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VOL. 64 PART 1 26 JULY, 1940 





Price - - One Guinea 

Registered at the General Post Office, Adelaide, 
for transmission by post as a periodical 


VOL. 64 20 DECEMBER, 1940 





Price - - One Guinea 

Registered at the General Post Office, Adelaide, 
for transmission by post as a periodical 



Segnit, Ralph W. : Geology of Hallett Cove and District, with special reference to 

the distribution and age of the Younger Glacial Till 3 

Compere, Harold: A New Species of Metaphycus (Hymenoptera, Encyrtidae) from 

Australia: Parasitic in Eriococcus coriaceus Maskell 46 

Weeding, B. J. : A New Flindersian Chiton 48 

Turner, A. Jefferis : A Revision of the Australian Gracilariidae (Lepidoptera) .. 50 

Evans, J. W. : Tube-building Cercopids (Homoptera, Machaerotidae) 70 

Andrewartha, II. G. : The Environment of the Australian Plague Locust (Chor- 

toicetes terminifera Walk.) in South Australia 76 

Johnston, T. Harvey, and Mawson, Patricia M. : Nematodes from South Aus- 
tralian Marsupials . . . . - - . . . . . . . ■ . . • • • • 95 

Chapman, Frederick ; On a New Genus of Sponges from the Cambrian of the 

Flinders Range, South Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 

Alderman, A. R. : A Siderolite from Pinnaroo, South Australia .. .. .. 109 

PresCOTT, J. A.: Evaporation from a Water Surface in Relation to Solar Radiation 114 
Johnston, T. Harvey, and Simpson, E. R. : The Adult Stage of the Trematode, 

Leucochloridium australiense .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 119 

Finlayson, H. H. : On Central Australian Mammals Part I: The Muridae .. 125 

Womersley, H. : A New Species of Ceratrimeria (Collembola) from Tasmania .. 137 

Rogers, R. S. : Contributions to the Orchidaceous Flora of Australia . . . . . . 139 

Tindale, Norman B. : Results of the Harvard-Adelaide Universities Anthropo- 
logical Expedition, 1938-1939. Distribution of Australian Aboriginal Tribes : 

A Field Survey 140 

Womersley, H.: Studies in Australian Acarina. Tetranychidae and Trichadeiiidae .. 233 

Ashby, E.: A New Fossil Cryptoplax from the Pliocene of South Australia .. .. 266 

Berndt., R. M. : Notes on the i^ign-language of the Jaralde Tribe, of the Lower River 

Murray, South Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 

Johnston, T. EL, and Simpson, E. R. : The Anatomy and Life-history of the Trematode 

Cyclocoelum jaenschi n. sp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 

Mountford, C. P.: Aboriginal Stone Structures .. .. .. .. .. .. 279 

Hale, H. M. : Report on the Cymothoid Isopoda obtained by the F.I.S, "Endeavour" on 

the Coasts of Queensland, New, South Wales, Victoria, 1 asmania and South Australia 288 

Fenner, C. : Australites Ft. IV The John Kennett Collection with Notes on Darwin 

Glass, Bediasites, etc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 

Steele, H. V.: Three new Species of lsochaetothrips from Australia .. .. .. 325 

Womersley, H. : A new Termitophilous Collembolan from South Australia . . . . 330 

Johnston, T. H., and Angel, L. M. : Larval Trematodes from Australian Freshwater 

Molluscs Pt. VII 331 

Johnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M. : Some Nematodes Parasitic in Australian Fresh- 
water Fish 341 

Steele, H. V. : A Revision of the Genus Desmothrips Hood (Thysanoptera) in Australia 353 

Johnston, T. H. and M^awson, P. M* : Some Filarial Parasites of Australian Birds .. 355 

Mawson, D.: Notes and Exhibits. Tillite and other Rocks from Hallett Cove, S. Aust. 362 
Johnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M. : A Key to the Nematode Parasites of Australian 

Marsupials and Monotremes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tm 353 

Black, J. M. : Additions to. the Flora of South Australia No. 39 371 

Johnston, T. H,, and Angel, L. M.: The Morphology and Life-history of the Trema- 
tode Dolichopera macalpmi Nicoli . . , . . . # # 3% 

Balance-sheets . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 -200 

Verco Medalists 300 

List of Fellows _ ^00 

Index „« 




By RALPH W. SEGNIT, Assistant Government Geologist 


The region to be described is situated about 15 miles in a south- south-westerly direction from 
Adelaide. Geologically Hallett (1) Cove can probably be regarded as being one of the most 
frequently visited localities in this State, its chief point of interest being in the glacial deposit (and 
striated bedrock (2) ), which is generally referred to as being of Permo-Carboniferous age. 





By Ralph W. Skgnit, Assistant Government Geologist 

Plates I to III 
[Read 11 April 1940] 

Introduction and Previous 
Hallett Cove and District 








3 Summary and 
List of References 

Middle Pre-Cambrian (C) — Upper Series (Cl-4) 
Upper Pre-Cambrian (D) .. 

i Sturtian Tillite (D 1) 

ii Purple Series (D 6) . . 
Hi Quartzites (D 7) (Flinders Range Sandstonc-Quartzitc 
Lower Cambrian (E) 

Younger Till (Lower Cretaceous ?), (K) 
i Introduction 
ii Hallett Cove and District 
Areas Outside the Hallett Cove District . . 
i Mount Barker 
ii Sellick Hill .. .. .. 

in Port Vincent (Yorke Peninsula) . . 
Probable Age of the Younger Till 
Cainozoic — Lower Pliocene 
Early ? Pleistocene 
Late ? Pleistocene to Recent 




The region to be described is situated about 15 miles in a south-south-westerly 
direction from Adelaide. Geologically Hallett (^ Cove can probably be regarded 
as being one of the most frequently visited localities in this State,, its chief point 
of interest being in the glacial deposit (and striated bedrock < 2 > ), which is generally 
referred to as being of Pcrmo-Carboniferous age. 

Several papers, but no general detailed geological maps of the region with the 
written descriptions of the formations, with one exception, have been published 
describing the features of this till at Hallett Cove. This exception was a small 
geological sketch map of the coast in the immediate vicinity of Black Cliff (1) (at 

( x ) See p. 4. 

( 2 ) In the discussion which followed the communication and reading of a paper by 
Jacob H. Lindal, at the meeting of the Geological Society, London, on 7 June 1939. 
Professor W. W. Watts pointed out that the use of the term "Striated Pavement" in 
certain recent papers was not in accord with the original definition and with the usage in 
Scotland, the home of the term. It should be used for striated surfaces in the drift itself 
and applied to the re-advance of ice over the surface of drift previously deposited (1). 

Trans. Roy. Sop S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 

the northern end of the Cove) and the "Amphitheatre," published with the results 
of the investigations made in the region under review by Tate, Howchin, and 
David (2). tt was prepared for a specific purpose, namely, to prove whether the 
glacial beds were Pre- or Post-Miocene (;:) in age. 

A detailed geological map of Hallett Cove and District is therefore essential 
in order that the relationship of the glacial beds to the underlying and overlying 
formations may be studied and appreciated in the light of modern knowledge 
ascertained by the recent researches into the age of the geological formations in 
South Australia. 

One of the most important problems connected with the geology of this region 
(and elsewhere in this State) is the age of the younger glacial beds present. 
Definite evidence is desired that may define more accurately the time when the 
glaciers moved over at least the southern portions of South Australia, and 
deposited the boulder material. This till has, from its earliest discovery, been 
regarded as being comparable with the glacial beds of Permo-Carboniferous age 
in Victoria and Tasmania. The writer proposes to specially discuss its age in 
relation to the evidence collected as a result of his observations in the region of 
Hallett Cove and other localities in this State where the younger (4) glacial deposits 
have been mapped and examined. 

The first scientific investigator to recognise the formation as being of glacial 
origin at Hallett Cove was Tate, in 1887, who considered .... That the glaciation 
was of Post-Miocene age (3, p. 1). Amongst the subsequent investigators the name 
of Howchin is outstanding, and his published accounts of the till, particularly in 
the vicinity of Hallett Cove, have appeared in the Transactions of the Royal 
Society of South Australia (4 to 8). A complete bibliography of Howchin's 
papers has been published in the Transactions in 1933 (9). 

The writer has in this paper, as in all works published by him, sought official 
sanction for all place names within the area under review. The Director of Lands 
lias intimated that the following names have been approved by the Nomenclature 
Committee : 

'\Hallett\s" Cove, to be known as Hallett Cove. 

Hlack Cliff — was formerly referred to as "Black Point." 

Hallett Creek — constantly referred to as the "Field River," particularly by 
Howchin: 4, p. 64; '5, p. 284; 7. p. 364; 8, p. 49; 10, p. 265; etc.^' 

Sellick Hill— formerly known as "Schick's Hill." 

( :l ) This fossiliferous sandstone has subsequently been identified as Lower Pliocene. 

^) The term "younger" is here applied to the glacial deposit (formerly referred to 
as Permo-Carboniferous) to distinguish it from the much older Sturtian Tillite of Upper 
Pre-Cambrian age, which is present also at Hallett Cove. 

("') It is of interest to note that an old plan of the "Settled Districts of South Aus- 
tralia," prepared by a former Deputy Surveyor-General (Mr. P. T. Finnis) in 1841, shows 
the ''Field or Onkaparinga River." It has been noted also that the creek in question 
lias been named "Hallett Creek" on an old Admiralty Chart dated 17 August 1874. 

All hearings given in the text and shown on the geological maps in this paper 
are magnetic, and they have reference to the period when the declination was 
approximately 5° E. of True North. 

The record of all heights shown thus— (66), on the geological map, have 
been obtained by aneroid. They have reference to approximately low water at the 
time of the investigation. Check height readings have been taken from survey 
datum points along the railway. 

The system of indexing the formations present in the District of Hallett Cove 
is similar to that introduced by the writer in the classification of the Pre-Cambnan- 
Cambrian Succession: Geological Survey of South Australia, Bulletin No. 18 

In the preparation of the Geological Map particular care has been taken to 
record the geological data as accurately as possible, but owing to the small scale 
used, narrow beds have had to be considerably exaggerated in order that they may 
be distinguishable on the map. The true thickness of the formations (where 
known), however, are included in the text. 


1 Physiography 

Almost the entire four-mile length of coastline shown on the geological map 
presents steep sca-clifTs which rise in places to over 90 feet above high water. 
In certain localities the cliffs are perpendicular, due to the almost vertical dip (to 
the westwards) of old shales, slates, and quartzites which form the cliffs. 

The old formations (Upper Pre-Cambrian) just mentioned are entirely 
absent from the central three-quarter-mile strip of coast (Hallett Cove proper), 
where the younger glacial deposit sweeps down at least to low water level, there 
passing below the sea to an unknown depth. This short strip of coastline consists 
mainly of a boulder and sandy beach. The northern end of the Cove with its 
deeply dissected and eroded retreating cliffs is generally referred to as the 
"Amphitheatre. " 

The principal drainage channel in the region is Hallett Creek, m which takes 
its rise on the western flank of the Mount Lofty Range north-east from Reynella 
(and across which the bank of Happy Valley Reservoir has been constructed) 
and joins the coast at the southern end of Hallett Cove. The course of the creek 
westwards from Reynella is a very sinuous one, due to the alternating beds of 
hard, dense limestones and quartzites, and the softer bands of slates and shales 
across which the creek has deeply entrenched itself. 

A short creek joins the coast at the southern end of the Amphitheatre, and 
two larger ones join the coast in the northerly part of the. region examined. 

(*) This creek is usually referred to as the "Field River" by Professor Howe.hin. 

Evidence of coastal erosion is afforded by the marine platform, which 
is visible at low tide along the full length of coastline shown on the geologi- 
cal map. An interesting feature noted in connection with the platform is the 
remarkable constancy of its width, although the rocks exposed consist of varying 
types, including hard, dense quartzites, thinly laminated soft shales, and glacial 
tillite of Upper Pre-Cambrian age, etc. 

2 Geology 
The examination and mapping of the Hallett Cove District has resulted in an 
added geological interest in the region, due to the fact that deposits of the Upper 
Pre-Cambrian glaciation [the Sturtian Tillite (Dl)], in addition to the well- 
known younger glacial till, occur in the locality. 

Unfortunately, the greatest portion of the surface of the country examined 
and included in the geological map is covered with travertine limestone and 
Pleistocene to Recent deposits which effectively conceal the underlying geological 
structures and formations. The only outcrops available for examination occur 
on the lower slopes and channels of the several creeks and tributaries, the cliff 
faces of the coast, and the platform of marine erosion between high and low 
water. The examination of the latter area requires favourable weather conditions 
and a low tide. As the geological formations exposed between high and low water 
(i.e., the platform of marine erosion) ( are considered to be important, they are 
shown on the geological map. 

The old formations (Pre-Cambrian and Lower Cambrian) have been con- 
siderably disturbed by tectonic forces, which have caused structural folding 
(particularly adjacent to faults) and faulting. In some places it has been possible 
to identify the general direction of the fault lines, but in many instances while a 
fault-zone or fault-line has been recognised, its true direction has not been 
ascertained. Many of the faults shown on the geological map are regarded by 
the writer as having accompanied the general uplift (and downthrow) of the 
Mount Lofty Range, although evidence of faulting of much greater age has been 
noted. One massive block of formations (Purple Series, D6), situated in the 
vicinity of Curlew Point, in the extreme south-westerly corner of the geological 
map, has been very highly disturbed. The shales have been severely contorted, 
crushed and faulted during comprcssional earth movements which appear to have 
taken place long before the Mount Lofty Uplift period. 

Similarly the block of the Sturtian Tillite (Upper Pre-Cambrian) uncovered 
at low water, and shown in the north-western corner of the geological map, has 
suffered considerably from the effects of severe compressional earth movements, 
resulting in highly contorted beds and faulting. It is considered by the writer 
that the earth movements affecting the Sturtian Tillite are comparable with those 
described above at Curlew Point. It was noted that ferruginous quartz veins 

occur in the crushed zones in both localities described. During the examination 
of many square miles of. country in the Flinders and Mount Lofty Ranges, the 
writer has noted that the ancient (Pre-Tertiary ?) fault zones are usually traversed 
by numerous ferruginous quartz veins. On the other hand, faulting which has 
accompanied the Mount Lofty Uplift is generally devoid of quartz veins. This 
distinction is an important factor in assisting to differentiate between the older 
and younger faults, particularly in the region under review. Further references 
will be made to the age of the faults when consideration is given to the probable 
age of the younger glacial deposit at Hallctt Cove and elsewhere in this State, 
and the older and younger formations present in the area under review. 

Normal synclinal and anticlinal folding occurs in the locality, but it was 
noted that the folded structures were, in all places, closely associated with strike 
and dip faulting. The Lower Cambrian limestones and calcareous shales and slates 
which outcrop on the slopes of the hills through which the Hallett Creek has cut 
its channel, have been gently folded into anticlines and synclines. Similar folding 
can be seen in the Purple Series which outcrop along the lower slopes of the 
tributary in Section 579 (Noarlunga). 

(a) Middle Pre-Cambrian (C) — Upper Series (C 1-4) 
The oldest formations present in the region under review consist of beds 
which are quite typical of the Upper Series Middle Pre-Cambrian (11, p. 35), 
which are well exposed in the banks of Hallett Creek where it crosses Sections 
570 and 573 (Noarlunga), as well as in the two gullies which cross Sections 567 
and 563 (Noarlunga), the latter gully being about quarter of a mile south of 
Hallett Cove Railway Station. The uppermost bed of the series consists of a mas- 
sive greyish-green to brown, fine to coarse-grained, felspathic quartzite (C2), rang- 
ing up to about 180 feet in thickness. The most southerly exposure of this quartzite 
occurs on the western lower slope of Hallett Creek about a quarter of a mile (up- 
stream) from the beach at the southern end of Hallett Cove. The strike of the 
formation is 15° E. of N. (magnetic), the bed dipping to the W.N.W. at a very 
high angle. The next outcrop occurs on the line of strike in the gully which 
crosses the southern part of Section 567 and joins the coast at the southern end 
of the Amphitheatre, where the bed strikes 20° E. of N. (magnetic) with a dip 
ranging from 75° to 80° W.N.W. The quartzite is exposed again in the main 
gully which passes adjacent to the unmade E-W road in the northern part of 
Sections 563 and 566 (Noarlunga), the formation cutting the extreme north- 
western corner of Section 563. The strike here is 15° E. of \ T . (magnetic), the 
bed dipping W.N.W. at an angle of 85°. The quartzite also makes a very 
prominent outcrop on the top of the sea cliffs (Sections 251, 252, Noarlunga) and 
extends inland to beyond the Adelaide-Willunga Railway where the dip of the 
formation is very flat and in strong contrast to the normal high angle of dip 

of the quartzite of similar age in the exposures described above. A creek which 
crosses Section 250 (Noarlunga), between the railway and the coast, has cut its 
irregular channel deeply into this quartzite and has exposed a good section of 
the beds. Here the quartzite is very dense, dark greyish to light brown in colour. 
With numerous strong ripple-marked surfaces. The formation dips to the westward 
at an angle of 30°. 

The railway cutting extending northwards from Hallett Cove Railway Station 
has also exposed this quartzite. At the northern end there is a strike fault, the dip 
adjacent to the disturbed zone is vertical. Several large surfaces exposed show 
strong slickensiding in addition to large areas showing ripple marks. 

Considerable importance is attached to the outcrops and distribution of the 
quartzite (C2) described, for the Sturtian Tillite [ (Dl>, Upper Pre-Cambrian | 
overlies this quartzite in the region under review. 

The formations underlying the quartzite (C2). consist of greyish siliceous 
.dates, thinly laminated calcai'eous shales which are often strongly ripple marked, 
thinly bedded sandstones and coarse grits to fine-grained conglomerates, thin 
bands of light greyish dolomitic limestones, and occasional thin beds of dens. 1 
quartzite (Cl-4). The beds generally alternate very rapidly and abruptly in 
changing from one lithological facies to another, and are very wavy-bedded or 
wrinkled and are usually of no great thickness. These distinctive features serve 
as a ready means of identification, but make it impossible to show each individual 
formation in correct sequence on the geological map. The several lithological 
types shown, therefore, are only diagrammatic. The series is very much disturbed 
by faulting, the earth movements having produced short, sharp drag folds adjacent 
to the fault-lines and fault-zones, particularly where these formations are exposed 
in the high banks of Hallett Creek (Sections 570, 573, Noarlunga). The southerly 
extension of the series from Hallett Creek is cut by an approximately 'E-W fault 
which crosses the southern portion of Section 573 (Noarlunga). A small exposure 
of the Upper Series occurs in the creek in the extreme south-eastern corner of 
Section 567 (Noarlunga), and also in the creek and tributary in the northern part 
of Section 563 (Noarlunga). The last outcrop of the Upper Series recorded in the 
region under review occurs in the batiks of the deep creek which crosses 
Section 559 (Noarlunga). 

The maximum noted thickness of the succession is about 1,250 feet, but there 
is a possibility that strike faulting may have occurred in the section selected for 
measurement, although a critical examination of the exposed beds failed to reveal 
any evidence of the presence of faulLs. 

The formations described above as Middle Pre-Cambrian — Upper .Series — 
are judged to be such, as they exhibit all of the lithological features which charac- 
terise these beds in other localities in this State, particularly in the Flinders Range 
(Mundallo Creek Area, 11, pp. 35-37) ; Mount Grainger, 11, p. 94; Burra Mines, 
11, p. 108, etc. 

(b) Upper Pre-Cambrian (D) 


The formation thai is regarded as the Sturtian Tillite by the writer overhes 
the felspathic quartzite (C2) described above. The most prominent outcrops 
occur in the northern region under review between high and low water, where 
the formation forms a platform of marine erosion; and in the adjacent cliffs of 
the coast, which rise to over 50 feet in height. 

The tillite consists principally of purplish-grey argillaceous and siliceous 
shales and slates, in part thinly laminated, which carry many boulders, and bands 
of purplish-brown argillaceous grits crowded with large and small angular, sub- 
angular and rounded boulders consisting principally of dolomitic limestone. 
Irregular elongated lenses and masses of dolomitic limestone occur in parts. 
Near the high water mark on the coast (western central part of Section 560, 
Noarlunga) is an elongated lens of dense felspathic quartzite interbedded in the 

The southern extension of the tillite is cut by a cross (dip) fault, the forma- 
tion being much disturbed, crushed and fractured adjacent to the fault. On the 
southern side of the fault are highly crushed purple shales and dense purplish- 
brown quartzites. The actual fault-line is extremely difficult to detect owing to 
the highly disturbed nature of the adjacent formations. The tillite dips west- 
wards at an angle of 26° with the strike pitching to the south, adjacent to the fault, 
but the purplish-brown quartzite and purple shale dip to the east at an angle of 
73°. A creek crossing the south-western part of Section 560 (Noarlunga) has 
cut its channel deeply into the tillite. At its junction with the coast there is a low 
cliff just above high water mark with a narrow breccia-zone having an average 
thickness of 5 feet (— strike fault-zone). 

The tillite forming the sea-cliffs dips westward at an angle of about 30° and 
is undisturbed, but that exposed on the beach between high and low water is much 
crushed and disturbed with occasional zones and thin veins of very ferruginous 
quartz occurring in the folds. An interesting feature noted here is the presence of 
many thin calcite veins and small irregular clusters of calcite crystals. Dolomitic 
limestone boulders and pebbles are very numerous in the till. Several bold out- 
crops of the formation between high and low water in the immediate vicinity of 
the junction of the creek with the coast are regarded as being typical of 'the normal 
type of the Sturtian Tillite. 

In the sides of a small tributary joining the creek a few yards upstream from 
the cliff face, the formation consists of a purplish-brown arenaceous mudstone, 
showing stratification and carrying numerous medium to small angular to rounded 
boulders of dolomitic limestone, and many thin veins and irregular clusters of 
calcite. Irregular masses and lenses of dolomitic limestone in the tillite are another 
feature. On tracing the tillite upstream, it tends to become more agillaceous with 
verv few boulders, which consist mainly of dolomitic limestone and quartzite. 


Its junction with the underlying formation (the quartzite C2) is exposed in the 
banks of the creek on the western side of the railway line embankment, but is 
very imperfectly defined. 

On tracing the tillite in a northerly direction, the beds forming the cliffs are 
very argillaceous. In the centre of the western boundary of Section 250 (Noar- 
lunga) is an approximately N.W.-S.E. fault. On the northern side of this fault the 
tillite continues to outcrop with a westerly dip of 30° between high and low water, 
with the underlying quartzite (C 2) forming the sea cliffs. It extends in a northerly 
direction beyond the limits of the geological map. 

A small outcrop of the Sturtian Tillite occurs in the floor and sides of the 
creek which crosses the southern portion of Section 567 (Noarlunga) and joins 
the coast in about the centre of the Cove, forming a low stepped water- 
fall about 200 feet from the beach. The formation consists of a purplish-grey 
argillaceous and arenaceous slate carrying many small masses and irregular lenses 
of dolomitic limestone, in addition to small boulders and pebbles of limestone. 
The purplish colour of the tillite is probably due to bleaching and weathering- 
agents. On the formation being traced upstream, the boulders and pebbles are 
more sparsely distributed throughout the tillite. Its junction with the underlying 
quartzite (C2) is again ill-defined. 

A very small and imperfect section of the basal bed of the tillite occurs on 
the western side of Hallett Creek at the approach to the gorge about 300 yards 
from the beach, where it overlies the quartzite (C2). 

The maximum thickness of the Sturtian Tillite recorded in the region under 
review is about 350 feet. 


No outcrops of the Tapley's Hill Series (D3) were located in the region under 
review. In the normal order of deposition of the Upper Pre-Cambrian System, 
the Tapley's Hill Series (D 3) occurs between the Sturtian Tillite (D 1) and the 
Purple Series (D6). 

The Purple Series consists of purple shales, purple slates, and occasional 
bands of purplish quartzite, sandstone and grits, and thin beds of purplish-grey 
argillaceous limestone, interbedded in the series. (7 >. It includes the outstanding- 
rock types which form the steeply inclined to perpendicular sea-cliffs along the 
coast south of Hallett Cove, and is present also at Black Cliff, at the northern 
end of the Cove. 

Along the coast the shales are usually very thinly laminated, in part strongly 
ripple-marked, and have the characteristic very deep, dark purple and green 
banding described by the writer in a previous publication (11, pp. 44-46). Typical 
samples of the purple and green bands collected by the writer at Black Cliff have 

( 7 ) The several lhhological types mentioned are not shown as individual beds to 
true scale on the geological map, but are all included under the general heading of 
Purple Series (D6). 


been analysed by Mr. T. W. Dalwood, who has made the following comments in 
connection with the analyses of the samples : 

". The colouring of the slates would be due to either ferrous oxide, ferric 

oxide, manganous or manganic oxide, carbonaceous matter, or a combination of these 
materials. Assays of the samples yielded: 

Green Purple 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) .... 2-47% 2-23% 

Ferric oxide (Fe a O a ) .... 2-82% 8-01% 

Manganous oxide (MnO) 0-07% 0-06% 

Carbon (C) 0-06% 0-06% 

"It will be seen that the only appreciable difference lies in the higher ferric oxide 
content of the purple slate, which is consistent with its colour. The colour of the 
green slate suggests the presence of minerals of the chlorite group. The purple 
layers deposited at a different period appear to have had their source in a more 
hematitic region. The sharpness of the line of demarcation between the green and 
purple layers precludes the possibility of infiltration of iron." 

Attention has been drawn already by the writer to the highly disturbed, 
crushed, and folded nature of the Purple Series along the coast, particularly in 
those formations which are exposed in the platform of marine erosion at low 
water. In addition to the folding, minor faults were noted, with overlapping of 
the narrow beds of purplish quartzite which are interbedded in the purple slates. 
So complicated are many of these structures that no attempt has been made to 
reproduce them upon the geological map, except in a very general way. It will 
be noted that the severe folding and flexures are usually present in the Purple 
Series which form the platform of marine erosion, and that the series forming the 
steeply inclined sea-cliffs usually have a dip to the W.N.W. at angles ranging 
from 50° to vertical. Highly contorted zones in the shales do, however, occur in 
the cliffs, notably at and north of Curlew Point (see pi. i ; fig. 1), and also at Black 
Cliff. The major feature at Black Cliff consists of an anticline in which the 
central core has been under-cut and removed by marine erosion, exposing a highly 
fractured zone, suggestive of a fault-plane coincident with the axis of the anticline. 
The adjacent purple shales are much shattered by drag-folding, with strongly 
marked slickensiding on thin partings of chloritic-quartz in the bedding planes of 
the shales. Mere the purple shales extend northerly for about 200 yards, where 
they are cut by an approximately E.-W (dip) fault, which occurs on the southern 
slope of the creek near the northern boundary of Section 566 (Noarlunga). The 
shales along the shore between high and low water have been much disturbed by 
compressional earth movements along the strike of the formations, causing con- 
siderable buckling of the shales, etc. 

The only other exposure of the Purple Series north of Black Cliff consists 
of a wedge-shaped block of the Lower Purple shales exposed at low tide opposite 
the south-western corner of Section 560 (Noarlunga). The shales are highly 
crushed and disturbed, having been faulted down into quartzitcs of the (Flinders 
Range) Sandstone-Quartzite Series (D7) to be described. 


The purple shales exposed at, and north of Black Cliff and along the coast 
south from Hallett Creek, are quite characteristic of the Upper Purple Group 
(D6h), whilst the purple shales, slates and thin interhedded purplish sandstones 
and quartzites outcropping along the coast south and north of Curlew Point 
appear to he the highest horizon of the Upper Purple Group — representing the 
transitional series from the Upper Purple shales to the overlying (Flinders 
Range) Sandstone-Quartzite Series (D7). 

A hand of irregular wavy-bedded purple and green shales and slates is 
exposed in the banks of Hallett Creek in the vicinity of the north-western corner 
of Section 574 (Noarlunga). This formation has been faulted down 
between rocks of Middle Pre-Cambrian and Lower Cambrian age, and is 
very characteristic of the Lower Purple Group (1)6 a). An extension of the 
same faulted block of the shales can be seen in the banks of the creek in the 
vicinity of the road crossing south-east from Hallett Cove Railway Station. 
The strike in the latter area is 15° E. of N. (magnetic) and the formation has been 
folded into a syncline — the dip of the eastern limb being to the W.N.W. at an 
angle of 44°. The strike of the shales in the Hallett Creek is 15° E. of N. (mag- 
netic) also, but the dip is fairly constant, being 57° W.N.W. A cross (dip) fault 
must exist, therefore, between the two exposures of these purple shales. 

Purple shales and slates which are both calcareous and siliceous and which 
are regarded as being very characteristic of the Lower Purple Group (D6aj 
occur on the southern side of a major (approximately) E.-W. (dip) fault, which 
extends from Sections 573 to 533 (Noarlunga). A tributary of Hallett Creek 
crosses Section 579 (Noarlunga) from south-east to north-west, then turns north 
along the unmade road which passes along the western boundary of the Section. 
Here the Lower Purple shales, which are exposed in its banks, have been folded 
into gently inclined anticlines and synclines. 

Owing to the highly disturbed nature of the formations included in the 
Purple Series in the region under review, it has not been possible to determine 
the maximum thickness of the series. Outcrops at several localities were 
measured, however, and the estimate prepared indicates that the thickness of the 

series is not less than 1,200 feet. 


(Flinders Range Sandstone-Quartzite Series) 

Sandstones and quartzites representative of the highest formation in the 
Upper Pre-Cambrian System CD 7) (see 11, pp. 21-23) outcrop along the shore 
between high and low water and form the adjacent cliffs of the coast on the 
western margin of Sections 562 and 561 (Noarlunga). The southern extension 
of the series has been faulted down against the purple shales a few yards south 
of the creek, which has cut its channel along the northern boundary (of the 
unmade road) of Section 566, etc. (Noarlunga). The fault which lies in an 


approximately E.-W. direction, swings down the hillside towards the creek a 
short distance upstream from the cliff face. The quartzite outcropping- in the hed 
(and southern hank) of the creek adjacent to the fault is folded into an anticline 
with the western limh of the fold dipping W.NAV. at an angle of 40°, and the 
eastern limb dipping to the E.S.E. at an angle of 38°. The quartzite in the bed 
of the creek forms a small waterfall. The fold of the formation has been highly 
shattered and crushed during the period of faulting, with numerous small irregular 
veins of quartz traversing the quartzite. It is suggested that a strike fault occurs 
immediately east of the anticline, but owing to the cover of younger sediments 
the existence of this strike fault could not be confirmed. The E.-W. (dip) fault 
mentioned above is regarded as being Prc-Mount Lofty Uplift age, and is cut by 
the suspected strike fault east of the waterfall. 

The northern extension of the formation has been faulted down against the 
Sturtian Tillite opposite the south-western corner of Section 560 (Noarlunga). 
The formation has been highly crushed and disturbed in the vicinity of the fault, 
a wedge-shaped block of purple shales has been faulted down or forced into the 
severed end of the quartzite by powerful compressioual earth movements. 

The Sandstone-Quartzite Series is of a purplish to brown colour, and very 
massive. It is characterised by strongly marked current-bedding, ripple marks, 
bands of coarse grit, and occasional shaped clay -casts or impressions (see 11, 
pp. 21-23), etc., which distinguish these quartzites from the quartzitcs of greater 
age in the district. The series is regarded as being portion of the lower-most 
horizon of the succession, as occasional thin beds of purple shales occur inter- 
bedded in the purplish quartzites and sandstones. Where exposed to wave action, 
these interbeclded shales give rise to the unstable condition of the cliff face, result- 
ing in the broken nature of the coastline in the region under review. The hard 
and resistant beds of quartzitcs form abrupt and sharp angles by the retreat of 
the cliff on the northern side,, the underlying softer rock (the purple shale) yield- 
ing, and the next underlying hard bed of quartzite forms the cliff, until it also is 
truncated in its turn, with another se: back of the cliff to the northward. The 
sea-cliffs, therefore, exhibit a succession of rock faces at right angles to the coast 
brought about by the retreat of the adjacent cliff. 

The maximum thickness of the Sandstone-Quartzite Series noted is about 
260 feet, but the writer suspects that strike faulting has occurred in the series, 
and may have resulted in a duplication of portion of the succession measured 
(a very common feature observed in the Flinders Range Sandstone-Quartzite 
Series in all localities where these formations have been examined). If such is 
the case, a reduction in the thickness stated must be made. 

(c) Lower Cambrian (E) 
The formations which have been classified as Lower Cambrian consist of 
calcareous and siliceous shales and slates, and massive beds of limestones. The 
Hallett Creek has cut its irregular channel deeply into these formations in Sections 


505, 519 and 574 (Noarlunga). The beds have been considerably disturbed by 
folding and faulting. A strike fault occurs in the calcareous shales and slates in 
the north-eastern part of Section 574 (Noarlunga), the formations on both sides 
of the fault being folded into shallow anticlines. 

The limestones are very dense, massive, and of a blue-grey colour. Occasional 
thin partings of light grey calcareous shale are interbedded in the limestones in 
which calcite veins are a common feature. 

A typical sample of the limestones collected by the writer from the outcrops 
on the slopes of the tributary which crosses the northern boundary of Section 533 
(Noarlunga) has been examined by Mr. T. W. Dalwood, and yielded on analysis: 

Silica (Si0 2 ) - - ~ , - 6-10% 

Alumina (A1 2 0^) - 1-74% 

Ferric Oxide (Fe.O:i) - - - 1-64% 

Lime (CaO) - - - - 40-55% 

Magnesia (MgO) - 8-35%; 

Water at 100° C. (H 2 0) - - - 0-20% 

Water above 100° C. (H.O) - - - 0-47% 

Carbon dioxide (CO») - - - 40-63% 


The slates and shales are in part calcareous, with beds of siliceous slates 
interbedded in the series. The shales are usually light grey in colour, but the 
slates generally assume a dark greyish colour. 

No fossiliferous horizons were located in the limestones, but the general 
lithological features of the series are so similar to formations of Lower Cambrian 
age in other localities in the southern Mount Lofty Range (and elsewhere, 11, 
pp. 68 and 135), that the writer has no hesitation in assigning the formation 
described to the Lower Cambrian System. 

(d) Younger Till (Lower Cretaceous?) (K) 


One of the most interesting formations present at Hallett Cove is the well- 
known glacial till (and the glacially striated bedrock), which is usually referred 
to as being of Permo-Carboniferous age. In a recent paper Sir Douglas Mawson 
has described a deposit of this younger till present in the vicinity of Mount 
Magnificent as the Permian glacigene beds (12). 

So far as is known the deposit at Hallett Cove is one of the most northerly 
remains (in the region of the Mount Lofty Range) of the glacial material which 
at one time covered a great extent of country in the southern portions of the 
State. The writer has located a deposit, which is strongly suggestive of being 
of glacial origin, in the vicinity of Mount Barker (see p. 24). If this deposit is 
accepted as being of glacial origin, then it will constitute the most northerly 
extension of the younger glaciation in the Mount Lofty Range recorded to date. 


An outcrop of the younger till, which is exposed at low water in the base of 
the sea-cliffs north of Port Vincent (Yorke Peninsula), extends much farther 
north than either of the deposits mentioned above (see p. 27). The two deposits- 
Mount Barker and Port Vincent — will be briefly described in a later section 

of this paper. 

The geographical positions of the three glacial deposits mentioned above are 

as follows : 

Port Vincent (Junction of the Hundreds 

Curramulka-Ramsay, and the coast) - Lat. 34° 44' S. Long. 137° 53' E,. 

Mount Barker (south of township) - - Lat. 35° 04' S. Long. 138° 52' E. 

Hallett Cove (Black Cliff) - - - Lat. 35° 10' S. Long. 138° 30' E. 


The lithological characteristics of the younger till present at Hallett Cove 
have been described in a very detailed and admirable manner by Howchin (4, 6). 

It is of interest to note that the prolific assemblage of boulders and erratics 
which are set in a structureless arenaceous matrix exists in the lower-most beds 
of the younger till, particularly near the base of the deposit (which rests uncon- 
formably upon the Upper Pre-Cambrian rocks of the district), and that on pass- 
ing upwards the till gradually assumes a more stratified appearance, with regular 
bedding planes and fewer (and much smaller) boulders and pebbles. The upper- 
most 10 feet or so consist of alternating bands of pale purplish and white, very 
thinly laminated argillaceous (soft) shale, and narrow bands of fine-grained 
arenaceous (soft) shales. Mawson has described the characteristic features 
of the fluvio-glacial beds associated with the younger till at Hallett Cove and 
other localities in the southern Mount Lofty Range and referred to them as 
"varve shales" (13, p. 160). The same author has described "barytcs sand 
crystals" which occur in the uppermost stratified yellowish sandy horizon of the 
younger till, north of Black Cliff. He states: "The particular bed is only a few 
inches in thickness, and weathers into soft friable sand-rock, with the hard nodular 
barytes aggregates distributed throughout the bed" (14, p. 119). The writer did 
not locate the horizon described by Mawson at Hallett Cove. 

The surface of the till is characterised by the presence of huge erratics and 
boulders of quartzite, granite, shale, etc., which are in many instances well rounded 
by water action. It is evident that since the close of the glacial epoch and before 
the deposition of the Lower Pliocene sediments a certain amount of the finer con- 
stituents of the till has been removed by erosion, with a subsequent concentration 
of rolled boulders and erratics on the upper surface. 

Very fine samples of glacially striated bed-rock occur along the top edge of 
the sea-cliffs. The locations of the striated areas are shown on the geo- 
logical map. Quartzites and purple shales are highly polished, grooved and 
striated by land ice. A very good example, measuring approximately 42 feet 
by 15 feet occurs on the top of the sea-cliff at Black Cliff, where the striae 
have been cut deeply into purple shales. The directions of the striae are 28°, 33°, 
40° and 55° W. of N. (magnetic). On traversing northwards along the top 


edge of the sea-cliffs, the next glaciated bed-rock met with is "Tate's Rock/' so 
named after Professor Ralph Tate, the discoverer (3). In this instance the 
striae are deeply cut into purplish quartzite, the prevailing direction of the striae 
being magnetic north. The next locality where the striated bed-rock is encountered 
is in the extreme south-westerly corner of Section 561 (Noarlunga), where two 
parallel narrow beds of purplish quartzite, about 30 feet apart, and separated by 
a band of purplish shales, are smoothed and deeply striated, particularly on the 
inner surfaces of the quartzite. The intervening soft shale has been partly 
removed by glacial agencies and subsequently filled with glacial material. 

A very small glacially striated rock occurs on the top of the sea-cliff on the 
southern side of a small gutter in the extreme north-western corner of Section 561 
(Noarlunga). The smoothed and striated quartzite, which has suffered consider- 
ably from recent erosive agents, represents the most northerly evidence of the 
younger glaciation in the Hallett Cove District noted by the writer. 

A series of cross sections have been drawn through the sea-cliffs by the 
writer, in order to show the relative thickness of the till, and to indicate the 
relationship which the glacial deposit bears to the underlying and overlying forma- 
tions. Text fig. 1 (Section A- A ) has been drawn through the coastline in the 
north-westerly corner of Section 562 (Noarlunga). The formations present in the 
section consist of the following: 

Thickness, Feet 
5 Recent to Late ? Pleistocene- -Travertine limestone - 1 

4 Early ? Pleistocene — Sandy clay with angular fragments, and 

rounded boulders and pebbles of quartzite, limestone, purple 

slates, and shales, etc. --------- 51 

Disconformity (or I "n conformity ?) 
3 Lower Pliocene — Highly fossiliferous calcareous sandstone - 3 

2 Younger Till (Lower Cretaceous ?) : 

i' Pale, purplish and white, very thinly laminated argillaceous 
and arenaceous shales, showing definite stratification with 
large, well-rounded (water-worn) boulders and erratics of 
quartzite, granite, shale, dolomotic limestone, etc., at the top. 

h White, very fine evenly-graded sandstone and occasional 
grits and small boulders showing stratification at the top, but 
gradually losing this structure on passing down to 

a Yellowish and white arenaceous bed carrying large and 
small boulders and erratics of quartzite, dolomitic limestone, 
shales and slates, granite (Victor Harbour), etc., particularly 
near the base, but which become smaller and more sparse 
on passing up the formation - - - 63 

1 Upper Pre- Cambrian — (Flinders Range) Sandstone-Quartz ite 

Series (D7) with narrow bands of purple shales SQ ( + ) 


The Upper Fre-Cambrian quartzites and sandstones dip to the VV.N.W. at 
very high angles, ranging from 70° to vertical. 


b59) \ 

f QW WAT£# 




D1SCONFORMITV ---— ^ ^ S/ 



, 50 

cow wre/i 




(SECTION A A) Wj J&irf. 

Fig. 1 
Line of Section A-A of Map 

The younger till has been deposited uneonformably upon the Upper Pre- 
Cambrian' quartzites, etc., and is 63 feet in thickness. The junction with the 
overlying Lower Pliocene sandstone is very sharply defined and represents an 
unconformity. The Cainozoic forma lions will be described in a later part of 
this paper. 







(Striated Bed nock) 




_ 50 




(SECTION B B) {211^——— 

Line of Section B-B of Map 


The cross-section B-B (text fig. 2) has been drawn through the coastline in the 
north-western corner of Section 566 (Noarlunga), and in the vicinity of "Tate's 
Glaciated Rock." The formations present arc similar in many respects to those 
shown in text fig. 1, with the exception that the younger till has been deposited 
unconformably upon purple shales,, and the glacial deposit has been reduced con- 
siderably in thickness. It is interesting to note that the thickness of the Early ? 
Pleistocene sandy-clay is about the same as in the first section described. The 
thickness of the formations present in Section B-B is as follows: 

Thickness, Feet 

5 Recent to Late ? Pleistocene— Travertine limestone - 1 

4 Early ?, Pleistocene — Sandy clay, etc. 57 
3 Lower Pliocene — Fossiliferous sandstone - 3 

2 Younger Till (Lower Cretaceous?) ------ 24 

1 Upper Frc-Cambrian — Purple shales (with narrow beds of 

purplish quartzite) -__-___■_ 100 ( + ) 

The line of the cross-section B-B (text fig. 2) has been drawn a few chains south 
of the cast-west creek which has cut its channel adjacent to the northern boundary 
of Section 566. Reference has been made above to the presence of a fault which 
occurs on the immediate southern side of this creek, but it is partly concealed by 
the overlying till, clearly indicating that the fault is pre-younger till in age. The 
western limb of the quartzites which have been folded into an anticline (and 
exposed on the lower slope and in the creek, north of the fault) has been highly 
polished, smoothed and striated by ice action. 

Definite evidence can be seen that earth movements took place in the region 
under review after the retreat of the glacial conditions. When standing on the 
upper slope of the hill on the north side of the creek, and facing southwards, it 
will be seen that the upper stratified horizon of the younger till shows a gentle 
dip of about 22° to the E.S.E., with the overlying Lower Pliocene fossiliferous 
sandstone, which is horizontally bedded, lying unconformably upon the glacial 
beds, as shown in pi. ii, fig. 1. 

The critical examination of the upper surface of the younger till (or the 
underneath surface of the overlying Lower Pliocene sandstone) to the north of 
Black Cliff (as shown in text figs. 1 and 2) indicates that a period of erosion of the 
uppermost beds of the glacial deposit has taken place prior to the deposition of 
the Lower Pliocene sandstone, as evidenced by the presence of many huge erratics 
and boulders which are generally well rounded by water action, and lying upon the 
upper surface of the till. It will be shown later that many of these large (and 
small) boulders have been caught up by the overlying Lower Pliocene formation 
and can be seen on the large upturned blocks of the fossiliferous sandstone which 
have slipped down the face of the upper retreating cliff. 

It has been stated above that the till can be seen dipping to the E.S.E. on t he- 
northern side of the east-west creek, with the overlying Lower Pliocene sand- 
stone (horizontally bedded) resting unconformably upon the till. Unfortunately,. 


however, the actual junction made by these two formations cannot be examined 
in detail along the northern slope of the hill (on the south side of the creek), 
owing to surface slip, alluvium, and vegetation, so that the writer was unable to 
determine whether the erosion of the upper beds of the till occurred before or after 
the earth movements which caused the tilting of the till to the eastwards. It is 
suggested that sub-aerial erosion of the glacial beds occurred after the glacial 
epoch, followed by earth movements causing the tilting of the till (and the under- 
lying formations), with a subsequent transgression of the sea causing a further 
period of erosion (of short duration) before the deposition of the sandstones and 
the influx of a warmer climate with marine life. 

One of the most interesting physio graphical features in the vicinity of Hallett 
Cove is the "Amphitheatre" which consists of a retreating cliff formed of un- 


5 CKo) ^ "ET 

miMJlJlpi iso 

DI5C0NFORM1TY— - f//4; 






Fig. 3 
Line of Section C-C across Amphitheatre 

consolidated sediments in the northern half of the Cove. There are no exposures 
(with the exception of one doubtful small outcrop of purple shale) of the Prc- 
Cambrian formations between Black CHfF and the Bluff at the southern end of the 
Cove. The younger till swings down to the beach, and is exposed between high 
and low water during low tide. Many boulders and huge erratics of greyish 
quartzite, granite (Victor Harbour, 9 feet x 5 feet x S feet), dolomitic limestone 
carrying numerous calcite veins, Sturtian Tillite (Upper Pre-Cambrian), grey 
and purple shales, purplish sandstone, and boulders of Taplcy's Hill ribbon slates, 
have been weathered out of the till and left stranded on the beach. It is the break 
through to low water of the till, and the subsequent erosion of the unconsolidated 
sediments including the younger till and overlying formations, that has formed the 
bav or cove. 


The line of Section C-C (text fig. 3) lias been drawn through the Amphitheatre 
to show the relationship of the Tertiary sediments to the younger till. The forma- 
tions present in the line of the section consist of the following: 

Thickness, Feet 

Kecent — Low sand dunes ---_---___ 
5 Recent to Late ? Pleistocene — Travertine limestone 2 
4 Recent to Late ? Pleistocene— Raised beach (fossiliferous 

sands) ------____ 22 

3 Early ? Pleistocene: 

c Light brownish, very fine-grained argillaceous (in part 
calcareous) sand with occasional small pebbles. Shows 

d Brownish sandy-clay with small boulders. 

c Red-hrown and light greyish mottled sandy'-clay Kith 
small pebbles. 

b Red-brown argillaceous sand. 

a Basal bed, 3 ft. thick, sandy-clay with several narrow bands 
of small angular and rounded pebbles. Bed shows a hori- 
zontal banding of the pebbles or stratification 46 

Disconformity (or Unconformity ?) 
2 Lower Pliocene — Fossiliferous sandstone and sandy-limestone 4 


1 Younger Till (Lower Cretaceous?) ---___ 106 

The most outstanding feature noted in connection with the younger till ar 
the Amphitheatre is the great increase in the thickness of the glacial formation, 
which is at least 106 feet. No evidence was observed of the easterly dip of the till 
as shown in text fig. 2 (Section B-B), but, on the contrary,, near the southern end of 
the Amphitheatre the younger till strikes 15° W. of N. (magnetic), the bed 
dipping to the YV.SAV. at an angle of about 18°. The strike pitches northwards 
at an angle of about 15°. The thickness of the till (106 feet) represents the height 
above high water mark of the junction of the till with the overlying Lower 
Pliocene, so that even though the formation has a westerly dip of 18° the true 
thickness of the till will still be over 100 feet, as no account lias been taken of that 
portion of the deposit which extends under the sea below the high water mark. 
If is suggested that the pronounced increase in the thickness of the till is due 
probably to that section of the coast between Black Cliff and the headland at the 
southern end of Hallett Cove having been let down by faulting before the deposi- 
tion of the Lower Pliocene fossiliferous beds, thus preserving a greater thickness 
of the till than has occurred north of Black Cliffs, as shown in text figs. 1 and 2. 

An important fact which must not be overlooked, however, is that the latest 
fluvio-glacial stage represented by the uppermost beds of the younger till noted 
and described as being present to the north of Black Cliff, is present also at the 
Amphitheatre, which adds to the difficulty of accounting for the great difference 
in the thickness of the till (other than by faulting) north and south of Black Cliff, 
although the two deposits of the till practically butt against each other. 


One of the very few localities where evidence has been observed by 
the writer of possible faulting in the younger glacial deposit occurs at the 
junction of the creek (which has cut its channel close to the southern 
boundary of Section 567) and the coast. The top of the till on the hillside on 
the northern side of the creek is 56 feet above high water and is overlain by 
Early ? Pleistocene beds, whereas on the southern side of the creek the junction 
of the Early ? Pleistocene sediments (the Lower Pliocene having been completely 
removed by erosion, as will be described later) and the till is only 24 feet above 
high water mark. The faulting is obviously Post-Early ? Pleistocene to Recent 

in age. 

Additional evidence to support the suggestion of faulting of the younger till 
at the locality just described can be seen in the outcrop of the till itself along the 
higher levels north of the fault-line, where .the formation, which dips westerly, 
has a pronounced pitch or drag to the northwards. 

It has been stated above that evidence was noted north of Black Cliff of an 
erosive stage at the close of the glacial period. Additional evidence was seen of 
the effects of erosion of the uppermost beds e>f the till whilst making a traverse 
round the Amphitheatre at the junction of the till and the overlying formations. 
Many huge boulders and erratics of quartzite, granite (Victor Harbour), purple 
shale, etc., occur at the top of the till, and in several places the boulders occur in 
the overlying Lower Pliocene fossiliferous beds. The boulders are generally well 
rounded by water action. In the sides of deeply cut wash-out gutters in the 
north-easterly part of the Amphitheatre, the Lower Pliocene consists of a highly 
fossiliferous sandy limestone ranging up to 3 feet 9 inches in thickness, with 
water-worn boulders lying in the uppermost part of the bed. These boulders have 
been derived probably from the erosion of the younger till in the immediate 
vicinity during the deposition of the fossiliferous limestone. 

On the large-scale detail map of the Amphitheatre it will be seen that the 
younger till is not always overlain by the Lower Pliocene fossiliferous beds, bur 
that in certain parts the overlying formation consists of the sediments of Early? 
Pleistocene age. 

Llowchin has described a whitish and yellowish sand, sometimes 
argillaceous, which underlies the Lower Pliocene (Ilowchin's Miocene) at the 
Amphitheatre (5, pp. 288-289) and suggests that the sands may have been 
deposited during a late fluvio-glacial stage in the building up of the (till) sedi- 
ments, or even later by running water acting on the glacial deposits by gentle 
currents, the clay being carried forward in suspension and the sand deposited. 
The writer agrees that the sands have been laid down by fluvio-glacial agencies- 
as suggested by Howchin but at a much later date than the glacial period, and 
prior to the deposition of the Lower Pliocene. The sands have been derived 
probably from the erosion of the younger till in the vicinity of the Cove.i The 
maximum thickness of the sands is about 10 feet. The overlying formation is an 
elongated thin lens of very calcareous fossiliferous sandstone ranging up to 
9 inches in thickness. At its northern extension the sands pass down insensibly 
into the arenaceous till, but at the southern end they wedge out rather abruptly. 


A small outcrop of the younger till occurs on the slope of the spur which 
forms the southern headland of the Cove. The deposit is in part concealed by 
travertine limestone. The junction of the till with the overlying formation, a 
very thin lens of calcareous sandstone ( — Lower Pliocene), is 66 feet above high 
water mark. 

The most southerly extension of the till in the region of Hallett Cove occurs 
along the edge of the sea-cliff, and between high and low water opposite the 
south-western part of Section 569 (Noarlunga). 




LOW WAT£ft \ ' 









Thickness, Feet 

Fig. 4 
Line of Section D-D of Map 
The line of Section D-D (text fig. 4) has been drawn through the northern end 
cf the glacial deposit to show the relationship of the till to the adjacent forma- 
iions. The section consists of the following beds: 

5 Recent to Late ? Pleistocene— Travertine limestone 
4 Early ? Pleistocene. 

c Brownish and greyish mottled sandy clay with boulders, 

angular and rounded (83 ft.). 
b Calcareous sand with thin bands and lenses of white 

(arenaceous) limestone, gravel and boulders (8 ft.). 
a Yellow and white sand, in part argillaceous with numerous 
small boulders and pebbles In the low^er-most beds (24 ft.) 

Disconiormity (or Unconformity) 
3 Lower Pliocene — Narrow irregular band (lens-shaped) white 
fossiliferous sandy limestone _----_ 

2 Younger Till (Lower Cretaceous ?) - 

1 Upper Pre-Cambrian — Purple shales - 



40( + ) 

The younger till consists of the unstratihed arenaceous deposit, carrying- 
numerous rounded and angular boulders and erratics. The uppermost stratified 


fluvio-glacial beds characteristic of the region are not present, having been either 
removed by erosion before the deposition of the Lower Pliocene or were never 
laid down in this area. The unconformable junction between the till and ithe 
Lower Pliocene is 59 feet above high water mark. The Early ? Pleistocene sedi- 
ments range up to 115 feet in thickness. A large erratic consisting of a line- 
grained quartzite carrying numerous thin veins of quartz is perched on the top 
edge of the cliffs. The erratic occurs in the basal beds of the Early ? Pleistocene, 
and has been derived probably from the erosion of the till in the immediate 
vicinity during the early stages of Pleistocene times. 





. ioo 






SCALE P \ --L-— I V t l ■ 







Fig. 5 
Line of Section E-E of Map 

The line of Section E-E (text fig. 5) has been taken through the coast about 
10 chains south of Section D-D. The formations present are similar in general 
respects to those shown in Section D-D, but the glacial deposit dips away beneath 
low water. Many large boulders and erratics have been weathered out of the till, 
and are strewn about on the beach between high and low water. A large boulder 
of granite (Victor Harbour) rests upon the smooth and polished surface of the 
purple shales at the base of the till, just above high water mark. The Early ? 
Pleistocene sediments have increased in thickness to 156 feet. Numerous glacially 
smoothed and striated boulders can be seen in the younger till in the region just 

The most southerly exposure of the till occurs on the southern side of a short 
wash-out in the extreme south-western corner of Section 569 (Noarlunga), where 


a huge erratic of purple shale is perched precariously upon a low cliff. The Upper 
limit of the glacial bed is marked by a very narrow band of sandy limestone 
( = Lower Pliocene). 

During the examination of the younger till — not only at Hallett Cove, but 
in all localities in the southern Mount Lofty Range where exposures of the glacial 
remains have been encountered by the writer, a very careful search has been made 
for any evidence of a palaeontological nature which may assist in establishing the 
age of the till, but no such evidence has been forthcoming. A carefully selected 
set of samples of the several horizons of the glacial formation at Hallett Cove has 
been examined by Mrs. Lndbrook, whose report is negative also. 

(e) Areas Outside the Hallett Cove District 


Recently the writer located three arenaceous deposits carrying a varied 
assemblage of large (ranging up to 18 inches) and small angular to rounded 
boulders of vein quartz, quartzite, sandstone, quartz-felspar-pegmatite and granite 
in the valley of the Western Flat Creek and close to the Mount Barker-Maccles- 
iield main road, which is strongly suggestive of being of glacial origin. One of 
these deposits occurs in Section 4474 (Hundred Macclesfield) and about L| miles 
S.SAV. from Mount Barker township. A borehole was drilled into the deposit 
to a depth of 103 feet passing through "drift sands and boulders." The full 
thickness of the deposit was not penetrated as the borehole was abandoned owing- 
to the drift sand entering the casing. This deposit is not referred to nor shown 
on the geological map which accompanies the published description of the geology 
of the locality by the writer, although the main details of the borehole are given 
(15, pp. 58, 60) and the site of the hole is shown on the geological map (15). 

The second deposit occurs in part Section 3724 and 3011 (Macclesfield), a! 
short distance south of the first-described location, and exhibits lithological 
features similar to those described above. A borehole drilled into the deposit is 
reported to have passed through nearly 130 feet of very sandy clay and drift with 
occasional small boulders and pebbles. 

Very recently the writer inspected the sediments cut in two trial-holes sunk 
into the alluvium flat on the western side of the Western Flat Creek (Section 4476, 
Macclesfield) and opposite the eastern corner of the Section. The trial-holes 
were excavated on a proposed site for a storage reservoir. The section exposed 
in the trial-holes consists of the following sediments: 

Bed No. 8 Surface- 2' 0" Black carbonaceous clay 

Greyish-yellow clay with gravel 
Argillaceous greyish-yellow very fine-grained 

Greyish-yellow clay with boulders and gravel 
Putty-greyish very fine-grained sandy-clay 
Greyish-yellow mottled very fine-grained sand 
Gravel and boulder wash 
Decomposed micaceous slate 


Surface — 



2' 0" - 

2' 3" 


2' 3"- 

8' r 


8' 3" - 

8' 8" 


8' 8" - 



11' 4"- 

12' 9" 


12' 9"- 

13' 9" 


13' 9"- 



The formations numbered 3-7 in the above section exhibit all of the litho- 
logical characteristics of the younger till, which may, however, represent re- 
distributed glacial material. 

The formations exposed in the second trial-hole consisted almost entirely of 
very line-grained sands with small pebbles, and comparable with the sediments 
exposed in the No. 1 trial-hole. 

If the three arenaceous deposits described above are accepted as remnants 
of the younger till in the district of Mount Barker, then the last described deposit 
(as shown in the two trial-holes) constitutes the most northerly known extension 
of the younger till in the Mount Lofty Range. 


During the geological examination of the country in the vicinity of Sellick 
Hill township the writer noted a small deposit of the younger till perched on the 
lower slopes of the Willunga Range, which has been cut by faulting. 




Sc Ale i 

j miles. 











rfoLfyA/Y Jegr uf 

Fig. 6 
Geological Map of Sellick Hill (Township) 


The oldest formations in the immediate locality consist of dark grey micaceous 
irregular wavy-bedded slates and shales which show a faint ribbon or banded 
structure. This banding in association with the wavy-bedding is quite charac- 
teristic of the Lower Group Middle Pre-Cambrian (11). The strike of these 
old slates ranges from 30° to 35° E. of N. (magnetic) and the dip of the beds 
ranges from 50° to 62° E.S.E. The shales and slates are overlain by a massive- 
series of greyish-blue limestones with interbedded light grey calcareous shales of 
Lower Cambrian age, which have been faulted down alongside the slates. The 
uppermost horizons of the limestone scries (which are not shown on the geological 
map, text tig. 6), include remains of Archaeocyathinae (15). 

The younger till has been deposited unconformably upon Middle Pre- 
Cambrian slates. Numerous rounded and angular boulders of sandstone and 
quartzite, with occasional boulders of granite, are scattered over the surface of 
the lower spurs of the range north-east, east, and south of the Sellick Hill Hotel, 
having been weathered out of the underlying arenaceous till. Good exposures of 
the glacial beds occur on the upper steeply-sloping sides of the creek which crosses 
Section 668 (Willunga), a few chains south from the hotel. The major fault 
scarp of the Willunga Range has cut the younger till a short distance west of the 
Sellick Hill Post Office. The margin of the till with the Recent alluvium, e'tc., 
of the plain, however, is not very well defined. 

Samples collected from a borehole drilled recently in the north-western 
portion of Section 655 (Willunga) have been examined by Mrs. N. H. Ludbrook 
(nee Woods), who has made the following determinations: 

'"Surface to 170 ft. Brown and greyish sandy-clay in part mottled, with boulders of 
limestone, etc. 
170 ft. - 205 ft. Dark brown clayey sand 
205 ft, - 215 ft. Brown and light grey calcareous mottled clayey sand 

215 ft. - 255 ft. Yellow argillaceous sand of Miocene ( ? Lower Miocene) age, with 
fossils as follows : 

Rotalia Calcar. Epoxides scabriculus, Cibicidcs sp., Ccllaria rigida, 
Idmonea spp., Rctcpora* sp. 

255 ft. - 260 ft. Similar to previous sample, the following fossils being noted, chiefly 
Bryozoa : 

Dorothea gibbosa, Rponides scabricuhts, Idmonea spp., IJomcra sp., 
Rctcpora sp., Spine of an echinoid, Cythcrclla lata. 

260 ft. - 265 ft. Bryozoal limestone (Miocene) as previous samples: 

Shcrbornina atkhi-soni, Cibicidcs sp., Lcpralia sp., Rctcpora sp., 
Horncra sp., Ccllaria sp., Mcmbranipora> sp., Spine of an echinoid. 

The occurrence of ShcrborpJtm is notable, only one specimen being noted. 
It was found to occur numerously in a bore in the same district — that of T. H. 
Culley (Section 384, Hundred of Willunga), which the writer (N. PL L.) 
examined some months ago — some excellent specimens being obtained." 


A second borehole is situated about a quarter of a mile N.N.W. from the 
borehole described above. The driller's log of the strata cut by the drill con- 
sisted of the following beds: 

5 ft, - 79 ft. - - Red clay with stones 
79 ft. - 96 ft. - - Yellow clay with stones 
96 ft. - 189 ft. - - Soft, yellow sandstone 
189 ft. - 230 ft. - - Yellow fossiliferous rock 
230 ft. - 233 ft. - - Red sandstone and pebbles 

The sediments ranging from 5 feet to 189 feet are regarded as being Recent 
to Early ? Pleistocene age and the "fossiliferous rock" Miocene age. This 
determination is based upon some fossiliferous material collected from boreholes 
situated a short distance away on the north-eastern and south-western sides 
(Sections 433 and 665, Willunga) of the borehole just described. The red sand- 
stone with pebbles is suspected as being the uppermost weathered horizon of the 
younger till. The junction between the red sandstone and the Miocene limestone 
is approximately 40 feet above sea level, whereas the highest point of the younger 
till on the slope of the Willunga Range south-east from the Sellick Hill Hotel is 
495 feet above sea level, which represents a downthrow of at least 455 feet. 

The writer suspects that the long, broad valley flanking the. Willunga Range 
fault scarp, and extending inland from Sellick Beach to the north of Kangarilla 
is, in part, of glacial origin, or that the glaciers of the younger glacial period 
passed up a pre-glacial valley in the region under discussion, subsequent to the 
initial uplift of the Willunga Range, the valley representing a downthrown block. 
The retreat of the glacial conditions was followed by a transgression of the sea 
tip, at least, part of the glacial valley when the Miocene fossiliferous beds were 
deposited. Subsequently faulting occurred, resulting in the downthrow of the 
younger till and later sediments. 

■Hi fort vincent (Yorke Peninsula) 

The younger till outcrops along the coast about 1J miles north of Port 
Vincent, between high and low water, and along portion of the base of the sea- 
clifTs. The length of outcrop is 1 mile. The deposit is arenaceous; of a greyish 
colour; and carries numerous boulders and very large erratics. The latter include 
several blocks of very coarse-grained porphyritic granite (many porphyritic 
crystals of felspar range up to 4 by 3 inches, and the quartz crystals exhibit the 
typical bluish colour characteristic of the Victor Harbour granite) ranging up 
to 10 feet by 8 feet, pink and greyish quartzite, grey slates, etc. The upper surface 
of the till exposed along the base of part of the sea-cliffs is somewhat undulating 
and iron-stained. The till is usually visible only at tow water but in one locality 
the formation rises 15 feet above high water. Numerous boulders which have 
been weathered out of the till have been carried along the coast by tidal action 
and left stranded along the beach beyond the northern limit of the till. The 
deposit has been tilted westerly at an angle of about 18°. 


Fig. 7 
Geology of Coast near Port Vincent, Yorke Peninsula 


The glacial deposit is overlain (unconformably) by a bed of fine grit and 
coarse even-gained (partly eonsolidaLed) sandstone, 4 to 5 feet in thickness, 
which exhibits a strong current-bedded structure. Overlying the sandstone is a 
highly f ossiferous (polyzoal) limestone of Miocene age, upon which rests a 
partly consolidated sand, the basal beds of which are very calcareous. At Red 
Cliffs the sands range up to nearly 40 feet in thickness. 

About 200 yards along the coast, north of the east-west Hundred boundary 
between Curramulka and Ramsay, the sandstone-limestone beds strike 5° W. of N. 
(magnetic) the formations dipping westerly at an angle of 10°, but about 200 
yards still further north the strike of the beds has swung to 50° W. of N. (mag- 
netic) the formations dipping to the north-east at an angle of 35°. The Tertiary 
beds have obviously been disturbed by faulting during Post-Miocene times. 

(f) Probable Age of the Younger Till 
Jfowchin has suggested that, ". . . . this extinct (referring to the younger 
till) glacial held is an old palaeozoic topography that has through long ages 
been buried under great thicknesses of morainic material as well as marine 
sediments of a later date, which is now being slowly uncovered and exposed by 
present-day atmospheric and fluviatile agencies" (8, p. 139). He has assumed 
that the beds are of Permo-Carboniferous age, based on an analogy, in that they 
resemble in many respects glacial beds which are certainly of this age in other 
Australian States, particularly In Victoria, where remains of typical Permo- 
Carboniferous^' plants, notably Gangamoptcris occur in sandstones, etc., inter- 
calated in glacial beds (17). 

The inference that the South Australian beds belong to the same age is 
based (by lfowchin) on (a) their lithological resemblances to the beds with which 
they can be correlated in Victoria and Northern Tasmania, and (b) the absence 
of any other known glacial period in Australia with which they could be correc- 
tively associated. 

The results of the writer's observations of the features connected with the 
till under review, particularly the outcome of the detailed mapping of several 
sections and areas, together with a study of structural features of the underlying- 
formations, have been, in the light of modern geological knowledge, to cast a 
doubt on the correctness of assigning a Permo-Carboniferous (or Permian) age 
to this glacial deposit, and rather to view the glacial period as being of more 
recent date. Undoubted evidence of a Lower Cretaceous glaciation has also been 

If tins till was deposited at the close of Upper Palaeozoic times as has been 
suggested by Howchin and others, then it will be necessary to make a slight 
revision of the generally accepted theory of the commencement of the age of the 

C s ) The Gangamoptcris beds and till are now regarded as being of Lower Permian 
age (17). 


Mount Lofty Period of mountain building, or an adjustment in the sequence of 
events which followed the initial uplift. Howchin has described the general physio- 
graphical changes which have taken place in this State since the Cainozoic Period 
(8, pp. 237-246). The major earth movements during this period of mountain 
building have been classified by him into three stages. The first stage "A" is 
referred to as the "Fluviatile Stage," during which time there was a central water- 
shed in Central Australia, with great drainage channels extending southwards to 
the sea. Stage "B"— "The Plateau-Building Stage" (The Koscuisko Period) is 
described as a period when regional (epeirogenic) uplift of the land took place 
along the southern portions of the continent, with a corresponding warp or sag- 
in the interior. Howchin draws attention to the "effects of this uplift, which can 
still be seen in the highlands of the Mount Lofty Range, the general level of which 
represents a peneplain of about 1,500 feet above sea level." The third stage "C" 
represents a "Period of Collapse" (Block Faulting and Rift Valleys). In his 
summing up, Howchin states: ". . . . The geological age in which these earth 
movements took place can be inferred from the effects produced at the same time 
on the Cainozoic marine sediments which also became tilted and dismembered by 
the block-faulting, giving evidence that these movements were Post-Miocene and 
to some extent Post-Pliocene (8, p. 242). 

Chas. Fenner has made a special study of the major physiographical 
features of South Australia and has published many papers dealing with the 
subject. In his description of the Age of the Fault Block Movements, and the 

Summary of the Major Tectonic Movements he states: M Away back in 

Lower Tertiary time we must picture this part of Australia (referring to South 
Australia) as a vast land area being slowly worn down to an almost level surface 
(peneplane) at or near sea level .... At the beginning of Miocene (mid-Tertiary ) 
times we may picture this vast plain, climate unknown, reaching away to the 
south. Then occurred the great depression of the southern part of the State. 
when a broad sea extended up to the latitude of Port Augusta, along an irregular 
east-west line. All this land stayed for vast ages below the sea, with minor 
oscillations, and thick beds of limestones were deposited. We may still see the 
relics of these limestones in the Murray Cliffs, at Noarlunga, Aldinga, Yorke 
Peninsula, West Coast and Nullarbor Plains" (18, p. 25). In the same publica- 
tion (18, p. 30) Fenner states: "As already stated, the facts as at present known 
regarding southern Australian physiography bring one to the inevitable con- 
clusion that the whole of the great Cambrian and Pre-Cambrian complex, with, 
later rocks protected in down-faulted or down-warped "pockets," had been planed 
down to a most perfect peneplane by the end of Oligocene time." 

The writer has failed, up to date, to locate any concrete evidence to support 
the suggestion that the Miocene sea extended right across that portion of South 
Australia now occupied by the Mount Lofty Range, as suggested by Fenner. The 
principal evidence quoted to support the suggestion consists of a small deposit of 
the Miocene fossiliferous limestone present on the Hindmarsh Tiers. Howchin 


has described this outcrop and stated: " At the head of the Hindmarsh River 

there occurs a very remarkable limestone of Eocene ( = Miocene) age .... con- 
fined to the sides of a narrow creek or land farmed by Mr. Geo. Maslin within 
Sections 600-601, Hundred of Encounter Bay" (19, pp. 15, 16). Howchin has 
indicated the location of the limestone on a map in a later publication (20), m 
which he estimates the outcrop to be from 900 to 1,000 feet above sea level (20, 
p. 56). The writer has examined the fossiliferous limestone in company with 
Mrs. Ludbrook, who states: ". . . . The formation is a hard semi-crystalline lime- 
stone with remains of numerous Bryozoa (Polyzoa). It is lithologically and 
palaeontologically related to the Point Turton limestone which Chapman and 
Crespin (Rep. A.N.Z.A.A.S., 1935, p. 125) assign to the Middle Miocene. 
Bryozoa are very numerous but difficult to identify specifically. A microscopic 
section revealed only Bryozoa and an echinoid spine." It is of interest to note 
that the Miocene limestone has been deposited upon the younger till, in an elevated 
glacial valley connected with the Myponga glacial region. A check reading of 
the height of the fossiliferous limestone was made by aneroid against a known 
datum level at the Hindmarsh Reservoir, and it was found to be 751 feet above 
low water. This occurrence is the only one known to the writer where fossilifer- 
ous beds of Tertiary age exist at any distance from the coastline (excepting the 
Murrav basin) within the Mount Loftv Range, and even in this instance the 
formation has been deposited in an elevated glacial valley. 

It will be noted that all of the references to fossiliferous (Tertiary) beds 
(with the one exception — the Hindmarsh Tiers) made by Fenner occur round the 
flanks or margins of the Mount Lofty Range, etc. 

The writer has mapped considerable areas of this glacial till (in addition to 
the regions described in this paper), particularly along the margins of the deposits 
and has, up to date, located very few undoubted faults in the deposits. This 
absence of faulting may be due to the practically unconsolidated state of the 
arenaceous (and argillaceous) boulder beds and shales which comprise the till. 
Ample evidence of the extensive faulting which accompanied the initial uplift, 
and later period of block faulting (Ilowchin's Stage D— the Period of Collapse), 
can be seen throughout the Mount Lofty and Elinders Ranges. Examples of the 
highly complicated nature of this faulting have been published by the writer in 
Bulletins of the Geological Survey of South Australia (11. 15). Large areas 
(in addition to those published) have been examined and mapped by the writer, 
and in all places evidence has been observed of the very extensive nature of the 
faulting which has resulted in the formation of a very complicated and irregular 
mosaic of small blocks. Under such conditions it is considered by the writer 
highly improbable (if not impossible) that such extensive tracts of country 
embracing the whole length of the Inman Valley (from Encounter Bay to Gulf 
St. Vincent), Hindmarsh Valley, the wide expanse of country in the region of 
Mount Compass, Yankalilla, Currency Creek, etc... where the younger till is known 
to occur (see text fig. 8), should have escaped dislocation and distortion during the 


period of uplift and collapse, if the glacial epoch had occurred at the close of 
Palaeozoic times. Faulting of the old Pre-Cambrian formations (upon which the 
glacial till now under discussion has been deposited) is a characteristic feature of 
these ancient rocks, but in practically every case the faulting is pre-glacial period 
in age. 

The writer has already expressed the opinion that many of the faults located 
and recorded on the geological map of Plallett Cove have accompanied the general 
Early ? Cainozoic (or Mesozoic?) to Recent period of block faulting of the 
Mount Lofty Range. The only direct evidence noted of faulting of the younger 
till in the vicinity of Hallctt Cove has been described on p. 21. Jt is suggested, 
however, that Post-Pleistocene faulting, which bounds the coastline of Gulf 
St. Vincent, not only at PTallett Cove, but also at Sellick Hill, has cut the till. 
These suggested faults (if they exist) arc concealed by the sea in the case of the 
coastal deposits of the till. 

Definite evidence of faulting of the younger till can be seen in the vicinity 
of Sellick Hill township, as described on p. 26. 

The writer has prepared a sketch map showing the general distribution of 
the younger till within the boundaries of the Southern Mount Lofty Range. The 
data shown on the map has been compiled from all known records, which have 
included geological maps defining the outcrops of the younger glacial beds. In 
many places the till has been examined and mapped in detail by the writer. 
1 boundaries indicated by other investigators,, however, show the same outstanding 
feature as the writer has stressed, namely, the generally regular and consistent 
unfaulted outline made by the till with the ancient bedrock upon which the glacial 
material has been unconformably deposited in the glacial valleys, etc. The feature 
described is shown clearly on the sketch map, text fig. 8. 

During a recent visit to Victoria the writer examined the Lower Permian 
glacial beds in the vicinity of Bacchus Marsh. The most outstanding lithological 
feature noted in connection with the glacial till was its remarkable resemblance 
to the boulder beds of the Sturtian Tillite ( Upper Pre-Cambrian) in this State. 
Exposures of the Lower Permian till adjacent to the south-east abutment of the 
Fyke's Creek Reservoir consist of a well-consolidated mudstone carrying 
numerous large and small boulders (a proportion of which are well rounded), 
with irregular lenses and bands of hard, dense quarlzite and compact sandstone. 
The lower-most beds of the glacial deposit which are exposed in the main-road 
cutting near the north-west abutment of the reservoir consist of alternating bands 
of very thinly laminated shales, slates and sandstones (resting unconformably upon 
metamorphosed sediments of Ordovician age), which pass up gradually into 
arenaceous beds carrying boulders characteristic of the normal till. These glacial 
beds show no lithological features whatsoever which can be regarded as being 
comparable with the younger glacial beds (referred to as Permo-Carboniferous) 
in South Australia, where the formations in all of the localities examined by the 


writer are unconsolidated with occasional irregular masses of partly consolidated 
sediments due to subsequent infiltration of oxide of iron. 

It has been suggested by Howchin that there are no other glacial beds (other 
than Permo-Carboniferous) in Australia with which the till under review could 
be correlated. 

skETC h map compiled from various sources 


the: distribution of the; younger till 



Fig. 8 
The Distribution of the Younger Till, Mount Lofty Range 

Numerous erratics, many of which are foreign to the localities in which they 
occur, are found scattered over the surface in some parts of Central Australia, 
and in the central region of South Australia, have been noted by H. Y. L. 


Brown, who records that: ". . . . On the stony downs, gravelly plains, and table- 
lands of the interior of South Australia, boulders and blocks of rock are frequently 

seen resting- on soft Cretaceous shale and silt These, without doubt, have 

been transported to their present positions by ice action which seems to have, at the 
same time, since the Mesozoic period, been in operation all over this region" 

R. Loekhart Jack has described Lower Cretaceous erratics which are 
strewn over the surface of the weathered Lower Cretaceous shales of Lake 
Phillipson borehole (25, p. 12). These Creiaceous erratics are composed of 
resistant quartzite, felspar-porphyry and granite. They remain on the surface 
as the shale is eroded beneath them. At the Que Pot Crossing near Lake Conway, 
Jack records: ". . . . Large boulders were noted on the surface of the Lower 
Cretaceous rocks of which some were rounded and appeared to be water- worn, 
but one of approximately 1 cwt. was facetted. . , . It is possible that these boulders 
have been transported by ice action at the time ol the deposition of the Lower 
Cretaceous shale, and that they have been exposed by denudation" (25, p. 42). 

L. Keith Ward has recorded that: ". . . . The existence of erratics near 
Dalhousie Station has been recognised by David and Llowchin, whose joint 
report is published in the Record of the Glacial Research Committee of the 
A.A.A.S. (27), where these authors express the opinion that "the glaciation 
was later than Lower Cretaceous, and probably Upper Cretaceous." From his 
own observations near the Dalhousie Mound Springs and the Duck Ponds (a few 
miles south-east of Blood's Creek borehole), and from more recent observations 
made in conjunction with R. Loekhart Jack, in the region of the Great Aus- 
tralian Basin and the transcontinental railway, Ward places the glaciation 
definitely in the later part of the Upper Cretaceous period (28, p. 74). More 
recently still, in the description of the Geological Map of South Australia, he 
has shown that: '-Boulders to which a glacial origin has been attributed occur 
in places in South Australia at Stuart's Range, where they are associated with 
marine fossils, judged by F. W. Whitehouse to be on the horizon of the 
junction of Stages ii and Hi of the Roma Series — Lower Cretaceous 1 ' (29. p. 9). 

Evidence of a Mesozoic glacial period earlier than Cretaceous times (but later 
than Permo-Carboniferous times) in a region not far removed from South 
Australia has been brought forward by E. J. Kenny in connection with the study 
of the Geological Formations in the W r est Darling District, N.S.W. Kenny 
suggests that: '\ . . . The glacial period so characteristic of Lower Cretaceous 
time had its commencement when the Jurassic sediments were being accumulated. 
The case for the transport of ice of the numerous erratics distributed so widely 
throughout the area occupied by Cretaceous rocks, not only in New South 
Wales, but also in Queensland and South Australia, is supported by the observa- 
tions of a number of investigators. The Jurassic rocks (W T cst Darling District) 
occupy a relatively small area in all and phenomena indicative of glaciation are 
present in restricted areas at widely separated localities. Hence it would appear 


that ice action in this earlier period was less intense and more local than in the' 
succeeding Cretaceous period" (30, p. 65). 

From the above records it is obvious that the younger till present at Hallett 
Cove and elsewhere in the southern portion of this State can be correlated with 
a glacial period other than the Permian (also known as Permo-Carboniferous) 
of Victoria., as has been suggested by Howchm and others. 

During a geological examination of part of the Flinders Range in the vicinity 
of South Creek the writer located several deposits along the lower margin of the 
western scarp of the range which consisted of an argillaceous and arenaceous 
mudstone. carrying numerous rounded and angular boulders. The formation is 
sub-horizontally bedded, and lying unconformably upon Upper Pre-Cambrian 
rocks. The deposit has every appearance of being a glacial till, but as no glacial 
beds other than the Sturtian Tillite (Upper Pre-Cambrian) occur in the locality, 
the boulder bed is regarded as probably forming part of a southerly extension 
of the glacial beds of Lower Cretaceous age present in Central Australia. It has 
been shown by tile writer that the Lower Cretaceous glaciation has extended 
south at least as far as the Andainooka Opal Field, situated on the western side 
of Fake Torrens (31, p. 54; 11, p. 146). If the deposit near South Creek forms 
part of the Lower Cretaceous glaciation, then there is very sound reason to 
believe that the younger till described in this paper (and by others as Permo- 
Carboniferous) is synchronous with die Lower Cretaceous glaciation of Central 

Several representative samples of the younger till have been collected from 
different horizons at Hallett Cove, the critical examination of which has failed to 
produce any fo^siliferous evidence thai may assist in defining its age. The age of 
the glacial beds at Pacchus Marsh has been established as Permian by the presence 
of interbedded Gangavwpieris shales (17), in addition to spores, some of which 
closely resemble certain spores obtained in the black G'iosso plertsA^mwg shales 
from Palaman in the Daltongunj coalfield Behar, and South Rfcwa Gondwana 
basin, Central India (32). 

It is of interest to note that so :ong ago as 1913 Howchm appears to have 
been somewhat doubtful about the possibility of the younger till being so old as 
late Palaeozoic, for in his Presidential Address before Section C of the Austra- 
lian Association for the Advancement of Science he states: "'. . . . Indeed, the 
survival of the Permo-Carboniferous terranes would seem to imply the existence 
of a Mcsozoic as well as a Cainozoic protecting cover to secure the preservation 
of these feebly coherent rocks through the long interval down to the present day ; 
but as to the age and nature of such lost records, if they ever existed, we have no 
knowledge, and it would be useless to speculate" (33, p. 150). 

The general sequence of events in the physiographical history of the Mount 
Lofty Range as suggested by the writer is briefly summarised as follows: 

The initial Period of Uplift of the range commenced, at the latest, in the 
earliest stage of the Cretaceous period, or even in very late Jurassic times, when 


the old peneplancd surface of the land was raised as an extended plateau. Exten- 
sive faulting accompanied this initial uplift. This major earth movement was 
followed by the Lower Cretaceous glaciation, when at least the southern portion 
of the uplifted plateau was not only in part covered by land ice, but existing 
valleys were more deeply cut by glaciers having a general northerly trend. After 
the close of the glacial period an encroachment of the sea upon restricted portions 
only — mainly round the fringe of the uplifted land, and along certain of the 
glacial valleys — occurred, when marine fossiliferous sediments (of Miocene and 
later of Pliocene age) were laid down. Alternations of erosion and deposition 
followed through the remainder of Tertiary times, accompanied by faulting, the 
former being restricted to the margins of the Mount Lofty Range, but the latter 
being general. The final phase — Howchin's Kosciusko Period of Collapse, etc., 
occurred in Post-Pleistocene times. 

((j) Cainozotc — Lower Pliocene 

One of the most important formations present in the region under review 
is the very thin bed of fossiliferous sandstone and fossiliferous sandy-limestone 
which has been deposited unconformably upon the (eroded ?) surface of the 
younger till. 

In the earliest descriptions of this fossiliferous formation Tate classified it 
as Miocene, the determination being based upon his identification of certain of 
the contained marine fossils (2, p. 318). 

In a more recent paper Howchin assigned a Lower Pliocene age to this 
fossiliferous bed. In his Geology of South Australia, 1918 edition, Howchin has 
drawn a section near Plack (Point) Cliff (7, fig. 306, p. 410), where he shows 
the formation as "Miocene (Marine)," but on the next succeeding page he has 
reproduced a photograph of the fossiliferous sandstone and adjacent formations 
in which he describes the formations as "Lower Pliocene (Tate's Miocene)." 
ITowchiu's confusion is still evident in his later edition of the same publication 
(8, p. 135, fig. 76) , in which he shows a section drawn through the Amphitheatre, 
where the fossiliferous bed is shown as "Marine Miocene" but in the text 
(8, p. 232) he describes the bed as "Lower Pliocene." 

The most northerly extension of the fossiliferous bed noted by the writer 
in the region under review occurs in the extreme north-westerly corner of 
Section 561 (Noarlunga), a few chains north of Section A-A. The formation 
is a hard compact highly fossiliferous calcareous sandstone, ranging up to 
3 feet in thickness. The northerly extension of the sandstone wedges out. Large 
blocks of the sandstone which have slipped down the steeply sloping side of the 
cliff (due to the erosion of the underlying unconsolidated younger till) have 
many large and small well-rounded boulders of quartzite, etc., adhering to the 
undersides. Many large species of Pcctcn are associated with the boulders on 
the undersides of the sandstone. 

On tracing the sandstone in a southerly direction towards a small washout, 
the bed which maintains a fairlv uniform thickness ranging from 2-3 feet thins 


out to a few inches. On the spur between the washout and the east-west creek 
on the boundary between Sections 562 and 566 (Noarlunga), the sandstone 
consists of a thin elongated wedge, and is apparently unf ossiferous. No evidence 
of the sandstone was noted along the northern slope of the creek, but along the 
southern side the fossiliferous sandstone makes a very conspicuous outcrop, which 
can be traced inland for a distance of nearly a third of a mile. The bed can be 
traced in a southerly direction round the retreating cliff, to above Black Cliff. A 
traverse made round the outcrop with an aneroid indicates that the bed is hori- 
zontally bedded, the upper surface being 66 feet above sea level. 

The fossiliferous bed can be traced round the Amphitheatre, where a litho- 
loeical change from the sandstone to an arenaceous fossiliferous limestone takes 
place. An enlarged scale map of the Amphitheatre has been included on the 
geological map to show the main physiographical features and distribution of the 
formations present. The highly fossiliferous sandstone swings round the cliff 
face above Black Cliff and gradually feathers out along portion of the northern 
face of the Amphitheatre, where the overlying Earlier ? Pleistocene sediments 
rest directly upon the younger till. The sandstone gradually comes in again in 
the vicinity of the washouts in the north-eastern part Of the Amphitheatre, where 
the formation thickens rather suddenly, and changes to a very arenaceous highly 
fossiliferous limestone. Large boulders and erratics have been caught up on 
the underside and in the basal portion of the fossiliferous bed, with occasional 
boulders in the central and upper part of the formation, in this region. The 
boulders which are generally well rounded include quartzites, shales, slates and 
o-ranites Percolating (and surface) ground water has dissolved some of the 
calcium carbonate out of the limestone and redeposited it in the upper part 
of the boulder bed of the til. Tins feature is particularly noticeable in the 
immediate vicinity of the washouts. The fossiliferous bed continues to outcrop 
round the small washouts and intervening spurs of the Amphitheatre to a few 
yards south of the line of Section C-C (see enlarged map). The thickness of the 
formation ranges from about 12 inches to about 3 feet 9 inches, and the lithological 
features alternate from the calcareous sandstone to the arenaceous limestone. 
The southerly extension of the formation from the line of Section C-C thins out 
considerably, finally consisting of very thin elongated lenses of arenaceous lime- 
stone ranging up to 3-5 inches in thickness, irregularly spaced, with the last lens a 
few chains north of the fault-line situated in the southern part of Section 567 
(Noarlunga). No further outcrops of the Lower Pliocene were observed 
between the last lens mentioned and the spur which forms the southern end of 
Uallett Cove. It is suggested that the Lower Pliocene formation was removed 
bv erosion in the sector just referred to before the fault situated in the southern 
part of Section 567 (Noarlunga) occurred. A traverse made round the Amphi- 
theatre along the top of the fossiliferous bed with an aneroid, indicates that the 
formation is sub-horizontally bedded with gentle undulations, the normal height 
of the upper surface of the bed above low water being about 114 feet. 


Two very small remnants, representing the former extension of the fossilifer- 
ous bed, occur along- the cliff face south of the Cove. The first outcrop is on the 
spur which forms the southern end of Hallett Cove (extreme south-western 
corner of Section 567, Noarlunga), where a very thin ]ens of calcareous sand- 
stone ranging up to about 6 inches in thickness overlies the younger till at a height 
of 66 feet above low water. The second exposure is on the southern side of a 
small washout (on the line of Section D-D) where the bed consists of an elongated 
narrow baud of arenaceous limestone having a maximum thickness of 5 inches 1 
and overlying ( unconformably) the younger till. The second locality described 
is the most southerly outcrop of the f ossiferous bed within the region under 
review noted by the "writer. 

The fossiliferous formation lias been examined by Mrs. Pudbrook (in com- 
pany with the writer), who states: 

"The bed in question is that described by Howchin in 1923 (5, p. 289), in 
which he gives a list of fossils occurring in the formation. 1 Iowchin considered 
it to be of Lower Pliocene age. it being contemporaneous with the Upper Aldingau 
beds, and the bed formerly exposed behind Government J louse, Adelaide; also 
revealed in borings in or near the City, 

Chapman in 1916 (Rec. Geol. Sur. Vict., Hi, vol. iv v p. 411) correlates the 
South Australian beds with the Victorian Kalimnan, though later (Chapman and 
Crespin, 1935, Rep. A.N.Z.A.A.S.. vol. xxii, p. 125) places the Upper Aldingau 
and the llallett Cove beds in the Upper Pliocene, apparently on account of the 
occurrence of Alcrginopora vertcbyalis. 

There seems to be a closer relationship between the South Australian deposils 
and the Kalimnan than between them and the Werrikooian. It is noteworthy that 
both the Aldingau and the Hallett Cove beds have very few fossils and those that 
do occur are typical of neither the Kalimnan nor the Werrikooian. They are, 
however, more closely related to the former than to the latter which has a far 
higher percentage of Recent species. It appears, therefore, more satisfactory to 
designate the llallett Cove bed as Lower Pliocene. In the bed at llallett Cove 
most of the fossil remains are casts and difficult: to identify. Thcv are best pre- 
served in the Amphitheatre, where the rock is softer. Here Ostrca and Chlctm\s 
are numerous. Marginopora vcricbralis shows plainly on weathered surfaces, 
and is apparently the commonest and best preserved form. Casts of ?' Anapclla 
are extremely numerous in some places and a large undescribed cerithioid 
gasteropod occurs as internal casts. The only species noticed in addition to those 
recorded by Howchin are Myadora corrugata, PcneropUs pcrtusus and Turn- 
(clla spA 

The result of the study and distribution of the fossiiiferous formation in the 
vicinity of Hallett Cove has brought forward several interesting facts. 

(it) The formation has been subjected to considerable erosion, as evidenced 
by the smooth, gently eroded and weathered surface subsequent to its 
deposition— in many instances the bed has been entirely removed before 
the deposition of the Early ? Pleistocene mottled clays. 


(b) The formation lias been disturbed by faulting as shown by the wide 
range in the levels of the deposit: above low water. 

(c) All outcrops of the fossiliferous bed overlie (uneonformably) the 
younger till only, and do not extend beyond the northern and southern 
extensions of the till within the region examined and shown on the 
geological map. 

(h) Early ? Pleistockxk 
The formation which has been tentatively classified as Early ? Pleistocene 

overlies the Lower Pliocene and generally consists of mottled reddish to olive- 
brown and greyish sandy clays, grits and gravels. These sediments were examined 
by 'late, llowchin, and David, who staled that: ", . . , No fossils as yet have 
been found in them" .... and that they .... "are probably of Miocene W age, 
though possibly later" (2, p. 319). The interesting feature noted in connection 
with this classification is that Tate., llowchin and David did not specifically men- 
tion any s1 ratigraphical break or discordance in the normal order or deposition 
of sediments between the f ossiferous sandstone and the overlying sandy clays, etc. 

Many years later Howchin assigned to these sandy clays, etc., a Pleistocene 
age, in view of his classification of the underlying highly fossiliferous bed as' 
Lower Pliocene (8, p. 133, fig. 73. and p. 135, fig. 76).< 10 > 

The write? has noted that the bthological characteristics of the formation 
under review vary considerably. A good exposure of the bed occurs in the north- 
western part of Section 566 and a short distance north of Black Cliff, where there 
is a prominent outcrop of the lossiliferous sandstone cut by a washout. On the 
northern side of the washout the formation consists of a coarse-grained sandy 
clav carrying numerous angular (with occasional rounded) boulders and pebbles, 
which on being traced northwards through Section 562 and 561, into the south- 
western earner of Seciian 560 {Noarhmga), feathers out against quartzites and 
shales on the top cage, of the sea-cliff. On the southern side of the w r ashout the 
formation consists of mottled sandy-clays with occasional small rounded boulders 
and pebbles, which can be traced round "Black Cliff to the Amphitheatre, at the 
northern end of which they are mottled reddish -brown mid light grey argillaceous 
sands with rounded (water-worn) clear and milky grains of quartz which range 
from fine grains to coarse pebbles. The bed has a general appearance of stratifi- 
cation (which is sub-horizontal). The mottled sandy-clays occupy the upper* 
portion of the retreating cliffs of the Amphitheatre, and extend south as far as 
the fault adjacent to the small creek in the south-western corner of Section 567. 
The fault is Post-Pleistocene in age, as has been described already — the Early ? 

( .''') This classification was based on the supposition that the underlying highly 
fossiliferous sandstone was of Miocene age. 

( : "> On the figures (73 and 76) llowchin shows the fossiliferous sandstone, as 
"Miocene (Marine)" and "Marine Miocene," respectively, but in the text, on p. 135, he 
refers to the formation as Lower Pliocene. 


Pleistocene sandy-clays having been faulted down (with the underlying younger 
till) on the southern side of thecreek. 

It is of interest to note that the basal three feet of the Early ? Pleistocene 
sandy-clays consists of a bed carrying several well-defined bands of small, rounded 
and angular pebbles, which show a stratification which is sub-horizontal. The 
bands of pebbles gradually become less prominent on passing up into the reddish- 
brown argillaceous sand, which is about 10 feet in thickness. The normal mottled 
sandy-clays overlie the argillaceous sands. 

The Early ? Pleistocene sediments form a very prominent outcrop along the 
upper retreating slope of the sea-cliffs south of Hallett Cove, -where the formation 
ranges up to over 150 feet in thickness. A very marked change occurs in the 
lithological features of the deposit on passing southwards from the bluff (at the 
southern end of the Cove), particularly in Sections 569 and 572 (Noarlunga). 
Adjacent to the bluff the lower-most beds consist of sandy grits and occasional 
fine gravels, which pass laterally (in a southerly direction) into extremely coarse- 
grained gravels and boulder beds, especially in the vicinity of the line of Section 
E-E (see fig. 5). The boulders consist of dense, grey quartzites (ranging up to 
2| feet diameter), granite (over 3 feet diameter), dolomitic limestones, slates, etc. 
The main boulder gravel bed ranges up to about 40 feet in thickness, the upper- 
most portion of the formation being about 104 feet above low water. In the 
region of the large washout situated in the north-western corner of Section 581 
(in the extreme south-westerly corner of the geological map) the Early ? Pleisto- 
cene formation consists of a white argillaceous sand rock carrying numerous small 
water-worn pebbles and grit with occasional larger boulders. The deposit ranges 
up to ever 60 feet in thickness, and is horizontally bedded (see pi. iii, fig. 1 ). 

An approximately north-south fault cuts obliquely across the Purple Series, 
forming the cliff and beach in Section 577 (Noarlunga), and north of Curlew* 
Point. The Early ? Pleistocene sediments overlying this fault have been deposited 
subsequent to the period of faulting which has cut the Purple Series. 

The Early ? Pleistocene sands and gravels were traced in an easterly direction 
(inland) as far as the southerly tributary of Hallett Cove along the eastern 
boundary of Section 576 (Noarlunga). 

Although travertine limestone conceals the underlying formations io the east 
of the Amphitheatre, the Early ? Pleistocene mottled sandy-clays have been 
exposed in the Adelaide-Wihunga railway cutting in Section 487 (Noarlunga), 
particularly in the vicinity of the Hallett Cove road bridge over the railway 
cutting. 01 > where the beds exhibit lithological features similar to those present 
at the Amphitheatre. The upper-most surface of the Early ? Pleistocene clays is. 
396 feet above low water. The Writer has not ascertained the maximum easterly 
extension of the Early ? Pleistocene formations in the region under review. 

The reddish-brown and greyish mottled sandy-clays carrying many large 
perfectly smooth water-worn boulders have been exposed in the central railway 

1 ) The railway cutting: is situated about 1 mile cast of the eastern boundary of the 
geological map. 


cutting (Section 560, Noarlunga), where the maximum thickness of the forma- 
tion is 7 feet. The clays are overlain by travertine limestone. 

(j) Late ? Pleistocene to Recent 

Sediments which are classified as being of Late ? Pleistocene to Recent age 
consist of the alluvium filling the floors of the valleys and gullies, and the flats 
bordering the lower reaches (near the outlet to the sea) of Hallett Creek. 

The travertine limestone which covers a considerable portion of the high-level 
country in the region under review (and elsewhere) is regarded as being repre- 
sentative of an old land surface. The wind-blown calcareous sands and ridges 
are included in this classification. 

A narrow raised beach occurs a few yards distant from high-water mark 
on the beach at the northern end of the Amphitheatre. The deposit, which consists 
of loosely consolidated sands and shelly fragments, dips westerly at an angle of 
about 20° and is from 8-10 feet in thickness. The upper surface is sub-horizontal 
with very gentle undulations, and has the appearance of having undergone erosion. 
Wind-blown sand ridges rest upon the upper surface of the deposit (see fig. 3, 
Line of Section C-C). A representative sample of the sediments comprising the 
raised beach just described has been examined by Mrs. Ludbrook, who has made 
the following determinations and remarks : 

"Red sands washing down to water-worn quartz sand with a few foraminifera 
identified as : 

Discorbls dhmdiatas, Rponidcs haidingcri, Cibicidcs ungcriauus, c.i. Cihicldcs 
rcfidgcns, c.f. Elphidhim sp. 

"These species indicate that the deposit is of Late Tertiary — Recent age, but 
in the absence of associated mollusca more restricted determination cannot be 
made. The material is very badly preserved." 

A small deposit of gravels cemented together by oxide of iron occurs on the 
upper slope of the retreating cliff of the coast in Section 569 (Noarlunga). These 
cemented gravels represent the remains of an old river system of very Late ? 
Pleistocene times. 

A low retreating scarp consisting of a dense sandstone ranging up to about 
8 feet in thickness, crosses the eastern part of Section 565 (Noarlunga) and 
about -| of a mile south-east from the Amphitheatre. The sandstone has been 
tilted towards the south at a shallow angle, as shown by the aneroid reading's 
taken during a traverse along the upper surface of the formation and recorded 
on the geological map. At the northern end of the outcrop the upper surface of 
the bed is 318 feet above low water but at the southern end on the Hallett Cove 
(beach) road, the sandstone is 291 feet above low water. No fossils were observed 
in the sandstone. Ilowchin has described the sandstone as an elevated retreating 
scarp of Lower Pliocene age, but the writer has observed the presence of the 
mottled sanely-clays of the Early ? Pleistocene age beneath this sandstone, so that 
the formation is now regarded as Late ? Pleistocene in age. 


The geological formations present in the region of Ilallett Cove and imme- 
diate district have heen critically examined and mapped in detail. 

The oldest formations present consist of a series of rapidly alternating beds 
of qnartzite, shale, dolomitic limestone and sandstones with grits, of the Upper 
Series (C 1-4), Middle Pre-Cambrian, the nppcr-most bed being a dense massive 
qnartzite (C2). The qnartzite is overlain by the Stnrtian Tillite (D 1) of Upper 
Pre-Cambrian age. Faulting has considerably disturbed these old formations, as 
a wide gap in the normal succession of sediments of Upper Pre-Cambrian age 
occurs, as the next formation noted consists of purple slates, shales, etc., of the 
Purple Series (13 6), the Taplcy's Hill Series (D3) being completely absent. 
'ilie purple shales pass up conformably to the highest horizon of the Upper Pre- 
Cambrian succession — the quartzites of Flinders Range Sandstone- -Qnartzite 
Scries (1)7). These formations exhibit, all of the characteristic lithological 
features associated with the rocks of similar age examined in the Flinders Range, 
etc., indicating the very extensive nature of the Pre-Cambrian seas. Power 
Cambrian rocks are represented by massive beds of limestones and calcareous 
shales and slates. 

One of the most important formations present is the well-known glacial till 
winch is usually regarded as being of Permo-Carboniferous age. The general 
distribution and lithological characteristics of the till are described and references 
made to new localities in the Mount Lofty Range (Mount Barker and Sellick Mill 
township) and near .Port Vincent ( Yorke Peninsula), where the till has been 
examinedi and mapped by the writer. 

In the present paper this glacial deposit is referred to as the ( " Younger Till' 5 
to distinguish it from the older Stnrtian Tillite of Upper Pre-Cambrian age, which 
is present also in the district. The writer discusses the probability of this till 
being comparable with the Power Cretaceous glaciation of Central Australia and 
Northern South Australia, and states his reasons why he regards the deposit as 
being much younger in age than late Palaeozoic. 

The evidence to support the suggestion that the younger till is of Lower 
Cretaceous age is briefly summarised as follows: 

(a) Although the known exposed area of the till in the Southern Mount 
Lofty Range covers at least 2cS0 square miles of country (the suspected 
concealed area amounting to approximately an additional 65 square miles'), 
portion of which formation extends across the range from coast to 
coast (Victor Harbour-Normanville) , there is an almost entire absence 
of faulting in the glacial material, with the exception of certain Post- 
Pleistocene faults near the margins of the coast and glacial valleys (see 
fig. 8). The underlying formations, however, are highly disturbed by 
both folding and faulting, many of the faults being regarded as having 
accompanied the initial general uplift of the Mount Lofty Range. 


(b) The fact that the deposits of the younger till are but little disturbed, 
being generally sub-horizontady bedded, a feature which is characteristic 
also of the overlying Tertiary sediments (Miocene to Pleistocene). The 
only faulting noted in the younger till being apparently comparable with 
the Post-Pleistocene faulting which has accompanied the late tectonic 
movements (uplift and downthrow) of the Mount Lofty .Range. 

(c) From the examination and distribution of the deposits of the younger 
till in the Southern Mount Lofty Range, the fact has now been well 
established that the younger g\aeiation consisted almost entirely of laud 
ice. This fact, together with the evidence of (a) and (b) obviously 
suggests that the initial general uplift of ilvz Mount Lofty Range 
occurred prior to the glacial epoch. 

(d) The entire lack of evidence to support the suggestion that the younger 
till (if of Late Palaeozoic age?) was protected by a thick cover of 
Meso/oic and Tertiary sediments which would appear to be necessary 
to preserve the loose unconsolidated glacial material from complete 
erosion during the long interval of time between the Permian period and 
the present day. 

(c ) It is considered by the writer that the younger till bears no lithological 
features, whatsoever, comparable with the undoubted Permian glacial 
beets of Victoria (Bacchus Marsh). 

(f) The failure to locate any palaeontological evidence such as spores, etc., 
in many samples of the till collected from widely separated localities 
in the Southern Mount Lofty Range and critically examined, although 
ample palaeontological evide ice has been obtained from the Permian 
glacial beds at Bacchus Marsh (Victoria) ; the Clos^optms-httirmg 
shales from South Rewa Gondwana Has in, Central India (32) ; and 
well-preserved impressions of Gainjamopicris immediately below the 
Dwyke Tiilite, South Africa. (Leslie, Proc. Geol. Soc. S. Africa, 1921, 

((/) The evidence of a Lower Cretaceous glaciation over a very wide region 
in the north of South Australia, and in Central Australia, with which 
the younger till present in die southern portion of the State can be 

The Lower Pliocene, Early ? Pleistocene and Late ? Pleistocene to Recent 
sediments are described. 

Unconformities occur at the base and the top of the younger till, and it has 
been suggested that a disconformity (if not an unconformity) exists at the top 
of the Lower Pliocene. An old land surface of Late ? Pleistocene to Recent age 
occurs at the top of the Early ? Pleistocene, as evidenced by the travertine lime- 
stone scarps. 


A brief and general outline of the writer's interpretation of the physiographi- 
cal history of the Mount Lofty Range is included in the text. 

Attention is drawn to the presence of faults in the region, practically all of 
which are pre-younger glacial epoch in age. It has been shown that the east-west 
fault situated in the southern portion of Section 567 (Noarlunga) is Post-Early? 
Pleistocene in age. The tilting of the formations on the northern side of this 
fault is probably due to an uplift movement rather than a downward movement. 
When consideration is given to the present positions of the several outcrops of 
the younger till in particular in relation to sea level, both uplift and downthrow 
of the faulted blocks are evident. 

List of Rkferkncks 

1 Abstracts of the Proceedings of the Geological Society, London, No. 1.361, 

16 June, 1939 

2 Tate, Ralph ; Howctitn, W. ; David, T. W. E. 1895 "Evidences of Glacia- 

tion at Hallett's Cove/ 5 A.N.Z.A.A.S., 6, 315-320 

3 Tate, Ralph 1878 Exhibited a glaciated rock from Hallett's Cove at 

Ordinary Meeting of the Philosophical Society of Adelaide, Trans. 
Philos. (Roy.) Soc. S. Aust., 2, 

4 IIowchin, W. 1895 "New Pacts bearing on the Glacial Features of Hallett's 

Cove," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 19, 61-69 

5 llowcnix, W. 1923 "A Geological Sketch-section of the Sea-cliffs on the 

Eastern Side of Gulf St. Vincent, from Brighton to Sellick's Hill, with 
Descriptions," Trans. Roy. Soc, S. Aust.. 47, 279-315 

6 IJowcinx, W, 1924 ''Further Discoveries of Permo-Carboniferous Glacial 

Features near Hallett's Cove," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 48, 291-302 

7 IIowcrjn. \V. 1918 "The Geology of South Australia" 

8 llowcnix, W. 1929 "The Geology of South Australia," 2nd Ed. 

9 llowcnix, W. 1933 "A List of Original Papers and Other Works Published 

by," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust,, 57, 242-249 

10 Llowcnix, W, 1904 "The Geology of the Mount Lofty Range, Part 1— The 

Coastal District," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 28, 253-280 

11 Si-gxit, Ralph W. 1937 "Pre-Cambrian-Cambrian Succession. The General 

and Economic Geology of these Systems in Portions of South Australia." 
Geo. Sur. S. Aust., Pull. 18 

12 Mawson, Sir D. 1939 'The First Stage of the Adelaide Series: As illus- 

trated at Mount Magnificent," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 63, (1), 69 

13 Mawsox, Sir D. 1926 " Varve Shales Associated with the Permo-Carbonifer- 

ous Glacial Strata in South Australia," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50, 

14 Mawson, Sir D. 1907 "Minerological Notes 1 P.arytes Sand Crystals/' 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 31, 119-120 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate I 



■ ■ . 

Fig", 1 Contorted strata — Purple Series, coast looking south 
(north of Curlew Point) and platform of marine erosion. 

Fig. 2 Sturtian Tillite (Upper Pre-Cambrian). Outcrop on beach between 
high and low water (platform of marine erosion) opposite Section 560 

(Hundred Noarlunga). 

Photo, R. \v. S. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate II 



Fig. 1 Looking south across creek (boundary between Sections 562-566, 
Hundred Noarlunga), showing Early ? Pleistocene sediments overlying (dis- 
conformably Lower Pliocene fossiliferous sandstone, which has been 
deposited unconformably upon gently dipping Younger Till (Lower 
Cretaceous?). Strong unconformity between Till and Upper Pre-Cambrian 

Quartzites (D7). 




Fig. 2 Younger till overlying Purple shales and thin bands of Purplish 
quartzite. Striated bedrock in foreground. Coast looking south, 

Section 561 (Noarlunga). 
Photo, R. W. S. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate III 

mmJi^ii^M^d^Em t-;- ■:;:; 


Fig. 1 Horizontally-bedded Early ? Pleistocene sands and fine-grained gravels. 
Washout near coast, north-western corner, Section 581, (Hd. Noarlunga). 

Basal bed of Early ? Pleistocene sands, gravels and boulders, showing large 
water-worn erratic of quartzite derived from the erosion of the younger till, 
resting on smoothly polished surface of Purple shales. Cliff-face, coast in 
west centre of Section 575 (Hd. Noarlunga). 

Ph©to, R. W. S 


15 Segnit, Ralph W. 1937 "Geology of the Northern Part, Hundred of 

Macclesfield;' Geo. Sur. S. Aust., Bull. 16 

16 Madtgan, C, T. 1927 "The Geology of the Willunga Scarp," Trans. Roy. 

Soc. S. Aust., 51, 396-409 

17 Jacorson, R., and Scott, T. R. 1937 "The Geology of the Korkuperimul 

Creek Area, Bacchus Marsh/" Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 50, (1), (N.S.), 

18 Fexner, Chas. 1931 "South Australia, a Geographical Study" 

19 Howcjiin. W. 1898 "Further Discoveries of (facial Remains in South 

Australia," Trans, Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 22, 12-17 

20 Howcitin, W. 1911 "Description of a Disturbed Area of Cainozoic Rocks 

in South Australia, with Remarks on its Geological Signification," Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 35, 47-59 

21 Brown, IX. Y. L. 1894 "Annual Report, Government Geologist — From 

Strangways to Mount Paisley," 10 

22 Brown, H. Y. L. 1898 "Government Geologist's Report on Explorations 

in the Western Part of South Australia." Pari. Paper, No. 46, 5 

23 Brown, H. Y. L. 1902 "Record of Mines of S.A., Tarcoola and North- 

West District," 11 

24 Brown, IL Y. L. 1905 "Report on Geological Exploration in the West and 

North-West of South Australia," 5 

25 Jack, R. Lockiiart, 1930 "Geological Structure and Other Factors in 

Relation to Underground Water Supply in Portions of South Australia," 
Geo. Sur., S. Aust., Bull. 14 

26 Jack, R. Lockjiart 1915 "The Geology and Prospects of the Region to 

the South of the Musgrave Range, and the Geology of the Western 
Portion of the Great Australian Basin," Geo. Sur. S. Aust., Bull. 5 

27 Davtd, Sir T. W. E., and FIowchin, W, 1923 "Report of the Glacial 

Research Committee," Proc. A.N.Z.A.A.S., 16, 79-94 

28 Ward, L, Keith 3925 "Notes on the Geological Structure of Central Aus- 

tralia," Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 61-84 

29 Ward, L. Keittt 1928 "A New Edition of the Geological Map of South 

Australia/' Geo. Sur. S. Aust. 

30 Kexny, E. j. 1934 "West Darling District — A Geological Reconnaissance 

with Special Reference to the Resources of Sub-Surface Waiters," Min. 
Res., No. 36, Geo. Sur. Dept. Mines, N.S.W. 

31 Segnit, Ralph W. 1935 "Andamooka Opal Field," S. Aust. Min. Rev., 

No. 62, 51-56 

32 Vjrrki, C. 1939 "On the Occurrence of Similar Spores in a Lower Gond- 

wana Glacial Tillitc from Australia and in Lower Gondwana Shales in 
India," Proc. Indian Act. Sc, 9, (1), Sec. B 

33 Howcitin, W\ 1913 "The Evolution of the Phy geographical Features of 

South Australia/ Pres. Add. Sec. C, A.N.Z.A.A..S., 14, 148-178 




University of California, Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Calif. 

(Communicated by H. Womersley) 


Metaphycus memnonius n. sp. 
A distinctive species, largely black in colour, without lines on mesoscutum indicative of parapsidal 
furrows ; maxillary palpi four segmented, labial palpi three segmented; scape not expanded; 
frontovertex wide; ocelli in slightly less than a right angle; wings hyaline, uniformly ciliated. 




By Harold Compkre 

University of California, Citrus Experiment Station, Riverside, Calif. 

(Communicated by II. Womersley) 

[Read 11 April 1940] 

Metaphycus memnonius n. sp. 

A distinctive species, largely black in colour, without lines on niesoscutum 
indicative of parapsidal furrows; maxillary palpi four segmented, labial palpi 
three segmented; scape not expanded; frontovertex wide; ocelli in slightlv less 
than a right angle; wings hyaline, uniformly ciliated. 

Female; general colour black, the mesoscutum and axillae with the sides 
narrowly orange or testaceous in sharp contrast. Head partly orange or testaceous 
with the ocellar area and occiput black, the cheeks and the area between scrobes 
more or less brown or blackish. Antennae largely brown with the distal one or 
two funicle segments, apex of pedicel and part of the scape testaceous or sordid 
white. Concealed part of the pronotum black, the collar grading from white io 
testaceous. Tcgulac white on basal portion and brown on apical portion. Pleura 
and sternum of thorax grading from black to dark brown, except the prepeeLUS 
which is whitish, and sometimes the anterior portion of the mesopieura adjacent 
to the prepectus also whitish. Abdomen black. Legs partly white with extensive 
black to dark brown markings; middle and hind tibiae with two distinct wide 
bands; front tibiae less distinctly banded; front femora brown ventrally and 
blotched on dorsal margin near apex; middle femora either dirty white or variously 
suffused with brown; hind femora largely suffused with brown; fore and hind 
tarsi brownish; middle tarsi and tibial spur whitish; coxae grading from blackish 
or brown to whitish. Head, thorax and abdomen with fine, white hairs, Kves 
not visibly hairy under ordinary magnifications. Notum of thorax very closely 
and strongly sculptured. 

Frontovertex about one and onedialf times as long as wide. Posterior ocelli 
about once their own diameter from the occipital margin and close to the orbits. 
Antennae rather short; scape about four times as long as wide; pedicel twice as 
long as wide, almost as wide as the scape; first funicle segment about as wide as 
long, asymmetrical, the ventral margin longer than the dorsal margin; succeeding 
funicle segments symmetrical, very slightly increasing in size distad, all about as 
wide as long, and the sixth almost twice the size of the first ; club about two and 
onedialf times as long as wide, as long as the four preceding funicle segments 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


Forcwings large, slightly more than twice as long as wide,, very finely and 
densely hairy distad of speculum; marginal fringe composed of hairs not much 
larger' than those on the blade; a rather distinct triangular hairless spot at 
narrowest part of blade between basal part of submarginal vein and the posterior 
marginal hairless area. Speculum interrupted by three rows of hairs, the cut-oil 
portion large, semi-rounded and separated by one row of hairs from the posterior 
marginal hairless area. Veins dark brown ; marginal vein about as long as wide; 
post-marginal vein extending distad almost as far as apex of stigmal vein, and 
plainly much longer than the marginal vein; submarginal vein furnished with 
about eighteen coarse hairs and slightly widened from near the middle to apex. 

Abdomen short, rotund, about as long as the thorax. Ovipositor short, not 
exserted, the shaft extending about one-half the length of abdomen, and the 
sheaths about twice as long as greatest width. 

Length ranging near 1*0 mm. 

Male: face, cheeks, and ventral half of posterior aspect of head pale yellow 
or whitish, except for the area between the scrobes which is brown. Scape con- 
colorous with cheeks; pedicel blotched with brown on dorsum; funiclc and club 
slightly dusky. Funicle segments, each with two whorls oi long curved hairs. 

Scape short, slightly more than twice as long as wide. Pedicel about one 
and one-half times as long as wide, plainly narrower than scape, subequal to first 
funicle segment in size. Funicle segments subequal, each about one and one-hall 
times as long as wide. Club solid, as long as the preceding two funicle segments. 

Described frpm 20 females and 11 males, holotype, allotype and paratypes, 
reared from Eriococcus coriaccus on Eucalyptus collected at Adelaide, South 
Australia, by L. J. Dumhleton, 1936. Types to be. deposited in the British Museum 
and paratypes in the United States National Museum. 



In the Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania of March 1912 the late Dr. W. G. Torr described and figured as 
Callocchiton mayi Acutoplax collected by himself in a rock pool at Stanley, Tasmania. 


By H. J. Weeding 

Plate IV 

[Read 11 April 1940] 

In the Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania of March 1912 the late Dr. W. G. Ton- 
described and figured as Callochiton mayi an Acutoplax collected by himself in 
a rock pool at Stanley, Tasmania. 

In September of the same year he described, in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 
another specimen under the same name, dredged by Sir Joseph Verco in Spencer 
Gulf, South Australia. This was done because the South Australian shell differed 
from the description he had given of the Tasmanian specimen. 

The material collected in recent years proves that the two forms are specifi- 
cally distinct, and the South Australian species is here described as: 

Acutoplax cottoni n. sp. 

(PI. iv, figs. I, la) 
Shell medium, elongated oval, very highly elevated, carinated. Colour usually 
pinkish with dark red splashes. Measurement of dried specimen, 13 x 7 x 5*5 mm. 

Anterior valve— erect and smooth, except for growth lines. Median valves — 
lateral areas prominently raised, nusculptured but corrugated with growth lines 
and sprinkled with numerous small ocelli ; pleural areas with ten or twelve short 
sulci partly crossing the area and becoming shorter towards the beak, making the 
jugal area triangular and smooth. Posterior valve — anti-mucronal area grooved, 
post-mucronal area raised and corrugated with growth lines. 

Girdle, teeth and internal features generic. Gills — fourteen each side, 
extending from valve three to eight. 

Station — Dredged in shallow water. 

Habitat — Spencer Gulf and Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia. 

The specimen described and figured was dredged from the Fisheries Launch 
"Whyalla" in Spencer Gulf, March 1938. It is named after Mr. Bernard C. 
Cotton, Conchologist of the South Australian Museum, whose unfailing courtesy 
and ready helpfulness make the study of our Molluscan Fauna a pleasure. 

A few other specimens from South Australia, listed in the Museum Collection 
under the name of Acutoplax mayi Torr, are eonspecific with the above. 

All species of this genus are still very rare. They may be compared as 
follows : 

Acutoplax mayi Torr (pi. iv, figs. 2, 2a), which is a Tasmanian species, is 
figured for comparison. It is less elevated, the sulci are fewer, wider and more 

Trans. Roy. Sot:. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate IV 




irregularly spaced. The lateral areas have two latitudinal ribs absent or obsolete 
in the South Australian species and the colour is quite distinct. 

Acnioplax rufa Ashby is a red oval shell with a few weak, thin sulci partly 
crossing the pleural area. The granulation of the tegmentum is coarser than that 
of the preceding species. 

Acutoplax klcmi Ashby has not yet been recovered. It was founded upon a 
small worn valve with five very short sulci on the pleural area; it could not be 
confused with the species here described. 

The Key to the Genus can be adjusted as follows: 

Genus Acutoplax 

Key to Sfecies 

a Shell highly elevated cottoni n. sp. 

aa Shell normally elevated. 

b Some sulci extending across the pleural area ma\i Torr 

bb No sulci crossing the pleural area, 
c Sulci extending half-way across the pleural area .. .. rnfa Ashby 
cc Sulci extending one-fourth of the pleural area klcmi Adibv 




This interesting family, which contains some of the smallest and most delicate, as well as some of 
the most beautiful of the Lepidoptera, at present consists of about one thousand species referred to 
twenty-two genera. Its distribution is world-wide, but with the exception of the genus Lithocolletis 
the principal genera are more numerous in tropical and subtropical regions. Owing to their small 
size they do not attract the casual collector, and the number of species is destined to be very largely 
increased. With the exception of a few described by Stainton, our knowledge of the Australian 
species dates from a paper by Meyrick in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of New South 
Wales in 1880. To him we owe the present classification of the family, which was given in the 
Genera Insectorum in 1912, with the exception of the genus Phyllocnistis, which was included in 
this family in his Revised Handbook of the British Lepidoptera in 1927. My own interest in the 
family commenced early; in fact, it was the main subject of my first entomological essay published 
in these Transactions in 1894. 



By A. Jefferis Turner, M.D., F.R.E.S. 
[Read 11 April, 1940J 

This interesting family, which contains some of the smallest and most 
delicate, as well as some of the most beautiful of the Lepidoptera, at present 
consists of about one thousand species referred to twenty-two genera. Its dis- 
tribution is world-wide, but with the exception of the genus Lithocollctis the 
principal genera are more numerous in tropical and subtropical regions. Owing 
to their small size they do not attract the casual collector, and the number of 
species is destined to be very largely increased. With the exception of a few 
described by Stainton, our knowledge of the Australian species dales from a paper 
by Meyrick in the Proceedings of the Linncan Society of New South Wales in 
1880. To him we owe the present classification of the family, which was given 
in the Genera Insectorum in 1912, with the exception of the genus Phxliocnistis, 
which was included in this family in his Revised Handbook of the British Lepi- 
doptera in 1927. My own interest in the family commenced early; in fact, it 
was the main subject of my first entomological essay published in these Trans- 
actions in 1894. 

To those who contemplate the study of the smallest Lepidoptera the 
Grarihtrndac can be commended, as the family and genera are easy of recognition. 
In most cases their attitude of rest with the fore part of the body elevated and 
the legs displayed is characteristic. The presence in most of three-segmented 
maxillary palpi aids in their recognition, but in some these arc minute. The larvae. 
which in the majority of species mine blotches beneath the cuticle of leaves, are 
not difficult to find and rear. 

Family GR A C T L A R 1 1 DA E 

[lead smooth or more or less rough-scaled. Tongue well developed. 
Labial palpi moderate or long, straight or curved, usually slender and pointed. 
Maxillary palpi three-segmented, filiform, porrect ; seldom minute or rudimentary. 
Antennae as long as or longer than forewings, seldom shorter. Lorewings 
lanceolate or narrowly elongate; cell long, 7 to costa, 8 usually separate or absent, 
upper margin of cell usually obsolete in basal third. Hind wings narrowly 
lanceolate or linear; neuration sometimes much reduced; cilia 2 to 8. The scaling 
of the tibiae gives good generic characters. The family is probably an off-shoot 
from the Plutcllidae. 

Larvae with prolegs on segments 7, 8. 9 and 13, but not on 10; in 
Pkyllacmstis almost apodal; with few exceptions mining blotches in leaves, but 
sometimes in the latest stages leaving the mines. 

tTraws. Hz*y. Sol-. S.A.._ 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


Kky to Gexkra 

1 Posterior tibiae with dorsal series of bristles 

Posterior tibiae without dorsal scries of bristles 

2 Antennae with small basal eye-cap 

Antennae without eye-cap 

3 Middle tibiae with dorsal series of bristles 

Middle tibiae without dorsal series of bristles 

4 Middle tibiae elongate and thickened with dense scales 
Middle tibiae not thickened 

5 Head rough or loose-hai-red on crown 
Head smooth 

6 Korewings with 11 absent; maxillary palpi minute .. 
Forewings with 11 present; maxilliary palpi moderately long 

7 Head rough-haired 

Head smooth . . - ■ ■ • ■ • 

8 Face smooth; middle tibiae thickened with scales and hairs 
Face rough-haired ; middle tibiae smooth 

1 j Middle tibiae smooth 

Middle tibiae thickened throughout with dense scaics 

2 Phyllocnistis 

3 Citphodcs 

4 Cyphosticha 

5 Epiccphala 

6 Acroce reaps 

1 IJtJiocoUetis 

8 T-inmdora 
7 Aristara 

9 Parcclopa 
10 Cracilaria 


Mb. Verz., p. 423; Meyr., Proc. linn. Soc, N.SAY.. 190/, p. 51; Gen. Ins. 
Grac, p. 4. 

