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A^ 7 

VOL. 82 

APRIL, 1959 






Price: Two Pounds Two Shillings 

Anarc photo 

SIR DOUGLAS MAWSON, kt., o.b.e., b.e.,, f.b.s. 





The basic biographic data concerning Sir Douglas Mawson are in them- 
selves remarkable. He was born in Bradford, Yorkshire, in 1882, and came to 
Australia with his parents as a child. He graduated as B.E. from the University 
of Sydney in 1901 and, after two years* geological work in the New Hebrides, as 
B.Sc. in 1905. In 1905 he came to the University of Adelaide as lecturer in 
mineralogy and petrology and was awarded the D.Sc. degree in 1909. In 1907- 
1909 he was in Antarctica with the Shackleton expedition, and he led expeditions 
organised by himself to Antarctica in 1911-14, in 1929 and in 1931. It must 
also be added that his own expeditions were notable for scientific planning and 
results, and that Mawson himself displayed superlative courage and endurance. 
Shortly after his return from Antarctica in 1914 he volunteered for army service. 
He was commissioned as a Staff Officer, and one of his assignments took him to 
Russia, where he was concerned with the supply of munitions to the eastern 
front. He was knighted in 1914, and in 1920 he became Professor of Geology 
and Mineralogy in Adelaide. He was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of 
London in 1923 and in 1935-1937 he was President of A.N.Z.A.A.S. He received 
numerous honours both State and academic from many countries. 

These facts alone indicate a remarkable life and remarkable achievement, 
but they give a quite inadequate picture of the man himself. Combined with the 
great explorer and scientist and the inspiring leader and teacher was a very 
human, gentle man. It is possible here to deal with only one or two aspects of 
his widespread activities, and particularly those associated with the Royal Society 
of South Australia. 

Mawson became a Fellow of the Society in 1905, served as a Councillor in 
1941-1942, Vice-President in 1923-1924 and again in 1925-1926, and President 
in 1924-1925 and again in 1944-1945. He was awarded the Verco Medal in 1931. 
It was fitting that his election as an Honorary Fellow in 1955 was made in his 
fiftieth year as a member of the Society. 

Shortly after Mawson first came to Adelaide he was attracted by the good 
exposures and striking nature of the rocks of the Barrier Ranges and the Broken 
Hill area. The Society recognised the importance of his work in this region by 
publishing two memoirs, "Chiastolites from Bimbowrie, South Australia" and 
"Geological Investigations in the Broken Hill Area". This form of publication, 
much more elaborate than the Transactions and now discontinued, was reserved 
for works of special merit. His work in the neighbourhood of Olary included 
the first investigation of the Radium Hill deposit and gave him a special interest 
in the minerals of uranium and other rare metals; an interest he retained actively 
for the rest of his life. This same interest also first took him to the Flinders 
Ranges, where he did a great deal of work on the Mount Painter minerals. 

Visits to the Barrier and Flinders Ranges, originally undertaken for their 
mineralogical interest, had shown Mawson that these regions also gave wonderful 
exposures of Proterozoic glacial rocks. His Antarctic experiences had given him 
a profound interest in glaciology and it was early in the 1920's that he started 
his systematic work on the rocks of the Adelaide System in the Flinders Ranges. 
For thirty years this work continued and a series of papers published in the 
Transactions of this Society must be regarded as classical contributions to a 
subject of outstanding geological interest. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. 5. Aust. <1959), Vol. 82. 


The fundamental interests of Mawson are shown by his insistence on the 
importance of the physico-chemical aspects of geology. Apart from his purely 
stratigraphic papers most of his work is supported by chemical data. He also 
encouraged most of his students to become proficient in chemical work. 

Although Mawson's contribution to the publications and the official work 
of the Society has been of outstanding importance, his less formal participation 
in the meetings of the Society must not be overlooked. He frequently exhibited 
specimens of unusual interest and entered into discussions with enthusiasm. In 
this his interests and knowledge were by no means confined to geological sub- 
jects but ranged widely. He had a particular knowledge and love of trees and 
his advice was often sought by his friends. 

Those who worked with and knew Douglas Mawson could not fail to recog- 
nise the quality of greatness, but they are also grateful to have known a very 
human and modest and kindly man. 



1903. (With T. G. Taylor.) The Geology of Mittagong. Jour, and Proc. Roy. 
Soc. N.S.W., 37, pp. 306-350. 

1904. Preliminary Note on the Geology of the New Hebrides. Rept. Aust. 
Assoc, for the Adv. of Sci., 10, p. 213. 

1904. (With T. H. Laby. ) Preliminary Observations on Radioactivity and the 
Occurrence of Radium in Australian Minerals. Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W., 
38, pp. 382-389. 

1905. The Geology of the New Hebrides. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W. (3), pp. 

1906. (With F. Chapman). Halimeda-limestones of the New Hebrides. Qrly. 
Jour. Geol. Soc, 62, pp. 702-711. 

1906. Mineralogical Notes. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 30, pp. 67-70. 

1906. The Minerals and Genesis of the Veins and Schlieren Traversing the 

Aegirine-Syenite in the Bowral Quarries. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 31, 

pp. 580-607. 

1906. On Certain New Mineral Species Associated with Carnotite in the Radio- 
active Ore-body near Olary. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 30, pp. 188-193. 

1907. Geological Features of Part of Eyre Peninsula. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 
31, pp. 71-76. 

1907. Mineralogical Notes. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 81, pp. 119-124. 

1907. (With W. T. Cooke.) The Phosphate Minerals from Elder Rock. Trans. 

Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 31, pp. 65-70. 
1907. The Wadella Springs and Associated Bog Iron Ore Deposit. Trans. Roy. 

Soc. S. Aust, 31, pp. 77-78. 
1909. Map Incorporating Route Survey of Coast Line and Hinterland of Portion 

of South Victoria Land. Reproduced in "The Heart of the Antarctic", 

1909. Notes on the Gem-bearing Gravels at Barossa. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 

33, pp. 141-144. 
1911. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition. Geog. Jour. (June), pp. 1-12. 

1911. Chiastolites from Bimbowrie, South Australia. Mem. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 
2 (3), pp. 189-210. 

1912. Geological Investigations in the Broken Hill Area. Mem. Roy. Soc. S. 
Aust, 2 (4), pp. 211-319. 


1912, Prc-Carnbrinn Areas in the North-Eastern Portion of South Australia and 
the Barrier, New South Wales. Repts. Aust. Assoc, for the Adv. of Sci, 
IS, pp. LB849L 

1912. Lecture on: Proposed Aastmlagtoi Antarctic Expedition, 191 L Repts. 
Aust. Assoc for the Adv. of Sci, 13, pp. 386-400, 

1914. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914, Geog. Jour, (Sept.), 
pp. SOT48a 

1914 Contribution to the Discussion on the "Past and Present Relations of 
Antarctica". Kept. Brit, Assoc, fur the Adv. of Sci,, Section D, 1914 

1915. The Antarctic Expedition. Pub. in "Addresses Delivered before the 
Canad i an CI u b* Mon trcal . 

1915, The Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914. Scottish Ceog. Mag., 

31, pp. 337-380, 
1915. The Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914; Summarv of Results, 

Scottish Geoa Mag., 81, pp. 476-477. 

1915. The Home of the Blizzard, 2 vols. London: Hcinemann. 

1916. Auroral Observations at Cape Royds Station, Antarctica. Trains.. Hoy. 
Soc. S. Aust-, 40, pp, 151-212, 

1916. A Contribution to the Study of lee Structures. Rcpts. Brit. Ant. Exp., 

1907-09. Geology, 2, pp. 3-24. 
1916. .Mineral Motes, trans, Roy, Soc. S. Aust., 40, pp. 262-266. 
1916. Petrology of Bods Collections from the Mainland of South Victoria Land. 

Repts. Brit. Ant. Exp., 1907-09* Geology, 2, oft 201-237. 
1918. A Lecture on Some Features of the Antarctic lee-Cap. Abstracts of Proc, 

GeaL Soc London, 1020, pp. 83-84. 

1918. A Discussion on the Antarctic Ice-Cap and its Borders. Abstracts of Proe, 
Ceol Soc London, 1027, pp. 2-8. 

1919. Maequarie Island, a Sanctuary for Australasian Sub-Antarctic Fauna. 
Proc Roy. Geog, Soc. Asia (S.A. Branch), 20, pp, 1-15. 

1921. Australasian Antarctic Expedition; Report on the Progress of the Publica- 
tion of the Scientific Results. Rcpts, Aust. Assoc, for the Adv. of 5ci., 
15. MX 1-6 

1921. The Current Geographical Outlook. Repts* Aust. Assoc, for the Adv. of 
Sci., 15, Section K. pa, 1-16. 

1921, Leljen mid Tod am SudpoL Broekhaus, Leipzig, 

1922. Macquarie Island and its Future. Proc. Hoy. Soc. Tas., pp. 4(1-54, 

1922, \ 'With F. Cinnnv) The Tertiarv Brown-coal Rearing Reds of Moor- 
kinds. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 46, pp. 131-147. 

1923, Igneous Bodes of the Mt, Painter licit. Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Aust,, 47. pp. 

1923. Maequarie Island and its Future. Australian Zoologist.. 3 (3), pp. 92-102, 

1923. Nnics an the Geological Features of the Meadows Vallev, Trans. Roy, 
Soc- a Aust,. 47, pp. 371-375. 

1924. Australasian Antarctic Expedition: Report of the Progress of the Publica- 
tion of the Scientific Results. Rcpts. Aust. Assoc, for the Adv. of Sci., 
17, p. 139, 

i&25. Evidence and Indications of Alga] Contributions in the Cambrian and 
Pro-Cambrian Limestones of South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust.., 
49, pp. 186-190. 

1925. (With F. Chapman.) Notes on Certain South Australian Fossiliferous 
Terrestrial Formations of Reeeut Age. Trans. Rov. Soc. 5. Aust., 49, 
pp. 91-95, 


1925. Records of the Aurora Polaris. Asian Ant. Exp., 1911-14. Scientific 
Repts., Series B, 2 (1), pp. 1-191. 

1925. Some Aspects of Forestry in South Australia. Commemoration Address: 
University of Adelaide. The Hassell Press, pp. 1-30. 

1926. Additions to the South Australian Mineral Record. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Aust., 50, pp. 25-30. 

1926. A Brief Resume of Present Knowledge Relating to the Igneous Rocks 
of South Australia. Repts. Aust. Assoc, for the Adv. of Sci., 18, pp. 229-274. 

1926. (With P. S. Hossfeld. ) Relics of Aboriginal Occupation in the Olary 
District. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50, pp. 17-24. 

1926. Varve Shales Associated with the Permo-Garboniferous Glacial Strata of 
South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50, pp. 160-162. 

1926. Wooltana Basic Igneous Belt. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 50, pp. 192-200. 

1927. Geological Notes on an Area along the North-Eastern Margin of the North- 
Eastern Portion of the Willouran Range. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 51, 
pp. 386-390. 

1927. The Paralana Hot Spring. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 51, pp. 391-397. 

1928. Report of Glacial Research Committee: the Finke River Glacial Beds. 
Repts. Aust. Assoc, for the Adv. of Sci., pp. 97-99. 

1928. Unsolved Problems of Antarctic Exploration and Research. Problems of 
Polar Research. Amer. Geog. Soc. Spec. Publ., No. 7, pp. 253-266. 

1929. South Australian Algal Limestones in Process of Formation. Qrly. Jour. 
Geol. Soc, 85 (4), pp. 613-623. 

1930. The Antarctic Cruise of the "Discovery", 1929-1930. Geog. Rev., 20 (4), 
pp. 534-554. 

1930. The Occurrence of Potassium Nitrate near Goyder's Pass, MacDonnell 
Ranges, Central Australia. Min. Mag., 22 (128), pp. 231-237. 

1930. (With C. T. Madigan.) The Pre-Ordovician Rocks of the MacDonnell 
Ranges, Central Australia. Qrly. Jour. Geol. Soc, 86, pp. 415-428. 

1931. The Home of the Blizzard. Rev. ed. London: Hodder and Stoughton. 

1932. The B.A.N.Z. Antarctic Research Expedition, 1929-31. Geog. Jour., 80, 

1933. The Geology and Glaciation of some Islands of the Southern Ocean and 
the new-discovered Antarctic Mainland. Qrly. Jour. Geol., Soc, 89, pp. 

1933. Glacial Phenomena Committee. South Australia. Rept Aust. and N.Z. 
Assoc for the Adv. of Sci., 21, pp. 464-465. 

1933. The New Polar Province. Roy. Instn. of Great Britain, pp, 1-18, 

1934. The Arltunga and Karoonda Meteorites. Trans. Roy. Soc S. Aust., 58, 
pp. 1-6. 

1934. The Kerguelen Archipelago. Geog. Jour., 83, pp. 18-29. 
1934. The Munyallina Beds; a Late-Proterozoic Formation. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Aust., 58, pp. 187-196. 

1934. Wilke's Antarctic Landfalls. Proc. Roy. Geog. Soc. A'sia (S.A. Branch), 
34, pp. 70-113. 

1935. (With F. Chapman.) The Occurrence of a Lower-Miocene Formation on 
Bougainville Island. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 59, pp. 241-242. 

1935. Some Historical Features of the Discovery of Enderby Land and Kemp 

Land. Geog. Jour., 86, pp. 526-530. 
1935. Sir Tannatt William Edgeworth David. Obituary Notices of the Royal 

Society of London, 4, pp. 493-501. 
1935. South Australian Participation in Antarctic Exploration. Proc. Roy. Geog. 

Soc. A'sia (S.A. Branch), pp. 1-6. 


1935. The Unveiling of Antarctica. Rept. Aust. and N.Z. Assoc, for the Adv. 
of Sci., pp. 1-37. 

1936. Centenary Address No. 7: Progress in Knowledge of the Geology of South 
Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 60, Ivi-lxv. 

1936. Antarctic Exploration. Pub. in "Centenary History of South Australia". 
Roy. Geog. Soc. of A'sia (S.A. Branch), pp. 338-350. 

1937. The most Northerly Occurrence of Fossiliferous Cambrian Strata yet Re- 
corded in South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 61, pp. 181-186. 

1938. Cambrian and Sub-Cambrian Formations at Parachilna Gorge. Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 62 (2), pp. 255-262. 

1938. Charles Chewings: Obituary Notice. Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., 94, p. 117. 

1938. Further Discoveries of Sapropelic deposits in the Coorong Region of 
South Australia. Pub. in "Oil Shale and Cannel Coal". The Inst, of Petro- 
leum, pp. 50-52. 

1938. The Mount Caernarvon Series of Proterozoic Age. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Aust., 62 (2), pp. 347-351. 

1938. Walter Howchin: Obituary Notice. Proc. Geol. Soc. Lond., 94, pp. 

1939. The Cambrian Sequence in the Wirrealpa Basin. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Aust., 63 (2), pp. 331-347. 

1939. The First Stage of the Adelaide Series: as Illustrated at Mount Magni- 
ficent. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 63 (1), pp. 69-78. 

1939. Introductory Remarks. A'sian Ant. Exp. 1911-14. Scientific Repts, Series 
B, 5, pp. 11-16 and 107-109. 

1939. The Late Proterozoic Sediments of South Australia. Rept. Aust. N.Z. 
Assoc, for the Adv. of Sci, 24, pp. 80-88. 

1940. The Adelaide Series. Aust. Jour. Sci, pp. 25-27. 

1940. Catalogue of Rocks and Minerals Collected in Antarctic Lands. A'sian 
Ant. Exp. 1911-14. Scientific Repts, Series A, 4 (13), pp.. 405-432. 

1940. Hydrological Observations. A'sian Ant. Exp. 1911-14. Scientific Repts, 
Series A, 2 (4), pp. 103-125. 

1940. Marine Biological Programme and other Zoological and Botanical Activi- 
ties A'sian Ant. Exp. 1911-14. Scientific Repts, Series A, 2 (5), pp. 

1940. Notes and Exhibits: Tillite and other Rocks from Hallett Cove, South 
Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 64 (2), p. 362. 

1940. Record of Minerals of King George Land, Adelie Land and Queen Mary 
Land. A'sian Ant. Exp. 1911-14. Scientific Repts, Series A, 4 (12), 
pp. 371-404. 

1940. Sedimentary Rocks. A'sian Ant. Exp. 1911-14. Scientific Repts, Series A, 
4 (11), pp. .347-367. 

1941. Middle Proterozoic Sediments in the Neighbourhood of Copley. ** Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 65 (2), pp. 304-311. 

1941. The Wilpena Pound Formation and Underlying Proterozoic Sediments. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 65 (2), pp. 295-303. 

1942. Geographical Narrative and Cartography. A'sian Ant. Exp. 1911-14. 
Scientific Repts, Series A, 1, pp. 1-364. 

1942. The Structural Character of the Flinders Ranges. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Aust, 66 (2), pp. 262-272. 

1943. Macquarie Island: Its Geography and Geology. A'sian. Ant. Exp. 1911- 
14. Scientific Repts, Series A, 5, pp. 1-194. 

1943. (With L. W. Parkin.) Some Granitic Rocks of South-Eastern South 
Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 67 (2), pp. 233-243. 


1944. The Nature and Occurrence of Uraniferous Mineral Deposits in South 
Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 68 (2), pp. 334-357. 

1944. (With W. B. Dallwitz.) Palaeozoic Igneous Rocks of Lower South- 
Eastern South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 68 (2), pp. 191-209. 

1945. (With E. R. Segnit.) Granites of the Tintinara District. Trans. Roy. S. 
Aust, 69 (2), pp. 263-276. 

1945. (With W. B. Dallwitz.) Scapolitized Dolomites of Yankaninna. Trans. 

Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 69 (2), pp. 212-216. 
1945. (With E. R. Segnit.) Porphyritic Potash-soda Micro-granites of Mount 

Monster. Trans. Roy. Soc. S.Aust, 69 (2), pp. 217-222. 

