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Full text of "Transactions and proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated)"

TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



(INCORPORATED). 



VOL. LIII. 

[With Eleven Plates, and Seventy-eight Figures in the Text.] 



EDITED BY PROFESSOR WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S. 
Assisted by ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

[Each Author is responsible for the soundness of the opinions given, and 
for the accuracy of the statements made in his paper.] 






PRICE, TWENTY-THREE SHILLINGS. 



Adelaide : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, ROYAL SOCIETY ROOMS, NORTH TERRACE, 

DECEMBER 24, 1929. 



Printed by Gillingham & Co. Limited, 106 and 108, Currie Street, 
Adelaide, South Australia. 



Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Australia from the United States 
of America can be •forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



TRANSACTIONS AND PROCEEDINGS 



OF THE 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

(INCORPORATED). 



VOL. LIIL 

[With Eleven Plates, and Seventy-eight Figures in the Text.] 






EDITED BY PROFESSOR WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S. 
Assisted by ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 



[Each Author is responsible for the soundness of the opinions given, and 
for the accuracy of the statements made in his paper.] 




PRICE, TWENTY-THREE SHILLINGS. 



Adelaide : 

PUBLISHED BY THE SOCIETY, ROYAL SOCIETY ROOMS, NORTH TERRACE, 

DECEMBER 24, 1929. 



Printed by Gillingham & Co. Limited, 106 and 108, Currie Street, 
Adelaide, South Australia. 



Parcels for transmission to the Royal Society of South Australia from the United States 
of America can be forwarded through the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

(incorporated). 



Patron : 

HIS EXCELLENCY BRIG.-GENERAL SIR A. G. A. HORE-RUTHVEN, 
V.G, K.C.M.G, C.B., D.S.O. 



OFFICERS FOR 1929-30. 

President : 

L. KEITH WARD, B.A., B.E., D.Sc. 

Vice-Presidents : 

PROFESSOR T. HARVEY JOHNSTON, M.A., D.Sc. 

CHARLES A. E. FENNER, D.Sc, Representative Governor. 

Hon. Editor: 
PROF. WALTER HOWCHIN, F.G.S. 

Hon. Treasurer: Hon. Secretary: 

B. S. ROACH. R. H. PULLEINE, M.B., Ch.M. 

Members of Council: 

J. F. BAILEY. 

ARTHUR M. LEA, F.E.S. 

SIR JOSEPH C VERCO, M.D., F.R.C.S. 

T. D. CAMPBELL, D.D.Sc. 

J. M. BLACK. 

PROF. J. A. PRESCOTT, M.Sc, A.f.C 

Hon. Auditors: 

W. C HACKETT. O. GLASTONBURY. 



CONTENTS. 

Page 
David, Prof. Sir T. W. E. : Further Notes on the Newly-Discovered Fossils in the 

Adelaide Series (Lipalian or Proterozoic), South Australia. Plate i. . . . . . . 1 

Chapman, F. : Some Fossil Remains from the Adelaide Series of South Australia. 

Plate ii 5 

Prescott, Prof. J. A. : The Vegetation Map of South Australia . . . . . . . . 7 

Sec. nit, R. W. : Geological Notes from the Hundred of Adams, Flinders Ranges . . . . 10 

Mortensen, T. : The Australian Species of Cidarids, particularly of the Genus Phylla- 
canthus, and their Distribution along the Coasts of Australia. (Communicated by 
Prof. T. Harvey Johnston). Plate iii. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 18 

Hirst, S.: On the Larval Trombidiid Mite (TrombicuJa hirsti L. Sambon) that causes the 

"Scrub Itch" of Northern Queensland and the Coorong, South Australia . . . . 24 

Howchin, Prof. W. : On the Probable Occu-rrence of the Sturtian Tillite near Nairne and 

Mount Barker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 

Hale, H. M. : Crustacea from Princess Charlotte Bay, North Queensland. The Isopoda 

and Stomatopoda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 

Rathbun, M. J.: A New Xanthid Crab from South Australia. (Communicated by 

H. M. Hale.) Plate iv 37 

Robertson. Prof. T. Brailsford : Variations of Hydrogen Ion Concentration in the 

Neighbourhood of the Estuary of the River Murray . . . . . . . . . . 39 

Lucas. A. H. S.: A Census of the Marine Algae of South Australia. (Communicated 

by Prof. J. B. Cleland) 45 

Notes on the Fauna of Dirk Hartog Island, Western Australia: — 

No. 1. Introduction, by E. Ashby . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 

No. 2. Aves, by E. Ashby 56 

No. 3. Polyplacophora, by K. Ashby . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 

No. 4. Crustacea, by H. M. Hale. Plate v 67 

Johnston, Prof. T. Harvky: Remarks on the Synonymy of certain Tristomatid Trema- 

tode Genera . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 

Fenner, Dr. C. : A Geographical Enquiry into the Growth, Distribution, and Movement 

of Population in South Australia, 1836-1927 79 

Johnston, Prof. T. Harvey, and E. W. Dkland: Australian Acanthocephala, No. 1 .. 146 
Johnston, Prof. T. Harvey, and E. W. Deland: Australian Acanthocephala, No. 2. .. 155 

Howchin, Prof. W. : Notes on the Geology of the Great Pyap Bend (Loxton), River 

Mur-ray Basin and Remarks on the Geological History of the River Murray. 

Plates vi. to viii. . . . . . . . . . . ■ ■ ■ . . . . ■ • ■ ■ • 167 

Prescott, Prof. J. A., and C. S. Piper: The Volcanic Soil of Mount Gambier, South 

Australia. Plate ix. 196 

Lea, A. M. : Notes on some Miscellaneous Coleoptera, with Descriptions of New Species. 

Part VII 203 

Mountford, C. P. : A Unique Example of Aboriginal Rock Carving at Panaramitee 

North. Plate x 245 

Alderman, A. R. : Magmatic Differentiation at Mannum, South Australia 249 

Glastonbury, J. O., and F. J. Semmens: The Crystal Forms of Pyromorphite and 

Stolzite. (Communicated by C. T. Madigan) 258 

Black, J. M. : Additions to the Flora of South Australia. No. 27 261 

Moulton, D.: An Interesting New Thrips from Australia. (Communicated by A. M. 

Lea.) Plate xi 264 

Mitton, R. G. : The Spreading Tendency of Solutions of Various Acids and Salts upon 

a Clean Mercury Surface. (Communicated by R. S. Burdon) 267 

Turner, Dr. A. J. : New Australian Lepidoptera 297 

Girault, A. A.: Notes on, and Descriptions of, Chalcid Wasps in the South Australian 

Museum. (Communicated by A. M. Lea) . . . . . . . . . . . - ■ - 309 

Elston, A H. : Australian Coleoptera. Part VI. 347 

Colquhoun, T. T. : Polarity in Casuarina paludosa. (Communicated by J. G. Wood) .. 353 



CONTENTS— Continued. 



Wood, J. G. : Floristics and Ecology of the Mallec 

Abstract of Proceedings 

Sir Joseph Verco Medal 

Annual Report 

Obituary Notice . . . . . . .... 

Balance Sheets 

Endowment and Scientific Research Fund 

Donations to Library 

List of Fellows 

Suggestions for the Guidance ok Authors 

Appendix — 

Field Naturalists' Section : Annual Report, etc. 

Shell Collectors' Committee 

Microscope Committee 

Index 



Page 
359 

379 

381 

390 

391 

393 

395 

396 

402 

405, 406 

.. 407 

.. 409 

.. 409 

.. 411 



Transactions 

of 

The Royal Society of South Australia (Incorporated) 



VOL. LIU. 



FURTHER NOTES ON THE NEWLY-DISCOVERED FOSSILS IN THE 
ADELAIDE SERIES (LI PALI AN OR PROTEROZOIC), SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 

By Professor T. W. Edgeworth David, K.B.E., C.M.G., F.R.S., etc. 

[Read April 11, 1929.] 

Plate I. 

In view of the fact that so much time was needed in order to develop out 
the remains of the Eurypterids (1) from the hard siliceous limestones and quartzites 
of the Lipalian (or Pre-Cambrian) rocks of the Adelaide Series that the printing 
of the plates had to be proceeded with before some of the fossils had been fully 
traced out, the author is adding this note and Plate L, together with a brief 
description. 

The author estimates that in a thickness of five feet of the Blue Metal 
Limestone of the Adelaide Series, fragments of Arachnids (mostly small pieces) 
are present at the rate of over 100 per square foot. Some of these Arachnids 
in the Adelaide Series may have been over a foot in length. It is quite possible, 
in his opinion, that in Lipalian time (Infra-Cambrian-pre-trilobite time — 
or late Proterozoic time) the seas probably of the whole world were dominated 
by the important group of the Arachnids, from which, in the opinion of some 
eminent zoologists, vertebrate life was eventually evolved. The climatological 
significance of this great Arachnid belt cannot be too strongly emphasised. At 
present the existing Merostomes range from the tropics to warm temperate lati- 
tudes. Professor Harvey Johnston and Miss Deland inform me that in the 
Pacific, the Limuloids, or King Crabs, are met with from the Moluccas up to 
China and Southern Japan, as well as India; and that in the Atlantic, where they 
are known as the Horse Crabs, they extend from Yucatan to the coast of Maine. 
Dr. R. Pulleine has stressed to me the enormous abundance of these animals on 
this west coast of the Atlantic. Strange to say, though formerly, in Lipalian time, 
so extraordinarily abundant in the waters of the Pacific, no living forms of them 
are now known anywhere in the Southern Hemisphere. The fact that in the 
Adelaide Series their remains have been traced through a vertical thickness of 
5,000 feet, shows that they must have lived in this region for many scores of 

O) Dr. R. J. Tillyard, F.R.S., has recently suggested to the author in view of the 
very primitive character of the remains, a term like Archi-ostraca (on the analogy of Gigant- 
nstraca, Haeckel, a synonym for Merostomata). Perhaps Arc hi- Arachnid a might be adopted. 



tvoe ?n the quartzites which seem to underlie the Upper Torrens Limestone. So 

'Scharr Quartzite" at the IXL Quarry, at Mitcham. It would seem then, that 
afthecWe changed, from sub-tropical or warm-temperate to the polar climate 
o Ilowchin' Statin Tillite, these old arthropods were iorced to migrate into 
warmer htitudes not to reappear again in Australia, as far as we know, until 
Sir an ime In vTe v of thefact that all the fossils hitherto collected come from 
more or S geologically disturbed areas around Adelaide, and that m the Flinders 
Ranees to he north the strata are much less disturbed and less altered, it may 
fea"onabTy be ejected that in the near future, more or less complete specimens 
will be discovered with, one hopes, at least some of the original chitm preseived. 
The author, in conclusion, wishes to express his heartiest gratitude to the 
Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of South Australia, particularly or the 
initial confidence which they showed in his judgment when accepting and pubh sh- 
ne his earlier paper. This was based on what several palaeontologists and 
zoologists considered to be extremely slender 'and insufficient evidence, evidence 
SSSffiS^lSt studied in detail over considerable areas, to convince 
the author that his deductions were justified. 

Subsequent explorations have confirmed the original views even beyond his 
most sanguine expectations. It is well known that the dream of the pa aeonto- 
loo-i s ts of today, who would seek to trace back the evolution of the higher forms 
of "life upon the earth, in pre-Trilobite days, is to discover Arachnids of Pre- 
Cai brianage, and, through them, the common ancestor from which scorpions and 
p sibly inslc s, together with the Merostomes, were descended-ammals which 
Sern zoologies like Versluys and Demoll consider to have been probably land 
animals It may be many years before this dream is fully realized. For that con 
mmation will" be needed the devoted and patient «^ t ^ T «X^Si 
Surely the rocks of the Adelaide Series offer great possibilities ! It i the autitar a 
pious wish that no time will now be lost by the geological workers of Smith At*- 
Sa in exploiting, in the interest of world science, the priceless treasures m he 
Adelaide hills and Flinders Ranges. They are hard to win, but to win the 
beautiful is ever hard! 

Description of Figures on Plate I. 
The figures are all of natural size except 13A, which is X 3 ; 13B, which 
is X 12-29, which is X t; and 26, which is considerably reduced. 

1 Cephalothorax (?) showing sub-central eyes (?) and detached swim- 
ming ( ?) plate. Also trace of anteriorly situated pair of appendages. Quartzite 
underlying Upper Torrens Limestone, Tea-Tree Gully, near Adelaide. 

2 Ventral view of cephalothorax (?), showing eyes, and dismembered por- 
tions of appendages. Blue Metal Limestone, Devil's Elbow, near Glen Osmond, 

Adelaide. t 

3 Ventral view of small cephalothorax ( ?) belonging to Stylonurus type of 
Eurypterid, or to a nepionic stage of some other genus. Blue Metal Limestone, 
Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont, Adelaide. 



4. Apparently two rows of teeth and part of chela of the antenna of a 
possible PterygoUts from above quarries. 

5. An endognath, possibly also an antenna. The lower end shows the notch 
for the pivoting arrangement of the endognath. This belongs to Beaimiontella 
eckersleyi, spec, nov., Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont. 

6. A remarkably well preserved appendage, probably an endognath, is shown 
on the right. Faint traces of possible squamiform sculpture are visible. The 
knob-shaped object next on the left may represent the bud of a slender endognath, 
or possibly the concretionary residue from a dissolved endognath. The process 
next on the left appears to be part of a slender endognath. Part of Beaumontella 
eckersleyi, Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont. 

7. Somewhat similar appendages from the quartzite below the Upper Torrens 
Limestone, Tea-Tree Gully. 

8. Apparently an endognath from the Blue Metal Limestone, at the Devil's 
Elbow. 

9. A pair of the swimming legs (?) of Beaumontella eckersleyi showing the 
characteristic large spines on the posterior edge of the coxa, and a smaller spine 
on the outer posterior angle of the coxa, both spines serving to protect the joint 
between the coxa and the basos. The paddle was detached from this limb. It has 
been tentatively joined on at the ? ? of the figure. Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont. 

10. A pair of what may have been swimming feet (ectognaths), but it is 
not clear that they terminated in swimming plates, and they may have been 
endognaths. Blue Metal Limestone, Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont. 

11. Portion of large and massive coxa, showing manducatory denticles. The 
Arachnid (?) to which this belonged was probably at least half a metre in length. 
Black chert replacing the Upper Torrens Limestone, Tea-Tree Gully, near 
Adelaide. 

12. Post-oral lip-plate (metastoma) (?). From quartzite underlying Upper 
Torrens Limestone, Tea-Tree Gully. 

13. Inner ends of ectognaths, and metastoma ( ?), partly hidden posteriorly by 
filiform appendages. Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont. 

13A. Dto X 3, with details of Merostome ( ?) mouth. 

13B. Dc. X 12, showing "rolled" margin of ectognath on left of figure, 
traces of mandibular denticles. These minute structures are rendered visible 
through weathering. Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont. 

14. Portions of the abdominal segments of a Merostome ( ?) from Goldsack's 
quarries, Beaumont. 

15. Abdominal segments of an Arachnid from the black chert replacing 
Upper Torrens Limestone, Tea-Tree Gully. This shows the shape and thickness 
of the abdominal portion of the Arachnid, and the epimera on each side is 
specially massive. 

16. Thoracic plates ( ?) measuring 80 mm. X 20 mm. from Goldsack's 
quarries, Beaumont. 

17. Telson (?), like that of a Pierygoius, from dark quartzite above Upper ■ 
Torrens Limestone, Tea-Tree Gully. 

18. Ventral view of cephalothorax ( ?), showing traces of eyes ( ?) as well as 
fragments of structures connected perhaps with the antennae. Blue Metal 
Limestone, Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont. 

19. Portion of limb, an endognath perhaps, associated with the above 
carapace. 



20. Two abdominal segments of a Merostome (?), separated from one 
another by a septum-like structure crossing the tergal half of the animal. This 
lamina, or septum, is perforated by two openings situated in the plane of symmetry. 

20A shows the proximal surface (convex side of) this septum with the 
central perforations and at least one epimera (?). The epimera on right of the 
figure is prolonged into a small limb, not visible on the surface shown. 

20B is a section of A in the plane of symmetry, and shows the perforations. 

21 and 21A arc specially interesting as illustrating traces of small limbs 
attached to the epimera of abdominal segments of a Merostome ( ?). 

Fig. 21A appears to exhibit the ventral surface of probably six abdominal 
segments. The collar-stud-like structure, near the centre of the penultimate 
segment, seems to be a cast of the perforation of the septum, like that shown in 
Fig. 20A. This recalls the appendages figured by C. D. Walcott, in the Smith- 
sonian Mis. Coll., 1911-12, Vol. 57, Nos. 2 and 6, in the Eurypterid Sidneyia 
inexpectans Walcott, and those shown in Anthraconectes Meek and Worthen, 
and the spiny flanges figured by H. Woodward attached to the last three abdominal 
somites in Stylonurus scoticus H. Woodward. 

Walcott has commented on a form, like Sidneyia, linking up the Eurypterids 
with the Trilobites, and the same point can perhaps be suggested in the case of the 
form figured in 21 and 21A. 

22 A carapace of Eivrypterus remipes Dekay, from J. M. Clarke and 
R. Ruedemann, Eurypterida, of New York. PL VI., Fig. 6, Mem. N.Y. State 
M«s, No. 14, 1912. This may be compared with carapace (?), fig. 1 herewith. 

23. Carapace of Eurypterus pusHtlosus op. cit. C. and R. PL 23, Fig. 1, for 
comparison with Fig. 18 herewith. 

24. Dorsal view of carapace of Stylonurus myops, Clarke, op. cit. C. and R 
PL 51, Fig. 2. Compare Fig. 3 herewith. 

25. Dorsal view of carapace of Dolichopterus (?) testudineus Clarke and 
Ruedemann, op. cit., C. and R. PL 57, Fig. 2. For comparison with Fig. 3 
herewith. 

26. Pterygoids anglicus, Agassiz restored. H. Woodward. Monograph of 
British Fossil Crustacea, Order Merostomata. Palaeontogr. Soc, 1866-78, Plate 8. 

27. Left swimming leg of a Eurypterid viewed ventrally with the metastoma 
(epistoma) plate shown on the left of figure, op. cit., C. and R., Plate 3. 

28 From H. Woodward, op. cit p. 137, shows a cross section of a Eurypteroid 
somite illustrating the infolding of the chitinous skeleton of a tergite, along the 
area where two somites join one another. The tergite and sternite plates are 
produced to form the epimera on either side of each segment. Compare 20. A. 
herewith. 

29. From Woodward, op. cit., part of PL 23. Compare Stylonurus scokcus 
H. Woodward, with Figs. 21 and 21. A. herewith. 



SOME FOSSIL REMAINS FROM THE ADELAIDE SERIES OF 
SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Fredrk. Chapman, A.L.S., F.G.S., etc., Commonwealth Palaeontologist. 

[Read April 11, 1929.] 

Plate II. 

The following notes are based on some rather obscure remains in hand 
specimens which Prof. Sir T. W. Edgeworth David has given to me for 
description. 

Comprised in this series is a number of specimens of the pale blue-green, 
sencitic shale from Goldsack's quarries, Beaumont, at the top of the Blue Metal 
Limestone in the Adelaide Series. Scattered throughout the rock, and exposed on 
the fractured surface [bedding plane], are numerous patches of rust-stain with 
more or less definite or sharp outlines. Amongst these pieces of evidence of fossil 
organisms there are a few that seem to definitely belong to primitive brachiopods, 
whilst others may represent the disconnected appendages of Crustacea. There is 
a certain group-similarity between the latter that precludes the idea of their being 
merely adventitious cavities in the rock due to solution alone. The supposed 
crustacean remains are minute and seem to run in one direction as if drifted along 
strand-lmes, much as flotsam is seen on the tidal shore today. 

Class BRACHIOPODA. 
Order ATREMATA. 

Genus Lingulella. 

Lingulella, cf. chapa Walcott. PI. ii., figs. 1, 2, 4. 

Observations. — The schistose and metamorphosed grey mudstone of the 
Blue Metal Limestone, Stonyfell, shows numerous more or less ovate impres- 
sions and casts on its surface. These, I conclude, are primitive types of brachio- 
pods, but owing to their bad preservation and deformed outlines it was difficult 
at first to assign even a genus, or alliance to known genera. Some of these 
impressions, however, appear to show a structure on the umbonal region akin to 
Lmgulella, with the buttressed pedicle area, whilst the anterior region of the shell 
shows fine concentric ornament. The outline of the valve is elongate ovate and 
acuminate in the pedicle region. The surface of the shell is finely concentricallv 
laminate. The length of the shell is about 5 mm., and the width 275 mm In 
some points, as in the general outline, the Australian species resembles L. chapa 
Walcott (Walcott, 1913, p. 311, pi. L, figs. 4-9). 

Locality. — Stonyfell, Adelaide. 

Order NEOTREMATA. 

Genus Obolella. 

Obolella, cf. chromatica Billings. PI. ii., figs. 3, 5. 

Observations.— Another specimen here selected from the same grey sericitic 
mudstone of Stonyfell may, no doubt, be referred to as a form of Obolella It is 
a broadly trigonal shell having a wide anterior margin. The central area of the 



umbonal region is ridged in such a manner as to imply the presence of a pedicle 
tube. The surface of the impression is marked by fine concentric lines. Pro- 
bably the majority of the impressions, amounting to many a score on the large 
hand specimen? may be referable to this genus. Length of selected example, 
3 mm • width, 3*25 mm. The nearest allied form seems to be Obolella chromatica 
of Billings. (Billings, 1861, p. 591 ; Walcott, 1913, p. 313, pi. Hi., ^g. 2.) 
Locality. — Topmost quarry, Beaumont, Adelaide. 

Bibliography. 
Billings, E. 

"Palaeozoic Fossils," vol. i. "Containing Descriptions and Figures of New 
or Little Known Species of Organic Remains from the Silurian 
Rocks." 
1861-1865— Geological Survey of Canada, pp. 1-426. Text figures, 1-399. 

Walcott, C. D. 

1913— "Cambrian Geology and Palaeontology." Ser. II., No. 11. "New 

Lower Cambrian Subfauna." 
Smithsonian Misc. Coll, vol. lvii. No. 11, pp. 309-326, pi. l.-liv. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE II. 

Fig. 1. JAngulella, cf. chapa Walcott. Numerous examples on shale. Stony fell, 
Adelaide, South Australia. X circ. U. 

Fig. 2. Lingulella, cf. chapa Walcott. Same locality. X circ. H. 

Fig. 3. Obolella, cf. chromatica Billings. Internal mould of dorsal valve. Beaumont, 
Adelaide. X circ. 14. 

Fig. 4. Lingulella, cf. chapa Walcott. X 4. 

Fig. 5. Obolella, cf. chromatica Billings. X 4. 



THE VEGETATION MAP OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By J. A. Prescott, M.Sc. 

[Read April 11, 1929.] 

The value of the characteristic native flora, as an index of the geological soil 
and climatic features of South Australia, has been recognised from the early days 
of settlement, and the record of the native vegetation has been a special feature 
of the work of the surveyors and official explorers. At the suggestion of the 




Map 1. 



Native vegetation of South Australia showing the limits of certain types based 
the records of the Lands and Survey Department. 



on 



writer the authorities of the University of Adelaide, in 1926, made arrangements 
for the Lands Department to investigate such official records and for a map to 
be prepared showing the native vegetation prior to settlement. The map was 
completed in October, 1928, under the authority of the Surveyor-General^ and a 
cop/ was made available for use at the Waite Institute in connection with the 
work on soil classification. 




Map 2. 
Native vegetation of South Australia, based on the records of the 
Lands and Survey Department. 

The surveyors have used popular names, but there is little likelihood of con- 
fusion as these have been found to be readily understood by systematic botanists 
with local experience. The types recorded are, in the mam, perennial shrubs and 
trees but a number of the grasses are mentioned where these_ are sufficiently 
prominent to have been noticed. For the more arid areas these include spimfex 



or porcupine grass (Triodia irritans and T, pungens), cane grass (Spinifex para- 
doxus), and Mitchell grass (Astrebla. pectinata) . The limits of distribution of a 
number of the major types are recorded on the map by colour wash and hachure; 
these include Saltbush (Atriplex spp.), Bluebush (Kochia sedifolia), Cottonbush 
(Kochia aphylla), Mallee (Eucalyptus dumosa, E. oleosa and allied species), 
Tea-tree (Melaleuca spp.), and Sheoak (Casuarina stricta). 

All other types are recorded where they occur by printing on the map. 

The original is too complex to be readily reproducible, but the main features 
have been transferred to the two maps illustrating this paper. Map 1 gives the 
limits of a number of the species mentioned. In map 2 an attempt has been made 
to revise (so far as it applies to South Australia) the map of Griffith Taylor (1), 
which is in itself a revision of the map of Diels (2). In 1928 a vegetation map 
of Western Australia was published by Gardner and Kessell (3), and the present, 
map forms an easterly extension of that record. It is interesting to note that, 
whereas there is considerable overlap between the boundaries for Saltbush and 
Mallee, there is very little between Mulga (Acacia aneura and related species) 
and Mallee. On the wetter limits of the Mallee there is similarly a relatively 
small overlap between the gums and the mallee proper. 

The area of higher rainfall is characterised by Eucalyptus temperate 
savannah or temperate forest associations typified by the strfngybark forma- 
tion and savannah woodland formation of Adamson and Osborn (4). 

Literature Cited. 

(1) T. Griffith Taylor, "The Australian Environment," p. 27, Melbourne. 

1918. 

(2) E. Diels, "Die Pflanzenwelt von West Australien," Leipzig, 1906. 

(3) C. A. Gardner and S. L. Kessell, "Vegetation Map of Western Aus- 

tralia," Perth, 1928. 

(4) R. S. Adamson and T. G. B. Osborn, "The Ecology of the Eucalyptus 

Forests of the Mount Lofty Ranges (Adelaide District), South Aus- 
tralia." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlviii, pp. 87-144, 1924. 



10 



GEOLOGICAL NOTES FROM THE HUNDRED OF ADAMS, 
FLINDERS RANGES. 

By Ralph W. Segnit, M.A., B.Sc, F.G.S. 
[Read April 11, 1929.] 

This paper deals with the geology of that part of the Hundred of Adams, 
Section 635 Flinders Ranges, bounded by the fence of Worumba Paddock. 

The head station is situated due east of Hawker, the nearest railway centre, 
at a distance of approximately twenty miles. 

The general topography of the country between the township of Hawker 
and Worumba Station, is that of a plain having slight undulations stretching tor 
about twelve miles from the township to the slopes of the ranges, which rise 
abruptly from the plain. The head station is situated about eight miles inside 
the rugged ranges, at the foot of Mount Plantagenet, the highest point in the 
Hundred, and is estimated to rise about 2,500 feet above sea level. 

There are two road-tracks through the ranges by which an entrance can be 
made to the property, the principal one (and, incidentally, the safest) being that 
which enters from the west along the bed of the Willows Creek. 

A considerable portion of the country inside the ranges is very heavily 
timbered ; mallee, sandalwood, and pines predominating. The timber belts have 
a decided tendency to follow the outcrop of the oldest rocks where the mountain 
slopes as well as the valleys and plains which also have a dense covering. On the 
other hand, the hills and valleys formed of the newer sediments are mainly 
covered with grasses, and, in particular, porcupine, with isolated clumps of mallee 
and gums, which are usually confined to the (now) dry water courses. 

A very characteristic feature is the marked dissimilarity in the contours of the 
ranges. Those areas composed of the older series, i.e., phyllites, schists, and 
quartzites, present very rugged peaks and sharp faces, with bold outlines, whilst 
the contour of the hills formed of the newer sediments, *„*,, tilhtes, slates and 
quartzites is very smooth and rounded, only broken by the interbedded bands of 
quartzite in the slates, as seen in section B-B., fig. 1. 

The strike of the range is N.N.E. and S.S.W. 

The contours shown on the maps have been sketched in by the writer, as no 
survey maps are available. The various heights were obtained by taking prismatic 
compass readings and "levelling" from the three Survey Department trig stations 
situated on Mount Craig, Mount Plantagenet, and Warwicks Nob. 

The sections given are not drawn to true scale, but are only sketched. The 
thicknesses of the various formations were measured on the site, where possible, 
and afterwards graphically determined. 

No detailed petrological work has been included in the paper, which deals 
only with the general features observed. All bearings are magnetic. 

With reference to the sketch maps, No. 2 map is an enlargement of that part 
of No. 1 bounded by the rectangle. 

Phyllites and Schists. 
The oldest rocks in the locality are mainly confined to the west-central fringe 
of the range. On tracing their outcrops north and south from Mount Craig, their 
width becomes less, as the newer sediments, i.e., tillites, slates, and quartzites 
overlap them. 



11 



Tertiary sediments rest against the older series on the west. It would thus 
appear that the west-central area of the Hundred was a centre of disturbance, 
followed by considerable erosion of the overlying sediments and exposing the 
underlying series. 

Phyllites, which are much weathered and decomposed, make up the bulk of 
the older rocks. These have interbedded quartzites varying from two feet to 



GEOLOGY Of TMC HUNDRED Or ADAMS - FLINDERS RANGES. 

5CALE .flflproxj. IhtCH NML5 10MILU. 

Sketch map_nm. 

*r 
RALPH W.StONlT. 

' ■ ■ i l i r 



E2D 
nrmn 

OS. 



REFERENCe. 
AH* Quettaire. 
Bonded Sbfes. 
Unite. 

Bre&Quartzitt, 
1/nconfo«*v-i-v. (?) 
Mica Schist. 
DeToMJfic L/mtsfone. 
Micaceot/s Ovor-rzife 
t>cf omit t'c, Limestone. 
Pink Quartz/re. 

Phyffles, 
QuorTzitw 

Springs. 




thirty feet in thickness. The strike near the western boundary fence is mainly 
from 3° to 10° E. of N., and a dip which varies from the vertical to 70° E. On 
crossing the main strike of the range and moving eastward, the strike swings over 
to 15° E. of N., and dips S.S.W. at an angle of 80° as shown in a small exposure 
in a creek, C-C. (fig. 3), two-thirds of a mile south of the homestead, where the 
overlying tillite and slates have been eroded and exposed the underlying phyllites. 
An outcrop of mica schist occurs on the side of a hill about one-third of a mile 
south of Mount Craig, having a strike due north with a vertical dip. The thick- 



12 

ness of this bed was not determined. A considerable outcrop of the same schist 
occurs on Mount Craig, which is composed almost entirely of this rock, with 
interbedded quartzites. The dip was again found to be vertical. The mlerbedded 
quartzites, wherever they crop out of the surface, form very prominent features. 




13 



The phyllites are, again, exposed in the bed of the Willows Creek, about a 
quarter of a mile N.W. of the homestead. These phyllites are dipping S.S.E. 
at an angle of 70°. 

On tracing these older beds in an easterly direction along a line as shown on 
Section B-B (fig. 1), a distinct series of beds was met with. After crossing the 
broad series of phyllites, and commencing to rise up the western spur of Mount 
Plantagenet, the following sequence of beds crop out at the surface in ascending 
order from the phyllites : — 

Banded Slates 

Tillite 

Unconformity (?) 

Mica Schist 

Dolomitic Limestone 

Micaceous Quartzite 

Dolomitic Limestone 

Pink Quartzites . . 

Phyllites . . 

_ All these beds up to, and including, the mica schist are conformable, the 
sediments showing a continuous sequence in their deposition with the underlying 
phyllites. 

Flinders Ranges -hundred of adams. 



X 
150 feet 



30 
12 
21 
18 
10 
X 






^ 



Ml Plantaoenet 

i 




Section front East to West, through Mount Ptcn taoenet 
(Sect/or} 8*&) 



3 Mites. 



Mr. Madigan (I.), in his section of the Adelaide Series, suggests a possible 
unconformity immediately below the Sturtian Tillite in the local series. The 
writer examined the junction of the tillite with the underlying beds, and found, 
in this region, that a distinct non-sequence occurs. Immediately south of the 
section line A-A., and again in the region of the section line C-C. (fig. 3), a very 
fine-grained bed of dark grey quartzite is found beneath the tillite, and in ttiese 
cases the unconformity occurs between the quartzite and the underlying phyllites. 

The unconformity may be due to an overthrust, the pressure being exerted 
from the east, and the tillites and succeeding beds were thrust forward in a 
westerly direction, overriding the underlying beds. It is interesting to note that 
a hill about one and a three-quarter miles east of the western boundary fence, 
along the section line A-A. (rig. 2), is composed entirely of banded slates, which 
are lying horizontally upon the upturned edges of the phyllites. 

Although a careful search was made, no trace of any tillite was observed at 
the base of the slates nor any indication of crush rock to suggest a thrust 
movement. 

A very rapid survey was made along the outcrop of the above-mentioned 
sequence of beds. Southward of the section line B-B. (fig. 1) they were lost 
beneath the overlapping tillites, about a quarter of a mile from the section line. 



14 



To the northward they are soon concealed by a dense covering of timber and 
scrub. In no other part of the Hundred was this succession of beds again met 
with, except the uppermost member — the mica schist. 

This schist contains abundant fine flakes of muscovite and has a well-defined 
greenish-grey banded structure. 

Flinders Ranges - hundred of Adams. 



WtST %^ 

Wiflows Creek | **+£?-%■ 










-H-ci 




East 



A } fe*na Miff 
/f/emo Q-eek S 




Qeotogtcaf Sect/on^ from West to Cost, Distance 7% Mites. 
Sketch - Section. A- A* 
Fio.e. 

Grey Quartzite. 

Immediately below the tillite shown in section C-C. (fig. 3) is a thin bed of 
dark grey, fine-grained quartzite. Reference has previously been made to the 
occurrence of this bed. The average thickness is six feet. This quartzite crops 
out very persistently beneath the tillite in this area, the exception was found on 
the western spur of Mount Plantagenet. _ Prof. Howchin (2) refers to the per- 
sistency of quartzite underlying the Sturtian Tillite. 

A little to the north-eastward of Hill 6, this dark grey quartzite is seen lying 
beneath two isolated patches of the tillite, and is also exposed in the bed of the 
Willows Creek, five-eighths of a mile S.S.W. of Mount Plantagenet, lying beneath 
a band of tillite five feet thick. 

Tillite. 

Two well-defined beds of the tillite can be recognised in the district^ with an 
additional thin band interbedded with the banded slates higher in the series. 

The lowest and principal bed, for convenience of description and reference, 
has been termed the "Lower Tillite." This lower tillite is composed of a very 
fine-grained groundmass of a light ochreous colour, containing flakes and small 
books of mica, which are up to 2 mm. in size. Erratics which are sub-angular, 
with rounded corners, are freely distributed throughout the mass. They vary in 
size from small pebbles to boulders measuring 18 inches by 12 inches. The 
erratics are mainly derived from phyllites, a pink dolomite, a granite (containing 
pink felspar quartz and biotite), and a fine-grained, dark grey quartzite. 

A very interesting anticline occurs in the district, composed of the tillite and 
associated beds, which is shown in the sketch section C-C. (fig. 3). The line is 



15 

taken from Hill 6, near the western boundary fence, in a north-easterly direction 
to the Station Woolshed, a quarter of a mile to the east of the Homestead. 

« i?o n the , western side of Hil1 6, the tillite dips to the S.W. at a maximum angle 
of 25 , with a strike of 10° W. of N. At the summit of the hill the dip of the 
overlying slates is 18-20°, whilst the outcrop of the tillite in a creek about one 
and a quarter miles further along, the section line has a strike of 5° E of N and 
£5 t0 r X ■»■ of 30 °" Followln g the same section line another half-mile, a second 
bed of tillite is exposed in the bed of a small creek south of the homestead The 




StCT.ON C-C. SHOW^ODlSCON-ORMfTV BtTWEEN THt Phv UL T6S *NO T.LLITe SCR.U 

Pie s 



5. Miles 



included erratics here were mainly composed of a pink granite of a very coarse- 
grained texture, the biotite and felspar crystals being well developed. This bed 
is from 40 feet to 50 feet in thickness. 

The third bed of tillite referred to is indicated on the section line A-A (fie 2) 
between three and four miles from the western boundary fence. It occurs in the 
banded slates about a quarter of a mile north of the Woolshed, on the surface of 
the eastern spur of Round Hill. This bed is 6 feet in thickness. The lower tillite 
in this region, which has been faulted down, is about 120 feet in thickness The 
second bed is 27 feet in thickness and is overlain by a bed of quartzite 8 feet thick. 

Banded Slates. 
The great mass of banded slates rest conformably on the lower tillite Thev 
are characterised by bands of a pinkish quartzite, varying from a few inches to 
beds 20 feet thick. A feature of these quartzites is the presence of numerous 
veins of secondary quartz. Some of these veins are remarkably regular and in 
parts form a ribbon structure. They vary from "5 mm. to 2 cm. in thickness. On 
the western slope of Mount Plantagenet, just below the summit, a bed of light- 
coloured quartzite occurs, interbedded in the slates, with a very even-grained 
texture the grains being cemented together with carbonate of lime which is under- 
going decomposition. 

The slates are of a very fine-grained texture, freshly cut pieces being a steel 
blue colour, exhibiting very fine ribbon structure. It was noticed that this ribbon 
effect was particularly marked where the slates were in close proximity to the 
tilhtes, and gradually faded on passing upwards in the series. 

-i <nA" a PP™ ximate estimate of the thickness of these slates is from 2,000 to 
Z,5W feet An accurate measurement could not be obtained owing to the con- 
cealment of the outcrop on the eastern plains near the boundary of the Hundred 
and also to the alteration of the strike to the north of Warwick's Nob 

the till Slfw SlatC V n the Vidnity ° f M ° unt Plan tagenet conforms with 
the tillite, but at the far north-west corner of Worumba Paddock the strike swings 
round to an east and west direction, with a dip to the south of 50° to 60° Thfs 
alteration of strike is referred to by Prof. Howchin (3) as a feature often met 
with in the Flinders Ranges. 

Near the south-eastern corner of the paddock, a little to the westward of 
Mount Sims, the slates have a strike of 20° E. of N., and a dip to the S.E. of 60° 

The slates forming Mount Plantagenet, and stretching eastward as far as 
shown on section B-B. (fig. 1), contain numerous erratics. Beneath the western 



16 



Sequence op Lower Adelaide Strata represented in the 
Hundred of adams - Flinders Ranges. 



30O'+< 



Tapleys Hill 2,000- 
Slates. zjsooffl* 



-t> %* 



Sturtian 
Tillite 



I5Q'< 



Unconformity (?)~ 



> Pink Quartettes. 



'_} so' Pink Quarfztte 



Bonded states, contain- 
ing bonds of Qoortzite, 
and Erratics in lowest 
beds 



3 6' TiHife ferd) 
•^ S* Pink Quartz ite. 
~\ Ao'-So'TflltTe fend.) 



r//ss/sss 



2,800' + - 



Banded Slates frith 
interbedded Q,vartz?tes 
ond trroctics. 



> ISO' Til tite (Lower?. 

_^i 6? 6rey Gtuortztte. 

"" so' Pfico ScnJsA 

(2' Dofomthc Limestone 
2/ ' Micaceous Qt/artztfe. 



X m* ' DoiomWc Limestone 
-L-iO f Pink Quartz jte* 



2,80oi Phyifites, with 
r Mtca Schist and bands 
of Quartztfe. 



FIG. 4. 



17 



summit of the cairn on the Mount, several granite boulders, measuring 24 inches 
by 18 inches, are embedded in the slate outcrop. So dense are these erratics on 
the eastern flank, that some difficulty is experienced in defining the exact junction 
of the third tillite bed and the slates. 

To the north of the homestead, on Round Hill, the slates weather in a dis- 
tinctive manner by splitting into prisms, a feature noted by Prof. Howchin (4), 
west of Wilson, whilst at the eastern and southern margin of the Hundred, in 
weathering, they form small nodular fragments making a thin travertine crust. 

Upper Pinkish Quartzites. 

The rocky outcrops to the north of the Hundred, in the region of the Basin 
Creek, are banded slates overlain by a massive pinkish quartzite, several hundred 
feet m thickness. This outcrop extends to the northward of the northern boundary 
fenceof Worumba for a considerable distance. The whole of these quartzites 
contain veins of secondary quartz, some veins being 6 cm. in thickness. An 
attempt was made to trace the outcrop along the western margin, but owing to a 
very dense covering of timber in this area it was not possible to do so. 

At the old mine shaft dump, near the northern boundary, are fragments of 
ironstone. This shaft has been sunk through the quartzites. 

Conclusions. 

. From the character, composition, and wide distribution of the Adelaide Series 
Tillite, m this State, it is possible for the writer to classify, on lithological evidence 
the tillite in the Hundred of Adams as the "Sturtian Tillite/' and the thick series' 
of slates above them as "Tapley's Hill Slates." 

At present some doubt exists in the mind of the writer in regard to the exact 
horizon m the Lower Adelaide Series, of the phyllites and< associated mica schists 
and quartzites, together with the thin beds of sediments lying conformably on the 
phyllites on the western spur of Mount Plantagenet. If they represent the "Upper 
Phyllites" of the type district, then the unconformity below the tillite and grey 
quartzite is, probably, the representative of the mass of sediments which exist 
between the Upper Phyllites and the Sturtian Tillite. 

The sequence of strata shown in the column (fig. 4) will not be found in any 
one locality in the Hundred under review, but is a representation of the total beds 
occurring in the district. 

The thickness of the various formations, in most cases, is only approximate. 

A very careful search was made in all the creeks and old watercourses for 
any signs of higher beds, particularly near the eastern boundary, but no evidence 
was seen. When standing on the top of Warwick's Nob and looking towards the 
east, the distant ranges in Walpalina Paddock exhibit features which point to a 
decided change m the nature of the rocks met with in Worumba Paddock As 
there is no track or gateway through the high dog-proof fence along the eastern 
boundary of Worumba, the author was unable to continue the examination 
(across the strike) of the outcrop shown in section A-A. (fig. 2). 

The writer desires to express his appreciation to Mr. G. Murray Howard 
the late owner of Worumba Station, for his kind hospitality and assistance by the 
loan of horses to enable this hurried survey to be made. 

References. 

(1) Madigan, C. T.— Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr.. vol. li., 1927, p 407 

(2) Howchin, W.— Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. li., 1927 p 350 ' 

(3) Howchin, W.— Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlix., 1925 

(4) Howcitin, W.— Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlix 1925 p 14 



18 



THE AUSTRALIAN SPECIES OF CIDARIDS, PARTICULARLY OF THE 
GENUS PHYLLACANTHUS, AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION ALONG THE 

COASTS OF AUSTRALIA. 

By Th. Mortensen, Copenhagen. 
(Communicated by Professor T. Harvey Johnston.) 

[Read April 11, 1929.] 

Plate III. 

During a visit to the United States in August-September, 1926 I had an oppor- 
tunity of seeing in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., the collection of Echinoids from the South Australian Museum 
Adelaide, placed in the hands of my friend, Profesor H. Lyman Clark, for study. I 
was particularly interested in finding in this collection some specimens of a new 
species of Phyllacanthus, which I had recently discovered among the Cidarids of 
the Hamburg Museum and named Phyllacanthus irregularis. The discovery oi this 
new species the fifth of the genus Phyllacanthus known from Australia, had made 
me very interested in the problem of the geographical distribution of all these 
species along the Australian coasts. When shortly afterwards I met the late 
Director of the South Australian Museum, Mr. E. R. Waite, in Washington, I 
told him about this matter, and he promised to assist me in getting some additional 
material for the study of these forms, and their distribution m Australian seas. 

After his return to Adelaide, Mr. Waite wrote to the various Australian 
Museums recommending that their material of Phyllacanthus should be sent to 
me and some time afterwards I received collections from the Australian Museum 
Sydney ■ the Western Australian Museum, Perth ; and the National Museum of 
Victoria Melbourne. The Director of the Brisbane Museum had no material to 
offer but induced Mr. Rainford, of Bowen, North Queensland, to send me speci- 
mens. I beg to express my cordial thanks to the authorities of the said Museums 
and to Mr. Rainford for thus assisting me. 

The material received proved to be of very considerable interest, particularly 
that from the Australian Museum, Sydney, in which I found some specimens of 
Phyllacanthus longispinus (hitherto known in two specimens only), and that 
from the Western Australian Museum, in which I found several examples ot 
Phyllacanthus irregularis, among them a fine specimen of no less than 110 mm. 
horizontal diameter, the largest recent Cidarid hitherto known. 

The results of my examination of all this material are incorporated in my 
Monograph of the Echinoidea, L, The Cidaridae (1928), but as the matter has a 
very considerable local interest for Australia, I have thought it desirable to 
publish separately, a notice of the Australian species of the genus Phyllacanthus 
and their geographical distribution, which may, I hope, lead to further investiga- 
tions Our present knowledge of their distribution along the Australian coasts 
is still very fragmentary, particularly their distribution along the southern coast 
of the continent. Fresh material, with exact information about locality and 
habitat is, therefore, highly desirable. This also applies to the other species of 
Cidarids occurring on the Australian coasts, and I am, therefore, not confining 
this little note to the Phyllacanthus species alone, but shall give a list of all the 
Cidarids known to occur in the Australian seas, adding a key of determination, 
which may, I hope, be of practical value. 



19 

It may also be useful to add a note on the preservation of these Cidarids 
The best method is to put them directly in alcohol after boring a small hole or 
two in the hard test of the largest specimens, so that the alcohol may penetrate 
more easily into the interior. For smaller specimens, particularly of the more 
thin-shelled Pnonocidaris species, it is not necessary, or desirable, to bore a hole 
in the test, which may easily result in the breaking of the test. After the speci- 
mens have been preserved for some time (at least a few weeks) in alcohol they 
may be taken out and dried, and they will then usually keep very satisfactorily If 
directly dried after being taken from the sea, without having first been preserved 
in alcohol, they will soon lose their spines, and the test will fall to pieces If 
alcohol (or formalin) is not available at the collecting, it is advisable to open the 




Fig. 1 x 6. 
Part of peristome of a Phyllacanthus, showing arrangement of ambulacral pores in double series. 

specimens at the mouth and to remove all the interior organs. In that way they 
may keep fairly well. If thus treated, the dental apparatus (the "lantern") and 
the peristomal membrane m which the dental apparatus remains fixed, should be 
replaced m the test, after it has been emptied. 

The genus Phyllacanthus was, until recently, taken in a very wide sense 
comprising such different forms as Prionocidaris bispinosa, with W slender 
more or less coarsely thorny primary spines; Plococidaris verticillata, with 
the thorns arranged in successive crown-shaped whorls on the short 

Sth Se tr£r ar) ;- f me , S; beSid , CS E h ^ lmmihm W«*o& and parvispinu's 
with thick, cylindrical smooth, thornless primary spines. The researches 
undertaken, in view of the preparation of my Monograph of the C?daridae 
have led to the result that the genus Phyllacanthus must be restated to 



those species which have thick, smooth, cylindrical spines. These species have 
also other important characters in common m contradistinction from other 
Cidarids, particularly the very interesting character that the ambulacra! pores on 
the peristome are arranged, more or less regularly, in double series (fig 1). A 
somShat similar condition is found among recent Cidarids only in the genus 
Eucidaris. Also in the microscopical structure of the spines the said group show 
I marked difference from all other recent Cidarids. There can, therefoie, be no 
doubt that these species with the smooth, cylindrical primary spines form a natural 
group to which the name Phvllacanthus must be applied. None of the Cidand, 
with thorny spines can rightly be referred to this genus. 

We know now, in all, six species of the genus Phyllacanthus as thus restricted, 



viz. 



Phvllacanthus imperialis (Lamk.), Ph. dubius Brandt, Ph. parvispinus 
" Ten. Woods, Ph. longispinus Mrtsn, Ph. magnificus H. U Clark, 
Ph. irregularis Mrtsn. 
Five of these species occur in Australian waters. One, Ph. dubius, is known 
only from the Bonin Islands, near Japan, previous records of its occurrence m 
the Australian and Indo-Pacific seas bemg due to misidentihcat.ons. Anothe 
species Ph. imperialis, is distributed all over the Indo-Pacific, from Japan 10 
Australia, and from Africa to the Tonga Islands ; another, fy.t%#»%^ 
appear to be widely distributed over the South Sea (the Ph dubia from the 
Kermadec Islands seems to be, in reality, Ph. parvispinus) The three last are, 
so far as known, confined to the Australian coasts. It thus appears that the 
Australian seas are the true home of this genus, where it has undergone a con- 
siderable specialization, and whence it may be supposed to have spread, more or 
less widely, over the Indo-Pacific. 

We may now see how these five species are distributed along the Australian 
coasts, judging from the facts hitherto available. 

Ph. imperialis is known with certainty only from the Torres Strait region 
The specimens recorded under the name Ph. imperialis, by H. L. Clark, m his 
Reports on the "Thetis" and the "Endeavour" Echmoderms are Ph. parvispinus. 
Ph. parvispinus is known with certainty only from the east coast of Aus-. 
traha, from Shoalhaven Bight to Moreton Bay. The specimens recorded .by 
Doderlein from Fremantle are Ph. irregularis. 

Ph. longispinus is known only from North Australia (Cape Jaubert and Port 
Darwin). 

Ph. magnificus.- The only two specimens known were found between .b re- 
mantle and Geraldton. 

Ph. irregularis is known from Western Australia, ^^^ ^^ 
Bav on the south coast. Clark's suggestion Rec. S. Austr. Mus m p. 455, 1928) 
fhat the specimens of this species found in the South Australian Museum came 
from the Sast of the Northern Territory, there is nothing to support On the 
onfrarv, since this species is now known with certainty to occur on the south 
coast the probability is that these specimens also came from that region. 

From the facts hitherto available it would appear that each of the species 
occupies^ own area, to the exclusion of the others, except on the southwestern 
coasts where Ph. magnificus and Ph. irregularis occur together. But it is quite 
nos ble that further investigations will show that the distribution of the various 
species is not thus restricted" At least, we may expect that their areas of distribu- 
lion will be found to transgress. 



21 

It is especially a remarkable fact that, apart from the occurrence of 
Ph. irregularis as far west as Bremer Bay, at the south-western corner of Aus- 
tralia, we do not know anything about the occurrence of any Phyllacanthus 
species along the whole southern coast. That this does not mean that no 
Phyllacanthus species lives on the southern coast (as would seem to be the 
opinion of Clark) I rather take for granted, particularly since we know that a 
Phyllacanthus species occurs on the Tasmanian coasts. It is probable that the 
latter form will prove to be Ph. parvispinus; but I have had no access to specimens 
from Tasmania, and we can thus, for the present, only say that it is not 
Ph. dubius, under which name it is mentioned by Tenison Woods (Proc Linn 
Soc, N.S.W., ii„ 1878). 

All the species are littoral ; the greatest depth from which any has been recorded 
is 73 metres (Ph. imperialis) ; Ph. parvispinus has been found to a depth of about 
30 metres. They prefer rocky shores, where they may be found under stones and 
in crevices so narrow that it is very hard to understand how they could get in- 
(and out) with their huge spines which would seem to be anything but practical 
for such a life. Very probably they come out at night to feed. Their food 
appears to consist mainly of calcareous algae (Corallina) and incrusting organisms. 

The other Cidarids known to occur in Australian seas are : — 

Histocidaris elegans (A. Agaz.), H. australiae Mrtsn., H. crassispina Mrtsn. 

Goniocidaris tubaria (Lamk.), G.t., var. impressa Koehler/ x > G. australiae 
Mrtsn. 

Stylocidaris Reini (Doderlein), S. bracteata (A. Ag.), S. conferta (H. L. 
Clark). 

Eucidaris metularia (Lamk.), 

Plococidaris verticillata (Lamk.). 

Prionocidaris australis (Lamk.), Pr. bispinosa (Lamk.), Pr. baadosa, var. 
annulifera (Lamk.). 

The distribution of these species is as follows : — 

The three Histocidaris species have been found only off the New South Wales 
coast, in about 150-360 metres, while H. australiae and H. crassispitia are known 
from nowhere else. H. elegans is widely distributed over the Indo-Pacific to 
Japan and the Indian Ocean. 

The Goniocidaris species are confined to the Australian seas, G. tubaria, 
apparently, occurring all round the coasts, while the var. impressa and G. australiae 
appear to be confined to the Tasmanian seas and Bass Strait. G. tubaria is, 
mamly, a littoral form, while G. australiae is known from depths of 70-470 
metres. To^this latter species belong the specimens mentioned by Clark in the 
"Endeavour" Echinoderms as Goniocidaris clypeata Dodcrl. No doubt 
G. australiae is closely related to the Japanese G. clypeata, but judging from the 
material available they appear to form two distinct species. 

Stylocidaris reini (possibly a distinct variety) is known in Australian seas 
only from Bowen, Queensland. This species is otherwise distributed from the 
Malay Archipelago to Japan, in depths of about 100-500 metres. 

Stylocidaris bracteata has been recorded by H. L. Clark (Echinod., Western 
Australian Mus.) from between Fremantle and Geraldton, 100-180 metres It 
is otherwise known only from the Malay Archipelago. 

Stylocidaris conferta appears to be confined To the eastern Australian seas* 
it is known from off Port Jackson to Bass Strait, about 150-470 metres. 

Eucidaris metularia, Plococidaris verticillata, Prionocidaris bispinosa and 
Pr. bacidosa, var. annul i fera, are widely distributed, mainly littoral Indo-Pacific 

<D Usually erroneously named Goniocidaris geranoides (Lamk.). 



22 



forms E metularia is known only from the northern coasts of Austra ha; exact 
Australian localities are unknown for PL verticillata and Pr. baculom var. 
annulifera (the latter having been confused with Pr. bispmosa), whereas 
Pr bispinosa is known to occur from Shark Bay and along the northern coasts 
to Port Denison in Queensland. Finally, Pr. australis is known only from Bass 
Strait to Queensland (in 10-90 metres) and from Lord Howe Island unless the 
Indo-Malayan Pr. glandulosa (de Meijere) should ultimately prove to be identical 

with it. ATi 

For a detailed description of all these species I must refer to my Monograph ; 
but I shall here give a key for the determination of the various Australian 
Cidarids, by means of which it should be possible to identify them without much 
trouble. 

Key to the Australian Species or Cidaridae. 

1 Primary spines thick, cylindrical, smooth, never thorny ; secondary 

spines fitting as a close mail around the base of the primaries ; 
pores on peristome in double series (Phyllacanthus) . . ^ 

Primary spines slender, smooth or thorny; secondary spines 
usually not fitting as a close mail around the base of the 
primary spines; pores on the peristome in single regular 
series 

2 Adult specimens (about 50-70 mm. horizontal diameter) with 

6-7 coronal (inter-ambulacral) plates in each series . . . ■ •* 

Adult specimens with 8-10 coronal plates in each series . . • • 4 

3 Primary spines usually dark, with whitish bands; genital pores 

not on top of a conical elevation . . • . . • ■ Ph. impenahs 

Primary spines greenish-whitish, without bands; genital pores 

usually on top of a conical elevation Ph. longispinus 

4 Oral primaries conspicuously flaring at tip; secondary spines 

at base of primaries usually keeled . . - - • • Ph. magnifies 

Oral primaries not flaring at tip ; secondary spines not keeled . . ? 

5 Marginal series of ambulacral tubercles more or less irregular, the 

tubercles and spines of varying size ; spines on apical system 
pointed; some larger tubercles (spines) along inner edge of 

genital plates m irre 9 Mar ™ 

Marginal series of ambulacral tubercles and spines regular ; spines 

on apical system broad, scale-like; no larger tubercles along _ 

inner edge of genital plates **■ parvispmits 

6 Only tridentate pcdicellariae are found, usually very large and 

conspicuous, the head up to 5 mm. long; no globiferous 
pedicellariae ; primary tubercles distinctly crenulate (Htsto- 
cidaris) 
Globiferous pedicellariae always present, tridentate pedicellariae 
often absent; all the pedicellariae of small size and incon- 
spicuous. Tubercles smooth, at most the upper ones slightly 
crenulate 

7 Primary spines with some few, irregularly arranged, coarse thorns, 

mainly in the basal part H«*. austrahae 

Primary spines only with very fine, microscopical thorns, arranged 

in regular, longitudinal series b 

8 Primary spines very slender, cylindrical Htst elegans 

Primary spines distinctly fusiform Hist, crassispma 



23 

9. Grooves at the ends of the horizontal sutures (Goniocidaris) . . 10 

No groove . . . . - - • • . ■ • • • • • • 12 

10. Upper primary spines ending in a conspicuous flat, round disk G. australiae 
Upper primaries more or less trumpet-shaped, not ending in a . 

conspicuous, flat disk . . . . . . • ■ . • • . H 

11. Grooves connected into a conspicuous, sunken median furrow, 

both in the ambulacra and inter ambulacra . . . . - . G. tubaria 

Grooves isolated, in a more or less distinct, ladder-like 

arrangement . . . . . . . - G. tubaria, var. impressa 

12. Apical system almost naked, and with a fringe of flattened spines 

along outer margin Eucid. metularia 

Apical system wholly covered with small spines 

13. Primary spines verticillate 
Primary spines not verticillate 

14. Basal part ("collar") of primary spines spotted 
Basal part ("collar") of primary spines not spotted . . . . 17 

15. Collar with whitish spots, separated by purple lines Prionocid. australis 
Collar with red or purple spots . . . . . . - - - • 16 

16. Primary spines with sharp longitudinal ridges ; pores not connected 

by a furrow . . . . . . . . ■ • Stylocid. bracteata 

Primary spines not with sharp, longitudinal ridges ; pores con- 
nected by a distinct furrow ("conjugate") 

Prionocid. bacidosa, var. annulifera 

17. Primary spines smooth, never with coarse thorns, white, usually 

some of them with few narrow, sharply-marked^ red 
rings . . . . - - ■ • • ■ Stylocid. conferta 

Primary spines usually with some coarse thorns, greenish or violet, 

never with sharply-marked red rings . . . . Prionocid. bispinosa 



13 

Plococid. verticillata 

14 

15 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE III. 
Fig 1. Phyllacanthus imperialis (Lamk.). 
Fig. 2. Phyllacanthus irregularis (Mrtsn.). 



24 



ON THE LARVAL TROMBIDIID MITE (TROMBICULA HIRSTI L. SAMBON) 

THAT CAUSES THE "SCRUB ITCH" OF NORTHERN QUEENSLAND AND 

THE COORONG, SOUTH AUSTRALIAN). 

By Stanley Hirst 
(Zoological Dept., University of Adelaide, South Australia). 

[Reid April 11, 1929.] 

The larval Trombidiid mite known as the "Scrub Itch Mite," in Northern 
Queensland, was described by Louis Sambon under the name Trombicula hirsti 
in July, 1927. The original specimens were found on human beings at Innisfail, 
and I have^ since re-examined them, and also examples from Tully. The same 
species of Trombicu-la attacks man in the South-Eastern districts of South Aus- 
tralia, from Kingston to Robe, and also in the direction of Mount Gambier. During 
a recent visit to Robe (December 3-6, 1928), I was able to collect a large number 
of specimens of this mite. It is extremely abundant during the warmer months, 
especially January. This larval form is chiefly found amongst the under- 
growth beneath the Tea-trees. It has several local names, such as "The Robe 
Mite," "Tea-tree Mite," and "Red Spider." Persons walking in the Tea-tree 
scrub, or camping therein, are often badly bitten by this pest, and sometimes 
severe irritation, which may last for days, is caused by its bites. It is pretty 
certain that this mite, known variously as the "Scrub Itch Mite" of North 
Queensland, and also "Tea-tree Itch Mite" of South Australia, is identical with 
the form described by Hatori under the name Trombicula pseudo-akamushi. The 
latter name has, however, also been used for another species by Tanaka. Further 
investigation of the Japanese literature is necessary before the correct name can 
be definitely settled. (2 > The species has a wide distribution occurring in Japan, 
Sumatra, and the Malay Peninsula, besides Australia. So far this mite is not 
known to convey disease, but allied forms, viz., Trombicula akamushi Brumpt, and 
T. deliensis Walch, are known to transmit varieties of tropical typhus or pseudo- 
typhus. Another species, Trombicula (Leemvcnhoekia) australiensis Hirst, 
molests human beings in the Ashfield district of Sydney, New South Wales, and 
is also known to occur in Sumatra. The following is a description of this species 
of larval Trombicula. 

Tkombicula hirsti, Sambon. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (9) xx., pp. 157-161 (July, 1927). 

Ann. Trop. Med. Parasitology, xxiL, p. 67 (June, 1928). 

Dorsal scutum large as in T, novaehollandiae , n. sp. (from D'Estree Bay, 
Kangaroo Island, South Australia), but although the posterior margin is convex 
as in that species, it is differently shaped, being cut off rather sharply (more 
angular) instead of rounded off gradually at the outer corners. Pseudostigmal 
hairs very fine and fairly long, only the distal end being plumose. Anterior lateral 
hairs rather slender and fairly long. The anterior median very similar to the 
anterior laterals. Posterior lateral hairs of scutum also rather long and slender, 

< J > The cost of this and other papers on Australian Acari has been partly met by a govern- 
ment grant received through the Royal Society, Burlington House, London, W. 
u J?» \Z th u- " Ke y-C a talogue of the Crustacea and Arachnoids of Importance to Public 
Health Washington, Hygienic Lab. Rep. No. 148, 1927, p. 269, T. pseudo-akamushi is con- 
sidered to be a confused species. 



25 

being slightly the longest. Hairs on rest of dorsum about the same length as those 
on the dorsal scutum and rather few, about twenty to twenty-four usually being 
present. They are arranged as follows : 2, 6, 6, 4, 2, or 2, 6, 6, 2, 2, 2. Hairs on 
venter few in number. Hair on galea fine and apparently plain, being without 
feathering. Claw of palp, bifid. There are about six plumose hairs on the tarsus 
of the palp, and also two plain unfeathered rod-like setae. Tarsus of first leg 
with a very long and fine, plain, unfeathered, tactile seta on its dorsal surface, 
besides the plumose hairs. 

Measurements. — Length of body, 187-228 /a; length of first leg (not including 
coxa), 238 /*; length of second leg ( ?) ; length of third leg, 245-270 ^ Length of 
dorsal scutum (in middle), 60-68 p; its greatest width, 90-97 /a. Length of 
anterior median hair of scutum, 45-46 fi; of anterior lateral hairs, 41-46 fi; of 
posterior lateral hairs of scutum, 49-54 p.; of sensory (pseudostigmal) hairs, 
47-50 fi. Length of hairs on rest of scutum, 41-48 /a. 

Hab. — lnnisfail, Queensland (type locality). Also Tully, Queensland, and 
the Coorong District of South Australia, from Kingston to Mount Gambier. 




Fig. 1. 

Schonijiistia coorongensis, n. sp. — A., Dorsal aspect of body; B., Ventral aspect of body; 
C, Tarsus of first leg; D., Dorsal scutum. 



Schongastia coorongensis, n. sp. 

A dead rat picked up in a lane at Robe by the author was found to have 
clusters of harvest bugs in both ears. On examination, the species proved to be 



26 

quite distinct from the Tea-tree Mite and, apparently, undescribed. The descrip- 
tion of this new form is as follows: — 

Dorsal scutum rather small and not very long, the width being slightly more 
than twice the length. Posterior margin of scutum shaped as shown in fig. 1. 
Anterior median unpaired hair of scutum longer than the anterior laterals. 
Posterior lateral hairs on scutum the longest. Sensory hairs with the distal end 
globular. Hairs on rest of dorsum about twenty-eight to thirty-two in number 
and arranged in rows as follows : — 2, 6, 6, 6, 6, 4 or 2. There are about thirty- 
six to thirty-eight hairs on the venter, not including the two pairs between the 
coxae. Hair on galea very fine and plain, apparently being without any side hairs. 
Proximal segments of palp furnished with hairs which are fine and provided with 
only a few side hairs. Hairs on penultimate segment of palp very fine and, 
apparently, without any side hairs. Two or three stiff, plain, unfeathered setae 
are present on the palpal tarsus, and there are also four or five plumose hairs. 
Tarsus of first leg high,, not tapering gradually. There are no plain hairs on the 
last tarsus, all being feathered. 

Measurements. — Length of body (distended specimens), *41 mm.; its width, 
•21 mm. Length of dorsal scutum (in middle), 40-44 /a; its width, 82-90 /a. 
Length of sensory hairs of scutum, 29-32 /a; length of distal end of sensory hairs, 
23-25 it. Length of anterior median hair of scutum, 44 /a. Length of anterior 
laterals, 41-45 fx. Length of posterior lateral hairs of scutum, 58-66 /a. Length 
of hairs on rest of dorsum, 39-52 fi. Length of first leg (not including coxa), 219 /a; 
of second leg, 173 a/,; of third leg, 231 ^. 

Hah. — Robe, South Australia. Numerous specimens in the ears of rodent 
(Rattus lutreola). 



27 



ON THE PROBABLE OCCURRENCE OF THE STURTIAN TILLITE 
NEAR NAIRNE AND MOUNT BARKER. 

By Professor Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 
[Read May 9, 1929.] 

Mr. R. Lockhart Jack, Assistant Government Geologist, drew my attention 
to one of the field maps of the late H. Y. L. Brown, on which he had written the 
word "Ice" on the site of a railway cutting situated a little to the westward of 
Nairne. Mr. Jack kindly motored me to the spot and, on examination, a sub- 
angular quartzite was obtained that measures 9 inches by A\ inches with a circum- 
ference of 16 inches. This stone was firmly embedded in a white kaolinized slate. 

For the purpose of further observations, the writer paid a second visit to the 
spot and examined all the cuttings on the line between Nairne and Mount Barker 
Junction, a distance of four miles. This was done with the object of examining 
the associated rocks, in relation to the supposed tillite, for corroborative evidence, 
if possible. The geological features of these railway cuttings will be briefly 
described and advantage will be. taken to utilize observations previously made by 
the writer in the district that may bear upon the same subject. 

Remarks on the Railway Cuttings. 
First Catting, situated on the line about one-third of a mile westward of the 
Nairne railway station. Finely laminated kaolinized slates, very regular in bed- 
ding and banded in bluish and white layers, resembling a ribbon slate [ ( ?) Tap- 
ley's Hill horizon]. Varies in dip from 65° to 90°, easterly. The rock frequently 
shows segregations, after the manner of spotted or knotted schist. The length 
of the cutting is about 10 chains. Towards the western end, three dykes of 
pegmatite cut obliquely across the bedding in a south-easterly strike. The most 
easterly one is about 18 inches in thickness, on either side of which the slates are 
slightly hardened but have suffered no further metamorphism. At a distance of 
15 feet westward of the dyke, just mentioned, is a much larger one, having a thick- 
ness of 33 feet with a hade of about 65° to the north-east. This has caused a 
higher degree of contact metamorphism on the adjoining slates; those abutting 
on the upper plane of the dyke are definitely indurated in a zone of several inches, 
and the underlay has the form of a conspicuously spotted and knotted schist. 
The knotted segregations attain the size of a large pea [ ( ?) incipient andalusite] 
which, in places, weather out and accumulate at the base of the cliff. This effect 
is produced over a zone of 15 inches bordering the granite dyke. A third peg- 
matite dyke, still further to the westward, about 18 inches in thickness, has features 
similar to those already described. All the dykes cut the beds without displacement. 

Between this cutting and the next is an embankment about 200 yards in length. 

Second Cutting. In this exposure, which is about 60 yards in length, the 
banded structure seen in< the first cutting is absent, and bedding planes are either 
non-existent or indistinct, but the bed is strongly jointed in all directions. It is 
towards the western end of this cutting that the supposed tillite occurs. The 
evidence at present is mainly from the presence of subangular stones irregularly 
distributed through the mass after the manner of glacial erratics. In addition to 
the large quartzite (?) erratic, mentioned above, five other subangular stones were 
collected, consisting of quartz and quartzites, varying in size from one inch to 



three inches in length. The matrix, when washed down, left a residue of rather 
fine-grained sand. 

At the western end of the cutting is a fine-grained quartzite, six yards in 
thickness, dipping easterly under the slates [or (?) tillite] exposed in the exit- 
ing. On the supposition that the latter represents a decomposed tillite, this 
quartzite would correspond to the subglacial quartzite which commonly underlies 
the Sturtian Tillite. The exact position of the bed can be determined by the north 
and south district road with, "open crossing" shown on the official map (although 
now closed) which makes the western boundary of Section 4431, Hundred of 
Macclesfield. The surrounding ground is grass-covered and the rocks obscured 
thereby, so that the bed in question is limited in exposure to the railway cutting, 
and, the supposed erratics having been gathered from the face/there is a danger 
that the superficial evidences will be possibly absent for a time. 

There follows (on the western side of the last-named cutting) an embank- 
ment, ten chains in length, that spans a small creek that passes beneath the 
railway. 

Third Cutting. This is excavated, mostly, in rotten kaolinized slate, the line 
following, for a time, along the strike of the beds. At the eastern end of the 
cutting is a 5-feet quartzite, underlain by a rotten sandstone, 24 feet in thickness. 
This is, again, underlain by the kaolinized slate, in which an important quartzite 
is included. The latter forms a low scrubby hill on the northern side of the line 
(in Section 3827a), is nearly perpendicular and has been quarried along the 
outcrop. 

Fourth Cutting. By a northerly bend of the railway, the quartzite mentioned 
in the last paragraph is, in the next cutting, intersected by the railway. At this 
point, as on the hill, the bed is nearly vertical, with a slight easterly dip, and has 
a thickness of about 30 feet. An interesting feature of this quartzite is its piebald 
appearance, having a close resemblance to the mottled structure of the Mitcham 
quartzite, and probably represents the same horizon. 

From this point, westward, to the Mount Barker Junction, there is little varia- 
tion in the character of the rocks. They consist chiefly of light-coloured kaolinized 
slates with an occasional thin quartzite which is also much decomposed. The 
slates are, perhaps, less metamorphosed, on the whole, in this part of the section, 
but zones of slates that are spotted or knotted still occur. The beds are generally 
very highly pitched with acute anticlines and, probably, also, with closed anticlinal 
folds. In the third cutting from the Mount Barker Junction station is a pegmatite 
dyke, one foot wide, which is contorted with the slates but produces no appreci- 
able contact metamorphism. At the railway station, the beds in the cutting are 
kaolinized, laminated, highly variegated in colour, with contorted lines. Dip, 
W. 20° S. at 80°. 

A Belt of Limestone. 

(Observations made during the Years 1907 and 1908.) 

If the No. 1 cutting, westward of Nairne railway station, represents the 
horizon of Tapley's Hill slates, as suggested above, we. might expect a limestone 
to occur at the next bed in ascending order, in accordance with the sequence seen 
in the type district. A limestone does occur in this position which may be assumed 
(if our deductions be correct) to represent the Brighton limestone. The ground 
which separates No. 1 cutting from Nairne, in a length of about a third of a mile, 
is low ground and grassed and destitute of rocky outcrops. In a visit which the 
writer made to Nairne, in 1908, Mr. Clezy, a resident of West Nairne, stated that 
in sinking a well on his property a bed of marble was struck at a depth of 60 feet, 
but I was unable to discover any surface features that might confirm this statement. 



29 

There is, however, a series of outcrops of marble which, in an almost direct line 
from Nairne, in a N.N.E. and S.S.W. direction, extends for about 12 miles and 
shows, at least, ten distinct outcrops. 

In a traverse along this line of strike from Nairne it was found that the peg- 
matite dykes seen in No. 1 cutting made prominent exposures across the adjoining 
paddock, as far as the main road to Littlehampton, a distance of about a quarter 
of a mile. After crossing the main road, just referred to, the ground is cultivated 
with no rocks showing at the surface for rather less than a mile. At about one 
and a quarter miles from the railway a small quartzite quarry was met with, the 
stone being softish and of a purplish colour, with a dip E. at 50°. Shortly beyond, 
more on the rise and about due south from Nairne, a strong outcrop of a basic 
intrusive rock makes a conspicuous feature, situated north-westerly from the Mount 
Barker, from which it is distant about a mile with a strike directed towards the 
Mount at S. 20° E. The exposure is about 28 yards wide and was traced for 
nearly a mile. On the western side of the dyke the rock is a dark, siliceous-looking 
stone ; on the eastern side is a wide belt of strongly-developed mica schists, knotty, 
with a wavy structure, caused by the knots. The marble exposures are as follow : — 

1. A little to the westward of the basic dyke, just described, a marble is seen 
to outcrop in a low position in the paddocks of Mr. Ryder (Section 4441 and 
3829, Hd. Macclesfield). In the first-named Section a small opening has been 
made that has exposed the rock-face which was followed along the south side of 
a small creek. Dip at the quarry, E. at 65°. The marble is underlain by a strong 
quartzite, and on the road that passes Ryder's, going to Littlehampton, thick beds 
of spotted slates are seen. These were followed, going westerly, but they became 
obscured under a thick deposit of soil towards the bottom of the valley at the first 
four cross-roads. Immediately west of the cross-roads the ground rises into 
successive ridges of hard, felspathic, and, usually, fine-grained quartzite 
[ (?) Mitcham horizon]. In one or two places a small opening has been made in 
these quartzites, showing what appears to be a dip E. 10° S. at (?) 65°. The 
quartzites show outcrops for about a mile but are interrupted by stretches of deep 
soil that hide the underlying rocks. About one mile on the eastward side of Little- 
hampton, clay slates are seen exposed, feebly spotted in places. At the back of 
Littlehampton there is a quarry of kaolinized rock, variegated in colour, with a 
dip S.W. at 70°, which is also visible in the main street of the township. This 
clay-slate has been extensively used for brick-making in the neighbourhood. 

2. About a mile to, the southward of Ryder's, a limestone is noted on my 
field map as, occurring in Section 4449, but have no particulars concerning it. 

3. A marble is worked on the southern side of the Mount Barker Creek, in 
Section 4456. It crosses the road into Section 4455, and can be traced to the 
creek, just below the bridge, but is not seen on the northern side of the creek. 
The quarry stone is in two divisions, the upper portion being of a coarsely crystal- 
line nature, whilst towards the lower portions the limestone becomes streaky and 
crypto-crystalline. ■ Dip E. at 33°. 

4. In the neighbourhood of Wistow are several exposures of marble. Jn 
Section 2918 (Ellis', late Mills', property) the marble is coarsely crystalline, with 
some impure beds in it which have thicknesses up to 18 inches. Dip E. 20° S. at 
12°. The marble is overlain, as well as underlain, by quartzite, the latter of which 
can be seen in an adjoining quarry. The lower quartzite has dark lines in it and 
has clastic felspar interstitial with the quartz grains. At Eden Park (close to the 
above) the overlying quartzite can again be seen; also a soft, purple-coloured, 
argillaceous, or argillo-arenaceous rock, with no particular grain, but strongly 
variegated and has concentric and tortuously concentric lines. The stone works 
freely, and has been much used in the neighbourhood as a building stone. The bed 



30 

is massive and obscure in its direction of dip, but it probably overlies the quartzite 
(just mentioned), and at a low angle. 

5. About half a mile to the southward of the last-named outcrop of marble 
is another, exposed in a small creek in Section 2895 (or thereabouts). The stone 
is similar to the rest in the neighbourhood but has not been worked. 

6. In another half-mile, to the southward, the most important exposures of 
the marble in the district occur in Section 2915, where there is a quarry face of 
about 30 feet, having a dip S. 20° E. at 10°. It is situated a little to the eastward 
of Philcox Hill railway station. On a hill, between the marble quarries and the 
railway station, is a freestone quarry — soft and of a purplish colour — probably of 
the same horizon as that of Eden Park, mentioned above. Dip S. 20° W at 15°. 
A little further to the south-westward the marble is again seen in the bed of a small 
creek in Section 2828. 

7. In a little more westerly trend the marble passes on the western side of 
Macclesfield, at a distance of about four miles from the previously noted outcrop, 
and has been extensively worked. 

8. At a further distance of two miles, on the same line of strike, is another 
exposure of marble on Mr. Lemar's property, in Section 3343, on the south- 
western boundary of the Hundred of Macclesfield. 

The limestone has thus been proved to extend for 12 miles in a direct line. 

Geological Observations made to the North-westward of 

Mount Barker Junction. 

(Dated June 5, 1908.) 

The railway line was followed in a north-westerly direction. Half a mile 
from the railway station, in Section 4216 (Hundred of Onkaparinga), cuttings 
exposed decomposed phyllites with a zone of spotted and knotted schist and a 
granular felspathoid rock. Numerous flat veins of rotten actinolite occur with 
selvaged crystals at right angles to the walls, which are sometimes divided by a 
central line, having a thickness up to two inches. This cutting continues to the 
"open crossing" on the north-western side of Section 4216 (Hundred of Onka- 
paringa). Strike of the beds in cutting, N. 10° W., dip westerly at 70°. Strong 
reefs of quartz penetrate these rocks. 

The road at the crossing was then followed, going in a north-easterly direction. 
The road, on the rise, shows low exposures of dark-coloured schists, some of which 
is a fine-grained biotite schist. Thin bands of dark-coloured, fine-grained quartzite 
occur, often laminated. Two loose specimens of tremolite schist were found on 
the road, probably brought with road metal, but were of good size. Near the 
summit of the rise a number of large stones of arkose grits were observed on the 
side of the road, which had apparently been gathered from the ploughed land on 
the western side of the road. 

At a distance of one mile from the railway the road descended nearly opposite 
Mr. Borcher's house (Daisy Hill Farm) in Section 1775. Near the house is a 
quarry in the basal grits, carrying dark lines of clastic ilmenite, with a strike 
N. 20° W., dip vertical. The beds show current bedding and, on some faces, ripple 
marks. This quarry is at the end of a ridge which runs in a nearly north and south 
direction. Nearer the house, by the side of a private road, there is another outcrop 
of the same rocks, where the dip is reduced to 40° S.W., and the strike swings 
round to the eastward and the dip becomes southerly. 

Near the highest point of the ridge, about a quarter of a mile from the house, 
there is a strong outcrop of felspathic quartzite with much clastic ilmenite, having 
a dip N.E. at 82°. The stone has been quarried and works freely. Most of the 



31 



buildings on the farm have been constructed from stones won from the quarries 
mentioned. The whole ridge from Borcher's consists of this rock, it has an 
extensive width and is to all appearance identical with the ilmenitic basal grits of 
the Aldgate Series. The ridge ends abruptly to the northward, overlooking the 
Oakbank country and the valley of the Onkaparinga. It has a height of 150 feet 
above the Mount Barker Junction railway station. 

The Pre-Cambrian schists border the ilmenitic grits, on their eastern side and 
form a higher ridge in that direction. They follow the grits, on their eastern 
limits, down into the angle formed by the twisted ridge of the grits, near Borcher's 
In the Pre-Cambrian area several shafts have been sunk in Sections 4260 and 4264 
named the New Eclipse, Balhannah Surprise, etc., from which a little sold was 



won. 



A porphyritic basic dyke occurs in the neighbourhood but is not seen in out- 
crop. Mr. Borcher says it is situated on the low ground bordering the western side 
of the basal grits ridge. Its presence is indicated by loose stones on the surface of 
cultivated land— these are gathered and used, locally, as road metal. 

The Sturtian Tillite near Mount Barker Township. 
A few years ago Mr. R. L. Jack picked up two loose stones on the grounds of 
the Convent school, near Mount Barker, that show a striking resemblance to the 
ground-mass of the Sturtian Tillite Both these specimens contain pebbles of 
granite that are undoubtedly erratics. Mr. Jack was not able to discover 
the parent rock from which the specimens had been shed. The ground has a low 
situation and the rock may be easily obscured by cover. Subsequently, the writer 
paid a visit to the spot, but could obtain no further evidence on the Convent 
grounds. 

On the road, opposite to the entrance to the Convent grounds is an old 
quarry (now used as a tip for the town), the main road of which is an unstratified 
sandy mudstone, gritty in places. Imbedded in the mudstone stones were sparingly 
scattered that measured up to five inches in diameter. These consisted of quartz 
quartzite, schist, and an aplite &ve inches in length. The last-named is somewhat 
decomposed, the ground-mass of the bed is, apparently, identical with that seen 
m the two specimens collected by Mr. Jack in the adjoining paddock, but is not 
quite so indurated, having been subjected to greater weathering. The mudstone 
in the quarry mentioned above, is overlain by a rotten quartzite [dip S W at 55° 1 ' 
which is slightly fissile by the presence of mica on the planes of bedding On the 
opposite side of the quarry the mudstone slopes with the ground to normal level 
and is hid from view by superficial deposits. 

The overlying quartzite continues into the grounds of the Convent school, the 
buildings of which have been constructed on a platform cut in this rock Going; 
easterly the quartzite continues in outcrop, but at a short distance there is a con- 
siderable quarry m the face of the scarp, looking south. The rock consists of 
highly-coloured clays and sand rock, in yellows and reds, with a thin covering of 
quartzite [dip S. at 55°]. The general dip of the country varies from south to 
south-west. 

An important feature is that the two supposed outcrops of tillite are situated 
on the same line of strike. 

Conclusion. 
T-ir' rnere u is strong circumstantial evidence for the occurrence of the Sturtian 
iillite at the two localities mentioned in this paper. The country concerned is 
mostly grassland and but slightly incised, so that it offers few opportunities for 
determining the geological features, the railway cuttings providing most of the 



32 



exposures available for this purpose. These cuttings are separated by embank- 
ments crossing grassed valleys that show no outcrops. , 

The evidences are cumulative and are based, partly, on the l*hological 
characteristics of the supposed tillite, and, partly, on the associated beds which 
show a close accordance with the series in which the tillite is known to occur. 

In taking a more extended view of the geological field it appears that the 
basal beds of the Adelaide Series, on the eastern side of the Mount Lofties, follow 
a series of rolling curves from Aldgate to near the Mount Barker Junction, with 
the coarse ilmenitic grits at the base, passing up into a finer light-coloured sand- 
stone These continue for several miles, and, in places, pass up into higher horizons 
of kaolinized slates and stronger beds of quartzite, but without rising far in the 
series Near the Mount Barker Junction, the tectonic curves become more acute, 
the bottom grits are folded down at a high angle— vertical in places— and the 
superior beds follow in sequence, at similar high angles, through the succession of 
lower phyllites. the Mitcham quartzite, the tillite, the ribbon-slate of Tapley s Hill, 
and then the Brighton limestone, which occurs at intervals, maintaining an 
approximately similar strike for a distance of 12 miles. 

In comparison with the type district, the eastern series has, in its surface 
exposures, become shortened from 12 miles to 5 miles. This may possibly be 
explained from the apparent absence of some beds in the eastern series which are 
present in the western, and also from the thinning of others that are present. 

In such a comparison it must be allowed that the series on the Adelaide side 
is superficially lengthened by a considerable rolling of the beds, while that on the 
eastern, between Mount Barker Junction and Nairne, is compressed almost to the 
vertical. 



33 



CRUSTACEA FROM PRINCESS CHARLOTTE BAY, NORTH QUEENSLAND. 
THE ISOPODA AND STOMATOPODA. 

By Herbert M. Hale, Curator South Australian Museum. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum.) 

[Read May 9, 1929.] 

Early in 1927 the writer, in company with Mr. N. B. Tindale, spent some 
weeks in Princess Charlotte Bay ; although only a small portion of this time was 
occupied in marine collecting, a goodly number of Crustacea was obtained. Most 
of the marine material was secured on or near the Flinders Islands, a small group 
lying at the southern end of the bay. The "Alert" visited these islands in 1881, 
and since then other vessels also, but apparently little collecting has been under- 
taken there. A passage between Flinders and Stanley Islands— Owen Channel- 
has a bottom of mud and sand which harbours various dingy species, and this was 
systematically worked with a small dredge, while collecting was also carried out 
on Halimeda and other reefs, and amongst coral. 

The present paper records the few species of Stomatopoda and Isopoda 
secured, 

STOMATOPODA. 

Family SQUILLIDAE. 

It was found that an excellent method of obtaining Squillids from pools 
left at low tide was to introduce a small quantity of formalin. As the latter pene- 
trated to the innermost crevices of the rock, or into burrows in the mud, the 
mantis-shrimps left their retreats and were easily captured with a small net. In 
some cases nearly an hour elapsed before all Squillids in a pool were ejected by 
the formalin. 

The Walmbariya natives, living on Flinders Island, are well aware that these 
animals are capable of inflicting wounds with the spiny telson and raptorial 
dactylus, and on several occasions warned me that they should be handled with 
care. 

Gonodactylus trispinosus Dana. 

Gonodactylus trispinosus Dana, U.S. Expl. Exped., Crust., 1852, p. 623; Kemp, Mem. Ind 
Mus. iv 1913, p 180 (and syn.) ; Balss, K. Sv. Vet. Handl., lxi., 1920, p. 5; Hansen, Siboga 
Exped., Leiden, Mon. xxxv., 1926, p. 35. 

Protosquilla trispinosa Borrad., Proc. Zool. Soc, 1898, p. 34, pi. v., figs. 1, 1a. 

Taken from tunnels in stones dredged in Owen Channel, 3 laths. The 
examples agree well with the descriptions, excepting that the lateral margins of 
the last thoracic segment arc subacutely rounded, and not broadly rounded as 
figured by Eorradaile and mentioned by Kemp. The species was previously 
recorded from Australia :— Swan River, Western Australia (Miers), and North- 
West Australia (Pocock and Balss). 

Gonodactylus glabrous Brooks. 
Gonodactylus glabrous Brooks, Rep. Voy. "Challenger," xvi. (Stomatop.), 1886, p 62, 
pl. xiv., fig. 5 and pi. xv figs. 7-9; Kemp, Mem. Ind. Mus., iv., 1913, p. 167, pi. ix., fig. 113 (and 
syn ), and p. 170 fig. 2; Odhner, Goteborgs Kungl. Vet.-Och Vitt. Samh. Handl., xxvii., 1923 
p. 8; Hansen, Siboga Exped., Leiden, Mon. xxxv., 1926, p. 29. 

Dredged in Owen Channel, 3 faths., and in burrows in mud near shore at 
low tide. 



34 

GONODACTYLUS CHIRAGRA (Fabricius). 

Squilla chiragra Fabr, Species Insect., i, 1781, p. 515, and Mantiss. Insect., i., 1787, p. 334. 

Gonodactylus chiragra Kemp, Mem. Ind. Mus, iv 1913, p. 153, pi ix fig 10 (and syn ) ; 
Balss, K. Sv. Vet. Handl, lxi., 1920, p. 5 ; Odhner, Goteborgjs Kungl Vet.-Och Vitt.-Samh. 
Handl., xxvii, 1923, p. 8; Hansen, Siboga Exped, Leiden, Mon. xxxv, 1926, p. 24. 

In holes in fragments of rock dredged in Owen Channel, 1 fath. ; also both 
adults and young common in burrows in mud near shore. 

Gonodactylus tulchellus Miers. 

Gonodactylus trispinosus, var. ptdchcllus, Miers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (5) v., 1880, p. 122. 

Gonodactylus pulchclliis Kemp, Mem. Ind. Mus., iv., 1913, p. 177, pi. x. ; fig. 117, 118 
(and syn.) ; Hansen, Siboga Exped., Leiden, Mon. xxxv., 1926, p. 33. 

Dredged in Owen Channel, 3 faths. Apparently this pretty species has not 
been recorded previously from Australian waters. 

PSEUDOSQUILLA CILIATA (Fabricius). 

Squilla ciliata Fabr., Mantiss. Insect., i., 1787, p. 333. 

PseudosquUla ciliata Kemp, Mem. Ind. Mus., iv., 1913, p. 96 (and syn.) ; Hansen, Siboga 
Exped., Leiden, Mon. xxxv., 1926, p. 17. 

A male and two females from burrows in mud near shore. Two of the 
specimens were mottled with brown and black during life, and one, an adult 
female with the fifth and sixth abdominal segments and telson abnormal, was 
coloured as follows :— Dorsum, dark bottle green ; dactyli of raptorial legs, brown ; 
remainder of all external appendages, pea-green with pink fringing hairs. 

ISOPODA. 
At the Flinders Islands, Isopods are poorly represented as regards number of 
species, although a few forms were abundant. 

Family EURYDICIDAE. 
Excirolana orientals (Dana). 
Cirolana oricntalis Dana, U.S. Expl. Exped., Crust., xiv., 1853, p. 773, pi li, fig. 7 
Excirolana oricntalis Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Austr., xhx., 1925, p. 156, fig. 14 (and 

rCfS,) Common in the mangrove swamps, where I collected specimens by standing 
m the shallow water and picking the little carnivores off as they attacked my bare 
lees The Walmbariva natives are sometimes annoyed by the attacks of this sea- 
louse, which, however, they do not distinguish from Hippa, calling both meljeri. 

E oricntalis also burrows in sand at the margin of the sea, and the aboriginal 
children aware of this habit, obtain both it and Hippa by scratching rapidly m 
the sand at the edge of the water, thus uncovering the buried crustaceans. 

Family AEGIDAE. 
Rocinela orientalis Schioedte and Meinert. 
Rocincla orientals Sch. and Mein., Naturh ■ Tidsskr ., (3) xii, 1879, p. 395, pi. xiii., 
figs. 1-2; Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Austr, xhx, 1925, p. 182, fig. 27 and refs.). 
Dredged amongst weed in Owen Channel, 3 faths. 

Family SPHAEROMIDAE. 
Mr. Raker identifies the few species secured as follows :— 

EXOSPHAEROMA INTERMEDIA Baker. 
Exosphacroma intermedia Baker, Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Austr, i, 1926, p. 249, pi. xxxix, 

figS * Dredged amongst weed in Owen Channel, 3 faths. The type was from the 
Gulf of Carpentaria. 



35 



Cymodoce pelsarti Tattersall. 

Cymodoce pelsarti Tatt., Journ. Linn. Soc, London, xxxv., 1922, p. 15, pi. ii., figs. 30-33 
and pi. iii., fig. 36. " * 

This species, which is common on mud near shore at Flinders Island, is very 
close to C. longistylis Miers. 

Cilicaeopsis wititeleggei Stebbing. 

Cilicaca zvhitelegcjei Stebb., Ceylon Pearl Oyster Fish., Suppl. Rep., No. xxiiL 1905 p 39 
pi. ix. (a), (b). ^ ' ' *" ' 

On sandy bottom in Owen Channel, 2 faths. 

Mr. Baker considers that this form is referable to Cilicaeopsis, 

Family IDOTEIDAE. 
Only a single species of the family was secured, but this proves to be a form 
of considerable interest, for which it is necessary to erect a new genus. 

Lyidotea, n. gen. 

Body narrows not very depressed. First antennae with very short flagellum, 
and flagellum of second antennae composed of a single long joint. Maxillipeds 
with palp wide and composed of three joints; basipodite and epipodite large. 
Peraeon with first six free segments normal, but with last segment fused with 
pleon. Coxae of peraeopods not expanded into plates, all fused with their respec- 
tive thoracic segments, but on second to fourth segments marked off from pleura 
by a shallow furrow. First peraeopod shorter than others, subchelate and with 
propodus swollen. Pleon composed of a single segment and with indications of 
three fused segments near base. 

Type, L. nodata, n. sp. 

The generic characters are described from the female alone. The salient 
features are the structure of the antennae and the coalescence of the last thoracic 
segment with the abdomen. 

Lyidotea nodata, n. sp. 

Adult female. Integument soft. Body slender, widest at third peraeon 
segment, and narrowest at posterior end of sixth; seven times longer than greatest 
width. Cephalon wider than long, with anterior margin concave and antero-lateral 
angles slightly produced; dorsum elevated posteriorly to form a pair of high 
united tubercles; eyes dorsolateral, of moderate size. First antennae reaching 
to end of second article of second antennae ; basal joint expanded, as wide as long, 
longer than the second and as long as the third article; flagellum less than half as 
long as last peduncular joint, flattened and furnished with sensory appendages. 
Second antennae thick, less than half as long as body; first joint very short but 
visible in dorsal view; second two-thirds as long as third, which is a little shorter 
than fourth and equal in length to fifth; third, fourth and fifth joints dilated 
apically; flagellum slightly longer than fourth peduncular article, uniarticulate 
and semi-cylindrical in shape, the outer face convex and the inner flattened; 
apex rounded (apparently with a minute terminal style). Outer lobe of first 
maxilla capped with ten spines, all but the innermost one being denticulate; slender 
inner lobe with two setose spines. Maxillipeds with basipodite shorter than 
epipodite; inner lobe reaching to middle of length of palp; first joint of palp 
short, the suture dividing it from second obscure; second joint a little longer than 
wide, and third suboval in shape. First four peraeon segments each with a pair 
of large dorsal elevations; fifth segment with a pair of obsolete tubercles and 
sixth and seventh nearly smooth; first segment as long as, and barely wider than 
cephalon ; second, third and fourth segments subequal in length, each nearly twice 
as ong as first, and wider than any of the others ; sixth segment slightly shorter 
and narrower than fifth, which is shorter and narrower than fourth; seventh 
segment short, immovably fused with pleon, the suture most distinct 'laterally 



36 

Peraeopods short and stout, the subchelate first much the shortest; the remaining 
six pairs are prehensile and subequal in length; coxae of second to fourth pairs 
barely visible in dorsal view. Lateral margins of pleon diverging posteriorly for 
three-fifths of length of pleon, then converging to the narrowly-rounded apex; 
pleon and last thoracic segment together as long as fourth, fifth and sixth peraeon 




Lyidolca nodata, type female; a and b, dorsal and lateral views (x 8) 

c, first antenna (x 34) ; d, second antenna (x 13) ; e first maxilla 

(x 100) ; i, second maxilla (x 100) ; g, maxilliped (x .34) ; h, I, and h 

first, second and seventh peraeopods (x 34) . 



little 



segments together. Uropods narrow, with posterior margin truncate, 
sinuate; endopod subtriangular, apically rounded. 

Colour.— White, with sparse dots of pigment, producing a dingy grey 
appearance. 

Length, 8 mm. , 

Loc— North Queensland : Flinders Island, Princess Charlotte Bay. 

Type.— Female, in South Austr. Mus., Reg. No. C. 1699. 

The adult female described above and several smaller specimens were dredged 
in two fathoms. In the younger examples the dorsal elevations of the cephalon 
and peraeon are not so well developed as in the type, the pleon is shorter, etc. ; 
also the flagellum of the second antennae is slightly clavate, and not flattened on 
the inner face, a feature which may be due to the preservative. I he middle of the 
dorsal portion of the articulation between the head and first peraeon segment is 
somewhat obscure, suggesting partial fusion here also, but laterally this segment 
is distinctly separated from the cephalon. 



37 



A NEW XANTHID CRAB FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By Mary J. Rathbun, 

Associate in Zoology, United States National Museum. 

(Communicated by H. M. Hale.) 

[Read May 9, 1929.] 

Plate IV. 

The specimens here described were submitted to me by Mr. Herbert M. Hale, 
Curator of the South Australian Museum. They appear to be representatives of 
a new species. 

Heteropanope vincentiana, n. sp. 

Type-locality.— Port Willunga, Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia; Feb, 1895; 
W. J. Kimber, collector; female holotype, in South Australian Museum (Reg. No, 
C. 1849) ; male paratype in U.S. National Museum. 

Measurements. — Female holotype, length of carapace 20, width of same 30*7, 
width of front 8*2, fronto-orbital width 15*7, chord of antero-lateral margin (to 
tip of last tooth) 10, length of major palm at its middle 15*6, greatest width of 
same 12*8, thickness 8, length of dactylus 13*6, approximate length of second 
ambulatory leg 40 - 5 mm. 

Besmptian*— Carapace (fig. 1) If times as broad as long, antero-lateral 
margins thick, arcuate, shorter than the postero-lateral, cut into 4 blunt teeth, the 
first of which is distant from the orbit and is shallow and lobiform. No tooth at 
outer angle of orbit. Front deflexed, its margin invisible in dorsal view ; its middle 
third is most advanced. Three shallow sinuses (fig. 2) divide the margin, forming 
a slight projection either side of the middle and a low, blunt, subrcctangular tooth 
at each outer angle. A narrow, shallow furrow runs parallel and close to the 
margin. A rounded sinus separates the front from the obtuse inner angle of the 
orbit. Outer lower sinus of orbit shallow; inner half of lower margin arcuate. 

Dorsal surf ace nearly flat in its posterior half; anterior half rounding down- 
ward. Regions scarcely indicated, except the narrow, anterior part of the naso- 
gastric, from which a shallow median furrow is continued part way to the edge 
of the front. Anterior and antero-lateral regions coarsely and closely granulate; 
they are crossed by an irregular transverse furrow, a little behind the orbits. A 
transverse ridge runs inward from the last lateral tooth, extending less than half 
way to the median line. The granules become smaller, lower and gradually dis- 
appear on the postero-lateral regions. Smooth area punctate. Lower surface of 
carapace granulate. 

The broad basal article of the antenna just touches with its inner angle the 
tip of the turned-down edge of the front; the outer angle of the same segment 
stands m the orbital hiatus. Ridges of endostome strong. The exognath of the 
outer maxilliped reaches just to the outer distal angle of the merus of the 
endognath (fig. 2) ; the merus has two deep, oblique curved furrows which enclose 
an oblong space; the impression on the ischium of the endognath is sharp (fig. 4) 
and is not continued at either end to the margin. 

Chelipeds stout, very unequal. Merus of major cheliped nearly as broad as its 
greatest length ; carpus heavy, its inner tuberculif orm tooth a little behind the 



38 

' iS 



middle of the margin; palm (fig. 3) high and thick, upper and lower margins 
convex surface granulate-eroded in its upper half, punctate; fingers nearly hori- 
zontal • two large, low teeth on the basal three-fifth of the fixed finger ; a large, 
backward-pointing, basal tooth on the dactylus; fingers brown in the preserved 
specimen, the colour ending in a scalloped edge at base of fixed finger. Minor 
cheliped similar, but fingers deflexed, deeply grooved, prehensile edges armed 
with alternating larger and two or three smaller teeth ; fingers not gaping; colour 
not reaching palm. Legs long (fig. 1), the longer ones about twice as long as 
carapace, rather narrow, punctate and more or less rough ; merus with a row ot 
short blunt spines above, lower surface rough with truncate granules; carpus, 
propodus and dactylus rough with sockets which are furnished with longisn 
hairs ; dactylus nearly straight, having a deep furrow on each side and terminating 
in a slender, bent, horny tip. 

The abdomen of a male paratype (fig. 4) is rather broad ; the third to sixth 
segments inclusive taken together have concave side margins ; third, fourth and 
fifth segments of subequal length; sixth and seventh segments progressively 
longer. 

This species may be recognised by its unusual width, coarse granulation and 
absence of hair from the carapace. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE IV. 
Hetcropanope vinceniiana. 
Fig. 1. Dorsal view of 9 holotype (nat. size). 
Fig. 2. Front view of 9 holotype (nat. size). 
Fig. 3. Outer view of major chela of 9 holotype (nat. size). 
Fig. 4. Ventral view of d paratype (x If). 



39 



VARIATIONS OF HYDROGEN ION CONCENTRATION IN THE 
NEIGHBOURHOOD OF THE ESTUARY OF THE RIVER MURRAY. 

By T. Brailsford Robertson 

(Department of Biochemistry and General Physiology, 

University of Adelaide, South Australia). 

[Read May 9, 1929.J 

Introduction; Statement of the Problem. 

It has, for a long time past, been in my mind that much information of interest 
might result from a detailed investigation of the changes in composition, density, 
hydrogen ion concentration, and so forth, which the waters of the Murray River 
undergo as they debouch into the remarkable system of lakes which separate the 
river proper from the mouth through which these lakes discharge their surplus 
waters into the sea. It is not merely that much information of hydrographic 
interest might accrue from such a study, but the information thus obtained, 
coupled with a survey of the biological types inhabiting the different localities of 
this lake system, would probably reveal many facts of importance concerning the 
adaptations w r hich various forms of life display to the fluctuations of their environ- 
ment. Such fluctuations might be anticipated to be of three types, namely :— 

(1 ) Tidal, (2) Seasonal, and (3) Geographical. 

Those parts of the lake system which are most remote from the Murray 
mouth, such as the northern end of Lake Alexandrina, the eastern part of Lake 
Albert, and the south-eastern extremity of the Coorong, will be subject to less 
extensive tidal fluctuation of composition than the parts of the system which lie 
more adjacent to the mouth, but, on the other hand, while the waters of Lake 
Albert and the northern part of Lake Alexandrina are generally so fresh as to be 
potable, those of the Coorong, twenty miles from its opening into Lake Alexan- 
drina, appear, to the sense of taste at all events, to be more saline than those; of 
the sea. Between these two regions, both comparatively immune to tidal influence, 
lies an area subject to diurnal tidal fluctuations of very considerable magnitude. 
It is quite conceivable that this may interpose an effective barrier to the migration 
of certain forms, which are incapable of rapid short-period adaptation, from the 
one region of relatively constant composition to the other. (1 > In this way some 
of the inhabitants of the Coorong may be barred off from mingling with those of 
Lake Albert. The question then arises whether any of the same species are to be 
found in these two localities, and, if so, whether individuals can migrate from the 
one locality to the other and, if not, whether the types inhabiting two such different 
environments are identical or present systematic differences related to the adapta- 
tions they have undergone and recognisable as such by taxonomists. 



(DWhen I say relatively constant I refer to the short -period diurnal variations due to 
tides, which exist, but are diminished as one recedes from the mouth. Seasonal variations, 
depending upon the volume of output from the river will occur, but their onset is usually less 
sudden than the changes due to tides, and the internal compensations or migrations necessary 
to fit the changed conditions would be possible to many forms which might not be able to 
accommodate themselves to extensive changes of salinity or hydrogen ion concentration 
occurring within a few hours. 



40 

For the benefit of possible readers abroad, who may not chance to be familiar 
with the geography of South Australia, I may perhaps mention that the Murray 
River opens out, about thirty miles from the sea, into Lake Alexandrina, the area 
of which is, roughly, some 200 square miles (vide accompanying map). Close ro 
the mouth a cluster of islands breaks up the lake into numerous channels. On the 
eastern and south-eastern sides of the lake two large inlets occur. The one, Lake 




41 

Albert, of some 60 square miles in extent, communicates with Lake Alexandrina 
by a narrow mouth and spreads out into a wide, shallow expanse of water. The 
other, the Coorong, is a most remarkable sheet of water, not paralleled, to my 
knowledge, elsewhere. Varying from a mile to two miles in width, it runs in a south- 
easterly direction for about seventy miles, parallel to the shore, separated from the 
ocean by a narrow peninsula which is only from half a mile to two miles across. 
Only the upper third of the Coorong is shown in the accompanying map. It is, 
for the main part, very shallow, and boats drawing only two feet have to thread 
their w r ay carefully at low tide through narrow channels which generally do not 
exceed four feet in depth. During the hot, dry summers which prevail in South 
Australia this sheet of water is subject to enormous losses, due to evaporation. 
From its mouth, where it joins the lake, to its lower extremity, where the effects 
of evaporation might be expected to attain their maximum, this long strip of 
shallow water should exhibit important differences of composition, density, 
reaction, etc., which, in turn, might be reflected in the characteristics of its plant 
and animal inhabitants. 

The results which I have to report represent merely a preliminary survey of 
the variations in one single characteristic of the waters contained in this lake system, 
namely, the hydrogen ion concentration. They are presented here in the hope 
that the account of the extensive variations which I have found to occur within 
twenty miles of the mouth of the Murray will draw attention to the important 
problems presented by this area of water, which lies so conveniently close at hand, 
and excite others to carry forward such investigations in greater scope and detail. 
As the most important problems are actually the ecological ones (which I have 
not the opportunity or the qualifications to investigate), it is clear that what is 
needed to carry out an adequate inquiry is a committee, composed of chemists, 
qualified to investigate the properties and composition of the water samples ; 
biologists, to determine the distribution of living types and estimate the modifica- 
tions of type which are attributable to adaptation; someone familiar with the 
technique of surveying, to determine the precise positions of the points at which 
samples are taken and, since many matters of geological interest arise, such as 
the nature of the deposits formed from waters of different compositions, a 
geologist should be included upon the committee. 

In explanation of the choice of hydrogen ion concentration as the particular 
physical characteristic measured in this preliminary study, I need only state that 
in European and American waters the distribution of fishes, and, presumably, of 
other marine forms, has been found to be profoundly affected by hydrogen ion 
concentration. To such an extent is this the case, that it appears probable that 
this factor is quite as important as density in affecting the lives of the organisms 
which inhabit the water. In regard to such questions I have no personal observa- 
tions to report, but, according to the testimony of local fishermen, the Murray 
Cod is not found nearer the Murray mouth than Narrung, at the entrance of Lake 
Albert. Whether the bar to its further migration is constituted by the increasing 
salinity or decreasing alkalinity as the mouth is approached, cannot, of course, 
be stated. 

Results. 

The estimations of hydrogen ion concentration are expressed in terms of Ph, 
following the now universal convention. The determinations were made with 
the aid of a Hellige Comparator, very kindly lent to me for this purpose by 
Mr. J. G. Wood, of the Department of Botany. The indicators employed were 
Cresol Red and Thymol Blue, the sensitive ranges of which cover the variation 
of Ph values which were encountered in these determinations. The samples, 
wherever the depth of water permitted, were taken at a uniform depth of four 



42 

feet from the surface. This was accomplished by drawing out test tubes in a flame 
(applied to the upper extremity) into a narrow tube, then evacuating and sealing 
in the flame in such a way that the drawn out end fell over in the shape of a hook. 
Care must be taken not to employ too hot a flame, so that this bent, narrow end 
of the evacuated tube will remain hollow. These tubes were suspended by half- 
hitches in a thick line, provided with a heavy sinker, and a float so adjusted that 
it was four feet above the narrow end of the tube which pointed upwards. A thin 
line was attached to the hook-shaped narrow extremity of the evacuated tube and 
paid out loosely as the tube sank, until the float touched the water. The thin line 
was then sharply jerked, which resulted in breaking the narrow end of the tube, 
the water entering through the opening into the evacuated tube which, when 
drawn up, was full of water. The end was then further broken to permit the 
water to be poured out into the graduated tube in which it was mixed with the 
indicator solution. The samples were always taken from a stationary boat. 

The results obtained under usual tidal conditions are shown in the accompany- 
ing map and may also be summarised as follows, the "starting point" in each case 
being a point just of! the peninsular shore at the middle of Tauwitchere Channel, 
which is the narrow channel separating Tauwitchere Island from Younghusband's 
Peninsula. The distances given are in nautical miles 

1. Starting point, across the Murray mouth and around the Western end 
of Hindmarsh Island : 

Distance from Starting Point. Ph. 

At starting point . . . . . . . . 8*4 

1*5 miles towards mouth of Murray .. .. 8*2 

3 '5 miles towards mouth of Murray, just off 

mouth of Boundary Creek . . . . . . 8*3 

4*5 miles, close to mouth, just at the corner of 

the south-west shore . . . . . . 8*2 

5*1 miles, directly opposite the mouth off the 

shore of Mundoo Island . . . . . . 8*0 

6 - 4 miles, being 1*3 miles from mouth towards 

Goolwa 
8*0 miles 



8-4 
8*4 
8*4 
8*4 



11 T miles 

13*3 miles, off Goolwa 

15*4 miles, that is, 2*1 miles cast from Goolwa, in 

the channel north of Hindmarsh Island . . 8*4 
18*0 miles, that is, 4*7 miles east from Goolwa . . 8*6 

2. Starting point, round the south-eastern extremity of Tauwitchere Island 
to Naming, at the mouth of Lake Albert: 

Distance from Starting Point. Pn. 

2 miles, off Mud Island 8*6 

4 miles in mid-channel, off the end of 1 .ong 

Island . . - - . . . . • • 8*/ 

6 miles, off the Point Sturt trig, station . . 8*9 

8 miles, off the headland of Point McLeay . . 8*9 

10 miles, just off Point McLeay Mission Station, 



in 



34- feet of water . . . . . . 8*8 



"2 



12 miles, just off the Albert Passage . . . . 8*9 



43 



0-5 


miles 


2-0 


ft 


4-0 


>7 


6-0 


XS ' 


8-0 


>> • 


10-5 


>) 


12-5 


j y ' 


14-0 


S3 


16-0 


JJ * 


18-0 


JJ 



3. Starting point, round south-eastern extremity of Tauwitchere Island to 
Lovcday Bay : 

Distance from Starting Point. Ph. 

1 mile, off south-eastern end of Tauwitchere 
Island . . . . . . . . . - - - 8*5 

2 miles, now heading direct for Loveday Bay . . 8*5 

3 miles . . . - . . . . • . - - 8*5 

4 miles, at entrance to Bay . . . . . . 8*6 

5 miles, in Loveday Bay, off jetty on north 
shore, in 3^ feet of water . . . . . . 8*6 

4. From the opening of the Coorong to a point between Trunkena Well and 
Mount Anderson, 20 miles from the opening: 

Distance from Opening. Ph. 

" 6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

6 

8 

8 

8 

.. 8 

Discussion of the Results. 

Analysing these results, with the aid of the accompanying map, it will be 
evident that, as we recede in every direction from the Murray mouth, the water 
becomes more alkaline. The distribution of the readings strongly suggests that 
the Murray River water is alkaline, having a Pi-i of at least 8*9, and that the 
reaction of the sea-water at the mouth is much more nearly neutral, having a 
Ph of 8*0 (neutrality = 7*2). To put it more concretely, in terms of actual 
hydroxyl ion concentrations, Murray River water appears to be about ten times 
as alkaline as the sea-water into which it is discharged. 

Since the alkalinity increases more rapidly when we travel' from the mouth 
in an easterly than in a westerly direction, the main flow of river-water, at the 
season at which these observations were made (at the end of summer, March 7 to 
16, 1929), was round the eastern sides of the islands which are clustered around 
the mouth. This is also indicated by the fact that this channel is silting more 
rapidly than the channel around the western extremity of Hindmarsh Island, and 
the numerous sandbanks are changing position more frequently. 

Although very saline, the water in the Coorong resembles river- rather than 
sea-water in its reaction. This may indicate that the Coorong represents virtually 
river-water, entrapped and rendered saline by evaporation. This explanation is 
upheld by the easterly course of the main flow of river-water, to which allusion 
has been made, which would bring the river-water past the mouth of the Coorong. 
An alternative explanation is possible, however, namely, that the high alkalinity 
of the Coorong water is due to the abundance of algae which inhabit it. It has 
been pointed out by Lipman (1) that algae increase the alkalinity of sea-water. 
When the anchor was dropped in Lake Alexandrina it came up coated with slime, 
but no algae. The anchor dropped in the Coorong, at a point about 8 miles from 
the mouth, came up completely coated with masses of algae. 

The constant tendency for sandbanks and bars to form near the mouth of the 
Murray, which, in the past, has evidently given rise to some, if not all of the 
Islands clustered near the mouth, is commonly attributed to the deposition of 



44 

silt brought down by the river. It is not so generally recognised that part of this 
deposit may be derived from the sea-water itself, through the alkaline reaction 
communicated to it by admixture with the waters of the river. It has been shown 
by Lipman (loc. cit.) that the addition of sufficient alkali to sea-water, originally 
of Pn = 8"0, to communicate to it an alkalinity corresponding to Ph — 8 - 8 t',o 
8*9, induces the formation of a precipitate consisting mainly of phosphates of 
calcium and aluminium, together with small proportions of iron and magnesium. 
In this way no less than sixty per cent, of the phosphoric acid in sea-water may 
be precipitated. It was observed, in fact, that the sea-water samples which were 
collected near the mouth, and originally clear, deposited a fine white precipitate 
on standing for about an hour in a test-tube, whereas samples collected in the 
body of the lake did not do so. Chemical examination of the silts near the mouth 
of the Murray should reveal to what extent this process is contributing to their 
formation. 

The precise results obtained at any point will, of course, vary with the state 
of the tide. The values given represent those usually observed (for example, 
at the "starting point" in Tauwitchere Channel, where many observations were 
taken) of obtained at medium tide, neither high nor very low. The influence of 
tide was very clearly illustrated, however, when, on one occasion, at very low 
tide, on Monday, March 11, at 4.45 p.m., the Ph exactly opposite the mouth, off 
the point of Mundoo Island, had risen to 8*4 (that usually found, namely, in 
Tauwitchere Channel), while at 6 p.m.. with the tide very low and still running- 
out swiftly, the Ph found in Tauwitchere Channel was 8'8, the value, namely, 
which was found under medium tide conditions in the channel between Point 
Sturt and Point McLeay, and also 125 miles down the Coorong. 

The values obtained in this investigation correspond very well with those 
found by Lipman (loc. cit.), who reports 8-0 as the value commonly obtained for 
sea-water containing little or no algal growth, and states that values as high as 
9*4 may be found in sea or fresh waters thickly inhabited by algae and exposed 
to the light to permit rapid photosynthesis. He suggests that the algal population 
may form a very important factor in determining the rate of deposition of phos- 
phates of lime and aluminium from water, owing to the changes of Ph which 
they induce. If we accept this view, then my observations would suggest that 
such precipitation must be occurring at an exceptionally high rate in the waters 
of the Coorong, and should have led to notable changes in the composition of the 
dissolved mineral salts, whether these arc mainly derived from the sea or from 
the river. 

Acknowledgments. 

In conclusion, I desire to thank the Lands and Survey Department for their vtry 
generous gift of the plans from which the map which accompanies this paper was 
constructed; to Mr. G. W. Bussell, for assistance in the construction of the map; 
to Mr. J. G. Wood, as stated above, for the loan of the Hellige Comparator used 
in obtaining the estimations of Ph values; to Mr. Hedlcy R. Marston, for pre- 
paring the apparatus employed for taking the samples of water; to Mr. J. D. O. 
Wilson, for the preparation of the glass tubes in which the samples were collected; 
to Mr. M. L. Mitchell, for the loan of the ship's log and angle sextant with the aid 
of which the positions were determined; and to my companions on the trip, 
Professor H. H. Woollard, Dr. P. Gorrie, and Messrs. G. Fowler and C. T. M. 
Roach, for valuable assistance in obtaining the samples for investigation. 

Reference. 
(1) Lipman, C. P., "The Chemical Composition of Sea-water," Carnegie 
Institution of Washington Publications, No. 391, 1929, pages 249 
to 257. 



45 



A CENSUS OF THE MARINE ALGAE OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

Classified after De Toni, Sylloge Algarum. 

By A. H. S. Lucas, M.A., B.Sc. 
(Communicated by Professor J. B. Cleland, M.D.) 

[Read June 13, 1929.] 

This list includes all the South Australian Marine Algae, Green, Brown and 
Red, of which I can find records. It is doubtless far from giving a complete 
enumeration of all the Algae of these groups which occur on the coasts of South 
Australia, and a wide field for further discovery is open to collectors and investi- 
gators. The statement of what is known will be of use to succeeding workers. 

Very little indeed is known of the marine flora of the Bight to the west of 
Cape Catastrophe. In the Melbourne Herbarium there are a few plants from 
Fowler's Bay, and one gathered by Tictkens at Denial Bay. 

The Algae of Investigator Strait were collected by Miss Nellie Davey, and 
were recorded by Th. Reinbold, of Itzehoe, Denmark, in Hedwigia, Band xxxviii., 
1899. 

East of the strait more is known. Baron von Mueller (then Dr. Mueller), 
during his residence in Adelaide, collected on the Lefevre Peninsula, near the 
mouth of the River Torrens, in St. Vincent's Gulf, and some of his plants are 
preserved in the Melbourne Herbarium. I, myself, collected kelps at Brighton. 
Mueller's plants were determined by Dr. Sonder, of Hamburg. 

Encounter Bay has been explored by: (1) Miss Jessie L. Hussey at Port 
Elliot, and her material made use of by J. G. Agardh, of Lund, Sweden; (2) by 
Professor J. B. Cleland and his family, continuously, at Victor Harbour and 
Middleton Bay; (3) by myself, in a brief stay at Victor Harbour. Dr. Cleland 
has entrusted me with his great mass of material. 

The chief collection in the eastern bays was made by Dr. Engelbardt- 
Kingston. His plants were gathered with much zeal and knowledge in Lacepede 
and Guichen bays. They were recorded by Th. Reinbold in La Nuova Notarisia of 
De Toni in the years 1897, 1898. Miss Ellen Macklin, of the Adelaide University, 
collected considerably at Robe, and has placed her plants in my hands. Mrs. 
Dr. Wehl collected considerably at Macdonnell Bay ; her material went to Sonder 
mostly, but a packet of them was sent after Sonder's death to the Sydney 
Herbarium. 

The above, then, comprise the sources of the information on which this list 
has been compiled. 

I have tried to make a beginning of a record of the geographical distribution 
along the coast. The records made are positive, but there are many blanks to 
be filled. Probably the great majority of the species extend over the whole coast- 
line. The numerals indicate the regions, as follows : — 

1. Investigator Strait (Miss Davey). 

2. Encounter Bay (Miss Hussey, Dr. Cleland). 

3. The Eastern Bays (Dr. Engelhardt, Miss Macklin, Mrs. Wehl). 
Fragmentary — 

4. Great Australian Bight. 

5. Spencer Gulf. 

6. Gulf St. Vincent. 



46 

CHLOROPHYCEAE (Kuetz. ex parte) Wittrock. 
Order CONFERVOIDEAE (Ag.) Falk. 
Family ULVACEAE (Lamour.) Rabenh. 
Ulva Linnaeus. Enteromorpha Link. 

U. lactuca L. 1, 2, 3. E, compressa (L.) Grev. 3. 

E. crinita (Roth.) J. Ag. 3. 
E. clathraia (Roth.) J. Ag. 3. 

Family ULOTRICH1ACEAE (Kuetz.) Borzi, em. 
Endoderma Lagcrheim. 
E.viride (Rcinke). 3. 

Family CLADOPHORACEAE (Hassall) Wittrock. 
Chaetomorpha Kuetz. Dictyosphaeria Decaisne. 

C. darzvinii (H. & H.) Kuetz. 3. D, sericea Ilarv. 1, 2. 

C. coliformis Mont. 2. 

Cladophora Kuetz. Apjohnta Harvey. 

C, valonioides Sond. 1. A. laetevirens Llarv. 1, 2, 3. 

C. nitidula Sond. 1. 
C. daveyana Reinb. 1. 
C. conformis Reinb. 3. 

Order SIPHONEAE Grcv., em. 

Family BRYOPSIDACEAE (Bory) Thur. 

Bryopsis Lamour. 

B. plumosa (Huds.) Ag. 1,3. B, vestita J. Ag. 3. 

Family CAULERPACEAE Reichenbach. 
Catjlerpa Lamour. 

C. scalp elliformis (R. Br.) Ag. 3. C. fiexilis Lamour. 3. 

C. plumaris Forskaal. 3. C. hypnoides (R. Br.) Ag. 2, 3. 

C. longifolia Ag. 2. C. vesiculifera Harv. 3. 

C harveyi F. v. M. 3. C. cactoides (Turn.) Ag. 1, 2, 3. 
C. abics-niarina J. Ag. 1. (Reinbold 

identifies with C. cliftoni Harv.) Codium Stackhouse. 

C. obscitra Sond. 1845. C. bursa (L.) Ag. 2. 

= C. sonderi F. v. M. 1852. 1, 3. C. mammillosum Harv. 2. 

C. brozvnii Endl. 1, 2, 3. C. mitelleri Kuetz. 1, 2, 3. 

PHAEOPHYCEAE (Thur.) Kjellm., 1891 (Engler and Prantl.). 
= Fucoibeae Ag., 1817 (De Toni). 

Order CYCLOSPORINAE Areschoug. 
Family SARGASSACEAE (Dene.) Kuetz. 
Setrococcus Grev. Cystopiiyllum J. Ag. 

S. axillaris (R. Br.) Grev. 1, 2, 3. C. muricatmn (Turn.) J. Ag. 2. 

Scytothalia Grev. Carpoglossum Kuetz. 

S. dorycarpa (Turn.) Grev. 2, 3. C. confluens (R. Br.) Kuetz. 2, 3. 



47 



Sargassum Ag. 
S. sonderi J. Ag. 1, 3. 
S. various Sond. 2, 3. 
S. decipiens (R. Br.) J. Ag. 1, 3. 
S. verruciilosum (Mert.) Ag. 2, 3. 
$. cristatum J. Ag. 1, 3. 
S* spinuligcrum Sond. 1, 3. 



Scaheria Grev. 
6'. agardhii Grev. 2. 
S. ritgulosa J, Ag. South Australia 
(Melb. Herbm.). 



Cystophora J. Ag. 
C. uvifera (Ag.) J. Ag. 1, 2, 3. 
C. cephalomithos (Lab.) J. Ag. 2, 3. 

K.L " 

C. platylobium (Mert.) J. Ag. 2, 3. 
C racemosa Harv. 1, 2, 3. 
C. retorta (Mert.) J. Ag. 2. 
C. retro flexa (Lab.) J. Ag. 2. 
C. ditmosa (Grev.) J. Ag. 1. 
C. boiryocystis Sond. 1, 2. 
C. Grevillei (Ag.) J. Ag. 1. 
C. spartioides (Turn.) J. Ag. 1, 2, 3. 
C. nionilifera J. Ag. 1, 3. 
C. polycystidea Aresch. 1, 2. K.I. 