Head rough or loose-haired on crown; face smooth. Labial palpi short or 
moderate, porrect or drooping, filiform, pointed. Maxillary palpi minute or rudi- 
mentary. Posterior tibiae hairy or smooth, Forewings narrow; 3, 4, 6, 8 and 11 
absent. Hind wings linear-lanceolate or linear; cilia 4/5; 3, 4, and 6 absent. 

Type L. aluifoliclla Dup. from Europe. Larvae leaf -twiners; pupae within 
the mines. A genus of about 250 species almost confined to North America and 
Luropc, but with a few stragglers in India and Australia. 

1 ./.. stcphanota Meyr.. ibid. 1882. p. 199. Larvae mining blotches in the 
leaves of Dcsuwdiwm sp. and Kenned ya rubnennda ( Lcgununosac). 
N.SAY.: Sydney. 

2 I. aghwzoua Meyr., ibid. 1907, p. 51. N.SAY.: Sydney. 

3 L. dcsvwehrysa Low., ibid. 1897, p. 23. Ncpticula -nigricansclla Tcpper. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust.. 1899, p. 280. N.SAY.: Broken Mill; S, Aust. : 
Adelaide. Larvae mining leaves of Hardenbergia ovata ( Legiuninosae). 

4 I. acarcs Turn., Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1938, p. 100. Tasm. : Mount 
Wellington (4,000 feet). 

2 Gen. Piivt.locxistis 

Zel. Lin. Ent., iii, p. 244 (1848) ; Meyr., ibid. 1880, p. 173. 
Head smooth. Labial palpi moderate, porrect or drooping, filiform, slender, 
smooth, pointed. Maxillary palpi obsolete. .Antennae with basal segment slightly 


dilated and concave beneath to form a small eye-cap. Posterior tibiae with a series 
of long bristles on dorsum. Forcwings narrowly or very narrowly lanceolate; 
3 and 4 absent, 6 and 7 .stalked, 8 absent, 11 from beyond middle of cell. Hind- 
wings linear-lanceolate, less than £, cilia 5 to 8 ; 3 and 4 absent, 6 and 7 stalked. 
A genus of over 60 species represented in all continental areas. Some of the 
species are, as stated by Meyrick, amongst the smallest and most delicate of the 
Lepidoptera. Larvae apodal, mining leaves. Pupae in cocoons within the mines. 

5 P. leptomianta Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1923, p. 175. Qld. : 

6 P. atractias Meyr., ibid. 1906, p. 64. Qld.: Brisbane. N.S.W. : Sydney. 

7 P. diplomochla Turn., ibid. 1913, p. 175. Qld.: Bundaberg, Brisbane! 

8 P. diaugclla Meyr., ibid. 1880, p. 173, and ibid. 1906, p. 63. N.S.W. : 

9 P. acmias Meyr.. ibid. 1906, p. 62. N.S.W.: Katoomba. 

10 P. psychina Meyr., ibid. 1906, p. 62. W. Aust. : Albany. 

11 P. eurymochla Turn., ibid. 1923, p. 175. N. Qld.: Cairns, Athcrton. 

12 P. iodoccUa Meyr., ibid. 1880, p. 174. N.S.W..: Sydney. 

13 P. hapalodcs Meyr., ibid. 1906; p. 63. W. Aust.: Albany. 

14 P. triortha Meyr.. ibid. 1906, p. 63. W. Aust. : Carnarvon. 

15 P. citrclla Sttn., Tr. Ent. Soc, 1856, p. 302; Fletch. Mem. Dept. Agr. Ind.. 
vi (7), p. 171, and (9), p. 214; miniitclla Snel, Tijd. v. Ent., 1903, p. 87; 
citricola Nilobe., Formosa Agr. Rep., (8), p. 330. A pest on citrous trees 
in cultivation. N. Aust.: Darwin. Also from the Archipelago, Ceylon, 
India, China, Japan. 

16 P. cphimera Turn., ibid., 1926, p. 149. N. Qld. : Cairns ; Qld. : Macphcrson 
Range (3,000 feet). 

17 P. atranota Meyr., ibid., 1906, p. 64. N.S.W.: Sydney. 

18 P. cnchalca Turn., Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasm., 1938, p. 100. Tasm. * Hobart. 
The larvae were discovered by Dr. V. V. j. Hickman mining the leaves of 
Playianthcs sid aides (Malvaceae). 

Meyr.. P.L.S. N.S.W., 1897, p. 314. 

PJiri.vosceles Meyr., Jouru. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 1908, p. 814; Gen. Ins., 
Grac., p. 13. 

Head smooth. Labial palpi long, curved, slender, smooth. Maxillary palpi 
short, filiform, porrect. Antennae over 1. Middle and posterior tibiae and 
proximal tarsal segments with long bristly hairs on dorsum. Forcwings narrow, 
8 absent. Hindwings linear-lanceolate; cilia 6 to 8. 

Type C. thysanota Meyr. A development from Acroccrcops containing 
20 species recorded from Tudo-Malava and Australia. 


Key to Speciks 

1 Forewings with oblique fuscous sub-basal fascia holoteles 

Fore wings without oblique cub-basal fascia 

2 Forcwings with eight irregular transverse lines of fuscous irrora- 

tion in basal two-thirds lithographa 

Forcwings without such lines 






: Cairns. 
N. Old.: Cardwcll 

3 Forcwings with a fine oblique transverse line . . 
Forewings without oblique transverse line 

4 Forcwings with inwardly oblique line near middle 
Forewings with inwardly oblique line subapical 

5 Forcwings with four pairs of fuscous transverse lines 
Forewings without four pairs of transverse lines 

6 Forewings with fuscous apical fascia 
Forewings without apical fascia 

7 Forewings with blackish strigulae on dorsum 
Forewings without blackish strigulae ■ 

19 C. holoteles Turn., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1913, p. 185. Qld. 

20 C. lithographa Meyr., Gen. Ins. Grac, p. 13. N. Old. 

21 C. lechriotoma Turn., P.L.S.N.SAV., 1913, p. 185. 

22 C. niphadias Turn., ibid. 1913, p. 186. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

23 Cuphodes didymosticha n. sp. 

SiSn/xocrr /.^os, twin -lined 

$ j 6-7 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white. Antennae whitish* towards apex 
grey. (AM omen missing.) Legs whitish. Forewings narrow, apex obtuse; 
white; four pairs of fine pale fuscous transverse lines at one quarter, middle, 
three-quarters, and toruus; some fine dorsal strigulae; a fine longitudinal fuscous 
subterminal streak ; terminal edge fuscous ; cilia grey. llindwings linear- 
lanceolate ; grey; cilia 6, grey. 

N. Old.: Kuranda; two specimens received from Mr. V, P. Dodd. 

24 C. thysanoia Meyr., P.L.S.N.SAV., 1897, p. 314; so pho pasta Turn., ibid. 
1913, p. 185. Qld.: Brisbane, Rosewood. 

25 Cuphodes maculosa n. sp. 

maculosits, speckled. 

$ t 2,8 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax while. Antennae white with pale 
fuscous annulations; apex of basal joint blackish. Abdomen grey-whitish. Legs 
white with fuscous rings. Forewings narrow, obtusely pointed; white speckled 
with pale ochreous; dorsal edge suffused with ochrcous and with a series of 
minute blackish strigulae; similar strigulae towards apex and on edge of ternien ; 
cilia white, on tornus and dorsum grey. Hindwings linear-lanceolate; grey; 
cilia 6, grey. 

Qld. : Brisbane in September, Buudaberg in June and August ; nine specimens. 


26 Cuphodes habrophanes n. sp. 
af3po(f>avT)s, soft, gentle 

$ , 9 , 9-10 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white. Antennae white, towards 
apex grey. Abdomen white. Legs white with fuscous rings. Forewings 
moderately narrow, obtuse; white with sparsely scattered fuscous scales; a fine 
blackish streak on apex of costa prolonged into cilia ; cilia white, on tornus and 
dorsum grey. Hindwings narrow-lanceolate; grey; cilia 8, grey. 

Qld : Brisbane in September ; llundaberg in June and September ; nine 

4 Gen. Cypttosticita 
Meyr.. P.L.S.N.S.W., 1907, p. 61 ; Gen. Ins. Grac, p. 22, 

Head smooth. Labial palpi long, curved, slender, acute, smooth or with a 
tuft of hairs on second segment. Maxillary palpi moderate, filiform, porrect. 
Antennae over 1. Posterior tibiae with dorsal scries of bristles. Middle tibiae 
elongate and thickened with dense scales. Forewings narrow;, apex acute or 
obtuse. Hindwings narrowly lanceolate; cilia 5 to 6. 

Type C. pyrochroma. An Australian genus, of which Meyrick records one 
species from Ceylon. I regard this and lipicephala also as developments from 

Key to Spfxtes 

1 Labial palpi smooth .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 2 

Labial palpi tufted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 

2 Forewings without dorsal streak or series of spots . . 
Forewings with dorsal streak or series of spots 

3 Forewings with dorsal streak or spots yellow ...... 4 

Forewings with dorsal streak or spots white ........ 6 

4 Forewings with dorsal streak 
Forewings wnh dorsal spot only 

5 Forewings with dorsal streak indented hut continuous 
Forewings with dorsal streak interrupted 

6 Forewings with dorsal streak 
Forewings with dorsal spots only 

7 Forewings whitish with fuscous dorsal streak 
Forewings with whitish dots 

8 Forewings purple-fuscous 
Forewings ochreous- fuscous 




soph on ota 



1894, p. 128. Qld.: Brisbane, 
Qld.: Brisbane; Tweed Hds. 

27 C. microia Turn., Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 

28 C. Pyrochroma Turn., ibid. 1894, p. 129 
Macpherson Range (low level). N.S.W. : Lismore. 

29 C. pandoxa Turn., P.L.S. N.S.W., 1913, p. 186. Old. : Stradbroke Island. 

30 C. pcniconila Turn., ibid., 1913. p. 187. X. Old.: Cairns; Old.: Brisbane; 
N.S.W. : Murwillumbah. 

31 C. albomarginata Stin.. Tr. Ent. Soc, (3), i, p. 294, 1960. pi. x, f. 3. 
Old. : Brisbane, Tweed Hds. 


32 Cyphosticha dialeuca n. sp. 

StaAeuKos, white right through. 

$ , 9 ? 8-10 mm. Head and palpi white. Antennae pale grey with fuseous 
annulations. Thorax white; tegulae grey. Abdomen fuscous; tuft whitish. 
Forewings narrow,, apex obtuse; fuscous-grey; a white dorsal streak from base 
to tortus, broadest at base and gradually attenuated, unevenly edged ; costal margin 
pale grey with fuscous dots ; a white subapical dot partly edged with blackish ; 
cilia grey, apices dark fuscous, on tornus and dorsum wholly grey. Hindwings 
narrowly lanceolate; grey; cilia 5, grey. N. Qld. : Dunk Island in May; two 

33 C\ bryenmm Turn.. P.L.S.N.S.W., 1914. p. 
(4.500 feet). 

34 C. ostracodes Turn., P.R.S.Q., 1917, p. 88. 
(3,000 feet), Weldborough. 

35 C. zophonota Turn., P.R.S.Tasm., 1926, p. 159. 
(3,000 feet). 

5 Geil, El'ICEPHALA 

Meyr., Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 1880, p. 168; Gen. Ins. Grac, p. 13. 

Head shortly rough-haired on crown with longer hairs projecting anteriorly 
between antennae; face smooth. Labial palpi rather long, porrect or drooping, 
filiform, smooth, pointed. Maxillary palpi moderate, filiform, smooth, pointed. 
Antennae over 1. Posterior tibiae with series of dorsal bristles. Forewings 
narrow, pointed; 11 from before middle. Hindwings narrow-lanceolate, about 
|-, cilia 3 to 4 ; 3 sometimes absent, 5 and 6 stalked. There are some 30 species 
in India, Ceylon, Africa, and Australia. 

Type E, colymbctclla. As some of the Australian species are very similar 
and need considerable care in discrimination. I give a key to the species. 

563. N.S.W.: Ebor 

Tasm. : Cradle Mount 

Tasm. : Cradle Mount 

Key to Species 

1 Forewings with a white dorsal streak . . 
Forewings with a series of white dorsal spots 

2 Forewings with dorsal streak straight-edged or nearly so 
Forewings with edge of dorsal streak irregular 

3 Head ochreous on crown 
Head white 

4 Forewings with slender oblique costal streaks 
Forewings with costal streaks very short or dot-like 

5 Forewings with first costal streak prolonged to reach dorsal 
Forewings with first costal not reaching dorsal streak 

6 Forewings with two broadly suffused pretornal streaks 
Forewings with pretornal streaks slender, distinct . . 

7 Forewings with dorsal streak indented in middle 
Forewings with dorsal streak not indented in middle 

8 Forewings with slender oblique costal streaks 
Forewings with costal streaks very short or dot-like 









Additional distinctive characters arc given for each species. Owing to con- 
fusion of species, some of the localities previously given were incorrect. 

36 E. australis Turn., Tr. Roy. Soc. S, Aust., 1896, p. 2. Forewings with 
ground-colour fuscous-grey, much darker than in the other species; costal 
edge white from base to four-fifths; no antemedian costal streak. 
Old. : Brisbane. 

37 E, albistriatella Turn., ibid., 1894, p. 129. Forewings with costal streaks 
slender. This is the smallest species. N. Qld. : Magnetic Island; Old.: 
Yeppoon, Bundaberg, Nambour, Caloundra, Brisbane, Stanthorpe. 

38 E. ncphclodcs Turn., P.L.S.N.SAV., 1913, p. 177. E, stcphanophora 
Turn., Trans. Roy, Soc. S. Aust., 1923, p. 171. Forewings with costal 
streaks short and broad, the two posterior dot-like. Legs white with 
blackish rings. N. Qld.: Cairns, Dunk Island; Qld.: Brisbane, Strad- 
broke Island, Toowoomba. 

39 E. cugonia Turn., P.L.S.N.SAV., 1913, p. 175. Forewings with costal 
streaks very distinct, long, slender. The type is still unique. This species 
should not be confused with E. albifrons Sttn. Trans. Ent. Soc, (2), v, 
p. 122, 1859, from India. Qld.: Brisbane. 

40 E. irigonophora Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1900, p. 21. Forewings 
with first costal streak dot-like, the two posterior long and slender. 
X. Old.: Innisfail; Qld.: Stradbroke Island. Mount Tamborinc ; N.SAV. : 

41 E. lomatographa Turn., P.L.S.N.SAV ., 1913, p. 176. Forewings with 
costal streaks short and dot-like. Hindwings of male with blackish dorsal 
line from base to one quarter. Qld. : Stradbroke Island. 

42 E. acrobaphes Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1900, p. 22. Forewings 
with costal streaks short and slender. Hindwings of male blackish in 
posterior half. Qld.: Brisbane, Stradbroke Island. 

43 E. colymbetclla Mcyr., P.L.S.N.SAV., 1880, p. 169; Gen. Ins. Grac, f, 8, 
E, frugicola Turn., ibid,, 1913, p. 175. Forewings with costal streaks long 
and slender, the first sometimes reaching dorsal streak. N. Old.: Cairns, 
Herberton, Dunk Island; Qld.: Brisbane, Stradbroke Island, Mount Tam- 
borine, Bunya Mountains. The larva feeds on the seeds of Phyllanthus 
E ordinandi (Buphorbiaccac) and the perfect insect emerges inside the 
capsule, where it remains until liberated by the dehiscence. 

44 Epicephala zalosticha n. sp. 
itiAmrrtxm, white-lined, like the surf 
$ , 2 , 10-12 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white. Antennae and abdomen 
grey. Legs pale grey with whitish rings. Forewings grey with Avhite markings; 
three short dot-like streaks at one-third, middle, and two-thirds; a broad dorsal 
streak deeply indented before and after a median projection, with a continuation 
to middle of tcrmen, this portion being irregularly thickened and including one or 


two fine grey lines; a leaden-fuscous transverse line from five-sixths costa to 
tornus; apical area beyond this whitish with a blackish central spot surrounded 
by grey; cilia grey, bases and apices blackish, on tornus and dorsum wholly grey. 
Hindwings lanceolate; grey; cilia 4; grey. Old.: Stradbroke Island, Tweed Hds.; 
N.S.W.: Sydney. 
45 E. epimcta Turn., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1913, p. 183. N. Qld. : Cairns; Qld. : 
Brisbane, Toowoomba. 

6 Gen. Acrocercops 

Wlgrn. Ent. Tidskr., ii, p. 95; Meyr., Gen. Ins. Grac, p. 14. Conopomorpha 
Meyr., P.I ..S. N.S.W., 1907, p. 54 

Head smooth. Labial palpi moderately long, straight or curved, perfect or 
drooping, or curved upwards, usually smooth but sometimes rough-scaled or with 
a tuft on second segment, pointed. Maxillary palpi short or moderate, rarely 
minute or obsolete. Antennae as long as or longer than forewings. Middle tibiae 
not thickened. Posterior tibiae with a regular series of dorsal bristles. Fore- 
wings narrow; 3 sometimes absent, 6 and 7 sometimes stalked, 11 from before 
middle. Hindwings narrowly lanceolate or linear-lanceolate; cilia 4 to 8. 

Type A. brouguiardella Fab., from Europe. 

This genus comprises about 240 species and is represented in all regions, but 
is most numerous in Indo-Malaya and Australia. In the latter most of the species 
occur in the eastern coastal region from Sydney northwards. Larvae usually 
minino- blotches in leaves, seldom in fruits or galls. Pupae sometimes within the 


mines, more often in a cocoon outside. 

The species may usually be easily recognised from their peculiar resting 
position with the anterior end raised upwards and the conspicuous maxillary 
palpi, but the first four species are exceptional in having these minute or obsolete. 
From the other nearly allied genera it is distinguished by the scaling of the middle 
and posterior tibiae. 

Among the numerous species three natural groups may be recognised: 
(1) Those with minute maxillary palpi and brassy-metallic forewings with white 
costal and dorsal streaks. (2) Those with one or more white transverse fasciae. 
(3) Those with a white longitudinal streak on or near dorsum. The remaining 
species are diversified and not adapted for grouping. 

46 A. cupetala Meyr., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1880, p. 160. Qld.: Nambour. Brisbane. 

47 A. cumctaUa Meyr., ibid, p. 160. Larvae in galls on Acacia. Qld.: Bris- 
bane, Toowoomba, Warwick, Bunya Mountains (3,500 feet); N.S.W. : 

Sydney ; Vict. : Gisborne ; Tasm. : Mount Wellington (1,500 feet), 

48 A. heliopla Meyr., ibid., 1907, p. 57. Qld.: Brisbane; Tasm,: Hobart. 

49 A. alysidoia Meyr., ibid, 1880, p. 161; Gen. Ins. Grac, f. 10. Larvae in 
phyllodia of Acacia longifolia. Qld. : Brisbane, Warwick ; N.S.W. : Sydney ; 
Vict.: Sale, Healesville; S. Aust. : Port Lincoln; W. Aust. : Albany., Perth. 


50 A. tricalyx Meyr., Exot. Mocro., ii, p. 465. N. Qld. : Cairns. 

51 A mcsochacia Mcyr., ibid., ii, p. 294. Old.: Brisbane. 

52 A. ordinatella Meyr., P.L.S. N.S.W., 1880, p. 145, and Exot. Micro, \ 7 
p. 624; Eletcher, Mem. Agr. Dcp. Ind., vi, (6), p. 146. N. Qld.: Cairns, 
Eungella; Qld.: Gympie, Nambour, Brisbane, Mount Tamborine, Mac- 
pherson Range (3,000 feet) ; N.S.W.: Port Macquarie, Sydney. Also from 
Ceylon and India. In India the larvae have been found in the leaves of 
Alscodaphnc seiiwcarpifolia and Litsca sp. (Lauraccac). 

53 A. irroraia Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1894, p. 124. Old.: Brisbane, 
Beaudesert, Toowoomba, Dalby, Milmerran, Cunnamnila ; N.S.W. : 
Sydney, Broken Hill; S. Aust.: Adelaide. 

54 A. pcricnnls Turn., ibid., 1923, p. 171. Old.: Tweed Hds. 

55 A. hedymopa Turn., P.L.S. N.S.W., 1913, p. 181. N. Old.: Cairns, 
Atherton Plateau ; Qld. : Nambour. 

56 A. apoblcpia Turn., ibid,, 1913, p. 180. N. Old.: Cairns. 

57 A. autadclpha Meyr.. ibid f 1880, p. 147; symphylctes Turn., -ibid, 1913, 
p. 179. X. Old.: Cairns; Old.: Brisbane, Mount Tamborine, Macpherson 
Range (3,000-3,500 feet); N.S.W. : Sydney. Mittagong. 

58 A. antigrapha Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1926, p. 147. Differs 
from A. autadclpha in the third fascia being broader on costa, and the 
presence of costal and dorsal spots beyond this, sometimes uniting to form 
a fourth fascia. Old.: Macpherson Range (3,000 feet), Buuya Moun- 
tains (3.500 feet). 

59 Acrocercops antimima n. sp. 
drrt/xt//(>5, closely imitating. 

2 . 11-12 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax white. Antennae and abdomen grey. 
Regs white with dark fuscous rings. Eorewings narrow, apex rounded; shining 
snow-white; markings brownish-fuscous edged with dark fuscous; a narrow 
basal fascia, succeeded by three rather narrow fasciae with irregularly dentate 
margins, sub-basal, at two-fifths, and at three-fifths; a fifth oblique fascia from 
four-fifths costa to termen above tornus, its anterior edge incurved; a large apical 
spot extending to termen, partly confluent with fifth fascia, leaving extreme apex 
and a dot on termen white; cilia on apex white with dark fuscous apices, beneath 
apex dark fuscous on a narrow band edged beneath with white, the remainder 
pale grey. Hindwings lineardanceolate ; grey; cilia 4, pale grey. Nearest A anti- 
grapha, from which it differs in larger size, fasciae narrow, differently shaped, and 
not straight-edged, and by the distinctive cilia. New South Wales : Ebor (4,500 
feet) in December; two specimens. 

60 A. macaria Turn., R.L.S. N.S.W., 1913, p. 181. Qld.: Caloundra (Bribie 
Island). A scries reared from larvae mining the leaves of Halfordia 
drupifera (Rutatcac). Very near the preceding, but the first three fasciae 
arc considerably narrower, and this difference appears constant. 


61 Acrocercops chionosemia n. sp. 

Xtovo<rr)fio<;, with snow-white markings 

i , 7-8 mm. Head whitish-grey; face white. Palpi white with fuscous rings 
on apex of second and middle of terminal joints. Antennae dark grey; basal 
joint white with fuscous apex. Thorax fuscous with a pair of white spots. 
Abdomen grey. Legs white with blackish rings. Forewings narrow, apex 
rounded; brownish-fuscous with snow-white markings; four transverse blackish- 
edged fasciae; first basal, very narrow; second at one-fourth, moderately broad, 
narrower on costa ; third median, narrow, more so on costa ; fourth at three- 
fourths, somewhat constricted in middle; a very slender interrupted blackish-edged 
line from costa before apex to termen ; a white apical dot; cilia white, apices 
fuscous, on lower termen and dorsum grey. Hindwings linear-lanceolate; grey ; 
cilia grey. Readily distinguished from A. macaria, to which it has a general 
resemblance, by the white apical spot on forewings and the different position of 
the fourth fascia, which in that species runs to termen. Old.; Macpherson 
Range (3,000-3,500 feet) in December; two specimens. 

62 A. tcirachorda Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 180. N. QUI.; Cairns. The fourth 
fascia is about twice the breadth of the other three. 

63 A. zaplaca Meyr., ibid, 1907, p. 54. Old.: Caloundra, Toowoomba ; 
N.S.W. : Sydney. 

64 A. anjyrod.esma Meyr., ibid, 1882, p. 194. Larvae in leaves of Grcvdlca 
linearis (Protcaccac) . N.S.W. : Sydney. 

65 A. clhwzona Meyr., Exot. Micro., ii, p. 291. Old.: Brisbane.. 

66 A. tricuncatclla Meyr., P.L.S. N.S.W., 1880, p. 146. Larvae in blotches 
on upper surface of leaves of Typha lalifolia (Typhaccac). Pupal cocoons 
inside the mines. Old.: Brisbane; N.SAV.: Sydney. 

67 A. caenothcta Meyr., ibid, 1880, p. 148. Larvae mine leaves of the 
Waratah Teh pea spcciosissinui (Protcaccac). N.S.W.: Katoomba. 

68 A. chionoplccta Meyr., ibid., 1882, p. 195. Larvae in leaves of Pliebaliuui 
denial nm (Ruta,ccac). N.S.W. : Sydney. 

69 A. leucotoma Turn,, ibid, 1913, p. 180. Old.: Brisbane. 

70 A. hoplocGla Meyr., ibid., 1880, p. 149; Gen. Ins. Grac. f. 7. Old.: Mount 
Tamborine. Yeppoon ; N.S.W.: Sydney. 

71 A. calkclla Sttn.. Tr. E. S., (3), i, p. 297, 1860; Meyr., P.L.S. N.S.W., 
1880, p. 150; Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 124. Larvae hi 
leaves of Eucalyptus sp. Qld. : Brisbane, Macpherson Range (3,500 feet) ; 
N.S.W.: Sydney, Buffi. 

72 A. albimaculella Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. Old.: Brisbane. 

73 A. archepolis Meyr., P.L.S. N.S.W., 1907, p. 56. S. Aust.: Wirrabara. 

74 A. cuchlamyda Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 126. Old.: 
Brisbane, Tweed Hds. 


75 Acrocercops isotoma n. sp. 
l<xoti/xo5, equally divided 

9, 8 mm. Head and thorax white. Labial palpi whitish with two fuscous 
rings. Antennae fuscous; basal segment white. Abdomen whitish-grey. Legs 
white with blackish rings (posterior pair missing). Forewings grey-brown; seven 
narrow, slightly rippled, equidistant, white, blackish-edged, transverse fasciae; 
first sub-basal; sixth incomplete, not reaching termen ; seventh subapical, con- 
stricted in middle; a blackish apical dot; cilia fuscous, apices grey, on toruus and 
dorsum wholly grey. Hindwings almost linear; grey; cilia 8, grey. N. Qld.: 
Yungaburra (Atherton Plateau) ; one specimen from a larva mining the leaf of 
an unidentified shrub; imago emerged in Brisbane in July. 

76 A. pyrigcucs Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1896, p. 1 ; niiidula Turn., 
ibid., 1894, p. 128 (praeocc.) ; Old.: Nambour, Brisbane. 

77 A. obscurdla Turn., ibid., 1894. p. 125. Qld. : Brisbane, Toowoomba, 
Tweed Hds. 

78 A. symploca Turn., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1913, p. 183. Qld.: Tweed Hds. 

79 A. polioccphala Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 182. Qld.: Brisbane. 

80 A. ophiodes Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1896, p. 2. Q. : Brisbane, 
Warwick ; \.S.\V. : Sydney. 

81 Acrocercops axinophora n. sp. 
tt£ivo0o/>os, carrying an axe 

9 , 8 mm. Head white, ochreous-tinged on crown. Labial palpi whitish with 
fuscous rings. Antennae fuscous, towards base white. Thorax white. Abdomen 
grey. Legs whitish with numerous fuscous rings; posterior tibiae wholly whitish. 
Forewings moderately narrow ; fuscous ; markings white tinged ochrcous and 
edged with blackish; a dorsal streak from base to one-third, thence continued as 
a broad slightly oblique fascia to one-third costa; a large semi-oval preterm I 
dorsal spot ; a smaller triangular spot on midtermen, its apex connected by a very 
line line with costa; two white streaks blackish-edged anteriorly from costa before 
apex to termen ; cilia white, apices blackish opposite apex, with a blackish sub- 
apical hook, on tornus and dorsum wholly grey. Hindwings linear-lanceolate; 
grey; cilia 8, grey. Near A, ophiodes, of which it is the western representative. 
The forewings are proportionately broader, the head and markings ochreous- 
tinged, and basal marking of forewings broadly axe-shaped. \Y. Aust.: Margaret 
River in November ; one specimen. 

82 A. plcctospila Meyr., Exot. Micro., ii., p. 469. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

83 A. doloploca Meyr., ibid., ii, p. 469. N. Old.: Cairns. 

84 A. callimacha Meyr.. ibid., ii, p. 293. Old.: Brisbane. 

85 A. prospcra Meyr., ibid., ii, p. 293. Qld.: Brisbane. 

86 A. leptalca Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1900, p. 21. Qld.: Brisbane. 

87 A. hctcropsis Low, ibid., p. 1894, p. 112. Old.: Duaringa, Charleville. 

88 A. chionochtha Meyr., P.L.S.N.SAV., 1907, p. 59. S. Aust.: Quorn. 


89 A. nereis Meyr., ibid., 1880, p., 163; fluorescens Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Aust, 1894, p. 127. Qld. : Brisbane, loowoomba; N.S.W.: Lismore, 

90 A. chalceopla Turn., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1913, p. 188; chalcca Turn., Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1926, p. 147. N. Qld.: Kuranda ; Qld.: Macpherson 
Range (3,000 feet). 

91 A. tristaniae Turn.,, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 130. Qld.: Bris- 
bane. The larvae mine the leaves of Tristania conferta and Eugenia 
ventenaiii (Myrtaceae) . 

92 A. retrogressa Meyr., Exot. Micro., ii, p. 467. Qld.: Brisbane; S. Aust.: 

93 A. parallcla Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 130, and ibid., 1926, 
p. 147. N. Qld.: Cairns; Old.: Nambour, Caloundra, Brisbane, Tweed 

94 A. grammatacma Meyr., Exot. Micro., ii, p. 468. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

95 A. laciniella Meyr., P.L.S.N.S. VV., 1880, p. 164. Qld.: Brisbane, Mount 
Tamborine, Toowoomba ; N.S.W.: Sydney, Katoomba, Bathurst, Mount 
Kosciusko (5,000 feet); Vict.: Warragul, Gisborne ; Tasm. : Launceston, 
Deloraine, Campbelltown ; Hobart : Cradle Mount (3,000 feet); S. Aust.: 
Adelaide. Larvae mine the leaves of Eucalyptus. 

96 A. sicreomita Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 182. Qld.: Eidsvold, Brisbane. 

97 A. plebeia Turn., 1894, p. 131, and ibid., 1926, p. 147. Qld.: Brisbane, 
Toowoomba, Warwick, Stanthorpe; N.S.W. : Sydney. The larvae mine 
the leaves of Acacia podal\riacfolia, a native of Queensland, much culti- 
vated for ornamental purposes. Some years back this moth reached, or 
most probably was accidentally introduced into, Sydney, and multiplied to 
such an extent as to defoliate the trees. 

98 A. uniUncata Turn., ibid., 1894, p. 131, and ibid., 1926, p. 148. Qld.: 
Brisbane, Tweed Hds.. 

99 A. Icucomochla Turn., ibid., 1926, p. 148. Old.: Vqspoon; N.S.W.: 

100 A. didymclla Meyr.., P.L.S.N.S.W.. 1880, p. 164. N.S.W. : Sydney; Vict.: 
Melbourne ; S. Aust. : Peterborough, Port Lincoln ; W. Aust. : Albany. 
Larvae in phyllodia of Acacia longifolia and A. cidtriformis. 

101 A. ochroccphala Meyr., ibid., 1880. p. 162. N.S.W.: Sydney. 

102 A. ochridorsclla Meyr., ibid., 1880, p. 166. This and the following species 
are distinguished by the presence of a tuft of hairs on the second joint of 
labial palpi. N.S.W.: Sydney. Larvae mine the leaves of Phyllanthus 
Ecrdinandi (Jluphorbiaceac). 

103 A. acolclla Meyr., ibid., 1880, p. 167. N.S.W.: Wollongong. 

104 A. mclanommata Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 184. N. Qld.: Cairns, Atherton 

105 A. spodophylla Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 184. N. Old.: Cairns. 


106 A. ochroptila Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 181. N. Aust. : Darwin; N. Qld. : Dunk 
Island, Townsville. Larvae abundant in Townsville mining leaves of 
Tcrminalia caiappa (Combrctaceac). 

107 A. mcndosa Meyr., Gen. Ins. Grac, p. 16. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

108 A. lithogramma Meyr., Exot. Micro., ii, p. 296. Q. : Brisbane. 

109 A. hicrocosm-a Meyr., Gen. Ins. Grac., p. 18.; Fletch. Dep. Agr. Ind. (Ent.), 
vi, p. 153, pi. 38, f. 1. N. Aust.: Darwin. Also from India, where it has 
been bred from larvae mining the leaves of Ncphelium litchi (Sapindaccae). 

110 Acrocercops clisiophora n. sp. 
K\i<rio(f)opos, carrying a tent 

$ t 9,6-7 mm. Head and palpi white. Antennae grey, towards base white. 
Thorax grey with a white central spot. Abdomen grey. Legs white with fuscous 
rings. Forewings narrow, obtusely pointed; ochreous-grey ; a white blackish- 
edged sub-basal transverse line; two narrow oblique fasciae from costa at one 
quarter running to dorsum at one-fifth and three-fifths respectively, separating 
at a right angle, white with median blackish lines; a sinuate white blackish-edged 
subcostal line from one-half costa to beneath three quarters; between this and 
second fascia a suffused median blackish spot; a smaller blackish spot on costa at 
three-quarters; an oblique white subapical line edged anteriorly blackish; a white 
dorsal spot at two-thirds connected by a sinuate white line with midtcrmcn, both 
blackish edged; a white line on apical half of termen ; cilia grey-whitish with a 
blackish subapical line, on costa greyish-ocbreous, on tornus and dorsum grey, 
llindwings almost linear; pale grey; cilia 8. pale grey. N. Old.: Kuranda. neat 
Cairns, in June; five specimens. 

111 A. habrodes Meyr., P.L.S.X.S.W., 1907, p. 57. W. Aust.: Geraldton. 

112 A. pciiofjraplia Meyr., Exot. Micro., ii, p. 294. Qld.: Brisbane. 

113 A, antimacha Meyr., P.L.S.X.SAW, 1907, p. 58. \Y. Aust.: Geraldlon. 

114 A. cntcigera Meyr., Fxot. Micro., ii, p. 295. Qld.: Brisbane. 

115 A. ostcopa Meyr., ibid,, ii. p. 292. Old.: Brisbane. 

116 A. ennychodes Meyr., ibid., ii, p. 467. N. Old.: Cairns. 

117 A. trhigUlala Meyr., ibid., ii. p. 470. X. Qld.: Cairns. 

7 Gen. Aristaea 

Meyr., P.L.S.X.S.W., 1907, p. 52. 

Head and face loosely rough-haired. Labial palpi long, straight, pointed; 
second joint with long bristly hairs anteriorly. Maxillary palpi short, filiform, 
porrect. Antennae i. Middle and posterior tibiae smooth. Forewings rather 
narrow, dilated posteriorly, apex obtuse. llindwings lanceolate, apex acute; 
ci Hat ion 3. Probably correlated with primitive forms of Gracilaria. Monotypical. 

118 A. pcriphancs Meyr., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1907, p. 52, Gen. Ins. Grac, f. 5. 
Tasm. : Mount Wellington (2,500-3,000 feet). 


8 Gen,. Tim odor a 
Meyr., Tr. Ent. Soc, 1886, p. 295; Gen. Ins. Grac, p. 25. 

Head roughly tufted on crown, face smooth. Labial palpi long, curved, 
smooth, obtusely pointed. Maxillary palpi moderate, slender, porrect. Antennae 
over 1. Posterior tibiae rough-scaled above. Middle tibiae thickened and with 
long hairs beneath. Forewings very narrow, pointed. Hindwings linear; cilia- 
lions 5. Type T. chrysochoa Meyr., from Tonga Island. Besides this there are 
only another from Fiji and the solitary Australian species, which is unknown to 
me. The genus differs from Gracilaria by the roughly tufted head. 

119 T. cyanoxantha Meyr.. Exot. Micro., ii, p. 297. Qld. : Brisbane. 

9 Gen. Paeectopa 
Clemens. Proc. Acacl. Nat. Sci. Phil, 1860, p. 210; Meyr., Gen. Ins. Grac, 
p. 19. Macarostola Meyr., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1907, p. 62. 

Bead smooth. Labial palpi long, curved, slender, acute, usually smooth, but 
sometimes rough-scaled or tufted beneath towards apex. Maxillary palpi 
moderate, filiform, porrect, Antennae over 1. Posterior tibiae smooth. Middle 
tibiae smooth, but sometimes expanded with scales at apex only. Forewings 
rather narrow, apex obtuse or acute. Hindwings narrow])- lanceolate; cilia 3 to 6. 
Type P. Icspedezifohclla Clements, from Xorth America. Universally distributed ; 
about 60 species have been recorded. 

Larvae usually mining blotches in leaves, but sometimes in the latest stage 
rolling a piece of leaf into a conical chamber as in Gracilaria. 

120 Parectopa machaerophora n. sp. 

lMiX<'ipo<f>opos, carrying a dagger 

2 , 9 mm. Head and thorax white. Labial palpi white with fuscous rings 
on apex of second and middle of terminal joints. Antennae white annulated with 
i^\-cy. Abdomen pale grey. Legs white with fuscous rings. Forewings rather 
narrow, obtuse; whitish-grey; a broad submedian grey streak, partly suffused 
with ochreous, from base, terminating in a sharp point above tornus, its upper 
edge nearly straight, lower edge wavy; a white dorsal streak with a slight projec- 
tion at one-third, broadly suffused at tornus; two white fuscous-edged streaks 
from costa ; first at two-thirds strongly oblique, reaching middle of disc; second 
from five-sixths less oblique, ending in tornal suffusion; a black apical spot edged 
anteriorly by a white bar; an ochreous tornal dot; cilia on apex ochreous with 
grey apices, on each end of subapical bar white, on costa and dorsum grey; on 
tornus ochreous. Hindwings lanceolate; pale grey; cilia 3, pale grew Old.: 
Stanthorpe in September; one specimen. 

121 P. mnesicala Meyr.. P.L.S.N.S.W., 1880, p. 156. N.SAV. : Sydney, 

122 P. lygindla Meyr., ibid., 1880 p. 157. N.S.W. : Sydney. 

123 P. amalopa Meyr., ibid,, 1907, p. 63. W. Aust. : Albany. 


124 P. clcthrata Low., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1923, p. 57. S. Aust. : 
Wayville, Adelaide. 

125 P, thalassias Meyr., P.L.S.N.SAV., 1880, p. 158. Qld. : Stradbroke 
Island, Tweed Hds. ; N.SAV. : Newcastle, Sydney ; Vict. : Melbourne. 
Larvae in leaves of Lcptospermum lacvigatum (Myrtaccac) . 

126 P. toxomacha Meyr., ibid., 1882, p. 197. N.S.W. : Sydney. The larvae 
mine the leaves of Pultenaca sp. (Legitminosae) . 

127 Parectopa leucographa n. sp. 
\*vKoypa<f}0<;, with white markings 

9 , 8 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen fuscous. Labial palpi white; extreme 
apex of second joint dark fuscous. Antennae grey. Legs fuscous; tarsi with 
white rings. Forewings narrow, pointed; dark fuscous with white markings; a 
straight-edged dorsal streak from base to tornus ; four very short, oblique, equi- 
distant costal streaks, first at one-third, second at three-fourths; a white spot at 
apex and another larger at tornus; cilia fuscous (partly abraded), on dorsum 
grey. Hind wings linear-lanceolate; grey; cilia 4, grey. Old.: Bunya Mountains 
(3,500 feet) in March; one specimen. 

128 Parectopa cuphomorpha n. sp. 
Kovcf>o}A.of>(f)os, slightly built 

6 , 7 mm. Head white. Labial palpi grey; terminal joint white. Antennae 
whitish-grey. Thorax and abdomen grey. Legs whitish. Forewings very 
narrow, apex acute; grey with white markings; a narrow straight-edged dorsal 
streak from base to three-fourths; six fine streaks from apical fourth of costa ; 
first and second outwardly oblique; third and fourth less oblique; fifth and sixth 
transverse, subapical ; an apical blackish spot; cilia grey. Hindwings linear- 
lanceolate; grey, cilia 6, grey. Old.: Brisbane in December; one specimen. 

129 P. ophidias Meyr., P.L.S.N.SAV., 1907, p. 62. S. Aust.: Ouorn. 

130 P. trapezoides Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 123. N. Old.: 
Cairns ; Old. : Brisbane. 

131 P. actinoscma Turn., ibid., 1923, p. 171. Old.: Tweed Hds. 

132 P. thiosema Turn., P. L.S.N. SAY. , 1913, p. 188. N. Old.: Atherton 

133 P. curythwta Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 189. N. QUI.: Cairns. 

134 P. trriancJia Meyr., Kxot. Micro., ii, p. 296. Old.: Brisbane. 

135 Parectopa rosacea u. sp. 

rosaccus, rosy. 

9 , 10 mm. Head, palpi, antennae, and thorax white. Abdomen grey. Legs 
white. Forewings rather broadly lanceolate, apex pointed ; pale rosy except in 
costal area from near base to middle, which is grey-whitish; markings white, costal 
streaks partly edged with fuscous; lour slender oblique costal streaks, three reach- 


ing middle of disc from one-fourth, one-half, and three-fourths, fourth from 
seven-eighths to termen; a streak from one fourth dorsum very oblique to fold, 
thence less oblique to second dorsal streak, joined by a short longitudinal streak 
near its end; second from mid-dorsum to third streak, dilated and suffused near its 
end, its basal part edged discally with fuscous; a black apical dot preceded by a 
small white spot; cilia pale ochreous, towards tornus grey. Hindwings grey; 
cilia 3, grey. New South Wales; Ebor in February; one specimen received from 
Mr. G. M. Goldfinch, who has the type. 

136 P. agcta Turn, P.R.S.O., 1917, p. 87. Old.: Stradbroke Island, Tweed lids. 

137 P. viUlopcpla Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1926, p. 148. N. Old.: 
Cairns, Atherton Plateau. 

138 P. formosa Sttn., Tr. Ent. Soc, (3), i. p. 291. I860, pi. x. f. 1; Meyr., 
P. L.S.N. S.W., 1880, p. 153. Qld. : Stradbroke Island, Mount Tamborine, 
Tweed lids., Macpherson Range, Toowoomba; N.S.W.: Lismore, Gosford, 
Sydney - 

139 P. polyplaca Low., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 112; Turn., ibid., 
1900, p. 20. N. Qld. : Atherton Plateau ; Old. : Caloundra, Brisbane, Mount 
Tamborine, Tweed Hds. 

140 P. Ida Meyr., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1880, p. 155. Larvae in leaves of Eucalyptus 
S P- ^- Qld- : Atherton Plateau, Palm Islands : Qld. : Bundaberg, Brisbane, 
Toowoomba; N.S.W. : Glen Inncs, Sydney; Vict., Melbourne; W. Aust.: 



10 Gen. Gracilaria 
Haw. Lep. Brit., p. 527; Meyr., P.L.S.N.S.W., 1907; Gen. Ins. Grac, p. 25. 

Plead smooth. Labial palpi long, curved, slender, acule or rather obtuse, 
usually smooth, but second joint sometimes loosely scaled or tufted towards apex 
beneath, terminal joint sometimes loosely scaled or tufted anteriorly. Maxillary 
palpi moderate, filiform, porrect. Antennae 1 or over 1. Posterior tibiae smooth 
or shortly rough-scaled. Middle tibiae thickened with dense scales. Forewings 
narrow or slightly dilated posteriorly, apex obtuse. Hindwings lanceolate, linear- 
lanceolate, or linear; cilia 4 to 8. 

Type G. syringclla Fab., from Europe. The genus is universally distributed, 
and about 160 species have been recorded. The larvae mine blotches in leaves, 
afterwards usually rolling up a portion of the leaf into a characteristic conical 
chamber, seldom in spun-up leafy shoots. Pupae usually in the chamber, some- 
times in cocoons elsewhere. 

141 Gracilaria tessellata n. sp. 

lessellatus, set with small cubes or squares. 

S , 9 , 9-11 mm. Head and thorax pale grey. Palpi white; second joint of 
labial palpi with narrow apical and third joint with broad subapical fuscous rings. 
Antennae whitish amiulated with blackish. Abdomen grey. Legs white; anterior 


tibiae and thickened middle tibiae fuscous. Fore wings with costa straight to two- 
thirds, thence arched, apex obtusely pointed ; white with fuscous markings ; a 
broad very irregular streak on fold; four large roundish spots, first beneath mid- 
costa, second and third approximated in disc above tornus, fourth subapkal; on 
the edges of these markings and between them and dorsum and termen are 
numerous hue strigulae forming a tessellated pattern; costa finely strigulated ; 
cilia whitish sprinkled with fuscous, on termen and tornus grey. Hind wings 
grey; cilia 3, grey. The pattern of markings on the forewing is very peculiar, 
more like that of one of the Cossidae than anything 1 know of. The species, 
which has no close ally, may be put at the head of the genus. N.S.W. : Ebor and 
Mount Kosciusko (5,000 feet), in February ; three specimens received from 
Mr. G. M. Goldfinch, who has the type. 

142 IT. chaichoptcra Meyr, P.L.S.N.S.W.. 1880, p. 151. QUI. : Brisbane; 
N.S.W. : Sydney. 

143 G. octopunctala Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 123; Meyr., 
Exot, Micro., iii. p. 409, nee. Fletcher Mem. Dept. Agr. Ind., vi, p. 163. 
X. Old.: Cairns; Qld. : Brisbane; N.S.W. : Sydney. 

144 G. ischiastris Meyr., P.L.S.N.S.W, 1907, p. 66. N.S.W.: Sydney. 

145 G. lo.vocentra Turn., ibid., 1915, p. 194. N.S.W.: Ebor. 

146 G. lepidclla Meyr., ibid., 1880, p. 145. N.S.W.: Sydney. 

147 G. albkincia Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1900, p. 20. Old.: Rock- 
hampton, Bundaberg, Brisbane, Tweed Hds. 

148 G. plagata Sttn.. Tr. Ent. Soc, (3), i, p. 292, 1860, pi. x, f. 2; Meyr., 
P.L.S.N.S.W.. 1880, p. 144. Qld.: Brisbane. 

149 (;. alhispcrsa Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 121. Qld.: 

150 (/. chlorclla Turn, ibid., 1894, p. 121. Qld.: Brisbane. 

151 G. aitchctiddla Meyr, P.L.S. N.S.W, 1880, p. 143. N.S.W.: Bulli. 

152 G. cirrhopis Meyr, ibid., 1907, p. 66. Tasm. : St. Helens. 

153 G. curyenema Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1894, p. 122. N. Qld.: 
Eungella; Qld.: Brisbane, Macphcrson Range (3,000-4,000 feet), Too- 

154 G. crasiphila Meyr., Gen. Ins. Grac, p. 27. N. Aust.: Darwin. 

155 G. lophancs Meyr.. ibid., p. 27. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

156 Gracilaria adelosema n. sp. 
aB'qXmrrjiLos, obscurely marked 

£ , 10 mm. Head, palpi, thorax, and abdomen fuscous. Antennae grey with 
blackish annulations. Ecgs fuscous; tarsi whitish. Forewings narrow, obtuse; 
grey-brown densely sprinkled with dark fuscous; three obscure transverse fasciae 
formed by the absence of black scales at one-fifth, two-fifths, and three-fifths ; 
cilia grey-brown with fuscous points, on dorsum grey. Hindwings linear- 
lanceolate; grey; cilia 6, grey. Qld.: Bunya Mountains (3,500 feet) in February ; 
one specimen. 


157 G. xylophanes Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 123. Qld. : Bris- 
bane, Mount Tamborine. 

158 G. cuglypia Turn., ibid., 1894, p. 122. N. Qld.: Cairns; Qld.: Brisbane. 

159 G. panchrista Turn., P.L.S.N.5.W., 1913, p. 191. N. Qld.: Cairns, Dunk 
Island, Townsville. 

160 G. thiophylla Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 192; liparoxantha Meyr., Exot. Micro., 
ii, p. 297.' N. Qld. : Townsville ; Qld. : Brisbane. 

161 C, xystophanes Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 192. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

162 G. cuxesta Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 193. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

163 G. perixesta Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 193. Qld.: Caloundra. 

164 G. mcgalotis Meyr., Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist., Soc., 1908, p. 830; Turn., 
ibid. f 1913, p. 192. N. Qld.: Cairns. Also from India. 

165 G. crocostohx Turn., P.R.S.Q, 1917, p. 88. Qld. : Tweed Hds. 

166 G. acglophancs Turn., P.E.S. N.S.W, 1913, p. 191. N. Old.: Cairns. 

167 G. plagiotoma Turn., ibid., 1913, p. 190. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

168 G. aurora Turn., Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1894, p. 127. Old.: Brisbane. 

169 Gracilaria ecphanes n. sp. 
tV^avvys, shining 

2, 11 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous ; face white. Labial palpi 
with a small inferior tuft on apex of second segment; white with dark fuscous 
rings on apex of second and before apex of terminal joints. Antennae whitish 
annulated with dark fuscous. Legs fuscous; tarsi white with fuscous rings. 
Lorewings rather narrow, apex round-pointed; grey with purple gloss and a 
regular series of dark fuscous transverse strigulae, a large costal antemedian 
blotch shining yellow, its anterior edge from one-fourth costa nearly transverse 
and almost reaching dorsum, posterior edge from three-fifths costa and strongly 
oblique; cilia whitish-ochreous with basal, subapical, and apical dark fuscous 
lines, on dorsum grey. Hindwings narrowly lanceolate; grey; cilia 6, grey. 
N.S.W. : Sydney in October; one specimen. 

170 G. pcltophancs Meyr., P.L.S.N.S.W.. 1907, p. 67. Qld.: Toowoomba. 

171 G. sciitigcra Meyr, Exot. Micro, ii, p. 471. N. Qld.: Cairns. 

172 G. ocnopclla Meyr, P.L.S. N.S.W, 1880, p. 141. Larvae in leaves of 
Tetranthera fcrruginca (Laariueac). Qld.: Stradbroke Island; N.S.W.: 

173 G. leucolitha Meyr, Gen. Ins, Grac, p. 30. N. Aust.: Darwin. 

174 G. pedina Turn, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1923, p. 172. Qld.: Charle- 


Acrocercops Wlg-rn. .. 6 Cyphosticha Meyr. .. 4 Parectopa Clemens. .. 9 

Aristaea Meyr 7 Epicephala Meyr. . . 5 Phyllocnistis Zel. . . 2 

Cuphodcs Meyr .. .. 3 Gracilaria Haw. .. 10 Timodora Meyr 8 

Lithocolletis Hb. . . 1 


acarcs Turn. 

. 4 

acmias Meyr. 

. 9 

acrobaphcs Turn. 

. 42 

acLnosema Turn. 

. 131 

adelcsema n. sp. . . 

. 156 

aeglophanes Turn. 

. 166 

aeolella Meyr. 

. 103 

ageta Turn. 

. 136 

aglaozona Meyr. 


albicincta Turn. . . 

. 147 

albimaculelia Turn 

. 72 

albispersa. Turn. . . 

. 149 

albistriatella Turn. 

. 37 

albomarginata Sttn. . 

. 31 

alysidota Meyr. . . 

. 49 

cimalopa Meyr. . . 

. 123 

antigrapha Turn. 

. 58 

anLmacha Meyr. 

. 113 

antimima n. sp. . . 

. 59 

apoblcpta Turn. . . 

. 56 

archepolis Meyr. 

. 73 

argyrodesma Meyr. 

. 64 

atractias Meyr. . . 


atranota Meyr. 

. 17 

auchetidella Mcyr. 

. 151 

aurora Turn. 

. 168 

australis Turn. 

. 36 

autadeipha Meyr. 

. 57 

axinophora n. sp. 

. 81 

bryonoma Turn. . . 

. 33 

caenotheta Meyr. 

. 67 

calicella Sttii . . . 

. 71 

call'macha Meyr. 

. 84 

cilrclla Sttn. 

. 15 

citricola Nitobe . . 

. 15 

cJui'lcca Turn. 

. 90 

chalccopla Turn. . . 

. 90 

chalcoptcra Mcyr. 

. 142 

chionochtha Meyr. 

. 88 

chionoplecta Meyr. 

. 68 

chionosema n. sp. 

. 61 

chlorella Turn. 

. 150 

cirrhopis Meyr. . . 

. 152 

elethrata Low. 

. 124 

clinozona Me3^r. . . 

. 65 

clisiophora n. sp. 

. 110 

colymbctclla Meyr. 

. 43 

crasipbila Meyr. 

. 154 

crocostola Turn. 

. 165 



crucigcra Meyr. . . 
cuphomorpha n. sp. 

cyanoxantha Mcyr. 
desmochrysa Low. 
d'.aleuca n. sp. 
diaugella Meyr. 
didymella Meyr. 
didymosticha n. sp. 
diplomochla Turn. 
doloploca Meyr. . . 
ecphanes n. sp. . . 
enchalca Turn, 
ennychodes Meyr. 
ephimera Turn. . . 
epimicta Turn, 
euchlamyda Turn. 
euglypta Turn. 
oligemia Turn, 
cumetalla Meyr. . . 
eupetala Meyr. 
curycnema Turn, 
eurymochla Turn, 
eurythiota Turn. . . 
cuxesta Turn, 
formosa Sttn. 
fluoresceiis Turn. 
frugicola Turn. . . 
gramma taenia Meyr. 
liabrodes Mcyr. . . 
habrophanes n. sp. 
hapalodes Meyr. . . 
heclymopa Turn. . . 
hcliopla Meyr. 
hctcropsis Low. . . 
hierocosma Meyr. 
holoteles Turn. . . 
hoplocala Mcyr. . . 

ida Meyr 

iodocella Meyr. . . 
iophanes Meyr. . . 
irrorata Turn, 
iscbiastris Meyr. . . 
isotoma n. sp. 
laciniella Meyr. . . 
leehriotoma Turn. 
lepidclla Meyr. 
leptalea Turn. 
leptomianta Turn. 
leucographa n. sp. 

. . 114 

lcucolitba Meyr. . . 

.. 173 

.. 128 

leucomoehla Turn. 

. . 99 

. . 119 

leucotoma Turn. 

. . 69 

.. 3 

Uparo.nyit ha M eyr . 

. . 160 

.. 32 

bthogramina Meyr. 

. . 108 

.. 8 

lithographa Meyr. 

. . 20 

. . 100 

lomatographa Turn. 

. . 41 

. . 23 

loxoc:ntra Turn. 

.. 145 

.. 7 

lygaiella Meyr. . . 

. 122 

.. 83 

macaria Turn. 

. 60 

. . 169 

machaercphora n. sp. 

. 120 

. . 18 

maculosa n. sp. . . 

.. 25 

.. 116 

megalotis Meyr. . . 

. 164 

. . 16 

mclanominata Turn. 

. 104 

. . -15 

mendosa Meyr. . . 


. . 74 

mesochaeta Meyr. 

. 51 

. . 158 

microta Turn. 

. 27 

.. 39 

miltopepla Turn. 

. 137 

. . 47 

iii'iiutella Snel. 

. 15 

. . 46 

mncsicala Mcyr. 

. 121 

. . 153 

nereis Meyr. 

. 89 

.. 11 

nephelodcs Turn. 

. 38 

. . 133 

nigricanscUa Tepp. 

.. 3 

. . 162 

niphadias Turn. . . 

. 22 

. . 138 

obscurella Turn. 

. 77 

. . 89 

ochridorsella Meyr. 

. 102 

.. 43 

ochrocephala Meyr. 

. 101 

. . 94 

ochroptila Turn. . . 

. 106 

.. Ill 

octopunctata Turn. 

. 143 

. . 26 

oenopella Meyr. . . 

. 172 

. . 13 

opbidias Mcyr. 

. 129 

. . 55 

ophiodes Turn. . . 

. 80 

. . 48 

ordinaTelia Meyr. 

. 52 

.. 87 

osteopa Meyr. 

. 115 

. . 109 

ostracodes Turn. 

. 34 

. . 19 

paucbrista Turn. 

. 159 

.. 70 

panconita Turn. . . 

. 30 

. . 140 

pandoxa Turn. 

. 29 

. . 12 

parallela Turn. 

. 93 

.. 155 

pedina Turn. 

. 174 

. . S3 

pcltopbanes Meyr. 

. 170 

.. 144 

penograpta Meyr. 

. 112 

. . 75 

pcripbanes Mcyr. 

. 118 

. . 95 

pcrixesta Turn. . . 

. 163 

. 21 

pertenuis Turn. . . 

. 54 

. . 146 

plagata Sttn. 

. 148 

. 86 

plagiutoma Turn. 

. 167 


plebeia Turn. 

. 97 

. . 127 

pleetospila Mcyr. 

. 82 


poliocephala Turn. 

. 73 

symphylctes Turn. 

. 57 

trigonophora Turn. 

. 40 

polyplaca Low. . . 

. 139 

symploca Turn. . . 

. 78 

Iriorthra Mcyr. . . 

. 14 

prospera Meyr. . . 

. 85 

tessellata n. sp. . . 

. 141 

trisigillata Meyr. 

. 117 

psychina Meyr. . . 

. 10 

tetrachorda Turn. 

. 62 

Iristaniac Turn. . . 

. 91 

pyrigenes Turn. . . 

. 76 

thalassias Mcyr. . . 

. 125 

tyriancha Meyr. . . 

. 134 

pyrochroma Turn. 

. 28 

thiophylla Turn. . . 

. 160 

unilineata Turn. . . 

. 98 

relrogressa Mcyr. 

. 92 

thioscma Turn. . . 

. 132 

xylophanes Turn. 

. 157 

rosacea n. sp. . . . 

. 135 

thysanota Meyr. 

. 24 

xystophanes Turn. 

. 161 

scutigera Mcyr. 

. 171 

toxomacha Meyr. 

. 126 

zalosticha n. sp. . . 

. 44 

spodopliylla Turn. 

. 105 

t-rapczoides Turn. 

. 130 

zaplaca Meyr. 

. 63 

stcphanophora Turn. . 

. 38 

tricalyx Meyr. 

. 50 

zophopasta Turn. 

. 24 

stcphanota Meyr. 


tricuneatella Meyr. 

. 66 

zophonota Turn. . . 

. 35 

stcreomita Turn. 

. 96 


By J. W. EVANS, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

The Cercopoidea or "Frog-Hoppers" are a small and distinct group of plant bugs which are poorly 
represented in Australia; Tillyard (1926) records only thirty species as having been described from 
this region, but doubtless many more occur. 



By J. W. Evans, M.A., D.Sc, F.R.E.S. 

[Read 9 May 1940] 

The Cercopoidea or "Frog-Hoppers" are a small and distinct group of plant- 
bugs which are poorly represented in Australia; Tillyard (1926) records only 
thirty species as having been described from this region, but doubtless many 
more occur. 

The super-family comprises four families, the Aphropboridae, Cereopidac, 
Clastoperidae and the Machaerotidae. Nymphs of insects belonging to the three 
first-named families make and live in froth masses and are commonly known as 
"spittle insects," those of the Aphrophoridae and Clastoperidae living above 
ground, whilst nymphs of the Cercopidae are subterranean. 

The Machaerotidae occur only in Australia, Malaya, the Phillipines, India 
and Africa, and have nymphs which construct calcareous tubes on their food- 
plants, in which they live head downwards immersed in excreted liquid. Baker 
(1927) has divided the family into two sub-families,, the Machacrotinae and 
IJindoliinae. Representatives of both occur in Australia but the Ilindoliinae are 
by far the more abundant, anyhow,, in Eastern Australia. 

The earliest recorded observations of these tube-forming insects are those of 
Ratte (1884), who described and figured three types of tubes which he found in 
the neighbourhood of Sydney. He noted the fact that two kinds of nymphs 
occurred, one being provided with a broad circular plate at the end of the abdomen, 
whilst the other lacked such a plate. Two years later West wood (1886) described 
the adult of a tube-forming frog-hopper from Ceylon, giving it the name of 
Machacrota guttigcra. His correspondent in Ceylon, Mr. S. Green, found the 
nymphs on the Suriya Tulip tree ( Adams onia digit ata) , and wrote that the insects 
in the tubes seemed to be continually working the tips of their abdomens against 
and around the inside of the tubes, discharging at intervals clear liquid from their 
intestines; also, that when some of the liquid was allowed to dry on a piece of 
glass, practically no residue was left. 

In 1906 Kirkaldy described two species from Australia and figured the 
nymph of one of them, Polychactophycs scrpulida Kirk. He drew attention to 
the operculum on the abdomen of nymphs of this species, and was of the opinion 
that it consisted of the second and third tergites. Eater illustrations of nymphs 
or their tubes are given by Eefroy (1909), Hacker (1922), China (1927, 35), 
and Evans (1935). Hacker's are the most notable, as they consist of remarkable 
photos showing the emergence of adults of two species from their nymphal 
quarters. It may be seen from these photos that the nymphs of one species, 
Polychactophycs scrpulida have opercula, whilst those of the other Pcctinariophye$ 
pectinaria Kirk, lack them. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A.. 64 (1), M July 1940 


The purpose of the present paper is to describe and illustrate in greater 
detail than has previously been done the two types of Machaerotid nymphs, and 
to compare them with those of the Aphrophoridae. 

Figs 1-3 

Fig. 1, Nymph of Bafhylns aJbicincta (Aphrophoridae) in ventral aspect. 

Figs. 2 and 3, Machaerotid nymphs in ventral aspect 


In fig, 1 is shown a nymph of Bathylus albicincta Erichs. (Aphrophoridae), 
in ventral aspect, as representative of the type of spittle-forming nymphs. A 
detailed account of the morphology of nymphs of species belonging to this family 
has been given by Sulc (1911), and a popular account of the method of froth- 
formation by China (1927). 

There is a deep channel on the ventral surface of the body which extends 
from the apex of the abdomen, anteriorly as far as the third abdominal segment, 
where it branches into two, terminating on each side of the body at the anterior 
margin of the mcsothorax. The ventral surface of the channel consists of the 
abdominal sterna, and its walls of the pleura internally and the overlapping terga 
externally. The spiracles of each segment open between the sterna and pleura, 
whilst a very large trachea connects with a spiracle on each side of the hind 
margin of the prothorax. 


In the figure the channel is shown open, but it can be closed by the bringing 
together of the tergal-pleural flaps which overlap above it. During froth-forrna- 
tion it is closed, and air is drawn into it at the apex of the abdomen. The manner 
in which these insects form their froth is too well known to need repetition. 

A Machaerotid nymph of the non-operculate type, of which the specific 
identity is unknown, is illustrated in fig. 2. It resembles the nymph figured under 
the name of Pectinariophycs peciinaria by Kirkaldy, hence probably belongs to 
the genus Hindola Stal, of which Pcctlnariophycs Kirk, is stated by Baker (1927) 
to be a synonym. The head differs from that of B. albicincla in the elongation 
of the fronto-clypeus and in the comparatively longer labium and maxillary and 
mandibular stylets. Also the antennae, instead of being freely movable, lie closely 
opposed to the side of the head, directed posteriorly, suggesting those of a pupa 
of a holometabolous insect. Only a portion of the eye is pigmented and the legs 
are flattened against the body; the fore legs being directed anteriorly and the 
other two pairs posteriorly. 

The ventral air channel, which is of the same extent as with the Aphro- 
phoridae, instead of being temporarily closed by overlapping tergal and pleural 
abdominal flaps, is permanently closed, except at the apex of the abdomen, by a 
transparent membrane which joins the ventral edges of the terga. 

Figure 3 represents a nymph of the operculate type, probably of Chaetophycs 
compacta (Walk.). Another representative of the same species is shown in 
position in its tube in fig. 4. The operculum, which is formed from the ventral 
surface of the terga of the fourth, fifth and sixth abdominal segments, consists of 
three pairs of sclerotized plates. The pair belonging to the fourth segment is 
small, but this segment is larger and more distorted than the others and forms a 
''heel." The plates of the sixth segment overlap and conceal the three free 
abdominal segments. The air canal is identical in structure with that of the type 
of non-operculate nymph already described from its anterior branches as far as 
the middle of the fourth abdominal segment. Posteriorly, it is concealed, as the 
terga from the opposite sides of the body are joined along the mid-ventral line. 

Figure 5 is a diagram of a section through the centre of a nymph and shows 
the air canal, which is widest in the heel of the fourth segment. Three sets of 
muscle fibres arc indicated in the figure. These are the dorsal longitudinal tergal 
muscles, the ventral longitudinal sternal muscles, and the fan-shaped tergo- 
sternal muscles, which arise from the lateral walls of the abdomen. The points 
of insertion of the latter arc visible externally as pits (see fig. 4). 

In fig. 6 the air canal has been fully exposed by cutting the insect down the 
mid-ventral line and pulling apart the severed sides. There are eight pairs of 
abdominal spiracles; the pair belonging to the eighth sternitc arc close to the 
middle of the sclerite and not near the anterior border as in other segments. One 
pair of thoracic spiracles lie at the base of the hind wing-pads, the other pair 
are at the anterior ends of the canal and connect with verv lanre tracheae. 

n> o 


Figs. 4-6 

Fig. 4, Operculate form of Machaerotid nymph in its tube. 

Fig. 5, Median section through the abdomen of an operculate nymph, 

to show the air canal. 

Fig. 6, Ventral view of a tube-forming nymph with the air canal exposed. 


Tube Formation 

Observations made on the early stages of tube-formation by Green, and 
reported by Westwood, refer to the nymphs of Machaerota guttigcra Westw. 
Green observed newly-hatched nymphs in the middle of drops of froth, from 
which the walls of the tubes gradually arose. Froth is again formed prior to the 
final ecdysis as recorded by Ratte and Flacker, and it is probably produced at the 
end of each instar, since the insects have to emerge from their tubes in order to 
cast their skins. It is thus evident that the liquid excreted by the young hoppers 
has, like that produced by spittle insects, the properties of a soap solution. Ratte 
found the tubes to be composed of at least 75% calcium carbonate and 
considered the insoluble remains to be "chitinous matter," and Professor R, A. 
Peters who examined some tubes made by the nymphs of an African species, 
Aphrosiphon bauhiniae China (China, 1935), found that they contained 81*3% 
calcium carbonate. Dr. W. A. Lamborn, who first discovered this particular 
species, stated that the fluid excreted by the insects was rich in mineral matter 
which rapidly solidifies. Whenever liquid has been collected from tubes by the 
present writer, and allowed to dry on a glass slide, no deposit has been left after 
evaporation. The tops of tubes containing living nymphs are usually soft, whilst 
the first-formed parts appear to be of a different consistency from the rest, 
resembling hardened froth. 

The nymphs of Aphrophoridae have two pairs of glands, known as Batellis 
Glands. These He in the seventh and eighth abdominal segments and secrete a 
wax-like substance through external pores. Tube-dwelling nymphs have a pair 
of round yellow glands in each of the sixth, seventh and eighth abdominal seg- 
ments. These are doubtless homologous with Batellis glands. They have as well 
a large paired gland, the pseudovitellus, which lies on each side of the fifth 
abdominal segment. 

The nymphs that have been found in Tasmania during the winter months 
have been in their early instars, and immersed in fluid, but on the New South 
Wales highlands completely dry tubes have been found in the winter, closed at 
the top by a membrane and containing nymphs in the pre-imaginal instar. This 
suggests that development may cease during the cold weather and the last inslar 
be prolonged. At all seasons tubes are occasionally found containing no liquid 
and tightly closed by the insect's opercula, but the usual condition is for the insect 
to be totally immersed in its secretory and excretory products. 

If a tube is heated, the apical segment of the contained insect is at once pro- 
truded, the stale air expelled and a fresh supply taken in. Nymphs in tubes which 
were subjected to a temperature of 82° F. were found to protrude their abdomens 
into the air for intervals of five seconds, and then to withdraw them below the 
surface of the liquid for periods of ten seconds. If kept forcibly emerged for 
periods ranging from forty-five to ninety seconds, they will withdraw their stylets 
from the wood and back completely out of the tubes. 

Amongst many groups of insects, structural adaptations correlated with life 
in specialized environments are of common occurrence, but this is not so with the 
Homoptera-Auchenorhyncha. Tube-dwelling nymphs belonging to the Machaero- 
tidae are especially remarkable, since not only have they themselves created an 
environment of a specialized nature, but they have developed unique structural 
modifications to cope with their acquired environment. Wax production is of 
frequent occurrence amongst the Homoptera, and it is possible that the plates of 
the operculum are modified wax plates. Tufts of wax have been seen on the 
ventral surfaces of both the seventh and eighth abdominal segments of operculate 
and non-operculate nymphs. 

It is of interest to note that the nymphs of cicadas, many cixiids and certain 
cercopids, are subterranean. This may well be a primitive characteristic, possibly 
associated with severe weather conditions that ruled for a long time at some period 
of geological history, in areas where the forerunners of the present-day repre- 
sentatives existed. A root-feeding insect is not subject to such intense evaporation 
from its body-surface as is one that feeds above ground, and it is probable that 
the spittle-forming habits of the nymphs of the Aphrophoridae, and the tube- 
forming habits of the nymphs of the Machaerotidae are parallel developments, 
both serving to prevent excessive loss of body-moisture from organisms descended 
from subterranean ancestors. It is doubtful whether either froth or tube forma- 
tion serve to any great extent for protective purposes against insect parasites and 

Baker, C. P. 1927 Phillipine and Malaysian Machaerotidae. Phillipine Journ. 

Sci., 32 (4), 53 
China, W. E. 1927 Some Strange Relatives of the Frog-hopper or Cuckoo-spit 

Bugs. Nat. Hist. Mag., 1 (3), 71 
China, W. E. 1935 A New Genus and Species of Machaerotidae from Nyasa- 

land. Proc. Roy. Ent. Soc, London, 10, 81 
Evans, ]. W. 1935 Victorian Leaf -Hoppers, 'free-Hoppers and Frog-Lloppers. 

Vict. Nat., 52, 91 
Hacker, II. 1922 On the Emergence of Two Tube-dwelling Homopterous 

Insects. Mem. Qld. Mus., 7 (4), 280 
Kirkaeuy, G. W. 1906 Leaf-Hoppers. Hawaii Sug. Ass. Bull., 1 (9) 

Lefroy, M. 1909 Indian Insect Life, 732 

Ratte, E. 1884 On the Larvae and Larva Cases of some Australian Aphro- 
phoridae. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 9, 1,164 

Sulc, K. 1911 Ueber Respiration, Tracheen System und Schaumproduktion der 
Schaumcikadenlarven. Zeitschrift fur Wissenschaftliche Zoologie, 99 

(1), 147 

Westwooo, J. O. 1886 Notice of a Tube-making Homopterous Insect fro 
Ceylon. Trans. Ent. Soc, Lond.. 329 



Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide. 


Field observations have shown that Chortoicetes terminifera occurs as a solitary grasshopper over 
most of South Australia. The character of the winter inhibits the development of swarms in the 
agricultural areas; for several months of the year temperatures near the developmental zero are 
associated with a P/E ratio greater than 0.5. In the semi-arid area ("outbreak area"), further north, 
this condition does not apply and the insect is able to take advantage of the favourable conditions 
produced when rain falls in summer. 



By H. G. Andrew artha 
Waits Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide 

[Read 9 May 1940] 

Plates V to VIII 


Field observations have shown that Chortoicctcs tcrmlnifcra occurs as a 
solitary grasshopper over most of South Australia. The character of the winter 
inhibits the development of swarms in the agricultural areas; for several months 
of the year temperatures near the developmental zero are associated with a P/E 
ratio greater than 0*5. In the semi-arid area ("outbreak area*), further north, 
this condition does not apply and the insect is able to take advantage of the favour- 
able conditions produced when rain falls in summer. 

Jn the outbreak area the locust is associated with local situations which experi- 
ence a more humid eco-climate than the surrounding countryside. The boundaries 
of the outbreak area are determined largely by climate but the distribution of 
favourable habitats within the outbreak area is related to topography, vegetation 
and soil type. The most characteristic plants of locust habitats are the two 
perennial grasses, Eragrostis setifolia and E. Diclsii. 

There is considerable evidence that favourable weather for several successive 
years is necessary before a major outbreak can occur. Swarms are likely to 
develop in the outbreak area when ram is adequate during the warm months. Two 
or more favourable seasons in this way may be required to produce large or dense 
swarms. Similar conditions are necessary for swarms to develop in the inter- 
mediate breeding areas. For the outbreak to continue its development in the 
agricultural districts a dry autumn is required. This whole sequence is necessary 
for a major plague. The cycle may be broken at any point; when this occurs the 
incipient outbreak will be destroyed. 


In South Australia the Australian Plague Locust becomes a pest of major 
importance only when swarms occur in the agricultural areas. Such occasions are 
comparatively rare. The most recent outbreak occurred in the spring and summer 
of 1934-35; the one before that in 1890-91. Earlier records are inadequate, but 
probably there were major outbreaks in 1870 and 1845. Minor outbreaks may 
have occurred between these years; the absence of records does not necessarily 
mean that swarms of the locust were not present. For a discussion of the historv 
of outbreaks of Chortoicctcs icrminifera in South Australia see Davidson (9), 
Andrewartha (1). 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


This paper deals with the ecology of outbreaks in South Australia. The problem 
has involved a study of the geographic distribution of the insect, and the climate, 
vegetation, soil and topography of the outbreak area^> in this Slate. 

II Methods 

The distribution of the insect was studied by means of survey trips in a 
motor truck. The numbers in any locality were estimated bv counting the indi- 
viduals disturbed while walking a given distance (or time). All notes were 
referred to speedometer readings and later transcribed to maps. Observations 
and notes regarding habitats and vegetation were supplemented by photographs 
wherever possible. 

The analyses of monthly records of total rain, mean daily temperature and 
humidity for the month were made for a number of stations. Rainfall records 
from 82 rainfall stations were used (text hg. 1). Where the temperature and 
humidity were not recorded, values were computed by reference to appropriate 
stations, by allowing 3° F, for each 1,000 feet altitude and 2 per cent, relative 
humidity for each 1° F. 

The ratio of rainfall to atmospheric saturation deficit was used as an index 
of soil moisture. For discussion on the use of this index see papers by Davidson 
(5), (6), (7), (8), Prescott (14), (15), and Trumble (16). The relationship of 
saturation deficit to evaporation from a standard Australian evaporimeter may 
be expressed as E = 14'7 S.D. for the Adelaide evaporimeter or E — 21 "2 S.D. 
for twelve standard Australian evaporimeters for a month of 30 days, where E is 
total evaporation and S.D. the mean daily saturation deficit for the month/ 2 * 

In the present paper the critical low value for P/S.D. has been taken as 7. 
This corresponds to a P/E ratio of 05 using data from the Adelaide evaporimeter, 
and to 0-33 using data from the twelve standard Australian evaporimeters listed 
in the footnote below. For convenience, the figures for saturation deficit were 
converted to values for evaporation using data from the Adelaide evaporimeter. 
The rainfall-evaporation ratio has been expressed as P/E where P is the total 
rain, and E, total evaporation in points. The ratio has also been expressed as P/e 
in some instances, where e is the mean daily evaporation for the month. 

Not all rain is effective in supplying to the soil adequate moisture for plant 
growth or the development of the eggs of the locust. In an arid region, isolated 
small falls of rain do not sufficiently wet the soil (4), (12). In a given area where 
the total monthly rain was of the order of 10 points in the winter and 25 points 
in the summer months, a value P/E — 0-04 was obtained. This value has been 
selected, for the purpose of this paper, as the zero value for soil moisture. Values 
for P/E less than O04- are therefore considered to be equivalent to zero when 
calculating the expression PT/^e referred to below. 

O "Outbreak area" applies to all the area in which swarms may arise. Thik complies 
with the definition given in the Proc. Third International Locust' Conference London 
1934, p. 56. 

( 2 ) See Prescott (14). The evaporimeters were situated ai: the following stations- 
Perth, Brisbane, Sydney, Canberra, Dubbo, Eucla, Coolgardie, Merbein, Griffith; Waite 
Institute, Melbourne and Hobart. 


The value P/E = 0*5 (P/S.D. = 7) is taken as the lowest value at which 
adequate moisture is available in the soil throughout a given month. With higher 
values of P/E, the excess moisture is superfluous; during heavy falls of rain 
some is lost as "run-off." Values above 05 are therefore considered as equivalent 
to 0'5 when calculating the expression PT/^-e. 

The choice of P/S.D. = 7 as the critical low value for soil moisture implies 
the assumption that evaporation from a soil surface is half that from the Adelaide 
evaporimeter tank. Therefore the expression P/|e gives an estimate of the 
number of days during which soil moisture was adequate during a particular 
month, since P is the total rain falling during the month and Je is the estimated 
mean daily loss of water from the soil. 

Records of maximum and minimum temperature (mean daily for the month) 
were converted to effective temperature taking the developmental zero of 
C. tcrminifera as 60° F. (:i) The expression PT/^e has been used as an index of 
favourableness for the development of Chortoicctes tcrminifera, where P is the 
total rain in points, e the estimated mean daily evaporation in points, and T the 
estimated mean daily effective temperature, for each month. The expression gives 
a rational estimate of favourableness, since P/4e is an estimate of the number of 
days during which soil moisture was adequate; and the rate of development is 
proportional to effective temperature. 

Some of the data have been expressed as graphs. Each graph represents the 
mean for the stations in a district (text fig. 1). Districts 9 and 10 comprise the 
area between the 10-inch and 20-inch annual isohyets. The southern boundaries 
of districts 3, 4, 5 and 7 are formed by the approximate southern limit of the out- 
break area for Chortoicctes tcrminifera (see text figs. 3 and 4). 

Ill Distribution of Ctiortoicetes terminifera 
The Australian Plague Locust occurs as a solitary grasshopper over most of 
South Australia. It has been found wherever the survey trips have penetrated. 
The absence of records in text fig. 1 usually means that the area has not yet been 
surveyed, rather than that C. tcrminifera has not been found there. 

Although the species occurs so widely, it is nevertheless restricted to particular 
types of habitat. In the wetter zone of winter rainfall, i.e., districts 9 and 10 (see 
text figs. 2 and 3) the insects are reduced to low numbers between invasions. 
The survivors are usually associated with local situations which are more arid 
than the surrounding countryside, e.g., hill slopes and the sides of valleys and 
gutters. In the more arid zones (e.g., in the outbreak area) the insects are normally 
associated with "pockets" which are more humid than the general countryside. 
For a time after good rains the grasshoppers may be more widespread, but as the 
herbage dries up they are forced back to the local situations where ephemerals and 
perennial grasses may remain green for a much longer period. 

( 3 ) Based on unpublished work by Mr. D. C. Swan, who found that the developmental 
zero for eggs of Chortoicctes tcrminifera was 16*5° C. 


Text Figure 1 
Each circle on the map represents an actual survey record of the presence of 
Chortoicetcs termmifera. It was impracticable to survey the north-west. The 
boundaries of the districts used for the analyses of meteorological records presented 
in text figs. 2, 7 and 8 are also shown. The outbreak area lies north of the heavy 
black line. Most of the agricultural districts affected by the locust are included 

in district 10. 

IV The Ecology of the OuthkkAk Area 
(a) Climate 

The limits of the outbreak area are determined largely by climate. The 
favourableness of the summer period (measured as VT/le) (4) is remarkably 

( 4 ) This index does not take into account certain factors which tend to make the 
summer rainfall more effective in the drier areas. These factors are associated with low 
rainfall, absence of winter rainfall, and variability in the amount and distribution of the 
rainfall in the semi-arid areas (see below, p. 81). 


uniform over most of the State ; but there is a marked decrease in winter wetness 
(measured as P/E) from south to north (see text figs. 2 and 3). In text figure 2 
the districts arc arranged according to the wetness of the winter. Districts 9 and 10 
experience high rainfall associated with temperatures near or below the develop- 
mental zero for several months of the winter. These conditions do not allow the 
locust to develop into swarms. Probably the winter in districts 6 and 8 is favour- 
able to Chortoicetes terminifcra only in the drier years. 

JiANiKO MAR Ai"'*! MAT J"J.\* JUL .*."."G;"-? OCT Wry-.:. 

Text Figure 2 
Illustrating- the relative favourableness to Chortoicetes terminifcra of districts 
1-10 in South Australia, based on figures for mean monthly rainfall, temperature 
and estimated evaporation. The degree of wetness (measured as P/E) is indicated 
by the complete line. The shaded area indicates the length of the period for 
which P/E was greater than 0*5. The broken line indicates values for PT/le. 
High values for P/E associated with low values for PT/k represent conditions 
unfavourable to Chortoicetes terminifcra. Each graph represents the mean for 
all the stations in the district concerned. The boundaries of the districts are 

indicated in text fig. 1. 


The outbreak area is characterised by lower values for P/E and higher 
maximum temperatures during the winter. Its southern limit may vary from 
year to year; it may be defined approximately by the 16° C. isotherm for maximum 
temperature and the northern boundary of the "semi-humid" zone for the winter 
months (see text figs. 3 and 4). Swarms of the locust may develop throughout 
the whole area north from this boundary. The climate of this area resembles the 
climate of adjacent zones in New South Wales, Queensland and Central Aus- 
tralia (8). it is to be expected, therefore, that this outbreak area of Chortoicctes 
terminifcra extends into neighbouring States. 

The area associated with the River Murray needs special consideration. 
Reports from irrigation settlements along the river indicate that small swarms of 
Chortoicctes terminifcra may occur more frequently in this area than elsewhere 
in South Australia. Flood plains along the river may provide extensive favourable 
breeding grounds for the locust when soil moisture is adequate in the summer. 
Tills may occur relatively frequently since the river is normally at a high level in 
the spring or early summer. On the other hand, the winter in this zone is rela- 
tively unfavourable for the survival of Chortoicctes terminifcra (sec text fig. 3). 
Further observations are required to determine the origins of swarms in this area. 
It is possible that favourable conditions for breeding occur fairly often in the 
spring and summer, and that swarms may arise following an abnormally favour- 
able winter. A favourable winter may be one in which precipitation was low, or 
temperature high, or both. 

The mean monthly precipitation at six selected stations in the outbreak areas 
is given in Table 1. Three characteristics of the rainfall are important in relation 
to the ecology of Chortoicctes terminifcra: (a) The low rainfall results in the 
absence of an organised drainage system, consequently water tends to collect in 
local situations after rain, thus producing restricted areas where the eco-climate 
is more favourable than that of the surrounding countryside, (b) Associated with 
the absence of a reliable winter rainfall, the flora of the semi-arid area includes a 
high proportion of species adapted to take advantage of sporadic rains. Con- 
sequently rain falling at any season of the year may produce a luxuriant growth 
of ephemerals and herbaceous perennials. < 5 > (c) The annual rainfall in the out- 
break area is extremely variable. This may result, occasionally, in the run of good 
seasons necessary for the production of locust swarms. 

For the analysis of "effective rain" presented in Table 2, daily records from 
six stations for fifteen years have been examined. The "effective" rain has been 
expressed as a percentage of the total precipitation. Isolated falls of less than 
10 points between May to September and 25 points between October to April, 
also rain in excess of 150 points in one fall, have been considered as non-effective. 

O) The ephemeral and herbaceous perennial vegetation in the winter rainfall zone of 
South Australia consists largely of winter-growing species. Ram falling in the summer 
in this zone produces far less "herbage" lhan an equivalent fall in the northern arid 



The stations show no significant difference in the proportion (about 80 per cent.) 
of annual effective rainfall. The proportion tends to be higher in winter ; but this 
may not be significant. 

Osborn and his colleagues (12) showed that at Koonamore C6) only on one- 
third of the wet days did the rainfall exceed 25 points. It is not possible to dis- 
cover from their figures what proportion of the total rainfall was made up from 
falls exceeding 25 points. 








'alio greater tha 

mid [*\\\j ^ ratla between < *"<' ° 

,zzz * 

ratio between 0-5 and 0-23 
hi ratio less than 2.1 

Isothenn* of maximum temperature 

Text Figure 3 

Map based on mean monthly rainfall, temperature and estimated mean monthly 
evaporation (for 82 stations) for the winter period June- August, inclusive. The 
southern limit of the outbreak area for Chortoicetes termini f era is defined approxi- 
mately by the northern boundary of the semi-humid zone and 16° C. isotherm 

for maximum temperature. 

CO A station in district 8 just south of the outbreak area (32° 3' S, 139° 23' E.) 



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(b) Topography, Vegetation and Soil 

Apart from the elevated area associated with the Musgrave Ranges in 
the north-west of the State and a central tongue of highland running north from 
Cape Jervis to about the 30th parallel of latitude, most of South Australia is less 
than 1,000 feet above sea level. Districts 9 and 10 (text fig. 1) include nearly all 
the southern and central highlands. Practically all the outbreak area far 
Chortoicctcs tcrminifera lies below the 1,000 feet contour line; most of the. area 
is less than 500 feet above sea level. The surface is relatively flat. There is no 
seaward drainage system; after heavy rain water may run into local "swamps" or 
"Iakes" which may be dry for the greater part of the time. 

In the outbreak area Chortoicetes tcrminifera is associated with local situations 
which receive "run-off" after rain and thus experience a more humid eco-climate 
than the surrounding country. The physical features of these favourable habitats 
may take the form of watercourse, depression, flat or flood plain. In the terminology 
of this country a watercourse is distinguished from a creek in that it is usually 
wide and flat with no well-defined channel. The water is shallow and flows slowly; 
very little erosion occurs. A watercourse is an ideal situation for plant growth 
(see pi. v, fig. 1 ) . A creek is more definite. It usually carries more water between 
well-defined banks. Erosion is evident from the presence of water-worn stones 
and sand in the bed. A creek bed is not normally a favourable habitat for the 
locust. In certain cases flood plains associated with creeks provide favourable 
habitats (see pi. v, fig. 2). A swamp is any situation where fresh water lies alter 
heavy rains. A depression is a low-lying area where water tends to collect during 
rams but does not lie (sec pi. vi, fig. 1). A flat is a level area at the base of a hill 
or between two hills, and is frequently better watered than the surrounding 
country because it receives "run-off" from the hills (see pi. vi, fig. 2). 

These local situations may vary in size from a few square chains to many 
square miles. They may be more numerous in areas of lighter soil. Such areas 
are often characterised by gentle undulations with frequent and extensive water- 
courses „i the hollows (see pi. v, fig. 1). In "hard" country, on the other hand, 
drainage channels may commonly take the form of gutters or creeks which are 
normally less favourable for the breeding of Chortoicetes tcrminifera. Occasion- 
ally a creek flowing through "hard" country may form a favourable habitat for 
the locust (see pi. v, fig. 2). 

The distribution of vegetation over the State is closely related to topography 
and soil type. The distribution in the area inside the heavy line (text fio- 5) has 
been simplified after Wood (17). For the rest of the State T have adopted Wood's 
classification of association dominants. C« The boundaries have been determined 
byjhrecMDbserv ation for thos e areas where the locust surveys have penetrated 

< T ) Further subdivisions would probably be desirable for a more detailed acc^nTof 

unitTof tn?S ^\ m % " r temPted hl th, ' S PaPCr - ParticuI -l>- towards the nor 1 en 
limit* of the State the typical associations tend to become modified bv the presence of 
species characteristic of the summer rainfall areas. presence or 


(see text fig. 1); for other areas I have referred to the following sources: 
Prescott (13), the map of the Mackay aerial survey expeditions, and the journals 
of the early explorers. I am indebted to Mr. R. L. Crocker for certain informa- 
tion regarding the vegetation around Lake Eyre and near Birdsvillc. The area 
in the north-west of the State has not been included due to lack of information. 

Text Figure 4 

The approximate southern limit of the outbreak area is based on P/E ratio and 
maximum temperature for the winter (see text fig. 3). The probable distribu- 
tion of favourable habitats for Chortoicetcs tcrminifera is based on the distribution 
of the major vegetation types (see text fig. 9). 

In the area characterised by the Atriplex-Kochia association the soil is 
usually firm and compact. In the south the soil may be a loam overlying sheet 
limestone. Where the soil is more shallow Kochia predominates; on the deeper 


soils Atriplex may be more prominent. In the far north-west this association 
occurs on an undulating (often stony) tableland. The soil is deeper and heavier. 
The community may be more open, and certain species of Ercmophila and Acacia 
tclragonophyUum may be more prominent. In the south Stipa is an important 
grass; in the northern areas Asircbla becomes increasingly important on the plain, 
and Eragrosiis in the washes. In the wetter situations in this zone mulga occurs, 
particularly in the south, while further north gidgea (Acacia cambagei) also grows 
in the drainage channels. These often take the form of steep-sided gutters which 
are unfavourable for Chortoicetes terminifcra (see pi. vii, figs. 1 and 2). 
Restricted flats or swamps, or more extensive flood plains may provide favourable 
situations for the locust. On the whole, locust habitats occur rather sparingly in 
this zone. 

The Atriplex-SaHcornia association occurs on characteristic soil commonly 
described as "gibber" tableland (11). Irregular sunken areas, known as "crab- 
holes," occur. They arc relatively free from stones despite the essentially stony 
nature of the surrounding plain. Water tends to collect in the crabholes, and they 
support a wealth of ephemerals after rain; but they do not provide a breeding 
place for Chortoicetes terminifcra. Favourable habitats for the locust may be 
quite rare in the Atriplex-Salicornia zone. Associated with the "gibber" table- 
land are more or less extensive islands of sandy country. The sand ridges support 
mostly Acacia aneura and Cailitris. In between the ridges flat watercourses, which 
may provide favourable habitats for Chortoicetes terminifcra (see pi. viii, fig. 1), 

The soil in the Acacia Sowdenii zone is firm and shallow, the limestone layer 
being normally quite near the surface. The most common undershrubs are 
Kochia spp. ; where the soil is deeper Atriplex vesicarium also occurs. Spear- 
grass (Stipa) is prominent further south; it becomes less important towards the 
northern limit of this zone. Drainage channels frequently take the form of gutters 
or small creeks. Favourable habitats for Chortoicetes terminifcra are not common. 

The Acacia aneura association requires a less arid environment than the 
shrub steppe. In the areas south-east from Lake Frome and west from Lake 
Torrens this is provided by the lighter and deeper soils. Elsewhere mulga may 
be associated with local situations which are less arid, e.g., hill tops in the Flinders 
Ranges (17). Where the mulga reaches its maximum development the soil may 
be too loose, even in the hollows, to provide favourable habitats for the locust. 
Elsewhere, particularly where the Acacia aneura and Atriplex -Kochia zones 
merge the soil may be firmer; and favourable habitats for the locust may be 

The Hakea leucoptcra association occurs in an area of low sand-ridges. The 
northern part of this zone has not been examined. In the south the country is 
gently undulating. The dominant shrub on the rises is Hakea leucoptcra; 
important undershrubs are Atriplex vesicarium and Ercmophila spp. After rains 
Salsola Kali and ephemeral grasses are abundant. Between the sand-ridges exten- 


sive flat loamy watercourses may occur. Favourable habitats for Chortoiccics 
tcrminifera may be widespread in this area (see pi. v, fig. 1 ). 

East from Lake Eyre drifting sand dunes (see pi. viii, fig. 2) may be inter- 
spersed with areas of stony "tableland." This area has not been adequately 
examined. The shrub steppe association occurs in restricted situations. Towards 

Text Figure 5 

The distribution of the vegetation types inside the heavy line has been simplified 

after Wood. The area in the far North-west has not been examined. 

the Queensland border Mitchell grass (Astrcbla) becomes increasingly important. 
Probably certain of the associations occurring in south-western Queensland (3) 
extend their boundaries into this area. The great drainage channels of the 
Diamantina River and Cooper's Creek modify large areas of country. Favourable 


habitats for Chortoicctcs terminifera may be associated with these rivers; they 
may also occur in restricted situations elsewhere in this area. 

The probable distribution of locust habitats in the outbreak area, based 
on the distribution of vegetation types is indicated in text hg. 4. Favourable 
situations occur most frequently in those areas where the country is undulating 
and the soil light. These conditions are found in the southern parts of the dis- 
tribution of the Acacia ancura and Hakca leucoptcra associations. In the area of 
desert sandhills and on the gibber tableland suitable habitats may be quite rare. 
Elsewhere favourable situations may occur, more or less frequently depending 
upon the physical features of the area. Quite extensive favourable habitats may 
be associated with the flood plains of certain large creeks which occur in the shrub 
steppe zone. 

Typical situations which may provide favourable habitats for Chortoicctcs 
terminifera are illustrated in pi. v, figs. 1 and 2; pi. vi, figs. 1 and 2; and in pi. viii, 
fig. 1. Not all the better watered situations in the outbreak area provide favour- 
able habitats for the locust. The factors which determine favourableness are 
not fully understood. Probably the frequency with which the situation receives 
"run-ofT," the length of time that water may lie after rain, and the nature of the 
soil are important. Situations which receive 'Vitli-aff" only after an abnormally 
heavy rain may not support a perennial vegetation suitable for the grasshoppers; 
situations where water lies for long periods after rain are also unfavourable. The 
occurrence of loose sand or the presence of a high proportion of soluble salts may 
render a situation unfavourable. 

In the plant communities associated with favourable habitats herbaceous 
perennials, particularly grasses, are important ; and ephemerals are usually abundant 
after rain. The latter provide adequate food in a good season and the perennials 
allow a few grasshoppers to persist during dry times. The nature of the perennial 
vegetation may indicate a favourable situation. The love grasses Eragrostis 
setifolia and E. Diclsii are the most characteristic and important perennials in 
locust habitats. Other perennials commonly present include Panicum decom- 
posiium, Chloris divaricaia, Enncapogon nigricans, and Psoralca patens. In the 
more northerly areas Astrebla pectinata also occurs. 

A wide range of ephemeral species has been collected from locust habitats. 
The more important include Dactyioctenium radulans, Tetragonia eremaea, Calotis 
midticaiilis, Heliotr opium curopeum, and Bassia spp. Atriplcx angulositm and 
A. spongiosum may also be abundant. 

V Weather in Relation to Outbreaks 
The history of the most recent outbreak of Chortoicctcs terminifera in South 
Australia has been described by Davidson (9). In the present paper the meteoro- 
logical records for the critical years before and during the outbreak are discussed. 
The records for the years 1931-35 for the outbreak area and for 1934-35 for the 
invasion area have been examined. 


Conditions are favourable for the locust when rainfall is adequate during the 
summer, as high values for effective temperatures may be expected. Large parts 
of the outbreak area received rain well above the normal in March 1931. February 
1932, March 1933, and November 1933 (text fig. 6) ; the values for effective 
temperature were also favourable during these months. Maps similar to those in 
text figure 6 were prepared for the remaining months during 1931 and 1934, but 

Text Figure 6 
Shows isotherms of effective temperature for Chortoicetes tcrminifera (develop- 
mental zero taken as 15-5° C.) and the distribution of P/E for certain significant 
months during the development of the 1934/35 locust outbreak in South Aus- 
tralia. The stippled shading illustrates the distribution of the mean P/E for the 

same months. 


they are not presented due to lack of space; they show that favourable conditions 
obtained during other months. However, the data for the outbreak area have 
been summarised in text figure 7. Hie graph for each district represents the mean 
for all the stations in the particular district (see text fig. 1). The expression 
P'iyi e (s) j ias b een use d as an index of favourableness for the development of 
Chortoketcs terminifera. In order to allow for "non-effective" rain, values of 
PT/^e less than 2*5 have been considered equivalent to zero and values greater 
than 30 have been considered equivalent to 30. (0) The broken line shown in the 
chart of each district represents the mean for all the years that records have been 
taken; it has been included as a basis for comparison. In this case the rainfall 


1 J 7 ' 



Text Figure 7 

llr4 heavy black line illustrates fur each of the districts 1, 2, 4, 5, 7 (text fig. 1), 

the values for the expression PT/ic, month by month, for the years 1931-1935. 

The broken line represents the mean. 

figures were reduced to 80 per cent, of their recorded value to allow for non- 
effective rain (see. Table 2, p. 83). 

High values arc obtained for the expression PT/^-e when the rainfall is 
adequate during the warmer months. Due to the erratic rainfall in this area the 
same months were not always favourable over all districts, e.g., in March 1932 

( s ) See above, p. 78. 

( 9 ) These figures correspond to values for P/E of 0*04 and 0*5 respectively (see 
pp. 77 and 78). 


there was adequate rain in districts 1 and 5 but not elsewhere; February 1933 
was dry everywhere except in district 2. Important favourable periods (in addition 
to those illustrated in text fig. 6) occurred in April 1931, November 1932, and 
February 1934. It is clear from text figure 7 that all the districts in the outbreak 
area experienced numerous periods favourable for the breeding of Chorloicetcs 
terminifcra during the years 1931-34. As a consequence swarms developed in 
the outbreak area during this period. 

Swarms of the locust flew into the agricultural districts in South Australia 
and laid eggs there during the autumn of 1934. These eggs hatched in the spring 
of that year. The next generation laid eggs extensively in the invasion area 
(roughly district 10 of text f\g. 1) during the summer of 1934-35. By the follow- 
ing spring the outbreak had died out almost completely, and the locust had been 
reduced to its normal status as a solitary grasshopper throughout most of the 
invasion area (9). 

I I 






,' \ 




i , 


' , 


,' > 


i \ 








J *-v, x 





' \\ ' J 



■0 > 



JAN MAil MAY JUL itf ™u* -"•" ™«™ """' 

Text Figure 8 
Illustrating the values for the expressions P/E (broken line) and PT/ie (com- 
plete line) month by month for the years 1934 and 1935, for district 10 (text fig-. 1). 
The arrows indicate the approximate limits of the periods, during which the 
locusts were ovipositing" each year. 

The high rate of survival of the 1934 generation and the extremely high 
mortality of the 1935 generation were associated with the time of oviposition 
and the weather. From text figure 8 it is clear that the eggs laid in the autumn 
of 1934 did not experience favourable conditions for hatching until the following 
spring, since values for PT/^-e were low during the autumn and winter. Appar- 
ently the wetness (measured as P/E in text fig. 8) during July-August was not 
harmful to the eggs. The period March-April was important; in March the rain- 
fall was well below normal; in April certain areas received adequate rain but 
temperature was too low for the development of Chorloicetcs terminifcra (see 
text fig. 9). Consequently the locusts remained in the tgg stage during the 
unfavourable winter and were thus able to survive. 


The eggs of the next generation were laid earlier, mostly during December- 
January. Summer rains fell while temperature was adequate. There were 
several periods during the summer and autumn when conditions were favourable 
for the development of the eggs (see text fig. 8). Important favourable periods 
occurred in January, March, and April. The areas affected by the rain in January 
and March 1935 are shown in text figure 9; in both these months adequate rain 

Text Figure 9 

Shows isotherms of effective temperature for Chartoicetes termlnifera (develop- 
mental zero taken as 15-5° C), and the distribution of P/E for certain significant 
months during the course of the 1934-1935 locust outbreak in South Australia. 
The stippled shading shows the distribution of the mean P/E for the same months. 


fell over most of the area where eggs had been laid. As a consequence most of 
the eggs completed their development before the winter. Many nymphs died from 
starvation during the summer ;< 10 > very few survived the winter. Prolonged 
exposure, under humid conditions, to temperatures near developmental zero may 
produce high mortality among nymphs of Chortoicetes terminifera. 

It is clear that the locust is living in a difficult environment in South Aus- 
tralia, it may not develop swarms in the humid or semi-humid areas due to the 
marked winter incidence of the rainfall. In the outbreak area rainfall is so low 
that swarms may develop only when a sequence of two or three years experienc- 
ing abnormal summer rains occurs. Once swarms have been initiated in the out- 
break area they may migrate to the "fringe country" and the wheat belt where 
further generations may be produced. But existence in these areas is precarious; 
swarms may persist only if a dry summer and a dry or cold autumn inhibit the 
development of the eggs before the spring, as in 1934. All these conditions must 
be fulfilled before a major outbreak (on the scale of that of 1934-35) can develop. 
It is not surprising that widespread plagues develop only at relatively infrequent 
intervals; records show that they have occurred about once in forty years since 
the foundation of South Australia in 1836. 

These conditions are quite different from those occurring in central New 
South Wales, where important outbreak centres are situated in an area having an 
annual rainfall between 15 and 25 inches. A larger proportion of the rain falls 
in the summer, and the winter is warmer. Outbreaks occur more frequently than 
in South Australia (10). 

In South Australia the area in which swarms may develop is vast and thinly 
populated; much of it is virtually uninhabited. Consequently it is not practicable 
to undertake control measures against Chortoicetes terminifera in the outbreak 
area. Nor is it practicable to attempt to modify the environment in this area to 
prevent swarms developing. Control measures should aim to destroy the locusts 
in the agricultural areas; thorough preparation for and organisation of the control 
campaign is essential. From this point of view it is important to know where 
an outbreak may be initiated and to understand the conditions required for swarms 
to develop in the outbreak area. 

VI Acknowledgments 
This work was undertaken on the suggestion of Professor J. Davidson. Tt 
was largely his advice which determined the nature of the approach which has 
been made to the problem. The extensive field survey work which was necessary 
could never have been undertaken without the generous assistance of the Common- 
wealth Council for Scientific and Industrial Research who provided a motor 
vehicle for the purpose, and the State Department of Agriculture who arranged 
for a special grant for travelling expenses. The helpful co-operation of Mr. N. 
McGilp, President of the Pastoral Board, and many pastoralists living in the 

( 1L1 ) See footnote, p. 81. " 


areas visited is also greatly appreciated. I am indebted to Miss C. M. Eardlcy 
who identified the plants collected on the survey trips, to Mr. R. I.. Crocker for 
some observations regarding the vegetation around Lake Eyre and near Birds- 
ville, and to Professor J. G. Wood for some helpful criticism. I am indebted to 
the officers of the Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau, both in Adelaide and 
in Melbourne, for much helpful co-operation in the collection of meteorological 
records. A great deal of the routine work connected with the examination of the 
weather records was clone by Mr. F. Cook. Most of the diagrams and maps have 
been prepared by Miss H. M. Brookes. The photograph reproduced in plate viii, 
figure 2, was taken by my wife. The blocks for the illustrations shown in 
plates v-viii were kindly loaned by the Department of Agriculture of South 


VI! References 

1 Andrewartha, II. G. 1937 journ. Agric. S. Aust., 41, 366-368 

2 Andrewartha, II. G. ; Davjdson, J.; and Swan, D. C. 1938 Dept. Agric.. 

S. Aust., Bull. No. 333 

3 Blake, S. T. 1938 Proc. Roy. Soc. Old.,, 49, 156-204 

4 Cannon, W. A. 1921 Carnegie Inst., Wash., Pubn. 308 

5 Davidson, j. 1933 Aust. Journ. Exp. Biol, and Med. Sci., 11, 59-66 

6 Davidson, j. 1934 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 58, 33-36 

7 Davidson, J. 1935 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 59, 107-124 

8 Davidson, J. 1936 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 60, 88-92 

9 Davidson, j. 1936 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 60, 137-152 

10 Key, K. II. L. 1938 Counc. Sci. Ind. Res., Bull. 117 

11 Murray, B. J. 1931 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 55, 91-112 

12 Osborn, T. G. B.; Wood, j. G. ; and Paltridge, T. B. 1935 Proc. Linn. 

Soc. N.S.W.. 60, 392-427 

13 Prescott, J. A. 1931 Coun. Sci. and Ind. Res., Bull. 52 

14 Prescott, j. A. 1934 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 58, 48-61 

15 Prescott, j. A. 1938 journ. Aust. Inst. Agri. Sci., 4, 33-40 

16 Trumble, H. C. 1937 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 61, 41-62 

17 Wood, J. G. 1937 ''The Vegetation of South Australia," Govt. Printer 


Trans. Row Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate V 



Fig. 1 

Looking across a fiat watercourse in the Hakca leucoptcra zone. Several small 
shrubs of nccdlewood occur on the low sand ridges in the distance. The dominant 
grass is Eragrostis sctifolia. Other plants are Atriplcx angulatum, Daclyloctcnium 
radukins and Bassia uniflora. An extensive favourable habitat for Chortoicctes 


Fig. 2 
Flood plain of the Ycrilla Creek which flows through an area where the Alrtphw- 
Kochia association is predominant. Each row of Coolabahs (Eucalyptus microtheca) 
indicates a billabong. At least eight arc visible in this picture. After a heavy 
rain the whole of this extensive flood plain may be a favourable habitat for 
Chortoicctes tcrminifcra. Prominent plants are Eragrostis Diclsii, Dactyloctcnium 
radulans, Panicum decompositum, and Bassia spp. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. AtisL, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate VI 

Fig ; 1 
A local depression with Acacia Sowdcnii in the background. The plants in the 
depression include linncapoyon avenacatm. Tragus raccmosns, Dactylocieniunt 
radulims and Bassia paradox®, A restricted favourable habitat for CUortoicclcs 


Fig. 2 

This flat is a characteristic favourable habitat for Chortmcetes terminifcra in 

the Acacia ancura zone. The sandy hill carries Acacia ancura, Acacia Hurkiltii 

and Catlitris sp. The principal plants in the flat are two grasses. Enu/roslis 

sctifolia and Dactytocicninm radntans. 

Trans. Roy, Soc. S. Aust., 1940 

Vol. 64. Plate VII 

Fig. 1 

A view in the Atriplex-Kackia zone near the northern limit of its distribution. 
Mulga (Acacia aiwura) clothes the small channels that carry water away from 

the hills in the distance. 

Fig. 2 

A closer view of the drainage channel shown in fig. 1. Stony, steep-sided gutters 
Kke this do not provide favourable habitats for Chortoicctrx icrminifcra. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate VI TI 

Fig. I 
A watercourse between sandhills associated with an "island" of sandy country in 
the Airiplcx-Salieornia zone. The sandy banks support Acacia aneura, Mela- 
leuca sp. and CaJlistris sp. Important plants in the watercourse arc: Eragrostis 
sett folia, E. pilasa, Calotis mutticaiitis, C otocephalus multi flatus, and Bcrgia 
trimera. A favourable and extensive habitat for Chortaicetes t er mini f era. 

iMg. ,i 

A drifting sand dune in the desert zone. The tree is a stunted Coolabah (Eucalyptus 
microtheca). The other plants are mostly ephemerals. 


By T. HARVEY JOHNSTON and PATRICIA M. MAWSON (University of Adelaide) 


Some nematodes from South Australian marsupials have been dealt with in our earlier papers in the 
series. The present communication refers to material from the black- faced kangaroo, Macropus 
melanops, collected mainly by L. Dinning in the vicinity of Mundalla; the Flinders Range wallaby, 
Petrogale xanthopus; Pearson Island wallaby, P. pearsoni taken by Professor Wood Jones; Flinders 
Island wallaby, Thylogale flindersi, collected by H. H. Finlayson; and the Kangaroo Island wallaby, 
Thylogale eugenii. We have also included in our own study material from Peragale minor from 
Macdonald Downs in Central Australia, collected by the senior author. All the nematodes recorded 
in this paper, except Dipetalonema roemeri and Austrostrongylus thylogale, were taken from the 
stomach. The types of the new species have been deposited in the South Australian Museum. The 
present investigation has been undertaken with assistance from the Commonwealth research grant 
to the University of Adelaide. 



By T. Harvey Johnston and Patricia M. Mawson (University of Adelaide) 

[Read 9 May 1940] 

Some nematodes from South Australian marsupials have heen dealt with 
in our earlier papers in the series. The present communication refers to material 
from the black-faced kangaroo, Macropus mclanops, collected mainly by J.. 
Dinning in the vicinity of Mundalla; the Flinders Range wallaby, Pctrogale 
xanthopus; Pearson Island wallaby, P. pcarsoni taken by Professor Wood Jones; 
Flinders Island wallaby, Thylogale flindersi, collected by II. H. Finlayson ; and 
the Kangaroo Island wallaby, Thylogale eugenii. We have also included in our 
study material from Pcragale minor from Macdonald Downs in Central Aus- 
tralia, collected by the senior author. All the nematodes recorded in this paper, 
except Dipetaloncma rocmcri and Austrostrongylus thylogale, were taken from 
the stomach. The types of the new species have been deposited in the South 
Australian Museum. The present investigation has been undertaken with assist- 
ance from the Commonwealth research grant to the University of Adelaide. 

Nematodes recorded in this Pamper, arranged under tiietr Hosts 

Macropus mclanops Gould — Pharyngostrongylus alpha J. & M., P. beta ]. & M. ; 
Cloacina communis J. & M., C. parva J. & M., C. curia J. & M., C. obtusa 
J. & M., C. macropodis J. & M., C, australis J. & M., C. frequens J. & M., 
C. vcstibulata n. sp., C. longelabiata J. & M., C. hydriformis J. & M. ; 
Paramacropostrongylus typicus n. gen., n. sp. ; Dipetaloncma rocmcri (Linst.). 

Macropus robust us Gould — Dipctaloncma rocmcri (Linst/). 

Thylogale eugenii Peron and Lessueur — Zoniolaimits eugenii J. & M. ; Austro- 
strongylus thylogale n. sp. 

Thylogale flindersi Wood Jones — Pharyngostrongylus beta J. & M. ; Cloacina 
macropis j. & M. ; C. pctrogale J. & M. 

Pctrogale pcarsoni Thomas — Pharyngostrongylus alpha J. & M. ; P. beta J. & M. ; 
Cloacina pctrogale J. & M. ; Zoniolaimits longispicularis (Wood) ; Macropo- 
strongylus pcarsoni n. sp. 

Pctrogale xanthopus Gray— Pharyngostrongylus beta J. & M. ; Cloacina communis 
J. & M.; C. frequens J. & M. C. australis J. & M., C. carta j. & M., 
C. longelabiata J. & M. ; Zoniolaimus longispicularis (Wood). 

Pcragale minor Spencer — Physalopicra pcragale n. sp. 

Cloacina Linstow 
The majority of the nematodes obtained from Macropus mclanops and 
Pctrogale xanthopus belong to this genus, and we noted a similar occurrence in 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


M. riifus, M, robustus and P. lateralis from Central Australia (1938). The genus 
is much less commonly represented in collections of parasites from eastern Austra- 
lian marsupials. Since the genus predominates in drier regions it is probable that 
the eggs or larvae are more resistant. Nearly all the species now recognised from 
South Australian hosts were described originally from Central Australia, a fact 

Figs. 1-2, Cloacina vcstibidaia: 1, head, lateral; 2, posterior end, female. 
Figs. 3-5, Paramacropostrongyhis typicus : 3, extcrnodorsal and dorsal rays; 
4, head; 5, oesophagus. Figs. 6-8, MacropostrongyJus pcarsoni: 6, head; 
7, bursa; 8, posterior end, female. Figs. 9-10, Aitstrostrongyhis thylogaJr: 
9, bursa, dorsal view; 10, head, lateral. Figs. 11-12, Physaloptcra peragale: 
11, head, lateral; 12, bursa, ventral. 
Figs. 1, 6, 10 to same scale; figs. 2, 8 and 12; figs. 3, 4, 9 and 11. 


which is not surprising in view of the geographical and climatic continuity of the 
regions. The exceptions are C. obtusa, originally from M, rufus from western 
New South Wales, and C. vestibidata n. sp. Specimens of C. petrogale from 
Petrogale pcarsoni and Thylogalc flindcrsi, both insular species of wallabies, were 
smaller than the types but were of similar proportions. C. macropodis, first 
described from Central Australia, and later identified from eastern Queensland 
(1939), is now recorded from Mundalla, Hinders Ranges, and Flinders Island; 
it is apparently widely distributed. 

The following is a list of the species and their new host records : C. australis, 
communis, curia , frequens and longclabiata from Macropus melanops and 
Pcirogale xanthopus; C, hydriformis, parva, obtusa and vestibidata n. sp. from 
M. melanops; C. macropodis from M. melanops, P. xanthopus and Thylogalc* 
flindcrsi; C. pcirogale from P. pcarsoni and T. flindcrsi. 

Cloacina vestibulata n. sp. 

Figs 1-2 
From Macropus melanops, Mundalla. Male unknown. Female, about 2 mm. 
long; characterised by a peculiar development inside buccal capsule. Six low 
lips; two small lateral and four large, ''two-segmented" submedian papillae; leaf 
crown arising from about half-way up buccal ring, and below its origin a con- 
tinuous narrow shelf extending into mouth cavity. Buccal ring 0*056 mm. 
diameter, -022 mm. deep, base "035 mm. from anterior end of lips. Oesophagus 
•7 mm. long, with indication of median bulb where it is surrounded by nerve 
ring, -3 mm. from head, before widening to its posterior end. Excretory pore and 
cervical papdlae not observed. Posterior end narrowing near vulva to terminate 
in narrow pointed tail, -2 mm. long. Vagina about 1*2 mm. long; vulva -48 from 
tip of tail. Eggs in vagina about -16 by "OS mm. 

PnARYNcosTi^NGYLus Yorkc & Maplestonc 
P. alpha and F\ beia were both found in Macropus melanops and Petrogale 
pcarsoni; but only P. beta in Thylogalc flindcrsi and P. xanthopus. Both of 
these species have a rather longer vestibule than that figured for the type, but the 
differences appear to be insufficient to separate them off as new species. In P. bcia 
from Thylogale flindcrsi and P. pcarsoni the bristles on the oral papillae are bifid. 

Zoniolaimus Cobb 
Z. longispicularis (Wood) was obtained from P. xanthopus and P. pcarsoni; 
those taken from four specimens of the latter wallaby being much smaller than 
typical members of the species, but the proportions are consistent with those of 
Wood's species. 

Z. ciigenii, recently described by us (1940), was recognised in material from 
the type host species, Thylogale eugenti, from Kangaroo Island. 


Paramacropostrongylus n. gen. 
Trichoneminae. Long stout worms. Head with cuticular collar bearing six 
small papillae. Buccal ring short, cylindrical. Oesophagus widening posteriorly. 
Male: ventral rays parallel; externo-laterals divergent from laterals, externo- 
dorsal arising from base of dorsal; dorsal bifurcating about mid-length, each 
branch bifid at tip; spicules long, fine, with narrow striated alae. Female: tail 
tapering, vulva short distance in front of anus. Type, P. typkus n. sp. from 
Macropus melanops. 

The genus resembles Cyclostrongyhts and Macro postr on gylus in many 
features, but is distinguished from both in size and in the character of the 
externo-dorsal and dorsal rays; and from the latter by the absence of a leaf- 
crown. The external appearance is suggestive of Zoniolaimus but it differs in 
the structure of the head. 

Paramacropostrongylus typicus n. g., n. sp 

Figs. 3-5 
From Macropus mclanops, Mundalla. Female, 5*5 cm. ; male, 3 '6 cm. 
Mouth collar with six minute conical papillae; buccal ring stout, -032 mm. 
diameter, *02 mm. deep; oesophagus 1*8 mm. long, widening gradually after its 
mid-length to become twice as broad at posterior end. Nerve ring -5 mm. from 
anterior end. 

Male: Bursa large, lobes not deeply separated. Ventral rays together, cleft 
half their length, reaching edge of bursa. Externo-lateral ray shorter than 
laterals, stout; medio- and postero-laterals cleft three-quarters length, postero- 
lateral slightly longer, none reaching bursal edge. Externo-dorsal ray arising 
from base of dorsal, not reaching bursal edge. Dorsal ray stout, bifurcating after 
half-length, each branch bifid at tip. Spicules 3-5 mm. long, 1 : 10 of body length. 
Pair of prebursal papillae. Gubernaculum absent. 

Female: Body tapering to pointed tail, latter *35 mm. long. Vulva 1*3 mm. 
from posterior end ; vagina very short. Eggs 150 by 70 /a. 

Macropostrongylus pearsoni n. sp. 

Figs. 6-8 

From Petrogale pearsoni, Pearson Island, Great Australian Bight, coll. Prof. 
Wood Jones. Male, 5*5 mm; female, 6*2 mm. long. Anterior end flattened; 
with four rounded submedian and two large lateral papillae, each of the former 
with two setae. Buccal cavity in male *018 mm. diameter, 0*3 mm. deep, and 
from its walls -02 mm. from anterior end a downwardly projecting shelf com- 
posed apparently of numerous tooth-like projections. 

Male: Spicules broken, part remaining in body *85 mm. long Dorsal part 
of bursa much longer than ventral. Ventral rays parallel, cleft; externo-lateral 


separate from laterals for whole length; laterals cleft half length; externo-dorsal 
arising with laterals, distal half divergent from them. Dorsal ray bifurcatmg 
after half length into two long thin branches; at point of bifurcation a pair of 
short laterals, also a very short conical median projection. 

Female: Tail '41 mm. long, curved dorsally. Vulva '68 mm. from tip of 
tail. Eggs, -07--08 by -05- -06 mm. 

The species differs from any previously described in the genus in the 
characters of the head and buccal capsule, combined with the shape of the 

dorsal ray. 

Austrostrongylus thylogale n. sp. 

Figs 9-10 

From Thyloqalc eugenii, Kangaroo Island. Small coiled worms. Males 
3 mm and females 5 mm. long. Cuticle inflated in head and neck region tor 
■06 mm . and marked with wide transverse st nations. Behind this region six 
longitudinal, transversely striated ridges, lateral ridges wider than submedians. 
Buccal capsule 15 n deep and 25 p. wide at base; dorsal tooth 10 h long; ventral 
teeth 3 ft. Oesophagus -23 mm. long, surrounded by nerve ring just behind its 
mid-length and T5 mm. from head. Excretory pore T9 mm. from head end. 

Male: Spicules tapering, stout, -36 mm. long, about 1 : 9 of body length. 
Bursa large, with two large lateral lobes and a small dorsal lobe. Rays slightly 
asymmetrical, externo-lateral and medio-lateral of one side rather stouter than 
tho*e of the other, latero-ventral more slender on the former side. Ventral 
and lateral rays stout near base, tapering to tips. Ventro-ventrals bending 
ventrally, latero-ventrals more or less straight, neither quite reaching bursal edge; 
externo-lateral curving ventrally, medio- and postero-laterals bending dorsally at 
tip all three reaching edge of bursa. Externo-dorsals long, thin, arising from 
base of laterals, curving to reach bursal edge. Dorsal ray slender, short, giving 
off pair of rather long branches near its base, and dividing near its extremity 
into four short rays, the outer pair longer than the inner. 

Female: Body tapering to conical tail. Anus -05 mm. and vulva "42 mm. 
from posterior end. Eggs, "06 by "03 mm. (uterine). 

The species differs from the three already known in having three pairs of 
branches to the dorsal ray, instead of two pairs. 


This genus has not been reported from kangaroos and wallabies but is 
common in bandicoots, occurring in the stomach. We now record a second 
species, the host being the rabbit bandicoot or bilby, Peragale minor, from Central 
Australia (Macdonald Downs). 


. Physaloptera peragale n. sp. 
Figs. 11-12 
large stout worms. Males about 24 mm., females up to 30 mm. long. 
Cuticle finely striated transversely. In the four specimens available, the cervical 
cuticle does not cover the lips, but is wrinkled and possibly contracted. Two 
lateral lips each with a pair of sublateral papillae, and each with tripartite median 
tooth and a larger tooth external to it. Oesophagus 5*3 mm. long (in male), 
anterior part narrower and surrounded about its mid-length by nerve ring 
•42 mm. from anterior end of head. Excretory pore v mm. and short, stout 
cervical papillae -6 mm. from head end. 

Male: Bursa large, 1-25 mm. long, v mm. in maximum width at level of 
anus, median portion covered with longitudinal rows of bosses, lateral parts free 
from them. Bursal papillae irregularly arranged; three large pre-anal papillae on 
one side, five on the other; then one pair immediately pre-anal, two pairs post- 
anal; laterally from the last pair, a pair of larger papillae; and then posteriorlv 
six papillae arranged more or less medially, the series almost reaching tip of tail. 
Spicules obscured, larger probably '6 mm. long. 

Female: Tail rounded; anus *6 mm. from tip. Vulva 9*3 mm. from anterior 
end. Uteri full of oval eggs. 50 by 35/*,, with very thick shells and containing 

The species differs from P. peramclis in its shorter length and in having a 
larger bursa with more papillae. 

Dtpetalonema roemeri (Linstow) 
Specimens were identified from Ma-crop us robustus, Flinders Ranges (coll. 
If. R. Holmes), and M. melcmops, Mundalla. 




