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Full text of "Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, Incorporated"

VOL. 79 



MAY, 1956 









TRANSACTIONS OF 
THE ROYAL SOCIETY 
OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

INCORPORATED 



ADELAIDE 

PUBLISHED AND SOLD AT THE SOCIETY'S ROOMS 
KINTORE AVENUE, ADELAIDE 



Registered at the General Post Office, Adelaide, 
for transmission by post as a periodical. 






ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

INCORPORATED 



OFFICERS FOR 1955-1956 



Patron: 



HIS EXCELLENCY AIR VICE-MARSHAL SIR ROBERT GEORGE, 
K.C.V.O., K.B.E., C.B., M.C. 



President: 
C. G. STEPHENS, D.Sc. 



I. M. THOMAS, M.Sc, 



Vice-Presidents: 

R. V. SOUTHCOTT, M.B., B.S. 



Secretary: 
L. W. PARKIN, M.Sc., A.S.T.C. 



Treasurer: 
H. M. HALE, O.B.E. 



Editor: 
J. A. PRESCOTT, D.Sc, A.I.C., C.B.E., F.R.S. 



Librarian: 
N. B. TINDALE, B.Sc. 



Programme Secretary: 
S. J. EDMONDS, B.A., M.Sc. 



Members of Council: 

S. B. DICKINSON, M.Sc. 

I. G. SYMONS 

T. R. N. LOTHIAN, N.D.H. 

D. C. SWAN, M.Sc. 

A. R. ALDERMAN, D.Sc, Ph.D., F.G.S. 

C. M. DELAND, M.B., B.S. 



Auditors : 
F. M. ANGEL N. S. ANGEL 



THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF THE PLIOCENE STRATA UNDERLYING 

THE ADELAIDE PLAINS 
PART 111-SCAPHOPODA, POLYPLACOPHORA, GASTROPODA 

(HALIOTIDAE TO TORNIDAE) 

byN. H. Ludbrook 



Summary 

Part III of the study of the mullusca from borings into the Dry Creek Sands consists of a revision of 
the Scaphopoda, Polyplacophora, and the gastropod families from the Haliotidae to the Tornidae, 
i.e., the superfamilies Pleurotomariacea, Cocculinacea, Littorinacea, and Rissoacea. The 
nomenclature of 43 species has been revised and 17 new species have been described. The 
geological background and relationships of the fauna were discussed in Part I, published in the 
Transactions of the Society, 77, pp. 42-64, 1954. 



THE MOLLUSCAN FAUNA OF THE PLIOCENE STRATA UNDERLYING 

THE ADELAIDE PLAINS 

PART Jtl— SCAPHOPODA, POLYPLACOPHOR A, GASTROPODA 
(HALIOTIDAE TO TORNIDAE) 

by N. II. Luubkook.* 

[Read 1 i April 1955J 

SUMMARY 

Part )U of the study or. the moHusca from borings into the Dry Crock Sands consists 
of ft revision trf the Seaphopoda, Polyplacophoia, and the gastropod families from the 
HnlioLidae to the Tomiilae. i.e., the superfamilies Pleurot Mnanaeea, Coeeulinaeea, Litton- 
naeea, and Rissoat'L>a. The nomenclature of 43 species has been revised and 17 new species 
have been described. 

The geological background and relationships of the fauna were discussed- in Part I, 
published in the Transactions of the Society, 77, pp. 42-U4, 1954. 

INTRODUCTION 

As with the Pelecypoda (Part 2 of this series, published in vol. 78, 1955, 
pp. 18-87) diagnoses of species have been made, wherever possible, from the 
holotypes. Where these were not available, Dry Creek Sands examples have 
been used. Dimensions cited are those of the holotype r 

Abbreviations employed were listed in Part 2 — Pelecypoda. 

Class SCAPHOPODA Bronn. 1862 
Family DENTAL1IDAE Gray, 1847 
Genus Dentalium Linne, 1758 
Ucntalium Linne, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. 785. 

Type species (s.d, Montfort, 1S10) Dentalium elephant'mum Linne. 
Subgenus Dentai.utm s. str. 
(Paradcntalium. Cotton & Godfrey, 1933. S, Aost Nat., J4, (-1), p. 139.) 
Dentalium (Dentalium) latesulcatum Tate 
pi, 1, figs. 10-14. 

Dentalium eteprumtinum Linne. Tate. 1890, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 13, (2), p. 177. 

Dentalium actogonwn Lamarck. Tate, ibid. 

Dentalium .seetnm Dcshayes. Tate, ibid. 

Dentalium latcsuclatum (err. pro latesulcatum) Tate, 1899, Trans, Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 23, 

(2), p, 2o'2, pi S, fig. 9 (latesulcatum). 
Dentalium latcsul-catum Tate. Dcmiaut & Kitson, 1903, Ree, Geol. Surv. Vic, .!, (2), p. 138. 
Dentalium inierealatum Could, Howchin, 1936. Trans. Roy. Soc. §. Aust., 60, p. 16, 
Dentalium. interealalum aratum Tate. Howchin. ibid. 
Dentalium intereahtmn francisenw Verco. Howchin, ibid. 
Dentalium inlcrcahtum var. Howchin, ibid., p. 17. 
Dentalium en, Howchin, ibid. 
Dentalium [Paradcntalium) hitesuleatum 'fate, Cotton & Ludbrook, 193S. Trans. Rov. Soc. 

S. Aust., 62, (2). p. 224. 
Dentalium (Parade ntalium) howchini Cotton & Lndbrook, ibid. 
Dentalium (Para dentalium) howehmi Cotton tk Lndbrook. Ludbrook, 1941. Trans Hoy 

Roc. S. Aust., 65,. (1), p. 10L 

* Department of Mines, Adelaide. Published with the permission ol' the Director of Mines, 



Dentalium (Dentalium) howchini Cotton & Ludbrook. Ludbrook, 1954. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Aust, 77, p. 58. 

Diagnosis — Shell large, thick and solid, with 7 to 16 strong primary ribs 
approximately equal to interspaces in which secondary ribs are often developed 
by intercalation. 

Dimensions — Length 40, breadth 7 mm. 
Type Locality — Grange Burn, Hamilton, Victoria; Pliocene. 
Location of Holotype — Tate Mus. Coll. Univ. of Adelaide, T1610. 
Observations — Re-examination of the type material of Dentallum (Para- 
dentalium) Jiowchini Cotton & Ludbrook has failed to reveal to the writer any 
diagnostic characters to distinguish that species from Tate's latesidcatum of the 
Pliocene, Grange Burn near Hamilton, Victoria. The species carries an extremely 
variable number of primary ribs, original specimens having 9 to 12, while those 
from Abattoirs Bore (type of howchini) show a range of from 7 to 16, about 
12 being the most usual. In adult specimens the primary ribs may be broken 
by longitudinal grooves (pi. 1, fig. 10a). Ribs and interspaces are crossed to 
a greater or lesser extent by growth striae which are conspicuously developed 
in the interspaces. 

The degree of curvature of the shell is also somewhat inconstant. Shells 
retaining the juvenile apical portion appear to be more strongly curved than 
those which have lost it. The extent of variation in shell characters is illus- 
trated (pi. 1, figs. 10-14). 

The subgenus Paradentalium created by Cotton & Godfrey for D. bednalli 
Pilsbry & Sharp (incorrectly identified as D. intcrcalatum Gould) proves on 
examination of ample material in the British Museum to be a synonym of 
Dentaliu77i s. str. The general characters of Dentalium latcsulcatum are more 
closely related to those of the type species D. elephantinum than to those of 
any living southern Australian species. The resemblance between the present 
species and the Recent Indo-Pacific species was previously masked by the use 
of Paradentalium for the Pliocene shell. 

Material — Holotype and 6 paratypes of latesidcatum; holotype and numer- 
ous paratypes of howchini; 1 specimen Thebarton Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Pliocene. 

Geographical Distribution — Gippsland, Vic, to Adelaide, S. Aust. 

Subgenus Fissidentalium Fischer, 1885. 

Fissidentalium Fischer, 1885. Man. de Conch., p. 894. 
(Schizodentalium Sowerby, 1894. Proc. Mai. Soc. 1, p. 158.) 

Type species (monotypy) Dentalium ergasticum Fischer. 



Dentalium (Fissidentalium) mawsoni sp. nov. 

pi. 1, figs. 5, 6. 

Dentalium kicksii Nvst. Tenisou Woods, 1876. Proc. Roy. Soc. Tas. for 1875, p. 15. 

Entails mantelli Zittel. Tate, 1887. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 9, p. 190. 

Entalis mantelli Zittel. Tate & Dennant, 1893, id., 17, (1), p. 223. 

Entalis mantelli Zittel. Tate & Dcnnant, 1895, id., 19, (1), p. 112. 

Entalis mantelli Zittel. Pritchard, 1896. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic, 8, (n.s.), p. 126. 

Dentalium mantelli Zittel. Harris, 1897. Cat. Tert. Moll. Brit. Mus. (1), p. 293. 

Dentalium (Fissidentalium) mantelli Zittel. Tate, 1899. Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Aust., 23, (2), 

p, 261. 
Dentalium (Entalis) mantelli Zittel. Howchin, 1936, id., 59, pp. 74, 75. 
Dentalium (Fissidentalium) mantelli Zittel. Cotton & Ludbrook, 1938, id., 62, (2), p. 222. 

Diagnosis — Shell moderately large, generally thick, stout, almost straight. 
Sculpture of 23 fine longitudinal ribs at the apex, increasing in number to 50 
at the aperture. Ribs near apex narrower than or approximately equal to inter- 
spaces. Secondary ribs rise in interspaces. 



Description of Holotype — Shell of moderate size, fairly thick, stout, taper- 
ing, slightly curved near the apex then almost straight for the rest of the shell. 
Sculpture of 23 fine longitudinal ribs at the apex, with secondary ribs rising by 
intercalation between them at a distance of about 15 mm. from the apex; about 
50 ribs at the aperture. Longitudinal sculpture crossed and faintly tubercu- 
lated by numerous, crowded, transverse growth striae. Apex circular with a 
long, narrow fissure, aperture circular, peristome thin in holotype. 

Dimensions — Length 41-5, apical diameter 1, apertural diameter 4 mm. 

Paratype — A smaller specimen (pi. 1, fig. 6) showing curvature near apex. 
Length 38-5, diameter at aperture 3 mm. 

Type Locality — River Murray Cliffs (PMorgan), Miocene. 

Location of Types — Tate Mus. Coll. Univ. of Adelaide, F15139. 

Observations — Sufficient material is available in the British Museum for com- 
parisons to be made between Australian examples of so-called rnantelli from 
various localities and specimens of true rnantelli from Onekakara, N.Z., one of 
which may be the specimen figured by Mantell in 1850 (pL 28, fig. 15). There is 
no doubt of the close resemblance between the two. The Australian shells are, 
however, straighter than the one New Zealand shell which is sufficiently un- 
broken for the curvature to be determined. This is a large shell 70 mm. in 
length, with the apical portion (about 20 mm.) missing. The tendency in 
Australian examples is for any curvature to be developed near the apex and 
not over the shell generally. Sculpture is very similar in both species, ribbing 
in the New Zealand rnantelli being, on the whole, broader in relation to the 
interspaces. 

The species is represented in the Dry Creek Sands by 4 fragments from 
Weymouth's Bore; as more than one species may be listed under the name in 
the literature, its geographical distribution is here limited to those localities at 
which it is definitely known by the writer to occur. 

Material — Holotype and 5 paratypes "River Murray Cliffs" (PMorgan); 3 
paratypes Pliocene Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay; Tate Mus. Coll. Univ. of 
Adelaide. 3 fragments Weymouth's Bore, Mines Dept. Coll., 4 paratypes G9367, 
Lower Beds, Muddy Creek, Brit Mus. Coll. 

Stratigraphical Range — Tertiary, not accurately determined. 

Geographical Distribution — Muddy Creek, Victoria; South Australia. 

Subgenus Antalis Adams (H.) & Adams (A.) 

Atitdis H. & A. Adams, 1854. Gen. Rec. Moll., p. 45. 

(Entails Gray, 1847. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 158, non Sowerby, 1839.) 

{Entaliopsis, Newton & Harris, 1894. Proc. Malac. Soc, 1, (2) ? p. 66.) 

Type species (s.d. Pilsbry & Sharp, 1S97) Dentalimn entalis Linne. 

Dentalium (Antalis) denotatum sp. nov. 

pi. 1, figs. 7-9. 
Dentalium (Fissidentalium) hifrons Tate. Ludbroolc, 1941. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 
65, (1), p. 101. 

Diagnosis — A small, slender Antalis sculptured near the apex with about 
16 primary riblets with finer secondary threads developing by intercalation, all 
becoming obsolete in the apertural one-third. Shell moderately curved and 
gradually tapering. 

Description of Holotype — Shell small, slender, thin but solid, gently curved 
and gradually tapering; section rounded. Sculpture of 16 fine primary riblets 
at the apex and finer secondary threads in the interspaces. Sculpture becoming 
obsolete towards the aperture. Growth lines slightly oblique, stronger near 
the aperture. Apex small, thick, circular, with a small notch. Ajjertiire cir- 
cular, peristome thin, sharp. 

3 



Dimensions — Length 24, diameter at apex 1-4, diameter at aperture 2-9 
mm., arc 1 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Holotype — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F15140. 

Observations — Previously these small shells have been taken to be juveniles 
of the large D. bifrons Tate. The two, however, are distinct, the present species 
being a typical small Antalis, generally with a slight apical notch or supple- 
mentary pipe. DentaUum (Fissidentaliwn) bifrons was inadvertently included 
in the author's list (1954, p. 58). 

Material — Holotype, 2 figured paratypes and 12 paratypes, 8 fragments 
Abattoirs Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore. 

Family SIPHONODENTALIIDAE Simroth, 1894. 

Genus Siphonodentalium M. Sars, 1859. 

Siphonodentalium M. Sars, 1859. Forh. Vidensk.-Selks., 1858, p. 52. 

Type species (o.d. ) Dentaliuin lobatwn Sowerby (=S, vitreum Sars). 
Subgenus Pulseixtjm Stoliczka, 1868. 
PuheUum Stoliczka, 1868. Cret. Fauna S. India, 2, p. 441. 

Type species (s.d. Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897) S. lofotense M, Sars. 

Siphonodentalium (Pulsellum) adelaidense sp. nov. 

pi. 1, fig. 1. 

Diagnosis — Shell largest at the aperture, tapering at first rapidly and then 
very gradually towards the apex. 

Description of Holotype — Shell small, thin, smooth, shining, gently curving, 
tapering rapidly from posterior aperture for about one-third the length of the 
shell, thence gradually tapering to the apex. Aperture subcircular, widely open; 
apex entire, round, without slits. 

Dimensions — Length 6-4 mm.; diameter at aperture 1 mm.; diameter at 
apex 0-4 mm. 

Type Locality — Hindmarsh Bore, 450-487 feet; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Holotype — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F15141. 

Observations — This is the first record of the genus in southern Australia. 
It may escape notice on account of its possible resemblance to a Cadulus 
from which the anterior portion has been broken. In contrast with Cadulus, 
which is constricted at both the anterior and posterior openings, Siphonoden- 
talium is the largest at the aperture, which is generally widely opened. The 
genus has a wide distribution in Recent waters, mainly European, North Ameri- 
can, and Indo-Pacific, including Northern Australia, though apparently not in 
large numbers. 

Material — Holotype and 3 paratypes, Hindmarsh Bore; 1 paratype, Wey- 
mouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Hindmarsh and Weymouth's Bores. 

Genus Cadulus Philippi, 1844. 
Cadulus Philippi, 1844. Eniun. Moll. Sicil., 2. p. 209. 

Type species (monotypy) Dentaliuin ovulum Philippi. 
Subgenus Dischides Jeffreys, 1867. 
Dischides Jeffreys, 1867. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, 20, p. 251. 

Type species (o.d.) Cadulus politus S. V. Wood. 

Cadulus (Dischides) yatalensis sp. nov. 

pi. 1, figs. 3, 4. 
Cadulus mucmnatus Tate. Ludbrook, 1941. Trans. Roy. Soc. S, Aust., 65, (1), p. 101. 

4 



Diagnosis — Long and slender Dtsehides 1 not c<mspint<m.s1y swollen, curved 
auc! very gradually tapering at each end. 

Description of llolotype — Shell fairly small, solid, very slender* smooth, 
sinning, gently arcuate, more so on the ventral convex side than on the dorsal 
surface. Contraction towards the atiterior aperture only slight, over a length 
of about 1 mm.; contraction towards the posterior apex gradual, from 1 mm. to 
O.S mm. over a length of 3-5 mm. Aperture oblique, with a thin, sharp edge: 
apex small-, oblique, divided into 2 lobes by two lateral slits; the ventral lobe 
is larger, is conspicuously thickened and mucronately produced^ the dorsal 
lobe is smaller and not thickened within. 

Dimensions — Length 9-2 mm.; greatest diameter 1-6 mm.; diameter at 
aperture 1-4 mm,; diameter at apex 0'8 mm. 

Type Locality — Weymouth's Bore, 310-330 feet, Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of llolotijpe — Tate Mns. Coll.. Univ. of Adelaide, F15142. 

Observations — This is a larger, Joxrgcr, and much more blender species dian 
C. mucronatus or C. acuminatus. It is distinguished by these features, the usual 
absence oi swelling or bulge, and by the two apical slits. The two specimens 
(one figured, pi, 1, fig. 4), previously identified as C. mucronatus, arc a little 
less slender than the typical species. 

Material — Holotypc, 10 paratypes, 1 fragments Weymouth's Bore; ;? p;irn- 
types, 9 fragments Ilmdmarsh Bore; 2 paratypes Abattoirs Bore, 

StraUg/aphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Subgenus Gadila Gray, LS47. 
Cnelflo Oa>\ 1847. Proo. 7ooL Soc, p. 159. 

Type species (o.d.) Dentalium £adus Montagu. 

Cadulus (Gadila) acuminatus Tate 
pi. i, ii%. 2. 
Cadtrfu;- (u-umihutw; 'YaU-, 188/. Trans. Hov. Sot. S. Atist.. i), tt. .191. 
Cadulus {Gtidilu) venmiruitus l'att% JQfiML ia 33, (2), p. 266, pi. H, jgg. J 2. 
Cutluhix a< uminatm Desb. Dennunt & Kitsun, 1003. Ree. Geol. Siirv. Vic., 1, (2), u, l-|j 
Cmltihis acuminatus Tate Ludbruok. 1941. Trans. Roy. Snc. S. Aust., 65, (1), p. 101. 

Diagnosis — Very small, curved, gently tapering at both ends, not bulging, 
both aperture and apex circular. 

Dimensions — Length 6 mm.; diameter at about the middle 1 irinx; diameter 
of aperture 0-7-5 mm. 

Type Locality — Oyster Reds. Aldinga Bay, Pliocene, 

Location of hfolo type— -Tate Mus. Coll./ Univ. of Adelaide, No. T231. 

Material — Holntypes and 2 paratypes: 4 specimens Dry Creek Bore 320 feet. 
4 specimens Dry Creek Bore 340 feet; 2 specimens Abattoirs Bore 340 feet 

Strali^raphical Range — Pliocene of Aldinga Bay and Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Aldinga; Dry Creek, Abattoirs, and Tlindmarsh 
Kures, Adelaide^ S.A, 

Class POIAPLACOPHORA 

Order ClirTONTDA 

FainQy CflYF TOPLACl DAE 
Subfamily Acanthochitona Gray, 1821. 

\LMitthachitorut Cray, 1521. Lond. Med. Repos,, 15, p. 234. 
Acunihochitex Kkso," 1826. Hist. Wit Europe, 4, p. 268. 
Phakcllopleura Guilding. 1830. Zool, Joum., 5. (10), p. 28. 
Arantlumhitu^ PMIippi. 384-1 Anim. Moll. SiciL 2. p. S3. 
Aranthochiton TTerrrnannsen, 1846. Iml. Gen. Malic. 1, p. 2. 
J Hamachiton 4- PlQtijsemus M iddendorff. JS48. Mem. Acad, imp. Sci. St. Peter.sbourg, ser. 

6. 8. (2), pp. 97, 08. 
Stectaplax Dall, 1882. Ytoc. U.S. Nat. Mus. r 4, p, 284* 
Antsochiton P. Fischer, 1S85. Man. do Condi., p. 881. 



J'ypc Species (by rnouotypy) Chiton fasckuhris Lnme\ 
Subgenus Eoplax Ashby & Cotton. 1936. 
Eophix Ashby & Cotton, 1936. Ree. 5. Aust. Mas., 5, (4), p. olO, fig. 2. 

Acanthochitona (Koplax) adelaidae Ashby 6c Cotton 

Ar/mtlustkiton iEoplax) adfttikhic Ashby k Cotton, 1036. TUv . S- Amt. Mas. H 3 [4J, flgi 3. 
?:o|>M,v adchiifae Ashby tk Cotton, 1U36. Cotton & CncUrey. 1940, Moll. S. Au.sl.. 2_. p, 575. 
E<>l>lax adfluidna Ashbv & Cotton. Cotton 6c Weeding, HM1. Hoc. S. Amt. Mns., (», \i:, 
pp. 441 , 443. 

Diagnosis (front one rather worn median valve) — Valve cariuated. angle 
of divergence Ut)-\ Pleural and lateral areas inseparable, the tegmentum latei- 
ally much redueeel. Sculpture of pleural area terminating anteriorly at 1-5 mm. 
from the anterior margin of the dorsal area consists of longitudinal rows ut 
fiat triangular, scale-like granules, 

Insertion plates very broad, showing a strong calloused broad ridge com- 
mencing al the alii and ending on one bide of the tegmentum. 

Dimensions — Length 7 mm.; width 7-5 mm. 

Type Locality — Torronsville Bare, 190 feel; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Uolotype—S. Aust. Mus. Reg. No."l2SS2 (P.10150). 

Material — Ilolotype. 

St rat {graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Torronsvillc Bore. 4t)0 feet. 

Family CHITONIDAE. 
Subfamily Chitomxae. 
( rem is Chiton Linne, iTJEfe 
Cltit'jr, 1-hW, 175S, Syst, pfjjfc, vd t 10, p, 667- 

Type species (s.d. Children, 1823) Chiton squamosus Liune. 
Subgenus Anthochiton" J hiclc. ISMS. 
Authnrhititn Thiele, 1-S93, ift Troschcl Cebiss Schmvk, 2, p! :\17, 

Type species (monotypy) Chiton inlipa Quoy & Gaimard. 

Chiton (Anthochiton) rclalus Ashby &: Cotton 

Chiton ( Antltochiton) ttiptefaik nlata A&hln* & Cotton. J 036. Hcc. S. Au>l. Mils,. 5. 14), 

p. 3ffi>, n v. 1. 
Anthorhiton rehttus Ashby & Cotton, Cotton & Godfrey 1940. Moll. S. Anst., 2. p. 57*) 
Arithodiitvu retains Ashbv & Cotton. Cotton & Weeding, J 941. Rcc. S. Aust. Mns., 6. Utf. 

pp, 442, 444, 

Diagnosis (from one worn median valve) — Angle of divergence 80 ! . 
rioural area transverscd longitudinally by twelve shallow, broad grooves and 
corresponding ridges. Lateral areas with two strong, broad ribs, the anterior 
bifurcating each with 10 broad tubercles. Surface of teonientum on erosion 
perforated with numerous small pits, 

Dimensions — Length 3-5 mm.; width 6-5 mm. 

Type Localitif — Torrensville Bore. 190 feel*. Drv Creek Sands. 

location of Hnlotypc—S. Aust. Mus. Reg. No.' D. 12SS3 (P. 10157), 

Material — Ilolorype. 

Sirai (graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Torrensville Bore, Adelaide District. 

Subfamily Ckyftoplacixae. 
Cemts CnvPropLAx Blainville, 181 S. 

Cniptophx Blumvillc, 18.18. Diet. Sci. Nat., 12, jr. J21. 
iCJiitoncJIm Unnurek, 1819. A mm. r. von., 6. (1), p, 317.) 
Wticabt&fa Partington, [&1X iiriC Cvclop. Kid. Hi*t., 2, (UL v.. M.) 
(ChUoniscu? Herrmunnsen. iSffi. hid. Gen. Mulac, 1, p. 230, ) 

Type srjecics (s.d. llerrmaunsen. 1852) Chiton lurvMeformis Bnrrow. 



Cryptoplax ludbrookae Ashby 

Cnjptoplax Uidhrookac Asliby, J 940. Trans. Hoy. Sol-. S. Aust, 64, (2), p. 266. te\t-fk. 
Crijptoplax kulbmokae Asliby. Cotton & Godfrey, J 040. Moll. S. Ausl., 2, p. 575, 
Cn/))it)plux ludbvookac Ashby. Cotton & Weeding, 1941. Hoc. S; Aus't. Mik., fi J (4). pp. 
442, 444. 

Diagnosis (from one head valve)— Sculpture of tegmentum consisting oi 
granules somewhat irregularly arranged in longitudinal rows; beak overhanging, 
almost smooth to subgranular, granules near to the apex circular and sub- 
rounded, increasing in size, anteriorly flattened, elliptical or oblong in Lhe central 
anterior portion. 

Insertion plate extending well forward beyond the tegmentum for one-third 
length of tegmentum. 

Dimensions — Length 1-2 mm.; width 1-3 mm. 

Ttfpc Localittf — Hoklcns Motor Body Works Bore. Woodville, Adelaide 
District, 335-380 feet; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Hohtypc — S. Aust. Mus. Reg. No. P. 4285. 

Material — Holotype. 

Stratigrajrfiical Range — Dry Creek Sands, 

Geographical Distribution*— -Holders Motor Body Works Bore 3 Woodville, 

Class GASTROPODA 

Subclass PROSOBRANCHIA. 

Order ARCHAEOGASTROPODA 

S uperf a » nil y PLEUfl OTO M A R 1 ACE A 

Family IIALIOTIDAE. 

Genus Haujotis Eiune, 175S. 

llaliolis Lirmc, 1758. Syst Nat, cd. 10. p. 779. 

(Tchioth H. & A. Adorns, 1854. Gen. Rec, Moll. L p. 442.. I 

(Tinolis P. Fischer, 1385. Man, Condi., p. 815.) 

Type species (s,d, Montfort 1S10) Ualiotis asinina Einne. 
Subgenus Notohaliotis Cotton & Godfrey, 1933, 
XntohttliidiH Cotton & Godfrey, 1033. S\A. Nat., 15, (1), p. 16. 

Type species (o.d.) H. naevow Martyn — Haliolh ruber Leach. 

llaliolis (Notohaliotis) naevosoides McCoy 

Ualiotis nuavosohtex McCoy, 1876. Prod. Pal. Vict,, 3, p. 27, pi. 2f>, %fc 1, 2u. 
Ualiatte nwrosoldes \k-Coy, R. E$eridge a Jr., 1S7S. Ciit Aust Foss., p, Ifvf 
Ualiotis nuevowides McCoy, Harris, 1897. Cat. Tert. Moll. Brit. Mus., p. 2&3. 
Ihdinth iUu'OftsoidFx McCoy, Dormant & Kit-son, 100.3. Tier, Oeol. Sun. Vic, X, (-1, pp. 
117. \SH, 

Diagnosis — Suborbieidar, depressed, whorls flattened between the suture 
and perforations. Upper surface with radiating ridges extending a little more 
than halfway between the suture and the perforations, about 12-14 mm. long 
with adult whorls, somewhat concave towards the aperture. Perforations about 
tmv per radial about 5 mm. apart. Spiral striae thick, about 1 mm. apart. 

Type Locality — Flemingtnn, Melbourne. 

Location of Holotype — Geological Survey, Victoria Coll. 

Material — 8 topotypes. 3 specimens Mayues Quarry, Vitv B.M. Coll 1 
juvenile Abattoirs Bore, 

Observations — The identification of this species is doubtful. 

Strati graphical Range — Not accurately known. 

Geographical Distribution — Melbourne. Victoria; Adelaide, S.A. 

Family FISSUKELLIDAE 

Subfamily EAfARGiNUUNAK. 
Genus Emakgjncla Lamarck, 1801. 

Kmurgintila Lumurek, 1801. Svst. Anim. S. Vert, p. 69. 
( Rmnrfzinuhi* Morrtf'orr, 1 Si 0,. Conch. Syst-, 2, j). 75 * 



itf\n"i:itntla Gffljr, iwi. Lond. Me<L Kepos., p t 533*,) 

Type species (monotypy) E. conica — Pafc.tla fisMttv Limn-, 

Ernargmida didactica sp. now 
pl 2, fig; £ 

Emartiimtla nmdula A. Adams. Tate, 1890a. Trans. Roy. Soc. S, Aust, 13, (2), p t 177. . 
J.Htarghittlu Candida A. Adums. DcTinaiit A Kitson, 1903. Hue. Gcol. Sur\, Vic.. 1, (2). 

p. MS. 
Etiuir^bnda Candida Adam*. Ludbrook, 1941. Trans. Roy. Sop. S. Aust. 3 65. (1), p. 100. 

Diagnosis — Shell small, elliptical, depressed posteriorly, strongly convex 
anteiiorly, fairly high. Apex at posterior one-fifth, elevated, protoconch smooth, 
recurved posteriorly. Sculpture of about 14 primary radial rihlets between 
which are secondary ribs of varying strength, crossed by about 16 concentric* 
producing a clathrate ornament Slit iascioie situated between two ridges, 
callus formed of concave lamellae, 

Description of HoJotype — Shell elongate elliptical, conical, apex at posterior 
oue-fil'tli; protoconcU smooth, recurved posteriorly; sculptured with 14 primary 
radiating ribs, scaly, imbricating with secondary ribs between particularly at 
posterior end, crossed by about 16 eoneentries, producing a clathrate sculpture. 
Slit faseiule between two ridges; callus of distinct concave lamellae. 

Dimensions— Length 5; maximum width 3; altitude 2-5; length of aperture 
0*0 mm. 

Tifpe Locality — Abattoirs Bore. Adelaide, S. Aust; Dry Creole Sands. 

Location of Types—Tiite Mus. Coll., Univ, Adelaide, F 15113. 

Material — Ilolotypc, portion of one paratype. Abattoirs Bore; 2 paratypes. 
Miuduuosh Hon-. 

Observations — This species, previously referred to the Heccnl K. Candida 
hits now been compared with the holutype of that species, The fossil species 
is narrower -than Candida; it is more coarsely sculptured* having only 14 radial 
ribs as against 20 in Candida. The apex is nearer the posterior margin and the 
fissure is lamellosc. not marked by a strong rib as in Candida. Its nearest tossd 
allv is E. denttanli, which is wider, and has 24 primary radials. 

Siraliguiphical liange — Dry Creole Sands. 

CcOgnqdneal Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Emargimda delicatissixna Chapman & Gabriel 

luruttgiotdu dclicatksima Chapman & Gabriel, 1923. Proc. Rov. Sou. Vie.. 36 (ii.O. { 1 ). 

p. 20, pl. 1, Jigs. 11, 12; pl. 3, figs. 30, 31. 
Emm^intda tlcHcatimima Chapman & Gabriel. Ludbrook, 1911. Tni.is. Rov. Soc, S. Aust.. 

ti5. ( ! ) i p. 100. 
liinurginulu dclicatissima Cfutprmm & Gabriel. Crespin, 1943'. Min. lies. Saw. Bull, f), p. 96. 

Diagnosis — Elongate-ovate, depressed, apex close to posterior margin; sculp- 
ture fine and eancellate, with numerous radial costae crossed by delicate con- 
centric threads. Slit fasciolc sulcata, base flat 

Dimension* — Length 10 -IS; v\ idth 6; height 5*25; length of slit 3*5 mm. 

Type Locality — Balcombc Bay, Victoria; Ikdeombian. 

Location of H olotype— D^xwwiUi Collection. National Museum, Melbourne. 

Observations — This species was present in Abattoirs Bore material and com- 
pared with authentic specimens from Victoria in the Commonwealth Collection. 
It has not been recorded elsewhere in South Australia. 

Material — 3 specimens, Abattoirs Bore. 

Strut (graphical Range — ? Oligoccne-Fliocene, 

Geographical Dtetriliution — Gippsland, Vic; Adelaide. S. Aust. 

Emarginula dennanti Chapman 5c Gabriel 

Emargmtdti dennanti Chapman & Gabriel, 1923. Proc. IRoy. Soc. Vic. 36 (n.s. ). ( 1 ) % p. 27. 
pl. I. figs. 13, 14; pl. 3, fipr. 32, 



F.Hiurginulu dcutianti Cliupmun & ( •abuVl. LmlbtotA, 19 II. Trans. Hoy. Soe. S. Ami., 

65,. (1), p. 100- 
F.warg'mvla dcunantl Chapman & Gabriel. Crespin, 1943. Min. !$<£, Surv. Bull. 9. p, 97. 

Diagnosis — Large, elongate-ovate, fairly low, upcx about oue-tbird from 
posterior margin. Sculptured with about 24 primary radial ribs, between which 
are secondary and fainter tertiary ribs. tfadials crossed by undulating and 
bimclluse concentric ridges, producing a tegulate appearance. Slit fasciole 
snlcate, base flat. 

Dimensions — Length 20 5; width 11*75; height 9-75; length uf slit 5-25 mm. 

Type Locality — dice's Creek : Victoria. 

Location of Hololype — J. F. Bailey Collection. 

Material — 2 specimens. Abattoirs Bore. 

Strati%w}>hkri1 Range — ? Oligoceiie-Pliocene. 

Geographical DUtrthulion — Gippslauct VfUij Adelaide, S. Ami:, 

Emargiruila dilatoria sp. nov. 
pb 2, fig, 3. 

Diagnosis -Shell small, elongate- ovate, apex high, subposterior. Sculpture 
fitlfc, of 20 primary ribs radiating from apical area, and as many secondary ribs 
of var>ing strength, some, as strong as the primary ribs near the margin, crossed 
by concert tries and granulate at intersections. Slit fasciole between 2 sharp 
ridges, callus formed of concave lamellae. 

Description of Holotype— Shell small, thin, fragile, ovate-conical, high. 
Apex inflated, elevated, strongly incurved, directed posteriorly and situated near 
posterior margin. Surface convex anteriorly, concave posteriorly. Sculpture 
of 20 primary radiating riblets from apical area to base, and as many secondary 
ribs of varying strength, some attaining equal strength with the primaries near 
the margin. Concentric sculpture less strong than radial, radials gemmulosc at 
junction of concentrics. Slit scarcely differentiated from sculpture, fasciole be- 
tween 2 shavp ridges, callus formed of concave lamellae, defined internally by 
a narrow channel with high, smooth, raised edges. Inner margin denticulate 
at position of rib. 

Dimensiotis — Length (estimated) 6; width 4; height 3 mm. 

Type Locality — Hindmarsh Bore, Adelaide, 450-487 feet; Drv Cree"k Sumls 

Location of Holotype— Tuto Mns. Coll., Yniv. of Adelaide.' F 151 I I 

Material — Holotype (imperfect); one paratypc, broken, 

St rut igrap ideal Range — -Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Hindmarsh Bore, Adelaide. 

Genus TuGALr Gray, 1343. 

Tugali Cray, 1843 (in OMfenbiieh}. Fauna New ZeaL. % p. 240 

tVttgulia Grav, 1857 (emend.). Guide Syst. Distr. Moll. Bril. Mus,., I, u lf.V; 

Type species (monotypy) Tu^ali clcgan.s Gray. 

Tugali cicalricosa A Adams 
Tutfah cicatricosa A. Adams, IS3I Vruc. Zoul. Soc. p. 89. 
iugtdi civatrk'uisa Adams. Ludbrook, 1941. Trans. Koy. Sov, i>. Ausl., 65, (1), p 100. 

Diagnosis — Elongate-ova tc, much depressed and expanding posteriorly, 
narrowing anteriorly, protoconeh at about one-quarter from the posterior margin. 
Lateral margins straight, Surface coarsely decussated with radial riblets arid 
concentric lines. Anterior margin notched. 

Dimensions — Length 20; diameter at position of apex 11; apex-posterior 
margin 4 mm. 

Type Locality — Port Lincoln (erroneously ascribed to Philippines in original 
description and on tablet containing type in British Museum); Recent 

Location of Holotype — British Museum (Natural HistorvL 



Observations — The holotype is n young shell, erroneously ascribed to the 
Philippines. It is* identical with examples of the same si/e from South Australia 
in the British Museum. 

Material — llolotype: o examples, Adelaide, S AusL; 6 examples. Port Lin- 
coln. S Aust. 

Stratiumplneal Riutgt: — Dry Creek Sand* — Recent. 

Geographical Disiril.nttion—Y'ietoriii and Tasmania to south coast oi 
Western Australia. 

Tugali infortunata Ludhrook 

Tu&ili iuj'ortintattnn Lvutlnvok, 104!, Tr.ms. Hoy. jStae. S. Atist, G5, (1), p. H2. pi. 1, lic r . 1. 

Piaiinosix—Yvvy small, ovate-oblong, low. Apex at posterior one-quarter. 
Sculpture of about 40 primary radials with faint secondary radials between 
Concentrics fine, numerous-, less prominent than radials. Anteriorly sinuate, 
sinus ma iked exteriorly by a thickened anterior rib, with a corresponding lYiinl 
canal within. 

Dimensions — Length 4-2; breadth --5: height 1*0 mm. 

Type Localilo— Abattoirs Rore. Adelaide, S. Aust: Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of ilololype — Tate Mus. Coll.. Univ. or Adelaide. T 1-638, 

Material — Puratypo. Abattoirs Bore: 1 .specimen WeymontlVs Bore. 

Slmtie/apliieal Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Tugali nota Cotton 
Timtha urta Cotton, 1U1T. iter. S. Ausl. Mus... «. (D, v 6&3, jpL 2L Qg$. 1 L, & 

Diatinom — Large, elongate-o\ate. high. Apex at posterior third. Sculp- 
ture of about 20 primary radials with 2 or more secondary radials between. 
Concentric riblets of equal strength- giving hue and regular fenestrate; paltom. 

D/mem/ons— Length. 19: breadth 11; height 5 mm. 

Tij}>e Locality — Abattoirs Rore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Uulottjpc—S. Aust. Mus. P. 8361.' 

.Urt/rnu/— Ilolotype, 

Strati^rajihical Ratine — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Dislrihitlion — Abattoirs I tore, Adelaide. 

Subfamily Fissvi*ellixal\ 

Genus AMULYCinir.rAs PiJsbry, 1S90, 

Ambh/clulrpte Pilsbry, 1S90. Urn. Condi., 12, *>• WA 

{^phismiik'pus Iredale, 11)24. Pw. Linn Snr- NSW., 40, (Jl-Jv I$T, P- 31 W 

Type species (o.d.) Fhws-nrclla trapezina Sowerhy — F. javtmiecnm Lamarck. 

Amblychilepas uera (Col ton) 

Soi'iii-smulcpas ni^Hta Sowerhy. Lndbrook, 1911. Trans. K*»y. SOc, S. AnM-. JJ§, (i.i. p, lOli. 
SophismftteiHit (taw Cotton, li)t7. Ret\ S. Ami, JVTuk., 8,. (4;, p. un\>, nl 20, hys. I, £ 

LUa&no&is- — Elongate-ovate, sides nol parallel but converging somewhat 
anteriorly. Shell fairly high near dorsal orifice, but depressed towards margin- 
elevated' ±tt each end. Sculpture of numerous fine bifurcating radial threads. 
Orifiefc onc-qnarter length of shell. 

Pimcmions — Length 14; breadth 9; height 3 mm. 

Typr Localittj — Salisbury Bore, 33Q feet; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Hololype — Tnte Mas. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1729. 

Observations — The Recent species, nigrila Sowerhy,, has been recorded 
(Chapman k Gabriel 1923. p. 37) from the Miocene of the Murray Cliffs 
near Morgan and the Kalimnau of Muddy Creek, Victoria. The latter occiu- 
rence is here confirmed from examination of specimens in the British Museum. 
Dry Creek Sands examples are not nigriUl, although they were formerly identi- 

Hl 



fied as Mich. Compared with t>pe material of ui»rita in the Hritish Museum, 
the present species is more elevated In die centre towards the dorsal aperture, 
and more flattened to ciiinr;i\o towards the margin. The sides are not parallel, 
The sculpture is of bifurcating threads rather than intercalating riblets. The 
interior of the apertural iiuti^in in the Ilindmarsh Bore specimen (a vonny 
.shell ) is not thickened and is inclined to be frilled. Compared with ni^rit'a, the 
dorsal aperture is smaller in relation to the total length; in nigrita it is 1 : 3, in 
acra 1 : between 4 and 5. 

In introducing the generic name Sopldsmalepas for nigrita, Iredale (1921, 
p. 219) has drawn distinction between his genus and both Lticajjinclla and 
Mczalchcmitis. He does not give auy diagnostic difference between Hoplth- 
malcpas :and Ambbj chile pas, proposed by Pifsbry as a section of Mc^atchrvnm 
with the Australian shell facaniccn.m Lamarck as type species, and including 
neurit a. As there is no recognizable generic difference between nigrifn and 
javanieaisis. Soplri.sMaJcpas must he regarded as a synonym of AmJ>Itjt hihpas. 

Cotton & Godfrey (|93t, pp. 47-50) have used AmblychHepa^ for jmatii- 
ccmis and omicron and Suphismalcpav for ni^rlta and oblmpj,a, quoting Jredale 
to differentiate the <jenus Sop)iismalc\ws. According to the definitions they iftvtS 
of the two "genera" the oulv difference between them is that '\utbhjc!ulc}>ax 
is saddle-shnped and So phis male pas oblong-oval. This can hardly be a tfeuerio 
feature as the ratio lentfth-hreudth of the 4 species can be arranged in 'series. 
In javtihhensix the ratio is 1*2-5; in oinicron 1-0; in nigrita 1-47: innblonga M), 
The present species,, acra, with ratio 1-56 is a further link in the series' The 
shape must, therefore, be disregarded as diagnostic, particularly m view of the 
fact that iktgjrit& is closer in the series to javameensix than it lVtu oblonga, 

iUrt/e.Wrtf—SpecJmcn from FItnduiarsh Bore, 450-487 foot. 

^tratii^vaph'ual Ran^e — Dry Creek Sands. 

Centra pit teat Distribution -Adelaide District, S. Aust. 

Family tt^ftFrMffi,"! 

Subfamily Mahgakuinak 
Genus Eucheiavs Pbilippi, 1847, 

Kurhdtis rinlippi, 1847. Zcib*ch s f. MiilaWool., Feb., y>. 20, 
Type -species (s.d. Herrmannscu, hS47) Twchus cfuaibicnrinuhts Chemni!/. - 

a i rains Cnrelin. 

Subgenus lirjimivropoAtA Pilsbrv, ISS9. 
Harpctepoma PiUhty, ISSil in Tnon, Man. Conch., II; p ( m. 

Type species (tub) Euehehts scahr'uiscuhis Adams & Angas. 

Euchelus (Uerpetopoma) pliocenicns (Liidbrook) 
Ivitdirhi* hpccMtf* Ciutpumn ik Gabriel, 1914 (ntm XfcnfcflJ, Priw, Koy. Sac. Vic '2C t&X.'k 
(2). p 310. ' ' ' " 

Unrpct*>pnma ph'ovvnicu Lurlhroolc, 1911. Trans. Ro>, Stx\ ,S. Ausl., 05, (1), n. 87, foL 4. 

tt'4; 18. 

Pfotyrtmft — Small, thin, proloconch of jAj flatly convex anally Urate turns, 
adult whorls 4, sculptured with equidistant, granulose. spirals, increasing by 
intercalation from 3 on the post-embryonic whorl to 9 on the penultimate whorl; 
13 on bod}-' whorl from suture to umbilicus. Interspaces wider than ribs, with 
line, regular a vial threads. 

Dimensions — Height 9; diameter 7 imu. 

Type Loealit ?/— Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide Drv Creek Sands. 

Location of IIolotypc—Tiite Mrs, CoIL Univ.' of AdoUi ule, T16-11. 

Material — S paratypes, Abattoirs Bore; | specimens, Weymouth's Here: 2 
Inuken specimens. Hindmarsh Bore, 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

W Most of the sj)ecics in this family were figured m 1911, this Journal. 95, I 1), rife 4. R. 

II 



Subfamily CAixiosroMtrtfAK. 

Genus Calliostoma Swamson, 1840. 

CullU^loma Swwnson, 1S40. Treat. Malac., p. 351. 

ColiU^timia Swainson. Werwt, 1938. HanJb. Pal Gast. 2, p. 2H1 (synonymy I 

Type species (s.tL Herrmannscn, 1846) Trochus conulus Linne. 
Subgenus LAETitfAirron Iredale, 1929. 
Ijwtifuutor liedale, 1029. Mem. Qld. Mus„ 9, (3), p. 271. 

Type species (end.) Calliostoma trepidum Hcdlcy = deceptum Smith, 

Calliostoma (Laetifautor) obliquicancellatum (Ludbrook) 
}Mti,ifinttur ubliquiamceltatuf Ludbrook, 1941. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 65, (|), p» S1 T 
pi. 4. fig. 7. 

Diagnosis — Frotoconch smooth, high, of one-and-a-half turns. Whurls flat, 
periphery angular. Sculpture fairly regular, of 5 to 7 strong, granulate lirac 
per whorl, crossed by equal, sharp axial ridges, producing an obliquely rhomhie 
cancellation with granules at the intersections. Rase flat with 10 granular 
spirals and close radials. 

Dimensions — Height (estimated) 8; diameter 6 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Uolohjpc — Tate Mus. Coll, Uiiiv, of Adelaide, T1658. 

Observations — Hypotypc from Weymouth's Bore has the early whorls com- 
plete; the protueoneh is elevated and small, of one-and-a-half turns. 

\laterial — 6" paratvpos (broken). Abattoirs Bore; 1 hypotype, Weymouth's 
Bflrfe 

Strati graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District S. Aust. 

Calhostoma (T.actifuutor) spirnearinatuin (Ludbrook) 
Lactijautur spinicarwatus Lmlhrook, 1911. Trans. Hoy. Shc S. Au&l., 65, (t) : p. 81, pi, 1, 
fig. 8. 

Diagnosis— Broadly conical: 4 adult whorls slightly concave, anteriorly 
i arinate. Three strong spiral lirae on the posterior half of the whorl two keels 
on the anterior half, each surmounted by two or three crowded lirae, those 
on the keel nearer the suturt\ equal, those on the further keel unequal kee! 
nearer suture weaker than further keel. 

Spirals crossed by oblique axials; intersections sharply granulose. 

Dimensions — Height 5-5; diameter 4-8 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore. Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of ifolotypc— Taie Mus. ColL Univ. of Adelaide, T1652. 

Material — 7 paratypes, 

Straligraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Disfrilnition — Abattoirs Bore„ Adelaide, 

Calliostoma (Lactifautor) erebrinotlnlnsnm (Ludbrook) 
Laetifauloy cretn'inndukmix Lutlbrook, 1941. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 65, (I), p. bo, 
pi. 4 3 S$ i>- 

Diagnosis — Small, conical, rather high, stout. Adult whorls 6 y slightly 
convex, sculptured with strong spirals increasing by intercalation to four primary 
and three secondary on the body whorl crossed by regular oblique axials, 20 
on the penultimate whorl. Granular at intersections. Base convex, with seven 
spirals equal to interspaces, crossed by numerous fine radials. 

Dimensions — Height 7-9; diameter 6 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of ilolotype—i'tfe Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1653. 

Material — Holotypc; 1 paratype. 



Stratigraphical Range— Dry Creek Sands. 
Geographical Distribution— Abattoirs' Bore, Adelaide. 

Calliostoma (Laetifaulor) bicarinatum (Ludbrook) 

Luetifautor bicaritwtus Lndhrook, 1941, Tnms. flov. Soc. S. Aust 65 ( 1) » 85 t>| t 

fc*. 13. " £ l ' 

UtvHfautor hicarinalus Ludbrook. Crespin, 19i3. Min. Res. Sury. Bull. 9. p. 97. 

Diagnosis— SmA\> falsely perforate. Protoconch very small, adult whorls (i, 
with a strong peripheral cord above the suture supporting 4 beaded lirae; above 
this a narrow headed eord and then 4 strong beaded lirae on the posterior 
portion of the whorl. Oblique axial lirae i^ early whorls, becoming obsolete in 
penultimate and body whorls. Base Hat, with 8 equal spiral lirae equal to the 
interspaces. 

Dimensions— Height 6-5; diameter 4-8 mm. 

Type Locality— Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Drv Creek Sands. 

Local ion of Ilnlohjpe—T&te Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1G32. 

Observations — This is the most common species of the subgenus Laetifaulor 
m the Dry Creek Sands. It has also been recorded (Crespin, 1048 p 97) from 
the Kaliinuau of Gippsland. 

Material— -9 pa ru types, Abattoirs Bore; 5 specimens. Wevmouth's Bore- 7 
specimens, Hindmarsh Bore. 

Stratigraphical Ratios— Kalimuan-Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution— Gippsland, Vic-; Adelaide, S, \ust 

Cenus Astkle Swainson, 1855, 
Astele Swainson, 1855. Proc. Roy, Sue T.ts. 3, (1) : fi. 38. 

Type species (monotypy) Astele siibcarinalum Swainson. 
Subgenus Astixe s. str. 

Astele (Astele) fanaticum Ludbrook 
Aslvlv fnnntwum Ludl.rook, 1941. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 65, (1), p. SO, pi. \. fiu. ft 

Diagnosis— Depressed conical, whorls sloping and angular, somewhat con- 
cave. Adult whorls three, flattened beneath the suture in an almost horizontal 
narrow plane, then steeply sloping for the rest of the whorl. Periphery carinate 
SeuipUue of fine, equal spiral threads, four on the infra-sutural plane, nine on 
the oblique portion of the. whorl, 14 on tli- base of the bodv whorl Interstices 
with very fine axial threads. 

Dimcmiom — Height fi-1; diameter 7-0 mm. 

Type Locality— Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ, of Adelaide 11650 

Material— Hole type T1650, 4 paratypes and 3 fragments. Abattoir lloro 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Crock Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide, S, Aust. 
Subgenus Pui.caiaAsiKLE Iredale 1029 
Ptitltfmtelc Iredale, 1929 Mem. QUI. Mus., H, (.3), p. 271, 

Type species (u.d.) Astele septcnarium Vlelvill & Stauden. 



h . . AsteJc (Pulcfarastcle) planiconicum (Ludbrook) 

Pukhrastcfo planiconicum Ludbrook, 1041. Turns, floy. Soc. S. Aust.. 65, (I), p . 8f>. pi. 5. 

Diagnosis— Narrowly conical, whorls flattened, Protoconch of two turns- 
SIX adult whorls each bearing above the suture a strong peripheral cord sup- 
porting beaded lirae increasing to five on the cord of the body whorl Above 
the cord lirae increasing by intercalation to five on the bodv whorl Spirals 
crossed by numerous strong axials. Base with 11 primary' 'and one or two 
taint secondary spirals, granulosa near the umbilicus, and numerous faint radials 



Dimensions — Height S; diameter 5*5 turn. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Uoie\ Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Holotype — Tate Mus, Coll., Univ. of Adelaide. TlfiuU 

A/aferfae—Tlolorype. 

Strattgraplucal Bange — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore. Adelaide, S. Aust. 

Astclc (Pulchraslelc) tuberculatum (Lndbruok) 

PtdcJiuibWlc tuberculatum LiKibrouk, XM4T. Trans fiqjfj Son. S. Aust, 65, (L; T », BO, pi T 

Diastasis — Broadly conical. Protoconch very small, flattened, of one-and- 
a-half hints adult whorls five, \VJth a thick cord supporting four small tubcr- 
culate lirae at the periphery. Tubercles continuous over the cord. Three 
narrow spirals with small prominent tubercles above the cord. Aperture small, 
rhombic. Rase Hat with eight strong spirals^ the umbilical ol : which are tuher- 
culate 

Dimensions — Height 4-8; diameter 4-5 nun. 

TfjpV Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Localion of Ualohjpe — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T.I636. 

Material — tive paratypes, several lia^meuK Abattoirs Bore. 

SttaU'^rajihiraJ Viangc — Dry Creek Sands. 

(rco^t'fij)hical Di.slrihulion — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Subfamily Monoooxtix \iu. 
Genus CAKriiAnmus Montfort, 1SI0. 

Cti)tiiutii(ii>> Mnnll'ort, J 810. Coach. SvsC, 2 : n. 250. 

Crntthiirulus MoiiUWi. Wuiv., ffftift Huntib. VrA. Cast., 2, p. ,302 (synmnniy). 

Type species (monotypy) Cantharidas- irte ~ Trochus tf&t Gineiiu, 

Subgenus FliAstANoruocuas J\ Fischer. 1SS5, 
I'hti-Cumohvchiii V. Fim'Ih-i-, LS8o. Man. c!c Conch., p. SID. 

Type species (monotypy) Trochus hadim Wood. 

Canlharidus (Phasianotrochus) laxegeirmiatus (Ludbronk) 
rh(i.\iitnotu>ihn.s laxcgcinmatus LiuJhrook, 10 it. Trans. Ko\'. Sol*. .8. Aual., 03, (1), p. $.'k 
pi. I, fe. 4. 

Diagnosis — Very small, acutely conical at opc\. protoeouch of one-and-a- 
half convex turns. Adult whorls with a strong peripheral lirate cord above the 
suture with prominent, widely spaced lubercles, Fi\e equal spiral lirac\ broader 
than inlerstices, above tlie cord crossed by numerous crowded axials. Base 1 
convex wilb 11 equal spiral lirae and numerous radial striae. 

Dimensions — Height 4-6; diameter :l-7 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Boie. Adelaide:; Div Creek Sands, 

Localion of Jtolo(ype—[\ito Mus. Coll,' Univ. of Adelaide, TI662. 

Malcriat — 1 1 para types. Abattoirs Bore: two examples, Weymouth.-, Bore. 

^trati^raphkal Rantze — Dry Creek Sands. 

Gcoiirnphical Distrilyntion — .Abattoirs and Weymouth's Bores. Adelaide. 

Canihaiidus (Phasiauotrochus) subs implex (Ludbiook) 

Phasiunot melius suln-lmplcx T.ndbronk, 1U4). Xstiftft Kay. Soc. S. Anst, 05. (1). p. N3, 
pi. 4, fig. 10. 

DiagJiosi* — SmalL thin, narrowly conical, protoconch flattened, of two-and- 
a-half buns; whorls only slightly convex, suture linear. Sculpture fine, of numer- 
ous crowded microscopic spiral and oblique axial striae. Base slightly convex, 
with 12 spiral striae and faint oblique axials. 

Dimensions — Height 4-8; diameter 3-7 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide: Dry Creek Sands. 

14 



Location oj Hololype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1G63. 
Material — Eight paratvpes, Abattoirs Bore; two examples, Ilindmarsh Bore; 
two examples, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigmphieal Range — Dry Creek Sands. 
Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District, S. Aust. 

Genus Thalotxa Gray, 1S47. 

Thalotki Cray, .1S47. Pro<\ Zool. Sot\. 15, p. 145. 

Type .species (e.d.) Trochtis pictus W. Wood — Monodonta conica Gray. 

Subgenus Caltiialotia Ircdalc, 1929. 
CaUhalotia Irechile, 1929. Mem. Qld. Mas^ % (3), p. 271, 

Type species (e.d.) Trochtis arruenste Watson. 

Thalotia (Calthalolia) nitidissima (Ludbrook) 
CitUJialutiu nitidissirna Ludbrook, 1941. Trans, Hoy. Sue. S. Aust., 65, ( I), p. 83, pi. -1, fig. 11. 

Diagnosis — Small but solid, imperforate, conical. Adult whorls five, with 
strong, even granulose spirals increasing from three on the first to seven on 
the body whorl. Interstices with oblique axial lirac increasing in number to- 
wards die last whorl. Oblique cancellation in the early whorls, strong and 
regular granulation on the body whorl. Base convex, with nine narrow, slightly 
granulose spirals and numerous axials. Columella slightly curved, with a slight 
callus*. 

Dimensions — Height 6; diameter 5 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Holotype — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ' of Adelaide, T166L 

Observations — This species is very close to the type species of the sub- 
genus T. ( C. ) arruensis Watson. 'Nitidissima lacks the cord above the suture 
and its gemmulate lirae are more uniform than in arruensis, 

Material — Four paratypes, Abattoirs Bore. 

Stmt igrapl deal Range — Dry Crock Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Thalolia (Calthalolia) fictilis (Ludbrook) 
CaUhalotia fclilts Ludbrook, 1941. Transit Hoy. Soe. S. Aust., (So, (1), p. 84, pi. 4, lie. I I. 

Diagnosis — Small aud Fairly thin, falsely perforate. Adult whorls 4 : sculp- 
tured with fine subcqual spiral lirae. S on the body whorl, reticulated by numer- 
ous, fine oblique axials of about halt the strength of the spirals. Base convex, 
with 8 smooth spirals crossed by minute aeerementai striae. Periphery anguiate: 
Columella arcuate. 

Dimensions — Height 1-0; diameter 3-5 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of ffolntype — Tate Mus. Col., Univ. of Adelaide, TlfrM. 

Material — 10 paratypes and broken specimens. Abattoirs Bore: 6 specimens, 
Wevmonth"s Bore; -1 specimens, Hindmarsh Bore. 

Sp ati "mimical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Subfamily Tboclunak. 
Conns Ct.ancutxts Montfort, 1810. 

Clmirtilux Montfort. 1810. OonHv Syst, 2. p. 100, 

Cltmeulus Montfort. Wenz, 1938. Haiidb. P;iL, Cast, "2, p. 313 (synonymy). 
Tvpe species (monotypy) Trochus phamanius Linne. 

Subgenus Eottclancuxus Cotton & Godfrey, 1931. 
Eunriancnlui Colloti & Godfrey, 1934. S. Aust Nat., 15, (3), p. 78. 

Type species (e.d.) Clanculus jlagcllatus Philippi. 

to 



Clanculus (KurielaneuUis) quudricingulntus Lndhrook 
Ctuiwulux quadricmfytlattrt T.ndbrook, 1041. Trans. Vto\ . Sot-. S. Aujrtr.^ (55, (I), p. Ni! 
tfl. 4, lis- 2. 

Diagnosis — A Clanculus (F.urictanculus) with 4 adult whorls, sculptured 
with granulosa cinguli, four on the penultimate whorl, 13 from the suture to 
tile umbilical fissure on the body whorl, the nine on the base finer, more closely 
grunulose and more closely set than the four above the periphery. Granulation 
develops progressively from smooth cinguli on neauie whorls to coarse granu- 
lation on body and penultimate whorls. Suture depressed: periphery rounded. 

Dimensions — Height 6-2; diameter 6-9 mm. 

Type Locality- — Abattoirs Bore; Drv Creek Sands, 

Location of Halotype—Tnte Mil'* Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1623. 

Observations — This and the species cucurinaius belong to the subgenus 
Euriclanculus, which is very close to Clnxieulus s. str. in its umbilical and apcr- 
tural characters. The two Pliocene species are closest to C, ccijlonicus G. & H, 
Nevill from Ceylon. They are of the same size as that species and the ornament 
is similar. Most present day species of Clanculus in southern Australia are 
larger. 

Material — 2 paratypos. Abattoirs Bore; 5 examples, Hindmursh Bore; 2 
examples, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Clanculus (Euridanculus) eucarinatus Ludbrook 
Clanculus eucarinatus Liulbrook, I94L Trans. Boy, Sor. S. Atisr., 65, (1), p. 8.1, pi. 4, tig. ;>. 

Diagnosis — Clanculus with 4 adult whorls bearing 4 granulose cinguli. 3 
equal in size, the fourth a strong peripheral cord. Suture deeply canaliculate. 
Interstices between the cinguli axial I y 1 irate, three, lirae corresponding to two 
granules on the cinguli. Periphery roundly carinate, base convex with 9 fine 
granulose cinguli and axially lirate interstices. 

Dimensions — Height 5-2; diameter 5-0 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of types— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, TI647. 

Material — 3 paratypes. Abattoirs Bore; 1 specimen, Hind marsh Bore; 6 
specimens, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geograpltical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Subfamily TJmbontjnak. 
Genus Isanda A, Adams, 1854, 
Imuh A< Adam*, 1854. Gen. Ree. Moll., 1, p. 409. 

Type species (o.d.) I, coronata A, Adams, 

Subgenus Minolta A. Adams, 1860. 

Minolta A. Adams. lSfiO. Ann. Mag. Nut, Hist., ^r, 3, 6, p. 33G, 
Minolta Adams. Wimz. 1938, Hondo. Pnl. Cast., 2, p. 317. 

Type species (monotypy) Minolta punctata A. Adams. 

Isanda (Minolia) perglobosa (Ludbrook) 
Ethut'uwlia verglohaw Ludbrook, 1941. Trans. Roy. Sec. S. Aust., 65, (1), p. 86, pi. 4, fttf. 3. 

Diagnosis — Protoconch flattened, of 3 very small turns; 3 adult whorls 
convex, with numerous fine spiral striae crossed irregularly and frequently by 
faint, oblique, axial striae. Periphery rounded, but with a strong tendency to 
angulation. Base convex. 

Dimensions — Height 4-6; diameter 5-8 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore; Dry Creek Sands, 

16 



Location of lloiohtpv— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. oil Adelaide, T1640, 

Observations — Although tins species was described originally in Elhmlnolia 
the writer now considers that it more properly belongs to Minoikt. It is* very 
closely related to Minolta pulchemma Angas, retained by Ircdale in Minolta, 
and lacks the medial angulation said to he diagnostic Of EthtninoliiL Wcrtz 
f 193S, p. 317) has synonyiuized Elhnthtolia with Minolta. 

Material — 17 paratypes. Abattoirs Bore. 

St rat [graphical Hangc — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Genus SeKci ami:\ Iredalc, 1924. 
Sjuvtamcn Innl.ilf- 1*>24. Pro**. Liim. Sol\ N.S.W., 40, (3), p. 227. 

Type specie* (o.d.) Twchus phiUppemis Watson. 
Spcctamen ptaiiiearinaturn sp, now 

i>i, 2, hv. i 

Sofoiielhi strigtita Twiison-Wood* sp. Harris, 1897. Cat, 'Lett. Moll. Brit. Sfltf , 1, v 583 (la 

part No. 4173). 

Sb&MflG ^tfgflftl (t-Wutxh;). Luclbronlc, 1041, Tmus. Hoy. Sue. S. Anst., CS, (IL \s. LOrt 
(in part). 

Diagnosis— Depressed and broadly conical, very small, thin, perforate, 
Spire whorls carina tr, flattened and generally horizontal posteriorly between the 
suture and the first carina, flat area relatively smooth with fine 'spiral threads 
ami faint, oblique growth-lines only. Whorl abruptly and flatly descending 
anteriorly. On this area about 3 conspicuous and evenly spaced lirae. Body 
whorl relatively large with the posterior carina and a carina at the periphery, 
flat area between the suture and the posterior carinae as on the spire whorls, 
between the 2 carinae sculpture of equal of subequal lirae. Base convey with 
fine spiral striae between the peripheral carina and the umbilicus. Umbilicus 
Spirally and longitudinally lineatc; bordered by a conspicuous keel. 

Description of Holotype — Shell very small, turbinate, depressed and broadly 
conical. Frotoconch small, sharply elevated, of two-uncl-a-hall smooth turns, 
adult whorls three, flattened posteriorly between the suture and carina, pos- 
terior area relatively smooth with fine spiral threads and oblique axial growth- 
lines only, Whorl descending obliquely anterior to the carina, sculptured with 
thrift evenly spaced lirae. Body whorl relatively large, with the posterior 
cmua and a second carina at the periphery. Subsutural flat area with fine 
spiral threads and oblique growth axials only; area between the carinae with 
three evenly spaced lirae. Base convex, with fine spiral striae between the 
peripheral carina and the umbilicus. Umbilicus very wide, spirally and longi- 
tudinally lineate, bordered by a conspicuous keel. Aperture subquadrate, inter- 
rupted by previous whorl. 

Dimensions — Height 24; diameter 4 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, FI3145. 

Observations — Solariclto strigata has hitherto been regarded as a somewhat 
variable species and Dry Creek Sands examples have been speeificaJJy compared 
with Miocene variants. Among material in the British Museum, classified 
as S, strigata^ three distinct species may be recognized; first, slrigata with its 
eronulare carina and ercoulatc umbilical margin; seeondlv, the small species 
described above with a flat, almost smooth horizontal posterior area and no 
crcnnlations on the carinae; and thirdly, one example of the species praccursor 
described below, similar in size to striata but SUferjsg in sculpture, 

S. striata does not occur in the Dry Creek Sands, but the other two species 
are well represented. 

The semis Spcctamen to which all three species belong stri^afa bavin" 
previously been considered ancestral to the Spcctamen philippcnse series in 

It 



Now South Wales (iredale, W2Uv. p. 167), is by Wcuz (1938, p, 274) placed iu 
synonymy with Suhirielftt, r Jwt* type species of So/anc7/«, S. maculahi Wood, 
trom the i'lioceue Crag, is generieally dilicrent from Spcctamen. In Solaviella 
the area below the suture is excavate, not Hat to eou\e\. The sculpture is of 
strong gtirrj.rjtei$&tfe spiral cords, 3 per whorl in the type species, the apex is 
Battened: the umbilicus is strongly gemmulate ;ind longitudinally lirale; the 
base is strontily corded, In Hpeetainep the whorls are not strongly corded hut 
Urate, the area below the suture is ilat to convex with oblique axial growth 
striae; there may be some gemmulation of the carina bordering the flat area; 
the base is mm ex and generally smunih but tor (ine threads or lirae; the 
umbilicus is' weakly crenuiate to practically smooth. 

The ijeun.x SjHtiatitCii appears to belong to the lndo-Paeiflc and Australian 
regions, the two Tertiary species, plamcot malum and pwe<ursor, being more 
closely related to Indian Ocean species than to Australian. The nearest living 
ally of ))](iuic(ivinutnm is Li $ofariclta' J hiungulosa A. Adams from the West Coast 
ul India, a llattish species with a Hat area beneath the suture, and two keels. 
"HoJarwIUi' biaugttkwt should also be placed in S pacta men- The Miocene 
stri&ato with its somewhat genimulate carina and umbilicus is more closely 
allied to Speetamcn than to Solariella* 

Material — Holotype, 3 paratvpes, Abattoirs Bore; numerous paratypes 
llindnmrsh Bore; 6 paratvpes. WevmnutlA Bore; 3 paratvpes. Lower Beds 
\|iulil> Cjeek, Victoria, BM. Coll, ' 

Stiati&'aphical Rantze — Miocene-Dry Creek Sands. 

Cto^raphUal Distribution — Muddy Creek. Vic; Adelaide. S \u\t 

Spcctamen pnicdir&or sp. no\. 
nl. 2, fig. 5 

Xi>!ot'U-tlti strt^utti Teil«i>ii-\Vi>o«.U ip. Harris, 1.SU7. Oil, TrU. Moil, lint Mttf rl t, p. 2H.J 

<Nn. tllfiti 1a rwrtj. 
Sohltulfa \tihurtti (T. Wooiki. L'lillH't.aix, \$M\. Trans. Hoy. Soe. S. \i»;l. <J3, (1), g, inu 
{in p;iH/« 

Diagnosis- -Small, conical, thin; protoconcli of 3 small ami smooth hnns. 
Whorls Huttened but oblique beneath suture, elsewhere convex. Sculpt lived 
over whole whorl with spiral lirae. about 5 on flat posterior area and 4 primaries 
with hum '2 t'> 5 secondaries between on the convex portion above the shoulder 
on the body whorl Base slightly convex, with 5 primary and 5 secondary lime 
Umbilicus a\ial!y and spirally Urate, bordered b\ a moderate cord. 

Description of llofotype — Shell small, conical. thin r turbinate, apical am.ua" 
abont 75 deg. IVutoeoneh small and sluup ui 3 smooth turns, adult whorls \ 
flattened posteriorly below the linear suture; iiattencd area sculptured with line 
spiral liiae increasing by intercalation to 5 near the aperture on the body whoil, 
and crowded fine equidistant oblique axials. Whorl convex between posterior 
area and shoultler sculptured also with tint: lirae increasing bv intercalation to 
I primaries with from 2 to 5 secondaries between. Shoulder earinato. base 
sliuhtK con\ex with 5 primary spirals and intermediate secondary spirals. Axials 
k\.s prominent than ou posterior ilat area. There is a tendency to obsolete 
plaatimi of the whorls with resultant gemmulation ol Hv spirals, \isible only 
in oblique light. Umbilicus widely open- spindly and axially lirate within, 
bordered In a mud crate rord, somewhat gemmulare where it is crossed by the 
axials. Aperture subquadrate. interrupter! by the previous w r horl. 

P/meuvions — Height 5; diameter 5-5 mm. 

Type Locality- Wcvmouths Hore. '310-330 feet; Drv Crook Sands. 

Lucfilum af Uolotxjpc— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide. KlS.Ub". 

Observation* — From the previous species, S, ptanieariiattaui, S. precursor 
may be distinguished by its higher spire and less flattened whorls. The flat area 
beneath the suture is narrower, oblique and more strongly sculptured, The 

IS 



ii< -urtvit living species k "Soluriclhf wtyadeniallut Melvill from the Saya do Malha 
banks, Indian Ocean, which should .also be placed in Spcclamen. In the Recent 
species the radial threads on the Hat subsutoral area arc stronger and the spiral 
h'rae art- weaker. Otherwise the two species are very alike, even as to size. 

Material — Holotype. 7 complete and 5 broken paratypes, Weymouth's Bore. 

Stratigrajrfiical Raii^c — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Weymouth's Bore, Adelaide. 

Family STOMATODAE. 

Subfamily Stomatilnak. 
Genus Gi;na S. Adams 1850. 
(U.na AtlauLs 18.VI. Proc. Znol. Soc, p. 36. 

Type species- (s.d. Fischer, 1885) Sfomatella planulata Lamarck. 

Gena incola Cotton 
Cam sp. I aid brook, 19-11. Tram. \\o\\ Soc. S. Aunt.. 65, tljj \>. 100. 
c;cnu inci)la Cotton, 1947. Kec. St AusL Muy, 8 ? (1). p. 060, p\, 2\, figs. 13, 14. 

Diagnosis' — Small. Hat, narrowly elongate, aperture very large, about four- 
fifths longest diameter of shell, Protoeonch smooth, shining, adult whorls micro- 
scopically sculptured with very fine spiral striae ami curved a.xials of growth. 

Dimi'tmom — Height 3; diameters 10 and 16 mm. 

Location of Holotype— Tute Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1731. 

Observations — The authorship and designation of the genus Gem is com- 
plex. The name was introduced by Gray hi 1S40 as a nomen nudum in the 
Synopsis of the Contents of the British Museum, ed. 12 3 p. 1.47. in 1847, Genu 
was included by Gray in his List of the Genera of Recent Mollusca, P.Z.S., p. 
146, Patella lutea of Linne being cited as type, The genus was first defined 
by Adams in 1830 (P.Z.S., p. 36) and the species listed. "Patella lutea* was 
not included; the first species cited was Sfomatella planulata Lamarck. Subse- 
quently, in 1854 (Thes. Conch. 2, p, 828), Adams described a Gena luf<-a con- 
sidered by him to be equivalent to Linues Vaiclla lutea with which he made. 
Stonwtellu auricula of Lamarck synonymous. 

Hartley, however (1855. p. 424), considered that Patella lutea of Linne was 
unrecognizable, and probably not the equivalent of Adams's Gena lutea, 

This view was aceei>ted by Pilsbry in 1890, Stomatella planulata being 
cited as tvpe. Fischer had. however, alreadv cited planulata as the tvpe of 
Gena in 1885. 

There appears at the time of writing to be no ruling of the International 
Committee on the A'alidity of a genus based on a doubtful species. The first 
valid use of the name therefore appears to be that of Adams in 1S50 with sub- 
sequent designation by Fischer in 1885. 

Material — 1 specimen (juvenile). Abattoirs* Bore. 

Stratigraphieal Hangc — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Family SKENEIDAE. 

Gcnns Teinostoma H. & A. Adams, 185:1 

Tcinostoma U. & A. Adams, 185.1 Con, ft.v. Moll, 1. p. 12g: 
(Tfnostemw P. Fischer, 1&S5. Mm, de Conch, p. B34.) 

Type species (s.d. Cossinann, 1888) Teinohtoma politum A. Adams. 

Teinostoma depressulum Chapman ex Gabriel 
pi. 2. % irv 

Trinottama tfaprcssula Chapman & Gabriel, 11)1 1. Kec. Ceol. Swv. Vic. 26 (ii.s.1 (2), 

IfU 3L7, pt- 27, figs. 24a, b. 
T4 J hinstonui depf&&tu(a Cliapuuui 6e Oabrnl, Lndbrnok. 10-4 L. Trans. Rm . Soc. S. VlMiL 

W. (I). 

0> 



Diagnosis — Very small, solid, smooth, depressed, apical surface smooth. 
Umbilical area sunken, filled witli callus. Aperture subovate, lip produced pos- 
teriorly, excavate below. 

Dimensions — Height 0-75; diameter 1*S4 mm. 

Type Locality — Bore 10, 225-230 Icet, near Ouyen. Malice District, Victoria. 

Location of Ilololype — Gcol. Surw. Vic. Coll., Melbourne. 

Observations — 7 . clepressuhtm is a typical Teinostnma, resembling the small 
species T. roteUac forme, T. complanalum ami T. (hihium from the Parisian 
Eocene. The Recent type species, T. politu)n : . is considerably larger. 

Material — S .specimens. Abattoirs Bore; 22 specimens, Hindmarsh Bore; 10 
specimens, Weymouth's Bore, 

Strati^raphical Ran^e — Kalimnan-Dry Creek Sands. 

GeograpUieal Disiribution — Gippsland. Vic.; Adelaide, S. Aust. 

Cenns Stahkeyna Iredale, 1030. 

SUpaiW Iredale, 1024. Vwc, Lirm. Soc. N.S.W.. 40, (3), 197, p. 233 (non Ur.1in. 1900), 
Starke! i ad IrotUlo, 1930. Aust Zool., 6, p. i75 (num. nov. for Sti^att)!' preoco.). 

Type species (monotypy) Teinoslvma starkeyae Hedley, 

Starkcvna pulcherrima (Chapman & Gabriel 1 
nl. 2, fi»\ 17. 
VehuvttmM ))ttlchcrrima Cluipmuti & Gabriel. 19L±. Proe. Rov. Soc. Vk\, 20 (ns.j, (2) 
I). 317, pi. 27, iigs. 20a-c\ 

Diagnosis — Spire flattened, -vvhorls flatly convex, protoconch small of 21-1 
turns, adult whorls 3. Suture linear. Rase fkttish, umbilicus partly filled with 
callus which extends about hallway over the surface fll the base of the bod) 
whorl. Aperture subquadrate, slightly notched posteriorly. Produced pos- 
teriorly and eveavate below. 

Dimensions — Height 1*75; diameter 4-75 tmn. 

Type Tsocatiftj — Bore 10, 225-230 feet, near Onyen, Malice Bore District, 
Victoria. 

loraiion of Holoh/jw — Geoh Surv. Vie. Coll., Melbourne. 

Observations — This species previously known only from the Kalhnnan of 
the Malice Bores was considered by Chapman and Gabriel as a "Variant" oi 
TeinosttontK perhaps referable to Bonnctella (— Bonnetia Cossmann nun 
JHobiueau~Desvoidy ? 1830) of Cossmann. It is not a Teinostonni, lacking the 
completely closed umbilicus and the obscured spire; puJcherrbnu has the um- 
bilicus only partly filled, the callus spreading in a band o\er about half the 
base, The spire is natieoid and the suture linear. The species is placed ill 
Iredalc's Starketjua, created for Tcinosionui slarkeyae Hedley, to which it ap- 
pears to bear (he closest resemblance. It is not congeneric with Bonnetia 
plonispira Cossmann, the type species of Bannetelia. 

Mah'tiaf 17 specimens. Abattoirs llore. 

Stratitfraphkal Range — Kali miian- Dry Creek Sands. 

Ceop'apliieal Disiribution — Western Victoria.; Adelaide, S. Australia. 

Genus Tliuoia A. Adams, Itto\l 
Tititioht \. Adams, LS(>l3. JVoc. Zool. Soc, p. 71. 

Type species (s.d. Kobelt, lS7tS) T, nivca A. Adams. 

Subgenus pARTTjR.rnT.A Tredale, 19Sfi, 
Fartuhh-.fa Irwhife. H)3ft. Kcc. Ausl. Mas., 19, (5), p. 2£0. 

Type srpecics (monotypy) Bartubioht blnncha Iredale. 

Tnbinla (Partuhiola) depressispira (Ludbrook) 

Purluf'iohi deea'ssi'spini f.udbrnnk, 1041. Tram, ttov. Soc. S. A test ., 65, (1). p. «S7, pi. -I 
fi^ 16. 