Family FUCACEAE (Lamour.) Kjellm. 
Ho'rmosira Endlichcr. 
H. banksii (Turn.) Dene. 1, 2. H. gracilis Kuetz. 



1, 2. K.L 



Order TETRASPORINAE De Ton!. 
Family DICTYOTACEAE (Lamour.) Zan. 



Gymnosorus J. Ag. 
G. nigrescens (Sond.) J. Ag. 1. 

Zonaria (Draparn.) J. Ag. 
Z. diesingiana J. Ag. 3. 
Z. crenata J. Ag. 1, 3. 
Z. turneriana J. Ag. 1, 3. 

HOMOEOSTRICIIUS J. Ag. 

H. stuposus (R. Br.) J. Ag. 3. 
H. canalicidatus J. Ag. 3. 
//. spiralis J. Ag. 2. 



Chlanidote J. Ag. 
Ch, microphylla (Harv.) J. Ag. 



3. 



Haliseris Targ. Tozz. 
H. muelleri Sond. 1, 2, 3. 
H. acrostichoides J. Ag. 3. 

Dictyota Lamour. 
D. latifolia J. Ag. 1. 
D. ocellata J. Ag. 1. 
D, radicans Harv. 1, 3. 

Pachydictyon J. Ag. 
P. furcellatum (Harv.) J. Ag. 

Dilophus J. Ag. 
D. marginatus J. Ag. 2. 
D. fastigiatus (Sond.) J. Ag. 

Lobospira Aresch. 
L. bicuspidata Aresch. 2, 3. 



3, 6. 



3. 



Order PHAEOZOOSPORINAE Thuret. 
Family LAM1NARIACEAE (Bory) Rostaf. 
Ecklonia Hornem. Macrocystis Ag. 

E. radiata (Turn.) J. Ag. 2. M. pyrifera (Turn.) Ag. 3. 

Family SPOROCHNACEAE (Reichb.) Dene. 



Perithalia J. Ag. 
P. inermis (R. Br.) J. Ag. 2, 3. 

Encyothalia Harv. 
E. diftoniU'drv. 1, 2, 3. 



Sporochnus Ag. 

S, comosus Ag. 3. 

S. gracilis J. Ag. 3. Slenderer form 
of S. comosus, with longer pedi- 
cals. Not recognised by De Toni. 

S. radiciformis (R. Br.) Ag. 3. 

S. scoparms Harv. 1. 



48 



Family CHORDARIACEAE (Ag.) Zan. 
Cokynophloea Kuetz. Leathesia Gray. 

C. zostericola Harv. 2. L. difformis (L.) Aresch. 2. 

There must be several other representatives of the Family on the South 
Australian coasts, but they do not seem to have been noted. 

Family ENCOELIACEAE (Kuetz.) Kjellm. 



Spiiacelaria Lyngb. 
S, fur tiger a Kuetz. 3. 



Geadostephus Ag. 
S. spongioses ( Light f.) Ag. 2. 

Stypocaulon Kuetz. 
S. paniculatum (Suhr.) Kuetz, 
$„ funicidare (Mont.) Kuetz. 



Punctaria Grev. 
P. latifolia Grcv. 3. 

SCYTOSIPHON Ag. 

S. lomentarius (Lyngb.) J. Ag. 3. 

PllYLLITIS. 

Colpomenia Derb. and Sol. 
C. siniwsa (Roth.) Derb. and Sol. 3 

Hydroclathrus Bory. 
H. cancellatiis Bory. 2, 5. 

RHODOPHYCEAE Ruprecht, 1855 (Engler and Prantl.). 
Florideae Lamouroux, 1813 (De Toni). 
EU-FLOR1DEAE De Toni. 
Order NEMALIONINAE Schmitz. 
Family GELIDIACEAE (Kuetz.) Schmitz. 
WRANGEEiAAg. Gelidium Lammir. 

W mwiophyUoidcs Harv. 1, 3. G. australe J. Ag. 1, 2, 3. 

W\ vdaiinaBarv. 2, 3. G. gland tdaefohmn H. and H 

W. verticillata Harv. 3. 
W. crassa H. and H. 3. 
W. wattsii Harv. 3. 
W, davigera Harv. 3. 
? W. prince psllarv. 1. (Reinbold uncertain.) 

Order GIGARTIN1NAE Schmitz. 
Family G1GARTTNACEAF: Schmitz 



3. 



3. 



Pterocladia J. Ag. 
P.lucida (R. Br.) J. Ag. 1,2,3. 



Gigartina Stackhouse. 
G. flabellata J. Ag. 3. 
G. disticha Sond. 1, 3. 
G. pinnata J. Ag. 3. 
G. zvehliae Sond. 3. 

Stenogramma Harv. 
5*. intcrr upturn (Ag.) Mont. 6. 
S. leptophyllum J. Ag. 2, 6. 

Mychodea Flarv. 
M. membranacea Harv. 3. 
M . carnosa Flarv. 3. 
M. hamala Harv. 2, 3. 
M. compressa Harv. 3. 
M. nigrescens Harv. 3. 
M. disticha Harv. 1, 3. 
M. foliosa (Harv.) J. Ag. 3. 
M. linearis ]. Ag. ms. 4. Fowler's 
Bay. 



Dicranema Sonder. 
D. grcvillci Sond. 1, 2, 3. 

Callophyllks Kuetz. 
C, harveyana J. Ag. 3. 
C. marginifera J. Ag. 3. 
C. lambertii (Turn.) Grev. 1, 2, 3. 
C. coccinea Harv. 1, 3. 
C. camea J. Ag. 2, 3. 
C. australis Sond. 3. 

Polycoelia J. Ag. 
P. laciniala J. Ag. 3. 
P. chondroides J. Ag. 3. 

Callymenia }. Ag. 
C. tasnianica Harv. 3. 

Meredithia J. Ag. 
M. polycoelioides J. Ag. 3, 6. 

Geeinaria Sond. 
G. harveyana J. Ag. \, 3. 



49 



Family RHODOPHY 
Gloiophyllis J. Ag. 
G. barkeriae (Harv.) J. Ag. 3. 
C. engelhardtii Reinb. 3. 

Rhodophyllis Kuetzing. 
R. volans Harv. 3. 
R. blepharicarpa Harv. 3. 
R. ramentacea (Ag.) J. Ag. 3. 
R. membranacea Harv. 3. 
R, multipartita Harv. 3. 
R. brookeana J. Ag. 3. 
R. leniiifolia (Harv.) J. Ag. 1, 3. 
i\?. goodwiniae J. Ag. 3. 

Erythroclonium Sond. 
£. angustatum Sond. 3. 
if. sonderi Harv. 3. 
E. mitelleri Sond. 1, 3. 



LLIDACEAE Schmitz. 

Rhabdonia Harv. 
R. nigrescens Harv. 3. 
R. coccinea Harv. 1, 2. 
R. dendroides Harv. 3. 
.ft. verticillata Harv. 1, 2 
.ft. clavigera J. Ag. 3. 
#, robusta (Grev.) J. Ag. 



o. 



1. 



Areschougta Harv. 
A. congesta (Turn.) J. Ag. 3. 

— Ai gracilarioides Harv. 
A. laurencia (H. and H.) Harv 1 

2,3. 
A. ligulata Harv, 3. 

Thysanocladia End!. 
T. harv ey ana J. Ag. 3. 
T. oppositifolia (Ag.) J. Ag. 1, 3. 



Order RHODYMEN1NAE Schmitz 
Family SPHAEROCOCCACEAE (Dum.) Schmitz. 



Phacelocarpus Endl. and Dies. 
P, complanatus Harv. 3. 
P. alahis Harv. 3. 
P. labillardieri (Mert.) J. Ag. 2, 3 
P. sessilis Harv. 3. 

Stenocladta J. Ag. 
6\ r amnio sa J. Ag. 3. 

— Areschougta dumosa Harv. 

Nizymenia Sond. 
iV. australis Sond. 3. 

Melanthalia. 
Af. concinna (R. Br. ?) J. Ag. 3. 
M. obhtsata (Lab.) J. Ag. 3. 

Curdiea Harv. 
C laciniata Harv. 2, 3. 

Family RHODYMEK 
Gloioderma J. Ag. — Horea Harv. 
G. austraie J. Ag. 3. 

= Horea poly car pa Harv. 
G, halymenioides (Harv.) J. Ag. 1. 
G. tasmanicum Zan. 3. 

=- Horea speciosa Harv. 

Stictosporum Harv. 
S. nitophylloidcs (Harv.) J. Ag. 3. 

Rhodymenia Grev. 
R. foliifera Harv. 3. 



Gracilaria Grev. 
C. harveyana J. Ag. 3. 

Tylotus J. Ag. 
7\ obtiisatus (Sond.) J. Ag. 3. 

Hypnea Lamour. 

H.musciformis (Wulf.) Lamour. 3. 

H. episcopates H. and H. 1, 2, 3. 

//. seticitlosa J. Ag. 1,3. 

#. hamidosa (Turn.) Mont". 1. 
Determined by Reinbold. A Red 
Sea and Cape of Good Hope 
species. Not recorded for Aus- 
tralia by De Toni. 

Rhododactylis J. Ag. 
R. bulbosa (Harv.) J. Ag. 3. 

IACEAE (Naeg.) J. Ag. 

Sebdenia Berth. 
S. kallymenioides (Harv.) J. Ag. 

PIymenocladia J. Ag. 
H. dactytoides (Sond.) J. Ag. 4 

(Fowler's Bay.) 
H. ceratoclada J. Ag. 2. 
H. us-ma (R. Br.) J. Ag. 1, 2, 3, 4 

(Fowler's Bay), 6 (Adelaide). 
//. divaricata (R. Br.) Harv. 3 6 

(Hallett's Cove). 
H. polymorpha (Harv.) J. Ag. 2 3 

4 (Fowler's Bay). 



50 



ClIRYSYMENIA J. Ag. 

C\ brownii (Harv.) J. Ag. 2, 3. 

Ctiampia Desv. 
C. parvula (Ag.) J. Ag. 3. 
C. affinis (II. and H.) J. Ag. 1, 3. 
C, obsolete* Harv. 3. 
C. lasmanica Harv. 1, 3. 

Chylocladia Grev. 
C. fruticidosa Reinb. 1. 

Erytiirocolon J. Ag. 

E. muclleri (Solid.) De Toni. 3, 6 
(Lefebre). 



Bindera Harv. 
B. splanchnoides Harv. 1. 

Plocamium Lamour. 
P. leptophylhini Kuetz. 1, 3. 
P. flexuosnm H. and H. 3. 
P. preissiamim Send. 2, 3. 
P. angustmn (J. Ag.) H. and H. 

2, 3. 
P. costatum (J. Ag.) H. and 

1, 3. 
P. nidificum (Harv.) J. Ag. 1, 3. 
P. mertensii (Grev.) Harv. 2, 3. 
P. procerum (J. Ag.) Harv. 3. 
P. dilatatum J. Ag. 3. 



1, 



H. 



Family DELESSERIACEAE (Naeg.) Schmitz. 



Nitophyllum Grev. 

N. giinnianwm Harv. 3. 
N. erositm Harv. 3. 

iV. pristoideum Harv. 2, 3. 
N. minus (Sond.) Harv. 3. 
N. affine Harv. 2, 3. 
N. parvifolium J. Ag. 3. 
A r . polyanthiwi J. Ag. 2, 6. 
iV. validum J. Ag. 2. 

A. ciirdieanam Harv. 1, 2, 3. 

Pachyglossum J. Ag. 
P. husseyamtm J. Ag- 3. 
P. engelhardtii J. Ag. 3. 

Hypoglossum Kuctz. 
H. denticidahmi J. Ag- 3. 
i?. lacepedeanum Reinb. 3 (Deles- 
seria, 1 Reinb.). 



Chauvinia Harv. 
C. corufolia Harv. 3. 

Phitymophora J. Ag. 
P. imbricata J. Ag. 3. 

Apoglossum J. Ag. 
A. tasmanicum (F. v. M.) J. Ag. 

Hemineura Harv. 
H. f rondo sa Harv. 3. 

Sarcomenia Sonder. 
.9. mutabilis (Harv.) J. Ag. 1. 
S. tenera (Harv.) J. Ag. 1. 

Sonderella Schmitz. 
5*. linearis (Harv.) Schmitz. 3. 



Family BONNEMATSONIACEAE (Trev.) Schmitz. 

PTILONIA J. Ag. BONNEMAISONTA Ag. 

P australasica Harv. 3. B. asparagoides (Wordw.) Ag., 

var. hypneoides Remb. 1. 
Delisea Lamour. 
D. hypneoides Harv. 1, 3. 
D, pulchra (Grev.) Mont. 3. 



Asparagopsis Mont. 
A. armata Harv. 1, 3. 



Family RHODOMELACEAE (Reich.) Harv. 
Subfamily LAURENCIEAE (Harv.) Zan. 
Laurencta Lamour. Corynecladia J. Ag. 

L. filiformis (Ag.) Mont. 3. C umbcllata ]. Ag. 3. 

L. forsteri (Mert.) Grev. 1, 3. 

L. casuarina J. Ag. 3. Janczewskia So lms-Laubach. 

L. obtttsa (Huds.) Lamour. 1. /. tasmamca talk. 1. 

L. tasmamca H. and H. 1. 
L. data (Ag.) Harv. 1. 



51 

Subfamily CHONDRIEAE (Kuetz.) Schmitz. 
Chondria. Cladurus Falk. 

c. tenuissima. c. elatus (Sond.) Falk. 3. 

/. sub tilts Kuetz. 1. 
C. succulenta (J. Ag.) Falk. 3. Coeloclonium J. Ag. 

C. umbellula (Harv.) Reinb. 1, 3. 
Masciialostroma Schmitz. C. verticillatitm (Harv.) J. Ag. 1, 3. 

M. scoparhim Schmitz. 3. C. opuntioides (Harv.) J. Ag. 1*3. 

= M. fastigiatum Falk. C. incrassatum J. Ag. 3. 

Subfamily POLYSIPHONIEAE (Kuetz.) Schmitz and Falk. 
Polysiphonia Grev. 
Oligosiphonia J. Ag. (4 siphons). Polysiphonia J. Ag. 

P. mollis H. and H. 3. (More than 4 siphons) 

P. crassiuscula Harv. 3. P. cancellata Harv. 2, 3 

P. ferulacea Suhr. 3. ' P. atricapilla J. Ag. 3. 

P. blandi Harv. 3. 

P. /wokn Harv. 3. Chiracantha Falk 

P. hystnx H. and H. 2, 3. C. valida (J. Ag.) Falk. 3. 

P. mallardiae Harv. 3. 
P. Davcyae Reinb. 1. 

Subfamily PTEROSIPHONIEAE Falk. 
Pollexfenia Harv. Dictymenia Grev 

P. pedicellata Harv. 1. D. harveyana Sond. 2, 3. 

-P. lobata (Lamour ?) Falk. 3. D. tridens (Mert.) Grev. 3. 

D. angnsta J. Ag. 3. 

Subfamily LOPHOTHALIEAE Schmitz and Falk. 
Brongniartella Bory. Lophothalia Kuetz 

B. australis (Ag.) Schmitz. 1. L. verticillata (Harv.) Kuetz. 3. 

B. sarcocaiilon (Harv.) Schmitz. 3. Doxodasya Schmitz. 

D. lanuginosa (J. Ag.) Falk. 2, 3. 

Subfamily POLYZONIEAE Schmitz. 
Euzoniella Falk. Cliftonaea Harv. 

E. incisa (J. Ag.) Falk. 1. C. semipennata (Lamour.) J. Ag. 

Subfamily HERPOSIPHONTEAE Schmitz and Falk. 

Herposiphonia Naegeli. 

H. rostrata (Sond.) Falk. 1, 3. H. versicolor (H. and H.) Falk. 1, 3. 

Subfamily RYTIPHLOEEAE (Dene) Kuetz. 

Protokuetzingia Falk. Osmukdaria Lamour 

P. australasica (Mont.) Falk. 1. O. prolifera Lamour. 1 ? 2, 3. 

Amansia Lamour. 

A. pinnatifida Harv. 2, 3. Lenormandia Sond. 

Vioalia Lamour. £,. mitelleri Sond. 2, 3. 

V. spiralis Lamour. 1. L. latifolia Harv. 2. 

Subfamily HETEROCLADIEAE Dene. 
Trigenea Sond. 
T. umbellata J. Ag. 2, 3. 



52 

Subfamily DASYEAE (Kuetz.) Schmitz and Falk. 
Thuretia Dene. Heterosiphonia Montague. 

T. qacrcifolia Dene. 1, 3. H. zvrangelioides (Harv.) Falk. 1. 

Dasya Ag. • H. gitnniana (Harv.) Falk. 1, 2, 3. 

D. hapalathrix Harv. 3. H. giiichensis (Reinb.) De Toni. 3. 

D frtttescens Harv. (?). 1. H. citrdicana (Harv.) Falk. 1, 3. 

D. clifioni Harv. 1. H- mueUeri (Sond.) De lorn. 3. 
D. clongata Sond. 1, 3. 

D. naccarioides Harv. 3. Halodictyon Zan. 

D capiUaris H. and H. 3. H. robustum Harv. 3. 

I). villosa Harv. 1, 2, 3. H. velatum Remb. 3. 
I), vehitina J. Ag. 3. 

Family CERAMIACEAE (Bonnem.) Naeg. 
Subfamily GRIFFITHSIEAE Schmitz. 
Grtefithsia Ag. 
G. gunmmia J. Ag. 3. G- wraf/i? Harv. 1, 3. 

C. flabclliformis Harv. 3. 

Subfamily MONOSPOREAE Schmitz. 

Bornetia Thuret. Monospora Sober. 

B. meredithiana J. Ag, 3. M. griffithsioides (Sond.) De lorn. 

M, clongata (Harv.) De Toni. 3. 

Subfamily CALLITHAMNJ.EAE (Kuetz.) Schmitz. 
Callithamnion Lyngb. 
€. multifidum Harv. 3. C. spinescens Kuetz. 3. 

C laricinum Harv. 1, 3. C. pulchellum Harv. 1, 3. 

Subfamily SPONGOCLONTEAE Schmitz. 
Spokgoclonium Sond. Haloplegma Mont. 

S. brounianum (Harv.) J. Ag. 1. H. preissii Sond. 1, 2, 3. 

Subfamily WARRENIEAE Schmitz. 
Warrenia (Harv. ms.) Kuetz. 
W. comosa Harv. 3. 

Subfamily PTILOTEAE Cramer. 

Euptteota Kuetz. 

E, articulata (J. Ag.) Schmitz. 3. E. coralloidea (J. Ag.) Kuetz. 2, 3. 

Subfamily DASYPIIILEAE Schmitz. 
Dasyphila Sond. 
D, preissii Sond. 2, 3. 

Subfamily CROUANTEAE Schmitz. 
Baelia Harv. Crouania J. Ag. 

B. callitricha (Ag.) Mont. 1, 2, 3. Species (Reinbold). 

B. robertiana Harv. 3. 

B\ mariana Harv. 3. Lasiothalia Harv. ^ 

B. hamidosa J. Ag. 3 L* formosa (Harv.) De Tom. 1. 

Antithamnion Naeg. 
A. horizontale (Harv.) J. Ag. 3. Ptilocladia Sond. 

A. nodiferum J. Ag. 3. _ ^- pidchra Sond. 3. 

A mucronatum (J. Ag.) De Toni. 1. 



53 



Subfamily SPYRIDEAE J. Ag. 
Spyridia Harv. 
S. biannidata J. Ag. 1, 3. S. opposita Harv. 2, 3, 6 

S. breviartiadata J. Ag. 1, 3. S. squalida J. Ag. 2, 3. 

Subfamily THAMNOCARPEAE (Incertae sedis). 
Thamnocarpus Harv. 
T. harveyanus J. Ag. 3. F, glomeruli ferns J. Ag. 3. 

Subfamily CERAMIEAE (Dumort.) Schmitz. 
Ceramium Wiggers. 
C. puberuhtm Sond. 1, 3, 6 (Lefebre). C. nobile/] Ag 3 
C subcarttlagweum j. Ag. 2, 3. C. gracillimum Griff, and Harv. 3. 

Order CRYPTONEMINAE Schmitz. 
Family GRATELOUPJACEAE Schmitz. 



Halymenia C. Ag. 
H. harveyana J. Ag. 3. 

Pachymenia J. Ag. 
P. stipitataj. Ag. 2, 3, 6. 

Prionitis J. Ag. 
P. microcarpa (Ag.) J. Ag. 2. 

Polyopes J. Ag. 
P. constrictus (Turn.) J. Ag. 2. 



Carpopeltis Schmitz. 
C. phyllophora (H. and H.) Schmitz. 

2, 3, 6. 
C. elata (Harv.) Schmitz. 4 (Denial 
Bay). 

Cryptonemia j. Ag. 
C. undulata Sond. 3, 6. 

Thamnoclonium Kuetz. 
T. claviferum J. Ag. 3, 6. 
T. dichotomum J . Ag. 6 (Lefebre). 
7\ proliferum Sond. 6. 



Family RHODOPELTIDEAE, Fam Nov 
Rhodopeltis Harv. 
R. australis Harv. 2, 3. 

Family CORALLINACEAE (Gray) Harv. 

LlTHOTHAMNlON Pllilippi. 

L, lichenoides (Ell. and Sol.) Hey- 
drich. 3. 

Foslie places here Melobesia 
Patena H. and H., usually present 
on Ballia callitricha, 

Melop,esja Lamour. 
M. farinosa Lamour. 1. 

Dermalithon Foslie. 
D. pushdatum (Lamour.) Foslie. 

y, o. 

Mastophora Dene. 
M, lamour ouxii Dene. 1. 2, 3. 
M. canaliculate, Harv. 3, 

Chorophyceae 
Phaeophyceae 
Rhodophyceae 



Lithophyllum Philippi. 
L. ample. xifrons (Harv.) Heydr. 3. 

Amphiroa Lamour. 
A. ephedraea (Lamck.) Dene. Kan- 
garoo Island. 
Metagoniolithon Weber de Bosse. 
M. choroid es (Lamour.) Weber de 

Bosse. 2. 
M. stelligerum (Lamck.) Weber de 
Bosse. 3. 

Jania Lamour. 
/. micrarthrodia Lamour. 1. 
J.rubens Lamour. 3. 
Corallina (Tournefort) Lamour. 
C. Ciivicri Lamour. 

. . 29 

61 

250 



Total 



340 



54 



NOTES ON THE FAUNA OF DIRK HARTOG ISLAND, 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

No. 1.— INTRODUCTION. 

By Edwin Asi-iby, F.L.S., M.B.O.U., etc. 

[Read June 13, 1929.] 

Dirk Hartog Island is the most westerly land in the continent of Australia, 
is 50 miles in length by a width of 4 to 8 miles, and forms with Dorre Island and 
Bernier Island to the north, the western barrier of Shark Bay, sheltering its waters 
from the heavv western swell of the Indian Ocean. 

On October 25, 1616, Dirk Hartog, a Dutch navigator, landed on the northern 
end of the island at Cape Inscription, where he nailed to a post a plate upon which 
was inscribed his name, the date of his landing, and the name of Ins vessel. In 
1697 Willem de Vlaming visited the same spot, took down Hartog s plate, replac- 
ing it with his own, and ultimately depositing the original in the State museum 
at Amsterdam, where it is now preserved. 

On August 1, 1699, the British navigator, William Dampier, anchored m 
Shark Bay and spent eight days searching for water, and from there took home to 
Europe a few botanical specimens, one of which has been named after him, 
Diplolaena dampieri. But it is to the French expedition, of which the ship 
"Uranie " under the Captain Mons. de Freycinet, which anchored m Shark Bay 
in September, 1818, that we are indebted for the first investigation of the fauna 
of Dirk Hartog Island. One of the surgeons of the expedition, Mons. Quoy, 
landed on the Island and, as a result of his collecting, the Black and White Wren 
that is endemic to Dirk Hartog Island and Barrow Island was described. A 
century passed bv before that island was again visited by a competent ornithologist. 
In 1916 Mr. Thomas Carter spent two or three months collecting there, partly m 
the early winter and again in late spring ; he re-discovered the Black and White 
Wren whose very existence had been doubted for almost a hundred years and 
he also described several very interesting subspecies that are endemic to the island. 
Then in 1918 and 1920, Mr. F. Lawson Whitlock paid two fairly lengthy visits to 
the island, adding thereby to our knowledge of its avifauna. 

On the conchological side, in 1905, Drs. Michaelsen and Hartmeyer, in the 
interests of the Hamburg South-West Australian Expedition, did a good deal 
of collecting in Shark Bay, and in 1911 Dr. J. Thiele described the chitons 
collected by them ; of the seven then described as new, several were from Shark 
Bay. The types of these are. in the Berlin Museum, and hitherto only one ot the 
seven has been represented in any Australian collection. 

The two main objects of the writer's visit was to study and collect the 
specialized avifauna of Dirk Hartog Island and to collect examples for Aus- 
tralian collections of some of Thiele's new species of chitons. In both of these 
directions the expedition was largely successful. My colleague, Dr. A. Chenery. 
and myself had planned to give a week or ten days to the island^ but owing to the 
unfortunate stranding of the steamer that calls in at Shark Bay, my time was 
reduced to four clear days, September 24 to 27, 1927. Dr. Chenery was able 
to stay a few more days, but I had to catch the motor mail at Carnarvon to keep 
another appointment. During our stay we were generously entertained by Mrs 
and Major Chenerv who are part owners of the Dirk Hartog sheep station, and 1 
gladly take this opportunity of expressing my thanks, and also acknowledge our 
indebtedness to the Chief Inspector of Fisheries (Mr Aldrich) of Perth, and 
Mr Walter Edwards, the Fisheries Inspector stationed at Shark Bay, who both 



55 

showed us many kindnesses. The rocks are limestone or coral, both imsuited to 
Polyplacophora, and the chiton fauna was numerically very poor. Examples of 
some of the species collected were sent to Dr. J. Thieie, of Berlin, to compare with 
his types, and extracts of his replies are quoted herein. 

The rainfall of the island is about 12 inches. Trees are quite absent, but 
extensive areas are covered with low "scrub," some of the larger bushes reach a 
height of 15 feet; representatives of the Leguminosae, Myrtaceae, Proteaceae, 
Malvaceae and other families were noticed in this scrub, and many of them were 
very showy when in flower, but the genus Eucalyptus was represented by only a 
few meagre patches of dwarf mallee-like forms. There was a large variety of 
herbaceous and annual plants, which together with many of the bushes are found 
to be excellent sheep feed. 

Thomas Carter's paper, "The Birds of Dirk Hartog Island : 'The Ibis' " 
(vol. v., No. 4, pp. 564-611, 1917). and F. Lawson Whitlock's paper, "Notes on 
Dirk Hartog Island: 'The Emu' " (vol. xx., pp. 168-189, Jan., 1921), both furnish 
maps and are exceedingly interesting and informative. The notes under the 
heading "Aves" are the combined observations of Dr. A. Chenery and the writer. 
The mollusca collected, other than chitons, were handed over to the South Aus- 
tralian Museum, and the following coleoptera also were handed over to the same 
museum and identified by Arthur M. Lea. 

COLEOPTERA. 

SCARABAEIDAE. 

Haplonycha crassiventris Blanch. 

Bolboceras insigne Lea. 
Two examples of each of these came to light at the homestead, Dirk Hartog 
Island. Mr. Lea states that both these species are very desirable ones, only known 
by very few examples. Of the former only two examples have hitherto been 
known, the type being in the Paris Museum and the other in the Blackburn 
Collection, labelled as having come from Lake Austin, Western Australia. 

Chrysomelidae. 
Par op sis hemisphaerica Chp. 
Paropsis tiiobc Blackburn. 

MOLLUSCA. 
A number of shells were collected by the writer, and it was intended to publish 
the record as a separate paper, but they have unfortunately been absorbed into 
the Museum Collection, with the exception of a member of the Fissurellidae 
belonging to the genus Eligidion, this is being described by Mr. B. C. Cotton, 
Assistant Conchologist of the South Australian Museum, to which Museum all 
the coleoptera and mollusca collected (except chitons) have been presented by 

the writer. 

Indo-Australian Faunal Region. 

Ashby, in "The Regional Distribution of Australian Chitons" (Report Aust. 
Assn. Adv. Sci., vol. xvii, pp 366-393, 1924), proposed a new Faunal Region, 
based on the influence of a warm current that is shown by Haligan to come in from 
the Indian Ocean and impinge on the coast of Australia at Shark Bay (of which 
bay Dirk Hartog Island forms part of the western rampart), this current then 
flows down the west coast, turning at Cape Leeuwin in an easterly direction and 
flowing along the southern coast of the Australian Continent over the cold and 
heavier western or antarctic current. Haligan supplies data to show that the 



56 

temperature of the surface water is raised appreciably by this current as far as 
Cape Northumberland on the eastern border of the State of South Australia 
The limited evidence that it was possible to obtain during this expedition, certainly 
from the point of view of the Polyplacophora, supports the acceptance of the pro- 
posed Indo-Australian Faunal Region. 

_ The two open ocean species of chiton, both common and endemic to the State 
ot Western Australia, appear to reach their northern limit in the north of Shark 
Bay, and one of the commonest ischnochitons in South Australia is also the 
commonest ischnochiton on the rocks on the sheltered side of Dirk Hartog Island 
but has not been recorded from further north, and its extreme limit eastward is 
iound on the northern coast of Tasmania. 



NOTES ON THE FAUNA OF DIRK HARTOG ISLAND, 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

No. 2.— AVES. 

(Including joint observations of Dr. A. Chenery and the writer.) 

Pied Cormorant (Phalacrocorax varius Gmelin, 1789.) 

Nesting in great numbers on Quoin Bluff, on the ledges in the limestone cliffs • 
young almost fully fledged. 

Australian Pelican (Pelecanus conspiciUatus Temminck, 1824). 
Only a few birds seen. 

Red-tailed Tropic Bird (Phaethon (?) rubricaudiis Boddaert, 1783). 

I saw a Tropic Bird some miles out at sea and some distance south of the 
island, the light was not good enough to enable one to distinguish the colour of 
the long tail leathers but I concluded that it was the red-tailed species; as it was 
noticed several times, there may have been more than one bird. 

The following twelve species only need be recorded :— Crested Tern (Sterna 
i:^rTJr T ^ n (S !^l^K S £ WT Gul1 ( Larus Novca-HoUandiael 



iac.hc Gull (Gabtanus pacificus), Red Oystercatcher (Haematopus ostraleaJ) 
Landed Po V er(Z 0m fer tricolor) Eastern Curlew (Nurncnius cyanofu/) 
(?j VVhimbrel (Numemus phaeopus), Red-necked Stint (Erolia ruficolUs) Sharp- 
tatted Stmt (hroha acuminata), Australian Bustard (Eupodotis austraUs). 

Reef Heron (Dcmigretta sacra Vieillot, 1817). 
Roth the dark and the white forms were noted. 

Wedge-tailed Eagle (Uroactus audax, Latham, 1801). 
White-breasted Sea-Eagle (Ilaliacetus leucugaster Gmelin, 1788). 
Nankeen Kestrel (Falcu cenchroides Vigors and Horsfield, 1827). 

Osprey or Fish-hawk (Pandion haliaetus, Linne, 1758). 
Several pairs of these birds were seen. One pair had made their nest con 
Sistmg of a most a cart-load of sticks, on the summit of a small conical hfocX 
known as Monkey H»ll/> near Surf Point, the southern extremity of the island 
m the nest were two fledghngs with wing feathers well developed- the parent 



57 

birds continued to make loud cries as long as one was within the neighbourhood 
of the nest ; it was a very fine sight to see these splendid birds circling round and 
round overhead, sometimes swooping down within fifty feet of the spectator. 

Horsfield Bronze-Cuckoo (Chalcites basalts Horsfield, 1821.) 
One specimen collected by Dr. Chenery. 

Welcome Swallow (Hirundo neoxena Gray, 1842). 
These birds were nesting at the Homestead. 

AVhite-fronted Chat (Epthianura albifrons Jardine and Selby, 1828). 
One nest found on a samphire-flat containing three eggs. 

The Dirk Hartog Scrub-Wren (Sericornis balstoni Grant, 1909). 

Sericornis balstoni Grant (Bull. B.O.C., 23, 72, 1909, Bcrnicr Is.). 

Serkornis maculatus hartogi Carter (Bull. B.O.C., 37, 6, 43, 1916, Dirk Hartog Is.). 

In September, 1928, I left my skins from Dirk Hartog Island in Melbourne 
for Mr. A. G. Campbell to examine, stating that at a meeting of the South Austra- 
lian Ornithological Association we had come to the conclusion on the skins we 
had before us (two collected by Dr. Chenery and two by myself), that the Dirk 
Hartog Sericornis was worthy of being given full specific status. Mr. Campbell 
wrote me under date September 15, 1928:— "Mr. Ashby's skins of Sericornis 
.agree with those in the H. L. White collection from Dirk Hartog Island and 
Bernier Island. These are distinct from Sericornis maculatus and are being kept 
so in the forthcoming biographies. Distinguishing marks are, pallid back ; white 
ground to under-surface including under wing coverts ; tail tips white all round." 
To this I would add that in the four examples collected, the anterior portion of 
the superciliary white line, common to the members of the genus Sericornis, is-, 
in these skins so broadened and the lores so pale as to make the lores white to 
dirty-white, a feature previously unknown in the genus Sericornis. One of the 
examples is a male with almost white lores. This led us to conclude that this 
peculiar feature was common to both sexes, but when passing through Melbourne 
I had the privilege of glancing through the skins in the "White Collection" and 
noticed there some of adult males in which the lores were darker, although still 
quite distinct from 6". maculatus. 1 have no skins from Bernier Island, but feel 
justified in accepting Mr. Campbell's statement that they are conspecific with the 
bird on Dirk Hartog Island. Grant's name antedates that of Carter's. I have an 
example of Mellor's S. m. geraldtonensis, taken by myself at the same time and 
place as the holotype; this differs widely from the Dirk Hartog bird, but seems 
nearer that species than is the dark form of S. maculatus from the south-western 
corner of the western State. 

This striking insular species was common in all places visited, it is quiet and 
mouse-like in its movements, but if one is still in any locality where are thick 
bushes, and make a few lip calls, these little birds will be seen creeping about in 
the shelter of the bush, coming out first in one place and then in another to have a 
look, often, as noticed by Carter, making a scolding note, evidently taking 
umbrage at the intruder. 

The Dirk Hartog Island Rock Field Wren (Calamanthus montanellus 

hartogi Carter, 1916). 
C. campestris hartogi Carter, Bull. B.O.C., 37, 6, 1916. 

This is another of Carter's finds and is a very striking insular form nearest 
to C. montanellus Milligan, but the streaking is darker and narrower, both in 



58 

upper and lower plumage; but it differs from that species, and also from C. cam- 
pestris and C. isabelliniis, in the absence of rufous and buff colouration in either 
upper or lower plumage, and in that the ground colour of the under-side is white. 
This bird was much more local than the Sericornis, but in the clumps of 
bushes where it did occur it was numerous. The male birds, in common with the 
allied forms on the mainland, have a very sweet song, which is produced from 
exposed positions on the tops of bushes, disappearing into the bush while the 
intruder is still a good way off; when moving in the bushes or running from one 
bush to another, along the ground, they cock their tails. The two I made skins of 
were both males, in one the iris is recorded as yellow, in the other 'Very pale straw 
colour." 

Dirk Hartog Island Emu Wren (Stipiturus malac hunts hartogi Carter). 
S. m. hartogi Carter, Bull. B.O.C., 37, 6, 1916. 

As compared with the Emu Wren of the mainland this subspecies is a dwarf, 
in fact in respect to size it seems closer to 5\ ruficeps Campbell ; but in that species 
in the male the blue of the throat extends right round the eye and side of face, 
whereas in all the forms of .9. malachurits, in the male, the feathers below the eye 
and side of face are never blue. The female differs widely from any other form 
in the pale silvery-grey ground-colour of the upper plumage, this is especially 
marked on the head and neck; a reference to Carter's colour plate (Ibis, 1917, 
pi, xi.) will show almost the correct lone of grey, but the proportion of grey to the 
dark streaking should be reversed, namely two of grey to one of black ; the under- 
side of this island form is a much paler shade of buff than any mainland form. 
The tail of a female in my collection is even longer than that of the male, figured 
in Carter's plate. The full measurements of this skin are: — Total length, includ- 
ing tail, 150 mm.; length from tip of beak to base of tail, 50 mm.; tail, 10 mm.; 
wing, 39 mm.; oilmen, 10 mm.; tarsus, 20 mm.; colour of iris, dark walnut; 
tarsus and feet, pale brown ; bill, grey-black upper, horn lower. This species 
was first noted nearly 20 miles north of the homestead in low bushes, not far from 
the eastern shore of the island, but was again met with on the wind-swept 
downs on the western side of the island, immediately above the cliffs which there 
are several hundred feet in height, the great ocean rollers of the Indian Ocean 
breaking ceaselessly at their base. The surface of the rolling downs above is 
largely covered with a dwarf myrtaceous shrub which I took to be a Thryptomene, 
this dwarf shrub taking much the same place here that the heaths (Erica and 
Calhtna) do on the moors of the British Isles. This Emu Wren shelters in these 
shrubs, is very shy and retiring and difficult to locate or flush, when flushed it 
flies with feeble flight in a straight line, its long tail held horizontally behind. 
We secured several females and one male, but as Whitlock failed to secure a 
male during his two collecting trips to the island, it is evident that the male is even 
more shy than the female. 

The Black and White Wren (Mahirus leucopterus Dumont, 1824). 

M. leucopterus Dumont, Diet. Sci. Nat., 30, 118, 1824. 

As stated in the. introduction, the type of this species was taken on Dirk 
Hartog Island by Mons. Quoy in 1818. While this Wren is apparently present 
throughout the length and breadth of the island, owing to its retiring' and shy 
habits it requires searching for. The first example 1 personally saw was on 
September 24, when a company of these little birds was noticed in some bushes 
on the sandhills bordering the South Passage at the southern extremity of the 
island, less than half a mile from Surf Point; the width of the channel here 
separating the island from the mainland is stated by Carter to be "barely a mile ." 



59 

As neither Carter or Whitlock seem to have done any collecting on this southern 
end of the island, this observation, so near to the mainland, is of importance ; there 
is no doubt as to the identification, for one or more of the black and white males 
were easily seen in this small flock. 

To the north and west of the homestead we saw many birds and secured a 
nice series of skins. At one point near the eastern shore several cock birds, 
with the attendant females, were noticed in low bushes growing on small hillocks, 
of sand, separated from one another by samphire flats. Then again, I noticed 
several males well up on the elevated western downs bordering the Indian Ocean. 
The population of Black and White Wrens on this island must run into scores of 
thousands ; the "cats gone wild" mentioned by Whitlock, I am thankful to say, 
do not seem in any degree to have diminished the numbers of this extremely 
interesting form of malurus. 

Habits. — As before mentioned, these birds go in companies containing a 
number of females and young males, in plain brown upper plumage and almost 
white under, with one or more adult males dressed seemingly, entirely in black 
and white, except the tail feathers which are deep blue. These adult males are 
very shy but have the habit of perching upon the topmost branches of the bush 
they happen to be in, and watching the intruder at a distance, or if disturbed 
when the intruder is nearer, they quickly disappear into the shelter of the bush, 
making their exit near the ground on the opposite side and thus passing through 
bush after bush if small, or remaining hidden if a large bush; in fact, they are 
adepts at doing a sort of disappearing trick; it requires the greatest vigilance of 
the observer if he is to keep in touch with the bird at all. It was also noted that 
the black plumage is inconspicuous except when the observer is quite near, and 
the pure white wing coverts are also invisible except when seen against a dark 
background. The plain plumaged birds, to a certain extent, scatter when dis- 
turbed, but whether this is due to any warning call of the male or not I could 
not ascertain. 

Description. — None of the cock birds collected by us show any blue except 
in the tail, the pure white wing patch is made up, according to Mathews, of "inner 
upper wing coverts, scapulars, upper-back, and innermost secondary quills"; the 
flight quills are brown and rest of both upper and under plumage is intense black, 
but the crown of the head has a distinct sheen-like satin. The measurements and 
data of a male were made in the flesh. Total length, tip of beak to tip of tail, 
120 mm.; wing, 41 mm.; tail, 57 mm.; culmen, 9*5 mm.; tarsus, 21 mm.; iris, 
brown; feet, dark horn; tarsus, horn colour; bill, black. In the female the bill is 
reddish-horn; iris, feet and tarsus, same as male. 

Discussion. — Several theories have been proposed to explain the existence 
on both Dirk Hartog Island and Barrow Island, separated, as they are, by 400 miles 
of sea, of a Black and White Wren endemic to these two islands and occurring 
nowhere else. Are they survivals of a primitive form which has disappeared on 
the mainland, or are they, as I believe, representatives of a mainland species that 
has, owing to special ecological conditions common to these two widely-separated 
islands, changed in its plumage from deep blue and white to black and white. In 
advancing this hypothesis, I am able to advance some data from my own collection 
which has encouraged me to propound this theory as against that of survival. 

I have in my collection skins of three males from different localities on the 
mainland of Western Australia of the Blue and White Wren (M. cyanotus Gould, 
1865), all show a much deeper blue than do examples from South Australia' 
One, from the coast hills 160 miles north of Perth, shows many almost black 
feathers intermingled with the blue, and a male I collected on Peron Peninsula 
on September 29, 1927, 300 miles further north than the preceding example, is- 



60 

so dark in colour that it looks black in some lights; in fact, I have, several times 
picked up this skin thinking it was one of the Dirk Hartog Island specimens, 
until I altered the angle of light. It will be noted that only 20 miles of water 
separate the two localities. 

As before stated, barely a mile of water separates the island at its southern 
extremity from the mainland, it seems almost certain that gales will at times drive 
the Blue and White Wren from the mainland to the island or the island bird on 
to the mainland. In face of the evidence advanced which indicates a gradual 
transition from lighter blue to darker in the western examples of M. cyanotus, 
evidences that this tendency is emphasised as one proceeds northwards along the 
coastal belt, we are surely justified in assuming that this melanote tendency attains 
its maximum development on the two islands named owing to the presence there 
in excess of the inducing cause or causes. It is interesting to note that the females 
of the two species are practically identical. 

The Dirk Hartog Island Purple-backed Wren (Malurus assimilis 
hartogi Mathews, 1918). 

Malurus Jambcrti hartogi Mathews, Bull. B.O.C., 39, 24, 1918, 

Several examples of both male and female were secured ; their plumage is 
exceptionally brilliant, the blue around the eye and cheek is a little different in 
shade from any examples I have seen from South Australia, and in this sub- 
species this shade of blue extends along the margin of the crown. I notice that 
Carter identified his specimens from Dirk Hartog Island with the subspecies 
occidentalis Mathews, 1912. Not having seen examples of occidental-is, I cannot 
express an opinion as to whether Mathews was justified in separating it, neverthe- 
less, recognising that the insular bird warrants subspecific separation from the 
South Australian, I accept Mathews' name, hartogi. We found these Wrens shy, 
but noted them in several localities a good many miles apart. 

. Western Silvereye (Zosterops australasiac Vieillot, 1817). 

Sylvia australasiac Vieillpt, Nouv. Diet., 11, 235, 1817. 

These birds were very numerous on the island and may be presumed to repre- 
sent Mathews' subspecies edwini from Carnarvon, only 80 miles to the north-east. 
In the two examples we collected on the island, 1 cannot note any differences 
from skins taken from the mainland further south. 

Brown Honeyeater (Gliciphila indistincta Vig. and Hors., 1827). 
Only seen at 12-mile well, wdiere Carter camped. 

Singing Honeyeater (Meliphaga virescens Vieillot, 1817). 

Mclithrcptus inrescens Vieillot, Nouv. Diet., 14, .129, 1817, Shark Bay, W.A. 

This was much the commonest bird on the island. We did not collect any 
specimens on the island but did collect several on Perots Peninsula, just 20 miles 
across the water. It is understood that the type described by Vieillot w r as taken 
on the same peninsula. I notice that Mathews, in 1920, separated the bird on 
the island under the subspecific name hartogi, but such a strong flying bird is not 
likely to have been isolated from the mainland. 

The Australian Pipit (Anthiis australis Vieillot, 1818). 

These birds were fairly common, but one example only w T as taken ; this skin 
does not exhibit any features separating it from the mainland birds, which from 



61 

the same localities show a fairly wide margin of variation; I am, therefore, not 
adopting Mathews* subspecific name of hartogi. 

Zebra Finch (Taeniopygia castanotis) . 
This species was common at the wells, but one example only was collected 
on the island; the same species was also numerous on Peron Peninsula, but I 
cannot note any characters distinguishing examples I secured there and on the 
Murchison from the form we have in South Australia, so am not making use of 
Mathews' name hartogi. 

Little Crow (Corvus bennetti) (?). 
We did not collect any specimens on the island, and therefore the identifica- 
tion of the island bird with this crow is uncertain. As there are no trees on the 
island, the crows we saw were nesting on most of the windmills. 



NOTES ON THE FAUNA OF DIRK HARTOG ISLAND, 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

No. 3.— POLYPLACOPHORA. 

ACANTHOCHITON BEDNALLI JOIINSTONI Ashby. 

A cant ho chit on bcdnalli, var. johnstoyii, Ashby (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr vol xlvii 
p 231, 1923). " " 

This shell was described by the writer as a variety of A. bcdnalli, from three 
examples that were collected by W C. Johnston at about half way between 
Carnarvon and Maud Landing; I now suggest treating this western form as a 
subspecies. 

Definition. — Differs from A. bcdnalli s.s., in that the dorsal area in this form, 
from the beak forwards for about half the length, is ornamented with longitudinal 
rows of elongate, squamose granules, which then for a short distance in some 
examples shows a little longitudinal grooving which is replaced by a smooth 
surface, except for transverse growth ridges. The consistent deep longitudinal 
grooving, that is so typical of bcdnalli, is in this form absent; afeo, the fringe 
spicules of the girdle are decidedly coarser than bcdnalli s.s. This description is 
made from an example collected by the writer at Woodman's Point, near Fre- 
mantle, because the type from North of Carnarvon had the dorsal area eroded, 
this example now becomes the neotype. 

Two juvenile examples were obtained on rocks, at low tide, four miles 
south of the homestead on the island. The smaller, which measures only 3 mm. in 
length, possesses such a broad dorsal area that it is with hesitation that the writer 
assigns it to this species, but the larger, which is curled and measures about 5 mm. 
in length, seems quite typical of this subspecies. 

Notoplax subviridis Torr. 

Acanthochitcs subviridis Torr (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxv., p. 104, 1911). 

One example in excellent preservation, measuring, dry, 12*5 mm. in length, 
was obtained four miles south of the homestead, it is a typical specimen. The 
occurrence of this rare Notoplax at Dirk Hartog Island extends our knowledge 
of its range of habitat nearly 600 miles northwards. The only previous records 
were the four specimens collected by Torr at Albany, 1910, and three by the writer 
at Yallingup in 1929. 



62 

Isciinochiton cariosus Pilsbry, 1892. 

Iredale and Hull make Dall the author of the name cariosus, but as far as I 
can ascertain this name as used by Dall was a nomen nudum, in which case the 
author is Pilsbry, 1892. 

The action of Iredale and Hull in giving generic rank to the name Ueterozona 
has not up to the present been justified by any definitions supplying distinctions of 
generic status. Pilsbry (Man. Con. xiv., p. 65) treated Ueterozona as a sub- 
genus of the genus Ischnochilon, proposed by Dall, 1873 (Table of Regular 
Chitons, 1873). Pilsbry accepting the name as of subgeneric value on account of 
the "girdle bearing small scales with large striated scales intermingled," but later, 
in vol. xv., p. 82, he treats the name Ueterozona as a section of the genus 
Isciinochiton only. 

As the two other species which Trcdale and Hull include in their genus 
Ueterozona, namely /. fruticosus and I. subviridis, neither possess the character 
of "intermingled large girdle scales," such treatment is without justification. The 
main character on which Pilsbry's section Ueterozona was founded, "the inter- 
mingling of large scales," seems to be in this case only a specific character, which 
does not occur in I. fruticosus, its nearest ally. 

Isciinochiton cariosus, var. occidentalism Ashby. 

Ischnochiton fHcterosona) cariosus, var. occidentalis, Ashby (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 
vol. xlv., pp. 41-2, 1921). 

Of this variety six examples were taken at 4 miles south of the homestead and 
at Surf Point, the' southern extremity of the island. These all show the stronger- 
sculpturc characteristic of this variety, which the writer has now collected at the 
following localities on the western coasts of the western State :— Ellensbrook, 
Yallingup, Rottnest Island, Dongarra, Geraldton, and now as far north as Shark 
Bay on Dirk Hartog Island. The limits of the range of /. cariosus correspond 
with the limits proposed by the writer for his Indo- Australian Region, interlapping 
with the Adelaide Region (A. Ass. Adv. Sci., vol. 17, p. 374, 1924). 

The largest of the Dirk Hartog Island shells measures 22 x 12 mm., this 
example showing none of the "large scales," although the next smaller in size 
exhibits this feature. Sufficient collecting has not been done along the southern 
coast of Australia to determine whether occidentalis deserves subspecific rank 
or whether it is only the extreme of a gradual variation. 

ISCHNOCIIITON TINDALEI Ashby. 
Ischnochiton tindalei Ashby (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xlviii., p. 323-4, 1924). 
Two examples were obtained of this shell, that has hitherto been only known 
from the damaged holotypc from Groote Eylandt in the Gulf of Carpentaria; 
these two were obtained on rocks at low tide four miles south of the homestead. 
This species is near to L htticolens Hull, but is separable by the character of 
the sculpture and the more raised lateral areas ; the granules in the lateral areas 
and end valves in I. htticolens are shallow and flattened, whereas in I. tmdalei they 
are strongly convex; this character, although in a less degree, applies to the 
sculpture of the other areas ; also, in I. tmdalei, the grains are more crowded. ^ The 
two examples from Dirk Hartog Island are hardly as strongly sculptured as is the 
type, this may be due to juvenility, or it may be that when a larger series is avail- 
able ' sufficient variation in I. tindalei may be found to cause one to grant this 
form subspecific rank only. The two examples under discussion have not been 
disarticulated, so I cannot say whether they show the same distinction in the 
slitting of the insertion plate that was noticed in the holotype. 



63 



Cryptoplax hartmeyeri Thiele. 
Thiele (Die Fauna Siidwest-Australiens, Polyplacophora, Band iii., L. ii., pp. 405-6, 1911). 
n D ^- /' , Thicle ' in his description, records three examples collected by 
Urs. Michaelsen and Hartmeyer; one came from Surf Point, the southern 
extremity of Dirk Hartog Island, but the locality of the other two is unknown 
probably also from Shark Bay. These three specimens have hitherto been the only 
examples known, and are, 1 understand, in the Berlin Museum. 

I was successful in collecting two at Surf Point (the type locality), and one 
between that spot and the homestead, about four miles south of the latter Those 
rom Surf Point measure, respectively, dry, 45 and 25 mm. in length, and were 
taken oft limestone or coral rock at low water, on the inner side of Surf Point on 
the island side (north) of the South Channel. The third example was found 
almost completely buried in the hole of some rock borer, in a piece of hard lime- 
stone, at four miles south of the homestead; the animal so completely filled the 
hole into which it had forced its way that it was with much difficulty got out 
without damage and is now preserved in spirit. This example only measures, 
in its curled condition 20 mm. in length, although really the second largest of the 
three taken Valves 5, 6, and 7 are in this specimen as in life and show as mere 
spots nearly buried m the spiculose girdle. I cannot distinguish between this 
and the figure m Reeve's Icon., 1847, Chitonellus, pi. i., fig. 3, which figure is 
understood to represent C. burrowi Smith. " 

Thiele, while admitting that C. hartmeyeri is nearly allied to C burrowi 
says ' the valves and also the spicules on girdle are distinctly different " but it is 
unfortunate that he does not indicate the characters of these differences Unfor- 
tunately, I have never seen an example of C. burrowi, neither have I seen drawings 
or descriptions of the characters of the girdle spicules of that species and there- 
.Z*£%J£? !" a P° s,tlon to express any opinion. In 1924 (I.e. vol. xlviii 
pp. 239-240) the writer described and figured a minute Cryptoplax- from about 
30 miles north of Carnarvon, North Shark Bay, suggesting that it might be identi- 
fied with the still more minute form partially described by Thiele under the name 
C. michaelsem, in 1911. I now realize that, although the valve sculpture of this 
juveniLe specimen from north of Carnarvon appears to differ considerably from 
adult C. hartmeycri, the peculiar flattened, adpressed spicules, whose character 
was especially emphasised in my description in 1924 I.e.; correspond exactly with 
those of C. hartmeycri, of which I now have specimens. The fact that in the 
juvenile form all the valves touch one another, did not at all suggest that species 
m which the last four valves are so widely separated, but now I am satisfied that 
this Carnarvon example is the juvenile form of C. hartmeycri. 

Cryptoplax micttaelseni Thiele. 
Thiele (Die Fauna Siidwest-Australiens, l.c.p. 404, pi. vi., figs. 11-17). 
., * ca j led P 1 "' Thifle's attention to the statement of Iredale and Hull: "That 
the Jhielean figures here reproduced absolutely prove that Thiele's species is not 
a Cryptoplax," To this Dr. Thiele replies, under date June 25, 1928: "The fore- 
most part (anterior valve) has three incisions (slits), all the rest are without them ; 
m my opinion the species should be placed in Cryptoplax." 

■ ^ ith u h u additional , !i g ht thr own upon the subject by the discovery that the 
juvenile shell from north of Carnarvon is the juvenile stage of C. hartmeycri I 
have re-examined Thiers figs of his C. michaelseni and, if as seems probable 
his specimen was one-third only the size of Ashby's Carnarvon shell, the figures 

Zntt Alt Xt ff T Z mt a i U l enile Shdl of C - hartmeycri of about 2 mm. in 
length. Also I hides figures of the spicules of the two species closclv correspond 
with each other, if one allows for the extra magnification of 'the spicules 



64 

nf C michaelseni which is two to three times that of his figures of C. hartmeyeri 

Acanthochiton, this probably accounts for the omission of lull measurements 
the ^Tclnclusion.-l have demonstrated that C. hartmeyeri possesses a specia- 

following conclusions: — w . , 

(a) That Iredale and Hull referred C. michaelseni to the genus Acantho- 
chiton without the slightest supporting evidence. _ 

(b) That Ashby's shell, which he identified with C. michaelseni, is con- 
specific with C. hartmeyeri. 

(c) That C michaelseni is the very juvenile form of C. hartmeyeri. 

(d) Unfortunately, C. michaelseni has page precedence over C hartmeyeri 
i] which under International rules, necessitates our accepting C. michaelsem 

Thiele as the name of the shell, C. *drfe«!?m becommg a synonym 

thereof. . , , 

Lopiiochiton johnstoni Ashby. 

Lophochiton johnstoni Ashby (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol xlvii., 233-6, 1923) 
Iredale and Hull propose to recognise in this shell, Chiton coccus Menke, a 
species that wis neverfigured and the type of which was lost. Menke s desenp- 
fen will ecmaS apply to Hull's Callisto chiton grander, to Thiele's Calhstochiton 
Te^oZ^llJcallistocUton. C. recens Thiele ^/^tSrS 
ft™ in 101 1 J johnstoni Ashby from same locality in IVZ6, and L gramjer nmu 
fcbed Usa CaZtoZonirL Queensland, also in 1923, but pubhcation of his 
name precedes Ashby's by a few months. , (1Tncnffi 

I prefer to follow Pilsbry and relegate C. coccus Menke to the : list of In uffi- 
cientlv described chitons, and species of unknown generic position. 1 hides 
? r ™ was not figured but, as the type is still in existence, I sent one valve of 
the ho otype of L. joined and the single example taken by the writer on pearl- 
shell dredged in Shark Bay, during the trip, also a specimen of Hulls 
arTnifer for comparison with Thiele's type. He writes me as follows , - My 
cSliLhiton reins appears to differ from the ^^^ ZZtLSL 
johnstoni in the weaker sculpture and fte relatively broadci and shorter imddle 
valve without noticeable radiable ribs." 

I onlv secured the single example off pearl-shell that had been dredged in 
the lav between Dirk Hartog Island and the mainland; my opportunity of 
examfiltion was limited to about half an hour, more availab e tune would probably 
have led to further discovery. The specimens obtained 11-5 x 8 mm the radial 
ribbing in the anterior valve is shallower than in L. gramjer, as are also the two 
radial ribs in the lateral areas. 

ft eondusion.-A reference to the description of the type (p. 236) will show 
that the writer separated L. johnstoni from C. recens, not on lack of correspon- 
dence but on the existence in L. johnstoni of several striking charac ers unmen- 
ioned by Thiele, the most important of which was the absence of festooning 
in the insertion plate of the anterior valve, a feature that h present m the genus 



65 



Calhstochiton; as Hull overlooked the absence of this feature in his description 
of his granifer, it is not impossible that Thiele did the same. Now, in comparing 
the examples sent, Dr. Thiele only mentions as separating characters in his shell 
weaker sculpture and the relatively broader and shorter middle valve " In respect 
to sculpture, I have already shown herein that the sculpture of johnstoni, especially 
in the nbbmg of the lateral areas in the recent example, is much weaker thai, 
L^granifer; m fact, unless viewed with lateral lighting, the existence of radial 
nbbmg m the lateral areas is imperceptible. 

With regard to the proportional longitudinal and lateral measurements these 
vary greatly m the median valves of Ashby's type, the single valve sent to 
Dr. Ihiele was longitudinally considerably longer than any of the others ; this will 
account for the apparent difference noted by Thiele. If Thiele's C recent 
7^/ OU V/ C ' St ° 0, T g ' f the insertion P ]af e of the anterior valve it is certainly a 

bothh a «?A ™ d , C T mg ,> ^ ,t - d0eS ' fr0m the same localit y- ™™ly Shark Bay. 
both it and Ashby s L phnstom may safely be considered conspecific. As a result 
of this discussion we have : — 

(a) Solivaga reccns Thiele of Iredale and Hull becomes Lophochiton recens 

Ihiele; their genus Solnnga has no known Australian representative 
even it it has any justification at all. 

(b) Ashby's Lophochiton johnstoni becomes a synonym of Lophochiton 
recens Ihiele, as was rather anticipated in his type description 

(c) Callistochiton granifer Hull becomes a very good subspecies of Lopho- 
chiton reccns Ihiele. ' 

Tonica (lucilina) dilecta Thiele. 

Lucilina dilcda Thiele (Die Fauna Siidwest-Australiens, iii., p. 397, 1911) 
( No adequate characters of generic values seem to have' been advanced to 
justify generic separation of Lucilina from Tonicia, but with some hesitation I 
am retaining Lucilina as having subgeneric status. 

Three small specimens were taken off the rocks at low tide four miles south 
Of the homestead, and over a dozen from the same heap of pearl-shell that had been 
dredged in deeper water, that has before been referred to, these all will be topotypes 
as Shark Bay is the type locality. The smallest example,' 5 mm. in length, is worthy 
of mention, it was from the rocks four miles south of the homestead, is of a 
beautiful pink colour mottled with lighter and darker markings, is much loneer 
m proportion to width than usual, and the lateral areas are strongly raised show- 
ing little if any ot the typical sculpture. ' 

Onithochiton quercinus occidentalis, n. sub-sp. 

Tf t mv "rf 16 f °c-^ C 0nit / ! wchiton f rom Western Australia = O. scholvieni 

Ihiele (Die Fauna Sudwest-Australiens, iii., p. 1, 1911. Non of Thiele Rev 

Chitonen, Chun's /ool. Heft 56, pi. ii., 1910). ' 

Dr. Thiele writes me under date June 25, 1928, in reference to well-preserved 
examples of this Onithochiton I sent him from the north of Shark Bay— "The 
small Omthochilons from Carnarvon I consider, because of their weak sculpture 
not to be O scholvieni, which species, as I have written before, comes from' 
Vaucluse, and also from Sydney." O. scholvieni Thiele is, therefore, a synonym 
ot O. quercinus Gould, as there is only one species known in that locality 
iwftiwfu 8 ? oiO quercinus extends from south of Sydney, in New 
South Wales, to Mackay, m Queensland. The known range of the Western Aus- 
tralian species extends from Esperance on the South coast, up the west coast to 
a spot half way between Carnarvon and Maud Landing. This leaves a gap 



66 

in 



*A rtw r*na«fHru* (not following the indentations) of 1,200 miles 
We "ern Austral a 1,100 miles in thf Northern Territory, and 1 500 miles m 
Queens and or approximately 3,800 miles of coastline between the habitats of the 
^SSrtSSout which immense area of coast, up to the present we have 
no knoSee of the presence of either of these species. This fact, combined with 
Z gene al § difference of sculpture, leads one to conclude that we are justified m 
recognlmg the western form as at least deserving subspecific separation 

Differences -I concur in the main with Dr. Thiele in his statement hat the 
westerff o m is weaker than its congener in the east, but I admit, with freckle and 
Hull that very wide variation exists on the eastern species, bu on the other hand 
the western species, in the adult stage, with rare exceptions, is much less sculp- 
tured than is Ae eastern form; in fact, normally the lateral areas ,n the western 
are almost if not quite, unsculptured. Again, the western, which I propose to 
can Tddentalis, normally attains a larger size; in fact, the large examples are 
much the most common. An examination of the respective girdles under 65 mag. 
kads me to conclude that while the girdles of both forms are densely clothed with 
shortish stout, pointed spicules, those on the eastern shells are shorter and stouter 
in proport on, and also that O. quercinus s.s. normally possesses, amongst others, 
one part cul a ; class of spicule that does not occur in occidental namely, very 
short very stout spicules, usually placed in considerable patches ; these spicules 
•either taper abruptly to a fine point or have rounded, knobby apices ; these round- 
ended spicules suggest that the fine point has been broken off at an early stage 
and theS mended by a redeposition of calcareous matter making a well-finished 
rounded apex, but I doubt whether this is a true explanation of the occurrence. 
This Onithochiton was very common on the exposed western side of the reef 
at Surf Point Dirk Hartog Island. I have selected as the holotype of this sub- 
sides an example collected by myself at Dongarra, Western Australia, on 
November 10, 1920, taken from the exposed outer reef. 

Liolophura hirtosus (Peron M. S.) Blainville. 
Chiton hirtosus Blainville (Diet. Sci. Nat., xxxvi, 1825). _ 

Clavarizona was proposed as a generic name for the reception of ^species 
by Hull (Aust. ZooiUiii. p. 199, 1923). Ashby m (Jour and Proc Roy^ boc 
W ^ustr vol. viii., pp. 32-3, 1921-2) shows that L. hirtosus is , ^ally a 
Llojhur;, and gives availed description of the insertion plate of the ail valv. 
The characters defined by Hull as justifying his propos ed erection of h>, gem s 
Clavarizona are certainly beneath genenc status and, therefore, the generic name 
of Clavarizona cannot be. accepted. This species was exceedingly nu nerou on 
the outer side of the bar at Surf Point, in the same rock holes as the Onithochiton. 



67 



NOTES ON THE FAUNA OF DIRK HARTOG ISLAND, 
WESTERN AUSTRALIA. 

No. 4— CRUSTACEA. 

By Herbert M. Hale, Curator, South Australian Museum. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum.) 

Plate V. 

[Read May 9, 1929.] 

A few crustaceans were collected by Mr. Edwin Ashby during his recent 

5? WH D ' rk Ha / t0g , Island ,f nd > at h - -q^st, the species are herein deal 
i Apart from material secured on or near the shores of the island Mr Ashbv 

H M Edwid WO ff Cr w S ' * IaKc , ar ™™ «™*« Simpson and Schizophrys asperl 
ti. M. Edwards, off Woodman's Point, near Fremantle. 

The following species belong to the fauna of Dirk Hartog Island :— 

Family SQUILLIDAE. 
Only one representative of the family was found by Mr. Ashby, but it may 
be of interest to mention that Mr. D. L. Serventy, of Perth, recently collected a 
specimen of Sqmlla laems Hess">, at Cottesloe Beach, Western Australia 

GONODACTYLUS GLABROUS Brooks. 

Gonodactylus glabrous Brooks, Zool. Rep. Voy ''Challenger " ™ IRR^ ft a? «i • 
%. 5, and pi. xv., fe, 7-9; Ke m p, Mem. I„d. £*, fc, 19l|7f^ pTIx., ^ & §*?" s y T) ! 

A female with the colouration as follows :— Dorsum and raptorial limbs brieht 
green the latter with the dactylus pink at base and greenish distally ; under ide 
and all other appendages yellow, in parts tinged with green. 

Family HIPPOLYTIDAE. 
Alope australis Baker. 
Alope palpalis Hasw., Cat. Aust. Crust., 1882, p. 193 (nee White). 

fl„= nt f ^ Ba , ker ' Trans ' Ro >'- Soc - s - Austr -> xxviii, 1904 p 154 D l ni 

fig 5. " ' ' ° Urban MUS '' U - 1919 > P- 121 > P ] - xix - and «t, 1921, p. 22, 

Four specimens, the largest 35 mm. in length. 

HlPPOLYSMATA V1TTATA Stimpson. 
Hippolysnmta vittata Kemp, Rec. Ind. Mus., x„ 1914, p. 113, pi. vi, figs. 6-10 (and syn ) 
A single specimen about 30 mm. in length and in a soft state of preservation' 

SSSi^a^iS^ legs much divlded as in s p~ *- s 

tinrfwiS J™", .these limbs are not asymmetrical; the ischium is indis- 
wentv fn v H y ei & ht , ln ^ ns P lcu ous divisions, the merus has twenty-three to 
twe nty-four div 1S ion 5 , and the carp us is twenty-nine to thirty jointed. 

O) Kemp, Mem. Ind. Mus., iv., 1913,749^1. Hi., figs. 35-37 (and svn.)." 
m H. vittata, var. (?) Kemp, Rec. Ind. Mus., x., 1914, p. 115. 



68 



Family SYNALPIIEIDAE. 

CkANGOJN EDWARDSI (AudoUltt). 
Aipfmts cdzvardsi (And.) de Man, Journ. Linn. Soc, Zool., xxii., 1888, p. 266 (and syn.). 

Family PORCELLANIDAE. 

Petrot.isthes japonicus (de Ilaan). 
Porcdhna japonica de Haan, in Siebold's Fauna Japon, Crust., vii., 1849, p. 199, pi. L, 

Petrolisthes boscii (Audouin). 
Porcellana boscii Audouin, Savigny, Descr. d. l'Egypte, Crust., 1826, p. 89, lor Savigny's 

Petrolisthes boscii McCull., Rec. Aust. Mtts., ix., 1913, p. 3S3, fig. S3. 

Family LITHODIDAE. 

Lomis hirta (Lamarck). 

Limns hirta (Lamarck) Hasw., Cat. Aust. Crust., 1882, p 152 (and rcf.) ; Hale, Crust. 
S. Aust., pt. L, 1927, p. 96, fig. 93. 

A single small specimen was taken under a stone between tide-marks. J he 
species was previously known to range from Tasmania and Victoria to the shores 
ol the Great Australian Bight, but the new locality considerably extends its known 

habitat Family PAGURIDAE. 

Cljbanarius virescens (Krauss). 
Pagurus virescens Krauss, Sudafrik. Crust., 1843, p. 56, pi. iv., fig. 3. 
Clibamrius virescens McCull., Rec. Aust. Mus., ix., 1913, p. 346, pi. x,, fig 2 (and syn.). 

Calcinus latens Randall. 
Calcinus latens Randall, Journ. Acad Nat. Sci„ Philad., 1839, p. 135; Alcock, Cat. fed. 
Decapod Crust., ii., 1905, p. 58, pi. v., fig. 5 S7 • Alcock 

Calcinus terrae-reginae Hasw., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S. Wales, vi„ 1882, p. 57, Alcock, 

^ ' The eye'stllkfof 7 the single small specimen secured are shorter than as shown 
by Akock! no other differences are apparent, and this character is probably due 

t0 y ° Uth - Family MAJIDAE. 

Menaf.thius monoce'ros (Latreille). 
Menaethius monoeeros (Latr.) Alcock, Journ. As«t Soc. Bengal, lxiv., 1895, p. 197 
(and syn.). Cyciax suborhicularis (Stimpson). 

Crcla, suborhicularis (Stimps.) Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, lxiv., 1895, p. 245; 
Caiman, Trans. Linn. Soc, viii., 1900, p. 39 (and syn.). 

Family XANTHIDAE. 

A.CTAFA MICHAELSENI OdllllCr. 
Actaea nnchaelseni Odhner, Goteborgs Kungl. Vet,Och. Vitt.-Samh. Handl., xxix., No. 1, 

1925 'Tht 3 'tmique fi female type was taken in Shark Bay, Western Australia, and 
Mr Ashbv now presents a second female from Dirk Hartog Island, in the vicinity 
cl thttpeSity This example has the carapace 15 mm. in length and 21 m 
t ieadA and agrees closely with Odhner's description and illustration. I* 
colour lis ion red above' with the fingers of the chelae brown, tipped with 
white, and the claws of the walking legs brown. 



69 



Actaea cavipes (Dana). 
Actaeodes cavipes Dana, Proc. Acad Nat Sci Philarl irw «m 
^/W« ^//iwwo Dana, W. «V ' ^ 1852j P " 73 " 

«~^^ * -; OdW 

fi&pmfa, e ,„ fa -^ Rath „ p roc . zoo , S0C) 19H p 6S8> ^ % ft and pl ,. ( fi& 7 

Xanthias lamarckii (H. M. Edwards) 
Xantho lamarckii H. M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., i 1837 „ 391 
Xanthodcs l ama rckn Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengaflxv^'lk, p . 1S7 (and syn } 

Xanthtas elegans (Stimpson) 
Misc^^fK^^^l Jrti Nat^ci., Philad., x., 1858, p . 33; and Sanson. 

Rhodes atromanus Hasw., Cat. Aust. Crust, 1882, p 49 pi i fifr I 
i925 Xan^as elegans Odhner, Goteborgs Ku„ gl . Vet.-Och'^tt.-t^^Hlndl., xxix., No 1, 

Xanthias atromanus McNeill, Aust. Zool iv 1926 p 313 
na me P X ,0 i:^ UStralian aUth ° rS ha - dealt with this species under HaswelPs 
Carpilodes cinctimanus (White) 

no. ^-g^f--— odi ^^^^^^^aj^se-, 

Wfc T1 T si "£ le u male , secured has a carapace 5 mm. in length and 9 mm in breadlh 
When fresh, the colouration of this example was as follows -Caranace wilt ' 
with four narrow, wavy, longitudinal orange lines not techW^f SjS * ' 

The colouration is rather unusual, notwithstanding the Uct tW *k» B ™ • 
Carpilodes ruber A. M. Edwards 

pi. ,&?'•/" ""'""" K " ,h - B " u - u ' s - Fi * c °"™- <»' »*» (I*' p.: ,',.,;?« 

brown, tipped with white. Mr Ashbv stages f-hat tL tJr 1 e 

during life; J s a ' cs that the ied wa s deep crimson 

Carpilodes rugatus (H. M. Edwards) 
Zozymus rugatus H. M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust, i., 1834 p 385 
tarpriodcs rugatus A. M. Edw., Nouv. Archiv du Mus Paris i lfc« * *w 1 •■ 

pti. 3 ng °r( c a r „d% r8s *"*■ Vct -° ch - vitt.-sa m h M ^: n x Xi 1 x., 1 ^: I; f 9 ° 2 s pl p. x 2o; 

M.Edw?187l).'" OW '" M/(m " A ' C0Ck ' J ° Uni - Asiat S ° C - BenKaI > lxvii - 1898 > P- 86 f«. 
by M A ,.Xhbf«lLTl^ Isrand "'" 5011 "" ^"^ b >' ****■ ™ <** 



70 



Odhner states that, following Alcock, there has been confusion between this 
species and C. monticidosus; the mid-Pacific records of the latter by Rathbun and 
Edmondson particularly are referable to C. rugatus. I have examined specimens 
of C. ruga Jin the Australian Museum Sydney, which were received in exchange 
by that institution through Ch. Edmondson of Ber. P. Bishop Mus., Honolulu, 
and incorrectly named by him C. monticidosus. 

Cttlorodiella niger (Forskal). 

Cancer nigcr Forskal, Descr. Anim., 1775, p. 89. 

Chlorodius nujer Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, Ixvn,, 1898, p. 160 (an<Uyn.) ■ 

Chlorodiella niger Rath., Bull. U.S. Fish. Coram., xxm. for 1903, pt. m, 1906, p. 857. 

Chlorodopsis areolata (H. M. Edwards). 

7 * t-t w TTrl™ T4i=t \ht Crust i 1834 p. 400 ("Nouvelle-Hollande") . 
Chlorodius areolatus H. M. Edw., Hist. ^ at. Crust., i, in^t, p. i. 

£W« «*/oftM Dana, U.S.Exp. Exped., Crust i,, 1852, p 188, pi «., ng, 
("Wakes Id., Pacific Ocean") ; (?) Whiteleggc, Mem. Aust. Mus., m 1897, p. 141. 

Actaeodes affinis Dana, U.S. Expl. Exped., Crust., i, 1852, p. 197, pi. xi., fig. 3 (Paumotu 
Group— Low Archipelago). . fi . , F , 

Chlorodopsis areolatus Hess, Archiv. fur Naturg., Jahrg., mi., 1865 p. 135 AM M^ 

Vet.-Och. Vitt.-Samh. Hand!., xxix., No. 1, 1925, p. 36. 
^«aafl»«IIasw., Cat. Aust. Crust., ^ 

xiv 2 1911 p. 219; Balss, Archiv. fur Naturg., 88 Jahrg., 1922, Abt. A, nett xi., p. u,i, 
Edmondson, Bull. Ber. P. Bishop Mus., v, 1923, p. 15. _ 

Odhner (ut supra) notes that there has been considerable confusion between 
Actaea affinis and Chlorodopsis areolata. Miers»> wrongly places Actaeodes 
aZs Dana and Ifoeo #«« A. M. Edw. as synonyms of ''Actaeodes tomentosus 
H M Edw" Probably I few references to "Actaea affinis Dana" are missed m 
the above synonymy, but all, if correctly identified, are referable to Chlorodopsis 

areolata H. M. Edw. Tirin . _ 

Family GRAPSIDAE. 

Pf.rcnon planissimum (Herbst). 

Plate V. 
Career plamssimus Herbst, Krabben u. Krcbse, IS 1804 pl.lix fig. 3. 
Afcfe^ #/«»,«.■«.« Alcock, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, box., 1900, ^439 (and pn^ 
P*r C K<m planissimum Grant and McCull., Proc. Lmn. Soc, N.S. Wales, xxxn., 19U/, 

P - ''two males, here illustrated, were taken; these ^™^V£Zh\nc\ 
described by Alcock. The carapace ot one example is 15-5 mm. m length and 
13-7 mm. in breadth, that of the other is slightly smaller. 



(3) Miers, Rep. Voy. "Challenger," xvii., 1886, p. 135. 



71 



REMARKS ON THE SYNONYMY OF CERTAIN TRISTOMATID 
TREMATODE GENERA. 

By Professor T. Harvey Johnston, University, Adelaide. 
[Read June 13, 1929.] 

Whilst engaged in the study of some tristomatid trematodes, it became 
necessary to examine the validity of certain generic names which have become 
widely used and applied very differently by various authors. As the result seems 
to necessitate the sinking of some well-known names into synonymy, a sketch o»f 
the history of the genera involved appears advisable. These are Phylline, Capsala 
Phyllonella, Epibdella, Tristoma, and Benedenia. ' 

The confusion in regard to some of them has been referred to briefly by 
MacCallum (1927). Tn 1815 Oken used the name Phylline to designate a new 
genus which included P. diodontis Oken, P. hippoglossi Muller, and Hirudo grossa 
Muller, his diagnoses being republished by MacCallum (1927). This generic 
name was widely used by subsequent authors for parasites generally referred to 
as Epibdella spp., but it had been employed by Abildgaard in 1790 for a monozoic 
cestode, now known as Caryophyllaeus, and, therefore, not available for Oken's 
species. 

The account and figures of the first-named species, P. diodontis, were based 
on those of La Martiniere (1787, 1798) whose material was obtained from 
Dwdon on the west coast of North America by the La Perouse Expedition The 
description shows it to have been a tristomatid. Bosc, however, had previously 
(1811) given the name Capsala martinieri to the parasite, describing the genus 
as new. 

The second, P. hippoglossi, which has commonly been regarded as the type 
of the genus, was based on Hintdo hippoglossi Muller (1776). ■ The third founded 
on H. grossa Muller (1788) is not a trematode, but a parasitic ncmertine 
(MalacobdeUa) . 

In 1817 Cuvier, in his "Regne Animal/' vol. 4, erected the genus Tristoma 
describing and figuring one species, T. coccineum. Next year Lamarck (1818, 
295) gave a summary of Phylline, mentioned the synonymy of P. hippoglossi] 
and stated his belief that the parasites were related to' Polystoma instead of 
Annelids (leeches), where they had been allotted. He also referred to Blain- 
ville's manuscript name, Entobdella, for the genus, but retained Oken's Phylline 
r Jhe reference was quoted erroneously by Braun (1889) as appearing in 
Lamarck's vol. i., p. 444, and subsequently (1890, 518) he indicated the genus 
with the date 1815 (when vol. i. appeared) as a synonym of Epibdella Stiles 
and Hassall (1908, 251) credit Entobdclla to Audouin 1828, whereas Agassiz 
(1845) and Scudder (1884), in their respective Nomenclatores Zoologici, 
attribute it to Blainville, but without mentioning a date. Sherborn, in his Index 
Animahum, gives the correct date (1818) for Entobdella (Blainville MS.) 
Lamarck. It was not mentioned by Rudolphi (1819), and has remained prac- 
tically unrecognised since. 

Rudolphi (1819, 427-30) mentioned the work of Oken and Cuvier, but 
accepted Cuvier's genus and described a new species, T. maculatitm (p. 430), 
quoting m the list of synonyms, La Martiniere's account and figures, Phylline 
diodontis Oken, and Capsala martinieri Bosc. Since Cuvier's and Rudolphi's 
species are con-generic, Capsala Bosc obviously has priority over the better known 

r 



72 

name Tristoma, and the family Tristomidae or Tristomatidae should be known 
as Capsalidae BaircL and the Tristomatoidea and Tristominae as Capsaloidea and 
Capsalinae, respectively. Poche's term (1926, 108) Tristomatides, substituted for 
Tristomeae Tasch., becomes Capsalides or Capsaleae. 

In 1826 Baer subdivided Oken's genus into two sub-genera, Tristoma and 
Nitzschia, the latter being new, with N. clegans Baer as the only species. II is 
three generic diagnoses were republished by Braun (1890, 527). The species 
was a renaming of Hirudo shtrionis Abildg (1794), hence its correct name is 
N. shirionis (Abildg) Kroyen 1852. In the same year Nitzsch (1826) described 
Tristoma clongahtm (— Nitzschia shtrionis) and referred to Capsala martinieri. 
In 1827 Blainville (1 > erected Epibdella to receive Phylline hippoglossi 
(Miiller). In 1840 Nordmann transferred the species of Tristoma, including 
7. elongatum N. to Capsala. In 1843 Rathke renamed Midler's species as 
Tristoma hamahim, including in its synonymy Hirudo hippoglossi ^ Miiller, 
Phylline hippoglossi Oken, and Ertobdella hippoglossi Blainville. Stiles and 
Hassall (1908) query the last-named generic name as having been intended for 
Entobdella. 

In 1850 Diesing placed Epibdella as a synonym of Phylline and included 
under P. hippoglossi Rathke's species along with others above-mentioned, tie 
also ranked Capsala Bosc and Phylline Oken (in part) as synonyms of Tristoma 
and recognised Nitzschia as valid. The last-named three, together with certain 
other genera, were grouped in a family, Tricotylea. In 1853 Baird^ used the 
family name Capsalidae and restored Capsala Bosc, including Phylline Oken, 
Tristoma Cuvier and Nitzschia Baer as synonyms. He listed two species, 
C. coccineum (Cuv.) and C. elongata (Nitzsch), placing Phylline hippoglossi 
Oken and Hirudo shtrionis Abildg under the latter as synonyms. 

In 1856 van Beneden described and figured a new species of Epibdella, 
E. sciaenac, and mentioned the characters differentiating the genus from Tristoma, 
viz., the large ventral sucker provided with hooks, but devoid of septa; the 
weakly-developed anterior suckers; and the undivided testes. In 1858 Diesing 
founded a new genus, Benedenia, to receive Ep. sciaenac, which he renamed 
B. elegans Dies. 

In the same year van Beneden, who did not recognise the validity of the 
genus named in his honour, restored sciaenae to Epibdella, gave a further account 
of it and of Ep. hippoglossi, and published a generic diagnosis, which was 
reprinted by Braun (1890, 527) and Goto (1894, 233), both of whom then 
amended it. He did not differentiate between the two types of anterior suckers 
represented by the two species, and he included the presence of regularly-arranged 
papillae on the posterior sucker as a generic character. He also established the 
family Tristomidae (Tristomides) for Epibdella, Tristoma and Udonella, In 
1863 both species of Epibdella were referred to by Beneden and Hesse, and the 
genus, together with Nitzschia, Encotyllabe, a new genus Phyllonella (type 
P. soleae Ben. and Hesse) and some others, was placed in Tristomidae, while 
Udonella was removed from it. The diagnosis and figures of Phyllonella were 
republished by Braun (1890), the chief difference separating it from Epibdella 
being the character of the anterior fixing organs which in the former are broad, 
thin, and folded, though serving as suckers. 

In 1865 Johnston referred to hippoglossi under Entobdella, hi 1877 Vogt 
gave an account of the reproductive system of Phyllonella and mentioned 

(DThe date 1828 is usually quoted, but Sherborn (Index Animalium^ pt. ix., 1926, 
p. 2169) recorded the genus as having been published by Blainville in Diet. Sci. I\at, 
vol. xlvii., 1827, p. 269, and in vol. rvh\, 1828, p. 567. 



73 

that the genus was only slightly differentiated from Epibdella. Next year 
Taschenberg (1878) incorporated a large number of genera, including Epib- 
della, Benedenia, Phyllonella, Encotyllabe, Nitzschia, etc., under Tristomam. 
A similar attitude was' expressed by him in the following year (1879) in his 
account of certain species of Tristoma, where he mentioned Tristomum (Epib- 
della) hippoglossi Oken, T. (Epibdella) sciaenae Ren., and T. (Phyllonella) solea; 
and quoted Nitzschia elegans Baer as Tristomam elongatmu Nitzsch. 

In 1888 Monticelli referred to the two species of Epibdella and to Phyllonella. 
He termed the anterior adhesive organ of the latter a "pseudoventosa" to 
emphasise its difference from that of Epibdella. A summary of earlier classifica- 
tions of trematodes was given, and a protest made against Taschenberg's suppres- 
sion of so many genera belonging to the Tristomidae. He accordingly restored 
Nitzschia, Epibdella, Placunella, Phyllonella and Trochopus to generic rank. He 
stated that Vogt's Phyllonella solae (nee. Ben. and Hesse) was identical in struc- 
ture ^ with Ep. hippoglossi as described by Beneden, and regarded Benedenia 
Diesing and Phylline Oken as synonyms of Epibdella (pp. 86-7 and footnote). 
He proposed a system of classification in which the family Tristomeae Taschenberg 
was subdivided into four sub-families : (1) Tristomidae Ben., containing 
Nitzschia, Epibdella, Phyllonella, Trochopus, Placunella, Tristomum and Acan- 
thocotyle; (2) Encotyllabidae Montic. (with Encotyllabe); (3) Monocotylidae 
Tasch.; and (4) Udonellidae Ben. and Hesse. In his key to the genera (p. 97), 
the essential difference indicated between Epibdella and Phyllonella lay in the 
structure of the anterior adhesive organs. 

In 1889 Linstow described Phylline hendorffii. About this time Braun 
(1889-1890) began to publish his work on the trematodes as part of Bronn's 
Tierreich. Figures of earlier authors relating to Epibdella hippoglossi, species 
of Tristoma, Nitzschia, Phyllonella and other genera were reproduced, and 
diagnoses of the sub-family Tristomidae and of its constituent genera were given 
(1890, 526-530). The generic characters regarded as separating Epibdella and 
Phyllonella were those already referred to. He rejected Capsala as being un- 
identifiable; regarded Phylline Oken as a synonym of Epibdella or of Tristapia; 
and quoted Entobdella Lamarck, 1815, as synonymous with Epibdella; while 
Benedenia was not recognised because erected without sufficient justification. 
Mention was also made that Monticelli (1890) regarded Phyllonella soleae, as 
described by Vogt, as a synonym of Epibdella hippoglossi, and hence Phyllonella 
might be identical with Epibdella. 

In 1891 Monticelli gave an account and published figures of the three known 
species of Epibdella (hippoglossi, sciaenae and hendorffii). In 1894 Goto dealt 
with the anatomy of many heterocotylean trematodes, including two new species 
of Epibdella, E. ishikawae and E. ovata. He gave a diagnosis of the genus, 
amending that of Beneden, and transferred Phylline hendorffii to it, as Monticelli 
had done previously. He followed Braun in disregarding Benedenia as valid. 

In 1895 Parona and Perugia described Phylline monticellii from Magil 
auratus. Perrier (1897), in his synopsis of trematode genera, placed nine of 
them, including Epibdella, Phyllonella, Encotyllabe, Nitzschia and Tristoma, in 
the sub-family Tristominae, separating the first and second according to the 
character of the anterior adhesive organs. In 1898 St. Remy published a synopsis 
of the recently described species of Epibdella and various other monogenetic 
trematodes. 

In 1899 Goto re-examined E. hippoglossi and transferred it to Phyllonella, 
since the anterior organs were found to mark the ventrolateral^- folded outlets of 
the ducts of a single mass of dorsally-placed gland cells. He retained Epibdella 



74 

for related species possessing well-developed anterior suckers, and gave a brief 
account of E. sciaenae, pointing out that there was a single aperture for the 
common genital pore and the vagina, whereas in all other species of Epibdella, 
Phyllonella and Tristoma the two terminated separately. 

In 1900 Linton published a brief account of E. bnmpusii from a stingray, 
and mentioned that the anterior suckers were crossed by about twenty-two ribs. 
His figures indicate an elongated glandular rather than a circular muscular 
anterior adhesive organ. The vagina and common genital pore open together in 
this species. In the same year Pratt included Tristoma, Nitzschia, Epibdella, 
Phyllonella, and three other genera in Tristominae, excluding Enctotyllabe 
(Encotyllabinae). He separated Phyllonella and Epibdella according to the 
structure of the anterior organs, Linton's species being retained in the latter genus. 
In the same year Scott (1900) gave a brief account of E. hippoglossi and 
Phyllonella soleae, publishing a figure of the latter and recording both as para- 
sites of certain flatfish in Scottish waters. 

In 1901 Monticelli described E. (Phyllinc) diadema from a ray and sub- 
divided the genus into two subgenera. Phylline Okcn and Benedenia Diesing, 
including in the former E. hippoglossi Miiller, E. soleae Ben. and Hesse, E. 
bumpusli Linton., and E. diadema Montic. ; while B, sciaenae Ben., E. hendorffii 
Linstow, E. ovata Goto, E. ishikawae Goto and E. monticellii Parona were assigned 
to Epibdella (Benedenia). 

In 1902 Heath gave a detailed account of E. squamula. Next year Linstow 
(1903) described E. producta and followed Monticelli (1901) in retaining the 
same five species under Epibdella (Benedenia). In the same year Monticelli 
placed Epibdella in a new sub-family, Ancyrocotylinae, Tristomidae (fide Stiles 
and Hassall 1908, p. 252), and in 1904 he transferred Heath's species to the sub- 
genus Phylline. Next year Odhner (1905) dealt with E. hippoglossi and pointed 
out that Monticelli's sub-genera Phylline and Benedenia were generically distinct, 
but that the former name, though older than Epibdella, must be reserved for 
P. diodontis Oken ( = Tristoma maculatum Rud.) and was wrongly used by 
Diesing and Linstow. He, therefore, restricted the name Epibdella to the four 
species listed by Monticelli (1901) under Phylline (hippoglossi soleae, bnmpusn, 
and diadema), together with E. squamula, while the name Benedenia was utilized 
for the remainder. In 1906 he pointed out that E. producta Linstow was a 
synonym of E. soleae. In the same year Luhe described E. (Benedenia) mac- 
rocolpa. In 1907 Monticelli discussed "the relationship of Encotyllabe to the other 
genera of Tristomidae, including Epibdella; and in 1908 the relationship of 
Nitzschia to these same genera. In 1915 Nicoll listed E. hippoglossi and E. soleae 
(Ancyrocotylinae) in his census of recorded British marine trematodes. In 1916 
Cohn described Phyllonella sleingroveri from an African fish. 

In 1927 MacCallum reviewed, to some extent, the history of Phylline, 
Epibdella and Phyllonella. He retained the second and third of these names in 
place of Phylline and Benedenia, whose use. Monticelli had previously suggested. 
To Epibdella were assigned sciaenae, monticellii, ishikawae, ovata, macrocolpa, 
hendorffii, and a new species, E. melleni; while under Phyllonella were placed 
hippoglossi, soleae, diadema, bumpusii, squamula, and steingroveri. 

Summary. 
From the foregoing it will be seen that Capsala Bosc should replace Tristoma 
Cuvier, with consequential changes in the family, sub-family and other group 
names to 'Capsalidae, Capsalinae, etc.; that Entobdella Blainville, with Ent. hippo- 
glossi Miiller as type, should be substituted for Epibdella (s. str.) Blainville; and 
that Benedenia Diesing, with B. sciaenae (Beneden) as type, is valid. 



75 



To Entobdella belong also Ent. soleae, diadema, bumpitsii, squamula, and stein- 
grovcri; to Benedcnia, B. sciaenae, monticellii, ishikazvac, ovata, macrocolpa, 
mclleni and hendorffi. 

Subdivision of Entobdella and Benedcnia. 
The position of the vaginal aperture in relation to the common genital duct 
would permit a subdivision of each of these genera into subgenera. In Ent. bumpitsii 
and B. sciacnac they open together. In B. macrocolpa the vagina opens beside 
the common genital pore, but travels posteriorly behind the testes and then for- 
wards to the vitelline reservoir. In the remaining species the vagina, when present, 
opens elsewhere on the left side of the midline, but it is quite likely that in those 
cases where it has not been mentioned or has been reported as absent, that it is 
extremely short, opening to the exterior in the vicinity of the vitelline reservoir. 
We may then subdivide Entobdella into the following subgenera, Entobdella (s. str.) 
and Parepibdella (new. subgenus), allotting the species as f ollows :— Ent. (Ent.) 
hippoglossi (type), soleae, diadema, squamula, and stcingroveri; Ent. (Parepib- 
della) bumpitsii as type of the subgenus. The species of Benedcnia may be grouped 
into three subgenera: Benedenia (s. str.), for B. (B.) sciacnae; Benedeniclla, 
n. subgen., for B. (Benedeniella) macrocolpa as type; and Parabcnedenia, n. sub- 
gen., for the remaining species, B. (P.) ovata, ishikawae, monticellii, mclleni and 
hendorffi, with B. (P.) ovata as type. 

The genus Macrophylla Kent. 
In 1928 Miss Kent Hughes described a new genus Macrophylla, type M. 
antarctica Hughes, from a Victorian shark, Mustehts antarcticus. It was stated 
that its nearest ally was Tristomum, from which it was differentiated by possess- 
ing two compact testes; only five distinct radii in the disc; and glandular mem- 
branes at the anterior end, in place of suckers. The name was alreadv pre- 
occupied by Macrophylla Hope, 1837. Macrophyllida is suggested as a new- 
name for it. A detailed account of the parasite will be published later. 

The synonymy of the genera referred to in this paper may be tabulated thus :— 
Entobdella (Klainville MS. in Lamarck, 1818) ; type, E. hippoglossi (Muller 
1776) Blainville, 1818. 
Syns. Capsala — Baird, 1853 (in part). 

Entobdella— Lamarck, 1818; Johnston, 1865. 

Epibdella— Blainville 1827; * Bcneden, 1856; Braun, 1890; Heath. 
1902; Linstow, 1903; Linton, 1900; Monticelli, 1890, 1901 1902 : 
Nicoll, 1915; Odhner, 1905; Pettier, 1897; Pratt, 1900;' Scott 

Epibdella (Phyl line)— Monticelli, 1901 

Ertopdella—Rathke, 1843. 

Hirudo— Mutter, 1776 (in part). 

Phylline—Oken, 1815 (in part), nee. Abildg, 1790; Lamarck, 1818; 
Diesing, 1850; Johnston, 1865; Linstow, 1889, 1903* Monticelli 
1901, 1904, 1905; Parona and Perugia, 1895; Sonsino, 1891 

Phyllonella—Beneden and Hesse, 1863; Braun, 1890; Goto 1899* 
Monticelli, 1888; MacCallum, 1927; Perrier, 1897; Scott, 1901. 

Tristomum — Taschenberg, 1878 (in part). 

Tristomum (Epibdella)— Taschenberg, 1879 (in part). 

Tristomum (Phyllonella)— Taschenberg, 1879. 



76 

Benedenia Dies., 1858; type, B. sciaenae (Ben., 1856) Linstow, 1903. 
Syns. Benedenia — Monticelli, 1901; Odhner, 1905. 

Epibdella— Benzdzn, 1856 (in part); Hraun, 1890; Goto, 1894 (in 
' part), 1899; MacCallum, 1927; Monticelli, 1888; Parona, 1896. 
Epibdella (Benedenia)— -Linstow, 1903; Lube, 1906; Monticelli, 1901. 
Phylline — Linstow, 1889 (in part). 
Trhtomum — Taschenberg, 1878, 1879 (in part). 
Tristomum (Epibdella) — Taschenberg, 1879 (in part). 

Nitzschia Baer, 1826; type, N. sturionis (Abildg, 1794), Kroycr, 1852. 
Syns. Capsala— Baird, 1853 (in part) ; Nordmann, 1840 (in part). 
Hwudo— Abildg, 1794 (in part). 
Phylline— Oken, 1815 (in part). 
Tristomum — Taschenberg, 1878, 1879 (in part). 

Capsala Bosc, 1811 ; type C. martinieri Bosc, 1811. 

Syns. Capsala— Biainville, 1828; Johnston, 1865; Nordmann. 1840 (in part). 
Phylline— Oken, 1815 (in part). 

Tristoma (urn)— Baer, 1826; Beneden, 1858; Cuvier, 1817; Diesmg. 
1850; Rudolphi, 1819; Taschenberg, 1878 (in part), 1879 (in 
part) ; and of subsequent authors. 

The species of Capsala at present known are : — C. martinieri 
Bosc; biparasitica (Goto); coccinea (Cuv.) Blainv. ; cornuta 
(Verrill) ; foliacea (Goto) ; interrupta (Montic.) ; laevis 
(Verrill) ; levinsini (Montic.) ; megacephala (Linst.) ; mega- 
cotyle (Linst.) ; molae (Bl.) apparently = C. cephala Risso, 1826; 
nozazme (Goto) ; onchidiocoiyle (Setti) ; papulosa (Dies.) 
Nordm.; pelamydis (Tasch.) ; perngiai (Setti) ; sinuata (Goto) ; 
squali (Bl.) ; and uncinata (Montic). 

Macrophyllida T. II. Johnston, 1929; type, M. antarctica (Hughes) Johnston. 
Syn. Macrophylla Kent Hughes, 1928, nee. Hope, 1837. 

Literature References. 
X853^Baird, W. : Catalogue of the species of Entozoa. etc. Brit. Museum. 
1856— Beneden, P. J. v.: Note stir une Trematode nouvcaux du maigre, eic. 

Bull. Acad. Roy. Belg., 23, pp. 502-8. 
1858 — Beneden, P. J. v.: Memoire sur les vers intestinaux. Paris. 
1863-5 Beneden, P. T- v., and Hesse, C. E. : Recherches sur les BdeUodes, etc. 

Mem Acad. "Rov. Bclg., 34, 1863 (1864), 142 pp. Appendix lc, 

35, 1865, pp. 147-9, 161-8. 
1889-90 — Braun M. : Trematodes, in Braun's Klassen u. Ordnungen des Tier- 

reichs. Lief. 9-11, 1889; Lief. 17, 1890. 
1811 — Bosc, L. Am Sur deux nouveaux genres de vers. Nouv. Bull. Soc. 

Philom., 1811, pp. 384-5. 
1916^Cohn, L. : Epibdella steingroveri, n. sp. Zcit. f. wiss. Zool., 115, 

pp. 460-488. 
1850— Diesing, K. M.: Systema helminthum, I. Vienna. 
1858— Dtesing, K. M. : Revision der Myzhelminthen. Trematoden. S.B. Akad. 

Wien. Math.-nat. Kl.. 32. pp. 307-390. 



77 

1894 — Goto, S. : Studies on the ectoparasitic trematodes of Japan. Jour. Coll. 
Sci. Imp. Univ. Tokyo, 8. pp. 1-273. 

1899 — Goto, S. : Notes on some exotic species of ectoparasitic trematodes. 
I.e., 12, pp. 263-295. 

1902— Heath, H. : The Anatomy of Epihdella squamula, n. sp. Pr. Calif. 

Acad. Sci., ser. 3, Zool. 3, pp. 109-136. 

1928 — Hughes, W. K. : Some trematode parasites on the gills of Victorian 

fishes. P. R. S., Victoria, 41, pp. 45-54. 
1818 — Lamarck, J. B. : Histoire naturella des animaux sans vertebres V, 

1818. (Phylline and Entobdclla, p. 295.) 

1889— Linstow, O.: Beitragc zur Anatomie von Phylline hendorffii Arch 
mikr. Anat., 33, pp. 163-180. 

1 903—T .tnstow, O.': Neue Helminthen. C. Bakt, 1, Orig., 35, pp. 352-7. 

1900— Linton, E. : Fish parasites collected at Wood's Hole in 1898. Bull 

S. Fish Coram, for 1899 (1900), 19, pp. 267-304. 
1906 — Luhe, M. : Report on the trematode parasites from the marine hshes 

of Ceylon. Rep. Pearl Oyster Fisheries, 5, pp. 97-108. 

1927— MacCallum, G. A.: A new ectoparasitic trematode. Epihdella melleni. 
Zoopathologica, 1, (8), pp. 291-300. 

1888 — Monticelli, F. S.: Saggio di una morphologia dei trematodi. Napoli. 
130 pp. l 

1890— Monticelli, F. S.: Elenco di elminti studiati a Wimmereux, etc. Bull. 
Sci., France, Belg., 22, ser. 4, 1, pp. 417-444. 

1891— Monticelli, F. S. : Di alcuni organi di tatto nei Tristotnidi, etc. Boll 

Soc. Nat. Napoli, 5, 1891 (1892), pp. 99-134. 
1901— Monticelli, F. S. : A proposito di una nuova specie del genere Epib- 

della. Boll. Soc. nat. Napoli, 15, pp. 137-145. 
1904— Monticelli, F. S. : Osservazioni intorno ad alcuni specie di Hctero- 

cotylea. Boll. Soc. Nat. Napoli, 18, pp. 65-80. 

1907— Monticelli, F. S. : II genere Encotyllabe. Atti. R. Inst. Incoragg. 
Napoli, ser. 6, 4, 15 pp. 

1908— Monticelli, F. S. : II genere Nitzschia. Atti. R. Inst. Incoragg. Napoli. 
ser. 6, 5, 24 pp. 

1915— Nicoll, W. : A list of the trematode parasites of British marine fishes. 
Parasitology, 7, pp. 339-378. 

1840— Nordmann, A. : Helminthes, in Lamarck, Hist. nat. animaux sans verte- 
bres. Edit. 2. 

1905 — Odhner, T. : Die trematoden des Arktischen Gebietes. Fauna Arctica 
4, (2), pp. 291-372. 

1906 — Odhner, T. : Die wahre Bau des Synaptobothrium copulans, etc Zool 
Anz., 30. pp. 59-66. 

1815— Oken, L. : Lehrbuch der Naturgeschichte, 3. Abt. 1. (Rudolphi (1819). 

Diesing (1859), Baird (1853), and Braun (1889), quote the date 

as 1815, but Stiles and Hassall (1908) give it as 1817). 
1895 — Parona, C, and Perugia, A.: Sopra due nuove specoe di trematodi 

ectoparasiti di pesci marini. Atti. Soc. Ligust. sc. nat. Genova, 6 

84-7; and Boll. Mus. Zool. Genova, 31, 4 pp. 
1897 — Perrier, E. : Traite de Zoologie. Fasc. 4. 



78 

1900 Pratt, H. S. : Synopsis of North American Invertebrates. Trematodes. 

Part I. Amer. Nat., 34, pp. 645-662. 
1819 — Rudolpitt, C. A. : Entozoorum Synopsis. Berlin. 
1900 — Scott, T. : Notes on some parasites of fishes. Ann. Rep. Fisheries Bd. 

Scotland. 19, (3), 1900 (1901), pp. 120-153. 
1908— Stiles, C. W., and Hassall, A.: Index Cat. Med. Vet. Lit. Trema- 

toda. Bull. 37, Hyg. Lab., U.S.A. 
Ig98 — St. Remy, G. : Complement du Synopsis des Trematodes monogeneses. 

Arch. Parasitol., 1, pp. 521-571. 
1878— Taschenherg, E. O.: Helminthologisches. Z. f. ges. Naturwiss. 51, 

pp. 562-577. 
1879— Taschenberg, E. O. : Beitrage zur Kenntnis cctoparasitischen mariner 

Trematoden. Abh. Naturf. Ges. Halle, 14, (3), 51 pp. 
1877_Vogt. C. : Uber die Fortpflanzungsorgane einiger ectoparasitischer 

mariner Trematoden. Z. f . wiss. ZooL, 30, 1878, Suppl.. pp. 306-342. 

Abstract of this paper in Arch. Zool. Exp., 6, 1877, pp. 363-376. 



79 



A GEOGRAPHICAL ENQUIRY INTO THE GROWTH, DISTRIBUTION 
AND MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA, 1836-1927! 

By Charles Fenner, D.Sc. 

[Read July 11, 1929.] 



Contents. 
I. Introduction — 

(a) Periods dealt with 

(b) Area dealt with 

(c) Factors specially considered .. 

(d) Factors not specially considered 

II. South Australia in 1835— 

(a) Position, Size, etc. (figs. 1 and 2) .. 

(b) Relief, Climate, etc. (figs. 3a and 3b) 

(c) Population .. 

(d) Native Animals and Plants 

III. Geographical Controls — 

(a) Rocks, Minerals, and Soils .. 

(b) Physiographic Features (fig. 3a) .. 
^ (c) General Climatic Conditions (fig. 3b) 

(d) The Incidence of Drought Years 

(c) The Cycles of Good Seasons 

IV. Human Factors Concerned — 

(a) The Land and the People 

(b) The Opening up of "The Counties" (figs. 4 and 5) 

(c) The General Distribution of Population (figs. 6, 7a, 7b) 

(d) Dispersion and Centralization (fig. 8) 

(e) Production: Agricultural (figs. 9 and 10) 

(f) Production: Pastoral (fig. 11) ' 

(g) Production: Manufactures (fig. 12) 
(h) Water Conservation and Supply (figs. 13 and 14) 
(i) Transport: Railways (figs. 15 and 16) 
(j) Transport: Roads and Motors (fig. 17) 
(k) Ports and Harbours (fig. 18) 
(1) Education, Research, and Invention 

V. Population, Growth, and Movement 

(a) First Period: 1836-1861 (fig. 7a) .. 

(b) Second Period : 1862-1871 (fig. 19a) 

(c) Third Period: 1872-1881 (fig. 19b) 

(d) Fourth Period : 1882-1891 (fig. 20a) 

(e) Fifth Period: 1892-1901 (fig. 20b) 

(f) Sixth Period: 1902-1911 (fig. 21a) 

(g) Seventh Period: 1912-1921 (fig. 21b) 
(h) Eighth Period: 1922-1927 (fig. 7b) 

VI. Final Considerations — 

(a) Births and Deaths 

(b) Immigration and Emigration 

(c) The "Prosperity Graph," S.A., 1836-1927 (fig. 22) 

(d) Conclusion (fig. 23) 



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127 
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140 

145 



I.—INTRODUCTION. 

In the course of an investigation into the physiography and economic geo- 

v^s XveloS and it is the product of several years' study of the conditions d s- 
cuSed lS po^on dealing'with the Lower Murray Valley will not be specially 
stressed herein. , . 

frrt Periods dealt witK^rom the point of view of time it was thought 

Government Statistician, 'and Annual Reports and Parliamentary Papers pre- 
tntdbTler government departments, have made it possible to conduct intelli- 
gent enquiry throughout the whole of the mnety-two years involved. 
" Such an enquirv has been facilitated by the willing and generous co-operation 
a nd ^stance given by various gentlemen » Whom the ^J^ 
acknowledged namely :— Messrs. W. L. Johnston and H. L. Semmens statistical 
DeZS) Dr L Keith Ward and Mr. R. Lockhart .Jack (Mines Depart- 
ment M W T. McCoy (Director of Education) ; Professor Perkins and 
Sfw. f "SpaW (AgriuUl D^tme^t) ; Messr, J HO Eaton and 

wealt'h Meteorological Department) ; Mr. T. E. Day, Surveyor-General; Mess s. 
r ft WefsGtt and F C W. Christison (Railways Department) ; Mi R. G. 
Peake mtbours Board)TMes S rs. D. V. Fleming and R. A. Gibbins (Highways 
Department) The author is also indebted to Mr B S. Roach for reading the 
Ws and to the draughtsman, Mr. J. A. Tillett, for his painstaking work. 
' For purposes of convenience much of the evidence is presented m decenma 
periods Corresponding to the census terms, and for these sufficiently detailed 
r ^formation is not available prior to 1861. The paper will theretore de.d 
geneSy with eight periods, each of which will be discussed separately, as 
follows:— ; 1ono inA1 

1st period . . 1836-1861 5th period . . 892- 90 

2nd period . . 1862-1871 6th period . . 902- 1911 

3rd period . - 1872-1881 gb period . . |g~«gl 

4th period . . 1882-1891 8th period . . 1922-1927 

(b) Area dealt with.-Yrom the point of view of the area to be considered, 
it was decided to include only the southern more settled portion of he State 
hkh is Generally speaking, all that country that lies to the south of the line of 
3 inch 'avenge Lnual rainfall. This practically corresponds to he portion 



10 inrh average annual raintaii. mis prauitduv ^"^^ )1V,J ^ ^^ r -,- T 
10-mcn average ^nua f ^ ^ the land that has bcen 

known as Ine Counties ^see n^. *>j t &■ r*.;ffifVi TovlnrV 

dulv proclaimed as counties. This division corresponds w.th Griffith laylors 
-Adelaide Division" (vide "The Australian Environment, page 96). 

The much more extensive area of the State lying to the north of this line has 
a rainfall that is not only low (under 10 inches per annum), but « also unreliable , 
there is a high evaporation, and though artesian water is available over large 
areas the general conditions are unsatisfactory for anythmg more than a sparse 



81 



pastoral settlement ; in some portions, both in the north-west and the north-east 
even this >s nnpossmle. In spite of the fact that there is some mineral Jroducdon 
under very difficult climatic conditions (Tarcoola, gold ; Cooper Pedy opal S ) 
and that there 1S a necessary railway population along both the Easf-West tran - 
SXSS 1,ne , t0 A1 Ka \ 00rhe Cfeern Australia) and the North-South Ime to 
Oodnada a and Ahce Sprmgs (Central Australia), the decennial returns show 
a gradua ly decreasmg population. The total number of persons liv ng outs.de 
the counties is, on the average, less than five thousand, one person to every 
60 square miles, compared with seven persons per square mile within The couulies 
Except in a few cases where it was thought necessary to show the whole State 
the maps and diagrams throughout this paper comprise only the area wi hin the 
counties, of which the boundaries are shown. 

A v ^. F , actor " s P e » al b considered.-A contemporary authority (Professor 

£ R "S ham i Geographical Review," April, 1929, p. 311) has defined UeraX 

as the study of the face of the earth and the distribution and adjustment of life 

t,W:- 6 PreSCnt dlSCUSSi ° n ' " thC faCe ° f the earth " involverconskleJa- 

(a) The geology and pedology (the rocks and the soils). 

clasthne etc.).'' 16 **"'** (m ° UnlainS and #** ««* valleys and 
xJS ^climatic conditions (rainfall, temperature, sunshine, frosts, etc.) 
While the distribution and adjustment of life" leads us to enquire into •— 

(a) Population (immigration and emigration, births and deaths, move- 
ment and distribution). 

(b) Production (agricultural, pastoral, mineral, forest, manufactures) 
t*\ wT P Comm u«ication (railways, harbours, rivers, roads etc ) 

s^p a plTe S , C e tcX Vatl0n (reSerV ° irS ' mahlS ' artesian and sub-artesian 
(e) Education, Research, and Invention (implements, manures, plants 
animals, diseases of crops and stock, etc.). 

(d) Factors not specially considered. —It is necessary to define, also, some 
of the important contnbuting factors that have not been specifically cons dered 
I hese include : — ■ r - u ' 

(a) The influence of the varying general policies of successive administra- 
tions. 

(b) The strains and stresses of finance. 

(c) The debatable problems of land tenure. 

(d) The complex and difficult question of markets. 

M ■ ?*w «f matters J it mav be said «hat some students of human geography 
claim that finance and government are themselves largely controlled by natural 
geographical factors such as good and bad seasons, transport and markets and 
the contentment or discontent of the people (the last-named conditions being in 
part, dependent on climates, soils, and seasons). 

As in the case of finance and government, the land problem is a more purely 
human factor, largely governed by tradition, vested interests, and the wish of the 



. w -* ja -- -j nw . M * M u«, ^^v, u iiuttcsis, ana ine wisn oi me 

^ P i% a % e n PreS r h -° Ugh H leir dected representatives; all three matters are 
™!t °i T dlscuss r 10 " a f. far as Possible. Some of these factors are more 
properly the domain of the h,storian and economist, notably those dealing with 

25'f m "!f atl ™i- taXat r' and finance " ° thers > such as masculinity, 
bv P t hi IL t CU " y /' " ata i ltv ' and mortality, have been most capably dealt with 
wJSSrSlf ^ ' Appendix A ' VoIum e l Common- 



The problem of markets is more purely geographical. The chief wealth of 
South Australia lies in agricultural and pastoral production, lhe most reliable 
world estimates regarding the area of land necessary tor the maintenance of man 
sug-est that in a broad and general way each individual requires 2- 2 acres tor his 
upkeep (vide Sir Daniel Hall, "The Relation between Cultivated Area and Popula- 
tion " B A h S Oxford. 1926). This State,, since the year 1909, has had upwards 
of ten acres' under cultivation (including crops, fallow, and permanently sown 
!as each individual in the State (see fig 6). TheoreticaUy speaking 

therefore on the basis of world production, South Australia should have moie 
than three-quarters of its products available for export. This requirement 
demands reliable markets for our wheat, wool, wine, fruits, etc. 

Uo to the present time the chief markets for these products have been found 
in the great centres of population facing the North Atlantic Ocean. It is agreed 
hat one of the most powerful of all geographical factors is space or distance. 
South Australia is far distant from her chief or potential markets, and there are 
many strong competitors in more favourable (i.e., closer) positions. Improved 
and cheaper transport will alter these conditions, but not relatively, so far as com- 
petitors are concerned ; though new and nearer markets may do so. 1 here is no 
doubt of the enormous extent to which the factor ot markets has pressed upon 
the growth and movement of population in this State particularly m he Lower 
Murray Valley, but it has not been found possible to definitely include this tactot 
in the maps and graphs accompanying this paper. 

II.— SOUTH AUSTRALIA IN 1835. 
(a) Position, Size, etc.— As may be seen from fig. 1. the State of South 
Australia is set within a square. That is to say, it extends over 12 degrees of 
lon-itude from west to east, and is bounded by the mathematical lines of 129 K. 
and 141° E longitude. It likewise extends over 12 degrees from north to south, 
the northern boundary being latitude 26° S. The southern is thus the only natural 
boundary of the State, and it consists of an irregular and well-indented coastline 
extending in a south-easterly direction across the lower half of the square, from 
32° to 38° S. latitude. 

This indented, obliquely trending coastline has an enormously important 
bearing on the fertility and potentiality of the State, but it must be considered ,n 
conjunction with the equallv important factor of latitude The area north of lati- 
tude 32° lies within the influence of the drying trade winds with summer 
monsoons. It is too far north to enjoy any noteworthy influence from the belt ol 
cvclone, and anti-cyclones ("lows" and "highs") that eddy across the southern 
portion of the continent, and too far south to receive an adequate contribution of 
summer monsoonal rains. Thus it comes about that the artificial dividing-lme o 
latitude 32° corresponds roughly with a natural boundary, namely, the line ot 
10-inch annual average rainfall-one of the most potent geographical controls 
which we have to consider. 

A second artificial boundary has grown up during the effort and experience ot 
the past ninety years, and this is shown on fig. 1 as the northern boundary ot the 
proclaimed a/eai, known as "The Counties" This irregular surveyed me corre- 
sponds in a general way, with the line of 10-mch annual average rainfall, but is 
on the whole rather generous, and a good proportion ot the area of the more 
northerly counties lies bevond the 10-inch isohyet. The size, shape, and areas of 
these two divisions are clearly set out in fig. 1, and need no further description 
for the present. 

Abundant evidence is available to show that South Australia has reached a 
fairly definite northern limit of extension, so far as wheat production and general 



S3 



c"n 1 bu^ n en i ( !,r nC r" ned V in - the 1 bOUndan ' es set b >' the Proclaimed counties On 
the correct policy for this State is ti co^n^i^Kio^ ££&£ 



ne 

s 




Fig. 1 



Map of South Australia, showing position, si zc , major divisions ^ 
as detailed in Section II 



S4 







Fig. 2. 

, i .»«»* nf Smith Australia Almost the whole country 

Sketch to indicate the general . relief of Sou * A « 6 ™ ¥ R in the „orth-w>cst, 

consists of vast ^Vf^KS ^AtlSn antral portion 
and to the Quecnjlami border in the northeast in ne ^ ^^ 

is a structurally broken area, party «**"* ana m b Flinders 

and partly raised rata the cresce.n ic hors t fj^^™^ covn \ r of the State, 
Ranges. From the "Head ot the ^B.ght ^^« the Jeffrey Deep ; n 

the irregular coastline is due to mighty suds io« ■ b t was opencd up to 

tHC ° Cean rantc^XencefoTthe^rly wiX to e its Jy great advantage. 



the ocea 

distribution ^ ™^J^J^5^£&^ 

The ftturt to be fussed here « *at the set e s wgre ^^ ^ & WM 

not only unknown to them so . " a* leiiei < CO astline on the map, 

i£tSl separated the Gult Region from the Murray Valley. 



85 



p.evtas drainage systems, as described by Hclhi, (a"a A f&Sffi 
and dammed baek the north-easter,, streams, a, shorn in fil 2 Is II »', ril f' 

.ionS n .,„ r have , „„,d on the c^m S^Jf^SS^SjSr^E; 

Climatic conditions, with lack of rivers -md fr^ch *>«# i- 

exploration and settlement difficult The TtvL fn ^ j ^ ^^^ made 

as far as it can be discovered at thi ;a da ™ early aboriginal population, 

(b) mineral-producing localities, and (c) the capital dtv S ' 

in tto^^^^^^W* having COme downwards from the north 
to arid conditions ^d S^^^^EL^ £? M «^ 
populated, relatively, than is possible t " n s aTX, ! /' b ? more densel y 

others, the Lower Murray ^^^^^SZ^^'^ tf 
sea-coast dune-lands wherever fresh water was Sable ' **' thC 

Contact with the new-comers has meant (4**tih *•« »&* ■ - • 

the last report of the Protector SrS nSsw ^se pnmmye people, and 
an additional 1550 half-castes? ^rt.* ^n ( S f^.^ 5 2 ' l3 ° f ""-Woods (with 

_ In addition to the blacks, there was in this nrp, in 1S^ i 
ot white men. Some of these werL fJ»l &alea >' n 18 35, perhaps a score or so 
industries of sealin^and wMKn^tL^f ¥ ^^ assodat ^ with the 
primitive fashion, efnpnasi^ t"fe' fiffSJ'SST' *£* "? a ** 
new and strange land All of these wE, i C colomsatl °» of a 

favourable regiL near t^i^7 t^^nS^^ '" »* W«M» 

Stated t^we^1nt 3 r "0^^^ "?? ° f ^ "*£* a " d **«* of «* 
-£. par? iU the ^aun^^ 



86 



and the relative distribution-density appears to have been somewhat similar to 
that which we shall see later in the spot maps ot population. 

In the southern division the mallee (dwarf eucalypt) flora, with patches ot 
sheoak (Casuarim) and tea-tree (Melaleuca), was dominant on the plains , wit 
£ rostrata along stream valleys and in the moister parts, and E . capitellata on 
the sandv-limestone plains of the south-east. On the highlands the largei 
eucalyptf fo m d definite forests (E. obliqua, capitellata, odorata, corynocalyx, 
S Si the drier north the mallee gave way to mulga (Acaaa aneura), sa t- 
hush (Atriple.v), and bluebush (Kochia), with native pines (Cdhtns) on the hills 

SSffi alo "g the creeks - The annual plan i s ° no r e de y, dope t 

rapid liecvcles, with quick flowering and seeding. Large areas m the north-west 
and to a less Extent, in the north-east are almost without vegetation, and are 
merely sand or gibber (stony) deserts. „*.*{-« 

The distribution of native animals was somewhat similar. Representatives 
of the woiderful group of the marsupials-specially adapted to arboreal habits 
or O burrowing, or swimming, or flying (volplaning) or hopping- -roamed ove 
rhe whole Statf Although there is no ground for believing that the coming of 
he Jingo hastened the development of the hind-legs of the larger marsupials, as 
KmW has playfully suggested in "Just-so Stories," there is reasonably good 
B thatVe development of hopping, as a means of rapid movement, is 
associated with the difficulties of obtaining tood and water. 

There are remarkable differences between the species of the more fertile 
southern divisioii and the dry northern division, both in character and m numbers, 
SSe ^extinct) huge, slow-moving, browsing diprotodon bears witness 
o the existence of more favourable climatic conditions in the not very distant 
JeoloeicTl past Adaptation to dry conditions is shown also by the birds, as it is 
bylht reptile amphibians, crustaceans, and insects. The frogs of the dry mterio 
bur! thlselves ilr the summer, the ants store honey in swollen abdomens, the 
blind marsupial notoryctes lives wholly beneath the sand, and so on. _ 

To the early settlers the trees were wood for fires and the marsupials and 
larger birds Temus, wild turkey, pigeons), and a few fish were game. Beyond 
thif neither plants nor animals have exercised any very great influence on the 
evelopTent of the State. We have discovered that the hardwoods when well 
grown P provide excellent timbers, but most of the larger trees ot thjcjttg. 
down to the big-rooted (root-stock), slender-trunked mallee have found then 
d7ef value in providing what is to-day a diminishing supply of firewood 

Native timber has been used to some extent for house construction, but even 
in Ih^earlie years of the. State most of the timber so reqmred was imported 
m the i eattttSt 3tw « ,, Vustralia is still, as it has always been, a country of stone 
KSSSfii^W^ ^ ^ StateS ° f >, Commonwealth in this 
respect This is !a natural outcome of the operation of the geographical factois 
here described, and has its own set of economic influences. 

Anart from some timber and plenty of firewood, with a notable contnbu ion 
to mfdeia oils (eucalyptus oil, etc.) the larger native vegetation has given little 
to man that is of commercial use, though much that is of sentimental value. The 
ratrvt herbage however, although it is being displaced by introduced grasses and 
dovers has be en g enormous value for grazing purposes, and m many distnets is 

preferred I by ^ stock widespread, almost uniform mulga plant suite 

• , n if TuL tmfh etc orovides good stock feed, and has been universally 
with salt-bush. W^^FJ'fg where the rainfall is so unreliable, 

^Sa rofSSSs £*£K "good years" leads to an inevitable 
over stocking in the succeeding drought years, with consequent over-grazing, so 



87 

that in places this mantle of vegetation, that has taken untold centuries to produce, 
has been completely destroyed and has given place to wind-blown sand. 

