grades of the present route; but the new route would 
possibly be a few miles longer. 

Regarding the matter purely from the geographical point of view (that 
is, the reaction of man to his environment), it would appear that if railway 
communication is to continue to be the chief means of transport of goods, 
it may yet be found necessary to take advantage of this southern route. Any- 
thing that will minimise the barrier effect of these ranges, by allowing for 
increase of load and speed without increasing costs, must be of the utmost 
benefit to the whole State, but more particularly to the city of Adelaide. The 
establishment of a Murray port, or the division of the Commonwealth into 
a greater number of administrative units, would, of course, completely alter 
the aspects of the problem here considered. 

VII.— THE TORRENS AND ITS ESTUARY. 

(a) General Survey of the Drainage System of the Adelaide Area. — In this 
and the following sections we are concerned only with the streams that drain 
into the Port River Estuary, as set out in fig. 9, plus the valley of the Onka- 
paringa. No discussion is entered into regarding the drainage area of the 
Gawler (North and South Para) River to the north, the many streams that 
drain eastward into the Murray River, nor the lesser streams that flow to the 
south. The streams concerned in the estuary are the Little Para River, Dry 
Creek, and the Torrens and its tributaries (including Brownhill Creek and 
the Sturt River, vide fig. 9). It is the rock waste carried down by these 
streams that has built up the portion of the Adelaide Plains that most con- 
cerns us. It is these streams, also, that have incidentally provided our 
harbours — the essential gateways to and from the outer world. These 
streams, though small, are of varied history, and are of the utmost importance 
to the city of Adelaide. 

(b) Physiographic Evolution of the Area. — In dealing with the physiographic 
history of the area we shall go back to the early Tertiary times, and shall 
consider as a whole the area shown in wdiat is here called the Gulf Region 
(fig, 3). We know, from the foldings, intrusions, etc., that long prior to 
Tertiary times this area had been the site of great mountain ranges, possibly 
more than once, but with those very ancient features we are not here 
concerned. 

In the less far-away period of the Lower Tertiary we may picture the 
Gulf Region as a great land area of fairly low relief, gradually being worn 
down to an almost perfect plain. This great low-level land area w r as 
composed almost wholly of Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian rocks. There is 



228 

every reason for believing that it was even then a marquetry of fault blocks. 
The present blocks of the main horsts must be to a very large extent a heri- 
tage from previous periods of diastrophism, but in the Pre-Miocene period 
they were all planed down to the same dead level — to be emphasised as 
separate blocks by the later uplift, aided by the etching of sub-aerial erosion 
along fault boundaries. 

There is no recorded evidence of any river, lake or sea deposits of those 
days, but there doubtless were slow-flowing streams, and possibly lakes and 




S.L. 



Fig. 9. 

Plan showing the chief streams of the Port River Estuary, with section showing 
the grades of the Torrens and its tributaries, as described in Section VII. 



swamps. The southern portion of the State was not the deeply indented and 
varied gulf region we know now, but a great lowland mass consisting of 
Palaeozoic and Pre-Cambrian rocks. Its southern boundary was not where 
our sea-coast now is, but it extended much farther to the south, beyond 
Kangaroo Island— just how far we do not know. 

About Middle Tertiary times (some 20 million years ago,, according to 
Barrell) this area was slowly submerged by shallow seas, whether by the rise 
of the sea or depression of the land we cannot say, though the latter is usually 
assumed. Chapman ("Victorian Naturalist," March, 1922, p. 127) records 



229 

basal Miocene fossils from Moorlands, just beyond Murray Bridge, testifying 
to the existence in early Miocene times of a sea or gulf there. This sea, 
through the following geological ages, advanced and receded, in evidence of 
which we have fossils that testify to swamps and estuaries wherein were laid 
down beds of lignite, etc. Chapman (loc. cit.) states that there were on the 
adjoining land areas luxuriant growths of timber and scrub, and that the 
climate was warm temperate. 

This great shallow sea, which extended also over large areas in Victoria, 
has been known to South Australians as the Murravian and Eucla Gulfs. 
The present writer is of the opinion that this sea was of much greater extent 
than those geographical terms suggest. The existence of the Tertiary "over- 
mass" of the Mount Lofty Ranges, which has been suggested in a previous 
portion of this paper (Section VI.) , implies much vaster seas. It is reasonable 
to believe that the whole of the southern area of what we now know as 
the Gulf Region was covered by sea for considerable portions of Miocene 
time, when beds of limestones, clays, gravels, lignites, etc., were laid down. 
At Portland, Victoria, these beds are over 2,000 feet thick ; in other areas they 
are so thin at the present time that the bedrock of the ancient peneplain shows 
through here and there. 

Our second definite picture, then, is of a great shallow sea, extending 
from Victoria, over the Murray River area, over the site of the present Mount 
Lofty Ranges, over the St. Vincent and Spencer Gulfs, Yorke Peninsula, 
skirting Eyre Peninsula, and continuing to the Nullarbor and Eucla areas to 
the west. The southern shore-line of South Australia, that was once so much 
farther to the south, had now receded to the north, perhaps along an irregular 
line running from Overland Corner north-westerly to Streaky Bay, maybe 
■even to Ooldea. Thus for perhaps the whole of the Miocene period the 
Adelaide region was at the bottom of a broad, shallow, southern sea, slowly 
accumulating a covering of marine rocks, with occasional emergences and 
temporary estuarine or swamp conditions. Nothing has so far been revealed 
to support the possibility that the Mount Lofty Horst w T as in existence as dry 
land during the Miocene marine transgression; as already detailed, there is 
considerable evidence to the contrary. 

Regarding the following Pliocene period we are less sure. It is possible 
that there were no marked tectonic disturbances. Some portions of the land 
may have been warped gently upwards to become low land areas. Other 
portions remained covered by the sea, and limestones and clays, etc., con- 
tinued to be deposited. Some of the Pliocene marine deposits are still pre- 
served, both in sea cliffs and in deposits that are now 700 feet below sea level 
(reL 11). 

At the end of Pliocene time, and the beginning of the Pleistocene (about 
one million years ago according to Barrell's time scale), great and momentous 
changes occurred. Prodigious crustal forces were exerted, and the great 
period of relative uplift and depression that affected all southern and eastern 
Australia was initiated. This great orogenic movement culminated in what 
is called the "Kosciusko Period." During this period great founderings took 
place to the south (Jeffrey Deep) and to the east (Tasman Sea). (In a 
detailed discussion of the formation and age of the peneplain, sec ref. 9, pp. 
202-212.) 

The area of the Gulf Region was gradually uplifted as a whole, but in 
certain less stable areas great faults occurred, and some blocks of land were 
uplifted while others were depressed. The Torrcns Sunkland and the 
Spencer- Vincent Sunkland came into being (see figs. 1 and 2). The Flinders 
and Mount Lofty Horsts were uplifted, and the Gulf Region of South Aus- 
tralia began to take on the indented shape by which we know it now. The 



230 

uplift was gradual and differential, and, as Professor Howchin has shown on 
seismological evidence (ref. 11), it is still going on. 

The raised blocks of the Mount Lofty and Yorke Peninsula Horsts, and 
the depressed blocks of Spencer and St. Vincent Gulfs were marked out during 
this catastrophic period, but all were not raised or depressed evenly. There 
is evidence, for instance, that the western blocks of the Mount Lofty Horst 
were raised to their present eminence somewhat later than the eastern ones. 
The physiographic features of the Mount Lofty Block, and those to the west, 
are much less mature than those to the eastward, even where the same river 
valley is concerned; this is a point of considerable importance. 

Turning back to consider the great plains of Miocene limestones as they 
emerged from the sea, we may endeavour to form a mental picture of the 
first signs of uplift along the Mount Lofty Horst. On this slowly rising 
limestone block consequent streams would form, according to the lay of the 
land. It is perhaps to this time we must look for the origin of the directions 
of the more dominant streams such as those we are particularly considering: 
The Torrens and the Onkaparinga; but this portion of the story is admittedly 
obscure, particularly in view of the possibility that the pre-Miocene landscape 
contained river valleys that were later "exhumed." 

As the Mount Lofty Horst more and more came to assume its present 
height and character, the consequent streams that first came into existence 
would tend to keep to their first channels, but they must have been in many 
cases greatly influenced by the tectonic lines, and possibly by pre-existing 
sediment-filled stream valleys. Deep valleys were cut into the overmass of 
limestones, and ultimately these continued into the ancient undermass. 

With the assistance of the tributaries and associated streams the soft 
limestone overmass was completely cleared away, with the exception of the 
isolated remnants referred to in Section VI. (c). At the; present time sunken 
blocks of these one-time continuous level sheets of ancient Miocene limestones 
are to be found at depths up to 2,000 feet and more below sea-level, and 
Pliocene occurs at depths of 700 feet, while remnants of uplifted Tertiary 
blocks still exist at heights of 900-1,000 feet above sea-level (ref. 11). 

If we picture the blocks east of Mount Lofty itself to have been the 
dominant ones in the early stages of uplift — an uplift followed by a long 
period of comparative still-stand, we can understand why the upper portions 
of the Torrens and Onkaparinga, along with other valleys and ranges to the 
east and south, are of more mature character. The physiographic features of 
these valleys appear to be more mature than could have been accomplished 
since early Pleistocene time. 

We may further picture a culminating period of uplift, when the western 
blocks (Mount Lofty, Sturt, and Belair) were somewhat more rapidly raised. 
The Torrens and Onkaparinga needs must devote themselves to vigorous 
downward erosion in order to preserve their valleys, and so we should get 
the steep gorges and deeply incised meanders of these two rivers where they 
cross the resistant western blocks. 

Subsequently a period of comparative still-stand took place, and with the 
increased rainfall of the Mount Lofty area, the development of the drainage 
network proceeded apace along the lines characteristic of river action. Steep 
fault-front valleys, such as Brownhill Creek, Slapes Gully, Waterfall Gully, 
Morialta, etc., developed along the western scarp, and sent down their tribute 
to form the Adelaide Plains. Streams such as Sixth Creek, Sturt River, and 
Cox's Creek — given height and direction by the greater elevation of the Mount 
Lofty portion of the western blocks — carved out deep and steep-sided valleys. 
Meanwhile a totally different type of river evolution was in progress on the 
growing Adelaide Plains, as described later, and so there slowly developed the 
drainage network as we know it to-day (fig. 9), 



231 

(c) The Torrens River Valley. — The general outlines of the Torrens and 
its valley are shown in figs. 8 and 9. The physiographic history has already 
been told in broad outline, and only a brief description will be necessary, with 
some attention to the influence of the various geographic factors on man's 
occupation of the area. As already detailed, this valley was one of the 
favoured sites for a railway route across the ranges, but was not so used. 
The incised meander of the Torrens Gorge presented such difficulties to com- 
munications that it is only within the past few years that a road has been 
constructed there. Now, however, it forms the main road route to Mannum. 
Previously the mature and well-settled upper portions of the Torrens Valley 
were served b}^ a road that climbed over two high scarp faces to the north, 
via Tea Tree Gully. Influenced by the settlements of Tea Tree Gully, Ingle- 
wood, etc., the motor-bus route still goes via those villages, despite the steep 
grades. 

The Torrens Valley will be described under the following headings : — 
(i.) The Upper Torrens, from the source to the Gorge. 
(ii.) The Torrens Gorge. 
(in.) The Klemzig Valley, from the mouth of the Gorge to the edge of 

the Para Block, below Montenore Hill. 
(iv.) The Lower Torrens, the canal-like stream that crosses the deltaic 

plain to the Reedbeds. 
(v.) The Patawalonga Creek. 

A separate subsection will be devoted to a consideration of the Port River 
Estuary. 

These five sections of the Torrens Valley can be clearly differentiated 
in the section showing the grades of the streams, which is reproduced on a 
small scale in fig, 9. The gentle grades of the upper valley, the steeper grades 
within the Torrens Gorge, with subsequent flattening on crossing the fault 
line, are readily seen. Similarly, the up-stream tributaries can be noted as 
gentler in grade. Between the tributaries numbered 4 and 5 may be seen the 
two small fan-delta streams on which the Hope Valley and Thorndon Park 
Reservoirs are situated. The Millbrook Reservoir may also be noted in fig. 9, 
on the 1,000-foot line. In the figures presented by Mr. J. T. Furner to the 
Flood Waters Commission (P.P. 35/25) the fall of the Upper Torrens is 
shown to be 28 feet per mile, within the Torrens Gorge it is 75 feet per mile, 
while on the lower deltaic plains it is S| feet per mile. 

(i.) The Upper Torrens. — This valley is roughly parallel-sided, trending 
south-west across the structure of the country, but not uninfluenced by the 
block-faulting (see fig. 8). There are a number of small tributary streams, 
such as Cudlee Creek, Chain of Ponds, Kenton Valley, and Angas Creek. 
The grades and the valley shapes indicate a stage of erosion approaching 
maturity. The river is usually regarded there as a superimposed consequent, 
as already described. The country is well-grassed, well- watered savannah 
country, passing into bushlancls (30-inch average rainfall), and it supports 
several* picturesque and thriving townships, such as Mount Pleasant, Bird- 
wood, Gumeracha, and Chain "of Ponds — farming, dairying, and pastoral 
localities. 

A distinct change in the character of the valley occurs below Birdwood; 
it becomes narrower and the grades become steeper. Towards Gumeracha 
the influence of pegmatite dykes and other rock structures is marked. The 
valleys open out again at the junction with Cudlee Creek, but neither here 
nor towards Millbrook can the physiography be regarded as older than early 
adolescence. Indeed, the whole course of the Torrens, as of the neighbouring 
Onkaparinga, is anomalous. In a normal river, the work is most advanced at 
the mouth and least in the headwaters; in the Onkaparinga, and more notably 



232 

in the Torrens, we get the mature valleys at the source of the stream, and an 
increasingly youthful physiography as we proceed downstream; an explana- 
tion of these features has already been suggested. Another suggestive feature- 
is that the northern tributaries, such as Chain of Ponds and Forreston Creek,. 
have gentler grades than the southern tributaries, Kenton Valley and Angas 
Creek (see fig. 9). 

The rocks are largely Pre-Cambrian, and provide good soils. The 
ancient rocks provided some gold and other minerals, and there was con- 
siderable mining activity here in earlier days. In addition to its natural 
beauty, this valley gives to Adelaide a considerable amount of produce, is the 
chief catchment area for the metropolitan water supply, and provides a fairly 
easy pass to the Murray River Valley at Mannum. The possibility that the 
stream, above Gumeracha, was once the headwaters of the Onkaparinga, is 
worthy of investigation. There is a low wind-gap just to the west of Mount 
Torrens (1,500 feet), where the Torrens, above Birdwood, may once have 
flowed through to the Onkaparinga. 

(ii.) The Torrens Gorge. — This portion of the valley is generally accepted as 
ante-consequent (ref. 8), but the possibility of headward erosion" and capture 
cannot be dismissed without further investigation. Its origin appears, in 
either case, to be due to the later and perhaps more rapidly rising western 
blocks of the horst, into which it has cut a deep gorge practically without 
tributaries, the important exception being Sixth Creek. Through this gorge,, 
by the ingenuity of engineers, there has now been made an excellent motor 
road, along which is laid the important arterial pipe-track from the Millbrook 
Reservoir. This gorge was for many years almost as complete a barrier to 
traffic as the ranges themselves. 

The grade of the river is high, and all the features of extreme youth or 
rejuvenation are obvious. On physiographic grounds alone, the gorge would 
appear to be Pleistocene, at least in part. The rocks are most complex, as- 
described by Benson (ref. 1 ; also Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. XXXIII. , 
1909, p. 101), and consist of massive quartzites, phyllites, schists, limestones,, 
and igneous intrusives. The value of the gorge to man is, like rugged areas 
elsewhere, mainly as a pass and for its scenic beauty. It is a catchment area. 
for the city water supply, there being a weir near the mouth. The igneous 
rocks ("diorites") provide good road metal. The only settlement in the gorge 
is an occasional small refreshment house. 

(Hi.) The Klemzig Valley. — The portion of the Torrens Valley from the 
mouth of the Gorge, across the Para Fault Block, to the western boundary 
of the latter, is fertile, beautiful, and of historic interest. It is well settled, 
partly with orchards, vineyards, orangeries, and gardens, and in part (closer 
to the city) with residential suburbs. In the early years of the settlement it 
was, as now, noted for its beauty and fertility. The valley is wide, and being- 
in soft alluvials and limestones, had reached an almost mature form — a later- 
general uplift has led to the formation of vertical banks cut into its own, 
alluvial deposits. Owing to the tilt of the Para Block the Torrens is here 
diverted to a direction considerably south of west, and the right (northern) 
side of the valley has steeper slopes than the left side. In the higher (fan. 
delta) portions are situated the storage reservoirs of Hope Valley and Thorn- 
don Park. 

The river at present flows between steep banks of alluvial, in places up 
to 50 feet high. These consist chiefly of rich deposits of imbedded silts, with 
current-bedded sands and gravels below. Near Walkerville there occurs,, 
from 10 to 20 feet above river level, a layer in which there are abundant trunks- 
of what appear to have been river red-gums; this deposit may be due to some: 
unusual combination of bush-fire and subsequent flood. 



233 

In its passage through the city the valley of the Torrens was happily 
reserved for Park Lands and public buildings, and is so^ used. There are 
found many beautiful public parks and gardens, memorial drives, botanic 
gardens, zoological gardens, the University oval, the Adelaide sports oval, 
and the municipal golf links ; Government House stands on its southern slope, 
and the Anglican Cathedral towards its northern slope; the later additions 
to the University buildings tend to turn their faces towards the more beautiful 
aspects of this valley. In its passage through this part of its course the river 
has been dammed by a weir to form an ornamental lake. 

Perhaps the most important economic value of the lower portion of this 
section of the Torrens Valley is its use as the main railway gate of the city 
(vide J. R. Richardson's map of Adelaide, 1923) ; the whole of the railway 
communication between Adelaide and the rest of the State and Common- 
wealth passes through this gap. A minor exception is the South Terrace line 
to Glenelg, but this is moribund and will possibly be abandoned as a railway 
line. 

In its passage across the Para Block, the Torrens receives no tributaries 
on the north, though the present headwaters of the Dry Creek at one time 
entered from the higher parts of the Para Block to the north. 

On the south, the Torrens is reinforced by the small scarp-face tribu- 
taries known as First, Second, Third, Fourth, and Fifth Creeks. As already 
explained, the easterly tilt of the Para Block has deflected the Torrens to the 
south-west, a fact of great importance in its bearing on the original plan of 
North and South Adelaide [see Section V. (b) ]. 

(iv.) The Lower Torrens.— For the last six miles of its course, after leaving 
the Para Block, the Torrens flows a little south of west, in a meandrine 
course, through its own deltaic accumulations. There is no valley ; natural 
levees are marked in several places. The stream is in a canal-like channel, of 
diminishing dimensions as it proceeds down-stream — a geographical factor 
■of high importance in the problem of the disposal of flood waters. The plain 
over which it flows has already been described [Section V., (c) and (e) ] ; 
brick-pits are numerous along portion of the course. Past Torrcnsville, a 
branch breaks away to the south-east (Breakaway Creek). Thence onwards 
is the well-known Reedbeds area— a growing portion of the lower deltaic 
plain — mostly swampy in winter and providing excellent grazing areas in 
summer. 

A road and tram-line cross this swampy area, despite the physiographic 
tmsuitability, and consequently each winter brings forward difficulties of 
communication in these routes. Here the waters of the Torrens, that have 
not percolated into the deep alluvials of the deltaic plain, divide and form 
wide swamps. Portion ultimately flows south along the coast some distance 
back from the sand dunes, and becomes the Patawalonga Creek; the 
remainder of the Torrens water, largely divested of its suspended material, 
flows north behind the dunes, into the Port River Estuary. The chief 
economic influence of the Lower Torrens, apart from the provision of 
excellent summer grazing areas, is the recurrent floods that it brings to those 
who dwell along its lower reaches, coupled with the fact that, like all deltaic 
streams, the river tends to overflow its banks at places up-stream each flood- 
time, and thus to change its course. 

In the problem of the metropolitan floodwaters, as in the problem of. the 
Hills Railway, the Murray Bridge, and the Murray port, the geographer may 
find most illuminating and valuable evidence in the various reports preserved 
in Parliamentary Papers. The outlook of the geographer, being impersonal 
and unaffected by questions of expediency, is naturally somewhat different 
from that of persons required to make decisions involving questions of public 



234 

policy and the expenditure of money. In the case of the floodwaters for 
instance, with due admiration for the scheme that has been drawn up and 
presented to the Committee, the geographical attitude would be somewhat 
like this: The area subject to inundation comprises some 4,000 acres that 
Nature is slowly building up by the same methods whereby the remainder of 
the plains was built. This area has certain values to man, but it is not at 
present suitable as a residential locality. The cheapest and most effective 
method of raising and improving this land is bv means of the River Torrens 
itself. 

If the whole 4,000 acres were resumed and placed under capable engineer- 
ing control, as far as the roads, bridges, and drains, etc., are concerned, there 
would some day be available a magnificent addition to the residential areas 
of Adelaide. An inspection of the map (Rg. 15) showing the present distribu- 
tion of the metropolitan population will assist in illustrating this point. It is 
admittedly unwise to interfere with the natural courses of rivers and currents, 
etc., but where we are compelled to interfere every effort should be made to' 
discover the methods along which Nature is working, and then to carry out 
our new designs along those lines, with the help of the natural forces that 
we seek to control. 

In the present case, for instance, the diversion of the Torrens River to 
a direct route into the sea south of Henley Beach, by means of artificial levees, 
with a concrete channel through the sand dimes, would possibly have at least 
three after-effects, as far as interference with Nature is concerned. These 
are : — 

(i.) The lower portions of the deltaic plain would be robbed for ever of 

their increment of silt, and must, therefore, remain low land. 
(ii.) The Port River would no longer have the addition to its ebb tide of 
the Torrens water, a fact that may in the course of years have a 
profound influence on the port. 
(Hi.) The silt deposited at the mouth of the concrete channel during 
floods would form a shoal, just as Point Malcolm has formed the 
Wonga Shoal, and the influence of wind and tide would be to 
cause a shallowing of the sea at Henley Beach and Grange, such 
as is now taking place north of the Wonga Shoal. 
(v.) The Patazmlonga Creek. — This is here regarded as portion of the 
Torrens River; it may be considered as the south arm of the present Torrens 
Delta. From the point of view of origin, it is much more likely that it is a 
quite modern and accidental physiographic feature, not in any way a part of 
the original drainage network. When one compares its present appearance 
With the pictures drawn and descriptions written in the early years of settle- 
ment, it appears that considerable degeneration must have taken place in this 
feature during the past 90 years. 

( For reasons set out in dealing with the evolution of the streams on the 
plains, the writer considers that the Patawalonga Creek was formed by the 
temporary damming up of the waters of the Sturt and Torrens during a period 
of heavy flood, possibly combined with spring tides and westerly winds, with 
a consequent breach through a low portion of the sand dunes at Glenelg and 
the formation of the Patawalonga Creek. 

(d) The Development and Drainage of the Plains. — The so-called "Port 
River Estuary" is really the estuary of the Torrens and associated streams, 
as shown in fig. 9. Economically it is of high importance, being the chief gate- 
way for communication between South Australia and the rest of the world 
The so-called "Port River" is really the tidal portion of the River Torrens. 

A physiographic discussion of the estuary involves consideration of the 
evolution of the streams that at present flow over the southern Adelaide 



235 



Plains, from the Little Para to the Stmt, This in turn involves consideration 
of the origin and growth of the plains themselves. A plan of the present 
estuarine area is shown in fig. 11, and the writer's conclusions regarding the 
development of the plains and drainage are set out diagrammatically in fig. 10. 
(i.) The Rivers of the Plains. — One authority has divided streams into two 
classes according as their thalwegs are : (i.) "concave to the sky," or (it.) 
"convex to the sky." The streams in the area shown in fig. 10 partake of both 
characters. In the ranges, east of the main fault line, they are concave to the 
sky, busily engaged in deepening their valleys. But when they cross the fault 




IjSlTfc 


ibbU<i 


— — \ r \. i ?^v / 


- __ J 2~ /C ^ 


lEkr 




Fig. 10. 

Plan to indicate one of the later and more important stages in the development 

of the Adelaide Plains, the streams, and the estuary. The smaller diagrams show 

progressive stages, reading from top to bottom. 

their "valleys" become convex to the sky; they are accumulating, aggrada- 
tional streams — engaged in building up and extending the land areas over 
which to prolong their existence. 

Given the silts and muds that were carried down so abundantly from the 
uplifted blocks, the factors that controlled the building of the Adelaide Plains 



236 

are of two kinds : (i.) wind and wave ; (ii.) running water. Wind and wave 
contrived to build up the long sand-spit from the rocky point of SeaclifT north- 
ward, until it now reaches to Pelican Point at the end of LeFevre's Peninsula. 
The prevailing- S.-S.W. winds and the tidal sweep were the chief factors in 
this work (see Section IX.), and the physiographic evidence needs no 
elaboration. 

Thus the southern plain-building streams — the Sturt, Brownhill, and 
Torrens — would tend to be diverted northward, as suggested in the small 
progressive sketches in fig. 10, and the deltaic plain, bounded on the west by 
the sand dunes, would be forced to concentrate more and more towards the 
north-west. This theory might be elaborated in detail, if space permitted. 
Long continued examination of the area, and careful consideration of the 
physical features, do not suggest any alternative scheme that provides so> 
well for the present shapes and characteristics of the shore-line and the 
estuary. 

The evidence for the one-time direct northward flow of the Sturt River 
(see tig. 10) lies in part in the present anomalous relations between the Sturt 
and Patawalonga. The Sturt at present flows directly north, and then enters 
as a tributary into a south-flowing stream. This peculiar anomaly of the 
Sturt presents no difficulty when considered in conjunction with the sugges- 
tion above put forward regarding the recent origin of the Patawalonga. There 
is reasonable ground for the belief that the Sturt originally flowed northward, 
marching with the growth of the sandhills, and ended in the present Port 
River. 

An examination of the Torrens River and the contours of the higher 
deltaic plain, supported by the evidence in the field, shows that the Torrens 
once flowed north-west, almost parallel with the present Port Road, entering 
the arm of the estuary that lies to the east of the present Port River. It may 
be urged that the Torrens also occupied, during the building up of the deltaic 
plain,a thousand other positions. This is true; but the evidence of the course, 
as shown in fig. 10, is so definitely demonstrated in the 2-foot contour maps 
of the Hydraulic Engineer's Department that one can only conclude that this 
particular course was the last one prior to the adoption of the present channel, 
and that it was one that was followed for a long period of time. 

The fan delta which was (see fig. 4) built up towards Woodville and 
Cheltenham by the old Torrens has been of great economic importance. It 
has facilitated the building of the Port Road and the Port Railway, and has 
rendered the establishment of the adjoining suburbs a much more reasonable 
proposal than would otherwise have been the case. 

With all these streams (shown in fig. 10), each a heavy silt-bearer in 
times of flood, carrying their burdens of water and suspended materials 
towards the estuary, that feature gradually became silted up, low plain 
replacing shallow water, until we arrive at the present stage (fig. 11) of an 
estuary with numerous arms and mud islands. 

The later diversion of the Torrens to the present westerly course, which 
took its origin at a point near the head of the fan delta, illustrates one of the 
commonest characters of aggrading streams. The formation of the Patawa- 
longa, on account of the breaking through of a flooded lagoon' and the con- 
sequent diversion of the Sturt River, brings us to the condition of the 
drainage network of the plains as we find it to-day (fig. 9). 

(ii.) The Port River Estuary.— -The present estuary of the Port River is a 
place of considerable beauty, of high economic importance, and of scientific 
interest. Considered from the physiographic point of view it presents three 
peculiarities: First, it is the only extensive break in the eastern coast of 
Gulf St. Vincent, though other rivers enter to the north; second, it is clearly 



237 

an "outsize" as far as the present contributing rivers are concerned ; thirdly, 
as Sir George Buchanan (loc. cit.) has remarked, it receives practically no silt 
in the main channel — a factor of great economic importance. We shall con- 
sider these three peculiarities in turn. 




SCALE. (Miles). 
Oil \ 

■ i I ' ■ ' 



Fig. 11. 

Plan of the Port River Estuary, showing the sites of the Jnncr Harbour (P.A.), 
the Outer Harbour (O.H.), and Light's Passage (L.P.)- Five contour lines are 
also shown: (1) The 3-iathom line, (2) the low water line, (3) the general coast- 
line (high water), (4) the 10-foot contour line, (5) the 20-foot contour line. 



From fig-. 11, which has been drawn to show the significant features of 
the estuarine area, we see that the whole site is one of characteristically low 
land and shallow water. The coast has been demonstrated to be a rising one 
(ref. 11), and presents the characters common to such areas. The land below 
the 10-foot contour is the least valuable land portion of the whole area, but it 
is the one that presents the greatest physiographic interest. Unfortunately, 
the study of such areas— those that are as yet neither sea nor land— is carried 
out with difficulty, and the writer has not had the facilities for proper 
examination. 



238 

The most recent method of studying such localities, where they are of 
potentially high value, is by means of aeroplane photographic surveys — a 
method not yet introduced into Australia. Tortuous tributaries, that run over 
the mud flats in a vagrant way and unite to form peculiarly wide and shallow 
tidal arms, are most characteristic of such areas (see fig. 11), and are of types 
quite distinct from ordinary land features. So important are the under-water 
features in the area of the Port River Estuary that the preparation of an aerial 
photographic survey is urged. Such a survey would reveal the details of 
shoals and channels which, if duly studied and interpreted, must profoundly 
influence future improvements and harbour developments. 

The deepest portion of the estuary is that known as the Port River, or 
the Port Adelaide River, with its hook-shaped continuation discovered by 
Colonel Light in 1836, and named Light's Passage. The Port River is usually 
described in four reaches: (1) The "Old Port Reach," the shallowest portion, 
reaching up to the first bend past Jervois Bridge; this is still bordered in 
places by muddy mangrove flats ; it was here that the first river port, the much 
maligned "Port Misery/' was founded, and of which some of the old timbers 
still remain. (2) The "Gawler Reach/' is the eastward flowing portion, the 
shortest and busiest portion of the river : (3) "Hindmarsh Reach" runs thence 
up to the place where the North Arm enters from the east. 

Beyond that there was originally a "Lipson Reach." but the name is not 
found on later maps. There is a minimum depth of 26 feet at the low water 
springs (31-J feet h.w.s.) in the inner harbour, and of 33 feet, l.w.s., in the 
outer harbour. Since this river forms the chief gateway of South Australia 
— the avenue of communication with "Home" and with the markets of other 
lands — we may enquire why so good a harbour occurs in such an unfavour- 
able area (namely: shallow gulf, silt-bearing streams, and a rising coast). 

The lower reaches of the Port River, with the mangrove-fringed North 
Arm and Angas Inlet, are places of much beauty. In the Port River itself, 
sand dominates in some places, mud flats in others, according as the building 
agent has been wind and current or river and tide, respectively. Charac- 
teristic of this part of the river are "hooked creeks," such as Mutton Cove, 
entering the river in an upstream direction at a sharp angle with the bank 
— typical tidal features. In Light's Passage the river banks are still in the 
process of "becoming/' as also at Outer Harbour, wdiere the engineer has 
assisted the river in its reclamation work; this portion of the river is 
unbeautiful, and aw r aits "improvements." 

The wdde plains to the nortrnvard have been built up of alluvial waste 
brought down by the Gawler and Light Rivers into a gulf already shallower 
than that off the Port River Estuary. On account of the southward plunge 
of the underlying fault blocks, the building of the alluvial plains was slower 
in the area mapped in fig. 10. The formation of these plains was aided, as 
already shown, by the building up of a long north-running sand-spit from the 
cliffy area of bedrock at SeaclifL Where the sand-spit approached the bulge 
of the northern alluvial plains, a wide estuary mouth was left unfilled, and 
it is still in the process of being silted up. These facts, dealt with more fully 
in a previous section, help to explain the existence and character of the 
estuary. 