20 



Diagnosis — Whorls triean'nate, at first more or less rounded thou with 3 re- 
gularly disposed carinae with flattened areas between. Stihsutural area de- 
cidedly sunken. About 6 spiral lirae between each pair of keels. Faint axials 
reticulating die spirals on the whorls more prominent on the base. Base flat- 
tened near carina, convex toward the umbilicus. Aperture roundly quadrate, 
outer lip attached to previous whorl at median carina. 

Dimensions— Weight 1-5; diameter 3*5 mm. 

Type T.ocalilif — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; pry Creek Sands. 

Location of Holotype—Tntc Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, T1649. 

Observations — The subgenus Pariiibioln is well represented in the J ado- 
Pa eific fauna by a group including "Cydostrema" earinainni H. Adams, qttinquc- 
carinaUtm and novcmcarbuituin Melvill. all very small species like the type 
species bJancha Iredale. Tubiola nivea, the type species of Tubiola is a com- 
paratively large shell, less earinate and less flattened than those of the subgenus 
Partubiohh 

Material — 19 paratypes, Abattoirs Bore; 3 specimens, Weymouth's Bore; 7 
specimens, Hindmarsh Bore. 

Straligraphieal flange — Pry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution— Adelaide District. 

Tubiola (Partubiola) varilirata (Ludbrook) 
Vttrhthiola varilirata Ludbrook, 194 1, Trans. Hoy, Soc. S. AusL, 65, (1), p. 87, p(. 4, fig. J7. 

Diagnosis — Whorls with one carina at the posterior one-third of the whorl, 
Whorl above the carina flat, depressed with about 8 very fine lirae; below the 
carina convex with .stronger and more widelv separated lirae, About IS strong, 
subequal lirae on the body whorl between the carina and umbilieus. 

Dimensions— Height 1-3; diameter 8-5 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Holotype—Tnte Mus. Coll., Univ, of Adelaide. T1631. 

Material — 10 paratypes r Abattoirs Bore. 

Stratigraphieal Range — Dry Creek Sands, 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Genus Chossea A. Adams, 1865. 

GldmriR A. Adams, IftGo. Ann. \fj£. Nat. Hist., Ser, 3, 15, p, 323. 
(Crossria Fischer, 1-S.S5. Man. d'.: Conch., p. 778.) 

Type species (s.d. Fischer. 1885) C. miranda A. Adams. 

Subgenus Dolicho.s.ska. Iredale, 1924, 
Ooliriossca ircdulc, j!)2i, Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 19, (J), 197, p. S5L 

Type, species (o,d. ) Cnmea labiata Tenison-VVoods. 

Crossea (Dob'crossea) vf\ lab tula Tenison-Woods 
Cimzea lahiata TenisaH-WnuoSt, l.S7t>b. Pruc. Roy, Soc. Tas. for 1875. p. 151. 
Lh>lu:rowu hb'tfttu Tenison-Woods. Irodale, 1924. Pine. Liim. Soc, X.S.W., 49, (3), 197. 

li. SMI.. 
/>t>/iV/Wvt« labkdu (Tenisou- Woods). I.ndbrnok-. 1941. Traus, Roy, Soc. S t Autf.. 65, (t)\ 

n. &fc. 

Diagnosis — Spire elevated, sutnro impressed, whorls very finely, spirally, 
Iintte and axially striate, Umbilieus bordered with a callus; aperture ovate, both 
anteriorly and posteriorly ungulate and channelled. Outer lip varieecl. 

Dimensions — Height 4; diameter 2 nun. 

Type Locality — Long Ray, Tasmania, 10 fathoms: Reeent. 

Location of llolotypc — ? Hobart Museum. 

Observations — No further material has become available since that of the 
Abattoirs Bore and the fossil species is still tentatively referred to labiata in 
the absence of complete specimens wilb unbrokeu outer lip. 

21 



Wen/. ( 1938, p. $33) has plated Iredale's Dolicross< l u in synonym) with 
C-roswci; in erecting tin* geuus Iredale did not dciine the characters which 
separate ft from Grfr&ep. The type species of CrossctL C miramln.. has several 
stroiijj; varices which do not occur on any othcrr species of the 140111 is Ihat lln 1 
\fcritjpr has seen. The aeons as a whole is readily divisible into sections, on the 
Mirices- as ,*:lnnui b\ Tate (1S90, p. 220). Crown s. str. is strontdy varieed. 
Dtjlicrowa has a varieed outer lift while Cr(mct>la has a simple lip, the whorls 
beiuti either canccllatc or punctate. The fossil specimens under present cm 
sidei;Uion all have the outer lip broken so that even snbgonorie location is 
tentative^ the absence of canccllatc or punctate sculpture i.s sut^estive el 
Dol'n rossea. which is retained as the subgenus. 

MaU rial — 5 specimens, Abattoir.s Bore: fl specimens, lie* eul. Tasmania 

f'n.M. coll.). 

Strati^rapfueal Rau^c — -Dry Creek Sauds-Rcccut. 
C.rotznipltical Distribution — Southern Australia, 

Family THK131MDAE. 
Subfamily Liotukae. 
Genus LiOTina. Monier-Chahnas, l8J?fr 
IJotinti MuTiit't-CbiiluiiLS m Fischer, 1885. Man. elf Couch .. y. 831. 

Type species (o.d.) Delphiniila -gerviflci Defiance- 

Subgenus Munihtia Finlay, 1927. 
MHHflitia Kinky, 1927. Trans. \.Z. Inst... 57. p. 3ft£ 

Type species (o.d.) Liolina tnjphcncnsis Powell. 

Liotina (Munditia) tasmanica ( Te-nison-Weods ) 
pi. 2, fig. 6. 
tih.'tintt htmettom, T. WWts. Ludhrook, 10-11. Tnm>, \Ur\ . Soc. S. Aast., 65, I 1;, p. 100. 
IJtftcltn cupilntu H alley. Ludhrook, 1941, ibid. 

Diagnosis — Shell flatly depressed, bi tar mate, sculptured with distant spiral 
ribs crossed by equal radial ribs, intersections nodulose. Interspaces crowded 
with line close imbricating lamellae Umbilicus widely open, spirally lamellose. 

Dimensions — Height 3; diameter major 8; diameter minor 6 mm. 

'fype Locality — Long Uay. Tasmania* 

Location of Hofotupc — llobart Museum. 

Observations— The small shells from the Abattoirs Bore previous!) identi- 
fied with Liotina kuueltosa ( — L. roblini Johnston) arc not hmello&a. which 
lias a more elevated .spire, but tasmanka, and are conspecifie wfl.fi Recent speei- 
mens so identified fii the British Museum, decent adult tasinanica are larger 
than the Pliocene species, but juveniles ef Recent tasmaniea are very like fossil 
examples. The species also occurs in the Upper Beds at Muddy (.'reek ( l J iio- 
it-no! and it is possihle that other specimens identified as latnetlosa (or fftwitii) 
which i.s a synonym of latncllosu according to May (1919. p. 71), may prove 
tube lasttittnica. I he specimen previously identified as Liotella capifata ltfrfl(*j 
ts r\n eroded shell ot the saint! species. 

Material— The (inured hypotype and 2 other specimens. Abattoirs Hon* 1 
specimen, Hindmarsh Bore; 4 specimens, Muddy Creels ("Upper Beds); 2 speci- 
mens. Kecent. Tasmania; 2 specimens, decent, \'ietoria (B.M. ColO. 

Strati^r(i))hical hans^e — Kalimnan-Reccnt. 

Geographical Distribution — New South Wales fcrj Spencer Gulf. S. Aust. 

Subfamily Collominal. 
Genus Collonia Gray, TS50. 
Cnttimin Cray, 1850, in >!.E, Gray. Klg; Mull. Aaiui r 4, p <S~ 

Tvp*; species is.d. Fist her. 188.1) D< IphinttJa mr/r^inota Lamarck. 



Collonia omissa sp. UQV. 

1>1. 2. H^!. 7. 

f)iaiitn><sLs — -\pe\ flattened, whorls depressed helttw the suture. eUeuhere 
convex. Umbilicus moderately wide,, thickened and ercnulate at the border. 
Aperture circular, moderately solid and thickened towards the umhilaes. 

Description of Uolohjpe — Shell small. Ilatteued-globose, smooth, solid, of 
three turbinate whorls. Apex depressed, small, smooth and shining. \dult 
wheals scmewJiat ilattcn<d posteriorly helow the sutmc convex elsewhere- 
Seulptuie of fatut axial growth striae only. Umbilicus moderately wide, bord- 
ered wit}) a cretin late callus. Aperture circular, moderately solid and thickened 
parti* ularly at the umbilicus, 

Dimensions — Height 1; maximum diameter 2 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Hohfijpe— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F15147. 

Observations — The present species is probably the Pliocene descendant of 
Ctollonia pamita Tenison- Woods, which occurs almost ubiquitously in the 
Miocene of Victoria, C. omissa is similar in size and general aspect but differs 
in being inure flattened than parvuhi and lacking the spiral striatums. The 
umbilicus is creuulale, while in parvula it is simple. The aperture is thickened 
over the penultimate whorl in omissa. 

Material — Tlolotype and 2 paralypes, Abattoirs Bore. 

Strati^wj)htca! Ran^e — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distiihtttian — Abattoirs Bore. Adelaide 

Subfamily Tckhintxak. 
Genus Astiuea Roding. 1798. 

,Mtrm*a Uoding ef Bolten, 179S. Mus. Boll., p. 79. 

[hnpowtor Montfort, 1810. Condi. $\%t. 2, p. 198.) 

f Canthorlw Swainson, 1840, Treat Make. $p, 210, 349.1 

Type species (s.d. Surer, 1913) T melius imperial is Gmeliu — Ju'!\otropu>ii 

Martyn. 
Subgenus Hf.u astkafa Iredule. 1924. 
Hdfostnteu Iredule, 1924. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 49, Ci), 197, j>. 2:52. 
Tvpc species (o.d.) Bellasiraea keslcceni Irodale, 

Astraea (Bellastraea) hesperus sp. now 
r>l. 2. fig. 8. 

\xhfuti (Hf(lristrricu) itxtcr (T. Woods). T^iuloTonlc 1U4I, Tntns, ft0]*, S*V- & Au*t.. 65. 
( 1 l„ p. 100. 

Dia^nosv.— Depressed, spire sunken, shoulder of whorl thin and sharp, pro- 
duced at intervals into acute-angled spines about S per whorl on the penulti- 
mate whorl, each spine sculptured with tin-cads radiating fan-wise; spines more 
widely spaced towards the aperture and inclined to be imbricating. Sculpture 
prominent, uf rows of granules on the posterior part of the whorl increasing by 
intercalation to 5 rows near the aperture on the body whorb and rows of im- 
bricating fine scales on the anterior part of the whorl; increasing in number by 
intercalation. Base convex, sculptured with gemmulate spirals, winch arc finer 
towards the periphery and more strongly and distinctly gemmulate near the 
umbilicus, and waving axial growth threads. Umbilicus wide, margin thick- 
ened with parietal callus increasing in size with age. 

Des( ) iption of Ilolofijpc — Shell of moderate size, depressed-turbinate. 
Protoconch very snuli sunken, of 2 smooth, flat turns, adult whorls three only 
slightly convex, sculptured with gemrnulate spirals increasing; by intercalation; 
posterior gemmules widely spaced in rows in anterior part of whorl, the spirals 
are rather surmounted by imbricating narrow scales marking the growth axials. 
Shoulder of whorl thin and sharply lamellar produced at intervals into acute- 

Btt 



ftitgktd spines, many of wliich arc broken on the body whorl of the holotype. 
Each spine is ornamented with threads radiating fan-wise. Bast: of about equal 
convexity with the spire, sculptured from the shoulder to the umbilicus with 
six finely i*eiumulose spirals -followed by one strongly geinmulose band and two 
obsolete rows of gcmmules. Umbilicus wide, simple except for parietal callus 
which la crossed by numerous waving axials of growth. Aperture subetrcular, 
inner b'p rounded and reflected, outer lip angled and channelled at the peri- 
phery, excavate below, overhanging .above. 

Dimensions — Height 4; maximum diameter 11: minimum diameter 9 mm. 

/ t f pc IjQcatitij — Abattoirs bore; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Holotijpc— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide,. F15148. 

(Ihscrialiom — Although there is a certain amount of resemblance between 
the early whorls of tins species and A. (B.) aster Teriison- Woods, the adults 
diller conspicuously. A. (B.) hesperns is strongly sculptured, as compared with 
the almost smooth' A. (#.) aster. There is also resemblance between hesperv-'j 
arid an unnamed species from Zanzibar in the B + M. Collection, 

Material — Holotype, 6 paratypes. Abattoirs Bore; I paratype, Ilindmarsh 
Bore, 

Stratigruphival Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs and Ilindmarsh Bores, S, Anst. 

Family PI1ASIANELLIDAE 
Genus Piiasianella Lamarck, IS04. 

VhisUnulU Lamarck, 1804. Ann. Mflfe HWi ISSrt- Paris, 4, (22), u. 293. 

I'ha-VMiwlla Luuiurck, Wchz, liY'iti, Ilantlb. d. Pnlaozool. Castr,, p. ^93 (syoonvinv >. 

Type species (s.d. Harris, 1S97) Phasianclla lurhinoides Lamarck. 

Phasianella dennanti Crespin 

Vfuti-iuncUa rttnmnU Crc-spiii, 19:26. Vxoc. Roy. Soc. Vic. 38 tn.s.K p. 119, jiT, 9, figs. 1(3, 17. 
PfiayUnteUii drnnatiti Cretin. Ludbrook, 11)11, Trans. Hoy. Soc S. Aust., 65, (1), p. 100. 

Diagnosis — Five subventricose whorls in adult. Aperture elongate-ovatCj 
rounded anteriorly, pointed posteriorly, inner lip everted. Colour markings 
where visible in square tessellated pattern, Suture impressed. 

Dimensions — Height 14; diameter S-25: height of aperture 5-73: height of 
apejtmv (inside measurement) 4-75 mm. 

Type Localiiy — Muddy Creek. Upper Bed- Kalimnan. 

location of ilolot\jpe — Dennant ColL Nat \ius\, Melbourne, 

Observations — Although no colour markings are visible, one shell, dilieritvj; 
.in si/.e, shape ol whorls, and shape of aperture from the small species described 
below as Pellax jejwia sp. nov. ? appears to belong to !'. dennanti. It is smaller 
in size than typical dennanti, having a height of 8 nun. 

Material — 1 specimen. Weymoullis Bore. 

St rati graphical Rcmge — I'lioeene; r'Balcnmbiau. 

(leor.ro phical Distribution — Kcilor near Melbourne: \luddv Crwk 7 Victoria' 
Adelaide. S. Aust. 

Genus l'JiiiAX Hnlay, 192.7. 
f'rlhn I ...!;«> !<>27. Tr.ni',-. \ 7. tn.-t., 57, p. 3m. 

VypV species (o.d.) Phasianella hutioni I'ilsbrv. 

Pellax jejuna sp. uov, 

pi. 2, fig. & 
Diagnosis' — Shell turbinate-corneal, about twice as high as broad, whorls 
rapidly increasing in size and convexity, ornamented with oblique axial linear 
ihnne-coloured markings. Body whorl about two-thirds height of shell, Aperture 
expanded anteriorly, inner lip straight and reflected over umbilicus, somewhat 
effuse at base. Umbilicus closed. 



Descrijrtion pf Holotype — Shell very small, tm1>mate-comcal, thin, about 
twice as high as broad. Protoconch minute, sunken; whorls 4, subventricose, 
rapidly increasing in size and convexity, smooth, ornamented with oblique, uxial. 
narrow linear, flamc-eoiourcd markings. Body whorl large, about two-third* 
height of shell, spire small, moderately elevated. Suture linear, impressed. 
Aperture siibovate, expanded somewhat anteriorly, angulatc posteriorly. Inner 
lip simple, almost straight and reflected over the umbilicus, somewhat effuse 
ftt the base. Umbilicus closed. 

Dimension* — Height 3; diameter 15; height of aperture 1 mm. 

Type Locality— Wcyuioutifs Bore, 310-330 feet; Dry Creek Sands. 

Loeathm of H of ntAtpe— Tut* Mas. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F15149. 

Oh.svrcatu m,s—Baih Thiele (1935, p. 71) and Weoz (193S, p. 362) have 
placed Pcllax in synonymy vvitli EulithUUum Pilsbry (1898). The two are. how- 
ever, dissimilar. Eulilhkliutn vahegatnm (Carpenter), the type species uf 
Eulitliutiuin, is a minute, paucispirak solid shell with a small depressed spire, 
quite unlike that of Phasianella or Pellax, It is also faintly axially ribbed under 
matmilieutkm and is perforate. Enlithiditim punctatum (Carpenter) also lias a 
small, depressed spire, and the body whorl is very large in comparison. There 
are fewer whorls in both species than in species of Pellax, 

The present species, jejuna, is closely related to the Recent Australian 
vpecics rosea and pfr£gi associated by Finlay with the New Zealand type species 
of the genus. Pellax huttoni (Pilsbry). The colour pattern is remarkably well 
preserved in the Weymouth's Bore specimens. 

Material — Holotype. numerous paratypes. Weymouth's Bore; 5 i^aratvpcs. 
Jliudmarsh Bore. 

Straf {graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distrihution^\Vvyuiont\i\ and Ilindmarsh Bores, Adelaide, 
S. Aust 

Family PHENACOLFPADI DAK. 
Genus Phrnacolepas Pilsbry, J 891. 

Scutr.lia BmJcrip. 1834 Pnn- Zool. Soc., p. 47 (vn part) (not SeukJfo Lamarck, £310). 
SrCtifeHira Gray. 1947. Pmc. '/ool. Soc, 15, p. 16S (non Acassi/, 1841). 
Bhnk&Ot&pas ViMn-v, 1891. Nautilus, 5, p. 89 (aom, imv. fur Smtdlina Grav), 
Phenacolcpas Pilsbry. Wejiz, 193& Handh. Palarozool. Cast., p. 432 (synommx j 

Type species (o.d.) Srutella erenulaia Broderip. 

Phenacolcpas tela Ludbrook 
flwnacolcpax tela Lutlbrook. 1911. Trans. Roy. Soe. S. Aust. 65, (1), p. 88 5 pk 4, R%, ifl'i 

Diagnosis — Apex one-eighth distance from posterior border. Ape\- smooth, 
sculpture elsewhere of 80-90 radial ribs and about 11 raised sharp concentric 
ridges with very fine crowded concentric lirae on the interspaces. lUd^es 
crowded posteriorly, widely spaced anteriorly. 

Dimension? — Length 7-5; breadth 5-8: height 2-5 mm. 

Ttfpe Locality— Abattoirs Bore. Adelaide; Drv Creek Sauds. 

Location of 1 1 ah type.— -Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, TIfUS. 

Observation* —No further examples ol' this unique species have been lYnin.1 
.since it was described from Abattoirs Bore material, 

Material— TTololype, T161S. 

Strati crap) 'iical iiange — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Bore, Adelaide. 

Superfamilv COCCULWACKA. 

Family LEFETELLIDAE. 

Cenus Coccuj-ixhixa Thiele. 1909. 

CnnuUnt'lln Thiols 1909, in Martini k Chemnitz, Sysr. CtnwM. Cut., 2. t'33), EOfr, n 21. 

TypC species tnuraotypy) Acmaea minutismna F. A Smith. 



Cocculinella salisburyensis sjn, i»o\ . 

pi. 2, fig. 1. 
Coccutuia pracct'tnpressa Chapman & Gabriel. Lmlbrouk, 104L Trans- Roy. Sex*. S, Anst. 
65., (1), p. UK)- 

Diagnosis — Shell very small, strongly laterally compressed three limes as 
long as wide, fairly low. apex at one-fifth from posterior. 

Deseripiivn of Hulolyjw — Shell very .small, strongly laterally compressed. 
narrowly reehingul;irly ovate, sides nearly parallel. Smooth evcepf for concentric 
Urovvth-iirae. Three times as long as wide, fairly low, apex at abonl oue-lilth 
distance from posterior margin, slightly incurved. 

Dimensions — Length 4<ffj width 1-5; height 0-b; clistanee of apex from 
posterior margin ()•!) mm. 

T///K* Locality — Tcimanfs Bore, Salisbury, S. Aust; 13ry Creek Sands. 
Location of Holattjpe — Fate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F15150. 
Observations — This species is related to C, praeeompresm, but it is nar- 
rower; the apex is nearer the posterior margin and the shell is less elevated. 
The genus is Indo-Faeific and Australasian, ranging in Australia from Miocene 
to Dry Creek Sauds. 

Material — Holotype and one paratype, Tenuanfs Bore. 
Strati^raphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

(Geographical Distribution — Tcnnant's and Abattoirs Hores. Adelaide 
District 

Sitpcrfamilv LITTOB1NACEA. 
Family F1TTORIN1DAE 
Genus Tectaiuus Valenciennes, 1883. 
Tcctfiriut* VuTwieieimes. 1833, in Tnuiiboldt, Oris. ZooL 2, p. 271. 

Tvpe species (monnrypy) Tectarius coronatus Valenciennes — Trochns pagodas 

Linnc, 

Subgenus NiXA Gray, 1850. 
Ainu J. K. Gray in fcl. E. buy, i$-30. Fig- Molt Anim... 4, p. 78. 

Type species (o.d.) Trochns ctnnhigi Philippi. 

Tcctarius (Nina) adelaklensis (Cotton) 

isti. Astram sp. Lmlbrook, 1941. Trans. Uoy. Soc. S. Anst, 65. U >, p. !O0. 

Shut adelahlemis Cotton, 1947, Rm S, Anst Mus., 8, (4), p, fiGn\ pi. 21, Hrs. 17, IS. 

Diagnosis — Spire high, umbilicus wkle, whorls sharply angulate with pro- 
duced, sharp, hollow spines. A prominent nodulose spiral rib below the srnnose 
angle. 

Dimensions — Height 16; diameter 12, diameter including the Inst spine 
on the body whorl 15 mm. 

Tijpe Locality — Salisbury Rore. 350 feet. 

Location of Holofupc — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, TI730. 

Strati graphical Range — Dry Cteek Sands. 

Geographical Distiihution — Salisbury liore, 350 feet: Abattoirs Bore, 

Superfamilv R1SSOACEA. 

Family lUSSOIDAE. 

Subfamily Kissotnae 

Genus A-vtHHixiiAi-AArus Carpenter, 1SD4. 

Atnelathalimtus Carprnter, IBfM. Hop. Brit. Ass. (Newcastle), 1803, pp. 037. 014, tKHf 

Tvpe species (monotypy) Aniphithahnntts inelttsus Carpenter. 

Subgenus Pis ink a Monterosato. 1878. 
Pisinim Monterosato. 1X1X, Giorn $Vi. Nut. Econ. Palermo 13. p. 86. 
listen Ircdale, 1915. Trans. N.Z. Fast, 47, p. 431.) 

Type species (s.d. Fischer, 1885) Eissoa punciulnm Fhilippi. 

2fi 



Amphitlialaimis (Pisinna) subbiculor $pi nov. 
P L it fig. 10, 

tsbvi lL hicaht (jPntteni, ltitfl), Lmlbrook, 1941, Trans. Roy, Sow, §. Aust, 65 H. ), p. 100. 

Diagnosis — Adult whorls flattened and evenly sloping; suture narrowly 
canaliculate. Body whorl generally conspicuously angled at the shoulder. 

Description of HvlulypeShe]] minute, conical, solid, about twice as high 
as broad, smooth except fur microscopic axial growth-lines, spire elevated, Pro- 
toconch smooth and somewhat flattened, of l)i» turns. Adult whorls. 4. flattened 
and evenly sloping except for first whurl, which is slightly convex. Suture. 
narrow and canaliculate. Body whorl about half total height of shell, conspicu- 
ously angled at the shoulder^ angle between face of whorl and base about 120 
deg. Aperture roundly ovate, slightly angled above, entire; outer lip simple, 
inner lip reflected over columella; columella rather straight. 

Dimensions — Height 2; diameter 1; height of body whorl 1 mm. 

Type Locality — Abattoirs Bore; Diy Creek Sands. 

Locaiioit of Holotype— 1 'die Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F1515L 

Observations — This species is broader than hicolor, into which it hay pre- 
viously been placed* and is more or less angulate at the periphery. It hears 
the closest resemblance in shape to "Rmoa 7 ephamilla Smith, from St. Helena. 

Weuz (1989, p, 613) has syonymized Estra with Pisinna Monterosato, and 
in his original description of Estea Tredale (I.e., p. 451) states that Pisinna ap- 
pears to be Estea -\~ Scrubs, In view of the absence of recognizable differences 
between Estca and Pisinna, there appears to be nothing to support the separa- 
tion of the two. There aire, however, differences between Pisinna and $pwb$ 
warranting their separation. 

Material — Holotype and 10 paratypes, Abattoirs* Bore; 23 paratypes, Hhkl- 
marsh Bore: (\ paratypes, Weymouth's Bore. 

Strati<J;rap]ii<al Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District 

Amphithahiruus (Pisinna) ehrvsalidus (Chapman & Gabriel) 

vl 2_, fig. 12. 
ii/vv.w (Onobti) <:hrux<dkia Chapm:<ti & Gabriel, HH4, Pme. £&«, Sot*. Vic , 26 (n.a.) (2) 

p. rtlft, pi. 2H, tigs, 32, 3J. 
fyfigrwi clmi.salidita Chapman &* C&EvtoL Chapman & Crispin, 19:28. |W GtttL Snrv. Vkv 

5 ( I.), r. Ul. 
Epigrun chrtwhdus ( Chapman & Gabriel), Lmlbrook, 1041. Trans. Km, Soc. & IdU! Cxi 

(0, p, 100. 

Diagnosis— Pupiform, fairly large for the genus T apex yerv blunt, adult 
whorls 4, suture linear, impressed, aperture small, about one-fifth height of shell, 

Dimensions — Lcturth 3-J; diameter IS mm, 

Type Locality—Mnllce Bore No. 9, 254-256 feet; Kalimnau. 

Location of Holotype — Ceol. Surv, Vie. Coll. 

Observations — No further specimens have been recovered since those from 
Abattoirs fcorej the species is well represented m the Kalmman of \VostefO 
Victoria. 

Material— Numerous specimens. Upper Beds, Murray Creel, Vie, B.M, Coll. 

Stratigraphieal JRongc— ■Kaliinnsin — Dry Creek Sands. 

(Irogruphical Distribution — Port Phillip Ray, Vie. — Adelaide, S. ,\ust 

Genus Mkhiimna lrcdalc, 1915. 
Mrrailwt Ettitfafe, 1916, Trans, N.Z, lust.. 47, p. I'D. 

Type species (e,d. ) Rissoa cheilosloma T. Woods. 

Subgenus Lpvemkra Finlav. 1024. 
Linvmtra Kinluy, 1924. Trans. NX IhS*» 4 55,. p. 4-38. 

Type species (o.d) Linemcra inlerruptu Finlav nom. nov- for limoa gradate 

Ilutton non Philippi. 

31 



Merelina (Linemera) variscnlpta $p nov 

pi. 2, fi$ 11. 
Mcn'liwi el, supmsctttpta May. Liulbrouk, 1941, Iraus Ro>. St*C. .S. Au:-L. 65 (1), p. 100, 

Diagnosis — Spire, whorls clathratc, with 3 strong spirals on last whorl crossed 
by uxiuls of equal .strength. Interstices smooth or with faint axials only, inter- 
sectioiK nodulose. Base with i spirals,, more closely spaced than on hotly whorls, 
i'aintly crossed by the axials. Outer lip marked within by short eords corres- 
pond tim to external spiral sculpture. 

Description of Holotypc — Shell minute, about twiec as high as broad, elon- 
gate-conical. Protocouch smooth, glossy and prominent, of 1$ turns, adull 
whorls 1 moderately convex, suture impressed. Adult whorls clathratc, with 
prominent spirals increasing to 3 on the body whorl, crossed by equal asiaK 
interspaces smooth or faintly crossed by axial striae; intersections nodulose, 
base with 4 close spirals weaker than on spire whorls and more closely spaced, 
tuhitlv crossed by axials, Aperture subovate. augulate above and rounded be- 
low; outer lip variced, marked internally by short eords corresponding to the 
internal spirals, 

Dimensions — Height 3; diameter 1*6 mm, 

Ttfpe Locality — Abattoirs Bore, Dry Creek Sands, 

Locatum of HoloUjpc — Tate Mus, Coll.. Univ. of Adelaide. F15152. 

Observations — A/. % (L>) vurisiulpta differs from Mipmsculpta (May) with 
which it has previously been compared in the differing and finer sculpture on 
the base, and the smooth interspaces between the clathratc sculpture. On 
sttprasatlpta the interspaces are spirally lirate. 

Material — Holotypc. one para type. Abattoirs Bore. 

St rat (graphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Abattoirs Rore, Adelaide. 

Genus Torboella Leach, lb47. 

TurhocUa T.^ieh O Gray), 1847, rroe. Zuol. Soe-, p, 152. 

{rtttiWna Monterowito. 1884. Nomenck Cuneh. Mc<Iit., p. htt.) 

(Itauutkm lmLiltr. 1915, Trans. N.Z. Inst., 47, p. 449.) 

Titrborlla Leaeh. Won-/, 1939, Hanclb. i'alaeozool. Oast., j>. 610 (synonymy). 

Typo species (o,d.) Turbo parvu Da Costa. 

Tnrboclla praenovaremis sp. nov. 
pi. £ ? fig- 14. 
Hanrakia cf. tuworensis Fraucnfdtl, Ludbrook, 1941, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust\, 65 (1), p> Int) 
Dingnosis — Sculpture of fine close axial ribs, equal to the interspaces, about 
30 on the body whorl, and spiral lirac dominated by the axials, crossing the 
interspaces only. Spiral lirac weak m the early whorls, increasing in strength 
to the body whorl. Base convex, strongly spirally lirate and crossed by axials 
weaker fhan on whorls. 

Description of Holotypc — Shell roundly conical, whorls moderately convex, 
body whorl a little more than half height of shell- Protocouch prominent, of' 2 
smooth convex and somewhat elevated turns, adult whorls 3; suture linear, im- 
pressed. Seulx>ture of fine, close axial ribs about 80 per whorl extending from 
suture to suture and equal to the interspaces, Interspaces crossed by fine 
spirals, weaker than the axials : , but increasing in strength towards the body 
whorl. Base convex with S spiral lirae faintly crossed by weakening axials. 
Aperture subovate elongate above and rouuded below, outer lip variecd, colu- 
mella anuatc. somewhat excavate. 

Dimensions — Height 3*3; diameter 1-5 nml. 
Ttfpc Locality — Abattoirs Bore: Dry Creek Sands, 
Location of Holott/pc — Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. ol Adelaide, Fl§U5& 
Observations — Previously compared to novarotsis (Frauenfckl) the present 
species is possibly ancestral to novarensis. It resembles the Recent species very 

28 



<k*sely, but the* sculpture is finer ami more definite, while the shells in general 
arc Kttger in size than such specimens of noiwemis as. are available in Uj* 
KM Collection. 

Material— Holotype, IS paratopes. Abattoirs Bore; 2 pararvpes, Hiudmarsh 
Hurts. 

Xlraligraphical Range— Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Dislribtttioii—Abmnijs and Hindroarsh Bores, Adelaide 

Turboella ehniattae sp. nov. 

pi. 2.. fig. 15. 

UuwukUt rf. tfvmcsm Tate & May. Ludbrook, 104J, Trims. Hoy. Soc\ S. AusU 65 ( 1 j . v .. 100, 

Diagnosis— Sculpture of prominent and strong axial ribs which are annulate 
« the shoulder and give the appearance of angulation to the whorl; 9 ribs on 
tab body whorl. 8 on the penultimate whorl Ribs crossed bv two spiral iirac 
on each whorl: intersections nodulose. There is an infrasutural line of nodules 
Willi iio corresponding lira, secondary to the primary sculpture. Base with -I 
spuiil lirae and taint growth axials. 

Description of Uolatypc— Shell minute, elongate-turrctcd about twice as 
Web as broad. ProtoeOTJch smooth and rmimineut of 1% globose turns, adult 
vvhorls 4 sculptured with prominent strong axial ribs, which are augubte at 
the shoulder and give an appearanee of angulation to the whorls; 9 ribs on the 
body whorl, 8 on the penultimate whorl. Bibs crossed bv 2 spiral lirae on each 
whorl, intersections nodulose. There, is an infrasutural' line on nodules, with 
no corresponding lira, secondary to the primarv sculpture. Suture not marked. 
W$G ikitly convex, with 4 spiral lirae and faint growth axials. Aperture snb- 
ovah\ angled above and somewhat produced below. Outer lip thin with a \am 
behind. Columella curved. 

Dimensions — Height 2-5; diameter 1-2 mm. 

Type Locality— Ilindmarsh Bore, 430-487 feet; Dry Crock Sands. 

Location of 1 1 olotijpe— Tate Mus. Col., Univ, of Adelaide. FT 5154 

Observations— This is a very beautiful little shell, strongly and conspicu- 
ously sculptured. It is nearest to T, tlenwssti (Tate & Mav) with which it 
was previously compared, but the sculpture is distinct from 'that specie*. 

Material— Holctype, Hinclmarsh Bore; 3 paratvpes. Weymouth's Bore 

Sfratigraphical Range— Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution— Adelaide District. 

Genus Kaurxelxa Ludbrook, 1941. 
Kuurnt'lta Ludbrook, 1941, Trans. Roy. Soc. S, Aust. 65 \ \ ), p. 6& 

Type species (monotypy) Kaumella denotata Ludbrook. 

Kaurnella denotata Ludbrook 
Kaurnella denotata Ludbrook. 1941, Trans. Roy, Soc, S. Anvt. ( C5 (I), p 88, pL 5, G^ 1, 

Diagnosis— Stout, subglobosc-conical; spire small, body whorl large! Whorls 
sculptured with numerous line spiral lirae which are generally more prominent 
nn the shoulder. Outer lip varicatc; in some specimens there are as many as 
seven conspicuous varices on each whorl, while hi others, the varices are absent 
or obsolete, being suggested merely by a faint tubcrculation of the prominent 
Jirae. 

Dimensions— Height 3*1; diameter 2-2 mm, 

Type Local ittj- Abattoirs Bore. 

Location of 11 olotype— Tate Mus. Coll., Vniv, of Adelaide, T1644. 

Observations— lherc is a considerable amount of variation in the strength 
of the vac ices on this species. Some specimens are strongly varicate and appear 
to be eostatc. while others have no appearance of costation and the varices are 
obsolete. There appears to be no other species, nor genus, with which the species 

fig 



can. be compared. It has been placed in the Kissoidae in which family it may 
be distinguished bv its low spire and large body whorl, iu addition to the 
widely spaced varices when they are present. 

Material— B paratypes. Abattoirs Bore; IS specimens, Weymouth s Jiorc; 1 
broken specimen. Iiiudmarsh Bore, 

Strut igrapl deal Raugv — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Adelaide District. 

Genus Cixcula Fleming, LS28. 
CLugufa lTnmiig, 1818, Encyd. Brit Supp. to fid. 4^6, 3 {\) 7 p. UL 

Type species (s.d. Cray, 1S47) Turbo cingullus Montagu. 

Subgenus Pelecyihum P. Fischer, 1885. 
Pcleajdhn 1\ Fisclir-r, 1871, iu Folin ft Wrier, Pfencfa ck- k Mer, I, p. 310 ttotti, ntui 
Peh>e)t(liurn Fisohrr. VB&o, tW* de Conch., p, 721. 
(EpftBtofc Hcdley, 1903, Mem. Aust. Mas., 4, p. 355,) 

Type species (monotypy) Pelectjdium venustuhnn Folin. 

Cingula (Pelecydium) eylindracea (Tenison-Woods). 
pi. S, fi- 16. 
Hmoina ajhndracau Tenison-Woods, 1878, £f6<\ Una. Sue N.S.W., 2, p. 206. 
Htew wt7ui« Tate, 1899b, Trans. Roy, Snc. S. Aust, 23 (,2>, p. 23b mm. .nut, tor fiiwca 

cylhuJracca ( Tenison-Woods ) mm krynicki, 1837. 
Kfcs/w (Amphithalamm) siwsom 'late & May, 1900, [runs. Kay, Soo. S. Aust, 24 : p. 100, 
pL 2fi T fig. 70, _ . . 

F.pigm* ciihndnwem (Tenison-Woods), Ludbrook, 1941, Ti<uk Roy. Soc. S. Aust-, bo 1 1 K 

p. ion. 

E})Wm cylindroma ( Tenisou- Woods i . Cotton, 1941, Id., 6S J3J. p. 30R. 
Epif'inx ctflindracus (lapsus calami for cylindraceux ) Tenison-Woods. J.asvron, IflfttJ. Kcc. 
"'Ausl.'Mus., 2*2 (3), p. 1276. 

Diagnosis— Pupiform. whorls S& Suture linear. Protoooneh ol 2 large 
globose turns, adult whorls slightly convex. 

Dinteu&iom — Height 5; diameter ] 5 mm. 

Location of llolotifpe—llolmt Museum ( ?). 

Material— Hypotype and 2 specimens.. Abattoirs Bore; 1 specimens, Hiiub 
marsh Bore; 1 specimen, Weymouth's Bore. 

Siralitiraphical liangc — Dry Creek Sands— Recent 

Geographical Distribution— Fossil— Adelaide District; Recent— \.S \V\. Vic- 
toria and Tasmania, 

Genus Rissoina d'Oibi»m\ 1840. 
RisxoiHii d'OrUitfm, 1N40. Voy. Amor. Mt'riJ. Molt, 5 (3),. p. 39o. 

Tvpe species (munolypy) Hisyioina inca d'Obigny. 

Rissoira nivca Adams 

HlkHOim hu./vj Adams, Ib'olb, Vox-. Zonl. Sor\,. p. 285. 

Wssniita tiratu Antias, 1880, Vrt\<:, Zool. Soc, p. 117, pi. 40, tig. 11. 

Hisxoinu limta Angas. Deunanl 8i Kilsrm, 1903, Iteft. OeoJ. fcurV. Vic. J. (*)> p. 144 

[i'mtdna nUum Adams, Ludbrook, 1941, Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Aust, 05 (1), p. 1(H). 

Diagnosis— FivuAy ribbed with about X9. nhlkpie ribs per whorl, obsolete 
anteriorly, strong on the body and penultimate whorls. 

Dimensions — Height 4; diameter L'3 mm. 

Tape Locality — Port Lincoln, S. Australia: Recent. 

Location of Holuti/pe — B.M. Coll. (Mns. Canning). 

Material — Kolotype and one eroded example, Weymouth's Bore. 

Strati 'graphical Ratine — Dry Creek Sands — Recent. 

Geographical Distribution — Southern Australi 



. a 
30 



lUssoina elcgantiila Angas, 

pi. 2. fiff. 18. 

Rksoinu elegantula Angas, 1880, Proo. Zool. Soc., p. 417, pL 40, fig. 10. 
Ris&oina elegantula Aagas, Tate, 1890a, Trans. Roy. Soc:. S. Aust, 13 (2), p. 177. 
Rissoina dcgantuLt Angas, Dcnnant & Kitson, 1903, Kec. Ceol. Suiv, Vic, 1 (2), p. J 44. 
Rhwina elegantula Angas, Ludbrook, 1941. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 65 (1), p. 100* 

Diagnosis — Longitudinally closely and regularly ribbed, about 8 per mm 
on the body whorl and 6 per mm. on the penultimate whorl. Interstices, especi- 
ally on the Jast whorl, crossed by fine lirae. 

Dimensions — Height 5; diameter 2 mm. 

Type Locality — Aldinga Bav, S. Australia; Recent 

Location of Ilolotype— KM. Coll., No. 81. 4.29.2. 

Material — Ilolotype and 4 specimens, Hindmarsh Bore; 1 specimen, Wey- 
mouth's Bore. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands — Recent. 

Geographical Distribution — Queensland to S, Australia. 

Rissotna aff. elegantula Angas. 
A single specimen, imperfect, from Hindmarsh Bore, has sculpture similar 
mi character to that of ft. elegantula. The axial ribs are, however, less fine and 
frequent than in that species, and the axial ribs spiral lirac are much more clearly 
defined- In the absence of further material, accurate diagnosis is deferred. 

Rissoina tinela sp, nov. 
pl. 2, fig. J 9. 

Diagnosis — Whorls convex; body whorl large, Suture impressed; sculpture 
of numerous close, fine, spiral threads. 

Description of Ilolotype — Shell elongate, turreted, fairly thin. Whorls 
convex, body whorl large, two-thirds total height of shell. Protoeoneh small, 
of 11& smooth turns, adult whorls 5, rapidly increasing. Suture strongly im- 
pressed. Sculpture of numerous fine spiral threads, wider than interspaces; 
interspaces under magnification with fine microscopic radials. Aperture large, 
angulatc behind and produced in front. Outer lip effuse, varicate. Columella 
gently arcuate, inner lip reflected slightly, 

Dimensions — Height 5: diameter 2-5; height of body whorl 3 mm. 

Type Locality — I find marsh Bore, 450-487 "feet; Dry Creek Sands. 

Location of Ho/o type— Tate Mus. Coll., Univ. of Adelaide, F13155. 

Observations — This unique specimen is somewhat like R. lintca Hedley h 
May and R. elegantula Angas, It differs in sharpe from R. tinlea in that 'the 
whorls arc convex and the suture impressed, not canaliculate as in lintca. The 
sculpture is reminiscent of R, elegantula, but is very much finer and only obvious 
under magnification, 

Material — Holotype, Hindmarsh Bore. 450-487 feet; Dry Creek Sands. 

Stratigraphical Range — Dry Creek Sands. 

Geographical Distribution — Hindmarsh Bore. 

Family TORN1DAE. 
Subfamily OMVHAix>rnupiNAE. 
Genus Pseujxjltotta Tate, 1S98. 
Psntulalvftitt Tate, 1898a, Trans, Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 22 (1 ), p, 71. 

Type species (mouotypy) Cyclostrema micans A* Adams. 

Pseudoliotia angasi (Crosse) 
pl. 2, fig. 20. 
Cifcloxtrema micans Adams. 3850, Vroc. Zool. Soc, IS, x>. ^4 (in part). 
htrma angasi Crosse, 1864, Journ, de Conch., 12, p. 313, pl. 13, fig. 4. 

31 



f.iotia mgasi Crosse Tryuu. 1888, Man, Coach., 10. p. 68, pi. 31, fi^s. 17, IS. 

Liotia auiftm Crosse, Tak\ 189Q, Trans. Roy. Hoc. S, Aust., IS {•!), p. 177. 

Cycfostrema wirav* Adams, Tate, 1807, Tmnx. Roy. Soc, S. Aust, 21, p. 43, 

Cyvlostrcmri micans A. Adams, Dennant & Kitson, 1903, Rue, Ceol. Surv. Via, 1 (2), p. i 15- 

PuituthiliQlui (mgasi Crosst\ Cotton & Godfrey, 1938, Mai. .Soc. S. Anst. ; 1, p. 8 t 

Diagnosis — A small PscudoJiotia, solid, shining, rather coarsely sculptured 
*pire smooth tit the apex: early whorls rounded, postcmbryonic whorls angulate. 
developing first one spiral cord increasing to one fine subsutural cord and tllree 
prominent medial cords on the body whorl with an additional thick cord bound- 
ing die umbilicus, Cords crossed and strongly tuboreulatcd by axial spiral-* 
which increase in strength and distance apart and number about 20 On tin. 
buds \s Iiorl. 

Dimensions — Height L-o; diameter 3 mm. 
Pi/pc LapaHty — St. Vincent Gulf, S. Australia. 
Location of Uolottfpe— R.M. ColL No. 70. 10.26.139. 

Obbcntftians — The two species, P. micans Adams and P. un&u-si Crow, 
have been confused in South Australian literature and the name micans has 
bcTO omitted from the Hecent iLst by Cotton & Godfrey < iUoS, p. 8) in the 
erroneous belief that the type locality of micans is Japan. Tins error was in- 
troduced by Tate (1899, p. 22&) and has apparently not been rectified smcc. 
The type locality. Tort Lincoln (Adams, LS30\ p, 44), is confirmed by the 
lubietol' type specimens in the Hnhsh Musemn. The species should, therefore, 
be replaced on the South Australian list P angasi Crosse, alleged to be con- 
spi-eifio with micans, is a very similar shell, but more coarsely sculptured than 
m'n ans. One of the 13 specimens on the tablet of types ol P. micans is P. an%avi. 
It is impossible to tell without examination of the aetual specimens whether 
Tate's subspecies simplicior (IS9S. p. 71) is micans or angusi, but the name 
indicates that it is micans. V fate later (181)9, p. 223; erroneously listed in 
s\ uouymy this .subspecies as gracillor. Dry Creek Sands specimens are mft 
micans, but the more boldly sculptured angasi. 

Materia! — The figured hypotype an<l 2 other specimens,. Temrant's Hure 
1 broken specimen. Abattoirs Here, hololvpe and I pnratypo. H.M. Coll, No 
70 10.26.139. 

Slniti&vaphical Range — Dry Creek Sands-Recent. 
Geographical Dhtrilmthm — South Australia, 

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pHtMiei. li A,. .1817. Versnch oincr fiy-slematiseheu Eiulheilu!L*i des Gr.sohlechtes Troohns 

" '/eits. Malak/ool Feb. 
pu.smiv. 11. A,, 188V), Toon's Manual oi Conrholo'i>. 11, 
Pu.si.ua-, 11 K t 1^90. umh. 12. 
i'iLSBDY,, II. A., Ifc91. On the- Use of the Generic iName bcutellina. Naolilu^ 5 fSJ, v \>. 

Mil" S 1 -) 

PiLsunv. f(> A., and Sli^HF, H,, 1S97-S. Seajihopoda. Tryson's Manual of Coneho|(^y, 1,7, 

pp 1-280, pis. 1-30. 
PKXTCH,vmi, G. J3., bb96. A Revision of the Fossil Fauna Hf the liable Cape Beds. l^ismaDi^, 
, with Descriptions oi New Species. Pioe, Kov. Soe. Vie., 8 (n.s.), pp. 7-1 15<». 

pis. 2-4. . 

Ibsso, A., 1M2U. Hisloire Naturr-lle des principales PiodoetlrmK de 1 Europe mcridionalc, 4. 
Huoing P. F., 179o'. Museiim rloltonianum, Hamburg, 2. 
S\os, NT.. 1K59. Bklraff til en Skildriruj :t f det^ uieUsle .MuIliisKLnma \od Norges noidli^' 

K\st. Forhond. Vjdens. SelaC Christianin. Anr lh58. 
:_io\TFru^, Oi B., 1<S94. Description _ot a New .Species of Marine Shells from Honj* Kone. 

Pi or. Malae. S<jc., 1, p. 13S. 
STOru/iCA 1'.. 1'SOy, Cretnoeons Fauna of Southern IntUa. Mem. Geol. Sure. Tr.diu, Pal. 

b.dlrn S. 
Swriat, If,, i013. Manual of New Zealand Mollusea,. 1,120 pp. 
SwAiNMJN, W-, 18f(*. A Treatise on Malacology. London. 
■SWAfNSO.%. \V >j 1S55. On the Gh;iraeters of Astele, a new Division io the F:irnil> of 

Tioehinae or Troclufonu Shells; .... Ptoc, Tloy. Soe. van Diemen's Land. Tas- 

numia, ii (1), pp. 36-41, fit 6. 
'Lvih Km I&S7. The LamelhbranclLS of thu older Tertiary o\ Australia. Part 2. Trans 

Hoy. Soe. S. Aust, 9, pp. 142-200, pis 14-20, 
l\wv 1L. 1890a. On the Discovers of Marine Deposit.? of Pliocene Age (a Australia. Trans. 

Hoy. So,.-. S. Aust. t 13 (2), lip. 172-180. 

84 



fA-ie, R. ( l&JOb. The Gastropods of the Older Tertiary of Australia (Part 3). Trans. Roy. 

Soc. 8, Aust, 13 (2), pp. 185-235, pis. 5-13. 
Tat*:. R., 1898. On Two Deep-level Deposits of Newer Pleistocene Ajfc in Mouth Australia. 

Trans, Roy. Soc. S. Ausl., 22 (1), pp. 65-71. 
T*t& B., 1899. A Revision of Australian Cyctostrematidae and Liotiidae. Trans. Rnv. Stiff. 

& Aust, 23 (2), pp. 213-248, pis. 6, 7. 
J'Atr., R„ 1 899. A Revision of the Older Tertiarv Mollusca of Australia, Part I» Trans. 

Soy. Soc, S> Aust. ? 23 (2h pp. 249-277. " 
T.vie. R., and Dknnanj, J., J 893. Correlation of the Marine Tertiarios of Australia. Part 

]. Tl-tW* Roy. Soc. 8, Aust. 17 (1), pp. 203-220. 
Tvjt, # R-, and DtiNNANi', ?.. 1895. Correlation of the Marino Tortiaries of Australia. Part 

2: Victoria. Tr^n*. Hoy, Soc. S. Aust., 19 (1), pp. IOfi-121. 
Tatt^ R„ and May. W. L.> 1900. Descriptions of New Genera and Species of Australian 

Mollusca (chiefly Tasmanian). Trans. Hoy. .W, S. A<M., 21 (2), pp. 90-103. 
Tnisr.rc, J.. IR03. Ifc Trosehoh F. H. Das der Schneekeu zur Bcjrrundioig eim-t naturliehen 

Classification, 2. 
Tiiirle, J., 19015. Cocculinoidea und dio Gattmigcn Fhenacolepas and Titiscanui. fa 

Martini and Chemnitz, Sy.stematisches Conehylicn-CahmH,, 2 (33), 539. 
Thyon, W-* 1888. Manual of Conchology, 10. 
Valenciennks, A., 1833. Coquilles Fluviatiles Bivalves du Nouvcuu Continent. reeoillos 

pendane le voyage do Mm. dc Humboldt et Bompland. Humbojt & fioinplarid, 

Reeueil d'Observ. do Zool. et d\\nat. Comp.. (2), pp. 217-339. 
Wfistz, W., 1938. Gastropoda, TTanclb. Falao/.ool, 2, pp. 4S0-72O, 
Woods, ,T. K. Tenisok-, 1876a. On Some Tert.aTv Fossils from Table Cnpe. Proc. Roy. 

Sr>C, Tas for lxS75, pp. 13-26. * 

Woons. I. K . Ti-:*rw>x-, !S76h. Description of ?frff Tusmaman Shell*. Proc. far. Soc. 

la*, lor 1*75, pp. I34-lp2 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

PLATE 1 
Fig, \.—Si}ik(iwn{cnta(iut7i (Puhellum) adi'luidrn.'n-- sp, nov,, hoJotypo. x 5. 
Via,. ■l.-Cadiifus (Cadila) acuminatum Tate, hypotype. Dr> r Creek Bore; \ 5. 
\'i\i, 3.—Coduln (Ih'u-hides) ijatalrnsis sp. nov. A hnlotypc, x o. 
hijus 4.—Catluhtx (Dischides) uatateiisiS op, nov., para'type. AWtroirs Bore, \ 3, 
Fie;. 5— DemW/mm (Fissidentatium) muivsoni sp. nov., holutvpe, x 1 85. 
Ftg. O.-Dentalhtm (Fhsidentalntm} mowttoiii sp. nov., paratyrpe, Ft. Murrav Cliffs, x2. 
Fig. l.~Di*\Uulinvt ( Antalis) denotatum sp. nov., paratype, Abattoirs Bore, v 3: apoy ;oid 

aperture enlarged. 
Y\£. S.—Dentaltum (AntaU->) denotatum sp. nov., paraLype, Abattoirs Bore, apical portion y 10. 
Kljf. \).~Dctttcdium {Antfd.is) denotatum sp, nov.. holotype, x3. 
Fig. I0.-rV»rY//0n» {Oc.ntalwm) lutesulcatum Tate, hololype. x2, fit*. Rta. Detail of Wh 

.sculpture. 
Fig. 1 1 . Dentalium { Dc.nUdium ) laU-aulcatum Tate, holofype of U, ( Vunuhmtalium ) 

howchini Cotton & Ludbrook. > 2, 
i-'iK- l-2.— DcntftLium (l)ml'dium) latrmkutum > TatP, 7-ribbed juveuile. Abattoirt Bute, \ t. 
Fi£. 13.— Dcntulium (UcnUdium) latcntlefttum Talc. i;3-nbht_J juvenile. \ 2. 
Fig. 14. -IVjuV/Z/uw (Dentfdiiim) fa hvu lea turn '1'at^ 13-ribbed iiuni-^torr sprviiu. i., \y. v 

moiitli'^ Roic. x 2. 

i'LA'ih: 2 
1't'tS. i.-Couculinella MtpilhiryW^k up. nov., holorypo, Tenoanl's Boo . feB ?j. 
Fij.v 2.—EmargimUn duiaetieu sp. nov.. hoiotype, Abartoirj, Bore, apical intlJ fateral wuc, * .*■ _'. 
Fi^. 3.—Emargiti\da difahn'ut sp. utiv.. holotype, Hindmarsb Bore, x 3 2, 
Ki^. 4.— Upectamen pUinicarinatum sp. nov.. holorypo. Abattoirs Bore, x 7. 
Fig. S.-Sptvfrt/ncn pracetmor *p, uov. ? lu>lotype, Weymouth s Bore, s 5*2. 
H'ij^, (j,~Liotiria (Muttditta) tusmanim Tcnison- Woods, b^otypi.^. Abattoirs Bote, \ !-:». 
Fig. 7 ,—CoUoim omissa sp. nov., Iiolorypc. Abattoirs Rote, x 4-3. 
Pjfij S.-As/./o/z (Krffmfmi) hfipgrtft sx). iio\., ho!ot>p:% Abattoirs Rorc, Apical and lateral 

views. x2-6. 
I'ig. d.-Pc.Jlax jetumi s L i- no%., lu»li-t>-pc. Weymouth's bore-, \ 8-6. 

Fig. \0—At)tphithohuutw (Btxiiim) suhhkalor sp. nov., hololypi;, Abattturs Bore. xS-fi. 
Fig. II. -Mvrelhui ( Uncmeia) rotheulptu sp. nov., hobtype*. Abattoirs Bore. \ .SO 
Fig. I3i— AtnphUlwiumus (Pfeinna) chrvsalidus (Chapnian \V Gabriel), bvootvpe. Mucldv 

Creek, R.\t. Coll., C 39560, v5-2, ' 

Fur. 13.— TeiHoalnma deprexsuhnn Cliapman & Gabriel, hypolyp:-, HintlioiuJ) Bore, x I.J. 
Fig. lA.—TurhocUn pntennvairnsis sp. nov., boIot>p-.% Abattoirs Bore, v 8 ft. 
Fiir. 1 5,— Tin ho HUi ciinwUae sp. nov. holotype, TRnc l ov»vsb Ron- i C14 

35 



Fig. lG.—Cingula ( Pelect/dium ) cylindracca ( Tenison- Woods ) , hvpotvpe, Abattoirs Bore 

x.5-2. 
Fig. 17 .—Starkeyna pulcherrima (Chapman & Gabriel), hypotype, Abattoirs Bore, x 6. 
Fig. 18 —Rissoina elegantula Angas, hypotype, Hindmarsh Bore, x 7. 
Fig. 19.— Rissoina tinela sp. nov., holotypc, Hindmarsh Bore, x 6. 
Fig. 20. —Pseud olio tiu angasl (Crosse), holotype, Holden's Bore, x 6. 



36 



N. II. LUDBROOK 



Plate 1 




•M^ 






N. H. LUDBROOK 



Plate 2 




NHL 



MICROFOSSILS FROM PLEISTOCENE TO RECENT DEPOSITS. 
LAKE EYRE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

byN. H. Ludbrook 



Summary 

Samples from sands, clays and limestones on the south-eastern corner of Lake Eyre were found to 
contain remains of fresh or brackish water microscopic plants and animals which inhabit inland and 
coastal lagoons, together with species of brackish water foraminifera. Deposition probably took 
place during Pleistocene high sea levels. 



MICROFOSSILS FROM PLEISTOCENE TO RECENT DEPOSITS, 
LAKE EYRE, SOUTH AUSTRALIA. 

By N. H. Ludbhook* 

[Read 14 April 1955] 

I. SUMMARY 

Samples from sands, clays and limestones on the aouth-cask'rn corner of Lake Ey*3 
were found to contain remains of fresli or brackish water microscopic plants and animals 
which inhabit inland and coastal lagoons, together with -Species of brackish water foramini- 
fera. Deposition probably took place during Pleistocene high sen levels. 

II. INTRODUCTION 

Samples from two shallow boreholes sunk with a post-hole digger on the 
south-eastern corner of Lake Eyre and from a thick shell bed 36 feet above 
the present level of the lake were submitted for routine micropalaeontological 
examination by Mr. D. King, Geologist, South Australian Department of Mines, 
who was a member of the party led by Mr, Warren Bonython to Lake Eyre 
North, 400 miles north of Adelaide in May, 1953. The object of the expedition 
was to investigate further the geography and geology of the lake and the occur- 
rence of native sulphur observed on the lake shore "in December, 1951, after the 
flooding in 1949-50. 

Bore No. 1 situated on the flat between dunes, Arbitrary Reduced Level 
of surface Ufl -75 ft., passed through the following strata: 
Oft. Oin. to Oft 6in.\ Yellow-brown, very fine, slightly clayey quartz sand with 

grit. Residue after washing consists of subangular quartz grains usually 

etched and pitted on the surface, some large grains of opaline silica 

and an occasional oolite, of calcite. 
Oft. Gin. to 2ft 4in.: Fine yellow-brown quartz sand, similar to that at the surface. 
2ft 4fn. to 4ft. Gin.: Yellow-brown fine clayey sand, washed residue of subangular 

quartz grains with a little oolitic calcite. 
4ft 6in. to 6ft. Bin.: Yellow-brown fine clayey sand, washed residue of sub- 
angular quartz grains of varying size with well-rounded grains of 

eryptocrystalline silica. 
6Tt dm, to 7ft. 9in,: Pale yellow-brown coarse to gritty saud with some gypsum; 

washed residue mainly of quartz grains of varying size and some 

gypsum fragments. 
7ft 9in, to 10ft. 3hx: Brown clay with fine and crystalline gypsum and quartz 

grit; washed residue of quartz grains of varying size with both seed 

and crystalline gypsum. 
10ft 3iu. to 12ft 10in.: Fine gypseous sand and clay; washed residue of large 

subrounded quartz grains much etched on the surface. 
12ft, lOin. to 16ft 4in.: Light brown sandy clay; washed residue of coarse quartz 

grains, many of them rather flat and of even size, and some gypsum 

crystals, 
16ft. tin. to ISft. Sin.: Banded varicoloured plastic clay; washed residue similar 

to the previous 

* Department of Mines, Adelaide. Published with the permission of the Director of Mine* 

37 



Ifift Sin (<i 21lt. 4m: Fine gravel with white limestone fragments; the coarse* 
fraction of the washed residue consists of largo quartz grains finely 
etched on the surface, and fragments of poreelluiiite and limestoiie. 
2111. 4in. to 22ft Oiu.; Black clay; the finer fraction (passing through 20 mesh) 
of the washed residue consists of subangular quart/ grains with some 
limestone fragments. Also present an; a number of pluty grains of 
saponite with laminar intergrow ths of finely divided pyrite, 
22ft Uin. to 22ft. 5 in.: TIard white dnlnmitic limestone with a gastropod mould- 
Such friable material as could be washed free of clay yielded wliitc 
limestone fragments, subangular quartz grains some of them flat, and 
plates of pyrite crystals. 
More No. •!. — Situated half mile south-east of TiescoH- Foiui al the norlh 
ot Sulphur Fenmsula, passed through: 
Oft. to 2ft. 3in.; Talc brown clayey sand; waslied residue of medium luiily 

even-sized subangular quartz grains with some limestone fragments. 
2ff. 3iu. to 3ft. Gin., Grey sandy clay; washed residue of fine angular and sub- 
angular quart/, grains, some so little worn as to still retain their crystal- 
line form* 
3ft. ttjri. to 12ft. Oin.: Brown clay; washed residue of angular quartz grains, some 

very fresh, and an occasional grain of pyrite. 
12ft. Oin. to 16ft. lOin.; Blue, very sticky clay; washed residue of medium-sized 
suhangular quartz grains and calcite fragments, with authigenic pyrite 
some of which is intcrgrown with saponite. 
luTr.IOin. to 17ft. Oin.: Hard white limestone, the friable portion of which was 
washed, leaving a residue of medium-sized sulmugnlar quart/ grains. 
white calcite fragments and a pale green mineral of the bHdellitc- 
itontronite scries, held together by ealeire. 
Without exception, the samples were f ossiferous, almost all having oogonia 
of Chara and relatively fewer heavily calcified valves of ostracoda and tests at 
~Rota.Ua" becrarii. The distribution of the organisms is shown in tabulated form 
at the end of the paper. The sands and sandy clays hi Borehole 1 from the sur- 
face to 16ft. 4in. apparently represent the most favourable environment for their 
development; it is suggested that these represent a period of increasing salinity 
in the lake. 

Two other samples were examined for identifiable mierofossils with negative 
results; 

1. Crey clay interstratificd with limestone from Position K, point at small island 
with sand spit. 

Very liUle. residue remained after washing, and this consisted mainly of flat. 
worn grains of calcite with some angular quartz grains. 

2. Douse white clayey limestone taken from 3ft. 6in. to 4ft. Oin. in a bore at 
Locality C. 

The only organic remains are horny tubes of unidentified origin. The most 
interesting sample was taken at position S{ from the upper shell bed, consisting 
almost entirely of shells of Coxialhi {.'jle-si (Aogas), The unconsolidated matrix 
was found to contain numerous valves of two species of ostrac.oda and thin- 
shelled, well-preserved fcfi\ of a form of "tlotatia" I'tcrarii, together with a 
small number of oogonia of Chara. One broken fragment of the pelecypod 
Corhirnlina, not .specifically identifiable, was found, and" some indetermiuatf fish 
vertebrae 1 . 

in. environment 

Regional investigations have not yet reached the stage where it is possible 
to determine whether conditions of sedimentation were lacustrine or ostuarine. 
Since mv preliminary note ( hudbrcok, 1953) was published Dr. R. W. Fair- 

8« 



bridge has iu^gested to me that the rnicrnfannal assemblage is one which would 
naturally inhabit an extensive gulf or estuary reachiug Lake Eyre via Lake 
Torrens from the head of Spencer's Gulf during the high sea level phases of 
the Pleistocene. While this is certainly feasible, freshwater lake deposits now- 
represented by indurated oolitic ostraeode limestones, similar to the dolomitxc 
limestone in which the borings ceased, have been found in widely separated 
localities in the west of South Australia. Whether the lacustrine environment 
persisted at Lake Eyre, increasing salinity providing a favourable milieu for 
brackish water organisms which had been introduced by birds, or whether 
freshwater lakes were transformed during part of the Pleistocene into the estuary 
suggested by Dr. Fairbridge can be determined only by observations made on 
a regional scale. * 

IV. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
T am indebted to the Petrology Section, Department of Mines, for identifi- 
cation of the saponitn and beiclellite-nontronite minerals, to Dr. H. B. S. Wumers- 
lc-v tor placing specimens ol Characcae belonging to the Botany Department, 
University of Adelaide, at my disposal, to Mr. B. C. Cotton for allowing me 
Id examine mollusca in the South Australian Museum, and to Dr. Rhodes Fair- 
bridge for drawing my attention to the possible conditions of deposition 

V. FAUNA 

FdU/VMlNTFEHA 

Family XONIONIDAE. 

Genus Ei.FHn>ru\r Mont fort. LSOS. 

Type species Nautilus mardlus- Fichtel & Moll* 

(?) Flphidiuin advenum (Cushman). 

pl. L fig- 9 

Tor early .synonymy see Caishman, 1939, U.S.G.S. I'ruf. Paper 101. p. 01 iWitnui***. 
1949, Gush. Lab. ftqttN. Ties. Spec. Pub., 25, p. 167. 
RlyihUiium tulrcuum (Cushman), 1014- Cuslunm Lub. Foram. Hesp Spec, I^ib , 12. p. 2£i, 

pt 'X ft« 9$j 
Etphtdutm ndcenum (Cushman) Hovvchin & Parr, 1938, Trans. Hoy, Snc, S, Aust.. 62 (21, 

p, 209, 
KipJtulium adwmum Cushman, Parr, 1943. \ful. Soc. S Aust Pub, 3 3 p. 20; J950, Intuit 

Hoy SfH\ W Aust,,. aC p. 73* 

Material— One worn specimen, sample F173/53 Bore 1, Oft 0in ( -0ft. 6in. 

The calcified condition of the single specimen renders identification very 
doubtful, Us occurrence only in the surface sample of Bore 1 suggests that the 
species may have been introduced by birds and had no continuous existence 
itt the area. On the other hand, it is recorded as occurring frequently in the 
late Pleistocene "Area" horizon of Peppermint Grove (Parr/ 1950). 

* Sintv the above waf submitted lot public a Lion, Mr. V, 1R. Rao lias shown mo n ymper 
hy Jacob, Sa*try and Sastri on the Mieroiosslls of thn Tmpure Gypsum from the Jamsar Mine, 
Bikanea\ published in the Proceed intrs ol' the Symposium on the Hajptirami Desert (ftolJetin 
of the National Institute of Sciences or' India 1, September, Hi52). Tbo authors record 
(p. (18) the occurrence of i VJwm > Qsfcr&BOtfa mid a few small shallow water marine Fora- 
minifera in the Intc-rrmppcan beds of Kajabnnmdry" which thev believe to he or' Eocene 
ape. and attribute the presence of Cham to it* jidiig U ;immorted from lYesU-walor areas. In 
a supplementary note (,p. 69) they record the diseovery of the fr.raminifer Dixt'urhf.^ prob- 
ably blown in by tbe wind, with shells of Yivipara bengaletmx (L*«fM and Cfuira "fruits" 
in gypsum deposits at Siasar. 

Recently, an assemblage identical, except for minor specific differences, to (hat in the 
Lake Eyre clays has been recovered from surface silty s:mds in swamp*; bordering Lftftfi 
Alevandrina. Here also Chant is associated with CoxreUa, ostracodes, "UotalUt" hercarii var. 
tcpta/i and EJphidwm tfv/tvnton. 

3u 



Howchin (1901, p. 9) postulated dispersal by birds of the two species of 
Elphitliiun which he discovered in the silt at Yorketown Lagoon.* 

Genus Noniok Montfort, 1S08. 
Type species Nautilus incras-satus Fichtel & Moll. 

r?) Nonion scapha (Fichtel & Moll) 
pi. 1, fig. JO. 
for sx.mnvmy sec Ctishman, 1939. U.S.G.S. Prof. Paper, 191, p. 20. 
Sonton uuipha Fichtel & Moll Parr, 1943, Mai. Soe. S. A»st, Pub. 2, p. %)- 
Nonion scaphum (Fichtel & Moll). Cushman, 19-16, Cash. Lab. Foram. Res. Spec. Pub., 
17, p. 14. 

One specimen, sample Fl 77/53. 
Bore 1. 6ft. 6m.-7ft.9in. 

As the test is coated with tliin calcile and the aperture obscured, idenli 
fieation of this species is tentative only. 

Family ANOMALINEDAE 

Genus Cibicides Montfort 1808* 

Type species Cibicides refulgent Montfort. 

Cibicides refulgens Montfort 
pi I, figs. 11, 12. 

For early synonymy sec Cushman, 1931. UA Nat Mas. Bull., 104, pt. 8, p. 110, 
Cibfcidcs rcfuleens Montfort, Cushuniu & TocM, 104& Cush. Lab. Forum. He.s. Spec. Pub., 
15 p. TO. Cushman & Gray, 1946, id. Spec, Pub., 19, p. pi, 8, fins 15-17. Cushman & 
Todd, 1947, ti t Spec. Pub.. 21, p. 23, pL 4, Gg. 7. Chapman & Parr, 19-35. Journ. Ri» , 
Soc. S. Aust... 21, p, 3, Crespin, .1943, Min. Res. Sur. Bulb, 9 (Pal. Ser. 4), p. iH (mimeo- 
graphed). Parr. 1950, Jonrn. Roy. Soc. W. Aust,, 34, p, 71. 

Material — One specimen, Sample F. 

Borehole 4. .3ft. 6in.-12ft Oin. 

The specimen recovered is small and well preserved and typical tti the 
species. Although its occurrence also suggests fortuitous introduction, it was 
recorded as common in the late Pleistocene ''Area' horizon, Peppermint Grove. 

Family ROTALHDAE. 

Genus Rotalia Lamarck, 1804, 

Type species Rofalia trochidiformis Lamarck. 

"Rotalia" beccarii Linr.e cf. var. tepida Cushman, 

v \. i, aw. m, i \.. 15 

Rotalia bcacarii (Lame-) var. tepida Cushman, 1920, Caniepie Inst., Washington, Pub. 344, 
p, 79, pL 1. D. K. Palmer, 1945, Bull Amer. Pal., 29 (115), p. 60 (fde Bet- 
rnudez), Bermudcz, 1949, Cush. Lab. Foram. Res. Spec. Pub., 25, p. 234. 

SfrMuf hsccorii (Lmne) var. cf. tepida (Cushman)* ISM^ J&30, Journ. Hov. Soe. \\ , 
Anst M 31, p. 22. 

Material — Calcified specimens, as many as 49 in one sample, from almost 
all but 5 samples from Jiorcholcs i and 4; numerous (over 100) well-preserved 
specimens from matrix of upper (Coxtella) shell bed. 

The occurrence of this species in almost every sample including the sulphur 
bed suggests that its introduction has not been completely fortuitous, Two 
possibilities present themselves: the first, that widespread estuarine conditions 
during the late Pleistocene enabled the species to spread towards Lake Eyre 
from the head of Spencer's Gulf, the second, that the variety has been intro- 
duced by birds or by winds into shallow saline lakes in the late Pleistocene 
atid finding a favourable habitat rapidly established itself. 

* The uppermost eighteen inches of gypseous mud m PeeaeyV Swamp Yorke penin- 
sula, carries it brackish-water iniernfamia dominated by ElphhHum advenam in association 
with the gastropoda Coxivlla confma Smith, BatiUaria (Butillurrdhi) cstuarma (Tate) and 
ostxacodes, This fauna -k distinct from that of the underlying travertine-capped, loosely 
consolidated "Recent shelly sandstone and limestone which eamYs abundant murine littoral 
molhisea ami forumiiiifem. 

40 



All specimens show abundant evidence of environmental influence. As 
compared with marine examples of the species, the tesls are small and variable 
in shape. Those recovered from the clays of Borehole 1 and Borehole 4 art* 
all heavily calcified. Very few showed the umbilical plug generally charac- 
teristic of the species, 

Al] the Lake Eyre specimens appear, so far as one can determine in the 
absence of authentic topotypes for comparison, to be close to the variety Icpklu 
described by Cushman (1926, p. 79) from shallow and stagnant water at Porto 
Rico. It has been recorded and illustrated by Bermudas (1949, p. 234 3 pi. 15, 
figs. 49-51) associated with a shallow water molluscan fauna from the Upper 
Miocene of Las Salmas Formation Dominican Republic and by Pair from' the 
JbcflT horizon, Peppermint Grove. 

The two specimens figured show the degree, of variation presented by the 
Lake Eyre specimens. One (pi. L fig- 15) is typical of the calcified tests ob- 
tained from the clays of the bores, the other (pi. 1, figs. 13, 14) is a some- 
what extreme example of the form which occurs numerously in the Coxiclla 
bed, It is characterized by its small, fairly thin test, only slightlv limbate sutures 
and absence of umbilical plug. The astral lobe, if developed at' all, is frequently 
broken and not preserved. 

Class PELECYPODA 
Supcrfumilv SPHAEREALEA. 

Family CORBICUL1DAR, 
Genus Coubicuuna Dall, 1903. 
Corbknlhia I Jail, I&ltf; IVoc. Bio!. Socv Washington, 16, p. G. 

Type species (inouotypy) Corbicula angasi Prime. 
Corbiculina sp. indet. 
Material - One broken specimen, sample F172/53. 

A fragment only of the hinge portion of a juvenile shell was collected From 
the upper shell bed. In view of extreme intraspcerfic variation in this RCttftft 
it is impossible to decide whether it is the Recent species Corhindinn dcsoJata 
(Talc) or not. 

Class GASTROPODA 
Super family RISSOACEA 
Family ASSIMINEIDAE, 
Genus Coxjklla Smith, 1894. 
Coxkiln Smith, 1894, Troc-. Malar. &)£?. 1, p. 9M. 
iniunjonlia Co\ r 1868, Mon. Ausi. Land Shells, p. 94, non Mentis.) 
{Coxklladda IretLile. & Wbitloy, 1V3H, S. Aust. Nat, IS (3). p. 66.) 

inhinrlfnrrtia Tate 1894., Trans. lloy\ Sr»r, S, Aust, 18, p. 196, lapsus calami foi BltmfardhJ 
Type species (inouotypy) Trvncatclla striatula \icnk<\ 

Coxiella gilesi (AaigasV 
pl. 1, fig 1. 
Paludinrilu gilesi Auras, 1877, Troc. Zool. So<% March, p. 169, pl. 26. fit;. &, 
Pahdirwlla gilesii Angus. Tate & Bra/ier, ISSi, Pioe. Linn, Son. \ b'.W., 6, p; 5(34 
Blandfardto Stirling Tate, 1891, Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Amt, IS. p 19fj 
Cotlclladda gihrti Irndalc & Whitley, 1938,' S. Aust, Nut.. 18 (.}), p, W. 
Coxielhdda gitesi Augas. Cotton, 194*2, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 66 <2J, p. 129. 

Description — Shell thin, globosc-tnrbinate, perforate, with a rathci low 
spire, apparently orange or flash-coloured, but almost always bleached white. 

Apex subacute, flattened at the origin, protoconch of V* flatly convex almost 
smooth turns constricted at the suture, followed by 4% roundly convex whorls 
fairly rapidly increasing in size, arcuate in profilc/sculptured with fine, some- 
what irregular, transverse growth strial. Sutures impressed, strongly marked. 
Body whorl large, about three-quarters total height of shell. Umbilicus narrow, 
generally almost concealed by the expansion of the aperture over the coIouHLi 

41 



Aperture subovate. roundly ungulate posteriorly aud rounded anteriorly, 
peristome entire, everted over the columella, parietal callus thin and frequently 
broken. 

Dimensions of Figured Specimen — Height 5 o: "Width 4- height o! body 
whorl 4; height of apertme 3*7; width of aperture 2 rnm. 

Type Locality — Lake Eyre. 

Holoiype — British Museum. 

Material — Innumerable specimens, upper shell bed, Lake Kym North. 

Disirihiition — Lake Eyre, Lake Callabonna. 

Observations — There is no evidence that this shell has survived desiccation 
of the area. Although both Angas, who described the Lake Eyre species, and 
Tat'* who described its Lake Callabonna counterpart, found oue specimen re- 
taining the original colour, all the specimens seen by the writer have been 
bleached white. 

The species is closely related morphologically and in apparent habitat tn 
Coxiella confusu (Smith) found sometimes in enormous numbers in submar 
ginal lagoons and salt lakes in the southern part of the State. The genus is 
eiu'vhaline, with a very wide range of salinity tolerance covering from fresh- 
water to waters more saline than the sca ? its preference apparently being foi 
the latter. 

Iredaie and Whitley (1938, p. 66) introduced withoul diagnosis the name 
Cuxieltachla for Faludina (sic) gilesi Angas. On morphological grounds, it is 
impossible to select diagnostic generic characters to justify Ihc genus. Intra 
specific variation in Coxiella is considerable, particularly in the height of the 
spire, and to give this the status of generic diagnosis (Cotton 1f-)42, p. 129) can 
hardly be supported- Neanic specimens of Coxiella eonfusa bear a very close 
resemblance to adults of Coxiella gitesi. 

The species described by Tate (1894, p. 196) as Dlandfordia atirlin&i is 
almost certainly conspecific with the present species, although only a statistical 
analvsis of the very numerous examples from the two areas can establish the 
fact. Tate (Lc.p.195) noted the relationship between the southern Coxiella 
eonfusa (~ Blanfordia striafulu Tate non Menkc), Increasingly saline condi- 
tions in Lake Eyre doubtless provided a favourable milieu for the develop- 
ment of innumerable Goviellas. In this environment Pon1oetf})ris attenuata 
could also survive and "Rntalia" l.ieccarii although inadequately nourished^ 
maintain a foothokl 

The affinities of the genus Coxiella are ill-defined. Wenz ( 193$, p, 582) 
places it in the Tomichiinac, subfamily of the TrunealclUdae lo which it ap- 
pears to the writer to be not closely related. It is here placed in the Assiwi- 
neidac: it seems to be close to Pahidiri-lla in which gi/r.si \wts originally placed 
by An^as. 