It will be seen that, on the whole, this "biological backwater" had little to 
offer civilized man in the way of plant and animal life, though, from the chemical 
standpoint, the plants are still largely uninvestigated. Man has had to bring with 
him his flocks and herds, his horses and poultry, his fruits and vegetables — to say 
nothing of the rabbits, starlings, weeds, snails, and other introduced animals and 
plants that are ousting the analogous native life as the whites have displaced the 
bl ac ks 

III.— GEOGRAPHICAL CONTROLS. 

Having completed the preliminary survey of the State and shown briefly the 
scope of the paper and the general condition of the area as it was taken over by 
the first colonists in 1836, it is necessary to give some further detailed description 
of the chief "geographical controls." In using this term, it may be emphasised 
that geography has ceased to be a mere descriptive account of a country— its rocks, 
relief, climate, etc. — and has become a study of cause and effect. This "effect" is 
chiefly the influence exerted by various natural conditions on the welfare and 
progress of man. The "cause" comprises those natural conditions of mountain 
and plain, soil and climate, under which man lives. It is not asserted that man — 
with his religion, government, production, commerce, invention — is wholly "con- 
trolled" by these geographical conditions. Nevertheless, the phrase "geographical 
controls" is justified by the powerfulness of the factors which w T e propose to 
investigate in so far as they have affected, in a broad way, the growth and move- 
ment of the population of the State, 

(a) Rocks, Minerals, and Soils. — The geology of South Australia, up to the 
limit of our present knowledge, is well set out in Dr. Ward's Geological Map of 
South Australia (Mines Department, S. Austr., 1927), with his published notes 
thereon, and in Professor Howchin's "Geology of South Australia" (Adelaide, 
1929). A few points require to be recapitulated and emphasised here. (See also 
Dr. L. Keith Ward's Presidential Address, Section C, A.A.A.S., Wellington, 
1923.) 

On account of the special climatic conditions of this State, the question of 
water supply constitutes one of the most important of its geological problems. It 
is a happy fact that the driest area of the northern division, viz., the Lake Eyre 
region, is occupied by portion of a vast artesian basin, so that stock supplies from 
bores are available over a large part, making pastoral occupation and stock trans- 
port possible where it otherwise would not be. Smaller artesian and sub-artesian 
areas occur in the southern division ; these also are well mapped, and the quality 
of their waters known. In other areas, also, the underground water supplies are 
fairly well known and utilized. 

The direction of the railway to Oodnadatta was greatly influenced by the 
presence of the "mound springs" (natural artesian "bores") that have formed 
along the south-western border of the Great Artesian Basin. The distribution of 
the pastoral population of those north-eastern areas and the positions of stock 
routes have been mainly dependent on the positions of the artesian bores ; the 
station "homesteads" are mostly established alongside the permanent "water- 
holes" that occur along the courses of the intermittent and meandrine streams 
that cross these vast plains. 

From the point of view of geology and mineralogy, South Australian land 
surfaces may be summarised as consisting of one or other of two rock series: 
(1) Ancient rocks, mostly forming highlands, where metallic minerals may occur, 
and (2) Tertiary and recent rocks, mostly forming plains under 500 feet in eleva- 
tion, where no metallic minerals occur. As a rough approximation, the relief map 



88 

(fig. 3a) may be regarded as a geological map. The shaded portions (highlands) 
may be taken to represent the highly indurated, folded, and intruded rocks of 
Palaeozoic and Pre-Cambrian ages, while the wide plains (unshaded) represent 
Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Miocene or younger limestones and sandstones, etc.. 
fairly level-bedded, easily eroded, and covered almost everywhere by .Recent wind- 
blown or stream-deposited materials. 

In the ancient rocks gold occurs occasionally, and there have been several 
stimulating but commercially unsuccessful gold rushes, as Echunga (1852), 
Barossa (1858), Teetulpa (1886)., and Tarcoola (1900). These have distinctly 
affected population movements, but not to so marked a degree as have the richer 
discoveries in other States, each of which led to an exodus from South Australia, 
notably the Victorian gold discoveries of the early fifties, the silver-lead find at 
Broken Hill in 1883, and the Western Australian goldfields in the early nineties. 
The chief metallic riches of South Australia have been copper (in the earlier 
years) and iron (in later years). The stimulus given by the copper discoveries 
was most notable, as will be seen later. 

The progress of pastoral occupation is slow, as indicated by the maps and 
graphs accompanying this paper. Agricultural occupation, under the stimulus of 
good seasons or high prices, or both, may become quite rapid. But the impelling 
pull of mineral discoveries quite out-distances any other kind of population move- 
ment, on account of the concentrated and rapidly produced wealth. 

This State's chief mineral product has been copper, and the following move- 
ments have left very definite marks on the population distribution : — 
The discovery of copper at Kapunda in 1843. 
The discovery of the Hurra copper mine in 1845. 
The discovery of Wallaroo and Moonta copper in 1860. 

Even the fluctuations in the price of copper have affected the population maps 
of the counties, and of the State, while the cessation of work at Burra and 
Kapunda in 1877-78 was marked by emigration, not only from those localities but 
from the State. The closing of the Wallaroo-Moonta copper mines in 1923 is 
sufficiently close for most of us to remember the great difficulties that accompanied 
the absorption into other occupations of the population hitherto engaged in the 
copper-mining industry. 

The existence of the rich silver-lead ores of Broken Hill (N.S.W.) has led 
to the development of Port Piric, both as a port and a smelting depot, and that 
town constitutes the second largest population centre in the State. The geo- 
graphical controls were that the Port Pine Creek, the ancient deserted mouth of 
the Broughton River, was the nearest port to the rich lodes of Broken Hill. 
Broken Hill was opened in 1884, and the railway connection was completed with 
Port Pirie in 1887. The chief metallic mineral being produced in South Australia 
at present is the iron ore of iron Knob, which is exported to Newcastle to be 
smelted; under the influence of this "control" two towns have grown up in a 
region that would otherwise have supported no population whatever. 

The tertiary and recent rocks of the plains contain no metallic minerals. In 
the arid north, at Cooper Pedy, opal occurs, and a township exists there of under- 
ground homes, one of the most remarkable cases of adaptation to geographical 
environment that modern civilization affords. The mineral wealth of the ancient 
rocks of the Northern Flinders Ranges, the Olary Spur, and elsewhere are not 
unexplored ; nor are they well known. Deposits of ores of radium, gold, silver, 
copper, lead, etc., occur there, and these may at any time develop in importance' 
The report of the Director of Mines for the year 1928 shows that of the million 
pounds worth of minerals produced in that year, the greatest yield was from the 



Eyre Peninsula (iron, £710,000; gypsum, £30,000; salt, £30,000). Next m 
importance comes the Central division, with a variety of products valued at 
£185,000. The Murray Mallee produces gypsum only, and there are no mineral 
products from the South-East. Outside the counties the gold of Tarcoola and the 
opal of Cooper Pedy are the most important mineral products. In the south, 
within the counties, the tertiary and recent deposits supply clays, cements, lime, 
barytes, salt, and gvpsum, and there are also beds of lignite that have not yet been 
exploited. None o'f these have notably influenced the movements of population, 
with the exception of the salt and gypsum deposits of southern Yorke Peninsula, 
where communities exist wholly engaged in producing and transporting these 
minerals. The abundance, or otherwise, of building-stone, brick-clay, etc., has, 
of course, distinctly influenced the character and location of the various towns 
of the plains. 

The chief wealth of this State, however, does not lie in minerals, but in wheat 
and wool. Over the wide plains of the southern division of the State, with light 
soils, reliable winter rains, and dry summer months for ripening and harvesting, 
the most important product is wheat. The factors that govern the production and 
marketing of the crops of this introduced plant are the most important of all the 
economic controls that affect South Australia. 

South Australia, north of the latitude of Adelaide and up to the 10-inch 
isohyet, is pre-eminently a wheat-producing country (see fig. 10) ; elsewhere (and 
here also in part) the most important product is wool. The moister regions (those 
with a rainfall over 25 inches per annum), notably Kangaroo Island and the 
southern "toes" of the four peninsulas of the State — Eyre, Yorke, Fleurieu, and 
a portion of the South-East (fig. 36) — present peculiar problems, and have rela- 
tively sparse populations at the present day, 1929 (see fig. 7b), a fact that indicates 
that we have not yet solved their problems. The volcanic and peaty soils of the 
South-East have been more successfully exploited. I understand from Mr. 
Spafford, Deputy-Director of Agriculture, that the sowing of subterranean clover 
with "super" top-dressing of pastures indicates one successful method of more 
fully utilizing the somewhat incoherent ironstone soils of these lower peninsula 
areas. 

The production factors that stand next in importance are the other crops 
grown:— The fruits, vines, lucerne, etc., along the Murray Valley; the hay of the 
Roseworthy-Kapunda districts; the barley of Yorke Peninsula; the fruits and 
vegetables of the southern ranges; the wines of Angaston, Reynella, and Clare; 
and the grasses and salt-bush of the north for sheep and cattle. 

The manner in which climate and geography control the productions and the 
activities of man is clearly seen from a brief examination of the distinctly different 
types of farmers produced by the various geographical conditions that prevail in 
South Australia. Thus we have: — 

(i.) The wheat farmer of the Lower and Middle North, with wide 
plains of deep alluvium and an opportune and reliable rainfall of 
from 10 inches to 20 inches. 
(iij The wheat farmer of the mallee areas (North Central, Murray 
Mallee, West Coast, Yorke Peninsula, and the Adelaide Plains), 
with an originally scrub-covered sandy soil and a rainfall of 
10 inches to 20 inches. 
(m.) The farmer and grazier on the limestone and volcanic areas and 
reclaimed peat lands of the South-East, with a 20-inch to 30-inch 
rainfall, where the chief drawback is excess of winter surface 
water owing to the undeveloped character of the natural drainage 
system. 



90 

(iv.) The irrigation farmer (citrus, vine, lucerne, etc.) of the Murray 
Valley (reclaimed swamps), with small holdings and abundant 
water supply — a supply dependent on the snow and rainfall of that 
distant highland belt that reaches from the Grampians to the 
Queensland border. 

(v.) The grazier of the far-back north-eastern areas, with enormous 
holdings, largely dependent for supplies on the artesian wells and 
bores — a supply drawn from the abundant rains of the highlands 
of distant Queensland, 

(vi.) The orchardist, vigneron, and gardener of the hills and valleys of 
the Mount Lofty Ranges, righting against excessive soil erosion, 
with a good soil and rainfall, reliable wells, and a market close at 
hand. 

(vu.) Last, but not least, the frontiersmen — the plucky settlers on the 
northern marginal lands of the wheat areas — facing the present-day 
difficulties and developing methods of overcoming them, pushing 
the boundary of settlement farther to the north, as the earlier 
settlers did before them. 

In a country where agriculture is thus predominant, the soils are naturally 
of first importance. Much has been done in the way of classifying the soils in 
selected areas by the officers of the Agricultural liepartment/ More modern 
methods of systematic soil survey, as developed in Europe, have recently been 
introduced, and are now being carried out on the Murray irrigation areas and else- 
where. (Sec also Prescott, Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. li., p. 287). But there is, 
as yet, no satisfactory soil map of the State available, so that for the time being 
the influence of this very important geographical control cannot be graphically 
demonstrated, except in an oblique way through the various soil-production map's 
and graphs that are illustrated or referred to herein. 

(b) Physiographic Features. — The sketch shown as fig. 2 gives some idea 
of the general structural features of South Australia. These are more specifically 
shown in fig. 3 (after Ward), in which the more significant contour lines are 
indicated. 

The great island mars of Australia may be divided into (a) a vast western 
portion, of very ancient rocks, with a high degree of geological stability, and 
(b) an eastern portion that has waxed and waned in size and has been raised and 
depressed, above and below sea-level, many times during its geological history. 
Between the relatively unstable eastern portion and the relatively stable western 
portion there appears to be a wide belt of structurally broken country, a sort of 
broad "shatter-belt/' in which block-faulting and differential movement has been 
almost as marked a feature as it is in the eastern, uplifted marginal belt of the 
Australian Cordilleras. 

This central disturbed belt may extend from the Gulf Region of South Aus- 
tralia up through the Eastern Musgrave and the MacDonnell Ranges (which 
Ward has shown to be block-faulted) towards the Wyndham district on the north. 
The fact that the Pre-Cambrian rocks extend in places well to the east beyond 
this belt, as shown by Ward (Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc, S.A., vol. xxviii.), does not 
necessarily affect this hypothesis. 

To the south there have been great crustal subsidences that have formed the 
Jeffrey Deep, with subsidiary "falling away" of portions of southern Australia 
towards that deep, thus creating the Great Australian Bight, and giving South 
Australia the south-easterly trending coastline which leaves the land open to 



91 



receive the oceanic influences of the eastward moving eddies of "highs" and 
"lows," which so profoundly, and so favourably, influence our climatic conditions. 
This central north-south belt of broken country is best known, and most 
marked, in its southern portion, and is another of the fortunate geographical 
circumstances in the structure of this State, for it has created the gulfs and ranges 
of the Gulf Region, and has contributed largely to the conditions that provide the 




Fig, 3a. 

Relief map of South Australia, after Ward, showing the chief contour lines, 

as elsewhere referred to in connection with transport, water supply, town 

sites, etc. Compare with fig. 2. 

fertility and beauty, the variety and accessibility of the south-central portion of 
the State which is, and always will be, the most productive and the most important 
part of South Australia, 



92 

Since the greater part of the State consists of plains, the question of com- 
munication by road and rail has been a relatively simple matter in most cases. 
The general straightness of railway routes testifies to the ease of construction on 
the plains. This may be compared with the windings of the routes over the ranges. 
The chief barriers are the Mount Lofty Ranges, which are crossed in several 
places, and the Flinders Ranges, crossed twice, namely, through the low, winding 
Hookina Pass and the narrow and steep Pichi-Richi Pass. 

The Mount Lofty Ranges have greatly influenced the spread of population 
in so many ways, directly and indirectly, that it is almost impossible to enumerate 
them, and indeed they are in most cases so obvious as to require no emphasis. 
The carrying of the main line from Adelaide to Melbourne and to the Lower 
Murray Valley over the highest part of the range has been dealt with in consider- 
able detail by the writer in his paper on "Adelaide: South Australia" (Proc. Roy. 
Soc. S.A., vol. li., pp. 226-227). 

In the lower portion of these ranges, from Gawler northward to Jamestown, 
and even to Carrieton, there is a peculiar repetition of a characteristic group of 
physiographic features, and this has had considerable influence on lines of com- 
munication, and on the distribution and movement of population. In these 
beautiful and fertile areas we find again and again a long, wide alluvial plain,, 
longer than it is wide and extending north and south in its greater length; this 
fertile plain is bordered on either side by low, irregular ridges of older rocks,, 
sparsely timbered or almost treeless. These ridges meet to the north and south 
in a more or less irregular way, forming an imperfect oval. The combination of 
scrubby highland and open plain, with the temperature and rainfall of this area, 
and the character of the soils, make it eminently suitable for agriculture, and 
here we have one of the richest areas in the State (see wheat map, fig. 10). These 
physiographic units extend northwards, one after another, and there are several 
series parallel to each other. A detailed contour map of this portion of the State 
would provide evidence of a topographical control of railway routes and popula- 
tion distribution almost as striking, in a smaller way, as the relation of the topo- 
graphy of Southern Pennsylvania to its population and distribution, as shown bv 
Ratschelet ("Geographical Review," July, 1927, p. 430). 

(c) General Climatic Conditions. — The climatic conditions of South Aus- 
tralia are determined by : — 

(i .) The latitude of the State, affecting the relation of the area to the 
belt of cyclones and anti-cyclones in the south, and to the trade, 
winds and monsoons in the north. 
(it.) The area of the State, proximity or otherwise to the ocean, and the 
character of the coastline, as affecting the winds, rendering them 
drying or moisture-bearing, according to circumstances. 
(Hi) The relief of the land, according as it directs the moisture-bearing 
winds upward and thus increases precipitation, or allows it to pass 
onward, growing warmer and more drying. 

These climatic "controls" are most powerful, and they have already been 
frequently referred to in the preliminary descriptions which deal with native 
plants, animals, etc.; while the structural features, which in their turn assist in 
determining the climate, have also been mentioned. The map shown in fig. 3b 
will crystallize this information, and will enable the descriptions of population 
movement to be followed more intelligently. 

Fig, 3b emphasises the division of the State into two portions, a northern one 
with less than 10-inch rainfall, and a southern one with from 10-40 inches of rain- 
fall, according to elevation and latitude (for detailed accounts of the climate of 



93 

South Australia see "The Australian Environment," Griffith Taylor, pp. 87-104; 
and for full records of details of the weather from 1836-1917, see the 1918 publica- 
tion of the Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology, dealing with South Australia). 
Into the northern dry area there extends a "promontory* 1 of higher rainfall 
following the Flinders Ranges, but the country is rough, and though there is more 
pastoral occupation, with scattered mineral deposits, it is not so well peopled as 




AVERAGE ANNUAL 
RAlNFAlU(isohyets). 

-under 5" 




AVERAGE ANNUAL 
TEMPERATURE, 
Isotherms *"• 0, ^"6S O 



Scale p 



100 

i i i i 



i i i Miles. 



Fig. 3b. 

Map of South Australia, showing the average annual rainfall and temperature 

(from Com. Met. Bureau records), as elsewhere referred to in dealing with 

these important geographic controls. 



most of the 10-inch areas further south; remoteness and difficulty of transport 
are the chief contributing factors. 

It may be noted that each peninsula that comes to the south — Eyre, Yorke, 
Fleurieu, and the "South-East" — bends the average isohyets further towards the 



94 

north, as do the highland areas. No further argument is needed to show that the 
uplifts and depressions that formed the highlands and sunklands of the Gulf 
Region played an immensely important part, not only in giving us accessibility 
and variety of country, but also in providing the much more important factor of 
increased rainfall, with the exhilaration that comes from climatic variety. 

While the population distribution is a reflex of the rainfall, and the lowest 
rainfall corresponds with the most sparse population, the densest population m 
not in the region of highest rainfall. Indeed, the southern "toes" of the three 
central peninsulas, and of western Kangaroo Island, where there is an average 
annual rainfall of upwards of 20 inches, is quite sparsely populated. It would 
appear that for a climate with a long dry summer there is an optimum rainfall,, 
as far as soil formation is concerned, and that an excess of rain in the wet winter 
months gives rise to incoherent "ironstone soils" and to other conditions un- 
favourable to agriculture. The wettest portion of the State {47 inches per 
annum) is on the high ranges east of Adelaide, a most important factor in the 
water supply of the metropolitan area. 

The temperature conditions, as shown in fig. 3b, are very simple. South 
Australia receives an abundance of sunshine and warmth. There is little variation. 
from north to south in the average annual temperature. The heat of summer is, 
with rare exceptions, dry and comfortable, even exhilarating; the winter climate* 
when the sun shines, has the characteristic Mediterranean charm. In Adelaide 
the average amount of direct sunshine during the zvinter months is over four 
hours per day. 

The range of average temperature in the summer months is greater than in 
the winter months. In December, January, and February it rises from 65° F. 
in the south to 85° F. in the north. In the winter months, June, Jirly, August,, 
practically the whole of the State is between 50° F. and 60° F. With minor 
exceptions, the isotherms run from east to west and are controlled by latitude;, 
the wind circulation and the highland relief are secondary influencing factors. 

Just as there are disagreeable "heat waves" in summer that consist of suc- 
cessive days and nights of more than average heat, so are there "cold snaps" in 
winter; but snow is almost unknown and frosts are rare. There are, however, 
occasional regional frosts and hailstorms that amount almost to calamities in the 
amount of damage done, while the floods of winter and the bush fires and dust 
storms of summer must be counted among the occasional lesser unfavourable 
climatic conditions. The great influence exerted by recurring droughts will be 
shown in the next section. 

(d) The Incidence of Drought Years. -—In a consideration of the progress 
of South Australia from the geographical point of view, whether one specializes, 
upon the increase or decrease of population, its dispersion or concentration, pro- 
gress in railway construction, water conservation, land cultivation, soil produc- 
tion, manufactures, imports, exports, or any other factor, it becomes increasingly 
clear that the greatest of all of the antagonistic geographical controls influencing 
this State is that of a season, or a series of seasons, of low rainfall or "drought." 

The matter is somewhat complicated by the fact that the pastoral salt-bush 
areas of the Far North, which depend on monsoonal rains, may have a good 
rainfall year, at the same time that the southern agricultural portion, which 
depends mainly on the cyclones and anti-cyclones of winter, may have a dry year. 
Another fact is that the natural climatic conditions of the most productive part of 
this State consist of (a) a long dry summer, that is, a "summer drought," and 
(b) a wet winter — the most important rain months being from April to November. 
Thus it happens that the normal summer drought does not always break in April 
or May, but it may even continue dry until November, and in one case (1888) 



95 

the general rains expected during the year did not come until the 1st January, 

Reading through the weather notes of interested observers, where these have 
been preserved and published, we see that while "heavy rains" figure in the records 
almost every year there is also scarcely a year in which drought conditions are 
not mentioned. Mention of droughts often refers to the months of April and 
May, when as a general rule, the people of the State become somewhat anxious, 
and naturally inclined to stress any continuance of the normal summer drought 
k J <OT J « reasons even from the very complete records kindly made available 
by Mr. h. Bromley, the South Australian Divisional Meteorologist it is difficult 
to decide which were the really disastrous drought years. In any case, owing 
to the natural half-year overlap of much statistical information, the dates riven 
can only be correct to within six months either way of the actual incidence of the 
worst conditions. 

It was most important, however, to have definite information regarding this 
climatic control, and m order to decide the actual drought years a variety of factors 
were considered, for all the years from 1836 onwards, namely:— 

(a) A rainfall well below the average. 

(b) Notable decrease in the numbers of sheep. 

(c) Notable decrease in the numbers of cattle. 

(d) Notable decrease in the total wheat yield. 

(e) Notable decrease in average wheat yield. 

(f ) Other indications shown in the "Statistical Summary." 

To this has been added the comments by observers previously referred to and 
from a careful analysis of all these, it is concluded that the most severe drought 
periods were : — & 

J845 — Apparently not general, but stressed by Sturt. 

1851— Drought not general, but severe bush fires, including "Black 
Thursday." 

1859-60 — General very dry conditions. 

1861— Classed by Sir Charles Todd as a drought year. 

1865— Classed by Sir Charles Todd as a very bad drought year; disastrous 
results emphasised owing to the successive dryness of 1864-1865. 
These dry conditions were felt right through the later sixties. 

1876— Classed by Sir Charles Todd as a very bad drought year. 

1881-1891— This period shows undoubtedly the most severe'and continuous 
dry conditions in the whole history of the State. Year by year there 
were low rainfalls, depleted flocks and herds, and very poor yields 
of wheat; it is noteworthy, as will be seen later, that this is 
correlated with the most severe period of population loss that has 
been recorded. The more severe drought years were 1881, 1885, 

1896— Coming to later periods, the 'nineties contained some drv vears 
centred around the year 1896, which may be classified as a very 
severe and long-continued drought, in which all agricultural and 
pastoral production received a notable setback. 

1902— From 1900 onwards conditions greatly improved, though 1902 was 
a disastrous drought year. 

1914— The period 1912-1921 commenced with three or four bad seasons 
of which 1914 is marked in the memory of most of us as a disastrous' 
drought year, much of the bad effect of which was felt in 1915 

Prom and including 1916 to 1926 the State was more free from drought 
conditions than at any previous period since the opening up of the 
outer country commenced, but dry conditions have followed. 



96 



\ broad consideration of the way in which droughts affected the welfare ot 

the State shows that for the first twenty years they were scarcely noticeable. 1 his 

s probably because at that time the settled areas of the State were m the regions 

of higher' and more reliable rainfall. As the out-back country was opened up, 

the incidence of drought became more marked, culminating m the period from 

1880 In the vears from 1905 onward, partly owing to improved rainfall, but doubt- 
less assisted by wiser methods and greater experience in appropriate agricultural 
methods, the incidence of drought has not been so marked as previously. Here 
we see in operation the effect of the human factor of education and research as 
practised by individuals and by Agricultural Research Institutes, and disseminated 
by means of the State Agricultural Department and its widespread and well- 
organised system of district bureaus. 

" (e) The Cycles of Good Seasons.— As a set-off to the story of the chief 
drought years, a careful and exhaustive effort was made to similarly mark the 
"exceptionally good years." Various factors prevented the exact assessment ot this 
factor • a high rainfall season may be accompanied by red rust with a partial 
failure of the crops, as in 1867 ; or the apparent increases ot the various selected 
prosperity factors may be but relative, and due to comparison with preceding 
droughts In other cases, frosts played a part that could not be gauged; or the 
total rainfall may have been low but at the right time, with good crops. 

The fact is that in the settled portion of the State most years are good years. 
This is really of course, a more important factor than the droughts, and has 
already been stressed in the reference to the high degree of rainfall reliability 
enjoyed by "The Counties" (vide Taylor's "Australian Environment, p. 20), 
amounting to over 80 per cent. 

The area of this State is great, and generalizations thus become difficult. In 
the worst years of drought some localities enjoy above the average rainfall. Even 
in the disastrous year of 1902, the Eucla-Yalata strip was above the average and 
the Lake Eyre district had a better fall than usual. Similarly, the year s general 
rainfall may be good but inopportune, or, as is more often the case, average but 
opportune. 

The Commonwealth Bureau of Meteorology publication entitled. "Results 
of Rainfall Observations in South Australia up to 1917," published 1918. shows 
on the whole, however, and particularly in the graphs of sub-divisional raintall. 
a remarkable similarity between the annual rainfall graphs of different regions. 
So far as monthly distribution is concerned, the rainfall of a dry year or a wet 
year on the West" Coast is relatively similar to that on the Adelaide Plains or the 
Mount Lofty Ranges, though the actual annual total, of course, varies greatly 
from place to place, as shown in fig. 3b. These graphs and records also emphasise 
the fact that the drought years are irregularly recurrent, and are. the exceptions. 
Satisfactory general rains and good seasons are the rule over the whole of the 
area south of the 10-inch isohyet. 

Based on the records of the "Statistical Summary of South Australia. 
1836-1928," the following factors were considered in the endeavour to assess the 
"exceptionally good vears":— (a) Total rainfall, (b) Wheat season rainfall, 
(c) Total and average wheat vield, (d) Increase of flocks and herds, (e) Public 
Works, (f) Bank deposits, (g) Railway business, (h) Imports and exports, etc. 
The results of all these showed up certain exceptionally good years, such as 1916 
and several of the following years up to 1925. It is more difficult to assess m 
this manner the good years prior to the 'sixties, but the early 'sixties were good, 
as were the following :— 1867, 1871, 1873, 1875, 1878. 1880, 1887, 1889. 1890. 
1893, 1894, 1903, 1906, 1908, 1909, and 1910. 



S. 



c 



n 



97 



The really good years depend on a cumulative effect, and occur in groups or 
cycles. The results of this particular enquiry regarding cycles of good and bad 
years were graphed and compared with the "Prosperity Graph" (tigs. 22a and 
22k), which was obtained in a quite different manner, as wall be described. The 
correlation between the two graphs was high, approximately ■ 80 per cent., and 
thus provided supporting evidence of the truth of the important curve of the 
pulsations of State prosperity and adversity which are set down in the final figure 
of this paper (see fig. 22). 

IV.— HUMAN FACTORS CONCERNED. 

(a) The Land and the People.— Ratzel, one of the foremost of geographers, 
has defined a "State" as: "A bit of soil and humanity." Krunhes, the author of 
''Human Geography," has gone one better in his definition: "A bit of soil a bit 
of humanity, and a bit of water." We have already seen the extent to which this 
necessary "bit of water" has influenced population distribution in South Aus- 
tralia, and we shall see this still more effectively in later sections. We shall here 
endeavour to trace the method whereby the "bit of land" available in this State 
was placed under occupation by the "humanity" concerned. 

The foundation of the State of South Australia is peculiar in that it was 
planned out beforehand, in a board-room on the other side of the world with a 
land policy ready made, but with no really productive agricultural scheme or 
native products, and with no impelling attraction of gold "rushes" or other 
mineral discoveries. A careful study of the history of the early years, as told bv 
Grenfell Price ("Discovery and Settlement of South Australia," Adelaide 1924)' 
and by the earlier diarists and historians of the "Province," coupled with the 
writer's own study of the graphs of production from 1836 to 1927, lead to the 
unwilling but inevitable conclusion that a proportion of the early settlers (figura- 
tively speaking) sat down and waited for others to make money for them. 

There was almost no proportional production for those early years though 
there were doubtless many vigorous and earnest workers. Hence arose the 
famous "Crisis of 1841." Slowly, however, the matter righted itself. The groping 
people found their way; the idea of land-speculation gave way to the vigorous 
work of land-cultivation. Flocks and herds were established; the difficult labour 
of clearing land was undertaken, and by 1846 (after ten years of colonization) 
there was one acre per person under cultivation. This may be compared with the 
ten acres per person under cultivation in 1910, 64 years later. 

(b) The Opening-up of "The Counties:'— Reference has been made in the 
opening section, and illustrated in fig. 1, to the southern more settled portion of 
the State, known as "The Counties." This division includes about 85,000 square 
!™f > u ™™ e may com P are with thc combined areas of England, Scotland and 
Wales (88,000 square miles), or with the State of Victoria (87,000 square miles) 
Ihis northern boundary line of the counties is most significant; it is the net result 
ol the experience and effort of those people who have constituted the State of 
bouth Australia since its foundation; it is the human response to a verv powerful 
geographical fact— that of diminishing rainfall. ' 

The northern boundary of the counties coincides in a general way with ^he 
line of 10-mch annual rainfall (see fig. 3b), or with the line of 8-inch winter rain- 
tan (see fig. 10). It is worthy of note, and is an indication of the courage and 
optimism of our people, that this man-made boundary does not shrink back from 
the 10-mch rainfall line, but boldly pushes beyond it into the drier areas to the 
northward. 



98 



The following table gives the total area of each county, the area still 
unoccupied in 1927. and the relative populations in 1861 and 1921 : — 



II. 



III. 



IV. 



VI 



Arkas and Populations 


of Counties. 




Name of 


DaLe of Pro- 


Total Area 


Area 
Unoccupied, 


Population, 


Population, 


County and Division. 


clamation. 


in Acres. 


1927. 


1861. 


1921 Census. 


Central Division— 




Acres. 


Acres. 


Persona. 


Persons. 


Adelaide 


.... 1842 


730,000 


18,000 


66,238 


278,508 


Carnarvon 


.... 1874 


1,075,000 


575,000 


175 


1,347 


Eyre 


.... 1842 


906,000 


39,000 


1,097 


5,751 


Fergusson 


.... 1869 


1,189,000 


54,000 


— 


9,626 


Gawler 


.... 1842 


594,000 


20,000 


3,784 


12,786 


Hindmarsh .... 


.... 1842 


656,000 


50,000 


15,502 


12,365 


Light 


.... 1842 


537,000 


6,000 


14,980 


15,288 


Sturt 


.... 1842 


850,000 


97,000 


4,546 


10,075 


Lower North Division — 










Burra 


.... 1851 


1.331,000 


65,000 


5,483 


3,882 


Daly 


.... 1862 


1,061,000 


64,000 


1,232 


20,682 


Kimberley 


.... 1871 


888,000 


5,000 


— 


1,492 


Stanley 


.... 1842 


1,007,000 


26,000 


4,835 


11,328 


Victoria 


.... 1857 


916,000 


40,000 


538 


21,042 


Upper North Division — 










Blachford 


.... 1877 


726,000 


33,000 


— 


607 


Dalhousie 


.... 1871 


787,000 


23,000 


— 


6,445 


Derby 


.... 1877 


950,000 


136,000 


— 


— 


Frome 


.... 1851 


965,000 


34,000 


987 


9,245 


Granville 


.... 1876 


748,000 


33,000 


— 


567 


Hanson 


.... 1877 


806,000 


92,000 


— 


496 


Herbert 


.... 1877 


980,000 


36,000 


— 


652 


Lytton 


.... 1877 


884,000 


75,000 


— 


— 


Newcastle 


.... 1876 


781,000 


39,000 


— 


2,497 


Taunton 


.... 1877 


1,374,000 


37,000 


— 


224 


South-Eastern D 


IVISION — 










Buckingham 


.... 1869 


1,146,000 


149,000 


— 


2,354 


Cardwell 


.... 1864 


1,069,000 


103,000 




222 


Grey 


.... 1846 


1,308,000 


115,000 


3,337 


15,186 


MacDonnell .... 


.... 1857 


1,182,000 


63,000 


652 


1,281 


Robe 


.... 1846 


1,256,000 


76,000 


1,477 


3,758 


Western Division- 












Bosanquet 


.... 1913 


1,280,000 


155,000 


— , 


72 


Buxton 


.... 1896 


1,155,000 


628,000 


— 


435 


Dufferin 


.... 1889 


1,679,000 


936,000 


— 


452 


Flinders 


.... 1842 


1,177,000 


66,000 


758 


4,626 


Tlopetoun 


.... 1892 


1,536,000 


654,000 


— 


328 


Jervois 


.... 1878 


2,368,000 


1,197,000 


— 


3,110 


Kintore 


.... 1890 


908,000 


320,000 


■ — ■ 


364 


Le Hunte 


.... 1908 


1,247,000 


748,000 


— 


724 


Manchester .... 


.... 1891 


1,235,000 


143,000 


— 


1,107 


Musgravc 


.... 1876 


1,568,000 


403,000 


— 


1,121 


Robinson 


.... 1883 


1,711,000 


346,000 


— 


1,538 


Way 


.... 1889 


i;670,000 


990,000 


. — . 


1,400 


York 


.... 1895 


845,000 


212,000 


— 


939 


, Murray Mallee 


Division — 










Albert 


.... 1860 


1,404,000 


211,000 


69 


4,785 


Alfred 


.... 1869 


961,000 


89,000 


— 


2,154 
2,877 


Buccleuch 


.... 1893 


1,491,000 


228,000 


— 


Chandos 


.... 1893 


1,677,000 


405,000 


— 


Hamley 


.... 1869 


1,404,000 


527,000 


— 


6,630 


Russell 


.... 1842 


847,000 


171,000 


257 


3,366 


Young 


.... 1860 


1,329,000 


136,000 


52 


3S7 



54,284,000 . 10,668,000 126,000 

The general arrangement of the counties is shown in fig. 4. 



487,600 



clamation of these surveyed areas was made in 1842, ahout which time the popula- 
tion was beginning to spread well away from the Adelaide Plains, but still in areas 
of high and reliable rainfall. 



99 




Fig. 4. 
Plan of the Counties, showing the position and size of each county and 
the date of proclamation. It will be seen from the context that the order 
in which these lands have been opened up has been mainly one of decreas- 
ing rainrall, and that the northern boundary is strictly limited by rainfall 
conditions. (See figs. 3b and 10). 

Gradually thereafter, with special bursts of activity in 1869-79 and in 1889-97 



coun- 



the whole of the counties were proclaimed. 
1842 — Adelaide, Gawler, Light, Start, 

Hindmarsh, Russell, Stanley, 

Grey, Eyre, Flinders. 
1846— The wetter South-East 

ties, Grey and Robe. 
1851 — Burra, Frome. 
1857— Victoria, MacDonnell, 
1860— Albert, Young. 
1862— Daly. 
1864— Cardwell. 
1869 — Alfred, Hamley, Fergusson 

Buckingham. 
1871 — Kimberley, Dalhousie. 
1874 — Carnarvon (Kangaroo Island). 



The order is of interest, as follows :— 

1876 — Mttsgrave, Granville, New- 
castle. 

1877 — Blachford, Derby, Hanson, 
Herbert, Lytton, Taunton. 

1878— Jervois. 

1883 — Robinson. 

1889— Dufferin, Way 

1890— Kintore. 

1891— Manchester. 

1 892 — Hopetoun . 

1893 — Buccleuch, Chandos. 

1895— York. 

1896— Buxton. 

1908— Le Hunte. 

1913 — Hosanquet. 



100 



It will be noted that for the past 40 years little has been done in he opening 
up of fresh counties, and for over 16 years nothing at all. Actually we have 
reached the limit, as far as the present stage of agricultural practice is concerned, 
may £en be said that we have gone beyond it In a burst oi °P« « 
the late 'seventies, perhaps inspired by the 10-million bushel harvest of 1875-6 
Serif northern ounties were opened up. They included Lytton Derby, and 
Taunton; Manchester was proclaimed in 1901. These four counties are mute 
outside (north of) the 8-inch winter rainfall line (see fig ,10 ), and although^ t i 
now over 50 years since three of them were proclaimed, the latest (1929) official 
harvest estimates show no return whatever for these counties borne of them are 
now disregarded bv the Government Statistician m his official county returns. 

The suggestion arising from a consideration of these facts is one that has 
been frequently put forward, but is more often lost sight of. 1 is that the pro- 
ductive land of South Australia is severely limited by the rainfall, and lies within 
"The Counties" ; it is on this area that we should concentrate m our endeavours 
to increase our agricultural and pastoral production. As Griffith Tay o .has 
already emphasised (A.A.A.S., Presidential Address, Section E, Wellington 
1923)':— "Lord Brycc has pointed out that governments such as ours are not 
leasing land, but rainfall, to the settlers." 

2QP00r SQUARE MILES 
16,000 



II — « 



12,000 — 




1856-42 43-5! 52-61 



62-71 72-81 82-91 1892-1901 02-11 12-21 

Fig. 5. 
Graph showing the progressive opening-up of county areas in square miles 
m decennial periods with the average annual raintall ot the area prockimcd 
in each case. It will be seen that for the past 30 years no new land with 
more than 10 inches of average annual rainfall has been proclaimed. As 
Town in the preceding table, however, large areas ot good rainfall land 
within the counties still remain undeveloped. 

This important pronouncement by Lord Bryce needs no further emphasis. 
Every map of this State supports the idea. Fig. 5 shows that the first counties 
(1842) had a rainfall above 20 inches. The second decennial period included 
those counties of the more moist South-East (Mount Gambier district) and the 
average rainfall was nearer 30 inches. The areas later opened for .settlement 
showed that we were progressing northward, north-east (Murray Mai lee) and 
westward (Eyre Peninsula) into areas of lower and lower rainfall Since the open- 
n* of this century no new counties with more than a 10-mch rainfall have been 



101 

proclaimed, and none remain to be proclaimed. We have reached the limit of 
general northerly advance, and should now concentrate on the areas we have won. 
From the 'sixties to the early 'eighties there was a period of general pros- 
perity in South Australia, broken by the depression of 1867-1872, when copper 
prices and wheat yields were low. It was then that the greatest forward move- 
ment was made in extending the counties. But agricultural practice, water con- 
servation, and railway construction had not kept pace with the proclamation of 
counties. From 1884 on into the new century (1904) there was a series of more 
or less adverse years, and since 1900 only two outback counties, Bosanquet and 
Le Hunte, have been proclaimed. 

The facts set out in the plan of the counties (fig. 4) and the graphs of then- 
dates of proclamation, areas, and rainfall (fig. 5) present indisputable evidence 
of the controlling factor of rainfall. In earlier years a general northern limit was 
set by the well-known "Goyder's line." This line, which was mainly based on 
vegetation (an "ecological isopleth"), was a reliable guide and a remarkable piece 
of work on the part of Surveyor-General Goyder. Now, however, with a know- 
ledge based on many years of accumulated rainfall records, and with an agri- 
cultural technique that has carried production well beyond this line, the latter 
becomes an object of purely historical interest. It has been displaced by the more 
northerly line of 10-inch average annual rainfall (fig. 3b). or still more surely 
by the line of 8-inch April-November rain (see fig. 10). 

(c) The General Distribution of Population. — The general distribution of 
the population of the State during its earlier years is most difficult to arrive at 
with any degree of certainty. The first really reliable records that could be 
obtained dated from the census of 1861, and "spot maps" that are reasonably 
correct within the limits of the dot-unit selected are presented for each decennial 
period from 1861 to 1927 (see figs. 7a, 7b, 19a and b, 20a and b, 21a and b). 

The selection of the dot-unit was not a simple matter. Various numbers were 
tried, and it was found that one dot for each 100 people served the purpose most 
successfully. For country areas the smaller the number selected the more accurate 
the map, provided that detailed data are available. In many American population 
maps every 25 persons are represented by one dot. For cities, or even for smaller 
townships, dots representing such small numbers of people cease to have much 
value ; many devices have been adopted to overcome this. After various experi- 
ments, and in view of the scale of the maps and the character of the figures avail- 
able, the unit of 100 persons per dot was adopted, with clusters to represent the 
townships and other "islets" of country population, and blots to represent the 
larger towns; the detailed distribution of the population of the metropolitan area 
has already been shown by the writer (Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. li., 1927, p. 253). 
The data drawn upon for the population distribution becomes more and more 
vague as we go backward in time, and for the period prior to the publication of 
State directories it was necessary to utilize all varieties of information from 
police, church, post office, and other lists, and from old newspapers and advertise- 
ments. The source in all cases, however, as far as counties as a whole are con- 
cerned, is the reliable one of census returns. In addition, the statistics of corpora- 
tions, country towns, and directory information were utilized, and the generous 
assistance of the Government Statistician (Mr. W. L. Johnston) and the Librarian 
of the Public Library (Mr. H. R. Purnell) have made it possible to locate the 
"dots" with a reasonably high degree of reliability. 

The general graph of the population growth shows a gradual progress from 
1836 to the present day, but there were actual decreases in several years, in part 
due to migration following bad seasons, in part owing to the lure of mining fields 
m other States, and in one major case (1915-1916) due to the Great War. The 
decrease of 1885-6-8 was largely owing to the Broken Hill (N.S.W.) mineral 



102 



discoveries ; that of 1902 was almost wholly due to the disastrous drought of that 
date. 

The general trend of this graph calls for no special comment. It shows a 
gradual and healthy growth, with a gradient characteristic of prosperous new 
lands. It has a grade comparable with that of Australia as a whole, and with that 
of the United States of America; a much more rapid growth than is shown by 
the older countries of the world, particularly those of Europe, where some popula- 
tion gradients are almost level or even descending. 

The graph of "cultivated land" is compiled from the "Statistical Summary" 
of the State, and includes all the land under crop, fallow, or sown with permanent 
grasses. Little was done for the first ten years, thereafter there was accelerated 
progress, largely due to the adoption of additional mechanical assistance on the 

l 
I 




1836 



186CH 



1880-1 

Fig. 6. 
Graph showing the population growth from the hirth of the State (1836) 
to 1927. With this is graphed the progressive acreage of cultivated land 
(unit: 10 acres). By 1910 there were 10 acres under cultivation for each 
person in the State, and this proportion has since increased. The annual 
rainfall at Adelaide is also shown, atid its bearing, both on population 
growth and cultivated area, may be noted. The barred circles at the 
foot of the figure represent dry seasons. 

farm. The effect of dry seasons is noticeable, and apart from the abnormal con- 
ditions of the war years' there is an interesting and natural causal relation between 
the three lines show T n on fig. 6. 

In fig. 7 we see the population of the State after 25 years of effort. The 
great bulk of the population was, as at present, in the pleasant and fertile central 
regions of the Spencer- Vincent Sunkland, and on the adjacent ranges, where good 
soils and reliable rains prevail. The wheat production in that year (1861) reached 
3-h million bushels, with a total population of 130,000 people. 



103 



The "West Coast" (Eyre's Peninsula) was almost untouched, the northern 
districts had not been exploited, Yorke Peninsula, The Murray Valley, Kangaroo 
Island, and the Murray Mallee remained practically untouched; there was good 
progress in the wetter districts of the South-East, particularly around Mount 
Gambier itself, and at Robe and Naracoorte. In those days travel and transport 
were slow and cumbersome; good roads were rare; there was a railway from 
Port Adelaide to Adelaide, and a tramway from Goolwa to Port Elliot. The 
only purely inland railway was that to Kapunda (copper). The county of Adelaide 
contained more than half the people of the State. 




POPULATION DISTRIBUTION 

1861 

EACH • REPRESENTS 100 PERSONS 



C.F, 
1929. 



Fig. 7a. 
Spot map of the population of South Australia in 1861, showing the 
growth and dispersion that had taken place during the first 25 years of the 
State's existence. The county boundaries of that date are also shown. 

There were no country reservoirs, and Adelaide itself was yet to receive its 
first reticulation of both water and gas. The State had discovered its value as a 
wheat producer (3,576,000 bushels), as a wool area (13,000,000 lbs.) ; there were 
three million sheep and 260 thousand cattle. Copper, however, played a con- 
siderable part in taking the population away from the cities, in the powerful way 
characteristic of the mineral industry. Kapunda and Burra were notable copper 
F 



104 



producers, and Wallaroo had just been discovered; apart from the agricultural 
centres of Gawler and Mount Gambier, the four chief "islets" of population in 
the country were at Kapunda, Burra, Wallaroo, and the "copper port" of Port 
Wakefield. 




POPULATION DISTRIBUTION 

1927 

EACH • REPRESENTS 100 PERSONS 



1929. 



Fig. 7b. 

Spot map of the population of South Australia in 1927, for comparison 

with that of 1861 (fig. 7a). The county boundaries are shown. Each 

dot represents 100 persons. The factors controlling this concentration 

and dispersion are discussed in detail in the context. 

Between 1861 (fig. 7a), with a population of 130,000, and 1927 (fig. 7b), 
with a population of 575,000, there is a period of 66 years. The alterations that 
have taken place are most marked, both in dispersion to the country districts and 
in concentration towards the metropolitan centre. 

Copper has declined almost to vanishing point, and the three chief copper 
centres, while declining in population and importance, have adapted themselves as 
commercial, distributing, and residential centres for the agricultural areas that 
surround them. The coming of the stump-jump plough and the stripper, with 
later mechanical advantages, and the more complete adoption and perfection of 
scientific farming methods, have revolutionised wheat production. The discovery 



105 

of the value of "super." on these phosphate-hungry soils has been a most powerful 
factor in the successful extension of the agricultural areas. 

The development of a great railway system, the provision of a remarkable 
scheme of water supply, the exploitation of the irrigable Murray Flats, the 
drainage of the South-Eastern plains and swamps, the opening of the Port Pirie 
smelting works and the Iron Knob iron mines, the establishment of the salt and 
gypsum industries— all these have influenced the methods and direction of growth 
of the population, and each will be dealt with in turn in succeeding sections. 

The most striking population extensions of 1927, as compared with 1861, 
are the opening up of the northern districts, Yorke Peninsula, the Murray Mallee, 
and Eyre Peninsula, all of which are wheat developments, with the later extensive 
settlement within the valley of the Lower Murray, where irrigation is practised. 
Properly speaking, this valley is comprised in the narrow strip that margins the 
river, and lies between the Mallee uplands that border the valley on both sides. 
Above Overland Corner this valley may be from six to ten miles wide, below that 
point it is only one or two miles in width. Where the adjacent uplands and slopes 
are irrigable they are counted as in the Murray Valley. 

The capital centre, for various good reasons, has grown prodigiously, and 
contains more than 55 per cent, of the total State population. The chief "islet" 
on the West Coast (Eyre's Peninsula) is Port Lincoln, a distributing centre, and 
in the South-East the town of Mount Gambier functions similarly. The largest 
country centre is the port and smelting town of Port Pirie, where the geographical 
controls of port and nearness to Broken Hill have led to the development of an 
important centre on a samphire swamp area that would, without these factors, 
have remained a small and unimportant wheat port. 

Similarly, Iron Knob and its port (Whyalla) have developed under most 
difficult climatic conditions, on account of the extensive and rich iron ores there, 
and the ingenuity of man has contrived to bring many of the amenities of life to 
these otherwise unfavoured localities. Some centres, such as Kingscote (K.I.), 
Robe, and Victor Harbour — each of them in its turn having had high hopes as 
harbours, and even aspiring to the status of capitals — have had to yield to the 
judgment of mariners and to the growth of ships, and are now charming and 
valuable tourist and holiday resorts. 

The trio of peninsular towns (Wallaroo, Moonta, and Kadina) is still in the 
process of adjusting itself to the changed conditions that followed the closing of 
the copper mines, and such adjustments, so common throughout the mineral 
regions of the world, are gradual and difficult; much more so when such towns 
have been so long established as mineral producers (sixty years). Port Augusta 
is chiefly a railway town (Commonwealth lines to Kalgoorlie, W.A., and Alice 
Springs, C.A.), and the present geographical conditions do not greatly favour its 
development as a port. 

The spot map shows, generally, how great is the influence of topographical 
features on the distribution of the people. The effect of the abrupt scarp faces 
of the Mount Lofty horst is most marked, and shows best in the detailed map of 
the Adelaide Plains. In a paper on "Some Population Gradients in the United 
States," by Dr. A. B. Wolfe, in the "Geographical Review/' April, 1928, 
pp. 291-301, similar striking effects are clearly shown. In South Australia the 
controlling influence of mountain escarpments, of river cliffs in areas of irriga- 
tion (Murray Valley, not shown clearly in these figures owing to the small scale 
of the maps), of the contrast between plain and plateau, between the lower swamp- 
lands (i.e., Port River estuary, head of Gulf St. Vincent, etc.), and the 
neighbouring dry lands. 

Again, in a paper entitled "A Picture of the Distribution of Population in 
Pennsylvania," by C. E. Batschelet, in the "Geographical Review/* July, 1927, 



106 

pp, 429-433, we see the remarkable effects on population distribution of the ridges 
and valleys of that State, The type of population distribution shown by the inter- 
ridge alluvial plains of the Gladstone-Kapunda region, and even in the garden 
and orchard areas of the Mount Lofty Ranges, compares with that of the valleys 
of Central Pennsylvania; the South Australian example would show up in a well- 
marked manner on a large scale map, but with a much less dense population and 
with a less striking distribution. The effects of the curving ridges of the tilted 
blocks of the Mount Lofty horsts on the distribution of farms and townships is 
also shown in the arrangements of transport systems and schemes of water supply. 

Fig. 18 shows the extraordinary way in which the broken coastline of the 
State has led to the development of ports. But only a few of these have any note- 
able trade. The population "islets" along the coast, as shown in fig. 7b, should 
be studied in comparison with the details of harbour tonnage shown in fig. 18. 
Some of the inland centres are almost wholly "railway towns," formed at 
important intersections, notably Tailem Bend and Peterborough. The town of 
Murray Bridge is a river and railway port, and apart from local fertile river flats, 
owes its existence to its selection as a site for the first bridge across the Murray 
in South Australia (see Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. li., 1927, p. 225). 

Most other "islets" of population shown in the spot map for 1927 are agri- 
cultural centres, such as Clare (wine and fruit district), Balaklava (wheat), 
Burra (wheat and wool), Gawler (hay and dairy produce), Maitland (wheat), 
and Renmark and Berri (citrus and dried fruits), and so on. Each centre attracts 
and holds its population according to the inexorable laws of nature, and even in 
the smallest villages one may trace the influences of the factors of climate, soil, 
topography, and other local geographical conditions. 

In concluding this section on the general distribution of population in South 
Australia as we see it at the present day, with its lateral extensions and north- 
ward progress towards areas of less favourable conditions, one may quote the 
interesting conclusions of Dr. Guy-Harold Smith, an American geographer, who 
has published a paper on "The Populating of Wisconsin" ("Geographical Review/' 
July, 1928, pp. 402-421). ' 

Dr. Smith says that in northern Wisconsin, "because of the lack of easily 
cultivated prairies, the low intrinsic value of the land, and the severer climatic 
conditions (greater cold, etc., in this case), the agricultural frontier passed very 
lightly across that part of the State, leaving in its wake only a sparse population." 
He speaks of the evils of certain types of land dealers in such areas, and of the 
difficulties of the struggling "marginal farmers." We must remember, however, 
that it is among these marginal farmers that are at times developed those methods 
of farming that have greatly increased our production, to say nothing of the 
thrift, courage, and tenacity of purpose developed under such conditions. 

There is a proverb to the effect that character is not strengthened among 
those on whom the snow docs not fall, i.e., those who have no adverse climatic 
conditions to contend with. In South Australia there is no snow to fight against, 
but there are climatic enemies equally difficult to overcome. It is to the cumulative 
effect of generations of such effort that the character of the people of this State 
owes many of its best qualities. In such manner do geographical factors influence 
not only the material but also the moral welfare of man. 

(d) Dispersion and Centralisation. — In following the movements of the 
population of the State we see two forces at work, or rather two sets of complex 
forces : — 

(a) One set attracting or driving the individual out to the open spaces, 
to contact with the soil, to the margins of settlement, to the hard work 
of agricultural and pastoral pursuits, with the prospects of an ultimate 
rich reward. 



107 

(b) Another set of forces attracting individuals to the metropolitan area 
— for work, for educational facilities, and for the general amenities of 
urban life — with fair prospects of more immediate comfort and less 
anticipation of high subsequent reward. 

The second force has become more marked in later years, with the coming 
of the comforts of modern reticulation, lighting, transport, amusements, depart- 
ment stores, etc., that add to the attractions of life in larger centres. The 
development of manufactures in the metropolitan area and the better educational 
facilities that are naturally available add to this attractiveness. There is a 
decreasing demand for farm labour per farm owing to the increasing use of 
agricultural machinery. Fewer workers are needed in the country; more are 
needed in the city. The "inexorable laws" of supply and demand are ever in 
operation. If too great a number of men left the country, so that insufficient farm 
products were available, the price of such commodities would rise, and the farm 
workers' wages would also rise relatively to those of the metropolitan worker; 
while an excess of workers in the city areas would in a similar manner lead to a 
reduction of urban employment or wages. A movement would then gradually 
set in from the city outwards. 

Urbanization or centralization, or, as it is sometimes called, the "unnatural" 
growth of cities, is to be found in all latitudes and among all peoples. It is more 
notable in industrial areas, and this State is somewhat outstanding in this respect 
as an almost purely agricultural and pastoral country. An important factor 
operating here to make one urban centre, instead of two or three, as has been 
shown elsewhere by the writer, is the general charm and comfort of life in 
Adelaide, and the complete lack of any other centre with geographical advantages 
that are at all comparable with those of the capital city. 

For the first few years of the State's history the districts around Adelaide 
really constituted the whole State, though a limited number of sheep farmers 
penetrated into the more remote parts in a remarkably rapid manner. Thus 
there was at first no notable concentration nor dispersion. In about ten years, partly 
under the spell of mineral (copper) discoveries, and partly because of the know- 
ledge of the outback country that was gained by the sheep farmers, dispersion 
set in. This has continued throughout the life of the State, now flowing north- 
ward, or eastward, or westward, with a steady continuous growth in the South- 
East, and more recently in the Murray Valley, and with occasional considerable 
retreats where a succession of dry seasons drove settlers back from areas of less 
reliable rainfall that had been temporarily occupied. Generally speaking, periods 
of dry seasons accentuated concentration in the metropolitan area ; good seasons 
favoured and assisted dispersion. 

In the graph (fig. 8) we see the manner in which the relative proportions of 
country and city population have waxed and waned. Many factors influenced 
this matter, some of which have been detailed above. The opening up of fresh 
railways (and, to a less extent, ports) has had an enormous influence, as also has 
the development of a widespread system of water supply. In 1861 the outside 
counties still had fewer people than County Adelaide. Ten years later the position 
was reversed, and we find considerably more people in the country proper. 

This condition of more rapid country extension continued for twenty years, 
and the maximum proportion of country population was reached in 1881. But 
while the population of the metropolitan county continued to grow rapidly through 
the 'eighties, there were periods of depression — of dry seasons, poor yields, and 
generally low prices — and the outside counties increased but slowly. They con- 
tinued to lose their adult population (many going far afield to New South Wales, 
Western Australia, etc.), and such increase as is shown was due to the excess of 
births over deaths and departures. 



108 

Before 1900 the County of Adelaide had a population equal to that of all the 
other counties. About 1910 the growth curve of Adelaide (city and county) 
took a remarkably accelerated upward turn. This has been ascribed, popularly, 
to the electrification and extension of the suburban transport; but this factor must 
be considered, in large part, an effect rather than a cause. The underlying cause 
was a general prosperity, due to good seasons, more work available in the city, 
good yields and prices, high copper values, and other cumulative general effects 
due to improved farming methods. The development of manufactures, and the 
increase of city amenities, also contributed to the result. About this time the curve 
of country population also took an upward turn, less marked than that of the city. 

Between 1910 and 1920 the curve of population is distorted and abnormal, 
as is practically every other curve indicative of the activities of the State, owing 
to the disturbing influences of the war; this was added to, locally, by the 1914 



600,000 



500,000 



WHOLE 
STATE 



A 



! < 



ADELAIDE 

JAAAAA CITY AND — 
400,000" SUBURBS. 



300,000 



ALL OTHER 
COUNTIES. 



COUNTY 
\ ADELAIDE 




200,000 



100,000 



1836 1850 i860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1927 

Fig. 8. 
Graph showing the metropolitan and country distribution of the population 
of the State. The whole column shown at each ten-year interval represents 
all the people of the State; the black portion represents the metropolitan 
dwellers, and the shaded portion the remainder of those living in the County 
of Adelaide. Thus the upper unshaded portion of the column represents those 
living in what might be called the "Country Counties." 



drought. Strangely enough, the city population shows these movements more 
than the country, possibly a reflection of the fact that there is less natural stability 
in the population of the metropolitan area. 

By 1920 peace had come, demobilization had been effected, and repatriation 
was at work. Tremendous efforts were made to increase the number of people 
on the land — in the wheat areas, in the South-East, and more particularly along the 
Murray River. But it was still to be learnt that movements such as this can- 
not, even with almost unlimited financial resources, be artificially forced beyond 



109 

a certain limit. Difficult problems arose of farming practice, of irrigation methods, 
of individual finance, and of markets. 

Still, though there was much failure there was much success, and, with further 
good seasons and high prices, a remarkable period of prosperity followed. The 
population graph of the city (and of the County of Adelaide, which is almost 
parallel) went ahead at an unprecedented rate. At the same time, the rate of 
population increase in the outer counties flattened out (decreased), and is at 
present at a general lower rate than has previously been experienced, even lower 
than in the "depression years" of 1885-1900 (see fig. 8). 

There is a third general population movement that should be noted. In the 
preceding paragraph the metropolitan area, which is that portion of the County 
oE Adelaide within about ten miles of the General Post Office, comprising the 
city proper and the suburbs, has been loosely referred to as "the city." The city 
proper is really the central municipal area within the belt of "park lands," and 
under the cortrol of the Adelaide City Council. While the whole metropolitan 
area has rapidly increased its population, there is, and has been for ten years or 
more, a distinct outward movement from the city proper into the suburban areas. 
On the one hand, there has been the "pull" of new and well-planned suburbs, more 
pleasant surroundings, "breathing space" and garden facilities, with comfortable 
transport, electric light, sewerage, and a good water supply. On the other hand, 
there has been in the city (where in 1842 practically all the metropolitan area was 
contained, vide Kingston's map of that date) a strong demand for space for 
factories, storehouses, motor garages, shops and offices; rows of small and old 
houses, dating back to the very early days, have been displaced, and the occupants 
have moved outward to the suburbs — a wholly desirable movement. 

The writer has been continually surprised to find, in the course of his enquiries 
into the geography of South Australia, that various movements and tendencies 
that have been thought worthy of comment, and yet regarded as quite local and 
accidental, prove on further enquiry to be matters of world-wide interest and 
development. Take, for instance, the outward movement of population from the 
centre of the city of Adelaide, which we have watched going on quietly and 
naturally from day to day, and which has been dealt with in the preceding para- 
graphs. Compare this with a statement by Brunhes ("Human Geography," 
p. 389) : — "The great city may even become empty at its centre, a fact which may 
be verified at Paris, London, Berlin, Vienna, or New York. This is not a question 
of an ephemeral and exceptional fact, but a fact of urban geography that is becom- 
ing more and more general. A German author (Hermann Schmid, Munich, 1909) 
has given to this phenomenon the name of 'Citybildung' ; he shows that this pro- 
gressive diminution of the centres of great cities dates only from the middle of 
the last century." 

Thus, if we wish to visualize a "moving picture" of the population move- 
ments, as we may do from a consideration of the facts and graphs here supplied, 
we should picture a continuous general growth of the State, partly by immigration 
but more largely by excess 'of births over deaths. With this there is a general out- 
ward dispersion, an ebb and flow movement, gradually further and further out- 
wards over the whole area of "The Counties." Accompanying this, a continued 
and marked inward concentration, partly by immigration additions, partly by the 
continuous stream of young people coming in from the country, increasing the 
urban population in an astonishing way. But in the very heart of all this con- 
centration, in the city proper, there is a gradual outward movement to the suburbs ; 
thus the broad zone of the suburban areas is continually growing by additions both 
from without and from within. 

The general movements of people noted in this section may be abundantly 
paralleled in many young agricultural lands, and we may again quote Dr. Guy- 



no 



Harold Smith, of the State of Wisconsin, U.S.A. (loc. cit.), to the effect that in 
Wisconsin the northward movement of the human frontier, towards the area of 
less favourable conditions, is accompanied by an "intensification of the rear, 
commonly called the urbanization movement." Thus there are, he notes, two 
tendencies, one towards a dissemination of the rural inhabitants, and the other 
towards a centralization of the urban peoples. This latter movement is more 
marked in South Australia on account of those peculiar geographical factors of 
topography, coastline, area, climate, and soil that have led to the concentration 
of this urbanisation in one city, instead of in several, as is more usually the case. 
It is inevitable that the eastern plains of the Spencer- Vincent Sunkland (that is, 
the Lower Adelaide Plains), because of their geographical advantages, will con- 
tinue to be the dominant urban centre of South Australia. 

(e) Production: Agricultural. — The geographical factors of topography, soil, 
temperature, and rainfall — coupled with the lack of coal, water power, timber, 



25 



20 



VERTICAL UNITS: 
!••••• linch(Apr.-Nov) Rainfall . 
2.-2,000,000 Bush. Wheat. 
3.- - - I 0,000 Tons Manure. 

4. 500,000 Bush. Oats. 

5 500,000 Bush. Barley. 




-I 1905-6 1910-11 1915-6 1920-1 1925-6 

Fig. 9. 
Graph of the total production of three representative crops during the years 
1900-1927. With these are graphed the rainfall of the crop-growing months 
(April-November), and also the increasing amount of artificial fertilizers 
applied. Note the increase of crop production; also the controlling influence 
of rainfall and fertilizers. (After W. L. Johnston, Government Statist.) 

etc. — determine the role of South Australia as an agricultural and pastoral State, 
and not as a manufacturing one. Ninety years of practical experience and 
scientific study have disclosed a wide variety of products suited to the prevailing 
conditions of the various localities, as referred to in previous sections. We may 
here discuss, briefly, the chief agricultural products, and the bearing of that factor 
on the growth and movement of population as detailed in the final chapters. 

It is not proposed to invade the domain of the agriculturists who have so 
capably demonstrated to us the chief factors influencing our agricultural produc- 
tion, and whose research and teaching and direction have led, and are leading, us- 
on to still greater production and better grade products. We are here interested 
only in these matters as factors influencing past and future population movements. 



Ill 

The "Mediterranean" character of the climate of South Australia was very 
early recognised; the vine, the olive, the fig, and the sheep were introduced 
almost in the beginning, and it must have been quite early in our history when 
the first crop of wheat was successfully grown on the Adelaide Plains. Ninety 
years have demonstrated the particular suitability of our soils and climate (north 
of the latitude of Adelaide) for wheat production, and mechanical and scientific 
skill, coupled with courage and persistence, have solved many of the special 
problems which the conditions of this land imposed. 

The general facts regarding the geographic controls which led to the adoption" 
in this State of wheat-growing as its dominant industry have been excellently set 
forth by Professor A. J. Perkins, the State Director of Agriculture (A.A.A.S., 
Handbook, Adelaide, 1924) : — "Scanty population, pioneering conditions, and 
vast distances from the markets of the world were the chief economic factors that 
helped to shape our agricultural practice. These stipulated the production of 
exportable commodities that would keep readily and indefinitely, that could be 
conveyed at low cost over long distances, that could be produced with a minimum 
of labour, and that offered no special marketing difficulties. On our slow 
emergence from the pastoral era, we realized that, subject to the adoption of 
labour-saving devices, wheat would satisfy these conditions, and, fortunately, 
experience soon proved that it could adapt itself admirably to our climatic condi- 
tions and to most of our soils." 

The greatest stimulus to increased production was possibly that of the appli- 
cation of superphosphates to soils that are peculiarly lacking in that plant require- 
ment. This fact is noted in the graphs here presented (see figs. 9 and 22). 
Another important fact was the introduction into the mallee scrub — the dwarf 
eucalypt plant suite which originally covered practically the whole of the plains 
that are now the wheat areas — of the special technique of "a roll, and a burn, and 
a stump-jump plough" for rapidly turning scrub lands into wheat fields. 

Throughout, under the capable direction of the Department of Agriculture, 
supported by the co-operation of a widespread net of intelligent and enthusiastic 
farmers (Agricultural Bureaux), methods of tillage have been continually 
improved, more appropriate wheat varieties introduced, and, latterly, more atten- 
tion given to the proper treatment of stock and pastures. With this, also, is to 
be noted the development of more intensive research and applied discovery 
that is represented by the Waite Agricultural Institute. Apart from the essential 
factors of (a) Water Supply, (b) Transport, and (c) Markets, this influence of 
scientific direction, research, and co-operation has been, and must continue to be, 
one of the chief human factors contributing to the progress of the State. 

The spot map of the State prepared in fig. 10 shows, in a graphic way, where 
the most favourable wheat areas lie. The north central areas have the advantage 
of older settlement and nearness to markets, but both the eastward and westward 
wings (Murray Mallee and "West Coast," respectively) continue to increase 
production. The south and central areas have also the most reliable rainfall — 
an important factor in the more intensive farming of the available land. 

The geographical factors are the soils, topography (compare fig. 3a), rain- 
fall (fig. 3b), and summer temperatures for ripening and harvesting. Potentially 
fertile soils and good harvesting climate extend beyond the county boundaries 
far to the north, but the rainfall is too low, and is less reliable at that. The 
southern boundary of the wheat-producing areas, clearly shown in fig. 10, is not 
so easily explained. The writer has appealed to the Director of Agriculture 
(Professor Perkins), for whose ready advice he is much indebted. Professor 
Perkins states that many factors are involved. The chief one is that in the southern 
areas, where the soils are good, the higher rainfalls and the nearness to markets 



112 

enable the agriculturists to produce crops that pay better than wheat. There is 
also the climatic factor of coldness and wetness, which prevents the wheat grown 
to the south from developing the special milling qualities required. The poorer 
soils of the "toes" of the three peninsulas (Eyre, Yorke, and Fleurieu) have 
already been mentioned ; this influence is distinctly seen in fig. 10. There is also 
a hay belt running east-west through the Kapunda district, but this is due, in the 
opinion of Professor Perkins, more to nearness to (diminishing) markets and to 
the influence of farming tradition than to soil or climatic conditions. 




Fig. 10. 

Spot map of the State, showing the wheat yield over four selected average 
years, 1919-1922. The outlines of the counties are shown, also the line of 
8-inch winter rainfall. This line forms the northern boundary of the wheat 
area, the southern boundary of which is roughly along the latitude of Adelaide, 

35° S. 



The extension of the counties, as dealt with in a previous section (see figs. 4 
and 5), the development of the water supply (figs. 13 and 14), the extension of 
the railways (figs. 15 and 16), roads and motor cars (fig. 17), and harbours 
(fig. 18) — each of these has had an important influence on the productiveness of 
the State, and thus, on the growth, distribution, and movements of population. 
Such movements are dealt with in later plans and sections, but it may here be 
noted that there has been a steady and satisfactory increase both in acreage and 



113 



yield of the chief crops, as also of the vines, citrus, and dried fruits. Given a 
continuance of satisfactory markets, abroad and local, and thrifty provision 
against the inevitable occasional recurrence of droughts, there is every reason to 
contemplate continued expansion of production, within the proclaimed areas of 
the counties, with consequent growth and prosperity for the State, 

(f) Production: Pastoral. — The flocks and herds have already been referred 
to. Much that was written in the preceding section re improved methods, scien- 
tific direction, etc., applies here, and need not be repeated. 

The progress of pastoral occupation and production in the State is clearly 
shown in fig. 11. The factors that affect the agricultural operations also affect 
the pastoral, but there are certain exceptions. The question of transport is less 
important, and the provision of water must be extended to include bores, wells, 
dams, rock-holes, etc. Stock extends much further northwards, in places right 
to the boundary of Central Australia, and thus comes into the areas of exceed- 
inly low and very unreliable rainfall. The influence of drought years is much 
more marked in pastoral than in agricultural production. The effect of the drought 
of 1914, for instance, is shown by the fact that the number of sheep in 1913 was 
5,073,000; in 1915 there were 3,674,000— a decrease of 1,399,000, where normally 
an increase of half a million would be expected (see fig. 11). 

r 800,000 




20 28 



Fig. 11. 
Graph showing the numbers of sheep, cattle, horses, pigs, and people in South 
Australia for each year from 1836 to 1927. The notable drought years are 
also marked on the graph, as barred circles. The sheep numbers are to be 
multiplied by 10. Note the absence of increase since 1890; also the disastrous 
influence of the later drought years. . 

South Australia is a pastoral country, labouring in the outer areas from two 
great difficulties: (a) water for stock, and (b) the danger of overstocking and 
thus eating out the native vegetation owing to the incidence of the drought seasons. 
The latter question is now being made the subject of special enquiry; the former 
has been carefully studied for many years by the man on the land and by the 
geologist and the engineer, and general provision by means of artesian and sub- 
artesian bores, dams, wells, and rock-holes is available up to certain limits. 

Apart from the overstocking with cattle that took place in the late 'fifties, 
the increase of stock generally, up to the year 1890, kept parallel with the increase 
of people, and with the opening up of the land (see fig. 11). The progress of 
cultivation, of course, robs the stock of some area, but this is offset by the practice 



114 



of mixed farming, which enables more sheep to be carried on a farmed area than 
were carried there when it was a sheep-run alone. 

The disturbing fact revealed by fig. 11 is that since 1890 (38 years), although 
the population has practically doubled, there has been no increase in the numbers 
of cattle and sheep. There are not so many sheep as there were in 1891, and 
cattle are many tens of thousands fewer. The fact appears to be that South 
Australia is not growing enough meat to feed her own people, if one may judge 
by the continued reports of imported stock for local consumption. From the 
broad geographical point of view, this position is not at all satisfactory, and while 
two of the contributing factors appear to be (a) a succession of dry seasons in 
the north, and (b) the utilization of sheep and cattle land for agricultural pro- 
duction, the position does not at present enable one to contemplate future pastoral 




1905 '07 1910 



Fig. 12. 
Graph showing the manufacturing progress in power, materials, and men 
from 1907 to 1928. In 1907 there was less than one horse-power used per man 
employed; in 1928 there was nearly three horse-power used for each man 

employed. 

production with the same comfortable satisfaction as is possible in the case of the 
agricultural and horticultural products. 

(g) Production: Manufactures. — The third and last type of production into 
which we are led by our enquiry is that of manufactures. The geographical 
advantages of this State do not lie in the direction of secondary industries, and 
the manner in which manufactures have progressed during recent years is a 
tribute to the available directive ability and to the workmen's skill and industry, 



115 

that have made such rapid progress and extension possible in spite of unfavour- 
able conditions. 

In fig. 12 we may see the advance made in this matter during the last 22 years. 
A general manufacturing country requires to be rich in Power (coal or water 
power), Materials (iron, other metals, and timber), and Men (skilful and con- 
tented craftsmen and operatives). South Australia, owing to its low relief and 
rainfall, has no water power, nor has it commercial supplies of coal; all power is 
produced from imported coal. She has iron, but it must be smelted elsewhere, 
to be re-imported as steel; there is at present no other production of metallic ores. 
She has directive ability and workmen alone, and with this it has been possible 
so far to fulfil the major portion of local requirements along certain lines, and 
even to export to outside markets (notably in motor bodies, furniture, etc.). 

^ Fig. 12 shows the increase in the number of men employed, but the much more 
rapid increase is in power and materials (both of which must be imported). It 
is safe to look forward to a future for this State in supplying a good proportion 
of local requirements in manufactures ; even more than at present. There are lines 
in pottery, textiles, etc., for which the material is at hand; but while outside 
markets may continue to be held and even further invaded, the geographical indi- 
cations are obviously adverse to any extensive development in that direction. 

The extent to which our manufactures depend on local markets is indicated 
by the manner in which (as shown by the detailed tables, specially supplied by the 
Government Statistician) the various factors rise and fall according to the 
incidence of local climatic conditions. By far the most stable factories are those 
that deal with local raw materials, or with local consumption, or both, as instanced 
by the following articles :— Soap, candles, leather, wattle bark, bricks, tiles, earthen- 
ware, lime, plaster, cement, salt, sugar (refining), fertilizers, bacon, ham, butter, 
cheese, confectionery, flour, jams, pickles, sauces, beer, wine, brandy, rugs, 
blankets, clothing, printing, boots, shoes, furniture, and agricultural implements. 
The future also must lie along these lines, with possible extensions in -textiles and 
pottery for local sales. 

There is a considerable proportion of industrial effort devoted to repair work. 
Some of the above-mentioned industries flourish in smaller country centres, such 
as Wallaroo (fertilizers), Southern Yorke Peninsula (salt), Mannum, Kapunda,.. 
and Ardrossan (farm machinery), with bark mills, butter and cheese factories, etc., 
in appropriate centres. The large town of Port Pirie is almost wholly an industrial 
centre, devoted to the lead-smelting industry. The tendency is for all the steel 
and wood manufactures to concentrate in the metropolitan area, and the graph 
shown in fig. 12 provides another of the explanations for the concentration of 
population in the metropolitan area. The tendency is for the larger factories to 
concentrate in the lowlands adjacent to the Port River, where sites are cheap, 
labour available, and land and sea transport convenient. 

(h) Water Conservation and Supply. — Under the stimulus of the climatic 
conditions that prevail over the greater part of the State of South Australia, a. 
scheme of water supply and conservation has grown up which is stated to be "the 
largest distributing scheme for country lands in the world, and unique in the 
history of water work schemes. " The areas thus supplied are concentrated 
irregularly along the East-West belt of country that borders latitude 34. They 
do not extend to the north beyond the 10-inch line of rainfall for obvious reasons. 
With the following exceptions, the reticulated areas cover the whole of the country 
south of the lines of 10-inch rainfall, i.e., 'The Counties": — 

(a) Northern Eyre Peninsula, in the more dry and less settled parts. 

(b) ThePolda water-bearing area (Eyre Peninsula), where good water is 
readily available underground. 



116 



(c) Southern and Central Yorke Peninsula (no local reservoir sites). 

(d) Fleurieu Peninsula and Kangaroo Island, where the rainfall averages 
well over 20 inches. 

(e) The so-called Murray Flats and their extension southward to the 
Murray Mouth (really the western segment of the plains of the 
Murray Mallee). 

(f) The Southern Murray Mallee lands, at present supplied by a wide- 
spread series of bores in that extensive sub-artesian basin. 

(g) The "Ninety-Mile" district, where artesian water occurs in places; 
there is a 20-inch rainfall and settlement is sparse, vide fig. 7b. 

(h) The South-East, where the difficulties are mainly those due to an 
excess of water. There is a rainfall of 25 inches and upward, and no 
natural streams have been developed. Sub-artesian water is abundant 
and of good quality. 




• Reservoirs 

(5 LAND 0V1R SOOFEtT. 

■ PUMP1N& STATIONS. 
~— »**•*» 15 tHtH RAINFALL. 



1929. 



Fig. 13. 
Map of South Australia showing the positions of the chief reservoirs and pumping 
stations, with the line of 15-inch annual rainfall and the land over 500 feet above 
sea-level (shaded). It will he noted that the reservoirs are bounded on the north 
by the 15-inch rainfall line, and otherwise by the 500-feet contour line. Thus the 
factors of topography and rainfall have controlled, and must continue to control, 
the possibilities of the extension of water supply schemes that are dependent upon 

local rainfall. 



117 

The history of the development of the great scheme of water supply above 
mentioned is contained in the various reports of the State Hydraulic Engineer. 
It will be touched on here only to show the way in which geographic controls have 
affected the scheme (figs. 13 and 14), and the bearing which this scheme has had 
and will have, on the distribution and movement of population. 

Reference to fig. 13, which has been drawn to show the two dominating 
geographic controls of water supply, demonstrates very clearly how the existence 
of this water supply is dependent on the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges and 
the lesser uplands of Eyre Peninsula, with their height, their stream systems 
and their better rainfall (it may be noted on any ordinary map that the greater 
part of South Australia has not developed any valley system) ; apart from the 
Lake Eyre Basin and the Lower Murray, it is only in the restricted area of the 
highlands that we find streams developed. In addition there are rivers which 
tormed in exoreic areas, must, of course, find their way to the sea across alluvial 
plains which give no further contribution to the streams (e.g., Murray Brouehton 
Light, Torrens). Even in the wetter South-East, partly owing to the youth of 
that uplifted limestone area, and partly owing to the porosity of the rocks no 
natural drainage system has been developed; the difficulty in that area is' not 
water supply but drainage, and large sums of money have been spent in drainage 
schemes with the object of rendering the land valuable for cultivation graz- 
ing, etc. ' & 

There are four chief clusters of reservoirs for water supply, as shown by 

(a) The Mount Lofty Ranges, the water supply from which must ulti- 
mately impose a limit on the growth of the metropolitan area. 

(b) The Southern Flinders Ranges, where there are at present three 
reservoirs, and others in contemplation. 

(c) The highlands of the eastern part of Eyre Peninsula, where there are 
one large and two small reservoirs. 

(d) The Murray River which, with its series of weirs, and fed by the rain- 
fall derived from the mountain areas of eastern and south-eastern 
Australia, now ensures continuity of a supply of good water. Along 
its banks large areas of adjacent country are supplied by pumping 
stations from the river, apart from the irrigation settlements within 
the narrow valley itself. 

(e) In addition to these water supplies, there are the bores of the vast 
area of the great North-Eastern artesian basin, as well as of the sub- 
artesian basin of the South-Eastern portion of the State 

(f) Elsewhere dams, shallow bores, wells, tanks, and rock-holes give 
an uncertain supply m areas of low rainfall and high evaporation. 

It will be seen that this question of water supply, combined with and depen- 
dent on that of rainfall, is the dominating geographic control of population dis- 
tribution m the State. All that has been done in the face of adverse conditions 
provides an excellent example of the way in which man ("Nature's insurgent 
son ) has m the first place adapted himself to the geographic conditions, and in 
the second place, by the exercise of his ingenuity and skill, has turned on his 
environment and shaped it to his will. 

Having considered the reticulation system in space, as set out in fi ff 13 we 
come to consider its progress in time, as shown in fig. 14. We see that from the 
foundation of the State up to the year 1860 no systematic provision for water 
supply was made. The settlers of the metropolitan district mostly obtained their 
water from Oc Slvfer .Tom** or from the wells sunk in the irregular sub-artesian 
area that underlies Adelaide. Just prior to 1860 the growth of the State rendered 



118 



a reservoir necessary, and the rapidly growing metropolitan population (see 
fig 8) has necessitated the provision of three subsequent reservoirs, each of 
increasingly greater capacity, with a fifth reservoir in contemplation m the posi- 
tion shown in fig. 13. 

The progress of country reservoirs is shown also in this graph. The first 
large water storage was that of Beetaloo, established in 1890, following a period 
of dry seasons. Barossa and Bundaleer followed about 1902, which was a severe 
drought year. Subsequent to 1914, also notable for its low rainfall, the Warren, 
Baroota, and Tod reservoirs have been completed and put into operation. 

MILES 

OF 

MAINS 
6000 



5000 



4000 




3000 



2000 



1000 



192#. 



1900 

Fig. 14. 

ph showing the progressive development of water supply from 1860 to 1928. 

■ dark vertical lines show the number of miles of water mains laid each year, 

the" total reaching nearly 6,000 miles. The reservoirs supplying the metropolitan 

area are shown in one series, with the total capacity in millions of gallons, the 

arrows indicate the date of completion. The second series of black discs represents 

the country reservoirs with their capacity and date of completion; the barred 

circles at the bottom indicate the drought years. 

One may see from fig. 13 the stimulating influence of dry seasons on the 
additional provision of water schemes. In a similar way the growth of the water 
mains has been alternately accelerated and retarded. The opening of big reser- 
voirs such as Barossa and Bundaleer, is naturally followed by a rapid increase in 
the proportion of trunk mains. This is also to be seen in the very great accelcra- 



1860 



Gra 
The 



119 



tion shown from 1925 to 1928, inclusive, which have been the most progressive 
years of extension of water supply since the foundation of the State. 

By comparison with the graphs showing population distribution and move- 
ment (figs 7a and b), with the graph of railway construction (fig. 16), and with 
the graph showing the opening of the counties (fig. 5), one may see how all these 
factors are related in a causal way, each influencing the other and being influenced 
m turn. The water supply graph (fig. 14) clearly shows how the public conscience 
has been stimulated in the direction of adequate water conservation, particularly 
since 1895 when the Happy Valley reservoir was opened. Hie greater part of 
our water conservation work has been done since that date. Progress during the 
past forty years has been accelerated to such an extent that more than four times 
as much reticulation has been carried out in that period as was accomplished m 
the previous sixty years, and this takes no account of the unestimated supplies 
provided in the Murray Valley, and in the North-Eastern and South-Eastern 
artesian basins. The acceleration of development in the State, as shown in the 
population graphs and in the prosperity graph (fig. 22), is closely related to, and 
dependent upon, the progress of water conservation shown in hg. 14. 

(i) Transport: Railways.— The relief of South Australia (hg. 3a) is such 
that apart from the barrier of the Mount Lofty and Flinders Ranges, and the 
lesser difficulties of the Murray River, the question of transport and communica- 
tion is a relatively simple one. Roads and railways may be built in straight lines 
almost wherever they are required ; but since the great concentration of popula- 
tion has necessarily been within the region of the Mount Lofty and Southern 
Flinders Ranges, the routes of the railways in those areas have been largely 
dominated by the existence of passes or gateways across the range, and by the 
long and narrow inter-range alluvial plains of the areas northward from ^awler 
to Hawker. This particular network of railways (Gawler-Hawker), see hg. lb, 
presents a fine example of topographic control of railway routes. 

In an address, published in the "Public Service Review, S.A.," May, 1929, 
Mr R A Gibbins, of the State Highways Department, brought forward some 
interesting facts relative to the manner in which "geographical controls' have 
acted, through the medium of the aboriginal inhabitants of this country, m 
determining the sites of modern communication routes. He said : ' Ihe aborigines 
showed a considerable amount of cleverness in selecting the best country to travel 
over in central Australia, and in that locality many of the roads and cattle tracks 
used today were at one time native pads. The Great Northern Railway, m many 
places follows parallel with an old red ochre track used by the aborigines for 
unkno'wn years. When Europeans made their way into the interior, they soon 
realized the advantage of utilizing the aborigines' knowledge of bushcratt. River 
crossings, bogs, quicksands, and flooded plains were found to offer no great dinV 
culty to the white man when he called in the aid of the aborigines, who had made 
pads through these swamps and morasses for ages before the European came. 
From each waterhole to the next the blackfellows had their pad, and this was 
invariably found to be the easiest way." 

The date of the foundation of South Australia, so far as transport is con- 
cerned corresponds roughly with the introduction of railways as a means of 
transport The chief method of transport preceding those days was by canals, 
which had reached the zenith of their popularity and value and were waning. 
This transition period is shown in the fact that the present road from Adelaide 
to Port Adelaide lies along a wide belt specially provided by Colonel Light, the 
founder of Adelaide, for a canal to link up the Port River with the Torrens River 
—the proposed scheme being that the small sea-going craft of those days might 
actually anchor in the Torrens within the city of Adelaide. 



120 

There was considerable opposition to the introduction of railroads. The 
first rails laid down were for a tramway from Goolwa to Port Elliot in 1854 
later extended on to Victor Harbour. In 1857, still in the face of opposition! 
the Adelaide to Port Adelaide railway was completed. There followed a period 
of twenty years, terminating in 1874, during which railway progress was very 
slow and intermittent. The chief driving power for the first northern lines was the 
stimulus of the mineral discoveries of Kapunda and Burra, and, as may be seen 
from fig. 15, these were the first long lines completed. The second period from 




Fig. 15. 

Map of South Australia showing the railways and their order of development 

in various periods. The shaded areas are those more than 20 miles from rail 

or coast. (See also fig. 16.) 

1875 to 1889, saw 1,400 miles of railway built. This was the period that marked 
the beginning of the centralization of South Australia towards the city of Adelaide. 
It has been remarked by geographers working in other countries that rail- 
ways are not usually built in long trunk lines but rather in short disconnected 
lengths. Ibis is particularly true in South Australia, where it mav also be noted 



121 



that the first efforts of the railways were in the direction of the development of 
outer ports, and in the direction of decentralization, as may be noted from the 
following early lines, the first-named terminus being a port in each case : — 

(a) Port Pirie to Crystal Brook. (d) Port Wakefield to Kadina. 

(b) Kingston to Naracoorte. (e) Port Augusta to Ouorn. 

(c) Wallaroo to Moonta. (f ) Beachport to Mount Gambier. 
It was in 1880 that the first indications of centralization of the railways 

appear, with the construction of a line from Hamley Bridge to Balaklava, linking 
up the Wakefield-Moonta lines with Adelaide. 

From 1890 to 1905, a period of fifteen years, very little progress was made, 
only 140 miles of railway being built. In the fifth period, from 1906 to 1919, there 

Spalding , Red WiU , Penong ^Ymkame . 

Clare , Mt. Pleasant, 5edan. . 



5000tM\LES 



2500 



2000 



1500 



West Coast, Murray Mallee. . 
Pinnaroo. 



Broken VUU 
Bordertawn (Melbourne Una) 



1000 



Central Sr Northern Districts 

Quom-Oodnadatta cotrfhed 

South -East 




1650 



80 90 

Fig. 16 

Graph showing the number of miles of railway construction in South Aus- 
tralia for each year from 1850 to 1928. The lettering at the side indicates the 
most important lines included in each period of extension shown. There have 
been three periods of slow growth, with two intermediate periods of rapid 

extension. 

was a very rapid development, corresponding to the rapid development of water 
conservation and of new wheat lands, as elsewhere described. In this period the 
West Coast lands were largely supplied with railways and the Murray Mallee 
with numerous lines, as indicated in fig. 15. 

The East-West line (Commonwealth), from Port Augusta to Kalgoorhe, 
was also built during this period (opened in 1917). From 1920 onwards railway 
development has been slow, and limited to small spur lines, such as Clare- Spalding, 
Renmark-Barmera, Penong, Kimba, and Yinkanie, and the more important Long 
Plains-Red Hill section. 



122 



Professor Griffith Taylor, emphasizing the fact that it is not land but rainfall 
that must be catered for in this country, has stated that no railways should be run 
into areas of less than 10-inch rainfall. It will be seen from fig-. 15 that practi- 
cally the whole of the railway lines of the State are south of the 10-inch line of 
rainfall. Outside of this line there is a railway from Quorn to Oodnadatta, 
latterly taken over by the Commonwealth and recently extended to Alice Springs! 
This northern line was an effort on the part of South Australia to get in adequate 
touch with the Northern Territory, which was at that time controlled by this 
State. The line from Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie, a Federal matter, was built in 
fulfilment of a promise to bring Western Australia in closer touch with trie- 
Eastern States. Both these lines are thus more political than economic. The 
Port Pirie to Broken Hill line, on the contrary, arose from the natural geographic 
demand created by the rich silver-lead lodes of Broken Hill for a port at which 
it could receive its timber and coal, and send away its concentrates and other 
products. 

The graph drawn in fig. 16, considered in conjunction with other figures,, 
further illustrates the way in which geographic influences — topographic, coastal^ 
climatic, and mineral— have affected the development of the railways. The exten- 
sion of railways, in its turn, enormously influenced the State production. Pro- 
fessor Perkins is inclined to think that railway development was the most potent 
of all the human influences concerned in the opening up of the Murray Mallec and 
Eyre Peninsula (West Coast). 

It may be noted from fig. 16 that in the opening railway period, which was one 
of slow growth, the first three long lines to be constructed were to copper centres. 
— Kapunda, Burra, and Moonta, respectively. This construction, in turn, re-acled 
on- the land through which the railways passed. One point of more than usual 
interest in this connection relates to the introduction of what is called "Mulleniz- 
ing," about the year 1868. Mr. C. Mullen, of Wasleys, in the northern part of 
the Adelaide plains, cut down the mallee scrub on his property, finding a market 
for the wood among the railway gangs engaged on the construction of the Rose- 
worthy-Burra railway. The idea occurred to him to lightly till the ungrubbed 
mallee country, where the timber had been cut down, with a roughly-made imple- 
ment, and to sow wheat. He did so, and this means of rapidly placing the light 
mallee soils under cultivation greatly assisted in opening up further wheat lands 
Wlth reference to the period of slow railway development between 1890 and 
1912, it is not easy to see the reason therefor, except that the Murray Malice and 
the West Coast not having yet been opened up, the country had reached a tem- 
porary limit of railway requirement. On the other hand, the reason mav have 
been partly financial, owing to the long period of depression reaching back to 1885 
The rate of increase of railways at the present time has decreased, as shown 
by the flattening ofT of the curve for recent years in fig. 16. There has been a 
considerable amount of recent railway activity, but this has been mainly directed 
towards the strengthening of the existing lines (heavier rails, stronger bridges 
etc.), and transforming much of the 3 ft. 6 in. gauge to 5 ft. 3 in. To get a full 
understanding of the way in which the railway construction has been influenced 
by climatic conditions, and of the very great influence which railway development 
has m its turn exerted on the general progress of the State, we should compare the 
railway "map (fig. 15) and graph (fig. 16) with the production records (nVs 13 
and 14), and with the population maps (figs. 7a and 7b). 

( At the present time the whole of the Slate within the 10-inch rainfall line has. 
either a railway, or a coastal port or a river port within twenty miles with the 
minor exception of the areas of relatively poor land shown shaded in fig 15 The 
notable absence of railways from Fleurieu Peninsula is mainly due to the extremely 
rough country there, and the necessary high cost of construction. The absence of 



123 



railways on Kangaroo Island, although this island is the oldest settled portion 
of the State, is a reflection of the fact that, although the rainfall on the Island is 
abundant, soil problems are presented which have not yet been solved. The greater 
part of Kangaroo Island, except the eastern portion, is today almost wholly 
unproductive. The extreme west has been set aside as a "National Flora and 
Fauna Reserve." In the small regions that are productive there are ample and 
convenient ports to deal with the products. 

The productive area of Yorke Peninsula, south of Moonta, is also without 
railways. This is a little more difficult to understand, but is probably due to the 
facts shown in fig. 18, which discloses the large number of useful ports that are 
found along the coasts of that region. 

(j) Transport: Roads and Motors. — The early roads of this State were 
very simply constructed, much as they are in all the outback areas today. The 
method is to drive a vehicle across the level country along the njost direct route 
presented, occasionally cutting down a tree so that the path may not be too sinuous. 
Constant use of such a path makes it a "road." For portion of the year such roads 
may be excellent, even for high-speed motor traffic. They tend, however, as early 
settlers found, and as the present-day pioneers know, to be dusty in summer and 
muddy in winter. MU.&5 

BITUMINOUS yj-300 

ROAD R0AD5: 

MILEAGE 

' N9 0F 
MOTORS 
60,000 




90 1900 

Fig. 17. 
Graph of the progress of Main Road development from 1854 to 1929. The 
curve shows the progressive mileage of main routes, mostly according to pro- 
clamations made in successive Acts. The rapid increase in the number of 
motor vehicles from 1904 to 1929 is also shown, and a small added graph 
indicates the rapid construction of bituminous roads during the past six years. 

Mr. R. A. Gibbins, previously quoted, tells us that in regard to road-making 
in this State: — "One of the early records refers to the 26th May, 1839, as having 
been a memorable day, in that on that occasion Governor Gawler officially com- 
menced the making of the South Australian Company's important road between 
Port Adelaide and Adelaide. The record goes on to say that earlier in that month 
a settler and his horse had been speared by blacks while travelling on the site of 
the proposed new road. When the road was completed the Company erected a 
toll house in the vicinity of Hindmarsh, where the road-users paid their fees."' 
Tolls were abolished about 1847. 



124 

The making of macadamised roads in South Australia has been greatly 
hampered by the fact that the available road metals are almost wholly silicious 
rocks (quartzites), which, from their character of breaking in flat rather than 
cubical pieces, and from their brittle and friable nature under heavy traffic, do 
not make lasting roads. Superior types of road metals have later come into use, 
but the coming of motor cars with the prosperous years succeeding 1920, and 
with the speed and comfort common to this vehicle, have demanded a type of 
road much superior to the ordinary macadam. 

Subsequently, all the arterial roads leading from Adelaide— some commer- 
cial (the Port road), some pleasure (Glenelg and Victor Harbour roads), and 
others main communication roads (the Northern and North-Eastern, and the 
Prince's Highway to Melbourne), have been constructed either of bituminous 
concrete or of a somewhat lower grade road, called bituminous penetration. By 
June, 1929, there were about 300 miles of such roads constructed, about equal 
distances of bituminous concrete and bituminous penetration. The construction 
of these superior roads provides a most interesting and modern example of the 
intcr-connection between the various geographic factors. The coming of motor 
cars, and motor traffic generally, demanded the construction of better roads, while 
the existence of these roads, in turn, encouraged and increased the use of motor 
transport. The rapidly accelerating development of both motor vehicles and 
superior roads may be seen from fig. 16. 

It is noteworthy, in considering the way in which climate and other geo- 
graphic factors have tended to isolate the fertile central portion of South Aus- 
tralia, that although this State occupies a central position, and her borders touch 
the five surrounding States of Western Australia, Central Australia, Queensland, 
New South Wales, and Victoria, no main road has yet been constructed leading" 
from Adelaide to any one of these States. 

In spite of this fact, there is considerable motor traffic to each of the States, 
particularly along the Coorong road to Victoria, and to a less extent to Broken 
Hill. While the Coorong road is the most advanced so far as construction is 
concerned, great stretches of it are merely tracks that have been made by the 
traffic without any construction whatever. In the outback areas, where drays and 
waggons (later, motor lorries) are the chief means of transport, the level plains 
permit of quite good tracks in almost any direction. 

Among settlements separated by such vast spaces, it is natural that aeroplane 
development is important. In the Adelaide region excellent facilities for landing 
grounds and for flying conditions exist, and rapid extension is taking place. I am 
indebted to Mr. Churchiil-Smith, Secretary of the State Aero Club, for the fol- 
lowing information. In the year 1914 there was but one aeroplane in Adelaide, 
and that was a visitor. In 1929 there were 17 aeroplanes, owned and housed in 
the State, and regular services had been established officially with the Eastern 
and Western States, and privately with the South-liast (Mount Gambier), Kan- 
garoo Island, West Coast, and Yorkc Peninsula. Of the 17 machines, 10 were the 
property of commercial bodies, four were owned by aero clubs, and three were 
privately owned. 

(k) Transport: Ports and Harbours. — The settled portion of South Aus- 
tralia might really be considered insular in character, owing to the very high 
proportion of broken coastline which is available to-day owing to structural and 
geological happenings, detailed in Section 3 (figs. 2 and 3a). The influence of 
this coastline has been marked in many ways, apart from climate, etc. 

The way in which early railway development tended to encourage the outer 
ports has already been described. The development of larger and smaller ports at 
various localities where the conditions were suitable has been most extensive, and 
it is likely that no Australian State, even including Tasmania, can compare with 



125 



South Australia in the provision of port facilities relative to the population and 
settled area. 

In order to get an adequate conception of the port and harbour development 
of South Australia, an intensive study was made of the annual reports of the 
Harbours Board for the years 1922 to 1925. The results have been concentrated 
and set down in the map shown in fig. 18. It will be seen that almost every 
segment of the coast is well provided with harbours, though some of these are of 
quite minor importance. There is a break without harbours between Elliston and 
Port Lincoln. The west part of Kangaroo Island is too rough and open for ports, 
nor, unfortunately, is there any need for same. The eastern face of Gulf 
St. Vincent has no geographical advantages in the way of ports with the single 




Fig. 18. 

Map showing the positions of the harbours of South Australia, with a graphic 
representation of the inward and outward tonnage at each port. Note the 
correlation with coastline type, and with productions. Compare with settle- 
ment map (fig. 7b), wheat map (fig. 10), and railways (fig. 15). 

exception of the Port River estuary, which has provided both inner and outer 
harbour for Adelaide. 

A long stretch of coast, running from Fleurieu Peninsula to the South-East, 
has no harbour that is functioning at present, as will be seen from fig. 18. Indeed, 
it would appear from the map that the extension of port facilities has in many 



126 

cases been greater than was necessary, although possibly the present position is 
due to the later development of the railway system. This fact seems to be borne 
out by the relatively high value and use, as per fig. 18, of the Yorke Peninsula 
ports "'where there are no railway facilities. 

Many of the ports are specialized owing to local geographical influences. 
Port Adelaide, with the greatest inward and outward tonnage, is the chief import- 
ing centre, and the chief exporting centre, of the State, hence its dominant position 
as^shown in fig. 18. Port Pirie, second in importance, functions mainly in the 
export of concentrates from Broken Hill, and the import of coal and timber for 
that centre, but it is also an important wheat port. The exports of Wallaroo, 
Thevenard* and Port Lincoln are mainly wheat; that of Whyalla is iron ore; of 
Farquhar Jetty, limestone for cement making, etc. ; and of southern Yorke Penin- 
sula, salt and gypsum. 

Throughout the whole of the smaller coastal ports of the State the dominant 
inward traffic is in superphosphates, and the outer traffic in wheat and wool. 

There is a considerable coastal trade with small vessels, as may be seen by 
the number of ports with small import and export per annum. Although the two 
main gulfs break up the area of South Australia, from the point of view of rail- 
way development, to such an extent that the West Coast still remains unconnected 
by 'rail with Adelaide, the connecting influence of these gulfs for communication 
purposes needs no further description, nor any additional emphasis than is given 
in graphic form in fig. 18. 

(1) Education, Research, and Invention.— Throughout the whole of the 
ninety years reviewed and discussed here, which have embraced the total period 
of the colonization and development of South Australia, the story is one of a 
steady, persistent, and increasing process of adaptation to environment. In the 
beginning, a population drawn from the advanced culture of England, from com- 
mercial rather than from agricultural centres, bred in an environment of abundant 
rains and cold winters, and used to the traditions and customs of an agricultural 
and pastoral practice that had grown up under those conditions, was transplanted 
to the antipodes, far away from any centres of population, where "commerce" 
was as yet unborn, where the topographic and plant conditions were totally strange 
and unknown, and where the climatic, soil, and market conditions demanded an 
agricultural and pastoral practice quite unlike anything they had previously known. 
To these settlers there was added later another foreign and untried element in the 
German religious refugees of the 'forties; while there has been throughout the 
whole period, a further continuous, though fluctuating, addition from the original 
home islands of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The remarkable success that has been achieved by these people and their 
native-born successors may be regarded as having been accomplished in two ways. 
Throughout there has been a persistent and tenacious "will to succeed," and success 
has been brought about by : — 

(i.) The mass effort of individual farmers, pastoralists, and others — men of 
shrewd commonsense and open minds — ever trying new methods, 
adopting those that were successful, copying from, and being copied by, 
their neighbours. This movement is represented to-day, in a somewhat 
wider sense, by the agricultural bureaus and other educational facilities 
that are encouraged and organised by the Department of Agriculture, 
(ii.) In addition, there have been wiser men, men with a broader education 
or a deeper insight, who have been inspired to invent new types of 
implements, to adopt new methods of treating the soil, to breed more 
valuable and better adapted types of both animals and plants, and to 
make such other important adjustments of agricultural and pastoral 
practice as have grown into the present general and progressive methods 
used. 



127 

It is not possible to separate these two influences, but the growth of the latter 
type has manifested itself from time to time in the establishment of definite educa- 
tional and research institutes. In 1885, notwithstanding the depression that then 
existed, the Roseworthy Agricultural College was established, and in 1924, under 
conditions of high prosperity, stimulated by a belief in the value of scientific 
research and aided by wise bequests, the Waite Agricultural Research Institute 
was founded. 

A further fact, and one of considerable importance, is the extended use made 
by the State of trained and selected scientific and engineering authorities for 
administrative work. This we see in the departmental heads and special officers 
in agriculture, mines, water supply, railways, roads, harbours, forests, education, 
irrigation, chemistry, architecture, and so forth. 

Throughout the history of the State there has been a steady, wholesome, 
widespread demand for education generally. In 1875, when adverse conditions 
of low metal prices and low wheat yields had caused a period of depression from 
which the State was just then emerging, the first important State Education Act 
was passed; the total population was then about 200,000. In 1892, again a time 
of depression and unemployment, primary education was made free to all. In 
1876, during a prosperous cycle, but with' the effects of the closing of the Rurra 
and Kapunda copper mines still in operation, the Adelaide University was founded, 
and it has rendered profound and incalculable service to the State. In 1915, an 
Education Act that provided for great extensions of free education was passed, 
and following on that Act we have seen, during the past decade, a period of 
exceptional prosperity, a remarkable extension of modern educational facilities 
closely adapted to the requirements of the people. 

The factor of general and special education, as outlined in this section, has 
played a great part in the adjustment that has taken place, enabling farmers, 
graziers, vignerons, fruitgrowers, dairymen, and others, under the varied condi- 
tions prevailing in different regions of the State (as outlined in Section III. a), 
to adjust themselves to their varied and varying environments. 

Of outstanding importance among the "inventions" were those that enabled 
man to make better and more immediate use of the light scrub-covered mallee 
soils, for example: "Mullenizing," the stump-jump plough, and the stripper. 
There is also the outstanding fact of the adoption of the use of artificial manures, 
mainly superphosphates, and the development of a local technique in their appli- 
cation to these phosphate-hungry soils ; the practice of better methods of tillage 
and rotation of crops or fallow ; the breeding or the introduction of drought- 
resisting or other special varieties of wheat or other cereals ; the breeding of stock 
more suitable to local conditions or more in demand in the markets; the struggle 
against plant and animal diseases and pests in farm, orchard, and vineyard; the 
fight against "seepage" and other difficulties in the irrigated areas ; the march of 
mechanical invention in providing improved transport and communications, and 
so on. In all these matters, the assistance of specially selected men, highly trained 
in the knowledge and skill required by such investigations, has been required and 
has been available. The influence of such factors on population movements has 
mostly been general, but in some cases the incidence has been specially marked, 
as has been shown in other sections. 

V.— POPULATION GROWTH AND MOVEMENT. 

(a) First Period: 1836-1861. —The population growth and its distribution 

during the first 25 years of the State's history is indicated by the spot-map 

(fig. 7a), already discussed briefly in Section IV.c. In the very early years of our 

history wheat and wines were grown, cattle and sheep were bred, and copper and 



128 

silver-lead were mined. But the preliminary adjustments were not easy, and a 
marked period of adversity— "The Crisis of 1841"— came in a few years; this has 
been described by various historians, vide Grenfell Price: "Foundations and 
Settlement of South Australia/' Adelaide, 1924, p. 206. 

The opening of the first counties, and the discovery of the rich copper fields 
of Kapunda and Eurra led the population outward; railways to the mineral fields 
assisted, and a prosperous period followed until the lure of the rich goldfields of 
Victoria (1851), coming on top of a dry period, sent a high proportion of the 
vigorous manhood of the State to those goldfields. Meanwhile, however, the 
seasons brightened, wheat yields increased (3,500,000 bushels in 1861), wool 
export advanced (13,000,000 lbs. in 1861), and mineral wealth continued 
(Kapunda, Hurra, and Wallaroo copper). Over three acres per individual were 
under cultivation. Towards the end of this period there was a drought. 

Fig. 7a shows that, apart from the central counties, there was in 1861 but 
one West Coast county and two in the South-East. There was a concentration 
of population in Adelaide itself, and the fertile valleys of the nearer ranges also 
supported a large number of people. The chief country "islets" were Mount 
Gambier and Port Lincoln (agricultural and commercial, "capitals" of then- 
respective regions) ; Kapunda, Burra, and Wallaroo (copper) ; Gawler (manu- 
facturing and distributing centre, owing to its commanding position at the entrance 
to the rich Angaston country and the rich arable areas of the lower ranges) ; 
Goolwa, Port Elliot, Robe, Port Augusta, and Port Wakefield (ports) ; Strathalbyn 
and Mount Barker (agricultural centres). 

The areas of practically no settlement are worthy of note. There were but 
few people along the Murray River, and these were on sheep-runs ; none were in 
the Murray Mallee, and few on Yorke Peninsula, the West Coast, or Kangaroo 
Island. The last-named area (K.I.) is still but sparsely populated, but the other 
three regions have since become productive provinces. 

Up to 1861 only one long railway had been built, that from Adelaide to 
Kapunda. Roads were few, and transport slow. There were no reservoirs or 
other organised scheme of water supply, each settler being dependent on his own 
efforts with tanks, dams, and wells. Apart from the strong pull of the mineral 
fields, the chief population movement was towards the South-East, and along 
the rich alluvial inter-ridge plains of the Low r er North. 

(b) Second Period: 1862-1871. — The population movement for this decennial 
period is shown in fig. 19a. The population for 1861 (fig. 7a) was the total at 
that date. From now on the population maps deal with the movements only, 
that is, with the number of people added or lost by each county during each 
decennial period. 

As shown in fig. 19a, several new counties had by the year 1871 been added 
to those of 1861 — to the north, east, and south-east. There was much additional 
concentration in County Adelaide ; also towards the mineral centres of Kapunda, 
Wallaroo, and Moonta, the last-named having been discovered in 1861. There 
was a drift away from the Burra copper mines, noted by the circles (each equal to 
a loss of 100 persons) of County Burra. County Victoria had also lost 300 
settlers ; but there was a strong growth in the main central counties, and in the 
South-East, with a minor movement to the north as far as Hawker, to the West 
Coast, and also to lower Yorke Peninsula. The Murray Valley and the Murray 
Mallee remained practically untouched. 

The seasons of this decennial period were generally good, but 1866 was dry. 
The good rains of 1867 did not bring equivalent yields, as red rust attacked the 
wheat crops. The stump-jumping plough had been introduced. More country 
had been thrown open, but this period ended in depression, with loss of popula- 



129 




c.r 

192.9. 



FIG. 19 b. 

POPULATION MOVEMENT 

18 72-18 81. 

'• s INCREASE OF 100 PERSONS 
O = DECREASE » " 



Fig. 19. 



130 

tion, possibly due to a considerable extent to the prevailing low prices for copper 
and to poor wheat yields. 

The concentration of population in the metropolitan area had led to the need 
lor various community services. Water was laid on in 1861, and gas in 1863. 
The city, which in 1871 contained about 30% of the total State population, thus 
hjegan to introduce factors that assisted towards an increasing concentration 
there, owing to the comforts and amenities available. The chief "pull" of 
Adelaide, has, however, been that of available employment. A railway line had 
been carried on to the Burra copper mines, but there was still no provision for 
country water supply, no organised wheat transport, few ports, no special wheats 
nor artificial manures in general use. 

(c) Third Period: 1 872-1881, — This period, as shown in fig. 19b, showed 
the usual more intense concentration towards the metropolitan area, which, m 
this case, added 37,400 people to its total population. Apart from minor but very 
significant movements towards the South-East and the West Coast, the marked 
progress of this decade was towards the rich wheat areas lying east and north of 
Port Pirie. Even the most distant of the new counties to the north had attracted 
settlers, but some of these movements show evidence of an excess of zeal. The 
counties of Taunton, Derby, and Lytton (all proclaimed in 1877) should never 
have been thus set apart for closer agricultural settlement. They are almost 
wholly outside of the 10-inch rainfall line, and the efforts of 50 subsequent years 
have emphasised their unsuitability for agriculture. In some cases, as has been 
remarked, settlers ploughed up good sheep feed (salt bush) to plant wheat that 
would not grow. 

The second great "trek" of this period was towards southern Yorke Penin- 
sula, brought into prominence by the discoveries of copper in the north of this 
region. The chief negative movement, shown in fig. 19b, was in County Light, 
and was due to the closing of the copper mines there in 1878. The Burra mines, 
also, which had been waning for some time, finally closed down in 1877. County 
Sturt, to a lesser extent, and County Hindmarsh most markedly, showed drifts 
of population. This was doubtless due to agriculturists and pastoralists who 
were not doing as well as they wished moving out to the greater spaces and the 
wider opportunities of the northern wheat lands. In 1875 the first Forest Board 
was constituted. 

During this decade the proclamation of counties (figs. 4 and 5) was at its 
zenith, but the average annual rainfall over the whole area proclaimed (nearly 
20,000 square miles) was little more than 10 inches per annum. 

In spite of some adverse seasons, the position of the State was good; the 
population gradient in 1881 was high; cultivation was extending very rapidly; 
superphosphate manures were introduced about 1880; the number of sheep, cattle, 
horses and pigs had almost reached the total at which they stand to-day; the city 
had its second reservoir (Hope Valley). There was most interesting additional 
railway extension during this decade. Quite a number of small outer ports were 
favoured with lines running inland: Port Wakefield— Hoyleton, Port Pirie— 
Crystal Brook, Kingston— Naracoorte, Moonta Bay— Moonta, Port Wakefield— 
Kadina, Port Augusta — Quorn, Beachport — Mount Gambien From the railway 
point of view, the period marked an effort towards decentralization. 

(d) Fourth Period: 1882-1891.— -Fig. 20a shows the changes that took place 
in the next decennial period. Opening under the influence of the prosperous 
years of the preceding decade, this cycle closed with one of the most severe periods 
of depression ever experienced by the State. New country was available, but the 
methods of attacking, particularly in the more outback areas, had not been per- 
fected sufficiently to ensure stability there. Superphosphate manures had been 



131 



introduced, but their adoption was slow, and only a small percentage of wheat 
farmers had so far utilized them; even at the end of the next following decade 
(1900) only about 25% of the farms used phosphatic fertilizers. 

During this period five new counties were opened ; all were on the West Coast, 
distant from markets and railways, with the exception of Manchester. But the 
last-named county is practically wholly outside of both the 10-inch rainfall line 
and the 8-inch winter rainfall line. Even after 39 years, it is to be noted in the 
current wheat yield records that Manchester is practically a non-producer so far 
as agriculture is concerned. Like Taunton, Derby, and Lytton, Manchester 
appears to be a mistake on the side of optimism. The whole of the areas pro- 
claimed in this decade averaged less than a 10-inch rainfall, but four of them 
(Robinson, Dufferin, Way, and Kintore) are wheat producers. 

The opening years of the decade were dry, being classed as a "disastrous 
drought" in some regions, and as low rainfall in all. During this period the 
Adelaide rainfall was below average for six of the ten years, and this is a reflec- 
tion of the general position throughout the whole State. The population curve 
during this period showed a distinct flattening; during three years (1885-6-8) 
there was actual decrease. The proportion of cultivated land also fell, and in 
1891 the total was less than it had been in 1882 (fig. 6). 

The flocks and herds decreased, though the cattle recovered earlier — about 
1891. ^ It was probably under the stimulus of these dry years that the Mount 
Gambier pumping station was established, the small Hawker reservoir (in the 
most northerly of the wheat areas), and the first big country reservoir (Beetaloo) 
were constructed (see figs. 13 and 14). Thus this driest of all the decades saw, 
and possibly brought about, the opening of the present great water reticulation 
scheme. 

The period of depression not only stimulated the water schemes, it also 
influenced the transport system. In spite of a falling population, these years 
witnessed one of the most rapid periods of railway extension— in the central and 
northern wheat areas, towards Oodnadatta, to Melbourne (the first link with 
another capital city) ; under the stimulus of the rich Broken Hill silver-lead-zinc 
field, the valuable and productive Port Pirie— Broken Hill line was built, that is, 
the existing Port Pirie— Jamestown line was continued to Cockburn along the 
Olary Spur of the Central Highlands. During this period, also, there was a 
marked extension of main road mileage, and important road acts were passed. 

Under very difficult climatic conditions, super-imposed on lack of facilities for 
water, transport, etc., the Broken Hill silver-lead mines were opened in 1884. 
Geographically these belong more to South Australia than to New South Wales, 
and their nearness, combined with the more powerful influence on man's imagina- 
tions that is always exerted by mineral fields compared with agricultural "fields," 
caused a dramatic "rush" away from South Australia. Population flowed away 
from the State, comparable only with the exodus to the Victorian goldfields in 
the 'fifties ° 

Within the State itself a population movement set in towards Port Pirie and 
Wallaroo; Adelaide continued to grow (Broken Hill brought much trade and 
wealth to Adelaide, though it temporarily drained this State of people) ; people 
continued to move towards the northern areas and the West Coast (see fig. 20a). 
The first great negative population effect was felt in the Central districts ; Counties 
Gawler, Light, Burra, and Stanley lost population to a marked degree; farmers 
left the fields of Yorke Peninsula, and two of the lesser counties bordering the 
Murray also showed losses. Even the wetter counties between Mount Gambier 
and Bordertown lost population; perhaps due to a movement north towards the 
new Melbourne — Adelaide railway line. 



132 




FIG. 20 b. 

POPULATION MOVEMENT 

18 92-19 01 

•= INCREASE OF 10O PERSONS 
o = DECREASE '■ 



C.Fy 
1929. 



Fig. 20. 



133 

Altogether the decade 1882-1891 was a remarkable one. It was a period of 
difficulties^ and depression, combined with the stimulating effect of the riches of 
Broken Hill. But, as we have seen, these climatic and other difficulties also proved 
a stimulus in at least four directions, all of which combine to enable us to-day to 
meet drought conditions with more confidence. These four directions were: 

(a) More fertilizers and better tillage (agricultural bureaus were established) * 

(b) Transport (road and rail) ; (c) Water supply; (d) Irrigation. During this 
period the pioneer irrigation area of Renmark was established by private enter- 
prise in the Murray Valley. 

(e) Fifth Period: 1892-1901.— -The years of this decade were also difficult 
ones in South Australian progress. The reforms that had slowly grown up during 
previous years continued to extend but slowly. Difficulties of climate, topography, 
and distance cannot be conquered in a decade. It took men a long time to learn 
that they might take advantage of dry conditions, rather than deplore them, while 
at the same time endeavouring to overcome them. The value of the summer 
drought for wheat-ripening and harvesting, fruit drying, salt producing, etc., was 
not at once realized. 

Five new counties were proclaimed— two in the southern Murray Mallee, two 
m eastern Eyre Peninsula, and one in the distant western part of that region (see 
figs. 4 and 5). The population graph took a slight rise and later flattened, but 
there was no year in this decade when the number of people in the State actually 
decreased. The area of cultivated land rose definitely in 1899-1900. The Adelaide 
rainfall was low throughout this period, and there was a drought about 1896. 
County Adelaide and the metropolitan area, with its growing industries and with 
the benefits of water, gas, transport, and good climatic and soil conditions, 
expanded faster than did the country districts, while the coming of electric light 
and power in 1900 gave the city an additional advantage. 

The success at Renmark had attracted attention, and in an effort towards a 
solution of the unemployment problem a series of "Village Settlements" was 
established in the Murray Valley. These are generally regarded as complete 
failures, but they were a success in directing attention to the potentialities of the 
Murray Valley, in pointing out the difficulties that were to be faced, and in the 
start thus made towards devising methods for overcoming these difficulties. 
Throughout the decade the sheep decreased by millions and the cattle by hundreds 
of thousands (see fig. 11) ; the losses in flocks and herds were the greatest the 
State has known, apart from the 1914 drought period. 

One large metropolitan reservoir was built during this decade, and two small 
country ones; the length of mains was much increased, and preparations made for 
new country water storage basins. The extension of railways practically ceased ; 
it was as if the country was exhausted by the tremendous efforts in railway exten- 
sion of the previous decade (including the costly and unproductive Oodnadatta 
line), and for some years railways were left severely alone. The period was 
equally unprogressive so far as road building was concerned. 

Right in the middle of this difficult period the world was moved by the spec- 
tacular mineral discoveries of the Western Australian goldfields. South Australians 
were near the spot, they were acclimatised in part to that type of country, their 
State was still suffering from the depression caused by dry seasons, and they were 
men of adventurous stock. The third great exodus from this State set in to 
Western Australia in the middle 'nineties (the first was to Victoria in the 'fifties, 
the second to Broken Hill in the 'eighties). Another drain on the population, and 
one of a kind hitherto unknown, was made by the South African War in the late 
'nineties. 

The map of internal population movement (fig. 20b) shows that there was 
a decrease in no less than thirteen counties. There was continued movement 



134 



towards the South-East, a slow but sure development along the \\ est Coast and 
a considerable influx into the counties that contained the mining and smelting 
towiM of Port Pirie and Wallaroo-Moonta. In 1900 gold was discovered at 
Tarcoola, well outside of the counties, and this locality has continued to produce 
mineral under very difficult conditions up to the present time. Meanwhile through- 
out the State, the leaven of better farming practice, of the use of superphosphates 
of transport, and of water supply were being felt, and the way was being prepared, 
not only for wider prosperity but for greater powers of resisting and even over- 
coming dry conditions within the 10-inch line. The problems outside (north ot ) 
the 10-inch line remain almost as difficult to-day as they were then. 

(f) Sixth Period: 1902-1911.— -With the opening of the new century the 
Province of South Australia became merged into the greater political unit of the 
Commonwealth of Australia, but agriculture, transport, water supply, etc, 
remained as functions of the State. Whether the facts are those of cause and 
effect one cannot say, but apart from the Great War and the 1914 drought, the 
years since Federation have been the most consistently and steadily prosperous 
since the foundation of the State. It seems clear that the people of South Aus- 
tralia are enjoying the cumulative effects of the adjustments man has made with 
his environment during the preceding seventy years of settlement. 

As far as land occupation is concerned, the limit of agricultural occupation 
had been reached by the end of the last century. Since 1900 only two counties 
(LeHunte and Bosanquet, in central Eyre Peninsula) had been added, and the 
whole of the over 10-inch rainfall land had been proclaimed as counties (see 
hers 1 and 3b). There is, indeed, a relatively small area of 10-inch land not 
proclaimed, but it has disabilities of roughness of topography and of remoteness 
that discount its other advantages. 

In the first year of this decade occurred the drought of 1902, and with it came 
the first actual population reduction since the 'eighties. Possibly there had been 
seasons before that were just as dry, but there was not then the wide area of 
lower rainfall land occupied. In spite of this great set-back, accompanied by 
considerable emigration of its young manhood (in 1902 the State decreased by 
7,000 of its most vigorous inhabitants, quite apart from deaths), there was a 
general upward movement of the total population, and this was accompanied by 
an extension of the cultivated areas. By 1910 there were 10 acres of cultivated 
land per individual, the highest since the foundation of the State, and approached 
only in 1880, thirty years previously (see fig. 6). The country population was, 
for this decade, increasing faster than that of the city. 

The use of manures and improved methods of farming were making them- 
selves felt (see fig. 9). Not only were the total yields of all crops increasing, but 
the average yields were also noticeably rising. Cattle, sheep, and horses increased 

bv nearly 50%, thus: — 

J ' 1902. 1911. 

Sheep . . • • 4,880,000 6,172,000 

Cattle 213,000 394,000 

Horses . - . . 165,000 260,000 

People 357,000 419,000 

This wonderful power of recovery after a severe set-back is characteristic, and 
is revealed again and again in the records of South Australia. 

Some amount of industrialization had now entered into the life of the State. 
There had been for some time the mining centres of Moonta and Wallaroo Mines, 
smelting ports such as Port Pirie and Wallaroo, railway towns such as Peter- 
borough and Murray Bridge, and engineering towns such as Gawler, Kapunda, 
and other smaller places where agricultural implements were made. 



135 

The increase of factories in the metropolitan area now began to be notable ; 
most of them were concerned with the provision of local requirements, but some 
were also producing manufactured goods for export. The production of salt 
had increased, and gypsum now became an important product. The line to Iron 
Knob was built in 1901, but this immensely rich deposit of iron ore was at first 
used only in connection with the smelting works at Port Pirie. 

There was considerable progress in the provision of country water supplies in 
this decade; Barossa and Bundaleer reservoirs came into operation following the 
1902 drought, and over 1,000 miles of water mains were laid (fig. 14). The fertile 
flats and "swamps" of the Lower Murray Valley came further under notice, and 
a most important movement dates from 1904 when a scheme of State Irrigation 
was commenced. The Outer Harbour, built near the mouth of the Port River, 
where engineering skill has utilized to the full the few advantages provided by 
the type of coastline that borders the Adelaide region, was opened in 1904. 