1945. (With W. B. Dallwitz.) The Soda-rich Leucogranitc Cupolas- of 
Umberatana. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 69 (1), pp. 22-49. 

1946. (With E. R. Segnit.) Barium-rich Aplitic Gneisses of Broken Hill. Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 70 (2), pp. 277-293. 

1946. The Geological Background of South Australia. Handbook of Aust. N.Z. 
Assoc, for the Adv. of Sci, pp. 5-11. 

1946. Introductory Note to A. B. Edwards: The Moorumbunna Meteorite. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 70 (2), pp. 348-349. 

1947. The Adelaide Series as Developed along the Western Margin of the 
Flinders Ranges. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 71 (2), pp. 259-280. 

1949. Australia's Antarctic Territory. Australia, 1949: The Herald Year Book, 

Melbourne, pp. 266-267. 
1949. The Elatina Glaciation: a Third Recurrence of Glaciation Evidenced in 

the Adelaide System. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 73, pp. 117-121. 
1949. The Late Precambrian Ice-Age and Glacial Record of the Bibliando Dome. 

Jour, and Proc. Roy. Soc. N.S.W, 82, pp. 150-174. 
1949. (With E. R. Segnit.) Purple Slates of the Adelaide Svstem. Trans. Roy. 

Soc. S. Aust, 72 (2), pp. 276-280. 

1949. Sturtian tillite of Mount Jacob and Mount Warren Hastings, North 
Flinders Ranges. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 72 (2), pp. 244-251. 

1950. Basaltic Lavas of the Balleny Islands. A.N.A.R.E. Report. Trans. Roy. 
Soc. S. Aust, 73 (2), pp. 223-231. 

1950. Occurrence of Water in Lake Eyre, South Australia. Nature, 166, pp. 

1950. (With R. C. Sprigg. ) Subdivision of the Adelaide System. Aust. Jour, of 

Sci, 13 (3), pp. 69-70. 

1952. Professor Thomas Harvey Johnston: Bibliography, List of Titles of the 
Published Works of Thomas Harvey Johnston, M.A, D.Sc, late Professor 
of Zoology at the University of Adelaide (with Biographical Introduc- 
tion). Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 75, 

1953. Programme of Australian Antarctic Exploration. Nature, 172, p. 479. 

1953. The Willunga Basin: Introductorv and Historical Notes. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Aust, 76, pp. 108-113. 

1954. The Role of Geology in the Activities of the Royal Society of South Aus- 
tralia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 77, pp. xii-xiv. 

1956: Symposium: Australia and I.G.Y. in Antarctica. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict, 69 ? 

pp. 5-9. 
1957. Knee Moulded Pots from the New Hebrides. Records S.A. Museum, 13 

(1), pp. 83-86. 

1957. Sturtian Glacial Horizon in the MacDonnell Ranges. Aust. Jour of Sci, 
19, pp. 162-163. 

1958. Australites in the Vicinitv of Florieton, South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Aust, 81, pp. 161-163/ 




Two closely-spaced intrusive phases of granite are postulated. The first intrusion was contaminated 
by assimilation of country rock of the roof and is now seen as a porphyritic granite. The second 
granite, an even-grained type, intruded the porphyritic granite but did not reach the meta- 
sedimentary roof and so remained uncontaminated. 


by D. R. Bowes* 

[Read 10 April, 1958] 


Two closely-spaced intrusive phases of granite are pustulated. The first in- 
trusion was contaminated by assimilation of country roclc of the roof and is new 
seen as a porphyritic granite, The second granite, an even-grained type, in- 
truded the porphyritic granite but did not reach the rneta-aedhnenlary loot 
and so remained uncontaminated. 

The granitic rocks of Port Elliot, some 50 miles south of Adelaide, were 
investigated by Browne (1920) who described two main types of granite, por- 
phyrinic and even-grained, and discussed their general distribution and field 

Investigations of the granite mass at Rosetta Head, 6 miles west of Port 
Elliot. led the present author to postulate successive phases of granite intrusion 
and the formation of the porphyritic granite by contamination of the even- 
grained type seen at Port Elliot (Bowes, 1954). The granitic rocks at Port 
Elliot were also mapped at 24 in. == 1 mile (Fig. 1) and the following are the 
salient points which emerged from this work. 

The porphyritic granite? which makes up the major part of the cliffs at Port 
Elliot, is similar to the granite at Rosetta Head and Granite Island (Browne 
op. cit.) although the felspar phenocrysts are generally smaller and less abun- 
dant. Numerous angular xenoliths of meta-greywacke are found and some 
show metasomatie effects similar to those seen on Granite island (Kleeman, 
1937). The roof of the intrusion is not exposed although it is possible that 
the large meta-greywacke mass on the western side of Green Bay (Fig. 1) may- 
be a roof pendant. 

The even-grained outcrops are localized in two areas, viz. in the vicinity 7 of 
Green Bay and at about 600-700 yards N.N.E. of Commodore Point. There is 
no suggestion of angularity in the .shape of any of the masses of even-grained 
granite, most of the boundaries being arcuate, and no xenoliths of country rock 
are present The junction between the two granites is never knife-sharp and 
it was found virtually impossible to decide between which crystals the contact 
passes. Neither granite shows a reduction of grain size against the other and 
some individual crystals at the margin give the appearance of having grown 
across what may have been an original junction. 

The aplite dykes and schorl rock pipes cut across both granitic types. 

It is postulated that the first granite intrusion, at the level exposed, was 
contaminated near its roof by the assimilation of mcta-sediments to produce the 
porphyritic granite, the magmatic character of which is indicated by the presence 
of angular disoriented xenoliths. It has been suggested that a similar mechanism 
produced the porphyritic granite at Rosetta Head and Granite Island (Bowes 
op. cit) although the larger and more abundant felspar phenocrysts in these 
places probably resulted from the assimilation of albitc- ana cblorite-rich rocks. 

Department of Geology > University of Glasgow. 
Trans Roy. Sot. S, Au&t. (1958), Vol. 82. 

8 D. R. BOWES 

The even-grained granite outcrops near Green Bay ( Fig. 1 ) are postulated 
as representing the tops of small cupola-like masses intruded into the porphyritic 
granite. This second granite intrusion, which contains no meta-greywacke 
xenoliths, did not reach the roof of the first intrusion and so remained uncon- 
taminated. Lack of chilled margins around the even-grained granite, the diffi- 
culty of delineating the precise line of contact and the absence of xenoliths of 
porphyritic granite in the even-grained granite suggest that the earlier intrusion 
was still hot, possibly a crystal mush with residual magma, when the later in- 
trusion occurred. 

The aplite dyke injection and schorl rock formation followed the intrusion 
of the even-grained granite and it is postulated that they were associated with 
the late stages of its cooling. 


Bowes, D, R., 1954. The Metaniorphic and Igneous History of Rosetta Head, South Aus- 

Austfalia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 77, pp. 182-214. 
Browne, W. R., 1920. The Igneous Rocks of Encounter Bay, South Australia. Trans. Roy. 

Soc. S. Aust., 44, pp. 1-57. 
Kleeman, A. W., 1937. The Nature and Origin of the so-called Diorite Inclusions in the 

Granite of Granite Island. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 61, pp. 207-220. 







This paper, the second of a series on certain families of Meso stigmata- Trigynaspida (Acarina) 
paraphagic upon millipedes, cockroaches and Passalid beetles from Australia and New Guinea, 
deals with the family Fedrizziidae. Twenty species in all are recognised, including two from the 
Island of Buru, and fifteen are described as new. Two new genera Neofedrizzia and Parafedrizzia 
are erected. The species Toxopeusia(Fedrizzia) strandi Oudeinans, 1927, from Buru is regarded as a 
valid species not conspecific with grossipes Canestrini, 1884 from Queensland. Toxopeusia 
vitzthumi Onds., 1927, also from Burn, is also considered a valid species and placed in the genus 
Neofedrizzia but differing from the other known species. Canestrini's Fedrizzici luevis from 
Queensland is shown to be a species of Neofedrizzia. 




by H. Womerslev 

South Australian Museum 

[Read 8 May, 1958J 


This paper, the second of a .series on cferjtafci families of Mesostigmata- 
Trigvnaspida (Aearina) paraphu^ie upon millipedes, eoekroaohes and Passalid 
beetles from Australia and New Guinea, deals with the family Fedri/ziidae. 
Twenty specie* in all are recognised, including two from the Island of Bum, 
and fifteen are described as new, Two new genera Nenfedrizzia and Parafvd- 
rizzla ale erected. 

The species Toxopeusiu(fvdrizziu) tttrandi Oudemnns, I927 t from Buru is 
regarded as a valid species uot couspeeiGc with grammes Cuncstrini, 18$4 from 
Queensland. ToxttpcuaJa vitzthumi Onds. t 1927, also from Rum, ia also con- 
sidered a valid species and placed in the genus Nvofvdrizzia but differing from 
iho other known species. 

Canestrinfs Fedrizzia hievis from Queensland is shown to be u species of 

Pt thflkfi family FEDR1ZZ1IDAK 

( Mesostigmata-Trigynaspida-) 
Tdcopeusiidae, Oudemans, 1927, Ent Ber. 7(156): 227. 

(Type genus and species Toxopeusia strandi Ouds., 1927.) 
Fedrfezwke. Tragardh, 1937. Arlciv. f, ZooL, 29B(11): 5. 

(Type genus and species Fedrizzia grossipes Canestrini, 1884.) 

The species belonging to this family are to be found associated with 
Carabid beetles principally of the family Passalidac. They arc small round to 
oval strongly scierotised mites with flatLsh venter and more raised convex dorsum. 
The dorsal shield is entire and furnished usually with numerous pores and fine 
setae, generally so minute and upstanding that only their bases are to be seen 
and are difficult to distinguish from pores. In most species the anterior of the 
dorsal shield overlaps the gnathosoma as a hyaline crescent- or sickle-shaped 
portion devoid of pores or setae except the one pair of vortical setae. In Neo- 
jedrizzia scutata n. sp,, however, this hyaline portion is extended backwards 
and expanded laterally to form a shield, devoid of pores and with only some 
minute setae laterally, which covers about two-thirds of the body before it 
merges with the posterior of the dorsal shield. Anteriorly the shield underlaps 
the venter to form a camerostoine, is confluent marginally with the ventral shield 
and underlaps again posteriorly to contour the ventral and anal shields. The 
gnathosoma arises within the camerostoine; there are three pairs of hypostomal 
setae and the labial cornicles are hyaline and thumb-like with a suhapical ad- 
pressed claw-like process; the palpi are 5-segmented, the basal segment is broad 
with a pair of long setae on the inner lamella, the specialised tarsal seta is 2- 
tined; mandibles with both ehelicerae dentate, the movable digit with long 
hyaline processes two of which are blade-like and serrate, the others filamentous: 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust (1959), Vol. 82. 


within the postero-lateral angles of the camerostome is a triangular sclerotised 
plute (the "axillar" plates of Sellniek ill lit.) of unknown function. The legs 
aie short, 6-segmentcd; 1 is slender, antennacform without tarsal caruncle and 
claws; II-IV are stout, the tarsi with pretarsus, caruncle and indistinct claws, 
femora of leg IV may be elongate without lamellae (Fcdrizzia) or short and 
swollen With lamellae and with u stout curved spine at die posterior inner 
corner (Ncofedrizzui) or similar but without the stout curved spine- (Parafed- 

in the female sex die ventral shields consist of a trUosternum with paired 
lacunae; a single transverse jugular shield separated from (he anterior margin 
of the sternal shield by a transverse suture and furnished with one pair of setae 
and one pair of pores; a sternal shield which is coalesced with the endopodal 
sluelds of coxae I and is much wider than long, the greatest width being across 
the postero-lateral arms which extend between covae II and III, it is furnished 
with three pairs of setae and one pair of pores, the anterior pair of setae (sternal 
setae II) arc in the anterolateral angles, the other two pairs (sternal setae 111 
and IV) form a transverse row close to the posterior margin; hinged to the pos- 
terior margin of die sternal shield is the sternogynial shield which is shaped 
somewhat like an inverted bell-jar and is furnished with only one pair of pores 
lit the anterolateral angles: at die posterior apex of the sternogynial shield is 
the small reduced mesogynial shield; the latigynial shields are long, narruw 
and strap-like flunking the sternogynial shield from the mesogynial shield to 
the anterolateral corners of the sternogynial shield,- die ventral shield is large 
covering most of the venter, medially it extends forward on each side of the 
Sternogynial shield and between this shield and coxae 111 and IV with the 
endopodal shields to which it is coalesced, between the outer margins of the 
body and coxae ll-PJ it extends forwards and is coalesced with the exopndal 
shields, peritremal shields and anteriorly with the underlap of die dorsal shield 
where it forms the camerostomc. on the outer body margins it is coalesced or 
confluent with the dorsal shield, posterior of coxae IV its margins converge in- 
wards for some distance and are- separated from the underlap of the dorsal 
shield by a somewhat diagonal suture, its posterior margin is wide and trans- 
verse separated from the anal shield by a transverse suture, it lias few il any 
setae and its surface is in most species of Fcdrizzia covered by a grid of fine 
liansverse striae crowed by short longitudinal ones, in other species it is quite 
smooth, the anal shield is wide and triangular with the anal opening in the 
posterior angle and usually with a few short setae besides a pair of longer 
pnranal setae; the stigmata are situated between coxae III and IV and the peri* 
trernes reach coxae 1; outside of the peritreines opposite coxae 111 is the atrium 
of n large duct, the outer edge or the atrium being strongly scleiotised. 

In the male the jugular shield may he present and serrated as in the 
female, or it may be absent. When absent (Ncofedrizzui) there is in front of 
the anterior margin of the sternal shield a pair of anteriorly directed processes 
of unknown function; the rest of the ventral shields except the anal are all 
coalesced to form a sterno-vcntral shield with the genital orifice near the 
anterior margin between cuxue U or between coxae II and III, the surface may 
be furnished with a grid of fine striae as in the females of some Fedrizzia. or 
it may be smooth; when a grid is present a forwardlv curved line indicates 
fusion of the ventral and sternal portion, the anal shield is similar to that of the 
female: in Parafenirizzia the anal shield is not demarcated, being coalesced with 
the rest, as it is also crsalosoed with the ventral shield in the female of this Qatyis. 

Ilidierto the only genus included in the farnilv lias been Fcdrizzia Canes- 
ItJnf, 16S4 ( = Toxopeusia Ouds. 1927) widi F. gwssvprs CaucsL. I8&4, as type. 



In this paper eight species of Fedrizzia s. str. are recognised of which six are 
described as new- Two new genera Neofedrizzia, with eleven species, nine of 
which are new, and Parafedrizzia with one new species are erected. Of the 
previously known species Fedrizzia (Toxopeusia) strandi Ouds., 1927. from the 
Island of Buru has generally been considered as the same as grossipes from 

Diagram to illustrate main measurements used: L, length of idiosoma; W, width of idiosomaj 
1, lengdi of jugular shield; 2, length of sternal shield; 3, length of sternogynial shield; 4 ? 
distance of apex of sternogynial from anterior margin of anal shield; 5, distance from apex 
of sternogynial to apex of anal shield; 6, distance of apex of sternogynial from end of body; 
7, length of anal shield; A, width of jugular shield; B, anterior width of sternal shield; C, 
width of sternal shield at narrowest part between coxae II; D, greatest width of sternal shield 
across postero-laterul arms; E, anterior width of sternogynial shield: R width between coxae 
III; G, width between points of angles between coxae III and IV; H, width between coxae 

IV; I, width of anal shield. 


Queensland. It is now regarded as a separate and valid species, Fedrizzia 
laevis Cunest, 1884, from Queensland is recognised as a valid species of tfefh 
fedrizzia, as is also Toxopeusia viizthumi Ouds., 1927, from the Island of Bum. 

Drs\ Camin and Gorirossi in their 1955 paper had before them an unde- 
scribed species in which the sternagynial shield was rounded and not tapering 
as in grompes and in winch the male lacked the jugular shield. On these char- 
acters they suggest that their material belongs to a new and undescribed genus. 
It would now seem that they have a species of Neofedrizzia as diagnosed in 
this paper. 

That the rounded or tapering character of the sternogynial shield is not a 
good generic one is shown in the present studies by the occurrence of both 
(orms in both Fednzzia and Neofedrizzia. 

For the discovery of several features in the morphology of these mites such 
as the pair of pre-sternal processes in front of the anterior margin of the sternal 
shield in those species (genus Neofedrizzia) in winch the jugular shields are 
absent in the male, and also the presence in the postero-lateral angles of the 
eamerostame of a small well sclcrotiscd triangular plate, as well as for other 
help and advice 1 wish to record my grateful thanks to Dr. Sellnick. 

Geographically species of this family will probably be found to occur in 
the tropical and semi-tropical regions wherever beetles of die family Passalidae 
and its allies occur. So far, however, species have been or are now described 
from the Moluccas, New Guinea, and the rain forest area of eastern Australia. 

The following species are dealt with it) this paper:— 

Genus Fkdiuzzia s. str. Canest,. 1884, 

^rossipex Cauest., 18S4. Queensland, Australia, 

sp. cf. grossipes Cauest.. 1884 (Sellnick in lit*) Queensland, Australia. 

.sellnicki Sp, nov. Queensland, Australia. 

carabi sp. nov* Aiyura, New Guinea, 

derricki sp. nov. Queensland, Australia. 
otulemami sp. nov. New South Wales, Australia. 

bomemisszai sp, nov. Queensland, Australia. 

xtrandi (Ouds., 1927) Is. of Bum, Moluccas. 

Genus Neofedezia nov. 

gatji sp. nov. Queensland, Australia. 

canestrinii sp. nov. Queensland, New South Wales, Australia. 

cynola sp. nov. New South Wales, Australia. 

ciimini sp. nov. New South Wales,. Australia. 