O.STUACODA. 

Family CYPR1DAE. 

Genus Cytius Mullor. 

Type species Cypm pubera Unller, 

(?) Cypris sp. 

pt, 1, figs. 7, S- 

Description — Carapace viewed laterally, broadly renifonn, greate&t height 

in the middle, equal to more than half the length. Anterior extremity gently 

arcuate, proterior extremity flatly rounded; dorsal margin arched, highest b'i 

front of the middle ventral margin sinuated in the middle valves unequal right 

slightly larger than left and overlapping it in part of the middle of the dorsal 

margin. 



Surface when well preserved sculptures with a fine reticulate pattern. Ad- 
ductor muscle scars four in the middle of the shell, frequently visible from 
the outside. 

Dimensions — Leugth 0-6 mm.j width 0-36 mm. 

Observations — Although it is generally obscured by a coating of calcitc 
which may be very thick, the reticulate sculpture readily characterizes the 
species which 1 have not so far been able to identify. 

Genus Pontocyfris G. O. Sars, 1866, 
Type species Pontoct/pris trigonella G. O. Sars. 
Poutocypris altenuata G. S. Brady. 
fct 3, figs. H 7 6. 
Pimtvcypris attenuata Brad v. 1868, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist, ser 4, 2, p. 179 ul. 4 Res 
11-11, Brady, 1880, ChatL Hep, ZooL, 1 (3), p. 38, pi. 15, fies. la-d; 'Bradv. IffiQ, 
Trans. Roy. Soc. Eclin,, 35, p. 491, pi. 1. tigs. 3 ? 4\ Chapman, 1902, lourii. Linn, 
Soc. I.ond., 28, p, 419; Chapman, 1910, id., 30, p. 427; Chapman, iyjfc), AiiStTi 
Abstract Exped., Ser. C. 5 (7), p. 17; Chapman, 1941. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Anst. 
65 (2), p. 1% V l 9, R& 8. 

Material — -15 single valves. 

Observations — This is a shallow water Indo-Pacific aud Australian species 
which has been recorded twice by Chapman from deep water, first at 1,215 
fathoms at Funafuti and secondly from 505 fathoms off South-Eastern Australia. 
With the exception of one specimen from 16ft. 4in. to 18ft. Sin. in Borehole No. 
1, all the present examples were found either in the matrix of die upper shell 
bed or in the clay beneath the shell bed. This would indicate that the species 
was of late sporadic introduction and survived only in saline water. 

No undamaged pan- of valves was obtained. Manv of the single valves, 
both adult and juvenile, one of which is figured (pi. 1, fiir. 6) still retained the 
conspicuous posterior spine which Brady (1890, p. 491) "and Chapman (1941, 
p. 194) have noted. One specimen bears an additional small anterior spine,' 
Hither the spines are an inconstant feature, or they arc easilv broken from the 
carapace and not preserved. 

VI. FLORA 

1. Oogonia of Characeae. 

Nearly all samples contain nogonia of CItara probably belonging to more 
than one species. These could not be identified as belonging to anv'deseribed 
species living in South Australia. The three shapes illustrated (ph 3, figs. 2, 
ft. 4) may possibly represent tluee species. 

2. leaves. 

From the matrix of the Coxiella shell bed some small, elongate, rather thick- 
leaves, possibly of chenopodiaecous plants were recovered. These had prob- 
ably been blown in by the wind and deposited with the shells. 

VII. DISTRIBUTION 

The distribution of die microfossils and the number of specimens recovered 
from washing about 200 gms. of each, sample are shown in the distribution 
tabic. 

Vill. REFERENCES 

AngaSj G. R, 1877. Descriptions of a new Species of Bulimus from Western Australia and 
of a Valudindla from Lake Eyre, South Australia, Proc\ Zool. Soc. Loncl \ larch 
1877, pp. 169-170, pi. 26, figs. 1-2. ' ' 

Bermcduz, P. J, t 1949. Tertiary* Smaller Foraminifera of the Dominican Repuhlic Ouh 
Lab. Foram. lies. Spec. Pub. No. 25, 332 pp., 26 pis, 

Bbadv, G. S. ? 1868. Contributions tu the Study of the Entomostraca, No. 2 Marine Ostra- 
coda from the Mauritius. Ann. Mag. Nat H&t.. ser. 4 r 2, pp. 17S-184, pis. 12-13. 

4* 



fliMiir G. S\, 1880. Kcpwt on Qhi Ostracoda dredged hv II. M.S. Challenger dunnjz the 

ytittJS 1H73-187G, Rep. Sta, Res, Chall. Zool. 1 (3), pp. L-Jtft* pis. 1-4^ 
lir.-wrv, Cf. S., 1890. On Ostiacoda collected bv II. IF Brady, Esq., LL.D., F.K.S., in the 

Simth Sea Islands, Trans. Hoy. Sot. Kdmburgh, 35 (£), 14, pp. 480-523, uls, H 
Oiauman, F,, 1002. On some OxtruvoAn from Funafuti. Jonm. Firm. Soe. bono 1 ., 2S, pp. 

417-44& pl. 37. 
Chapman, F., 1010. On the Foraminlmra and Ostracoda from Soundings (chiefly deep 
uut<M I collected round Funafuti by II. MS, Penguin. Journ. Linn Sec, Land.. 30, 
pp. .3*8-444, pis, 54-57. 
C.UM-UV. F., 1910. OsLnteoda. Australasian Antarctic F.\pedvHon, I9I I-10J4, Sri. Pep. 

Ser. t.\ fcauf. & BnF, 5 (7) r 48 pp.,, 2 pis. 
Cimim-^n. F. 1041. Ueport on the Forumiriifcral Soundings and DretTghifty of the F.I.S. 
Laitieavour" along the Continental Shi If o| thn SouHt-c.;c*( Coast ol \u$tnili;i, 
Tran^ Key. Son. S^ Aust. % 65 (2). pp. 14&2U, p1$. 7-9. 
iJui'.MVis. F., and Parr, W, J, I035. FoiiurnnilVia tfiwf Oalracoi.b from Soundings niude 
liv the trawler "Bonthorpc" in the Great Australian Bi^ht. Journ. HfljS. See. W. 
A list., 21, Art. J, pp. 1-7, pl 1 
</niiis IF C. 7 1042. Australian (.Gastropoda of the Families Hydrobiidne Assmdueidar and 

Acmeidae, '1'rans. Boy. Soc. S. Aust. ; G6 (2). ppu 124-129, pk 4, 5, 
CvrtoN*. fc On 1043. More Australian Freshwater Shells, Trans. Roy. Soc. S, Aust. s 67 ( 1 I. 

pp. 1 '13-148. pk 14-JO. 
Cox. .1- C. tBSfcd ^ Monograph of Australian Land Shells, William Muddoek, Sydney. 
Cnrxpw, I.j K&43L The Stratigraphy of the Tertiary Marine Rocks iu Gippsland. Vietoria. 

D«pt. Supp. & Ship. Mfn. R<tl Snrv. Bull. 9 (Pal- Ser. 4) (mhnrotn'aphcd), 
Cumim.*,n\ J- A.. 192t>. decent Foramintfera from Poito Rico. Tub. 344, Carnegie InsF, 

Washington, pp. 73-84, ph 1. 
CnstmAtc, J. A., 1039. A Monograph of tlie Furaminiferal Family Xouionidue, U.S. Dcpr. 

Inlerior, Geol, Sure, Prof. Pap., 101, UM'I pp. 20 pk, 
Cksiiman, J. A., 1041. Foraminifcra from the Shallow Water or the \cw Kugland Coast, 

Gush. Lab. Foram. Rrs. Spec. Pub, \u. 12, 37 pp., A pk 
CusumaN, J- A., 104ft. The Spreies of ForaimmTeia named and Ruined hv Firhpl \,\m\ 

Moll in 179S and 18q3 a Cash. Lab. Foram. Ke^. Spec. Pub, 17. 16 pp. ( 1 pU 
Cusumak, J. A., and Gray, IT. B.. 1946. A b'oraminifcral Fauna from the Pliocene of Tiinm. 

IViittt, Caltforma. Cnsh. Fab. Foram, FYs. Sprc. P..b. 1% 40 pp. 18 pl-. 
CcsiiMAN, J. A., and Tonrj, IF, 1&I5. Miocene FoTanrimtera from Ihrff Bay, Jamaica^ Cush, 

I jili, l'*oram. Res. Spec. Fub. 13. 73 pp., 12 pis, 
Cv.MiMAfs, J. A., and form, Hinu, 1-H7. KoraminiiVra front ihc Cr>n-S( nl \\ ■.Klumjioit, Gn«h 

).ab. loiarn. T<r:s, Spec. Fuh., 21, 23 pji., I pis. 
Datt, W. Itj FKKl Heview frf tlie Glas^iiieatton of the Gyreuacca. Froc. Ih'ol. Soc. Washing- 
ton, 10, pp. -3-8. 
KiweHxn, P., 1S87. Manuel de Conchyliolotfin, Faris, F360 pp. 
llow<;m\, W.. 1U01. Suggestions on the Origin of the Salt Lagoons of Southern Y^rrfce 

Feninsola, Trans. Hoy. Soc. S, Aust, 25 (I), pp. 1-9. 
llcmuiUN, W. ? and Park, M 7 -, 1938- Notes on the Geological Feature!, and FornminuVral 
PfUloa of the Metropolitan Abattoirs Bore. Adelaide, Trans. }U>> *"•<".'. S. An>t„ 
02 (2), pp, 2S7-3F7. pis. 15-19. 
NlK(WU«i % and Wiutli-v, G. P., 103S, The Fluvifauuule of Australia S. A.t.sl. Kat, 18 

(3). pp. 64-63. 
FrnnnooK, N. II.. 1053. Forurnmd'era in Stib-Hecent Sediments at Lake Eyre. South Aus- 
tralia. Aust. bourn. Sci. 16 (3), pp. H>8-H)!.L 
Mai>ican, C. T.j 11)32. The Gcolopv of lh*'' F.astern Mainlonnell Kanyes, Gentxal Au.stniJia 

Trans. Ko>. Sru-r. S. Aust., 5fi, pp. 71-117. 
I'Ann, W. L 1943.* A System at it; List of the Kclun"dr.rn.ata, Foryininllrra. TTyrlioldrt, 
Bvaehiopoda of Soutlicui Aunhalht. ed. B. C. f'otton and F, K. Godfrey, Mai. Sot. 
S. Auxb Pub , .^, pp. 12, 2F 
V\\\tu \V. |.. JU5d. FoianiUid'ern, In Isurbridne. K.W. 4'hc Genlu^y &m\ CnOMinVpholo^y 
of Fomt l'<Ton, Western Austtaho, Jfnun\. Bov. Soe. \V. Aust. luc 31, Appendix 
II. p]>. 7U-Y2, 
BrnK (' (| and Giuivtis. J. I02L Ttw Gharophyla of die Lower 1 ITeadent Beds of TTordle 
(Hordwell) Clilts (Soutli Uauipshiiu), Quart. Jonrr.. GroI. See.. 77 (3), pp. 175- 
102, pis. 4-0. 
Smmii p. A., LS01. On the T.and Shells of Western Australia, Froc. Mnlac*. Sih-. ? 1, pp. 

84-00. pi 7. 
Tvrr. tl., 1S94. Notes on the Organic Remains of the Osseous. Clays at Lake- Callabtiona, 

Trans. Koy. Soc. S. Aust., IS, pp. 195-196. 
J'.vrr B., and Bjiawisr, J.. J88& Check List of the Fre.sh-water Shells of AMStTfllki, Proc 

Finn. Soc. N.S.W., 6 (3), pp. 552-500, 
W£kz, W., l^H. Gastropoda, Handb. Falaozooh, 2, pp, 4S0-720. 

44 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 

Fig. l.-Coxiella gilesi (Angus), x 10; protoconch, x 37. 

Fig. 2.~Chara sp. 1, oogonium, x 35. 

Fig. 3.—Chara sp. 2 (?), oogonium, x 35. 

Fig. 4.—Chara sp. 3 (?), oogonium, x40. 

Fig. 5.—Pontocypris attenuata Brady, adult left valve without spines, x 65. 

Fig. 6.-Pontocypris attenuata Brady, juvenile left valve with anterior and posterior spines x 65 

rig. 7—Cypris sp., both valves, lateral view, x 80. 

Fig. H.—Cypris sp., left valve, x 85. 

Fig. 9.-(?) Elphidium advenum (Cushman), x 110. 

Fig. 10.— (?) Nonion scapha (Fichtel & Moll), x 85. 

Fig- H.—Cibicidcs refulgcns Montfort, apertural view, x 180. 

Fig. l'2—Cibicides rejulgens Montfort, dorsal view, x 180. 

Fig. 13-Rotalia beccarii (Linne) var. tepida Cushman, extreme form, dorsal view, x 80. 

S lg " \ i l'~ Rota \ ia beccarii (Linne) var. tepida Cushman, extreme form, ventral view, x 80. 

lig. 15.~Rotalia beccarii (Linne) var. tepida Cushman, calcified specimen, tvpical of Lake 
Fyre sediments, x 80. 



45 



N. H. LtTDBROOK 



Plate 1 






3 



4 




^M< 



AN ALTERNATIVE CALCULATION FOR POTENTIAL 
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 

byB. M. Tucker 



Summary 

An empirical method for the approximate calculation of potential evapotranspiration has been 
developed for application to stations where maximum and minimum temperatures are recorded, but 
no humidity data are available. From the difference between saturated water vapour pressures at the 
normal monthly mean and minimum temperatures an estimate of standard tank evaporation E to the 
power 0*75 can be obtained. This value may then be used in Prescott's formulae for potential 
evapotranspiration. The method may also be used as a means of extrapolation from stations which 
keep humidity records to those which do not. 



AN ALTERNATIVE CALCULATION FOR POTENTIAL 
EVAPOTRANSPIRATION 

By K, M. Tucxta* 
[Read 12 May 1955J 

SUMMARY 

An empirical method ior the approximate calculation ot potential cvapotranspiriirfon has 
been developed for application to stations whore maximum and minimum tempera (tins are 
recorded, but no humidity data are available, From the difiereuce between saturated water 
vapour pressures at the normal monthly mean utul mmioium temperatures an estimate of 
standard tank evaporation E to the power (>7o can be obtained. This value may then be used 
iu Pruseott's formulae for potential evapotra aspiration. The method may also be used as a 
means of extrapolation from .stations which keep humidity records to those which do not, 

INTRODUCTION 

An analysis of the water economy of a landscape is valuable for an under- 
standing of the role of rainfall in plant ecology and soil lormation, A general 
procedure for such an analysis using the balance between rainfall and evapo- 
transpiration was proposed by Thornthwaite (194b) and has been elaborated 
by Prescott ct al. (1952). The first step in this analysis is the estimation of 
potential cvapotransptration — the amount of evaporation and transpiration wliich 
can occur when water is readily available'. Thornthwaite used a compound- 
power (unction of normal monthly mean temperature for this estimation, whereas 
Prescott ct tiL used a power function of atmospheric saturation deficit winch 
can be calculated from normal monthly mean temperatures and relative humidi- 
ties, both or these functions are based on the comparison of measured evapu- 
transpirations with climatolo£ieal records, 

Atmospheric humidity is recorded less frequent]}' than air temperatures 
and tin's paper examines a method giving fair values lor potential evapotrans- 
piration for places where only maximum and minimum temperatures are re- 
corded. One such method has been proposed by Halstcad (1951) and has been 
discussed by Gentilli (1953). In Halstcad s method potential cvapotranspira- 
tion is calculated from normal monthly maximum and minimum temperatures 
which are taken a.s equal to the temperatures of the transpiring surfaces and 
the dewpoiut of the air respectively. 

SYMBOLS 

E estimated or observed normal monthly evaporations from a water 
surface; specifically from a standard Australian tank (in inches). 

Ei potential evapotranspiration (in inches). 

E&uj observed tank evaporation ealeulated for a day of 12 hours possible 
sunshine (in inches). 

N hours of possible sunshine in a month (dependent on latitude and 
month), 

K environment factor of Prescott £'f al, (1952), 

u wind velocity. 

h normal monthly relative humidity at 9 a.m. 

*O.S.I.R.O., Division of Soils, Adelaide. 

40 



e saturated water vapour pressure (in inches of mercury) with sub- 
scripts — 
e a at normal monthly mean air temperature. 

e m at normal monthly minimum air temperature, 

e 4 at normal monthly clewpoint, 

e„ at temperature of evaporating surface. 

DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHOD 

The method for calculating evaporation used by Prescott (1938) and based 
on an estimate of atmospheric saturation deficit is derived from tile equation 
of Dal ton which may be put into a form applicable to a water surface 

This equation assumes other factors to be fixed or not limiting By ignoring 
the variations in wind velocity and assuming that normal monthly temperatures 
are adequate for determining average vapour pressure differences, this equation 
may be replaced by the approximation 

E czk (<?*-<; A 
The temperature of the water surface is usually unknown so that it is assumed 
to be equal to the air temperature — 

Ecr A(> (I _ Q ). 
The difference e yl -Cj is the atmospheric saturation deficit. To use this approxi- 
mation for an empirical determination of k it is neeessary to obtain mean values 
of c tU It has beeu observed that the relative humidity recorded at 9 a.m. is on 
the average close to the mean for the clay, and Prescott uses this value to obtain 
an estimate e d ' of e d from e a 

&$ - h.c a . 
His fonmda for calculating evaporation is then 

and the empirical value of fc, is 21 2 for months of 30 days (Prescott, 1938), 
Prescott ( 1949) has shown that potential evapotranspiration can be calculated 
iroin the monthly evaporation from a water surface bv the formula 

E t =s K.&. 
me power m is given a standard value of 0*75 and since 21-2 a73 = 10 his 
Jorauda for calculating potential evapotranspiration from temperature and 
hum id iLv records is 

' E, = 10.K{e B (l-*)}»-. 

Halstead assumed that 'the minimum air temperature reaches the dewpoint 
temperature each night'. This is not true for all localities on all occasions, but 
it lias been observed that 'there is a considerable degree of parallelism between 
the mean values of dewpoint and minimum temperature' (Billiarn, 1938). On 
the basis of this observation, it may be expected that the difference (e a ~e, n ) 
will serve us an approximation for saturation deficit when no humidity records- 
are available. 

Comparison of Estimates of Saturation Deficit 
The best estimates of saturation deficit (e ff — e<,) given by Foley (1945, 
table V) are based on hourly air temperatures and relative humidities The 
two approximate estimates (<?„_<?,') and (e„-e fn ) have been compared with 
the po£t estimate for the same stations and periods used bv Folev. On the 
whole the twelve pairs of monthly values for each station fitted' eloselv to 
power functions of the forms 

fy - e w = /■ ffcx-r'ei)? and 

where p ranged from 0-6 to 0-9 and p from 1-1 to 1 -6. Generally, (e u ~ e vt ) 
underestimates (*£^— 0$) in the summer months, whereas (e a -tf/) overesri- 

I? 



unites it. The data from 19 years' records at Melbourne are plotted in Figure 1. 
The ideal relationship of (<?<* — c M ) or (e a — (?/) equal to (e a — e 4 ) is shown by 
tlie broken line. The regression lines calculated lor the logarithms of the esti- 
mates are shown in the figure as 

eu-e lti = 0'67 (e Q -c d )°- b2 and 
e a — e a ' = 1-8 (e a ~ e d y '\ 
A statistical assessment of the two approximate estimates of saturation 
deficit showed that for Sydney, Ilobart and Perth (e u — <?*') was better than 
(e a — #m) as an estimate of (<?* — fy% that for Adelaide and Melbourne neither 
was significantly better and that for Brisbane (« a — $&.) was better than 
(e a -^)- The" estimate (e tf — e,„) is therefore not as good as (c a — c d ') as an 
estimate of saturation deficit, but it is nevertheless sufficiently closely related to 
justify a further examination of its relation to measured evaporation, 

40 



or 

0) 

JZ 

£ 0-20 



E 

I 
o 



0-iO — 



no 



J?3 



<a? 00b 







• J 






c 




^ 


_. -- - 






. _. . , 







005 0-10 0-20 

^o~ ^d( in inches Hg) 



0-40 



Fig". I —Comparison ol' f herniates of normal month!} ^tturution 
deficit at Melbourne. 

Open circles for (e n — a Vi ). Black circles for j c d —p/}\ 



The Rdaiion Between E and (c u -e,».) 

For this purpose the observed normal monthly values of tank evaporation 
E as given in the monthly summaries of the Meteorological Branch to the end 
of 1952 were converted to the corresponding values j&a? for a standard day of 
12 hours possible sunshine by the fonnula— 

E (l0U = L2.E/N. 
The values of N for each month and each latitude to the nearest five degrees 
were calculated from data in the Smithsonian Meteorological Tables. This cor- 
rection for length of day has been used by both Thornthwaite and Ilalstead 
since transpiration and evaporation occur largely during the day: in the present 
work the correction brings the relation between evaporation and (c? a — e m ) into 
a form similar to that between (e a — e a ) and (e a — e m ) : that is, the powers p 
and n are approximately equal. 

48 



A graphical examination of the records for a number of Australian stations 
showed that for each station the relation between the twelve pairs of monthly 
values could be expressed as a power function 



a- 
o 



E 

CD 
I 
D 



(E,M,r = c(? 



0m 



040 



0-20 



010 



005 









y 






O 





















005 



O-IO 



0-20 



0-40 



Eday (in inches) 



Fig. 2.- -The relation between standard day evaporation and crude 

saturation deficit based on normal monthly minimum temperatures 

lor Melbourne. 



This type of relation, with n less than unity, was anticipated from the relation 
between (e a — flfcj and (e a -e tn ). The data for Melbourne are plotted in 
Figure 2. The full line is 



'{fay 



0.71 



1*35 (<•>,, - e iu ). 



based on the regression line 

rf-V- ' ' t l °S (e*-e m ) -0-712 log E dal/ - 0-130. 

The broken line is 

JW 1 lz -i'2(c a _~ e m ) [see below! 

The values of n and c varied between stations like p and r. The mean value 
of n for these stations came to 0-76 which is ft useful coincidence with the 
power m of Prescott. We may therefore write 

t , Eta^^c (e -e w ) 
as the general form of the empirical relationship. The means for the twelve 
actual monthly values of c show considerable variations between stations like 
the analogous coefficient (k^ 75 ; standard value 10) used in Prescott's formula 
for potential evapotranspiration. The means of the twelve monthlv values of 
a were calculated from the records of 42 stations taken from the monthly sum- 
manes of the Meteorological Branch, from Prescott (1943) and Shepherd (1949). 
The average of the 42 means was 1-18 with a standard deviation of 0-21 and 
accepting this average as the best available value of c we may write 

and for monthlv values 

(12E/Ny^^V2(e a -e m ) 
orE«^~1.2f(e a -e nt ) 

49 



where f— (iY/12) ' 75 . Tabic 1 gives values of/ for each month and latitude 
to the nearest 5 degrees appropriate to Australia. Using Prescotts relation be- 
tween evaporation and potential evapotranspiration we obtain a working 
formula 

E< ^l-2.fC./.(c : ,-e m ). 



TABLE I. 

\aUufsoljT (N'/lii °- 



r.iililutlr 5} 


i.i 


20 


20 


30 


$9 


10 


45 


January 


r.i-9 


L41 


14-4 


14-0 


H-3 


15-2 


LW 


Kfbruary 


12-7 


12 -a 


12-9 


13-1 


i:v.i 


1W. 


1T5-7 


March 


L3--J 


13-3 


i$-a 


l'V3 


i:j- 1 


B'f» 


l;i-5 


April 


12-(» 


12 -Ti 


12-4 


i&-i 


I'M 


12 


11-0 


May 


no 


12-4 


12-2 


12-0 


11-7 


I'M 


11-0 


JlJBf 


12-2 


12-0 


11-7 


11-4 


I 1 -0 


10-f") 


10-2 


July 


12 -d 


i2*a 


12-1 


n-a 


ll-f. 


n-i 


10-7 


August 


V1B 


12,1 


IJfc-fl 


12<i 


12-2 


119 


H-7 


KlT-lU'ITlWci' 


12-8 


12-a 


12-8 


12 7 


32 7 


il-b 


12-15 


October 


1*9 


13-ti 


fy-7 


UI-8 


l:5-y 


14 


14-2 


NiiV't'Jllliri 


13-3 


13-6 


13-9 


14-1 


11-3 


(4-6 


lfj-0 


Decern Ivr 


14-0 


14 2 


I 1-5 


1 4 ■ a 


U-3 


I.Vri 


llvO 
1 



Cab lilaird Irani data Given in Smithsonian Mueoroloeica) Tanlw Dili revised edition. 



APPLICATIONS OF THE METHOD 

The calculated values of E l> |TS will be approximately correct if tiie stations 
analysed herein are sufficiently representative to give a fair value for the co- 
efficient <:'. Where possible the formula of Prescott should be used since e„ 
is a befler estimate of e d than is e !f1 ~ For consistency within an area the same 
method of calculation of E,_ should be used throughout. This may be done 
in three ways: 

1. If only temperature records are available then this alternative method e<m 
be used alone. 

2. If humidity records are available for some stations, Prescott's method should 
be used and the alternative method used for exlrapolation by calculating 
local values for c as the average of twelve monthly values from the formula 

<?' - 10.{e,(l-70 )°' T V/.(e« -<?*>- 

3. If evaporimctcr records are available within the area both Prescott's method 
and the alterualive method may be used for extrapolation by calculating 
values for c' or k^ from the formulae 

h -£/e„(L-fc) 

This third procedure eanuot be regarded as very salisfaelnry since any particular 
evaporimeler may be unsuitably sited or maintained. When acceptable calcu- 
lated values for monthly evaporation, based mi sunshine and wind records as 
well as temperature and humidity, become available, then it is suggested that 
these values be used as references and PreseoU's method or this alternative 
method be used as means of extrapolation wherever more detailed information 
is required. 

REFERENCES 

Hiluam. K. G, 3 1938. The Climate of the British Isles. Macinllian, Loudon. 

Folev. J, C, 1945. A study of average hourly valtirs of trmptT;rrure, rclntivr humidity and 

saturation deficit in the Australian retzioa from records of capital city bureaux. 

Coiuiuouwoalth of Australia, Bureau of Meteorology Bulletin 3;> 



50 



Gentilli, J„ 1953. Die Ermittlung der mogliehen Oberflachen- imd Pflan/e.i-verdtmstung, 

dargelegt am Beispiel von Australien. Erdkunde 7, 81. 
Halstead, M. H., 1951. Theoretical derivation of an equation for potential evapotranspira- 

tion. Johns Hopkins University, Laboratory of Climatology Interim Report, 16, 10. 
Pkescott, J. A., 1938. Indices in agricultural climatology. Journal of the Australian Institute 

of Agricultural Science, 4, 33. 
Prescott, J. A., 1943. A relationship between evaporation and temperature. Trans, Rov 

Soc. S. Aust., 67, 1. 
Prescott J. A., 1949. A climatic index for the leaching factor in soil formation. Journal 

of Soil Science, 1, 9, 
Prescott, J. A., Collins, J. A., and Shirptjrkar, G. R., 1952. The comparative climat:>logv 

of Australia and Argentina. Geog. Rev., 42^ 118. 
Shepherd, E. M., 1949. Some factors in the hydrology of Queensland. Proc. Roy. Soc. 

Queensland, 60, 3. 
Thornthwaite, C. W., 1948. An approach toward a rational classification of climate Geo" 

Rev., 38, 55. 



51 



THE MICROBIOLOGICAL ORIGIN OF THE SULPHUR NODULES 

OF LAKE EYRE 

byL C M. Baas-Becking and 1. R~ Kaplan 



Summary 

The shape of the sulphur nodules of Lake Eyre, especially the flat, plate-shaped ones, suggests that 
the sulphur might originate from a disintegration, by a series of microbiological and chemical 
processes, from gypsum crystals. Mass and volume relations between the components are not in 
conflict with this hypothesis. The sulphur contains organic carbon; moreover, copious plant and 
animal remains are present, not only on the pellicle often lining the cavity, hut also well within Ihe 
sulphur core. It may be significant that the sulphur is found at the Ice shore of the Like. A place 
where both acolic gypsum and organic flotsam and jetsam accumulate. Direct microscopy showed 
the presence of a great many microbes in the brine and in the salt crust, as well as on the mud 
surface. The following groups of: bacteria were isolated: (a) Sulphate reducers, both autotrophic 
and heterotrophic, 

(b) thiobacteria oxidizing sulphur to sulphate; (c) several species of the green Pol yblepli arid 
Flagellate, Dunaliella, which constitute, which certain blue-green algae, the photosynthctic 
component of the biocoenosis. Mass cultures were prepared of microbes which generate hydrogen 
from glucose-carbonate mixtures (d). methane formation from calcium acetate (e), and denitrifiers 
(0, and furthermore,, of those which promote the aerobic anaerobic decomposition of cellulose and 
of pectin (g), (h). Only in one case did we obtain evidence of the presence of the photosynthctic 
bacteria (surface mud). It appeared that the above organisms are. on the whole, halotoleranl and in 
many cases, haliphtlic. developing well in 20-25 per cent, brine. Group (a), (b) and (c) are 
particularly active. From the infection materials, surface mud proved to be the best source, closelv 
followed by the sulphur and the gypsum-crust of the nodule. Examinations of the gypsum crystal 
showed, in many cases, occlusions of troilite ( FeS) or of sulphur. One sulphur mass (containing 
but little gypsum) was still pseudomorphic after gypsum. Large, clear gypsum (up to 300 grams) 
when placed in actively growing cultures of Desulphovibrio (sulphate reduction) in the presence of 
iron salts will disintegrate rapidly, 11 per cent. Disintegration being observed in one case in 100 
days at 30 deg. C. From these facts, we have derived the following conclusions : 

(1) Smaller or larger gypsum crystals are locally subjected to sulphate reduction, for a large part 
sustained by hydrogen, formed from microbial disintegration of the accumulated organic mass at 
Ihe lee shore of the lake. 

(2) The iron sulphide formed, oxidizes (by an abiological process) when, subsequent to the sulphate 
reduction, conditions become aerobic. 

(3) The sulphur formed by this oxidation will serve as a substrate for then Thiobacteria which, by 
generating, sulphuric acid, will leach the sulphur mass. 

(4) The sulphuric acid, reacting with lime or dolomite, will form the crust of (secondary) gypsum 
surrounding the sulphur mass. The crustal mass may increase by accretion. 

There is reason to assume that the formations are recent, die more so because of a recent sulphur 
formation described by Subba Rao from coastal regions in India. Cm determi nations showed an age 
of 20.000 years. Industrial application of the processes described above should be investigated. 



THE MICROBIOLOGICAL OltlGLN OF THE SULPHUR NODULES 

OF LAKE EYRE 

By L, G. M. JiAAs-liKCKixo* and I. R. Kaplan* 

(Communicated by C, W. Bcmythnn.) 

[Read 14 April 1955] 

SUMMARY 

The .shape of the, sulphur nodules of Lake Eyre, especially the Hal, plate-shaped ones. 
sn^ests that the sulphur might originate from a disintegration, bv a scries of microbiological 
and chemical processes, from gypsum crystals. Muss and volume relations between the 
components are not in conliiet with this hypothesis. The sulphur contains organic carbon; 
moreover, copious plant and animal remains are present, not only on 1 lie pellicle often 
Inu'nii the cavity, hut also well within the sulphur core. It may he significant that the 
sulphm is found at the Ice shore of the Uh\ a place where both aoolie gypsum and organic 
fhitsuiii and jetsam accumulate. Diiecl nnVrnsropv showed the prese™ e of a great many 
microbes in the brine and in the salt emst, as weft as on the mud surface. The following 
groups fit bacteria were isolated: (a) Sulphate reducers, both autotrophic :uid heterotrophic, 
'(b) tbii>baeleria. Gftldtdcg sulphur to sulphate: (rl several specie's of the green l J olyhle- 
pharid Flagellate, DunulicUti } which constitute, with eet t.iiu blue-green algae, the phoh i 
synthetic component of the bioeoenosis. Mass udtirres were prepared of microbes which 
generate hydrogen from glucnsc-earhooate mivtures (d), methane formation From calcium 
acetate (e). and donirrifiers (f), arid furthermore, of those which promote the auohie and 
anaerobic decomposition of cellulose and nf pectin (si*, (h '), Only in one case did we 
obtain evidence pi' the presence of the photosynthetic purple bacteria (surface mud), t! 
appeared that the above organisms arc, on the whole, hdotolcraut and in many eases, hali 
philic, developing Vrtrll fij 20-25 per cent, brine. Groups (a), (b) and {a) arc- particularly 
active. From the infection materials, surface mud proved to be the best source, closely fol- 
lowed b> the sulphur and the g\psunecrust of the nodule. Examination of die gypsum 
crystal slamed. in many eaSeS, occlusions of troilitc (KTcSl or ot sulphur. Out: sulphur mass 
(containing but little gypsum) was still psi. udomorphie after gypsum. Large clear gypsum 
crystals (up tn 300 wains) when placed m actively growing eolturcs of Df'\nlpfiaviI)rio (sul- 
phate reduction) in the presence of iron salts will disintegrate rapidly, 11 per cent, disinte- 
gration being observed in one (sJufl in 100 days at 30 deg. C, From Ihese facts, we have 
deriverl the following conclusions: 

( I) Smaller or larger gypsum crystals are locallv subjected to a sulphate reduction, for a 
large part sustained bv lnclregem foamed from microbial disintegration of the accu- 
mulated organic mass at the lee shore ot the lake. 

(2) Tbc iron sulplude founed, oxkli/cs (by an abiological process) when, subsequent to the 

sulphate reduction, conditions become. acroljte. 
(o) The sidphm formed by this oxidation will serve to a MibsLule For the Thin-bacteria 

which, by generating sulphuric acid, will Ic-aeh Mie sulphur mass*. 
(41 The s-ulphurre acid, reacting with lime or dolomite, will form the crust or (secondary/ 

gypsnui surrounding the sulphur mass. The ernsta! muss may increase by .aeereliriu 

There is reason to assume that the formations are recent, the more so because of a 
recent sulphur formation described by Suhh.i Rao from coastal regions in India , C tl deter- 
minations showed an ngr el 20,000 years. 

industrial application o( the pfnecses described above should be investigated. 

I. INTRODUCTION 

Mr. Q W. Boiiythou. after vi.siling Lake Eyre in 1953, had tbe kindness to 
send us brine, salt, mud and soil from this region for microbiological examina- 
tion. He also forwarded a curious ^sulphur nodule" it mass of pale yellow 

6 Division ot Fisheries. 0.5JTb0. 3 Crouulhe 



suiphur encased iu an ovoid mass of rather coarse gypsum crystals. The discov- 
ery of these nodules by Mr Bonython, and the conclusion drawn by Mr. D. 
King of the South Australian Mines Department that they are of Sub-Recent 
formation, may yield valuable cities as to the formation of sedimentary sulphur 
in general. In 1954 one of us joined Mr, Bonythou on a trip to Lake Eyre, 
where he could collect materials on the spot and also carry out some chemical 
analysis. The collection of sulphnr nodules of various size and formatiou. to- 
gether with die olay in which they are formed, brine, salt, surface muds and 
deep muds, was studied iu the laboratory nt Crotiulla, From this study it 
appeais that the sulphur is of bacterial origin and that die cavities in which it 
occurs represent a decomposed crystal (or crystal mass) of gypsum. Further- 
more, we could find no reason to assume that these nodules could not be formed 
today, given the proper environmental conditions, as laboratory experiments 
showed that the process may be initiated in a surprisingly short time. 

As Mr. Bonython and Mr. King will publish the geological e\idenoe, it will 
suffice to add to their observations only such data as aic pertinent to our 
problem. 

Sulphur is found at the lee shore, and apparently only at this lee shore, of 
a very large lake. During flooding much of die organic material would accu- 
mulate there, It should also be stated that, all hough some of the localities 
were denuded ul overlying gypsum, erosion might account for their absence, 
Smaller and larger crystals of gypsum are present in the immediate neighbour- 
hood of the sulphur sites. 

Some of the nodules may he collected from the surface, others may be 
found hi a depth of mme thau one fuot. At the done, side of the deposit, 
laminated rills of limestone occiu. The nndules are mostly of an ovoirlal or 
ellipsoidal sluipe. reminiscent nf ironstone pisuliths (Fig. 1), Figure 2 shows 
a Hat structure, totally unlike a pisolith. The cmstal matter consists of gypsum 
crystals, often with occluded iron oxide. Some lime may be present. Breaking 
this crust one finds a cavity, paitmlly tilled with sulphur. The sulphur contains 
gypsum crystals of narious sizes and is, consequent!)", of a pale yellow coloun. 
However, in several cases we Jound a very pure sulphur within (he nodule, 
containing only '705 per cent. ash. The outside of the sulphur mass may be 
umted with iron oxide while the inside of die crust shows a lining of organic 
mailer (Fig. 3 near the arrow). Organic Tematns were also present inside the 
sulphur (see below). The gypsum crystals on the inside- of the crust arc par- 
tially impregnated with sulphnr. i^ this paper we will try to show that these 
masses of sulphur are of recent formation, that they can be accounted for by 
a series of biological and chemical processes and that in the course of events. 
large crystals of gypsum may he clratigcd into sulphur lit slftt 

Ft. ANALYSES 

The. chemical characteristics of the 1 environment an* partly known (Madigan, 
1LI30, Bonython and Mason. 1.953). The salinity of tfie brine varies; in 1954 
the brine under the salt crust must have been saturated with salt The solutions 
are almost neutral, from pFI 7-20 at a depth of 12-13 inches, to 6-72. under tic 
surface and 7 00 at the surface. At 11 H. depth the brine Itad a pll of 7 12. 
The total base of the water, consisting of bicarbonate, was 1 SS.IO-*' 1 in the 
brine from 11 ft. depth : increasing to 2*H5-S<0f>.U)-''n. near the surface. These 
values are close to those observed in seawatcr (average 2 * 45.1fi- *n.). The 
pleetrorle potentials, especially in the regions where sulphate reduction occurred, 
were fairly high (- \llfl to -f -060 volts). Field observations showed both 
lower pH and electrode potential values as the measurements on the same 
materials later in the laboratory, 





i 


6 
s 

S •—■ X =o 










., CO w> d 






E Q-) n <-« 










s.isA[rue 


* * ft 




jo j3C|mn\ 


cm cm — cm cm • — so — cm cm •>? en cm 




-suiojj **ij 009*1 


O O O O m 




'."uoq ur:TS3jjy 


— * ' cc 






p o o 




ri|npoti f am{d[n§ 








* * * 

o in o o co vn o o o o o 
o cm m o o r- cc — - o o o o 




pouajjos 'anqding 


o ■—>"+' o o r- — cm iTi ■+ n 
°~ co rh cd co e$ o m" cm' 










cc ■— ■ cm r- co 






*5© co 






O O CO 


, 


tioiHjj-c^ ^umsdAQ 


0> *-* CM u"> 


3 




in cc" '- 3 


% 






in. 




OOOOOO i-OO- o o 




'-O CO CQ Kf3 S O ^J w O O CO 


1 


uniaoa-c; £ pnj\ 


n o - cc D n *-*- cm c; o cm 




in' of co cc" ao — fc-^ rl | 


% 




CO — CM — CM ** ' 


-c 


















■3 




o o o o o m o 




o o o o o CM O — ' 


__ - 


■y f 6 p n JM 


— « O LQ O CM — tJ- — ■ 


a 




o" in t-^ co" ctT rp ] 

* — » CM — ' CM ?^ 


-3 PQ 

< ° 








OOOOOO o © 


¥|$S 


oocoooo o o ■— 


J- SB 


en co m Tf co — i co* cm i 






>• 


JO ;A | J..JH1II ?|>Hj^ 


CO — CM CM -■— ■ &i rv , 

r-- co r— cm 


G 

< 




m 




o o o o o m o ;=: 


I 




O O cm O O --O O cor- 


jjtyjns 'pnjAj; 


KT 00 cc o O CN o o co 


& 




erf r vD" ctT oc —^ o" « ■— 

CQ **« ■& CO ' 


W 






C 






_■*: 




o o o m 


cfl 


H** >f u M 


***■'© CT) CN 

— 1 . ^ 






0*0 iO o 




i(^s 3.^Epns u.\\o.ifl 


tQ =0 CM (N 
— 1 CM ■ •«*• 

* 4- 






er* *0 " — i O- 




■y l§ ^ lj !'H 


"0 — ■ u-i u^ 
V3 S» | 






O o 




,Ct-£I E WWS 


3 i-- m 

1 & | 






_; co in c; o o 




^j-O vniug 








! _j o cm co o in- o 




1 


rt — • co 






V} -=■ 4- 




eg 


M 












6' c 7 




i 2 fc « 


4 iK * u Q ^ Q - * g Q A -s ^ - 



54 



Field Ohsn\at-io' 



T'm davs laic 



NuHaw bti&t? 

J 2-13" 
1 ! ' 4" 



P H 

(j-f>5 
6-60 
0-70 
o • 60 



E* 



^340 mV 
-f 360 mV 
4-450 mV 
t-350 mV 



7 00 
fi • 72 

>-12 



Pr, 

I 47 5 rn\ 
-r500 mV 
- +70 mV 
+440 mV 



The titration curves of the brine showed a flattening near pH 5-8 We 
do not know of any acid with a pK of 5-8, but it should be mentioned that 
the same plateau" has been observed to occur in seawater in which akae 
had been growing. 

Mud taken from under the salt crust was vacuum dried and submitted 
to mechanical analysis. It showed the following size-distribution of particles: 

Larger than S00 p 16 S per cent. 
600-400 ji 24-0 per cent. 
400-200 * 16-9 per cent. 



200-100 
Smaller than 100 



ft 12*5 per cent. 
ix 32-3 per cent. 

100 per cent. 



All the fractions isolated seemed to consist almost entirely of gypsum 
crystals, often with brownish to black inclusions. Highly magnetic particles 
were isolated from this mud; they were found by X-rav analysis to consist 
almost entirely of ilmcnite. We arc indebted to the Australian Microanalytical 
Service. C.S.T.H.O., Head Dr. K. W. Zimmermann; Mr. J. Waugh, the Ministry 
of Supply, Defence Research Laboratories, Sydney, and to the Hydro-logical 
Section of the Division of Fisheries, C.S.I.R.O., Head Mr. D. Rochford, for 
further analytical data on the various materials collected (see Table 1). 

The analysis of the brine in the following table was derived from an average 
of three samples collected by Madigan (1930). 



TA 


BLE 2. 




ei- 


171,000 


p.p.m 


Br- 


64 


p.p.m 


riccv 


154 


p.p.m 


so<- 


J 2,000 


p.p.m 


pcv 


365 


p.p.m 


Na^ 


107,000 


p.p.m 


K' 


H30 


prp.in 


NH, + 


18 


p.p.m. 


Ca 4 + 


950 


p.p.m. 


Mg++ 


4,030 


p.p.m. 


Si0 2 


47 


p.p.m. 



Organic matter abevn 3,000* p.p.m. 
Solids 300,000 f p.p.m. 



- Inclusive of b8 p.p.m. N 
* Approximate. 



55 



Although not mentioned in the Analysis, boron should be present, as it 
was found in this laboratory that Dwuiliella, the chief photosyrrthetie organism 
in the- brine, requires at least 5 y/'L boron for its development (unpubl.). 

Apart from the very low magnesium content, the Lake Eyre brine is not 
unlike that ol' Great Salt Lake, Utah. As many microorganisms are influenced 
by ionic antagonisms, the proportions between the main ions may be of im- 
portance. 

The muds show a high gypsum content (the salt "slush" under the crust 
excepted), a high organic content under the salt crust, while considerable iron 
occurred both in die "deep mud (9J™ feet) and in the mud of the sulphur region 
( see Table 3), 









TAniE 


k 










! 




Mud 












Mud 


unolrr 




IUu'1 S 










Surface 


II' 
-salt 


Mud !3!' 


ir^ioil 


Sulphur 




Gypsum 


eyp*itm* 







59 • 03 


,1-BS 


to* 79 


64-14 


St**ac 




NnU 




3'fci 


o7-39 


4-01 


3»ys 


-80 




Vn$h 




■3fl 


-26 


5M3 


eras 


•15 


OH 


(Vi pKosphau: 




-27 


-10 


• i-; 


-30 


-07 


• Ctj 


&4*-jftU»tti 




)■}:> 


7U 


l-'.n 


1-99 


1-HU 




li.ia I &** 






; 
i 


1 


-Jl 


1 -OH 


-07 


tiioisUirr* 




SO 00 


jghtf 


1 23 no 


^7*jyO 


7 -*M 




llntr 












•32 




iulphur 








1 




flA*63 





* Jnt-IiiMVi: dl'liine, .sulphur-sample cxccp|-_-f|. 



** XH, abnul ItV',-. ul'indal ,\ 



The NaCI in the mud was present in a saturated solution The moisture, 
as determined was partly water of- crystallisation o[ the gypsum CaSOi.211-0 
and partlv brine. 

The 'crude sulphur" contained approximately 34 8 per cent, gypsum, the 
moisture content (7-54 per cent) being nearly all water of crystallization 
(7-21 per cent). This sulphur is much lower in gypsum, iron, salt and 
phosphate than the clay in which it occurs. Only the organic carbon content 
proved to be similar in the two materials. Most of these substances occur in 
the outer pellicle, lining the cavity of the sulphur nodule. 

The presence of organic remains within the nodule suggested its biological 
fonnalion. In order to account for the large masses of sulphur within a nodule, 
the only logical material would be the large crystals of the desert gypsum itself. 

If the "sulphur actually originated from a large gypsum crystal, there might 
be some relations of mass and volume indicative of such a process. As said 
before, the shape of the nodules is sometimes flat, and this would match the 
often plate-shaped fragments of the desert gypsum. Often the cavity shows 
roughlv the outlines of the crystal (angles of approximately 60 deg.). The 
masses of sulphur weighed by us varied from 9-8 to 87-0 grams. Two nodules, 
already open, were carefully' emptied, the sulphur weighed and the volume of 
(he cavity determined by filling it with water. Nodule 1 had only a small 
opening, and the volume of the cavity may be close to the true one. In Nodule 
2, the volume as determined was certainly smaller than the original. It must 
be remarked diat the sulphur from the cavity has a specific gravity close to 1-00 

SB 



(valve for sulphur about 1 96) showing that it contains much air. If this 
sulphur were derived from gypsum 32 grammes of sulphur would correspond 
to 172-14 grammes of gypsum. As the densitv of gypsum is 2-34, 32 gr. S 
would occupy a space of 73*6 cc. We found: 



_\<>du]r I 



-Vorlult' 2 



Volume in -ex. 
'Vilpliur" in grains 
6$% i»f "sulphur" fftii 

(Jjik'uhilctl;' 
corresponding gypMiiii 
volutin' of lliis feyg$tJ*fl 'in r.i J 



U-0 
ft. ?5 


more than 810 

(.flu 

-irmu 


H-2 


217-0 

&2-B 



Tills coincidence can hardly be accidental. There is reason to believe that 
the sulphur, therefore, represents the remnant of a decomposed gypsum crystal. 

In both eases the sulphur occupied about 70 per cent, of the volume (69-73 
per cent.). This fs aJso what we would expect if the sulphur were formed from 
a single crystal or from a crystal mass of gypsum. The weight of the crust 
bears no relation to the weight of the sulphur. 

The crude sulphur, boiled in distilled water, did not yield any analyzablc 
substance. The pi I did not change, no titratable matter went in solution. Re- 
actions on sulphite and thiosulphute were both negative. Tn one instance, how- 
ever, when boiling a greyish mass of sulphur from the centre of a large nodule, 
the water showed a pH of 5-1. 



III. BIOLOGICAL 

One of us obtained in 1929 samples of Lake Eyre brines from die late 
Dr. C. T. Madigan. The brines were later cultured and examined in the Leyden 
laboratory by Miss T. Hof (1935) and by Miss J. Rumen (1938). A great 
number of microorganisms, algal, protozoal and bacterial. were found. In this 
paper we will draw up a list of organisms, observed bv us front the samples 
collected by C. \V. Bonython in 19~53 and by I, R, Kaplan in 1951. Direct 
microscopic examination of brines, salt crusts and mud surface showed the 
following: 

In the first place the common green and orange salt flagellates Dtmalhdla, 
chiefly the large form, D. salino Teod var. oblonga Lcrche, This form snowed 
a mass development hi 1953 when it attributed an orange colour and a violet- 
scent to the brine. Water-dispersed earotinoids were present. 

D. mlnuta, Lerche 1953 present, 1954 present 
parva, Lerche 1953 present, 1954 present 
michorld, Lcrche 1953 present, 1954 present 

an unnamed species, 15 f i long, spindle shaped 1953 absent, 1954 present A 
filamentous blue green alga, a common soil cover in the desert and observed 
in the Broken Hill region (L.B.B. 1951, Silvcrton)- 

Nodular ia spumigena Mcrtens var. malar Kiitz (Born ik Flah). 
Of the diatoms^ Pleurosigma sp. was common in the more diluted brine in 1953, 
while the common salt diatom. Amphora coffaeiformte, could be observed hi 
both years. Colourless ctliates and flagellates are plentiful, especially Bodonids, 
A filamentous Lijngbtja (blue-green) appeared in various materials, nearly 
always accompanied by a fungus (Chytrid). Direct microscopy yielded, 
furthermore, large Spirilla, long rod-shaped bacteria and the curious Bacterium 

57 



hattthittm Fetter which is the cause nf the "candy-pink" colour of some brines 
and .salts, Pararfemta, a brine shrimp, occurred in one locality m 1953. 

The papery pellicle, lining the cavity of the sulphur nodule, proved lo 
consist almost entirely of organic matter. Microscopy showed the presence of; 

(a) Cysts (of Dnnaliclln mlina Teod?). 
{h) kleoblasl of a proteaceous plant (Hal<ro'?)- 
(<■) Tracheids (probably coniferous, Callitrh?). 

td) Bundles of slender filaments, probably shrunken blue-green algae. 
(e) Pollen grains (?). 

(f) \ tough, lighl-brown mass, niaybe a bacteria] film. Leaf-like material, 
together with Dunaliella cysts, was found inside a mass of sulphur. 
Long, slender prosenchyma cells were seen. 
( g) Scales and setae or a moth. 
( h) Shell-fragments. 

( i) On one occasion an inch-long fragment of a ribbon-shaped monocotylc- 
donous leaf was found imbedded well witlnu the sulphur mass. 

These findings point to the formation of the sulphur mass on a leoshorc, 
where microscopic and other flotsam and jetsam accumulate. The S-E shore 
of Lake Eyre North would be such a locality. Moreover, the material cannot 
be tynj oldl 

Most of the biological evidence was obtained from enrichment cultures 
and, in some cases, pure cultures of various bacterial groups. As most of the 
results will he published elsewhere, a brief statement will suffice. The follow- 
ing groups were studied in various media and from various infection materials: 

(a) Sulphate-reducing bacteria, which change sulphate into sulphide. Two 
types were studied; those that derive their energy directly from hydrogen 
and those that derive their energy from organic hydrogen (autotrophic 
and heterotrophic strains). 

(b) Sulphur-oxidizing bacteria. With thiosulphate or sulphur as a source of 
energy., these bacteria assimilate carbon dioxide with the formation of 
sulphite and of sulphate. 

(e) Photosynthetie (coloured) sulphur bacteria, oxidizing H 2 S to S and, in 
the case of the purple bacteria, oxidising this sulphur to sulphate. 

(d) Crven flagellates, such as Dunaliella. 

(e) Aerobic and anaerobic decomposition of cellulose. 

(f) Anaerobic gas formation (hydrogen) from glucose-calcium carbonate. 

(g) Anaerobic gas formation (methane) front Cu-aeetate. 
(h) Anaerobic devitrification. 

(i ) Pink bacteria of the B. halobium group (aerobic, glucose-yeast, or fish-agor). 

In short the cycle (or metabiosis) will run as follows: The grrrn flagellars 
(1) will assimilate CO., in die light, even in saturated brines, They will accu- 
mulate organic material wheh will decompose. There will be additional aeoliu 
flotsam, also driven to the leeshore. We will consider here only the anaerobic 
decomposition and only briefly mention the aerobic pink bacteria (2) (B. halo* 
bimn Petter, see Hot. J.935) because of the candy-pink coloration of both 
bitne arid salt caused by these organisms. They are important in fish-spoilage, 
but do not concern us here. It stands to reason that all organisms mentioned 
are able, to perform in highly concentrated solutions. 

The carbohydrate (cellulose) material partly prepared by the orange and 
green Dunaliella will be changed by cellulose fermentation (3) or pectin- 
jermt'tttation (3n) with the production of organic acid and hydrogen. These 



materials will serve to enable Desulphovibrh to reduce the sulphate (4) to the 
snlphidc and when iron is present, black FeS (troilite) is formed. Certain 
sulphate-reducers may live on an inorganic medium if hydrogen is present. 
Dunaliella is a nitrate organism and it would be important to see whether 
denitrification (5) could be active with the formation of nitrogen from nitrate. 
Furthermore, the formation of marsh gas (6) by methane-forming bacteria 
might be initiated under anaerobic conditions. 

It the FcS or JI 2 S has been oxidized to sulphur (see below), the Ihio- 
bacieria (7) may oxidize this sulphur to sulphuric acid. The acid formed will 
have a highly solvent action on mineral matter, it will efficiently leach the 
sulphur until it does not contain enough necessary nutrient for the Thiobacteria 
to continue their development The following table shows the results obtained. 



I'ABLE 4a. 




on Fe (H 2 1 
on lactate 
on pyruvate 
on pyruvak' 
-fie 



1 30 


3*0 maximal de- 


2-80 


velopment dw\ 


75 


H days in 13 -? 




per cent. sah. 


1 r >0 


(30 c:\ 



GROUP II. Thiobiuiena 



H. aer 






2-0 


S. anacr 






1-0 


I luu aer 







Thio anacr. 






9 


Thioparns 






(i 


a\, 






•h0 




2-0 

2-.") 






2- 2b i 3-0 maximal de- 

-93 velopment dw* 

1 ■ 13 H days in 9-3 

•58 per cent. salt. 

'50 (%(HlX. 



GROUP 111, Hydrogen formation from 




10 

15 
20 

25 



1 1-25 


-09 


1-88 





•25 





•07 





02 





-49 


•01 



1-25 


-^ 






•m 


ml gas. 




■M 








■89 


28 davs. 




■ 13 


y 


ml fe«y 


-13 






■06 






-04 









j 






-01 


(30 1J C.,. 




*06 








av. per cul 


ore. 



59 



Tabu; 4a Continued. 



GROLT* \\ Methane format'mn 



Acetate 5 
10 

i:. 

20 

7 n , 






•16 


■25 


\ 


•25 


-16 


■25 




•25 


-10 





\ 











\ 











1 


•01 

1 


-02 


-01 





► nil gas 10 



-02 I ml gas 14 days 

q$ : 

02 | 
, {'MYC. 



i av. per culture. 



GROUP \'U. Getluhse decomposing 
(aerobic 1 , 



(v2ji 

12-5 




Decomp. in 28 
clays [ ^10' C). 

* mud of sulphur 
reeum., 



GROUP VIII, Cellulme decomposition 
fanaerobici 



5" 


5-60 




3 -B0 


2-80 


10% 


2-87 


i*#j 


2-72 


2-66 


15% 


S-§a 


3-92 


2-80 


4-33 


m% 


*:03 


1 55 


2-57 


2 - 1-9 


25% 


3-G2 


3-70 


2-47 


2-44 



i 


av. 




3-42 | 


3-91 




2-9'3 


3- 12 


1 


2-85 


3-48 




2-70 


:*-43 




2*70 


2 -91) 


i 



pU after 29 days 
at 3<TC. 



GROUP IX. Pink bacteria 

(aerobic heterotrophs 

^% 
10"., 



20% 
2,V\, 



+ 



+ 




allnegauvcexcepr. 
surface brine and 
pink sab in 25% 
solution. 



Iii 1953 we tested the brine, mud and sulphur on the presence of haliphilic 
sulphate-reducing organisms and Thiobacteria. Development was obtained in 
media containing up'to 20 per cent, salt As in the higher salt concentrations 
the incubation time was high (plus one month at 30 cleg. C), we have limited 
the cultures from the 1954 material to 3 5 per cent, salt. There is evidence to 
assume that, during the decomposition of the gypsum, the "internal" solution 
is dilute, due to the formation of reaction-water. The H 2 and CH t formation, 
the decomposition of cellulose and the denitrification were investigated in media 
containing 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 per cent NaCL A summary will follow: 

Group I. Sulphate Reduction 

(a) On hydrogen (generated from steelwool cleaned with petroleum ether). 
All infection materials yielded positive results. 

(b) On lactate all infection materials positive. 

(c) On pyruvate. Only surface mud positive. 

On the average the sulphur nodule contains the most varied and the most 
active sulphate-reducing bacteria. 



Group II, Thiobacteha 

(a) On sulphur, all cultures positive. 

(b) On thiosnlphate. Surface mud negative. 

(c) Thioparus. Gypsum and deep mud positive. 

Deep mud and sulphur nodules proved to be the best infection materials. 

Group HI. Hydrogen formation from glucose and calcium carbonate in 
various salt concentrations. Both brines and surface mud produced much 
hydrogen, especially at concentrations higher than 10 per cent. salt. A con- 
tinuous supply of carbohydrate material may generate enough hydrogen to 
enable the autotrophic sulphate-reducers to perform. Long gram positive rods 
and also micrococci present. 

Group IV. Denitrificaiion ("saltpetre-microcoecus") could only be ob- 
served by formation of nitrogen from nitrate after a long incubation time in 
5 per cent, and 10 per cent, salt from surface brine and from surface mud The 
domtnncahon was negligible in 15 to 25 per cent. salt. As DunalicUa is a 
nitrate organism, it seems comparatively safe at the usual high concentrations 
or the brine. 

Group V. Methane formation was virtually absent. Below 10 per- cent. 
salt, traces of gas were formed. 

Group VJ. Dunalielhi. From brown surface salt we raised, in 20 per cent. 
NaU (nitrate, phosphate), two forms D. mmuta Lerche and D. purva Lerche 
Microscopic examination of brine and salt convinced us, however, that many 
more species arc present in the natural environment. 

Group VII. Aerobic decomposition of cellulose. Filtcipaper discs were 
partly disintegrated in 6-19 per cent, .salt after 28 days incubation at 30 detf. C 
the sulphur nodule and surface muds yielded positive results (lone, slender 
rods and Spirilla), v to 

Group VIII. The anaerobic cellulose fermentation vielded highly acid 
solutions. Neutralization by means of CaCO a was not followed by sulphate 
reduction. Only after stcelwool was introduced, sulphate reduction appeared 
in various concentrations, showing that free hydrogen (as developed in the 
glucose-CaCOa media) seems necessary. 

The surface mud seemed to be the richest source. 







TABL 


E lb. 








Surface 


Surface 


Drep 


Mud from 




Sall-ronc. 


brine 


nrijjd 


mud 


Sulphur region 


Total 


10 
15 
20 


I* •' 5 




:i 

i 

3 


I 

1 


2 


CI 
3 

(1 


i 1-5 

l-.i 


25 

Total 

Th „! 


■b 

1 


I 


•5 
4o 



3 


M) 



Summarizing, we may say that not only the liquid and solid environment 
ol the sulphur nodule, but the sulphur itself as well, are teeming with micro- 
scopic hfe, able to promote the cyclic changes necessary for the formation of 
the sulphur bom gypsum and its subsequent purification. 



61 



1 



TJw flWsdws of purple and green bacteria seems remarkable. They could 
not be isolated either from the. 1953 or from the 195! materials, except in one 
isolated ease from surface mud growu in a medinm containing 20 per cent NaCL 

TV DISCUSSION 

Gypsum crystallizes in the monoclinic system, angle of the axes 58 TO'- 
Figure 4 shows a fragment of a very large crystal of desert gypsum ("old mans 
formes*) which must "have weighed' nearly one kilogram, collected near Broken 
Hill, N S.VV. The main cleavage planes are well recognizable. Gypsum may 
be split along these planes in very thin, glass-like slices. These slices may stand 
considerable bending. After release of the stress, the surface becomes plane 
again. The calcium atoms are joined by sulphate groups (Bragg, 1937; WyckolT, 
1981), Two layers or these CuhUj molecules alternate with two layers! ut 
water molecules, - joined to the calcium and ihe oxygen atoms. It is well known 
that (he thermal expansion of the gypsum crystal is many times greater per- 
pendicular to the main cleavage plane than iu the direction of this plane. The 
ease ot the splicing of the crystal may be readily explained, only one water 
molecule telrtg necessary in the lattice to satisfy the bonds Gypsum is soluble 
m acids, but also in organic substances containing OH groups, such as glycerol. 
This dissolution again will be carried out Oil the water surfaces in the molecule 
until a double layer of CaSO^FLO remains. The crystal takes up dyes and 
inorganic chemicals very slowly. By heating and cooling the process may be 
speeded up, due to thc'theriual expansion and contraction. One may impreg- 
nate a small (3mm,) crystal witli ferric chloride in this way, and react on 
the iron with K-lerrocyanide. Inelusions have frequently been reported in 
gypsum. They must be of two kinds; cither the crystal will be formed around 
some impurity, or there will be a later penetration of materials, helped by 
heating and cooling. As Figures. 7 and S show, these inclusions are of a vari- 
able nature; organic matter, sulphur, FeS ami iron oxide have been demon 
strulcrl (n occur within the crystal. (See also Silvestri. 1882; Sjogren, 1893.) 
The above facts may l>e accounted for by a simple working hypothesis: 
(jlj Single gypsum crystals, or concretions of such crystals, are brought iu 
contact, when submersed, with a substrate, fit for the development of halophihe 
sulphate reducing bacteria, This will require a preliminary fermentation of the 
organic material with the generation of cither hydrogen (on which the auto- 
trophic strain of sulphate redueeis will thrive) or organic acids (a fit substrate 
lor the heterotrophic strain). The uypsum may or may not contain iron oxide 
the environment will invariably contain iron, as appears from the analytical 
data Lot us suppose Further that sufficient ammonium ion. phosphate and 
carbon dioxide be present for sulphate reduction to set in. During this rcdm*- 
Uon the S-O bonds are disrupted and the crystal will disintegrate in the main 
plane Into fibrous crystallite-* (see Fig. ^)). 
the Mlowin.y; reaction will take place: 

CuSOi2H 2 + m - - CaS -I- 8rLO 
The molecular volume will change eonsidcjably chiefly due to water uf 
reaHion. Thcro will be a considerable expansion, which will assist in the break- 
down of tik* crystal. Sjogren (1S93) mention* a 4-023 per cent, salt solution 
from the instdu of a 30 tin. long gypsum crystal f'rum Ctrgenti (Sicily). The 
gas phase consisted chiefly of IIjS. From ihe ionic balance (on recalculating 
flic analytical figures.) it appears that the solution must have been about 01 in. 
in sulpiride. No iron was present. FeS will always be formed, if the pll is 
higher lhan 5-tt. (Due to the very low solubility product of FeS. H : S will 
rven remove the iron from phosphates.) We get. 

62 



CiiS -hFc(OH);^Ga(OH)v + FeS 
Ca(OH )u + COo -» CaCOi + H^O. 
The overall equation will be: 

CaS0 4 2H^O + SH + CO. =H Fc(OH )« -* FeS + CaCO^ -I- 7H 2 
again with an increase in molecular volumes. Figures 5, 7 and 8 show the FeS 
Inside the crystal. This reaction, which proceeds to 92 per cent, completion 
(according to the analyses) gives rise to either CaS or FeS, or both, compounds 
that will oxidize readily, 

(b) Verhuop (1940) has shown that the oxidation of FeS is a purely chemi- 
cal proce^s : taking place in a short time at 100 deg. C, At room temperature 
it mav take 8-12 hours, 

4FeS -e 30, -± 2Fe^O :! + -IS. 
Here again there is an increase in molecular volume. Figures 5 and 6 show 
the sulphur inside the crystal. At times* the shape of the gypsum crystal is 
still reeoguiyablc, while it consists, for the largest part, of sulphur (Fig. 5), 

It will be seen that, while the sulphate reduction will also generate water, 
both sulphate reduction and sulphide oxidation will cause expansion, assisting 
in du\s way in the disintegration of the. crystal. TLe "fiuiliness" of the sulphur 
(its low density) also bears' witness of this expansion. Moreover, the acid pro- 
ducts of the thiobactcria will wash much gypsum from the nodule, which 
gypsum may recrystallize at the outside. Part of the outside shell of the nodules 
may be formed by action of ItSCXt - with (lie lime in the day. The outer pari 
of the shell may have formed by accretion as well. 

This disintegration will proceed rapidly. We isolated a sulphate leduoer 
from Lake Eyre, on a 5 per cent. \aCl-lactatc medium. A gypsum crvstal, 
without any visible inclusions', was placed in a medium containing, besides 
ferrous ammonium sulphate, phosphate and bicarbonate, a 1 per cent, solution, 
oi sodium acetate, After a few* days at 30 deg. C. the crvstal became covered 
with black flakes of FeS (Fig. 10)* These flakes consisted of small, columnar 
crystallites, under an angle of 20 deg. with the a-asis of the crystal (see J?j£. 
y). Similarly, the occurrence of FeS within the crystal occurs between these 
planes. In 10 days 4*5 grams of die large crystal (weight 031 grams-) had 
Ujjcd decomposed or was d is i ulcerated; over 'll per cent, was consumed in 
110 days'. At this rate the crystal would be decomposed in a little less than 
three yeats. Steady and optimal conditions should persist, however, during 
this period, a steady stream of nutrients (such as may be found near the ]$rt 
shore) being the prime prerequisite, 

(c) When the sulphur still contains nutrients, such as ammonium Milts 
and phosphate, there will be an inevitable action of the Thiootltkms group of 
bacteria, generating acid. Kvon a little acid will leach the sulphur completely, 
the extraneous* elements and ptifcfc of the gypsum being washed out Wc be- 
lieve that the core of die sulphur nodules contains but very litlle inorganic 
salts. As soon as the substances necessary for the sulphur oxidation arc removed 
they will accumulate m the outer crust. Gypsum easily recrystalli/.es from » 
saturated solution. 

Again wc want to emph;tsi>e that all of the bacteria mxtssary for the 
above reactions are still present, apparently in <rreat numbers, within the sulphur 
nodule* While "everything is everywhere" at least as far as* sod and water 
bacteria are concerned, bacteria cannot wait forever. Porous coal, from *m 
open scum at Coal Cliif Mine, N.SAV., was flamed at the outside. Sulphate 
reducers, cither autotrophic or heterotrophic, could not he isolated from this 
material, However, it yielded cultures of Thiobactcria, which are known to be 
active Crl mines (acid minewaters). The curious "empty-" nodules, collected at 
the northern portion of the W-coast of Scalloped Hay by Mr. Bmtython. yielded 
neither .sulphate-reducing nor sulphur-oxidising bacteria. 

63 



Iii ;s preliminary C lt age determination earned nut by Mr. T. A. Ratter and 
Mr. G Ferguson, Dominion Physical Laboratory, D.S.I.R., Wellington, Xew 
Zealand, on a composite sidplmr sample weighing 2-2 Kg. horn west coast of 
Sulphur Peninsula, 3*7 litres of CO. were obtained, This was sufficient for uu 
age determination, the result bcin£ lf),100±: 500 years. This result could mean 
that old carbon was contaminated with 9*2 per cent of living carbon. Further 
isotope measurements are being earned out and the results will be emoted iu 
u separate publication. 

H we assume that this datum is correct (it appears to confirm Mr. D. Kiny.*i 
srratigraphie finding), tlien the first step (sulphate reduction) could have taken 
place at a period of 20.000 years or longer, while the second step of sulphur 
oxidation occurred much later under drier conditions, and is probably still taking 
place ill this older material. Many of the sulphur nodules contain bits of insects, 
h*a\fs and matter probably washed in prior to the formation of the gypsum 
shell. 

It seems very remarkable thai all of the bacteria isolated were eith<*T 
highly salt-tolerant or halophilic, while the sulphur only contains OS per cent. 
salt. This may be accounted for by the fact that most of the sulphate reduction 
inside the crystal will be performed by materials already occluded by the grenv- 
|tfg gypsum crystals or be removed by the leaching under the acid conditions- 
( reated by the Thiooxufitns bacteria. 

The first author visited the gypsum-salt lakes* in South Australia in lf)3ft 
There lie met conditions so similar to those observed at Take Eyre 6 that further 
examination of the gypsum cliffs of the Yorke Peninsula Salt Lakes (Marion 
Bay, Lake Fowler) might yield other localities where native sulphur is formed. 

Alter completion of this paper we found thai Subba Rao (1947) had ob- 
served sulphur formation in coastal clays in India. His brief account matches 
ours in many aspects. 

We know that many believe that the sedimentary sulphur deposits (c.tf. 
from Texas) are of biological origin (Thode 61 aU 1&53 and 1954), We share 
this belief. The application of Lyclls "actuality principle/ 1 seems equally valid 
in *4eobiology as it is in geology. It may be that at some time liypsmn will be 
used to prepare sulphur by bacteriological means. 

REFERENCES 

Baas-Bkcionc, L. G M-» 1934. GeobioloiiiV Tim Uagur v:m Stork-tun 

Uhacc, iN. L-, 1937. Atomic Structure of Minorak. Cornell Huiv. J'res.-i- 

Uonvtuon. C. W., and Maso^, ft., 1953. The Effing timl chyiutf of Lake livn:. Tht V- -••• 

l/raphioal Journal 119; 32 L. 
Tlof, T., IU35- Investisntiom Couceniinc RifctafiAl C.vnwHi in Strong. HNftc*< Rec. da 

Trav. Uot. Need. 9g i 1**2. 
Jack R L 1021. The Sail an»J Ovnsnm nosoarea of SoiJth Australia. Ool. finnw S. \ 

Bull. No. 8, p. 26. . . 

Maiu^an, C. T., 1930. Lake Fwo, South Ant.tr; tlia. lite Geographical Journal 78: 215. 
T^itm'n, J., 1938. Notizen teebfifi Sa^llojutlnMa IT. Areh. f. I'mtistonk. f)0: 200. 
KinNhN, )., 1038- Noli /on \ic*her Ciliuleu aus koii/cnttirtlr \ Salzgrwassi/in. /tnil 

Medrrlingcn Mtw. Aut Tfish. Lryrlon 20; 213. 
KmVF.N, J., and BAAs-TtKon.N<; r L. O. M,, LD38i t>n Ithizounrls Living in Cnnsua! fiimmii- 

uirnt. Arch. Need, fin Zoolngio 3 (suppleuitfnl) ; 183. 
StTVEHJIM, O , IS&2, Su'la mtt.ura ehimiea <ll a frame tnolusToni liqnidrt $fonte7ttftt* m trisralh 

natuYah cli so"fo jbflfl Sl^lia. Gas. chit a. UuT. 12: 7 
SfOcui'V, Hj., 1803, On Large* Muitl EncloSmvs fn Gypsum from Simly. BnlL Grol. Inst 

Umtfafu 1-2: 281. 
SnatA TUo. M- EL Tva, K. it., and Sra'^NivAsAVA, M., 1917. MierobiolosieaJ Formation of 

Flcrneutui Sulphui in Coastal Areas. Fourth J:it. Cnmjr. Microbiol,, j>, 41)4. 
TlNftW I'- ^- Maon-amaha. Jn and Fi.FAtive, W. TL, H)53. .Sulphur Isotope Fractiona- 
tion in Nature and Geological awl Biological l'i»ot Scales Grocln'rn- rt Onsmoolnin 
\rta 3: 235. 

* Vox a very goatl description sec Jaclv, 192L 

61 



Thode, FT. C. s Wanless, H. K., and Walloi-jgh R., 1954. The Origin of Native Sulphur 
Deposits from Isotope Fractionation Studies. Geochim. et Cosmochim. Acta 5: 286. 

Veriioop J. A. D., 1940. Chemische on Microbiologische omzctting van Yzersulfiden in 
den Bodem. Thesis, Leyden, H. Veenman & Co., Wageningen. 

Wells, A. F., 1947. Structural Inorganic Chemistry. Oxford, Clarendon Press. 

Wyckoff, R. W. G., 1931. The Structure of Crystals. Am. Chem. Soc. Mon. 2nd Ed. 
Chemical Catalogue Co., N.Y. 



6c 



L. G, M. Baas-Becking and I. R. Kaplan 



Plate 1 




Fig. 1.— Sulphur nodule, opened, showing sulphur ;md cavities. 




Fig. 2.— Sulphur "nodule", plate-shaped. The internal cavity has 
the shape of a plate-crystal of gypsum. 



L. G. M. Baas- Becking and I. R. Kaplan 



Platk 2 




Kig. 3.— Nodule, from which the sulphur is removed. Some of the 
lining gypsum crystals are partly "sulphurized". 




Fig. 4.— Fragment of gypsum crystal, collected near Broken Hill. 
N.S.W. Courtesy of Mr. R. Stanton. 



L, G, M. Baas- Becking and I. R. Kaplan 



Plate 3 





Fig. 5,— Pseudomorph of gypsum, consisting almost entirely of 
sulphur. Where it lias been scratched with Gillette blade, small 
pits mark crystal debris left. Gypsum crvstal with occlusions 

of FeS. 






Fig* 6.— Sulphur washed away by a jet of water. Remaining, 
clean gpsum crystals contain much internal sulphur, x 10. 



L. G. M. Baas-Becking and I. R Kaplan 



Plate 4 





& Fe 2 O s 
GYPSUM CRYSTAL 



Fig. 7.— (a) Iron oxide particles within the crystal after reaction 
with K-ferrocyanide. The liquid may be forced in by heating the 
crystal and on cooling, liquid is sucked in by contraction perpen- 
dicular to the main cleavage plane, (b) Troilite (FeS) inside 
the crystal, following the cleavage planes, (c) Sulphur granules 
inside the crystal, following cleavage planes, (d) Iron oxide and 
FeS within a crystal, examined after splitting it with a knife on 
the main cleavage plane. 



L. G. M. Baas-Becking and I, R. Kaplan 



Pl.ATE 5 




Fig. 8,— Gypsum crystal with occlusions of FeS, 




K20 



Ftg. 9.— Flakes, obtained from crystal. Fig, 10, enlarged. The Hakes con- 
sist of rud-sliaped crystals, still arranged under angles of approw 71 deg. 



L. G. M. 13aas-Becking and I. R. Kaplan 



Plate 6 




Fig. 10.— Plate-shaped crystal, split from the crystal depicted in 
Fig. 4. The plate-shaped fragment weighed 631 grams. It was 
infected with sulphate-reducing bacteria from Lake Eyre sulphur, 
on an acetate medium with Mohr's salt. After 10 days the flaky 
black crust ( containing much FeS ) peeled off. Not less than 
4-5 grams disintegrated in this period. 






THE SALT OF LAKE EYRE - ITS OCCURRENCE IN MADIGAN GULF 

AND ITS POSSIBLE ORIGIN 

BY C. W. BONYTHON 



Summary 

Journeys onto Madigan Gulf were made by Madiqan in 1929, and by the author in 1953 and 1954. 
Observations were made of the surface formations, hand bores were sunk and samples obtained, and 
level surveys were made to determine the physical form of the lake bed. 

A tentative map of the lake bed contours has been and from this has been calculated the volume of 
water that the gulf may hold when filled to different levels. Brine salinities an estimate of the total 
salt content; an independent estimate is derived from salt crust thickness measurements in the dry 
lake. The log of a 12-ft. hand bore put down in the lowest part of Madigan Gulf is given. 
The different dry salt formations are described and shown in photographs. Their origin is deduced. 
The succession of events during the drying-up of the lake waters, and during re-flooding of the dry 
salt crust, is reconstructed. Speculations are made on the origin of the salt. It is shown that the 
composition of the salt is likely to give little indication of its origin. The total quantity is small 
compared with the expected intake over short periods of geological time, and the tact that salts are 
present in quantities in direct proportion to their order of deposition, and in inverse proportion to 
their solubility, suggests that they exist in a state of equilibrium between an incoming stream and 
another stream continually being lust. 



THE SALT OF LAKE EYRE — ITS OCCURRENCE IN MADIGAN GULF 

AND ITS POSSIBLE ORIGIN 

By C, W. Bonython* 
[Read 9 June 1955 1 

SUMMARY 

Journeys onto Madiftm Gulf wore made by Madigun an J929, and by the author in 
1953 and 195'1. Observations were made of the sm*faee- formations, hand Lores were sunk 
and samples obtained, and level surveys were made to determine the physical form ot 
die late rvH. 