Little railway extension took place, but the call of the light soil plains of the 
Murray Mallee and the West Coast began to be heard; a line from Tailem Bend 
to Pinnaroo was built in 1906, and from Port Lincoln to Yeelanna in 1907-9. This 
was the beginning of the addition to the State of two valuable but hitherto un- 
productive areas, though for years settlers had been tenaciously working their way 
along the West Coast margins. Motor cars appeared on the roads, but were not 
yet of great importance ; the mileage of main roads was increased. 

The population movements of this decade, shown in the map (fig. 21a) are 
the most remarkable to date. They bear witness to the zenith of the rise of the 
wheat lands. Hundreds of people were added in each of the chief counties of 
the West Coast. Yorke Peninsula, whence in the 'eighties the people had been 
streaming away, increased notably. Even the already well-settled central regions 
(Counties Victoria, Stanley, Gawler, and Light) were considerably added to, 
while the Murray Mallee now began to be properly opened up. The usual con- 
centration in the metropolitan area continued, somewhat further accelerated by 
the influence of the electric trams, 1909, (providing work), and the increase of 
factories; during the decade 29,000 people were added to the County of Adelaide. 
There was, however, an extraordinary decline in the population of the northern 
and north-eastern counties, from Taunton southward to Eyre (see fig. 21a) ; this 
amounted almost to a wholesale flight of the population away from the conditions 
experienced in the 1902 drought. But it is satisfactory to reflect that the men 
who had learnt the hard lessons of these northern counties were largely those 
who went out into the new wheat lands, equipped with ability to cope with the 
special conditions there, and thus to achieve the marked success that has followed. 

(g) Seventh Period: 1912-1921. — This decade, which was on the whole 
one of general prosperity, is the most difficult to describe of all the periods of State 
progress. In it occurred the record drought of 1914 and the record good season 
of 1916. During this period, also, the Great War blazed up in Europe, the springs 
of emigration to South Australia were dried, and the most vigorous portion of the 
manhood of the State was poured out, literally in tens of thousands, to the battle- 
fields of the Old World. The whole outlook of the State was temporarily changed, 
and the depression that was caused in some directions was offset by the 
extraordinary stimulus in other directions caused by war conditions. Following 
the declaration of Peace in 1918, came the almost equally stirring and disturbing 
years of Demobilization and Repatriation, so that it was many years before the 
people of the State got back into the even step of normal production. 

The effect of the war on the general increase of population is shown in 
figs. 6, 8, and 22. The demand for wheat greatly increased, and prices were high . 
In spite of the absence of so many men, and notwithstanding the effects of the 
1914 drought, the amount of cultivated land reached an extent never previously 



136 




FIG. 21b. 
POPULATION MOVEMENT 

19 12-19 21. 

• = INCREASE OF 100 PER50NS 
o = DECREASE » " " 



1929. 



Fig. 21. 



137 

approached, though there was a rapid temporary decline in 1919 (a dry season). 
The total increase of population was large, and after the war the city grew much 
more rapidly than the country, and faster than at any previous period. 

At no time has there been such an extraordinary variation in wheat produc- 
tion within the space of three years as is shown by the Government Statist's 
records in fig. 9 (1914-1917) ; other crop yields suffered similarly, and showed a 
somewhat similar recovery. The compulsory "bare fallow" of the drought year 
(1914) was one of the factors influencing the great production of 1916-17, but 
high prices, superphosphates, more machinery, and better farming methods also 
contributed. The graphs of the varying numbers of livestock for this decade are 
like huge V's, dropping down towards 1914, and rapidly rising to 1922 (see 

%. ii). 

There was a marked increase in factory production, not so much in the 
number of men employed, but in the materials and horse-power used (see fig. 12). 
Pumping schemes along the Murray were instituted ; the largest of our metro- 
politan reservoirs (Millbrook) was built; Warren and three lesser reservoirs 
were added to the country system, and the water mains were extended by some 
1,400 miles. The second great period of railway extension took place in this 
decade (fig. 16), in the construction of the Murray Mallee and West Coast lines. 
The use of motor power on the roads increased, and encouraged the production 
of more and better roads. This provides an excellent example of the way in 
which geographical factors re-act upon one another. More motor cars demanded 
better roads, and the provision of such roads encouraged the further use of motor 
cars. So it is with water supplies, railway facilities, etc. 

The map (fig. 21b) showing the internal population movement, while not so 
stimulating as that for the previous decade, is still full of vitality. There is a 
population decrease in sixteen counties but, except in one case, to be discussed 
later, it is not disturbing. The decline of the Wallaroo-Moonta copper field 
necessitated a loss of population there ; some settlers from Southern Eyre 
Peninsula had moved outwards or to the north ; the lower rainfall counties of the 
north and north-east have further declined, and there is somewhat of a stillstand 
as a whole in the central portion of the South-East, between the Murray Mallee 
and the Mount Gambier district. County Adelaide has increased by nearly 70,000 
people. The export of Iron Knob ore for steel-making (1914) resulted in the 
creation of two new townships (Iron Knob and Whyalla). The most promising 
movement shown in the 1912-21 decade is that along the Lower Murray Valley, 
where, partly stimulated by the repatriation movement and partly by the creation 
of the State Irrigation Department, several thriving fruit, vine, and dairying 
towns and villages came into being. 

The more disturbing decrease of county population above referred to is that 
of County Light, where, in an area of excellent soils, settled farms, good and 
reliable rainfall, satisfactory water supply, and a good road and railway system, 
there is a population decrease of 1,000 people. In so fertile and favoured an area 
an increase might have been anticipated. With a knowledge of this county gained 
in over fifty years of intimate contact with the people, Mr. H. J, Truscott, a 
resident of Kapunda, has kindly set down his opinions, at my request, regarding 
the reasons for the diminishing population of County Light. These may be taken 
as the average opinion of thoughtful men living in the country districts, and are 
as follows : — 

"I must endorse your remarks that the county, as a whole, is a fertile and 
well-watered area, and under ordinary conditions should have increased its 
population rather than decreased. The cause of the decrease has been mainly due 
to the purchase of small holdings by the bigger landowners, thus dislodging a large 
number of families that have gone elsewhere to earn a living. The argument is 



that farming on a small scale does not pay. Owing to the high price of imple- 
ments and other appointments necessary for successful farming, the small man 
is outclassed and the big man with larger areas and up-to-date machinery gains 
control of the land. Lands offering outside of settled areas in our own State, 
and especially in Western Australia, have induced a large number of young people 
to leave their own country for other fields, establishing new homes and new 
families in other parts of the Commonwealth. The city, with its up-to-date 
facilities, attractions, and variety of occupations draws the younger generation 
to its centre, and a number of young people, when reaching their majority, have 
gone to Adelaide or other centres of greater opportunity. Apart from the working 
of the land, and the harvesting of the products of the soil, our resources are 
limited, and there is not much scope for employment, or for the maintenance of 
a growing population. The ordinary blacksmith's shop is engaged in repairs, there 
is little new work. Grocery and other stores are just holding on, handicapped 
because of limited patronage. The motor car and motor traffic have taken away 
rather than improved local business. Agents from the city, representing firms of 
every description, are pressing one upon another. Private persons who own cars, 
especially farmers, go to the city to purchase, and in this way local business people 
are affected. The facts that I have mentioned are without doubt the cause of the 
decrease of population in the County of Light, and there appears to me to be no 
hope of an improvement, so far as secondary industries are concerned. I feel, 
however, that there is room for improvement in matters pertaining to the land. 
Closer settlement is required. There is too much land locked up for sheep and 
cattle grazing. I think that measures should be introduced that would make it 
hard and expensive to hold thousands of acres of good land as mere grazing area, 
when such lands could be used for the maintenance of a much larger population." 

Whenever one travels throughout the older settled districts of the Australian 
States, one may occasionally note the presence of ruined houses, old wells, 
neglected orchards, solitary chimneys, disused roads, and other similar evidences 
of human culture in localities where at the present time homes are rare. 

In some cases enquiry reveals this somewhat depressing feature to be a part 
of the ebb and flow pf population that is continually taking place — often associated 
with the fact that families grow up, the young people move away, the old people 
die, the farm is bought and used for less intensive agriculture, and the home is 
no longer occupied. In other cases, agricultural districts have thrived because of 
the nearness of markets provided by mining towns, and with the closing of the 
mines there has been a natural falling off in the farm values of the neighbourhood, 
with consequent emigration. 

While this apparent decay of country life is notable in County Light, as 
shown above, and in almost all the older settled districts of the Commonwealth, 
it is not unknown in other parts of the world. Some excellent detailed studies 
have been made in the United States of America. One of these, which is of 
particular value and interest, was written by Professor Goldthwait, of New 
Hampshire, U.S.A. (vide "Geographical Review," October, 1927, p, 527-552). 

In this is shown, in an almost dramatic w T ay, the ebb and flow of population 
in a New Hampshire locality. The disturbing influences that are noted particularly 
in the study are (1) the concentration due to the rise of manufacturing centres 
with good work and pay; (2) the routes of new railways, changing the relative 
positions of markets, etc.; (3) the movement westward towards larger farms, 
cheaper land, and better opportunities. 

Although the general geographical conditions in New Hampshire are very 
different from those in South Australia, the influences of these three factors may 
be distinctly noted in our own State. The coming to country dwellers of such 



139 

amenities as quick and comfortable transport, telephones, wireless, etc., does not 
appear to have greatly arrested the movement from country to town, which is so 
marked a feature of later population movements of this State. 

Eighth Period: 1922-1927. — This, the final period, comprises six years only, 
and no special map has been prepared to show the population movement during 
that time. Special care, however, has been taken in the preparation of fig. 7b, 
which shows the total population for 1927, and its distribution. Compared with 
the population map of 1861 (fig. 7a), the 1927 map gives us the "end product" of 
all the internal population movements for the intervening decades. The character 
of this map, and the geographical reasons for the distribution of the population of 
1927, as shown, have been the guiding m&iif throughout this paper, and were dis- 
cussed in some detail (particularly so far as the "islets" of people are concerned) 
in Section IV. c. 

These six years have constituted a period of general prosperity, ending on 
a somewhat lower note on account of the incidence of dry conditions and un- 
employment. Not only have the yields of these years been high, but prices have 
been good. The extension of counties has ceased, and the fact is coming to be 
generally recognised that future progress must be made within the areas already 
proclaimed. 

The total population has increased during this period at a rate hitherto un- 
approached, except in the years just preceding the war. The city increase is the 
more accelerated, which may, in part, he correlated with the increase in city 
amenities and with increased public works and manufactures (fig. 12) ; indeed, 
as the writer has already shown (Proc. Roy. Soc. S.A., vol. li., 1927, p. 250) the 
rate of country growth is at present notably low. 

The total acreage of cultivated land is higher than it has ever been, and the 
proportion of cultivated acres per inhabitant is also at a maximum. The yields 
of all crops are higher than for any previous period (fig. 9) ; the present distribu- 
tion of the wheat areas is shown in fig. 10. So far as flocks and herds are con- 
cerned the position is not good, as already mentioned. In many cases these are 
decreasing, and altogether the total average numbers have not shown any increase 
for the past 40 years (fig. 11). In 1927 the forest reserves of this relatively 
timberless country amounted to 200,000 acres, of which some 40,000 acres were 
planted, half with introduced softwoods and half with planted or regenerated 
native hardwoods. The State has achieved some prominence in its successful 
growth of softwood forests. 

In the realm of water supply two large country reservoirs have been added, 
and the general increase of reticulation has been the most rapid and extensive of 
the whole history of the State, as is shown in the graph in fig. 14. There has been 
little development in railway mileage, though narrow-gauge lines (3 ft. 6 in.) have 
been widened (5 ft. 3 in.). Just as the stage-coaches and canals fought a battle 
with the railways a century ago, so are the railways at present competing with 
road-motor transport. This is accompanied by a slowing down of railway exten- 
sion and an accelerated construction of high-grade roads, with a remarkable 
increase in the number of motor vehicles (dg. 17). The general population 
movement of 1922-1927 may be gauged from a study of fig. 7b. People are 
moving about more, and more rapidly than they used to do; settlement tends to 
concentrate more into cities and larger towns ; yet, on the whole, there is a 
thoroughly healthy dispersion steadily going on towards the further settlement 
of (a) the Lower Murray Valley, (b) the West Coast, (c) the South-East, and 
(d) the Murray Mallee. What Yorke Peninsula lost in the closing of the copper 
mines of the north it has gained in the barley fields and the salt and gypsum 
deposits of the south, but more particularly in the stable settlement of its rich 
wheat areas. 



140 

VI.— FINAL CONSIDERATIONS. 

(a) Births and Deaths. — Among the conclusions reached in the study of 
these ebbs and flows of population and industry and general progress during the 
period 1836-1927, it becomes increasingly certain that amid all these fluctuations, 
one of the most stable and important factors of all is to be found in the total annual 
births. The curve of these figures shows a steady growth from the beginning, 
reaching a peak period in 1885. In the twenty years of depression that followed, 
births decreased somewhat ; indeed, both the birth-rate and the death-rate show a 
definite but minor response to the onset of hard conditions, with a more recent 
gradual decrease that is well known and is part of a world-wide tendency. 

When we come to consider what is called the natural increase of the State, 
i.e., the excess of births over deaths, we find a curve that is even more regular 
and stable. It rises gradually to 1885, remains firm and steady to 1895, decreases 
in 1898, and rises again to a maximum in 1914. Thereafter it is even and regular, 
apart from a dip in 1919 due mainly to the unexpected excess of deaths con- 
sequent "upon the influenza epidemic of that year. This curve is not the wavy, 
fluctuating line that we get from almost any other set of State records. It is 
regular, stable, and dependable. It is significant of the best type of State growth, 
and is full of promise for future development. 

(b) Immigration and Emigration. — Among the most unstable curves that we 
may obtain from presenting in a graphic form the figures available in statistical 
returns are those of the additions to, and subtractions from, the total State popula- 
tion by immigration and emigration, respectively. In the beginning, all population 
gains were by immigration. Subsequently there have been periods of almost 
equally rapid growth from this source. The figures of immigration and emigra- 
tion, however, as compiled in statistics, are of little value. From their nature 
they are not reliable, sometimes including all those who entered or left the State by 
rail or boat, at other times only those with single tickets, and so on ; immigrants 
and emigrants are not separable from the ordinary flow of tourist and business 
traffic. It was necessary, therefore, if definite figures regarding the addition to 
our growth from without were to be compiled, that other methods must be used 
to obtain such figures. 

(c) The "Prosperity Graph" — It was thought that a curve roughly indicative 
of the varying prosperity of the State could be drawn if we knew the total number 
of persons each year that were added to the permanent population, having been 
attracted from without the State. The basis of this belief is as follows: — If 
within the State the general conditions are thriving, work abundant, the land 
productive, and the people prosperous, the influence of this prosperity will auto- 
matically and inevitably show itself in the power of the State to attract adven- 
turous and enterprising people from other countries. But if, on the other hand, 
conditions are bad, crops poor, unemployment marked, and financial conditions 
relatively adverse, there will not only be no increase from without, but some of 
our own people will leave us (among them the strongest and most enterprising) 
to seek better conditions elsewhere. Under normal and average conditions, 
neither notably adverse nor prosperous, we should be able to hold our own, to 
absorb our own native-born, without either gaining more than these, nor losing. 

If, then, we obtain the total increase of the population of the State for each 
year, as compiled in our statistics, and subtract from that number the excess of 
births over deaths (the internal natural increase), we shall know the total numbers 
added to our population each year from outside sources (or, in adverse years, 
the total numbers lost by the State). In the prosperous years this increase by 
immigration would go up, but in the bad years, when the prospects elsewhere 
seemed to our own people (or to a sufficient proportion of them) brighter than 
those within the State, there would be a movement outwards — an exodus. 



141 

On this foundation, and with figures specially compiled from the "Statistical 
Summary/' the curve which is here called the "Prosperity Graph of South Aus- 
tralia, 1836-1927," (figs. 22a and 22b) has been constructed. It will be seen that 
in prosperous cycles of varying length we have alternately received and absorbed 
tens of thousands of people additional to those born here, or in periods of adverse 
conditions we have poured out some of our best and most vigorous people (for 
only these more plucky and adventurous ones face the uncertainties of emigra- 
tion), and have thus been for a time a centre of emigration, and not of immigra- 
tion. On this graph the chief factors influencing the progress or retardation of 
the State have been indicated. Tt is agreed that no single factor can justly be 
regarded as giving a true index of prosperous and adverse conditions. 

As a check on the value of this so-called Prosperity Graph, a curve was con- 
structed, based on the Government Statist's figures for the whole period 1836- 
1927, dealing with increases or decreases of sheep, cattle, horses, wheat yields, 
cultivation, rainfall, and other more generally accepted indicators of prosperity. The 
general similarities between the trends of such a curve, and that of figs. 22a and 
22b, were quite considerable, with a satisfactory degree of correlation, justifying 
the belief that the prosperity of the State can be generally appraised according 
to the population it may attract or expel. When prosperous, the State will not only 
absorb its own native-born population, but will attract some from other countries ; 
when conditions are adverse, not only will there be no external addition, but the 
native-born or acclimatized population will be driven to seek livelihoods in outside 
areas. In the "Prosperity Graph" (figs. 22a and 22b) the vertical columns for each 
year that are above the normal line represent in thousands the permanent popula- 
tion additions from without. The vertical columns below the normal represent 
definite losses from the State. On the whole, the years of prosperity are those 
where the curve is rising, or maintaining a high level. The adverse years are 
those with a declining curve or a sustained low level, but in all cases some allowance 
must be made for a "lag" between the influencing factors and the adjustments 
thereto. 

Apart from the abnormal conditions of the war and demobilization (1914- 
1919), and disregarding the natural increase due to excess of births over deaths, 
the greatest annual increment to the population was in 1849, when there was an 
addition of over 12,000 people. Other high records were 1854 (11,500) and 1876 
(10,000). The years of maximum population loss were 1885 (over 9,000) and 
1856 (9,000). The cycles of relative prosperity and adversity are suggested in 
fig. 22. It is, on the whole, a record of advancing prosperity, based on agri- 
cultural and mineral wealth, with minor depressions, until the year 1866. There 
followed an 8-year period of heavy depression (low wheat yields, in part low 
metal^ prices). A prosperous cycle followed up to 1881. In 1884, as already 
described, a long series of less satisfactory seasons and unfavourable conditions 
commenced, emphasized by the permanent loss to Broken Hill and to Western 
Australia of tens of thousands of the best of our manhood. 

This long era of State depression (which may or may not have been a period 
of individual financial depression), with lesser breaks, reached on for more than 
20 years, right up to 1905, when the tide which had been preparing to change 
definitely turned in the direction of State prosperity. From 1908 onward for 
over 20 years, despite the war of 1914-18 and the drought of 1914, and influenced 
by various artificial factors of legislation and finance, the cycle has been one of 
high prosperity, population increase and extension, and the adoption of a con- 
tinuously higher standard of living and of comfort in both metropolitan and 
country areas. 



142 







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144 




Fig. 23. 
This figure has been drawn to show the routes followed in the progressive 
movements of population from Adelaide outward: First into the remainder 
of the Adelaide-Mount Lofty region, then to the South-East, later to the 
North to Yorkc Peninsula, and the West Coast, to the Murray Mallee, 
and finally to the Murray Valley itself. The arrows are intended to show 
the general directions in which the outward (dispersive) flow of popula- 
tion has taken place, and the relation of such corridors of communication 
to the topographic features. The physiographic barriers to population 
movement may be summarised as follow:— (i.) a barrier to northward 
movement, constituted by the zone of 10-inch annual rainfall; (n ) barriers 
to Fast-West movement: Spencer Gulf, Gulf St. Vincent, the Mount 
Lofty Ranges, the Murrav River (of these, the two gulfs and the river 
have been utilised as channels of communication); (in.) Both in the West 
and in the East (Central Eyre Peninsula and east of the Coorong, 
respectively) the wide streamless malice plains have acted, to some 
extent as barriers to population movement. As indicated by the sketch 
map population has radiated continuously from Adelaide, with sub- 
ordinate centres at Tailem Bend and Port Lincoln. The only open 
road" from the capital is that across the plains to the North; to the nearer 
West the way is by sea or air across the Gulfs; to the East the high 
barrier of the Mount Lofty Ranges, though surmounted, presents a never- 
ending hindrance to cheap transport and communication in that directum. 
The sketch map indicates the impressive way in which physiographic 
features have affected the progress of settlement of the State. The routes 
here defined should be studied in conjunction with the spot-maps in 
preceding sections that deal with the detailed movements of dispersion 
and concentration of population. 



145 



While acknowledging, as we have done, the fact that complex financial and 
legislative factors have played an important part in this latest cycle of prosperity, 
we cannot be far wrong in interpreting it mainly as the outcome, during a series 
of good seasons, of cumulative advances in the adjustment of agricultural practice 
to the natural environment provided within the borders of our State. In this 
adjustment we should include not only agricultural extension and practice, but 
also improvements in stock-raising, fruit-growing, vine-growing, forestry, mining, 
manufacturing, water supplies, transport, communications, and marketing. 

(d) Conclusion. — While this paper is purely a geographical study of the 
growth and movement of the population of South Australia, as determined by the 
environmental conditions, and varied by man's re-action to those conditions, it is 
inevitable that the intensive study of the various tendencies that have operated 
during the life of the State should suggest "direction-marks" regarding the future. 

Without departing from the strict line of unbiassed scientific research, it is 
thus permissible to set down some suggestions regarding the future, it being 
understood that such suggestions (which are not new) are re-stated purely from 
the geographical point of view, with the added emphasis provided by the evidence 
that has been collected and presented in this paper. They are as follow : 

1. The foundation of a stable and growing population is a steady birth rate; 
the ebb and flow of immigration is, to a great extent, automatically governed 
by those environmental factors that determine general prosperous or adverse 
conditions. 

2. Within the southern division of the State, i.e., "The Counties," periods of 
depression will recur, as dry seasons most certainly will; but the tendency is for 
these to press less and less heavily, in proportion to the continued adoption of the 
sound methods and thrifty habits that have developed under our special seographi- 
cal conditions. „ 

( 3. In the endeavour to co-operate with the geographical environment of the 
various regions of the State, and to combat the adverse influences, there is required 
turther concentration towards : (a) plant, animal, topographical, and soil research ; 
(b) the preparation of maps of all forms of State resources; and (c) the wide- 
spread dissemination, by education, of scientific, engineering, and agricultural 
knowledge and skill. 

4 Beyond "The Counties," in the purely pastoral regions north of the 10-inch 
line of rainfall, where droughts are more frequent, the decimating effects of dry 
seasons on the flocks and herds may be somewhat ameliorated by a rigid avoidance 
of over-stocking and over-feeding. Apart from minerals, the chief wealth of this 
great area is its mantle of native vegetation, the existence of which is at present 
in peril. r 

5. Agricultural settlement has reached its northern limits, and these limits 
a u G ' S\ j ole ' WeU within the boundaries of the counties; future efforts 
should be devoted to the occupation of areas yet unoccupied within the counties 
and to the more intense utilization of well-watered land that is already under 
occupation. 7 



146 



AUSTRALIAN ACANTHOCEPHALA, No. 1. 

CENSUS OF RECORDED HOSTS AND PARASITES. 

By Professor T. Harvey Johnston and Effie W. Deland, B.Sc, 
University of Adelaide. 

[Read August 8, 1929.] 

Australian Acanthocephala have received very little attention. Dr. Sweet 
(1909 498) in her census of the entozoa recorded from Australia, included only 
four together with one from the Bismarck Archipelago. Of these four, two 
were merely mention of Echinorhynchus sp. from a porpoise and from a whip 
snake, both recorded by Krefft (1871) ; one relates to the presence of the common 
acanthocephalan from the pig in New South Wales; and the fourth, a species 
described by Linstow (1898) from material collected by Semon from a bandicoot 
in the Burnett River district, Queensland. The senior author added other records, 
using the wide generic term, Echinorhvnchus sp. (1910-1912), besides describing 
a few new forms. More recently Southwell and Macfie (1925) described several 
new species Echinorhynchus pomatostonn Johnston and Cleland (19*14, fre- 
quently referred to in this census, is a widely distributed larval form occurring m 
many species of Australian birds. 

The forms mentioned as occurring in Australian birds and reptiles to date 
were included in Johnston's census of recorded entozoa of those groups (1910, 
1911 1912) ; while those known to occur in Queensland were included in the 
census of endoparasites recorded from that State (Johnston 1916) Cleland 
(1922) listed those found in Australian birds and mentioned additional findings, 
and in 1916 made casual reference to Johnston's records of Acanthocephala from 
Australian rats. 

A considerable mass of material is now on hand, representing collections 
made by Professor J. B. Cleland and the senior author, and it is proposed to take 
up the study more seriously, the present paper forming the first of a series which, it 
is hoped will be continued as opportunity offers. In this census, the previous 
records with few exceptions, are listed without comment, and a number of new 
ones are added. Synonymy of the host or parasite is introduced only where the 
recorder has referred to cither under such name or names. The bird hosts are 
named and arranged in accordance with the. "Official Check-list ot Birds of Aus- 
tralia," Edit. 2, 1926. 

MAMMALIA. 

MARSUPIALIA. 

Isoodon obesulus Shaw (syn. Pcrameles obesulus). 
Giaantorhynchus semoni Linstow 1898, 471. Burnett R, Q'land. ; Porta 
1908 276- 1909 257 Originally described under Echinorhynchus, subgenus 
Glgantorh'ynchus. Travassos (1917, 25) transferred It to Proslhenorchis (sensu 
lato). Johnston recorded its presence in N.S. Wales (1909 e, 521). 

Perameles nasuta Geofrr. 
Gigantorhynchus semoni Linst. Johnston 1910 c, XVII. as Giganto- 
rhynchus sp.; 1911 a, 50. N.S. Wales. 



147 



Phascogale penicillata Shaw. 
Gigantorhynchus sp. Johnston 1910 c, XVII. ; 1911 a, 50. The host, "a 
brush-tailed rat," may possibly be Bettongia penicillata Gray. 

RODENTIA. 

Mus MUSCULUS L. 

Moniliformis moniliformis Br. The record by Johnston (1909 a 583 
Sydney) is an error (Johnston 1918 a, 69). ' ' ? " ^ 

Rattus norvegicus Erxl. (Mus or Epimys decumamts). 
Moniliformis moniliformis Br. syn. Gigantorhynchus moniliformis ' Hormo- 
rhynchus moniliformis. Johnston 1909 a, 583; 1909 b, 218* 1909 d 81 ' N S W • 

191 a 2 ™> ?\^ ; 1913 > 93 ' N ' Q' land = 1918 a > 69 > Sydney. Southwell 
and Macfie 1925, 171, N. Q'land; Fielding 1927, 124, N. Q'land. This para- 
site occurs in the grey rat in Adelaide. 

Rattus rattus L. and its variety alexandrinus. (Mus or Epimys rattus 

and alexandrinus) . 
Moniliformis moniliformis Br. Johnston 1909 a, 583* 1909 b 218 S90- 

M 909 fi d 'lQ^ N , b 7 l W M 19 rlf b ', ^. Bri ^ ^ *. 69- Sydney" SoU^ll and 
Macfie 1925 171, N. Q'land; Fielding 1927, 124, N. Q'land. Occurs also in 
K, rattus in Adelaide. 

Rats (unspecified). 

Moniliformis moniliformis Br. Nicoll 1914, N. Q'land. 

UNGULATA. 
Sus scrofa L. dom. 
Macracanthorhynchus hirundinaceus Pall. (Gigantorhynchus hirundina- 
S' G-cJWVk Perrie (Agn Gaz - N - s -W., 3, 1892, 822) N.S.W.: Johnston 
1909 a, 583 ; 1909 d, 79, N.S.W. ; 1918 b, 216 (S.E. Q'land). This parasite ocTrs . 
at times m Victorian pigs slaughtered in Adelaide, but has not yet been detected 
in pigs bred in South Australia. 

CETACEA. 

Delphi nus eorsteri Gray. 

Probably a synonym of D. delphis L. Echinorhynchus sp Krefft 1871 212 
(Australian seas). ' 

Delphinus delphis L. 
Corynosoma sp resembling C. strumosum Rud., has been collected from this 
porpoise m Gulf St Vincent, S. Aust. 

Whale — cast up on Bondi Beach, Sydney, N.S.W 
Bolbosomaporrigens Rud. nee Kaiser. Not previously recorded from Aus- 
tralian seas. The longest specimen measured 197 mm., which is much greater 
than the dimension usually met with. B. porrigens of Kaiser nee Rudolphi is 
according to Luhe ( 905), a synonym of B. turbinella Dies, which has been 
recorded from a whale from New Zealand. Through the courtesy of Dr C 
Anderson, Director of the Australian Museum, Sydney, and Mr. E Trourfiton' 
the old registers of that institution were searched for a clue as to the probable 
identification of the whale. The only specimens likely to be concerned were to 
identified as Kogiabreviceps (grayi) and Megaptera longimana, belonging to the 
Physetendae and Balaemdae respectively, both obtained in the vicinity of Bondi! 



148 



NSW Since the parasite seems to be especially associated with species of the 
latter family, the host was probably Megaptera nodosa Bonnaterre (syn. M. longi- 

mana Rud.). ,,,„,, 

AVES. 

GALLIFORMES. 

Alectura lathami Gray. (Cathelurus lathami). 

Echinorhynchus (Gigantorhynchus) sp. Johnston 1912 a, 106; 1912 b 72; 

1916 45 S O'land Probably a species of Mediorhynchus or Empodius, it the 

MtS be genetically distinct. Van Cleave (1924) unites them but fravassos 

(1924, 192?; Tas well as Southwell and Macfie (1925), consider them chstmct. 

TURNICIFORMES. 
Pedionomus torquatus Gould. 
Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel.— a larval form identified from 
material collected at Ooldea, S.A. 

CHARADRIIFORMKS. 
Numenius cyanopus Vieill. 
Arythmorhvnchus sp. (syn. Echinorhynchus sp.) Johnston 1912 a, 107, Cen- 
tral Q'land; 1914 a, 110, N. Q'land. 

ACCIPITRIFORMES. 
Astur novaehollandiae Gmelin (syns. Astur clams Lath.; A. cinereus Vieill). 
Centrorhynchus asturinus Johnston, originally described as Gigantorhynchus. 
asturinus Johnston 1912 a, 108; 1913, 93 ; but later transferred to Centrorhynchus 
(1918 b, 215). Southwell and Macfie 1925, 164, N. Q'land. Travassos 917, 
28) included the species in Gigantorhynchus (sensu lato), and subsequently (1926, 
44) under Centrorhynchus. 

Astur fasciatus Vig. and Horsf. (syn. A. approximans). 
Centrorhynchus asturinus Johnston, syn. Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1910, 
100, N.S.W. " Occurs in this species of hawk m Adelaide district, S. Austr. 
(Collected by Prof. Cleland.) 

Acciptter cirrocepiialus Vieill. 
Centrorhynchus asturinus Johnston. Southwell _ and Macfie 1925, 163. 
Townsville. This parasite occurs in the same host species in N.b.W. 
Centrorhynchus buteonis Goeze. Marval 1905, 24, no locality given. 

Baza subcristata Gould. 
Centrorhynchus asturinus Johnston 1918 b, 215. Richmond River, N.S.W. 
Echinorhynchus bazae Southwell and Macfie 1925, 177, N. Q'land. Tra- 
vassos (1926, 59) believes the species to be a Frosthorhynchus. 

Falco berigora Vig. and Horsf. , syn. Hieracidea berigora; 
H. orientalis Sharpe. 
Centrorhynchus asturinus Johnston, Southwell and Macfie 1925, 164, N 
O'land. It is"now recorded as occurring in the brown hawk m JVb.W. 

STRIGIFORMES. 
Ninox boorook Lath. 
Centrorhynchus sp. Johnston 1918 b, 216; syn. Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 
1912, 109. Burnett River, Q'land. 



149 

CORACIIFORMES. 

Eurystomus ortentalis L. (syn. E. pacificus Lath.). 
Echmorhynchus sp. Johnston 1912 a, 109, S. Q'land. 

Halcyon sanctus Vig. and Horsf. 
Echmorhynchus sp. Johnston 1910, 105, N.S.W. Probably identical with 
E. horndus Linstow (1897) from the sacred kingfisher from New Britain. Porta 
(1913) recorded it from H. sanctus from New Caledonia and Loyalty Islands, 
transferring it to Chentrosoma. Linstow's original material was re-described bv 
Marval (1905, 284-6). Travassos (1926, 58) transferred the species to 
Prosthorhynchus. 

CUCULIFORMES. 

Centropus phasianinus Lath. 
Echmorhynchus balbocaitdatus Southwell and Macfie 1925, 178, N. Q'land. 
Travassos (1926, 59) believes the species to belong to Prosthorhynchus. 

MENURIFORMES. 

Menura novaeiiollandiae Lath. (syn. M. superba Davies). 

Echmorhynchus menurae Johnston 1912 b, 83, N.S.W. Travassos (1926, 
58) placed the species under Prosthorhynchus. 

PASSERIFORMES. 
Seisura inquieta Lath. 
Acanthocephala found by Cleland 1922, 108. Canowindra, N.S.W. 

Pachycephala inornata Gould (syn. P. gilberti Gould). 
Echmorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel. 1911, 115, S. Austr. 

Grallina cyanoleuca Lath. (syn. G. picata Lath.). 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1912 a, 110; 1914, 110, N. Q'land. 

Psophodes olivaceus Lath. (syn. P. crepitans Lath.). 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1910, 107, N.S.W. Acanthocephala found by 
Cleland (1922, 108), Bunya Mountains, S. Q'land. 

ClNCLOSOMA RUFTVENTRIS Gould. 

Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel., Port Lincoln, S. Austr. A 
new record. 

Cinclosoma castaneum Gould. 

Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel., Murray Flats, S. Austr. A 
new record. 

Cinclosoma cinnamoneum Gould. 

Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel., larvae in subcutaneous tissues 
Cleland 1922, 108, S. Austr. ' ' ' 

Pomatostomus xemporalis Vig. and Horsf. (syn. P. frivolus Lath.). 

Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel., 1911, 112, NSW Cleland 
1922, 108, Canowindra, N.S.W. 



ISO 



POMATOSTOMUS RUBECULUS Gould. 

Fchinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel., 1911, 111; syn. Echino- 
rhynchus sp. Johnston 1910, N.-W. Austr. 

Pomatostomus superciliosus Vig. and Horsf. 

Echinorhynchus pmnMmtmni Jnsta. and CleL }gj. " 2; H XffS 
rhynchus sp. Johnston 1910, 107, S. Austr. Cleland 1922, 108, Hallett s Love, 
S.'Austr. ; Baradine, N.S.W. 

Pomatostomus ruficeps Hartlaub. 

Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and CleL Identified froni ' ™*rial^L 
lected in the Gawler Ranges and also from the Murray River dis net S. Austr. 
The latter occurrence is referred to by J . Sutton, S. Austr. Ormthol., 10, 1929, 33. 

Oreocichla lunulata Lath. 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1910, 108, N.S.W. (An adult form ) 
Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel (larval) Cleland .1922 108 
Kuitpo, S. Austr. Acanthocephala were recorded by the latter authoi (1922) 
from Bunya Mountains, Q'land. 

Apiielocephala leucopsis Gould. 
Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel. 1911, 112 (syn. E chino- 
rhynchus sp. Jnstn 1910, 109), S. Austr. Cleland 1922, 108, Hallett s Cove, 

S. Austr. „ , , 

Sericornis maculatus Gould. 

Echinorhynchus sp. (subcutaneous, probably E. pomatostomi), Port Lincoln, 

S. Austr., collected by Professor Cleland. A new record. 

Pyrrholaemus brunneus Gould. 
Echinorhynchus pomatostomi, Jnstn. and Clel. Identified from material col- 
lectcd near Farina, S. Austr. 

Hylacola pykrhofygia Vig. and Horsf. 
Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel. 1911, 112, S. Austr. 

Megalurus galactotes Temm. 

Echinorhynchus cylindraceus Goeze. Marval 1905, 250 Nc , locahty gl ver. 
The host is widely distributed in the more northerly portions of Australia. 1 he 
JarasltehasI wid'e distribution outside of Australia and has also been recorded 
from Meruhis from the Loyalty Islands by Porta in 1913. 

Travassos (1926 41, 43, 58) has quoted Marval's E. cylindraceus as includ- 

Goeze's species, is desirable. 

Cumacteris picumnus Temm. Syn. C. scandens Gould nee Temm. 
Echhwrhwchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel. Mr. F. Parsons informs us 
that fhtr/vtl ^sife is very cJnonly found subejta^sty mthis species of 
tree creeper in South Australia. Cleland 1922, 108, Morgan, b. Austr. 



151 



Clmacteris leucophaea Lath. Syn. C. scandens Temm. nee Gould. 

Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel. occurs occasionally m this 
species in South Australia (F. Parsons). 

Climacteris wellsi Grant. 

Echinorhynchus pomatostomi Jnstn. and Clel, 1911, Ul; syn. Echino- 
rhynchus sp. Johnston 1910, 109, N.-W. Austr. 

Meliornis novaehollandiae Lath. 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1910, 111, N.S.W. 

Corcorax melanorhamphus Vieill. 
Echinorhynchus reported by Clcland 1922, 108, from Gunnedah and Belann- 

^ N - S - W - REPTILIA. 

LACERTILIA. 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) quoyi D. & B. 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1909 c, XXIX., Hawkesbury R., N.S.W. 

Lygosoma (Hinulia) taeniolatum White. 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1911 b, 243, Hawkesbury R„ N.S.W. 

Demansia textilis D. & B. (syn. Diemenia textilis). 
Echinorhynchus sp., encysted larvae below peritoneum adults in mtestoe. 
Johnston 1910 c, XL ; 1910 b, 659; 1911 b, 237 Sydney N.S.W.; encysted larvae 
— Johnston 1916, 59, Brisbane. Occurs also at Mount Lofty, S. Austr. 

Demansia psammophis Schl. 
Echinorhynchus sp. Larvae below peritoneum. Brisbane, Q'land. 

Demansia psammophis, var. reticulata Krefft. (Syn. Diemenia reticulata.) 

Echinorhynchus sp. Krefft 1871, 214, N.-W. Austr. Larvae m subperitoneal 
tissue, Johnston 1910 b, 659; 1911 b, 237. N.-W. Austr. 

PSEUDECHIS PORPHYRIACUS Shaw. 

Echinorhynchus rotunda cap it at us Johnston 1912 b, 83, NJS.W. ^Victoria; 
1918 b, 216, S. Q'land; syn. Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1909 b, b9U, Uli t>, 
238, n!s.W* Occurs also in South Australia. 

Dipsadomorpiius fuscus Gray. 

Echinorhynchus sp., encysted larvae, Johnston 1916, 59, Brisbane. 

AMPHIBIA. 
ANURA. 
Hyla aurea Lesson. 
Echinorhynchus hylae Johnston 1914, 83; syn. Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 
1912, 84, Sydney. A larval form from cysts below peritoneum. 

Hyla coerulea White. 
Echinorhynchus hylae Johnston 1914, 83, from cyst below peritoneum. 
Brisbane. 



152 



PISCES. 



The arrangement followed is taken from MacCulloch's "Check list of the 
Fishes of N.S. Wales." 1922. 

PERCOMORPHI. 

Trachurus declivis Jenyns. 

Echinorhynchus clavulus Duj. nee Hamann. Southwell and Macfie 1925 

179. Australia. As the specimen was collected by Dr. Maplestone on the same 

date as that on which he took Acanthocephala from another fish at Townsville 

N. Q land, the latter must have been the locality for the species thus identified. 

POMADASYS HASTA Guntliei'. 

Echinorhynchus tritttae Schrank, was recorded from a 'Winter" by South- 
well and Macfie (1925, 180) from Townsville, N. QMand. Since P hasla the 
javelin fish, is also called "gmnter" locally, and was so indicated by Nicoll who 
investigated its trematode fauna, it may safely be assumed that this is the species 
referred to The identification of this typical parasite of trout in a quite different 
type of fish which is tropical and subtropical in its distribution, seems to us very 
doubtful. ' ' J 

Spar us australts Gunther. 
EclnnorhyncMts sp. Nicoll 1914, N. Q'land. We have collected specimens 
from this black bream" in the Brisbane River, S. Q'land. 

Sparus berda Forsk. 

Echinorhynchus clavula Duj. nee Hamann. Southwell and Macfie 1925 179 
I ownsville, N. Q'land. 

Echinorhynchus tritttae Schrank. Southwell and Macfie 1925 180 No 
locality given, but apparently collected at Townsville, also. 

We question the correctness of both of these identifications, and suggest the 
possibility of the host label having become misplaced (see under Pomadasys, also). 

Girella tricuspidata Q. & G. (Syn. G. simplex Richardson ) 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1909 c, XXIX, Bondi, N.S.W. 

TlTYRSITES ATUN Euplll*. 

Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1909 b, 710, Clarence River, N.S.W. 

SCLEROPAREI. 

Chelidoniciithys kumu Less and Gam, 
Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1910 b, 660, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Platycefiialus fuscus Cuv. and Val. 

Echinorhynchus sp. Johnston 1910 b, 660, Sydney, N.S.W. 

Serrasentis socialis Leidy. Southwell and Macfie (1925, 160) record the 
presence of larvae belonging to this species encysted in the body cavity of this 
flathead at Townsville, N. Q'land. The parasite is more widely known as 
S. sagithfcr Linton. (See Van Cleave 1924, 326-8.) 

Unknown Fish, but probably the Tailor, Pomatomus saltatrix L. 

Serrasentis socialis Leidy. Adult specimens obtained bv the senior author 
from a fish caught at Sydney, N.S.W. 



153 

"Haddock," 
Echinorhynchiis gadi Zoega. Southwell and Macfie 1925, 179, Townsyille, 
N Q'land. The haddock, Gadus aeglefinus, does not occur in Australia. Neither 
MacCulloch nor Waite, in their catalogues of the fishes of Queensland, New 
South Wales and South Australia, mentions the presence of any species of Gadus 
in Australian waters, though the family Gadidae is represented in ^ the more 
southerly portions of the coast by Lotella and Physiculus. Gunther ("Study of 
Fishes" 1880) states that the genus Gadus is found in the arctic and temperate 
zones of the northern hemisphere. In view of these facts, it seems likely that the 
locality label must have become misplaced and that the record should be omitted 
from the Australian list. 

Host Unknown. 

Neoechinorhynchus magnus Southwell and Macfie 1925, 149, Townsville, 
N. Q'land. A short, unfigured account based on one immature female specimen. 
The genus occurs in fish and chelonians. 

A number of errors regarding localities have appeared in Travassos' paper 
(1926). Those relating to Australasian records are as follows: — Centrorhynchus 
zosteropis (Porta) recorded as from Turkestan should be from New Caledonia 
and Loyalty Islands; C. asturinus Jnstn. from New Caledonia should be from 
Australia; C. spinosus (Kaiser) from Australia should be from Florida; 
C. giganteus Trav. from Australia should be from Brazil; Centrorhynchus sp. 
Jnstn. from Ninox boobook, mentioned as from Brazil, should be from Australia. 

Literature. 
1922— Cleland, J. B.: The Parasites of Australian Birds. T.R.S., S. Austr., 

46, 1922, 85-118. 
1927 Fielding, J. W. : Observations on Rodents and their Parasites. P.R.S., 

N.S.W., 61, 1927, 115-134. 
1909a— Johnston, T. H. : Notes on some Australian Parasites. Agr. Gaz., 

N.S.W., 20, 1909, 581-4. 
1909b— Johnston, T. H.: Notes and exhibits (of Entozoa). P.L.S., N.S.W., 

1909, 117-8, 217-9, 412-3, 417-8, 590-1, 710-1. 
1909c— Johnston, T. II.: Exhibits (of Entozoa). P.R.S., N.S.W., 43, 1909, 

XXVIII.-XXIX. 
}909d — Johnston, T. H. : List of Parasites occurring in Australia (in man and 

the domesticated animals). Rep. Bur. Microbiology, N.S.W., 1, 

1909 (1910), 75-81. 
1909e Johnston T. H. : The Entozoa of Monotrcmata and Australian Mar- 

supialia I. P.L.S., N.S.W., 34, 514-523. 
1910a Johnston, T. H. : On Australian Avian Entozoa. P.R.S., N.S.W., 

44, 84-122. 
1910b— Johnston, T. H. : Notes and exhibits (of Entozoa). P.L.S., N.S.W., 

35, 309-10, 522-523, 659-60, 804. 
1910c— Johnston, T. H.: Exhibits (of Entozoa). P.R.S., N.S.W., 44, 1910, 

XI.-XIV., XVII. 
19H a _Johnston, T. H.: The Entozoa of Monotremata and Australian Mar- 

supialia II. P.L.S., N.S.W., 36, 47-57. 
1911b — Johnston, T. H. : A Census of Australian Reptilian Entozoa. P.R.S., 

Qld., 23, 1911, 233-249. 



154 

1912a— Johnston, T. EL: Internal Parasites Recorded from Australian Birds 
Emu, 12, 1912, 105-112. 

1912b— Johnston, T. H. : Notes on some Entozoa. P.R.S., Old 26 1912 
63-91. * * 

1913— Johnston, T. H. : Report on Cestoda and Acanthocephala Rep Austr 

Inst. Trop. Med., 1911 (1913), 75-96. 
1914a— Johnston, T, H. : Second Report on the Cestoda and Acanthocephala 

Collected in Queensland. Ann. Trop. Med. Parasit. 8, 1914, 105-112. 
1914b— Johnston, T. H. : Some New Queensland Endoparasites PRS 

Qld., 26, 1914, 76-84. " "' 

1916 — Johnston, T. H. : Census of the Endoparasites recorded as occurring in 

Queensland, etc. P.R.S., Qld., 28, 1916, 31-79. 
1918a— Johnston, T. II. : Notes on certain Entozoa of Rats and Mice etc 

P.R.S., Qld., 30, 1918, 53-78. 

1918b— Johnston, T. H.: Notes on Miscellaneous Endoparasites PRS 
Qld., 30, 1918,209-218. 

1911— Johnston, T. H., and Cleland, J. B. : Echinorhynchus pomatostomi. 
A subcutaneous Parasite of Australian Birds. P.R.S NSW 45 
1911, 111-115. ' r 

1871— Krefft, G. : On Australian Entozoa, etc. Tr. Ent. Soc NSW 2 1871 
206-232. ** " 

1898— Linstow, O.: Nemathelminthen— in Semon's Zool. Forschun^sr in 
Australien, 5, 469-472. 

1905— Marval, L. : Monographie des Acanthocephales des Oiseaux Rev 
Suisse Zool., 13, 195-387. ' 

1914— Nicoll, W. : Remarks on the Worm Parasites of Tropical Queensland 
Med. Jour. Aust, Sept., 1914, 244-6. 

1908— Porta, A.: Gli Acantocefali dei Mammiferi, Nota preventiva Arch 
Parasitol., 12, 268-282. 

1909— Porta, A. ^ Gli Acantocefali dei Mammiferi. Archivio Zoologico, 4, 
239-285. 

1925— Southwell T., and Macfie, J. W. : On a Collection of Acanthocephala 
m the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Ann Troo Med 
Parasit., 19, 1925, 141-184. P " 

1908— Sweet, G. : The Endoparasites of Australian Stock and Native Fauna 1 

Census, etc. P.R.S., Vict., 21, 1908, 454-502. 
1917— Tkavassos, L. : Contrihuicoes, etc. Revisao dos acantocefalos brasilieros 

I. tarn. Gigantorhynchidae. Mem. Inst. Osw. Cruz, 9, 1917, 5-62^ 

1926— Travassos, L. : Contributes, etc., 20, Revisao dos acantocefalos bra- 

fn^ooV 11 ;, Fi 1 -" 1 - Echmorhynchidae, etc. Mem. Inst. Osw. Cruz. 
19, 1926, 31-125. 

1924— Van Cleave, H. J.: A critical study of the Acanthocephala described 

279 334 by Joseph Leidy - Pn Ac - Nat Sci - Philad -> 76, 1924, 



155 



AUSTRALIAN ACANTHOCEPHALA, No. 2. 

By Prof. T. Harvey Johnston and Effie W. Deland, B.Sc, 
University of Adelaide. 

[Read August 8, 1929.] 

Sphaerechinorhynchus rotundocapitatus (Jnstn.), n. gen. 
Figs. 1 to 34. 

This parasite occurs fairly commonly in the rectum and lower part of the 
intestine of the black snake, Pseudcchis porphyriacus Shaw, in New South Wales, 
Victoria and Southern Queensland, and has been recorded recently from South 
Australia (Johnston and Deland 1929). It was originally described (Johnston 
1912, 83) under Echinorhynchus, a genus which has since been considerably sub- 
divided. 

The body is firm and roughly cylindrical, white in life, but creamy, or even 
pinkish, in preserved material. The cuticle is smooth in extended, and trans- 
versely wrinkled in contracted, specimens. 

The females are larger and, when mature, range from 30 to 37 mm. in length. 
One young individual was only 18 mm. The body is wide (4 to 5 mm. in diameter) 
for the anterior two-thirds, and tapers to 1'5 to 2*0 mm. The posterior extremity 
is bifid, the genital aperture lying slightly below the apex of the cavity between 
the two lobes (figs. 30, 31). 

The males range from 18 to 23 mm. in length and are much less tapering 
than the females. The width anteriorly is about 3 mm., and posteriorly about 
2 mm. The form of the posterior end varies with the degree of extension. In 
one specimen the copulatory bursa was everted, appearing as a delicate, white, 
bell-shaped structure of the form shown in figs. 28 and 29. 

The above measurements were taken from material preserved in formalin 
and containing a large number of individuals. In specimens preserved in spirit, 
and obviously much contracted, the lengths were— female, 15 mm.; males, 12 
and 14*5 mm. 

The proboscis is nearly spherical, measuring from 0*7 to 0*85 mm. across, 
and bears 18 longitudinal rows of hooks with alternately 6 and 7 in a row, 
making 117 in all (fig. 1). Each hook consists of a strong backwardly project- 
ing outer spine and a large basal portion embedded in the musculature of the 
proboscis. They are largest at the apex, becoming very much smaller at the base. 
Three typical hooks, the apical three of their row, are shown in fig. 3. There is 
a short neck-like region followed by a somewhat wider collar connecting it with 
the body (^g. 2). The body wall is composed, as usual, of a cuticle, a thick sub- 
cuticula, and two layers of muscle fibres, an external circular and an internal 
longitudinal (figs. 9, 12). The subcuticula shows all the areas generally present. 
A region of radial striations lies immediately below the cuticle, which it slightly 
exceeds in thickness. Beneath this is a distinct layer of mingled circular, tan- 
gential and radial fibrils, divided into six to eight strata by the circular fibrils. 
This arrangement is less pronounced than that indicated by Saefftigen (1885),. 
for Echinorhynchus proteits Westr., which is now usually known as Pompho- 
rhynchus laevis Muller, and recently by Harada for Rhadinorhynchns katsuwonis. 
Below this layer is one of radially-arranged fibrils in which travel the channels 
of the lacunar system. The subcuticula is bounded by a thin but definite limiting 
membrane. The nuclei of the subcuticula are typical of those of the whole body 
(figs. 7, 10). They are not situated in the fibrous portion of the subcuticula nor 
in the walls of the lacunae, as figured by Hamann for Ech. echinodiscus Dies 



156 



( = Gigantorhynchas cchino discus), but are suspended in the middle of the 
lacunae by strands of tissue. SaerTtigen (pi. 3, figs. 1, 3) indicates them in this 
position but without any supporting fibrils. The nuclei, which measure 0*02 to 
0-03 mm. in their longer axis, are irregular in outline and contain numerous very 
obvious nucleoli, of which there may be as many as a dozen, ranging in size from 
the smallest which are mere dots under oil immersion, to a maximum of 
0-0075 mm. (fig. 10). The variations in size and shape of the nuclei, and in 
number of the nucleoli, are greater in the subcuticula than elsewhere in the body. 
The lacunar system consists of two definite longitudinal canals in addition 
to very numerous smaller channels of rather irregular outline, which form a close 




■*rnm 



■6mm 

Fig. 1. — Proboscis. 

Fig. 2. — Outline of anterior end indicating insertion of proboscis sheath. 

Fig. 3. — Three most anterior hooks of one longitudinal row. 

network throughout the subcuticula (fig. 8). The canals in the lemnisci are single 
and centrally situated (fig. 15). 

Beneath the subcuticula lie layers of circular and longitudinal muscle fibres. 
Within the spaces surrounding the bases of these a certain amount of a granular 
coagulum, which stained deeply with haematoxylin, was sometimes found. A 
similar substance occurred in spaces in the proboscis (fig. 18) and male genital 
organs, but such material was not seen in the lacunar system. 

The proboscis sheath is a double-walled muscular sac inserted at the base of 
the proboscis (fig. 2). Its length varies from 2" 5 to 2 '7 mm,, and its maximum 
width from 1*05 to - 75 mm. The central region is occupied by four large, 
branching retractor muscle cells, which are attached to the muscular wall of the 




Fig. 4. — Portion of posterior end of male, showing end of body deeply invaginated. 
Fig. 5.— Ditto, showing genital sphincter in terminal position. Drawn to same 

scale as fig. 4. 
Fig. 6. — Entire male, showing anatomy. 






:* -7..-: -'■^.. 



■%* 



'%>* 
\&#$ 



158 



A 



^ 



3f' 



ft' 



rvi 



nc -- - %J 



Jifii'ii 



v; -^cvt n vj- ; m •**** 1 



s :^a-^ 




Fig. 7. — Lacunar system of body wall (from tangential section). 

Fig. 8. — Lacunar system of part of body viewed as a transparent object. 

Fig. 9. — Portion of T.S. body wall. 

Fig. 10. — Nucleus from subcuticula. 

Fig. 11. — T.S. of prostate glands and vas deferens. 



159 



12 




Fig. 12. — T.S. body at level of introverted proboscis. 
Fig. 13. — T.S. proboscis posterior to fig. 12. 
Fig. 14. — T.S. retinaculum, showing enclosed nerve fibres. 
Fig. 15. — T.S. lemniscus. 



160 

proboscis in front and the inner proboscis sheath at its base. The protoplasmic 
portion of these cells lies anteriorly, surrounding the retracted proboscis (fig. 12). 
These cells are shown in transverse section in fig. 13, and two of them in longi- 
tudinal section in fig. 18. 

The proboscis ganglion is situated eccentrically in the space between the four 
large retractor muscle cells (fig. 18), somewhat in advance of the mid-length of 
the proboscis sheath. It consists of a comparatively small number of cells 
(fig. 16), and does not show as marked a differentiation into a peripheral layer 
of nerve cells and a central mass of fibres or supporting tissue, as that described 




18 








^mm^BSSSSSSS^^ 



Fig. 16. — L.S. ganglion. 

Fig. 17.— Cell (? supporting) from ganglion. 

Fjtr 18— L.S proboscis, showing situation of ganglion; one-tenth magnification ot 
figs. 16, 17. 

by Hamann and Saefrtigen. It is possible that some of the nuclei observed in the 
ganglion belong to a syncytial supporting tissue similar to that of the subcuticula, 
as in two or three cases it was not possible to observe any cell boundary between 
neighbouring nuclei (fig. 17). 

The retinacula arise from the sides of the proboscis sheath, about a milli- 
metre from its posterior end, and pass obliquely forwards to the body wall. In 
transverse section, each is seen to be composed of a muscular sheath consisting 
of one long muscle cell which encloses a bundle of nerve fibres (fig. 14). 

The two lemnisci which arise at the junction of the proboscis sheath and the 
general body wall are exceedingly long and narrow, their lengths in a male speci- 
men being 17 and 18 mm., respectively, with an average width of 0*3 mm. Their 
ground tissue, as seen in transverse section (fig. 15), resembles that of the inner- 
most layer of the subcuticula. There is a distinct, relatively thick, external 
limiting membrane. The single central lacuna of each appears to be more definitely 
bounded by a delicate membrane when compared with those of the body wall. 
Each lemniscus has numerous nuclei, especially towards the anterior end. 

In both sexes the genital ligament arises from the posterior end of the pro- 
boscis sheath and extends backward through the entire body length. Several 



161 

strands of muscle fibres pass from it to the body wall at the posterior end. The 
ligament itself is composed of a few muscle fibres embedded in a filmy proto- 
plasmic strand. 

Male System. 
The two oval testes, measuring about 0" 5 by 0-3 mm., lie one behind the other 
in the anterior third of the body. Each is enclosed in a capsule formed by the 
genital ligament, and from the posterior end of each capsule there arises a single 
vas efferens. There are six very long, narrow prostate glands whose length in 
the specimen measured was 12 mm., the diameter of each being about 0*1 mm. 
These glands commence at about the level of the posterior testis and pass back- 
ward, side by side, within the genital ligament. In section they are irregularly 
rounded^ with an approximately central lumen, filled with a granular and strongly 
eosinophil prostate secretion. The surrounding syncytial tissue contains numerous 
typical nuclei in a fibrous matrix. Small granules, and groups of granules, are 
scattered through this matrix, but the area immediately surrounding the lumen 
is comparatively clear (fig. 11). 

The vasa efferentia travel separately within the ligament for about two-thirds 
the length of the prostate glands, when they unite to form a single vas deferens. 
The latter, which shows one or two small swellings along its course, passes back- 
ward to the apex of the large muscle-sac or markbeutel, where it expands to form 
a club-shaped vesicula seminalis. From the latter a convoluted ductus ejactula- 
torius passes through the tissue of the median lobe of the bursa to the male 
opening. 

At the apex of the markbeutel the prostate glands join to form a single 
muscular prostate duct. In most of the preparations examined this was in a con- 
tracted state and contained no secretion, so that it was indistinguishable in whole 
mounts from the strand of muscle passing from the base of the markbeutel to the 
body wall and overlying it. This duct opens into a large bilobed prostate reservoir 
which envelopes the vesicula seminalis and extends laterally on both sides of the 
markbeutel. At its base the reservoir opens into the ductus ejactulatorius. These 
structures are shown in a reconstruction in f[g. 21, and the relations of the vesicula 
seminalis, prostate reservoir and ejaculatory duct, in more detail, in fig. 20. No 
genital ganglion was observed. 

The copulatory bursa is a large thin-walled structure which, when withdrawn 
within the body, is very much folded and puckered. It is lined by a thin cuticle, 
but there are no lacunae in its subcuticula. At the posterior end the wall of the 
bursa is continuous with that of the posterior or genital sphincter. The latter is 
a single muscle cell with a peculiar "frothy" protoplasm surrounding a strongly 
cuticularised, narrow, winding tube which forms the external genital opening 
when the bursa is retracted; when the latter is everted it protrudes through this 
aperture as a bell-shaped organ with a pronounced thickening of part of the wall 
forming a kind of central lobe or fold projecting into its lumen, while the mark- 
beutel and associated structures become approximated to the inner side of the 
genital sphincter, and the actual aperture of the male duct becomes carried for- 
ward through the sphincter and lies within the everted bursa. In many specimens, 
not only is the bursa retracted, but as much as three or four millimetres of the 
body wall may be invaginated, so that the genital sphincter comes to lie at a 
corresponding distance from the posterior end of the specimen. As a result, 
there are three possible positions of the male complex, with intermediate connect- 
ing stages. Fig. 4 shows the arrangement in a state of extreme retraction, as does 
the section in fig. 19, where the pushing down of the sphincter into the apex of 
the invaginated region causes it to simulate a penis. Figs. 5 and 6 and the recon- 
struction shown in fig. 21 indicate the bursa retracted but with the sphincter 
terminal; while figs. 28, 29 and the section in lag. 20 show the bursa everted 
through the sphincter. 



162 




Fig. 19.— L.S. posterior end of male, showing genital sphincter and invaginatcd 

body wall. 
Fig 20— Ditto, somewhat diagrammatic, with bursa extruded, 
pjg. 21.— Reproductive system of male, greatly folded walls ot bursa indicated by 

dotted line. 
Fig. 22. — Reproductive system of female. 



163 



Female System. 
In the gravid female the uterine bell, uterus and vagina together measure 
about 4 mm. in length. The bell consists mainly of one large muscle cell enclosing 
a cavity into which the genital ligament passes to become attached at the base 
J here are, m addition, a few much smaller cells forming the posterior region of 
the bell. Besides the wide anterior opening there are two ventro-lateral apertures 
leading to the body cavity, each within a lateral muscle cell (fig. 23). From the 
cavity of the bell two other openings, each within its own lateral muscle cell lead 
into the uterus, their position being shown in figs. 24 and 25. This arrangement 
is essentially similar to that described by Kaiser (1893, pi. 7, figs 11-16 -pi 8 
figs 2, 37), as occurring in five different species, which have'since been allotted 
to Acanthocephalus, Macracanthorhynchus, Corynosoma and Bolbosoma The 
uterus is a long, narrow tube with muscular walls, and is usually filled with eggs 
In the short, swollen vagina which succeeds it, two sphincters, an anterior and 
a posterior, can be recognised. Investing the lower tenth of the uterus is a pair 
ot elongate cells, probably glandular, lying between the lumen and the muscle cell 
of that portion of the duct— in other words, these two cells are actually enveloped 
by the terminal muscle cell of the uterus. Then follows a similar, though very 
much smaller, cell lying between the muscle cells of the vaginal sphincter and 
the lumen of the vagina, and actually surrounding the latter. This is succeeded 
by a large cell, apparently of the same nature as the others, surrounding the 
female aperture. The last-mentioned cell differs from the others in form since 
it possesses a transverse diameter greater than its length and approximately the 
same as that of the mass of sphincter cells surrounding the preceding portion 
of the vagina (fig. 26). l 

n AS the Ute J rUS range from °' 07 t0 °' 087 mm - in kngth, and from 
0-025 to 0-027 mm. in diameter. There are three shells, of which the middle one 
is constricted near each end to form a polar pouch which measures about one- 

f/ en * lts len S th - A11 egg* observed in the uterus were in the two-celled stage 
(%- 27). s 

In figs. 32, 33, 34, two individuals are indicated in copula. These were 
cleared m methyl salicylate, and some details were observed. The bursa was seen 
to have been protruded through the genital sphincter, carrying with it the mass of 
tissue which projects into the cavity of its bell and contains the ejaculatory duct 
(ct. fig. 20). This projection fitted into the latero-terminal depression of the 
female, while the end of the latter was surrounded very closely by the bursa. 

Systematic Position. 

In 1911 Lithe restricted the old genus Echinorhvnchus very considerably 
after separating off from it a number of species which he allotted to new genera' 
Plagiorhynchus being amongst them. He mentioned that the species retained were 
parasitic in the intestine of fish, and Van Cleave (1923, p. 185) has apparently 
adopted the same view. Plagiorhynchus was erected to include related parasites 
of birds which differed from Echinorhynchus, sensu stricto, in possessing long 
finger-like lemnisci, a more or less oval body, and -eggs with characteristic polar 
swellings, I his genus is regarded by Van Cleave and Travassos (1926) as valid, 
but Southwell and Macfie (1925, 177) quote it as a svnonym of the latter 

1 he species from the black snake possesses some well-marked characters, 
such as the short, spherical proboscis, the exceedingly long lenmisci, the anterior 
position of the testes, and the very long, narrow, tubular prostate glands while 
the eggs are intermediate in form between those of Echinorhynchus and Pla- 
giorhynchus. These differences appear to us to be of sufficient value to justify 
generic separation We therefore propose to erect a new genus, Sphaerechino- 
ihynchus for which the following diagnosis may be offered :— Echinorhynchidae • 
near Echinorhynchus and Plagiorhynchus (as defined by Liihe and Van Cleave) : 



164 




pi ff , 23. — Uterine bell. « n u 

Fil 24.— Lateral view of bell in optical section, dotted lines indicate cells shown m 

Fig , 25.— Face view of bcli in optical section. Figs. 23, 24, 25 arc at same magnification. 
Fig." 26. — Posterior end of uterus and vagina. 
Fig. 27.— Egg. 



165 




S ss - 2ft 29.— Front and lateral views of everted bursa. 

tigs. 30, 31.— Ditto of posterior end of female 

?- g ' «*"~^° individua 's in copula, about natural size. 

£ig. 33.— Ditto, posterior end of each, magnified. 

*!* 34.— Ditto, cleared and viewed as transparent objects, more highly magnified. 



166 



S- refinacula arising from side wall of sheath; lemnisc, relatively very long, 

f 9 12) Johnstonlnel Deland 1929, from the blaek snake, £»«**&* *«***«««. 

Explanation of Lettering. 
ia Anterior aperture of uterine bell ; avs, anterior vaginal sphincter ; b bursa ; 
br bia'in- bw body wall; c, cuticle; ef, circular fibrils; cfl, coagulated fluid; 
d central Sua' elb, central lobe of bursa; cm, circular muscle; ct, capsule of 
ttkwfejaeu atory duct; f, "frothy" protoplasm of gemtal sphincter; JFh&l 
g e c 4 gland cells of L vagina ; gl, genital ligament gs gemt ri^to ^h^0k> 
•1 ft rtrt1 w«1 WW wall- ids inner proboscis sheath 1, lemniscus, la, lacuna, 
ir'hteral Z ert«« of ute rin Ml ; 11, longitudinal lacuna; 1m, longitudinal muscle; 
m 'cSlS^STof muscle cell ; ma, male aperture ; mb, markbeutcl ; med, mus- 
Star ssue surrounding ejaculatory duct; ml, limitmg membrane; mpd museula 
waU o pros ate duct ; n, nucleus; nb, nucleus of large muscle cell of uterme bell, 
nc nucleolus- nf nerve fibre; ops, outer proboscis sheath; p, proboscis ; pa, po - 
erior ape ure o ute rine bell pd, prostate duct ; pm, protoplasmic part of muscle 
celpr prostate rese rvoir; prp, protoplasmic part of retractor muscles; ps, pro- 
W^eath- ovs posterior vaginal sphincter; rp, retractor muscle of proboscis , 
posfae s^onTsc subcSticula; si, striated layer; svd, swellmg on vas 
deferens t, testis; tl terminal lobes of body wall; u, uterus; ub, uterine bell; 
v, vagina; vd, vas deferens ; ve, vas efferens; vs, vesicula semmahs. 

LITERATURE. 

1895-Hamann, O.: Die Nemathelminthen, Monographic der Acanthocephalen 

(Echinorhynchen), 1895, 1-42. 
1928-Harada, L: A new species of Acanthocephala from the Japanese bomto. 

Tap. Jour. Zool., 2, 1928, 1-4. 
1911—Johnston, T. H.: Notes on some Entozoa. P.R.S.. Q land, 23, 1911, 

213-249 
1929-Johnston/t. H„ and Dei.and E. W: Australian Acanthoce^ la, 
J No . i' Census of Recorded Hosts and Parasites. P.R.S., S. Austi., 
53, 1929. pp. 146-154. . 

irqV-Kaiser T E • Die Acanthocephalen und ihre F.ntwickhmg, 1893. 
1911_I UH F. M.: Acanthocephalen, etc. In Brauer's Die Susswasserfauna 

Deutschlands, Heft 16, 1911. 
1886-Saeeftigen, A.: Zur Organisation der Echinorhynchen. Morph. Jahib. 

1925-SouTHWEii 6 ' T^and' Macfie. J. W.: On a Collection of Acantho- 
cephala in the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine. Ann. 1 rop. 
Med. Parasit., 19, 1925, 141-184. 

192 6-Travas S os, P.: Contribuicoes, etc., XX., Revisao dps Acanthocephalos 
y brasilieros. II. Fam. Echinorhynchidae. etc. Mem. Instit. Osw. 

mg-VA^cZkHH.)'.: Acanthocephala from the lllois River, with descrip- 
' tions of species and a synopsis of the family Neoechmorhynchidae. 

Bull. St. Nat. Hist. Illinois, 13, 1919, 225-25/ 
192 3— Van Cleave, H. J. : A Key to the Genera of Acanthocephala. J r. 

Amer. Micro. Soc. 1923, 185-191. 



167 



NOTES ON THE GEOLOGY OF THE GREAT PYAP BEND (LOXTON), 

RIVER MURRAY BASIN, AND REMARKS ON THE GEOLOGICAL 

HISTORY OF THE RIVER MURRAY. 

By Professor Walter Howchin, F.G.S. 
[Read July 11, 1929.] 
Plates VI. to VIII. 



Contents. 

1. Introduction 

2. Miocene Fossiliferous Beds near Loxtou ....' 

3. River Alluvia 

4. Frcsh-watcr Limestone 

5. The Deserted River Course .... 

6. Particulars of Rores 

7. Remarks on the Bores 

8. Tectonic Movements 

9. Physiographical Problems 

10. The Past History of the Lower River Murray 

11. The Present Outlet of the River Murray .... 

12. The Coorong 



Page 
167 
168 
168 
169 
169 
170 
186 
189 
190 
191 
193 
194 



1. INTRODUCTION. 
We are chiefly indebted to the late Professor Ralph Tate for a description of 
"The Physical and Geological Features of the Lower Murray River," published 
53 years ago. [Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. vii. (1884-5), p. 24.] Tate's 
attention then, and subsequently, was principally directed to that portion of the 
river that extends from the North-West Bend (near Morgan), southward to the 
lakes, which presented a rare collecting field for Tertiary fossils. His knowledge 
of the river valley higher up than the North- West Bend seems to have been limited. 
In the paper just referred to he states: "That part of the river from the North- 
West Bend to the frontier was explored during a boat excursion occupying three 
weeks in the month of January of the present year" [1884] . I am not aware that 
Tate went over that ground a second time. 

Tate divided the South Australian portion of the Murray Basin into three 
distinct geological sections : — 

(1) A Lower Lacustrine area, taking in the lakes situated between Welling- 
ton and the mouth of the river. 

(2) The Gorge, cut in the fossiliferous Tertiary beds by a retreating water- 
fall, extending from Lake Alexandrina to Overland Corner. 

(3) An Upper Lacustrine area, consisting, chiefly, of fresh-water sands; 
forming a "minor plateau," more or less subject to overflow, extending 
from Overland Corner to the New South Wales border. 

The observations recorded in the present paper were made in August, 1915, 
and are supplementary to those published by Tate. The river cliffs examined 
extend for about four miles (one and a half miles above Loxton, and two and a 
half miles below that township), taking in the most southerly portions of the 
Great Pyap Bend of the river. The geological formations, within the range stated, 

H 



168 

can be referred to two distinct ages— the lower beds representing the Marine 
Miocene System; and the upper, fluviattle or lacustrine sediments, probably of 
Newer Pleistocene age. 

2. MIOCENE FOSSILIFEROUS REDS. 

Tate, in describing a river "cliff at 101 miles from Blanchetown," says : "This 
last section is instructive, as it is the only one known to me in which the actual 
superposition of the sharp fluviatile sands upon the marine beds is visible, though 
the same phenomenon may be inferred at Overland Corner. This section is distant 
in a straight line from Overland Corner four miles only, and yet in that short 
distance the whole character of the stratigraphy has changed" [loc cit. p. 42]. 

We have now to record the presence of the fossiliferous Miocene in outcrop 
as far up the river as Loxton (pi. vi., fig. 1), situated at the head of the Great 
Pyap Bend. The river was, unfortunately, in flood at the time of my visit, and, as 
the lower portions of the cliff were submerged, it made the examination of the 
beds near the water line rather hazardous. The following localities for the 
fossiliferous outcrops were noted: — 

(1) At Loxton these beds are exposed in a small washout in the cliff, where 
a rotten, argillaceous, dark-coloured bed contains shells in a bad state of 
preservation, mostly broken and decomposed to a chalky condition. The 
only recognisable forms were Ostrea, sp., and Crassatellites communis 
Tate. The bed is also exposed on the pathway by the side of the river, 
but, having been subjected to wear from traffic, most of the fossil remains 
had been reduced to fragments. The matrix could be correlated with 
exposures of a more definite character referred to below. 

(2) About a mile down the river from Loxton, at the most southerly bend of 
the river (pi. vi., fig. 2), a small exposure of the Miocene beds was 
observed in the bank, near the water's edge. A local resident informed 
me that when the water was low the rock with shells was much better 
seen, 

(3) At the next southerly bend of the river, about one and a half miles from 
the last-mentioned locality, a much better outcrop appears in which about 
ten feet of a similar argillaceous fossiliferous bed was exposed in the 
face of a steep bank and passed below water level. Among the fossil 
forms noted were Cellepora gambierensis (very common), Retepora, sp., 
Flabelliim, sp., Ostrea, sp., Crassatellites communis (common), Trigonia 
acitticostata, and Hinnites corioensis. The exposure appeared to be con- 
tinuous for another mile down the river (pi. vii., fig. 1), but had not 
the opportunity of following it further. 

Information in the offices of the Engineer-in-Chief's Department shows that, 
at seven miles above Loxton, a fossiliferous clav occurs from about low-water 
level in the banks, down to about 28 feet in the bed of the river; and at about 
17 miles above Loxton there are fossiliferous beds just below river low-water level 
at a height of only 33 feet above sea level. 

3. RIVER ALLUVIA. 
These are well developed near Loxton in cliffs that reach a height of about 
80 to 100 feet. The deposits consist mainly of sands of various colours and degrees 
of fineness that are sometimes cross-bedded. Layers of small-sized gravel occur 
occasionally, the pebbles averaging in size about half an inch in the long diameter 
— rarely reaching a length of one inch. Coarse angular grits are common with an 
average size of one-eighth of an inch, rounded on their edges and angles. Coarse 
and fine sharp sands, passing into very fine whitish sand with fine flakes of clastic 



169 

mica scattered over the bedding planes, sufficient in some cases to give the rock a 
fissile character. 

The sands are, for the most part, very loosely cemented and friable. In some 
layers there is sufficient clay in the interstices to give an adhesive quality to the 
stone by which it can be easily handled. In places a strong cement of hydrous 
oxide of iron has consolidated the bed, giving the rock every shade of colour from 
a dark brownish-red to bright red or yellowish, which, in the finer sediments, 
becomes a freestone. About a mile above Loxton there has been an extensive 
infiltration of silica that has converted the grits into a very siliceous rock, slightly 
coloured by the presence of iron oxide. Although the stone is very hard it can be 
broken easily by the hammer, with a conchoidal fracture, and is quarried for use 
as a building stone. This silicification of the fluviatile sediments extends along 
the cliffs for about a third of a mile. It begins and ends rather abruptly, and has 
a thickness up to 20 feet. Transverse lines of erosion expose the rock in large 
masses (pi. vii., fig. 2), and shows that it extends back from the cliffs for, at 
least, several hundred yards. The cutting of a shelf in the face of the river cliff 
for the placing of the Loxton Pumping Works (pi. viii.) has made a clean 
exposure of the upper portion of the fresh-water beds. 

4. FRESH-WATER LIMESTONE. 
The river cliffs, near Loxton, carry another feature of interest in the occur- 
rence of an argillaceous limestone containing fresh-water shells. The layer varies 
from two feet to three feet "in thickness, and is situated near the top of the cliff- 
face at a height of about 70 or 80 feet above the river level. It can be well seen 
in the cliff immediately behind the Waterworks Pumping Station (shown in the 
photograph, plate viii., as a white band), from which point it passes up the river 
for about half a mile; large blocks of the limestone that have broken away from 
the parent rock He at the base of the cliff. Grains of fine sand are scattered through 
the limestone, and may be in sufficient numbers, in places, to give the features 
of an arenaceous limestone. On the application of HC1 a brisk effervescence 
follows, leaving an insoluble residue of clay and fine sand. The shelly material 
has been removed by solution, leaving cavities between the internal casts and the 
external impressions. No remains of bivalves were seen in the bed, but from the 
casts of gasteropods Mr. B. C. Cotton, of the conchological department of the 
South Australian Museum, recognises the genera, Bulinus, Physa, and, possibly, 
Pahtdhia. The limestone is underlain by coarse sands and grits, and is overlain 
by surface travertine and reddish soils and sands of varying thickness. 

5. THE DESERTED RIVER COURSE. 

If Tate's theory, that the Murray, in its later stages, cut a new channel for 
itself be correct, and there is good reason to think that it is, there must have been 
an older outlet to the sea which is now deserted. This former channel is not likely 
to have been on the western side of the river, as there is high land in that direction, 
so attention has been directed to the country lying to the eastward and southward 
of the present river for evidence, if any, of a former channel. 

The surface features of the Murray Plains are extremely monotonous and 
give little indication of what lies beneath the surface. Neither creek banks nor 
railway cuttings exist throughout the area from which information could be 
gathered. In a few places Pre-Cambrian rocks come near the surface, as do also 
the marine Tertiary beds, but the surface is almost uninterruptedly covered with a 
mantle of terrestrial origin. The one redeeming feature, in a geological sense, is 
that the country is thickly studded with wells and bores, from which some know- 
ledge of the geological structure of the country can be obtained. 



170 

Transverse sections, based chiefly on government surveys for railways, show 
that the Murray Plains have a gradual rise from the River Murray to a low central 
plateau that has an average height of about 300 feet above sea level. Thus a line 
of section (see fig, 2) taken from Chucka Bend, joining on to the Paringa railway 
line, attains its maximum height of 252 feet at Wanbi, and then falls away to 
121 feet at Meribah, near the border of Victoria. Another line taken from Tailem 
Bend to Pinnaroo (sec fig. 3), rises gradually over a distance of about 55 miles 
when it reaches, approximately, the 300-feet level at the Cotton Bore, and rises 
gradually to a maximum of 350 feet at Hundred of Bews, and 344 feet at Pin- 
naroo, on the Border. On a north and south line (see fig. 5), starting at Loxton, 
at a height of 126 feet, it reaches the 300-fcet level at the Anderson Bore, on the 
Peebinga railway line, about 50 miles to the southward of Loxton, passing through 
Cotton, at about the same elevation; it then slopes rapidly to Tintinara, at 62 feet 
above sea level, and to the Alfred Flat Bore, which is only a few feet above the 
Coorong. 

In most cases throughout this area the fossiliferous Tertiary beds exist at 
depth. At a few places, as at the lower reaches of the Murray, at Swan Reach 
and Tailem Bend, the older [ ( ?) Pre-Cambrian] rocks are at, or near, the surface. 
At Moorlands, near Tailem Bend, within 100 feet of depth there are fossiliferous 
Tertiary beds, under which is a lignitic fresh-water series, and this series rests on 
the Pre-Cambrian bed rock. The Cooke's Plains and Cotton bores bottomed on 
igneous rocks. 

6. PARTICULARS OF BORES. 

Over 40 bores have been utilized for the present purpose (see fig. 1 in text). 
These have been selected following, as near as possible, the railway lines, four 
sets running, approximately, in an east and west direction, and one north and south. 
A few others have been included that are irregularly placed. 

As far as possible the heights of the bores above sea level have been given, 
based on the railway official figures, as well as the thickness of the respective 
geological systems that are represented, as far as could be recognised, in the logs 
officially published. 

Unless otherwise stated, the borings were carried out by the Engineer- 
in-Chief\s Department, the author being greatly indebted to the officers of this 
department for access to the official records and for copies of the published par- 
ticulars of the borings. In many instances a fairly detailed log had been kept of 
the beds passed through, but as these logs have been compiled by workmen who 
had little specific knowledge of the scientific side of the question, the information 
is often imperfect and makes the scientific interpretation of the records somewhat 
difficult. For this reason the following attempts to define the respective geological 
horizons are open to revision. 

It may be stated that the following rules have been adopted in distinguishing 
the fluviatile portions of the borings from the Tertiary beds which commonly 
underlie them : — 

(a) Sand and superficial (travertine) limestone, variable up to 20 feet, are 
considered as Recent, terrestrial, and are so assigned in the bore sections. 

(b) The fluviatile beds are supposed to be represented by the following terms 
used in the logs, viz., "sand," "coarse sand," "grits," "red sands," 
"yellow sands," "red-coloured clays," "gravel " "boulders," "micaceous 
sands and sandstones." The red-colouring matter is present mechani- 
cally caused by the contemporaneous infiltration of the hydrated oxide 
of iron, which is very characteristic of fresh-water deposits; as is also the 
presence of flakes of mica, which can be carried long distances in river 
transportation, but, from their soft and fragile nature, are almost imme- 
diately ground down to invisibility on the sea shore, and are, therefore, a 
very definite test of river sediments. 



171 




Fig. 1. 



172 



(c) Beds of Tertiary age may be represented in the bores in one or other of 
two forms: Either by an upper series, which is marine, and often f os- 
siferous, or by an underlying series which is of fresh-water origin and 
generally carries some amount of lignite. The marine series is the more 
frequently present, as many of the bores did not penetrate so far as to 
reach the underlying fresh-water beds. The following terms were taken 
to include the marine series, viz., all "limestones" below the surface 
travertine limestone, "calcareous sandstone," "cliff rock," "shell lime- 
stone," "marine" beds, and "sandstones" that occur overlying "fossili- 
ferous" beds. In cases of doubt the associated beds have been taken into 
consideration. It is probable that a Kalimnan (Lower Pliocene) f os- 
siferous series occurs on top of the Miocene, in some of the bores, but 
as this series was not distinguished in the workmen's log from the older 
fossiliferous beds, they are included, if present, under the Miocene, as the 
more important of the two. 

For convenience, as well as for consecutive representation, the bores dealt 
with in the present paper have been divided into groups as follow : — 

[The division between the fresh- water and Tertiary beds is marked by a rule.] 

Group I. (Fig. 2.) 
The seven following records relate to a series of bores situated about 20 miles, 
or a little more, to the southward of Loxton, and extend, in an east and west direc- 
tion, from within 16 miles of the River Murray, at Chucka Bend, on the west, 
to the borders of Victoria, on the east : — 

1. Walsh Bore, situated a little to the eastward of the Karoonda-Waikerie 
railway, Hundred of Bandon. Height above sea level, approximately, 200 feet. 



Thickness, 






Thickness, 


in feet. 






in feet. 


Sand .... 1 


Freestone ... 




... 19 


Limestone .... .... 9 


Fossiliferous 


sandstone 


... 3 


Red sandstone .... .... 12 


Fossiliferous 


limestone 


... 99 


Soft sandstone .... .... 52 


Fossiliferous 


sandstone 


... 20 


Hard micaceous sandstone 4o 




Tntal 






960 



Terrestrial, 10 feet; Fresh-water, 109 feet; Marine Tertiary, 141 feet. 



2. Agincourt Bore, situated 14 miles to the eastward of Walsh, Hundred of 
Chesson. Height above sea level, estimated, 240 feet. 

Thickness, 
in feet. 
Calcareous sandstone, cliff 

rock 54 

Sandstone .... .... .... 81 

Shell rock 22 



Limestone rubble 
Red sandy clay . 

Sandstone 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

... 5 

... 5- 

... 56 



1 Total .... 223 

Terrestrial, 5 feet; Fresh-water, (?) 61 feet; Marine Tertiary, (?) 157 feet. 

3. Wanbi Bore, situated 12 miles to the south-eastward of Agincourt, on the 
Meribah-Renmark railway, Hundred of Mindarie. Height above sea level, 
252 feet. 





Thickness, 


Thickness 




in feet. 


in feet. 


Sand 


.... 3 


Hard calcareous sandstone 29 


Hard limestone 


.... 8 


Soft sandstone .... .... 38 


Tough red clay .... 


.... 20 


Marine clay and limestone 14 


Red sandstone 


... 12 


White clay 30 


Yellow sandstone 


.... 33 


Shell rock .... .... .... 66 



Total .... 253 
Terrestrial, 11 feet; Fresh-water, 65 feet; Marine Tertiary, 177 feet. 



173 




Group I. (Fig. 2.) 



Group V. (Fig. 3.) 



174 



4. Cobera Bore, situated six miles to the eastward of Wanbi, on the 
Meribah-Renmark railway, Hundred of Allen. Height above sea level, 252 feet. 

Thickness, 



Sand 

Red sandstone 

Coarse sand 



i feet. 

3 

13 

54 



Fine micaceous sand 



Limestone 
Shell rock 



Thickness, 
in feet. 
.... 32 

.... 31 

..... 85 



Total ... 
Marine Tertiary, 116 feet. 



218 



Terrestrial, 3 feet; Fresh-water, 99 feet; 
5. Alawoona Bore, situated six miles to the eastward of the Cobera Bore, 
at the junction of the railway for Loxton. Height above sea level, 231 feet. 

Thickness, 
in feet. 

Cemented quartz gravel .... 14 
Calcareous sandstone, cliff 





Thickness. 




in feet. 


Sand 


.... 4 


Sandy clay 


.... 3 


Limestone rubble 


.... 8 


Red clay .... 


... 15 


Soft sandstone 


.... 29 


Hard red sandstone 


.... 16 


Tough yellow clay 


.... 7 


Cemented quartz gra\ 


el .... 4 


Calcareous sandstone, 


cliff 


rock 


.... 20 



rock 


, 26 


Marine clay 


7 


Fossiliferous sandstone ... 


18 


Marine clay with shells ... 


7 


Sandstone .... 


1 


Light blue clay 


. 18 


Shell rock .... 


. 14 



Total 



211 



Terrestrial, 15 feet; Fresh-water, 71 feet; Marine Tertiary, 125 feet. 
6. Paruna Bore, situated 13 miles eastward of Alawoona, on the railway. 
Height above sea level, 193 feet. 





Thickness, 




in feet. 


Sand ' .... 


2 


Limestone .... 


... 2 


Fine sand .... 


.... 46 


Coarse sand 


70 



Hard sandstone .... 
Marine clay and shells 
Shell rock .... 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 8 
.... 107 
... 24 



Total .... 259 

Terrestrial, 4 feet; Fresh-water, 116 feet; Marine Tertiary, 139 feet. 
7. Meribah Bore, situated on the railway to Renmark, at the angle near the 
Victorian border. Height above sea level, 121 feet. 

Thickness, 
i feet. 
12 Greyish sand 



Yellow sand 

Limestone .... 8 

Yellow siliceous sand .... 27 

Brownish siliceous sand.... 6 

Yellowish siliceous sand 7 

Coarse sand and grits .... 5 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 7 



Calcareous clay, shelly 

Shell bed 

Limestone .... 
Polyzoal limestone 



98 

5 

11 

60 



246 



Total 
Terrestrial, 20 feet; Fresh-water, 52 feet; Marine Tertiary, 174 feet. 

Group II. 

This group includes four borings situated on the Karoonda to Peebinga rail- 
way, roughly parallel with the preceding : — 

1. Karoonda Bore, near the railway junction for Waikerie and Peebinga. 
Height above sea level, 223 feet. 

Thickness, 
in feet. 
5 



Limestone marl .... 
Red sandstone 
Micaceous quartz 
glomerate 

Sandstone 

Sand and gravel .... 



cou- 



48 

21 

5 

15 



■ 


Thickness, 
in feet. 


Sandstone .... 


.... 22 


Clay 


.... 7 


Calcareous sandstone 


.... 27 


Shell rock .... 


.... 34 



Total 



184 



Terrestrial, 5 feet; Fresh-water, 89 feet; Marine Tertiary, 90 feet. 



175 

2. McNamara Bore, situated a few miles to the eastward of the preceding, 
near the railway. Height above sea level, approximately, 223 feet. 

Thickness, 

in feet. 

1 



Surface loam 

Clay and Limestone .... 4 

Sandy Clay 39 

Coarse sand and gravel .... 10 

Quartz sand .... .... 25 

Yellow micaceous sand- 
stone .... .... .... 11 



Terrestrial, 5 feet; Fresh-water, 



Dark sand with mica 



Thickness, 
in feet. 
.... 3 



Yellow sandstone 

hard bands 
Clay with fossil shells 
Fossiliferous sandstone 
Shell rock .... 



with 



27 
16 
10 
35 



Total .... 181 
feet; Marine Tertiary, 88 feet. 



3. Anderson Bore, in Hundred of Bews, near Wirha, on the Peebinga rail- 
way, approximately 300 feet above sea level. 





Thickness, 




in feet. 


Sand 


... 1 


Yellow sandstone 


.... 34 


Sand 


.... 15 


Yellow sandstone 


.... 38 



Thickness 
in feet. 
Coarse quartz sand .... 42 
Fine micaceous sandstone 45 



Sandy clay and shells 
Fossiliferous limestone 



17 

60 



Total .... 252 
Terrestrial, 1 foot; Fresh- water, 174 feet; Marine Tertiary, 77 feet. 

4. Karte Bore, in Hundred of Kingsford, 13 miles to the eastward of the 
Anderson Bore. Height above sea level, 279 feet. 



Grey sand .... 
Red sand .... 
Coarse sand 


Thickness, 
in feet. 

60 

20 

30 

20 


Quartz gravel 
Fine grey sand 


Thickness, 
in feet. 
.... 20 
.... 20 


Sandy clay 


Sandstone .... 
Marine clay 
Coralline limestone 


.... 15 
.... 18 
.... 47 



Fresh-water, 170 feet; Marine Tertiary, 80 feet. 



Total 



250 



Group III. 

To the westward of Groups I. and II. are five other bores, situated nearer 
to the River Murray, and having a north and south direction. These are : — 



. Semmler Bore (within a few miles of Chucka Bend). 






Thickness, 




Thickness, 


Sand 


in feet. 

.... 2 


Clay 


in feet. 
.... 4 


Marly clay 


.... 10 


Hard micaceous 


sand- 


Red sand .... 


.... 48 


stone 


5 


Hard red sandstone 


2 


Yellow sand 


8 


Yellow sand 


.... 33 


Hard micaceous 


sand- 


Sand and boulders 


.... 138 


stone 


.... 7 


Brown sand 


5 


Coarse water- worn 


sand 


Sand and limestone 


.... 18 


and pebbles 


.... 4 






Micaceous sand .... 


.... 3 






Sandy clay.... 


8 






Soft sandstone 


.... 79 



Total .... 374 

Terrestrial, 12 feet; Fresh-water, 221 feet (or more); Tertiary, (?) 
[See forward, p. 187.] y ' w 



176 

2. Weinert Bore. A little to the westward of the Semmler Bore, but more 
distant from the river. 



Thickness, 




Thickness 


in feet. 




in feet. 


Loam and limestone rubble 4 


Sandstone .... 


.... 150 


Sandy clay .... .... 11 


Shell rock .... 


.... 36 


Red sandstone .... .... 80 


Clay with fossil shells 


... 74 


Sandstone and boulders .... 27 


Grey sandy clay .... 


.... 10 


Sand IB 


Fine sand 


.... 1 


Boulders .... 10 


Total 




421 



Terrestrial, 4 feet; Fresh-water, 146 feet; Marine Tertiary, 271 feet. 



3. Grtbble Bore, situated a little to the southward of the Semmler Bore. 





Thickness, 




Thickness 




in feet. 




in feet. 


Limestone 


.... 9 


Sand and limestone 


.. 33 


Red clay 


.... 7 


Yellow sandstone 


.. 128 


Red sandstone 


.... 27 


Freestone .... 


.. 50 


Yellow sandstone 


.... 26 


Fossiliferous sandstone . 


.. 40 



Total .... 320 
Terrestrial, 9 feet; Fresh-water, 60 feet; Marine Tertiaries, 251 feet. 



4. Poyntz Bore, situated about six miles south-westward of the preceding. 

Thickness, 
in feet. 
Sandy clay with shells .... 48 
Sand, shells, and ironstone 5 
Dark sand .... .... .... 9 

Saj dstone 16 

Clay and lignite .... .... 52 

Micaceous sandstone .... 23 

Clay with pyrites .... 5 





Thickness, 




in feet. 


Sand and limestone 


.... 18 


Sand and quartz .... 


.... 18 


Freestone 


.... 10 


Sand and lime 


.... 8 


Soft sandstone with 


fossil 


shells 


.... 105 


Limestone .... 


.... 12 


Yellow sandy clay 


.... 9 



Total 



338 



Marine Tertiary, (?) 258 feet; Fresh-water Lignitic Series, (?) 80 feet. 



5. Chapman Bore, situated about nine miles southward of the preceding, 



and 15 miles due east of Murray Bridge. 

Thickness, 
in feet. 

Sand 4 

Limestone .... .... .... 8 

Freestone .... 44 

Calcareous sandstone .... 14 

Sandy clay .... .... 43 

Freestone 67 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Sandy clay 


.... 32 


Dark clay .... 


.... 23 


Soft sandstone 


.... 21 


Hard sandstone .... 


.... 11 


("lay and ironstone 


... 5 


Light decomposed slate 


.... 74 



Marine Tertiary, 272 feet; Pre-Tertiary, 74 feet. 



Total .... 346 



Group IV. 

'.Phis group includes four bores situated about midway between the Peebinga 
and Pinnaroo railway lines, towards the eastern side of the map : — 

1. Cow Plains Bore, situated on the boundary of the State, about seven 
miles to the northward of Pinnaroo. 





Thickness, 




Thickness 




in feet. 




in feet. 


Loam and marly clay 


.... 10 


White sand 


.... 10 


Clay 


.... 4 


Red sand 


.... 10 


Sandstone .... 


.... 19 


Yellow sand 


.... 8 


Sandy clay 


.... 4 


Coarse red sand .... 


.... 15 



177 



Thickness, 
in feet- 
Dark coarse sand .... 20 
Fine white sand .... .... 30 

Fine yellow sand 20 

Sand & ironstone boulders 5 



Limestone .... 
Sand, clay and shells 
Sandstone and shells 
Fossiliferous limestone 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 5 
.... 40 
.... 11 



Total .... 217 
Terrestrial, 10 feet; Fresh-water, 145 feet; Marine Tertiary, 62 feet. 

2. Clay Pan Bore, Hundred of Parilla. About 340 feet above sea level. 



Clay 

Sandstone .... 
Sand 
Micaceous sand 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

. 10 

. 36 
. 108 
. 6 



Sand 
Sandy clay 



Limestone and shells 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 48 
... 16 

.... 10 



Total .... 234 



Apparently in Fresh-water Series, except the final 10 feet. 
statio 3 ni?2^oTet)° F BEWS B ° RE ^^ 35 ° **** ab0Ve Sea lCTel; Bews railwa ^ 

T ^ ic ^ ness ' | Thickness, 



Sand 

Sandy limestone . 

Sandstone .... 

Sand 

Clayey sandstone 



in feet. 

6 

1 

95 

60 



. in feet. 

band .... ... _ 3i 

Micaceous sandstone .... 9 - 

Micaceous clay and sand 8 



Sandstone .... 
Fossiliferous limestone 



9 
123 



Terrestrial, 7 feet; Fresh-water, 211 feet; Marine Tertiary, l^feet. 

4, Dingo Bore (about 300 feet above sea level), situated nine miles to the 
westward of Bews Bore. 



Light and red clay 
Ironstone conglomerate 
Soft sandstone 
Hard sandstone .... 
. Sand 
Sandstone .... 



Thickness, 

in feet. 

3 

7 

43 

32 
26 
22 



Thickness, 
in feet. 
r ine sand and ironstone 
conglomerate .... .... 16 

Ironstone conglomerate 
and sandy clay .... .... 4 

Red sandy clay .... .... 9 



Black sand with shells 
Limestone with shells 



25 
37 



Fresh-water, 162 feet; Marine Tertiary, 62 feet. 



Total .... 224 



Group V. (Fig. 3.) 

This group includes five bores, following the railway between Tailem Bend 
and l mnaroo ; — 

?n -i B + ° B ?u LooK -° u 5 BoRE (^out 50 feet above sea level), situated about 1 
20 miles to the eastward of Tailem Bend. 



Marl 

Limestone .. 

Clay 

Sand 

Sandy clay and shells 

Fine sand .... 

Soft limestone 



Thickness, 

in feet. 
... 1 

... 43 

... 10 

... 3 

... 12 

... 9 

... 32 



In Marine Tertiary throughout. 





Thickness, 




in feet. 


Hard grey rock ... 


8 


Sand and layer of hard 


rock 


23 


Light grey clay ... 


36 


Clay and lignite ... 


93 


Hard grey rock ... 


1 


Sand and shells ... 
T 


.... 12 

otal 2R3 



178 



2. Geranium Bore, 43 miles eastward of Tailem Bend, 
level 238 feet. 

Thickness, i 

in feet. 



Height above sea 



Thickness, 
i feet, 



Sandy clay 

Sandy clay, sand, 

soft sandstone 
Micaceous sand .... 
Micaceous sand and 

quartz gravel .... 
Micaceous sand .... 



and 



fine 



15 

33 

7 

15 
3 



Hard limestone and sandy 

clay 14 

Soft limestone and shells 22 

Hard limestone .... .... 5 

Soft limestone 27 

Soft fossiliferous limestone 7 

Soft limestone and shells 3 



Sand and limestone .... 20 Total 

Fresh-water, 73 feet; Marine Tertiary, 98 feet. 



171 



3. Hundred of Cotton Bore (about 
westward of Lameroo. 



300 feet above sea level), eight miles 



Thickness, 
in feet. 



White sand 

Brown clayey sand 
Limestone rubble 
Ironstone 

Soft sandstone 

Hard, coarse sandstone .... 

Clay with ironstone 

nodules 



Limestone .... 
Limestone with shells .... 
Calcareous sandstone 
Hard, grey limestone 
Dark clay and limestone.... 
Sandy limestone .... 
Calcareous sandstone with 
fossils 



1 
1 

1 

5 

30 

112 

40 

62 
108 
118 
20 
10 
14 

15 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Sand, clay, and pyrites 


.... 83 


Sand 


.... 40 


Dark clay .... 


.... 4 


Grey sand and pyrites 


.... 16 


Dark clay 


.... 10 


Sand and fossils ... 


.... 14 


Shelly sandstone .... 


.... 8 


Black clay and fossils 


.... 13 


Sandstone and clay 


.... 9 


Black shale 


.... 60 


Black sand 


.... 6 


Brown sand 


.... 14 


Gravel and lignite 


.... 6 


Micaceous sand .... 


... 12 


Rotten micaceous schist 7 


Granitic sand 


.... 13 


Granite 


.... 13 



Total .... 865 
Terrestrial, 8 feet; Fresh-water, 182 feet; Tertiary, 642 feet; Pre-Cambrian, 33 feet. 

4. Carter's Bore, near Parilla (340 feet above sea level). 

Thickness, 
in feet. 

16 



Marly clay .... 
Hard sandstone 
Yellow sand 
Red sand 



36 
78 
40 



Fine white sand 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 10 



Yellow sandstone 
Dark blue clay 
Fossiliferous limestone 



59 
11 
10 



Total .... 260 
Terrestrial, 16 feet; Fresh-water, 164 feet; Marine Tertiary, 80 feet. 



5. Pinnaroo Bore, No. 2 (344 feet above sea level). 

Thickness, 
in feet. 



Sandy loam .... .... 2 

Travertine limestone .... 6 

Coloured clay 42 

Yellowish,argillaceoussand 10 

Reddish argillaceous sand 18 

Fine white quartz sand .... 3 

Yellow argillaceous sand 21 

Reddish argillaceous sand 10 

Coarse quartz sand .... 13 

Fine to coarse quartz sand 20 

Medium quartz sand .... 25 
Argillaceous sand with 
mica 



Dark ditto, with mica 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 55 



Tertiary fossiliferous lime- 
stone .... .... .... 5 

Grey soft limestone ... 205 

White chalky limestone .... 60 

Polyzoal limestone .... 40 

Grey porous limestone .... 30 

White polyzoal limestone 30 

Chalky limestone at 600 ft. 5 



Total 



605 



Terrestrial, 8 feet; Fresh-water. J22 feet; Marine Tertiaries, 375 feet. 



179 



Group VI. 

Includes four bores situated between the Pinnaroo and Serviceton railway 
lines, towards the eastern side. 

1. McMahon Bore, situated on Section 10, Hundred of Pinnaroo, eight miles 
from the Victorian border. 

Thickness, 
in feet. 
Ferruginous sandstone .... 40 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Limestone rubble 


.... 3 


Clay 


.... 20 


Fine sandstone 


.... 7 


Coarse sandstone 


.... ISO 



Dark blue clay 
Fossiliferous limestone 



28 
56 



Total .... .104 
Terrestrial, 23 feet; Fresh-water, 197 feet; Marine Tertiary, 84 feet. 

2. Rosy Pine Bore, situated to the south-eastward of the preceding, about 
three miles from the border. 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

Marly limestone 3 

Sandy limestone .... .... 17 

Red and yellow limestone 58 

White sand 12 

Fine and coarse sand .... 100 



Sand and ironstone 
Sand 



Clay and shells .... 
Fossiliferous limestone 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 7 
.... 18 

.... IS 
... 35 



Total .... 265 
Terrestrial, 20 feet; Fresh-water, 195 feet; Marine Tertiary, 50 feet. 



3. Quondong Bore, situated between Bordertown and Pin 



naroo. 



Sand 

Clay 

White sandstone .. 
Yellow sandstone 



Thickness, 
in feet. 
.... 4 

.... 8 
.... 8 
.... 19 



Fine sand ... 
Coarse sand 



Freestone 
Limestone 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 26 
.... 95 

.... 70 
.... 72 



Total .... 302 
Terrestrial, 12 feet; Fresh-water, 148 feet; Marine Tertiary, 142 feet. 

4. Bunn Springs Bore, situated on the Bordertown to Pinnaroo route, about 
10 miles from the Victorian border. 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

Sand .... .... .... 2 

Sandy clay 12 

Sand and gravel 6 

Red sandstone .... .... 76 

Ferruginous sandstone .... 7 



Red sand 



Yellow sandstone 
Fine yellow sandstone 
Calcareous sandstone 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 15 

.... 140 
... 52 
... 20 



Total 



330 



Fresh-water, 118 feet; Marine Tertiary, (?) 212 feet. 



Group VII. (Fig. 4.) 

The bores in this group follow the Tailem Bend to Bordertown railway line 
and district, in a south-easterly direction, parallel with the Coorong. 

1. Cooke's Plains Bore, situated about 11 miles south-eastward of Tailem 
tfend. Height above sea level, 19 feet. 



180 



Thickness. 


Thickness 




in feet. 


in feet. 


Sand 


2 


Clay and gypsum .... 32 


Soft limestone and gypsum 


9 


Fossiliferous limestone .... 10 


Sandy limestone .... 


39 


Black clay 46 


Gypsum .... .... _ ■ 

Gypsum and sandy lime- 


7 


Sand & limestone boulders 3 
Hard clay 1 


stone 


16 


Igneous rock 6 


Gypseous rock 


22 





Sandstone .... 


31 


Total .... 224 



In the above bore three distinct formations are represented : — (a) An upper 
lacustrine, gypseous series of Recent age, having a thickness of 158 feet, under- 
lying which are (b) Miocene marine beds, which are here reduced to a thickness 
of 60 feet; and these rest on (c) bed-rock, probably of Pre-Cambrian age. As 
bearing on the origin of the upper, lacustrine beds, Tate describes [Trans. Roy. 
Soc. S. Austr., vol. iv„ 1882, p. 144] two sections seen on the shores of Lake 
Alexandrina, near Wellington, in which gypseous deposits are especially prominent. 
It is, therefore, probable that the upper portion of the Cooke's Plains sediments 
represents a former extension of Lake Alexandrina in that direction. 



2. Coomandook Bore, situated 
Height above sea level, 40 feet. 

Thickness, 
in feet. 

Sand and clay 29 

Limestone and shells .... 32 

Sandstone .... 

Marine clay 

Clay and sand 

Hard blue limestone 

Clay and gypsum 

Sandy clay 

Ligneous clay 



on the line, 21 miles from Tailem Bend. 



45 
12 
10 
60 
10 
23 
20 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Coralline limestone 


.... 7 


Sandy clay 


.... 3 


Ligneous clay 


.... 79 


Sand 


.... 5 


Dark clay .... 


.... 4 


Sand and quartz .... 


.... 8 


Clay, sand and pebbles 


.... 48 


Sandy clay 


.... 17 



Total 



412 



Marine Tertiary resting on Lignitic (Fresh-water) Series. 



3. Ki Ki Bore, situated between 
from Tailem Bend. Height above sea 



Cooke's Plains and Coonalpyn, 30 
level, 92 feet. 



miles 



Thickness, 

' feet. 

2 

15 
10 

10 



Limestone ... 
While limestone .... 
Hard flinty limestone .... 
Red quartzose limestone 
Soft whitish-yellow lime- 
stone 108 

Soft limestone with ma- 
rine fossils 70 

Hard sandstone 2 

Soft limestone with ma- 
rine fossils ... • •■■ 63 
Calcareous rock with ma- 
rine fossils ... ■■■■ 45 
Dark grey rock with ma- 
rine fossils ... •■■■ 15 

Black clay 20 

Sand .... 1 

Black clay .... .... ■■•• 19 

Quartzose sand with fossils 4 
Black clay .... H 



Quartzose sand 

Black clay .... 
Black clay and sand 

Black day 

Dark grey clay 
White pipe clay .... 
Dark clay and sand 
White pipe clay .... 
Yellow pipe clay 
Pink pipe clay _ .... 
Yellow and pink pipe 

clay 
Rotten reddish-brown clay 

rock 
Rotten yellowish - green 

clay rock 
Very soft dark-green clay 

rock 
Hard slaty rock with 

quartz .... 



Thickness,. 
in feet. 

... 30 

... 7 

... 14 

2 

Z 5 
... 3 
1 
.. 48 
31 
... 3 



43 



63 
14 



Total .... 666 
Marine Tertiary resting on decomposed slate rocks, passing down to unaltered slate. 



181 



4. Lotnumpje Bore, situated about four 
above sea level, 98 feet. 

Thickness, 
in feet. 

Travertine limestone .... 8 

Yellowish sand 20 

Argillaceous limestone .... 9 

White calcareous sand- 
stone .... .... .... 45 

Calcareous sand 18 

Sand with shell fragments 5 

Shell limestone 2 

Sand with shell fragments 21 

Shell limestone .... .... 27 

Fine sand with shell frag- 
ments ,. 2 



miles due north of Ki Ki. Height 

Thickness, 
c < ,. ,. in feet. 

bnell limestone 82 

Sandy clay with shells .... 44 

Hard fossiliferous lime- 
stone .... .... .... i 

Limestone with echino- 
derms .... .... .... 5 

Polyzoal and echinoderm 
limestone .... .... 13 



Total 



302 



Marine Tertiary, capped by Travertine. 



5. Gosdek Bore, situated about 9 miles to the north-eastward of the preceding. 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Limestone .... 


.... 39 


Fossiliferous limestone 


.... 51 


Sand and pebble .... 


.... 35 


Sand and shells .... 


.... 25 


Grey sand .... 


.... 15 


Sand with rock layer 


.... 17 


Grey sand .... 


.... 8 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Sandy clay 


.... 30 


Black clay 


.... 83 


Coralline limestone 


.... 18 


Clay with shells 


and 


pebbles .... 


.... 18 


Blue clay .... 


.... 2 


Lignite 


.... 19 



Total .... 360 
Marine Tertiary, resting on Lignitic (Fresh-water) Series. 

- T ^ Co ° r N r AL 7 N / C0LD AND Wet) Bore ' seated nine miles south-eastward 
of Ki Ki. Height above sea level, 72 feet, 



Thickness, 
in feet, 
lime- 



Brown clay with 

stone crust .... , .... 15 

White limestone 3 

Yellow sandstone .... 67 

Sandstone with shells .... 20 

Red clay 80 

Black clay 5 

Marine shell bed 34 

Limestone with shells .... 11 

Light grey clay 86 

Chocolate clay 13 

Sand 51 

Quartz gravel and pyrites 4 



Thickness. 

in feet. 
... 4 
... 11 

... 26 



Grey clay with lignite .... 
Grey clay with gravel .... 

Grey clay 

Chocolate clay with 

gravel g 

Grey clay .... 4 

Chocolate clay with gravel 40 
Grey clay and slate, alter- 
nately .... 5 

Hard blue slate .... .... 91 

Do., with quartz veins .... 88 

Hard blue slate .... 26 

Do 150 



Total .... 840 



The above section suggests 18 feet of Recent terrestrial deposits 217 feet of 
fossiliferous Tertiary, 245 feet of fresh-water lignitic series; and these resting n 
slate rock that was penetrated to 360 feet, making a total depth of 840 feet. 

[The Tmtinara Bore, which occurs between the Coonalpyn and Emu Flat 
bores, will be considered with those taken in a north and south direction.] 



182 



7. Emu Flat Bore, situated about five miles to the northward of Keith rail- 
way station. Height above sea level, 101 feet. 



"Light yellow sand 
Light grey limestone 
Soft yellow limestone .... 
Light yellow limestone .... 

Hard limestone 

Light yellow calcareous 

sandstone 
Soft grey limestone with 

marine fossils .... 



:kness, 


Thickness 


feet. 


in feet. 


3 


Soft greenish limestone 




12 


with fossils 


at) 


26 


Calcareous sand with ma- 




12 


rine fossils 


36 


19 


Black clay, carbonaceous 
Calcareous sand, marine 


21 


49 


fossils 


22 




Black clay, carbonaceous 


12 


22 


Calcareous sand, marine 






fossils 


S 



Total 



269 



In Marine Tertiary throughout. 



8. Bordertown and Neighbourhood. From the small number of bores sunk 
in the south-eastern part of South Australia, information concerning; the rocks 
below the surface in that district is somewhat limited. Rev. Tenison Woods has 
published some observations on this subject which are of interest. He states: 
"Underneath the calcareous sandstone [indurated dune rock] we have in this 
district beds of coarse white, yellow, and red ferruginous sands, sometimes with 
layers of ironstone, and full of concretions of hydrated oxide and carbonate of 
iron. The thickness of the deposit varies in different places. At Bangham 
Pastoral Station, Tatiara [about 20 miles to the southward of Bordertown], I had 
an opportunity of descending a shaft sunk for water to a depth of 75 feet. The 
whole depth was occupied by beds of variegated sands of various thickness, the 
seams being somewhat lentil-shaped, as follow: — 

Thickness, 
in feet. 

White sand 5 

Ochreous red sand .... 10 

Yellow sand .... .... 17 

White sand 1 

Red sand with ironstone 

concretions .... 1 

Yellow sand .... .... 6 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Brownish red sand 


.... 2 


Yellow sand 


.... 10 


White sand 


.... 5 


Yellow sand 


... 8 


Coarse sand and clay 


.... 10 


Water in clay 


.... — 



Total 



75 



"From a well sunk within a few miles of the above, T was able to see the 
junction between the coralline crags [Miocene] and the sands. The material 
composing the beds is a somewhat coarse siliceous sand, with much iron and some- 
times rounded grains of pink felspar and mica." [Report on Geol. and Min. of the 
South-Eastern district of S. Austr., Govt. Printer, Ad., 1866, p. 13.] 

As bearing on the same subject, Tate says: "The geological structure of the 
country which intervenes between the river at the [State] boundary and the 
Tatiara is, so far as I know, quite blank; but it is not unreasonable to suppose that 
the Newer Tertiary (fresh-water series) at these places is coterminous. 1 The 
Tatiara is an oasis on the edge of the malice scrubs, in the one direction, and of 
the heath-lands of the South-East in the other; it owes its reputation to deep, 
loamy soils, the upper members of an extensive lacustrine deposit, as is partly 
revealed by a well-sinking at Bordertown, of which the following is a summary 
of the facts: — Pipe clay, 30 feet; diatomaceous earth, 21 feet; bituminous shale 
and clay, 40 feet. Total, 91 feet/' [Loc. cii., p. 43.] _____ 

1 Tate's forecast, in this respect, has been amply confirmed by subsequent borings 
throughout this region. 



183 




Group VII. (Fig. 4.) 



Group VIII. (Fig. 5.) 



184 

Group VIII. (Fig. 5.) 
The following records of bores supply information of the beds penetrated in 
a north and south direction, from the Great Pyap Bend in the north to near the 
Coorong in the south. The first three bores are situated in the Hundred of 
Gordon : — 



1. Loxton Bore (126 feet above sea level). Situated in Section 17, Hundred 
of Gordon. Particulars kindly supplied by Messrs. Clutterbuck Bros., who carried 
out the work in 1910. 



Sand and lime 'rubble 
Red clay 

Sand and red clay 
Sand — dry .... 
Coarse gravel 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 5 



10 
46 
11 



Black sand 

Blue clay .... 

Coral with streaks of blue 

clay .... 

White clay 

Blue clay with hard 

boulders 



68 
70 

6 
24 

66 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

White sandy clay with 

boulders 91 
Coral limestone with 

boulders .... .... 166 

Hard blue boulders .... 13 

Layers of hard rock .... 51 

Blue sandy clay 43 

Blue sticky clay .... .... 67 

Brown sticky clay 13 

Grey sand 19 

Brown clay 8 

Blue clay .... 16 



Total .... 801 



No fossil shells are mentioned in this log,, and the presence of boulders from 
248 feet to 584 feet, associated with "coral limestone," seems inconsistent with a 
fossiliferous marine bed, but the first 80 feet, ending in a bed of "coarse gravel," 
may be considered to be of terrestrial and fluviatile origin. 

2. Angus Bore [(?) 85 feet above sea level]. 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

Sandy loam and limestone 5 

Red clay 8 

Sand .... .... .... 67 

Fine micaceous sand .... 120 



Sand and fossil shells 



24 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

Argillaceous coralline lime- 
stone 24 

Clay with layers of hard 

, rock 66 

Fine calcareous clay .... 109 



. ( , „ f Total .... 423 

Terrestrial, 13 feet; Fresh-water, 187 feet; Marine Tertiary, 223 feet. 



3. Company's Bore [ (?) 79 feet above sea level 1. 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Sand and gravel .... 


.... 7 


Red sandy clay .... 


.... 9 


Clay, various colours 


.... 3$ 


Indurated sand .... 


.... 14 


Grey sand .... 


.... 9 



Dark sand with boulders 23 



Thickness, 
in feet. 
Coarse sand and clay .... 31 



Marine Tertiary .... .... 612 

Lignitic Series 958 

Blue shale (?) Pre-Ter- 

tiary 86 



Total 



1,784 



Fresh-water, 128 feet (may include 28' feet more); Marine Tertiary, 612 feet; 
Lignitic (Fresh-water) Series, 958 feet; (?) Pre-Tertiary, 86 feet. 



185 



4. Pata Bore, situated about 10 miles due south of Loxton. Height above 



sea level, 147 feet. 





Thickness 




in feet. 


Surface soil 


... 7 


Sandy loam 


.... 2 


Red clay .... 


.... 14 


Sandy clay 


.... 105 


Red and yellow clay 


.... 37 



Calcareous clay .... 29 

Pipe clay .... .... .... 5 

Sand, clay, and lignite .... 49 

Sand, quartz, and pyrites 8 



Quartz 

Sand 

Light blue clay 

Sandy clay 

Quartz 

Light clay .... 

Quartz 

Sand 



Total 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

5 
40 
22 
22 

1 
20 

4 

4 

374 



Terrestrial, 9 feet; Fresh-water, 156 feet; Tertiary, (?) 209 feet. 

It is difficult to understand how layers of quartz, several feet in thickness, 
could be interbedded with sands and clays. What is intended by "quartz" in the 
log is, probably, quartz gravel. 

5. Alawoona Bore (see p. 174). 

6. Anderson Bore (see p. 175). 

7. Hundred of Bews Bore (see p. 177). 

8. Cotton Bore (see p. 178). 

9. Tintinara Bore (62 feet above sea level), situated about midway between 
Tailem Bend and Wolseley. Tate had an opportunity of examining the samples 
from this bore, and has summarised (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. xxii., 1898, 
p. 67) their respective geological horizons as follows: — 



Recent (Terrestrial). 
Travertine, compact and rubbly .... 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

.... 24 



Newer Pleistocene (Marine). 
Sand (a few marine shells) .... .... .... .... .... 2 

Yellow and grey sands (shells very abundant) 128 

White, friable calcareous silt (apparently comminuted poly- 

zoal debris, shells rare) .... .... .... .... .... 6 

Black clay (with scattered shells) 84 

Eocene [Miocene] (Marine). 
Blackish-brown sand (with numerous fossils) .... .... .... 9 



Total depth 



253 



Tate adds: "Total thickness of the Newer Pleistocene beds is 220 feet, 
extending in depth from 38 feet above sea level to 182 feet below it. . . . All 
the determined species, as a result of comparison with authenticated specimens, 
are, with three exceptions, living in our seas." Mr. E. T. Clark has published a 
geological section of these beds ["Notes on the Geology of the Ninety-mile 
Desert." Trans. Roy. S. Austr., vol. xx., 1896, p. 110, pi. i.]. Mr. Chapman says: 
"From the great thickness of the Werrikooian shown in this bore the locality 
seems to be situated in an area which was sinking from at least Kalimnan times, 
forming a wide trough into which marine and estuarine shells were drifted." 
[Loc. cit,, p. 400.] 



186 



10. Alfred Flat, Salt Creek, 
about (?) six miles from the Coorong, 
sea level. 



Petroleum Company's Bore. Situated 
near its southern end, and not much above 



Sand and quicksand 

Quicksand with small 
shells 

Gravel with green sandy 
clay 

Quicksand 

Quicksand with sea shells 

Broken sandstone — im- 
press of shells 

Ironstone pebbles and sea 
shells 

Quicksand with flakes of 
mica 

Limestone with imprint of 
shells 

Grey sandy clay .... 

Sandstone pebbles with 
sea shells 

Quicksand, mica, broken 
sea shells 

Quicksand .... 

Bed of variegated shells .... 

Sea shells, darker coloured 
and broken 

Very coarse dark quick- 
sand 

Large sandstone and iron- 
stone pebbles 

Dark sandy clay, full of 
flints, etc. 

Rotten sandstone with 
flints and shells 



Thickness, 
in feet. 

. 39 



Grey sandy clay 

Brown shale with sand- 
stone pebbles .... 

Do., with thin layers of 
quartz .... 

Green sandy clay — layers 
of black shale 

Black quicksand, oyster 



Thickness, 

in feet. 
... 40 



33 
43 



3 


shells 


15 


4 


Light grey quicksand 


5 




Blue shale .... 


5 


3 


Light grey quicksand .... 


10 




Light blue soapy slate .... 


137 


6 


Dark blue shale .... 


57 


3 


Light blue soapy slate .... 


12 




Grey sandy clay .... 


5 


5 


Soft sandstone 

Dark blue shale, flint, etc., 


3 


22 


pebbles 


10 


4 


Sandy clay with blue and 




40 


black shale 


24 




Very fine black slate 


5 


7 


Grey sandy clay 

Pipe clay — hard and com- 


5 


5 


pact 


20 




Black quicksand .... 


45 


4 


Brown shale with quartz 






pebbles 


65 


19 


Light grey pipe clay 


130 




Brown slate 


37 


30 


Red crystalline limestone 

„ 


4 



[See forward, p. 189.] 



Tota 



922 



7. REMARKS ON THE BORES. 

Group I. This group of seven bores includes a series that follows in an east 
and west direction, about 20 miles to the southward of Loxton, situated on the 
northern slope of the plateau. The ground slopes to the westward and eastward 
as well as to the northward, the maximum heights being at Wanbi and Cobera, 
near the centre, reaching 252 feet above sea level. There is a general correspon- 
dence in the upper limits of the Marine Tertiary and the surface contours, the 
former rising and falling with the height of the ground above sea level. Fluviatilc 
beds overlie the Tertiary in all the bores. Operations were discontinued, in each 
case, before the latter was proved to its complete depth. 

Group 11. The Karoonda-Peebinga railway supplies a scries of bores lying 
between the Meribah line on the north and the Pinnaroo line on the south. 
Karoonda, an important junction on the line, is 223 feet above sea level, situated 
on the western slope of the plateau, with 89 feet of fluviatile deposits. McNamara 
Bore lies a few miles to the eastward of the former and is of about the same 
elevation with 88 feet of the fresh-water beds. Anderson Bore, about 30 miles 
further to the eastward, reaches the 300 feet level with 174 feet of the fluviatile 
series ; and the Karte Bore, 13 miles to the eastward of Anderson and within about 
14 miles of the Border, has a height of 279 feet and 170 feet of the fresh-water 
series. All the bores in this chain proved the existence of the Marine Tertiary, 
as underlying the fresh-water beds, but did not reach the base of the former. 



187 

Group III. This group of five bores differs from the rest in being parallel 
with the River Murray, situated lineally, to the southward of Chucka Bend. The 
Semmler Bore, the most northerly of the group, is remarkable in that its entire 
depth, of 374 feet, appears to consist of fresh-water deposits. The only doubtful 
horizon occurs at a depth of 238 feet, where a bed of sand and limestone, 18 feet 
in thickness, occurs ; but below this horizon, as well as above it, micaceous sands 
and micaceous sandstones are recorded, which are typically fresh-water in their 
origin. The height of the bore in relation to the river and sea is not known. Its 
proximity to the river bed may have some significance. Although no lignite is 
mentioned as occurring, it is possible that the Pleistocene fresh-water series may- 
rest directly on the sub-Miocene fresh-water series without reaching bedrock. The 
Weiner Bore, although situated to the westward of the preceding, is more distant 
from the river. It has an estimated thickness of 146 feet of Pleistocene alluvial, 
with 10 feet of boulders at the base. The Marine Tertiary, which may be absent 
from the Semmler Bore, is present in this bore. The Gribble Bore is a little more 
distant from the river than the two preceding bores, with the fluviatile portion 
reduced to 60 feet, resting on the Marine Tertiary. Poyntz Bore, situated about 
the centre of the area embraced in the Mannum curve; this, and Chapman Bore, 
to the eastward of Murray Bridge, have no Pleistocene deposits, the Marine Ter- 
tiary being at, or near, the surface. 