{forirossiae sp. nov. Queensland, Australia. 

tratzurdhi sp. nov. New South Wales, Queensland, Australia. 

brooksi sp. nov. Queensland, Australia. 

vidua sp. nov, Queensland, Australia. 

scutalii sp. nov. Bulolo, New Guinea. 

laevis (Canest, 1884) Queensland, Australia. 

vttzthumi (Ouds., W27) Is. of Bum, Moluccas. 

Genus pAttAjjEDBizziA nov. 

btdoloensis sp. nov. Bulolo, New Guinea 

Key to the genera of the family Fedrizzndae 

1, Jugular shields coalesced medially to form a transverse sliield 

separated from the sternal shield in both sexes. Sternogynial shield 
rounded posteriorly to hell-jar shape with tapering sides and apical 


knob. A triangular anal shield present or not. One of the two long 
setae on ba.sul segment of palpi with 6-9 long brandies, other nude. 
Femora of legs II-IV elongate and truncheon like or short and wide 
but without a strong curved spine at posterior angle. 2 

Such jugular shields absent in male being coalesced with sternal 
shield; in front of sternal with a pair of free or basally fixed forwardlv 
directed processes and the basal part of tritoslcmum bulbous. Stenio- 
gynial shield evenly rounded or bell-jar shaped. Anal shield present. 
Both long setae on basal palpal segment only shortly ciliated. Femora 
of legs I1-1V short and broadly swollen with lamellae anfl with a 
strong curved spine at posterior angle. 

Genus Neofedrizzia nov. 

Type N. gayi sp. nov. 

2. Anal shield absent, coalesced with ventral shield in both sexes. 

Elongate species widest behind middle in line of coxae IV, Femora 
III and IV short and swollen with lamellae, but with only a straight 
normal seta at posterior corner. 

Genus Parafedrizzia nov. 

Type P. buloloensw sp. now 

Anal shield present in both sexes. Rounded species. Femora III 
and IV elongate, longer than wide and truncheon like, without lamellae. 

Genus Fedrizzki Cauest., 18S4. 
Typ e ft grossipes Cane*!., 18<Si. 

Genus Fkdbtzzia Canestrini, 1884 

Cftncstrini, C, 1884. Aonri nnovi o pooo noli II. Acari JeH'Atistniliu — Alii del. K liistitutu 
Veneto U(6): p. 707. 

Type F. grossipes Cancst. r 1-S84. 

~Toxopeusia Ondcmanj;, A. C, 1927. Aearol. Aauleelieiriiijcn. I.XXXVTT Frit uVr 7 
(156): 227; Fauna Buruana. Acari, in Trcubia 7,, Snppl. 2: p. 60. 

As differentiated in the preceding discussion and diagnosis of the family and 
as in the key to genera. 

Fcdrizzia gross ipes Canestrini, 1884 
I'trdrizziu Krossipw Oanetf., \HH\. Atti dpi R. hart. Vcnt*o ri(6): p. 707, pi 8, figo. 1-2. 

This species was originally described by Caneslrini from specimens found 
on beetles 'allied to the European Geotrupes" from Queensland collected by 
the late Prof, F. Pulle of the University of Padova. Later, ft) 1927, and more 
fully in 1928, Oudemans described the genus Toxopeusia with strandi sp. nov. as 
type, from *in fungi" from the Island of Bum. This genus is now accepted as 
synonymous with Canrstrini's Fedrizzia. In his figures and descriptions of 
grossfpes Canestrini shows a moderately elongate oval form which however 
differs considerably in the ratio of length to width as given by the quoted dimen- 
sions, from that shown by his figure. The dimensions quoted in the description 
are: length in both sexes' 900/*, width of male 520//., of female 530/*, which gives 
u ratio of approximately 1-70: 1 -0 for length to width. In the figures, assiim- 
ing the length to be correct the width would be approximately 620> for the 
male and 630/t for the female or a ratio of length to width of approximately 
1-44 ; 1-0. This consideration suggests that the dimensions given in the text 
should have been 620//- and 630/* respectively. 

I am very greatly indebted to my colleague Dr. Max Sellruck of Hamburg 
who has examined the types of both male and female of grossipex which were 


sent to liim by Dr. Valle Parma ? for the following measurements of these speci- 

Type s ; length of idiosoma 918/* 3 width 612u (which gives a ratio of 
length to width 1-5:10). 

Type S l length of idiosoma 9007*. width 394/jl (which gives a ratio of 
length to width of 1-51 : 1 0). 

These measurements confirm the view expressed above that the widths given 
by Canestrini were probably an errur in printing. 

Other dimensions of the type .specimens for which I am also deeply In- 
debted to Dr. Sellnick are: 


Jugular shield (tetartosternum) 120/* wide by 28/* deep medially. 
Sternal shield, length medially 84/*, width anteriorly 100,u, width between 

coxae II (i.e. narrowest part) 88/*, maximum width of postero-lateral 

arms 304^, 
Sternogynial shield, 124/* long by 160/* wide anteriorly, distance of posterior 

edge from anterior of anal shield 306/* and from posterior edge of body 

Ventral shield, distance between coxae 111 liJ6**, between angles between 

coxae III and IV 296/* and between coxae IV 176«. 
Anal shield, 324/. wide by 135/* long (deep) (ratio of width: length 


Jugular slueld (tetartosternum) 80/* wide by ? long. 

Sterno-ventral: width between antero-lateral angles 120/x, between angles 
between coxae IT and coxae III 288/*; between angles between coxae III 
and coxae IV 280/* ; width between coxae II 84/*, between coxae III ISSti 
and between coxae IV 172**., distance from anterior border to anterior 
edge of genital orifice 60//., gcaital orifice 52/* long by 72/* wide. 

Anal shield: 320/* wide by 125/Tlong (ratio of width: length = 2-5:1-0). 

Fedrizzia sp. cf. grossipe* Canest., 1884 

TVv»-f Rrr 1 A V 

Text fig. 1 A-K 

Some few years ago I sent to my friend and colleague, Dr. Max Sellnick, 
of Hamburg, some material of several species of Fedrizzia s.I. of which he very 
kindly made dissections and studied them. 

Amongst this material were a number of specimens from a Passalid beetle 
from ImbiL Queensland (coll. J. F. Gay, 11th Sept., 1946) which, after compari- 
son with the type male and female of P. grossipes Canest. received by him from 
Dr. Valle Parma, he considered (in lit.) to be conspecific therewith. A study 
of Sellnick's dissections and of other entire, specimens and a comparison of their 
detailed measurements with those given to me by him of the types of grossipes 
convinces me that the Fmbil specimens are specifically distinct therefrom. In 
the present study it is shown that the many species of the genera Fedrizzia and 
Neofedrizzia arc very constant in certain specific characters as follows: (1) 
overall size which varies but little and which does not differ much between the 
sexes; (2) the shape, whether more or less rounded or mo*e elongate; (3) the 
dimensions of the anal shield. 

However, in deference to Dr. Sellnick's opinion as expressed in corresTKnv 
dence I refrain for the present from giving a specific name to this species, com- 
paring it with grnxsipes Canestrini. 



Material studied.- A number of specimens of both sexes from Passalid beetles 
from Imbil, Queensland, 11th Sept., 1946 (coll. F. J. Gay). Also 2 males and 
2 females from Yarramon, Queensland, 29th Aug., 1935, host? (coll, A.R.P.), and 



. y^^ : - ? 

^L J?S 


Fig, i, — b'cdrizzia to; cf. ^MjSsippS Cancst., 18B4, A~F, H-K Female: A, ventral view; B, 
venter (after Scllniek) showitlg carncrostorne, axillar plates and ornamentation: C ? tri to j- 
ternum, jugular, sternal, sternogynial, and latigynial shields, enlarged; D, latigynial shields 
separated from sternogvnial; E, chelieerae; F, gnathosoma and palpi; H, kg I; I, leg II; 
J, leg IN; K~ 1r>? IV; G > Male, tritostcrnum, jugular and .sternal shields. 

1 male from Auhcocyclus sp. (Passalidae) from Dalby, Queensland, 25th Dec, 
1952 (coll. H. Geary). Also 1 male from Mastochilus dilatus Dalm., Washpool 
Crk, near Tcnterfield, N.S.W., 8th Oct., 1956 (coll. G, F. Borncmissza). 

Description— Female (from Imbil ) —Broadly oval to roundish in shape. 
Length of idiosoma 1160/j, width 87G>. 

18 H. WOMEftSI.tiY 

Dorsum with numerous small pores or setae bases— if the latter than the 
setae are exceedingly minute and upstanding. 

Venter— Baste of tritosternum wider than Jong In the ratio of 10 : 9; jugular 
ibtelil as figured, 146// wide by 42/n long, with rounded antero-lateral corner*, 
anterior margin straight and only indented medially, the single pair of setae 
25p long curved backwards and bl/» apart, the one 'pair of lyriform pores 75^ 
apart arid nearer to the posterior than to the anterior border; sternal shield 
will) the anterior margin transverse aud 105 ( « wide, sides contouring the edges nf 
coxae II and continuing between coxae II and III to a maximum width of 386ju 
between the* ends of the poster o-lateral arms, narrowest patt just behind anterior 
margin 9p£ posterior margin straight medially for 15<V then curving posteriorly 
for a wrdth of 45 { x before running obliquely forwards to the tips of "the postero- 
lateral arms of the shield, shield with tluee pairs of setae aud one pair of lyri- 
fonn pores, the setae are all short ca. 10,x lone, the anterior pair of setae "are 
47/* behind the anterior margin and 7(V apart > the other two pairs form a trans- 
verse row near the posterior border, the medial pair 38^ apart and 28/* from 
each lateral, the single pair of pores are behind the anterior pair of setae 3Sju 
in front of the posterior margin and 75/* apart: die steruogynial shield is some- 
what like an inverted bell-jar or cone wilh more or less pronounced apex, it is 
141 ^ long by 169/*. wide anteriorly, ratio of width to length = 1 -fl j ] 0, with the 
pair of lyriform pores in the anterolateral angles 126/* apart; laligynia! shields 
long and strap-like, widening just beyond the middle to the anterior end; meso- 
gynial shield small and reduced; ventral shield as in the generic diagnosis, its 
posterior margin transverse, straight and 400/j wide, furnished with many minute 
setae and pores; anal shield triangular 400,,, wide by 14^ lone, ratio of width 
to length = 2-86: 1-0. * '/ ' w 

Gnatfiosmna as in generic diagnosis. 

Ugs-l 440/.. long, II 480/i, III 510/l. IV stout 812/* (femur elongate expand- 
ing gradually to 164/* wide at apex). 

Mntsi (from Imbil)*— Of the same size and shape as the female. 

Dorsum as in female. 

Venter-Jugular shield smaller and narrower than in the female and fitting 
into a median depression of the anterior margin of the sternal shield, the setae 
and pores are near the anterior margin, the setae 36> apart; storno-ventral shield 
as figured and in the genus, anterior margin 132/* wide with a wide and fairly 
deep excavation, the width across the arms between co.v;ie. (I and III 352/*, and 
between these and the anterolateral corners it narrows to 103^ it carries an- 
tcrioi to at the posterior of the genital orifice three pairs of minute setae and 
two pairs of pores, the anterior two pairs of setae arc in front of the oiiDcc and 
equidistant apart while the third pair is just posterior of the middle of the 
orifice, the anterior pores are in the anterolateral angles and the second anterior 
of (he third pair of setae: the rest of the shield behind the orifice has a number 
of por^ aud a few minute setae; the genilal orifice is large 75,* long by 103fj. 
wide and isolaced in a line between coxae II and III; Ihe anal shield is as in 
tile female, 406/4, wide by 139/* long. 

Fcdrizziu sdlnicki sp. nov. 
Jfxi: fiit. 2 A-f 

ry/its-Hctlotype female and allotype male from a Passat id beedc from Mt, 
Lumington, Queensland, 1946 (colli ?), represented by three slides of dissec- 
tions of each sex made by Dr. M. Sellnick and now in the South Australian 



Other Material— Three females frotn a Passalid from Mt. Glorious, Queens- 
land, 6th February, 1951 (eoll. E. H. Derrick); two females and two males 
from a Passalid from Dalby, Queensland, 28th February, 1925 (coll. H. Geary), 

Description— Female Iwlotype—Oi the same general fades and size as in 
grossipes Canest. Length of idiosoma 1195/*, width 928/a, ratio length to width 
= 1-28 :!•(). 

9i _:>£&. 




m K/n>4 





Fig. 2.— Fedrizzia sellnicki sp. nov., A-II Female; A, ventral view; B, trilosternuin, jugular 

sternal, sternogynial and latigynial shields enlarged; C, chelicerae; D, gnathosoma and palpi 

E, leg I; F, leg 11; G, leg III; H, leg IV; t, Male tritosternum, jugular and sternal shields. 

Dorsum— Shield entire, covering the whole of the dorsum and underlapping 
venter as in other species. 

Venter— Base of tritostemum slightly longer than wide; jugular shield as 
figured 150/* wide and 47^. long (deep) with rounded anterolateral corners, 


anterior margin straight except for a median depression, with one pair of setae 
ca. 30^. long curved backwards and 6Lju apart and witli one pair of lyriform 
pores 75,/ apart and slightly nearer the posterior than the anterior margin; 
sternal shield with the anterior margin transverse and 122/* wide, sides con- 
touring the edges of coxae II and continuing between coxae II and III to a 
maximum width or 366>. between the ends of the posterc-lateral arms, narrowest 

rjust behind anterior margin 94/x., posterior margin lightly convex medially 
ft width of 169/t, then curving posteriorly for a width of 47/t on each side 
before running obliquely forwards to the tips of the posterolateral arms of the 
shield, shield with three pairs o£ minute setae and one pair of lyriform pores, 
the anterior pair of setae in line with the narrowest part in the mid-line of coxae 
II and t55fx apart, the other two pairs form a transverse row along the posterior 
margin with the median pair 42/* apart and 35/x from the laterals, the single 
pair of pores posterior of the anterior pair of setae; the sternogynial shield Js 
ncJl-jar shaped with the anterior margin wider than the length, 164/i. by li7,i, 
ratio width to length = 14:1-0, with a pair of lyriform pores in the antero- 
lateral angles; latigynial shields slender and strap-like; mesogynial shield re- 
duced; ventral shield as in the generic diagnosis, its posterior margin transverse 
and 460/i wide, with a few pores and at least one pair of setae apically, anal 
shield triangular 450> wide by 185/* long, ratio width to length = 2-43 : 10, 
with a few pores and minute setae posteriorly besides the pair of longer paranal 

Cnatlwsoma as in generic diagnosis. 

Lc?gs--$imilar to gro&sipes Canest, I 650> long, 11 545^, III 50%, IV S70V 
(femur long and gradually expanding to 174// wide at apex). 

Male allotype (from Imbil). Of the same general facies and sizx* as In the 

Dorsum as in the female. 

Venter— Jugular shield smaller and narrower than in female 103^ by 42$* 
and fitting into the excavated anterior margin of the sternal shield, the single 
pair of recurved setae arc on the anterior margin and 51^ apart, the single pair 
of pores are more posterior and 56/* apart; sterno-ventral shield as figured and 
as in the genus, anterior margin 155^ narrowest between midline of coxae 
II 103*1 and widest across the posterolateral arms 366/*, anterior of the genital 
orifice it carries a pair of minute setae in the anterolateral angles 126/a apart 
and another 56^. apart a little way in front of the orifice and about in Ime with 
the middle of coxae II, and a third pair in line with the posterior edge of the 
orifice and 164^ apart, a pair of pores he about Ifljw in front of the second pair 
uf setae and the same width apart and a second pair of pores lie 10^ behind 
I he third pair uf setae and 188/t apart, the rest of the shield posterior of the 
genital orifice carries a number of fairly large pores and many minute setae, 
the genital orifice is large LtJBjn wide by 85u, long and is situated in a line between 
coxae U and Iff; the anal shield is triangular as in the female and of the same 

Gnathasanw and Leas as in female. 

Fedrizzia carabi sp. nov, 
Text fca. 3 A-t 

Types— Holotype female, one paratype female, allotype male and one paratypc 
male from a Carabid beetle from under a log at Alvura, New Guinea : at 5,000 ft., 
July. 1954 (Co]]. H.W.). 



Description— Female holotype—Oi the same general facies of other species of 
the genus; rather small, length of idiosoma 835u, width 638m, ratio length to 
width = 1*33 : 1-0. 

Dorsum— Shield entire covering the whole body and under-lapping ven- 
trally as in other species. 


Fig. 3, — Fedrizzia carahi sp. now A-H Female; A, venter; B, tritostenunn, jugular, sternal, 

sternogynial and latigynial shields enlarged; C, mandible and chelicerae; D, palp; E, leg I; 

F, leg II; G, leg III; H, leg IV; I, Male, tritostemum, jugular and sternal shields. 

Venter— Tritosternum with rather broad conical base and paired ciliated 
laciniae; jugular shields coalesced medially to form a single transverse crown- 
like shield, 105m wide anteriorly but narrower posteriorly where it contours the 
anterior margin of the sternal shield, 3% long, with one pair of curved fine 


setae in anterior margin and 52;t apart, and one pair of lyrifonn pores more 
posterior: sternal shield coalesced with the endopodal sliields of coxae II ? an- 
terior margin almost straight lOfyt wide, sides curving inwards slightly in mid- 
line of coxae II to 89/u. wide and then outwardly around coxae II to a width of 
282/1 between coxae TI and 111, length of shield 103^, posterior margin straight 
for 127ft then with a posterior projection 24^ wide on each side and thereafter 
running obliquely forward to the apices of the postero-latcral arms between 
coxae 11 and III, with three pairs oj setae and two pairs of x^orcs, the anterior 
pair of setae in line with middle of coxae II. the others in a transverse row 
near the posterior margin, the inner pan 4 o%>- apart, and 19> from the laterals; 
steruugvuial shield sharped like an inverted bell-jar with straight anterior margin 
141ft, and lilpt long, ratio width to length — 1-0 : 10, with one pair of poios 
in the anterolateral angles; latigynial shields long and strap-like contouring the 
sides of the sternogynial shield and partly hidden under the inner edges of the 
anterior arms of the ventral shield; mesogynial shiold very much reduced; 
ventral shield 3arge, occupying most of the venter as in other species, the trans- 
verse posterior margin 330/* wide, externally of the perttreme between coxae 
11 and 111 there is a duct or gland opening with the outer edge bow-shape and 
well sclerotised; the anal shield is triangular with transverse anterior margin 
330/i wide, and the length 150>, ratio width to length = 2-2 : 1*0. 