A tentative map of the lake, bed contours lifts been prewired, and from this has been 
calculated the volume of water that the gulf may hold when filled to different levels. Brine 
salinities yield an estimate of the total suit content: an independent estimate is derived from 
salt crust thickness measurements in the- dry lake. The log ot a 12-It. hand bore put 
down in die lowest patt of Madigan Gulf is Rivjefl, 

The dillcrcnt dry salt formations are described and shown in photographs. Their origin 
is deduced. The succession of events during the ib'ying-ny of the lake waters, and during 
re- Hood in 'j; of the dry salt crust,, is reconstructed, 

.Speculations are made on the origin of tin; sail, It is shown that the composition of 
the salt i.s likely to give little indication of its origin. The total o,uauLU\y is Mind] compared 
with the expected intake over short periods of geological Lime, and the Fact that saUs an 
present ill ojiaulities ill direct proportion to their order of deposition, and in inverse pro- 
portion to their solubility, suggests that they exist in a state of equilibrium between an 
incoming stream and another stream continually being lost. 

INTRODUCTION 

lux rut studies of Lake Eyre promoted by the Royal Geographical Society 
of Australasia, South Australian Branch, following the phenomenal Hooding in 
1949-50. included field work which brought lo light inter aha interesting infor- 
mation on the volume, salinity and geology of the lake and surroundings. Some 
of the findings have been set out by lionython and Mason (1953), and later 
in more detail by Honythnn (1955 a, k c ? d and ej. 

The evaporation study had given rise to rough estimates ui the water- 
holding capacity ot the lake at its higher stages, but there still persisted a lack 
of .such data for the lower stages. The known volumes had been estimated 
from aerial reports on the extent of the flooded areas in conjunction with lake- 
levels measured on gauging posts near the shore, but during the final phase 
of the drying-iip l lie water reheated inwards from I he shore so ihnt its level 
could no longer be gauged, and hence the residual volumes could not be esti- 
mated. The lowest basins of the lake bed — to which the residual volumes 
relate — arc important inasmuch as they appear to contain practically all the 
lake salts both during the concluding stages of the drying-up process and aftei 
the lake is finally dry, 

THE EXPLORATION OF IKE HE1) OE MADIGAN GULF 
The deepest parts of Lake Eyre North are Madigan Gulf in the south-east 
ninl Holt 13ay in the souLh-west; the former is thought to be the deeper of 
the two, 

* r.C.h AlLdi (Australia) Pty. Ltd. 

m 



Madigan Gulf is an oblong basin, approximately 25 miles by 20 miles, 
named after C. T. Madigan, who reached its dry centre in 1929 (Madigan, 
1930). After viewing it from the air he had attempted to drive a motor vehicle 
on it with the object of reaching the centre of Lake Eyre itself — at that time 
completely dry. 




MADIGAN 




Br 


C'.P. 


!9tS 


ON 


FCOT 


13.2a 


M 


rODT 


1335 



BOhmHON 

EUfWEY IS5* 
ON FOOT IS54- 



Fig. 1. --Journeys on the Bed of Madigan Gulf. 

He started from the shore at what is now called Level Post Bay (see Fig. 
1), but a marginal strip of the lake bed, composed of damp clay, proved an im- 
passable barrier to his truck, so that he was forced to follow the shore south- 
westwards until he reached Shelly Island, where his attempt to exolore the 



gulf by motor vehicle was abandoned. (An interesting postscript to this attempt 
is that Qui author in 1953 found ghostly vestiges of Mudigans car tracks west 
of Sulphiu IVn insula; they were still in evidence — see Plate la— even after 
I laving been submerged for over two years in up to 10 ft of water,) 

During the return journey Madigan tmd a companion branched oil at 
I'tvsu'tt Hunt to walk l£S miles out into the gulf in a north-westerly direction. 
He de.scubed flic various suriaee salt foiinations for the first time, and he fouud 
the salt tmirt to increase in thickness with distance from the shore finally to reach 
17 inches. He and his parly put down some hand bores in the lake bed near the 
shore I lis observations were thorough and complete, and he was clearly a 
most discerning observer. The amount that he discovered during the mere 
seven days spent on the hike was truly remarkable. Madigan briefly revisited 
Level Post Hay in IftifJ dining the return from his Simpson Desert expedition 
(Mudigun, 100). 

\o further scientific work was earned put there uuLil die author made his 
evaporation expeditions in 1951 (Vlonylhon, 1955 c) When iu 1952 the bed 
ol the gUM was being re-exposed as il dried up a plan was lonnulated to make 
accurate, levelling surveys across it for the purpose of determining its contours; 
from these the vvaler holding capacih eonhl be deiived. At the same, time the 
salt ejusr was to be studied in more detail than Madigun hud found possible. 

The hike hud completely diied up by eaily 3053. so the expedition was 
p'armed foi May of that year. However, in February and April respectively., 
two floods entered the bik»- — the first Irom the Neale; and Mueumha catch- 
ments, awl the second from Queensland via the Dianumtina. The latter was 
i( llood of signiru.mt proportions { Bimython, U)55h), sneh thai Madigan Culf 
v,as ctftyWri with water to the level of A.R.L. SJf-'fi it.* by May, 195-1 The 
expedition of May, 1.953, still wont out, bnt with modified objectives, The only 
survey made consisted oi a short levelling traverse across a dry strip of the 
lake bed near the 'horo 

Two wading journeys were made from Frescott Point through shallow 
waters in the kunoth Shoal area (see Fig. 1); one went for four miles on 
approximately Lhe magnetic bearing oi 285", crossing the htgh-and-dry Crest 
o( Kiuiulh Shoal in the process, while the other went for five miles generally 
on a hear in t» of 34(1 . passing entirely through water, A three-day motor journey 
along Html i-Vniiisula was also made dming this expedition. Us Madigan (lull 
shtae was lol lowed round to Artemia Point, the north-eastern extremity. 

1m 19rjl. salt and brine samples wci'C taken, hand bore* were put down 

ueai the shore, and stratiuraphie data were obtained by L>. King of the South 

Vai-slvnlian Mines Department ( King, 1953 ). A previously -ton nd deposit of 

native sulphur f LUus-Ueekmg & Kaplan. 1955, Ronylhon ami King, 1955) was 

-also If I re I fed mi this occasion. 

The lake had dried up again by the end id 1953; and a le\elling survey 
evped'lten was planned Jor August, 1954. The lake, remained dry, so that this 
lime il was possible to carry out the work as desired. The parly of eight mem 
Iuts travelled io Lake Kyre. in a jeep and a heavy truck, and remained in the 
vlciriil\ from 23rd August to 3rd September. W. C. Fenner ci;nducied the 
levelling Mirvey, while the author was responsible for the salt crust boring and 
sampling. 1 he first phase of the work involved a lour-nay iouruey on the 
lake bed by fom men. They used a novel form of trausport for their supplies — 
a ligltf "garden" crawler tractor with widened lracks> drawing a trailer on 
aeroplane wheels (see Plate lb). It included a cyclometer wheel to log dis- 
tances. Though slow (2li m.ph,)> this vehicle could cross (he soft mud near 
the shore without sinking. It earricd such essentials* as water, firewood and 
it tarpaulin shelter which, when fastened to the lee side at night* made a com- 

" (III' Hull' ih (lffiitt'd tffi jJErtgf 71. 



fortabJe camp possible in otherwise rather bleak conditions lite surveying 
p4ir Wits able (o cover .seven miles in a full working day; the other pah* drove 
the tractor, and bored and sampled the salt. Black (lags were planted at 
intervals to mark the survey Hues. 

The firsl leg of the survey was advanced from Prcscott Point on 25th 
August in tx direction of 305" magnetic (see Fig, 2), (The reason why this 
bore rather to die teb of the long axis of Madigan GuM was that u certain 
uenal report of (he drying-up in 1&52 suggested that the bottom of the basin 
was on that side; the report was misleading, ) The salt crust was encountered 
a short distance beyond Prcscott Point, and it rapidly reached a thickness of 
7 ill It later decreased to L in. over Kunutb Shoal, but alter thai- il thickened 
once more. The surface was hard, and the only interruptions to its smoothness 
were small 'islands" of cemented crystals of "drift" salt raised a lew inches 
nbove the goueral level Soon the thickness readied 8 in., and o\-er all ihc 
distance covered by the levelling team in the next tew days it kept between 
7 and 11 in 

Tin second, day took the survey to Flag 86/51 at 12 miles, On the third 
day (27th August) the direction was changed 90 cks. anti-dock wise at the 
It-mile mark, ami other similar turns were made, so that during this aud the 
fourth day a rectangle of perimeter 10 miles was closed back onto the original 
survey line, hi the course of this, on the morning of 2H{\\ August, the author 
walked from the third camp at Flag 62/54 to the south-western shore at Pittu- 
Nponun Head and back again. After xcjouring the outward survey line at Flag 
37/51. the party returned to base. The levels so far measured indicated that 
the lowest part of Madigan Golf was probably on the north-cast or opposite 
side of the main survey Jinc. The tractor was very slow, and the :34 miles on 
the lake so far covered - by it had been tedious ones for the drivers. Moreover, 
Ihe salt crust puned so sound that it encouraged un attempt to put a motor 
car on to it — the unachieved aim nf Shuligan 25 years before (Madigan, 1930). 
By running over planks laid on the soft lake bed where the gap between the 
land and the salt was narrowest (near Prescott Point), a jeep eventually reached 
the thick salt crust; thenceforth it was possible to travel at 40 m.p.h. on a 
smooth surface, most of which was as firm as concrete. After this the survey 
party was driven out each morning from the advanced base camp at Frcscntt 
Point, aud brought hack in the evening. The jeep track detourt d northwards 
round Kunoth Shoal to keep lo the fhick salt. 

On 3(Hh August the ne\t lejj of the .survey was directed along a hearing of 
35 Magnetic front Flag 30/54, 12 mile.s out. The lake bed was relatively much 
lower in this direction, the leg terminated after S miles at Flag W54- Beyond 
the latter point 1). Dyer and the author walked on lor three' more miles, but 
were halted at approximately one mile fiom the north-eastern coast where Ihe 
salt had tapered lo a thickness of one inch, and it was found to be a treacherous 
urea of breakable crust underlain by very soft mud. On 3JUt August a smve\ 
leg on a bearing of SIR; Magnetic was begun from Mac 1 ; 93/54 localed part 
wav along the previous day's log and at its lowest point. At Flag 112/54. four 
nu'fes along the final le£, the lowest part of the lake bed lo be measured was 
found; Ihe survey ended three-quarters of a mile lurther on. The lowest point 
was at A.K.L 91 5 ft., at 17 miles N.N.W. frem Prescott Point. 

During 31 si August the author and I. 11. Kaplan sank a hand bore in the 
lake bed at Vim 93/54. The bed itself (i.e. the bottom of the salt crust) was 
i\l A.H.I,. 92 2 ft. here, and so although it was not at the lowest known part 
of Madigan Gulf it was only 8 in. above i( The bore reached a depth or 11 ft. 
4 in. on that day, and it was deepened to 12 ft. 8 in. on the following dav with 
the help of W. G. Fenner. The last 1 ft. 8 in. was in a bed of rotten dolomite. 
That day — 1st September — saw the end of the effective work of the expedition. 

m 



Other information had been gathered by D. Dyer, who in the meantime 
had taken a parly on toot from Prescott Point along a course bearing 30° Mag- 
netic to the north-cast coast eight miles away. Salt crust thicknesses up to 
i% ill, were measured. On another occasion he traversed Kunoth Shoal some- 
what to the south of the main survey line. 



.56/54 feffiti 

17/54 2£j 







.T' OSPQHl.M 



THE 1354 SURVEY 



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KtV 






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L£V(L 5UFV:> 






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3 g^ j^ IjJSi. £ 3t 



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Kiu. 2 



The survey parties had been eight days on the lake bed, during which a 
total of 33 miles had been levelled, 55 salt depths had been measured, and 18 
shallow salt crust bores and one deeper lake bed bore had been sunk and 
logged. Many samples of salt, mud, brine, etc. had been taken* 



THE 1954 LEVELLING SURVEY 

Water levels in Lake Eyre North have been expressed (Bonython, 1955 b) 
in tenus of an arbitrary datum tied to the main level post set up in 1951; the 
datum is 100 ft. below the zero of the level post, which is at approximately 



lake bed level at a point near the shore of Madigan Gulf. The level post zero 
— Arbitrary Reduced Level 100 ft — is approximately 25 ft below sea level 
(Hunythou, 1955 e), and it is roughly midway between tlie lakes highest stage 
in 1950 (A.R.L. 107-5 ft) and the lowest part of Madigan Gulf (A.R.L. 91-5 
ft.). Level data below A.R.L. 9S ft. were lacking until 1954, and the work 
now to be described was done to obtain accurate" measurements in this level 
range. The results refer to the true lake bed (i.e. the bottom of the salt crust), 
although the actual survey was carried out with respect to the upper surface 
of the .salt. 

The instrument employed was a Cooke, Troughlon ik Simms S300 series 
Surveyors' Level used in conjunction with an orthodox staff. Determinations 
were made to the nearest 1/100 ft, but in the following description levels will 
be reported to the nearest* 1/10 ft. Location is specified by the serial number 
of the flag placed there (and the year — 1954); the lines of the survey are 
.shown in Fig, 2. The level of the lake bed at Flag 1/51, appro vimately 100 
yards north of the sandy hook of Frcscott Point was A.R.L. 98-0 ft. It fell to 
A.R.L. 94*8 f(. in the trough between the starting poiut and Kunoth Shoal, 
rising again to A.R.L, 96-7 ft. at the crest of the^ latter. Then there was a 
rapid fall to A.R.L. 95 ft, but in the remaining 11 miles of that leg of the 
survey the level kept between A.R.L. 95 ft and A.R.L. 94 ft. It was subse- 
quently realized that this course was approximately parallel to the contours 
instead of cutting them at right angles as intended. 

The levelling of the rectangular "box" south-west of the main survey line 
showed a rise of less than 1 ft in that direction. This, and other information, 
indicates that much of the lake bed between the main survcv line and the 
south-western shore is a nearly flat shelf. Incidentally, the closure of the survey 
of the ''box" revealed a level measurcrneut discrepancy of only K in. — a pointer 
to the accuracy of the survey. 

The leg going north-eastwards from Flag 36/54 showed the comparatively 
steep downward gradient of 6 in, per mile for 3 miles, but bv 5 miles (Flag 
S9/54) the bed had flattened out at A.R.L. 92-2 ft It scarcely rose at all up 
to the end of die leg. The final leg north-west of Flag 93/54' showed a slow 
fnll to A.R.L. 91-5 ft (at Flag 112/54), the lowest pomt measured, followed 
by a very slight rise. It is believed that Flag 112/54 must be at or close to 
the lowest part oi Madigan Gulf— and, indeed, of Lake Evre North itself. 



TABLE, I. 

Wkmi'- ol Madigan Cull' up io A.R.L. 98 ft. 



Slfl lacr I.rvrl 



A.K.L. 92 ft. 
A.K.L 93 IV 
A.R.I.. *M ii 



Total Volume 



5,000 at-.-n. 

40.000 at.. ft. 

lOO.OUO nc.-h. 



AU.L 05 ft. 200,000 nr -IV 

A.R.L. 9b" ft. M70.000 ac.-ft. 

A.k.l. 1)7 I.. (100,000 »r.-n 

VK.L. 9B.fr. «too.ono iK-.-t'i. 



Figure 3 shows provisional contours of the bed of Madigan Cult It is 
based principally on the levelling survey, but it also makes use of other data 
on water limits observed from the air in the A.R,L, 95-9S ft. range. Too groat 
an accuracy must not be expected, owing to the limited coverage of the surwvs 



71 



The volume of Madigan Gulf for levels up to A.R.L. 98 ft. was calculated 
from areas within the contours and Simpsons Rule (see Table 1), The total 
volume to that level is shown to be 900.000 acre-feet 




tfttt; 3, -Tentative CVnt"Uis of the- J&'-tJ Of Mudijian Gulf, 



THE SALT CRUST 

Madigan was the first to examine the salt crust of Madigan Gulf (Madigan, 
1980). He measured a thickness of 17 in. at a point which must have been 
close to location Flag 8(3/54. No thickness as great as this was measured iu 1954. 

The Surface formations: 

Madigan recognized a number of different types of salt crust which, from 
the shore, may be summarized as follows: The "piecrust" or "bull-dust" .surface 
of the virtuallv salt-free lake bed near the shore; damp clay between this and 



I he Nalt crilst: "pancake' slabs of thin .salt left as remnants after solution by 
rain; tessellated salt with cracks, forming slabs with upturned edges; salt marked 
with polygonal cracks (only markings) with 2-3 ft. sides; salt with larger-scale- 
arcuate buckling, large patches of dark-red, dirty salt; buckled slabs only 1-ju. 
or so thick, with more firm salt below; and romparatoeJy smooth and feature- 
less salt. He described the general colour as "pink,° and he ascribed the red 
colour of the upturned slab edges to blown ml dust. 

fn 1553 the author examined salt formations in the vitinitv of Kmioth 
Shoal at a time when praetiealty all the crust was submerged by 'flood water*. 
The overlying lake water was a saturated brine, The salt thickness was 
measured beneath the water or the tongue between Preseott Point and KimoUi 
Sena] in three places. At about half-mile south of the subsequent vear's Flag 
1/54 location it was 5J4 in. thick, with a plane of weakness (along which it 
parted when sampled) at 3 in. from the bottom. The bottom quarter inch or 
so was greenish, and the underlying bed was a palc-greeu mv<], The nppci 
surface* of the crust was quite smooth and hard (as with all the submerged 
ern.vt encountered in 1953). At this place the supernatant brine was H 1ft. deep, 

The salt was coarsely crystalline — like that made from sea water bv the 
conventional spfar evaporation process Its bulk density was approximately 151) 
tons solid sodium chloride per acre-inch. Analyses of the salt and the brine 
above it are given in Appendices I and II. 

The salt types observed in 1953 in the course of walking and wading near 
Preseott Fuint and Kunotli Shoal are as follows: 

Wet mud surface above the level of the salt crust; similar, but with incipient 
polygonal cracking (see Plate Ila); shallow, scooped-out patches of the wet 
mml in the near shore area (piobahly caused by defhtiun wheu die lake is 
dry) raised island slabs of thin salt with dLsolved-nnt areas in between (near 
water's edge— see Plate Ilia); smooth, thick crystalline salt covered with brine*, 
roughly parallel, eurled-up ridges of crust at eastern edge of shoal; banks of 
drifted disc&haped crystals, each about the size of a shilling piece (see Plate 
IVa); isolated patches of very thin salt, like waterlily leaves (on crest of shoal 
— see Plate liib): and puddiug-ishapcd salt escrpseenccs from the flooded salt 
crust, projecting above the watoi surface. 

The crest of Kunoth Shoal was apparently above the level at which Ihe 
evaporating fake iu 1952 would base begun depositing salt (Bonvthon, 1955 bb 
The ground here was higher than that crossed in 1<)51 at Flag 7/54. Salt-free. 
wet mud — the first typo of 1953 — was observed generally near the shore, e.g. 
iu Level Post Bay; between the west side of Sulphur Peninsula and the &alt 
crust; between Shelly Island and the main shore; and in the bay north-west 
of ritlONporuui Head. Salt slabs with eurled-up edges were uncommon in ltf53. 

A fuller study of the salt trust was possible in 195-L The surface laver had 
been laid down only a few month* previously, and none was then submerged 
beneath water. A list of (he different salt clasMtieations is given in Table £ 

The lake bed outside the limits of the salt crust was much the same ( fype 
la. Jb) as it had been in 1953. but rather firmer to travel on. The first part 
of the crust encountered— just beyond Preseott Point — was still in the form 
of kc floe slabs (Type -3), but the slabs themsebes were now traversed by 
numerous, uneven cracks dividing them into irregular polygons; the edges of 
the polygons tended to curl tin, and a feathery growth of efflorescent salt (Type 
8 — see Plate Via) protruded from the cracks." The white of the efflorescence 
contrasted with the pinkish, sometimes dirty, brownish-red, colour* of the slabs, 
'llic latter formation (Type 5b) was restricted to crust of thickness 1 inch or 
less. Tt is termed Vrnendtle -skin" salt It was seen again on crossing Kunoth 
Shoal (see Plate lb); the polygons tliere were 3-4 ft. across, and the general 
colour was pale pink to off-white. As the crust thickened on cither side of the 
shoal the cracking was less marked, and the polygon size decreased to a few 



inches (Type 5 a). Types 5a and 5b salt were also seen near the shore at 
Pittosporum Head- and on the opposite side of the gulf near the north-east 
coast. 

"(here was always a rapid transition from a crust thickness oi about 1-in. tu 
one of about 6-in. The surface oi the thick salt was frequently smooth and 
featureless (Type 6a), while at other times it might have a faint pattern of 
polygonal cracks (Type 6 b)* 

A Salt formation first observed by the author in 1954. near Flag 10/54. 
was aii island ol rusty -red. cemented "drift" salt (Type 7b) raised 3-6 in, above 
the general surface. H appealed to have formed during the evaporation of the 
lake waters from floating salt flakes which had become stranded against an 

TABLE II 
Snrl'iien Salt Fonvutiim& 



type 


. R 


i h 


■2 


3 


1 


5 u 


li- 


ft H 


b 



Description 



WVt, damn or dry mud surface above the level of Ihr salt crust It may havi (1 

powdery routing of small sa.lt crystals, arid the irmd when dry may have a wrinkled, 

'rue-crust" appearance (see Plate Ia)< 

Like la, but with incipient polygonal cracking (see Piute llu). 

Shallow, scjooped-out patches hi the mud of the neuTsliwv iuvns (sec Plata UbJ. 

Raised islaud slabs of thin salt with dissolved-oul art\(S m between — "iet-Ilne" salt 

(Characteristic of [he edge of the main crust — w- Plate. Ilia.) 

J'atehes of thin suit with <-urled-uvj edges occupying depressions like those of Type - 

Called ^water-lily" salt; observed only'on Kuuolh Shoal, in 1953. (kcq .Plate TUh.) 

Continuous, thin (1 in. or so) salt with incipient cracking; into polygons -1-10 in. across. 

Ditto, bnt divided l>v efflorescent cracks into polygons 15-4 ft. across. ("Crocodile skin" 

.salt — set? Plate lb.) 

Smooth*, thick tialt Crust; featureless (sec Plate YTII a \. 

Thii-k salt, with a faint pattern of polygonal cracks. 
7 ;* Ranks of drifted, disc-shaped salt crystals ("numnlitic** drift salt) each about the 

size ol a shilling piece (set; Plates IV a and IV b), uncoloured. 
7 h Ditto, coloured on die surface bright rnstv-nmk\ dirty-brown,, etc, ( '.see Plattru Va 

and Yb). 
6 Snow-white, efflorescent salt bulging from cracks in Types ,1 5 b, 7 u r and 7 b (swe 

I'Jaltj Via). 
i) Pudding-shaped mounds of salt projecting above the general salt surf ace — "ice- 

pudding" salt. (See Pluto VI b>) 



owrrscrncr. of "ice-pudding ° salt (Type 9- see. Plate VI b). Such an aeeumu- 
latioii would bo self-accreting once it had begun to form in shallow, salt- 
depositing brine. As well us ^stranding more floating crystals, the drift would 
also grow by further crystallization from the supersaturated lake brine. Beyond 
Kla^ 10/54 it was common to see several such islands at a time; those seen laLtr 
were composed entirely of drift salt, without having any visible core. A good 
example of the latter — and a particularly striking sight — was such an island 
near Flag 37/54, 12 miles from Prescott Point (see Plate Va). it was 40 yards 
lon<* in a northeast-son thwesi direction, and it curved gracefully in scimitar 
form. Tt consisled of '^ioM^itfcT drift salt, and it stood S-4 in. above the 
^eneial surface. The sail was snow-white within, but its upper surtace was 
a bright, rusty pink. It gave the impression of having bceu coloured by mi 
originally floating scum \vliieli had drifted against, and had become adsorbed 
upon, a salt bank at that time just showing above Ihe water surface. The island 
was seen to be crossed at right angles by numerous, roughly-parallel cracks 
from which pure white efflorescent salt bulged (ef. Type 8). The cracks must 
have been formed after the lake had dried up. Chemical analysis shows the 
efflorescence lo be $& per cent, sodium chloride. 



The distribution of these salt islands varied over the area of the gulf and 
m sonic places they were uniformly orientated. Many lav parallel to the con- 
tours ot the bed, i.e. parallel to the shoreline of the shrinking lake remnant but 
many were also at right angles to the contours. In some cases the formation 
was possibly influenced by the wind that had prevailed while this was takio*- 
place, rhey were rot seen within one mile of the main .shore (the nearest 
one to Proseott JPonit being four miles awav), nor were they found at the lowest 
part of the gulf. Some islands were almost circular (see Plate Vb) Those 
of the interior parts were the less highly coloured (Type la). They probabW 
correspond to the '-arcuate buckling of Madigan (1930), however, it scerus 
that rhey were not formed by a subsequent buckling process, as he inferred 
but instead they originated as a phenomenon of salt deposition bv evaporation ' 

Diilt salt crystals that had presumably settled on the surface of the main 
crust as the water dried up gave if a blistered appearance. These often occurred 
in strings, and in the form of serpentine drifts (see Plate IV b) which were 
probably cmbiyonic salt islands. 

The growing surface of the salt deposit in an evaporating salt lak« or pond 
jx inherently unstable (Bloeh, 1951); since the sopcrsaturation of the sailing 
liquor must increase upwards towards the surface ot the evaporating brine am* 
thing that raises part of the salt bed (e.g. a drift of loose crystals) or a foreign 
body projecting above it (e.g. a wind-transported roly-polv bush), will cans* 
accelerated salt growth at thai point, so producing cvercscouccs frermenllv 
nsmg sharply Iron, the bed. Salt "islands" and "ice- nodding" salt are respective 
examples ol the growth resulting from this instability. Bv "contrast, an unsatu- 
rated solution overlying a salt bed has a marked stabilizing eJIeet upon it 
planing the surface smooth in the manner that Bluch describes/ There was little 
obvious evidence of this having occur red at Lake Evrc, some uudrrentting of 
mounds ol "ice-nudcling' salt by rain-diluted brine befog erassibTy the only 
oyuupjes. A partial re-flooding of the crust bv fresh waters, or a' heavy fall 
ot rain on the waters during the deposition phase, could have caused \such 
pluning of the crust, and although I he former occurred in 1953, evidence of it 
is probably concealed by the salt subsequently deposited on fop of any planed 
Mirhiees. The efleet of rain on salt crust already high and dry is shown in the 
irregular dissolution in the : 'tee-floe M salt areas near the shore. 

Cracking and buckling (see Date VI I) of the salt crust seem to increase 
with Mir. elapse of tuns after deposition, Madigan probably saw the crust at 
least five years after its formation, when it was more buckled' than in 1054 No 
doubt longer periods of weathering would further accentuate buckling so that 
if left uuflooded long enough it might eventualJv resemble the salt uf'the Lop 
plam in Sinkiang (rule Orabau, 1920) whore the buckled crust assumes the 
shape ol Fro/en waves oJ n ehnppy sea. 

The different salt formations in Madigan Cull have been classified and 
described in Table 2. Iu addition, mention should he made of another form 
of crystalline salt not ottcn found naturally at hake Evre. and beloiming moie 
correctly to the laboratory, This is sodium chloride in long, needle-Tike or 
hair-like crystals sprouting from brine-saturated elav that has been allowed to 
dry for many days in still air. It has already been described by Fenner (19341, 
The author has commonly seen it on clfty adhering to specimens of nodular* 
native sulphur (Bonython and King, 1955), 

Bores m ilu* Salt Oust. 1 

The salt crust was bored at 55 places along the surveying traverses, und 
also at some other places. A bore is designated by the serial number of the 
adjacent survey flag (e.g. Bore 50/54 for the bore at Flag &0/5&). The top of 
the ground brine within the crust was usually close to the upper .salt surface 
m the lowest parts of the gulf it being practically at the surface and visible in 

« 



tlie bottoms of slight irregularities in the crust. The crust was nearly all firm 
and Imrd, and it often presented great resistance to the boring tool, but where 
the brine reached close to the surface the top inch or two of the salt was soft 



KIM J' 

pAMO 



KruNr. 

LLtfFL 



RuSTY 



BRINE 
UVEl 



J 



WHITE. 






n i 



LtvEL 



PALE 
Pink 



"UfcV'tL 



7/S4_ 
PALE 
PinK 



8; 54 



BanO 



PALE 

PiNK 



V I LI OW 

BROWN 



FLtiiH 



P.P. i -.■■■■* r- 

TO 
CMEV 



n 


m 

T 
O 

z 

-I 

9 

c( 

$i 

i 

o 

a 

>- 

a 
n 


a/eg 


• ;>lAir« 


PALE 
PINK 




PALE 

PINK 

rusty" i 


1 


PiNK 

[VlLwmSH 
PlNH, 


t 


PINK 


: ) 


Kll:i I V 

YELLOW 


OiRTY | 


+ 


FLF*iK 

PrNM. 


11 


pink 


WH IT E 


7 

3 


WW "I t 


PINK 


10 









\EVEL 



LWtfl 



HUSTT 



44/54 




* Is/ b4 








rusty 


BRIWE 
■*~L£VEL 


wiinf 


WhITE 


\ 50f T 
LAYEK 


TD 
PALE 
PINK 


pale 


*ARO 


PiNK 


tA>£R 






PINK 


HB.Cr.T 


BROWN 






PINK 



BRINE 
LEVEL 



PALC 



BRINE 
"LEVEL 



FUJflTY 

BAND 



PINK 
'HAND 



sa/s4 



PALE 
PirjK 



BRlCiHT 
PINK 



BRINE 

'LEVcL 



62/54 

WHITE 

PALI: 

PINK 



95/VV 



r?/B4 



SRiNE 
LEVEL 



KUSfY 
BAND 



TO 
RUSTY 



LEV£U 

_ SOLUTION 



VLUT l{* 
HantZONI. 7 -') 



r'INK 

;.Rtv 



DIRTY 

'later 









BRINP 
LEVFL 



HARD 
IAYCR 



HAKH 
LAYER 



Fig. 4.— Logs of Bores in the Suit Crust. 

and erushable, allowing ones boots to sink in appreciably and the jeep's tyres 
to sink more than an inch. The last effect, experienced at 25 miles per hour, 
was of sudden, intermittent collapsing of this top layer, giving the sensation 
that the wheels were about to break right through the crust; so marked was it 



76 



ni"]-! S n U/;>i *»W«tds that for prudence the jeep was not taken past Flag 
UVo4 Brme was dose CO the salt surface in places Other than the bottom or 
M,lf *>'"'*• Vl ?; "'if 1 Flag 99/54 and over much of the north-western part of the 
survey box (Hags 41/54-57/54). The ground brine surface* had not reached 
h common level throughout the area of the salt crust. Apart from the irregu- 
rmhos described its shape was thai of a saucer slightly more flattened than 
the lake bed ilsell. 

The operation of horiug the crust with the hand tool revealed hard and 
sol! layers at those levels where there appeared to have been a break in the 
progression ot salt deposition; those places were characterised by occasional 
cavities due. perhaps, to partial dissolving-rnit of the salt, uud were termed 
solution horizons . Certain rusty and bright pink salt layers were regularly 
pioounlercd m the borings. Figure 4 summarizes the logs of the salt enwt 
bores. There is u certain rusty band in most of the logs belonging it is con- 
icctnrcd. to a single epoch in the salt solution-deposition C yck\ ft occurs at 

V iV? -'V" }lT , to,n , of the crmt m u11 Io Ss except those h.r 79/54, 93/54 
.nid 112/04. 1 he latter three belong to the deep part of the lake lied, where 
the salt may possibly have had a somewhat different history 5-fi in above the 
base I hey show a striking band of purple-pink salt not shown in pthtt toss. 
and this could possibly correspond to the missing rusty band. 

A block of salt crust almost 1 ft. cube was obtained at Flag 93/54 bv 
boring holes close together round the sides of a square (sec Plates Villa and 

Colouration of ihr Salt: 

There were two types of colouration observed: 
(a) The nisty-pink to dirty brown surface of the crust near the shore and of 

the islands (Type 7 b) in the interior of the gulf. 
[I»J The purple-pink stratum in the body of the salt crust. 

Madigan recorded (a) (is a discolouration of the buckled salt surface ami 
tie ascribed it to red dust. The author obtained some bright red scum from the 
sulfate of drift- salt on (he edge of Kunoth Shoal in 1953. and as the result of 
the report by 1,, G. .VI. Baas-Reeking, he was inclined at first to believe that 
Marligans red colour was ot organic origin. Baas-bVclung's examination indi- 
cated the colour til be an organic pigment from or associated with the flagellate 
Uumltclla mltna. 1 he pigment was Obtained as dark orange crystals after three 
reci ystall izafions from acetone. It was believed to be a caratcnoid pigment 
and this was confirmed by the salt having the odour of violets, assumed lr>" be 
lunone — a breakdown product of carotenes. No iron was present 

However samples of discoloured salt obtained in 1954 when' the lake was 
dry had different properties. 1. R. Kaplan evamiued discoloured salt crust from 
one mire north ol Prescott Point, and he found the stain to be due almost en- 
tirely to iron oxide (200 p.p.m. Fc" + H ), w j t h a small proportion possibly due 
to B«,yrrrrmi halahhwi and Dwutfidh sp. Rusty red drift salt from the salt 
island near' FJag 37/54 was examined mfrroseopieallv bv I. M. Thomas- he 
round no organic matter in it, but found what appeared to hr red dust s' M 

Sbephard found this salt to contain iron (300 p.p.m. Fe > ). 

The rusty-red colouration of the hanks of drift salt therefore seems likely 
to be due^mainly lo red dust, initially trapped on the surface of the evaporating 
lake m a floating froth which was eventually carried by the wind to be stranded 
on one ol the low banks of drift salt then beginning to emerge from the waters 
{The author has commonly observed such a Boating froth, containing clay 
material, on the surface of strong brine in certain reservoirs in a salt works ) 

The surface salt colouration of Lake Evre deserves further study in the 
authors opinion. In view of die 195.3 report of an organic colouring substance 
he is not entirely satisfied that all the surface stains are inorganic in nature. 



J lie sinking purple, pink colour (b) ol the middle layer of the salt crust 
at Bore* W3/54 was also studied by L \\. Thomas; by microscopic examination ho 
found tt to confein small, amorphous, mucoid masses whit?h could have beer* 
ol bacterial origin. No living flagellates were observed, and no development 
occurred on incubating the salt at 27 dog, Q. in constant Ihihr. 

THE QUANTITY OK SALT 

The el list thicknesses measured in 1954 arc shown in Kig. 2. The crust is 
believed tu cover all Madigan (mlf within iippcoximatcly the A.R.L. 9/ ft 
contour line, if lines of fcjjwfl sdt thickness are drawn, and a procedure some- 
what similar to that described for finding the water volume in the guli is used, 
it is found that the volume of the salt crust m MadtaUl Gifll fc 1.W0.000 acre- 
inuhei. The UKon value of several determinations nf tho bulk density Of the 
.salt of the, crust is 150 tons of sodium chloride per ac-iu., which makes fhte 
total amount of sodium chloride 270>000,000 tons, 

An independent calculation of the salt tonnage has been made as follows: 
The volume of brine in Nfadigun Culf when filled to A.lt.L. 98 ft, has been 
shown to be 900 HOC ac.-ft. It was also shown (Ronython, 1955 d) that the salin- 
ity of the brine on 13th December, 1951, when the level was A.K,L. »U ft, 
was °34 gift, sodium chloride per litre. So, assuming that the salinity when 
the level had fallen to A.R.L 98*11 ft. was 2rf0 g.pl. wc may calcu ate that the 
indium chloride content of Madman Gull was 260.000,000 tons, which .s close 
to the oilier estimate. A derivation from die above calculation is that tho waters 
of the gulf should have been just saturated with sodium chloride (ttttp &$M 
when the volume had shrunk' to (IS00O0 ac.-ft.; this corresponds to A.H.I, i)i -o 
It which is heme a fundamental level in reconstructing the sequence of events 
when salt is being deposited in the lake by evaporation ol the waters. 

It lias been shown ( Boirvthou, 1955d) that when a plausible value is 
assumed loi the total residual volume of the Iklt Hay AlKJ Jackboot Bay basins 
for the Doriiihi-r. 193.1 epot h the total amount ol sodium chloride m Lake 
Lvrc North works out at approsiruntelv 400(100,000 tons. This strictly npplirN 
tii the lake above the surlaee of the bed proper — Hie interface between the 
crust and \hv gypsum slush (ref. Bore U3/5J). In the absence of a bore case,; 
to prevent brine from above gravitating to the lower levels of J3ore WVol it 
was impossible to tell whether the nypsum slush stratum m this bore was 
saturated with luine or not, hut if it had been the matter would be ol some 
significance A raHffih estitnale of the gypsum content ol Lake Lyre is ten times 
ffic tonnage of the 'salt crust (or 4,000 million Ions). However some account 
has been taken here of the gjpsimi content of the surroundiug dunes,, and the 
nuantitv of gvpsutu beneath the lake bed would be Mite less, sa>, ha II. 
Cvpsum slush with SO per cent, Noids filled with .saturated sodium chloride 
.solution will hold 0-ir> tons sodium chloride for each ton of gypsum, so that 
if •■>()()() million tons of gypsum exist beneath the lake bed it could moan that 
du* sodium chloride, content of the lake is nearly double thai already estimated. 
In \\c\v of the uncertainties the sodium chloride content OX Luke hyre will ue 
laken as that existing above th« lake bed, vi/. 400 million tons. 

The content of magnesium and potassium salts present above the. lake bed 
can be derived from the volume and composition of the lake waters during 
liNRM (Honythou, lifeffdl, assuming that the salts winch would precipitate 
on taking the brine to dryness are those arbitrarily assigned in the analyse. 
Owtati to doubt and the paucity of data concerning potassium content a 
Mg' -7K+ ratio of 5/1 is taken. The quantity of magnesium and potusstum 
salts works out at approximately 7 million tons. 



THE DEPOSITION OF SALT RY EVAPORATION— THEORY AND 

OBSERVATION 

The theory of the deposition of sodium chloride from an initially saturated 
brine is simple, and it is confirmed by experience in the field of commercial 
production of salt from sea water by solar evaporation. Supersaturation pro- 
duced by evaporation at the brine surface causes a progressive growth of salt 
crystals on the floor of the pond. A small proportion also crystallizes at the 
brine surface, and most of this sinks to become- part of the floor crust. As 
evaporation rate is practically constant over the lake surface, regardless of the 
depth, the rate of salt deposition per unit area wilt likewise be constant, How- 
ever, in the case of a saucer-shaped lake the shallower parts will gradually be 
left high and dry, as the level falls, and the salt deposit on those parts will 
clearly then cease to grow; those parts still submerged will continue to gain 
in salt thickness. Hence the initially shallowest parts of the lake will finish 
having the thinnest salt deposit, and die deepest parts the thickest deposit. 




Fig, 3.-Cross-s<vtion of Part of the Lake Bed and Salt Crust. 

The evaporation of 100 cm. of saturated brine will give a salt deposit 20 
cm. thick if the bulk density of the latter is 1-5 gm. NaCl/ml, (approx. 150 
tons/ac.-in.), Thus the simple but important conclusion is drawn that the 
tliiekness of the salt crust should be one-fifth of the total depth of saturated 
brine originally overlying the spot. The evaporating brine in Madman Gulf 
first reached saturation when the surface fell to A.R.L. 97-3 ft, so theory says 

79 



that the subsequent salt crust thickness at any point should be. one-fifth 6t 
the distance of bed below this fundamental level. This is put to the test in 
Figure 5 where actual and theoretical salt thicknesses are plotted. The agree- 
ment is fair for parts of the gulf where the lake bed is below about A.R.L. 94 ft., 
but at higher levels the observed thickness tends to exceed the theoretical thick- 
ness. The latter effect is marked on the gentle rise surveyed between Flags 
20/54 and 30/54. 



L£V£l _ WHERE EVAPORATING 8H.1NE FIRST BECAME. SATURATED. / 




UWt.lK B 



(\) SALT CRUST OEPOS lT EO AFTER iHITiAL CCMPLSte E V APORATE - DEPOSITIO N CYCLE. 




q REMhiAMT OF WiTfAi 5AUT CWu^ T 



(;j) SALT CW-uST UTTER FLOOathC AMD PARTIS OiaSQLUTlQM, 




NITlftL SALT CRU5 1 5U»>'AH-. 




RfeMMMJf OP INITIAL SALT CH^ST..-- 



0fl) 5ALT CRUgT A.FTE.F- SECOND EVAPORATION STAGE 

Fig, (l-'llteorcrieiil Effect of Subsequent Flooding on Ulliinnrc- Salt Cmst 

Profile - 

The explanation inav be found in the actual history of the interrupted 
deposition cycle. After the 1951-2 drying-up phase there was a further cycle 
in 1953 with the partial dissolution of the crust followed by the re-deposition 
of the dissolved salt. It is significant that in May, 1953, the lake water, which 
stood at A.R.L. 95-8 ft, was a saturated brine round the Kunoth Shoal area, 
but off Artemia Point it was only half saturated. It seems that the more-or-Iess- 

80 



fresh floodwaters enteiiog Uadigan Oulf from the north- west had become satu- 
mtcd in their parage across to Knnoth Shoal in the south-east. Much salt 
would Iiave been dissolved where the water first impinged on the north-west 
salt crust, but little or none would have been dissolved in the south-east salt 
crust. Actually, about 50 per cent, of the total salt in the gulf must have been 
dissolved. The picture is therefore one of a salt crust that has suffered uneven 
dissolution overlain by what must eventually have become an eveuiy mixed, 
saturated brine. Alter evaporation had re-deposited the dissolved salt on top 
of the partly-dissolved crust the picture of total crust thickness must have been 
different from that at the end oi (he original deposition cycle. Figure 6 illus- 
hates this by showing the theoretical salt crust thicknesses in an idealized lake 
lh.it hau^ been filled originally with saturated brine to a level equivalent to 
A.U.L. 97 -3 ft., and which then dried up; subsequently it was flooded from one 
side with fresh water to a level equivalent, to A.R.L. 95-8 ft.., when some 50 per 
cent, of the sail was dissolved, and finally the latter was re-deposited by cvapora- 
(ion. Hie final salt thickness distribution, is significantly different from that 
tit die initial deposit. 




f »X 7-- iVnretical Etfcct of Futm on Ultimate Suit Cm*! Vtolih. 

Other tacts which could help to explain the differences between the theo- 
retical and observed salt thicknesses in Figure 5 are ? firstly, that Kunoth Shoal 
(at Mag 7/34, for instance) was above the 1953 flood level and hence should 
not have been affected by that flood, and secondly, that the salt crust on the 
rise in the survey line between Flags 20/54 and 30/54 would have been only 
gist awash in 1953 — and with saturated brine, too — so that the thickness 
there juay have been disproportionately increased both by the beaching of 
"drift" salt and by the evaporation of successive wettings of the surface bv 
seiches (vide Bonython, 1955c- Penman, 1955). 

A deposition effect of longer range is that of several seasons' rainfall on 
the crust over a series of unflooded years, each followed by a drying-up phase. 
The ground brine formed when each rain dissolved some of the salt would 
tend to migrate towards the lowest part of the basin before drying up; this 
would be expected to reduce the crust thickness at the outer perimeter and to 
increase ft towards the centre. The surprisingly-large ciust thickness of 17 in. 
reported by Madigan could be explained hi this way. Figure 7 attempts to 
show the effect of five annual rainfalls each totalling 4 in. on the salt crust nf 
an idealized lake bed. The brine resulting from each aunual rainfall is sup- 
posed to gravitate to a central pool before evaporating to dryness. (For sim- 
pOdry the possible retention of ground brine in the outer parts of die crust 
is ignored.) The suit crust, initially 1-1 in. thick in the centre, is seen to in- 
crease to 20 in. there. Such a long-period process could have occurred in the 
dry years preceding Madigan s investigation in 1$flft Madigan found Kunoth 
Shoal salt-free at the place where he crossed it in 1929; since this place was 
iusl north of the subsequent location of Flag 7/54, where the salt was I in. 

M 



thick In 1954, the two observations appear at first sight to be in conflict. How- 
ever, the removal of this thin crust can be explained simply by the rain dis- 
solution theory — in fact, little more than one average year's rain would be 
capable of removing the one inch salt layer and carrying it in solution to the 
deeper parts of the gulf. Therefore, it is to be expected that Madigan should 
have found die shoal salt-free. 



SERIAL N°* 
OF ANALYSES 



CftdST SURFACE 



REMARKS 



.,- 



0) " W 



00 



i s 42) 
(1 5 S ' 



(44)— 



Sd 



&& 



- ! | I 1 h - + + + 

,V SALT */- 



GYPSUM 
. SLUSH 



_L_t 



XX K X X X * 



GYPSUM 
' SLUSH 

5 1 -* — » — r* . 



^ BL ACK MilO 



X * X 



GREE N- GKEv 



HARD SALT STP.Muf.' 

COMPACT 5t,U5H 
LUMPS OF 



CONTAINED OCCASIONAL 
whitish POC KETS 



• - QV.JSUM CRYSTALS 



L«5" 



ftfcO-S RO VV W&YEt-LOW - 
9flOWN MOTT LING S 

-- MULT I -COLOURED CL.a 



---CLAY— — 



~^Z 



DOLO MITE 



5TIF 



FLAST.p WITH 



DCKfiE W0TTJ.ING5 



| — eM3LDDE3 HARP FEILET5 



* - Pitct aPSXOiMf 



iCu.AR CRY-iTA LS 



__5UM crvstals . 



Fig. ^ Vertical Section al Boro 93/54. 

A BORE IN THE BED OF MADIGAN GULF 
A hand bore (Bore 93/54) was put down near the lowest part of the lake 
bed where the level was A.R.L. 02-2 ft, during 31st August and 1st September. 
1954. The depth of 12 ft 8 in. was reached, The log is shown in Figure 8. 

The boring tool used at first was a 14n. pesthole digger with tubular shaft 
extensions. It had a cutting head suited to boring ernmbly materials (viz. with 
several sharp, inclined teeth sot round the periphery). At 5 in. below the 
salt surface a 1-in. band of purple-pink salt was found. The usual half inch 
or black mud was found beneath the 11 in. crust, and then at 12 in. a fine- 
m-ained- i^recn-grev slush was entered; it. proved to be mainly gypsum (see 
analvses 40, 41). and the tool penetrated it with ease. Then at e. 2 ft. 10 in. 
an extremelv hard, thin layer of salt was struck. Although this must have been 
onlv 1 or E in. thick, it was not possible to bore through it directly, and it was 



i: 



ierecd only by timing a length of X-in. steel rod through in several places 
»y hammering its upper end Analysis (No. 42) showed the layer to he pre- 
dominantly sodium chloride. Then followed bands of soft and hard gypsum 
.slush, the layer at 8 ft tt iu.-4 ft containing coarse lumps of sndiuifi chloride 
(see analysis 44). From i ft, down to S ft. 6 in. the material was all gieen- 
gruy gypsum slush with occasional pale pockets of the same composition. 

At 8 ft. in. a plastic, green-grey clay containing inclusions of a yellow 
ochre colour was entered, and to penetrate it successfully it was necessary to 
change the cutting tool Tor one of ihe "twau" type wl'iich has two curved, 
tapering cutting blades from which adhering clay can be cleared readily. At 
U tt. the clay became extreme!) still and, together with yellow-brown mortltngs, 
i! contained embedded gypsum crystals. At f) ft 3 in." the clay became strik- 
ingly multi-coloured (my, green-grey, purple-grey and brown, with .some 
eehte mottling), while thereafter down to 11 ft, it was again .still and given- 
mcy with sonic mottling. 

1'here was ;i change til Ll ft. to 11 ft. 4 m. when a substance like a very 
stdf. white pipe-clay was entered; It later proved to be dolomite. It contained 
numerous grain m/c pellets of hard stone. Even the iwau cutting hc-ad failed 
tu make appreciable headway here so, on the second day of boring, a 2-m. 
auger hit was .substituted. Tt still involved some 10 minutes' hard wort by two 
men for each 3-in. of downward progress achieved. The same rotten dolnruitf 
continued to the bottom of the bore at 12 ft. H in. It wa.s found tu contain 
increasing numbers of hard stone lumps (dolomite) and some gypsum crystals 
The plastic material peeled from the spiral grooves of the auger was dry within, 
this contrasted with the wet state of the gypsum slush from the highci levels. 

The chemical composition is detailed in Appendices I and III. The salt 
crust was principally sodium chloride, the black mud beneath it was mainly 
calcium sulphate, while the solids content of the 1% ft of slush was calcium 
sulphate. (Although the last analysed t\ 10 per cent sodium chloride (see 
analyses 40 41. 48 and 45) this was mainly present as brine which may well 
have gravitated Irorn the salt crust level during boring.) X-ray examination 
of the slush by K. Norrish and L. Rogers of Division of Soils, C.S I.R.O., showed 
the calcium sulphate to he in the form of gypsum. Hv this moans they also 
showed the 2H ft. clay layer to contain the minerals kaofin, quart/., palygovskite 
and Jarositc with gypsum as the main constituent of Ihe white and yellow 
tnottlings. The dolomite layer, a sample of which was analysed by the" South 
Australian Mines Department, was chemically close to the theoretical com- 
position, but it also contained small amounts oi: silica, alumina and ferrie oxide 
(see analysis 17) X-ray examination of this layer confirmed the presence o| 
dolomite, quartz, kaolin, illite.. palyjgorskite and gypsum. 

The potassium minerals, jarosire and illite, an- again referred to in a later 
section. 

THE CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OK THE SALT AND HHINES 
The ehemical analyses of the salt and brine samples are detailed in Appen- 
dices 1 and 11. Analyses reported by Madigan (19^0) aud Fitapatn'ek uiid 
Strong (192!}) are also included for reference. The salt eru.sl is almost entirely 
sodium chloride, with gypsum as the only significant impurity ( Bonython, 
11)55 d). The small amounts of magnesium and potassium salts are almost 
ceftainly present entirely in solution in the brine- wetting the salt crystals (Ihe 
ernstal salt is almost invariabK damp to saturated with ground brine). 

The Cuhium Sulphate Content: 

The composition of (he lake brine before salt deposition began shows that 
(he resulting deposit should contain overall about 2 per cent, of gypsum. Th<* 
distribution of the gypsum content rbrougji the salt crust shows a smaller rUflgQ 



horizontally than it does vertically. The large vertical range reflects both the 
changing conditions during the original deposition process and the effects of 
the subsequent partial dissolution and re-deposition. Figure 9 shows the ver- 
tical distribution at one of the bore locations. A high gypsum content seems 
associated with the early part of a deposition stage; Bore 93/54, for instance, 
shows definite evidence of two superimposed cycles. The highest gypsum con- 
centration in this bore appears at the "solution horizon'* 5 in. down, and this 
probably corresponds to the end of the partial dissolution phase and the be- 
ginning of the second deposition phase. Undissolved gypsum from the disso- 
lution stage would tend to sink and accumulate on the bottom, so forming a 
gypsum-rich band* 



10 



\z 













id 

u 

< 

X 

































_- --— - 


— — 














o 

- _1 

ttJ 

to 














^y 




<0 

LlJ 

X 

u 

z 




y 


/ 






f 








PER 


CENT GYPSUM [ 



Kit?. U.-C;>|>suni Content of Salt Cnisl nl Horo 93/5-i- 



Experience in commercial solar salt production shows gypsum to be present 
in such a form that on dissolution of the sodium chloride, or even on handling 
the crumbled crust, the gypsum frequently segregates as a "slime" of small 
crystals. It is therefore difficult to obtain representative samples of salt for 
gypsum assay by any method that disintegrates the salt crust, such as boring it 
particularly if the crumbled crust has to be handled hi contact with ground 
brine. The previously quoted gypsum contents of Lake Eyre salt (Bonythom 
1955 d) are now thought to be erroneous for this reason. The only reliable 
samples for gypsum determination were those obtained in the laboratory from 
blocks of salt lifted integrally from the salt crust (cf. the block from Bore 



84 



yS/54)*- However, even in the latter case there is some doubt concerning the 
purple-pink layer at 3-6 in. which crumbled when tie block was lifted. It must 
not be overlooked that some downward migration or" the gypsum "slime" might 
i.-ven occur through the pore spaces in the original, undisturbed salt mrst m 
the midst of die deposition phase. 

The gypsum content of nurnulitic drift salt (Type 7) is very low (sec 
analysis II), as might be expected in salt initially" forming on the water sud'ace. 
In contrast the gypsum content of the weathered, thin salt crust (ice-floe salt — 
Type 3) near Preseott Point (see analysis 12) is over 4 per cent This* could 
have come about by selective removal of salt by rain wask, or to iushorc gypsum 
migrating lakewards under the influence of wind and water. Efflorescent salt 
(Type 8) had a gypsum content more consistent with the composition of the 
brine in contact with the salt crust. 

The sulphate content of the solid salt samples is generally in excess of that 
necessary to satisfy calcium, aud occasionally in excess also of that to Satisfy 
magnesium. In the first instance it means that the magnesium salt which would 
hist separate on desiccation would be the sulphate; in the second instance it 
means that some sodium sulphate should separate, too. The second tendency 
is* shown for 7 of the S levels iu the solid salt from Bore 93/34 (see analyses 
1-8), but the sulphate excess over magnesium is usually so small as possibly to 
be ascribed to small inconsistencies in the analysis. However, at the 8-9 in. 
level (see analysis 7) the large content of 2 per cent. Na^SO* is indicated, and 
no explanation for this can be advanced. 

The calcium sulphate content of the 1950-1 lake waters enables one to 
calculate that gypsum separation probably began only shortly before the separa- 
tion of sodium chloride (i.e. at about the end of 1951). 

The calcium sulphate content of the May. 1953, lake brine from Arterma 
Point (see analysis 81) was nearly at saturation value, but it was at only halt 
that value in the supernatant brine near Kunoth Shoal (see analyses 29 and 30). 
The ground brines from the salt crust in 1954 showed even lower values. It 
seems likely that brine found in or overlying salt in Lake Eyre is always un- 
saturated with respect to calcium sulphate, and this could be so i( tho brine 
was formed by dissolution of some of the salt crust the gypsum content of 
the hitter either being msulnciently high, or else some of the gypsum "dime " 

TABLE 3- 



CVntnr ot Macliyan Gulf — Urtimbcr 11) Ji) jf\ 

U-vrl Pws| Bay -May 1931 i ;VM 

Kiiiunh Shoal— May IflaS 10; 1 

Artpmiu Point- -May LfiflS fV I 

Craire al' Mudigan Gull' Au?usl 1954 1 I 

Srantlajil Sra Wain (#fyr comparison, 3-y/l 



escaping dissolution itself, so failing to saturate the brine- It may be supposed, 
therefore, that the 1U54 ground brines were not a pure evaporation residual, 
but contained a component due to dissolution of the salt by rain. The salt 
crust could hinder the brine above or in it reaching equilibrium with the gypsum 
slush of the lake bed. 

Brines from holes in the margin of the lake bed outside the salt crust (sec 
analyses 32 and 38) are rmsaturated with calcium sulphate. The conditions 
there are not understood. 



The Magnesium and Potassium Salts Contetiti 

These are probably almost always present in the dissolved state in the 
Lake E\xe salt and brines. Magnesium and potassium concentrations probably 
vary together; Table 3 shows this only very roughly to be true, an exception 
being the May, 195 L brine. 

Only a limited number of potassium determinations were made; in othei 1 
eases the content must be inferred from the magnesium content. 

The magnesium (or potassium ) content of a solid salt sample is meaning- 
less without die water content being known, because these salt*; are present 
only in solution. The significant factor is therefore the magnesium content of 
die ground brine. The Mg~ ~ content of the 1951 ground brines varies from 
3-4 pi-/!, hi Bore 4/5-4 near the shore to 6-6 gm./l. in Burt* 93/54 at the 
bottom tjf the gulf. This shows that there is a tendency (or the residual evapora 
tion liquors to accumulate at the centre of the gulf buy in, and this in turn 
implies lateral mixing of the lake brine during the drying-up process. There 
could also be a subsequent migration eentrewurds of the ground brine in the 
salt crust. Madigah's 15J29 brines from the salt crust show a very similar magne- 
sium disposition to those of 1954 (see analyses 33-37). 

The story of the magnesium content of the lake waters during the 1950-2 
drying-up (see analyses 25-28) is a straightforward one. Concentration of the 
waters by evaporation increased the Mg* ~ content from 15 gm./l. in October, 
1950, to 0-82 gm./l in December, 1951. It is supposed that then the lateral 
distribution through the lake would have been quite even- This was not so in 
the ease of the brines supernatant on the salt crust in May. 1953, because the 
final drying-up in 1952 had probably brought about a segregation of Ylg^ + 
in the central parts. In 1953, while the Mg + ' content was 1*8 gm./l. in die 
tongue uf water between Prescott Point and Xunoth Shoal (sec analysis 30) 
it was up to 2 2 gm./l. at the north-east tip of Kunoth Shoal (sec analysis 29) 
which was nearer the interior of the gulf. 

The Ground Brine Frcnt Bore 93/5-b 

The most highly concentrated remnant of the lake waters was the brine 
(see analysis 36) from the salt crust at Bore 93/54, However, although this 
had the fughest Mg+VNa + ratio (55/1000) of any Lake Eyre brine, it wis 
much lower than a typical "bittern" from commercial salt-making operations 
whore frequently the Mg'^/Na"" ratio is 660/1000. The ground brine ob- 
tained from the bottom of Bore 93/54 was identical with that from the salt 
cm t above, and it seems clear that it had merely gravitated from the upper 
level during the boring. The dry state of the dolomite bed supports this view. 

THE OlllGlN OF THE SALT 

Lake Eyre contains approximately 400 million tons of sodium chloride The 
gypsum content must be of the order of ten times this quantity, while magne- 
sium and potassium salts together would amount fo about two per cent, of 
the sodium chloride content. Table 4 sets out these figures: 

f&fttfe 4. 



Suhs;arn 



Gypsum 

Sodium rhlonuY 



1 'friiaiixv Tormux 

! I, PUfl nnllii.tm Ion* 
100 million urns 
i 7 million ! Inns 



Kts 



y T in 
tuteb, a 



Wink; mosl ( >t the gypsum forms the lake bed itself, or else exists in the 
dimes Kurroundiug the lake, the contents of sodium chloride and of magnesium 
l»nd potassium salts air considered restricted to material occurring on or above 
the lake bed. ° 

I'tt&sihlc Sources'* 

The suits ol J .alee Eyre may have originated la various ways, The source 
may have heem 

(1) The salts of a relict sea or lake, 

(2) Connate salts weathered out from old marine sediments. 

)jl g*W»ly«5d SOUds in waters escaping from the Great Artesian Basin. 

('1) VVmd-borne oceanic salts finally trapped in the Lake Eyre drainage ba^rm 

The theory of a relict sea or lake is incompatible with lite accepted geolo- 
gical history of the area in which the centre of the continent, once occupied by 
the fm was later occupied by a fresh water lake. During the pluvial Pleis- 
tocene tm.es the lake must have Overflowed to the ocean, and in its so doimi 
Oft continual Rushing must huvc prevented any accumulation of salts forming 
or remaining from earlier times. Any accumulation must have huVcn place 
since the Pleistocene — after the. lake stopped overflowing. 

Ihe connate salts source is, a possibility, for it mav be calculated that an 
area f 100.000 square miles of exposed marine sediments containing 1 pt -r 
cent sod. tint chloride and weathering at the rule of 0*001 in. per year will 
yield till) 400 million tons in as short a period as 0,000 vears. Similar 
considered the "mound springs" of the Great Artesian Basin as the sou,, 
spruit^ (low <>l ten million gallons pei day of water containing 1 gm . stl(lin 
chloride per litre would result in the same accumulation in 25,000 years. 

The most Jikely source is oceanic salts carried inland by wind and bruu«hl 
down by ram to become trapped in the basin of inland drainage This is the 
cyclic salts process now recognized as occurring over most of" the land areas 
ol Hie globe, but in enclosed basins of inland drainage the cycle is broken by 
the salts being prevented from returning to the oceau, and so thev accumulate 
on the land. Over the Lake Eyre Basin there must be an annual fall-nut of 
not less than 1 lb. sodium chloride per acre of catchment, or a total of 150 00U 
tons per annum, 400 million tons would accumulate in a mere 3,000 vowrs 
/rtf 7o ^K ' ( h™ si * COl,ld have been derived from anv or all of sources 
U). (..3) and (4). It is likely that they have all contributed some of it, but 
the oceanic sa Its source is the largest. Rivers that regularly or periodically teed 
Lake Eyre, like the Cooper and the Diamantina, contain sodium chloride in 
solution to the extent of about 15 mgnr per litre. Very few analvses of these 
waters arc available — none is known of for these rivers in the South Australian 
part of their courses - but a few have been located in Queensland by W, II R 
Nimmo and communicated to the author (see Appendix JV). and it is'from these 
that (his salt content has been derived.! If it is assumed that the 25 million 
aere-tcet ol wafer that probably flowed into Take Evre in 1949-50 had litis 
.'.ability the corresponding intake of salt becomes 150,000 tons. This wins 
m keeping willi the intake to be expected from the cyelfo salts source, bearing 
in mind that at the times ot these exceptional river floods several years' cyclic 

•The Erst Wl. Australian analysis «ubt;eotiontlv Waine availably ant! Jm» hrvi, m- 
Aldri ... Appendix IV. It is ,;„ Coo^t s Crorl fo November, 10.35. soon *ft-f the njSk 
Oil Itfg flood ontennu Lake Kvre. Tin- l.i^K and ^dttntnutinfi KaCI amlvnt t*Au 
vi I. those ul the Diifittisbod dfttfc but it has the qffcel ot fnrth.tr h^hliy.hth.it the disparity 
H-Iwrro the actual uuM-ifty o .salt in Lffkr Eyre and th,- amount of thr accumulation i, 
be expected rmni annual gifrtkfefc 

w^SL^SFS lta ' <T" ^y tiuXTi] y **H#& 19 *BW rot Lhe fact that most tff the sample 
were taken at times of low How. v 



salts supply temporarily ucemuiilatcd throughout the catchment urea is likely 
to H'ucb the lata at once. 

The pfi/zlirm FbatUCQ revealed by the foregoing figures is the sntallncss o! 
the sodium chloride tonnage found in Lake Kyre,. for in the arbitrary period d 
50,001) years the sodhuii chloride accumulation possible from the cyclic salts 
source Would be 7,000 million tons even with the conservatively low unnuftl 
increment assumed. A continual wastage of the accumulation seem.s to be the 
only possible explanation toe the eompara(i\oly tow tonnage actually found in 
Lake Kyre. 

The (UimiKtxiiion of the Salts 

The salts in Lake Eyre are present ur unite different proportions to those 
in the ocean, -and also to those in solution in the incoming river waters. Analyses 
or the Litter show calcium carbonate to be the predominant constituent, with 
sodium chloiide and caleimn sulphate next m importance. Magnesium has not 
been determined m most of the analyses available, but in other respects the 
composition has little resemblance to that or the oceanic sails. This does not 
necessarily rule out cyclic .salts as the main source for considerably charges 
in composition are known ho occur quite eaity in the cycle. Lnekhart Jack 
(T92J). who studied this phenomenon near the South Australian coast, round 
th;if the composition of the dissolved solids in rain water rapidly lost resem- 
blance to that of the parent sea water alter storage in various sorts of tanks, 
and \udersou (U)H) for a similar reason was obliged to trace salts from ram 
water to those present in uatural surface waters by assuming that the chloride 
content was the onlv reliable criterion of oceanic origin. 

Madik^n (1W30) noted the paucity of magnesium and potassium in ]W 
I -ike Fvre Milts, and he wondered whether plants, for instance, could have re- 
mo\ed 'those cations from the surface waters during their passage across the 
d.aitueH' basin to Lake Evre. This is in line with present day thought on the 
selective removal ol certain elements from natural waters by e.ation-e\cluin£e 
processes in soils. Goldsehmidt (1954) describes how certain cations, including 
K+ and Me '. are removed preferentially to Nu + by clays etc It is also 
possible mi removal of these cations could have continued m ihe lake itself. 

InHdeuUdlv the presence of much calcium carbonate in the incoming river 
waters suggests that targe quantities must precipitate when these waters mix 
with Ihe saline lake waters. Such an effect occurs in the (.reat Salt Lake, IHah 
(Grabau. UJ20) Madman Gulf is remote from such mixing places, except tor 
the Vrome estuary, but there must be lime deposits near the Cooper month 
and alorn* the Warbmlon Groove still awaiting investigation 

$(?<j%'t*i(tio>i {Wfci Fomblc Wastage of t/ic Acnimuiated ltoHi& 

The salts content or Lake ifvre- is smaller than that which might be expected 
to have accumulated over a feasible period ol geological time from several 
soupcs. so some avenue of wastage or ihe accumulaliou should be sought. 
Lurthei, tire sails- are present in quantities the magnitudes of which are in Ihe 
same order as tile probable order of deposition of the same salts horn sea water, 
or natural brines, for instance, and in the inverse order of their solubilities in 
water, If a wastage is occurring it seems that the less soluble salts arc those 
which sutler Ihe least wastage, so enabHmjr them to form a larger fraction of 
Ihe accumulating residue than they constituted in the incoming stream; the 
inverse would hold for the more soluble salts. This effect would be explained 
bv X segregation process wherein the les* soluble salts, being the first ones to 
hi- pree7])ilated from an evaporating solution and the last ones* to re-dissolve 
following any sort of flooding of the salt accumulation by fresh waters, would 
CXlSt in lite solid state for a greater proportion of the time lhan the more soluble 
salts. t'or esample, consider Lake Eyre in 1954; most of its gypsum and sodium 



chloride was present in the solid .state, while probably all the magnesium and 
potassium salts were present in solution. Such a condition won Id favour sepa- 
ration o\ the solid and liquid phases — by seepage of the latter, lor instance It 
the lake were to dry up completely the magnesium and potassium salts would 
be the last .substance* to precipitate. 1! a'dissolutiou then began these salts 
won Id be the first to dissolve Also, we know ol a recent flooding of the lake 
when all the sodium chloride dissolved, but only a minute fraction nt the calcium 
sulphate went into solution. 

VVc can therefore say that under the range of conditions thai wo know 
the lake contains — 

(a) its gypsum in the solid state all of the time; 

(I)) its sodium chloride in the solid state mosf of the time; and 

(c) its magnesium and potassium salu in the solid state for not antf of 
the lime 

As a lefinement of (h). a small proportion of the total sodium chloride is, in 
iaot : in solution all of the time. 

lb therefore, we .suppose that salts present in solution can be lost in some 
way. then we can conclude tiuit the rate of wastage of gypsum should be 
negligible, that of magnesium and potassium salts should be considerable, while 
sodium chloride .should waste at an intermediate rate, Loss by the downward 
seepage of solutions seems a plausible theory, hut if it is occurring the lost 
solutions should not have travelled far and it should be possible to find them. 
However, as we know practically nothing of the region beneath the lake bed 
we are unable to say whether the (acts confirm or confound this theory. Else- 
where the author has commented on the dryness of the dolomite bedbenonth 
the centre of Yladigan Gulf, and this might "be interpreted as evidence against 
the seex;age occurring. Another line of "thought is that the very consider^bFe 
tonnage of magnesium that must be present in the dolomite bed might have 
been placed there by a chemical reaction between the "missing" magnesium of 
the lake deposit and what was originally a calcium caibonate. deposit beneath 
it. Continuing this line of thought the "missing" pobtssium of the lake deposit 
could possibly be identified with Ihe potassium components of the farosirc in 
the. clay stratum and the illite in the dolomite stratum of Bore 93/54. 

The liquid component of the salt crust might be lost in a quite different 
way, such as that postulated to occur in some Asian lakes (Graham 1920), Here 
capillarity takes the solution to the surface of the salt crust whence wind carries* 
it away cither as a powdery efflorescence or adsorbed upon dust particles which 
had settled on the damp surlace and had subsequently been carried aloft once 
mure. This theory, while tenable for small, isolated salinas, is hardly tenable 
m the case uf Lake Eyre where the dust would lie likdv to settle again within 
the inland drainage basin and so return again to the lake in a secondary cycle 
of migratory Svllts. The mechanism of the "wastage" phase of the theory ihns 
must remain a matter of conjecture. 

The theory here presented of the occurrence uf the .salt deposits in Lake 
Eyre is one ii\ which a stream of what is principally airborne and surface- 
waterbnrne oceanic salts constantly enters the lake, and another stream, nt dif- 
ferent composition to the first, constantly escapes from it. while in the: lake itself 
lie* a certain "stock" of salts rejecting tic equilibrium between the two streams. 
The composition of the stock is likely to have little resemblance to those of 
the incoming and outgoing streams as regards the proportions of the specific 
constituents, although the same constituents in greatly differing proportions are 
likely to be found i n all three. The assumption that all the calcium sulphate 
accumulates in the lake, and uone is lost, makes the age of the deposit 500.000 
years if the annual intake of oceanic sodium chloride (with its associated calcium 
sulphate) is taken as 1 Ib./acrc/ycai in the T.akc Eyre catchment basin If, 



however, this itanua! increment of sodium elduride is still taken, and then Hie 
gypsmrfj content associated with it in the incoming surface waters is calcu- 
lated according to the CaSO^/NaCl ratio revealed in Appendix IV (viz. i -VI) 
the age derived front the gypsum accumulation becomes 20,000 years, 

the time that has elapsed since Lake Eyre ceased overflowing to the ocean 
could reasonably be expected to fall between these limits. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENT 

The nnthor acknowledges with thanks the invaluable help of Mr. K. Peake- 
(oix-s and Mr. W. G, Feoner. the latter s painstaking survey work forming the 
main basis of this paper. - « 

H« als.j titanks Messrs. A. D. ?. Dyei\ D. Kmg T I. R. Kaplan. At U I. 
Adams. J. )i. Biyan, J. Fuss. G. W. Harris, & A. Lawsoii, R, H. Notion and 
A. R. Hns.scll wlio took part in the 1953 and 1954 expeditions. Messrs. T. W. 
Dalwood and T, H. Frost of the South Australian Department of Mines, and 
Mi- S M Shephard for carrvintr, out analyses, Dr. K. Norrish and Mrs. L. Hogers 
of the Division of Soils, C.S.I.R.O., for measuring X-ray powder diffraction 
patterns o\' bore samples. Prof. L. G. \K Haas-Becking of the Division of lib- 
eries C.S.1.1U).. and Mr. 1. VI, Thomas of the Department of Zoology, 
University of Adelaide, for making microbiological studies of salt and mud 
dimples, and Mr. W. H, R. Nimmo of the Irrigation and Water Supply Com- 
mission ' Queensland, for supplying data on the composition of river waters. 

He further acknowledges the help of 1.0 J, Alkali (Australia) Proprietary 
Ltd ;md of the Director and Mr. D. King of the South Australian Department 
of Mines for lending equipment and lie is grateful to the Governors of Si. 
Vet it's College, Adelaide, who donated £10 towards expenses. 

REFERENCES 

WndUuS V G t<Rl "tbt* Origin of the DUsoKvcl tnor«auic Skills in Ntitiu.d Waters 
with bwtfAl fa&wiiea to the 0'Shar.naw.> River Oatehrneul YVtorin. J ,Wt 
Oven* Insl.$ («): 130-idO. 

KxAs-nu kinc L G, Mi unci Km^.\s, I. R-. 1V>55 the Mic-roh.olo^cal Orijjai of the Rtllr 
plnir Nodules # UiU 1m re : JW, ftflV, §«£ S. Anst. (in ttib WWjjtff 

iimm M. H%. Paw*. K-. *"<* Liiman. n. L, 1981. Hw borhijfyrt -rf Salt iahb> in 

\idurjl ami Artifieud Solar Paris, IJulk Kes. r.<»meil Israo I: 36-of 

UotsMMOK C. \V\ 1055. Lake Eyre, South Australia- the Great Hooding ol 1949-;>(). Uov. 
Ger>2T Sot. A/a.sia, S\ Anst.' uraneli, Adelaide, (a) *)1il* Oensranhy of itftoc byiv 
muHts Snnuuudh.gs, 7-9; (h) The Filling and Dryintf-up, 27-'ir> (c) Bit; Evapor*.- 
tion Matt. .37-56; (<J) The Area, Volume and Salt Content. C3-(ih: (v) the De- 
presMou of Lake- TCvrc below Sea Level, 6D-70, ♦ 

RnM-uioN, ft W;, and Kino, D.. OT4 The Oeeunenee or Nairn- Sulphur at Lake Kyr. . 
Truus. Hoy. Sop-, S. Anst. fin this \ohmu-_-). 

Bosvutw C W., ami Mason. B., 1953. The Filling aod Drvuir. "» Lake Kyre. l-vugr 
Tom 119 (3): 321-330. , r ft _, * 

i-j,\Nt.ix, f\. 1952 Lake F.yve in Mood, PJ5u-\!ud. Salts, ete., r.;.ns_ Hoy. Soe. S. Anst. 

In^vmieK, A S , and Stiiovo. li. \V.. 1025. inyeNUAiJUfio fif W;;(. rs and Salino MU<ii.I. 

IVoui Lab' Hviv and Di^Trirt { Central Australia J. hurt H»M Si »' Vim : ^v 'M: 

9 l S-It)3. . 

i;oi.nseimnr<\ ^ ^ - M-, -1-J-J4. (Voelu-naslfv, Oxford. <",luntndou Pnss, 
CuMivi, A, \Y\, 1020. POneiples 111 Salt PpptKitiou, \sl Ed, N.nv ^oiv. •U>prW-Uill. 
l.\eR. H. LocKHAur. 1021. The Halt and CypMU-i neNoiuees of South Australia. Bull. N,» ( N. 

Geol Siinr- S Anst 




Gpwgr-Stit', A/a>«a ; S. Anst BriUiclt, Adelaide- L:\-aporation Frcnu. Utke I^vre, 57-nJ 



W 



APPENDIX IT! 

Analyses of Lake Bed Sediments. 



Sample No. 


(40, 


(41) 


1 (42) j (43) 


Md) 


(45 1 


( 4b i 


Bore No. 


24/54 




93/54 




Depth below salt crust surface 


r (v- 


i ' r- 


2' 10"- 


! 3' 3"- 


3' 9"- 


ry {)'- 


7 J ()"■ 




V 6" 


r IF 


:r o" 


:v r 


V 0" 


5' 9' 




Radicles— % hv ut. 
















Na 


4-84 


3-79 


21 G9 


1 - 35 


30-70 


4 00 




Ca 


20-08 


21 -45 


7-34 


12-52 


3-81 


21-25 


22-92 


Mg 


0-59 


0-55 


0-06 


0-63 


0-31 


■ 66 


0-57 


CI 


6-85 


5-74 


32-86 


10-24 


47-20 


6-17 


__...._ 


SO, 


48-94 


5 1 05 


18-52 


30-45 


10-30 


51-97 


56 ■ 72 


co 3 


I -38 


1 -65 


— 


2-17 


- — 


1-11 


. 


Assumed composition 




















% by wt. 


m 


W 


(ii) 


$ 


(i) 


(ii) 


(ii 


(ii) 


(ii; 


CaCO;, 




2 75 


1-7 


— 


3-61 












MgCO, 


2-02 


— 


— 


— 


— 


- — 


1-35 


0-9 





0aSO 4 


68-10 


69-05 


54-7* 


24-86 


37-58 


16-36* 


72-10 


59-5* 


98-5* 


NaCI 


11-30 


9-46 


5-9 


54-10 


16-90 


77-90 


10-18 


6-7 


-^„ 


MgS0 4 


— 


2-73 


1-7 


— 


3-12 


1-53 


1 -35 


0-9 


2-0 


Na 2 S0 4 


1-21 


0-23 


0-1 


1-12 


2-16 


— 


. 


_ 




Free water 




— 


28-5 


— 


— 


3-10 





26-0 





Insolubles 


10-17 


11-91 


7-4 


18-63 j ■-- 


1-21 


9-23 


6-0 


60 



(i) Composition of oven-dried material 
* Kxprcssed as CaSO t .2lI 2 



(ii) Composition expressed on wet basis. 



Sample No. (47) 



Bore 93/54. Depth— 12 ft, 



SiO a 






6 • 56 % hv wt. 


AUO, 






L71 


i%Q* 






0-63 


MgO 






15-07 


CaO 






23-91 


Na a O 




3-73 


K a O 






0-28 


Total water 




9-40 


CO. 






33-76 


so 3 






2-16 


CI 






4-09 


s 






0-20 
101-53 


Less O 


equiv. 


CI 


0-92 
100-61 



Notes on samples 

(40), (41), (43} and (45). Gypsum "slush". 