Group IV. The four bores included in this group, like those in the Peebinga 
chain, to the northward, and the Bordertown chain, to the southward, are 
situated on the higher portions of the plateau. The Cow Plains Bore, close to the 
Border, is supposed to show 145 feet of river deposits resting on the fossiliferous 
Tertiary. In the Clay Pan Bore, 15 miles to the westward of the last-named, the 
fluviatile sediments may amount to anything between 160 feet and 224 feet, rest- 
ing on fossiliferous limestone. The Bews Bore, 12 miles further to the west- 
ward, has 211 feet of the fresh-water beds, also resting on the Tertiary fossili- 
ferous rocks; as does the Dingo Bore, 9 miles still further to the westward, with 
162 feet of fluviatile beds. 

Group V. Tailem Bend to Pinnaroo. This line of bores rises in the first 
50 miles to the highest levels of the country, in the form of a flat ridge running 
east and west, rising to the 300-feet level at the Cotton Bore, and reaching a 
maximum height of 344 feet at Pinnaroo on the borders of Victoria. Going 
eastward from Tailem Bend, either Pre-Cambrian (Tailem Bend) or Marine Ter- 
tiary beds form the surface features. No Pleistocene fresh-water beds are met 
with till the Geranium Bore is reached, at a distance of 44 miles, in which they 
have a thickness of 73 feet. With the increasing height of the ground, going 
eastward, these beds thicken, till, at Pinnaroo, they are estimated to have a thick- 
ness of 222 feet. The deepest bore in this group is at Cotton, where terrestrial 
and fresh-water deposits were penetrated for the first 190 feet, Marine Tertiary 
showed a thickness of 642 feet, and Pre-Cambrian 33 feet. 

Group VI. The four bores next following are situated within a few miles 
of the Border, having a north and south direction between the Pinnaroo and 
Serviceton railway lines. Their respective heights above sea level are not known, 
but they are probably near the 300-feet level. The McMahon Bore is supposed 
to show 197 feet of fresh-water deposits, and the Rosy Pine Bore, distant about 
three miles from the preceding, 195 feet, but the latter is somewhat indefinite 
from there being 78 feet of marly, sandy, and variously-coloured limestones in the 
upper part of the bore. This is rather thick for a surface travertine and it has 
been tentatively divided, the first 20 feet of marly and sandy limestone having 
been assigned to the travertine section, and the 58 feet of red and yellow limestone 
placed with the fluviatile beds that follow, making the estimated thickness of the 



188 

latter 195 feet. The fossiiiferous beds follow at a depth of 215 feet. In the 
Qitondong Bore no fossils are reported, but the bore finished in a limestone 
72 feet in thickness, which probably represents the Marine Tertiary. The thick- 
ness of the fresh-water beds will be either 148 feet, or 218 feet, dependent on 
whether the freestone on the top of the limestone be placed with the fresh-water 
series or the Tertiary. The Bunn Springs Bore is about 30 miles to the north- 
ward of Bordertown. No surface travertine is recorded. The fresh-water beds 
consist of the usual variegated sands and sandstones with a bed of gravel, in a 
thickness of 118 feet, but if the yellow sandstone, that occurs above the calcareous 
sandstone (classed as Tertiary), should be placed with the former it would give 
them a greater thickness. 

Group VII. Tailem Bend to Bordertown. This string of bores follow a 
south-easterly direction, following, in the main, the Serviceton railway line, and 
are situated on the southern slope of the country, towards the sea. They are all 
outside the range of the Pleistocene fresh-water beds. With the exception of 
Tailem Bend, where the Pre-Cambrian rocks reach the surface, and the Tintinara 
and Alfred Flat bores, which were sunk in Pleistocene sea deposits (see forward, 
p. 189), the rest of the bores, including the Gosden Bore (in a north-easterly 
direction), have the Marine Tertiary at the surface. The Bordertown and 
Bangham Station sections (see p. 182) are of interest as being situated nearest to 
the raised Pleistocene sea bed of the South-East. 

Group VIII. This scries of bores has been selected as following a 
meridional direction, from the Great Pyap Bend, on the Murray,, in the north, to 
the Coorong, in the south. This arrangement, by intersecting the east and west 
ridge, shows the tectonic uplift which it is believed diverted the River Murray 
from its original course. The first three bores in this group (Loxton, Angus, and 
Company's) are closely associated on the eastern side of the Great Pyap Bend, 
their height above sea level being estimated from their proximity to railway 
stations. They all show considerable thicknesses of the fluviatilc series in their 
upper portions. The Company's Bore, which is supposed to carry 128 feet of 
the Pleistocene fresh-water series, is remarkable for the presence of no less than 
1,570 feet of Tertiary beds, 612 feet of Marine Tertiary, and 958 feet of the sub- 
Miocene fresh-water series, which is the thickest development of these beds known 
in South Australia. 

It has already been stated that the river deposits which form the cliff at 
Loxton were traced, by means of a washout, for several hundred yards inland 
from the river. These can be linked on to the Pata Bore, near the railway station 
of that name, nine miles south from Loxton. The 158 feet that underlie the 
surface soil may, possibly, be referred to the Pleistocene fluviatile, and the 
remainder of the bore to the lower fresh-water lignitic series. The Pata railway 
station is 147 feet above sea level, or 21 feet higher than the Loxton railway 
station. 

Alawoona, on the Meribah line, has an elevation of 231 feet, with a doubtful 
thickness of fresh-water beds that may be either 71 feet or 131 feet. The Anderson 
Bore, on the Peebinga line, reaches the 300 feet altitude with a fresh-water series 
of 174 feet. The Hundred of Bews Bore, at a height of 350 feet, tops the ridge 
with 211 feet of fresh-water beds. The Hundred of Cotton, on the Pinnaroo line, 
falls back to 300 feet, with 182 feet of fresh-water deposits. The Tintinara Bore 
is of special interest as supplying a section of marine beds of Pleistocene age. It 
is situated 30 miles inland from the present coast, while the nearest bores are, 
Coonalpyn, 16 miles to the north-west, and Emu Flat (Keith), 22 miles to the 
south-east, in both of which the older Tertiary marine beds are at the surface. 



189 



Chapman suggests the possibility of a rift valley, or an earth fold, by which the 
sea was admitted inland. 

The Alfred Flat Bore, put down many years ago by an oil prospecting com- 
pany, is probably stratigraphically connected with the Tintinara Bore, as it lies 
between the latter and the coast, within a few miles of the sea. I do not know that 
an experienced conchologist examined the organic remains of the bore, but it was 
reported to be in sea sand and shells, and the Jog (p. 186) seems to justify that con- 
clusion. Whilst the Tintinara Bore records 220 feet of the Pleistocene Marine, 
the Alfred Flat Bore records 348 feet with an underlying older series of 574 feet 
of what is probably the Adelaide Series, bottoming on a "red crystalline limestone" 
that may represent the Brighton Limestone, or a member of the Purple Slates 
Series. 

8. TECTONIC MOVEMENTS. 

During some part of the Pleistocene Age an important coastal movement of 
elevation took place which has become distinguished as the Kosciusko Period. 
During this period it is believed that the great knot of highlands on the borders 
of New South Wales and Victoria, of which Mount Kosciusko is the most pro- 
minent height, reached their greatest elevation. This movement of uplift extended, 
more or less, along the southern portions of the continent, and it is to this regional 
uplift that we owe the southern highlands of South Australia. These positive 
movements in the earth's crust in the southern portions of the State were accom- 
panied by correlative negative movements in the downward warp of the central 
regions. The result was the formation of a new watershed parallel to the coast 
which completely upset the preceding hydrographic system of the country [See 
Howchm, Pres. Add. Sec. C. Aus. Assoc. Ad. Sc, vol. xiv., 1913.] 

A similar movement of elevation took place on the eastern side of the Mount 
Lofty Ranges, as. well as on the western, although of less magnitude. The section 
given above (fig. 5), based on borings, in a north and south direction across the 
Murray Plains, shows distinctly that the slopes of the plateau are not the result 
of erosion but of an earth-fold in which the longer axis has an east and west 
direction and the anticlinal slopes north and south. The following table illustrates 
this point : — 





Height of Bore 


Height of Tertiary 


Thickness of 


Thickness of 


Name of Bore. 


above Sea. 


above Sea. 


Terrestrial Beds. 


Fresh-water Beds. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


Feet, 


Feet. 


Loxton (Railway) 


126 


46 


5 


75 


Pata 


147 


(?) 


(?) 

15 


(?) 

71 


Alawoona 


231 


145 


Anderson 


300 


125 


1 


174 
211 


Hundred of Bews 


350 


132 


7 


Cotton 


300 


110 


8 


182 


Tintinara 


62 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 


Alfred Flat 


(?)20 


Nil 


Nil 


Nil 



The above table shows, on the line of section, that the upper portions of the 
plateau reach a height, between Anderson and Cotton (20 miles) of 300 feet and 
over. What looks like a rather sudden drop between Cotton and Tintinara can be 
explained by the long distance (40 miles) which separates these places, and in 
which distance no bores are available for comparison. The fact that the upper 
limits_ of the fossihf erous Tertiary rise with the ground and that the thickest 
deposits of the fresh-water beds are on the crest, of the fold, in which position it is 
impossible for them to have been laid down, are sufficient to prove the tectonic 
nature of the elevation. 



190 

9. THE PIIYSIOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS. 
The physiographical problems of the Lower Murray can be stated in three 

questions :— . 

1. How can the erratic course of the River Murray be explained r 

2. What has led to the striking contrasts in the valley features below and 
above Overland Corner? 

3. How can the existence of extensive fluviatile deposits to the southward 
of the Great Pyap Bend be explained? 

With respect to the river course— it abruptly changes its direction in several 
instances by sharp angularities, as seen in its turn to the south at the Great Pyap 
Bend, with a sudden reversal to the north; its sharp turn to the west at Overland 
Corner, and, again, a right-angled turn to the south at the North-West Bend. This 
zig-zag course suggests something different in its origin from the normal develop- 
ment of a river as a consequent stream. The Great Pyap Bend, with its acute 
reversal, must have some significance, and can be fully explained by the uplift 
which placed an effective barrier across its previous course and directed the river 
into a new channel, the angularities in its course being caused by the exigency 
of having to follow the lowest grades available. 

The tilting of the ground to the northward led to extensive flooding with 
back waters, until the river found its outlet at Overland Corner, from which it cut 
for itself a new channel in the fossiliferous Tertiary beds. 

Another very remarkable feature of the Murray is its lopsidedness. Its 
watershed lies almost entirely to the eastward, while there is a vast country to 
the north and north-westward from which it receives practically no affluents. 
Northward of the Great Pyap Bend is an extensive area of flat, sandy country 
which has every appearance of an ancient river flat. The evidence obtained ^ from 
borings appears to confirm this view. I am indebted to Mr. R. W. Segnit for 
particulars of a bore recently put down on the Morgan Vale Station (owner, Mr. 
G. Murray Howard), situated 66 miles due north from Loxton. The upper part 
of the bore revealed the presence of layers of fine sharp sand of various colours 
and sometimes indurated, including a 10-feet layer of clay, in all respects similar 
to the fresh-water series that overlies the fossiliferous Tertiary of the Murray 
Plains. These fluviatile beds in the Morgan Vale Bore have a thickness of 
236 feet and rest on fossiliferous Tertiary beds, as in the borings to the south- 
ward. The officers of the South Australian Mines Department have also prepared 
sections through this northern area which shows that the bore section at the 
Morgan Vale Station is typical of the country generally. The country, at present, 
is entirely destitute of rivers and creeks. 

The absence of rivers from the north and north-west quadrant of what, 
under normal conditions, ought to have been within the hydrographic system oi 
the Murray, is no doubt due to the integrating control of the great central basin. 
If there had been no sagging of the central portions of the continent, such rivers 
as the Cooper and the Strzelecki would have found their outlets at the southern 
coast. As it is, the Strzelecki (which probably occupies the ancient bed of the 
Cooper), in flood times flows into a chain of lakes— Lakes Gregory, Blanche, 
Callabonna, and others, and these, in heavy floods, flow over into Lake Frome. 
This chain of lakes is on the southern margin of the great inland basin lying at the 
base of the great east-west geanticlinal fold that has cut off the waters coming 
in from the north. The Yunta-Broken Hill ridge forms a part of this earthfold 
which constitutes the water-parting between the Lake Eyre Basin and the southern 
coast. At Cockburn this ridge is only 694 feet above sea level and, with a slight- 
depression, would bring the rivers of the north through to the Murray. It follows, 
that before the Pleistocene earth movements they made this junction. 



191 



In this connection, reference may be made to a series of bores put down by 
the Engineer-in-Chief's Department to the north-east and cast of Lake Frome, 
all of which showed thick deposits of alluvium consisting- of variegated sands and 
clays, with beds of gravel and fragments of lignite, as follow, the thickness of 
the alluvium being given in each case, namely, Coonanna, 396 feet; Coonee Creek 
370 feet ; Curraworra, 409 feet ; Dewdney, 508 feet ; and Arboola, 422 feet. These 
alluvial deposits rested on blue shale (Cretaceous). 

10, THE PAST HISTORY OF THE LOWER RIVER MURRAY. 

An attempt will now be made to trace the successive stages in the develop- 
ment of the River Murray. The Murray, or its equivalents, is an antecedent river, 
predating the existing physiographical outlines of the country, and is probably the 
most ancient river of the Australian continent. 

L The earliest stage that can be recognised in the history of the river is at 
a time when a transgression of the sea had submerged the Pre-Miocene terrain, 
reaching as far northward as the south-western portions of New South Wales' 
The Murray, in an abbreviated form (if it existed at all), met the sea coast in 
Avhat is now a part of New South Wales, as did also the Darling as an independent 
river, and the Cooper in what is now South Australian territory. This may be 
designated the Mio-Pliocene age of the river development. 

_ 2. The second stage witnessed the gradual rise of the land in an epeirogenic 
uplift and, as the sea retreated southward, the northern rivers followed the 
retreating coastline over the plane of marine sediments left by the sea; the 
Murray, the Darling, and the Cooper, which had previously entered the sea as 
separate rivers, were now engrafted into one extended river system. The grade 
was low and widespread, which led to meandering streams and thick sedimenta- 
tion as seen in the dead river sections both to the northward as well as south- 
ward of the present river course. Toward the coast it may have taken the form of 
a delta. This stage may be referred to the Early-Pleistocene age of the river 
development. 

3. The third stage in the history of the River Murray followed on the further 
development of the tectonic movements which, in their initiative, had raised the 
Miocene marine sediments into dry land. A differential movement followed, by 
which a ridge was formed at right angles to the river course. The effect of this 
block tilting (like that on the rivers on the western side of the Mount Lofty 
Ranges) was to dam back the drainage, first by lowering the. grade and thus 
causing the current to drop its load, but was too weak to enable the river to keep 
an open course to the seaboard. The alluviation thickened up-stream, and thereby 
raised the water level by which it ultimately found a new outlet to the sea. The 
barrier (raised at the same time) on the western side of the Mount Lofty Ranges 
was effective in cutting off the drainage of the central regions to the sea, while, 
in the case of the Murray, the elevation was insignificant and failed to close the 
passage to the south but forced the river into a new channel. At the same time, 
the sagging of the centre, by the development of the Lake Eyre Basin, altered the 
inclination of the country and diverted the drainage by which the northern and 
north-western tributaries of the Murray were captured and drawn into the centre 
of the depression. 

Tate thought that the country above Overland Corner had, at one time, been 
a great lacustrine area, which, at the critical period when the change of the 
river's direction took place, might easily have been the case. The scores of lakes 
that stud this country, including such large sheets of water as Lake Bonney (or 
L. Barmera), a little south-eastward of Overland Corner, and Lake Victoria on 



192 



the New South Wales side of the Border, may possibly be the residuals of such a 
lacustrine period. 

If the Murray, at an earlier stage, reached the sea by a different channel from 
the present, it is an interesting enquiry as to where its former mouth was situated. 
It seems almost certain that its outlet met the sea at a margin further inland than 
the present. During the Pleistocene Period the sea made encroachments on the 
land Raised sea beaches occur at Victor Harbour, Hindmarsh Island, and in 
the banks of Salt Creek which flows into the Coorong; while the bores at Tm- 
tinara and Alfred Flat give vertical sections of the sea bed. The major part of 
the South-East of South Australia consists of a raised sea bed. A well-preserved 
sea beach of loose sand and shells rests on the flanks of the extinct volcano, 
Mount Graham, near Millicent, 40 feet above the normal level; and at Glencoe, 
12 miles from Mount Gambier and 255 feet above the sea level. Recent shells 
are turned up by the plough, the larger examples, such as Hahohs and Ostrea, 
are collected off the land and tipped by the side of the road. Shingle beaches of 
rolled flints are common through the district, and can be traced from the narrow- 
neck drain, crossed by the Mount Gambier to Beachport railway, to as far north 
as Struan. ' Parallel ridges of dune sands occur, across country, from the seaboard 
to Naracoorte. This raised sea bed is probably related to a similar raised marine 
bed that occurs in the bends and terraces of the Glenelg River across the border, 
in Victoria, which is classed as Werrikooian. The presence of a sea beach mi 
the flanks of the extinct volcano, mentioned above, is proof that this latest invasion 
by the sea occurred subsequently to the volcanic activity. 

A feature to be noted is that the ancient fresh-water beds do not reach the 
present sea-board but take a south-easterly direction, marked off by the bores 
at Geranium, Bunn Springs, Bordertown, and Bangham (Tatiara), carrying the 
line to within about 20 miles of Naracoorte, where sand dunes of the^ Pleistocene 
sea coast occur; the fresh-water beds being to the eastward of this line, and the 
Marine Tertiary, or older beds, reach the surface on the western. 

An interesting series of bores occur opposite Pinnaroo, on the Victorian side 
of the Border, which have been critically examined and described by Mr. F. 
Chapman [Rec. Geolog. Survey of Vict., vol. iii., pt. 4, 1916] . Attention was given 
to eleven bores situated lineally within a few miles of each other. They show a 
remarkable correspondence (both as to the fluviatile beds, near the surface, and the 
fossiliferous Tertiary Marine at depth) with those that occur on the South Aus- 
tralian side. The following brief references, gathered from Mr. Chapman's 
Report, are of interest: — 

No. 1 Bore. From surface to 154 feet, sub-aerial and fluviatile sediments 
resting on Kalimnan [Lower Pliocene]. 

No. 2 Bore. From surface to 117 feet, sub-aerial and fluviatile sediments 
resting on Kalimnan. 

Nos. 3 and 4 Bores. No material of the upper portion available tor 

examination. v 

No 5 Bore "Sub-aerial and fluviatile deposits of Recent and Pleistocene 
age obtain from the surface down to 133 feet. From 133 to 155 feet we have 
marine and estuarine conditions prevailing, as shown by the foramimfera, probably 
of Newer Pleistocene, Then follows a Kalimnan deposit." — F. C. 

No. 6 Bore. "The first 104 feet arc composed of sub-aerial accumulations. 
At 104 to 114 feet there is an extremely interesting occurrence of consolidated 
dune-sand material with shallow-water foraminifera. From 114 to 154 feet the 
deposits represent the Kalimnan stage." — F. C. 

No 7 Bore "Down to 142 feet 3 inches the deposits are chiefly sub-aerial 
accumulations, some of the upper 130 feet being derived from granitic rocks, as 



evidenced by the quartz and mica. Below 130 feet evidence of fluviatile action is 
present ; whilst at 142 feet the concretionary structure in the rock would seem to 
indicate ancient surface conditions. From 142 feet 3 inches is clearly of Kalimnan 
age. — F. C. 

No. 8 Bore. "Down to 124 feet the beds may be regarded as probablv 
Pleistocene, but at 124-160 feet the character of the beds changes ; the fine grey 
micaceous sand is equivalent to that in the previous bores with vegetable remains 
and estuarme foramimfera, and may represent the Upper Pliocene. True Kalim- 
nan (Lower Pliocene) strata occur at 160-165 feet." F. C. 

No. 9 Bore. "Between this bore and the previous one some striking differ- 
ences are noticed m the thickness of the superficial deposits. The usual bed of 
grey micaceous, silty sand, for instance, is here represented by no less than 
163 feet as against that of 36 feet in bore No. 8. This points to a sudden deepen- 
ing of the estuarme area at the present spot, caused by subsidence synchronous 
with deposition of silt. That the whole sedimentary series is thicker in the locality 
oi bore No. 9 is indicated by the proportionally greater depth at which the 
Kalimnan beds he under their Pleistocene cover." F. C. 

^°: 1( ? B ° re ,\ " This bore show s a reversion to corresponding depths to those 
at which the Kalimnan is reached in bore No. 8; whilst bore No 9 indicates a 
much greater thickness of Pleistocene deposits. At 160-186 feet the pebbly and 
micaceous shell-sand contains a varied fauna, indicating a shallow estuarine and 
marine deposit m which typical Kalimnan fossils occur." F. C. 

r ^k, 11 ^ il'o r ,T, the S T UrfaCe down to 148 fcet the deposits are sandy 
and pebbly. From 148-175 feet, Upper Pliocene and Pleistocene estuarine deposits 
are represented by green sandy clays with brackish water and shallow marine 
organisms. I he sumtmt of the Kalimnan series is probably touched at 175 feet." 

Ill these records, carefully prepared by Mr. Chapman, there are certain marine 
estuarme deposits recognised that are newer than the Kalimnan, and must 
therefore, be either of Newer Pliocene, or else, Pleistocene age These shallow 
sea-water deposits seem to mark the inland limits of the marine transgression of 
the period and were near the line of junction between the sea and the fresh-water 
dramage from the north. As the sea retreated, the river deposits followed in an 
overlap of the marine sediments, as is shown in the bores, and can be traced back 
to the River Murray at the Great Pyap Bend. It is probable that the lower 
Murray, at a former period, had a deltaic outlet and reached the sea by numerous 
channels spread over a wide area, reaching from the Wimmera (Vict ) in the 
north to the district near Bordcrtown, in the south. "The sudden deepening of 
the estuarine area m No. 9 Bore is strongly suggestive of a main channel in the 
former delta of the Murray. 

11. THE PRESENT OUTLET OF THE RIVER MURRAY. 

wi.-, 4 ; + J h , e f °, Ur M h f agC , *? the " ver ' s devel °Pment was one of rejuvenation. 
Whilst the local tilt closed the old channel of outlet the regional uplift increased 
the grade by _ which the rising water found an outlet at Overland Corner cutting 
for itself an incised channel in the raised Tertiary sea bed, flowing westerly until 
arrested by the eastern slopes of the Mount Lofty Ranges, it turned abruptly to 
the south, following the contour of the country till it reached the sea. Accord- 
ing to late: At Overland Corner the gorge suddenly contracts to a width of 
about one mile; and as far as the North-west Bend the average width is one mile 
and a quarter, whilst south hence to below Blanchetown, it is three-quarters of a 
mile. Here and there it opens out to greater width as at Mannum, but is arain 
contracted at its southern end" [loc. cit. p. 26]. Tate was probably right in stating 



194 



that the gorge was cut by a retreating waterfall. When the recession reached 
Over and Corner the water level was reduced and the nver was able to incise its 
Svn ledtent! Z the higher levels, as seen in the banks at Loxton, to a depth of 
80 feet or more. 

The Lower Murray has been under dynamic limitations arising from the 
low relief of the country through which it flows. It has had httle scope to develop 
erosion features as it quickly reached base-level, and from its weak erosive effi- 
cLtcy has accomplished only a limited lateral development. The relatively dry 
condhions of the region have also, in their weak denuding effects, made slight 
2S on the banks, so that the cliffs in many cases are nearly, or quite, 
v"rtca and exhibit canyon features, exhibiting, although an old river, some 
Semblances to the juvenile stage. The gorge section of the Murray is ancien , 
but relatively modern when compared with the river system as a whole. It might 
probably, be synchronized with the gorges cut on the western side of the Mmint 
Lofty Ranges? as the Torrens and the Onkaparmga; the latter, in many of its 
features, is analogous with the River Murray. 

5 This latest stage in the River Murray development covers the late 
Pleistocene and Recent periods. The river has completed its recession by a water- 
fall ThS drained the upper plateau, incised its own deposits widening its bed 
between" etreating escarpments, and has cut its way down to base-level. Irom 
he borders of New South Wales to the sea there is a Ml of i only 60 fee , ai d 
from Wentworth to the mouth of the river, a distance of 61/ miles, the fall is 
never greater than three inches in the mile. 

Within the periods under review several small alternations of level have 
occurred along the coastline. In the neighbourhood of Adelaide and elsewhere, 
there are remains of two incursions of the sea that are separated by fresh-water 
beds. as well as a land surface underlying the older of these two marine beds. 

The local rivers, in their erosive and alluviating processes, supply an excellent 
index to these earth movements. At Murray Bridge, the river at low-water eve 
is about two feet above low-water mark at Victor Harbour. But below tins level 
there are 55 feet of water, and below the water 27 feet of silt, resting on granite, 
making the true bed of the river 80 feet below base-level; but as no river can 
erode its bed at base-level, the river bed at Murray Bridge must at one time have 
been at least, 82 feet above its present level. This implies that the sea at that time 
was more distant than it is at present, and the river ran on a higher grade when 
the deeper erosion was effected. A depression of the land followed, the rivers 
lost gra P de and silted, laying down at Murray Bridge 27 feet of silt below the 
present water channel; at Swan Reach there are 50 feet of water and 35 feet ot 
sediment with a like amount of sediment at Blanchetown. A slight elevation 
once more took place, the sea retreated, the river, where confined to a compara- 
tively narrow channel, made a slight erosion of its silt, and the fresh-water lakes 
filled the depressions vacated by the sea. 

The Glenelg River, on the western borders of Victoria, supplies similar 
evidences as the Murray' with respect to changes of level. Mr. D. Mahony, M.Sc, 
in a personal note to the writer, states : "The Glenelg River flows through a gorge 
from Limestone Creek to its mouth, and for many miles the water is 30 feet deep. 

12. THE COORONG. 

The Coorong was formed during this period of oscillation between land and 

sea When the land rose, the sea retreated, leaving, behind it, successive ranges 

of sand dunes, and as the elevation increased the erosive force of the Murray 

also increased The latter formed sand-bars off its mouth which contributed to 



195 



the building of the coastal sandhills. When a movement of subsidence set in the 
encroaching sea swept away the sandhills, the water was shallowed, and a low 
foreshore of great extent followed. As always happens under such circumstances 
the off-sea breezes operated on the extensive sea beaches, piling up the sand as 
coastal dunes. This is a coastal feature from Cape Banks, in the south, to Port 
rUhot, in the shelter of Encounter Bay, in the north. The prevailing winds from 
the south-west to south-east, as well as the set of the tides, tend to produce a sand- 
drift to the northward. With the elevation, the strong southerly winds swept the 
exposed sands into a coastal ridge, but the Murray kept an open way and checked 
ii fu-n r s , and -. t0 the "orthward, giving an unusual height and width to 

the sandhills of the Coorong. The coastal sandhills act as a barrier to the 
drainage from the land, not only in the case of superficial drainage, but the sea 
water below the surface, bears up the fresh water and prevents its escape to the 
ff a ' c 1? ? US * 7 e o ave numero "s swamps and lakes bordering the coast in 
Mtirra M *" dl aS the Cooron £ nearer the outlet of the 

It is not improbable that the River Murray, at one time, had its mouth 
situated more to the southward in the direction of the Coorong. The action of 
the prevailing winds and tides along the coast, referred to above, tends to divert 
the outlets of the rivers in a migratory movement northwards, as seen in Pedler's 
Creek and the Port Adelaide River, the mouth of the latter having been driven 
northwards by the migration of the sandhills that have formed the Lefevre's 
Peninsula and Port Adelaide River. In a similar manner the Coorong may to 
some extent represent a former outlet of the Murray in a more southerly position 
from which it has been gradually driven northwards by the encroaching sandridsre 

rh f Zi tT C T SC the /*' sti "g 0UtIet of th e Murray is a precarious and shifting 
channel. The saltness of the Coorong is not from the influx of sea-water— it is 
a stagnant arm of the fresh-water lakes, and its saltness is derived from evapora- 
tion and the concentration of soluble salts from the river water 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATES VI. TO VIII. 

Plate VI. 
Fig. 1. The River Murray at Loxton in partial flood. 
Fig. 2. The River Murray at the most southerly portion of the Great Pyap Bend. 

Plate VII. 

~ g " \ ^!' e R ' Ver Mllrra y below Loxton, showing the fossiliferous rock on the left bank 
fig. A Sihcificd River Murray deposits one mile above Loxton. 

Plate VIII. 
Pumping Station, Loxton, on shelf excavated in river bank. 
The cutting shows section of river deposits. The light-coloured bed, near the top, is a 

fossiliferous fresh-water limestone. 



196 



THE VOLCANIC SOIL OF MOUNT GAMBIER, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By J. A. Prescott and C. S. Piper, 
Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide. 

[Read July 11, 1929.] 

Plate IX. 

One of the most interesting soil formations in South Australia is that derived 
from the scoria of the extinct Pleistocene volcano of Mount Gambler/ 1 ) The 
soil is remarkable for its high fertility in terms of plant nutrients and its favour- 
able fine sandy, loamy texture, tending to a degree of looseness, locally expressed 
by the term "snuffiness." It is further remarkable for its association with two 
diseases: one of plants, the grey speck manganese deficiency of oats (Samuel and 
Piper 1928) (2) and the second a disease of animals, haematuna m cattle, the 
cause' of which is still obscure. The distribution of the soil type is limited to 
within a three- or four-mile radius of the town of Mount Gambler. In the north- 
easterly direction, where the ash beds overlie and are frequently interspersed 
with sand ridge country, the limits are less clearly denned than round the southern 
limits of the volcanic area. The precise boundaries of the type have not yet been 
rigidly denned, and detailed soil survey will be required before this will be possible. 
From the point of view of classification within the major soil groups the type 
is immature and endodynanomorphic, mainly owing to the high and variable calcium 
carbonate content of the original parent material, so that the soil is much less 
acid than is the case with most South Australian soils of similar texture under 
similar rainfall conditions. The original native vegetation is recorded to have 
been mainly stringybark, Eucalyptus obliqua; honeysuckle, Banksxa marginata; 
bracken fern, Pteridimn aquilinum; and blackwood, Acacia melanoxylon. The 
most important crops cultivated on this soil, in order of importance, are oats, 
potatoes, barlev, wheat and forage crops. Smaller areas arc in orchard (apples 
principally); onions and in market garden crops. Dairy farming is of some 
importance. (3) 

Mechanical Analysis. 
Mechanical analyses are available for forty-one soils and subsoils, and as 
these were originally determined by the old British standard method, the results 
have been interpolated to the new International units and plotted in the triangular 
dia^ram illustrated in fig. 1, The soils are seen to form a definite group closely akin 
to that formed by the Australian tobacco soils described by E. P. Eainbndgc 
(1928) (4) . The tetrahedral representation of the mechanical analysis of the type 

(1) Complete reference to the literature of the geology and physiography of the dis- 
trict are to be found in the paper by C. Fcnner. "The Craters and .Lakes of Mount Gambicr, 
South Australia," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., vol. xlv., p. 169, 1921. 

(.2) G. Samuel and C. S Piper: J. Agric. S. Aust, vol. xxxi., pp. 696 and 789, 1928. 

(3) For the season 1927-28 the actual acreage in crop for the combined Hundreds of 
Blanche and Gambier was:— Oats, 9,919; potatoes, 1,306; barley, 1,304; wheat, 792; forage, 
664- orchards, 116; onions, 48; market gardens, 4. Mr. E. S. Alcock^ the district agricul- 
tural instructor, estimates the acreage of crops grown on the volcanic soil to have been, 
in 1928, approximately:— Oats, 4,000; potatoes, 3,000 (unusually high); barley, 2 000; 
chou moullier, 100; wheat, 100 (rather high); lucerne, onions, mangolds, rape, each 50. 
Outside the volcanic area, oats is the only crop of any importance. 

(4) E. P. Bainbridge, C.S.I.R. Journ., vol. i. ; p. 341, 1928. 



197 



is illustrated in pi. ix.^. The distribution of the individual values about a plane 
within this tetrahedron is to be noted, and we are indebted to Mr. G. R. Piper 



Fig. 1. 
Diagrammatic represen- 
tation of the mechanical 
analyses of mineral frac- 
tions of Mount Gambier 
soil types. The coarse 
and fine sands are united 
to form one group. 



5tlt 5and 

for a statistical examination of the data and for the calculation of the mean plane 
which is represented by the equation : — 
Clay Coarse Sand Fine Sand 

— — ■ -| __ | _ = ^ w j t k a stanc j ar( j deviation of 

45 " 3 92-4 103-7 + 1-8 units, 

when Clay + Coarse Sand + Fine Sand + Silt ^ 100. 




92 



The plane is determined by the intercepts :— Clay, 45; Silt, 55; Coarse Sand, 
silt, 5; Clay, 3; Fine Sand, 97. 

The soil is noted for a high proportion of sand particles with approximately 
equal proportions of silt and clay. Mechanical analyses of some typical soils 
determined according to the official British method (1928) are given in Table 1 
I he average summation curve for the soil type, based on data obtained on the basis 
of both the old and new standards, is illustrated in fig. 2. The extremes are also 




4 - 54 4-54 0.54 

loo Settling i/ohcity 

Mean summation percentage curve of mechanical analysis of 
Mount Gambier soils. The broken lines represent the extremes 

___ for the type. 

< 5 > See J. A. Prescott, C.S.I.R. Journ., vol.~H. f p.Tl2~T9297 



2-54 



198 



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199 



Chemical Characteristics. 
Reaction. 
As already noted, the soils of Mount Gambler form a series which is defi- 
nitely more alkaline than might be expected from the rainfall conditions. This 
factor is an important one in controlling the incidence of the manganese deficiency 
disease of oats, but is probably not the only factor. Generally speaking, however, 
the more acid soils are free from the disease. The frequency distribution of 
reaction for the type is given in Table 2. 

Table 2. 

Frequency Distribution of the Reaction of Mount Gambler Soils and Subsoils. 

Number of Samples at given pH Values. 





pH. 


"—i [<M 


m* 


*t 


in 


*o 


r-* 


00 


c\ o 


1 I ! 


iO 


«S t^. 


00 


O 


1 

O' W1 


<M 


1 


Ti 






>C jVO 




^ 1 *o ho 
I ' 


'■£> 


MJ 


^O (vl 


W ■ IS j SvJ. j ("-. 


f-« 


r-.' r^ 


t-» 


l~- 


cc k; 


OO 


OC , GC 1 


cc 


Surface 


Soils .... 








2 




2 


1 




II 
il 

3P 1 

li 


3 


2 


1 


3 


2 


3 




2 


2 


i 
1 i 

t 




1 








Subsoils 












1 


I 2 




1! 

Ill 
II 
B 




1 


2 




2 


1 


1 
1 




[ 

1 i 
1 
1 













The calcium carbonate content of the soil varies within wide limits from 
26*7% in the ash from just inside the rim of the Blue Lake crater and 9*6% in 
an outcrop of ashes to negligible proportions in some of the surface soils. The 
more acid soils show definite lime requirements by the Hutchinson-McLennan 
method, but it is obviously rarely, if ever, necessary to consider the application of 
lime to these soils. The fact that positive lime requirement results have been 
obtained in the laboratory is of interest, however, from a general point of view, 
and a number of determinations have been made of the buffer capacities of these 
soils with a view to obtaining some information regarding the possibilities of 




6 7 6 flfi 

Fig. 3. 

Buffer curve illustrating the effect 

of the addition or removal of lime 

(expressed as calcium carbonate) on 

the reaction of soil 42. 



altering the soil reaction with a view to controlling the manganese deficiency 
disease. It will suffice to illustrate the buffer capacity of this soil over the normal 
range of reaction by means of the curve shown in fig. 3. This curve represents 



200 



the actual effect produced on the soil reaction by an absorption or removal of lime 
equivalent to the calcium carbonate indicated. 

Nitrogen and Organic Matter. 
The nitrogen content of a complete series of these soils is available, and the 
data are given in the form of a frequency distribution in Table 3. It was also 
found possible to work out the correlation between the nitrogen content and 
organic matter in a number of cases where the loss on ignition for individual soil 
fractions in the mechanical analysis was accurately known. The organic matter 
calculated from the loss on ignition after allowing for carbonates and the loss 
from the mineral fractions is approximately equal to the material capable of 
oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. A very close relationship between soil nitrogen 
and organic matter is obtained in this way, the percentage of nitrogen being 4*90 
(see fig. 4). 




'0 20 % 

Organic Matter 

Fig. 4. 

Relationship between organic matter and 
nitrogen content of Mount Gambier soils. 



Table 3. 
Frequency Distribution of Nitrogen percentage in Mount Gambier Soils 

and Subsoils. 



Nitrogen % 



Soils 
Subsoils 



.05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 
.05 .10 .15 .20 .25 .30 .35 .40 .45 .50 .55 .60 .65 .70 .75 .80 



1 1 

4 2 



Table 4. 
Exchangeable Bases in Mount Gambier Soils. 







Mg 


. equivalents per 100 


gm. 


Relative p 


ercentage 




Soil 








of Soil. 




proportions of Rases. 




PH 














Remarks. 


No. 


Ca 


Mg 
5.6 


K 


Na 


Total 


Ca 


Mg 


K 


Na 


17 


6.9 


21.6 


1.2 


2.8 


31.2 


69 


18 


4 


9 


Type sample 


58 


7.9 


27.4 


3.1 


1.2 


2.9 


34.6 


79 


9 


4 


8 


Diseased oats 


69 


6.4 


17.2 


3.4 


1.6 


2.5 


24.7 


70 


14 


6 


10 


Healthy oats 


08 


7.8 


24.2 


3.0 


1.8 


2.8 


31.8 


76 


9 


6 


9 


Type sample 


72 


7.4 


20.8 


2.5 


1.6 


2.6 


27.5 


76 


9 


6 


9 


Type sample 


n 


7.3 


12.5 


2.6 


1.2 


3.0 


19.3 


6S 


13 


6 


16 


Subsoil of 72 


90A 


7.6 


21.8 


2.6 


1.1 


3.6 


29.1 


75 


9 


4 


12 


Diseased oats 



201 












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202 

Exchangeable Bases. 

The Mount Gambier soil presents no special features in this connection 
except a highly satisfactory proportionate distribution of the four significant 
bases. Soils containing significant quantities (0*1%) of calcium carbonate have 
reaction values between pH 7*5 and 8*0, so that it is likely that these soils may 
be considered to be fully saturated when in equilibrium at these reaction values. 
So far no attempt has been made to determine the degree of saturation of the soil 
with replaceable bases. 

The values for the type sample, No. 68, are recorded diagrammatically in 
fig. 5. 




Fig. S. 
Exchangeable bases in type sample No. 68. 

Hydrochloric Acid Extract. 
A number of typical soils, including two samples of unweathered ash, were 
extracted with hydrochloric acid by the conventional method for plant nutrients. 
Both ash samples Nos. 71 and 75 are notable for their high content in calcium 
carbonate. The most notable feature from' the plant nutrition point of view is 
the content of phosphoric acid which is remarkably high for South Australia, the 
proportion being of the same order of magnitude as for the basaltic soils of 
Eastern Australia. 

The amount of potash and phosphoric acid soluble in one per cent, citric acid 
determined in a single typical surface soil (No. 74) indicated a high availability 
for both nutrients, 0'024% K a O and 0*036% P fi O s . The results of the chemical 
analyses are recorded in Table 5. 



DESCRIPTION OF PLATE [X. 
Tetrahedral representation of mechanical analyses of Mount Gambier soils. 



203 



NOTES ON SOME MISCELLANEOUS COLEOPTERA, WITH 

DESCRIPTIONS ON NEW SPECIES. 

PART VIL 

By Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S. 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum.) 

[Read August 8, 1929.] 

STAPHYLINIDAE. 
Diochus pubiventris, n. sp. 

Black, prothorax, muzzle, antennae (some of the median joints infuscated), 
palpi, tips of elvtra, and of abdominal segments, and the legs more or less reddish, 
or reddish-flavous. Sides with a few bristles, the abdomen with fine ashen 
pubescence. 

Head rather long, with a few distinct punctures. Antennae rather long, 
seventh-tenth joints transverse. Prothorax slightly longer than wide, base evenly 
rounded and slightly wider than apex, sides gently rounded ; with a few marginal 
punctures, and three forming a row on each side of middle. Elytra subquadrate, 
a narrow impression on each side of suture; with sparse and usually indistinct 
punctures. Abdomen long, parallel-sided to near apex; with dense, minute 
punctures.- Length, 3*5-4-0 mm. 

North Australia: Darwin (N. Davies, G. F. Hill, and British Museum); 
New South Wales: Tamworth (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 15889. 

The suture is usually obscurely paler than the adjacent parts, but only the 
extreme tips of the elytra are noticeably pale; on D. divisus fully half or more of 
the elytra is pale. The pronotum is usually of a dingy castaneous-red, but some- 
times the front parts are obscurely infuscated. From most directions the elytra 
appear polished and impunctate, but from others a few feeble rugose punctures 
may be seen. 

Diochus longus, n. sp. 

Black, shining, apical two-fifths of elytra, tips of abdominal segments, muzzle, 
palpi and legs more or less reddish-flavous. Abdomen with fine, ashen pubescence, 
sides with a few bristles. 

Head distinctly longer than wide, a few distinct punctures in middle, becom- 
ing rather numerous on sides. Antennae short, fourth-tenth joints transverse. 
Prothorax distinctly longer than wide, base and apex rounded, sides parallel ; 
with a few distinct submarginal punctures, and three forming a row on each side 
of middle. Elytra slightly longer than wide, surface faintly rugose but with some 
small punctures towards sides ; suture feebly elevated. Abdomen with dense and 
minute punctures. Length, 4 mm. 

Western Australia: Bunbury (A. M. Lea) ; unique. 

The antennae are decidedly shorter than on D. divisus and octavii, most of 
the joints being transverse; they arc infuscated throughout, although the apical 
joint is slightly paler than the preceding ones. 

Neobisnius mediopolitus, n. sp. 
9. Black, basal joints of antennae, palpi and tarsi reddish, rest of legs, 
tip of abdomen, and suture and tips of elytra obscurely diluted with red. Elytra 
and abdomen with fairly dense, ashen pubescence, prothorax and head sparsely 
clothed. 



204 

Head subquadrate between clypeus and neck ; with dense and sharply defined 
punctures, except on a median line that is dilated in front. Antennae rather short, 
fourth and fifth joints slightly, the sixth-tenth strongly transverse. Prothorax 
longer than wide, sides feebly decreasing in width posteriorly ; punctures as on 
head, and also leaving a shining median line. Elytra distinctly longer than wide, 
sides parallel, suture finely carinated ; punctures smaller and more crowded than on 
prothorax. Abdomen with five basal segments almost parallel-sided, with smaller 
and slightly denser punctures than on elytra; anal stvles long. Length, 5 mm. 

Victoria: Melbourne (E. Fischer). Type, I. 15890. 

Near N. procerulus, but larger, elytra with smaller and denser punctures, 
and their tips not conspicuously pale; on procemlns, although only a small portion 
of the tips is pale, that portion is quite distinct; on the present species it is even 
smaller and needs looking for. 

Philonthus inconspicuus, n. sp. 

Piceous-brown, legs, palpi and basal joints of antennae paler. A few setae 
scattered about, the abdomen w T ith short, ashen pubescence. 

Head quadrate between clypeus and neck; a shallow triangular impression 
in front ; with a few punctures. Eyes rather small. Antennae rather short, fourth 
to tenth joints transverse. Apical joint of palpi thin and rather long. Prothorax 
longer than wide, with straight sides, feebly diminishing in width posteriorly ; with 
sparse, distinct, submarginal punctures, and four forming a series on each side of 
middle. Elytra slightly longer than wide, sides almost parallel, a narrowly 
impressed line on each side of suture, and one on each side; with fairly dense, 
sharply defined punctures, almost as large as those on pronotum. Abdomen 
parallel-sided to near apex, punctures smaller and denser than on elytra, and 
smaller on back parts of segments, Length, 3*2-3-5 mm. 

Queensland: Coen River (W. D. Dodd), Mulgrave River (H. Hacker). 
Type, L 12705. 

Decidedly smaller than any Philonthus previously recorded from Australia, 
birt the species certainly appears to belong to the same genus as P. nigritulus, of 
which the specimens have the appearance as of pale ones on a greatly reduced 
scale. The apical joint of the palpi is thinner than usual, but scarcely bristle-like, 
as on Heterothops, The prothorax is slightly paler than the head, and the base 
and apex of the abdomen are paler than the middle, but the colours are dingy, 
although most of the upper surface is polished. 

Cafius gigas, n. sp. 
$ . Black, in parts with a faint metallic gloss; antennae, palpi, legs and tips 
of abdominal segments, more or less reddish-brown. Elytra and abdomen with 
depressed, blackish pubescence or setae, the sides with a few bristles, becoming 
dense on tip of abdomen; some mouth parts with very dense, flavous pubescence. 
Head large, slightly transverse between clypeus and neck; with large and 
small, irregularly distributed punctures, more crowded about hind angles than else- 
where. Antennae moderately long, first joint as long as second and third com- 
bined, and much longer than eyes, ninth and tenth feebly transverse. Apical joint 
of palpi very little longer than subapical. Prothorax about as long as the apical 
width, sides gently decreasing in width to base, which is gently rounded; with 
large and smalb irregularly distributed punctures, but leaving an ill-defined median 
hue. Elytra slightly wider than prothorax, and not much longer, outer apical 
angles obliquely cut off; punctures crowded and rugose, but not very large. 
Abdomen with sides evenly decreasing in width posteriorly; punctures more 
elongated and less crowded than on elytra; tip of under surface deeply notched. 
Tibiae with numerous spines and bristles; front tarsi dilated. Length, 19-20 mm. 



205 

9 . Differs in having the head considerably smaller, elytra narrower, 
abdomen not notched, and front tarsi less dilated. 

Lord Howe Island: Mount Ledgbird. Types, in Australian Museum. 

The hairy mouth parts, mandibles, palpi, sides of prothorax, legs and generic 
details generally are as in Cafins; but the species is considerably longer and wider 
than any other of that genus before me, and the types were not taken from sea- 
beaches, where those of the genus are usually to be found. The mandibles are 
stout, with a strong tooth about the middle, on the left one of the male (those of 
the female are concealed) there are some minute granules on the anterior edge of 
the tooth ; the large punctures on the pronotum are fairly dense on the sides and 
near the median line. The types were known to Olliff, but were passed over by him. 

Heterothops semicuprea, Fvl. 
Mr. Arrow kindly sent a cotype of this species for examination. In general 
appearance it is close to H. kentiae, but differs in being more robust, head dis- 
tinctly longer and more oval, elytra with larger punctures, suture scarcely elevated, 
and the dark blotch slightly more distant from suture. It is closer to H, bimacalata, 
the outlines being practically identical, but the spot on each elytron is somewhat 
differently placed, and more of the abdomen is pale. 

Heterothops myrmeciae, n. sp. 

Black, shining, elytra blackish-brown, the tips obscurely pale, apical segment 
of abdomen, tips of most of the others, mouth parts, palpi, four basal joints of 
antennae, and the legs, brownish-navous. Elytra and abdomen with short, 
depressed, pale pubescence, the sides with a few setae. 

Head subovate, more convex than usual, with very few scattered punctures. 
Eyes small. Antennae rather long, first joint almost as long as second and third 
combined, sixth-seventh feebly, eighth-tenth moderately transverse. Apical joint 
of palpi setif orm, almost as long as the subapical one. Prothorax transverse, base 
strongly rounded and much wider than apex ; with a few marginal punctures, and 
two in middle, about one-fourth from apex. Elytra subquadrate, suture feebly 
elevated posteriorly; with dense and small punctures. Abdomen almost parallel- 
sided to near apex, punctures mostly less distinct than on elytra ; anal styles long. 
Length, 3 '5-4*0 mm. 

Victoria: Northern Gippsland (IT. W. Davey), Fern Tree Gully, in July 
(C. Oke). Type, I. 15894. 

With the general appearance of H. luctuosa, but the eyes are much smaller, 
the abdomen is less iridescent, and more of it is pale ; it is decidedly wider than 
H. picipennis, but the eyes are much the same ; it is less robust than H. obscuri- 
pennis, and has much smaller eyes. On one specimen there is a small puncture 
immediately behind each of the two distinct ones on the pronotum. One of the 
specimens was taken by Mr. Oke from a nest of a black "jumper" ant (Myrmecia 
pilosula). 

Quedius macrops, n. sp. 

S . Black, shining, antennae, palpi, legs and tips of several abdominal seg- 
ments more or less reddish. Elytra with fairly dense, depressed, dark pubescence, 
somewhat longer and sparser on abdomen; sides with blackish bristles, becoming 
dense on abdomen. 

Head moderately large ; with a few conspicuous punctures near eyes and 
neck, a shallow depression near each antenna. Eyes very large, occupying most 
of the sides between clypeus and neck. Antennae rather thin, eighth-tenth joints 
each about as long as wide. Prothorax slightly transverse, base strongly rounded 
and wider than apex; with a few marginal punctures, and two submedian ones. 
Elytra distinctly wider than long, suture moderately elevated; punctures rather 



206 

dense and small. Abdomen regularly diminishing in width posteriorly, punctures 
about bases of segments larger than on elytra, becoming smaller and sparser 
posteriorly ; tip of under surface with a small triangular notch. Front tarsi 
moderately inflated, middle pair combless. Length, 5"0-5"5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the head slightly smaller, antennae slightly shorter, 
front tarsi not inflated, and abdomen not notched at apex. 

Queensland: Herberton (H. J. Carter); New South Wales: Svdney (R. 
Helms). Type, I. 15891. " 

About the size of Q. tepperi and cuprinns, but head of different shape, with 
much larger eyes, antennae paler, etc. ; the eyes are larger than on Q. hackeri, 
the legs are somewhat darker, and the middle tarsi are combless; Q. htridifxennis 
has somewhat smaller eyes and combed middle tarsi in the male. Both surfaces 
of the abdomen are brilliantly iridescent, as are also parts of the legs. The elytra 
arc not as black as the other parts, and their extreme tips are obscurely diluted 
with red on five specimens ; on a sixth the elytra are obscurely reddish, in parts 
deeply infuscated. In some lights the head and prothorax have a silken gloss. 

Quedius calogaster, n. sp. 

$ . Black, shining; antennae, palpi, most of legs, apical segment of abdomen 
and apex of subapical one, more or less red, elytra with a slight greenish gloss, 
the shoulders, sides, and tips obscurely diluted with red. Elytra with moderately 
dense, dark pubescence, becoming sparser and longer on abdomen; sides with 
sparse, long, blackish bristles, becoming rather dense on abdomen. 

Head rather large, with a few strong punctures near eyes and neck. Eyes large. 
Antennae moderately long, sixth-tenth joints feebly transverse. Prothorax 
moderately transverse, base strongly and evenly rounded; with a few large 
marginal punctures, and two close together one-third from apex. Elytra slightly 
transverse, each separately rounded at apex; with dense and small punctures. 
Abdomen regularly diminishing in width posteriorly ; punctures about as large as 
on elytra, at bases of segments, but sparser and smaller posteriorly ; tip of under 
surface slightly notched ; anal styles long. Front tarsi moderately inflated. Length, 
6-7 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the head smaller, antennae somewhat shorter, elytra 
smaller and entirely dark, abdomen not notched, and front tarsi not dilated. 

Queensland: Ravenshoe and Magnetic Island (H. J. Carter). Type, I. 15892. 

In general appearance close to Q. iridiventris and inconspicuus, but head of 
different shape, with larger eyes, and paler antennae. Both surfaces of the 
abdomen arc brilliantly iridescent, the colours varying with the light from almost 
entirely purplish-blue to almost entirely coppery. From some directions the 
elytra appear to be minutely granulate. Under the microscope I could not see a 
comb on the middle tarsi of the male, but a leg was not detached from the type 
for special examination. 

Quedius insignis, n. sp. 

S. Black, shining; elytra pale castaneous, four basal joints of antennae, 
parts of palpi, and the tarsi, more or less obscurely reddish. Abdomen sparsely 
setose and with fairly numerous bristles. 

Head rather small, with minute, scattered punctures. Eyes not very large, 
about as long as the inter-antennary space. Antennae short and stout, first joint 
almost as long as second and third combined, third distinctly longer than second 
and the length of eleventh, fourth moderately, the fifth-tenth strongly transverse. 
Palpi short, subapical joint obtriangular and slightly longer than apical. Mandibles 
short and strong. Prothorax moderately transverse, base and sides evenly rounded; 
a very finely impressed line on all margins, on each side it bifurcates at about the 
apical third, so that a narrow triangle is enclosed at the apex; with a few distinct 



207 

punctures. Elytra subquadrate, sides gently rounded, apex truncated; with a 
narrowly impressed line on each side of suture, and one before each inflexed 
margin; with a few distinct punctures. Abdomen slightly inflated about middle, 
with distinct but irregularly distributed punctures; apex of under surface with a 
deep notch. Legs short, front tarsi moderately dilated. Length, 7 mm. 

Victoria: Beaconsfield (F. E. Wilson). Type (unique), 1, 15893. 

With the general appearance of the European Astrapaeus almi, on a greatly 
reduced scale, but the type is certainly a male, and its palpi have the apical joint 
small and wedge-shaped, instead of large and securiform. For the present it may 
be referred to Quedius, although the punctures and antennae are very unlike those 
of all other described Australian species. The eighth-tenth joints of antennae are 
fully twice as wide as long. There are a few upright setae on the elytra near the 
suture, and a few submarginal ones, the elytra otherwise being glabrous. There 
is a distinct row of punctures on each side of the suture, and another about the 
middle of each elytron, about the tips there are a few punctures, and short 
impressed lines. There are a few distinct submarginal punctures on the pronotum, 
including two median ones almost at the apex, instead of some distance from it,' 
as on other species of Quedius. 

Acylophorus tenuipes, n. sp. 

$ . Blackish-brown, antennae (some of the median joints slightly infus- 
cated), palpi, tarsi, and tips of two apical segments of abdomen paler. Elytra and 
abdomen with dark, depressed pubescence or setae, the sides with a few bristles, 

Head rather convex, between clypeus and neck as long as wide, with numerous 
small punctures and six large ones. Mandibles thin and acute, each with a rounded 
projection towards base. Antennae rather long and thin, first joint curved, as 
long as three following combined, and about twice the length of eyes, second as 
long as third and fourth combined, the others gradually decreasing in length, 
ninth and tenth somewhat transverse. Prothorax slightly transverse, apex scarcely 
as wide as base, which is evenly rounded, sides finely rounded; with numerous 
minute punctures, and a few large ones. Elytra not much longer or wider than 
prothorax, with dense and somewhat rugose punctures, of moderate size or rather 
small. Abdomen almost parallel-sided to near apex, punctures slightly larger and 
more angular than on elytra. Tarsi thin. Length, 7 -5-8*5 mm. 

Queensland: Brisbane, in July (H. Hacker). Type, in Queensland Museum; 
cotype, in South Australian Museum. 

It is with some doubts that this species is referred to Acylophorus, as the head 
is much larger than on the other species known to me (A. glaberrimus, ruficollis 
and asperatus) ; but in the allied genera Quedius (e.g^ Q. analis and fulgidus) and 
Heterothops (e.g., H t tibialis and laticeps) the heads differ greatly in size. I have 
considered the possibility of the species belonging to Qiiediopsis (the three speci- 
mens are strikingly like many species of Quedius, to which, if shorn of their 
antennae, they would almost certainly be referred), but Fauvcl states that the 
antennae of that genus are not so strongly geniculate as in Acylophorus ; he also 
states that in the male the three basal joints of the tarsi are "maxime dilatatis, 
patellars/' so that those of the female are at least likely to be of considerable width 
instead of thin; the maxillary palpi were described as having the three apical 
joints equal, in this species the subapical joint is shorter than the preceding or 
following ones; the antennae were noted as having all the joints longer than wide, 
in this species two are certainly transverse. 

Only the type appears to be mature, two other specimens are pale castancous, 
with most of the abdomen infuscated; all, however, have some of the median joints 
of the antennae infuscated; all have the anal styles withdrawn, but their outlines 
are visible through the derm. Of the large punctures on the head, two are rather 



208 

close together between the eyes, and four are subbasal in oblique pairs, on the 
pronotum two are submedian as on most species of Qitedius, and there are two 
or three near the front angles. 

Atanygnathus bicolor, n. sp. 

Black, shining, basal three-fifths of prothorax, apex of elytra, palpi, and 
legs flavous, or flavous-brown, antennae with basal and apical joints pale, the others 
more or less deeply infuscated. Elytra and abdomen with fine, depressed, pale 
pubescence; the sides, especially of abdomen, with dark bristles. 

Head elongate, polished and impunctate. Antennae long and thm, no joint 
transverse. Prothorax transverse, sides moderately rounded, the base more 
strongly so, front angles rounded off, with a few small punctures scattered about, 
and a distinct one on each side of the middle. Elytra subquadrate, outer apical 
angles notched, with small, evenly crowded punctures. Abdomen evenly diminish- 
ing in width posteriorly, with punctures as on elytra, except that there are some 
larger ones at the tips of four segments ; anal styles long. Length, 3-4 mm. 

North Australia: Daly River (H. Wesselman). Oenpelli (National Museum 
from P. Cahill), Darwin (G. F. Hill), Adelaide River (British Museum), Mel- 
ville Island (W. D. Dodd). Type, I. 12762. 

The bicoloured prothorax and elytra are at once distinctive from A. tcr~ 
minalis. Usually only one basal joint of antennae is pale, but there are four or 
fivtt (sometimes almost white) at the apex, the dark part of the pronotum is usually 
quite black, but occasionally is dark brown; the abdomen is slightly iridescent 
and the tips of the segments obscurely diluted with red. 

CUCUJIDAE. 

Laemophlaeus distorticornis, n. sp. 

$ . Dark brown and opaque, muzzle and elytra, except for markings, paler. 

Head somewhat flattened, with a narrow, shining, median line; very minutely 

punctate. Antennae very long and thin, first joint distorted, the others cylindrical, 

third slightly longer than second or fourth, but shorter than fifth, fifth-tenth equal, 

the eleventh slightly longer. Prothorax with sides gently rounded and distinctly 

wider at apex than at base, a narrow carina near each side, but not quite parallel 




Fig. 1. 

A, B, C, Two basal joints of antennae of Laemophlaeus 

distorticornis Lea; D, E, of L. norfolcensis Lea. 

with it ; punctures as on head. Elytra with a fairly well defined subsutural stria, 
and with three geminate pairs of striae on each elytron, the interstice between 
each pair feebly raised but posteriorly becoming subcarinated. Length, 1 ■ 5-2*0 mm. 

5 . Differs in having the head smaller, antennae shorter, with the first joint 
not distorted, but evenly dilated to apex, and the prothorax less conspicuously 
dilated to apex. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 7591. 



209 



At first glance apparently close to L. blackbiimi, but elytral markings different, 
antennae very much longer and thinner, and first joint very different. The elytra 
arc of a dingy flavous, with a conspicuous brown fascia in the middle, extending 
from the suture to the first pair of discal geminate striae, along these it' is directed 
for a short distance towards the base, and posteriorly towards the apex, but half- 
way to the latter it is suddenly directed outwards but not to the margins, on some 
specimens the markings are somewhat like an M; on some the markings consist 
of disconnected spots; on others there is an infuscation of the suture posteriorly 
in addition to the M-like markings; each joint of the antennae is paler at the base 
than at the apex. The antennae are unusually long and thin, being quite as long 
as the body on the female, and conspicuously longer on the male; the first joint 
of the male varies considerably; on some specimens, including the type, it is evenly 
dilated from the base to the middle and is then suddenly thickened and deflected 
but it varies in appearance (fig. 1, A and B) from almost every point of view - 
on other specimens (fig. 1, C) it is considerably smaller and curved, rather than 
distorted. Seventeen specimens were obtained. 

Laemophlaeus howensis, n. sp. 

i . Pale flavo-castaneous and moderately shining. 

Head flat between eyes but gently semi-circularly concave in front median 
line slightly impressed but distinct; punctures dense and small but rather sharply 
defined. Antennae extending to hind coxae, first joint long, stout, and strongly 
curved, second globular and slightly larger than third, fourth-tenth subequal, 
eleventh slightly longer. Prothorax about once and one-half as wide as long, apex 
scarcely wider than base, sides very feebly rounded, with a narrow carina towards 
each side but scarcely parallel with it ; punctures as on head. Elytra with sub- 
sutural and geminate striae much as on preceding species. Length, 1-2-17 mm. 

f . Differs in having the head somewhat smaller, and antennae shorter,' 
with the first joint smaller and scarcely curved. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 7592. 

Allied to L. diemenensis, but smaller, less polished, basal joint of antennae 
of male very different and the following ones very similar to those of the female 
the elytral stnation is also much less defined; it is much the size and colours of 
L. testaceas but is much less polished and is otherwise very different. A specimen 
of each sex was taken. 

Var. (?). A female from the island is structurally so close to the female of 
this species, that it appears desirable to leave it unnamed till a male can be 
obtained; it differs from the female in being smaller, and with the whole of the 
upper surface opaque. 

Laemophlaeus bimaculiflavus, n. sp. 

Castaneous and shining, prothorax somewhat darker, elytra still darker 
almost black, but with two large, sharply defined, flavous spots. 

Head wide, with a feeble median line, a sharply impressed line near base 
and another near each eye (these large), with a shallow depression towards each 
side; punctures small and dense but sharply defined. Antennae not much longer 
than head and prothorax combined, first joint stout, not as long as second and 
third combined, second subglobular, third moderately long, fourth-eighth sub- 
e Iiptic and subequal, ninth and tenth slightly longer, increasing in width to apex ' 
eleventh ovate. Prothorax almost twice as wide as long, sides rounded, W 
much narrower than apex, with the hind angles acute and slightly produced a' 
well impressed stria towards each side, rather suddenly deepened near base ; 
punctures slightly sparser, but otherwise as on head. Elytra wide, sides eently 
rounded; subsutural stria on each distinct only posteriorlv, inwards of each 



210 



shoulder with two conjoined striae, the inner one rather deep, oblique and 
terminated near apex, the other vanishing before the midd e, a sharply impressed 
stria commencing on the margin at the base, and slightly diverging from the 
margin till it suddenly terminates near the apex; punctures much as on prothorax. 

Length, 5 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M.Lea), iype, I. 7594. 

A well-marked species, larger than any other known from Australia 1 he 
flavous spot on each elytron is about the length of the prothorax and half the 
width; it commences at about the basal fifth and is fairly close to the suture and 

outer margin. 

Laemophlaeus fuscohneatus, n. sp. 

Castaneous, elytra with suture and three narrow lines on each infuscated. 
Verv finely pubescent. . . , 

'Head' rather flat between eyes, with a feeble depression towards each side, 
median line slightly impressed; punctures small and dense. Antennae moderate y 
long first joint stout, second-eighth subglobular and rather small, ninth-eleventh 
somewhat longer and forming a loose club. Prothorax strongly transverse, sides 
slightly rounded and very little wider at apex than at base, with a narrow carina 
towards and almost parallel with each side; a shining and almost impunctate 
median line, but elsewhere punctures much as on head. Elytra with a subsutural 
and three geminate striae on each; punctures smaller and denser than on head. 

Length, 2 mm. ' 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 7595. 

A very distinct species. From some directions the pronotum appears to have 
two vaguely infuscated vittae; the elytral markings consist of seven sharply- 
defined, infuscated lines, extending from the base to near the apex, they are all 
narrow, but the sutural marking is twice the width of each of the others ; the striae 
themselves are much as on L. distorticornis and hozvcnsis. 

Laemophlaeus norfolcensis, n. sp. 

S Pale castaneous and somewhat shining. 

Head large somewhat concave in front, median line well defined; with small, 
dense punctures, and very finely shagreened. Antennae rather long first joint 
long suddenly and strongly dilated from about the middle, second and third sub- 
globular and'subequal, fourth-eighth subequal in length but gradually becoming 
thinner ninth-eleventh longer and highly polished. Prothorax at apex almost 
twice the median length, sides feebly diminishing in width from apex to base, a 
fine carina towards and almost parallel with each side; with a shining and 
impunctate median line; punctures and shagreenmg as on head Llytra rather 
wide, striae well defined and scarcely geminate in arrangement. Length, Z-b mm. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type (unique), I. 7593. 

Allied to L diemenensis, but prothorax much wider and antennae very 
different- as the basal joint of the antennae varies considerably in appearance 
with the 'poi"t of view, two outlines of it (fig. 1, D and E) have been given. 
The head and prothorax have a somewhat silken appearance, the elytra are slightly 
darker and more polished, but with the middle somewhat diluted m colour. J here 
is a fringe of very fine selae on the front margin of the prothorax. 

LUC AN ID AE. 

Ceratogathus minutus, n. sp. 

Blackish mesosternum, metasternum and abdomen almost flavous, legs 

and antennae darker, basal joints of antennae paler than lamellae. Moderately 

clothed with short dark setae, mixed with white ones, more or less condensed to 

form feeble spots. 



211 

Head transverse; with crowded punctures, a small process on each side partly 
concealed by base of antennae. Mandibles rather short. Basal joint of antennae 
curved, about as long as the five following combined, of these the first is almost 
globular and the others are small; club composed of three elongate lamellae.. 
Prothorax almost twice as wide as long, sides rounded and minutely serrate, apex. 




N.B.T. 



Fig. 2. 
Ceratognathus minutus Lea. 



shallowly emarginate, base bisinuate; punctures much as on head. Elytra parallel- 
sided to near apex; finely striated and with crowded punctures. Legs thin, claw- 
joints elongate. Length, 4*5 mm. 

New South Wales: National Park (N. B. Tindale). Tvpe (unique), 
I. 16956. ^ 

The type is the smallest stag-beetle that I have seen from any part of the 
world; its length is less than that of the elytra of C. niger, and its mandibles are 
about the length of those of the female of that species, although by its antennae 
the type is evidently a male. The mandibles are distinctly shorter than the head, 
the left one has three cusps : an obtuse outer one, an acute one curved to the right,, 
inwards of which is a smaller acute one; the right mandible has but two cusps, 
and from some directions appears as a short, broad Y. Each of the middle tibiae, 
has a small medio-external tooth, becoming still smaller on the hind ones; parts 
of both front legs are missing. 

Lamprima adolpiiinae Gestro (Neolamprima). 
Of three males under examination one specimen measures 49 mm., with 
mandibles 15 mm., and is a typical Neolamprima. It is mostly of a dark greenish- 
purple with the head brassy. A second specimen measures 36 mm., with the 




Fig. 3. 
Lamprima adolphinac Gestro, natural size.. 



212 

mandibles 11 mm.; it is also a typical Neolamprima, although the mandibles are 
somewhat shorter and with less numerous teeth. It is of an uniform coppery 
colour, except that the prothorax is subopaque, in contrast with the shining head 
and elytra. The third specimen measures 25 mm., with the mandibles 6 mm., 
and appears quite a normal Lamprima. It is of a dull bronze colour, with the 
head pcJished and partly coppery-purple. All three have the pronotum rather 
coarsely shagreened, and the elytra more finely so and with vermiculate scratches. 
The first specimen was from an unknown locality in New Guinea, the others are 
from Komba (at an elevation of 5,000 feet), from the Rev. L. Wagner, who also 
sent two females; of these one is entirely coppery-golden on the upper surface, 
the second has the elytra deep blue, shading off to coppery-green at the suture, 
its pronotum is deep purple and head coppery. F.oth specimens are, in fact, very 
similar to Queensland females of L. mandibularis. 

SCARABAEIDAE. 

DiAr-HONiA gulosa Jans., var angustiflava, n. var. 
Two males in the Australian Museum, from Mount Warning (on the northern 
border of New South Wales), taken in January by Mr. A. Musgrave, evidently 
represent a variety of D. gulosa. In structure they agree perfectly with normal 
Victorian males of the species. One specimen has the dark parts almost or quite 
black, with flavous markings consisting of two spots on the head in front of the 
eyes, the pronotum with a narrow medioapical fascia, a vitta on each side from 
apex almost to base, but with a median dark spot ; the scutellum with a short, 
narrow, median spot, each elytron with a narrow vitta from the middle of its base 
to the apical fifth, where it curves round (like a small hook) to near the suture, 
a thinner marginal vitta from the base to the basal third, and a narrow apical 
fascia; on the under parts there is a small spot on each side of the mesosternum 
and metasternum, the side of each hind coxa and on each side of four basal seg- 
ments of abdomen, four disconnected spots on the pygidium; the intercoxal 
process of the mesosternum; and there is also a spot on each hind femur. On 
the second specimen the pale spots on the head are extended and almost conjoined, 
the apical and lateral marks on the pronotum are joined together, and there are 
three small spots triangularly placed between the middle and the base, the scutellum 
is largely pale, the dark parts of the elytra are paler (dark purplish-brown), the 
long flavous vitta on each is almost the same, but the latero-basal one is wider, 
slightly longer, and there is an obscure spot between it and the transverse apical 
mark; the markings on the under surface and legs are more extended and the 
pale markings on the pygidium are connected together (approaching the typical 
form). 

EUCNEM1DAE. 

Microrhagus howensis, n. sp. 

Deep black; legs reddish, the femora partly infuscated, Clothed with short 
black pubescence, becoming stramineous about base of prothorax and elytra. 

Head with crowded punctures, and with a feeble median carina. Antennae 
rather short, second joint short, third not quite as long as fourth and fifth com- 
bined, eleventh distinctly longer than tenth. Prothorax moderately transverse, 
parallel-sided except for the rounded front angles, hind angles very acute and 
acutely carinated, front margin finely carinated, the carina on each side with a 
short spur directed obliquely backwards, with a short but distinct mediobasal 
carina ; with dense and small, but sharply defined punctures. Elytra almost parallel- 
sided ; with dense, subasperate punctures about base and on tips, elsewhere with 
smaller ones; with vague remnants of striation, but becoming distinct on the tips. 
Prosternal sulci narrow and deep in front, becoming shallower and wider 



213 



posteriorly; propleural parallelograms feebly concave posteriorly, fully thrice as 
long as wide. Length, 3-75 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type (unique), I. 5725. 

A deep black species with prosternal sulci distinctly less parallel-sided than 
usual m the genus. The antennae, at most, could be regarded as very feebly 1 
serrated. *■ ■•? 

Fornax howensis, n. sp. 

• Castaneous-brown, antennae (basal joint excepted) and legs paler Densely 
and uniformly clothed with stramineous pubescence. " 

Head evenly convex, with rather crowded but small punctures ; antennary 
sockets close together and without a connecting carina. Antennae moderately 
long second joint very short, third almost as long as three following combined 
fourth slightly shorter than fifth, and fifth than sixth, sixth-tenth subequal 
eleventh almost as long as ninth and tenth combined. Prothorax large sides 
pntly rounded and widest at about basal third ; with rather small punctures ' 
becoming crowded on sides. Elytra scarcely twice as long as head and prothorax 
combined, with stnation well defined about suture, but rather feeble elsewhere ■ 
fairly dense subasperate punctures about base, smaller and sparser elsewhere' 
Hind coxae terminating almost as a point on each side, greatest length equal to that 
of two basal segments of abdomen combined; basal joint of hind tarsi about equal 
to the rest combined. Length, 4-5-6-0 mm. ' 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5730. 

A comparatively robust species, with prothorax nowhere parallel-sided One 
specimen was obtained from a tree-fern, another from a Kentia, and four from 
the summit of Mount Gower. 

Fornax norfolcensis, n. sp. 

, » °f rk . castaneous-brown, antennae and legs paler. Densely and uniformly 
clothed with short, stramineous pubescence. 

Head evenly convex, with small dense punctures; without a carina between 
antennary sockets. Antennae moderately long, second joint about half the length 
of third third slightly longer than fourth and fifth combined, fourth and fifth 
subequal and slightly shorter than the following ones, eleventh almost as long as 
ninth and tenth combined. Prothorax moderately robust, sides gently rounded 
and widest near base, with a feeble median line; punctures small but rather dense 
and well defined, becoming crowded on sides. Elytra with crowded punctures 
about base, becoming sparser elsewhere; striation well defined about suture and at 
base and apex, but rather feeble elsewhere. Hind coxae strongly and evenly 
diminishing m w,dth to sides, greatest length considerably more than that of 
second abdommal segment ; basal joint of hind tarsi as long as the rest combined 
Length, 4*o-6'0 mm. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5731. 

Close to the preceding species, but consistently narrower, darker, and with 
somewhat shorter antennae. On the smaller specimens the striation has a tendency 
to disappear about the middle. Seven specimens were obtained, three of which 
were sieved from fallen leaves. 

Fornax talayroides, n. sp. 

Bright castaneous, legs somewhat paler. Uniformly clothed with stramineous. 

Head strongly convex; with somewhat crowded punctures; without a carina 
connecting the antennary sockets. Antennae rather long and thin, second joint" 
very short, third almost the length of three following combined, fourth sligh ly 



214 

shorter than fifth, and fifth than sixth, sixth-tenth subequal, eleventh distinctly 
longer. Prothorax with sides feebly rounded in front, thence feebly oblique to 
base ; punctures rather small and partly concealed on disc, becoming crowded on 
sides. Elytra feebly diminishing in width from shoulders; moderately densely 
granulate-punctate about base, punctures smaller, sparser and less asperate else- 
where ; striation distinct about suture, feeble or wanting elsewhere. Hind coxae 
unusually long, their greatest length fully equal to that of_ fifth abdominal segment, 
but rapidly narrowing to a point only on each side ; basal joint of hind tarsi slightly 
longer than the rest combined, claw joint shorter than usual. Length, 4*75 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5737. 

An unusually narrow species, in general appearance strikingly close to Talayra 
elongata of the Melandryidae. Two specimens exactly alike were obtained; a 
larger (6 mm.) specimen appears to belong to the species, but is darker, with 
more depressed clothing and somewhat coarser punctures. 

ELATERIDAE. 
Glyphochilus basicollis, n. sp. 

Piceous-brown and livid-fiavous, appendages more or less flavous. Moderately 
densely clothed with stramineous pubescence, shorter on under than on upper 
surface. 

Head gently convex, evenly rounded in front; with dense, subreticulate 
punctures. Antennae thin, extending almost to abdomen, third joint about twice 
the length of second, and half the length of fourth, the others gradually decreas- 
ing in length, but eleventh slightly longer than tenth. Prothorax with sides 
increasing in width towards and coarctate near apex, hind angles large and 
unicarinate; with unevenly distributed punctures. Elytra narrow, each rather 
narrowly rounded at apex; with narrowly impressed striae; rather densely 
granulate-punctate about base, the punctures becoming sparser and less rough 
posteriorly. Tarsi thin, lobe of fourth joint rather thin and curved. Length, 
7-5-8-0 mm. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5673. 

The prothorax is wider at the base than is usual in the genus; but the 
prosternal sutures opening out and deeper in front are indicative that the species 
should be referred to Glyphochilus, rather than to Monocrepidias. It is a curiously 
mottled species; the head is almost black, with the muzzle pale; the pronotum is 
mostly pale, but with two large blackish blotches, sometimes conjoined; the elytra 
vary from almost entirely pale to almost entirely iniuscated; the under surface is 
mostly dark, but with the sides of the prosternum pale, the eight apical joints of 
antennae have more or less of their basal portions infuscated. The punctures 
on the prothorax are fairly dense and well defined in the middle (except near 
base) and become denser towards the front sides, where they are much as on the 
head ; the carina divides the hind angles into two very unequal portions, a small 
subrugose inner one, and a much wider and almost impunctate outer one. The 
hind coxae at their longest part are quite as long as the part of the metasternum 
immediately behind them. Ten specimens were obtained, including one from moss. 

Glyphochilus kentiae, n. sp. 

Castaneous, appendages castaneo-flavous. With rather dense, stramineous 
pubescence. 

Head with crowded punctures of moderate size. Antennae thin, extending 
almost to abdomen, third joint almost twice the length of second, and about half 
the length of fourth. Prothorax with sides obliquely increasing in width to base, 
moderately strongly to about basal third, less strongly to base; with punctures 
on front sides much as on head, somewhat smaller about middle, and still smaller 
and sparser about base; hind angles acute, moderately long and unicarinate. 



215 

Elytra gradually decreasing in width from shoulders to apex; narrowly striate; 
interstices conspicuously granulate-punctate about base, the punctures becoming 
smaller, sparser, and less asperate posteriorly. Tarsi narrow, lobe of fourth joint 
thin. Length, 8-9 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5672. 

The carina of the hind angles of the prothorax is so placed that the outer 
portion of the angle is considerably larger than the inner. The base of the elytra 
and the scutellum have a more reddish tone than elsewhere, the base of the head 
is usually infuscated; the mesosternum and metasternum are somewhat darker 
than the rest of the under surface. Six specimens were obtained from Kentia 
palms. 

Glyphochilus inconspicuus, n. sp. 

Piceous, some parts castaneous; appendages of a more or less dingy flavous. 
Rather densely clothed with stramineous pubescence. Length, 6-8 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5675. 

Structurally close to the preceding species, but considerably smaller and darker, 
head with more crowded punctures, antennae somewhat stouter, with third joint 
not twice the length of second, and less than half the length of fourth, prothorax 
with a vague median line, carina of hind angles dividing these into more equal 
parts, and punctures more crowded, elytra more conspicuously granulate and with 
distinct punctures in the striae towards base. The parts more conspicuously 
castaneous than piceous are the base and hind angles of prothorax, scutellum, 
apical half of suture, and sometimes the margins of elytra, and most of the under 
surface. Four specimens were obtained. A small (6 mm.) specimen probably 
belongs to this species, but is reddish-castaneous, the flavous legs and infuscate 
base of head excepted. 

Glyphochilus waterhousei, n. sp. 

Reddish-castaneous, legs paler, antennae (two basal joints excepted) infus- 
cated. Rather densely clothed with stramineous pubescence. 

Head with crowded, subreticulate punctures. Antennae thin, third joint 
about once and one half the length of second and about half the length of fourth. 
Prothorax with sides somewhat rounded in front, thence feebly increasing in 
width to base, median line vaguely defined, hind angles very acute and uni- 
carinate; punctures quite as crowded on the front sides as on head, but rather 
less crowded elsewhere. Elytra parallel-sided from shoulders to near apex; 
narrowly striate; with subasperate, scarcely granulate, punctures about base, 
becoming smaller and sparser posteriorly. Tarsal lobes comparatively wide. 
Length, 9 - 5 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5674. 

The above description is of the smaller of two specimens ; the larger (11 mm.) 
one has the antennae uniformly coloured and very little darker than the legs, two 
vague infuscate longitudinal blotches on the pronotum, and the outer portion of 
the basal angles somewhat smaller than the inner (on the type they are about the 
same size). The elytra of both are much less conspicuously granulate-punctate 
than on either of the preceding species, although there are a few granules about 
the base. The type was from the summit of Mount Gower, the larger specimen 
from much lower down. The species is named in honour of the late Mr. J. 15. 
Waterhouse of the island. 

Ochosternus (1) howensis, n. sp. 
Black with a feeble bronzy gloss, appendages obscurely reddish. Moderately 
clothed all over with light-brownish pubescence. 



(i) Cand., Mon. Elat., iv., p. 445; Sharp, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., May, 1877, p. 25; 
Broun, Man. N.Z. Col., p. 298. 



216 

Head evenly rounded in front, with the margin shining but not carinated; 
with dense and rather coarse punctures. Antennae extending almost to abdomen' 
second joint small, third not much longer, fourth-tenth strongly serrate internally ^ 
of almost equal lengths, but slightly diminishing in width, eleventh slightly longer 
than tenth. Prothorax slightly longer than wide, sides very feebly sinuous, hind 
angles acute and passing scutellum, acutely obliquely unicarinate; median line 
rather wide and distinct posteriorly, feeble elsewhere; punctures in front slightly 
smaller but almost as dense as on head, becoming smaller posteriorly. Elytra 
rather narrow, feebly and regularly decreasing in width from near base, with the 
apices somewhat thickened and conjointly rounded; narrowly striate, the sutural 
stria almost impunctate, the others with more or less distinct and behind the 
shoulders strong punctures; interstices about base rather densely granulate- 
punctate, the^ punctures becoming smaller, sparser and simple posteriorly. 
Prosternum with moderately dense, but unevenly distributed punctures, intercoxal 
process acute, narrow, and deflected downwards. Tarsi long and thin, fourth 
joint simple, claws thin but subdentate near base. Length, 15-18 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5676. 

Differs from O. zealandhis in being smaller, with stronger punctures, inter- 
coxal process of prosternum more suddenly turned downwards, and with four 
feeble cannae between the coxae. Twelve specimens were obtained on the lower 
parts of the island. 

Ochosternus norfolcensis, n. sp. 

Black with a slight bronzy gloss, appendages dull red. Moderately clothed 
with short, brownish pubescence. 

Head with rather small and not very crowded punctures. Length, 13-14 mm. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5677. 

Structurally and in general appearance close to the preceding species, but 
somewhat smaller, with sparser clothing, prothorax with median line more denned, 
carina on posterior angle longer, and punctures everywhere somewhat smaller^ 
more noticeably on head than elsewhere. On that species the punctures on the 
head are so close together that an additional one of the same size could scarcely 
be placed anywhere, without overlapping several others; on the present species 
many such punctures could be inserted without overlapping the adjacent ones. 
Two specimens were obtained. 

TENEBRIONIDAE. 

Mesotretis pubipennis, n. sp. 

Of a dingy reddish-brown, under surface and parts of upper surface blackish. 
Elytra rather densely clothed with semi-erect and rather short, greyish pubescence, 
somewhat shorter and paler on under surface, still shorter on head and prothorax.' 

Head wide; with dense and small but fairly sharp punctures; clypeal suture 
in the form of a shallow, curved impression, slightly deepened close to each 
antennary ridge. Antennae moderately long, third joint distinctly longer than 
second or fourth, three apical joints enlarged, somewhat darker than the others, 
and forming a conspicuous but loosely compacted club. Prothorax strongly trans- 
verse, sides gently rounded and widest near apex, apex very gently incurved to 
middle, lateral margins comparatively wide and slightly dilated to base, each hind 
angle with a slight outer projection, basal margins very narrow; punctures small 
and rather dense. Elytra distinctly wider than base of prothorax, shoulders 
gently rounded, parallel-sided to near apex, with a shallow longitudinal depression 
on each side of base near the shoulder; punctures dense, sharply defined, and of 



s 



217 

moderate size. Under surface with dense and sharply defined punctures, but 
somewhat uneven in sizes. Length, 4*2-4' 5 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 6621. 

Considerably wider than M. ferruginea or fumata, and with the lateral 
margins of the prothorax decidedly wider, elytra conspicuously clothed, etc. 
Probably it would have been referred to a new genus, but for its alliance with 
fumata; the penultimate joint of the tarsi is very slightly bilobed, but still it is 
bilobed, and the clothing of the under surface of the tarsi is as on that species. 
The head gradually changes from blackish at the base, to the general dingy brown 
in front; the scutellum, the prothoracic and clytral margins, and a rather wide 
sutural space are more or less blackish. The elytral punctures are much larger 
than the prothoracic ones. Six specimens were obtained on tree-ferns on Mounts 
Gower and Ledgbird. 

Mesotretis fumata, n. sp. 

Blackish or smoky-brown, in places more or less conspicuously testaceous, 
appendages testaceous or castaneous, femora sometimes infuscated. 

Head trirft dense and sharply defined but rather small punctures, with a 
feeble depression close to each antennary ridge. Antennae almost as long as head 
and prothorax combined, third joint almost as long as fourth and fifth combined, 
ninth and tenth transverse, their combined length slightly greater than eleventh, 
and, with it, forming a loosely compacted club. Prothorax moderately transverse, 
sides gently rounded and slightly wider at apex than at base, lateral and basal 
margins very narrow ; punctures slightly larger and sparser than on head. Elytra 
distinctly wider than prothorax at base, sides feebly dilated to beyond the middle ; 
punctures somewhat sparser and distinctly larger than on prothorax. Length, 
3*5-4*2 mm, 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 6620. 

In general outlines very close to M. ferruginea, except that the prothorax is 
slightly longer, but very differently coloured, antennary swellings more pro- 
nounced, the antennae longer, with the third joint distinctly longer, and the club 
more loosely compacted; the elytral epipleurae are narrower and the punctures 
of the upper surface denser and more sharply defined ; the clothing of the tarsi 
is much the same, but the bilobing of the penultimate joint of the four hind ones 
is less pronounced, although even on ferruginea those of the four hind ones are 
less pronounced than on the front ones. The head, except for the mouth parts, is 
uniformly black or blackish, the prothorax is usually blackish, but diluted with 
red at the apex and along a median line; on some specimens the paler markings 
are very conspicuous, but on others they are scarcely traceable ; the elytra are 
mostly of a dingy testaceous, with the suture and epipleurae narrowly black, and 
a large but indefinite infuscated patch on each elytron, the patches sometimes but 
little darker than the ground colour ; the sterna are usually blackish, and the 
abdomen in parts, more especially at the apex, diluted with red. One small 
specimen has the elytra uniformly almost flavous, except that the suture and 
margins are narrowly infuscated. From some directions the sides of the elytra 
appear to have extremely short and sparse pubescence, but it is invisible from 
most directions. From some directions the prothoracic margins appear to be 
feebly serrated, but from others they appear to be even. Seventeen specimens 
were obtaind. 

Mesotretis glabra, n. sp. 

Black, shining; elytra and abdomen in places obscurely diluted with red, 
appendages castaneous. Glabrous. 

Head moderately wide, evenly convex between eyes, these small ; with dense 
and sharply defined punctures of moderate size in front, becoming very small 
towards base ; antennary ridges rather long and slightly elevated ; clypeal suture 



218 

feeble. Antennae rather short, second joint slightly longer than third, fourth- 
eighth smaller, ninth-eleventh slightly larger than the preceding ones, and form- 
ing a loosely compacted club. Prothorax rather strongly transverse, base and 
apex equal, sides gently and evenly rounded, front angles feebly produced, lateral: 
and basal margins narrow ; with dense and sharply defined, but not very large 
punctures. Elytra parallel-sided, outlines almost continuous with those of pro- 
thorax ; punctures slightly larger than on prothorax, but rather less sharply 
defined. Length, 4*25 mm. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 6623. 

The dense clothing of the tarsi, with the slight lobing of the penultimate joint 
and considerably narrower elytral epipleurae, are indicative that the species should, 
be referred to Mesotretis, rather than to Araucaricola, although at first glance 
it appears to be an unusually narrow specimen of A. ebenina. The eyes are some- 
what narrower than in all the other known species of Mesotretis. The elytra 
arc very faintly shagreened. A single specimen was taken from the dead frond 
of a tree-fern. 

Araucaricola, n. gen. 

Head wide ; clypeus narrow, at sides elevated into antennary ridges ; labrum 
short. Eyes small, lateral, coarsely faceted. Antennae rather short, with a 
three-jointed, loosely compacted club. Apical joint of maxillary palpi large and 
securiform. Prothorax wide, with conspicuous margins. Scutellum very short 
and wide. Elytra parallel-sided, the width of prothorax, margins narrow and 
continuous to apex; epipleurae wide at base, and gradually narrowed to apex,, 
concave from base to end of metasternum, convex beyond same. Metastcrnum 
rather long, episterna parallel-sided and not very narrow. Abdomen with three 
basal segments large, the others small. Legs rather short, front coxae slightly 
separated, almost basal, cavities closed, middle coxae moderately, the hind ones 
more widely separated; femora stout, tibiae terminated by two small spines, and 
sexually variable; tarsi short, claw joint about as long as the rest combined, 
penultimate joint small and simple. Wings ample. 

In many respects this genus is close to Mesotretis, near which it should be 
placed, but the eyes are smaller, with a greater proportion on the under surface, 
elytral epipleurae wider, tarsi more sparsely clothed on the under surface, with 
the penultimate joint slightly narrower than the preceding one, and not bilobed, 
and the claw joint considerably longer in proportion. At first glance the penulti- 
mate joint appears to be slightly produced under the base of the following one, 
but this appearance is really due to a few projecting hairs or setae. The sexes 
may be readily distinguished by the front and hind tibiae. Numerous specimens 
were taken under rotting bark of the Norfolk Island pine, Araucaria excelsa; 
in general appearance they are much like Asphalus ebeninus on a greatly reduced 
scale. 

Araucaricola ebenina, n. sp. 

$. Black, shining; palpi, legs, and parts of antennae castaneous. 

Head evenly convex between eyes, with dense and small but sharply defined 
punctures ; an oblique impression from each side of the clypeal suture to behind 
the eye. Antennae extending to base of prothorax, first joint moderately large, 
second somewhat shorter than third, and slightly longer than fourth, ninth and 
tenth transverse, eleventh slightly wider and longer than tenth. Prothorax about 
twice as wide as long, sides almost parallel but gently rounded in front, front 
angles slightly produced to clasp the head, margins rather narrow in front, but 
dilated to base; punctures much as on head. Elytra with outlines almost con- 
tinuous with those of prothorax; punctures dense, sharply defined, and distinctly 
larger than on prothorax, but becoming quite as small posteriorly. Front tibiae 
moderately wide and parallel-sided, but near base suddenly narrowed and curved; 



219 

hind tibiae longer than the others (about as long as the third abdominal segment 
is wide), conspicuously bisinuate and somewhat thickened at apex. Length, 
4*0-4-5 mm. 

2 . Differs in having somewhat thinner antennae, front tibiae decidedly 
thinner and not suddenly narrowed near base, and the hind ones much shorter 
and almost straight. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 6622. _ 

The basal joint of the antennae is black -and shining, the following joints are 
either entirely castaneous, or change from infuscate to castaneous, but the infusca- 
tion seldom extends beyond the fourth joint. There is some extremely fine 
pubescence on the elytra and under surface, but it is invisible from most direc- 
tions. Several specimens are more of a piceous-brown than black, but probably 
from immaturity. 

Trachyscelis howensis, n. sp. 

Colour variable. Under surface, sides and legs with straggling, yellowish 
or stramineous hairs. 

Head scarcely visibly punctate, with a rather deep groove from eye to eye. 
Antennae short, five apical joints forming a robust club. Prothorax polished 
and impunctate, sides and base very narrowly margined. Elytra slightly dilated 
to beyond the middle; each with a distinct subsutural punctate stria from base 
to apex, a second conspicuous row of punctures, becoming striate posteriorly, 
then with six rows of small punctures, becoming very feeble towards the side, the 
side with a marginal slightly punctate stria; interstices sparsely and minutely 
punctate. Legs short and stout, front tibiae moderately dilated from base but 
suddenly inflated at apex, the others rather strongly dilated from base to near 
apex, and with short, dense, stout setae. Length, 3 '0-3 -5 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 6589. 

In general appearance very close to T. ciliaris, but with the ciliation of the 
sides much less pronounced, and the median line of the pronotum altogether 
wanting; from T. Iaevis it differs in being larger and more robust, and in the 
more conspicuous elytral punctures ; T. niger is a considerably wider species, 
with stronger striation. Numerous specimens were obtained at roots of beach- 
growing plants, under seaweed, and washed up wood, etc. Two colour forms 
appear to be equally abundant ; the first, including the type, black or blackish, 
with the muzzle and sides of prothorax and of elytra more or less distinctly* 
diluted with red, and all the appendages more or less castaneous; the second 
form is entirely castaneous ; but a few specimens are intermediate. The straggling 
hairs arc fairly numerous on the under surface and legs, but rather sparse on 
the sides of the prothorax and elytra, scarcely one-fourth as dense as on ciliaris. 

Brachycilibe araucariae, n. sp. 

Black or blackish, antennae, palpi and tarsi castaneous, parts of under surface 
sometimes diluted with red. Under surface almost glabrous, the upper quite so. 

Head wide, gently convex, obliquely flattened in front, with a small impression 
marking each side of the clypeal suture; with moderately dense and sharply defined 
but rather small punctures. Antennae short, tenth and eleventh joints forming 
a club, tenth strongly transverse, much wider than ninth, and slightly wider 
than eleventh, the latter almost circular. Prothorax not twice as wide as long, 
evenly convex from margins, which are moderately wide throughout, sides gently 
rounded and wider at base, which is truncate, than at apex, which is feebly 
incurved to middle; punctures slightly larger than on head. Elytra the width 
of prothorax, parallel-sided from base to the widely rounded apex; regularly 
punctate-striate, the striae sharp and well defined, but the punctures rather small 
and close together, interstices with minute punctures ; epipleurae rather wide from 



220 

base to near apex, where they are suddenly narrowed by the apical ventral seg- 
ment, wrinkled and rather finely punctate. Legs short; front tibiae slightly 
serrated externally and dilated to apex. Length, 3 "7-4*0 mm. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 6588. 

Fairly numerous in and under rotting bark of the Norfolk Island pine. In 
general appearance fairly close to B. antennata, but slightly narrower cephalic 
excavation wanting, prothorax narrower at apex and without an apical depres- 
sion (on antennata, although not mentioned in the original description, there is 
invariably such a depression), elytral striation more pronounced, and legs not 
quite so stout. Specimens entirely black on the upper surface usually have parts 
of the under surface distinctly diluted with red, more especially parts of the 
sterna and the elytral epipleurae; many specimens, however, have the upper 
surface of a livid-testaceous, with the under surface and legs paler, but variegated 
with dark brown. 

MHLANDRYIDAE. 

Talayra brevipilis, n. sp. 

Black, appendages castaneous-brown. Densely clothed with short, brownish 
pubescence. 

Head with very dense, minute punctures. Eyes large, subreniform. Antennae 
long and thin, second joint about one-third the length of third, the latter slightly 
shorter than first, and slightly longer than fourth. Prothorax moderately trans- 
verse, sides strongly rounded, base slightly Insinuate, and considerably wider 
than apex, hind angles obtuse ; punctures not quite as dense as on head but of 
similar size; marginal carina on each side acute about base, but vanishing before 
the middle. Elytra very feebly diminishing in width posteriorly, slightly but 
distinctly striated; with very dense and small punctures, somewhat transversely 
or obliquely arranged towards base. Tibiae transversely serrated on upper sur- 
face, serrations on front pair less distinct than on the others, and partly obscured 
by a longitudinal ridge; spurs to hind pair unequal, the shorter about half the 
length of the following joint. Length, 11-13 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 6098. 

A long thin species, longer than any other Australian member of the family, 
except Ctenoplectron humcralc. From T. clongata it differs in its much larger 
size, darker colour (an occasional specimen of elongata, however, is almost as 
dark), finer punctures, and more conspicuous elytral striation. Although the 
derm is black, it is everywhere so closely covered by pubescence that to the naked 
eye it appears to be of a somewhat rusty-brown, but from other directions it 
appears to have a silken gloss ; from some directions the abdominal segments 
appear to be tipped with golden-red. The punctures are normally somewhat 
obscured by the clothing. Three specimens were obtained. 

Talayra elongata, Macl. 

Innumerable specimens of this species were seen at night running over the 
bark of newdy-fclled trees on Lord Howe Island. In the light of the lamp they 
had the appearance of small and extremely active ants ; larvae and pupae were 
also seen in the bark of old banyan logs. The length of the island specimens 
varies from 3 to 6 mm., the average being about 4 mm. 

CANTHARIDAE. 
Goetymes helenae, n. sp. 
S. Black, elytra, sides of prothorax, antennae (most of rami excepted), 
palpi, and legs of a more or less dingy light-brown, or testaceous. Densely 
clothed with very short, dark pubescence. 



22) 

Head lobed at base, with a slight but distinct median line; with crowded 
punctures, well defined about base, but with a subgranulate appearance elsewhere. 
Eyes deeply semi-circularly notched, median portion very thin, inner lobe smaller 
than outer, the notched space gently convex and with crowded punctures. 
Antennae inserted slightly in front of eyes, first joint curved and moderately 
stout, the nine following ones very short, but the fourth to tenth each with a 1 
very long ramus, eleventh joint almost as long as the ramus of tenth. Prothorax 
at base wide and very slightly sinuate, sides strongly diminishing in width to 
apex, which is hardly more than one-third the width of base of head, with a 
moderately well-defined median line, a rather shallow longitudinal impression 
on each side; with crowded and rather small punctures. Scutellum with a median 
ridge, punctures as on pronotum. Elytra slightly wider than base of prothorax, 
sides from near base strongly narrowed to about middle, and then subparallel to 
near apex; each with three feeble longitudinal elevations, of which the one nearest 
the suture is longer and more distinct than the others; with dense and minute 
punctures. Abdomen extending well beyond elytra. Legs long and thin. Length, 
7*75 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (Mrs. A. M. Lea). Type, I. 6142. 

Much smaller and otherwise different from the previously described species 
of the genus. The clothing of the head from directly above is rather indistinct, 
but when viewed from the sides is seen to be dense and erect, although short. 
The prothorax is so narrow in front, and wide at the base, that at first glance- 
it appears to be almost triangular. A single specimen was taken on the summit 
of Mount Gower by my wife, after whom 1 have named it. It is one of the most 
curious species occurring on the island. 

CURCULIONIDAE. 
Eutinophaea bicristata, n. sp. 
t . Dark reddish-brown, legs and antennae paler. Densely clothed with 
fawn-coloured scales mixed with darker and paler ones, on the under surface 
almost white. In addition with sloping setae, mostly dark, but varying to whitish. 
Head with dense, concealed punctures. Eyes almost round. Rostrum with a 
feeble median line, muzzle glabrous; scrobes with upper portion rather short and 
wide, lower portion narrow and oblique. Scape somewhat curved, apex stout, two 
basal joints of funicle rather long, the first longer and stouter than second. Pro- 
thorax strongly convex, about as long as the greatest width, sides strongly and 
evenly rounded, punctures normally concealed. Elytra not much wider than widest 
part of prothorax, but considerably wider than its base, almost parallel-sided to 
beyond the middle; with rows of large, partly concealed punctures, odd interstices 
slightly elevated above the even ones, but the third abruptly and strongly elevated 
into a setose crest from slightly beyond the basal third to near the summit of the 
apical slope, the beginning of the crest usually black. Abdomen with first segment 
slightly concave in middle. Front tibiae rather strongly curved. Length 
2" 7-3' 2 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the prothorax slightly longer, its sides less inflated, and 
two basal segments of abdomen rather strongly convex. 

. Queensland: Montville, in August (W. A. T. Summerville) ; Mount Tam- 
bourine, in January (A. M. Lea). 

Very distinct from all other known species of the genus by the conspicuous- 
crests on the elytra of the male, on the female the crests are only slightly indicated. 
There are usually two curved dark spots at the base of the prothorax and several, 
small ones on the elytra, the paler spots are mostly confined to the sides of the 
prothorax and the apical slope of the elytra, but on several specimens the clothing 
of the upper surface is almost uniformly brown. 



222 

Mr. R. Veitch, Chief Entomologist of the Queensland Department of Agri- 
culture, reports that this species is destructive to citrus foliage; the "Dicky Rice'' 
Eutinophaea spinipcs Blackb. (Prosayleiis phytolymus Olliff), of orchardists near 
Sydney is also troublesome to citrus fruits. 

CERAMBYCIDAE. 

Oberea mundula Pasc. (2 > 
A ytvy narrow longicorn from Cairns (Queensland) and another from the 
Madang district (New Guinea) appear to belong to this species, originally 
described from Waigiou and Salwatty. They are of a rather dingy flavous-red, 
with the elytra, except for the basal sixth, four apical segments of abdomen 
(a small part of the base of each excepted) and the antennae black or blackish. 
The figure W of O. gracillima will give a good general idea of the species, except 
that the figure has less of the base of elytra pale, and the antennae longer. 

ECZEM0TES (4) CONFERTA PasC. (5) 

Specimens of this species have been taken at the Coen River (Queensland) 
by Messrs. W. D. Dodd and II. Hacker. It was originally described from Aru, 
and as a Penthea, but was subsequently made the type of the genus Eczemotes. 

Somatidia olliffi, n. sp. 

Pale castaneo-flavous. Plead, under surface and appendages, with whitish 
pubescence, and some scattered hairs ; prothorax sparsely pubescent and with 
some long hairs, of which those in front are directed backwards; elytra without 
pubescence, but with numerous long hairs subseriately arranged. 

Head with dense fine punctures, and some of larger size between eyes. 
Antennae distinctly passing elytra, fourth joint slightly longer than third. Pro- 
thorax moderately transverse, sides strongly and evenly rounded; with fairly 
dense and moderately large punctures, becoming smaller and sparser about base. 
Elytra ovate, widest at about basal third; with larger punctures than on prothorax, 
but becoming much sparser and smaller posteriorly. Femora stout, front tibiae 
short and feebly notched on lower surface, middle tibiae feebly notched on upper 
surface; hind tibiae slightly longer than the others, but not notched. Length, 
3-4 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, L 5460. 

A small pale species, of which seven specimens were beaten from a recently 
felled Pandanus tree. The clothing of the prothorax is to a certain extent as on 
S. capillosa, but the elytra are entirely without pubescence, although with numerous 
long hairs; these appear to be in five rows on each elytron, but the sutural and 
lateral rows are rather feeble. The tarsi, especially the front pair, are very wide 
on both sexes. 

Somatidia tricolor, n. sp. 

Head, prothorax and under surface dark-reddish-castaneous, elytra bronzy, 
with a slight greenish gloss; appendages flavous ; parts of antennae slightly 
infuscated. Clothed with fine, ashen pubescence, and with fairly long hairs, more 
noticeable on prothorax and elytra than elsewhere. 

Head with dense and fine punctures. Antennae distinctly passing elytra, 
fourth joint longer than third. Prothorax distinctly transverse; with dense but 
not very large punctures, becoming smaller about base. Elytra ovate, widest at 

(2) Pascoe, in Longicornia Malayans, in Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond., iii. (Ser. 3), 1867, p 432. 

O.) L.c, pi. xvL fig. 9. 

(4) L.c, p. 79. 

W L.C., p. 80; and v. (Ser. 2), p. 40. 



223 



about basal third, with dense and large punctures, in places subconfluent, but 
frngZsmm posteriorly. Legs much as on preceding species. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 5461 

The colours are much as on S, aranea, but the elytra are clothed both with 
pubescence and long hairs, the latter are more or less upright and in five or six 
rows on each elytron. There are fairly numerous hairs on "the front of the pro- 
thorax, nearly all directed backwards, but the species is much smaller and other- 
wise very different from V. capillosa. Two specimens, apparently males, were 
obtained, one by sieving fallen leaves. 

Somatidia villosa, n. sp. 

Head, prothorax and under surface dark-reddish-castaneous elytra bronzv 
appendages flavous but with third to eleventh joints of antennae and middk <rf 
femora and of ibiae somewhat infuscated. Clothed with fine ashen pubescence 
sparser on prothorax than elsewhere; with numerous very long yellowish hairs' 
Head with dense small punctures, interspersed with some larger ones 
Antennae distinctly passing elytra, third joint scarcely longer than fifth and con- 
spicuously shorter than fourth. Prothorax moderately transverse, sides s"rorX 
and evenly rounded; with crowded but not very large punctures. Elytra ovate 
at basal fourth almost Mee the width of extreme base f with crowded^unctuiS 
s hghtly larger than on prothorax, but almost vanishing posteriorly Femora very 
stout; tront tibiae conspicuously notched on lower surface. Length 3-5-5-0 mm 
Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type I 5459 

Readily distinguished from the other island species by the very long hairs 
many of those on the elytra are quite as long as the prothorax is wide many also 
are curved forwards or sideways; on the prothorax^ antennae and lees aS the 
hairs are of qu.te unusual length. On S. capillosa, a considerably larfer pec es 
the long hairs on the elytra are much shorter and more rigid; the longer narrs 
on its antennae are fairly numerous, but much shorter than their X£ 
joints, and nearly all project downwards ; on the present species the long ha r a e 
often quite as long as their supporting joints, and on about eight of the join s 
are : fringe-like near the tips; on the pronotum, also, the majority of the lonVha 
m front do not conspicuously project backwards as on most species of the ™1 
Five specimens were obtained, three by sieving fallen leaves. g 

The genus Somatidia is abundantly represented in New Zealand but as vet 
species are unknown from the mainland of Australia; those from Lord Hew 
Island may be tabulated as follows:— 
A. Prothorax longer than wide, size 10 mm (6) , • 

AA. Prothorax transverse, size much less than 10 mm. pulchclla 

ii. Elytra glabrous C/) 

BB. Elytra not glabrous. aranea 

£v- E K ra with , Io "g hairs but without pubescence .. „»»« 

LU Elytra with long hairs and pubescence. " " " m 



:s . . villosa 



D. Lang hairs on antennae frequently as 'long as their supporting joint 

D.D. Long hairs on antennae always much shorter 

E. Legs uniformly pale . . , . , 

EE. Legs not uniformly pale . . " " " ' ' '" "" ,nc " ] or 
J l *- capillosa 

Porithea parenthetica, n. sp. 

m A RuS tr ] ?T Vn ' dyl T? , (a ^triangular basal space and an irregular post- 
median blotch excepted), basal half of femora, tibiae (tips excepted), parts of 
ta^i^ndantenna^u^xcepted) of a more or less dingy flavous Clothed wiili 
(6) From description. ' 

TO There are usually, but not always, from one to three hairs on the base of each elytron. 



224 

verv short, pale pubescence, denser and more sericeous in appearance on the 
prothorax and under surface than elsewhere; a few long hairs scattered about, 
but becoming numerous on antennae. 

Head with small, dense, concealed punctures; clypeal suture subfoveate on 
each side, median line well-defined except posteriorly. Antennae shghtly passmg 




Rosenhcrgia mcgalocephala v. d. Poll., natural size. 
A, from Queensland; B, from Komba. 

elytra in female, considerably in male, spine at tip of third joint very ^ distinct ; 
on the fourth and fifth much shorter. Prothorax distinc tly longer than wide, 
skies ounded and widest slightly in front of middle with three discal elevations 
a median one not continuous to base or apex, and two parentheses-like ones, 



225 



punctures dense but rather small. Elytra not much wider than greatest width 

bas P e r w?H ra H X ' ^ \**£ t0 ""' ^ where each is ^^ "5S3l ! Tbou 
base with dense and rather coarse punctures, gradually becoming sparser and 
smaller, fall at the apex they are very small and sparse; whh two va|udy elevated 
lines on each elytron. Femora clavate. Length, 12-17 mm eievatca 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type I 5452 

Structurally close to P. plagiata, but with 'very different markings The darker 
Pa hf,° f% d , ytra T somewhat triable, the subtriangular basal Sace is some 
what dilated about the shoulders, and on five of the specimens is connected abnt 
the suture with the postmedian blotch, this is widest at the suture a d raoid"? 
narrows to the middle of each elytron, where it sometimes termina S bu on some 
specimens it is irregularly angularly connected with the sides -the sides at the 
base are usually mfuscated. The elevations on the prothorax a e roughly 1 ke 
(I), the outer ones however, are somewhat swollen at their ends fo as to 
appear like obtuse tubercles. Owing to the clothing the prothoracic' punctures 
are not very sharply defined ; on the elytra, in addition^ to the SS^-wSS 
are some slightly larger ones in feeble series, a row close to the sutare oVeach 
side ,s readily seen, but not the others; the linear elytral eWEa^ fS 
distinct on some specimens (although not sharply defined), but scarcely traceable 
on others. The male is smaller than the female, with the prothorax somewhS 
longer, antennae and legs longer, and front tibiae rather more not ceablv fSfcSS 
not strongly) curved, and somewhat wider at the apex. Twelve sperimens wefe 
taken on trunks of newly felled trees at night. specimens were 

ROSENBERGIA MEGALOCEPIIALA V d Poll var 

A specimen from New Guinea (Komba, Rev. L. Wagner),' appears to repre 

n a fr V om e lstraJa S Sle S£ *?** C ? '"^ *» a " ' SSr?/^ 
been irom Australia, and the shining granules on the elvtm sro ior^ 

S a ! elsewher , e - Jt ha s some ochreous patches of pubescence on the 
fS Mr rS' T> ^ th l baSe °u f d >' tra - In * e -compa^tg photograph 
Queensland } * 1S ^^ beskle a S P edmen of ««8 'size Sj 

CHRYSOMELIDAE. 
Chrysomela multimaculata, n. sp. 
Pale flavous, with numerous black spots 

Antennat W STthS P V*? ^ T^ 6 . size ^ ^P^ suture gently arched, 
antennae long and thin. Prothorax about thrice as wide as the median fetwth 
front angles produced, hind ones obtuse; punctures about L arge a on S 
krt less crowded. Elytra slightly dilated to beyond the middle -with rows of 
rather large punctures, becoming smaller posteriorly, the interstices' w Sh Z n 

ss rsrt^02r^ «* at a » — KMsis 

South Australia : Barton (A.M.Lea). Type I 17111 

nt (hJhVf w 0X t! Pr °f SS ° f the P rostemu m is narrow and very feebly bilobed 
at the base, but other characters agree with those of Chrv^mrU T+7 

Th7b7a y ci d m:r from r se of ^ ° u - ss * ftiss^tss? 

Ihe black markings on the type are:— Four transverse spots on the head tu o 

^r e "H eye l alld tW< ? at baSe) ; f ° Ur aCrOSS middle of PiSS hre series o? 
spots and vittae on elytra, a spot on each metasternal episternum knees tins of 
tibiae, tarsi, antennae (except parts of three basal joints), apica ' jo S oi palp/ 
and the jaws. Of the series on each elytron the first cons sr* nf V™t ? P i - P ' 
the suture, and narrowly connected at theVse wlffL^^Xh dTvSg"! 



226 



taterstices are much hitler than others, the outer one ,s w.dest of all. 

Calomela flavida, n. sp. 
Flavous five or six apical joints of antennae more or less deeply infuscated. 

SeXith rather numerous and ~*g^^£gS£3g£ 
with somewhat smaller Punctures than on ^«^*™J* *£ than ^ 
triangular. Antennae comparatively ton| and thuv lioi 

as wide as long, sides gently ^SJ^SSg^ than on head 
more strongly to apex punctures "f^^^nes continuous with those of 
^^^^S^o^^^V^^, the interstices with 

*S5£E iSS Pa^Tn November (H. Hacker). Type, in Queens- 
1-ind Museum ; cotype, in South Australian Museum. 

is somewhat infuscated. 

Calomela maculiceps, n. sp. 

Of a dingy brownish-flavous, a large medio-basal spot on head I six apica 
joints of antennae, tips of palpi, scutellum, metasternum, knees, tibiae and tarsi 
black or Wackish. ^^ ^ dypeal t 

Length, 6 mm. +?me 

Queensland: Rockhampton. Type, I. 171US. > 

A rather narrow species, distinct from all the other pale species by the s ng e 

A ratner iwru v , t llum C . bimacuhceps, to which it is 

ScturalW closf ^^iJStoSU -d legs partly blue. The prothorax 
itselfL actually immaculate, but, owing to its transparency, appears to have a 
continuation of the spot on the head. 



227 
Calomela picticornis, n. sp. 



femora reddf ? I S ' ^ * C ° Ppery ^ loss ' under surfa ce and base of 
black theS ' f ° Ur , basal J° mts ° f ant ennae reddish, the four following one 
black the three aprcal ones white, but tip of eleventh infuscated 

Head with a few distinct punctures in front, clypeal suture deep a short 
median line joining its middle. Antennae short and dilated to near a De x with 

_ Queensland : National Park, in October and November (H Hacked T«*. 
m Queensland Museum; cotypes, in South Australian Museum } ' >P ' 

The interior' en7o P f a th "^ *?*" SpedCS with disti »ctive antennae in male 

SSS m 4 " Ur ( , eX , Cept '"' ,he "torn.) with the type, the Teeond has eael 

Calomela geniculata Baly var 
A specimen from Queensland differs from the'typical form of this soecies 
in having the femora, except the base, tibiae and tarsi black. P 

Calomela maculicollis Boi var 

small spot on each side, and the head is entirely pale. 

Calomela apicalis Blackb 

t„ r J n hJS descri P don of the e] ytra of this species Blackburn wrote "the nur- 
tures scarce y running m rows except near the apex." This is not correct On 
he type and a cotype they are in quite distinct, although irregulaf rows ThPee 
specimens trom Kuranda, mounted on one card by Mr. F. I Dodd eviden h 
belong to the species, but only one agrees with the tvoe • th, n*W Z *i l 

: SS&M^'fc ™ th ra r„°' £ -?»-« ££ Se£ 

ennreiy pale, parts of the legs are metallic blue. These specimens -urrer- W p11 J 
colour, except that less of the legs are red, with the d^ZZfT'iZula 
but are much less (6 mm.) than the length (9 mm.) of that species althS tS 

**fwro^. Another specimen, from Bathurst Head, agrees well with the type. 

Stethomela mirogastra, n. sp. 

& ■ Deep metallic green with purple markings, under surface black lnl m ™ 
antennae, palpi and legs, femora excepted, flavous ' U * nBn 

Head with sparse punctures, but becoming dense and moderatelv law on 
and about clypeus; clypeal suture deep on side! foveate in Toddle Prothorax 



228 



about four times as wide as the median length, front angles produced; with minute 
punctures and numerous fairly large scattered ones becoming larger on sides, 
and crowded in a subbasal depression near each side. Elytra not much wide! 
than prothorax, with regular rows of fairly large punctures, becoming larger m 
a posthumeral impression on each side, below which the side is dilated ; interstices 
with minute punctures. Abdomen with an equilaterally triangular hairy flap 
extending from near apex of the basal segment almost to apex of the second, 
apical segment with a large depression, bounded posteriorly by a pubescent ridge. 
Legs stout, each claw with a large basal appendix. Length, 7 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the basal segment of abdomen simple, and the apical 
one with a median line not bounded by a hairy ridge. « 

Queensland: Nanango district in November (H. Hacker). Types, M 

Queensland Museum. ■, 

Verv distinct by the abdomen of the male. At first glance the species 
apparently belongs to Augomela, but the antennae are decidedly longer and 
thinner than in that genus. Baly considered Stcthomela and Augomela as sub- 
genera of Australica (- Calomela) ; they are certainly closely allied, and, except 
for the antennae, I would certainly have referred this species to Augomela. Both 
antennae of the male are broken off short, but on the female they are long, thm, 
and somewhat dilated to apex, with no joint transverse The purple parts of the 
upper surface of the male are the head, base, apex and sides of prothorax, and 
suture, sides and a fascia at basal third of elytra. On the female the purple parts 
are mostly replaced by blue or purplish-blue. 

Stethomela armiventris, n. sp. 

g . Brilliantly metallic, most of under surface and parts of legs reddish, 
clypeus and antennae flavous. 

Head with irregular punctures on and about clypeus, sparse elsewhere, clypeal 
suture well defined, a narrow median line meeting its middle. Antennae rather 
long no joint transverse. Prothorax almost four times as wide as long, sides 
evenly rounded; with dense and small but fairly sharp punctures and with 
numerous rather large ones on sides. Elytra slightly wider than prothorax, sides 
nowhere quite parallel; with regular rows of punctures of moderate size, the 
interstices with small punctures as on pronotum. Abdomen with two triangular 
flaps, the first on the first segment, the other on the fifth. Legs stout. Length, 

6-5-7-0 mm. 

9 Differs in having the abdomen simple. 

South Australia (Blackburn's collection). Type, I. 2671. _ 

With a remarkable abdomen somewhat as on the preceding species ; the 
triangular hairy flap on the basal segment is much as on that species, but the apical 
segment also has a triangular flap, overhanging a semi-circular hairy excavation, 
which, on account of the flap, appears bilobed. The prothorax has the sides 
more rounded, the small punctures are larger and more numerous and the large 
ones are smaller and sparser. The types were queried m the Blackburn collection 
as Augomela pretiosa Baly, but they differ considerably from the description of 
that species in colour, which apparently, except for a "'violet-blue iridescence 
was uniform on the upper surface, whereas on this species the prothorax and 
elytra have conspicuous markings ; the antennae also were black, rather longer 
than the thorax, the four basal joints pale piceous" ; on this species they consider- 
ably pass the prothorax, and are not black. I think it possible that pretiosa was 
really founded upon a variety of A. hypochalcea, the male of which has a normal 
abdomen The greater portion of the upper surface is metallic green or blue, 
with purple markings on part of the head, base apex and sides of prothorax, 
suture and a median vitta on each elytron extending from the middle of the base 



almost to the apex, and traversed at the basal third by a wide fascia, which does 
not quite touch the suture. Although labelled as from South Australia, I think 
tne types were really from Queensland or northern New South Wales. 

Stethomela ventralis, n. sp. 

S . Dark metallic coppery-green with purple reflections, prothorax, scutellum 
and under surface reddish, legs reddish and black, antennae black, some of the 
basal joints flavous. 

Head almost impunctate, except on and about clypeus ; clypeal suture semi- 
circular, a narrow median line joined to its middle. Antennae long and thin 
Prothorax four times as wide as long, sides straight to near apex, with small 
scattered punctures and a foveate impression near each side. Elytra nowhere 
quite parallel-sided; with regular rows of punctures of moderate size, larger on 
a posthumeral depression than elsewhere, interstices scarcely visibly* punctate 
Abdomen with a wide notched flap near apex of first segment, fifth large with a 
complicated hairy flap occupying the median half; the intervening segments 
incurved to middle. Legs stout, basal joint of each tarsus dilated. Length 6 mm 

landfcunT^ Nat, '° naI *** * DeCemb * T (H " HaCker) ' T ^ in i ueens ' 

«4 t , Di ? ers 1 fr0m thC n f l "L 0i the tW0 P re " cedin g species in having the appendage 
of the basal segment of abdomen wide and notched at tip, instead of triangular 
the apical segment is also more complicated. The antennae are unusually ton 
and extend past the fond coxae. There are dense punctures on the pronotum bu 
S3 £ 1 T^, '^r % ma ^iyin g glass*. Two males were take"' and 

they agree perfectly m details of sculpture, although differing in colour of pro- 
thorax and parts of under surface. As the specimen with reddish prothorax has 
perfect antennae, it has been made the type. 

Var. Pronotum coloured as head and elytra; most of abdomen and of lees 
and sides of metasternum black; basal joint of antennae flavous (the res^°ssin|).' 

Stethomela discorufa Lea, var. 
A specimen, from Queensland, is entirely pale, except for a narrow black 
likTZ k" el ^'i he ^o touching at the suture on orher varieties Z ring 

Stethomela fulvitarsis Jac. 
Of this species, originally described as "dark aeneous the thorax with a 
greenish the elytra with a violaceous tint," and distinct by its pale kbrum 
antennae, palpi and tarsi, there are three specimens before m, fro£ Cairns and 
Kuranda all of which have the prothorax black without the least Tge of green 
two of hem have a violaceous tint on the elytra (very faint on one specimen)' 
but on the third the elytra are deep metallic green. specimen), 

Chalcomela erythroderes, n. sp. 

rpflp ° ark metallic coppery-green, suture narrowly purplish, head with purolish 
reflections, prothorax and under surface, except part of abdomen red cWus 
antennae, and most of legs black, rest of legs reddish. clypeus, 

Head with small punctures, but becoming stronger and crowded on clvoeus • 
clypeal suture deep and well-defined, a deep median line jo7ning fe mfddle' 
Antennae moderately long, dilated to apex, but no joint transverse Prorl orax 
about four times as wide as long, sides straight to near apex front aLle weh 
produced ; with rather sparse and small punctures. Elytra briefly Vordate 
scarcely longer than wide; with regular rows of punctures of moderate size' 



230 

becoming smaller posteriorly, the interstices with minute punctures. Legs stout. 

LCng Quetnsi™d: National Park, in November and December (H. Hacker). 
TypeTin Queensland Museum. 

A briefly ovate species, and the only known Australian member of he 

wiHn the nrothorax red The claws are evenly and slightly dilated to the 

t" cltZ not singly dentate as on Slethomela. On S caudata and pur- 

JSS/SS hoover, the" dentition is not distinct from most d.rections. but those 

species are longer m proportion. 

Chalcomela aulica, n. sp. 

Brilliant metallic green, purple and coppery; under surface, including inner 
parts of dytral epipleurae, most of legs and parts of muzzle reddish ; antennae 
Hack, parts of basal joints reddish. Length, 6 mm. 