It is of interest to note that an almost similar feature forms the harbour 
of Port Pirie — the second port of South Australia. Port Pirie is situated on 
a northward-pointing creek, an ancient and deserted estuary, on the flat 
eastern shore of Spencer Gulf. There is a deltaic plain, backed by the 
Flinders Horst, making the parallel with the conditions of Adelaide more 
notable. The Pirie Creek was the old estuary of the Broughton River, which 



239 



now enters the sea at a more southern point on its deltaic plain, but which 
occasionally, at flood times, overflows into the Port Pirie Creek. 

The second feature of the Port River Estuary to which attention has 
been directed is that it. is an "outsize/' that is, it appears too large for the 
present contributing streams. This may be explained by the fact that three 
of the main streams that went to form the estuary, namely, the Torrens, The 
Start and Brownhill Creek, have been diverted therefrom in whole or in 
part, as described in Section VII (b). 

The Sturt and Brownhill Creeks have been wholly diverted, and their 
noodwaters now flow into the Patawalonga, or percolate into the lower plains, 
or evaporate from the wide areas of swamps that they now form in winter, 
The partial diversion of the Torrens has led to the discharge into the Port 
River of only a portion of its waters. A comparison of figs. 9 and 10 should 
assist in illustrating this point. 

The third feature of the estuary is the comparative absence of silt from 
the Port River— a most desirable feature. The small amount of silt deposited 
is shown by the fact that the total cost of dredging the river is only £1,000 
per annum '(Parliamentary Paper 35/25), which is remarkably low compared 
with the thousands of pounds spent annually in dredging, say, the Yarra 

River, Victoria. t n 

When Colonel Light first entered the long-sought harbour of the Port 
River he noted the clearness of the water, and also that the "habit of growth 
of the weeds on the bottom was to point down stream. Thence he concluded 
that the ebb was habitually stronger than the flow, and consequently that 
there was a complement of river water entering the harbour. This proved 
correct. The added water is that of the Torrens. 

Fortunately for the harbour of Port Adelaide, and unfortunately for the 
dwellers at Henlev Beach, the Grange, and the lower deltaic plain, the last 
diversion of the Torrens has led to the deposition of its considerable burden 
of silt on the plains and swamps east of those sand dime townships. Thus 
they have the misfortune to sutler from an annual floodwaters problem, while 
Port Adelaide has the advantage of an increment of river water without silt. 
Indeed, it is this latter factor, acting through some thousands of years, that 
has provided the harbour facilities which this State enjoys. 

It may be pointed out that the Little Para and Dry Creek also bring 
down their burdens of silt. Fortunately this is either deposited on the lower 
deltaic plain, or carried into the eastern arm of the estuary, the so-called 
"Shallow Reach." A somewhat puzzling feature is the hook-shaped turn of 
the Port River that forms Light's Passage. It is puzzling because there is 
clear evidence that the Torrens and associated streams have discharged north- 
wards for uncounted thousands of years, and now, with no evidence whatever 
of any change of wind or tide or current, the river has taken a southward 
trend. 

The only explanation that appears to fit the circumstances is that the 
deposition of silt in "Shallow Reach" has led to the building up of Torrens 
Island, and to its somewhat western-pointing continuation northwards 
(Point Grey). The water of the Port River, in its daily ebbs and flows, has 
been diverted to the west by this bank of sand, and as is the custom of rivers 
under such conditions, the curvature has tended to continue, first from 
Snapper Point to Pelican Point, and then almost southward, forming Light's 
Passage. This development has been availed of and assisted by the building 
of Outer Harbour, and is still slowly continuing, as may be seen from a com- 
parison of Light's chart of this locality with later more complete maps of 
varying dates. 



240 

The Wonga Shoal, a few miles to the southward, off Semaphore (see fig. 
11), is an underwater feature that must greatly affect the future of the beaches 
at Semaphore and Largs, and also the channel of the Outer Harbour. It Is 
clearly, from the evidence of its conformation, due to the diverting influence 
of the western bulge of the coastline at Point Malcolm. The continued build- 
ing up of the Wonga Shoal may ultimately direct the channel of the Port 
River once more to the west, and lead to a continuation of the shallowing 
of the sea between the Shoal and Outer Harbour. 

The pear-shaped Torrens Island, with its curving northern "stem," is a 
study in itself, physiographically and botanically. The western portion, con- 
sisting of old sand dunes, is the most desirable portion. The site of the 
Quarantine Station, with its casuarinas, native pines, and wealth of golden 
wattle, presents a glorious picture in the early Spring. The eastern portion 
of the island is an area of low samphire swamps, "hooked creeks," and winding 
""thoroughfares" of water. A combination of spring tides, westerly winds, 
and river floods leads to the almost complete inundation of this portion of 
the island. 

This completes the physiographic survey of the Port River Estuary. 
The economic aspects of the various facts have been pointed out, and we 
have seen how wind and tide and river have conspired to build up a harbour 
that is, to say the least, a satisfactory one, and one that so high an authority 
as Sir Geo. Buchanan has stated may be converted with remarkable cheapness 
into a continuous series of seven miles of wharves from the present Outer 
Harbour, round the head of LeFevre's Peninsula, and down the western side 
of the Port River, to Port Adelaide. The land itself is of little value at 
present, and is utilised for rifle ranges or left untouched; if reserved, it must 
ultimately become a valuable asset. The vegetation is of mangroves along 
the river frontages, Acacia ligulafa and spinifex on the sandy areas, with 
samphire flats behind. 

VIII.— THE TORRENS TRIBUTARIES AND ASSOCIATED 

STREAMS. 

(a) Torrens Tributaries.— It is not necessary to describe these features at 
length, except where they provide special evidence regarding the general 
physiography of the area or are themselves of geographic interest. Apart 
from the courses of these tributaries on the deltaic plains, which have already 
been described [Section VII. (d.)l, there are two main types: Those that 
belong to the upper valleys east of the Mount Lofty Block, and which are 
more mature in their valley slopes and in their grades (see figs. S and 9), 
and those that originated along scarp faces. 

The Upper Sturt River and Sixth Creek belong to a third type, formed 
by headward erosion along somewhat less resistant beds, behind the western 
fault blocks and parallel thereto. In the tributaries, as in the main streams, 
the controlling factor has been the tectonic fault-and-tilt movements, with 
capture, differential rock resistance, and possible inheritance of earlier routes 
as secondary factors. The Torrens tributaries are as follow, and the account 
is illustrated by the profile of the stream grades that is included in fig. 9 :— 

(i.) Sturt River. — The Sturt rises in the main Mount Lofty knot and has 
carved a deep valley in the ancient tillites and other rocks; the tillites give 
rise to rugged and characteristic valley slopes. The upper portion of the 
river, which includes the charming Coromandel Valley and the picturesque 
and more mature tributaries of National Park, assists in providing a route 
for both road and railway. The vigorous headward erosion, due to maximum 



241 

elevation and rainfall, has given this stream power to cut back into the 
Mount Lofty Scarp face, to the north of Cherry Gardens. 

There is evidence in favour of the theory that the Sturt originally flowed 
down the tectonic valley formed by the Sturt and Belair Blocks, and flowed 
into Hallett's Creek (Happy Valley). The evidence consists of the charac- 
teristic elbow bend and gorge north of Flagstaff Hill, with a low gap and 
sands at the head of Happy Valley. Thus the Sturt is led through the scarp 
face to the west, in an area that will always be noted for its geographical and 
historical interest as the site of the first definite discovery of Cambrian 
glaciation [Professor Howchin, 1900 (1901)]. The course of the Sturt across 
the alluvial plain to the Patawalonga, and its probable one-time continuation 
northward to the Port River, have been described in Section VII. (c). 

(it.) Brownhill Creek, — This is a small tributary, heading back into the Mount 
Lofty Fault Block, and heavily dissecting the Sturt and Belair Blocks. It was 
at one time a favoured site as a railway route, but is no longer considered. 
As in all the scarp-face streams, the rainfall is high, the grade is steep, and 
the percentage and rapidity of run-off combined with the diminishing size 
of the channel in the plains, lead to floods along the lower reaches of this 
stream on the occasion of heavy rains. The lower portion of the scarp-face 
valley has been reserved as a park. 

It should be mentioned that Nature has here placed ready to hand, for 
young students of physiography, a most remarkable laboratory. Each one 
of the scores of valleys in the scarp face near Adelaide presents a special and 
independent study of the influence of grade, rock types, rock structures, etc., 
-on the work of streams. The writer does not know one of these numerous 
valleys that does not present special features quite distinct from those of the 
neighbouring streams. 

(Hi.) First to Fifth Creeks. — These five streams are characteristic scarp- 
face streams, with high grades, waterfalls, steep-sided and sometimes pre- 
cipitous valleys above the fault scarp, and gently graded channels in fan deltas 
and alluvial plains below the scarp. The distinction in character between 
these two portions of the streams is so great that it has received popular 
recognition in the fact that most streams have names in the hills distinct 
from those they have on the plain. 

Another interesting fact of nomenclature, illustrating a physiographic 
influence, is that the streams on the plains had originally the distinctive 
names set out below, but the channels were apparently so confusing because 
of their similarity that they came to be called by the more prosaic titles of 
mere numbers. The names referred to are : — 

Present name on the Name used in the hill 

plain tract tract. Name used in 1841. 

First Creek Waterfall Gully Greenhill Rivulet 

Second Creek Slapes Gully Hallett Rivulet 

Third Creek Horsnells Gully Todd Rivulet 

Fourth Creek Morialta (Sinclairs Gully) Anstey Rivulet 

Fifth Creek Montacute Creek Ormsby Rivulet 

The remarks made re Brownhill Creek apply here. The streams are 
accidental and not genetic tributaries of the Torrens. Each one of them is 
a distinct unit and has special characters and beauties of its own. There is, 
for instance, the remarkable contrast between the green open slopes of Water- 
fall Gully and the precipitous timbered gorge of Slapes Gully. Again, at 
Morialta, we have the influence of three bands of almost level-bedded 
quartzites, giving rise to three separate waterfalls, and there is evidence of a 
mosaic of blocks here — in one place an abrupt quartzite anticline faces a 
series of almost level-bedded calcareous and siliceous rocks. 



242 



Reference has been made to the variety in the native vegetation on the 
slopes of these scarp-face valleys; where quartzite predominates there is 
rourfi low native scrub of xerophilous type, on the limestones there are park- 
like areas of grass-land with sparse red-gums. The introduced vegetation, 
that gives still further variety and beauty to the lower slopes, consists mamly 
of the Mediterranean suite of olives, vines, etc. These valleys constitute, as 
already stated, a ready-made and conveniently-situated laboratory for the 
study of river action. t 

(iv) Sixth Creek.— This is the largest and most important tributary ot the 
Torrens It rises in the Mount Lofty Fault Block, near its highest portion, 
and flows northward, entering the Torrens in the Gorge Tract. It is separated 
from the more mature south-flowing Onkaparmga by Forest Range— a fact 
that supports the idea that Forest Range is the western scarp of a separate 
minor fault block within the main Mount Lofty Block. 

The Sixth Creek is a good catchment area, and is also the site of fertile 
valley bottoms and of farming and gardening villages that harmonize with 
their surroundings in the charming way that is characteristic of the older 
townships in the hills. In its lower parts the valley is rugged and precipitous, 
but it tends to be more mature in the headwaters, which accords with the 
theory of rejuvenation by the more recent uplift of the Mount Lofty Block. 

(v.) Upper Tributaries. — The tributaries of the Torrens from Chain of Ponds 
and Cudlee Creek upwards are harmonious in type with the more mature 
character of this portion of the valley. It may be noted, however, that the 
streams on the northern side are, on the whole, more gently graded than those 
on the south. The Chain of Ponds has less fall than Cudlee Creek; Forreston 
Creek bears similar relations to Kenton Valley. This is a difficult matter to 
explain, but it is possibly associated with the greater uplift of the whole 
horst to the southward. There are other peculiar features that await explana- 
tion, such as the relatively more mature character of the eastern slopes of 
certain streams, such as Howard Creek. 

(b) Associated Streams.— The remaining streams that directly influence the 
Adelaide area have already been frequently referred to in the course of this 
paper. Considering them from north to south, we have the (i.) Little Para 
River; (it.) Dry Creek; (Hi.) Onkaparinga River. 

(i.) Little Para River.— This has little bearing on the Adelaide area except 
that it is one of the streams that contribute to the Port River Estuary. The 
river appears in parts to be an ante-consequent, though the writer has much 
difficulty in deciding to what extent the effects of capture may be mistaken 
for evidences of antecedence. Certainly the dominant influence in this valley 
has been the faulting and tilting. The stream flows west from the Mount 
Gawler Range, which is the northern continuation of the Mount Lofty Scarp, 
across the remaining western fault blocks. 

Where the valley cuts the fault scarps, sudden and precipitous gorges 
occur. The upper portions of the valley show a somewhat remarkable 
drainage network that appears to be due to the influence of differential 
resistance of varying rock types striking north and south. To the west of the 
Para Fault this stream has spread out a large fan delta, the site of the village 
of Salisbury — the northern continuation of the "higher deltaic plain' ' of the 
Adelaide area (fig. 4). 

(ii.) Dry Creek. — This is a small consequent stream flowing down the 
southern tilting face of the Para Block, receiving its main tributaries from the 
high scarp face to the east, and originally emptying into the Torrens River. 
It has been captured by the headward erosion of a small stream on the Para 
Scarp face, and thus led away by a shorter route to the estuary. The evidences 



243 

of capture in the wind-gap, elbow-bend, and gorge are well shown. The 
channel across the plains diminishes and disappears. 

The stream, in time of flood, spreads out into a wide sheet of flowing 
water, and at other seasons is either as dry as its name indicates, or flows m 
a diminishing stream as the waters soak into the deep alluvial beds. In the 
1841 map, elsewhere referred to, this creek is marked as "Dry in Summer, 
and this appears to have led to the present name. Cockburn records that it 
was previously called Montague Creek. In the Adelaide area it cannot be 
said that the term "dry in summer" denotes any peculiarity, for the climatic 
and soil conditions are such that this is the common characteristic of all small 
streams during the long, hot, dry months of the year. 

(Hi.) Onkaparinga River.— 1 nis valley has already been described in dealing 
with the various fault blocks. Howchin, Teale, Benson, and others (refs. 1, 
13, 21) have discussed the physiographic problems presented by this stream, 
hut the matter has not yet been fullv solved. It is difficult to decide with any 
degree of certainty whether the Gorge at Noarlunga is due to capture by 
headward erosion, or to superimposition, though the latter theory has been 
favoured in previous sections of this paper. The support for the theory of 
superimposition comes mainly from the evidence presented by similar features 
on the Torrens and other rivers to the north. 

In considering the physiographic history of these streams, and par- 
ticularly of the Onkaparinga, much suggestive information may be obtained 
from the work of Professor C. A. Cotton on similar block-faulted areas in 
New Zealand. For instance, in his work on Block Mountains (ref. 5), he 
writes: "If, as in Otago, the deformation has produced longitudinal tectonic 
features — both true consequent and ante-consequent drainage will follow 
generally longitudinal courses, though perhaps breaking across here and there 
from one linear series of depressed areas to another. Antecedent drainage, 
on the other hand, may cross the longitudinal features diagonally or trans- 
versely." 

One cannot escape the conviction in travelling along and across most 
parts of the Onkaparinga Valley that its main outlines are partly tectonic in 
origin — formed by the tilting of fault blocks, with modification by stream 
erosion to such an extent that the valley and hills in the upper portions, above 
Ambleside, have much of the appearance of physiographic maturity. As in 
the case of the Torrens, the possibilities of "exhumation" and later tilting 
must not be overlooked. At Oakbank, where the valley has mature outlines, 
is situated one of the State's most famous racecourses. 

The importance of the Onkaparinga Valley to Adelaide is chiefly in its 
fertile, food-producing areas, and in its great value as one of the chief catch- 
ment areas for water supply. The valley has much scenic beauty, of which 
the peaceful farming localities and bush scenes of Ambleside present many 
aspects that have inspired and have in turn been preserved by the art of 
Hans Heysen, w r hose home is in this valley. 

IX.— EFFECTS OF GEOGRAPHIC CONTROLS. 

(a) Adelaide in its Relation to the State. — A study of the distribution ofthe 
population, either of the whole world or of any special area, brings into 
prominence the fact that such distribution is never uniform, but tends to 
concentrate in what are called "islands" of population (ref. 2, p. 415). This is 
as true in plains as in mountain areas, in forests as in open lands, and in fertile 
as in desert places. It is particularly true of new lands, and South Australia 
is no exception. 



244 

A study of the population of the State, or of the Commonwealth, will 
show that in this respect the Spencer-Vincent Sunkland represents such an 
"island" of population (see fig. 15). Within this larger "island" of people 
we see, also, a number of other island communities of varying - sizes, from the 
isolated village of Iron Knob, through "railway towns/' "wheat centres," and 
coastal ports, up to the larger towns such as the industrial and shipping 
centre of Port Pirie. The city of Adelaide is itself an island community of 
some 320,000 souls — a community of outstanding interest from the geo- 
graphical point of view (see fig. 16). 

The study of Adelaide as a capital, and of its inter-relations with the 
country areas on which it depends for its existence, is a separate problem,. 
and can only be touched on here in a general way. Vaughan Cornish, in his 
study of great capitals, tells us that such cities represent Crossways, or 
Strongholds, or Storehouses. A different mode of assessment must be applied 
to the capitals of new countries. In such places capital cities do not neces- 
sarily occur as natural growths — as did Paris, Berlin, or London — but may be 
planned beforehand on sites carefully selected for the purpose (Washington, 
Canberra, Adelaide). 

From a study of the character of the site and city of Adelaide, its people 
and their occupations, and its relation to the rest of the State, we see that it 
is really a Radiating Centre, the place from which settlement has spread in 
all directions, and from which the whole of the State is governed. It has- 
become in turn a Market-place, where imports are received and distributed, 
and where the exports are accumulated and sent away. Further, since the 
climatic conditions and the general amenities of the city are particularly 
attractive, another important factor in city growth comes into play, which 
we may recognise by calling the city a Garden, 

A study of the human geography of Adelaide thus leads to the con- 
clusion that the city is all three: a Centre, a Market-place, and a Garden. 
Although we have found the word "centre" to be applicable, it will be noted 
that Adelaide has that "forward" position required of the capital of a State. 
In this case the city stands forward towards the chief seaport of the State 
— the Gateway to the Homelands, and the route towards the oversea markets. 

In the preceding sections chief place has been given to consideration of 
the geological and physiographic conditions of the Adelaide area. We will 
proceed to discuss the climatic conditions, and then the population, the 
occupations, and finally the distribution of the metropolitan population in 
time and in area. 

(b) Climatic Conditions. — The climatic conditions have been the subject of 
systematic record almost from the birth of the Province, and have been well 
described by various writers. A summary of the general conditions is all 
that is here required, and this is set out in, the following tables and shown in 
graphic form in fig. 12. 

Ratzel has said that "Every state is a bit of soil and humanity." Brunhes 
improves on this with the statement: "Every state is a bit of soil, a bit of 
humanity, and a bit of water." The enormous importance of water is par- 
ticularly indicated by a geographic study of South Australia. 

(i.) Rainfall and Evaporation. — The following table gives (a) the average 
monthly rainfall in inches at Adelaide from records covering the past 88 years,, 
and (b) the average monthly evaporation from a free water surface at the 
same place, also expressed in inches: — 

J. F. M. 

(a) 72 .72 1.03 

(tO .... 8.99 7.33 5.79 



A. 


M. 


J. 


J- 


A. 


S. 


O. 


N. 


D. 




1.75 


2.78 


3.12 


2.64 


2.51 


2.06 


1.74 


1.15 


1.00- 


- Total, 21.22 


3.41 


2.02 


1.24 


1.30 


1.87 


2.84 


4.76 


6.50 


8,44- 


-Total, 54.49 



245 



These tables are shown graphically in fig. 12. The rainfall records 
indicate that the Adelaide area enjoys a relatively dry summer and a rainy 
winter, with a comparatively low total rainfall. This emphasises the 
importance, from the point of view of water supply, of the adjoining high 
ranges, with their higher rainfall. 




FMAMJJASOND 
AVERAGE MONTHLY RAINFALL, IN INCHES. (68ycars.) 




F M A M- J JASO 
AVERAGE MONTHLY EVAPORATION . (IN INCHES). 




AVERAGE MONTHLY TEMPERATURE (70 Years) 




FMAMJJASON 
AVERAGE NUMBER OF HOURS SUNSHINE PER DAY. 




S AW CO. WISE A N C 

VARIATION IN RAINFALL DUE TO MT LOFTY RANGES 

Fig. 12. 



M& 



Graphs showing the average monthly rainfall, evaporation, temperature, and hours 
of sunshine per day; also the influence of the Mount Lofty Horst on the rainfall. 



246 



In the final analysis the limiting factor in the growth of Adelaide will 
probablv be found to be the Water Supply. The evaporation figures further 
indicate the dryness of the climate, which possibly gives it a more exhilarating 
and enjovable character. % 

The effect of the Mount Lofty Ranges on the rainfall has already been 
dealt with. The graph shown in fig. 12 emphasises the point, and shows, also, 
the verv definite "rain shadow" that lies to the east of the ranges. The 
figures are as follow, in inches: Seaton, 17.29; Adelaide, 21.22; Rose Park, 
25 Q7- Glen Osmond, 26.34; Mount Lofty Summit, 47.31 ; Stirling East, 47.20; 
Ambleside, 35.13; Nairne, 28.37; Callington, 15.48; Murray Bridge, 13.94. 

(ii) Sunshine and Temperature,— Adelaide has a remarkable share of sunny 
hours The average monthly temperature, taken over a period of 77 years, 
in degrees, is shown at (a) and in fig. 12, while the average number of hours 
of sunshine per day is given at (b). From this will be seen the remarkably 
mild winter that the city area enjoys, and which is one of the chief charms 
Even in June, July, and August there is a daily average of between four and 
five hours of sunshine. The summer, though hot, is dry, and is enjoyable to 
most people. When a continued "hot spell" occurs, relief is available at the 
seashore and in the adjoining cooler uplands. 

J F. M. A. M. J. J. A. S. O. N. D. 

<V) 73 9 74.1 69.8 64.0 57.9 53.5 51.8 53.9 57.1 61.9 67.0 71.1— Tot. Av, 63.0 

<b)::::io.o « h 5.9 4.8 4.1 4.5 5.3 6.1 7.4 8.7 9.8-Tot.Av.. 7.0 

(Hi) Winds and Tides.— Adelaide lies within those invigorating and energy- 
rich areas of the world (vide Huntington, "Climate and Civilization") where 
the weather is varied and is governed by a series of successive cyclones and 
anti-cyclones; at times monsoonal influences temporarily reach down from 
the northward. 

The actual figures regarding the winds, to which reference has been made 
in the sections dealing with the growth of the sand-dune barrier and the 
estuary, are set out in the following table, which gives the average number 
of days in each month during which the wind has prevailed from various 
directions at Adelaide : — 

N. .N.E. E. S.E. S. S.W. W. N.W. Calm Gales 

January .... 1234773132 

February .... 12 3 5 6 5 2 13 t 

March .... 12 3 5 6 6 3 14 1 

April 3433453231 

May 562234 3 331 

June 6621243331 

July 6622 3 43322 

August .... 5 6 2 12 4 5 4 2 2 

September .... 3522364323 

October .... 2432475222 
November ....1 3 3 3 5 8 4 1 2 1 

December .... 1234584132 



Total for Year 35 48 31 34 50 68 42 25 32 19 

It will be seen that the prevailing winds are S.-S.W. In dealing with the 
winds mention should be made of two sets of local winds that have important 
influences. One of these is the ordinary sequence of land and sea breezes that 
is particularly felt along the outer sand dune belt, and renders these areas so 
important to the city (see fig. 16). 

The other is the so-called "Gully Winds," due to the downward drainage 
through the scarp-face valleys on to the plains in the late afternoon and 
evening (often far into the night) of the colder air of the highlands ; they are 
cooling breezes, but in many cases they constitute a nuisance on account of 



247 

the damage done to gardens, etc.; these winds have a distinct influence against 
the progress of settlement towards certain localities of the piedmont area 
(see fig. 16). 

The tides have little bearing on the geography, except in the important 
matter of the formation of the coastal features and the harbours. To the 
tides we owe the beautiful stretches of sea-beach, and the scouring of the 
Port River and Light's Passage. To them, also, we must attribute the "Wonga 
Shoal, and its gradual and undesirecl extension to the north and west. The 
tides are briefly described by Professor Chapman (A.A.A.S. Handbook, 1924, 

p. iftj. 

The following data are from the "Australia Pilot," Vol. I., 1918: "It is 
high water, full and change, at the Semaphore Jetty at IX h. 40 m. ; springs 
rise 7% feet, neaps 5 feet. During the summer months, at springs it is high 
water in the morning, and low in the afternoon; at neaps it is low in the 
morning and high in the afternoon, and the a.m. tides rise higher than the 
p.m. During the winter months the reverse of this is the case. Westerly 
winds raise the general level of the water 2 to 3 feet, easterly winds depress 
it about 1^ feet. The neap tides are very irregular. Five clays before full and 
change, the tides cease to flow regularly ; there is then a very small rise and 
fall ; the first making tide of high water generally occurs from one to two 
o'clock on the following morning; the tides then run in their usual course to 
springs. This peculiarity of the tides is experienced in both St. Vincent and 
Spencer Gulfs." 

(c) Transport and Communications. — The State of South Australia is a land 
of big distances. Adelaide being the administrative centre to a very thorough 
degree, and the chief market of the State, it is further necessary that abundant 
and rapid transport should be available. This takes the form of a widespread 
railway system and active coastal shipping. There is a remarkable develop- 
ment of ports in the Gulf Region, no less than 40 being listed in the Annual 
Report of the Harbours Board. There is, also, a radial system of roads, and in 
response to the rapid modern development of motor traffic the chief of these 
are being laid with bituminous concrete. The chief trunk roads from Adelaide, 
as laid down by the Commissioner of Highways, are set out in fig. 13. 

The railways may be considered, from the geographical point of view, 
under three heads; (1) Those that leave Adelaide for the ports; (2) Those 
that leave the city towards the north ; (3) Those that leave the city towards 
the south. 

The railroads towards the ports, as already stated, lie mainly along the 
old course of the Torrens. They present no difficulties except when approach- 
ing and crossing the more recent deltaic mud areas of the Port River. The 
railway to the Inner Harbour is the oldest in the State, and was built in the 
face of much opposition; it lies parallel and close to the route set apart for 
a canal by the founders of Adelaide. 

The northern railroads have before them the wide alluvial plains that are 
the northern continuation of the Adelaide Plains, or they enter the area of the 
ranges across low divides, and run up the long north-south alluvial plains that 
are characteristic of that portion of the State. One route crosses the ranges 
via Kapunda and Eudunda to Morgan, but is of more value as a "local" line 
than as one tapping the Murray Basin, for reasons already given. 

The railroads leaving the city towards the south must face at once the 
high barrier of the Mount Lofty Horst, and the problems thus presented have 
been dealt with in some detail in Section VI. (o). There arc no less than two 
railway ^ routes to the seaside suburb of Glenelg, but these are of little 
economic importance. 



248 



The trunk roads form a geographic study in themselves, but can only be 
referred to in a general way. The physiographic influences that operate are 
quite similar to those of the railways, except that steep grades present to 
modern motor traffic much less of a barrier than they do to steam trains. 




Fig. 13. 
Plan showing the chief roads and railways radiating from the City of Adelaide. 

The chief trunk roads, as shown in fig. 13, are: (1) The Port Road, 
lately duplicated; this is the most important single road in the State, and a 
review of its daily traffic provides an epitome of the commercial geography of 



249 

South Australia. (2) The North Road traverses the plains parallel to the 
Para Scarp, and bifurcates at Gepps Cross, one going to Port Wakefield and 
Yorke Peninsula, and the other to the main northern regions, (3) The Torrens 
Valley Road proceeds along the Torrens Gorge and opens up much of the hills 
country and the so-called "Murray Flats." (4) The "Prince's Highway," the 
main eastern route, climbs the scarp via the Glen Osmond Creek; it divides 
at Littlehampton, one branch going to Murray Bridge, and the other to 
Wellington, where there is a ferry, across which passes the bulk of the motor 
traffic to the South-East and to the Eastern States, via the Coorong. There 
is as yet no properly constructed trunk road connection between Adelaide 
and any other State capital. (5) The South Road caters for the Fleurieu 
Peninsula and Victor Harbour; it is largely a pleasure route. (6) The "Bay 
Road" leads to Glenelg (Holdfast Bay), and is at present the most important 
pleasure route in the State. 

Numbers of other roads lead out from the city into the hills, and several 
are shown in fig. 16. It will be noted how straight are these radial routes from 
the city until they meet the fault scarp, up which they writhe more or less 
tortuously according to the height of the scarp at the place of ascent. Many 
of these are used purely as scenic and pleasure roads. In the hills themselves 
it is notable to what extent the scarp ridges are used for communications. 

The electric tramway system, at present showing a tendency to merge into 
a more mobile motor-bus system, is set out in fig. 16. Owing to the open level 
character of the city site, coupled with wise engineering direction, a compre- 
hensive radial system has been devised for the city, with a smaller separate 
system at Port Adelaide. The influence on these lines of the various physio- 
graphic features described in the preceding sections needs no elaboration. 

In an account of the system of transport in operation, tendencies are per- 
haps more important than established facts. In this connection mention must 
be made of the growing importance of motor-borne traffic, and also of the 
initiation of aerial services. The air service is at present in its infancy; the 
site of the aerodrome is on the lower deltaic plain at Albert Park, whence 
passengers and mails leave for Mildura, Broken Hill, Melbourne, and Sydney. 

(d) The Growth of the City Population. — A matter that is frequenty dis- 
cussed, and on which no final decision has been reached, is the merit, or other- 
wise, of the growth of the metropolitan population relative to that of the 
country. While regarded by some as a retrograde movement, others see 
therein the signs of progress. Whichever may be the correct view, the 
tendency is a very decided one and an accelerating one, as may be noted from 
an inspection of the graph shown in fig. 14, particularly in the portion repre- 
senting the post-war years. 

In fig. 14 is shown the relative growth of the* city and country population 
from the earliest years of the State, the figures being kindly supplied by the 
Government Statist, Mr. W. L. Johnston. The firm line (marked "City") 
represents the total population of the metropolitan area (within a 10-mile 
radius of the G.P.O., Adelaide), and the broken line (marked "Country") 
represents the total population of the State outside of the metropolitan area. 

It will be seen that for the first 15 years the population of city and 
country ran closely parallel. The country population then increased rapidly, 
while the city expanded but slowly. By 1864 the country population was twice 
that of the metropolitan district. The country continued to progress more 
rapidly than the city, as far as population increase was concerned, up to 1876, 
when city growth began to be more marked. 

About 1890 the population of the country received a set-back; during that 
year there took place the first recorded decrease in country population, 



250 



accompanied by an increase in the city. Since that date the variations 
in the country population have been marked, the effects of droughts and war 
being most pronounced. During the same time, apart from the decrease of 
the war years, the city has progressed in numbers at a rapid rate — much more 
so since 1910. 

By the year 1913 the city and the country populations were equal. Since 
then the relative rates of increase, shown on the graph (fig. 14), have been so 
distinct that by 1926 the city population was 316,865, and the country only 
249,529 — that is to say, the extra-metropolitan or country population was 
little more than three-quarters as great as that of the metropolitan area. 

This does not appear to be due to geographic controls, except insofar as 
the city area is a most desirable one in which to live. The chief factors that 
are operating in the matter might be: (1) An increased desire for the com- 



300,000 



250.000 



200.000 








1836 



'50 '60 70 



'80 

Fig. 14. 