(42) Very hard stratum* 

(44) Lumps embedded in gypsum '"slush 1 '. 

(46) Crystals embedded in gypsum "slush". 

(47) Dolomite bed. Analysed by T. R. Frost. 



Analysed by S. M. Sliephard 



91 



APPENDIX IV. 

Analyses of Surface Waters in Queensland. 



Stream 




Bare oo 


i 




Thompson 






Place 




Isisf ;rd 


i 




Longreaeli 






Date 


17/3/33 


24/2/391 


21/12/49 


.15/1 2/36 j 


15/2/37! 


15/5/37 


24/7/37 


21/1/131 


30/10/50 


Composition- ingm. ... 




i 








; 






per litre p.p.in.j 




















CaSO, 




17 


17 


60 


66 


36 


27 


21 


64 


MgSO, 


— 




— 




— 




— : 


...._ 


16 


Na^SO, 


— 




— 


— 








: 


- ■ 


CaCO., 


83 


54 


51 


69 


69 


77 


91 


bO 


— 


MgCO., 




— . 


— 


— 


1 






— 




_\a 2 CO, 


— 


„. 


26 


— 






— 


34 


54 


NaCl 


19 


14 


14 


47 


•1-7 


19 


24 


M 


47 


Total holids 


43.5 


191 


[49 


331 


300 


257 


166 


166 


37 1 


pH 






9-fl 7-2 


8-0 


7--1 


7-2 


9-4 


u-a 


Stream 








Dia- 












Thon 


ipson 


Cooper 


m an Tina 


Wilson 


Burke 


Cooper* 


Place 


(V 


(n) 


(5ft 


(iv) 


(v) 


(vi) 


(vii: 


(vili) 


(W 


Date 


5/n m 


5/ 11 /-Hi 


30/9/38 


?/2/45 


_i 


?/2/4G 


5/9/12. 


:V?/48 


12/11/55 


Composition — mgni, 




















per litre ip.p.m.) 




















CaSOj 


107 


107 


24 


41 


9 


20 


- 


7 


— 


MgSO, 


- 


— 


— 


— 


--- 


17 


— 




- 


Na*S0 4 


_ 


— 




— 


— 


— - 




— 


43 


CaCO, 


10 


10 


80 


10 


57 


— 


120 


10 


52 


MgCO [ 


— 


— 


— 


17 


-- 


- 


41 


17 


21 


Na a CO a 


6 


31 


_ 


50 


— - 


34 


— 


10 


51 


NaCl 


23 


23 


14 


23 


11 


23 


9 


10 


165 


Total solids 


171 


200 


129 


274 


314 


183 


394 


131 


371 


pH 


7-5 


7-5 










1 




8-2 



Key to places. 
(1) Jundah. 
(ii} Stonehcngc. 
(in) VVindorah. 
(iv) Nappamerrie. 
(v) Conn Hole, Elders! It. 

Sources of analytical data — Irrigation and Water Supply Commission and Railway Department, 
Queensland, and Engineering and Water Supply Department, South Australia. 
* Sampled by Suuih Australian Museum Expedition. 



(vi) Nockaburrawarra. 
(vii) Near Duchess. 
(vtii) Boulia. 
fix) Hirdsville Track Crossing, South Australia 



Sample No. 



Collected by 
Date 
Analyst 

Level beknv surface 
Radicles — % by wl. 
Na+ 

Mg-- 

01- 

so 4 — 

co.— 

Assumed composition- 
% by wt, 
NaCl 
MgCl a 
MgSO, 
CaCO.! 
CaS0 4 .2H 2 
Na^SO, 
Free water 
Insolubles 



MJ 



0-1" 

38-90 
0-12 
0-05 

60-10 
0-46 
0-02 



99-00 

0-25 

0-04 

0-4£ 



11-3" 

38-36 
0-32 
0-02 

59*10 
0-90 
0-06 



0-1) 

0-10 
1-22 



Sample No. 



(17) 



(18) 



Source 

Collected by 

Date 

Analyst 

Level below surface 

Ca+ ' % by wt. 

CaSO 4 .2H 2 

l-'rce water 



J -3" 

0-47 
2-09 
6-18 



Bore 4/54 

a 

25/8/54 

c 

4-6" 

0-40 

1-81 

11-11 



Collected by C. \V. Bony th on. 
Collected by C. T. Madtgan. 
Analysed by S. M. Shephard. 
Analysed by W. S. Chapman. 
ln< hides K'. 
includes ltd. 
As CaCL. 



(3) 



w 



(5) 



3-4J- 

38-10 
53 

0-01 
58-70 

1-37 
0-04 



a 
1/9/54 

c 
5" 5-6' 



37-31 
0-91 
0-05 

57- 15 
2-61 
0-13 



39-09 
0-11 
0-04 

6000 
0-43 
0-12 



97-40 96-75 



— 


0-18 


118 


1-03 


0-12 


004 



0-05 
0-06 
2-18 
0-lci 
-70 
0-03 



(19) 



(20) 



(21) 



Bore 24/54 

a 

26/8/54 

c 



APPENDIX 1. 

Solid Salt Analyses. 



W) 



(7 



(8) 



(9) 



fio; 



til) 



12 



94-25 


99*00 


0-26 


0-22 


0-22 


0-20 


3-55 


0-11 


0-64 


0-29 


1-22 


0-26 


0-21 


o-n 



7-8 v 

38-51 
0>21 
0*03 

59-05 
0-66 
0-05 



97-50 
0-14 

o-oa 

0-76 
0-18 

1-36 
0-01 



8-9" 



0-64 
0-07 
56-75 
3-31 
0-02 



93-55 

0-34 
0-04 
2-69 
2-27 
109 
0-02 



at 



23) 



Bore 50/54 
a 

27/8/54 



9-4-1 1 



37-53 38-41 



0-42 
0-02 
59-05 
1-51 
0-02 



97-25 

0-12 
004 
1-75 
0-66 
0-71 
0-04 



a a 

21/5/53 
c I c 



a 

28/8/54 
c 



0-2** | 2hH" ! surf. 



35 ■ 65 
0-22 
0-0i 

54-85 
0-59 



36-30 
0-40 
0-01 

55-95 
0-98 



38-60 
0-05 
0-07 

59-40 
0-43 



90-50 92-25 98-00 
— 0*01 I 

0-07 I 0-04 0-40 



96 



8-03 



1-70 



5-88 



0-10 0*01 

! 



0-19 

1-30 
0-09 



a 
2/9/54 

c 
surf. 

34-60 
1 -24 

0-12 
52-85 

3-61 
0-27 



87* 10 

0-48 
0-45 
4-55 

1-07 
2-00 
4-31 



(13) 



(14] 



(15) 



a a 

2/9/54 i 27/8/54 

C c 

surf, I surf 



(lb! 



b b 

?/ 12/29 
d I d 



38-15 
0-28 
0-11 

58-80 
1-09 



96-95 
001 
0-51 



1-22 



0-28 

0*38 

56-70 

2*15 



0-8" 

37-56f 
0-95 
0-05 

58-15 
1-81 



surf. 

37*60f 
0-90 
0*03 

58-45 

1-G4 



93-50 95-28f I 95-G4f 



1-86 
1 -21 



1*27 | 3-30 
0-14 0-09 



0*20 

0-4-ij 

3-29 

0*82 

0*84 



0-12 

0-50: 
2-99 

0-63 

0-86 



(24 



3-4" 


6-8* 


0-2* 


2-4" 


4-6" 


0-42 


0-20 


0-21 


0-31 


0*66 


1*80 


0-84 


0-90 


1-31 


2-84 


5-55 


2-90 


6-63 


10-86 


12-69 



6-8* 

0-43 

1-86 

14-29 



Details of samples 



(l)-(8). Sampled subsequently from block of salt lifted near Bore 93/54. 
(9) & | 10). Salt crust beneath 8 in. brine between Hrrscotl Pt. and Knnarli 

Shoal. 
(11). .Stranded white numulitic drift salt, between Mags 32 and 33/54. 
(12). Buckled crust § mi. west of Vrescott Pt. 
(13). Efflorescent salt from buckled thin crust near Prescot' Pt. 
(14), Efflorescent salt from drift "island" near Flag 37/54. 
[15). ik Hole 2", 6 mi. from shore (see Madigan 1930). 
(16). Salt crust sample 1 mi. north-east or Shelly Is. (ace Madigan 1930'. 
(17 * -*24 . Solid crust sampled 1 1\ determine gypsum content. 



APPENDIX II. 
Brine Analvscs 



Sample No. 

Collected by 

Date 

Analyst 

Density — gm./ml. at 20'C. 

Radicles — - 

grams per hire 
Na+ 

Ca++ 

01- 
n-r- 

sftr 

co a ~ 

Assumed composition — 
crams per Hire 
NaCI 
KC1 
NaBr 
Na 4 S0 4 
MgCU 
MgS6 4 
CaCO, 
CaSO, 



(25) 

e 

26/10/50 

h 



14-88 

0-40 

0-15 

2:5-17 

1-19 
0-06 



(26) 

a 
1/2/51 



(27) 

a 

24/5/51 

J 
1-0497 ! 1-0785 



27-80 

0-51 

0-27 

43-20 

1-70 



37*83 70-60 



0-28 
0-41 
0-09 
1-22 



0-57 
0-60 

1-73 



(28) 

a 

13/12/51 

c 
1-1667 



43-78 | 92-20 
0-01 



0-91 
0-30 j 
67 96 
0*01 
2-94 
0-04 



111-45 
0-02 
0-01 

0-37 

1-04 
0-07 

3-00 



1 -61 
0-82 

142-30 

6-48 
231-0 



a Collected by C. W. Bonython 

b Collected by C. T. Madigan. 

f Collected by E. A. Brooks. 

f Collected by D. King. 

g Collected by A. S. Fitzpatrick and H. \V. Strong. 

c: Analysed by S. M. Shephard. 

rl Analysed by W. S. Chapman. 

h Analysed by T. W. Dalwnod. 

j Analysed by T. R. Frost. 

k Analysed by A. S. Fitzpatrick and H. W. Strong. 



(29) 


(30* 


a 


a 


16/5/53 


16/5/53 


c 


c 


1-207 


1-205 



122-1 
0-27 
0<90 
2-24 

191 -2 

7-2 
0-06 



310-0 
0-52 



_ 


. 


0-64 


3-80 


3-26 


6-43 


— 


0-11 


5-49 

; 


2-91 



(31) 

a 
19/5/53 

c 
I-L22 



122-3 ! 68-8 
0-13 j 0-13 
1-07 1-77 



1-76 
191-7 

6-2 

0-03 



311-9 
0-25 



3-69 
4-67 
0-09 
3-51 



1-03 

107-5 

6-4 
0-O7 



174-6 
0-25 



1-77 
2-87 
012 

5*83 



(32) 

f 

15/5/53 

c 
1-184 



108-2 
0-03 

0-96 

1-52 
167-3 

8-4 
0*03 



275-5 
0-06 

0-22 

7-53 
006 
318 



(3.S) 

a 

25/8/54 

c 
1-211 



123-6 

0-51 
3-40 
192-5 

11-96 



314-0 



2-6 
13-5 

1-72 



(34) 

a 
26/8/54 

c 
1-215 



(35) 

a 

27/8/54 

c 
! -214 



5-6 



6-3 



{36) 

a 
31/8/54 

c 
1-215 



US- 3 
1-9 
0-28 
6-5$ 

190-5 



17-9 



300-7 
3*6 



8*6 
21-6 

0-94 



(37: 

b 

Der./29 

d 



115*2 
1-67 
0-G4 
7*67 

189-0 
0-11 
18-0 
0-19 



292-7 
3-2 
0-14 

13-4 

21-1 
0-32 

1*74 



(38) 

b 

Dec/29 

d 



1 10-6 
0-56 

101 
2-39 
173-4 
004 
8-9 
006 



281*5 
1-06 
0-O5 
0*06 
2 83 
8-23 
10 
3-31 



(39 l 

Aug./22 

k 
1-0660 



32-85 

n-37 

1-76 
0-37 
51-55 
0-17 
5-64 
0*14 



85-0 
0-71 
0*22 
0*26 

1-85 
0-23 

5-65 



Details of Samples 
(25). Lake water from centre of Madigan Gulf (see Fenner 1952;. 
[26) and (27) Lake water from Level Post Bay, 

(28) Lake water from west of Sulphur Peninsula, 

(29) Lake water from north-east extremity of Kunuih Shoal, 
i'30j Lake water from between Prescott Pi. and Kvinoth Shoal. 

(31) Lake water from ofif Anemia Pt. 

(32) Brine from bore in lake bed sediments at Prescott Pt., 1953. 
(35) Ground brine in salt crust — Bore 4; 54. 

(34) Ground brine in salt erust — Bore 24/54* 

(35) Ground hrine in salt crust — Bore 50/54. 

(36) Ground brine in salt crust— Bore 93/54. 

(37) Ground brine in salt crust— "Lake Hole 4" (see Madigan 1930.. 

(38) Brine from bore in lake bed sediments at Prcscort Pt., 1929— "Bore 3" 

(gee Madigan 1930i. 

(39) Water from Lake Eyre South, 1922. "Sample No. 2", from water 3 in. deep. 

200 yd. from shore (see Fitzpatrick and Strong 1925). 



Q YV. BONYTHON 



Plate I 




Fig. a-— Traces of Madigan's car tracks near Preseott Point. May, 1953. 




Fig. b.— Lake vehicle on Kunoth Shoal, 1954. "Crocodile skin" salt crust. 






C. W. BONYTHON 



Plate II 




Ff& a.— Incipient polygonal cracking of flump lake bed near Preseott Point, l85& 




Fig. b.— Depressed patches in bed near Pittosporuin Head, 1951 
(Cyclometer wheel tikes scale.) 



C. W. BoNYTHON 



Plate III 




Fig. a.-'TcL-flo..*' salt surrounded by shallow water. May, 1053. 









Pig, b.-"\VaterIily" salt on Kiinoth Shoal, May. 1953, 



C. W. BONYTIION 



Plate IV 




Fig. a.-Bunk of 'nuimilitic" drift salt. Ma\. 1953, 




Fig, !>.— Serpentine hank of "mmnilitic 1 ' drift salU August, 1954. 



C« W. BONYTHON 



Plate V 



* 





big. a.— Rusty-pink drift Salt "island" near Flag 37, August, 1954, 



s 





Fig. b.-Cirrular drift salt "island" near nortWast«?rn short- of Madigan Gull 

August. 1954, 



C. W. BONYTHON 



Plate VI 




l-'iU. 1. -Efflorescent salt bulging from cracks in WltSt ( lS-in. of tape measure 



gives scale.) 




\fig t b.— 'lCe pudding salt" showing embedded rolv-poly bush. ( 18- in. of tape 

measure gives scale.) 



c;, W. Bonyxhon 



Plate VII 





y- 



t.i 






t & f 






i 






■ o 



; 



t< 



cs 






C. W. BONYTHON 



Platk VIII 







Fig. a.-Preparing to remove block of salt at Flag 93, September, 1954, 




Fig. b.-Block of salt alter lifting. (Scale given by 8-in. ruler. 



THE QUATERNARY STRATIGRAPHIC RECORD AT LAKE EYRE 
NORTH AND THE EVOLUTION OF EXISTING TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS 



byD. King 



Summary 

Fossiliferous Quaternary lacustrine deposits of the Lake Eyre Basin are exposed in escarpments 
along the margin of Lake Eyre North, and were intersected in shallow boreholes in the area. These 
are described in detail and their distribution shown on the geological maps. 

The elevation of these earlier lake deposits above the present lake level, and their presence beneath 
a veneer of drift sand in the longitudinal ridges bordering the lake, have led to the conclusion that 
lake and dune formation are dual effects of wind erosion following desiccation in Early Recent 
times. Evidence is presented that a channelling effect of the wind played a major role in initiating 
dune development. 



THE QUATERNARY STRATIGRAPH1C RECORD AT LAKE EYRE NORTH 
AND THE EVOLUTION OF EXISTING TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS 

By D. King* 

[Bead 9 June 1955] 

SUMMARY 

Kossilifrrous Quaternary lacustrine deposits or the Lake F.yrr Basin are rxptwed in 
en .iTt.ini^nts along the margin ol Lake h\re North, and were intersected in shallow hove- 
holi j in the area. These are deserihed in detail rind their distribution shown on the 
geological juaps. 

'the elevation of these earlier lake deposits above the present lake level, and llicir 
presence beneath a veneer itf drift sand In the longitudinal ridges bordering the lake, huvc 
led to the conclusion tlvat lake and dune formation arc dual effects of wind erosion following 
desiccation in Early Ueeent times. Evidence is presented that channelling effect oi the 
wind played a major role in initiating dune development . 

I. INTRODUCTION 

The .subject matter of this paper is largely based upon observations by the 
writer while taking pfttt in a scientific expedition to Lake Eyre North organized 
and led by Mr. C. W, Bonython in May. 1953. I he operational base for this 
expedition was located on the south-eastern shore or Lake Eyre North near 
the channel couneetion to Lake Eyre South, at a distance of sonic 25 miles by 
ill-defined hack north-west of Muloorina Station homestead. 

An area of approximately 800 square miles — partly occupied by featureless 
lake bed — was embraced by the detailed survey, using R.A.A.F. air photo- 
graphs as base maps. An interesting succession of Quaternary sediments was 
discovered in cliffs at the lake margins, and was encountered in a series pi 
bores sunk with a post-hole auger at a number of places in the lake bed. The 
investigation has revealed several significant facts relating to sand dune develop- 
ment which were not formerly appreciated, all of which substantiate earlier 
work of the late Dr. C\ T, Madigan. 

A subsequent study of air photographs of the whole Lake Eyre region 
provided additional physiographic material which is also incorporated in tin's 
contribution. 

Some new place names used iu the text were proposed by Mr. Roivython 
and approved by the Lands Department Nomenclature Committee (Report of 
the Lake Eyre Committee. 1955, p. 7). 

The writer acknowledges the co-operation and assistance of Mr. Bonython 
in the field, and the use of survey measurements by a member of his party 
(Mr. W. Fenner). lie is indebted to the Director of Mines of South Australia 
for the opportunity to accompany the expedition and for arranging prepara- 
tion of the maps for publication. Meteorological data was kindly made avail- 
able by Mr. 15. Mason, of the South Australian Weather Bureau. 

It. REGIONAL PHYSIOGRAPHIC SETTING 
Lake Eyre is the largest of numerous Salinas: which, arc distributed through- 
out the semi-desert areas of South Australia. Lake Eyre North has a total 
coverage of some 3,100 square miles, and is connected by a narrow water-course 
known as Goyder Channel to the smaller Lake Eyre South. Thu lakes are 
bounded on the east and north by an extensive dune-covered plain comprising 
the southern portion of the Simpson Desert (Madigan, 1938. p. 504). Along 
the western margin is a highly dissected tableland^ and bedrock hills of the 

* Geologist, Gculnjn'cal Survey t if Smith Australia 

93 



Pealt^-Dnnkmi Ranges, and to the south and south-west art' gibber plains with 
scattered dune ridges bordering thtt Northern Flinders and Willouran Ranges. 

Lake hivre North is approximately 25 feet below sea level ( L.W.O.S.T. Poet 
Adelaide) (Bonython. 1955') and the general elevation of large areas of die 







pfjj. 1 _Map pf north-eustr'rn South Australia slinwing the jlll>^J$£'ffj?Jlh3 soIHrjjj ot LaVr Y.\rr t 

adjeuning plains is only a few feet higher than lake level. The lakes arc con- 
sequently the focal point of drainage from a vast area of the interior, pnrfiru- 
Lurly from the north where the catchment inclntles higher' rainfall areas in 
Central Australia and Queensland 

94 



The main water-courses of lire drainage system entering Lake Eyre are 
shown on Fiu;. 1. Jn normal years, any floodwaters from the north are dis- 
persed and spent in smaller lagoons and deltas before actually reaching llie 
lake, hut in exceptional seasons such as experienced in 1949-50, Lake Eyre North 
may be completely flooded from these sources. 



HI. QUATERNARY STRATIGRAM 11C RECORD 

The Lake Eyre region lies within the southern porlion of the Great Artesian 
Basin. The broader geological features of Me.sozoic and Tertiary rocks under- 
lying the basin are described in earlier reports (Jack, 1915; Ward,' 1940; Whittle 
and Chebotarevv 1952), and are chiefly bastnl upon data from widely spaced 
boreholes sunk lor water supply and petroleum exploration. 

The area covered in detail during the present field survey comprises the 
south-eastern portion of the Lake Eyre Basin, where the Mesozoic and Tertiary 
rocks are covered by an appreciable thickness of Pleistocene and Recent lacus- 
trine deposits. 

The Quaternary sediments arc now partly exposed in escarpments at the 
margin of Lake Eyre Xorth due to subsequent desiccation and erosion, and were 
intersected in shallow boreholes sunk into the lake bed. The whole of the 
succession found in the area is fossiliferous, but the fauna present are a fresh 
to brackish-water association which cannot be relied upon for accurate age 
determinations. The lowest bed mapped is a gently folded dolomitie muclstone 
containing molfusean casts- and is regarded as Pleistocene in age. Overlying 
Hit 1 dolomites uneonformably are horizontally bedded gypseous clays contain- 
ing ostracodes and oogonia of Cham and some native sulphur concretions, and 
capped by a deposit consisting almost entirely of shell remains and gypsum. 

The Quaternary geology of the area as compiled from crliif exposures atid 
borehole samples* is shown on the accompanying Fig, •!, and the following are 
descriptions <>f the main members of the sedimentary succession in ascending 
order: 



PLEISTOCENE(P) 
Dolo)nilic m luktojiex ; 

This member is a hard dolomitie mudstouc measuring at least 20 feet in 
thickness and containing easts of shells (Coxidla gilesi) and tliin lenticular 
laminae oi green elayf and gypsum. It outcrops along the entire length of Hunt 
IVninsula at the southern end of Lake Eyre North, and farther to the east dips 
below the lake surface at an angle of about 5 deg, to the north-east. Samples 
of the dolomitie bed from three localities were chemically analysed by the Mines 
Department (under the direction of T. R, Frost) with the following results: 





Sample Xo 1 
Lot. (J. clifla 

per cent. 


Sample No. 2 
U>r. 1L eliffo 

per wmt. 


Sample Nci. 3 

Borehole. 

Madigan Cinll 

per cent- 


Cjilcitim oxide, CaO 
Magnesium oxide, MgO 
Arid insoluble* 


10-97 

2 •50 


29-54 

19 ''31 

4-08 


IT- 31 

iJ07 



•The results Of boriug are shown cLiagranmuitieally in the cro^-seelions aoeompanv- 
iiijH Fto, 2 and 3, and detailed logs are recorded in an official report filed with the Depart- 
ment of Mines. 

I 'llie clay mineral p;uV£orskite has been identified in such clays from a borehole at 
Loe. C by I». Rogers. C.S.T.R.O., Division of Soils. 



Tlit- result <ii" a complete chemical analysis of Sample No. 3, together with 
exact details of its locatiou, is contained in a paper by C W. JJonython ( 1955 
(a)) y which is published in this volume. 

The dolomite in fine-grained, and the tippermost layers are indurated by 
silirification (Plate 2, Fig. 1). Intrafoi matronal pellet structures and slump 
folding are widely developed and indicate their deposition in a shallow water 
environment. The dolomitie matrix ol these sediments is probably a chemical 
precipitate resulting from periodic changes in salinity, in the same way as 
dolomite is forminc; at present in some other South Australian lagoons (Forbes, 
1955). 

EARLY RECENT(?) 
{ 1 ) Van-coloured gypseous clays 

The dolomitie rocks are overlain unconformable by vari-colourcd plastic 
clays passing upwards into pale green and brown sandy clays which attain a 
maximum observed thickness of up to 25 feet The clays arc exposed a tew 
feel above lake level along the shores of Sulphur Peninsula, where they contain 
concretions of sulphur and gypsum ( Bonython & King, 1955 (!>)) and wore 
penetrated by borings over a wide area in the south-eastern portion of Lake 
Kvre North. Samples from boreholes were examined by N. II. Ludbrook (1053, 
1955) and found to contain numerous remains of the fresh-water plant Chara> 
o-stnicodes, and some foraminilera. 

The unconformity at die base of the clays may be. seen in the cliffs near 
F.oe. D.. where it is recorded by an eroded old surface of the dolomite, and 
elsewhere boreholes showed the presence of a thin limestone and quartz grave! 
bed resting npon the dolomite (Fig. 4). 

The. clay beds vary in colour both laterally and in depth due probably to 
variations in the state of oxidation oi the iron content, but are essentially similar 
in composition and physical properties over their entire width. The main 
ingredient is extremely finely divided clay matter, shown by X-ray analysis to 
be largely amorphous and indeterminable. Other important constituents are 
evenly distributed rounded quartz grains, and thin partings ol natural whitim;. 
Ovpsum crystals occur sporadically throughout the clays and in the lower 
horizons there are intorstratified thin beds ot crystalline gypsum. Samples taken 
from the? hike bed develop an efflorescent coating of salt on drying, as* pre- 
viously described by Fonnor (1952). 

EARLY RECENT(?'l 
(2) Gyfhuvwj shell beds 

The uupennost beds consist mainly of fragile shell remains (Coxietfa gilcsi) 
loosely embedded in fine siliceous and gypseous sand and clay, and intcrstrati- 
fled with layers of gypsum crystals (Plate 1). In most places along the shore- 
line the.^c beds have been removed by wind erosion and arc only locally pre- 
served where protected by drift tiHiwI deposits. 

\ complete section or the shell beds may be observed in the low shoreline 
chfls adjacent lo Shelly Island (Loo, M) where they are V& leet thick, and the 
uppeimost bed is elevated approximately 36 feet above the level ol the margin 
ai Lake Eyre jNorth. A layer of massive crystalline gypsum one loot thick, 
featured bv strongly rirjple-nmrked partings, underlies the shell remains. A. 
iletailed description of the section exposed at this locality is .shown in Table J. 

Oilier outcrops ol the shell beds are known on the eastern side ol Sulphur 
Peninsula (Luc. S.E.), on the western side of Price Peninsula (Loo. \.), and 
in the upper levels of a small butte which rises prominently above the feature- 
less limestone plain south-west of Shelly Island, All are cheated appruximaterv 
3(1 feet above the present lake surface. 

ft 



Environment — Tliroughout this recor<l the fossil evidence suggests pre- 
dominantly brackish water conditions with periods of desiccation winch gave 
rise to deposition of crystalline gypsum beds (and salt), and the temporary 
extinction of fish and invertebrate fauna. The lithology of the sediments is 
consistent with deposition in a permanently inundated, but gradually receding, 
inland lake basin — "Lake Dieri" ( Fermer. 1952). No evidence was found to 
support earlier generalizations that there may have been a connection between 
Lake Torrens (approw 100 feet above sea level) and the head of Spencer Gulf 
coeval with varying sea levels of the Pleistocene (David, 1932). 

Taht.p; 1 
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SUB-RECENT GYPSEOUS SHELL BEDS 

Local ion M 
Lake Eyre Nobth 

Sititfttiftn— Peninsula on southern shore of Ltikc Evic adjacent to Shellv Island. Appro*. 
e jdlitf W.S.W. of Sulphur Point, 

A.H.L.* of top of section — 13b, 
Ft.Tn. Ft. In. 



1 


10 - 


1 


11 


1 


IL - 





u 


JJ 


3 - 


-7 


7 


22 


7 - 


2 


10 


2 


to - 


2 


11 


=) 


11 - 


*■>■ 


1 


fl 


I - 


3 


4 


3 


4 - 


«3 

O 


ft 


a 


6 - 


-1 





4 


(( - 


4 


] 


4 


1 - 


4 


2 


4 


.i __ 


4 


3 


4 


3 - 


4 


4- 


4 


| . 


4 


p 


•I 


4£- 


4 


6 


4 


6 - 


4 


10 


4 


JO - 


6 


6 


6 


■6 - 


7 


6 



— L 10 Shells (CaXivlla tZ'desi) embedded in fine gypseous sand. Siliceous grit :md 
limestone pcbhfcs. Uppermost hkyfV forms flat pavement, partly 
covered by drift sand. 

Crystalline gypsum rosettes. 

Shells ( Coxiclla gilesi) embedded in fine gypseous sand and siliceous gxit 
with narrow clay partings. Clusters of gypsum crystals. 

Pak- HJ*Ufy clay with a few shells [CaxieUu guustfi* 

Shell bed (Coxiclln gilesi) in fine gypseous matrix. 

Pale grey clay. 

Shells (Coxidia gilcsi ) and fish vertebrae in fine matrix of sandy clay. 

Grey elay and fine sand. Ousters of shells {Cijxidla giltm) in places. 

Very fine while siliceous sand. 

Shells (Coxidia $tM) embedded in very fine pale grey siliceous sand. 

Grey clay with some gypsum. 

Pale grey fine siliceous sand— odd shells (Coxiella gileai). 

Shell (CoxirUa git&tt) fragments in light saud and rounded quart'/ grit. 

Kino jttdte grey siliceous sand. 

CJay with gypsum, 

Vine pah' prey siliceous sand with shell fragments {Coxh'lla gilesi) near top. 

Grey clay and ahundant gypsum. 

Section covered b> drift. 

Bed ol massive crystalline gypsum with ripple-marked surfaces. 

* Arbitrary Reduced Level— sec Bonython (J 935(a)). 

The deposition of the shell beds marks die final desiccation of the 
Pleistocene — Early Receiir(V) lake, which was followed by the introduction of 
dominant!)- erosive agencies which it will he shown were largely responsible 
for the sculpturing of existing topographic forms. 

IV. THE SAND FORMATIONS 

The sand ridge formations which are so strongly developed beyond the 
eastern and northern margins of Lake Eyre- — withiu the southern limits of 
the Simpson Desert — have been described in considerable detail in a series of 
contributions by Madigan (1929-194G). The area embracing the north-eastern 
portion of the State has since been covered by R.A.A.K. air photography (1945 
and 1948), which together with ground observations during the present in- 
vestigation, has provided an opportunity for additional research on the sand 
formations over large areas lying beyond the limits of Macb'gan's surveys. 

97 



The distribution and orientation of the tltme ridges over a wide area sur- 
rounding Lake Eyre are shown on the topographical map (Fig. 1). An analysis 
of present day wind records from weather stations at Oodnadatta, Leigh Creek 
and Woomera is also presented on this map, 

The dnne.s of the Lake Eyre region are consistently of the longitudinal (or 
seif ) type, as described by Baguold ( HHL p. 189), East of Lake Eyre, the 
ridges are aligned meridional!}' and evidently retain tliis orientation for several 
hundred miles to the north (Madigam 1946'). South-west of Lake Eyre there 
is a gradational change in dune trend from a dominant east-north-east direction 
near the lake to approximately east-west in the area west of the Central Aus- 
tralian Railway. A similar but opposing swing from northerly to easterly is 
also a marked feature of the dune pattern in [he Lake Frome Plains, to the 
south-east of Lake Eyre. 

The sand dune belts and individual ridges have the following charac- 
teristics: 

1. It ma) be generally stated that the degree pj eompleteness to which 
the (.huiv topography lias developed increases gradually to the north-east. The 
dimes south-west or Lake Eyre, for example, are broad and ill-defined sand 
strips which are of approximately equal width to the intervening troughs (Plate 

1. Fig. i ). Towards the Simpson Desert, the definition and dimensions of the 
ridges increases, and they stand out in bold reliel from the considerably wider 
inlerdnne eoiridors (Plate 1, Kig. 2), 

2. An outstanding leature oi the dune morphology is the widespread oecm 
ronce of dune convergences, despite the otherwise rigid parallelism of the forma- 
tions. These arc mindly represented in ground plan by an assymotrie and 
inverted Y. and in every case the point of convergence is directed in the north 
io cist quadrant; depending on (he <hw trend in the particular area. 

• 1. Individual ridges have been observed to exceed twenty miles in length 
( Lut. 2U GO'S.: Long. L1S'15'E.) and may be much longer in places, it is 
only rarely, however, that dunes persist for such distances without converging 
innl becoming composite loruiabons. 

I. The lateral spacing ol (he dunes is variable, but systematic, and appeals 
to increase in a direct proportion to the height of the formations. The average 
dime spacing ;i! a number of arbitrarily selected localities throughout the region 
(as measured from ah photographs ) are recorded on the topographic map 
(Jfig. 1)- These figures indicate a range from 3 to 33 dunes tu the mile, anil 
a usual spacing of about one-quarter mile. 

5. The height or the dunes in areas examined by the writer is of the order 
of 40 feet Madigau (19-fft, p. 4S) reports that some in the eeutial Simpson 
Desert aie about J 00 feet high. 

(>. In cross-section, the ridges arc slightly asymmetric, with the steepest 
side to (he east or south according to trend. 

7. The main mass of the dunes, and the inlerdnne valleys, arc now fixed 
by a stunted psammophytie vegetation (Crocker, iU4(i p. 2\\)). However, in 
many cases the dune crests consist of 'live*' sand which is modelled into minoi 
si met ores by wind storms without any appreciable drift. A particularly 
common result of reeeul wind activity are successions of small fulje-likc hollows 
along the crest of the ridges, giving rise to a characteristic u ribbed ,: or "plaited" 
structure (Plate 3). 

A series of boreholes sunk into the sand formations at the south-eastern 
margin of Lake Eyre North (Price Peninsula) indicates that the longitudinal 
ridges in this area are only superficially formed of drill sand. The main mass 

t The wind roses, liavt* UoOfi imperially po n;ir<'<l to iiK-Itule uuly summer .litcrnoon wimk 
of pr:ilri vrloriK tbmi ]0 ai.p.h. Such conditions .ire con.swlornl In L*. most favourable 
for slatting suae*. 



ol each ridge is composed pi buried lacustrine deposits, including the Early 
Hoccnt(?) .shell beds and clayey sand horizons which were observed in some 
shoreline clifls and are described in the preceding section. In the interdime 
corridors, the same beds have been removed by erosion and the surface soil 
is underlain by laminated clays of a lower stratigraphic level. 

Details ol the internal .structure of the dunes as provided by boring are 
shown on the accompanying Fig. S, on which surface levels and borehole logs 
arc accurately recorded at an exaggerated vertical scale. 



SHALLOW WALTER LACUSTRINE 

Shell beds (Qxueihl gOcsi} intent ratified 
toim crystalline qypsum and sandy clay* 

Brown and cfrevn clayey sand qr&diny 
h clay with laysrs of crystalline qypsum. 

fellow- brown sloppy sandy clay, dark blue 
tsnd green stiff clays with some gypsum 
foyers. 



DUNE! rORMATIQN 

■ Pale yellow-brown Quartz- 
, sand and ant. 




ARBITRARY 



-^^^g^^^-T^^^ = : rLUVIAT IL E (located) 

* — ^-, . J \fme quartz and limestone grat/el. 




j DEEP WATER LACUSTPlNEl 

o looo sooo 3o oQ : : Dork: coloured stiff clay, 

I; Hard white Jj'mestone. 
GEOLOGY BY O.KtNG 



Dtt. JXMseO. 



Fig. 3.— Diagram matio geological section through sand ridges on S.-K 
nvirgrn of Lake Entc North. 



The borehole at Position O is located on the crest of a prominent longi- 
tudinal dune at an elevation of 40 feet above the margin of Lake Eyre North 
( A.R.I \. 100) aud 30 to 40 feet above the iuterdune depressions on cither side. 
[n this borehole, aeolian sands were found to give way to gypseous shell beds 
at $% feet depth. At a depth of 15)4 feet, the bore penetrated grey sandy clays 
and sand, and bottomed in a bed of crystalline gypsum at 22 feet above present 
lake level. 



99 



Screen analyses were curried out on samples recovered from Borehole O 
with the following results: 





Depth 


















of Sample 






Sizir 


gs B.S.S. (By weight *i 






Sample 


















No. 










| 












Irom 


To 

o' or 


+ la 

10-25 


-]H+m 


-:io-hr»Oi 


-no 4- inn 


-100 + 200 


200 H 300 


-300 


1 


0' 0" 


.S4-5 


32-5 i 


o • 7.3 


4-0 


0'5 


11-5 


2 


0' Oj" 


a* 0" 


2-5 


3-0 


330 


l!>-5 


#2*23 


ft.23 


3-5 


■6 


a' tf 


ty ,$* 


'10 


?•:> 


31-0 i 


13-5 


21-5 


C-5 


160 


4 


9' ti" 


i:r tr 


9-j 


16-2.J 


29-25 [ 


[8-0 


180 


ff-5 


t>>5 



Sample No. 1 ?S representative of a noticeably eo;u§er quart/. siiml which characterise 
tieallv ioims a thiii sutiaee layer on tho dime ridges. 

Samples Nos. 2 and 3 consist of weW-sorted .siliceous sand from the main mass of tf»& 
iifolian deposits. Grain diameters mostly lie in the —30 f 200 grade, hetwemi 0-25 and 
076 mm,, and are comparable with .samples taken from lon^itodinid dunes elsewhere in 
the reuion (Carroll, 1944). 

Sample No. 4 comprises the sandy .matrix of the underlying shelly laenslriue deposits. 
As mit^ht be expected m tin's case, the screen analysis indicates :t nmeb lesser degree oi 
.sort inn than featured by the wind blosMi sands. 

M a number of localities along the south-west shores of the Jake the coastal 
ilimt sands have been observed to largely comprise seed gypsum and shell 
fragments, 'litest 1 gypseous dimes are well exposed along the western margin 
of Sulphur Peninsula (2%. 2).. where they were previously noted by Madigan 
(1930). The base of the dunes corresponds with the present level oi the lake. 
indicating that they are a quite recent shoreline feature. 

V. EVOLUTION OF THE TOPOGRAPHIC FORMS 

Lake Eyre North is approximately 25 feet below L.W.O.S.T. Port Adelaide 
(Bonylhon. 1955 (a)) and would be'expeeced to have silted up to a consider- 
able depth ruder the prevailing conditions of endoreic drainage. However, this 
is not the ease as shown by the following conclusions drawn from the evidence 
presented in the preceding pages: 

L The occurrence oi undisturbed Early-Recent^? ) sediments in s'hore- 
h'nr* dills at an elevation of 36 feet above the lake bed shows conclusively that 
the evolution of the lake as it is today has actually involved erosion and removal 
oi a I least a corresponding thickness of earlier lake deposits, 

2. Tioring in the desert-sand formations along the. southeast shore of the 
lake Im revealed that an appreciable thickness of Early-lleccnt(?) lake deposits 
has been removed from interdune valleys and lagoonal depressions, but pracHe- 
allv Ihe whole succession of these sediments is preserved in longitudinal ridges 
upon which the dune formations are superimposed. 

It is evident Irom these erosional ieatures dial lake and dune development 
have proceeded concurrciltl) . The excavation of the lakes and inferdunr* 
corridors to their present level has involved —at least in the case of Lake Eyre 
— the removal of older Quaternary lacustrine sediments by deflation, and the 
sandy fractions of the transported material have accumulated beyond the lake 
shores as longitudinal sand strips forming a veneer upon the crests of a corru- 
gated Jancl surface. 

° (t is, however, not overlooked that the Lal.e Lyiv Basin as a whole is probably dm 
to regional subsidence. 



I en 



The direction of general sand movement k inflected by the urieiitHtkin of 

die dune ridges, and by the remarkably regular shape ami shore featmes of 
Hit- lakes throughout the region. These all show the effects of sand migration 
towards the north and mirth-east, as outlined hereunder; — 

The origin of the dune ridges appears to be satisfactorily explained by 
Madigun (1&40) as due to dominant winds and sand movement parallel to the 
chum leufith (sontherlies ttj south- westerlies), and periodieal gusty SKJfe 
winds (chiefly westerlies). This conclusion is supported by the coincidence 
of regional dune trends with present day prevailing winds (Fig. 1). and lry 
evidence or* the internal structure of the ridges which indicates that no lateral 
movement of the main body of the ridges" near Lake Eyre has occurred nt 
any stage. 

PiistOralistS' along the Marree-Birdsville hack have observed that the spread 
of present day drift is rowaids the north (Madiyan, I9tf>), and the same feature 
is also indicated by the aerial photographs (Plate 3)- Thix occurs despite the 
fact that many of Hie dust-storms which arc a feature of the summer season 
throughout this part of the State are directed from the north and must at least 
mudity the rate of sand migration. 

Several stages in the evolution of the longitudinal dunes find related clay- 
pans (or "blOW outs") appear to be represented by MsiKtmg trrpographic forms in 
marginal lake areas. 

The initial channelling action of the wind may be observed to be operat- 
ing on .a small scale at "the northern and north-western margins of all the 
lagoons, where there is an indefinite passage from lake bed to ;i bare and rluted 
wind-swept surface. To the leeward of the wind-swept areas, the drift sand 
ncenmulates as small transverse ridges which are grouped longitudinally and 
pass gradaHomdly at increasing distances from the lakes into the normal longi- 
tudinal dune (l*'ig. 4). . 

These observations add credence to Ragnold's theory that the- longirutlm&l 
dunes are a transition from earlier tormed transverse formations, and may 
.uxonnt for the "s\Tw-tuotir profile of the ridges as described by Madig.m 

Once channelling by the wind commenced, the scouring effect would be- 
come increasingly effective in the hollows, and die rate of growth of the sand 
veneer on the "intermediate ridqes could be exported to increase accordingly. 
Once formed, the ridges with «h<- greater protection of drift apparently sur- 
vived the continued erosive effect of the wind, whereas others were reduced 
to the level of the interdune valleys — thus accounting for the observed varia- 
tion ol spaciuu with dune height.* 

The dune convergences appear to be a result of the gusty side winds and 
their variable asymmetric forms suggest tliat both westerlies and easterlies were 
operative. The cross-winds were evidently capable of lueullv deflecting the 
leeward ends of sonn* ridges where the cover of drift was of a minimum thick- 
ness and die ridges- were of smaller bulk (Madigan, 1946). They may other- 

Prof. K. A. BftOErtokl comments on these flonfiruHsatioiw hi a person*! rmimnioic/irion 
of Kith Occmber* 1955, as follow*: "T find it difficult t»v nrcrpl thnt all the crimps in tlii< 
nnu iur really srmd-o/nvTOfl rcJicti of fOrttV'l* W<C deposits. One would like confirmatory 
t.hiU siinHur ti> li*. 3 from other sites scattered over a largo area, iff over u lontf *l»ip Hi 
the dune dir»-iHoii. You don't appear Iff Kttve found any site whea- tbo w>rwiooIiiin w 
was exposed through $mnrs th.incc dmnwe in the Jbarl wind regime, if this ft xn, mfir 
would m.tiii to bo a stoma tendency for the, blown sand to ere.p tMUtOfid* OWE] everything; 
hut the impression glvefl by Fig. 3 is for the sand mating to he of even thickness W- 
wliere — which J dun t undcWand hotiatltfc it pre-snppose.s the- sand to know how thick ic is 
It is, of contM', )ust possihle that either vegetation or rhr-rmnl conductivity niiuht cspl.oo this. 

The prevalence of the Y-dune formations' yon have pointed out seems to fit in *vi|h 
tin: wind rows you ffivc. There are two provajmir wvrul directions (or one very hroncl. 
indefinite one) and the directions of the two long arrows convspond well with the two 
;ivihk of the V in most places ." 

1(1! 



DIAGRAMS SHOWING TOPOGRAPHIC EXPRESSION OF LAKE 
AND DUNE EVOLUTION UNDER THE INFLUENCE OF WIND 
AT LAKE EVRE NORTH 



N .... \ 


\ 






• % X \ % 


%* 






% •_ j* &m 


rcjji 






% 






C i .« K j» A N 



m 



:'■''' 



•:\ 






11 I 



ERRLV STAGE IN THE FORMATION 
OF THE LONGITUDINAL DUNE QND 
SHORELINE CUSPflTE STRUCTURE 

IN DRIFTING SAND 
NEAR LPT. 29' 00' 5 LONG 139* (S'E. 



'■ C ClAVPAA/\ ; : 




CHflISS St- « o i 



SHORELINE FEATURE5 DEVELOPED 
BV DRIFT IN SflNDV DESERT ALONG 
THE EQSTERN MARGIN OF THE LAKE 
LOT 28' 20' 5. LONG. 137'40'E. 




SHORE! INE FEATURES DEVFI OPED 

BV WAVE ACTION IN LIME5T0NE 

'LOIN ALONG THE SOUTHERN MARGIN 

OF THE LPKE (HUNT PENIN5UIQ.) 



Fig. 4 



J 02 



D. King 



Plate 1 




Fig. 1 .—Shell bods { Coxieltu gilesi ) exposed at top of 

shoreline cliffs at the south-eastern margin of the lake 

(Loc. M.). These lacustrine sediments are elevated 36 

feet above the general lake level: 




Fig. 2.— Near view of shell beds (Cuxiclta gilesi) at top of 
cliff section in the same Locality as above. 



D. Kinc 



Platf 2 




Fig. 1.— Dolomitic rnudstnnes exposed in shoreline cliffs 
along the south-eastern margin of the lake ( Lot*. C). The 
cliffs have evidently formed by wave action during tempor- 
ary inundations'. 



■ 




y+i 






*$ 


* * 


f \ 


* * 

* * 




■**&& 


*•• 


4 



*• 



:.V.. : 



Fig. 2.— Shore of Lake Eyre North near Pittospurum Head, 
Hunt Peninsula, Showing succession of beach ridges in 
background. The highest is about 30 feet above the bike 

margin- 



D. King 



Jt'latk 3 




V 



Ribbed structure 



CI a 



T 





Oblique aerial view of longitudinal sand clinics and daypans in the sandy desert 
cast of Lake Eyre North, showing dune and shore features referred to in 

the text.-R.A.A.F. photo. 



D. King 



Plate 4 




E — E 



Fig. 1 .—Broad east-west sand ridges and claypans 

typical of the dune topography west of Lake Eyre 

(Lat. 28° 55' S; Long. 135° 45' E.);. 




Fig. 2.— Strongly developed longitudinal dune 
OaSt of Clayton Lake. Lat. 29 c 00' S.; 
13S r -' 15' E. 



ridges 
Long. 



R.A.A.F. Photos 



D. KiNt: 



Plati S 




Fig. I.— Converging system of longitudinal sand strips 

with interdunc clay pans near Koppemnmnna. ( ' Lat. 

28° 28' S.; Long. 138 45' K. ) 




Fig. 2.— Oblique view of longitudinal sand ridges and 
elaypans east of Lake Eyre North. Note typical ser- 
rated cusp-like form of southern margin of elaypan. 
Foreground scale is approx. 1 inch to two miles. 
(Location of larger elavpan is Lat. 28° 55' S.; Long. 
138° 00' E.) 

H.A.A.F. Photos 



wise reflect the termination of the wind-eroded channels which preceded dune 
development. 

Although picseut-day eliraalie conditions are probablv favourable for the 
continuation of this process, the dune ridges and level of the lake appear to 
have become stabilized due to the decreased susceptibility of underlying clavs 
and dolomites now forming the lake beds to tin's form of crosiou. ' 

Periodic flooding* of Lake Eyre North have, continued until the present 
and have resulted in the local development of marine-type shore features. These 
arc well preserved along the southern margins of the lake where the foreshore 
has a rugged and indented outline defined for the greater part by steep cliffs 
up to 40 feet high. Beach ridges composed of limestone shingle form a variety 
Of bars and spits marking the level of the last flooding (1949-50), and others 
representing cadier floodings arc stranded at various heights and with various 
orientations unrelated to the present foreshore up to a maximum of about 30 
leet above the lake heel (Fig. 2 and Plate 2 T Fig. 2). 

The effects of wave action are not represented in the nimierous isolated 
embayments and lagoons which occur to the east of Lake Eyre and receive 
only local rainfall. Instead, the corresponding southern shores show a remark- 
ably consistent and well-developed serrated or cusp-like structure produced by 
encroachment of sand from the south (Fig. 4). 

REFERENCES 

Bacnot.p. K. A., 194 L The Physics of Blown Sand and Desert Dunes. Metlmen & Co. Ltd 

London. 
Bowthow C. W. 1955 (a). The Salt of Lake Eyre- Its Occurrence it. Mmlijam Cull and 

its Possible Origin. (Contained in this volume. ) 
lioNvruosr. W. r and King, D. ? 1955 (b). An Oeeuueuce of Sulphur at U&B Evro, (Con- 
tained in this volume, ) 
Bony-won, Jvr alu, [&$ ( ) - Lake Eyre. South Australia. The Great Flooding of HM9-50. 

Hoy. Geotf. Soc. of Ausr. (S.A. Branch h Report of the Luke Kvre Committee 
CnOt.Ki-n. R. L., 19)6. The .Simpson Desert Expedition, 1939. Scientific Imports: No. fi— 

'fiie Soils and Vegetation of the Simpson Desert aod its Borders. Trans. Rov Sol 

S.A. 70 (-2), gp ; 23$£aiJ r 
Davih, T. W. E., tftj?", Explanatory Notes to a .New Geological Map of the Commonwealth 

of Australia, Sydnev. 
Fi:nnuu tin 1052. Lake Eyre in Flood, 1950-Muds, Satfe etc. Trans, Rov. Soc S.A 73 

pn.^5-6'. 
Fduuks, B. C, 1955. Protero/.oie Sedimentary Ma^nesit^ of South Australia, Ph.D. Thesis 

Adelaide Xmiversity (unpublished)- 
Jack. U. I,., 1915. Bulk-tin No. 5, Geological Survey of S.A., 1015. 
I.or.mtooK. N. IF.. 1953. Foraoiimferu in Sob-Beeent Sediments at Luke Evre South Aiw- 

rndin. Aust. Juum. Science, 1C, No. 3, pp. 108-109. 
LronnoOK, \. FT, 1955. Nfit-rolossils from Pleistoecne fco Recent Deposits, Lake Eyre South 

Australia. (Contained in this volume.) 
VUnrcAN C. 'J' 1929. An Aerial Reconnaissance into the Soutli-E astern Portion of GBKtfft] 

Australia. Proe. Buy, Ceo?, Soc. of S.A. 30. 
Mauioan\ C. T,, 19:39. Lake Eyre, South Australia. The Geo?, fcjKtfpri 76. 
NlAoicAN, C, T., 19.16. The Australian Sand-Ridge Deserts. Geog. Review 26 (2) 1930 
MntiUfeft C T., 193S. The Simpson Desert and its Borders, louni and Proc. of 'the Rrtv 

Soc. N.S.W. 71 (2), pp. 503-535. 
NUulOAN, C. T.. 1910. The Simpson Desert Expedition. 1939. Scientific Reports: No. 0- 

The Suud Formation. Trans. Ruv. Soc. S.A. 70, pp. '15-63. 
\V\un, L. K ( , 19-16. Bulletin No, 23. Geological Survev of South Australia. 
Unit rue, A. W Mid GHiiXUrAur.v. N. : 1952, 'ihv Strati grnpLfc Correlation In PetrotfTaiihi.- 

Methods Applied to Artesian Bores in the T.ale Frome Area. Sir Douglas Mawsou 

AnmVff%n\ Volume, University of Adelaide. 



103 



SOME ADDITIONS TO THE ACARINA-MESOSTIGMATA 

OF AUSTRALIA 

byH. Womersley 



Summary 

In the present paper a number of genera and species of mites belonging to the Mesostigmata, mostly 
new, are described or recorded from Australia. They were mainly from Queensland from soil litter 
and were largely collected by Dr. E. H. Derrick, to whom I am greatly indebted for the opportunity 
of studying and describing them. The types are in the South Australian Museum collections and 
where possible some paratypes in the Queensland Institute for Medical Research. 



SOME ADDITIONS TO THE ACARINA-MESOSTIGMATA 

OF AUSTRALIA 

By H. Womersley* 

LRead 11 Aug. 1955] 
SUMMARY 

hi the present paper a number of genera and speetes o( mites belonging to the MftQtiHg- 
mata mostly new, are described or recorded from Australia. They were mainly from Queens- 
land 'from sod litter and were largely collected by Dr. g, H. Derrick, to whom J am grcarlv 
indebted for the opportunity of studying and describing them, The types arc in the South 
Australian Museum collections and where possible some paratypes in the Queensland Jnstitute 
for Metlieul Keseareh. 

List of Genera and Species: 
Family Macrochelidac 

Euepicrhts quecnslandicus sp. nov. 

Family Parasitidae 

Fergamasus prinntivm Ouds. 

Family Pseudoparasitidae 

Onehogamasm communis g, et sp.nov, 

Family Neoparasitidae 

Qneendandoladaps vUzthumi g. et sp. now 
Queenslandoiaelaps bcrlesei sp. nov. 
Antennolaelaps affinis g. et sp. nov. 
Stylogamams convexa g. et sp. nov. 

Family Laekptidae 

Subfamily Hypoaspidinae 

Colcolaelaps hetcronijchus sp. nov. 

Subfamily Phytoseiinae 

Frimoscius macauleyi (Hughes) g. nov. 
Tijphlodromus cucumem Ouds, 

Subfamilv Podocininae 
Verrickia sctosa Worn. 

Family MACROCHELIDAE Vitztlnun 
ViUlhum, Gmt H„ 1930, Zool. Jahrb., Abt. f. Systematic, Bd. 58. 

Genus Ei/efickius Wornersley 
Womerslev. rl. 1042, Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Aust, 66 (2): 170 (Type Kiwpkrw.s fiUtmaiU^ux 

Worn.) 

This genus and species were erected for specimens collected in moss from 
the vicinity of Adelaide, South Australia, in 1938, while a single female was 
recorded at the same time from Waimamaku, New Zealand. 

* Aearologist, South Australian Mmemn. 

104 



In the long and slender first leg* ami general Form the genus shows a 
superficial resemblance to Epicrim {Epicriidae), but differs in the absence flf 
claws and caruncle on the first legs, the presence of a distinct pcritreroe, a 
3-tined seta im the palpal tarsus and in the structure of the ventral shields. 

The following new species was isolated bv Mr. Robert Domrow from litter 
collected by Dr, E. H. Derrick at Brookfleld, near Brisbane, between May 
and July, 1949. 

Kuepicrius quccnslandtens >p, noy. 

Fig. I, A-i 

Description: Female llololt^w—k small and lightly chitimsrul srpecies tft 
rntimd form. Length of idiosoma 352/x. width 240/r. * Dorsal sliicld lightly 
rugase, divided as figured, the anterior part the lunger anil furnished with 17 
pairs of setae, the vertical pair 34/,. long, stout ciliated and arising from strong 
tubercles, the second pair each lateral of the verticals to 20> and also on tubercles 
but plain and slender, the other setae to 3<V plain, slender and tapering; the 
posterior portion or the dorsal shield with 14 pairs and 4 median setae of which 
the posterior pair arc 39,u long, stout, blunt and ciliated, the others arc long, 
slender, plain and slightly filamentous, to 32^, being shortei and less filamentous 
than in filamettlosus. Venter ; tritosternum normal; no pic-endopodal shields; 
sternal shield about as wide as long medially, laterally extending to between 
coxae III and IV. with 4 pairs of setae and 2 pairs of pores, anterior margin 
sinuous, posterior margin deeply excavate; genital shield as wide basally as long, 
wi(h one pair of setae, posterior margin truncate and only narrowly separated 
J mm vcntri-anal shield; vcntri-anal shield extending across opisthosuma, with 
9 pairs of setae besides the paraxials, the 3 lateral on each side long, fine- and 
filamentous, to 7yp long, the posterior pair to 4fyt long, thick and ciliated, the 
others short, plain and tapering to '22^ the paranal setae short and subciiuul; 
the peritremal tube is lightly corrugated and the stigma lies between co\ae III 
aud IV, the shield extends backwards to just beyond coxae IV, while the tube 
anteriorly crosses over to the dorsum at the level of coxae 11; behind co\ae IV 
there is a fine suture line where the dorsal shield coalesces wilh the vcntri-anal 
shield. TJpg I 592/a long, slender and tactile, tarsus without caruncle or claws, 
hut with long and fine tactile setae; II-IV stouter with caruncles and claws T 
II 313/1, III 288/.*. IV 378/jl. Chelicerae as figured, fixed finger with 5 or fi small 
blunt teeth, movable finger with 4 teeth. Tectum as figured, variable, with 
median macro and lateral points between which on eachskle arc two smaller 
points. 

Male Allutifpe—Vat'sefi as in female. Length of idiosoma 352^ width 196>, 
Legs: I TrlRf, long, 11 32u>, III 3% TV SS2fr femur of leg [1 with strong, 
hooked apophysis as figured and a small tubercle on the getiu. Venter; sternal, 
rnetastenml and genital shields coalesced, with 5 pairs or setae and 2 pairs of 
pores; vcntri-anal shield as i^ female. Chelicerae as; figured, fixed finger with 
three smallish teeth, movable finger with one strong tooth and a Ij0n& slender 
spenuatophore carrier which is as long again as the finger and is slightly swollen 
at the tip. Tectum variable as in female. 

Rewarfa — This species is somewhat smaller than jttnmenlasiis and differs 
in lacking the very long, whip-like filamentous setae 02] the dorsum and tin 
the vcntri-anal shield, except for the three lateral pairs. The dorsal setae arc 
otherwise short and Simple as are the other ventn-anal setae. The chelicerae, 
tectum and leg It of the male arc similar to those of ftlavtrtitasw. 

The holotypc female ami allotype male and several pararypes arc in the 
collection of the South Australian Museum and two parutypes'in the Queens- 
land Twtitote for Medical Reseajck 

105 




l-iy. I A~l—Eiie pterins queen^onfiirus sp. no\. A-F Female: A. donmnt, R. 
Venter, C. specialised seta on palpal fcirsus, I), cltelicerae, K. Uvn views of leo 
Luui; F-H Male: F. venter, O. ehetieerae. IF two views of tectum, 1. npriphysis 

on fernur of UsE il^ 



Family PARASITIDAE Oudemans 

Oudeinans, A. C, 190!, Votes on Acad; Third Series. Tijdschr. nucL clicrk Ver, (2!, ML, 
No. 2. 5& 

Genus Pergamasus Berlese 
Jfti'rXtWM A., H)03. Kedia I: 235 (Type Awns- ammpeH Linn. 1T5D). 



Pergamasus primitivus (Oucls) 
Fig. 2 A.-I 
PpTOffotifi primitivus Ovdcmans, 1904. Entoin, Bcr,_ 1: 1 JO. 
Guwustts cffcminalus Berlese, 1905. "Acan nuovi/'*Mampl. IV. Media 2; 1G5. 

Gamasus (Peraainu.wis) efferninatus BerJese, 190(1 Mon. d. Oamasus Kedia 3- 193-201 
Gamtuus primitktm VirztUuni, 1926. Treobia 8: 3. 

This species was originally described by Oudemans from Brazil and Jater 
recorded by Bcrlese from Java. Berlese was unable to find other than insigni- 
ficant differences between the Javanese and Brazilian specimens. In 1926 
Virztlium recorded it from Batavia and Tjibodcs. 



• WW 
' I' M 




fcJ|fes 



tf-M ftl 




Fig. 2 A-1-Perpawixm primitwus (Oucls). A-E Female: A. dorsum, B. ventral 

view, C, ehelieerae, D. tectum, E. genitalia; F-I Male; F. venter, G. pulp, 

H. cheliuerac, T. femur genu mid tibia of leg I. 

107 



A series of specimens of both sexes were obtained from litter from Brook- 
field, Queensland, 1Mb June, 1949 (coll. E. H. Derrick). Figures drawn from 
this Australian material are now given. 

Family PSEUDOPARASLJTDAE Vitzthum 
Vitnlmm, Oral' FT., K)41. in Brona's Ticrroieh, 5, Acarina: 757. 

Genus Onchogamasus nov. 
Pseudoparasitidae. Dorsal shield entire with fine punctate reticulations, 
only slightly and narrowly underlapping the venter. Pre-endopodal shields 
present.' Sternal and metastcrnal shields coalesced, sternal deeply incised 
posteriorly. Ventri-anal shield only moderately expanded behind coxae IV. 
Tectum spike-like. Labial cornicles 2-segmented. the apical being small and 
cone-like and inserted into apex of basal. Tarsi of leg II with three strong 

accessory daw-like spines. 

Genotype Onchogamasus covunumx sp. no v. 

Onchogamasus communis sp, nov, 
Fi*r. 3 A-C 




Kitr 3 \-G—OiirJu)!>amftsit>; amii)nnih g. ft sp. nov, Female; A. rfuisuui 

B.^'ventral view, C. tcornm, D. labial oornirlr, F. specialise! MM of palxial 

tarsus. F. tnrsm I, Ci. chclirtTac 

ncMription; Female II olotype— Shape oi body ovoid. Length of idiosoma 
559u width 338,*. Dorsal shield with punctate reticulations, narrowly under- 
lapping the venter laterally and posteriorly, furnished with 30 pairs oi setae 
to 15k "long which, except for rhe verticals and laterals, are simple, the verticals 

108 



and laterals being slightly ciliated. Venter: tritnsterrmm normal, a pair i>l 
pre-endopodal shields present; sternal and metasternal shields coalesced; longer 
than wide, with four pairs of setae qf wlu'ch die first pair are ciliated, the others 
simple, with three pairs of pores, posterior margin deeply incised; genital shield 
as wide posteriorly as long with a pair of short, simple! setae, posterior margin 
only just separated from ventri-aual shield; ventri-anal shield longer than wide 
with 6 pairs of ciliated setae to 4$p long; all three ventral shields strongly reticu- 
lated;, peritreinal shields fused with cxopodal shields, the jwitremal tube runs 
forward from the stigma between coxae III and IV to between cv^xae 1 and II. 
where it overlaps slightly on to the dorsum. Legs short. 1. Til and IV slender, 
II much thieker and stronger and furnished on lemur with a short, stout spine 
and on tarsus with three strong claw-like accessory spines, leg I 416//. long, 
II S64p* III 26%, IV 364/1, all with caruncle and paired claws. Chelicarae as 
figured, fixed finger with tlu-ee strong, blunt teeth, movable finger with two 
small, blunt teeth. Tectum as figured with a median spine-like muero, Specia- 
lised seta on palpal tarsus 3-tined, Labial cornicles peculiar, 2-segmenred, the 
apical being small, cone-like and inscded into the basal. 

Locality — One single female, the holotype. from soil debris, Bronkfidd, 
Queensland', 21st May to 2nd June, 1949 (coll. E. IT, Derrick). The type hi 
the South Australian Museum 

Family NEOFARASJTIDAE Oudcmai* 

OadomAus, A. C.. t 1939. /not An/, 126' f 1-2 l< 21 

Ceiuts QmiNsuAxttoLAtJuM's nov. 

Nctmarasitidac with the tectum trident-like, the median tine or umero 
arising from below, Tarsi of leg 1 with paired claws and short caruncle. Dorsal 
shield entire. In female sternal and metasternal shields more or less coalesced. 
Pre-endopodal shields present In male with a strung apophysis on femur nf 
leg IV ami a long whip-like spcrmatophore carrier on movable finger of 
cheheenie, 

Genotype Quvcmlandotavlaps vitzthumi sip. nov, 

(Jueemlandolaclaps vitzthumi sp. nov, 
Fig. 4 AH 

Ih.'ffcnption: Female Hohtype— Shape oval, but the sides rather parallel. 
Length of idiosomu 5S5 /t , width 338^. Lightly ehitfm'scd. Dorsal shield as 
figiired, not entirely covering dorsum, lightly reticulate, with ->S pairs ol setae 
to 52/u long and simple, except the posterior and postero laterals, which arc 
lightly ciliated. Venter: tritosternum present and normal: a pair of transverse 
pre-endopodal shields present; sternal and metasternal shields coalesced, the 
whole lunger than wkfe laterally where it extends to between coxae III and 
IV. with deeply incised posterior margin, with lour pairs- of setae and two 
pairs of pores, the third pair of sternal setae are situated subinedially; genital 
shield as wide basally as long, with only one pair of setae, posterior margin 
shaight and only slightly separated from the anterior margin of the ventri anal 
shield, anterior margin rounded; ventri-anal shield about "twice as wide where 
it is expanded behind coxae IV, laterally and posteriorly rounded, with 7 pairs of 
setae in addition to the paranals: peritremal shields coalesced with the exopudal 
shields and extending only slightly past coxae IV Lo die shoulders of the ventri- 
anal shield; stigma lying between coxae HI and IV and the peril remal lube 
umning forwards lit comic I, Legs not longer than body and not excessively 
thick; I 572ju long. II iSty, III flRty, IV 486^ all tarsi with short caruncle anil 
paired claws, no special armature on coxae or on leg IL Chelicerae as figured, 
fixed finger with two large basal teeth and four smaller teeth before the ape v, 

100 



movable finder with three teeth. Tectum peculiar and suggestive of the Vjfii- 
gaiaidae, trident- like with the median tine twice as long as the laterals and 
apparently arising from below, all three tines expanded and denticulate apieally. 

Male Allotype — General facies as m female. Length of idiosoma 546/* ? 
width 325m. Dorsum as in female. Venter: tritosteruum and pre-endorx>dal 
shields as in female; sternal, metasternal and genital shields coalesced and 
narrowly separated from ventri-anal shield, with 5 pairs of setae; ventri-anal 
and peritremal shields as in female. Legs as in female, except that II has a 



X.UA 




fa 

mi s 





mr*> \j 



X~ ™m 



V'< w III 

kti . vy k w 



r 




Fife i ArH-ViU'VHshmdiflffclapx vitzthumi «. et Bji, imv. A-D, ami H Fcinalr: 

A. dorsiun, 15. ventral view, C tectum, J% tip t& palp, U. i.holieoruc; E-G 

Male: E. vcntrr 3 F. fholuerae, G. foimu uiiv gwiu <<J Ic^g 1- 

strong apophysis on the femur and a small tubercular process on the genu, 1 
55V long, TT40.fy, H? 335,u, IV 520/*. Chelkcrae as figured; fixed finger twice 
as long as movable finder, thick and stout to apev which is longitudinally split 
with three strong inner" teeth; movable finger short with one strong tooth and a 
long, curled, whip-like sperrnatophore earner. Tectum as in female. 

LocaVdtf — The female holotype, the male allotype and one paratype male 
from soil debris. Brookficld, Queensland, 31st May to 10th June, 1949 (coll, 
E. IT, Derrick). In the South Australian Museum collection. 

Remarks — In having a 3-tined seta on the palpal tarsus this genus belongs 
to the Neoparasitidae, although iu the peculiar structure of the tectum it bears 

110 



sonic resemblance 1 to the Veigaiaidae in which the palpal seta is 4-tinecl and 
the dorsal shield incised laterally. 

Beside the genotype the genus will also contain the following species, also 
from Queensland. 

Queenslandolaelaps berlesei sp. nov, 
Fig. 5 A-D 

Description: Female Holottjpa — Shape oval, sides gradually curving inwards 
at about one-third from the front. Moderately well ehitinised. Length of 
idiosoma 578/a, width 3S0^. Dorsal shield entire, covering all the dorsum, 
strongly reticulate with imbricate markings, with 34 pairs of slender ciliated 
and flagellate setae to 104 ( u long. Venter: tritostemum and a pair of pre- 
endopodal transverse shields present; sternal and metasternal shields coalesced, 



■ fi 



v Q s 







Fig, 5 A'D—Qiwen&latidnlat'htps' berlesei up, nov. I'VrrwuV: A. dorsum, B. 
ventral VftiW, C. clicliccrao, D. tectum. 

although the metastcrnals arc only narrowly joined to the sternal (see Fig. 5 B) 
and the metasternal setae are on the sternal portion; sternal shield reticulate; 
genital shield as wide basally as long, with straight posterior and rounded 
anterior margin, with one pair of setae; ventri-anal shield as wide as long and 
covering most of the opisthosoma, with light imbricate markings, with 5 pairs 
of long setae besides the paranals, the adanal setae very short compared with 
the postanal; peritremal shield not coalesced with the exopodal, rather broadly 
expanded just behind coxae IV, stigma between coxae III and IV. Legs not 

111 



excessively thiclc, unarmed, all tarsi with short caruncle and paired claws. I 
fiWp long. II 390>, ill 86(41 und IV ?533/i, ClieUeerae as flgnteA fixed finder 
with I blunt teelh, movable finger with tvvu. Tectum peculiar, trident-like with 
the median tine only slightly longer than the laterals, arising from below anil 
with its apex expanded <md denticulate, the lateral tines are dissimilar to the 
median and are cone-like with one inner and two outer small teeth. Seta on 
palpal tarsus $ lined. 

Mala — Unknown. 

I.ortifihj — •Described from a solitary specimen, the holotype. from soil debris 
Ironi brook'field, Queensland, between 31st May and 10th June. 19 HJ (coll. 
E. H, Derrick) In the South Australian Museum. 

Rt DUll'ks — In the structure of the tectum and the ventral shields this spei ii". 
is closely related to the preceding and clearly belongs to the same genus. From 
titzthumi iL differs in the structure of the tectum, the dentition of the movable 
Hw^fix of the chelicerae. the narrow bridge uniting the sternal and ructastental 
shields, the wider separation of die third pair of sternal setae, tlie much wider 
ventri-anal shield, the more inibricate reticulations on the dorsum and the much 
longer dorsal setae. 

Genus Antfnvot.a™ ,\rs nov. 

Neoparasilidac. Male. Oval and strongly chiLinised. I *egs long and 
slender, especially I, which is tactile without caruncle and claws. II-1V with 
these Dorsal shield entire and underlapping on to venter from level of coxae 
II backwards, but not fused with ventral shields. Pre-endopodal shields distinct, 
sternal, metastcrnal and genital shields coalesced;, with 5 pairs of setae and & 
pairs hi pores, separated by a suture from the expanded ventri-anal. lY'ritreinal 
tube corrugated. Tectum with a long median apically trifurcate mucro. Female 
unknown. 

Genotype Anttmnolaclaps affmis sp. uo\. 

Anlennolaelaps affirm sp. nov. 
FJr. G A-F 

Dcscrijition: Male Uolohjpe — Oval, strongly ehitfmsed and brown species. 
Length of idiosoma 10 %& „ width 364/i. Dorsal shield entire and undcrlappiug 
on to venter from level of coxae IV backwards, with 23 pairs of setae to tJ i* 
long (mostly missing in both specimens), on the undcrlap posteriorly is one 
pair of setae to 59/* long, Venter: tritosternum present and normal, its base 
inserted between the distinct pair of pre-endopodal shields; sternal,, mctasternal 
and genital shields coalesced, with three pairs of setae and three pairs of pores, 
separated from ventri-anal shield by a thin, straight suture on level of posterior 
margin of coxae IV; ventri-anal shield expanded behind eo\ae IV. triangular, 
not coalesced with the imderlap of dorsal shield, with 7 pairs of setae besides 
(lie paranals Which are very short; pcritrcmal shield fairly narrow and posteriorly 
reaching to middle of coxae. IV\ stigma between coxae III and IV, the tube 
n in i Iced Iv corrugated and running «.»n to the dorsum on level of coxae II. Logs 
long and slender, I 7S-V long, tactile, without caruncle and claws, tibia and 
tarsus with long, slender^ hue setae; II 572,1, Iritis; normal with caruncle autl 
claws, femur with a strong subapical apophysis flanked by a srllUll one, genu 
also with a similar small apophysis, setae on tarsus long and slender; III and 
IV to 5j.5f« and iWlfi respectively, with caruncle and claws and long slender 
setae. Chelicerae us figured* fixed finger with 3 fairly strong teeth, movable 
finger with one tooth and a long, slender spenuutophore carrier of its own 
length. Tectum as figured, with a peculiar median apically trident-like mucro 
flanked on each side by two or three teeth. Specialised seta on palpal tarsus 
3-tined, 

112 




& f{ *h 














/\ 



!'"• 



.X' 



I 



\P' 




K ?L^\ 



y 



^sj/m 






r 



/' 



s£ 




s 



\j 



\ 



Fig. 6 Aw--Aftt$iinofaglt(p& affinis g. et sp. nov. Male; A, dorsum, B. ventral 
view, C. cheliccrae, D. tectum, E. seta of palpal turns, I 7 . femur and genu 

of leg I, 

Female — Unknown. 

Locality— The holotype and one paratype from litter from Brookfield, 
Queensland, 31st May to 10th June, 1949 (coll. E. R. Derrick). 

Genus Stvt.ocamasus nov. 
Neoparasitidae, near to Hydrogamasus but without metapodal shields, with 
sternal and metasternal shields coalesced, combined shield deeply excavate pos- 
teriorly. Dorsal shield entire, underlapping ventrally. Peritrcrnal tut>c thick. 
Tectum trispinous. 

Genotype Styhgamastts convcxa sp. nov. 

Stylogamasus convexa sp. nov. 

Fig. 7 A-T 

Description; Female Holotype— Shape of idiosoma sub-oval. Length of 
idiosoma 572 M , width 416/*. Dorsal shield entire, lightly reticulate, entirely 
covering the dorsum and underlapping narrowly to the margin of the ventri- 
anal shield; furnished with 32 pairs of setae, the second and the humeral pairs 
and the three postero-median pairs of which are straight and strongly ciliated, 

113 



the rest simple and flagellate to 78/* long. Venter: tritosternum normal, a pair 
of prc-endopodal shields present; mctasternal cum sternal shield longer than 
wide with 1 pairs of setae and 3 pairs of pores, the first two pairs of setae are 
ciliated, the others simple; genital shield as wide posteriorly as long, with pimc- 
tate regulations, with one pair oi slightly ciliated setae, posterior margin sepa- 
rated only slightly from ventri-anal shield; ventri-anal shield as wide anteriorly 
an long with 6 pairs of ciliated setae to G5/* long in addition to the paranals; with 
imbricate markings; peritrernal tube wide, running from between coxae III and 




Fig. 7 A-I Sft//t.t/(i*.7«;>v convcxtt ^. ft &j>, nu\. A;£ tcm;ik-; A- dorsum, H. 

vwiU'ul view, CI Iccluuij, D. choliccrHCj ft. sota ns palpal ttirsns; F-J Mule: 

r. venter, C. chelicerae, H. femur und gtbni ijf leg I, 1- lubial L-oriiiclc. 



IV forwards to coxae I; exopodal shields fused but together separated from 
peritrernal shield. Legs: I 624/./- long. II 468/li, III 442/i, IV 559//.; femur and 
genu of leg II each with a strong and stout spine-like seta. Chelieerae as figured, 
fixed finger with 5 fairly strong teeth and a simple seta, movable finger with 
5 similar teeth, Tectum trispinous. Specialised seta on palpal tarsus 3-tined. 

Male Allotype — Faeies as in female. Length of idiosoma 455/1., width '364/.'. 
Venter: pre-endopodal shields present; sternal, mctasternal, genital and 
ventri-anal shields fused to form a single holovenfral shield with 11 pairs of 

114 



setae, the metastcrnal pair short and simple to 20ju long* the posterolateral two 
pairs simple and flagellate to 91/a, the rest short and ciliated to 32/a long. Legs: 
I 6Mfi long, II 468,a, III 390//, IV 550//.; femur of leg II with a large apophysis 
and three strong spines, genu with two strong spines. Chelicerae as figured, 
fixed finger with 5 small teeth, movable fmger with one strong tooth and a short 
apieally recurved spermatophore carrier. Tectum as in female. 

Locality — Holotype female, allotype male and five paratype females from 
soil debris, Rrookh'eld, Queensland, 31st May to 10th June, 1949 (coll, E. H. 
Derrick). In the collection of the South Australian Museum. 

Family LAELAPTIDAE Berlesc 
Berlese, A., 1892. A<\iri, YfyrtarHvIa ct Scoryioues ilul. reperta; Mosostigmatn; 30. 

Subfamily Hyfoasfidinae Vitzthnm 
Vitztlmin, Gr.if H., J 941. In Brorm's Klass, u- Onlnuntfcn, Bel. V, Abt. TV. Bh. 5. 




Fig, 8 A-D— ColeolaehtpH heteronycliM sp, no\, Female: A. dorsum.. B. ven- 
tral view, C, chelicerae. D. tectum. 



115 



Genus Coliscm-aklaps Berlcse 
lii-r.-Ii-.r A., M)I4 HimI,., 10: 141 r (Typ.' Luriap-s (01%) ttgn/tfi\ HfiJesf, 1SS7. ) 

Coleoluelaps heteronychus sp. now 

fctf 8 A-D 

Description: Female Holotype—A Fairly lightly e.hirinised speeies. Length 
ol idiosoniH 675/1, width 456/'-, Dorsal shield entire, not completely covering 
dorsum. 5S5f* long by 416;/. wide, with 84 pair* of short to long and very long, 
slender simple setae, the lateral and sublateral setae reaching to 247/i in length, 
Water; tritusternum normal with ciliated lacinia: no prc-endopodal shields; 
sLernal shield about as long as wide and extending posteriorly to middle ol 
coxae 111. with lightly incurved posterior margin, with 3 pairs ol .setae and 2 
pairs of pores, inetustemul shields represented only by tin 1 setae; genital shield 
flask-liko in shape with one pair of setae and light retierdatiuns, well separated 
from anal shield; anal shield pear shaped with 3 paranal setae; latcrad of the 
anal and genital shields there are 5 setae on each side and between these shields 
there are two pairs of seta' 1 . Peritreme long and slender with the stigma King 
between coxae 111 and coxae IV. overlapping dorsally near coxae II. Legs 
fairly thick, only IV slightly longer than body; the setae on I! -IV are rather 
stouter than on I; all tarsi with caruncle, claws and pad; I 624// long, II 520,u. 
Hi r*72ft, and IV 754/j. Chclieerae us iigurcd, fhed h'nger with a subapieal tooth 
followed by a series of minute rounded tuberculatum:?, movable linger with two 
strong teeth the distance between whieh etuials that between apex and firsl 
tooth. Tec turn lancet-like as figured. 