Queensland: National Park, in November (H. Hacker). Type (unique), 
in Queensland Museum. . 

Structurally as described in preceding species, but prothorax and elytra 
brilliantly metallic. From C. ilhidens, and some specimens identified with doubt 
a C variegaa \ differ* in its red under surface, and more conspicuous purplish 
marking "of prothorax and elytra. The head is green, becoming purplish la *n*rt 
mr I ronnerv at the base- the pronotum is narrowly purplish m fiont, widely 
nurnlish a bae and coppery green across the middle; the elytra are mostly 

S^«SSwW* h ^ suture purple ' there i al r *\ r-'f s -t? pe 

from the s ld e to the fourth interstice on each elytron, at the basal third, with a 
branch extending on and about the fifth interstice almost to the apex. 

Chalcomela insignis Baly, var (?). 
A specimen, from Moa or Banks Island, probably represents a variety of 
C. fefe££ it agrees perfectly in structure with typical specimens o ti ***££ 
but is entirely without coppery or coppery-green markings on the elytra , there are 
however two shades (indistinct to the naked eye) on the ely ra, deep metaUic 
MuTand purple. At first glance it looks like a large specimen of Geomelanobths 
but the intercoxal process of the presternum is different, and the head has a 
conspicuous median line. 

Lamprolina minor, n. sp. 
Dark metallic coppery-green, head and sides of prothorax obscurely diluted 
with red, antennae black, legs black and red. 

Head with small scattered punctures ; clypeal suturedeep and curved, a deep 
medifn fine joining its middle. Antennae stout, but no joint transverse, eleven 
one fouh longer than tenth. Prothorax almost four times as wide as longwj 
numerous minute punctures, and with a few large ones towards sides Elytra 
eSic orda te sides nowhere parallel; with rows of sma 1 punctures becoming 
snaller posteriorly, interstices with minute punctures ; with a rather large post- 
humeranmpressio y n, on which the punctures are somewhat larger than elsewheie. 
Length, 6 mm. , . 

Queensland: National Park, in December (H. Hacker). »ype (unique), m 
Queensland Museum. 

Allied to L simplicipennis and discoidalis, from the former distinguished by- 
its smaller size darker prothorax and more distinct series of punctures on elytra, 
from the latter by its smaller size, coppery gloss of elytra, with smaller punctures 
and darker head and prothorax. 



231 



Phyllocharis biceps Lea. 
The types of this species, and of its variety alternata, are in the Macleay 
Museum. Five specimens recently taken by Mr. H. Hacker, at Nanango, and in 
the National Park of Queensland, appear to belong to the species, but no two 
have the markings exactly alike. Their prothoracic and elytral markings are as 
follows :— 

1. Prothorax with two complete black vittae, and a large spot in each front 
angle. Elytra with ten spots, the two apical ones conjoined to form a 
fascia not quite touching the sides. Fig. 5, A. 

2. Prothorax as No. 1, except that the lateral spots are absent. Elytra with 
eight free spots, the antemedian ones conjoined to form a very irregular 
fascia, apical spots narrowly separated at suture. Fig. 5, B. 

3. As No. 2, except that the prothoracic vittae are very narrow in front, and 
the lateral spots are slightly indicated. 







Fig. 5. 

A, B, C, Elytral patterns of Phyllocharis biceps Lea; D, of Oomela frifasciaia Lea; 

E, of O. hieroglyphica Lea; F, of O. picta, Lea. 

4. Prothorax with two longitudinal vittae, spots in front angles slight 
infuscations only. Elytra with two free basal spots, three antemedian 
ones, three postmedian (the two median ones of other specimens con- 
joined) and a subapical fascia (representing the two free spots of other 
specimens). 

5. Prothorax with four black vittae, the median ones about twice as wide 
as the others. Elytra with eight large free spots, and two large ones 
conjoined at the suture. Fig. 5, C. 

It is probable that the name is a synonym of P. leoparda l^aly, but in the 
description of that species the prothorax is described as having ' line-is duahus 
interruptis — nigris" ; and "on either side the medial line is a narrow longitudinal 
line, interrupted in the centre, pitchy black, just within the anterior angle is also 
a small spot," and the elytra as having eleven spots. 

Eulina. 
In my table of the Chrysomelides (8) this genus was placed with those having 
"FF. Apical joint of maxillary palpi securiform." This was an error, that joint 
is transversely oblong, and the genus should have been placed with **F. Apical 
joint of maxillary palpi not securiform" and associated with Oomela, from which 
however, it differs in many respects. The typical species, E. curtisi, is a well- 
known insect, occurring on the wild clematis vine near Sydney. 

(8) Lea, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1916, p. 397. 



232 

Eulina pulchra, n. sp. 

Red and black, the elytra, in addition, with white fasciate markings. 

Head with a few large punctures; clypcal suture curved and deep, a deep 
median line extending backwards from it almost to the base. Antennae long. 
Prothorax almost twice as wide as long, sides dilated near apex, all angles rect- 
angular ; with some coarse punctures, in places conjoined to form subfoveate 
impressions. Elytra elongate, about one-fourth wider than base of prothorax, 
shoulders rounded, sides subparallel to beyond the middle; with rows of punctures 
of varying sizes, mostly large between the humeral and postmedian markings and 
small posteriorly, the interstices almost impunctate. Length, 8 mm. 

New South Wales: Barrington Tops (J. Hopson). Type, I. 17124. 

Differs from E. curtisi and vittata in having sparser and coarser punctures 
on the prothorax, different markings on the elytra, and tibiae entirely black; the 
latter species has decidedly larger punctures on the elytra, with more convex 
interstices. The general colour is red, the prothorax has a median infuscate vitta, 
the antennae, tibiae, tarsi, and tips of femora are black, the elytra are black, 
with a slight metallic gloss, and with an irregular, white, curved mark near each 
shoulder, an irregular, postmedian white fascia, and a still more irregular sub- 
apical one, with a few disconnected whitish spots; the punctures on the white 
parts are usually infuscatcd, there are also the remnants of a reddish fascia at 
the basal third. 

A specimen from Dorrigo (W. Heron) probably belongs to the species, but 
differs in having the white markings on the elytra more apparently composed of 
short, conjoined, and slightly elevated vittae, the reddish fascia at the basal third 
paler and more broken up, and the femora black, except for a pale subapical ring. 

Eulina haematosticta, n. sp. 

Pale flavous, antennae (upper surface of the first joint darker), six spots on 
elytra, knees and tarsi red. 

Head almost impunctate, clypeal suture well defined, a slight curved impres- 
sion some distance behind it. Antennae long and thin. Prothorax about once 
and one-half as wide as long, sides quite straight to near apex, apex strongly 
incurved to middle, base bisinuate; with rather small, scattered punctures, a curved 
impression directed towards each hind angle. Elytra distinctly wider than pro- 
thorax, sides scarcely dilated to beyond the middle ; with rows of small to minute 
punctures, a shallow posthumeral depression on each side. Intercoxal process of 
prosternum with two rows of large punctures, notched posteriorly; claws with 
a large basal appendix. Length, 10 mm. 

Queensland; National Park. Type (unique), in Queensland Museum. 

An elongate, pale species, with three blood-red spots on each elytron ; one on 
the shoulder, one on the middle at the basal third, and one, directly behind it, 
fairly close to the apex. In its thin antennae it differs from Calomela, and by my 
table of the subfamily it could be referred to Eulina, to which accordingly I refer 
it, although its appearance is very different from that of E. cartisi, and the other 
species of the genus. From some directions the elytra appear to be closely covered 
with fairly large punctures, or watery-looking spots, but this is entirely due to 
"waterlogging"; from oblique directions the seriate punctures are seen to be quite 
small, and they almost vanish posteriorly. On the type parts of the legs are still 
greenish, and it is probable that in life the insect, except for the parts now reddish, 
is entirely green. 

Pseudoparopsis amplipennis, n. sp. 

Head reddish, the base deeply infuscated, prothorax and' scutellum black, 
front margins of the former narrowly reddish, elytra deep coppery-green, their 



233 

epipleurae black, under surface and legs red, antennae black, the basal third 
reddish. 

Head with small scattered punctures, clypeal suture distinct, a well-defined 
median line joining its middle. Antennae moderately long, fifth-tenth joints 
transverse. Prothorax at base more than four times as wide as long, sides evenly 
rounded, apex strongly incurved to middle; with fairly numerous punctures, 
varying from small to minute. Elytra across middle much wider than prothorax, 
sides strongly and evenly rounded; with numerous sharply defined punctures of 
moderate size, shoulders subtuberculate and impunctate. Legs short and stout. 
Length, 6 "0-6 "5 mm. 

Queensland: Nanango district, in March (H. Hacker). Type, in Queens- 
land Museum; cotype, in South Australian Museum. 

A wide species, structurally close to P. nitidipennis, but slightly larger, and 
prothorax and scutellum black. The elytra are more than six times the length of 
the prothorax, their punctures are numerous but not crowded, from most directions 
they do not appear to be seriate in arrangement, but from others they do so appear ; 
the series about twice as numerous as on species of other genera of the subfamily. 

Oomela nigrivitta, n. sp. 
$ . Black and red or flavous-red. 

Head with distinct but not dense punctures on and about clypeus, sparse 
and small elsewhere; clypeal suture curved, a feeble median line joining its middle. 
Antennae long and thin, no joint transverse. Prothorax at base more than thrice 
as wide as long; with small, scattered punctures. Elytra very little wider than 
prothorax at base; with regular rows of small punctures, the interstices impunc- 
tate; epipleurae somewhat undulated posteriorly. Apical segment of abdomen 
triangularly impressed. Length, 3-0-3-5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having apical segment of abdomen evenly convex, legs thinner ; 
with basal joint of tarsi smaller. 

Queensland: National Park, in November (H. Hacker). Types, in Queens- 
land Museum. ~" 

On most of the twelve specimens taken, the pronotum is reddish, with a wide 
black median vitta (the sides of the vitta gently incurved), and the elytra are 
black, each with a large, round, reddish spot at the basal third, nearer the suture 
than side; but on two of them the pronotum appears to be entirely black, although 
on close examination a faint lessening of colour may be noticed on the sides. The 
head varies from black to partly or entirely red, the under surface varies from 
entirely red to part of the apical segment of abdomen and the metasternum 
(wholly or in part) black; the legs are deep black, with the coxae trochanters 
and claws reddish. Of the species with two pale spots on elytra, O. bimacitlata 
is smaller with prothorax and legs reddish, O. coccinell aides has prothorax and 
legs pale, and the elytral spots transverse, and a variety of O. elliptica has reddish 
legs, and prothorax reddish except for a slight basal infuscation. In the 1917 
table of tire genus (9 > it could be distinguished from 0. bimacitlata and the variety 
of 0. elliptica by the median vitta of the pronotum. 

Oomela trifasciata, n. sp. 
Fig. 5, D. 
Red or flavous-red, with black markings. 

Head with scattered punctures, and a shallow interocular depression. 
Antennae rather long and thin, no joint transverse. Prothorax about four times 
as wide as long; with minute punctures and a few of larger size, but still small, 

to Lea, l.c, p. 579. 



234 

on sides. Elytra very little wider than prothorax at base, sides gently rounded ; 
with regular rows of small punctures, the interstices scarcely visibly punctate. 
Length, 4 mm. 

Queensland: National Park, in November (H. Hacker). Type, in Queens- 
land Museum. 

On this and the two following species the claws, from most directions, appear 
to be simple, and they are drawn backwards so that it is difficult to examine them 
clearly, but from some directions they are seen to have a fairly large appendix, 
with a slight notch between the appendix and the rest of the claw ; this is more 
clearly seen on the front tarsi than on the others. Their markings are strikingly 
at variance from those of all the previously named species of the genus, and it 
may eventually be considered desirable to propose a new genus for their reception. 
The elytral epipleurae are more concave than on other species of the genus. The 
head is black between the eyes, the pronotum is black, except for a median vitta 
not extending to the base, the sides are usually narrowly reddish, the elytra have 
three jagged fasciae: one at the basal third (touching the suture to the base), one 
postmedian (touching the suture from the middle to the apical third), and one 
subapical (touching the suture to the apex) ; parts of the under surface and the 
middle of the femora are black. The sexes differ slightly in the abdomen, the 
male only having a slight apical depression. 

Oomela hieroglyphica, n. sp. 
Fig. 5, E. 

Head and scutellum reddish, prothorax black, parts of base obscurely reddish, 
elytra fiavous with dark metallic-blue markings, the suture reddish; under surface 
black, in parts reddish, legs reddish, middle of femora and upper edge of tibiae 
blackish. 

Head with minute punctures ; clypeal suture rather deep, its middle dilated 
into a fairly large fovea. Antennae moderately long, somewhat dilated to apex. 
Prothorax almost four times as wide as long; with small but sharply defined 
punctures sparsely scattered about, and very minute ones. Elytra no wider than 
prothorax at base, but sides gently rounded, and widest at basal third ; with 
regular rows of rather small punctures, the interstices almost impunctate. Length, 
4*5 mm. 

Queensland: National Park, in November (H. Hacker). Types, in Queens- 
land Museum. 

Differs from the preceding species in having the pronotum without a pale 
median vitta ; the zigzag fasciae of the elytra of different shape, the second con- 
nected with the first (on one specimen of that species the second is almost con- 
nected with the first, but in a different way). The dark markings are very 
irregular, at the basal third on each elytron of the male there is a mark which 
at first is directed outwards, and then curves round to touch the base in the middle ; 
just beyond the middle is a very irregular fascia, which is twice dilated and 
touches the side, from the first dilated part a branch extends obliquely forwards 
to end on the shoulder; on the inner side joined to the curved subbasal mark and 
outwardly joined to the margin, near the apex, there is another fascia touching 
both suture and side. On the female the subbasal and the front part of the post- 
median markings are as on the type, but the outer portion of the postmedian 
marking appears more as an appendage, than part of the fascia itself (with which 
it is narrowly connected), and the subapical marking is also narrowly connected 
with the postmedian one. The antennae are dilated to apex but compressed, 
from positions where the full width is visible it may be seen that the eighth-tenth 
joints are fully as wide as long, or slightly transverse. The elytral epipleurae are 



235 

flavous and rather wide, flattened, but narrowed and wrinkled posteriorly. The 
male has a smaller and less convex abdomen than the female, with its tip slightly 
notched. 

Oomela picta, n. sp. 

Fig. 5, F. 

Reddish, flavous, coppery, and dark metallic blue, or green, the elytra 
trifasciate. 

Head with minute punctures ; clypeal suture deep and expanded in middle. 
Antennae moderately long, somewhat dilated to apex, eighth joint about as long 
as wide, ninth and tenth moderately transverse. Prothorax about four times as 
wide as long; with small, scattered punctures, and some larger ones on parts of 
the base. Elytra at base the width of base of prothorax, sides rounded and 
nowhere parallel ; with regular rows of rather small punctures, the interstices 
impunctate ; epipleurae slightly convex, wrinkled posteriorly. Length, 5 mm. 

Queensland: Brookneld (H. Hacker). Type (unique), in Queensland 
Museum. 

Differs from the preceding species in the metallic head and prothorax, and 
large isolated basal spot on each elytron, the fasciae are also all disconnected, 
except with the suture. The head and prothorax are coppery, with the muzzle 
red ; the elytra are flavous, with a large basal spot on each side, and three wide, 
irregular fasciae, metallic blue, narrowly edged, in some lights, with brilliant 
golden-purple, the punctures also, in some lights, are brilliantly metallic; the first 
fascia terminates at the margin, the second is continued over it to the epipleura, 
and the third does not touch the margin. It is probable, however, that the mark- 
ings are variable. The metasternum and part of the abdomen are coppery-green, 
the rest of the under surface and the legs are reddish, the antennae are black, 
with the basal joint reddish, and the tip of the eleventh joint obscurely reddish. 
The sex of the type is doubtful, the abdomen is less convex than is usual on the 
female, but its tip is simple. 

Oomela pictipennis, n. sp. 

Flavous with a slight metallic gloss, some parts slightly infuscated or reddish, 
the elytra with two irregular dark fasciae and two subapical spots ; six or seven 
apical joints of antennae blackish, the rest pale. 

Head almost impunctate, clypeal suture deep and dilated in middle, a feeble 
median line connecting it with base. Antennae moderately long, somewhat dilated 
to apex, eighth-tenth joints almost as wide as long. Prothorax about four times 
as wide as long, with rather sparse and small, sharply defined punctures, a few- 
larger ones at extreme base. Elytra with sides subparallel for a short distance, 
with regular rows of rather small punctures, the interstices impunctate. Length, 
4*5 mm. 

Queensland: Kuranda, in October (F. P. Dodd). Type (unique), I. 17119. 

A beautiful species. The appendix to each claw is larger and more distinct 
than on the three preceding species, but from some directions, even on this species, 
the claws appear simple. The middle of the pronotum and the metasternum are 
darker than the adjacent parts, but they are not deeply infuscated. On the elytra 
the suture and a basal spot on each side are slightly reddish; there are two 
irregular brownish fasciae, the first at the basal third, touching the sides (along 
which it is continued half-way to the base) but not the suture; the second is 
strongly curved (with the convex side in front) and touches neither the suture 
nor side, but is connected on the middle of each elytron with the first fascia, and 
there is a round spot on each side near the apex. As on so many pale species of 
the subfamily the elytral punctures, from some directions, appear to be much 
larger than they really are, owing to "waterlogging"; from oblique directions, 



236 

however, their true sizes are evident. As the tip of its abdomen is slightly 
notched the type is evidently a male. 

Geomela tropica, n. sp. 

Black, elytra with a slight coppery gloss, under surface, legs, antennae, and 
palpi reddish, femora partly infuscated. 

Head with fairly large punctures ; clypeal suture curved and dilated on each 
side. Antennae long and thin, none of the joints transverse, eleventh one-half 
longer than tenth. Prothorax not quite four times as wide as long, sides evenly 
rounded; with numerous, but not crowded, punctures of moderate size, becoming- 
somewhat larger and denser on sides, and with rather dense minute ones. Elytra 
elongate-cordate, base scarcely wider than base of prothorax, sides gently rounded ; 
with regular rows of moderately large punctures, the interstices with minute 
punctures as on pronotum. Legs moderately long. Length, 5 mm. 

North Australia: Adelaide River (H. W. Brown). Type, I. 17103. 

An elliptic species about the size of G. nobilis, and with similar outlines, but 
antennae and legs red, and upper surface not at all bluish. The punctures beyond 
the hind coxae are larger than elsewhere. 

Chalcolampra longicornis, n. sp. 

Black with a slight bronzy gloss, antennae (the apical half more or less 
deeply infuscated), palpi and legs castaneo-flavous. 

Head with rather dense but somewhat irregular punctures of moderate size, 
a small fovea near each antenna. Antennae long and thin, no joint transverse. 
Prothorax about thrice as wide as long ; with rather dense and coarse punctures 
on sides, and a few in middle, and with numerous minute ones. Elytra at base 
scarcely wider than base of prothorax, sides gently rounded; with regular rows 
of fairly large punctures, becoming smaller posteriorly ; interstices with fairly 
dense and minute punctures. Claws moderately dilated and subangulate near 
base. Length, 5 mm. 

Western Australia: Perth. Type (unique), I. 4863. 

A briefly elliptic, submetallic species, with outlines much as on C\ podagrosa 
(from New South Wales) but with longer and thinner antennae, larger and more 
numerous punctures on pronotum and more numerous and sharply denned ones, 
although small, on the elytral interstices. 

Chalcolampra cribricollis, n. sp. 

Dark blackish-blue and finely shagreened, under surface black, antennae and 
palpi obscurely reddish, legs obscurely diluted with red. 

Head with numerous sharply defined punctures of moderate size near eyes, 
smaller elsewhere ; clypeal suture triangular and nonfoveate. Antennae moderately 
long and not very thin. Prothorax about thrice as wide as long, sides evenly 
rounded; with crowded punctures of moderate size, not much sparser in middle 
than on sides, and with minute punctures scattered about. Elytra very little wider 
than prothorax at base ; with regular rows of fairly large punctures, the interstices 
gently convex and with minute punctures. Apical segment of abdomen sub- 
triangularly depressed in middle. Length, 6 mm. 

Tasmania: Mount Wellington (Rev. T. Blackburn). Type (unique), I. 3372. 

A dull, dark blue species, with unusually numerous punctures on pronotum. 
From some directions the claws appear simple, but each has a fairly large basal 
swelling. The type, judging by the abdomen, appears to be a male. 



237 

Chalcolampra hursti Rlackb, 
Six specimens, from Kangaroo and Flinders Islands (South Australia), 
appear to belong to this species, but differ from some cotypes (from Queens- 
land) in being slightly more parallel-sided, and with somewhat smaller punctures. 

Chalcolampra gyrata Lea. 
A specimen, from Kangaroo Island, differs from the type in being slightly 
larger, and with the larger punctures on the pronotum slightly sparser and smaller. 

Eugastromela, n. gen. 

Head small and normally vertical ; clypeal suture deep. Eyes lateral, rather 
small, transverse, with coarse facets. Antennae long, thin, and subfiliform, first 
joint stout, seventh-eleventh slightly dilated but all longer than wide. Apical 
joint of maxillary palpi rather long, its tip oblique. Prothorax transverse, apex 
incurved to middle, sides finely margined. Scutellum small. Elytra not much 
wider -than prothorax, with series of feeble tubercles, and irregular rows of 
punctures ; epipleurae wide. Prosternum with a wide intercoxal process, its sides 
finely margined, and hind end notched or obtusely bilobed. Metasternum 
moderately long, middle not simple on male ;' episterna narrow. Abdomen with 
first and fifth segments large. Legs moderately long, front coxae transverse; 
tibiae notched at outer apex for reception of base of tarsi, basal joint of tarsi 
dilated in male, claws simple. Glabrous, except for antennae and tarsi. 

In my table of the genera of Chrysomclides^ 10 ^ the genus could be associated 
with Stmmatophyma, and that is perhaps its nearest ally, but the species of that 
genus are considerably larger, with the derm rough, and the clypeal suture and 
palpi different. In the allied genus, Chalcolampra, the basal joint of the tarsi 
(especially the front ones) is often greatly enlarged, and the claws, although not 
simple, are often rather feebly dentate. I have not broken a specimen, to be sure, 
but believe all the species to be apterous. I was inclined to consider, from 
examination of the upper surface only, the six specimens under examination, as 
belonging to but one species, but, after floating them off, it was evident that there 
were considerable differences in the metasternum and abdomen, and that the males 
are abundantly distinct by those parts. They are all deep black, with pale antennae 
and tarsi, except that on E. spiniventra those parts are infuscated. Type of genus, 
E, me tast emails. 

Eugastromela metasternalis, n. sp. 

S . Black and shining, antennae, palpi and tarsi flavous, but parts o f 
antennae somewhat infuscated. 

Head itnpunctate ; clypeal suture deep, its ends f oveate ; a narrow impression 
near each eye, ending in a fovea. Antennae thin, third joint longer than second, 
eleventh about once and one-half the length of tenth. Prothorax about once and 
one-half as wide as long, impunctate. Elytra about one-third longer than wide, 
sides nowhere parallel ; with irregular rows of rather large punctures, becoming 
still more irregular about apex, interstices scarcely visibly punctate, the fourth 
and sixth with several obtuse tubercles, some of the others with very feeble 
inequalities. Intercoxal process of prosternum about twice as long as its greatest 
width (near the front), its posterior end obtusely notched. Metasternum with an 
obtuse ridge on each side of middle, the two almost meeting at the apex. Basal 
segment of abdomen about as long as the apical, and each almost as long as the 
three intermediate ones combined, each of the latter with a row of coarse punc- 
tures in middle, giving the surface a subgranulate appearance. Basal joint of 
front tarsi slightly wider than long. Length, 4 mm. 

(10) Lea, I.e., p. 397. 



238 

2 . Differs in having the metasternum flat in middle, basal and apical seg- 
ments of abdomen somewhat smaller (the punctures on the second to fourth are, 
however, quite as on the type), the tibiae thinner, and the basal joint of tarsi 
smaller. 

Victoria: Melbourne and North Gippsland (H. W. Davey), Emerald (A. H. 
Elston from C. Jarvis). Type, I. 17125. 

On the metasternum of the male the two ridges, as viewed from behind, look 
like two subapproximate granules ; the tip of its abdomen is obliquely flattened, 
on the female it is evenly convex. The front tibiae of the male, from directly 
above, is seen to be dilated to apex, and notched there, from the sides its apical 
third appears narrowed and gently incurved. The specimen from Gippsland has 
slightly larger but more obtuse tubercles on the elytra than on the type, and 
the basal joint of each tarsus is slightly larger. On the female there are about 
ten tubercles on each elytron, and they are more conspicuous than on either of 
the males. 

Eugastromela spiniventra, n. sp. 

S. Black, shining; antennae tarsi and palpi obscurely diluted with red. 

Head impunctate ; clypeal suture with a small fovea on each side, behind 
each of which is a small impression. Antennae and prothorax as in preceding 
species, except that the apical joint of the antennae is somewhat smaller. Elytra 
subopaque, about once and one-half as long as wide, sides nowhere parallel, with 
irregular rows of moderately large punctures, the interstices with numerous obtuse 
tubercles (about thirty on each elytron). Intercoxal process of prosternum with 
narrow margins, terminated one-third from the front, posteriorly with distinct 
punctures. Metasternum with two small granules near apex. Basal segment of 
abdomen opaque, about as long as the three following ones combined, but shorter 
than apical one, base with a conspicuous median spine, apical segment with median 
space obliquely flattened, and ending in a large shallow impression. Length, 5 mm. 

Tasmania: Waratah (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 17126. 

With much more numerous tubercles on the elytra than on the preceding 
species, and very distinct by the abdominal spine; the small elevations on the 
metasternum rise suddenly, instead of being the ends of oblique ridges. The 
intercoxal process of the prosternum differs considerably in its front portion from 
that of that species, being narrower and without lateral ridges, the tibiae are more- 
dilated to apex and the basal joint of each tarsus is still larger, and longer than 
wide. The base of the under surface of the head is exposed, and is seen to be 
transversely strigose for a stridulating apparatus. On the preceding and follow- 
ing species there is no trace of this. 

Eugastromela flavitarsis, n. sp. 

9 . Black, shining, the elytra subopaque, antennae, palpi and tarsi flavous, 
trochanters reddish. 

Head impunctate ; clypeal suture feeble in middle, but foveate on each side^ 
each fovea with an oblique impression connecting it with the side of an eye. 
Antennae and prothorax as on E. metasternalis. Elytra with irregular rows of 
fairly large punctures, each with about ten very obtuse tubercles. Intercoxal 
process of prosternum wide and widest at apex, with narrow margins throughout. 
Apical segment of abdomen slightly shorter than the three preceding combined, 
and slightly shorter than basal. Length, 4 mm. 

Victoria: Beaconsfield, in April (F. E. Wilson) ; Ararat (H. J. Carter from 
T. G. Sloane). Type, I. 17127. 

Differs from the female of E. metasternalis in the abdominal punctures 
being much smaller, those on the fourth segment are larger than on the other 



239 

segments, but they also are quite small, and do not give the surface a granulated 
appearance, the tibiae are thinner and the claw joint is longer; the elytra also are 
less shining than on that species. The specimen from Ararat has the elytral 
tubercles so obtuse that they might fairly be regarded as absent. 

Psylliodes luhrjcata Blackb. 

This species occurs in abundance on Solannm nigrum, and occasionally on 
other solanaceous plants, in many parts of Eastern Australia, from Mount Tam- 
bourine in Queensland, to the Dividing Range, in Victoria. It was described 
originally from a form with brassy-green elytra and golden pronotum, and such 
a form is fairly common, but the commonest of all is one having the prothorax 
and elytra of an almost uniform shade of brassy-green. Many specimens, how- 
ever, are bluish-green, or blue, or purple, sometimes blue, with the elytra purple; 
the extent of infuscation of the legs also varies, the hind femora are seldom 
entirely pale, and are often almost entirely black; the three basal joints of the 
antennae are pale, and sometimes some of the others, and the joints near the third 
are never more than slightly infuscated. 

Var. howensis, n. var. Twenty-two specimens, from Lord Howe Island, 
have the prothoracic punctures rather denser than on mainland forms, the legs 
pale, except that the hind femora are black, with a brassy or brassy-green gloss, 
at least half of the antennae pale, and the following joints but slightly infuscated. 
The upper surface is usually brassy. 

Var. norfolcensis, n. var. Numerous specimens, from Norfolk Island, differ 
from the mainland forms in having the prothoracic punctures smaller and sparser, 
even on the sides, the three basal joints of antennae flavous, and the others black; 
the legs are usually castaneous, with the hind femora deeply infuscated or black, 
but occasionally they are entirely castaneous ; the upper surface is nearly always 
brassy-green. This form may be at once distinguished from the others by the 
sharply contrasted colours of the third and fourth joints of antennae, in all the 
other forms the change from a pale to a dark joint being more or less gradual. 

Two specimens from Lord Howe Island, in the Australian Museum, have 
the prothoracic punctures and antennae as on the variety norfolcensis, one has the 
upper surface purple, the other has it black, with a slight bronzy gloss. 

Aproida cribrata, n. sp. 

Dull flavous ; sides of head, of prothorax, and parts of elytra with irregular 
patches or spots of purplish-brown; prosternum, mesosternum, coxae, trochanters, 
tarsi, and parts of antennae reddish-brown; ninth and tenth joints of antennae 
deeply infuscated, eleventh joint flavous. 

Head subquadrate, with crowded punctures. Antennae slightly passing 
scutellum, first joint stout, second small, scarcely half the length of third, the 
latter about one-fourth longer than fourth, the others gradually decreasing in 
length, but eleventh longer than tenth. Prothorax slightly transverse, sides gently 
undulated, angles acute, with an obtuse ridge on each side of middle, and another 
on each side margin ; with crowded punctures much as on head. Scutellum with 
rather dense punctures; elytra wider than prothorax, sides dilated to beyond 
middle, and then narrowed to apex, where each is produced in a stout spine; base 
sinuous; each with an obtuse ridge on the outer side of the fourth row of punc- 
tures ; with rows of very large punctures or small f oveae. Under surface with 
crowded punctures on prosternum and on sides of head, elsewhere with small 
and sparse ones. Legs short, femora edentate. Length, 5*5 mm. 

Queensland: National Park (H. Hacker). Type (unique), in Queensland 
Museum. 



240 

A much smaller and decidedly rougher species than A. balyi, with a shorter 
head, paler antennae, only one terminal joint pale, femora unarmed, etc. Pro- 
bably in life the parts are'gr eenisn tnat are now A avous 5 on eacn elytron the dark 
parts are : a spot about scutellum, an antemedian spot nearer the side than suture, 
and a postmedian vitta extending to the apex of the apical spine; there are also 
several less defined spots. 

Monolepta froggatti Blackb., 2 , 1891. 
M. pictifrons Blackb., S , 1896. 
This species was described originally as from Ballarat. A female in the 
South Australian Museum is marked as a cotype, and agrees with the description, 
except that the scutellum is black, and that the sides of the elytra are infuscated 
(no doubt overlooked). Mr. F. Erasmus Wilson and I recently obtained, on the 
Upper Williams River, in New South Wales, numerous specimens that probably 
belong to the species ; the females agree well with the cotype, except that the dark 
parts of the elytra are more intensely black, and the sutural marking less extended; 
they vary, however, in the abdomen; many of them have this entirely dark (as 
on the cotype), and others have it entirely pale; still others have two dark spots 
on each of the intermediate segments. The male (Mr. Wilson obtained a pair, 
still fast in cop.) differs in being smaller and with the elytra entirely deep black- 
on some specimens, in certain lights, however, they appear to be darker about 
the suture than elsewhere. Similar specimens were previously commented upon 
as probably belonging to M. pictifronsS 1 ^ Two cotypes of pictifrons in the 
Museum are males, and have the elytra blackish, with the sutural region intensely 
black; they were from "Victoria," and, I am now convinced, are males of 
M. froggatti. I know of no other species in the genus in which the sexes differ 
so much. 

EROTYLIDAE. 

Isolanguria, n. gen. 

Head obtusely subtriangular, a swelling behind each eye; clypcal sutures 
indistinct except at sides, not conspicuously distinct from labrum. Eyes small, 
lateral, moderately faceted. Antennae short, club three-jointed. Palpi small. 
Prothorax elongate, sides and base narrowly margined. Scutellum small and 
strongly transverse. Elytra long, thin,' and almost parallel-sided. Prosternum 
with intercoxal process rather narrow, its apex truncate, and a fine ridge on each 
side ; coxal cavities open. Metasternum elongate, episterna thin, epimera minute. 
Abdomen with first segment about one-fourth longer than second, the others 
gradually decreasing in length, coxal lines not distinct. Legs short, femora stout, 
tibiae with a short apical spine, tarsi with three basal joints densely clothed on 
lower surface, fourth joint scarcely visible, claw joint long and thin. 

The type of the genus is a thin, flat, brown species, which evidently belongs 
to the Languriides. The tarsi are densely clothed, and have rather short setae at 
the sides, so that Fowler would probably have referred the genus to his first main 
division of the subfamily, (12) placed there as the coxal lines are not in evidence; 
and as the head is symmetrical in both sexes (the swelling behind each eye seems 
to be a very unusual feature in the subfamily), femora unarmed, club of antennae 
longer than broad, elytra rounded at apex, and eyes not coarsely faceted, it could 
be associated with Perilangitria (the description of this genus is very unsatis- 
factory, but the characters noted in the table appear to be useful, P. monticola 
is noted 'as the type of the genus, and was described as having the club four- 
jointed, etc.). Regarding it as belonging to his second division it cannot be traced 

(n) Lea, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1923, p. 525. 

(12) Fowler, in Wytsman's Genera Insectorum, Fasc, 78. 



241 

beyond the genera 34-36, from Penolanguria it is distinguished by its elongate 
form, and from Ischnolanguria and Languria (in the table Languria is noted as 
having the club five or six jointed), by its three-jointed club, it does not appear, 
however, to be very close to any of the genera figured by Fowler. The front 
coxal cavities appear to be closed behind by a thin flap, but from some directions 
a fine projection from each coxa may be seen extending alongside the intercoxal 
process to the apex, where it slightly overlaps the flap; on dissection this is easily 
ruptured, when the cavity appears to be widely open. 

Isolanguria fusca, n. sp. 

Dark castaneous, elytra abdomen' and basal joints of antennae somewhat 
paler, legs castaneo-flavous. Upper surface glabrous, under surface finely 
pubescent, a short fringe at apex of prosternum and a thin fascicle on each side 
of apex of abdomen. 

Head gently convex ; with rather dense and sharply defined but not very 
large punctures. Antennae not extending to front coxae, first joint stout, third 
distinctly longer than second or fourth, fourth to eighth small and subglobular, 
ninth longer and about twice as wide as eighth, the size of tenth and smaller than 
eleventh. Prothorax longer than wide, sides dilated at apex, obliquely narrowed 
to near base, base somewhat sinuous, a shallow fovea on each side of it, and a 
smaller one on each side at basal third ; punctures much as on head, but with an 
impunctate median line. Elytra not as wide as widest part of prothorax, with 
rows of 'fairly large punctures, becoming small posteriorly, interstices with sparse 
punctures. Prosternum with rather large punctures on flanks, smaller and more 
or less transversely confluent elsewhere. Metasternum with punctures as on head. 
Abdomen with somewhat smaller and denser punctures, apical segment slightly 
concave, its tip obtusely produced. Hind femora scarcely extending to middle of 
second abdominal segment. Length, 7 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 11780. 

Three specimens were beaten from recently felled shrubs; one (probably a 
male) has the prothorax more dilated in front than the others. 

COCCINELLIDAE. 

Rhizobius erythrogaster, n. sp. 

Black, muzzle, antennae, palpi, abdomen, and parts of legs more or less 
reddish. Moderately densely clothed with rather long and waved, whitish 
pubescence, mixed with rather long, erect, dark setae; under surface and legs more 
sparsely clothed. 

Head with fairly dense but inconspicuous punctures. Prothorax with rather 
dense punctures, more distinct on sides than in middle; front angles produced 
and rounded off. Elytra with dense and, except where obscured by pubescence, 
sharply defined punctures. Abdomen with fairly dense punctures, tips of lamellae 
almost touching apex of first segment. Prosternum with a fine carina on each 
side of the median process. Length, 2'2-3'0 mm. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 11661. 

A rather strongly convex species, with the red abdomen of ft ventralis, and 
in general resembling that species, but consistently much smaller, pubescence 
longer and more waved, and mixed with moderately long, erect, dark setae (much 
more numerous and distinct than on that species). In Blackburn's table of 
Rhizobhts^ it could be associated with that species. Some specimens have a 

(13) Blackb., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1892.. pp. 257-9. 



242 

slight metallic gloss, but on most of them the upper surface is a deep shining 
black; the metasternum is usually deep black, in strong contrast with the abdomen, 
but is occasionally of a dingy reddish brown, the trochanters and tarsi are always 
pale, the tibiae are usually paler than the femora, the head is more or less obscurely 
diluted with red from the middle to the front, sometimes almost to the base, the 
front of the prothorax is sometimes very narrowly reddish. Twenty-nine speci- 
mens were obtained. 

Rhizobius viridipennis, n. sp. 

Head, prothorax, antennae, palpi, legs, and part of abdomen more or less 
dingy red, elytra dark metallic green, mesosternum. metasternum, and basal parts 
of abdomen black or infuscated. Moderately densely clothed with whitish or 
slightly golden pubescence, interspersed with numerous suberect, but not very 
long, dark setae. 

Head with fairly dense and sharply denned punctures at base, becoming 
smaller in front. Prothorax more than thrice as wide as long, sides strongly 
rounded in front; with rather dense punctures, becoming crowded on sides. 
Elytra with dense, even, sharply defined punctures. Abdomen with lamellae 
terminated about one-fourth from apex of basal segment. Prosternum with a 
fine carina on each side of the median space. Length, 2*5-3'0 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 11664. 

In general appearance close to some specimens of R. hirteUus, but the average 
size smaller, sides of prothorax more rounded in front, upright setae less numerous 
and much shorter, and elytral punctures larger and more sharply defined. The 
elytra are decidedly green on most of the specimens, but on a few are more or 
less bronzy or obscurely purple; the red of the head and prothorax is usually 
uniform, although never bright, but on some specimens the disc of the latter is 
obscurely infuscated, and on two of them the infuscation extends almost to the 
sides; the extent of infuscation of the basal part of the abdomen varies; on some 
specimens the femora are also infuscated. Thirteen specimens were obtained, 
including two from tree-ferns on Mount Ledgbird. 

Rhizobius filicis, n. sp. 

Black, muzzle, antennae, palpi, tip of abdomen and parts of legs more or less 
reddish. Moderately densely and uniformly clothed with whitish pubescence. 

Head and prothorax with punctures as on preceding species; elytra with 
rather denser ones, becoming very small near suture. Lamellae of abdomen 
extending to about one-fourth from tip of basal segment. Length, 2 "5-2 '7 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, L 11665. 

The general outlines are much as on the preceding species, but the colours 
and clothing are very different, the punctures near the suture are much smaller, 
and the median space of the prosternum is more triangular, with less conspicuous 
carinae. In Blackburn's table the species would probably be associated with 
R. lindi and R. dorsalis, to both of which it has a general resemblance; from the 
former it differs in being not at all metallic, elytra with somewhat larger punctures 
and without a fringe of longer hairs (on most specimens of lindi the longer hairs or 
setae, of the upper surface, appear to form a quite conspicuous lateral fringe) ; from 
dorsalis it differs also in the elytral punctures and clothing. The tarsi and palpi 
are almost flavous, the tibiae and trochanters arc usually paler than the femora. 
Most of the specimens have entirely black elytra, but on several the elytra, except 
for the sides and sitture, are of a dingy reddish-brown; on such specimens the 
dull red portion of the abdomen extends along the sides almost to the base. 
Twenty-three specimens were beaten from ferns on the summit of Mount Gower. 



243 

Scymnus rostratus, n. sp. 

Dark castaneous-brown, prothorax, sides excepted, almost black, tarsi almost 
flavous. Upper surface with numerous, but not dense, suberect, reddish setae. 

Head subtriangular, with fairly distinct punctures. Prothorax more than 
thrice as wide as long, with small punctures. Elytra evenly and rather strongly 
convex; with dense, sharply defined punctures. Under surface with punctures 
as on elytra, but less dense. Length, *9-l*0 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, 1. 11662. 

From the sides the muzzle seems to be produced as on some species of 
Pythidae, and under a compound power the eyes seem rather coarsely faceted, 
and the suture between the two first abdominal segments to be distinct, so it is 
possible the species should not have been referred to Scymnus, but to a new 
genus. I was not able to manipulate the hind legs so as to expose the abdominal 
lamellae. Three specimens were obtained, and the average of these is slightly 
smaller than the average of S. vagans, but the two species are very different in 
their clothing, punctures, muzzle, etc. One of the specimens is much darker than 
the others. 

Scymnus macrops, n. sp. 

Castaneous-brown, some parts darker, antennae, palpi, tibiae, tarsi and 
elytral epipleurae more or less flavous. Clothed with short, whitish pubescence, 
somewhat longer and less depressed on upper surface than on under. 

Head smooth, with fairly dense and rather small but distinct punctures. 
Eyes larger than usual. Prothorax about four times as wide as long, sides rather 
strongly rounded, punctures slightly denser than on head, but less distinct. Elytra 
with punctures as on head. Abdomen with sutures obliterated in middle, lamellae 
touching tip of basal segment for most of their width. Length, 2*0-2-2 mm. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 11666. 

The size and outlines are much as those of S. aiirugineiis, but the elytra, 
except that the suture and base are very narrowly darker, are uniformly coloured 
throughout, and have somewhat longer pubescence ; it is rather larger and more 
oblong than 5*. aus trails, less brightly coloured, clothing longer and eyes larger ; 
from S* inaffectatus, to which perhaps it is closest, it differs in being slightly more 
oblong and the eyes somewhat larger and closer together. The under surface, 
except the sides of the prosternum and sometimes the tip of the abdomen, and 
scutellum are black or piceous-brown, and the femora are deeply infuscatcd. 
Five specimens were obtained, and of these three have the head slightly paler than 
the prothorax, and two have it slightly darker; the difference is probably sexual. 

Scymnus obscuripennis, n. sp. 

"Black or piceous-brown, elytra obscurely paler; muzzle, antennae, palpi, and 
legs flavous. Rather densely clothed with subdepressed, ashen or whitish 
pubescence. 

Elliptic-ovate, rather strongly convex, punctures of elytra fairly dense and 
distinct, elsewhere sparser and less distinct. Abdomen with suture between two 
basal segments feeble in middle, lamellae extending to about one-third from apex 
of basal segment. Length, 1'2-1'S mm. 

Norfolk Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 11761. 

About the size of S. vagans, but with longer clothing, elytra paler, and legs 
entirely flavous. On specimens with the prothorax black the elytra are of a dingy 
reddish-brown, those with the prothorax piceous-brown have the elytra somewhat 



244 

paler, but they are never of a bright red, the flavous portion of the head varies in 
extent, probably sexually. Eleven specimens were obtained. 

Scymnus variiceps, n. sp. 

$ . Black or blackish, head, front angles of prothorax, antennae, palpi, and 
tarsi more or less reddish. Densely clothed with short, depressed, uniform, ashen 
pubescence. 

Head rather wide, with small, dense punctures. Prothorax more than thrice 
as wide as long, punctures much as on head. Elytra with very dense punctures, 
slightly more distinct than on head. Abdomen with six segments, lamellae large, 
and touching apex of first segment for most of their width. Length, 2-5-3*5 mm. 

9 . Differs in having the head dark, except for the flavous muzzle, and the 
prothorax without a pale spot in each front angle. 

Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). Type, I. 11762. 

A depressed species, with antennae somewhat longer than the space between 
the eyes, and with the suture between the two basal segments of abdomen fairly 
distinct in the middle, characters somewhat at variance with Scymnus, but as 
the eyes are finely faceted, elytral epipleurae not foveate, and mesosternum not 
longitudinally carinate, it was considered desirable to refer the species to that 
genus, rather than to Bitcolns, or to a new one; its outlines are much as those of 
Rhizobius aurantii. The tibiae and trochanters are sometimes almost as pale as 
the tarsi, the abdomen is usually slightly paler than the metasternum, but is not 
strongly contrasted with it. On several specimens of each sex the extreme front 
margin of the prothorax is pale. Eighteen specimens were taken, mostly on the 
fruit of a Pandanus, where they were eating a white scale insect, Aspidiotus, sp. 

Scymnus fcavifrons Blackb., var. norfolcensis, n. var. 
Numerous specimens taken on Norfolk Island appear to belong to S. flavi- 
frons, but differ from the typical form in being slightly more oblong, and with 
rather more distinct punctures. The sexes differ much as do those of the typical 
form, except that, on the twenty-four males taken, the pale sides of the prothorax 
are never narrowly connected across the apex. The elytra are either entirely 
black, or with the tips obscurely diluted with red. 



24h 



A UNIQUE EXAMPLE OF ABORIGINAL ROCK CARVING AT 
PANARAMITEE NORTH. 

By C. P. Mountford. 

[Read August 8, 1929.] 

Plate X. 

This paper records the finding of a unique example of aboriginal art situated 
adjacent to a group of carvings called Panaramitee North (1). Long- 139 38' E* 
Lat. 32, 34' S. */*•># 

The latter were investigated by me in 1926, but this remarkable design 
was missed owing to the fact that it was carved on an isolated outcrop of slate 
which projected only a few inches above the level of the surrounding saltbush 
plain. This rock was about 100 yards east of the main group. 

Previous to my visiting this district during the Christmas vacation of 1928, 
Mr. N. Tindale allowed me to examine a photograph of this carving taken by 
Mr. Bartlett. That gentleman described the position as: "Four miles north of the 
Panaramitee Station and 200 yards from the creek on a saltbush plain/' 

At the completion of other investigations in the district, a search was made 
for this example. It was (as mentioned before) located close to one of my 
previous finds. 

_As the time available was extremely limited on this occasion, only a rough 
tracing and photograph were taken. 

During Easter of 1929 a special trip was made to obtain a plaster of paris 
mould of the whole rock surface. This was subsequently presented to the South 
Australian Museum authorities, who have since produced a replica of the original 
rock surface from this mould. 

Description, 

The design was engraved on an outcrop of slate, approximately oval in form, 
about 5 feet 6 inches major diameter and 2 feet 9 inches minor diameter. The 
intaglios which are shown in fig. 1 were well cut, the black parts of the drawing 
indicating where the rock surface had been removed by the usual process of 
chipping with pointed flints (1). 

A portion of the rock on which the design was carved had weathered away, 
and an attempt has been made to reconstruct the pattern by means of the dotted 
lines on fig. 3. 

A close examination of the rock surface revealed several interesting 
features : — ° 

(1) That the rock surface has been engraved in two distinctly different 
periods. On text fig. 1 are shown all the designs engraved on the rock 
surface. Fig. 3 indicates what is considered to be the original design 
when the more recent carvings are deleted. In text fig. 2 the later carv- 
ings are drawn. These are deeper, revealing little signs of erosion which 
were evident on the original. 

An examination of pi. x. will clearly indicate the more recent work. 



246 




B*»H*n T? och . tfc%( ,_ 







T.g Z 








247 

(2) That the design bears a striking resemblance to the head of Crocodihis 
porosiis. 

Fig. 4 is an outline of drawing C. porosus (after Parker and Haswell), 
drawn lo the same scale as fig. 3. The sutures of the skull and the orbit 
and the nasal openings are shown in dotted lines. 
An examination of figs. 3 and 4 discloses several points of resemblance. 

(a) The general outline and the placing of the eyes and nostrils are 
similar. 

(b) The lines in the carvings at A, fig. 3 (although somewhat out of 
position), resemble the lines of sutures in the skull at A, fig. 4. 

(c) Again, at B. fig. 3, the line seems to indicate the base of the skull 
as indicated at B, fig. 4. 

Further comparison of the two drawings displays several points of similarity 
relating to the sutures. In fact, there is so strong a relation between the two 
drawings that one almost precludes the possibility of the carving representing 
anything else but this saurian. 

Age of the Design. 

The fact that fossil crocodile remains have been found in South Australia, 
and a number of native legends speak of mythical monsters who are associated 
with water and devour people, leads me to suggest that this carving was executed 
at a time when the crocodile was alive in this area. 

Professor J. W. Gregory (7) mentions that in native legends of the ^ Lake 
Eyre district which relate to the Kadimakara (or mythical monsters), two distinct 
animals are referred to : — 

One lives in pools and attacks people who go near them. Stories of this 
type may be based on the crocodile, for that this saurian once swarmed the 
rivers of Lake Eyre is shown by the abundance of their fossil remains 
collected. 

The second type of Kadimakara was a heavy land animal with a single horn 
on its forehead. This description suggests the diprotodon, which was pro- 
vided with a large projection of the nasal bones. 
The same writer, although satisfied that the native legends refer to the croco- 
dile and diprotodon, does not assign any great antiquity to man in Australia. 

Dr. H. Basedow (2) draws attention to intaglios found at Wilkindinna and 
Yunta, which he suggests may have been produced by the natives to represent the 
footprints of the extinct diprotodon. 

Hale and Tindale (10) also record a native legend with the photograph 
already referred to. This story was obtained by Mr. Harris (11) from the 
Wilpena district, and speaks of "a mythical being called Kaddikra (evidently the 
same as Gregory's Kadimakara) which ravaged the country and devoured every 
living thing that came its way. 

This monster was associated with water in the legend and was, in all 
probability the crocodile. 

Spencer and Gillen (6) record a traditional story from Central Australia 
in which the aborigines speak of the time when the country was covered with salt 
water, which was gradually withdrawn toward the north, as the people of that 
country wanted to get it and keep it for themselves. 

Mr. H. Y. L. Brown (3) records the finding of crocodilian remains on War- 
burton and Diamentina Rivers in 1892, and Mr. R. Etheridge, jun. (5) describes 
these remains as those of crocodiles, and suggests their geological age as being 



248 

Tertiary or Post-Tertiary. The finds made by Mr. Brown are exhibited in the 
South Australian Museum. 

Summarising, then, we have : — 

(a) That the crocodile was alive in South Australia in Pleistocene times. 

(b) That native legends refer to a creature resembling a crpcodile. 

(c) Man is known to have lived in other parts of the wx>rld during the 
Pleistocene, and there is no evidence to show he did not exist on this 
continent during that time. 

(d) Records do not show that the natives of this area ever visited the 
present habitat of the crocodile; in fact, the aborigine rarely travels 
beyond the borders of his own tribal area. According to Etheridge (5) 
the Crocodiles porosus is not known to extend further south than the 
Boyne River, Port Curtis, Central Queensland. 

(e) It is hardly possible that the native would have carved a design having 
so many points of resemblance to this saurian if he had not have known 
it intimately, 

Therefore, the balance of evidence suggests that the aborigine was contem- 
porary with the crocodile in South Australia and that this carving was executed 
during that period, that is, Pleistocene times. 

II so, then we have a very definite link in the somewhat meagre chain con- 
cerning the antiquity of man in Australia. 



(i 

(2 
(3 
(5 
(6 
(7 
(9 

(10 
(11 



Literature. 

Mountford— Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, 1928, pp. 337-366. 

Basedow— Journ. Roy. Anthrop. Inst. Gt. Brit., 1914; pp. 195-211. 

Brown— South Australia, Parliamentary Papers, No. 141, 1892. 

Etheridge, jun.— South Australia, Parliamentary Papers, No. 25, 1894. 

Spencer and Gillen— "Native Tribes of Central Australia/' p. 388. 

Gregory— "The Dead Heart of Australia," p. 230. 

Hale and Tindale— Records S. Aus. Museum, vol. iii No 1 1925 
pp. 52-57. 

Hale and Tindale— S. Aust. Naturalist, vol. x., No. 2, p. 30. 
Harris— Public Service Review, 1903, pp. 21-22. 



249 



MAGMATIC DIFFERENTIATION AT MANNUM, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By A. R. Alderman, M.Sc. 
[Read August 8, 1929.] 

The object of this paper is an attempt to show the relationship between 
what appeared to be an acidic and a basic phase of the granite which occurs at 
Mannum, in South Australia. 

The rocks, here described, occur on the eastern bank of the River Murray, 
at Section 156 in the Hundred of Younghusband. B. F. Goode (1) has published 
a petrographic description of the Mannum granite, which is quarried extensively 
in this locality. 

The outcrop of granite is only a small one, and it occurs as an inlier amid 
the surrounding plains of fossiliferous Tertiary and Recent deposits. Goode 
describes it as "a narrow strip of granite, about three-eights of a mile in length, 
with a maximum width of nearly a hundred yards." 

The granite itself is of a pink colour, and is coarsely even-grained. The 
pink colour is due to the preponderance of flesh-coloured orthoclase felspar, 
which, with smoky quartz and scattered flakes of biotite mica, constitute the 
essential minerals of the rock. 

Cutting across the main outcrop of granite in a S.E.-N.W. direction may be 
seen a number of dykes of a rock of aplitic facies. The width of these dykes 
varies from about an inch up to about three feet. These aplitic dykes occur, for 
the most part, at the northern end of the granite outcrop. 

Further south than this, and running in a direction parallel to the above- 
mentioned aplitic dykes, occurs a dyke of dark basic rock. This is approximately 
two feet wide, and crosses the granite outcrop from side to side. 

It is quite evident from the structure and nature of all these dykes, that they 
were formed subsequently to the solidification of the granite. 

This paper gives the results of an attempt by the writer to discover what 
relationship these dyke-rocks bear to the normal granite of the area. From a 
superficial survey of the occurrence, it would appear that the rock of aplitic facies 
and the basic rock were probably representative of an acidic and a basic phase 
respectively, which was formed by the differentiation, at great depth, of a magma, 
which is now represented by the normal Mannum granite. 

Petrographical examinations were made of both of these dyke-rocks. 

Petrograpiitc Description of the Aplitic Rock. 
Macroscopic Features. 
A fine-grained noncrystalline rock of a brownish pink colour. The grain- 
size is very even, except for a few scattered individuals, which are rather larger 
than the majority. Minerals distinguishable in the hand-specimen are felspar, 
quartz and biotite. The felspar is the most prominent mineral present, and being 
flesh-coloured, gives to the rock a pink tinge. The quartz has a vitreous lustre 
and the larger individuals have a dark smoky appearance. The biotite is present 
only in very small flakes, which are black, and are distributed throughout the rock 
in a very even manner. None of these minerals show idiomorphic outlines in 
the hand-specimen. 

Microscopic Features. 
A noncrystalline fine-grained rock. The average diameter of the grains, 
which is very constant in the sections examined, is about 0*3 mm. The rock 

(1) B. F. Goode, 'The Mannum Granite," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. 11, 1927, 
p. 126. 



250 

texture is allotriomorphic granular. No trace of fluidal arrangement of the 
minerals is noticeable. 

The minerals present are the following: — 

Felspar. — This group is represented by three distinct forms, including both 
plagioclase and potash varieties. 

The plagioclase is in excess of the other varieties, and is very often clouded 
by dusty decomposition products. The maximum extinction angles observed on 
a plane normal to 010 give the composition as Ab a0 An 2c , or a normal oligoclase. 
The refractive index is slightly higher than that of Canada Balsam. The twinning 
in the sections examined is almost entirely on the Albite law, Carlsbad twins* 
being extremely rare. Occasional graphic intergrowths with quartz may be seen. 

An interesting point is the unusual alteration which some of the plagioclase 
seems to have undergone. In several cases may be seen a zone of clear plagioclase. 
surrounding an aggregation of some colourless mineral of high refractive index. 
This mineral, which occupies the inner zone, strongly resembles calcite in its 
birefringence and refractive index. A resemblance to cancrinite was also shown, 
but this idea w r as discarded owing to the very low refractive index of cancrinite. 
Microchemical methods were applied, and the mineral in question was found to 
give off bubbles of gas (supposedly carbon dioxide) on being treated with hydro- 
chloric acid. A small amount of stain (malachite green) was also absorbed by 
the mineral. Taking into account its properties, both optical and chemical, and 
its relation to the surrounding plagioclase, the probability is that it is an aggregate 
of calcite and kaolinitic material formed by the alteration of an inner, more calcic, 
zone of basic plagioclase. As the crystallisation of the rock progressed, an outer 
zone of more sodic, acid plagioclase was formed, which did not suffer the same 
decomposition. 

Microclinc is, for the most part, clear and undecomposed. It shows the 
usual cross-hatching due to twinning on both the Albite and Pericline laws. The 
twin lamellae, as is usual in microcline, are irregular and spindle-shaped. Judging 
by the chemical composition of the rock, the writer was led to suspect that the 
microcline was a soda variety. Reference was made to certain standard works 
on mineralogy, and the writer was very surprised at the lack of information 
concerning methods by which the soda varieties of microcline may be distinguished 
from the potash varieties in a rock section. The only point which is commonly 
mentioned concerns the comparative thinness of the twin lamellae in the soda 
varieties, and this could hardly be called a satisfactory test. H. A. Ailing, in his, 
work on "The Mineralogy of the Feldspars," (2) comments on the paucity of 
information on the subject. Alling's tests are not readily applicable to work on 
thin sections, and apart from the fact that the soda content of the potash felspars 
is mostly a good deal higher than is generally recognised, very little information, 
could be obtained on the subject. 

The microcline occurring in this rock varies in the thickness of the twin 
lamellae from one individual crystal to another. The refractive index is slightly 
lower than that of Canada Balsam. 

Normal orthoclase is present, but to a far less extent than the felspars already 
mentioned. Some of the individual crystals are very much decomposed to a 
dusty aggregate, which renders them hard to distinguish from plagioclase. 
Occasional Carlsbad twins occur, and rarely a micrographic intergrowth of 
orthoclase and quartz may be observed. 

Quartz occurs in clear, colourless, anhedral grains with very few inclusions. 
It is present in great quantity, being second only to felspar in order of magnitude. 
A somewhat shadowy extinction, due to strain, may often be noticed in the quartz. 

(2) Journ. Geol., xxix., 1921, and xxxi., 1923. 



251 



Biotite is plentifully distributed throughout the rock in small flakes only. 
It is often associated with apatite and magnetite, which are frequently included 
in the biotite. The pleochroism of the biotite is from pale brown to a darker 
greenish brown. In some sections this mineral has undergone a slight amount 
of change to chlorite, which is of a pale green colour and pleochroic. Only rarely 
Avere pleochroic haloes observed in the biotite. They then occurred surrounding 
a minute crystal of colourless zircon. The biotite was apparently one of the first 
minerals to crystallise. 

Primary muscovite mica is not as plentiful as biotite,. and in contrast to that 
mineral occurs only very irregularly. Secondary sericitic mica occurs as an altera- 
tion product of felspar. 

Calcite occurs both as an interstitial mineral and also in connection with the 
decomposition of the calcic felspars. 

Titaniferoits iron ore, which is black and opaque, occurs irregularly through- 
out the section. A certain amount of white leucoxene is associated with it. 

Sphene is present in occasional irregular masses, and sometimes shows the 
wedge-shaped outlines typical 'of the mineral. In colour it is greyish-brown, and 
displays a feeble pleochroism. It has undergone marked decomposition to a 
brownish amorphous material. 

Apatite is not plentiful, but very small rod-like forms occur, and occasionally 
larger anhedral masses, often associated with the opaque iron ore. 

Zircon occurs in small quantity, sometimes showing euhedral outlines. It 
also occurs in the biotite, surrounded by a pleochroic halo. 

A chemical analysis of this rock was made by the writer, the results of which 
are given below. 

Chemical Composition of the Aplitic Rock. 
Per cent. 



Silica (Si0 2 ) 
Alumina (Al a O s ) 
Ferric oxide (Fe 2 3 ) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Calcium oxide (CaO) 
Soda (Na,0) . . , 
Potash (K 2 0) . . , 
Water (combined) (H 2 0+) 
Water (hygroscopic) (FLO-) 



73-49 
14-14 
1-26 
0-69 
0-44 
1-60 
3-75 
3-67 
0-34 
0-13 



Carbon dioxide (C0 2 ) 
Titanium dioxide (TiO a ) . 
Zirconium dioxide (Zr0 2 ) . 
Phosphorus pentoxide (P^O 

Sulphur (S) 

Chromic oxide (Cr 2 O a ) 
Manganous oxide (MnO) . 
Barium oxide (BaO) . . 



Per cent. 

Trace 

0-25 

Trace 

, 0-11 

0-05 

None 

0-02 

None 



Total 



99-94 



The specific gravity is 2 '70. 

The Norm. 
Percentage. 

Quartz 34-08 Q ~ 34*08 

Orthoclasc 21 '68 

Albite 31-44 F = 60-35 

Anorthite . . 7*23 

Corundum 1*33 C — 1*33 

Enstatite (hypersthene) .. 1*10 P — 1 ■ 10 

Ilmenite 0*46 

Magnetite 0-91 M — 1*69 

Haematite 0'32 

Pyrite 0*24 

Apatite 0-34 A = 0-58 

Water 0'47 



Salic Group 
95-76% 



. Femic Group : 
?>-?>7% 



In the C.I.P.W. classification the position of the rock is, therefore: 

L, 4, 2, 3. 
The magmatic name is Toscanose, 



252 



Discussion of the Analysis, 

This analysis shows several points of interest when compared with Goodc's 
analysis of the granite. Silica and lime are distinctly higher than in the granite, 
and magnesia slightly so. Soda is practically the same in both analyses, iron is 
about one per cent, lower. However, the greatest point of difference is in the 
potash content, which in the aplitic rock is nearly two per cent, less than in the 
granite. In the following table the above analysis may be compared with that of 
the Mannum granite, and also with several well-known granites occurring within 
a comparatively short distance of Mannum. Also given is the composition of a 
tonalite situated half-way between Mannum and Palmer. The outcrops of this 
tonalite occur nearer to the Mannum granite quarries than any other known 
igneous rock in the district. A point of interest is the similarity in composition 
of the aplitic rock with the granites quoted from Palmer, Swanport and 
Monarto : — 





A. 


B. 


C. 


D. 


E. 


F. 


SiO- . . 


. 73-49 


70-77 


73-96 


72-42 


74-20 


63-88 


AL.O, . . 


. 14-14 


13-69 


13-67 


15-49 


14-53 


16-37 


FeX> 3 .. 


. 1-26 


1-97 


1-22 


0-44 


1-14 


1-99 


FeO 


. 0-69 


0-97 


1-03 


1-03 


0-90 


2-96 


MgO , . 


. 0-44 


0-34 


0-56 


0-20 


0-20 


2-24 


CaO 


. 1-60 


0-94 


1-56 


1-44 


1-00 


5-18 


Na 2 . . 


. 3-75 


3-70 


3-01 


4-30 


3-06 


3-66 


K.O . . 


. 3-67 


5-68 


3-36 


3-78 


3-55 


1-61 


H.O+ .. 


. 0-34 


0-45 


0-04 


0-12 


0-15 


0-45 


H 3 0- . . 


. 0-13 


0-36 


0-29 


0-18 


0-15 


0-21 


CO, 


. Trace 


— 


0-22 


0-04 


0-11 


None 


Tid 2 . . 


. 0-25 


0-72 


0-37 


0-22 


0-29 


0-86 


p 2 o 6 . . 


. 0-11 


0-11 


0-16 


0-19 


0-08 


0-23 


Other constit. . 


. 0-07 


0-45 


0-31 


0-13 


0-16 


0-07 



Total 



99-94 100-15 99-76 99-98 99-52 



99-71 



A. Aplitic rock, Mannum. Anal., A. R. Alderman. 

B. Granite, Mannum. Anal., B. F. Goode (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. li., 

1927, p. 127). 

C. Granite, Palmer. Anal., W. S. Chapman (Geol. Surv. S. Austr., bull. 10, 1923, 

p. 68). 

D. Granite. Monarto. Anal., W. S. Chapman (Geol. Surv. S. Austr., bull. 10, 1923, 

p. 68). 

E. Granite, Swanport. Anal., W. S. Chapman (Geol. Surv. S. Austr., bull. 10, 1923, 

p. 68). 

F. Tonalite, near Mannum. Anal, A. R. Alderman (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 

vol. li., 1927, p. 21). 



Petrographjc Description of ttte Basic Rock. 
Macroscopic Features. 

Examined in the hand-specimen, this rock is very dark in colour, heavy, and 
rmely noncrystalline. Except for a few larger rectangular crystals of felspar of 
porphyritic habit, the rock is even-grained. Minerals distinguishable in the hand- 
specimen are: — (1) Felspar in long lath-like forms, and occasional larger crystals 
which show a rectangular outline. These are colourless, with a somewhat 
opalescent appearance. (2) A black ferromagnesian mineral, apparently horn- 
blende. (3) Black flakes of biotite mica; this being but rarely seen. (4) Brass- 
yellow specks of pyrites. 



253 

From the appearance, structure, and the apparent degree of basicity, as judged 
in the hand-specimen, the rock would probably be classed as a lamprophyre. 

Microscopic Features. 

In thin section, this rock is seen to consist essentially of plagioclase and green 
hornblende, with smaller amounts of biotite and iron ore. No trace of fluidal 
arrangement is evident, although the lath-like form of the felspar crystals would 
be particularly adapted to the preservation of such structure. The rock is holo- 
erystalline, and owing to the fact that the crystallisation of some of the felspar 
has preceded that of the remainder of the rock, a texture is produced in which 
subhedral felspars occur in an allotriomorphic granular base. The average 
diameter of the grains in the groundmass is about - 25 mm. The large felspars 
are, however, considerably larger than this ; the largest one seen in the hand- 
specimen measured nearly a centimetre along its longest axis. 

The minerals present are the following: — 

Plagioclase, both in large subhedral crystals and in smaller lath-like anhedrons. 
The composition of the plagioclase is different in these two classes. Determina- 
tions were made by means of the maximum extinction angles observed on a plane 
normal to 010. The large porphyritic crystals gave a composition of AT>*. S A%& 
which is a fairly basic labradorite. The smaller felspars of the groundmass gave 
a composition equivalent to Ab 48 An 52 , which is an acid labradorite. This decrease 
in basicity from the earlier crystallising plagioclase to that which crystallised later, 
is what would be expected. Carlsbad twins are quite common, in addition to the 
usual Albite twinning. The refractive index of all the felspar is higher than that 
of Canada Balsam. The effects of strain are shown by the development of 
"secondary twinning." 

After the felspar, primary hornblende is the most important mineral. When 
viewed in ordinary light it is pale green in colour. In polarised light it shows a 
strong pleochroism, the colour varying from pale brown to dark green. It con- 
tains numerous minute inclusions of magnetite, often arranged parallel to the 
cleavage traces. None of the hornblende present shows euhedral or even sub- 
hedral outlines. 

Biotite is far less plentiful than hornblende, but is regularly distributed 
throughout the sections in fair quantity. The pleochroism of the mineral is 
normal and strong. The biotite has apparently been very resistant to alteration 
in any form; only in very rare cases may a slight change to chlorite be observed. 

The opaque minerals are apparently of three different kinds. Ilmenitc, 
shown by its change to leucoxene, is plentiful, and is scattered in irregular grains 
throughout the rock. Pyrites, generally in larger grains, is, however, not as 
plentiful as ilmenite. It occasionally shows its cubic form. Magnetite occurs as 
minute inclusions in the hornblende. 

Apatite, as an accessory mineral, is plentiful. It is present, sometimes in 
small irregular grains, but generally in its characteristic rod-like form. 

The presence of a small amount of sphene is interesting in a rock of this 
degree of basicity, as all the other rocks described from this area contain this 
mineral. The sphene present in this rock is pleochroic, and is of a light-brown 
colour. It occurs in irregular anhedrons. 

The order of crystallisation seems to have been: — (1) iron ore, (2) basic 
labradorite, (3) acid labradorite, (4) biotite, (5) hornblende. 






P>. F. Goode has made a chemical analysis of this rock, the results of which 
are given below : — 

Chemical Composition of the Basic Rock. 
Per cent. 



Silica (SiO,) 46-79 

Alumina (ALO.O .. -■ 18"09 

Ferric oxide (Fe,0 3 ) . . 4-07 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) . . 7*05 

Magnesia (MgQ) .. . . 7'31 

Calcium oxide (CaO) . . 9"67 



Soda (Na O) 

Potash (K.O) 

Water (PLO) 

Titanium dioxide (Ti0 3 ) . . 
Phosphorus pentoxide(P 1 .0 5 ) 



Per cent. 
3*38 
0-77 
0-40 
1-99 
0-46 



Total 



99*98 



The specific gravity is 3*03. 
The Norm. 

Percentage. 

Orthoclase 4 "45 

Albite 27-25 F 

Anorthite 31 -69 

Nepheline 0'85 L 

Diopside 10*69 P 

Olivine 13-92 O 

Jlmenite 3 '80 

Magnetite . . 6'03 M 

Apatite 1*01 A 

Water 0*40 

In the C.I.PAV. classification the position of the rock 

II., 5, 4, 4-5. 
The magmatic name is Hcssose. 



63-39 

0-85 
10*69 

13-92 

9-83 
1*01 



Salic Group 
64-24% 



Femic Group 

35-45% 



is, 



therefore : — 



Discussion of the Analysts. 

No points of special interest are disclosed by these figures, the results of 
analysis appearing normal in every way. Perhaps the most notable point is the 
high percentage of titanium. 

The low silica percentage (46*79) places the rock in the basic class, and the 
absolute dominance of basic plagioclase (i.e., labradorite) makes it a member of 
the calc-alkali series. These facts, together with the mode of occurrence and the 
mineralogical character of the rock, class it as a hornblende-lamprophyrv. The 
name hornblende-lamprophyre is preferred to that of Spessartite, which was 
suggested by Rosenbusch for a lamprophyrc of this description. 

Comparison of the Analyses of the Mann um Rocks. 

The interpretation of the results obtained by the chemical analysis of such 
rocks is necessarily a difficult matter. It is obvious that some method of graphi- 
cally representing chemical analyses will often show points of interest which 
would not be realized directly from the analyses themselves. The method of 
comparison used in this paper will be that known as the "variation-diagram." The 
percentages of silica are taken as abscissae, and the percentages of the other main 
constituents are plotted as ordinate. For purposes of representation, all the iron 
is reckoned as ferrous. The constituents, besides silica, shown on the diagram 
are : — alumina, total iron, magnesia, lime, soda, and potash. 

It will be seen that the analysis of each rock is represented by a number of 
points on a vertical line. 



255 



Variation Diagram for Mannum Rock 



s. 




45 



50 



55 60 65 

Percentage of Silica. 



10 



15 



The above variation diagram does not tend to chow any simple form of 
relationship between the three rocks represented in it. With two exceptions, no 
simple gradation is shown in the proportion of the constituents from the basic 
end to the acidic end of the series. These two exceptions are iron and soda, the 
variation-curve in each case being a straight line. It will be seen from the diagram 
that the curves for alumina, magnesia, and lime are all concave upwards, the last- 
mentioned notably so. However, the point of greatest note is the behaviour of 
the potash line. The sharp bend downwards at the acidic end denotes an unusual 
variation. 

From these facts it would appear that if the basic rock and the acidic rock, 
here described, were derived by magmatic differentiation from the normal Mannum 
granite, then this differentiation must have been of an exceedingly complicated 
and abnormal kind. 

The point which now arises is this. Are we justified in taking the composi- 
tion of the_ Mannum granite, as is revealed to us by chemical analysis, as being 
representative of the original composition of the parent magma? Several points 
tend to show that the answer to this question should be in the negative. 

These points arc : — 

(1) The general appearance of the rock. It does not possess that "plutonic 
fades" which is generally associated with a normal hathylithic granite. 
The great preponderance of felspar in the rock helps to give it the 
appearance which it possesses. 



(2) 



(3) 



256 

The small extent of the occurrence. This fact suggests that the 

granite represents some small "cupola" at the roof of a huge granitic 

bathylith. It is reasonable to expect that the lighter, more felspathic 

portions of the magma would be found at the top of the intrusion, 

that is particularly in the cupolas. This point is supported by — 

The chemical composition of the rock. As can be seen by reference 

to the chemical analyses quoted earlier in this paper, the Mannum 

granite differs from the other South Australian granites which occur 

within a reasonable distance of it. Particularly is it different in its 

potash content. As has been suggested above, this may be accounted 

for by the concentration of felspar at the roof of a bathylithic intrusion. 

These points naturally introduce another question. If, then, we do not regard 

the granitic rock at Mannum as being truly representative of the parent magma, 

what rock can we find which fulfils these requirements? 

In a case such as this the distance factor is an exceedingly important one. 
Therefore, the rock which may very well be considered first is the tonalite, which 
occurs roughly halfway between the townships of Mannum and Palmer and has 
been described by the writer. (3) It is very probable that this tonalite extends 
below the surface covering of Tertiary sediments and Recent alluvial for a con- 
siderable distance in the direction of the Mannum granite quarries. 

In order to compare the chemical compositions of the Mannum dyke rocks 
with the tonalite, use has been made of the same type of variation diagram as 
was previously employed. 

Variation Diagram for Tonalite and Mannum Dyke Rocks. 




45 



50 55 60 65 

Percentage of Silica. 



70 



75 



(3) Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., vol. li., 1927, pp. 20-22. 



257 

A glance at the above diagram is sufficient to show the great difference 
between this and the previous one. The relationship of each constituent is of the 
simplest kind, there being definite gradation from one rock to another, as is shown 
by the straight lines, or almost straight lines of each variation-curve. 

From the linear variation of the constituents of these rocks, it would appear 
highly improbable that the rocks were not very closely related, and that the 
differentiation was not of a very simple type. Dr. A. Holmes, <4) discussing linear 
variation-diagrams, says "the fact that even with three analyses a straight line 
diagram is achieved, indicates that the rocks concerned are related in an unusually 
simple way." 

The fact that these rocks are very closely related to one another does not, 
however, show that the tonalite is the parent rock from which the M annum dykes 
have been differentiated. Although the possibility of this must, of course, be 
considered, it must be admitted that the probability of it is not very great. 

Previously, in this paper, attention has been drawn to the fact that the aplitic 
rock at Mannum bears a great resemblance chemically to the granites occurring at 
Palmer, at Monarto, and at Swanport. In the case of all these rocks, for instance, 
the soda and potash in each are very nearly the same. It thus appears to the 
writer that the dyke rocks at Mannum and the tonalite were derived from a 
granitic magma, which was not very different in composition to the granites of 
Palmer, Monarto and Swanport. The average of the compositions of these three 
granites for the main constituents is : — 

„. rt p er cent. Per cent. 

Si0 2 73-53 MgO .. .. 0-32 

Al a 3 14-50 CaO ' 1-34 

Fe 2 O s 0*93 Na 2 3-46 

FcO .. 0-99 K 2 3-56 

The similarity of these averages to the composition of the acidic dyke rock 
from Mannum is very striking. It seems possible to the writer that the granites 
of Palmer, Monarto and Swanport are all derived from one parent magma, the 
slight lithological and chemical differences being but local variations, and 'that 
the tonalite and the dyke rocks of the Mannum district are very simply related 
to the same magma. The Mannum granite was very probably derived from the 
same source by a more complicated method of differentiation. 



Summary. 

Chemical analysis of the basic and aplitic dyke rocks at Mannum, shows no 
simple relationship between these rocks and the granite in which they occur. 
These dyke rocks, however, seem to be very simply related to a tonalite which 
occurs in the neighbourhood. The Mannum granite was very probably derived 
from the same ma,gma ias the tonalite and the dyke rocks, by a more icbmplex 
method of differentiation. 

Acknowledgments. 

The thanks of the writer are due to Professor Sir Douglas Mawson for his 
help and advice, and also for placing the facilities of the geological laboratories 
of the University of Adelaide at the writer's disposal. He also wishes to thank- 
Mr. B. F. Goode for permission to use the analysis of the Mannum lamprophyre. 

Department of Geology, 

University of Adelaide. 



(4) "Petrographic Methods," 1921, p. 446. 



258 



THE CRYSTAL FORMS OF PYROMORPHITE AND STOLZITE. 

By J, O. G. Glastonbury, B.Sc., and F, J. Semmens, B.Sc. 
(Communicated by C. T. Madigan, M.A., B.Sc, F:G.S.) 

[Read September 12, 1929.] 

The purpose of this contribution is to place on record the forms assumed by 
certain well-crystallised minerals occurring at Broken Hill. 

The nomenclature of the faces is that employed by Barker in his "Graphical 
and Tabular Methods in Crystallography." 

The angular measurements were obtained by means of Goldschmidt's two- 
circle goniometer, which admits of determinations accurate to 30". The system 
of recording the position of faces is that of two-circle work, not the zone method 
of single-circle goniometry. The i> readings are on the vertical circle, and the 
p readings on the horizontal. 

Pyromorptttte from Broken Hill, N.S.W. 

Well-developed crystals of pyromorphite were obtained from Broken Hill, 
N.S.W. Their colour is yellow, with resinous lustre. The crystals are small and 
often bunched together, so that usually they are singly terminated. Some occur 
in vughs, where they attain perfect form. It was with these crystals that we 
worked mainly. From measurements of crystals which, owing to their contact 
with others, had the faces at one end suppressed, we found that the forms 
developed were essentially the same as those crystals which, owing to more favour- 
able circumstances, were fully developed. 

Pyromorphite is in the pyramidal hemihedral class of the hexagonal system. 

The e-axis, calculated from the measurement of the angle 0001 A 1011 
(^40° 22') of several crystals from Broken Hill, is 07362, which agrees with 
Haidinger's determination as recorded in Dana (1). 

There are two common types of crystal. One is very simple, consisting of 

I a hexagonal prism m } 

\ a hexagonal bi -pyramid p, 

and basal planes c (see fig. 1). 

The other type is similar to the first, but it has a second order hexagonal 
prism, ^ developed as well (fig. 2). 

We observed that the dull brown variety of pyromorphite, which looks like 
clusters of small cauliflowers, does not exhibit this second order prism. This is 
true of this coloured variety found at Broken Hill, and also_of similar material 
from Ems, Nassau. O. Bowles (2) observed this form (1120) on wax yellow 
crystals from the Society Girl Mine in South-Eastern British Columbia, but he, 
too, did not observe it in any of the brown crystals with which he worked, it 
thus seems that this face is found only on the yellow variety of pyromorphite. 

The crystals are prismatic in habit, elongated parallel to the c-axis. The 
prismatic faces often do not exhibit perfect parallelism but converge towards the 
end of the c-axis, thus giving the crystals a barrel shape. Bowles points out that 
this non-parallelism is due to vicinal faces, but he does not mention the fact that 
curvature takes place towards both ends of the c-axis, thus producing the barrel 
shape of the crystals. 



259 



No twinned crystals were seen, although they are recorded by Klein (3) 
and Bowles. 

The angular measurements obtained, and the forms present, are shown in 
the table : — 

Forms m s c p 

(10T0) (1120) (ooon (loll) 

<£ 90° 60° — ' 90° 

p 90° 90° 0° 40° 22' 

Stolzite from Broken Hill, N.S.W. 
Some small crystals of stolzite from the Proprietary Mine, Broken Hill, 
N.S.W., are to be seen in the Tate Museum, University of Adelaide. These 
crystals are of an orange colour, and occur on the surface of black manganiferous 
material in the zone of solution. They are extremely well crystallised, and faces 
are quite often developed at both ends of the crystal. 

Stolzite is in the Tetragonal system, and shows pyramidal hemihedrism. 




m 





The c-axis, calculated from the angle 001 A 101 (= 57° 27') is 1'5667, agree- 
ing with Kerndt (Dana), but not with C. Hlawatsch, who is quoted as" el vine 
1-5607 in Dana (4). i s s 

Three combinations of crystal forms were noticed; two of these being very 
common, and the third much rarer. 

Of the two common types, both of which were simpler than the third, one 
was very simple indeed, consisting of 

a tetragonal by-pyramid of the first order, o, 
a tetragonal by-pyramid of the second order, q, 
and basal planes, c (fig. 3). 

The other was more complex, having, in addition, 

two-third order by-pyramids, x, and y (fig. 4). 

This type showed that stolzite belongs to the Pyramidal Hemihedral class of 
the Tetragonal system, and not to the full symmetry class, as the first type would 
lead one to think. 

The third type was much rarer; in fact, of some twenty specimens measured, 
only two showed these forms. 



260 



This type has, in addition to the forms mentioned above, three other second 
order by-pyramids, d, e, and s; and also a first order tetragonal prism, m, and a 
second order tetragonal prism, b. 

The third order tetragonal by-pyramid, y (212), has not previously been 
recorded. 

The angular measurements obtained, and the forms developed, are : — 

Forms c d c q s x o m y 

(001) (013) (023) (011) (021) (133) (111) (110) (212) 

& . o° 0° oo 0° 18028' 45o 45o 63°26' 

p 0o 27037' 46°15' 57°27' 720 18' 59°19' 65°43' 90° 60^9' 

In several crystals the first order tetragonal bi-pyramid, o, was striated 
parallel to the edge (111)— (110). In these cases the reflections obtained were 
not well defined. 



6 

(010) 

oo 

90 o 




<fy 5 



Some crystals exhibited twinning, but we were unable to determine the type. 

We are deeply indebted to Mr. C. T, Madigan for much advice and encourage 

merit in this work. . 

Geological 1 laboratory, 

University of Adelaide. 
List of References. 

1. HAiDiNGER^Dana, "'System of Mineralogy," p. 770. 

2. O. Bowles— Am. J. Sc, v. xxviii., p. 40, 1909; v. xxxii., p. 114, 1911. 

3. Klein— Dana, "System of Mineralogy, App. I." 

4. C. A. H law atscti— Dana, "System of Mineralogy, App. II." 



26] 



ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

No. 27. 

By J. M. Black. 
[Read September 12, 1929.] 

Gramineae. 

Danthonia geniculate, nov. sp. Culmi tenues, 10-35 cm. alti, prope basin 
saepe geniculati ; folia filif ormia pubescentia, radicalia dense caespitosa, 4-6 cm. 
longa, caulina brevia distantia; panicula densa 1^-2^ cm. longa, 1-1^ cm. lata, 
5-15-spiculata; spiculae 4-5-flores, glumis exterioribus latis, 6-8 mm. longis, e viridi 
pallentibus; gluma florifera usque ad ortum aristae 2~2| mm. longa, ad basin et 
supra medium annulo pilorum cincta vel pilis superioribus subsparsis, lobis 
lateralibus 4-54 mm - longis lanceolatis et brevissime aristatis, arista centrali iis 
vix longiore; palea obovata obtusa dorso pubescens, 2£mm. longa. 

Keith; Bordertown ; Dismal Swamp (near Mount Gambier) ; Millicent ; 
Kangaroo Island.— Victoria (Hawkesdale). Resembles in habit D. carphoides 
with smaller spikelets, but the 2 lateral lobes of the flowering glume are twice 
as long asthe basal part, lanceolate instead of ovate and taper into distinct awns; 
the palea is also much smaller. 

Danthonia auriculata, nov. sp. Culmi tenues, 20-30 cm. alti, interdum 
geniculati ; folia pilis patentibus pubescentia, filif ormia vel caulina planiuscula et 
circiter 2 mm. lata; panicula densa interdum ad racemum reducta, l-J-3 cm. longa, 
H-2 cm. lata, 4-15-spiculata ; spiculae 5-8-flores, aristis glumas exteriores latas 
cymbifonnes pallide virides 10-13 mm. longas superantibus, pedicellis 2-3 mm. 
longis; gluma florifera usque ad ortum aristae 3 mm. longa, ad basin et supra 
medium annulo conspicuo pilorum cincta, lobis lateralibus 7-10 mm. longis, in 
aristam gracilem pro plus quam dimidio longitudinis eorum angustatis, utroque 
lobo auricula triangulari mcmbranacea ad basin marginis exterioris instructa, 
arista centrali quam lobi laterales 2-3 mm. longiore; palea ovato-cuneata obtusa, 
4 mm. longa, dorso pubescens. 

Adelaide plains and foothills; Jamestown, Bundalecr Hills. This species 
also resembles D. carphoides externally, but is distinguished both from that species 
and from D. genicidata by the longer and long-awned lateral lobes, the longer 
central awn, and especially by the small triangular membraneous auricle at the 
base of each of the 2 lateral lobes, where they are joined to the basal part of the 
flowering glume. 

Cyperaceae. 

Cladium monocarpum, nov. comb. = Schoenits monocarpus, J. M Black in 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A. 52:225 (1928). 

Back Valley, near Inman River; Breakneck River, K.I., coll. J. B. Cleland. 
This plant appears to be better placed in Cladium than in Schoenits, the rhachilla 
of the spikelets being straight and not flexuose between the flowers. Like 
C. capillaceum (Benth.) C. B. Clarke it has the glumes subdistichous and close 
together, but the stems are not so slender, the spikelets are longer and the nut is 
not crowned by the thickened base of the style. 

Cladium gracile, nov. sp. Caules plani debiles striati, 12-20 cm. alti, 
minus quam 1 mm. lati; folia basalia, equitantes, saepe longiora quam caulis, plana, 
linearia, acuta, striata, circiter 1 mm. lata; spiculae circiter 3-6, distantes, pecli- 
cellatae, racemum laxum vel paniculam formantcs; bracteae vaginantes, inferiorcs 



262 

planiusculae, laminis brevibus debilibus erectis, superiores glumiformes ; spiculae 
4-5 mm. longae, 1-flores; glumae subdistichae, brunneae, acutae, una alterave 
vacua, proxima superior florem triandrum trigynum atque glumam vacuam parvam 
complicatam includcns ; nux obovoidea, trigona, cum apice rotundato pubescente. 
Breakneck River, Kangaroo Island. Differs from C. acntum (Labill.) Poir. 
in the weak, not rigid leaves and much looser panicle; from the West Australian 
C laxum (Nees) Benth. by the smaller stature, narrower leaves and fewer 
sptkelets, with only 1 flower instead of 2-3. 

Leguminosae. 

Acacia microcarpa, F. v. M. nov. var. linearis, Phyllodia late linearia, 3-6 cm. 
longa, 21-3 mm. lata, mucronata ; legumen supra semina 5 mm. latum.— Near 
Monarto South. 

Acacia pence; F. v. M. Specimens of this rare species were collected by 
Dr. Ward on Andado Station, C. Aust., about 60 miles north of our border. More 
recently Professor Cleland and Mr. Madigan received samples of the phyllodia 
at Birdsville, Old., to which place they had been brought by Mr. L. Reese, owner 
of Minnie Downs Station, which is in South Australia, close to the Queensland 
border. Thev were collected about 15 miles north of the boundary of our State. 
At Andado Station this Acacia forms a small and strictly localized grove of trees 
up to 12 m. high and called the "Sheoaks" on account of the resemblance due to 
the drooping branchlets and slender phyllodes. The type came from north of 
Wills Creek, Qld., and Mueller described the phyllodia as "2-4 inches long." 
Some of them "are, however, fully 25 cm. (nearly 10 inches) long, very slender, 
rigid but fragile, conspicuously tetragonous and pale in colour. The pod is flat, 
up to 15 cm. long and 4 cm. broad. The seeds are transverse, distant, compressed, 
ovate, about 10 mm. long. Withered flowers show that the sepals are usually 5, 
scarcely 1 mm. long, linear-lanceolate, ciliate, shortly united near base, the petals 
2£ mrn. long, acuminate, glabrous, united near base. The shape and size of the 
flowerhead is not vet known. The type, collected during Howitt's expedition and 
delivered to Baron von Mueller, had evidently only short phyllodes, butthe tree 
is accurately described— "Pini vel Casuarinae imaginem exhibens." Specimens of 
the wood, turned and polished in Adelaide, display varied and beautiful colours. 
Near Birdsville. according to Mr. Reese, the tree is named "Waddy." 

RUTACEAE. 

Correa calycina, nov. sp. Frutex ramulis laxe tomentosis; folia oblonga 
vel ovato-oblonga obtusa crassiuscula, 2-4 cm. longa, supra glabresccntia viridia, 
subtus pallidiora stellato-pubescentia ; pedunculi brevissimi; calyx subcampauu- 
latus, circa 12 mm. longus, extus sparse stellato-pilosus, intus stellato-tomcntosus, 
lobis' latis, breviter acuminatis, tubum subaequantibus ; petala cohaerentia, 
20-25 mm. longa, rubescentia vel subviridia ; stamina exserta, 4 nlamentis alternis 
valde dilatatis ; ovarium sericeum. 

Upper Waterfall, Hindmarsh Valley. Differs from. C\ reflexa in the 
narrower, greener leaves, larger calyx with much longer lobes ; has somewhat the 
aspect of C. acniula, but the leaves are obtuse and mostly narrower and the calyx- 
lobes broader and never conspicuously longer than the tube, while the petals cohere, 
and the peduncles are very short and without bracts. C. calycina has, so far. 
been found only in the one locality; collector, J. B. Cleland. 

COMPOSITAE. 

Helichrysum ambujunm, Turcz. nov. var. paucisctum. Variat, ut typus, 
magnitudine et indumento f oliorum ; pappi setae 4-8 in floribus bisexualibus. 



263 



aliquae aut omnes basi dilatatae et denticulatae, supra basin dcfractae; nores 
feminei sine pappo in omnibus capitulis inspectis. 

South Australia (Cordillo Downs and Hamilton Bore, coll. J. B. Cleland ; 
Ooldea, coll. Mrs. Daisy Bates;) Central Australia (Idracowra, coll. R. Tate; 
Depot Sandhills, River Finke, coll. S. A. White;) Western Australia (Barrow 
Range, coll. R. Helms). 

Helichrysum Based owii. The collation of further specimens shows that this 
species, described by me in these Transactions 52: 230 (1928) cannot be separated 
from Leptorrhynchus tetrachaetus var. penicillatus, J. M. Black in Trans. Roy. 
Soc. S.A. 45: 19 (1921). It appears to me to be worthy of specific rank and to 
be better placed in Helichrysum. Its distribution extends from the Flinders 
Range to our northern boundary in the Musgrave Ranges, and it will probably 
be found in Central Australia. 

Basedowia helichrysoides, E. Pritzel in Fedde, Rep. 15:360 (1918). An 
inspection of the type of Hmnea tcnerrima, F. v. M. et Tate in Proc. Roy. Soc. 
S.A. 16: 368 (1896), lent by the Victorian National Herbarium, proves that these 
names are conspecific, and I have already altered the name in the Flora of South 
Australia to "Basedowia tenerrima (F. v. M.) nov. comb." Neither specimen 
shows the base of this delicate little plant, which appears to be very rare. Mueller's 
specimen, was collected by R. Helms near Mount Ilbillec (Everard Range) ; 
PritzeFs by Dr. Basedow "in central part of South Australia." 

Athrixia tenella, Benth. nov. var. horripes. Pedunculi squarnis plumosis 
superne instructi, quae squamae bracteas exteriores involucri simulant. — Karootida 
(Murray lands). This form approaches the West Australian A. Croniniana, 
F. v. M., but the pappus-bristles are those of A. tenella, 

Myriocc phalli s rhizocephahts, (DC.) Benth. nov. var. pluriflora. Capitula 
partialia 4-5-flora, bracteis 5-7 lanatissimis. — Flinders Range (between Lakes 
Torrens and Frome). 

Sonchus megalocarpus (Hook, f.), nov. comb. Herba perennis robusta 
erecta stolonifcra, 20-60 cm. alta; folia crassa coriacea, caulina oblonga in lobos 
rotundatos aculeato-dentatos pinnatifida vel indivisa et sinuato-dentata, omnia 
auriculis latis rotundatis amplexicaulia ; capitula in corymbos inaequales disposita ; 
mvolucrum 18-20 mm. longum glabrum vel in bracteis exterioribus subsetosum ; 
achaenia oyato-oblonga straminea vel brunnea, 6-7 mm. longa, 2-3 mm. lata alis 

Qntl 11tnarn +-1 c «i K r« *-. -n ^ ^ r*^ ni-Z ^ 1.-..^. ~.^J._- J 1 1 M 1 _ _ " £""* ■ TT'1i < 



^. ^^ u^^imi^u vv-x ui uiui^a, \j~f illUJ. lUllgd, £,-*) llllll. Iclld iXilh 

adnumeratis, absque 3 costis longitudinalibus laevia.— S. asper, Hill var. megalo- 
carpus, Hook, f. Fl. Tasm. 1:227 (1860); var. littoralis, J. M. Black, Nat. Fl. 
S.A. 104 (1909), et probabiliter var. littoralis, Kirk in Trans. N.Z. Inst. 26:265 
(1894). 

Chiefly sandhills along the coast from Port Adelaide to Port MacDonnell, S.-F. 
—Coasts of Victoria, New South Wales, Tasmania, and, probably, New Zealand. 



264 



AN INTERESTING NEW THRIPS FROM AUSTRALIA. 

By Dudley Moulton. 
(Communicated by Arthur M. Lea. F.E.S. ) 

fRead September 12, 1929.] 

Plate XL 

Among a large collection of Thrips sent to me from the South Australian 
Museum, I found one very unusual form which is unlike anything previously 
known. The greatly enlarged fore legs give it the general appearance of a crab, 
and it would seem from the form of these legs that the species must be predaceous. 
The genus and species arc described herewith. 

Carcinothrips, n. gen. 
(Karkinos = crab.) 

Head approximately twice as long as wide. Eyes large and protruding, 
occupying two-thirds the width of the head. Cheeks straight, constricted at base, 
armed with eight to ten strong spines on either side, not on warts. Antennae 
8-segmented. 

Prothorax large and excluding coxae, broadly hexagonal in shape. Fore 
femora greatly enlarged, about 1*75 times as long and L5 times as wide as head. 
The armature at the end on the inside of each consisting of three strong forward 
directed teeth. The tibiae are reduced to small horn-shaped appendages directed 
inward, and each ends in two horn-shaped teeth. The two outer teeth of the 
femora appear to fit between the two distal teeth of the tibiae. The tarsi are 
extremely rudimentary and appear to be useless organs in the middle on the under- 
side of the tibiae. Pterothorax broad in front with nearly straight sides, narrowed 
posteriorly. Femora of middle and hind legs greatly broadened in the centre, 
strongly ovate in shape, each arising from an extremely small pedicel. Middle 
and hind tibiae and tarsi short and stout. Wings fully developed, broad, with 
parallel sides. Abdomen normal, tube slightly more than half as long as head. 

Tvpe of genus Carcinothrips leal, n. sp. 

Carcinothrips leai, n. sp. 

Female holotypc : Colour of head, prothorax and fore legs brownish yellow, 
with teeth of fore femora decidedly darker. Antennal segments one and two brown, 
the second being lighter toward the tip, three to seven yellow, brown at extreme 
lips, eight brown. Pterothorax and abdomen dark brown, middle and hind legs 
concolorous with abdomen except inner sides of femora, which are shaded lighter. 
Wings clear. 

Total body length 2*74 mm.; head, length *483 mm., width at eyes "26 mm., 
ai middle '23 mm. ; prothorax length '30 mm., width in middle not including coxae 
■516 mm., including coxae *6 mm.; pterothorax, width -6 mm., width at posterior 
margin '43 mm.; width of abdomen "55 mm.; tube, length *266 mm., width at 
base '10 mm. Length of fore femora along outer margin to base of tibia "75 mm., 
from base to tip of inner tooth on the inside *916 mm., width in middle "383 mm. 
Length of middle femora '433 mm.; width in middle "233 mm.; length of hind 
femora '50 mm.; width in middle '266 mm. Length of spines: ppstoculars 



265 

135 mic, cheek spines 90 to 100 mic, at anterior angles of prothorax 45 mic, 
mid-laterals 60 mic., outer pair on posterior angles 35 mic. (inner pair broken 
off). Spines on ninth abdominal segment 210 mic, at tip of tube 285 mic. 
Segments of antennae: length (width) L, 39 (48) ; II., 75 (45) ; III., 126 (39) ; 
IV., Ill (42); V.. 96 (39); VL, 75 (36); VII. 60 ( ?) ; VIII., 30 (?); total 
length, 585 microns. 

Head slightly more than twice as long as width across cheeks, not noticeably 
projecting in front of eyes. Cheeks almost straight and parallel to near base, 
where they are constricted neck-like, without conspicuous markings, with eight 




to ten strong, sharp spines along either side. Postocular spines long and with 
pointed tips. Eyes large, semi-oval, clearly protruding, facets small. Ocelli fully 
developed, placed far forward. Mouth cone short, extending only to middle of 
presternum, broadly rounded. Antennae 8-segmented, about 1"2 times longer 
than head, segments three to six elongate-clavate, seven to eight closely joined 
but distinct ; sense cones short. 

Prothorax broadly hexagonal in shape, with a median dorsal thickening aris- 
ing at one-fourth its length from anterior margin, and extending to the posterior 
margin. Spines at anterior angles and sides moderately small, those long anterior 
margin vestiginal, outer spines of posterior angles long, inner spines broken off. 
All spines with pointed tips. Pronotum without other markings. Pterothorax 



266 

broadest in anterior half, conspicuously narrowed posteriorly. Fore legs greatly 
enlarged and strongly armed. Each fore femur about 1*75 times as long and 
1-5 times as wide as head, armed on the inside with three strong, forwardly 
directed teeth, the innermost of which is longest. The tibiae greatly reduced, 
projecting inwardly in front of the armed femora, these are horn-shaped and end 
in a pair of teeth which appear to fit on either side of the two longer teeth of the 
femora. Each tibia also with two blunt knobs on the inside which fit on either 
side of the shorter, outer femoral tooth. Tarsi apparently useless, appearing as 
rudimentary appendages on the underside near the middle of the horn-shaped 
tibiae. Wings fully developed, short and broad, appearing to be without double 
fringe hairs. 

Abdomen normally developed with segments two to seven of almost equal 
width. Tube 2'5 times longer than width at base and little more than 1*5 as 
long as head. 

Type Material: Female holotype collected by Mr. A. M. Lea and named in 
his honour. On Acacia sp. in September. Type deposited with South Australian 
Museum, Adelaide. (Moulton, No. 3,116). 

Type locality : Barton, South Australia. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE XL 
Carciiwthrips leai Moulton. Greatly magnified. 



267 



THE SPREADING TENDENCY OF SOLUTIONS OF VARIOUS ACIDS 
AND SALTS UPON A CLEAN MERCURY SURFACE. 

By R. G. Mitton, M.Sc. 
(Communicated by R. S. Burdon, B.Sc, F.Inst. P.) 

[Read September 12, 1929.] 

I. Introduction. 

1. The Spreading of Solutions on a Mercury Surface. 

Attention was drawn in 1925, in a paper by Burdon, (1) to a number of 
phenomena which accompany the spreading of drops of distilled water and drops 
of aqueous solutions of various acids or salts upon a freshly-prepared mercury 
surface. 

It was found that if mercury, perfectly free from any traces of greasy 
contamination, was poured in a carefully cleaned glass dish in the presence of air, 
then :— 

(1) a drop of a solution of an alkali in distilled water showed no tendency 
to spread on the mercury surface ; 

(2) a drop of distilled water or very pure conductivity water spread slowly 
and uniformly to a thin circular disc ; 

(3) a drop of a solution of an acid or salt in distilled water spread in a 
flash across the mercury surface. 

By using increasingly dilute solutions a curious phenomenon became apparent. 
For a given dilution a drop of acid or salt solution flashes out over the mercury 
surface to a perfectly definite area maintaining a circular shape, and then continues 
to spread slowly and uniformly at about the same rate as distilled water. The 
dilution at which this effect became apparent was found to be much greater for 
acids than for salts. 

It was found further that, using acids of varying strength between *00008 
normal and "0004 normal, the area of surface covered during the brief instant of 
rapid spread was directly proportional both to the size of the drop and to the 
concentration. . Moreover, the area covered was found to be practically indepen- 
dent of the particular acid employed, being almost the same for a weak acid such 
as butyric as for hydrochloric or nitric acid. Dibasic acids, it was found, spread 
to twice the area per molecule covered by monobasic acids. The actual area 
covered was about one sq. cm. for each 10 14 molecules of the acid present. It 
was argued, therefore, that it was improbable that a monomolecular film was 
formed on the mercury surface, since even under the assumption that all the 
molecules of acid come, into contact with the mercury surface during the short 
time that rapid spread is taking place, there can still be only one molecule of acid 
present for every ten atoms in the mercury surface, 

2. Measurements with Adsorbed Films upon a Water Surface. 

Introductory experiments of a qualitative nature by Rayleigh (2 > and by Miss 
Pockels (3) led finally to the more accurate measurements of Langmuir/ 4) 

(1) Proc. Phys. Soc. Lond. 38, 2, p. 148. 

(2) Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. xlvii., pp. 281, 364; vol. xlviii., p. 127. 
< 3 ) Nature, vol. xliii., p. 437. 

<4) Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, xxxix., 2, 1917, p. 1,848. 



268 

Adam/ 3 * and Adam and Jessop (6) of the pressure exerted by a thin film of fatty 
acid molecules adsorbed upon a water surface. 

By consideration of the amount of fatty acid placed upon the water surface 
and of the "pressure" (7) exerted by the film against a floating barrier, these experi- 
menters have been able to show that in general the films are only one molecule 
thick, and that the molecules of the adsorbed substance are all oriented with the 
long chains projecting vertically out of the water surface. The molecules are 
attached to the water by the more active portion of the molecule which is, so to 
speak, immersed in the water while the remainder of the molecule, having no 
affinity for the water, projects vertically out of it. The fact that molecules of 
the same series were found to occupy the same area of the water-surface per 
molecule, independently of the length of the chain, led to measurements of the 
areas of cross section of the molecules. For most of the substances examined 
this area was found to be about 21 x 10~ 16 sq. cm. 

Further work by Adam and Jessop (loc. cit.) led to the consideration of the 
films as existing in three phases corresponding to the gaseous, liquid, and solid 
phases in three dimensions, and a very close analogy has been drawn between the 
behaviour of an ordinary gas and the behaviour, at very low pressures, of the 
adsorbed films. Under these low pressures the films may be regarded as equivalent 
to gases in two dimensions, each molecule in them being able to move freely in 
any direction upon the water surface but being confined to this plane. In par- 
ticular, two laws have been adduced experimentally which are exactly analogous 
to "Boyle's Law and the perfect gas law for ordinary gases. 

Thus, if the "two dimensional pressure'' (i.e., the force per unit length 
exerted against the barrier) is F, the area of the water surface for each molecule 
of the adsorbed substance is A, k is a constant, R the constant of the gas equation 
pv — R#, and is the absolute temperature, then it is found that: — 
FA = k at a constant temperature, 
and FA = Ti6 when the temperature is allowed to vary. 

So interesting and important were the results obtained by this group of 
experimenters in their measurements of the pressures exerted by "films on a water 
surface. that it seemed worth while to attempt a quantitative measurement of the 
pressures exerted when various acids and salts had spread on a mercury surface, 
and the present paper represents the outcome of these experiments. 

Li. Apparatus Employed and the Preparation of Materials. 

About the same time as the experiments of Adam and jessop, Marcelin 00 
had attempted the measurement of the pressure exerted by films upon a water 
surface by means of two different types of apparatus. 

The first of these was operated upon the principle of the aneroid barometer 
and may be understood in reference to the plan given in fig. 1. 

Al _ ip 




Fig. 1. 



(5) Proc. Roy. Soc. A. 99. p. 336. A. 101. p. 452, etc. 

(6) Nature, April, 1926, p. 484. 

( ? ) The term "pressure" will be often used in the present paper in the sense in which 
Adam uses it, of force per unit length of the barrier. 

<s> Marcelin, Ann. de Phys. 10th Ser., 4, 125, p. 459. 



269 

Three sides of a rectangle, open above and below, consisted of a rigid frame- 
work AB, BC, CD, while the fourth side was constructed of a thin flexible sheet 
of mica AD. The whole was allowed to float on a water surface and, a drop of 
fatty acid dissolved in benzine having been placed within ABCD, the movement of 
the central portion of the mica, magnified by a suitable lever system, served to 
measure the pressure of the film. This method was found to be only sufficiently 
sensitive to register comparatively large pressures of the surface films. 

The second type of apparatus depended upon the principle of the torsion 
balance, and was used by Marcelin and Delaplace in the measurement of low 
pressures as well as those of the more compact film. 

A shallow trough abed containing water was placed inside a glass case ABCD 
(fig. 2) in order to protect the surface, so far as possible, from dust contamina- 



VVVVVVVW VTvW 



i , 



1 



\\\\N\\\S\\W sX 



VVuvwuwvu^ 



h 



Fig. 2, 



\ 



tion from the air. Floating upon the water was a hollow rectangle of celluloid 
(shown shaded in the figure), which was held in position by four needles passing 
vertically through holes at the corners of the celluloid rectangle. A barrier TT' 
floated upon the water and was attached to a torsion wire and a torsion head 
directly above T'. Thus the barrier could turn about T' in opposition to the 
torsion in the wire. In taking a measurement a drop of the film-forming material 
dissolved in benzine was placed upon the water surface S, the benzine allowed 
to evaporate and the pressure of the remaining film measured by turning the 
torsion head to exactly counterbalance the pressure of the film against the barrier. 
During the time benzine was still present in the water surface, the barrier had to 
be clamped owing to the high pressure this solvent gave until it had evaporated. 



270 



A further barrier and a long screw served to vary the effective surface S without 
the removal of the glass case ABCD. 

It is important to notice that on account of the low pressures for which 
measurements were required, the barrier TT' could not be allowed to make actual 
contact with the sides of the hollow rectangle. However, the apparatus was so 
constructed that the clearance at each end was only 1/5 mm. By observation of 
the movement of particles of lycopodium powder scattered upon the water surface, 
Marcclin reached the conclusion that no appreciable leak occurred, except for high 
pressures of the film, and accordingly he neglected any leak which might have 
taken place. 

It seemed possible that one of these methods employed by Marcelin for his 
measurements of the pressures of the films upon a water surface might well be 
applicable to the study of the pressures of spreading films upon a mercury surface. 

In the first place, a strip of thin steel spring bent to the shape of an ellipse 
was used after the manner of Marcelin's aneroid barometer type of apparatus. 
The ellipse was allowed to float upon the mercury surface, one side being held 
steady in a clamp while the other side was observed by means of a tele-microscope 
when a drop of solution was placed upon the mercury within the ellipse. It was 




hoped that a movement of this side of the elliptical enclosure would be observed 
and serve as a measure of the pressure exerted by the spreading drop, but the 
apparatus was apparently not sufficiently sensitive and no movement whatever 
was detected. 

A second apparatus of a similar type was also tried. In this a strip of thin 
platinum ribbon was joined to a glass frame to make the fourth side of an 
apparatus similar to that used by Marcelin (fig. 1), the platinum ribbon replacing 
the mica strip in his experiments. However, it was found that the platinum 
ribbon was always pulled down flat on to the mercury surface, in which position 
the apparatus became insufficiently sensitive for any accurate measurement. 
Coating the ribbon with shellac by dipping it into a solution of this substance in 
alcohol did not, so far as could be observed, affect the spread of the drop of 



271 

solution upon the mercury, and this prevented amalgamation between the platinum 
and the latter. Even so, however, it did not completely do away with the tendency 
of the ribbon to lie flat upon the surface, while a fresh difficulty now appeared. 
The spreading drop of acid or salt solution spread readily beneath the platinum 
ribbon at various points, rendering measurement of the pressure impossible. 

Finally an apparatus similar to that employed by Marcelin for work at low 
pressures was devised, and this was used to take all the measurements recorded in 
this paper. 

A piece of thick plate glass had a hollow depression ground upon one surface 
of the shape of the shaded portion in fig. 3. Clean mercury could be forced 
upward through a tube which passed through the glass plate at O, and would then 
overflow, filling the depressed portion of the plate. This depression was suffi- 
ciently shallow to ensure that the upper surface of the large drop of mercury so 
formed would always be about 2 mm. above the surface of the remainder of the 
glass plate. Both CC and CO are arcs of circles having their centres at B A 
thin glass barrier BB' was pivoted at B and supported by a fine torsion wire of 
phosphor-bronze m such a manner that the end B' could be raised or lowered 
vertically while movement in a horizontal plane was opposed by the elastic forces 
of the torsion wire. It was found that, a drop of mercury having been formed 
and the barrier lowered until one end floated upon its surface, the pressure exerted 




by a spreading drop of dilute acid could readily be demonstrated by the movement 
of the glass barrier. 

It appeared that freshly-formed drops of mercury showed little trace of a 
tendency to adhere to the ground glass surface of the barrier, but on the other hand 
after the latter had remained some time in contact with the mercury considerable 
adhesion was noticeable. The shape of the depression in which the drop was 
formed was, therefore, so chosen that the same portion and the same length of 
the barrier would remain m contact with the drop of mercury for small move- 
ments of the glass rod from its mean position. (In view of the experience gained 
during the use of this torsion balance, however, this precaution does not seem to 
have been really necessary.) 

The mercury was passed from the depression after a reading had been taken 
by means of a second glass tube which had been ground to fit a coned hole in the 



272 

glass plate at the point P (fig. 3). This tube had been cut away at one side as 
shown in fig. 4, so that, when the lower side I was turned toward the mercury the 
liquid could flow freely down the tube, carrying upon its surface the acid solution, 
while the mercury could be retained in the dish if the side h of the tube was turned 
toward the depression. Thus the dish could be emptied by turning the glass tube 
through 180°. 

Fig. 5 represents the apparatus in its final form. 

The torsion wire, TT' of 34 gauge phosphor-bronze wire and about 48 centi- 
metres in length, had a torsion head attached and a graduated scale and pointer 
at T. P represents the thick glass plate, BB' the glass barrier, while the tube by 
which the mercury is drawn off is shown at E. Clean mercury is poured into the 
wide tube R, and is led along AA until a sufficient quantity has overflowed from 
the inlet at the centre of the glass plate to fill the depression in it. The plate P 
rested upon a sheet of plate glass 35 cm. in diameter, upon which fitted the 
cylindrical glass cover CCCC which served to encase the apparatus. The sheet 




Fig. 5. 

of plate glass and the glass cover of the apparatus were ground to fit closely, and 
the joint between them was smeared with rubber grease. It had been found that 
this substance did not give off sufficient vapour to affect the cleanliness of the 
mercury surface, if care were taken that no actual contact occurred between the 
grease and the mercury. A fine thread attached to the barrier at B' passed out 
through a mercury seal at D, and served to raise or lower the barrier. A pipette G, 
passing through the upper side of the case, was used to place drops of solution 



in 

upon the mercury surface. Two further tubes HH' served to draw dry air 
through the apparatus. A tap was sealed to the outlet tube E in order to prevent 
air from entering the apparatus at this point. This tap had of necessity to be 
left ungreased in order to avoid contamination of the mercury; and the ground 
glass joints of the tubes where the mercury entered and left the case were like- 
wise necessarily left without grease, but apart from these joints each tube which 
entered the case was sealed to it either with hard sealing wax or by means of a 
ground glass joint and rubber grease. It was hoped, in this way, to obtain an 
atmosphere free from water vapour within the case. The whole apparatus was 
fitted with levelling screws. 

Burdon (loc. cit.) drew attention to the fact that neither the slow-spreading 
drop of water nor the fast-moving acid or salt-solution was able to spread over 
the curved surface at the edge of the mercury in the dish. In the present experi- 
ments, however, considerable difficulty has in certain cases been encountered, 
owing to the fact that acid solutions in almost every instance, and occasionally 
pure water also, have been found to pass the curved edge, leaving the dish wet 
when the mercury was poured away. However, only very slight traces of the 
solution usually reached the dish, the bulk of the latter liquid being carried away 
upon the surface of the mercury; so that it has been found sufficient in most cases 
to merely allow the dish to dry, when, upon washing it out once or twice with 
clean mercury, further readings could be taken. In a few cases, when dealing 
with less volatile acids such as sulphuric or even nitric, the acid molecules remain- 
ing on the dish were sufficient to render later readings uncertain unless a con- 
siderable time were allowed to elapse after the dish had become dry. On the 
other hand, this difficulty was not met with when using such acids as hydrochloric, 
nor did it occur when salt solutions were being used. In these two cases the 
dryness of the dish was sufficient to indicate when a further reading could be taken. 

It was hoped that the floating barrier, by sinking in the mercury and causing 
a depression of its surface, would act in exactly the same manner as the edge of 
a dish and practically prevent the spread of the acid beyond it. It was soon found, 
however, that this was not the case, and an acid solution or even distilled water 
spread readily past the barrier. In every instance this occurred merely at the ends 
of the barrier, and in no case has there been observed such a leak, except at these 
points. All attempts to prevent this leak proved futile. The barrier was ground 
to a V-shape in an attempt to render the curvature of the mercury surface more 
pronounced than was the case for the circular glass rod previously used in this 
connection. Weighting the barrier and depressing it more deeply in the mercury 
produced no effect whatsoever upon the leak, until the barrier was forced to the 
bottom of the dish, when the drop of mercury within it became completely divided 
into two. 

It was impossible, therefore, to use the apparently obvious procedure of 
placing a drop of solution upon the mercury surface and turning the torsion head 
until equilibrium was obtained. The following method has consequently been 
used for measuring the instantaneous spreading pressures. 

Fixed to the glass dish near the end W of the barrier (fig. 5) was an upright 
glass rod. To obtain a reading, the point was found to which the torsion head 
had to be turned in order to allow the barrier to float upon the mercury surface, 
almost making contact with this fixed rod. The torsion head was now turned 
through perhaps 70 degrees, so that the barrier was pressing firmly against the 
glass upright, and a drop of the solution to be tested was placed upon the mercury 
surface, so that the force exerted by the spreading drop would oppose the twist 
of the torsion wire. The mercury was poured out and fresh mercury introduced, 
the torsion head turned to, say, 60 degrees, and the procedure repeated until 



274 



finally a torsion was found at which the spreading drop would just move the 
barrier very slightly. By this method of trial and error it was possible to find the 
force exerted by the spreading drop. The assumption is made that, on account 
of the rapidity with which the reading was taken, no leak had taken place before 
the barrier began to move. Reference will be made presently to the justification 
for this assumption. 

It should be emphasised that the method has the distinct disadvantage that 
it measures merely the pressure at one particular instant during the spreading of 
the drop upon the mercury surface, that is, at the time when this pressure has 
reached a maximum. Thus the method will not serve to show whether this 
pressure would be maintained for a period if no leak occurred, and, if so, for 
what duration of time. The rate at which the barrier returns to its original 
position after being driven off through twenty or thirty degrees by a spreading 
drop of solution does indeed show that some pressure is maintained for at least 
a few seconds after the solution has ceased to spread; but., in the absence of any 
method of measuring the leak past the barrier, this does not afford any quantita- 
tive measure of the "static" pressure of the drop. 

The criticism by Adam and Jessop (loc. cit.) of the apparatus and experi- 
mental methods of Marcelin in measuring the pressures of the films upon a water 
surface, was levelled chiefly against the insufficient precautions taken to secure 
absolute cleanliness and the purity of materials used, and against the insufficient 
precautions taken to overcome leak past the barrier. In view of the apparently 
unreliable results obtained by Marcelin and the similarity of his apparatus to the 
one here employed, particular attention has been directed toward eliminating errors 
from the sources mentioned. Marcelin, in testing for leakage past the barrier, 
used lycopodium powder scattered upon the water surface, and since no motion 
of these particles was observable at low pressures of the film, concluded that any 
leak which did occur was negligible. In a similar test upon a mercury surface 
no trace of leak has been observed until the acid drop itself has begun to spread 
past the barrier, when, of course, the particles receive a slight displacement. If, 
however, as seems probable, a thin film of water vapour is already present upon 
the mercury surface before the drop of solution is placed upon it, then the move- 
ment of the lycopodium particles certainly represents an insufficient criterion of 
compressions and movements of this film, and little reliance has been placed upon 
this effect as proving the non-existence of a leakage past the barrier. By adopting 
the experimental method previously described, however, it appears that the loss 
of pressure owing to leakage during the taking of a reading is made sufficiently 
small for it to be neglected without introducing serious error. 

In no case when a reading has been taken has the time which elapsed between 
the instant at which the drop of solution reached the mercury surface, and that 
at which the critical movement of the barrier occurred, been of more than one 
second's duration. Now, by allowing the barrier to be pushed off through a 
certain distance by a spreading drop of solution and measuring the time taken for 
it to recover its initial position, some idea of the rate at which leak occurs may 
be obtained. It was found that an initial reading of pressure of about four dynes 
per cm fell at the end of fifteen seconds to zero, and since the movement of the 
barrier back to its initial position was a steady and uniform one, the rate of the 
leak was probablv also approximately constant. On the other hand, with an 
initial pressure of twenty dvnes per cm., which is of the order usually recorded 
in these experiments, it was found that a leak occurred equivalent to about one 
dyne per cm per second. No attempt has been made in the measurements recorded 
in this paper to make an allowance for the leak past the barrier even at higher 
pressures chieflv owing to the difficulty of estimating the fraction of time during 



which leak takes place before the maximum pressure is recorded. As stated 
above, this time is certainly not greater than one second in any case ; and it may 
be considerably smaller since leak can only occur at the ends of the barrier, and 
these ends are the last portions of the rod to be reached by the spreading drop. 
If, therefore, as seems not improbable, little leak occurs until the drop of solution 
itself approaches the barrier, the maximum pressure against the rod may occur 
almost exactly at the instant when leak begins. Whether this latter is the case or 
not, however, there seems every reason for concluding that no serious error is 
introduced in neglecting any slight losses of pressure from this source. 

In these experiments the same precautions have been taken for cleaning the 
glassware and the mercury as those recorded in the paper by Burdon (loc. Hi*)* 
The mercury was cleaned by distillation in a hard glass still under reduced pressure 
in a slow current of air, then shaken with strong sulphuric acid containing a few 
crystals of potassium bichromate, washed thoroughly in distilled w T ater and dried. 
In the first instance the spread of a drop of distilled water upon the surface of 
the mercury was used as a test of its purity and freedom from grease contamina- 
tion, etc. This test, however, in spite of its extreme sensitiveness to any con- 
tamination upon the metal surface, was found to be insufficient, and another test 
was always used in actual practice before and after taking a set of the measure- 
ments recorded in this paper. This test consisted merely in measuring the 
pressure exerted by a drop of acetic acid solution, concentration one-hundredth 
molar. Under the very best conditions for spreading this gave, it was found a 
pressure of 17 dynes per cm., when the drop of solution was applied to the mercury 
surface 30 seconds after the latter had been poured in the dish. In practice all 
readings were disregarded if the two test readings with the acetic acid solution 
failed to comply with this standard. The reasons for adopting this particular 
solution and concentration as the standard one, will appear later. 

Only glassware was allowed to come into contact with the mercury, and all 
parts which did so were first carefully cleaned by first immersing in sulphuric 
acid containing a few crystals of potassium bichromate, then washing with distilled 
water, and drying. There appears to be no reason for attempting to obtain very 
pure substances for forming the solutions, drops of which were to be applied to 
the mercury surface, and ordinary chemically pure acids and salts have been used 
throughout. 

The torsion wire of the apparatus was calibrated by measuring the amount 
of twist of the torsion head necessary to counterbalance a known torsion. It was 
found that one degree of the torsion head was equivalent to a two dimensional 
"pressure" of '22 dynes per cm. upon the mercury surface. The drop of solution 
given by the pipette used was found to be -03 c.c. in volume. Various tests were 
made of the amount of solution in a drop from the pipette under differing condi- 
tions, and it was shown that the volume of the drop never varied by 3% from the 
mean value quoted above. 