90 1900 19 1920 '26 



Graph showing the relative population of Adelaide and the country districts, 
from the birth of the Province up to the year 1926. 



forts and conveniences associated with city and suburban life; (2) higher 
rates of pay for city industries; and (3) increased mechanical aids, whereby 
fewer people than heretofore are required to work the land. Possibly the most 
interesting feature of fig. 14 is the prophecy of the future that is shown by 
the trend of the graph lines of the city and country respectively for the past 
six years. If the present rates of increase continue unchanged until 1940, the 
city population will be about 450,000, compared with 275,000 in the country, 
(e) The Occupations of the People. — In the opening paragraphs of this 
section Adelaide was described as a Centre, a Market, and a Garden. The first 



251 

characteristic is shown by the number of people employed in administrative 
work, the second by the' high proportion of those engaged in buying and 
selling (commercial callings), while the third is indicated in part by the 
number of independent people who have preferred to live in the area, and in 
part by a very well-known tendency for families to move to Adelaide from 
the country areas — a movement for which no definite figures are available. 

In the fourth place, the metropolitan area is becoming, to some extent, 
a manufacturing city, but the absence of local supplies of coal, water-power, 
iron, and timber must always militate against any considerable development 
of manufacturing. Following along the lines of argument of the eminent 
geographer, Ellsworth Huntington, it might be argued that Adelaide owes 
much of the part that it plays in the industrial life of Australia to its pleasant 
climate and good conditions of housing and living — geographical factors 
which Huntington asserts to be associated with comparative freedom from 
what are called "labour troubles." 

In 1921 census figures show that — of a total population of 255,000 — 
149,000 were "dependents" (non-wage earners). Of these, 80,000 were under 
20 years of age. Of a total of 80,000 male bread-winners, the following were 
the chief occupations : — 

Industrial 35,000 

Commercial .... .... .... .-•• •■•• 19,000 

Transport and Communication 10,000 

Primary Producers 7,000 

Professional 6,000 

Domestic 2,000 

There were also 26,000 female bread-winners, the majority engaged in 
domestic, commercial and factory work. The number of people in actual 
manufacture is slowly increasing, having risen from 88 per thousand in 1914 
to 95 per 1,000 in 1926. 

From a further analysis of industrial occupations, taken from the 1926 
report of the Chief Inspector of Factories, we learn that the chief industries 
are local, and have to do with the all-important matters of clothing, shelter, 
nourishment, and movement. That is to say, they are mainly associated 
with building houses, making furniture, making clothes and boots, and pre- 
paring food. 

The only other important industry is that associated with the building 
and repairing of carriages and motors. The making of agricultural machinery 
— the only really "productive" branch of manufacture — is somewhat low on 
the list. A high proportion of workers is engaged in land and sea transport, 
and in the handling of goods. A great body of less .skilled labour is also 
engaged building and maintaining roads, railways, pavements, drains, etc. 
The details of these figures tend to confirm the conclusion that Adelaide is an 
Administrative Centre, a Market-place, and a Gateway. 

(f) The Distribution of Population in the Adelaide Area. — Reference was 
made in the opening sections to the importance of the Gulf Region to South 
Australia. The Spencer- Vincent Sunkland may be said to constitute the 
"fertile island" that is the chief part of the State. There are also four 
important sub-provinces: (1) The Eyre Peninsula area; (2) The Murray 
River Valley; (3) The Murray Mallee; (4) The South-East. In addition, con- 
tinual progress is being made towards the settlement and utilisation of the 
drier northern portions of the State.. 

The distribution of the population of the Gulf Region is shown by a spot 
map in iig. 15. Each small dot represents approximately 100 people. The 
large black area represents the Adelaide Region on its triangular alluvial 



252 

plain, further detailed in fig. 16. In the general distribution of the population 
rainfall is the dominant factor. 

The influence of existing supplies of water on the sites of early townships 
is shown by the place names : in some cases by the English name as in Two 
Wells, Crystal Brook, Burner's Soak, Nangula Springs, Claypans Bore, 
Bagots Well, etc.; in other cases by the large number of aboriginal place 
names ending in words that mean "water," chief of which are (from informa- 
tion courteously supplied by Mr. Rodney Cockburn) those ending in -owie, 
-cowie, -appa, -apa, -kapi, -ana (Terowie, Yarcowie, Nalyappa, Puttapa, 
Poontana, Yabmana, etc.) 




Fig. 15. 

Spot map of the Gulf Region, the same area as is shown in fig. 3. Each small 
dot represents approximately 100 people; the larger dots represent denser 

"islands" of population. 

The chief islets of population in the extra-metropolitan districts are due 
to smelting works (Port Pirie) ; gulf ports (Port Lincoln, Port Augusta, 
Wallaroo, Whyalla, Edithburgh) ; river ports (Murray Bridge) ; pleasure 
resorts (Victor Harbour, Kingscote) ; railway towns (Peterborough, etc.) ; 
agricultural centres (Gawler, Quorn, Melrose, Mount Barker, Minlaton, 
Kapunda, Strathalbyn, etc.) ; irrigation settlements (Renmark, Berri, 
Waikerie, etc.). 



253 




Fig. 16. 

Spot map of the Adelaide Region. Each small dot represents approximately 100 
people. Parks and sports reserves are shaded; they occur mostly along the high- 
land front and on the lower deltaic plain; the City "Park Lands" stand out 
prominently. The tramlines, roads, and railways are indicated. This map should 
be read in conjunction with fig. 4. 



254 



The most thickly populated country areas are the orchard, vine, and 
garden districts of the western portion of the central Mount Lofty Ranges. 
The dairying areas of the Murray "swamps" are growing in importance, while 
the iron-mining and salt-producing localities also have their islets of humanity. 

The distribution of the population within the Adelaide area is shown m 
fig 16 This has been compiled from the latest available figures. The choice 
of a dot unit of 100 persons is quite suitable for the chief city and suburban 
areas Since each dot represents 20-30 families, however, it does not properly 
represent the facts in the more sparsely settled farming and gardening 

localities. - t .. 

Notwithstanding this fact, the whole map gives a reliable general picture 
of the distribution of the population of Adelaide at the present time. While 
takin^ advantage of all the available information from statistical and muni- 
cipal "sources, the draftsman (Mr. J. A. Tillett) and myself have made 
personal inspections in localities less well known to us, have studied aeroplane 
photographs of various portions, and have viewed and noted the city growth 
from various vantage points on the scarp face. 

The only other plan of the Adelaide area known to me that m any way 
approximates to a "spot map" is that drawn by G. S. Kingston in 1842, ^ to 
show the distribution of the houses in Adelaide. At that time the population 
of the State was almost 15,000. This shows in the city area concentration 
towards water supplies in both North and South Adelaide, with a secondary 
factor of nearness to the Port Road in South Adelaide. It is noticeable, as 
a minor feature, how settlement in those days avoided the 'lonely" spaces of 
the six public squares of the city, 

The population map (fig. 16) throws into high relief the Park Lands of 
the City of Adelaide, which were set aside as reserves in the very first plans 
of the city. On this figure there has also been included all the more important 
parks, reserves, and sports grounds of the area. It will be noted thtft parks 
and reserves, here as elsewhere, abound on the less valuable spaces — in this 
case on the hills and valleys of the scarp front, and along the swampy lower 
deltaic plains. Along the latter may be^seen a row of racecourses, golf links, 
coursing reserves, and rifle ranges. The golf links have excellent positions, 
for the most part on the relics of the old sand dune belt. 

It will be noted that there are as yet no outer sand dune reserves nor any 
such space set aside on Le Fevres Peninsula, apart from the tiny area of old 
lagoon (now being reclaimed) adjoining Hart Street, and a small semi-official 
reserve at Outer Harbour. The chief National Parks are as follow: National 
Park, Belair, 2,000 acres (the old "Government Farm"); Morialta, 525 acres; 
Waterfall Gully, 103 acres; Hazelwood Park, 30 acres; Brownhill Creek, 142 
acres; Mount Lofty Summit Reserve, 60 acres; Kingston Park, 20 acres. 

The detailed distribution of population as shown in the figure must be 
studied in conjunction with the whole of the foregoing sections, and more 
particularly with the physiographic zones (fig. 4) and the climatic factors. 
Thus we see how the Para Fault Block carries by far the greatest portion of 
the population. Apart from the shoreline itself, no physical factor exerts 
greater influence than the Para Scarp and the main Mount Lofty Scarp. The 
great bulk of the population lives to the east of the Para Scarp and west of 
the Mount Lofty Scarp ; there is no need to elaborate this in view of the facts 
revealed by the map. 

The influence of the outer sand dune belt has been frequently referred 
to; even the municipalities along* this zone have elongated north-south out- 
lines. Note the four "islands" of sand dune population: (1) Brighton, (2) 
Glenelg, (3) Henley-Grange, (4) Semaphore-Largs. 



255 

The repelling effect of the lowlands of the estuary is distinctly seen, 
though the clustered population of Port Adelaide on this area shows that 
even so powerful a geographic factor may be overcome by the influence of 
nearness to the port. Between the outer sand dune belt and the higher deltaic 
plain is the almost unpeopled belt of lower deltaic plain (compare figs. 4 and 
16), which is subject to floods. 

The geographic influence of the Port Line and Road, which, it must be 
remembered, largely lie along the old fan delta of the Torrens, breaks the 
continuity of the unpeopled lower delta. The higher deltaic plain, par- 
ticularly where the old fan delta of the Torrens is highest, is thickly 
populated: Hilton, Mile End, Thebarton, Bowden, Hmdmarsh, and the 
associated suburbs. 

The city of Adelaide itself remains the most densely-populated portion 
of the area as shown by fig. 16. There is a distinct tendency nowadays for 
the city population to move out to the suburbs, partly due to the desire for 
larger allotments and more modern cottages, aided by the need for additional 
space within the city for motor garages, factories, and shops, as well as by 
modern means for rapid transport. Everywhere old tenement houses are 
being replaced by industrial buildings. The foundation of the garden suburb 
of Colonel Light Gardens, the population of which forms a notable "islet" to 
the south of the city (see fig. 16), may be correlated with this tendency to 
move outwards from the more congested parts of the city. 

On the higher land of the Para Block Adelaide stands within its belt of 
parks, with its northern continuation (Prospect and Nailsworth), its eastern 
continuation (Norwood, Kensington, and Burnside), and its southern exten- 
sion (Goodwood, Unley, and Parkside). Along the Torrens Valley we have 
the denser areas of Walkerville, St. Peters, and Payneham. The density of 
population falls off as the foothills are approached to the east, and stops at 
the main scarp front almost as completely as it does at the shoreline on the 
west. 

This completes the survey of the human geography of Adelaide. We 
have endeavoured to show that the city resembles a great single organism, 
growing and expanding, or decaying and retreating, according to the geo- 
graphical factors of land and water, height and distance, warmth and water 
supply, food and recreation. We have seen in fig. 16, how the city reaches out 
towards the desirable or necessary areas, and how it shrinks from those geo- 
graphically undesirable. Finally, we have seen the city as an "island" of 
population, mutually co-operating with the great productive country areas on 
which it is dependent, and for which it constitutes a Market, a Gateway, and 
a Garden. 

X.— LIST OF REFERENCES. 

1. W. N. PSenson — "Notes Descriptive of a Stereogram of the Mount Lofty 

Ranges." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxxv, 1911, p. 108. 

2. Vtdal de la Blache — "Principles of Human Geography." London, 1926. 

3. Jean Brunhes — "Human Geography." London, 1912. 

4. Vaugiian Cornish — "The Great Capitals." London, 1923. 

5. C. A. Cotton — "Block Mountains in New Zealand." American Journal of 

Science, vol. xliv., Oct., 1917, p. 249. 

6. C A. Cotton — "Fault Coasts in New Zealand." Geographical Review, 

vol. i., 1916, No. I, p. 20. 

7. W. M. Davis— "Geographical Essays." Boston, 1909. 



256 

8. Charles Fenner — "The Physiography of. the Adelaide Region." A.A.A.S. 

Handbook, Adelaide, 1924, p. 12. 

9. Charles Fenner — "The Physiography of the Werribee River Area." 

Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., vol. xxxi., Dec., 1918, p. 176. 

10. Charles Fenner— "The Physiography of Victoria." Proc. Pan-Pacific 

Science Cong., 1923, vol. i., p. 719. 

11. Walter Howchin — "Geology of South Australia." Adelaide, 1918. 

12. Walter Howchin — "The Evolution of the Physiographical Features o£ 

South Australia." A.A.A.S., vol. xiv., Melbourne, 1913, p. 148. 

13. Walter Howchin and J. W. Gregory — "Geography of South Australia.'* 

Adelaide, 1909. 

14. Douglas Mawson — "Notes on the Geological Features of the Meadows- 

Valley." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlvii., 1923, p. 371. 

15. A. Grenfell Price — "The Foundation and Settlement of South Australia."' 

Adelaide, 1924. 

16. A. Grenfell Price — "The Settlement of South Australia." A.A.A.S., vol, 

xvii., Adelaide, 1924, p. 439. 

17. A. Grenfell Price — "Geographical Problems of Early South Australia."' 

Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxv., 1925, p. 57. 

18. Griffith Taylor — "Physiography of Eastern Australia." Com. Bur. of 

Meteorology, Bull. No. 8, Melbourne, 1911. 

19. Griffith Taylor — "The Australian Environment." Advisory Council of 

Science and Industry, Memoir No. 1, Melbourne, 1918, p. 96. 

20. E. O. Teale— "Forest Physiography of Kuitpo." Bull. No. 6, Dept. of 

Forestry, Univ. of Adelaide, 1918. 

21. E. O. Teale— "The Physiography of the Meadows Valley." Trans. Rov. 

Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlvi., 1922, p. 160. 

CHIEF MAPS AND PLANS CONSULTED. 
H. Y. L. Brown — Geological Map of South Australia, 1899. 

L. K. Ward — Geological, Topographical, and Water Supply Maps of South Aus- 
tralia, 1913, 1917. 

Surveyor-General Strawbridge — Topographical Map of the Hills District, 
circa 1897. 

W. H. Edmunds — Topographical Maps of Adelaide Hills, 1926. 

Com. Military Survey — Adelaide Sheet, with Contours, etc., 1914. 

J. A. Tillett — M.S. Map of Adelaide Plains, 10' V.I., prepared from data on 
the Hydraulic Engineer's large scale plans, 2' V.I., 1926. 

Admiralty Chart — Spencer and St. Vincent Gulfs, No. 2,389. 

Parliamentary Papers — River, Railway, Bridge, and Harbour Plans, etc., 
1870-80, 1917, 1921-22. 

Maps, Plans, etc., kindly made available by Dr. L. K. Ward (Director of Mines), 
Mr. T. E. Day (Surveyor-General), Mr. H. E. Bellamy (Hydraulic 
Engineer), Mr. J. T. Furner (Engineer for Surveys), Mr. D. V. Fleming 
(Commissioner of Highways), Mr. R. G. Peake (Secretary, Harbours 
Board), Mr. F. L. Parker (Clerk, House of Assembly), Mr. W. L. 
Johnston ( Government Statist ) , Mr. Shinkneld ( Commonwealth 
Meteorological Bureau), Mr. G. H. Pitt (South Australian Archives ) F 
Mr. W. Scott Griffiths (Town Planner). 



257 



A REVISION OF THE "DISTYLA COMPLEX" OF THE 
GENUS CASUARINA. 

By Ellen D. Macklin, B.Sc, Demonstrator in Botany, 
University of Adelaide. 

[Read September 8, 1927.] 

Plate XIII. 



I. 

II. 

III. 

IV. 

V. 

VI. 

VII. 



VIII. 



IX. 



Contents. 


Page 


Introduction 


257 


Historical 


257 


Present Work 


260 


Specific Characteristics 


261 


The Male Flowers 


262 


Key to the Species of the "Distyla complex" 


267 


Description of Species 


267 


1. C. striata, E. D. Macklin 


267 


2. C. rigida, Miq. . . 


269 


3. C. paludosa, Sieb. 


270 


3a. C. paludosa, Sieb., var. robusta, E. D. Macklin . . 


271 


4. C. pusilla, E. D. Macklin 


272 


5. C. distyla, Vent. 


274 


6. C. Muellerina, Miq 


275 


The Anatomy of the Assimilatory Branchlets 


277 


1. General 


277 


2. C. stricta, Ait. 


278 


3. Comparative Anatomy of the "Distyla complex" and of the other 




South Australian Species 


280 


Summary 


284 



I. Introduction. 

Field observations and the examination of herbarium material have shown 
that there are seven species of Casuarina in Australia at the present time grouped 
under the name of C. distyla, Velnt. With such confusion existing, it seemed as 
though a review of the species concerned would be useful. Since I had available 
six species of the "Distyla complex/' all of which had been examined in the field, 
it was decided to attempt the necessary revision. 

II. Historical Work. 

Although the Casuarinaceae is a small family, composed of a single genus, 
Casuarina, containing relatively few species, there has always existed a great deal 
of confusion among those species. This, perhaps, is due, in the first place, to 
the fact that various botanists have described one or two species from time to 
time as opportunities have offered, while for nearly a century after the publica- 
tion of the first description by Rumphius, no worker attempted a revision of the 
family. The natural consequence of this lack of co-ordinated work was that the 
same species was frequently described twice, or even three times, under different 
names. This accounts in some measure for the number of synonyms within the 
genus. 

Progress in the knowledge of the flora of Australia during the last century 
demanded the specific determination of many Casuarinas, some of which were 



258 

very closely related. Now the family is unique in structure, and the character- 
istics which give it distinction are so constant that they have no value in 
determining individual species. Many of the earlier workers, with the smaller 
range of form available to them, could not realise this, and, consequently, one 
finds that points which appeared to be specific had little value at a later date when 
further exploration brought in more species. Thus some of the earlier descrip- 
tions were inadequate for the separation of the new forms, and so, as time went 
on, the nomenclature became more and more confused. There is rmich variation 
within the limits of any one species, while in some cases it is difficult to distinguish 
between mere variation and points of specific importance. Many of the species 
are so similar in general appearance that unless the systematist resorts to a 
detailed examination of the flower or the anatomy of the stem, it is difficult to see 
the boundaries of any one species, and consequently it will be seen that confusion 
is inevitable. 

It is of interest to trace the history of the discovery of the species occurring 
in South Australia, and also some of those which have hitherto been recorded for 
the State. 

For much of the following detail I am indebted to Miquel (1848), as many 
of the publications referred to are not available in Australia. Owing to the 
rarity of Miquel's work here, it has seemed useful to summarize the history of 
the genus. 

Rumphius (1755) and the Forsters (1775) made the first contributions to our 
knowledge of the genus. About the same time as the work of the two Forsters 
was published, several species of Casnarina were introduced into European 
gardens. Among them was one which Aiton named C. stricta and described very 
briefly in the first edition of the Hortus Kezveyisis, 1789. 

Ventenat, in 1803, described C distyla, which had previously been brought 
from Tasmania, and was, at that time, growing in the celebrated jardin du Cels. 
Ventenat was uncertain whether the plant he described differed sufficiently from 
C. stricta, Ait., to receive specific rank. He remarks: "II est impossible de 
determiner d'apres la seule phrase specihque (1) qui se trouve dans V Hortus 
KewensiSj si le Casuarina distyla est la meme plante que le Casuarina stricta, ou si 
e'est une espece differcnte." 

Labillardiere, in 1806, described C. quadrivalvis from material he had col- 
lected in Tasmania. Probably this species is the same as that described so 
inadequately in 1789 under the name of C. stricta. The complete description and 
excellent illustrations given by Labillardiere leave no possibility of doubt that his 
species is identical with that known by the name of C. stricta, Ait., in this State 
to-day. 

Following these publications came a period of activity in extra-Australian 
regions resulting in the collection and description of several new species. 

In Sprengel's work (1826) descriptions of the species collected by Sieber, in 
Australia, occur ; among others are C. glance, Sieb., and C, paludosa, Sieb. It is 
unfortunate that Sprengel divided the thirteen species dealt with into two groups, 
according to whether they were dioecious or monoecious. These points are far 
from constant in the majority of species and are of no specific importance, so that 
the separation tended to obscure natural affinities. 

In 1841 all the species growing in the Berlin Gardens were determined and 
described very accurately by Otto and Dietrich (1841). Among these were 
C. saberosa, C. pumila, and C. humilis. 

The first worker to attempt a revision of all the known species was Miquel 
(1848), and it is to him that we owe the existence of careful illustrations and of 
complete and comprehensive descriptions. The first collection dealt with was 

(1) Vaginis multifidds. 



259 

that made by Preiss in the vicinity of the Swan River (W.A.) and handed over 
to him by Lehmann for determination. The results of this examination are pub- 
lished in Lehmann's work (1844). Later other collections passed through Miquel's 
hands, and before he published his valuable revision, he examined Sir William 
Hooker's vast collection (which included plants found by Sieber, Baxter, Fraser, 
Sinclair, Cunningham, J. D. Hooker, and others), and all those plants growing 
at the time in the Berlin Gardens. The examination of these plants culminated 
in his Review (1848). The work contains complete descriptions and illustrations 
of about thirty species, and also a history of work on the family. 

In 1859, Miquel described C. Muelleriana collected by Mueller in the Mount 
Lofty Ranges. In a later publication (1865) and in De Candolle's Prodromus he 
considered this species to be a variety of C. suberosa, with which it is more closely 
connected than it is with C. distyla, in which Mueller and Bentham merged it. 

During the years 1864-1868, vol. 16 of De Candolle's great work was in pre- 
paration. To this Miquel contributed minute descriptions of the then known 
species of Casuarina, among which were C. distyla, Vent., C. rigida, Miq., and 
C. Baxteriana, Miq. 

Botanical work was making great progress at this time in Australia, and in 
order to bring his Revision of 1848 up to date, Miquel published a short paper, 
in 1865, adding points and later records to existing descriptions. There Miquel 
stated that he was convinced that the C. distyla of Ventenat was identical with the 
C. stricta of Aiton. The description and figures given for the latter in his Review 
were of a sterile plant which he now decided was not C. stricta, but what species 
he was unable to determine. It is difficult to see why Miquel regarded C. distyla 
and C. stricta as synonyms, because the inadequate descriptions of Aiton's species 
more correctly describes C. quadrivalvis, Labill., than it does C. distyla, Vent. 
In this work Miquel also discussed the great variation in C. distyla, and as a result 
of his extended observations grouped many forms that he had previously regarded 
as separate species under the former. Among these were C. rigida, separated 
from C distyla, in 1848, and C. Fraserima. These forms were distinct in the 
herbarium, but he was not certain whether they might be merely growth forms 
consequent on habitat differences. 

By this act of Miquel we can see the origin of the confusion existing in the 
"Distyla complex" to-day. 

Mueller (1868) then published a description, under the name of C. stricta, 
Ait., of C. distyla, Vent., widened to embrace all the variation noted in herbarium 
specimens by Miquel, thus explaining why such species as C. rigida, C. Muelleriana, 
and C. Baxteriana have been lost. 

Bentham, in the Flora Australiensis (1873), corrected the error, originated 
by Miquel and retained by Mueller, that C. distyla and C. stricta were identical. 
He pointed out that Labillardiere's C. quadrivalvis was the same species as the 
C. stricta of Aiton. Bentham, however, adopted Mueller's wider definition of 
C, distyla, regarding C. rigida and C. Muelleriana as synonyms. It is to these 
all-embracing descriptions that one can trace the confusion existing throughout 
Australia to-day in the "Distyla complex " for each State claims to have C. distyla, 
and in most of them it is a different species. 

In 1875-6 Tietkins and Young, the collectors of the Giles Expedition through 
Ooldea and Ouldabinna across the Western Australian border, added C. lepi- 
dophloia (then recorded as C. glauca) to the South Australian flora. C. 
Decaisneana also was collected from the Ashburton River during the journey; 
they were described shortly after by Mueller (1877). 

The Elder Expedition (R. Helms, collector) added a further locality (Ferd- 
inand River) for C. lepidophloia and also a doubtful record for C. humilis 
(Mueller and Tate, 1896). 



260 

Tate (1889) listed eight species of Casuarina for South Australia; of these 
C. glauca does not occur in this State, the records referring to C. lepidophloia, 
while C, suberosa, C. bicuspidata, and C. humilis have not been re-collected. C. 
distyla, in the sense used by Tate, refers to any of the four shrubby species 
separated below. 

In 1899 R. T. Baker described both C. Luehmanni, which occurs near the 
Victorian border in the south-east of the State, and C. Cambagei, which is gener- 
ally regarded as a synonym of C. lepidophloia, F. v. M. 

More recently, ecological work in South Australia has directed attention to 
the great variation in the species regarded as C. distyla. Adamson and Osborn 
(1924) say of this species: — "The plant is exceedingly variable both in its size 
and general form. It occurs in all sizes from a small" undershrub of 1 to 2 feet 
up to trees of 10 to 15 feet, and varies almost as much in its general shape. Most 
commonly it forms a spreading bush with no distinct main axis ; at other times it 
is erect with rather fastigiate branching. The tree forms have ascending branches. 
How far some of these forms are distinct races or varieties is a matter that cer- 
tainly calls for study and attention." 

In 1925, Cleland and Black published a list of the flora of Encounter Bay, 
and there state that in the district C. distyla occurs in two forms, not separable 
morphologically, one a rounded shrub (forma rotunda) and one more spiky in 
appearance. 

III. Present Work. 

An anatomical investigation of a number of species of Casuarina shows that 
many of the species can be identified on the structure of the branchlets alone. It 
was somewhat surprising then, on sectioning the branchlets of the so-called 
C. distyla from various localities in the State, to find that the material provided, 
not mere variations in the one type, but two very distinct types of anatomical 
structure. It did not seem possible that habitat differences could greatly affect 
the internal structure of the branchlets, since a study of the variation of the 
branchlets of C. stricta, Ait., from many localities snowed that, beyond minor 
differences, there was no serious departure from the structure normal for that 
species. 

Field work in the Mount Lofty Ranges soon made it apparent that one was 
dealing with two species — one, a spreading, dioecious shrub with angular branchlets 
and red anthers; and the second, a more robust, fastigiate shrub with branchlets 
almost terete, golden-brown anthers, and shorter male spikes. Later, a dioecious 
shrub sifrnilar to the latter was found, but as a closer examination revealed no 
other differences between them than the dioecism, the two forms have been referred 
to the one species. 

At this stage in the investigation the writer was able to examine the specimens 
in the National Herbaria of Sydney and Melbourne, where it was evident that a 
confusion existed among the specimens labelled C. distyla. Unfortunately the type 
specimen of this species is not housed in Australia. 

On returning to South Australia, another small form was collected at Mount 
Compass, and then Professor Cleland kindly placed at my disposal all his 
Casuarinas from Encounter Bay. This collection contained a fourth form which 
abounds in that district. With two species collected in the Eastern States, the 
shrubby forms on hand nufribered six, all of which were commonly known under 
the name of C. distyla. 

In the determination of these species, and also C* Baxteriana, Miq., from 
Western Australia, full reliance has been placed on Miquel's descriptions, where, 
as in the case of C. distyla, type specimens were unavailable. Miquel's work i!s 
so comprehensive that it leaves very little possibility of error. The type speci- 



261 

mens of C. rigida, Miq. (both Fraser's and Hooker's specimens) ; C.Baxteriana, 
Miq. ; C. palndosa, Sieb. ; and C. lepidophloia, F. v. M., have been examined, and 
also the original descriptions of C. distyla, Vent. ; C. rigida, Miq. ; C. Muelleriana, 
Miq. ; and C. Baxteriana, Miq. 

IV. Specific Characteristics. 

The present work has been rendered difficult by the extraordinary degree of 
variation within the majority of the species. Forms so closely related as those 
of the "Distyla complex" are not easy to identify at any time, but when they 
exhibit a wide range of variation in many characters which have, in the past, been 
regarded as being of taxonomic importance, they are increasingly difficult. It is 
not unlikely that hybridization is a cause of the variable nature of these plants 
and has obscured the original limits of the species. A noticeable feature of all 
the shrubby species of the "Distyla complex" is that a great percentage of the 
cones are partly sterile, and thus irregular in shape. This sterility favours the 
view that hybridization has occurred. 

Perhaps the most striking variations, in any one species, are those in size and 
habit. It is not uncommon in South. Australia to see C. Muelleriana growing to 
a height of 12 feet on the more favourable slopes of the hills, for instance at 
Belair, in the Mount Lofty Ranges, whilst on the top of those same hills it may 
reach only a height of 4 feet. In the Encounter Bay and Mount Compass dis- 
tricts, where edaphic conditions are more adverse, this species is frequently only 
1 foot in height, seldom reaching above 4 feet. Nor is this the only shrubby 
species that shows this response to habitat differences. It is clearly noticeable in 
C, rigida around Sydney and on C, striata (n. sp.) in South Australia. The thick- 
ness and length of the assimilatory branchlets vary in different specimens, as does 
also the length of the internodes. In regard to the cones, which have always been 
regarded as being more or less constant within a species, there is extreme varia- 
tion, in size and shape of the cones, the degree of acuteness of the bracteoles, the 
type of the apex (truncate, conical, or beaked, all of wdiich may occur in different 
individuals of any one species growing in the same locality), the length of the 
peduncle, and the degree of sterility (pi. xiii.). Extensive field observations 
over the flowering season have shown that no reliance is to be placed on the 
dioecism or monoecism of any species. Some species, such as C. Muelleriana, are 
usually dioecious, but monoecious individuals have been collected, whilst in C. 
striata and in C. paludosa, var. robusta (n. var.) it is apparent that both conditions 
are equally common. 

There are, however, several features which are constant throughout. One 
of the most important of these is the anatomical structure of the assimilatory 
branchlets and also that of the older branches. Ecological variations which are 
capable of producing marked responses in the more superficial characters do not 
appear to have any influence on the anatomical type of the plant, i.e., whilst 
seasonal variation may increase or lessen the tannin content of a branchlet, or 
arid conditions increase the degree of lignification, the fundamental plan of con- 
struction remains unchanged. This being so, the anatomical study of the family 
as a whole will be a very valuable guide as to affinity, as well as giving, in certain 
species at least, a check on classification. Such points as the presence or absence 
of a large T-shaped band of fibres in the ridges, the type of development of the 
periderm, which influences the degree of striation in the branches, and also the 
particular type of medullary ray present, whether it be aggregate, compound, or 
diffuse, would be really valuable assets to taxonomic work. 

The angularity of the branchlets seems to be a reliable point. Whether a 
branchlet is angular or terete rests, ultimately, on the shape of the ridges ; some- 
times they are gently rounded or flattened, giving the stem a terete appearance as 



262 



m C. pusilla (n. sp.) and C. paludosa, var. robusta (n. var.), sametimes as in 
C. Muelleriana, C. Baxteriana, C. rigida, and to a lesser extent in C. distyla there 
is a prominent obtuse angle in the median plane of each ridge so that "the stem 
appears angular. The shape and size of the leaf teeth and the number of teeth 
m a whorl are also good specific points. As regards the cone, it would seem that 
only the presence or absence of the drosal protuberance of the valves (bracteoles), 
and the degree of protrusion in them, are really worth consideration, all other points 
seeming variable. 

The greatest assistance in taxonomic work in the genus is to be gleaned from 
the male flowers. The mean length of the male spike is of importance, but in 
working on any one individual it is not unusual to find the male inflorescence 
varying from 1-6 cm. in length. However, with several specimens at hand, it is 
not difficult to determine the average length of the spike. The arrangement of 
the sheaths on the axis, whether they are overlapping, merely touching, or arranged 
so as to leave a small portion of the axis bare, is a constant feature. In three of 
the South Australian species the bracteoles are shed on the opening of the flower, 
whilst in the remaining species they are retained. In C. stricta the two bracteoles 
are woody and cohere along the upper abaxial margin by means of branching 
hairs. These points have been found to be very useful in the present considera- 
tion. The size relation between the persistent bracteoles and the sheathing teeth 
also appears to be constant, and can, therefore, rank among the more specific 
characteristics of the genus. The classification given is based upon the points 
enumerated above, and, whilst anatomical data do not figure in the key, a con- 
sideration of the anatomy underlies the grouping throughout. 