Male — Unkuow u. 

Lo<:aUtif — From a "Black Beetle" Hcteromjcftus mnctue-hilentw M. Kdw,. 
Maelean, New South Wa'es, lilh Feb., 1954 (coll. A. M. Hmvoy). 

ftnuarfo: — Described from the holotype and one paratypc iu the collection 
ol the South Australian Museum. 

Subfamily rjiYTosEiiNAt; 13crlc.se 

B'ClW. A . HjUi Krt1i;t t2: A3 

Genus PmuosErus uov. 

Allied to 1 .tfsioscius Her., subgenus Zercoaeius Berl., but characterised there- 
from by the sternal shield having only two pairs of setae, the third pair being 
on distmctlv separated TOtmd shieldlets; the tnetasternal shields only represented 
by the setae. 

Genotype Lamm'tus (Zcrcoseias) macaulviji Hughes 194S. 

To this genus will also belong Lasioseiits ( , Z<?J , ffft$fliy#5 u,racn Hughes 194$; 
In her description of macauletji Mrs. Hughes refers to the .small shieldlets carry- 
ing the third pair of sternal setae as tlie mclaslernal shields, bill according to 
4"ragardh*s interpretation of (he ventral shields of the Mc.sostiginata and theij 
attendant setae, the fourth pair of setae are the metasterual setae and the small 
shields iu front ol these with the third pair of setae can only be parts of the 
sternal shield which have become separated. 

Primoscius macauleyi (Hughes) 
Fife 9 ME 

i,fi.VfW;i(i,v I ■•' /e/vi>va»,v ) nutruufcifi A. M I holies, JLf£J& Tin: Milt 1 * assueialril willi uUttpt) 
products. 11. M. SUlioiiuiy OHirr. London, J>, 1 Kf, fjjf. 112. 

This species was described by Mrs. Hughes from .sifted oats and detritus 
from warehouse floors in England and Northern Ireland. 

A number of specimens whieh cannot be distinguished specifically from the 
original description and figures of maaudeyi have recently been collected from 
hark scrapings of logs at Port Adelaide. South Australia, January, 1954. Tra- 
in; 



logs had been imported from Western Australia and the men handling them 
complained oi' biting and irritation. Whether or not the trouble was due' to tins 
particular species is not certain, however, for several other species of mites 
were also present in numbers, including T tj phi od ramus encumeris Ouds., Gar- 
mania ncsbitti Worn., I,a.nosews (Z.) hoomsmai Worn, and Tyrophagus castel- 
lanii Hirst, the last being well-known as the cause of "copra itch". 

The figures given in the present paper are drawn from the above Australian 
material. 

Cctuis Typulodromus Scheuten 
Sehoutaii, A , 1&57. Arab. Nutuwsch. 23; ill. 




Vtg. 9 K-H—Primo&cius macaufayi (Hughes) A-F Fomnlp: A, doisuui, B, von- 

li'ul view, C, ehelicerae, D. labial uorniclcs, E. and t'. two views of tlorsnl 

sctao, C-H, Male: C. venter. II. ehelw<erac. 



Typhlodromus cucumeris Oudemans 

Vi%, 10 A-0 

Ttn>lif<>(hi>mu$ cucumeris Ouds., 1030, Ent. Ber., Amst 8 (172): 60-70; iSesbill 1951. Zool. 
Vcrh. Leiden, No, 12: 23; Cunliffc and Baker, 1953, Pinellos Hiol. l.ab. Pnhl. No. 
12; 15; Womorslcy, 19-54, AusL J. Zool. 2(1); 175(1 

117 




Fig, 10 A-G—Typhlodromus cucumem Ouds. Male: A. dorsum, B. ventral 

view, C. chelicerae. 



IIS 



Description of Male Allotype — Facies generally as in female. Length of 
idiosoma 273j», width 156>. Dorsal shield lightly reticulated with setation as in 
female; D x 14/a, D-> J 4 M , D a t%H D 4 17^, D 5 17 M , D« 8^; \l t 17/fe M 2 29 { i; U 
2% JL 3 17 M , L s 17/^ L 4 22/., L : , gty, L, t 20>, Lf Jfo, L s 14,,, L 36/,; S x 17u, 
Sj 17/a. Venter: tritosternurn but no pre-endopodal shields present; sternal, 
metastcraal and genital shields coalesced with 5 pairs of setae and 3 pairs of 
pores; ycutri-anal shield expanded behind coxae IV, with rounded sides and 4 
pairs of setae besides the paranals as in the female. Chelicerae as figured, the 
movable finger with a peculiar T-shaped spermatophore carrier much as in 
T.(A?.) barkeri Hughes, the cross bar of which is longer than the chela itself. 
Legs as in female, T 273/x long, IT and III 195/a, and IV 273,i. 













/•7-A 








; i ' /; '1t ; ra^ir 






*v 



Fig. 11 A-B-Dcrn'cfcm sctom Wnrnrrslcy Deutonymph: A. dnrsum, B. ventral view. 

Subfamily Fodocuvtnae Berlese 
Berlrse, A, 1916. 

Genus DuauucKiA Womersley 
WomersU'y, H-, l£$ft Jour. Linn. Sue. London, Zool, XLIJ, No. 2S8. 

Genotype Derrickia setosa Worn, (protonymph). 

Description of Deuto nymph—General facies as in the protonymph. Length 
of idiosoma 650>, width 546^. Dorsal shield entirely covering the dorsum with 
the setation as in the protonymph; the antero-medjan, posterolateral and 
snbpostero-lateral setae to 286> long, surface with punctae which discally form 
an hexagonal pattern. A single eye on each side (in the protonymph this 
could not be seen). Venter; as in the protonymph, the sternal shield only 
indicated by discontinuity of the longitudinal striations. with 3 pairs of setae- 

119 



stigma weak and with only a short peritreme. Legs as in protonvmph, I 1014/t 
long, 11 630^ ill 650/x, IV 715^. 

Remarks — This genus and species was originally erected on a single speci- 
men, a nymph, but the precise nymphal stage was not defined. The deuto- 
nymphal stage is now described from two specimens from litter from Brook- 
Held, Queensland, 22nd May to 2nd July, 1949 (coll E. H. Derrick). These 
specimens were at first taken to be adults, but it was later realised that they 
were deutonymphs and that the type specimen was a protonymph. The adults 
are as vet unknown. 



120 



THE OCCURRENCE OF NATIVE SULPHUR AT LAKE EYRE 

byC. W. Bonython and D. King 

Summary 

Native sulphur in nodular form was discovered on the shore of Lake Eyre in 1951, and later the 

source-bed was found to be an Early-Recent clay stratigraphically positioned between Pleistocene 

and Late-Recent sediments. 

Three exposures of sulphur nodules having distinctive characteristics were found within a radius of 

less than one half-mile. The nodules consist of a sulphur core in a shell of coarsely-crystalline 

gypsum from which crystals may project both inwards and outwards. The sulphur usually occupies 

only part of the interior cavity, there being an empty space between it and the bottom of the shell. 

Laboratory work has shown the core material to consist of over 90 per cent, sulphur and to contain 

traces of arsenic and selenium, that it is crystalline, orthorhombic sulphur, and that the relative 

abundance of sulphur isotopes suggests an organic origin. The presence in the nodules of certain 

bacteria has been demonstrated by other work. 

Evidence favours a theory that the gypsum crust has been formed from the core sulphur by bacterial 

oxidation. 

The known deposit has no promise of economic development, but further occurrences can be 

expected to be found in the Lake Eyre region. 



THE OCCURRENCE OF NATIVE SULPHUR AT LAKE FARE 

By C, W. Bonyxiiont 51 AND D. KlNOf 

[Read IS Oct. 1955] 

SUMMARY 

Native sulphur in nodular form was discovered on the shove of Lake Evi'b m I05L 
and later the source-bed was found to l>o aw Lady- Recent day htratigraphieally positioned 
between Pleistocene and Lato-Rccent sediments. 

Three exposures or sulphur nodules Vntv Jn.Cf distinctive characteristics went found within 
u radius of less llian one half-mile. The nodules consist o£ a sulphur core in a shell of 
coarsely-crystalline gypsum from which crystals may project both inwards and outwards. 
The sulphur usually occupies only part of the interior laxity, then'- being an empty space 
between it and the bottom of the .shell. 

Laboratory work has shown the core- material to consist of over 00 per cent, sulphur 
arid to contain traces of arsenic and selenium, that it is crystalline, nrth a rhombic sulphur^ 
and that the rolarhc abundance of sulphur isotopes suggests an organic origin. The presence 
m the nodules of certain bacteria bas^ been demonstrated by other worL 

LVidenee favours a theory that the gypsum crust has been formed from the core sulphur 
by bacterial oxidation. 

The known deposit has on promise of economic development, but Further occurrence* 
can be expected to oe found in the Late Eyre region. 

INTRODUCTION 

Native sulphur was first found at Lake Eyre by one of us (C.WdL) in 
December, 195 L, on the south-eastern shore of Madigau Gulf (Ronython, 
1955(b)). Several water-eroded nodules were picked up on the beach of 
Sulphur Peninsula at the edge of the shrinking lake waters. The pale yellow 
colour of the material at once suggested sulphur- an impression soon confirmed 
by the flame and odour from a fragment placed in the eampfire. 

This is tile only known sedimentary deposit of native sulphur in South 
Australia, with the possible exception of an unconfirmed occurrence at Pal- 
huus-ie Springs, 200 miles to the north-west. 

Most of the nodules collected in 1951 comprised a sulphur core in a shell 
of coarsely-crystalline gypsum; in some the core was traversed by septa of 
skeletal gypsum crystals. 

The source of the sulphur was discovered hi May, 1953, when the authors 
journeyed together to Lake Eyre, Pieces of sulphur were then discovered 
in siln in an exposure of laminated clay outcropping at the lake shore close to 
the place of the 1951 find. Two other outcrops were found on the opposite 
side of the peninsula. These are all shown in the Locality Plan (overleaf). Plate 
L Fig. 2. shows one of the nodules found. 

MODE OF OCCURRENCE 

The clay bed m which the sulphur occurs is horizontally disposed and is 
upwards of LS inches thick, with the sulphur nodules randomly distributer! 
through it. Tt consists of allernating, varvedikc laminae of finely-divided, ferru- 
ginous clay mailer varying in colour from pale and dark brown lo grcy-grccn 
and blue. It also contains thin laminae of natural whiting (dolomitie), traces 

M.CI, Alk-.di (Australia) Pty. Ltd. 

| South Austcali.ui Department of Mines. 

121 



of carbonaceous matter, and disseminated crystals of gypsum and halite, Slump 
folding ou a very small scale is common. 

The sulphur-bearing clay is overlain by other clay and aeolian deposits 
which form the main part of Sulphur Peninsula, and the outcrops on the sloping 
eastern and western beaches are only narrow. Less than an acre of sulphur- 
bearing clay is exposed at the location on the western shore (hereafter referred 
to as the ( 'western,." or "W" location). The two other locations, where the 
bed outcrops on the eastern, or Scalloped Bay, side of the peninsula, are here- 
after referred to respectively as the "north-ea stern/' or "NE/ J location and the 
"south-eastern," or *'SE," location. 





TABLE I. 
Stratigraphy of Sulphur Occurrences 






Situation 


Description 


Thickness 
ft. in. 


•Shoreline elifTs 


Crystalline gypsum, freshwater shell* [Coxk-Ha gilar ,; and 

sandy rtay 
Bruwn, sandy rlny arid fine, crystalline gypsum 


6- 






Beach exposure 


Keel-brown clay 

Intcrberided green clay and crystalline eypsum 
Tine, while, siliceous sand 
Pfcje green clay 

Laminated, brown and grey-green day with sulphur- 
gypinm nodules 


3 

1 
(1 

I 

I 




3 




No outcrop — bore data 


Dark- blue clay 
Stiff, dark-blue clay 
Stiff, il;u It-green clay 


7 

10 

3 








Total 


48 






THE STRATIGRAPHIC SUCCESSION 
The sulphur-bearing clay forms part of a series of clay beds assigned to 
Early-Recent age, whieh overlies a Pleistocene dolomitie mudstone. The clay 
beds are overlain in turn by Early-Recent gvpscous shell beds, and bv Late- 
Recent aeolian deposits (King, 1955). The stratigraphy is interpreted from out- 
crops of the gypseous shell beds near Location SE, and" from data obtained from 
a borehole near Location W. Table 1 is a generalized account of the Early- 
Recent succession in the vicinity of Sulphur Peninsula, and the Locality Plan 
(opposite) includes an actual vertical cross section at Location W. 

THE EXAMINATION OF THE SULPHUR OCCURRENCES 
The exposure at Location W was opened up by a shallow costcaa (see 
Plate 1, Fig. 1), and it was found that the nodules are present not only at the 
surface of the lake bed, but also at depths down to 18 inches. Those uncovered 
by digging are similar to the nodules found at the surface, but whereas the 
former are entirely encased in a crust of gypsum crystals, the latter usually have 
an imperfect crust permitting both the ingress of sand ? clay and organic debris 
aud also the removal by erosion of some of the sulphur core. The same is 
true of the NF, and SE exposures. 

teg 



Sulphur nedilles from the three locutions have eerlaiu <haraeteristic dib 
lerenees; 

(ti) Nodules from Location \V have tt comparatively tliiu outer crust of yypsuuu 
and tho sulphur occupies most of the interior cavity. The clay iu contact 
with the outside is usually tfr<*y-groen, lint m the near vicinity there are 
occasional ftidttftflgs or larger areas 01 a rusty-red colour (indiealive i>l 
ferric iron; However, tlu- clay immediately in contact with the gypsum 
uunI is ncvvi- rusty-red. 

(h) Nodules from Location NF! have a thicker gypsum crust, often iron-stained. 
The sulphur occupies a smaller proportion of the interior cavity than in 
(a), i.e., more or the cavity consists of empty space. At this locution there 
are some scaled, hollow nodules of the same external appearance as Ha- 
ndlers, but containing litlle or no sulphur. 

(c) Nodules Irotu Location SE usually have a thicker more massive crust than 
both (a.) and (h) material. Some of the gypsum aggregates are over one 
font across, with frequently more than one sulphur kernel embedded in 
the alabastrine mass, There is practically no iron staining, 

Nodule shape varies from that of irregular spheroidal or ovoid masses at 
Ideation W (sec 1'latc - H, Fig 1} to flath'sh masses thinning towards the- ed^es 
at Location SE (see Plate 2, Kig. 2). A tapering, down-pomling base or "toot" 
of i;vpsum is characteristic of many nodules from all thioc locations. Nodules 
from Location NE show individual variations — one (set* Plate o\ Kit;. 1 ) show- 
ing the upper part in vertical cross section to be a flattened rectnniile. and an- 
other (see plate 3, Fig. 2) having an elliptical cavity; in both the core sulphur 
clings to the gypsum crust roof and keeps clear ol the bottom (except where 
protruding crystals reach up to it), while in only the fonnc-r ease the base ol 
the gypsum rrust is thickened into a root. 

It seems to be u general characteristic that the sulphur occupies the top 
of the cavity, J > n(i '*" h-tba rnorc marked in the NE and SE examples, til some 
of the SE nodules, which have a very thick gypsum shell the sulphur is re- 
stricted to a MUiilh, subsidiary dome in the roof of the cavity (sec Plate 2. Eig. 2). 

The core sulphur lias plane, vertical fissures running through H in some 
cases, particularly that from Location W. These are commonly occupied by 
crystalline gypsum.. 

The outside of the crust consists of coarse crystals projecting outwards, 
while on the inside smaller, tooth-like crystals projoet towards the eentie. The 
outside ones are frequently opaque and blade-like (Locations NE and SE), 
while those inside the cavity arc well-formed, and occasionally clear, but more 
often containing inclusions of finely-divided sulphur which render them opaque. 
Growths of gypsum crystals reaehine; upwards from the periphery to touoh the 
core sulphur "tire shown in Plate 3. Fig. 2. depicting a nodule from Location NE, 

LAHOllATORY EXAMINATION OF THE SULPHUR 

The physical state of the sulphur in the nodules was investigated by means 
of the microscope, the electron microscope and the X-ray powder difliaction 
technique. Chemical analysis was carried ool. anil measurements were made- 
of the sulphur isotope abundance. Microbiological studies also were made by 
Haas Becking and Kaplan (1955) who identified certain sulphate-reducing and 
sulphur-oxidizing bacteria; this work is reported in another paper ol the present 
volume. 

Microscopic Examination: 

Q, H. Taylor of the South Australian Department of Mines, after making 
a penological examination of one ol' the, \V nodules, reported as follows: 

V14 



"The greater part of this material is native sulphur and gypsum, with 
up to 20 per cent, of water and water-soluble salts (as received). The 
sulphur occurs in cavities surrounded by crusts of well-crystallized gypsum, 
with which is associated an appreciable amount of a carbonate mineral, 
probably calcite. The water-soluble salts seem to consist chiefly of halite 
(Nad)." 

Examination under the Electron Microscope: 

S. C. Tomlin used the electron microscope of the University of Adelaide 
to phote^raph a sample of the sulphur core material The examination was 
inconclusive, because the sulphur vaporized in tile heat of the electron beam 
before it could be photographed. 

However, there was an interesting sequel m the finding of a peculiar fibrous 
and laminar residue when all the sulphur had evaporated (see Plate 4), It has 
not been identrDed. but it may be organic; it docs not have the characteristics 
of a crystalline substance. (The sample had initially been repeatedly extracted 
with water to remove soluble impurities.) 

Examination by X-ray Diffraction: 

An X-ray powder diffraction pattern was measured by K. Norrish and L. 
Rogers of the Division of Soils, C.S.I.R.O. The core material was found to 
be crystalline, orthorhombic sulphur, containing possibly a trace of gypsum. 
Full details are given in the Appendix. 

Chemical Analysis: 

Sulphur core material (as free as far as possible from contamination by 
die gypsum shell) was gathered from all three locations and mixed so as to 
to provide a single, composite sample. An analysis of this sample carried out 
under the direction of T. K. Frost, Chief Analyst of the South Australian De- 
partment of Mines, is shown in Tabic 2 together with an analysis <rf native 
sulphur from Louisiana, U.S.A. 13 







TABLE 2. 








(]bcrn 


ufi! Analysis of Sulphur. 










1-a.ke Eyre 


l'ort Sulphur. Louisiana 








fromposile sample of 


(as rnmrd by 








Hiilphnr as (buntly 


Frasch process; 




Elemental Sulpliiu :S 




90-9% 


99-74% 




Insoluble in aniline 




11 -3 






Ash 




- 


less than 0-01 




Moisture 




0-/1 


* 




Ilyrb'orariHMi 




— 


D**J 




Arsrmr 




0-00007 


less than 0002 




Srfrniuin 




0-OOli 


Ie*Hlhan0' 00005 





* Anahsis expressed on ch*y basis. 

Assuming that the fraction insoluble in aniline in the Lake Eyre material 
Ifi equivalent to ash makes it less pure than the Louisiana material. However, 
the latter was mined by the Frasch process (injecting steam and hot water down 
a borehole), so the two samples are not strictly comparable in respect to ash 
content. Both contain Lraces of arsenic and selenium. 

Information supplied* by D. I?. Mason nf the Kreeport Sulphur Company, New York. 

lflK 



H, C. Thode, of MeVTaster University, Ontario, measured the relative 
isotopie abundance of S* 2 and S 34 in a weathered-out nodule from Location W 
at Lake Eyrc 7 his findings heing as follows: 

TABLE 3. 
Lake Eyse Sulphur Nodule 



Constituent 



I\ati\e sulphur 
Associated sulphate 



S* 2 r'S JI ratio 



22 -2« 
21-9")** 



** I hts determination ft to be repeated, for there is some doubt as to whether the sulphate was the 
true gypsum crust or a coating ol" gypsum deposited on the nodule in question by the evaporating lake 
waters. 

These results may be compared with other such figures derived by Thode 
(1951) from forms of free and combined sulphur occurring generally in nature 
(see Tabic 4). 

TABLE 4. 



Material 


S«/S 34 ratio 


St.-a water sulphate 

Gypsum 

Native sulphur 

(a) volcanic origin 
(b.) organic origin 


21-7-21 9 
21 -6-22-2 

21-8-221 
22 -2-22 • l 



I he native sulphur from Lake Eyre hence has an S :J 7S :w ratio correspond- 
in 1 ^ to sulphur of organic origin. 

THE ORIGIN OF THE SULPHUR 

Native sulphur mav originate from volcanic action, or from the breakdown 
of naturally-occurring sulphur compounds by organic chemical agencies. There 
is no evidence of vuleanism at Lake Eyre, but on the other hand the sedimen- 
tary environment, the S^/S* 1 ratio and the presence of both sulphates and 
bacteria point to an organic origin. 

The physical state in which the Lake Eyre sulphur occurs will not neces- 
sarily provide a clue to the mode of formation, for it has been shown that a 
certain Indian sulphur of known microbiological origin was originally colloidal 
but had crystallized on ageing. 

Microbiological Processes: 

Bullin & Postdate (1954) have written ot sulphur being formed by micro- 
biological processes and ihev describe a two-stage process in which sulphale 
is first reduced to sulphide bv the bacterial action of DesulphorAbrio demd- 
nlturicam following which the sulphide is oxidizicd to elemental sulphur 
by the coloured, photo-synthetic, sulphur-oxidizing bacteria Chlorohium and 

Chroutalittm. 

Baas-Decking and Kaplan ( 1955) agree that the first stage of such a process 
is bacterial, but they claim that under natural conditions the second stage is 
a simple chemical oxidation involving atmospheric oxygen and iron, 

126 



Subba Ran, lya fc Srucnivasuya (1017) have reported the occurrence of a 
sidphur-bcarmg clay neat- Mushpatam in India. (It has similarities to the Lakg 
Eyre material.) Here it is claimed that the reduction is effected bv flagellate 
Vibrio, and that the oxidation is performed eatalytieally by atmospheric oskla- 
Hon in the presence of iron. 

Elemental sulphur may also be degraded to sulphate by bacterial oxida- 
tion, one of the bacteria reacting in this wav befog Thiobaciflus thlooxidans 
(Bnllin iV .Postdate, 1954), 

Implications of the Sulphur-Gyp sum Association'. 

Jt is highly significant that sulphur and gypsum are intimately associated 
in the Take Eyre nodules, particularly as the concretionary form of most of the 
gypsum crusts is markedly different from that of the crystalline gypsum sn 
common and widespread in Quaternary sediments of the Lake Eyre region. 
There are two possible interpretations of this association — the first, that the 
gypsum crust is a remnant of pre-existing sulphate front which the sulphur has 
been formed by reduction, and the second, tliat the gypsum crust has been 
formed by oxidation of pre-existing elemental sulphur of which the present 
sulphur core is a remnant. Both sulphate-reducing and sulphur-oxidizing 
bacteria are found in the nodules (Baas-Becking & Kaplau, 1955), so neither 
theory is to be preferred on this account. 

The shape of the nodules may have significance concerning the mode, of 
formal ion. The tendency of the crystals of the crust to develop both inwards 
and outwards, the thickened, tapering base or "root/' and the separation of 
the base of the sulphur core from the bottom of the cavity in the gypsum crust 
are the principal morphological characteristics, but their interpretations are 
not obvious. 

Tfic Sul)ilut(c-ivduc(ion Theory of Origin: 

In sueh a process it is implied that the reduction begins in the interior ol 
a gypsum mass, and that the reactions spread gradually outwards. The oxida- 
tion of the sulphide must occur (here also. 

Evidence against this theory is the unlikelihood of gypsum existing initially 
in masses shaped like the present nodules, and the fact that gypsum crystals 
facing inwards from the shell do not generally have the corroded appearance 
to he expected if the gypsum was being consumed. The theory is favoured 
by die fact that the cavity within the gypsum shell is not completely filled by 
sulphur, for, as Baas-Becking & Kaplan have pointed out, the formation of 
elemental sulphur from gypsum is accompanied by a loss of volume. However, 
fuller consideration of the facts concerning the Lake Eyre occurrences will 
reveal the following eonllict with the theory. 

A, nodule from Location W has a comparatively (hin gypsum crust, so it 
may be supposed that the conversion of the original gypsum to sulphur has 
proceeded nearly to completion; on this basis the empty volume within the 
gypsum cavity should be large in relation to the space occupied by the sulphur, 
This is not so — the proportion of empty volume is small. Conversely, a nodule 
from Locations NE and SL has a thick gypsum crust, and so the proportion of 
empty volume within should be small. In lucf, the proportion of empty volume 
in large in the ME and Sl£ uodulcs. 

The isotope abundance determi nations of Thodc (see Table 3) show a 
slightly smaller proportion of the S' VI isotope in the sulphur than in the asso- 
ciated sulphate, and if this be iuterpieted as the. "fractionation* described by 
Thode occurring during the microbiological reduction of sulphate then the 
theory is supported. 



The Sulphur-Oxidation 77uon/ of Origim 

Thh supposes (Baas-Beekiug ft Kaplan, 1933) that the gypsum crust was 
funned l>y renctioti between IISOi " ions, which resulted from the action of 
tltitfoxltliitis bacillus on pre-existing elemental sulphur, and Ca -1-- from the sur- 
rounding clay, in this case the gypsum crust would presumably have grown 
by accretion outside the sulphur core. Tire jorui oF the nodular gypsum is in 
.agreement with such a mode of formation, as also is the presence oE occluded 
sulphur in gypsum crystals, and the attitude of the crystals ot the crust in 
appearing to have in-own outwards From the main sru Ih as well as 1 inwards 
to a lesser extent- The argument involving the proportions of the eavity volume 
occupied by sulphur and by empty .space introduces rio ennlliet with the 
sulphur-nsidatton theory, but nippo-rls* the view thai the qypsurn crust \v:-.-. 
formed from pre-existing sulphur- 

tifttiUa Invohin^ Organic Remains: 

One ol us (D.K. ) is impressed by the fact that the presence of decom- 
posable organic matter is a condition favouring certain ol the bacterial process* ^ 
cited by Kntlni & Postdate and hclic\es that (lie past existence ol decaying fish 
remains might not fluty have supported the tormation uf sulphur by bacterial 
aetion, but would account also for ihc couecutratiou ol the sulphur substance 
ju discrote and sporadically distributed masses. Subsequent bacterial action 
could haw made these aggregations ot sulphur re\ert partly to gypsum. 

tfiWttitfmfi PtM'ttMiou (m Origin: 

li is certain thai the Lake Eyre sulphur is ot' organic origin. The weight 
ill evidence Oil the origin of the gypsum crust favours its having been formed 
subsequently from part of the sulphur by bacterial oxidation. 

The sulphur was probably formed* prior to or during (he sedimentation *>\ 
the clay bed in whieh it now occurs, but it is also possible that it was formed 
subsequently in sittt. The latter process, if it occurred, presumably would have 
been favoured im those parts of the clay bed outcropping on cither side of the 
peninsula because there the lake waters and the atmosphere would have had 
effective access to it. The position of the present sulphur-bearing bed in rela- 
tion to the level of lake waters may bo significant, for bacterial reactions (like 
those studied by Butlin & Postgatt in Cvreuaica) possibly take place more 
readily in a brine medium than in the dry state. Fig, 1 shows the respective 
levels in terms of an arbitrary datum fRuuython, 1955 (a)), and the salinity 
of the lake waters when at certain levels. (, Expressed as gm. NaCl per litre.) 
The. bed *vus submerged ft. below the lake surfaee timing the great flooding 
of 1V> 19-50, but it is unlikely to be reached often by the waters during the minm 
Hoodings that under average circumstances may ocem aL intervals of the order 
of five years. 

It v\ould be instructive to find out if the sulphur nodules also occur in those 
parts ol ; the bed deeply buried beneath the sediments ol the Sulphur Peninsula 
ridge, This would be ascertained by sinking bores to intersect the bed in 
thxt arc.!, 

THE ECONOMIC.] POSSIBILITIES 

The known sulphur occurrences occupy a total area of approximately one 
acre, and in this area the sulphur content of the bed as a whole would be con- 
siderably less lhan one per cent A deposit of this size and grade has no 
value in" itself, lint as the sulphur is found within a definite stratigraphie horizon 
that was probably laid down under quiet, lacustrine conditions — and for this 
reason could be expected to extend laterally lor many miles in the Lake Eyre 

u As this pur»<r goes to press Baas-Becking and KViplnn rt'frifjf :t Otrbn-i-l I <1ri.TinitMl-ii.fi 
plticm<r the Hg<- at ly.HKrdr StUI yr.u-v 

J2S 



Basin — some further exploratory work is necessary before the potentialities 
can be accurately assessed. 

In the locality examined the sulphur-bearing clavs arc horizontal and 
slightly higher in elevation than the lake bed, and testing would involve the 
sinking of boreholes or pits on the mainland adjacent to the Jake margin. There 
is also the possibility thai there may be a repetition of sulphur deposits at 
greater depths, and in investigating this a borehole mighl bv sunk as deep as 
the upper limits of the underlying Mosozoic formations. 

\CKNOWLEDGMF NT 

The authors acknowledge the help given in the field by Mr. W. C. Fenuer 
and Mr, A. D. P. Dyer, and also by A. C. T. Adams and j. It. Bryan — boys of 
St. Peters College. Adelaide. For undertaking investigations of the sulphur 
in the laboratory they wish to thauk Prof. H, G. Thode, F.R.S., of McMaster 
University, Ontario, Canada; Dr. S. G. Tomlin of the Department of Thvsies 
University ol Adelaide; Dr. K, Norrish and Mrs. I, Pogcrs of the Division of 
Soils, O.S.UU3,; and Mr. T. W, Dalvvood of the South Australian Department 
of Mines. Fig. 1 and Plates 2 and 3 were prepared by Messrs. B. Thomas and 
G. P. King. 

Thanks are due to Mr. S. B. Dickinson, Director of Mines, South Australia, 
for making it possible for one of the authors (D.K.) to visit Lake Eyre to carry 
out tliis work. 

REFERENCES 

tUAS-B^UKiNO L. G. M., and Kaplan, I. IU 105S. The Microbiological Origin of the Sulphur 
-Nodules of Lake Eyre. (In this volume.) 

Boxython, G. W., 1955. Lake Eyre, South Australia - The Great Flooding of 1949^50 Roy, 
Gco ^ S^/iA^ S; AuSt BranL 'k Adelaide. (a) The Filling and Drviag-up, 
BP^- ■ ^ ' Fiuma and Minerals from Lake Eyre and Surroundings, pp. 



._>, 



Butltv, K. R., and Postcatk J. R., 1954. The Microbiological Formation of Sulphur in 
CyrenaTeau Lakes -The Biology of Deserts, 115-122, London, Inst. RioL 

Kmc, D., 1955. The Quaternary Stratigraphic Record at Lake Eyre North and the Evohi- 
tion r# hxisting Topographic Forms. (In this volume.) 

SunnA Rao JVI. S., Iya, K. K, f and Siuienivasaya, M, 1947. Proc. 4th Int Congr. Microbiol., 
494. 

Thodk, PI, G., 1931. Research (Research Correspondence) 4: 5S&-3. 



129 



APPENDIX 
X-rav Powder Diffraction Data for Lake Eyre Sulphur. 



1 


2 


1 


£ 


. 


dA 


1/1, 


dA 


m% 


dA 


I/Ii 


dA 


I/Ii 


7-7* 


20 










2-19 


20 


5-66 


40 


5*57 


60 


2-10 


70 


2-08 


70 


1-01 


30 


3-94 


70 


1-99 


10 






3-84 


100 


3-74 


100 


1 -95 


< 5 






3-54 


5 


3-53 


50 


1 -89 


70 


1-88 


70 


3-42 


70 


3-38 


60 


1-82 


20 


1-81 


50 


3-30 


40 


3-26 


20 


1-77 


80 


1-76 


70 


3- 19 


90 


3-15 


90 


1-75 


40 






3-08 


40 


3-04 


70 


1-72 


80 


1-71 


60 


J 2-82 


40 


2-79 


60 


1-69 


70 


1-68 


50 






2-67 


20 


1 -65 


40 


1-64 


50 


2-60 


30 


2-59 


50 


1-62 


70 






2-56 


5 






1-60 


70 


1-60 


60d 


2-47 


40 


2-46 


20 


1-43 


20 


1 -43 


50 


2-41 


40 


2-40 


20 


1-41 


70 


1-41 


60 


2-35 


40 


2-34 


20 






1-38 


20 


2-27 


20 


2-26 


20 


1-35 


20 


1-35 


70 



d = doublet, 

1 . Native Sulphur from 1 .akr Hyre [5-73 cm. diameter camera: Co radiation, Fe filtered 
(A — 1 -7899 A); V\ x estimated by eye]. 

2. After data given lbr orthorhombic sulphur by A.S.T.M. Cryslallograplhc Index [Cu radiation, 
\\ filtered (A — 1 -541 A)]. The Cu Kjg lines given by the index have not been included. 

* This line may be due to gypsum which is a possible impurity. 



130 



C. W. BONYTHON AND D. KlNG 



Plate 1 




**V» "-> «*■* 



%i 



Fig. 1.— The costean at Location W, showing (loft) the rod being withdrawn 

from the bore. 




Fig. 2.— Broken sulphur nodule freshly dug at Location W. 



C. W. BONYTHON AND D. KlNG 



Plate 2 



Sulphur filling 
most of cavity 




Fig. 1.— Sectioned nodule from 
Location W (4/5 natural size). 



"Root" 



Sulphur-impregnated crystals 
round cavity walls. 



Sulphur in cavity 




Massive 
gypsum crust 



Fig. 2.— Sectioned nodule from Location SE (3/5 natural size). 



C. W. BONYTHON AND D. KlNG 



Plate 3 



Sulphur 




Fig. 1.— Sectioned nodule from Location NE (4/5 natural size) 




Crystals pointing 
inwards towards core. 

Fig. 2.— Sectioned nodule from Location NE (4/5 natural size). Core 
has fractured surface approximately in plane of section. 



C. W. BONYTHON AND D. KlNG 



Plate 4 




Electron micrograph (12,000 x) of unknown residue after evaporation of the sulphur. 



THE OCCURRENCE OF GRANITE TILLITE AND GRANITE GNEISS 
TILLITE AT POOLAMACCA, BROKEN HILL, N.S.W. 

byD. R. Bowes 



Summary 

A study has been made of some unusual coarse fragmental rock types occurring in the vicinity of 
Poolamacca. These rocks form pail of the basal beds of the Torrowangee Series which rests 
unconformably on rocks of the Willyama Complex around the margins of the Poolamacca Inlier. 
They consist essentially of boulders and fine detritus derived directly from the immediately 
underlying rocks by the action of land ice. Granite and granite gneiss are overlain by granite tillite 
and granite gneiss tillite respectively while a rock containing boulders of granite and granite gneiss 
overlies a granite-granite gneiss contact. 

Details of the field occurrence, petrography and chemical composition of the various rock types are 
set out and the occurrences of comparable rocks in other parts of the Broken Hill area are given. 



HIE OCCURRENCE OF GRANITE TILL1TE AND GRANITE GNEISS 
TILLITE AT FOOLAMACCA, BROKEN HILL, N.S.W. 

By LX B. Bowes* 

(Communicated bij A. W". Kteeman) 
[Read 13 Oct. 1955 ] 

SUMMARY 

A study lias been made of some unusual coarse fragmental rock types oceurrtng in uV 
vicinity of Poolamaeca. These rocks form part of the basal heels of the Torrowangee Series 
which rests uncoufonnably on rocks of tin; Willyama Complex around the margins of the 
Fuolamaeea lnlier. They consist essentially ok boulders and fine detritus derived directly 
from the immediately underlying rocks by the action of land ice. Granite and granite gneiss 
;ire overlain by granite Ulh'le and granite gneiss tillite respectively while a rook containing 
boulders of granite nrn\ granite gneiss overlies a ^ramie-granite gneiss contact. 

Details of the field occurrence, petrography and chemical composition of the various 
rock types are set out and the occurrences of comp-trable rocks in other parts of the Broken 
Hill ivrea are given. 

I. INTRODUCTION 

A . Location 

Poolamaeca Head Station is situated thirty-two miles north of Broken Hill 
in the Northern Barrier Ranges with the approximate position of latitude 31 l 
30' S., longitude 141° 23' E. (Fig. 1). The name of the Head Station is given 
to the inlier of Willyama rocks which outcrop immediately to the north (An- 
drews, 1922, p. 116). Rocks of the Torrowangee Scries surround the Poola- 
maeca Tnlicr (vide King and Thomson, 1953, Fig, 11). The topography consists 
of low hills covered by sparse vegetation. A semi-arid climate prevails and 
outcrops arc abundant. However, surface weathering extends to a considerable- 
depth in parts. 

B, PrtKVious Investigations 

Andrews (op. til.) described 'a thin discontinuous layer of granite waste, 
cemented with tillite material" (p. 66) cropping out near Poolamaeca H.S, 
Tin's rock covered part of the granite of the inlier and it was suggested that 
the granite "formed part of the old surface on which the later glacial deposits 
were laid" (p. 347). Also described was a "remarkable variant of the tillite" 
(p. 67) cropping out three miles south-east of Poolamaeca H,S. in winch ellip- 
soidal boulders of granite and pegmatite arranged almost end to end gave the 
appearance of an igneous intrusion. 

King and Thomson (op.cit.) considered that the granite masses of the 
Northern Barrier Ranges ( Fig. 1 ) were intruded during post-Tonowaugee move- 
ments and occurred in the Willyama rocks just below the Willyama-Torro- 
wangee unconformity. Granitizatlon and pegmatizatkm of the Torrowangee tillite 
at the time of the introduction of the granite was postulated as an explanation 
of the genesis of rocks similar to those described by Andrews (op. cit.) as "granite 

* Department of Geology, l/jiiversity College of Swansea 

m 



waste". A distant source is suggested for most oi the tjllito boulders, includ- 
ing the granitic ones. Some boulders, however, are considered of local derivti- 
tiou such as' those near Gairdners Tank, where the ^lillite is crowded with 
boulders oi ihc underlying granite gneiss'* (p. 5.13). 

Leslie and White (1955) interpreted the exposures al the northern end ol 
the Brcwen Creek Fin ton as showing a granite tillite consisting almost entire] \ 
of granite boulders iu an arkosie matrix resting on the eroded surface o\ the 
granite whieh was thus of pre-'i"orrnwangee age. J^asal beds in other parts 
containing much material hum the immediately undeiU jug rock are also 
described. 

C$i Present Investigations 

The present investigations were 



initiated in 1951 from the University oi 
Adelaide following discussions with members of the geological stall* oi Zine 
Corporation Limited, Broken Hill, who had carried out the regional geological 




j, 



\ 



/ /\ L — ' G/VEfSS 




- P l WILLYAMA P. 



rkBrtiv 1 '* 1 TBrt 



V Vmm »('• » 




.. ...Ml 

7? /WvC 3 ^ 



» 



COMPLEX 



: : ■ ; * / / / 

•put ,./ v 



Fijj;. t.— Map of the Northern Barrier Hanged (uux-r Kiu-v aiul Thomson (1953)) showing the 
principal outcrops of granite and granite gneiss. 



survey of the Barrier Ranges, the results oi whieh were published by King and 
Thomson (up, til.). The aim of the present work was to elucidate the meta- 
morphie and igneous history of part of the Northern Barrier Ranges, and, in 
particular, the genesis ol the granitic and pegmatiiic rocks of the area. More 
than sixteen square miles were mapped al the scale of 1 inch - LOGO feel, cover- 
ing the Willyama rocks of the Foolamacca Inber nnd the surrounding Torro- 
wangee rocks. Critical areas were surveyed at the scale of 1 inch — 50 feel. 
Meld work was carried out. at intervals during 1951-52 and laboratory work 
from 1953 onwards has been done at the University College of Swansea. The 
investigation of the area immediately to the south (Leslie and White, op.cit) 
was carried out in conjunction with the present investigations, 

Tliis paper deals with (1) the granite and granite gneiss of the Willyama 
Complex occurring in the Poolamacca Inlier, and (2) the basal, fragmental. 

143 



glucigeue sediments (granite tillite and gianite gneiss tillitey of the Tunow.uigi-e: 
SiTifcS which unoonloimably overlie the corresponding Willyama parent vocks. 
Details ol Held occurrence together with mineralogical and cltl^ilferi com- 
position are sel out and the significance of the various rucks is discussed. 

The structural and penological history of the Willyama rocks of the I'oola- 
miKca lnlier and or the surrounding Torrowangeo rocks will be discussed in 
laic papers. 

If. THE GRANITE 

A. NaMINv; AM) CoiUlELATlON 

OI the KM large yramte masses in the Northern Barrier Ranges recorded 
bv £hlg and J homsoti (op. cit. p. 543) only the one cut by the Brewery Creek 
is Sheeilieully named. The presence of another granite at Poolamacea was 
recorded by Andrews (op. cit. p. 66), but It was not speeiiieallv named. For 
the sake ol clarity in tins paper, it is desirable that each granite mass should 
he named to enable reference to be made to it without confusion 

In the absence of prominent landmarks and creeks associated with the 
yj unites in the vicinity ol Poolamacca, it is suggested that (1) die granite in 
die eastern part of the Poolamacca Jnjier be termed the Eastern Poolamacca 
Plulon, (2) the granite at the western end of the Poolamacca lnlier be termed 
the Western Poolamacca Pluton (previously refened to as the "western boss"), 
and (3) the granite otic and a half miles north of the Western Poolamacca Pluton 
lu termed the Northern Poolamacca Huron (previously the "nortiiern boss"), 
These names have been used in Fig. 1 and are used throughout this paper 

The correlation ol die granites of the area with other granites in the 
Harrier Ranges bus been discussed bv King and Thomson (op. cit.) and Leslie 
aud White (op. cit.), the latter of wfiom postulate for them a Middle Precam- 
hitan age, 

B. Fna.T) OccumviiNUi 

(f) Eastern Poolamuccn Pluton (Fig. 2).— Tors, which are stained vellow 
to brown and which weather by c\ foliation, together with large, gently curved 
yellowish brown exfoliate surfaces of granite crop out on the western slopes 
uf the low hill a quarter of a mile W.N AW of Poolamacea H.S, Further NAV. 
iu the banks of Campbell's Creek, the granite is light grey in colour and found 
as irregular shaped tors. Large, curved, light grey exfoliate surfaces and small 
tors of granite crop out two-thirds of a mile north of Poolamacca H.S. on the 
low ground in the large bow of Campbell's Creek. Here the granite shows 
ernss-cttttiug aud intrusive relations to the granite gneiss. Granite also crops 
uul as small masses in other parts of the eastern portiou of the Poolamacea 
Juhcr. 

(ii) Western Poolawwca Pinion (Fig, 3).— In the creeks the granite crops 
out as large, gently curved, light grey coloured surfaces, whereas ort the higher 
ground of the main part of the pluton, tors and blocks' of iron-stained granite 
prevail. (Plate h Fig. 3.) The granite, which covers a considerably larger 
surface area than the Eastern Poolamacca Pluton, cross-cuts and intrudes low- 
grade schists of the Wills ama Complex. Many large and small roof pendant* 
aeri xenoliths arc associated with the granite mass. ' 

C FfiTHOGRAPrn and Chkxhcal Composition 

The granite of both Eastern and Western Poolamacca Plutons is Icucociatic 
and rich in muscovite. The grain size is generally 2-3 mm. and the texture 
hvpidiomorphic, although many of the crystals, especially the quartz crystals, 
4k>w considerable cracking and some perirJieral granulation (Fig, 4a) 

^ Pluton is used to <ie*rii|>e a courso-grametl igneous mass of irr^gulai form. 

1/15 



Ill Ul 

z Z ^ 

O O T O « 



G1D 







L ft 

CIS 






3 8 






•n: 


Ch 




K 


5J" 

2 


^1 


~ 




V 




o 


Ct 


T 


■5 



134 



Felspar is the most abundant constituent with plagiudaso generally in 
PXCe&j ol uucroelinc. The plagioclase. which i* subhcdral in form and ulbite 
in composition, shows considerable alteration in parts and contains many inclu- 
sions notably large flakes o£ musoovite. Mieroclmc also has subhedral form 
ar.d shows cross-hatching which is well developed in some crystals and poorly 
developed if) others. Quartz, which is abundant, shows unclidose extinction, 
much cracking and some granulation, 

Museo\ile is die dominant mica present with biotite only in subsidiarv 
amounts and showing some chloritization. The accessory minerals arc zircon, 
apatite, magnetite and tourmaline. 

The chemical analysis of this rock is given in Table I, column 1, and a 
comparison wilh the composition of the associated granites to the south of 
Ponlainaeea (Table 1. columns 7 and 8) shows the marked similarity which 
exists. This similarity is further borne out by the niineralogieai composition 
and lt<xtun*. J-eslic and White ( op. cit. ) have indicated that these rocks rorupam 
rfesely with the rdaskites of Johannsen (1932). 



in, the c;hanite tillitk 

A, FikLD OOGOriUKNCE 

(i) OvvrlyiHg the Eastern Paolamacca Pluton (Fig. 2).— Kesting direetlv 
ou the granite of the Eastern Poolarnacca Pluton is a rock composed domin 
antly oi granite boulders which appear to be petrographically identical with 
the granite on which they rest This rock was described as "granite waste" by 
Andrews (op.cif,, p. 66), but here is termed granite tiilite as it is at the base 
of a series of sediments of glacial origin (Mawxon, 1912), which foim the 
lowest members of the Torrowangee Series in this area. The granite tiilite 
appears, in parts, to rest in hollows in (be old erosion surface? although it 
seems likely that the whole granite mass was covered by this rock tvpe." No 
stratification is visible, this being in marked contrast with the higher pails of 
the series with its interbedded siltstooes, quart?, ites, marbles and tillites { Plate 
1. Figs. 1 and 2). IIowever 3 the boundary between granite and granite tiilite 
can be marked with precision. 

On the western slope of the low lull a quarter of a mile W.N.W. of Poola- 
rnacca H.S., the outcrops of granite tiilite look like granite outcrops. They ai'c 
yellow-brown in colour and form low knobs, with smooth, curved surfaces which 
weather by exfoliation (Plate 1, Fig. 1). Nearby the granite tiilite crops out 
as tors and rounded blocks (Plate L Fig. 2) ? which also weather by exfolia- 
tion. When the hardened surface of a tor is broken, the inside is often seen 
to be very severely weathered. In many parts the granite tiilite is almost in- 
distinguishable from the granite on the weathered face, although it sometimes 
bus the appearance of a granite which has been severely fractnrcd. Only on 
I ho lieshly broken surface is the fragmental sedimentary nature clearly seen. 

There is no apparent topographic feaHur along (he granite-granite tilUtc 
unconformity and both rocks weather in exactly die same way. The uncon- 
formity eau bo mapped through tors which consist or both rook types and 
across a smooth, gontU curved, exfoliate surface. 

The granite tiilite resting on the granitic mass in the banks oF Campbell's 
Qtf&k is light grey in colour and consists of light grey granite boulders, gener- 
ally 1-3 inches across, in a slightly darker grev matrix. The unconformity 
surface is not planaf but undulating. 

fii) Overlying the Western Poolatnarcu Pluton (Fig. 3).— The rock directly 
overlying the Western Ponlamaoea Pluton along its north-western boundary is 
a granite tiilite composed of large, angular and sub-angular bloeks of light grey 

m 



granite, up Iti IS inches across, sfet in a darker grey quartzo-felspathic matrix 
(Plate 1, Fig. i). The unconformable junction dips north* westward at appro*!- 
mate!) 30 *. but the granite tillite shows no apparent signs of stratification, A 
lens of quarlviose grit Is stratigniphieully above the granite tillite for the mast 
part, and thero is a straightforward upward succession from unstratified granite 
til lite if j bedded (including current bedded) grit siltstone and Hllitc. Tlib> 
tillite is similar to that described by Vlawson (J912) and others in the Torro- 
wangee Scries of other parts of the Harrier Ranges, This suggests that the granite 
filjjte resulted from the action of local land ice, whereas the stratification in 
the beds above suggests deposition under water. This latter is coniinncd Uv 
the presence of current bedding in the grits. 



->^>^^%s^\ 



no * 




Fig. 3.- Geological map ot the Western Poolamueca Plutoo and surrounding 

uro;u 

Where roof pendants or large xenoliths of Willyama scliist form the aueknl 
erusiou surface, the overlying rock is crowded with schist boulders, This "schist 
tillite" changes quickly to granite tillite, when the underlying schist-granite. 
contact is passed over, although there is usually a gradational rock type in 
which both granite and schist boulders are present. 

Granite tillite also crops out in parts along the south-western margin of ihe 
pluron. The granite boulders are generally only %l inch across and the out- 
crops are not large because of a N.W-S.E. vertical fault which throws the granite 
and schist of the Willyama against the folded Torrowangcc tillites, siltstones 
and tiuartzites (Fig. 3), 

(ill) In Arena Adjacent to Poolauuurn, — The occurrence of granite tillite 
overlying the granite of the Brewery Creek Pluton has been described by 
Leslie and White (op.cit). Rocks resembling granite tillite have also been 
seen next to the granite of the Northern foolamacca Pluton and next to the 
I'aps C.ranite a mile and a half west of Thompson's Tank (Fig. 1), but further 
detailed investigations in these areas arc required- 
lanes of large granite boulders are found in parts of the tillite south of 
foolamacca, The superficial appearance of a granite dyke is given, especially 



i*ft 



whete the tillih' matrix in juxirK expose 
sedimentary oriuiiK 



but detailed investigation reveab their 



li. I'lto'Icjupjiv and Chemical CoAimsmoN 

The granite ti\\itc consists ol sub-angular and sani-rouuded granite boulders 
Ot various sizes in a matrix (if mineral grains derived from the gMflite (Fig. 4b). 
The piwurttutl af rock fragments to maMiv varies considerably I ro»n place tn 
place, in parts they make up as much as 85 per cent, of Lit*- rock, but in othcj 
paatfi the proportion is much lower (Plate 1, Fig. 4). The texture of the granite 
ui die boulders is comparable with that of the granite of tlv- Eastern and 
Western Ponlamoeea Phitons; the same- is the ease with the mineral propeations, 
■ ^impositions and inclusions. 

Ol the individual grains, which are angular and show no trace of crystal 
lorui, quart/ is most abundant. It shows marked uwlulose extinction and con- 
siderable cracking as does the quartz in the granite. Fragments ol microcline 
and pla.^roelase (filiate) are piesenl with the latter containing; prominent mus- 
covfte inclusions. DeUital mus-oovile Hakes, some of which arebent, are piesent 
The fine-grained matrix consists of fragments of quartz, albite, micrncline mus- 
covite aud biorite as welt as /ireon, apatite and lonrmnhne, Authigenie sencite 
is also common in the matrix. 




Iuk. i— (a) Granite x7. (b) Cnmito tiffite x7. (e) Tillftc with granite and granite gnc*s 
boulders x 1, Tticytf three rock* occur in tlio area shown in Fig. 2. 

A chemical analysis of granite liltife Iftttl Poolamacca M.S. is given in Tabic 
1, column 2. A comparison of this analysis" with thfiU of the granite of the 
Eastern Poolumaccn Plutoit and with other granites iu adjacent areas (see T^ble 
I) indicates the remarkable similarity in chemical composition of this frag- 
mental rock, and tbe rock from which it was derived. However, the silica 
and alkali proportions in particular indicate that the inarm is slightly richer 
in rjuart/ and pooler in felspar and nmscovite compared with the parent granite. 

IV. THF, CRANITE GNKISS 
A. Kiet-d ( )rc:onnr\cE 

'This rnck type, which is of e.\-ten$ive outcrop but of variable com- 
position and texture in the Jiarrier Ranges (Andrews op.cit,, King and Thom- 



son op.cit.) 7 crops out in the eastern part of the Poolamacca irilior. Good 
outcrops occur on the low hill a quarter of a mile W.N.W. of Poolamacca H.S. 
and to the north in the large bow in Campbell's Creek (Fig. 2), The rock 
is light coloured, quartzo-felspathic and often yellow-brown on the weathered 
surface. Unlike the granite, it tends to break into angular blocks. Hiotite flakes. 



tabu: i 



SiO, 73-3 

Ti0 4 (Mft 

A!,O a 1-1-4 

FeO U-G6 

MnO 0-01 

MgO 0-1 1 

(JaO 0-47 

Xa..O 4-0 

K 2 6-1 

H 3 4- j 0-67 

H s O 

CO, 

s 

i _ 

TOTAL 100 "1 



70-9 
0-14 

ljf-4 
0-53 
I -'(I 
0-02 
0-54 
-H 
2-H 
4-7 
0-57 



- 1 B 



100- 1 



0-40 

rvo 

0-. r >l 

2-9 

0-23 

1-2 

73 

4-2 

;W 

0.4S 



14 



100-3 



0--J4 
14-1 
M 

0-06 

0-89 

U-51 

4-9 

2-7 



0-15 



100-3 



o-:m 
11". 
l-l 

1-5 

0-06 

Q-M 

0-49 

;V:i 

2-1 

0*76 



0-14 



100-2 



70-0 
flf.-tftf 

llMi 
0-01 
3-1 
0-06 

3 4) 

■-t-o 



OiJ 
1>4 
78 

07 
79 
01 



1-4 


4-:)5 


M 


4-17 


10 


0-77 1 


— 


0-2-1 


1-ti* 


— 


0-12 


0-11 


— 


02 




0-01 


00 -. r > 


100-07 



8 

74-07 
0-19 

14 77 
0-">l 
0-4(. 
0-01 
OK. 
'JM 

3-m 

4-43 

0-70 
0-16 

0-10 

0-03 
0-03 



100-01 



* From loss on ignition. 

1- Granite; 600 yards WAAV. of Poolamacca H.S., Barrier Ranges, N.SAV. Analyst: V). R. Bowes. 

2. Granite tillile; 600 yards VV.NAV, of Poolamacca H.S,, Barrier Ranges, N.SAV, Analysl: 
D, R. Bowes. 

:\. Granite gneiss; 400 yards VV.NAV. of Poolamacca H.S., Barrier Ranges, N.SAY. Analyst: 
D. R, Bowes. 

4. Granite gneiss boulder in granite gneiss tillite; 400 \ards W.N.W. of Poolamacca U.S., Barrier 
Raru-es. \ T SAV Analyst; D. R. Bowcs T 

5. Granite gneiss tillite; 100 yards W.NAV. of Poolamacca U.S., Barrier Ranges, X.SAV. Analyst-; 
If. R. Bowes. 

\l TiltiLe; ti 00 yards \\ . of J 3 oolarimrea H.S., Barrier Uan^x N.SAV. A^iaKst: D. Et. Bowes. 

7. Granite from Wookookarro Creek. 3. of Poolamacca, Barrier Ranges. X.^AV. Analyst; A.J. It. 
*White (Leslie & Winn- op, nl.) 

H. Krewery Creek Gr:onu\ l\)olanuicc:i. Barrier R;mtje,s N SAV. AtimKvI: K. H. Leslie (Leslie & 
While op. cit.] 



rarely exceeding 20 per cent, and generally making up about 10 per cent, ol the 
rock, show parallel alignment and hnpart a distinct foliation to the rock (Fig. 
3a). This internal banding is considered by King and Thomson (op. cii, ) as 
relict from original bedding alter the formation of the granite gneiss by grani- 
tizatiou of sediments. 

The granite of the Eastern Poolamacca Pluton post-dates the granite gneiss 
which it cross-cuts and intrudes, 



MS 



H. I'fTKOUtAPHV AXD CHEMICAL COMPOSITION 

The granite gneiss is a completely recrystallized rock with an average 
giain size of about 1 mm. Some of the' biotite (lakes are up to 3 mm. in thc^ir 
Iimgest direction. The rock is made up chiefly of quartz and felspar which 
.show sutured interlocking boundaries. Quartz, the most abundant mineral, 
shows cracking, while both plagioclase (oligoelase) and microeline are present 
in considerable proportions. The majority of biotite flakes, which are rhlori- 
tiy.cd in parts, show alignment (Fig, 5a) and some museovitc flakes are asso- 
ciated with the biotite. Jn parts the rock is putchy with some, areas more quartz - 
or felspar-rich than others. Sphene, zircon and magnetite are accessory minerals. 

A chemical analysis of granite gneiss from near roolamaoea IIS. and an 
analysis of a granite gneiss boulder in the overlying beds are giver* in Table 
L columns 3 and 4. The analyses indicate the essentially granitic composition 
of these rocks. 

V Tllli GRANITE GNEISS TILTJTE 
A. FutLD Ocwiwence 

r ^K^u* Poa,(Wiacca && ( Fi §- 2).— Besting directly on the granite gneiss 
of the Willyama Inher is a rock composed essentially of angular boulders of 
granite gneiss which appear Lo be petrographicaUy identical with the under- 
lying rock. This fragmental sedimentary rock is similar in field occurrence tu 
that br the granite tillitc and it bears die same relationship to the granite uneiss 
as the gxatlife tfllife does to the granite. Jt is thus termed a granite gneiss tillile. 
Exposures of this rock crop out on the eastern slopes, the Ion, and the 
western slopes ol th- low hill a quarter of a mile W.N.W. of Poolamaeca H.S. 
The boundary between the granite gneiss tillite and the underlying granite 
gneiss is sharp and clearly discernible. Stratification is not obvious in the 
rock itself, which has the appearance of being a mass of granite gneiss detritus. 
The angular shape of the boulders and the random orientation of the foliation 
planes fu Hie various fragments emphasize the fragmental nature of the rock 
(Fig, 5c). Most of the weathered surfaces arc velluwish-brown similar to Hi.it 
ol the underlying granite gneiss 

One exposure revealed a rock which contained both granite gneiss ami 
gia.ule be.uidcrs (l'ig. 4c). This was situated stndigraphicatlv above a granite 
guciss-gratiitc contact and indicated Ihc existence of a transition from granite 
gneiss tillile to granite tillile sympathetic with the change in the underlying 
parent rock. This transition appears to be a rapid one. 

(n) In Anw AtliaciM to Poolamacca.— King and Thomson (op.cit.) de- 
scribed the occurrence of granite gneiss tillite near CJairilncr\s Tank (Fig. 1), 
Mere iho Willyama lock type is a granitic angen gneiss and Ihc overlving 
basal Torrowangee rock is crowded with boulders of this rock type. 

R. rianociuruY A\*n GfttorruAL Co^rmsraoN 

Angular and sub-angular fragments of granite gneiss from tin inches 
BCKfctt down to the size of two or three crystals, make up as much us 90 per 
cent nf the rock ia some, parts, However, thev generally contribute about 
7q per cent, the remainder being a finegrained, Iragmentul matrix* (Fig. 5b). 
Ihe. mineral compositions :\v\c\ proportions and the rock texture of the boulders 
are similar to those of the underlying granite gneiss. Some of these rocks 
consist of a mass of cracked and partly disintegrated rock fragments, and in 
ilitse cases it is oiten impossible to distinguish ruck fragments from the matrix 
The mafriv consists essentially of angular fragments of quart/, oligodas*-! 
tcrocline and biotite of similar grain size to that of the parent rock. Between 
cso fragments is finer-grained detritus— quartz, oli^oclasc. microcline biotite. 



these 



l$> 



museoWtv and magnetite togodicr with axithigenic sericite Tn pa its of the 
matiix i|tiart* FragincUtS predominate, while in other ports W.spar is the domi- 
nant mineral, 

Analyses d (.1) gtflnlW gneis's oi the Willyama Complex, (2) a boulder 
from the' granite gneiss thMite. and (3) the granite gneiss tillite from which 
the boulder vV&5 taken, are set out In Table 1. culnmns & 4 and 5. The latter 
two rocks are distinctly iron stained and tins accounts lor the proportions of 
tenons* and ferric iron compared with those of the granite gneiss from the 
\\illv;nna Complex. Apart from this, the eliemieal composition of all three 
lOelcs is remarkably similar, lit particular the correspondence between I he 
boulder of granite' gneiss and the granite gneiss itseH is strikin»j «U*1 lends 
support to the postulated origin ol these coar.se tragmeulal roeU. 




I i.v 5 \:\) ComiU- gaotf* a G. th) Graiiitw ftlttittt (rtliCu a 0. /<_-) Grniiitt: gnexts tillife \ I. 
tlif-st ilir<_r mcU occur ia tho- area sWvti in b'i^. 2. 



3. 



VI. CONCLUSIONS 
The following conclusions ha\e been drawn from the present study: 
The composition of some of the basal bods of the Torrovvangcc Series -sur- 
rounding die Poolamaoea Tulier is determined to a large extent by the 
composition rtf the underlying rocks of the Willyama Complex. 
Land ice eroded granite and deposited granite tillite immediately above. 
in the same vvay granite gneiss tillite was 'deposited above granite gneiss. 
These basal bmi are of variable Ihickness and extent and show no stnm 
fieution. bnl are overlain by the normal glaoigeue sediments (tillitcs. silt- 
stones. qtmrUiles and marbles) of the. Torrowangee Series, 
The granite plutons of the area are preTonowangce in age and intrude 
the granite gneiss ol die Willyama Complex. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 
Tlic writer wishes to acknowledge research grants given by the Univer- 
sal v of Adelaide and the University "College of Swansea, aeiial photographs 
from Zinc Corporation Limited,, Broken Hill, facilities for chemical analysis 
at the Department of Geology, Imperial College of Science and Technology, 
London, and the generous hospitality of My. and Mrs. R. B. Nevins at PooJa- 
macca Head Station. 

140 




pX 



T3 Ph 



z 



o 

I 

bC 



bC 



,0) 

5 co 



-a o 
| 



i m 



bO 



Plate 1 





zl 



? E8 
I O 

3 w 



Ph 



bo 



H 4-* 






o 



bo 



Messrs. Hadclon F. King and B. P. Thomson (Zinc Corporation Limited, 
Broken Hill), Professor Sir Douglas Mawson, Dr. A. W. Kleeman and .Messrs. 
R. B. Leslie and A, J, R. White (University of Adelaide) have assisted greatly 
by helpful discussions in both the field and the laboratory. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Andrews, E. C, 1922. The Geology of the Broken Hill District, Mem. Geol. Surv. N.S.W., 8. 
Johannskn, A,, 1932. A Descriptive Petrography of the Igneous Rocks, Vol. II, University 

of Chicago Press, Chicago. 
Xing, Uaddon F., and Thomson, B. P., 1953. The Geologv of the Broken Hill District. 

Fifth Empire Mining and Metallurgical Congress Australia and New Zealand. Vol. 

I. Geology of Australian Ore Deposits. Aust Inst. Min. and Met., Melbourne. 
Leslie, B B and White, A. J. P., 1955. The grand unconformity between the Archaean 

(Willyania Complex) and the Proterozoic (Torrowangec Scries) noith of Broken 

Hill, N.S.W, Trans. Hoy. Soc, S. Aust., 78. 
Mawson; D., 1912. Geological investigations in the Broken Hill area. Mem. Bov. Soc S 

Aust., 2. 



141 



NOTES ON THE ACARINE GENUS OPHIOPTES, WITH A DESCRIPTION 

OF A NEW AUSTRALIAN SPECIES 

BYR. V. SOUTHCOTT 



Summary 

Mites of the genus Ophioptes Sambon 1928 are ectoparasites of Colubrid snakes, in whose scales 
they form pits. Three South American and one Asian species have been described hitherto. 
Ophioptes samboni n. sp. is described, parasites upon the Colubrid snake Rhynchoelaps fasciolatus 
(Giinther 1872) from north Queensland; it is nearest to O. coluber Radford 1947, from India. A key 
to the known species is provided, and the homologies of the genus are discussed. The genus is 
removed from the family Myobiidae to a new family Ophioptidae. 



NOTES ON THE ACA1UME GENUS OPHIOPTES, WITH A DESCRIPTION 
OF A NEW AUSTRALIAN SPECIES 

By R. V. Southcott 
[Read 13 Oct. 1955] 

SUMMARY 

Mites of the genus OphinpU's Sambcm 1928 are ectoparasites trf Gilubrid snakes, in 
whose sc.-ilt'S they form pits. Three- South American arid one Asian syecies have been 
described hitherto, Ophioptes samhemi n. sy. i& described, parasitic upon the Colubrid 
snake RhynrJinrlups jasciolutus (Guntber 1872) from north Qurrn-sland; it is nearest to 
O. coluber Kadiord l t Jt7 J from India. A key to the known species is provided, and the 
homologies of the genus urc discussed. The genus is removed from the. family Myobhdae to 
a new family Ophioptidoe. 

INTRODUCTION 

In 1928 Sambon described Ophloptes parkeri as a new genus and species 
of mite, parasitic upon the banded Colubrid snake Erytlirolamprus acsculupii 
(L.), from Ruenavista, Bolivia. This mite caused pits in the scales of the host. 
Sambon described two stages in the life history of the mite, and placed it in 
the family Cheyletidae, where it occupied an anomalous position. Sambon 
commented, however, upon certain characters more suggestive of affinities with 
the Sarcoptiformes than with the Prostigmata of the Trombidifonnes, Sambon 
added a further note about further specimens of the genus received at the time 
of goftlg to press, and allotted some of these to a further species O. outltnnansi 
Sambon 1928, which he characterized briefly, but without figures. Although 
he promised to deserihe these further mites in a subsequent paper On the 
"Ophidian Mites," apparently tins intention was not realized by tire time of his 
death in August 1931. 

In 1933, Ewing described a further species — & tjopintlis Kwing IDg$ from 
the Colubrid snake Erpvtoctnjus cttrinatus (L. ), from British Guiana, Like 
Sambon's species, it also produced pits in the scales of i!s host. 

In 1947, Radford described a further species, O. colulter, from the "copper- 
headed rat-snake (Coluhcr radiatm Sehlegelf from Imphal, Ylauipur State, 
India. As with the preceding authors, he allotted the genus to the family 
Cheyletidae. Thus there has been a total of four species described for 
Oph'iopfasj three from South America, and one from the mainland of Asia. 

in the present paper a new species of the genus — O. mmhotii n.sp- — is 
described, an ectoparasite upon Ihe banded Colubrid Rliynchotiupx fa.sciolutu.s 
(Cunther 1872) from north Queensland. The opportunity is taken of studying 
tire affinities of the genus, 

Oemae.iF.s samkom n . sp. 

Description of Adult (Figs. 1-:1 5, 7; Fig. 1 and the description are- from 
specimen ACC193A; Fig. 2 is from specimen ACC103B; a third specimen, 
ACC193C\ has also been complied): Body ellipsoidal, soft, transverse; width 
48% length 34§fi ( " -125/1 to front of capilnlnm). Integument soft, thin, not- 
striated. Eves absent. Dorsum with an anterior group of fine stiff lanceolate 
spiniform setae in its anterior half, setae 10-28,* long. A further group of four 
similar setae, smaller. 14-20/* long, is situated at the posterior pole of the dorsum. 
All these dorsal setae arc slightly "shouldered," as occurs in e.g. the dorsal setae 
of Sarcoptrs seahieL 

1-1-2 



The venter is strengthened by the epimera of the coxae. To each of the 
first three coxal areas there is £ single spiniform seta, ]6-20/». long; a similar 
pair 16/* long to the sternal area. There are two pairs of stout nautilus-like 
bosses or pegs, with a series of curved grooves* on the epimera of the second 
pair of coxae, 14k long by 10> wide (Figs. 2, 5) (nautalae). The anterior pair 
is situated immediately posterior to the pair of sternal setae. These "nautalae" 
resemble somewhat the dorsal "notothoracie spines" of e.g. Sarcoptex scabici 
(Fig. 6); the latter arc, however, without the series of grooving*, and articulate 
with an extensive seta base, 

The genitalia cannot be seen in much detail, but in all specimens a pair 
of labia meet in an inverted Y, immediately in front of the anus. No sign of 
the dorsal penis described by Sambon in O. parkeri can be found. Around the 
anogenital area is a series of short spiniform setae, arranged as figured, 12-18/* 
long. 




Stiuntcorr 



Fig. I t -Of)luoplcs tiamhoni n. sp., dorsal view, entire (specimen ACC 193A) 



The legs are short and stout, with a weak integument, but are strengthened 
internally by ehitinous sheets, which arc much thicker than the integument. 
Each leg consists of six segments — coxa, trochanter, femur s genu, tibia, tarsus. 
The coxae are not clearly demarcated on the venter. The chaetotaxy of the 
legs is as follows; 

Leg T: Trochanter with one short curved spiniform seta 20//, long, on its 
ventral aspect. The femur has two long tapering setae, the anterodorsal the 
stouter, pointed, faintly ciliated with actuate ciliation, 72/* long, the postero- 
veutral simple, whip-like. 60//. long. Genu with a long, simple, whip-like seta 
19G> long, situated dorsally: ventrally a short spiniform seta 20//. long, with a 

143 



few barbs; anteriorly a spiniform seta 1S/a long. Tibia dorsally with a spiniform 
seta with adnate eiliation.s, i5fi long; ventrally with a blunted peg with one or 
two adnate ciliatlous. tSfi. long by p/i wide, and alongside tin's peg a spiniform 
seta widi adrmtc ciliations r 30>. long. Tarsus dorsally with two rows of setae, 
a proximal and a distal; the proximal row of two setae — a striate expanded 
spindle-like peg 9 ( u long by 4/a wide (a modified solenidion or solcnoidal seta- 
striate seta), situated anteriorly, and a spiniform seta 85jc long, slightly bent at 
the tip (tin's seta is duplicated on the left side): the distal dorsal row over- 
hanging the sneker or eanmele, two of tiiern falciform {' l L-shaped v ) : with a 
single faint dorsal adnate cilia tion. each lfyi long; the other two are conjugate,. 
one striate. 20;* long, and posteriorly a smaller spiniform seta, 14/t long (this 
latter is duplicated on the left side). Ventrally a row of four setae, all spiniform. 
the anterior 3fyi, long, (hen two similar, each U/t long, then one curved. 15/' long. 



4<C 




zocr ' 



,M>w*r»uoi i' 



Jrtge. 2-0.— Fi^'s 2-3 Opftiofjtv.s .y/jiuhoni n, sp,; Kig. -, ventral vunv, entire (speeuuot AClt' 
in.!iB) : to scale <>u left: Im>t. o, apical tarsal seta of palp- l-'iu. I. apical t.ir.sal St t;\ ol 
palp l)i O coluber KatUWd (from a puratvpe >. Fig. 5, co\al N}Jiije or nuutala nf (V 
Mtnthoni ie sp. I ; ig. 6. luteTaf dorsal setfl ol nu adult fciiiale SarcojiU-s vcttbici iDeCeei 

r<7tt), (Kitfy. 3-0 to *cale shown.) 

f .eg II: Trochanter with a similar (as in 1) seta ventrally. 20/a long. Femur 
I! as in Leg I, with anterodorsal seta SO/*, lony, posteroveutral 80//, long. Genu 
as in I, with dorsal spirnfcrm seta 2o5 ( u kmu ; ventral spiniform seta 18/* Jong. 
Tibia: dorsal spiniform seta with lightly barbed filiations, seta 60/ : < long: ven- 
trally a thick peg Efyi long by 5p wide, with adnate ciliations, and a spinilonu 
seta with a few ciliations. 24m, long. Tarsus: .setae a.s in Leg I, 

Leg III: Trochanter dorsally with a long spiniform seta with faint adnate 
eilmlinm, S5,u long; ventrally a spiniform seta 21/; long. Femur and genu nude. 
Tibia dorsally with a long spiniform seta with admire ciliations, 95/* long; vere 
(rally a stont peg-like seta with adnate ciliations. tapering slightly, a little- 
blunted, 21/t long by 5/a wide. Tarsus III dorsally with two long spiniform 
setae, curved, tapering and finally becoming filiform, IOO/a long. There are no 

144 



soK noidal (striate) setae, but otherwise the chaetotaxy is the same as in lar>i 
I and II. There are two L-shapod (falcitoim) setae, and one short spine, 

teg IV: Chaetotaxy as in Leg 111, the only difference being that the dorsal 
tibia! seta is long, tapering, simple 165,u long. 

The tarsus of each leg is provided apieally with a peculiar modified erm 
pudium. but is without lateral claws. The etnpodium ("difurcula*") 1% as 
described in other species of the genus — a fine dichotonious fork gives rise to 
a further similar structure at its forking. The pitchfork-like branches are 
delicately fringed, and taper gracefully to fine points. Each tarsus has a large 
cup-shaped sucker, as figured, typically Sarcoplnid in appearance, i'vcsuiu- 
ably the ernpodium functions as a tactile organ, and aids th- sucker ( caruncle) 
below it. 

The capitulum is stout, compact and broad There has been considerable 
simplification of its structure, so that the interpretation of its segmentation is 
difficult. As in the leg,, the segments of the palpi ure strengthened internally 
by chitinnus bands, An interpretation of the segmentation of ihu palpi is 
offered in Figure 7. On the ventral surface of the basis capjtuli is a pair of 
hri>tles, 14/a .long, taken as the hypostomal setae. A strong external spine is 
present at die base of the palp laterally, 17/a long; this is 'interpreted as the 
h-inoral seta. A stout, blunt process, with adnate dilations, lfy, long, placed 
anterolateral!}' ifpcm the palp, is interpreted as the lateral tibial seta. A similar 
seta, slightlv < urved. 20> long, placed dorsally toward tire tip of the palp is 
considered as the dorsal tibial seta (or possibly the genual seta). The palpal 
genu and tibia ore fused to a genotibia; at the apex of this there is a normal. 
slender bifurcate tibial claw, with the dorsal prong over-reaehing the ventral. 
I be palpal tarsus is also somewhat modified. Apieally it bears a seta modified 
to a broad four-toothed process, roughly in the shape of a hnman foot, Ify. 
long by 10> wide at its widest part (somewhat anteriorly ) (see Fig. ■'!). The 
"toes" are stout and pointed, and point anteriorly and slightly upwards; the 
medialiiiesf toe. like the hallux, extends furthest forwards. The palpal rarsuv 
carries also two stout spmifomi setae, the lateral 11/x long, the medial 20/* long. 

The chelieerae are styliform, and extend back within the body of the cani- 
tulum to form aft elbow, and then recurve forwards to a point in about the 
middle of the substance of the capitulum. 

Locality. Three specimens ( ACCJ9rtA, B.C) parasitic upon a banded Colu- 
briU snake ( Rhynchoclaps fuxciolatus (Gunther 1872)) (identified by E. W. 
Jensen), collected in the vicinity of Wondecla, North Queensland, received 
Sept, 1943, apparently collected a few months before, name of collector un- 
known (snake preserved in alcohol in the Regimental Aid Post of the 2nd/8th 
Australian Infantry Battalion). 

The species is numed in honour of L. W. Sambon, 1 866-1031, who originally 
described the genus, and who was a noted epidemiologist. 

The Syvtrmatic Position of Ophioples sambnuf n.,vu. 
The following key is ollered for the separation of the five spccte.\ now 
allotted to the genus (based on the keys of Sambon, EwTrtg and Kadfurd, the 
examination of (), 'tnmhonl and a paralype of O. coluber) . 

A Each tarsal sucker consisting of two divergent hollow puds 

O. oudemansi vSamhon 192S 
A A Each tarsns with a cup-shaped sucker (caruncle). 

B On lJ)H dorsum, above legs 2, :3. and 4, situated peripherally, there is 

a Ionic spinjform seta. Lateral tibial palpal seta elavate , . 

O, parkcri Sambnu 1928 
IIB No long setae laterally on the dorsum. Lateral tibial palpal .seta 
tapering, 

145 



C The anteromedian group or dorsal setae large and conspicuous; 

dorsal body setae near eapitulum as long as the palpi 

O. iropicaiis Ewiug 1933 
CC Anteromedian group of dorsal setae shorter. 

D A posterior dorsal group of 4 setae present. Solenoidal 
setae on tarsus 1 and 11 form spindle-shaped pegs. The 
foot-like seta at the apex of the palpal tarsus with 4 'Hoes* 

( Fig. 3 ) O. samboni n. sp. 