III. Variations in Conditions of Spreading. 

In observing the spread of an acid upon a clean mercury surface exposed to 
the air, it quickly became apparent that inconsistent results were being obtained 
upon different days, which could not be explained merely by assuming that the 
mercury had become contaminated. Thus, in an extreme case upon a cold day, it 
was sometimes found that fairly dilute acid would show little tendency to spread 
upon a freshly-poured mercury surface, while the same mercury, washed in 
distilled water but otherwise untreated, would often allow even distilled water to 
spread upon its surface when poured in the same dish a few days later. It was 
found that warming the dish often caused a very marked improvement in the 



276. 

conditions of spread, and the thought immediately suggested itself that the varia- 
tion of the spreading was due to a variation of the amount of water-vapour which 
had condensed upon the mercury surface from the air in the form of an adsorhed 
layer. Accordingly the apparatus was enclosed as described in the large glass 
cover and dry air was drawn through the apparatus. Whether because of the fact 
that a minute leak of moist air could not be prevented, or whether from some 
other cause, very little improvement in the reliability of the readings was observed. 
Burdon and 01iphant, (9) however, who have observed various phenomena of the 
spread of liquids upon a mercury surface within a perfectly air-tight case, appear 
to have rendered their measurements perfectly reproducible by taking care that 
only dry air should be admitted to the case. There appear to be then, only two 
possible' explanations of the discrepancies found at various times. Jn the first 
place it may be that owing to the ground-glass joints at the points where the 
mercury enters and leaves the apparatus, sufficient air entered the glass cover at 
these points to give a humidity high enough to arlcct the results. Without a 
reconstruction of the whole apparatus it would have been impossible to completely 
prevent leakage at this point. It would appear, however, that this cause is in itself 
insufficient to bring about the changes described, since attempts made to render 
the readings more consistent by forcing dry air into the apparatus and thus main- 
taining a pressure slightly greater than atmospheric within the case met with little 
success. There still remains the second possibility that a sufficient evaporation 
takes place from the drop of solution from the end of the dropping pipette to 
cause discordant results. If a monomolecular film of water vapour is all that is 
necessary to bring about the variations mentioned, then evaporation from the 
pipette may well be the cause of the whole difficulty. A possible explanation from 
some other cause has been sought, such as a contamination of the mercury surface 
by the dust or carbon dioxide of the air, or by small bubbles of water carried with 
the mercury into the apparatus from the separating funnel in which the mercury 
was washed. Upon examination, however, none of these explanations have 
appeared tenable. Moreover, if we may accept the validity of the results of 
Iredale, (I0) in his experiments upon the adsorption of water at a mercury surface, 
the hypothesis that the fluctuations are due largely to a condensation of water 
vapour upon the mercury in the dish would appear very probable. The work of 
this experimenter w r as, of course, carried out by means of the "drop-weight" 
method of measuring surface tension, and the evidence adduced by Burdon and 
Oliphant throws some doubt upon the applicability of this method to determina- 
tions with mercury. Nevertheless, there seems little reason to question the fact 
that Tredalc's results are at least relatively correct, even if the absolute values 
obtained by that experimenter should prove unreliable. 

Further evidence for the conclusion that a film of water-vapour is respon- 
sible for the fluctuations which have occurred from day to day will be given later, 
when the relation between the spreading pressure and the time that the mercury 
has been poured is discussed. 

Mention may be made here, however, of similar inconsistencies occasionally 
encountcred by Gouy (11) when carrying out measurements of the fall of surface- 
tension of a mercury surface in contact with various solutions. Gouy used the 
reliable "big drop" method, and found that his measurements had to be taken fairly 
quickly on account of the fact that the interfacial tension fell rapidly after 
contact of the mercury and solution for a short time. In the case of certain solu- 
tions it was found impossible to take readings at all, owing to the extreme rapidity 

(9) Burdon and Oliphant, Far. Soc. Trans., xxiii., 3, 1927, pp. 205-213. 

(10) Iredalc, Phil. Mag., xlv., 1923, p. 1088; xlviii., 1924, p. 177. 
m) Gouy, Ann. de Phys. vi., Ser. 9, 5, 1916. 



277 

with which the interfacial tension fell off after the large drop was formed. In 
some instances, however, when dealing with solutions upon which measurement 
was usually possible, an occasional reading showed a large variation from the 
value of others of a series, and the discrepancy was far too large to be regarded 
as merely due to the inaccuracy of the measurement. The cause of these occasional 
erratic readings does not appear to have been traced, but they may possibly have 
been due to movements of the solution being experimented with, which have 
caused an irregular adsorption of the molecules of the solute. These examples 
of irregular behaviour would thus correspond fairly closely with those, recorded 
in this paper. 

Now, while the pressures recorded for one solution have been found to vary 
considerably from the value found upon any given day, yet the results obtained 
upon one particular day have been, in almost all cases, remarkably consistent 
among themselves and seldom varied by more than a few per cent, from one 
observed value. Therefore, since the test already mentioned (Acetic Acid l/100th 
molar solution to give a pressure of 17 dynes per cm.) has been applied when- ; 
ever readings have been taken, and all measurements discarded when these con- 
ditions of spreading were not fulfilled, it is believed that, in spite of the incon- 
sistencies which have occurred upon many occasions, only those readings have 
been accepted, during the taking of which the controlling conditions have been 
identical and most favourable to spreading. Probably, in these cases, the amount 
of water-vapour in the air was sufficiently small or the evaporation of the 
adsorbed film from the mercury sufficiently rapid for the remaining molecules to 
be practically ineffective in preventing spreading. There seems no reason why 
the adsorbed water-vapour film should be the only factor which tends to prevent 
spreading. An adsorption of other molecules — e.g., the nitrogen and oxygen of 
the air — probably occurs also at the surface of the mercury, and this adsorption 
may also play a part in determining the tendency for spread to occur. Indeed, 
although the complete interpretation of the phenomena described by Popesco (12) 
in his paper upon the surface-tension of mercury in vacuo, and in the presence of 
various gases, may differ widely from that given by him, yet it seems probable 
that the complete explanation must take into account some adsorption of gases 
and vapours at the mercury surface. 

IV. Variation of Pressure with the Time the Mercury has 

been Poured. 

If the mercury was allowed to stand in the dish for a few minutes after being 
poured before the drop of solution was placed upon it, then it was found that the 
pressure which the spreading solution exerted was considerably smaller than the 
pressure given by a drop spreading upon a freshly-poured mercury surface. If 
the pressure exerted is plotted against the time the mercury has been allowed to 
stand before the drop of solution is placed upon it, then curves of the type given 
in fig. 6 are obtained. Tables I. and II. give the data from which these 
curves have been drawn. It is observed that in the case of the spreading of the 
sulphuric acid solution a test-reading with acetic acid was not taken, and it is 
believed, therefore, that the time-values are only a fraction of those which might 
have been obtained under other conditions, although quite consistent in them- 
selves. This question will be discussed later. 



(12) Popesco, Ann. de Phys. 10th Ser. 3, 1925, p. 402. 



278 




10 
So 



40 
no 



&o 



too 

30O 



no 

360 



420 ?/^Ct 



SO 

ISO IfO 

SECONDS 

Fig. 6. 

Spreading Pressure against Time for: — 

I. Sulphuric Acid — 1/50 Molar, and II. Sodium Chloride — Molar. 

Variation of Surface Tension of Mercury with Time (Popesco). 







io 4o 6o 



too 116 



(Co 

Fig. 7. 
Time in Seconds. 



2co 



279 



Table I. 

(t — time in seconds which the mercury has remained in the 

dish before the drop of acid was applied ; p — pressure exerted 

by spreading drop in dynes per centimetre.) 

Solution of concentration l/50th molar; temperature 22°C. 



t 


P 


5 


30-3 


10 


29-6 


IS 


30-8 


20 


28-0 


25 


26-9 


30 


26-3 


35 


25-1 


40 


25-1 


45 


25-1 


50 


247 


55 


24-1 


60 


22-5 


65 


21-8 


70 


20-6 


75 


19-6 


80 


18-4 


85 


14-6 


90 


12-3 


95 


4-4 


100 


2-2 


120 


< 2'2 but slow 




spread still 


i . . 


occurs 



Table II. 

Molar solution of sodium chloride, temperature 17°C. 

Test reading with acetic l/100th molar gives p = 17 dynes per cm. 



t 


P 


30 


31-2' • 


60 


29-6 


90 


28-2 


120 


27-1 


150 


26-0 


180 


24-7 


240 


17-0 


300 


10-8 


360 


7-4 


420 


6-2 


480 


4-4 



Exactly similar curves have been obtained with every solution tested : sul- 
phuric acid, nitric acid, acetic acid, and hydrochloric acid of concentrations vary- 
ing from molar to l/1000th molar, and also with a molar solution of sodium 
chloride. Each curve shows the three characteristic portions, AB, BC, CD. Now, 
the inconsistency of the readings referred to in the previous pages is most clearly 
marked in the consideration of these pressure-time curves. Whereas it was com- 
paratively easy to reproduce on successive days the readings for the pressure of 
a drop placed upon the mercury shortly after it had been poured, yet considerable 
variation would still be observed for the pressures upon a mercury surface which 
had stood for some time before the drop was placed upon it. It was observed, in 
fact, that upon different days the curves were of exactly similar type and could 
be brought into complete agreement with one another if all the time ordinates 
upon a curve w T ere multiplied by a constant factor. Now, this is exactly what 
might be expected if the whole cause of the variation were to be sought in the 
condensation of a film of water-vapour upon the mercury surface. For, if an 
adsorption is the cause of the decreasing spreading pressures, then the actual 
decrease of the latter will be an exact measure of the resistance offered by the 
adsorbed film. Now, the work of the many experimenters upon the fatty-acid 
films upon water has given abundant evidence of the sudden increase of resistance 
to spreading which occurs as soon as sufficient molecules are present to give a 
monomolecular adsorbed film. It appears justifiable, then, to regard the explana- 
tion of the upper portions of these pressure-time curves as follows. During the 
time represented by the portion AB a monomolecular adsorbed film is in the 
process of formation, and this offers a slight resistance to spreading. By the 
time represented by B, however, so large a fraction of the surface is covered with 
adsorbed molecules of water, that when the film is suddenly compressed by the 
spreading drop a monomolecular film is formed upon the far side of the barrier,, 
which film can oppose quite a large resistance to any movement of the latter. 
Consequently the pressures recorded decrease very rapidly from this point onward. 

Moreover, if the falling off of the pressures along the portion AB is due to 
the resistance to spreading offered by a film of water-vapour, then the difference 
of the pressures between A and B should be the same in every case and should 
be equal to the maximum pressure which can be exerted by a film of water-vapour 
adsorbed at a mercury surface while the film is still in a state corresponding to 
the "expanded" films of Langmuir and Adam. This difference of pressure should 
then be quite independent of the acid or salt employed. Now, in every curve 
obtained, although the total pressures at A vary from as much as 60 dynes per cm. 
down to about 20, and although the time represented by B varies from 20 seconds 
to as much as two minutes, yet this difference of pressure upon any one curve is 
constant within the limits of experimental error and equal to about 8 dynes 
per cm. 

It seems very probable, therefore, that as a monomolecular film is formed 
upon the surface of the mercury, the effective spreading pressure of the solution 
decreases owing to its having to overcome a pressure exerted by the vapour film. 
It is to be expected that the resistance offered by the latter will be approximately 
proportional to the number of molecules present in the film, and this is shown in 
the linear decrease of the effective pressure which is actually observed along the 
curves from A to B. Finally, when the monomolecular vapour film has been com- 
pleted, the pressure which it can exert increases far more rapidly than before, and 
causes the steeper slope of the curves from B to C. 

These conclusions are in good accord with those expressed by Iredale 
(loc. cit.). It is to be remarked, however, that there appears little justification for 
Iredale's assumption that the films increase to become more than one molecule 
thick. The varying values obtained in his experiments for the surface-tension of 



281 

mercury after a certain vapour-pressure has been reached would appear to be 
exactly analogous to the varying pressures at which the resistance to compression 
of the fatty acid films breaks down. Adam has shown that the pressure required 
to break down a film is quite indeterminate (Proc. Roy. Soc, vol. A 99, pp. 348 
and 349), and the indeterminate results obtained by Iredalc would appear to be 
capable of an exactly similar interpretation, the adsorbed film of vapour in his 
experiments replacing that of the fatty acids in Adam's work. Thus, it is only 
necessary to suppose that the adsorbed film is capable of exerting a pressure 
which is not in all cases the same owing to mechanical vibrations, dust particles, 
etc., and a complete explanation of the whole phenomenon is to hand without 
having recourse to hypothetical films several molecules thick. If Iredale's 
explanation were the correct one, then it would be necessary to suppose that the 
adsorption of the first layer of molecules caused a decrease of surface tension of 
the mercury of 60 dynes per cm. in the case of methyl acetate and 25 dynes per cm. 
for water, while the adsorption of further layers produced a further lowering of 
surface tension in these two cases of 42 and 79 dynes per cm. respectively, Now, 
all our present knowledge of surface-tension phenomena would appear to point to 
the conclusion that the layer of molecules immediately at a surface, or the two 
layers on either side of an interface, contribute by far the greater portion of the 
forces which manifest themselves in surface-tension phenomena, and it appears 
scarcely conceivable that the first adsorbed layer of water-molecules could lower 
the surface tension by only 25 dynes per cm. while further layers give, a further 
decrease of 79 dynes per cm. Moreover, there is no other evidence from other 
sources to justify Iredale's assumption. It should be observed that the portions 
of the curves given by Iredale relating to higher vapour pressures are purely 
hypothetical and not based upon actual measurements. (Fig. 3, p. 1098, Phil. 
Mag., vol. xlv., etc. Vide also discussion on page 1099 of the same paper.) 

It is true that with the comparatively high vapour-pressures employed by 
Iredale in his experiments, it might be expected that a complete adsorbed film! 
would be formed very rapidly indeed. However, as Burdon and Oliphant have 
pointed out, the drop-weight method used by Iredale is almost certainly not a 
purely static one, no matter how slowly the drops may be formed ; and thus, in 
practice, varying amounts of adsorption may be expected to determine the surface- 
tension when the vapour-pressure within the apparatus is varied. 

The theory outlined above appears also to offer an explanation of many of 
the phenomena of spreading described by Burdon. Thus, if a drop of water is 
placed upon a mercury surface upon which a film of water-vapour is condensed, 
then it is to be expected that the spreading of the drop will be opposed by the 
pressure which the film can exert. If now the tendency of the drop to spread (in 
this case possibly a mere gravitational effect) is of the order of a few dynes 
per cm., then this pressure will be insufficient to do more than merely compress 
the water-vapour film very slightly upon the remainder of the mercury surface. 
Now, it is well known that if upon a clean water surface is placed a greater 
quantity of certain substances than is required to form a monomolecular layer, 
then the excess material is drawn up into drops upon the surface while the 
remainder forms a film one molecule thick. If a pressure is now applied at the 
edge of this film the area covered by it will be reduced, some of the film molecules 
passing into the drops upon the surface. An exactly similar phenomenon probably 
occurs upon a mercury surface upon which a drop of water is spreading. If it is 
imagined that a drop of water has the power to exert a very slight pressure against 
the surrounding film, then a gradual adsorption of the film molecules which are in 
immediate contact with the drop of water will occur. Consequently, the number 
of molecules in the adsorbed film being decreased, its resistance falls and a 
gradual spreading occurs. The presence of more than one drop of water upon the 
same mercury surface will make practically no difference to the spread of either. 



282 

Moreover, Burdon and Oliphant have pointed out that the rate at which the 
diameter grows appears to increase with time. If the theory here given is correct, 
and the pressure exerted by the drop against the film may he regarded as constant 
over some period of time, then the increase in area will be proportional to the 
circumference of the drop at any instant, since this will determine the rate at which 
the adsorbed film molecules are taken up by the drop. This would, of course, 
agree well with experiment and observation. 

There are two methods by which the drop of water may maintain its pressure 
against the adsorbed film. In the first place, if the water is not absolutely pure an 
adsorption of dissolved substances may take place at the mercury-water interface 
which will lower the interfacial tension. This, of course, would simply be equiva- 
lent to giving the drop a tendency to spread. In the second place, the weight of 
the drop will itself cause a pressure against the him molecules. If the depth of 
the drop of water is 1 mm., then the hydrostatic pressure will be 98 dynes per 
sq. cm. The force, then, which the drop can exert against a row of molecules in the 
adsorbed film one cm. long will, therefore, be of the order of 3 x 10~ s x 98 — 
2*94 x 10~ 6 dynes (taking the diameter of the molecule as 3 x 10~ 8 cm.). Thus, 
in accordance with this very rough calculation, the spreading pressure of the drop 
due to its gravitational energy alone may be taken as equivalent to a surface tension 
effect of the order of 10~ 6 dynes per cm. It seems rather doubtful whether this 
would be sufficient to cause even the slow spread described by Burdon for high- 
grade conductivity water, and even in the case of very pure w T ater slight traces of 
dissolved substances adsorbed at the interface may aid the spreading. 

In the case of a drop of water placed upon a mercury surface in the presence 
of moist air, the slow rate at which the drop can take up molecules from the 
adsorbed film may be less than the rate of condensation of other molecules from 
the gas, so that in the presence of large quantities of water-vapour in the air no 
spreading will occur. This has, in fact, been observed. 

A further fact noted by Burdon now becomes clear. It was observed that 
a grease contamination of about l/10th that required to form a monomolccular 
layer, was quite sufficient to prevent drops of water from spreading over a mercury 
surface. Under all the ordinary views on the subject it is extremely difficult to 
see how this amount of grease could so markedly affect spreading, although it 
would be clear that the amount which gives a monomolecular layer might well do 
so. It is clear, however, from the excessive rapidity with which mercury can take 
up grease contamination, that the forces of attraction on the grease-molecules at 
a mercury surface arc even more powerful than at the surface of water. Con- 
sequently, if a drop of water is placed upon a mercury surface contaminated with 
even the amount of grease required to give l/10th of a monomolecular layer, then., 
as the drop ol" water spreads ever so lightly, it will come into contact with grease 
molecules which, however, cannot be absorbed by it, and which soon form a pro- 
tective ring at the edge of the drop and prevent the absorption even of the water 
molecules of the adsorbed film. Thus the resistance of the surrounding film is 
maintained and spreading cannot occur. 

In the presence of dry air, however, and with a perfectly clean mercury 
surface, the drop may spread right up to, and over, the edge of the mercury, and 
this behaviour has been observed by Burdon and Oliphant. Moreover, if the 
gravitational energy of the drop is the chief cause of spreading, the movement will 
always occur from the centre outwards, as required by the same experimenters. 

As the spreading drop increases greatly in area, however, the forces tending 
to cause further spreading will diminish, and this for several reasons : — 

1, The gravitational energy of the drop is decreasing. 

2. Such adsorption of dissolved molecules as has occurred at the interface 
will be less effective owing to the increased area per adsorbed molecule. 



283 

3. Evaporation of water from the drop will increase the vapour-pressure 
and consequently increase the rate at which molecules are being adsorbed 
at the rest of the mercury surface. 

Following upon spreading, therefore, a condition may sometimes be reached 
in which the drop remains stationary for a time, and then even commences to 
contract once more, as may be shown experimentally. Moreover, if a drop of 
mercury is poured in fairly dry air and a drop of water placed upon the surface 
before a large fraction of the surface has had time to adsorb a unimolecular layer, 
a much more rapid and complete spreading of the water is to be expected than 
would take place if the mercury had stood for a short period in the dish. This 
effect has often been noticed, and the spread of the drop of water in this case 
proceeds at very many times the rate at which it spreads after the mercury has 
stood for even 30 seconds. Following closely upon this rapid expansion a much 
slower contraction almost always occurs, as the drop is compressed by the slowly- 
forming adsorbed him. 

Still further support for the theory is lent by the observation that water 
spreading upon mercury in the peculiarly-shaped dish used in these experiments 
does not spread as a circular drop, but with a tendency to conform to the shape 
of the dish. This is particularly the case when the spreading is more rapid, when 
any viscous forces in the adsorbed film are necessarily more effective. 

In none of the experiments of this paper has the barrier been wetted by 
spreading drops of solution, although pressures as high as 108 dynes per cm, 
have been recorded. In view of this, and the other evidence given above, it is 
difficult to avoid the assumption, therefore, that an adsorbed film is formed upon 
a mercury surface in the presence of air which is capable of sustaining, for a 
brief period, lateral pressures as high as 100 dynes per cm., but which, neverthe- 
less, gives way exceedingly slowly to such pressures as those exerted by a spread- 
ing drop of water where the spreading pressure is almost certainly less than 
4 dynes per cm. The theory given above is capable of giving a fairly complete 
explanation of the facts, and it is difficult to see any other means by which the 
same effects could be produced. 

A similar explanation should be sought for the case of an acid or salt solution 
spreading upon the mercury surface. Here, indeed, an extremely rapid adsorption 
of the acid ions or molecules at the interface between the mercury and the solution 
takes place. On account of the much greater affinity of the mercury atoms for 
these molecules and the consequently greater loss of free energy at the interface, 
the tendency of the drop to spread will be considerably greater than in the previous 
case, and usually exceeds the pressures exerted by the adsorbed films. Now, in 
this case two separate causes may finally prevent rapid spread. If the adsorbed 
film has not had sufficient time to form completely, and if the acid is very dilute 
(of the order of 1/ 10,000th molar), then rapid spread will cease after the manner 
described by Burdon when the adsorbed acid molecules are spread over a suffi- 
ciently large area for their effect upon the surface tension to be insufficient to 
overcome the pressure of the surrounding adsorbed film. The area covered by 
the rapidly-spreading acid will thus be of the same order, whatever the acid used, 
but will have no direct relation to the presence, or otherwise, of a monomolecular 
film at the interface. On the other hand, if the adsorbed film has been allowed 
to form sufficiently to resist the full pressure which the acid can exert, then no 
rapid spread will occur. In both this case, however, and in that where the drop 
ceases to spread rapidly owing to the complete adsorption of the acid molecules, 
a further slow spread will be possible owing to the taking up of the adsorbed 
molecules by the drop of acid. Thus, in the pressure-time curves described earlier, 
although no appreciable pressure could be recorded in many cases along the 



284 

portion CD of the curves, it was evident from the fact that slow spreading still 
occurred, that some pressure was being exerted by the drops of solution. 

A similar phenomenon is evidenced by the spread of a drop of acid upon a 
mercury surface upon which one drop has already spread and evaporated. In 
this case the second drop will remain sometimes for a period of several minutes 
without showing the slightest tendency to spread, but finally expands slowly across 
the mercury. No doubt adsorption occurred here when the first drop spread, but 
under the pressure of the second drop of solution much of the adsorbed film was 
taken up by it until the drop of acid was able to spread slowly. It seems possible 
that most of the phenomena of expansion and contraction of certain films upon 
a mercury surface may be explained after a similar fashion, the very slight increase 
in evaporation of the film in the expanded state serving to just increase the 
adsorption at the remainder of the mercury surface sufficiently to cause contrac- 
tion. Then, the vapour-pressure falling very slightly, the adsorbed molecules will 
be taken up by the drop of solution more rapidly than condensation of others can 
occur at the mercury surface and a further expansion will occur. In this way 
the whole cycle may be repeated quite a number of times. Now, while it might be 
possible for slow contractions and expansions of this type to take place with any 
solutions, yet only those which can exert a pressure of several dynes per cm. will 
be capable of rapid alternations of expansion and contraction. For if the adsorbed 
film is in equilibrium with a solution which is exerting a high spreading pressure, 
then the adsorbed molecules must be already in the state of the "compressed films'' 
of Adam and Langmuir. Consequently the adsorption of comparatively few more 
molecules will increase by a large amount the pressure that the film can resist, and 
the expansion and contraction of the drop will likewise occur comparatively 
rapidly. In actual experience, rapid alternate expansions and contractions have 
been observed only in the case of moderately concentrated solutions. 

V. The Problem of the Surface-Temsiqw of Mercury. 

In considering the spreading of a liquid upon a mercury surface after various 
periods of exposure of the latter to a gas, Burdon and Okphant have pointed out 
the apparent contradiction of Antonow's Rule in the case in which water spreads 
upon a mercury surface whose surface-tension is very much less than 500 dynes 
per centimetre. The explanation proposed by these workers is, that spreading 
always occurs from the centre of the drop of water where a freshly-prepared 
surface is available. Whether this is so or not, however, the pressure which the 
spreading drop must exert in order to spread at all must — from this standpoint 
at least— clearly be sufficient to overcome whatever resistance is offered to spread- 
ing by the difference, between the surface-tension of the mercury and the sum of 
the surface-tension of the water-drop and the inlerfacial tension at the mercury- 
water interface. For, if within the drop a freshly renewed surface is being 
created, then in doing so work must be done, of which, for unit area of such 
surface created, the difference of surface-tensions of the new surface and the old 
is a measure. The explanation offered does not, therefore, give a very clear 
explanation of the phenomenon. A quite complete explanation of these observed 
facts, however, together with some insight as to what are the factors wdiich cause 
the variation of surface-tension of mercury follow readily from a simple extension 
of the theory already outlined. 

It will be necessary, first of all, to examine critically the theory proposed by 
Popesco to account for the phenomena described in his paper. It is certainly 
probable, as postulated by that experimenter, that an adsorption of gas-molecules 
occurs at the surface of a mercury drop formed in air. This adsorption, however, 
if it does occur, must almost certainly be completed within a period of time of an 
order not greater than a few seconds. For the vapour-pressure of mercury is, at 



285 

ordinary temperatures, of the order of 10~ 3 mm. Hence there must be present 
In the space above a mercury surface about 

1 1 

2-7 X 10 19 X X s= 3-6 X 10 13 

760 10 3 

atoms of mercury per cubic centimetre, since there are 2"7 X 10 19 molecules of 
any gas in one cubic centimetre at atmospheric pressure. If we neglect, in a rough 
approximation, the Maxwell distribution of velocities and consider that one-sixth 
of these atoms are moving toward the mercury surface at any instant, each with 
a speed equal to V 2/200 times that of a hydrogen molecule, then the number of 
atoms which strike one sq. cm. of mercury surface per second is : — 

3-6 X 10 13 XIX V_l_ X 1-84 X 10 5 = 11 X 10 16 

200 

Now, since the density of mercury is 13 "6 gm. per cc, the number of atoms 
in one c.c. of the liquid is given by : — 

6-06 X 10 23 X 13-6, 



200 
and taking the } power of this, the approximate number of atoms of mercury 
present per sq. cm. of mercury surface — 12 X 10 u . 

According to Langmuir's theory of adsorption, every atom of mercury 
which strikes a mercury surface will condense there, evaporation taking place as 
a separate phenomenon. Consequently 11 X 10 16 atoms of mercury enter each 
sq. cm. of surface per second, and since the liquid is in equilibrium with the vapour 
above, this must also be the number of atoms which evaporate. Taking into 
account the number of atoms per sq. cm. of surface, it is clear that the average 
time an atom of mercury remains in the surface is only of the order of l/100th 
of a second. Now, it is exceedingly improbable that an adsorbed gas-molecule 
can remain in the adsorbed state at a mercury surface when the mercury atom to 
which it is attached evaporates. The conclusion appears inevitable, therefore, 
that the life of an adsorbed molecule upon the mercury surface cannot be greater 
than 1/ 100th second. There is, then, no reason why adsorption should slowly 
attain an equilibrium-value at the end of several hours, since, obviously, an 
entirely new cycle must be commenced after all the mercury atoms first present in 
the surface have been evaporated. Such adsorption as does occur, then, must 
take place with extreme rapidity, and the equilibrium-value, both of the amount 
adsorbed and of the surface tension, must be attained at the end of one second 
or less. Evidence from other experiments with adsorption at liquid surfaces 
entirely confirms this idea. Lcnard< 13 > has made estimates of the rate of negative 
adsorption of cane sugar adsorbed at the surface of a solution in water, and finds 
that 95% of the adsorption has taken place within 10" 8 seconds. Positive adsorp- 
tion, while occurring considerably more slowly, takes only periods of from l/100th 
second to one second. Hiss< 14 > carried out some apparently reliable measure- 
ments of the transition from dynamic to static surface tension of an aqueous 
solution of amyl acetate. The values found at a temperature of 14° C arc :— 

Time in seconds. 

0-0000 .• 54-9 



0-0047 
0-0110 
0-0189 



45-7 
40-2 
36-6 
34-8 



(13) Lenard, Sitzungsber. d. Akad. Heidelberg, 5, A, 1914, 28 Abh., p. 16, et seq. 

( !2-, Hiss ' Uber die zeitliche Anderung reiner Flussigkeitsoberflachen., Diss., Heidel- 
berg, 1913. 



286 

It seems likely, then, that the time taken for adsorption of the gas-molecules 
at a mercury surface is of the same order as those periods found in these experi- 
ments, and all the evidence would appear to point to the fact that this adsorption 
is complete within the first second. It seems just possible that the very high value 
found by Meyer (15) for the surface tension of mercury in an atmosphere of 
hydrogen, was due to the fact that in this case very little adsorption even of gas 
molecules had taken place. Meyer used the vibrating jet method, and the surface 
of the mercury had certainly been formed for less than one second when the 
surface tension was recorded. Unfortunately, however, it is not known whether 
the same method has been employed by any other experimenter for measuring the 
surface tension of mercury, and the high value observed in this case (554 dynes 
per cm.) requires confirmation. 

In order to explain his observed results, Popesco made the further assump- 
tion that an orientation of the surface-atoms occurred, this effect becoming 
complete at the end of 24 hours or so at ordinary pressures ; a more rapid change 
being prevented by impacts of the gas molecules in their continual bombardment 
of the mercury surface. Once again, however, the fact that the atoms remain only 
l/100th of a second in the surface renders such a theory untenable., and once 
again independent evidence points to its improbability. For, in order that 
orientation might occur at all and yet take place so slowly, there would be required 
an extremely delicate balance between the forces tending to orientate the atom 
and the impulses of the gas molecules which tend to prevent this. But if the 
orienting forces which act upon the atom are so delicately balanced as to allow 
complete orientation to occur only at the end of several hours, then it would be 
expected that an extremely slight variation of the periods between impacts of the 
gas molecules against a surface atom would bring about an altogether dispropor- 
tionate change in the rate at which orientation occurs, by allowing the mercury 
atom a slightly different period in which to orient itself. Thus it might be expected 
that equilibrium would be reached far more rapidly in a heavy gas such as carbon 
dioxide or oxygen than in the case of hydrogen, where the time between impacts 
is so much shorter. In practice the reverse is, of course, found to be the case, and 
the surface tension of mercury in an atmosphere of hydrogen approaches the 
equilibrium value far more rapidly than in the case of any other gas observed. 

That the forces which tend to orient the atom (if such is indeed the cause of 
the fall of surface tension) are by no means insignificant is shown by the large 
difference recorded between initial and final values, namely, 100 dynes per cm. 
All theoretical considerations from the standpoint of classical mechanical theory 
would appear to point to the, probability of an extremely rapid orientation of a 
free atom, in view of its extremely small moment of inertia. The moment of 
inertia of molecules — such as the molecule of nitrogen — can be shown from mea- 
surements of band spectra to be of the order of 10~ 39 gin. cm. 2 , and the value for 
even the comparatively heavy mercury atom would certainly not approach this 
order. A simple calculation will serve to show that each atom of the mercury 
surface must give up an energy of the order of 10^ 13 erg in order to account for 
the change of surface tension ; which energy would thus be sufficient to cause the 
atom to orientate itself in a time extremely small compared even to the time which 
elapses between the impact of two successive gas molecules. There would thus 
appear to be no reason why orientation should not occur, if it is to do so at all, 
between the impact of two successive gas molecules. There is still the evidence 
of the S'tern-Gerlach experiment upon the magnetic deflection of atoms, which 
puts in evidence the extreme rapidity with which orientation can occur, while in 
the gaseous state at any rate. Finally, there is certainly no evidence available of 

(153 Meyer, Wied. Ann., 66, 3, 1898, p. 523. 



287 



r 



any such lag in orientation as Popesco postulates, from the experiments upon 
fatty acid films upon a water surface, and the forces involved in this case are 
certainly smaller than those involved in the changes of surface-tension of mercury. 

It appears certain, therefore, that the entire explanation given by Popesco 
must be abandoned and a new theory sought to explain the phenomena he describes. 

Now, an examination of the experimental method employed by Popesco, and 
by Burdon and Oliphant, reveals the fact that these experimenters were unable 
to introduce gases into their apparatus without a preliminary evacuation. Nor 
did the construction of their apparatus allow in either case of a "baking out" in 
vacuo, in order to drive off the adsorbed and absorbed gases from the\valls of 
the apparatus. These gases, as is well known, are extremclv difficult to remove 
by any other method than by a preliminary heating at low pressures, and appreci- 
able amounts will still be present after a vacuum has been maintained for manv 
hours at ordinary temperatures. Water-vapour certainly forms a very laree 
percentage of the total volume of the gases emitted/ 16 ) 

It would seem to follow that a certain amount of water-vapour must neces- 
sarily have been present in the gaseous form, even after evacuation. Consequently 
no matter what precautions were taken to ensure that only perfectly dry gases were 
admitted to the apparatus (in neither case, unfortunately, are the precautions for 
drymg the gas described), the gas upon entering must necessarily take up a certain 
proportion of the water-vapour. Now, there can be little doubt that this water- 
vapour is adsorbed far more strongly than are the various gases. (The inter- 
facial tension between mercury and water is about 427 dynes per cm., while 
Popesco's results appear to point to a surface tension against the various ga<es 
of more than 500 dynes per cm. \t has already been shown that the low value 
finally recorded cannot be due to a mere adsorption of gas molecules since 
equilibrium is reached far too slowly.) If the possibility is admitted that very 
slight traces of moisture are thus present in the apparatus, either because of the 
giving up of water-vapour from the walls of the vessel or from the fact the gases 
entering the vessel are not perfectly dry, then it is possible to obtain a fairly com- 
plete explanation of the whole of the phenomena of surface-tension changes of 
mercury measured by the "big drop" method. 

That the surface-tension of metals may be affected by the presence of these 
gases and vapours from the walls of the apparatus is clear from the experiments 
of Hogness/ 17) who found that they caused an appreciable lowering of surface- 
tension, especially above 400°C. This is noteworthy, however, since the same 
experimenter found no appreciable change in surface-tension whether the experi- 
ments were performed in gas at atmospheric pressure or in vacuo, if the apparatus 
was baked out first at low pressures. This, of course, would appear to support 
the theory put forward that practically the whole variation is due to the effect of 
traces of water-vapour. Its importance is not emphasised, however, for two 
reasons. In the first place, the amounts of adsorbed and absorbed gases given off 
in Hogness's experiments at 400°C would be several hundred times larger than 
those which might be expected in the experiments of Popesco or Rurdon and 
Oliphant. In the second place, it should be pointed out that the method of measur- 
ing surface-tension used by Hogness resembles very much the drop-weight method 
which has failed m the hands of some observers to reveal differences of surface- 
tension in gases and m vacuo without any special precautions of baking out of the 
apparatus such as Hogness found necessary, vide Harkins and Ewing " 



■ OS) 



(U) Sherwood, Journ., Am. Chem. Soc, xl., 2, 1918, p. 1645. 
07) Hogness, Jour. Am. Chcm. Soc, xliii., 2, p. 1621, 1921. 
(18) Harkins and Ewing, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, xlii., 2, 1920, p. 2539. 



288 



Harkins and Grafton,"" Rurdon and Oliphant (he. at). Not much stress is, 
therefore, laid upon this observation. 

Since the adsorption of the water molecules at the mercury surface 

involves a larger decrease of the free energy of the system than when gas mole- 
cule are adsorbed there, the adsorption of water molecules must proceed pro- 
" ssiv lv afthe elpense'of the adsorption of the gas molecules, so that the fina 
values of the surface-tension measured by the big drop method will be those for 
I rnercurv su face almost completely covered with an adsorbed film of water 
moTecuks Consequently, the final value of the surface-tension m all gases should 
SttWSV independently of the gas. Moreover, all experi- 
mental evidence would appear to point to the fact that phenomena of surface- 
ens on and interfacial-tension are governed almost entirely by the layer o mole- 
enk s on either side of the boundary surface. It is to be expected then, that the 
final Zm of the surface-tension in these various gases should also be appox - 
n ISelv the same as the value of the interfacial tens,on at a mercury-water mter- 
?ace y The ah of the latter, found by Gouy, is 427 dynes per cm., while Popesco 
liJS the final values for the surface-tension at the end of 24 hours m the various 
gases :— 41g dyneg pgr cm 

O ... 417 

N ! 419 „ ,. „ 

H 419 „ „ „ 

co, .! ■• ■• ■■ 42 2 " " - 

SO, . . • • * - • • ^37 „ ,, 

NH 3 .'. 390 „ „ ,. 

Disregarding the case of the last two gases, where it is extremely probable 
that chemical action occurs at the mercury surface the agreement between the 
other gaSs quoted is sufficiently striking. It is difficult to see how the surface- 
tension could be lowered to exactly the same extent by an adsorption of such 
wddy different gases as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dumde, winch 
vary over a wide range in both their probable affinity for a mercury surface and 
also in the masses of their molecules. Both of these factors should markedly 
affec lie final value of the surface-tension if adsorption of the gas were the cause 
ofthe phenomenon. Moreover, the final value for the various gases does, as 
expected approximate to that of the interface mercury-water. 

Now, the actual amount of water-vapour which must be present m an 
apparatus in order to bring about this adsorption of a monomolecular film of water 
onthe mercury surface is very slight indeed. It has been *gm j****^ °* 
a mercury atom in the surface is very short, and ot the order of 1/1 00th of a 
second Moreover, there is considerable evidence of the strong adsorption ot 
4ses at many metal surfaces (vide, for example, Langmuir's experiments upon 
The ad orption of gases at the surface of hot filaments). Consequently there seerns 
eve y reason to suppose that the "time of stay" of an adsorbed water molecule 
a -mercury surface is at least largely governed by the time which the mercury 
atom to wh ch it is attached itself remains in the liquid In order that a large 
Son of the surface should be covered with an adsorbed film of water molecule 
at any instant, it would then only be necessary that a large number of unpads of 
wa" "molecules should occur per sq. cm. of the surface compared with he numbe 
of mercury atoms which leave the same area. Taking into account, then the fact 
that a water molecule will travel with a velocity about three times that ot he 
mercury atom, it is only necessary that the vapour-pressure of water m the 
apparatus should be about 33 times th^th^ercury_vapourm order that 99^ 

(W'lla^rkh^ind Grafton, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, xlii,, 2, p. 2S34, 1920. 



289 



of the mercury surface should be covered with adsorbed molecules at any instant. 
Now, it is possible that the amount of water vapour present is of this order 
(•03 mm.) in both the experiments of Popesco, and in those of Burdon and 
Ohphant, in which case the surface-tension of a drop of mercury formed in vacuo 
would attain, within a fraction of a second, an equilibrium value which approxi- 
mates to the interfacial tension of water. 

The behaviour of the drop in the presence of a gas will not be quite so simple. 
Measurements of the vapour pressure of mercurv in the presence of air by 
Morley^°> agree fairly well with those of Hill/ 2 *) w hose measurements were 
performed by a vacuum method. It appears reasonable to assume that the number 
of atoms which leave one sq. cm. of the surface in one second is the same in the 
presence of a gas as in vacuo. So that, even in the presence of a gas, this number 
of atoms must be returned to a mercury surface in equilibrium with its vapour. 
I he gas above the mercury surface may be regarded as composed of two 
portions : — 

(a) a surface layer of thickness a few times the mean free path of a 
mercury atom in the gas ; and 

(b) the bulk of gas which lies beyond. 

It is clear that the rate at which the bulk of the gas can pass atoms of 
mercury to the surface will be comparatively small, and determined entirely by 
the rate at which atoms can diffuse through the surface layers of gas. On the 
other hand, much of the surface layer can give up atoms at the surface at a rate 
which depends simply upon the velocity of the individual atoms. It is clear then 
that m any given interval of time the number of atoms which reach the mercurv 
surface, having diffused from the bulk of the gas, will be smaller than the number 
vvhich come from the few surface layers in a ratio of the order of that of the time 
taken for an atom to diffuse through the surface layers divided bv the time the 
atoms would take to traverse the same distance, if no impacts with gas molecules 
occurred. Smce equilibrium is supposed to have been attained throughout how- 
ever, the number of atoms which proceed from the mercurv surface onlv as'far as 
the edge of the surface layer will be greater than that which reaches the bulk of 
the gas m the same ratio. Thus, of the atoms which leave the mercury surface 
by far the greater number are returned to it after comparatively few" collisions 
with gas molecules. Therefore, although the actual time of stay of the mercury 
atom m the surface may be only about l/100th of a second, yet the time which is 
spent at, or near, the surface before the atom finally escapes into the bulk of the 
gas may be quite large. In a similar manner, the time which a water molecule may- 
be held in the neighbourhood of the surface may be correspondingly lengthened 
Consequently, if a mercury surface is formed in a gas at ordinarv pressures the 
molecules of water vapour which are adsorbed at the surface mav be expected to 
remain at, or near, the surface for quite appreciable periods of time. On the other 
hand, water molecules will only slowly diffuse down to the mercury surface so 
that the lowering of surface-tension will take place only very slowlv, and the time 
taken to attain equilibrium of surface tension will depend largely upon the rate 
of diffusion^ the water molecules through the gas. Thus, at lower pressures 
equilibrium is attained much more rapidly, as is actually found by Popesco while 
m vacuo it is attained almost instantaneously. Moreover, equilibrium appears to 
be more rapidly attained in hydrogen than in the case of the heavier gasesf 

There is independent evidence of the extremely small amount of some glfe. 
stances required m the vapour fo rm to give a monomolecular adsorbed film. Thus 

(20) Morley, Phil, Mag., 6th Ser., vol. vii., p. 662, 1904. ~""~ 

< 21 > Hill, Phys. Rev., 2nd Ser., xx, p. 259, 1922. 



290 



Micheli < 22 > has found that a closely packed layer of octane was formed upon 
a mercury surface if the vapour pressure of the former substance was as 
small as 5 mm. This is, of course, about 100 times larger than the pressures of 
wX vapour which can be expected in Popesco's experiments, but on the other 
hand it is the more striking as the experiments were performed at atmospheric 
oressure and by the drop-weight method of measuring surface-tension, so that 
the surface of the mercury was exposed to the air and vapour for only a com- 
paratively short time, . , , , , 

Now if the above explanation of the changes of surface-tension observed by 
the big drop method is the correct one, then the values obtained by different 
observers may vary owing to the different precautions taken for drying the gases 
admitted to the apparatus, and also to differences in construction of the apparatus 
itself Thus the area of the glass surface and the type of glass exposed to the 
gas in the apparatus may alter the water vapour content, and hence affect the 
values of the surface-tension obtained. Thus Burdon and Ohphant give a value 
for the surface-tension against dry air of about 495 dynes per cm., while Popescc , s 
results appear to point to considerably higher values. Moreover it might be 
expected that after many experiments with the same apparatus, a fatigue ettect 
might be observable owing to the fact that the glassware no longer gave rip 
adsorbed water vapour as readily as previously. Thus the observed value of the 
surface-tension at any given time after the drop was formed should appear slightly 
higher than when experiments were first performed with the apparatus. Wow, 
unfortunately, Popesco makes no reference to any attempt made to repeat earlier 
readings after the apparatus had been much used. However there were some 
measurements of the surface-tension in the various gases used which were made 
after the remainder of these readings had been finished. These were he measure- 
ments of the surface-tension five seconds after the iormation pi the drop. In the 
curves shown in Popesco's paper the anomalous values obtained at five seconds 
time after formation of the drop are completely obliterated, owing to the small 
time scale there employed in drawing the graphs. It is clear that the curves for 
each of the gases except oxygen, and possibly hydrogen are accurately repre- 
sented bv straight lines from t = 10 sees to t s= 300, while the decrease of surface- 
tension with time in these two gases certainly holds from t = 60 seconds onward, 
t being the time which elapses between the formation of the drop and the taking 
of the reading. It is possible, therefore, to regard the high values obtained for 
t = 5 sees as in error relative to the other values, owing to the decreased water 
vapour content of the gases when 5 sees, values were recorded. Burdon and 
Oliphant's curve appears to support this view. On the other hand, the values 
obtained by Popesco for the surface-tension of the drop at t -- 10 sees in the 
two gases oxygen and hydrogen rather point to the fact that the sudden bend in 
the curves about t = 10 mav be a real one in all cases. If this is the case the big 
drop method appears to point toward values of the surface-tension of mercury 
in all gases almost as high as the value found m hydrogen by Meyer (let, cit.), 
using the vibrating jet method. It is curious, however, that Meyer s own va ties 
do not even approach this value of 554 dynes per cm, in the presence of gases other 

tnan if y tS e curves reallv represent the actual manner of decrease with time, then 
the most likely explanation would appear to follow by assuming that either the 
mercury surface was still not quite steady at t = 5 sees., so that adsorption of 
gas molecules had not reached an equilibrium value, or, alternately, that quantities 
of "gas were still in slight motion within the apparatus. A very rapid adsorption 
of water vapour will, no doubt, occur for a very short period of time after he 
formation of the mercury dr op, owing to the pr esence of jwaterjnoleculesjnttic 

(22) Micheli, Phil. Mag., 7th Ser., vol. ill, p. 895. 



291 



few layers close to the mercury where the actual velocities of the molecules will 
be effective m carrying them to the surface rather than a diffusion rate. It is, of 
course, unlikely that these few layers could contribute sufficient water molecules 
to the adsorbed film to lead to the large fall of .surface-tension which apparently 
occurs, but if the gas is itself in motion within the apparatus quite an appreciable 
volume of it might then pass sufficiently close to the mercury surface to give the 
effect indicated. It is doubtful, however, what viewpoint should be adopted 
regarding these high values which Popesco records. In the, case of oxygen one 
of the gases in which the effect is most marked, several phenomena appear to 
point to something more than a mere physical adsorption (vide Burdon and 
Ohphant, loc, cit., p. 211). 

In the experiments described in this paper upon the spreading of various 
liquids on a mercury surface, the pressure of water-vapour within the apparatus 
is possibly of the order of 1 mm., so that, whereas Popesco found that the full 
fall of surface-tension took 24 hours to occur in his experiments, it is usually 
found that, owing to the far more rapid adsorption of water molecules in the 
present experiments, drops of water or acid will not spread readily after periods 
of a few minutes. 

The idea that an adsorption of water-vapour at the mercury surface might 
prove to be the explanation of many of the observed phenomena of the surface- 
tension of this liquid has been advanced earlier by Iredale, who, however found 
it difficult to conceive of an adsorbed layer upon a mercury surface which could 
be stable at such low pressures as 10~3 mm. Yet, even at glass surfaces, it appears 
by no means certain that all the adsorbed gases are given off merely by such an 
exhaustion, unless continued for extremely long periods, and there is much 
evidence to show that metals can adsorb gases or vapours far more strongly than 
can glass. Moreover, m order to obtain an appreciable adsorbed film it is merely 
necessary, as has been shown, to postulate that the time of stay of th«- adsorbed 
molecule should be of the order of l(h 2 seconds, provided that pressure of water- 
vapour is of the order of l(h 3 , or even 10~ 4 mm. 

It is quite likely that the rate of evaporation of the adsorbed film from the 
mercury surface should be slightly greater in a vacuum. If this is the case it 
might give an explanation of the fact that the vacuum value (436 dynes per cm ) 
is appreciably higher than the final value in the various gases (419 dynes per cm ) 
Die different final values apparently obtained by preparing the mercury surface 
m vacuo and then admitting air at various pressures, may possibly have rise also 
in a decreased rate of evaporation as the pressure is increased. 

It is not proposed to examine in detail here the "drop-weight" method of 
measuring the surface-tension of mercury, nor to make a detailed analysis of the 
results obtained by that method. It may be pointed out, however, that many of 
the results obtained by the best experimenters appear to agree fairly well with 
those obtained by the "big drop" method, except that the values are in every case 
about 50 dynes per cm. too low, which fact would appear to point to a wrone 
correction factor having been applied. Thus most experimenters obtain a value 
by the former method which approximates more or less closely to that of Harkins 
and Grafton of 465 dynes per cm. in air, and the values for the interfacial tension 
are usually about 75 dynes lower. The measurement over which the agreement 
of the various workers breaks down completely is that of the value of the surface- 
tension in vacuo. Now, m their attempt to measure this, Harkins and Ewing used 
a mercury condensation pump (a high-speed type) and the vacuum was main- 
tained by keeping the pump running while measurements were being taken Now 
if the speed of the pump is sufficient, this fact may well have reduced any water- 
vapour which remained in the apparatus to a negligible quantity bv pumpine it off 
as quickly as it left the walls of the apparatus, so that only an inappreciable 



292 



amount of water-vapour condensed upon the drops as they formed at the tip ot 
the dropping pipette. It seems just possible that the difference of experimental 
procedure in either continuing the pumping during the period of drop formation 
or in shutting off the pump, may lie at the root of the widely differing values 
obtained bv different observers for the surface-tension m vacuo. 

In a further paper/ 23 ) Ircdale definitely concluded that the changes of surface- 
tension recorded by the "big drop" method could not be explained as due to the 
adsorption of water-vapour. However, since it appears that his results m no way 
contradict the theory here put forward, an attempted explanation seems worth 

while. . r , , ■ l. 1 ■ i 

Once again Iredale has not taken the precaution of baking out his apparatus, 
and consequently, although he estimates the vacuum as 10" 5 mm. or lower, it is 
extremely unlikely that a sufficient vacuum can be maintained to prevent an 
adsorption of water-vapour sufficient to affect the surface-tension of the drop, 
except while the pump is running. Consequently, although his values for a drop 
formed in vacuo are considerably higher than those given by Popesco, he yet finds 
that the surface-tension falls after 24 hours to a value which approaches that ot 
the latter Moreover, each successive drop of mercury, as it is condensed upon 
the glass plate, will serve to give the latter a partial baking out. On the other 
hand with its successive heatings as each drop condenses, this plate will form the 
source of by far the greater portion of any water-vapour which is given off within 
the apparatus. Consequently, it is to be expected that successive drops will each 
be prepared in a vacuum which contains less and less water-vapour, and there will 
thus be recorded a series of drops of increasing surface-tension. This phenomenon 
is recorded by Iredale, who, however, believes it to be due to the gradual removal 
of some contamination upon the plate. If the latter were the correct explanation 
however corresponding changes should take place for drops formed m gases, and 
neither Popesco nor Eurdon and Oliphant make any mention of such variations. 
On the other hand, the temperature of 200 to 250°C, or thereabouts, at which 
the mercury condenses, will certainly not be sufficient to give the plate an efficient 
bake out even after numbers of drops have been formed upon it, m view of the 
renewed heating it receives each time another drop is prepared for measurement. 
Consequently, with the vapour given off from the plate and walls, the vapour- 
pressure will again rise steadily within the apparatus it this is left for 24 hours, 
until a value of the surface-tension is reached for which the surface is practically 
covered with water molecules ; i.e., the. same surface-tension will be. reached as 
for a drop in contact with excess of water-vapour. Iredale gives only one set oi 
figures and they indicate that this is exactly what does occur. Drop 1 1 (vide- 
loc cil: ' p 609) falls after 24 hours to 446 dynes cm. Admission of water-vapour 
causes'the surface-tension to fall in the case of another drop (p. 610) to 44y 
dynes cm The difference in the two final values is thus only 3 dynes cm and 
within the margin even of experimental error. There seems no reason to conclude, 
therefore, from Iredale's results, as he does, that an adsorption of water-vapour 
is not the cause of the changing values of surface-tension. 

Variation with Concentration. 

Variation of the Spreading Pressure with the Concentration of the 

Drops of Acid and Salt Solutions Applied. 

Measurements have been performed with a number of substances with a view 

to determining the manner in which the spreading pressure exerted varies with 

the change of concentration of the solution. From the data thus obtained the 

curves shown in fig. 8 have been drawn. In m ost cases i t will b e noted that the 

(23) Iredale, Phil. Mag., vol. xlix., p. 603, 1925. 



293 



pressures have been plotted against activities and not against the actual concentra- 
tions. (24 > The spreading pressure for aqueous solutions of most of the substances 
examined appear to decrease linearly with the logarithm of the activity or con- 
centration. The notable exception to this rule would appear to be the case of 
acetic acid, where a totally different type of curve has been obtained. Un- 
fortunately, in the absence of figures for the activity of acetic acid in aqueous 
solution the spreading pressure was necessarily plotted against concentration, but 
it is doubtful whether the change of ordinate from log. concentration to log. 
activity would affect materially the form of the curve, although slight changes in 
the slope of the various portions of it would no doubt occur. The temptation 
would be to regard this curve for acetic acid as incorrectly determined, and its 




-2 -3 -4 

Fig. 8. 

Variation of Spreading Pressure with Concentration or Activity. 

1, Sulphuric Acid; 2, Hydrochloric Acid; 3, Acetic Acid; 4, Sodium Bromide; 

5, Potassium Bromide; 6, Sodium Chloride; 7, Potassium Chloride. 

Curves 1 and 3 plotted using logarithm of concentrations to base 10). Other curves 

using logarithm of activities. 

departure from the simple linear form as being due simply to experimental error, 
were it not for the fact that this very curve has been several times confirmed upon 
a number of occasions, and that it is perhaps the best determined of any of the 
curves given. There is also the fact that hydrobromic acid appears to take up a 
so mewhat similar form, a nd the few readings taken with nitric acid seem to 

i ^ 4> * T £ e d - ata liecessarv to transform from concentrations to activities were obtained 

from the following papers: — 

Livingston, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc., xlviii., 1, 1926, p 45 

Scratchard, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, xlvii., 1, 1925, p. 641. 

Scratchard, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, xlvii., 1, 1925, p. 648. 

Harncd & Douglas, Jour. Am. Chem. Soc, xlviii., 2, 1926, p. 3093. 

Interpolation and extrapolation were sometimes necessary to obtain the activities at 

he particular concentrations required. The curves for acetic acid and sulphuric acid have 

been plotted against concentration, as no figures were available for the corresponding 



11 



294 

indicate that in this case also there is a like departure from the linear law. No 
explanation has been found as yet for the variation in these cases. The nomontal 
portion of the graph for acetic acid with concentrations, ranging from 1/lUUth 
to 1/1 000th molar, has been put to practical advantage in the selection of a 
standard solution for taking check readings. The fact that the pressure remained 
constant over this wide range of concentration, meant that an accurate titration 
of the standard solution of acetic acid was unnecessary, and this solution, once 
obtained, it could be used over long periods of time without fear of error due to 
change of concentration. 

A more complete discussion of these pressure-activity curves is of interest. 

Let 

p denote the spreading pressure. 
<rllg denote the surface-tension of mercury. 
<r HoO denote the surface-tension of water. 

o- S denote the surface-tension of an aqueous solution of a given acid or salt 
Hgy-HnO denote the interfacial tension mercury-water. 
Hgo-S denote the interfacial tension mercury-solution. 
Now, it is immediately clear that the spreading pressure of a drop of solution 
is a measure of the differences : — 

<rBg— (<rS + Hgo-S). 
i.e., p — cr Kg — o-S — Hgr7 S. 
But <rS is approximately equal to o-H 2 within the limits of one or two dynes 

per cm., so that : — 

p = o-Hg — o-II 2 — Hgo-S approximately. 

Further, it is clear from the slow spread of a drop of distilled water upon a 
mercury surface that: — 

o-Hg — rrHaO + Hgo-H.O approximately. 
Consequently p = Hgo-fTO — Hgo-S. 
If, now, Si and S 2 are two concentrations of a given solution, and p x and p, 
the corresponding spreading pressures, then: — 

Pi — P2 = dp — Hgo- S 2 — Hg cr Si. 
That is, the difference of spreading pressure at the two concentrations is approxi- 
mately equal to the difference of the two interfacial tensions. 

Now Gibbs' Adsorption Equation states that 

1 d a 



RT d(log«a) 

where 1 is the adsorption in gut mols. per sq. cm. of surface. 
R is the constant of the perfect gas = 8*32 X 10 7 ergs per gm. mol. 
T is the absolute temperature. 
a is the thermodynamic activity. 
This equation, then, can be applied to the results and curves given above, provided 
-dp is written in place of do «* 

P 1 dp 1 dp 

~~ RT d(log e a) 2-3RT d (lo glu a) 
Hence the total number of molecules, n, adsorbed per sq. cm. of surface will be 

given by 

N dp 

n — * 

2-3RT d (log 1(1 a) 



295 



where N is the Avogadro number and is equal to 6*06 X 10. 3. 
occupied by each of these molecules at the surface is 

2-3RT d (log 10 a) 

A -= ' 



lerefore the area 



N 
2-3 X 8-32 X 



dp 
10 7 X 290 



d (log 10 a) 



6-06 X 10 23 dp 

Now, over the upper portion of each of the pressure-activity curves, 
p = k log a, where k is a constant. Hence over these portions of the curves, 
the adsorption must likewise be constant, independently of the actual values of 
the concentration ; and the area occupied by an adsorbed molecule must also remain 
the same. These areas have been worked out for each of the substances plotted 
in fig. 8, and are given in column 2 of Table III. It will immediately be evident 
that these areas approach the well-known order of molecular size. In view of the 
fact, then, that the same amount of adsorption takes place for any one substance 
over quite a wide range of concentration, it might be inferred that this stable 
adsorbed layer represents some type of monomolecular film, the molecules of which 
arc already in some kind of tightly packed state. It is difficult to explain this 
constant area which each molecule takes up on the mercury surface unless some 
such closely packed layer is postulated, which can prevent the adsorption of 
further molecules as the concentration is increased. 







Tabl 


E III. 








Area from Gibbs 


Ad- 


Area of Cross Section 


Sum 


of Areas of Cross 


Substance. 


sorption Equat 


on. 


of larger Ion, 


Section of 2 Ions. 




Sq. 


Cm. x 10- 


-16, 


Sq. Cm. x 10-16. 


Sq. 


Cm. x 10-16. 


KC1 




40-2 


11-83 




18-59 


NaCl 




55-5 




11-83 




15-87 


NaBr 




33-3 




14-74 




18-78 


KBr 




26-2 




14-74 




21-50 


HC1 




84-8 




11-83 




— 


HBr 




49-2 




14-74 




— 


H„S0 4 




147-7 




— 




— 


HC,H,0. 




47-0 




25-1 







In the first place, if the lowering of interfacial tension is caused by the 
adsorption of neutral molecules of the substance in solution, then it is possible 
that an orientation of these molecules occurs, so that all the positive or all the 
negative ions are attached to the mercury surface, while those of opposite sign 
are attached to this layer. The molecules would thus stand on end much after 
the fashion of the. fatty acid molecules adsorbed at a water surface. If this is the 
case, however, the area occupied by an adsorbed molecule upon the mercury 
surface will be completely determined by the area of cross section of the larger 
ion or by the "head" of the molecule. Now, these latter areas are comparatively 
well known, either from crystal analysis by X-rays, or in the case of acetic acid 
from measurements of the fatty acid films upon water. Bragg (2S) has accepted 



the values given by Wasastjerna 



(26) and (27) 



as being the most probable for a 



(25) Bragg, Phil. Mag., Ser. 7, 2, 1926, p. 262. 

C26> Wasastjerna, Soc. Scient. Fenn. Comm. Phys. Math., xxxviii., p. 1, 1923. 

(27) Wasastjerna, Soc. Scient. Fenn. Comm. Phys. Math., p. 26, 1926. 



296 

number of ionic radii, and it is from these that the areas of cross section given 
in column 3 of Table III. have been calculated. In the case of acetic acid the 
value given is that obtained by Adam. It is at once evident that in each case the 
area of cross section is considerably less than that actually occupied by the molecule 
upon the mercury surface. 

While such an orientation of neutral molecules adsorbed at the mercury 
surface may be regarded as possible, experiments have been performed which 
render it rather improbable. For example, the work of Patrick and Bachman (28) 
appears to show that there is a differential adsorption of the ions themselves. 
Moreover, the fact that Burdon found it possible to aid or retard spreading of 
solutions electrically, as well as the whole mass of experimental work upon 
electro-capillary phenomena, would seem to point to the fact that the ions can be 
separately adsorbed. Whether this hypothesis of adsorption of the individual 
ion is accepted, or that of neutral molecules horizontally oriented, the area occupied 
per molecule upon the mercury surface will be slightly larger than before, but will 
still be smaller than the areas actually occupied, as calculated from Gibbs' Equation 
Column 4 gives the approximate areas of the molecules oriented horizontally when 
calculated from Wasastjerna's figures. These values are still far too low, and an 
explanation of the discrepancy must apparently be sought from some other source. 

Unfortunately, there does not seem to be any exact parallel among other 
phenomena to this adsorption at the mercury surface. On the one hand, the 
unsaturated valency forces which come into play in the adsorption of neutral 
molecules of fatty acids at a water surface must be so very much weaker than the 
electric forces between the ions adsorbed at the surface of mercury that the 
analogy between the two cases is probably a superficial rather than a real one. 
And on the other hand, the examination of crystal structures will also probably 
avail little, since the forces within the single adsorbed layer must be altogether 
different from those pertaining to the interior of a crystal where the electric 
forces are determined, not by one, but by a number of similar layers. It is difficult, 
therefore, to form an adequate picture of the order and arrangement of these 
molecules or ions when they are attached to the mercury surface. One fact- 
remains clear, however. The adsorbed film is apparently not a closely 
packed film of the same type as might be imagined if a single layer of a 
crystal were sliced off and placed upon the mercury surface. The effective 
diameters of the atoms which form the film are considerably larger than those of 
the same atoms when they form part of a crystal lattice. Measurements of atomic 
diameters by means of collision phenomena (viscosity, etc.) likewise give values 
which are considerably larger than those given by the X-ray analysis of crystalline 
salts. It seems that the adsorbed film on the mercury surface should be regarded as 
a "liquid" film in which the adsorbed atoms arc not packed in any definite pattern, 
and in which the diameters of the individual atoms or ions are to be compared with 
the diameters of similar atoms in the liquid or gaseous states, rather than with the 
diameters of the ions in a crystalline salt. 

In conclusion, thanks are due to Mr. R. S. Burdon and Mr. M. L. Oliphant 
for much advice and assistance, both with regard to the theoretical and the 
practical difficulties in connection with the carrying out of the work recorded in 
this paper. 



< 28 > Patrick and Bachman. Jour. Phys. Chem., 30, p. 134, 1926. 



297 

NEW AUSTRALIAN LEPIDOPTERA. 

By A. Jefferis Turner, M.D., F.E.S. 

[Read September 12, 1929.] 

Fam. BOARM1ADAE. 

Niceteria, n. gen. 
vLKrjTyjpto^ victorious. 

I propose this generic name for Satraparchis ? macrocosma Low, in place of 
Aprosita (Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S. Wales, 1917, p. 387), pre-occupied by myself in 
the Anthelidae (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austr., 1914, p. 456). 

Fam. NOCTU1DAE. 

Canthylidia zorophanes, n. sp. 
£u)po<f>avr}>;, of simple appearance. 

3 f 32 mm. Head and thorax whitish-brown. Palpi brown-whitish. Antennae 
whitish-brown; ciliations in male very short. Abdomen and legs whitish. Fore- 
wings elongate-triangular, rather narrow, costa nearly straight, apex rounded, 
termen very obliquely rounded ; uniform whitish-brown without markings ; cilia, 
whitish-brown. Hindwings with termen rounded; whitish; cilia whitish. 

West Australia: Rottnest Island, in November; one specimen received from, 
Mr. W. H. Matthews. 

Sideridis palleuca, n. sp. 

7rak\evKOs, all white. 

9 , 40 mm. Head and palpi whitish. Antennae grey, becoming whitish 
towards base. Thorax, abdomen, and legs whitish. Forewings elongate, costa 
straight, apex round-pointed, termen obliquely rounded ; whitish ; a few scattered 
blackish scales towards dorsum before middle ; a minute blackish discal dot beyond 
middle; a series of blackish dots on veins forming a curved line from § costa 
very obliquely outwards, thence becoming transverse, and finally curved inwards 
to | dorsum ; a slight greyish suffusion towards termen ; a minute blackish dot at 
apex; cilia whitish with a fine interrupted median grey line. Hindwings with 
termen slightly sinuate; whitish; cilia white. Underside whitish. 

Distinct by its uniform whitish colour without any ochreous or brownish tinge. 

West Australia : Rottnest Island, in November ; one specimen received from 
Mr. W. H. Matthews. 

Catoblemma mesotaenia, n. sp. 

/Aco-oratvto^ with median band. 
?, 22 mm. Head grey with some ferruginous suffusion. Palpi 2\\ fer- 
ruginous-grey. Antennae pale grey. Thorax and tegulae pale grey; patagia 
ferruginous. Abdomen and legs grey. Forewings triangular, costa nearly 
straight, slightly sinuate towards apex, apex pointed, termen strongly rounded,. 
slightly sinuate beneath apex, slightly oblique; pale grey, a broad median purplish- 
grey band, undefined anteriorly, posteriorly defined by a fine fuscous slightly 
dentate line, outwardly curved from f costa to \ dorsum; a subterminal series of 
fine fuscous dots ; terminal area beyond this dark grey ; cilia dark grey. Hind- 
wings with termen rounded ; pale grey ; cilia grey. 

Queensland : Brisbane, in March ; Victoria : Birchip, in November. 



298 

Two specimens; in that from Birchip one forewing has an areole, very small 
hut of normal development, with 10 arising from it separately. 

Eublemma phaeocosma, n. sp. 

</>atoKoo-/A05, with dark ornament. 
9, 25 mm. Head grey. Palpi 2\\ grey. Antennae grey. Thorax and 
tegulae pale grey; patagia grey. Ahdomen and legs pale grey. Forewings 
triangular, costa straight, apex quadrangular, termen rounded, wavy, scarcely 
oblique; pale grey with slight fuscous irroration towards base; costal edge whitish- 
ochreous with a dark fuscous dot near base, and interrupted by short dark fuscous 
outwardly oblique streaks at f and shortly before and after middle, between the 
last and apex interrupted by three grey dots; from near the third costal streak 
proceeds a line at first transverse and slightly dentate,, then curved inwards, and 
again outwards to dorsum before tornus. this line, a blotch of patchy irroration 
preceding it, and a transverse oblong median discal spot are ferruginous-fuscous; 
a subterminal series of blackish dots, that beneath costa larger and sometimes 
connected by a fine streak with costa before apex; cilia grey with a paler basal 
line. Hindwings with termen rounded; as forewings but without discal spot, 
postmedian line, and blotch; subcostal terminal dot small, subtornal dot larger. 

North Queensland: Dunk Island, in May; one specimen. 

Oruza lithochroma, n. sp. 

faM®$^$®% stone-coloured. 

3 , 25 mm. Head brown. Palpi long, second joint exceeding vertex; brown- 
whitish irrorated with fuscous. Antennae brownish-grey; in male slightly dentate, 
shortly ciliated. Thorax and tegulae whitish-grey; patagia brown. Abdomen 
and legs pale grey. Forewings triangular, costa straight, apex pointed, termen 
nearly straight, slightly sinuate, not oblique; whitish-grey with some dark fuscous 
irroration; basal § of costal edge brownish; a small 8-shaped discal spot outlined 
in fuscous ; a wavy transverse fuscous line from f costa to f dorsum ; three dark 
fuscous dots on costa beyond this; a narrow brownish-grey terminal suffusion; 
an interrupted fuscous terminal line; cilia brownish-grey, apices whitish. Hind- 
wings with termen only slightly rounded; grey with slight fuscous irroration; 
paler towards base ; an interrupted fuscous terminal line ; cilia grey. 

North Queensland: Stannary Hills, near Herberton ; one specimen received 
from Dr. Thos. Bancroft. 

Nanaguna polypoecila, n. sp. 

7rokv7rou<iXo^, variegated. 
3 , 22 mm. Head whitish irrorated with fuscous. Palpi 1-|-; whitish irrorated 
with fuscous. Antennae fuscous, towards base grey. Thorax whitish irrorated 
With fuscous; posterior crest fuscous. Abdomen grey; basal crest fuscous. Legs 
whitish with some fuscous irroration. Forewings triangular, costa strongly 
arched, apex quadrangular, termen slightly rounded, slightly oblique; whitish 
irrorated with fuscous; a moderate basal patch, strongly indented above dorsum, 
and containing a blackish subcostal spot ; a fuscous line from | costa to g dorsum, 
strongly angled outwards beneath costa, inwards in middle, and again outwards; 
a second fuscous line from § costa, strongly outwardly oblique, forming a rather 
acute curve in disc above middle, thence sinuate to | dorsum; the median band 
included between these lines is mostly fuscous, but with irregular areas of whitish 
suffusion along posterior edges towards costa and dorsum; terminal area fuscous, 
towards tornus ferruginous-fuscous with suffused whitish patches towards costa 
and beneath middle; a fine interrupted dark fuscous terminal line; cilia fuscous 
above middle, below middle whitish, but interrupted by fuscous above tornus. 



299 

Hindwings with termen rounded; grey-whitish; veins and terminal area grey; 
cilia grey. 

North Queensland: Cairns, in May; one specimen. 

Calathusa cyrtosticha, n. sp. 

KvpToo-Tixos, with curved line. 

9 , 28 mm. Head and thorax pale grey. Palpi 2; whitish with some fuscous 
irroration. Antennae pale grey. Abdomen and legs grey. Forewings elongate, 
costa strongly arched, apex quadrangular, termen rounded, not oblique; pale grey; 
a darker median band occupying middle third of wing; edged anteriorly by an 
outwardly curved fuscous line from f costa to -J dorsum; posteriorly by a fuscous 
line from | costa to f dorsum, very strongly outwardly curved; within median 
band orbicular and reniform are outlined first in whitish, then in fuscous; a 
slender, finely dentate, whitish, subterminal line; dark fuscous submarginal and 
terminal lines; cilia grey, apices paler. Hindwings broad, termen sinuate; grey 
becoming paler towards base; cilia whitish. Underside of forewings pale fuscous; 
of hindwings whitish with fuscous terminal band. 

Best distinguished by the strongly curved postmedian line. 

Queensland ; Brisbane ; one specimen. 

Calathusa polyplecta, n. sp. 

■n-oXvTrXeKTos, many-striped. 

9, 32 mm. Head brown-whitish. Palpi 2-£ ; whitish, with some fuscous 
irroration. Antennae fuscous. Thorax pale grey, anteriorly brownish-tinged. 
Abdomen brownish; terminal segments fuscous. Legs fuscous annulated with 
brown-whitish; posterior pair mostly brown-whitish. Forewings elongate, pos- 
teriorly broadly dilated, costa moderately arched, apex quadrangular, termen 
rounded, scarcely oblique; pale grey partly tinged with brownish; some fuscous 
irroration on costa near base ; a fuscous line from \ costa to \ dorsum, wavy ; a post- 
median blackish line from costa just beyond middle to | dorsum, outwardly curved 
in upper half, straight and inwardly oblique in lower half; between these are 
orbicular and reniform, pale and outlined with fuscous; postmedian line followed 
by a brownish and this by a whitish shade ; fuscous submarginal and terminal lines ; 
a' long blackish streak on fold from \ nearly to termen; similar streaks between 
veins' from shortly before and cutting through postmedian line to termen; cilia 
grey mixed with whitish. Underside of forewings fuscous; of hindwings whitish 
with lunate discal mark and terminal band fuscous. 

Queensland: Cleveland, near Brisbane, in September; one specimen received 
from Mr. P. Franzen. 

Clytophylla, n. gen. 

k\.vto<j>v\\,o$, like a glorious leaf. 

Tongue strongly developed. Face smooth, porrect. Palpi in female short, 
slender, ascending, appresscd to face; in male extremely short, not reaching face; 
second joint shortly rough-haired; terminal joint minute. Antennae of male 
simple. Thorax and abdomen without crests. Posterior tibiae smooth. Fore- 
wings with 2 from f, 6 from below upper angle of cell, 7 and 8 stalked, 9, 10, 11 
all separate and free, no areole. Hindwings with 3, 4, and 5 connate, cell open, 
discocellulars not being developed, 7 separating from 6 at about i, 12 closely 
approximated to cell throughout, and to basal portion of 7, but not connected. 
Retinaculum of male broadly bar-shaped. 

This genus belongs to the same group as Earms lib., Ilylophila Hb., and 
Halias Treit., but is peculiar in having 10 separate and free from the cell. Inci- 
dentally the structure of the hindwings shows that the Hylophilidae of Meyrick 



300 

(Revised Handbook of British Lepidoptera, p. 48) cannot be maintained as a 
separate family. 

Clytophylla artia, n. sp. 
a.pTLos, perfect. 

S , 42 mm.; 9 , 45 mm. Head green on crown, iillct and face white. Palpi 
in male ^, in female 1 ; whitish mixed with brown. Antennae brown, towards 
base whitish ; in male simple, minutely ciliated. Thorax bright green. Abdomen 
white. Legs pale green; anterior tibiae, inner aspect of anterior femora, and of 
middle tibiae and femora, fuscous brown. Forewing sub-oblong, costa strongly 
arched, apex acute, termen sinuate, dentate, slightly oblique; bright green with 
long slender transverse paler strigulae in dorsal half ; a blackish dot edged with 
orange-brown in mid-disc at \] a median white discal dot, ringed first with fuscous- 
brown, then with orange-brown; costal edge white; cilia grey, bases orange-brown, 
with a median interrupted white line. Hindwings with termen rounded; white; 
cilia white, on costa pale green. 

This magnificent species fully deserves its name. 

Queensland: Bunya Mountains (3,000 feet), in January; two freshly-emerged 
specimens. 1 have also seen an example taken by Mr. W. B. Barnard, at 
Toowoomba. 

Subfam. OPHIDERINAE [Noctuinae Hmps.]. 

Crioa hyperdasys, n. sp. 

vrrtpSao-vs, very hairy. 

S, 52 mm.; 9, 46 mm. Head fuscous mixed with whitish. Palpi 2^; 
fuscous mixed with whitish. Antennae fuscous; in male minutely ciliated with 
longer (1) paired bristles on each segment. Thorax with a long expansile anterior 
crest; fuscous mixed with whitish. Abdomen pale ochreous-fuscous on dorsum 
with 2 to 5 small fuscous median crests on basal segments ; in male densely hairy 
beneath, the hairs directed outwards from a median parting. Legs fuscous; tibiae 
and tarsi annulated with whitish-brown; in male middle and posterior pairs very 
densely clothed with long whitish-brown hairs throughout. Forewings elongate- 
triangular, costa moderately and evenly arched, apex rounded; termen slightly 
rounded, crenulate, scarcely oblique, about f length of dorsum; underside in male, 
except costal and terminal margins, forming an orange-brown androconial area, 
edged towards costa by three ridges of raised hairs ; brownish-fuscous suffused 
and irrorated with brown-whitish; lines fuscous; a short oblique streak from costa 
preceding antemedian line; antemedian line from \ costa very obliquely outwards 
and slightly dentate to fold, there forming an acute outward tooth, a smaller out- 
ward tooth above dorsum, ending on ^ dorsum ; an indistinct dentate line from mid- 
costa, sometimes connected with antemedian by a longitudinal streak above middle 
of disc; postmediau from about. § costa, indistinct at origin, outwardly oblique to 
below middle, then looped inwards but only slightly upwards, to beneath middle 
of disc, there forming a narrow loop, thence outwardly oblique and sharply dentate 
to f dorsum; reniform not defined; a pale dentate subterminal line; a terminal 
series of whitish-ochreous dots connected by fuscous streaks with subterminal; 
cilia brownish-fuscous. Hindwings with termen rounded, crenulate; brownish- 
fuscous; paler towards base; cilia brownish-fuscous. 

Very similar to C. acronyctoides, but the postmedian line is differently formed, 
and the male may be immediately distinguished by the underside of the forewings! 

North Queensland: Thursday Island, two males, one female; also one 
example from Cairns in Coll. Lyell. 



301 

Crioa hypsichaetes, n. sp. 

vxj/ixaLTtfr with long hairs. 

$ , 46 mm. Head fuscous mixed with brownish. Palpi 2| ; fuscous ; anterior 
surface of second joint, median ring and apex of terminal joint, pale brownish. 
Thorax with an expansile anterior crest; fuscous mixed with brownish. Abdomen 
fuscous; darker median dorsal crests on first five segments, that on fourth larger; 
underside clothed with whitish-brown hairs without defined median parting. Legs 
fuscous; tarsi annulated with ochreous-whitish ; posterior tibiae and tarsi in male 
densely hairy on dorsum, and with a pencil of hairs from base longer than tibiae 
itself. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa straight to $ 3 thence arched, apex 
rounded, termen slightly rounded, crenulatc, oblique, nearly as long as dorsum; 
dark brownish-fuscous suffusedly paler towards dorsum and termen; markings 
very obscure ; a small circular dark-ringed median spot representing orbicular ; a 
short dentate pale transverse line from % costa halfway across disc ; several obscure 
pale costal dots; a series of short blackish interneural streaks running into pale 
terminal dots ; cilia fuscous, bases paler. Hindwings with termen slightly rounded, 
crenulatc ; fuscous ; cilia grey-whitish. 

North Queensland : Dunk Island, in May ; one specimen. 

Crioa emmelopis, n. sp. 

€/A/xeA.o>7rt9, harmonious. 

$, 2, 34-36 mm. Head brown. Palpi 1-|; fuscous brown, anterior edge 
and apex paler. Antennae fuscous; in male very shortly ciliated (-J). Thorax 
brown; tegulae grey-whitish. Abdomen brownish. Legs pale brown; tarsi dark 
fuscous annulated with brown-whitish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa 
gently arched, apex rounded, termen slightly rounded, slightly oblique, crenulate; 
basal half brown, sharply limited by an oblique wavy line from midcosta to 
f dorsum; beyond this is a dense white irroration, except on a narrow terminal 
band; a fine wavy blackish oblique line, edged on both sides with whitish, not 
reaching fold, sometimes preceded by a darker shade; a brown costal spot just 
beyond middle, and three similar dots between this and apex ; a fine dentate white 
subterminal line; a blackish spot on outer edge of this below middle; a fuscous 
terminal line ; cilia brown, slenderly barred with white. Hindwings with termen 
rounded, subcrenulate ; pale-brownish or fuscous; a suffused whitish postmedian 
shade and a similar subterminal line; cilia browm, apices white. Underside of 
hindwings with a discal spot and markings more distinct. 

North Queensland: Kvelyn Scrub, near Ilerberton, in February; Queens- 
land : Nambour, in September. Two specimens. 

Crioa niphobleta, n. sp. 

yufxifiXrjTos, snow-beaten. 

9 , 28-34 mm. Head white, a small tuft of dark fuscous scales just inside 
base of antennae. Palpi long, second joint reaching vertex, terminal joint $ 
second; white, external surface of second joint, a narrow basal and broad sub- 
apical ring on terminal joint, dark fuscous. Antennae grey, towards base with 
blackish rings. Thorax dark fuscous ; tegulae, apex and posterior surface of 
crest white. Abdomen whitish-ochreous ; crests blackish, large on first two seg- 
ments, minute on fourth. Legs white, irrorated and tarsi ringed, with blackish; 
posterior pair whitish. Forewings triangular, costa straight, slightly arched 
towards base and apex, apex rounded-rectangular, termen slightly rounded, 
slightly oblique, crenulate; white „with fuscous and blackish markings, near termen 
fuscous-whitish; a fuscous spot on base of costa edged by a blackish line; a 
fuscous sub-basal fascia edged externally by a blackish dentate line ; a sub- 



302 

quadrate fuscous spot on costa at f, connected by a line with a fuscous suffusion 
in disc, and this with § dorsum; reniform slenderly outlined, transverse, suboval, 
slightly constricted in middle; postmedian line dentate, blackish, from § costa 
to near dorsum, then bent upwards and inwards touching- lower edge of reniform, 
there looped and ending on f dorsum, the first bend is connected with dorsum by 
a short line; a dark fuscous fascia with two posterior teeth succeeds this, except 
near costa, where there is a white interval; a blackish terminal line; cilia white 
with blackish bars. Hindwings with termen rounded, subcreuulate ; fuscous- 
whitish with a broad fuscous terminal band; cilia whitish. 

(Queensland: Toowoomba, in October, December, and February; three speci- 
mens received from Mr. W. B. Barnard. 

Alophosoma, n. gen. 
aAo^otrw/io?, with uncrested abdomen. 
Face with strong obtusely-rounded prominence covered by scales. Tongue 
strongly developed. Palpi long, ascending, exceeding vertex; second joint 
thickened with scales, rough anteriorly; terminal joint long, smooth-scaled, obtuse. 
Antennae of male minutely ciliated, with longer (1) paired bristles on each seg- 
ment. Thorax with a long expansile anterior crest, and two small posterior 
crests. Abdomen without dorsal crests; undersurface in male covered with long 
hairs directed outwards from a median parting. Posterior tibiae with basal r 
median, and terminal tufts of hair on dorsum. Neuration normal. 
Allied closely to Crioa, but the abdomen has no dorsal crests. 

Alophosoma syngenes, n. sp. 

trvyytrqfy of common origin. 

$ , 40 mm. Head brown. Palpi fuscous, anterior edge pale brownish- 
Antennae fuscous. Thorax fuscous; patagia and anterior crest brown. Abdomen 
fuscous. Legs fuscous; tarsi annulated with whitish-ochreous ; posterior pair 
whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa gently and evenly arched.. 
apex rounded-rectangular, termen rounded, crenulate, slightly oblique; grey with 
patchy brown suffusion; a fine, blackish, wavy antemedian line from i costa to 
dorsum before middle; reniform large, grey, clearly defined, succeeded by an area 
of grey- whitish suffusion; postmedian fine, blackish, from § costa, at first trans- 
verse and twice dentate, below middle looped strongly upwards and inwards, 
touching lower extremity of reniform, where it forms a bilobed loop and becomes 
outwardly oblique, ending on f dorsum; an indistinct pale dentate subterminal 
line; a dark fuscous terminal line; cilia fuscous, bases pale brownish. Hindwings 
with termen rounded, crenulate; fuscous becoming grey-whitish towards base; 
cilia whitish with some indistinct fuscous bars. 

North Queensland: Kuranda, near Cairns, in June; one specimen. 

Crypsiprora oostigma, n. sp. 

mu&rtyjApts with oval bands. 

$ , 30 mm. Head brown-whitish with a few fuscous scales. Palpi brown- 
whitish irrorated with fuscous. Antennae brown-whitish slenderly ringed with 
fuscous brown. Thorax pale brownish mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen 
whitish irrorated with fuscous; crests fuscous. Legs fuscous; tarsi annulated 
with whitish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa gently and evenly arched, 
apex rounded, termen rounded, slightly oblique; pale brownish irrorated with 
fuscous; lines dark fuscous, slender; a sub-basal line curved outwards beneath 
costa; an antemedian line from \ costa, dentate, strongly outwardly oblique to 
fold, there acutely angled inwards, ending on | dorsum ; orbicular large, oval,. 



303 

oblique, brown-whitish, slenderly outlined with dark fuscous; reniform larger, 
oval, transverse, brown-whitish, outlined with dark fuscous, more strongly 
anteriorly; postmedian very slender, dentate from beneath f costa, obsolete towards 
dorsum; an interrupted subterminal line edged posteriorly with brown-whitish; 
several dark fuscous costal dots between and beyond lines ; terminal area paler 
and crossed by short dark fuscous longitudinal streaks ; a fine dark fuscous 
terminal line; cilia whitish barred with dark fuscous. Hindwings with termen 
rounded ; fuscous, paler towards base ; a darker discal dot and curved postmedian 
line; cilia as forewings but whiter. Underside of hindwings with markings more 
distinct. 

West Australia : Donnybrook; one specimen received from Mr. L. J. Newman. 

Hypoprora tortuosa, n. sp. 

tortnosus, winding. 

| , 28 mm. Head and thorax fuscous. Palpi 2 ; grey-whitish, external sur- 
face except apex fuscous. Antennae grey; in male slightly dentate, shortly 
ciliated (-£), with a pair of longer bristles (1£) on each segment. Abdomen grey; 
crests fuscous. Legs fuscous ; tarsi annulated Math whitish. Forewings triangular, 
■costa moderately and evenly arched, apex rounded-rectangular, termen slightly 
rounded, moderately oblique, crenulate; fuscous, markings blackish; an outwardly 
bent sub-basal line not reaching dorsum; antemcdian strongly dentate, from 
| costa to j dorsum, reniform large, medially constricted, faintly outlined ; post- 
median from beneath f costa, bent outwards and twice obtusely dentate, thence 
bent inwards and upwards along lower edge of reniform, forming an approxi- 
mately circular loop, thence dentate to § dorsum; a pale, slender, dentate sub- 
terminal line; a blackish terminal line; cilia fuscous. Hindwings with termen 
gently rounded, wavy; fuscous-whitish, rather darker towards termen, a slightly 
darker discal mark and two curved postmedian lines; a dark fuscous terminal 
line; cilia grey-whitish. Underside of hindwings distinctly marked, but with only 
one postmedian line. 

Very similar to H. lophosoma Turn., but the lines are differently formed, 
and the male of that species has pectinate antennae, 

Queensland: Charleville, in September; one specimen. 

Prorocopis acroleuca, n. sp. * 

aKfjoXevKos, white at the apex. 

&, 30 mm. Head brownish; face whitish. Palpi 3, second joint reaching 
vertex, terminal joint nearly as long as second; whitish with some fuscous irrora- 
tion. Antennae grey; in male minutely ciliated with a pair of short bristles on 
each segment. Thorax brownish-fuscous with lateral white lines. Abdomen 
fuscous, apices of segments brown. Legs whitish; anterior and middle tibiae and 
tarsi ringed with fuscous. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa slightly bisinuate, 
apex rectangular, termen slightly rounded, slightly oblique, crenulate ; white, 
irrorated, and terminal area wholly suffused, with grey; lines slender, blackish; 
a sub-basal line strongly bent outwards, forming a subrectangular projection; a 
line from -J costa to $ dorsum, nearly straight but slightly angled outwards beneath 
costa and inwards in middle; a slender grey strongly angled line from J costa to 
mid-dorsum;^ reniform large, grey, medially constricted posteriorly; postmedian 
line from midcosta, angled inwards beneath costa, thence longitudinal touching 
upper edge of reniform, prolonged subcostally to near J, there bent, transverse, 
and slightly wavy and outwardly curved, below middle bent upwards and inwards 
to touch lower edge of reniform, there forming a narrow loop, and continued wavy 
to | dorsum; this is closely followed by two slender dark grey lines; a dentate 



304 

fuscous subterminal line, which bisects a white subapical costal spot; a terminal 
line ; cilia grey, bases and apices whitish. Hindwings with termen slightly rounded, 
crenulate ; grey-whitish ; a broad fuscous terminal band narrowing towards tornus ; 
cilia whitish, bases fuscous. 

Queensland: Gayndale; one specimen received from Dr. Hamilton Kenny. 
I have seen a second taken on the Bunya Mountains at 3,000 feet. 

Prorocopis latens, n. sp. 

latens, hidden. 

2 , 25-30 mm. Head and thorax grey with whitish irroration. Palpi 2J^ 
terminal joint J>- second; whitish-grey. Antennae grey. Abdomen ferruginous- 
brown, towards apex fuscous. Legs grey; posterior pair whitish. Forewings 
elongate-triangular, costa gently arched, apex pointed, termen slightly rounded, 
rather strongly oblique; grey; antemedian line indicated by an obscure fuscous 
oblique streak from \ dorsum to fold; second line by a short fuscous transverse 
streak from § dorsum edged posteriorly by whitish or brownish; a grey-whitish 
narrow terminal band, interrupted above middle, shortly edged with fuscous near 
dorsum; cilia grey. Hindwings with termen sinuate; pale fuscous; cilia pale 
fuscous, apices whitish. 

Very obscure, without the characteristic markings but with the structural 
characters of the genus. 

Queensland: Charleville, in September and December; two specimens. 

Acanthoprora streblomita, n. sp. 

(TTpefikofuros, with winding thread. 
$ . $ , 26-29 mm. Head and thorax fuscous with whitish irroration. 
Palpi I-! ; fuscous witn whitish irroration.. Antennae grey, towards base fuscous; 
in male shortly ciliated (1). Abdomen grey-whitish, some irroration and basal 
crest grey. Legs fuscous irrorated with whitish; posterior pair except tarsi mostly 
whitish; tarsi ringed with whitish. Forewings elongate-triangular, costa nearly 
straight, gently arched towards apex, apex round-pointed, termen slightly bowed, 
slightly oblique ; fuscous irrorated with whitish, appearing grey, main lines blackish, 
other lines fuscous and more or less distinct; a transverse sub-basal line from costa 
not reaching dorsum ; two more or less distinct fuscous transverse lines succeed 
this ; a nearly straight line from | costa to | dorsum ; a dentate transverse median 
fuscous line, sometimes indistinct; reniform slenderly outlined, large, transverse, 
indented posteriorly; postmedian line, from f costa, straight and only slightly 
outwardly oblique to below middle, there bent inwards and upwards to lower edge 
of reniform, then forming an approximately circular loop, and continued wavy 
to f dorsum ; an indistinct fuscous transverse line succeeds this ; an irregularly 
dentate fuscous subterminal line, a fuscous terminal line; cilia fuscous, apices 
whitish. Hindwings with termen rounded; whitish; a moderate fuscous terminal 
band narrowing at tornus; cilia whitish. 

Queensland: Charleville in December; Cunnamulla; two specimens. 

Euprora tanyphylla, n. sp. 

Tavv<f>vWos y with long wings. 

$ , 32-42 mm. Head pale brown; face sometimes fuscous brown. Palpi 1^; 
pale grey or pale brown. Antennae grey, towards base brown-whitish. Thorax 
and tegulae pale grey; patagia and an anterior spot pale brown. Abdomen pale 
grey. Legs pale grey. Forewings elongate-oval, costa strongly arched, apex 
rounded-rectangular, termen slightly rounded, oblique ; whitish-grey, sometimes 



305 

suffused with brown, sometimes with scattered blackish dots or short streaks on 
veins; a very obscure darker line from -J costa to $ dorsum, curved strongly out- 
wards beneath costa ; a broadly suffused, outwardly curved, fuscous or brown 
median line, preceded closely by a line blackish dentate line from costa, not reach- 
ing beyond middle of disc; reniform obsolete, but indicated by an inwardly curved 
lunate blackish line above middle of disc; postmedian line very slender, fuscous, 
wavy, from before | costa to § dorsum, outwardly curved ; beyond this a parallel 
series of short blackish streaks on veins ; three blackish costal dots on posterior 
third; a whitish suffusion succeeds median line and is prolonged beneath costa to 
or towards termen; a slender interrupted whitish subterminal line; a blackish 
terminal line ; cilia whitish-grey or brownish-grey. Hindwings broader, termen 
slightly sinuate; grey or brownish-grey, sometimes broadly whitish towards base; 
cilia grey, apices whitish, towards tornus wholly whitish. 

Evidently variable in colouration. 

North Queensland : Kuranda, near Cairns ; Evelyn Scrub, near Herberton. 
Two specimens received from Mr. F. P. Dodd. 

Saroptila platysara, n. sp. 

7rXaTvo-a/3os, with broad brushes. 

&, 30 mm. Head fuscous. Palpi $§■ second joint exceeding vertex, 
terminal joint ■$-, with a small subapical posterior tuft; fuscous. Antennae grey; 
in male moderately ciliated (1), with a pair of long bristles (3) on each segment. 
Thorax fuscous. Abdomen grey. Legs fuscous ; posterior pair mostly whitish- 
ochreous. Forewings triangular, costa nearly straight, apex rounded, termen 
rather strongly rounded, scarcely oblique; a tuft of long hairs on underside from 
upper margin of cell near its end, directed downwards and outwards, partly cover- 
ing a pale androconial area; pale ochreous-f uscous ; lines slender, dentate, fuscous; 
first from | costa to |- dorsum; second from § costa to § dorsum, outwards from 
costa, but soon nearly straight and finely dentate to dorsum; a more obscure, only 
slightly dentate, subterminal line; a whitish dot in disc above middle at \, and 
another in middle at ■§; cilia concolorous, Hindwings broadly oval, elongate 
anteroposteriorly ; on underside with three oblique ridges of moderately long hairs, 
extending from near middle to near termen, directed inwards and backwards; 
pale ochreous-fuscous ; a rather large subcostal area bare of scales ; cilia con- 
colorous. 

Very similar to S. mUichias Turn., but the brushes on underside of hindwings 
are an easy distinction. 

Queensland : Montville (1,500 feet), near Nambour, in March ; two 
specimens. 

Fam. TORTRICIDAE. 
Rarnardiella scxaphila Turn. 

Queensland: Nambour District; four specimens bred in November from 
larvae feeding on banana fruit (J. A. W.). 

Epichorista gonodesma, n. sp. 

yajvoSetfyzo?, with angled band. 

9, 14 mm. Head and thorax reddish-brown. Palpi 3; second joint with 
long spreading hairs beneath ; reddish-brown. Antennae grey. Abdomen fuscous ; 
tuft ochreous-whitish. Legs brownish. Forewings suboblong, not dilated, costa 
gently arched, apex rounded-rectangular, termen straight, scarcely oblique ; brown- 
whitish with' some grey suffusion in terminal area; markings reddish-brown; a 



306 

small basal patch; a rather narrow median fascia from costa before middle to 
mid-dorsum, angled acutely outwards in middle, on costa suffused with fuscous; 
preceding this are four fine outwardly-angled transverse lines ; four whitish dots 
surrounded and bisected by reddish-brown and fuscous on terminal half of costa; 
a grey-centred tornal spot; an apical spot; an oblique line from beneath | costa 
to termen below middle; terminal edge brown-whitish; cilia brown-whitish with 
fuscous dots on apex and below middle of termen, bases reddish-brown. Hind- 
wings with termen sinuate ; dark grey ; cilia pale grey with dark basal and apical 
lines. 

Queensland: National Park (3,000 feet), in March; one specimen. 

Fam. GLYPHIPTERYGIDAE. 

Phycodes. 
Phycodes Gn., Noct, ii., p. 389; Meyr., Gen. Insect., Glyphipt., p. 18. 
Head and thorax smooth. Antennae short, J or less, in male simple. Palpi 
very short, curved, ascending, laterally compressed, smooth. Middle and posterior 
tibiae smooth except opposite origin of spurs. Forewings with all veins present 
and separate, 2 from long before angle of cell (f). Hindwings with 3 and 4 
connate or stalked, 5 parallel or slightly approximated at base, 6 and 7 separate, 
nearly parallel. 

Type, P. radiala Ochs., from India. 

A genus of about a dozen recorded species from India and Africa. It has not 
been previously recorded from Australia. 

P H YCODES AD j ECTELLA . 
Nigilica adjectella Wlk., Cat. Brit. Mus., xxviii., p, 512. 
£ , 2 , 12-16 mm. Head and thorax grey with metallic lustre; face brassy- 
Palpi minute; fuscous. Antennae very short, in male ^, in female -£; fuscous; in 
male somewhat thickened, simple. Abdomen fuscous. Legs fuscous; apices of 
middle and posterior tibiae and tarsal annulations white. Forewings somewhat 
dilated, costa moderately arched, apex rounded, termen straight, not oblique, 
rounded beneath; fuscous densely irrorated with brassy-whitish, scales mostly 
arranged in transverse rows; base lustrous-grey; a narrow black fascia broadly 
edged with brilliant brassy lines from i costa to i dorsum; a similar fascia from 
before £ costa to i dorsum, giving oft a brassy black-edged line from its centre 
to costa before apex; a brassy tornal dot, above which is a black spot, and above 
this a brassy streak, edged above with black, to midtcrmen ; termen and cilia black 
with coppery lustre. Hindwings fuscous-brown towards base thinly-scaled ; a 
small pencil of white hairs from near base of dorsum in both sexes; cilia fuscous. 
North Queensland : Townsville, in October, December, and January. Received 
from Mr. F. H. Taylor, who found it abundant, and attached to the Indian 
Tamarind (Tamarindiis indica), with which it has doubtless been imported. Also 
from China, Ceylon, India, and Africa. 

Amphimelas, n. gen. 

a^t/z.eAas-, black all round. 

Head smooth. Tongue present. Palpi long, recurved, sickle-shaped; second 
joint smooth, exceeding base of antennae ; terminal joint as long as second, smooth, 
slender, laterally compressed, acute. Antennae of female about -?>, filiform; basal 
joint rather stout. Thorax not crested. Middle and posterior tibiae with median 
and terminal whorls of hairs, otherwise smooth. Forewdngs with 11 veins, 2 from 
f, 3 and 4 connate from angle, 7 and 8 coincident, 9 approximated, 11 from middle. 



307 

Hindwings over 1, subquadrate, cilia -&; 3 and 4 stalked, 5 parallel, approximated, 
6 and 7 connate. 

Amphimelas argopasta, n. sp. 

apyoTTao-ros, sprinkled with white. 

?, 16-17 mm. Head blackish; face white. Palpi blackish; second joint 
except base and apex white. Antennae blackish. Thorax blackish, some irrora- 
tion and a posterior dot white. Abdomen blackish, apices of segments white, more 
broadly so beneath. Legs blackish; tibial whorls of hairs and tarsal annulations 
white. Forewings suboblong, not dilated, costa gently arched, apex rounded- 
rectangular, terrrien straight, scarcely oblique; blackish with white irroration, 
which forms indistinct oblique bands, first from costa near base to dorsum near 
middle, second from costa before middle to dorsum beyond middle, third from 
f costa to tornus ; a terminal series of white dots; cilia fuscous with slight purple 
lustre. Hindwings and cilia blackish. 

New South Wales: Mittagong, in November; two specimens received from 
Mr. G. M. Goldfinch, who has the type. 

Fam. HYPONOMEUTIDAE. 

Atteva ntphocosma Turn. 

Larvae whitish, each segment with a broad blackish ring of coalesced spots 
except in cephalic and caudal segments ; in these the rings are replaced by two 
large trilobate spots touching on dorsum; head brown. Feeding gregariously in 
an open web on a jungle shrub on Palm Islands, North Queensland. Pupae grey 
mottled with blackish, fixed by tail in web, more or less erect. 

Pauridioneura, n. gen. 

I propose this name for Pauroneura Turn. (Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas., 1926, 
p. 158), used previously by me in the Gelechiadae. 

Fam. HEPIALIDAE. 

Porina aedesima, n. sp. 

(uSerxf/^os, venerable. 

$ „ 55 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax fuscous. Antennae whitish-ochreous ; 
in male shortly bipcctinatc (1), pectinations densely but shortly ciliated. Abdomen 
pale fuscous, at base slightly rufous-tinged. Legs pale fuscous. Forewings 
elongate, suboval, costa sinuate, apex rounded, termen very obliquely rounded; 
pale fuscous densely irrorated with fine whitish-ochreous hairlike scales; a dark 
fuscous costal streak ; an outwardly oblique, narrow, oblong, whitish, discal mark 
before middle slenderly outlined with fuscous ; three oblique lines consisting of 
fuscous spots, often whitish in centre, variably developed ; first from midcosta 
outwardly curved around discal mark, thence straight to | dorsum; second from 
| costa to f dorsum, nearly straight ; third from J costa to tornus, nearly straight ; 
sometimes an imperfectly developed similar sub-basal line; cilia fuscous with a 
few whitish-ochreous scales. Hindwings with termen strongly rounded ; pale 
fuscous tinged with rufous towards base, or wholly pale rufous; cilia fuscous. 

North Queensland: Eungella (2,500 feet), behind Mackay, in October; two 
specimens. 

Trictena argyrosticha, n. sp. 

dpy vfiouTL^o^, silver-striped. 

$ , 106-120 mm. Head, thorax, abdomen, and legs pale brown. Palpi about 
1 ; brown. Antennae whitish-ochreous; in male tripectinate, lateral pectinations 4, 



308 

median ventral pectinations rather shorter. Forewings elongate, suboval, costa 
straight to f, thence arched, apex tolerably pointed, termen slightly rounded, 
strongly oblique, longer than dorsum, with which it forms a continuous curve ; 
brown, towards costa narrowly and suffusedly pale brown, towards dorsum very 
broadly and defmedly pale brown ; more or less marked with line, parallel, curved, 
scroll-like, darker and paler lines, forming near termen concentric oval rings, 
which have occasionally whitish centres ; an irregular-edged, rather broad, median, 
longitudinal, shining-white streak, from near base to beyond middle, with irregular 
teeth above and beneath; sometimes a few small white spots in disc beyond this; 
a similar but untoothed oblique streak from just beneath apex to midway between 
end of median streak and anal angle; cilia brown-whitish. Hindwings broadly 
oval, termen strongly rounded ; pale brown, sometimes with pale fuscous suffusion 
posteriorly. 

Apart from the different colour the forewings are narrow, with longer termen, 
-and more pointed apex, and the palpi rather shorter than in T. labyrinlhica Don. 

Queensland: Montville, near Nambour, in March; Toowoomba in April; 
six specimens. 



309 



NOTES ON, AND DESCRIPTIONS OF, CHALCID WASPS IN THE 
SOUTH AUSTRALIAN MUSEUM. 

Concluding Paper. U) 

By A. A. Girault, Assistant Government Entomologist, Queensland. 
(Communicated by Arthur M. Lea, F.E.S.) 

[Read September 12, 1929.] 

The following data and descriptions comprise a final report upon a collection 
of the Hymenopterous family Chalcididae loaned to mc by the Director, South 
Australian Museum. The types are in the named museum, cotypes in the Queens- 
land Museum at Brisbane, but a few are otherwise disposed of, as noted in the 
text. 

Subfamily EUPELMINAE. 

Genus Eupelmus Dalman. 
1. Eupelmus antipoda Ashmead. 

A female specimen, Launceston, Tasmania (F. M. Littler), December 17,. 
1916. 

The basal \ of ovipositor is aeneous, rest yellow. The species differs from 
E. splendidus in bearing a longer ovipositor (half abdomen's length) and in the 
different colour of this organ. The metallic colour is deep and the tibial tips in 
leg 3 sharply contrast. Postmarginal somewhat exceeds the stigmal. Runs to 
splendidus in my revised table of the genus Eupelmus (Australian). 

2. Eupelmus worcesteri Girault. 
A female, Murray Island, Torres Straits (A. M. Lea). 

Tibia 2 has the distal two-thirds red-brown. Scutellum finely long- 
lineolated. 

3. Eupelmus splendidus Girault. 

A female with No. 2. Differs from E. antipoda: Erons a bit wider, more 
opaque, without rows of pin-punctures (eyes, mesopleurum bare in both), ocelli 
in smaller triangle, shorter ovipositor, stigmal vein more curved and equal post- 
marginal. 

4. Eupelmus redini Girault argentilineus, n. var. 

As typical form but entirely purple except a linear exfoliation along the 
whole of tibia 2 beneath, this silvery. Lateral ocelli nearly twice wider apart 
than either is distant from median. Tarsi more or less brown beneath; middle 
tibial spur brown; scutum densely pilose. 

A female, March 23, 1916, Launceston, Tasmania. 

5. Eupelmus extraordinarius Girault. 

Fore wing with two eye-spots. Aeneous; knees, tibial tips, tarsi except 1 of 3 
and most of tibia 2 except proximad, brown; ovipositor shortly extruded, white 
except at base narrowly ; eye-spots small, elliptical, separated by more than their 
length, the caudal isolated from caudal margin; postmarginal over twice the stig- 
mal ; silvery band abdomen wide ; ocelli in a flat triangle, lateral closer to eye than to 

O) The writer desires to thank all who gave aid. The first (and only other) part 
was printed in Records S. Austr. Museum, part, in., 1927," pp. 309-338. 



310 

median; funicles 2-3 over twice longer than wide, exceeding pedicel, latter brown 
at apex. Cephalic mesopleurum pilose, a row of elongate hairs across neck of 
prolhorax (dorsad). Antennae somewhat above eye ends. In table follows 
E. giottini. 

A female, Cairns district (A. M. Lea). 

6. Eupelmus caesar Girault. 

Runs to is. chanceri but differs from that species and E. nelsoncnsis by colour 
of the legs; in the same way from E. shake sp ear ei; like E. bruttts but femur 
3 aeneous for proximal f ; tibia 3 aeneous above for proximal § except 
just at base. The rows of thimble punctures along the eyes down the face, are 
very distinct, in the other species usually absent or obscure. Mesopleurum naked 
in all. Ovipositor here nearly half abdomen, narrowly blue at base and apex, but 
at latter more widely, middle half or more white. Fore tibia aeneous above and 
below only. 

The species is also characterised by having the first four segments of the 
abdomen deeply notched at hind margin; and the whitish hairs of the face, lobes 
of scutum and prepecius conspicuous. 

Four female type specimens reared from Eitblemma species on Ceroplastcs 
rubens, Custard apple, Redland Bay, February 23, 1926 (A. A. Girault and 
W. A. T. Summerville). Two cotype females reared from larva Lygropia 
clytitsalis Walk., "Currajong Bag-shelter Moth." Darwin, North Australia, 
November 1, 1913 (G. F. Hill). 



/. 



Eupelmus mawso.ni Girault soljs Girault. 



A female, Adelaide, by sweeping; a female, Mount Lofty, South Australia 
{J. G. O. Tepper). Femora entirely yellow mesad except 3, so also the tibiae. 

Genus Parooberella Girault. 
1. Parooderella goethei, n. sp. 

To follow P. semiputata. Frons the same but ocelli equidistant (lateral much 
closer to eye than to median). 

Dull reddish, the head and antennae except scape, aeneous; hind margin 
pronotum, cephalic mesopleurum, hind margin of segment 2 of [he abdomen, 
purple, tegulae black; ovipositor | abdomen, white. Hind coxa purple at base 
above. Fore wing nearly thrice longer than wide, truncate and widest at apex, 
fuscous, ciliated on about basal half, venation to costa at apex, hence marginal 
vein punctiform. Joint 3 of the funicle equal to the pedicel, 2 longest, nearly thrice 
longer than wide. Pronotum with a median sulcus. Head and eyes pilose, also 
dorsal abdomen which has a velvety appearance. Scutum hispid. 

A female, Chinchilla, Queensland. February, 1928 (A. P. Dodd). 

Genus Metaprlma Wcstwood. 
1. Metapelma goethet Girault. 
The type is in the South Australian Museum, cotype in Queensland Museum. 

Genus Cerambycobius Ashmead. 

1. Cerambycobius pax Girault. 
A female specimen from Strahan, Tasmania (H. J. Carter and A. M. Lea). 
Tibia except ends metallic, tarsi black except joint 1. 



311 

Genus Neanastatus Girault. 
1. Neanastatus desertensjs Girault. 
A female, Melrose, South Australia, October (A. M. Lea). 

Genus Eusandalum Patzeburg. 

1. Eusandalum longiannulum, n. sp. 

Head as long as wide, antennae at eye ends,, the rather large, round, somewhat 
bulging eyes equal to cheeks, the scrobes forming a deep V-shaped cavity with 
thick-ridged sides which on vertex form two obtuse "horns." Funicle 2 about 
7 times longer than wide, rest gradually shortening, 1 quadrate, pedicel small. 

Abdomen elongate, last segment stylate and compressed, extending nearly to 
•apex ovipositor and one-third rest of abdomen, latter twice length thorax plus 
head. Postmarginal vein elongate, equal marginal, over four times the stigmal. 
Vertex subquadrate, finely cross-lined, caudal margin concave, cephalic excavated 
and "horned," the ocelli nearly in a straight line on cephalic margin, lateral close 
to eye, rather farther from median. A tubercle between antennae. Scape extend- 
ing far above vertex. Eyes bare. 

As E. compressiscapas but fore wing with a deep wide, midlongitudinal 
fuscous stripe, apex to base and touching apex of the short stigmal, latter with 
■distinct neck ; f unicles and postmarginal longer. 

A female, Georgetown, Tasmania, November 16, 1914. 

Subfamily SIGNIPHORINAE. 

Genus Matritta Mercet. 

1. Matritia hebes, n. sp. 

As M. thusanoides but hyaline band of wing 1 a triangle whose base is distad 

:and the length of the stigmal vein distad of the apex of that vein, and whose apex 

is lost in an hyaline area from the marginal vein, and which ends at about centre, 

but meets another clear area on caudal margin opposite most of submarginal vein ; 

the distal margin of the farthest clear area is acutely concaved. Tibia 1 entirely 

black. Distal fringes just exceeding stigmal vein. No accessory discal bristle on 

wing 2. 

Head and thorax smooth, a few indistinct pin-punctures. Pedicel not £ scape, 
lateral ocellus close to eye, far distant from median. 

Three females from spider eggs in a leaf-nest. Tasmania. 

Subfamily ENCYRTINAE. 

Genus Epfchetloneurus Girault. 

1. Epicheiloneurus cinctiventris, n. sp. 

Abdomen with a silvery cinctus across apex segment 2 dorsad. Purple. 

Head, scape save apex, leg 1, tip tibia 3, tibia 2, neck of thorax, orange; 

tarsi, knee 3, tegula at base, femur 2 mostly, silvery. Fore wing with a wide, 

■deep cross-stripe from bend of submarginal vein distad to a point half way to apex 

from apex of stigmal. Scutellum, axillae, green, with sparse hairs, former with 

no apical bristles. Hairless line with about 9 lines cilia proxiinad of it and from 

which proceeds a paired curved line to base, this and first few lines near base, 

coloured, rest pale; hairless line closed in middle of wing and also against 

venation. 

Frons wide. Distal three funicles with several flattened bristles on apex of 
-one side. A pair of lines of discal cilia along submarginal to base. Marginal four 



312 

times longer than wide, twice the stigmal, postmarginal shorter than stigmal. 
Scape clavate, distinctly compressed and dilated. Pedicel exceeding funicle 6. 
A female, Mount Lofty, South Australia, in tussocks. 

Genus Anagyropsis Girault. 
1 . Anagyropsis cicada Girault. 

Both sexes, Mount Pleasant, South Australia (Loveday), Fchruary 9, 1897,. 
from galls and lerp. Also two large females, Cradle Mountain, Tasmania (H. J. 
Carter and A. M. Lea). 

The male is coloured like the female hut the antennae are entirely lemon and 
curious. There are four large, equal ring-joints and a long, cylindrical, thick 
3-jointed club whose joint 2 is shortest, half longer than wide, 1 and 3 each twice 
longer than wide. The club is densely hispid, the hairs short. The pedical and 
scape are short, latter much dilated but longer than wide. 

In the male there is also another curious modification which I have never as 
yet met with in this family. The middle tarsi are black, while the spur is flattened 
and spindle-shaped and also black. 

2. Anagyropsis longistylus, n. sp. 

As A. channingi but funicles 1-2 longest, nearly twice longer than wide,, 
exceeding the short pedicel; ovipositor two-thirds the abdomen's length, latter 
produced into a very narrow, elongate' stylus, which nearly attains apex of 
ovipositor; postmarginal a bit shorter than stigmal; flagcllum except basal part 
pedicel, yellowish. Tibia 3 immaculate. 

Scape's dilation not great, distad, the scape clavate, dorsal margin serrate.. 
Mesopleurum bare. Wing 2 with 28 lines of dense discal cilia. 

3. Anagyropsis iiowardii Girault. 

A female, attracted to light, Rockhampton, Queensland (A. M. Lea). 
The frons is punctate, the ocelli nearly equidistant, lateral near eye. In the 
above specimen, the apical half of coxa 2 was yellow. 

Genus Coccidoxknus Crawford. 
1. Coccidoxenus aeneoculex, n. sp. 

As C. minutella Girault but frons moderately wide (scape a bit pale beneath 
at apex), leg 2 yellow save coxa and a blotch above on tibia at basal \ (near base) ; 
scape with some distal dilation; wing ciliated to base, costal cell entirely ciliated; 
apex tibia 3 rather widely pale (more so ventrad) ; discal cilia distad of venation 
distinctly finer, very fine and dense. Tegulae dark save across base. 

Moderately small species, the ovipositor a bit extruded. Funicles quadrate,, 
enlarging distad, half length pedicel. 

One female, Lucindale. South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

Genus Epikncyrtotdes Girault. 
1. Epiencyrtotdes quinquedentatus Girault 
As E. axillaris but cinctus of tibia 2 short yet exceeding the short white 
proximad of it; coxa 1, femur 2, femur 1 (except at sides), tibia 1 at base, con- 
colourous; jaws 4- and 5-dentate, 4 of 5-dentate minute but distinct, 5 as in the 
other mandible. Wings clear. Scape, club and pedicel above black. Funicles 5-6 
quadrate. Postmarginal equal marginal, a bit exceeding stigmal. Four lines cilia 
proximad hairless line, distad of it cilia fine and uniform. Submarginal setae 
long bristles. 



313 



Male antennae 5-jointed, 2 ring-joints, 2 half of 1 which is somewhat wider 
than long; a very long, solid, hairy club, which is yellowish. 

Ovipositor shortly extruded. 

Reared from Chionaspis f eucalypti Froggatt, on loganberry, Melbourne 
Victoria, March 2, 1927 (G. R Hill). Paratypes in South Australian and 
yueensland Museums. 

Genus Rhopalencyrtoidea Girault. 

1. Rhopalencyrtotdea duma Girault. 

/ a « f ? ma ! e and a dozcn more in another !ot, Melrose, South Australia October 
(A. M. Lea). 

The funicles 1-3, 4-6 are usually in two groups, the second exceeding the first 
but all quadrate. Sometimes 3 is equal 4 and therefore belongs to the second 
group. Sometimes the postmargmal vein is a bit shorter than the stigmal. 

This is a variable species. I have once redescribed it from New South Wales 
under the name R. cinctifemur. 

2. Rhopalencyrtoidea austrina, n. sp. 

As R. claripennis but all funicle joints twice longer than wide, 1 shortest 2 a 
tit longer, subequal to the pedicel; 2 of mandible longer than 1 ; fore win? lightly 
infuscated, more deeply so across from marginal and stigmal veins, latter sub- 
equal distinctly shorter than the postmarginal vein; only 2 lines of cilia close the 
mouth of the hairless line at caudal margin; middle tibia purple nearly to apex ■ 
scape subrectangularly dilated. Palpi dark, 3- and 4-jointed, 4 of maxillary 
elongate Second wing densely ciliate, wide, 26 lines of cilia which do not extend 
quite to base. 

A female, Strahan, Tasmania (H. J. Carter and A. M. Lea). 

Genus Epjblatticida Girault. 
1. Epiblatticida puparia, n. sp. 
Jaw 3 obtuse, not widened. Frons of moderate width. 

As E Iambi but coxae, femora (2 only washed from base), tibia 1 at basal 
t e i', C°ftcn) and tibia 3 more or less at basal \ purple; scape, apex pedicel, 
fumcles 5-6, legs (yellow), knee 1 widely, white; funicles 1-4 duskv pale Scape 
more or less dusky. Venation black, postmarginal less than half 'the marginal, 
half stigmal. Three lines of loose and coarser cilia, proximad hairless line and 
one line along submarginal to base. 

Abdomen depressed, beehive-shaped, smaller than thorax, ovipositor extruded 
no quite for half length of abdomen. Sculpture very fine. Vertex, upper thorax 
with scattered short, black setae ; a few small punctures on vertex 

Male similar but frons wider, antennae filiform, scape less dilated, dusky 
pale at apex; club longest of flagellum, solid, hairy, funicle 1 twice longer than 
wide, longest, 6 a bit longer than wide, equal pedicel. Funicles with longish 
irregularly placed, soft hairs. s ' 

lQ?* Re r f fr ° m lP u P a, ; ium > B y ficld > Queensland (J. L. Froggatt), March 29, 
iy26. Corypes in Queensland Museum. 

Genus Aphycus Mayr. 

1. Aphycus nigrivarius, n. sp. 

Golden, wings clear, black as f ollows :— A wide stripe across upper occiput, 

face of prothorax, nearly cephalic half scutum, pronotum laterad, axillae except 

iaterad and a mark on scutum in front of them; a large, acute triangle on scutellum 

with its apex at base and the mark attaining nearly to apex of the region where 



314 

it terminates in a cross-stripe ; dorsal thorax along scutellum ; propodeum except 
meson and lateral margins ; meson upper abdomen widely (at apex entirety across) , 
Legs with faint traces of dusky spots. Scape moderately dilated. Jaws 2-3 shal- 
lowly divided, jaw teeth small. 

Funicles 1-3 equal, globular, rest enlarging, 6 quadrate, subequal pedicel. 
Postmarginal equal the punctate marginal; hairless line closed by several lines, 
discal cilia to base. Scutum with scattered, short setae. 

Type a female, Brisbane (on a gum leaf), Queensland (A. R. Brimblc- 
combe), September 30, 1926. Cotypes, a series reared by Mr. G. F. Hill from 
Eriococcus coriaceus, Hawthorn, Victoria, April 1, 1927. Ln the cotypes the 
black of scutum was less and that of scutellum scarcely produced cephalad from 
the cross-stripe. There are two dusky blotches on tibia 3 above, base and apex. 
In the male, the axillae, scutellum, all of scutum except latero-caudal corner, dark 
green. The flagellum is lighter, with long hairs, the club solid, long, funicles much 
shorter, J longer than wide, exceeding pedicel. 

Genus Cristatitilorax Girault. 

1. Cristatithorax sublimus, n. sp. 

Differs from C. novinwndibularis in having tibia 1 purple except apex,. 

abdomen purple only widely at base above, a spot above and below middle knee 

purple. Cephalic ocellus twice farther from lateral than latter arc from each 

other. Elsewise as in C. mackayensis. 

Reared with Coccophayus exigiiivcntris at Darwin, North Australia (G. K 

Hill). 

Genus Neoclauja Perkins. 
1. Neoct.adta howardi Perkins. 
A male, reared in association with "Phlyctaenodcs pilosus Pascoe," South 

Australia. 

The club is elongate, solid, subequal to the branches which are narrower at 
base and above armed with stout, long spines; joint 6 of the funiclc is distinctly 
longest, 5 quadrate, rest wider than long; club much exceeding the scape. Labial, 
palpi 3-jointed, 2 small, 3 longest but not long, rather swollen. Marginal vein longer 
than wide, the postmarginal distinctly exceeding the stigmal. Fore tibia all yellow 

beneath. t 

The teeth of the mandibles were not seen in this specimen, but after mounting 
this is often impossible as the jaw itself must be dissected off and floated. There 
is a branch from each joint of the fuuicle. 

Genus Arhopoideus Girault. 
1. Arhopoideus erevicornis Girault. 
A female reared from wattle galls, May, 1897, South Australian Museum. 
There were three distinct lines of cilia proximad of the hairless line; the 
postmarginal vein in this specimen was distinct, short. 

2. Arhopoideus semiargenteus, n. sp. 

Fore wing with a wide smoky band across it from costal margin distad of 
venation (touching base of stigmal vein and all of postmarginal^ and thus 
characterised. Aeneous, head and thorax densely, finely punctate; tarsi, fore tibia 
beneath, at sides and' apex, tibia 2, basal third hind tibia and the linear exfoliation 
of the scape at apex beneath, silvery. Joints 3-5 of the funiclc a little wider than 
long. Second wing obtuse at apex, 20-22 lines of cilia. Pedicel subequal to 
joint 1 of the funicle, funicle 2 quadrate. A short postmarginal vein. 

One female, North Pine River, Queensland, November 17, 1928 (H. Hacker). 



315 

The palpi in this genus are 1- and 2-jointed, and the group is thus further 
characterised. 

Genus Aenasiella Girault. 
1. Aenasxella analis Girault. 
Several females labelled: "Parasites of Brachyscelis, Jetulpa 2/Neita (Mrs 
Tarrant), 11.3.02. Emerged June 25, 1903." 

The scutum is densely pilose. Of the 8 lines of discal cilia proximad of the 
hairless line, the fourth is almost on over cephalic half, so that there are two 
groups of 3 and 4 lines. The maxillary palpi bear a conical tooth-like projection 
at the base of the constricted basal part, giving the appearance of a bifid or cleft 
apex. This character, that of the divided ciliation back of the hairless line and 
the shorter ovipositor and somewhat larger abdomen distinguish the species from 
Rhopalencyrtoidea dubia which it closely resembles. 

In the original description the name of this species was misspelt amplis. 

Genus Copidosoma Ratzeburg. 
1. Copidosoma Australia Girault. 
A female, Sydney, New South Wales (A. M. Lea). 
The frons is punctate. 

Genus Euciieilonetjropsis Girault. 

1. EUCHEILONEUROFSIS ABNORMIS (Girault). 

A female, Sydney, New South Wales (A. M. Lea). 

The silvery part of the middle tibia (over basal half) was not purplish 
beneath. Lateral ocellus near eye, very far from the median. 

Genus Paraenasomyiia Girault. 
1. Paraenasomyiia feralis, n. sp. 
As P. orro but ovipositor not extended, all dark purple except knees tarsi 
tibial tips; wings with a slight stain against marginal and stigmal veins- funicle 6 
is nearly as long as the others (joint 1 of the club longer than wide, exceeding 1 of 
the funicle m width and length) ; 6 loose lines of discal cilia proximad of the 
hairless line, several lines to base cephalad and caudad ; marginal vein a bit lommv 
than wide, half the stigmal, latter somewhat shorter than the postmarginal ; costal 
cell entirely cihate. Dilation of scape linear and distad. Wings clearer proximad 
of the hairless line. Abdomen not twice longer than wide at base. Scutum pilose 
Maxillary palpus with 4 elongate, 1 long, rest short; 3 of the labial palpus shorter 
than 1, 2 shortest. Bulla and palpi dark. Joints of the funicle slightly shorter 
than pedicel. J 

A female, Adelaide South Australia (J. G. O. Tcpper). 

Subfamily APHELIN1NAE. 

Genus Ablerus Howard. 