Giutthosoma, chelicerae and palpi as in other .species. 

Legs— I 410/i long, 1I-IV stout and thick but not strikingly so as in grossipes, 
II 410// long, 111 376/*, IV 450,u with the femur 8ty«. across at apex. 

Male allotype— Of the same general facies as the female; length of idiosoma 
S35/., width 838/1. 

Dorsum as in female. 

Venter— Generally as in other species of the genus. Jugular shield separated 
Irom sternal as figured 98/a wide by 24// long, with one pair of setae on anterior 
margin 70// apart, and one pair of pores; sternn-ventrul shield anteriorly slightly 
wider 122/* than the jugular shield with lightlv concave anterior margin, it nar- 
rows to 103/* between coxae II and then expands to 282.U across the arms between 
coxae 11 and Jif; the genital orifice is fairly large 7(V- wide by 5rfy long, and 
lies between coxae U and III; the anal shield is large, triangular with anterior 
margin 350/a wide and its length 150/*. 

Legs— As in the female, il-lV stout and thick, but IV not so markedly so as 
in grtmipes and selhricki. 

Rem/trks— This species is one of the smaller of the genus so for known and can 
be separated as in the key to the species. 

The specimens are in the collections of the South Australian Museum. 

Fedrizzia derrick i sp, nov ( 
Text ffc. 4 A-I 

Types— The holotype female, allotype male and two paratypc males from 
Atherion, Queensland. The holotype and allotype were collected from PassaUds, 
April, 1945 (D. L. Collis) and the two paratypc males from a Megisthamts sp. 
(Acarina), 28th March, 1945 (D. L. Collis). 

Description— Female holotype— A medium sized species with the general facies 
of the- genus. Length of idiosoma 928/ 1, width 660>, ratio of length to width — 
1-4 :l-0\ 

Dorsum— As in other species with the shield entire and under-lapping the 
venter, with few if any minute setae. 



Venter— Tritosternum with rather broad basal piece and paired ciliated 
laciniae; jugular shields coalesced medially to form a single transverse shield 
117// wide by 32^ long, with the anterior margin medially excavate to fit the 
posterior margin of the tritosternum, posterior margin straight and shorter than 

Fig. 4. — Fedrizzia clerriclci sj>. nov. A-JI Female: A, venter; B, tritosternum, jugular, sternal, 

sternogyniul and latigynial shields enlarged; C, mandible and chelicerae; D, palp; E, leg I; 

F. leg II*. G, leg lit; H, leg IV; I, Alale, tritosternum, jugular and sternal shields. 

anterior as figured, with a pair of setae 50/a apart on anterior margin, and a 
pair of lyriform pores; sternal shield coalesced with the endopodal shields of 
coxae II, anterior margin straight and 90/t wide, the lateral margins narrow 
between coxae II to 82^ and then curve around coxae II to a width across the 
posterolateral arms between coxae II and III of 25S/a ? the length of the shield 


is Tip, the posterior margin is straight medially for about 154,u, when it is pro- 
duced slightly posteriorly for a width of ca. 3fy on each side wlierc it runs 
forward obliquely to tJie tips of the postero-kitcral arms, it carries three pairs 
of setae and ? two pans of pores (the anterior pair cannot be seen), the anterior 
setae (sternal setae Jl) are minute, the other two pairs longer and in a trans- 
verse row near the posterior margin,, the medial pair 27^ apart and separated 
from the laterals by 30,r; the steruogynial shielrt is broadly bell-shaped as 
figured, .154ft wide anteriorly and 126V long, ratio of width to length — 1*22 : 1*0, 
it is lightly reticulate and carries one pair of lyriform pores in the antero-Iateiul 
angles, the latigyniul shields are strap-like and contour the lateral margins of 
the steruogynial shield, being partially hidden under the inner margins of the 
anterior inter-eoxal arms of the ventral shield; the mesugynial shield is very 
small as figured; ventral shield large, occupying most of the ventral surface,. 
coalesced with other shields as in the genus, and with a straight transverse 
posterior border SflQit, with a number of pores: anal sliiekl triangular 26G> wide 
anteriorly by 127/' long (deep), ratio width to length ~ 2-04 ; 10; the pcri- 
tremal shield is coalesced with the exopodal shields and only separated from 
outer extension of the ventral shield by a fine line, the stigmata lie between 
coxae III and IV and the peritreme runs forward to coxae I; on the outer exten- 
sions of tire ventral shield, fairly close to the peritrcmc in region of coxae IT is 
the atrium of a large gland of which the outer edge is well chitinised and lip-like. 

Gufrthosoma arising within the camcrostomc formed bv the anterior under- 
lap of the dorsal shield; hypostome, palpi and cheliccrau as in other species* 

f*eg$—\s in other species, f 520/* long, antennacform, angulate, with broad 
base, without caruncle or claws; fl-lV thick and stout but not noticeably so as 
in gtossipes, with short pretarsus, caruncle, and claw.s, II 440V, HI 440/t, JV 
556/1 long, I-IV 6-segmonted. 

Mate allotype— -General faeies ami size as in female. 

Dorsum as in female. 

Venter— Tfilosternuin as in female; jugular shield narrower than the anterior 
width of sternal, 94/* wide by 37,u long with the posterior border shorter than 
anterior, lilting into the evenly excavate anterior margin of sternal, with a 
pair of setae 40//. long and 49/* apart anteriorly and a pair of lyriform pores 
posteriorly; anterior margin of stemo-ventral shield evenly concave 11,7/< wide, 
shield coalesced with endopodal and ventral shields, although a fine line run- 
ning forward from coxae IV to almost coxae 11 and extending anteriorly to a 
short distance from the genital orifice indicates fusion of the ventral shield with 
the sternal cum endopodal shields of coxae if and III, the posterior margin of 
the ventral shield is straight, transverse and 200^ wide; the anal shield is" 280m 
wide by 127/* long; genital orifice between coxae II and III 7u> wide by 61,* 
long and 47/* from anterior margin. 

Gnalhosoma as in female. 

Legs as in female. 
/rVmrzrfo— 1 am indebted to Dr. Sellnick for indicating the separation of this 
specie;; from gwmpes and the types are each represented in the South Aus- 
tralian collection by four slides of dissections made bv him. The two para- 
type males arc entire mounts. The species is dedicated to Dr. E. H. Derrick 
from whom I have received over the years much interesting material. 

Fedrizzia oudemansi sp, no\ r , 
Test % 5 A-I 

Types— Holotype female and allotype male and a paratypc of each sex from 
Mastochilw clilatus Dalm. from under a eucalyptus log at Clen Inncs, New South 


Wales (coll. G. F. Bornemissza, 9/10/56). One male from Mastochilus dilatus 
Dalm. from Washpool Crk. near Tenterfield, N.S.W., 8/10/56 (G.F.B.). 

Description—Female holoiypc—A rather small species with the general facies 
as in other species of the genus. Length of idiosoma 777/*, width 580,u, ratio of 
length to width - 1-34 : 10, 

Fitf. 5. — Fedrizziu oudemansi sp. no v. A-H Female: A, ventral view; B, tritus'ternuin, jugulai, 
sternal* strmogynial and latigynial shields enlarged; O, mandible and chelicerae; D, gnatho- 
soma and palp; E, leg 1; F, leg 11; G, leg 111; H, leg IV; I, Male, triloslenuun, jugular and 

sternal shields. 

Dorsum— Shield entire, covering the whole of the dorsum and under-lapping 
venter as in other species. 

Venter— Base of tritosternum about as wide as long, with a pair of ciliated 
laciniae; jugular shield as figured, 94/x wide by 32/* long (deep), crown-shaped, 
anterior margin convex but with a median concavity for the base of the trito- 
sternum, with one j$tir of long, 47/*, curved setae in the anterior margin and 


42/* apart, with one pair of lyrifoxrn pores 37/t apart; sternal shield with the 
unterioi margin transverse unci 84/4 wide, sides contouring the edges of coxae 
II and continuing between coxae II and III to a maximum width of 220/t be- 
tween the ends of the postero-laterat inns, narrowest just behind anterior margin 
to 75/* posterior margin straight medially for u length of 141ju dien extending 
posteriorly for 23/t on each side before running obliquely and sharply forwards 
lo the tips of the posterolateral arms, shield with three pairs of setae and a 
pair (if lyiiform pores; the anterior pair of setae are minute in the anterolateral 
angles and 45/t apart, die second and third pairs of setae are longer to 19/* and 
form a transverse posterior row with the medians 61/* apart ana 21/* from the 
laterals, the pores arc midway between the anterior and median posterior setae; 
stcmogyniai shield wider than long 150*i by 117/t, ratio of width to length = 
1 *2fi : iO, with lightly convex but converging sides, anteriorly the margin is 
transverse forming outwardly produced angles with the lateral margins, the 
shield carries one pair of lyriform pores in the antero-lateral angles and d4p, 
apatt; ]atig\niul shields slender and strap-like contouring the sternogynial shield 
and partly hidden under the inner edges of the ventral shield; mesogynfal shield 
reduced; ventral shield as in the generic diagnosis, its posterior margin 40GV 
wide and straight, with a few pores and minute setae; anal shield triangular with 
anterior margin 3S2*t wide and the length 176/*, with a pair of paranal setae 
38/i long and with a few pores and minute setae, ratio of width to length = 
2-2: 10. as in generic diagnosis. 

Legs— Similar in general to other species of the genus; 1 390jx long, antennae- 
form and somewhat angulate, II and III 343/1, IV 370/*, IV with femur not much 
longer than wide, but widening gradually to apex without any strong basal spine. 
Male allotype— Of the same general facies as the female. Length of idiosoma 
720/., width '534**. 

Dorsum as in female. 

Venter— -Jugular shield smaller and narrower than in female, 70/* wide by 
25yi long with a wangle pair ol setae anteriorly 30/t long and 52;/ apart, with one 
pair of lyrifonn pores 50** apart; sternal, genital-ventral shields coalesced to 
form the sterno-ventral shield as figured and as in the genus, anterior margin 
88/* wide, narrowing between coxae J I to 74/*, and widest across the postero- 
lateral arms between coxae II- and coxae ill to 206/*, the anterior setae lit: in 
tile antero-lateral angles 50/* apart, the second pair of setae lie just in front of 
the genital orifice and are 52/< apart, the pores lie 14/* in front of the second 
pair of setae, other setae and pores as far as can be seen as figured, the genital 
orifice lies between coxae II and III, it is 38/t long by 47*a wide; the anal shield 
is shaped as in the female with a transverse anterior margin 385/*, and its length 
174 *j, the pair of long paranal setae 33/*. 

Gnathosoma as m female. 

/,i>jt#-As in female, 1 352,, long, II and III 325/*, IV 348/*. 

Fedrizzia bot*«ermssz4U SO, ViOv. 
Te.U fig. 6 A-l 

Types— Holotypo female, allotype male and pnralypc of each sex from Mas- 
tochilus diltitus Dalm. from under a eucalyptus lug at Hampton, Queensland, 
8/11/56 (coll. G. F. fiornemissza). 

Description— Female holotijpe—A fairly large species with the general facies 
as in other species of the genus. Length of idiosoma DfiSo, width 730/*, ratio 
length to width = 1 27 ; 1-0. 


Dorsum— Shield entire covering the whole dorsum and under-lapping on 
to the venter, with many very fine short setae and pores, and with fine roughly 
transverse widely spaced lines, odaerwise smooth. 

Venter— Tritosternum with short base about as wide as long, and a pah* of 
long ciliated laciniae; jugular shield wider than anterior width of sternal shield, 

Fig. 6. — Fedrizzia bonwmisxzai sp. nov. A-H Female; A, ventral view; B ? tritosternum, 
jugular, sternal, stornotfynial and latigynial shields enlarged; C, mandible and eholiecrae; 
D, palp; E, leg I; F, leg II; G, leg lit; H, leg TV; I, Male tritosrernura, jugular and sternal 


somewhat crown-shaped, width 130/*, length (depth) 38/x, with one pair of 
setae behind the anterior margin 55/x apart and 25/a long, a pair of lyriform 
pores 55*j. apart, posterior margin straight and 110//. wide; sternal shield as 
figured, anterior margin 110/a lightly concave for whole length, sides contouring 
coxae II with the shield narrowest in mid-line of coxae II to 94ft, and widest 
to 242/a between the points of the posterolateral arms between coxae II and 
III, with three pairs of setae and one pair of pores, the anterior pair of setae 


ture minute and placed some distance, 25^ back from the middle of the anterior 
margin und f&ji apart, the other two pairs of setae are also short and form a 
transverse row close to the posterior margin, of these the medians arc 50/' apart 
and 27ti from the laterals, the pores are situated 14ju. behind the anterior setae 
and a similar distance apart; the sternogynial shield as figured, wider than 
look 143/i by 116;*, ratio width to length = 1-23 : 1-0; the surface is ornamented 
witli a strong reticulation, the anterior margin is straight and the anterolateral 
corners project shortly laterally, the sides are convex as figured, the pores are 
in the anterolateral angles and 130/* apart; the latigyniai shields are narrow and 
strap-like and contour the lateral margins of the sternogynial shield being partly 
hidden under the inner edge of the portions of the ventral shield lying between 
the coxae and the sternogynial shield; mesogynial shield small and reduced; 
ventral shield as in other species of the genus and with the surface ornamented 
with a fine grid of transverse lines cut by short longitudinal Jines, its posterior 
margin aligns the anterior margin of the anal shield and is 376/x long, it is ako 
funmhed with a number of fairly large pores and some very minute setae; the 
anal shield is triangular. 376,* wide anteriorly and 176^ long, ratio width to 
length — 2-21 - 1-0 P with the surface, as in the ventral shield, the long paranal 
setae are 25^ long. 

Givtthosoma as in the generic diagnosis. 

/ jt ;g,v-_jGeneraily as in other species, I antennaeform and 533>t long, II-IV 
stout, II -tfrifu III 487,*, IV 730fu femur of leg IV truncheon-like, 25% long and 
162^. wide at apex. 

Male allotype— Ot the same general fades as the female. Length of idiosoma 
1-XW^ width 730ft. 

Dorsum as in female. 

Venter— Jugular shield crown-shaped, smaller than in female* 94/a wide 
by fJSjU long (deep), with the setae ca, 23/t long and 33jm apart, with one pair 
of Jyrflorm pores; sternal, genital and ventral shields coalesced to form the 
sterno-ventral shield as figured and as in the genus, anterior margin 131/*, the 
sides contouring coxae II-IV with the widest sternal portion between coxae II 
and 111 and 305/* between the postero-lateral arms; genital orifice huge, situated 
between coxae II., 61/* wide by 52/a Jong, posterior margin aligned with anterior 
margin of anal shield and 376// wide, surface of shield with some large pores* 
minute setae and with a fine grid or mesh of transverse striations with short 
longitudinal cross lines; anal shield triangular, 376/n wide and 126/i long as 
in temale. 

Gnathosorna as in other species. 

Legs as in female, 1 520> long, 11 464/*> W. 4$fe IV 696/*, 
Remarks— As in the key diis species belongs to the grossipax, selhuekL derrick* 
g^oup in having the mesh or grid-like surface of the ventral shields in both 
sexes. The other two known species, carabi and oudemansi, have smooth non- 
urnruncntal ventral shields. 

Fedrizzia strandi (Oudeinans, 1927) 

Toxar&usia strandi Omls. ? 1927. Ent. Her., 7 (156), p. 227; 102S, Fhimu Bimi.viii-Avitti, 
M Treubia, 7, Suppl. *. pp. 00-66, fijy*. tMJ-BL 

The genus Toxopeuski with stranrti its type has generally been regarded by 
,«< virologists as synonymous with Fedrizzia Canestrini with grossipes Cancst 
from Queensland as the type. That the two genera are synonymous is un- 
doubted but frum the specific features of the species of Fedrizziidae as brought 
out In the present study strandi would appear to be a validly different species 
from the Australian forms. 


Toxopeuski slnituli Was very fully described and figured by Oudemans in 
1328 from two females from "Station 12, Bum, 4-7 Feb., 1922; coll. L. J. Toxo- 

Eeus"; the habitat was given with a query- A male specimen from "Wai Erw 
is Wai Temun, 7004000m., 3rd Nov., 1922" is described as the male of the 
same species. 

For the female the only dimensions given are length of idiosoma 857^, 
width 630/j. (ratio of length to width = 1 36:1-0). interpolating from his 
figures-, however, the anal shield is 408ju wide by 150u long, or a ratio of width 
to length of 2-72 : 1-0; the stcniogynial shield is wider anteriorly than long, 
approximately 163/*, by 115/<. s or ratio width to length of 1-42 : 1*0. 

Thus in dimensions strandi is a broader species than grossipes with an anal 
shield three times as wide as long as compared with an anal shield only slightly 
more than twice as wide as long in gwssipes. Other features shown in his de- 
scription and figures of strandi in which this species differs from any of those 
found in Australia and New Guinea can be mentioned. Firstly he speaks of the 
pair of vertical setae as being wide apart arid show them as being wider apart 
than in any other species. Behind diese setae he describes and figures an 
cyc-likc organ on the dorsal surface; no such organ winch is probably a pore 
has been observed in other species. On the ventral surface the pair of setae 
on the jugular shield (tetartosternum) an; shown as in the antero-latcral angles, 
and not near to or flanking the base of the tritosternum. The tritostenmm is 
stated to have no base, but the drawings, Figs. 70 and 75, show this as is usual 
in species of this genus, and over-lapped partially by the jugular shield. 