The specimens upon which this paper is based were recently discovered by Sir Douglas Mawson in 
the Flinders Range, South Australia, and I am greatly indebted to him for the opportunity of 
investigating this unique occurrence. These fossil sponges were Found in an horizon a little above 
the main Archaeocyathinae "reef," and proved to be one of the most remarkable discoveries of 
recent years. All previous records of sponges in the Australian Cambrian have been confined to 
sporadic occurrences of anchoring spicules and separated spongespicules scattered through the 
cherts and cherty limestones of that age. 



By Frederick Chapman, A.L.S., F.G.S., etc. 
[Read 9 May 1940] 
Plates IX to XII 


The specimens upon which this paper is based were recently discovered 
by Sir Douglas Mawson in the Flinders Range, South Australia, and I 
am greatly indebted to him for the opportunity of investigating this unique 
occurrence. These fossil sponges were tound in an horizon a little above the main 
Archaeocyathinae "reef," and proved to be one of the most remarkable discoveries 
of recent years. All previous records of sponges in the Australian Cambrian have 
been confined to sporadic occurrences of anchoring spicules and separated sponge- 
spicules scattered through the cherts and cherty limestones of that age. 

The present examples are remarkable in that they represent actual sponge- 
bodies, with the spicular structure more or less m position, and are, therefore, the 
first of their kind to afford definite evidence of their taxonomic position amongst 
Lower Palaeozoic sponges. 

General Description 

In general descriptive terms these ancient sponges are cup-shaped, varying 
from vase-like forms to elongate, almost cylindrical bodies. Since no other sponges 
comparable to these have hitherto been found in the Australian Cambrian, nor 
indeed in that formation elsewhere, morphological comparisons must be meagre. 
Their spicular structure, however, shows that they belong to the Lyssakine group 
of the Hexactinellida, in having the spicules of the skeleton separate, or united 
at a late period of growth in an irregular manner by siliceous masses or by- 
transverse synapticulae (Minchin, 1900, p. 121). That author has also pointed 
out that the Family Pollakidae, to which a related form, HyalostcUa was referred, 
"has been broken up and distributed amongst other families, and it only remains 
for the fossil forms to be similarly treated" (op,, cit., p. 123). It is therefore 
suggested here that the present Cambrian genus, ProtohyalostcUa and other 
related ones, as HyalostcUa (Cambrian to Carboniferous), should be placed in a 
new Family, the Hyalosteliidae. 

The present type of siliceous sponges from the Flinders Range does not 
appear to show any structural features common to the numerous genera described 
by Dr. C. D. Walcott from the remarkable assemblage of Middle Cambrian 
organisms of the "Wapta Pool/' British Columbia ; except it be the species, 
Protospongia hicksi, in which exceptionally stout cruciform spicules are present. 
On the other hand, it seems to be closely related in skeletal features to HyalostcUa 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


of the British Carboniferous, and, incidentally, to the already described 
Hyalostclia australis Eth. fit 

In the present fossils the wall is definitely densely spicular. These spicules 
are principally microscleres, which would naturally be held together by the flesh 
of the sponge in the living condition. These dermal spicules are mainly of a 
curved and fusiform shape (oxeote microrhabds) and occasionally acerate. The 
interior of these cup-shaped sponges seems to have been largely occupied by a 
comparatively coarse but loose spicular mesh, embedded in which, especially 
towards the inner dermal layer, are pin-shaped, cruciform, or even Jive- and six- 
rayed spicules, as in Hyalostclia, particularly in the Carboniferous examples, in 
places larger spicules (megascleres) are seen to fuse into a reticulate mesh, but 
only in rare instances, showing that they are normally loosely aggregated. The 
fusiform microscleres, which are an abundant feature of the outer wall of the 
cup, are also seen scattered throughout the inner portion, but more sparsely. All 
these spicular elements, when not re-crystallised, show the axial canal usually 
present in the Silicispongiae. The altered spicules have been changed in struc- 
ture to the form of polysynthetic quartz and chalcedony, and this almost invariably 
obliterates the axial canal. 

Where cruciform spicules can be recognised in thin sections they appear to 
closely resemble those of Hyalostclia from the British Carboniferous. As yet 
no anchoring spicules have been found associated with the sponges from the 
Flinders Range, so that no direct comparison can be made between these forms 
and the long rod-like spicules of Hyalostclia australis of Curramulka and the 
MacDonnell Ranges. 

The cruciform spicules seen in Protospongia, excepting in P. hicksi, are. more 
slender as compared with those in the present examples, nor do the latter show 
any fenestrate character essential to Protospongia, Moreover, the dermal layer 
of the cup in Protospongia appears to be characteristically tenuous. 

The spicular mesh of the inner cup in the present form, generically defined 
here as the type of a new genus, Protohxalostclia, is remarkably close to that of 
the genotype of Hyalostclia, PI. smithii (Young and Young), Zittcl, 1878, from 
the Carboniferous of England, Scotland and Ireland. The spicules of that genus, 
by the way, are occasionally accompanied by anchoring spicules (Hinde, 1887, 
pi. vi. figs. 2, 2a). The actual form of the sponge in Hyalostclia is unknown; 
therefore, on this and other grounds, it seems advisable to regard the Flinders 
Range fossils as generically distinct. 

Motes on Generic Standing of Pyritonema, McCoy } 1850 

This genus, with genotype P. fasciculus, was founded on "a fragmentary 
band of spicules embedded in dark limestone of Llandeilo age" (Hinde, 1888, 
p. 111). These remains have usually been regarded as anchoring sponge-spicules 
of a form met with in the living Glass Rope Sponge (Hyalonema). Similar 
fasciculate and elongated spicules, when occurring in the Australian Palaeozoic, 


have been referred to as Hyalostelia mislralis (R. Etheridge, jun., 1916). The 
species has occurred in the Cambrian of Curramulka, South Australia, and in 
the Ordovician of the MacDonnell Ranges, Central Australia. With reference to 
this record (Etheridge, jun., 1916, p. 149) that author says: "As a matter of 
priority the name Hyalostelia Zittel, 1878, should give place to that of Pyritonema 
McCoy, 1850. Dr. Hinde, however, has retained the former, but in the English 
edition of Zittel 's 'Text-book of Palaeontology' by Eastman the two are 
separately maintained, Pyritonema being defined as 'fascicles of long stout 
spicules, supposed to be 'root tufts'; whilst in Hyalostelia the anchoring spicules 
are root tufts composed of elongated, slightly bent fibres, sometimes terminating 
in four recurved rays/ " 

Dr. Ruedemann (1925, p. 36, et seq.) has placed Pyritonema McCoy in the 
.Family llyalonematidae, as Prof. RanfT has already done (1893, p. 257). This 
generic form has also been recorded under the name of "Leptomitus" sit tali by 
Walcott (1886, p. 89, pi. ii, figs. 2, 2a) from the Lower Cambrian of Vermont, 
U.S.A. Pyritonema is also known from the Ordovician of Britain (Tremadoc 
and Llandeilo beds) and Canada (Metis Shales) and the Ordovician of Scan- 
dinavia. Rauff would restrict Pyritonema as a Lower Palaeozoic genus and refer 
thc Carboniferous anchoring sponge-spicules to Hyalostelia. 

The present writer is of the opinion that Pyritonema, in conformity with 
its original definition and subsequent interpretation, as a band of spicules or 
"tubes" (anchoring spicules), should be retained for such, when not associated 
with undoubted spicules of the mesh; for, as Dr. IJinde remarked (1888, p. Ill) : 
''No hexactinellid body-spicules are as yet known in connection with this species 
(Pyritonema fasciculus McCoy), which is founded exclusively on fragments of 
tbe bundles of spicular rods forming the anchoring appendages of the sponge." 
The Australian form may, therefore, be regarded as a species of Pyritonema, 
I\ australis (Eth. fib). 

Systematic Description 

Order HEXACTINELLf DA Oscar Schmidt 

Sub-order LYSSAKINA Zittel 

Family HYALOSTELIIDAE nov. (Pollakidae Marshall, 1876. pars) 

Genus Protohyalostella nov. 
Siliceous sponges of Lyssakine affinities, that is, with the spicules of the 
skeleton cither separate or united at a late period of growth, the loosely con- 
joined spicules held together by the flesh of the sponge. The discovery of these 
sponges, having a definite cup- or vase-sbaped body, in so old a formation, makes 
it of outstanding interest. The chances of finding such fossils, in which the 
original skeleton was so loosely compacted, is slender indeed. 

The walls of the cup usually appear to be duplicated in these specimens, 
with an interspace of about 2 mm., the external wall measuring about 4 mm. and 


the inner about 3 mm. in thickness. Spicules of the wall massed together, con- 
sisting largely of curved, fusiform microscleres. 

The interior of the cup, more or less filled with disintegrated spicules, repre- 
sents what was once the spongy skeleton held together by tissues since destroyed. 

The external surface of the sponge, where preserved, shows a verrucose 
structure, resembling the surface of a gherkin. The border of the cup, forming 
the margin of a shallow cloacal cavity, is more or less elliptical, with, In places, 
an involute or vellicate (pinched up) portion. 

Protohyalostelia mawsoni sp. now 

Note — In view of the gradational variation in size, shape and relative propor- 
tions, it seems at present impossible to separate these fossil examples even into 
varieties. It may be sufficient here to regard them as conspecihe and monotypical 
of the genus, although morphological variations are indicated. 

The specimen, 4200 F (pi. ix, figs. 1 and 2) is here designated as the Holo- 
tvpc\, since it is the most typical of the series, showing the cup margin, doub'e 
wall, well-preserved external surface and general form of the sponge. In oral 
aspect the ends of the longer diameter show an angulation partly due to com- 
pression in the embedding stratum. There are also indications of an m vagina ted 
border or diverticulum, obscured, however, by weathering; these invaginated 
margins are also similarly to be noticed in some Cretaceous Ventriculites 
( Hexactinellida), as well as in the Calcarea. 

When examined microscopically, the wall of the sponge is seen, in most cases, 
to be formed of a dense mass of microscleric spicules, which are gently curved and 
acerate. This dermal wall shows a dark, smoky staining. A somewhat similar 
appearance is noted by Dr. Walcott (1920, p. 308) in connection with the Burgess 
Shale occurrence of Protospongia iiicksi, who states that it is due to abundant 
minute crystals of pyrites. In the present case this smoky tint appears to he due. 
when sections are examined under a high power, to finely disseminated crystals 
of specular iron or haematite. 

The weathered surface of the cup, where it has presumably been partially 
filled with matrix, exhibits etched and roughly areolate depressions, appearing in 
consequence almost tessellated. The lateral surface of the walls over a limited 
area, shows a verrucose character, as though encrusted with a hydractinian ; this, 
however, is probably due to the weathering of the skeletal structure of the sponge 

Length of sponge, 4200 F, 97 mm. Diameter at summit, 58 mm. x 36 mm. 

Description of Paratypcs: 

4200 B (pi. ix, fig. 3). Forma brcvis. Length of sponge-body, 52 mm. 
Surface of cup, 44 mm. x 27 mm.; with a shallow depression. Margin diverticu- 
late at one side and generally undulate. General form apparently somewhat 
flattened by subsequent compression in the stratum. 


4200 A (pi. \x, fig. 4). Forma gravida. Two adjacent sponge-bodies in the 
one rock specimen, indicating habit of forming small colonies. One is nearly 
complete in outline, the other showing about two-thirds of the rim. Cup originally 
nearly circular, 50 and 45 mm. in diameter. These cups have a shallow depres- 
sion, bordered by a thickened rim. The blackened surface of the rim extends in 
tliis case to the matrix between the adjacent sponges. The walls in these specimens 
measure circ. 5 mm. in thickness. 

4200 C (pi. ix, fig. 5). Forma prodncta. Length of sponge-body, 104 mm.; 
with marginal diameter of 39 mm. x 29 mm. A much more elongated form than 
the preceding specimens. Border of cup, irregularly undulate. 

4200 D (Form not illustrated). Sponge-body greatly compressed; long- 
eHiptical in section. Length unknown. 

Microscope-sections for study were made from this and the fallowing 
specimen (4200 E) ; the structures from these are shown on plates x-xii. 

Sections made from 4200 D appeared to pass through the cup and base, and 
portions are shown in pi. x, figs. 1 and 2. In both figures the curved and fusi- 
form microsclcres are seen to predominate, and have a fairly uniform length of 
0'214 mm. There are also present some occasional triactines with a length of 
0v mm., and hexactines 1*07 mm. long. 

4200 E (Form of Sponge not illustrated). A short, roundly outlined sponge- 
body. Micro-sections from this specimen show the spicular structure in good 

The cavity of the sponge is filled with loose meshwork of spicular tissue, 
in which elements having from 3 to 5 rays are seen. They range from about 1 mm. 
to 1-5 mm. in length, and are associated with some pin-shaped spicules; whilst 
numerous gently-curved and fusiform microsclcres, like those which make up the 
bulk of the sponge-wall, are sparsely scattered throughout. 

A good example of a 5- or 6-rayed spicule is seen in plate xi, figure 1, where 
a cross section of 4200 E was taken, cutting through the cloacal cavity with its 
loose meshwork. The rays in this spicule are stout and have a length of 0"8 mm. 
Triactines, tetractines and irregularly anastomosing spicular mesh are all present 
in this section. 

Plate xi. figure 2, taken from the same specimen, 4200 E, shows a pin-shaped 
spicule, with traces of an axial canal, measuring 0"8 mm. in length. There is also 
in this photograph a furcate spicule somewhat resembling that of Chancelloria 
drusilla Walcott, a genus which he places in the Hexactinel!ida. Since this type 
of spicule is unique in our micro-slides, it may be presumed that it is either 
aclventitious or merely an anchor-shaped spicule of the Hyalostelian group. The 
portion of figure 2 containing this spicule represents the wall of the sponge, the 
boundary line of the cup being noted between the arrows. 

The boundary between wall and cloacal cavity is also shown in plate x, 
figure 3, with less magnification. It is taken from a longitudinal section of 4200 E. 


The darker portion is the wall, with minute acerose spicules ; the lighter portion 
representing the loosely welded skeleton of the inner cavity. 


The Lyssakine Group of the Hexactinellida, to which Protohyalostclia un- 
doubtedly belongs, is acknowledged by competent authorities to represent a more 
primitive type than the Dictyonines, such as Ventriculites of the Chalk. The 
living representatives of the deep water Lyssakines comprise EuplcctcUa, 
Hyaloncma and several others, most of which are furnished with anchoring 
spicules by which they attach themselves to the bed of the sea in abyssal areas. 
Some of these living species occur, indeed, at a depth of only a few hundred 
fathoms, whilst Hyaloncma, the Glass Rope Sponge, ranges down to 2,550 fathoms. 
Remains of anchoring or tufted species are found fossil from the Cambrian to 
the present. 

Cup-shaped sponges of the Lyssakine group, on the other hand, were also 
most likely to have assumed their characteristic form when living just below or 
above the mud-line, from the earliest times. For evidence in support of this 
conclusion we may cite the sponge-fauna discovered some years ago by Dr. C. D. 
Walcott, where, amongst the fossils embedded in the black, silty shales of the 
Middle Cambrian, in British Columbia, such cup-sponges as Protospongia and 
the related but dictyonine Vauxia occurred in association, under similar fairly 
shallow conditions. 

Another Cambrian form that was vase-shaped is Protospongia hicksi Hinde 
(1888, pt. ii, pp. 107-108), which in dimensions and structural features, bears some 
resemblance to the present species. For example, robust cruciform spicules Occur 
in both, although this character may be common to more than one genus of this 
ancient group. P. hicksi also occurred in the Middle Cambrian black shales of 
British Columbia, of similar age to that of its original locality at St. David's, 
South Wales. 

The Cambrian and Ordovician genus, Pyritonema and Dower Cambrian 
Protohyalostclia, are therefore representatives of the ancient sponge fauna of 
abyssal and neritic habitats, respectively. 

It was hoped that this exceptional occurrence of well-preserved siliceous 
sponges from so old a formation as the Lower Cambrian might have thrown more 
certain light on the phytogeny, if not the ontogeny of the hexactinellid group. 
Suffice it to say, however, that the evidence here presented demonstrates the 
early existence of hexactines and triaxons, having definite axial canals similar 
to most modern types of this group. In Protohyalostclia many of the spicular 
elements are precisely similar to those of the Carboniferous Hyalostclia, even to 
the essentially Lyssakine characters seen in the loosely welded spicular mesh of 
the inner wall of the sponge skeleton. 

We must indeed go back in retrospect to a period long before the Cambrian 
in order to discover the true relationships, for example, between the Choano- 


tlagellata (probably through forms like Proterospongia) and the most primitive 
frame-building sponges. This transitional period would embrace such a theoretical 
phase as that suggested by Prof. Haeckel — the sponges acquiring the habit of 
secreting a siliceous skeleton from rooting in deposits of Radiolarian ooze, whilst 
the Calcarea may have likewise formed the calcareous spicular skeleton from 
immersion in Globigerina ooze. 


Dawson, J. W. 1896 Trans. Roy. Soc. Canada, ser. 2, 2, sect, iv 
Etheridgk, R., jun. 1916 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 40, 148-150, pi. xviii 
HiNDE, G. I. 1887 and 1888 British Fossil Sponges. Palaeont. Soc. 
McCoy, 1\ 1850 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 2, 6, 273 
Mjnciux, fc£, A. 1900 In Ray Lankester's Treatise on Zoologie. Part ii. 

Rauff, II. 1893 PalaeonLographica, 40, Memoir on Palaeospongiae 
Ruedemakn, R. 1925 N.Y. State Bulletin, No. 62. The Utica and Lorraine 

Formations of New York, pt. 2. Systematic Palaeontology, No. 1 

Plants, Sponges, etc. 
Salter, J. W. 1864 Quart, jouru. Geol. Soc, 20, 238 
Sciiulze, ¥. E. 1887 Report on the Hexactinellida. Results of the "Challenger" 

Expedition. Zool., 21, 
Walcott, C D. 1886 Bull. U.S. Geol. Surv., No. 50 
Walcott, C. D. 1920 Middle Cambrian Spongiae. Smithson. Misc. Coll., 67, 

No. 6. 
Zjttkl, C. von 1878 Handbuch der Palaeontologie, Bd. I, Eief. 2, 85 
Zjttel, C. vox 1913 Textbook of Palaeontology (Eastman). Second edition 


Plate IX 

Fig", 1 Proiohyaiosfclia mmi'soni gen. et., sp. nov. Holotype. Reg. No. 42(H) F. Lower 
Cambrian; Flinders Range, South Australia. Viewed from side. Circ. nat. size. 

Fig. 2 Ditto. Same specimen. Oral view. § nat. size. 

Fig. 3 Ditto. Para type of species ; forma brevis. A shorter form. Oral view. Reg. 
No. 4200 B. Slightly reduced. 

Fig. 4 Ditto. Paratype ; forma qrainda. More heavily built; two cups in juxtaposition. 
Reg. No. 4200 A. Slightly reduced. 

Fig. 5 Ditto. Paratype; forma producta. Elongated form. Reg. No. 4200 C. Circ. 
3 nat. size. 

Plate X 

Fig. 1 Protokyaiostelia matvsoni, gen. et., sp. nov. Tectotype, from 4200 D. Section through 
base of cup. Showing abundant microscleres ; also a stout, cruciform spicule. 
X 28. 

Fig. 2 P. mawsoni, Tectotype, from 4200 D. Section near base of cup. Showing abundant 
microscleres (rhabds of varying lengths), Also a pentactinal spicule in centre. 


Fig. 3 P. man'soni. Tectotype, from 4200 F. Showing dense with microscleres of 
outer wall below, and lighter mesh of the inner skeleton, anastomosing as in 
Hyalostelia, above. X 14. 


Plate XI 

Fig-. 1 P. mawsoni. Tectotypc, from 4200 E. Thin cross section through inner portion, 
showing a 6-rayed spicule, as in Hyalostclia. Also the general structure of the 
inner mesh. X 28. 

Fig. 2 P, mawsoni. Tectotypc, from 4200 E. Cross section through cup. Outer dense 
portion of wall. Shows a comparatively large pin-head spicule with canal; 
immersed in a mass of microscle-res (curved, acerose forms). This outer 
portion also shows a furcate spicule resembling Chanceltoria. Between arrows 
lies the boundary between the inner and outer tissue. X 28. 

Plate XII 

Figs. 1-8 Three, four and six-rayed spicules from the dermal and occasionally inner layer 
of Protohyalostclia. Compare similar forms figured by G. J. Hinde (1887, pi. iv) 
—JJyalastclia smithii (Young and Young) and H. parallcla (McCoy), from the 
British Carboniferous. Figs. 2, 4 and 8 are suggestive of imperfect terminals 
of anchoring spicules. Drawn from sections 4200 D and 4200 F. 

Fig. 9 Rayed spicule partially reduced to knobs, from inner part of the wall, section 4200 D. 
Compare Hinde (1887, pi. v, figs. 1 f, g) in Hyalostclia smithii (Young and 
Young) . Carboniferous. 

Fig. 10 Transverse section of rod-like spicule (rare), with large axial canal. Section 4200. 
From wall. 

Fig. 11 Pin-shaped spicule in wall. Section 4200 D. 

Fig. 12 Accrate microsclere of the wall (mingled with' smooth forms in all sections of 
ProioJiyalostelia). Compare similar spicules in Geodites of the Scottish Car- 
boniferous (Hinde, 1887, pi. v, figs. 3, 4 c). From 4200 D. Section through 

Fig. 13 Anastomosing spicular structure of the inner skeleton within the cup. Section 4200 D. 
Fig. 14 Coarse cancellated mesh-structure of the interior of the sponge-body. Section 4200 K. 

All figures magnified 37 times. 

frans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate IX 

F. C. photo 

Protohyalostelia juazvsom g, et., sp. nov. L, Cambrian, S. Aust. 

Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Aust. 1940 

Vol. 04, Plate X 

Fig. 2 

Fig. 3 

Structure in Protohyalostclia mawsoni gv et, sp. rtov.., L. Cambrian, S. Aust. 
V, C. photomier. 

Trans. Row Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate XI 

* :M- :"■; 

Fig. 1 

# *■' .« ■, Iff 

* ■: V. 

*■« ' * '? 
* * 

1 • 

#tt r : 

*?■ ■■ : --- t ^m Ml ■ '^ 

■Ml * ■** ^ "■ " *i 

■ ■ . - ■ ■ 


1, , # * ■ 

*JI ' *': * *'' '' * $ * * » *■ ■ 

******* » «w« ■:; 

* ;i ** ^. ■••■ *» " . ;■ 


Fig. 2 

Structure in Protohyalostelia matvsoni g. et., sp. now, L. Cambrian, S. Aust. 
F.C. photomicr. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate XII 


. V^V' 



X'. 7^ 

--t* -*•--■**- 


Spicular and Skeletal Structure in Protohyalostclia 

F. C. del. ad nat. 

All figures x .17 


By A. R. ALDERMAN, University of Adelaide. 

This meteorite was found in 1927 by Mr. S. Hamilton on his property in the south-west corner of 
Section 6, Hundred of Pinnaroo, about 9 miles S.S.E. from the town of Pinnaroo (latitude, 35° 17* 
S.; longitude, 140° 55* E.) in South Australia. It was ploughed out of the soil and brought, for 
identification, to Sir Douglas Mawson, who acquired it for the geological museum in the University 
of Adelaide. 



By A. R. Alderman, University of Adelaide 

[Read 9 May 1940] 

Plate XIII 

This meteorite was found in 1927 by Mr. S. Hamilton on his property in 
the south-west corner of Section 6, Hundred of Pinnaroo, about 9 miles S.S.E. 
from the town of Pinnaroo (latitude, 35° 17' S. ; longitude, 140° 55' E.) in South 
Australia. It was ploughed out of the soil and brought, for identification, to Sir 
Douglas Mawson, who acquired it for the geological museum in the University 
of Adelaide. 

The main mass was roughly ellipsoidal in shape with many irregularities, and 
had dimensions of approximately 37 x 29 x 17 cms. The original weight was 
87 lbs. 10 oz. (39-4 kg.) and the external colour a deep rusty-brown. Weather- 
ing has very considerably altered the surface from which crumbly rust-like 
material exfoliates and can be easily rubbed off with the ringers. Further evidences 
of the very high rate at which this meteorite alters in air will be given later. It 
seems obvious, therefore, that the weight and dimensions of the meteoric mass 
were considerably greater at the time of fall than when found. 

The meteorite was cut at the South Australian Railway workshops, using 
the saw set up for cutting the Huckitta Pallasite (Madigan, 1939). A piece 
weighing about 14 lb. was thus removed from one end, and it gave a surface of 
about 23 x 14 cms. for polishing (pi. xiii, fig. 2). Eater a piece weighing just over 
half a pound was sawn from this polished portion. After cutting and removing 
material for examination, the meteorite now exists in three masses, weighing 69^ lb. 
(31-2 kg.), I3| lb. (5-9 kg.), and SJ oz. (243-25 gm.). 

One sawn surface was polished and etched with dilute nitric acid, washed 
well in water followed by alcohol, and dried. After examination the surface, which 
had tarnished, was re-polished, washed and dried as before and lacquered with 
"duco." Some weeks later the surface was found to have altered very consider- 
ably. Veins of, apparently, lawrencite had worked into the metal, and fine crumbly 
material had broken through the lacquered surface in a number of places. It was 
afterwards found that both oldhamite and lawrencite were present, and con- 
sequently a very small trace of water produced alteration. The extremely 
weathered condition of the exposed surface of the meteorite is thus easily 
explained. In order to guard against further decomposition of the surface after 
etching in acid, the specimen was first washed with water, then with alcohol, 

Trans, liny. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


followed by acetone and finally dried in a vacuum desiccator before lacquering. 
At the time of writing, this treatment appears to have been successful. 

Structural Description 

The general appearance of the cut and polished specimen seems to have 
similarities to both the Morristown and Estherville mesosidehtes as featured by 
Merrill (1930). Actually, however, the Pinnaroo meteorite seems to have some 
structural or mineralogical differences from any other siderolite whose description 
was available. The photograph (pi. xiii, fig. 2) shows that most of the metal is 
in fine and irregularly shaped masses embedded in a dark-brown ground-mass of 
silicate minerals which are, for the most part, also of fine grain-size. Scattered 
through this finer metal and silicate are occasional blebs of nickel-iron which arc 
frequently oval in shape and measure a centimetre or more in length. Occa- 
sionally, a number of metallic blebs have segregated into conspicuous glomero- 
porphyritic groups which may measure up to 4 cms. in diameter. One such large 
group is shown in plate xiii, figure 2, and its structure is enlarged in plate xiii, 
figure 1. The silicate also occurs in porphyritic individuals and crystals of olivine 
sometimes have a diameter of nearly 2 cms. A spheroidal cracking of the silicate 
around these olivine phenocrysts is usually to be seen, and a similar cracking some- 
times occurs around some of the larger nickel-iron masses. Troilite, in irregular 
patches, is also very abundant and is frequently situated at the junction of the 
nickel-iron and the silicate. The relative abundance of the three main con- 
stituents, obtained from a series of linear measurements is metal 44%, silicate 
51-2%, an d troilite 4-^% (by volume). Much of the troilite is in very small grains, 
so that the figure given for this mineral is probably much too low. 

Description of Metai. 
The structure of the metallic portion is well shown on a cut and polished slab 
after etching with dilute nitric, acid, when a well-marked Widmannstetter struc- 
ture appears. The whole of the metal is made up of broad kamacite bands, which 
may be as broad as 2 mm., and fine taenite lamellae. In place of normal, 
apparently homogeneous, plessite, the "fields" between the taenite and kamacite 
lamellae arc filled with a very fine intergrowth of the same two alloys, and this 
also shows a minute Widmannstetter structure. The metallic particles are nearly 
alw r ays bordered by kamacite, bands of which extend inwards from the edge of 
each grain for a distance of from 1 to 2 mm. ; this "swathing kamacite" thus out- 
lines the shape of each metallic grain. It is only very rarely that a taenite band 
reaches the edge of one of the nickel-iron grains and thus abuts on the silicate 
material (pi. xiii, fig. 1). 

The smaller metallic patches are of irregular outline and have a fairly 
uniform distribution throughout the silicate base. The larger metallic patches 
tend to be circular or oval and, as has alreadv been mentioned, a number of these 


have sometimes segregated into large glomeroporphyritic groups. Plate xiii, figure 
1 shows the structure of such a group. The spaces between the metallic blebs are 
seen to be filled with granular troilite or black olivine. 

The shape of the larger metallic masses strongly suggests that they had 
solidified before the main bulk of the meteorite. It is possible? that the finer metal 
and the silicate fraction solidified together and at a later stage. 

Description of Silicate 

In the stony portion olivine is the most obvious constituent and phenocrysts 
of this mineral, which may occasionally have a diameter of 2 cms., are embedded 
in a finer ground-mass which consists of olivine, clino-enstatite and plagioclase. 
All grains of these minerals are anhedral and the whole presents a brccciated 
structure. The olivine is positive and is thus a magnesium-rich variety. Many 
of the pyroxene grains show straight extinction, so that there may be some ortho- 
enstatite as well as clino-enstatite. The plagioclase, which shows polysynthetic 
twinning and contains many minute opaque inclusions, has refractive indices and 
extinction angles corresponding to a composition of about Ab 1t> An no , i.e., a soda- 
rich anorthite. It may be noted here that the normative plagioclase calculated from 
the analysis of the stony portion has a composition of Ab 14 An S(J . Oldhamite in 
yellow-brown isotropic grains with good cleavage was found only in crushed 
material and not in the thin sections, the grinding of which in water would decom- 
pose the CaS. It is notable that this is the first record of oldhamite in an Aus- 
tralian meteorite (Hodge-Smith, 1939, p. 46). The presence of this mineral was 
confirmed by positive tests for Ca and S made on an aqueous extract of the 
powdered material used for analysis. The same extract was used to confirm the 
presence of lawrencite. 

An advanced stage of weathering is shown by much of the stony portion, 
which is obscured by reddish-brown rusty material which has frequently worked 
in from the surface along thin veins and cracks. The presence of both lawrencite 
and oldhamite would facilitate this process. 

Analyses, etc. 

Material for chemical analysis was obtained from a piece sawn from one 
end of the cut and polished mass. Fragments were broken from this and crushed 
with a hammer, the oxidised crust being avoided as much as possible. Sieving, 
followed by treatment with a magnet, removed practically all the metal and the 
residue consisting mainly of mixed silicates and troilite with some oxidized, rusty 
matter may now be referred to as the "non-magnetic portion." 

The composition of the metallic portion was determined from a large frag- 
ment of metal which had remained on the sieve after the original crushing. This 
metallic fragment was well hammered to remove as much as possible of the 
adhering stony material. 


Analysis of these two portions gave the following results: 

Non-Magnetic Portion Metallic Portion 

Si0 2 - - 37-02% Fe - - - - 86*33% 

TiO., - - nil Ni - - - - 8-49 

AUl - - 7*60 Co - - - - 0-14^) 

FeO " - - 15-15 Insol. - - - 1*35 

MgO - - 11-06 S,P,C - - - n.d. 

CaO - - 5-01 Soluble - - / 

Na..O - - 0-41 SiO... MgO, etc. j " n " cl ' 

K.,0 - - 0-04 

H;,0+ - - 0-87 96-31 

I UO- - - 0-34 — 

Fe \ - - 13*77\ 

Sj- - 7^7\ 

XTj(') 1 -Q9 Recalculating Fe -f Ni -f Co to 100.00 

Fe - - 90*91% 


Ni - - 8-94 

Co - - 0-15 

In the statement of the analysis of the non-magnetic portion the figure given 
as FeO is that obtained from determining total iron and subtracting sufficient Fe 
to satisfy all the S in forming FeS. The figure for FeO thus includes much ferric 
iron present (with some NiO) in rusty matter produced by oxidation of the 
metal. Another point is. that although the analysis as stated above suggests that 
all sulphur is present as troilite, it has been noted that oldhamite is also present. 
li we assume (very doubtfully) that all the calcium in excess of that required 
to form normative anorthite is present as CaS, calculations show that 2% of 
oldhamite may be indicated. 

The density of the bulk of the meteorite determined by hydrostatic weighing 
of a 243 gm. fragment is 5*05; that of the unattracted portion, determined by 
pycnometer, 3'36 f and a fragment of metal, determined on a Joly balance, showed 
a density of 7*66. Linear measurements gave the relative abundance of the main 
portions as metal 44%, and unattracted (silicate and troilite) 56% by volume. 
From these figures, the weight percentages of the two portions may be calculated 
as metal 64-1%, and unattracted 35*9%. The bulk composition is thus recalcu- 
lated as follows : 

- 5-43 

- 0'37 

- 3-97 

- 0-15 

- 0-01 

- 0-31 

- 0-12 














S - 

■ 4-94 ) 
2-82 ) 



SiO., - 




TiOo - 




ALO.> - 





fl > Co was kindly determined by Mr. D. W. Dewey, using the colorinietric method 
of Mars ton and Dewey, Biochem. Journ, (in press). 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate XIII 

Fig. 1 

Enlargement of metal-rich area shown at top of fig. 2. The filled interspaces 

between kamacite-taenite blebs are sometimes filled with granular troilite, 

or olivine which appears black, x 14. 

Fig. 2 

General view of polished and etched surface 

Scale of inches is given. 
Photographs by H. K. K. Brack 


Owing to the presence of rusty oxidation products and the uncertainty of 
their composition, no attempt has been made to calculate the percentages of mineral 
molecules from this analysis. 


This stony-iron (weighing 39*4 kg.) was found near Pinnaroo, South Aus- 
tralia, latitude 35° 17' S. ; longitude 140° 55' E. in 1927 and may be classed as a 
mesosiderite. The metal (Fe 90-91, Ni 8*94, Co 0*15) shows Widmanstetter 
figures and occupies 44% by volume of the mass. Troilite is plentiful and the silicate 
portion is made up of olivine with clino-enstatite and anorthite. Oldhamite and 
lawrencite have assisted weathering, and much rusty oxidised material is also 
present. The main mass is in the geological museum of the University of 

Hodge-Smith, T. 1939 Australian Meteorites. Austr. Mus. Mem. 7 

Matiigan, C. T. 1939 The Huckitta Meteorite, Central Australia. Min. Mag., 
25, 353 

Merrill, G. P. 1930 Composition and Structure of Meteorites. U.S. Nat. Mus., 
Bull. 149 



By J. A. PRESCOTT Waite Agricultural Research Institute. 


In most studies of the evaporation from a free water surface it has been customary to consider as the 
two principal factors: the saturation deficit of atmospheric water vapour pressure and the wind. The 
work of Rohwer (1931) and of Graham Millar (1937) may be cited particularly as affording 
valuable discussions of the correlations between evaporation and atmospheric conditions. Graham 
Millar has carried the matter further by introducing turbulence into the wind factor, a feature of 
these discussions first introduced by Sutton (1934). 




By J. A. Prescott, Watte Agricultural Research Institute 

[Read 9 May 1940] 

In most studies of the evaporation from a free water surface it has been 
customary to consider as the two principal factors : the saturation deficit of 
atmospheric water vapour pressure and the wind. The work of Rohwer (1931) 
and of Graham Millar (1937) may be cited particularly as affording valuable 
discussions of the correlations between evaporation and atmospheric conditions. 
Graham Millar has carried the matter further by introducing turbulence into the 
wind factor, a feature of these discussions first introduced by Sutton (1934). 

Agricultural physicists, as for example Briggs and Shantz (1917), Angstrom 
(1924), and Haines (1925), have however recognised a relationship between solar 
radiation and evaporation and have suggested that atmomcters could well be used 
to measure solar radiation. Briggs and Shantz (1916) considered the transpira- 
tion of plants and the evaporation from a free water surface to be influenced by 
the four factors : radiation, temperature, saturation deficit and wind, and give 
regression equations connecting evaporation with the vertical component of solar 
radiation and with saturation deficit during various periods of their experiments 
on hourly rates of transpiration by rye, lucerne and Amaranth us. 

Although Briggs and Shantz measured both solar radiation and evaporation 
on cloudless days during the period of their experiments at Akron, Colorado, 
the radiation was measured normal to the sun's rays, so that it is not possible 
in the absence of any measure of sky radiation or of total radiation on a horizontal 
surface to correlate the radiation with the rate of evaporation from a water sur- 
face. The evaporation tank used by these workers was three feet in diameter, 
was blackened inside and held water to a depth of one inch. It is possible to 
estimate the probable radiation received at Akron from Angot's tables (Brunt, 
1934) for the days of the experiments recorded and to compare this with the 
latent heat of evaporation required to account for the daily evaporation observed, 
It will be seen from the data below that such a shallow evaporimeter gives a very 
fair measure of radiation and that the evaporation recorded is accounted for by 
the solar radiation received. The solar radiation for these cloudless days is 
assumed to be 076 of that given in Angot's tables for the amount that would 
be received if the atmosphere were transparent. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


Table I 

Evaporation and Solar Radiation at Akron, Colorado. 

Data of Briggs and Shantz (1916) for Cloudless Days 

Radiation on a horizontal surface 
in month of 30 days 





Outer limit 
(An got) 

cais. per cm/ 

Assumed value 

at earth's 


0-76 xQ„- (J 

gm. cals. per cm. 2 

Evaporation per 

month of 30 days 

Latent heat 


gvn. cals. per cm. 2 


7, 8, 9 July 





18, 19, 20, 21 July 





16, 17, 18, 19, 20 October ... 





Mean .... 1-024 

The factor 076 has heen calculated from the data published for Mount 
Weather Va (Kimball, 1914), which give the following regression equation 
relating solar radiation with hours of sunshine, a procedure suggested by Angstrom 


Q/Q =; 0-22 + 0-54 n/N (r = 0-896) 

where Q := radiation on a horizontal surface with a transparent 
atmosphere (Angot's value) 
Q = radiation measured at the earth's surface 
n — actual hours of sunshine 
N = maximum possible sunshine on cloudless days. 

It can be assumed, therefore, that under certain conditions of evaporation 
and with a sufficiently high saturation deficit, evaporation may well be entirely 
accounted for by solar radiation. With deeper evaporimcters there is some storage 
of heat from day to day so that the relationship would not be expected to be 
perfect, but taking monthly averages, a general relationship may be anticipated. 
In order to investigate the matter further the records for the Australian Capital 
Territory have been examined. The only values for solar radiation in Australia 
are those for Mount Stromlo. Use was made of these in estimating the probable 
solar radiation at Acton, Canberra, a few miles away, where meteorological 
observations were made until the end of 1939. There is less sunshine at Acton 
than at Mount Stromlo, the mean monthly values for hours of sunshine recorded 
for Acton varying from 79 to 91% of those at Mount Stromlo. 

The records of sunshine and radiation at Mount Stromlo were kindly made 
available by Mr. W. B. Rimmer, of the Commonwealth Solar Observatory, and 
as a first step the relationship between Angot's values, the observed values and 
the proportion of sunshine was calculated as for the case of Mount Weather, 
quoted above. 

The regression equation for Mount Stromlo was found to be: 
Q/Q ~ 0-25 + 0-54 n/N (r t= 0796) 


From this equation the probable solar radiation at Canberra itself has been cal- 
culated, and in Table 2 are recorded the essential data for the study of the general 
relationships between evaporation and radiation for this centre. The values for 
saturation deficit are calculated from the temperature and vapour pressures given 
in the Commonwealth Yearbook for 1938 (No. 31), from which source the 
evaporation records are also taken. The evaporimeter is the Australian standard 
instrument, three feet in diameter and three feet in depth. 

Table 1 1 
Evaporation. Solar Radiation and Saturation Deficit for Canberra, A.C.T. 

Observed mean monthly 
evaporation ; 30-day Ir-isis 

gin. cals. pei 


mean monthly 




April .... 

May .... 


July .... 


























monthly solar 

radiation on 


surface ; 

30-day basis 

gm. ca's. per 
cm. 3 


















From the last column it is evident that evaporation accounts for a substantial 
proportion of the solar radiation falling on the evaporimeter. The proportion of 
radiation used in evaporation varies from 27% lo 63%, with a mean value of 
43%. It is worth recalling that Angstrom (1920) calculated that on Lake 
Yassijaure, in Sweden, about one-third of the incoming net radiation is used in 

Tt is generally recognised that the depth of evaporation from a large sheet of 
water is only about 80% of that from a tank three or four feet in diameter, so 
that the 43% above corresponds to 34% for a large body of water, a result in close 
agreement with that of Angstrom. 

From the above table it has proved possible to calculate a satisfactory regres- 
sion equation linking evaporation with saturation deficit and solar radiation. 

The most useful equation takes the form: 



-0-03303 s.d. -0-0649. 



where E and O are expressed in gramme calories and saturation deficit in millibars* 
The correlation coefficient is -0*991. The relationship is exponential in form but in 
simple terms implies that as the values for saturation deficit increase a growing 
proportion of solar radiation is used in evaporation until for sufficiently high 
values solar radiation is used entirely in evaporation. The relationships are shown 
graphically in the figure. 





o/ Xm 









10 mb. 

Illustrating the relationship between evaporation, saturation deficit and solar 
radiation for Canberra month by month. The thinner line in the right-hand 

diagram is of the form log (1 ) — k (s.d.) -f- c, where k and c are constants 


and E and Q are both expressed in gramme calories per square centimetre. 

r l he monthly inarch of evaporation in relation to saturation deficit shows a 
characteristic loop which is common 1o all recording stations and which is an 
expression of the lag between the combined forces controlling evaporation and 
those of temperature and humidity on which the values for saturation deficit 
are based. 

When allowance is made for radiation a much better relationship is observ- 
able but with some over-correction. The calculation of radiation from the sun- 
shine records is still subject, however, to further refinements, which it is hoped 
will be capable of assessment when the examination of the records of the Common- 
wealth Solar Observatory at present in progress at Mount Stromlo is completed. 

When the saturation deficit is sufficiently high, evaporation from a free water 
surface tends to be limited by the net radiation falling on the water surface. The 
relationship between the measured evaporation, measured saturation deficit and 
estimated solar radiation for Canberra has been examined and a suitable equation 
satisfactorily applied to the data. 


Angstrom, A. 1920 Geog. Ann., 2, 3 
Angstrom, A. 1924 O. J. Roy. Met. Soc, 50, 121-125 
Briggs, L. J., and Shantz, H. L. 1916 J. Agr. Res., 5, 583-649 
Briggs, L. J., and Siiantz, H. L. 1916 J. Agr. Res., 7, 155-212 
Briggs, L. J., and Shantz, II. L. 1917 J. Agr. Res., 9, 277-292 
Brunt, D. 1934 Physical and Dynamical Meteorology, Table 2, 100 
Haines, W. B. 1925 Q. J. Roy. Met. Soc, 51, 95-100 
Kimball, H. H. 1914 Monthly Weather Rev., 42, 474-487 
Millar, F. Graham 1937 Canadian Met. Mem., 1, No. 2 
Rohwer, C. 1931 U.S. Dept. Agr. Tech., Bull. 271 
Sutton, O. G. 1934 Proc. Roy. Soc. London, 146a, 701-722 


By T. HARVEY JOHNSTON and E. R. SIMPSON, University of Adelaide 


In 1938 we gave an account of the larval stages of Leucochloridium autstraliense from Succinea 
australis collected at Elwomple, near Tailem Bend (Johnston and Cleland, 1938). The anatomy of 
the cercariaeum was shown to resemble that of L. insigne (Looss) and of L. macro stomum (Rud.), as 
identified by Witenberg and other authors. Szidat (1936), however, has re-examined Rudolphi's 
type material and has shown that the true L. macro stomum has the testes and ovary arranged in a 
linear series instead of forming a triangle, as had been described for the fluke generally regarded as 
belonging to Rudolphi's species. Szidat also showed that L. holostomum (Rud.) was a valid species 
whose gonads possessed the triangular arrangement; consequently L. macrostomum of most authors 
really belonged to L. holostomum or perhaps to some related species. Hsu (1936) discussed the 
relationship of L. insigne (Looss) of Witenberg and of some other species. 



By T. Harvey Johnston and E. R. Simpson, University of Adelaide 

[Read 13 June 1940] 

In 1938 we gave an account of the larval stages of .Lcucochloridium 
australicnse from Succinea australis collected at Elwomple, near Tailem Bend 
(Johnston and Cleland, 1938). The anatomy of the cercariaeum was shown to 
resemble that of L. insigne (Looss) and of L, macrostomum (Rud.), as identified 
by Witenberg and other authors. Szidat (1936), however, has re-examined 
Rudolphi's type material and has shown that the true L. macrostomum has the 
testes and ovary arranged in a linear series instead of forming a triangle, as had 
been described for the fluke generally regarded as belonging to Rudolphi's species. 
Szidat also showed that L. holostomtim (Rud.) was a valid species whose gonads 
possessed the triangular arrangement; consequently L. macrostomum- of most 
authors really belonged to L. holostomum or perhaps to some related species. 
Hsu (1936) discussed the relationship of L. insigne (Looss) of Witenberg and 
of some other species. 

In August, 1938, three adult specimens of Leucochloridium were found in 
the cloaca of Pomatostomus superciliosus, and, in the following month, four were 
taken from one out of four birds of the same species, all hosts having been 
collected by Mr. F. Jaensch at Elwomple, the same locality as that from which 
the larval stages had been obtained in 1937. Succinea shell fragments were 
abundant in the gizzard and intestine of most of the birds. Eggs from some of 
the flukes were used in an attempt to infect Succinea, but the latter soon died. In 
August, 1938, in a specimen of Corcorax mclanorhamphus from the same locality, 
six minute Lcucochloridium flukes were obtained, all of the same size and stage 
of development, agreeing in all particulars with the cercariaea already described 
by us. These had apparently only just been liberated from a Succinea whose 
fragments were also present., The adults possessed the genital arrangement 
described in the larva, and we have no doubt that they belong to L. australicnse, 
which is the first Australian digenetic trematode whose life cycle is known. The 
various stages in the life history of Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke of sheep, in 
eastern Australia have been investigated by Bradley, McKay and Ross, but the 
species is not native to the Commonwealth and must have been introduced along 
with its domesticated hosts soon after the original settlement, as Rudolph! in 1819 
recorded its occurrence in a kangaroo, Macropus major. 

Adults of L. australicnse measured (under coverglass but without pressure) 
2*25 to 2*4 mm. long by 1T5 to 1*4 mm. wide ; the anterior sucker 0-55 mm. long 
by -62 to '66 mm. broad, and the ventral sucker -60 to "61 mm. long by *55 mm. 
wide. The two suckers are thus subequal and about one-quarter the length of the 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 






worms. The ventral sucker is nearly central, but rather more of it lies in the 
posterior than in the anterior half of the parasite. The pharynx is nearly circular, 
measuring '19 mm. long by "2 mm. wide. The oesophagus is extremely short. The 
narrow, slightly wavy, caeca lie near the margins and terminate just behind the 
level of the posterior border of the posterior testis and near the hindmost limit 
of the uterine coils. 

I lie testes and ovary are arranged as a triangle, the latter lying very cio^ 
to, or touching, the posterior testis. The testes measure about '46 by -32 mm. The 
anterior is separated from the ventral sucker by the descending uterus, and from 
its fellow by the fecundarium and by some loops of the descending uterus. Tht 
vasa efferentia form an oblique straight line. The vas deferens is rather wide 
and thrown into several loops as it travels back to enter the rounded cirrus sac 
vviibin which it lies twisted when at rest. The sac measures about '2 mm. in 
diameter. The genital opening lies in a slight depression, somewhat dorsal, near 
Hie posterior extremity, the male duct terminating on a very slight prominence 
at its base. The male oceiiin^ lies on the same side of the median line as the 
ovary ; the female pore is on the other side of the depression. In one specimen 
the male apparatus is partly extruded, and if fully protruded the cirrus would 
probably measure about 0*125 mm. 

The ovary is about '32 mm. broad by '23 mm. long. It touches the posterior 
testis and the fecundarium but is separated from the posterior sucker by loops of 
the ascending and descending uterus. The oviduct arises from the inner surface, 
travelling inwards, backwards and slightly dorsally to enter the fecundarium, in 
whose vicinity it joins the long Laurer canal. The anterior part of the latter is 
rather wider, forming a seminal receptacle, the remainder being narrow with a 
strongly chitiuized Avail. This canal passes back near the dorsal midline, above 
or near the posterior testis, to enter the dorsal aspect of the very small excretory 
bladder just as the latter receives its two longitudinal canals, these junctions lying 
just above or in front of the anterior part of the cirrus sac. The fertilizing duct 
travels in a coiled course through Mehlis' gland (fecundarium) which occupies 
a median position between the ovary and the two testes, coming into contact with 


Fig. 1, adult; 2, adult, male system, lateral view; 3, adult, female system, lateral 
view (figs. 2 and 3 constructed from series of longitudinal sections'); 4, T.S. at 
level of genital apertures; 5, T.S. region of excretory pore; 6, T.S. at level of 
yolk reservoir; 7, T.S. showing yolk ducts; 8, T.S. across region of oviduct; 
9, longitudinal section, nearly median; 10, cercariaeum; 11, sporosac; 12, T.S. 

pigmented band of sporosac. 
References to Lettering — at, anterior testis; aut, ascending uterus; c, cirrus; 
cm, circular muscle; co, cirrus opening; cs, cirrus sac; db, dark brown band; 
dut, descending uterus; ep, excretory pore; f, fecundarium; g, green band; 
i, intestine; im, inner membrane; lc, Laurcr's canal; o, ovary; od, oviduct; 
out, opening of uterus; p, pigment; pc, pigment cells; pog, pale olive green 
band; rb, red brown band; sr, seminal receptacle; u, uterus; vd, vas deferens; 
vc, vas efferens; yd, yolk duct; yr, yolk reservoir. 


the three organs. The uterus passes forwards between the ovary and anterior 
testes and may overlie parts of these glands. It then travels between the ovary 
and the posterior sucker and forwards, its coils occupying most of the zone 
between the latter and the crura, sometimes underlying the crura. It extends 
forwards as a massive structure, reaching at least the mid-level of the anterior 
sucker and then its folds cross between the pharynx and the posterior sucker 
below the crura to become strongly coiled on the other side of the worm, where 
it extends about as far forwards as on the opposite side, just in front of the 
anterior testis it crosses to the opposite side, just behind the posterior sucker and 
below the ascending limb of the uterus. It forms a series of loops laterally from 
the ventral sucker, ovary and posterior testis, lying ventral to the level of the two 
latter organs, and then travels below the ovary across to the opposite side of the 
worm to occupy the region between the anterior testis and the cirrus sac. Its 
terminal portion lies beside the cirrus sac and opens beside the male pore. Some- 
times uterine loops lie above the crura as well as below them, and also above 
some of the inner vitelline follicles. 

The vitellaria form a long series of rather large, irregularly shaped, closely 
arranged follicles lying ventrally and ventro-laterally from the intestinal crura. 
Posteriorly they extend almost to the end of the crura or they may reach the end 
on one side only. Their limit lies at about the level of the hinder border of the 
posterior testis. In front they reach at least half-way along the oral sucker, 
approximately to the same level as the foremost loops of the uterus, or they may 
do so on one side, being shorter on the other. As in the case of the uterus, they 
extend considerably in front of the crura. Each transverse yolk duct passes 
inwards above the corresponding ascending excretory canal and below the cms, 
then upwards to meet its fellow to form a yolk reservoir. One vitelline duct lies 
between the ovary and the posterior testis and the other behind the anterior testis. 
The common yolk duct travels obliquely forwards to join the oviduct near the 
origin of Laurer's canal. Eggs measure 22 by 13 *5-14 ^. 

The excretory pore is dorsal, in front of the genital apertures, and leads 
downwards and forwards, very soon entering a small excretory bladder into 
which enter almost transversely the two main collecting canals. The bladder lies 
above the anterior part of the cirrus sac or just in front of it. The canals pass 
outwards, forwards, and slightly ventrally above the descending uterus and then 
below and close to the crura. They travel forwards ventro-laterally from the 
latter, but above and inwardly from the vitellaria. Each canal extends forwards 
to the vicinity of the pharynx, then curving back to lie above and laterally from 
the ascending canal. In the posterior region the latter, as well as the descending 
canal lie almost directly ventrally from the corresponding cms, A delicate canal, 
probably the anterior branch, lies above the corresponding cms. 

Our species belongs to the same group as L. holostomiim, as figured by 
Szidat in regard to the arrangement of the gonads, but in that species the uterine 
loops are limited anteriorly by the caeca. The uterine disposition in 


L. australicnsc resembles that in L, inacrostomum, as illustrated by Szidat, who 
gave as synonyms of the latter, L, insigne Witenberg, 1925 (nee Looss), as well 
as L. paradoxum Carus of Zeller, 1874, and of Heckert, 1889, L. insigne (Looss) 
being quoted (along with L. turanienm) as a synonym of L. holostomum. If 
Mcintosh's key (.1932) be followed, our species would be placed beside L. ictcri 
Mclnt., 1927, but the latter is a more elongate parasite, with its suckers smaller 
in relation to the length of the worm, and has much shorter vitellaria, a circular 
ovarv. and gonads more remote from the ventral sucker. L, australicnsc differs 
from L. actilis, L. variac and L. cyanocittae mainly in regard to the posterior 
extension of the intestinal crura, vitellaria and uterine loops. Mcintosh (1932, 
39) referred to the similarity between L. actitis and L. insigne of Witenberg 
(nee Looss). L. auslraliense somewdiat resembles L. dasylophi Tubangui (1928), 
but differs in regard to the distribution of the yolk glands and the forward exten- 
sion of the uterine loops. 

Leucocttloridtum from Succtnea australis 
In a snail collected in May, 1938, ai; Klwomple, there were found two pulsat- 
ing sacs, one in each antenna. In strong sunlight the pulsation and the coloured 
bands could be seen through the snail's tissues. One sac measured about 7'S mm. 
long and 1*4 mm. broad. The banding was different from that occurring on 
sporocysts previously described by us. The coloured bands on the distal third of 
the sac consisted of an irregular ring of brown wart-like processes proximally ; 
then two complete reddish-brown rings, a green band occupying the more distal 
part of the second brown ring; then two green bands; a bright reddish-brown 
band; and a narrow dark brown band; and a series of six brown warts arranged 
at the free extremity. The other sac was similar, except that there w r ere few r er 
warts in the proximal row, the colouration of the second green band was 
irregular, and the dark brown ring was interrupted on one side to form wart-like 
processes. One sac was sectioned and the structure of a coloured band (fig. 12) 
was seen to be similar to that described by Monnig (1922). The cercariaea 
(fig. 10) resembled those of L„ australicnsc in all features. The anterior sucker 
was *2-'21 mm. long by - 19 mm. broad, and the posterior * 1 5- _ 17 mm. in diameter. 
Some of the worms were fed to a canary, but adult stages were not obtained. 
The presence of both brown and green sacs in European Succinca has been 
referred to by authors and slight differences in sucker ratio in their cercariaea seem 
to exist (Johnston and Cleland, 1938, 32). Monnig (1922) described and figured 
both kinds of sporocysts and tabulated the measurements of the organs of the 
cercariaea from each type, stating that the differentiation of them as specifically 
distinct could not be justified. His figure of the cercariaeum of L. macrostomum 
shows it to be L, holostomum. 

Hsu (1936) described green sporocysts with brown apical spots from 
Succinea putris in Germany and fed the cercariaea to five species of birds, obtain- 
ing infection in a canary, a charadriid (Pavoncella pugnax) , and sparrows. 


Various stages in development were figured. Variation in the relation of the 
vitellaria to the termination of the crura was ohserved, and similar variation was 
found in natural infections. The structure of the vitelline follicles, as well as 
their lateral extension appeared to afford specific characters, as also did the 
relation of the uterine loops to the crura. He reported that the species which he 
obtained by feeding green sporocysts, was that erroneouslv identified by Witen- 
berg as L. insignc and was possibly the same as that described by Zeller in 1874 
as L. paradoxum, but was different from that described by Heckert in 1889 under 
the latter name. Heckert's sporocyst was green with bright red apical flecks and 
probably belonged to a species found by Hsii in Vanclhts, the species being 
related to L. holosiomum and being most probably L. simc Yamaguti. Witen- 
berg\s L. insignc appeared to be without a correct name. We may point out that 
Mcintosh (1932, 39) considered Witenberg's species to be distinct from L. insignc 
Looss, but closely related to L. actitis. As the differences mentioned by Mcintosh 
seem to be very slight, it is likely that the correct name for Witenberg's form 
may be L actitis. 


Hsu H. F. 1936 Studien zur Systematik und Entwicklungsgeschichte der Gat- 
tung Leucochloridium Cams, II, etc. Z. f. Parasitenk., 8, 714-728 

Johxstox, T. II., and Ceeeaxd, E. R. 1938 Larval trematodes from Australian 
terrestrial and freshwater molluscs, pt. iii, Leucochloridium australiense. 
Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 62, 25-33 

McIxtosii, A 1927 Xotes on the genus Leucochloridium Carus (Trematoda). 
Parasitol., 19, 353-364 

McIxtosh, A. 1932 Some new species of trematode worms of the genus 
Leucochloridium Carus, parasitic in birds from northern Michigan, etc. 
Jour. Parasit., 19, 32-53 

Moxxk;, R. O. 1922 Leber Leucochloridium macrostomum. 61 pp. Jena 
Szidat, L. 1936 Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Gattung Leucochlori- 
dium Carus, 1. etc. Z. f. Parasitenk. , 8, 645-653 

Tubaxgui, M. A. 1928 Trematode parasites of Philippine vertebrates. Philipp. 
Jour. Sci., 36, 351-371 

\\ 'iTEXiiERG, G. 1925 Verstich einer Monographic der Trematoden-unterfamilie 
Idarmostominae Braun. Zool. Jahrb. Syst., 51, 167-254 



During the summers of 1931-1935 the writer made collections of mammals in that portion of South- 
west Central Australia lying between latitudes 23° 30' and 28° (V south (approximately) and 
longitudes 136° 30' and 128° 10' east (approximately). The material personally taken has since been 
increased by the efforts of friends in the area, and in working it out I have included in the 
examination specimens acquired by the South Australian Museum at various times from the same or 
adjacent parts of the country. 



Ky H, H. Finlayson 

[Read 13 Juno 1940] 

Plates XIV and XV 

During the summers of 1931-1935 the writer made eollections of mammals 
in that portion of South-west Central Australia lying between latitudes 23° 30' and 
28° 0' south (approximately) and longitudes 136° 30* and 128° 10' east (approxi- 
mately). The material personally taken has since been increased by the efforts of 
friends in the area, and in working it out I have included in the examination 
specimens acquired by the South Australian Museum at various times from the 
same or adjacent parts of the country. 

Notomvs alexis Thomas 

This species, after a period of confusion with mitchelli, was recognised by 
Thomas in 1922 at Alexandria in approximately 19° S and 136° 50', and has since 
been proved to have a range, from east to west, extending from 144° to at least 
124° E. longitude. The occurrences now recorded provide an extension of its 
range to the south of nearly 700 miles. While three races have been defined, they 
are distinguished by comparatively trivial differences, and over the whole of this 
enormous tract it maintains a notable constancy in its essential distinctions from 
allied species. 

It is the "dargawarra" of the Pitchenturra natives, and though they speak of 
another allied animal, the Wilchimba, it is the only species of the genus personally 
taken in the area worked over, and greatly predominates also in all other collec- 
tions of Notomys from the same region, which I have examined. 

It was taken chiefly in the more grassy areas of the loamy inulga flats 
between the main ranges, but also in flat valleys within the ranges, particularly 
in the Musgraves ; it was less frequent in sandhill areas. Like all the small 
mammals of the centre its occurrence is sporadic and fluctuating, and areas in 
which it was very plentiful in one season were found to be destitute of it in the 
next, though conditions were often apparently unchanged. It eats a small amount 
of green vegetation, and at permanent camps in the Everard hills where vegetables 
were grown near the soaks, it became for a time in 1932 a nuisance owing to its 
depredations on the young shoots of encumbers and beets, etc. Ordinarily, how- 
ever, there is little doubt that seeds are- its staple diet, and the movements of its 
colonics are conditioned probably more by the abundance of seeds than of green 
vegetation. This is clearly shown by the frequent prevalence of dargawarras in 
areas of seeding spinifex. In January, 1933, a few miles east of Mount Conner, 
a considerable area of Triodia was crossed which had made luxuriant growth after 

Tr;ms. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


a local rain and upon which the seeding tops were rapidly ripening. Around the 
base of nearly every clump was strewn a mat of severed stalks from which the 
seed had been removed and the sand was reticulated with Notomys tracks, though 
no doubt other murids participated in the harvest also. 

According to the blacks, the large round woody seeds of the quondong 
(Eucarya acuminata) , which have a rich fatty kernel, are also eaten by this 
species; the seed case is neatly drilled on one side only with a small hole, and the 
contents extracted. Under almost any quondong tree a proportion of such drilled 
and emptied seeds may be found, though the fact that so many are left untouched, 
suggests that it is an emergency food rather than a staple diet. In trapping it, 
both fat and bread were found effective. 

The burrow is usually comparatively simple; one completely excavated on a 
loamy flat on Tietkens Birthday Creek in the Musgraves was six feet long and 
about one foot deep, with a single exit and entrance hole and no side passages ; 
in other less completely examined systems, a series of side passages with inde- 
pendent pop-holes seemed to have been developed from a simple straight drive 
such as the above. In neither case was any of the excavated soil brought to the 
surface, and the array of pebbles about the exits and entrances which has been 
recorded for other species was not seen. 

In summer it is very seldom seen in the day time, except momentarily, when 
one may be dislodged from a surface shelter while travelling. But at night it is a 
frequent visitor to camps and does not seem at all embarrassed by firelight or even 
an electric torch. At Walthajalkanna, on the northern front of the Everards, 
the southern race was very plentiful in February, 1933, and came boldly into the 
camp in numbers every night, and if given bread and cautiously approached could 
be freely examined by torchlight at a distance of a few feet. When moving about 
slowly, they go on all fours like the less specialized murids and look rather 
ungainly, the long brushed tail being carried always well clear of the ground and 
frequently arched over the back. When startled they resort at once to saltation ; 
the action in doing so is appreciably different from that of the macropods, the 
trunk being thrown far forward out of the vertical with the tail almost straight 
out behind. In trapping them a light set is necessary, as they remove the bait with 
remarkable gentleness and finesse; frequently I watched individuals completely 
remove the bait from a trap without springing it, though it would probably have 
caught a house mouse. Buckets of water left two-thirds full proved very effective 
traps, and the only completely undamaged examples suitable for skeletons were 
secured in this way; those dug out by the blacks are nearly always mutilated in 
some way in the handling. 

At Chundrinna, also near the Everard Range, several living examples were 
kept for a few days for observation. In aspect they are quite like ccrvinus of the 
Lake Eyre Basin. They took a miscellaneous diet freely and appeared quite com- 
fortable and reconciled. With pleasing recollections of the gentleness of fresh 
caught examples of N. aistonl at Appamunna, I made free to handle these alcxis- 


in the same way, but was startled to find a great difference in temperament ; all 
advances being repulsed with vigorous biting and squealing. 

The animal is almost odourless. A Laclaps occurs very freely and another 
flea-like parasite, unfortunately not preserved. 

The material examined comprises an excellent series of 132 specimens, of 
which 34 are skins and the rest alcoholic preserved. The bulk of the material 
belongs to properly localized and dated collections, and the following list gives the 
data on reproduction and sex ratios which can be extracted from the records. 

(1) February, 1932. Between Wollara and Basedow Range. Approximately 
24° 55' south and 132° 25' east, about six weeks after heavy rain; 11 S , 
10 9 , and 2 unsexed. Of the series 11 are adult, 10 subadult or immature 
and 2 nestlings. Several males have well developed scrotal testes, and of 
5 adult females examined 4 are pregnant. 

(2) February, 1932. Ayers Rock. Approximately 90 miles west-south-west 
of the above. One adult male. 

(3) January, 1933. Erliwunyawunya and adjacent points on the south side 
of the Musgrave Range, at approximately 26° 23' south and 131° 40' east; 
two months after good rains ; 4 S and 5 9 , and 2 unsexed ; 7 are immature 
of half to two-thirds growth. One adult 9 only examined, and this 
pregnant ; two subadult males show gonad activity, but the adult male with 
testes completely retracted. 

(4) Winter months of 1931. Frcttti unspecified localities on the same latitude 
as the above, but beginning further west and extending from the Tomkinson 
through the Mann to the Musgrave Range ; 7 $ t 5 9 , and 9 unsexed. 
Two examples only, fully adult, and of the remaining subadults 8 are 
nestlings. Two females were pregnant, but none of the males showed 
scrotal testes. 

(5) February, 1933. Chundrinna, between the Musgrave and Everard Ranges 
at approximately 26° 50' south and 132° 15' east; 10 $ and 10 9 . All 
adult or nearly so, and reproduction entirely suspended; no trace of gonad 
activity in any male, and all females non-pregnant with nipples so strongly 
retracted as to be difficult to find. 

(6) February, 1933. Walthajalkanna, in the northern outliers of the Everard 
Range, about 15 miles E.S.E. of the above; 10 $ , 13 9 , all adult or near 
adult and with reproduction quiescent as above. Of 8 males examined 
2 only show a slight development of testes in the scrotal site. 

(7) Winter of 1915. Wantapella, at approximately 65 miles E.S.E. of the 
above ; 6 & and 2 9 . Two only are adult or nearly so, and the remainder 
represent almost as many litters descending in size to small nestlings. 
Evidently a time of active reproduction; the adult female is lactating and 
several subadult males show signs of gonad enlargement. 


(8) Winter of 1930. Wells 24 and 26 on Canning Stock Route, in approxi- 
mately 23° 15' south and 123° east. Two $ , 1 9,3 unsexcd. Reproduc- 
tion evidently active ; of the females one is lactating and the other pregnant. 

(9) Miscellaneous specimens, including the Elder Expedition material, not 
properly localized but from as far west as Mount Squires at 26° 17' south 
and 127° 24' east, and others from south of Oolarinna water, ca. 27° 35' 
south and 132° 50' east, Idracowra on the Fincke at 25 rj 0' south and 
133° 45' east, Mount Burrell 50 miles north-west of Idracowra. and 
Charlotte Waters 25° 55' south and 134° 55' east. 

The most northerly and westerly records in the collection are given by the 
Alroy topotypes and the Canning Stock Route material, respectively, the most 
southerly by the south of Oolarinna specimens, and the most easterly that from 
Charlotte Waters. 

The data is sufficient to show that the incidence of reproduction is not 
seasonal, since highly active groups are to be found in both winter and summer, 
but in two cases, at least, follows upon periods of good rains. An interesting 
feature is the high incidence of sexual activity amongst young males as compared 
with full adults; in most collections the maximum development, both of gonads 
and of the sympathetically responding gular gland, is to be found in definitely 
subadult material. 

The number of embryos in unmutilatcd uteri varies from 2 to 5, with 3 as 
the most frequently occurring number. In the combined collection which can be 
sexed, the ratio is 54 ^ : 55 ? . 

External Characters 

Within the area defined, two races, overlapping in distribution and inter- 
grading in pelage characters coexist. In all collections north of the Musgrave 
Range, the dominant form can apparently be reconciled with the typical N. alette 
Thomas of Alexandria in the Northern Territory. South of this line in the 
area of huge granite intrusions, a second form becomes increasingly numerous 
until in the Everard Range it is so dominant over the typical race as to form 
almost pure communities. With two minor exceptions which will be noticed 
later, all characters other than pelage are either constant or show similar varia- 
tions having no geographical concentration, so that they may be dealt with by 
reference to the entire series en bloc. 

Size, build and general appearance much as in N. ccrznnus of Waile ct aucl. 
of the Lake Eyre Basin. Mysticial vibrissae rather weaker, 45-55 mm. Ear con- 
spicuously short and narrow, 21-24 mm. with a mean of about 22 mm. 

The gitlo sternal glandular area (pi. xv, fig. E) is highly characteristic and 
presents a combination of a distinct gular pit as in cervinus Waite with a well 
marked sternal tract of specialized hair as in mitchelli. In the sexually active male 
the gular pit at its maximum development is deeper and more pouch-like than in 
any of the forms I have reviewed ; the area involved by it, however, is smaller 


than in others and the feature correspondingly conspicuous. The floor of the 
recess slopes caudad and anteriorly merges indefinitely with the mental area 
without the interposition of lahia or skin folds, but laterally and posteriorly 
these are well developed and fleshy and tend to overhang the cavity which reaches 
a depth of 4 mm. and has a diameter at the surface of 5-6 mm. The greater part 
of the labia and the anterior part of the floor of the recess are well haired, though 
the hair is not strongly contrasted with that of the surrounding areas, while the 
deeper parts of the recess and sometimes the posterior parts of the labia are naked. 

In inactive males and females the pit is much less deep but the structures 
remaining are essentially similar and show a circular sunken area, naked and 
creased posteriorly and with more or less developed lateral and posterior skin 
folds. In the unsunken condition this small circumscribed area of nude skin is 
especially characteristic, and in well made skins it shows up as a conspicuous naked 
disk. The degree of invagination of the pit is definitely linked to the sexual cycle, 

Del... H. H. K 

Diagram of the hair tracts about the gulosternal glandular area in an adult mate 

of Notomys alerts cvcrardcnsis. Drawn from fresh material before preservation. 

(The gland sites are somewhat more posterior than indicated.) 

just as the raising of the presternal gland is in il aistoni ,J but there appear to be 
marked individual variations in the degree of response. The site is plainly indicated 
in furred nestlings. 

The sternal patch is present in all males and in a small proportion of females. 
In its maximum development it takes the form of a shield-shaped area on the 
chest 12 mm. wide by 15-16 mm. long, densely covered by short, rather stiff 
specialized hairs separated from the gular pit by a band of ordinary ventral fur. 
In the dark-bellied southern race the area is very conspicuous as in mitchelli 


macropus, but in the pale-bellied northern form and intermediates it is much less 
so, though the glistening of the area is usually apparent if the specimen is suitably 
held, and the increased density of hairing is usually obvious also, on close inspec- 
tion. Its condition does not vary with gonad develpment. No example of the 
southern race with well-developed scrotal testes has yet been examined, and none 
of the 40 or more examined show a deeply invaginatcd gular pit such as occurs 
in the pale-bellied form, though the surface structures are precisely similar. 
Whether there is a racial difference in the degree of development of the gland 
in the south is not determinable with the present material. 

The tnanus varies considerably in absolute size and is frequently unequally 
developed on the two sides ; the length from base of outer carpal pad to tip of 
third apical pad, from 7-8 mm., and the width at base of digits 2-5, from 3-4 mm. 
The third digit to 4 mm. The size and proportion of pads also very variable ; 
usually the length of outer carpal > 2nd interdigital > 1st — 3rd. The elongation 
of the outer carpal is greater than in ccrvinus Waite and "aistoni" and resembles 
niitchelli macropus, but examples in which the carpals are subequal are numerous. 
The palm is pink. 

The pes is conspicuously short, 32-34 mm. with a mean of 33 in fully adult 
examples, but frequently as low as 30 in subadults of nearly full growth. The 
maximum width of foot across pads at the base of digits 2-4 is 3 "5-4 "5 mm., and 
the length of third digit. 7 mm. The pads very much as in ccrvinus of W'aite, 
though Tie interdigitals average somewhat wider; 3>or = 2>4>l. The 
hallucal pad is present in 43, absent in 34. The undersurface of the toes is lightly 
haired, about as in niitchelli macropus, not obscuring the apical pads. The sole 
is slate or bluish pink in life, the digits a lighter pink. 

The tail varies in length within wide limits in individuals at the same growth 
stage, and tends to be slightly shorter in females than males. In a few individuals 
there is a slight tendency towards incrassation of the basal third. 

The clitoris is very small. The posterior mammary nipples are about 10 mm. 
from the clitoris and the anterior about 11 mm. from the posterior; when not 
functioning they are very strongly retracted. The scrotum is lightly pigmented 
at the posterior extremity only. 


(a) In the form which predominates in the batches from north of the Mus- 
grave Range individual variation is considerable both in the colour of the sub- 
terminal band of the dorsum (as given by Brazenor), in the degree of grizzling of 
the coat by dark guard hairs and consequently in the texture and general external 
colour, and in the basal colour of the belly fur, which is usually pale plumbeous 
but frequently white. The latter character, which has been claimed as the 
exclusive possession of ccrvinus Waite, occurs in about 48% of subadults other- 
wise quite normal and is occasionally retained until nearly full growth is reached. 
The moult changes are very pronounced also, more so than in any of the other 
three species of the genus reviewed in these papers, though they arc fore- 


shadowed by certain anomalous pelages in the large "aistoni" series from the 
Lake Eyre Basin. The incidence of the moult is highly irregular but is obviously 
responsible for the considerable proportion of thin dull and flufTy pelages devoid 
of guard hairs, which are to be found in most of the batches, on individuals having 
precisely the same skull and external characters, as normally clad individuals. 
The covering of the tail is particularly variable, dark blackish-brown upper sur- 
faces well contrasted with a pure white undersurface, being varied capriciously 
by others in which the upper surface is a pale uncontrasted greyish-brown. The 
brush is generally inferior in development to that in cervinus, "aistoni" and 
mitchclli macropus, but there is great variation and the difference is sometimes 
slight. Sexual differences almost nil; age differences chiefly shown by a tendency 
to duller colours in immature stages. 

The characters of the original series from Alroy and Alexandria have not 
been adequately reviewed and the range of variation there is not defined, but 
three topotypes kindly made available by Mr. Glauert of the Western Australian 
Museum can be very closely matched in the northern part of the present area. 

(b) As indicated above almost the entire collection from the Evcrard Range 
area and a proportion of those from the Musgrave Range differ from those from 
more northerly localities in certain pelage characters, which may be thus 
summarized : 

(1) the pelage is denser and longer on all surfaces and frequently reaches 
16 mm. on the posterior back, where it is more heavily grizzled; 

(2) the basal colour on all surfaces is much darker, particularly on ventrum 
and inner surfaces of limbs where the basal colour is deep plumbeous to 
almost black, the gulo-sternal tract alone excepted ; 

(3) while the dorsal colour varies as in the north, the dark based ventrum is 
quite constant, and in 50 examples examined white or pale-bellied variants 
analogus to those so numerous in the north have been quite absent. 

The effect of alcohol immersion upon the colouration of this species has been 
very fully investigated, a series of closely matched individuals having been 
selected in the field and a portion of them then skinned and the rest alcohol 
preserved. In the majority of individuals the change is striking; in two years 
the original yellow and orange buffs of the subtcrminal band changed to a pinkish 
rust colour, and after six years to a deep brown rust; at the same time the black 
guard hairs and the basal fur faded to rusty brown greatly reducing the effect of 
grizzling, and the pure white of the belly became yellow. The individuals which 
have changed least are those at the thin dull moult phase noted above. 

Skull and Dentition 

An excellent series of 40 skulls, all derived from individuals of known 
characters in the flesh and representing a wide range of growth stages has been 

The skull resembles cervinus Waite et and. of the Lake Eyre Basin but is 
less specialized, has a smaller braincase and less tapered zygomatic outline. There 


is so much variation, however, that many examples could scarcely be separated 
from that species by inspection. 

The range of linear skull dimensions of individuals which have attained average 
bulk and which are free from obvious immaturity in externals is not excessive, 
but, as in some murid series recently reviewed from the Lake Eyre Basin, there 
is a wide individual variation in structural characters, and considerable dis- 
proportion of parts in examples at approximately the same growth stage. Indi- 
vidual capricious variation involves particularly the antorbital fossa, the meso- 
pterygoid fossa, anterior palatal foramina and lachrymals, while disproportion is 
shown largely in the muzzle region and anterior zygomata. The retention of 
juvenile characters of slender muzzle and narrow anterior zygomata in otherwise 
advanced skulls is responsible for some marked contrasts in the shape of some 
of the largest examples of the series derived from individuals, precisely similar 
externally. Much of the variation is undoubtedly due to varying pressure of 
ecological conditions on the life cycle of individuals, though direct demonstration 
of such a relation is rarely possible. An accessory cingular cusp on the anterior 
lamina of the upper M\ very much as in N. ccrvinus Waite et auct of (the Lake 
Eyre Basin and N . mitchelli macro pus of Ooldea, is well developed in 10 examples. 
i he anterior lamina of the first upper molar is usually bicuspid even when unworn, 
but a distinct third buccal cusp is present in a small proportion of individuals as 
in most of the species. 

The variations noted are shown by both races in about the same degree, but 
there is a distinct tendency for the skull of the southern race to be stouter, and 
with relatively broader muzzle and squarer zygomatic outline, though the presence 
of numerous exceptions renders it difficult to illustrate the difference by measure- 
ment. The only important difference from the type skull of alcxis alcxis from 
Alexandria shown by the whole series is the inferior zygomatic width; the 17 mm. 
quoted for the type seems excessively large and is possibly an aberration if 
correctly recorded, though a single very large skull of the present series approaches 
it with 16*5 mm.; the value for this measurement, quoted independently by 
Brazenor, agrees with the present series. 

Flesh Dimensions 

As the values for the two races are in complete agreement, no segregation is 
made in the following figures which give the range of dimensions and true mean 
in (1) 7 $ and 9 subadults, and (2) 10 $ and 13 9 fully adult. The means 
are in brackets. 

1 2 

Head and body - 95-102 (99); 95-100 (97) 101 109 (103); 97-112 (104) 

Tail - 131-142 (136); 120-132 (128) 141-150 (145); 130-139 (134) 

Pes - 31-32 (31-5); 30-31 (31) 32-34 (33); 32-34 (33) 

Eat - 19-23 (22); 19-20 (19-5) 21-24 (22-5); 21-23 (22) 

Weight in grammes- 27-37 (30); 27-34 (29) 30-45 (40); 31-47 (36) 


Skull Dimensions 

The following figures give the range and true mean of the skull dimensions 
of adults of Notomys alexis vars, in (1) 3 S and 3 ? of the typical race from 
Wollara, (2) 8 g t and 8 2 of the southern race from ithe Everard Range. All 
skulls show wear on all laminae of the upper M 1 and are extracted from indi- 
viduals free from any obvious immaturity in external characters. 

Greatest length - - 28-8-39*2 (29-5) ; 30-0-30-8 (30-3) 29-0-30-4 (29-7) ; 29-1-31-6 (30-1) 

Basal length - - - 23-8-24-5 (24- 1) ; 23-8-24-6 (24-3) 23-7-25-5 (24-4) ; 23-8-26-0 (24-7) 

Zygomatic breadth ~ 15-0-15-6 (15-3); 14-5-15-8 (15-1) 15-0-15-7 (15-3); 15-0-16-5 (15-4) 

Braincase breadth - - 14-1-14-7 (14-4); 14-4-14-6 (14-2) 14-0-14-9 (14-5); 13-6-15*0 (14-4) 

Interorbital breadth - 5-0-5*1 (5-1); 5-1-5-7 (5-4) 5-2-5-5 (5-4); 5-0-5-6 (5-3) 

Nasals, length ~ - 10*2-10-8 (10*6); 10-7-10-9 (10-8) 10-5-11-2 (10-8); 10-7-11-4 (11-0) 

Nasals, greatest breadth 2-8-3-0 (2-9); 2-8-3-0 (2-9) 3-0-3-4 (3*1); 2*8-3-1 (3-0) 

Palatal length - - 15-2-15-3 (15-2); 15-0-15-7 (15-3) 15-0-16-0 (15-4); 15-0-16-2 (15-7) 

Ant. Pal. Foram., length 5-0-5-6 (5-3); 5-3-5-5 (5-4) 5-0-5-7 (5-3); 5-0-5-5 (5-2) 

Ant. Pal. Foram, breadth 1-6-1-9 (1-8); 1-7-1-8 (1-7) 1-5-2-0 (1-7); 1-6-1-9 (1-7) 

Bulla length - - - 5-9-6-0 (5-9); 5-6-5-8 (5*7) 5-5-6-0 (5-7); 5-9-6-3 (5-9) 

Upper molar scries - 5-0-5-0 (5-0); 5-0-5-0 (5-0) 4-9-5-1 (5-0); 4-9-5-0 (5-0) 

Incisive angle - - 63°-68° (65°) ; 6() c -60° (60°) 58°-60° (59°) ; 58°-65° (62°) 

Definition- of the Southern Race 

The form of Nofomys alexis occurring in the area about the Everard Range 
and representing the southern limit of the distribution of the species, I would 
propose to recognise as distinct, under the name Notomys alexis everardensis. 

General characters, flesh dimensions and range of external colourations as 
in the typical race, but the pelage differing as indicated above. The skull is some- 
what heavier in build and in general has a wider muzzle, stouter zygomata, and 
squarer zygomatic outline. The gular gland site in males is probably less invaginate 
than in males of the northern race of comparable gonad development. 

Cotypes: in the South Australian Museum, M.3685 Adult £, skin (1) with- 
out skull (original number 1649HHF), and MJ673 Adult 9, skin with skull 
(original number 1609HHF). 

Type Locality: Approximately 26° 50' south and 132° 15' east; about the 
waters of Chundrinna and Walthajalkanna north of the Everard Range in the 
north-west of the State of South Australia, and about 650 miles south-west of 
the type locality of the northern race. The cotypes are selected from a series of 
40 examples collected by the writer at the above camps in February, 1933, 20 of 
which are deposited in the South Australian Museum. 

An unexpected result of the examination of the large collection of Notomys 
from this portion of the centre, has been the proof of the complete absence of 
Notomys ccrvinus of Waite et- and (nee Gould) as I .have recently defined it 

( ] ) The skins arc from alcohol preserved material and are to be interpreted as 
representing individuals in which the original subterminal colour of the dorsum was 
near Ridgway\s Ochraceous Tawny, the terminal dorsal colour about Fuscous Black, and 
the general effect near Front's Brown. 


from Mulka in the Lake Eyre Basin. While this may be no more than a coinci- 
dence, it arouses a suspicion that Wake's identification of the entire Horn Expedi- 
tion material of the smaller Notomys, from Charlotte Waters and adjacent areas, 
is N. cervinus may have been mistaken, and that the dark-bellied form which, 
according to Brazenor, is numerous in these collections, is, at least in part, alexis. 
Two other circumstances tend to confirm this. Firstly, although the skulls 
figured by Waite (6) almost certainly represent cervinus as it occurs also at 
Mulka, some details of his measurements and figures, especially the gular 
"pouch/' are more suggestive of alcxis. Secondly, a series from Wantapellya, 
which was recorded by Waite (8) in 1915 as Ascopharynx cervinus has been 
carefully re-examined during this review and undoubtedly represents alcxis in toto. 

In view of this uncertainty it may be well, therefore, to briefly restate the 
characters which, in my view, separate the two species. Dimensions: both ear 
and foot in alcxis are distinctly shorter; the short narrow ear is highly charac- 
teristic. Pelage: alcxis, though very variable in external colour, is always 
browner and usually more distinctly grizzled and the dorsal coat crisper. Pure 
white belly fur, however, although more characteristic of cervinus than any other 
species, is not an infallible distinction as it occurs in alcxis and "aistoni/'' usually 
as a juvenile or early moult character, but occasionally in adults also. Conversely 
dark-bellied examples of cervinus occur. The gulosternal area: alcxis differs 
from cervinus in the constant possession in the male of a well-developed tract of 
specialized glistening sternal hairs as in mitchelli macropus. The gular pit in its 
maximum development in alcxis is smaller, deeper, with more fleshy but less well- 
defined labia, and the posterior floor of the pit diilers in having a more conspicuous 
area of naked creased skin. Skull: individuals of both may be found which are 
indeterminable by inspection, but in series alcxis is seen to be less specialized, 
more Pscudomys like, with a less globular braincase and normally with squarer 
zygomatic outline, especially in the var. everardeusis. 

The Status of Ascopharynx fuscus Wood Jones (9) 

It has been suggested (1) that this is synonymous with N. alexis alcxis 
Thomas. Unfortunately, no type was designated for this animal, and the 
only specimen available here which might reasonably be supposed to represent it, 
is in the collection of the Zoology Department of the University of Adelaide. It 
is stated to have been from Ooldea and to have formed part of the collection of 
Professor Wood Jones, though the original label is no longer attached. It is a 
nearly adult male, greatly faded, but represents an animal very close to A r . cennntts 
of Waite et auct. of the Lake Eyre Basin, the sunken gular gland site in par- 
ticular being identical. The pes is 34 mm., with a maximum width of 4 mm. (as 
measured in these papers across the pads of digits 2-4) ; the tail 127 mm.; the 
ear 25 mm. 

There is no trace of a sternal patch, and the animal clearly has nothing to 
do with alexis. 



Since Spencer's (4) misapplication of this name to longicaiidatiis and 
AVaite's (7) correction of the same., the opinion has prevailed that this form is 
somewhat coastal in distribution and does not occur in the centre. Recently, 
however, Brazeuor (op. cit.) has published a record of his N. mitchclli alutacea 
from an unspecified locality in "Central Australia." No form of mitchclli was 
taken during the field work of 1931-1935, nor is it present in any recent collection 
from the centre which 1 have examined, but in the old collections of the South 
Australian Museum are two mounted skins, much faded but apparently reconcil- 
able with alutacea. They are labelled, respectively, "Alice Springs" and "Central 
Australia 1879." The gulosternal tract is exactly as in A r . mitchclli macropus, and 
the foot length is 35 and 38 mm., respectively. 

The colouration of the type scries of alutacea, as recorded, is rather sugges- 
tive of alteration by alcohol. 

Notom vs '* aisto n t i" Brazenor 
This species which probably represents the true ccrvinus of Gould and Sturt 
(ncc Waite et and.), is represented by numerous imperfectly localized examples 
in the older Museum collection from "Central Australia." There is some reason 
to believe that the bulk of them are from Cowarie in the Lake Eyre Basin, and are, 
therefore, topotypical. Four of the remainder are definitely from Ooldea, however, 
and have already been recorded (3), and the other two from Charlotte Waters, 
whence they were received in company with edexis. They do not differ in any 
important respect from those of the large scries recently reviewed. One originally 
represented the clear buff" Type 1 pelage, and the other is an intermediate. These 
two records from Ooldea and Charlotte Waters are of value in proving the 
presence of this very distinct species, west of the Lake Eyre Basin. 


Most of the Central Australian examples of this species, so far examined, 
have come from north central localities beyond the Macdonnells. It was not 
obtained in the area worked over personally, but there is a specimen in the South 
Australian Museum from Mount Burrell, 50 miles north-west of Idracowra on 
the Fincke. This is a male with: Head and body 127 mm.; Tail, 205; Pes, 
44 x 6 ; Ear, 29. 

As pointed out by Brazenor (op. cit.), the presternal gland is exactly as in 
"msioni" and the general structure of manus and pes appear also to be nearer 
this species than to mitchclli or cervinus or edexis. The propriety of using these 
features in erecting a genus, however, seems strongly contra indicated by the 
circumstance that the actual range of structural diversification in manus and pes 
in the group is very slight, while the individual variation is extraordinarily high; 
and secondly by the fact that glandular structures (however useful in the dis- 
crimination of species) frequently occur m confusingly similar form in widely 


sundered groups and in consequence are notoriously unreliable as criteria of 

The current nomenclature of this large Central Australian form can scarcely 
he considered as more than provisional, until detailed comparison of scries with 
topotypes from the south-west of Western Australia can be made. 


1 Brazenor, C. W. 1934 Mem.. Nat. Mus., Melb., 8, 80 

2 Fimlayson, II. II. 1939 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 63 (1), 108 

3 Fixlayson, II. II. 1939 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 63 (2), 358 

4 Spencer, H. 1896 Rept. Horn Expel., 2, 10 

5 Thomas O. 1922 Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 9, 315 

6 Waitk, E. R. 1897 Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 10, pi. vi, fig. 3 a-f 

7 Waite, E. R. 1897 Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 10, 117 

8 Watte, E. R. 1915 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 39, 735 

9 Wood Jones, F. 1925 Reeds. S. Aust. Mus., 3 (1), 3 


Plate XIV 

Fig. A Dorsal aspect of the skull of an adult 9 of Nofont-ys alcxis everardensis, to show 
the retention of juvenile characters in muzzle and zygomata, x 2*2 ca. 

Fig. B Dorsal aspect of a normally developed skull of an adult 9 of Notomys ah. vis 
everardensis, extracted from an individual having external characters identical 
with A. x 2-2 ca. 

Fig. C Lateral aspect of B. x 2-2 ca. 

Fig. D Palatal aspect of B. x 2*2 ca. 

Kig\ E Right manus of an adult $ of Nat amy s alcxis everardensis. x 3-4 ca. 

Fig. F Right manus of an adult $ of Notomys cf. longicaudalus from Mount Eurrell. x 3 ca. 

Plate XV 

Figs. A, B, C Aspects of the skuU of Notomvs longicaudatus, $ , (The example figured bv 
Waite. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 1897, pi. v, fig. 2). x 1-7 ca. 

Fig. D Rfght Pes of Nntomys Umgicaudatus. £ , adult. (id., pi. xiv, fig. F.) x 1-8 ca. 

Fig. E General aspect of the gular glandular area as seen in alcohol preserved material of 
Notomys alcxis alcxis from Basedow Range area, Central Australia. Adult, £ . 
x 1*2 ca. 

Fig. F Right Pes of Notomys alcxis everardensis. Adult, g . x 2-3 ca. (id., pi. xiv, fig. FL 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate XIV 


i I 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Attst. l'MU 

Vol. 04, L'latc XV 

/ ^ 






/ Mi 

9pa* Pi ■* 

J v^^v 


1 ' 

Photo by H. H. Finlayson 



By H. WOMERSLEY, South Australian Museum. 

The following new species of Ceratrimeria has recently been sent to me by Dr. J. W. Evans, of the 
Department of Agriculture, Hobart, Tasmania. 


By H. Womersley, South Australian Museum 

[Read 13 June 1940] 

The following new species of Ceratrimeria has recently been sent to me by 
Dr. J. W. Evans, of the Department of Agriculture, Hobart, Tasmania. 

Ceratrimeria bicornis n. sp. 
Description-* Superficially with the facies of C. dendyi (Lutah.) but the dorsal 
spine-like prominences much longer and upturned. Length of animal 4"0 mm., width 
slightly less than 2 mm. Colour black, except for the pair of dorsal horns on the 


*•» h 

4 * i ' 



.■ ' / 

- \ 











: t|" 

Ceratrimeria bicornis n. sp. 

A, entire dorsal view. B, postantennal organ and anterior ocelli. C, claw and tibiotarsus. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


head, three pairs of spots on the meso- and metathorax, and the tips of the dorsal 
prominences which are yellow. Antennae as long as head, ratio of segments 
1-5: l'O; 1*1: 2*0. Ocelli 8 on each side on dark patches of pigment. Post- 
antennal organ subelliptical and consisting of an irregularly arranged cluster of 
tubercles. Abdomen VI hidden under V, as in the genus. The dorsal prominences 
are: a pair of short horn-like ones on the head and a pair of long upwardly 
curved ones on each segment from the mesothorax. Legs rather longer than in 
dendyi; claws strongly granulate, without inner teeth but with a pair of dorso- 
lateral outer teeth at -J from base, and extreme base on each side with a short 
spine-like seta. Clavate tibiotarsal setae and furca absent. Clothing of very fine 
short hairs as in other Tasmanian species. 

Locality — Two specimens from Ida Bay, Tasmania, collected by Dr. V. V. 
Hickman in November, 1939; a half-grown specimen from Belgrave, Victoria, 
in March, 1940 (O. W. T.) ; another full-grown specimen from Olinda, Victoria, 
26 May 1940 (F. E. Wilson). 

Remarks— This interesting species is very closely related to C. dendyi and 
belongs to the Tasmanian group of the species of the genus. It differs, however, 
in the form of the postantennal organ, in this respect showing relationship to 
species of the Indo-Malayan and African groups. From dendyi it also differs in 
the structure of the claws and the position and lengths of the dorsal prominences. 
The paratergites are otherwise as in the rest of the Tasmanian species. 


By R. S. ROGERS, M.A., M.D., D.Sc, etc. 

Pterostylis allantoidea, n. sp 
A very slender plant, about 6-10 cm. high. Leaves rosulate at the base of the stem on rather long 
petioles, ovate, reticulate, margins slightly crenulate; a subulate bract a little above them. Flower 
single, erect, about 10 mm. long; galea markedly acute and decurved, green with dark purple 
longitudinal stripes and markings ; the junction of the lateral sepals dark coloured and very gibbous, 
their segments produced into filamentous points erect or reflexed greatly exceeding the galea. 
Labellum mobile unguicule, semicylindrical, fleshy, channeled above, slightly curved, pubescent in 
the anterior part and protruding a little at the sinus, about 4.5 mm. long; appendage trifid. 


By R. S. Rogers, M.A., M.D., D.Sc, etc. 
[Read 13 June 1940] 

Pterostylis allantoidea, n. sp 

A very slender plant, about 6-10 cm. high. Leaves rosulate at the base of 
the stem on rather long petioles, ovate, reticulate, margins slightly crenulate; a 
subulate bract a little above them. Flower single, erect, about 10 mm. long; galea 
markedly acute and decurved, green with dark purple longitudinal stripes and 
markings; the junction of the lateral sepals dark coloured and very gibbous, their 
segments produced into filamentous points erect or reflexed greatly exceeding 
the galea. Fabellum mobile unguiculate, scmicylindrical, fleshy, channelled above, 
slightly curved, pubescent in the anterior part and protruding a little at the sinus, 
about 4*5 mm. long; appendage trifid. 

Planta gracillima, circa 6--10 cm. alta. Folia radicalia, 4-5, petiolata, ovata, 
reticulata, marginibus crenulatis. Prope basin bractea subulata. Flos solitarius, 
ercctus, circa 10 mm. longus ; galea acutissima, subviridis, cum notationibus 
atratis longitudinalibus, decurvissima; segmenta lobii inferius erecta vel recurva 
rilamentosa galeam multo excedentia; junctio gibbosissima; labellum carnosum, 
semicylindricale, leviter curvata, superne canaliculatum, anterior! pubescente. 

This interesting little plant bears a superficial external resemblance to three 
other Australian species, i f is,: 

(1) P. concinna, R. Br. 

This orchid has a markedly emarginate labellum, a character which readily 
excludes error in determination. It has doubtfully been reported from 
Bugle Ranges, South Australia, but not further west. 

(2) P. pedunculate, R. Br. 

No inrlexed tooth separating the two segments of the lower lip. The 
labellum is neither fleshy nor pubescent; the galea is not decurved. More 
than one stem-bract present. Not reported west of this State. Not gibbous. 

(3) P. nana, R. Br. 

Inflexed tooth separating segments of lower lip. Labellum is neither fleshy 
nor pubescent. Galea rather blunt. More than one stem-bract present, 
Doubtfully reported from Western Australia. Not gibbous at base of 

The plant was discovered by Florbury, in September, 1938, at Kumarl, near 
Salmon Gums, Western Australia, and was forwarded by Colonel B. T. Goadby. 
It derives its name from the somewdiat sausage-like shape of the labellum. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 




By NORMAN B. TINDALE, Ethnologist, South Australian Museum. 


The following paper is one of the first fruits of the joint expedition organised by the Department of 
Anthropology, Harvard University, and the University of Adelaide, under a research grant from the 
Carnegie Corporation of New York. The field work was materially assisted by grants from the 
South Australian Government and the University of Adelaide, while the services of the present 
writer were made available to the expedition by the authorities of the South Australian Museum. 




By Norman B, Tjndale, Ethnologist, South Australian Museum 

Wittt One Map 

[Read 13 June 1940] 

The following paper is one of the first fruits of the joint expedition organised 
hy the Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, and the University of 
Adelaide, under a research grant from the Carnegie Corporation of New York. 
The field work was materially assisted by grants from the South Australian Govern- 
ment and the University of Adelaide, while the services of the present writer 
were made available to the expedition by the authorities of the South Australian 

A preliminary field report by Tindale and Birdsell was in press late in 1939 
but the reference has not yet been received. The present paper deals with data 
regarding tribes obtained during the field work, and forms a basis for further 
studies in social and physical anthropology by both observers. Results have been 
included of other field work accumulated in past years. 

In the present paper and accompanying map an attempt has been made to 
give a list of all established tribes, and, where possible, a concise account of the 
known boundaries and a precis of recent natural tribal displacements that have 
occurred. As far as possible, new information, principally from present enquiries 
in the field, was the basis of the map, and where this failed, published data 
obtained by other professional research workers in recent years, have been pre- 
ferred. In the absence of both these sources, attempts have been made to 
assimilate the mass of less critical data available in the general literature. The 
method of setting out will, it is hoped, enable the new data to be distinguished 
from those culled from published sources. Much information has been obtained 
about the component hordes and minor groupings within these tribes ; this data 
must be considered separately. 

Utilised Sources of Information 

Fourteen months were spent in the field by the Harvard-Adelaide Expedi- 
tion, principally along the eastern and southern portions of Australia, from north 
of Cairns to Perth. Survivors of many aboriginal tribes were interviewed, often 
in their own country, and the data may be said to have been acquired during the 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (1), 26 July 1940 


course of interviews with approximately 2,450 people (the total number subjected 
to anthropometric examination). First-hand data have also been added from 
material obtained during the past nineieen years on journeys in the Western 
(Great Victoria) Desert, in Central and Western Australia, on Cape York 
Peninsula and in Arnhem Land ; a total of forty-eight months of field work. 

Having recently interviewed a lone survivor of the ['Purjandi: tj] tribe, 
the writer has, for example, now obtained direct information regarding former 
tribal distributions and boundaries for nearly every tribe in South Australia. In 
the sole exception, the extinct [ ; 'Nauo] tribe of Port Lincoln district, information 
supplied by ['Pangkala] individuals has had to suffice. 

Despite objectiveness of approach, the methods employed in gathering the 
new material may be considered to introduce a personal bias into the data. This 
may be outweighed by the possible advantage that the information has been 
collected in a uniform manner, has been transcribed phonetically by the one hand, 
and hence represents a synoptic view of a large mass of information relating to 
tribal units in Australia. 

When compared with the independent results of other recent field workers, 
it may be seen that there is a high degree of correlation between the results 
obtained. There is less agreement with the results of brief surveys and the 
scattered data obtained from relatively casual enquiries and through the agency 
of questionnaires. The material from the last-named often requires considerable 
sifting and analysis before it can be utilised. As stated above, the data that has 
been used to fill in gaps in personal observation is, as far as possible, derived from 
the published work of, and in some cases from personal contact with, other 
research workers. Where there are over-lappings between the data from two 
independent sources, the degree of corresondence evident is such as to engender 
confidence in the methods adopted. Differences do occur, but these are often 
mere variations in details of phonetic transcription and occasional lapses. Some 
seeming contradictions can be clarified only by further field work. 

With regard to the earlier data, those of the elder Strehlow, Spencer and 
Gillen, and Howitt proved most helpful. Mathews' data is of unequal merit, their 
value depending on the nature of the varied sources from which it was gleaned. 
Generally, less satisfactory tribal details occur in the writings of Basedow, Bates, 
and Spencer. 

Roth's work, based entirely on field researches, is of exceptional clarity ; his 
spelling is a trap to those who do not keep his system (1897, p. 1) in mind. He 
admits inability to adequately reproduce the nasal sounds. 

Davidson ( 1937, 1938) has summarised the literature and published a map, 
without indicating boundaries. The only previous attempt of any consequence 
was that of Roheim (1925). which likewise suffers from lack of field data and 

in sifting and discarding earlier published terms purporting to be tribal, 
increasing knowledge of native vocabulary and practice is of some help. 


Most tribes have a term which they apply to themselves ; usually it is a proper 
name derived from their own language, or, more rarely, it is a name adopted 
from members of some neighbouring tribe who have applied it to differentiate 
their neighbours from themselves. When genuine variations, synonyms and 
alternatives, terms of opprobrium, etc., given by others, and erroneous or mis- 
takenly applied terms are taken into account, it may be readily understood there 
is present in the literature many more tribal names than there are valid tribes. 
Where possible, such terms have been equated and indicated in the synonymy. 
In a few cases it has been difficult to ascertain a real tribal name ; thus only after 
over a century of casual contact and several visits by field workers has Hart 
(1930) suggested a name ['Tiwi] for the Melville Islanders. 

As might be expected, tribal names take many forms, among which may be 
recognised the following: 

(a) Proper nouns without known meaning. 

(b) Words meaning "man/' "men/ 3 or "people." Sometimes these may denote 
only a nebulous aggregate of tribes. 

(e) Words derived from peculiarities in the language spoken. Differences in 
vocabulary may be seized upon to provide some key term to separate one's 
own tribe from neighbouring ones. In parts of Victoria, for example, 
there are names derived from the duplicated terms for "no," as in 
[AVemba'wemba], ['Ji : ta'ji : ta] or modifications of it as in 
[3-ie'rap : e'ra:pe]. In the Western (or Great Victoria) Desert the terms 
of enquiry "what is it?" ['narjata-], ['nana-] and frja:da-] are utilised to 
make names such as Nangatadjara, Ngadadjara, etc. 

(d) Terms based on ecological and /or geographical differences. ['AnjimatanaJ 
"hill people," ['Ha: rindji] "forest people," ['Wirameju] "gum forest 
people," and ['Ha:kendji] "river people." Such names are commonly 
found as terms applied by neighbours since, surprisingly enough, it is not 
always as easy to recognise the unity of one's own ecological or geographical 
niche as to summarise another's. 

(c) Words incorporating a term for "language" or "speech." A widespread 
root word, e.g., ['worja], ['warjga], ['worjka], meaning "talk" or 
"speech" may be combined with qualifying adjectives similar to "good," 
"clean," "smooth," etc., to denote the members of a tribe. In such tribes, 
cognate terms are apt to be used to describe the "hard-," "rough-," "in- 
comprehensible-," "stupid-," speech of neighbours. The latter terms must 
usually be rejected when seeking a valid term for a tribe. 

(f) Names derived from compass directions. In South-western Australia, 
terms such as ['Koirerj] (literally east, or easterners), ['Kanearjj 
(westerners), ['Min:arj] (southerners) seem to be valid tribal names, and 
no more suitable terms have been suggested for these tribes. In many other 


places, names incorporating compass directional terms are seemingly invalid. 
Thus, in a large part of Western Australia the term [Tvaieli] is used to 
denote any tribe situated to the north or north-west of the informant. This 
term generally means "north-west," and is not applicable to specific groups. 
In the same area, and extending well into western South Australia, and 
the Northern Territory, words meaning, respectively, "north," "south," 
"east," "west," have been reported. These are not tribal names, although 
they have been treated as such. Their adoption would be confusing. As a 
rule, they do not refer to specific ethnic groups. What is east to one is 
west to another. 

Some terms for cardinal points which have been mistaken for tribal 
names in West-Central Australia and elsewhere, together with several of 
the invalid derivatives, are given in the following list. Several of these 
are merely words for the cardinal points disguised by cumbersome methods 
of transcription : 

f'alindjara] North Alinjerra, Yallingarra 
l/ulparara] i „ f Ulbaritja, Ullparidja, Ulpara, Yoolbarie, 

['julbari] J " { Julbari : , julbara 

['kakararal ^ _ c Kakaringa, Karkurerra, Kakararu, Kakarrura, 

I 'kakara] \ c ( Karkar, Kar-Kar, Kogara, Kikkar, Kugara, Kokar 

f'wilurara] ^ r Wilrurrerra, Wilruddidda, Willcwroo, Wllleuxo, 

[ r aldo:la] I West \ W 7 ilrunerra, WiKara, Willuro, Willuri, Ililleri; 
f'wiljaru] ) v Aldorla, Alduling, Aldolinga 

(g) Names in Queensland terminating in [-'bara] to be excluded. Numerous 
names with terminations -bara, -bura are to be found in the earlier litera- 
ture of Central Queensland from Gympie north to Townsville and west 
to Winton. They usually denote horde-like units of local organisation and 
can seldom if ever be given the status of tribes. In the present map only 
one has been admitted, the ['Kabelbara], from west of Isaacs River, and 
it is suspected that another term may have originally existed even here. 
In a second case, the ['Koirijmal] of Broad Sound, the appellation 
['Koinjmurbare] belonging also to a single horde living at Torilla, was 
once given to me as a name for the whole tribe, but another native assures 
me this is strictly incorrect. 

Other Excluded Terms 

All general and descriptive terms (such as Wepulprap [Vepur] = south, 
[ r prap| — people, applied by Tangane to all people of the south-east of South 
Australia) have been omitted from our lists: 

Terms which relate to loose or indefinite agglomerations of tribes, e.g., the 
['rjarindjeri] (Narrinyeri, etc., of the Lower Murray River), have been omitted, 
as well as all terms which apply to supposed supernatural tribes or beings. For 


example, aL Ooldea, Madutara are a legendary folk of dwarf-like dimensions who 
are believed to live in the Western Desert and have magical powers. Maduntara 
( Madutara) is also a general Pintubi and Pitjandjara term for people who live to 
the south-east of their country, and it has been passed over, for it does not apply 
exclusively to one tribe and is not an endemic term. 

Where the native language is little understood, errors are apt to creep in. 
Thus ['jaganko], ( ['jagaj = mother, and f-nko| suffix meaning "to" or 
''towards") applied in the form Jagangu to some people north-west of Ooldea 
seems likely to have arisen from some misunderstanding of a native's explanation 
about his mother's people. 

Other terms winnowed out (principally from the earlier literature) are 
obviously generalised terms, lapses and misunderstandings, such as: zvombandi, 
"I don't know"; bardu, bardoak and bardok, "circumcised people," and minma, 
"women." The word ['natari|, "stranger," is often used by natives in Western 
Australia; it is obviously not a tribal proper term. 

A combination of words such as [Tvata'hunata] , meaning "head pad people," 
does not form a tribal term; in this instance it is a descriptive reference to the 
peculiar head pad or coiflure worn by males of most Western (Great Victoria) 
Desert tribes. Similarly, ['jawaijilambaluk | . "people of the mountains," and the 
previously mentioned ['anjimatana], "hill dwellers," and ['vviramejuj, "people of 
the gum forest," are descriptive labels and must often be passed over in favour 
of other terms. Similar objections have been raised to [Tvokataj. on the score 
that [Tvokataj was derived from f'kokaj = meat ; the name being interpreted 
:o mean "meat-eaters" or "cannibals." More recent field studies have shown that 
the majority of f'Kokata] natives themselves prefer this term to any other and 
that the suggested derivation is not acceptable to ['Kokata] people, even 
if it be so ascribed by others. Similarly [Ba:kendji] has no serious rival as 
a tribal term. Occasionally, subclass and moiety terms may be confused with 
tribal names, e.g., [/kurabanaj, ['korakulu] and ['kuraminja] in North Queens- 
land are moiety terms. There are also doubtful cases such as Ibarga and Jar urn, 
which are thought probably to be subclass terms [T:paruka| and ['Taroro|, but 
first-hand information is lacking. 

An important source of past confusion in tribal nomenclature has been the 
presence, often in widely separated areas, of discrete tribal groups which have the 
same or markedly similar tribal names. In some cases prehistoric tribal continuity 
could, perhaps, be postulated. They are at present real tribal groupings. In other 
cases the resemblances are likely to be mere coincidence. Because of their 
importance, and to prevent possible confusion, the principal ones may be listed. 
When phonetically transcribed, it will be noticed there are often differences which 
may not be appreciated when they are more casually written. 

I'Bidie, 'Biria] Lower Thomson River, circumcising tribe. 

| 'Biria] Non-circumcising tribe, Bowen River, coastal Queensland. 

f'Wiri, 'Widi| Highlands behind Mackay. Queensland. 


I'Widi] Lake Monger district, Western Australia. 

[/Jarjga] Sutton River, Queensland. 

['Jaija:| Upper Gilbert River, Queensland. 

|'Ku:ijkari, 'Ku:rjka:i] Thomson River, near Stoncheuge, Queensland. 

I'Kungarij Upper Nebine Creek, Queensland. 

[Pitjarej Non-circumcising, Warrego River, Queensland. 

|'Bitjara| Circumcising people at Bulloo Downs, South-west Queensland. 

|Tladjiri| South of Cunnamulla, Queensland. 

[Kutjel] Einasleigh River, Queensland. 

[Kutjalej Basalt River, Queensland. 

('Maikudiujl Circumcising tribe, Upper Ueichhardt River, Queensland. 

I/Maikulan, 'Maikulun] Non -circumcising, head waters of Norman River, 

I'Jukam'be] Eoonah district, South Queensland. 
[Jukembalj New England Plateau, New South Wales. 
[KutebalJ Upper Staaten River, Queensland. 
fKitabal| Upper Richmond River, New South Wales. 
|'Kukatji| Non-circumcising tribe. Gulf of Carpentaria, Queensland. 
|Kukatja| Eight-class circumcising tribe in Western McDonnell Range, 

Cent ral Austral ia. 
(Tvokata| No-class tribe, north of Wynbring, South Australia. 
|rjalia| Eight-class tribe north-west of McDonnell Range, Central Australia. 
[ijalea] No-class tribe north-west of Ooldea, South Australia. 
['Mint : eij ] (means south) ; applied to non-circumcising tribe at Albany, 

Western Australia. 
[Miniiij, Mi : nin | (means man) applied to circumcising tribe near Eucla, 

Western Australia, 
| 'Jukul] Ueichhardt Bar at head of tidal waters of Roper River, North 

['Jokulaj Mainland opposite Wellesley Islands, Queensland. 
| 'nandi | North of Roper River, North Australia, 
['rjandjij — ['Kotandjij Headwaters of McArthur River, North Australia. 

A distinction must also be made between similarly sounding names with entirely 
different meanings. Thus, the name ['Minierj] is applied to people around 
Albany, South-western Australia. The root of this term means "south" and their 
word for man is ['njurjaj. It thus must not in any way be confused (as has, 
unfortunately, happened in the literature) with the ['Mirniijj — ['Mi: nil]], a 
circumcising-and-subincising tribe of the coast between Eyre and the Head of 
the Great Australian Bight, among whom the root ['mimin| means "man." 

Where extended and contracted forms of a name occur, the more usual one 
has been adopted if knowledge is sufficient to enable a fair assessment to be made of 
native usage. Sometimes the penultimate syllable of a name tends to be lost, e.g., 
|"Wilja:Hl for ['Wiljakali | . | Tvu : rjka : i | for ['Ku : ykari], ['Wai:pi] for 


['Wailpi]. In such cases, the vowel preceding the elided syllable is often extended. 
Usually the more clearly enunciated form is preferred. In a few cases, e.g., 
['Jankundjara], instead of ['JarjkundjadjaraJ, which are about equally commonly 
employed, the shorter form has been arbitrarily chosen because it is less 

The last-named example brings up the vexed question of synonyms and the 
contradictory results occasionally obtained by different workers using varied 
methods of approach. In 1933 the term Jangkundjara was obtained for the 
people whose ancestral home was about the eastern Musgrave and Everard 
Ranges. In 1934 a similar term was independently volunteered by members of a 
group of the same tribe who, having left the Everard Range country in 1917 
(date fixed by eclipse), were then living at Ooldea. The term has validity, since 
it is independently known to two groups of the same tribe. It is paralleled by a 
term, Pitjandjara, used by a neighbouring people to the west. More recently 
(1937) another worker heard, but has not yet published, a word ['Wirtjapa- 
'kandja] as the tribal term for the same folk. In 1939 the last-named term was 
unknown to another individual consulted, estimated to be eiglity-hve years of age, 
who used the term Jangkundjara. 

An explanation which occurs is that new tribal designations may arise in 
some areas, and old ones may fall into disuse. If a new word has arisen since the 
break-up of this tribe in 1917, it may not be known to all the dispersed survivors. 
It is also likely that more than one term may be in use concurrently. Thus at 
Ilermannsburg Mission, elderly ['Kukatja] people still dislike the derisive term 
['Loritja] applied to them by the ['Arandaj. Nevertheless, members of a 
younger generation are apparently becoming reconciled to it, especially as it has 
become customary to use it on the mission in preference to the real term 
f 'Kukatja j. 

Method of Setting Out Catalogue of Tribes 

In the following catalogue of tribes, a phonetic rendering is first given on 
the left side of the page, followed, where considered desirable, by phonetic 
transcriptions of alternatives, extremes of native usage, etc. A brief description 
of the location of the tribe is then given in terms of present-day names of places 
on the maps. It is hoped that most place names mentioned in the list may be 
found on the map. A non-phonetic list of the principal forms current in the 
literature is also given at the end of the description of localities to assist in the 
tracing of references, the more important of which are cited. Exhaustive treat- 
ment could not be considered within the limits of space in these Transactions. In 
the list of old spellings the data has, as far as possible, been arranged in order of 
departure from the accepted form, so that aberrant renderings, when they occur, 
are usually placed near the last. 

To extend the tribal list to embrace all names, synonyms and variations 
applied to them by other surrounding tribes would tend to swell the list over- 
much; important ones are given in the following form: 


Loritja (Aranda term) Maduntara (of southern tribes). 

Owing to printing difficulties it has not usually been possible to give close 
transcriptions of some of the less important synonyms relegated to the list of 
alternatives, even when new; they can usually be distinguished by the remarks 
which follow them in brackets. For general writings, where close phonetic render- 
ings are unnecessary or difficult owing to typographical and other difficulties, the 
form shown at the extreme right of the page is recommended for use. All tribes 
of which the names and new data have been obtained during field work are indicated 
in the catalogue by being shown without brackets. The capital letter "T" is added 
at the end of list of references to show that the sources include new data in the 
present author's possession. Fresh information is given for the distribution of 
about 400 tribes. Where the information given has been derived from published 
or manuscript sources without field control the tribal name is indicated in the 
catalogue by the deduced and rather generalised phonetic equivalent being placed 
in round brackets. 

Phonetic Transcription Employed 

The phonetic transcription employed is an adaptation of the International 
Phonetic Alphabet arranged by a Language Committee at the University of 
Adelaide, with additions (Tindale 1935 (2) and 1937, Capell 1940). For con- 
venience, the symbols employed may be summarised as follows: 

Plosives - 
Rolled - 
Lateral - 


b P 

v w 

d™ t 




(1 t 



dj tj 



d t 





g k 



it, machine 


allez (Fr.) almost they 

earth, nurse 

father, Mann (Ger.) 



stress mark 

| ' ] glottal stop 

I u J 





L : I 

full, food 

com me (Fr.), almost not 

obey, almost oak 



Ilaus (Ger.), almost house 


indicates lengthened vowel or 


indicates isolated word in 

general text is phonetically 


(') Tn the accompanying map letters with a vertical stroke beneath them correspond 
to those shown in black letters here; those with a dot beneath them are indicated in this 
text by italics. 


A median course has been chosen in the differentiation of the vowel sounds. 
This may have led to the perpetuation of some errors, but these are perhaps of 
less importance, since the pronunciation of the vowels is subject to variation in 
the mouths of the aborigines themselves. In the main list the terms shown in 
phonetic script have been transcribed after personal contact with one or more 
individuals of the tribe concerned. For names of tribes of which the author has 
no first-hand information to offer, the form given in round brackets as a phonetic 
equivalent is merely an attempt to give a broad approximation to the pronuncia- 
tion, and may be regarded as of the value of a personal opinion. 

Mistakes introduced by absence of accurate phonetic renderings are respon- 
sible for many seeming duplications of tribal terms. The use of unnecessary or 
misleading prefixes and suffixes may also prove a source of confusion. There 
are also undoubtedly wide variations of current usage within even a single tribe, 
as instanced by Tiudale 1935 (2), p. 264. 

The Queensland tribal term ['Maioakari J. which tends to [ 'Maidakadi | , is 
an illuminating example of the range of error introduced by imperfect attempts 
at transcription. The normal variation of fr] to [d], which is indicated in the 
above phonetic transcription, has perhaps added to the confusion. Some attempted 
spellings of this tribal name are: Mitakoodi, Mitakudi, Mitro(o)-goordi, 
Mit(t )agurdi, Maitakudi, Mayatagoorri, Mythuggadi, Mythagucldi. In the four 
first-named the first vowel, written "/■/' should evidently be given the value of 
[ai]. Hie [dj sound has been variously attempted. It is evident that it is lack 
of a sure phonetic vehicle that has been responsible for the majority of the seem- 
ing differences, for each transcriber has had confidence in his own rendering. 
On the basis of the literature, without field control, Davidson (1938) preferred 
Mitakudi which, read phonetically, is likely to perpetuate an error, originally 
caused by bad phonetics. 

A glaring fault in old Australian vocabularies and among the older carto- 
graphers, often affecting tribal terminology, is the defective hearing and tran- 
scription of nasal sounds. This is marked in the rendering of [rj] (as in singer) 
by gn, thus Gnuin for ['ijewinj, a tribal name; gnamma for |'i]ama|, meaning a 
rock-watcrhole ; Wongkonguuru for ['Wonkanuru] , a tribal name. Some of these 
errors of hearing are so confirmed in popular use that critical observations to the 
contrary are apt to be ignored and decried. The error is the more insidious since 
occasional field workers have found difficulty in discriminating between [rjj and 
(gn|, habitually using [gn] in speaking native words, especially those with initial 
[ij|. The cerebral nasal [gn| does occur but is rare. 

Differentiation between the various nasal sounds is important in Australia, 
and aberrant transcription of [n] and related sounds has been the cause of some 
errors and apparent synonyms. Thus Yunga is written for f'Njurja:] r= 
[Nuna:]. In this case, the interdental [n] which tends towards [nj | has been 
mistakenly rendered as [j]. 


Physiographic a.\d Ecological Controls apparent in Trihal Distribution 

The principles of human geography apply with particular force in the dis- 
tribution of primitive aboriginal tribes. Without technical aids other than spear, 
boomerang, fire and canoe, the Australian aborigine has had relatively little power 
to transgress barriers set by ecological and geographical position. Living, as he 
often does, near the borderline between adequate nutrition and starvation, his 
personal skill and bis very detailed knowledge of nutritional sources in bis own 
territory arc often the only assets separating him from starvation and thirst. 
With feeble resources for transport and restricted means for preservation of food, 
be is limited in his wants by the immediate availability of the primary stuffs of 
life, water, firewood, vegetable foods and game. If he camps too near to water, 
game will be disturbed, and there will be no firewood, for this will have been 
already used by his ancestors; if he remains too far away there will be transport 
difficulties. 1 fe must observe a nice balance between these factors, bearing in 
mind also the importance of visibility in ensuring safety from enemies, and the 
inability of his only burden bearers, his wives, to travel more than three to five 
miles away from camp, gather root, foods and return in the day. 

When accurately plotted on large scale maps, it is thus not very surprising to 
find often there is a high degree of correlation between tribal limits and ecological 
and geographical boundaries. Divides, mountain ranges, rivers, general ecological 
and plant associational boundaries, microclimatic zone limits, straits and peninsulas 
often furnish clear-cut and stable boundaries. Some of these are evident even 
011 the small scale of the present map. In the deserts, cluster distributions of 
hordes around the few permanent waters are equally clear and waterless tracts 
effectively delimit many trihal boundaries. Other seeminglv waterless areas 
possess tree-root water resources sufficient to maintain communities which have 
become adapted to the utilisation of such specialised sources. 

So also lines of communication and migration routes have tended to follow 
natural lines of least resistance across Australia, often clinging to open plains, 
creeks and rivers, and to lines of waters along ranges, shunning dense forests 
and rugged mountains. There are migration trend-lines running away from areas 
ol easy access in the north into areas of isolation and refuge in the east, south 
and south-west. 

In considering these ecological facte, it must be remembered that while an 
advanced agricultural economy demands heavily watered country and timbered 
areas may be desirable and attractive, the reverse is likely to be the case for the 
aborigines — the most attractive areas are often open and preferably grassy plains 
wherever there is some water and much game. Dense wet forests become refuge 
areas, only to be sought by those less fortunate tribes whose physical and material 
inferiorities condemn them to the least desirable parts of primitive man's 
environment. Previously Tindale (1937) has commented on some geographical 
factors involved in tribal distributions and boundaries; many examples can be 
noted on the accompanying map. 


The general reverse relationship between size of tribal area and rainfall is 
marked. The dry belt west of Townsville contrasts with the wetter country north 
and south. Note also the wide-ranging desert tribes whose areas increase to a 
maximum size in the sterile Western (or Great Victoria) Desert. Notable 
exceptions seem to be: (1) the fisher-folk of the Murray River who enjoy special 
food advantages; (2) areas of postulated culture clash, such as in North-east 
Arnhem Land, Daly River and Boulia District, Queensland, where fragmentation 
seems to have taken place; and (3) possibly among the Kamilaroi and Wiradjuri, 
where especially widespread communities seem to have developed in relatively 
fertile country. In the last-named areas we seem to discern the beginnings of a 
more advanced type of political organisation. 