1. Ablerus riiea Girault. 

Runs to A. pan in my revised table and is like A. hyalinus, but antennae black 

except apex pedicel, only the distal end of the parapside is pale, funicles shorter 

3 transverse, fringes one-third to one-half wing width; 2-3 lines coarser dark cilia 

back trom stigmal, discal cilia distinct, not dense, 12 lines. Caudal fringe wttur 

2 exceeding width. Funicle 1 equal pedicel and 2, half longer than wide Head 

ivory, deep aeneous on face below antennae but pale at meson or immediately 

beneath them. J 



316 

Type and colype female reared from a coccid on Pallitris robiista, Injune, 
Queensland, April, 1927 (J. H. Smith). The cotype, as usual, for the Queens- 
land Museum. 

Genus Coccophagus Westwood. 

1. Coccophagus exigutventrts Girault. 

As description of C. pulcini but differs as follows:— Uniformly dull honey; 
stripes of abdomen usually 4 (4-5), 1 and sometimes 2 widely interrupted at 
meson, 4 abbreviated each side; antennae of uniform colour, honey; fumcle 1 
exceeds 2; lateral ocelli twice closer to eye than to median; setae from marginal 
smaller than those from submarginal ; axillae as pilose as scutum and scutellum, 
latter with a slender seta each side at apex; pilosity white; stigmal vein oblique, 
globular, its neck as long as its knob; fringes at apex short. 

Abdomen smaller than thorax. Scutellum naked mesad apically. 

Pedicel of male globular, flagellum filiform, distal J abdomen black, rest pale 
with two brownish marginal dashes between base and middle. 

Reared from a large Lecaninm (No. 316, W. W. Froggatt), Darwin, North 
Australia, September 6, 1916 (G. F. Hill). Ten male, female types and para- 
types upon one card mount. 

Subfamily PERILAMP1NAE. 
Genus Meselatus Girault. 

1. Meselatus fasciattpennis Girault. 
A female, Sydney, New South Wales (A. M. Lea). 

In this specimen the entire head was black. The long hair of lateral scutum 
and so forth is from punctures. Propodeal median carina forked. Distal funicles 
twice wider than long. Propodeum reticulate, rough in places. 

2. Meselatus subatkiventris Girault. 

Many specimens of both sexes from Port Jackson figs (A. J. Coates), 
Sydney, New South Wales. 

Scutellum with an elongate seta at apex; cilia of fore wing rathe? dense, the 
wing lightly embrowned to apex from about distal one-third submarginal vein. 
Marginal and submarginal bristles gross. Elongate setae from dorsal hind tibia 
and also from femur 3 beneath and above (in the male more stout and more con- 
spicuous, the femur much enlarged). Scattered elongate bristles on thorax. 

The male antenna bears one less funicle (1 + 1 + 1 + 6 + 1), the ring- 
joint distinctly longer than wide, exceeding funicles, the pedicel longer than in 

the female. 

Genus Systolomorpha Ashmead. 

1. Systolomorpha tiiyiudopterygis Ashmead. 

Many specimens from galls of Cylindrococcus casitarinae, November, 1907, 

Victor Harbour, South Australia (D. H. Cushman). A female, Tarcoola (A. 

M.Lea). 

Genus Coelocyba Ashmead. 

1. Coelocyba persimilis (Girault). 

A female, Lucindale, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

Vertex and frons with numerous umbilicate punctures. Lateral ocellus oyer 
twice closer to the eye than to the median. Pedicel a bit longer than wide. Hind 
coxa enlarged, compressed. One hind tibial spur very short. Scutum, parapside, 
cephalic half scutellum with many short, black setae. Band 6 of abdomen a trans- 
verse mark across meson widely. Proximal margin of the discal ciliation of fore 
wing wedge-shaped, acute. 



317 



Genus Coelocybelloides Girault. 
1. Coelocybelloides mediolineatus Girault. 
Launceston, Tasmania, No. 2010, December 7, 1915 

The stigmal vein is only half the length of the marginal. The wings are more 
or less embrowned. Head pin-punctate, the punctures bearing minute setae Both 
palp: are 2-jomted. The amount of black on the parapside varies, and the centre 
oi the mesopleurum is black as well as the base of the hind coxa. 

2. Coelocybelloides pulchrivariegatus Girault 

AncS ^ s ^wo females, reared from galls on Eucalyptus, Tintinara, South 
Australia (J. G. O. lepper). Emerged March 2, 1887 

The maxillary palpi are 4-jointed in both sexes, the labial apparently 3- jointed 
Hence the species is not congeneric with C. mediolineatus. The segmentation of 
the palpi is very little known in this group, perhaps because of the difficulty in 
seeing them. y 

3. Coelocybelloides pulchra, n. sp. 

As C. aureus but base of abdomen, pleura and venter of thorax, prothorax 
also lemon; dorsal thoracic sutures not black, dorsal scape except at base dorsal 
pedicel green; no black on dorsal thorax except the spiracle and a spot near the 
base of the second wing. Apex of abdomen widely black and the curved stripe 4 
is rather close to it Venation yellow distad of the submarginal vein. Funicle 1 
as wide as 2 each i longer than wide and nearly as long as the pedicel A lame 
species with black mesoventer. * 

A female, Ooldea, South Australia. 

4. Coelocybelloides nigrisetae, n. sp. 

From C pulchra: Thoracic sutures black, black setae along each side of the 
scutellum and along the parapsidal furrows; abdomen as in C. aureus but the 
cross-bands cover the entire surface from basal i to distal f; the pubescence is 
black grey m pulchra. Venation black except basal i of the marginafvein 

abdomen SPeC1CS ^^ ^^ °' ° Wm "' the "^ widel ^ s P aced bands of the 
A female, Ooldea, South Australia. 

Genus Perilampus Latreille. 
1. , Perilampus tasmaniensis Girault. 
A female, Tasmania (A. Simson, No. 2709). 

Genus Epelatus Girault. 
1. Epelatus eurytomoidea Girault. 
The type locality is Melrose, South Australia, October (A M Lea) 
I he first funicle joint is nearly twice longer than wide. 

Subfamily CLEONYMINAE. 

Genus Episystole Girault. 
1. Episystole poeta Girault. 
One female, Murat Bay, South Australia. 

Genus Platygerrhus Thomson. 
1. Platygerrhus incola, n. sp. 

c^ 5 /' du ^ dani ^ ut fore wing with a complete loop, narrow centrally with 
suffused cross-stripes from each end; and dusky apex; segment 2 glabrous £- 
mal vein over half the postmarginal; legs yellow for the most part except coSf • 



318 

femur 1 is somewhat more swollen than 3 and deeply excised beneath at apex 
(1 less than 3 in other and not excised). 

Scape red-brown except apex; funicle 2 equal the long pedicel, femora mostly 
rale all blotched with aeneous laterad (across near apex of 1, 3, along lower margin 
at distal V) • tibia 1 beneath except each end, tibia 2 with a narrow, 3 with a wide 
middle cinctus. Funicle 1 longer than wide. ^^^%^^^^^ f 

Type female, Kuranda, Queensland, November, 1919 (A. P. Dodd). Also at 
Gordonvale, March, December (paratypes in Queensland Museum) 

A male from Kuranda had the cinctus of tibia 2 as wide as that ot 5, and 
this may be true for the female. , 

In the collections of the South Australian Museum there is one female, 

Kangaroo Island (A. ML Lea). 

2. Platygerrhus froudei, n. sp. 

As P dugandani but tibia 2 all yellow except for a short cinctus near base, 
wines clear, and postmarginai distinctly shorter than marginal and a bit over twice 
the length of the stigmal; distal £ of the tibiae yellow (frons moderately wide) ; 
funicle 2 three and a half times longer than wide, equal the elongate pedicel. 

Gordonvale, Queensland, October, November, 1920 (A. P. Dodd). Cotype 
in Queensland Museum. 

3. Platygerrhus pallidicoxa, n. sp. 

As P incola but smaller, funicle 2 subquadrate, distinctly shorter than pedicel 
femora not much swollen, 1 not excised beneath and tending to be slender. All 
coxae pale. Scape rather widely aeneous at apex. 

Three females, Kuranda, Queensland, December (A. P. Dodd). Cotype m 

Queensland Museum. 

*** Genus Amerostenus Girault. 

1. Amerostenus varidentatus, n. sp. 

Mandibles 3- and 4-dentate, hence so characterised. Scape pale at base. 

Otherwise like A. aereipes but first two pairs of tibiae aeneous above only, 
middle femur yellow dorso-mesad, postmarginai vein as in the genotype, that is, 
elongate about twice the length of the stigmal, the latter with a long, slender neck, 
foints of the funicle subequal, a bit wider than long, distinctly shorter than the 
pedicel. Propodeum short at the meson, there carinate. Thorax scaly reticulate, 
a few indefinite punctures, pronotum transverse, axillae advanced. Clypeus 
obtusely incised at each corner of apex. Tooth 3 of the 3-dentaie jaw widely 
truncate, 4 of the other jaw obtuse and shorter. ( 

joint 1 of the middle and hind tarsi subclongate, much longest, m middle 
tarsus equal to the elongate tibial spur. The male similar but the fore tibia is 

entirely pale. 

A male and two females from galls on the leaves of Eucalyptus obhqua, 
Elakiston, South Australia (T. D. Smeaton). Emerged -May, 1888. With 
Rhicnopeltella and others. 

Subfamily AGAON1TINAE. 

Genus Pleistodontes Saunders. 

1. Pleistodontes semiruficeps, n. sp. 

Uke P. froggatti in structure of the antennae and head but entirely black, 

the head red except proximal (or dorsal) J (from ventral eye ends), this part of 

the head, jet. Legs and first five antcnnals red-brown. Ovipositor not quite as 

long as abdomen. 

Many females on Banyan figs, Lord Howe Island (A. M. Lea). 



319 



Subfamily PTEROMALINAE. 

Genus Spalangiomorpha Girault. 

1. Spalangiomorpha fasciatipennts Girault 

Two females from rice grain, Murray Island, Torres Strait Two other* 

fuSia' 8 bemg ^"^ ° £ Sma11 ***& J™' 1891 ' D - SterliircSS 

,n ! t* *^ t0 Masi ' s J tabIe this genus is Chactospila, the funicle bein* 5-iointed 
and the axillae separated. The species, so far, has not been referabl to an^Ser 
description, but I have not as yet seen all of them. y CI 

Genus Spalangia Latxeille. 
1. Spalangia punctulaticeps, n. sp. 

Winfs C du S kv nSe A n3 l0Se " P ^ nCtUktC With many SCatte '" cd abdicate punctures. 
Wings dusky. A narrow median groove to the aerobes from the median ocellus 
Fumcles 1-3 wider than long, together about as long as the pedicd Pronotum" 

he Sv™ y -H y Wlth f Ca " ered P^P^tures on the former and a. so up'n 
'If! 7 P aia P sl d es : a weak cross-row of fovea on scutum distad of the mi Se 
from thence glabrous like the scutellum and axillae, and like these with a few 
punctures along lateral portions (on scutellum in two longitudLaf rows leaving 
wide smooth mesal area) ; a cross-row of pin-punctures on scutehum except at 
mesal part and toward apex; axillar sutures punctate. Propodeum with two 

muS-\Tabrouf r0 burde Whi r h ^V T^ ^ ™ n as °" e ^ ap^na S^ 
much, glabrous but densely punctate laterad of the spiracle except at cephalic 

T gi r,' ^ between the meson and spiracle foveate. Segments 2 and f Lull 
united half the surface. 4 a bit longer than either. g q ' 

A female, Kangaroo Island (A. M. Lea). 

Genus Fachyneuron Walker. 
1. Pachyneuron kingsleyi Girault 
A female in October, Melrose, also at Gawler, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

Genus Pteromalus Swederus. 
1. Pteromaltjs pupartjm (Linn.). 
A female, Melrose, South Australia (A M I ea^ in C)rtr,h^ • *u i 
sweeping, Adelaide (N. B. Tindale). h Ct ° bei ' anothet b * 

Genus Paruriella Girault. 
1. Paruriella australiensis Girault 
Two males, 5 females, Melrose, South Australia, October (A M I ea) 

these 1 t?d^^°ZVr f "^ PUnCtUrCS ° n the SCUtUm and scutclIum in 
tnese specimens, the vertex bears numerous such punctures. Maxillary paloi 

4-jomtecl. The male is like the female but joints 1-2 o the funicle are twice lonS 
than wide, much exceeding the pedicel. g 

Genus Tomocera Howard. 
1. Tomocera io, n. sp. 

black with middt I 'T'T^^ but . abdomen ^ in T. satssetiae (i.e., above 
Dlack with middle J yellow), as are also joints 1-2 of the funicle, but 2 is quadrate 

( i fami e m Lr ss ir is r haIf f e size of 2 > which is ^ t&n*$ 

A female, from galls on leaves of Eucalyptus oblique, Hlakiston, South 



320 

Australia (T. D. Smeaton). Hatched May, 1888. With Amerostenus varidentatus, 

^SetSd inflation was faint, the few setae of the scutum short. Palpi 
2-jointed, the joints subequal in each palpus and quite as m T. saisseUa*. 

Genus Roptroceropseus Girault. 
1 Roptroceropseus citripes, n. sp. 

As Parur'ella 4-dentata in palpi, and so forth, but coxa 2 is aeneous flagellum 

palpus. Middle tibial spur elongate, thm. f 

IZT^fZT^^^A^ pycnantka, Norwood Gardens, 

S °'1 I £?S^1iSS2;^«l from galls onAcaci. aulacocarpa, Cooroy, 
Queensland, August 6, 1928 (W. A. T. Summerville). 

Genus Nasonia Girault and Sanders. 
1 Nasonia abnormis Boheman. 
A female, Mount Searle, Northern Flinders Range (H. M. Hale and N. B. 

Tind The' species has been synonomized recently with one of Walker's species. 
The ^nTZrmoniella Ashmead, or rather the name o a genus proposed by 
Ashmead has been substituted bv some for Nasonia, but Mormomella was never 
connected Si recognisable species, so that the name 1S but a name and nothing 
dse It wTs preferred merely because it preceded the name Nasonm by a few 
pages GTrauSand Sanders subsequently based Nasonia upon the ; above r^caes 
named bv Ashmead brevicornis, but never described except by Girault and Sanders. 
W years agTl became cognisant of the identity of breviconns w.th he turo- 
pZabTormS, but before I could publish on the matter my note, were lost. 

2 Nasonia miltoni, n. sp. 
As N. abnormis but the clypeus slightly incised or bilobed at meson of apex 
funicles 1-3 are longer than wide and 1 is distinctly smaller than 2, wh ,ch is inmost 
as long as th e pedifel and longest; club 1 is longer than wide : hal the lengt ho 
the dub and a bit longer than the pedicel ; it exceeds any funide joint. The po. 
marginal vein is somewhat shorter than the ™iginaL J™5™^ f s 
nhsi-iirp nin-Dunctures The median carina is obscure and a spiracu ar sulcus is 
S3 by carta which crosses just behind the spiracle. Also segments 
Tand^of the abdomen are large and equal, together occupymg the same space 
as the larger 2 does in abnormis 

A female, Adelaide. South Australia (R. J. Burton). 

Genus Isoplatoides Girault. 
1 Isoplatoides quadridentatus, n. sp. 

Two marks on fore wing, a wider one from the bend of the ^margmal vein 
and basal marginal across, the other a substernal spot from the apex of the stigmal 
£ta S3" of the wing and of moderate size. Parapsidal furrows complete. 



321 



Propodeum non-carinate, a fovea on cephalic margin about midway from meson 

^r^^y^T^^ otherwise - jaws 4 - d — ms ss 

A female, Barellan, New South Wales (A. M. Lea). 

2. Isoplatoides tripustulatus, n. sp 

Like I bipustnlatus but furrows (apparently) «^ fej and there are thre „ 
fuscous spots on the wing m a curved row from the bend of the submarglnal vein 
to the apex of the stigmal vein ; the third or distal of these is largest To wfrc Trent e 

js^csm sss k, ( t^r/) is *- » fc i3: *- s£ 

Genus Pseudanogmus Girault. 
1. Pseudanogmus fuscipes Girault 
A female, Parachilna, Flinders Range (Natural History Expedition) 
rfliJSf P ara P slda Arrows are visible only in certain lights Proposal spiracle 
ell p heal, small Clypeus strongly bilobed. The lateral ocellus is qX close to but 
not at the eye, twice closer to eye than to the median ocellus The scrobes form 
an obtuse, deep, long median channel. scrobes torm 

Genus Ormyromorpha Girault. 

1. Ormyromorpha trifasciata Girault 

Genus Merismomorpha Girault. 
1. Merismomorpha acutiventris Girault 
A female, Melrose, South Australia, October (A M lea) 
Segments 2 and 3 of the abdomen occupy not quite half fhV *«rf*™ ; ,w 

ssr^sssr- but • think ,he r/ * h £ ^'»it 

Subfamily MISCOGASTERINAE. 

Genus Parerotolepsia Girault. 

1. Parerotolepsia punctatieacies (Girault) 

A female South Australia, Adelaide (J.. G. O. Tepper) 

to eyl 0Cdh m th '" S Spedmen WCre distiw % Closer to the median than 

2. Parerotolepsia unimacula, n. sp 

As P. aereifemur but wing with a distinct central blotch under all of marvel 
t V e e re n d a nl ? Chmg rf eX ° f Stigmal IIead > scutum > Parapste £?£ numerous 3 

1 ropodeum with median carina only spiracle snrdl round - au» i 'u i 

palpus with at least two elongate apical setae ' ^ ^ ^^ Maxillar ^ 
A female, Adelaide, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper). 



322 



Genus Svstasjs Walker. 
1 Systasis cecili, n. sp. 

mmsmmmm 

exceeding the thorax. ^ ^^ ^^ ^^ 

Three females, Melrose, South Australia, October (AM, ^>~ 
The scrobes in this species are short, semi-circular. The hmd tibia m 
specimens are green above for basal f except at base. 

Roptrocerella, n. gen. 

elongate . 

s 1 Roptrocerella latipennis, n. sp. 

Blue-reen wings clear, knees, tibiae, tarsi, base of scape yellow. FgdeJ 
J£S than' long, subequal the rest, half the ength a the = d; club 

marginal vein. Scutum pilose 

A female, Melrose, South Australia, October (A. M. Lea). 

Genus Toxf.umoides Girault. 

1. TOXEUMOIDES AENET CORPUS Girault. 

A female attracted to light, Rockhampton, Queensland (A. M. Lea). 

TheTemo a were entirely red, so they vary from red to subaeneous. Un- 
f ortuntdy tlThead of this specimen was lost while mounting it, but I can scarcely 
doubt its identity. ^ Toxeumoides poe ta, n. sp. 

From the -enotvpe : Cross-suture on scutellum before the apex; petiole very 
short fom wider ; abdomen depressed and wide above, 2 a third or more of he 
short , iorm wiult , f _ , w j t hout a median carina ; the large 

Zlnl^MeZZ n cty^n 4te' Sdtry, parapsides glabrous with punctures 
far la Instead of the single fovea on cephalic margin of the propodeum 

lo^aS the spiracle, there is a foveate grooved line extending as far across mesal 

^"A'eSrsS Australia (Macleav Museum). Type in Macleay Museum. 



323 

3. Toxeumoides silvensis, n. sp. 

From the genotype: Abdomen shaped as in Perilampus, segment 3 to apex 
the petiole is thrice longer than wide, distinctly exceeding the hind coxa • cutum 
not hnely cross-hned but scaly reticulate (finely cross-lined ceplul 1? and no c 
p lose; propodeum opaque and scaly and without a tuft of long, fine hairs avvs 
shorter, teeth equal Jomt 4 of maxillary palpus with a single thick ai d club-li e 

Senedt "** ( ^^ "^ ""^ ^'^ s ^« 

land Musemm JUnffle ' MontviIle - Q™*****, June 14. 1924. Type in Queens- 
Subfamily EULOPHINAE. 
Genus Ardaloides Girault. 
1. Ardaloides 10-dentatus Girault. 
A female, Cairns District (A M lea) 

below apex. " * I """" e Mta °° the same side J us ' 

Genus Secodella Girault. 

1- Secodella aenea Girault 

f m f T a u'» Melrose > South Australia, October (A M Tea) Toints 1 ? „f 
funicle a half longer than wide, distinctly exceeding the short pedicel 

2. Secodella io, n. sp 

wr .™s ss wLrs sss* ~- bnt differs: joint ' °< "» *■*• • 

few f»to^;rfbe!wee'° ££' "" ^ ™" """ Mh »' ""' J» "-« a 

Febt'an'TS) aI ' Ka " g ™ l8 ' a ° d <So »"' A « sM ™ i™ Sp,* "; 

Genus Diatjlomorpha Ashmead. 

1' DlAULOMORPlTA AUSTRALIENSIS Ashmead 

A female, Melrose, South Australia, October (A M Lea) 
K nollf,.™^ n"v e e a r S cHbSr ePt "^ """ ^ ™« ■«««*»" 

Genus Entedojn-ella Girault. 
*■ Entedonella aereiscapus Girault 
Ihrce females, type locality and date. 

Genus Pelorotelopsella Girault. 
1. Pelorotelopsella australiensis (Girault) 
A female, same place as recorded In Part I. ; also two more females. 



324 



2. Pelorotelopsella rex, n. sp. 

The same as P. cinctipes Girault but middle tibia entirely white. 

A male, Mount Loftv, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper). 

The characteristics of this species, as taken from my table o species are a* 
follows-— Scape blue except extreme base; of tibiae, only basal | metallic all 
abovlin fore tfbia except apex; first tooth of the mandible distinctly longer than 
the second Bronze, joint 1 of the funicle thrice longer than wide, a stout, con- 

SpiC X S o P f C se g ment y f oYS abdomen is yellowish. Petiole nearly tw;ce longer 
than wide, smooth. Second tooth of jaw only about half the teagth at .the hist 
ScTne compressed Joint 1 of the funicle truncate at apex, joint 2 half the length 
of T, its ^x scoopeli ^ m ore or less. Hairs of joint 1 of the fumcle not quite 
as long as the diameter of the joint. 

Genus Metacrias Girault. 
1. Metacrias clara, n. sp. 

Brilliant bronze, the wings clear, legs except coxae and the scape yellow- 
white. Head and thorax densely, uniformly punctate the caudal impre s ion of 
scutum small, the furrows nearly complete. Joint 1 of the funicle a half longer 
San wide, ovate, exceeding pedicel, 2 similar but shorter. 3 globular equal 
pedicel and also 1 of the club. Joint 2 of the club smallest, its spicule short and 
stout 3 of the funicle is wider than the pedicel. Second tooth of the jaw a half 
shorter than the first. Propodeum subglabrous, the median grooves deep, straight, 
moderately wide. Abdomen, from above, nearly round. 

Characterised by the white legs and scape and unequal mandibular teeth. 

T^ females, Healesville, Victoria, April 12, 1929 (F. Erasmus Wilson ) . 
Type in collection of F. Erasmus Wilson ; cotype m South Australian Museum. 

Genus Euplectrus Westwood. 
1. Euplectrus cairksf.nsis Girault. 
A female, Eucindale, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

Genua Rhicnopeltella Girault. 
1. Rhicnopeltella sarah, n. sp. 

Funicle 2 a bit larger than 3, latter quadrate and two-thirds the pedicel. As. 
7?. eucalypti Gahan otherwise or nearly. 

From leaf-galls on Eucalyptus obliqua, Blakislon, booth Aujr aha . 1. EL 

2 and 3 of funicle subquadrate but 2 smaller. 

2. Rhicnopeltella faunus, n. sp. 

As R eucalypti Gahan but all tibiae purple, narrowly gold en ^ve or dorso- 
laterad; no paten discal cilia ^ ^^ ^S^^" ^ SdStft 

nTginaith' at distal I ^ark blue, male bright green, wing mtuscation smoky 
against distal marginal and the stigmal. 

K male three females from galls on silver-leafed ironbark, Roma, Queens- 
land, September 20, 1914 (IT. Tryon). 



325 

3. Rhicnopeltella citritibiae Girault. 



*. n J° m % \ e9e t ( GirauIt ) : Funi cle 2 a bit longer, 3 wider than lone onlv 
half the pedicel which is elongate; jaws bidentate. Bright green antennae aH 
back, no spot on hind tibia, funicle 1 only somewhat widerVan Ion W 

SaftSn ° m dlStaI ^^ ° f fUnideS; di8Cal dliati0n broaching tie wSe 

Type^MXMusetm 1 ^ UVm *** ^ ****■ *** *«■* Wales. 

4. Rhicnopeltella immaculatipennis Girault. 
Three females, Mount Lofty, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper). 

5. Rhicnopeltella purpurea Girault. 
A female, Melrose, South Australia, October (A M Lea) 

6. Rhicnopeltella depressa, n sp 
a fourth the length of the short, stout pedicel. Jaws bidentate Antennae black 

A female, J arcoola, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

Austrolynx, n. gen 

1. Austrolynx flavitibia, n sp 

Funicle 1 somewhat longer than wide, stout, equal pedicel 2 quadrate • rl„h 1 
with a short, conic apical part bearing a short, 'stout spicule-this siS par has 
the appearance of a fourth joint. Taw teeth 1-2 arntV «,tZf 1 J^t ■ 

and with its apical margin feebly sen aTeVertev S ' ' "° ng ' 3 ° bhqUe 
setae. Wing 2 with 12 Hnes discal ciL * ^ nUme, '° US ' SCattered st0Ut 

^|^^ Oracle round, 

headnte^tmc^^ 

m two marginal spots may also be yellow Stad 

specmen.) produced from one gall complexus collected by Mr T D Smeafoo 



326 



»t Rlakiston South Australia, on Eucalyptus rostrata, April 23, 1888. HwnCtt; 
at tf lakiston, sou following" ■ and "From one small branchlet of red 

optera appeared tiU June 5 following ^a ^ E «cfl/^h« oW^«, 

Kiston%pri 2?'l888 'Smeaton. Hashed in May." Another card, bearing 

para^alL^bore the data ^"9 tTu^Sf^Tm^Z tiring 
Eucavptus obliqua, Smeaton. Hatched May, 1888. A third cam, Dealing ^ y 
females with male ilf^a^K* and £«r 3 ^m«, was l^Ued - ■ 9 - <£ ls I™ 
Eucalyptus obliqua, 23/4/88. Blakiston. Hatched May 1888. bmeaton. A 
scries' of paratypes bore a similar label. 

The species is associated with Rhicnopcltclla sarah described above. Co- 
types in Queensland Museum. 

Genus Euplectromorpiia Girault. 
1 Euplectromorpha lucia, n. sp. 
A, F dubia but scutum devoid of bristle-bearing pustules and of hair at over 
X^thSi (except one o two pustules, a pair cephalad and a pair cauaad), so 

^AT^Kiata, Victoria. October, 1928 (F. E. Wi> SM ,>. !». in .he co„ec- 

tion of F. Erasmus Wilson. 

Genus Gykolasella Girault. 
1. Gyrolasella aenea, n. sp. 
frppn wimrs n e htly dusky at distal third ; tarsi except last joint, knees tibial 

bet r;,hASe°„Tthc te B u,a w^ote^ or, face a„?l (co„,,n»„» s ly) cephalic 

f a m ira longer u , c lavate, subequal to the post- 

A female, Carribie, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia (N. B. linckle). 

Genus Diaulomytia Girault. 
1. Diaulomyiia nigroaenea, n. sp. 
As n asperiterqum Girault but dark aeneous, wings clear (scape, legs except 
.iddf/and lid co4, tegula, dull red) ; spiracle wit; a <&g>££*£^ 
Sn^Sed^S. ^SSSt^T^X. on scutum each side 
of the meson in an oblique or diverging lme from cephalad. 
A female, Adelaide, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

Genus Pseudiglyphus Girault. 
1 Pseudiglyphus grotiusi Girault, io, n. var. 
Differs from 'the typical form in having all tibiae concolorous at basal half. 
A female, Mount Lofty, South Australia. 



327 



Genus Neomphaloidella Girault. 
1. Neomphaloidella eucalypti, n. sp. 

Aeneous, wings clear; coxae, femora, antennae except basal half of the scape 
concoorous; ap.ces of femora 1-2 widely pale; joints of the funicle a half longe/ 
than wide and than the ped 1C el. Propodeum with a carina laterad of the spiracle 
and a median carina. Mandibles tridentate. Second wings with 13 lines of 
discal cihahon, obtuse at apex. Abdomen conic-ovate. Spicule distinct, small 
Second two nng-jomts very short. Abdomen exceeding thorax, acute distad ' 

A female from galls on the foliage of Eucalyptus obliqua, Blakiston, South 

2. Neomphaloidella brevistigma, n. sp. 

M«S*t« the W l ngS V c y HghtIy infusrated f™ base to a point somewhat 
distad of the venation. Scape, pedicel, knees, tips of the tibiae, tarsi, fore tibiae 

S SSimt? li Pa,e ', the ,? Ub SU , ffUSed ydl0Wlsh ; P-tscutellum and basal 

han til Innb R obs ^^y yellow. Stigmal vein short, oblique, much shorter 

than .the knob. Ring-joints large, mcrcasmg distad, the first only half the length 

the td el ? St * ° ^f^ a half lon S er than wide, a bit shorter tlfan 
bilobed TeeX 1 ? qU f\f ht l0ngCr th f " WidC - S P kllle Sh0rt and st0 "^ djp^S 
sSnn A ■ % -m ,° f tH ? i aWS eqUa1 ' acute ' 3 sma » and distinctly shorter 
Second wmg with 10 lines of discal ciliation, wide, subobtuse at apex. Propodeum 
With a med,an carina only, tins moderately long. Sculpture usual, ic very fine 
A female, Ooldea, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

3. Neomphaloidella parkmani, n. sp. 

AS i f* °ft°9 l f ata b ut postscutellum yellow, joints of the funicle much 
unequal, 3 a third longer than wide, equal pedicel, 1 twice longer than w de A o 

f £?3 chS ^ f' SCaP f , du11 red ,' dark ab0ve ' as is also the pedicel ;fcnVo" 
wlT «>?«?' 2 less so '> abdomen almost as in Neotetrastkhodes electra but the 
basal yellow (segment 2, nearly | surface) is absent, therefore there are bu the 
four yellow spots on each side of the meson and commencing out from base he 
fust obscure and on segment 2 (therefore only three spots distinct) ; thus also 
he abdomen ,s as mN. octoyuttata, excepting for the basal yelloHv The fi r° 

2SnS°Sf! S , r rt T than \ h ^ thlrd / aS in Clectra > but d ' s tinct. A dfstS 
carina runs like a lateral carina) from the lateral side of the cephalic spiracle 
Maxdlary palpus elongate. Jaw 3 obtuse and much smaller. No postanal 
vein. Llypeus strongly bilobate. posrmargmai 

of fteSStSS: with a median carina - Punctures ^ the lat - al «**» 

Lea) A female ' Bribie Island ' M ° ret0n Bay ' Q uee " sla nd (H. Hacker and A. M. 
4. Neomphaloidella bilobata, n. sp. 
As tf. aaomltm but not slender, antennae all black, legs yellow except coxae 
and femur 3 the dorsal yellow of the abdomen confined to the mcdTanline of 
6) ° St 3 W of th th an ? ' T baS , al * t0 baSC ° f the distal * ( a P- segnSnt^ S 5 o 

to 'the pedice • ^oinn f 1 S5T % '*£?* ^ ! ' l0n ^ than widc - s «^ 
2JrJ7 f el ' J 01 "* 1 ls twice longer than wide. Second ring-joint distinct 

L laTeral rfSrf tlS'^T ^^J**** SCal >' with a ^rong carina fom 
the lateral side of the spinacle and a delicate x-shaped median carina- the forks 

stout X arC " mUCH d,Verg6d - SeC ° nd Wing ° btuse at a P ex > ver y wide Spicule 



M 



o 



328 

Yellow of the dorsal abdomen dull, more or less obscurely broken at the 
amces o Ihe segments. Scutellum with a grooved apex. Punctures present on 
o?onotum except caudal meson), lateral parapside and lateral margin of the 
SZm'hcse are distinct. Clypeus strongly bilobed. Maxillary palpus elongate, 
single (as usual for the group). . 

A female by sweeping, Mount Lofty, South Australia (A M Lea). 

The metatarsus is subquadrate, shortest of the joints of the hmd tarsus. 

Germs Neotetrastichodes Girault. 
1. Neotetrasttchodes electra Girault. 
Two females, Melrose, South Australia, October (A. M. Lea) 
loint 1 of the funicle exceeds the pedicel. The pronotum and lateral parap- 

I yellow down L the antennae. Maxillary palpi very elongate, 1 -jointed A 
short ^marginal vein. Clypeus strongly bilobed. The hmd coxa was black 
only at basal half. Jaws tndentatc. _ 

In the original description neither the postmargmal vein nor the longitudinal 
strine of the abdomen are mentioned, nor the black margms of the abdomen, but 
Sf^t these specimens agree with it in every particular, and they have since 
been compared with the type (while revising the group) 

The costal cell is naked except for a single line of cilia along dose to the : sub- 
nnJnal vein the line complete and the cilia composing it slender the disca 
alTafion extends to the base'of the marginal vein. Ring-joints distinct, 3 largest 
and as in the Pteromalidae, all large and but three m number. 

Genus Tetrastichus Haliday. 
1 Tetrastichus perobscurus, n. sp. 
Dull black- scape knees, tibiae and tarsi pale; venation pale ; lateral margin 

Sis ' isKi 2££°* £&« qrJsgag 

of the spiracle). Sculpture very fine. 

A female, Mount Pleasant, South Australia (Loveday), 1-ebruaiy 9, 189?. 

FrM In the specimen the median groove of the scutum was uncertain^ Tt was very 
distinct but seemed to have been tormed by a contraction of the hody at fl* 
scutum. However, the species has characteristics which allow of its being easil) 

recognised. 

2. Tetrastichus pontiac, n. sp. 

As T taintpierrei but the yellow basal part of the abdomen has the base 
Tpcdicd (each "tout iW longer than wide), while the club pkunly exceeds 



329 



the united length of joints 2 and 3 of the funicle. Spicule short Seine whit. 

S^S g e Pr ° POdeUm ° f m ° derate ^ ~-^£ 

not ^^r^^'^^^^^^^f ° f ^ laWal bUt 
Tindale) mde ' ° Wleandana ' North lenders Range (H. M.' Hale and N. E. 

3. Tetrasttchus mittagongensis Girault. 

A female, Tasmania (A. Simson), No. 3581. 

. . S . ca P? red-brown. Clypeus bilobate, as seems to be usual for the Tetras 

tichim. One of the ap 1C al spines of the long maxillary palpus is shortened and 

depressed forming a sword-shaped seta; the short, labial palpus is a 1 thus 

ZZ 1 & T nd !° Oth r 0f the J aw is rather de eply concaved^ that tW d 
h n ?. f °rmed nearly. Lateral margin of the propodeum car nated I atem 
paiap.side and the pronotum finely sculptured. Second wing with fourteen line 
of discal filiation. Vertex and upper face with distinct punctures. 

Genus Tetrastichodes Ashmead. 
1. Tetrastichodes fuscitibiae, n. sp. 

Dark aeneous, legs and antennae concolorous except knees, tips of the tibiae 
SUSS tar , SI and an ^scure cinctus just before the middli of hind tibia 
1 oskcutellum dull yellow except the meson widely. Propodeum with a than) 

5E d S2dTaid? m th h t Un , ide tWiCC l0nger * an Wid6 > «^eS ex d° 
me pedicel, I and 3 somewhat shorter; spicule distinct; second rin<Hoint verv 

thin. Jaws tndentate. Palpi single, the labial much shorter than Kther both 

lenih VetJT *™&**** ! **& «* postmarginal a fourth or more it 
length. Mesal margin ot the axilla narrowly lemon-vellow With the usuil 
sculpture Flagellar hairs of moderate length, in several irregular rows per unit 
Club nearly as long as the funicle. Setae from the marginal vein gross P 
A female. Cradle Mountam, Tasmania (H. J. Carter and A. M. La). 

Genus Asyntomosphyrum Girault. 
1. Asyntomosphyrum limbus, n. sp. 
Black except lighter tarsi, the fore wing lightly clouded on ta&tl I *«u*.utl 

°st< r\ heyon i the marginai and *£***&*> «£&* stor'tSTS 

fnnge (which , s a bit over a third their greatest width) and for their d£t net 
short postmargmal vein. Stigmal vein long and straight Joints o True fun cle 
r^r tha » w 'de, subequal to the pldicel but 3 shorter tlooular -ioins 
clothed with sparse, long hairs, a few on 3 very long. Spicule very bni the 
joints of the club exceeding funicle joint 3. T Jh 3 of the" [at sXer than 2 
«-„ T US f dre at m£ fv apeX ( unusual ). Cheeks with a few longisli 

parapside with sculpture uniform with the rest and nearly bare 

A female, Cradle Mountain, Tasmania (H. J. Carter and A. M. Lea). 

Genus Quadrastichodella Girault. 
1. Quadrastichodella nova, n. sp. 

Aeneus, wings clear, coxae and femora concolorous, also flagelluni sew 
yellow. Scape strongly clavate, at apex above beset with sirong teeth (seen from 



330 



s ide, 1,0. above coarse —^ *■ -£ ^ gSS^XS 
a % th6 t UI1 Tonr R"r o mts d itmc Propodeum short at the meson, there with 
r^StoSrto^SS Set, notU large. Jaws strongly tridentat. 

"'"^tarl" A&*te « A«ra«»; 2 M. !»*, ««-»> from 

South Australia. The types are in the Macleay Museum. 

Genus Goethella Girault. 
As Tctrastkhus but inner grooves of the scutellum, groove of scutum absent; 

meson, with a median carina, no lateral. 

1. Goethella asulcata Girault. 
Dark aeneous wings clear; knees, tibiae, tarsi, scape pallid. Joints of the 
JeltSWtta the pedicel, 1 a bit longer than wide. Sp.ule small. 

No punctures. , 

loint 1 of the male funicle quadrate, others a bfr longer, subequal to the 

yellow, except hmd coxa. 

Two males, four females. 

Subfamily ELASMINAE. 
1. Elasmus bellicorpus, n. sp. 
■1 > ■ * w« Af ^Hes as follows: Yellow, abdomen orange 

with much green and black ; ^^^t^iL* a wide median line 

llSiiiisiSii 

reciprocal marginal blurs; I in three places^ ap is black-green whicli com- 

2ssus^^»> wf ° iitum r a sU - Pronotum 

green, except lateral fourth (neck nearly to lateral margms). 
The palpi are 1- and 2-jointed (maxillary). 
A female, Grantville, Victoria (Queensland Museum). 



331 

2. Elasmus dubius Girault. 
Two females on Atriplex, South Australia. 

3. Elasmus nakomara Girault. 
1927 A (A ei A le G. S ra U l?) nVale ' QueenslancL Swee P in g %™^ >» ^rest, September 18, 

Genus Euryisciiia Koebelc. 
1. Euryischia unmaculatipennis Girault. 
A male, two females, Magnetic Island, Queensland (A. M. Lea). 

„-hJ h %u 2le h i mihr t0 the female ' but the le S s - sca P e ' P edlc el and face are 
white. 1 he : scape bears a great convex, ventral, foliaceous expansion studded with 
seven stiff bristles a ong ventral margin; its fore wing is hyaline, the proximal 

4 lfbia°l, feinS S ° meWhat irrCgUlar - MaXiUary Pa,pi ^ a "P arentl > ! 

Qn^fS^^H^^ ° f thlS SPedeS fr ° m ™* ~ ial - ^ 

2. Euryischta comperei (Ashmead). 
Tindale) emale ' ° wiealldana ' Northern Flinders Range (H. M. Hale and N. B. 

This was typical (with the middle tibia dark), but the iufuscation of the 
fore wmg was taint (often the case) and the postscutellum yellow. The species 
vanes m wing mfuscation and the colour of the antennae and middle tibia 

Genus Euryischomyiia Girault. 
1. Euryischomyiia setosa, n. sp. 

narroww\Tai mi Bkck-T a H bla f' ^ ^ a " d ° thers above and bel ™ 
narrowly, black. Black head and upper thorax, except the propodeum spaces 

off the_ scutellum, cephalic axilla, pronotum at meson, cephalic parapde basal 

and ap.cal margins of the scutellum, orange; scutellum with 3 setae^long each 

lateral margin; about cephalic half of the scutum setose, this setose area bounded 

caudad by a cross-row of 6 bristles, 3 on each side of which the lateral two are 

gross; naked thence except for a bristle on the caudo-lateral corner T w Tgr o 

setae upon the backward spur of the submarginal vein, base and apex Di 

abation terminating at the base of the marginal vein, its basal margins: nuate 

A female, Melrose, South Australia, October (A. M. Lea). 

Subfamily EUCHARITINAE. 

Genus Eucharomorpha Girault. 

1. Eucharomorpha viridis Girault 

JanuIryVTm' LaUnCeSt ° n ' Tasma " ia (E. M. Littler), February 6 and 

There was a median groove on the scutum in one specimen. The fringes of 
the fore wmg arc present. The whole abdomen is densely, minutely pilose The 
mouth-plate ,s at least 4-digitate and the jaws 2- and 3-dentate P 

Genus Stilbuua Spinola. 
1. Stilbula quadri-digitata, n. sp. 

Aeneous, the wings clear, venation pale yellow, so the scape, pedicel lees 
except coxae and femora (except apices) and the tegulae. Striate fn the u ua 
way, scutellum w,th a median groove, strongly bidentate at apex but no" produce^ 



332 



the teeth short Petiole coriaceous, 2* times longer than wide, with a lateral 
carina Popodeum glabrous to the spiracular sulcus, with a thm median carina. 
Segment 2 the whole surface, glabrous but with a few pm-punctures vent.o- 
laterad Club and distal joints of the fumcle yellowish. 

Scape equal to joint 1 of the f unicle, which, with the others is produced some- 
what on one side of apex, twice longer than wide at apex; scape thrice longei 
Sn wide equal club; jo nt 2 of the f unicle a bit longer than wide at apex 
'r^adrate ^ wider 'tin long; antennae 12-jointed but the joints of the club 
are merely indicated bv constrictions, no sutures. Dorsal thoiax naked. 

Discal ciliation dot-like, no fringe ; stigmal vein perpendicular, not a quarter 
the length of the postmarginal vein. Costal cell with a more or less paired central 

line of cilia. 

Mouth-plate 4-digitate, digits short, about twice longer than wide. 
A female, Ardrossau, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper). 

2. Stilbula albipennis, n. sp. 

From S Quadri-diqilata: The mouth-plate though longer than wide is blunt 

tf apex and belTs six elongate, pale spines (therefore, it is not branched mto foot 

Sort finders each bearing a spine at apex and it does not widen distad . The 

ca^ "farlTeneous fltcfo 1-3 equal, thorax densely punctate, venation .and 

discal ciliation indistinct; and so forth. The antennae taper distad, 12 distinct 

JOint Lneous-black. wings transparent and nearly naked ; discal ciliation very 
sparse pale; pedicel more or less! flagellum after f unicle 3, knees, tib,ae except o, 

**£TJ£ d^TScularly striate. Thorax entirely closely but not 
coarsely punctate finelv so in middle of mesopleurum, the metathorax foveate, 
the oroieS "on forming an erect, blunt, strong tooth on each side^ hemoral furrow 
tlZ thThtZ sulcus of propodeum, former glabrous. Petiole punctulate, 
fSte proximad. 3* times longer than wide, lateral margm narrowly carinated 
Meson oropodeum widely concave, no median sulcus. Abdomen below finely 
JSSl Scape twke longer than wide, subequal f unicle 1, scaly. Fumcles globular. 

""^A fS^Sylandl, North Austraha (N. B. Tindale). 

3. Stilbula albipetiole, n. sp. 
PurDlish fore wing lightly infuscated from about bend of the submarginal 
vein ess except coxaf, petiole, tegulae, scape except beneath at base and pedicel, 
Se vlnation yellow-b own. Head circularly striate. Thorax foveate-punctate, 
til sculpture coa ser and more or less longitudinally striate on metapleura ; 
prongs of e senium moderately slender, exceeding the basal part Abdomen 
aWe from apex of 2 (about middle), and nearly all below, densely punctae 
?punctiu™e the petiole tout, about twice longer than wide, finely, longitudinally 
SS2 ntimTct at base. Propodeum with a median ruga, the lateral sulcus 
IX an'd d p the "hump" forming a large, obtuse "tooth," erect. ^ajfl»* 
vein elongate! the stigmal perpendicular, thick, narrowing to apex; bend of the 

S %;Eai a ci]iX 5 n^Sn;ct, not very dense, no fringes. Fore wing widest through 
the stigmal vein. Mouth-plate with 8 digits, the central paxr shorter ^ «* 
nn elongate pale stout spine, the whole much as m 3*. octodigitata. Scape 
TxcluZg bulla ^ 'twice longer than wide, a bit shorter than fumcle latter das- 
tSXgest, equalling 2 plus 3. 12 hemispherical, next smallest after pedicel, 
joint 8 quadrate, rest decreasing distad. 



333 



trom $ octodigitata: Petiole all white and much shorter, scape pale and 
onger funicle 1 shorter; prongs of scutellum are not shorter than the basal part 
the median groove of the scutellum is obscure, abdomen with distinct sculpture 
cinfl so Tortn. 

A female, Caramby, Victoria, on Bursaria spinosa, January 14 1887 (J G 
O. Icpper). J ' KJ ' 

Also a male in the Macleay Museum from South Australia. In this sex the 
pet.o e is nearly as long as the rest of the abdomen (about six times longer than 

he ?fn 1 W \f te ? ] lmrglnS f ariaated - The ****** are 12-jointed & each o 
the 9 fumcles with a long ramus from the same side, of 1 and 9 these a bit shorter 
joint 1 wider than long, equal the pedicel, 9 over twice longer than wide scape 

rdTth 1 f gth f thC PediCel 2* k€ l0ng£r than Wide ' haIf ** leith of 
the club, the latter is long as ramus 9 and with a distinct tooth-like projection 
between middle and apex on the side opposite the rami. 

The propodeum bears a narrow median sulcus instead of a ruga, the stomal 
vein is pale and shorter the discal ciliation fainter. The mouth-plate is 10-dig!tate 
but similar m size and shape to that of the female. Jaws 2- and 3-dentate 
Otherwise the male is the same. Process of the scutellum about hal? the eng h 

" P i-. SCl fr , Ba l al ,? aft dlStillCtI >' Wider than lon ff a "d shorter than the 
teeth m the female, the "teeth" in the male quadrate, equal. 

4. Stilbula octo-digitata, n. sp. 

*h* ,!" ri)1 f' ( , f' u g° s °-P un T ctat e, the wings clear, veins pale, abruptly black from near 
the apex of the marginal vein ; legs except the coxae yellow-brown ; f emora darker 
scape nearly concolorous. Petiole white with an aeneous cinctuT at middle' 
smooth, hve times longer than wide, swollen at middle; scape a fourth long™ than 

Sdice" fun! I 1 tn 6 ^ ° f **? ' °' "* fm ^> eXCeedin & the «8SSS 
pedicel funicle 1 thrice 2 twice, 3 one and a half times longer than wide ■ 

8-10 subglobular, 7 quadrate and larger than 8; club or 10 not well defined' 

rounded at apex Scutellum with a distinct foveate median groove the furrows 

joining around the apex; binds shorter than the basal part of the projection 

meS n art 5 hi 1 n pr ° P ° deU1 ? wlde > more coar *ely foveate than the convex 
Tegularyeilow C ° arS6r **** ** P unctuation * ol scutum and scutellum. 

ata D el1U^!Tl^ 8 " digItat \ the 1 dig ; tS 7 ather lo1 ^ tubu,al '> th e middle shorter, 
at apex each wi h a long, pale bristle which appears to be truncate at apex fexceot 
on m,ddle ones) as m some Thysanoptera. They are stout. Abdomen o4te a 
bit compressed, not upturned, exceeding petiole. ' 

A female, King George Sound. The type is in the Macleay Museum. 

Genus Psilog aster Blanchard. 

1. PS1L0GASTER FULCHER Gifaillt. 

A female. Tasmania, No. 2936 (A. Simson). 

Belongs to Epimetagea Girault. This sex agrees with the description of the 
male except that the club is somewhat longer than funicle 7. TheCw, face 
bears scattered pin-punctures. The mouth-plate is 8-digitate, digits lone with 

tterwasTshorTninth 1 !! 6 'f^lT ** ^ *"*«*£ ^ <* ™**' 
lari P uLt/ nmth (1 dl ^ lt The g' ab ™us area on the caudal parapside is rather 
large. Pubescence on the scutum very sparse. ' 



334 



Genus Epimetagea Girault. 
1. Epimetagea magnifica Girault. 
A female, Mount Lofty, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper). 
Eunicle 1 a bit over half the length of the scape, a third longer than 2 nearly 
twice the length of the pedicel, a fourth shorter than the club, 7 exceeding the 
pe lice Basaf joint of the maxillary palpus very elongate, subequal to the 3-jomted 
abal palpus Jhose distal joint is longest. Mouth-plate 8-d.gitate, the digits Jong, 
exceeding the palmlike basal part. In the lateral aspect, segment 2 is a thud 
for more) of the surface, in the dorsal, all of the surface. Abdomen glistening. 

2. Epimetagea sanguiniventris, n. sp. 
As the description of E. Ucolonventrk but the entire abdomen (except the 
petiole) except basal f above crimson, legs except coxae and hmd femora more o 
ess laterad ve nat ion, tegulae, scape, straw colour; rest of the an en n a red-brown 
The glalrous area on thf mesoplcurum is cephalad. The scape distinctly exceeds 
imicfe (almost twice longer) ; funicle 1 is subequal to he club, nearly twice 
Zer than 2 of 3, all thicker' at apex. Petiole over twice longer than wide 
Sate ateral margin carinate. Dorsal thorax pilose. I he propodeum not 
?Z e but rugulose and the mesal edge of the deep spiracular sulcus is OTte 
Antennae lSfointed, club solid. Scutellum terminating m a small, subemargmate 

^Mouth-plate 13-digitate, the digits elongate and with long, stout apical spines 
which are usually shorter than the part bearing them and blunt at apex. A least 
one nalpus 3-jointed, 1 and 3 elongate, 2 short. Discal cihation minute, not ve.y 
aensetringes absent around disfal margin, minute elsewhere and inset trom 

^^A 'female, Mount Lofty, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper). 

3. Epimetagea flavifemora, n. sp. 
Purple legs except coxae, scape, pedicel yellow-brown, wings lightly 
embrowned veins dark; abdomen black, dark red in a wide -scent trom nea 
meson of near apical end of 2 to and along upper distal halt ot the side ot I at 
S ha f (leaving apical margin of 2 black) ; and the short 3 (making a concave 
cross-str! P e nearl/asthick as the crescent, latter best seen from the dorso-lateral 
aspect) This second red is not at apex in the dorsal aspect. 

as identified specimens of E. rufiventris Ashmcad otherwise but lower ha t 
of face Sous with scattered pin-punctures, cheeks and upper head circularl 
striate funicles 2 and 3 are longer in relation to 1, thrice longer than wide ; area 
of the\,Zodeiim between the lateral sulci more finely rugulose and there is a 
weak narrow median sulcus. There is also a median groove on the scutellum 
(not marked in either species). . 

Toint 1 of the funicle exceeds the scape, and 7 and 8 are nearly twice » longer 
than wide (thus joints a bit longer than with the other species). Joints / and 8 
are the distal two joints of the funicle. 

\ female, Camden, New South Wales; also Monaro. J ypes ,n Maclcay 
Museum. The second specimen bore fuscous femora. 

4 Epimetagea aeneobrunnea, it. sp. 

Brown, the head and upper thorax (except P^^S^' the 
flagellum except pedicel, dark; wings subhyalme. «|^f^\^' c ^ 
striae not dense; scutum cross-stnate at cephalic half, the stiue cmvmg on 
centricaSy caudo-laterad to the furrows, from centre longitudinally striate. 



335 



Parapside glabrous, lateral half and distal margin punctate rather coarsely 
Axilla, scutellum rather coarsely long-striate, scutellum with distinct median 



groove. 



Propodeum glabrous but a bit crinkled on the mesal part, with distinct median 
and lateral cannae, the lateral strongly curved off laterad as it goes toward cephalic 
margin and between its cephalic end and the margin, the spiracle is lost in a net- 
work of rugae, no groove. The lateral carina originates dorso-laterad, runs nearly 
straight caudad (and a bit mesad), then makes wide bend nearly straight mesad 
thence by a long gradual bow-bend reaches apex; the first two curves arc about 
equal, 3 longer. 

Segment 2 of the abdomen is about half the surface, 3 short, darker, forming 
a dark bow across the abdomen its ends curving up into segment 2 Petiole thrice 
longer than wide, glabrous but with a stout carina down each side (lateral aspect) 

Jaws 2- and 3-dentate. Mouth-plate 8-digitate, digits short and blunt each 
bearing an elongate, stout spine ; there is also a similar spine laterad of digit 2 of 
either side (as if from a third digit). 

Scape over twice longer than wide, over half joint 1 of the funicle fetter 
neary twice the length of 2, widening distad; 2-3 equal, longer than wide, rest 
short but the oval club nearly as long as 2. 

Discal ciliation dense, dot-like to about the base of the marginal vein 
bcutellum obtusely pointed, sans distinct plate or tooth. 

A female, King George Sound. The type is in the Macleay Museum. Sydney. 

Genus Chalcuroideli.a Girault. 
1. Chalcuroidella bispinosa, n. sp. 

As the revised description of C. orientalis but scape distinctly exceeding 
joint 1 of the funicle, general colour aeneous, mouth-plate 11-digitate (digits long 
outer pair more divergent) ; stigmal vein yellow ; legs except coxae, tegulae, scape 
yellow brown ; rest of the antenna and femur 3 dark brown or fuscous. Abdomen 
red except basal \ above and a spot above just before apex. There is a small 
glabrous area near the centre of the parapside. Petiole wider at base, where it 
bears a long lateral spine on each side. Abdomen smooth but with many scattered 
pin-punctures. Face very pilose. A deep, wide fovea at the base of the scutellum 
between the axillae. Legs pilose. 

A male, Mount Lofty, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper). 

The scutellum appears to be folded up at apex and the rolled-up part pressed 
into the other; from lateral aspect, there is a short tooth just caudad of the 
emargtnate apical plate. 

Genus Metagea Kirby. 
1. Metagea punctulativentris, n. sp. 

Reminds of Tricoryna subsalebrosa, but hind metatarsus is not thick and the 
scape is over half of funicle 1, latter equal to 2 plus 3, these \ longer than wide ■ 
the club, joint 10, constricted at middle, a bit longer than 9, 8 and 9 subquadratc.' 

As description of M. kirbyi Ashmead but abdomen densely pin-punctulate 
(except the long segment 2 above), its petiole, only 2| times longer than wide and 
very finely long-lineolated. Legs except articulations and the tarsi dark, general 
colour dark blue. A median groove on the scutellum and between the large axillae 
Rugosity of the thorax not coarse, only medium, the smooth part of the parapside 
is the mesal halt of middle part. Venation beyond the submarginal vein pale 
Pedicel wider than long. Propodeum with a median carina, transverse 'striae 



336 



Taws 2- and 3-dentate. The hemispherical mouth-plate bears a middle 
spineless digit and 4 or 5 on each side of it, all wide and obtuse, each bearing 
a W colourless spine. Lateral ocellus twice closer to the median than to the 
eye, latter sparsely hairy. Discal dilation distinct, very hne and rather dense, 
to about the base of the marginal vein (a bit beyond). 

Three females, South Australia. Types in Macleay Museum. 

Subfamily EURYTOMINAE. 

Genus Eurytoma Illiger. 
1. Eurytoma murrayi, n. sp. 
The same as E brevipctiolata but abdomen yellow on venter and lower half 
of the sides, femora 1-2 above, 3 (all) black (except ends), so hind tibiae above 
centrally ; scape black on dorsal edge. Stigmal and postmargmal veins subequal, 
half the length of the marginal. Median channel unif oveate. The yellow triangles 
on the face of the male nearly coalesce except at meson just beneath antenna. 
Resembles E. tasmanica in everything except channel of propodeum, punctate 
parapside, its longer marginal vein and the colour of the legs. Fumclcs exceeding 
pedicel. Petiole in female a bit longer than wide. 
Two pairs, Tasmania. 

The distal part of the disc of the scutellum bears sparse punctures, the inter- 
spaces finely reticulated. The outer orbits in the male arc yellow. 

2. Eurytoma cecili, n. sp. 

Characterised by the pointed, conic-ovate abdomen with 2 exceeding any 
other segment, then 6 and 7 which are equal, finely reticulate and each with 
several rows of thimble-punctures ; segments 4 and 8 shortest, 3 equal 5 and less 
than half of 2 and a fourth shorter than 6. Base of scape, knees, tibiae, tarsi, 
apex of the ovipositor valves, apex of the pedicel, red-brown. Funicies 1-2 some- 
what longer than wide, somewhat exceeding the pedicel. Venation black, the 
postmargmal vein somewhat exceeding the stigmal, three-quarters the marginal. 
Petiole quadrate, surface coriaceous, with ridged lateral margins. Segment 5 
finely reticulate Median channel very distinct, coarse, bif oveate. Femoral furrow 
cross-rugulose-punctatc. Densely punctate, pubescent. Lower proplcurum reticu- 
late. Wing 2 broad. Body robust, long. Punctures on lower half of the cheek 
sparse, the area reticulate. Runs with E. sccunda and allies. 

A female, Vivorme Bay, Kangaroo Island (Museum Expedition), February, 

3. Eurytoma aretheas WalKer. 
A female, Tasmania. 

This species, in my revised table, runs in near E. spes and allies but cullers 
in bearing no median basin on the propodeum. It also runs to E. nigroculex but 
aside from its normal abdomen, funicle 1 is shorter, as is also the petiole. 

4. Eurytoma nigroculex, n. sp. 

As E Helena but abdomen with a distinct petiole which is twice longer than 
wide no propleural spot, funicle 1 is somewhat over twice longer than wide, twice 
the length of the black pedicel, lateral ocelli equidistant, venation brown, marginal 
vein twice the stigmal, latter a bit shorter than the postmarginal. Punctuation 
dense and uniform, the median channel bif oveate at basal J only. Femoral furrow 
cross-striate and punctulatc. Segment 6 of the abdomen is half the length of 5, 
latter a bit shorter than 2-4 united. Segment 6 is naked and subglabrous. Tegulae 
red, fore tibia red-yellow only at apex and along each side. 



337 



Somewhat as E. aretheas Walker (as identified) but segment 6 is short verv 
hairy and only about a fifth the length of 5. " ' 

A female, Carribie, Yorke Peninsula, South Australia (N. B. Tindale). 

5. Eurytoma tasmanica Cameron. 

Equals Xanthosoma. Two hind tibial spurs. A pair, Launceston Tas- 
mania, No. 2006. Labelled as this species in typewriting, and probably a part of 
the original material of Cameron's; the type locality is the same. The female 
agrees with the description, but there is a propleural spot in both sexes The 
TjtllTf P UnC !T eS ° n < | orsal . thorax are noticeably sparser only on the scutellum 
at distal half and on nearly entire parapside which is finely reticulated ; the scutum 

Tt ^J, r0S f °u nly on CCphaIic mar S in ' Femoral" furrow reticulate scaly 

ihe middle femora beneath and tibiae 2 and 3, except base and distal i are 
slightly blackish also. Ihe abdomen is brownish along lower sides and ventum 
and also distad of 5, ovate, rounded above, 5 long, glabrous, over the length of 

chtnnT M P ? q I"' 6 ' P u ro P° deuln with a shallow, bifoyeate median 
channel. Margma vein short, a bit exceeding the postmarginal. the still shorter 
stigmal not exceeding the length of its knob. 

The male has the middle face up to the antennae, outer orbits flavous; hairs 
of flagellum exceed the distal joints only. In the female, segment 3 is longer than 
the linear 4, both united less than 2. Propodeum umbilicately punctate 

1 he species was lost. It resembles and is similar to the species of Eurysystole. 

6. Eurytoma striatifemur, n. sp. 

M**Wt5 J fr^ Mer b , ut the fore coxa on ce P h alic aspect, base of middle coxa also 
black, the abdomen above entirely black, except dorso-laterad centre of 5 and 6 • 
femora 1 and 3 above except at each end, fore tibia centrally above, hind tibiae 
aterad except each end, black. Prothorax entirely red-yellow except face nearly 
to the margms, median line widely and a round spot between it and the lateral 
margins; head yellow except frons, scrobes, vertex and upper half of occiput 
continuously except margms of the eyes. Scape black above! 

U, K P ?1f "f *f Y %1 s " bec l ual t0 the stigmal, latter shorter than its rather large 
knob latter dark. The fine rugulae in the median "basin" are from the lateral 
boundaries, while the flat meson is finely punctulate and has a median carina from 
middle to apex, no foveae at base but the latter is carinate. 

A female, Melrose, South Australia, October (A. M. Lea). 

7. Eurytoma varivena, n. sp. 

As E. striatifacies but somewhat larger, venation lemon-yellow with the rather- 
short marginal vein (thrice longer than wide) equal to the stigmal and somewhat 
shorter than the postmarginal. Median channel of the propodeum light (shallow) 
hifoveate and narrowing. Segment 5 somewhat exceeds 4 but not as long as 2-4 
united. Abdomen compressed, its petiole quadrate, abdomen high toward base 
not much longer than high there. Characterised by the venation. 

The fore tibiae are yellow beneath, the funicles moniliform but exceeding 
the pedicel. Femoral furrow finely punctulate. 

A female, Mount Lofty, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper). 
Compare also the species E. aroueti (Girault) which differs in having the 
three distal veins of the fore wing equal and no channel on the propodeum through 
the median basin J moreover, in this species (varivena), the basin is ovate and 
concave. Ovipositor valves entirely black. 



338 



8. Eurytoma casuarinae Girault. 
A female, Magnetic Island, Queensland (A. M. Lea). 
The whole dorsum of segments 2-3 of the abdomen were black. 

9. Eurytoma Australia Girault. 

Three males, six females, mounted together and labelled "Tasmania." In 
the male the hind tibia is all black except each end, and the hairs of the flagellum 
were distinctly longer than the diameter of the joints, shorter m typical forms. 
In the female" segment 5 of the abdomen equals 2-4 united and is over twice the 
length of 4. 

I am loth to give the above male variation a name but the difference is 
marked enough. It may be a common variation. 

10. Eurytoma minutivespa, n. sp. 

As E. leeuwcnhoeki but flagellum black, fore femur so only at basal half 
above, 2 beneath only, 3 lateral aspect only ; venation yellow-brown, (bee No. 1 1 ) . 
In my revised table, follows E. mazzinii. 
A female, Owieandana, Northern Flinders Range (H. M. Hale and N. B. 

Tindale). , , . 

11. Eurytoma leeuwenhoeki, n. sp. 

As E semifuscicomis but a half smaller, abdomen more humped 3 is shorter 
than 4 the subquadrate-ovate median basin shows no trace of a median channel 
except' at base and is uniformly punctulate, there is no petiole, segment 5 is over 
twice the length of 4 and longer than 2-4 united, the antennae are entirely white 
(Lcept the rounded pedicel above slightly), the f unices, though exceeding the 
pedicel are subquadrate and equal. Venation very pale but ot the relative lengths, 
the postmarginal vein nearly as long as the marginal. Femoral furrow densely 
puncta e-^^ r ^^ r ,^ ^^ fh Australia ( N B Tindale). 

12. Eurytoma pyrrhocerus Crawford. 

Two females from a brown, oval cocoon of what appeared to be some 
Ichneumonoid Hymenopteron. The cocoon was about a quarter inch ,n diameter. 
This species differs from E. semifuscicomis mostly m bearing no basm upon the 
meson of the propodeum, instead a distinct median channel. This channel is 
cross-rugose. There are no other differences. 

In these specimens segment 5 of the abdomen distinctly exceeded 4 (Craw- 
ford »ys 3 *«? 4, meaning^ and 5, are nearly equal). There is, of course, vana- 
. tion here, due to the movement of the segments one within the other. 

13. Eurytoma semifuscicornis Girault. 

Six females reared from the bag of an Enlometa moth, Adelaide, South Aus- 
tralia, February 8, 1897. 

One of the. specimens was only as long as the thorax of the others. J he 
flagella were rather darker than usual. 

14. Eurytoma filisilvae Girault. 

Several pairs, Mount Pleasant, South Australia (Loveday) ; from galls and 
lerp, February 9, 1897. _ ..,,«« 

The apparent male is black, antennae red distad, otherwise similar to the 
female; one specimen, however, had the antennae, legs and thoracic pleurum 



339 

except metathorax, red-yellow. There is usually considerable colour variation in 
the males of this genus. 

15. Eurytoma species. 
Many males entirely red-yellow except the head (except mouth), pronotum 
at caudal meson, abdomen (often, except petiole), scutum, axillae, scutellum and 
often propodeum (and usually its median channel). Reared from galls, lerp and so 
forth, Mount Pleasant, South Australia (Loveday), February 9, 1897. 

16. Eurytoma terrae Girault. 
Two females, Adelaide, South Australia. 
The fore femora were blackish laterad except at apex. 

Subfamily CALLIMOMINAE. 
Genus Megastigmus Dalman. 

1. Megastigmus hilaris, n. sp. 

As M, brachyscelidis but hind coxa black only laterad and a middle lateral 
spot on the hmd femur. Ovipositor a bit exceeding the body. The following 
yellow: Head except vertex (except orbits) and upper half of the occiput • pro- 
thorax except face and median line above widely (at middle of this from each 
side, a short lateral projection) ; caudal half and lateral parapsides,' prepectus ■ 
apex, scutellum and the transverse postscutellum. 

Abdomen fulvous with five cross-bands of black from apex of basal 4 
bcutellum reticulate, on scutum very fine cross-striation, setae equidistant Pro- 
podeum non-cannate. Fore femur with a black streak along lateral disc. Antennae 
black, joint 1 of the fumcle nearly twice longer than wide, 7 quadrate, equal 
pedicel in length. H 

A female, Lucindale, South Australia (B, A. Feuerheerdt). 

2. Megastigmus cecili, n. sp. 

The same as M. longicauda but seta 2 of the scutellum a bit closer to 1 
abdomen flavous, orange above, with only three cross-stripes (none distad of 
middle), 1 really the converging lateral margins of the long segment 2 (at its distal 
halt), I across base of segment 3, 3 mostly a marginal spot at base of segment 4. 

Head, prothorax flavous; propodeum black only widely down the meson and 
the sutures (in type female only cephalic margin). Stigma ovate. No black on 
head except upon the occiput, circularly around the neck. Segment 4 also with 
a longitudinal margmal spot at apex. Distal funicle joint a bit longer than wide. 

Two females, Murray Bridge, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

3. Megastigmus pallidiocellus, n. sp. 

Ovipositor subequal abdomen, latter subpetiolate. Flavous, eyes green ocelli 
colourless. Face with strong converging striae below; two transverse, narrow 
marks just cephalad of the propodeum; a mark caudo-mesad of the tegulae 
black; a transverse mark each side meson before apex segment 2 of the abdomen" 
3 above except apex and a shorter stripe across base of segment 5, dusky 
fumcle 1 a half longer than wide, shorter than the pedicel. Vertex with black 
setae. Ucelh in a triangle, lateral equidistant between eye and median Second 
setae of the scutellum twice closer to 3 than to 1. Sculpture very fine. 

A female, Banyo, Queensland, sweeping mangrove, September 30, 1923. 
lype m Queensland Museum. A female, Ooldea, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

In this last specimen the eyes were reddish, the second seta of the scutellum 



340 



was somewhat (not twice) closer to 3 than to 1. Stigma small elliptical Another 
female Adelaide, South Australia (R. Burton) was similar but the general 
colouration was orange, cheeks, legs and scape lemon, the second seta of the 
scutellum twice closer to 3, stigma wider. It is apparently true that the position 
of the setae On the scutellum varies somewhat, as also does the shape of the stigma. 

4. Megastigmus sulcicollis Cameron, walsinghami, n. var. 

A pair, Mount Lofty, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

Ovipositor not quite as long as the body. The same as M. sulcicolhs but no 
black upon the scutum or scutellum and the ovipositor is shorter. I he male stigma 
is large and round and its flagellum beset with long, scraggly hairs, the f un.cle 
lone narrowing distad. In the female, the three setae of the scutellum are equally 
spaced the abdomen more or less sordid, especially across middle. The male 
abdomen is black above, the propodeum black, the first fumcle joint over twice 
longer than wide, pedicel small. 

The variety is similar to M. maculatipcnnis but the setae of the scutellum 
are equidistant and the male antenna differs. The male of typical M. sulcicolhs 

is not known. 

5. Megastigmus spenseri Girault. 

Many pairs from galls on the leaves of Eucalyptus obliqua, Blakiston, South 
Australia, April, 1888 (T. D. Smeaton). Hatched in the following May. Also 
three females, same label, April 23, 1888. 

The yellow stripes on the abdomen in the male were usually absent. 

6. Megastigmus maculatipennis (Girault). 

Many pairs from Port Jackson figs (A. J. Coates), Sydney, New South Wales. 

The females of these specimens usually had the spiracular sulcus black; the 
pronotum was orange except at or near the caudal margin. The male is similar 
but its abdomen bears six distinct black cross-bands, 5-6 close together near apex. 
Also in the male the propodeum is sometimes immaculate or even all black 
between the spiracles. Neck of the pronotum black. The stigma m the fema e 
of these specimens was ovate, not globular, but I do not thmk this a stable 
character in the genus, as already stated. 

The peculiar colouration of the species of this genus and the lack ot structure 
differences make them difficult to define, but the setae on the scutellum, colour and 
position of ocelli, length of the ovipositor and the colour of the setae are some 
characters that can be used, though all of them vary somewhat. The grooves on 
the scutellum, first used by myself, unfortunately have been found to form one 
of those characters which is indeterminate— one can never be sure, therefore 
Epimegastigmus and Megastigmus must be worked together there is, morcovci. 
a genus or group hidden in Megastigmus based upon male characters ; and as very 
few of the males are known, as yet, the fact adds to the perplexity. 

Genus Epimegastigmus Girault. 
1. Epimegastigmus fulvtpes Girault. 
Four females, Melrose, South Australia, October (A. M. Lea) ; one female, 
Adelaide (N. B. Tindale). 

The stripes on the abdomen are near the apex of segment 2 (broken at meson ) 
and most of 3 and 4 (hence well within basal half of the whole 3 being about the 
middle) In one female, the setae on one side of the scutellum were equally 
spaced The flavous colour varies : Sometimes the scutellum is nearly all navous, 



341 

also the pronotum. The bands on the abdomen were very distinct in these speci 
mens and vary from 2 to 3. On account of the flavous borders of the scutellum 
and parapsides, the above specimens were highly coloured and beautiful. 

The species E. limoni Girault was at first thought to be but a duller form of 
this species (sometimes I cannot see the tibial grooves on the scutellum, a shadowy 
character). the only real difference between the two (females) h that in 
h fulmpes there are 4-6 closely-set setae in the oblique line of discal cilia from 
the submargmal vein, while in limoni there are only 2, these well spaced ■ but in 
the males this character does not vary. ' 

2. Epimegastigmus trisulcatus Girault. 

Three females, Tasmania. 

The ovipositor was longer than usual by one-fourth. The median carina of 
the propodeum absent m all of these specimens except one where it was evident 
at basal and apical fourths, the interval filled by a diamond-shaped ru^a In all 
there was a more or less distinct cross-carina on this region, but the rugulae vary 
here. The abdomen was black except at each end, but this colouration appeared 
to be due to oil in the body. 

In a fourth female, from the same locality, although the abdomen was as just 
described, yet the two cross-stripes were faintly discernable and the blackening- 
is not natural m life. The stigma is round-ovate. 

Still a fifth female, Launceston, Tasmania, October 8, 1916 (F M Littler) 
was similar to the fourth, except that the ovipositor was a fourth shorter and the 
lateral margin of the propodeum and the mesopleurum behind the femoral furrow 
were orange J here was also a black spot in front of the lateral ocellus There 
is considerable minor variation in colour and the sculpture of the propodeum varies. 

3. Epimegastigmus banfcsiae, n. sp. 

The same as B. bucklei but scutellum trisulcate, sculpture fine, margins of 
upper occiput delicate ; head, prothorax, apex of the abdomen and legs also lemon ■ 
occipital black and that of upper scape narrow, no black otherwise on head ; no 
other black except cephalic margin of the propodeum, as also the lines of its sulci 
a line at the base of the tegulae and two faint cross-stripes beyond middle of the 
abdomen. (Flagellum missing.) No real sulci on propodeum 
1899 A femde ' thC Grange? S ° Uth Australia > from galls on Banksia (A. Zietz), 

Genus Neomegastigmus Girault. 
1. Neomegastigmus leai, n. sp. 
As N. aitritibiae but scape yellow narrowly ventrad only, head up to the 
antennae and the cheeks golden; coxae concolorous except the apex of 1 rest of 
the legs golden except middle laterad of the fore femur, femora 2 and 3 apices of 
the femora golden. Scape obclavate. A row of thimble-punctures alon* the 
lateral margin of the scutum and on each side of the meson of the scutellum far 
i a , tera ; d - 1 Scutellum cross-lined like the scutum. The same otherwise Named for 
Mr. Arthur M. Lea. 

A female, Kangaroo Island (A. M. Lea). 

Genus Podagrion Spinola. 

1. Podagrion metatarsum, n. sp. 

Scape at base, legs except lateral fore femur, most of middle femur except 
beneath and hind femur, venter of abdomen more or less, fulvous. Median carina 
of the propodeum forking beyond middle, the forks nearly at right angles 



342 



Antennae black joint 1 of the funicle somewhat longer than wide, distal one 
iS" as long-as the pedicel. Club not enlarged. Femora teeth large, 
columnar. 2-3 longest, 4-6 usually coalesced, short and termmal, „ teeth. 

Male similar with pale and simple metatarsi (metatarsus not by far half the 
length of the tarsus and not or but scarcely flabellate). Hmd tibia not clava e. 

Two males one female, Melbourne. Victoria, February 22, 1909. From the 
eggs 0?*; ^mantid Ortkodera, Also many specimens of both sexes with the same 
data and bearing the No. 39. 

2. Podagrion flabellatum, n. sp. 
Aeneous • legs and antennae flavo-fulvous except middle of the lateral aspect 
of hind coxa venter of abdomen brown. Hind femur slightly marked aeneous 
Jdnt 1 of Se funide quadrate, shorter than the pedicel, distal three joms much 
wider than long Carina of propodeum forking out from base. The male has 
Tom 12 o hmd tarsus flabellate, equal, together half the tarsus ; they are also 
red vel ow The male hind tibia is clavate and its body red-yellow, as ollows 
Antennae leg except a long spot on hind coxa near middle base of lateral aspect 
teguTae aAd ibdomen except distal *. Four femoral teeth (male), the distal 2 
smaller and coalesced. f ' tv» 

A male, two females reared from what appeared to be galls, Launceston fas- 
mania (P M. Littler). A gall-like vegetable object was mounted with each 

specimen. . 

In this genus, the metatarsus in the male vanes considerably. 

Genus Pachytomoides Girault. 
1. Pachytomoides bicinctus, n. sp. 
As P. f rater but distal half of segment 2 of the abdomen, «d a sec ond black 
band at apex joint 1 of the funicle a bit longer than wide, 2 and 3 quadrate, 
8 twice Ser than long; hind coxa, hind femur on lateral aspect, aeneous ; pro- 
podeum with a median\4rina that forks at middle, punctate distad of the ork 
K proximad of it. Discal cilia of the first wing extending far toward base. 
Femoral teeth 10, 1. 3, 6, 8, largest, 5 minute, 10 wide. 

A female, Launceston, Tasmania, April 1, 1916 (F. M. Littler). 
The fore tibia is much prolonged from one angle of apex. 
Genus Macrodontomerus Girault. 

1. MACROOONTOMliRUS TRIANGULARIS Girault. 

A female. Gawler, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

2. Macrodontomerus aligiterini Girault. 
Two females, Tasmania. 

Genus Amonodontomerus Girault. 
1. Amonodontomerus montanus, n. sp. 
The same as A arboreus but the pronotum with four rows of punctures, on 
scutun punctures sparse but over the entire surface (disc) and there are punctures 
on he i esal margin of the parapsides ; segment 4 (abdomen) subequal to Z; legs 
except coxae re d; median carina of the propodeum obscure; ovipositor » the 
abclomen A line of setae down the facial eye margin, curving over to the apex 
of the clypeus. (Both flagella missing.) 

A female, Mount Lofty, South Australia (J. G. O. leppei). 



343 
Genus Ditroptnotella Girault. 

1. DlTROPINOTELLA COMPRESSIVENTRIS Girault. 

Males, females, Tintinara. South Australia, from galls upon Eucalyptus (J. 
G O. Tepper), January 6, 1887, and March 2, 1887^ Also from galls upon 
Eucalyptus obliqw, foliage. Blakiston, April 23, 1888 (T. D. Smeaton). Emerged 
in May, 1888. Females. 

Amongst the first lot were males. This sex hears purple legs except tarsi, 
.scape entirely metallic. 

Subfamily TRICHOGRAMMATINAE. 
Genus Lathromerella Girault. 
1. Lathromerella chinderaensis Girault. 
A female, labelled "Cherry Gardens, South Australia (H. W. Andrew). 
Seeds of Calamagrostis acmula" and mounted with several male tetrastichmes. 

Subfamily MYMAR1NAE. 
Australomymar, n. gen. 
The same as Polyncmoidea but the club is solid. 

1. Australomymar aurigerum, n. sp. 

Black the three large sclerites between scutum and propodeum, preventer, 
neck of and the space between median carinae of propodeum, petiole gold-brown; 
le£s suffused with same colour; wings light smoky with a not wide band across 
at bend of the submarginal vein; scape long and slender, nearly as long as the tore 
femur, about eight times longer than wide (excluding the long bulla) twice the 
length of joint 1 of the funicle which is nearly twice the length of the pedicel 
latter equal to joint 4; joint 2 elongate, longest, over § the length of the (body of 
the) scape and over six times longer than wide; 3 * shorter than 2 and somewhat 
longer than 1, 4 and 5 each distinctly shorter than 1, 6 shortest, hrmges a fourth 
wicfest 20-21 lines discal cilia extending to base of marginal (except a line or 
two)" ' Ovipositor as long as the body. Scutum, parapsides coarsely scaly. 
Scutellum subquadrate, coriaceous; a rugulose, hemispherical sclente follows it; 
oostscutellum narrower, tricarinate, wider than long ; propodeum long, with a pan 
of well-separated median carinae diverging to about middle, then converging 
Hind tibiae densely beset with elongate hairs above. Metatarsus elongate but not 
half the length of the tarsus. 

A female, Warragul, Victoria, 30, vi., 1929. In lichens and moss (F. E. 
Wilson). Type in collection of F. Erasmus Wilson. 

Subfamily CHALCIDINAE. 
Genus Chalcis Fabricius. 
1. Chalcis rubripes Girault vergilii Girault. 
A male, two females, Launceston, Tasmania, February 12, 15, and January 11, 
1914, respectively (F. M. Littler, No. 2255). 

2. Chalcis rufifemur Girault, var. 
A male, Mount Lofty, South Australia (R. J. Burton). 

The disc of hind coxa above was red, while the fore tibia was dilute red 
with yellow ends. 



344 

3. Chalcis ruficornis Girault. 
Same record as in pt. i. 
The distal yellow on the hind tibia was very obscure. 

4. Chalcis victoria Girault. 
A female, Norwood, South Australia, reared from wattle galls, April, 1892 
(J. G. O. Tepper) ; a female, Pcgenozena, Tasmania, December 3 1 1915 (F M 
Littler). 

The amount of black on the tegulac and legs varies somewhat. 

5. Chalcis decens, n. sp. 

About the size of C. shakespearei and runs to that species and also (ignoring 
antennal insertion to C. dipterophaga). Fore wings missing. 

Black, the following parts dilute red: Hind legs except for two yellow 
ellipses above on tibia at base and apex (the basal one longer than the red 
proximad of it and distinctly shorter than the red central red), abdomen beneath 
and lower sides of 2; fore and middle tibia except each end and on middle ones 
except ventro-laterad on one side (fore and middle femora diluted with red, 
apex rather widely in fore femur). Tegulae yellow. Antennae a bit above the 
ends of the eyes not distinctly above as in dipterophaga, which has conspicuous 
yellow apex of the hind femur, while the hind tibia is black where the red is in 
this species. There is a golden dot on lateral hind femur at ventral apex. 

A female, Ardrossan, South Australia (J. G. O. Tepper), 

6. Chalcis plutellophaga Girault, nortia, n. var. 

The same as C. australiensis but fore tibia yellow except above, except at each 
end. . Hind tibia with no black at base. 

A male, Launccston, Tasmania (F. M. Littler), January 2, 1917. 

7. Chalcis rubripes Girault. 

A male, Mount Lofty, South Australia (N. B. Tindale) ; and a female, same 
place (J. G. O. Tepper) ; two females, Lucindale (B. A. Feuerheerdt and A M 
Lea, separately) ; a male, Launceston, Tasmania (No 2255 of F. M. Littler). 

In the Lucindale specimens nearly all of the fore femur and distal half of the 
middle femur were red. In the Tasmanian male, the fore femur except distal 
fourth and the middle femur except apex, were black. The black of the first 
two pairs of femora varies considerably in amount. 

8. Chalcis redia, n. sp. 

As C. vcronesini but fore tibia with no black (red, above at each end, golden), 
the middle tibia is black on one side (the same side with yellow on each end) ; the 
abdomen as in Stomatoceras (that is, less convex and shortly stylate at apex) ; 
basal yellow of hind tibia a mere dot and, of course, smaller than the distal yellow! 
Femora 1-2 widely red at apex. 

A female, by sweeping. Adelaide, South Australia (N. B. Tindale). 

The lateral ocelli are somewhat closer to the eye than to the median ocellus. 

There are several species of this genus that have the abdomen as in the above 
species (e.g., C. pomonae Cameron), but I am not sure as to the stability of this 
character. However, I have never seen variations of it. 



345 

Genus Chalcitelloides Girault. 

1. Chalcitelloides io Girault. 

A female, Blackall Range, Queensland (A. M. Lea). 

This species is the same as Chalcitclla australiensis Girault described origin- 
ally as bearing no tooth above on the hind tibia. It seems the tooth was ignored 
or overlooked and later searched for and found. Hence the error. The name 
aitstraliensis takes precedence. Middle coxa red. 

Genus Xenarretoceka Girault. 
1. Xenarretoceka v-carinata Girault. 

A female, in flood debris, Adelaide, South Australia (A. M. Lea). 

In this specimen the wings were clear, apex of segment 3 of the abdomen 
somewhat concave. The second and third longitudinal rugae of the propodeum 
converged and joined at about middle, thence united; they, therefore, formed a 
sort of Y. Punctures of the scutum smaller and denser than those of the scutellum, 
latter well spaced. 

2. Xenarretocera murrayi, n. sp. 

Exactly similar to X, v-carinata except for the nearly equal punctuation of 
the scutum and scutellum, there being no wide mesal spaces upon the scutellum ; 
moreover, the interspaces are not glabrous but finely reticulated. 

A female, Owieandana, Northern Flinders Range, South Australia (II. M. 
Hale and N. B. Tindale). 

Genus Stomatoceras Kirby. 
1. Stomatoceras parvivespa, n. sp. 

Runs to S. longicornis but antennae black, joint 1 of the funicle slightly 
reddish and not quite as long as the pedicel, segments 2-5 red and all of venter ; 
thus differs primarily in having more red upon the abdomen. There is^ a cross- 
stripe from the marginal vein, the usual loop from this and an infuscation from 
this loop to wing apex (except caudad). From & salti (type compared) : More 
of the abdomen red, the wing infuscation, funicle 1 is distinctly longer. The 
species salti differs from S. dipterophaga in the formation of the femoral teeth 
—at first a straight line (not quite a half from base), then a long, gentle convexity, 
the whole occupying a half or more of the ventral margin. 

A female, Beverley, Western Australia. 

2. Stomatoceras disconiger, n. sp. 

Runs close to S. minor, omphale, and maeterlincki. From minor: The legs 
except (as usual for the genus) fore coxa and the whole of the lateral disc of the 
hind femur and the fore femur obscurely dorso-laterad, red ; funicle 2 black at distal 
half; wing not lightly dusky to apex from the strong loop; postmarginal vein a 
bit shorter than the marginal; abdomen entirely black. From omphale: By the 
large, discal black on the hind femur, by having the second joint of the funicle 
red at base, abdomen all black ; teeth of the hind femur on distal f , the proximal 
convexity small, the other long and gradual. From maeterlincki: Hind coxa red, 
hind femur with the discal black; teeth of the scutellum strong. 

Segment 2 is practically glabrous, half the surface, a short carina on each side 
.of meson at base (also present in S. parvivespa and, doubtless, all of the species). 

A female, Dorrigo, New South Wales. 



346 

3. Stomatoceras vespella, n. sp. 
As 5. melitarae but differing primarily in the femoral teeth, which are on a bit 
more than distal half, proximad a long, gentle convexity occupying about 4 plus 
at first straight but after middle forming a slight mound; then, nearly as long a 
prominent, much higher convexity whose sloping (distal) side is much longer 
than the mound part, which is at the basal end. Also, legs except fore coxa red 
segment 4 (of abdomen) black above ; pedicel, joints 1-3 of the funicle red (pedicel 
short as in 6\ dipterophaga). 

A female, Adelaide, South Australia. 

4. Stomatoceras salti Girault. 

Distal half of segment 2 and all of 3 above are red. This variety is now con- 
sidered a species. 



347 



AUSTRALIAN COLEOPTERA. 
PART VI. 

By Albert H. Elston, F.E.S. 

[Read October 10, 1929.] 

Family ELATERTDAE. 

Subfamily CONODERINAE. 

Conoderus arbitrarius, n. sp. 

Elongate ; moderately thick ; subopaque ; upper surface dark brown with the 
head and the anterior margin of the pronotum slightly diluted with red, the under 
surface mostly reddish-brown, antennae and mouth parts ferruginous, legs 
testaceous ; rather densely clothed with short, sericeous, depressed, cineraceous 
pubescence. Head flattened in forepart, with a very small carina on the vertex, 
anterior margin rounded, with densely arranged, small rugose punctures ; antennae 
just extending beyond apex of posterior angles of the pronotum, the first and 
second joints small, subglobular and about equal, the both combined a little more 
than half the length of the fourth, with a fine carina extending the whole length. 
Scutellum elongate and obtusely pointed behind. Pronotum longer than wide, 
lightly and evenly convex, the longitudinal median line almost obsolete, the lateral 
margins from base to near anterior margin almost imperceptibly, rectilinearly 
converging, and then lightly, roundly contracted, lateral margins of anterior angles 
curved towards underneath, the posterior angles long, acute, produced backwards 
but scarcely diverging, bicarinate, the inside carina equally as strong as the outer 
but only half its length; with densely arranged small round punctures. Elytra 
across shoulders slightly narrower than pronotum across posterior angles, sides 
almost parallel from behind shoulders to near the middle then gradually, roundly 
attenuated to apex which is briefly, obliquely truncated at the sutural angles; 
punctate-striate, the punctures in striae moderately deep, elongate and contiguous, 
the interstices relatively wide, flat and minutely, subrugosely punctured. The 
prosternum at the sides lightly furrowed through the deflexion of the lateral 
margins of the pronotum. Length, 12*5-13*5 mm.; width, 3*5-4 mm. 

North- Western Australia: Kimberley (J. S. Clark; Dr. E. Mjoberg). Type 
in author's collection. 

Near C. brittmipes Schwarz, from which it can be distinguished by its more 
uniform colour and with the legs testaceous. 

Subfamily CORYMBITINAE. 
Poemnites nitidicollis, n. sp. 
Elongate ; nitid ; black, antennae reddish-brown to blackish, elytra testaceous 
(with exception of apical part which is black), legs fulvous; moderately densely 
clothed with short, depressed, cineraceous pubescence. Head flattened in forepart 
with closely arranged, moderately large, subrugose punctures ; antennae with 3 
extending beyond the base of the pronotum, that of the 9 barely reaching the 
posterior angles of same, the. second joint very small, the third about twice as long 
as the preceding and about the same length as the fourth, feebly serrated from the 
latter joint with the apical one simple. , Pronotum slightly longer than wide, rather 
strongly and evenly convex, with a very feebly marked longitudinal median 
furrow, sides from near the base almost straight and parallel up to the anterior 



348 

third then gradually roundly contracted, posterior angles acute, produced back- 
wards and slightly divergent, carina short and not strongly marked ; moderately 
densely covered with sharply-defined, round punctures. Scutellum subtriangular 
and acutely pointed posteriorly. Elytra across shoulders barely as wide as pro- 
notum across posterior angles and a little more than twice the length of the latter, 
rounded at the humeral angles with the sides almost straight and parallel to near 
middle then strongly attenuated to apex, depressed in the sutural region; punctatc- 
striate, the punctures in striae relatively large, round and contiguous, interstices 
narrow and subrugose. Length, 6-7*5 mm.; width, 1*5-2 mm. 

Queensland: Cairns (F. P. Dodd) ; Herberton, Malanda (Dr. E. Mjoberg). 
Type in South Australian Museum. 

This is a very distinct and pretty species; the blackish part of the elytra is 
very variable, hardly two specimens being alike, it ranges from the tip of the 
elytra, with the suture and the lateral margins narrowly infuscated, to the whole 
of the posterior half being black and in most cases this dark portion is continued 
upwards for a short distance along the suture and lateral margins. Its nearest 
ally would be P. australicus Cand., from which it may be distinguished by having 
the whole of the under surface, the posterior angles of the pronotum and the apex 
of the elytra black. 

Subfamily LUDI1NAE. 
Agonischius aulacoderus, n. sp. 

Elongate ; narrow ; subnitid ; dark castaneous with the elytra testaceous, head, 
antennae and scutellum blackish, parts of pronotum, suture, lateral margins and 
punctures in striae of elytra more or less infuscated; moderately densely clothed 
with a pale, sericeous pubescence. Head lightly convex with a small, shallow, 
interocular depression, with densely arranged, very small, round punctures ; 
antennae reaching back to about the middle of elytra, moderately strongly ser- 
rated ( & ), second joint very small, joints three to eleven about equal in length, 
the apical one tubular and narrower at the base than at the apex. Pronotum 
longer than wide, evenly convex, slightly wider at the base than at the apex, lateral 
margins almost straight, the longitudinal median furrow distinctly visible along 
the whole length, posterior angles slightly divergent, produced backwards and 
acute, sharply carinate ; densely covered with very small, round punctures. 
Scutellum elongate, sides curved, posterior acute, minutely punctured. Elyti'a 
cross shoulders about the width of pronotum across posterior angles and about 
thrice the length of the latter, slightly depressed near the suture, sides straight 
and gradually contracted to near the posterior fourth then somewhat more 
abruptly contracted to apex which is rounded, rather finely punctate-striate, the 
punctures in striae round and not crowded, the interstices narrow, lightly convex, 
finely and minutely punctured. Length, 8 mm. ; width, 2 mm. 

New South Wales: (E. W. Ferguson); Queensland: Glen Lamington (Dr. 
E. Mjoberg). Type in author's collection. 

The forepart of the head is more or less reddish, the base and region of the 
longitudinal furrow of the pronotum is infuscated and the base of the. elytra is 
bright testaceous. Its nearest congener is A. mjobcrgi Elston, from which it may 
be distinguished by the black head and antennae, infuscated pronotum, the latter 
furrowed along the whole of its length and the clothing of same longer and of a 
silkv appearance. 

Family CLERIDAE. 

Subfamily CLERINAE. 

Cleromorpha albohirta, n. sp. 

Convex; subnitid; black with the two basal joints of the antennae and 
trochanters reddish, legs in parts more or less diluted with red. Clothed with 



349 

long (almost tomentose) whitish hairs. Head lightly convex on top and depressed in 
the forepart ; with rather coarse, densely arranged, subrugose punctures ; antennae 
moderately slender, apical joint reaching back to about the base of pronotum, 
first joint large, the second about half the length of the third which is not quite 
as long as the fourth and fifth combined, nine and ten are enlarged and obconical 
in shape, the eleventh elongate and attenuated at the apex. Pronotum wider than 
long, sides evenly curved with the widest distance apart near the middle, anterior 
and posterior margins straight ; with closely arranged, moderately large and deep 
punctures. Scutellum very small and round. Elytra across shoulders wider than 
base of pronotum and about thrice its length, sides from behind shoulders 
gradually, almost imperceptibly, dilated to near the posterior fourth and then more 
or less abruptly, roundly contracted to apex ; punctures closely arranged in rows, 
rather large, deep and subreticulate, becoming smaller and more shallow towards 
apex. Length, 3*5-4 mm. 

Victoria: Melbourne (E. Fischer); South Australia: Murray River (A. 11. 
Elston). Type in author's collection. 

This and the following species more or less resemble the genotype, C. novem- 
gutiata Westw., in all the salient characteristics with the exception of the 
antennae, in the former these appendages are slightly longer, more slender and 
only the last three joints enlarged so as to form a club, whereas in the latter the 
club is distinctly composed of four joints. 

Cleromorpha ruficollis, n. sp. 

Convex; subnitid; black, except basal joint of antennae which is more or less 
reddish, prothorax reddish testaceous, legs testaceous with the tarsi slightly 
infuscated. Moderately sparsely clothed with long, white hairs. Head almost 
flat and densely covered with small, rugose punctures ; antennae moderately 
slender with the apical joint reaching back to near the base of the pronotum, the 
second joint a little less than half the size of the first and bead-like in shape, the 
third joint about twice as long as the second and slender, the fourth much smaller 
than the third, joints four to eight about equal in length with each other, nine and 
ten enlarged and subcorneal, the apical joint about as long as the ninth and tenth 
combined, wide at the base and attenuated towards the apex. Pronotum wider 
than long, lightly and evenly convex, the anterior and posterior margins about 
equal in length, the lateral margins abruptly, roundly dilated near the middle; 
with closely arranged, moderately large, deep, round punctures. Scutellum very 
minute and round. Elytra across shoulders distinctly wider than base of pro- 
notum, sides almost straight and parallel to beyond the middle then roundly con- 
tracted to apex ; with large, deep, seriate punctures, becoming smaller posteriorly 
and almost obsolete near the apex. Length, 3*5 mm. 

South Australia: Quorn (A. H. Elston). Type in author's collection. 

In general outline this species closely resembles C. albohirta Elston, but may 
be easily distinguished by its colour, 

Odontophlogistus similis, n. sp. 

Elongate; subnitid; black, the clypeus, antennae, palpi, eyes, abdomen and 
tarsi reddish; clothed with long, griseous pubescence, more densely arranged on 
the head and sides of pronotum. Head with two moderately large intcrocular 
foveae, the antennae not quite reaching the base of pronotum, the apical joint 
elongate and tapering to a point; with small, sparsely arranged, indistinct punc- 
tures. Pronotum much wider than long, sides roundly dilated at the middle, 
surface uneven with shallow depressions; with shallow, sparsely arranged, 
indistinct punctures. Scutellum small and subcircular. Elytra across shoulders 



•350 

much wider than base of pronotum and about three and one half times as long 
as the latter, shoulders rounded and protuberant, sides slightly curved and roundly 
contracted on the posterior third; punctate-striate, the punctures in striae large, 
deep and subretieulate, the striae narrow and costate. Length, 8*5 mm.; width, 
3 mm. 

New South Wales : Culcairn. Type in author's collection. 

In general appearance it closely resembles 0. rubriveniris Elston, but may be 
easily distinguished from that species by the colour of the antennae which is 
ferruginous and longer, the apical joint of which is more elongate and drawn out 
into a point ; the punctures on the head and pronotum of the present species are 
barely visible, whereas on the former species they are deeply pitted. 

Eleale aenea Elston. 
A large specimen of this species, measuring 12*5 mm. in length, was taken 
near Melbourne by Mr. E. Fischer. 

Eleale chloris Chev. 

This species varies in colour from bright emerald green to green with brassy 

reflections; the antennae, mouth parts and tibiae are testaceous, the femora are 

mostly of the same colour as the body or darker and the tibiae are more or less 

infuscated; the apical joint of the antennae is very widely and deeply emarginated. 

Subfamily H YDNOCERIN AE. 

Allelidea viridis Blackb. 

Mr. F. E. Wilson has sent me two female specimens of the above species 
which he swept from rushes growing in a swamp at Altona, Victoria. These 
specimens agree very well with the author's description except for the colour 
which, instead of being ' viridi-aenea," is a nitid piceous black. 

Subfamily ENOPLIINAE. 
Tenerus tumidicollis, n. sp. 
Elongate; subnitid, head and pronotum reddish testaceous, the latter with a 
large, transverse spot on the anterior margin black, elytra testaceous with four 
large black spots, two basal and two apical, antennae, mandibles and legs black; 
moderately densely clothed with rather long, semi-erect pubescence, golden on 
the pale parts and black on the dark parts. Under surface testaceous with the 
metaslernum black. Head with two small, shallow, interocular depressions, with 
closely (but not densely) arranged small, shallow punctures; antennae robust, 
the second joint small and subglobular, the third quite three times as long as the 
second, the following strongly serrated except the apical which is acuminate at 
its apex. Pronotum about as long as wide, the anterior margin rounded and very 
narrowly recurved near the middle, the lateral margins curved and from near the 
middle gradually, roundly contracted to the base, in the middle near the base with 
a rather large, shining tumidity; somewhat more densely punctured than the head, 
the punctures similar to those on the latter. Scutellum small and almost circular. 
Elytra across shoulders barely wider than pronotum at base and about thrice the 
length of the latter, sides almost straight and parallel to near apex then roundly 
contracted, with two fine costae on each elytron, one close to the suture and 
extending from behind the scutellum to nearly the whole length, the other begin- 
ning at the base — about midway between the suture and the humeral angle — and 



351 

barely reaching the middle, these are joined together at the base by a short, curved 
third' costa; densely, finely and subrugosely punctured. Length, 8*5 mm. 

Queensland: Brisbane (H. Pottinger). Type in author's collection. 

This species should be easily recognised by its distinct colour markings ; the 
two black basal spots on the elytra touch the lateral margins but not the suture, 
the two apical ones touch both the suture and the lateral margins. 

Tenerus parvus, n. sp. 

Elongate; opaque; black, pronotum testaceous except lateral and anterior 
margins which are black; densely covered with very small, black pubescence 
except on pale part of pronotum where it is golden. Head with a shallow depres- 
sion near the base of each antenna, with densely arranged, minute punctures 
which are concealed by the clothing; antennae long and robust, second joint small 
and globular, the third only a little longer than the preceding, the following 
strongly serrated except the apical one which is elongate and acutely pointed, 
Pronotum about as long as wide, the lateral margins lightly and evenly rounded, 
with a small tumidity at the base in the middle and an indistinct one on each side 
of the middle on the posterior third and situated about half way between the 
middle and the lateral margin ; with punctures similar to those on the head and 
concealed by the clothing. Scutellum very small and circular. Elytra across 
shoulders barely wider than pronotum at base and thrice as long as the latter, sides 
almost straight and parallel to near apex then roundly contracted, without distinct 
costae, with densely arranged, minute punctures which are more or less concealed 
by the clothing. Length, 4*5 mm. 

Queensland: Cairns. Type in author's collection. 

Distinguished from all other Australian members of the genus by its small 
size ; the sides of the head near the eyes are lightly diluted with yellow. 

Subfamily CORYNETINAE. 
Pylus okei, n. sp. 

Subnitid; dark castaneous, antennae and legs a little paler; moderately clothed 
with semi-erect dark pubescence. Surface of head even, densely covered with 
small, deep, subrugose punctures ; antennae reaching to base of pronotum, apical 
joint almost circular. Pronotum about as long as wide, abruptly and angularly 
dilated on the sides at the middle, with a moderately large, round, deep depression 
in the middle near the anterior margin and two much less distinct ones near the 
base; densely and evenly punctured with rather large, deep punctures. Scutellum 
minute and rounded on the sides. Elytra across shoulders much wider than pro- 
notum at base and about thrice the length of the latter, humeral angles almost 
square, sides almost straight and parallel to near apex then somewhat abruptly 
roundly contracted; closely covered with large, deep seriate punctures becoming 
a little smaller posteriorly. Length, 4*5 mm. 

Victoria: Gypsum (C. Oke). Type in author's collection. 

A much smaller species than P, fatmis Ncwm., and can be readily dis- 
tinguished from it by the head not having an interocular fovea, with densely 
arranged and asperate punctures ; the pronotum densely and subrugosely punc- 
tured, the surface less uneven, in fatmis the pronotum (particularly the anterior 
portion) is densely covered with minute punctures and the middle and sides inter- 
spersed with large, scattered punctures forming a double punctuation, the present 
species is densely and uniformly covered with large punctures. This species is 
at once distinguished from P. pallipes Macl., inter alia, by the apical joint of the 
antennae being almost circular and not drawn out into a spine at the apex, also 
the head and pronotum are more densely and coarsely punctured. 



352 

Pylusopsis, n. gen. 

Body elongate, subdepressed. Head more or less rectangular and almost 
truncate in front; eyes prominent, moderately coarsely granulated, emarginate 
in front; mandibles moderately prominent and curved inwards; maxillary and 
labial palpi moderately long, the apical joint of each is similar in shape and size, 
elongate, narrow at the base and becoming widely dilated to apex where it is 
obliquely truncated; antennae robust, sometimes reaching back to base of pro- 
notum, the first joint large and curved, the second small and almost globular, the 
third long and subcylindrical, four to eight about equal in length and subglobular, 
nine to eleven widely dilated and forming a loose jointed club. Prothorax about 
as long as wide, narrower at the base than at apex, with a moderately strong 
protuberance on each lateral margin near the middle. Scutellum very small. 
Elytra at base wider than pronotum, at base straight and subangular at the 
shoulders, strongly punctured only on the anterior half ; apex of each elytron 
individually rounded and simple. Legs rather long and robust, posterior femora 
not reaching apex of abdomen, tarsi with only four visible joints, the first three 
joints with pads on the under surface, apical joint elongate and dilated towards 
apex; claws simple. 

The granulation of the eyes is much finer than in Pylits and yet coarser than 
that o'f Parapylus, the sculpture of the pronotum and elytra is quite different from 
either; the formation of the apical joint of the maxillary palpi should at once 
distinguish it from either of these genera. 

Pylusopsis chrysocome, n. sp. 

Elongate; subdepressed; black with the elytra, abdomen and a narrow band 
at apex of pronotum ferruginous, the antennae black with the apical joint white 
and the tips of the apical joints of the black palpi also whitish, with a black spot 
on each elytron just in front of the middle, the under surface of the tarsi more or 
less testaceous ; rather densely clothed in parts with long, shaggy pubescence, 
golden on the pale parts and black on the dark portion. Head with the surface 
even, densely and subrugosely punctured; antennae reaching to base of pronotum, 
second joint small and subglobular, the third almost as long as the fourth and 
fifth combined, joints nine to eleven dilated and forming a loose jointed club, the 
apical joint barely longer than wide and rounded. Pronotum about as long as 
wide, the basal margin somewhat narrower than the apical one, sides strongly 
dilated at the middle and forming a protuberance on each side, with three nitid 
protuberances on the disc, two behind the anterior margin— one on each side of 
the middle — the third is an elongate one in front of the base at the middle, the 
iwo in front joined to the posterior one by a more or less interrupted elevated, 
nitid line forming a Y; densely covered with small, deep punctures, Scutellum 
very small and more or less rounded. Elytra at base a little wider than pronotum, 
the base almost truncate, humeral angles slightly rounded, sides almost straight 
and parallel to near middle then roundly contracted to apex, with two large, 
slightly raised elongate protuberances at the base, one on each side of the suture, 
the anterior half with large, round punctures more or less arranged in rows, the 
posterior half densely, minutely (almost imperceptibly) punctured. Length, 
5-6 mm. 

Victoria: Belgrave ; Gembrook (C. Oke) ; Millgrove ( F. E. Wilson). 



353 



POLARITY IN CASUARINA PALUDOSA. 

By Thomas T. Colquhoun, B.Sc., 
Department of Botany, University of Adelaide. 

(Communicated by J. G. Wood, M.Sc.) 
[Read October 10, 1929.] 

Introduction. 

The fact that plants have polarity is generally accepted ; but opinions differ 
widely as to whether this is stable or labile, and as to whether it is inherited, 
induced or impressed. Much work has been carried out on this subject, but 
owing to the contradictory nature of some of the results, there is still no definite 
answer to the problem. 

Pfeffer (1) is of the opinion that polarity is hrst induced in the plant, and this 
is later impressed on the young parts by the parts preformed. This induced 
polarity may be retained by the cells to a greater or less degree so as to be 
apparently inherited. 

Coulter and Chrysler (2), rather unconvincingly, conclude that polarity is non- 
existent. 

Vochting (3) holds that it is a special property of the plant body, founded in 
the structure of the egg and is not induced by external agents. 

These are the three extreme views, but many workers such as Sachs (4). 
Lund (5), Doposcheg-Uhlar (6), Miehe (7) and Neilson-Jones (8) have 
attempted to solve the problem. Most of these agree with Pfeffer's idea. 

The latest work of which I am aware is that done by Neilson-Jones (8), who 
carried out exhaustive tests with roots of Seakale — Cramhc maritima. 

None of the work, so far as I have gleaned, has been carried out on Casuariiia 
paludosa. (Sieb., in Spreng. Syst., iii., 803.) 

Vochting (9) performed transplantation experiments with cubes of beetroot, 
and in this investigation methods somewhat resembling those of Vochting were 
used. 

Technique. 

Portions of the bark of Casuarina paludosa were taken oft the stem, reversed, 
regrafted and allowed to grow. After growth had taken place from the bark, 
experiments Avere carried out with the shoots and finally sections of the graft 
were examined. 

Method of Grafting. 

This part of the work was carried out by Professor Ewart in August, 1927. 
The tree was a young seedling about four years old, growing in the System Garden 
in the Melbourne University grounds. It was in the open without any particular 
protection from the elements. 

Portions of the bark, 3 inches by 2 inches, were removed, taking, as far as 
practicable, the cambium, but not lifting any of the wood tissues. The removed 
pieces were reversed, reapplied, the edges covered with grafting-wax and bound 
firmly against the trunk. The top of the tree was then removed, causing abundant 
formation of adventitious buds all over the main trunk, including the grafted 
portions, although there was only a limited formation on these. Only two of the 



354 

normal shoots were allowed to develop, and two or three on each graft of the bark. 
Of the latter, five developed fully and formed junctions with the wood of the tree. 
At the same time, some bark was removed but not redrafted, the wounds 
being smeared with grafting-wax. This was done in order to see if any develop- 
ment took place from scraps of cambium which may have been left on the wood. 
As no development took place, it can reasonably be concluded that it was the same 
in the case of the buds, i.e., that development took place from the bark, not from 
a fragment of cambium which may have been left on the wood of the stem at the 
time of removal of the bark. 




Fig. 1. 

General view of upper portion of the tree, showing normal (top) and "inverted" shoots 

and parts from which the hark was removed. 



Method of Growing the Shoots. 

Strong, healthy shoots were selected from normal and inverted branches. 
Whilst they were still on the tree, the upper side of approximately similar-sized 
shoots were marked with indian ink. Shoots were cut off and passed through 



355 

holes in corks which were fastened into glass vials containing tap water. The 
vials were placed in various positions, the normal and reversed being placed in 
similar positions according to the marked side as follows : — 

Some were placed vertical with the "root-pole" in water ; others vertical 

with the "shoot-pole" in water. 
Some were placed horizontally, half having the marked side uppermost, 
the other half having it downwards. 

The specimens held vertically were placed under bell jars, together with an 
open dish of water to keep the air moist. The horizontal specimens were placed 
in large gas jars lying on their sides, all held in position with plasticine plugs. 
The ends of the jars were closed with vaselined ground-glass plates. The 
atmosphere in these jars was kept moist by a small amount of water being intro- 
duced into them. 

Method of Sectioning tite Graft. 

The whole of one graft was sawn off the trunk and sawn into small portions 
for sectioning (see fig. 2 for pieces). Sections of pieces 1, 2, 5, and 6 were 
examined, thus showing longitudinal and transverse relations of the wood fibres 
in the graft wood and stem wood. The sections were hand cut and for clearer 
study were stained with safranin and light green. 

The graft was removed from the tree eight months after it had been set. 

Results. 
Appearance of the Tree. 
On wounds covered with grafting-wax, no growth took place. The shoots 
from the inverted grafts grew downwards, but turned up at their outer ends, in 
this respect varying in no way from some normal shoots (many of which 
developed after removal of the graft, and were then allowed to grow), which 
grew more or less vertically downwards for about a foot and had sub-branches 
which grew outwards but slightly downwards, turning up at the ends. In all 
cases, however, the shoots from the graft grew downwards, whilst the normal 
shoots growing down were in the minority. 

Growth of Shoots. 

The growth of shoots gave no results whatever. Despite care and the pro- 
vision of moist conditions, the shoots all died after about a month and were then 
attacked by various fungi. This part of the experiment was first started on 
April 7, 1928, but after non-success, new shoots were not set up till Spring, on 
September 6. A third set was started on October 8, and another lot on Novem- 
ber 12. In no case, however, did the shoots show- any sign of root development. 
This part of the experiment was suggested by Pfeffer's (1) experiments with 
Salix. 

Examination of Sections. 

Sections of "1" transverse to the line of graft, i.e., longitudinal sections of 
the wood, showed an interesting development. At the line of junction of the 
scion and the stock, there was considerable derangement of the wood elements. 
The inner stem fibres and vessels were undisturbed, but the few outer, newly- 
formed vessels were twisted, forming a callus-like mass. The junction of the 
stem and scion fibres was not direct, but in all cases there seemed to be a twisting 
or bending, some of which are figured (see fig. 3). 

The sections of "2" and "5" showed nothing so outstanding. There was 
abnormality of tissues due to the callus-like growth, but only transverse sections 
of the vessels and fibres showed. 



356 

Sections of "6" showed somewhat similar formations as those of "1." The 
wood fibres were considerably twisted in the stem wood, but the fibres in the 
branch did not appear to be in any way disturbed, growing out normally from the 
more recently-formed (though twisted) stem wood (see fig. 4). 




Fig. 2. 
View of the graft which was removed for sectioning, showing the parts into 

which it was sawn. 

Discussion. 

in the tree, growth seemed in no way to be checked by the inversion, the 
inverted branches being as strong as the normal ones and equal to them in length 
and diameter. 

The tests of shoot growth were intended to show if root development was 
altered in any way by the inversion of the shoots. Owing to no growth taking 
place, this part of the work is inconclusive. The turning of the wood vessels, 
however, seems to show that there must be some effect. The absence of any 
hindrance to growth seems to indicate that the cambium cells are quite capable 



357 

of function and continued growth and development in spite of their inversion. 
But this is not so in the wood fibres. The twisting effect is the same as that noted 
by Vochting (9) in 1892 when he experimented with cubes of beetroot, removed 
and replaced. It appears as though the ends of the "'reversed" vessels are unable 




Fig. 3, 

Microphotograph of section of "I" transverse to the line of graft, i.e., a 

longitudinal section of the wood. The twisting of the vessels at their 

points of junction is well shown. (Section stained with safranin and light 

green and photographed in blue light. Magnification X 63.) 



~ +. 



-:\% 











Fig. 4. 
Microphotograph of section of "6" below the branch. This shows dis- 
arrangement of the fibres in the stem wood below the point of origin of 
the branch. (Section stained with safranin and light green and photo- 
graphed in blue light. Magnification X 63.) 



358 

to unite with the opposite ends of the others. Thus they try to orientate them- 
selves with the original vessels by bending over at the ends and making a junction. 
At the time of grafting, however, no wood was lifted. Therefore, the wood 
formed by the cambium after resetting must have caused the callus growth and 
twisting of fibres. It seems, therefore, that the cambium, whilst joining freely, 
must have had some polarity, and this was impressed on the wood formed 
by it. The cambium divides tangentially, and each cell is surrounded by 
similar undifferentiated cells which cannot, therefore, exercise any polarity 
influence upon one another in respect to structural origin. The cells receive 
their food materials from the wood or phloem in a tangential direction, 
so that they can have no verticibasal polarity of translocatory origin and are con- 
sequently not disturbed by the reversal. On the other hand, the fibres and vessels, 
the latter particularly, have a definite relationship with one another in the process 
of translocation and water conduction. If the newly-formed "inverted" parts 
had no polarity it would be easy for them to join end to end with the normal 
parts. But the vessels twist on themselves. This seems to be an effort to keep 
translocation and water conduction in the same orientation in regard to the original 
position or polarity of the vessels. This polarity must have been impressed upon 
them by the cambium cells. Therefore, the evidence of this work, so far as it 
goes, agrees with Pfeffer's idea. 

Summary. 

1. Buds of Casuarina paludosa grafted upside down, grow without any 
apparent check or effect. 

2. Up to date, cuttings have not given rise to roots when grown in water 
culture. 

3. Longitudinal sections of the wood transverse to the line of graft show 
twisting of the fibres and vessels. 

This work was carried out in the Botanical Department of the University of 
Melbourne whilst holding the Caroline Kay and Ilowitt Natural History Scholar- 
ships for 1928. 

In conclusion, I wish to thank Professor Ewart for allowing me to carry on 
the investigation started by himself, for advice as to the method of investigation 
and for helpful criticism throughout the work. 

References. 

1. Pfeffer, Dr. W. — "Physiology of plants," vol. ii. 

2. Coulter and Chrysler — "Bot. Gaz.," vol. xxxix. (1904). 

3. Vochtijng— "Bot. Gaz.," vol. xliii. (1907). 

4. Sachs, J. von— "On the Physiology of Plants." p. 484. 

5. Lund, E J,— "Bot. Gaz.," vol. lxxvi., p. 288. 

6. Doposcheg-Uhlar— "Bot, Centrt.," 1913, p. 620. 

7. Miehe, H.— "Bot. Gaz.," vol. xli. (1906). 

8. Neilson-Jones — "Ann. Bot.," vol. xxxix. (1925). 

9. Vochting— "Jost's Plant Physiology," p. 333. 

10. Ianse, M. J.— "Bot. Gaz.," vol. xli. (1906). 

11. Tobler, F.— "Bot. Gaz," vol. xli. (1906). 



359 



FLORISTICS AND ECOLOGY OF THE MALLEE. 

By J. G. Woon, M.Sc. 
(Department of Botany, University of Adelaide.) 

[Read October 10, 1929.] 

Introduction. 
The present paper is the result of a study of the mallee scrub, extending over 
six years, and includes observations made in the Murray Mallee (the area in 
bouth Australia extending from 37° to 32° south latitude), Yorke Peninsula 
portions of Eyre Peninsula, outliers of the mallee in the North-East of South' 
Australia, and also in the Millewa and Wimmera* districts of Victoria and the 
mallee regions north of the River Murray in New South Wales 




Fig. 1. 

"Mixed Community of Mallee (Euc. oleosa), Saltbush and Bluebush at Dilkera, 

showing typical habit of the Mallee. 

J he term niallee is a native one and refers to a habit of growth. Th<> first pub- 
lished record of the name is in 'Australia Felix," published in 1848 by W West- 
garth, who states that "the natives of the Wimmera prepare a luscious drink from 
the laap, a sweet exudation from the leaf of the mallee (Eucalyptus dumosa) " 
Ine term, however, was probably in common use amongst the settlers at this 
period. 

Mallee scrub is typical of hundreds of square miles of country in Southern 
Australia, the chief tree covering being various species of the genus Eucalyptus 
J he most important species are Eucalyptus dumosa, E. oleosa and E. gracilis "while 
more locally are found £. incrassata, E. calycogona, E. angulosa, E. leptophylla, 
E cneonfoha, E. Flocktomae, E. Behriana, E. diversifolia and E. piriformis 
All these species are small trees varying in height from about two to twelve metres' 
and all with a characteristic habit of growth. From a main underground root- 
stock several stems arise which branch sparingly and bear leaves only at the ends 
of the branches. This results in the formation of a canopy-like collection of 



360 



leaves. The coppiced habit and canopy top are the two outstanding features which 
give the fades to the whole of the area. 

Associated with the Eucalyptus, spp., are commonly found the "native pines," 
Callilris robusta, C. verrucosa, Casuarina lepidophloia, and various shrubs 
and undershrubs of a xerophytic type. The ground flora is largely ephemeral and 
is present only after rain. For the greater part of the year the ground beneath 
the trees and shrubs is bare (see fig. 1). 

Practically no previous work relating to the ecology of the mallee has been 
published, though floristic lists have been made by Tate (7, 8, 9,) and lepper (11) 
in South Australia, and by Hardy (3) in Victoria. Adamson and Osborn (1) 
studied a mallee community at Ooldea. The floristic lists given m the appendix 
to this paper are compiled from the above-mentioned sources, from the author s 
field notebooks and from Black's "Flora of South Australia." The nomenclature 
throughout is that of Black's "Flora." 

FACTORS DETERMINING THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE MALLEE. 

1. Climatic Factors. 
The geographical range of the mallee is shown in the accompanying map, 
which is based on Prescott's admirable vegetation map of South Australia (4), 
and from the data contained in Year Books for the States of Victoria and New 
South Wales, as well as the Floras of those States. The two mam regions are 
the Murray Mallee (including parts of South Australia, Victoria, and New South 
Wales on either side of the River Murray, as shown on the map, and thus extend- 
ing this term well known in South Australia, to include a portion of Victoria) and 
Evre Peninsula, with Yorke Peninsula lying between them. All this country 
has an elevation of less than 500 feet. Geologically, the Murray Mallee consists 
of late Tertiary deposits, whilst Evre Peninsula is of Recent origin. Ihe soils 
are of the arid type known technically as "Solonetz" soils, and without exception 
consist of sands and silt covering nodular travertine limestone deposits. Some- 
times the limestone forms compact masses, and not infrequently outcrops at the 
surface. 

The considerations brought forward in this paper will show that the mallee 
is a formation characteristic of alkaline semi-arid soils and sharply delimited by 
amount of rainfall. 

Reference, to the map will show that the Mallee Formation is limited on its 
northern boundary bv the 8-inch rainfall isohyet, and on its southern boundary 
by the 20-inch isohyet. This refers particularly to the greater portion of the 
malice which is ill South Australia. Practically all the rain falling over this 
area falls from Mav to October, and is produced from winter and spring storms 
arising in the Southern Ocean. The mallee. is essentially a community arising 
from winter rainfall within the limits specified. The factor of winter rainfall 
determines the northern limit of the mallee in New South Wales. In the Western 
Plains of the latter state the 8-inch isohyet turns northward, encircling the central 
arid region, and rainfall becomes controlled by an entirely different set of storms. 
Here the mallee does not follow the isohyet as it does in South Australia. Ihe 
northern limit is determined, approximately, by the northern limit of winter 
rainfall which runs in a north-westerly direction from Cape Howe to Broken Hill 
and then west-north-west to Shark's Bay in Western Australia. Above this limit 
the mallee is replaced between the 8- and 20-inch isohy.ets by savannah. 

As regards rainfall reliability, the whole of the mallee area lies within the 
territory bounded by the isopleths showing 15% to 20% variation from the 
average amount of rainfall, indicating a semi-arid type. 



361 




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2. Edaphic Factors. 
The mallee soils are "Solonetz" types, and are invariably alkaline. They 
show great uniformity over the whole of the area considered and do not differ 
markedly from the arid soils of the north-eastern and central regions of South 
Australia as far as the latter soils have been examined. These last-named soils 
support, usually, saltbush (Atriplex, spp.) and bluebushes (Kochia, spp.), with 
their attendant flora. 

Mallee saltbush and bluebush soils all have in common a surface layer ot 
varying thickness underlain by grey or buff-coloured soils containing nodular 
travertine limestone ; the nodules vary in size in different soils. 

Both pure saltbush soils and mallee soils have approximately the same water- 
retaining capacity. The amount of water at saturation in soils from different 
localities is given in the following table: — 
Locality. 
Northern outlines of mallee at Koonamore 
Limit of mallee and arid formation at Dilkera 
Pure saltbush soils at Koonamore 
Typical mallee soil at Pinnaroo 
Typical mallee soil at Minnipa, E.P. 
Blue bush (Kochia sedifolia) soil 
The following soil profiles are typical :— 

Pinnaroo. — Eucalyptus dumosa % 

Medium red sand 12 inches 

Buff coloured subsoil with limestone nodules 
Koonamore. — E. oleosa. 



Amount of Water. 

36-0% 

38-0% 
38-0% 
36*0% 
37-0% 
32-0% 



pH value. 

7-9 
8-3 



1. Johnston's Paddock. 
Surface soil, chocolate 



brown 



with humus 
2 inches 
8-9 inches 



7-4 
7-6 

7*8 



2 feet 



Dark grey 
Subsoil 
2. Mustering Paddock. — E, oleo