V. The Male Flowers. 

The buds of Casuarina are small, and consequently difficult to dissect; how- 
ever, their small size is of advantage because the whole flower can be examined 
microscopically. The buds were rendered transparent with chloral hydrate, and 
after the removal of the bracteoles and the perianth segments, each part was 
treated with phloroglucinol to see the distribution of lignified tissue within them. 
Drawings have been made with the aid of the camera lucida, and, with the excep- 
tion of those of the sheathing teeth, from uncovered preparations, so that all 
distortion through squashing would be eliminated. 

There is much uniformity in the male flowers of the genus. The spikes con- 
sist of a varying number of sheaths arranged closely on the axis. Each sheath is 
composed of floral bracts, free at the tips but joined laterally in the greater part 
of their length to form the sheath (fig. 33). These floral bracts exactly reproduce 
the type of leaf teeth found in the vegetative portion of the plant. A single flower 
occurs in the axil of each bract (fig. 11) ; this consists, in the bud, of one stamen, 
two perianth segments, and two bracteoles (figs. 1-3). The anther in the open 
flower is mounted on a long filament (fig. 11) and is basifixed; it shows two lobes 
slightly separating at the top and dehiscing longitudinally. The terminal portion 
of the lobe is frequently woody, while the basal part is more or less lobed (fig. 
17). In the unopen bud the stamen is protected by the two perianth segments 
(irig. 2), which lie on the adaxial and the abaxial face of the anther. These 
perianth segments are usually hooded and ciliate (fig. 3), the smaller inner one 
which, however, is inserted below the larger outer segment, covers the abaxial 
side of the anther while in the bud and forms a hood over the top or wraps around 
the inner face ; the outer segment covers the adaxial face and is hooded over both 
the stamen and the inner segment; the hood facing the floral bracts. The perianth 
segments do not cohere into a cap as the earlier workers thought, but each one 
individually folds over the anther. With the extension of the filament, on the 
opening of the flower, these perianth segments break off at the base and are 



263 



carried up by the stamen. There is no record of a species in which the perianth 
segments are persistent. It sometimes occurs that the abaxial segment is not 
developed (e.g., C. stricta). 




Figs. 1-3. Bud of C. pahidosa, var. robusta. 

Fig. 1 — Abaxial view; b, bracteole. Fig. 2 — Adaxial view 

with bracteoles pulled back ; pd, adaxial perianth segment. 

Fig. 3 — Bud with outer perianth segment removed ; pb, 

abaxial perianth segment. x33. 

The bracteoles belong to a different series, being decussate with the perianth 
segments and inserted together on the axis at a point lower than that of the inser- 
tion of the lowest perianth segment. At the base they show a thickened midrib 
laterally placed and two equal wing-like extensions. Further up they appear to 
turn slightly, so that the midrib finally lies exactly on the angle between the back 





-W 



Figs. 4-6. Bud of C. Luehnianni, 
Fig. A — Adaxial view of bud; a, anther; h, hairs. Fig. 5 — 
Adaxial view of bracteole. Fig. 6 — Bud with bracteoles 
removed, leaving the perktnth segments and the anther. jc33. 

and lateral portion of the anther. The bracteoles then become definitely and 
unevenly keeled (fig. 2), the smaller sides covering the abaxial face (fig. 1) of 
the anther and the perianth segments; the larger ones curving around the 



264 



side, but scarcely covering the axial portion. The bracteoles have invariably a 
well-marked mass of fibres along the midrib, and frequently the cells of the wings 
are lignified, but only in one case has any trace of tracheides been noticed. (The 
perianth segments are generally devoid of all lignified tissue.) In some species 
these bracteoles are retained (fig, 11), but in several they are shed with the 
perianth segments on the opening of the flower (fig. 15). 

From the consideration of the foregoing facts it will be seen that two types 
of opened flower are possible— those which consist solely of a stamen subtended 
by its floral bract, as in C. Luehmanni, C. stricta, and C. striata; and those which 
retain the bracteoles. In the latter case these persistent bracteoles may be either 
enclosed m the sheath, as in C. lepidophloia (fig. 13) and C. paludosa (fig. 20), or 
exsert (figs. 19, 23, and 30). This, of course, depends mainly on the length of 
the sheathing teeth (bracts), which is constant within any one species; it follows 
that the degree of protrusion of the bracteoles has specific value. 

Roughly speaking, the buds of the species investigated are of two types Of 
the first, C. Luehmanni is the simplest form, whilst C. distyla or C paludosa var 
robusta, may exemplify the second. Some species, such as C. lepidophloia and 
C. striata, are transitional between the two. 

Of the first group, there are only two examples among the South Australian 
species; these are C. Luehmanni (figs. 4-6) and C. stricta (figs. 7-10), the latter 
having a more complicated type of bud. Both are characterised by a' degree of 
hairiness not found on the buds of other species investigated. In both, bracteoles 
are well developed, very woody, but deciduous in the mature flower. Long 
branching hairs are present on the upper margins of the bracteoles and along the 
midrib of the outer side (figs. 5 and 9). The perianth segments are also char- 
acterised by the possession of long hairs on the outer faces (figs. 6 and 10) ; these 
hairs are arranged along, and confined to, the middle portion of the segments, 
beginning below the centre and being directed upwards as they are on the midrib 
of the bracteoles. In neither case are the perianth segments wide, folded, or 
hooded about the anther, but simply providing a cover. C. Luehmanni differs 
from C. stricta in having two separate bracteoles and in the presence of long 
branching hairs arising from the base of the bud (fig. 4). In the former, the 
perianth segments are spoon-shaped and ciliate, with many short, much-branched 
hairs at the top. The perianth segments are much longer than the anther which 
they enclose, and are interlocked at the top by means of the hairs (fig. 6). In 
C. stricta the two bracteoles are coherent in the upper portion by means of their 
branched hairs (figs. 8 and 9), and are joined about two-thirds of the way down 
the back (fig. 7) by shorter branched cilia, while the axial portion is almost free 
(fig. 8). Inside these bracteoles are the perianth segments. It frequently happens 
that the abaxial perianth segment in C. stricta is missing, that is, it is not 
differentiated, as sectioning the buds clearly shows ; but in many of the specimens 
examined the two were present. Certainly, if it is inconstantly present, then, 
when absent, it is aborted, and there is no possibility of the union of the two seg- 
ments, as the slightly bilobed nature of the adaxial one [fig. 10(a)] might suggest 
(Black, 1919). This appearance is due to the perianth segment being moulded 
to the shape of the anther. The two bracteoles being coherent along the greater 
part of their abaxial face would suggest that the inner perianth is unnecessary. 
It is obvious that Labillardiere (1806) noted the presence, in some cases at any 
rate, of the second perianth segment, since he named the species "quadrivalvis." 
Bornet (1873) states that whilst it is usual to find in C. stricta a 3-valved perianth, 
"in very rare instances a fourth valve has been found pressed against the anterior 
face of the stamen." The two perianth segments are very much of the same size 
[figs. 10(a) and 10(b)], but the inner one is narrower and has fewer hairs more 



265 

strictly confined to the median portion. When the flower opens the four parts 
are carried up as a cap and are shed simultaneously (fig. 9). 

Both the above species have the same type of leaf teeth, being long, lanceolate 
and ciliate, the same type of anther, rather flattened and not at all oblong, and 
agree in having deciduous bracteoles. Moreover, anatomical examination 
emphasises the close relationship between them. 

C. lepidophloia (figs. 11-13), whilst exhibiting the same type of leaf teeth 
(fig. 13) and anther, has a much simpler bud. The persistent bracteoles (fig. 11) 
of this species are more ovate than keeled, especially in the young state ; they are 
ciliate with long branched hairs along the margin (fig. 12), but only show a few 
scattered hairs along the midrib. They are unique among those species investigated 
in that they possess, in addition to the fibres which are present in the midrib of 
all the other species,, a distinct row of tracheides running almost to the top of the 




Figs. 7-10. Bud of C, striata. 

Fig. 7 — Abaxial view of bud. Fig. 8 — Adaxial view of same. Fig. 9 — 

The floral parts, two coherent bracteoles and two perianth segments, pushed 

off from an opening bud. Fig 10 — The two perianth segments : (a) the 

adaxial and (b) the abaxial segment. x33. 

bracteoles. The perianth segments, which are also strongly lignified, possess 
neither tracheides nor fibres. They are also slightly hairy along the back. The 
anther is more rounded at the base (fig. 11) and has not the prominent lobed 
extension in the basal region noted in the two preceding species. 

In the open flower of C. striata (figs. 14-16) the bracteoles are shed, as they 
are in C. Luehmanni and C. striata. There is a departure here from the 
type of sheathing teeth found in the species previously described. The teeth are 
ovate-lanceolate and overlapping (fig. 15) ; the bracteoles are ciliate with long 
branched hairs on the margin, but glabrous on the midrib (fig. 16). The perianth 
segments are quite unlike those of C. stricta and C, Luehmanni in that they are 
wrapped around the anther, each segment completely covering one, and nearly 
covering the second face [figs. 14(a), (b), (c)]. The perianth segments are ciliate 
on the margins and show a few scattered hairs on the back [fig. 14(b)]. Long 
hairs, branching or simple, arise from the base of the bud (fig. 16), as in 
C. Luehmanni. The anther is similar in shape to that of C. stricta. 



266 



The remaining five species investigated (C. rigida, C. distyla, C. paludosa, var. 
robusta, C. pusilla, and C. Muelleriana) have buds and flowers which show a great 
similarity. The bracteoles are in every case persistent and glabrous along the 
midrib; the anther is different in shape from those of the species described above, 
being more ovate, and narrower towards the basal end, which is usually more 
strongly lobed. The perianth segments are hooded or folded, and are glabrous 
on the back. In no case is the bud extremely ciliate, nor has it long hairs arising 
from the base. 

There are minor differences among the buds of the five species. C. rigida 
(figs. 17-19) has a very large bud and flower, the jsheathing teeth (fig. 19) being 
essentially of the same type as those of C. striata, but of much greater length. 
Owing to this fact the bracteoles do not protrude to any great extent beyond the 
teeth (figs. 17 and 19). Both floral whorls and the sheathing teeth are almost 
glabrous at the margins (fig. 18). C. distyla (figs. 27-29) and C. pusilla (figs. 




Figs. 11-13. C. lepidophloia. 

Fig. 11 — Adaxial view of male flower; s, sheathing 

tooth (floral bract). Fig. 12 — Ovate- lanceolate bracteole 

from open flower. Fig. 13 — Abaxial view of flower with 

anther and portion of filament removed. x25. 

22-26) both show a very small bud and they are much alike. Since the sheathing 
teeth of C. distyla are somewhat longer than those of C. pusilla, the bracteoles of 
the former species scarcely protrude above the teeth (fig. 28), whilst in C. pusilla 
about one-third of the bracteoles is visible above the leaf teeth (fig. 23). The 
anther of C. pusilla (fig. 22) is much narrower and more pointed towards the basal 
end than is that of C. distyla (fig. 28); C. paludosa, var. robusta (figs. 20 and 
21), has exactly the same type of flower as has the species itself. The flower and 
bud are much longer than those of C, distyla and C\ pusilla, the sheathing teeth 
are different, being long, more lanceolate, and do not overlap (fig. 20). The 
bracteoles are scarcely visible above the long teeth (fig. 20), a fact which is useful 
in distinguishing this species from C. pusilla. The margin of the floral parts, and 



267 



also of the sheathing floral teeth, are more ciliate than in the two species previously 
described. 

C. Muelleriana (figs. 30-33) differs in having dark-red or purplish anthers, 
more widely ovate than in other species; the bracteoles are more massive, and 
the sheathing teeth are unique among South Australian species in that they are 
triangular and short (fig. 33) ; in this respect they agree with the closely related 
species C. Baxteriana and C. nana. The perianth segments (figs. 31 and 32) are 
folded and wrapped around the anther, as in C. striata. 

VI. Key to the Species of the "Distyla complex." 

Branchlets simple, ascending ; sheathing teeth, 5-9 ; cone valves scarcely 

prominent; valves with a conspicuous dorsal protuberance. 
A. Bracteoles of male flowers deciduous; internodes l-'2 cm. long; 
male spikes 2-3 cm. long, cylindrical; anthers golden-brown. Tall 

spiky shrub C. striata, 1 

A. R-racteoles of male fiowers persistent. 

B. Internodes 1-1-8 cm. long; branchlets robust; male spikes long 
(up to 8 cm.), robust; moniliform; anthers yellow. Tall shrub 

with angular branchlets C. rigida, 2 

B. Internodes 1 cm. or under; branchlets less robust; male spikes 
under 6 cm. 
C. Branchlets terete; small shrubs; cones under 2 cms. long. 
D. Sheathing teeth 6-8, narrow-lanceolate, long; bracteoles of 
male flowers not exsert. 
Slender shrub ; male spikes about 2 cm. long, almost imbricate, 
branchlets heptagonal-terete ; grooves frequently hairy ; 

teeth not ciliolate C. paludosa, 3 

More robust, spiky shrub; male spikes up to 6 cm. long, 
robust ; branchlets cylindrical ; grooves not hairy ; teeth 

ciliolate C. paludosa, var. 

D. Sheathing teeth 5-7, ovate-lanceolate, short ; bracteoles of [robusta, 3a 

male flowers exsert ; male spikes 2-3 cm. long, slender ; anthers 

rust coloured. Low cushion-like shrub C. pusilla, 4 

C. Branchlets angular ; cones over 2 cm. long ; sheathing teeth 
short; male spikes moniliform. Taller shrubs. 
Sheathing teeth 6-8, ovate-lanceolate ; male spikes 2-3 cm. long ; 

bracteoles scarcely exsert ; anthers reddish-brown . . . . L. distyla, 5 
Sheathing teeth 5-7, triangular; male spikes up to 5*5 cm. long; 
bracteoles exsert ; sheaths remote ; anthers red. Rounded 
shrub . , C. Muelleriana, 6 

VII. Description of Species. 
1. Casuarina striata, n. sp. 

Frutex 1 '5-5 m. altus, ramis striatis ob folia adnata ; ramulis strictis, 
simplicibus, robustis, erectis vel unilateralibus, 14 cm. longis, vulgo brevioribus, 
fere teretibus, foliorum adnatorum angulis obtusis ; internodiis 1-2 cm., saepius 
1'5 cm. longis, 1*5 mm. crassis; vaginarum dentibus 6-8, vulgo 7, ovato-lanceolatis, 
acutis, junioribus ciliolatis, adultis fere glabris, appressis, demum truncatis, 
vaginis e flavo pallide viridibus, dentibus brunneis, ramoruan dentibus longis 
recurvisque; amentis masculinis fere cylindricis, 1-3 cm. longis, vaginis paene 
imbricatis, bracteolis deciduis ; antheris aureo-brunneis ; strobilis breviter 
pedunculatis, cylindricis vel oblongis, plerumque 2*5 cm. longis; bracteolarum 
protuberantiis dorsalibus conspicuis, bracteolis cllipticis. 

A very variable shrub, dioecious or monoecious, somewhat fastigiate and 
spiky, 2-15 feet high, frequently assuming the form of a small tree. Trunk 
smooth,, light grey ; branches whorled, bare in the lower portions, marked with 
circular scars, between which the parallel adherent leaves are clearly visible, 
making both young and old branches distinctly striate. Branchlets robust, erect 
and unilateral, up to 14 cm. long, but frequently shorter and more or less curved, 



268 

especially in pollen-bearing plants, almost terete, but with a slight raised portion 
in the median plane of the ridges, in dried specimens more angular; furrows 
scantily marked with hairs. Internodes 1-2 cm. long, usually about 1*5 cm., 
1*5 mm. in diameter, or sometimes more slender in plants bearing male spikes! 
Sheathing teeth short, 6-8, usually 7, ovate-lanceolate, appressed, acuminate, over- 
lapping laterally; sheaths clearly visible to the naked eye; yellow; teeth brownish 
towards the tips, at first appressed, later slightly recurved, finally dying off and 
becoming truncate; no thickening of the branchlets under the nodes. Young 
branches with long, lanceolate, recurved teeth. Male spikes almost cylindrical, 
slender, terminal on branchlets of 7-8 cm. long or sessile on the permanent 
branches, spikes 1-3 cm. in length; sheaths almost overlapping, short, greenish- 
yellow, later yellowish-brown, with prominent hairy lines on the lower half. 
Bracteoles deciduous (fig. 15), keeled, glabrous on the midrib (fig. 16), shorter 
than the sheathing teeth; perianth segments hooded, ciliate on margins [figs. 
14(a) and 14(c)]; anthers golden-brown; filaments exsert. Cones shortly 



14(0 Wb) 




Figs. 14-16. C. striata. 

Fig. 14 — (a) Adaxial view of inner perianth segment; (b) 

abaxial view of same; (c) abaxial view of outer perianth 

segment. Fig. 15 — Adaxial view of male flower. Fig. 16 — 

Adaxial view of bud. x33. 

pedunculate, narrow-cylindrical or ovoid, 2*5 cm. or longer, conical, truncate or 
beaked atop, reddish-brown when young, grey when ripe and sometimes irregu- 
larly shaped. Valves obtuse or slightly acute, rusty tomentum in the upper 
internal portion ; dorsal protuberance well marked, bluntly pyramidal, about as 
long as the valves ; bracts very distinct, large and green when young, tomentose 
along the margin and in the basal region, base shaped like an inverted triangle, 
upper portion long and acuminate. 

Records.- — Common throughout Mount Lofty Ranges : from Belair southward 
to Happy Valley, Aldgate to Echunga, Sturt Creek (Blandowski, 1849), Kuitpo, 
Mount Compass, Square Waterhole, Myponga, Hindmarsh Valley, Encounter Bay, 
Ashbourne, Currency Creek; Dudley Peninsula (1883, Tate Herb.), K.L 

Flowering Season. — June to December. 



269 

_ Probably no species in the genus shows a greater variation in both size and 
habit than does C striata. Frequently, especially in the cone-bearing plants, the 
shrub is robust, fastigiate, and spiky (the spiky appearance being due to the 
leaders growing out very strongly before any branchlets arise). A more divaricate 
and straggling habit is especially noticeable in the pollen-bearing plants; this form 
is more slender. The long branches of the coning plants are frequently weighed 
down by the cones so that the bushes are very straggling, making any community 
in which this species is dominant difficult to penetrate. 

C. striata and C. palndosa, var. robusta, show how unsafe it is to place 
reliance on dioecism or monoecism in this genus. Both conditions are present, 
and it is difficult to state which is the more frequent. Other variable features 
are the colour of the anthers, which may range from yellow to golden-brown, 
and the cones, the variation of which is shown in pi. xiii. A great proportion 
of the cones are sterile; this may be due, in some cases, to the scarcity of plants 
bearing pollen in certain communities. However, observation has shown the 
prevalence of sterile cones even where pollen is abundant, and also in monoecious 
individuals ; in these cases, probably, the explanation will lie in hybridization. 

The name "striata" was suggested by the very obvious striae, caused by the 
persistence of the adnate leaves on the branches and even the young trunk. 

2. Casuarina rigida, Miquel, Rev. Cas., p. 61, tab. vii. D, 

A dioecious or monoecious shrub varying in height from a small rounded 
bushy shrub of 2-3 feet in exposed situations to a small tree. Branches erect, 
striate with adnate leaves, teeth on younger branches long and recurved, Branchlets 
simple, rigid, robust, erect, angular, dark green, 5-30 cm. long, usually about a 
span. Internodes 1 to 1*8 cm. or longer, 1 to 1*5 mm. in diameter, distinctly 
angular owing to a prominently raised obtuse angle in the median plane of the 
ridge ; furrows faintly marked by white hairy lines ; internodes somewhat swollen 
under the sheaths. Sheathing teeth 6-9, usually 7, ovate-lanceolate or lanceolate, 
long, convex on the back, ciliate, triangular and appressed when young, later 
longer, narrower, erect and glabrous, finally truncate. Sheaths pale yellowish- 
green, easily visible to the naked eye ; teeth golden-brown. Male spikes 
terminating branchlets or sessile on the permanent branches ; spikes up to S cm. 
long; sheaths remote, leaving small portions of the axis bare, greenish, with base 
abruptly constricted. Bracteoles persistent (figs. 17 and 19), keeled, glabrous on 
back, ciliate on the upper edges (fig. 18), golden-brown, longer than the sheathing 
teeth (rig. 19) ; perianth segments hooded, ciliate (fig. 18) ; anthers yellow. Cones 
subsessile or on peduncles up to 1 cm. long, oblong, conical or truncate at apex 
or frequently beaked and partially sterile. Cones about 3 cm. long, but may be 
longer ; valves elliptical or acute, scarcely prominent, rusty tomentum on the upper 
internal surface ; bracts large and distinct ; dorsal protuberance as long as the 
valves, pyramidal, obtuse or acute. — D.C. Prod., xvl., ii., p. 337. 

Records. — Tasmania : George To ( wn, Gunn No. 735 / ; and Queensland : 
Moreton Bay, Fraser.' (both in Herb., Kew). New South Wales: around Sydney, 
Blue Mountains, Newport, Kincumber, J. H. Maiden/; Botany Bay, L. Boor- 
man/, 1906; and Jervis Bay/ (Sydney Herb.). Flinders Island (Bass Str., Adel. 
Herb./) 

Whilst examining the folders of material of C. distyla in the Sydney 
Herbarium, Mr. Cheel pointed out to me this species as one which occurred in 
the neighbourhood of Sydney, and he also kindly assisted me to collect material 
for investigation. The species is regarded there as being C. distyla. Through 
the courtesy of the Director of the Royal Herbarium at Kew, I have been 
privileged to examine the type specimens of C. rigida (both Gunn's and Fraser 's 



270 



specimens), and find that they are identical with the Sydney specimens. It is 
difficult to understand why Bentham regarded these specimens as belonging to 
two different species, the more slender ones collected by Fraser as C, suberosa and 
those of Hooker as C. distyla. According to Herbarium records C. rigida is con- 
fined to the coastal regions of New South Wales. It extends into Queensland and 
southward into Flinders Island (Bass Strait) and to Tasmania. Of this species 
in Tasmania Hooker writes (1860) ; "It is a very common small bush, especially 
abundant near the sea, where it forms low thickets 2-5 feet high." The. shrub is 
very variable in size, being a low bush in the exposed rocky outcrops of the Blue 
Mountains, but under more favourable conditions it is a small tree. Both dioecious 
and monoecious individuals have been seen; Eraser's specimen is monoecious, a 
fact that may have led Bentham to relate it more closely to C. suberosa. The 
extraordinary variation in the cone is well shown in pi. xiii. 

C. rigida is closely related to C. distyla, but is sufficiently removed from it to 
receive specific rank. Some authorities regard it as lying nearer to C. stricta, but 
it shows the cone type generally exhibited by the "Distyla complex/ 7 the male 
flowers are more nearly allied to C. distyla, and, whilst the anatomy of the 
branchlets is similar, C. rigida shows greater lignification. 




Figs. 17-19. 

Fig. 17 — Adaxial view of male flower, 
bracteoles pulled back. Fig. 19- 



C. rigida. 

Fig. 18 — Abaxial view of bud with 
■Abaxial view of flower. ±25. 



3. C. faludosa, Sieb., in Spreng. Syst., iii., 803. 

A low monoecious, erect shrub, branches striate with adnate leaves. Assimila- 
tory branchlets whorled, short, strict, simple, terete, neither swollen nor constricted 
at nodes ; internodes 5-6 mm. long, f mm. in diameter, terete, or somewhat poly- 
gonal, owing to ridges being flattened, or sunken in the centre with a slightly raised 
portion on the margins ; grooves frequently hairy. Sheathing teeth 7, rarely 6, 
subappressed, narrow-triangular or lanceolate, glabrous, rigid, thick, pale or 
yellowish. Male spikes usually whorled and sessile on the permanent branches, 
1-2 cm. long, teeth narrow-lanceolate, long, glabrous when mature, bracteoles per- 
sistent, equal in length to the sheathing teeth ; perianth segments hooded. Cones 
shortly pedunculate, oblong, small. — Miq., Rev. Cas., 64, t. 8 B, and in D.C., Prod., 
xvi., ii., 338; C. pumila, Otto, and Dietr., Allg. Gartenz., 1841, p. 163 ; Miq., Rev. 
Cas., 66, t. 8 C; C, dumosa, A. Cunn., Herb.; C. distyla, var. paludosa, Benth., 
Fl. Aus.. vol. vi., p. 199. 



271 



An Eastern species; Port Jackson to the Blue Mountains, Sieber, n., 329/; 
Argyle county, A. Cunningham, Twofold Bay/. 

3a. Casuarina paludosa, Sieb., var. robusta, n. var. 

Variat ramulis robustioribus, internodiis longioribus amentis masculinis 
multo longioribus (usque ad 6' 5 cm.), robustioribusque, vaginis non imbricatis. 

A small dioecious or monoecious spiky shrub 1 to 4 feet in height, bright 
green when fresh, drying yellowish-green, erect, rigid, and with reddish-brown or 
grey branches, striate with adnate leaves. Assimilatory branchlets up to 13 cm. 
long, simple, rigid, robust, whorled, but frequently unilateral in position owing to 
a tendency to grow erect. Internodes 1 cm. long or under, 1 mm. in diameter ; 
ridges rounded or with a slight raised portion in the median plane so that they 
are terete or almost so; furrows distinctly marked with hairs in young branchlets, 
but glabrous or faintly marked in older ones. Sheathing teeth 6-8, but usually 




Figs. 20 and 21. C. paludosa, var. robusta. 

Fig. 20 — Abaxial view of male flower showing: bract and 

bractuoles of a second flower. Fig. 21 — Adaxial view of same 

with anther and portion of filament removed. x25. 

7, long, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate, frequently recurved, ciliate, when old trun- 
cate and papery at the margin ; sheaths yellow, teeth brown ; nodes clearly marked. 
On the longer branches the teeth are very long, narrow-lanceolate, dry and 
recurved. There is no swelling at the nodes, the branchlets being of the same 
thickness everywhere. Male spikes deciduous, robust, terminal on assimilatory 
branchlets of 2 to 10 cm. in length, or borne sessile in whorls along the permanent 
branches, 2 to 6*5 cm. in length; sheaths not overlapping, sometimes exposing 
short portions of the bare axis, distinctly marked with white hairy lines in the 
lower part, straw colour, teeth golden, ciliate, narrow-lanceolate, acuminate and 
long. Bracteoles persistent (figs. 20 and 21), keeled, glabrous on back, ciliate on 
edges (figs. 1 and 2), not exceeding the sheathing teeth (fig. 20) except perhaps in 
the two basal sheaths, golden-brown; perianth segments hooded, glabrous on back, 
ciliate on ^margins (fig. 3); filaments exsert; anthers reddish-brown or rusty. 



272 

Cones borne in whorls on the older branches, sessile, cylindrical or globular, 
small, l'S to 2*5 cm. in length, usually truncate atop but sometimes conical or 
slightly beaked. In some specimens the valves are elliptical and scarcely pro- 
truding, with the dorsal protuberance as long as the valve, so that the cone is 
more regular. In others the valves are more prominent and longer than the 
dorsal protuberance. Bracts distinct in young cone, acuminate and long with a 
broad base, the long points being broken of! later ; valves with a rusty tomentum 
on the upper internal portion. Dorsal protuberance entire or divided into 1 to 3 
lobes, sometimes acute. Cones sometimes irregular owing to partial sterility, 
reddish and hairy when young, ash-grey when ripe. 

Records. — Mount Compass, Square Waterhole, Upper Hindmarsh Valley, 
Inman Hills (J. B. Cleland and E. D. M.), Myponga, Keith (J. M. Black), 
Wirrega (T. G. B. Osborn), Furner (T. B. Paltridge). 

Usually occurring on stiff clay soils with little or no depth of sand. 

Flowering Season. — January to August, much earlier than the other shrubby 
species. 

There have been many difficulties in regard to this variety arising out of its 
close relationship with the Eastern species, C. paludosa, Sieb., which I have not 
been able to examine in the field. Although the plant is, in appearance, very 
different from the latter species, a detailed examination reveals the fact that this 
dissimilarity is apparent rather than real, since the differences are those of degree. 
The points in which the two differ are as folloiws : C. paludosa has male spikes 
usually borne sessile on the permanent branches, slender, short (up to 2 cm. long), 
and somewhat imbricate. The South Australian plant has spikes which are 
generally terminal on the assirnilatory branchlets, robust, long (up to 6'5 cm.), 
and with sheaths not overlapping. Again C. paludosa is a slender plant with 
branchlets almost heptagonal-terete ; the ridges are slightly sunken in the middle, 
with a raised portion on either side near the groove, giving the stem a slightly 
angular appearance. C. paludosa, var. robusta, has ridges rounded or with a 
slightly raised portion in the median plane. The grooves on C. paludosa are hairy 
with retrorse whitish hairs, whereas in C. paludosa, var. robusta, the grooves are 
seldom, if ever, hairy in the adult. In C. paludosa the teeth of the older branchlets 
are glabrous, but in the variety they are always ciliate. The close relationship 
of the two is clearly shown in the type of cone, the terete branches, the lanceolate 
leaf teeth (fig. 20), and the male flowers, which, in both species, show persistent 
bracteoles, shorter than the sheathing teeth. 

The splitting of the dorsal protuberance which has been noticed in this 
species has no systematic value since it is inconstant, a feature also noticed by 
Bentham in C. Fraseriana, Miq. 

4. C. pusilla, n. sp. 

Frutex humilis, "25-1 m. altus, ramis erectis, junioribus vix striatis ob folia 
adnata, ramulis tenuibus, brevibus teretibus, strictis, erectis vel unilateralibus ; 
internodiis 4-8 mm. longis, -5 mm. crassis ; vaginarum dentibus 5-7, brevibus, 
ovato-lanceolatis, ciliolatis appressis ; amentis masculinis usque ad 2*5 cm., vulgo 
2 cm. longis; vaginis subtmbricatis ; bracteolis persistentibus, exsertis t antheris 
ferrugineis strobilis sessilibus, globosis, parvis verticillatis, bracteolis ellipticis vel 
magis acutis, bracteolarum dorsalibus conspicuis. 

A low, rounded, cushion-like dioecious shrub, 9 inches to 3 feet in height, 
with erect branches which are less striate than in the previous species, the stria- 
tions being entirely lost in the older branches. Branchlets dark green when fresh, 
very slender, strict, erect or unilateral, wiry and sometimes curved, usually up to 
8-9 cm. in length, smooth, glaucescent when dry. Internodes short, 4-8 mm. long, 
•5 mm. in diameter, absolutely terete, with furrows faintly marked and not at all 



273 

hairy. The branchlets are cylindrical, being neither swollen nor contracted at the 
nodes. Sheathing teeth 5-7, short, ovate-lanceolate or nearly triangular, over- 
lapping one another laterally, yellowish towards the sheath, but brown at 
tips, ciliate, appressed, never recurved except on the green branches which are 
sending out assimilatory shoots, where the teeth are longer and narrower. Nodes 
easily visible to the naked eye on account of the light-coloured sheaths. Male 
spikes terminal on whorled assimilatory branchlets up to 7 cm., spikes short, up 
to 2-5 cm. long, but usually about 2 cm. ; sheaths more or less imbricate, funnel- 
shaped, shallow, yellowish; teeth brown, short, ovate-lanceolate, overlapping, 
ciliate only towards the grooves (fig. 23) ; bracteoles persistent, slightly keeled, 
much longer than the sheathing teeth (fig. 22) ; perianth segments hooded, slightly 
ciliate (fig. 26); anthers rust-coloured; filaments exsert ; cones sessile, usually 
globular, small (pi. xiii.), up to 2 cm. in length, whorled on branches; valves 
elliptical or more acute, tomentose in the upper internal portion ; dorsal protuber- 
ance well marked, not as long as the bracteoles, broad, bracts well developed ; 
young cones reddish and tomentose, grey when mature, truncate or beaked atop, 
frequently irregular. 




24 

Figs. 22-26. C. pusilla. 