On the above considerations as well as from geographical location, the 
females of strandi Ouds. must be regarded as a valid species, not synonymous 
with groxsipes Canestrini, 1884, 

Whether the male described by Oudemans as the same species is so, seems 
somewhat uncertain. His specimen was much smaller^ idiosoma 730/* long by 
S0Ujh wide, or a ratio of 1 237 ; 1*0, than the females; the ana! shield with a 
ratio of width to length of 2*7 : 1-0. In the absence of definite hosts, and in 
the fact that the male and females were bom different localities, the smaller 
size .suggests a possibility that the male may not be conspecific with the female. 

Key to the species of Fedrizzia Canest. t 1881;. s. sir. 
(largely based on females) 

1. Larger species with length of idiosoma greater than KKKV- 2 
Smaller species, length of idiosoma less than 1000/u 3 

2, Stcniogynial shield with the lightly convex sides gradually converg- 
ing to the apex, 16% wide anteriorly bv 141/* long (ratio width to 
length = 1*2 s 1-0); anal shield 4QQ/» wide by 140/* long (ratio width 
to length — 2-86 : ] -0); femur of leg IV 2-23 times as long as it is 
wide at apex. Length of idiosoma 1160/i, width SJtJj* (ratio length to 
width == 133: 10). Ventral shield with rnesh or grid. 

P. sp. cf. grossipes Cancst.. 1884, 

Stemogynial shield with sides medially almost straight aud parallel 
before curving inwards to the apex, wider anteriorly than long 164 /a 
by VBtp (ratio width to length = 1*4 : 1-0); anal shield 450/*, wide by 
185/* long (ratio width rn length = 2-43: 1*0); femur of leg IV 2-4 
times as long as wide at apex. Length nf idiosoma 1195/>., width &28/x 
(ratio length (o width = 1 28 : 10) Ventral shield with mesh or grid. 

F, seUnicki sp. nov. 


3. Anal shield more than 300/* wide anteriorly. 4 
Anal shield small, 260//. wide by Jgfy long (ratio of width to length 

— 2 04; 1-0) -. sternogynial shield of nearly uniform width for first 
half of its length, then" sides curving in to apex, 154,* wide anteriorly 
and 126/i long (ratio width to length = 1-22 ; 1-0); femur of leg IV 
twice as long as it is wide at apex. Length of idiosoma 928-*, width 
660**, (ratio length to width = 1*4:1-0). Ventral shields with mesh 
or grid. 

F. derricki sp. nov. 

4. Anal shield less than 360/* wide, with ratio of width to length less 
dian 2-5; 1-0. 5 

Anal shield greater than 380/* wide. 6 

5. Ventral shields with fine mesh or grid. Anal shield 324/*. wide by 
135/* long, ratio width to length — 2-4 : 1-0- stcrnogynial shield wider 
anteriorly than long, 160}i by 124/*, ratio width to length — 1*3 : 1*0; 
femur of leg IV twice as long as wide at apex. length of idiosoma 
918**, width 612/*, ratio of length to width -1-5:1-0. 

F. grossipes Canest., 1884. 

Ventral shields smooth, without mesh or grid. Anal shield 330/* 
wide and 150/* long, ratio of width to length — 2-2 : 1*0; stcrnogynial 
shield as wide anteriorly as it is long, 141 *i; femur of leg IV shorter 
and not so massive, only one fourth as long again as it is wide at arjex. 
Length of idiosoma 835,-., width 63S/*, ratio length to width = 1 31 ; 1*0- 

F. carabi sp. nov. 

8, Vcnlral shields without grid or mesh. Anal shield 382** wide by 

176>i long, ratio width to length = 2-2:1-0; sternogynial shield wider 
anteriorly than long 150/* by 117/*, ratio width to length = 1*28 ; 1*0; 
femur of leg IV not much thicker than III, abont 1*3 times as long as 
wide at apex. Length of idiosoma 777-*, width 580 ( u, ratio length to 
width = 1-34: 10. 

F. oudemami sp, nov. 

Ventral shields with mesh or grid. 7 

7, A more broadlv rounded species, length of idiosoma 928/*, width 

730**, ratio of length to width - 1-27 : 10. Sternal setae II-1V very 
minute. Anal shield 406*t wide by 139/* long, ratio width to length = 
2-9:10; sternogynial .shield reticulate wider anteriorly than long, 
143/i by 116/*, ratio width to length = 1*23 : 1*0, sides almost parallel 
medially before curving to the apex; leg IV massive as in grossipes, 
femur more than twice as long as wide at apex, 

F. boniemisszai sp. nov. 

A less broadly rounded species, length of idiosoma 857/-., width 
630/* ratio of length to width = 1*36 : 10. Sternal setae longer. Anal 
shield 408/< wide by 150/* long, ratio of width to length — 2-72 : 1*0; 
sternogynial shield ? smooth, wider anteriorly than long ca. 163/* by 
115/*, ratio 1-42: 1*0, with gradually converging sides; log IV not so 
massive, femur ca. 1-6 times as long as wide at apex. 

F, strandi Ouds., 1927. 

Genus Neofkdrizzia nov, 
The species of this genus while having the general facies of the family 
differ from both other genera Fedrizzin Canestrini s. str. and Parafedrizzia gen. 


uov. hi (hat a free jugular shield is absent in the male. Iu tluit sex hi front of 
the anterior margin of the sternal shield thei^e is & pair of stout anteriorly 
directed processes uf unknown function which overlie the bulbous base of the 
tritosternum. In both seves the two long setae on- the second segment of the 
palpi are only shortly ciliated or barbed. The femora uf legs IU and TV arc 
short and wide with a prominent thick curved spine at the posterior corners in 
both males arid females. The anal shield is present as in FedrizzUi, The body 
form may be somewhat rounded with curved sides or more elongate with the 
sides somewhat straightCT. 

Type Neofcdrizzia gayi sp. nov. 

Ncofcdrizzin g»yi sp. uov, 
tutf fig. 7 A-K 

Types— I lolnrype female, allotype male, two paratype females and one para- 
type male from a Passalul beetle in rotten log from Tmbil, Queensland, 11th 
Sept., J946 (>\ J. Gay). Three females and five males also from a Passalid at 

Yarraman, Queensland, 29th Aug, 7 1935 (A,R,P.). 

Description— Holoiype female— A moderately large heavily errinnised species 
with the general facies of Fcdrizzia s. str., troadlv oval with rounded sides. 
Length of 'idiosoma 1210/t, width 850//. 

Dorsum— Shield covering all the dorsum and under-lapping vcntrally and 
anteriorly to form the anterior margin of the camerostome, marginally it is con- 
fluent with or coalesced with the outer edge of the large ventral shield as far 
hack as the posterior edge of coxae IV then under-lapping the venter in a wide 
strip contouring and separated by a suture from the posterior part of the ventral 
and from the anal shield: dorsally a more hyaline sickle-shaped part is more 
or less demarcated by a line from the rest and overlaps the gnathosurna, this 
portion carries only the* pair of vertical setae 47// long and 94^t apart, but the 
rest of the dorsal shield is furnished with numerous pores but no perceptible 

Venter— Tritosternum as figured with an elongate basal part 70/* long 
and with pttired ciliated laciniae to 140/* long; jugular shields coalesced 
medially to form a single crown-shaped shield 146/t wide and 60ft long (deep) 
with the posterior margin 108^ wide, with one pair of recurved setae on anterior 
margin flanking base of tritoslernurn 38-j apart and ea. 23^ long, with one pair 
of lyrifonn pores subposteriorly; sternal shield coalesced with the endopodal 
shields of coxae II, 10S/i. wide anteriorly, narrowing to 98/j. in midline of coxae 
II then contouring coxae 11 to a width of 320/x across the posterolateral arms 
between coxae J I and 111, the shield is 146» long (deep)* *h e posterior margin 
is only lightly concave for its whole width of 256u before running obliquely 
forwards to the tip ol the arms, with three pairs of setae and ? one pair of 
pores, the anterior pair of setae (sternal setae 11) are more or less in the antero- 
lateral angles and in bout of the pures whieh are rather wider apart, the other 
two pairs of setae (sternal setae III and IV) lie in a transverse row near the 
posterior margin the medians being 65/t apart and I9j* from the laterals, all 
three pairs of setae are short, ca, Up, long; sternogynial shield longer than wide> 
149}u by 126y* anteriorly with lightly convex converging sides and roundod apex, 
with one pair of Uniform pores near the anterolateral corners, in line with the 
pores the shield is somewhat wider than the anterior margin; lutigynial shields 
strap-like contouring the sides of the .sternogynial and largely lying beneath the 
inner edges of the ventral shield (see Fig. 7 U and J); mesogynial shield re- 
duced and covered by apex of sternogynial shield; ventral shield large occupy- 



ing most of the ventral surface-, marginally confluent or coalesced with the dorsal 
shield from the apex backwards to the region of coxae IV where it curves in- 
wards to the anterolateral corners of the anal shield and is contoured by that 
part of the under-lapping dorsal shield, between die anterolateral corners of 
the anal shield it has a straight transverse margin separated by a suture from 
the transverse margin of the anal shield, antero-laterally it is coalesced with 

g$ri 7. — Naofedrizzia gayi g. et sp. nov. A-H, J-K, Female; A, ventral view; B, tritosterninn, 

jugular, sternal, stemogynial unci lutigynial shields enlarged; C, ehelicorao; D, palp; E. leg 

I; b\ leg II; G, leg III: H, leg IV; J, Latigynial and mesogynial shields; K, atrium of duct 

between coxae II and III; I, Male tritosternum, pre-stcmal appendages and sternal shield. 

peritrcmal and exopodal shields of coxae II-IV, medially it extends forwards 
as two arms as far as posterior margin of the sternal shield and between die 
sternogynial shield and the coxae on each side, with the endopodal shields of 
which it is coalesced, die posterior margin is 520ft wide and it is furnished with 
numerous pores and a few minute inconspicuous setae; from the posterior edge 
of coxae IV a fine line runs obliquely backwards and outwards towards the 


body edge which it does not reach, from coxae HI another fine line runs back- 
wards and then curves forwards but does not reach the body cdge : in the out- 
side junction of coxae II and III is the atrium of ft large duct the inner edges 
of which are strongly sclerotised; the peritmiul shield is coalesced with the 
endopodal and ventral shields, with the stigmata lying between coxae IF I and 
IV and the peritreme running forward as figured to coxae I; the anal shield 
is large, triangular, 520> wide on the transverse anterior margin and 2200 long 
(deep) with anus in the posterior angle* it carries many pores and. a pair of 
long paranal setae 70/a. 

Gnathoso ma— Much as in species of Fedrizzia; chcliccrac as figured, fixed 
digit with two strong and one smaller tooth, movable digit with a strong sub- 
bisal tooth and subaplcally with minute denticles, with many hyaline processes 
HWi of which arc blade-like and serrate, the others filamentous; palpi as figured* 
trochanter large and broad with an inner lobe anteriorly and two long harhed 
setae, specialised seta on tarsus two-tined; the mouth parts together with leg I 
arise within the camerostome, which in the lateral angles has a triangular 
vcWrtised plate (the *axillar ,? plate of Sellnick in lit.). 

Legs-All .-shorter than the body and 6-segmented, 1 slender and antennae- 
form, strongly angled, tarsus without caruncle or claws. 3S2p long; II-IV shorter 
and stout, tarsi with caruncle and paired claws, II 508ft long, III 508/*, 
IV 557/1, the femora of II-IV are short and hroad, with distinct hyaline lamellae, 
tin fit and IV the outer posterior angle of the femora carries a strong curved 
posteriorly directed spine characteristic of the germs. 

Allotype mule—Oi the same size and general racies us in the female, 

ftpMtta as in female. 

Venter- 1 Tritostemum with a large bulbous basal part, &4jcc long by 84* wide, 
and a pair ol ciliated laciniae 140> lone; no jugular shield; in front of the deeply 
concave anterior margin of the sternal shield and lying above the base of tho 
tritosternnm is a pair of free anteriorly directed processes curved inwardly to 
one another and apically bilobed, these processes of unknown function are 9-4^. 
lonrr and 33/j. wide as figured; the rest of the ventral shields except the anal are 
coalesced into a single shield the anterior sternal margin of which is iSQp 
wide and deeply concave, sternal setae I are long, 70,i and 7<V apart and lie 
in the anterolateral angles., sternal setae II and III iue minute, II o3p> from I 
and 33ft apart, III 6iju "from II and close to the genital orifice and 84,u apart, 
between the bases of setae 1 are a pair of round pores 33/« apart and a second 
pair of pores (lyriform) lie slightly posterior of setae II and 61^ apart, while a 
third pair of pores also lyriform are about in line with setae III and 145/* ap^rt; 
the genital orifice is between coxae II and III, 94/* wide by 47;i long, and around 
the posterior half on each side is a series of 8-9 pores; the anal slrleld is of the 
same shape and dimensions as in the female. 

Gnauwsoma and Legs as in female. 

Neofedrizzia canestrinii sp. uov. 

Text fig- 8 A- 1 

Types— Ilolotype female, allotype male, nine puratype females and four para- 
type mains lYnm „i Passalid Autacoctjchts edenlttlas McL from Hinehinbrook 
Island, N. Queensland, 9th Sept., 1956 (C. F. Boruernissza ) . 

Other material— I male from A. edentuhts Mel.. Hampton, Queensland, 3rd 
October, 1956 ^C.F.ii.); 2 mules from Tambourine, ? date (A. M. Lea); 1 male 
on Passalid, Athcrton Tableland, Queensland, 23th March, 1945 (D. J. Colli*); 
1 male from A. edenkulus, Wilson's Downfall near Tenterfield, New South Wales, 
8th Oct. 1956 (C.F.B.). 



Description— Holotype female— With the generic facies, but a rather small 
roundish species. Length of idiosoma 812/a, width 638fc. 

Dorsum— Dorsal shield entire,, covering the whole body and under-lapping 
venter as in other species; it is smooth except for some fine longitudinal striae 
circumferencially, and is furnished with many round small pores or the bases of 
minute setae. 

/{K l kw>v .■■■ 

te. '.}.-■''' y^ -.- I - \ 

$ jryjL *£\* • 


Fig. 8. — Neofvdrizzia canestrinii sp. nov. A-H Female; A, ventral view: B, iritosternum, 
jugular, sternal, stornogynial and latigynial shields enlarged; C, cheliccraej D, gnathosorna 
and palpi; E, leg I; F, leg II; G, log III; H, leg IV; I, Male tritosternum, pre-stcrnal processes 

and sternal shield. 

Venter— Tritosternum with elongate base 47^. long and SSp wide, with paired 
ciliated laciniae to ca. HOyx long; jugular shield as figured, crown-shaped, 132/t 
wide by 47 ft long (deep) and the posterior margin 104/t long, with one pair of 
recurved setae flanking the base of the tritosternum, ca. 19/j. long and 30> apart, 
with one pair of lyrifonn pores tip in front of posterior margin and 36/i apart; 
sternal shield as figured, 104/j, wide anteriorly, the sides only narrowing slightly 
from anterior angles, then coalescing with the cndopodal shields of coxae II 


contouring coxae IT And then running between coxae II and 111 to a maximum 
width between apices of posterolateral arms of 282/j, poster lor margin straight 
medially for 142m. then sloping slightly backwards for 47^ before running 
obliquely forwards to the tips of the posterolateral arms, with Uirce pairs of 
setae all very short, the first pair (sternal setae 11) 16V behind the anterior 
margin and 44* apart, the second and third pairs of setae (sternal setae III nud 
IV) in a transverse roAV near the poster ior margin, the medians 44/j. apart and 
33ju from the laterals, with one pair of lyriform pores 77/* apart and 16ju behind 
sternal setae II. length (depth) of shield 66//.; sternogyrnal shield as figured, 
wider anteriorly than it is long, 121/*, by 99p, ratio of length to width — 1 : 1*25, 
with rounded sides, which expand slightly behind anterior corners to a width of 
137/j; latigynial shields strap-like, contouring sides of stcmogynial and some- 
what liidden under inner edges of ventral shield as in other species* mcsogynial 
shield reduced and obscured by the inner anterior margin of the ventral snield 
and the. bases of the latigynial shields; ventral shield largo and covering most 
of the venter as in other species, its transverse posterior margin 400^ with a 
Dumber of round pores and minute setae as figured, the claviform processes are 
present beneath the shield but inconspicuous; anal shield large triangular, 40Gb 
wide by 91/a long (deep), ratio width to length = 4-4 ; 10, with many round 
pores and a ffew minute setae besides the paranal setae of 52/fc length; the peri- 
dental shield aud peritrcme hs in other species. 

Gtxilhowma as in the type and other species of the genus. 

Legs all shorter than the body. I antennaeform. 432/i long. II and III 400/t, 
IV 423,.. 
Allotype mala— Fucies, shape and dimensions as in the female. 

Dorsum as in female. 

Venter— Tritosternum with bulbous basal part, 47/* long and 47/i wide with 
sub-apical division, and paired ciliated laciniae ca. 110/* long: pre -sternal pro- 
cesses as figured, blunt and stoutly horn-shaped curved inwards, each 27/* long 
by 16/j thick medially; sterno-vcntral shield as figured, anterior margin concave 
and yQjA wide, genital orifice wider than long 60^ by 55/», and situated between 
enxae II and III, no pores marginally around the posterior half of the opening 
but there is a slight bulge on each side in the intd-line; anal shield of the same 
shape and dimensions as in the female. 