Where boundaries for a tribe seem to be well established, the fact is indicated 
on the accompanying map by heavy broken lines. Where this boundary is based 
on good but insufficiently detailed information, dots indicate a probable 
boundary, while the absence of any indication points to absence of data. Two 
thicker lines, the one indicating the limits of dispersion of the custom of circum- 
cision and the other of the less widespread rite of subincision, are also shown. 
The boundary for the last-named rite is fixed in the east, but is less satisfactorily 
established in the west, and is possibly not the same as the rather well-established 
line indicating the limits of circumcision rites. 

Since there have been gross changes of boundaries in Post-European times, 
every endeavour has been made to indicate all these boundaries as they were 
immediately preceding the advent of white interference. The detailed subject of 
recent historic tribal movements may be discussed more fully elsewhere. Some 
tribal movements which at first sight seem entirely natural may have been brought 
about by release of population pressure through wdiite interference, the change 
having its reaction in movements far beyond areas of white occupation. 

in the Great Western Desert, there arc seeming incoherencies imposed on 
tribal aggregation by the long and fiequent dispersal of hordes and single families 
over a wide area. This dispersal alternates with irregularly occurring temporary 
contacts with other units of the tribe brought about by the necessity for finding 
succour at common watering places whenever the drying up of wells, etc., forces 
small parties to diverge from their normal beats. On the border of the tribal areas 
there may be a temporary mingling of tribes. This occasional necessity for making 
common cause with others in obtaining water and food supplies tends to develop 
or keep alive the widespread community of language, modes of living, and 
customs among the Desert tribes. It also leads to some righting. It might be 
well argued that the groups called tribes in the Western Desert are not of the 
same political value as those found in other parts of Australia. Careful enquiry, 
however, suggests that they are equally valid, that the areas occupied are discrete 
and that the distributions are based on physiographic realities. Among the 
[Titjandjara] there is a native term meaning "anywhere is a camp," denoting 
that rare and brief period after heavy general rain when temporary waters are 


abundant. At this time the uttermost confines of the Desert may be visited, and 
the tribal territories might even seem to interdigitate or overlap. As soon as 
drier weather arrives, the people fall back on more permanent supplies of water. 
The most permanent are jealously husbanded against a dry period. The 
[/-Pitjandjara] turn to deep sand soaks and rock-sheltered pools in the Mann and 
Petermann Ranges, the ['Jarjkundjaral always returned towards the Everard 
Range waters (prior to the 1914 drought and the onset of pastoral settlement in 
1919), for these had never previously in living memory failed them. Many 
l/rja: dadjaraj go to Warupuju Spring in the Warburton Range which, they also 
claim, has never failed. Thus in ordinary dry times the tribal limits are rather 
rigidly defined, and it is only when unusual droughts occur that the limits are 
transgressed by other than native travellers. In this category may be included 
men carrying trade parcels, new songs, or dances, or accompanied by youths seek- 
ing potential fathers-in-law to initiate them by means of the rites of circumcision 
and subincision. 

At Warburton Range our 1935 Anthropological Expedition unexpectedly 
witnessed the arrival of a horde of [Nan: a] or ['nan: adjara| folk who, having 
been driven east from the country about Lake Carnegie by lack of water, had 
made their first important eastward contact in a generation. A few of the visitors 
were known to the local ['rja : dadjara], the rest were strangers; the languages 
show dialectic differences. An inter-marriage had at one time occurred, but the 
bride had been a stolen one. 

The well-timbered and mountainous areas of eastern Australia, cut into 
numerous isolated areas by the vagaries of the Great Dividing Range and its 
erosion planes and surfaces, have been responsible for the development of many 
tribal groupings; some of these have been seemingly preserved for relatively long 
periods of time. 

In another place, Tindale and Birclsell have drawn attention to the presence 
of an important rain-forest or rain-scrub refuge area in the Cairns hinterland in 
Queensland where mixed peoples, whose physical type tends toward that of the 
primitive Tasmanians, have survived. They appear even to retain some cultural 
elements found principally in those extinct people. Of these Tasmanoid peoples 
about a dozen small tribes are now known. 

Notes on Some North Australian Tribes 

Tribes in the vicinity of Darwin became disrupted and dispersed before 
adequate enquiries were made, so that uncertainty exists regarding the status of 
some within the area north of a line joining Fog Bay, Mount Bundcy, Mount 
Daniels, and Liverpool River, where tribes not practising circumcision formerly 

Several foci of very early disturbance of the aborigines existed, such as on 
Melville Island, where a British military establishment was present at Fort 
Dundas for five years (from 1824 to 1829). At Raffles Ba v from 1827, and 


later at Port Essington in 1838, there were also settlements which were later 
abandoned. Along the north coast of Arnhem Land there was much interference 
through the trading and fishing voyages of Malays. Karl (1846) indicates that 
every prau carried one or more aborigines among its crew, leading to early inter- 
tribal intercourse and changes on a scale not found elsewhere on the continent 
until modern times. 

Accounts of the Malays and of the results of their visits have been given by 
Tindale (1925, 1928), Jennison (1927), and Warner (1933 and 1937). Slave- 
making raids from Portuguese Timor are believed to have occurred before 1818 
(King, 1827), and occasional individuals of probable mixed Malay origin were 
reported among them when first noticed by European voyagers. 

Stanner (1933 and 1937) has discussed tribes from the Daly River district, 
but there are synonyms among his names and he has not yet given adequate data 
to enable them to be differentiated. Tribes of the southern parts of North Aus- 
tralia are, on the whole, better known, except in a region west of Tennant Creek 
where the western limits of several are not defined. 

Kor Arnhem Kand tribal data are so conflicting that reference to original papers 
is recommended. In north-eastern Arnhem Kand, neither Webb (1933) nor 
Warner (1931, 1937) have seemingly disentangled the skeins of hordes, languages, 
tribes, and sub-tribes. Warner, partly for convenience, chose a term Murngin 
for the people occupying the area east of a line drawn from Goyder River to 
Blue Mud Bay. He regarded the major unit as a tribe. Webb (1933) suggested 
that Murngin was a term applicable only to people belonging to the Jiritja moiety, 
and that it could not be regarded as a tribe in the sense acceptable in other parts 
of Australia. Warner (1937) did not directly discuss Webb's conclusions,, and 
some uncertainty still exists. Meanwhile an historical interpretation of the 
published data may be indicated as follows: 

Legends indicate that the focus of Murngin life formerly lay at Blue Mud 
and Caledon Bays- May we" not, therefore, assume that a recent expansion of the 
former inhabitants of this district has occurred? During this period some of the 
Caledon Bay folk have moved out into surrounding areas, where there has been 
an absorption of surrounding tribes. In the process, some of the primitive 
Caledon Bay hordes have grown so large that each has become in effect a super- 
horde (the mala of the aborigines), thus developing virtually a new type of local 
organisation. Some of the horde elements still remain in the mala, although it is 
so much larger than the normal horde. Within the mala a more, restricted 
organisation is now developing by the expansion of single families. In the place 
of the normal hordes there are now superfamilies. 

During this postulated expansion of the Caledon Bay people, elements of 
several formerly distinct peripheral tribes may have been partly ingested in the 
mala, including the Ritarngo, Djmba, Jandjinung, Dai. They were relegated to 
the local organisation as parts of the mala. It may be noticed that in the case 


of the Djinba, one of these suggested peripheral tribes, the mala is coextensive 
with the tribal term as applied by Mara and other southern people. 

This theory of the expansion of the horde to form a mala or superhorde 
might account for the retention among more southern tribes such as the Ngandi. 
Nungubuju, Ingura, and Mara of patterns of thought which regard the Ritarngo. 
Djinba, Dai, etc., as tribes equivalent to their own. even though these original 
Iribal units may have become absorbed in the expansion of the people whom they 
now know as Halamumu. 

Of the aggressiveness of the Balamumu there can be no doubt, and the 
present writer was, in 1920-21, witness of the fears of the Ingura men on Groole 
Fylandt when, for many months, they were under threat of invasion by 
Balamumu raiders. 

Of 'die causes of the suggested expansion little is known, but Warner 
attributes the breaking down of older levels of Murngin culture to the stress of 
impact with the Malays. 

Warner says that clans of both Dua and Jiritja moieties are present among 
the historical Balamumu, so that even today it could be regarded as a tribe in the 
normal Australian sense ; nevertheless, the boundary between it and Murngin 
territory is poorly defined, and Webb, by applying the term Balamumu merely to 
one superfamily of one mala (the Djiring) belonging to the Dua moiety, shows that 
the available data are inconclusive and our knowledge is not yet sufficient for an 
understanding of the status of these 4L tribes." 

Since Warner (1937) has not discussed Webb's (1933) data, the matter rests 
until further studies have been undertaken. For convenience, Warner's 1937 
views are placed on the map. 

Notes ox Some Queensland Tribes 
in 1939 Sharp gave a list of tribes in the north-eastern part of Queensland 
without definite localization beyond numbers on a sketch-map, of which the scale 
is too small to ensure correct platings. For most of the tribes he lists from south 
of the Nassau River the present writer had independent field-data as to boundaries, 
elc. The present map was first compiled in August, 1939. In 1940 McConnel 
published additional data for Cape York with an excellent map, and also gave data 
for a coastal strip between Cooktown and Cairns. Most of her southern tribes 
are detailed also in the report of the present expedition. This was forwarded to 
Harvard for printing in September 1939; the reference is not yet to hand. Miss 
McConnel's new data has been taken into consideration as far as possible in the 
final stages of compiling this text. For detailed studies of Northern Cape York 
tribes original papers should be consulted, since the statements of Sharp, McConnel 
and Thomson seem to be in some ways conflicting. For about half the tribes the 
present writer has some independent information, chiefly obtained from dispersed 
members of these tribes; he has also visited the Princess Charlotte Bay district. 



The author is indebted to Mr. and Mrs. J. B. Birdsell and Mrs. N. B. Tindale, 
his companions on the Harvard- Adelaide Universities Expedition, for their 
co-operation with him in these studies, which formed one section of the pro- 
gramme of the Expedition. 

He is indebted to Professor E. A. Hooton who perceived the desirability of 
detailed studies of the full- and mixed-blood peoples of Australia, and whose 
interest made the expedition possible. Mr. S. J. L. Simmons, the draughtsman of 
the South Australian Lands Department, redrew the accompanying plan for 
reproduction, and its clarity is due to his painstaking care. 

This paper gives a tribal map of Australia and a catalogue of the established 
tribes, based principally on recent field-work with additions from the literature. 
Wherever known the boundaries of each tribe are given, together with some of 
the more important references. The paper is an outcome of the combined 
Anthropological Expedition of the Department of Anthropology, Harvard Uni- 
versity, and the University of Adelaide, 19384939. 

'Ankamuti Ankamuti 

Loc: From Cape York south-west to Vrilya Point; inland almost to 
head of Jardine River. 

Alt.: Yumakundji (probably Jathaikana term). 
Rer\: McConnel 1940, T. 

'Arebe, 'A : rap Araba 

Loc.: At Retreat, Miranda Downs and Vaiiraok; south to Gilbert River; 
north to Staaten River and beyond; not further east than Emu Creek. 
Alt.: Aripa, Ngariba (Walangama term). 
Ref. : Sharp 1939, T. 

'Atjinuri, 'Atjinadi Atjinuri 

Loc: Upper Duck River youth to Upper Batavia River. The Ulwau- 
wutyana (or Ebawudjena) are probably a part of this tribe. 

Alt. : Adjinadi, Itinadyand. 

Ref.: Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 
'AjabaSa Ajabatha 

Loc. : From near Coen south to Upper Morehead River; east to 
Musgrave; west to headwaters of Coleman and Holroyd Rivers; at Ebagoola. 

Alt.: Aiahadu, Aiyaboto, Koka Ai-ebadu. 

Ref.: Thomson 1935, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 

"Ba : herein, 'Ba : baram Barbaram 

Loc.: Great Dividing Range, north to Mareeba, south to Mount Garnet; 
west to Alma-den (formerly a rain scrub dwelling people; now on sterile and 
rugged granite ranges). 



Alt.: (Um)Barbarem, Wumbabaram (Tjapukai term), Woombarbarram, 

Rcf.: Mathews 1898 (2), Richards 1926, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 
'Badjiri Badjiri 

Loc.: From Hungerford to Eulo on Paroo River; east to Barringun, 
Tinnenburra, Tuen and Cunnamulla; at Caiwarro and eastern side of 
Currawinya. Not west of Paroo River or at Thargomindah. (Not to be 
confused with Pitjara of headwaters of Warrego River). 

Alt.: Baddyeri, Byjerri, Baderi, Poidgerry, Badjedi. 

Rcf.: Myles in Curr 1886, Looker in Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (2), 1904, 
Kelly 1935, T. 

(Baiali) RaiaIi 

Loc: At mouth of Fitzroy River; on Curtis Island; at Keppcl Bay, 
south to Calliope River and Gladstone. 

Alt.: Byellee, Bicli, Ryellel, Orambul. 

Rcf.: Curr 1887, Howitt 1904. 
'Bakanambia, 'Wanbara, Kokolamalama Bakanambia 

Loc: Southern and western shores of Princess Charlotte Bay; inland 
to tidal limits of Norman by and North Kennedy Rivers, at about Lakefield. 

Alt.: Wanbara (alternative term), Kokolamalama (of southern tribes). 

Ref.: Roth 1901, Hale and Tindale 1933, T. 
(Bakanu) Bakanu 

Loc: Upper Edward River. 

Ref.: Sharp 1939. 

'Band] in, 'Bijai Bandjin 

Loc: Hinchinbrook Island (but not on adjoining mainland). 
Alt.: Bijai (language name). 
Rcf.: Tindale 
'Barada Barada 

Loc: On Boomer Range from Fitzroy River north to Nebo; west to 
Mackenzie and Isaacs Rivers, and Bombandy. 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Bar : ne, 'Parnabal 'Barna 

Loc: Headwaters of Isaacs River, west to Denham Range; south to 
Cotherstone; at Grosvenor Downs. 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Barurjgam, 'Baruijgama Barunggam 

Loc: Hcad-w^aters of Condamine River east of Jackson to about Dalby; 
north to Dividing Range about Wongongcra; south to Tara; at Chinchilla. 
Alt. : Murrungama, Murrum-ningama. 
Rcf.: Mathews 1898 (1), T. 

'Barurjguan Barunguan 

Loc: West side of Princess Charlotte Bay north to Cape Sidmouth. 

Alt.: Baka (Kandju term), Banjigam (Bakanambia term), Entjinga 

(native name of place at mouth of Stewart River), Yintjangga, Yintyingga. 

Ref.: Hale and Tindale 1933, Thomson 1933, 1934, McConnel 1940, T. 



'Batjala, T>atala Batjala 

],oc: Fraser or Great Sandy Island. (Name means sea folk; the 

majority were transferred to Yarrabah, near Cairns, about 1902.) (Curr 

apparently does not distinguish between real inhabitants of Fraser Island 
and Kabi Kabi mission residents from the adjoining mainland.) (N.R. — On 
man Fraser Island is joined to mainland in error.) 

Alt.: Badjela, Patyala. 

Ref.: Curr 1886, Mathew 1910, Kelly 1935, T. 

'Kklie, 'Biria Bidia 

Loc: Western side of Thomson River and Cooper Creek, from Jundah 
to near Gilpeppic; east to Keeroongooloo; west to Wliitula Creek (must not 
he confused with Biria of Bowen River). 

Alt. : Birria, Piria. 

Rcf.: Curr and Fraser in Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (1), T. 
'Bigaiubul 1 jjgambul 

See New South Wales List. 

'Binclal Bindal 

Loc.: From mouth of Burdekin River north to Cape Cleveland; inland 
to Leichhardt Range; at Ayr. 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Biria, 'Birigaba Biria 

Loe.: Bowen River north to junction with Burdekin River; east to 
Clarke Range; west to Leichhardt Range; south to Netherdale. {Not to be 
confused with Bidia of South-west Queensland.) 
Alt.: Bingaba, Breeaba. 

Ret.: Hodgkinson in Curr 1886, Kelly 1935, T. 
'Bitjara Bitjara 

Loc: At Bulloo Downs; north to Orient, west to Grey Range; cast to 
Clyde, south to Bulloo Lake floodplain. (Not to be confused with Pitjara of 
Upper Warrego River, C. Queensland, or Badjiri of Paroo River.) 
Alt.: Bithara. 

Rcf.: Myles in Curr 1886, T. 
'Buluwai, 'Buluwandji Buluwai 

Loe.: Kast of Tolga on crest of Coast Range; north to Kuranda (rain 
torest dwellers)., 

Alt.: Buhvandji. 

Ref.: McConnel 1940, T. 

'Dal: a, 'Djal : a 'Dalla 

Loc: Sandgate north to Noosa; inland to Woodford; at Nambour. 

Alt.: Mooloola (place name, now Mooloolabar). 

Rcf. : Westaway and Lands borough in Curr 1887, T. 
'Darembal Darambal 

Loc: Arthur Point along cast side of Normanby Range (Pine Mount) 
to mouth of Fitzroy River and Keppel Bay; inland to Boomer Range (other 
information suggests an extinct tribe at foot of Range); at Marlborough, 
Yeppoon, Yaamba, Rockhampton and Gracemere. 

Alt. : Tarumbal, Tarumbul, Charumbul. 

Ref.: Archer in Curr 1887, Roth 1901. Howitt 1904, T. 



( Djagaraga) Djagaraga 

Lot, : Cape York south to Escape River. 

Alt: Dyagaraga, Gudang (horde name), Kekosino (horde name). 
Ret: Jardiiie in Curr 1886, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 

'Djaku : nde Djakunda 

Loc. : Between Upper Boyne and Auburn Rivers; north to Hawkwood; 
south to Dividing Range. 
Kef.: Tindale. 

'Djankun, 'ijaikuiju Djankun 

Loc.: From Mount Mulligan south to Alma-den; east to Dimhula near 

head of Walsh River; west to Mungana. 

Alt. : Chungki, Chunkunbura, Chunkunberry, Shanganlmrra, Koko- 

tjangun (Koko-jelandi term), Kokomutju (northern term), Mutju, 


Ref.: Mathews 1898 (2), Richards 1926, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 

'Djiru :, I : mba Djiru 

Loc. : Clump Point and vicinity ; north to Murdering Point; south to 
mouth of Tully River (rain forest dwellers with social organisation of dual 
type; not to be confused with inland Djirubal). 

Ref.: Tindale. 

'Djirubal Djirubal 

Loc: Hcnbcrton south to headwaters of Herbert River north of Cash- 
mere; at Raven shoe, Millaa Millaa and Woodleigh; east to Tully Falls. 
(Plateau rain forest dwellers with social organisation of four-class type; 
not to lie confused with the coastal Djiru ; erroneously placed on David- 
son's map.) 

Alt.: Tjirbal, Chirpalji. 

Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), Sharp 1939, T. 

E'wamin, ''Gwamin, E'gwainen Ag wain hi 

Loc: Head of Einasleigh and CoppeiTield Rivers; north to Georgetown, 
east to Dividing Range, west to Oak Park and Forsayth. (Sharp's frag- 
mentary data apparently did not permit his recognition of the unity of this 

Alt: Ak Waumin, Wamin, Wornmin, Waumin, Wawmin, Walamin. 

Ref.: Roth 1897, Sharp 1939, T. 
'Gia (]ia 

Loc: Bowen to St. Helens; inland to Clarke Range; at Proserpine, Cape 
Gloucester and Repulse Bay; not at (Jape Conway. 

Alt.: Kia, Bumbarra (place name; probably a horde). 

Ref.: Shea in Curr 1886, Roth 1903 (5. p. 22), T. 

'Giabel. 'Gomairjguru Giabal 

Loc: Between Allora and about Dalby, east to Gatton; west to Mill- 
mcrran. (Data from adjoining tribe only; compare Kwiambal in N.S.W. List.) 
Ref.: Tindale. 



'Goerj " Goen g 

Loc: From south end of Port Curtis to Kolan River, inland to Lowmead, 

Miriam Vale and Baffle Creek. 

Alt: Goonine, Meeroni, Maroonee. 

Ret: Palmer 1884, Mathews 1898 (1), T. 

'Gulgai Guln S ai 

Loc: Tully River below Tully Falls, and Murray River; south to range 
above Kirrama. (Inland rain forest dwellers.) 
Alt. : Mallanpara, "Tully blacks." 
Ret.: Roth 1910 (18), T. 

'Idilidji . Idind J i 

Loc: Babinda north to Gordonvalc; inland to Lake Earrine; a lowland 
strip fronting Main Range from Gordonvale north to near Cairns; cast to 
Prior Range. (Rain forest dwellers). 

Alt: Yidindji, Yidindyi. 

Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 

'I : Iba Ilba 

Loc: On Cape River west to Dividing Range; north probably to 

Goldsborough; east to about Suttor River; south to Lake Buchanan and 

beyond; at Natal Downs. 

Alt.: Yukkaburra, Mungcrra (horde names); Eneby (said to be language 


Ref.: Armstrong, Tompson and Chatiield in Curr 1887, T. 

'Indjilindji Indjilindji 

Sec North Australian List. 

'Inirjai Iningai 

Loc: West of Dividing Range to Maneroo Creek and Longreach; 
south to Mexico or beyond; north to Muttaburra, Bowen Downs and Aramac 
(some moved west to Alpha in later years; the Wadjabangai may be a sub- 
tribe; the Yankibura of Howitt are probably a horde of Kungkari and placed 
too far east on his map). 

Alt: Muttaburra (horde name), Moothaburra, Mootaburra. 

Ref.: Bennett 1877, Palmer 1884, Mathews 1898, Howitt 1904, T. 

'Irukandji Irukandji 

Loc: Narrow coastal strip from Cairns to Port Douglas (Mowbray 
River); on tidal waters of Barron River at Redlynch. 

Alt: Yirkandji. 

Ret: Richards 1926, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 
'I:tu IttiU 

Loc.: Noble Island and islands off Barrow Point (data scant; possibly 
a horde of Mutumui). 

Alt; Wurkuldi. 

Ref.: Hale and Tindale 1933, T. 

'Kabelbara Kabalbara 

Loc: West of Mackenzie and Isaacs Rivers to Peak Range; north 
nearly to Co ther stone ( Howitt' s term, written Jeti-marala, might be the 
proper name; my informant knew only the above, which appears to be one 



applied to a horde of the tribe). 
Alt.: ? Yetti-maralla. 
Ref.: Howitt 1904, T. 

'Kabi'kabi Kabikabi 

Loc. : Maryborough district; north to Guilders and Hcrvey Bay; south 
to head of Mary River and Cooroy: west to Coast Range and Kilkivan; at 
Gympic; not at Fraser Island. 

Alt : Kabi, Karbi, Dippil (general terra embracing several tribes in 
S.E. Queensland). 

Rcf.: Ridley 1866, Mathew in Curr 1887, Howitt 1904 (horde names 
only), Mathew 1910, 1914., T. 

'Kairi Kairi 

Loc: Spring-sure north to Capella; west to Drummond Range; east to 
Comet and Mackenzie Rivers [the Khararya (Kelly, 1935) are shown in 
about the same position as is this tribe]. 

Rcf. : Tindale. 
'Kalali Kalali 

Loc: Eulo west to Thargomindah and Bulloo River; upstream to 
Nor ley; south to Orient, Clyde and Currawinya. 

Alt.: Kullalli, Kullally. 

Ref.: Mathews 1905 (2), Kelly 1935, T. 

'Kalibamu Kalibamu 

Loc: Between Leichhardt River and Morning Inlet; inland to Floraville 
and Punchbowl. 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Kalkadurje, 'Kalkeduij Kalkadung 

Loc: West of Cloncurry to Mount Isa; south to Duchess and Selwyn 

Range; at head of Cloncurry River; north to Glenroy. 

Alt.: Kalkatongo, Kalkadoon, Kulkadoon, Kalkaladoona, Muntaba 

(Maithakari term for southern Kalkadung), Rungkari (Maithakari term for 

northern Kalkadung), Roongkari. 

Ref.: Palmer 1884, Urquhart in Curr 1886, McGillivray in Curr 1886, 

Roth 1897, T. 

'Kambuwal, 'Gambabal Kambuwal 

Loc: Inglewood to Bonshaw, N.S.YV. ; north to Millmerran; on western 
Slope of Dividing Range. 

Alt: Kambuwal, Kaoambal. 

Ref.: MacPherson 1905, Kelly 1935, T. 
'Kandju Kandju 

Loc: Headwaters of Archer River; on tableland from Coen north to 
head of Lockhart and Batavia Rivers; east to coastward slope of Mclhvraith 
Range; west to Geikie Range and edge of plateau. 

Alt: Kanju, Kandyu, Kantju, Kanyu, Karnju, Karntju, Karnyu, Karnu, 

Ref.: Mathews 1900 (5), McConnel 1932, 1940, Hale and Tindale 1933, 
Thomson 1933. T. 



'Kairjulu Kangulu 

Loc. : Dawson River south to Banana and Theodore; west to Mackenzie 
River, Comet River and northern end of Expedition Range; north to junction 
of Isaacs and Mackenzie Rivers; at Black water and Dingo. The Don River, 
Mount Morgan, east of Banana and about Ranncs may have belonged to a 
separate tribe (east of Gogango Range, west of the Coast Range). 

Alt.: Kaangooloo, Khangalu, Kongulu, Kongalu, Konguli. 

Ref.: Mcintosh in Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, Kelly 1935, T. 

'Karendala Karcndala 

Loc: On Cooper Creek at Durham Downs; north to Mount Howitt, 

east to McGregor Range and to Eromanga. (The Kurnandaburi of Howitt 

probably this tribe,, but may be the Kungadutji.) 
Alt.: Kurnanda-buri, Kunanda-buri. 
Ref. Howitt 1891, 1904, Mathews 1905, T. 

'Karanja Karanja 

Loc: At Bcdourie and King Creek; south to Cluny; west to Mount 
David (Moorabulla) ; on Georgina River. 

Alt: Kurrana ( ['karana] — man), Mooraboola, Moorloobullo, Ooloo- 
pooloo, Ngulubulu. 

Ref.: Machattie in Curr 1886, Roth 1897, Elkin 1931, T. 
'Karawa Karawa 

See North Australian List. 

'Karhurjga Karhimgga 

Loc: Jeannie River (data scant; may be a horde of Mutumui, which see). 

Ref.: Tindale. 
'Karivjbel Kariugbal 

Loc: Headwaters of Comet River from below Rolleston to the Carnar- 
von Range; west to Consuelo; east to Expedition Range and Bedoune 
(separate from Kangulu; Davidson's platings of this and neighbouring tribes 
are based only on Kelly's sketch map showing Emerald fifty miles out of 
position with respect to Springsure). 

Alt.: Kaingbul, Karranbal, Kanoloo. 

Ref.: Josephson in Curr 1887, Kelly 1935, T. 

'KaruiKli Kanmdi 

Loc: Mouth of Norman River; west of Normanton to Flinders River, 

inland to Milgarra. 

Alt.: Karunti, Kurandi, Karrandee, Kutanda (alternative name; also a 

"local group" t. Sharp). 

Ref.: Armit in Curr, 1886, Sharp 1939, T. 

'Kanuvali Karmvali 

Loc: Earrar Creek from near Connemara south to Beetoota, Haddon 
Corner and Morney Plains; west to Durri and Monkira on Diamantina 
River; east to Beal Range. (The Tunberri of Curr arc probably part of the 
same tribe.) 

Alt.: Karawalla, Kurrawulla, ? Karorinjc. 

Ref.: Anon, in Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (1), Elkin 1931, T. 



'Kaura'reg Kaurareg 

Loc: Prince of Wales Island and south-western islands of Torres 

Alt. : Kowrarega, Kauralaig. 

Ref.: Haddon 1904, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 

'Ka:wadji Kawadji 

Loc.: Night Island and on coast opposite (may include the Ombila, 
which see). 

Alt.: Yankonyu, "Night Island." Kawadji (Kandju term also). 
Ref.: Hale and Tindale 1933, Thomson 1934, T. 

'Kcinjen Kcinjan 

Loc: Stanthorpe north to about Hendon, cast to Dividing Range; west 
to beyond Thane. 

Alt. : Gee-enyun. 

Ref.: McPherson 1905, T. 

' Keramai „ Keramai 

Loc: Rockingham Bay south to Cardwell; north to near Murray River 
west to Cardwell Range (open forest dwellers). 

Alt.: Kiramai, Wombelbara (Warkamai term). 
Ref.: Cassady in Curr, 1886, Mathew 1926, T. 

'Koa, 'Goamalku j^ oa 

Loc: Headwaters of Diamantina north to Kynuna, west to Middleton 

and Hamilton River divide; east to Winton and Sesbania; south almost 

to Cork. 

Alt.: Goa, Goamulgo. 

Ref.: Bennett 1877, Curr 1887, Roth 1897, Kelly 1935, T. 

'Koamu, 'Oamu Koanni 

Loc: South of St. George on Balonne River, to Angledool and Brenda; 

west to Bollon and Nebine Creek; at Dirranbandi. (Macpherson confused 

this tribe with portion of Kamilaroi). 
Alt.: Kuam, Kaoambal. 
Ref.: Macpherson 1905, Kelly VJ3S y T. 

'Koenpel, 'Djandai 'Koenpal 

Loc. : Southern two-thirds of Straclbroke Island. (The Nunukul, 
which see, occupy northern portion.) 

Alt: Goenpul, Jandai, Tchandi, Jundai. 
Ref.: Watkin in Curr 1887, Roth 1901 (1), T. 

TComjmal. 'Koinjmiirbare Koinjmal 

Loc: West of Normanby Range (Pine Mt.) to Styx; on Broad Sound 
north to Cape Palmerston along a narrow coastal strip; inland to Coast 
Range; south to Marlborough (misprinted as Maryborough in Curr). 

Alt.: Kooinmerburra, Kungmal, Kungalburra. 

Ref.: Budgeman, Bucas and Mutter in Curr 1887, Mathew 1898 (2) 
Kelly 1935, T. 




'Koko'bididji Koko-bididji 

Loc: Headwaters of East Normanby River; at King Plains, south to 
headwaters of Daintree River. 

Alt: Kokobididyi, Koko Piddaji. 

Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), McConnel 1931, 1940, Sharp 1939, T. 

'Koko'bujundji Koko-bujuudji 

Loc: Annan River; south to Rossvillc; west to Annan-Normanby 

Divide. N.B. — Accidentally omitted from map; occupies northern half of 

area indicated as for Jungkurara. 
Alt. : Kokonyungal. 
Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), McConnel 1931, 1940, T. 


Loc. : North of Staaten River (boundaries not well defined). 
Ref.: Sharp 1934, 1939, T. 

'Koko'imudji Koko-imudji 

Loc: From Endeavour River (Cooktown) north to south side of Cape 
Flattery; inland to Battle Camp and Welcome; at Cape Bedford. 
Alt: Kokojimoji, Kokoyimidir. 
Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), McConnel 1931, 1940, T. 

'Koko'knlurjgur Koko-kuhuiggur 

Loc : Mossman north to Daintree ; inland to Mount Carbine. 
Alt : Koko-yalung. 
Ret: McConnel 1940, T. 

'Koko'mini, A'kunkun Koko-mini 

Loc: Middle Palmer and Mitchell Rivers west to about their junction; 

east to Mount Mulgrave and Palmcrville. 

Alt : Koko-minni, Kookaminnie, Koogaminny, Mirkin, Akunkun, 

Akoon-koon, Akoonkool. 

Ret: Palmer 1884, Palmer in Curr 1886, Roth 1910 (18), Richards 1926, 

McConnel 1931, Hale and Tmdale 1933, Sharp 1939, T. 

'Koko'njekodi Koko-njekodi 

Loc: Starcke River; west nearly to Port Murdoch; south-east to Cape 
Flattery; at Munburra. N.B. — On map name is a little too far south. 
Alt. : Koko-negodi. 
Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), Hale and Tmdale 1933, T. 

'Koko'patun Koko-patun 

Loc: Fast of Great Dividing Range, south of Mount Garnet; east to 
Burdekin River; south to Dry River. 
Ref.: Sharp 1939, T. 

( ' Koko'pera ) Koko-pera 

Loc: About north of mouth of Nassau River. 
Ref.: Sharp 1939. 



'Koko'walandja Koko-walandja 

Lac; Head of Last Normanby River; west to Dividing Range (scant 
data only). 

Alt.: Koko Katji (of Koko-jelandji). 
Ref.: McConncl 1940, T. 

'Koko' want Koko-wara 

Loc: Norman by River from Lakefield south to Laura and Laura River 

(the proper name lias probably not been determined; Kokowara means 

"rough speech"). 

Alt.: Kookoowarra, "Laura-Deighton" tribe. 

Ret.: Mathews 1898 (2), Roth 1910 (18), McConncl 1931, Hale and 

Tindale 1933, Sharp 1939, T. 

'Koko'jawa, 'Djauen, 'Koko'rarnml Koko-jawa 

Loc: East of Morehead River to Laura; south to Great Dividing Range; 
Upper Harm and Kennedy Rivers. 
Alt.: Jouon, AkuRarmul. 
Ref.: Roth 1897, Hale and Tindale 1933, T. 

'Koko'jelandji Koko-jelandji 

Loc: Head of Palmer River, east ot Palmervillc; south and west of 
Dividing Range to Upper .Mitchell River; east to Byerstown. 

Alt.: Kokoyellanji, KokoYerlandji, Koko-yerlantji, Koko-yerlantchi. 
Ref.: Roth 1910 (.18), McCounei 1931, 1940, Sharp 1939, T. 

'Kona'ni : n, 'Koko'papuij Konanin 

Loc: South of Nassau River mouth (boundaries not yet defined). 
Alt.: Gunanni, ? Goonamon, Kokopapung, Kokopapun (misprint). 
Ref.: Mathews (1899), Roth 1910 (18). Sharp 1934, 1939, T, 

'Koijabula, 'Orjebula Kongabula 

Loc: Headwaters of Injune and Dawson Rivers above their junction; 
east and north of Dividing Range; south of Carnarvon Range. 
Alt.: Khungabula. 
Ref.: Kelly 1935, T. 

'Koykandji Kongkandji 

Loc: Cape Grafton Peninsula west of Prior Range, south to mouth of 
Mulgrave River. 

Alt. : Kunggandyi, Kungganji, Kungandji, 

Ref.: Mathews 1898 (2), Roth 1910 (18), McConncl 1935, 1940, T. 

'Korerjgoreij Kareuggoreng 

Loc: West bank of Upper Burnett River from Mundubbera north to 
Monto and Many Peaks; west to Dawson River; at Theodore and Hawk- 
wood (not to be confused with Goeng). 

Alt.: Curang-gurang, Gurang-gurang, Goorang-goorang, Korcng- 

Ref.: Marrctt 1910, Mathews 1914, 1926, Brown 1918, Kelly 1935, T. 



'Kukatji Kukatji 

Loc: From Donor Hills north to Gulf of Carpentaria; at Inverlcigh and 
Tempe Downs. 
Alt.: Kukatja. 
Ref.: Sharp 1939, T. 

'Kulumali, 'ijule'ijulanji Kulumali 

Loc: Near and east of Windorah. This is the easternmost circumcising 
tribe in Queensland. 

Ref.: Tindale. 
'Kuijadu : tji Kungadutji 

Loc.: Cooper Creek north of Durham Downs, east to Mount Howitt and 
Kyabra Creek; north to near Lake Yamma Yamma. 

Alt.: Kungaditji, Kimgarditchi, Kunatatchee. 

Ref.: Heagney in Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (1), Elkin 1931, T. 
Kuijgere Kunggara 

Loc: From Karumba north to Delta Downs; inland to Midlothian and 
Lotus Vale. 

Alt. : Koonkurri, Ungorri. 

Ref.: Palmer in Curr 1886, Roth 1903 (5, p. 39), Sharp 1939, T. 
'Kuqgari Kunggari 

Loc: Upper Neblne and Mungallala Creeks north of Bonna Vonna and 
Bollon, to Morven. Extended eastward and absorbed the Mandandanji in 
early historic times; not to be confused with the Kuungkari of Barcoo 

Alt.: Kungeri, Kungri, Ungorri. 

Ref.: Ridley 1875, Kelly 1935, T. 

'Kurjkalenja Kungkalcnja 

Loc: On Georgina River north of Rcdourie; from Moorabula west to 
near Mulligan River; north to about Talaera Springs (scant data only 

Alt: Kunkulenje, Koonkoolenya, Koomkoolenya. 

Ref.: Roth 1897, T. 
'Ku : rjkari, 'Kurjhari, 'Ku : yka : i Kuungkari 

Loc: On Thomson and Cooper (Barcoo) Rivers west to Jundah; north 
to Westland and near Longreach; east to Avington, Blackall and Terrick 
Terrick; south to Cheviot Range, Powell Creek and Wclford. Not to be 
confused with Kunggari of Upper Nebine Creek. N.B.— On map final i of 
Ku: nkari has been misprinted in green. 

Alt.: Koonkerri, Kungeri, Koongerri; Yangeeberra, Yankibura. 

Ref.: Ahern and Heagney in Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (1), Howitt 1904, 
Kelly 1935, T. 
'Ku:nja Kunja 

Loc: Warrego River from Cunnamulla north to Augathella and 
Burcnda; west to Cheepie; east to Morven and Angellala Creek. 

Ref. : Tindale. 
'Kutebal Kuthabal 

Loc: Middle Staaten River; south to about Emu Creek (not to be con- 
fused with Kutjal). 
Ref.: Tindale. 



'Kutjel, 'Kuritja;! Kutjal 

Loc. : Upper Staaten and Middle Einasleigh Rivers; north to about Lynd 
River, south to about Lane Creek (not to be confused with Kutjala, which 

were probably originally a detached segment of this tribe). 
Alt.: Koochulburra, Okuntjel. 
Ref.: Mathews 1898, Sharp 1939, T. 
'Kutjale Kutjala 

Loc: Mount Sturgeon, Mount Emu Plains; Lolworth and Reedy 
Springs along both sides of Dividing Range; eastern boundary not defined 
(moved south to Hughenden and Pcntland in early days of settlement). 
Ref.: Tindalc. 
'Laia Lam 

Loc: North of Palmer River, east to Dividing Range; west to head of 
Alice River. 

Alt: Koko Laia, Kokowara ( Koko-jelandji term; means [>oor or bad 
speech), ? Koogobatha, Koogobathy. 

Ref.: Palmer 1884, Mathews 1898 (2), Sharp 1939, T. 

'Larcli : I, 'Kun : e'na Lardil 

Loc: Mornington Island and Forsyth Islands. 
Alt.: Laierdila, Kunana (native name for Mornington Island). 
Ref.: Sharp 1935, 1939, T. 

(Lo: tiga) Lotiga 

Loc: Upper Dulhunty River and McDonnell. 
Alt.: ? Okara. 
Rcl: Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 

'Maiktiduij Maikudnng 

Loc: Upper Leichhardt River; north to Augustus Downs; south to 

Mount Cuthbert; western boundary not well defined. (Similarities between 

the name of this tribe and Maikulung and Maithakari have been sources of 


Alt.: Mygoodan, Mayagoondoon, Mikoolun (sic Roth 1897; probably 


Ref.: Armit in Curr 1886, Palmer in Curr 1886, Roth 1897, T. 

'Maikulan, 'Maikuluij Maikulung 

Loc: Middle Norman, Yappar and Clara Rivers; north to Milgarra; 
east to Gregory Range, {in early historic times moved partly to the coast 
about Normanton, where they have been thought to be indigenous). 

Alt. : Mygoolan, Mykoolan, Micoolan, Mikkoolan. 

Ref.: Armit in Curr 1886, T. 

'Mui'Sakari, 'Maidakadi Maithakari 

Loc: From Cloncurry north to Canobic on Cloncurry River; east to 

Julia Creek junction, and Mount Fort Bowen. 

Alt.: Maitakudi, Mayatagoorri, Mythugadi, Mythuggadi, Mythaguddi, 

Mit(t)agurdi, Mitagurdi, Mitakoodi, Mitro(o)-goordi, Mitakudi. 

Ref.: Palmer 1884, Palmer in Curr 1886, Roth 1897, Strehlow 1910, 

Sharp 1939, T. 



'Maijabi Maiabi 

Loc: On Cloncurry River south to Canobie, north to just above Donor 
Hills, at Numbera (Conan Downs); cast to midway between Flinders and 
Saxby Rivers; west to Upper Dismal Creek and Leichhardt-Cloncurry Divide. 

Alt.: Myabi, Miappe, Myappe, Miubbi. 

Ref.: Armit and Palmer in Curr 1886, Roth 1897, T. 

'Malununde Malniiunda 

Roe.: Rentinck Island (these people liave remained free from contact 

with Europeans; the name given is as from a Lardi: 1 informant at Palm 

Island. Sharp's information is similar), 
Alt. ; Marlanunda, Maldanunda. 
Ref.: Sharp 1939, T. 

'Ma : mu Mamu 

Loc. : Johnstone River; at Innisfail; inland to Nerada and Coast Range; 
south to Murdering Point (rain forest dwellers). 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Mandandanji Mandandanji 

Loc: Maranoa and Balonne Rivers north of St. George; west to Bollon 
and Wallan Creek; north to Donnybrook, Orallo, Yuleba and Dividing 

Range; cast to Alton and Glenmorgan. (Amalgamated with Ktmggari in 
early days of white occupation ; now not always distinguished.) 
Ref.: Tindale. 

' Mare'nan j i , 'Marukan j i Marngan j i 

Loc: Quilpie to Chcepie and Beechal, thence Paroo River to Eulo; oy\ 
Bul'oo River south to Thargomindah; at Dynevor Downs and Ardoeh. 
Alt. : Murngain, Murgoin, Murgoan. 
Ref.: Myles in Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (1), Kelly 1935, T. 

'Marulta Maruita 

Loc: At Lake Barrolka; south to Lake Yamma Yamma; west to Beal 
Range; north-east towards Opalville and Cooper Creek, eastern boundary 
uncertain. (The place name Barrolka may be an anglicisation of Maruita.) 
Alt.: Manila. 
Ref.: Howitt 1904. Strehlow 1910, Elkin 1931, T. 

'Manle Maul a 

Loc: Roxborough Downs north to Carandotta and Urandangie on the 

Georgina River; on Moonah Creek to near Rochedale, south-west to Pituri 

Creek; at Wolga. 

Alt.: Wolga (locality name), Waloo-kera, Wollegarra, Elookera, 

Yunnalinka (? horde at Carandotta). 
Ref.: Curr 1886, Roth 1897, T. 

'Majuli Majuli 

Loc: On Diamantina River from Davenport Downs and Diamantina 

Lakes to Cork; Mayne River and Vcrgemont Creeks east to Tocal and 

Carclla; west to Springvale. 
Alt.: Miorli. 
Ref.: Roth 1897, T. 


( Mbeiwum ) Mbei wum 

Loc: Upper Watson River; at Merluna. 

Alt.: KokMhewam. 

Ref.: Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 
'Mian Mian 

Loc: Lower Bclyando River nortli to Mount Douglas; at Bulliwallah; 
west to Dividing Range; south to somewhere beyond 1 Labona. (mian = men). 

Alt.: Munkibura. 

Ref.: Bennett 1877, Hewitt 1883, 1888, 1904, T. 

'Min'gin (not Mhjin) Mingln 

Loc: Barkly (Barclay) River south of Burkelown; west of Leichhardt 
River; south to Gregory Downs. (Sharp said this tribe was extinct; a few 
are still living, having migrated to the east coast). 

Alt.: Minkin, Myngeen. 

Ref.: Palmer 1884, E. Curr in Curr 1886, Sharp 1939, T. 

'Minjeijbal Minjangbal 

Loc: From Southport south to Cape Byron, New South Wales; inland 
to Murwiliumbah and Nerang Creek. (minjang = whal, lit. '"people who 
say m in Jang." mi: bin — man). 

Alt: Minyung. 

Ref.: Bray, Fowler, O'Connor and Prior in Curr 1887, Schmidt 1919, T. 
'Mitaka Mittaka 

Loc: From Durri north to Cluny; east to Monkira; about Lake 

Alt.: Mittuka. 

Ref.: Reese 1927 (ins), T. 

'Mit jamba, 'Kumbulmara Mitjamba 

'Loc: On Woolgar and StawcL Rivers; north to (Jledswood, west to 
Saxby Downs, east to Chudleigh Park; south to Cambridge Downs. 
Ref. : Tindale. 

'Morowari Morowari 

See New South Wales List. 

'Muluridji Muluridji 

Loc: Headwaters of Mitchell River, north to Mount Carbine, east to 

Runiula; south to Mareeba; west to Woodville. 

Alt. : Molloroiji, Mularitchee, Koko-moloroitji (Koko-kulunggur term), 


Ref.: Mathews 1898 (2), McConnel 1931, 1940, Sharp 1939, T. 

(Mu : tjati) Mutjati 

Loc: Shelburne Bay north to about Orfordness. 

Alt.: Mutyati. 

Ref.: McConnel 1940. 

'Mttturnui, 'Raulam, 'Basflom Mutumni 

Loc: From Bathurst Bay and Cape Melville south to Starcke River. 
Alt. : Baulam (Bakanambia term), Bas thorn (Bakanambia variation, 
? individual). 

Ref.: Hale and Tindale 1933, T. 



'Newegi Nawagi 

Loc: South-west of Herbert River; principally on high ranges (rain 

forest dwellers; contrast with Warkamai who live in coastal "dry" forest 


Ref. : Tindale. 

'rjandarjara Ngandangara 

Loc: Upper Wilson River; north to Eromanga and beyond; south to 

Alt.: Eroruarra ("? place name), 
Rcf.: Myles in Curr 1886, T. 

'ijaro. 'rjalarji Ngaro 

Loc. : Whitsunday Island; ranging over Cumberland Islands; also to 
mainland at Cape Conway and on mountains east of Proserpine; (ironbark 
canoes used for journeying between the islands). 

Rcf. : Tindale. 

(rjathokudi) Ngathokudi 

Loc: South side of Upper Ducie River. 

Alt.: (Ng)uthukuti, Athokurra. 

Ref.: Thomson 1932, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 
'tjatjen Ngatjan 

Loc: From Atherton east to Upper Russell River; at Malanda and 
Millaa Millaa (rain forest dwellers, principally on plateau). 

Alt. : Ngachanji, Ngaitjandji. 

Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 
tjaun Ngaun 

Loc: At lffley, Taldora and Millungera; cast to Gregory Range and 
Saxby Downs; on upper Norman River; west to Julia Creek. (In early 
historic times many migrated towards Cloncurry district). 

Alt.: Nouun, Naungann. 

Ref.: Roth 1897, Armit in Curr 1886, T. 

(ljgerikudi) Nggerikudi 

Loc: From Dulhunty River north to about Vrilya Point (Cockatoo 
Creek) ; at Skardon Creek. 

Alt.: Ngkamadyi, Ngammatti, Gamete, Gamiti, Garnet ty. 
Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), Thomson 1933, McConnel 1940. 

( ljgerikudi ) Nggerikudi 

Loc: Between Pennefather and Batavia Rivers (for discussion of a 

polyglot series of allied hordes or small subtribes between Pennefather and 

Watson Rivers, see McConnel, I.e. p. 61-62). 

Alt.: Ngerikadi, Yupngit, Yupungati, Yopngadi. 

Ref.: Roth 1903 (1), 1910 (18), Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 

(rjoborundji) Ngoborundji 

Loc: Southern headwaters of Gregory River, at Morstone and Mount 

Alt.: Ngoborindi, Ngoborlngi, Oboroondi, Obor-indi. 
Ref.: Roth 1897, Sharp 1935. 



'noera Ngoera 

Loc. : Head-waters of Brisbane River; at Nanango; east to Durundur 

(ten miles east of Kilcoy) ; south probably to south of Toogoolawah; west to 

Haden and Bell; on Bunya Mountains. 

Alt.: Njalbo (northern term for this and other Moreton Bay tribes), 


Rcf.: Landsborough and Curr 1887, Howitt 1888, 1904, Mathews 1898 

(1), T. 

'ljundjen, 'Koko'kuntjan Ngundjan 

Loc.: South of Alice River; on lower Mitchell River; at Dunbar. 

Alt.: Koonjan, Okundjain, ? Koko Wansin. 

Rcf.: Mathews 1899, Roth 1910 (18), Sharp 1934, 1939, T. 
'rjurawola Ngurawola 

Loc: At Arrabury and Durham Downs and western vicinitv (data scant). 

Ref.: Strehlow 1910, T. 

'*J uri Nguri 

Loc.: Upper Maranoa River from Donny'brook north to Merivale on 

west side of Dividing Range; west to Hillside and Redford. (Not on Upper 

Warrego, as stated by Mathews.) 
Alt.: Gnoree. 
Rcf: Mathews 1898 (1), T. 

(rjvvatairjeti) Ngwataingeti 

See Winduwinda. 

/j jugi: Ngiigi 

Loc: Moreton Island. 
Alt.: Wogee, Goowar, Gooar. 
Ref.: Watkin in Curr 1887, X. 

( Nunukul ) , 'rjund j en 


Loc: Northern portion of Stradbrokc Island (an informant, not of the 
tribe, gave name as Ngundan). N.B.— \Name omitted from map. 
Alt.: Noonukul, Moondjan. 
Ref.: Watkin in Curr 1887, (T). 

( Njmvathai ) Njmvathai 

Loc: Middle Batavia River. N.B. — Name omitted from map. 
Alt. : Nyuwathayi. 
Ref.: McConncl 1940. 

(Oikand) Oikand 

Loc: Probably about Old Koolatah. 
Alt: KokoWanggara (term applied by other tribes). 
Ref.: Sharp 1934, 1939. 
(Okerlika) Okerlika 

Loc : Probably about Lotus Vale. 
Ref.: Sharp 1939. 

'Glkulo, 'Olkolo Olkulo 

Loc: Middle Coleman River; south to Cvosbie Creek. 

Alt: KokoOlkolo, Olkolo. 

Rcf.: McConnel 1932, 1940, Thomson 1933, Sharp 1939, T. 




'Ornbi :le 

Loc. : Cape Sidmouth and north nearly to Night Island. (This is 
probably only a horde of the Kawadji, of Night Island, which see.) 
Alt.: Ompeila, Ompela, Uinpilo. 
Rel\: Thomson 1933, 1934, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 

'0:tati Wotali 

Loc: Southern part of Shelhurnc Bay; east and south to Macinillan 

Alt.: Wotati. Otati, Wutati, Wotadi. 

Ret.: Roth 1903 (5, p. 26), Thomson 1933, 1934, Sharp 1939, McConnel 
1940, T. 

'Pakadji Pakadji 

Loc: Cape Weymouth, Pascoe River and ? Temple Bay. 
Alt.: Koka-yao (term applied by southern tribes), Yao. 
Ref.: Thomson 1934, T. 

'Pitapita Pitapita 

Loc: Boulia and fifty miles to south and west. Under this is grouped 
an indeterminable series of sub-tribes or other groups. Roth is the principal 
authority. He suggests tribal fragmentation and reintegration as having 
been formerly in progress; the situation may be comparable with that in the 
Murngin area of Amhem Land and the Daly River district. Among the 
groupings not indicated on the map arc the Boinji, Dungadungara, Kwokwa, 
Rungo Rungo, Tinkatinki, Wcelko, Njuntauntaya; other peripheral ones 
about which there is more information, arc marked. 

Alt.: Pittapitta, BittaBitta. 

Ref.: Kglinton in Curr 1886, Roth 1897, T. 

'Pitjare . Pitjara 

Loc: Head-waters of Nogoa and Warrego Rivers; south to Caroline; 
east to Ivillamey and Chesterton; west to Nivc River. (Not to be confused 
with Badjiri of Lower Warrego River or Bitjara of south-west Queensland. 
Some evidence suggests that late prehistoric eastward movement of tribes 
south of Charleville caused division of Pitjara and Badjiri; they are now 
separate tribes.) 

Alt.: Bidjera, Peechcra. 

Ref.: Conn, Playford and Hollingworth in Curr 1887, Kelly 1935, T. 

'Po:ntunj Pontunj 

Loc: From Cape Weymouth south to coast near Night Island. 
Alt.: Yankonya, Yankonyu. 
Ref.: Thomson 1934, McConnel 1940, T. 

'Puntamara, Puntemara Punthamara 

Loc: East of (Trey Range on creeks running from Orient north to near 
Quilpie; on west side of Grey Range to Mount Margaret and Congie (pre- 
or proto-historic movement was across Grey Range from the west). 
Alt.: Bunthomarra, Buntamara, Banthamurra, Buntha-burra. , 
Ref.: Mvles in Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (1), 1905 (2), Howitt 1904, T. 


('Rak:aie) Rakkaia 

Loc, : Coorabulka to Springvale. 

Alt.: Rukkia. 

Rcf.: Roth 1897. 

'Rnju'rirju Ringuringu 

Loc: On Hamilton River south of Warenda; west to Botilia; on Burke 
River, .south-west to Marion Downs; east to Lucknow. 

Alt.: Ringoringo, Ringa-ringa, Ringa-ringaroo, (not RungoRungo). 
Rcf.: Collins and Mel. can in Curr 1886, Roth 1897, T. 

'Tagafag, 'Dagalaij Tagalag 

Loc: Middle Gilbert River, north nearly to Einasleigh River, south- 
west to Abingdon Downs: south to Gregory Range; at Forest Home; east 
to near Georgetown and Glcnora; west to near Croydon. 
Alt.: Takalak, Targalag. 
Rcf.: Sharp 1939, T. 
(Taior) r J aior 

Loc. : Probably about mouth of Coleman River (not well defined). 
Alt. : Kokkotaijari. 
Rcf.: Sharp 1939. 

'Taribelei) Taribelang 

Loc: Vicinity of Bundaberg; inland to about Walla; at north to Avon- 
dale; along Kolan River (believed extinct; scant data only). 
Alt.: Tarribelung, ? Yawai. 
Ref.: Howitt 1904, (T). 
(Tepiti) Tepiti 

Loc: Middle Ducie River. 

Alt.: Tepithiki. 

Ref.: Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 

'Tercila Thereila 

Loc: South from Nockatunga and Nocnndra to Grey Range, west to 
Bransby and lower Warriwarri Creek. 
Alt.: Thiralla. 
Ref.: Myles in Curr 1886, T. 

'Tja: ])ukai. 'Tjapnkandji Tjapukai 

Loc: Barron River from south of Mareeha to Knranda; north to Port 

Douglas on plateau (rain forest dwellers). 

Alt. : Tja : pukanja, Tjabogai-tjandji, T jabogaijanji, Koko-njunkulu 

(northern term), Koko-immgalo, KokoTjumbundji (Kokojclandji term), 

Hileman (lapsus calami), Kjakali (Bulinvai term), Nyakali. 

Ref.: McConnel 1931, 1940, Hale and Tindale 1933, Sharp 1939, T. 

'Tjorjkandji ^ Tjongkandji 

Loc: CulJen Point; west of mouth of Batavia River. 

Alt. : Tyongandyi, Chongandji, Tjcngangi, Tjungundji, Joongoonjee, 
Joongoonjie, Joonkoonjee, Chuukunji, Chinganji. 

Ref.: Mathews 1900 (4), 1906, Roth 1910 (18), Radcliffe-Brown 1930 
McConnel 1936, 1940, Sharp 1939, T. 



(To:tj) * Totj 

Loc : Upper Mission River and Cox Creek (Middle Batavia River); at 
York Downs. 

Alt: ? Kauwala. 

Ref.: Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 

(Tuhm) Tulua 

Loc: Calliope River to Port Curtis; inland to Coast Range and head- 
waters of Boyne River; at Many Peaks (may be a part of the Goeng). 
Alt.: Dandan (dan = man). 
Ret.: Police Commissioner in Curr 1887. 

(Ulaolinja) Ulaolinja 

Loc: At Carlo Springs on Upper Mulligan River. 
Alt. : Ulaolinya, Yoolanlanya. 
Ret.: Roth 1897, Mathews 1901 (2). 

(Unjadi) Unjacli 

Loc: Upper .Dulhunty River (boundaries not known). 

Alt.: Unyadi, Onyengadi, Oyungo (Tjongkandji term), Empikeno 
(Jathaikana term). 

Ref.: Thomson 1933, Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 

'Wadje, 'Wadjairjgo, 'Wainjago, 'Waiijgo Wadja 

Loc: Streams on cast side of Expedition Range; south to Bigge Range; 
east nearly to Dawson River (closely related to Kangulu). 
Alt.: ? Maudalgo. 
Ref.: Mcintosh in Curr 1887, T. 

'Wadjebarjai Wadjabangai 

Loc: South of Glenbower, boundaries fixed only by those of neighbour- 
ing tribes (data scant). 

Alt: ? KunGait (but this may be Tningai, which see). 
Ref.: Kelly 1935, T. 

'Wadjelaij Wacljalang 

Loc: Headwaters of Bulloo and Lauglo Rivers from Quilpie north to 
Northampton Downs and near Blackall and Tambo; east to Cheepie, Burran- 
dilla and Nive Downs; at Ambathalla and Minnie Downs. 

Ref. : Tindale. 
'Wakamen Wakaman 

Loc: Head of Lynd River; north to Mungana, east to Alma-den and 
Dividing Range; west to Dagworth; south to Mount Surprise (near Brook- 

Alt.: Warkaman, Warkeeman, Warkamin, Warkeemon. 

Ref.: Mathews 1898 (2), Richards 1926, T. 
'Wakara Wakara 

Loc: Southern side of Upper Mitchell River; cast to Mount Mulligan, 
west to Wrotham Park and Blackdown. (Apparently placed too far to 
north-east by McConnel.) 

Alt.: Wakura, Wakoora, Koko-wogura. 

Ref: Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, T. 



'Wakawaka, 'Wa: Wakawaka 

Loc: Nanango north to Mount Perry behind Coast Range; west to 
Boyne River, Upper Burnett River and Mundubbera; at Kingaroy, Murgon 
and Gayndah. (The Wulili of Mathews are probably a western horde. 
Mathew (1926) includes under this name several tribes with kindred 

Alt.: Wakka-wakka, Waka, Woga, Wokka, Wogga, Wokkari, ? Nuku- 

Ret: O'Connor in Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, Mathew 1910, 1926, T. 
'Wakaja Wakaja 

See Central Australian List. 

'Walaijame Walangama 

Loc: On Carron River and Walker Creek; west to Normanton; east 
to Croydon, south to Belmore Creek; north to Stirling. 
Alt : Wollangama, Wollongunnee, Wallankammer. 
Ret; Roth 1897, A, Poigndestre and Palmer in Curr 1886, T. 

'Walmbaria Walmbaria 

Loc.: Flinders Island Group and extensive reefs north of Princess 
Charlotte Bay; on mainland at Bathurst Head. 
Alt.: Walmbar. 
Ret: Roth 1910 (18), Hale and Tindale 1933, T. 

'Wanamara Wanamara 

Loc.: Headwaters of Flinders River, east to Richmond; south to the 

Divide and Kynuna; west to near Cloncurry; north to Cambridge Downs 

and Dalgonally. 

Alt.: Wunamara, Woonamurra, Unamara,, Oonoomurra. 

Ret: McGillivray in Curr 1886, Roth 1897, 1905 (5, p. 34), Kelly 1935 

Sharp 1939, T. 



Loc.: Capella north to near Blair Athol, east to Peak Range; west to 
Drummond Range. 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Warjgare Wangara 

Loc: South of mouth of Staaten River to about Gilbert River (scant 
data only from Koko-mini and Konanin informants). 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Wa:nji Wanji 

Loc: South of Nicholson River; on Spring and Lawn Hill Creeks; 
east to Barkly (Barclay) River; at Lawn Hill and Bannockburn. 
Alt.: Wanyi, Wanyee, Wanee. 

Ret: Mathews 1901, Power in Basedow 1907, Spencer 1914 Sharp 
1935, T. 

'Wanjuru ^ Wanjuru 

Loc: Mouth of Russell River; inland to Babinda (rain forest dwellers). 
Ref.: Tindale. 



'Warekemai Warkamai 

Loc: Coast at Halifax Bay; inland to slope of Coast Range; north to 
Ingham and Lucinda Point; south to Black River, twenty miles north of 
Townsville (seven hordes are mentioned in literature). 
Ref. : Cassadv and Johnstone in Curr 1886, T. 
'Waruyu ' ^ Warungu 

Loc: Head-waters of Burdekin River, south probably to about Clarke 
River; west to Dividing Range; cast to inland foot of Coast Range. 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Wik- ^ Wik ~ 

Aggregate of subtribes from Watson River south to Edward 
River; east to Rokeby. (For detailed map see McConnel 1940, p. 55; see also 
notes under Wikmunkan.) 

(Wikampama) Wikampama 

Loc: .Middle Archer River; north to Watson River. 
Alt.: Kokala (probably a place name). 
Ref.: Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940. 

(Wikapa:tja) Wikapatja 

Loc: Mangrove islands of Archer River delta (extinct). N.B. — Not 
marked on map. 

Ret.: McConnel 1940. 

(Wikatinda) Wikatinda 

Loc: Coast from Archer River south for about eight miles; extinct. 
N.B. — Not marked on map. 
Ref.: McConnel 1940. 

(Wikepa) Wikepa 

Loc: Near Cape Kecrweer (extinct). 
Ref.: McConnel 1940. 

(Wikmean) Wikmean 

Loc: Inland from Cape Keerweer. 
Ref.: McConnel 1940. 

'Wik'nmnkan Wikmunkan 

Loc: From Edward River north to Archer River; inland. This is the 

dominant Wik tribe; the Wikianji and Bakanu are southern subtribes in 

process of separating from rest. 

Alt.: Munkanu (Ajabatha term), Monkanu. 
Ref.: Thomson 1933, McConnel 1931, 1940, T. 

(Wiknantjara) Wiknantjara 

Loc: Between mouths of Edward and Holfoyd Rivers. N.B. — Not 
marked on map. 

Ref.: McConnel 1940. 

(Wiknataiija) Wiknatanja 

Loc: Coast at mouths of Kendall River. 
Ref: McConnel 1940. 



'Wik'gatara Wikngatara 

Loc.: Coast north of Cape Keerweer. 

Alt. : Wiknatara. 

Ref.: McConnel 1940, T. 

'Winduwinda Winduwinda 

Loc: East of Duifken Point to Watson River; inland to head of Enibley 
River; thirteen or more hordes or subtribes each with a name terminating in 
[rjit] ; Winduwinda is a valid name apparently equivalent to one of lower 
Gulf tribes — (see McConnel 1940 for horde names). 
Alt. : Windawinda. 
Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), T. 

'Wiri, 'Widi Wiri 

Loc.: On Coast Range behind Mackay; inland to Kebo and heads of 
Suitor and Bowen Rivers; inhabitants principally of rain scrub country. 
Alt: Wierdi. 
Ref.: Kelly 1935, T. 

( Woijkadjera) Wongkadjera 

Loc: At Glenormiston and Herbert Downs; Malvina Creek. 
Alt. : Wonkalyeri. 
ReL: Roth 1897. 

'Worjkumara, 'Waijkumara Wongkumara 

Loc: Cooper Creek east of Oonloo to Wilson River at Xocundra; at 

Chastlcton and Narcowlah. (Tribal disruption took some to Thargomindah 

where they mixed with uncircumcised Kalali.) 

Alt.: Wonkamara, Wonkomarra, Wonka -marra, Wonkamura, Wonka- 

murra, Wonkubara. 

Ref.: Myles in Curr 1886, Mathews 1904 (1), Elkin 1931, Kelly 1935, T. 

( Workabunga ) Workabunga 

Loc: Upper Lcichhardt River and Gunpowder Creek (data scant). 
Alt.: Workoboongo, Wakobungo, Waggabundi (name of a cattle 
station J. 

Ref.: Roth 1897. 

'Wulgurukaba Wulgurukaba 

Loc: On Palm Islands and Magnetic Island; on Ross River; cast nearly 
to Cape Cleveland; west for about twenty miles beyond Townsville; 
['wulguru] = man. 
Ref.; Tindale. 

'Wulpure Wulpura 

Loc: Head o\ Daintree River on high Mount Windsor Tableland (rain 

forest dwellers). 

Alt. : Wulurara, Kokowaldja. 

Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), McConnel 1940, T. 

(Jaftaikana) Jathaikana 

Loc: Escape River south probably to about Orford Ness. 
Alt.: Yathaikeno, Yaraidyana. 
Ref.: Sharp 1939, McConnel 1940, 


'Jagalirju " Jagalingu 

Loc: Headwaters of Belyando River south to Avoca; north to about 
Laglan; west to Dividing Range; east to Drummond Range. (Six or more 
hordes; Howitt's map indicates that the attribution of his "Wakelbara" to 
"west of the Great Dividing Range" was probably in error). 

Alt: Wakelbara (a horde name; arbitrarily adopted as tribal term). 

Ref.: Howitt 1904, T. 
'Jagara Jagara 

Loc.: Brisbane River inland to Dividing Range about Gatton; north to 
near Toogoolawah; at Ipswich. (Several hordes; compare Jicgera of New 
South Wales.) 

Alt.: Yagara, Turrubul, Yackarabnl. 

Ref.: Ridley 1866, Mathews 1898 (2), Brown 1918, Radcliffe-Brown 
1931, T. 

'Jaleye Jalanga 

Loc: On Wills River from south of Duchess to Fort William; on 
Burke River north to Chatsworth; at Noranside and Buckingham Downs. 
Alt.: Yellunga, Yelina. 
Ref.: Eglinton in Curr 1886, Roth 1897, T. 

(Iambi : na) Jambina 

Loc: Logan Creek south of Avon Downs; east to Denham Range; 
west to about Elgin Downs. (Some new indirect data.) 
Alt: Yambecna. 
Ref.: Wilson in Curr 1887 (T). 

(janda) Janda 

Loc: Head of Hamilton River, north of Warenda. 
Ref.: Eglinton in Curr 1886, Roth 1897. 
'Jaija: Jangaa 

Loc: Head of Gilbert River, * south of Forsayth to Glcdswood and 
Gregory Range; east to near Oak Park; west to Glenora. (Distinguish from 
Jangga of Upper Suitor River.) 
Ref. : Tindale. 
'Jaijga Jangga 

Loc: Eastern headwaters of Suttor River; south to Glen Avon; at 
Yacamunda and Hidden Valley; northern boundary unknown. (Not to be 
confused with Jangaa of Upper Gilbert River.) 
Ref.: Tindale. 

'Jarohja Jaroinga 

See Central Australian List. 

'Jeljendi Jeljendi 

See South Australian List. 

'Jet : eneru Jeteneru 

Loc: Saltwater Creek (south-west corner of Princess Charlotte Bay): 
inland towards Musgrave. 

Ref: Hale and Tindale 1933. 



']i : man T . 

J iman 
Loc: From Bigge Range south to Great Dividing Range; east to 
Theodore, Cracow and Cockatoo Creek; west to Baroondah and' Durham 
Downs; at Wandoan and Taroom. 
Alt.: Iman, Emon. 
Ref.: Howitt 1904, Kelly 1935, T. 

( Jmwtini) r- 

Loc: Upper Batavia River south of Moreton. 
Alt. : Yinwurn. 
Ret.: McConnel 1940. 

'|i : randali 7 - , ,. 

Loc: West or Great Dividing Range from near Mount Sturgeon south 
to Caledonia, west to near Richmond, Corheld, and near Winton; on Torrens 
and Lands.borough Creeks; at Lammermoor, Hughenden and Tangorin. 
Alt.: YerrutHhulJy, Irendely, Daiebura. 
Ref.: Howitt 1904, Kelly 1935, T. 

('Jir'joront) T - - 

T Jirjoront 

I.oc: About mouth oi: Coleman River. 

Alt.: KokoMindjin, KokoMandjoen, KokoMinjen. 

Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), Thomson 1933, Sharp 1939. 

'Jokula , , * 

Loc: hrom Burketown to west of Cliffdale Creek on coast; inland nearly 
to Nicholson River. 

Alt.: Yukula, Yookala, Eugoola. 

Rc(.: Armit in Cnrr 1886, Mathews 1901, Sharp 1935, T. 

(Juipera) . . 

1 Juipera 

Loc: At Mackay; St. Helens south to Cape Palmerston; inland to 
Connor Range. 

Ref.: Bridgeman and Bucas in Curr 1887, Mathews 1898 (2), Howitt 

'Jukambe, 'Jukeiu, 'Jampal , , t 

■ t Jukanibe 

Doc: Logan River from Rathdowney to mouth, south to Southporf 
west to Boonah and Dividing Range. 

Alt.: Yukum. I Apparently separate tribe from Jukambal of New F up- 
land Tableland..) " 

Ref.: Radcliffe-Brown 1931, T. 

'[tinkurara T 

t n, r , Jungkurara 

Loc: BloomHeld River; south to beyond Cape Tribulation. (This term 
appears to embrace the Yanyu of McConnel.) 

Alt.: Yungkarara, Kokojalanja, Kokoyalunyu, Kokolaluniu, Kokolaliu 

Ref.: Roth 1910 (18), McConnel 1931, 1940, Sharp 1939 T 
"J urn L ' 

r r m Juru 

Eoc: iM-om Bowen north to Burdckin River at Home Hill- west to 
Bogie River; at Upstart Bay; south ro Mount Pleasant and Clarke Range 
Rei.: Tindalc fe ' 




'Anta'kirinja, 'Ande'kerirja Antakirinja 

Loc. : Head-waters of Hamilton, Alberga, Wintinna and Lora Creeks 
north to Erldunda, Central Australia; south to Stuart Range; at upper limits 
of Lilla Creek, but not extending down to the Finke River, which is Aranda 
country. (Movements since 1917 have taken portion of tribe south to 
Ooldea. Earlier movement was from west after massacre by them of some 
previous inhabitants of Mount Chandler district; closely related to 

Alt. : Antakerrinya, Andekarinja, Antekarinja, Andigirinji, Andigarina, 
Andingiri, Antigerinya, Andjirigna, Untcrrgerric (ras.), Tangara, Yandai- 
runga, Mbenderinga, Madutara. 

Ref.: Giles in Taplin 1879, Krichauff 1886, Howitt 1891, Helms 1896, 
Mathews 1900 (1), Bates 1918, Elkin 1931, 1940, Tindale in Fenner 1936, T. 

'Arabana Arabana 

Loc: West side of Lake Eyre to Stuart Range, Macumba Creek to 

Coward Springs. 

Alt.: Arabuna, Arrabunna, Arrabonna, Arapani, Urapuna, Urabuna, 

Urabunna, Ngarabana, Rabuna, Wangarabana, Wongkurapuna, Wangara- 


Ref.: Helms 1896, Spencer and Gillen 1899, Mathews 1900 (1), Howitt 

1904, Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, Spencer 1912, Bates 1918, Basedow 1925, 

Tindale in Fenner 1936, Elkin 1931, 1940, T. 

Aranda Aranda 

See Central Australian List. 

'Burjanditj, 'Purjandaitj, 'Buanditj, 'Buandik Buandik 

Loc: Glenelg and Wannon Rivers, Victoria; at Dartmoor, Sandford, 
Western Grampians, Hamilton and Discovery Bay; west to Mount Gambier, 
Penola, Robe and coast south to Cape Jaffa. (Under pressure of Jardwa 
were contracting southwards towards Casterton about time of first white 
contacts. The Btirhwundeirtch of Smyth were possibly the same people. 
Their word for man was ['trua: 1].) 

Alt.: Bungandaitj, Bungandaetch, Bungandaetcha, Pungantitj, Rungatitj, 
Pungandik, Booandik, Boandik, Boandiks, Borandikngolo, ? Btirhwundeirtch. 
Ref.: Fisher in Taplin 1879, Smith 1880, Curr 1887, East 1889, Mathews 
1900 (1), Howitt 1904, Campbell 1934, T. 

Darjga : li Danggali 

See New South Wales List. 

'Dieri Died 

Loc: Cooper Creek between Killalapaninna and near Coongie; at 

Cowarie, Lake Howitt, and Lake Hope; south, to Lake Gregory and Clayton 

River and low country north of Mount FreeKng. 

Alt. : Diari, Diyeri, Dieyerie, Deerie, Dieyrie, Dthee-cri. 

Ref.: Gason 1874, Howitt 1891, 1904, Helms 1896, Eylmann 1908, 

Strehlow- 1910, Elkin 1931, Tindale in Fenner 1936, Berndt and Vogelsang 

1939, T. 



'Erawiruij, 'Jirau Erawirung 

Loc: Eastern bank of Murray River from Loxton to above Paringa and 
about fifteen miles south, away from river. 

Alt.: Eraweerung, Erawirrangu, Erawiruck, Yerraruck, Yirau, Yiran 

Ref.: Shaw in Taplin 1879, Brown 1918, Tindalc 1939 (2), T. 
'Kararjuru Karanguru 

Loc: South of Alton Downs on Mulligan River; east to Pandi Pandi, 
south to Coyder Lagoon. 

Alt.: Karangura, Kurangooroo. 

Ref.: Paull in Curr 1886, Ho wilt 1904, Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, T. 
'Kaurna, WVLcjnirja Kaurna 

Loc: Rapid Head to Wakefield along eastern shore of Gulf St. Vincent, 
inland to Crystal Brook, Blyth, HoyJeton, Ham ley Bridge, Yatala, Clarendon, 
Gawler and Myponga; on east side of Hummock Range to Red Hill. 

Alt: Kaura (? misprint), Coonia, Koomawarra, Nganawara, Kurumid- 
lanta (Pangkala term, lit. "evil spirit"), Milipitingara (ms.), Widninga 
(Ngadjuri term applied to Kaurna of Port Wakefield and Buckland Park), 
Winnaynie, Meyu ( [/mejttl = man). 

Ref.: Tcichelmann and Schiirmann 1840, Cawthornc (ms. 1844), Wyatt 
1879, Stephens 1889, Howitt 1904, Strehlow 1910, Tindale 1936, T. 
'Kokata, 'Kukata Kokata 

Loc: At Tarcoola, Pimba and McDouall Peak; west to Ooldca, north 
to Stuart Range and Lake Phillipson (southward migratory movements were 
m progress before 1850. Earliest historic boundaries are indicated on map). 

Alt..: Kukatha, Kukata, Kokatha, Koogatho, Kugurda, Koogurda, 
Koocatho, Kokit-ta, Kukataja, Maduwonga (Arabana term), Madutara, 
(Antakirinja term). 

Ref.: Schiirmann 1844, 1879, Provis in Taplin 1879, Curr 1886, East 1889, 
Mathews 1900 (1), Eylmann 1908, Elkin 1931, T. 

'Kujaui Kujani 

Loc: Erom Parachilna north to Marree on west side of Flinders 

Range; around north end of Lake Torrens, west to Turret Range, north-east 

to Murnpeowie. 

Alt.: Kuyanni, Kwiani, Kwiana, Kooyiannic, Cooyiannie, Kooyeeunna, 

Koo tectum a, Koonarie. 

Ref.: Jessop 1862, Kingsmili in Curr 1886, Helms 1896, Mathews 1900 

(1), Howitt 1904, Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, Hale and Tindale 1925, 

Elkin 1931, T. 

'Maljaijapa Maljangapa 

See New South Wales List. 
'Maraura Maraura 

See New South Wales List. 

'Marditjali Marditjali 

Loc: Naraccorte, S.A., to Goroke, Vict; Mosquito Creek and Apsiey 
north to Bangham and Kaniva; at Edenhope and east to Mount Arapiles 
( f'ba: ijg] = man). 
Ret". : Tindale. 


'Meint'a : rjk Meintangk 

Loc. : Lacepede Bay; north to Granite Rocks twelve miles north of 

Kingston; south to Cape Jaffa; east to Blackford and Naracoorte; 

inland from Lake ITawdon to Mosquito Creek (with at least seven hordes). 
Alt. : Meintank, Painhali (Tangane term). 
Ref.: Tindale 1937, T. 

Miniiij, 'Mi:niij, 'yafttlafca, 'Wanbiri Miming 

See Western Australian List. 

'Nar: avjga, 'Naraijga Narangga 

Loc.: Yorke Peninsula; north to Port Broughton, east to ITummock 

Range; at Bute, Wallaroo, Ardrossan, Cape Spencer (four hordes are 


Alt.: Narranga, Narrang-gu, Narrang-u, Adjahdurah (lit., my people), 


Kiihn in Fison 1880, Kiihn in Curr 1886, Sutton 1889, Mathews 1900 (1), 

Howitt 1904, Strehlow 1910, Tindale 1936 (3), 1939 (2), T. 

Xauo. 'Njao, 'Njau Nauo 

Loc: Southern half of Eyre Peninsula; west to Cape Radstock; north 
to heyond Minnipa; east to near Darke Peak, Cleve and half-way between 
("arrow and Franklin Harbour; at Port Lincoln, Mount Hope, Coffin Bay, 
and Ellis-ton (principally inhabiting coastal gum tree country; pressure from 
Pangkala was causing contraction to south-west at time of early white 
contacts; their proto-historic boundary ran from about the Gawler Ranges 
to Port Augusta; extinct; data from Pangkala informants). 

Alt.: Nawo, Naua, Nowo, Gnowoo, Battara ( ['bat: araj — scrubby 

Ref.: Schiirmann 1844, Angas 1847, Bull 1878, East 1889, Ilowitt 1904, 
Strehlow 1910, (T). 

'rjadjuri, 'Wirameju, 'Manuri Ngadjun 

Loc: From Angaston and K reeling north to Crystal Brook, Gladstone, 
Carrie ton and north of Waukaringa; east to Mannahill; in Orroroo, Peter- 
borough, Burra and Rohertstowu districts; inhabitants of the gum forest 

Alt.: Ngadluri, Ngalnri, Aluri, Alury, Eeleeree, Wirameju, ( [\viraj — 
gum tree, fincju] = men, lit. gum forest men), Wirrameyu, VV'irramayo, 
Wirr&ttiaya, Wiramaya, Wirra, Weera, Eura, Manuri (Nukunu term, lit. 
inland people), Mann, Monnoo, Manuley. 

Ref.: Angas 1847, Noble in Taplin 1879, Le Brim in Curr 1886, Mathews 
1900 (1), Hossfeld 1926, Gray 1930, Flkin 1931, Tindale 1937, T. 

'rjaiawerj, 'qaijawa, 'Aiawurj, 'Birta Ngaiawang 

Loc: Along Murray River from Herman Landing to Penn Reach, west 

to scarp of Mount Lofty Range (about ten hordes listed, including Molo, not 

previously recognised. Moorhousc carried southern limits of tribe too far 


Alt.: Ngaiawung, Ngaiyau, Aiawung, Aiawong, Iawung, Nggauaiyo- 

wangko, Birta (Kauma and Ngadjuri term), Pitta, Picta, Pccita, Meru (term 

for man). 

Ref.: Eyre 1845, Moorchousc 1846, Ewens in Taplin 1879, Fulford in Curr 

1886, East 1889, Tindale in Parkhouse 1935, Tindale 1939 (2), T. 



'galea Ngalea 

Loc. : Salt Lake districts in Western (or Great Victoria) Desert north- 
west of Ooldea, including Lakes Auwuru, Maurice, Wyola, Nurrari, Forrest, 
Waigen and Wright; also mallee scrub belt north of Nullarbor Plains, where 
water supplies are obtained almost solely from mallee roots, at Leisler Hills. 
Not to be confused with the four class tribe, Ngalia, of Mount Davenport, 
Central Australia. 
Alt.: Ngalia. 
Kef.: Elkin 1931, 1940, T. 

'rjameni, 'ljamini, 'A : mini Ngameni 

Loc: South side of Goyder Lagoon; on Warburton River to Lake 

Howitt and Berlino; north to Pandipandi, Birdsville and Miranda. 

Alt.: Gnameni, Ngaminni, Ngnaminni, Aumini (of northern tribes and 

casual variant), Aumine, Amini, Omince, Ahminnie, Uminnie, Agamiuni, 


Ref.: Gason 1874, Howitt 1891, 1904, Helms 1896, Eylmann 1908, 

Strehlow 1910, Elkin 1931, Tindale in Fenner 1936, T. 

'ijaijuruku Nganguruku 

Loc: On Murray River from Mannum to South Rhine River junction; 
west to scarp of Mount Lofty Ranges. 

Ref.: Brown 1918, T. 
'ijara&e Ngaralta 

Loc: On Murray River from Wood Hill to Port Mannum; west to 
Bremer Creek, Palmer, and eastern scarp of Mount Lofty Ranges. 

Alt.: Wanaulun, Wanjakalde (Jarildekaid terms), Wanyakaldc, Wunya- 
kalde, Wanakald, Ngaralt, Ngaraltu. 

Ref.: Brown 1918, T. 

'ijarket, 'geruketi, 'Beripui], 'Merkani, 'Marjkaru : pi Ngarkat 

Loc: Mallee scrub belt east of Murray River; south oi Alawoona to 
Taunta, Keith and Coonalpyn; east to Tatiara and about MnrrayyiHe, 
Victoria. (Water supplies principally from mallee roots and, therefore, 
camps widely dispersed.) 

Alt.: Merkani (Jaralde and Tangane term), Merkanie, Mangkarupi 
Jarildekaldc term), Buripung (['berip] = man), Booripung (ms.), Boripar, 
Duwinbarap (eastern term, ['barapj — man), Doenbauraket, Tjakulprap 
(south eastern term, ['prap] = fbrabj — man), Jakalbarap, Jackalbarap, 
Jackegilbrab, JakeLbaluk (Wotjobaluk term), Ngcruketi (Maraura, term), 
? Wragarite. 

Ref.: Smyth 1878, Humphries in Taplin 1879, East 1889, Howitt 1904, 
Eylmann 1908, Tindale 1939 (2), T. 

rjawait, rjawaitjirj, 'Njawatjurk, 'Eritark Ngawait 

Loc: Banks of Murray River from between Boggy Flat and Penn Reach 

to near Loxton; a small tribe with three or more hordes. 

Alt.: Nauait, Nanait (misprint?), Niawoo, Ngawaijung, Ngawijung, 

Narwejung, Eritark (Nganguruku term), Njawatjurk (Maraura term). 

Ref.: Angas 1847, Taplin 1879 (p. 30), Brown 1918, Tindale 1939 (2), T. 


'ljintait Ngintait 

Loc: Principally on southern bank of Murray River from above Paringa, 

to near Miklura, Vict., southern limit approximately fifty miles from river; 

at Ned Corner, Vict, and Salt Creek, N.S.W. 
Alt.: Inteck, Nutcha. 
Ret.: Pegler in Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (2), Brown 1918, Tindale 

1939 (2), T. 

'ljurawola Ngurawola 

See Queensland List. 

'Nuiamu Nukunu 

Loc.: Eastern side of Spencer Gulf from mouth of B rough ton y River 
and near Crystal Brook north to Port Augusta; east to Melrose, Gladstone 
and Quorn; at.Baroota. 

Alt.: Nukunnu, Xukuna, Nookoona, Noocoona, Nokunna, Pukunna 
(misprint ?), Wongaidya, Tyura, Doora, Warra. 

Ref.: Teichelmann and Schurmann 1840, , Schurmann 1844, Hack in 
Tap fin 1879, Valentine in Curr 1886, Mathews 1900 (1), Black 1917, Gray 
1930, Klkin 1931, T. 

'Parjkala, 'Barjgala Pangkala 

Loc: East side of Lake Torrcns south of Edeowie and west of Hookina 
and Port Augusta; west of Lake Torrcns to Island Lagoon and Yardea; at 
Woorakhnha, Hesso, Yudnapinna, Gawlcr Ranges; south to Kimba, Darke 
Peak, Clcvc and Franklin Harbour. (Pre- and proto-historic pressure from 
the Kokata was modifying their northern boundary, causing a shift of their 
southern limits also from between Port Augusta and the Gawder Ranges 
down towards Franklin Harbour.) 

Alt.: I5anggala, Bahnga-la, Pankalla, Parnkala, Punkalla, Bungela, 
Bungeha, Kortabina (place name). 

Ref.: Schurmann 1846, Angas 1847, Green in Curr 1886, Eylmann 1908, 
Streh!ow 1910, Hale and Tindale 1925, El kin 1931, Cleland and Johnston 
1939, T. 

'Perainarjk, 'Merildekalri, 'Waijarainbula Peramangk 

Loc. : In Mount Lofty Ranges from Myponga north to Gawler and 
Angaston; east to Wright Hill, Strathalbyn, Kanmantoo, and along the 
eastern scarp of the range to near Towitta. N.B. — On map area enlargement 
must be utilised in ascertaining distribution of this tribe; on small scale 
eastern limit is wrongly delineated and boundary line for circumcision rite 
should run south of Strathalbyn. 

Alt.: Peramarma, Mereldi (Ramindjeri term), Merildakald (Tangane- 
kald term), Marimejuna ( ['mari] r= east, ['mejuj = man, Kaurna term), 
AYangarainbula ( ['wanara] = hill, Kgaiawang term), "Mount Barker Tribe." 

Ref.: Angas 1847, T. 

'Pilatapa. 'Pidlatapa Pilatapa 

Loc: North-east of Northern .Flinders Range; north of Lake Frome, 
east to Callabonna and almost to Tilcha; north-west to Lake Blanche and 
Blanchewatcr; south to Wooltana and Hamilton Creek. 



Alt.: Piladapa, Pillatapa (ras.), Pillidappa (ms.), Pulladapa, Berluppa, 

Ref.: Mathews 1898 (2), 1900 (1), 1904 (3), Strehlow 1910, Morgan 
Cms.) 1930, Elkin 1931, T. 

Titjandjara Pitjandjara 

Loc. : Mann and Tomkinson Range north-west to beyond Rawlinson 
Range, VV. Aust; west to Cavanagh, Finlay and Bedford Ranges, also in 
W. Aust.; south to Birksgate Range and near Lake Wright; east to Mounts 
Kintore and Caroline, Butler Dome, and Stevenson Peak; north to Lakes 
Amadeus and Hopkins; in Western Musgrave Range only to Opparina. 
Basedow (1914) refers to several tribes in this area by terms meaning north, 
south, east and west. 

Alt.: Pitjandjadjara, Pitjindjatjara, Pitjindjara, Pitjinjara, Pitjinjiara, 
Pitjanzazara (z = editorial substitute in journal Oceania for "dj" symbol), 
Wongapitjira, Wongapitcha. 

Ref.: Strehlow 1910, Tindale 1933, 1935 (1) and (2), T. 

'Porta'uhm Portaulun 

Loc: Western bank of Murray River from Woo4 Hill to Wellington 
and Pomanda Point; vest to Grote Hill. 
Alt. : Warawalde. 
Ref.: Brown 1918, T. 

1*0 :taru'wutj, 'Wcpulprap, 'Potarjola Potaruwutj 

Loc: Naracoorte west to within ten miles of the sea along the third 

inland dune range of the Coorong; at Taratap; north to Tatiara, Bordertown, 

Wirrega and Keith (eight or more hordes), ['wtitj] = man). 

Alt: Potangola {alternative term), Woychibirik, Wepulprap (Meintangk 

term), Yaran, Tatiara (a place name, also a horde), Tattayarra, Tyatyalli, 

Tyeddyuwurru, Wirigirek (a northern horde; Wirrega, a place name), 


Ref.: Angas 1847, Lawson in Taplin 1879, Havnes in Curr 1887, Mathews 

1904 (3), Tindale 1935 (2), 1937, T. 

'Ha: niindjeri. 'Ra : minjeri, 'Ramor), 'Tarbanawalun Ramindjeri 

Loc: At Encounter Bay; west to Cape Jervis, Mount Hay field, Inman 

Valley; east to Middleton, thence across to Goohva and Currency Creek; not 

along coast sandhills east of Middleton (five or more hordes). 

Alt. : Ramong, Rarninyeri, Ramindjerar, Ramingara, Tarbanawalun 

( Jan'ldekald term). 

Ref.: Meyer 1840, 1846, Angas 1847, Wyatt in Woods 1879, Ncwland 

1895, Brown 1918, Tindale 1935 (2), 1937, 1938, T. 

'Tarjane'kald, 'Tarj'alun, Terjgi, Taijani'kald Tanganekald 

Loc: Narrow coastal strip along Coorong from Middleton south to 
Twelve Mile Point (north of Kingston); inland only to about inner margin 
of first inland dune terrace (usually five to eight miles); on islands in Lake 
Alexandria, except eastern and western extremities of Hindmarsh Island; 
at Meningie, south end of Lake Albert, Salt Creek and Taratap (Ten Mile 



Alt.: Tenggl (Potaruwutj term), Tangane, Tanganalun, T(h)unga, 
Thungah, Milmenrura (a clan name only; often used in early days for whole 
tribe, owing to notoriety associated with their murder of survivors of the 
wreck "Maria"). 

Ref.: East 1889, Brown 1918, Tindale 1937, 1938, T. 

'Tirari, 'Terari Tirari 

Loc. : Eastern shore of Lake Eyre from Muloorina north to Warburton 
River; east to Killalapaninna; a small tribe now extinct; not a horde of Dieri. 
Ref.: Howitt 1904, Strehlow 1910, 1931, T. 

'Wadikali Wadikali 

Loc: Yandama and Callabonna Creeks; east to Milparinka and 
Naryilco; at Lake Pinaroo and Tilcha. 

Alt: Wadigali. 

Ref.: Hale and Tindale 1925, Elkin 1931, T. 
'Wailpi Wailpi 

Loc: At Umbcratana and Mount Scrle; south to Parachilna Gorge only 
in Flinders Range; cast to above Wooltana on range; west to western scarp 
of range. 

Alt. : Nuralda, Binbarnja (Wadikali terms, ['binba] ~ CaUitris "pine 
tree"), Kanjimata, Anjimatana, Benbakanjamata (Kujani terms; lit. "hill 
people" and "pine hills people"), Anjiwatana (misprint), Anjamutma, 
Anyamatana, Unyamootha, Kudnamietha, Kutchnamootha, Keydnjamarda, 
Mardala (Dieri terms), Mardula, Wipie, Umber tan a (contraction of 
Umberatana, a place name), Nimbalda, Nimbaldi (? misprint), Nimalda. 

Ref.: Smith in Taplin 1879, Phillipson, Gason and Wills in Curr 1886, 
Howitt 1891, Mathews 1904 (3), Hale and Tindale 1925, Tindale 1937, 
Moutford 1938, Cleland 1939, Elkin 1940, T. 

'Warki, 'Warkend Warki 

Loc: North and west of Lake Alexandrina from Grote Hill to Currency 

Creek; on eastern and western extremities of Hindmarsh Island (eight or 

more clans). 

Alt.: Koran hm (Jarildckald term), applying principally to one clan, the 


Ref.: Brown 1918, T. 

'Wiljakali, 'Wilja: li Wiljakali 

See New South Wales List. 

'Wirarju Wirangu 

Loc: Coast between Head of Bight (White Well), and Streaky Bay; 
inland to Ooldea, Kokatha, Kondoolka and almost to Yardea (in earliest 
historic times were contracting southward before Kokata people). 
Alt.: Wirrung, Wirrunga. 
Ref.: Mathews 1900 (1), Black 1916, Elkin 1931. 

'Worjga: i Wonggai 

See Western Australian List. 



'Worjkarjuru, 'Worjkorjuru Wonglcatiguru 

Loc: On Stevenson Creek north to Mount Daer; at Blood Creek, 

east of Macumba Creek; on lower Finke; in southern portion of Arunta 

Desert; south to Kallakoopah Creek; at Atna Hill. 

Alt: Wongkongaru, Wonkanguru, Wonkonguru, Ongkongura, Wong- 

kaooroo, Wonkgongaru, Wonkongaru, Wonkaoora, Wongonooroo, Won- 

kongnuru, Wonkagnurra. 

Ret: Gason 1874, Paul! in Curr 1886, Helms 1896, Mathews 1900 (1), 

Hewitt 1904, Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, Spencer 1912, Elkin 1931, 

Tindalc in Fcnner 1936, T. 

'Jadliaura jadliaura 

Loc: Eastern side of Northern Flinders Range from Wertaloona south 

to Carrieton; east to Frome Downs; on Siccus River; west to Arkaba, 

Hawker and Quorn. 

Alt.: Yadliaura, Arkaba-tura ( I'Arkaba] place name, ['turaj — man), 

Wonoka (place name). 

Ret: Green in Curr 1886, Elkin 1931, 1938, T. 

'Jandru'wanta J andruwanla 

Loc: South of Cooper Creek from lnnamincka to Carraweena; on 

Strzelecki Creek. 

Alt.: Yandruwunta, Yantruwunta, Jendruwonta, Yandrawontha, Yander- 

awantha, Yanduwulda, Endawarra. 

Ret: Gason 1874, Mathews 1898 (2), 1900 (1), 1905 (1), Howitt 1904, 

Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, Elkin 1931, T. 

'Jarjkundjara, 'JmDk^mdjVdjara Jangwundjara 

Loc: Mnsgrave Range east of Opparinna, on Officer Creek; north to 
Lake Amadeus, Mount Olga, Aycrs Rock and Mount Connor; in Everard 
Ranges. (The Everard Range tribe of Helms (1896) and White (1916); in 
1917 (dated by eclipse), a portion of tribe moved south to Ooldea in company 
with some Antakirinja; western limits now usurped by Pitjandjara). 

Alt.: Jangundjara, Jankunzazara (z =z editorial substitute in the journal 
Oceania for "dj" symbol), Wirtjapakandja. 

Ret; Tindale and Hackett 1933, Love 1938 (ms.), Elkin 1940, T. 

'Jarildekald, 'Jaraldc Jarildekald 

Loc: Fast side of Lake Alexandrina and Murray River from Loveday 

Bay to Mobilong; on Narrung Peninsula; east to Meningie (more than fifteen 


Alt.: Yarilde, Yaralde, Yarrildie. 

Ret: Taplin 1873, 1879, East 1889, Eylmann 1910. Brown 1918, Tindale 

1935 (2), T. 

'Jauraworka Jauraworka 

Loc. : North of Cooper ;Creek to Haddon Downs and Cadelga; west 
nearly to Goyder Lagoon; east to about Arrabury; south-east nearly to 

Alt. : Yauroworka, Yarrawaurka, Yaurorka, Yauarawaka, Jaurorka, 
Yaurorka, Y'erawaka, Yowerawoolka, Yowcrawarrika. 

Ret: Gason 1874, Cornish in Curr 1886, Mathews 1900 (1). Howitt 1904, 
Eylmann 1908, Elkin 1931, T. 



Jeljencli Jeljentli 

Loc: Mulligan River south of Annan dale to Alton Downs; cast to 
Birdsville and Diamantina River; west to near Atna Hill. 
Alt.: Jeljujendi, Yelyuycndi, Yarleeyandee. 
Ret'.: Paull in Curr 1886, Howitt 1904, Strehlow 1910, T. 


'Andekerebina Andakercbina 

Loc.: Tarlton Range cast to Togo Range; head waters of Field River; 
south-western range uncertain, probably to about Lake Caroline. 
Alt.: Undekerebma, Walwallie, Willi-Willi, ? Yanindo. 
Ref.: Curr 1886, Roth 1897, Mathews 1901 (2), T. 

'Anmatjera, 'Nmatjera, 'Unmatjera Anmatjera 

Loc.: Forster Range, Mount Leicbbardt, Conistan, Stuart Bluff Range 
east of Central Mount Wedge, Burt Plain north of Mount Zeil, Connor Well, 
Harper Springs, Woolla Downs; at Harm and Reynolds Ranges. 
Alt.: Anmatjera, Unmatjera, Imatjera, Urmitchec. 

Ref.: East 1889, Spencer and Gillen 1904, Strehlow 1910, Spencer 1912, 
Tindale 1931, T. 

'Aranda Aranda 

Loc: Mount Zeil; Einke River to Idracowra, Blood Creek, and Mount 
Daer; north-east to Intea on Lower Hale River in Arunta (Simpson) Desert, 
thence north to llbala on Plenty River, west to Iuilja and Hart Range; in 
Central MacDonnell, James and Ooraminna Ranges. (The Aranda south 
of Fngoordina have almost the status of a separate tribe with a four class 
social organisation, while the northern hordes are divisible into eastern and 
western portions.) 

Alt.: Arunta, Arrinda, Urrundic, Herrinda. 

Ref.: East 1889, Spencer and Gillen 1899, 1904, Basedow 1908, 1927, 
Strehlow 1910, Strehlow T.G. ms, T. 

'Ilianra Iliaura 

Loc: Sandover, Bundey, Ooratippra, and Fraser Creeks; Mount Swan, 
northern face of Hart Range, Plenty River north and west of llbala, Jervois 
Range, Mount Playford, Elkedra River; at MacDonald Downs and Huckitta. 
Alt.: Il(l)iaura, Iljauara, Ilyauarra, Illyowra. 
Ref.: Spencer and Gillen 1899, Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, T. 

'Kaititj, 'Kaititje ■ Kaititj 

Loc: Elkedra, Gastrolobium Creek, Frew River, Whistleduck Creek, 

Davenport Range, Murchison Range, Mount Singleton, and westward into 

sand desert; Taylor and Barrow Creeks; Forster Range. 

Alt.: Kaititj (a), Kaititja, Kaititje, Kaitije, Katitja, Katitch-a, Kat-tit-ya, 

Kaitish, Kadda-kie. 

Ref.: East 1889, Spencer and Gillen 1904, Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, 

Spencer 1912, T. 



'Kukatja Kukatja 

Loc, ; Western side of FInke River from Western MacDonnell Range 
south to Idracowra; west to Basedow Range, Lake Amadeus, George Gill 
Range, Cleland Hills, and Mount Solitary; on Palmer, Walker and Rudall 
Creeks, (.Not to be confused with Kokata of South Australia.) 

Alt,: Kukatja, Kukacba, Luritja (Arancla term), Luritcha, Loritja, 
Lor itch a, Lurritji, Aluridja, Loorudgie, Loorudgee, Juluridja, Maduntara 
(Pintubi and Pitjandjara term). Maiulatara (? Antakirinja term). 

Ref.: Spencer and Gillen 1899, Mathews 1901 (2), Eylmann 1908, 
Strehlow 1910, Elkin 1931, T. 

'rjalia Ngalia 

Loc: North of Stuart Bluff Range from Central Mount Wedge west to 
Mount Cockburn; about: Ethel Creek, Mounts Farewell and Singleton; at 
Mounts Saxby and Doreen, Cockatoo Creek, Treucr Range, and Mount 
Davenport. (Not to be confused with Ngalea of western South Australia.) 
Alt.: Ngallia, Nambuda. 
Re\.: Strehlow 1910, Tindale 1931, 1933, T. 

'Pintubi, 'Pi : ntupi Pintubi 

Loc: Lake Mackay, Mount Russell, Ehreuberg Range, Kintore Range, 
Warm an Rocks; an unknown distance to west. 
Ref.: Tindale 1932, 1933, Fry 1933, T. 

'Pitjan'djara Pitjandjara 

See South Australian List 

Waiarjara Waiangara 

See Western Australian List. 

'Wakaja, 'Workaia Wakaja 

Loc: Soudan, Avon Downs, Camooweal, Yelvertoft, Flora Downs, 

Austral Downs and country to the west; on Buckley, James, Rankiue and 

Georgina Rivers, north of Lake Nash. 

Alt.: W r aggaia, Wagai, Waagai, Waagi, Warkya, Worgaia, Worgai, 

Workia, Lee-wakya, Ukkia. 

Ref.: Roth 1897, Glissan in Mathews 1S99, 1901 (2), Spencer and Gillen 

1899, Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, T. 

'Walmala Walmala 

Loc: At Tanami and the Granites; boundaries not yet defined. 
Alt.: Wulmala, ? Wommana. 
Ref.: Spencer and Gillen 1904, StrehW 1910, T. 

'Walpari, 'Ilpira Walpari 

Loc : Lander Creek below Mount Leichhardt, sandplain north of 

Mounts Turner, Saxby and Singleton; north-west towards the Granites; 

northern boundary not yet well defined. 

Alt.: Walpiri, Wolperi, Wolpirra, Ilpira (chiefly Anmatjera and Aran da 

term), Ilpir(r)a, Ilpirra, Ulperra, Ilpara, Elpira. 

Ref.: Spencer and Gillen 1899, Eylmann 1908, Strehlow 1910, Spencer 

1912. T. 



'Woijkamala Wongkamala 

Loc: North-west of Annandalc, at Kaliduwarry, lower portions of Field 
and Hay Rivers, and in eastern segment of Arunta (sometimes called 
Simpson) Desert, including the areas carrying pitjuri (Duboisia) shrubs. 
Alt. : Wonkamala, Wonkamudla. 
Ref.: Mathews 1900 (1), Hewitt 1904, Strehlow 1910, Elkin 1931, T. 

'Jankundjara Jangkundjara 

See South Australian List. 

'Jaroirja Jaroinga 

Loc: At Urandangie, Bathurst, Headingly, north to Lake Nash and 
cast towards Mount Ida, QUI.; west to about Mount Hogarth. 
Alt.: Yaroinga, Yarroinga, Yorrawinga, Yarrowin. 
Ref.: Roth 1897, Mathews 1900, 1901 (1), Spencer 1912, T. 
'Juinu J limit 

Loc: Western MacDonnel] Range from Mount Russell east to Mount 
Zeil; north to Central Mount Wedge and Lake Bennett, south to Mounts 
Solitary and Udor; at Haast Bluff and Mounts Liebig and Peculiar. 
Ref.: Strehlow 1910, Tindale, 1932, 1933, T. 

(Anaiwan) Anaiwan 

Loc: New England Tableland from near Glen Innes south to Uralla; 
west to Tingha. 

Alt.: Anaywan, Anewan, Nowan, Enni-won, Yenniwon, En-nee-wln, 
Eneewin, Inuwon, Nee-inuwon. 

Ref.: Mathews 1897, MacPherson 1905, Radcliffe-Brown 1931. 

'Ar'a : kwal Arakwal 

Loc: From Lismore and northern bank of Richmond River to Cape 

Ref.: Tindale. 

( Awabakal ) Awabakal 

Loc: Lake Macqnarie, south of Newcastle, N.S.W. (not Port. 

Ref.: Threlkeld 1892, Howitt 1904. 

'Badjelarj. 'Widje Badj clang 

Loc: From northern bank of Clarence River to Richmond River; at 

Ballina, inland to Tabulam. Coastal hordes (Widje) go only to Rappville. 

N.B.- — -On map the northern boundary excludes Widje hordes; it should run 

to about Ballina. 

Alt.: Bunjellung, Bundela, Bundel, Watch ee. 
Ref.: Mathews 1897, MacPherson 1905, T. 

r Ba: kendji Barkindji 

Loc: Darling River from Wilcannia downstream to Avoca and twenty 
to thirty miles each side of the river. Teuton's account shows them as at 
Bourke, but his remarks probably apply specifically to the Naualko. 

Alt.: Barkinji, Barkunjee, Bahkimji, Bahkunjy, Parkungi, Parkengee, 



Bakanji, Bakandi, Bargunji. 

Ret; Bonney 1884, Teulon and others in Curr 1886, Newland 1889, 
Mathews 1898 (2), Tlowitt 1904, Brown 1918, T. 

(B.v.nbai) Banbai 

Loc: A circumscribed area embracing Ben Lomond, Gleneoe, Marowan, 
Mount Mitchell and Kookabookra (MacPherson). 
Alt.: Banbai, Bahnbi, Ahnbi, Dandai (sic).. 
Kef.: MacPherson 1905, Brown 1918, Radcliffc-Brown 1931. 

'Barenbinja Baranbinja 

Loc; Bourke to Brewarrina on northern hank of Darling River. 
Alt. : Burranbinya, Burrunbinya, Barrumbinya. 
Ref.: Ridley 1875, Mathews, 1903, Howitt 1904, T. 

'Barindji Barindji 

Loc: In malice, swamp and sand country parallel to and east of Darling- 
River from Moira to within thirty miles of Luston ; at Ivan-hoe, Manara 
Range, Carowra, Ivilfera and Manfred (term means forest people). 

Alt.: Barrengce, Berri-ait (not the Barinji of Cameron). 

Ref.: Cameron 1885, Newland 1889, T. 

'Berap:e'ra:pe Baraparapa 

Loc: Between Murrumbidgec River above Hay, N.S.W., and Kerang, 

Vict.; at Cohuna, Gunbower, Brassi, Conargo and across river from Carra- 

Alt.: Bnrrabura-ba, Baraba-baraba, Barraba-barraba, Boorabirraba, 
Rurappa, Burabura, Boora-boora, Burapper, Karraba (sic), Boort (a place 

Ret.: Parker, 1843; Smyth, 1878, Curr 1887, Mathews 1898 (L), Howitt 
1904, T. 

'Bidewel Bidawal 

Sec Victorian List. 

/ 1 » 

Bigambul , ' Bigabul Bigambul 

Loc: Weir and Moonie Rivers, cast of N indigully, Qld. ; at Talwood, 
Qld.; Maclntyre River from east of Boomi to Texas; at Yetman, Boggabilla 
and Middle Creek. 

Alt.: Pikambul, Bigambal, Bee-gnm-bul. Pikambal. Pikum-bul, Pickum- 
bul, Picum-bnl, Pickumbil. 

Ref.: Ridley 1875, ThrelkeM 1892, Mathews 1902 (1), Howitt 1904, T. 

'Birpa:i ^ Birpai 

Loc: Month of Manning River at Taree, inland to near Gloucester; 
principally on south side of river. (According to Radcliffc-Brown at 
Hastings River.) 

Alt.: Birripai, Bripi, Birrapee. 

Ref. Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (1), Radcliffc-Brown 1931 Furight 
1932. T. 



'Dairjgati, 'Djaingadi, 'Burugadi Dainggati 

Loc. : At Bowraville; Nambucca River and its watershed; south to 

Macieay River, Kemps ey and Rellbrook; inland to Dividing Range, Walcha 

and Armidale (according to MacPherson, the south-western area around 

Walcha and Ingleba was occupied by the "Himberrong"). 

Alt.: Dang-gctti, Dhangatty, Thangatti, Thangatty, Dangati, Thangatty, 

Tang-gctte, Burgadi, Boorkutti. 

Ref.: Mathews 1898, 1901, 1904 (3), MacPherson 1905, Radcliffe-Brown 

1931, T. 

'Daijgaili Danggali 

Loc: Plains north-east of Broken Hill from near Gnalta, south-west- 
wards to near Morgan, S. Aust, in the arid country, eastwards to within a 
few miles of Darling River. 

Alt: Tungarlee, Tung-arlcc, ? Tongaranka. 
Ref.: Botiney 1884, T. 

'Darkimuj Darkinung 

Loc: South of Hunter River, from Jerry Plains towards Maitland, south 
to Wollombi Brook, at Putty, and including Macdonald, Colo, and Hawkes- 
bury Rivers (Mathews); western boundary on divide east of Rylstone (based 
on Wiradjuri tribe data). 

Ref.: Mathews 1897, (T). 

(Daruk) Daruk 

Loc : Mouth of the Hawkesbury River; inland to Mount Victoria, 
Campbelltown, Liverpool, Camden and Penrith. 
Alt. : Dharruk, Dharrook. 
Ref.: Mathews and Lveritt 1900, Mathews 1901. 

(Gandaijara) Gandangara 

Loc: At Goulburn and Berrima; down Hawkesbury River to about 

Camden. N.B. — On map Goulburn should be further to cast where a town 

is indicated. 

Alt. : Gundungurra. 

Ref.: Mathews and Everitt 1900, Mathews 1901 (4). 

( Geawegal ) Geawcgal 

Loc : Valley of Hunter River above Glen don, Muswellbrook, Scone 
and lower part of Goulburn River. 

Alt.: Geawegal, Gweagal. 

Ref.: Rusden in Fison 1880, Howitt 1904. 
'Kalibal Kalibal 

Loc: Macpherson Range from Unum.gar, N.S.W., to Christmas Creek, 
QUI., east to Upper Nerang and south to Mount Cougal, Tyalgum, and the 
Richmond River at Kyogle. 

Ref.: Tindale. 

Kambuwal Kambuwal 

See Queensland List. 


(Kameraigal) Kamcraigal 

Loc. : Northern .shores of Port Jackson (Collins). Perhaps a horde of 

Alt. : Camera-gal, Carnmerray-gal. 
Ref.: Hunter 1793, Collins 1804, Howitt 1904. 

'Kamila'roi Kamilaroi 

Loc; Walgett, N.S.W., to Nindigully, Qld., Talwood, Garah, Moree, 

Bingara, Tamworth, Quirindi, Bundella, Gwabegar, Come-by-Chance. 

Alt.: Kamilarai, Kamilroi, Kamalarai, Koomilroi, Gumilroi, Gummilroi, 

Gummilray, Comleroy. 

Ref.: Ridley 1886, 1875, Fraser 1892, Mathews 1898, 1900 (4), 1904 (3), 

Howitt 1904, MacPherson 1905, Brown 1918, T. 

'Karerjgapa Kareuggapa 

Loc: Mount Bygrave, Qld., Tibooburra, N.S.W. ; at Yalpunga and Con- 
nulpie Downs. Bulloo River about Bulloo Lakes; south to Milparinka. 

Alt.: Karrengappa, Kurengappa. 

Ref.: Curr 1886, Mathews 1898, T. 
'Kitabal Kitabal 

Loc: Head-waters of Richmond and Logan Rivers on Main Dividing 
Range; Killarney to Urhenville, Woodcnbong, LTnumgar; at Rathdowney 
and about Spicer Gap, Qld. 

Alt.: Kidabal, Kit(t)a-bool, Kitapul, Gidjoobal, Kuttibul. 

Ref.: Mathcw 1926, Radcliffe-Brown 1931, T. 

(Koinberi) Koinberi 

Loc: Upper Castlcreagh River and part of Liverpool Plains (may be 
part of Weilwan, which see). 
Alt.: Koinberri. 
Ref.: Ridley, 1875. 

'Ku : la, 'Gu : nu Kula 

Loc: Western bank of Darling River from near Bourke to Dunlop, 
Warrego River to Enngonia, and Barringun; at Yantabulia. 
Alt. : Kurnu, Guerno, Kornu, Cornu, Koonoo, Kuno. 

Ref.: Taplin 1871, Ridley 1875. Fraser, 1892, Mathews, 1906, Brown 
1918, T. 

'Kiunbairjgiri, 'Kumbaingir Kumbainggivi 

Loc: Head-waters of Nymboida River and across the range towards 

Urunga, CoIT (KorfT) Harbour and Bcllingcn; at Grafton and Glenreagh. 
Alt.: Kumbaingeri, Kombainghcri, Koombanggary, Koombanggherry, 

Koombainga, Coombangrcc,, Kombinegherry. 

Ref.: Palmer 1884, Mathews 1898, 1901, 1904 (3), McDougal 1901, 

Howitt 1904, T. 

'Kureinji. Kareirji Kureinji 

Loc: From Euston on Murray River downstream to Wentworth; on 

northern bank. 

Alt.: Karin, Kerinma, Karinma, Karingma, Orangcma, Keramin, 

Kemendok, Pintwa. 

Ref.: Cameron 1885, Curr 1886, Howitt 1904, Brown 1918, T. 



(Kwiambal ) Kwiambal 

Loc. : Lower Severn River, Fraser Creek and Ash ford. 
Ref.: MacPherson 1905, Kadcliffe-Brown 1931. 

'Maljarjapa Maljangapa 

Loc: Milparinka, N.S.W., to eastern shores of Lake Frome, south to 

Eurinilla Creek, S. Aust., on western side of the Barrier and Coko Ranges 

(located too far to the east in early accounts). 

Alt.: Malya-napa, Mulya-napa, Mulyanappa, Milya-uppa, Muliaarpa, 

Malynapa, Malyapa, Nalyanapa. 

Ref.: Bonney 1884, Reid and Morton in Curr 1886, Elkin 1931, T. 

'Maraura, 'Mare'aura Maraura 

Loc: From Wentworth on northern bank of Murray River downstream 

to Chowilla and Ral Ral, S. Aust.; on western anabranch of Darling River 

to Popilta Lake; on Darling River upstream to Avoca. 

Alt.: Maroura, Marowera, Jakojako, Yaako-yaako, Waimbio. 

Ref.: Holden in Taplin 1871, Fison and Howitt 1880, Buhner in Curr 

1886, Brown 1918, Tindale 1939, T. 

'Minjarjbal Minjangbal 

Loc. : From Byron Bay north to South port, Qld. ; inland to Mur- 

Alt.: Minyung, Minyowa. 

Ref.: Livingstone in Threikald 1892, Mathews 1901 (1), T. 

'Morowari, 'Murawari Morowari 

Loc : Barringun, N.S.W., and Knngonia on Warrego River; Brenda 

Bokhara, Weilmoringle and Milroy on Birrie and Culgoa Rivers, chiefly in 

N.S.W. ; north to Mulga Downs and Weclamurra, Qld. 

Alt. : Murawari, Murrawarri, Muruwurri, Moorawarree, Moorawarrie, 

Man aa-waree. 

Ref.: Ridley 1862, Mathews 1898 (1), 1903, Richards 1903, T. 

'Muti'muti Mulhiimilhi 

Loc; On Lower Lachlan River at Balranald; west to Murray River. 
Alt.: Muthi muthi, Matimati, Mataua. N.B.— On map the second t is 
not shown, as an interdental. 

Ref.: Cameron 1885, Brown 1918, T. 

'Xaualko. 'Xawalko Naualko 

Loc: Compodore to Murtce on Upper Darling River; on lower Paroo 
River north to Lake Ton go. Probably only a northern portion of the 
Barkindji, which see. 

Alt.: Ngunnhalgri, Unelgo, ? Bungyarlee (of Bonney 1884), ? Mil-pulko, 

Ref.: Mathews, 1898 (2), T. 

'Xa: ri'na : ri Xarinarl 

Loc: Southern hank of the Lachlan River from Booligal to Balranald, 
up the Murrumbidgee River to Hay. 
Ref.: Cameron 1885, T. 



'ija : ku Ngaku 

Loc; From Macleay River to Rolland Plains, inland to Kemp Pinnacle 

Ref.: Radcliffe-Brown 1031, T. 

'yamba Ngamba 

Loc: l H "rom Manning' River north to Rolland Plains. 
Ref: Radclifle-Brown 1931, T. 
'ijarigo Ngarigo 

Loc.: Monaro Tableland; Bombala River from Delegate to Nimmitabel; 
west to divide of the Australian Alp?. 

Alt.: Ngarigo, Ngarego, Ngarago, Gar ego, Ngarrugu, Bemeringal (of 
eastern tribes). 

Ref.: Bulmer in Curr 1887, Mathews 1908 (2). 

'IF - »iba Ngemba 

Loc: South bank of Rarwon and Darling Rivers from Brewarrina to 
Yanda Creek; south to head of Mulga Creek; on Bogan River. 
Alt.: Ngeumba, Ngiarnba, Ngiumba, Ngaiamba, Gai-amba. 
Ref.: Ridley 1862. Fraser 1892, Mathews 1904 (3), T. 

(ijunawal) Ngurmwal 

Loc.: Queanbeyan to Yass, Tumut to Boorowa and across to Gundagai. 
Alt.: Ngunawal, Ngoonawal, Nungawal, Yarr. 
Ref.; Curr 1887, Mathews 1902 (2), 1908 (2). 

Paygeraij Pangerang 

See Victorian List. 

'Paru: rxlji, 'Paruindji Parundji 

Loc: Paroo River and Kulkyne Creek from Mnrpa, north to Brindin- 

gabba, Berawinnia Downs and Hungerford, Qld. 

Alt: Paruindi, Paruinji, Parooinge, Barungi, Barinji, Bahroonjee, 

Baroongee, Bahroongee, Barrengee, Parooinge, Barunga. 

Ref.: Bonney 1884, Scott in Cameron 1885, Scrivener in Curr 1886, 

Mathews 1898 (2), Howitt 1904, Brown 1918, T. 

'Tatitati Tati-lati 

See Victorian List. 

'Taua, 'Tauaira Thaua 

Loc: From Cape Dromedary south to Green Cape; west to crest of 
Dividing Range; at Twofold Bay, Bega, Cobargo and Narooma. 

Alt: Thawa, Thauaira, Thoorga, Thurga, Tadera-manji, Guyangal 
(lit. Southerners), Guyangal-yuin. 

Ref.: Mathews 1902 (2), 1903 (1), Howitt 1904, T. 

(Turawal) Thurawal 

Loc: Port Hacking to Shoalhaven River (may include also Kameraigal 
of Port Jackson, and Wodiwodi of Wollongong to Shoalhaven River). 

Alt.: Thurawal, Thurrawal, Thurrawall, Turuwul, Turrubul, Turuwnll. 
Ref.: Ridley 1875, Mathews 1901 (4), 1904 (3). 



U'alarai Ualarai 

Loc: North-eastwards from Narran Lake (Tcrrewah) to Angledool; 

east to Walgett; on Narran and Bokhara Rivers. 

Alt.: Yualarai, Uollaroi, Yualai, Yerraleroi. (Often confused with a 

different tribe, Weraerai, with which synonymy seems to have become almost 

inextricably mixed). 

Ref.: Ridley 1875, Hammond in Curr 1887, Mathews 1898 (2), 1903, 

Brown 1918, T. 

'Wadikali Wadikali 

See South Australian List. 

'Walbarja Walbanga 

Loc: Cape Dromedary north to Ulladulla; at Braidwood, Araluen, and 


Alt: Thoorga, Thurga (part), Bugelli-manji (Bargalia, a place name 

near Moruya). 

Ref.: Mathews 1902 (2), Howitt 1904, T. 

( Wandandian) Wandandian 

Loc: Ulladulla + o Shoalhaven River and Nowra. 
Alt.: Wandandian, Tharumba, Kurial-yuin (lit., northern men). 
Ref.: Ridley 1875, Mathews 1903, Howitt 1904. 

'Wanjiwalku, 'Wainjawalku Wanjiwalku 

Loc: Milparinka to White Cliffs, west to Coko Range and nearly to 

Mount Arrowsmith, east to near Tonga Lake; at Yancannia and Lake 


Alt.: Weyiieubulkoo, Wonipalku, Wanyabalku, Wonjinaalku, Pono. 
Ref.: Bonney 1884, Crosier in Curr 1886, T. 

'Watiwati Wati-wati 

See Victorian List. 

'Weilwan Wcilwan 

Loc: Southern side of Barwon River from Brewarrina to Walgett; 
south along Castlereagh, Marthaguy and Macquarie Rivers to Warren, 
Trangie, Dubbo, and Coonabarabran. (Equated with Ngemba by Ridley, 
who places the Koinberi on upper Castlereagh River and on part of Liver- 
pool Plains). 

Alt.: Wail wan. 

Ref.: Ridley 1875, Curr 1886, Mathews 1898 (2), 1904 (3), T. 

'Wemba'wemba, 'Wamba'wamba Wembawemba 

Loc: From Kerang, Vict., to Swan Hill on Loddon River; on Avoca 

River south to Charlton, Vict.; northwards to Booroorban and Moulamein, 

K.S.W.; at Barham, Lake Boga and Boort. 

Alt.: Wamba-wamba, Womba, Weumba, Waamba, Yamba-yamba, 


Ref.: Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Mathews 1898 (2), Howitt 1904, T. 



'Weraerai Weraerai 

Loc. : Gwydir River from Moree to Bingara, north to W aria Ida and 
Gilgil Creek. 

Alt.: Wiraiarai, Wallaroi, Wolroi, Walarai, Walari, Wolaroi, Wollaroi, 
etc. (often confused with a different tribe, Ualarai). 

Ref. : (See references mixed with those under Ualarai.) T. 

'Widjebal Widjabal 

Loc. : Upper Richmond River from Kyogle south to Casino, east to 
Coraki; an inland tribe. 
Rcf. : Tindale. 

'Wiljakali, 'Wilja : H Wiljakali 

Loc: Barrier Range; west to Olary, S. Aust. ; at Boolcoomatta; east to 


Alt.: Wilyakali, Wilya, ? Willoo. 

Ref.: Shaw in Taplhi 1879, Bonney 1884, Dix in Curr 1886, Howitt 

1904, T. 

'Wiradjuri, 'Wiraduri Wiradjuri 

Loc: Neckarboo Range, Ivanhoe, St. Andrews, Carrathool, Wagga- 
wagga, Mudgee, Parkes, Trundle; headquarters along the Lachlan River; 
east to Gundagai, Boorowa and Rylestone; south to Howlong on Upper 
Murray; at Albury and east to about Turn bar umba. 

Alt.: Wiradhuri, Wiraduri, Wiradjeri, Wira-dhari, Wirraidyuri, 
Wiiratheri, Wira-shuri, Werogery, Woradjera, Woradjerg, Wirra-Athoorree, 
Wirrajeree, Wirrai-yarrai, Wirrach-aree. 

Ref.: Ridley 1875, Smyth 1878, Lane in Smyth 1878, Howitt 1882, 1904, 
Cameron 1885, Rouse in Curr 1887, Eraser, 1892, Threlkeld 1892, Mathews 
1897, 1904 (3), Richards 1902, Brown 1918, T. 

(Wodiwodi) Wodiwodi 

Loc: North of Shoalhaven River to Wollongong. 