Fig. 22— Adaxial view of male flower. Fig. 23— Abaxial view of same 

with anther and portion of filament removed. Fig. 24— Abaxial view of 

bud. Fig. 25— Adaxial view of same with bracteoles and outer perianth 

segment removed. Fig. 26— Adaxial perianth segment. x33. 

Records —Macclesfield to Strathalbyn (J. M. Black), Encounter Bay, Port 
Elliot (J. B. Cleland), Nuriootpa (Tepper), Wirrega (T. G. B. Osborn), Keith, 
South of Lameroo and Paringa (J. M. Black). 

Flowering Season. — Not definitely known, but flowers have been collected in 
January and from May to August. 

C pusilla may be a strict, erect shrub with crowded branchlets, as is usually 
the case in coning plants, or it may be more divaricate in form. It has been 
recorded from the North-west Desert of Victoria (under the name of C. pahtdosa, 
in Natl Herb., Victoria) and from South Australia ; m the Tepper Herbarium 
it occurs under the name of C. humilis. Although the latter species has been 



274 



recorded from the Everard Range and the Eucla Basin, the records are doubtful. 
As regards the Everard Range locality, the loss of some of the specimens during 
the expedition gives complications (Mueller and Tate, 1896). In the Tate 
Herbarium one specimen bearing the characteristic cones of C. humilis has within 
the folder two labels, one bearing "Camp 9 (Everard Range), 23/6/91"; and the 
second, "Gnarlbine, W.A., 12/11/91." Another specimen collected at Camp 7 
(Everard Range) has male flowers only, and shows a resemblance to C* pusilla. 
In reference to the Eucla Basin record of Tepper, one must bear in mind that he 
did not distinguish between C. pusilla and C. humilis; his specimen is not available. 

5. Casuarina distyla, Ventenat, Plantes nouvelles, p. 62 (1803). 
A diffuse, monoecious or dioecious shrub varying in size and habit in accord- 
ance with habitat differences. Branches erect, grey, striate with adnate leaves, 
those of the bushes bearing male flowers frequently long and straggling; assimila- 
tory branchlets dark green, erect or unilateral, slender, short, 5-12 cm. long, 




Figs. 27-29. C. distyla. 
Fig. 27— Adaxial view of male flower with anther and portion 
of filament removed. Fig. 28— Abaxial view of same. 
Fig. 29— Adaxial view of bud with bracteoles pulled down. 

x33. 

whorled or semi-whorled ; internodes short, 5-8 or perhaps 1 cm. long, scarcely 
1 mm. in diameter, angular in consequence of a distinct raised obtuse angle in the 
median plane of each ridge; furrows seldom marked with hairy lines. Sheathing 
teeth very short, 6-8, usually 7; sheaths yellow at base, thus nodes easily visible 
to the naked eye; teeth golden-brown, ovate-lanceolate, acute, overlapping, 
recurved, ciliate when young but later lacerate, finally truncate. Teeth of branches 
long, linear, brown, and recurved. Male spikes terminal on short assimilatory 
branchlets or lateral on the branches, 2-3 cm. in length, monilif orm, sheaths leaving 
small portions of the axis bare. Bracteoles persistent (figs. 27 and 28), keeled. 



275 

glabrous on back, ciliate on upper margins (fig. 29), about the same length as the 
teeth in the open flower (fig. 28), or slightly longer, brownish in colour; perianth 
segments not united, hooded, ciliate, glabrous on back (fig. 29). Anthers red- 
brown, filaments exsert. Cones usually whorled, subsessile, narrow-cylindrical 
or globular, up to 3'5 cm. in length, conical atop, beaked or flattened with a short 
pointed apex. Valves (bracteoles) fairly prominent, elliptical or acute, with a 
rusty tomentum in the upper internal surface, dorsal protuberance bluntly 
pyramidal, well developed, nearly as long as the valves. Cones frequently 
irregular owing to partial sterility. — Miq., Rev. Cas., p. 57, tab. vii., A-C; 
C. stricta, Ait., in D.C. Prod., xvi., p. 336. 

Records. — According to Miquel: "Tasmania, Ventenat and Hooker [Gunn, 
735]; Gippsland, Mueller"; Victoria: Cheltenham. 

Flowering Season, — Opening in June. 

The material from which the above description and figures were taken was 
collected at Cheltenham, Victoria, and made available to me through the kindness 
of Messrs. Audas and Morris, of the National Herbarium of Melbourne. 

Miquel, in his Review, separated Gunn's No. 735 into two species, C. rigida 
and C. distyla. In 1865, working on Herbarium material, he observed forms which 
seemed to him to be transitional between the two species. Consequently he merged 
C. rigida with C. distyla. Miquel's earlier work is to be commended in that some 
of these variations have proved to be constant, and provide the foundation for the 
present splitting of the "Distyla complex" into several species. In consequence 
of this it is necessary to red'escribe C. distyla with the narrower limits set by 
Miquel in 1848. . 

Probably this species is limited in distribution to Tasmania and Victoria; the 
species regarded in New South Wales and Queensland as being C. distyla is 
C. rigida, in Western Australia C. Baxteriana, in South Australia C. Muelleriana, 
and the three other species not previously separated from that species. Apparently 
in Victoria C distyla is confused with C. Muelleriana and C. pusilla, both of which 
also occur in that State. 

6. Casuarina Muelleriana, Miq. in Ned. Kruidk. Arch., iv., 99. 
A rounded shrub usually dioecious, varying in height from 1-12 feet, and 
forming a small tree in favourable situations. Trunk usually grey, with rough 
bark showing numerous clefts and without distinct striations, but occasionally of 
a lighter colour, smooth and striate to a slight degree, with adherent leaves. 
Branchlets erect, slender, rigid, simple, dark green, frequently with a red or 
yellow tinge, so that the whole bush appears reddish at a distance. Btanchlets 
distinctly angular and whorled, up to 12 cm. long; internodes 5-8 mm. long, 
1-1-5 mm in diameter; furrows clearly marked with white hairy lines, ridges 
also slightly hairy. Sheathing teeth 5-7, usually 6, short, deltoid or narrower, 
convex on back and always appressed, edges rough, scarcely ciliate greenish- 
yellow at base, bright red towards the tips and with hyaline margins. Male spikes 
terminal on branchlets 1-8 cm. long; spikes from 1-5-5-5 cm. long, reddish or 
yellow slender. Sheaths rdmote, showing bare portions of the axis between each 
sheath, reddish-green or yellow at base, marked in the lower part with hairy 
lines- teeth red. Bracteoles persistent (fig. 30), keeled, glabrous on the back 
(fig. 31), much longer than the sheathing teeth (fig. 30), ciliate on margins, 
golden-brown; perianth segments hooded, folded about the anther, ciliate (tig. 
32) • anthers red ; filaments short. Cones borne singly on the bare branches and 
surmounted by whorls of assimilatory branchlets, sessile or on peduncle of 5-8 mm 
in length, ovoid or cylindrical, usually about 2-5 cm., but may be longer about 
1-5 can. in diameter or even wider, truncate at top or beaked owing to the sterility 
of the upper whorls of flowers j beaks usually short, but specimens from National 



276 

Park, Belair, show a beak of 2 cm. in length (pi. xiii.). Valves slightly prominent, 
obtuse or elliptical, rusty tomentum on the upper internal surface, dorsal pro- 
tuberance well marked, almost as long as valves, and bluntly pyramidal ; bracts 
not large. — C. suberosa, O. et D., var. Muelleriana, Miq., in D. C. Prod., xvi., ii., 
p. 338. 

Records. — South Australia: Mount Lofty Ranges (Mueller, 1850, in Vict. 
Herb./), Black Hill, Morialta, Scott's Creek, Mount Torrens, Mount Crawford 
(T. G. B. Osborn), between Hallett's Cove and Noarlunga, Kuitpo, Mount Com- 
pass to Encounter Bay, Ashbourne; Coonalpyn (J. B. Cleland), Tintinara (under 
the name of C. humilis) ; Ardrossan (Tepper) ; West Coast, Port Lincoln (J. B. 
Cleland), Streaky Bay (Tepper), 40 miles north of Port Bell (Tepper, Tate 
Herbarium) ; Wilpena Pound; Kangaroo Island. Victoria: Mount Abrupt (H. 
B. Williamson, Vict. Herb./). 

Flowering Season. — May to October. 




Figs. 30-33. C. Muelleriana. 

Fig, 30— Adaxial view of male flower. Fig. 31 — Abaxial view of bud with 

bracteoles pulled down and anther removed. Fig. 32— Adaxial view of 

anther and inner perianth segment showing the folding of the latter. 

Fig. 33— Three floral bracts. x33. 

In many respects C, Muelleriana seems to be more stable than the other 
shrubby species. However, the cone is variable. Although this species is recog- 
nisable by certain constant features of the cone, namely, its greenish-brown colour, 
the large elliptical valves and the large blunt dorsal protuberance, there are many 
differences among individuals in size, degree of irregularity, and in the formation 
of a beak, which may even reach a length of 2 an. 

The type specimen was collected by Mueller at Mount Torrens in 1850 and 
described by Miquel (1859). Later, in the Prodomus, he refers to it as being, with 
C, Baxteriana, a variety of C. suberosa, O. et D. Mueller has never distinguished 
it from C. distyla, although he must have handled both species; Bentham, too, 
regarded it as synonymous with C, distyla. C. Muelleriana shows very obvious 
affinities with C. suberosa, but certainly merits specific rank. It has the same 



277 

type of angular branchlet, cone, and male flower as has C. suberosa, but what is 
of more significance is that the anatomy of C. suberosa (fig. 40), C. Muelleriana 
(fig. 39), and C. Baxteriana are of the same type, and differ greatly from the type 
of anatomy shown by C. dlstyla (fig. 38) as well as all the other species in South 
Australia (see Section VIII. of this paper). 

C. Muelleriana occurs in Victoria and in South Australia, but probably is 
replaced by the closely related species, C. Baxteriana, in Western Australia. I 
have examined the type specimen (female only) of C. Baxteriana (in Herb., 
Kew). Pritzel's No. 238, called C. disiyla (male only, King George's Sound), 
is the same species. C. Baxteriana differs slightly from C. Muelleriana. It has 
seven sheathing teeth of the same type as C, Muelleriana, which has usually 1 
only 5 or 6 teeth. The anatomical structure is intermediate between C. suberosa 
and C. Muelleriana. It is apparent that the species described by Diels and Pritzel 
as C. distyla, Vent., is Miquel's C. Baxteriana. With only two incomplete speci- 
mens available it is useless to attempt; a description of the latter species, nor can 
one state in what respects, beyond those mentioned, it differs from C. Muelleriana, 
It may, perhaps, be a variety of that species. 

VIII, The Anatomy of the Assimilatory Branchlets. 

1. General. 

The history of the anatomical work done on this genus has been summarised 
by Boodle and Worsdell (1894) and by de Cordemoy (1923), thus it is unneces- 
sary to make further comment on it here. 

It is well known that all the species of Casuarina are characterised by the! 
switch habit. The vegetative structure consists of a number of primary 
assimilatory branchlets, inserted in whorls on the small branches, which arc, in 
turn, verticillate, or potentially so, upon the larger branches. The assimilatory 
branchlets are divided into nodes and internodes, the latter being green, and show- 
ing ridges and furrows running longitudinally. At the nodes whorls of leaves 
are inserted; these are unique in that, for the length of the entire internode 
above their insertion, they are concrescent with the stem and constitute the 
ridges. At the node above the leaves become free from the stem, and, uniting 
by their lateral margins, form a sheath which covers the base of the next inter- 
node. This sheath ends in a number of teeth, which represent the only portion 
of the leaves entirely free. It was the foregoing features in the leaves that led 
Loew to designate them "phyllichnia." Their number and shape vary greatly in 
the different species. The verticillate phyllichnia of any one internode alternate 
with those of the internode above, and, consequently, the furrows, which 
represent the spaces between them, will also be arranged alternately. These 
furrows contain numerous branched hairs which arise from the base; frequently 
they project through the opening of the furrow, making white lines running 
lengthwise along the internode. In some species the ridges persist upon the 
branches giving them a somewhat striate appearance. 

On the morphological peculiarities, the seedling throws no light since there 
is no essential difference between the juvenile and adult foliage. The seedling 
shows two normal fleshy cotyledons, slightly connate at the base, showing a 
reticulate type of venation, a point which it is interesting to note, since such 
veining is generally considered absent from the adult, phyllichnia. The first 
shoot is exactly of the same type of construction as the mature branchlet. 

The anatomical structure of the assimilatory branchlets shows general 
uniformity, but there are many minor differences, some of which are constant 
and are of value in the recognition of species. The simplest structure in the 
species examined was shown by C. stricta, Ait., thus its anatomy will be fully 
described as a basis for comparison with the other species. 



278 

2. C. stricta, Ait. 

A transverse section of the assimilatory branchlet of C. stricta (figs. 34 and 
35) shows 9 to 12 pentagonal ridges, separated by deep furrows. The external 
face of the ridge shows a more or less distinct obtuse angle in its median plane. 
The corners marking the entry to the groove are rounded and not showing the 
projecting masses of cuticle so evident in C. lepidophloia, C. Cunninghamiana, 
and C. Fraseriana. A thick cuticle with small refractive globules, probably of 
silica/ 2 ^ is present on the epidermis of the ridges and extends into the furrow. 
The epidermal cells of the ridges have very thick walls, and in surface view they 
are shown to be pitted. Scattered branching hairs, which are directed upwards, 
occur on the external face of the ridges; the bases of these appear in trans- 
verse section as cuticular rings. Branched hairs also spring from two or three 
rows of narrow and elongated epidermal cells running lengthwise along the 
base of the furrow. Frequently the hairs project through the opening of the 
furrow, giving white hairy lines between the ridges. The basal portion of the 
hairs is suberised, but the upper part is sclerised. Undoubtedly these protect 
the stomata, which are arranged in three or four rows on either side of the 
basal hairs, but occupying only the lower part of the groove. In the seedling the 
stomata are not confined to so sheltered a position, but occur on both sides of 
the cotyledon and on the adaxial side of the young free leaf teeth, where they 
are arranged in longitudinal rows. The stomates of the genus are peculiar in 
that they show the same type of transverse pore that is present in Gymnosperms. 

Under the epidermis of the ridges a T-shaped mass of fibres occurs, portion 
of which forms a median band of cells running thickly from the epidermis, but 
tapering as it approaches the inner limits of the ridge. The arms of the T are 
formed by two or three rows of fibres extending underneath the epidermis of 
the ridge and to the stomatal region of the furrow. Scattered among these 
fibres are large clear cells with thin but lignified and pitted w^alls ; these are 
elongated longitudinally and are frequently fibre-like in shape, being probably 
derived from fibres. Possibly they act in the capacity of water-storage cells. 
These cells frequently contain tannin. The ridges are mainly concerned with 
photosynthesis, since they alone contain the chlorenchyma. In C. stricta this is 
divided into two symmetrical masses by the T-shaped band of fibres, and lies on 
either side of them, arranged in two or three definite rows. Longitudinal sec- 
tions show that the row nearest the fibres is densely packed, while the others 
are loosely packed and show many air spaces. In the neighbourhood of the 
stomata intercellular spaces occur. 

At the base of the ridges, lying immediately under the central band of the 
fibres, and separated from the tissue of the ridge by a single row of cells, are 
the leaf-trace bundles. These are inserted at the node below, run up through 
the internode, and pass out through the sheath into the free portion of the 
phyllichnium. In association with these bundles, on either side lie the trans- 
fusion tracheides, which stretch, under the chlorenchyma, almost to the groove. 

All the tissue hitherto described belongs to the leaf system of the branchlet; 
the remaining portion constitutes the stem system. The cortex stretches from 
the epidermis of the groove to the central cylinder, dipping under each leaf trace. 
The stem bundles alternate with the foliar bundles ; they lie beneath the furrows. 
They are collateral and are separated from one another by medullary rays of 
varying width. A small group of pericyclic fibres occurs outside the phloem 
region, and a second group of fibres may be found on the internal side of the 
bundles, bordering the pith. Both pith and cortex are wide and unlignified. 

(2) Refractory, but soluble in hydrofluoric acid. 



279 

Having described the general plan one can deal briefly with the leaf trace 
and the transfusion tissue. The foliar bundle is separated from the ridges by 
a single row of large round cells; it shows the usual orientation of leaf bundles. 
The phloem is extensively developed and is extended tangentially, making a 
crescent-shaped mass. In the depression at the top of the crescent lies a small 
group of fibres, probably developed, as M. de Cordemoy suggests, from the 
peridesm of the bundle. On the inner side of the phloem there is a small tri- 
angular group of vessels; also, at intervals, along the lateral margins of the 




Fig. 34. 
Fig. 34 — Transverse section of the assimilatory branchlet of C. stricta; 
i, hypodermal fibres; p, palisade; It, leaf-trace bundle; tt, transfusion 
tissue ; v, lateral tracheides of the leaf-trace bundle ; c, cortex ; cb, cauline 
bundle ; pf, pericyclic fibres ; s, stomatal region ; h, branched hair. xl73. 
Camera lucida outlines. 



phloem, isolated tracheides or small groups occur. Thus the whole bundle is 
triangular and loosely surrounded by lignified elements, vessels, tracheides or 
fibres. The transfusion tracheides, which are large cells with thick lignified 
walls, showing simple pits, are either directly or indirectly in contact with the 
lateral elements forming the arms of the V. The peculiarities of the V-shaped 
leaf-trace bundles and the transfusion tracheides will be dealt with more fully 
later ; they will not be further discussed at present. 



280 

. 3, The Comparative Anatomy of the "Distyla complejv" and of the 
other South Australian species. 

The anatomical differences which have been noted in the species investigated 
are, for the most part, due to variation in the degree of lignincation. Some 
such differences arc inconstant, such as the occasional presence of a lignified 
pith and cortex in a species usually unlignified in these portions. These small 
variations may be connected with different ecological conditions. However, 
there are some features which have proved to be constant and may be used 
in taxonomic work, thus many of the species are readily identified by their 
anatomical structure. However, it is impossible to distinguish between some of 
the closely allied species where specific differences do not extend to the more 
stable anatomical characters. 

The structure of the branchlets of those species investigated falls into two dis- 
tinct types ; these may be termed the "Stricta type" (fig. 34) and the "Muelleriana 
type" (fig. 41). This division rests on the presence or absence of the median 
band which gives the T-shaped disposition to the hypodermal mass of fibres in 
the ridges. In the "Stricta type" the median band is invariably present, and 
usually runs down as far as the level of the groove. However, in the 
"Muelleriana type" it is absent or only slightly developed, and does not, in any 
case, extend to the level of the groove. Between the two extremes there are 
transitional forms. 

(1) "Stricta Type." 

With the exception of C. Muelleriana, all the South Australian forms belong 
to this type, as do also C. rigida, C. distyla, and C. paludosa, of the Eastern 
States. C. stricta, which has already been described, shows the simplest structure 
and thus provides a good basis for comparison. 

C. lepidophloia (fig. 37) and C. Luehmanni (fig. 36) are more strongly 
lignified than is C. stricta, with which they show the greatest affinity. In both 
species the ridges are rectangular, the external face being flat or only slightly 
raised in the median portion. The corners which mark the entry to the groove in 
C, Luehmanni are rounded, but in C. lepidophloia they show angular projections 
of epidermal cells and cuticular masses, almost closing the furrow (cf. also 
C. Fraseriana and C. Cunning ham tana) . With the exception of C. Decaisneana, the 
cuticle of C. lepidophloia is of greater thickness than that of any other examined. 
It shows a greater number of refringent nodules. There are many branching 
hairs on the ridges, the bases of which can be seen in transverse section ; to these 
hairs the hoary appearance of the branchlets is due. 

In both species the T-shaped median band of fibres is well developed, the arms 
showing horizontally and vertically running fibres (cf. also C. glaaca, C. rigida, 
and C. striata). C. Luehmanni shows a median band of unusual length, and the 
chlorenchyma dips down in the central region. At the basal layer of the assimila- 
tory tissue in the latter species the fibres of the hypodermal mass abut on large 
stone cells. These have thinner walls on the side which lies in contact with the 
chlorenchyma, but thicker lignified and pitted cells on the side which is in contact 
with the other stone cells, or with the phloem and fibres of the leaf trace. The 
entire leaf trace is surrounded by stone cells which possibly act as an accessory 
water-storage tissue. 

The hypodermal mass of fibres reaches greater development in C. lepidophloia. 
Here the lateral portions of the T-shaped mass project as far as possible along 
the sides of the furrow without actually overlapping the stomatal region. A 
most distinctive feature is the breaking up of the chlorenchyma by horizontal and 
vertical fibres thrown out from the sides of the T-shaped mass bordering on the 
assimilatory tissue (vide Wood, 1923). Consequently there is a reduction in the 
amount of chlorenchyma. The transversely running fibres and these curious 



281 




Figs. 35-40. Diagrams of transverse sections of the branchlcts. 

Camera lucida outlines. 

Fig. 35 — C. stricfa, x47. Fig. 36 — C. Luchmanni, xl8. Fig. 37 — C. lepidophloia, x47. 

Fig. 38— C. distyla, x50. Fig. 39— C. Mnelkriana, x50. Fig. 40— C. suberosa, xSO. 



282 

extensions into the assimilatory tissue give the stem a peculiar appearance in longi- 
tudinal section. Tannin is present, in the epidermal cells, in the large sclerised 
cells, in the hypodermal fibres, in the pith and the cortex. Stone cells may occur 
between the leaf-trace bundle and the fibres of the ridges, otherwise the cells of 
this region are sclerised. The cortical and pith cells of both C. Luehmanni and 
C. lepidophloia are lignified and pitted. However, these pitted cells are readily 
distinguished from the transfusion tracheides by their different shape, and also by 
their less regular pitting. In these, as in many other species, cluster crystals of 
calcium oxalate are very prevalent in the pith, cortex, and in the lower row of the 
chlorenchyma. Large single crystals also occur in the pith. 

The cortex presents unusual variation in C lepidophloia. In the majority 
of specimens the cells are heavily lignified and pitted ; some cells also contain 
tannin. The pericyclic fibres are not strongly developed, perhaps one row being 
present, and at the most only four. Other specimens, on the other hand, may 
show an extraordinary development of fibres, tapering from a wide base at the 
phloem region of the cauline bundles up to the groove, so that the stem is very 
woody indeed. The specimens that showed this structure were collected at Cur- 
namona, Dilkera, and between Parachilna and Blinman, all in arid districts. 

C. Luehmanni has a group of pericyclic fibres somewhat larger than that of 
C. stricta in connection with each cauline bundle, but not reaching the development 
that many of the species of the "Distyla complex" have. Consequently this species 
is easily identified anatomically. 

The central cylinder of C, lepidophloia is characterised by the presence of 
very small medullary rays, so that the phloem and xylem masses appear con- 
tinuous. In the adult stem the rays are diffuse and consequently very insignificant, 
a point which has diagnostic value in separating the wood from that of C. glauca. 

The remaining species of the " Stricta type" that have been investigated are 
C. striata, C. rigida, C, distyla (fig. 38), C. paludosa, and C. pusilla. All these 
species are closely related, and thus have a similar anatomical plan, the individual 
differences being slight. It is somewhat difficult to distinguish between the 
anatomy of C. striata and C. rigida except by the greater angularity of the ridges 
of the latter, whilst C. distyla is only identified by its small size. C. paludosa, its 
variety robusta, and C. pusilla have the same anatomical type, but stand apart from 
the other species by reason of their flatter ridges which produce the terete 
branchlets. 

In all of these six forms the usual T-shaped median band is present, but 
reaches varying levels of development in different individuals. Frequently it 
extends down to the base of the ridge, tapering as it runs inward, to a single row 
in thickness ; sometimes it runs down as a wide band. It may not extend to the 
base of the ridge, thus not completely dividing the chlorenchyma. In C. rigida, 
occasionally, the fibres are extensively developed, the arms of the T, with their 
horizontally running fibres, occupying almost half the thickness of the ridge ; 
usually in such specimens the pith and cortex are heavily lignified and stone cells 
occur in the vicinity of the leaf trace. In C. paludosa, its var. robusta, and 
C. pusilla the median band may extend without interruption to the leaf trace where 
it unites with the group of fibres above the leaf trace. 

As a general rule, the cortex and pith are parenchymatous in C. striata, 
C. rigida, and C. distyla, but may show lignification, whilst in C. paludosa, var. 
robusta, and C. pusilla, both tissues are invariably lignified. ^ Stone cells may 
occur at the base of the chlorenchyma in these forms as in C. rigida. 

All these six species are characterised by the presence of large rounded groups 
of pericyclic fibres above the cauline bundles, thus making them readily dis- 
tinguishable from C. stricta and C. Luehmanni On the inner side of each caulme 
bundle in C. striata, as in C. stricta, is a small group of fibres. 



283 

(2) "Muelleriana Type" 

The second type of anatomy is characterised by the absence of the T-shaped 
median band of fibres in the ridges. Five species of this type have been 
investigated : C. Muelleriana, C. nana, C. thuyoides, C. snberosa, and C. Bax- 
teriana. Of these the last two show the greatest resemblance to the "Stricta type/' 
and link on to that group through C. Fraseriana and C. distyla. 

C. Muelleriana (figs. 39 and 41) shows 5 to 7 pentagonal ridges, the external 
face of the ridge having a very distinct obtuse angle. The median angle of the 
ridge is marked, lengthwise, by projecting epidermal cells and their thick cuticular 
covering. Underneath the epidermal cells of the ridges are one of two layers of 
hypodermal fibres, but no median band is present, and the chlorenchyma fills the 
whole of the ridge. The cortex is frequently lignified and the pith is invariably 




Fig. 41. 

Transverse section of the assimilatory branchlet of C, Muelleriana, Miq., 

showing the ridges without any median band of fibre. x210. 

Camera lucida outlines. 

so. The vascular bundles show a small group of pericyclic fibres, and appear to 
be more concentrated towards the centre, reducing the size of the pith. 

C. suberosa is essentially of the same type (fig. 40), but shows the rudiments 
of a median band of fibres, frequently small, but sometimes reaching almost half- 
way down the ridges. No individuals have been seen in which it extends further. 
This species differs from C Muelleriana in having a large mass of pericyclic fibres 
above the stem bundles ; these masses sometimes reach to the groove. 

Since I have been unable to study more than two specimens of C. Baxteriana 
it is unwise to discuss its anatomy ; however, the forms examined differ in no way 
from C. suberosa, but can be easily distinguished from C. Muelleriana, the species 
with which it would most likely be confused, by the presence of the large group 
of pericyclic fibres as in C. suberosa. 



284 

Thus there are, as in the "Stricta type," species which have a well-defined 
T-shaped mass of fibres extending to the base of the ridges, such as C. Luehmanni 
and C. lepidophloia. There are also those in which, occasionally, the median band 
may not extend to the level of the groove as in C. stricta, C. striata, C. rigida, 
C. distyla, and C. Fraseriana. The last two seem to link on to the "Muelleriana 
type" through C. suberosa and C. Baxteriana (which show merely a slight pro^ 
jection of the fibres frotm the hypodermal mass into the ridges) to C. nana and 
C. Muelleriana, 

The lack of fibres dividing the ridges cannot be due to ecological conditions, 
since in many areas in South Australia species of both types of structure grow* 
side by side. The presence or absence of this band is a point that has value in 
tracing the affinities of this group. It has been helpful in placing C. Muelleriana 
and C. Baxteriana, species which have been related to C. distyla. It can now be 
said definitely that both these species lie much nearer to C. suberosa. 

In conclusion, my grateful thanks are due to Professor T. G. B. Osborn for 
his constant help and encouragement during the progress of this work. I wish 
also to extend my thanks to Mr. J. M. Black for his valuable advice; to Professor 
J. B. Cleland, Mr. F. J. Paltridge, and others who have assisted me in the collection 
of material ; to the Director of the Royal Herbarium at Kew for his great kindness 
in permitting me to examine type specimens ; and also to> the authorities of the 
Herbaria of Sydney and Melbourne, at whose hands I have received many 
courtesies. The photo., pi. xiii., was kindly taken by Mr. G. Samuel, M.Sc, of 
this department. 

IX. Summary. 

1. The "Distyla complex" of the Casnarinaceae has been studied; it has been 
found that there are 7 species and 1 variety confused as C. distyla. 

2. The history of these species is reviewed in order to trace the origin of 
this confusion. 

3. C. distyla, Vent., is absent from South Australia, but occurs in Victoria 
and Tasmania. The species regarded as C, distyla in Sydney is C. rigida, Miq., 
which was for many years merged with the former. C. rigida is recorded from 
Tasmania, New South Wales, and Queensland. In South Australia four shrubby 
species occur : one, C. Muelleriana, has been restored ; two, C. pitsilla and C. striata, 
are new species ; and the fourth has been made a variety of C. paludosa, 
C. Baxteriana occurs in Western Australia. 

4. The structure of the male flower, and also the anatomy of the branchlets, 
has been of great assistance in the w T ork. Two types of anatomy are described 
for the species investigated, and the structure of the species of the "Distyla 
complex" and of the other South Australian species is described. 

Literature Cited. 
Adamson, R. S., and Osborn, T. G. B. — 

On the Ecology of the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia. Trans. 
Roy. S. Austr., xlviii., p. 102, 1924. 

AlTON — ■ 

*Hortus Kewensis, iv., 310, 1789. 

Baker, R. T. — 

Proc. Linn. Soc., 1899. 
Bentham, G., and Mueller, F. von — 

Flora Australiensis, vol. vi., London, 1873. 



♦Denotes publications not available to the author. 



285 

Black, J. M. — 

Flora of South Australia, Parts 1 and 2, Adelaide, 1922. 
Additions to the Flora of South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 
vol. xliii., p. 350, 1919. 

BORNET 

In Decaisne and le Maout : A System of General Botany, 1873. 

Boodle, L. A., and Worsdell, W. C. — 

On the Comparative Anatomy of the Casuarinaceae, with Special Reference 
to the Gnetaceae and the Cupuliferae. Ann. Bat., viii., 1894, 

Cameage, R. H. — 

Notes on the Native Flora of New South Wales. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. 
Wales, xxxvi., 1901. 

de Candolle, A. P. — 

Prodromus Florae Novae Hollandiae, xvi., 2, pp. 332-344, 1864-1868. 
Cleland, J. B., and Black, J. M. — 

South Australian Naturalist, vol. vi., No. 2, Feb., 1925. 
de Cordemoy, H. J. — 

Contribution a l'etude de la Morphologic, de TAnatomie comparee, de la 
Phylogenie et de la Biogeographie des Casuarinees. 

Revue General de Botanique, torn. 35, 1923. 

Diels, L., and Pritzel, E. — 

Fragmenta Phytographiae Australiae occidentalis, 1905. 

Forster, J. R. and J. G. A. — 
*Char. Gen., 103, t. 52, 1775. 

Hooker, J. D. — 

Flor. Tasm., L, 348, 1860. 

Labillardiere, J. J. — 

Novae Hollandiae Plantarum Specimen, Paris, 1806. 

Lehmann — 

Plant Priess., vol. 1., pp. 639-643, 1844. 

Miquel, F. A. G.— 

Reviso critica Casuarinarum in Verh. K. Nederl. Instit. L, xiii., 1848. 
fNeder. Kruidk. Arch., iv., 1859. 
Flora, Nos. 2 and 3, 1865. 

Mueller, F. von — 

Frag. Phytog. Austr., Melb., vol. vi., 1867-68, p. 19. 
Frag. Phytog. Austr., Melb., vol. x., 1877-78. 
Journ. of Bot., vol. xv., 1877, Melb. (Giles' Exped.). 

Mueller, F. von, and Tate, R. — 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., pt. 3, vol. xvi., 1896 (Elder Exped.). 

Morini, F. — 

Anatomia del frutto delle Casuarinee. Ricerche anatomiche suirembrione. 
(Memorie della R. Accad. delle Scienze deir Instituto di Bologna, 
serie 5, t. 1, 1890.) 

Contributo all'anatomia del caule e della foglia delle Casuarinee (Ibid., 
serie 5, t. iv., fasc. 4, 1894.) 