Gnathovoma and Legv as in the female, 

Neofcdrizzia cynota sp. now 
Teat fig 9 A-r 

Types— Holotype female, allotype niatc> one paratype female urtd two paratype 
males from Mastoclulnx dilatm balm, from Wilson's Downfall, near* Tentcrficfd, 
New South Wales, 8th Oct., 195fi (C. F. Bornemissza). Also 2 males and 1 
female from same host from Wash pool Crk. ? near Tenterfield. 8/10/56 (C.F.B.), 

Description— Holotifpe female— Only a moderately rounded >peeies. Length 
of idfosoma 89.3/,, width 638/., ratio of length to width = 14; 1-0- 

Dorsum— Shield covering entire body and under-lapping venter as in other 
species,, with many small rounded pores and minute setae, surface smooth. 

Venter— Tritosternum with elongate basal part 47/4 lung by 23/jl wide, and 
with paired ciliated laciniae to ca. 120a: jugular shield crown-shaped as figured, 
113/a wide by 4% long (deep), posterior margin 82/i,, with a pair of recurved 
setae on anterior margin flanking base of tritosternum 30/t apart and 33/* long, 
with one pair of lyriform pores tip in front of posterior margin and 3$i apart; 
sternal shield as figured, anterior margin 8Sn, sides narrowing slightly just behind 



angles and then contouring coxae II to run between coxae II and III to a maxi- 
mum width of the posterolateral arms of 247 /*, posterior margin straight medially 
for 11G> and then sloping backwards slightly for 44/* on each side before running 
obliquely forwards to the tips of the posterolateral arms, with three pairs of 
setae and one pair of lyriform pores, the setae are all 20/*. long, the anterior 
setae (sternal setae II)' are 19/* behind the anterior margin and 44/t apart; 

Fig. 9. — Netrfedrizziti cynota Sp; now A-H Female: A v ventral view; B, tritostcrnum, jugular, 

sternal, sternogynial and latigynial shields enlarged: C, chelirerae: D, palp; E, leg I; F, leg 

II; G, leg III; H, log IV; I, Male tritosternum, pre-stenial processes and sternal shield, 

sternal setae 111 and IV form a transverse row near the posterior margin with 
the medians 44//- apart and 25/a from the laterals, the pores are 60jti apart and 
22/*. behind setae 11; sternogynial shield as figured, only a little longer 118/a than 
wide anteriorly, its sides widen just in line with the pores to 124/* and then con- 
verge gradually in a rounded curve to the rounded apex, the pores are 96/* 
apart and lie 28/j. behind the anterior margin; the latigynial shields arc strap- 
like and contour the sides of the sternogynial shield as in other species; the 
mesogynial shield is reduced and obscured; the ventral shield is as in other 
species furnished with a number of round pores and a few minute setae, its 
transverse posterior margin is 352/i. wide; the anal shield is triangular, 352j* 


wide by 160/. long (deep) giving a ratio of width to length of 2-2:1 0, the 
paianal setae are 56p long 

Gnathosoma as in other species. 

Legs-All shorter than bodv, I anteimaefonn. 464/*. lung, U-HI 383ft 
IV 406/*. 
Allotype malc—Oi the same fades, size and dimensions as the female. 

Dorsum as in female. 

Venter— Tritosternum with a bulbous basal part, 6% wide by 66/* long, and 
with paired ciliated laciniae ea. 120ft long; pre-sternal processes short and stumpy 
and apically truncate, 23/* long by 23/* wide, bent inwards; steino-ventrat shield 
as in other species, anterior margin concave and 112/* wide with blunt antero- 
lateral comers, genital orifice as figured lying between coxae HI, 55/* long by 
55/* wide> with ft short series of pores around the posterior margin as figured: 
sternal setae I long 30** and situated in the anterolateral angles of the shield, 
anterior of these and behind bases of prc-stcrnal processes is a pair uf small 
lyriform pores; anal sliield of the same shape and dimensions as in the female. 

Gtiathosoma and Legs— As in female. 
Remarks— Distinguished from other species as in the following key. 

Neofedrizzia camini sp. nov. 
Text 6g. 10 A-K 

rypw— Holot) ffff female, allotype male and one paratype of each sex from 
M/tsfochilus dilatus Dalm. from* a rotten euca'ypt fog from Glen Innes, New 
South Wales, 9th Oct., 1956 (G. b\ borneruissza). 

Other materkil-l male. Upper Williams River, N.S.W., Oct., 1926 (A. M. 
Lea and E. W. Wilson); I male in ? moss and lichen, Waratah, Tasmania (00 
date): 1 male on a beetle, Mfe Glorious, Queensland, 6th Feb., 1951 (E. H. 
Derrick ) . 

Description— Holohjpe female- A rather oval elongate species, of the generic 
fades. Length of idiV>soma 1160/*, width 770;/, ratio length to width = 15; 1-0. 

Dorsum— Dorsal shield entire, covering the whole body and under-lapping 
venter as on other species. Surface smooth with numerous small pores and 
some minute setae. 

Venter— liriti sternum with elongate basal part 66// long by 33ft wide and 
a pair of ciliated laciniae ca. 120/*. long; jugular shield crown-shaped as figured, 
150** wide by 66/* deep, posterior margin 11 2/v. wide, with a pair of fine recurved 
setae flanking base of tritosternum 55/* long and their bases 30> apart, with one 
pair of lyriform pores 47/* apart and 16/j. in front of posterior margin: sternal 
shield as figured, anterior margin 112/*, sides contouring coxae II and rurming 
between coxae 11 and 111 to form the postero-lateral arms with a width of 305**, 
the posterior margin 258/* is straight medially for 144/* and laterally slopes 
slightly backwards f rtf 57,t on each side before running obliquely forwards to 
the tips of the postero-lateral arms, with three pairs of setae and one pair of 
lyriform pores, the setae are all fine and ca. 27/r. long, the first pair (sternal 
setae TI) lie in the anterolateral angles 22** behind the anterior margin and 
47u apart, the others form a transverse row near the posterior margins with the 
medians 60/* apart and 30/* from the laterals, the pores are 91** apart and 3G> 
behind setae It; sternogynial shield as figured, slightly longer than wide nn 
anterior margin 144/* by 132/», the sides expand to a width of 151*t in line with 
the pores and then curve more or less evenly to form a rounded shape, the 
pores lie 41/* behind the anterior margin and 110/* apart; latigynial shields narrow 
and strap-like contouring the sternogynial shield as in Other? species; the meso- 



gynial shield is reduced and obscured; the ventral shield is large and coalesced 
with other shields as in other species, its transverse posterior margin is 510^ 
wide, the surface shows many small pores and some fine minute setae; the anal 
shield is large and triangular, 5KV wide by 244/* long (deep), giving a ratio 
of width to length of 2-09 : 1 -0, the paranal setae arc 40/*, lone. 

Fig. 10. — Neofedritzia camini sp. nov- A-K, Female; A, ventral view: B, tritosternum, 

jugular, sternal, sternogynial, lateral shields and claviform processes enlarged; C ; tritosternum; 

D, tectum; E, mandible and cbclicerae; F, palp; G, leg I; H, leg H ; I 3 leg TIT; J, leg TV; K T 

dorsal shield; L, Male tritosternum, pre-sternal processes and sternal shield. 

Gnathosamn— As in other species. 

Legs— AW shorter than bodv, I antennacform 590^ long, IT. and III 464/a, 
IV 520^. 
Allotype male—Of the same shape and dimensions as in the female. 

Dorsum— As in female. 

Venter— Tritosternum with bulbous basal part 70/x long by 70/* wide, and a 
pair of ciliated laciniae ca. 120/i long; pre-sternal processes short and stumpy 


curved inwards and with truncate apices, 4% long by 25/i wide; sterno-ventral 
shield as in other species, anterior margin concave 140/x wide with blunt truncate 
anterolateral corners, genital orifice lying between coxae ill as figured 66^. 
long fay o'Gjw, wide with a series of seven or eight pores around the posterior 
half, sternal setae I 38/* long and situated in the anterolateral angles of the 
shield, other pores and small setae are present, some of which probably represent 
sternal setae II-IV and their respective pores; anal shield of the same shape 
and dimensions as in the female. 

Gnathosoma and Leps—As in the female. 
Remarks— Distinguished from other species as m the following key. The 
species is named after Dr. J. II, Camin who has contributed much to the study 
of the comparative morphology of the Mesostigmala. 

JNcofcdrizzia gorirossiae sp. now 

Tct fig. 11 A-L 

Types — Holnfy pe female, allotype male and seveti paratype females from Mas- 
tochiius dihttus Dalm. from rotting eucalypt log. Hampton, Queensland, Sth 
November, 1956 f( I, F. Bornemissza). 

Description— Jlolotype female— A moderately large oval species widest in line 
of coxae Jl[ and then tapering somewhat before becoming rounded posteriorly 
from line of anterior margin of anal shield. Length of idiosoina 1020/t, widrn 
6UG>; giving a ratio of length to width of 1*48; L*0. 

Dorsum— Dorsal shield covering all the body and under-lapping venter as 
in other species, with many small round pores, and £09116 minute setae 

Venter— Tritostcrnum with elongate basal part, 52p long by 28p wide, with 
a pair of ciliated Jaeiniae to 140//. long; jugular shield crown-shaped as figured 
132a wide by 47/a long (deep), posterior maigin JKV, with a pair of anterior 
recurved setae ca. 37/*. long Hanking the base of the tritostcmuiD and their bases 
30/* apart, and JjQjp in front of posterior margin; sternal shield as figured, an- 
terior margin 98/t wide, sides contouring coxae III and running between coxae 
II and HI to form the antero-lateral corners of the posterolateral arms with a 
maximum width of 275/u the posterior margin is straight medially for a width 
of I2i(j. then bends lightly backwards for SOp on each side before running 
obliquely forwards to join the tips of the posterolateral arms, with tliree pairs 
of setae and one pair of lyrifonn pores, the anterior pair of setae {sternal setae 
II) are ca. 25> long, 55u apart and He 20 f i behind the anterior margin, the other 
two pairs of setae (sternal setae 111 and IV) form a posterior transverse row 
with the medians 47/i apart and ify bom the laterals, these setae are also ca. 
25/i long, the pores are 70/a apart and 23//. behind sternal setae II; stcruogynial 
shield as figured, anterior margin 108/*, length l&l'p, the sides expand slightly 
to a width of 131/a in line of the pores to curve and converge to a broadly 
rounded apes, with one pair of lyriform pores 103ft apart and 33/i behind anterior 
margin: latigym'al shields strap-like and contouring sides of steniOgynial shields 
as in other species: mesogyrual shield reduced and obscured; ventral shield 
large, occupying most of the venter and coalesced with all oilier shields except 
the anal, its posterior margin is transverse, 4Mu wide and separated from the 
anal by a suture, it carries a number of pores and a few minute setae; anal shield 
large, triangular, 404/* wide anteriorly and 202/t long (deep) giving a ratio of 
width to length of 20 : 1*0,. it is furnished with a number of pores and some 
fine minute setae, as well as a pair of paranal setae 56/x long. 

Gnathosonw—As in other .species. 



Legs— All shorter than body, I antennaeform, 522/* long, II and III 430/*, 
IV 464/*. 
Allotype nuile—Ol the same shape and dimensions as in the female. 

Dorsum— As in the female. 

Venter— Tritostcrnum with bulbous base 85/t wide and 70/* long, with a 
pair of ciliated laciniae 140/x long; pre-sternal processes as figured, curved in- 

Fig. 11. — Neofedrizzia gorirossiae sp. nov. A-K, Female: A ? ventral view; B, tritostcrnum, 

jugular, .sternal, sternogvnial and latigynial shields enlarged- C, tritosternum; D, tectum; E, 

mandible and chelicerac; F, palp; G, leg I; H, leg II; I, leg III; J, leg IV; K, dorsal shield; 

)L Male tritostcrnum, pre-sternal processes and strrnal shield. 

wards, 47,w long by 2«V wide and with parallel sides and truncate apex; sterno- 
vcntral shield as in other species, anterior margin 136/* wide, deeply and widely 
excavated for the pre-sternal processes and base of tritosternum, sternal setae I in 
anterolateral angles and 47/< long, antero-lateral angles of shield blunt, sternal 
setae II also moderately long ca. 23/* and 52/t apart and 33/* behind setae 1 in 
line with a pair of small lyriform pores 70/* apart, 70/i behind these is a pair of 


larger lyriform pores 132^ apart, otherwise a few round pures and several minute 
sfctite, the genital orifice is 70/j. wide by 66/', long and lies mainly between coxae 
III, the posterior half is margined by 'ft series of about ten pores on each side; 
the anal shield is as in the female. 

Gnathosama and Legs— As in the female. 
Rcnmrks— This species can be separated us in the key. 

It is named in honour of Dr. Flora Gorirnssi, joint author with Dr. Camiu 
ut their valuable contributions on the comparative morphology of the Meso- 

Neofedrixzia tragurdhi sp. nov. 
Text fig. M A-K 

Types— Ilolotype female, allotype male, nine paratype females and Gve para- 
tope males from Mastochilus difittus Dalm. from a eucalyptus log, at Washpool 
Creek, near Tcnterfield, New South Wales, 8th Oct, 1956 (G. F. Bomemissza). 

Description— Holotype female— A large elongate oval species widest anteriorly 
of the middle and in line with coxae III. Length of idiusoma 1369u, greatest 
width 905//., width across anterior margin of anal shield 754^* ratio of length to 
width = 1 -51: 1-0, 

Dorsum— Shield covering entire body ami under-kipping on to venter as in 
other species, furnished with numerous small round pores and some obscure 
minute setae, on the hyaline anterior portion with a pair of vertical setae 47ji 
long and 94/< apart. 

Venter— Tritosternum with elongate basal part 56//. long by 32/t wide, and 
ii pair of ciliated lacunae ca. 160/x long; jugular shield as figured, crown-shaped, 
imp wide by 56/x long (deep) and the posterior margin 127/a, with a pair of very 
long 90/i setae anteriorly and flanking base of tritosternum with their bases 3.V 
apart, with a pair of lyriform pores J0/i in front of posterior margin and 52p 

J>art; sternal snield as figured, anterior margin straight, 127// wide, sides at first 
ightly narrowing then contouring coxae J I to extend between coxae II and 

III to form the postcro-latcral arms with a width of 348/*, posterior margin 
straight medially for 170/t then sloping backwards for 60V im $&$) s 'de before 
running obliquely forwards to the tips of the postero-lateral arms f with three 
pairs of setae and one pair of lyriform pores, the first pair of setae (sternal setae 
II) are very long and slender, 23-j behind anterior margin, 8G> long and 70^* 
apart; the other two pairs (sternal setae III and IV) form a transverse row 
near the posterior margin, they arc only about half the length of setae- II 33^ 
with the medians 75// apart and 23/r, from the laterals, the pores are 33#i behind 
selae fl and 69jw apart; sternogynial shield as figured, anterior margin trans- 
verse and 141^ wide, the sides expand to a width of 152// in line of the lyriform 
pores, then curve and converge to die rounded apex, the length of the shield 
is 146/t, the one pair of pores is 3ty* behind the anterior margin and 113// apart, 
the latigynial shields arc strap-like and contour the sternogynial shield as in other 
species, the mesogynial shield is reduced and obscured; the ventral shield is 
large, coalesced with the other shields except the anal and occupies most of 
I lie venter, its posterior margin is transverse and 615//. wide, it is furnished 
with many small round pores and a few minute setae; the anal shield is large, 
with the anterior margin 615/* wide and its length (depth) 302/x, giving a ratio 
oi length to depth of 2-04 : 1*0; the paraxial setae are QSu long. 

GnalJiosoma as in the cither species. 

Legs— All shorter than body, I antennacform, 638/i long, II and III 580^ 

IV 626 M . 



Allotype male— Similar in shape and size to the female. 

Dorsum as in female. 

Venter— Tritosternum with bulbous base 70/* wide by 61/x long, and paired 
ciliated laciniae 160// long; pre-sternal appendages short and stumpy, 33/a long 
by \Sfi wide with truncate apex and turning inwards towards one another; sterno- 
ventral shield as in other species; anterior margin deeply concave and 160/;. wide, 
sternal setae I strong in the blunt anterolateral angles and 42/* long, 56u behind 

Fig. 12. — Neofedrizzia tragardhi sp. nov. A-I, Female: A, ventral view; B, tritosternuni, 
jugular, sternal, stornoj|ynial and lateral shields and clavifonn processes enlarged; C, dorsal 
shield; D, atrium of duet between coxae II and TIT; E, gnathosorna and palp; F, leg I; G 3 
leg II; II, leg III; I, leg IV; J-K, Male: J, trrtostemum; K, pre-sternal processes and sternal 


these and 85/* apart is a pair of small lyriform pores, while 94/a behind these 
and 164/x apart is a pair of larger lyriform pores, there are also other indistinct 
pores and minute setae, the genital orifice is 70/a long by 66/* wide and lies be- 


tween coxae IIL ib basal luiif has a series of about eight pores on each side; 
the anal shield is as in the female. 

Remarks— Other specimens are 10 females and 3 males from Mastochilus 
dilatus Dalm. from Wilsons Downfall, New South Wales, 8th Oct., 1956 (G. F. 
bornemissza); 3 female and 4 males on a Passalid in rain forest at Eubenangee, 
near Innisfail, Queensland, 11th Dec.., 1945 (J. C. Brooks). 

This species is remarkable for the long jugular and sternal setae and can 
be separated as in the key. It is dedicated to the noted Acarologist, the late 
Prof. I. Tragardh, who laid the bases for the modem study of die comparative 
morphology of the Mesostigmata, 

Ncofedrizzia viduu sp. nov. 
Vc-vt fig. 13 A-K 

Types— Holotype female, allotype male, one parutype female and tliree para- 
tope males from a beetle from ML Glorious, Queensland, 0th February, 1957 
(E. II. Derrick). 

Descriptioii—Holotypt' female— A. large and almost round specks of the general 
fades of the genus. Length of idiosoma 1392u. width 1020>, giving a ratio of 
length to width of 1 -96 : 1U. 