Ref.: Ridley 1875. 
(Wolgal) Wolgal 

Loc: Head-waters of the Hume (Murray), Murrumbidgee, and Tumut 
Rivers; at Kiandra. 

Alt: Walgalu. 

Ref.: Howitt 1883. 

(Won : arua) Wonarua 

Loc: Upper Hunter River from ten miles above Maitland; west to 
Dividing Range. 

Alt. : Wannerawa. 

Ref.: Miller in Curr 1887, Mathews 1898. 

'Worjaibon Wongaibon 

Loc : Head-waters of Bogan River, Yanda, and Crowal Creeks. At 

Trundle, Karr online, Nyngan, Girilambone, Abbotsford, Tiltagara and 


Alt. : Wongai-bun, Wonghibon, Wonghi, Wombungee. 

Ref.: Ridley 1875, Cameron 1884, Howitt 1904, Mathews 1904 (3), 

Brown 1918, T. 


'Worimi, 'Kata:g, 'Katja:y Worimi 

Loc. : Hunter River to near Tuncurry, along coast; inland to about 
Glendon Brook and bead of Myall Creek. 

Alt.: Warrimee, Kattang, Kutthung, Guttahn. 

Ref.: Enright 1899, Radcliffe-Brown 1931, Firth 1932, Elkin, T. 

(Jiegera) Jiegera 

Loc: Lower Clarence River. 

Alt. : Yiegera. 

Ref.: Radcliffe-Brown 1931. 

'Jitejite, 'Tjuop Jita-jita 

Loc.: Northern side of Lachlan River from Booligal to Balranald. 
Alt: Tta-ita, Ithi-ithi, Eetha-eetha, Yit-tha, Yitsa. 

Ref.: Macdonald in Curr 1886 (note correction in his list of errata, v. 3), 
Mathews 1898 (1), T. 

'Jo : ti'jo: ta Joti-jota 

Loc: Murray River from Cohuna to Kchuca and a point twenty miles 
west of Tocumvval; at Shepparton and Nathalia, Vict., Tuppal, N.S.W., 
Conargo, and Denili(|uin. 
Alt. : Yotayota. 
Ret: Mathews 1898 (2), 1904 (3), T. 

'Jukembal, 'Jukambil Jukambal 

Loc: From Inverell north-eastward across New England to Tahulam 

and Wallangarra. (The western portion, including Upper Severn River, 

Beardy River, Stonehcnge, and Bolivia, is sometimes called Ngarabal.) 

Alt.: Yukambal, Yukumbil, Yookumbul, Yookumbill, Ukumbil, 

Yookumble, Yurimbil (misprint), Ngarabal, Ngarrabul ? Preagalgh. 

Ref.: Myles in Curr 1887, Mathews 1898 (1), 1902 (2), MacPherson 1905, 

Brown 1918, Radcliffe-Brown 1931, T. 


'Berap : e'ra : pe Baraparapa 

See New South Wales List. 

'Bidewel Ridawal 

Loc: Coast between Green Cape, N.S.W., and Cape Everarcl; inland 
to Delegate. N.S.W., and on head-waters of ("ami and Bemm Rivers. 

Alt: Bidwell, Bidwill, Bidwelli, Biduelli, Beddiwell. Birdhawal, 

Ref.: Parker 1843, Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, Mathews 
1898 (1), 1908 (2), T. 

'Rrahralurj Brabrahing 

Loc: Mitchell, Nicholson and Tambo Rivers; south to about Bairns- 
dale and Bruthen. This is one of the five Gippsland tribes often grouped 
together as the Kurnai ['Ga:nai, 'Ka:naiJ. 

Alt. : Brabrolung, Brabrolong, Brabriwoolong, Tirthung, Tirtalowa- 
kani (? horde name). 

Ref.: Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, T. 


'Braiakau'lun Braiakaulung 

Loc : Providence Ponds, Avon and Latrobe Rivers; west of Lake 
Wellington to Mounts Baw Baw and Howitt. 

Alt.: Rrayakaulung, Braiakolung, Brayakati. 
Ref.: Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, T. 

'Braiauolurj Bratauolung 

Loc: From Cape Liptrap east to mouth of Mcrriman Creek; inland to 

about Mirboo; at Port Albert and Wilson Promontory. 

Alt. : Bradowoolong, Rrataualung, Bratanolung (sic), Tarrawarracka, 


Ref.: Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, T. 

'Buneroij Bunuroug 

Loc. : From M elbournc south-cast to west side of ('ape Liptrap ; on 

Mornington Peninsula; a coastal tribe; inland to Dandenong Range; at 

Mirboo, Warragul, Neerim, Upper Latrobe River. 

Alt. : Boonurrong, Boonoor-ong, Bunwurung, Bunwurru. 
Ref.: Smyth, 1878, Mathews 1904 (3), Howitt 1904, T. 

'Buijanditj Bunganditj 

See South Australian List. 

'Gu : nditjmara, 'Ku : ndiljmara 'Gurnditj'mara 

Loc.: At Cape Bridge water and Lake Condah in west, Caramut and 
Hamilton in north; Hopkins River in east; at Warrnambool, Woolsthorpc, 
Port Fairy and Portland. 

Alt.: Gournditch-mara, Kuurn-kopan-noot, Kirurndit. 
Ref.: Smyth 1878, Dawson 1881, Howitt 1904, T. 

'Ka : nai, 'Ga : nai Kurnai 

An agglomeration of tribes. Sec Brabralung, Braiakaulung, Bratano- 
lung, Krauatungalung and Tatungalung. 

( 'Kir : ae, 'Kirawirurj ) Kirrae 

Loc. : Warrnambool to about Princetown on coast; inland to Lake 
liolokc, Darlington, east to beyond Camperdown; eastern boundaries un- 
certain ; several hordes speaking slight dialects. 
Alt. : Kirrae wuurong. 
Ref.: Smyth 1878, Dawson 1881, Howitt 1904. 

(Kolakijat ) Kolakngat 

Loc: Vicinity of Lake Colac and Lake Corangamite. Data concerning 
this tribe very uncertain. 

Alt. : Kolac-gnat, Coligan. 

Ref.: Smyth 1878, Dawson 1881, 

'Krauetuna'lurj Krauatungalung 

Loc: Cape Kverard to Lakes Entrance; Buchan and Snowy Rivers; 
inland to about Mount Cobberas. 

Alt. : Kroatungolnng, Krow-ithun-koolo. 
Ref.: Smith 1878, Howitt 1904. T. 



('Kun.ii]) Kurung 

Loc: West side of Port Phillip Bay between Werribee River and 
Geelong; inland to Dividing Range; westwards towards Ballarat, but 
boundary not denned; at Ballan. 

Alt. : Kurung-jang-baluk. 

Ref.: Howitt 1904. 

'Latje'Iatji Latjilatji 

Loc: Chalka Creek to Mildura on western bank of Murray River, 
ranging about twenty miles back from river. (On Smyth's map the name 
of this tribe is apparently transposed with that of his "Darty Darty.") 

Alt. : Laitchi-Laitchi, Litchy-Litchy, Leitchi-Leitchi, Latjoo-Latjoo, 
Lutchye-Lutchye, Latyoo-Latyoo, Litchoo-Litchoo, Laci-Laci, Laitu-Laitu, 

Ref.: Smyth 1878, Corney in Curr 1887, Mathews 1898 (2), Howitt 1904, 
Brown 1918, T. 

'Marditjali Marditjali 

Loc.: Between Naracoorte and Mount Arapiles; south to Struan, north 
to Bangham, Kaniva and Servicetown; at Edenhope; a small tribe but distinct 
from Jardwa; [ba: ng] = man. 

Alt.: "Lake Wallace Tribe," Keribial-barap. 

Ref.: Hartmann in Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, T. 

'rjintait Ngintait 

Loc: Ned Corner, Vict., to Salt Creek, N.S.W., chiefly on southern 
bank of Murray River; west to about Paringa, S. Aust., southwards about 
fifty miles. 

Alt: Inteck. 

Ref.: Mathews 1898 (2), Brown 1918, T. 

'Parjgerarj Pangerang 

Loc: Between Lower Goulburn and Murray Rivers, east of Shepparton; 
at Tocumwal and Albury; north towards Narrandera; south to Violet Town 
and Mansfield; in Wangaratta and Benalla districts. (Howitt's localization 
was probably too far west There were well defined hordes, names of which 
terminate in [-pan].) 

Alt.: Pangorang, Pangurang, Pine-gorine, Bangerang. 

Ref.: Eyre 1845, Smyth 1878, Curr and Le Souef in Curr 1887, Howitt 
1904, T. 

'Tati'tati, 'Turjgut Tati-tati 

Loc: Prom eight miles below Euston to fifteen miles above Murrum- 
hidgee junction; chiefly on southern bank of Murray. Smyth has, on his map, 
apparently transposed this name with "Litchy-Litchy." 

Alt: Tataty, Tatatha, Tata(h)i, Ta-ta-thi, Taa-latty, Darty-Darty, 
Nimp-mam-wern (lit., light lip). 

Ref.: Smyth 1878, Cameron 1885, Threlkeld 1892, Mathews 1898 (2), T. 


'Tatuijaluij Tatungalung 

Loc. : Coast along Ninety Mile Beach and about Lakes Victoria and 
Wellington from Lakes Entrance west to mouth of Merriman Creek. 

Alt.: Tatungolung, Tatoongolong, Tatunga, Boulboul (? horde name). 
Ref.: Smyth 1878, Howitt 1904, T. 

('Taugguroij ) Taungurong 

Loc: Goulburn River Valley upstream from Murchison; at Violet Town, 

Mansfield, Kilmore and Alexandra; west to Heathcote. 

Alt.: Thagunworung, Thaguwurru, Taguniourung-, ? Drnuhurtwurru, 

Ngooraialum, Nguralung-bula, Mouralung-bula, Gnurellean, Oorallim, 

Butherabaluk, Yawang-illam, Yauung-illam, Yowang-illam. 

Ref.: Ridley 1875, Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, Mathews 

1904 (3). 

(Tjapwuroij ) Tjapwurong 

Loc: At Mount Rouse; west to Hamilton, east to Hopkins River and 

Wickliffe; north to near Mount William, Stawell, Ararat, and Dividing 

Range; several hordes speaking slight dialects. 

Alt.: Tyapwurru, Chaapwurru, Pirt-kopan-noot (a dialect), Purteet- 

chally, Punoinjon, Kolor (place name of Mount Rouse). 
Ref.; Smyth 1878, Dawson 1881, Mathews 1904 (3). 

'Warke'warke 'Werke'werke, Warkawarka 

Loc: Tyrrell Creek and Lake Tyrrell south to Warracknabeal and 
Birckip; west to Hopetoun; on Morton Plains. 

Alt.: Waikywaiky, Weki-weki, Mirdiragoort, Boorong. 
Ref.: Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, T. 

( Wataururj ) Wathaurung 

Loc: South of Geelong to Cape Otway; west to about Princetown and 

Upper Barwon River; also north-east of Geelong (relationship to Kurung 

not defined). 

Alt. : Wadthaurung, Waitowrung, Wudthaurung, Wudjawurung, 

AVitowurung, Witowur(r)ong, Witowro, Witoura, Wuddyawurru, 


Ref.: Parker 1843, Smyth 1878, Dawson 1881, Howitt, 1904, Mathews 

1904 (3). 

('Wati'wati) Wathiwathi 

Loc: Murray River between a point fifteen miles above Murrumbidgee 

Junction and Swan Hill, extending northwards to about Moolpa, N.S.W. 
Alt.: Wathiwathi, W r atthiwatthi, Watty-watty, Wotti-wotti. 
Ref.: Smyth 1878, Howitt 1883, Threlkeld 1892, Mathews 1898 (2), 

Howitt 1904. 

'Wembawemba Wembawemba 

See New South Wales List. 

'Wotjobalek Wotjobaluk 

Loc: Wimmera River, Lakes Hindmarsh and Albacutya; Outlet Creek; 

south to Dimboola, Kaniva and Servicetown; west to about Yanac; east to 

W r arracknabeal and Lake Korong. 

Ref.: Mathews 1903 (1), Howittt 1904, Mathews 1904 (3), T. 


('Wurundjeri, Woiwurung) Wurundjeri 

Loc: Yarra and Saltwater Rivers; at Melbourne; north-west to Maccdon, 

Woodend and Lanccfickl, cast to Mount Bawbaw; at Healesville. 

Alt. : Wurunjeri, Wurrunjeri, Woiwurru, Woiworung, Woeworung, 

Woccwoorong, Wawurong, Wawoorong, Oorongir, Gunung-willam, Ngaruk- 

willam, Kurnnjang. 

Rcf.: Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Hewitt 1904. 

'Ja : dwe, 'Mukja : dwen, 'J a : rewe JartUva 

Loc: Horsham and Upper Wimmera River; south to Grampians, west 
to Mount Arapiles; east to beyond Glenorchy and Stawelf. (Tribal move- 
ments were towards the south, reaching almost to Casterton and Hamilton 
at time of first white contacts.) 

Alt.: Yardwa-tyahi, Knindowurrong, Djappuminyou (? horde). 
Rcf.: Parker 1843, Smyth 1878, Howitt 1904, Mathews 1904 (3), T. 

CJaiimathang) Jaitmathang 

Loc: Head-waters of Mitta-mitta and Tambo Rivers; some of sources 
of the Ovens River; the Indi River to "Tom Groggin Run" (Howitt), 

Alt. : Ya-itma-thang, Theddora-mittung (Mitta-mitta horde), Thar-a- 
mirttong, Theddora, Dhudhuroa, Jandangara, Gundanora. 

Rcf.: Smyth 1878, Mitchell in Curr 1887, Howitt 1904. 
'J a : re Jaara 

Loc : Upper Loddon, Avoca and Campaspc Rivers, east to .Seymour, 
west to St. Arnaud and Lake Buloke, north to about Boort; south to Dayles- 
ford and Dividing Range. (Not to be confused with Jardwa.) 

Alt. : Yaura, Yayaurung, Jajaurung, Jajowurrong, Ja jo wrung, 
Jajow(e)rong, Jajoworrong, Ja-jow-er-ong, Djadjaw urung, Jurobaluk, 
Nira-baluk, Niraba-baluk, Panyool?, Knenkneuwurro. 

Ref.: Parker 1843, 1954, Smyth 1878, Curr 1887, Howitt 1904, T. 

('Jari'jari) Jari-jari 

Loc. : Western bank of Murray River from above Chalk a Creek to 

Annuello; south to Lake Korong (Hopetoun). 

Alt. : Yari-yari, Yarre-yarre, Yerri-yerri, Yerre-yerre, Yairy-yairy, 

Yariki-luk (Wotjobaluk term). 

Ref.: Smyth 1878, Mathews 1898 (2), Howitt 1904. 

'jo : tijo : ta Joti-jota 

See New South Wales List. 

A'marju, E'maiju, 'Jin Amangu 

Loc: Prom southern vicinity of Geraldton to Hill River; at Champion 
Bay; inland to Mullewa. 

Alt.: Ying (= no), "Geraldton Tribe." 
Ref.: Goldsworthy in Curr, 1886, T. 

(Andedja) Andcdja 

Loc: Upper Forrest River, chiefly on the southern tributaries. 
Alt.: Kular (kular = west). 
Ref.: Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1935. 



(Arawari) Arawari 

Loc: King River. 
Alt.: Arawodi. 
Ret.: Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1935. 

(Arnga) Arnga 

Loc: South side of lower reaches of Forrest River. N.B. — Not marked 
on map. 

Ret.: Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1935. 

'Ha:de, 'Hard Bard 

Loc. : Cape Leveque Peninsula, Cape Borda and Cygnet River. This 
is the tribe first encountered by Dampier, 14 January 1688. His is probably 
the first reference to Australian aborigines. 

Alt: Barda, Bardi. 

Ret: Bates 1914, Elkin 1933, Lavis ms, Capell 1940, T. 

(Ha: gu :) Bagu 

Loc. : Lower Drysdale River. 

Ref.: Elkin 1933, Capell 1940. 
'Bailko Bailko 

Loc: Head of the De Grey and Oakover Rivers; north-east of Upper 
Fortescue River, 

Alt.: Bailgu, Balgu, Balgoo, Pulgoe, Boolgoo. 

Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Withnell 1901, Clement 1903, Brown 1912, Bates 
1914, Connelly 1932, T. 

(Baiorj) Baiong 

Loc: Lower Lyndon and Minilya Rivers. 

Alt.: Baiong, Baiung, Biong. 

Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Brown 1912, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. Fowler 1940. 

( Balardoi] ) Balardong 

Loc: York district and east of it (to the east of them arc circumcising 

peoples) at Beverley and along Avon River; north to VVongan Hills. 

Alt.: Ballardong, Ballerdokking, Waljuk, Toode-nunjer ( ['Tu:deJ = 

place name — Toodyay, ['njunaj =men; a name applied by coastal people). 
Ref.: Haekett in Curr 1886, Bates 1906. 

('Bederjo) Hedengo 

Loc: Godfrey Tank and dry country to the west; boundaries uncertain 

(Worms); "desert east of Marble Bar" (Connelly). N.B. Probably shown 

too far south on map. 

Alt.: Pedong, Pccdong, Pidunga, Pecdona, Pardoo. 
Ret: Harper in Curr 1886, Connelly 1932, Worms (ms. ). 

('Bemba) Bemba 

Loc: Near Mount Casuarina, Joseph Bonaparte Gulf. N.B. — Omitted 
from map. 

Ref.: Elkin 1933. 



(Binigura) Binigura 

Loc: Duck Creek; south to Ashburton River; north-east to Hamersley 
Range; head-waters of Robe and Cane Rivers. 
Alt.: Binnigoora, Biniguru, Binnigora. 
Ref.: Vabaroo 1899, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 
'Buluguda Buluguda 

Loc: Hamelin Pool and Peron Peninsula. 
Ref.: Sheard (ms.), (T). 

('Bunaba) Bunaba 

Loc: Hann River, Warton Range, Bamumbah Downs, Eastern King 

Leopold Ranges; more recently at Fitzroy Crossing and Gogo Station (fide 


Alt.: Bunapa, Punaba. 

Ref.: Kaberry 1932, Elkin 1933, Capell 1940, Worms (ms.). 

('Buiduna) Buduna 

Loc: Henry River and Upper Lyndon River. 
Alt.: Burduna, Budoona, Poordoona. 
Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 

(Buna:ra) Bunara 

Loc: Sturt Creek south to Gregory Salt Sea. 
Alt.: Boonarra. 
Ref.: Terry 1926 and ms., Capell 1940. 

(Djaberadjaber) Djaberadjaber 

Loc; Cape Boileau north nearly to Beagle Bay. 
Ref.: Bischofs 1908, Elkin 1933, Worms ms. 

(Djaru, Djaro) D J aru 

Loc: Hall Creek and southern vicinity. The "Ruby Creek Tribe," 
fide Worms. 

Alt.: Jaruru, Jaroo. 

Ref.: Mathews 1901, Bates 1914, Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1937, Worms (ms.), 
Capell 1940. 

(Djaui) D J aui 

Loc: Sunday Island and Buccaneer Archipelago. 

Alt.: Tohawi, Tohau-i, Ewenu (name for Buccaneer Islands), Ewenyoon. 

Ref.: Bird 1909, Bates 1914, Elkin 1933, Capell 1940. 
(Djerag) Djerag 

Loc: Durack Range. 

Alt.: Durackra (? confusion with map label for Durack Range). 

Ref.: Elkin 1933, Capell 1939, 1940. 

(Djiwali) Djiwali 

Loc: Capricorn Range; Ashburton River south and east of junction 
with Hardey River. 

Alt.: Jiwali, Jivali. 

Ref.: Brown 1912, Connelly 1932. 



('Djugun) Djugun 

Loc. : At Broome; northern shores of Roebuck Bay. 

Alt.: Djukan, Jukan. 

Ref.: Bischofs 1908, Connelly 1932, Elkin 1933, Capell 1940. 
(Gadjeron) Gadjerong 

Loc: East of Cambridge Gulf; west of mouth of Victoria River (see 
also Kadjerawang in North Australian List). 

Alt.: Kadjerong, Kadjeroen. 

Ref.: Spencer 1914, Kaberry 1935, Capell 1940. 

(Galumburu) Galumburu 

Loc: Drysdale River. 

Ref.: Capell 1940. 

(Gambre) Gambre 

Loc: Admiralty Gulf. 

Ref.: Capell 1940. 

(Gidja) Gidja 

Loc: Near Turkey Creek. 

Ref.: Capell 1940. 

(Gogoda) Gogoda 

Loc: Delta of Sturt Creek in Gregory Salt Sea and country to the east. 

Ref.: Worms (ms.). 

(Guidj) Guidj 

Loc: East of Mount Barnett. 
Ref.: Capell 1940. 




Loc: Lower Ord River. 

Ref.: Capell 1940. 
( Gunan ) 

Loc: No locality given. N.B.— Not marked on map. 

Ref.: Capell 1940, p. 244. 

(Gwini, Gwi : ni) 

Loc: North of Forrest River. 
Ref.: Kaberry 1935, Capell 1940. 

Loc: Throssell and Gregory Ranges; upper Oakover River. 

Alt.: Ibarrga, Ibargo. 

Ref.: Brown 1912, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 


Loc: Ashburton River between about Seven Mile Creek and Angelo 
River Junction; on Turee Creek. 
Ref.: Brown 1912. 

(Indjibandi) Indjibandi 

Loc: Fortescue River inland from about Mount Pyrton ; north to upper 

Yule River; east to Mungaroona Range. The westerly (not easterly) part of 

tribe is called Karama, which see. 

Alt.: Injibandi, Ingibandi, Yingiebandie. 

Ref.: Withncll 1901, Clement 1903, Brown 1912, Connelly 1932. 





'Irjga : da Ingarda 

Loc: Coast at Shark Bay between Gascoyne and Wooramel Rivers; 
inland to Red Hill. 

Alt.: Ingarda, Ingara, Ingarrah, Inparra ("p" is probably misprint), 
Kakarakala (general term applied to several tribes). 

Ref.: Barlee in Curr 1886, Gribble 1903, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932', 
Fowler 1940, T. 
'Kala : ko Kalarko 

Loc: Grass Patch to north of Widgemooltha; Golden Ridge and Bur- 
banks; east to the red ochre deposit approximately fifteen miles west of 
Fraser Range; west to Bremer Range, Barker Lake and Koongorin; a 
boundary camp about three miles south of Coolgardie; at Norseman and 
Salmon Gums. 

Alt.: Malba (lit. circumcised ones; name applied by Wudjari). 

Ref.: Tindale. 

Ke'la:mai, 'Njindano, Takala : ko Kalamai 

Loc: At Boorabbiu and Southern Cross; east to Bulla Bulling, north 

to Youannh, Lake Barlee and Pigeon Rocks; west to Burracoppin, Mukin- 

budin, Kalannie and Lake Moore; south to about Parker Range. A term 

Jawan is applied to north-western portion of tribe from north of Mukinbudin. 

N.B. On map stress mark is wrongly placed in name of this tribe. 

Alt: Takalako (Njakinjaki term), Njindango, Natingero. 
Ref.: Adam in Curr 1886, T. 
'Kaneaij Kaneang 

Loc: West of a line joining Katanning, Tambellup, Cranbrook and 
Tenterden; at Kojonup, Collie, Donnybrook, Greenbushes, Bridgetown; head- 
waters of Warren and Frankland Rivers; south bank of Collie River to Collie, 
thence to coast; north to Harvey. Northern limit of tribe corresponds with 
change from place names with "-up" termination to ones with "-big." 

Alt.: Kunyung, Jabururu (Minang term; lit., north-westerns), Yobberore. 
"Lduc, Harvey tribe." 

Ref.: Nind 1831, Small in Curr 1886, T. 

'Karadjeri, 'Karedja: ri Karadjeri 

Loc: From south point of Roebuck Bay south-west to a place ten 

miles north of Anna Plains Station; inland about seventy miles. 
Alt.: Garadjeri, Karadhari. 
Ref.: Bates 1914, Connelly 1932, Klkin 1933, Capcll 1939, 1940, Worms 

ms., T. 

'Kerama Karama 

Loc: Valley of Fortescue River east of Millstream. This is also 
regarded as a westerly (not easterly) subtribe of the Indjibandi, which see. 
Alt. : Karama, Korama. 
Ref.: Brown 1912, 1914, T. 

(Kariera) Kariera 

Loc; Yule River; Port Hcdland; Turner River. (Barlee (I.e., p. 291) 
transposed the relative positions of this and the Widagari with respect to 
Ngarla tribe.) 



Alt.: Karriara, Karriarra, Kyreara, Kaierra. 

Ref.: Barlee in Curr 1886, Yabaroo 1899, Withnell 1901, Clement 1903, 
Brown 1912, 1914, Rates 1914. 

'Kg: ara Koara 

Loc: Between Lawlers and Leonora; west to Mount Ida and Lake 
Barlee; east to Mount Sir Samuel, Woodarra, Mount Zephyr and Morgans; 
north-western boundary probably near Sandstone. 
Ref.: Tin dale. 

'Konejandi Koncjancli 

Loc.: On Margaret River; west to about Fitzroy. 

Alt.: Kunian, Kunan, Gunian. 

Ref.: Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1937, Capell 1940, T. 

'Konin Konin 

Loc.: At Lake Nabberoo, east of Gascoyne River head-waters; on 
Negrara Creek; at Windich Spring. 
Ref. : Tindale. 

'Ko : ret), 'Ko : reni, 'Kalcep Koreng 

Loc. : From Gairdner River to Pallinup (Salt) River; inland to Jera- 
mungup, Pingrup, Nampup ( = Nyabing), Badgebup and Kibbleup near 
Broome Hill; south to Stirling Range; at Gnowangerup and Ongerup; not 
originally at Kojonup. Northern limit marked by change of terminations 
of place names from "-up" to "-ing." 

Alt.: Kuriny, Corine, Qualup, "Kojonup and Stirling Tribe." 

Ref.: Nind 1831, Hassell 1936, T. 

( Kurduwonga ) Kurduwonga 

Loc. : West of Robinson Range; at Mount Gould, Macadam Plains; 
country between Gascoyne and Murchisou Rivers. 
Alt. : Kurduwonga. 
Ret.: Bates 1914. 

(Lurjga) 1-tmgga 

Loc.: North of Hall Creek; head-waters of Ord River. 

Alt. : Lunga, Loonga. 

Ref.: Terry 1926, Klkin 1933, Kaberry 1937, Capell 1940, 

'Ma : doi : tja Madoitja 

Loc: West of Carnarvon Range; north of Lakes King and Nabberoo 
(boundaries only approximately denned). Not to be confused with Mardo. 
Alt. : ? Wainawonga, 
Ref.: Connelly 1932, T. 

'Madu'woijga, 'Jiudi Maduwonga 

Loc: From Pingin west to Mulline; from just south of Menzies to Kal- 
goorlie, Coolgardie, Kanowna, Kurnalpi, Siberia (statements suggest pro to- 
historic movement from east). 
Ref. : Tindale. 


('Maia) Maia 

Loc: Cape Cuvier; Salt Lake; from Minilya River south to Gascoyne 

Alt.: Maia, Miah. 

Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Barlee in Curr 1886, Brown 1912, Bates 1914, 
Connelly 1932. 
(Maialrja) Maialnga 

Loc: Glenelg River. (According to other statements, this area is part 
of Worora territory, which see.) 

Alt.: Maialnga. 

Ref.: Bates 1914. 
('Maldjana) Maldjana 

Loc.: Shark Bay, south of Wooramel River; southern boundary near 
Hamelin Pool. 

Alt.: Majanna, Malgana (Ingarda terms). 

Ref.: Barlee in Curr 1886, Brown 1912, Connelly 1932. 
Mafrjin Malngin 

See South Australian List. 
'Mandjindja, 'Mandjindjara Mandjindja 

Loc.: Sandhill country south of Warburton Range (not extending to 
this range), west to Lake Gillcn and Throssell, south to Amy Rocks and 
Saunders Range; cast to point south of Livesey Range (recorded as from 
Laverton district, where they are recent visitors only). 

Alt. : Mandjindjara, Manjinjiwonga. 

Ref.: Bates 1914, Elkin 1940, T. 
(Maijala) Mangala 

Loc: Jurgurra Creek; Edgar Range. 

Alt.: Mangala, Manala, Minala. 

Ref.: Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1937, Capell 1940, Worms (ms.). 
( Ma : nungu ) Manungu 

Loc: Berkeley River. 

Alt.: Mande, Manda (? a horde name). 

Ref.: Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1937, Capell 1940. 
'Mardo Mardo 

Loc: North of Brassey Range; along Canning Stock Route (boundaries 
not denned and few particulars known). 

Ref.: Tindale. 
(Mardudunera) Mardudunera 

Loc: Mouth of Fortescue River: Robe and Cane Rivers. 

Alt.: Mardudhoonera, Mardatunera, Mardathoni, Mardatuna, Maratunia. 

Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Clement 1903, Brown 1912, 1914, Bates 1914. 
'Mm: erj Minang 

Loc: King George Sound; north to Stirling Range, Tenterden, Lake 
Muir, Cowerup and Shannon River. On coast from West Cliff Point to Boat 
Harbour at Pallinup (Salt) River; at Mount Barker, Nornalup, Wilson Inlet 
and Porongurup Range. ( ['Minan] = south. Nind's identification of Mearn- 
angcr as mearne anger not confirmed.) 

Alt.: Minung, Meenung, Mearn-anger. 

Ref.: Nind 1831, Graham in Curr 1886, Spencer and others in Curr 
1886, T. 



Minrirj. 'Mi: nil], 'nandaSa, Wanbiri Miming 

Loc: From east of Port Culver to White Well, S. Aust, at head of 
Great Australian Bight; inland normalh^ only to southern edge of treeless 
karst plateau of Nullarbor Plain; two or more hordes named after localities; 
including Wonunda- and Jirkla-mirning (miming r= man, Wonunda = Eyre 
Sand Patch, Jirkla = Eucla). 

Alt.: Mining, Meening, Wanbiri, Warnabirrie, Warnahinnie, Wan- 
maraing (ms.)» Yirkla, Ikala, Ikula. 

Ref.: Graham in Curr 1886, Mathews 1900, Howitt 1904, Elkin 1931, 
1940, T. 

(Miriwun) Miriwun 

Loc: Central Ord River. 
Alt.: Mining. 
Ref.: Elkin, 1933, Kaberry 1937, Capell, 1940. 

(Muliar : a) Muliarra 

Loc: North of Sanford (sometimes Sandford) River; on Roderick River. 

Alt. : Malleyearra (given as word for "east"). 

Ref.: Terks in Curr 1886, Gilford in Curr 1886. 

( Munumhuru ) Munumburu 

Loc: Upper Drysdale River. 
Ref.: Capell 1940. 

'Murunitja Murunitja 

Loc: Northern margin of Nullarbor Plain from Naretha to about north 

of Loongana; northwards for about ISO miles; at Rawlinna and Walawuluna 


Alt.: Mooroon. 

Ref.: W T illiams in Curr 1886, T. 

'Nan : a, 'nan : adjara Nana 

Loc: North-east of Lakes Carnegie and Wells; west of Lake Gillen, 

probably to about Timperley Range ; southwards to Ernest Giles Range ; 

northward boundary unknown. 

Alt.: Nganadjara (Ngadadjara term). 
Ref. : Tindale. 

'Nanda,. 'Jau Nanda 

Loc: South of Murchison River; at Tjinbarda near Northampton and 

Wilugabi near Gcraldton. 

Alt.: Yau, Eaw (J. Forrest, note in British Museum). 

Ref.: Goldsworthy and Barlee in Curr 1886, Brown 1912, Radclifre- 

Brown 1931, Connelly 1932, T. 

(Narjamada) Njangamada 

Loc: Eighty Mile Reach north of Cape Keraudrcn to Anna Plains; 
inland about eighty miles. 

Alt.: Njangamada, Nyangamada, Nangamada, Nangamurda. 
Ref.: Bates 1914, Piddington 1932, Connelly 1932, Capell 1940. 



'Narjatadjara. 'ijatapita Nangatadjara 

Loc: East of Lake Carey and Burtville to about Plumridge Lakes; 
north-east to Bailey, Virginia and Newland Ranges. At Lakes Yeo and 
Rason and Harriett Soak. Moved westwards, between 1890 and 1900 to Burt- 
ville and Laverton. 

Alt.: Nangandjara, Nganandjara, Dituwonga, Ditu. 
Ret: Bates 1914, Elkin 1940, T. 

(ijadawoijga) Ngadawongga 

Loc: Meekatharra north to Gascoync River; at Mount Maitland and 
Robinson Ranges; east to about Lake King; at Peak Hill and Murchison 
West. (Not to be confused with Ngadadjara of Warburton Range.) 

AU.: Ngadhawonga, Ngargawonga. 

Ref.: Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 

'ija:dadjara Ngadadjara 

Loc: At Warburton Range; south-east to Livesey Range and Mount 
Blyth; eastward to just west of Cavanagh Range; Barrow Range, north- 
eastwards to Bedford Range; north-western boundary unknown. 
Ref.: Tiudale 1936, T. 

'ijadjiinma. 'ijadunma, 'rjadju:, 'qadjun'pekara Ngadjunma 

Loc: Goddard Creek south to Israelite Bay and Port Malcolm; west to 

Eraser Range; east to Naretha and west of Point Culver; at Mount Andrew, 

Russel Range and Balladonia. 

Alt: Ba:donjunga (lit., subincised men; Wudjari term), Eraser Range 


Ref.: Helms 1896, T. 

, A . , „ x Nealawonga 

(Ngalaworjga) * b 

l, oc .; Ophthalmia Range west of Eortescue River; west to Ashburton 


Ref.: Brown 1912, Connelly 1932. 

'rjalea N S a,ea 

See South Australian List. 

, Neraluma 

'yarnma ** 

Loc: Roebourne and vicinity; at Sherlock River; inland ior about 
seventy miles; islands off Nickel Bay but not those off Hampton Harbour; 
west almost to Maitland River. 

Alt: Ngaluma, Gnalooma, Gnalouma, Gnalluma, "Nickol Bay Tribe." 
Ret: Richardson in Curr 1886, Yabaroo 1899. Witlmell 1901, Clement 
1903, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932, T. 

, n Nffarla 

'yer\a & 

Loc: Mouth of De Grey River, chiefly on the south side, but extending 
northwards towards Cape Kcraudren (were contracting westward in early 
historic period). 

Alt.: Ngurla, Ngirla, Ngala, Gnalla. 

Ret: Harper in Curr 1886, Yabaroo 1899, Brown 1912, Bates 1914, 

Connellv 1932, T. 



(ijormbal) Ngormbal 

Loc : Vicinity of Barred Creek ; south from Cape Boileau nearly to 

Ret.: Bischofs 1908, Elkin 1933, Worms ms., Capell 1940. 

'rjurlu Xgurlu 

Loc.: Menzies to Malcolm; west to Mount Ida; east to Lake Raesidc 
and Edjudina. After 1890 overwhelmed by westward movement of Waljen 
and Xangatadjara tribes. 
Ret. : Tindale. 

( 'Nimanboro ) Nimanboro 

Loc: West side of King Sound from Disaster Bay, south oi Cygnet. 
Bay, to Fraser River. 
Ref.: Worms ins, 
( Xoala) 

Loc: Mouth of Ashhurton River and south-westward to Giralia; east 
to Cane River; inland to Parry Range; at Onslow. 

Alt.: Noella, Koanamaronga (Mardudunera term), Nooanamaronga. 
Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Brown 1912, 1914, Connelly 1932. 

'Njaki'njaki, 'Koka: r Xjakinjaki 

Loc: East of Lake Grace; at Newdegatc, Mount Stirling, Bruce Rock, 

Kellerberrin ; west to Jitarning, south to Kangaroo Soak, Lake Magenta and 

Mount Madden; east to Lake Hope and Mount Holland. 

Alt.: Kokar (koka: r — east), Karkar, Kikkar, "Eastward Tribe." 
Ref.: Graham in Curr 1886, Goldsworthy in Curr 1SS6, T. 

(Njamal) Njamal 

Loc : Upper Shaw and Coongan Rivers; Marble Bar, Nullagine, Hill- 
side; Bamboo and Warrawoona. 

Alt.: Nyamal, Nyamel, Namel, Gnamo (Leiden Museum ms.'l. 
Ref.: Withnell 1901, Clement 1903, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 

'Xjikena, 'Njigena Xjikena 

Loc: Lower Eitzroy River; west of Jurgtirra (native name 'Tjirka : li) 
Creek: at Roebuck Downs. 

Alt.: Njigina, Nyigina, Nyi-gini. 

Ref.: Bates 1914, Kaberry 1937, Capell 1940, T. 

Xjinirj Njining 

See North Australian List. 

'Njulnjul, 'Njol'njol Njul-njul 

Loc: Beagle Bay, Pender Bay. 
Alt. : Nyul-nyul, Niol-niol, Nyolnyol. 

Ref,: Bischofs 1908, Bates 1914, Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1937, Xekes 1939. 
Worms ins., T. 

( Pandjima ) Pandjima 

Loc: Eastern portion of Harnersley Range about Mulga Downs. 

Alt: Panjima. 

Ref.: Brown 1912, Connelly 1932. 



'Pi:belmcn Piblemen 

Loc: Lower Blackwood River; chiefly on the hills in country between 
the Blackwood and Warren Rivers; inland to Manjimup and Bridgetown. 

Alt.: Peopleman, Bibu: lmoun, Bebleman (ms.), Meeraman (of 
Ko:reng), Murram (of Minang). 

Ref.: Niml 1831, Gifford in Curr 1886, Graham in Curr 1886, T. 

'Pindjarep Pindjarup 

hoc: Pinjarra to Harvey: lower reaches of Murray River. The real 
name of this tribe lias evidently been lost; its members are extinct. Data 
from Kaneang sources. 

Alt.: Pinjarra (place name), "Murray Tribe." 

Ref.: Grey 1839, (T). 

'Pini. Birni Pini 

Loc: West of Lakes Carnegie and Wells to Barlow and Woodarra; at 

Erlistoun Creek and Lake Darlot. 

Ref.: Tindale. 

'Pitjandjara Pitjandjara 

See South Australian List. 
(Talaindji) Talaindji 

Loc: Head of Fxmouth Gulf; North-west Cape; inland to Ashburton 
River about Nanutarra. 

Alt.: Tallainji, Talainji, Talanji, Talanjee, Tallainga (? misprint) 

Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Brown 1912, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932, Fowler 
'Tarmela Tamala 

Loc: Edcl Land Peninsula; Tabmahlee Well (named after tribe), 
southern boundary not known. 
Ref.: Sheard ms., (T.). 
('Targari) Targari 

Loc: Kennedy Range, Upper Minilya River and lower Lyons River. 

Alt.: Dargari, Tarkarri, 

Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Brown 1912, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 

(Targudi) Targudi 

Loc: North-west of Robertson Range; headwaters of Oakover River. 

Alt.: Targoodi. 

Ref.: Brown 1912, Connelly 1932. 
(Tenma) Tenma 

Loc: Head of Henry River; Kenneth Range; Frederick River. 

Ref.: Brown 1912, Connelly 1932. 
'Tjalkadjara, 'Tjalkakari, 'Talkumara Tjalkadjara 

Loc: North-east of Morgans to Lake Throssell; west nearly to Darlot; 
north to Lake Wells. Driven north- westward to Darlot after 1900 by 
pressure from Nangatadjara, 

Alt.: ? Barduwonga, 

Ref.; Bates 1914, T, 



'Tjeraridja : 1 Tjeraridjal 

Loc; At Queen Victoria Spring; west to about Kurnalpi, Pingin and 
Karonie; on Ponton and Goddard Creeks; east to Naretha. 
Ref. : Tindale. 

'Tjitijamba Tjitijamba 

Loc: North of Pake Carnegie and west of Timperley Range; at Charles 
Wells Creek; northern boundaries uncertain. 
Ref. : Tindale. 

( 'T j uroro ) T j uroro 

Loc: Hardey River, north of Ashburton River. 

Alt. : Churoro, Choororo, Chooraroo. 

Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Brown 1912, Connelly 1932. 

( 'L'rjarinjin ) Ungarinjin 

Loc: Isdell and Charnley Rivers east of Walcott Inlet; north to about 

Prince Regent River, east to Mount Barnett; south to King Leopold Ranges 

(about 40 hordes listed). 

Alt. : Ungarinyin, Narrinyind. 
Ref.: Elkin 1933, Capell 1940. 

( Wadjcri ) Wad j eri 

Loc: Head of Lyons River, Teano Range, Mount Isabella, Waldburg 

Range; Upper Gascoyne River; at Erivilla; (probably not Wajari of Bates 

- Wardal). 

Alt. : Wajeri, Waianwonga. 

Ref.: Brown 1912, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 

'Waiarjara, 'Waianadi Waiangara 

Loc: About Lake Hazlett; north towards Musgrave Ranges, 

North W. Aust. (Not to be confused with Musgrave Ranges, S. Aust., as 

is done in Roheim's map.) 
Alt.: Ngadi. 
Ref.: Strehlow 1910, Kabarry 1937, Capell 1940, T. 

( Waladjarjari ) Waladjangari 

Loc: About Durack Range, probably on western side. 
Ref.: Capell 1940. 

(Wa:lar) Walar 

Loc: Between Drysdale and Forrest Rivers. 
Alt.: ? Wulu. 
Ref.: Elkin 1933, Kaherry 1935, Capell 1940. 

(Walki) Walki 

Loc: Between Upper Margaret and Ord Rivers. 
Ref.: Davidson 1938. 

( Wand j i ra ) Wand j ira 

Loc: Between Upper Baines River and Ord River. 
Ref.: Capell 1940. 



'Wa: ljen Waljen 

Loc. : East of Lake Raeside from Malcolm and Morgans south-east to 
Edjudina and Lake Lightfoot; at Lake Carey. 
ReL: Tindale. 
'Wardal Wanlal 

Lot:.: At Cue, Nannine, Mount Magnet: south-west almost to Yalgoo. 
West to Sanford (Sandford) River. 
Alt.: Wajari (wa: dji '= no). 
Ref.: Bates 1914, T. 

( Warierjga, Wariworjga) Warienga 

Loc: Upper Lyons River; about Bangemall. 

Alt.: Warianga, Woorienga, Woorenga, Wari-wonga, Warriwonga. 
Ref.: Yabaroo 1899, Brown 1912, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 

('Watjandi) Watjandi 

Loc.: Mouth of Murchison River and northward. N.B.— Name accidentally 
omitted from map. 

Alt.: Watchandi (watjn — west). 

Ref.: Oldfield in Curr 1886. 

'Wa : dandi Wardandi 

Loc: From Bunbury to Cape Leeuwin, chiefly along the coast; at Geo- 

graphe Bay, Nannup, and Busselton. 

Alt; Wardandi (wa: da = no), Wadarndee, Wardandie, "Geographe 

Bay and Vasse Tribe," "Bunbury Tribe," Kardagur (lit., "between," i.e., 

"between the two seas." 

Ref.: Barlee in Curr 1886, Bates 1906, T. 

(Warwa) Warwa 

Loc: Derby District. 

Alt.: Warwai, Warrwai 

Ref.: Bates 1914, Capell 1940. 
'Waula Waula 

Loc: At Wilnna and Sandstone; west to about Mount Magnet and 
Meekatharra: south to Mount Sir Samuel, east to Lake Maitland. 
Alt.: Ngaiuvvonga (Bates). 
Rei.: Bates 1914, T. 

('Wembria) Wembria 

Loc: Northern side of the upper Forrest River. 
Ref.: Elkin 1933. 

'Whadjnk, Juadjek, 'Minalnjurja: Whadjuk 

Loc: Swan River and northern and eastern tributaries inland to beyond 

Wongan Hills; at North am, Newcastle, Victoria Plains, Toodyay, York. 

Perth; south along coast to Pinjarra (extinct; some new indirect data only). 
Alt. : Whajook ( [\vhad ] — ['wade]),.— ['juad] = no), Yooard, Yoo- 

adda, Minalnjunga (Juat term: 1 'miliar]] = south, f'njurja:] — man), 

Minnal Yungar. 

Ref.: Grey 1839, Parker, Scott, Whitfield, Knight, Morgan and others 

in Curr 1886, (T.). 



('Widagari) Widagari 

Loc: Upper Dc Grey River, about Muccanoo and Warravvagine, and 

eastward to an unknown extent. (Barlce, I.e., 1886, p. 291, seems to have 

transposed the relative positions of Kariera and Widagari with respect to 

the Ngarla.) 

Alt.: Widagari, Widagaree, Wecdokarry, Weedookarry. 

Ref.: Bailee in Curr 1886, Mathews 1900 (6), Brown 1912, Bates 1914 

Connelly 1932. 

'Widi, Win Widi 

Loc. : From between Lakes Monger and Moore north to Billybillong; 

west to Mullewa and Morawa: east to about Mount Magnet; at Yalgoo, 

upper Greenough River and Cheangwa. 
Alt: Cheangwa (a place name). 
Ref.: Perks in Curr 1886, T. 

(Wilawila) Wilawila 

Loc: Upper Drysdale River. 
Ret.: Capell 1940. 

'Wi : imen Wiilman 

Loc: At Wagin and Narrogin; on Collie, Hotham and Williams 
Rivers west to Collie, Wnraming north to Gnawing, Dattenning, Pingelly; 
east to Wickepin, Dudinin and Lake Grace; south to Nyabing (= Nampup), 
Katanning, Woodanilling, Duranilling. (Southern and western boundary 
corresponds with change in place name terminations from [-in] to f-'epj. 

Alt; Wheelman, Weel, Weal, Weil, Will, J a bum (Ko:reng term; 
lit., "north-westerners"), "Williams Tribe.'' 

Ref.: Kind 1831, Browne 1856, Curr 1886, Bates 1923, Hasscll 1936, T. 

('Wirdinja) Wirdinja 

Loc: Robertson Range west to Ophthalmia Range; south to heads of 
Ashburton and Ethel Rivers. 

Alt. : Wirdinya, Woordinya. 

Ref: Brown 1912, Bates 1914, Connelly 1932. 

(Wirngir) Wirngir 

Loc: Northern side of Lower Lyne River (also called subtribc and 
horde; possibly valid inclusive name for about nine hordes in Lyne River 
area). N.B. — Name not marked on map. 
Ref: El kin 1933, Kaberry 1935. 

(Woljamidi) Woljamidi 

Loc: King and Pentecost Rivers; west towards Uurack River. 

Alt.: Wolyamiri, Molyamidi, ? Yamandil, 

Ref: Roheim 1925, Elkin 1933, Kaerry 1935, Capell 1940. 

'Wongati Wonggai 

Loc: Northern margin oi Nullarbor Plain from north of Hughes, 
S. Aust, to north of Loongana; northward from plain margin for about 
150 miles. 

Alt: Wongaii. 

Ref.: Tindale. 



'Wogkomi :, 'Ui lg miii Wcngkomi 

Loc: North of FiUroy River; west of Filzroy Crossing; not extending 
to coast. N.B.— Name accidentally omitted from map. 
Alt. : Unggumi, Ungaini. 
Ret.: Elkin 1933, Capell 1940. T. 

,,,- , Worora 

(\\ orora) 

Loc: At Walcott Inlet; Collier Bay to Prince Regent River (but see 
Maialnga who are stated to occupy area about Gleuelg River). 
Alt: Wororra, Wurara. 
Ret: Love 1915, Elkin 1933. Capell 1940. 

'Wudjari, 'Widjere, 'Waraiju, 'Njoga;, 'Nitija: Wudjan 

Loc: From Gairdner River east to Point Malcolm; inland to edge of 
coastal slope (approximately 50 miles); at Kent, Ravensthorpe, Fanny Cove, 
Esperance and Cape Arid. 

Alt: Wudjari, Widjara, Warrangoo. YY'arranger, Warrangle, Ngok- 
wurring, Ngokgurring, Nonga:, Nunga. Yunga (njouga = njunga = man), 
? Daran (name applied at Perth to eastern men who see sun rise from the 

sea. Moore, 1884). 

Ret: Nind 1831, Moore 1884, Chester in Curr 1886, Taylor ui Curr 
1886, Helms 1896, Tindale 1939, T. 

,,,. A ■ Wulumari 


Loc: South of Fitzroy Crossing (at "Tjandu" Billabong, not located); 
desert region south-west of Christmas Creek. 

Alt ■ Wolmeri, Wolmera, Walmaharri, Wolmaharry. 

Ret: Mathews 1900 (51, 1901 (2). Flkin 1933, Kaberry 1937, Capell 
1940, Worms ms., T. 

/v ,- , ,-, Wunambal 

( \\ unambal ) 

Loc: York Sound; coast north of Brunswick Bay. 

Alt.: Unambal, Wumnabal (? typographical error), Wnnambullu. 

Ret: Bates 1914, Elkin 1933, Capell 1940. 


Loc: Roebuck Bay, east of Broome: a small tribe. 

Alt.: Yauor, Yauera. Djauor. 

Ref.: Bates 1914, Elkin 1933, Capell 1940. 

Ueidji. Jcithi) J eid ^ 

Loc: Northern bank of Forrest River in its tidal reaches and on both 
sides, above these. 

Alt: Yeidji, YeithL 

Ref.: Elkin 1933, Kaberry 1935. 


Loc: At Gingin, Moora, New Norcia, Moore River and Cape 
Leschenault; north to about Hill River; inland to Wubin (juat = no). 
Alt.: "New Norcia" Tribe. 
Ref. : Tindale. 

(Julbre) -' 

Loc: West of Sturt Creek, probably near Black Rocks. 

Ref.: Capell 1940 


(Agikwala) Agikwala 

Loc. : Pine Creek district and southwards (sometimes regarded as a 
horde of Wulwulam, which see). 
Alt. : Agiqwolla. 
Ret.: Eylmann 1908. 

(Airiman) Airiman 

Loc: Head of Fitzmaurice River (Spencer), hut Davidson equates with 
Ngarinman, which see. 

Ref.: Spencer 1914, Davidson 1935. 
'Al:awa Allawa 

Loc: Southern tributaries of Roper River from mouth of the Hodgson 
west to Roper Valley; south to Mount Mueller and Hodgson Downs; at 
Mountain Creek. N.B.— Written as Alawa on map. 

Alt.: Allaua, Allua, Allowa, Alowa, Lccalowa, Kallaua, Allmviri, 

Ref.: Stretton 1893, Spencer and Gillen 1904, Power in Basedow 1907, 
Eylmann 1908, Spencer 1914, Tindale 1925, T. 

(Akura) Alura 

Loc: Northern hank of Lower Victoria River from mouth eastwards 
nearly to Bradshaw. 

Alt.: Allura, Ilallurra, Nallura. 
Ref.: Spencer 1914, Basedow 1925. 

(A' war: ai ) Awarai 

Loc: From ten miles north of Rum jungle southwards to Brock Creek 
(also regarded as sub tribe of Wulwulam, which see). 
Alt.: Warrai, Awarrai, Awarra. 
Ref.: Parkhouse 1895, Mathews 1901, Eylmann 1908, Spencer 1914. 

(Awinnu/1) Awinmul 

Loc: From Brock Creek to south of Pine Creek; recently have 
amalgamated with Wuhvulam, which see. 
Alt. : Awinmul, Awimimull. 
Ref.: Parkhouse 1895, Eylmann 1908. 

(/Barera) Rarera 

Loc.: Blyth River, Cape Stewart and coa^t east to Wallaniungo, western- 
most of the Crocodile Islands. Also called Djikai. according to Jennison, 
who indicates their extension to all but two northernmost of the Crocodile 

Alt.: Barera, Baurera, Bnrera, Jikai, Tchikai. 

Ref.: Warner 1937, Shcpherdson (ins.), Jennison (ins.), Capell 1940. 

'Halamumn Balamumu 

Loc: At Caledon Bay,, Cape Shield and Wyonga River, from Point 

Alexander west to centre of Peninsula, thence south-west to Koolatong 

River (see qualifying remarks in discussion, antra, p. 152). 
Alt. : Barlamomo, Barlamumu, Marlark. 
Ref.: Tindale 1925, Warner 1932, Webb 1933, Warner 1937, Jennison 

(ms.), T. 



(Be'rinken, Marithiel) Hrinken 

Loe, : Port Keats and adjacent western coast of Arnhem Land. 
(Marithiel and Brinken are separate tribes according to Stanner, 1933.) 
Alt.: Berinken, Berringin, Brinken, Brinkan, Marithiel. 
Ref.: Basedow 1907, Stanner 1933, 1936, Davidson 1935, Capell 1940. 

'Kinbin'ga Binbinga 

Loc. : South from Bauhinia Downs; McArthur River Station; Campbell 
Camp; head-waters of McArthur River (placed too far north by Tindalc 

Alt.: Binbingha, Binbinka, Leepitbinga. 

Ref.: Mathews 1900 (3), 1904, 1908, Basedow 1907, Eylmann 1908, 
Spencer 1914, Tindale 1925, T. 

('Biij'gorjgena) Bingongina 

Loc: West of Lake Woods; east of Upper Victoria River; boundaries 
not yet defined. 

Ref.: Spencer and Gillen 1904, Mathews 1908, Spencer 1914. 

('Bonn) Uoun 

Loc: Vicinity of head-waters of Phelp. Rose and Hart Rivers. 
Ref.; Warner 1937. 

C'Bulinara) Bulinara 

Loc Moray Range, Gregory and Aroona Creeks; Delamere. 
Alt.: Bilinurra, Bilyanarra, Bilvanurra, Plinara, Billianera. 
Ref.: Mathews 1901, Eylmann 1908, Spencer 1914, Terry 1926, David- 
son, 1935. 

'Dai : Dai 

Loc: Shores of Blue Mud Bay and in the country immediately 1 to the 
north-west (see qualifying remarks in discussion). 
Alt.: Dai, Taii. 
Ref.: Tindale 1925, Warner 1937, T. 

(Djaiakuru) Djalakuru 

Loc: Coast from west of Goulburn Island to about Mount N orris Bay; 
also inland. 

Alt.: Jalakuru. 
Ref.: Earl 1846. 

('Djammdjutj) Djamiiidjung 

Loc: Upper Fitzmaurice River. 

AH.: Jaminjang, Tjaminjun, Djamundou, Murinyiuvcn. 

Ref.: Stanner 1933. 1936, Capell 1940. 
'Djauen Djauan 

Loc: Katherine River and head-waters; south to Maranboy, west to 
about Katherine. 

Alt.: Tjauen, Djauun, Jawin, Chau-an. Adowen, Charniong. 

Ref.: Parkhouse 1895, Mathews 1900 (4), 1906, Eylmann 1908, Spencer 
1914, Davidson 1935. Jennison (ms.), T. 



'Djcrait Djerait 

Loc: Northern shores of Anson Bay; northwards along coast to Port 

Alt.: Cherait, Cherite, Sherait, Scherits, Tjiras. 

Ret.: Mackillop 1893, Basedow 1907, Eylmann 1908, Stanner 1933. 

('Djerimatja) Djerimanga 

T.oc. : Coast at mouth of Adelaide River; east to Woolner; possibly 
related to Puneitja, which see. 

Alt.: Jermangel, Woolna (place name), Woolner. 
Ref.: Eylmann 1908. 

'Djinba Djinba 

Loc: Upper Goyder River (west, not east, of the Ritarngo). 
Alt.: Jiiiha, Djimba (typographical error), Outjanbah. 
Ref.: Tindale 1925, Warner 1937, Davidson 1938, Jcnnison (ms.). 

('l)jowei) Djowei 

Loc. : East of Adelaide River (Spencer) ; probably an inland tribe, 
between Awarai and Djerimanga and extending to South Alligator River. 
Alt. : Kumertno. 
Ref.: Spencer 1914, 1928. 

(Geimbio) Gettmbio 

Loc.: Upper reaches of East Alligator River and the mountainous 
country to the east. 

Alt.: ? Gimbarlang — Warlang (Jennison, ms.) ; but compare Gunbalang. 
Ref.: Spencer 1914, 1928. 


Loc: Valley of Liverpool River; east to Cadell River. 

Alt.: Gunabidji. 

Ref.: Jennison (ms.), Capell 1940. 


(Gunba : lang) Gunbalang 

Loc: Mouth of Liverpool River; not marked on map. 
Ref.: Capell 1940. 

'Gtmwirjgu Gunwinggu 

Loc: Coast west of Liverpool River to King River, and inland. 

(Recent historic movements have carried them west to the Alligator River, 

where they have replaced the declining Kakadu.) 

Alt.: Gunwingu, Gunwingo, Gunawitji, Witji, Kulunglutji, Kulunglutchi, 


Ref.: Spencer 1914, 1928, Warner 1937, Capell 1940, T. 

('Indji'lindji) Indjilindji 

Loc: Barkly Tableland about Buchanan and Twelve Mile Creeks. 

Alt.: Indkilindji, Inchalachee, Inchalanchee. 

Ref.: Mathews 1899, 1904, Sharp 1935. 
'Irjura Ingura 

Loc: Groote Eylandt, Bickerton and Woodah Islands. 

Ref.: Tindale 1925, Warner 1937., T. 



'Iwaidji Iwaidji 

Loc. : Eastern portion of Cobourg Peninsula. 

Alt.: Iwaiji, Iwaidja, Eiwaja, Eaewardja, Eaewarga (in ms.), Uwaidja, 
Eac-warge-ga, Unalla, Limbakaraja, Limba Karadjee. 

Ret.: Earl 1846, 1853, Foelsche in Curr 1886, Spencer 1914, Jennison 
1927, Hart 1930, Capell 1940, T. 

( 'Kadj era war} ) Kadj crawang 

Loc: Fitzmauricc River. (Sec also Gadjerong in Western Australian 

Alt. : Kujcra. 

Ref.: Basedow 1907, S tanner 1933. 

'Kakadu Kakadu 

Loc: Between East and South Alligator Rivers, inland from shores of 
Van Diemcn Gulf; east to mountain ranges. 

Alt. : Kakata, Karkardoo ; Gagadu, ? Abcdal. 
Ref.: Eylmann 1908, Spencer 1914, Capell 1940, T. 

(Kamor) Kamor 

Loc : North of Central Daly River (the status of this and of some other 
Daly River tribes is doubtful). 
Alt.: ? Murra-Kamangee. 
Ref.: Stanner 1933, Davidson 1938. 

( 'Karaman ) Karaman 

Loc: South-west of Katlierine, on the Daly River. 
Ref.: Davidson 1938. 

'Karawa, 'Garewa ; Karawa 

Loc: From Upper Nicholson River northwards; at Westmoreland and 

Wollogorang, Qld. ; on head-waters of Calvert River; at Robinson River, 

Walabnnji, and Calvert Hills, N.A. 

Alt.: Karrawar, Kurrawar, Korrawa, Leearrawa. 

Ref.: Stretton 1893, Spencer and Gillcn 1899, Mathews 1901, Power in 

Basedow 1907, Spencer 1914, Sharp 1935, T. 

'Kotandji, 'rjandji Kotandji 

Loc: Head of coastal slope from Tanumbirini south-east to about head 

of Mc Arthur River, Kilgour River, Walhallow; west to head of Newcastle 

Creek; south to Anthony Lagoon. 

Alt.: Koodanjee, Godangee, Koodangie, Kudenji, Gnanji, Nganji, 

Ngangi, Nandi, Angec, Anga. 

Ref.: Mathews 1901 (1), 1902 (3), rower in Basedow 1907, Spencer 

1914, T. 

{ 'Kutjarakan) Kungarakan 

Loc: North of Mount Litchfield, south of Einnis River; an inland tribe 
on western side of the Divide. 

Alt.: Gunerakan, Kangarraga. 

Ref.: Basedow 1907, Mathews 1901 (1), Stanner 1933. 



( Kunindiri) Kunindiri 

Loc. : Barkly Tableland along head- waters of Calvert, Robinson and 
Nicholson Rivers; south to Anthony Lagoon. 
Alt.: Goonanderry, Leecundundeerie. 
Ref.: Stretton 1893, Power in Basedow 1907. 

Kwarandji Kwarandji 

Loc: Daly Waters district; west to about Illawarra Springs and Mount 
Wollaston; south to about Lake Woods. ("Stationmaster's" account pro- 
bably contains an error of transposition since Kakaringa means "easterners.") 
Alt.: Kwaranjce, Koorangic, Kooringee, Coorinji, Goarango. 
Ref.: Stationmaster 1895, Mathews 1900 (3), 1901, Eylmann 1908, Terry 

'Larakia Larakia 

Loc: From Finn-is River north-east to mouth of Adelaide River; inland 
to a point ten miles north of Rum Jungle; at Darwin, Southport, Bynoe 
Harbour, Howard River. 

Alt.: Larrakia, Larrakeah, Larrakeeyah, Larrakiha, Laragia, Larragea, 
Larrekiya, Larreekeeyah, Larikia, Larrikia, Larrikiya, Larriqnia. 

Ref.: Foelschc 1881, Coppinger 1883, Mackillop 1893, Parkhouse 1894, 
Basedow 1907, Eylmann 1908, Spencer 1914, Capell 1940, T. 

('Madngela) Madngela 

Loc: Hermit Hill and country west of Daly River, south of the Pongo- 

Alt.: Madngclla, Muttangulla, Matngelli. "Hermit Hill Tribe." 
Ref.: Mackillop 1893, Dahl 1895, Mathews 1901 (1), Eylmann 1908, 
Stanner 1933, Capell 1940. 

('Malijin) Malngin 

Loc: South-west of mouth of Victoria River; probably extending to Ord 
River, W. Aust. 
Alt.: Malgin. 
Ref.: Elkin 1933, Davidson 1935, Kaberry 1937, Capell 1940. 

'Marjarai Mangarai 

Loc: Middle and upper courses of Roper River east of Mataranka and 

Maranboy; at Elscy; north to Mount Elsey; not further downstream than 

about Mount Lindsay. 

Alt : Mungarai, Mungerry. 

Ref.: Mathews 1900 (4), Spencer 1914, Tindale 1925, Capell 1940. 

(Manu) Manu 

Loc: Invcrway; head of Victoria River. 
Alt.: Manoo. 
Ref.: Terry 1926. 
'Mara Mara 

Loc: Tidal reaches of Roper River nearly to mouth of Hodgson River, 
south to Spillen Creek, eastward to coast and Maria Island, north to Edward 



Ait.: Marra, Leelalwarra (after Jalwara, a place name, an important 
lagoon south of Roper River). 

Rcf.: Spencer and Gillen 1904, 1912, Power in Basedow 1907, Spencer 
1914, Tindale 1925, Sharp 1935, T. 
( 'Maranurjgo ) Marannnggo 

Loc: Vicinity of Hermit Hill and eastward towards Daly River. 
Alt.: Marranunga. 
Ref.: Basedow 1907, Stanner 1933. 

('Marimanindji) Marimanindji 

Loc.: South of Hermit Hill, Central Daly River. N.B. — Wrongly written 
as Marimanindu on map. 

Alt. : Murinmanindji, Maramanindji. 
Ref.: Stanner 1933, Capell 1940. 

('Maringar) Maringar 

Loc: Timor coast near the Murinbata tribe. 

Alt.: Murrinnga, Muringa, Yaghanin. 

Ref.: Stanner 1933, 1936. 
Marithiel Marithicl 

See Brinkin. 

('Mariu) Mariu 

Loc: South of Victoria River, near mouth. 

Alt.: Mayu, Mayoo. 

Ref.: Mathews 1902 (5), Davidson 1935, 1938. 
'Mauij Mating 

Loc: Goulburn Islands and coast opposite; east to King River; North 

Goulburn people are called Manangari. 

Alt.: Mating, Mau, Manangari. 

Ref.: Jennison 1927 and ms, Warner 1937, Capell 1940. 
'Moi:l Moil 

Loc: South-east of Port Keats; inland. 

Alt.: Moyl. 

Ref.: Stanner 1933, 1937, Davidson 1935. 

('Mudbara) Mudbara 

Loc: Armstrong River and upper Victoria River east of Victoria River 

Alt.: Mudburra, Moodburra, Mootburra. 

Ref.: Mathews 1901, Davidson 1935, Stanner 1936, Capell 1940. 

('Mul : uk'mul : uk) Mullukmulluk 

Loc: Northern bank of Daly River inland from coastal Djerait; 
boundary upstream at about sixty miles from mouth. 

Alt.: Mulluk-mulluk, Malack-malack, Mullik-mullik, Mollak-mollak. 

Ref.: Mackillop 1893, Dahl 1895, Eylmann 1908, Stanner 1933, Capell, 

( Murinbata) Murinbata 

Loc: Port Keats, south to mouth of Fitzmaurice River; coastal tribe. 
Ref.: Stanner 1936. 



('Murngin) Murngin 

Loc: North-eastern Arnhem Land and coastal islands east to Napier 

Peninsula, south to Point Alexander and head of Buckingham River (see 

discussion for further details). 

Alt.: Tjambarupingu, Djambarpmgu, Djambarbingo (one of several 

language terms), Tchambanipi, Koparpingu, Gababingo, Jaimmda. 

Ref.: Tindale 1925, 1928, Webb 1933, Warner 1937, Jennison (ms.). 

('Nakarra) Nakara 

Loc: Boucaut Bay; south-west of Blyth River. 

Alt.: Naga: ra. 

Ref.: Warner 1933, 1937, Capell 1940. 

('Naijguniiri) Nanggumiri 

Loc: South of Central Daly River; along Flora River to its junction 
with Daly River. 

Alt.: Nangumiri, Nangimera, Nangimcri, Mariwumiri. 

Ref.: Stanner 1933, 1936, Capell 1940. 
('Naijor) Nangor 

Loc: South of Port Keats; inland tribe. 

Ref.: Stanner 1933. 

'tjalakan Ngalakan 

Loc: North of Roper River; east of the Wilton River to Maiwok and 
Flying Fox Creeks (Spencer displaces this, tribe to the south of the Roper 

Alt.: Nullakun, Nullikaii, Nullikin, Ngalbon, Hongalla. 

Ref.: Spencer 1912, Tindale 1925, Warner 1937, T. 

('rjaliwuru) Ngaliwuru 

Loc: Victoria River, south of Bradshaw. 
Ref.: Capell 1940. 

'nandi Ngandi 

Loc: Upper Wilton River; Mainoru River; east to near sources of 
the Rose River. (Not to be confused with Nganclji = Kotandji.) 
Ref.: Tindale 1925, T. 
'rjardok Ngardok 

Loc: Field Island in Van Diemen Gulf and coastal belt of scrub country 
from South Alligator River to within a few miles of mouth of East Alligator 
River. N.B. — On map an arrow indicating this tribe runs too far to north. 

Alt.: Ngadok, Ad-dok, Gnaruk, ? Bimbirik. 

Ref.: Earl 1846, Spencer 1928, T. 

('narinman) Ngarinman 

Loc: Victoria River, about Jasper Creek. 

Alt.: Ngainman, Ngainmun, Ngrainmun (also Airiman t. Davidson). 

Ref.: Spencer 1914, Davidson 1935, Capell 1940. 
rjewin Ngewin 

Loc: Limmen Bight River (i.e.. Upper Spillen Creek); south-east to 
Bauhinia Downs. 

Alt.: Gnuin, ? Leeillawarrie. 

Ref.: Stretton 1893, Spencer 1914, Tindale 1925. 



'rjormbur Ngormbur 

Loc: Between West and South Alligator Rivers. N.B.— On map an 
arrow indicating position of this tribe runs too far to the east. 

Alt: Ngorm-hur, Gnornbur, Ngorbur, Oorm-bur, Koarnbut. 
Rcf.: Spencer 1914, 1928, T. 

('Xordaniman) Nordaniman 

Loc: North of Fitzmaurice River; an inland tribe. 

Alt.: Maridan. 

Ret.: Stanner 1933, 1936. 

(Norwcilemil) Norwcilemil 

Loc: South coast of Van Diemcn Gulf; west of West Alligator River. 
Alt: Lcrail, ? Noalanji. 
Ret. : Spencer 1914. 

(Nungali) Nungali 

Loc: Between Fitzmaurice and Upper Daly Rivers. 
Ref.: Capell 1940. 

'Nurjubiiju Nungubuju 

Loc: From Cape Barrow south to mouth of Phelp River; west towards 
head-waters of Rose and Hart Rivers. 

Alt.: Nungubuyn, Nungabuyu, Nungabuya, Nugubuyu (? misprint). 
Ref.: Tindale 1925, 1928, Warner 1937. 

'Njarjga, ' N jarjkala Njangga 

Loc: Coast east of Robinson River; at Skeleton Creek; Calvert River; 

extending into Queensland only to about Tully Inlet; inland to Wollogorang. 

(Tully Inlet area is stated in literature formerly to have belonged to 

Wilungwara Tribe; see note under Wilingura.) 

Alt.: langkala, Yangkala, ? Yuggamurra, Yuckamurri. 
Ref.: Mathews 1900 (5), Sharp 1939, T. 

('Njinirj) Njining 

Loc: Stirling and Upper Sturt Creeks; Negri and Raines Rivers 
(extending into Western Australia). 
Alt.: Njinin, Mining, Keening. 
Ref.: Mathews 1901, 1904, Capell 1940. 

(Oitbi.) Oitbi 

Loc: South coast of Cobourg Peninsula; Sir George Hope Islands. 
(Schmidt's error in placing this tribe at West Alligator River on his map is 
corrected in an addendum.) 

Alt.: Heutbi, Bijnalttmbo. 

Ref.: Earl 1846, Eylmann 1908, Schmidt 1919. 

('Porjo'porjo) Pongopongo 

Loc: South bank of Daly River, inland from coastal Wogait. 
Alt. : Pongo-pongo, Ponga-ponga. 
Ref.: Mackillop 1893, Eylmann 1908, Stanner 1933. 





Loc. : "East of Adelaide River"; the Punaka "on western side of South 
Alligator River, about fifty miles inland"— data unsatisfactory. 
Alt: Pencitja, Minnitji, Punuurlu, ? Punaka (ms.). 
Ref.: Eylmann 1908, Spencer 1914, 1928, and old ms. sources. 







Loc: Mann River; head-waters of Cadell and Wilton Rivers. 

Alt.: Rainbarngo. 

Ref.: Tindale 1925, 1928, Warner 1937, T. 


Loc: Head-waters of the Goyder and Walker Rivers. 

Alt: Rittarungo, Ritarungo, Ritaringo, Rilarngo. 

Ref.: Tindale 1925, 1928, Warner 1937, Jcnnison (ms.), T. 

Loc: Between Daly and Katherine Rivers. 

Ret.: Davidson 1935. 

Loc: Melville and Bathurst Islands. 

Alt: Wunuk (Iuaidji term). 

Ref.: Spencer 1914, 1928, Hart 1930. 

Loc: Probably between Lower Victoria River and Upper Raines River. 
N.B. — Name omitted from map. 

Alt: Cheeal, Jeelowng, Geelowng. 
Kef.: Mathews 1900 (3), 1901 (1). 

'Tjiygtt Tjingili 

Loc: Mount Grayling (Renner Springs) in the south to Newcastle 
Waters in the north, Ashhurton Range in the east (westward boundary un- 

Alt: Tjingilli, Tjingalli, ChingalH, Chingalee, Tjingale, Tchiugalee, 
Lee elm ngu loo. 

Ref.: Ravenscroft 1892, Stationmastcr 1895, Mathews 1901, Spencer and 
Gillen 1904, Basedow 1907, Eylmann 1908, T. 

'U:laki Wulaki 

Loc: Ireland tribe; Go}'dcr River district (area not yet defined). 

Alt.: Ullaki, Wulaki. 

Re!.: Tindale 1925, Warner 1937. 

(Unioriu) . Umoriu 

Loc: Eastern shores of Van Diemen Gulf, about head-waters of Cooper 
Creek and towards East Alligator River. 

Alt: Umoriu, Umoreo (ms.), ? Monobar. 
Ref.: Earl 1846, Spencer 1914. 

Wadere Wadere 

Loc: From north of Batten Creek along coast to Spillen Creek, Gulf 
of Carpentaria. 

Ref.: Tindale 1925 


'Wagoman Wagoman 

Loc: About Dorisvale; south-west of Daly River, above Oolloo. 

Alt. : Wagaman. 

Ref.: Stanner 1933, Davidson 1935. 
('Walu) Walu 

Loc: Vanderlin Island. 

Alt.: Walloo, Leewalloo. 

Ref.: Stretton 1893. 

'Wambaia Wambaia 

Loc: Barkly Tableland, west to Eva Downs, Anthony Lagoon in north. 

Mount Morgan in east, Alroy Downs in south ; at Corella Lagoon, Brunette 

Downs and Alexandria. 

Alt.: Wombaia, Wom-by-a, Wombya, Yumpia, Umhaia. 

Ref.: Mathews 1898, 1900 (4), Power in Basedow- 1907, Spencer and 

Gillcn 1904, Spencer 1914. 

'Wandaran Wanda ran 

Loc: Rhelp River, inland from coast. 
Ref.: Tindale 1925, 1928. 

( Wandjira ) Wandjira 

See Western Australian List. 
'Wa:nji Wanji 

See Queensland List. 

'Waramana, 'Warumunu Waramanga 

Loc: Mount Grayling (Rcnucr Springs) in the north; south to head- 
waters of Gosse River, east to Alroy and Rockhampton Downs, western 
boundary unknown. 

Alt. : Warramnnga, Warramonga, Warrmunga, Waramunga, Leenar- 

Ref.: Stretton 1893, Stationmaster 1895, Mathews 1901, Eylmann 1908, 
Spencer 1914. 

( ' Wardaman ) Wardaman 

Loc: Heads of western branches of Upper Daly River; south towards 
Victoria River. 

Alt.: Wartaman, Warduman, Wadderman, Wordaman, Waduman. 
Ref.: Mathews 1901, Spencer 1914, Davidson 1935, Capell 1940. 

('Wat: a) Walta 

Loc: On eastern bank of South Alligator River, inland tribe (Spencer). 

Alt.: ? Marigian birik (general term). 

Ref.: Earl 1846, Spencer 1914. 

('Wilirjgura) Wilingura 

Loc: Between Cox River and Nutwood Downs; west to Pine Creek 
(Birdum). (?Same tribe as Wulungwara, which is stated to have formerly 
occupied an area on coast about Tully Inlet on Queensland-North Australian 
border.) Stretton's locality reference {Ij?., p. 249, appendix, line 10) is 
evidently transposed with that mentioned on previous line. 



Alt.: Wilingura, Willongera, Leewillungarra, Willangan. 
Rei: Stretton 1893, Spencer and Gillen 1904, Power in Basedow 1907, 
Spencer 1914. 

'Wo: gait Wogait 

Loc: On coast at Anson Bay, from Cape Ford north to mouth of Daly 

River; inland for about twenty miles. 

Alt.: Wogait, Worgait, Worgite, Waggait, Waggite, Waggote, Waggute, 

Wagatsch, Wa(o)gatsch, Wogite. 

Ref.: Mackillop 1893, Basedow 1907, Eylmann 1908, Stanner 1933, 

Capell 1940. 

'Wul 'wnlam, Wuhvarjga Wuhvulain 

Loc: Head of Mary River; west to Pine Creek (the western hordes, 

Agikwala and Awinmil, were apparently formerly separate tribes which have 

amalgamated since the decline of their numbers after contact with 


Alt.: Wulwullam, Agiwallem, Agrikondi, Aggrakundi, Wulwongga, 

Wulwanga, Wulwonga, Woolwonga, Oolwunga, Oolawunga. 

Ref.: Curr 1886, Smith 1894, 1895, Basedow 1907, Eylmann 

1908, Spencer 1914, T. 

Wurerjo Wurango 

Roe.: Western end of Cobourg Peninsula. 'Iji and ']^.:\o are probably 
older subtribal or tribal designations, the former at western end of Cobourg 
Peninsula, and the latter at Port Essington. (Earl 1846, p. 242, gives evi- 
dence of early nineteenth century tribal pressure and movements from the 

Alt.: Wurruga, Wurrago, Warooka, Iyi, Yarlo. 
Ref.: Earl 1846, Jennison 1927 and ms. (T). 

(Jaemurjo) Jaernungo 

Loc. : Wessel Islands; Elcho Island, Drysdale Island; Marunga and 

Rabuma Islands in Crocodile Group; Banyan Island at mouth of Goyder 


Alt.: Yaernungo, Kokolango, Kokolango-mala (a super horde). 
Ref.: Jennison 1927, Warner 1937. 

('J a: ko) Jaako 

Loc: Croker Island and a small area of Cobourg Peninsula opposite the 

island and at Raffles Bay (originally two tribes which amalgamated before 

1840). Jennison gives this term as Margo. 

Alt.: Yaako, Terutong, ? Ajokoot, Ma: go (native name of Croker 


Ref:. Earl 1846, 1853, Jennison (ms.). 

Cjandjininj) Jandjinung 

Loc : Western bank of Goyder River and upper part of Blyth River; 
coast east of Crocodile Islands; two central islands of Crocodile Group. 
Alt. : Yandjinung. 
Ref.: Warner 1933, 1937. 


CJanmen) Jung-man 

Loc. : Eisey Creek and its head-waters west of Elsey Station; south of 

Alt. : Ynngman, Yungmmi, Ynngmunni, Yungmanni, Yungmunee, 
Yiingmnnnee, Jongman. 

Ref.: Mathews 1900 (4), Eylmann 1908, Spencer 1914, Davidson 1935. 
'Janjula Janjula 

Loc.: Macarthur River from near Boroloola to the coast and on the 
Sir Edward Pellew Islands (excluding Vanderlin Island). 
Alt.: Yanula, Anyoola, Aniula, Anula, Leeanuwa. 

Ref.: Stretton 1893, Power in Basedow 1907, Spencer 1914 Sharp 1935, T. 
(Jilnali) Jilngali 

Loc: West of Macadam Range. 
Ref.: Capell 1940. 

'Jukul Jukul 

Loc: Vicinity of Leichhardt Bar (Urapunga) on south side of Roper 

Alt.: Yukul, Jokul, Yikil, Yookull, Yookala, Yookil. 

Ref.: Mathews 1900 (4), Eylmann 1908, Spencer 1914, T. 

(Jungor) 3™gg° r 

Loc: Between Hermit PI ill and Daly River. 
Ref.: Stanner 1933. 


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VOL. 64 PART 2 20 DECEMBER, 194i 





Price - - One Guinea 

Registered at the General Post Office, Adelaide, 
for transmission by post as a periodical 


By H. WOMERSLEY, South Australian Museum. 

The mites belonging to these two families constitute one of the most important economic problems 
with which the gardener, horticulturalist and fruitgrower have to contend, and at times some species 
may become so numerous as to be really serious pests. 



By II. Womerst-Ey, South Australian Museum 

[Read 11 July 1940] 

The mites belonging; to these two families constitute one of the most 
important economic problems with which the gardener, horticulturalist and fruit- 
grower have to contend, and at times some species may become so numerous as to 
be really serious pests. 

Popularly they are known as "red spiders," "fruit tree mites" and "spinning- 
mites/' the last name having reference to their habit of spinning silken threads 
on the underside of the leaves on which they occur. It is only within recent years, 
due to the researches and publications of Banks, Hirst, Oudemans, MacGregor, 
Tragardh, and, more recently, Geijskes, that our systematic knowledge of the 
different species has acquired an importance commensurate with their economic 
status. That their taxonomy now stands on a sound basis is due to a realization 
of the necessity for critical high power examination of the finer morphological 
characters found in the terminal segments of the palpi, the tarsal appendages, 
the shape of the tracheae, of the penis and the arrangement of the dorsal setae. 

In Australia little, except occasional economic notes in various agricultural 
journals, has been written upon these acarids. In his "Synopsis of the Australian 
Acarina," Records Australian Museum, vol. 6, pt. 3. p. 145, 1906, Rainbow lists 
only the following species: Bryobia praetiosa Koch, Bryobia sp. Tryon, 
Teiranychns telarhts Linn., Tetranychus telarius var. cinnabarinus Boisd., 
Tetranychus cucumeris Boisd., and 'Tetranychus rosarum Boisd. Of these species 
the first is recognised as a good species, but Bryobia sp. of Tryon, besides being 
unnamed, is so inadequately described as to be unrecognisable and should be 
ignored. At the present time all the other names are regarded as synonyms of 
telarius Linn, a species now placed in the genus Eoteiranychus. As examination 
of a large amount of material from all States of the Commonwealth has failed to 
reveal the occurrence of E, telarius and shown that our common '^red-spider is 
Tetranychus urticae Koch (aliheae v. Ilandstein), it seems probable that all early 
records should be regarded as the latter species. 

The present paper, besides being a critical examination of Australian material, 
should help economic workers to recognise the precise species with which they 
are called upon to deal It would, however, have been impossible to present such 
a survey as this without the very generous assistance of the Division of Economic 
Entomology, Canberra, and of the various Departments of Agriculture of the 
different States. To the heads of all these bodies I extend my sincere thanks. 

Trans. Rov. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


The following key lists the known genera of Tetranychidac and the known 
Australian species. 

1 Maxillary palpi slender, with or without tibial claw. Leg-segments usually wrinkled 
and legs short to much shorter than body. 2 
Maxillary palpi stout, with distinct tibial claw. Legs of normal length, little if at 

all shorter than body, or else excessively long. Leg-segments not wrinkled. 6 

2 Palpi short but slender, without tibial claw. 3 
Palpi longer, with distinct tibial claw. Ornate species with fan-shaped setae. 
Empodium as a pair of claw-like processes thinner than the true claws. Legs short. 

Genus Tuckerella nov. 
oruatus Tucker 

3 Mouth-parts completely hidden from above under propodosoma. Palpi 2-segmented, 
last segment and apex of tarsi I and II with a stout cylindrical rod-like seta. Legs' 

very short. n ,— . 

J Genus Tegopalpus nov., 

conicus n. sp. 
Mouth-parts not so hidden. 4 

4 Palpi and hypostome fused together; palpi 1 -segmented (or perhaps 2-segmcnted). 
Legs short and thick. Lives in galls. GemJS p hytoptipa j pus Tragardh 

(not Australian) 
Palpi and other mouth-parts normal. 5 

5 Eyes distinct, 2 on each side. Leg-segments very much wrinkled and femora 
much constricted at base, then suddenly widening. Tarsi with 2 claws, with 2 or 
more tencnt hairs; empodium with two series of tenent hairs. 

Genus Tenuipalpus Donnadieu 

phoenicis Geijskes 

calif ornicus Banks 

vitis n. sp. 

Eyes indistinct or absent. Leg-segments normal; tarsi with 2 simple claws and a 

ciliated pad-like empodium. c , t * > -j n 1 

v iWW4Ml * Genus I ctranychoidcs Banks 

(not Australian) 

6 Empodium vestigial, connate at base dorsally to tarsus forming a mere protuber- 
ance. Claws forming two pairs of tenent hairs and arising dorsally from tarsus 
not apically. r . „ . _ _ 

Genus Anychus MacGregor 

(not Australian) 
Both empodium and claws well developed, modified or not, and attached to tarsus 
apically. h- 

7 Claws normal, unmodified, with or without a pair of lateral tenent hairs Empodium 
not claw-like. o 

Claws modified so as to form a lobe or pad ending in two tenent hairs Empodium 
more or less claw-like, with or without a double series of tenent hairs. 11 

8 Front of propodosoma 4-lobed, each lobe tipped with a scale-like seta Dorsal 
setae also scale-hke. Peritreme produced as a sausage-like chamber on each side 
of gnathosoma. Legs not excessively long, except I, which in female is rather 
longer than body and in male quite twice as long. Claws with a pair of lateral 
tencnt hairs. 

Genus Bryobia Koch 

^ . , , practiosa Koch 

.broiit ot propodosoma not as above. o. 

9 Tarsi distinctly or very much shorter than tibiae. At least legs I and IV longer 
than body. * 10 

Tarsi about as long as tibiae. Legs slightly shorter than body. Dorsal setae 
long, strongly ciliated and arising from strong papillae. Peritreme produced on 
each side of gnathosoma as a tube- or sausage-like chamber. 

Genus Tetranychopsis Canestrini 
(not Australian) 


10 Tarsi very much shorter than tibiae. All legs excessively long. Peritremc not 
produced. Dorsal setae strong, curved, spine-like, but not arising from papillae. 
Claws without lateral tenent hairs. Genus Neophyllobias Berlese 

ornatus n. sp 

Tarsi about three-fourths length of tibiae. Leg I longer than body, IV only slightly 
so. Peritrcme produced on each side of gnathosoma. Dorsal setae normal and 
relatively short. Genus Tetranobia Banks 

(not Australian) 

11 Front and hind legs excessively long, 2-3 times as long as body. Apex of peritrcme 
slightly produced as a small round compound chamber. Empodium with two series 
of numerous tenent hairs. Dorsal setae long, stout, blunt ended, ciliated and arising 
from strong papillae. Genus Tenuicrus nov. 

errabundus n. sp. 

No legs excessively long, only I, if any,, but little longer than body. 12 

12 Peritretne produced apically as a tube o-r a large globular swelling. 13 
Peritrcme not produced. 

13 Peritrcme produced as a large globular swelling or chamber. Empodium claw-like 
with a single tenent hair on each side. Dorsal setae long, slender and ciliated, but 
not arising from papillae. Genus Schizonobia nov. 

sycophanta n. sp. 
Peritremc produced sausage-like. 

14 Dorsal setae very strong and spine-like, with ciliations and arising from strong 
papillae. Empodium claw-like with double series of numerous tenent hairs. 

Genus Aplonobia nov. 
oxalis n. sp. 

Dorsal setae less strong or spine-like, not on papillae. Empodium as above. 

Genus Petrobia Murray 
lalens O. F. Mull. 

15 Dorsum not strongly convex. Dorsal setae thin, finely ciliated and not arising from 
papillae. 16 
Dorsum strongly convex, setae strongly ciliated and arising from warts or papillae. 24 

16 Seven transverse rows of dorsal setae: 2 . 4 . 4 (6) . 4 . 4 . 4 . 2, i.e., "setae 
cluuales" present. 

Six transverse rows of dorsal setae: 2 . 4 . 4 (6) .4.4.4, i.e., "setae clunales" 

17 Pcritreme short, straight, with swollen end-chamber. Empodium claw-like, not split 
into six needles but ventrally with or without a proximal basal process. 
Peritremc long, V-shaped, with 2 or more chambers. 

18 Empodium Y-shaped, no ventral basal process. w in 

Genus Schizotctranychus 1 ragardh 
(not Australian) 
Empodium a simple claw with ventral basal process. 

19 Ventral basal process of empodium with 2 reflexed and haired appendages. Legs 

short and thickly haired. 

Genus Ohgonychas berl. 
(not Australian) 

Ventral basal process of empodium consisting of 6 straight downward directed needles. 

Genus Eurytetranychns Oud. 

(not Australian) 

.20 Empodium without basal ventral process. 21 

Empodium claw-like, with basal ventral process of 4-6 needles; claw of empodium 

shorter than needles. 

Genus Septanychus MacGregor 

(not Australian) 




21 Empodium a simple claw. Peritreme A -shaped, arms of equal width, apex sl-htly 
swollen. * to - 

Genus Anatetranychus nov. 

Emnodium bent downwards and split into 4-6 needles. a ^ U " SP ' 

22 Dorsal setat Ion- and fine ,whh normal basal ring. Genus Eofctranychus Cud. 

(not Australian) 
Dorsal setae spindle-like, with roots in a spherical cavity. Genus Apoteiranychus Oud. 

(not Australian) 

23 Apex of peritreme simple. The dorsal striations forming a rhombic held between 
the inner setae of the fifth and sixth t-ransverse rows (lumbales and sacrales). 

Genus Tctvanychus Dnfotir 
urticae Koeli 

Apex of peritreme complex and anastomosed. Dorsal striations not showing a b 0V e 
rhombic held. 

Genus Ampliilctranychus Oud. 
(not Australian) 

24 Peritreme short and straight with swollen apical chamber. Empodium claw-like with 
ventral basal process of needles. « 

Genus raratctranycluts Zacker 
uiiuuguis Jacobi 
Peritreme long V-shaped and many chambered. Empodium split into 4-6 needles 
without ventral basal process. 

25 Seven transverse rows of dorsal setae ; 2.4.4(6) ., i.e., "setae chinales' 1 

Six transverse rows of dorsal setae: 2 . 4 . 4 (6) . 4 . 4 . 4, i.e., "setae clunales" 
absent. 1 arsus of palp with terminal club. Dorsal setae shorter than distance 
between transverse rows. 

Genus Platytctranychus Oud. 
(not Australian) 

26 Peritreme short, straight, with swollen apical chamber. Empodium with basal ventral 
process of six needles. r . 

Genus Metatctrauyclius Oud. 
nhni Koch = pilosus Can. et E. 

^J l0 f-f V -f^P«I. pollen at bend and distal arm the wider. Empodium 
simple, claw-like, without ventral basal process. 

Genus Neoteiraiiychus Tragardh 
hakea n. sp. 

Genus Tenuipai.pus Donnaciicu 1875 

Tcnuipalpus Donnadieu, 1875: Rcchcrches pou-r servir a khistoire de Tetranyques. Diss 
i_.yon ? p. ill, 

Brcvipalpus idem, ibid., p. 115. 

Minute reddish mites with oval or egg-shaped body or with the opisthosoma 
strongly contracted behind coxae IV and rectangular. Dorsal and ventral sur- 
faces often reticulated. Setae generally small, variable in form, simple to leaf- 
like. Legs short and thick, femora strongly constricted at base then suddenly 
widening, segments strongly wrinkled. Claws 2, with tenent hairs; empodium 
not claw-like, modified, with two series of tenent hairs. End of tarsus truncate, 
apex ventrally with two broadened and laterally serrate setae, dorsally with a long 
hair. Tarsus I and 11 with a sensory seta. Palpi long and slender, without tibial 
claw, apically with 1-2 long hairs. Front margin of propodosoma somewhat over- 
lapping base of gnathosoma, mostly pointed at apex. 



These mites infest a great variety of plants, both in glass-houses and out 
of doors. Although generally not supposed to spin silk to any appreciable extent, 
yet one species in Australia is responsible for the webbing together of grape vines. 

Approximately twenty species appear to have been described but the three 
following only are as yet known from Australia. The South African species 
Tenuipalpus ornatus Tucker also occurs here, but as this species does not fit into 
the genus Tenuipalpus s. str. it is in this paper removed to a new genus, Tuckerella. 

Tenuipalpus piioenicjs Geijskcs 1939 
Meckel. Landbouwhoogcschool, Wagcningxii, 42, (4), 1939. 

This species had only recently been described as infecting date-palms in 
Holland. It was, however, regarded as an introduction, for it was stated that 
the country of origin was unknown. 

It may seem, therefore, somewhat dubious to relate the following Australian 
material to the above species, but as will be seen from the figures given, there 
is complete agreement with those given by Geijskcs. In Australia the 
species appears to occur on a variety of hosts, and is undoubtedly an economic 

Description — Colour in life, red. Female length, 250 ft, width 148 /a (the 
dimensions given by Geijskes are somewhat greater, viz., 0*284 mm. by 
0-151 mm.). Body egg-shaped, the widest part on a level with the dorsal suture 
between the propodosoma and the hysterosoma, thereafter tapering and rounded 
apically. Dorsal suture distinct, anterior and posterior dorsal shields strongly 
reticulated. Anterior margin of propodosoma as figured, overlapping base of 
gnathosoma. Propodosoma with three pairs of setae arranged around the margin ; 
hysterosoma with 18 setae arranged in three transverse rows of four, then six 
setae around the margin; all these setae arc short, narrow, leaf-like, serrated and 
slightly curved as figured, none of the apical setae overreach the edge of the 
hysterosoma. Mouthparts : mandibles styliform, palpi 3-segmented, without 
tibial-claw, apical segment with several straight setae. 

Ventral surface, as shown, strongly reticulated, coxae I with two setae, 
il-IV with one seta each; anterior shield three-sided, median shield with two 
pairs of setae, anterior pair short, posterior pair three to four times length of 
anterior pair, posterior part of hysterosoma with two shields, anterior quadrate 
with a pair of short posterior setae, posterior shield rounded with three indeter- 
minate angles, as wide as anterior shield and with four short setae. Legs 
moderately long, IV somewhat over-reaching apex of abdomen; femora of I and 
II dorsally with a stout seta which, upon high magnification, is similar to dorsal 
setae. Tarsi with paired claws, each carrying two to four lateral tenent hairs, 
empodium with paired pads carrying series of tenent hairs; tarsi dorsally with a 
long seta. Eyes, two on each side. 


The Australian material does not appear to differ from Geijskes' species, 
although while he figures and states that the dorsal seta of femora I and II is 
stout and rod-like, high magnification shows it as somewhat serrate. This is a 
common species on a wide variety of plants in Australia. The members of the 
genus have generally been regarded as free-living, non silk-spinning forms, but 




: <w-* 




■ 1- 



- 1 




T 1 



, i 


Fig. 1 

Tcnuipalpus phoenicis Geijskes 

A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; C, front of propodosoma; 

D, dorsal seta; E, tip of tarsus 

on two occasions this species has been found to cause considerable webbing of 
grapes and vine-leaves. 

N.B. — All figures, unless specified, refer to the females 


Localities and Hosts: 

South Australia: on sage, Adelaide, February 1940, (H. W.) ; webbing 

grapes and vine leaves, Waikerie, 5 April 1940, (D. C. S.). 
Victoria: webbing grapes, Swan Hill, 5 March 1940 (R. T. M. P.); on 

citrus, Burnley, 13 August 1936 (R. T. M. P.). 
Western Australia: on lemons, Spearwood, July 1935 (L. J. N.) ; on banana 

fruit, Carnarvon, 9 January 1939 (L. J. N.). 
Queensland: on passion-fruit, Rockhampton, 1939 (A. R. B.). 
New South Wales: on big-leaved Privet, Sydney, 3 September 1934; on 

Camelia bud, Sydney, 16 May 1939; on Vitis clematidea, Avalon, 

15 July 1934; on Clematis, Parramatta, 3 September 1934; on Hibbcrtia 

vohibilis, Avalon Beach, 15 July 1934; on Privet, Mosman, 8 August 

1934; on Clematis, Cabramatta, 3 September 1934. 
Northern Territory: on Datura leaves from Darwin, 15 April 1940. 
Probably the same species is that recorded in the "Agricultural Gazette of 
New South Wales," vol. 45, 1934, p. 386, as damaging grapes by webbing in the 
Hunter River, Liverpool and Griffiths districts. 

Tenuipalpus californicus Banks 1904 
Journ. New York Entom. Soc, 1904, p. SS. 

There seems little doubt that the material before me can be correctly 
referred to the above species. The following description and the figures, how- 
ever, are from Australian material. 

Description— Female, length 190 p., width 135 p. Body: propodosoma + 
metapodosoma rounded, opisthosoma much narrowed by a comparatively sharp 
constriction behind fourth pair of legs, then somewhat rectangular and almost 
quadrate but rounded apically. Dorsal suture indistinct, but a series of irregular 
lines on the level of legs IV divides the body into two 'distinct shields correspond- 
ing to the propodosoma + metapodosoma and the hysterosoma. Neither dorsum 
nor venter reticulated or patterned. Propodosoma + metapodosoma with three 
pairs of setae (■%. 2, A) arranged around the margin and two pairs of similar 
median but much shorter setae and two simple setae; opisthosoma with eight 
marginal setae (-fig* 2, A), one pair just posterior of leg IV and three pairs at 
equidistances around the apical margin, and one pair of anterior fine small setae; 
there is also another pair of marginal setae between legs III and IV; the longer 
setae are moderately broad, leaf-like and serrate as in fig. 2C and 13*5 p, long, 
The three pairs of apical setae overreach the body margin. Mouth parts, palpi 
and mandibles as in the genus. Eyes, two on each side. 

Ventral surface: coxae each with a single small fine seta; just posterior of 
and between coxae I is a pair of long fine setae and there is a similar pair between 
coxae IV; medially in the field between coxae II and III is a pair of fine short 
setae. On each side of the anal opening are three very small fine setae, and anterior 
of it, but further apart, is another pair., Legs very short, IV not reaching apex 


of body; claws and empodium as in the genus; femora 1 and II showing but little 
contraction at base and femora II without an apophysis. 

My specimens differ from Banks' figure as given by Quayle (1912) in several 
details, but one assumes that his figures were not drawn under sufficiently high 
magnification. No dorsal setae, apart from the six apical marginal ones are shown 
by Quayle, and he only figures a single eye on each side. More important perhaps 
is his figure of the tarsus, where he shows four similar claws, instead of two 
claws and a median empodium. Such a structure does not appear to have been 
figured for any other species. 

It was described from California as infesting lemons, but occurs in Australia 
on a variety of hosts and has been taken quite frequently, but not always, along 


Fig. 2 

TcnuipaJpus calif amicus Banks 

A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; C, dorsal seta; D, tip of tarsus It from above 

with the preceding. It does not appear, however, from the relative numbers 
examined to be as common. 

Localities and Hosts: 

South Australia: on Fuchsia in green-house. Botanic Gardens, Adelaide, 

26 February 1940 (II. W.)- 
New South Wales: on Big-leaved Privet, Sydney, 5 July 1934; on Camellia 

bud, Sydney, 16 May 1939; on Vku clcmatidea, Avalon, 15 July 1934; 

on Clematis, Cabramatta, 3 September 1934; on Hibbertia vohtbilis, 

Avalon Beach, 15 July 1934. 


Victoria: on grapes, Swan Hill, 5 March 1940 (R. T. M. P.); on citrus, 
Burnley, 13 May 1936 (R. T. M. P.). 

Northern Territory: on Datura leaves from Darwin, 15 April 1940. 

Tenuipalpus vitis n. sp. 

The following species does not agree with any previous description that I 
am aware of. It is closely related to the preceding but differs in a number of 
important details as well as in size. 

Fig. 3 

Tenuipalpus vitis n. sp. 

A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; C, apical dorsal seta 

Description — Female, length 248 ji, width 140 /x, shape much as in preceding- 
species, but propodosoma + metapodosoma rather longer than wide and with an 
indistinct suture between; posteriorly the body is constricted from leg IV, some- 
what rectangular and rounded apically; there are indistinct transverse sutures or 
lines on level of leg III and just posterior of leg IV. Neither dorsally nor 


ventrally are there reticulations or patterning. Eyes, two on each side. Mouth 
parts, palpi, etc., as in the genus. 

On the propodosoma there are three pairs of marginal setae, the anterior 
pair being very small, the second pair larger and the posterior pair the largest; 
on the metapodosoma are two pairs of lateral setae, the anterior large, the posterior 
smaller, medially are two pairs of smaller and ( ?) fine setae; on the opisthosoma 
anteriorly are a pair of small lateral setae and a pair of median smaller ( ?) fine 
setae ; around the apical margin are four pairs of equidistant long narrow serrated, 
leaf-like setae (fig. 3, C) 16*2//, long. Ventrally the setae are as in the preceding 
species. Legs strong and short as in the genus, but with little or no constriction 
at the base of the femora I and II, femora II with a pronounced lateral triangular 
apophysis. Claws and empodium as in the genus. 

This species differs from the preceding in the size and shape and in the 
lengths and arrangements of the dorsal setae, as well as in the apophysis on 
femora II. 

Locality and Host: 

Western Australia: on lemons, Perth, May 1934 (L. J. N.). 

Genus Tegopalpus nov. 
Description — Elongate-oval in form with the mouth-parts hidden under the 
propodosoma. Palpi 2-segmented without tibial claw, tarsus with a long seta and 
a stout cylindrical appendage. Legs very short, tarsi of I and II with a stout 
cylindrical seta. Claws normal with a pair of lateral tenent hairs, empodium split 
to form a pair of fine, somewhat slender claw-like processes. 

Tegopalpus conicus n. sp. 

Description — Sex ?, probably female. Shape an elongate oval, greatest 
width just before the middle; length 324 /a, width 162 fx. Eyes, two on each side. 
Dorsal and ventral surfaces not reticulated, but finely striated. Indistinct sutures 
present between propodosoma and metapodosoma and between metapodosoma 
and opisthosoma. Mouth-parts hidden beneath propodosoma ; mandibles styli- 
form, palpi only 2-segmented without tibial claw, apical segment small and rounded 
with a long seta and a long, stout, cylindrical seta. Legs very short, tarsi I and II 
with a similar cylindrical seta to that of palpi ; claws simple but with a pair of 
lateral tenent hairs, empodium divided into two fine prongs which are somewhat 
claw-like. Dorsal setae : on propodosoma three pairs of lateral serrated leaf-like 
setae, on metapodosoma two pairs of similar setae laterally, a median similar pair 
anteriorly, and a pair of median fine and small setae posteriorly, opisthosoma 
with four pairs of lateral leaf-like setae, and an anterior pair of small fine ones. 
Ventral setae: coxae each with a small line seta, between legs II and legs IV and 
in field between legs II and III a pair of long fine setae, on each side of anus are 
four small fine setae. 


This very interesting and rather aberrant species is only known from four 
specimens from New South Wales collected on Casuarina at Avalon Beach on 
26 August 1934 and submitted by the Department of Agriculture. In the structure 
of the claws and empodium. it is related to the next genus. 


Fig. 4 

Tegopalpus conicus g., et sp. n. 

A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; Q palp; D, tip of tarsus I 


Genus Tuckerella nov. 
This genus is erected lor the species Tcnuipalpus ornatus described by Tucker 
from South Africa. It differs from Tcnuipalpus as in the key to genera and the 
following generic description. 

D ascription— Elongate-oval in shape. Eyes, two on each side. Mouth-parts 
elongate, mandibles not so styliform as in Tenia 'palp its. Palpi long, 4-segmented, 
tibia with a strong claw, tarsus over-reaching slightly tip of claw, cylindrical 
with four long pointed setae and a cylindrical rod. Claws normal and strong 
with paired lateral tenent hairs and the empodium split into two fine processes 
resembling claws. Dorsum divided into propodosoma, metapodosoma and 
opisthosoma, reticulated and furnished with fan-like setae and apically with a 
bunch of long ciliated setae. Legs short. 

Tuckerella orxata (Tucker 1926) 

Tcnuipalpus ontahts Tucker, Dept. of Ague*, S. Afr., Memoir, No. v, 1926, p. 4, pi. ii. 

Description — Female, length to front of propodosoma 337 p, gnathosoma 
135 /x, width 216 fi. Colour in life, red. Body roundish-oval, widest on line of 
propodosomal-metapodosomal suture. Dorsum strongly reticulated with sutures 
indistinctly shown between propodosoma and metapodosoma and between meta- 
podosoma and opisthosoma. Mouth-parts elongate, mandible piercing, stylet-like, 
palpi elongate, 4-segmented, tibia with well-developed claw, tarsus cylindrical, 
slightly over-reaching tip of claw and furnished with four setae and one cylindrical 
rod. Eyes, two on each side. Dorsum furnished with over 40 large, fan-shaped 
setae, propodosoma with two anterior-marginal, two postero-lateral and four sub- 
marginal, metapodosoma with an anterior row of eight, a subposterior row of 
six and four lateral on each side; opisthosoma with six marginal and eight smaller 
dorsal setae; at the apex of the opisthosoma is a tuft of 10-12 long ciliated setae; 
the largest dorsal setae are 54 /^ long and the apical ciliated setae 350 p long (in 
the figures these setae have been abbreviated). Legs short, IV not reaching apex 
of body, furnished with similar but smaller fan-like setae; claws strong, furnished 
with a pair of lateral tenent hairs; empodium divided into two processes, resemb- 
ling but more slender than the claws. Ventral setae: coxae each with one slender 
fine seta, between coxae T, coxae TV and in held between coxae II and III a pair 
of fine setae, those between coxae I the longest. 


In the presence of the palpal daw and the pronounced mouth-parts this 
species obviously cannot fit into Tcnuipalpus. The mandibles and tarsal claws 
and empodium will also exclude it. 

There seems little doubt that it is the same as that described by Tueker 
(1926) as infesting citrus fruits in South Africa, and it was quite recognis- 
ably figured by Froggatt from galls on Privet at Sydney, New South Wales, in 
the Agricultural Gazette of New South Wales for 2 September 1916. It was, 


Fig- 5 

Tuckcrclla ornatius (Tucker) 

A, dorsal view ; B, ventral view (terminal abdominal setae abbreviated) ; 

C, palp; D, claws and empodium; E, mandibles; F, tip of palpal tarsus 


however, mistakenly regarded by him as the gall-maker and referred to the 
Oribatidae and near to Leiosoma Nicolet. 

Localities and Hosts: 

New South Wales: on Privet, Sydney, October 1916 (W. W. Froggatt) ; 
Mosman, 7 August 1934; on Cypress Pine, Castle Hill, 23 August 1934; 
on Apiomorpha gall on Eucalypt, Boomi, 16 August 1934. 

Genus Bryobia Koch 1836 
Bryobia Koch, 1836: Deutsch Crust. Myr. Arachn., f. I, t. 8-9. 

Body flat, broad and oval in female, egg-shaped in male. Cuticle irregularly 
wrinkled and with small tubercles. Front margin of propodosoma 4-lobed, each 
lobe tipped with a seta. Body setae fan-like, apically over-reaching edge of body. 
Front legs longer than the rest and slightly longer than body in female, much 
more so in male. Tarsi about as long as tibiae. Claws normal with lateral tenent 
hairs, empodium with two series of tenent hairs. Palpi stout with tibial claw. 
Mandibles stylif orm, with distinct mandibular plate. Peritreme opening externally 
in a pair of sausage-shaped processes. Eyes, two on each side, the anterior smaller 
than posterior. 

Bryobia praetiosa Koch 1836 
Bryobia praetiosa Koch 1836: Deutsch. Crust. Myr, Arachn., f. I, t. 8-9. 

Description — Female, length to 700 /a, width 500 /x; male, length 460 /a, width 
320 /a. Colour in life reddish with grey or greenish-grey to black body, gnatho- 
soma and legs red. Front of propodosoma with four lobes, the median pair the 
longer, and each tipped with a leaf-like seta. Body oval, broad and flat in female, 
more elongate and egg-shaped in male. A distinct sutural line between protero- 
soma and hysterosoma. Eyes, two on each side, the anterior the smaller. The 
proterosoma with a pair of setae just medial to the eyes. Hysterosoma with an 
anterior row of six setae, two pairs in middle and 14 setae situated around the 
margins; all these dorsal setae are leaf -like. The arrangement of setae in the male 
is similar, but there seems to be an additional pair of lateral setae posteriorly on 
the proterosoma. Ventrally the setae are long and fine, there are two on coxae I 
and one on coxae II-1V; between coxae II, coxae IV and in field between coxae II 
and HI and posterior of coxae IV is a pair, and there are several small ones 
around the anus. The mandibles are slyliform, with a distinct mandibular plate, 
slightly incised at apex. Tracheal tubes opening externally on each side of 
mandibular plate as sausage-like processes. Palpi stout with distinct tibial claw. 
Legs I in female about as long as body, others shorter; in male I about twice as 
long as body, 665 ja. Claws with lateral tenent hairs, empodium with two series 
of tenent hairs ; leg setae fine and ciliated. Penis long and slender, slightly curved. 


This species, frequently known as the "clover mite," is of almost cosmo- 
politan distribution. It is a frequent pest of apple and other fruit trees, the 


young stems of which arc often decidedly red in colour due to the covering of egg's 
of the mite. 

Fig. 6 

Bryobia praciiosa Koch 

A, dorsa! view of female without posterior legs; B, female, ventral view; 

C, dorsal view of male; D, ventral view of male; F, mandibles and peritreme ; 

F. palp; G, front of propodosoma of male; H, same of female; I, lateral view 

of claws and empodium of leg I; ], same of legs II-IV 


it has gone under a number of synonyms and it seems probable that most, 
if not all the different species of Bryobia described are but one and the same 

Localities and Hosts: 

South Australia; on La Hum perenne in glasshouse, Waite Institute, Glen 
Osmond, 5 October 1933 (I). C. S.) ; on apple foliage, Waite Institute, 
30 October 1932 (D. C. S.) ; on rye grass and clover, Waite Institute, 
9 November 1933 (D. C. S.) ; Glen Osmond. July 1934 (R. V. S.) ; 
Brown Hill Greek, 6 August 1933 (H. W.)- 

Western Australia; on almonds, Perth, 16 January 1939 (P. N. P.); on 
apples, Mount Barker, 29 September 1932; Karrogullen. .9 March 1940 
(C F. II. J. ) ; Narrogin, 20 October 1938 (K. R. N. ) ; in grass, Crawley, 
27 June 1935 ( K. R. N.). 

Victoria: Mildura, 24 February 1939; Beech worth, 23 August 1939; Frank- 
ston, 23 February 1939; Wantirna. 23 February 1929; Bendigo. 
23 February 1939; Geelong, 23 February 1939; Warragul, 25 February 
1939; Amphitheatre, 27 February 1939; Heidelberg, 23 February 1939. 
New South Wales: Bathurst, June 1932; on Amaranlluis, Sydney, 14 June 

Genus Neophylloijius Berlese 1886 
Ncophyilobius Berlese 1886: Acari dannosi alle piante cultivate, p. V), 

Description — Body roundish oval, without sutural line between proterosoma 
and hystcrosoma. Dorsal setae strong, curved, often on small tubercles. Palpal 
tibia without claw, with two setae and an apical stout curved rod. Legs very 
long, all much longer than body, especially 1 and IV, genu of III and IV often 
with a long whip-like seta; tarsi very much shorter than tibiae; claws normal, 
without tenent hairs, empodium with two series of tencnt hairs. Eyes, two 
on each side. 

This genus is found in Europe (four species), in North America (two 
species), and now a further species is described from Australia. They are small 
reddish mites occurring under stones, in moss, etc. 

Neophyllobius ornatus n. sp. 

Description — Female (?), body rounded, length 250 /x, width 175 /a. Colour in 
life reddish. Dorsum without suture. Eyes, two on each side. Mandibles styli- 
form, palpi short but slender, 4-segmented, tibia without claw but with two setae 
and a long curved stout rod, tarsus short and rounded with four setae. Dorsal 
setae 54 /a, on small papillae, ciliated, coarse, curved, and pointed, arranged m 
transverse rows of 4 . 4 . 4 . 4 . 4 . 4 . 2. i.e., mid-dorsally with seven pairs. 
Ventral setae long and fine, one on each coxa, one pair between coxae I and 
another between coxae III and a pair on the gnathosoma ; legs very long, longer 
than body; genu of all legs with a long whip-like seta, finely ciliated, tarsi shorter 


than tibiae; claws simple without tencnt hairs, emp odium with two series of tenent 
hairs. Length of leg 1 445 fi, II 391 ja, III 391 /a, IV 432 ,u ; of genual seta 
I 148/i, II 148 ft. III 175 fx, IV 175 /x; tarsi somewhat swollen. 


Fig- 1 
Neophyllobius ornatus n. sp. 

A, dorsal view; B, ventral vk-w ; C. palp; D. claws and empodium 


This new species differs from all others in the arrangement and number of 
dorsal setae. It is closest to saxatil's H albert, but differs in the nature of the 
dorsal setae. No species is known to be of economic importance. 



On Apiomorpha gall on Eucalyptus, Boomi, New South Wales, 16 August 

Genus Tenuicrus nov. 

Description— Roundish oval forms. Dorsum irregularly striated, furnished 
with long, thick,, blunt, ciliated and almost straight setae arising from strong 

% C 


Fig. 8 

Tenuicrus errabundus g., et sp. n. 

A, dorsal view without leg?;; B, ventral view; C, mandibles and peritreme; 

D, palp; E, claws and empodhim 

papillae. Mandibles styliform with distinct mandibular plate. Peritreme straight, 
opening externally on each side of mandibular plate iti a small compound globular 
process. Palpi stout with distinct tibial claw. Pegs very long and slender, 


II and III about half as long again as body, I and IV three to four times as long; 
tarsi much shorter than tibiae; claws modified to pads furnished with two tenent 
hairs ; empodium claw-like with two series of tenent hairs. 

Tenuicrus errabundus n. sp. 

Description — Female, length 513/*, width 350 p.. Colour in life, ? Dorsum 
irregularly striated, the striae forming circles around the papillae. Dorsal 
setae long, 190 p, stout, blunt-ended and ciliated, arising from strong papillae, 
arranged Mandibles styliform, with distinct mandibular plate 
which is entire at apex; palpi stout, 4-segmcnted with strong apical claw, tarsus 
cylindrical, over-reaching tip of claw. Ventral setae long and fine, one on each 
coxa, a pair between coxae II and between coxae IV and a few small ones around 
anus. Legs very long and slender, all exceeding body length, I and IV three to 
four times ; tarsi very much shorter than tibiae, claws modified to form pads 
ending in two tenent hairs,, empodium claw-like with two series of tenent hairs. 
Eyes, two on each side. 


This very striking animal resembles the species of Ncophyllobius in the very 
long legs, but differs in the dorsal setae and generically in the structure of the 
tarsal claws and empodial appendage. 


A single specimen from ground at Concord West, New South Wales, 
27 March 1935 (S. L. A.). 

Genus Schizonobia nov. 

Description — Roundish species, dor sally strongly convex with strong dorsal 
selae arising from papillae. Mandibles styliform with distinct mandibular plate. 
Palpi stout with strong tibial claw. Peritreme almost straight but ending 
externally in a very large globular chamber. Legs not excessively long, tarsi 
about two-thirds length of tibiae, claws modified as two pads ending in paired 
tenent hairs, empodium claw-like but only with one pair of lateral tenent hairs. 

Schizonobia sycophanta n. sp. 

Description — Female, colour in lift* reddish. Length of female 870 p, width 
610 fx. Body strongly convex and roundish, dorsum furnished with very strong 
ciliated and pointed setae, 148 p long, arranged 2 . 4 . 4 (6) . 4 . 4 . 4 in trans- 
verse rows. Mandibles styliform, mandibular plate distinct, slightly incised at 
apex. Peritreme short, but ending externally as a large globular chamber. Palpi 
stout, as figured, with strong tibial spur, tarsus stout, cylindrical, over-reaching 
tibial claw. Legs not or only slightly longer than body, tarsi about two-thirds 
length of tibiae; claws modified as pads ending in two tenent hairs, empodium 
claw-like, with a lateral tenent hair on each side. Ventral setae: long and fine, 
81 }i, except the shorter ones around anus, coxae I and II with three subapical 


setar, the outer cue indistinctly ciliated. Ill and IV with only one .simple seta, 
gnathosoma with one pair, between coxae I one pair, between 111 one pair, 
IV one pair, around anus six pairs. 

Locality and Host: 

Attacking couch grass. J Iobart, Tasmania, 1939 (J. W. \i,), The eggs were 
thickly congregated around the stems. 

Schizonobia sycophanta g\, ct. sp. n. 

A, dorsal view without legs; B, mandibles and peritrenie; C, palp; 
D. claws and empodtum; E, tibia and tarsus of leg I; F, dorsal seta 

Genus Aplonobia nov. 
Description — Rounded, very convex species, dorsum furnished with strong,. 
long, blunt and serrated setae arising from strong papillae, arranged in seven 
rows: 2.4.4 (6) ., i.e., setae clunales present. Mandibles styliform. 
mandibular plate present, palpi stout with distinct tibial claw. Peritrenie ending 
externally in a sausage-shaped chamber. Eyes, two on each side. Legs only 
slightly, if at all. longer than body, except I which is distinctly longer. Claws 
modified as pads ending in tw r o tenent hairs, empodium claw-like with series of 
tenent hairs. 


Aplonobia oxalis n. sp. (Sour-sob Mite) 

Description — Female, colour in life dark reddish. Length 920 /a, width 700 /a; 

dorsally .strongly convex, furnished with seven transverse rows of strong, blunt, 

slightly curved and serrate setae, 122 p. long and arranged : 2 . 4 . 4 (6) ., 

i.e., setae clunales present, all setae arising from large prominent papillae. Lyes, 

Fig. 10 

Aplonobia oxalis g., et sp. n. 

A, dorsal view without legs; B, ventral view; C, mandibles and peritrcme; 
D, palp; F, claws and empodium; F, dorsal seta 

two on each side, but difficult to discern. Mandibles styliform. mandibular plate 
slightly incised apically. Palpi stout, tibia with strong claw reaching tip of the 
shortly cylindrical tarsus. Legs not much if at all longer than body, except I; 
tarsi only slightly shorter than tibiae, claws pad-like with two tenent hairs, 

empodium c 

law-like with series of tenent hairs. Vcntrallv the setae are long and 


fine, gnathosoma with one pair, coxae I and It with two, III and IV with one, 
a pair between coxae I and coxae IV, and a pair in the field between coxae II 
and III. 


This very interesting species seems to be of some economic importance. In 
many localities in South Australia it occurs on the Sour-sob (Oxalis cernua), 
a noxious weed probably introduced to Australia from the Mediterranean Region. 
Its attack results in the leaves turning yellow and withering. It has also been 
found affecting fruit trees. The eggs are laid in clusters under bark and twigs 
lying on the ground. The name of "Sour-sob mite" has been given to this species 
by agricultural Workers in South Australia. 

Localities and Hosts: 

South Australia: on Oxalis, Baiaklava. 24 August 1933 (II. W.) ; on Oxalis, 
Lockleys. September 1933 (D. C. S.) ; Adelaide, August 1938 (II. W.) ; 
Glen Osmond. August 1934 (R. V. S.). 
New South Wales: P.athurst, 27 April 1939. on peach (probably only for 
the purpose of egglaying on the bark). 

Genus Petrobja Murray 1877 

Petrobia. Murray, 1877: Kcon. Eiit. Apt., p. 118. 

Description — Roundish convex animals, dorsum furnished with relatively 
short, stiff, finely ciliated setae not arising from papillae, arranged in seven trans- 
verse rows, i.e., setae clunales present; dorsal suture distinct. Mandibles styli- 
form, mandibular plate present. Peritreme ending externally in a horn- or 
trumpet-like chamber. Palpi stout, tibial claw present. Claws modified to pads 
ending in two tenent hairs, empodium claw-like with series of tenent hairs. Legs 
not longer than body, except 1 which exceeds body length. Tarsi shorter than 


Geijskes. in his recent paper, synonymlses Banks' genus Tetrauobia with the 
above, but a scrutiny of the description of T. longipes Banks 1912 shows that the 
claws are of normal form and. therefore, Tetrauobia falls into quite a different 
section of the key to the genera. 

Petrobia latens (C). F. Mull. 1776) 

Acarus latens Mull., O. F., 1776: Zool. Dan. Prodr., p. 187. 

Trombidium lapidum Hammer, 1804: in Hermann, Mem., p. 49. 

Peirobia lapidum Murray, 1877: Econ. Ent. Apt., p. 118. 

Petrobia lapidum Oudemans, 1915: Arch, fiir Naturg., 81 (5), p. 49. 

Petrobia latens Oudemans, 1939: Krit. Hist. d. Acarol., II, 1759-1804, p. 285. 

Oudemans, in his monumental work, has critically reviewed the synonymy 
of this species, which should now stand under the above name. 


Description — Female; colour in life, dark reddish. Dorsum convex, furnished 
with short stiff ciliated setae of 54//. length; body 520 p long, 300 fi wide. The 
dorsal setae are arranged in seven transverse rows of 2 . 4 . 4 (6) ., i.e., 
setae clunales present. Mandibles styliform, mandibular plate slightly incised at 
apex. Peril rcrne ending externally in a horn- or trumpet-like chamber. Palpi 
stout with strong tibial claw. Eyes, two on each side. Legs II and III shorter 
than body, IV as long as, I longer than body; tarsi about two-thirds length of 

Fig. 11 
Petrobia latens (O. F. Mull.) 
A. lateral view; B, venter; C, mandibles and pcritrcmc ; D, palp; 
K, claws and empodlum ; F, same, another view; G, dorsal seta 

tibiae; claw modified to pads ending in two tenent hairs, empodium claw-like with 
series of tenent hairs. Ventral setae: on gnathosoma a pair, on all coxae one, 
between coxae I, coxae IV and in Held between coxae II and III a pair, some 
smaller ones around the anal and genital openings. 

This species is well known: in Europe and is undoubtedly an introduction to 
Australia, where it is of economic importance. 


Localities and Hosts: 

New South Wales: on wheat, Inverell, 10 October 1929. 
Western Australia: on apples along with Bryobia, Narrogin, 20 October 
1938 (K. R. N.). 

Genus Tetranyciius Dufour 1832 

Tctranychus Dufour, 1832: Ann. Sci. Nat., 25, pp. 276-283. 

Epitctranychus Zacher, 1916: Mitt. Kais. Biol. Anst. f. Land- unci Korstwirthsch II lb 
p. 22. '' 

Tctranychus Oudcmans, 1931: Knt. Bcrl., Dl. 8, No. 178, pp. 221-222. 

This genus, in its strict sense, includes the true "red-spiders* or "spinning 
mites." all of which are of considerable economic importance as plant pests. 