♦Denotes publications not available to the author. 

t Publications not available lo the author, but from which descriptions of species have 
been obtained. 



286 

Contribute) aH'anatomia del caule e della foglia delle Casuarinee Gimno- 

stome (Ibid., serie 5, t. v., 1895). 

Contributo all'anatomia della radice delle Casuarinee (Ibid., serie 5, t. vi., 
fasc. 2, p. 369.) 

Otto and Dietrich — 

*Garten-Zeitung, 1841, 20 and 21. 

RUMPHIUS 

*Herb. Amboin., torn, iii., p. 87, t 58, 1755. 
Sprengel — 

*Syst. Veget., torn, iii., 1826. 
Tate, R.— 

A Handbook of the Extra-tropical South Australia, Adelaide, 1889. 
Tepper, J. G. O. — 

Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr. Several papers. 
Ventenat, E. P. — 

fPlantes nouvelles et peu connues, pag. et tab. 62, 1803. 
Wilson, H. W.— 

Studies on the Transpiration of some Australian Plants, with Notes on 
their Leaves. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., xxxvi., 1924. 

Wood, J. G. — 

On the Transpiration in the Field of some Plants from the Arid Portion 
of South Australia, with Notes on their Physiological Anatomy. 
Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., xxiii., 1923. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XIII. 

Variation in size and shape of the cones in six species collected from the 
localities given below. 

Row 1. — C. striata, n. sp. : a, Echunga ; b and c, Encounter Bav; d, Belair; e and f, 
Aldgate. (Coll. E. D. M.) 

Row 2.—C. rigida, Miq. : a, Sydney (J. B. Clcland, 1909) ; Echo Pt. (E. D. M., 
1925) ; c, Narrabeen (E. D. M., 1925) ; d and e, Echo Pt. (E. D. M. f 1925) ; f, Cen- 
tennial Park (E. D. M., 1925). 

Row 3. — C. distyla, Vent. All cones collected from Cheltenham, Victoria. 
(E. D. M., 1925.) 

Row 4. — C. paludosa, var. robusta, n. var. All cones collected at Mt. Compass. 
(E. D. M„ 1925.) 

Row 5. — C. pusilla, n. sp. : a, b, c, d, e, Encounter Bay (J. B. C. and E. D. M.) ; 
f, Monarto South (J. B. C, 1926). 

Row 6. — C. Mnelleriana, Miq. : a, Happy Valley (J. B. C, 1927) ; b, c, d, e, 
Belair (E. D. M., 1925) ; f, Humbug Scrub (P. Hossfeld, 1927) ; g, Belair (E. D. M., 
1925) ; h, Coonalpyn (J. B. C, 1926). 

Photo by G. Samuel. 



♦Denotes publications not available to the author. 

tPublications not available to the author, but from which descriptions of species have 
been obtained. 



Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Austr.. 1927- 



Vol. 



Plate XIII. 




Gillinffham & Co. Limited, Printers, Adelaide. 



287 



THE REACTION OF SOUTH AUSTRALIAN SOILS. 

By James Arthur Prescott, M.Sc, Professor of Agricultural Chemistry, 

University of Adelaide. 

[Read September 8, 1927.] 

Since the foundation of the Waite Institute, early in 1925, a number of soil 
samples «have been collected representative of some of the more important soil 
types occurring in South Australia. All the samples received and indexed have 
been examined for reaction, using the hydrogen ion concentration as determined 
by Bijlmann's quinhydrone electrode. In the earlier determinations a suspension 





tn 




• 


* • • •# « 


J*M 


■ • •■ 


• • 




i\j ■■ ■ 




• 1 

• 
• • 


• < 


ft 








«• ••< 


ft • 


» 


-i #i 




M • • 4 


)■•■ 


• 






jCU 






m 








r 






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• 
• « 


i« m m ■» i 
ft •• 


IB ■ 


>•• 




a 


\n 


• •* 


• •• 












• 


••*• mm 


ft m mm •■ 

• • 


















<£/) 


• MM 


■" • 












TU 


• • 




• 


«3 

<3 







^// j.<? 6.o r.(? 

fteoctfon of Soils 



8.0 



9*Q 



Illustrating the general relationship between the reaction of typical South 
Australian surface soils and the average rainfall. 

of three-parts water to one of air-dried soil was used, but more recently a one to 
one suspension has been adopted following the technique recently recommended 
by E. Bijlmann and S. Torborg-Jensen (Trans, of the 2nd Commission of the 
Intern. Soc. Soil Science, B. 236, 1926), The records include a series of deter- 
minations of forest soils by Mr. M. R. Jacobs, and a further series of miscellaneous 



288 

soils by Mr. H. N. England. The series of samples is by no means complete, 
but it is fairly representative of a wide range of rainfall conditions throughout 
the agricultural zone of the State, and no useful purpose would be served in 
delaying further publication until a larger number of soils have been examined. 

The records are presented statistically in the form of a distribution table 
which brings out all the essential facts as to locality, rainfall, and soil reaction 
— Tables 1 and 2. The term surface soil, generally speaking, refers to the 
A horizon of the soil profile, usually within the top 9 inches. It will be seen that 
there is a limit on the acid side which is governed by rainfall conditions, and that, 



Table 1. 

Reaction of South Australian Soils. Distribution Table showing Number of Soils 
falling into each Reaction Group. Reaction expressed as mean pH in 

each Group. 



Locality. 


3 53 

3 3 


I 


C\ i-i 


o 


XT) 


r^ Os 




C5 


in 


t-. 


o\ 




tn 


in 


r% 


o\ 


_ 


ro 


u- 


t^ 


oJ tx 


«*> 




Kw 


*#■ 


■t m in 


ir> 


w>\ *o 


^o 


ya 


\o 


*o 


*o 


i>! K 


IN. 


I>- 


tN 


00 


CO 


cc 


CO ooj Ch 


o-> 


Koonamore 


s 




























1 


1 


2 


















County Hamley 


9 






















1 












3 


2 




1 


1 


5 


1 




Nullarbor 


10 


































1 


1 


1 












Berri 


12 


































2 
















Arno Bay 


12 




































1 














Hundreds of Bookpumong 




















































and Mindarie 


12 














1 














2 


1 




1 


3 


3 


1 










Hundred of Bandon 


13 


























1 




1 




3 


2 














Mypolonga 


14 




























1 


1 


1 


















Kimba 


14 






































2 












Nunjikompita 


14 


































1 


1 














Hundred of Marmon Jabuk 


15 




























2 


2 


2 


2 


3 


2 












Pinnaroo 


16 


























1 








1 


4 


4 


2 


5 


2 






Hds. of Koongawa, Cootra, 




























1 
























Barwell, Ulyerra 


16 




















1 




2 


1 


1 


1 


3 


3 


6 


4 


4 


2 








Lameroo 


17 






























1 








. 


1 








Mallala 


17 






























1 


2 


















Caltowie 


27 




























1 






















Roseworthy 


38 
































1 


2 
















Booborowie 


18 




















1 






























Rochester 


18 
































1 


1 
















Georgetown 


19 


































1 
















Kangaroo Island 


19 


















2 






1 




2 




1 


1 


3 


3 












Spalding 


20 




























1 






















Riverton 


21 






























1 




















Reynella and Morphett Vale 


23 


















1 


1 




1 


1 


1 


1 


2 


1 


1 


2 


1 










McLaren Vale 


23 




















1 








2 


1 




2 


1 


1 


1 










Auburn 


24 




















1 








1 






















Glen Osmond 


26 






















1 


1 




















1 






Penola 


21 


















1 








1 


1 








1 














Mount Pleasant 


28 










1 


2 


1 


1 


1 
































Angaston 


28 




















1 






























Blackwood 


29 
















2 


































Millicent 


29 






























1 




















Macclesfield 


31 










1 


1 


1 










1 


























Mount Gambier 


31 


















2 


2 


1 


4 


5 


5 


5 


2 


3 


1 














Mount Crawford 


32 






2 


3 


3 






1 


































Mount Barker 


32 
















1 


































Hundred of Myponga 


33 


1 




2 


3 










































Kuitpo 


36 


j 


1 






6 


2 


6 


3 


1 






1 






















Mount Lofty 


46 


| 








1 


1 












1 




















1 



289 



Table 2. 
Reaction of South Australian Soils. Distribution Table showing number of 



Subsoils falling 


into 


each React 


ion 


Group. Rea 


cti 


<7H 


expressed 


OS 








mean pH in each Group. 


i 

Locality. i 

■ 


^ tr, 


i-. 


& 




ro 


m 


l>. C?\ 




W u-J 


*-» \ 0\ i-i 


rrt 


LO 


w 


o 


•-H 


m 


U) 


^ 


i 

* 




rO 




tf^ 


*f 


tT i U"l 


\r~i 


u-. 


in i to 


VD 


^O ^O 


"O 'O K 


l>. 




r-v 


i^. 


CO 


CO 


CO 






0\ 


as. 


Koonamore — 


1 

8 






















1 


! 




1 


1 




1 












County Haniley 


9 




























i 




1 6 


5 


6 


3 


2 


Nullarbor 


10 






















t 








2 


2j 1 


2 


3 








Bern 


12 




























1 


11 


1 












Hundreds of Booknurnong 
















































and Miudarie .... 


12 




















1 






1 


1 




4 


6 


4 


3 


4 






Hundred of Bandon 


13 


























1 


2 




1 


4 


1 






1 




Mypolonga 


14 






















h 


1 


3 


l' 




1 














Hundred of Marmon Jabuk 


15 






















j 












1 


1 


3 


7 




Pinnaroo 


16 




































4: 7 


11 


1 


Hds. of Koongawa, Cootra, 














































Bar-well, Ijlyerra 


16 
























1 




1 


2 




5 


8 


4 


2 


1 


1 


Lameroo 


17 






































1 


1 






Rose worthy 


18 






















j 










1 






1 








Georgetown 


19 




















| 








1 


1 














Kangaroo Tsland 


19 












1 






*-j 






1 




1 




6 


1 


1 








Riverton 


21 


















1 








1 1 














Reynella and Morphett Vale 


23 














1 




1 2! 




2 


2 


! * 




4 


1 


1 








McLaren Vale 


23 




















2 


1 1 




2 


1 2 


1 


2 












Glen Osmond 


26 






















2 




1 






i. 










Mount Pleasant 


27 




















1 


i 
























Angaston 


28 












1 








i 


i 
























Blackwood 


29 




















l ! 


! 




















1 




Millicent 


29 
























. 






1 
















Macclesfield 


31 










1 






1 




i l 


: 






















Mount Gambier 


31 




















1 2 


i! i 


1 


2 


1 


1 
















Mount Crawford 


32 








1 


1 


2 


































Mount Barker 


32 


















1 




























Hundred of Myponga 


33 


2 




2 


2 


2 


1 








j 1 


























Kuitpo 


36 






2 


1 


7 


1C 


8 




2 


; 


i \ 
















■ 






Mount Lofty 


46 


1 


| 








1 


1 


1 






\ 























generally speaking, truly acid soils do not occur with a rainfall of much less than 
20 inches. The most acid soils in the State are in swamp areas under high rainfall 
conditions, such as the Myponga soil with a reaction of pH 4'7. 

The alkaline side of the range shows some very interesting features. The 
reaction of calcite in equilibrium with the carbon dioxide of the atmosphere is in 
the neighbourhood of pH 8-4, which, with a few exceptions, is approximately the 
limit of alkalinity of the surface soils. Many of the subsoils derived from the mallee 
formations, both on Eyre's Peninsula and in the Murray areas, as well as from 
the far west coast, south of the Nullarbor Plain, have a high alkalinity with an 
extreme limit of pH 9'3. These high values have been checked against _ the 
hydrogen electrode, and there is reason to suppose that they are substantially 
correct, although further comparison would be desirable. Recent analyses in this 
laboratory, by Mr. C. S. Piper, using the method of base exchange, show that 
these highly alkaline soils have their reactive fractions partially saturated with 
sodium. Examination of the aqueous extracts for salt content further indicates 
the presence of free carbonate ions. 

In many cases the soils are derived from formations rich in calcium carbonate, 
and even under conditions of fairly high rainfall such soils and subsoils are more 
alkaline than those derived from formations less rich in lime. Typical cases occur 



at Mount Gambler and in the vineyard soils of Reynella and McLaren Vale south 
of Adelaide. 

The general relationship between rainfall and soil reaction is summarised 
diagrammatically in fig. 1. 

An important series of soils not included in the tables is that from the swamps 
of the Lower Murray. These peaty soils are in general relatively acid, although 
the rainfall is only about 14 inches. 

The following table gives the range of reaction of such of these swamps 
as have been examined : — 

Taule 3. 
Reaction of surface soils and subsoils of Lower Murray peaty swamps at 
Mobt lo ng, M y polo nga^andAdju^eith^Ntimber of samples w ith given pH values. 



Reaction pH. 



Surface Soils 
Subsoils 






All the black peaty soils of South Australia are not necessarilv acid— a group 
of heavy black soils frequently known as "Bay of Biscay" soils in the neighbour- 
hood of Adelaide, on account of the difficulty "in securing suitable foundations for 
building purposes— are usually more alkaline than the corresponding red soils 
Such soils at the Waite Institute, Reynella, Morphett Vale, and McLaren Vale 
have reaction values of pH 8-0-8-2. The swamp soils of the South-Eastern Dis- 
tricts are also probably mainly alkaline, one at Penola having a reaction value 
of pH 8*1. 

The general relationship between rainfall and soil reaction, indicated above, 
finds a parallel in recent observations made in Java by O. Arrhenius ("Een 
Orienteerend Onderzoek over den Zuurgraad van de Suikerrietgronden op Java" 
—Sugar industry research station, Java, 1927, No. 6). The soils of eastern Java, 
which has a semi-arid climate, are much more alkaline than those of western Java, 
which is much more humid. An even better parallel is afforded bv Italian 
observations by U. Pratolongo. Italian soils are usually acid in the regions of 
high rainfall and alkaline in the regions of low rainfall. (Milan, 1923, quoted by 
O. Arrhenius: Kalkfrage, Bodenreaktion und Pflanzenwachstum, Leipzig, 1926.) 

As a supplement to the hydrogen ion concentration, the modified Comber 
test (Journ. Agric. Sci., 12, 370, 1922) has been applied in all cases using aqueous 
5 per cent, potassium salicylate. There is an overlap between the positive and 
negative reactions, but, generally speaking, the neutral point, pH 7*0 divides the 
two classes; a few positive cases appearing with soils as alkaline as pH 7*5, and 
very few negative cases with soils slightly on the acid side down to pH 6*5. 

The results are summarised in Table 4. All soils outside the range of reaction 
indicated are entirely negative or positive. 

Table 4. 
Relationship betzveen the reaction of soils and the Comber test, giving the 

number of soil samples. 



Soil Reaction 




























• 










| | 






pH. 


\o 


t^ 


CO 


o> 


o 


,- 


P4 


<*5 


^ 


1/5 


sc 


w 


cc 


c* 


1 ° ~^ 


(M 


(•3 


Tf 


tO 1 «3 f »H CO 


C7« 


o 








L " 


"' 






SO M3 


\JS 


^> 


su 


yj 


vs 


\ r— 


i^ 


t*» 


r** 


t^ 


1 f 1 


^ 


CO 


Positive Comber Test 


6 


21 


8 


16 


5 


9 


7 


6 


11 


6 


S 


7 


2 


4 


7 


1 


3 


3 


2 


2 


2 










Negative Comber Test 










_ 










1 


1 


1 


4 


1 


3 


6 


4 


9 


12 


10 


17 


6 


19 


17 


26 



291 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE ORCHIDOLOGY OF AUSTRALIA. 

By R. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D., F.L.S. 

[Read September 8,. 1927.] 

Sarcochilus dilatatus, F. v. M., in Fragm. i., 191. This species which 
belongs to § Eu-sarcochilus, was included by Bentham under S. olivaceus, LindL, 
but appears to me sufficiently distinctive to be worthy of retention in the Census 
of Queensland plants. A small quantity of moist material supplied by Rev. H. 
M. Rupp, of Paterson, New South Wales, has been compared with the type in the 
National Herbarium, Melbourne, and the following descriptive notes of the flower 
will supplement the original description by the Baron. 

Dorsal sepal markedly spathulate ; the lamina or dilated part somewhat 
acute, 3-nerved., rhomboidal, brownish-green ; stipes linear, pale in colour, splashed 
with red spots ; entire segment about 8 mm. long. Lateral sepals adnate to the 
long basal projection of column, porrect below the labellum, very distant from 
other segments, dilated at the base, about equal in length and similar in other 
respects to the dorsal sepal. Petals rather snorter, about 7 mm. long, narrower 
throughout than the sepals, bluntly spathulate, similar in coloration to the other 
segments, together with the dorsal sepal erect behind the column. Labellum 
white, 3-lobed; lateral lobes erect, exceeding the column and clasping the latter 
with their posterior borders, very broadly oblong, hardly falcate, apex pure 
white, very blunt and rounded, basal part with red striae on the inside and orange- 
brown markings anteriorly on the outside; middle lobe very small, short, and 
blunt, forming the narrow arc of a circle with entire margins ; spur rather short 
and blunt, but alternating towards the apex, its entrance with a conical callus on 
each side arising from the base of the lateral lobes, and behind on the posterior 
wall a somewhat bluntly triangular recurved process ; posterior wall with orange 
and brownish markings. 

The plant was cultivated by Mr. Rupp in Paterson, New South Wales. 

Queensland. Moreton Bay, W. Hill; about 50 miles west of Brisbane, 
F. A. Weinthal. 

It differs from J?, olivaceus, LindL, in its smaller flowers, in the shape of its 
sepals terminally dilated into a rhomb, and with relatively long linear stipes, 
whereas these segments are linear obovate in 5\ olivaceus; likewise in the lateral 
lobes of the labellum, which are broadly oblong with wide rounded oblique apices, 
but in S. olivaceus are much wider at the base, narrowing gradually into a dis- 
tinctly falcate apex. 

Prasophyllum acuminatum, Rogers, n. sp. Caulis gracillimus, ad 17 cm. 
altus, supra medium bractea foliosa linearis subulata. Inflorescentia spicata, 
laxiuscula, circiter 1*25-3-0 cm. longa. Flores 6-13, badii cum lineis purpureis 
striati. Sepalum dorsale ovaturn, crectum, cucullatum, acuminatissimum, 3- 
nervium, marginibus ciliatis, circa 4*5 mm. longum, 1*75 mm. latum. Sepala 
lateralia elongata, patentia, sub-gracilia, divaricata, lanceolata, cum glandulis 
apicibus, liberum, concava, circa 5 mm. longa. Petala triangularia, erecta, 
acuminata, marginibus ciliatis, sepalo dorsali breviora, 3-nervia, 3*5 mm. longa, 
1*0 mm. lata. Labellum unguiculatum, ovatum, apice acuminata recurva, mar- 
ginibus ciliatis, circa 2*5 mm, longum, 1*25 mm. latum, 3-nervium, in dimidio 
inferiore lamina interiore crassa atropurpurea auctum. Mucrona antherae 
elongata, teres, circa 0*5 mm. longa. Laciniae columnae crectae, ciliatae, circa 



292 

1*5 mm. longae, bifidae; segmentum anterius elongatum subulatum, segmento 
postcriore brevissimo latissimo. 

Stem very slender, up to 17 cm. high, with a leafy linear subulate bract well 
above the middle. Flowers in a moderately lax spike of about 6-13, dark reddish- 
brown, striated, with purple nerves. Dorsal sepal ovate, erect, cucullate, very 
acuminate, with 3 distinct longitudinal nerves and sometimes also 2 indistinct mar- 
ginal ones, margins ciliated, about 4*5 mm. long, 1-75 mm. in widest part. Lateral 
sepals free, elongated, spreading, rather slender, not gibbous, divaricate, lanceolate, 
■With a gland at each apex, concave above, about 5 mm. long. Petals triangular, 
erect, markedly acuminate, striated, with 3 distinct longitudinal nerves, shorter 
than the dorsal sepal, about 3*5 mm. long, 1-0 mm. wide, margins ciliated. 
Labellum on a movable claw, ovate, apex acuminate much recurved, margins 
ciliate, about 2*5 mm. long, 1-25 mm. wide, 3-nerved, upper surface of lamina 
glabrous, a dark purple thickened inner plate extending beyond the middle. Anther 
with an elongated terete point about 0*5 mm. long. Lateral appendages of 
column erect, ciliated, about 1*5 mm. long, notched; anterior segment elongated, 
subulate, posterior segment very short, wide, and rounded. 

New South Wales. Alum Mountain, Bulladelah, H. M. Rupp, May, 1923; 
Paterson, H. M. Rupp. 

As the name implies, all floral segments of this species are acuminate, and 
with exception of the lateral sepals all have ciliated margins. A thickened ovate 
inner plate occupies the posterior half of the lamina, the apex of the lip is 
uncinate, and the anther has a conspicuously long terete point. The relationships 
of the species will be dealt with later on. 

Prasophyllum Ruppii, Rogers, n. sp. Planta gracillima, circa 8-25 cm. 
alta, supra medium caulis bractea subulata. Inflorescentia spicata, laxiuscula, 
circa 1*25-3*5 cm. longa. Flores minuti, 4-18, atro-purpurei, sepalis lateralibus 
saepe galbanis, sessiles. Sepalum dorsale erectum, cucullatum, late ovatum, 
circiter 3 mm. longum, apice acutum, marginibus breviter ciliatis. Sepala lateralia 
leviter gibbosa, patentia, divaricata, oblongo-lanceolata, circa 3*5 mm. longa, 
1-0 mm. lata, basibus oblique connata. Petala erecta, acuminata, circa 2*0 mm. 
longa, 0*75 mm. lata, marginibus breviter ciliatis. Labellum unguiculatum, 
oblongo-ovatum, apiculatum, patens, planiusculum, apice non recurva, in medio 
leviter canaliculatum utrimquesecus callo papilloso longitudinale, circa 2*5 mm. 
longum, 1-1 mm, latum. Columna brevis, anthera apice subulata, rostellum 
execdens ; laciniae latcralcs latae, bifidae, antheram excedentes, marginibus 
anterioribus minute ciliatis, chelis fere aequantibus. Stigma anguste ovatum. 

A slender species, about 8-25 cm. high, with a sheathing subulate bract well 
above the middle of the stem. Inflorescence a spike with about 4-18 minute sessile 
flowers, the lateral sepals being often a yellowish-green. Dorsal sepal erect, 
cucullate, widely ovate, 3-nerved, about 3 mm. long, acute at the apex, with shortly 
ciliated margins. Lateral sepals slightly gibbous, obliquely united at their bases, 
spreading, divaricate, oblong-lanceolate, about 3*5 mm. long, 1*0 mm. wide, no 
gland at the apex. Petals erect, triangular, acuminate, about 2'0 mm. long, 
0v5 mm. wide, margins shortly ciliate. Labellum on a movable claw, oblong- 
ovate, apiculate, rather flat, spreading, not recurved at the apex, slightly channelled 
along the middle with a slight longitudinal papillose thickening on each side of 
this depression, about 2"5 mm. long, 1*1 mm. wide, margins shortly ciliate. 
Column short; anther with a fine subulate point, higher than the rostellum; lateral 
appendages dark reddish-brown, wide, bifid, higher than the anther; the 2 chelae 
nearly equal in length, the posterior one wider than the anterior; anterior margin 
minutely ciliate. Stigma narrowly ovate. 

New South Wales. Paterson, H. M. Rupp, Feb., 1927. 



293 

Like the preceding species, all floral segments are ciliated with the exception 
of the lateral sepals. The segments, however, are much less acuminate and the 
flowers are much smaller. It has, too, a very different labellum which is rather 
flat, somewhat blunt, not recurved at the apex, and without the inner thickened 
plate, which is present on the lamina of P. ac-iiminatimi. The lateral appendages 
are likewise quite differently shaped to those of the latter species, and the anther- 
point is shorter and of a different type. 

Prasophyllum Nublingii, Rogers, n. sp. Planta gracillima, circa 11-27 cm. 
alta, supra medium caulis bractea foliosa subulata. Inflorescentia spicata, 
laxiuscula, circa ad 5*5 cm. longa. Flores circa 5-20, parvi, badii vel subvirides. 
Sepalum dorsale ovatum, acuminatum, cucullatum, apice recurvum, 3-ne.rvium, 
circa 4 mm. longum, 2 mm. latum, marginibus breviter ciliatis. Sepala lateralia 
patentia, divaricata, leviter gibbosa, concava, basibus breviter connata, 3-nervia, 
circa 5 mm. longa. Petala ovato-lanceolata, longe acuminata, erecta, 3-nervia, 
circa 3*5 mm. longa, 0*8 mm. lata, marginibus breviter ciliatis. Labellum unguicu- 
latum, subrectangulare, ad basim angustius, breviter apiculatum, planum, apice 
non recurvum, circiter 4 mm. longum, marginibus breviter ciliatis; lamina callis 
duobus carnosis parallelis papillosis elevatis ultra medium labelli conjunctis 
instructa, ad apicem lincis radialibus atropurpureis ornata. Columna brevis, circa 
1*5 mm. longa; anthera incumbens, acute mucronata; laciniae laterales antheram 
leviter superantes, bifidae, chelis fere aequantibus, marginibus anterioribus minute 
ciliatis. Stigma late ovatum. 

A slender plant about 11-27 cm. high, with a subulate leafy bract above the 
middle of the stem. Inflorescence a somewhat lax spike, with about 5-20 small 
reddish-brown or greenish flowers. Dorsal sepal ovate, acuminate, cucullate, 
recurved at the apex, 3-nerved, about 4 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, the margins shortly 
ciliate. Lateral sepals spreading, lanceolate, divaricate at an angle of about 60°, 
slightly gibbous, concave, shortly connate at -the base, 3-ncrved, nearly 5 mm. 
long. Petals ovate-lanceolate, longly acuminate, erect, about 3*5 mm. long, 
0"8 mm. in widest part, 3-nerved, margins shortly ciliate. Labellum on a mobile 
claw, somewhat rectangular, narrower at the base and widening towards the apex, 
shortly apiculate, flat, not recurved at the tip, margins shortly ciliate, about 4 mm. 
long, 2 mm. wide; lamina with 2 raised fleshy parallel papillose dark longitudinal 
bands coalescing and widening in front and terminating slightly beyond the middle 
of the lip, decorated towards the apex with dark purple radial veins. Column 
rather short; anther incumbent with a very acute mucrone, shorter than the 
lateral appendages, but a little higher than the rostellum; lateral appendages bifid, 
the chelae almost equal in length, anterior margins minutely ciliate. 

New South Wales. National Park, E. Nubling, March 22, 1927. 

The shape of the flat labellum, rectangular at the base, widening towards 
the front, with its peculiar double callosity and radial veins on the lamina, is quite 
distinctive, and easily separates this from other ciliated species. 

Jn addition to the three species of PrasophyUmn described here, 8 others 
showing evidence of ciliation in one or more floral segments have been published. 
The distribution of the ciliation forms a basis for the division of this difficult 
little group. It is more frequently met with on the inner whorls than on the 
outer one. For example, it has never been observed on the lateral sepals and is 
never confined solely to the dorsal sepal, whereas in only two instances has the lip 
been found unaffected, and in one of these the margins are finely and sharply 
toothed. It is frequent on the paired petals and paired lateral appendages of the 
column. In the case of the lip it is almost exclusively marginal, and only in one 
instance has the surface of that organ been involved in the process. In the other 
segments it is entirely marginal. These marginal hairs are relatively short in all 
species except P. fimbriaUtm and P. Archeri, in which cases they are long and 



294 

shaggy, forming a fringe. In the following table the segments stated to be ciliate 
are the only ones involved in the process : — 
Labellum and lateral sepals quite glabrous. 

Appendages of column minutely ciliated, lateral sepals gibbous 

anther point short [ p vir [ de 

Petals minutely ciliate, lateral sepals not gibbous, anther point very 

Labellum with ciliated margins, lateral sepals glabrous ' * *** 

Lateral appendages of column ciliate p i ntr icatum 

Petals ciliate p ]^ 00 i\ s {i 

Petals and lateral appendages ciliate \\ '.'. p re He rum 

Dorsal sepal and petals ciliate. 

Margins of lip shortly ciliate, its surface cove-red with long hair P criochihim 
Margins of lip fringed with long hairs, surface glabrous. 

Lamina linear-oblong, often dilated at end p fimbriatum 

Lamina broadly-oblong, contracted rather abruptly into a 

short sharp recurved point .. .... .. p Archeri^ 

All segments, except lateral sepals, shortly or rather shortly ciliate. * ' ' ""'"" 
Lip ovate, very acuminate, much recurved at apex, with dark 

purple ovate inner plate p acuminatum 

Lip oblong-ovate, rather flat and blunt, papillose thickening each 

side middle line, not recurved at apex p R u ppii 

Lip subrectangular, widening from base forwards, abruptly ,i " ' 

contracted to an apiculum, flat, not recurved, with 2 

elongated rough calli united in front in middle of lamina . . P. Nubliiujii 

Goadbyella, Rogers, nov. gen. Flores parvi, spicati, inversi. Sepalum 
dorsale (inferum) erectum, integrum, ecucullatum ; lateralia latiora, libera, 
oblonga, truncata, patentia. Petala erecta, angusta, integra, sepalo dorsali sub- 
simiha. Labellum (superum) sessile, patens, obcuneatum, apice emarginatum vel 
2-lobatum, basi et apicem versus callosum. Columna longiuscula; inferne gracilis, 
exalata ; apice dilatata, biauriculata. Anthera erecta, conspicue mucronata'. 
Stigma prominens, ovatum vel cor.datum. 

^ Hcrbae terrestres, glabrae, tuberibus parvis. Folium unicum ; lamina teres, 
basi breviter aperta et cum vagina clausa continuua. Species 1 adhuc nota, incola 
Australiae occidentalis. 

This genus differs from Microtis, R. Br., with which it is most closely related 
m its reversed flowers, slender and somewhat elongated column, its narrow non- 
cucullate dorsal sepal and its wide truncate lateral sepals. 

G. gracilis, Rogers, nov. sp. Species terrestris, gracillima, glabra, usque 
ad 37 cm. alta. Folium basim inflorescentiae bene excedens. Flores numerosi, 
parvi, 5 mm. longi, inversi, galbani, in spica densiuscula, infra pedicellati, supra 
sessiles; bracteae ovatae, acuminatae, circiter 3 mm. longi, sepalum dorsale 
aequantes. Ovarium brevissimum. Sepalum dorsale erectum, anguste oblongum 
vel oblongo-cuneatum, apice obtusissimum, 1-nervium, incurvum, circa 3 mm. 
longum; lateralia patentia, libera, oblonga, truncata, in dimidio inferiore mar- 
gimbus integris deinde crenulatis cum callis ornatis, 3-nervia, circiter 4 mm. longa, 
1-75 mm. lata. Petala erecta, linearia, paulum falcata, obtusissima, columnarn 
subaequantia, 1-nervia, circa 2 mm. longa. Labellum sessile, patens vel sub- 
patens, circa 4-25 mm. longum, basi oblongum marginibus integris, deinde in 
lobos_rotundatos duos dilatatum marginibus crenulatis cum callis glandulosis 
ornatis; lamina in dimidio inferiore lineis parallelis elevatis duabus instructa, 
apicem versus calloso-tubcrculato. Columna circiter 2 mm. longa, subgracilis,' 
apice dilatata; auriculis oblique oblongis, apicibus rotundatis, insolcnter longis! 
Anthera erecta, longe mucronata. Stigma conspicue ovatum vel cordatum. 

Plant about 37 cm. high, very slender. Leaf-lamina about 15 cm. long reach- 
ing well above the base of the spike; fistula a little below the middle of the scape. 

pU The lateral appendages of column are sometimes minutely ciliate in this species. 