Dorsum— As in other species with the shield covering the whole dorsum 
and imdcr-iapping ventrally as in other species, with numerous small round 
pores and perhaps a few minute setae, laterally running backwards and out- 
words beneath the cuticle ran be seen in this (and in some of the other species) 
an irregular series of larger round discs which might be pores but do not open 
to the surface. 

Venter— Tritosternum with elongate basal part, 70,a long by 33/i wide, with 
a pair of ciliated lacim'ae 15G> long; jugular shield crown-shaped, 174/*. wide 
by 70/y. long (deep) and Wfy wide on the posterior margin, with a pair of short 
recurved setae 32u long Hanking the tritostomal base on the anterior margin, 
with one pair of lyriform pores 19/a in front of posterior margin and @2u apart- 
sternal shield as figured, anterior margin 131/j. wide, length of shield 117,*. sides 
enntouring coxae II then running between coxae II and III to form the postern- 
lateral arms with a width of 376a, posterior margin medially transverse for 
I80> then sloping backwards lightly for 75/* on' each side 'before running 
obliquely forward to rho tlrjs of the posterolateral arms of the shield, with 
three pairs of very short ca. 10-12/* setae and one pair of lyriform pores, the 
anterior setae (sternal setae IT) are 2S/J from the anterior margin and 56> apart, 
tije other two pans form a transverse row near the posterior margin with the 
medians 60/t apart and 35> from the laterals, the pores are 36/a from setae II 
and 103/a apart; stern ogynial shield as figured, as wide anteriorly as lonu 146u, 
the sides widen out in line with the pores to a width of 169, ( and then converge 
in a fairly even curve to the posterior apes, with the lyriform pores 37/* from 
the anterior margin and 117/a apart; mesogynial shield reduced and obscured; 
latigynial shields strap-like and contouring sternogvnial shield as in other species; 
ventral shield large occupying most of the venter and coalesced wirit other 
shields except the anal, with a transverse posterior margin 696^. wide, with a 
£8? V f ronm ' ed P ores and a f<--w minute sctuo: anal shield large, triangular, 
bJ6fi wide on the anterior transverse margin and 336,* long (deep) giving a 
ratio of width to length of 207 : l/Cfc paraual setae 85|u long. 

Gnathoxuma as in other species. 

f<eg$—As in other species, r 66%. II and III 522«, IV 600/*. 



Allotype nude— Of the same shape and dimensions us the female. 

Dorsum as in the female. 

Ven^r-Tritosternum with bulbous basal part 70/* long by 75/*, and a pair 
of ciliated laciniae 150/* long; pre-sternal processes short and stumpy, turned 
in towards one another, 47/* long and 23/* wide with truncate apex; sterno- 

Fig. 13. — Neojvdrizxia vidua sp. nov. A-I, Female: A, ventral view; B, tntosrernuni, sternal, 

sternogynial and latigvnial shields and claviform processes enlarged; C, dorsal .shield; D, 

gnathosoma and palpi; E, chelieerae; F, leg I; G, leg II; H, leg III; 1, leg IV; J-K, Mule: J, 

pre-sternal processes and sternal shield; K, tritosterruim. 

ventral shield as in other species, anterior margin concave, 131// wide, with blunt 
obliquely truncate anterolateral angles, sternal setae I 50/* long, a pair of small 
lyriform pores 56/* behind setae I and 90/* apart, another pair of long lyriform 


pores Wfx behind the last and 207//. apart, several other rounded pojes and 
minute setae, genital orifice between coxae II and III and SM/i wide by 75ju. 
long with a series of sin: pores on each side around the basal half; anal shield 
as in the female with some pores and minute setae as well as the paii of paianal 
setae 8&a long, on the uudei-lap of the dorsal shield around the anal shield iv& 
a number of small setae. 

Gwtthosimw and Legs— As in female. 

>Je©fediizzJa brocksi sp. nov. 
Text Cg. i4 AT 

Types— Holotype male, allotype female and one paratype male from a Passa- 
h'd, in rain forest, Enbanangee* near Innisfail, Queensland, lltli December, 1945 
(J. C. Brooks), 

Description— Female allotype— A moderately large species, with the general 
fades of the family, hut the sides medially rather straight than rounded and 
slightly tapering backwards. Length of "idiosorna 1276/u.. width 870/^ ratio 
length to width - 1*47:. 10. 

Dorsum— Shield covering all the dorsum, and under-lapping the venter 
anteriorly to form the front margin of the camerostome, laterally confluent or 
coalesced with the large ventral shield and under -lapping from coxae IV to die 
end, the margins contouring the edges of the ventral and anal shields; in front 
of camerostome with a pair of setae 56//. long and ciliated. 

Venter— Tritostemnm with base 70/jl long and subdivided, with paired cili- 
ated laciuiae 140ft long; jugular shield united medially to form a crown-like 
single shield, 16-fy wide by 56> long, posterior margin 132,* and straight, with 
a parrot recurved setae &fp long and 38/> apart on the anterior margin Banking 
the- base of tritosternum, with a pair of lyriform pores subpostcriorly; sternal 
shield coalesced with endopodal shields of coxae II, I40flt wide anteriorly, 
scarcely narrowing to mid-line of coxae II and contouring coxae II to expand 
to a width of 402 M for the postcro-latcrul arms between coxae II and III 3 posterior 
margin straight medially for about 223/*, and then running slightly backwards 
for about 9£$L on each side after which it turns sharply forwards to' the extreme 
lips of the postern-lateral arms, with three pairs of setae to 56pa long and ? 2 
pairs of pores, the anterior setae are in the anterolateral comers and 7(V apart, 
the other two pairs (sternal setae III and IV) form a transverse posterior row 
in which the median pair arc ca. 6%, apart and ca. 30> from the laterals; stemo- 
gynial shield as figured, anterior margin straight and 132/a wide, sides expanding 
slightly to 141/x immediately behind anterior corners, then evenly rounded to 
apex, length of shield 126^, with one pair of lyriform pores in anterolateral 
angles: lafigynial shields strap-like, widening a little in apical third, and con- 
touring sides of sternogynial shield; mesogynial shield small, behind it are 
faint indications of broad vaginal sclerites; ventral shield coalesced with other 
shields, except anal, as in other species, posterior margin straight, transverse and 
520> wide; anal shield large, triangular, 520>t wide by 250^ long, ratio width 
to length 2 OS; 1*0; puranal setae missing. 

Gnothosoma— Ilypostome, labial cornicles, chelioerae and palpi as in other 
species of the genus. 

Lrg.v-As in other species, I 475/*, II 420,*. HI 420it, IV 475,*. 
Male holotype— With the general facies and size of the female. 

Dorsum— As in female. 

Venter— Tiitosterrumi with a bulbous basal part 08u lung by 75^ wide and 
subdivided near apex, with paired ciliated laciniae 14G> lung; no jugular shield; 


in front of anterior sternal margin with a pair of anteriorly directed processes 
47^ long and 24^ wide tmned outwards and apparentiy fixed basally; sternal, 
endopoaal, ventral and exopodal shields coalesced, anterior margin medially 
concave and 164^ wide, the anterior pair of setae (sternal setae 1) are long 
47/* and 70,* apart, sternal setae II and III are minute, II 56> from I and 47u 
apart, III 47/a from II and 60/* apart; setae TV are in line with the middle of 

Fig 14. — Neofedrizzia hmaksi sp. nov. A-I, Female: A, ventral view; B, rritostermuu .jugular, 

sternal sternnKynial and latievnial .shields and clavitorm processes enlarged; C, dorsal shield; 

D, gmithosomi and palp; E'/ehelieerae; F. leg 1; G, leg II; H leg II; I. (eg T\ ; J, Male 

tritostcmum, pre-sternal processes" and sternal shield. 

the genital orifice and 160,/, apart, with their attendant pores 188/* apart; the 
Genital orifice is rather small, situated between coxae II and coxae III> % wide 
bv 38/i lon^, on the posterolateral corners are a series of tubercles; anal shield 
as in female, 520^ wide and 25<V long, with numerous pores and a pair of long 
paranal setae. 

Gnathosoma and Legs— As in female. 


Neofedrizzia scutata sp. uov. 

Text fig. 15 A-J 

Types— Uolotypc and 2 paratvpe females from a Passalid at Bulolo, New 
Guinea, Sept. 3rd, 1954 (cull, H.W0- 

Description—Vemale holohjpe—A large species- of the general fades of other 
members of the genus. Length of idiosoma 1276/*, width 963^, ratio length to 
width 1-32; I -0. 

Dorsum— Shield entire and under-lapping venter as in other species ap- 
parently without setae or pores. 

Venter— Tritosternum with moderate thick basal part and paired ciliated 
lacunae; jugular shields coalesced medially to form a single crown-like trans- 
verse shield J/16/', wide by 52// long, with almost straight posterior margin, and 
the anterior margin indented medially to accommodate hase of tritosternum, 
with a paw* of long setae anteriorly and 47/t apart, and a pair of lyriform pores 
more posterior; sternal shield anteriorly slightly wider than posterior margin 
of jugular shield J 37//.,, sides narrowing between coxae 11 to 103^, and then 
curving round coxae 11 to form the posterolateral arms with a width of 329/*. 
between coxae II and III, length of shield 113/*, posterior margin straight foi 
126ju, then produced posteriorly lor a width of 27/'. ou each side, after which 
it runs obliquely forwards to the tips of the posterolateral arms, furnished with 
three -pairs of fong 33/c setae and V two pairs of lyriform pores, the anterior 
pair of setae (sternal setae II) arc about in line with the middle of coxae TT t 
the other two pairs ( sternal setae HI and IV ) form a transverse row near the 
posterior margin, the median pair 52a apart and 42/x from each lateral seta, the 
anterior pah of pores could not be seen; sternogynial shield as figured like an 
inverted cone with only lightly curved sides, 211//, wide anteriorly and I60y 
long, with a pair of pores in the antero- lateral corners; the rnesogynial shield 
reduced as figured; latigynial shields strap-like and contouring sides of sterno- 
gynial shield and rather hidden under the edges of the surrounding anterior 
arms of the ventral shield; ventral shield large and coalesced with other shields 
as in other species, the posterior straight transverse margin is 784/* with: and 
from its lateral ends a fine diagonal line runs inwards and forward.* to the 
inside of acetabula IV; the anal shield is separated from the ventral by a trans- 
verse suture 784/a wide anteriorly and 267//. long, it carries a pair of setae sub- 
medianly and subanteriorly and a pair of longer paranal setae, as well as a 
number of pores. 

Griathoaomu— Mouthpurts. palpi, chelicerae and hypostome as in other 
.species; labial cornicles two-segmented with apical segment and blunt hyaline 
thumb-like body with a small adprcsscd claw-like process $uhap>cally. 

Legs— 1 fi-segmentcd, autennacfortn, fairly slender and angulated, tarsus 
without caruncle or claws. 1I-1V stouter, IV with curved spine at posterior angle, 
all tarsi with short prctarsus, caruncle and Indistinct claws, I 600** long, II 464it, 
HI 523,u, IV 578/*. 

Male— Unknown. 

Remarks— This species is described from the type specimens only. It is by 
far the largest of the species at present known and differs from the others as 
indicated in the key, 

Neofedrizzia laevis (Ganest, 1884) 

Frdrizz&i Wtjfc Canestrbii, 1884. A» nri (luH'Aufctrulia Atti 1st. Venutci. 2 Scr. VI, uii. 
70B-709, Tav. VIII, fig. 3. 

This species is only known from a single male found in w a collection of 
insects** horn Queensland made by the late Prof. Pulle of the University of 


A free translation of Cancstrini's description is as follows 

"Length 0-91 mm, width 0-66 mm. Known from a single specimen 
of Hie male onlv. It differs from the male of F. grossipes in that the genital 
aperture is placed somewhat further hack between the third pair of legs; 
it is semicircular or almost circular. Also it differs in the epistome ( tectum) 
which is in the form of a dentate spine approaching that of the Uropodids. 
The shape of the bodv is oval> posteriorly rounded. All die animal appears 
smooth; under a high magnification (Zeiss. Ocul. 2, Obj. D) it has very 
short setae in contrast to the two longer ones found on die anal shield tin 
each side of the anal aperture." 

From tile above the ratio of the length to width of the idiosoma is I -38 : 1 *0. 
Interpolating from Caiiestrini's figure of tire ventral surface, the anal shield has 
a width of 425,«. and a length of 190> giving a ratio of width to length of 
2-23 : 1-0. The femur of leg IV is shown as short and broad., but the laminae 
and posterior strong curved spine are not observable. 

He notes and shows in his figure that the genital orifice is placed far back 
between the third or even the third and fourth coxae. It is not clear in his 
figure whether there is a jugular shield present or not although it could quite 
easily be absent. 

This would seem to be a valid species of Neofcdrizzia, differing significantly 
ill the position of the male genital orifice. In none of the many specimens ex- 
amined during the course of this study have any males showing such u back- 
ward position of the genital orifice been seen. 

Ncofedrizzta vitzthumi (Ouds.> 1927) 

Toxormmiu vittftumi Ouds., 1927. Ent. Ber., 7. 156. p. 22*; 142*. Fauna Bimiuna. Auan, in 
Tronhia., 7, suppl. 2, pp 66-70, figs. S2-SK. 

This species was verv fullv described and figured from a single specimen 
(or ? specimens) from "in fungi", Wai Eno bis Wat Temtuv Bum, at 700-1000m.; 
3rd Nov., 1922 (coll. L. J. Toxopcus), Only the female sex was found. 

Although placed by Oudemans along with stmndi in his genus Toxopeitsia 
(Fcdrizzw) it U readily seen from his drawings (1928) in spite of the lack of 
the male, that this species belongs to the new genus Neojedrizzia on the follow- 
ing features; (I ) the femora of leg IV is short and stout, with laminae, and prob- 
«l3y with the posterior curved spiae although this is not obvious in the figure. 

(2) the stcrnogynial shield has the anterolateral corners curved inwards, and 

(3) only one of the two long setae on the first Tree segment of the palp is ciliated 
ana that shortly so. 

According to the description, the idiosoma is 745« long by 570/* wide giving 
a ratio of length to width of 1-3: 1-0; interpolating from Oudemans figures the 
anal shield is 4(%t< wide by 145^ or a ratio of width to length of 2-42 : 1-0; the 
stcrnogynial shield has the anterolateral corners rounded inwardly so that the 
Widest part is slightly behind the anterior margin aad is 92ju, the anterior margin 
in S<V ? the sides are' straight and parallel and the posterior rounded, it is 109^ 
long* ftf a ratio of anterior width to length of 0*73 1-0. 

The species is otherwise quite distinct horn the other species known from 
Australia and New Guinea as described in the present paper, and can he dis- 
tinguished as in the key. 

ftewurks— Of the above species of Neofedrizzia it seems likely that N. laevis 
(Canest.) on the more posterior position of the genital orifice of the male, will 
ultimately require a new genus, but in the absence of the female it Seems better 



at present to retain it in Neofedrizzia. Neofedrizzia scutata sp. nov. is also 
an anomalous species within the genus. Apart from the unique dorsal scute, 
it Is intermediate between Fedrizzia and Neofedrizzia in the shape of the sterno- 

^4x^ / f$ 




Fig. 15. — Neofedrizzia scutata sp. nov, A-K, Female: A, ventral view; B, tritosternum, jugular, 
sternal, sternogynial and latigynial shields enlarged; C, gnathusoina and palp; D, camerostome 
showing axillar plates; E, ehelicerae; F, dorsum; G, leg T; H, leg II; I, leg III; J, leg IV; 

K, labial cornicle. 

gynial shield, which has the antero-lateral angles outwardly produced as in 
Fedrizzia and not evenly rounded as in all other species of Neofedrizzia. As 
our knowledge of the family increases this species will most likely require a 
new generic name. 


Key to the species of Neofedrizzia gen. nov. 

1. Male genital orifice between coxae III or between coxae III and 
IV. Length of idiosoma 91<V> width 660/*, ratio length to width = 
1-38: 1*0. Anal shield ca, 425,i wide by 19(V long, ratio width to 
length - 2-23: 10. Anterior hyaline portion of dorsal shield small 
and crescentic. Female unknown. 

Si hievis (Canest, 1884). 

Where known males with genital orifice between coxae 11 or be- 
tween coxae 11 and in. 2 

2. Anterior hyaline portion of dorsal shield large, expanded laterally 
and posteriorly to about the level of anterior margin of anal shield, to 
form a distinct scute without pores or setae except the verticals. Sterno- 
gynial shield conical with lightly" convex converging sides, wider an- 
teriorly than long, 211^ by 160,i, ratio width to length = 1-32 : 1 *0, the 
antero-lateral angles are acute as in Fedrizzuir Anal shield 784/j. wide 
by 267/i long, ratio width to length - 2-93: 1-0. idiosoma 1276^ 
long bv 963/. wide, ratio length to width = 1-32 : 1-0. Male unknown. 

N. scutata sp. nov. 
Anterior hyaline portion ol dorsal shield small, crescent- or sickle- 
shaped, not extending backwards beyond level of anterior edge of 
camemstome. Antero-lateral angles of sternogynial shield not acute, 
evenly rounded. 3 

3, Anterior margin of sternogynial shield equal to or longer than the 
shield. 4 

Anterior margin of sternogynial shield shorter than the shield. 6 

4, Sternogynial shield as wide across anterior margin as it is long, 
146/* 3 with its sides and posterior evenly rounded. Sternal setae II, 
111 and IV minute. Anal shield 696/a wide by 336/-, long, ratio width 
to length = 2 07 ; 1*0. Pre-sternal processes of male .stout and short 
with truncate apex, and curved inwards; genital orifice with about 7 
pores surrounding posterior half. Length of idiosoma 1392^, width 
1020/x, ratio length to width = 1 -36 : 1-0. 