Description — Dorsum with only six transverse rows of setae, i.e., setae 
clunales absent; the setae are long and thin, at most with line indistinct ciliations. 
reritreme simple, bent V-shaped, with several chambers, but not broadened. In 
the female the dorsal cuticular striations form a rhomboidal figure between the 
last two transverse rows of dorsal setae. Empoclium, except on leg I of male, split 
into six downwardly and somewhat backwardly directed needles. Penis with an 
end barb or hook. 

Type — Tctranychus lintearius Duff. 

Tetranvcuus urticae Koch 1836 
Tctranychus urlicac Koch, 1836; Dcutsch. Crust. Myr. Arachn., F. 1, t. 10. 
Tctranychus aithcac v. Handstein, 1901: Zeilschr. f. Wissenschaftl. Zool., 70(1). p. 74. 
Tclranychus urticac Oudcmans, 1930: Knt. Bed., Dl. 8, No. 176, pp. 163-166. 

This species is the common "red-spider* in Australia, occurring on a wide 
variety of cultivated plants, in gardens, fields and hot-houses. All the records 
hitherto published in Australian literature can almost with certainty be referred 
here, for examination of recent material has failed to show the presence of any 
other species. 

The true tetanus J. inn. is now transferred to the gemts liotctranxciuis, of 
which neither that nor any other species can be authoritatively claimed as yet 
having been found in Australia, 

Description— In life greenish, with lateral dark spots during the summer, 
but in the autumn and winter reddish. Legs and setae whitish. Length of 
female to 600^, width 250 /t, male to 400^, width ISO/j, Body roundish-oval. 
Cuticle finely striated. Dorsum with six rows of long tine and finely ciliated setae 
arranged 2 . 4 . 4 (6) .4.4.4, i.e., setae clunales absent. Eyes, two on each side. 
Mandibles long and styliform. distinct mandibular plate present, slightly incised at 
apex. Peritrcme long and slender, Y-shapcd, with several chambers. Palpi 
stout, tibia with strong claw, tarsus short with thick terminal thumb and thinner 
lateral rod; in male, femora with a stout curved spine. Claws as two pads ending 
in a pair of tenent hairs, empodium split into six downwardly directed needles, 
in male on I the needles are short and stumpy, in the male the penis is short, 


curved apically and ending in a hollow expanded collar resembling a barb or hook 
from a lateral view. 


The synonymy of this species has been very much confused, and it is only 

comparatively recently that Oudemans has definitely separated it from the true 

Fig. 12 

Tclraaychus ■urficae Koch 

A, dorsal view; H, ventral view; C, mandibles and perilreme; D, palp of male; 

F, palp of female; F, claws and empodium of leg I of male; G, same of female, 

all legs; H, dorsal seta 

lelariiis as alt hear, and still more recently synonymised the latter name with 
urticac Koch. 

In examining Australian material from time to time, I have referred that 
from certain localities to E. carpini Oudemans. Further study shows this deter- 
mination to be in error, all the specimens being referable to T. urticac. 

Localities and Hosts: 

South Australia: on sunflowers, Waite Institute, Glen Osmond, 16 February 

1934 (I). C. S.); on melons, Hcctorville, 27 February 1933; on beans, 
Murray Bridge, 26 February 1938.. Fullarton, March 1940; on holly- 
hocks, Adelaide, 1939 (ft. \\7); on lilies, Glen Osmond, September 

1935 (R. V. S.)- 

Oueensland: on dahlia, Nambour. March 1936; on cornflower, Brisbane, 
August 1939; on Cupressus, Brisbane. February 1940 (A. R. B.) ; on 
strawberries, Nambour, 21 September 1938. 

Western Australia: on marigolds. Claremoni, 8 May 1935 (L. J. N.) ; on 
beans. Perth. 1 November 1931 (B. A. O'C. ) ; on Cape gooseberry, 
Perth, 17 May 1931; on convolvulus, Guildford, 15 December 1931 
(B. A. O'C) ; on tobacco, Mangimup, 23 March 1939 (A. J. L.)- 

Victoria : Kyabram, 25 February 1939. 

New South Wales : on beans, Sydney, 18 July 1934; on grape leaves, Sydney, 

14 December 1934; on Orchids from quarantine ex Java, Sydney, 
3 April 1939; on rose leaves, Roseville, 9 July 1934; on dahlia. Concord 
West, Sydney, 5 April 1939. 

Australian Capital Territory: on tobacco. Canberra, 3 April 1939, 23 March 
1940; on Datura, Canberra, 15 March 1940; on Night-shade, Canberra, 

15 March 1940; on beans and mallows, Canberra, 15 March 1940; on 
peach and lemons, Black Mount, Canberra, 15 March 1940; on oak, 
Canberra, 29 July 1937. 

Genus Paratetranychus (Zacker 1913) Tragardh 1915 
Paralctranychus Zacker, 1913: Mitt Kais. Biol. Anst. f. Land- imd Forstw.. H. 14, p. 39 

Paratctranychus Tragardh, 1915: Medd., No. 109, Centralanst. f. Forsokv. pa jo-rdbruksomr ; 

Kilt, avdeln. No. 20, pp. 18-56. 
Paralctranychus Oudemans, 1931: Knt. Dcr., 1)1.8, No. 178, pp. 222-3, No. 181, p. 291. 

Description — Empodium as a simple claw; on the under side basally with a 

process of fine needles in two series of four and six. Claws modified to pads 

ending- in two tencnt hairs. Peritrcme straight, apically swollen in a small 

chamber. Dorsal setae in six transverse rows of 2 . 4 . 4 (6) .4.4.4, Le mj setae 

clunales absent; setae long, not arising from papillae. Eyes, two on each side. 

Mandibles styliform. mandibular plate distinct. Palpi stout, tibial claw present. 


(The pine-tree spinning mite) 
Tctranychus ttntm&nis Jacobi, 1905: Naturw. Zeitschr. Land- unci Forstw., Bd. 3, pp. 239-257. 
Paratetranychus uuunguis Zacker, 1913: Mitt. Kais. Biol. Anst. 1. Land- und Forstw., H. 14, 

p. 39. " 
Paratctranychus ununguis Tragardh, 1915 : Medd. No. 109, Cent-ralanst. f. Fdrsokw. 

pa jorclb-ruksomr. Ent. avdeln, No. 20, pp. 29-32. 

Description — Female, body short and broach with convex dorsnm. In life 
brownish-red to dark green. Length to 350^, width to 250 p. Cuticle finely 
striated. Eyes red, two on each side. Mandibles styliform. plate distinctly present; 


incised at apex. Palpi stout, tibia with strong claw, over-reaching tip of tarsus. 
Peritreme slender and straight, ending in a small swollen chamber. Dorsal setae 
in six rows, setae clunales absent. Legs not longer than body, claws pad-like, 
ending in two tenent hairs; empodiuin a simple claw, vent rally with a process of 
four to six needles in two series. Ventrally the setae are: on coxae 1 and II two, 
on coxae 111 and IV one. on gnathosoma one pair, between coxae III, II and IV 

Fig. 13 

Paratetranychus umtnguis Jacobi 

A, dorsal view; B, venter; C, mandibles and peritreme; 

D. palp; K, claws and empodiuin 

one pair, in front of genital opening one pair, around genital and anal openings 
five pairs. 


This is a well known species in Europe and, as its popular name implies, is 
a minor pest of pine trees. It: has been found in Australia as follows: 
Locality and Host: 

Queensland: on Pimis sp., Passchendale, near Stanthorpe, 20 May 1938 
(A. R. B.)- 

Genus Mktatetranych us Oudcmans 1931 

Mctatctranxclms Oudcmans 1931: But. Ber., viii, No. 177, pp. 198-199; No. 178, p. 224. 

Description — Body strongly curved dorsally, dorsal setae in seven transverse 
rows, i.e.. setae clunales present, arising from papillae. Enipodiuni a simple claw 
with a basal ventral process of four to six needles. Peritreme straight, short, 
ending in a small swollen chamber. 

Type: Metaleirauychus ulmi (Koch). 

Fu. 14 

Metatt'tranychtts uhni Koch 

A, dorsum; B, lateral view; C, mandibles and peritreme; D, palp of female 

E, claws and empodium; F, dorsal seta 


Metatetranyciius ulmi Koch 3.836 
(The fruit-tree spinning mite) 

Tctranychus ulmi Koch, 1836: Deutsche. Crust. Myr. Arachn., H. 1, No. 11. 
Tctranychus pilosus Canestr. e Fanzo, 1876 ( L ) : Atti Soc. Ven. Trent., v, pp, 133-134. 
Tctranychus myiila-spidis Ewing, 1912: J. F.con. Enl., v, pp. 414-415. 
Paratciranychus pilosus Z acker. 1913: Berlin Mitt. Biol. Anst., IT. 14, pp. 38-39. 
Olujonychus ulmi Hirst, 1920: Proc. Zool, Soc. Lond., pp. 58-59. 
Oli(jonyclius aim Oudemans, 1929, male: Ent., Ber., viii, No. 169, p. 19. 
Mctatclranychus ulmi Oudemans, 1931, female: Ent. Ber., viii. No. 177, pp. 189 199. 
Mctatctranychus atni Oudemans, 1931, male: Ent. Ber., viii, No. 1/8, pp. 231-232. 

Description—Strongly convex, oval species. In life, dark red. Female, 
length to 700 fi, width to 350^. Dorsal setae thick, pointed, and strongly 
ciliated, arising from papillae and arranged in seven transverse rows : 
2 . 4 . 4 (6) ., i.e., setae clunales present. Mandibles styliform, 
mandibular plate present, indistinctly incised at apex. Palpi stout, tibial claw 
strong, not reaching tip of tarsus, tarsus with apical thumb that is slightly longer 
than broad. Peritreme short, straight, ending in small swollen chamber. Legs 
not longer than body; claws pad-like with two tenent hairs, empodium a simple 
claw with basal ventral process split into four to six needles. Male: length to 
500 fi, body more tapering. 


Phis species is well known in Europe and America, affecting many species of 
fruit trees. The red spherical eggs are laid on the twigs and branches, often 
imparting a red hue to the trees. In Europe the eggs hibernate, hatching in the 
spring. It also occurs in New Zealand, but has only comparatively recently been 
found in Australia. 


Tasmania: Margate, 11 February 1939 (J. W. E.). 

Genus Anatetranychus nov. 

Description — Allied to Neotetranychns Tragardh 1915, but differing in that 
the dorsal setae do not arise from papillae and are not so thick, and that the 
peritreme, while Y-shaped, is (?) inversely so, with equally thin arms, and ends 
apicady in a small rounded swelling. It agrees with N cofctrany chits in that the 
empodium is a simple claw without ventral process and the claws arc pad-like, 
ending in two tenent hairs. Mandibles styliform, mandibular plate present, 
rounded at apex. Palpi stout, tibia with strong claw. Eyes, two on each side. 

<') Oudemans' Zool. Anz.. 1 Aug. 1939, Bd. 127, lift. 3/4, p. 78, states that pilosus 
C. & F., 1876, is not T. pilosus of Donnadieau, 1875. and ft>r the latter species gives a new 
name of Mctatctranxchus cancstrinii. 


Anatetranychus hakea n. sp. 

Description— Short, roundish or slightly tapering species, not very convex 
dorsally. Colour in life, reddish. Dorsal setae fairly thick, pointed and finely 
cilialed, arranged in seven transverse rows: 2.4.4 (6) ., i.e., setae 

Fig. 15 

Anatetranychus hakea g., et sp. nov. 

A, dorsal view; B, venter; C, mandibles and peritreme; D, palp; 

K, claws and empodium; F, dorsal (large) and ventral (small) setae 

clunales present. Mandibles styliform, mandibular plate distinct, rounded at apex. 
Palpi stout, tibia with strong claw, tarsus a little longer than wide, with long 
terminal rod and another rod basally. Peritreme an inverted V, with equally 


thin arms and apically slightly swollen. Eyes, two on each side. Legs barely as 
long as body, tarsi with a simple claw-like empodium and claws pad-like with 
long paired tenent hairs. Ventral setae: on coxae I and II two, on coxae III and 
IV one; on gnathosoma one pair; between coxae I, III and IV one pair; anteriorly 
and posteriorly of genital and anal opening one pair, and around these openings 
four pairs. Length, female, 380 /a, width 310 /a. 

Locality and Host: 

Western Australia: on Hakea sp., Claremont, 21 May 1932 (H. W.). 

Family TRICHADEN1DAE Oudemans 1938 

Fig. 16 
Raoiella australica n. sp. 
A, dorsal view ; B, gnathosoma ; C, mandibles and peritrcmc 
D, claws and empodium of leg I 


Genus Raoiella Hirst 1924 
Raoiella Hirst 1924: Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., (9) 14, p. 522, pi. xvi, figs. 1-6. 

Description — Round to rectangular species, not excessively convex, with 
distinct suture. Eyes, two on each side. Mandibles styliform, mandibular plate 
present. Peritreme complex, as figured. Palpi small, 2-segmented, without tibial 
claw. Legs short, claws two with paired lateral tenent hairs, empodium with 
two series of tenent hairs. 

Genotype — Raoiella indica Hirst. 

Raoiella australica n. sp. 

Description — Small, red, roundish to squarish or pentagonal in form, not 
strongly convex dorsally. Dorsal setae mainly clavate and ciliated, on the pro- 
podosoma three pairs around the margin, on hysterosoma quite marginal five 
pairs equally spaced setae, and just inside margin four pairs of similar but smaller 
setae, while medially are three pairs of very short non-clavate setae. Mandibles 
styliform, plate present. Peritreme complex (fig. 16 C). Palpi small, 2-segmcnted, 
without tibial claw, apical segment wdth a terminal rod-like seta, a smaller inner 
lateral rod and a fine curved pointed seta. Eyes, two on each side. Legs short, 
tarsi with two claws, each with a pair of lateral tenent hairs, empodium with two 
series of tenent hairs. Ventral setae not determined. Female — Length 382 p., 
width 313 fx. 


This is apparently the second species to be described of this interesting genus. 
It differs from the genotype mainly in the length of the outer dorsal setae and 
the different nature of the median dorsal setae. 

Localities and Hosts: 

New South Wales: on eucalypts, Dee Why, 28 July 1932 (A. L. A.). 
Queensland: on Eucalyptus andrcivsiana, Passchendalc, 20 May 1938; on 
E. tereticornis, Maryborough, 30 September 1938. 


In Rcdia, vol. vi, fasc. 2, 1910, in a List of New Genera and Species of 
Acarina, Berlese briefly described Tetranychus pantopus sp. n. from Ficus sp., 
Moreton Bay, Brisbane (Froggatt) and Tetranychus histricinus n. sp. from fruit 
trees, New South Wales (Froggatt). He therein stated that the species would 
be described in more detail and figured in his Manipoli vii, viii and ix, to be 
published soon. 

The Librarian of the Australian Museum, Mr. Rainbow, has very kindly 
searched through the later volumes of Redia for me, but has been unable to find 


any further reference to the figures, nor could he trace them in the indices to 
vols, i-x and xi-xx of that journal. 

It seems certain, therefore, that no further details were ever published by 
Berlese. The brief descriptions given in vol. vi are too indefinite to recognise 
the species and they must, therefore, for the present, be regarded as uncertain, 
especially as Berlese does not appear to have returned any type or other material 
to the Department of Agriculture at Sydney. 

Translations of Berlese's descriptions are as follow: 

"Tetranychus pantopus 

Female — Triangular, with stout humeri and rather short, thick rough setae; 
all legs (especially I and II) at least twice as long as body. Length 250^., width 
220 fx (with legs, from tip of legs I to legs III, 1,000,* long). 

Habitat: on Fiats sp., Moreton Bay, Brisbane (Froggatt)." 

"Tetranychus histricina 
Colour, ?. Resembles T. horridae, but not or only slightly excavate dorsally 

and with dorsal setae much thinner, apically with smooth hairs arising from small 

tubercles. Length 550 jt, width 360^. 

Habitat: on fruit trees, Australia, New South Wales (Froggatt)." 

N.B.— This latter species does to some extent suggest the species here 

described as Aplonobia oxdis. 



Mr. B. C. Cotton, of the South Australian Museum, has placed this specimen in my hands for 
description. It is the first fossil Cryptoplax from South Australia, and the third record of the 
occurrence of a fossil Chiton valve in this State. 



By Edwin Asiiby, F.L.S. 

[Read 11 July 1940] 

Mr. B. C. Cotton, of the South Australian Museum, has placed this specimen 
in my hands for description. It is the first fossil Cryptoplax from South Aus- 
tralia., and the third record of the occurrence of a fossil Chiton valve in this State. 

Cryptoplax ludbrookae sp. nov. 
One head valve only, in an excellent state of preservation; 1-2 mm. in length, 
and 1*3 mm. in width; cream coloured, evenly arched, slope convex and shallow. 
Tegmentum : the sculpture consists of granules somewhat irregularly arranged 

in longitudinal rows; the beak which overhangs is almost smooth or, at most, sub- 
granular, the grains on either side and immediately anterior to the apex circular 
and sub-rounded, narrowly spaced and increasing in size anteriorly, in the central 
anterior portion flattened, elliptical or oblong, and some particular grains are 
three to four times as long as wide suggesting that, in older specimens, they may 
be longer and fused into riblets. Articulamentum : insertion plate extending 
well forward beyond the tegmentum for one-third of the width of the latter, 
colour white, three well-defined slits. 

Holotype from a bore at Holden's Motor Body Works, Woodville, South 
Australia, 335-380 feet Pliocene. (Reg. No., P.4285, S.A.M.) 

The excellent preservation is astonishing when compared with the valves of 
other species of Cryptoplax from the Pliocene of Muddy Creek, Hamilton, 
Victoria, of which only one per cent, of the specimens show any sculpture at all. 
I have pleasure in naming it after the finder, Mrs. Ludbrook. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


By R. M. BERNDT, Hon. Assistant in Ethnology, South Australian Museum 


While at Murray Bridge, South Australia (January-February 1940), the writer had the opportunity to 
observe a demonstration of the sign-language used by the Jaralde ['Jarildekald] natives. The 
geographical situation of this tribe has been referred to in a recent paper (I) by the present writer. 
On his first visit he was accompanied by Mr. James Wigley, who kindly prepared the rough 
sketches illustrating this paper. 



By EL M. Berndt 
Hon. Assistant in Ethnology, South Australian Museum 

[Read 11 July 1940] 

While at Murray Bridge, South Australia (January-February 1940), the 
writer had the opportunity to observe a demonstration of the sign-language used 
by the Jaralde ['Jarildekald] natives. The geographical situation of this tribe 
has been referred to in a recent paper (I) by the present writer. On his first 
visit he was accompanied by Mr. James Wigley, who kindly prepared the rough 
sketches illustrating this paper. 

Our informant, for the matter noted here, was Karloau (Albert) who is of 
the [Mananki] clan. He is seventy-five years of age, had been fully initiated as 
a youth, and is now living at Murray Bridge. An extremely virile man for his age, 
the excitement and gratification he derived from once more using the signs and 
relating their meanings was indeed delightful to behold. The existence of such 
a system among the Jaralde does not appear to have been previously recorded. 
It is no longer in general use, being preserved only in the memory of old people. 

Sbsk Language 

According to one recent writer (Mount ford) (5) on this subject, the 
gesture language of the Australian aborigine is of considerable complexity and, 
in some form, appears to be used over the whole of the continent. This writer 
has compared some elements of the gesture language of the Ngadadjara tribe of 
the Warburton Ranges, Western Australia, with those of some tribes in North- 
West Central Queensland, and Central Australia. 

The same author states that among the Ngadadjara natives this type of 
language was in general use, being employed extensively when hunting and during 
circumcision ceremonies. 

Roth (7) states that the signs used by the North-West Central Queensland 
natives were of great value to individuals who were forced to travel over country 
in which they were strangers to the spoken language. This would most probably 
occur during expeditions along known "trade routes." Spencer and Gillen (8) 
state that the use of sign language was associated with periods of mourning, 
during which certain women would be compelled to observe long silences. 

The use of gestures is sometimes developed into a more or less systematic sign- 
language (6), in which objects and ideas are represented by postures and move- 
ments of the hands, arms, head and body, imitating the most conspicuous outlines 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


of an object or the most striking features of an action. These signs may be 
abbreviated or conventionalized in use to make them more readily intelligible at 
a distance. 

Among the Jaralde, the sign-language did not appear to be highly developed, 
but this is only a conjecture since the tribe is now almost extinct, and only a 
little knowledge has survived. 

Although used as a means of communication between visiting tribes from 
Yorke Peninsula (2) and the Upper Murray (3), signs were most generally used 
amongst themselves while out hunting, or between friends who were some distance 
apart. They were steps or moves calculated to evoke response from another. 
It may be noted that Karloan and his son often communicate between them- 
selves, in this manner, w r hen one or the other has forgotten an object and has to 
be reminded of it. 

Each sign is accompanied by a spoken word or phrase, which cannot, of 
course, be heard by the other. 

The following signs (except the last live) are in the form of a conversation 
carried on between two people some distance apart. 

Description of Sjgns 
Fig. 1, A The man stands upright, looking towards the other who is walk- 
ing away. The hand is held, palm outwards, and at the same time an exclama- 
tion of attraction [a] or [er] is made. The other, attracted not by sound or by 
having seen the sign, but because he "feels he is being wanted/' turns and observes 
his friend. 

Fig. 1, B The first places his hand to his head and then extends the arm 
sideways, with the palm of the hand facing outwards. The other answers, as in 
Fig. 1, C, thereby asking what the first is wanting; he places the hand to the head, 
and then extends the arm sideways, so that the hand is turned. At the same time 
he exclaims, ["'a?'*] "What?" 

The first, thinking that he will not bother the other, responds by placing his 
hand behind his head and then extending the arm outwards, so that the palm of 
the hand is open and faces outwards as in Fig. 1, D, saying ["Ma nop :eilu"] 
"Go walk on." 

The other continues his walk. However, the first-named, on further con- 
sideration, realizes that he would like to know where the other is going. Fie again 
uses the sign as in Fig. 1, A. The responses are again as in the signs illustrated 
in Fig. 1, B. Continuing the conversation the first man, placing his hand, fingers 
close together and palm downwards, in front of his face, and then extending his 
arm sideways with the palm of the hand facing outwards, signals as in Fig. 1, E, 
and says, [" 'Jahvund?"] "Where you go?" 


v^" A -V V- 

Fig. 1 


The other, in replying, may fully extend his left arm (Fig. 1, F) (in all the 
other movements the right arm is used) and points in the direction he intends 
going, saying, ["rjuwi"] "Over there," or "down there.'' 

Information having been received, a different sign is used to express an 
ending. The first, flexing the arm, places his hand in front of his face, thumb 
extended; the arm is then fully extended, a little to the back, and the hand turned 
inward. At the same time he says, [ H 'Ma"] "Go on." 

Thereupon the departing one turns and walks away (Fig. 1, H). After 
going a short distance the traveller may see something to which he wishes to draw 
attention. He uses the sign illustrated by Fig. 1, A, transmitting at the same time 
the "idea" so that the first should "feel he is wanted." This man, when attracted, 
will respond with a sign as in Fig. 1. C. The other then extends his arm upwards, 
Fig. 1, J, with the index finger pointing, the others folded back, and says, 
["Na'rindjera"] "Many (people)." 

The first, not quite understanding, will then use the sign in Fig. 1, C, say- 
ing, ["'a?"] "What?" 

Thereupon the informant again extends his arm upwards, as in the position 
shown in Fig. 1, J, and brings it downwards, with the hand drawn in so that the 
thumb is at the back and fingers loose as in Fig. 2, A, saying to himself, 
["Na'rindjera lari"] "Many (people) coming down (the river)." (1) 

The first holds his arm up, as in Fig. 2, B, the palm of the hand facing out- 
wards, and then brings it down so that the palm now faces the ground, saying 
["Kal'lur"] "All right (or very well)." 

This is the end of the particular conversation detailed to the writer. The 
following are separate movements. 

Fig. 2, C The hand is held up a little above the head, and then loosely 
dropped so that the fingers point groundwards and the following question asked, 
[" 'Er miman?"] "Are there (any) women?" 

The query, |" 'Mirjitj ?" ] "What's there?" is asked and indicated by the sign 
shown in Fig. 2, I), the arm being flexed, the hand held in front of the face, with 
the palm held downwards. 

The attitude shown in Fig. 2, E, with the arm held upwards, so that the hand, 
facing outwards, is a little above the head, asks the question, ["Nurjgitj Tim?"] 
"W T ho is there?" this question being verbally expressed at the same time. 

The man asked answers by bending down (Fig. 2, F) and pre- 
tending to pick up a net, which as in position, Fig. 2, G, he places round his 
shoulders, in the manner in which women stand when they put their baby ['porli] 
on their back and then throw a ['kundari] or net over the child. This net, when 
worn, is tied round the shoulders and neck, so that the infant's legs remain free. 
This action would indicate to the questioner that it was a woman who was 

V) Referring to the River Murray; hrt f down. 



Fig. 2 


Notes on the above Signs 
The attraction of a person at a distance by sending one's idea or desire, other 
than by a sign or a sound, is interesting. This is a psychic experience, which is 
claimed to frequently occur. These psychic powers seem to be possessed 
generally, and not specifically to belong to endowed individuals such as medicine- 
men. Most often the "message" is "felt" in the vicinity of the stomach. Elkin (4) 
suggests that the explanation may either lie along the line of meditation and a 
state of receptivity, or that it may require some explanation as mental telepathy. 

Some further aspects of this subject, insofar as it concerns the Jaralde people, 
may be discussed in a later paper. 


1 Berndt, R. M. 1940 Some Aspects of Jaralde Culture, South Australia. 

Oceania, 10 (4) 

2 Berndt, R. M. 1940 A Curlew and Owl Legend from the Narunga Tribe, 

South Australia, ibid. 

3 Berndt, R. M. 1940 The Bark-Canoe of the Lower River Murray, South 

Australia. Mankind, 2 (9) 

4 Elktn, A. P. 1937 Notes on the Psychic Life of the Australian Aborigine. 

Mankind, 2 (3), 56 

5 Mountford, C. P. 1938 Gesture Language of the Ngada Tribe of the 

Warburton Ranges, Western Australia. Oceania, 9 (2), 152-155 

6 Notes and Queries on Anthropology, Fifth Edition, Roy. Anthrop. Instit., 

1929, 351 

7 Roth, W. E. 1897 Ethnological Studies Nth. -West Central Queensl. 

Aborigines, 71 

8 Spencer and Gillen 1904 Northern Tribes of Central Australia, 525 


By T. HARVEY JOHHNSTON and E. R. SIMPSON, University of Adelaide. 


Adults of Cyclocoelum jaenschi n. sp. were found during 1937 in the abdominal air sacs of two 
species of small grebes, Podiceps poliocephalus Jardine and Selby, and P. novaehollandiae 
Stephens (P. ruficollis novaehollandiae), taken by Messrs. G. and F. Jaensch at Tailem Bend, Lower 
Murray River. The parasites measured from 7 to 9 mm. long by 2-3 to 3 mm. broad. The succeeding 
measurements were taken from a mounted specimen which had been compressed, its dimensions 
then being 11 mm. in length and 3-7 mm. in maximum width, with the anterior fourth narrower and 
with both ends broadly rounded. The oral sucker was nearly as wide as the pharynx (0-5 nm.). The 
narrow oesophagus was thrown into one or two curves partly above the genital apertures. The rather 
narrow intestinal crura had an uneven lumen, somewhat wider in their most anterior part and in the 
posterior quarter. The excretory bladder was transversely elongate, lying just behind the united 
crura, its pore being dorsal and practically terminal. The well-developed lymph system consisted of 
a great number of flattened anastomosing canals, some wide, others narrow, above and below the 
crura, with branches extending laterally from the latter as well as into the intercrural region, and in 
addition anteriorly, beside the pharynx and anterior sucker. The details were not worked out. Willey 
(1935) gave an account of the system in Cyclocoelidae. The testes were subequal, the posterior 1 
mm. and the anterior -9 mm. in diameter. The cirrus sac was slightly oblique, just behind and partly 
below the intestine. Entering its posterior end was a very narrow, thin-walled vas deferens, which 
then widened into a large elliptical seminal vesicle, -45 by -25 mm., followed by the narrow twisted 
(when resting) male duct. The male pore, together with the much wider uterine aperture, was 
surrounded by a mass of sphincter fibres. The genital openings were directly below the oesophagus 
in the posterior half of its length 



By T. Harvey Johnston and E. R. Simpson, University of Adelaide 

[Read 11 July 1940] 

Adults of Cyclocoelum jaenschi n. sp. were found during 1937 in the 
abdominal air sacs of two species of small grebes, Podiceps polioccphalus jardine 
and Selby, and P. novaehollandiae Stephens (P. ntficollis novaehollandiae ) f taken 
by Messrs. G. and F. Jacnsch at Tailem Bend, Lower Murray River, The para- 
sites measured from 7 to 9 mm. long by 2*3 to 3 mm. broad. The succeeding 
measurements were taken from a mounted specimen which had been compressed, 
its dimensions then being 11 mm. in length and 3'7 mm. in maximum width, with 
the anterior fourth narrower and with both ends broadly rounded. The oral 
sucker was nearly as wide as the pharynx (0*5 mm.). The narrow oesophagus 
was thrown into one or two curves partly above the genital apertures. The rather 
narrow intestinal crura had an uneven lumen, somewhat wider in their most 
anterior part and in the posterior quarter. The excretory bladder was transversely 
elongate, lying just behind the united crura, its pore being dorsal and practically 
terminal. The well-developed lymph system consisted of a great number of 
flattened anastomosing canals, some wide, others narrow, above and below the 
crura, with branches extending laterally from the latter as well as into the inter- 
crural region, and in addition anteriorly, beside the pharynx and anterior sucker. 
The details were not worked out. Willey (1935) gave an account of the system 
in Cyclocoelidae. The testes were subequal, the posterior 1 mm. and the anterior 
"9 mm. in diameter. The cirrus sac was slightly oblique, just behind and partly 
below the intestine. Entering its posterior end was a very narrow, thin-walled 
vas deferens, which then widened into a large elliptical seminal vesicle, *45 by 
•25 mm., followed by the narrow twisted (when resting) male duct. The male 
pore, together with the much wider uterine aperture, was surrounded by a mass 
of sphincter fibres. The genital openings were directly below the oesophagus in 
the posterior half of its length. 

The small rounded ovary, about 0*4 mm. in diameter, was just in front of 
the level of the anterior testis and separated from the latter by uterine coils. The 
very short oviduct arose dorsally from its outer region. Lying pos'ero-laterally 
from the ovary and in contact with it was the shell gland, which was slightly 
wider. The yolk follicles extended from a point just behind the level of the base 
of the pharynx to the corners of the excretory bladder, and lay ventrally and 
laterally from the crura, overlying part of the latter in some places. The main 
duct on each side passed backwards below the intestine. The transverse yolk 
duct of one side travelled inwards behind the anterior testis and then forwards 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


'. /fV~b 

KigS. 1-10 

Fig. 1, mature redia; 2, ipiracidium, showing epithelial cells, etc.; 3, miracidium 
with redia; 4, egg, with miracidium; 5, eercariaeum; 6, adult; 7, anterior end; 
8, 9, variations in position of genital organs and ducts; 10, female system. 

Figs. 2-5 drawn to scale beside fig. 5. 
Lettering — b, birthpore; c. eercariaeum; e, eye; i, flame cell of redia; ff, flame 
cell of miracidium; i, intestine; m, miracidium; o, ovary; p, papilla; r, redia; 
rs, receptaculum seminis; sg, shell gland; u, uterus; vr, vitelline reservoir; 

vtd. vitelline duct. 


in the intertesticular zone to meet its fellow which passed inwards in front of 
the posterior testis. In front of the latter, the short common yolk duct; curved 
upwards and forwards to pass above the uterus and shell gland, becoming 
swollen to form two vitelline reservoirs and then meeting the fertilising canal 
lying at right angles to it. This latter extended inwardly above the ovary to 
receive the oviduct and then continued, ending blindly as a seminal receptacle a 
little distance from the midline of the worm. The ootyp travelled outwards 
through the shallow shell gland, and on leaving it, widened considerably, then 
curved ventrally between the shell gland and the intestine and bent inwards 
below the former to reach the border of the ovary. It then curved outwardly 
under the common yolk duct to become thrown into several loops in the region 
between the shell gland, the posterior testis and the intestine, penetrating to a 
varying distance between the two latter. The uterine coils then crossed into 
the zone between the ovary and the anterior testis and usually, between 
both testes, to reach the intestine. The rest of the uterus constituted a fairly 
uniform tube, greatly looped and occupying all the intercrural region in front 
of the testes (except the zone occupied by the ovary and shell gland). In the 
posterior half of the worm, many of the loops extended laterally above the crura 
into the vitelline zone. Just behind the intestinal bifurcation the duct dipped 
downwards and forwards, rapidly narrowing to terminate at the female aperture 
adjacent to the male pore. The terminal part of the uterus was well provided 
with circular muscle fibres. Eggs were amber-coloured, elliptical, 195 by 94 jx, 
with an operculum with a serrated edge. The eggs in the anterior half of the 
uterus contained each a miracidium with a conspicuous eye-spot, as well as a 

Jn specimens subjected only to cover-glass pressure the posterior testis 
measured 0*5 to '6 mm., the anterior testis '45 to* 52 mm., and the ovary 
*2 to *3 mm. in diameter; the cirrus sac '8 to 1 mm. long and - 28 to *35 mm. in 
maximum width; the oral sucker "4 to *45 mm. broad; and the pharynx *5 mm. 
long by '55 mm. broad. 

Variations were observed in the positions of the testes, uterine loops, and 
transverse yolk ducts as well as in the extent of the vitelline glands. The testes 
were sometimes almost symmetrically placed. Sometimes the earlier uterine loops 
extended backwardly only as far as the most anterior part of the posterior testis; 
but in other cases the extension almost surrounded the latter, the uterus extend- 
ing through the intertcsticular to meet the intestine. The uterus also invaded, 
to a greater or less extent, the zone between the anterior testis and the intestine. 
Sometimes the anterior limit of the yolk glands did not reach as far as the base 
of the cirrus sac, and in several cases the extension was different on the two sides 
of the worm. The usual disposition of the transverse yolk ducts was that 
described above, but in one instance they both lay in front of the two testes; 
while in another case one travelled behind the displaced anterior testis and the 
other crossed the posterior testis to join its fellow above the latter. 


The species is named in acknowledgment of the generous assistance given 
us for some years past by Messrs. George and Fred. Jaensch of Tailem Bend. 
The type, a mounted specimen from Podiceps novaehollandiae , has been deposited 
in the South Australian Museum, Adelaide. Our investigation has been assisted 
by the Commonwealth Research Grant to the University of Adelaide. The 
arrangement of the testes and ovary and their relation to each other, the position 
of the genital pore in relation to the pharynx and oesophagus, the disposition of 
the uterine loops in relation to the testes and the intestine, as well as the dis- 
position of the vitellaria, serve to differentiate C. jaenschi from all other described 
species of the genus. The organisation of the region adjacent to the genital 
apertures closely resembles that indicated in Harrah's figure of the similar region 
in C. elongatum. 

Our species shows characters belonging to the two tribes Haematotrephea 
and Cyclocoela as diagnosed by Witenberg, more particularly the former in regard 
to the arrangement of the gonads. Some of our specimens would fall into his 
genus Corpopyrum, but the others could not be accommodated in Cyclocoelum 
in the restricted sense in which Witenberg proposed to restrict it. Those speci- 
mens which would fall into Corpopyrum resemble Cyclocoelum tringae (Stossich), 
C. brasiliwum (Stossich), C. wilsoni Harrah, and, in some features, C. halli 
Harrah, but they differ from these species as figured by Kossack (1911), Harrah 
(1922), and Witenberg (1926) in some of the features mentioned above. It 
seems to us preferable, in view of our observations regarding variations in 
organography, to suppress Corpopyrum as a synonym of Cyclocoelum, as Joyeux 
and Baer (1927) have already suggested, and to use the older conception of the 
latter. Witenberg's subgenus Antepharyngeum must also be suppressed as it 
includes C. midabile, generally regarded as the type of Cyclocoelum. 

Life History 
The eggs hatched in tap water within a few hours. The miracidium bears 
long cilia, especially elongate on a collar surrounding the head lobe, but absent 
from the latter and also from the boundary lines of the epithelial cells. These 
cells were arranged in four rows; their number was not ascertained, but there 
were probably 15 to 20. Two small glands, one on each side, open at the base of 
the protrusible head lobe and pour out their secretion immediately prior to the 
extension of the lobe. Just in front of the ciliate collar there are, on each side, 
a large and two small papillae. The miracidium was phototropic, with a large eye- 
spot situated near the junction of the first and second rows of epithelial cells. 
Two large flame cells were observed near the centre of the body, but only one 
excretory tube was seen continuing posteriorly. Lying free in the cavity of the 
mature miracidium is a relatively large active redia with a well-developed pharynx 
and two ambulatory processes, as well as four pairs of flame cells, two anterior 
and two posterior. These flame cells, together with the main excretory tubule 
and its two branches, were seen near the midregion of the larva. 


Eggs obtained in December 1937 hatched next day and were placed in contact 
with pond snails, Planorbis isingi, Limnaea lessoni and Ameria pyramidata. 
About three weeks later several specimens of the first-named were dissected, but 
larval trematodes were absent. The Limnaea snails died within a few days, and 
examination failed to reveal any stages of the parasite. One specimen of 
A. pyramidata died thirty-eight days after contact and was found to contain four 
large rediae near the albumen gland and numerous cercariaea lying free in the 
adjacent tissues. A week later an Ameria was dissected and three large rediae 
were found near the head, the largest being 1*65 mm. by '50 mm., and the smallest 
■96 by -21 mm. The largest may have been a mother redia and the others daughter 
rediae, unless multiple infection had occurred and one of the larvae had become 
located in a more favourable situation than the others. The latter view is the more 
probable, since Szidat (1932) and Stunkard (1934) did not observe a second 
generation of rediae in allied monostomes. The redia figured by us (fig. 1) was 
obtained from a dead Ameria and measured 1 "75 by 0*3 mm. It contained 
developing germ balls and cercariaea and possessed a tail-piece and two well- 
marked ambulatory processes in its posterior third. The birthpore lay near the 
mouth. The pharynx measured 44 /a long by 40 ^ broad. The long intestine 
contained dark brown material and, when the redia was placed in water, the organ 
was observed to contract and, on relaxation, might pass back into one of the foot 
processes or into the tail piece. The body covering possessed an irregular net- 
work of articular ridges or papillae, so that a spiny appearance was presented 
in side view. 

Tail-less cercariaea were very thin and transparent, measured (average of 
five preserved specimens) - 225 mm. long by '116 mm. broad. They lived only 
a few minutes in water. The anterior sucker and the pharynx were about 40 /* 
and 20/i in diameter respectively. The intestine was largely obscured by the 
abundant cystogenous glands. A very weak posterior sucker lay in the posterior 
half of the worm. A number of cysts, apparently belonging to the species, 
occurred in the snail's tissues. 

Our observations appear to be the first published relating to the life cycle of 
a species of Cyclocoelnm. Szidat (1932) indicated that Siebold in 1835 and 
Wagner in 1858 had reported the occurrence of a bud {i.e., a redia) in the mira- 
cidium of Monostomum mutabile Zeder and M, flavum Mehlis. These worms are 
Cyclocoelum mutabile and Typhlo caelum cucumerinmn (Rud.) respectively. 
Szidat (1932) gave a detailed account of the life cycle of Trachcophilus 
sisozvi Skrj., a parasite of East Prussian ducks, the intermediate host being a 
species of Planorbis. He drew attention to the presence of a ventral sucker in 
the cercariaeum in the gastropod and in the wandering metacercaria from the lung 
tissues of the duck. Stunkard (1934) gave an account of the life history of 
Typhlococlum cymbium (Dies.) from a grebe, Podilymbus podiceps, the inter- 
mediate host being Helisoma trivolvis in North America. Tracheophihis sisozvi 


was considered to be a synonym. Stunkard fed a few cysts to a domestic duck 
but did not obtain later stages. 

The life cycle seems to be similar in Cydocoelum, Tra cheap hit us and 
Typhlocoelum. We have observed that the egg of Hacmatotrc pints adclphus 
S. I. Johnston, whilst still in the uterus, contains a miracidium enclosing a well- 
developed redia essentially similar to that described above. It seems to us likely 
that all members of the Cyclocoelidae have a life history as follows: the egg, 
before laying, contains a miracidium within which is a redia; the egg hatches soon 
after access to water; some species of freshwater pulmonale gastropod acts as 
intermediate host ; there is neither sporocyst nor secondary redia stage; the cercana 
is tail-less and encysts within the host in which it has developed; the final stage 
is reached when the appropriate species of bird eats the infected mollusc; all the 
cercariaea have ventral suckers. 

Harrah, E. C. 1922 North American Monostomes. Illinois Biol. Monogr., 

7 (3) 
Joyeux, C, and Baer, J. 1927 Note sur les Cyclocoelidae (Trematodcs). Bull. 

Soc. Zool., France, 52, 416-434 
Kossack, W. 1911 Ueber Monostomiden, Zool. Jahrb. Syst., 31, 491-553 
Skrjabtn, K. I. 1913 Trachcophilus sisowi n. sp. C. Bakt. Orig., 69, 90-94 
Stunkard, W. H. 1934 Life Cycle of Typhlocoelum cymbium. Jour. Parasit., 

20, 336 
Stunkard, W. IT. 1934 The Life History of Typhlocoelum cymbium, a contri- 
bution to the phytogeny of the monostomes. Bull. Soc. Zool., France, 

59, 447-466 
Szidat, L. 1922 Zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Cyclocoeliden. Der Leben- 

zyklus von Tracheophilus sisowi Skrj. 1913. Zool Anz, 100, 205-213 
Willey, C. H. 1935 The Excretory System of the Trematode, Typhlocoelum 

cucumerinum, with notes on lymph-like structures in the family 

Cyclocoelidae. Jour. Morph, 57, 461-471 
Witenberg, G. 1926 Die Trematoden der Familie Cyclocoelidae Kossack. Zool. 

Jahrb. Syst, 52, 103-186 


By C. P. MOUNTFORD, Hon. Assistant Ethnologist, South Australian Museum, 


Aboriginal buildings in stone, either in the form of cairn-like structures, or piles of pebbles, have 
been known in Australia for over a century (fig. 1). Sir George Grey, in 1838, found two heaps of 
stones near Hanover Bay, north Western Australia: one, twenty-two feet five inches in length, 
fourteen feet in width and four feet high; the other, twenty-two feet in length, sixteen feet in width 
and six feet high. 



By C. P. Mountford, Hon. Assistant Ethnologist, South Australian Museum 

[Read 11 July 1940] 

Plates XVI and XVII 

Aboriginal buildings in stone, either in the form of cairn-like structures, or 
piles of pebbles, have been known in Australia for over a century (rig. 1). 

Sir George Grey, in 1838, found two heaps of stones near Hanover Bay, 
north Western Australia: one, twenty-two feet five inches in length, fourteen 
feet in width and four feet high; the other, twenty-two feet in length, sixteen 
feet in width and six feet high. 


Fig. 1 Locality of Stone Structures and Pebble Mounds 

Grassland (1902, p. 14) saw a cairn on Mount Agnes, in the Glenelg River 
district of north Western Australia. He writes: "In this gap was a low cairn 
.... surmounted by an upright pillar of sandstone, of which about three feet 
was visible." 

Withnell, 1901, writes of cairns in the Rocburne district of Western Aus- 
tralia associated with totemic beings and increase ceremonies. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


Mathews (1901, p. 76) gives a complete description o! a hollow stone build- 
ing used as a hawk trap. According to him this type of building is used 
over a large area in Central and north Western Australia. No other observer 
has. as yet, noted similar structures. 

Love (1939) gives a detailed description of three types of stone monuments 
of the Worora tribe in north Western Australia. 

The first example (p. 139, pi. xjC) shows seven cairns of stone near the 
Sale River. They were known as "sneezing places". Love writes: "Should a 
man, when hunting, pass this way and fail to place a stick or a spear on one of these 
piles, he will be troubled with sneezing for the rest of the day." The second 
type (p. 141, pi. xiii A) is a small cairn at the foot of a bottle tree, which marks 
the spot where a mythical ancestor died. The third type (p. 139, pi. xivD) is a 
stone pile with a large boulder placed on the apex. This represents a mass of 
cooked and pounded grape vine roots. 

Knut Dahl (1926. p. 225) when travelling through Arnhem Land 
". . . . observed a mound of stones, obviously built by human hands, a sort of 
cairn where grass and stones filled the intervals between. Our guides said that 
the blacks had built it . . . ." 

Giles (1875, p. 171) observed stone structures at Gordon Springs, Rawlinson 
Ranges, Western Australia. He writes: ". . . . saw small mounds of stones placed 
at even distances apart .... There was also a large piece of rock placed in the 
centre of most of these strange heaps/' The same author (1889, p. 94) found 
piles of stones and a cleared path leading to them. 

Dow (1939, p. 210) describes six stone piles, or pebble mounds, varying 
from two to twenty-two feet in diameter. They were situated near Koonawarra, 
in the Broken liill District, New South Wales. In an earlier paper (1938, p. 33) 
Dow described two other groups, a single mound at Mulga Springs, and three at 
The Ramparts on the Waterbag Holding. 

Towle (1939, p. 200) records several cairns on the summit of Mount Foster, 
on the lower Macquarie River, New South Wales. One, on the apex of the 
mount, was nine feet in diameter, four feet six inches in height, and was built 
of slabs of stone laid horizontally. Three other heaps of loosely piled stones 
were adjacent. 

In 1935 local station owners in Central Australia told the author that the 
aborigines often built cairn-like structures on the hill-tops. 

Stone Structures in Souttt Australia 
Gregory's record (1884, p. 206) referring to the stone piles on the banks of 

the Coopers Creek, is the earliest in South Australia. He writes : '*.... We 

found a well-beaten native track .... the loose stones had been cleared from the 

tracks and piled into heaps." 

Wood Jones (1926, p. 125) recorded an example of arranged stones and 

cairns on the Gungra Clav Pan, about ten miles north-east of McDoualls Peak. 


He described the cairns thus: "The central portion of this maze-like area had 
been marked by a series of cairns about four feet high, and solidly compacted 
— very much like the cairns erected by surveyors on prominent spots. Of these 
only four are now standing, but the sites of many more can be detected by the 
mass of disordered stone caused by their collapse." 

The present author (1927, p. 169) described six stone structures which were 
grouped together on one of the low northern foothills of the Waroonee Range. 
The structures were unusual in form, and had been constructed from the long 
narrow slates that had weathered out from the adjacent hillsides. The most 
complete example of this group has since been presented to the South Australian 
Museum (pi. xvi, fig. 4). 

When the paper was presented verbal statements Were made by certain 
members of the Royal Society expressing doubt that these structures had been 
built by aborigines. At the suggestion of the Council of the Society, and in 
order that the criticisms should be recorded, the author added a footnote suspend- 
ing judgment. While then, and since, no evidence has been forthcoming that 
these stone structures were other than the work of the Australian native, ihe 
additional data here produced show that similar structures were known and 
recorded by some of the first explorers, and, as shown in this paper, are definitely 
the work of aborigines. 

Stapleton (1931, p. 23), whilst investigating rock engravings in the Blinman 
district, found four structures on the Alpana Station similar to those at 
Waroonee. He also ascertained from a local aborigine that the structures were 
built "for fun" by the local natives and were know r n by the name of juraka. 

Whilst attached to the 1937 Adelaide University Anthropological Expedition 
to the Northern Flinders Ranges the author observed a number of stone struc- 
tures. Enquiries among the natives of the Adnyamatana tribe, who inhabited 
the surrounding country, elicited the fact that these buildings were the work of 
boys, or adolescent youths, and, like the Blinman examples, had been built "for 
fun." One half-caste aborigine, about thirty years of age, pointed out a structure 
which he himself had built (pi. xvi, fig. 3). The old men of the tribe also admitted 
that they had built similar piles when they were boys. 

Campbell and Mountford (1939, p. 19) recorded groups of arranged stones 
at Weelina, on the edge of the Simpson Desert in South Australia, in which 
cairns similar to those of the Wood Jones examples were present. They write: 
"The most obvious (cairn) of which is a fairly intact pile of large stones, about 
ten feet in diameter and three feet six inches in height.'"' 

At present there are four groups recorded in South Australia, and in this 
paper fifteen new localities are described. 

A Waroonee (pi. xvi, fig. 4). Six stone structures of the square, hollow type, 
described by the author (1927, p. 169-172). They are situated on the low 
foothills of the Waroonee Ranges. 


B Waukaringa. A single example of the square, hollow "Waroonee" type, four 
feet six inches high, and one foot six inches square. This is situated on a 
low rocky ridge, about four miles south of Waukaringa. 

C Old Tooth Knob Station (pi. xvii, fig. 1). A single example of the "cairn" 
type, situated on the ridge of a hill to the west of a gap near the deserted 



140 (X^P 

Fig. 2 


station. The building is approximately three feet six inches high, and square 
in section. 

D Emu Springs. A collapsed cairn on the crest of a low hill, a few hundred 
yards north-east of the springs. 

E Wirrealpa Station. Mr. Arthur Rudall, of the above station, pointed out two 
stone structures on the summit of a hill three miles south of Wirrealpa. 
He had seen the aborigines build these examples. They were inspected by 
the author through field glasses; time did not allow a fuller investigation. 

F Wirrealpa Station. Mr. J. Windsor, who had spent about forty-five years of 
his life on this station, had seen two stone structures, slightly west of the home- 
stead. He said that they were the work of aborigines, and that he 
had often seen native boys build similar miniature structures whilst tending 
the cattle. 

G Arrowie Station. 1 ne same informant also knew of two similar buildings 
about a mile north of the above station, which also had been built by the local 

H Wilpena Station. Mr. H. M. Hale found this example on the side of a hill, 
about a mile from the station. The building was of the cairn type, about six 
feet high, and two feet square at the base. Mr. J. Hunt, the owner of the 
station, informed the author that a number of similar cairns existed in various 
parts of his property. 

J Oraparinna. These are situated on the tops of hills, a few miles north of the 
station, on the Blinman track. They were inspected through held glasses, and 
appeared to be of the 'Waroonee" type. The one on the east of the track was 
about two feet high, and partly collapsed, while that on the west was five feet 
high, and appeared to be complete. 

K Alpana Station (pi. xvii, fig. 2). This group of four, three of the "Waroonee 1 ' 
and one of the "cairn" type, were found by Mr. P. Stapleton (1931, p. 23). 
They were situated on the sides and crests of adjacent hills in this station 
property. Alpana is about two miles south of Blinman. The "Waroonee" 
examples were about five feet in height, and particularly well built from long, 
narrow slates. Stapleton records the aboriginal name of these buildings as 

L Owienagin Pound. This structure was found by Mir. 11. M. Hale, and figured 
by Mountford (1927, pi. x, fig. 2). It is about four feet six inches high, and 
of the "Waroonee" type. 

M Beltana. Situated about two miles south of Beltana, on the western 
side of the road. Mr. P. Stapleton found this example in 1926, and the 
author figured his photograph in 1927 (pi. x, fig. 1). The structure is about 
two feet in height and built of stone slabs. 


N Leigh Creek Station. Mr. V. G. Hurst, the owner of this property, told the 
author that there were a few small cairns on his holding, which had been built 
by aboriginal children. 
O Four miles east of Leigh Creek Station. The author examined three struc- 
tures in this locality. They were similar to the Beltana examples, about two 
feet high and made of flat slates. 
P Patsy Springs (pi. xvi, fig. 3). This structure is on the northern side of the 
road, and about two miles west of Patsy Springs. A half-caste aborigine, 
Rufus Wilton, pointed out this example to the author, and said that he had 
built it when an adolescent youth, and that such buildings were common in 
the neighbourhood, all the work of aboriginal boys. They had no ceremonial 
significance, and were built purely for amusement. The native name was 
adnya jurl (adnya — stone, jitri ~ high). (1) 
R Mount Thomas. Mr. H. Greenshields of the Surveyor-General's Department, 
examined this structure whilst on a survey. It was of the "Waroonee" type, 
about two feet six inches square at the base and six feet high. It was situated 
on a hill-top, about a mile south-west of Mount Thomas. 
S Kennedy Springs. The same informant also saw a number of low buildings 
(apparently similar to the Beltana example) adjacent to the above springs. 
They were all about two feet in height. 
T. Between Wirrealpa and Blinman. These are situated on the northern side 
of the track between the two stations, about thirteen miles west of Wirrealpa. 
The largest of the group was circular, and flat-topped in form, of the "cairn" 
tvpe, about four feet three inches high, and three feet six inches in diameter 
(pi. xvi, fig. 2). Two small examples (pi. xvi, fig. 1), similar to those at 
Beltana, about a foot square, and the same height, were built about five feet 
from the base of the structure on the northern side. 
Apart from the groups of stone structures shown on fig. 2, two others were 
examined by the author at Mount Hill, west of Pt. Neil. Two collapsed piles 
were on the mount itself, and a complete structure of the "cairn" type was on 
the ridge of a hill to the east. 

Pebble Mounds 
Hale and Tindale (1925, p. 53) quoted the following paragraph from a 
letter written by Mr. E. G. Waterhouse to the South Australian Museum. He 
writes : "On some parts of the Outalpa run there are large mounds of stones built 
by the natives, but for what reason, up to now, I have not been able to ascertain." 
Mawson and Hossfeld (1926, p. 23) described two pebble mounds in the 
Outalpa district. They arc probably the same as those mentioned by Waterhouse, 
and appear to be similar to the mounds recorded by Gregory (1884, p. 206), 
Giles (1875, p. 171 ; and 1889, p. 94), and Dow (1938, p. 33; and 1939, p. 210) 
in the country adjacent to Broken Hill. 

0) Compare with the name of the Alpana example, i.e., juraka. 


In answer to an enquiry regarding stone structures, Mr. W. G. Conrick, of 
Nappa-merrie Station, sent the author the following interesting letter and photo- 
graph (fig. 4, pi. xvii). 

The letter is quoted almost in full : "The enclosed photo was taken twenty- 
five miles south of here. There are a number of these cairns on the run, and in 
all cases they are on old native roads. When my father first came out here they 
were plain beaten roads, like well-worn cattle pads. That was in 1871. The old 
pad is still plain in the photo enclosed." (Marked with an X.) 

"I don't know whether these cairns have any particular meaning. I think 
they are only the means of clearing the road. This one in the photo, known as 
Kowah-ri (kauari), had stones as well as wood on it — although most of the wood 



777777777? 7777777777777? 


A B 

Fig. 3 

Plan and Side Elevation of "Waroonee" Type Aboriginal Stone Structures 

has rotted away now — and was on the main road for the blacks coming from the 
Wilson to the Kopramingie quarries. 

"The wood, so the blacks told my father, was put to show the number of 
blacks that had passed, as each one was supposed to place a stick on in passing. 

"Thirty miles east, on the same old road, there are four or five more of these 
piles of stones, although not so big. They are on a rough stony hill. There is 
also another of these cairns on the north side of the river, about thirty-two miles 
from here. It, like the Kowah-ri has been tampered with. In each case people 
have shifted the stones to see what was underneath." 

The pebble mounds and native roads described by Mr. Conrick are apparently 
similar to those found by Gregory in 1858 on the banks of Coopers Creek. 

Marinduna, an old aborigine of the Adnyamatana tribe, told the author that 
stone piles were present on almost every saddle of the Baratta Station. Pie said 
that the local natives attributed their origin to an ancestral lizard, iti. He knew 
nothing of either their real use or origin. 


In the. light of our present knowledge ion the subject, the stone structures of 
Australia can be divided into two main classes : 

I Cairn-like buildings. 
II Pebble mounds. 
Both types occur in north Western Australia, Central and South Australia, 
New South Wales and Queensland, and, in the first three places at least, they 
are part of the present-day aboriginal culture. 

I Cairn-like Structures 

In South Australia cairn-like structures can be divided into the following 
three types, the particular structure being probably determined by the material 

(a) The "Waroonec" type, in which the structure is square and hollow. 

These have been built in the following manner: Two long, thin, 
narrow stones have first been laid on the ground, parallel to each other, and 
about half the length of the stones apart. Two similar stones were then 
laid at right angles across the first two (A, fig. 3). The stones are then laid 
on in pairs until the building is from three to five feet high (B, fig. 3, and 
pi. xvi, fig. 4). A, B, J, K, L, P, and R belong to this class. 

(b) Solid buildings, smaller but similar to those constructed by surveyors on 
trigonometrical stations. The Tooth Nob and Mount Hill structures 
(pi. xvii, figs. 1 and 3) are typical of this, class. C, D, H, T, and one of 
the structures at Mount Hill are similar. (2) 

(c) Low buildings, up to about two feet in height, usually constructed from 
thin, flat stones. T (pi. xvi, fig. 1) is typical. M, N, O, two on Mount 
Hill, and possibly S, arc of the same class. 

From the enquiries made among the aborigines by Stapleton and the author, 
it would appear that the stone structures, particularly of the Northern blinders, 
have been built by adolescent aboriginal boys as a form of amusement. It is likely, 
at the same time, that the building of these structures is the survival of a custom 
that has had much greater significance. Our present culture has many such 

II Pebble Mounds 

The pebble mounds on Coopers Creek (Gregory 1884) and Outalpa (Hale 
and Tindale, 1925, and Mawson and Hossfeld, 1926) arc the only recorded 
examples in South Australia. From the description of these authors, and the 

( £ ) The resemblance of the buildings to surveyor's trigs, and the fact that they are 
usually placed on ridges or hill-tops has often led observers to attribute them to the work 
of survey parties. In most cases, however, they are neither placed on the summit of 
prominent hills, nor in positions of any importance to surveyors. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate XVI 


Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Atist. 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate XVT1 

Fig- 3 



■"'-' ;'*' "'■■*■ 


»;/■.■ .-.. K .. : 7-%r> »■ • s 



Aboriginal Stone Structures and Pebble Mounds, South Australia 

Fig. 1, Tooth Nob Fig. 2, Alpaua Fig. 3, Mount Hill 

Fig. 4, Pebble Mount, Nappa-inerrie 


ktter from Conrick (quoted in the present paper), it seems to have been the 
custom to deposit a stick or stone in passing. Possibly this action is associated 
with some belief, similar to that recorded by Love (1939). In the case of the 
Earatta mounds, their use and origin seems to have been lost, so the latter has 
been attributed to a mythical source. 

This paper reviews the stone structures of Australia, and describes in detail, 
fifteen new groups in South Australia. The positions of the latter have been 
plotted on the map, their significance and origin discussed, and the relevant litera- 
ture quoted. 

Crossland, C. 1902 Report on Exploration of North-west: Kimbcrlcy by F. S. 

Brockman. Appendix B. Perth. 
Campbell, T. D., and Mounteord, C. P. 1939 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 

63 (1) 
Dahl, Knut. 1926 In Savage Australia. London 
Dow, Edmund B. 1938 Oceania, 9(1) 
Dow, Edmund B. 1939 Mankind, 2 (7) 
Giles, Ernest 1875 Geographic Travels in Central Australia, 1872-1874. 

Giles, Ernest 1889 Australia Twice Traversed. London 
Gregory, A. C. and F. G. 1884 Journals of Aust. Explorations. 1846-1858. 

Hale, II. M., and Tindale, X. B. 1925 Rec. S. Austr. Mus„ 3, (1), 53 
Love, J. R. B. 1939 Rec. S. Aust. Museum, 6 (2) 
Mathews, R. II. 1901 Queensland Geog. Journ., 16 
Mountford, C. P. 1927 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 51 
Mawson, D., and Hossfei/d, P. S. 1926 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50 
Stapleton, P. S. 1931 South Australian Naturalist, 12 (2) 
Towle, C. C. 1939 Mankind, 2 (7) 
Wititxei.l, J. G. 1901 Customs and Traditions of the Aboriginal Natives of 

North Western Australia. Roeburne 
Wood Jones, F. 1926 Journ. Roy. Anthro. Inst., 55 





By HERBERT M. HALE, Director, South Australian Museum 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum) 



The material herein dealt with was originally sent to New Zealand for examination by the late Dr. 
Chas. Chilton, but pressure of other work prevented him from reporting on it. When Dr. Chilton 
died the specimens were returned to the Australian Museum, and the Director of that Institution has 
been good enough to refer them to me for study. The "E" numbers cited refer to the registrations of 
the Australian Museum, where the specimens are housed. 






By Herbert M. Hale, Director, South Australian Museum 
(Contribution from the South Australian Museum) 

[Read 8 August 1940] 

Plate XVII 1 

The material herein dealt with was originally sent to New Zealand for 
examination by the late Dr. Chas. Chilton, but pressure of other work prevented 
him from reporting on it. When Dr. Chilton died the specimens w-ere returned 
to the Australian Museum, and the Director of that Institution has been good 
enough to refer them to me for study. The "E" numbers cited refer to the 
registrations of the Australian Museum, where the specimens are housed. 


Ctrolana Leach 
Ctrolana woodjonesi Hale 

Ctrolana woodjonesi Hale, Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Aust, 48, 1924, p. 71, pi. v, and text 
fig. 2; and loc. cit., 49, 1925, p. 137, fig. 5. 

This species superficially resembles C. rossi Miers, which attains a length 
of over 30 mm. In Miers' species, however, the eyes when viewed from the side 
are narrower, the flagellum of the second antennae is longer and composed of a 
greater number of segments, while the furrows of the coxal plates are more oblique 
and on the last four pairs extend right to the inner (or dorsal) edge, just as in 
C. temtistylis Miers (see Hale, ul supra, 1925, fig. 4) ; in C. woodjonesi these 
furrows terminate abruptly some, distance from the edge. 

Localities — A large number of individuals from Queensland: Norwest Island, 
Capricorn Group, 9 July 1910, "Brought up on bait while line fishing" (E. 4843). 
Tasmania: Eliott Cove, West Coast, 5 fathoms (E. 5349). 

Cirolana vif.ta Hale 
Cirohna vicia Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust.,, 49, 1925, p. 150, lig. 11. 
Twenty specimens, the largest 20 mm. in length. One is wrinkled obliquely 

as in the type, and others arc less distinctly so marked, but in the majority the 

surface bears only fine transverse striae and punctures. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


The oblique grooving may be due to the action of strong alcohol soon after 
an ecdysis, but the finer striae are distinctive, so that the specific name is not 

The telson, which is damaged in the single type female, has a median longi- 
tudinal carina, and the apex is produced to a sharp point. In the male, the 


Fig. 1 
Cirolana zneia,, male: a, telson and Uropod; b, second pleopod. 

antennae are longer than in the female, and extend well beyond the end of the 

Localities — South Aiistralia : Sleaford Bay, 25 fathoms, 28 August 1909 
(E.4856) ; south of St. Francis Island, 35 fathoms (E.4838) ; Loc. ? (E.6600). 

Cirolana corpulenta Hale 

Cirolana corpulenta Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 1925, p, 1.34, fig. 3. 

A single female. Only one other specimen — the type female — has been 
recorded. The "Endeavour" example now examined is 5 mm. in length, but has 
the flagellum of the second antennae relatively longer than in the type, composed 
of 17 segments and a terminal style, 'and reaching back to beyond the hinder 
margin of the third peraeon segment. The colour markings are much as in the type. 

Locfl/Jty— Tasmania ; Eliott Cove, West Coast, 5 fathoms (E. 6757). 

In January 1933, Mr. T. G. Roughley, Economic Zoologist at the Techno- 
logical Museum in Sydney, reported that a sea-louse had appeared in great 
numbers in New South Wales, and was causing deaths of sharks and rays, eating 
into the coelome, and attacking the liver. The little predators temporarily held 
up the shark industry. Specimens sent to me for examination proved to be 
C. corpulenta. 


Cirolana valida sp. nov. 
9 Form suboval, two and one-half times longer than wide. Surface 
sparsely and finely punctate, the tiny pits for the greater part arranged in irregular 
transverse lines. Cephalon rather deeply immersed in first peraeon segment, less 
than twice as wide as medial length; anterior margin emarginate, with an exceed- 
ingly minute, downbent, median process, not separating the first antennae; dorsum 
with a furrow extending along inner margins of eyes and continued across front 
of head, subparallel to anterior margin. Eyes pale, elongate, occupying antero- 
lateral portions of cephalon, barely visible in dorsal view, with the upper (inner) 
margin concave, nearly straight. First antennae reaching to end of fourth article 
of peduncle of second pair; proportions of articles of peduncle 5:3:7; flagellum 
short, twelve-segmented. Second antennae reaching back to beyond hinder angles 
of second peraeon segment; first two articles of peduncle short, subequal in length, 
together as long as fourth article; proportions of third to fifth segments 7: 6: 10; 
flagellum composed of 28 articles. Frontal lamina linear, more than three times 
longer than greatest width, slightly widened near anterior apex, which is acute. 
Clypeus wider and much shorter than labrum. Maxilliped rather stout, the 
marginal hairs stiff. First peraeon segment longer than second; second to fifth 
successively increasing slightly in length; seventh shorter than any of the others. 
Coxal plates of second and third free peraeon segments each with an oblique, 
curved furrow (in addition to the usual "submarginal" furrow) ; plates of fourth 
segment with obsolescent furrow and remainder without furrow, although some 
punctures faintly outline what would appear to be the sites of obsolete grooves; 
last four pairs extending beyond level of hinder margins of their respective seg- 
ments, the last pair reaching to beyond the postero-lateral angles of the second 
plcon segment. All segments of pleon exposed; first largely concealed beneath 
last peraeon segment and with postero-lateral angles almost hidden by last pair 
of coxal plates; postero-lateral angles of second segment subacute, those of third 
and fourth acute, those of fifth concealed. Telsonic segment subtriangular with 
apex rather angularly rounded, furnished with plumose hairs and about 20 short 
spines; its length less than three-fourths basal width. Uropods not quite reach- 
ing to end of pleon; exopod narrow, lanceolate, more than four times longer than 
wide and barely more than one-half greatest width of endopod, which is two and 
one-half times as long as wide, with apex rounded, outer margin fairly straight, 
and inner, behind protopodal process, rounded. Peraeopods stout; third joint of 
first three pairs expanded distally and armed with stiff setae on distal and inner 
margins, and with three or more spines near inner distal angle ; outer distal angle 
of fourth segment of first three pairs forwardly produced almost to middle of 
length of sixth segment, with the apex armed with setae and two or more strong 
spines; fourth, fifth and sixth segments of anterior peraeopods with compound 
spines on inner margin, (fig. 2 e). Second segment of posterior limbs widened 
(that of the seventh one-half as wide as long). On the seventh peraeopods the 


Fig. 2 

Cirolana valida, type female: a and b ; dorsal and lateral views; c, antennae, 

frontal lamina, clypcus and labrum; d, maxilliped; e, first peraeopod; e' spines 

of first peraeopod; f, seventh peraeopod; g, uropod. 


inner margin is not set with plumose natatory hairs, but the inner distal margin 
has a dense plume almost equal in length to the segment; the outer margin bears 
dense plumose hairs for its whole length, as does also the inferior longitudinal 


Colour, in alcohol, greyish white. Length, 31 mm. 

Locality— EMi of Flinders Island, Bass Strait, 200-300 fathoms, December 
1913. (Type in Australian Museum, Reg. No. E. 4814. ) 

This large species in some respects resembles the New Zealand C. rossi 
Miers, (1) but differs in that the posterior coxal plates have no distinct oblique 
grooves, the form is stouter, the first antennae are relatively slightly longer, and 
the uropoda are different. It is close to C. borcalis Lilljeborg,< 2 > but has the eyes 
more elongate (although less visible in dorsal view) and even straighter on the 
upper margin, while the first two pairs of coxal plates have a distinct oblique 
furrow, not merely "a short rudiment of an impressed line" (3 > and the others 
obsolete traces of grooves. Further, C. borcalis has a fringe of dense hair on 
both inner and outer margins of the second segment of the posterior peraeopods 
(whereas most of the inner margin is bare in the new species) and the uropoda 
are different, the endopod being more parallel-sided. 

In some respects, C. valida is close to C. hirtipes M. Edwards, but the last- 
named species differs in having well-marked furrows on all the coxal plates, m 
the narrower endopod of the uropods, and in the number of spines on the legs. 

I have to express my grateful thanks to Dr. Keppel H. Barnard who kindly 
sent me a specimen of C. hirtipes from East London, South Africa, for com- 
parison with C. valida. 

Batuyxomus A. Milne Edwards 

Bathynomus ? affinis Richardson 

(PI. xviii) 

Baihynomus affinis Rich., Bur. of Fish. Doc. No. 736, Washington, 1910, p. 4, fig. 1. 

There is before me a single specimen, 119 mm. in length and 45 mm. in 
greatest width; unfortunately, it is abnormal insofar as the telson and uropoda 
are concerned. While undoubtedly close to B. doderlcini Ortmann,< 4 > it differs 
from that species in the following characters. The body is relatively narrower, 
and the eyes are not so deep in lateral view, appearing more narrowly sub- 
triangular than as figured by Milne Edwards and Bouvier for B. dodcrleini. The 
telson is proportionately narrower and apparently had nine (instead of seven) 
teeth in the posterior margin (pi. xviii, lig. 2) while the exopod of the uropoda is 
not subtriangular, but subrectangular. The last four pairs of coxal plates beat 
conspicuous carinac, and the second antennae extend only to the hinder margin of 

oTMiers, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, (4) 17, 1876, p. 228. 

( 2 ) Lilljeborg, Ofvers. Vet. Akacl. Forh., 1851, p. 23. 

( 3 ) Hansen, Journ. Linn. Soc, 29, 1905, p. 342. 

(*) M. Edw. and Bouvier, Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard, 27, 1902, p. 159 
pi. vii-viii. 


the second thoracic segment (to or beyond posterior edge of fourth segment in 
B. doderlcini,^) and consist of less than 50 segments. In the conspicuous coxal 
carinae, and shape of the exopod of the uropoda and telson, the specimen agrees 
with B. affinis; the posterior margin of the endopod of the uropod, however, 
is not almost straight, and the outer postero-lateral angle is not "abruptly produced 
in an acute process or tooth," although the absence of this last character may be 
due to damage. 

Locality — Victoria: South of Gabo Island, 200 fathoms (E. 6215). 


Argathona parca sp. nov. 

9 Form suboval, narrow, more than three times longer than greatest 
width. Surface smooth. Cephalon twice as wide as medial length, with a small 
process which does not separate first antennae. Eyes well separated. First 
antennae reaching to end of fourth article of peduncle of second; peduncle two- 
segmented, the second article three-fifths as long as the first ; flagellum with eleven 
articles and a tiny sub-segment at base between lash and peduncle ( fig. 3 c ) . Second 
antennae slender, reaching to middle of length of fourth peraeon segment; 
proportions of segments of peduncle (in cleared mount, taking greatest lengths) 
3:2:3:7:7; flagellum half as long again as peduncle, composed of 19 articles. 
Frontal lamina narrow, almost spatulate in shape. Clypeus wide, A -shaped. 
Mandibles with molar process moderately prominent (tig. 3 cl) ; palp with first 
article more than one-half as long as second and a little longer than the third. 
Outer lobe of first maxilla terminating in the usual strong claw, at the base of 
which is a spinule ; inner lobe apically subtruncate and somewhat expanded. 
Second maxillae shorter, with simple apex capped with two feeble spines. Palp 
of maxillipeds four-segmented; structure shown in fig. 3 g. Coxal plates each with 
the usual pair of furrows; posterior angles of only the last two pairs subacute and 
reaching back beyond hinder margins of peraeon segments. First plcon segment 
almost concealed beneath last thoracic segment ; lateral portions of fifth segment 
overlapped by fourth. Telsonic segment long, its medial length almost equal to 
basal width; evenly tapering to the rounded extremity. Uropods not reaching 
to end of pleon; protopod with inner process rather short and stout, extending to 
middle of length of endopod, which is wide, subtriangular in shape, rounded with 
posterior margins somewhat flattened. Peraeopods terminating in a single claw; 
anterior pairs armed with relatively few spines. 

Colour, in alcohol, brownish-yellow. Length, 8 mm. 

Locality — Queensland: off Hummocky Tsland, 30 July 1910, from eye of 
Queensland Groper. (Type in Australian Museum, Reg. No. E.6787.) 

( r '> Rich., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., 37, 1910, p. 78, 


The single specimen described above was taken in company with eight 
examples of Aega cyclops on the eye of the abovementioned fish. The mandibles 
resemble those of A. reidi Stebbing (C!) but, in general, the new form is easily 
separated from any of the other eight members of the genus. 

Fig. 3 
Argathona parca, type female: a and b, dorsal view; b, antennae, frontal 
lamina and clypeus; c, peduncle and base of flagellum of first antenna; 
d, mandible; e and f, first and second maxillae; g, maxillipcd; h, first 

peraeopod; i, uropod. 

(•) Stebb., Trans. Linn. Soc, 14, 1910, p. 100, pi. ix, A. 


Aega Leach 

Aega deshaysiana (H. Milne Edwards) 

Rocincla deshaysiana M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., 3, 1840, p. 243. 

Aega deshaysitma Sch. and Mem., Naturh. Tidssk., (3) 12, 1879, p. 360, pi. viii, 
fig. 7-9; Norman, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., (7) 14, 1904, p. 434, pi. xii, fig. 1-4, and pi. xiii, 
fig. 10-11; Rich., Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus, 27, 1904, p. 674. 

Aega antillcnsis Sch. and Mein., lac. cit., p. 361, pi. viii, fig. 10-13; Rich., Proc. 

U.S. Nat. Mus., 23, 1901, p. 521, and Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus., 54, 1905, p. 170, fig. 149; 

Thielemann, Munchen Abh. Akad. Wiss., 2, Suppl. 3, 1911, p. 26, pi. i, fig. 1-2; Hale, 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 1925, p. 176, fig. 24. 

Aega excisa Rich., Wash. Bur. of Fish., Doc. No. 736, 1910, p. 11, fig. 11. 

Five examples, the largest 57 mm. in length. I have also recently seen a 
specimen in the Australian Museum from "Ontong", Java, near British Solomons, 
collected by H. Hogbin, 22 June 1918. 

Localities — New South Wales: Byron Bay, from cloaca of Tiger Shark 
(E. 4858). Victoria: off Gabo Island, 80 fathoms and 200 fathoms (E. 4763 
and 4837). Tasmania: off coast (PI 5353). South Australia: off Marsden 
Point, Kangaroo Island (E. 4865). 

Aega serripes II. Milne Edwards 
Aega serripes M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., 3, 1840, p. 241; Sch. and Mein., Naturh. 
Tjdsskr., (3) 12, 1879, p. 355, pi. viii, fig. 1-4; Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 1925, 
p. 171, fig. 21. ' 

Localities. Seven examples from the following — Tasmania: off Falmouth, 
60-70 fathoms (E. 6596); Oyster Bay, gill-parasite of Skate (E.4844); off east 
coast of Flinders Island, Bass Strait (E. 5673). 

Aega angustata Whitelegge 

Aega angusta-ta VVhiteL, Mem. Aust. Mus., 4, 1901, p. 232, fig. 21a-21f- Hale Trans 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 1925, p. 170, fig. 20. 

This species is rather close to A. dofleini Thielemann (7 > but, according to the 

description, the last-named species has the frontal lamina subtruncate in front 

(whereas in A. angustata it is rounded anteriorly) and the first antennae are very 


I have recently examined further specimens of A. angustata taken from Saw- 
sharks in New South Wales, and now in the Australian Museum. Eight examples 
were secured by the "Endeavour", the largest being 29 mm. in length. In a 
specimen only 10 mm. in length, the serrations of the telson and uropoda are 
relatively more pronounced than in larger representatives. 

localities— Victoria; off Gabo Island, 80 fathoms (E. 6778). Tasmania: 
Oyster Bay (E. 6774) ; "Tasmanian coast" (E. 6779) ; Flinders Island, Bass 
Strait, from a shark (E. 4840, 2 May 1909). Great Australian Bight: 60-80 
miles west from Eucla, 80-120 fathoms (E. 6763). 

C 7 ) Thielemann, Munchen Abh. Akad. Wiss., ii, Supp. 3, 1911, p. 28, fig. 28-34. 


Aega fracta sp. nov. 
S Form broadly oval, little more than twice as long as wide. Cephalon 
two and three-fourths times as long as medial length; anterior margin rounded, 
with a tiny median triangular process extending downwards and back between 
the bases of the first antennae and meeting the very small frontal lamina. Eyes 
large, oblong, contiguous (four facets being in contact) occupying the greater part 
of dorsum of cephalon but leaving a space anteriorly and a larger area posteriorly. 
First antennae reaching well beyond end of peduncle of second antennae; 
proportions of segments of peduncle 13:10:23; flagellum slightly longer 
than peduncle, composed of eleven articles and a terminal style. Second antennae 
reaching back to slightly beyond hinder margin of second peraeon segment; the 
first and second segments of the peduncle are subequal in length; the proportions 
of the second to fifth (in a cleared mount) are 2:3:4:5; flagellum one-half as 

Fig. 4 

Acga fracia, type male: a and b, dorsal and lateral views; 

c, antennae and frontal lamina; d, maxilliped. 

long again as peduncle and composed of 19 articles. Segments of peraeon with 
surface punctate, subequal in length ; seventh shorter than any of the others. 
Coxal plates each with two furrows, the inner (upper) of which runs from the 
postero-lateral angle to a point just posterior to the inner anterior angle in the 
first pair, and successively further back from this angle in remainder; postero- 
lateral angles of first three pairs obtuse, of fourth pair subacutely rounded, and 
of last two pairs acute. Last two peraeon segments and first five pleon segments 
with hinder margins finely beaded. First pleon segment partly concealed. 
Telson one-half as wide again as median length ; rounded with margin serrulate 
and with a small U-shaped terminal incision ; surface studded with minute 
tubercles. Exopod of uropod a little shorter than endopod (which attains to level 


of end of telson), suboval in shape, pointed apically, and with five small spines 
(set in tiny notches) on outer margin and two to three on inner ; endopod truncate, 
with inner posterior angle rounded and outer subacute; hinder margin crenulate, 
with several short, stout spines; outer margin with a shallow hut distinct incision 
at third fourth of its length; posterior to this notch the edge is crenulate and 
bears two spines. The peraeopods (fig. 5. a-b), call special comment. 

Colour, in alcohol, white. Length, 14*5 mm. 

Locality — "Off Tasmanian Coast" (type in Australian Museum, Reg. 
No. E. 6747). 

Several other species of the genus have a small terminal incision in the 
telson, but only two also have the eyes contiguous. These are A. approximata 


Fig. 5 

Ac<ja f racta, type male: a and b, first and seventh peraeopods; 

c, second pleopod; d ? uropod; c, apex of telson. 

Richardson ( ^ } and A. incisa Schiocdte and Meinert (!,) . A. fracta differs from 
Richardson's species in having fewer segments in the flagellum of the first antennae, 
in the U-shaped incision of the telson ("V-shaped" in A. approximata) and in 
not having the "outer post-lateral angles of all the epimera acute" — indeed, in 
A. fracta, only the last three pairs can be said to be at all acute. A. incisa also 
has more segments (16) in the flagellum of the first antennae, while the posterior 
angles of the last three pairs of coxal plates are very acute and the body is rela- 
tively narrower; further, in the new species, the carinae of the first three pairs of 
coxal plates (as shown in fig. 4b) do not extend from the postero-lateral angle 
to the anterolateral angle as in A. incisa. 

<*) Rich., Wash. Bur. Fish., Doc. No. 736, 1910, p. 15. 

(*) Sch. and Menu Naturh. Tidsskr.. (3) 12, 1879, p. 373, pi. x, fig. 1315. 


Aega cyclops Haswell 

Aega cyclops Hasw., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 6, 1881, p. 192, and Cat. Aust. Crust., 
1882, p. 285; Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 1925, p. 180, fig. 26, a-f, and Joe. cit. f 
50, 1926, p. 233, fig. 20, a-d. 

A series of eleven specimens of this little species shows that apparently there 
is some slight variation in the relative size of the head and slenderness of the 
body, although this appearance may be due, in part at least, to differences of 
extension between the segments. The eyes vary in size, but the extreme condi- 
tions may well be illustrated by my two figures (ut supra). 

Localities — Victoria: off Gabo Island, 80 fathoms (E. 6776). Eastern Slope, 
Bass Strait (E. 6752). Tasmania: Hummocky Island, taken from eye of a 
Groper, 30 July 1910 (E. 4839) ; off Maria Island, 78 fathoms (E.6602). 

Aega concinna sp. now 
$ Body oval, two and one-half times as long as greatest width. Dorsum 
with evenly punctate surface; an impressed punctate, longitudinal median line on 
telson. Cephalon twice as wide as medial length, with a median frontal process, 
which almost separates the first antennae dorsally, and is keeled below, the keel 
(not the point) meeting the frontal lamina. Eyes large, well separated, the 
narrowest interocular space being equal to one-half the greatest diameter of an 
eye. Eirst antennae reaching to middle of last segment of peduncle of second pair ; 
with first two segments of peduncle subequal in length, flattened and considerably 
expanded, the width of the first being greater than its length; inner anterior 
portion of second segment produced to level of two-thirds of length of the third, 
which is slender, not expanded, slightly shorter than either the first or second 
segments, and equal in length to the nine-segmented flagellum. Second antennae 
reaching to a little beyond middle of length of first peraeon segment, proportions 
of segments of peduncle 5:5:5:11:16; flagellum shorter than peduncle, 14- 
segmented. Frontal lamina about as wide as long, broadest and roundly sub- 
truncate in front; ventral face concave. 

Eirst, fourth, fifth and sixth peraeon segments subequal in length, each 
longer than any of others, and about same length as cephalon. Coxal plates 
slightly visible in dorsal view ; each with two furrows, the inner of which reaches 
to the inner anterior angle in the first two pairs only (see fig. 6 b) ; fourth to sixth 
pairs successively reaching a little further back beyond level of hinder margins 
of their segments; more markedly acute and produced. All segments of pleon 
conspicuous, posterolateral angles of first four subacute. Telsonic segment a 
little wider than long; margin evenly rounded, finely and rather irregularly 
crenulate posteriorly. Uropods not reaching quite to level of apex of pleon; 
protopod produced to end of inner edge of endopod, which is obliquely truncate 
posteriorly, with outer and inner posterior angles rounded; exopod suboval, barely 
shorter, but narrower, than endopod. Second and third pairs of peraeopods with 
propodus produced, the process extending to middle of length of dactylus. 


Colour, in alcohol, greyish-brown. Length, 30 mm. 

Locality— Tasmania: Entrance to Oyster Bay, 30 July 1909. (Type in 
Australian Museum, Reg. No. E. 6740.) 

In the shape of the first antennae and the propodal processes of the second 
and third peraeopods this species approaches A. angustaia Whitclegge, (l0) but in 

Fig. 6 

Aega> concinna, type male: a and b, dorsal and lateral views; c, antennae 

and frontal lamina; d, first peraeopod; e, distal portion of third 

peraeopod; f, seventh peraeopod; g, second plcopod; h, nropod. 

( ,0 > White!. Mem. Aust. Mus., 4, 1901, p. 232, fig. 21 a-21 f. 
C 11 ) Whitel., he. cit, p. 229, fig. 20 a-20 f. 


other respects is entirely different. It resembles A. cm&trtiiis Whitelegge (11) in 
some characters, but differs in the two abovementioncd characters, in the larger 
eyes, shorter second antennae, shape of frontal lamina and telson, uropods, etc. 

Aega nodosa Schioedte and Meinert 

Acga nodosa Sch. and Mcin., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) 12, 1879, p. 367, pi. ix, fig. 1-3; 
Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 1925, p. 178, fig. 25, a-g. 

Schioedte and Meinert described a male, while previously the writer has 

examined only a female. There is now before me a male, 16 mm. in length, 

from the type locality, but which diffiers from the type in having mere traces of 

tubercles on the hinder margin of either the sixth or seventh peraeon segments; 

they are more distinct, however, near the posterior edges of the first five pleon 

segments, but even there, are not very conspicuous. 

Larger nodes (absent in the female described by me) are present as in the 
type male, but their disposition is slightly different, in that on each side of the 
elevation of the sixth peraeon segment is a less conspicuous node; there is the 
merest indication of a median elevation on the fourth pleon segment, but on the 
fifth there is a moderately large tubercle on each side of the hinder edge. 

The uropods resemble those of the type male more than of the female pre- 
viously described. The appendix masculina is five-sixths as long as the inner 
branch of the second pleopods. 

Locality — Tasmania: Eastern Slope, Bass Strait (E. 6751). 

Aega vigilans Haswell 

Rochwla vigilans Hasw., Proc. Linn. Soc, N.S.W., 5, 1881, p. 472, pi. xvi, fig. 2, and 
Cat. Aust. Crust, 1882, p. 285; Miers, Zool. "Alert", 1884, p. 304; Rich., Proc. Amer. 
Philos. Soc, 37, 1898, pp. 9-10. 

Acga dubia Rich., Wash. Bur. Fish., Doc. No. 736, 1910, p. 12, fig. 12. 

Aega vigilans Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 1925, p. 174, fig. 23 a-g; Nierstrasz, 
Mem. Mus. Roy. d'Hist. Nat. Belgique, 3, 1930, p. 4, fig. 2, and "Siboga" Exped., Leiden, 
Mob, 32 c, 1931, p. 180. 

A single immature specimen, 13 '5 mm. in length, was taken in Queensland 

Locality— Queensland : 20 miles N.N.E. of Double Island Point, 30 fathoms 


Nerocila Leach 

Nerocila laticauda Schioedte and Meinert 

Nerocila hlainvilfei Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) 13, 1881, p. 78, pi vi, 
fig. 11-12 {ncc M. Edvv.). 

Nerocila laticauda Sch. and Mein., he. cit, p. 81, pi. vi, fig. 14-15; Whitel., Mem. 
Aust. Mus., 4, 1901, p. 235; Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50, 1926, p. 203, fig. 2-3. 

Locality — South Australia: 50 miles south of Cape Wiles, 75 fathoms 
(E. 6758). " 


Nerocila grbignyi (Guerin) 

Ichthyophilus orbiynyi Gu&ift, in Bory de St., 5, Exp. Moree (Crust.), 1832, p. 47. 

Nerocila maculuta* M. Edw., Hist. Nat. Crust., 3, 1840, p. 253; Sch. and Mein., 
Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) 13, 1881, p. 50, pi. iii, fig. 7-8; Bonnier, Bull, scient. dip. du Nord, 
(2) 10, 1887, p. 137. 

Nerocila affinis M. Edw., loc. cit., p. 253. 

CiJonera maclcayi While and Doubleday, in Dieffenbach, Travels in New Zealand, 
1843, p. 268. 

Nerocila latiusciila Dana, Rep. Crust. U.S. Expl. Exped., 13, 1853-55, p. 758, pi. 1, 
fig. 7 a-b; Sch. and Mein., loc. cit., p. 76, pi. vi, fig. 9-10. 

Nerocila brasiltensis Dana, loc. cit., p. 759, pi. 1, fig. 8 a-e. 

Nerocila aculeata Dana, loc. cit.,, p. 760, pi. 1, fig. 9 a-c (nee H. M. Edw.)- 

Nerocila' falclandica Cunningham, Trans. Linn. Soc, 27, 1871, p. 500, pi. lix, fig. 2. 

Nerocila imbricata Miers, Cat. Crust. N. Zeal, 1876, p. 107. 

Nerocila' neopolitana Sch. and Mein., loc, cit,, p. 41, pi. ii, fig. 9-16; Norman and Scott, 
Crust. Devon and Cornwall, 1906, p. 39. 

Nerocila adriatica Sch. and Mein., loc, cit., p. 45, pi. iii, fig, 1-4. 

Nerocila orbignyt Sch. and Mein., loc. cit., p. 55, pi. v, fig. 1-2; Monod, Rev. Zool. 
and Bot. Africancs, 21, 1931, p. 10, fig. 5-11; Barnard, Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 32, 1940, p. 403. 

Nerocila cephalotes Sch. and Mein., loc. cit., p. 60, pi. iv, fig. 16-18; Van Name, 
Bull. Arner. Mus. Nat. Hist., 43, 1920, p. S3, figs. 6-9; Monod, Bull. Com. Etud. Hist. Sci. 
Afr. Occident. Franc, 9, 1924, p. 436. 

Nerocila novae-sclandiae Sch. and Mein., loc. cit., p. 70, pi. v, fig. 10-11. 

Nerocila irailli Filhol, Rec. Mem. passage de Venus, 3, 1882, p. 451. 

Nerocila viacleayi Miers, Rep. Zool. "Alert", 1884, p. 301; Chilton, Trans. N. Zeal. 
Inst. (6) 23, 1891, p."68, pi. xi, fig. 1 a-c, 2 a-b; Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 50, 1926, 
p. 206, fig. 4-5. 

Nerocila laticeps Bovallius, Bib. K. Svenska Vet.-Akad. Hand., 12, 1887, p. 10, pi. ii, 
fig. 23-26, and pi. iii, fig. 27-28. 

Nerocila rhabdoid Monod, he, cit., 1924, p. 437 (nee Koelbel). 

Nerocila armata Barn., Ann. S. Afr. Mus., 20, 1925, p. 390. 

Locality — Tasmania: off Storm Bay, 17 July 1909 (E. 5677) and on 

Elephant Shark — Callorhynchus milii (E. 4848) and "off Tasmanian coast" 


Nerocila monodi sp. nov. 

Nerocila serra Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50, 1926, p. 208, fig. 6 (ncc Sch. and 

Dr. T. Monod has very kindly communicated to me the following facts and 

comments, supplementary to a note sent by hirn to Dr. Nierstrasz/ 12 ) Schioedte 

and Meinert, when describing A r . scrra/ 1 '^ overlooked the fact that Bleeker (14) 

had previously described the same species under the name of N. trivittata. 

Dr. Monod has examined specimens of N. irivittata from Malaysia and 

India, and finds that these agree with N . scrra of Schioedte and Meinert, and 

differ from the examples described by me as N. serra, in having the epimerae of 

the posterior thoracic segments narrower and the endopod of the uropoda serrated 

on the outer edge only. He further states that in the British Museum there are 

three specimens similar to the Australian examples ; two of these, respectively, 

22 mm. and 28 nun. in length, are from Dume Island, New Guinea, and the third 

is from the mouth of a hsh taken in the Louisiade Archipelago. Comparing the 

( 1: Nicrstrasz, Siboga Kxped., Mon., 32 c, p. 124 (footnote). 

( 1;! ) Sch. and Mein., Naturh. Tidsskr., (3) 13, 1881, p. 17, pi. i, %. 12-14. 

O') Bleeker, Verh. Naturk. Ver. Nederlandsch Indie, 2, 1857, No. 5, p. 24. 


Fig. 7 

Nerocila triviitata: a and b, dorsal and lateral views of 

20 mm. ovigerous female from Malaysia; c and d, lateral 

view and uropod of 24 mm. non-ovigerous female from India 

(British Museum, del T. Monod). 

Nerocila monodi: 
ovigerous female 

Fig. 8 
a and h, dorsal and 
from New Guinea; 
caudal fan of same; d and e, endopod; 
ovigerous female from New Guinea; f, 
female from Louisiade Archipelago; g 

uropod o[ same (British Museum, del T. Monod). 



= z ^ 













ij is 



of 28 mm. 

c, transverse 

section of 

a of ui 


of 22 mm. 



o\ 23 mm. 

and li 

, side 

plates and 


28 nun. female with a female of A 7 , trivittata, he found also that in the former 
the telson is concave, whereas in N, trivitlata it is flat. Dr. Monod was good 
enough to send me a number of figures (here reproduced) of the specimens he 
discusses, and these leave no doubt as to the correctness of his diagnosis. 

There are now before me three adult females, 22 mm. to 26 mm. in length, 
in these, the hinder angles of the posterior peraeon segments are more produced 
than in the specimen figured by me in 1926, and in one example they extend back 
to the level of the postero -lateral angles of the fifth pleou somite. As in the 
other Australian examples examined by me, the telsonic somite is very slightly 
convex or flat dorsally, with a low but distinct median carina and with the sides 
a little upturned, producing the effect of slight lateral gutters. 

Locality— -Queensland ; 27° south-east of Pine Peak. 1 Aug. 1910 (E. 4861). 

Range — Queensland: Great Palm island, from Lutianus sp. (type oviger- 
ous female, in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. C. 290; see Hale ut supra, 
p. 208); Brisbane; Cairns. New Guinea: Dume Island (British Museum, fide 
Monod). Louisiade Archipelago (British Museum, fide Monod). 

Codonophilus Haswell 

Codonophilus 1MER1CATUS (Fabricius) 
Codonophilus imbricatus Mate, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50, 1926, p. 223, fig. 15 a-k 

and 16 a-f (syn.). 

Localities— New South Wales: Shoalhaven Bight, 15-45 fathoms (E. 6599). 
South Australia: South-east of Flinders Island, 37 fathoms (E. 6744) and 
15 miles north-west of Cape Jervis, 16 March 1909 (E.4841). 

Livoneca Leach 

Eivoneca rayxaudti H. M. Edwards 
Livoneca raynaudii Hale, Trans. Roy Soc. S. Aust., 50, 1926, p. 215, fig. 10. (syn.). 
Twenty-eight examples of this common form. The largest is 50 mm. in 

Localities — New South Wales: Shoalhaven Bight, 14-45 fathoms, 16 March 
1909, one from opercle of Zeus australis (E. 288, E. 4854, and E. 6598). 
Victoria: off Gabo Island, about 200 fathoms (E. 4762 and E. 4836) ; Gabo 
Island to Cape Everard Ground, 20-250 fathoms (E.6319); 40 miles south to 
south-west of Mount Cann, 70-100 fathoms (E. 6318 and E. 5433). South Aus- 
tralia: 50 miles south of Cape Wiles, 75 fathoms (E. 4864); south-east of 
Flinders Island, 37 fathoms. 30 August 1909 (E. 6743). Tasmania: off Tasman 
Head., Brunt Island, 80-100 fathoms, 21 March 1914 (E.6597); Entrance to 
Oyster Bay 30 August 1909 (E. 5684) ; off Tasmanian coast (E. 6746) ; off west 
coast, 77 fathoms, on Banded Perch (E. 5354) ; off east coast of Blinders Island, 
Bass Strait (E.6737) ; Eastern Slope, Bass Strait (E. 6750). 


Ourozeuktes H. Milne Edwards 

Ourozeuktes bopyroides (LesueurJ 

Cymothoa bopyroides Lesueur, Bull. Sci. ,Soc. 'Philom. Paris, 1814, p. 46, pi ii, 
fig. 12 a-1. 

Ourozeuktes owenii M. Edw., Hist. Kat. Crust., 3, 1840, p. 276, pi. xxxiii, fig. 8; 
Hale, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50, 1926, p. 227, fig. 17-19 (syti.). 

Lesueur's paper "Sur une nouvelle espece d'insecte du genre Cyntothoa de 

Fabricius" is not available in Australia, but Dr. T. Monod informs me that the 

figures of Cyntothoa bopyroides leave no doubt whatever as to the identity of 

the species. It was found in a "Balistopode dc la terre de Whit (Nouvelle 


Three specimens are included in the "Endeavour" collection. One is larger 
than any previously examined by me, being 60 mm. in length and 40 mm. in width. 

Localities — Victoria: Cabo Island to Cape Everard Ground, 20-250 fathoms 
(E. 6780). Great Australian Right: 127° cast, 80-120 fathoms (E. 3743). and 
60-80 miles west from Eucla (E. 6759). 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1940 

Vol. 64. Plate XVIII 






Fig. 1 Dorsal view of Batliynonuts ? affinis. 

Fig. 2 Telson and uropoda of Bathynomus ? affinis, enlarged. 


By CHARLES FENNER, University of Adelaide. 

Pressures of other duties has prevented me from completing this paper as early as I should have 
done, and has made it impossible for me to elaborate all of the interesting points that have arisen in 
my enquiries. I accordingly present a succinct description of the John Kennett Collection and I take 
the opportunity to add skeleton notes concerning austalites and other tektite groups in a way that I 
trust may be of value, but which does not do them full justice. 



By Charles Fenner, University of Adelaide 

[Read 8 August 1940] 

Plate XIX 


I Introductory Notes 

II Chemical and Physical Factors 

III Description of the John Kennett Collection 

IV Notes on Darwin Glass .... 

V Straw Silica Glass 

VI Miscellaneous Notes 

VII Texas Tektites (Bediasites) 



Pressure of other duties has prevented me from completing this paper as 
early as I should have clone, and has made it impossible for me to elaborate all 
of the interesting points that have arisen in my enquiries. I accordingly present 
a succinct description of the John Kennett Collection, and I take the opportunity 
to add skeleton notes concerning australites and other tektitc groups in a way 
that I trust may be of value, but which does not do them full justice. 

The increasing body of information that has now become available concern- 
ing tektites confirms the conclusion that we are as yet far from knowing the story 
of their origin. That is all the more reason why we should continue to accumulate 
facts, and to correlate them where possible. Nor is it any reason why we should 
suppress speculation and theory regarding their origin. Theories might well 
progress, step by step, with the accumulation of information. 


Dr. L. J. Spencer (Mia. Mag., 25, 167, 1939, pp. 425-440) has published a 
record of certain specific characters of "Tektites and Silica Glass," particularly 
of their chemical analyses, specific gravity, and refractive indices, with the inter- 
relations of these factors where material is available. In this paper Dr. Spencer 
mentions the lack of data concerning chemical composition, specific gravity, and 
refractive index from the same sample of australite material. There is an 
abundance of reliable chemical analyses of australites, almost all of which have 
been published ; there is also a great number of determinations of specific gravity, 
of which only a relatively small proportion has been published. Spencer can find 
only seven cases where both refractive index and specific gravity have been 
determined for the same australite samples, three by Tilley, three by Lacroix, and 

Trans. Ttoy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


one other. There appears to be no case where all three factors have been deter- 
mined for one australite. 

Perhaps it is that Australian workers feel that sufficient is known of the 
chemical compositions and specific gravities of australites to serve the purpose 
of enquiry into their origin. Those who have studied the internal structure of 
australites, with their tiny bubbles and cavities, may not be disposed to spend their 
time determining specific gravities to two or three places of decimals. It is to be 
hoped that Australian workers will fill up the gaps in our knowledge concerning 
the specific gravity, chemical composition, refractive index, and other correlated 
facts concerning the same individual specimens of australites. 

Accepting the australites as a series of objects, composed of black glass, of 
approximately similar chemical composition, specific gravity, and refractive index, 
spread over an area of some two million square miles, the writer would stress 
the importance of further studying their distribution (with possible variations 
from place to place), numbers, forms, and relative proportions of form types. 
It is to the latter enquiry that the author has particularly devoted his attention 
ill a series of papers of which this is the fourth. ^ 

Some four years ago I came in touch with Mr. John W. Kennett, then in 
charge of the Police Station at Charlotte Waters, Central Australia. Lie had for 
some time been collecting australites in the area surrounding Charlotte Waters, 
aided by the aborigines there. He continued collecting until he was transferred 
to Alice Springs, Central Australia. Alice Springs is beyond the boundary of the 
strewnheld, and, although there are many potential aboriginal collectors at Alice 
Springs, the collecting by Sergeant Kennett came to an end, except for one 
specimen found in the street at Alice Springs, obviously carried and dropped. 
In February 1939 Mr. Kennett brought to my home in Adelaide, in a large 
number of boxes, his remarkable collection. For over twelve months I have been 
engaged upon the classification and measurement of the specimens. It transpired 
that the total number of pieces was 7,184, nearly twice as many as the Shaw 
Collection (3,920). What is more significant is that while the average weight 
of the Shaw Collection was just under one grain per piece, the average weight of 
the Kennett Collection was over six grams per piece. The possible significance 
of this fact is discussed later. 

OAtistralites, Part I— Shaw Collection, Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 58, 1934, 

62-79, 6 pi. 

„ Part TT — Number, forms, distribution. Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 

59, 1935, pp. 125-140. 

Part III — Problem of Origin, etc., Proc. Row Soc. S. Aust, 62 (2), 
1938, pp. 192-216, 2 pi. 

Error — -In Part ITI of this scries the bibliography contained a serious error 
which was kindly pointed out to me by Dr. L. J. Spencer. I gave the date, of 
Dufrenoy's "Treatise on Mineralogy'' as 1787, whereas it was published in 1844-47, 
second edition in 1856-59. 


Sergeant Kennett gives the following" account of his collection: 

"I was transferred from Katherine, Northern Territory, to Charlotte Waters at the 
beginning of September 1932. I had not been at the Station very long when an aboriginal 
brought to me about a dozen curious black stones, different from anything which I had 
seen before. Among them was a damaged stone of the Hanged button type. 1 enquired 
by what name he called that one, and he replied, 'Emu Eye.' I became very interested 
and, after further questioning my black-tracker, Mick Doolan, who is an aboriginal above 
average intelligence, I was told that these glassy stones were meteorites. I scoffed at the 
idea, but later more were brought in of all sizes and shapes. I became more interested 
and eventually decided to make a collection. Very often 1 would accompany two or three 
aborigines, seeking over the gibber plains for tektites. It was exasperating when the 
aborigines would pick them up while I could not sight one. The small gibber stones on 
these plains vary in colour from dark brown to black, and it is difficult to pick out the 
tektites among them. I practised looking at tektites after they had been sighted by the 
blacks, but it was weeks before I first spotted a specimen, which thrilled me as much as if 
I had found a nugget of gold, and then I improved and a t the end of a five-year term at 
Charlotte Waters I was as keen in the eye-sight as the aborigines. One of the hints the 
aborigines gave me was this: 'Supposem you find more 'big fella stone, alright, you look 
about properly fella and you fmdem mob little fella.' This theory I consider to be correct. 
When one located such a patch it would probably involve another quarter of a mile's walk 
before another stone w^ould be found. After heavy rain had fallen on the gibber plains, 
stones became more plentiful and easy to detect. I feel assured that stones keep coming 
to the surface after every heavy rain and, in spite of the thousands that have been found 
around the old Police Station, thousands still remain to be found there. My collection, 
which was made over a period of five years was within a radius of several miles of 
Charlotte Waters — 22 miles north, 30 miles west, 60 miles south, and 75 miles cast— but 
by no means was the whole of that area intensively searched. The stones near Mount 
Dare are somewhat larger than those around Charlotte, and ovals and dumb-bells were 
more common there. Around Blood's Creek stones seemed to be of a smaller type, and 
very plentiful. At Eringa Station they were larger. At Eringa a friend of mine reported 
he had discovered the largest stone ever found in the country, reputedly as large as an 
apple. It had, unfortunately, been pressed into the ground by a wagon wheel, and 
cracked beyond value. The next largest stone I saw was found by a lubra and sold for 
a minty to Mrs. Child, of Crow Point Station. When it was shown to me I did my best 
to procure it, even offering tw T o minties for it. This specimen, T believe, ultimately came 
into the hands of Professor Cleland and is in the Adelaide Museum. The stones in the 
sandhills are much cleaner and less chipped, readily collected after a heavy wind. It is 
very rare to find a perfect, flanged button specimen, and most of those in my collection 
I found around Charlotte Waters itself." 

The general classification followed in this paper is that adopted in the Shaw 
Collection, itself a development from the general practice of those who have 
attacked this problem in earlier papers. Following upon the theory of genesis of 
these forms put forward in No. Ill of this series of papers, it was thought 
desirable to bridge over the passage from the round forms (huttons and lenses) 
to the long forms (boats, canoes, and dumbbells) by separating the "ovals" into 
two series, narrow ovals and broad ovals. 

The following table shows the comparison in numbers of forms and average 
weights of the Shaw and Kennett Collections : 

Complete Specimens — 



No. of 

A v. wt. 

No. of 

Av. wt. 



in g'rms. 



in grins. 


Al Buttons 







A2 Lenses 







A3x Narrow Ovals 







A3y Broad Ovals 










No. of 

Av. wt. 

No. of 

Av. wt. 



m grins. 



in grms. 


A4 Boats - 







A5 Canoes 







A6 Dumbbells - 







A7 Teardrops 





av. 6-47 


Total - 

av. -93 




B Broken Pieces — 

Bl Round fragments - 







B2 Elongate fragments 







1>3 Unclassified frag- 







Total - 



C Aberrant Forms — 
CI Aberrant forms 

(not separately classified) 104 



— 100% 


The outstanding difference is the larger average size of the Kennett Collec- 
tion specimens. Piece for piece they are almost seven times as large as the Shaw 
specimens. Although the weights of the broken pieces are not given in this 
table, they also averaged about seven times as large as the Shaw specimens. 
There were some aberrant forms in the Shaw Collection, which were described 
and figured, but these were not so great in number as the "aberrant s" of the 
Kennett Collection, where there are 104 specimens. 

Both Shaw and Kennett utilised the aborigines in their collecting. It cannot 
be doubted that these collectors thus secured a fair average of the material that 
fell in each of the two vast areas over which they collected. These areas were 
some hundreds of miles apart. The conclusion is acceptable that though the whole 
of the australite fall was one vast "shower. " there were distinct differences, at 
least in size, from place to place. 

In the foregoing tables the numbers given for the Shaw Collection are those 
published in the paper already cited. in the following tables there are some 
differences, due to adjustments made in the light of further knowledge, particularly 
in the relation of "cores" to lens types and button types. The millimeter figures 
refer to the major diameters of the specimens in each group. 


Class Al — Buttons 

Ala with complete flanges 
Alb with imperfect flanges 


Aid with saw cuts - 
Ale (pine seed forms) 

2 or more left 
\ to 2- left - 

4 ■ 

(i) unchipped - 
(ii) slightly chipped 


(") i to „ 
(iii) less than 

(a) 14 mm. - 

(b) 10-14 mm. - 

(c) < 10 mm. 

(i) large interior bubbles - 
(ii) burst, centre back 
(iii) burst, various 

(i) with flat tops > 14 mm. 
< 14 mm. 
(ii) with high tops - 









Total - 258 









The proportion of flanged buttons was about the same in both collections, 
about one-seventh of the total complete specimens. Those with burst bubbles were 
commoner in the Shaw collection, perhaps an unimportant point. It is curious 
that so few of the "saw-cuts" were found in the Kennett Collection, none among 
the buttons ; if these are contraction cracks it would suggest that the physical 
conditions of the fall at Charlotte Waters were different from those at Nullarbor 

Class A2 — Lenses 



16-18 mm. - 


14-16 mm. - 


12-14 mm. - 


10-12 mm. - 


8-10 mm. - 


6-8 mm. (i) larger 
(ii) int. - 
(iii) smaller 


Pitted discs (i) larger 
(ii) int. 
(iii) smaller 


Crinkly tops 





- 69 


- \77 


- 350 


- 341 


- 77 

- 12 

- 6 


- 6 

- 44 

- 6 

- 6 



A2h (i) 36-40 mm. - 

(ii) 32-36 mm. - 

(in) 28-32 mm. - 

(iv) 26-28 mm. - 

(v) 24-26 mm. - 

(vi) 22-24 mm. - 

(vii) 20-22 mm. - 

(yiii) 18-20 mm. - 

(ix) 16-18 mm. - 

(x) 14-16 mm. - 

(xi) 12-14 mm. - 

(xii) heavily flaked (a) larger 

(b) smaller 
(xiii) balls - 
A2i Baker's special pitted disc 






















Totals - 1263 3249 

lust as lenses formed the greater part, more than half, of the complete 
specimens of the Shaw Collection, so is this true of the Kennett Collection. But 
the 55% of the Shaw Collection is to be compared with 631% in the Kennett 
Collection. It may be that the author's experience in handling many thousands 
of these objects, and considering their forms from the genetic point of view, has 
enabled him to more truly classify specimens as lenses when he might otherwise 
have been doubtful owing to their chipped equatorial areas. That factor would 
not materially affect the final percentages. The outstanding fact is that whereas 
the 1,263 lenses of the Shaw Collection averaged less than one gram in weight, 
the 3,249 lenses of the Kennett Collection were giants by comparison, 6*93 grams. 
The foregoing table shows the enormous preponderance of large lenses in the 
Kennett Collection. The original Shaw classification showed only 1,094 lenses; 
the addition of specimens there classified as cores, etc., brought the total lenses up 
to 1,263, the figure quoted in the foregoing table. 

The group A2h xiii, called "balls," consisted of six heavily abraded and almost 
spherical specimens of large size. The possibility that they contained large bubbles, 
similar to the unique specimen in the Melbourne National Museum, led to their 
specific gravities being determined. They proved to be quite solid glass, the figures 
being: 1-2*48; 2-2-43; 3-2-51; 4-2*45; 5-2*47; 6-2-45. These figures were 
determined by W. G. Fcnncr ; the determinations are above the average for 
australites, but they serve the purpose of proving that the spherical forms con- 
tained no large bubble. 


This graph is published in support of the theory of the genesis of australite 
forms as put forward in my previous papers. From the point: of view of size 
and abundance the group of lenses called A2h in this paper is the most important 
in the Kennett Collection. The graph shows sizes and weights of the specimens 
in the group. The important fact is that these correspond with a natural dis- 
tribution curve, rising from a minimum of 8 at the greatest weight (39 grams), 
to a maximum number of specimens of 5*3 grams weight (613), and then decreas- 
ing to a minimum of 54 specimens at the lowest weight of 2 grams. 

3 %o % % % % % % % % % % 
Sizes in Millimetres. 

Class A3x — Narrow Ovals 

A3xa with perfect flange - 

A3xb with imperfect or (i) 40-52 mm. 

no flange or rim (ii) 34-40 mm. 

(iii) 28-34 mm. - 

(iv) 22-28 mm. 

(v) 18-22 mm. - 
A3xc with imperfect or 

no flange or rim. 14-18 mm. 

A3xd „ „ 10-14 mm. - 

A3xe „ ,, 8-10 mm. - 












Class A3y — Broad Ovals 

A3ya with perfect flange - - 

A3yb with imperfect or (i) 40-52 mm. 
no flange or rim (ii) 34-40 mm. 

(iii) 28-34 mm. - 
(iv) 22-28 mm. 
(v) 18-22 mm. - 
A3yc with imperfect or 

no flange or rim 14-18 mm. 

A3yd „ „ 10-14 mm. - 

A3ye „ „ 8-10 mm. - 



- 2 









- 18 

T 1 

- 50 


- 81 


- 17 


168 365 

For reasons already given the ovals were separated into two groups : 
(a) broad, having a short diameter equal to three-quarters or more of the long 
diameter; (b) narrow, having a short diameter half to three-quarters of the long 
diameter. The proportion of ovals in the two collections is somewhat similar: 
Kennett, 14% (740); Shaw, 8% (168). The characters were quite similar 
except that, as the table shows, the Kennett specimens were larger, again more 
than seven times as large. No distinction was made between broad and narrow 
ovals in the Shaw Collection, and they are all included here as broad ovals. 

Class A4— Boats 

A4a long axis (i) 48-56 mm. 

(ii) 40-48 mm. - 

(iii) 34-40 mm. 

(iv) 28-34 mm. - 
(v) 22-28 mm. - 
A4b long axis 18-22 mm. 

A4c long axis 14-18 mm. 

A4d long axis 12-14 mm. 

A4e thin, flat, translucent - 

A4f elongate crinkly tops - 

171 323 

"Boats" are ovals in which the short diameter is less than half the long 
diameter. These constituted 8% of the Shaw and 6% of the Kennett Collection. 
A few had the "crinkly tops," figured in previous papers, suggesting a flow of 











- 15 


- 75 


- 52 


- 14 

- 8 

- 7 



material to the rear side of the specimen during flight, in place of the formation 
of a flange. 

Class A5 — Canoes 

A5a long axis 22-30 mm. 

A5b long axis 18-22 mm. 

A5c long axis 14-18 mm. 

ASd long axis 12-14 mm. 

A5c aberrant elongates - 



- 22 


- 18 


- 28 


- 2 



There was a very small number of canoes (boats with pointed ends) in the 
Kennett Collection. Their absence, with the other differences noted, suggests 
that the fall at Charlotte Waters was more viscous or fell under different condi- 
tions. The average weights of canoes were about the same in both cases. 

A 6a long axis 

A61) long axis 

A 6c long axis 

A6d long axis 

A6e long axis., ladles 

A6f long axis, beans or kidneys 

Class A6 — Dumbbells 

(i) 65 mm. plus 

(ii) 55-65 mm. 

(iii) 45-55 mm. 

(iv) 35-45 mm. 

(v) 30-35 mm. 

25 30 mm. 

20-25 mm. 

15-20 nun. 


















A7a long axis, 12-15 mm 

A7b long axis 
A7c long axis 
A7d long axis 
A7e air bombs, etc. 

Class A7 — Teardrops 
(i ) 35 mm. plus 
(ii) 25-35 mm. 
(iii) 15-25 mm. 
(iv) 12-15 mm. 
10-12 mm. 
8-10 mm. 
6-8 mm. 









- 6 


- 21 


- 45 


- 39 

- 23 




Dumbbells and their ultimate separate halves (teardrops) were fewer in the 
Kennett Collection, but bigger. Here, again, the size ratio was about 7:1 (see 
Table 1). The comparative rarity of dumbbells, canoes, and teardrops was one 
of the peculiarities of the Kennett Collection, compared with the Shaw Collec- 
tion. Those who personally examine the Kennett Collection will find little 
difference to the eye between some boats and some dumbbells. In cases of doubt, 
reliance was placed almost wholly on the sense of touch. If a constriction or 
"waist" could be detected by the fingers the specimens were classified as 

Class B — Fragments 
Class Bl — Round Forms— Fragments 


Bla buttons (with saw cuts), fragments greater than half 
Bib buttons (with saw cuts), fragments less than half - 
Blc buttons with concentric fractures, large 
Bid buttons with concentric fractures, small 
Ble central conical portions of buttons - 

Elf button cores, larger (now lens cores, A2h xii (a) ) 
Big button cores, smaller (now lens cores, A2h xii (b) ) 
Elh "lumps", weathered and abraded (i) large - 

(ii) medium 
(iii) small 
Eli fragments with bubble cavities - 
Blj button fragments, with flanges, larger (-* or more) 
Blk button fragments with flanges, smaller (less than £) 
Bll button fragments without flanges, possibly lenses - 

























Class E2 — Elongate Forms — Fragments 
E2a (i) elongates with saw cuts * 

(ii) elongates with saw cuts (trilobites) 
B2b varied elongates with concentric fractures - 
B2c elongate fragments, with unusual flow ridges, etc. 
B2d elongate forms, with bubble cavities - 
B2e elongate forms, mostly cores, some very irregular 
B2f (i) fragments, larger ~ 

(ii) fragments, smaller - 

B2g (i) dumbbell fragments, larger - - - - 

(ii) dumbbell fragments, smaller - 

B2h teardrop fragments ------ 























Class B3- — Unclassified Fragments 

B3a Nondescript fragments (i) very large 

(ii) large - 
(iii) medium 
(iv) small - 

B3b Flakes, accidental or aboriginal - 

B3c Foreign bodies - - 







- 340 




- 4 


- (10) 




There is little need for comment on the figures concerning fragments. 
Round forms are more common, as already shown, than elongate forms, but round 
fragments are in a smaller ratio to elongate fragments than might be expected, 
unless we accept the idea that the elongate forms are more readily broken. 
Possibly the very great proportion of unclassified fragments (B3) in the Kennett 
Collection was due to more thorough collecting, 
fragments showed relatively fresh fractures. 

The greater number of these 

Class C — "Indicators", Aberrants, and other Curious Specimens 
(included in aberrant elongates, etc., in Shaw Collection) 

Class CI, Round "Indicators" - 
Class C2, Elongate "Indicators" 
Class C3, Curious Specimens— 

(i) unusual flow ridges, etc. 
(ii) curious buttons - 
(iii) helmet forms - 
(iv) flat trays - - - - 
(v) "spoon" forms - 
(vi) with bubble about to burst - 
(vii) teardrop becoming button? 
(viii) specimen ( ?) touched in flight 
(ix) red inclusions - 
(x) unusual colour and structure 
(xi) an inexplicable fragment - 
(xii) detached two-thirds flange - 
(xiii) parts of "aerial bombs" 
(xiv) ( ?) pine-seed forms - 





It is necessary that some notes should be added concerning the aberrant or 
"irregular" forms which are set out in the foregoing table. When these are 


adequately described and figured, they should throw some light on the problem 
of the formation of australites. These notes give the simplest facts concern- 
ing them. 

(a) "Indicators". These are forms in which most of the important equatorial 
portion has been chipped or flaked off, in the manner characteristic of thou- 
sands of specimens, with the exception that the flaking process has not been 
complete. There is thus a portion of the margin left, and this remaining 
margin "indicates", in almost every case, that the original form was of lens 
shape without flanges ("flanges" are characteristic of those types called 
buttons). This fact has already been published, with figures (Trans. Roy. 
Soc. S. Aust, lix, 1935, p. 131), but the Kcnnett Collection contains a number 
of corroborative examples, 52 in number. Baker (Min. Mag., London, 
xxv, No. 168, p. 493) refers to the flaking of! of these unstable equatorial 
portions "during atmospheric flight". The writer believes this flaking to 
have slowly taken place in the years since the australites fell to the surface 
(vide Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 62 (2), 1938). The point stressed here is 
that these particular specimens tell us something of the original shape of the 
flaked specimens. In a very few "indicators" there is evidence of an original 
flange. The writer agrees with Baker's definition of a "core" (loc. cit.) 
except that he finds it difficult to imagine the flaking to have taken place to 
any extent, if at all, during flight (see pi. xix, Nos. 11, 12, 13). 

(b) Specimens with unusual flow ridges. "Flow ridges" are external formations, 
usually on the front portion of the partly molten moving australite, and 
although they show remarkable uniformity in the majority of specimens, 
where preserved, there is in some specimens a very interesting series of 
irregularities. These call for physical and mathematical enquiry (see pi. xix, 
Nos. 14, 15, 17). 

(c) Curious Buttons. Buttons are, as a rule, more than usually uniform, though 
no two are alike; they are between 1^ and 2\ cm. in diameter, and from 
1 to 1'75 cm. deep. Among the curious forms of the Kemiett Collection is 
a large button that is most irregular in form and outline, yet having a 
perfectly good flange, almost complete (see pi. xix, No. 16). Another is the 
smallest button I have seen, flange incomplete (pi. xix, No. 19) ; another is 
like a Cornish pasty, with a flange on one side only (see pi. xix, No. 15). 

(d) Helmet Forms. These appear to be blobs of glass that once were buttons, 
but which have advanced far beyond the usual button form owing to melting 
and flowage during flight. (2;) "Flat trays" are small objects, of varied type, 
approaching helmet forms at one extreme and flat discs at the other (see 
pi. xix, Nos. 22 to 27). "Spoon forms" are large, and are chiefly interesting 
because they are so unlike the usual australites (except in composition and 
colour), and so like the characteristic spoon forms of the moldavitcs. 

C 2 ) These forms, although somewhat deeper in the "crown", appear to be similar to 
those described by George Baker in the Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 52, n.s., pt. ii 1940, p. 312. 


(e) Other unusual forms include one teardrop that appears to have been flatten- 
ing out to form a button, but there is no flange. There are many better 
examples in museum collections of this tendency for the flying teardrop to 
develop a flange. Another shows on its posterior surface a bubble that was 
just about to burst— not a very interesting specimen. Another suggests what 
the writer has looked for during the handling of many thousands of specimens 
— evidence of a specimen being touched during flight. Another specimen 
shows reddish surface inclusions; there are many such in the Melbourne 
University Collection, but apart from this dubious one, none in the Kennett 
Collection; Darwin's Australite, now in the Geological Museum, London, 
has a considerable amount of this red material in it ; it has never been analysed. 

(f) There are two fragments with unusual colour and structure, but not 
important, and one "inexplicable" fragment, which does not appear to be a 
part of any known australite form. There is a piece that is two-thirds of a 
button flange, separated from its parent button; four that are parts of some 
relatively large aerial bombs, broken, and with remarkably complex flow 
ridges, and four that I have called "pine-seed" forms, for lack of a better 
place to classify them. 

Foreign Bodies. The group B3c includes 17 "foreign bodies". It is remark- 
able that the aborigines, with their exceptional acuity of vision, and their equally 
remarkable powers of observation, should have collected many specimens that 
are not australites. The writer's training in mineralogical and petrological 
observation, together with the experience of handling critically many thousands 
of australite and other tektite specimens, has not made him immune from error. 
Of the 17 mistakes in the Kennett Collection some are limonite, sand-blasted, and 
with good patina; others and more deceptive ones are waterworn cherts and other 
fine-grained homogeneous rocks. There are at least three definite aboriginal 
artefacts of chert, etc., and there are also two oval waterworn pebbles. Dr. Keith 
Ward, who collected from the aborigines in the tektitc-sprinkled area of Kal- 
goorlie, Western Australia, many years ago, told me that if the native collector 
had any doubts of his specimen, he deftly struck a chip from the dull surface 
to reveal the reassuring glassy material within. 