295 

Inflorescences not fully expanded in my specimens. Flowers reversed, numerous, 
greenish-yellow, small, about 5 mm. long, rather distant and pedicellate below, 
much closer and sessile above. Flower bract usually sheathing the dorsal sepal 
and about the same length, ovate, acuminate, about 3 mm. long. Ovary very 
short. Dorsal sepal narrowly oblong or oblong-cuneate ;l very blunt at the apex, 
1 -nerved, incurved over the column, about 3 mm. long. Lateral sepals spreading 
below the labellum, free, oblong, truncate; margins of the lower half entire, 
thereafter very crenulate and fringed with calli ; the distal part of the upper 
surface more or less ornamented with groups of calli ; 3-nerved, about 4 mm. 
long, 1*75 mm. wide. Petals erect, linear, slightly falcate, about 2 mm. long, very 
blunt, 1 -nerved, nearly equal to the column. Labellum sessile, spreading or sub- 
patent, about 4*25 mm. long; oblong at the base with entire margins, then expand- 
ing into two somewhat rounded lobes with margins crenulate and fringed with 
glandular calli ; lamina 3-nerved, with 2 raised parallel lines in the lower half and 
a group of glandular calli near the middle of the expanded portion, Column 
about 2 mm. long, somewhat slender, narrow, and not winged below, expanded 
abruptly at the apex; the auricles long and oblique, oblong with rounded apices. 
Anther erect, with a conspicuous mucrone. Stigma prominent, ovate or cordate. 

Western Australia. Pindalup, in jarrah forest; Mr. P. Barwisc, Nov. 
1926. 

For this species which constitutes the type of a new genus, I am indebted to 
Colonel B. T. Goadby. Pindalup is situated in the south-western corner of the 
State, on the Hotham Valley branch line, about 30 miles east of Pinjarra. 

The plant forms an interesting link between Prasophylhim, R. Br., and 
Microtis, R. Br., both of which it more or less resembles in habit. Its differences 
from species of the latter genus have already been stated, and from the former it 
is readily distinguished by the shape of the labellum, and especially by the very 
different column. T.he lateral sepals are broad truncate and very ornate, in strong 
contrast to the simplicity of the same segments in members of the above genera. 

Caladenia Audasii, Rogers, n. sp. Planta terrestris, gracilis, ad 20 cm. 
alta. Caulis subhirsutus, in medio bractea laxa oblonga acuta circiter 2-0 cm. 
longa. Folium in meo specimine absens. Flos solitarius, magnus, flavus, fere 
glaber, circiter 9*0 cm. in diametro ; ovarium densissime hirsutum, cylindrlco- 
cuneatum, circa 1*0 cm. longum ; pedicellum gracillimum, circa 3*5 cm. longum; 
bractea floralis pedicellum amplexans, acuta, 2 '4 cm. longa. Sepalum dorsale in 
meo specimine imperfectum, anguste lineare, basi retractum, incurvatum ( ?). 
Sepala lateralia patentia, inferne dilatata, deinde in caudis elongatis filiformibus 
pubescentibus gradatim contracta, 5-nervia, circa 6*0 cm. longa, 4*0 mm. lata; 
caudae circa 2*6 cm. longae. Petala anguste lanceolata, reflexa (?), 3-nervia, 
4*0 cm. longa, 2*5 mm. lata. Labellum unguiculatum, indivisum, ovatum, circa 
1*6 cm. longum, 1*0 cm. latum, marginibus integris ; parte apicali cuneata, sparsim 
punctata, leviter crenulata, recurva ; calli lineares, 6-seriati, leviter ultra medium 
laminae terminantes. Columna incurva, circa \'7 cm. longa, basi bicallosa, 
supernc latiuscule alata. Anthera obtusa. 

Species terrestrial, slender, up to 20 cm. high. Stem rather hairy, a loose 
oblong acute bract about 2 cm. long in the middle. Leaf wanting in my specimen. 
Flower solitary, large, yellow, about 9"0 cm. in diameter; ovary very densely 
hairy, cylindrical-cuneate, about 1*0 cm. long; pedicel very slender, about 3*5 cm. 
long; floral bract embracing the pedicel, acute, about 2*4 cm. long. Dorsal sepal 
incomplete in my specimen, narrow-linear, retracted at the base, incurved (?). 
Lateral sepals spreading, dilated below, thereafter gradually contracted into very 
long pubescent filiform caudae, 5-nerved, about 6*0 cm. long, 4*0 mm. wide; 
caudae about 2*6 cm. long. Petals narrowly lanceolate, apparently reflexed, 
3-nerved, 4*0 cm. long, 2*5 mm. wide. Labellum on a very narrow movable claw, 



296 

undivided, ovate, about 1-6 cm. long, 1*0 cm. wide, margins entire; the apical 
part cuneate, sparsely dotted, slightly crenulate, recurved; calli linear in 6 rows, 
ending a little beyond the middle of the lamina. Column incurved, about 1*7 cm. 
long, 2 yellow calli at the base, rather widely winged above. Anther quite blunt. 

Victoria. Mt. Mclvor, near Bendigo. Collector unrecorded, also month 
of collection in 1896. Forwarded from the National Herbarium, Melbourne, for 
determination by J. W. Audas, whose name it bears. Type in National Herbarium, 
Melbourne. 

This species occupies a taxonomic position midway between C. Patersonii, 
R. Br., and C. clavlgera, Cunng. From the former it differs in its entire labellum, 
in its relatively longer column, and in the colour of its flowers. From the latter 
it is easily distinguished by tthe size and colour of the flowers, which greatly exceed 
those of C. clavigcra, and by the presence of 6 rows of calli on the labellum. 

Caladenia radialis, Rogers, n. sp. Species gracilis, circa 15-25 cm. alta. 
Folium anguste lineare, acutum, basi amplexicaule, villosum, circa 5-15 cm. 
longum, 4-6 mm. latum. Flores 1-2, majuscuii, lutei et badii, lineis atris in 
segmentis et labello, 6-7 cm. diametro ; ovarium densissime hirsutum ; pedicellum 
gracillimum, hirsutum, circa 1*8 cm. longum. Segmenta basi lanceolata vel 
dilatata, deinde in caudis filiformibus glanduloso-pubescentibus attenuata, sub- 
simtlia, lineis badiis striata. Sepalum dorsale erectum, incurvum, 3-nervium, circa 
3 •0-3* 5 cm. longum. Sepala lateralia pctalaque paulo longiora, 3-5 nervia, 
patentia. Labellum gracillime unguiculatum, subovatum, circa 1*3 cm. longum, 
9-10 mm. latum, apice multo recurvum, marginibus vulgo integris rarius leviter 
serratis ; lamina nervis atris radialibus ornata; calli lineares, curvi, 6-seriati, 
conferti, prope medium laminae terminantes. Columna erecta, incurva, circa 
1*1 cm. longa, prorsus alata, ala supera latinscula cum lobo inferiore obtuso, basi 
non bicallosa. Anthera obtusissima. 

Leaf narrow-linear, acute, clasping the stem at the base, villous, about 5-15 cm. 
long, 4-6 mm. wide. Flowers 1 or 2, rather large, yellow and reddish-brown, 
with dark lines on the segments and labellum, 6-7 cm. in diameter ; ovary very 
densely and shortly hairy; pedicel slender, about 1*8 cm. long. Segments some- 
what similar, lanceolate or dilated at the base, then narrowing to glandulose- 
pubescent filiform caudae, striated with reddish-brown lines. Dorsal sepal erect, 
incurved, 3-nerved, about 3*0-3 v 5 cm. long. Lateral sepals and petals a little 
longer, 3-5-nerved, spreading. Labellum on a slender movable claw, somewhat 
ovate, about 1'3 cm. long, 9-10 mm. wide, much recurved at the apex, the margins 
usually entire, more rarely slightly serrate; lamina decorated with dark radial 
nerves ; calli yellow, linear, golf-stick type, densely crowded in 6 rows on the lower 
half of the lamina, ending about the middle. Column erect, incurved, about 
1*1 cm. long; winged throughout, but widely so just below the anther, these 
upper wings being furnished with a blunt inferior lobe; no yellow calli at the 
base. Anther without a mucrone, extremely blunt. 

Western Australia. Dowerin, F. H. Ising, Sept. 1, 1926; Beverlev, Dr. 
F. Stoward, Sept. 13, 1913. 

This species replaces the plant in Western Australia hitherto regarded as 
conspecific with C. clavlgera, Cunng. Its lip differs considerably from that of 
the Eastern species, not only in shape, but also in the presence of 6 rows of 
densely crowded calli and a number of dark radial lines. Its column is also quite 
differently winged, has a very blunt anther without a mucrone, and is without the 
usual double yellow calli at the base. The segments of the perianth are not 
clavate. 

Pterostylis robusta, Rogers, n. sp. Herba terrestris, gracilis, glabra, 
circa 5-20 cm. alta. Folia radicalia stellata, vulgo 6 vel 7, obtusa, late ovata 



297 

vel elliptico-ovata, longiuscule petiolata ; in planta florida folia caulina, alterna, 
nasi amplexicaulia. latiuscule lanceolata, acuminata, vulgo 4 vel 5 (bractea florah 
inclusa), in magnitudine summum versus crescentia, aliquando ad 5 cm. longa. 
Flos viridis, striatus, aliquanto magnus, solitarius. Galea circa 3*2 cm. longa, apice 
gradatim arcuato-incurva ; sepalum dorsale acumine brevi subtili instructum. 
Labium inf crius erectum ; laciniis longe filif ormibus, galcam multo superantibus. 
Labellum irritabile, mobile unguiculatum ? fere strictum, laneeolatum, acumine 
acuta gradatim contracture columnam leviter excedens ; lamina circa 15 mm. 
longa, in medio linea elevata longitudinal! , basi appendice lineari multo curva 
penicillata. Columna erecta, circa 16 mm. longa^ lobo superiore alae acuta, lobo 
inferiore oblongo obtuso marginibus introrsis ciliatis. 

Slender, glabrous, about 5-20 cm. high. Radical leaves (not present in the 
flowering plant) stellate, usually 6 or 7, obtuse, widely ovate or elliptic-ovate, 
with somewhat long and slender petioles ; in the flowering plant leaves cauline, 
alternate, clasping at the base, rather widely lanceolate, acuminate, usually 4 or 5 
including the floral bract, increasing in size from below upwards, sometimes 
attaining 5 cm. in length. Flower green with deeper green longitudinal stripes, 
rather large, single. Galea about 3*2 cm. long, gradually curved forward at the 
apex; dorsal sepal furnished with a short slender point: rarely exceeding 4 mm. 
long. Inferior lip erect, its segments longly filiform, embracing and much exceed- 
ing the galea. Labellum irritable, on a movable claw, practically straight, 
lanceolate, tapering into an acute but not acuminate point, in the erect position 
very slightly exceeding the column; the lamina about 15 mm. long, traversed m 
the middle bv a raised longitudinal line, with a much curved linear penicillate 
appendage at' the base. Column erect, about 16 mm. long, the upper angle of the 
wing acute, the lower lobe oblong-obtuse with inturned ciliated margins.--- 
P praecox LindL, var. robusta, Ewart and Sharm., Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., xxvm., 
1915 p 231 t 27, fig. 7; Bentham in Fl. Austr., vi., p. 359, P. reftexa (partly) ; 
Rogers, P. reftexa, in Black's Fl. S. Austr., Part I., 1922, p. 151; Pescott and 
Nicholls, Vict. Nat., xlii., 1925, p. 62, pi. ii., P. rejlexa. 
Victoria. Widely distributed. 
South Australia. Widely distributed. 

Western Australia. Apparently coastal. Between Perth and Fremantle, 
Col. B. T. Goadby, July, 1927; Swanborne, near Perth, Col. Goadby, July 7, 1927. 
Apparently with some hesitation, this plant was included by Bentham in 
Brown's species P. reftexa. It differs from the latter, however, in its shorter 
stem, wider leaves, and relatively short straight labellum which does not protrude 
through the sinus of the lower lip, as in the case of Brown's plant. This latter 
species appears to have been correctly interpreted by R. D. Fitzgerald m his 
"Australian Orchids," vol. i. (P. rcflexa, fig. a), where the lamina of the lip is 
gradually contracted into a long narrow curved acute point, greatly exceeding the 
column in length and conspicuously protruding from the sinus. His figures B and 
C in the same plate represent, in my opinion, P. revolula, R. Br., a plant with a 
much larger flower, but a verv similar labellum. Brown, in fact, describes the 
labella oAhese two species in identical words. In both of these plants from New 
South Wales, the galea is much longer at the apex and more acuminate than is 
the case in P. robusta. The new species is evidently a near relative of P. data, 
(Labill.) Rcichb. f., but the latter is a more slender plant, with much smaller 
bract-like leaves, exceedingly translucent flowers considerably smaller m size, 
greyish in colour, and striated with reddish-brown. The labellum, which is 
reddish-brown, is very similar in shape, perhaps a trifle longer and a little less 
acute. The mucrone of the galea is even shorter than that of P. robusta, and the 
radical leaves are less obtuse. 



298 



AUSTRALIAN FUNGI: NOTES AND DESCRIPTIONS.— No. 6. 

By J. Burton Cleland, M.D. 

[Read October 13, 1927.] 

This paper is a continuation of previous ones, of which the last No 5 
appeared m these Transactions and Proceedings, vol. xlviii., 1924 pp 236-252' 
The species dealt with are given numbers consecutive with those in the previous 
papers. Colour tints when specifically noted in capital letters are based on Rid^- 
ways Colour Standards and Colour Nomenclature," references to the plates 
therein being given. Following the example set by a number of other mycologists 
Catm descriptions of the new species described have not been prepared. 

SUMMARY OF CONTENTS. 
WHITE-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 

Amanita: 455- A. angustuspora, n. sp. 456—,-?. straminca, n sp 

Armillaria _: 457— A colossa, Fr., var. australis, var. nov. 458— A muscicola, n. sp. 

Mylkna: 45v — M. subvulgaris, n. sp. 

Clitocybe: 460— C. brwmeo-ceracea, n. sp. 461— C. pcraggregata, n. sp. 462— C semi- 

occulta, n. sp. 
Pleurotus : 463— P. subapplicalus, n. sp. 464— P. cincrasccns n sp 
Russula: 465—R. purpurea- flay a, n. sp 
Lactakeus: 466— L. Clarkci, n. sp. 
Marasmius: 467— M. alveolaris, n. sp 
Caxtharellus: 468-C rugosus, n. sp. 469-C. granulosus, o. sp. 470-C. hrunneus, 

P1NK-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 

Leptoxia: 471 — L. virido-marginata, n. sp. 
BROWN-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 

Pholiota: 472— P. rufo-fnlva, n. sp. 473— P. subpumila. 

T« Il ^ M ^T ; i 4?4 ~ C - (M ' } Tuhcr ' n " sp " 475 ~ C - ^-) subarvinaceus, 
n. sp. 4/0 — C. (Az.) ochraceus, n. sp. 

Paxillus : 477 — P. infundibiiliformis, n. sp. 
PURPLE-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 

Psilocybe : 478— Ps subaeruginosa, n sp. 479-P*. sttrricota, a. sp. 480-P. f . coprophih 
(.iiulJ.; i-r. 4«1 — fv. snbammoplula, n. sp. 

BLACK-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 

Psathyrella : 482— Pj. subprona, n. sp. 

WHITE-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 
455. Amanita angustispora, n. sp. Pileus 1£ to 2 in. (3-2 to 5 cm ) in 
diameter, irregularly convex, then nearly plane or with centre depressed viscid 
when moist, subfibnllose round the edge, whitish with a slightlv biscuity-brown 
tint m the centre or with a pale-chocolate or greyish-brown tint. 'Gills just reach- 
ing the stem to adnexed or nearly adnate, moderately close, not ventricose edsjes 
serrate in one collection | in. (7 mm.) or more deep, white with a slight 'cream 
tint Mem 2 to 2^ im. (5 to 6-2 cm.) high, equal, moderately stout to moderately 
slender (f to £ in., 10 to 12-5 mm. thick), mealy and gill-marked above the definite 
dependent white superior or nearly median ring, slightly fibrillose below, solid 
base bulbous, 1 in. (2-5 cm.) long. f in. (1-9 cm.) thick, rounded below or with 
a conical root. Volva sheathing, ample, whitish. Smell slightly strong Spores 
elliptical, narrow for the length, 10 to 13x5-5 to 6 ,,. Deeplv rooting in sandy 
soil. Encounter Bay, May, 1926, August and September, 1927. Kinchina plants 



299 

(August, 1925) are probably the same, but the pileus is noted as white only, the 
ring is median, and the bulbous base showed no definite volva, spores 13X6-5 fi. 

456. Amanita stratninea, n. sp. Pileus up to 2\ ins. (5*6 cm.) in diameter, 
convex, then nearly plane with the centre slightly irregularly depressed, surface 
dull, mealy when young, becoming smooth, white. Gills adnexed, moderately 
close, alternate ones at the periphery short, up to § in. deep, near Straw Yellow 
(pi. xvi.)- Stem up to 2\ ins. (5*8 cm.) high, rather slender (| in., 1 cm., thick 
above), nearly equal, base somewhat bulbous, somewhat mealy, solid, white. Ring 
evident, dependent, membranous, subdistant, white. Volva not obvious, evidently 
friable. Flesh rather thin, white. Spores elliptical, with an oblique apiculus, 
definitely slightly coloured yellow, 11 to 13X7*5 yx. On the ground under shrubs. 
S.A. — Kinchina, June 8, 1926; Encounter Bay. 

457. Armillaria colossa, Fr., var. aitstralis, var. nov. Pileus 3 ins. (7*5 cm.) 
or more in diameter, at first irregularly convex, then expanding to irregularly 
plane or upturned, surface fibrillose-matt with some more superficial 
fibrils, Clay Colour (pi. xxix.), to Sayal Brown (pi. xxix.), towards 
the centre sometimes much darker. Gills sinuate, nearly free, moder- 
ately close, | in. (6 mm.) deep, ventricose, short ones interposed at 
the periphery, Light Pinkish Cinnamon (pi. xxix.), when old spotted with 
reddish-brown. Stem 2 ins. (5 cm.) high, ■§ in. (1*2 cm.) or more thick, usually 
attenuated downwards, fibrillose striate, marked with gill lines above, solid, at 
first pallid with rusty stains, then tinted with Ochraceous Tawny (pi. xv.). Ring- 
marked when young, median, pallid, then brownish. Flesh-white, a little reddish 
under the cuticle, when old becoming brownish, especially in the stem. Flesh of 
stem continuous with that of the pileus. Spores subspherical, smooth, 7 to 
7*5 n, 9X7*5 fx. Subcaespitose in an imperfect ring at the base of an old 
Eucalyptus trunk. S. A.— Mount Lofty, July 1925. 

These plants agree fairly closely with Tab. 60 (Tricholoma colossa, Fr.) in 
Bresadola's Iconographia Mycologica now being published, but differ in the spores 
(Bresadola, 8 to 10><5 to 6/x) and in the tendency to spotting of the gills. Rea 
(Brit. Basidiomycetae) places the species under Armillaria and gives the spores 
as 6 to 7X5 to 7 /x. It seems advisable to give the Australian plants a varietal 
name and to place them under Armillaria. 

458. Armillaria muscicola, n. sp. Pileus up to 1 in. (2*5 cm.) in diameter, 
broadly conico-convex to convex, umbonate, frosted with granules or fine warts 
and slightly rugose, Yellow Ochre to Ochraceous Tawny (pi. xv.). Gills adnate 
to adnexed or sinuately adnexed, moderately close, crcamy-w r hite to pure white. 
Stem up to 1-J- in. (3'7 cm.) high, covered with yellowish-buif granules up to a 
little below the gills, forming here a more or less definite ring, browner than 
Tawny to Buckthorn Brown (pi. xv.). Spores elliptical, oblique, not thick-walled, 
5*5 to 6*5X3*2 to 3*5 ^. Amongst moss on shady banks, etc. S.A. — Greenhill 
Road, July, 1921 (Miss Buxton, Watercolour No. 10, Formalin Sp. No. 324) ; 
Mount Lofty, June, 1921 ; National Park, July, 1923. 

An albino plant was found near a normal one on the Greenhill Road in August, 
1922. The pileus was white with a faint tinge only of buff, the stem white, 
smooth, and slightly striate above the superior ring, mealy-white below, and the 
spores 6*5X4 /a. 

459. Mycena subvtilgaris, n. sp. Pileus f to J in. (10 to 21 mm.) in diameter, 
convex, umbilicate, striate, margin at first straight, near Fuscous (pi. xlvi.), young 
plants between Burly Brown and Olive Brown (pi. xL). Gills adnate to adnato- 
decurrent, in four tiers, the second tier reaching nearly half-way to the stem, the 
third tier very short, whitish, then with a slight greyish tint. Stem l\ to 2 ins. 
(3'7 to 5 cm.) high, slender, very glutinous, slightly strigose at the base, hollow, 
the lower portion paler than the pileus (near Drab, pi. xlvi.), whitish above. Flesh 



300 

of pileus very thin, dark coloured like the surface, with a triangular cavity below 
the umbilicus. Spores narrow, 8X3-7 /a. Gregarious to subcaespitose. Amongst 
leaves and small sticks on the ground. S.A. — National Park, May 28 1927. 
(Formalin Sp. No. 389.) 

Apparently the Australian representative of Mycena vulgaris, (Pers.) Fr., 
but tending to be larger and darker in colour, without a definite papilla, and with 
the pileus not definitely viscid. Cooke's Illustrations (pi. 191) are not very like 
our plants. 

460. Clitocybe brnnneo-ceracea, n. sp. Pileus up to t-J in. {Z'7 cm.) in 
diameter, thin, the edge turned in when young, irregularly convex with an 
umbilicus, then moderately depressed, sometimes gibbous in the depressed centre, 
the edge faintly striate, innately silky-fibrillose, when moist near Buffy Brown 
(pi. xl.) and moist looking, waxy-semitranslucent, markedly hygrophanous, drying 
to pallid or dingy whitish with a burly tint, the drying commencing from near the 
centre, the centre sometimes remaining for a while buffy brown shading to dark 
brown. Gills moderately decurrent, close, narrow, many short, edges rather 
thick, sometimes with venose buttresses between the gills, pallid greyish-brown, 
much paler than Drab (pi. xlvii.). Stem up to 1-J- in. (3 '7 cm.) high, usually 
slender, sometimes flattened, hbrillose, extensively hollow, coloured like the pileus 
but paler. Flesh under the pileus moist-looking brown, in the centre of the pileus 
white, in the stem pale brown. Spores narrow, 5*5 to 6X2*2 /*. Cystidia not 
seen. Slight phosphorus-like smell. Amongst dead leaves and sticks. S.A.— 
National Park, July. 

Resembles C. paraditopa, Clel. et Cheel, but lacks the strong wattle scent 
and is less robust. The specific name refers to the semi-translucent waxy (or 
soapy) appearance of the brownish pileus when moist. 

461. Clitocybe peraggregata, n. sp. Sometimes merismatic, the upper surfaces 
irregularly infundibuliform with wavy and irregular edges showing lobes, villous, 
excentrically or almost laterally attached to a stout common branching stem from 
which the rather fan-shaped pilei spread out. Pileus 1 to 2 ins. (2*5 to 5 cm.) 
in diameter, irregularly convex, often distorted, edge a little turned in, punctate 
pruinose and breaking up on the surface into minute furfuraceous granules or 
wart-like prominences, the granules darker coloured, the surface appearing as if 
partly dusted with soot, colour Drab (pi. xlvi.) or lighter, paler round the peri- 
phery. Gills decurrent to nearly adnate, moderately close, edges a little thick, 
sometimes forked, whitish with a burly tint or livid greyish. Stem short, f to 
1 in. (1*9 to 2-5 cm.) high, moderately stout, up to 1 in. (2*5 cm.) thick at the base, 
often distorted, whitish flecked with minute greyish furfuraceous scales. Spores 
obliquely elliptical, probably faintly tinted microscopically, 6- 5 to / 7 *8X4*8 to 
5*5 fji. Cystidia not seen. Flesh slightly greyish, that of the stem confluent and 
homogenous with that of the pileus. Smell slightly mealy. Densely caespitose, 
growing on the clay floor of a motor shed, probably from rotten wood or buried 
chips. S.A.— Fullarton, Adelaide, June (1922), September (1923). 

Apparently related to C. aggregata, (Schaeff.) Fr., but differing more par- 
ticularly in the pruinose-furfuraceous pileus and the short stem. 

462. Clitocybe semiocciilta, n. sp. Pileus § 1$ 1 in., sometimes up to 2-^ ins. 
(1*2 to 6*2 cm.) in diameter, at first slightly convex with inturned edge, then 
sometimes expanded and upturned, often depressed over the. attachment of the 
stem, wavy, irregular and more or less lobed at the margin, when found growing 
usually whitish to dingy whitish or pale buffy white (Cartridge Burl, pi. xxx.) or 
creamy white and opaque, smooth, a little translucent when very moist, when 
gathered becoming Ochraceous Buff (pi. xv.) round the edge and even browner 
in the centre, herbarium specimens drying a dingy biscuit colour. Gills adnate 
to sometimes slightly decurrent, close, narrow, whitish, then creamy-white. Stem 



301 

short, | to 1 in. (1*2 to 2*5 cm.) high, central to excentric or occasionally almost 
lateral from the position in which it may have grown, similarly often bent, slender 
or rather stout, equal or slightly attenuated downwards, pruinose, tough, hollow 
above, the colour of the pilcus. Flesh thin, equally attenuated outwards. Spores 
nearly subspherical, 3'5 to 4X2*5 to 2*8 p, 4 fx. Sometimes caespitose. Attached 
by fluffy-white mycelium to the undersides of thick sheets of fallen or stripped 
bark and fallen wood on the ground beneath Eucalypts, or round the base of 
stumps, the pilei often emerging with difficulty or only found after removing 
superjacent litter. N.S.W.— The Rock, July, 1917. S.A. — Mount Lofty, June, 
1927; National Park, August, 1927; Baker's Gully, near Clarendon, June, 1927. 
The specific name has reference to the frequency with which the pileus is often 
more or less hidden under bark and debris. 

463. Pleiirohts subapplicatus f n. sp. Pileus \ to f in. (6 to 16 mm.) in 
diameter, convex, becoming depressed towards the attachment, at first inverted 
saucer-shaped, finally rather fan-shaped, a little repand, sometimes almost lobed, 
tomentose, strigose near the attachment when large, pallid grey. Gills moderately 
close, radiating from a lateral to excentric point of attachment, many short ones, 
grey with a fawny tint. No definite stem. Flexible, the flesh of the pileus with 
an upper dark gelatinous layer. Shed spores spherical, 6 to 7 p. On an upright 
piece of rotting wood in a glass house. S.A. — Blackwood, April, 1927. (Formalin 
Sp. No. 388.) 

This species differs from Rea's description (British Basidiomycetes) of 
P. applicants, (Batsch.) Berk., more particularly in the gills being moderately 
close and the spores being spherical (not 7 to 9X4 to 5^). Kauffmann (Agari- 
caceae of Michigan) says the gills of P. applicatus are subdistant, and whitish at 
first, then grey, and that the spores are spherical, 4 to 5 /a. These descriptions 
appear to refer to different species, the description of neither of which fully 
agrees with that of the Australian plants. The specific name snhapplicatus has 
reference, however, to the obvious close relationship between our species and the 
American and European ones. 

464. Plenrotus cinerascens, n. sp. Laterally attached at the apex. Pileus 
up to -2- in. (1*2 cm.) in diameter, convex to cupulate, dark greyish-black, hoary 
round the edge, whitish and densely hoary when young. Gills radiating from an 
excentric point, moderately close and numerous, many short ones at the periphery, 
sometimes showing slight venose buttresses, grey. Flesh dark coloured, sub- 
gelatinous. Spores 6X3 '5 /a; pileus clothed with cells and processes covered with 
lateral wart-like projections, S.A. — National Park, August, 1927, on trunk of 
living Eucalyptus viminalis, Lab. 

A species evidently closely related to P. applicants and P. sub applicatus, but 
characterised more particularly by the cells on the pileus, a feature not apparently 
recorded in P. applicatus, from which it also differs in the gills being moderately 
close and grey and in the slightly smaller spores. The shape of the -spores 
separates it from P. sub applicants. 

465. Russtda purpureo-flava, n. sp. Pileus up to 2^ ins. (5*8 cm.) in 
diameter, somewhat irregular and slightly depressed, slightly sticky, cuticle peeling, 
Jasper Red (pi. xiii.) to purplish-red and very dark purplish-brown (Pompeian 
Red, pi. xiii., near Mars Violet, pi. xxxvii., in parts sometimes near Dark 
Vinaceous Purple, pi. xxxviii., occasionally with yellowish-brown paler areas). 
Gills adnate, moderately close, rather narrow, attenuated both ways, near Naples 
Yellow to Mustard Yellow (pi. xvi.). Stem lj| ins. (3-7 cm.) high, | in. (10 
mm.) thick above, equal or attenuated downwards, surface a little rough, pithy, 
pale yellowish with rosy tints to rosy, yellowish towards the base. Flesh white 
with yellow tinges, thin, attenuated outwards. Taste mild. Spores microscopic- 
ally slightly tinted to yellowish, subsphercial pear-shaped, 7'5 to 10 /a, 8 to 



302 

8-5X6-5 to 7 /*. No cystidia detected on the pileus. S.A. — Mount Lofty, March 
and April, 1924 (Miss Buxton, Watercolour No. 14), June and July, 1921; 
Stirling West, July, 1927; Kuitpo (Sir Douglas Mawson). 

^ 466. Lactarhis Clarkei, n. sp. Pileus 3 ins. (7-5 cm.) in diameter, infundi- 
buliform, matt, reddish-fawn. Gills adnate, moderately close, pallid becoming 
spotted and discoloured brown. Stern short, f in. (18 mm.) high, stout (9/16 in., 
16 mm.), expanded towards the pileus, attenuated downwards, solid, colour of 
the pileus, milk white. Taste mild. Spores slightly angular, 8 p. S.A. — Mount 
Lofty, June, 1927. In general appearance rather resembling Russula Floctonae, 
Cld. et Cheel. From its resemblance to this Russula we have named it after Miss 
Flockton's niece, Miss Phyllis Clarke, to whom we have been so much indebted 
for many admirable watercolour drawings of New South Wales agarics. 

467. Marasmius alveolaris, n. sp. Pileus £ in. (3 mm.) or less in diameter, 
rarely more, the surface alveolar from raised ribs rimosely arranged, leaving a 
polygonal cell in the centre, dark honey-coloured (near Snuff Brown, pi. xxix.), 
the ribs darker. Gills adnate, distant, about 6 in number, with some venose 
elevations at the periphery forming abortive gills and buttressing folds, edges 
thick, pallid honey-coloured. Stem short, up to \ in. (6 mm.),, rarely more 
(fin., 15 mm.), slightly pruinose, whitish above, very dark brown below, abruptly 
entering the matrix. Spores white, narrow, oblique, with the ends drawn out and 
acute, 10 to 13X5'5 ^ 9 to 10 X3'7 j a. Hairs on the pileus and stem colourless, 
straight with knobby or irregular swollen apices, 38 to 76X7*5 fi, forming a villous 
coat, a few present also on the edges of the gills. On bark. S.A. — National 
Park, May, 1925 (Formalin Sp. No. 355) and' 1927, July, 1927. 

468. Cantharelhis rugosus, n. sp. Pileus up to 1| ins. (4*8 cm.) in diameter, 
submembranaceous, irregularly convex with the centre depressed, finally often 
upturned, coarsely and irregularly radiately rugose, dark brown near Natal Brown 
(pi. xl), drying paler near Wood Brown (pi. xl.). Gills adnate, rather narrow, 
often very irregular with buttresses and sometimes anastomosing folds between, 
when dry more vinaceous than Army Brown (pi. xl.) with a more purplish cast 
when moist. Stem up to 2 ins. (5 cm.) high, slender, attenuated downwards, 
villous, hollow, when dry near Buff Brown (pi. xl.), when moist dark brown, 
nearly black. Flesh very thin. Spores 7 to 9X3 fi, cystidia not seen. Sug- 
gestive of Marasmius, but not reviving when moistened. At the base of a stump. 
S.A.— Mylor, June, 1926. 