DO Posterior dorsal group of S setae present (i.e. anus at pos 
lerior pole of hody). Solenoidal setae on tarsus I and II 
form conical pegs. The foot-like seta on the palpal tarsus 
with three distinct "toes"' (Fig. 4) ... .0. coluber Radford 



a.ptct*l 






**M ftW^i 



""/a*,,./^ 




t'hc \ cap;/*/, 



Fi£. 7— Su^jastou' mtc-rpreMUmi of die structure of the 
monthparts in Ophioptes. 

Ophioptes samboni n. sp. is considered closest to its nearest known neigh- 
bour geographically. O. coluber Radford, from Imphal, Manipur State, India. 
It is. however, not possible to make more complete comparisons with the other 
species. Furthermore, as none of the developmental stages of O. samboni were 
available, only the adult stages have been considered in this paper. In the adult 
of O. purkvrU apart from a reference to the anus, which is depicted in stipple, 
along with the anal setae, no figure or description of the ventral surface was 
offered by Sambon. Santbou mentioned the presence of cone-shaped spines 
(nautalae) upon the venter of O. oudcmiwsu and it is inferred that these are 
not present in O. parkt ri. Tins latter would be. surprising, as they have mow 
been observed in each of the other species of the genus. It may also be well 
to mention here thai what are called the coxa, trochanter, femur and tibia in 
the legs by Radford should properly be called trochanter, femur, genu and tibia. 
Although die actual term employed is arguable in the cases of the genu and 
tibia, this is not the case with the more proximal leg segments. The eoxn is not 
a movable segment; Radford lias missed the weakly defined covae on the body. 
and called the first movable segment (trochanter) the coxa. Radford also states 
I hat the dorsum of O. parked bears long spines above legs i-iii; reference to 
Sambon's figure shows that this should read ii-iv. 

Sambon, described a dorsal genital orifice with a penis in his type adult 
specimen of O. parkcrL and took his specimen (^specimens) as male. This 
structure has not been observed subsequently in the genus by either liwing, 
Radford or myself- and if the validity of Sambon's observations be accepted. 
all the specimens that have been described since have been females. It is not 
at present possible, therefore, to elucidate intntspeeifie sexual morphological 

11(5 



differences- However, Radford claims that the female sexual orifice is jitesen/ 
in the anterior part of the dorsum in O. coluber, in the position in fact described 
by Sambon for the male sexual orifice. I have examined carefully a paxutype 
specimen of O. coluber, in the collection of the South Australian Museum, and 
have been unable to find any I race of an aperture in the position described by 
Radford, nor is there one in any of the three specimens of O. samboni. The 
iienitalia external! \ in this paiatype of (). coluber arc in fact as described above 
in O. samboni, but the anus is at the posterior pole of the body. Ewiug ( 1933). 
in his account of (he maturer ins tars of 0, {topicnti$ 3 stated "Anns a longitudinal 
slit, in lYtnt of which is a bilobed fold, and in front of this fold a transverse 
selerobV.ed lip/' ftftri figures tlie perineum accordingly; this, with minor modi- 
fieation. agrees with the description and figure submitted here foi O. samboni. 
II U conceivable that Radford had a male specimen before him, and not a female 
. - he had postulated: however, the clarification of this problem must be left 
Co the future. 

THE AFFINITIES OF Till!: GENUS OFUIOPrES 

Sambon (1928) remarked that "At first sight, this scale-inhabiting acarian 
•m^gested some new kind o( Sarcoptoid mite to ho placed between (he Sar- 
eoptidae > , > and the Amilgesidae . . . but notwithstanding the presence of 
<:oit\picuous cup-shaped suckers on (the) tarsi, the microscope at once revealed 
unmistakable Cheyletid characters." The structure of the body and legs show con- 
siderable resemblance lo that of (he SarcopMf'ortnes, There is, as Sambon re- 
marked, a large sucker or caruncle to each tarsus; and, as 1 occurs m many of the 
Kuicoptiformes, therw are no lateral claws to the empodium. The coxae are 
weak, and arc represented by epimera. There arc, however, no genital or 
,K.lanal suckers. The mouthparts, although highly modified, are in the character 
ol the Trombidiforrnes. The thclicerae arc styliform, and the palpi are modi- 
fied for clinging. Baker and Wharton (1952), in their textbook of acarology, 
removed the genus to tile family Myobiidae, but commented that it occupier] a 
seinewhat intermediate position between the two families. In the M^biidae, 
however, the forelegs typically are modified to an appendage, for grasping the 
hairs of the mammalian host; also the tarsus of the legs carries one W two con- 
spicuous claws, and there is no sucker (caruncle). The reduction of the palpi, 
the lack of tarsal claws to the legs, and the reduction of the cov-u\ likewise 
separate Ophwptc.s from the Cheyletidae. 

It is apparent that by the standards adopted for classification within the 
Tromhidiforrnc-s. that the genus Ophinptes is deserving of family status at least 
and is therefore allotted to the family Opliioptidao n. rani,, within the Prostig- 
mata of the Trumbidi formes. 

OpHiorxiUAE u. fain. 

Definition: External parasites of Cnluhrid snakes, producing typically pits 
in the scales of the host Chelicerac styh'foim. Palpi reduced, with a fused 
geootihia. Coxae of lei^s Teducec] to epimera. Developmental stages unknown, 
apart from a pre-adult pupal starve. With a single genus, Ophiaptos Samhou 
JU2iS, at present known. 

REFERENCES 

B.VKzn, K. W., and YViiahtun; C W.> 1952 An TiifTtxIitchVm to Acarolugv. Tht> Maii'.ttilltin 

Company,, New York. Pp. l-4o5 rind \m. 

Evino, H. E., 1933. A New Pit flBorlurfsfflg Mite Efotp the Scale* of u South Arncncci 
Snake, J. RtKWrW^ W* (JV'i 53-oft 

FUpfoht>, C, IX, IU47. Parasitic Mites from SnnLv-s oftrl Rrwlrnl* (Aeaiiiiu; Cheyleu\liK\ 
Listropliorirlue attfl I'.nrlnplktar), Ptoc. Ztiol. Sue. 117 (1): 228-240. 

Samiion. L. \V. t 1928. Ophioptvs parked. A New SpeHe* ani.l 'C.iui? of Clu.'yletkl fu! mint- 
ing the Scales of UtTt'lcy, Aim, Trop. Moth & Parnsit:>l. 22 (I); 137-142. 

It? 



NOTES ON THE YOUNGER GLACIAL REMNANTS OF NORTHERN 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

byL. W. Parkin 



Summary 

The distribution of undoubted glacial erratics lying upon the Cretaceous marine sediments of the 
central part of South Australia has intrigued many geologists since they were first noted by H. Y. L. 
Brown in 1894. The erratics which consist of a variety of sedimentary and igneous rocks have been 
observed particularly in the area from Marree west and south-west to the vicinity of Stuarts Range 
opal fields and south to McDouall Peak-in fact, along the south-westerly margin of the Cretaceous 
marine deposits. 

Many have made the natural assumption that these boulders have been distributed by floating ice in 
late Cretaceous times though others object that there is no evidence of conditions suitable for 
glaciation at that time, that on the contrary the period was one of general warmth, with tropical 
conditions prevailing. 

Recent observations made while carrying out detailed geological surveys in the Peake and Denison 
Ranges have led the present writer to review the literature on this interesting problem and to present 
additional evidence suggesting the probable means by which the erratics acquired then* present 
distribution. 



NOTES ON THE YOUNGER GLACIAL REMNANTS OF NORTHERN 

SOUTH AUSTRALIA* 

By L. W. PAiucixt 
[Read 10 Nov. 1955] 

INTRODUCTION 

The distribution of undoubted glacial erratics lying upon the Cretaceous 
marine sediments of the central part of South Australia has intrigued many 
geologists since they were first noted by II. Y. L. Brown in 1894. The erratics 
which consist of a variety of sedimentary and igneous rocks have been ob- 
served particularly in the area from Murree west and south-west to the vicinity 
of Stuarts Range opal fields and south to McDonall Peak— in fact, along the 
south-westerly margin of the Cretaceous marine deposits. 

Many have made the natural assumption that these boulders have been 
distributed by floating ice in late Cretaceous times though others object that 
there is no evidence of conditions suitable for glaeiation at that time, that on 
the contrary the period was one of general warmth, with tropical conditions 
prevailing. 

Recent observations made while carrying out detailed geological surveys 
in the Peake and Denison Ranges have led the present writer to review the 
literature on this interesting problem and to present additional evidence suggest- 
ing the probable means by which the erratics acquired their present distri- 
bution. 

PREVIOUS INVESTIGATIONS 

El. V. L. Brown (1S94) makes first reference to the occurrence of glaciated 
boulders observed during a geological expedition in the area between Ml. 
Paisley and Strangways Springs. He noted walerworn boulders of consider- 
able size composed of quartzite, sandstone and quartz felspar porphyry, the 
latter being particularly common, and suggested that us the nearest source of 
this rock is the Gawler Ranges, the material came to its present position by 
drift ice from the south. 

Prown returns to the suhjeet later (1898) where he records the occurrence 
of erratics near Mt. Kba, and again (1902) when he notes them near William 
Oeek and Anna Creek, Again during a trip west from Stuarts Creek Station 
(1905) erratics are recc.rded in plenty. In this latter publication he draws atten- 
tion to a stray granite pebble encountered in the Lake Phillipson bore at ;< 
depth of 3,100 feet embedded in shales of pre-Jurassie age and suggests therc- 
Icre that the action of ice is indicated in this earlier period. 

Edgworth David (1906') reviews the evidence presented by Rrown arid 
suggests the possibility that the erratics could be derived by reworking ol 
older tflaeigenes such as those already recognised at Crown Point in Centra! 
Australia. The subject was by this time quite controversial, with Howchin 
(quoted by David op, n't) also favouring a rc-distributiem of older glacial 
material, probably of Sturtian age which was known to outcrop near Marree. 
David later changed his views and contended strongly (1923) that the glacia- 

* Published b> permission of the Director of Mines. 
I Get)1i)**k-al Suave)- or South Australia, 

14S 



turn was probably upper Cretaceous — his co-author (Howrhm) perhaps dis- 
senting. 

R. L. Jack (1915) records the occurrence of Sturtian tillite near Alt. 
Chandler west of the Alberga River — the most norlheily occurrence of this 
formation then known — and again draws attention to the presence of super- 
ficial erratics In I ho area west or the Peake and Dcnison Ranges near Lake 
Couway, six miles west of Warrina. Jack is here of the opinion that only Creta- 
ceous drift ice can explain tlie phenomenon, a point of view winch he main- 
tains (1991) fallowing geological traverses to the north and north- west of 
Turcuola. In this publication he records blue marine Cretaceous shales con- 
taining erraMes, with diminution in size and frequency from south to north cor- 
responding with a drift ioe movement in that direction. He records that erratic); 
are frequently found on top of and adjacent to the low outcrops of basement 
gneiss, and m paiticular refers to Mt. Woods, elevation about 100 feet nf 
gnelssic rock, with erratics distributed about its base but not on the upper 
slopes, Ho figures a map showing the distribution of erratics which are par- 
ticularly common in the McDouall Peak-Coober Tody area, L. Keith Ward 
(1925) also features q map showing that the erratics iie between the limits of 
upper and lower Cretaceous sediments as mapped in the area west of Vlarree 
and north of the Transcontinental railway. From observations made near Dal- 
housic Mound Springs to the north of Oochindatta, he places glaeiation as late 
as Upper Cretaceous. He reviews evidence from other parts of the World for 
a precedent and finally contends (hat glaeiation of this age is a permissible 
deduction, 

Wrjolnou^h and David (1926) contributed a new piece of evidence follow- 
ing a visit to Moolawatana near the north-east extremity of the Flinders Ranges* 
where they observed erratics associated with Cretaceous marine fossils in a dis- 
sected creek bank adjacent to the ranges; While admitting that the association 
is not here conclusive, in that the fossiliferous material occurs as fragmenlal 
boulders not in sifu, the authors nevertheless contend that the circumstantial 
evidence is particularly strung. This observation when allied to his previous 
vinvs led David to consider the ease for Cretaceous glaeinfion as established 
and it so appears in his final memoir (1950), <c The Oology of the Common- 
wealth of viustralin." 

Hovvchiu (192S) critically reviews all the evidence and contests the view 
that glacial conditions could have existed m Cretaceous times. He points out 
that a large part of the continent was below sea level, the sea itXatl being «n 
extensive pufi of the tropical ocean. He is unable to agree that any highlands 
(at sufficient altitude could have existed to provide snowKelds or that if they 
did csist. drift ice could have survived to distribute boulders so widely. He 
suggests that it is more likely that reworking of Sturtian or Permian till* has 
provided the material now under question, 

Howchin in this same publication deals with the Moolawatana evidence 
and is happy to dismiss it as an outwash from the nearby Sturtian tilUte, a view 
which accords with the must recent observations {G. I). Wondard, JQ5j). 

While reviewing die opinion of previous observers on this problem, it is 
pertinent to include reference to the evidence of younger glaeiation established 
in mtu beyond controversy. Mention has already been made of the Crown Point 
occurrence described finally by David and Howchin (1923) and which has 
been correlated to the satisfaction of all with the widespread glaeiation of the 
Australian continent in the late Palaeozoic (Permian). The Lake Philhpsnn 
bore has also provided evidence which, there is no reason tu doubt, indicates 
glacial action of the same period, and similarly a diamond drill hole near Anna 
Creek railway siding produced evidence of pre-Jurassic glaciatRm in the form 
of a perfectly soled pebble at a depth of 800 feet. 

bit) 



BECENT FIELD EVIDENCE 

During regional geological mapping in the area between William Creek 
ttfttl Oodiiudattu by the Geological Survey of South Australia, glaciation \i*As 
iceordcdin several areas which are described by rayju*r (1^55) am) illustrated 
by the published Geological Survey Standard 1-mile Atlas sheets Algebuckina, 
Milpinna, Conway, Unibiuu Boorthauna, Cadlareena, and Anna- 

Shu'thm tillito is well represented on the Doorthuniia and Cadlareena sheets. 
bill lines not appear in outcrop north of latitude Sfi q 10', Tins 001 urrence m 
Shut K4ii tillilc has not previously been recorded. 

Font miles north of Warrina Siding (Map Sheer Nilpinna), a small pocket 
of tjpicul unconsolidated till is exposed in ;t creek on the western foothills of the 
pre m .ambiian Ptake and Denisou Ranges where it lies directly upon prf 
Cumbrian bedrock. A feature of this till is the predominance of erratics of 
Stnrtiau tillite,. many oF which are facetted and .striated, This is clearly g con- 
tinental motainic deposit which has been preserved In situ and its similarity 
to portions of the Tceognised Permian occurrences in the southern part of 
the State is striking. 

\ similar I hough perhaps less convincing occurrence appears .six niiles 
south Of Edwards Creek siding, shown on Map Sheet Conway. In the south- 
rust comer nf the linorthanna sheet are widespread glacial erratic fields lying 
on high level pre-Cambrian bedrock which are evidently remnants of a similar 
till ■ 

Howehin ( 1928) in a footnote refers to a glaciated pebble brought in from 
near Mt. Dutton, The source of this specimen has been located in the field 
(Map Sheet Algebuckina) on the western slopes of the pre-Cambrian inlier 
of the Mt. Hutton Hange, Here there is an erratic field lying at an elevation 
above trait of the Cretaceous marine formation which to the west laps on to tlu 
inlier, Amongst the erratics scattered along the slope of the range there iv 
again a large proportion of boulders of Sturtian tillite many of which arc 
markedly striated. 

CONCLUSIONS 

The occurrence of facetted erratics of Sturtian tillite, in the younger (ill 
and amongst the remnant erratic fields some 60 miles from the nearest outcrop 
of this material (in the case of Mt. Dutton), of course, precludes the possibility 
as suggested inter alia by Howehin that the erratics may be derived directly 
by crosional reworking of the Sturtian. Further, it is very apparent that even 
now these erratics are in process of being separated from their unconsolidated 
matrix and dispersed bv periodic out wash floods upon the younger sediments. 

There is admittedly no evidence available to provide a direct correlation 
of these till occurrences wirh the Permian of Crown Point to the north and 
Hal Lett Cove to the south, but since glaeiation at tlutt time must be presumed to 
have Dwell general belween Ihese widely spaced poinls there is no necessity 
to invoke another glacial epoch to account for their presence. 

Tt is suggested iherefore lhat continental glacial debris was soalfered upon 
the pre-Cambrian basement during the Permian, many of the accumulations 
being in high level pockets. With the encroachment of the Cretaceous sea the 
material has been reworked and much incorporated into the marine deposits. 
although some ol Ihe higher level material remained beyond reach. 

The pre-Crctaceous physiography was apparenth one of very marked relief 
with mountain ranges in Ihe Marree^ Coward Springs and Mt, Dutton area nird 
mmiy isolated peaks to the south and west. For example, the bore at Lake 
I'hillipsou penetrated over 3,000 feet of sediments, whereas basement rock onl- 
ejops only 12 miles distant, Under such conditions it can readily be pictured 
ilia! Penman glacial till would be continually incorporated into the marine 
formations deposited during the Cretaceous 

I-.. 



This view, it is felt, adequately explains all the observed phenomena. Par- 
ticularly does it explain the location of the erratics around the southern and 
south-western margins of the Cretaceous area and adjacent to bedrock highs. 

A similar condition is applying even at this time along the shore of the 
St. Vincent Gulf where coastal pockets of Permian till are being brokeu up ; 
and the erratics from these are lodging in present day marine littoral deposits. 

REFERENCES 

Brown, Hi V. L (/ 1894 '"Report on the Geology of the Country from Strangw a> a Springs to 

Wilgeiui/* Annual Report, Covt, Geologist, South Aust. Pari. Taper No. 25. 
Brown, H. Y. L„ 1905, "Report on Geological Explorations in the West and North West 

of South Australia/' Sflt Aust. Govt. Pari, Paper No. 71. 
Daytu, T. W. Edcworth, 1906, International Geol. Congress, Pt. 1, pp, 463-465. 
David, T. W. Eocworth, and Howghin, W., 1923. Report of Glacial Research Committee, 

Aust. Assoc. Adv. Sc, Vol. XVI, pp. 74-94. 
David, T. W. Edgworth, 1950. Ed. W. R. Browne. "The Geology of the Commonwealth 

of Australia/' London. 
IIowchin, W., 1928. "The Building of Australia and tiro Succession of Life " Pt. II. pp. 

287-291, British Science Guild. 
Jack, R. L., 1915. "Report on the Region to the North and North-west of Tarcoola." Geol. 

Survey, Sth. Aust, Bull, 5. 
J\CK, R. L., 1931. "The Geology of the Western Portion of the Great Artesian Basin." Geol. 

Surv. Sth. Aust. Bull, 15, 
Heynkr, M. L., 1955. "The Geology of the Pcake and Denison Manges, Sth. Aust/' Geol 

Surv. Sth. Aust. Report of Investigations, Series No. 6. 
Ward, L. Keith, 1925. "Notes on the Geological Structure of Centra! Australia " Trans. 

Hoy. Soe. S. Aust., Vol. 49, pp. 61-84. 
Ward, L. KKUft 1928. "A New Edition of the Geological Map of South Australia/' Annual 

Rept. Govt. Geol. Sth. Aust., pp. 9-22 ; Fsrl Paper No. 26. 
Woodaro, G. D., 1955. "The Stratiinaphic Succession in the Vicinitv of Mt. Babbage Sta- 
tion, South Australia/' Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, Vol. 78. 
Woolnovgh, W. G., and David, T. W. Edgwohth, 1926. "Cretaceous Glaciation in Central 

Australia/' Quart. Journal Geol. Soc. Lond., Vol. 82, pp. 332-351. 



151 



CHLORINITIES OF COASTAL WATERS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

byL M. Thomas and S. /. Edmonds 

Summary 

A survey has been made of fluctuations in coastal chlorinities at ten widely scattered stations in 

South Australia. Samples were tested at approximately fortnightly intervals from December 1949 to 

April 1951. 

The maximum and minimum chlorinities recorded at the ten stations were as follows: 

Port Augusta 26-85% and 24-55% ; Port Wakefield 26-10 and 21-95; Streaky Bay 21-95 and 

20-35; Moonta Bay 21-80 and 20-55; Port Lincoln 20-85 and 19-95; Brighton 20-85 and 20-35; 

Kingscote 20-75 and 19-75; Port Elliston 20-20 and 19-50; Victor Harbour 20-20 and 16-05; Robe 

20-15 and 19-00. General and local reasons for these fluctuations are discussed. 

Chlorinities in these waters, especially in Spencer and St. Vincent Gulfs, are strongly influenced by 

high local evaporation, low rainfall and small surface run-off, resulting in extremely high 

chlorinities at the heads of the two Gulfs. 

It is possible that this highly saline water flows southwards along the beds of the gulfs and that it 

mixes with the more oceanic waters at the surface near their entrances. 



CHLORINITIES OF COASTAL WATERS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

By I. M. Thomas and S. J. Edmonds" 

[Read 10 Nov. 1955] 
SUMMARY 

A survey bus been made of fluctuations in coastal ehlormities at ten widely scattered 
.slaUous in South Australia. Samples wore tested at apornximutclv fortnightly intervals from 
December 19-19 to April 1951- 

Ihc mu\imutn and minimum ehlorinities recorded at the ten stations were as follows: 
Port Augusta 2ft 85Vm and 24 55 /„,; I'ojt Wakefield 2010 and 21 95: Streaky Ray 3l>95 
and 20-35; Muonta Bay 21-80 and 20*55: Port Lincoln 20 -6'5 and 19 -95; Kriehton 20-85 
and 20 .15: kingscote 20-75 aud 19-75; ftttt Elhston 20 • 20 and 1050: Victor Harbour 
20 30 and 16' 05; Kobe 20 15 and 19-00. Ccnend and local reasons for these fluctuations 
are discussed. 

Chlormities in these waters, especially in Spencer and St. Vincent Gulfs, ore strongly 
influenced by hitrli local evaporation, low rainfall and small surface run-off, resulting in 
extremely |n>h enlonmties at the heads of the two Gulfs. 

U is possible that this highly saline water Hows southwards along the beds of the guild 
and Ejr.it it mixes with the more oceanic waters at the surface near their entrances. 

INTRODUCTION 

The coastline of the State of South Australia (sec Fig. 1) js deeply disscetc 1 
by Spencer Gulf and St. Viuccnt Gulf, remnants of an extensive marine inun- 
dation of the region which occurred in early Tertian- times. The sea receded 
later and at about this time block faulting raised the present Mount Lofty 
iUiTgfti between St, Vincent Gulf and the lower part of the Murray Valley. 
These ranges are geologically continuous with Kangaroo Island which now 
partially blocks the entrance to St. Vincent Gulf, 

The two gulfs are broad at their entrances and shallow. At its entrance, 
Spencer Gulf has its maximum depth of thirty to thirty-six fathoms and shoals 
avvav fairly gradually as it narrows towards its head, about two hundred and 
twenty miles inland. At Port Augusta it is only about half a mile wide, but it 
extends several miles further to terminate iu mangrove swamps and mud Hats. 
St. Vincent Gulf has a maximum depth of about nineteen fathom 1 ; at its entrance 
and this too shoals gradually to its head, a few miles north of Port Wakefield. 
about one hundred miles inland. This gulf terminates in a broad, sandy bav. 
Neither gulf Jtas a significant fresh water inflow, the only considerable volume 
ui fresh water pouring into tlie Southern Ocean on the S r outh Australian coast- 
line being from the River Murray which enters dirough Lake Mexundrina about 
fifteen miles almost due east of Victor Harbour. 

Ten stations were chosen for approximately forlnightly samplings of sea 
water. These were at Streaky Bay, Port Elliston, Port Lineolu T Port Augusta. 
Moonta Bay, Port Wakefield," Brighton, Kingscute, Victor Harbour and Robe 
(see Fig. 1 ). 

Gliiorinity titrations, using a silver nitrate standardised against Woods Hole 
standard sea water, from a 50 ml. "blue line" burette were carried out as soon 
as practicable after the receipt of the samples at the laboratory. One 10 tfjL 
sample from each bottle was usually tested. Only on rare occasions was there 
a significant divergence between the two titration figures In such cases, titra- 

Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide. 

152 



— 



»T_ 



GR£Ar 
AUSTRALIAN BrtSWT 






SOUT H AUSTRALIA 




a- i * 



SOU THE.SN CCE Ah 




,-T~- 



pfe, L— Coast of Soutli Australia showing the positions of the ton sampling .stations 
and the positions of nino surface stations worked bv the B.A.N.Z.A.R Expedition* 

1929-31, referred to in Table 3. 

tions were repeated and the results averaged. Burette readings were made to 
the nearest 0*05 ml. 

Figures 2 to 11 show the fluctuations in chlorinity during the period of 
the survey, namely, from December 1949 to April 1951. Weekly rainfall figures 
have been added and, where available, weekly averaged air temperature figures. 
In Figure 11 (Victor Harbour) some wind data and weekly estimated outflow 
from the River Murray are included. 

The chlorinity figures given in this paper have been published previously 
without discussion as to their significance. (Thomas and Edmonds, 1953.) 

Streaky Bay (Fig. 2) 

The jetty where samples were taken is in a relatively small bay which 
offshoots from the larger water-mass of Streaky Bay itself. It is thus well pro- 
tected and receives practically no direct surge from the outer ocean. The inner 



STREAKY BAY 





"77 - j '■< 9 



KC *» J*>* SO t-H M«P V>R UAf JUN€ JUL' AUti S*T 



J 



i 



HQ<L ttCl j:u '■>■ i ;.".. M/US. aPh. 



Fig. 2,— Surface chlorinities, air temperatures and rainfall at SlreaU Bay, December L949 

to April 1951. 



15-3 



ba\ has a depth varying from about one and A half fathoms at tho jelly to 
about four fathoms at its junction with the outer bay. This entrance is rela- 
lively narrow as al half title an extensive sand bank is uncovered which blocks 
the entrance with the exception of a channel a few hundred yards wide. The 
outer bay too is moderately Nhallow. having a depth, over much of its area, ol 
four to six fathoms falling to eight fathoms at its broad entrance to the Great 
Australian Bight, 

There is no significant fresh water inflow into the sonlhern part ol the buy. 
At the uorlhcru end there is a small tidal creek which drains some marshy 
land, but \vhich contain* fresh water only after considerable rain. Tins is, 
howexer, too far away born the jetty to have any influence on chlorinities there 

The range of chiorii.iities at this station lav between 20 ■31%, ( Septemhei 
■1 IltSQ) and 21'95'7 W (February 4, 1951). *lV graphed figures show a well- 
marked annual cycle of high ehlorinitics in summer and low in winter, the 
ehlorinity curve following fairly closely that of air temperatures. There is no 
clear relationship between ehlorinity and precipitation, Sverdnm rl al. (1912 
Chart VI) and Howard (1940) (.see Fig. 1 and Table 3) give a figure of about 
35-5%h for the salinity of Bight waters, corresponding to a ehlorinity ot 10-66. 
Tims it can be seen that figures at the jetty at Streaky Bay are consistently 
higher than this. Evaporation must then play an important part throughout the 
year in the maintenance of high ehlorhnties here r though of course the effect 
is much more marked in summer. Evaporation at this station has been esli 
mated by Trumble (194.S) as fi'V9 inches per annum while the mean annual 
rainfall is about 15 inches. 

Port Elliston (Fig. 3) 

As it seemed evident that Streaky Bay would not indicate clearly the 
ehlorinity conditions hi open Might coastal waters throughout the year, Tort 
Elliston was added to the list of sampling stations in March, 1950. This port 
is situated in Waterloo Ray, which is much smaller than Streaky Bay and much 
less protected from open water influences. The coastline of the bay forms 



5 4 



?*1 

X SO ^i 



PORT ELLISTON 



■mj 'vj »t> J '■■..,- JUNE JW *WC- St*" bt r 



jivv'St «s 



V'itf. ^— Surface thkninilivs and rainfall at Hort F.IHsroa \Lux-h 1950 to April t-#5I, with air 
temperatures for Streukv faity far the sum' pr'tiocl, 



nearly three parts of a circle; the. jetty, from which the sample.s were taken, 
lacing the open ocean. A rocky bar, exposed at low tide, partly blocks the 
entrance, but there is a six-fathom channel to drain the bay which is ior the 
most part only about three and a huh to lonr fathoms deep. Consequently 
there is good circulation of sea water with each tide and this is reflected in the 
relatively stable ehlorinity of its waters. The highest figure obtained was 20-20 
(Oct KL 1950) and the lowest 19-50 (July 25, 1950), 

There is little indicaticn of an annual cycle as there is at Streaky Bay. the 
effects of evaporation being to a greater extent offset by more thorough oceanic 

m 



circulation. Annual evaporation is estimated by Trumble ( 1948) at 560 inches 
while 0y« mean annual rainfall is 16 -67 inches. ' No local air temperature records 
are available for this station .so the figures for Streaky Bay, the nearest point on 
the coast for which they are available, have been plotted. They are, however 
probably slightly high for Port Elliston. The chloriuitv figures'ror this station 
arc. on the whole, only slightly higher than those for the Great Australian Bkltf 
(Sverdrup at al (1912 Chart VI)) and Howard (1940), in fact, chlorinities 3 at 
tins station are the nearest to oceanic conditions of any encountered in this 
Survey. It is still evident though that evaporation is the important factor in 
the maintaining of the chlorinities recorded. 

Port Lincoi-y (Fig. 4) 
The jetty where the samples were taken, though in a well-protected bay. 
being sheltered by Kirton Point to the west and Boston Island to the north-west, 
hns deep water, mostly eight to nine Fathoms and has gptfd tidal circulation' 
The maximum chloriuitv recorded here was 20S5 (March 4 1951) and the 
minimum 19-95 (July 18 and August 7, 1950) There is little evidence of the 
direct effect of rainfall but a fairly clear annual cycle is shown, the curve follow- 
ing in general the .seasonal curve for air temperature. 



PORT LINCOLN 






I id ? 




OlL. fit 



'-*t- *> J4n 'jo Ft* WJt. tpv T MAV 



*m. 




4;l ;'ll ,.iiJ-_ 



iin* «& ;;ot CCT .«rv ' de; ' «:.•;, ' t0i 



U\ 1711. 



Fig, 4. -Surface chlorinities, nir temperatures and rainfull at Port Lincoln. December P949 

to April 1951. 

Chlorinities at this station are intermediate between those of upper tuilf 
waters, as shown by Moonta Bay and Port Augusta, and oceanic waters. The 
JahVr seem to exert the more important influence owing to the strong currents 
Of oceanic water which sweep up between Cape Catastrophe and Thistle Island. 
The efleet of the highly saline upper gulf waters is shown by the generally 
higher chlorinity figures lor this station compared with the more oceanic stations 
at Port EUistoiu Victor Harbour and Robe. The annual cycle of high figures fn 
summer and lower ones in winter indicate, too, that local evaporation is a factor 
of some importance. Trumble (1918) estimates average annual evaporation at 
48-5 inches and the mean annual rainfall is 19-29 inches. 



Four Augusta (Fig. 5) 
This station stands nearly at the head of Spencer Gulf where it has nar- 
rowed to a width of about half a mile. This fact associated wilt the lower 
latitude of this station and its nearness to the arid interior of the continent nffrr 
a ready explanation for the extremely high chlorinities recorded, (he highest 
readings were 20+90 (January 21 and April 4, 1951) and the lowest 24-55 
(August 21. 1950). This lowest reading is far m excess of all figures from other 
stations with the exception of Port Wakefield. The geography of the region 
and conditions of tidal flow also assist in the maintenance of high chlorinities. 
About thirty miles south of the station, the gulf narrows abruptly at Point 

155 



Lowly to a width of about eight or nine miles. At this point too, on the 
eastern coastline a long sand bar which is exposed at low water springs, juts 
out bom Ward Point making the effective tidal channel about four miles wide. 
Though this there is a considerable tide race around Point Lowly. North of 
this point the gplf broadens again and then narrows fairly gradually. It ex- 
tends several miles beyond Port Augusta to terminate in mud Hats arid mangrove 
swamps. Admiralty charts show a" tidal current of about one and a half knots 



PORT AUGUSTA 



cc; '4B- j«*i **u «is M» 






ill ' ^ 
h li 

i iri' k . lAf^CattllWa^UJI. & ~. jULJL 

*-■ - . - '■ *• ■" . :' . " ::* ,; ' '-*•' ■ . ' ■ ^ V» ai «-. ^ f »i ocx '.-cw ore .*« * res 



! ! i ! V« - * i r-- 1 I 1 .: 



*»B M*1 J'JM J*. - «*• 



MA* •"B 



K}h ^-Surface chlnnnitit's, air temprrnlures ami rainfall nr Tort Augushy December ifldti 

hi April 1951. 

hehveeu Point Lowly and Port Augusta and an average depth in mid stream ol 
lour to six fathoms/ When the tide runs out water near Port Augusta would 
only be able to traverse about ten of the thirty miles distance to Point Lowly 
before Ihe turn of the tide tended to drive it back again. Ventilation in this 
part of the gulf is then very pour even though the spring tide range is twelve 
feet The annual evaporation is estimated bv Trunible (1948) at about 88 
inches. High evaporation in the shallows north of the station. ton, would con- 
tribute to these high ehlorinities as would also the mean low annual rainfall 
of about 9-5 inches. The marked annual cycle in ehlorinities is no doubt the 
joint efi'eet of low rainfall negligible run-off and high evaporation as nearly half 
of the annual evaporation occurs in the three summer months, while a thud of 
the annual rainfall occurs in the three winter months. 

Moonta Bvy (Fig. 6) 
The range and level of ehlorinities at this station fall, as might be expected, 
between those of Port Lincoln and Port Augusta though considerably closer to 
the former. The highest recording was 21-80 (July 8, 1950) and the lowest 
•?(»-55 (Feb. 2- 1950), though this latter figure was undoubtedly influenced by 
hVhi rain on the day of collection. The jetty is situated in a wide, shallow ba\ 
with uboul one and a hall* fathoms at the jetty itself and Tour and a I'lUlf to live 
fathoms in the bay efeiionilly. The menu annual rainfall is 1 4-94 inches per 
annum and the cstimuled arunnd evaporation 77-7 inches (Trunible 1948). 'Ihe 
ram-v of chlorhulies is rather less than fright have been expected at a station so 
lar'uu [he flrllf, It seems to be diminished by some factor which creates Mfitt 
ehlorinities in the winter months when they- would normally be expected to 
In- lower. . > . . 

\ tenhtive explanation of this condition is here uiven. Admiralty charts 
indicate a tidal eddv through Moonta ISay. A Vh to 2& knot tidal enrrrent is 
indicated at the northern €nd of the bay and a % to IS knot current at its 
southern end A 1 knot tidal current is shown some distance offshore, it is 
si; jested that the more saline waters at the head of the gull cool and sink in 
late autumn and winter and How down its bed. The tidal turbulence at about 
the level of Moonta Ray causes vigorous mixing of tins stream with the less 

I3f< 



EKCi 



MOONTA BAY 



tt 



U, ij'n_ j i J flpfyin 




*us scft ocf nov ' c*c J*r. 1 ' ft* "oTr" 



Vffc Ct-Smiacc chlorinities mid rainfall ut Wftotliq Bay, D.-ceinL*_n 1049 ti April 10.51. 

saline surface waters so increasing the surface eMormitv. The shallowness of 
the pill will net allow of strong stratification ami the prevailing sou westerly 
winds would cause a piling up of water on the eastern eoastlinc\vhieh would 
assist the general mixing. Thus the figures for this station n'se during Mav 
June and July and are maintained more or less at this level during the remainder 
ot tlie winter In spring and early summer, the warming and IfiKluafhe of the 
waters at tile head of the Gulf lend to cheek tins deep southwards flow so the 
ehloriniUcs at Moonta Bay show a slight decline. This is, however, soon counter- 
acted by increased local evaporation during the summer months and the figures 
rise again to fall once .more in early autumn with reduced local e\ aporation° 



] Ljttbvgratriucai dala from a si<ni< 



TARU\ 1. 
in StfrnCtt: tni'f worked bv tl.r- KK.V "Warrcrn 



Dale 


1 


I.iif. 


1 

1 


1 

Sounding 
(fath.) 


T>p.i, 


Temp. 




! ,. 


— .- — 


1 


33 WS 


tip 10 K 


10 




23 Oo 


20 ^ 


I 


20.ii. :*!) 


D 


20 -on 




1 








!0 


23-24 


20-91! 


| 2(.-I)3 




! 








15 


&H$ 


21 -04 


2*M7 



Some support for this explanation is offered by figures* -riven w Table 1 
These are taken from data of a cruise of the F.R.V. "Warreen" The station is 
almost on the same latitude as Moonta Bay, but nearer the opposite shore of 
the pill. The warmer and more saline deep waters must have come from the 
north as stations at the entrance to the gulf worked on the same cruise, show 
lower chlorinities and temperatures at all depths and also a fall in both tem- 
perature ehlorinity with increasing depth. 

Port Wake*ieui (Fig. 7) 

St. Vincent Gulf, near the head of which this station stands, terminates in 
a nmad bay bordered with sand and mangrove flats which are exposed to a 
width of nearly a mile at half tide. A small channel has been dredged tlnou-h 
tins up to a wharf near the town, where the samples were taken. This channel 
has a length of about three-quarters of a mile. It is about thirty-four feet wide 
and at an average high tide has a depth of about nine feet six inches while at 
3 WJJ tid( - s il m a depth of about two Teet. It was last dredged during 
IU4y-oO. Jh.s carries away a part of the outflow of the Wakefield Biver the 
mam How ol which has now been diverted to run into the gulf a few rnUes 
north of the township. So it is only when the river is in spate that an appreei- 

157 



5 m 



i 



PORT WAKEFIELD 





/%-. 



Wfr 



i/ 



v* 



CEC ■«* ,** 'lu 1 (,» «»a So M4» JUNE JUlt *l&. »l.f » cm VW 0(C 



[ =~-n Hit) 

'it Ft* «*« »P0 



Fig. 7. -Surface elilorimtie* and rainfall at Port Wakofield, Decmilu-i J!M9 ft? April 1951. 

able amount of fresh water is discharged past the wharf where the samples 
were taken. 

The position of this station near the head of St. Vincent Gulf eoupled with 
an occasional inflow of fresh water from the Wakefield River, has resulted in 
giving this station a wider range of ehlorinities than any other station with the 
exception of Victor Harbour. The highest figure recorded was 26-10 (December 
8, 1950) and the lowest 21-95 (July 7, 1950). The annual evaporation at this 
station is estimated by Trumble (1948) as 79 inches and the annual rainfall 
is about 13 inches so ? as at Port Augusta high evaporation, especially during 
lite summer months, is a potent factor in the maintenance of high ehlorinities. 
The lower values are the results of occasional dilution by the Wakefield River. 

Brighton (Fig. 8) 
This station oecurnes a position in St. Vincent Gulf more or less similar 
to that of Moonta 13av in Spencer Gulf, so the cycle of events at the two stations 
might well be compared. Actually, the range of chlormities at Brighton was 
the" smallest noted in this survey. The maximum value was 20-85 (December 
12, 1950, January 19 ; aud March 3, 1951) and the minimum 20 -35 (June 4, 
1950). Again the annual cycle of high summer and low winter ehlorinities is 
not well marked, some of the winter readings falling only slightly short of many 
of the summer ones. So here again a How of liighly saline waters from the 
head of the gulf along its bed cWbo postulated. There is, however, no marked 
tidal turbulence indicated on the Admiralty charts in the vicinity t£ Brighton 
which would indicate mixing of bottom and surface waters as there is at Moonta 
Buy, but prevailing sou westerly winds would afiect this coastline as they would 
the eastern coastline of Spencer Gulf and inthience its ehlorinities as tliey do 
those at Moonta Rav. 



BRIGHTON 



"jo Mct> 



, to 



M 




I'l 



* rP ' \ ^-jtUl f L ill-- 5 i : ii &« 



i m ml. 



mm 






i 



V T- M 1-! 1 , 1 : ^_il 



t,rff m« 



ue vSs alls <JfPJ DrT >\Qv Kc, J** "R 



UJ6 



Fifi H -Surface ehlorinities-. air temperatures ;md rainfall at Brighton, December 104'j to 

April 1951. 



158 



TABLE 2. 
I hdrographic data from sea-water samples taken at two stations in St. Vincent Gulf 







Depth 


Temp. 






Date 


Station 


(m.) 


fC.) 


Gl^/oo 


& 


30/12/43 


Off Glcnclg 


10 


17-25 


20-09 


26-46 






20 


17-50 


20-18 


26-53 






30 


17-50 


20-22 


26-58 






40 


1 7 • 50 


20-24 


26-61 


30/12/43 


Off Cape Jcrvis 


10 


19-50 


20-49 


26-44 






20 


19-50 


20-51 


26 -47 






30 


19 '50 


20 • 56 


26-57 


30/1/44 


Off Glcnelg 


10 


20-00 


20-47 


26-29 






20 


20-00 


20-51 


26-34 






30 


20-25 


20-42 


2615 






40 


20-00 


20-48 


26-30 


4/6/44 


OfTGlenelg 





14-30 


20-34 


27-48 






10 


14-50 


20-40 


27-53 






20 


14-50 


20-41 


27-54 


July M4 


Off Glcnelg 





18-30 


20-42 


26-66 






10 


18-20 


20-44 


26-71 






20 


18-10 


20-45 


26-75 






30 


18-20 


20-48 


26-77 






40 


18-50 


20-52 


26-74 


July *44 


OffCapeJervis 





18-80 


20-73 


26-95 






10 


18-50 


20-70 


26-99 






20 


18-30 


20-G9 


27-03 






30 


18-30 


20-69 


27-03 


6/8/44 


Off Gape Jcrvis 





12-20 


20-65 


28-35 






10 


11-50 


20-64 


28-48 






20 


11-50 


20-67 


28-52 


16 '9/44 


Off Cape Jcrvis 





13-30 


20-44 


27-83 






10 


13-00 


20-43 


27-88 






20 


13-00 


20-43 


27-88 






30 


13 -no 


20-49 


27-96 


12/1/45 


OffGirnel- 





19-10 


20-45 


26-49 






10 


18-50 


20-42 


26-60 






20 


18-50 


20-44 


26-63 






30 


18-50 


20-44 


26-63 






40 


18-50 | 


20-45 


26-64 


'1/2/45 


OffCapeJervis 


G 


20-50 


20-59 


26-30 






10 


20-20 


20-00 


26-41 






20 


20 00 


20-61 


26-48 






30 


20-00 


20-60 


26-46 


21 '10/45 


OffCapeJervis 





15-25 


20-31 


27-27 






10 


14*80 


20-30 


27-32 






20 


14-80 


20-31 


27-31 






30 


14-00 


20-32 


27-35 


25/11/45 


OlTGIenHu' 





18-50 


20-40 


26-58 






10 


17^00 


20-10 


26-95 






20 


17-00 


20-45 


27-02 


I 




30 


17-00 


20-44 


27-01 



159 



Table 2 is compiled from samples of sea water collected during the war 
years and analysed by the Division of Fisheries of the C.S.I. R.O. Olenelg is 
a few miles north of Brighton, wliile Cape Jervis is the point of the mainland 
closest to Kangaroo Island (see Fig. 1). These figures show in general (i) that 
deeper waters have a higher chlorinity than surface waters, (ii) that the increase 
in ciilorinity with depth is more marked off Glcnelg than it is oil Cape Jervis, 
and (iii) that the surface and bottom chlormities q» Cape Jervis are generally 
higher than are those off Gknelg. These points seem to indicate that the highly 
saline water trom the bed of the gulf does becume admixed with surface waters, 
but mainly some distance south of Glenclg. More information is, however, 
needed to verily these matters. 

ChiUlebornugh (unpublished data) records a maximum chlorinity of 
21'21"/ tm and a minimum of 20-22"/,*, at Outer Harbour which is about sixteen 
miles north of Brighton. These values are in general, slightly higher than those 
at Brighton. This is in keeping with the position of his station further up the 
gulf. The wider range of ehlorinities here can be accounted for by the in- 
fluence oi the Port "River^ a long inlet, in which lie records u wider range 
than at Outer Harbour, namelv. a maximum of 20 -W)"/,,,. and a minimum of 
19,197,,,,. 



J 



i 



x to 

i 



•%o{ * x>J iq 



KINGSCOTE 



'** * »" b 



i ..JTi ,i)'| efi ^ pj 




* v $.— -4 



OEC '<* J*« SD f£B 



LB 



i, 



-IIM4E JIUV JbJG 



mJwnmxlLM aa Jl 



OCT <*JV. DtC JM'M «a Ml A*» 



Fitj. 5Jj— Surface cluurinitics, air teurptTiitures and rainfall nl Kingsct>tt', December iSMy la 

,\\ui\ 1951. 

Kincscotil (Fig. 9) 

This station is on the north coast of Kangaroo Island. Its jetty is in a wide, 
fairly shallow bay which is protected to the north and west by a sandy spit, 
mostly covered at high water but rising at intervals to form a chain of low 
islets. The maximum chlorinity recorded was 20-75 (January 6 and December 
22, 1950) and the minimum 19-75 (August 4 ? 1950). There is a fairly well- 
marked cycle of high readings in summer and low in winter, showing the influ- 
ence of a predominantly winter rainfall and a fairly high rate of evaporation 
in the summer mouths. According to Trumblc (1948) the annual evaporation 
is 51 -0 inches and mean annual rainfall 19*28 inches. The lowest winter figures 
arc, however, stili above the average for the more oceanic stations, such as 
Ellistou and Robe, indicating that the highly saline waters of St. Vincent Gulf 
mihienee this station loo. Womersley (1947) records slightly higher ehlorinities 
on me north coast of Kangaroo Island than on the south coast which faces 
the Southern Ocean. 

Vicron Haiujoub (Fig. 10) 

This station showed the widest range of ehlorinities and also the lowest 
chlorinity encountered in this investigation, The highest reading was 20-20 
(March 4, 1950) and the lowest 16-05 (August 5, 1950). The general run of 
ehlorinities seems to lie between about 19-50 and 20-20, but there are. sudden 



ieo 



drops to much lower figure These drops arc undoubtedly to be associated 
with the outflow of fresh water from the River Murray whose waters enter 
the .sea about 15 miles almost due east of the station. The River Murray actu- 
ally opens into a broad and shallow expanse ol' water which includes Lake 
Alevaudrina and Lake Albert On the seawards side of these lakes several 
islands, the reumants of a former sand dune system, break up the How of water 
into several channels which again converge on to a single opening to flic sea 
between suud dunes which is known as Slnrray Mouth. In J940. a tetltifl frf 
barrages was completed linking these islands so that the outflow ol fresh- 
water could be controlled and the inflow of sea water prevented. The lakes 
which were originally very brackish have thus by now become virtually fresh- 
water lakes, lief ore the building of the barrages the chlorinity of the lata*, 
was in the vicinity of -10, but since their establishment this figure has dropped 
to about QtQQ (Yfelntosh, 1948). 



«0O 



Hx»t- 

X 



VICTOR HARBOUA 



OEJtCtiS C,r UTuTifcE-^i WIMk) 






HP- 



:AO 



!^t 



"7 ISTvl 

-JL *uM — /■ I'Hll , W'PM.: 



PCC "« J*H'X> i- i 




IjBLL Li 

air temperatures, rainfall 
sauntlicrly wlnrh (full line indicates urrnosr i'<inltmitms xouthrrh'cs T hinkrri line, Intcj i 



uaa tea 



¥iv. 10.— Snrf;u:;: ■r-tilorinitfcs, air temperatures, rainfall and periods of moderate U> jimag 



Kiuthcrlies ) . at Victor Harbour and estimated ouHimv from the {fiver Murrav, Omemhrr 

1VM9-Apri| 1051. 



The approximate outflow of freshwater through the barrages is shown in 
Figure 10. These figures are computed from the weekly flow of water over 
Lock 1 in the river at Blanchetown about 170 miles upstream from the mouth 
It is estimated that the river water takes about ten days to flow from Lock, 1 
tt> Lake Alexandrina, so this lag has been allowed for hi plotting the points. A 
small percentage which would be lost by evaporation during this period has 
been ignored. 

The influence of this outflow is noted at Victor Harbour only during periods 
of southerly winds When the wind is in other quarters the chlorinities at this 
station are generally high, more or less on a par with conditions at Robe and 
Port Elhston on the opeu coastline. The marked influence of southerly winds 
cart be explained by the delineation of the coastline (see Fig. 1) and by the 
ocean currents along it. The great sub-autarctic West Wind Drift is partly 
deflected northwards when it strikes western Tasmania. This portion flows 
north-wesl along the south-eastern coast of the State to form a large eddy whose 
northernmost boundary is the south coast of the Australian Continent. This 
eddy would thus tend to carry outflowing water from Murray Mouth towards 
Victor Harbour. Inshore, however, the current would be relatively weak so 
that elfective transport of surface water would be apparent only when it was 
assisted by a moderate or strong southerly wind component. Westerly or 
northerly components would counteract it while easterly winds in this region 
are relatively rarer and of lower velocity so would be less effective. Periods 
Of moderate to strong southerly winds are indicated in Figure 10 and diesc 
correspond almost without exception with falls in chlorinity. The noteworthy 
exception i\ during February, 1950, when despite almost continuously southerly 

101 



winds the chlorinity rose. During this period, however, the barrages \ver<- 
elused and the small How over Lock 1 was allowed to till Lake Alexandrmu. 
During the remainder of the period of tin's investigation, the barrages have been 
closed for no more; than a few odd days. From late November 1950 to early 
February 1951 there was an unusually high outflow from the barrages and there 
were many periods of southerly winds. These factors account lor the low and 
fluctuating chlorinities during these months. The lowest chlorinity reeorded 
(l(r 05) on August j5. 1950, was at a time of very high rainfall (the highest 
weekly record tor the year), moderate outflow from the barrages arul a week 
of continuous south to soif westerly winds. 

Two small rivers, the Hindmarsh and the Inmau, enter the sea near Vietor 
Harbour, They flow freely only after heavy rain. No direct correlation was 
found between their outflow and the chlorinities reeorded at the sampling 
station with the possible exceptions of the samples taken on August 5, 1950 
(Cl7„„-- 1605) and October 14, 1950 ( Civ.,, ~ Ifv80). 

Robe (Fig. 11) 

The jetty at this station is in a wide, fairly deep and well ventilated bay 
The highest' chlorinity was 20*15 (January 22, 1950, and January IS, 1951) 
and the lowest 19*00 { August 18 T 1951). The four low figures during July and 
August are to be associated with heavy rains at about the time of collections. 
The mean annual rainfall is given by Trumble (1948) at 24-75 inches and the 






POBE 



tO J ttH « 



R r- 



i j m I K 




rr am .»/. <vi 



.m m 1 . 1 ,rt'. uii lii li- ; i! u . H ■ ■ • 



i 



4k -■ 



nrr. '4; jv. "wj fia wtn avw 



ji [I- rf j. 



J*Jt» *«Ti SEP*- DCt VUV- 1JLL JA*J '5 TLb U4l *pft 



Fig. 11.— Surface ililorinities, uir leuujeraiuivs and rainfall Uf Kebe. December 1949 tn 

Aptil l<>51. 

annual evaporation as 37-4 inches. Even though there are no significant streams 
or rivers entering the sea in this region the porous tertiary limestone of the 
district allows an outflow of subterranean freshwater. The relatively high mean 
annual rainiall and low evaporation rate would thus give this station generally 
lower chlorinities than the other stations which have been discussed. The 
highest figures, timing the summer months, are comparable with the maxima 
of Vietor Harbour and of Port EUiston, the only other two stations, excepting 
Streaky Bay, which are not a fleeted by gulf waters. The annual cycle of high 
Slimmer and low winter readings is well marked, ft follows fairly closely the 
annual air temperature cycle. 

DISCUSSION 

The fluctuation in chloririilies of seawater m the vieiniU (>r coastlines musl 
be greater than is the ease in surface waters of the open ocean. Inflow 1 of fresh- 
water, either by precipitation or from rivers and evaporation in shallows, Avill 
depress or elevate the values respectively. Gilles (1949) records an annual 
periodicity at some surface sampling stations in the Irish Sea in an analysis 
of water samples taken between 1935 and 1946. Several of these stations (e.g. 



m 



Liverpool Bar ami Morecmnbe Ray.) show summer maxima and winter minima 
while one station, midwuy between Holyhead on the Welsh coast and Kish 
near the Irish coast, shows a winter maximum and summer minimum. These 
fluctuations seem to he the result nt two major factors, namely, freshwater iniiow 
from adjacent rivers and Mow of Atlantic water. Bigelow and Leslie (1930, 
p. 152) also record a seasonal fluctuation Fn the saliuity or surface waters in 
Monterey Bay, California, with low values in February* to April, and high in 
June to August. This they correlate with the seasonal variation hi discharge 
of the Salinas and ether rivers which reach a maximum in November. December 
aud January. 

Where the freshwater inflow 'n; considerable, as in an estuary, stratification 
will occur, the position and integrity of the boundary depending on (a) the 
amount of inflow, (b) the degree of tidal turbulence, (e) evaporation, and (d) 
the configuration of the- shore line and bottom (e.g. Kochford. 1951). The 
actual chlorinity figure in any gi\en locality will depend on these same four 
factors, so that in a region of low rainfall "and high evaporation, the coastal 
values will be higher than those of adjacent oceanic waters, the difference de- 
pending on the amount of evaporation and influx of oceanic water. 

Wust (1936) cited by Sverchup ct al (1942. p. 124) estimates the region 
of the highest surface salinity and evaporation in the open oceans of the 
Southern Hemisphere to lie between lat. 20 n and 30 :i S. He gives an average 
figure of about SV,,, = 35-75 ( Cl"A, ri ~ 19-o ! 8) and aimual evaporation-minm- 
precipitation figure of about 30 inches. Port Augusta (lat. 32°2S'S) and Fort 
Wakefield (lat. 3T 11/S) (all just outside this range. In these two places, how- 
ever, and in the gulfs generally, ehlorinities axe much iocrcascd by the high 
evaporation rate due to proximity to the arid interior of the continent and the 
very low freshwater inflow either from rainfall or streams, 



23 



PORT AU6U5TA 
PORT WAKCFItLD 
STREAKY SAY 
MOOUTA 0AV 
POPT LINCOLN 
BqiGHTON 
RlNGSCOtE 
PORT EtltSTON 
VICTOR HA&eOUG 
ROBE 



Kig, 12— RuniieN of c-hloriuities al (lie U:i stations December 1949 

(except Port Ellislon, March H)50) to Aori\ 1051 arraign! in 

order of mtwimwm ehlorinities. 



In Figure 12 are shown the ranges in ehlorinities at the ten stations during 
the period of the investigation. They are listed iu order of the highest clilorin- 
ity recorded. The stations fall thus into natural groups. The two heading the 
list. Port Augusta and Tort Wakefield, with high aud fluctuating chloriuities, 
are at the heads of the two gulfs. Streaky Bay falls far behind these and shows 
clearly the effect of local evaporation with moderate ventilation by oceanic 
waters. Moouta Bay, about halfway up Spencer Gulf, is intermediate between 
Port. Augusta and Port Wakefield on the tine hand, and the stations nearer the 
entrances to the gulfs, namely, Brighton, Port Lincoln and Kingscotc, on the 
other The smaller fluctuation at Moouta Bay compared with Port Augusta 

163 



and Port Wakefield has already been discussed. A comparison of the result> 
firmi Mnonta Bay with those of Port Wakefield shows clearly the influcnex' ol 
lack of circulation in upper gulf waters. The two stations are on approximately 
the same latitude and their respective evaporation-minns-precipitation figures 
are about the same, approximately 01 and fin inches respectively according hi 
Trnmble ( 19 \H). Yet as can be seen from Figure 13. their average chlorinities 
and ehlorinity ranges are widely divergent. The next tlirec stations. Brighton. 
Port Lincoln and Kingseote, are obviously influenced by the highly saline gull 
waters, Kingstnte, because of its position to a lesser extent than the other two. 
The small range at Brighton has also been discussed. The three remaining 
stations have similar maxima showing that these, all on the open coast, are 
the nearest to purely oceanic conditions. Their ranges are influenced by local 
conditions. Port Elliston, in its wcll-veutilated bay, lias a small range; Robe 
has its range extended by relatively heavy rainfall in the winter season, while 
Victor Harbour is very strongly influenced by outflow from the River Murnn 
barrages. 



rxHLK ?,, 

SHrlart Muimns v,<irl-.cd u> (he Gr«at Australian Bi^bl :mrj .Si, Vmtx-nl Gulf" by ihr B.A.N.Z.A.R 

Expedition. March- April 1930. 





1 


1 imo 


Lat. 


Long. 


TVmp. 






P*0' S 


Nu. 


Dnlr 
March 27 


;h. in.) 


(S - 5 


05 

120 


10 


r'C.) 
18-72 


Q ma 


1,1 | co 


(nig. Ui 


1 


2-\<-<)0 


35 34 


fc*5$ 


19-0.3 


4 


-I 


March 28 


lS-pa 


'35 33 


130 


12 


L a • Tj 7 


35-50 


io-r;_9 


I 


\ 


March B8 


24-00 


35 2b 


131 


41! 


ia-io 


35-35 


ra-55 


1 


1 


March 29 


11MI0 


3n 2U 


BH 


12 


ty 24 


m-5$ 


19-07 


i 


Si 


Marcb V) 


21-00 


& *3 


is\ 


42 


18-39 


»*s& 


JtMti 





6 


Ma.ch 3y 


ItMO 


35 20 


136 


02 


17 47 


"5-04 


19-83 





i 


Man* n >0 


21-00 


35 2B 


137 


13 


1**53 


$?«I4 


1 9 -93 





H 


Mcuvh 3J 


12 10 


35 24 


iSv 


53 


BKJS 


3o03 


19 ( 43 








April I 


00 10 


M Vi 


CiH 


10 


20-08 


37-11 


20-00 






The extremely high ehlorinity values recorded in northern gulf waters seem 
to be unique. The highest value recorded by Thompson (1930) for the Red 
Sea is Cl7 lH> - 22-78 (S"/„* - 41*05 ) in deep water at the northern cud. 
Sverdrup fef a/. (1942, Chart VT) shows a SV^= 10 00 (CIV,,,, = 22-19) iso- 
huline near ihc eastern shore of the Persian Gulf, salinities in ulher parts of the 
gulf presumably being lowered by inflow of water from the Rivers Tigris and 
Euphrates, Indeed, most gulfs in most parts of the world have considerable 
river inflows which depress their ehlorinity values and make them cstuarine. 

Conditions in the Spencer and St. Vincent Gulf* aiv then in some ways 
the reverse of those found in an estuary. Towards their heads, them is ;-m 
increase in ehlorinity, but as in an estuary, results obtained from hydrological 
data collected by the F RA : . "Warreen" already cited, show that there is an 
increase in ehlorinity with depth. The rising' tide must then flow into nV 
gulfs on the surface, overlying the deeper, more saline water. In a typical 
estuary (e.g. Hochford, 1951) incoming oceanic water will flow in along the 
bottom while the lighter, fresher water will move out at the surface. Further 
systematie hydrological work will be necessary to verify this point in the gulfs. 

Some verification of the results of the present workers as to the chlorinities 
within the gulfs has been obtained from the hydrological data of cruises of the 

HI 



F.R.V, "WimvciT already referred to, and also from hydrulugical clatu from die 
1$.A.N".Z.A.R. Expedition (Howard, 1940). Nine surface stations worked cut this 
expedition have heen numbered 1 to 9 on Figure J for the convenience of this 
paper and are listed in Table 3. These chloriiiities remaining relatively stable 
.KiO'is the Great Australian Bight show a rise at Station o'. opposite the month 
or Spencer Gulf, and a further rise in Investigator Strait, north of Kangaroo 
Island al Stations 7 and S, and still further a rise at Station 0, which is at the 
Semaphore Anchorage, about 14 miles north of .Brighton, 

A noteworthy feature of these figures, too, is the total absence of phosphate 
in Si Vincent Gulf and adjacent waters. Attempts at estimations of phosphate 
in samples received during the present survey have been made by one. nl us 
(S.J.TC.V It wu.s found impracticable, however, to maintain this line ol inves- 
tigation because of the inevitable delay between the collection of the samples 
and their arrival at the laboratory. All estimations made, however, showed 
remarkably low phosphate concentrations, but these are hi keeping with the 
B.A.N.Z.A.B. Expedition results (Table 3), and also with those of Worncrsley 
(1947) 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The authors are deeply indebted to the following people who have so faith- 
fully colter ted the samples of seawater for them. Miss Robin Fleming and Miss 
Louise Lucas of Streaky Bay; Mr. \L R. Baum and Mr. Neville Owen of Port 
Kltistcn; Mr. Maurice Guy and Mr. C. W. Johnston of Port Lincoln; Mr. Malcolm 
CoeK'bnrn of Imrt Augusta; Mr. Don Tossell of Moonta bay; Mr. Max Tre^il^as 
of Fort "Wakefield; Mr. Robert Menz of Kim*scotc. Mr, Graham Field of Victor 
Harbour, Mr. F. & Hnmball, Mr. J. F, Price, Mr. II. F. Ilcidrich, and Mi. 
M. J. M. Kcough of Robe. 

Acknowledgment is also made to Mr, H Mason and other members of the 
staff of the Commonwealth Meteorological Bureau, Adelaide: to LieuC-Col. 
H. C. Tolley, and members of the Staff of the Engineering and Water Supply 
Department, Adelaide; and to Mr. W. R. luck ol the South Australian Harbours 
Hoard. These gentlemen have given us much useful information front their 
files arid valuable opinions from their experience, 

The Division of Fisheries, C.S.LR.O., has kindly provided standard seawater 
and some hitherto unpublished data from their records of chlorinitics in South 
Australian waters, 

The District Clerk of Port Wakefield lias provided local information about 
the How of water in the Wakefield Vb'ver md about the condition of the shipping 
channel up to that port. 

The work has been largely financed by the State and Commonwealth IV- 
seareh Grants. 

REFERENCES 

Bigelow, H. H,, iUk! Kksuk, M., 1930. Keeuimaibsanee of the waters mid plankton (i| 
Monterey Bay, July, 1928, Bull. Mus. Gomp. ZooL Harvard Coll. 70: 420-^SI 

Commonwealth Scientific; a.mi iNpus-nuAi. KKStAHCH Organization, J 051. OeeanouT*iph<c 
Station List. Vob 1. riydrolngical aftcl Planktolofkaf Observations' by FJLV 
"Warreen' y in Sotilh-Easlem Australian Waters, 193S-£). 

Ciller D. C, 1933. Hie Temperature and Salinity of the Surface Waters of the Iriili S»-a 
for the period 1935-46. Mou. Not R. astr. $oe. Geophys. Suppl 5; .374-97, 

Howakd, A., 1910. Programme of work and record of observations, B.A.N"./ A.R. tixu. Ken.. 
Scr. A, 3: 29 85. 

McNtosh, Hok, M., iMft The- River Murray Barru^s, J. Agrtc. S. Anst. v 52: '125-9. 

KucurotiD, D-, 1951. Studies in Atixtrulian Kstuarinr Hydrology. I. Introductory and Com- 
parative features, Anst. ]. Mar. Kreshw. Res. 2; 1-116. 

Sv^dhuiv H. U., Joh\*so.v, M. W M and Fleming, H. H., 1942, "The Oceans.*' (PronHcv- 
Hall Tnc.; New York.) 



Thomas, 1. \1., and Edmonds, S. J., 1953. Surface Chlorinity Observations in South Aus- 
tralian Coastal Waters, December 1949-April 1951, Commonwealth Scientific and 
Industrial Research Organization, Ocea no graphic Station List 14: 53-64. 

Thompson, E. ¥., 1939. Chemical and Physical Investigations— the General Ilvdrographv of 
the Red Sea, John Murray Exped. 1933-34, Sci. Rept. 2: 83-103. 

Thumble, H. C, 1948. Rainfall, evaporation and drought frequency in South Australia, J. 
Agric. S. Aust. 52: 55-64. 

Womersi.ky, H. B. S., 1947. The marine algae of Kangaroo Island. A general account of 
the algal ecology, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. 71 (2): 228-52. 



166 



SACCOGLOSSUS APANTESIS, A NEW SPECIES OF ENTEROPNEUST 

FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



byL M. Thomas 



Summary 

A new species of the enteropneust genus Saccoglossus is described and named Saccoglossus 
apantesis. This is the first record of this genus in Australia and the first enteropneust to be described 
from South Australia. 



SACCOGLOSSUS APANTESTS, A NEW SPECIES OF ENTEROPNEUST 

FROM SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

By 1. SI TtV&Kfift* 

[Read 10 Nov. 1055] 

SUMMARY 

A new species oi tin- cntrropniMist £i?nns. Sficei>0,hmus js (fovtfibttd an I naiUKcl Sacca- 
r/iVvvNA' apatites!.?. This is jhfl ferst record ot this genus in An?>rntlui and the first enlciopnenst 
Ifi In? ilcM'rihetl from Smith Australia. 

L INTRODUCTION 

Entcropncusts already recorded from the Australian continent include 
Balanopjos&vs aitslmliensis (Hill) found near Sydney (Hill, 1S94); Ffijchodera 
flitva Escholtz (~ Ft pclsarii), from the Abrolhos Islands (Dakin, 1916), and 
ft flam and B. carnosm ( Willey) from the Great Barrier Reef (Trewavas, 1931). 
Trevvavas also described a number of tornaria larvae from the same region 
which have not yet been associated with specific adults. The present author 
has identified a single specimen sent to him from the fhoat Barrier Reef as 
Glossobulamts hedlcyi (Hill) first described from Funafuti (Hill, 1S97). fa 
180f) Benham described Saccoglo&svs otagaemis (Renhnm) from Otago Harbour, 
New Zealand 

The form to be described herein is found on the shores erf Encounter Ra\\ 
South Australia (lat 35 u 35' South, long. 138" 36 r East) about fifty miles due 
south of Adelaide. The foreshore in this region consists of an extensive platform 
of a sandy Permian fluvioglacial stratum. The platform extends about one 
hundred yards offshore, sloping gradually seawards and dropping abruptly into 
deeper water at its outer edge. It is largely overlaid by a deposit of coarse 
sand- shell grit and some mud, which supports a thick growth of Fosklonia, 
Cijmodocm and Zostera* The first two of these plants cover most of the plat- 
form, whilst the latter is found in shallow water near its shorewards edge. Here 
the rock surface is pitted and dented to form basin-shaped depressions where 
the soil mav lie to a depth of six to twelve inches, though in much of the area 
investigated the soil is no more than half this depth. This part of the coast is 
protected in part, to the west by Rosetta Head ("The RlufP) and offshore, to 
the south, by Wright Island, about half a mile away. Roth these are granitic 
outcrops. The region is thus normally one of more or less quiet water. 

The animals arc found in die upper two or three inches of soil which is 
lightly bonded bv 'Aostcra roots. They have not as yet been fount! other than 
in association with this plant Other animals found in the. same habitat include 
Maldanid and other polychaete worms, some burrowing Crustacea (CaUianaxa 
cemmica and Grangan noiozelandiae), several burrowing lamellihranchs and 
occasional sipunculids and ncmcrtmes. The enteropneusts are extremely localised 
in their distribution. Although a considerable area of the foreshore has been 
examined by digging and sieving, they have been found only in three small 
regions, each not more than two square yards in extent and all about the same 
distance from high water mark- The regions are exposed at very low spring 
tides. The restricted distribution of the animals might be accounted for by 

6 Department nf ^Oology, University of Adelaide. 

167 



I he pitted nature ill the underlying rock which might tend to limit their lateral 
movements. In thr.se regions, however, several specimens ran fjf* lumen 1 up 
ill a single spadeful of soil. The animals are frequently so tangled in with the 
/.ostein runt-systems that it is almost impossible to obtain complete spevirnens. 
The abdominal region in particular is very fragile and breaks oft readily. Bram- 
bell and Cole (U)3f)u) have recorded that it is impossible tn obtain if. tart sprcr 
mens of SaGVOgfosmH c(tmbre\mi> because of its fragility. 

A single specimen lias been found in a similar habitat at Salt Creek near 
Edttlilnirn an the eastern coast of Yorke Peninsula. Though tins cvuuple was 
not sectioned, it bore all the external characteristics of the Encounter bay 
specimens. Salt Creek is. in a direct line, about sixty miles north-west of En- 
counter bay so it is likely that further investigation of suitable localities may 
show Hit animal to have a wide distribution along the South Australian coastline. 

When the water is very still, casts can be seen on the sand surface which 
sire similar to those produced by .S\ cambrettsis (Biambcll and Cole, l c )39a). 
1 hey an- in the hum of fine coils of sandy material bonded together by mucus. 
They -are about a centimetre in diameter and one to one and a half turns in 
length and \erv fragile. No tubes have been observed though, if present ami 
fragile, as are the eastings, they would be no doubt slxattered among the Xostrta 
roots in I he process of digging ftircl sieving. 

The following features place the animals in the family Hammaniidac 
SpentnT (a) lack of hepatic diverticula, (b) lack of synapLiculae, (c) lack of 
lateral septa, and (d) lack of circular muscles in the trunk region. They agree 
with the diagnosis of the genus Succoglassits SchimKewirsch ( — Dolii-lmglo.sstcs, 
Spengel) in the following points: (a) proboscis very long, (b) collar about as 
fcilg as broad, (c) lateral genital ridges present hut no dorsal gonads, (A) 
gonads overlap the genital region to some extent, and (e) gill pores small but 
distinct. The specimens differ m several points from the published descriptions 
of the fourteen other species of the genus; so it is proposed to erect a new 
species, So(TniJ,!ossus rtfvmlcsis, to include them. The specific name is derived 
from the Greek word meaning a meeting or an encounter, as it was near the 
place wherre tire animals were first found that there occurred the historic en- 
counter between Matthew Flinders in the "tnvesti gator" and Nicolas Baudin in 
the "Gcographe" in April, 1802, 

Several detailed accounts of the anatomy of different species of the genus 
are available apart from the compendium of van der Horst (1927--S9K for 
e\arnple v S. otagocmis by JJcriham (1899); S. inhacoisis by Kapelus (1936); 
S. iUtmbrenm by Brambcll and Cole ( 1939a), and S, horsti by Brambell and 
Cnodheurt (i&ll), Tn the description of the present species then, only those 
lenhiTcN which arc characteristic of S. (wautcsis will be dealt with Features 
which it slum's with several other members of the genus will, in the main, 
be rmntted. 

II F.XTRRNAI. KKATUHKS 

S, upantests is a moderately sized species, An adult in the living condition 
has a length of 70 to K5 mm. This is made up as follows: proboscis 20 to 25 
trim ; collar 3*0 to 3*5 mm,: branchial region 10 to 12 nun.; genital region. 15 
to 20 mm. (the two lalter regions overlap to a considerable extent); abdominal 
region 25 to 30 mm. The genital region in mature specimens is always coiled 
so that the measuremenls given for this region can be no more than an estimate. 

Young specimens arc coloured a uniform light orange, Adults have a pro- 
boscis ot light orange, darkening somewhat at the base and stalk. The collar- 
is nrangc-red with, in larger specimens, a white ring near the posterior margin. 
The branchial region (s paler than the collar though darker than the pioboscis- 
Jn females the genital ridges ar<? light orange, but in males they are browny red. 
The Inf'T.il and ventral body walls in the genital region arc similar in colour 



lo tlit- branchial legiou The abdominal region iv pale yellow-giey ami trans- 
lucent so that its* enclosed sand grains and grit show readily through. No spot- 
ting or Heeking with colour such as has been described in some othei members 
of the genus is present. 

The proboscis, hi the extended condition, tapers from its ba.se tu its tip, the 
h'p being about half tin* diameter of tin 1 base. In contracted specimens it is 
cvliudrical. There is only a veiy slight indication of a dorsal groove m the 
posterior quarter or so of its length and this u> better seen in preserved and 
lonhaelcd material than it js iti living specimens. There is no sign of a ventral 
proboscis groove Oceasionaliy the proboscis may show one or more deep, cir- 
rulat* constrictions at varying positions along its length. These are caused by 
strong local contractions of the circular muscles. If a specimen is roughly 
healed while Ihc proboscis is in ihis condition, the organ may hicak aL these 
points, Autotomy of this lcind must occur in natural conditions as very occa- 
sional specimens have been found with short probosccs showing signs of 
terminal regeneration, 

At tin* base of the proboscis is tile pro-oral ciliary organ whose structure 
and significance have been described for S. combrcmis and some other forms 
by Hramhcll and Cole (1939b). As \\i the Welsh species, it takes the form of 
a horse-shoe-shaped groove, slightly dilated at its free dorsolateral ends and 
partially .surrounding, (lit- Iwse of the proboscis where it tapers to form the stalk. 
The organ is not distinctively coloured as it is in S. cawbrcmix and therein; 
resembles more the condition in S. honli (Bramhell atid Coodheart. 1941). 

The nevk which unites the proboscis to the collar is. as is the case in other 
members' of the. genus, very slender, ft bears* on its left side the single pro- 
boscis pore which enable the end sac (Fig. 1). and thus the left dorsal eoclomic 
txmch of the proboscis, to communicate with \\\.v exterior. The collar is slightly 
nnger dorsally than it is ventral ly and is somewhat flared anteriorly. The 
posterior border is slightly flared also and at the base of this Hare there is a 
conspicuous circular groove corresponding \\\ position to the white ring men- 
tioned earlier. Tin's groove and white ring are best seen iu mature specimens, 
The posterior flare overlaps the first two nr three gill pores. 

The branchial region possesses tlrirty to forty-five pairs of gill pores un its 
dorsal surface. The number apparently increases with increasing size of the 
animals. The anterior ones are small and almost circular. They increase in Mie 
to about the sixth pair of the series and become elliptical laterally. The final 
seven or eight become rapidlv smaller and more circular iu form, fclfe ultimate 
ones frequently being difficult to discern externally. The latter part of the 
branchial region is overlapped by the genital region, the first genital pouch 
appearing usually at about the level of the twentieth pair of gill pores. It h 
noticeable that in less mature specimens, that is, those with a smaller number 
of gill pores and less well -developed gonads, the proportion of gill clefts iu 
front of the first genital pouch is higher than it is in more mature specimens. 
This may be din* to the combined effect of an increase iu the number of bran- 
chial porrv posteriorly and an anterior penetration of the gonads with increasing 
maturity, in mature specimens., the gonads form conspicuous riorsn lateral genital 
ridges which, in their region of maximal development, that is, in the posterior 
branchial and oesophageal regions, comprise about two thirds of the animal's 
total body width (Fig. S), The ridges begin to decrease grudnally in size in 
die posterior oesophageal region and disappear in the anterior abdominal region. 
The increase \\\ bulk of the genital ridges with growth of the animals to maturity 
leads to a considerable coiling in this part Between the gill clefts, and farther 
back between the genital ridges, a slighl medio-dorsal elevation of the epidermis 
overlies the dorsal nerve cord (Fig. 4). This ridge is less evident in the ab- 
dominal region. 

Iflll 





ccp 







Fiji. t.— Longiturlimil snjdftal section of the base of the proboscis. Hs.i blood sinus: cc, eoll,ir 
coeloni; cep., collar epidermis; es-, DrttJ &TC; glo^ glomerulus; icm. t inner circular muscle layer 
of proboscis; Imp,, longitudinal muscles of proboscis. flj H mouth, nl., nerve layer: «cm., 
outer circular muscle layer of proboscis; p,,, pericardium; pe., proboscis coelom; pco., pre- 
oral ciliary organ; i)ep„ proboscis epithelium; ps., prohoseis skeleton; St., stomnchord; vds., 

ventral diverticulum of stnmnchord- 
i''ig. 2, 1 to 11, Serial sections of stouiocbord and proboscis skeleton at about 0-05 mm. 
intervals, er. crura ol probn.st is skeleton: Is\, lumen of slnmorhord; vis., lumen nl ventral 

diverticulum of stomoehord; other nuide letters as in previous figure. 

Vf£* 3.— Transverse section of proboscis, db., rlnrs.il bloodvessel of proboscis- lb., lateral 

blood vessel; other auule letters as in previous figures. 

170 



About two millimetres behind the last pair r»r :>ill pOwa the paired intestinal 
pore* can he seen on the dorsal surface. Thev ftnro two rows (Figs. 7 and N) 
one on eaeli side of the mid-dorsal line which diverge at an angle of thirty-five 
to forty degrees from the mid-line. Sis to eight apertures appear vn each* side 
In S koivalcr.shji (van der Hoist \t)ft-W) it is imported that the posterior of 
the tour lo s.\ pairs of pores present are further from the middine than are the 
anterior ones J hrough the kindness o! Prof. P. W, Rogers Jhambel). the author 
has been able to examine some specimens of S. catnlmn.tis. In these, the n\e 
to seven pahs of patent pores form lines parallel to the mid dorsal line \ 
similar condition obtains in S. inhacenxis (Kapelus, .UWi). No descriptions nf 
Hip external appearance of the intestinal pores seem to be available for othci 
mewibcrs of the genus. 