The Kennett Collection. The general facts of the John Kennett Collec- 
tion support the knowledge already in our possession, and at the same time bring 
forward definite evidence of a feature, long suspected but not substantiated. All 
the forms were lying on the surface, in the Central Australian desert and semi- 
desert areas; this supports the idea of their geological recency ("geologically 
recent but historically remote"). The forms are the same as those found else- 
where, and the relative abundance of the various types of forms is closely similar 
to what has been found in other areas. The number of aberrant forms, though 
not large, may be due to the assiduity with which Sergeant Kennett, aided by his 
aboriginal friends, so closely combed this area. 


There is one minor point about collecting that might be recorded here. As 
one who has sought for australites among the abundant black and purple frag- 
ments with which the desert areas are strewn. I know the difficulty of discovery; 
Sergeant Kennett has learnt that one should search with his back to the sun, and 
look well ahead; thus the eye becomes "tuned in" to the glassy objects and they 
are more readily found. 

The important evidence given us by the Kennett Collection is that, not 
only were the falls more numerous in some places than in others, but also that in 
the more densely sprinkled areas (e.g., Charlotte Waters and Nullarbor areas) 
there were some general and striking differences between the characteristics of 
the australites themselves ; those at Charlotte Waters were on the average seven 
times as large as those on the more southern field. The John Kennett Australite 
Collection is a unique and fascinating one, and in the interests of scientific enquiry 
it is to be hoped that it may be acquired intact by some institution, for there is 
still much desirable research to be done on this collection. 

Darwin Glass (Queenstownite), found in north-western Tasmania, is 
generally considered one of the more doubtful tektites. In published tables and 
graphs of chemical composition and physical characters it stands somewhat apart 
from the accepted tektite groups. A careful comparison of external and internal 
characters, as revealed by the microscope, shows that in these features also the 
Darwin Glass specimens are distinct from such tektites as moldavites, australites, 
rizalites, billitonites, indo-chinites, or the more recently found bediasites. 

Published accounts speak of "thousands of tons" of this material, but it is not 
easy to get specimens at present. I found there was none available at Queens- 
town itself, nor in the Museum at Hobart. Three pieces were kindly made avail- 
able to me from the Launceston (Tasmania) Museum. Professor Cotton, of the 
University of Sydney, and Professor Richards, of the University of Queensland, 
generously lent me for inspection the whole, of their material, and this is listed 
in the following pages; the total weight of the material was about 257 grams. 
In a subsequent paper the results of comparative examination will be made avail- 
able detailing the external sculpture and internal flowlines, etc., of the various 
tektites, including Darwin Glass. In this section we shall deal only with numbers,, 
forms, and weights. 

Loftus Hills stresses the "twists, the tubercles, and the slaggy appearance.''' 
Suess noted the predominance of "stretched and distorted forms." David men- 
tioned that they were rarely unbroken, many stalactitic with spiral twist, disc- 
shaped, and "striated, like pulled-out and twisted toffee." 

These descriptions are excellent, but they do not give account of size and 
weight. The striking point of the specimens is their slightness and their "frothi- 
ness". Each specimen contains a mass of bubbles, and each bubble has the usual 


internal "hot polish" common to silica-glass bubbles, as L have investigated them 
experimentally in a glass-work furnace, by courtesy of the management of Aus- 
tralian Glass Manufactures, Ltd., Kilkenny, South Australia. The colour of 
Darwin Glass varies from almost clear, through a pale-green translucence similar 
to that of Libyan-glass, to green-grey, white, and black. There are no "perfect 
forms", with the exception of one boot-shaped piece, a tiny double-dumbbell, bent 
at right angles. 

The striated or fasciated appearance is common. Tubercles are abundant. 
"Straight-cut" broken ends are not uncommon. Sonic of the pieces have a 
tendency towards the teardrop or spoon type ; the smallest pieces are as shapeless 
as cinders, and not unlike them. 

Whatever their origin, it is clear that at the time of their appearance, and 
just prior to their consolidation, they were "flung" in an irregular way, and under 
conditions that involved the incorporation of much gas. There is no evidence that 
any piece was soft when it reached the ground. The shapes of the bubbles give 
a suggestion of such rapid cooling that one may speculate whether they fell on 
the one-time glacial cap of their parent mountain. 

The collection made by Sir Edge worth David, lent by Professor Cotton, was 
collected at 13 localities. The accompanying particles of sand, etc., were the 
white and pink quartzite of that area. The following classification is the best that 
can be done to systematize the forms of this irregular group, and it is hoped that 
the terms may convey some meaning in the absence of plates : 

(a) large elongated lumps; 

(b) boot (the one complete form in the collection) ; 

(c) phallic pieces, broken; 

(d) teardrop forms ; 

(e) volcanic bomb type; 

(f) fasciated pieces; 

(g) lacework pieces ; 

(h) straight cuts (short pieces with sharp breaks at right angles to the axis, 

common in moldavites and called "partitions" in Czech collections), 
(i) twisted and tuberclcd pieces; 
(j) formless fragments; more than tw r o-thirds of the total are in this group. 

The localities mentioned in the lists are those written on the various envelopes by 
Professor David. 


No. of 











Mount Darwin - 


- 16 











Darwin Glass 


- 76 









■ — 


Darwin Glass 


- 19 












Ten-mile Railway 


- 3 
-- 77 












No. of 
Locality Specimen 

Darwin Glass 8 1 

West of Mount Sorrell - 19 - — 1 - 

10-mile Special - - 15 5 — — — 

Darwin Glass - - - 72 - - — — 2 

Darwin Glass (important) - 2 — 1 — — 

Gap at 10-mile - - - 15 -__.__ 1 

E. Side N. Lyell Railway -2 — — — — 

10-mile - 7 — — — — 


























. . 









331 8 1 5 8 2 17 4 39 23 224 

The total weight of these 331 specimens was 191"05 grams, an average weight 
of '57 grams. The three largest averaged 8 '40 grams, and the three smallest 
■06 grams. 

The collection from the University of Queensland had a larger average size. 
It consisted of 41 specimens, classed as 2 broken phallics, 3 fasciated pieces, 
3 lacework pieces, 1 stem-like specimen, 8 straight-cuts, 10 twisted and tubercled 
pieces, and 14 formless fragments. The total weight of these pieces was 66*1 
grams, giving an average weight of 1 "61 grains. These descriptive records are 
set down with no comment beyond an expression of opinion that quite different 
conditions prevailed at the time of origin of the various forms of Darwin Glass 
from those that prevailed when other accepted were developed. 

Not the least interesting of naturally occurring silica glasses are those found 
from time to time in the country, usually fairly scoriaceous but sometimes massive. 
This material varies from green to black and smoky-grey, and at times is found 
in large lumps up to 20-30 pounds in weight. Enquiry usually shows that the 
material has been found on or near the site where a straw-stack has been burnt. 
With the exercise of imagination one could have believed that this mode of forma- 
tion might have entered into the story of the more obscure silica glasses, such as 
Libyan Glass and Darwin Glass. 

Some pains were therefore taken to secure some of this material from various 
parts of South Australia. By the courtesy of the late Mr. L. J. Winton, acting- 
head of the Mines Department, two analyses were made by Mr. F. L. Dalwood, 
and these are here placed on record. Mr. Dalwood records that owing to the 
presence of carbonaceous matter the ferrous iron could not be satisfactorily 
determined, and the whole of the iron is therefore set down as ferric oxide. The 
very high percentages of potash and soda put these glasses out of any possibility 
of relationship to tektite glasses, but they are, nevertheless, worthy of record: 


Sample No. 1 No. 19189, Silica Glass from O.B. Flat, South Australia. 
Sample No. 2 No. 19190, Silica Glass from Compton Downs, South Australia 



Silica (SiOg) 

- 66-04 


Alumina (A1,0. S ) - 

- 1-55 


Ferric Oxide (I T e 2 0. s ) - 

- 0-59 


Lime (Cao) - - - 

- 6-00 


Magnesia (MgO) - 

- 3-80 


Potash (K 2 0) 

- 11-98 


Soda (Na 2 b) 

- 6-88 


Carbonaceous matter 

- 2-69 





Smoke Bombs and Sea-borne Bombs. From time to time descriptions have 
been given of the slag-bombs or smoke-bombs of impure silica-glass that are shot 
forth from the funnels of railway engines. These forms, in many ways, resemble 
the forms of australites, and contain many gas bubbles. 

Following up this idea, Mr. W. Baragwanath, Government Geologist of 
Victoria, drew under my notice the fact that seekers of foraminifera in sea sands 
frequently found tiny siliceous spherules. Mr. W. J. Parr, an expert in 
foraminifera collecting, has kindly sent me a number of these spherules, tiny 
things, some of them much smaller than a pin-head, and exactly comparable with 
the spherules of silica-glass cast out from railway engines. Doubtless these come 
from the funnels of coal-burning steam-boats, and doubtless also they are to be 
found for the seeking where they have floated ashore on sea-coasts all over the 


Tektites have been found in the United States of America in such goodly 
numbers as to suggest a fairly extensive shower, spread over an elliptical area 
east of the Brazos River, Texas. The discoverer, Professor Virgil E. Barnes, of 
the University of Texas, has sent me samples of this material, which I have com- 
pared microscopically with the other known tektites. A section of one of these 
specimens was kindly cut for me by Sir Douglas Mawson. These inspections and 
comparisons of external and internal structures show such definite similarities as 
to leave no doubt of the character of the material; the chemical analyses supplied 
by Professor Barnes confirm this. 

The two analyses of Texan tektites, of which details were kindly forwarded 
to me by Professor Barnes, are as follows (F. A. Gonyer, analyst). It will be 


noted that the refractive indices and the specific gravities of the same specimens 
have also been determined. The results are as follows: Specimen A — Si0 2 
73-52, Al 2 O s 15-88, Fe 2 3 0'45, FeO 4-64, CaO 0*06, MgO 1*38, Ti0 2 0-87, 
MnO 0-01, Na 2 1-30, K 2 b, 173, H 2 0-08. Total, 99*92. Nd. 1-052, S.G. 
2-397. Specimen B—Si0 2 7776, Al 2 6 3 13-30, Fe 2 O a 0'37, FeO 3*36, CaO 0-04, 
MgO 1-19, Ti0 2 0-76, MnO 0-01,~Na 2 O 1-41, K 2 1-97, MJ3 0'02. Total, 
100-19. Nd. 1-492, S.G. 2-357. 

A full description of the Texas tektites has now been published by the 
University of Texas in their Contributions to Geology, 1939. The article is 
entitled "North American Tektites" and runs from page 477 to page 582, with 
five plates, a very complete bibliography, and many text figures. It is fortunate 
indeed that the first tektites to be found on the continent of North America 
should have come into the hands of one so interested and so able as Professor 
Virgil E. Barnes. The account he gives of the whole tektite question, with 
analyses, physical characters, distribution, etc., is the most comprehensive yet 
published in English. He calls the North American tektites "Rediasites," from 
the locality named after the Bedias tribe of Indians. One of his most interest- 
ing discoveries is the occurrence in tektites of remarkable lechatelierite inclusions. 

The long history of the theories of the origins of tektites, as set out by 
Barnes, is a remarkably interesting comment upon the cautious resistance of the 
minds of men towards new theories regarding natural phenomena. Barnes's 
conclusion is that the tektites are fused shales or other sedimentary rocks. As 
the Bediasite area is an ellipse of not more than ten miles by five, it is possible 
to conceive of this explanation as being a reasonable one in that case. 

The question of the australite distribution is, however, completely against the 
possibility of accepting such a theory. Australites, with their characteristic type 
forms, chemical composition, and physical characters, are spread over an area two 
thousand miles long by one thousand miles wide, and are found also on the off- 
shore islands, so that the actual strewnfield must have been far greater. 

Within the past few years numerous cases have come under my notice of 
men in various Australian localities becoming interested in australites, finding 
first one, then half-a-dozen, and ultimately scores or hundreds. Australites are 
scattered over the southern two-thirds of Australia, in the densely-wooded and 
well-watered mountain areas, in the wide grasslands and in the vast desert areas. 
They are distributed over gneisses, schists, basalts, limestones, sands, clays, and 
every other variety of bed-rock which occurs throughout the southern two-thirds 
of Australia, including Tasmania. There must have been several million pieces in 
the original fall. 

Tn the writer's opinion these facts of distribution, combined with the unique 
and regular form-types of australites, compel us to include them as extra- 
terrestrial objects without waiting for the more convincing evidence of an actual 
shower. The meteorite craters of Hcnbury, though within the australite area, 


are relatively trivial and quite unrelated to the occurrence or distribution of 
australites. Fulgurite tubes arc occasionally found in Australia, but without 
relation to the occurrence and distribution of australites. 

Barnes's concluding paragraph opens : "If, as practically all the evidence now 
indicates, tektites actually are proven to be fulgurites . . . ." This statement ignores 
the facts of form and distribution of 1he various tektite groups. It is difficult to 
imagine that lightning, which has no known regional characteristics, should pro- 
duce only one kind of tektite over Australia, with its many scores of rock types, 
and quite other but equally distinct forms over Indo-China or Moldavia, with 
their relatively similar variety of rock types. 

Barnes's chief argument against meteoritic origin appears to be that tektites 
are so much more siliceous than even the most siliceous stony meteorite. When 
one recalls the stubborn antagonism of scientific men to the acceptance of siderites 
as having fallen from heaven, the opposition to glass meteorites loses some of its 
force. In considering the occurrence of glass meteorites we should not forget 
the Schonite of Hof Kalna, Sweden, nor the so-called "glass meteorites" recorded 
by Brezina as having fallen in Halle, Saxony, in 1904, and at Igast, Livonia, in 
1855. The Igast and Halle specimens are frequently quoted in tektite biblio- 
graphies, and the evidence on record has never, so far as I know, been refuted. 

Barnes says it is safe to predict that the analysis of any tektite yet analysed 
may be duplicated by an analysis of a sedimentary rock. It is easy to believe this 
interesting statement, but there is no evidence that the prediction would have any 
important significance upon the problem of tektite origins. Barnes raises the 
question of tektites of past geological ages. The known ones range from Miocene 
to Recent. Speculations as to their existence in past geological epochs led me 
to discuss the matter with Dr. L. J . Spencer, who mentioned the possibility of 
destruction by devitrification. Barnes speaks of the truncation of external flow 
structure as revealing the amount of material removed ( ? by terrestrial erosion), 
and therefore the "age" of the specimen. The known facts concerning australites 
show that the case is not so simple as this. There is evidence of two periods 
involving the loss of material in australites during flight, or in some other pre- 
terrestrial phase, with, in most cases, subsequent terrestrial erosion. The results 
of all three may be detected in thin sections by their truncating or bending effects 
on the internal flow lines,. 

In concluding this section it is urged that, once the chemical and physical 
characteristics of tektite groups have been determined by competent authorities, 
showing that for any one regional group they arc uniform within fairly narrow 
limits, then we should direct our enquiries to the evidence presented by their 
forms, sizes, external sculptures, internal structures, and distribution. So far as 
forms are concerned, one is impressed by the recurrence of type-forms in the 
larger collections of Moldavites at Prague and of Indo-Chinites at Paris in a way 
that is not possible from seeing a few specimens only. 


The present job before students, it seems to me, is tentatively to accept 
tektites on the evidence of form, distribution, uniformity of composition, etc., as 
being glass meteorites, and to devote attention to a study of the details of their 
possible derivation and fall, so far as these may be revealed by physical examina- 
tion and facts of distribution. If, meantime, someone observes a tektite shower, 
so much the better, but it surely requires more than normal scientific inertia to 
assume that the only possible method of proof of meteoritic origin is to await the 
observation of a fall. 

If, on the other hand, evidence is brought forward against the meteoric 
theory, it will be properly considered and evaluated. Of the multitude of theories 
put up during more than a century of enquiry, the meteoric one stands alone in 
the support it has received; the present evidence is, indeed, so much in favour of 
the extra-terrestrial origin of tektites that in the opinion of many workers it just 
falls short of proof. 


1 am indebted for the photograph to the authorities of the South Australian Museum. 
In this plate the specimens arc shown natural size. They consist of a selection of: 
(a) ten of the most typical specimens of the collection, (b) seventeen exceptional or 
aberrant specimens, and (c) one Texan tektite from Professor Barnes's collection. The 
numbering is as follows: 

I, flanged button; 2, lens; 3, broad oval; 4, narrow oval; 5, boat; 6, canoe, (Numbers 
1-6 are average-sized specimens.) 

7, lens core; 8, teadrop; 9, broad oval core: 10, dumbbell. (.7, 8, 9, and 10 are 
larger than the average specimens.) 

II, round indicator; 12 and 13, elongate indicators. (The three foregoing specimens 
are cores in which portion of the original form remains, sufficient to indicate the original 
shape and size.) 

14, seed type; 15, pasty type; 16, exceptional, irregular, flanged button; 17, the end 
of a curiously flow-ridged teardrop; 18 and 21, helmet forms: 19, exceptional small flanged 
button, broken; 20, two-thirds of a button flange, detached; 22 and 21, small, scoop-like 
forms, unbroken; 23, 24, 25, and 26, flat, tray-like forms; 28, Bcdiasite from Virgil Barnes. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 1940 

Vol. 64, Plate XIX 


18 if 20 J fe> 
15 21 ^ ^ 23 

% 2Z A 



Typical Australite forms, Kcnnett Collection. Natural size. 



Family THRIP1DAE Uzel 

Subfamily THRIP1NAE Karny 


This genus, Isochactothrips, was erected by Moulton in 1928. He separated it from Taeniothrips 
Uzel by the fully developed wings, in which both veins of the forewing have regularly spaced 
spines. Physothrips seticollis Bagnall, 1915, is the type of the genus. 


By H. Vkvers Steele fl > 

[Read 8 August 1940 J 

Family THR1PIDAE Uzcl 
Subfamily THRiriNAE Kaniy 

Genus Isochaetotiirips Moulton 
This genus, Isachactothrips, was erected by Moulton in 1928. He separated 
it from Taeniothrips Uzel by the fully developed wings, in which both veins of 
the forewing have regularly spaced spines. Physothrips seticollis Bagnall, 1915, 
is the type of the genus. 

Isochaetothrips frankstoni sp.n. 
9 Length, 1160/x; width of mesothorax. 265 /x. Colour — Yellow with 
slight reddish subcuticlar colouration. The end of the mouth-cone, two longi- 
tudinal bands on the mesoscutum, a spot on each side of abdominal segments III- 
VII are tinged faintly with grey-brown. Abdominal segment X also tinged with 
grey-brown. Spines on the head, pale yellow. Other spines and fringes, pale 
greyish-brown. Fore-wings, pale yellowish-grey. Hind-wings, clear. Antennal 
segments: I, pale yellows II and HI, pale yellowish-grey ; IV-VIII, grey; 
III to VI, paler at the base. Ocellar crescents, red. Eyes, black. Legs, pale 
yellow with tinge of brown on tarsi. Head — Length, 90/jl; width, 150 /x. Dorsal 
surface (fig. LA); cuticle crossed by a few faint confluent transverse striae; 
eyes, 51 p long and 44 //. wide, not projecting; interoceljar bristles, 5 p, long, arc 
between posterior ocelli; other bristles short and only visible under high power. 
Ventral surface: the distance from the most anterior part of head to tip of 
mouth cone, 206 /a; two bristles posterior to each antenna, inner 19 yx and Outer 
9 fi\ a bristle on each side anterior to the mouth cone, 22 p. Antennae (fig. 1 B) 
8-segmented; respective lengths of antennal segments, 23, 31, 39, 34, 27, 36, 
7. 12/i. A forked sense cone is present on the dorsal surface of III and the 
ventral surface of IV. Protlwrax (fig. I A) — Dorsal surface: 110 /* long and 
197 /x wide; two bristles on each post-lateral angle of pronotum, outer 35 /x and 
inner 40/*-; the posterior margin bears four short, fine bristles between the post- 
lateral bristles and the median line, the median, 27 ju. is the stoutest; short, fine 
bristles scattered over pronotum as in fig. 1 B. Ptcrotlwrax — Three pairs of 
short, line bristles on posterior margin of mesoscutum ; two pairs on mcta- 
scutum 1 (fig. 2 A) placed about 12 } i posterior to anterior margin, a fine outer 
pair 17 p. and a stout inner pair 39/*. Legs with a few scattered fine bristles; 
distal half of hind tibiae with a row of short spines on their inner margins. Fore- 
tarsus without claw. Wings (fig. 2 P. ) — Fore-wing, 558 # long; anterior margin 
tears 22-28 short spines 29ft long interspersed with longer, iiner bristles; anterior 
vein bears 15-19 bristles 27^ long; posterior vein bears 14 bristles in all but one 
specimen, in this there are 11 bristles; alula bears six bristles. A long fringe, 
about 335 p. on the posterior margin. Abdomen (fig. 1 C) — Dorsal surface : 
lergite VI 11 bears a comb eonlaining about 16 teeth on posterior margin. Pass- 
ing antero-posteriorly on segment IX, bristle I measures 26 ft, II 88 p, III 80 \p, 
IV, 72/i j segment X, bristle" V 70/*, VI 66 p. 

C*3 Mrs. H. G. Andrewartlia. 

Trans. Roj. Sue. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


8 (specimen damaged). Length, 920^; width of mesothorax, 118 /a. Colour 
— Paler than in female; antennal segments I and II pale yellow, III and IV pale 
grey-brown but paler at the base, V-VIII grey-brown. Mouth cone and tip of 
tarsi tinged with grey-brown. Head— -90 jx long and 136 /a wide ; respective 

Fig. 1 
A-C, Isochaetothrips frankstoni n. sp. — A, 9 , head and prothorax, dorsal; B, $ , antenna, 
dorsal; C, $ , abdomen, right dorsal and left ventral. D-E, I. pallidus 11. sp. — D, $ , head 
and prothorax, dorsal; E, $ , abdomen, right dorsal and lelt ventral. F-G, I. melanurus, 
n _ S p t , — Y, $ , head and prothorax, dorsal; G, $ , abdomen, right dorsal and left ventral. 

lengths of antennal segments, 19, 31, 36, 31, 29, 34, 7, 7 p.. Eyes 53 /a long and 
AS ju wide. Prothorax — 122 /a long and 180 /a wide. Wings — Fore-wing, 500 /a 
long; anterior margin bears 24 short bristles 12 (x long interspersed with longer, 
finer bristles; anterior vein bears 16 bristles and posterior vein 13 bristles; alula 


6 bristles. Hind-wing- normal. Ptcrothora.v — Spines on metascutum I placed 
about 36 /x posterior to anterior margin. Abdomen — Dorsal surface (fig. 2D): 
tergite IX bears some line bristles and three pairs of long, strong bristles, I is 
49 fj, long, 11. 19 ii long, and III 22 p long. Tergite X bears one pair of long, 
strong curved bristles, VI 62 /x long, and some tine bristles. Ventral surface 
(lig. 2 C) has a faint transverse sole-shaped area on sternites III to VII; posterior 
margin of segment IX bears a strong curved bristle about 45 p, on each side of 



Fie. 2 
A-D, Isochaetothrips frankstoni n. sp. — A, 9, metascutum I; B, $, forewing; C, $, 
third abdominal segment, ventral; D, J, end of abdomen, dorsal. E-F, I. pallidus, n. sp. 
— E, 9 , forewing; F, 9 , metascutum. G-H, I. melanurus, n. sp. — G, 9 , forewing; H, 

$ , end of abdomen, dorsal. 


dian line and two near each lateral margin, outer 32 }x and inner 41 



ment X bears a strong bristle, 62 $ long, on post-lateral angle. 

Habitat— The specimens were collected from Acacia sp. at Frankstou, Vic- 
toria, by Mr. II. G. Andrewariha on 16 May 1935. 

The description was made from eight 9 and one 8 , the latter damaged. 
The 9 syntypes and the 6 allotype have been deposited in the South Australian 


Isochaetothrips pallidus sp. n. 

9 Length, 860 p ; width of mesothorax, 195 p.. Colour — Pale yellow. 
Head yellow, tinged with grey. Mouth cone tipped with brown. Antennal seg- 
ments I and II almost colourless to pale greyish-yellow, il clouded with brownish- 
grey at distal end, III-VIII brownish-grey. Eyes reddish-black; ocellar crescents 
same colour as head and scarcely visible. Fore-wings pale yellow, hind-wings 
colourless, fringes yellow. Legs yellow, tarsi tinged with brown at distal end; 
spines greyish. Head — Length, 86 /a; width, 132 p. Dorsal surface (fig. ID): 
cheeks straight; eyes 49 p long and 44 p wide, not projecting; cuticle crossed by 
faint confluent transverse striae; ocellar crescents scarcely visible; intcr-ocellar 
bristles 9 p at the posterior median border of each posterior ocellus ; see fig. 1 D 
for placing of small bristles. Ventral surface: two pairs of bristles between the 
eyes, anterior median pair 19 p and posterior lateral pair 13 p. the latter placed 
about 39 p posterior to anterior-median corner of eye. Two pairs of bristles 
posterior to the mouth cone. Length from anterior part of head to tip of mouth 
cone 170 fi. Antennae S-segmented ; respective lengths of antennal segments, 21, 
29, 33, 25, 27, Z7 , 5, 9 p. A curved sense cone is present on the dorsal surface 
of HI and the ventral surface of IV. Prothorax — Dorsal surface (fig. 1 D) : 
Length, 112 p; width, 154 p. Two strong bristles on each post-lateral angle, 
outer 26 /x and inner 31 p, A small hue bristle between these two, three strong- 
short bristles between post-lateral bristles and median line on posterior margin. 
Lierothorax — Four pairs of short fine bristles on posterior border of meso- 
scutum; two pairs on metascutum I (fig. 2 F) 12 p from the anterior margin, fine 
outer bristle 17 p., strong inner bristle 27 p.. Legs with scattered hue hairs. Lateral 
border of hind tarsi I bears a short spine at the base. Tarsi II bears a hook. 
Wings (fig. 2E) — Fore-wing 430^ long; anterior margin bears 16-20 bristles 
27 p long, interspersed with about 12 longer finer bristles; anterior vein bears 
13-16 bristles; posterior vein bears 7-9 bristles, alula 5. Hind-wing normal. 
Abdomen (fig. IE, dorsal and ventral). — Dorsal; tergite VIII bears a sparse 
comb containing about 13 teeth 11 /x long. Tergite IX^bears two strong bristles 
on posterior margin. Outer 74 ft long and inner 70 p long. Segment X on each 
side bears two strong bristles, outer 45 p. and inner 54 p. 

Habitat—This description was made from three females collected from 
Casshiia longifolia by H. V. Steele at Kalorama, Victoria, 28 September 1932. 
The syntypes are deposited in the South Australian Museum. 

Isochaetothrips rnelanurus sp. n. 
9 Length, 1039 p; width of mesothorax, 242 p. Colo Hr— Head yellow, 
tinged with pink; thorax and abdomen bright yellow; posterior half of tenth 
abdominal segment brown. Legs yellow, tip of tarsi tinged with brown. Fore- 
wings pale greyish-yellow, and hmd-wings yellowish. Eyes black ; ocellar 
crescents vtd. Antennal segments: 1 pale greyish-yellow, II-VIII yellowish- 
brown, II-V pale at base, II sometimes darker thai/ III and IV. Spines and 
fringes brownish-yellow. Spines on abdominal segment IX and X brown. 
Head— Length 95 p, width 153/j.. Dorsal surface (fig. IF): cheeks straight; 
cuticle crossed by faint confluent transverse striae, a well-marked ocellar area; 
eyes 54 p long and 41 p wide, not projecting, inner angle rounded. Minute inter- 
ocellar bristles on median edge of each posterior ocellar crescent. Small bristles 
as in fig. 1 E. Ventral surface: distance from anterior part of head to tip of 
mouth cone 179 p.. Two bristles posterior to base of each antenna, inner 27 p 
and outer 27 /A . A long bristle at post-median corner of eye, 31 /x. There 


are two bristles on each side anterior to mouth cone. Antennae 8-seg- 
mentecl; respective lengths of antennal segments, 24, 34, 41, 36, 28, 36, 7, 10 xx. 
A forked sense cone is present on dorsal surface of III and ventral surface of IV. 
Pro thorax -Length, 109 /x; width. 180 /x. Dorsal surface (fig, IF), two strong 
bristles on each post-lateral angle, inner 39 /x, outer 29 /x; four short bristles on the 
posterior margin on each side of median line, the median is the longest, 14 xx; 
short fine bristles scattered over the pronotum, as in figure. Pterothorax — Three 
pairs of fine bristles on mesoscutum; two pairs just posterior to the anterior 
margin on metascutum I, outer 22 /x and inner 39 xx. Legs with scattered short, 
fine hairs. Tarsi of hind leg hear spines stronger than in Isochaelothrips franksfoni 
and pallidits. Distal half of hind tibia with a row of short spines on its inner 
margin. Fore-tarsi without claws. Wings (fig. 2 G) — Fore-wing 640 /x long; 
anterior margin bears 26 short bristles interspersed with longer finer bristles, 
anterior vein with 20-22 bristles 24 /x long and posterior vein 13-14 bristles, 
alula 6 bristles. Hind-wing normal. Abdomen (dorsal and ventral surfaces, 
fig. 1 G) — Last segments of abdomen and the ovipositor elongated and, therefore, 
the posterior part of the abdomen is more pointed than in Isochaelothrips 
frankstoni and pallidits. Tergite VIII bears a sparse comb; two strong bristles 
on posterior border of tergite IX, outer 70 /x and inner 61 tx long; a strong bristle 
on tergite X, 56 /x long. 

I Length — 826 /x long, width of mesothorax 218 xx. Colour — Same as in 
the female, except that the posterior part of the abdomen is yellow and antennae 
paler in colour. Head — Length 8,7 /x, width 142 xx, respective lengths of antennal 
segments, 19, 32, 39, 34, 27, 36, 5, 10, /x Prothorax— length 107 xx, width 161 xx. 
length of posterior lareral bristles, outer 29 xx and inner 35xx, median 18 xx. Wings 
— Anterior border bears 24-27 short bristles interspersed by longer finer bristles; 
anterior vein bears 19-20 bristles and posterior vein 14 bristles, alula 6 bristles. 
Hind-wing normal. Abdomen (dorsal surface, fig. 2 H) — Tergite VIII bears a 
sparse comb; tergite IX bears two short, strong bristles near the median line, 
inner 24 /x and outer 12 xt. also a strong bristle on post-lateral angle 54 /x; tergite X 
bears short bristles near median line 17 xx, and long, strong bristles on post-lateral 
angles 73 /x. Ventral surface: sternite LX bears two long curved bristles on each 
side near posterior margin, one near median line 44 xi and one near lateral margin 
39 xt; sternite X bears one strong bristle on post-lateral margin 63 xt long. 

Habitat — This species was collected from Acacia dealbata by II. V. Steele 
13 September 1933, at Kalorama Victoria. 

The description was made from four $ and three <5 . The syntypes were 
deposited in the South Australian Museum, 

The author desires to thank the Director and Mr. JL Womersley, of the 
South Australian Museum, for facilities to do this work, as well as advice 
throughout the work ; also the Director of the Melbourne Museum for the loan 
of the Kellv collection. 


By H. WOMERSLEY, South Australian Museum 

In 1934 1 described a new genus and species of Collembola, Isotobrya wheeled found in the nests 
of termites under tones at Mullewa, Western Australia. It has not since been seen, but recently my 
elder son has collected the following second species of the genus, again from the nests of termites, 
on Mount Sugarloaf at Burra, South Australia. 


By H. Womursley, South Australian Museum 
[Read 8 August 1940J 

In 1934 1 described a new genus and species of Collernbola, Isotobrya 
Tjheeleri found in the nests of termites under stones at Mullewa, Western Aus- 
tralia. It has not since been seen, but recently my elder son has collected the 
following second species of the genus, again from the nests of termites, on Mount 
Sugarloaf at Hurra, South Australia. 

The genus seems, therefore, to be definitely associated with termites, but in 
both cases the specimens are rare. From Mullewa, although about four or five 
specimens were seen, only two were captured. At Burra, in spite of examining 
many hundreds of nests, about a dozen specimens only are available for study. 

Isotobrya burraensis n. sp. 
Description — Length, to 3mm. Colour entirely deep blue-black, antennae 
and eye-patches black, legs blue except tibiotarsi which are white, furca blue 

Fig. a-b 

except mucrodens which are white. Ocelli, eight on each side. Antennae nearly 
four times as long as head diagonal; ratio of segments: 15:20:20:30, IV with 
apical exsertile knob. Ratio of dorsal lengths .of thoracic and abdominal seg- 
ments : tli. II:llI:abd I : II : ITT : IV: V: VI = 24: 17 : 12 :17:15 :45 :11 :4. Legs 
normal, tibiotarsi (fig. a) with only a single very stout twisted spathulate tenent 
hair ; claws with a pair of inner basal teeth to one-third and a pair of outer lateral 
basal teeth ; empodium as figured, short, almost stump-like. Furca normal, reach- 
ing middle of abdomen II; mucro short (fig. b), falciform with inner basal 
lamella, without spine. 

Clothing of short setae, with longer ciliated setae, somewhat clavate on the 
head and thoracic segments ; these latter setae up to 300 /* long. 

Habitat — Rare, in nests of termites, Mount Sugarloaf, Burra, South Aus- 
tralia, May to August 1940 (J. S. W-). 

Remarks — This species is closely related to the genotype, /. zuhecleri, the 
essential difference being in the dentition of the claws and in there being only a 
single thick spathulate tibiotarsal tenent hair, as compared with four slenderer 
ones in the genotype. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 



By T. HARVEY JOHNSTON and L. MADELINE ANGEL, University of Adelaide. 


Cercaria (Furcocercaria) trichofurcata n. sp. 
Though several hundreds of the bivalve Corbiculina angasi (Prime) from the lower Murray River at 
Tailem Bend had been under observation prior to 7 February 1940, cercarial infection had not been 
detected. On that date, one specimen of the 243 collected was found to be giving off a large fork- 
tailed cercaria of a type quite new to us. It was seen subsequently in one of 840 on 26 February 
1940, one of 289 on 8 March 1940, and in one of 70 on 1 May 1940. Even to the naked eye it 
appeared distinct from other furcocercariae observed by us. For a second or two the cercaria swims 
upwards rapidly, and then comes to rest with the body spherical and suspended by the furcae which 
form an angle of about 140° with each other, while the tail stem is vertical. In this resting state the 
spherical form of the body is more obvious than is usual with furcocercariae. From this position it 
sinks slowly until it is nearly at the bottom of the tube, when it swims upwards again. Examined 
under a cover-slip, the cercaria may draw up one of the furcae into a position more or less parallel 
with the main tail stem; both the furcae may become curved upwards and inwards so that the 
organism has somewhat the appearance of an anchor (fig. 5); or the body may be bent over to lie on 
the tail stem. 




By T. Harvky Johnston and L. Madeline Angel, University of Adelaide 

[Read 8 August 1940] 

Cercaria (Furcocercaria) trichofurcata n. sp. 

Though several hundreds of the bivalve Corbiculiua angasi (Prime) from 
the lower Murray River at Tailem Bend had been under observation prior 10 
7 February 1940, cercarial infection had not; been detected. On that date, one 
specimen of the 243 collected was found to be giving oil a large fork-tailed 
cercaria of a tvpc quite new to us. It was seen subsequently in one of 840 on 
26 February 1940, one of 289 on 8 March 1940, and in one of 70 on 1 May 1940. 
Even to the naked eye it appeared distinct from other furcocercariae observed 
by us. For a second or two the cercaria swims upwards rapidly, and then comes 
to rest with the body spherical and suspended by the furcae which form an angle 
of about 140° with '.each other, while the tail stem is vertical. In this resting state 
the spherical form of the body is more obvious than is usual with furcocercariae. 
From this position it sinks slowly until it is nearly at the bottom of the tube, when 
it swims upwards again. Examined under a cover-slip, the cercaria may draw 
up one of the furcae'into a position more or less parallel with the main tail stem ; 
both the furcae may become curved upwards and inwards so that the organism 
has somewhat the appearance of an anchor (fig. 5) ; or the body may be bent over 
to lie on the tail stem. 

In formalinised material the body was slightly curved, but was easily flat- 
tened with the slight pressure of a cover-slip. The measurements of such 
specimens are: body, 276-384 /* long by 175-192 /t wide (average, 314 by 184/^) ; 
tail stem, 267-301 p by 63-71 ^ (average, 284 by 67 ,x); furcae, 234-284,* by 
33-42,* (average, 250 by 38 ft) ; sucker ratio, oral: ventral — 6:7. 

Of the stains used intravitam, orange G was the best. Neutral red, and the 
use of nile blue sulphate after neutral red, were also satisfactory. For permanent 
preparations, alum carmine gave the best results. 

The tail stem is long, with furcae of approximately the same length as the 
main stem. The most noticeable feature of the cercaria is the presence of many 
long stout hairs or bristles on the tail arranged on either side of the main stem. 
These are longest near the body oi the animal (where the greatest length was 
125 fx), and gradually diminish in size as they approach the junction of the furcae. 
Towards the distal end of the tail stem, on either side of the midline on the dorsal 
surface, is a collection of nine or ten finer, shorter hairs. On die furcae them- 
selves, the setae are finer, shorter, and more hair-like, and arc arranged differently ; 
there are two rows winch, instead of being placed laterally, take a somewhat 
oblique course on the dorsal and ventral surfaces respectively, the rows terminat- 
ing near the tip of the corresponding furca. The two rows ending together give 
the appearance of a bunch of longer setae arising from the tip of the furca — the 
other setae being necessarily less obvious because of their dorsal and ventral 
positions. A third row, shorter in length, and composed of still smaller setae, 
commences on the inner side near the junction of the two furcae; it is not quite 
lateral, and the hairs are directed slightly backwards. In mounted specimens the 
edges of the tail stem, are nearly always folded over, dorsally and ventrally respec- 
tively, so that the setae appear at first sight to arise near the midline. This may 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


indicate that, in swimming, the tail is twisted slightly. Longitudinal and trans- 
verse muscle fibres are present in the tail, and from the base of each "bristle" a 
small number of fibres radiate out to terminate around the main excretory canal 
(fig. 2). No caudal bodies were seen. 

The body of the cercaria is beset with very small spines, regularly arranged. 
Near the posterior end of the body arc two locomotor processes, situated dorsally 

Figs. 1-7 

Cercaria Irichof areata?. Fig. 1, sporocyst with escaping cercaria; 2, 3, cercaria, 

anatomy; 4, cercaria, resting position ; 5, 6, cercaria at rest, under cover slip; 

7, genital system. Figs. 4, 5, 6, to same scale. 

a, ventral sucker; act, anterior collecting tubule; b, brain; eg, cutaneous glands; 

eb, excretory bladder; ep, excretory pore; gp, genital pore; gr, genital rudiment; 

]p, locomotor process; o, ovary; pet, posterior collecting tubule; sdr, sex duct 

rudiment; t, testis; u, uterus; vd, vas deferens; vs, vesicula seminalis. 


and projecting slightly. They have a definite cellular structure which stains 
deeply with neutral red, as well as with haematoxylin and other permanent stains, 
The surface is roughened. 

There is a pronounced acetabulum which is slightly larger than the oral 
sucker, and is beset with tiny papilla-like elevations. 

Eye-spots and prepharynx are absent. The pronounced muscular pharynx 
is succeeded by a very short oesophagus. The intestinal crura extend well back 
towards the posterior end of the body. Muscle fibres pass from the lower end 
of each cms to the base of the body, on either side of the origin of the tail. 

The gland cells seem to be arranged in two groups on each side, and lie at 
the hinder level of the pharynx, the inner group reaching the point of bifurca- 
tion of the intestinal crura, while the outer group does not extend so far. The 
inner group is perhaps composed of an anterior dorsal and a posterior ventral 
group. The cells themselves are small, and number eight, or probably more, to 
each group. They stain with neutral red used intravitam, but in formalinised 
specimens do not take up chlorazol black, showing that they have no glycogen. 
The ducts of the cells pass laterally to the anterior border of the oral sucker. 

The excretory bladder is relatively very large, the hinder part occupying the 
greater portion of the posterior end of the body. It is bifurcated, and the two 
arms narrow as they pass laterally to the acetabulum, and then broaden out again 
towards their termination near the posterior level of the pharynx. On each side 
there are five flame cells in the posterior, and five in the anterior, half of the 
body. At the junction of the posterior and anterior collecting tubules is a small 
dilatation. Ciliary patches were seen only wdiere each main collecting tube joined 
the bladder. The bladder continues into the tail as a wide channel occupying 
about half the diameter, and terminating close to the tip of each furca. In 
mounted specimens the portion of the bladder in the tail may appear only as a 
narrow tube. There are no flame cells in the tail. 

Staining with orange G, as well as with nile blue sulphate following neutral 
red, showed a band of nervous tissue just behind the pharynx and a nerve cord 
extending from it down each side of the body near the corresponding crus almost 
to the posterior end. 

The reproductive rudiments of C. trichofurcata have attained considerable 
differentiation. Near the anterior border of the acetabulum are two small rounded 
masses of cells lying at approximately the same level. These apparently are the 
testes. Anterior to the acetabulum, and median, is a thickened mass of cells, 
the future cirrus sac, which communicates with the ventral surface by an obvious 
genital pore. From this region a thick cord of cells, the uterus, twists posteriorly 
and becomes no longer recognisable just behind the testes. The ovary is repre- 
sented by one or more small compact masses lying near the coils of the uterus 
immediately posterior to the cirrus sac. From each testis a faintly discernible 
cord of cells passes across ventrally to the uterus, and the anlagen of the common 
duct can be seen, anterior to the ovary, passing to the cirrus sac. On each side 
a very fine structure, presumably the rudiment of the vitelline duct, has its origin 
in the region of the intestinal crus, then crosses just in front of the correspond- 
ing testis, and becomes unrecognisable in the ovarian region. 

The numerous, branching, dark grey sporocysts are scattered throughout 
the body of the mollusc, occurring in the gills, liver and reproductive gland. They 
vary a good deal in size, fig. 1 being taken from one of medium size. Because 
of opacity due to abundance of tiny globules, the contained cercariae can be seen 
only when pressure is put on the cover-slip. Even then the suckers were the only 
feature seen clearly. 


In the search for the secondary intermediate host of C. trichof ur eat a, nega- 
tive results were obtained after subjecting the following animals to infection; 
tadpole, Lymno dynast cs sp. ; leech, Glossiphonia sp. ; yabhy, Chcrax destructor 
Clark; freshwater amphipods, Chiltonia sub tenuis (Sayce) ; mosquito larvae; 
ehironomid larvae; larvae of the fly, Eristalis tenax; water bugs, Agraptocorixa 
curynome (Kirkaldy) ; gastropods, Plotiopsis tatci and Am-cria pyramidaia; 
lamellibranchs, Hyridclla austraiis and Corbkidina angasl; Tnbifcx sp. ; 
as well as the fish, Gmnbusia afflnis and Carassius auratns. We observed 
cercariae being eaten by Gaiubusia and Chcrax. After a number of 
Corbiculina and some Hyridclla had been left over-night in a dish containing one 
of the former infected with C. trichofurcaia, five of the Corbkidina and one 
Hyridclla appeared to be giving off cercariae. That is to say, when these molluscs 
were isolated in tubes containing fresh water, several cercariae appeared in each 
tube. Since these particular molluscs were subsequently found (by dissection) 
to be uninfected, it appears that they must have been harbouring the cercariae, 
probably in the mantle cavities. This also affords additional evidence that 
Hyridclla and Corbiculina do not act as secondary intermediate hosts. 

Ccrcaria trichof areata does not belong to the Strigeoidea, as at present 
defined. It is not a Schistosome, because of the well-developed pharynx, and it 
is not a Strigcid because of the position of the genital pore anteriorly to the 
acetabulum. Miller (1926, 69) states that it is only the apharyngeal brevifurcata 
monostomc group of furcocercariae in which flame cells are absent in the tail, 
but C. trichof areata, which also has no flame cells in the tail, obviously does not 
belong to that group. A number of furcocercariae have been described as 
possessing "tactile hairs" or "scattered spines/' or as having a "spiny tail," but 
none of them is suggestive of C. trichofurcaia with its long, stout, densely placed 
tail spines. The possession of locomotor processes in this cercaria is also an 
outstanding character. 

The general anatomy of C. trichof '-areata resembles that of Tandanieola 
bancroftl Johnston, 1927, from the swim-bladder of the freshwater catfish 
Tan dan us landanus Mitchell, in the relative sizes of the suckers, the form of the 
excretory bladder, the absence of a prepharynx, the general form of the 
alimentary system, the bilateral arrangement of the testes with the ovary median 
and in advance of the former, the position of the testes in relation to the anterior 
border of the acetabulum, and in the position of the genital pore anteriorly to 
the acetabulum. The resemblance is so close that we think it likely that Tandani- 
eota is the adult stage of the cercaria. 

The fact that all endeavours to trace the secondary intermediate host of ihe 
cercaria have been unsuccessful, combined with the relatively advanced develop- 
ment of the reproductive system in the ccrcaria, may suggest that the cyst stage 
is omitted in the life cycle, and that infection of the fish occurs by direct penetra- 
tion of the cercaria, possibly through the gills or even by the alimentary canal. 

Cercaria (Furcocercaria) tatei n. sp. 
Ccrcaria tatci, a parasite of Plotiopsis tatci (Brazier), at Tailem Bend. 
Lower Murray River, was first discovered in April 1939. when one of 287 
specimens of the gastropod was infected with it. This molluscan species was not 
examined again until last February, when two of 535 specimens were observed 
to be infected. Of these, one continued to give off cercariae for a little more than 
two months. On 1 May 1940, one of 132 specimens collected was parasitised by 
it. This snail exhibited double infection, C. plotiopsis Johnston and Simpson 1939, 
a Heterophyid, also being present. 


Kigs. 8-15 
Ccrcaria tatei. Fig. 8, sporocyst; 9, mctacercaria, stained and somewhat flattened; 
10, cyst, partly under pressure; 11, .cercaria in resting position; 12, cercaria, 
living', compressed; 13, ccrcaria formalinised with boiling 10% formalin (note 
difference in size from fig. 12, which is of living cercaria); 14, gland cells ol 
cercaria; 15, anterior portion of excretory system of cercaria showing modifica- 
tion seen in two specimens. Fig. 8, 10, to same scale; fig. 12, 13, 15. 


The cercaria swims tail first for a few seconds and then hangs suspended 
by the furcae with the body bent to form an angle with the tail stem, and the 
furcae with an angle of less than 90° between them. The resting stage is long 
(up to 27 seconds, though often only from three to eight seconds), and during 
this period the cercaria gradually sinks towards the bottom. It swims upwardly, 
and at times laterally also. There was no evidence of either positive or negative 
reaction to light. Specimens were observed to remain alive for at least 72 hours. 
Looss recorded that C. vivax Sonsino lived more than two davs (Wesenberg- 
Lund, 1934, 159). 

For the measurements, an average of ten formaiinised specimens was taken: 
body length, 20G> (range, 184-242 p) ; breadth, 117 ^ (range, 108-125 /ji) ; length 
of tail stem, 401 y* (range, 384-417^) ; breadth of tail stem, 50 y, (range, 46-54 m) ; 
length of furcae, 301 /a (range. 284-317^); breadth of furcae, 27 fx (range, 
25-33^). A great disparity of size was noticeable between extended living and 
formaiinised specimens (fig. 12, 13). On the body are rather widely separated 
rows of extremely minute spinules, giving the surface, especially in the region 
around the base of the tail, a punctate appearance. 

The tail does not arise from the posterior border of the body, but at some 
distance from it on the dorsal surface, in this respect differing from Miller's 
classification of longifurcate larvae (Miller, 1925, 63). The long tail stem is 
about twice the length of the body, and the ratio of stem to furca is 4:3. The 
stem is simple, but the furcae each bear a fin-fold arising below the junction of 
the two furcae and continuous around the tip to a corresponding level on the 
outer side. Fine striations traverse the fin-fold obliquely and directed towards 
the tip. The furcae arise separately from the main stem. 

There are numerous small pale green cells in the tail — about twelve across 
the diameter — some of them being apparently stalked These cells stain deeply 
with methylene blue (intravitam), and are probably myoblasts. Several of 
these cells, situated near the central canal, were seen to be swinging 
like pendulums, each from a narrow transparent stalk. Wesenberg- 
Lund (1934, 132) states that in Cercaria No. 4 of Petersen "the excretory 
tube has an irregular coating of parenchymatous cells." and that he "often 
saw this string, the excretory tube with its coating of cells, lifted up towards the 
anterior part of the tail by means of the oblique longitudinal muscles, and again 
lowered to the posterior part." 

The musculature of the tail is complex. There is a series of comparatively 
massive oblique fibrils arising from the lateral borders and apparently terminating 
around the central canal of the tail. The transverse fibres arc very fine, and the 
longitudinal scries can be seen .only in the central part of the tail, though these 
fibres are probably present throughout. 

The anterior organ measures about 42 ^ x 31 fx. The anterior half is beset 
with about 14 rows of small spines. The mouth opens terminally through the 
anterior organ into the pharynx immediately below the latter, there being no 
prepharynx. The narrow oesophagus soon bifurcates into broad intestinal crura 
which have a somewhat spiral course, forming, typically, four more or less regular 
bends, and extending almost to the posterior end of the body. The intestine 
stains vividly with neutral red. Its walls are formed of large epithelial cells, as 
described by Faust (1922, 257) for C. leptoderma, but in C. latei the outlines of 
the cells are distinct, and, in addition, the nuclei arc large. 

The ventral sucker is apparently represented by a small rounded 
parenchymatous mass of cells situated medially in the posterior half of the body. 


The gland cells are not at all obvious, and can be seen only with careful 
study. Intravitam stains were used, but were not taken up by them. After 
treatment with neutral red, however, the cells became visible, although they were 
not coloured. The nuclei were not seen except in one or two of the cells of the 
most anterior group, and the shape of the cells could not be determined, since 
the margins were indefinite. In fact, the only indications of their presence were 
the finely granular nature of the protoplasm, and the ducts opening anteriorly. 
On either side of the midline and extending to the posterior border of the anterior 
organ is a group of four gland cells, the ducts of which pass laterally and 
terminate near the midline anteriorly. Behind the anterior organ is a mass of 
cells which appears to have no very regular arrangement. They extend down the 
sides of the pharynx and are then scattered across to the sides of the body, where 
they extend posteriorly as far as the level of the end of the oesophagus. They 
are too many, or too indefinite, to be counted. Intravitam staining also showed, 
distributed throughout the body, a number of cells in which there was a coarser 
granulation than in the gland cells. It was considered that they were probably 
not themselves gland cells. 

Around the lateral borders of the body are a number of cutaneous glands, 
of comparatively uniform diameter throughout.. These lie just below the ventral 
surface, and take a slightly curved course before they terminate on the latter by 
a narrow opening. There are 50 or 60 of these around the margin of the body, 
and a few throughout the ventral surface. These cutaneous glands can some- 
times be seen in living specimens, but show up most clearly in those stained with 
chlorazol black, the glands appearing dark grey. Structures similar to these were 
recorded by Lutz (1933, 366-7) for Dicranocer carta utriculata. Wcsenberg- 
Lund (1934, 132; pi. xxix, fig. 2) recorded for Cercaria No. 4 of Petersen 
"a series of 12-15 bright, clear bodies with a dark point along the borders of the 
body," and stated that he was "quite ignorant of their function." 

In describing the encystment of C. vwax Sonsino, Azim (1933, 433) men- 
tioned "cystogenic glands, previously described as cutaneous glands by Looss." 
We have not had access to this paper of Looss', but it seems probable that the 
structures mentioned by these four authors are similar to those which we have 
called cutaneous glands in C. tatci, and that these are, in reality, cystogenous 

The small body of the excretory bladder lies immediately anterior to the 
origin of the tail, the pore opening dorsally in this position. The comparatively 
narrow inner arms of the bladder pass upwards in the intercrural region. Just 
above the ventral sucker they unite into a single tube which passes forwards to a 
point immediately posterior to the origin of the intestinal caeca, where it 
bifurcates. Each tube so formed takes a wide swing laterally, and passes back 
along the outside of the cms to open into the bladder again. Where each tube 
lies above the corresponding cms, it gives off, anteriorly, an extremely short 
branch which soon divides into two short widely separated blindly ending arms. 
The intercrural parts of the excretory system, together with these arms, contain 
small refracting granules which are absent from the extracrural arms of the 
bladder. The main collecting tube joins the lateral arm at the level of the first 
intestinal bend, and passes back to the level of the mid-intestinal length where it- 
bifurcates into an anterior and a posterior collecting tubule. There arc 15 flame 
cells on each side of the body, nine to each anterior, and six to each posterior 
tubule. These are arranged in groups of three. A branch of the bladder extends 
into the tail, terminating near the tip of each furca. An island of Cort is present. 
Two collecting tubes in the tail extend far back into the main stem, and each 


receives the ducts of three flame cells. The connection of these tubes with the 
main system was not definitely determined, but it is thought that they connect 
with the posterior collecting- tubes of the body, and, if this is the case, the flame 
cell formula would be 2 (9 + 9) rather than 2 (9 + 6 + 3). 

Sporocysts occur in the mantle cavity of the mollusc. They are long and 
narrow, and at regular intervals there are pronounced muscle bands which give 
rise to projections on the surface, so that the structure has the general appear- 
ance of a tapeworm. Between the muscle bands the wall contains a number of 
finer circular muscular fibres and very minute fat globules. Each sporocyst con- 
tains cercariae as well as germ balls which may be oval or round, exhibiting early 
segmenting and later stages. All of these move freely in the sporocyst as it under- 
goes muscular contraction and expansion. At one end ( ? anterior) of the 
sporocyst is a pointed cap of cells, the nuclei of which are a prominent feature in 
stained preparations. 

The genital rudiment lies just above the origin of the tail and near the 
posterior border of the body. It is more ventral anteriorly, and then curves 
posteriorly and dorsally to terminate near the excretory pore. 

Negative results were obtained when experimental infections with the 
cercariae were attempted using the molluscs Amcria pyramidata and pectorosa, 
Planorbis isingi, Plotlopsis tatci, Corbkulina angasi, the tadpole, Lint no dy nasi ex 
sp., the leech, Glossiphonia sp,, and the yabby, Ghcrax destructor. However, the 
cercariae were found to encyst in the muscles and body cavity of the fish Gam- 
busia Q-ffinis. These cysts conformed to the descriptions given by other workers 
for related cercariae (Azim, 1933, for C. vivax Sonsino; Szidat, 1933, for 
C. monostomi viviparac) in that the enclosed metacercaria was an apparently 
structureless mass containing numerous small fatty globules with some larger ones 
(fig. 10). The fish had been subjected to infection for nearly six weeks (from 
March to May), and the cysts were conseorucntly at different stages. Of these, 
the smallest were from 250 to 280^ in diameter; the cyst wall was quite thin, and 
the cercaria occupied almost the whole of the cyst. The next group ranged from 
300 to 330 (x, and in these the cyst wall w r as thicker, and the metacercaria occupied 
only about half the cyst. In what was apparently the most mature group the cyst 
wall was thick and the metacercaria very dark. Similar pigmentation was noted by 
Azim (1933, 433) who stated that in the metacercaria of C. vivax Sonsino black 
pigment began to be deposited about ten days after encystment, and that this con- 
tinued until "a deep black figure" was formed inside the cyst. These mature 
cysts of C. tatci ranged from 384 to 418^. Some of the metacercariae were 
released from these cysts, but it was impossible to distinguish any structure in them 
until after staining, which showed that there was some differentiation. Another 
Gambusia subjected to infection for about 25 days yielded over 50 unpigmented 
cysts about 267 x 284 /x, the apparently structureless metacercaria occupying the 
whole or part of the cyst. Careful examination revealed the presence of an 
anterior organ, pharynx, and intestinal crura, and at least one flame ceH'w r as seen. 
When these metacercariae were stained a large depression on one surface was 
revealed. At the posterior end of this depression was a rounded structure, with 
thick muscular edges; this is probably the developing tribocytic organ. A ventral 
sucker and genital rudiments were present but did not exhibit any advance on 
their state of development as seen in the cercaria. The oesophagus was rather 
long and narrow, and the crura wide. 

A Gambusia affinis containing a number of cysts of G. tatci was fed to a rat 
on 23 May 1940. The faeces of the latter were examined several times, with 
negative results. It was killed on 19 June, but no trematodes were found. 


The specific name is given as a tribute to Professor Ralph Tate. 

Of the cercariae described by Sewell (1922), Wesenberg-Lund (1934), 
Szidat (1933), Tubangui (1928), Lutz (1933), Faust (1922, 1926, 1930), and 
others, as being related to C. vivax, C. leptoderma Faust (1922) is the only one 
possessing the same number of flame cells as C. tat ex, but in other respects the 
two forms show marked differences, In C. leptoderma each group of three flame 
cells is described as having its own collecting tube, so that there are six pairs of 
secondary tubules, while in C. talei the groups of three open (as far as we were 
able to observe) into the anterior or posterior collecting tubules as the case may 
be. The "secondary tubules'' open into the "main collecting tubules" midway 
along the course of the latter in C. leptoderma, whereas, in C. talei the junction 
is more anterior. There is no X-shaped extension of the "main collecting tubules'' 
anteriorly in C. leptoderma. The latter is brevifurcate, has gland cells differen- 
tiated into two kinds, has differently-shaped intestinal caeca, and is devoid of a 
ventral sucker, while the presence of a fin-fold is not mentioned. Its sporocysts 
occur in the liver; of C. taiel in the mantle cavity of the host. 

C. tatci appears to be closely related to (7. vivax (Looss, 1896), but un- 
fortunately the number of flame cells in the body is not recorded for the latter. 
The two forms agree in the presence of a ventral sucker and of three pairs of 
flame cells in the tail. The cercariae are found in closely related gastropods 
(C. vivax in Cleopatra bulimoides Jick and Melanopsis praemorsa Linn., and 
C. tatci in Plotiopsis tatei), and the metacercariae occur in fish {Gambusia affinis). 

Azim (1933, 433) has shown that C. vivax is the larval form of Pro- 
hemistomum spinulosum (= P. vivax) and other related cercariae have also been 
shown to belong to the Cyathocotylidae. The metacercaria of C, tatei appears 
to us to be closely related to the genera Cyaihocotyle ;and Cyathocotyloides. We 
expect that the adult of C. tatei will be found in a fish-eating bird that frequents 
the River Murray region. 

This series of investigations has been made possible by the Commonwealth 
Government's research grant to the Adelaide University ; and by assistance, 
generously given, by Messrs. G. and F. Jaensch, of Tailcrn Rend. 

Azim, M. A. 1933 Z. f. Parasitenk., 5, 432-436 
Dubois, G. 1938 Mem. Soc. Neuchat. Set, Nat., 6, 535 pp. 
Faust, E. C. 1922 Parasitol., 14,255-257 
Faust, E. C 1926 Parasitol, 18, 105 
Faust, E. C. 1930 Parasitol., 22, 152-3 

Johnston, T. H. 1927 Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 51, 133-136 
Looss, A. 1896 Mem. Inst., Egvpt, 3, 1-252 
Lutz, A. 1933 Mem. Insli., Osw. Cruz., 27, 349-402 
Miller, H. M. 1926 111. Biol Monogr., 10, 112 pp. 
Sewell, R. B. S. 1922 ind. Journ. Med. Res., 10, Suppl., 370 pp. 
Szidat, L. 1933 Z. f. Parasitenk., 5, 443-459 
Tubangui, M. A. 1928 Philipp. Journ. Sci., 36, 37-54 

Wesenberg-Lund, C. 1934 Mem. Acad. Roy. Sci. Litt., Danemark, ser. 9, 
5 (3), 223 pp. 


By T. HARVEY JOHNSTON and PATRICIA M. MAWSON, University of Adelaide. 


The present investigation was undertaken as part of a study of the parasitology of the fauna of the 
lower River Murray swamps, especially at Tailem Bend, where we have been most generously 
assisted for several years past by Messrs. G and F. Jaensch. Some of our material has been obtained 
at Murray Bridge and Swan Reach; part of it was collected many years ago at Eidvold, Upper 
Burnett River, Queensland, by the late Dr. T. L. Bancroft and his daughter, Dr. M. J. Bancroft (Mrs 
Mackerras). We have also examined a small collection belonging to the Australian Museum, 
Sydney, and placed in our hand by its Director, Dr. C. Anderson, who collected some of it. We also 
acknowledge gratefully the assistance rendered through the Commonwealth Research Grant to the 
University of Adelaide 



By T. Harvey Johnston and Patricia Mawson, University of Adelaide 

[Read 12 September 1940] 

The present investigation was undertaken as part of a study of the para- 
sitology of the fauna of the Lower River Murray swamps, especially at Tailem 
Bend, where we have been most generously assisted for several years past by 
Messrs. G. and F. Jaensch. Some of our material has been obtained at Murray 
Bridge and Swan Reach; part of it was collected many years ago at Eidsvold, 
Upper Burnett River, Queensland, by the late Dr. T. L. Bancroft and his 
daughter, Dr. M. J. Bancroft (Mrs. Mackerras). We have also examined a 
small coliection belonging to the Australian Museum, Sydney, and placed in our 
hands by its Director, Dr. C. Anderson, who collected some of it. Wc also 
acknowledge gratefully the assistance rendered through the Commonwealth 
Research Grant to the University of Adelaide. 

Our work has included the examination of a large number of individual fish 
from the lower Murray, as well as parasites obtained elsewhere in Australia. 
Nematodes from 17 species of fish have been studied, most of them being food 
fishes, some of them very important, e.g., Murray cod, callop, Murray perch and 
Murray bream. 

Only three species of nematodes had been recorded previously from Aus- 
tralian freshwater fish. The first record was made by Baird in 1861 when he 
reported the occurrence of a brightly-coloured worm, regarded by him as Filaria 
sangninea Rudolphi, in a minnow, Galaxias scriba, from the Murray River (but 
not' further localised), the first member of the species to arrive in London in a 
living condition, though dying soon after. Linstow, in .1898, gave an account 
of Amblyonema terdentatum collected by Semon from Ceratodus forsteri from 
the Upper Burnett River. Next year Linstow (1899) described a brightly- 
coloured worm from Galaxias attenuatits, the parasite having been sent to Berlin 
Museum by Dr. Schomburck, of Adelaide. This nematode was regarded as 
identical with Spiroptera bicolor, which Linstow had described previously from 
European freshwater fish. Galaxias scriba is a synonym of G. attenuatus, and we 
indicate that the Australian worms identified as filaria sangitmea by Baird and 
Spiroptera bicolor by Linstow may safely be considered as, larval stages of a 
species of Eustrongylides, to which we have given the name E. gadopsis. 

In this paper wc deal with 18 species of nematodes, 17 of them being con- 
sidered new, two of these being larval stages, of Eustrongylides. A new genus, 
Paraseuratum, is proposed. A number of other larval forms also receive atten- 
tion, and we hope to be able to associate some of them with adult stages later. 
Most of the genera to which species are allotted had not previously been recorded 
as occurring in Australia. 

Types of all new species, unless stated otherwise, have been deposited in the 
South Australian Museum. 

List of Parasites arranged under their Hosts 
McCnllochella macquariensis (C. & V.), Murray Cod: — Capillaria murrayensis 
n. sp. ; Coniracaccam murrayense n. sp. ; Contracacaim sp. (larvae); Goczia 
fluviatilis n. sp. ; Spinitcchis sp. (larvae). 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


Plectroplites ambiguus Rich., callop, golden perch, yellow belly: — Contracaecum 
murrayense n. sp. ; Contracaecum sp. (larvae) ; Goezia flitviatilis n. sp. ; 
Spinitectus plectroplites n. sp. ; Procamallanus murrayensis n. sp. ; CapUlaria 
plectroplites n. sp.; Philometra plectroplites n. sp. ; Eustrongylides gadopsis 
n. sp. 

Percolates colonorum Gnthr., Murray perch : — Contracaecum murrayense n. sp. ; 
Contracaecum sp. (larvae); CapUlaria plectroplites n. sp. ; Goezia fluviaiilis 
n. sp.; Spinitectus percolates n. sp. ; Spinitectus sp. (encysted larvae); Pro- 
camallanus murrayensis n. sp. ; Philometra percolates n. sp. ; Agamonema sp. 

Macquaria australa-sica C. & V., Macquarie perch : — Contracaecum macquariae 
n. sp. ; Spinitectus sp. ; Philometra sp. 

Therapon bidyana Mitchell, Murray bream : — CapUlaria plectroplites n. sp. ; 
Contracaecum sp. (larvae). 

Therapon sp., black bream from North Queensland rivers: — Philometra sp. 

Pseudaphritis urvillei C. & V., congolli : — Contracaecum sp. (larvae) ; Spinitectus 
sp. (larvae) ; Procamallanus mivrrayensis n. sp. ; Rhabdochona jacnschi n. sp. 

Nannoperca australis Gnthr., pigmy perch: — Contracaecum sp. (larvae) ; Goezia 
fluviatilis n. sp. (larvae). 

Mogurnda adspersus Castln., gudgeon (Burnett River) : — Contracaecum sp. 
(larvae) ; Goezia fluviatilis n. sp. (larvae) ; Spinitectus bancrofti n. sp. 

Carassiops klunzingeri Ogilby, carp gudgeon (Burnett River) : — Contracaecum 
sp. (larvae). 

Gadopsis marmoratus Rich., black fish, "slippery" ':— Eustrongylides gadopsis n. sp. 

Nematalosa erebi Gnthr., bony bream: — Contracaecum sp. (larvae). 

Galoxios attenuatus Jenyns, native trout, minnow: — Eustrongylides gadopsis n. sp. 

Galaxias olidus Gnthr., minnow: — Eustrongylides galaxias n. sp. 

Anguilla reinhardtii Strd., long-finned eel; — Anguillicola australiensis n. sp. 

Tandanus tandanus Mitchell, catfish : — CapUlaria tandani n. sp. ; Contracaecum 
sp. (larvae) ; Goezia fluviatilis n. sp. (larvae) ; Paraseuratum tandani 
n. gen., n. sp. 

Ceratodus forsteri Krefft, lungfish (Burnett River) :—Amblyonema terdentatum 
Lin stow. 

Capillaria plectroplites n. sp. 
Figs. 1-2 
Numerous females from mucus on gills of a callop, Plectroplites ambiguus; 
and another from the Murray bream, Therapon bidyana; both hosts from Swan 
Reach. Length, 6-3-7*7 mm. ; maximum breadth (near posterior end), 0*09 mm. ; 
width at head -01 mm., at base of oesophagus *06 mm., and at anus -015 mm. ; ratio 
betwen oesophageal and intestinal regions of body, 4:5. Vulva on projection just 
behind posterior end of oesophagus; anus subterminal ; tail blunt; eggs, 50-53 u 
by 23-25 fx, 

Male worms from the Murray perch, Percolates colonorum, at Swan Reach, 
resemble the females in general appearance. Length, 3*9-4*5 mm.; width at head 
■01 mm, at posterior end of oesophagus '04 mm., at widest part of body '05 mm., 
and just in front of bursa -012 mm. End of oesophagus 2*26 mm. from head in 
specimen 4-49 mm. long. Spicule, *24 mm.; sheath slightly longer; sheath or 
spicule with transverse striations ; exact line between the two structures difficult 
to determine but striations continue somewhat in front of proximal part of 
spicule. At end of body two cuticular flaps opening ventrally and extending 
nearly to tip of tail. Greatest amount of extrusion of sheath observed was 
•12 mm. Ratio of length of oesophageal region to posterior part of bodv about 
1:1; but in female 4:5, 3:4, 7:9. 


Capillaria murrayensis n. sp. 

Single female specimen from intestine of Murray cod, McCullochella mac- 
qitariensis, from Tailem Bend. Length, 12 mm.; width at head '009, at vulva 
•04, at widest part '06, and at tail -025 mm. Vulva at mid-length and just behind 
end of oesophagus. Eggs, 50-52 by 22 /a. 

The species differs from C. plectroplites in its greater length, more attenuated 
form, and different ratio of the body regions (1:1). 

Capillaria tandani n. sp. 
Four females from intestine of catfish, Tmdanus tandanus, Tailem Bend. 
Length, 7-1-8-6 mm. Anterior region of body shorter than posterior part, ratio 
1 : 1-7-2-1. In specimen 8*6 mm. long, breadth at head '01 mm., at end of 
oesophagus 0-06 mm., in widest region (near tip of tail) -1 mm. Vulva just 
behind end of oesophagus, not salient. Eggs, 45 by 20 M . Body apparently with 
numerous minute tubercles scarcely projecting through cuticle. The species 
differs from the two preceding in the ratio of its body regions and in the size of 
the eggs. 

Fies 1-2 Capillaria pectroplites: 1, posterior end of male; 2, bursa Figs 3-7, 

Goezia fluviatitis: 3, young female; 4, head of female; 5, tail of male; 6, tail of 

female- 7, part of cuticle in region of posterior oesophagus, showing spines. 

Figs 8-9 Contracaecum macquariae: 8, head of young male; 9, tail of young male. 

Fies 10-13 Contracaecum murrayense; 10, head of male; 11, posterior end ot 

male- 12, 'dorsal, and 13, ventral views of head of very young female. 

Fies'l 4 and 6, to same scale; figs. 2 and 7. Figs. 8 and 9 to same scale; 

8 ' ' figs. 10, 12, and 13. 

References to Lettering— a, anus; ep, excretory pore; g, gubernaculum; 

n, nerve ring; o, ovarian tube; u, uterus; v, vulva. 

Goezia fluviatilis n. sp. 

Figs. 3-7 

Females from gill mucus, Plectroplites ambiguus and McCullochella mac- 
quariensis; males from Percalates colonomm, Tailem Bend. 

Female adult 4*4-6 mm. long, young specimens 2-2-4 mm.; males 3-4-4 mm 
long. Lips three, marked off from body by deep constriction, outer edge_ with 
articular expansion, inner border prolonged into two short rounded cuticular 
structures (possibly serving as teeth) ; dorsal lip with two papillae; ventral lips 
each with at least one papilla. Body widening rapidly behind head, then con- 


tinuing at same breadth nearly lo posterior end. then narrowing to tail, terminat- 
ing in cylindrical tip. Rows of spines approximating towards posterior end of 
body, spines becoming smaller and more closely set; spines no longer arranged 
in d'efmite rows in vicinity of anus.; spines absent from distal half of cylindrical 
part of female tail. 

in male 4*4 mm. long, width at head '2 mm., at mid-length of body *65 mm. 
( J esophagus "6 mm. long, club-shaped ; oesophageal appendix 1 "4 mm. long ; 
caecum conical, *15 mm. long. .Spicules '65 mm. long, with wide alae extend- 
ing beyond their tips like arrowheads. Tail '14 mm. long, cylindrical part 
'06 mm. Five pairs prcanal and three pairs adanal papillae ; also three papillae 
arranged on each side laterally from the adanals. 

In a young female 2'4 mm. long, breadth at head *16 mm., at mid-body 
"4 mm.; oesophagus m 4 mm. long ('75 mm. in female 4*4 in length), ratio to 
body length 1:6; nerve ring surrounding oesophagus just before latter widens 
at '2 mm. from head end; oesophageal appendix IT mm. long; caecum "OS mm. 
Tail *11 mm. long. Uteri extending forward and uniting a short distance behind 
oesophagus to form median uterus which passes back to vulva; latter 1 mm. in 
front of anus in specimen 2' 5 mm. long, dividing body length in ratio 3 : 2. ttggs, 
roughly globular, some with embryo. The position of the vulva and the equality 
of the spicules do not conform with the generic diagnosis for Goezia, but the 
differences are too slight to prevent the inclusion of the species in that genus. 

Immature stages, probably belonging to G. flitviatilis , have been found in 
Nannoperca ausiralis and Tandanus tandanus from Tailcm Bend, and in 
Mogurnda adspcrsa from the Upper Burnett River, Queensland. 

The specimen from Tandanus was an encysted larva, 1*35 mm. long, *05 mm. 
in maximum breadth, contained in a cyst '38 by '4 mm. in the omentum. A larval 
tooth was present, and the rows of spines as well as the form of the anterior 
end were readily recognisable. 

The immature worm from the intestine of Moijurnda measured 2*8 mm. long, 
with a maximum diameter *2 mm. The truncated anterior end possessed a pro- 
minent larval tooth. The rows of minute spines extended from the head to the 
tip of the conical pointed tail. The latter was *3 mm. long; the oesophagus 
*36 mm., its appendix *45 mm., and the intestinal caecum *2 mm. in length. The 
specimen from Nannoperca- was a moulted skin. 

Contracaecum macquariae n. sp. 
Figs. 8-9 

From stomach of the Macquarie perch, Macqnaria aitstralasica, Goodradigbee 
River, New South Wales, collected by Dr. C Anderson, Director, Australian 
Museum, Sydney. (Austr. Museum Coll., W. 2820.) 

Male 15 mm. long; female 20-25 mm. long. Lips large, each with two pairs 
of narrow lateral flanges; interlabia conical, less than half length of lips; two 
papillae on dorsal lip, one on each subventral. No collar region, but head dis- 
tinctly narrower than rest of body. 

Male — Oesophagus 4*5 mm. long, straight, narrow, with club-shaped 
appendix 1"5 mm. long; caecum 3 mm. long. Nerve ring, cervical papillae and 
excretory pore not observed. Testis commencing just behind oesophagus. Tail 
conical 2*4 mm. long. Spicules 2*8 mm.; 8-10 pairs small preanal papillae in 
region extending 4*5 mm. in front of anus, five pairs postanal arranged laterally 
(fig. 9). I'cmale — Tail *6 mm. long, tapering, ending in papilla. Vulva not 

Type deposited in the Australian Museum, Sydney. 


Contracaecum murrayense n. sp. 

Figs. 10-12 

Single male from McCullochclla -mac quart ensis ; lemales from l^crcalates 
colonorum, both fish from Tailem Bend. Mead about as wide ("15 mm. in 
male) as neck, without 'rolled collar" so commonly present in genus. Lips 
about T6 mm. long", each with pair of lateral flanges; dorsal lip with two wide 
papillae; subventrals each a wide papilla ventrally and a pair of minute closely- 
set papillae on their anterior dorsal side ; interlabia short, conical. 

Male 12*8 mm. long, '38 mm. maximum breadth. Oesophagus 3*5 mm. 
long, appendix about t'3 rum.; caecum 2*6 mm. long. Nerve ring at '5 mm. 
from head end and just in front of excretory pore. Tail '3 mm. long, -3 mm. 
wide at base, tapering to point, provided for the last "08 mm. of length with short 
spines of varying sizes. Spicules equal, "35 mm. long, of similar form, each with 
stout head followed by cylindrical shaft with rounded distal end. Nine pairs of 
lateral papillae, live postanal, four preanal; a more medianly-placed row of eight 
or nine pairs in front of the latter and spaced further apart to reach a point about 
1*5 mm. in front of cloaca. 

Females 16-18*3 mm. long; oesophagus about one-sixth body length ; 
appendix -45 mm., thin ; caecum 2'1 mm. Nerve ring about *'S mm. from head end. 
Tail pointed, '53 mm. long, with tip ornamented as in male. Vulva '7 mm. from 
head end (1:2'6 of body length) ; uteri backvvardly directed. Eggs not present. 

Though this species possesses many of the characters of the subgenus 
Thynnascaris Dollfus 1933 — e.g., the long oesophagus with a posterior bulb, short 
interlabia and equal spicules — it has been deemed preferable to place it under 

Young female worms obtained from Plectroplites ambigints, at Tailem Bend, 
agreed with most of the specimens described above in most features except that 
they were much shorter, and in the case of very young specimens the interlabia 
were relatively shorter, with a broader base. The tails were provided with 
numerous spines. 

Contracaecum spp. (larvae) 

Larvae in various stages of development were found in AlcCullochella mac- 
quariensis, Plectroplites ambiguus, Percolates colonorum, Tandaniis tandaniis, 
Therapon bidyana, Nanatalosa ercbi and Pseitdaphritis urvillei, all from the 
Lower Murray, as well as Carassiops klunzingeri and Mogurnda adspersus from 
the Upper Burnett .River, Queensland. Some were encysted in the mesentery and 
omentum, and possessed small lips, distinct alimentary canal with appendix and 
caecum, as well as (usually) distinct genital primordia, the almost spherical cyst 
measuring about 1 mm. in diameter. Others occurred free in the intestine, some 
of them with a larval tooth, but otherwise resembling the encysted forms. It is 
possible that more than one species of Contracaecum was represented and the 
adult stage may be expected to be found in hsh-eating water birds. 

Measurements (in mm.) of specimens from the mesentery of the Murray 
perch (Percolates) , from the lumen of the intestine of the callop (Plectroplites) , 
and from cysts in the omentum of the catfish (Tandanus), are now tabulated. 

Length - 

Maximum diameter - 


Oesoph. appendix 

Int. caecum 

Head to genit. anlage - 

Tail length 










































Spinitectus plectroplites n. sp. 
Fig. 14 

Females from gill mucus of Plectroplites ambiguus, Tailem Bend. Length, 
8-8-5 mm. First three rows with largest body spines ; succeeding three rows 
with smaller spines, remaining rows with spines diminishing in size, becoming 
very small at level of posterior end of oesophagus and remaining so to end of 
body. Mouth with two lateral lips; vestibule 50^ long. 15 /x wide. Oesophagus 
with anterior narrower part, *18 mm. long, and posterior region *55 mm. long. 
Nerve ring at -12 mm. from head end and just behind third row of spines. 
Excretory pore -15 mm. from head end and opening at base of spine in fourth 
row. Tail '11 mm. long, tapering, pointed. Vulva near posterior end, -3 mm. 
from tip of tail. Uteri uniting very near vulva, vagina very short. Eggs oval, 
smooth-shelled, 31-34 by 20-21 ,n. The species differs from S. gracilis Ward and 
Magath 1916 in length, position of vulva, length of anterior region of oesophagus, 
and distribution of spines. 

Spinitectus percalates n. sp 
Figs. 15-16 

1'Y-om Percalates colonorum, Lower Murray River. The species differs from 
the preceding in the length of the buccal capsule, position of the nerve ring, and 
size of spines. The size of the female, the length of its tail and the position of 
the vulva are similar to those of S. plectroplites. 

Male 6*6 mm. long; vestibule 40 /a long, 9 fx wide, not extending back as far 
as first row of spines. 20-22 spines in each row. Oesophagus, anterior region 
■17 mm., posterior region *5 mm. long. \ T erve ring at level of fourth row of 
spines, "13 mm. from head end. Tail '14 mm. long, tapering to narrow tip. 
Spicules simple, tapering to a point, stouter spicule *15 mm. long, the other 
•09 mm. Papillae. 11 pairs arranged in two lateral rows each with four preanal, 
three postanal, and a group of four smaller caudal. 

Spinitectus sp. 
In Percalates and the Murray cod, as well as in the congolli, Pseudaphritis 
urvillci, Tailem Bend, immature encysting female worms of Spinitectus sp. were 
collected, but details regarding the structure of either end were not sufficiently 
recognisable to permit identification with the species described above. 

Spinitectus bancrofti n. sp. 

Figs. 17-18 

A male and several indifferently preserved females from the intestine of 
Mogurnda adspersa, Upper Burnett River. Coll., Dr. M. J. Bancroft (Mrs. 

Male, 7'1 mm. long, '09 mm. maximum width. Female, 5*4-6*8 mm. Spines 
distinctly smaller than in the two preceding species, and commencing more 
posteriorly at "09 mm. from the head end; each row with 26-28 spines, rows about 
20 fx apart at anterior end, becoming eloser and containing smaller spines behind 
level of mid-oesophagcal length, but rows more separated near mid-body; spines 
extremely small and rows far apart and scarcely recognisable near tail. 
Vestibule bent, 40^ long, 10 /x wide. Nerve ring at level of second row of 
spines, T mm. from head end. Oesophagus, anterior region '15 mm, long 
and ending at level of fifth or sixth row of spinesi, posterior part *45 mm. long. 
Male, tail -11 mm. long, spicules unequal, *17 and "055 mm. long; four pairs 
preanal and at least five pairs postanal papillae, all pedunculated and projecting 
into narrow caudal alae. 


Females, all specimens young and without eggs; tail '07 mm., constricted 
suddenly, then tapering behind anus to end in blunt point ; vulva *2 mm. from 
tip of tail. 

The species is distinguished from the two preceding by the much greater 
distance from the head at which the rows of spines commence, the smaller size 
and greater number of the spines, the position of the nerve ring, and the spicular 

Fig. 14, Spinitcctus pectroplitcs: head. Figs. 15-16, Spinitcctus pcrcakbtcs: 15, 
head; 16, tail of male. Figs. 17-18, Spinitcctus bancrofti: 17, head; 18, tail of 
male. Figs. 19-20, Procamallamis murrayensis : 19, head; 20, tail of male. 
Figs. 21-23, Parascuratum tandani; 21, head; 22, tail of male; 23, one spicule and 
gubernaculum. Figs. 24-26, Eustrongylidcs gadopsis: 24, head, lateral view; 
25, head, anterior view; 26, posterior end of female. Fig. 27, Enstrongylides 
galaxias: head. Figs. 28-33, Anguillicola atistr alien sis: 28, head, lateral view; 
29, head, ventral view; 30, tail of male; 31, tail of female; 32, vulva; 33, anterior end. 
Figs. 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, and 19 to same scale. Figs. 22, 24, 25 and 27 to same scale; 
ligs. 23, 28 and 29; figs. 30 and 31. 

Spinitixtus Sp. 
A damaged female from the stomach of Macquaria aitstralaslca from the 
Goodradigbee River, New South Wales, collected by Dr. C. Anderson. (Austr. 
Museum Coll., W, 2820.) The worm at first sight suggested a Trichuris. The 
thin incomplete anterior end measured 9 mm. long and the wider posterior region, 
containing abundant eggs, 7*4 mm. Anterior end with transverse rows of spines; 
latter becoming smaller posteriorly and at 2 mm. almost disappearing, but 
discernible again as very small structures on the tail. Oesophageal regions not 
distinguishable. Body width anteriorly -06 mm., where the spines measure about 
7 ;x long; at 8 mm. from anterior end width is - 14 mm., at 9 mm. T9 mm., at level 
of anus '06 mm. Maximum breadth (near vulva) '27 mm. Anus '12 mm. from 
tip of tapering, bluntly pointed tail; vulva on prominence *21 mm. in front of 
anus. Eggs, -04 by - 02 mm., ovoid, thick-shelled, without polar plugs. 

The characters of this incomplete, poorly preserved parasite suggest a new 
species of Spinitcctus, but in view of its condition we abstain from naming it. 


Procamallanus murrayensis n. sp, 
Figs. 19-20 

From PsendapJiritis urvillei from Swan Reach, Pcrcalatcs colonorum from 
Murray Bridge, and Plectroplitcs ambiguus from Tailem Bend. Male 4-5_ mm. 
long, -13 mm. maximum breadth; female 8-10 mm. long, *25--3 mm. maximum 
breadth. Ruccal capsule spirally striated, not markedly compressed laterally, 
70 fx long, 70 /x diameter at its mid-length, base greatly thickened, anterior edge 
moulded into six lobes. Oesophagus in male with anterior muscular region 
terminating *4 mm. from head, glandular portion ending at '9 mm. from head, 
both parts with more or less pronounced curve in their most anterior portions. 
Nerve ring about *2 mm. from head. 

Male — Caudal alae membranous, joined ventrally as in Physaloptcra, '33 mm. 
long. Papillae, three pairs preanal. two pairs pedunculated postanal, two pairs 
sessile adanal. Cloaca "15 mm. from tip of tail. Spicules -29 and *2 mm. long, 
simple, tapering, pointed. 

Female — Tail *1 mm. long, with narrow tip 30 p, long and 10/* wide; two 
minute lateral papillae 50 «x from tip of tail ; vulva a. transverse slit just in front of 
mid-length of body; uteri opposed. 

The species resembles P. spiralis Baylis 1923 in some features, but differs m 
the form of the buccal capsule, which is more spherical. 

Paraseuratum tandani n. g.. n. sp. 

FiKs. 21-23 

A male and a few females, some poorly preserved, from Tandanus tandanus 
from Tailem Bend. Male 8'7 mm., female 5*5-8*5 mm. long. Anterior end 
truncated, tapering; six low lips, each with s.mall papilla. Buccal capsule absent; 
vestibule very short. Oesophagus "9 mm. long in male, commencing with dilata- 
tion followed by narrow tube widening at base; six short conical teeth projecting 
from anterior end into vestibule. Nerve ring at about mid-length of oesophagus. 
Excretory pore and cervical papillae not seen. 

Male -Spicules equal, similar, -11 mm. long; proximal half spoon-shaped; 
distal half simple, tapering to point. Gubernaculum 0'05 mm. long. Caudal 
alae arising about 2 mm. in front of cloaca and extending each as narrow wave- 
band to within '05 mm. of tip of tail. Papillae; four pairs preanal (at *55. '2 y 
•06 and "02 mm. respectively in from of cloaca) ; live pairs postanal, two pairs 
of these near anus, behind these the tail narrowing suddenly and bearing a pair 
of large dorsolateral and two pairs of ventro-median papillae before ending in 
a fine spike. Cloaca *45 mm. from tip of tail. 

Female—- Tail -5 mm. long, tapering, ending in short spine curving some- 
what ventrally. Vulva salient, 3*2 mm. from posterior end, in worm 8*5 mm. 
long, i.e., 1 :1'7 of body length from head end; vagina short; uteri opposite; eggs 
more or less globular, '05- - 06 mm. diameter. 

This species does not fall into any previously described genus of Spiruroidca, 
so we propose a new genus, Paraseuratum, with the following characters : — 
Seuratinae; mouth surrounded by six low lips each with a small papilla. No 
longitudinal dark bands on cuticle. Buccal capsule absent; oesophagus long, with 
six short teeth projecting anteriorly into mouth cavity. Male with short narrow- 
caudal alae, short spicules, and pointed tail. Female with tapering tail, vulva in 
second third of body length,, and eggs subglobular. Type, P. tandani n. sp. 

The appearance of the anterior end and the male tail is nearest to that of 
Seuralwn; but from the latter our worms differ in having a longer oesophagus, 


six lips, and no longitudinal dark bands on the cuticle. Baylis (1923) placed 
Seuratum in the Cucullanidae. Scuralinn and Paraseuratum differ from the other 
genera of the family in the absence of a vestibular enlargement of the oesophagus 
and in the absence of a prcanal sucker in the male. 

Rhabdochona jaenschi n. sp. 

Figs. 37-38 
Two specimens from a Pscudaphritis urvillci taken from the stomach of a 
Murray cod at Tailem Rend. Male, 2*55 mm. ; female, 4*4 mm. long; of uniform 
diameter except at both ends, tapering at head end, narrowing suddenly at 
posterior end; maximum diameter of male 60 (x, of female 80//. Head rounded, 
with two small papillae. Mouth succeeded by elongate cylindrical pharynx, 
probably unarmed; '1 mm. long in female. Oesophagus *8 mm. long in female, 
about one-fifth body length, with narrower anterior part "16 mm. long. Nerve 
ring at anterior end of oesophagus. 

Male with caudal alae, about '16 mm. long, each "012 mm. wide; tail -07 mm, 
long, alae meeting at its tip. About three pairs preanal and live or six pairs post- 
anal papillae, all pedunculated but not all reaching edge of alae; exact number 
doubtful because of position of alae in the single specimen. Spicules dissimilar, 
unequal; one being 30^ long, spatulate, with blunt tip; the other 95 ^ long, 
cylindrical for proximal half, tapering in distal half. Gubernaculum about 10 ^ 
long, shield-shaped. 

Female with blunt tail about "1 mm. long, ending in small round papilla. 
Vulva 2*1 mm. from posterior end and just behind mid-length of body. Rggs 
oval, 30 by 20^, with very thick shell. 

The assignment of this species (named as an acknowledgment of the generous 
assistance rendered by Messrs. G. and F. jaensch of Tailem Bend) to 
Rhabdochona is provisional, since it differs from members of the genus in possess- 
ing caudal alae. We were not able to observe any teeth at the anterior end of 
the pharynx. 

Amblyonema terdentatum Linstow 1898 
(Figs. 39-40) 

Several specimens collected by the late Dr. T. L. Bancroft from Ceratodus 
forsteri from the Upper Burnett River, Linstow's type host and locality. Male, 
10*1 to 12*8 mm, long; female, 12*1 to 15*4 mm. long. Head with six rather 
large papillae (not mentioned by Linstow) ; inside of buccal cavity indistinct, only 
outlines of part of teeth visible. Lips conical, shorter than in Linstow's, figure. 
Oesophagus commencing at about 50 /a from anterior end. 

Male with pointed tail; spicules (in specimen 10*1 mm. long) *34 mm. in 
length (Linstow, * 1 37 mm.), gubernaculum *09 mm. long (Linstow, '11 mm.). 
Two pairs preanal and one pair postanal papillae (as stated by Linstow) ; in 
addition, three pairs more anteriorly situated than the preceding, a pair laterally 
near tip of tail, and a pair ventro-laterally (also near tip of tail), last pair on 
slight projection. 

Philometra plectroplites n. sp. 
Fig. 34 

Two mature females from body cavity of" Plectroplites ambignus from 
Murray Bridge. Longer worm 10*5 cm.; cuticle with numerous minute, irregu- 
larly distributed bosses. Anterior end rounded, without lips and papillae. Oeso- 
phagus 1 *05 mm. long, *09 mm. broad; anterior end widened to contain small, 
nearly hemispherical, vestibule, 56 /x wide, 48 /x long. Nerve ring *2 mm. from 


head end. Vulva and anus atrophied. Uterus voluminous, occupying most of 
body cavity; merging into an oviduct about *5 mm. from head end. Larvae in 
uterus about '022 mm. wide, -47 mm. long; coiled in two complete spirals; 
anterior end rounded; tail tapering to fine point. 

Philometra percalates n. sp. 
Figs. 35-36 

A male 2*6 mm. long from Percalates colonorum, Tailem Bend. Anterior 
end rounded, with eight small papillae; posterior end truncate. Oesophagus 
■25 mm. long, with swollen anterior end succeeded by narrow region to nerve 
ring (-15 mm. from head end), then terminating in wider portion. Spicules 
-105 mm. long, with narrow alae ; gubernaculum "04 mm. long, with barbed tip. 
Tail with four lobes, ventral pair longer, dorsal pair more pronounced. 

This male may belong- to the preceding species, but as the two sexes were not 
obtained at the same time, and the hosts belonged to different species, it has been 
deemed advisable to describe the worms senaratelv. 

. ■ i. 

Fig. 34, Philometra pcciroplitcs : anterior end. Figs. 35-36, Philometra percalates: 
35, male, anterior end; 36, male, posterior end. Fig^. 37-38, Rhabdochona jaenschi: 
37, anterior end; 38, tail of male. Figs. 3 ( M0, Amhlyoncma icrdentatum: 39, head; 
40, tail of male. Figs. 34 and 40 to same scale; figs. 35, 36 and 38; figs. 37 and 39. 

Philometroides Ishii differs from Philometra in the absence of papillae, the 
presence of cuticular bosses, and the enlargement of parietal muscles in the former 
genus, bosses have been noted in several species of Philometra — nodulosa, para- 
"sihtri, sangainea and senticosa, the first two of which possess oral papillae (six 
and eight respectively), while the other two do not. The condition of the parietal 
muscles is not usually noted in the various species of Philometra. The male of 
Philometroides is unknown. The absence of essential literature has prevented 
us from reviewing adequately the species recorded under Philometra, but 
I'urayama's paper (1932) relating to P. fitgimotoi gives much useful informa- 
tion. We prefer to leave our two species under Philometra for the present. 


Philometra spp. 

A very long thin worm collected by Dr. C. Anderson from Macquaria aits- 
iralasica, Goodradigbce River, New South Wales (Austr. Museum Coll., 
W. 2820) belongs to the genus. It is broken, one fragment measuring 580 mm. 
and another 50 mm., each piece possessing a smoothly rounded end, but internal 
structure was not recognisable. 

Another worm (Austr. Museum Coll., W. 1587), 45 mm. long, from a "black 
bream" (presumably Thcrapon sp.), collected by Dr. Hall in a tributary of the 
Mitchell River, North Queensland, probably belongs, to Philometra, but its condi- 
tion does not permit a study of its structure. 

Eustrongylides gadopsis n. sp. 

Figs. 24-26 

Several long, thin, immature specimens from Gadopsis marmoratus from 
Orange, New South Wales (Austr. Museum. Coll.). Length, 70-80 mm. 
Anterior end domed; mouth elongated dorso-ventrally ; four submedian and two 
somewhat elongate lateral papillae, laterals smaller and nearer mouth; row of 
long rounded papillae on each side anteriorly, becoming much smaller posterior 
to oesophagus and gradually diminishing till they disappear. Vestibule slightly 
cuticularizcd, '35 mm. long; oesophagus very long, about 15 mm., one-fifth body 
length; nerve ring -4 mm. from head end. Body narrowing suddenly near 
posterior end to terminate in small prominence bearing anus. Tvpe deposited in 
Aust. Mus. (Reg. No. W. 3235). 

A similar worm, 55 mm. long, was found in the freshwater perch, presum- 
ably Plcctroplites ambiguus, by Dr. JIall in a tributarv of the Mitchell River- 
North Queensland (Austr. Museum Coll., W. 1588). 

Our species is the same as that described by Einstow (1899, 17) from 
Calaxias attcnuatus from Adelaide, under the name ? Spiroptera bicolor. Tie had 
previously (1873, 298) described ? Eilaria bicolor from European fish (Esox_, 
Siliiriis), but in his later work (1899) he considered the parasite as ? Spiroptera 
and, though he mentioned Siturus as one host, he based his account on the Aus- 
tralian worm and gave several figures relating to it. The arrangement and form 
of the lips agree essentially with those of our specimens. We think it likely that 
his name was applied to larval stages of two distinct, but closely related, species 
of Euslrongylidcs. Since the name Eilaria bicolor was already preoccupied by 
l'\ bicolor Crcplin 1825 (also from European freshwater hsh), Linstow's name 
was not valid. Chitwood (1933) renamed it Eustrongylides linslozvi. The latter 
name must be attached to the parasite from Esox and Silurus, if distinct from the 
Australian parasite. Ciurea (1924) recognised Linstow's worm as a larval 
Eustrongylides and published figures of larvae belonging to the genus, some of his 
illustrations showing resemblance to our parasite. Cram (1927) listed Spiroptera 
bicolor Linst. as a synonym of E. ignotus Jagersk. Baird in 1861 referred to the 
presence of Eilaria sanguinea Rud. (originally described as an adult worm from 
Cyprinus in Europe) in Calaxias scriba from the Murray River, and (1862 a, 
207-8; 1861 b, 269-70) gave a brief account of it. Rudolph's'species has been placed 
under Philometra, but Jagerskioid (1909) mentioned that larvae from Calaxias 
scriba ^ resembled Eustrongylides ignotus whose adult hosts are Ardeiform birds. 
Calaxias scriba is a synonvm of C. attcnuatus according to McCulloch (Mem. 
Austr. Museum, 5 (1), 1929, 47). 

In view of the foregoing statements we apply the name E. gadopsis to the 
brightly-coloured larval parasite from Cadopsis marmoratus from New South 
Wales, Plcctroplitcs ambiguus from Northern Queensland and Calaxias attcnuatus 


from South Australia, its synonyms being ? Spiropiera bicolor Linstow 
from Galaxias and Filaria sari guinea Barrel (nee Rudolphi), also from Galaxias. 
The name Eustrongylidcs linsiowi should be restricted to the parasite first 
described from the European catfish, Silurns giants, unless it be proved identical 
specifically with the worm from Australian freshwater fish. We may mention 
that we have studied a related species from Galaxias olidus, described below. 

Eustrongylides galaxias n, sp. 

Fig. 27 
An immature worm from Gala.iias olidus from the vicinity of Adelaide, 
closely resembling the preceding species. Length 120 mm., breadth *74 mm. 
Papillae on head and lateral lines as in E. gadopsis but smaller. Vestibule *2 mm. 
long, 25 fx external diameter, 9 /x internal diameter, anterior border appearing 
deeply serrated with six tooth-like projections. Oesophagus 23 mm. long. 
Posterior end rounded, anus terminal. 

Anguillicola australiensis n. sp. 
Figs. 28-33 

Several worms from swim bladder of Angiiilla reiniiardtii, from Prospect 
Reservoir, near Sydney, New South Wales. Gravid females, 60-70 mm. long, 
1*5 mm. wide; young females 25-30 mm. by '5 mm.; males 40 mm. long, 1 mm. 
maximum breadth. Head end resembling the extruded bulbous proboscis of some 
cchinorhynchs ; marked neck constriction ; body tapering at posterior end to a 
pointed tail. Anterior bulbous enlargement much wider dorso-ventrally than 
from side to side, hence different appearance when viewed laterally or dorso- 
ventrally; in female 25 mm. long this swollen region measured T4 mm. long, 
'22 mm. dorso-ventrally, and *V3 mm. from side to side. Mouth with six small 
lips or papillae; buccal cavity wider at base than anteriorly, with serrated anterior 
edge suggesting a leaf -crown with many elements; capsule 10 jt* long, 28^, -wide 
at mid-length. Oesophagus '82 mm. long, about 1:30 of body length; strongly 
muscular; widening regularly toward base; anterior end with six lobes project- 
ing into buccal cavity. Nerve ring at '18 mm. from head end, i.e., just behind 
head swelling. Excretory pore on prominence in region of posterior end of 
oesophagus. Intestine very wide, filled witli dark material. Actual position of 
anus in female not observed, but at '4 mm. from tip of tail in worm 25 mm. long, 
and at a corresponding distance in larger worms, there is a slight indentation 
associated with a muscular hand extending across the body ; in front of indenta- 
tion are four large glandular masses; anteriorly to the latter, at l'l mm. from 
lip of tail, the dark intestinal malerial is no longer evident ; hence rectum probably 
a very narrow tube. 

In two specimens which showed a similar disposition of pigment and glands, 
ihere appears to be a projection of the rectal wall through the anus, i.e., at the 
point of attachment of the transverse musculature. These worms have a regular 
arrangement of papillae, two pairs preanal and two pairs postanal. We regard 
these specimens as males, although spicules were not seen. In a tube leading 
towards the anus numerous small spherical bodies, probably sperms, w 7 ere noticed. 
Perhaps the projecting part of the rectal wall has replaced functionally the spicules. 

In the female there is a rounded projection of the body wall, distant from 
the posterior end one-sixth of the body length, this prominence being surrounded 
by obvious lips, so that in the gravid worm the vulva is visible to the unaided 
eye. The ovarian tubes extend into the oesophageal and tail regions respectively. 
'Idie thin-shelled eggs measure 12-15/.'. by 25-26 /x. 


Our species appears to be more closely related to AngniUicohi globiceps 
{ AuguilHcolidae) described by Yamaguti (1935) from the swim-bladder of a 
Japanese eel, but differs mainly in the markedly swollen anterior end and in the 
form of the tail. 

Agamonema sp. 

Very voting nematodes, not further determinable, were taken from the eyes 
of Pcrealaii's colonorum from Tailem Bend. No organs, other than the alimentary 
canal, were recognisable. Length -42 mm.; maximum breadth (at lower end of 
oesophagus ) *02 mm. ; truncated head ; head structures apparently absent ; 
oesophagus "15 mm. long; tail '06 mm. long, tapering to a point. 

Balrd, \\\ 1861 (a) Xote on the occurrence of Filaria sanguinea in the body 
of the Galaxias scriba, a freshwater fish from Australia. P.Z.S., 1861. 
207-8; (b) Same paper m A. M.N. II., (3), 8, 1861, 269-270 

Bavlis, H, A. 1923. Report on a collection of Parasitic Nematodes, mainly 

from Egypt, etc. ParasitoL. 15, 1-38 
Bavlis, PI. A. 1923 Note on Procamallanus spiralis. ParasitoL, 15, 137-138 

Ourka, j. 1924 Die Eustrongvlides-larven bei Donauhschen. Z. f. Fleisch. ti. 

Milchhyg., 34, 134-137 '(not available), 
f "kam , E. B, 1927 Bird 1 Crashes of the Nematode suborders Strongylata, 

Ascaridata and Spirurata. L T .S. Nat. Mus. Bull. 140 

Fur a yam a, T. 1934 On the Morphology and Eife History of Philornetra 
fugimotoi Eurayama, 1932. Keijo Jour. Med., 5, 155-177 

j aY-krskiold, E. A. 1909 Zur Kenntnis der Nematoden-Gattungen Eustrongy- 
lides und Hystrichis. Nova Acta reg. See. Sci. LTpsaliensis, (4), 2, 
48 pp. (not available) 

Pi. \ stow, O. 1873 Einige neue Nematoden nebst Bemerkungen tiber bekannte 
Arten. Arch. f. Naturg., E 293-307 

EiwsTow, O. 1898 Nemathelminthen von Kerrn Richard Semon in Austra- 
lian gesammelt, (Zoologische Eorschungsreisen, etc. Jena.) Denk. 
Med.-Naturw. Ges., Jena, 8, 469-472 

Linstow, O. 1899 Nematoden aus der Berliner Zoologischen Sammlung. 
Mitt. Zool. Saniml. Mus. Naturk. Berlin, 1 (2), 5-28 

Ward, PP B., and Magatii, T. H. 1916 Notes on some Nematodes from Fresh- 
water Pishes. Jour. Parasit.. 3, 57-64 

Yamacuti, S. 1935 Studies on the Helminth Fauna of Japan. Part 9. Nema- 
todes of Fishes. Jap. Jour. Zool., 6, 338-386 




This genus was erected by Hood in 1915 for the Australian species Orothrips australis Bagnall 
1914. The following species have been described from this country. 9 Desmothrips australis 
Bagnall 1914 (syn. <$ Archaeolothrips fontis Bagnall 1924; Bagnall and Kelly 1928), 9 tenuicornis 
Bagnall 1916, $ propinqus Bagnall 1916, $ bagnalli Karny 1920, $ obsolctus Bagnall 1924, $ 
comparabilis Priesner 1928, 9 & S davidsoni Morison 1930, 9 elegans Morison 1930. 




By II. Vevers Steele Cl) 
[Read 12 September 1940] 

This genus was erected by Hood in 1915 for the Australian species Orothrips 
australis Bagnall 1914. The following species have been described from this 
country. 5 Dcsmothrips australis Bagnall 1914 (syn. J Archacolothrips fontis 
Bagnall 1924; Bagnall and Kellv 1928), 9 temticomis Bagnall 1916, 9 pro- 
pin quus Bagnall 1916. 2 bagnalli Karny 1920, $ obsolctus Bagnall 1924, 
tf comparabilis Priesner 1928, 9 & £ davidsoni Morison 1930, 9 elegans 
Morison 1930. 

They have been differentiated mainly on: (a) the shading of the I ore-wings ; 
(b) the length of the third antennal segment; and (c) the colouration of the distal 
half of the same antennal segment. 

In these and other characters Dcsmothrips davidsoni Morison differs fromall 
the rest. From the description D, tenuicornis Bagnall seems to be a valid species. 

In all the other species, however, the three characters given above tend to 
form a graded series (fig. A-F), but they are not always consistent within a 
particular specimen; for example, it is possible to find a specimen having the 
wing pattern of D. australis (in which the distal and middle fasciae are not con- 
tinent) and a yellowish third antennal segment shaded apically with light brown 
as in D. elegans. Consequently, I take /), australis Bagnall to be a very variable 
species embracing propinquus Bagnall, bagnalli Karny, obsolctus Bagnall, com- 
parabilis Priesner, and elegans Morison. 

Range of Variation in the auove Characters 

(a) Shading of fore-wing (fig, A-F). In nearly all specimens a small patch 
of brown at the base extends partly or wholly on to the alula. There are two 
transverse fasciae, one in the middle, the other at the distal end of the wing, 
varying in the extent to which they are confluent. The rest is clear. 

In the original description of I), australis the transverse fasciae are not 
joined (fig, A). In one specimen examined they were united only by the darken- 
ing of the anterior and posterior veins. In the next stage (fig. B) the wing 
begins to darken just anterior to the posterior vein. Then, as in fig. C-D, the 
colour gradually extends forwards until the area between the posterior vein and 
the posterior marginal vein becomes completely brown (lig. E) as in J), bagnalli, 
comparabilis, elegans, and obsolctus. Finally, the brown extends partly into the 
area between the anterior and posterior veins (fig. F). Intermediates occur. 

(b) In the specimens examined the length of the third antennal segment 
varied in the $ from 84 /a to 117 p, and in the 3 from 73 jx to 91 /a. 

(c) The pale brownish-yellow third antennal segment varied from a slight 
brown area at the tip, to the distal half wholly dark brown. 

Variations are also to be found ill other characters, e.g., in the number of 
segments in the maxiliary and labial palpi. In some these varied from 6-8 and 3-4 
respectively, and in one there were six segments to the maxillary palp on one side 
and seven on the other. The comparative length and width of the. head also varied, 
but mostlv it was wider than long, whether the wing fasciae were confluent or not. 

O Mrs. H. G. Andrcwartha. 
Tra»s. "Rov. Soc. S.A., 64 (2). 20 December 1940 


The manner in which the above characters may be linked in different speci- 
mens may be illustrated as. follows: 

(a) by comparing the length of the third antennal segment in those in which 
the wing fasciae were joined along the posterior margin, with the length 
in those in which the fasciae are quite separated. 

In 11 9 ? with the wing fasciae united, the lengths of the third 
antennal segments were 85, 85, 87, 88, 91, 97, 99, 100, 100, 102 and 
110 /a respectively. In 12 $ $ with the fasciae free, the lengths were 
84, 84, 86, 91, 92, 93, 93, 97, 100, 104, 108 and 117/,. I have only one S 
with confluent fasciae, and in this, the length of the third antennal segment 
was 73 ju,. In those males with free fasciae the lengths were 74, 85, 87, 
91 and 91 ^ 

(b) by comparison of the lengths of the third antennal segment in those 
with the distal half of this segment brown, and those with only the apex 
brown. In the first case the lengths were 84, 84, 86, 91, and 102 p in the 

9 $ and 73 p in the $ , in the second series thev were 85, 85, 88, 91, 92, 93, 
97, 97, 99, 100, 110 and 117 p in the $ 9- and 74, 87 and 91 /* in the S $ . 

(c) by comparing the colouration of the third antennal segment with the 
variation in shading of the fore-wing, as follows : 

1 Distal half of third antennal segment brown: wing fasciae con- 

fluent 2 9 9,1 $ ; wing fasciae free, 3 99,0 $ m 

2 Distal half not brown, only apex: wing fasciae confluent. 7 9 9 „ 

$ ; wing fasciae free, 5 9 9,3 $ $. , 





Fig. A-F Right fore-wing- of specimens from: A, Kalorama, Vict.; B, Adelaide, 
S. Aust; C, Warragul, Vict; D-F, Adelaide, S. Aust.; F. Moutville, Qld. 

It appears that there are only three valid species of Desmothrips known from 
Australia, as follows : davidsoni Morison, tc unicornis Bagnall and attstralis 
Bagnall, the rest falling as synonyms of 1). australis. 

I again wish to extend my thanks to the authorities cited in my previous 
paper (Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 64 (2), 325), and, in addition, to Mr. N. E. IT. 
Caldwell for the loan of Ouensland material. 

Bagnall, R. S. 1914 Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., (8) 13, 287 
Bagnall, R. S. 1916 Ibid., (8) 17, 397 
Bagnall, R. S. 1924 Ibid., (9) 14, 626 

Bagnall, R. S., and Kelly, R. 1928 Ent. Mon. Mag., Oxford, 64, 204 
Hood, J. D. 1915 Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, 28, 57 
Karny, H. H. 1920 Acta Soc. Ent. Cech., 17, 36 
Morison, G. 1930 Bull. Ent. Res.. 21, 449-453 
Priesner, H. 1928 Sitz. Ber. Akad. Wiss, Wien, Aht. I, Bd. 9 


By T. HARVEY JOHNSTON and PATRICIA M. MAWSON, University of Adelaide. 


Much of the material dealt with in this paper was, collected by Professor J. B. Cleland the late Dr. 
T. L. Bancroft and the late Dr. MacGillivray; most of the remainder by the senior author. 
Acknowledgment is made of assistance received through the Commonwealth Research Grant to the 
University of Adelaide. Types of new species have been deposited in the South Australian Museum. 



By T. Harvey Johnston and Patkicia M. Mawson ; University of Adelaide 

[Read 12 September 1940] 

Much of the material dealt with in this paper was collected by Professor 
J. II Gleland, the late Dr. T. L. Bancroft, and the late Dr. MacGillivray; most 
of the remainder by the senior author. Acknowledgment is made of assistance 
received through the Commonwealth Research Grant to the University of 
Adelaide. Types of new species have been deposited in the South Australian 

List of parasites arranged under their hosts: 

Corvus coronoides Vig. and Ilorsf. (Eidsvold, Burnett River, Qld.), Diplotriaena 

beta n. sp. ; (Musgrave Ranges, South Australia), Aprocia corvkola n, sp. 
Strcpcra gracuhna White (Mount Irvine, South Australia), Diplotriaena n. sp. ; 

(Scone, New South Wales) Paralemdana clelandi n. g., n. sp. 
Craucalus melanops Latham (Eraser Island, Queensland), Carinema graucalinum 

n. sp. 
Malur-us laniberti Vig. and Horsf. (Ooldea, South Australia), Diplotriaena 

delta n. sp. 
Cracticus destructor Temiii, (Brisbane), Diplotriaena epsilon n. sp. 
Myzantha ftavigula Gould (Renmark, South Australia), Pseitdaprocta myzanthae 

n. sp. 
Acanthogenus rufigularis Gould (Monarto, South Australia) ; Diplotriaena aeta 

n. sp. ; (Eidsvold, Queensland) Filaria (s.l.) sp. 
Aphcloccphala nigricincta North (Musgrave Ranges, South Australia), Anstro- 

filaria vestibulata n. g., n. sp. 
Spres siipcrbus (Abyssinia, via Adelaide Zoological Gardens), Diplotriaena 

gamma n. sp. 


Halcyon vagans Lesson (Lord Howe Island), Hamatospicuhim howense n. sp. 


Calopsittacus novae -hollandiae Gmelin (New South Wales), Filaria (s.l.) sp. 
Psendopsittacus mclennani MacGillivray (North Queensland), Carinema dubia 
n. sp. 


Columba livla Linn. (Adelaide), Euliindana clava (Wedl) Eounikofr". 

Hamatospiculum howense n. sp 
(Fig. 1-2) 

From subcutaneous tissues of head and neck of Halycan vagans, Lord Howe 

Males up to 20 mm. in length, 0*4 mm. diameter; females to 35 mm. in 
length, 0'62 mm. diameter. Body cylindrical with rounded ends. Head with 
two short lateral cuticular projections on either side of small mouth, projections 
continuous with short root in hypodermis ; externally from each is row of five 
papillae. Anterior part of oesophagus short, 0*2 mm. long in male, 0*3 mm. long 
in female; surrounded by nerve ring about mid-length; posterior part very long, 
reaching a third of body length. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


Male — Tail rounded, cloaca 50 p, from tip; very slight alae in front of cloaca; 
one pair of large postanal and five pairs small preanal papillae, latter in alae. 
Spicules tapering to point, very unequal in size. 2"3 mm. and '27 mm. in length. 

Female — Anus atrophied, posterior gut not seen. Vulva salient, 1*2 mm. 
from head end. Eggs thick-shelled, 31 }x hy 19 /x. 

This species closely resembles H. Icticiac Tubangui 1934, differing in the 
number of postanal papillae, the relative position of vulva, and the size of the eggs. 


Fig. 1-26 
Fig. 1-2, Hamalospicitinm howense: 1, head; 2, tail of mule. Fig:. 3, Daralenidaua clclandi: 
anterior end. Fig. 4-6, Austrofilaria vcstibnlala: 4, head; 5, anterior end; 6, tail oi male. 
Fig. 7-9, Carincma ditbia: 7, head ; 8, anterior end ; 9, male tail. Fig. 10-11. Carinema 
araucaltmim: 10, head ; 11. male tail. Fig. 12-13, Aprocia corvicola ; 12, anterior end ; 
13, male tail. Fig. 14-15, Pseudaprocta myzanlhac; 14, head, sub-lateral view; 15, anterior end. 
Fig. 16, Diplotriacna alpha. Fig. 17, Diplotriacna beta. Fig. 18-19, Diplotriaena gamma: 
18, anterior end; 19, trident. Fig. 20-21, Diplotriacna delta: 20, anterior end; 21, trident. 
Fig. 22-23, Diplotriaena epsilon: 22, anterior end; 23 tail of male. Fig. 24, Diplotriacna ccta. 
Fig. 25, Filaria (s.l.) sp. from Acanthoyenys rnfu/ularis, male tail. Fig. 26, 1'ilaria (s.l.) sp. 
from Calopsit tarns novae-imUandiae, male tail. 

Fig. 2. 4, 9, 10, 11, and 14 to same scale; fig. 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, 15. 16, 17 and 24; fig. 19, 21, 25, 2f>. 
e, excretory pore ; nr, nerve ring ; v, vulva. 

Paralemdana clelandi mg.. ft. sp. 

(Fig. 3) 

From body cavity of Strcpcra graculina from Scone. Xew South Wales 

(Coll. Professor Cleland). A single female 13 mm. long, 0'55 mm. wide. Head 

truncated, posterior end rounded; mouth small, circular, leading through small 

ring of chitinous material to oesophagus; latter cylindrical, muscular, 0*5 mm. 


long, surrounded by nerve ring at 0*11 mm. from head. At least four head 
papillae. Vulva about middle of oesophageal region; uteri uniting well behind 
this, passing posteriorly beyond mid-body; an ovary at either end of body; no 
ripe eggs present. Tail, 0*1 mm. long; anus distinct. 

Not being assignable to any genus already erected, we suggest a new genus 
of Filariinae, Paralemdana, near Lemdana Seurat, characterised by a smooth 
anterior end; short wide oesophagus, not divided into two parts; vulva in 
oesophageal region; tail rounded and short; anus present. Type. P. clehmdi n. sp. 

Austrofilaria vestibulata n. g., n. sp. 

(Fig. 4-6) 

From Aphelocepiiala nigricinda, Musgrave Ranges, South Australia. 
Males 8-5 to 9'5 mm. long, 0"4 mm. wide; females 20 to 25 mm. long, 0*6 mm. 
wide. Head with four submedian papillae and possibly two lateral papillae; body 
cylindrical, conical anteriorly, rounded posteriorly. Stout chitinous cylindrical 
vestibule, anterior edge rolled outwards, forming fhrcfc ring around mouth, 
projecting beyond the body proper; in male, vestibule 25 fx long, 21 /a wide at 
base, inclusive of walls. Oesophagus 0*6 mm. long in male; 076 mm. in female; 
with an anterior thinner part 0-24 mm. long. Nerve ring difficult to distinguish; 
either at base of anterior part of oesophagus or around its mid-length. 

Afa/f— Caudal papillae absent; spicules equal, tapering, -25 mm. long. No 
gubernaculum. Posterior end forming spiral of one and a half coils ; tail 
0- 15 mm. long. 

Female — Tail 0T mm. long; uteri uniting near vulva; latter 0\5 mm. from 
head. Eggs thick-shelled, 40 p by 25 //.. 

The characters of the head of this worm do not agree with those of any 
genus of the Filarioidea hitherto described, so far as we have been able to deter- 
mine. The presence of a well-defined chitinous support in the buccal region 
indicates a member of the subfamily Setariinae. We suggest a new genus,. 
Austrofilaria, with characters as follows: — Setariinae; cylindrical worms with 
rounded posterior ends and conical heads; relatively large and well developed 
vestibule with stout chitinous supporting walls; short oesophagus of two parts. 
Male without caudal alae or papillae; with short, equal, similar spicules. Female 
with vulva in region of second part of oesophagus. Type, A. vestibulata, n. sp. 

Carinema dubia n. sp. 

(Fig. 7-9) 

From abdominal cavity of Pscudopsittacus mclennani, North Queensland, 
(coll. Dr. MacGillivray). Females about 25 mm. long, 0*32 mm. wide; male 
15 mm. long, 0*184 mm. wide. Head rounded with four submedian and two 
lateral papillae, all very small. Mouth circular, leading by 3 /x long funnel-shaped 
vestibule to oesophagus; this tiny vestibule at its base surrounded by chitinous 
ring. Oesophagus very narrow, division into two parts more clearly indicated 
in some specimens than others, the distinction being that of cell structure, not of 
size. In male, oesophagus 0*38 mm. long, including anterior part 0*2 mm.; in 
female anterior portion 0*25 mm., the whole organ 0'45 mm. Nerve ring 
surrounding oesophagus at base of first part. 

Male— Tail blunt, not coiled. Cloaca 0*7 mm. from posterior end. Perhaps a 
pair of papillae immediately anterior lo. and a pair immediately posterior to, cloaca, 
but these (seen only in lateral view of the single male) may be the lips of the 
cloacal opening; latter on a prominence. Apart from these no caudal papillae 
have been observed. Spicules equal, tapering di&tally, 10 p long. 


Female — Tail rounded; anus not observed; vulva 1'7 mm. from head; uteri 
uniting at about this level, median uterus passing forward nearly to oesophagus; 
vagina coming back from this region to vulva. Uteri packed' with larvae, on 
which no sheaths were detected. Larvae 4 /x in diameter, 360 to 370 p long, with 
rounded anterior ends and elongate tails. 

It is with some reserve that this species is assigned to Carinema because of 
the division of the oesophagus into two parts and the presence of six cephalic 
papillae and a buccal ring in our species. 

Carinema graucalinum n. sp. 
(Fig. 10-11) 

From Craueahis melanops, Eraser Island, Queensland. One male and 
several females obtained. Male 8 mm. long, female 15-18 mm. long with 
maximum breadth of 0*15 and 0*32 mm. respectively. Anterior end somewhat 
club-shaped, with four submedian papillae around mouth. Oesophagus 0*4 mm. 
long in male, 0*55 mm. in female, cylindrical, surrounded anterior to its mid- 
length by nerve ring. Lateral lines marked by a double row of small refracting 
bodies under cuticle. 

Male — Spicules subequal, about 60 /a long, spatulate, with rolled edges and 
terminating in narrow spine. Cloaca 50 /x from rounded tip of tail; caudal alae 
absent ; and caudal papillae not seen. 

Female — Vulva 0'95 mm. from head {i.e., post-oesophageal). Anus probably 
absent; rectum not seen in any specimen, but in one there was an elevation resemb- 
ling anal region at 0-2 mm. from the tip. Larvae in uteri 270 to 290 jx long, 
5 to 6/x in diameter, with rounded head and pointed tail; no sheath observed. 

This species seems to be more closely related to Carinema than to any other 
'genus. It differs from the only other known species, C. carinii Pereira and Vaz 
from a Brazilian bird and C. dubia, in the number of head papillae. 

Aprocta corvicola n. sp. 
(Fig. 12-13) 

From behind the eye of Corvus eoronoides, from the Musgrave Ranges. 
Males 12 to 20 mm. long, about 0-6 mm. in diameter; females 50 to 60 mm. long, 
0-8 mm. diameter. Anterior end rounded; mouth circular; oral papillae not 
observed, small thistle-shaped vestibule leading to simple, narrow oesophagus; 
latter 0'65 mm. long in male, 07 mm. long in female, surrounded by nerve ring 
just behind its anterior end, 0*1 mm. from head in male, 0'15 mm. in female. 

Male — Tail 0'2 mm. long, blunt, rounded. Neither papillae nor caudal alae 
present. Spicules equal, 0*28 to 0'32 mm. long. 

Female — Uteri uniting very close to vulva, forming a short median uterus; 
vagina 0-1 mm. long; vulva 0*6 mm. behind head, about the middle of oesophageal 
region. Eggs thick-shelled, 45 to 50/;, by 30 p, containing coiled larva. 

The species differs in the position of the vulva from any other member of 
the genus the description of which we have been able to obtain. 

Pseudaprocta myzanthae n. sp. 

(Fig. 14-15) 
From ilfycanfha flavigitla (yellow-throated minah) (Coll. Dr. Cleland), 
75 miles north of Renmark, South Australia. Only three females were taken. 
23 to 24 mm. long. 

.Anterior end rounded, head with four submedian and two smaller lateral 
papillae. Dorsal and ventral papillae not seen. Cuticular ornamentation of 


anterior end characteristic of genus festooned above and between cephalic 
papillae. Buccal cavity 20 ft long, 23 to 25 p wide. Oesophagus 0*6 to 0*65 mm. 
long; nerve ring at 0" 15 mm. and excretory pore at 0*23 mm., from head end. 
Tail rounded, 0'2 to 0'23 mm. long, ending in papilla-like tip, and bearing 
pair of large rounded papillae in lateral positions, 30^ from tip. Anus well 
marked ; rectum strongly cuticularised. 