469. Cantharelhis granulosus, n. sp. Pileus 2 ins. (5 cm.) in diameter, 
irregularly convex to plane, sometimes upturned irregularly, repand, edge 
irregular, thin, smoky-brown from minute dark-coloured granules or warts. Gills 
subdecurrent, moderately close, narrow, edges rather thin, often forking towards 
the periphery, sometimes crinkled and with irregular veins between, creamy in 
colour with rusty stains where injured. Stem short, | in. (1'Z cm.) high, sub- 
excentric, slender, stuffed, tough, dark smoky-brown from minute granules. Flesh 
of stem continuous with that of the pileus. Spores subspherical to elliptical, 
9-5x7-5 ^, 7-5 /a. S.A. — On ground in a swamp, Back Valley, Encounter 
Bay, May, 1926. 

470. Cantharelhis brunneus, n. sp. Pileus about f to | in. (10 to 12*5 mm.) 
in diameter, submembranaceous, convex, the centre umbilicate to infundibuliform, 
striate to rugose-striate, edge slightly incurved when young, semitranslucent some- 
times when moist, and near Sayal Brown, Snuff Brown, or Pinkish Buff (all 
pi. xxix.), becoming pale wood-brown and drying pallid with a brownish tint 
(near Light Burl, pi. xv. 5 paler than Pinkish Buff), opaque and dull. Gills deeply 
decurrent, rather distant, edges thick, alternate gills short, often forked, especially 
in larger specimens, with narrow irregular gills at the periphery, sometimes 
venose on the sides, sometimes the branching leading to irregular cells at the 



303 

periphery, slightly paler than the pileus (paler than Pinkish Buff or Cinnamon 
Buff). Stem | f to 1 in. (1*2 to 2*5 cm.) high, slender, equal or slightly attenuated 
upwards, smooth above, sometimes slightly pruinose below, usually solid, some- 
times hollow, colour of the pileus. Flesh of the stem continuous with that of the 
pileus, pallid brown when moist, whiter when dry, cortex of the stem more 
cartilaginous. Spores subspherical to pear-shaped elliptical, 5*5 d, usually 
7-5X4-5 to 5*5 $, rarely 6 to 9X3*7 to 5*5 p. Amongst moss or short grass or 
on bare soil. S.A.— Greenhill Road, Mount Lofty, August, 1925; Black Hill, 
July, 1923; Mount Lofty, August, 1925; Morialta, May, 1925; Mylor, June, 
1926; Kinchina, August, 1925; McDonnell Bay, S.E., May, 1925. 

PINK-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 

471. Leptonia virido -marginal a, n, sp. Pileus f in. (18 mm.) in diameter, 
slightly convex with the centre dimpled, clad with small fibrillose scales, edge 
slightly sulcate, dark green (near Dusky Olive Green, pi. xli.). Gills slightly 
sinuate with a decurrent tooth, moderately distant, alternate ones short, of a Light 
Pinkish Cinnamon (pi. xli.) tint passing into dark green which edges the gills. 
Stem 2| ins. (6*2 cm.) high, slender, flexuous, twisted, shining, finely punctate 
above, rather tough, flesh heterogenous from that of the pileus, hollow, dark 
green. Shed spores of salmony tint, microscopically angular pear-shaped, 11 to 
11-5X7-5 /a, cystidia not seen. On the ground. SA. — Mount Lofty, June. 

BROWN-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 

472. Pholiota rufo-fidva, n. sp. Pileus up to l£ ins. (3-7 cm.) in diameter, 
at first conico-convex, then convex or irregularly convexo-plane, minutely fibrillose, 
becoming subrloccose to velvety, no striae, edge a little turned in when young' 
darker than Pecan Brown (pi. xxviii.) to Russet (pi. xv.), when old becoming 
Tawny (pi xv.), when moist very dark maroon-brown. Gills adnate, close or a 
little distant, deep (up to J in., 8 man.), somewhat ventricose, with short ones at 
the periphery, of the colour of the pileus becoming more cinnamon, and Argus 
Brown (pi. iii.) ; Stem up to \\ in. (3'4 cm. high), moderately slender, fibrillose, 
solid, when moist Kaiser Brown to Carob (pi. xiv.), drying pallid with tints of 
the pileus. Veil white, marked when young, rupturing to leave a marked whitish 
or pallid superior ring. Flesh brownish. Single or subcaepitose, the type at the 
base of Eucalypts. Spores yellow-brown, obliquely elliptical, 7*5 to 9*3x5*5 p* 
hyphae of subhymeneal layer large. S.A.— Burnside, July, 1925 (tvpe) ; Happy 
Valley, September, 1926 (spores 9X4*5 p) ; on sandy 'soil, Encounter Bay, May, 
1926 (edges of gills a little serrate, stem hollow, spores 9 to 10X5*6 «#", 

This is possibly P. recedens, Cke. and Mass., recorded for Victoria, which is 
described as golden-tawny, at length faintly striate (which our plants are not) 
and with a longer stem (3 to 4 ins.). 

473. Pholiota subpumila, n. sp. Pileus f to l-£ in. (15 to 28 mm.) in 
diameter, convex then becoming flattened or a little depressed, umbonate when 
young, sometimes a little wavy, shining waxy-looking, dark tan. Gills adnate or 
slightly decurrent, rather triangular, rather close, watery-brown. Stem 1| in. 
(S'7 cm.) high, equal or slightly attenuated upwards, fibrillose, white or with a 
slight tinge of the colour of the pileus. Ring subdistant, whitish, not marked. 
Spore mass fuscous-brown, spores microscopically yellow-brown, oblique, 8 to 
9*5x5-5 £4, Growing amongst moss. S.A. — Greenhill Road, June, 1926. Closely 
related to C. pitmila, Fr., but larger, stem paler, gills browner, and spores a little 
larger. 

474. Cortinarius (Myxamicimn) ruber, n. sp. Pileus and stem viscid. Pileus 
up to 2 ins. (5 cm.) in diameter, convex, then irregularly wavy and convex, sub- 
gibbous, near Dragon's Blood Red (pi. xiii.) passing into Rufous (pi. xiv.). ' Gills 



304 

slightly smuately adnexed, moderately close, a little ventricose, Tawny Olive (pi. 
xxix.). Stem up to 1^ ins. (3'7 cm.) high, viscid, rather short and stout, bulbous, 
up to § in. (17 mm.) thick below and % in. (1'25 cm.) above, solid or somewhat 
hollow, the colour of the pileus below the remains of the veil, above whitish and 
slightly striate, with some yellowish mycelium at the base and whitish rooting 
mycelial strands below. Cobwebby veil yellowish-red or red, glutinous. Flesh 
of the pileus white, moderately thick over the stem, thinning outwards, flesh of 
the stem discoloured. Spores 9*5X6*5 /a. S.A. — Kinchina, July; Bclair, July 
(Miss Buxton, Watercolour No. 12). 

475. Cortinarius (Myxamicium) subarzinaceus, n. sp. Pileus and stem 
viscid. Pileus If to 3£ ins. (4*6 to 8*7 cm.) in diameter, convex, sometimes 
repand, finally irregularly upturned, edge a little turned in, sometimes substriate 
round the edge, very viscid, Ochraceous Tawny (pi. xv.) becoming much darker 
and shining in the centre. Gills adnate or subsinuate, moderately close, slightly 
ventricose, pallid greyish-cinnamon then Tawny Olive (pi. xxix.) and darker. 
Stem 14 to 3 ins. (37 to 7*5 cm.) high, stout, up to J in. (17 mm.) thick, equal, 
mealy fibrillose, base viscid, pallid whitish becoming brownish. Flesh slightly 
brownish, when old becoming semitranslucent, thick over the disc, thin externally, 
cuticle thick and dark brown. Spores oblique with pointed ends, spore mass near 
Tawnv Olive (pi. xxix.), 13 to 15X7*5 fi. Under trees. S.A. — Stirling West, 
July, 1927. 

Evidently a species closely related to C. (M.) arvinacetts, Fr., but differing in 
being smaller, with the gills not adnate-decurrent or "straw colour, then bright 
ochraceous," and the spores smaller than 15 to 17X§ to 9 fi (Rea). 

476. Cortinarius (Myxamicium) ochraceus, n. sp. Pileus and stem very 
viscid. Pileus up to 2 ins. (5 cm.) in diameter, convex, repand, finally irregu- 
larly upturned, Yellow Ochre (pi. xv.), centre darker. Gills adnate, close, \ in. 

(8 mm.) deep, near Sudan Brown (pi. iii.). Stem 2 ins. (5 cm.) high, § in. 

(10 mm.) thick, somewhat bulbous below, then equal, striate above, pallid 

becoming yellowish-brown. Flesh soapy looking, thick over the disc, rapidly 
attenuated outwards. Spores yellow-brown, 8*5x4 p. On the ground amongst 
leaves under trees. S.A. — Mount Lofty, July, 1927. 

477. Paxillus infundibiiliformis, n. sp. Sometimes slender, usually large and 
stout. Pileus up to Z\ ins. (8*7 cm.) in diameter, irregularly infundibuliform 
(shallow or deep), sometimes irregularly convex or rather flabelliform when the 
stem is excentric, finely villous, tending to crack into rows of villi near the 
periphery, sometimes covered with brown to very dark brown (near Russet, 
pi, xv., to Mars Brown, pi. xv.) warty scales, the edge involute when young, 
Ochraceous Tawny (pi. xv.), becoming Cinnamon Brown (pi. xv.), or Raw 
Sienna (pi. iii.) or Light Cadmium (pi. iv.) or under the scales whe:n present 
near Honey Yellow (pi. xxx.). Gills decurrent, often deeply so, often forking 
several times from near the stem, moderately close, edges a little thick, when 
young near Aniline Yellow (pi. iv.), becoming Sudan Brown (pi. iii.), Ochraceous 
Tawny (pi. xv.) or Clay Colour (pi. xxix.) and later still darker (e.g., Antique 
Brown, pi. iii.), sometimes becoming spotted with brown. Stem up to 1^- ins. 
(3-7 cm.) high, up to § in (1*2 cm.) thick, relatively slender, attenuated down- 
wards, swollen under the pileus, villous or somewhat mealy or even fibrillosely 
scaly, stuffed or hollow, central or sometimes excentric, pallid to the colour of 
the gills (base Mars Brown, pi. xv.), sometimes with a few slightly raised brown 
lines. Flesh pallid or turning reddish-brown when cut, then darker. Spores 
mummy-shaped, elongated, yellow-brown to greenish-yellow, usually 12*8 to 16, 
occasionally 21x4 to 7 p. Cystidia not seen. S.A. — Kuitpo, May; Mount 
Lofty, April to July. Vict. — Sedgwick, near Ararat, July (E. J. Semmens, No. 
326), and near Bendigo. 



305 



PURPLE-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 
478 Psilocybe subaeruginosa, n. sp. Pileus | to 2 ins. (1-8 to 5 cm ) m 
diameter, when young conical to conico-convex, then convex, and usually a little 
upturned, subgibbous or sometimes with a small acute umbo smooth, periphery 
a little striate, edge inturned when young, hygrophanous pale brownish to dark 
brown when older, often with bluish-green blotches drying pal id biscuity- 
brownish (Tawny Olive, pi, xxix., or yellower than Warm Buff, pi. xv., when 
dry • Dresden Brown, pi. xv. ; Dusky Green Blue, pi. xx„ when dry near Cinnamon 
Buff pi xxix., or paler; Saccardo's Umber to Bister, pi. xxix., when dry near 
Cream Colour, pi. xvi). Gills adnate to broadly adncxed sometimes with lines 
running down the stem, moderately close, slightly ventricose, m three series, the 
middle one reaching half-wav to the stem, pallid smoky-brown becoming brownish- 
fuscous (near Natal Brown, pi. xl., when old; Snuff Brown, pi xxix. ; Fuscous 
pi xlvi). Stem tall, 2 to 5 ins. (5 to 12-5 cm.) high, equal or slightly attenuated 
upwards, rather slender, finely striate, mealy above, fine fibrils sometimes adherent 
below, base a little swollen passing sometimes into a broad mass of white mycelium 
stuffed with white, sometimes hollow, cartilaginous, flesh heterogenous from ^ that 
of the pileus, pallid whitish streaked with dark greyish-brown and of ten blotched 
with greenish-blue (Prussian Green, pi. xix., or a little paler; Dusky Green Blue, 
pi xx) Closed with a cobwebby whitish veil when young, occasionally leaving 
indefinite traces of a somewhat superior ring. Flesh of pileus whitish, ot stem 
becoming brownish. No smell. Spores in the mass P»^"««> £*** 
elliptical, microscopically dark brown to dull purplish-brown 11 to 14X6 4 to 9 g. 
Single or gregarious, amongst grass, once on horse-dung. S. A.— National Park, 
April May, June, August; Mount Lofty, June, July ; Waterfall Gully, June. 
V ct --Among growth of red-gum coppice near decaying leaves and twigs near a 
creek, Craigif, near Ararat, June (E. J. Semmens, No. 31) N.S.W.-Fitzroy 
Falls, June. Apparently this same species, with an acute umbo, has been found 
at the base of a stump on wood or roots at Mount Wilson (June, 1915), and on 
a fallen trunk at National Park, N.S.W. (May, 1919; spores dark brown, 

10 " S 479 ^I'ocvbe stercicola, n. sp. This tall, slender-stemmed, dung-inhabiting 
Psilocxbe has puzzled us for long. From its habitat-cow and horse Jtfflg-Ht 
was evidently an introduced species, and yet it was not one of the British species 
(Ps coprophUa, (Bull.) Fr., and Ps. bullacea, (Bull.) Fr.) so growing. It 
esembled more closely Ps. foemsecii, (Pers ) Fr At last we found that Kauff- 
mann (The Agaric, of Michigan, i., p. 277) had referred an Amencan dung- 
inhabiting Psilocybe to Ps. uda, (Fr.) Bat., a species described as living amongst 
sphagnum. Our plants agree well with his description but do not resernb e 
Cooke's Illustration of Ps. uda. Though we think it very probable that our plants 
are the same as Kauffmann's, we do not think that they are referable to Ps. uda, 
and so we have been compelled to give them a new name. 

Pileus 3/16 to (rarely) 1* in. ("5 to 3 cm.) in diameter convex, subgibbous 
or with a small or acute umbo, then expanding, somewhat sticky when moist, edge 
often striate when moist, hygrophanous, when moist dark brown (ne ar Pror Us 
Brown, pi. xv. ; Bistre, pi. xxix.; or Sepia, pi. xxix.), when dry pale brownish 
(Clay Colour, pi. xxix. f Antimony Yellow, pi. xv.; Pinkish Buff, pi. «££«* 
Cinnamon Buff, pi. xxix.). Gills ascending, adnate, moderately close, sightly 
ventricose, Fuscous (pi. xlvi.), edges sometimes paler Stem up to 2 ins. (o cm.) 
high, slender, slightly flexuose, slightly striate, slightly mealy, sometimes with 
woolly mycelium It the base, usually hollow, sometimes stuffed pallid with a slight 
brownish tint to brownish. Spores elliptical, dark purplish brown o P°rphyry, 
12 to 14-5X7 to 8 ,x. Always on dung (cow or horse) N S.W .—National Park 
May, July?The Spit, July; Lane Cove, May; The Oaks, June; The Rock, July, 



306 

Terrigal June Vict-Ararat, May (E. J. Semmens, No. 23). S.A.— National 
Park May (Miss Fiveash, Watercolour No. 7), July, August; Mount Lofty 
March, July; Kuitpo, May. " ' J 

480 (see i., 69, as Ps. bullacca). Psilocybe coprophila, (Bull) Fr We 
have recorded Ps. bullacea, (Bull.) Fr. (Journ. Roy. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1914 
p. 438), and in these Transactions, for New South Wales and South Australia' 
The spores of the plants so recorded are, however, too large for this species 
according to the measurements given by Rea (Brit. Basidiomyc, p 365) and our 
plants would seem to agree closely with his description of Ps. coprophila. In our 
plants we note that the edge of the pileus is often whitish from remains of the veil 
that the pileus is often slightly striate when moist, and that we have mi spore 
measurements up to 16 p. Our plants always grow on dung. We have the 
following localities additional to those given by us previously under Ps. bullacea- 
N.S.W.— Narrabn, May; Kendall, August; Junee, October. S.A.— Kinchina 
July; Beaumont, August. 

481. Psilocybe sub ammo phila, n. sp. Pileus 1 in. (2-5 cm.) in diameter 
convex, subgibbous, sometimes slightly striate when moist and a little rugulose 
and shining when dry, edge a little turned in when voung, hygrophanous dark 
brown when moist, becoming near Cinnamon Buff (pi. xxix.) Gills adnate 
slightly ventneose, moderately close, becoming near Warm Sepia (pi xxix)' 
Stem long, up to 3 ins. (7"5 cm.) high, slightly attenuated upwards, slender, 
hbnllose, solid, the lower half buried, thickened and sand-encrusted, pallid with a 
brownish tint Spores fuscous, elliptical, oblique, 11 to 13X5'5 to 6 ft no cystidia 
seen. S.A.— In sandy soil, near Kinchina, May, 1926. (Formalin Sp Ko 357 ) 
Closely related to Ps. ammophila, (Dur. and Mont.) Fr., differing in the longer 
stem, the gills adnate not subdecurrent with a tooth, the spores slightly narrower 
and the location sandy agricultural land, not sands on the sea-shore. 

BLACK-SPORED AGARICACEAE. 
482. Psathyrella subprona, n. sp. Pileus £ in. (1 -2 cm.) broad, § in. (10 mm ) 
high, comco-campanulate with an acute apex, drying an opaque pallid whitish with 
fine anastomosing striae, greyer when moist. Gills ascending a little, adnate 
moderately close, clouded fuscous-grey. Stem 1 to l£ in. (2-5 to 3'7 cm ) high 
slender slightly mealy, then polished, slightly hollow, somewhat brittle, white 
*lesh thin, that of the stem different in texture from the flesh of the pileus. Spores 
nearly black, elliptical, 1SX8 ,*. Usually single, in grass by the roadside 
Encounter Bay, August 28, 1927. These plants differ from Rea's description of 
Ps. prona, Fr., m British Basidiomycetae in being conico-campanulate with an 
acute apex rather than campanulate then hemispherical, in the pileus not being 
pellucidly striate and obsoletely silky-atomate, and in the gills being moderately 
close, not distant, and m the stem not being flexuose. Recognised by its small size 
regular pileus, thm flesh, pallid colour, fuscous-grey gills, nearly black large spores' 
and habitat amongst grass. Our plants resemble closely Cooke's Illustration 
pi. 656, of Ps. prona. 



307 



THE FAUNA OF KANGAROO ISLAND, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

(Under the aegis of the Fauna and Flora Board.) 

No. 1.— THE CRUSTACEA. 

Ey Herbert M. Hale, Zoologist, South Australian Museum. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum.) 

[Read October 13, 1927.] 

The species listed herein were taken on the shores of Kangaroo Island, or 
in the vicinity. Sir Joseph Verco, when dredging in Investigator Strait, operated 
off Cape Borda, off the north-western coast of the island, etc. A few species 
were dredged near the island by the F.I.S. "Endeavour," and were dealt with by 
Rathbun, Chilton, and Schmitt, (1) while Tattersall recently recorded two opossum- 
shrimps. (2) Many of the Crustacea enumerated were obtained during visits of 
officers of the Fauna and Flora Board and of the Museum. In 1926, Mr. N. B. 
Tindale and the author spent a month on the island, and some days were devoted 
to marine collecting on the north and south coasts. The Bay of Shoals, on the 
north coast, proved a fertile collecting ground ; this bay is well protected and 
extremely shallow, so that at low tide a huge area of mud flat is exposed. (3) The 
original site of the township of Kingscote is at Reeves' Point, on the shore of the 
Bay; the township at Beare's Point, a mile to the south, was established in 1883 
and named Queenscliffe, but for about twenty-three years this newer settlement 
has been known as Kingscote. 

Order STOMATOPODA. 
Family SQUILLIDAE. 
Lysiosquilla terpasta, Hale. 
Beare's Point (type locality). 

Order DECAPODA. 
Family PENEIDAE. 
Peneus latisulcatus, Kishinouye. 
Bay of Shoals (C. E. Ewens) ; off Marsden Point, 17 fath. ("Endeavour"). 
The colouration of a living specimen was as follows: — Semi-translucent, 
the whole body lightly dotted with violet ; rostrum and antennal scales streaked 
and spotted with violet. Median ridge of fourth to sixth pleon segments, and 
median ridges of telson, almost black, narrowly margined with yellow. Postenor 
parts of branches of uropods blue, anterior portions delicate green; marginal 
hairs orange. Legs and pleopods tinged with pink; greater part of merus and 
carpus blue in the last three pairs of legs. 

Family SYNALPHEIDAE. 
Crangon vtllosus (Olivier). 
Beare's Point, in crevices on limestone reef (W. H. Anderson). 



O) Biol. Res. Endeavour, v., pt. 1, 1918; v., pt. 2, 1921 ; v., ot. 3, 1923; and v., pt. 6, 1926. 

(2) Tatt, Rec. S. Austr. Mus., iii., 1927, pp. 242 and 249. 

(3) Hale, S. Austr. Nat., viL 1926, p. 70, fig. 1. 



308 



Crangon praedator (de Man). 
Beare's Point (Capt. Brown and A. Zietz). 

Crangon edwardsi (Audouin). 

Bay of Shoals, in burrows in soft mud (Hale and Tindale). 

Even this small species can snap its large chela with surprising loudness. 
When a couple of specimens were placed in a bottle of sea-water the sharp clicks 
which they produced conveyed the impression that the glass had suddenly cracked. 
A vtry similar sound was made by sharply rapping the vessel with a metal tool. 

Crangon novae-zelandiae (Miers). 
Beare's Point, under stones (A. Zietz, Hale and Tindale). 

Synalimieus maccullochi (Coutiere). 
Beare's Point, under stones (Hale and Tindale). 

Betaeus australis, Stimpson. 
Beare's Point, under stones (Hale and Tindale). 

These examples were purplish-brown dorsally, with the sides of the body and 
tips of the uropoda white. 

Family HIPPOLYTIDAE. 

Alope austrai.is, Baker. 
Smith's Bay (type loc, R. Baker) ; north coast (W. H. Baker). 

Hippolyte tenuirostris (Spence Bate). 
Caradina tenuirostris, S. Bate, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1863, p. 501, pi. xl., fig. 4. 
Caridina tenuirostris, Hasw., Cat. Austr. Crust., 1882, p. 183. 
Hippolyte tenuirostris, Hale, Crust. S. Austr., 1927, p. 51, fig. 43. 

Bay of Shoals, £ fath., amongst Posidonia (Hale and Tindale). 
The rostrum of this small species is slender, with two or three teeth (almost 
always three) on the upper margin, and usually one or two on the lower edge near 




Fig. 1. 

a, Third maxilliped; h, first leg, and c, second leg of Hippolyte tenuirostris (x 60) 



309 

the apex; sometimes ventral teeth are entirely absent. The abdomen is humped 
at the third segment, this geniculation being accentuated in preserved examples. 
The arm of the first peraeopods is about as long as the hand, which is longer than 
the wrist (36:26) ; the dactylus is slightly shorter than the palm. The wrist of 
the second legs is longer than the arm, with the proportions of the first, second, 
and third joints, 27: 12:22; the hand is somewhat longer than the second and 
third joints of the wrist together, with the dactylus almost as long as the palm. 
The largest specimen examined is 12 mm. in length. 

Family PALAEMON1DAE. 

Leander tntermedius, Stimpson. 
Bay of Shoals and Beare's Point, amongst weed near shore (Hale and 
Tindale). 

Leander serenus, Heller. 

Bay of Shoals, amongst weed near shore (Hale and Tindale) ;, Vivonne Bay, 
in rock pools (F. Wood Jones and E. R. Waite). 

Palaemon australis, Ortmann. 
Fresh-water on Kangaroo Island, no definite locality (A. Zietz). 

Family PALINUR1DAE. 
Jasus lalandii (M. Edwards). 
Vivonne Bay (Hale and Tindale). 

Family PORCELLANIDAE. 
Porcellana dispar, Stimpson. 

Porcellana dispar, Stimps., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad., x., 1858, p. 242 (80), and Smith- 
son, Misc. Coll., xlix., 1907, p. 390, pi. xxiii., fig. 3; Hasw., Cat. Austr. Crust, 1882, p. 149; 
Micrs, Zool. "Alert," 1884, p. 275, pi. xxx, fig. C; McCull., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, xxxi., 
1906, p 40; Rath., Arkiv. f. Zool., K. Svenska Vet.-Akad., xvi., No, 23, 1924, p. 31 ; Hale, Crust. 
S. Austr., 1927, p. 82, fig. 79. 

Porcellana rostrata, Baker, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., xxix., 1905, p. 260, pi. xxv., figs. 
1, la and 1/?. 

Investigator Strait, 17 fath. (Sir J. Verco) ; Kangaroo Island (W. II. 
Baker). 

Mr. Baker now considers that his P. rostrata cannot be specifically separated 
from P. dispar. 

Family AXIIDAE. 
Axius (Neaxius) plectorhynchus, StrahL 
Beare's Point, under stones on reef (Hale and Tindale). 
As previously noted, < 4 > two varieties occur; both were taken on the reef. 

Family CALLIANASSIDAE. 
Upogeeia simsoni (Thomson). 
Emu Bay (R. Baker) ; Beare's Point (Hale and Tindale) ; Vivonne Bay 
(F. Wood Jones and E. R. Waite). 

At Beare's Point this species was found burrowing deeply in the sand where 
pools were left by the receding tide. 

Upogebia (Geriopsis) bowerbankii, Miers. 
Investigator Strait and Backstairs Passage (Sir J. Verco). 



(4) Hale, Crust. S. Austr., 1927, p. 84. 



310 

Family PAGUR1DAE. 

Paguristes frontalis (M. Edwards). 

Bay of Shoals and Beare's Point (Hale and Tindalc) ; north coast (W, H. 
Baker and A. Zietz). 

Paguristes sulcatus, Baker. 

Beare's Point (Fox and Wiese). 

Family DROM1IDAE. 
Cryptodromia octodentata (Haswell). 

Bay of Shoals (Hale and Tindale) ; American Beach (M. Le Ray) ; off 
Marsden Point, 17 fath., and off Sanders Bank, 28 fath. ("Endeavour"). 

In the Bay of Shoals small examples, without sponge or other cloak, were 
found in between large masses of Ascidians. One specimen taken elsewhere in 
the Bay, and of approximately the same size (about three-fourths of an inch in 
breadth), carried a piece of Viva over its back. 

Dromidiopsis excavata (Stimpson). 
Off Marsden Point, 17 fath. ("Endeavour"). 

Dromia bicavernosa, Zietz. 
Hog Bay (type loc, H. Bates and A. Rumball). 

Petalomera lateralis (Gray). 
Beare's Point, under stones on reef (Hale and Tindale). 

Family HYMENOSOMATIDAE. 
Halicarcinus ovatus, Stimpson. 
Bay of Shoals and Beare's Point, on Algae in shallow water (Hale and 
Tindale) ; Vivonne Bay (F. Wood Jones and K. R. Waite). 

Halicarcinus rostratus (Haswell). 
North coast of Kangaroo Island (A. Zietz). 

Elamena (Trigonoplax) ungujeormts longirostris, McCulloch. 

North coast (coll. ?). 

Family MAJIDAE. 

Naxia aurita (Latreille). 
Beare's Point (Hale and Tindale) ; Vivonne Bay (F. Wood Jones and E. R. 
Waite) ; Backstairs Passage (Sir J. Verco). 

Naxia tumida (Dana). 
Vivonne Bay (Hale and Tindale). 

Ephippias endeavouri, Rathbun. 
South of Kangaroo Island, Investigator Strait ("Endeavour"). 

Eruma hispidum (Baker). 

Investigator Strait (Sir J. Verco). 

The five syntypes of this species are from Port Willunga, Port Lincoln, and 
the above locality; as the specimens are associated in the collection it is not 
possible to assign a definite locality to any one of them. 



311 

Huekta proteus, de Haan. 
Backstairs Passage (Sir J. Verco). 

The weed Halimeda, with which this crab is commonly associated in the 
tropics, has been found near the shores of Kangaroo Island. 

Leptomitiikax australiensis, Miers. 
Beare's Point, under stones at low tide (Hale and Tindale) ; Cape Marsden 
and off Marsden Point, 17 fath. ('"Endeavour"). 

Leptomithrax sternocostulatus (M. Edwards). 
Investigator Strait, 20-30 fath. (Sir J. Verco) ; Cape Marsden. 17 fath., and 
north of Cape Borda, 40 fath. ("Endeavour"). 

Schizophrys aspera (M. Edwards). 
Investigator Strait, 20-30 fath. (Sir J. Verco). 

Paramicippa tuberculosa, M. Edwards. 
Vivonne Bay (Hale and Tindale). 

Family PARTHENOPIDAE, 

TlIYROLAMBRUS EXCAVATUS, Baker. 

Investigator Strait (Sir J. Verco). 

Family PORTUNIDAE. 
Ovalipes bipustulatus (M. Edwards). 
Vivonne Ray, 2-3 fath. (Hale and Tindale). 

LrocARCiNus corrugatus (Pennant). 
Investigator Strait, 20 fath. (Sir J. Verco). 

Nectocarcinus integrifrons (Latreille). 
Beare's Point (Hale and Tindale). 

Nectocarcinus tuberculosus, M. Edwards. 
Vivonne Bay (Hale and Tindale). 

Family XANTHIDAE, 
Megametope rotundtfrons (M. Edwards). 
Investigator Strait, 20-30 fath. (Sir J. Verco). 

Actaea peronii (M. Edwards). 
Investigator Strait, 20 fath. (Sir J. Verco); Sanders Bank, 28 fath off 
Marsden Point, 17 fath., and north of Cape Borda, 40 fath. ("Endeavour"). 

Actaea calculosa (M. Edwards). 
Investigator Strait (Sir J. Verco) ; north coast of Kangaroo Island (W H 
Baker); off Marsden Point, 17 fath. ("Endeavour"). 

Ozius truncatus, M. Edwards. 

Beare's Point, under stones at low tide (Hale and Tindale) ; Vivonne Bav 
(F. Wood Jones and E. R. Waite). * 



312 

Pilumnus tomentosus, Latreille. 
Beare's Point (Hale and Tindale) ; north coast of Kangaroo Island (A. 
Zietz) ; off Marsden Point, 17 fath. ("Endeavour"). 

Pilumnus fissifrons, Stimpson. 
Bay of Shoals, i fath., on weed, and Beare's Point (Hale and Tindale) ; 
Vivonne Bay (F. Wood Jones and E. R. Waite). 

Actumnus setifer (de Haan). 
Investigator Strait and Backstairs Passage (Sir J. Verco) ; off Marsden 
Point, 17 fath. ("Endeavour"). 

Litocheira bispinosa, Kinahaii. 
Bay of Shoals, on weed near shore (Hale and Tindale) ; Vivonne Bay 
(F. Wood Jones and E. R. Waite). 

Family PINNOTHERIDAE. 
Pinnotheres subglobosa, Baker. 
Off Marsden Point, 17 fath. ("Endeavour"). 

Family GRAPSIDAE. 

Cyclograpsus audouinii, M. Edwards. 

Bay of Shoals, under stones; Beare's Point, on reef ; Busby Island, in holes 

in moist mud; Vivonne Bay, under stones on banks of Harriet River, \ mile 

from mouth, and in a cave (Hale and Tindale) ; American River (J. Waddy) ; 

north coast of Kangaroo Island (A. Zietz). 

Paragrapsus gaimardii, M. Edwards. 
Bav of Shoals, under stones (Hale and Tindale). 



Brachynotus octodentatus (M. Edwards). 

Vivonne Bay, under stones on banks of Harriet River, J mile from mouth, 
and in burrows near mouth of Harriet River (Hale and Tindale). 

Juvenile examples were taken under stones, old males in