Ventrally, In the trunk icgion. the main longitudinal musculature nf the 
body K readily identifiable by its fine transverse striutions. In the anterior bran- 
chial region, this musculature, though thicker iii the ventral region, extends up- 
wards in the Literal body walls nearly to the level of the gill pores ({%£ 4) 
I art her back, it becomes more concentrated venrrally so that at the posteiior 
end of the branchial region and in the oesophageal region (Fig. 8) it forms two 
conspicuous Ventro-lateral ridges which taper" away towards the end of the 
genital region but are still visible in the abdominal region ( Fig. 5). The ventral 
nerve cord can be ,een medially between the latcrafmnsde masses throuHio.it 
the length Oi the trunk. p 

The width of the intestinal region of a. freshly caught specimen is, near 
its anterior end, little more than half that of the genital region even though 
it may be distended by its content of sand and shell-grit, k tapers gradu;iilv 
to about halt tins width near its posterior extremity. The ventral longitudinal 
muscle lidges. though diminishing in si^e 7 arc visible throughout its length. 

I he epidermis of the trunk region is mainly glandular "and can be divided 
ji iio three different types. That in the vicinity of the gill pores is smooth and 
similar to that described for 5. rambremis and S. horsti That covering the 
ventral and (in the anterior branchial region) lateral longitudinal muscle bauds 
has hue transverse elevations which have already been noted above; while that 
on the remainder of the dorsal surface, < in (he genital lidges and on the lau rat 
hfKly walls, is raised into small,, transversely arranged elliptical eminences (Fics 
.*) and 7). 

til INTERNAL ANATOMY 
The epidermis of the proboscis is between 0] and 0-2 mm. thick" ( fVs 
1 and &)- The nerve layer which lies immediately under it shows a slight dorsai 
thickening which, however, is much less well developed than ^ the rorrespond- 
mg structure in S. rtimbrntsis and S. lumtL Tins may be associated with Ui<- 
sbghUr development of the dorsal groove of the proboscis in S. ap/ttitcsh Tlu- 
doftttl (subneural). the two lateral and the. ventral blood vessels lie between 
the nerve layer and the outer layer oi' circular muscles, The latter is about 
equal in thickness to the uervc layer and must lie capable of vcrv forcelul eon 
tractions as is indicated by its ability to autotomisc portions of' the proboscis 
J lie mam bulk ol the proboscis tissues is made up of longitudinal muscle fibres 
which are arranged in concentric rings, each line being separated frrim its 
neighbours by a layer of loose connective tissue, At least nine or ten of these 
rings are apparent in all specimens examined (Fig. 3-) and occasional^ then *fe 
indications of an eleventh incomplete ring represented Wr a limnboi of Mat- 
tered longitudinal fihres which lie close lo the inner layer of circular muscle fibre 
which hue the prob<*eis coelom. Seven to ten such concentric rings- have 
hoen described in S. meveskawskii and nine or more in S, horxt). "Inwards the 
posterior end of the proboscis, the inner rings become indistinct and disappear 
so that at the level of the anterior extremity of the probosois complex only rive 
or six of them arc readily apparent. The proboscis coelom extends nearly to 

in 



I Ik* anterior extremity i»l the organ. 'Hie glomerulus fjjfe I) surrounds th< 
.mtvnrr extremity nf the stomochnrd but farther back it is luiuul only ventrally 
iiii.i laterally to llie stomoehord. 

The stomoehord is fairly straight and bluntly rounded anteriorly, hi much 
contracted specimens, however, it may be considerably buckled durso-vontrally. 
it hfli .1 well- developed veutral diverticulum (Fig. 1) which is supported by the 
hiful tip of the proboscis skeleton (Fig. 2(1) ). The short, blunt prongs coalesce 
dcrsallv so thai a ventral groove is framed in the skeleton (Fig. 2 (2) and (:\\) 
in which lies fhv baekwardly directed lip or Lhe veutral diverticulum. The body 
of rhe skeleton narrows to become quite slender in its mid-region but mid 
doi'sally Jft its antciior part it bears a distinct ridge wbk'h penetrates the hotly 
of Hit "stomoehord (which lies immediately above- it) in its mid-veulral line 
(Fig. 2 (o), (4) and (5))". Ttl &* hinder part of the body of the .skeleton, 
lateral wings are slightly developed (Fig. 2 ( 11) and (12) ). but these disappc u 
belore the'skeloluu bilurcatcs to form the crura (Fig. 2 (14)). The crura pass 
upwards one on each side of the junction of the stomochnid with the lining of 
the buccal cavity and then arch outwards, backwards and downward-* in the 
wall of the buccal cavity. They extend about halfway along the length of the 
colli r and etubraee slightly more than half of the circumference ol the buocal 
t-avitv. The proboscis skeleton has no hard, central concretions such <>s occur 
in some specimens o! S. avnbrcnMs 7 nor have such concretions been noted in 
the branchial skeleton. 

Spengel (1893) recognised five trausveise /ones in the collar epidermis ol 
entcropneusis. each zone being characterised by certain cell structures and 
staining propensities. In i>. apantesis all live /ones are clearly distinguishable 
(Fig. 6). The first, the anterionnost, is a fairly JttW epilhelium oi ciliated cells 
which stain lightly with Elnlieh's haenraiosylin. This zone covers the anterior 
llange of the collar. The second zone, which is nearly as broad as the other 
four put together, contains much material which stains heavily with haema- 
roxylin. Anteriorly, where it abuts on the first /one, its cells arc low but they 
increase in height to the middle region to shorten again towards the hinder 
margin. Near its anterior imirgin there is a circular furrow whose depth varies 
considerably in relation »o the degree of longitudinal contraction ol the collar. 
The third zone consists of uarrow, elongate cells in which material which stains 
heavily is concentrated rowaids their bases, Tin's material does not slain quite 
as heavily as does that of the second '/one. The fourth /one is the narrowest 
and forms the wliite line on the collar referred to previously. \t heors a deep 
furrow and its cells contain relatively few deeply-staining particles towards 
their bases. The fifth /one, like the first, is ciliated but forms a much higher 
epithelium. Tt Jofms the posterior flange of the collar which overhangs Hit! 
beginning of the branchial region. 

The general arrangement of these zones is similar lo that in S. corafmirus 
(van dcr Uorst, 3927-30) and S. kawdevskn (Agassiz) Tn both these species 
the five zones are distinguishable. In S> cawbr^t<m, the third and fourth Ames 
are not readily distinguishable while in S. horsti they are indistinguishable. In 
S. inhac^iMS ( Kapelus, 1936) none of the five /ones is clearly demarcated. 

The number of pairs of "ill pores varies betweeu thirty and rrnty-f3ve. This 
number is less than is found in most other memluis of the genus. S. gnrneyii 
approaches it most closclv with forty to sixty pairs. The number of pairs of 
ciSI pores in the remaining species art* givflii in the list of distinguishing fea- 
tures of the different species al the end of this iirlicle. The detailed histulogy of 
the branchial region shows no special distingxiishing features. In transverse 
section the. branchial portion of the pharynx is seen to be about equal in extent 
to the non-branchial (food-groove) portion (Fig. 4). 

The fust genital pnueh appears in about the mid-branchial region Mature 
oocytes (measured on fixed material) are about 310 M long and about 2S5/i 

m 




Jig. 4 -Transverse section in branchial region, db., dorsal bloodvessel; din., dorsal Jonei- 
tudinaJ muscle of trunk; dnc dorsal nerve cord; or,, epibranchial ridge; gp., gill pouclr 
gpr„ gill pore; lm., longitudinal muscles of trunk; nbp., non-branchial portion of pharynx' 

sb., skeleton of gill scutum; tb„ skeleton of gill tongue; vnc, ventral nerve cord, 
fig. 5.-Transversc section or abdominal region. fcL, glandular eminence; vb., ventral blood- 

vessel; yr„ ventral ridge in gut epithelium; other gmde letters as in previous figures. 
t'ig. o.-bagittai Section ol collar epidermis. 1 (anterior) to 3 (posterior), /ones of collar 
17- ■* Vi r epidermis. 

Fig, 7.— Dorsal surface of oesophageal region showing arrangement of intestinal pores, gr, 
r- o , S° mtaI ™g& ip^ intestinal pore; other guide letters us in previous figures, 
rig, 8,— lransverse seetion of second region of oesophagus, no., lumen of oesophagus; on., 
Oocyte; other guide letters as in previous figures. 



broad. Jhcy are thus intermediate in s'r/f between those of S. camlm>iisis (400 ,/ 
by ;W/.<) and S. kotcnhrshi (375 n) on the one haTid and S. fwmti (230,j b> 
i70>5 and S. otagoensis (2oQ(*) on the other. Sonic six to ten mature oocytes 
appear in one transverse section as well as a larger number of immature ones. 
Thff latter are usually located medially and dorsally in the ovary, that is hi tU v 
region ef the genital' pore, while the mature oocytes occupy a more conical or 
ventral position (Fit;. S), 

The oesophagns has the usual three regions. The first of these has an cpithr 
limn of moderate thickness which is very much folded and is histologically 
similar to that of the ventral, non-branchial part of the pharynx. The second 
region has a thicker epithelium ( Fig. 8) and it is into dorsolateral grooves in this 
region that the intestinal pores open. There are siv to eight pairs of these, there 
being no rudimentary pores such as appear in S. cambrensis. Hie third region 
of the oesophagus has a lower epithelium than the first region and this merges 
imperceptibly into the hepatic region, which, as in other members of the j^euns. 
is indistinguishable externally. The gut in the abdominal region (Fig. 5) has 
a broad lumen and thin walls. Vcntro-laterally. the walls are thickened to form 
two marked parallel ridges, separated by a deep mid-ventral furrow. The 
ventral musculature in this part of the body is much reduced and there are 
only very slight traces of the fine bands of dorsal longitudinal muscles which 
are apparent throughout the branchial and oesophageal regions. 

IV SPECIFIC CflARACTKKS AND COMPAMSON WITH 

OTHER SPECIES 

The specific characters oi Saccoglnssus tipantesis are listed below: 
(a l There are between thirty and forty-five pairs of gill clctls. 
(b) The gonads' start in the niid -branchial region and form marked Hotso lalera. 

it(l (, es. 
(e) The oocytes are nearly spherical, measuring about 310 a by 285 p, 
(d)The ventral longitudinal muscles of the trunk form distinct ventrolateral 

ridges in the posterior branchial and oesophageal regions. 

(e) Their are siv to eight pairs of intestinal pores. 

(f) The- epidermis of the collar has live distinct zones, the second ol these being 
almost equal in extent to the remaining four added together. 

(g) The dorsal proboscis groove is but slightly developed in ihe posterior quart. -r 
Hr the proboscis. 

(10 Ihe longitudinal musculature of the proboscis is arranged m at least im-- 
ur ten complete concentric rings- 

(i) The stomoehord has a ventral diverticulum which is directed sbghlly back- 
wards and is partially grasped by the bluntly bifid tip of the proboscis 
skeleton. 

(i) The crura ol the proboscis skeleton extend about halfway along the length 
Mr' Ihe collar and embrace slightly more than half the: eirei.mlcieucr id Bw 
buccal ca\ »t> , 
S aiumicsls is the fifteenth member of the genns In be described. Tt tan 

ben distinguished front the other species on the following combinations ot 

characters: 

S. wlattns (Spengcl). hoc. Japan. Deep dorsal sulcus on (he proboscis giving 
it a crcsccntic cross section; ten to eleven pnirs of gills. 

S, ftftUfWItfft ( bcuham). Loe. Now Zealand. Deep dorsal groove on the pro- 
boscis; ten to fifteen pairs ol gill pores; longitudinal muscles ul the pro- 
boscis m tlircc or four concentric rings; gonads extend anteriorly to the 
level ot the fourth gill pore; one pair of intestinal pen's. 

S. inj^naens (llinrichs and Jacohi). Foe. Ilehgnhmd. Nine to twenty-two 
"pahs of gill pores; longitudinal muscles of proboscis not in concentric rings; 



174 



gonads begin at posterior extremity ol" the branchial r<-»ion; our rtaii of 
inUvstinal pores; very small inrm z about three eentrmetics Ijfog, 
& tymmfi (Robinson)- CiOc. Suez. Coliar nearly hvico as broad as kttJg; I^ns'J- 
hulinal muscles ot proboscis not in concentric rintfS; forty to sixty puirs of 
gill pores; median proboscis port*; gonads begin immediately behind the 
collar, intestinal pores absent {'?'), 
R carahuicm (van der Ilorst). Loc. West fnc)ics. Longitudinal nmst-'es ol 
the proboscis not in concentric rings; nie<b'an proboscis pore: mon than 
fifty pairs ol gill pores; gojitttlfl begin between the i'ourth and fifth gill |<nrcs\ 
.S. hohtnei (Mennn). Loc. Madras. Longitudinal muscles of the proboscis mil 
in concentric rings; crura of proboseis skeleton extend to Hie hinder . ... I 
of the collar; ventral musculature of the hunk region not especially thick- 
gonads begin immediately behind the eollai. 
S. pus'iHna (Hitter). Loc. California. Crura of the proboscis skeleton e\teml 
lo the hinder end of the collar and embrace three-qucuters of the euvom- 
ference ol the buccal cavity: about sixty pnirs of gill pores; one pair ol 
intestinal pores. 
S. rnereschkowskii (Xic Wagner). Loc. North-Kustern Russia. Fifty rapt)* ol 
gill pores; endplate of the proboscis skeleton bears a iong dorso-iuediuu 
spine; collar epidermis very thick (0-5 unn.).. 
S. mharr ims (Kapelus). Loc. South-East Africa. Eight) -two or mon- pairs 
of gill pores; longitudinal muscles of the proboscis not in concentric rings; 
gonads begin at the level of the fourth gill pores; four pairs of intestinal 
pores, the first of which has lour internal openings. 
S. kotuilcusktji (A. Agassiz). Loc. Atlantic coast of the U.S.A. A hundred pairs 
of gill pores; genital folds begin one millimetre behind die collar; onlv hon- 
or five rings clearly visible in the longitudinal muscle* of the proboscis; four 
to six pairs of intestinal pores. 
S\ ruber (Tattcrsall ). Loe. Western Ireland. Longitudinal muscles ol the pro- 
boscis not in concentric rings, no genital Dl muscular ridges on the trunk, 
fifty-six to sixty-four pairs of gill pores. 
S. .svrpaitinus (Assheton). Loc. Scotland. Very long proboscis and body, 
trunk circular in cross section, without genital or "muscular ridges, si\t\ 
pairs of gill pores: longitudinal muscle of proboscis not in concentric firm* 
S. (vmhrensis {Brambell and Cole). Loo. North Wales. Trunk circular 'in 
cross section without genital or muscular ridges; sixty to ninety pairs of gill 
pores; four to .six ill-defined concentric rings in the porifcral part of (lie 
longitudinal ^musculature of fcbo proboscis; eight to twelve pairs of intestinal 
pores, the first three to five pairs being rudimentary. Intestinal pores ar- 
ranged parallel to the mid-dorsal line. 
S. horsti (Brambell and Goodheart). Loc. Southern England. Dorsal and 
ventral grooves present on the proboscis throughout ils length; ^onuds 
begin within one millimetre of the collar; One hundred to one Imndred anil 
forty pairs of gill pores; four to eight pair? of intestinal pores. 

V REFERENCES 

KkNiiAM", W. B., 1-SOn. Btiianoghsms- otugocnsU n.sp v Quint J. Micr. Soi. 42, 49Mrfl4i 
Bp,\Maraa.. F. Wh Rogers, and Oou:, H. A,. l93J3fei- Saccoglnssus caiuhnvuh m n.>' nil 

Enrornpncnst occurring in Wait's, free. Zoot. Sol-. London. R 109- -1.11-2:30. 
Bfc\\mcj-L, K W.„ Hockhs. and Cole, U. A., 183flb, The pro-oral" Ciliary Orfitti of the 

EnlerupueiLstu; its urr-nrrenrr, structure and possible phvloffcnetic .siifsiificance riot* 

/,nol, hnc. l-omlon, H, 109. t.SJ-H)& 
Bramheix, K. Wh RowcRi ami Coodiuzaht. C. B., JfMt. Saccoiihs-sitK hot.stt sp. u„ an 

K.arrarmoii'a accurrmrr in trie Solent, J. Mar. Biol. A*3. U.K.. 25. .JSo-oOl. 
Daktv, \V. J., HMO. A new- specie of F.ittrrrjpnrjiirn, Pli/rloxlcra pfhurti from llie Afuollios 

IsI.umIs. J<Mirn. T,inr,, Soc. London Zuol., 33, 85-190, 
Htij., I. P„ IBMi Qp a new species of FhiUTupneuwtn {ttychrfQent uuxlialufnw) from fHfl 

eoa.st of New South Wales.. Prm*. Linn. Soc. N.S.VV « 10, 1-42 

IT" 



Hill, J. P., 1897. The Enteropneusta of Funafuti, Mem. Australian Mus., 3, 205-210 and 

335-346. 
Horstv, C J. van der, 1927-39. Hemiehordata. Bronn's Klassen und Ordnungen des Tier- 

Reichs, Bd. 4, Abt 4, Buch 2, Tiel 2. 
Kapexajs, F. F., 1936. The anatomy of the Entcropneust, Saccoglossus inhacensis sp. n., 

Ann. Natal Mus. 8, 47-94. 
Spengel, J. W., 1893. Die Enteropneusten des Golfes von Neapel. Fauna and Flora des 

Golfes von Neapel, Monogr. 18. 
Trewavas, E., 1931. Enteropneusta. Great Barrier Reef Exp. 1928-9. Sei. Rep. 4, 2. 



176 



THE ADELAIDE EARTHQUAKE OF 1ST MARCH, 1954 

byC. Kerr-Grant 

Summary 

In the early hours of 1st March, 1954, most of the inhabitants of the city of Adelaide were 
awakened by a loud rumbling noise followed by a shaking severe enough to crack the walls and 
loosen plaster from many houses. For most persons in Adelaide, this was their first experience of an 
earthquake, and it is the first record in almost a hundred years of any movements in the earth's crust 
in the vicinity of the city. Although a relatively minor one by the standards of countries prone to 
earthquakes, it was sufficiently severe to cause material damage to many buildings, as the 
possibility of earthquake damage had never been taken into consideration in their construction. 
There were no injuries as a result of the earthquake. 



TIIE ADIXAIDK KARTHQUAKE OF 1st MARCH, 1954 

Hy C. Kerr-Grant! 

[Read 10 Nov. 1955J 

INTRODUCTION 

In the early hours of 1st March, 1954, most of the inhabitants of the city 
of Adelaide were awakened by a loud rumbling noise followed by a shaking 
severe enough to craek the walls and loosen plaster from many houses. For 
most persons in Adelaide, this was their first experience of an earthquake, and 
it is the first record in almost a hundred years of any movements in the earth's 
crust in the vicinity of the city. Although a relatively minor one by the stan- 
dards of countries prone to earthquakes, it was sufficiently severe to cause 
material damage to many buildings, as the possibility of earthquake damage 
had never been taken into consideration in their construction, There were 
i»o injuries as a result of the earthquake. 

DATA RECORDED AND COLLECTED 

The earthquake occurred at 18 h. 10 m. G.M.T. approximately on 28th 
February, 1954 (3.40 a.m. local time on 1st March). Only the initial shock 
was* recorded on the Milne-Shaw seismograph operated by the Adelaide Uni- 
versity, this instrument being thrown out of action by tire first shock of the 
primary wave. The other instrument at Adelaide^ a Milne seismograph regis- 
tering the N-S component of .seismic vibrations, was not operating. The Milne- 
Shaw instrument normally records the E-VV component. The earthquake was 
also recorded on the seismographs in Melbourne, Sydney, Brisbane and Perth, 
hut not. as far as is known, outside Australia. The epicentre has been estab- 
lished as being on or very close to the Eden fault line, in the vicinity of the 
suburbs of Darlington and Seacliff. Minor aftershocks were felt two days after 
the earthquake, and a further tremor occurred in the morning of 3rd September, 
originating apparently from the same epicentre as the original earthquake. 

The main shock of the earthquake was estimated to last from 5 to 20 seconds 
in the suburban areas of Adelaide, the time being greater in the northern 
suburbs of the city. Near the epicentre the shock has been described as being 
very abrupt and was of only two or three seconds duration. 

In the absence of any instrumental records from distances under 400 miles 
from the epicentre, numerous reports available of the effects of the earthquake 
and the experiences of persons who felt it were investigated by the geophysical 
stair of the Department of Mines, An abundance of information was naturally 
available from the Adelaide metropolitan area, but data from more remote 
country areas is sparse as few people were awake at the time of the earthquake. 
From these reports it has been possible to draw isoseismal lines and establish 
the approximate position of the epicentre (Figs. 1 and 2), The maximum in- 
tensity of the earthquake has been established as Intensity 8 on the Modified 
Mercalli scale. A second or minor epicentre with Intensity 7 appears to occur 
in the vicinity of Beaumont. Considerable disturbance and damage to build- 

* Publish*? 3 with the approval of the Director of Mints. 
f Department of \!inr\\ South Australia. 

m 



WE — ^ 



„-i-— mm — - 2 — L - w 




!5 /}?.'.# r 5r?jW 2 



Jr'itf. -1 Isosewmal lines showing earthquake centre near Adelaide, vide Fig. 2 foe enlargement. 

nigs occurred also in the suburb of Blackwood, but (his can be accounted for 
by the fact that much of Blackwood is built on subsoil of hillsides, which tended 
to slip down hill during the disturbance. 

The earthquake, unfortunately, did not record in sufficient detail on other 
seismographs in Australia to identify with certainty any but the main P and S 

17b 



phases. Tile times of these plus** at Brisbane, Melbourne and Sydney, read 
by tlie Ihverview Observatory staff; and at Perth, read by the Government 

Astronomer, are: 

r s 

Melbourne lSh.llm.20s-. G.M.T. ISh .1.2m .25$. G.M.T. S*-18b.l1nt t 45s. 

Sydney lSh.12m.26Y GMT. l8h.Mm.38s. G.M.T. PP-18h.12m.3Gs. 

Brisbane 18h.13jn.il -9s. G.M.T. 18h.16m.13s. GM.T. PP~LSh.l2m 21 -6s. 

Perth lSh.20iu.ll.s. G.M.T. I8h.22m.23s. G.M.T. 

The Melbourne records were obtained from a Wood-Anderson seismograph regis- 
tering the N-S component with magnification 120 times (Fit*. 3) arid a Milne- 
Shaw instrument the E-W with magnification 230 times (Fig. 4), Sydney from 3 
seismographs giving E W, N-S and vertical components, and Brisbane using a 
Beniott short period seismograph for the E-W (?) component, and a Sprcng- 
nethet M-S seismograph, The Brisbane record indicates in addition subsequent 
arrivals Ut hSh. 13m. J4*8s. and ISh. 13m, 16 -8s. The earthquake WSS not re- 
corded in New Zealand, 

Numerous independent witnesses who were outdoors or awake at the time 
pi the earthquake reported the occurrence of a light or flash in the sky at the 
time of the earthquake. No satisfactory explanation of Ibis lias been forth- 
coming. Many of Lhese observers could* not indicate the direction whence the 
litfhl came, as they were indoors and saw the sky or their room Ut Tip. but most 
ol those who were outdoors agreed that il originated in the east, befog them- 
selves to the westward of the epicentre. Two reports were received from ob- 
servers who considered the light to come from the direction apposite to this 
epicentre. Similar indications of light have been often recorded iti connection 
with other earthquakes. It is quite unlikely that any nt the observers would 
have known of" this phenomenon previously, as several <rf them were milkmen 
on their mumk There was no cloud at the time the (lash was reported. 

The following causes have been suggested as an explanation of this pheno- 
menon: 

(1) A bright meteor falling at the instant of the earthquake. 

(2) Electric power lines .shorting due to the movement caused by the earth- 
quake. 

(3) A physiological effect on the eyes caused by the vibrations of the earth- 
quake. 

(4) A psychological effect due to fear caused by the earthquake. 

(5) An unexplained physical effect caused by the earthquake. 

Ol these suggestions, the first is exceedingly nnljkelv as the meteor itself should 
have been recognised by some observers; the second would have caused an 
appreciable increase of load at the power station or a breakdown if on a scale 
large enough to account for all the reports of light seen, and no immediate in- 
crease ol load was recorded by the State Electricity Trust; the third is considered 
unlikely by Davison and others as vibrations of the frequency of the earthquake 
waves normally do not affect people, also it would seem unlikely that observers 
i uuld see other objects by the flash of this light as several of them report; tho 
latter objection applies in part to the fourth suggestion; no mechanism is known 
lo have been suggested as a means of explaining any physical reason for such 
a phenomenon. Other suggestions, that the light is the reflection of light from 
Ihe interior of the earth displayed through assures oeeurring at theViuiucnt 
of the earthquake, or to light generated by the faulting movements themselves, 
seem difficult to take seriously. On the other hand, it is difficult to discount the 
veracity of all the observers reporting the lights in the sky, and the cause of this 
presumed effect must remain temporarily unsolved. 

17* 




Fig, 2— Enlargement of inset Fig. 1. lsosoism.il liht?S slunviin* mum centre of intensity eight 
and second jiuiilu ccuUc ol Int'iVisitv strvou. 



INTERPRETATION OF THE DATA 

The isoseismal lines establish the position of the epiccntral region as a strip 
running between Darlington and Seacliff. The maximum disturbance appeared 
lo be confined to two or three elongated zones less than a hundred yards wide, 
in the vicinity of the suburbs of Darlington, Seaeombe Park and to a lesser 

Iftj 



extent Rcaumont. These zones lie alone, a line corresponding almost exactly 
tu the known or inferred trace of the Eden Fault. This fault can he seen near 
Darlington where it crosses the Shepherds Hill rood, on the coast near Marino 
Rocks, aud near Mitcham; between Darlington and Seacliif the. Mrarp has wea- 
thered to an alluvial slope ; and the actual fault trace is obscured. 

The minor epicentre near Reamnont appears to be a genuine region of 
increased disturbance; it is possible that Beaumont and Darlington represent 
In a way anf modes of the vibrations transmitted to the surface, or possibly a 
separate movement under Bennmont was triggered by the main di\liirbance- 
Thcre is no evidence that separate movements occurred at appreciably diffcrcut 
I nnes. 

The time marks on the Adelaide record do uot enable the instant of origin 
tC he determined precisely. The time of origin was computed as ISll 09m. 37s. 
from the Rivcrvicw records by Father Burkc-Gaffney. 

Unfortunately, the records at Melbourne and Brisbane are too disturbed 
by microseisms and the intensities recorded were too small to get precise mea- 
surements of all the phases. Before the determination of the epicentre by 
isnxeisinal lines ;i preliminary determination made at Riverview indicated an 
epicentre in the vicinity of Kangaroo Island. from this it would appear that 
between Adelaide and Sydney the velocity of both P and S waves may be 
anomalous. 

From die shape of the tsoseismal line.s the depth of the locus of the earth- 
quake is evidently very shallow. Standard methods of determination do not 
differentiate between depths. oF locus less than two or three kilometres and the 
focus is evidently less than this; more precise determination does not seem 
possible. 

PHKVIOUS EARTHQUAKES IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

Only three previous earthquakes originating in South Australia have been 
ivcordt'i! in any' detail. Although minor tremors are quite frequent* utusl of 
the latter can be attributed to subsidence of the subsoil on the slopes of hillside?, 
aud are therefore quite superficial- Minor tremors of this kind have often been 
noted during observations with a gravity meter in the Adelaide plains, the writer 
having noted tliem especially iu the suburbs of Millswood and Goodxvoud. 

The earliest reported earthquake in South Australia is by the Rev. Julian 
Edmund Woods, who mentions- a '"severe shock" felt in Adelaide in June. 
1-S56 1 ; another shock was reported by the same author to have been felt in 
December, 1861, iu what was referred to as the Stone Tint Range, in the vicinity 
of Lake Bonney. 

The known earthquakes uf moderate intensity which have occurred in 
South Australia comprise; 

( 1 ) 10th May, 1897, at 2.25 p.m.. epicentre near Rcacbport intensity IX un 

Rossi-Forel Scale. Aftershocks were reported for some months. 

(2) 10th September, 1902, at 6.35 a.m. and $.05 p.m M epicentre near Warooka 

on Yorke Peninsula, intensity H on Mercalli scale. A series of after- 
shocks occurred ontil 2'tth Septemher. 
(ii) 8th April, 194$ epicentre 10 miles N.W. of Reachport, intensity 7(?). No 
detailed report has apparently been written on (his earthquake. 

Minor shoeks occur almost every year in the Mount Lofty and Flinders 
Ranges. A summary of the recorded shocks from 1893-1003 is given by TT<rw- 
eliin/' and from ]904-19Q8 by Dodweth' Several minor earthquakes of inten- 
sities up to 5 or on the modified Mercalli scale have been reported from the 
Flinders Ranges. Reltana being, the <eflt of their most frequent occurrence. It 
is unfortunate that the systematic collection of records of minor earthquake 
shocks does uot appear tu have been continued since this: time, 

iSJ 



CAUSES OF THE EARTHQUAKE 

In general terms, the earthquake appears to be the result of a slow con- 
tinuation or readjustment of the movement along th* Eden fault which formed 
the. scarp of the Adelaide Hills. It does not seem possible to ascertain from the 
direct evidence of the earthquake whether this movement comprised a continua- 
tion oJ the original movement with an upthrow to the east, or a reversal due 
to a settling back. Cracks in the ground which appeared at Darlington and 
.Soaeomhe Park do not indicate any appreciable movement. They arc probably 
merely dnc to subsidence of the subsoil downhill. The only inference possible 
is that any movement on the fault plane must have been quite small — of the 
order of an inch or two. 

A visit was paid to an abandoned quarry near Gilberton Road, Seacombe 
Park, where very recent displacements in the slate of the quarry were evident. 
Tins quarry appears to be south of the inferred position of the Eden fault in 
this area, and after an examination of the quarry it was eoucluded that the 



m 



I8 n II^G-MX 
(-12-4*) 

Hi{. i Wood-Anderson recnrcl, Mellmmiu* Obsi rvatory. 28th Feb „ 19.54. 

observed movement was merely gravitational displacement of the already frac- 
tured rock. The maximum displacement seen was approximately two inches. 

Negative isostatie gravity anomalies occur on the Adelaide plains or western 
side ot the Eden fault scarp, compared with slight positive anomalies over the 
hills area. If the Eden fault is assumed to be a normal fault, it is probable that 
the earthquake produced a slight relative rising of the plain and sinking of the 
hills. Tf, however, as seems more likely from geophysical evidence, the fault 
is predominantly a thrust fault, and isostatie readjustment is prevented by com- 
pressive stresses in the crust, it is impossible to decide whether the motion was 
due to a continuation of the tlnust movement or a readjustment caused by its 
relief; the former hypothesis seems more, plausible, as the movement causing 
the faulting is comparatively recent geologically haying occurred since Pleis- 
tocene time, and is possibly still in progress to some extent. 

182 



There may be some significance In the fact that the epicentre is in a region 
where the fault trace bends from a N.N.E-S.SAV direction to nearly east-west 
since si slow adjustment along an active fault plane might be impeded where 
the plane is curved, allowing greater shearing stresses to build up before 
slipping occurred. 

The actual triggering mechanism setting off the earthquake cannot be 
surmised. 

The tides at this date were almost neap tides, high tides being at 2.54 a.m. 
and 5.25 p.m. on 1st March and low water at 10,59 a.m., so that although the 
weight of water in the gulf due to the high tide prior to the earthquake may 
have assisted in triggering it at the particular hour at which it oecured. some 
further mechanism must have been responsible for initiating the movement at 
a period of neap tides rather than at one of spring tides. 

Also the barometric gradient at the time of the earthquake was not favour- 
able to triggering the earthquake. At 3 a.m. on 1st March, 1954 (local time), 
the gradient was less than 1 millibar j)er hundred miles in a direction from 
S.S.W. to N.N.E., the centre of the anticyclone being over Kangaroo Island, 
pressure 1020 millibars, while that at Adelaide was 1017-6 millibars. The 
major component of this gradient is parallel to and not across the fault. 






J 


' 




inn' *• i ii 7 








































































. . . . - . 


. 






' -rL rf 


i 


■ . «^< ■*■ 






r 


f 












p 


■^/» 


•■■■I" 




l8 h l| m G.M.T. 
(-I2-4 5 ) 

Imjj. 4— Milne-Slnuv record, Melbourne Observatory. 28th Feb., 195-4. 

EFFECTS OF THE EARTHQUAKE 
The most evident effect produced by the earthquake was the material 
damage done to large numbers of buildings in the Adelaide suburban area 
and in a few districts in the Adelaide Hills adjacent to the epicentre, Some 
houses in the vicinity of Darlington and Seacombe Park were damaged beyond 
repair, the worst damage observed being a house occupied by Mr. C. E. Tiller, 
proprietor of the Darlington Sawmills, which was in the course of being par- 
tially rebuilt. Two unbraced walls at the rear of the house collapsed and large 
cracks appeared in the interior and exterior walls of the house, one portion 



of an interior wall being displaced hvu or three inches transversal!}' at the 
position of the crack. PJale i shows some of the worst examples of' damage 
sustained. 

Considerable damage to buildings also Declined in Blackwood,, but tins 
has been attributed to subsidence of the sloping ground on which most houses 
are built rather than to any local increase in the intensity of the seismic vibra- 
tions. The amount of damage, as is to be evpeoted. varied considerably with 
the type of structure. Older houses built without dressed stone and with lime 
instead or cement mortar are particularly prone to damage, The most unsuit- 
able type of building appears to be a stone veneer or "facing over brick or 
cement walls. 1W a singular coincidence, a lar^e new housing area near Dar- 
lington has been i>uilt mainly with wooden houses, one of the few areas of this 
type in South Australia, Only minor damage to the brickwork chimneys was 
reported from this area. 

Estimates of the total amount being expended by insurance companies in 
earthquake repairs exceed four million pounds. This figure is misleadingly 
large for ;in earthquake of this intensity for three reasons: 

(1) The almost universal use of brick or stone for building construction in 

Adelaide. 

(2) 'Hie pre-cxistence ol numerous minor cracks in masonry structures often 

caused by other factors, which the earthquake opened up sufficiently 
to necessitate repair. 

f-Ijj The absence of previous earthquakes resulting in the existence of numerous 
buildings unable to withstand even relatively minor .seismic disturb 
ances without some damage. 

Another curious feature of the earthquake was the rotation of three chim- 
neys on top of the F $. and A- Rank in King William Street. vVdolaide. N. H. 
Tindale has also reported that many objects in the South Australian Museum 
rotated in an anticlockwise direction by about 10-15 degrees. The movement 
near Waitc Agricultural Research Institute was in a N.-S. direction from the 
evidence obtained from books on shelves of Waite Institute Library. 

In addition to the struetural damage caused by the earthquake, numerous 
new springs in parts of the hills and metropolitan area were reported and an 
increased or renewed How occurred in existing springs, Reports of new springs 
were received from; 

The National Park, Belairj 

Mylor, aud on the Meadows- Wilhmga lioad; 

Woodside; 

Crafers. Hrown Hill Creek and Mt Barker Greek. 

A bore at Golden Grove, and another at Biggs Flat in the Hundred of Kuitpo. 
were reported to have stopped flowing. 

Some time after the earthquake, in April after half an inch of rain had 
fallen in the previous night, a mud flow was reported on the property of Mr. 
aud Mrs. Fendler in the vicinity of the upper parts of the Rrown Hill Creek 
near the Mount Barker Hoad. A river of mud resembling a lava flow started 
near the head of a steep tributary on die south side of the Brown Hill Creek 
and flowed for about half a mile across the main valley through the middle of 
a field covered with potatoes. The mud was about three feet deep and carried 
small bushes and other objects alon# on the top of it This movement was 
quite slow and took about a day to reach its iua.\iminn extent, ceasing a few 
yards before reaching the creek which flows on the north-west side of the valley. 

Although this phenomenon cannot be directly related to the earthquake, it 
is considered that it was caused by the loosening of the soil on the hillsides 

1<M 



above, which the advent of the winter rains made sufficiently plastic to flow 
as viscous nmd. 

Apart from the physical effects of this earthquake, the realisation oi the 
enormous structural damage to buildings which can be caused by even a moder- 
ate earthquake greatly stimulated local interest in earthquakes in all sections 
of the conununitv. Many enquiries have been received as to the likelihood 
and probable frequency of future earthquakes iu the Adelaide plains area. 
This, of course, cannot be predicted particularly since insufficient seismic 
stations are available to determine the overall seismieity of the State. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The writer is indebted to the Director of Riverview College Observatory, 
N.S.W., for data recorded at Riverview College and valuable comments 
and information on the records obtained at Sydney, Melbourne and Bris- 
bane, and to the Chief Geophysidst of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
Geology and Geophysics, Melbourne, for the records obtained in Melbourne, 
to the Professor of Geology at the University of Queensland for photographic 
copies of the records obtained at Brisbane, to the Government Astronomer of 
Western Australia for information on the arrival times of the disturbance, and 
to the Director of the Seismologieal Observatory of Wellington, New Zealand, 
for a report on the absence of recordings in New Zealand; also to the Australian 
Broadcasting Commission and the representatives of the rrress in Adelaide for 
passing on information collected by their news sen-ices. The co-operation of 
many persons too numerous to name individually who communicated their 
observations and experiences enabled the construction of an isoseismal map. 

Assistance in preparation of the data was given by Assistant Geophysicist 
D. M. Tegum of the Geological Survey of South Australia and the permission 
of the Director of Mines to publish this report is acknowledged. 

REFERENCES 

1 Woods, Rev. Julian Edmund, Geological Observation* in South Australia, Li.uji.ion, !Sfi2 

2 Tlowchin. "WalLer, The Geology of South Australia, 1st Edition, Adelaide, 1$T8, pp. 

'267-270 

3 Howchin, Walter, The Geography of South Auttttlfr Christohiuch. New Zealand. 1910, 

op. 135-141. , -v.* 

4 DodweU G. F., Proc. Aust. Assoe. Ad\ , Science?, Vol. xu, 1909. yip. 4H*4» 



i.sn 



C. KElUt-GKANT 



Plate 1 





Stone veneer House in Aboyne Ave., Seacombc 
Park, showing damaged front. 



House in Seacombe Road made of cement 
blocks and stone veneer. 








Fissure in front path 100 yards SAV. of Mr. 
Tiller's house. 



Damage to Mr. G. E. Tiller's house, 
Darlington. 



ABSTRACT OF EXHIBITS AND LECTURES AT MEETINGS OF 

THE SOCIETY DURING 1955 



Summary 



ABSTRACT OF EXHIBITS AND LECTURES AT MEETINGS OF THE 

SOCIETY DURING 1955 

May 12— P. F. Lawson (South Australian Museum): Illustrated talk on the 
1953 Expedition to Lake Callabonna for the purpose of collecting 
fossil remains of mammals. 

April 14—1, M. Thomas: Illustrated talk on his recent visits to marine biological 
stations in Great Britain and Western Europe. 

June 9— D. King introduced a discussion on the geology of the Lake Eyre region 
CI W. Bonython: Illustrated talk entitled "Lake Eyre," in which he 

exhibited colour transparencies and a cinema film in colour. 
I. M. Thomas exhibited and explained new equipment for plankton 
sampling in coastal waters. 

July I4r— R L. Spkcht: Illustrated talk, "Some problems of plant nutrition and 
soil-water relationships associated with the Ninetv-Mile Plains of 
South Australia." 
F, J. Hilton showed pictures illustrating differences of vegetation in 
parts of the Flinders Ranges before aud after rain. 

August 11— T. R. N. Lothian: Illustrated talk, "Cultivating dry-land plants." 

Sept. S — K. H, Northcote: Soil studies in the Barossa district. 

Nov. 10— C. P. Mountford showed a cinema film in colour entitled "Island of 
Yoi." 



186 



BALANCE SHEET 



Summary 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA ( INCORPORATED j 
Receipts and Payments for Year ended 30th September, 1955. 



RECEIPTS 
£ 
To Balance 1/10/54 
,, Subscriptions 
„ Government Grant for 
printing, etc.: 

1954-5 (balance) 1,125 
1955-6 (1st insUt) 375 



J. 



£ 

554 

351 



s. 

18 
18 



10 
5 



Sale of Publications and 

Reprints 
Interest 
Hire of Hall 
I'VrHer Bequest for 

Field Naturalists... 



1 ,500 



301 
3 



9 

m 

9 



3 

11 





1,262 4 3 



£4,206 18 8 



PAYMENTS 



£ s. d. 



Printing ttfhl Publishing 

Reprints 
Library Assistants 
Printing and Stationery 
Postages, Duty Stamps, 

etc. 
Postages on Transactions 
Cases i\nd Packing 

Books, etc. 
"Verco" Medallions 
Cleaning 
Insurance 

Lighting ._ 

Alterations to Lighting 
Sundries 

Field Naturalists' Sec- 
tion ( bequest J 
Balance- 
Savings Bank 
of S A.- 

Geni A/c. 562 9 5 
Ex-Endow. 

Fund 15 2 9 

Bundle St. 
A/c ... 1,679 4 6 



2.256 16 3 



Less Out- 
standing 
Cheques 
6 5 
75 19 10 
2 
1 18 
4 15 



88 19 10 



86 


17 


6 


185 


12 


6 


56 


15 


3 


50 


10 




56 


3 


8 


137 


12 


6 


15 


8 


o 


47 


12 





7 


1 


7 


16 


18 


6 


106 








o 


16 


1 



1 ,262 4 3 



Cash on Hand 



2,167 16 10 
4 4 6 



172 1 1 



£4.206 18 8 



ENDOWMENT FUND 
Receipts and Payments for Year ended 30th September, 1955. 



1954-Oct. 1: 
To Balance— 

CoinmonwTh Inscribed 



d. £ s. d. 



Stock 

Savings Bank of S.A. 

1955-Sept 30; 

Interest- 
Inscribed Stock 
Savings Bank of S.A. 


6,010 

62 18 

199 11 

33 7 




— 6,072 

6 

5 


IS 
18 


7 
11 










£6,305 


17 


6 



£ s. d. 
1955-Sept. 30: 
By Revenue A/c. 
n Balance— 

Common Vth Inscribed 

Stock .. 6,010 

Savings Bank of S.A. 62 18 7 



£ s. d. 

232 18 11 

6,072 18 7 



£6,305 1 



Audited and found correct. The Stock and Bank Balances have been verified bv certificates from 
the respective institutions. 



F. M. ANGEL } Hon. 

N. S. ANGEL, A.U.A. Com, £ Auditors 

Adelaide, 11th October, 1955. 



H. M. HALE, Hon. Treasurer, 



AWARDS OF THE SIR JOSEPH VERCO MEDAL AND LIST OF FELLOW, 

MEMBERS, ETC. 



Summary 



AWARDS OF THE SIR JOSEPII VERCO MEDAL 

1929 Prof. Walter Howciun, F.C.S, 

1930 John McC, Rlack, ALS. 

1031 EftoV. Sir* Dovo.au Mmvsok, O.B.E.. D.Sc. B.E.. P.O. 

1933 PnoF. J. Burrruv Clm.anij, M.D. 

1935 Pkof. T, IIarvfy Johnston, M.A.. D.Sc. 

lOaB Phof. J. A. PnEScbrr, D.Sc.. F.A.EC. 

1913 Hehbkrt Wr^E2R$i#w, A.L.S.. F.R.E.S. 

1944 Pkof. J. G. Wood, D.Sc., Ph.D. 

1945 CfiCtL T. Majmhan, M.A.. B.E.. D.Sc, F.G.S. 
1940 iIfbbf-rt M. EUui O.B.E. 

1955 L. Ki&mi W'Aim, J.S.O., B.A., B.E., D.Se. 



LIST OF FELLOWS, MEMBERS, ETC. 

AS AT 30th SEPTEMBER, 1955. 

Those marked with Itn asterisk (*) have contributed papers published in the Society's 
Transactions. Those marked with a dagjjcv ( f ) arc Life Members. 

Any change in address or any other changes should be notified io the Secretary. 

Note— The publications of the Society are not sent to those members whose subscriptions 

are in arrear. 

Hon ok ah y Fallows 

OaU of 
hkaion 

1949. •Clklanu, Prof. J. B.. M.D.. Dashwood Road, Beaomont, SA.-Felhw, 1895-1949; 

Vcrco Medal, 1933; Council. 1921-26, 1932-37: Vres'ideni, 19-27-28, 1940-41; Vice- 

President. 1926-27, 1941-42. 
1955- *Mawson, Phof. Sir Doifcr-xs, O.B.E., D.Se., B.E., F.R.S., Universitv of Adelaide 

VercoMtdaL J 931; President, 1924-25, 1944-43; Vice-President. 1923-24, 1925-26, 

Council, 1941-43. 
1955. °Osborn, Prof. T. C. B., D,Sc\, 22 Hardwicke Street, Balwvn, Victoria— Council, 

1915-20. 1922-24; President, 1925-20; Vice- President, 192-4-25, 1926-27, 
1955. 'Ytfcutii. E K., T.S.O.. BA„ R.E., D.Sc,, 22 Northumberland Street. Hcathpnnl. 

Marrvatville, S,A, -Council. 1924-27. 1933-35; Viee-F resident, 1027-23, President. 

1928-30. 

Fellows 

1946. Amur. Pkof. A. A., M.D., D.Sc, Ph,D„ University ot Adelaide, 
1953. Aocock, Miss A-, 4 Gertrude Street, Norwood* S\A. 

1951. Aitciiison, G. 1)., B.K., Civil Engineering Department; I'niversity of Melbourne., 

Carlton, Victoria* 
J927. *Aldkbman. Prof. A. R., Ph.D.. D,Sc„ F.O.S.. Universitv of Adelaide — Countii 

1937-42, 1954-55, 1955-50. 
1951. Anderson; Mus. S. H., B.Sc, /oology Dept.. University of Adelaide, lS.A, 
19" 1. Andrews, j r1 M.B., B.S., 40 Seafield Avenue, Kingswond. S.A. 
1935 "ANPHiiWAKitiA, IE G, M.AjJr.Sc., D.Sc., Woite Institute -Council, 1919-50; Viee- 

ptesidenh 1950-51, 1952-53; President, 1951-52. 
1935. *ANnuF\vAnTTU Mrs. II. V., B.Ayr.Se., M.Sc. (uec H. \ Sic- I- '\ 29 Claremont 

Avenue, JS'olherbv, S.A, 
1929. *Ancf,t. F. M. s 34 Fullarton Road, Parksidc, S.A, 

1939. ° Angel, Miss L. M,, M.Sc., e/o Mrs*. C. Angel. 2 Moore Street. Toorak. Adelaide, S.A. 
1945. "Human, II. K., L.Th., 2 Abhotshall Road, Lower Mitcham, S A. 
1959. Blasley, A. K., s Harris Street. Marxian* S.A. 

1950 liwK, B. G., BiAjiSc- HDA, T.vnewootl Park. Mil-Lei, via Mount C-MinbiVr. S.A, 
1932, ftjirift H B-. D.D.Se.,L.Db\, Shell Hun<*c\ 170 North Ternuo, Adflatdc. 
1928. Bust, H. J., DSc., F.A.C.I., Waito Institute {Private Mail Ba^), Adelaide. 
1934. Black. Iv C, M.B,. B.S., Ma^ill Road. franoiere. Adelaide. 
195(1 Bonnin, N. J., M.B.. B.S., F4\.C.S. (Enjs.), F.R, A.CS., 40 Barnard Street \oilh 

Adelaide, S.A. 
1945. ^Bonyfhon, C W., B.Se., A.A.C.I.. Bomalo House, Romaic Avenue, Ma£ill, S.A. 
19^0, Bonytiion, Sib J. Lavinotox. 263 East Terrace, Adelaide. 
1915. *Roomsma, C\ O., M.Se., B.Sc.For., 6 Okie Avenue. South Road Park, S.A. 

1947. "Bowks, D. B., Ph.D., M.Se,, D.I.C.. F.C.S., Ceoioyy Department, IhrivrTsiK Coile»i\ 

Swansea^ Wales. 
1939. BuooRxrAN, \Tns. IE D. fucc A. HarA-ey) T B.A., Meadows. S.A. 

18? 



Date ttf 

1944. "Btmumcu, Miss N. !'., M.Sc, C.S.I.B.O., Div. Plant Industry, r.O. Box 109, Can- 
berra, A.C.T. 
K125. Bcrwov, R. §„ D.Sc, ( Vuiversitv oJ Adelnidc-Cmmc*/, 1946-47, 1947-4S 1948-49. 

1922. fi Ctart*tt*U« Puof. T. U., D.D.Sc, D.Se.. Dental Dcpt., Adelaide Hospital, A&kldfc- 

GbKuril 1928-32, IWSL J 942-45'; Vicc-Prwuivnt, 10.32-34; jPreWcnt. 2834-35, 
1933. OArtiKii, A. N , B-Sc, 70 Madeline Street, Burwnod, E13, Victoria: 
1920 CiiHisin:. W., M.B., B.S., 7 WaHcr Street, Hyde .Park, Adelaide, S.A.-TYi^vrtr, 

193,*M& 

1955. Ci-OTiii£R. E. A. f e/o Department of Mines, Adelaide, S.A. 

1949. CoruvEGL, F. S., Geology Department, University of' QuccitftlnuJ, 

1907. °Cookl ? W. T», D.Se., A.A.C.L, 4 South Terrace, Kensinutoii Gardens. S.A.-Coimci/, 

J 038-41: Vice-President 1941-12, 19-13-41; PrcsUU-r\t % IW2-4& 
1029- °Cotton. b. G\. S.A. Museum, Adelaide-Crwuc/7. J 943- 4ft 194-S-49; Vicc-PrvmUwt. 

1949-50. 1951; President, 1950-31. 
1953. Dave, D, \\. $., M.H„ B.Ghir., M.B.O.S., L.R.C.F,, B.A., institute of Medical and 

Veterinary Science, Fromc Boad, Adelaide, 
I'Joi. DAvmsov, A. a L., PkD„ B,5a, c/o Bums Philo Tmsr Cr... 7 Biidtf* Stieet, 

Svducv. N.S.W. 

1950. Delano, C. M., M.B., U.S., D.I'H,. D.TAf., 29 OflHttt Street, Goodwood, 5 A-- 

CoMtwtf, 1.949-51. 1934-56; Vke-Prmlde$tj 1951-52, 1933-54: Prttiidvnt, 1952-53. 
1941. Dickinson, S. B., M.Sc, c/o Department of Mines, 31 Flinders Sired. SJU— 

Pffftirift 1949-51, 1954-56, Vfce-Preaffefen*, 195U52, '1933-54; frfflffibnE 1052-53. 
1890, Dix. E. V.. Hospitals Department, Bundle Street, Adelaide, .S.A. 

1944. Dunstone. S, M. L,, MB.. B.S.. 170 Pavneham Road, St Peters, Adelaide. 
J93I. Dvvvi£K. /. M„ M.B.. U.S.. 105 fori Houd, JHindmarsb, S.A. 

1933. 'EAnmacv. Miss C. M, M.Sc., University or Adelaide-Count it, 1943-40. 

1945. *Ei>iwom*». M. J,, B.A., M.Sc, Zoology Department, University of Adelaide— Council 

1954-55, Programme Sectttfatij, 1955-30. 
1902. °Etm?uirt. A* C, 19 Farrell Street, Crenel*, SA.-Cuunril, 1919-1953. 
1927. ^UTVns, H. II., 305 VvVd Street. North Adelaide-Coroici/, 1937-40. 

1951. Fisher, ft. TT.. 203 Goodwood Head, Kin^s Parle, S.A. 

1923. *FHV, Hi K., D.S.O.. M.D , B.S., B.Sc., F R.A.C.P., Town Hall, Adehikic-Coimetf. 

1933-37; Vjce-ftesitlmt. 1937-38, 1939-40; Pivsiricnt, L33&-3&, 
1951. Km on. Cul. D., CU1.C C.B.E., Aid**-., S,A. 

1955. Gn.rs. F, T. (Do.), Ph.D. M,Sc, D.I.C., S.A, Muscmi, North lertace, Adelaide. 
1954 CiasoN, A. A.. A.W.A-S M., Ooolotfsl Mines Department, Adelaide. 
195-3. *Clausnn-ku, M. F. ( D.Sc., c/o Geology Department. University of Adelaide^ Counsil, 

1927 Gonn^Y, R, K., Boa gM« f G.PX)., Adelaide. 

1935. ICoLnsACK, H„ Horomandel Vallev, S.A. 

I0W ^Gi^ant. Fjiok. Snt Knut. M.Sc^ F.LP., 56 Fourth Avenue, St. PcIots, S A. 

1951. GnbL-x, J. W., H Bedford Avoarte, Snhiaeo, West Anslodui. 

IB04 GKitFim T PI. D., 13 Dunrebin Boad 3 Bi^gfiiOlti, S.A. 

1918 Gnoss, G. P., B.Sr., Sonth Australian Museum, Adeiaitle-SeX'/c/ori/, 1939-53. 

1944, Gui'i-Y, D. ]., B.Sc, t/o W.A. Petroleum Co., 251 Adelaide Terrace, Fterth. WA. 
1922. *JIai.k, If. M., O.B.F., c/o .S.A. Musetun-V<?/ro A/Mi/, 1940; CWr«a7- 1931-34 

1950-53; Yicc-Presidmt, 1931-36, 1937-38; l&ftft&flfc 1936- Ts7; Vrori'urrr 193S-50 

1953-56. 
1040. IJ\u„ D, B., Tea Tree Gully. S.A. 
1930, |Ham;uck, N. I-., 3 Be\vdle>, 00 Bedford Boad. Rose Hav, N..S.W- 

1953. °Han-svk. 1 V., B.A, 34 lleibert Itoad, West Croydon, S A. 

1940, ■HAHttV. Mas. J. E. (nee A. C. Be.eUitl.), MSe.. 13o\ 62, Smitliton, Tas. 

1941. llAmiis, J. U„ B.Sc, c/o Waitc Institute (Private Mad Bag). \d<4aide. 
1941. HEtmior, H. F„ B.Aur.Se., 49 ITftfctupy Avenue, Kin^wood S.A 

1954, Huaon, F. M., U.Agr.Se,, 298 Mai;ill Bead, lieulah Park. 
1951. ITockixc, L. J.. School House, Benmarlc West, S.A. 

1924. "HosstiiLD, P. S., Ph.D., 132 Fisher Street, Fullaiton, S.A.. 

1911 Hcmule, D. R, Wi, MJ J .S.. J.P,. 238 Payn(4inm Bond. Payiid.Miij, S.A. 
1917. Horror^ J» T., B.Sc, 18 limdy Avenue, Claphaui. 
1928, li-aeLO, P., H Wyntt Bon<l, Burnside. S.A. 

1945. °Ji-sst-r, B. W v M.Se,. c/o G.S.I.R.O., Canberra, A.CT. 

1950. "IbufiS, R. K., U.S'c, Dcniurtmcot ol Mines, Flinders Stieet. Adelaides S.A. 

1951 Kkats. A. L., B.K., e/o No.th Broken Mill Ltd., Broken ITtll. 

1939. fKi^KHAn, H. M , PJ..D., MB., F.B.G.S., Kh.ikhar Boiidm^, C.i*. TariV Howl. JJiwn. 

l)ay. India. 
1949. *Kino, D., M.Sc.. c/o Department of Mines, Flinders Stcei4 s Ad.lai<lr- 
1933. *Kl*£tvia.n, A. W.. Ph.D., University of AdclukW-Strrcforv. 19'15-48; Vto rnvfrkii/. 

1948-49, tnSO-515 FiesiJvnt, 1949-50. 

1*9 



Urttc nl 
KJcciten 

LfiSiS J-lNMiN, G. A., M.D. : BA F.ftfHR, A.MC Budding, kni* William 51KJ&, Adelaide 
I94S. Lothian, T. Ik N~ N.D.U. (NX ), Director. Botanic Gardens, Adelaide- Tnmttrcr. 

L'95S -33, Council. 1933-50. 
IWi *Loijiihook, Mns. N. H- M.A., Ph.D., D.I G - VAK& . Department bf Mines. 31 

Flinders Street. Adelaide. 
I93S. M^jpiaaiec, C. R M B.D.S.* D.D.S., Shell House, North TeiTace, Adelaide. 
l£$3i MArxznn, D, A.3 B.Se. (Htms..), Wajte Institute, Arkltwlo, 
1939. Mahshau., T. J., M.Agr.Se., Ph.D., Waite Institute ( krivate Mail Bay), Adelaide— 

CounciL 1 9><a'-52, 
1920. Ma\o. Sir Hkbrkin*. LL.1V, 0,tf., 19 Marlborough StreeL Gi,IV»t knk S.A. 
WWi Mayo. (J. M &, B.Aji-.Se-, 29 Marlborough Street, College. Park, hjL 
HM3. Mc;G A uniY. Mess D. P.. B.A-. B.Se.. 70 ITalloit TYrmre. EtttfixglPM Park. 
lH5;i \|r:t:AiiTKKY. J. E., M.D., I3-.Sc; (Editv), Institute of Medical and Veterinary Selene.- 

Prome Hoack Adelaide. 
I94K. M.Cullocii, K. N., M.B.E., B.Se., iVAgr.Sc, Knsowovtln Agric ultur.d Golkar. ftflR* 

worth v, S.A. 
1945. t*Miu*, & H., D.Sc, F.G.S., li Church Boad, MiMnun, S.A. 
1051. Mti.KS, J. A, B., M.A. B.Chir, CpatttA, Umyatltfty of DtUgfi, NX 
I9.V2. MruNK, K. L., I .C.A., 14 Burlington Street Walkerville. S.A. 
.1939. MiNOiAAr, V. H,, 7 J,r-uTh\vaite Street. WbvaHa West, S.A. 

1UH. IMnciirjx, l J KOF. SfR W., KG M.G . M.A., DSe.. kit/roy Tenaee, Prospect, S.A. 
BfflS". Mitchell. Phoi\ M< JL, M.Se-, e/o Elder's Trustee mid Executor Co. Ltd** 37 Currie 

Street, Adelaide. 
1931. MrrroKii., P. J., c/o The South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide'. 
1938. MooruiousE, F. W,, MSc. Chief Inspector of Pishtirie.s, Simpson Buildings, Gawli * 

Place. Adelaide. 
1936'. "Mountkohd, C P., 25 Kirsl Avenue, St. Peters. Adelaide. 

1944- Mukuixi.. J. W\. Eu&ineetiu;: and Wafer Supply Dept. r VMrtria Snjiaie, Adelaide. 
104-1. NiNM'S, A. B-, B.A., B.D.A , 6*2 Sheffield StreeL Malvern, S.A. 
]9n2. NtniNK, H. V. \".. e/o Onion Bank n[ Australia, Arlelaio'e, 

1045. *\ormicoi>, K. II.. I3.A«r.S'e., A.I.A.S., WaiLe Jii.slitiile (Brivalc Mail Bag). Adelaide. 
1&30. OexEKDEN, G. V., B.A.. Seh<iol House, Box 63, Kinibu. S,A. 
1937. ^Pauki^j. U W., M.Se., A.S.T.C., e/o Mine.s Dent.. AdeLihlc-Senri^v, 11)5^-50. 
UM0. Parkinson, Ki J.. B.Sc, Whitwurtu l^oad-. Balaklava, S.A. 
H)^. Pavu.i . A. (»., M.A., B.Se. v 10 Mdtou Avenue. Kulluton l^t.Ue. S.A. 
Ltfifl, e l J t»a:n. C. S ,. DSc, Wnite Imtirute (Privati^ Mail Ba^), Adcdai.le-Ofjuiiei/, IMM& 

Yicz-Pivsklent, IMMS, FMB-47; President. lf)45-4fi. 
I94o'. Powiui:. J, K.. B.Se,, CS,I U.O., Keith, SA> 

1949. Pii.AiJK. H. G., 81 Pjtrfc Terraee. North Unlev. S.A, 

1925. *Pur:sfori. t'noF. J. A., C.B.E., D.Sc. A.l.CJ.. F.K.S.. 82 Cioss fomtt, Mrrtlo Bank, 
S,A-\'f/ro .Ufft/flt IftSfc Cmiflt/JL 1.927-30. UJ.35-39; ViccPn^htcni, 1930-32- 
iVe:,(V/e/ t f, 1932-33; &Hhft t 1955-50. 

1945, •Prvok, I.. O.. M.Sr-.. Dip.l^^.. 32 La Perou^e Strcvt. Griffith. Canl)eu;t. A.G.T. 

1950. *Rajik;an, J. H., M.Se.. West AiislTulian P^rok-um Co., Perth. W.A. 
J951. Bavson. P.. H,Sc. > e/o Botany Deo;vrtiuenk fniversitA 1 of Adelaide. 

HJM, JU( i-ma>^ D. S\, M.Se\, B.Agr.Se., C.S.I.R.O.. Division of Nutrition, Adelaide. 
1947. RrEDLL. \V. P., B.Se., e/o .Seiipi^ Instilutioji of Oeeanop,raph> „ Otpt. ttf Palaeou- 

tolouv l t .ii Jolla, Galifornia. U.S.A. 
1947. Bi\. C b'., 42 NVavTMUulb Avenue, GWlore, S.A. 
1QS3l Bocrns. Pnor, S. W- ft, Pli.l).. /noloe;v Department, Untversitv of Adelaid«'- 

1951. KmvE, S. A., 22 Slielle> SUeei r Fii'le, S,A. 

19*51. fUnvii. S. Iv, B.Se., C'ortlon (restitute of Tecluioloj*\ , Geeloiit:, Vielojla. 
19.=i0. Bino, Pkof. & A., B.Se.. A.M,. TTnivr-rsitv of AdrUide, S.A. 
I SW. BrssF.i.i.. L. D,, e o Uudi Sehool, Hurt Pine, S.A. 
1945, liYMlLL, J. K. 3 Ol.l Penola Estute, Penola, S.A. 
IM33. S<iiNKiT>F.n, M., M.B., B.S.. 175 .North Terrace. Adelaide. 

lUftl. Sioir. T. D.. BSc r/o S_A. Museum, North Tei'raee, Adelaide, S.A.— VragramtHt' 
SrrruUini, 1953-55. 

1924. *Sft;pdT, B. \V\, \kA., B.Se., Enunieerinti and Water Supply Department. Vietoru 

SqrUn. 1 , Adelaide-Ner/'r-f*™, 1930 -A5j Coutuii 1937-3S; Vw^V resident, 19:1^-3!^ 
1910^11; Vwiklent. 1939-40. 

1925. "SHKAnri. TP. Port Elliot, S.A. 

1930. "SiurAui.. Dis. K.. M.Se., Ftifaafc* Rcsrareh Div- C.S.I.H.O.. Universih- of W.A.. 

Ncdkmds, W.A. 
i9ol. Snfc:eKKUi), B. G., B.Se.. c/o Department of Mines, Adelaide. 
193k SnisKFiKLi), 1\. C?.- T -57 flaultrhiiry Avcnuo : Trim'U Gardens. S.A. 
1949. SrvfPSoN. D, A., M Ik, B.S., The Witfter House, Great Haseley, Oxfoidshiie. England. 
1925. fS*rrrii. T. E. Barr. B.A. ; 25 Gurric Street. vVdekiklc- 

190 



Date of 
Flection 



1941. "Smith, T. L , B.Se, National University, School of Pacific Studies, B.>\ 4, G.P.O., 

Canberra. A.G.T. 
1911. Schjthcdit, R. V., M.B., B.S., D.TM. & H„ 43 Jumper Strict, tfvde Park. S.A.- 

CounciL 1919-51, 1952-53; Treasurer, 1951-52; V?cs-IVMftfert£ 1953-54, 1955-56; 

President, 1954-55. 
1936'. Sucthwooo. A. 1L, M IX, M-S. (Add.), M.R.C.K, 170 North Terrace. Adelaide 
194;. °SrECin\ R. L., Ph.D.. Botany Department, l.'niversitv of Adelaide -Cermet/ 1951- 
1930. +°Shiu«g. R C M.Se. ; 5 Baker Street, Somerton Piirk.' 
1951. Steadatan, Ria\ \\\ R., 8 Blairgowrie Road, St Georges, S.A. 

1947. SVtmMicc, M. B.. B.Ajr.Sc, Horticultural Branch. Dep.utmenr ol' Agriculture, Bov 

901E, G.P.O., Adelaide. 

1949. °Si'KV, A. H., M.Sc. Geology Department, University of Tasmania. 

1938. \ii;fhev*. C. O, D.S'c, Wuite Institute (Private Mail Bag), Adelaide Council 

1952-51; Vice-President, 1954-55; President, 1 955-56. 
19;>5. Swaike, C. D., M.B.. B.S.. Repatriation Sanatorium, Belair, S,\ 

1932. 5wav D C. ? M.Sc, Waile Institute (.Private Mail haul, Adelaide-Scrretan/ 
tm.o * 1940-42: Viec-Ptesutent 1946'-47, 1948-49: President, 1947-48: Council 1953-5fL 

1948. Svvann, 1- J. W.. Box 150, P.O. Burnie, Tasmania- 
1951. Swik.skj, V., M.Ac-.Se., 618 Scaview Road, Grange, S.A. 

1934. S-mon'n, 1. G., 35 Murray Street, Lower Milcharn*. S.A.-Etlitnr, 1947-55; Council 

1955-56. 
1929. °Tauoh„ J. K B.A., M.Sc., Waitc Institute (Private Mail BstgL Adelaide .-Council. 

1940-43, 1917-50; Librarian, 1951-52; Vice-President. 1952-53, 1954-55; Present 

1953-54; Council, 1955. 
1955. TuvrcnEU, D., B.St.. Department of M ices, Adelaide, 
1048, "Thomas,, L VJ., M.Se. (Wales), University of Adelaide-Scwfrm/, 1948-50; Council, 

1950-03. 
1938- *TaoArAs. Mus. I. M. (nee P. M. Mftwp&A, M.Se., 36 King Street. BrigUoiM 
1910. *TnoMrsoN, Capt. J. M. r 135 Military Road. Semaphore South, S A, 
I92o t Ti.voai.eN. B., BSc, South Australian Museum, Adelaide- Secretary* 1935-3fi 

Councjl M4(i-47; Vice- President 1947-18. 1949-50; President, 1948-49; Lihrariau 

W32r5h 
1955. Tuc-Ktn, B. M,, B.Se., 86 Baker Street. Glnngowrie. 
1925. Tiuinfk. D. G., Brookrnan Buildings, Grenfell Street, Adelaide. 

1950, Veitcje ]. T., Bo\ 92. Port Lincoln. S.A. 

1953. Waikh^aiv. R. A., B.A., M.A., Ph.D.. North-western University, Evanston. 

Illinois, U.S.A. 

1954. Wi;mi, B. P., M.Sc, Hadium Hill. S.A. 

1954. Weet.s, C. B., B.Ag.Sc., Broadiees, Waverjev Kidtfe. Crafers, S.A. 

\cuf<' ^ iim: ' A \ 1 H,?-5f- . c /°. Ce P l »*y tttWtf* Kind's College, Strand, \V.O,2, London. 

1940. Whittle, A. W. G.. M.Se., Mines Department. Flinders Street, -\dpUide 

IfloQ, Wjlle\ms ( L. E., "Dumosa," Meningie, S.A. 

19-lfc. nV.LMw, A, F., M Sc r University of WjL, Nedlands, W.A. 

1933. nVoMEKsi.Ev IT., KR.E.S., A.L.S. ( ITou. causa), S,A. Museum, Adelaide - Verro 

Mt'ckd 1043; Secretary, 1936-37; Editor, 1937-43, 1945-17, President, 1943-44- 
V ice-t resident, 1944-45; Rev. lauun and Flora Protection Committee 1414V 
treasurer, 1950-53. ' * 

1954. nVoMEBSLEY, H. B, g. Ph.D., University of Adelaide, 

1944. WovrEnsi.EV. J. S., B.Se.. Lae, New Guinea. 

1923. nVoou. Prof. J. G., D.Se., Ph.D., University of Adelaide - Ycrco Medal 1944- 

wwn C,7 n l9a ^ 40 ^Y5f- iJr ^ /c/f?n ^ 1^0-41, 1942-43: Rep r Fauna and Flora Board] 

1940-; Premlent, 1941-42; Council, 1944-48. 
lfgfk *Wpooawim G. D., B.Se... 1 Brigalow Avenue, Kensington GaTdeuS S A 
19/35, Woodhocsk, L. R., 15 Robert Street, North Unlev SA 

1943. Wooolaxus, H., L.B.H.S., Box 989H, G.P.G,, Adelaide " 

IZaT Wter&x* B. W. } B.A., M.Se., A.lnst.P ., Universitv of Adelaide. 

1944. Zemmer, W. J„ Dip.For., 3'".L,S. (Lon.), 7 Rupert Street, Footseray West W.12 Vict 



191 



GENERAL INDEX 



Summary 



GENERAL INDEX 

Names printed in italics as separate entries indicate tliat tha forma ate new lt> science. 



A/itphithulomus (Phiimu ) suhhicalar 27 
An Occurrence of Native Sulphur at 
Lake Eyre: C. W. Bonython and 
D, King .. 121-130 

An Alternative Calculation for Poten- 
tial Evapotrunspiration: B. M. 

Tucker 18-51 

Antrnnolaelaps affairs ... ,112 

Astraett ( Belhistraea) hnsppms 23 

Haas- Becking, L. G. M., and Kaplan, 
I. IL: The Microbiological Origin 
of the Sulpiiur Nodules of Lake 
Eyre .,. 52-65 

Bonython, C. \V.; The Salt of Lake 
Eyre— its Occurrence in Madigan 
Gulf and its Possible Origin 67-92 

Bonython, C. W., and King, D,; An 
Occurrence ol' Native Sulphur at 
Lake Eyre 121-130 

Bowes, D. K.: The Occurrence of 
Granite Tdltte and Granite Gneiss 
Tillite at Poolarnacea, Broken Hill, 
New South Wales 131-141 

Cadulus ( D i.schides ) ijatalensis , , 4 

Chtorinitics of Coastal Waters in 
South Australia: I. M. Thomas and 

S. j. Edmonds 153-166 

Coleohwhips hetcromjcJiu* 1 15 

Collonia amma 23 

Dentalhwi ( Fissidentalium ) Maw- 

■voni 2 

DcntalUtm (Anlalis) denotatum „, 3 

Edmonds, S. J.; Thomas. 1. M.> and: 
Chlorinitics of Coastal Waters in 
South Australia 153-166 

Fmar^inula diductie.n 8 

£. dilatorin 9 

Euepicrius queenslandicttn .. 105 

Kaplan. 1. B., Baas - Becking. 
L. G. .\ I ., nm\ : The Microbio- 
logical Origin of the Sulphur 
Nodules of Lake. F.yrc 52-65 

Kerr-Grant, C.: The Adelaide Earth- 
quake of 1st March, 1954 TTMS5 

King, D.: The- Quaternary Strati- 
jrraphic Record at Lake Eyre 
North and the Evolution of Exist- 
ing Topographic Forms 93-103 

King, D.: Bonython, C. W., and: 
An Occurrence of Native Sulphur 
at Lake. Eyre . 121-130 

Lake Eyre, South Australia, Micro- 
fossils from Pleistocene to Keeent 
Deports: N. H. Ludbrook , 37-15 



La!;e Eyre. The Mierobiological 
Origin of the Sulphur Nodules of: 
L, G. M, Baas-Becking and 1. R. 
Kaplan „ , 52-65 

Lake Eyre, Hie Salt of: G. \V ( 

Bonydwn .„ 1P . 67-92 

Lake Eyre North, The Quaternary 

Stratigraphic Record at: D. King * 93-103 

Lake Eyre, An Occurrence of Native 
Sulphur at: C. W. Bonvthou and 
D. King ... 121-130 

Ludbrook, N. H.: The Molluscan 
Fauna of the Pliocene Strata 
Lnderlving die Adelaide Plains, 
Part 111 ,, L36 

Ludbrook, N. H.: Miernfnssils from 
Pleistocene to Recent Deposits, 
Lake Eyre, South Australia 37-45 



Microf'oss-ils from Pleistocene to Re- 
cent Deposits, Lake Evre, South 
Australia: N. H. Ludbrook 37 



45 



Notes on the Acarine Genus 
Ophioptes\ widi a Description of a 
New Australian Species: R. V, 
Soulhcott 142-147 

Notes on the Younger Glacial Rem- 
nants of Northern South Australia: 
L. W. Parkin .. 148-151 



Ondiogarnasm communis 
(iphittptcs sambtmi 



IDS 
142 



Purkiu, L. \V.: Notes on the Younger 
Glacial Remnants of Northern Aus- 
tralia 148-151 

Pelhnx jejuna ... ... 24 



QucemlandohwUips vitzthumi 
Q. herlaei . 

R'moma tinela 



109 
111 

31 

167 



Saccoglassus apantcsis . . 

Saccoglossus apantesis, a New 
Species of Enteropneust from 
South Australia: T, M, Thomas 167-176 

Siphonorfentaliitm ( PidseUum ) ade- 

hidense ... 4 

Some Additions to the Aearina- 
Mesostigmata of Australia: H. 
Womei-slcy 1 04- 1 20 

Southcott, 1L V.: Notes on the 
Acarine Genus Ophhples, with a 
Description of a New Australian 
Species 112 147 

Speetamen phnicarimtitm 17 

S. }>raecursnr 18 

Stylogamasus convcxa .. 113 



193 



The Molluscan Fauna of the Pliocene 
Strata Underlying the Adelaide 
Plains. Part III: N. H. Ludbrook 1-44 

The Microbiological Origin of the 
Sulphur Nodules of Lake Eyre: 
L. G. M. Baas-Becking and I. R. 
Kaplan 52-65 

The Salt of Lake Eyre— its Occur- 
rence in Madigan Gulf and its 
Possible Origin: C. W- Bonython 67-92 

The Quaternary Stratigraphic Record 
at Lake Eyre North and the Evo- 
lution of Existing Topographic 
Forms: D. King 93-103 

The Occurrence of Granite Tillite 
and Granite Gneiss Tillite at 
Poolamacea, Broken Hill, New 
South Wales: D. R. Bowes ... 131-141 



The Adelaide Earthquake of 1st 

March, 1954: C. Kerr-Grant 177-185 

Thomas, I. M.: Saccoglossus apan- 
tesis, a New Species of Enterop- 
ncust from South Australia 167-176 

Thomas, L M., and Edmonds, S. J.: 
Chlorinities of Coastal Waters in 
South Australia 153-166 

Tucker, R. M.: An Alternative Cal- 
culation for Potential Evapotrans- 
piration ... ... ... ... 46-51 

Turboella elimattae ... ... 29 

T. praenouuremis ... >., ... .,. 28 



Womersley, H.; Some Additions to 
the Acarina-Mesostigmata of Aus- 



trali 



104-120 



194 



CONTENTS 



N. H. Ludbrook: The Molluscan Fauna of the Pliocene Strata Underlying 
the Adelaide Plains. Part III. Scaphopoda, Polyplacophora, Gastro- 
poda. (Hahotidae to Tornidae) 

N. H Ludbrook: Microfossils from Pleistocene to Recent Deposits, Lake 
Eyre, South Australia 

B. M. Tucker: An Alternative Calculation for Potential Evapotranspiration 

L. GM Baas-Becking and I R. Kaplan: The Microbiological Origin of 
the Sulphur Nodules of Lake Eyre 

C. W. Bonython: The Salt of Lake Eyre— its Occurrence in Madigan Gulf 

and its Possible Origin 

D. King: The Quaternary Stratigraphic Record at Lake Eyre North and 

the Evolution of Existing Topographic Forms 

H. Womersley: Some Additions to the Acarina-Mesostigmata of Australia 

C. W. Bonython and D. King: The Occurrence of Native Sulphur at 

Lake Eyre c 

D. R. Bowes: The Occurrence of Granite Tillite and Granite Gneiss Tillite 

at Poolamacca, Broken Hill, N.S.W 

R. V. Southcott: Notes on the Acarine Genus Ophioptes, with a Descrip- 
tion of a New Australian Species 

L. W. Parkin: Notes on the Younger Glacial Remnants of Northern 
South Australia 

I. M Thomas and S. J. Edmonds: Chlorinities of Coastal Waters in South 
Australia 

I. M. Thomas: Saccoglossus apantesis, a New Species of Enteropneust 
from South Australia 

C. Kerr-Grant: The Adelaide Earthquake of 1st March, 1954 

Abstract of Exhibits and Lectures, 1955 

Balance Sheet, 1955 

Awards of the Sir Joseph Verco Medal and List of Fellows, Members 
etc., 1955 



page 



37 
46 

52 

66 

93 
104 

121 

131 

142 

148 

152 

167 
177 
186 
187 

188