Vulva not salient, 0*3 to 0*4 mm. from head. Ripest eggs in vagina 50 to 
55 /x by 30 fji, thick-shelled, containing larvae. 

The differences between the tw r o species of the genus previously described, 
P. gubernacularia by Shikhobalova and P. decorata by Li, depend (according to 
Li) on male characters. Since the present material consists only of females, it 
is impossible to continue the comparison on these lines; in our specimens, how- 
ever, the cephalic festoons appear to be somewhat differently arranged in ventral 
and dorsal positions, and the eggs are much larger than in Li's species, while the 
female tail is longer than in that described by Shikhobalova. From these distinc- 
tions and the difference in distribution of the hosts, we assume it to be a new 

Diplotriaena Railliet and Henry 

The characters of this genus have been discussed by Li (1933, 193). As he 
points out, the features of most value systematically are the tridents and the 
spicules. In our material few males are present, and we have several species 
represented by female worms only, so that we have been compelled to rely on 
differences in lengths of body and trident and the relation of the latter to the 
position of nerve ring. In many of our specimens the posterior tips of the 
tridents were not clearly defined, so that it was often uncertain whether the 
middle prong was shorter than the lateral ones. 

To facilitate comparison of our species the following table is appended, all 
measurements being in millimetres except where otherwise stated : 



gamm a 



Ion zeta 






S 9 


.... 70-90 




to 45 

to 20 36 


.... -95 




-45 -8 

Antr. Oesoph 

.... -32 





" 3 *2-6 

Postr. Oesoph. 

.... 5-7 





2-0 j L ° 





•08, -095 

•13 -15 

Head — Nerve Ring 

.... -25 




-22 -32 

Head — Vulva 

.... -7 





Eggs, breadth 

.... 34 jX 

14 M 



.... 50 JX 




.... 90 & 

Spicule 1 



« 2 




Diplotriaena alpha n. sp. 

(Fig. 16) 
From Strepera gracidio, Mount Irvine, South Australia (Coll. Professor 
Cleland). Two females from the peritoneum, one 70 and the other 90 mm. long, 
both about 0*96 mm. wide. Anterior end rounded, with two small lateral and two 
smaller submedian papillae. Tridents 0*11 mm. long in longer worm and 
0-13 mm. in shorter worm; in the latter the two tridents are not similar in shape, 
the median prong being the longest on one side, but the three of equal length on 
the other side. In the larger worm both tridents are alike and have three equal 
prongs. Anterior narrow part of oesophagus, 0*3 to 0"35 mm. long, surrounded 
by nerve ring on its second half, 0*25 to 0*26 mm. from head; posterior part of 
oesophagus ending about 6 mm. from head. Vulva 0*7 mm. from head, ?A 


shortly after beginning of second part of oesophagus. Uteri uniting 1*8 mm. 
behind vulva; vagina straight. Eggs., 35 fx by 50 /x. Tail rounded, anus- 90 ju. 
from tip, 

Diplotriaena beta n. sp. 
(Fig. 17) 

From Corvus coronoides, collected by the late Dr. T. L. Bancroft at Eids- 
void. Two females present, 56 and 69 mm. long, 0-84 mm. wide. Anterior end 
rounded with four low papillae in submedian positions. Tridents 0-16 and 
0-19 mm. long. Anterior part of oesophagus 0*43 to 0*5 mm. long; termination 
of second part not seen, owing to conditions of specimens. Nerve ring 0*32 to 
0-34 mm. from head. Vulva on shoulder-like prominence of body 0*59 to 0*6 mm. 
from head end, i.e., just posterior to beginning of second part of oesophagus. 
Eggs absent. 

Diplotriaena gamma n. sp 
(Fig. 1849) 

From Sprcs superbus, the Abyssinian starling, obtained from the Adelaide 
Zoological Gardens through the courtesy of the South Australian Museum. Two 
females present, 58 and 6^ mm. long. Head rounded, with four large sub- 
median and two smaller lateral papillae. Tridents 90 fx long, middle- prong- 
shortest, posterior tip of each prong somewhat enlarged. In specimen 58 mm. 
long nerve ring 0-22 mm. from head. Oesophagus apparently of the "undivided" 
type, its posterior end indistinguishable because of the twisted mass of uteri 
obscuring it. Vulva at 0*4 mm. from head end, lip salient. Uteri uniting about 
1-2 mm. from vulva. Eggs, 30 fx by 40 fx. 

Diplotriaena delta n. sp. 
(Fig. 20-21) 
From Malunts lamberti collected by Dr. J. B. Cleland at Ooldea. One male 
■only present, 34 mm. long, 0"45 mm. wide. Anterior end with four large sub- 
median papillae. Tridents bossed, of unequal length, 95 and 80^ long, the three 
prongs being of almost equal lengths. Oesophagus of two parts, anterior 0'3 mm. 
long, posterior 2*5 mm. ; nerve ring 0- 18 mm. from head. Tosterior end is broken 
•oil. one broken spicule showing. 

Diplotriaena epsilon n. sp. 
(Fig. 22-23) 

From Craciicus desinictor, collected at Brisbane by Dr. F. S. Roberts. 
Several males and females present, males up to 20 mm. and females up to 45 mm. 
in length, breadths respectively 0*45 and 0"55 mm. 

Anterior end without apparent papillae. Tridents about 130 /x long in male; 
branches more or less equal length, with bosses. Oesophagus of two parts, 
anterior 0*3 mm. long in male, 0'4 in female, the termination of posterior 
obscured, in male probably 2 mm. from head end. Nerve ring in male 0"22 mm. 
from head end. 

Tail of male rounded; two pairs of papillae before and two behind the sub- 
terminal cloaca, the two post-cloacal almost terminal in position. Spicules 
unequal; one F2 to 1*4 mm. long, tapering suddenly to end in a short spike; the 
other 0"6 to 0*7 mm., twisted, ending in a broad tip. 

Vulva in region of beginning of second part of oesophagus, lips slightly 
salient. Eggs 40 to 41 /x by 25 fx, thick-shelled, with coiled larvae. 

These appear to be much slighter worms than those from Strcpcra or Corvus; 
the eggs are relatively wider and there was no sign of submedian papillae. 


Diplotriaena zeta n. sp. 

(Fig. 24) 

From the body cavity of Acanthogenys rufigularis, the spiny-cheeked honey- 
■vuicr, from Monarto, South Australia (coll. Professor Cleland). 

One female worm present, 36 mm. long, 0*8 mm. wide. Tridents. 0*15 mm. 
long, with anterior tip prolonged to a point, not rounded as in D. delta. Nerve 
ring 0-32 mm. from head end; oesophagus of undivided type, 2*6 mm. long. 
Vulva *S mm. from head end. 

Eulimdana clava (VVcdl) Founikoff 1934 
Several specimens of this species were found in the type host, Columba livia, 
from Adelaide. The females are up to 24 mm. m length, the measurements and 
structure agree exactly with Founikoffs description. 

Filaria (s.l.) sp. 
Fig. 2$ 

From Acanthogenys ritfigularis, from Burnett River District, collected by 
the late Dr. T. L. Bancroft. One male and parts of several females not including 
the posterior end, were present. Male 7*5 mm. long, 0*13 mm. wide; longest 
female part apparently more than a quarter of the body length, 10 mm. long, 
0-32 mm. wide. Females so badly preserved that it is impossible to see internal 
organs, Male shows a rounded head, no head papillae, a small mouth leading 
to a 0-38 mm. long oesophagus surrounded just anterior to its mid-length by the 
nerve-ring. Tail rounded 0*7 mm. long, bearing no caudal alae or papillae. 
Spicules tapering, almost equal in length, 50 /* long. Because of the incomplete 
description it was considered unwise to assign the worm to any genus. Micro- 
filariae were recorded from the blood of this host species in New South Wales 
by the senior author, in 1912. 

Filaria (s.l.) sp. 
(Fig- 26)' 

The posterior end of a male worm and the anterior end of a female were 
collected from Calopsittacus novae-Jwllandiae from New South Wales. Female 
fragment 2 - 9 mm. long, T3 mm. wide; male 3*8 mm. long, T3 mm. wide. Flead 
smooth, rounded, showing no papillae. Vestibule supported by a narrow 
chitinous ring. Length of oesophagus and positions of anterior organs not 
ascertained. Male tail rounded at tip, 60 p> Jong, no papillae visible under oil 
immersion; spicules unequal, 60/* and 45 /a in length, narrowing towards tips. 

This species differs from Carinema dubia from Psendop\sittaciis mclennani 
in that the head bears no papillae and the spicules are unequal. It has many 
features in common with Filaria (s.l.) sp. from Acanthogenys riifignlaris, but 
since in that form the spicules are equal and no peri-buccal chitinous ring was 
observed, and in view of the different hosts, it is considered wise not to identify 
the worms with one another. 


Li, II. C. 1933 Report on a collection of parasitic worms, mainly from North 

China. Parasitol., 25, 192-223 
Founikoff, S. 1934 Situation de Filaria clava Wedl 1855 des pigeons dans la 

classification des nematodes. Ann. Parasit, 12, 61-66 
Johnston, T. H. 1912 Notes on some entozoa. Proc. Roy. Soc. Qld., 24, 63-91 
Siitkuobalova, N. 1930 Sur une nouvelle hlaire des oiseaux: Pseudaprocta 

gubernacularia n. g., n. sp. Ann. Parasit., 8, 624-627 
Tuiiangui, M. A. 1934 Nematodes in the collection of the Philippine Bureau 

of Science, ii, Filarioidea. Philippine Journal of Science, 55, 115-123 



Earlier this year, when Mr. Segnit presented to the Society his paper on the Geology of the Hallett 
Cove Area, it was not possible to adequately discuss his findings, for, in the case of papers read 
before this Society, we are not supplied with abstracts ; in any case, the paper was too long to be 
read, there being time only for a general summary to be communicated. 




Earlier this year, when Mr. Segnit presented to the Society his paper on the 
Geology of the Hallett Cove Area, it was not possible to adequately discuss his 
findings, for, in the case of papers read before this Society, we are not supplied 
with abstracts ; in any case, the paper was too long to be read, there being time 
only for a general summary to be communicated. 

Now that the paper has been printed, fellow geologists will be able to con- 
sider and profitably discuss, many novel points presented in that contribution. 

It is not my purpose to enter upon any thorough discussion of the paper 
tonight, though I may state that my views differ in many respects from those of 
Mr. Scgnit. 

There is, however, one matter which is rather fundamental to any discussion 
upon glacial sediments, i.e., what is tillite? In his map of Hallett Cove Area 
much that has been mapped as tillite by Mr. Segnit is not what the petrographic 
term "tillite" connotes. "Till" is defined as unconsolidated, unassorted morainic 
matter. "Tillite" is the same thing in the consolidated state. 

In the map, the whole of the deposits connected with the younger glaciation 
are indicated as tillite. Actually only a very small part of such beds is tillite, by 
far the greater portion being of fluvio-glacial origin; much of it, too, is well- 
assorted fluvial sands and clays, no doubt derived from more or less distant 
morainic debris of the same age. 

In the case of the older tillite, indicated on the map as occupying a consider- 
able part of the northern end of the area, I have failed to find any tillite what- 
ever in that locality. Where older tillite is shown, I found mainly sandstones 
and shales which are gritty and arkosic in their upper limits. In one or two 
places small fragments of rock, inhomogeneous with the main body, are embedded 
in it, but these can be well accounted for as of intraformational origin and, in 
other cases, as scattered spots in the rocks which have suffered subsequent 
chemical change, the original red colour of the rock having been bleached to 
yellow. I could find nothing in the nature of true tillite. Indeed, the pervading 
red colour of the rock is good evidence that this is not a glacial bed. 

The real Sturtian tillite, with which this has been coupled in the paper under 
discussion, is developed only about three or four miles away in the Sturt Gorge. 
It is there an absolutely typical tillite, unassorted, grey in colour and packed with 
characteristically shaped erratics of a wide range of igneous, metamorphic and 
sedimentary rocks. 

If Mr. Segnit wishes still to contend that the formation north-west of the 
Hallett Cove Railway Station is tillite, then it must be considered as not 
corresponding to that of the Sturt Gorge, but to be evidence of a second and later 
Proterozoic Ice Age. 

D. Mawson 

12 September 1940 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


By T. HARVEY JOHNSTON and PATRICIA M. MAWSON, University of Adelaide. 


The number in parenthesis after the name of the author of a genus or species refers to the reference 
(given at the end of this paper) to the original description of the parasite; where two or more 
reference numbers are given, the succeeding ones relate to additional descriptions. No attempt has 
been made to give all the literature referring to each species. The references are to such accounts as 
will make it possible to identify each species, as well as the genus, when the latter is peculiar to 
marsupials or monotremes. All distinctions, as far as possible, have been drawn from characters 
common to both sexes. Where this is impossible we have tried to find points of difference in both 
males and females. We have avoided as much as possible drawing distinctions from measurements 
of parts of the body, as we have found great variation in size in some species. 




By T. Harvey Johnston and Patricia M. Mawson. University of Adelaide 

[Read 12 September 1940] 

The number in parenthesis after the name of the author of a genus or species 
refers to the reference (given at the end of this paper) to the original description 
of the parasite; where two or more reference numbers arc given, the succeeding 
ones relate to additional descriptions.. No attempt has been made to give all the 
literature referring to each species. The references are to such accounts as will 
make it possible to identify each species, as well as the genus, when the latter is 
peculiar to marsupials or monotremes. All distinctions, as far as possible, have 
been drawn from characters common to both sexes. Where this is impossible 
we have tried to find points of difference in both males and females. We have 
avoided as much as possible drawing distinctions from measurements of parts of 
the body, as we have found great variation in size in some species. 

To reduce the matter in the key, some abbreviations have been used; thus 
Y. & M. for Yorke and Maplestonc, D. & W. for Davey and Wood, J. & M. for 
Johnston and Mawson. Since in all the species of Strongylidae from marsupials 
the dorsal ray divides into four branches (in nearly all species by two successive 
divisions), we have referred to ''first branches" and "final branches," and to 
"first bifurcation" and "second bifurcation" of this ray without further explana- 
tion. The first branches are the two resulting from the first bifurcation of the 
ray, and the ''final branches" are the four resulting from the bifurcation ("final 
bifurcation") of each of these two. 

We have used the term "buccal ring" to indicate a chitinised ring around the 
buccal cavity; and the terms bipartite and tripartite to indicate a transverse divi- 
sion into two or three parts respectively. 


1 Oesophagus consisting of a narrow tube passing through the centre of a row of 
single cells. Trichuroidca 
Oesophagus not as above. 

2 Males with a bursa copulatrix supported by rays. Strongyloidea 
Males without a bursa copulatrix. 

3 Oesophagus dilated posteriorly to a bulb. Oxyuroidea 
Oesophagus not dilated posteriorly to a bulb. 

4 Head with two lateral lips. Spiruroidea 
Head without lips. Filarioidea 


Tkichuroidea Raiiliet 1916 

Male with spicule or copulatory sheath. 

Anterior part of body longer than posterior. 

Strongyloidea Weinland 1858 
Short filiform worms with buccal capsule usually small or absent. 

Female with double genitalia. 
Stout worms with buccal capsule well developed. 
Mouth opening with teeth or cutting plates. 

Buccal capsule sub-globular with cutting plates. 
Mouth opening without teeth or cutting plates. 

Buccal capsule cylindrical or ring-shaped. 

Buccal capsule sub-globular. 






Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


Oxyuroimea Raillict and Henry 1916 

Malt- with pre-cloacal sucker. Subuluridae 

Anterior part of oesophagus much longer than bulb. Subuluritiac 1 

Male without pre-cloacal sucker. Oxyuridae 

Male with gubernaculum. Syphaciinae 

Altaic without gubernaculum. Oxyurinae 

Spiruroidea Raillict and Henry 1915 
Cuticle with chitinous spines anteriorly. Rictula-riidae (Rictulariinae) 

Cuticle smooth, cephalic collarette present. Physalopteridae (Physalopterinae) 

Cuticle smooth, cephalic collarette absent. Spiruridae 

Lips large, trilobed. Spiroxyinae 

FiLARioitjAR Weinland 1858 
Vulva atrophied in gravid female. Filarnriae 

Mouth surrounded by chitinous ring. Setariinat. 


Trichurinah Ransom 1911 
With the characters of the subfamily Trie hurts Roederer 

From Australian marsupials (bandicoots). Trlchuris pcramelis Baylis (6, 21) 

Trichostroxgylixae Leiper 1908 

1 With definite buccal capsule. 2 
Without definite buccal capsule. S 

2 Buccal capsule containing one dorsal tooth only. Nlcollina Baylis (3, 4) 

a Dorsal tooth about half length of buccal capsule. sarcophili Cameron (11) 

Dorsal tooth nearly as long as buccal capsule. b 

b Body with 10 to 12 longitudinal crests. lachyglossi Baylis (3) 

Body without longitudinal crests. echidnac Baylis (3) 

Buccal capsule containing one dorsal, and one or two ventral teeth. 

An-sirostrongyfus Chandler ( 12) 
a Dorsal ray dividing into three pairs of branches. b 

Dorsal ray dividing into two pairs of branches. r 

b First pair of branches arising before mid-length. thylogalc ]. & M. (24) 

All three pairs of branches arising together. aggrcgata J. & M. (25.) 

c First pair branches of dorsal ray arising just proximal to final bifurcation. 

macropodis Chandler (13) 

First pair of branches coming off at about mid-length of dorsal ray. d 

d One ventral tooth; vulva one-sixth body-length from tip of tail. 

wattabiae J. & M. (20) 

Two ventral teeth ; vulva one-ninth body-length from tip of tail. mimdu$ J. h M. (18) 

3 Bursa asymmetrical. Asymmctricostrongylus Nagaty (34,35) 

a Head with six lips. trichuris J. & M. (20) 

Head without lips. it 

b Dorsal ray dividing after half length. dissimilis (Wood) (39) 

Dorsal ray dividing about third length. c 

c Vulval flap present in female; spicules -19 to -21 mm. long, austraiis (Wood) (39) 

No vulval flap; spicules -17 mm,, long. asymmetricus (Cameron) (10) 

Bursa not asymmetrical. filar inema Monnig (33) 

Dorsal ray bifurcating at mid-point. flagrifcr Monnig (33) 

Dorsal ray bifurcating near tip; pair of lateral branches given off posterior to root 

of cxterno-dorsal ray. pcranudis J. &, M. (18) 

The following unclassified Trichost'rongyle worms have been recorded : 

Trichostrongylus (s.l.) spp. J. &. M. (22), from Dasyurus maculatus. 

Necatorixae Lane 1917 

Mouth opening antcro-ventrally. Ifypodontus Monnig (32) 

Males 13-15 mm. long; females 17-20 mm.; vulva -24 mm. from tip of tail. 

macropi Monnig (macropodis) (32) 
Male 11 mm. long; female 14 mm.; vulva -3 mm. from tip of tail. 

thetidU J. & M. (20) 


Strongylinae Railliet 1893 
Buccal capsule cylindrical, without tooth. 

t, , t Oesophagostomoidcs (O. giltneri) Schwartz (36) 

Buccal capsule subglobular, with large tooth. Globoccphaloides Y, & M. (40) 

a looth about quarter length of buccal capsule, latter 130 M Ions?, affinis J. & M (19) 
Tooth about third length of buccal capsule, latter 55-60 A long. 

*, i- . . 1r . , macropodis Y. & M. (40) 

looth about half length of buccal capsule, latter 55-60 ^ long. b 

b Chitinous supports to buccal capsule arising just behind its base. 

ni . . ' zwllabiae J. & M. (19) 

Chitinous supports arising well behind base. thetidis j. & M. (20, 25) 

Triciioxkminae Railliet 1916 

1 Buccal capsule followed by vestibule. Pliaryngostronaylus Y. & M. (40) 

(l<or key to species see later.) 
Vestibule absent. 2 

2 No lips or papillae around mouth. Spirostrongyhts (S. spirostrongylus) Y. & M. (40) 
Six or eight prominent lips. ' ^ 
Four elongate papillae around mouth, usually bi-partite. 4 
No definite lips but with 6 or 8 papillae around mouth. 5 

3 Thin cuticular frill around neck region. Parazomolainms (P. collaris) J. & M, (20) 
No such frill. Zoniolaimus Cobb (14, 19) 

(hor key to species see later.) 

4 Internal leaf crown of six elements. Cloacina Linstow (28, 17) 

(For key to species see later.) 
Internal leaf crown of eight elements. Phascolostrongylus (P. turleyi) Canavan (12) 

5 Buccal capsule elongate, anterior edge forming leaf crown of four elements. 

Buccostrongylus j. & M. (19) 
a Head without definite lips and bearing four long setae. h 

Head with definite lips. t 

b Buccal cavity narrower at top; 20-30//, long. buccalis J. & M. (19) 

Buccal cavity wider at top; 70-80 ^ long. setifer J. & M. (20) 

c Head with six lips. australis J. & M. (19) 

Head with two circles of two lips each. labiatus J. & M. (20) 

Buccal cavity of varying length, no leaf crown. 6 

Buccal capsule shallow, around base of buccal cavity. 7 

6 Worms over 3 cm. long; final branches of dorsal ray round and short. 

Paramaoropostrongylus (P. typicus) J. & M. (24) 
Worms shorter than 3 cm. ; final branches of dorsal ray tapering. 

Cyclostrongylus J. & M. (20) 

a Oral papillae rounded. gallardi J. & M. (20) 

Oral papillae cylindrical. clelandi J. & M. (20) 

Oral papillae conical. b 

b Oesophagus pear-shaped; spicule : body length = 1, : 5*6. dissimilis J. & M. (20) 

Oesophagus cylindrical, ending in bulb; spicule : body length = ]■ : 1-2. 

zvaliabiae J. & M. (20) 

7 Leaf crown present. 8 
Leaf crown absent. 9 

8 Lateral oral papillae longer than suhmedian. MacropostrongyJus Y. & M, (40) 

(For key to species see later.) 
Lateral oral papillae equal to or shorter than suhmedian. 

Cor (mo strong ylus (C. coronatns) J. & M. (19) 

9 Eight oral papillae of different shapes. Papillostrongylns (P. labiatus) J. & M\ (19) 
Six rounded oral papillae. Maplestonema (M. typkum) J. & M. (20) 

Key to Species of Pharvngostronglus Y. & M. 1926 

1 Vestibule longer than -06 mm. 
Vestibule shorter than -06 mm. 

2 Vestibule wall without striations. 
Vestibule wall striated diagonally. 
Vestibule wall with transverse striations. 

3 Bifid bristles on submedian oral papillae. 
No bristles on oral papillae. 

4 Vestibule about -06 mm. long. 
Vestibule about -2-* 23 mm. long. 

5 Vestibule with wall subdivided. 
Vestibule wall not subdivided. 



iota- J. 

& M. 



gamma J. 

& M. 


ornatus D. 

& W 


eta ). 

& M. 


macropodis Y. 

& te. 



cpsilon J. & M, (19) 


parma J. & M. (20) 


delta J. & M. (19) 

seta J- & M. (19) 

orsal. theta J. & M. (20) 


woodivardi Wood (39) 




brevis Canavan (12) 

australis (Monnig) (37) 

3. beta J. & M. (17) 

5-6. alpha J. &. M. (17) 


6 Vestibule wall bipartite. 
Vestibule wall tripartite. 

7 Vestibule short, thick-walled. 
Vestibule with straight thin walls. 

8 Dorsal ray very stout ; branches short. 
Dorsal ray thin ; branches long, arched. 

9 Bursa not papillated, lateral lobes not separated from dorsal 
Bursa usually papillated, all lobes partly separated. 

10 Dorsal ray divided to base, each branch bidigitate. 
Dorsal ray divided about mid-length. 

11 Leaf crown present. 
Leaf crown absent. 

12 Leaf crown of ten elements. 
Leaf crown of forty elements. 

13 Bristles on each oral papilla; spicule : body length — 1 
No bristles on oral papillae; spicule : body length—] 

Key to Species of Zoniolaimus Cobb 1S98 

1 Spicules 1*5 mm. long. brezneaudatus Cobb (14, 20) 
Spicules at least 5 mm. long. 2 

2 With six lips. 3 
Witb eight lips. t 10 

J With pair of accessory structures at base of each submedian lip. cuyenii J. & M. (23) 

Without such structures. 4 

4 Lateral branches of dorsal ray arising before bifurcation. 5 
Lateral branches of dorsal ray arising after bifurcation. 8 

5 Ratio of spicule to body length about 1:9. 6 
Ratio of spicule to body length 1 :3-2. ? 

() Lateral lips each with one median papilla. bancrofti J. & M. (19) 

Lateral lips each with two papillae, at anterior margins. bipapillosus J. & M. (19) 

7 Dorsal ray long and narrow; lateral lips long; bristles on submedian lips long. 

clcJandi J. & M. (20) 
Inner branches of dorsal ray long; vagina short; submedian papillae half-way up lips. 

communis J. & M. (19) 
Inner branches of dorsal ray short; vagina long; submedian papillae below half-way 
on lips. longispicularis (Wood) (39, 17) 

8 Posterior half of oesophagus widened. 9 
Oesophagus cylindrical. petrogale (J. & M.) (17) 

9 Ratio of spicules: body length = 1 : 6-9. uncinatus J. & M. (19) 
Ratio of spicules*: body length = 1 : 2-6. onychogale J. & M. (19) 

10 Very short worms; males 7-75 mm. sctifcr Cobb (14, 20) 
Longer worms; males over 10 mm. H 

11 Submedian lips shorter than others. ivallabiae J. & M. (20) 
Submedian lips not shorter than others. 12 

12 Spicules short (1:8-10 body length). 13 
Spicules long (l; ! 2-5-3-5 body length). 14 

13 Extcrno-dorsal and externo-lateral rays very short. labiostronyylus (Y. & M.) (40) 
Fxterno-dorsal and externo-lateral rays three-quarters length of laterals. 

insularis J. & M. (19) 

14 First pair of branches of dorsal ray dividing at mid-length into fairly long branches 
with rounded ends. grandis (J. & M.) (17) 
First pair of branches of dorsal ray dividing near tips into short rounded branches. 

macropodis (J. & M.) (17) 

Zoniolaimus spp. not identified either because of their condition or because of the absence 
<jf males have been recorded from the following hosts: Macropus thctis, M. -major, 
M. ualabau'us and M. ruficollis. 

Key to Species of Cloacina Linst. 1898 

1 Without oral papillae. dubia J. & M. (17) 
With oral papillae. p 

2 Without lateral lips. imllablae J. & M. (20) 
With six lips, or no lips. 3 

3 With definitely inflated cervical cuticle. 4 
Without definitely inflated cervical cuticle. ' 

4 Oesophagus with accessory bulb. 5 
Oesophagus without accessory bulb. 6 


5 Buccal capsule long, narrow, thin-walled, licbigi J. & M. (17) 
Buccal capsule short, wide. inflate J- & M. (17) 

6 Cuticular inflation extending to posterior end of oesophagus. e.xpansai J. & M. (20) 
Cuticular inflation extending to middle of oesophagus. longispicxdata J. & M. (19) 

7 Oesophagus club-shaped or straight. 8 
Oesophagus with terminal bulb. 15 

8 Buccal ring wavy. 9 
Buccal ring straight. 10 

9 Elements of leaf crown separate; no accessory lips. bancroftorum J. & M. (19) 
Each clement of leaf crown joined to accessory lip. thetidis J. & M. (20) 

10 Submedian oral papillae prominent. 11 
Submedian oral papillae small. 13 

11 Tips of elements of leaf crown recurved. magmpapillala J. &. M. (20) 
Tips of elements of leaf crown simple. 12 

12 Distance from, top of lips to oesophagus short. cornutus (D. & W.) (15) 
Distance from top of lips to oesophagus long. robertsi J. & M. (19) 

13 Lateral branches of dorsal ray given off just after first branches. 

burncttiana J. & M. (19) 
Two first branches of dorsal ray each dividing near tip into pair of equal branches. 14 

14 Oesophagus club-shaped,, minor (D. & W.) (15) 
Oesophagus of more or less even width. carta J. & M. (17) 

15 Oesophagus with cardiac as well as terminal bulb. 16 
Oesophagus with terminal bulb only. 17 

16 Plump oral papillae; nerve ring around cardiac bulb. austratis J. & M. (17) 
Plump oral papillae ; cardiac bulb just anterior to terminal bulb, ernabella J, & M. (17) 
Thin oral papillae; buccal ring with (narrow shelf projecting into cavity. 

vestibular J. & M. (24) 

17 Submedian papillae appearing spindle-shaped (proximal segment insignificant). 18 
Submedian papillae obviously of two segments. __ 19 

18 Buccal ring thin and deep. linsfoun J- & M. (25) 
Buccal ring stout and shallow. dahli Linst. (28) 

19 Upper segments of submedian, papillae shorter. 29 
Two segments of more or less equal length. 20 

20 Buccal ring shallow, walls thick. 21 
Buccal ring deep, walls thin. 26 

21 Submedian oral papillae short. 22 
Submedian oral papillae stout, large. 25 

22 Lips deep (measuring above constriction at "neck"). 23 
Lips shallow. 

23 Leaf crown present; anterior edge of buccal ring straight. parya J. & M, (17) 
Leaf crown absent; anterior edge of buccal ring wavy. longclabiata J. & M. (21) 

24 Lips plump; tips of elements of leaf crown blunt. obtusa J. & M. (20) 
Lips small; tips of elements of leaf crown pointed. g altar di J. & M. (25) 

25 Submedian oral papillae standing away from head. hydriformis J. & M. (17) 
Submedian oral papillae bent towards mouth. frequens J. & M. (17) ^ 

26 Female very long, with attenuate posterior end. 2/ 
Female not especially attenuate. 

27 Excretory pore just behind nerve ring. magna J. & M. (17) 
Excretory pore near bulb of oesophagus. communis J. & M. (17) 

28 Spicules "less than 1 :'2-5 body length; vagina about 1-3 mm. long. 

petrogale J. & M. (17) 
Spicules mare than 1:3-5 body length; vagina about 0-5 mm. long. 

simUis J. & M. (19) 

29 Submedian papillae short, conical. masropodis J. & M.. (17) 
Submedian papillae long. 

30 Lips absent; spicules 1:3 body length. clrgans J. & M. (17) 
Six lips; spicules half body length . digiiata J. & M. (2:>) 

Cloacina spp. not identifiable either because of their condition or because of the absence 
of males, have been recorded from the following hosts-: Macropus alkalis, M. zvelsbyi, 
M agiiis and Isoodon obcsulus by J. & M. (19) ; and from Macro pus ualabatus and M. thctis 
by J." & M. (20). 

Key to Species of Macropostrongylus Y. & M. 1926 

1 Externo-dorsal ray arising from base of dorsal. baylisi Wood (39) 
Externo-dorsal fay not arising as above. 2 

2 Buccal cavity supported only by ring at its base. australis Y. & M. (40) 
Walls of buccal cavity more or less completely chitinised. 3 





3 Buccal capsule more than twice as long as broad. labiains D. & W. (15) 
Buccal capsule less than twice as long as broad. 4 

4 Lateral and submedian papillae conical; laterals much larger. 

macropostrongylus Y. & M, (40) 
Lateral papillae rounded ; submedian conical. 5 

All oral papillae rounded. 

Submedian papillae rounded with digitiform projections; laterals large, domed. 

macro stoma D. & W. (15) 

5 Buccal cavity about as deep as broad. yorkci Baylis (2) 
Buccal cavity half to a third as deep as broad. dissimilis J. & M. (20) 

6 Lateral papillae lip-like; much longer than submedian. Icsouefi J. & M. (20) 
Lateral papillae not much longer than submedian. 7 

7 Shelf projecting from buccal capsule into buccal cavity; bifid bristle on each sub- 
median papilla. pcarsoni J. & M. (24) 
No such shelf present; no bristles on papillae. wallabiae J. & M. (20) 

Surulurinak Travassos 1914 

Male with two spicules and gubernaculum ; presnal sucker simple. Suhuhtra Molin 1860 
With six lips and six interlabia. peramelis Baylis (5, 21) 

With six lips and no interlabia. peragale J. & M. (25) 

Syphaciinae Railliet 1916 
Vestibule unarmed ; tail of male ending in spike. SypJiacia 

To this has been referred the species (male unknown). trichosuri J. & M. (18) 

Oxyurinae Hall 1916 

Vestibule unarmed; tail of male ending in spike. 

Austroxyuris {A. finlaysoni) J. fr M. (18) 

Vestibule with three teeth, male tail ending in spike. Passahtrus Duj. 1845 

To this has been referred the species. parvus J. & M. (18) 

Other oxyuroid worms recorded but not classified are: Cvyuris (s.l.) acuticmidaia 
J. & M. (18) from Petauroides-, volans ; Oxynris (s.l.) potoroo J. & M. (22) from Potorons 

Bictulartinae Hall 1913 

Series of circles of spines on anterior part of body; spines of first three rows very 
large. Echinoncma (E. cincium) Linst. (40) 

Physalopterinae Railliet 1893 
Cervical papillae simple, caudal alae meeting in front of cloaca; vulva in front of 
middle of body ; without prepuce-like sheath over head. Physaloptcra 

a No trilobed inner tooth on each lip. papucnsis J. & M. (25) 

Outer tooth on each lip shorter than inner. peramelis J. & M. (21) 

Outer tooth on each lip longer than inner. b 

b Cervical collarette wide, loose; vulva one-third body length from head. 

sarcophili J. & M. (25) 
Cervical collarette almost absent; vulva just in front of mid-body. 

parvicollaris J. & M. (25) 
Cervical collar of medium size. c 

c Vulva one-third body length from head. peragale J. & M. (24) 

Vulva a quarter body length from head. thalacomys J. & M. (25) 

The following species has been recorded but not fully classified: Physaloptera sp. 
]. & M. (23) from Tftylogale eugenii. 

Spiroxyinae Baylis and Lane 1920 
With two large trilobed lips bearing teeth. Protospintra Seu-rat 

To this has been referred the species. marsupialis Baylis (2, 7a, 18) 

Setariinae Y. & M. 1926 
AH fully described filarial worms from Australian marsupials fall in the genus 
Dipei alone ma Diesing 1861. 

Key to Australian Species of Dipetaijonema 
1 Head so small that papillae indistinguishable. capilliforme Baylis (7) 

Head papillae in two rings around head. robertsi J. & M. (18) 

Three pairs head papillae. 2 

Two pairs head papillae. 6 


2 Lateral papillae large. 3 

Lateral papillae small. 4 

,[ Buccal capsule spherical. dendrolayi Solomon (37) 

Buccal capsule tubular. icnue J. & M. (16) 

A Male 57 cm.; female 9-5 cm. long; male with caudal papillae in ring around cloaca. 

annul ipapillatum J. & M. 
Male 10-13 cm.; female 18-40 cm.; male with caudal papillae in two longitudinal rows. 5 
5 Shorter spicule quarter length of longer. spclaca (Leidy) (26, 38, 8, 16) 

Shorter spicule half length of longer. trichosuri (Brehil) (9, 1, 16) 

U Female relatively stout; vulva in oesophageal region; wide caudal alae in male. 

rocmcri Linst. (30, 1, 16) 
Female thin; vulva just post-oesophageal ; male unknown. rarum J. & M. (16) 

Female thin; vulva some distance behind oesophagus; no caudal alae in male. 

dasyuri J- & M. (16) 

The following unclassified Dipetaloncma spp. have been recorded : from Perameles misufa 
(king) ; J. & M, (21, 22) ; Macropus ruficollis (liver) J. & M. (21) ; Petrogale pcnkillalck 
(eoelomc) J. & M. (21) ; Dendrolagus lumholtzii (coelome) J. & M. (16) ; Wallaby, probably 
Wallabia bicolor (liver) J. & M. (23) ; Macropus thetis (liver) J. & M. (25). D. sp. J. & M. 
(21) from Perameles nasuta, and "Nematode sp." Linst. 1898 (29) from Dasyunis hallucahis, 
possess heads similar to that of D. robcrtsi. Also Pilaria (s.l.) spp. from Dasyunis maculahts 
(coelome) ; Trichosurus caninus (peritoneum) ; Potoroits iridactylus (liver), recorded by 
J. & M. (16), and from Dendrolagus bennettianus (mesentery) by J. & M. :(25). Pilaria 
dentifcra Linst. 1889 (29) from Trichosuri^ imipecula is apparently a larval form with head 
surmounted by a large tooth. 


1 Baylis, H. A. 1925 Notes on some Australian parasitic nematodes. 

A.M.N.H, (9), 15, 112-115 

2 Baylis, H. A. 1927 Some new parasitic worms ironi Australia. 

A.M.N.H., (9), 20, 214-225 

3 Baylis, H. A. 1930 Four new Trichostrongylid Nematodes from Queens- 

land. A.M.N. IL, (10), 6, 1-18 

4 Baylis, H. A. 1930 A nomenclatural correction. A.M.N.H., (10), 6, 550 

5 Baylis, II. A. 1930 Some Ilcterakidae and Oxyuridae (Nematoda) 

from Queensland. A.M.N.H., (10), 5, 354-366 

6 Baylis, H. A. 1932 A new species of the nematode genus Trichuris from 

Queensland. A.M.N.H., (10), 9, 31-32 

7 Baylis, II. A. 1934 On two filarial parasites of marsupials from Queens- 

land. A.M.N.H., (10), 13, 549-554 
7a Baylis, LI. A. 1934 Some spirurid nematodes from Queensland. 
A.M.N.H., (10), 14, 142-154 

8 Boulenger, C. L. 1928 Report on a collection of parasitic worms, mainly 

from Egypt. Ft. 5, Filarioidea. Parasitol., 20, 32-55 

9 Breinl, A. 1911 (1913) Nematodes observed in North Queensland. Aust. 

Inst. Trop. Med.. Report for 1911, 39-46 

10 Cameron, T. W. M. 1926 On a new species of Trichostrongyle worm 

from the Bennett's wallaby. Jour. Helminth., 4, (1), 23-26 

11 Cameron, T. W. M 1931 On a new species of Trichostrongyle worm 

from the Tasmanian Devil, jour. Helminth., 9, 153-156 

12 Canavan, W. P. 1931 Nematode parasites of Vertebrates in the Phila- 

delphia Zoological Gardens and vicinity, ii. Parasitol., 23, 196-228 

13 Chandler, A. 1924 A new genus of Trichostrongylid worm from a kan- 

garoo. Parasitol., 16, 160-163 

14 Cobb, N. A. 1898 Extract from M.S. Report on Parasites of stock. Agr. 

Gaz. N.S. Wales, 9, 296-321 and 419-454 

15 Davev, D. G-, and Wood, W. A. 1938 New species of Trichoneminae 

(Nematoda) from Australian kangaroos. Parasitol., 30, 258-266 


16 Johnston, T. II., and Mawson, P. M. 1938 An account of some filarial para- 

sites of Australian marsupials. Tr. Roy. Soc. b. Aust., 62, (1 ) , IU/-1Z1 

17 Johnston, T. II., and Mawson, P. M. 1938 Strongyle nematodes from 

Central Australian kangaroos and wallabies. Urans. Roy. hoc. S. Aust., 

62, (2), 263-286 

18 Johnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M. 1938 Some nematodes from Aus- 

tralian marsupials. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 6, (2), 187-198 

19 Johnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M. 1939 Strongyle nematodes from 

Queensland marsupials. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 63, (1), 121-148 

20 Iohnston T. H., and Mawson, P. M. 1939 Strongyle nematodes from 

marsupials in New South Wales. Pr. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 64, 513-536 

21 Johnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M. 1939 Sundry nematodes from 

Eastern Australian marsupials. Tr. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 63, (2), 204-209 

22 Johnston, T. PL and Mawson, P. M. 1939 Some nematodes from Vic- 

torian and Western Australian marsupials. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 

63, (2), 307-310 

23 Johnston, T. II., and Mawson, P. M. 1940 On a collection of nematodes 

from Australian marsupials. Rec. Aust. Mus., 20, (5), 360-366 

24 ]ohnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M. 1940 Nematodes from South Aus- 

tralian marsupials. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 64, (1), 95-100 

25 Iohnston, T. IT., and Mawson, P. M. 1940 New and known nematodes 

from Australian marsupials. Pr. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 65 (m press) 

26 Lejdy, J. 1875 On some parasitic worms. Pr. Ac. N. Sci. Philad., 27, 17-18 

27 Ltnstow. O. Zmx Systematik der Nematoden nebst Reschreibung neuer 

Arten. Arch. f. Mikr. Anat, 49, 608-622 

28 Linstow O. 1898 Nemathelmintheu gesammelt von Prof. Dr. P. Dahl in 

Bismarck Archipel. Arch. f. Naturg., 1, 281 

29 Linstow, O. 1898 Nemathelminthen von Herrn Richard Semon in Aus- 

tralien gesammelt. Semon's Porschungsreisen in Australien, 5. Denk. 
Med. Gaz., Jena, 8, 469 

30 Linstow, O. 1905 Helminthologischc Peobachtungen. Arch. f. Mikr. 

Anat., 66, 355-366 

31 MdNNic, H. O. 1926 Three new helminths. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Africa, 

13, (3), 291-298 

32 Monnig, IT O. 1929 Hypodontus macropi, n. g., n. sp., a hookworm of 

the kangaroo. Ann. Rep. Dir. Vet. Serv. Pretoria, 15, 303-306 

33 Monnig, H. O. 1929 Pilarinema flagrifer, n. g., n. sp., a new Tricho- 

strongylid parasite of the kangaroo. Ibid., 307-309 

34 Nagatv, H. F. 1932 The Genus Trichostrongylus Looss, 1905. Ann. 

Trop. Med. Parasit., 26, 457-518 

35 Nagaty, H. F. 1938 The genera Asymetricostrongylus Nagatv 1932 and 

Libvostrongvlus Lane 1923, etc. Livro Jub. Prof. L. Travassos, Inst. 
Osw. Cruz, '341-352 

36 Schwartz, R. 1928 Two new nematodes of the family Strongylidae para- 

sitic in the intestine of mammals. Proc. LT.S. Nat. Mus., 73, (2), 1-5 

37 Solomon, S. G. 1933 Notes on a new species of Beinlia. Jour. Helminth., 

11, (2), 101-104 

38 Walton, A. C. 1927 A revision of the nematodes of the Leidy collection. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad.. 79, 49-163 

39 Wood, W. A. 1929 Some parasitic nematodes from Western Australia. 

Rep. Dir. Tnst. Anim. Path., Cambridge, (1929) 1930, 205-214 

40 Yorke, W., and Mapeestone, P. A. 1926 The nematode parasites of ver- 

tebrates. London 




Triglochin ovoidea n. sp. Herbula annua flaccida; folia fere capillaria plerumque quam scapi 
longiora; scapi gracillimi 4-7 cm. longi; racemus terminalis densus 8-13 mm. longus 10-35 florus; 

i n 

fructus ovoideus vel fere ellipticus 1-1 U mm. longus U mm. crassus; carpidiis tribus fertilibus 
subcylindricis dorso rotundatis excalcaratis, tribus sterilibus carpophorum simulantibus. 



No. 39 

By J. M. Black, A.L.S. 
[Read 10 October 1940] 


Triglochin ovoidea n. sp. Herbula annua flaccida; folia fere capillaria 
plerumque quam scapi longiora ; scapi gracillimi 4-7 cm. longi ; racemus terminalis 
densus 8-13 mm. longus 10-35 florus ; fructus ovoideus vel fere ellipticus l-l-£ mm. 
longus 4 mm. crassus ; carpidiis tribus f ertilibus subcylindricis dorso rotundatis 
excalcaratis, tribus sterilibus carpophorum simulantibus. 

Beside Lake Bonney, River Murray, Dec. 1924, C. D. Andrew, 
Resembles in habit 7\ hexagona, from which it scarcely differs except in the 
fruit. In Trails, Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, 271 (1925) I erroneously called this 
species T. Miiclleri Buch., not having at that time seen an authentic specimen 
of that plant. 


Schoenns brachyphyllus F. v. M. Mr. S. T. Blake, after examining the type 
of the Western Australian S, laevigatas W. V. Fitzg., finds that the latter differs 
from our species in the lower glumes of the spikelet glabrous and the upper ones 
only minutely ciliate, the nut somewhat larger, darker and almost globular (not 
obovoid), and the hypogynous bristles belter developed. S. brachyphyllus has 
only been collected along the Hindmarsh Valley, Myponga and Encounter Bay. 

Schoenns foliatus (Hook, f.) S. T. Blake in Proc. Roy. Soc. Qld., 51, 48 
(1940) instead of axillaris (R. Br.) Poir. Encycl. Suppl. 2, 251 (1811), non 
Lam. lllustr. 1:137 (1791). A change of name under the law of priority. — 
Scirpus foliatus Plook. f. in Lond. Journ. Bot., 3, 414 (1844). 

Inman Valley; Millicent, S.E. — Also Eastern States, Tasmania and New 

Schoenns deformis (R. Br.) Poir. — Beachport, S.E., summer 1930-40, 
R.. L. Crocker. A new locality. Small specimens, with leaves more or less curved. 

Cyperns sanguinolentiis Vahl, Enum. PL, 2, 351 (1806) instead of 
C, Eragrostis, Vahl, Lc. 322. This change is necessary owing to C. Eragrostis 
Vahl being a later homonym of C. Eragrostis Lam. Illust. 1:196 (1791). — 
Mount Compass; marsh near Victor Harbour. — Also Eastern States and southern 

Cyperus dactylites Benth. instead of C. Clclandii J. M. Black in Proc. Roy. 
Soc. S. Aust., 48, 253 (1924). An examination of my type by S. T. Blake proves 
that these species are identical. — Cordillo Downs. — Also in the Eastern States. 


*Jitncus acntiis L. Ethelton, near Port Adelaide, "well established on tidal 
flats," June 1940, /. B t Cleland. Near /. maritimus Lamk., from which it differs 
in a denser panicle, the inner perianth-segments obtuse instead of acute and the 
reddish-brown capsule twice as long as the perianth. — Almost world-wide, but 
not hitherto found in Australia. 


Salicomia Blackiana Ulbrich (1934) = S. pachystachya J, M. Black (1921) 
non Bunge ex Ungern-Sternberg (1866). Cliffs at mouth of South-West River, 
ELL; Jan. 1940; /. B, Cleland. A new locality. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


Fig. 1 Corrca pulchelta — a, ovary and style; b and r, two stamens. 

Fig. 2 Geococcus Ficdteri—d, flower; e, one valve of pod; /, f, two leaves; <j, pod and part 

of peduncle. 
Fig. 3 Helipterum chJoroccphahtm — h, fertile flower; i, conical receptacle and two 

involucral bracts. 



Hydrocotyle rugulosa Turcz.— Kingston, S.E. ; summer 1939-40; R. L. 
Crocker. A new locality. 


^Tunica prolifcra (L.) Scop. (Dianthits prolifer L.). The Bluff (Rosetta 
Head), Encounter Bay. Nov. 1935, J. B. Cleland. "Abundant." — A new locality. 

*Adouis aestivalis L. Between Blyth and Clare, Nov. 1917, H. W. Andrczv; 
between Redhill and Snowtown, Oct. 1924, /. D. Somerville; Sutherlands, Sept 
1929, E. F. Boehm; Georgetown, Aug. 1939, J. G, Wood. This South-European 
plant, with showy bright-red flowers, is doubtless an escape from gardens. Pro- 
fessor Wood reports its occurrence in fields near Georgetown. Known to gar- 
deners as Pheasant's Eye. 


Geococcus Fiedlcri Scheuermann in Fedde Repert., 147, 262 (1939). 
According to the author this plant differs from G. pusillits J. Drunim, in having 
12-14 leaf-lobes instead of only 6-8, and the pod 1 cm. long, lanceolate, acute, 
reticulate, instead of 2|-5 mm. long and ovate-oblong. This is the only form 
collected in South Australia and has hitherto passed as, a form of G. pusillits. 
The type of G. Fiedlcri was found growing in a garden at Leipzig where refuse 
of Australian wool had been thrown. A specimen was sent by Scheuermann to 
the Kew botanists, who reported that, they had no identical material. Our 
specimens have 10-14 triangular lobes (besides the large terminal one), opposite 
or alternate, and decreasing in ^size towards the base of the leaf. The pod is 
5-12 mm. long, terete down to the base, where it becomes cordate-sagittate. A 
Figure of the type of G. pusilhis, which came from Western Australia, is given in 
Schulz's revision of Cmciferae in the second edition of the "Nat. Prlanzen- 
familien," and agrees with Scheuermann's observations. The details of the new 
species given here (fig, 2) are drawn from South Australian specimens. 


Glycine tabacina (Labiil.) Eenth.— Banks of Willochra Greek near Melrose, 
Dec. 1938, J. B. Cleland, Recorded by Mueller for Grystal Brook and Rocky 
River, but has not been collected for many years past. 

Pultcnaca scabra R. Br.— Deep Greek, south of Second Valley Forest 
Reserve, flowering and fruiting, Dec. 1938, /. B. Cleland; Mount Gambier (no 
collector or date). First mainland records in South Australia. 

*Poterium Sanguisorba L. Sheep's Burnet or Salad Burnet. Between 
Beaumont and Waterfall Gully, Nov. 1931; on railway line near Goolwa, Nov. 
1935, J. B. Cleland. "Abundant." A new record. — Europe and temperate Asia. 
Naturalised in Victoria and New South Wales. 


Mr. Edwin Ashby has published in the Proceedings of the Linnean Society 
of London, session 151, 214-221 (1939), a revision of the South Australian species 
of Correa, with descriptions of three new species. 

C. affinis Ashby, I.e. 215, is distinguished by the author from C. aemula 
(LmdI.) F. v. M. by thinner leaves, a more slender peduncle with tbe broad bracts 


at its base instead of at the summit, and the pedicel with two linear bracteoles. 
C. affinis is proposed as a new name for our South Australian specimens hitherto 
placed under C. aemula. The type of the latter was collected near the Grampian 
Range in Victoria. I regret that I am unable to recognise any specific differences, 
A specimen from the Grampians in the Tate Herbarium, and one kindly sent 
me by Mr. Ashby from his garden at Blackwood as C. aemula, agree with our 
local specimens in having two ovate bracts at the summit of the peduncle and 
two linear bracteoles attached to the slender pedicel at the spot where it is jointed. 
It is noteworthy that neither Bentham nor Mueller, with a large collection from 
both States before them, considered even a varietal distinction necessary. 
C. aemula is well illustrated on plate 7 of Mueller's "Plants Indigenous to 

Another new species is C. neglecta Ashby, I.e. 217, with its variety minor, 
I.e. 219, both of which the author was good enough to send me specimens 
grown in his garden. Var. minor is evidently the same as C. pulchella Sweet, 
Fl. Australasica t. 1 (1827-28). The description and figure are from a plant 
grown in England from seed collected on Kangaroo Island in 1823 by William 
Baxter. I think Sweet's name covers both neglecta and its variety, because the 
leaves of the Kangaroo Island specimens are, especially the lower ones, often as 
rigid and broad as those from Yorke Peninsula. I also think Ashby is right in 
considering this a valid South Australian species and not a form of C. glabra, 
Lindl. (1939), which was found in western New South Wales and has a 
green corolla. The original description of pulchella states that the leaves are 
leathery, broadly ovate, obtuse, subcordate at base, stellate when young, becoming 
glabrous; flowers solitary, pendulous, of a bright salmon colour; calyx cup-shaped, 
truncate, not toothed. This graceful shrub evidently became a favourite in Eng- 
land, for it is also figured in Loddige's Botanical Cabinet, t. 1684. C. pulchella 
is known by its glabrous appearance, its leaves flat or slightly concave above 
owing to the upturned margins, 1-2 cm. long /by 5-15 mm. broad, and by its 
slender curved pedicels 5-8 mm. long, with two short, linear or lanceolate caducous 
bracteoles at base, the peduncle short or almost obsolete, with two leafy bracts 
at base; calyx 4-5 mm. long; corolla red, 24-28 mm. long; filaments as long as 
corolla or slightly exserted, alternately broader in lower part; style usually 
stellate-hairy towards base; rhachis of branches and branchlets more or less 
stellate-hairy (fig. 1). 

Localities for C. pulchella: Rocky River, Stokes Bay, Kingscote, Cape Borda 
(Kangaroo Island) ; Point Yorke, Cape Spencer, Corny Point, an island in 
Pondalowie Bay (Yorke Peninsula) ; Port Lincoln, Cape Donington, Streaky 
Bay (Eyre Peninsula, and there sometimes with narrower oblong leaves, chan- 
nelled above). It is evidently a coastal species. 

The third new species is C. Tiirnbullii Ashby I.e. 219, grown at Blackwood 
from seedlings obtained by the author on Chauncy's Linc,i Hundred of Freeling. 
Mr. Ashby, who does not keep dried specimens, was only able to send me a small 
branch with leaves and one calyx, but, judging from this sample and from the 
author's description, the new species is almost certainly the same as a specimen 
collected at Monarto South in 1921 by Professor Cleland. The leaves resemble 
those of C. decumbens, but the calyx (5 mm. long) is truncate and toothless and 
the reddish corolla is shorter (16-18 mm. long), the filaments alternately broader 
towards base, but not so much exserted, the style stellate-hairy in lower part. 
A specimen from Port Vincent, Yorke Peninsula, appears to be the same plant, 
the chief difference being that the hairs are denser and more persistent. It is 
satisfactory that this shrub, which is little known and seems to be rare, has 
received a name. 


We have still, however, several specimens which do not fit into even that 
polymorphous species C, rubra Sm., and the genus remains in need of a Pan- 
Australian revision. 


Pimelea flava R. Br. Between Millicent and Robe, S.E., October 1939, 
E. C. Black. Flowers yellow. A new locality. 


Solanum hoplopetahtm. Bitter et Summerhayes. — Coombe railway siding., 
90-Mile Desert, Feb. 1940. Specimen received per F. S. Alcock, Mount Gambier. 
There are thinly scattered short simple hairs on the leaves, and branchlets, but 
I he hairs are not so dense as on the typical Western Australian specimens of 
.V. hoplopetahtm- The specimen from Coombe is therefore intermediate between 
S. hystrix R. Br. and S. hoplopetahtm. Moreover, the typical specimens of the 
former from Murat Bay and Ooldea are not completely glabrous (apart from 
the stout bristles), but have often a few short hairs on the petioles and branches. 
The question therefore arises whether S. hystrix should not be considered as a 
species varying from almost glabrous to rather densely pubescent, and whether 
S. hoplopetalum should not be dropped altogether, or included as a slight variety. 


Toxanthus perpusilhts, Turcz. Ooldea Soak. Aug. 1939, /. B. Cleland. A 
new locality. 

^Matricaria multi flora (Thunb.) Fenzl. This South African plant, reported 
in 1931 as established north of Mallala, has now been found near Port Lincoln. 
Nov. 1939, H. D. Adams. 

Helipterum chlcrocephaluni (Turcz.) Benth., Ooldea.—//. iroedeln, F. v. M. 
var. patens Ewart in Trans. Roy. Soc. Vict., 22 (n. s.). pt. i, 15 (1909) ; H. roseiim 
(Hook.) Benth. var. patens (Fwart) j. M. Black in Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 
45, 21 (1921). Has been found at Ooldea by several collectors since 1920 but 
not elsewhere in our State. The first specimens found in that locality were too 
young to show the conical receptacle. The spreading rays of the inner involucral 
bracts are pure white in our specimens, as well as in those from Western Aus- 
tralia, with which they have been compared by the courtesy of Mr. C. A. 
Gardner. The shorter outer bracts are sometimes greenish-brown. Under its 
correct name this is a new record for South Australia (fig. 3). 

^•Achillea tomentosa L. Kingscote, K.I., Dec. 1934; Jan. 1940, /. B. 
Cleland. Flowers yellow. — Southern Europe. 


By T. HARVEY JOHNSTON and L. MADELINE ANGEL, University of Adelaide. 


Doliclhopera macalpini Nicoll is a common parasite of the venomous tiger snake, Notechis 
scutatus (Peters ) , found in swampy regions in South-Eastern Australia and frequently seen in the 
Murray swamps in this State. The worm occurs in the trachea, the upper part of the lung and upper 
six inches of the oesophagus. It has been reported from the intestine and peritoneum, but these 
situations are not normal habitats for the adult, entry being due to injuries received by the snake 
during capture. In the lung many flukes are to be found embedded in the alveoli, appearing as very 
darkly pigmented bodies which can be squeezed out from the sacs. 



By T. Harvev Johnston and L. Madeline Angel, University of Adelaide 

[Read 10 October 1940] 

Dolichopera macalpini Nicoll is a common parasite of the venomous tiger 
snake, Notechis scntatus (Peters), found in swampy regions in South- 
Eastern .Australia and frequently seen in the Murray swamps in this State. 
The worm occurs in the trachea, the upper part of the lung and upper six inches 
of the oesophagus. It has been reported from the intestine and peritoneum, 
but these situations are not normal habitats for the adult, entry being due to 
injuries received by the snake during capture. In the lung many flukes arc to 
be found embedded in the alveoli, appearing as very darkly pigmented 
bodies which can be squeezed out from the sacs. 

The trematodc was first described (though not named) by McAlpine (1891), 
whose material came from the copper head, HoplocephaJus {i.e., Denisonia) 
superbus Gunther. from Victoria. Johnston (1910) reported it as Apoblcma sp., 
a distomid fluke with a small, but well marked, caudal appendage, occurring in 
the oesophagus of I), superba in the Sydney district (N.S.W.). The same author, 
in 1911, recorded it as Hciniurtts sp. (syn. Apobhma sp. ) from the same host 
(p. 239) and from the black snake, Pscudcchis porphyriacus (Shaw) (p. 238), 
both from the vicinity of Sydney. These generic determinations were obviously 
due to a mistaken view of the character of the caudal appendage which is quite 
unlike that of llemiurids. In 1914 Nicoll described Dolichopera parvula (1914, 
342) from Python variegcttus from North Queensland, and attached the name 
D. macalpim to the parasite described by McAlpine. He placed both species in 
a new genus which he assigned doubtfully to the Lepodermatidae, but he pointed 
out that the position of the uterus was unique, other striking features being the 
almost symmetrical arrangement of the testes, the atypical position of the ovary, 
and the unusual disposition of the yolk glands. The location was stated to be 
lite intestine and lungs (?) of snakes. An account of D. macalpini was given 
later by Nicoll (1918, 290), based on material from Notechis scntatus and 
Denisonia superba from Victoria (collected by Dr. G. Sweet) and from an un- 
named snake from Flinders Island, Bass Strait (collected by Dr. J. B. Cleland). 
Nicoll then considered that tbe normal habitat of the parasite was the lung, 
trachea and oesophagus. In the same year (1918. 374) he published a iigure of 
1). macalpini and mentioned that the worm was, obtained from the two species of 
snakes just named, the localities being given as New South Wales and Victoria. 
In the same year Johnston (1918, 211-2) synonymised his Apoblcma sp. and 
Hemiurus sp. with D. macalpini and slated that the snake from Flinders Island 
(referred to by Nicoll) was Notechis scntatus, 

Fairley and Splatt (1929, 337, 348), in referring to ophidian diseases, men- 
tioned that /). macalpini (identified by one of us) caused a most serious malady 
of Australian venomous snakes.. In a letter to the senior author, dated 25 July 
1928, Dr. Fairley stated that the parasite caused a high mortality amongst the 
collection of poisonous snakes at the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical 
Research. Melbourne, consequently depreciating the venom yields. 

Bradley (1926. 577) described briefly a young fluke, under the name Ccrcaria 
nigrocystica, found in mixed bowel contents from "black snakes" in the Monaro 
district of New South Wales. These small parasites were regarded as having 
recently emerged from cysts. Johnston and Cleland (1937, 198) stated that 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 64 (2), 20 December 1940 


Bradley's trematodes represented the young stage of D. macaipini whose adult 
occurred in the tiger snake and copper head, specimens of the parasite hav- 
ing been obtained by them from New South Wales., Victoria and South Australia. 
C. nigrocystica was therefore placed by them as a synonym of D, macaipini. 

We have examined material from Notcchis scutatus from New South Wales 
(Sydney; Glenfield), Victoria and South Australia (South-East; Tailem Bend; 
Pearson Island) ; and from Denisonia superba from New South Wales (Sydney 
district), Victoria, and Flinders Island, Tasmania- 

Fig. 1-18 

Fig. 1, living cercaria (excretory system incomplete); 2, cercaria, formalinised, 
showing genital anlagen; 3, cercaria, normal position when killed with boiling 
formalin; 4, 6, metacercaria, living, showing form of excretory bladder; 5, meta- 
cercaria, anatomy; 7, miracidium; 8, stylet; 9, sporocyst; 10-13, transverse sec- 
tions of adult; 10, through genital pore and pharynx (somewhat oblique); 11, 
through ovary and shell gland (somewhat oblique) ; 12, through transverse yolk 
ducts; 13, through testes; 14-18, various stages of development in the snake; 14, 
youngest stage (metacercaria), free in intestine; 15, stage from oesophagus 
(? lung); 16, largest specimen not yet mature (from lung); 17, smallest egg- 
bearing specimen; 18, young adult, showing disposition of uterine loops 
Fig. 1 and 5 to same scale; 3 and 4; 7 and 8; 6 a sketch; 10 to 18 to same scale 

(beside fig. 14). 
Reference to lettering — ae, arm of excretory bladder; c, cirrus sac; cd, common 
yolk duct; eb, excretory bladder; eg, excretory granules; gb, germ ball; gc, gland 
cell; gm, germ mass; i, intestine; lc, Laurer's canal; m, metraterm; n, nuclei; 
o, ovary; oe, oesophagus; pg, primitive gut; pp, prepharynx; rs, receptaculum 
seminis; sg, shell gland; t, testis; td, transverse yolk duct; u, uterus; yd, yolk 

duct; yg, yolk gland. 


The parasites arc nearly black to the naked eye, with a colourless margin, 
the heavy pigmentation being due to the dense mass of dark brown eggs in the 
large looped uterus which occupies the greater part of the central area. The 
worms, when mature, are fairly thick, usually with both ends broadly rounded, 
but the posterior bears a short caudal projection arising slightly ventrally, this 
prominence sometimes being somewhat lobed. The form of the parasite is 
variable, occasionally rather pointed posteriorly, and sometimes constricted behind 
ihe acetabulum. There is a dense covering of spines, more closely set anteriorly. 
They occur on all parts excepting the suckers, but including the caudal appendage. 
Mature specimens vary from 2 to 4"8 mm., most of them being 3 to 4 mm. long, 
with a maximum breadth (at the acetabulum) of from 1"3 to 1"7 mm. The ratio 
of length to breadth is about 2*5 : L The oral sucker is subterminal, usually 
directed ventrally, and measures 0\3 to 0-45 mm. in diameter. The acetabulum is 
slightly behind the mid-body and measures 0-25 to '45 mm. in breadth, its dimen- 
sions being usually very slightly smaller than those of the anterior sucker. The 
ratio of the two suckers is about 6 1 : 5. 

A broad, short prepharynx is present but is usually not obvious, as it lies 
above the posterior part of the oral sucker. The pharynx measures about -14 mm. 
in diameter and is followed by a short oesophagus, The caeca extend just beyond 
the testes and reach almost to the end of the worm where their tips are slightly 

The excretory bladder is very extensive, with a long wide stem lying between 
the testes and passing forward to bifurcate just behind the shell gland, the wide 
arms extending forward to surround the acetabulum except anteriorly. These 
arms may reach some little distance in front of the ventral sucker. The main 
canal arises from the corresponding arm at about the level of the middle of the 
acetabulum and soon divides into its anterior and posterior branches extending 
almost to either end of the worm. The excretory pore is at the tip of the caudal 
appendage. The testes are usually elongate-elliptical, sometimes nearly circular 
in outline, and lie side by side in the posterior quarter or fifth of the body, the 
stem of the excretory bladder separating them. One testis is generally slightly 
in advance of the other. The organs, measure '33 to '4 mm. long, -15 to T8 mm. 
wide, and about '2 mm. in dorso-ventral diameter. Their distance from the tip 
of the body is usually about half their length. The very narrow vasa deferentia each 
arise from the anterior end of the testis, the two travelling forward near Laurer's 
canal and above the shell gland, uniting just before entering the cirrus sac in, the 
vicinity of the anterior half of the acetabulum. The sac extends in a curved 
course from the latter to lie in the region between the two suckers, finally terminat- 
ing toward one side, on a level with the posterior border or the mid-region of 
the oral sucker. The organ has an even diameter of about -2-'25 mm., and a 
length of about 1*3 mm., thus being more than one-third of the body length. It 
has a large seminal vesicle succeeded by a pars prostatica and a long ejaculatory 
portion. The cirrus is unarmed. Amphitypy of the organ is common. 

The spherical ovary, "14 to -2 mm. in diameter, lies immediately behind the 
acetabulum. The oviduct arises from it on the side remote from the recepta- 
culum seminis and has a well-defined spherical or pyriform oocapt with thick 
walls and sphincter fibres. The duct curves downwards, close to the ovary for 
a very short distance, bending inwards to join with the common yolk duct and 
then entering the shell gland. The latter lies between the ovary, receptaculum 
and the two arms of the excretory bladder, and below the level of the ovary and 
receptaculum. The ootyp, after passing through the gland, curves downwards 
as the uterus which becomes thrown into a few coils below and behind the shell 
gland, and may enter the most anterior part of the intertesticular zone. The 
rounded or elliptical receptaculum seminis lies obliquely behind the ovary and 


is of about the same size. It is connected with Laurer's canal by a very short 
duct dorso-posterior to the shell gland. Laurer's canal passes back from the 
ootyp as a long, narrow, sinuous duct above the excretory bladder. It has a 
relatively thick wall and very narrow lumen, and terminates 011 the dorsal surface 
near the posterior end of the intertesticular zone. 

The yolk glands are numerous, most of them being extra-caecal, lateral and 
vcntro-latcral from the crura but some follicles arc dorsal. The series extends 
from the level of the anterior border of the acetabulum to the vicinity of the ends 
of the caeca. There are many ducts on each side, these travelling inwards above 
the crura and converging to form the transverse duct of each side. The duct of 
one side travels just above the arm of the excretory bladder and immediately 
below the antcro-ventral border of the receptaeulum ; thai; of the. other side skirts 
the ovary and dips downwards just outside the oviduct to meet its fellow below 
the ovary but above the shell gland. A very short common yolk duct travels 
vcntrally to join the oviduct. 

The mature uterus is very extensive and becomes very wide in the mid-region 
of the worm. After leaving the shell gland it travels forwards on one side of 
the acetabulum, then backwards in a series of loops below the cms of the same 
side. In the posterior region it is thrown into three or usually, four extensive 
loops, two on cither side below the crura and the testes, these loops sometimes 
reaching well behind the testes. In compressed specimens one of these loops may 
become displaced so as to lie in the intertesticular zone, giving an appearance like 
that seen in typical Reniferine flukes. The uterus now travels forward on the 
side opposite to its commencement, its folds lying below the crus and above part 
of the acetabulum ; it then crosses in front of the latter and below the cirrus sac 
which may be largely obscured by its folds. The narrow, thick-walled metraterm 
accompanies the cirrus sac and terminates between the male pore and 
the oral sucker. Eggs are extremely abundant, brownish-yellow, dark brown in 
the mass, and measure *028 to *034 mm. by '018 to* 019 mm. 

Life History 

The adult trematodes, on being placed in water, rapidly pour out large 
masses of eggs, just as Hyrd (1935, 199) has recorded for Re infer aniarum and 
Dasymelra conferia. At different times prior to September 1939 we had tried 
without result to hatch these eggs in water, and had also tried experimental infec- 
tions of various molluscs from the Tailem Bend region. On 5 September 1939 
eggs were placed in large petri dishes, to which were added several of each of the 
following molluscs: Plotiopsis iatei, Ameria pyramidata, A. pectorosa, Planorbis 
isingi, Corbiculina angasi, and Hyridella australis, which were known to be un- 
infected. After some days the molluscs were removed to aquaria, For a month 
after exposure to infection they were tested for the presence of cercariae twice a 
week, and subsequently, daily. On 25 October, that is, six weeks after being 
subjected to infection, one Ameria pyramidata started giving off small xiphidio- 
cercariae. In the following month four more Ameria pyramidata and pectorosa 
gave off cercariae. Subsequent dissection showed that none of the other molluscs 
had become infected. 

In May 1939 a comprehensive experiment to ascertain the intermediate host 
produced only negative results. In February 1940 many Ameria were placed in 
contact with eggs of Dolichopcra, but none of those snails which survived pro- 
duced cercariae. These experiments seem to indicate that spring is the normal 
time of year for Ameria to become infected with D. macalpini. The cercaria of 
this trematode belongs to a type which had been found frequently throughout the 
summer when routine examinations of Ameria from Tailem Bend were made. 


Though miracidia are present in the eggs when laid, we were unable to 
obtain any hatching in water even after some months of immersion. Increasing 
the temperature of the water also failed to bring about the result. Later a number 
of Amcria were allowed to crawl over a dense mass of eggs. After onc-and-a-half 
hours some of the snails were crushed in half -normal saline. Miracidia could be 
seen in the gut, attempting to pierce through its wall by means of the head-lobe. 
Other snails which had been placed in contact with the eggs for periods of one 
to four hours were killed, and serial sections were made, in those killed seventy 
minutes after contact, some of the miracidia had hatched in the gut, while others 
were beginning to escape from the egg shell. After three hours most of the shells 
were empty, and the miracidia were free in the gut or penetrating the walls. Our 
■experience is thus similar to that recorded by Talbot (1933, 523) for eggs of 
Lcchriorchu, and by Byrd (1935. 199) and Walker (1937) for those of Renifer 
and Dasymctra. 

The chief features detected in the living miracidia were fairly long cilia, and 
.a number of fatty globules of varying sizes. Staining showed a number of large 
nuclei in the posterior part of the miracidium ; in most there were only eight of 
these nuclei, but others showed as many as 19, all of them much smaller. There 
are no eye spots. In the anterior part of the miracidium is a clear region, which 
is evidently the. primitive gut. Along each side of this is a narrow duct, which 
appears to terminate in a large gland cell, the exact size of which could not be 
determined. In the nucleated region are two fairly large germ masses, which 
do not stain quite so deeply as the nuclei. From one to three yolk nuclei are 
present within the egg shell, and these remain after the miracidium has escaped. 


The comparatively small sporocysts develop in the liver, which is generally 
packed with them. There are a number of refractive granules which give the 
sporocyst an opaque appearance, 1 "here are rarely more than two or three cer- 
cariae, but a number of germ balls at various stages of development may also; 
be present. The length of living sporocysts usually ranges from 184 by 100 /a to 
470 by 167 /x, but some may be as large as 750 by 167 p. 


After their escape from the snail, cercariae swim for a second or two, the 
body appearing spherical, and then come to rest with the body curved and elon- 
gated and the tail hanging downwards. They are perhaps negatively phototropic. 
Measurements of 20 formalinised specimens ranged from 220 to 340 p, the 
-average length being 276 fx. The width of the body was not taken on account of 
inaccuracy clue to the curved position assumed by the cercaria at death. 

The body surface is covered with small spines which are more marked in the 
preacetabular region. Caudal pockets are present. Small refractive excretory 
granules are scattered throughout the body, but are not numerous. The stylet is 
24'7 fx long, the anterior truncated section being &-5 fj. — that is, the ratio of the 
anterior to the posterior section is 1 to 2. At its widest point (at the junction 
of two sections) it is 3'8^, wide. The oral and ventral suckers are almost equal 
in size. There is a well-marked prepharynx. A short oesophagus follows the 
latter, and the intestinal crura extend to about the mid-length of the post- 
■acetabular region. There is a group of about eight gland cells on either side, in 
front of the ventral sucker. 

The excretory bladder is roughly Y-shaped, the stem varying according to 
the state of expansion or contraction of the cercaria. It may be simple, or may 


consist of a posterior bulb-like portion and an anterior narrower tube from which 
the wide arms of the bladder arise. When the cercaria is contracted, the arms do 
not reach quite to the posterior border of the sucker, but they do so when the 
body is extended. The main collecting tubes arise from about midway along each 
arm, and the union of anterior and posterior collecting tubules is on a level with 
the posterior border of the acetabulum. 

The exact number and positions of the flame cells were not determined for 
the cercaria. This was partly due to the fact that the experimental snails lived 
only for a very short time after they commenced giving off cercariae, and partly 
to the presence of cystogenous cells throughout the body, which made the flame 
cells difficult to see. There appeared to be at least two; groups of flame cells in 
the most posterior region — posteriorly and laterally respectively to the main stem 
-of the excretory bladder. The arrangement in the anterior half of the body was 
ascertained in the metacercaria and will be mentioned later. 

In the vicinity of the anterior border of the acetabulum is the anlage of the 

■cirrus sac, and from this region the uterine strand of cells extends backwardly. 

Near the posterior border of the acetabulum is the ovarian rudiment, and a cord 

<of cells (anlage of Laurer's canal) extends back from the latter almost to the 

posterior end of the body. The testes are placed postero-laterally and on the 

same level, and from each a fine vas deferens passes inwards and forwards. 

Cyst Stage 

In experiments to determine the secondary intermediate host of D. macalpini, 
infected Amcria were placed in aquaria with a number of different animals. The 
icercariae were found to encyst in tadpoles, Lynmodynastcs sp. : but not in the 
iish, Gambusia affinis; the leech, Glossiphonia sp. ; or in the gastropods, Plotiopsis 
tatci and Amcria spp. The round cysts measure from 250 to 325 ju. in diameter, 
the most usual size being 300 /x. The cyst wall is brown, and recognition of the 
outline of the metacercaria is rendered more difficult by reason of the distended 
excretory bladder which is now packed full of refractive granules and appears 
■ as a large dark mass which may be bluntly Y-shaped, and forms a characteristic 
feature of the encysted stage. 

The cysts, when dissected out from the muscles and other tissues of the 
tadpole, were kept in half-normal saline. After eight days some of the meta- 
<eercariae were still active. 


The body spines of the metacercaria, though not very conspicuous, cover the 
whole surface. The sucker ratio (anterior : ventral), measured for ten specimens, 
is 4 : 3. The prepharynx is obvious. The intestinal crura bifurcate from the 
short oesophagus some distance anteriorly to the acetabulum. In the living meta- 
cercaria the crura appear to contain a number of granules, not so refractive and 
not quite so large as those in the bladder. Staining with neutral red following 
orange G shows a number of fusiform bodies in the caeca. 

The excretory bladder is very large; it extends from the posterior border of 
the body to the posterior level of the acetabulum, and the broad arms extend 
laterally. In some specimens (depending on the state of expansion of the body) 
they reach beyond the anterior border of the acetabulum, while in others, with 
the body contracted, they appear to extend only half-way up the sides of that 
organ. The bladder is packed with highly refractive granules which render the 
body in this region quite opaque. The flame cells of the anterior half of the body 
could be traced, but those of the posterior end were obscured by the granules in 
the bladder. The main collecting tubes arise a short distance behind the anterior 
•end of each arm, and their bifurcation into the anterior and posterior collecting 


lubes is on a level with the front border of the acetabulum. Three accessory 
tubules join the anterior collecting tubule, and each is formed by a group of three 
flame cells. As mentioned previously, there appeared to be at least two groups 
of three flame cells in the posterior half of the body of the cercaria, and the 
arrangement in the anterior end of the body suggests that there may be another 
group connected with the posterior collecting tube, making the flame cell formula 
2 [ (3 + 3 + 3) + (3 + 3 + 3) ]. 

The genital system in the metacercaria has not reached very much greater 
differentiation than that shown by the cercaria. 


'idic tiger snake feeds largely on frogs. We have recovered cysts ot 
1). macalpini either in, or amongst, digesting material belonging to Lhnnodynastes 
tasmaniensis (plalycephalus) , L. dorsalis (diimerili) and Hyla aurca ranifonnis, 
at Tailem Bend. Cysts and escaping metacercariae have been found on several 
occasions in the intestine, and a complete series indicating growth and develop- 
ment have been obtained from the intestine and the lung. Very young stages 
have been found to be. more or less abundant in the intestine of tiger snakes 
collected from mid-August to October, as well as from early February io early 
May. It seems likely that infection by metacercarial cysts may occur at any time 
from early spring until early autumn, i.e., during the whole of the non-hibernat- 
ing period of the reptiles. 

In the smallest specimen studied, -42 by -28 mm., evidently an escaped meta- 
cercaria, the excretory arms reached the level of the anterior border of the 
acetabulum, the testes were very small, the two vasa deferentia were recognisable, 
and the cirrus sac was a rounded, nearly median, structure behind the intestinal 
bifurcations. The uterine cord was quite obvious, sinuous and extending from the 
front of the cirrus sac backwards above the acetabulum to become continuous 
with a thickened curved mass which showed some differentiation, indicating the 
future ovary. The rest of the female anlage extended back as a sinuous cord of 
cells representing Laurer's canal. The young fluke does not seem to advance 
much beyond the stage just described while in the intestine. 

Washings from the lung and oesophagus showed stages measuring from 
'5 mm. upwards in length. Many of these (even one "5 mm. long) already had 
developed the caudal appendage. The testes were very much larger, -15-- 17 mm. 
long, and more or less symmetrical. The cirrus sac was elongate and extended 
forwards below one cms, reaching the level of the posterior border of the 
pharynx. The uterine cord showed a well-marked loop between the ovary, 
acetabulum and one testis, as well as one in front of the sucker. The ovary was 
more distinct and rounded than in the earlier stage. 

With further growth the female complex becomes more completely differen- 
tiated. The largest worm which had not yet produced eggs measured 1*3 by 
■5 mm. It had testes *15-T7 mm. long by -1 mm. wide, the uterus had a long loop 
laterally from the acetabulum, while the uterus on the opposite side of the latter 
was thrown into a number of short undulations. The cirrus sac had the adult 
form, was "5 mm. long, *05 mm. wide, and opened in the adult position. The 
yolk glands were extremely small but occupied the adult positions. 

The smallest specimen seen with eggs measured 1*4 by -5 mm. The testes 
were *35-*4 mm. long; cirrus sac *5 mm. long by *1 mm. wide, and its posterior 
end was adjacent to the well-developed spherical ovary. The yolk glands had 
increased considerably in size, though still relatively smaller than in the adult 
The uterus resembled that of the stage just described above except that three or 
four loops just indicated as appearing in the region between the testes and the 


acetabulum in that stage were more pronounced in this specimen. In still later 
stages these loops become much larger and may come to lie below the crura and 
part of the testes, but there is little or no extension into the intertesticular zone. 
With the increase in the number of eggs in the uterus the latter becomes more and 
more swollen, until it may obscure most of the other organs. 

The relationships of Doliciwpcra are obscure. N'icoll (1914, 343) placed 
it in Lepoclermatidae, but stated (p. 344) that its inclusion there was somewhat 
doubtful because of the arrangement of the testes and the position of the uterus. 

Baer (1924, 26) considered Reniferinae Pratt 1902 to be worthy of family 
rank, and in his Reniferidae he included Renifer, Lcchriorchis and live other 
gcnera, four of these seven (including the two named) being placed in Reni- 
ferinae as restricted by him. The family Lepodermatidae was considered to be 
([uite distinct from the Reniferidae, though the character of the uterus is similar 
in both. Because of lack of information regarding the excretory system, Baer 
was unable to assign Doliciwpcra to either of the families (p. 30), but stated 
that it was extremely doubtful whether Nicoll was correct in placing it in the 
Lepodermatidae. Baer listed it (p. 31) amongst the "genera incerta" ot Reniferi- 
dae. Travassos (1928) included DolicJiopcra without comment in Reniferinae. 

Perkins (1928), in a review of the Telorchiinae, placed DolicJiopcra under it, 
remarking that the genus possessed a diagonal arrangement of the testes, as well 
as a uterus which, though overlapping the testes, did not penetrate the inter- 
testicular zone. Perkins stated thai it diiTered from Tclorchis Lube only in the 
more transverse arrangement of the testes, the more asymmetrical position of the 
genital aperture, and the more extensive litems; and that Doliciwpcra was the 
Australian equivalent of that genus. A key to the genus was given (1928, 353). 

Mehra (1931) gave an emended diagnosis of Reniferinae (Lepodermatidae) 
and included Dolichopcra under it (p. 173) as a very aberrant genus because of 
the following characters — position of the genital pore near the right margin of 
the body on a level with the oral sucker; more or less symmetrically placed testes; 
position of the ventral sucker behind the middle of the body; and the testes 
situated in the last quarter of the worm. 

Though Mehra (1937, 462) still places Dolichopcra in the Reniferinae, all 
other recent workers dealing with the group (Ingles, 1933 ; Talbot, 1934; 
McMullen, 1937; Byrd, 1935; Byrd and Denton, 1938) have restricted the sub- 
family and also the Rcniferidae to include those species possessing certain 
characters (including the presence of a uterus passing between the testes and 
extending to the posterior end of the body) which prevent the inclusion of the 
Australian iluke. 

The tendency recently is to regard the Reniferidae as a well-defined family 
allied to the Plagiorchidae and some others, ah of them being placed under the 
Plagiorchioidea because of the general similarity in the adult and larval stages. 
The subfamily' Reniferinae is now restricted by McMullen (1937) and by Byrd 
and Denton (1938) to a small group of allied genera {Dolichopcra being definitely 
excluded by the latter authors |p. 381 ] ), others being allotted to the Telorchiinae, 
whose close relationship with the Reniferinae was stressed by McMullen (1935; 
1937). The latter author (1934; 1935), as a result of his study of the life history 
of Ccrcorchis concluded that Telorchids were related to Plagiorchids. The various 
genera now assigned to Reniferinae have been discussed by the authors mentioned 
above, as well as by Price (1935; 1936). Byrd and Denton (1938) have published 
generic diagnoses as well as keys for the genera and species. 

From the foregoing it will be seen that the systematic position of Dolichopcra, 
based on the study of the adult stage, has not been determined satisfactorily. We 
will now consider the relationships of its larval stage, comparing it with similar 
stages of several Reni ferine species, 


Ccrcana hrcvicacca Cort (1914, 83; 1915, 62) is a typical Reniferine larvai. 
Amongs others there may he mentioned that of Zeugorchis syniomcntcra Sum 
wait, described by Ingles (1933) ; Caudorchis and Lcchriorchis by Talbot (1933) ;.. 
Renifcr, Dasymeira and Pneumatophilus (as well as Cercaria ramonae) by 
McCoy (1928) ; Renifcr and Dasymeira by Byrd (1935) ; while the larval stage* 
of Cercorchis and Telorchis (Telorchiinae) have been studied by McMullen 
(1935) and Krull (1935) respectively; and of Plagitura parva by Stunkard 
(1936). An excellent attempt to correlate the various types of_ cercariae and 
adults amongst the Plagiorchioidea was made by McMullen (1937). 

The cercaria of Dolichopcra macalpini is essentially of the same type as those 
described above for Reniferines,, and so also are the other early stages. All ol 
them ultilize tadpoles as the second intermediate host. 

C. Dolichopcrac macalpini differs from C. brcvicacca in the greater length of 
caeca, shorter arms of the excretory bladder, larger stylet, fewer gland cells, and 
slightly different ratio of the diameters of the two suckers of the former; from, 
C. "ramonae in the size of the body and in the size and form of the stylet; from 
Zeugorchis syniomeiitera (cercaria) in the sizes of the caeca and excretory arms, 
and in the sucker ratio; from Dasymeira conferia (cercaria) in the form of the 
stylet, but most of the other features resemble those of the Australian species, 
and these remarks hold also for Dasymeira viliicaeca; from Renifcr aniarum in 
the size of the caeca, excretory arms, and stylet, as well as in the sticker ratio; 
from Pechriorchis primus in the size of the caeca, excretory arms and stylet, the 
number of gland cells and the sucker ratio; and from Caudorchis eu-rinus in the 
sucker ratio and the number of gland cells. 

Some of the species whose life cycles have been referred to have recent!} 
been assigned to other genera by Byrd and Denton (1938), e.g., Caudorchis eurimts 
to Zeugorchis, Renifcr aniarum to Neorenifer ; and Zeugorchis syntomentera to 
ParalecJiri orchis. 

The cercaria of Dolichopcra macalpini differs from most Reni ferine cercariae 
(except Caudorchis and Dasymctra) in possessing longer caeca, rather shorter 
arms of the bladder, i.e.. they do not encircle the acetabulum to the same extent 
as in others; and in the sucker ratio, the anterior sucker being slightly larger 
than the posterior. All have the same excretory pattern. Corresponding 
differences also occur in the metacercariae of the forms mentioned. We may, 
then, state that Dolichopcra macalpini has a Reniferine type of larva and liic 
history and that its cercaria resembles that of Dasymctra more nearly than that of 
any other, but the adult stages arc quite different. 

As pointed out by certain authors mentioned above, Dolichopcra differs from 
all genera included in the Reniferinae in the character of its female system, 
especially the relation between the uterus and testes. Perkins included it in the 
Telorchiinae but had to qualify its inclusion. Tf it were not for the characters 
just mentioned, Dolichopcra would be very close to Renifcr, and especially 
Neorenifer Byrd and Denton. It seems to us that our species shows a definite 
relationship with both subfamilies, but rather more closely with the Reniferinae. 

Byrd and Denton (1938, 397) have attempted to indicate the derivation of 
the Telorchiinae, as well as the definitely Reniferine genera, from primitive 
Reniferidae. From the Reniferine ancestor they postulate a Dasynietrid-like 
stock from which arose Nairiodera and Zeugorchis on the one hand and Dasy- 
metra on the other. From the last-named the remaining genera have arisen. 
We have already noted that the cercaria of Dolichopcra very closely resembles 
that of Dasymctra and Caudorchis (i.e., Zeugorchis), especially the former, 
rather than those of any other Reniferine genera. This seems to indicate some 
close ancestral relationship. If so, then Dolichopcra must have arisen, in common 


with Dasymctra, from an ancestral Reniferine. Since the characters of the 
adults are so different, the two genera must have diverged long ago. Dolichopera,. 
as already mentioned, possesses uterine characters somewhat similar to those of 
Telorchiinae. We therefore suggest that it arose from the Reniferid stem near 
the point of origin of the Telorchiinae and that its position is best expressed by 
erecting a subfamily to receive it. Perkins (1928, 343) has given reasons for 
assuming that a form like Lecithopyge from European frogs is a primitive 
member of the Telorchiinae, more typical of the subfamily than is Tclorchis. 

The type species of Dolichopera is D. parvula Nicoll from an Australian 
python. D. macalpini occurs in certain of our Elapine snakes. Nicoll (1918, 
293) referred to the differences between the two trematodes m regard to the 
position of the ventral sucker,, testes and yolk glands, the relative sizes of the 
cirrus sac, and the distribution of the uterus. He went on to state that in some 
respects these differences appeared to be of much more than specific value, but 
that from various considerations it appeared inadvisable at the time to separate, 
the two forms generically. NicolPs figure of 1), parvula indicates the uterus pass- 
ing back between the testes to a point well behind them, whereas his account and 
his generic diagnosis state that it extends back between the testes only for a short 
distance. Since he mentioned that his specimens were compressed, it seems to us 
possible that the uterine loop may have become displaced by pressure from its 
normal position below the testis, just as we have seen in some specimens of 
D. macapini. His figure of the latter shows a uterine loop lying in the anterior 
part of the intertesticular region. In view of the similarity of the two species and 
their differences from other trematodes, we suggest that they be allocated to a new 
subfamily. Since the two do not appear to be congeneric, we propose a new 
genus, Dolichopcroides, for D. macalpini. this genus to be the type of the Dolicho- 
peroidinae n. subfam. We have selected the latter genus because of the more 
complete knowledge of its anatomy and life cycle. 

Dolichoperoidinae n. subfam. 
Reniferidae: cuticle spiny; acetabulum in posterior half of body, smaller 
than anterior sucker; oesophagus short; caeca extending almost to end of body; 
genital pore nearly marginal, near oral sucker, on one or other side of body; 
cirrus sac elongate, sinuous; testes nearly symmetrical, lying in posterior part 
of body; ovary on one side just behind acetabulum; rcceptaculum seminis and 
Laurer's canal present; uterus extensive, occupying most of the region between 
the testes and the oral sucker, not extending between the testes into the posterior 
end of the body, but may underlie the testes; metraterm feebly developed; 
vitellaria numerous, follicular, mainly extracaecal, in posterior half of body ; 
larval stage a xiphidiocercaria with long caeca and Y-shaped excretory bladdcr 
whose arms do not surround the acetabulum. Adult in lung, trachea and oeso- 
phagus of snakes; nictacercaria in frogs. Includes Dolichopcroides and 

Dolichoperoides n. gen. 
Dolichoperoidinae: acetabulum near midbody; testes near posterior end of 
body; cirrus sac very large; uterus with very numerous coils between the testes, 
and acetabulum, as well as in front of the latter. Type &• macalpini (Nicoll 1914). 

Dolichopera Nicoll 1914, emend, Johnston and Angel 

Dolichoperoidinae: acetabulum well behind mid-body; testes just behind 
acetabulum; cirrus sac relatively small; uterus with coils mainly preacetabular. 
Type D, parvula Nicoll. Because of the similarity in regard to structures which 


-are known, we assume that there will be found both receptaculum seminis and 
Laurer's canal, and that the life history will be similar to that of D. macalpini. 

1 An account of the anatomy of D, macalpini from Australian venomous 

snakes is given. 

2 A new genus (Dolichoperoidcs) and subfamily (Dolichoperoidinae, Reni- 
feridae) have been erected to receive it. 

3 The various stages in the life cycle are described. Miracidia hatch after eggs 
have been taken into the digestive tract of the pond snails, Anieria pyramidata 
and A. pectorosa, in which xiphidiocercariae are produced in from six to 
ten weeks, 

4 The metacercaria stage occurs in frogs, Hyla and Limnodynastes. 

5 Ccrcaria ntgrocystica Bradley 1926 is an agamodistome (excysted meta- 
cercaria) stage of Dolichoperoidcs macalpini. 

We desire to acknowledge our indebtedness to Messrs. G. and E. Jaensch 
and l«. Ellis, of Tailem Bend, for unselfish assistance in regard to material. This 
research has been made possible by the Commonwealth Research Grant to the 
University of Adelaide. 

Baer,, J. G. 1924 Description of a new genus of Lepodermatidae (Trematoda) 

with a systematic essay on the family. Parasitol., 16, 22-31 
Bradley, B. 1926 Notes on larval trematodes from New South Wales. Med. 

Jour. Austr., 1926 (2), 573-578 
Bvrj), E. E. 1935 1 .if e history studies in the Reniferinae (Trematoda 

Digcuea) parasitic in Reptilia of the New Orleans area. Tr. Amcr. 

Micr. Soc, 54, 196-224 
Hyatt, E. E., and Denton, J. E. 1938 New trematodes of the subfamily 

Reniferinae, with a discussion of the systematics of the genera and 

species assigned to the subfamily group. Jour. Parasit., 24, 379-401 
Cort, W. W. 1914 Larval trematodes from North American freshwater 

snails, jour. Parasit., 1, 65-84 
Cort, W. W. 1915 Some North American larval trematodes. Illinois Biol. 

Monogr., 1, 447-532 
Eatrlev, N. H„ and Splatt, II. B. 1929 Venom vields in Australian venomous 

snakes. Med. lour. Austr., 1929 (1). 336-348 (also fig. 11, 9th March, 

Ingees, L. G. 1933 Studies on the structure and life-history of Zeugorchis 

svntomentera Sumwalt, etc. Univ. Calif. Publ. Xool, 39 (7), 163-178 
Johnston, T. II. 1910 Exhibits of entozoa. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 44, 

Johnston, T. II. 1911 A census of Australian reptilian entozoa. Proc Hoy. 

Soc. Old., 23, 233-249 
Johnston, T. II. 1918 Notes on miscellaneous eudoparasites. Proc. Roy. 

Soc. Old., 30, 209-218 
loHNSTON, T. H., and Clkland, E. R. 1937 Larval trematodes from Austra- 
lian terrestrial and freshwater molluscs, Pt, I, A survey of literature. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 61, 191-201 


Krull, W. H. 1935 A note on the life cycle of Telorchis robustus Goldb. 

(Trematoda, Telorchiidae). Pr. Helm. Soc. Washington, 2, 65 
McAlpine, D. 1891 Remarks on a fluke parasitic hi the copper-head snake. 

Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 3, 40-43 
McCoy, O. R. 1928 Life history studies of trematodes from Missouri. Jour. 

' Parasit., 14, 207-228 
McMullen, D. B. 1935 A note on the relationship of the Telorchinae and 

Reniferinae. Jour. Parasit., 21, 217-219 
McMullen, IX B. 1937 A discussion of the taxonomy of the family 

Plagiorchiidae Puhe 1901 and related trematodes. Jour. Parasit., 23, 

Meiira, II. R. 1931 A new genus (Spinometra) of the family Lepoderm- 

atidae Odhner from a tortoise, with a systematic discussion of the family. 

Parasitol., 23, 157-178 
Meitra, II. R. 1937 Certain new and already known distomes of the family 

Lepodermatidae Odhner (Trematoda), with a discussion on the family. 

Z. f. Parasitenk., 9, 429-469 
Nicole, W. 1914 The trematode parasites of North Queensland, I. Parasitol., 

6 (4), 333-350 
Nicole, W. 1918 Dolichopera macalpiui n. sp., a tremalode parasite of Aus- 
tralian poisonous snakes. Parasitol., 10, 290-293 
Nicole, W. 1918 The trematode parasites of North Queensland., IV, Para- 
sites of reptiles and frogs. Parasitol., 10, 368-374 
Perkins, M. 1928 A review of the Telorchiinae, a group of distomid trema- 
todes. Parasitol., 20, 336-356 
Price, E. W. 1935 A re-study of Stafford's types of th_e trematode genera 

Lechnorchis and Zeugorchis. Jour. Parasit., 21, 437 
Price, If. W. 1936 Redescriptions of the type species of the trematode genera 

Lechriorchis Stafford and Zeugorchis Stafford (Plagiorchiidae). Pr. 

Helm. Soc. Washington, 3, 32-34 
Stuxkard, W. IP 1936 The morphology and life history of Plagitura parva 

Stunkard 1933. Tour. Parasit., 22^ 354-374 
Talbot, S. B. 1933 Life history studies on trematodes of the subfamily 

' Reniferinae. Parasitol., 25, 518-545 
Taluot, S. B. 1934 A description of four new trematodes of the subfamily 
Reniferinae, with a discussion of the systematica of the subfamily. 

Tr. Amer. Micr. Soc, 53, 40-56 
Travassos, L. 1928 Fauna helminthologica de Matto Grosso. Mem. Inst. Osw. 

Cruz, 21, 309-341, 343-372 
Walker, J. II. 1937 Experimental studies on eggs and miracidia of Renifer 

aniarum (Leidv 1891) and Dasymetra villicaeca (Byrd 1935). Pr. Soc. 

Exp. Biol. Med., 37, 246-248 


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1929 Prof. Walter IIowchin, E.G.S. 

1930 Ions Mc:C Black. A.LS. 

1931 Prok. Sir Douglas Mawsiy. O.B.E., D.Sc, U.K.. K.R.S. 
1933 Prof. J. Burton Cleland, M.D. 

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Date of n i- 

Eirctiou Honorary tfllows. 

1910. *Braul Sir W. 1L, O.M., K.B.E., M.A., D.C.L, LL.D., L.R.S., Director of the Royal 

Institution, Albemarle Street, London (Lcllow 1886). 

1926. *Ciiai'Man, E.. A.L.S.. "Crohamhurst," J breadneedic Street, La'.wyn, Vict. 

1894. nViLSov, Prof. J. T,, M.D, Ch.M., F..RS, Cambridge University, England. 

1935. Adam, D. B., B.Agr.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 
1925. Adey, W. J., M.A., C.M.G.. 32 High Street, Burnside, S.A. 

1927. *Alderman, A. R., Ph.D., M.Sc., E.G.S, University, Adelaide— Council, 1937-. 

1931. Anhrew, Rev. J. R., 5 York Street, Henley Beach. 

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1929. Angel, E. M., 34 Eullarlon Road, Parkside, S.A. 

1939, *Angel, Miss L. M.. M.Sc.. University. Adelaide. 

1895. *tAsiiijy, E., F.L.S., M.B.O.U., Blackwood, S.A.~Council, 1900-19; Vice-Pres., 1919-21. 
1902. *Baker, W, H., Ningana Avenue, King's Park, S.A. 

1936. Barrikx, Miss B. S., M.Sc,, Adelaide. 

1932. Beoo, P. R., D.D.Sc, L.D.S., 219 North Terrace, Adelaide. 
1939. *Bkkni>t, R. M., S.A. Museuin, Adelaide. 

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1934. Black, E. C, M.B., B.S., Magill Road, Traumere, Ade'aulc 

1907. *Bl ( \ck, J. M., A.L.S., S2 Brougham Place, North Adelaide Verco Medal, 1930; 
Council, 1927-1931; President, 1933-34; Vice-Pres:dent, 1931-33. 

1923. Burix)n, R. S., D.Sc, University, Adelaide, S.A. 

1922. *CAMiMiELL, T. D., D.D.Sc, D.Sc , Dental Dcpt., Adelaide Hospital, Adelaide-- 
Rep.-Governor, 1932-33; Council, 1928-32, 1935; Vice-President, 1932-34; Presi- 
dent, 1934-35. 

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side, S.A.— Council, 1914-22, 1939% 

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1895. *Clelani\ Prof. J. B., M.D., University, Adelaide — Verco Meda*, 1933; Council, 
1921-26, 1932-37; President, 1927-28; 1940- ; Vice-President, 192o-27. 

1929. Cleland, W. P., M.B., B.S., M.R.C.P., Dasbwood Road, Beaumont. 

1930. *CoL(ji:i-iOt x, T. T., M.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mad Bag), Adelaide. 
1907. *Cooke, W. T., D.Sc, A.A.C.I., University, Adelaide- -CcunclJ, \9S?~. 
1938. *, H. T., S.A. Museum, Adelaide. 

1929. * Cotton, B. C, S.A. Museum, Adelaide. 

1924. de Crespigny, C. T. C, D.S.O., M.D., F.R.CP-, 219 North Terrace. Ade'aTe. 

1937. *Ckockek, R. L., B.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 

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1927. *Davies, Prof. E. H., Mus.Doc, The University, Adelaide 

1930. Dix, E. V., Blackwood Park, Blackwood, S.A. 


iJa'.t ul 

1932. Dunstoxk, if, E., M.B., U.S., }-l\, 124 Payneham Road, St. Peters, Adelaide. 

1921. Db'TTON, G. H., B.Sc, 12 Halsburv Avenue, Kingswood, Adelaide 
1931. Dwyer, J. M., M.B., B.S., 25 Port Road, Bowden. 

1933. *Eaki)ley, Miss C. M., B.Sc., University, Adelaide. 
1902. *Ei>c>ujst, A. G., 19 Fan-ell Street, Glenelg, S.A. 

1938. :|: 1'>ans, J. W., M.A., D.Sc, Government Entomologist. Hobart, Tasmania. 

1917. *Fknneu, C. A. It., 13. Sc, 42 Alexandra Av, Rose Park, Adelaide— Rep. Governor, 

1929-31; Council, 1925-28; President, 1930-31; Vice-President, 1928-30; Secretary 

1924-25; Treasurer, 1932-33; Editor, 1934-7. 
1935. *Fenner, F. J., M.B., B.S., 42 Alexandra Av., Rose Park, Adelaide 
1927. *Jmxlaysox, H. H., University, Adelaide— Council, 1937-40. 

1931. Erewin, C). W., M.B., B.S., 08 W'oodville Road, Woodville. 

1923. ""FbV, H, K., D.S.O., MIX, B.S., B.Sc, F.R.A.CP, Town Hall. Adelaide -Council, 

1933-37; Vice-President, 1937-38, 1939-40; President, 1938-1939. 

1932. *Gibsox, E; S. Fl., B.Sc, 297 Gross Roads, Clarence Gardens, Adelaide. 

1935. ^Glastonbury, j. O. G., B.A., M.Sc, Dip.Ed., No. 1 Service Flying Sch., Pt. Cook, Vic. 

1919. IGlastonkl-ry, O. A., Adelaide Cement Co., Grenfell Street, Adelaide. 
1927. Godfrey, F. K., Robert Street, Payneham, S.A. 

1935. tGoldsack, 11., Coromaiirle.l Valley. 

1939. Goode, J. EL, B.Agr.Sc, Waitc Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 
J 925. fGossi-;, J. Fl., Gilbert House, Gilbert Place, Adelaide. 

1910. *Grant, Prof. Kerr, M.Sc, F.I.P, University, Adelaide 

1933. Gray, J. FL, M.D., B.S.. Orroroo, S.A. 
1930. Gray, J. T., Orroroo, S.A. 

1933. Greavks, H., Director, Botanic Gardens, Adelaide. 

1904. Griffith, l\. B., Dunrob n Road, Brighton, S.A. 

1934. Gunter, Rev. Fl. A., Riverlon, S.A. 

1922. *Hale, H. M;„ Director, S A. Museum, Adelaide— Council, 1931-34; Vice- 

President, 1934-30, 1937-38; President, 1936-37; Treasurer, 1938-. 
1939. Haryt.y, Miss A ( , B.A., Dequcttevillc Terr., Kent Town, Adelaide. 

1927. Holuen. The How E. \V., B.Sc, Dequettevdle 1 errace, Kent Town, Adelaide. 

1933. FIoski\g, H. C, B.A., 24 Northcote Terrace, Gilberton, Adelaide. 
1930. *ITosking, J. S., B.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide 

1924. *Hossfeu>, P. S., M.Sc, Private Bag, Alice Springs. 
1939. riuTTON, E. M., B.Agr.Sc. Roseworthy College, S.A. 

1928. Ifolxij, P., Kurralta, Burnside, S.A. 

1918. *Ising, E. IF, c/o Comptroller's Office, S.A. Railways. Adelaide— Council 1934-39" 

Vice-President, 1939-40. 
1918. *Jexnjson, Rev. J. C, 7 Frew Street. Fullarton, Adelaide. 
1910. -Jon\so\. F. A., M.D.. M.R.C.S., "Tarni Warra,'' Port Noarlunga, S.A. 

1934. Johnstox, J., A.S A.S.M., A.A.l.C. A.A.C.F, Sewage Treatment' Works, Glenelg. S.A. 
192F *Johnsto\-, Prof. T. l\. f M.A., D.Sc, Universitv, Adelaide— Verco Medal 1935 ; 

Rep. Governor, 1927-29 ; Council, 1926-28. 1940- ; Vice-President, 1928-31 ; 

President, 1931-32; Secretary, 1938-40; Rep. Fauna and Flora Board, 1932-39. 
1939. fKrjAKiiAK, M. II., PhD., W.H., Khakhar Buildings, C.P. Tank Road, Bombay India. 
1933. *Ki.eema\, A. W., M.Sc, 46 Bvnm Road, Black Forest, S.A. 
1939. Leask, J. C, A.M. I.E., 9 Buller Street, Prospect. 
1922. Lexicon, G. A., M.D., B.S., M.R.G.P.. North Terrace, Adelaide 

1930. *Louwyck, Rev. N. H„ 85 First Avenue, St. Peters, Ade'aide. 

1938. *Love, Rev. J. R. B., M.C., D.C.M., M.A., Kunmunya Mission, via B-roome, W.A. 

1931. *Ludbrook [Mrs. W. V.), N. IF, M.A., Elimatta Street, Reid, A.CT. 

1938. Madeern, C. B.. B.D.S.. D.D.Sc, Shell House, North Terrace, Adelaide. 

1922. *Madigan, C. T., M.A., B.E., D.Sc, F.G.S., University of Adelaide— Council, 1930-33; 

Vice-President, 1933-35, 1936-37; President, 1935-36. 

1923. Marshall, J. C, Mageppa Station, Comaum, S.A. 

1939. Marshall, T. J., M.Agr.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 

1933. Magarey, Miss K. de B., B.A., B.Sc, 19 Ashbourne Avenue, Mitcham, S.A. 

1932. Mann, E. A., C/o Bank of Adelaide, Adelaide. 

1929. Martin, F. C, M.A., Technical High School, Thebarton, S.A. 

1905. *Mawsox, Prof. Sir Douglas, O.B.E., D.Sc, B.E., F.R.S., University, Adelaide— 

Verco Medal, 1931; Rep. Governor, 1933-40; President, 1924-25; Vice-President, 
1923-24, 1925-26. 
1938. *Mawson, Miss P. M., M.Sc, University, Adelaide. 

1920. Mayo, H.. FEB.. K.C.. 16 Pirie Street, Adelaide. 

1934. McClolghry. C. F., IFF., AMJ.E. (Aust.), Town Hall, Adelaide. 

1929. MgF.m ghux. F.. M.B., B.S., M.R.C.P.. 2 Wakefield Street, Kent Town, Adelaide. 

jDare of 

1907. Melrose, R. T., Mount Pleasant, S.A. 

1939. Mincham, V. II., Bcltana, S.A. 

1925. IMitchell, Prof. Sir W, K.C.M.G, M.A,, D.Sc, Fitzroy Tcr, Prospect, SA. 

1933. Mitchell, Prof. %L L„ M.Sc, University, Adelaide. 

1938. Moorholse, F. W., M.Sc, Chief Inspector of Fisheries, Flinders Street, Adelaide 

1924. Morison, A. J. Town Clerk, Town Hall, Adelaide. 

1936. *Mountford, C. P., 25 First Avenue, St. Peters. Adelaide 

1925. -[-Murray, Hon. Sir G., K.C.M.G, B.A., LL.M'., Magill, S.A. 

1930. Ockenden, G. P., Public School, Norton's Summit, S.A. 

1913. *Osborn, Prof. T. G. B., D.Sc, University, Oxford, Fug land — Council 1915-20, 
1922-24; President, 1925-26; Vice-President, 1924-25, 1926-27. 

1937. Parkin, L. W., M.A., B.Sc. c/o Nth. Broken Hill Ltd., Box20C, Broken Hill, N.S.W. 
1929. Paull, A. G., M.A., B.Sc, Eglinton Terrace, Mount Gamhier. 

1928. Phipps, I. F., Ph.D., B.Agr.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 

1926. *Ptper, C. S., M.Sc, Waite Institute ( Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 

1936. Platt, Prof. A. E, M.D, B.S., D.T.M, D.T.IL, Dip.Bact., F.R.A.C.P., Adelaide 


1925. *Prescott, Prof. J. A., D.Sc, A.I.C.. Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide— 

Verco Medal, 1938; Council, 1927-30,1935-39; Vice-President, 1930-32; President, 

1926. Price, A. G, C.M.G., M.A., Litt.D., F.RG.S, St. Mark's College, North Adelaide. 

1937. *Rait, W. L, M.Sc, St. Peter's College, Adelaide. 

1925. Richardson, A. E. V, C.M.G, M.A., D.Sc, 314 Albert Street, East Melbourne. 
1905. *Rogers, R. S, M.A, M.D., D.Sc, F.L.S, 52 Hutt Street. Adelaide— Council, 1907-14, 
1919-21; President, 1921-22; Vice-President, 1914-19, 1922-24. 

1933. Schneider, M, M.B, B.S, 175 North Terr, Adelaide. 

1924. *Segnit, R. W\, M.A, B.Sc, Assist. Govt, Geol, Flinders St, Adelaide— Secretary, 

1930-35; Council, 1937-38; Vice-President, 1938-39, 1940s President, 1939-40. 

1925. *Sitearp, H, Nuriootpa, S.A 

1936. *S heard, K, S.A. Museum, Adelaide. 

1934. Spunk-field. R. C. Salisbury, S.A. 

1938. *Simpson, Mrs. E. R„ M.Sc, Warland Road, Burnside. 

1924. Simpson, F. N., Pirie Street, Adelaide. 

1925. tSMiTH, T. E. Barr, B.A., 25 Curric Street, Adelaide. 

1936. South wood, A. R, M.D, M.S. (Add.), M.R.C.P, Wootoona Terr, Glen Osmond, S.A. 

1938. Stephens, C. G., M.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 

1935. Strickland, A. G, M.Ag-r.Sc, 11 Wootoona Terr, Glen Osmond, Adelaide. 

1932. Swan, D. C, M.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide— Secretary, 1940- . 

1934. Symons, I. G, Murray Street, Mitcham. 

1929. *Taylor, J. K, B.A, M:.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide— Council, 


1940. Thomson, J. M, 302 The Terrace, Port Pirie, S.A. 

1923. *Tindale, N. B, B.Sc, South Australian Museum, Adelaide—Secretary, 1935-36 

1937. *Trumble, H. C, D.Sc. M.Agr.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Rag), Adelaide. 
1894. *Turner, A. J, M.D, F.R.E.S, Dauphin Terr, Brisbane, Qld. 

1925. Turner, D. C, National Chambers, King 'William Street, Adelaide. 

1933. Walkley, A, B.A, B.Sc, Ph.D, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 
1912. *W r ARD, L. K., B.A, B.E, D.Sc, Govt. Geologist, Flinders Street, Adelaide- 
Council, 1924-27, 1933-35; President, 1928-30; Vice-President 1927-23. 

1939. Warhurst, Miss B. W, B.Sc, Commonwealth Munitions Lab, Maribyrnong-, Vict. 

1936. Waterhouse, Mtss L, M, 35 King Street, Brighton, S.A. 

1939. Weeding, Rev. B. T, Eudunda. 

1931. Wilson, C. E. C, M.B, B.S, "Woodneld," Fisher Street, Fullarton, Adelaide. 

1938. *Wilson, J. O, Nutrition Laboratory, University, Adelaide. 

1935. Winkler. Rev. M. T., B.A, D.D, 20 Austral' Terrace, Malvern, Adelaide. 

1930. HVomersley, H, F.R.E.S, A.L.S, Museum, Adelaide— Secretary, 1936-37: Editor, 

1923. *W r ooD f Prof. J. G, D.Sc, Ph.D, University, Adelaide—Council, 1938-40; Vice- 
President, 1940- ; Rep. Fauna and Flora Board, 1940-. 


1940. Birch, L. C, B.Agr.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide. 

1936. Spricg, R. C, Toddville Street, Seaton Park, Adelaide. 

Goyder, G. A. M, B.Sc, F.G.S. Showell, FT. 


[Generic and specific names in italics indicate that the forms described are new to science.] 



[Generic and specific names in italics indicate that the forms described 
are new to science.] 

Aboriginal Tribes, Distribution of Austra- J 
ban; Results of the Harvard-Adelaide j 
Universities Expedition, 1938-39, Tindale, I 
N. B., (1), 140; Studies in Australian Tetranychidae 
and Trichadenidae, Wome-rsley, H., (2), 233 
Acrocercops eupetala, eumetalla, heliopla, 
alysidota, (1), 57; tricalyx, mesochaeta, 
ordinatella, irrorata, pertenuis, hedymopa, 
apohlepta, autadelpha, symphyletes, anti- 
graphy antimima, macaria, (1), 58; 
chwnoscma, tetrachorda, zaplaca, argyro- 
desma, clinozona, tricuncatella, caenotheta, 
chionoplecta, leucotoma, hoplocala, calli- 
cella, albimaculella, archepolis, euchlamyda, 
(.1), 59; isotoma, pyrigenes, nitidula, 
nbscurella, symploca, poliocephala, ophiodes, 
axlnophora, plectospila, doloploca, calli- 
macha, prospera. leptalea. heteropsis, 
chionochtha, (1), 60; nereis, fluorescens, 
ehalccopla, tristaniae. retrogressa, paral- ; 
lela, grammatacma, laciniella, stereomita, 
plebout, unilineata, lcucomochla, didymella, , 
uchrocepbala, ochrid'orsella, aeolella, mc- 
lanommata, spodophylla, (1), 61; ochro- 
t\hk, mendosa, lithogramma, hierocosma, 
flisiophora habrodes, penographa, anti- 
macha, crucigera, osteopa, ennychodes, 
trisigillata, (1), 62 
Axutoplax cottoni, (1). 48; mayi, rufa, klemi, 

(1), 49 
Adoiv.s aestivalis, (2), 373 

Aega deshavsiana, s-.-rripes, angustata, (2), 
295; inn-la, (2), 296. cylops, concinna, 
(2), 298; nodosa, vigilaus, (2), 300 
Agamoncma sp.. (2), 352 
Alderman, A. R., A Siderolite from Pinna- 

roo. S. Aust., (1), 109 
Amblyonema terdentatum, (2), 348 
Anatctranychus hakea, (2), 236, 262 
Ancylostomatidae, (2), 363 
Androwartha, H> G„ The Environment of the 
Australian Plague Locust (Chortoicetes 
termini f era Wlk.) in South Australia, 
(1), 76 
Angel, L. M.. and Johnston, T. H., Larval 
Trematodes from Australian Freshwater 
Molluscs, pt. vii, (2), 331 
Angel, L. M. f and Johnston, T. H. f The Mor- 
phology and Life History of the Nema- 
tode Dolichopera macalpini Nicoll, (2), 
Anguillicola austratiensis, (2), 351 
Aplonobi® oralis, (2), 235, 253 
Aprocta conncola, (2). 358 
Archaeolothrips fontis, (2), 353 
Argathoma parca, (2), 293 
Aristaea periphanes, (1), 62 
Ashby, E., A New Fossil Cryptoplax from 
the Pliocene of S. Aust., (2), 266 

Asymmetricostrongylus trichuris, dissimilis, 
australis, asymmetricus, (2), 364 

Aust-ralites, Pt. IV, The John Kennett Collec- 
tion, with notes on Darwin Glass, Bedia- 
sites, etc., Fenner, C, (2), 305 

Auslro filar ia vcslihulaia, (2), 357 

Austrostrongylus thy legale, (1) 99, (2) 364; 
agregata, macropodis, wallabiae, mirmtus, 
(2), 364 

Austroxyuris finlaysoni, (2), 368 

Eathylus albicincta, (1), 71, 72 
Bathynomus ? affinis, (2), 292 
Berndt, R. M, Notes on the Sign-language 

of the Jaralde Tribe, (2), 267 
Black, J. M.. Additions to the Flora of South 

Australia, No. 39, (2), 371 
Brvobia sp., (2), 233; praetiosa, (2), 233, 

*234, 246 
Buccostrongylus buccalis, setifer, australis, 

lahiatus, (2), 365 

C^piL'uiia pleciroplitcs, ( 2) , 342 

Cannema dnbia, (2), 357; graucaUmtm, (2), 

Caryophyllaceae, (2), 373 

Coclonophilus imbricata, (2), 303 

Ceratrimena, A new species of, from Tas- 
mania, Womersley, H., (1), 137 

Ceratrimeria Incornis, (1), 137 

Cercaria (Furcocercaria) trichofurea'ta, (2), 
331 ; tatci, (2), 334 

Cercopids, Tube-building, Evans, J. W., (1), 

Chaetophyes compacta. (1), 72 

Chapman, F., On a New Genus of Sponges 
from the Cambrian of the Flinders Range, 
S. Aust., (1), 101 

Chenopodiaceae, (2), 371 

Chiton,; A New Flindorsian ; Weeding, B. J., 

Chortoicetes terminifera, (1), 76 

Cirolana woodjoncsi, vieta, (2), 288; corpu- 
lenta, (2), 289; valida, (2), 290 

Cloacina australis, communis, curta, frcquens, 
longelabiata, hydriformis, parva, obtusa 
vcstibulata, macropodis petrogale, (1), 
95, 97, (2), 367; dubia, wallabiae, (2), 
366 ; liebigi, inflata, expansa, longispicu- 
Iata, bancroftorum, thetides, magnipapil 
lata, commutus, robertsi, burnettiana, 
minor, crnabella, linstowi. dahli, gallardi, 
magna, s'milis, clegans, digitata, (2), 367 
Collembolan ; A new termitophilous ; from 
South Australia, Womersley, H>, (2), 330 
Compere, fit J A new species of Metaphycus 

(Encyrtidae) from Australia, (1), 46 
Conopomorpha, (1), 57 


( 'ontracaecum macquaric, (2), 343; murray- 

cnsc, spp., (2), 344 
Coronostrongvlus coronatus, (2), 365 
Cmrm affin.s, (2), 373, 374; uemula, neglecta, 

m.nor, pulcheha, Turnbullh, decumbens, 

(2). 374 
Cruciferae, (2), 373 
(rvptoplax: A New Fossil; (ram the PHo- 

c*m of S. Aust, Ashby, F., (2), 266 
Cryptoplax lubrookac, (2), 266 
Cuphoues, (1), 52; didymosiicha, thysanota, 

maculosa, (1), 53; holoteles, lithographa, 

k-cli-riotoma, niphadias, ( 1 ) , S3; habro- 

phanes, (1), 54 
Cyphosticha microta, pyrochroma, pandoxa, 

panconita, albomargmata 

icuca bvonoma 

( 1 ) T 55 
Cyclocoelum jaenschi : The Anatomy and Life 

History of the Trcmatode, (2), 273 
Cyclostrongylus gallardi, clelandi, dissimihs, 

wallabiae, (2), 365 
Cvperaccac, (2), 371 

Cypcrus sanguinolentus, Eragrostis, dacty- 
" lotes, (2), 371 

(1), 54; dia*- 
ostracodes, zophonata, 

Desmothrips; A Revision of the Genus; in 
Australia, Steele, If. Vevers, (2), 353 

Desmothrips australis, tenuicornis, propinquus, 
bagnalli, obsolctus, comparabilis, davidsoni, 
elegans, (2), 353 

Dipetalonema roemeri, (1) 100, (2) 36') ; 
capilliforme, robertsi, (2), 368; dendro- 
lagi, tenue, annuHpapiliatum spelaea, 
trichosuri, ranim, dasvuri, (2), 369 

Diplotriacna, (2), 359; alpha (2), 359; beta 
gamma, delta, cpsilon, (2), 360; zcia, (2), 

Dolichopera macalpini ; The Morphology and 
Life History of the Trematodc, Johnston, 
T. IT- and Angel. L. M., (2), 376 ^ 

Dolichopera macalpini, parvula, (2), 385 

.Dnlirhopcroidcs macalpini, (2), 385 

DoVichopcroidinae, (2), 385 

Kchinoncma cinctum, (2), 368 

Fpicephala, (1), 55; australis, albistriatella, 
ne.phclodes, stephanophora, eugonia, albi- 
frons, trigonophora, lomatographa, acro- 
baphes, colymbetella, frugicola, (1), 56; 
zalosticha, (1), 56; epimicta, (1), 57 

Kulimdana clava, (2), 361 

Eustrongylides qadopsis, (2) , 350 ; g ataxias, 
(2) 351 

Evaporation from a Water Surface in Rela- 
tion to Solar Evaporation, P-rescott, J. A., 

(1), 114 
Evans, J. W.. Tube -building Cercopids 
(Homoptera, Machaerotidae) , (1). 70 

Fenner, C, Australites, pt iv, The John 
Kennett Collection, with notes on Darwin 
Glass, Bediasites, etc., (2), 305 

Filaria (s.lj spy., (2), 361 

Filarial Parasites, Some; of Australian Birds, 

Johnston, T. IT, and Mawson, P. M., 1^2), 

Filariidae, (2), 364 

Filarinema flagrifer, peramelis, (2), 364 
Filarioidea, (2), 363, 364 
Finlayson, If. II., On Central Australian 

Mammals, pt. i, Muridae, (1), 125 
Flora of South Australia ; Additions to the, 

Black, J. M., (2L 371 

Geococcus Fiedleri, pusillus, (2), 373 

Globocephaloides affinis, macropodis, walla- 
biae. thetidis, (2), 365 

Glycine tabacina, (2), 373 

Gracilaria tessellata, ( 1 } , 65 ; chalchoptera, 
oetopunctata, ischiastns, loxocentra, lepi- 
della, albicincta, plagata, albispersa, 
chlorella, auchetidella, cirrhopis, eury- 
enema, crasiphila, iophanes, adcloscma, 
(1), 66; xylophanes, euglypta, panchrista, 
thiophylla, 1 paroxantha, xystophanes, 
cuxesta, pcrixesta, meg^alotis, crocostola, 
acglophanes, plagiotoma, aurora, ccphancs, 
peltophanes, scutigera, oenopella, Icuco- 
litha, pedina, ( 1 ), 67 

Gracilariidae, A Revision of the Australian, 
Turner, A. j., (1), 50 

Hallett Cove and District, Geology of, 
Segnit, R. W„ (1), 3 

Hale. If. M., Report on the Cymothoid 
Isopoda obtained by the F.I.S. "En- 
deavour" on the coasts of Queensland, 
New South Wales. Victoria, Tasmania 
and South Australia, (2), 288 

Hamatospiculum hoivcnse, (2), 355