N. vidua sp. nov. 

Anterior margin of sternogynial shield distinctly longer than the 
shield. 5 

Prc-stemal processes of male curved outwards and bluntly pointed 
apically; male genital orifice flanked posteriorly by about 8 pores on 
each side, Stemogynial shield of female 132/*. wide on anterior margin 
by 126/x long, ratio width to length ~ 1- 05. 1-0, Anal shield 520/* 
wide bv 250/x long, ratio width to length = 2-08 : 1*0. Length of 
idiosoma 1276/x, width S70/*, ratio length to width = 1-47 : 1-0. 

Hi brooksi sp. nov. 

Pre-sternal processes of male short* bluntly rounded apically and 
curved inwards to one another; genital orifice of male without any pores 
flanking it on posterior half. Sternogynial shield evenly rounded later- 
ally and posteriorly 124/x wide anteriorly and 99-jt long, ratio of width 
to length = 1-25: 1*0, Anal shield 406-x wide by 139/-. lone, ratio 
width to length = 2-92 : 10. Length of idiosoma 812/*, width 638/*, 
ratio length to width = 1*27: 1*0. 

N. canestrinii sp. nov. 


6- Sternogynial shield with straight parallel sides and broad rounded 

posterior, the anterior margin is 80/i, and its length 109/x ratio width to 
length = 0-73: 1-0. Anal shield 409// wide by 145// long, ratio of 
width to length = 2 '42 : 1-0. Idiosoma 745/* long by 570/* wide, ratio 
of length to width = 1*3: 1-0. Male unknown. 

N. viizthumi (Of ids., 1927). 
Sternogynial shield not shaped as above- 7 

7. Pre-sternal processes of male basally free, at least twice as long 

as wide, inwardly curved and bilobed apically. Sternogynial shield^ 
146// long by 126/* wide on anterior margin, ratio width" to length = 
0*86:10, with sides lightly convex and converging to a narrow 
rounded posterior. Anal shield 520/t wide bv 220// long, ratio width to 
length = 2-36 ; 1 -0. Length of idiosoma 1210/*, width 850/*, ratio length 
to width - 1 42 : t*& 

K gayi sp. nov. 

Pre-sternal processes of male not as above, short and stout, bluntly 

truncate apically, curved inwards. S 

H, A small species, length of idiosoma 893;;, width 638/*, ratio of 

length to width 1-4; 1*0. Sternogynial shield 103/* wide on anterior 
margin by 118// long, ratio of width to length — 0-87: 10. Ana] 
shieTd 352/t wide by ISO/a long, ratio width to length - 2-2 : 1*0. 

jV, cynota sp* nov. 
Large species, length of idiosoma 1000// or more. Q 

9. Large, somewhat elongate .species, idiosoma 1369// long, 905// wide, 
ratio length to width 15 : 1*0. Sternal setae I, and II very long and 
slender, III and IV long but shorter than 1 and II. Sternogynial shield 
with lightly convex converging sides and rounded apex* slightly longer 
than it is wide on anterior margin, 146// by 141//, ratio width to 
length - 0-96 : 1-0. Anal shield 615/, wide bv 302//. long, ratio width 
to length = 2 04 : 10. 

N, tru&ardhi sp. nov. 
Smaller species, length of idiosoma 1000// to 1200//. 10 

10. Sternum of female with setae II-IV fine and slender and moder- 
ately long. Sternogynial shield bowl-like with evenly rounded sides. 
132/1 wide anteriorly by 144// long, ratio width to length = 0-92; 10. 
Anal shield 510/* wide by 244/* Jong, ratio widlh lo length — 2 09 : 10. 
Pre-sternal processes of mate, short, stout, apically truncate, about as 
long as wide, and bending inwards to one another. Idiosoma 1160/* 
long, 770/j wide, ratio length to width = 1*5 : 1-0. 

jV. camini sp. nov. 
Sternal setae shorter and not so Hue. Sternogynial shield longer 
in proportion to width, anterior margin 108//, length 131//, ratio length 
to width = 0-82; 10, with lightly convex sides. Anal shield 404// 
wide by 202// long> ratio width to length 2-0 : 1-0. Pre-sternal pro- 
cesses of male somewhat longer than wide, stout, apically truncate 
and only very slightly converging to one another. Idiosoma 1020/* 
long, 696^ wide, ratio' width to length 1-46: 1-0. 

N. gorirosaiae sp. nov. 
Genus Parafedrizzfa nov. 

Separate jugular shield (tetartosternum) present in both sexes, consequ<?ntly 
the male without the pre-sternal processes of Neofedrizzia. Sternogynial shield 


ol female widest across the anterior margin wfth outwardly directed antero- 
lateral corners as in Fedrizzia* sides not evenly rounded, bell-jar shaped with 
apiiml knob. One of the two long setae on basal segment of palpi in both sexes 
with 6-8 long branches, the other nude. Femur of" legs II4V short and broad 
with lamellae as in Neofcdrizzia but without the strong curved spine at the 
posterior corner Anal shield coalesced with ventral shield in both sexes. 

Type Parctfedrizzia bulolocnxis sp. now 

Parafedrizzia buloloensis sp nov. 
TW Tic. 10 A-K 

Times— Holotype female, allotype male and six painty pes of each sex from a 
Passalid in a rotten log at Bulolo, New Guinea, 3rd Sept., 1954 (coll. H.W.). 

Description- Female holotype—A strongly chitinised dark* species, of 
ovoid shape hut widest posterior of the middle in hue with coxae IV. Length 
of idiosoma 970>, width 680//, ratio length to width * 1-42 ; 1 -0. 

Dorsum— Shield entire and covering the whole of the dorsal surface, an- 
teriorly of coxae IV underlapping the venter and coalesced with ventral and 
exopodal shields, and anteriorly forming a camerostorne, posteriorly of coxae 
IV it undcrlaps as a rather broad strip separated from the ventri-anal shield 
by a distinct strip of cuticle, doisally the shield is furnished with numerous 
circular pores, a number of [yriform pores and many minute setae, on the anterior 
margin is a pair of vertical setae, 117^ long, ciliated and 117^ apart, on each 
side of these are two short setae and a similar pair in between, on the- disc is 
an ttttfl area with fewer setae outlined by a line of inwardly curved cresccnt- 
lllc-e markings as figured. 

Venter— Tritosternum wilh base not much longer than broad as figured, 
with paired ciliated laciniac; jugular shield (tetartosternum) as figured, crown- 
shaped. Xl7fi wide by 47,* long (deep) with ion.; pair of slender .srtae anteriorly. 
5n> apart and about 50/' lung, with a pair of lyriform pores 42/* apart; sternal 
shield as figured, anterior margin straight Sfy, wide, sides contouring coxae II 
with shield narrowest in mid-line of coxae II to 80V, then expanding between 
coxae 11 and III to a width of 282// for the posterolateral arms, posterior margin 
straight medially for a width of 188/*. then curving posteriorly for 30^ on each 
side- before limning obliquely forwards to tip of postero-lateral arms, with three 
pairs of setae and one pair ui lyriform pores, sternal setae II 47ft lung and 47/t 
apart In the anterolateral angles. III aud IV shorter 28,* long in a transverse 
row near posterior margin, with the medians 42,i apart and 28p from the laterals, 
pores 33/i behind setae TI and 52# apart, length of shield 04j« sternogynial shield 
bell-jar shaped, anterior margin 179/t, length 132,u, ratio width to length = 
1*35:1-0, sides sinuous and converging tci apex as figured, with one pair of 
lyriform pores 10y behind anterior margin and 80u apart; latigvnial sliiclds strap- 
like contouring sides of sternogynial and partly hidden under inner edges of 
ventral shield; mesogynial shield reduced and partly obscured; ventral shield 
lar^e, coalesced with the endopudul, exopudal and anal shields and occupying 
most of the venter with many small pores and small but obvious setae; the 
strip of under-lapping dorsal shield contouring the margins of the ventri-anal 
shield carries a row of about 5 Pine setae on each side about 2-J.u long, the anus 
is situated in the posterior angle of the ventri-anal shield with the paranal setae 
very minute; the peritreme in thin and reaches to coxae 1, with die stigma situ- 
ated between coxae III and IV. 

Gnathosoma—Xs in the other genera of the family; labial cornicles swollen 
with a small adprcsscd claw-like; appendage; mandibles and ehelieerae as figured. 



Legs— As in species of N eofedrizzki, but the femora of legs II-IV without 
any strong curved spine at the posterior hasal angle, I long 464/j, and antennae- 
form, angulatc, II-IV stouter with claws and caruncle, II 440>, III 440>, IV 464/x. 
Male allotype~Oi the same general fades as in the female. Length of idio- 
soma 986//, width 696/i. 

Dorsum— As in the female. 

Venter— Tritosternum similar to that of female; jugular shield crown-shaped, 
113ft wide by 4fy long (deep) with an anterior pair of slender recurved setae. 

Fig. 16. — Parafedrizzia huloloensis g. ct sp. nov. A-J, Female: A, ventral view; B, dorsum; 
C, (rilostermuii, jugular, sterna], steroogynial and latigynial .shields enlarged; D, chcliccroc; 
E, gnathosovna; F, palp; G, leg I; H, teg II; I, ley III; J* leg IV; K, Male tritosternum, jugular 

and sternal shields. 

rather wide apart 60/x, and ca. 50// long, with one pair of lyriform pores 44^i 
apart; sternal, ventral and anal shields coalesced together with endopodal and 
exopodal and the underlap of the dorsal shield as far hack as posterior of coxae, 
and then separated from the under-lapping dorsal shield by a narrow strip of 
cuticle; with the genital orifice situated between coxae II and wider than long 


94/* by 66/a, without any pores around the posterior half; with setae and pores as 
in Fig. 16 K; anterior width 108/*, narrowest to 85^ between coxae II and widest 
between tip of lateral arms between coxae 11 and III to 282/*. 

Gnathosoma—As in female. 

Legs— As in female, I 464//. long, antennaeform, II 406/*, III 406/*, IV 464/*, 


Cames, J. H., and Corihossi, F. E. s 1955. A Revision of the Suborder Mesostigmata 
(Aearina) based on New Interpretations of Comparative Morphological Data, Fubl. 
No. 11. Chicago Acad. ScL Jan. 17th, 1955, pp. 1-79. 

Canestfjni, C, 1884. Acari delTAustralia. Atti 1st. Veneto 2, ser t VI, pp. 705-723. 

Evans, C. O., 1955. A Review of the Laelaptid Paraphagcs of the Myriapoda with descrip- 
tions of three new species (Aearina-Laelaptielae). Parasitology 45 (3-4), pp. 352-368. 

Ouokmans, A. C, 1927. Ent. Ber., 7 (156), p. 227; 1928, Fauna Buruana, Acari, ift Treubia. 
7. suppl. % pp. 60-70. 

Tbagarbii, i, a 1937. Zur Systematik der Mesosligmata. Arkiv. f. Zool. s 29 B (11),, p. 5. 

Tragardh, I., 1946. Outlines of a new classification of the MesosHgmafti (Aearina) based 
on comparative morphological data. Kungl. Fvsiografiska Sallskapets Handlingar, 
N.F.Bol., 57 (4), pp. 1-37. 

Turk. F, A., 1948. lnsecticolous Acari from Trinidad BAV.l. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 118 
(1), pp. 82-125. 

Turk, F. A. f 1953. A Svnonymic Catalogue of British Acari, Ft. 1. Ann. Mag, -Nat. Hist. 
(12), 6 (1), pp. 1-99. 

Vttzthvm, II. Oral, 1945. "Aearina" in Bromis". Klassen uihI Ordmmgon rfeai Tierreich, 5 (4). 

NJJ. Since this paper has been in press the following record has been 

"Fedrizzia gloriosa n, sp. Dark brown, quite oval, size about twice that of 
the other two (known) .species. Margin of body with equidistant minute setae. 
Mandibles in both sexes with small chelae, larger chela with penicillate process. 
All femora except first with wide marginal scale. 

"Length 1250/*, width 800>. 

"Habitat on coleopteron of the family Passalidae* Australia, 'N.S.W.\ 
Coll. CL Froggatt * 

The above is a free translation of the brief description published by Berlese. 
"Brevi diagnosi di generi et specie nuovi di Acari", Redia 6 (2): 376\ 1910. 

In view of our present knowledge of this family, such a brief description is 
specifically unrecognisable, pending a re-examination of Berlese's types which 
are probably in the Berlese collection in Florence. 

All that can be said at this stage is that on the description of the femora 
of the legs it is probably a species of Neofedrizzia. It may be one of the larger 
species of this genus described in the present study. 



byH. m. cooper 


This paper records the occurrence at Hallett Cove, South Australia, of large stone implements both 
primitive in type and in manufacture, some forms of which are described and discussed. Reference 
is made to their similarity with material cultures discovered upon other long-abandoned native 
camp-sites in South Australia and also in Asia. It is suggested that at least some of these implements 
may represent one of the earliest periods in the succession of stone cultures employed by primitive 
man during his occupation of Australia and termed Kartan. 



by H. M. Cooper* 
[read 8 May 1958] 


IhiS paper record* the occurrence at Hallett Cove, South Australia, of luige 
stone implements both primitive in type mid in manufacture, .some forum of 
which are described and discussed, 

Reference is made to their similarity with material cultures discovered ripDti 
other long-abandoned native camp-sites fa South Australia and also in Asiu. 

It is suggested that at least some of these implements may represent one 
of the earliest periods in the succession of stone cultures employed by primitive 
man during his occupation of Australia and termed Kartan, 


hi 1934 the author discovered large stone implements of crude manufacture 
upon cultivated land, recently ploughed, in a field below Hallett Cove Railway 
Siding, about ten miles south* of Adelaide, re-examined and referred to by Tin- 
dale (1937). The area under cultivation has been extended considerably during 
recent years exposing, apparently, the whole extent of the former camp-site, with 
the exception of the' western extremity where owing to the shallowness or 
absence of any surface soil, due possibly to erosion, implements and waste 
material lay exposed. Thirty subsequent exaniinations have been carried out, 
a total of more than 270 large implements being found. Successive plougliings 
provided favourable conditions for collecting. 

The camp-site, about 200 feet above sea-level, is situated upon land gradu- 
ally sloping towards the adjacent coastal cliffs and is bounded upon its southern 
side by a steep gully along the bottom of which runs a small stream fed by a 
permanent spring and swollen during the wet season by waters draining off 
hilly country further inland, Siltstonc outcrops are exposed near this spring and 
also where the stream reaches the sea in its descent over several diminutive 
waterfalls. Both outcrops exhibit similar material to that employed in making 
the most efficient of the implements. A well-defined camp-site, exposed by 
ploughing and somewhat similar in situation to that below the railway siding, 
exists close by upon high ground above die southern side of the intervening 
gully already described, it yielded identical but fewer implements and may 
be considered a part of the larger one. 

The surface of this field below the railway siding, at its eastern or upper 
end, consists of a compact red-brown earth wliieh tends to become sandy in 
nature as it slopes towards the gully. The soil at the western end, where the 
main camp-site exists, is much lighter in colour, having an admixture of Kunkar 
Travertine ? frequently nodular in form which it overlays in places to a very 
shallow depth. The surfaces of many of the implements are covered, wholly 
or in part, with a hard coating of calcareous matter (apparently derived from 
close association with the underlying Kunkar Travertine bed) w T hich in places 
tends to mask the outline of secondary trimming. Additional implements were 

* Hon. Associate in Anthropology, South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 
Trans. Roj\ Soc. S. Aust M59), V«t »& 


discovered, more sparingly, at several places upon the high ground facing 
Hallett Cove, more especially at its southern extreme above Field River. The 
camp below the railway siding., however., judged by the abundance of finished 
material and discarded waste, denotes the main point of occupation hereabouts 
dining tiiis period. It possessed by present indications, moreover, the essential 
requirements of u primitive people— a commanding view, a well-drained loca- 
tion and a permanent wateT supply. 


The figured specimens, described herein, represent the principal types found 
•upon the main camp-site below tin licit Cove Railway Siding and adjoining fields. 
There exist, in addition, many other large implements, roughly worked arid 
nondescript in form which merely constitute a miscellaneous group of chopping 
tools supplementary to those represented by the drawings. 

An examination of the 270 and more large archaeological implements dis- 
covered upon this camp-site indicates a standard of preparation ranging from 
the rudest attempts at primary and secondary flaking to secondary chipping, 
both simple and stepped, of a tolerably high order. 

The graduated improvement in stone working may indicate that this 
materia] culture persisted at Hallett Cove for a considerable period of tunc. 

It is somewhat diQicult to conceive any reason or need for the employment 
of so much inferior material in the preparation of these implements generally 
and although the siltstones more compact in texture responded tolerably well 
it w-ts difficult to control the direction of flakes it was; desired to remove in 
th* course of trimming those shaly in texture. 

Fine-grained uuartzite pebbles, which flake with an excellent conchoidal 
fracture, and were highly prized and used almost exclusively by the recently 
extinct Kaurna (Adelaide) Tribe, he exposed at the foot of the sea cliffs imme- 
diately below the camp-site. Tindale ( 1957, 1 ) suggests, however, that access 
to this pebble bank may have been impossible in Kartan times owing to the 
existence of a talus which covered them. An excursion to the borders of the 
sea at that time by Hallett Cove camp dwellers in search of food, therefore, 
may have entailed a considerable journey. This section of the coast-line at 
present is undergoing serious erosion from seawards. 

A few small implements and discarded cores, mostly of quartzites and 
Muri mdian in type, the most recent South Australian culture (Hale tk Tindale, 
1930) were found upon the Hallett Cove site but are easily recognisable. They 
are displayed as surface material at many places along the coast and are uitrihut- 
able In the Kaurna people. 

The archaeological large specimens from Hallett Cove, figured herein, indi- 
cate the former existence of a cidture consisting mainly of general purpose 
chopping toot implements, semi-uniface in technique, and in addition a few 
which served as cleavers, saws or knives, skin scrapers and pounders. It is 
possible, therefore, that hunting, fighting and domestic weapons were corre- 
spondingly simple, being confined to roughly made spears, clubs* bark shields 
and some crudely mounted tools such as those described elsewhere in this paper 
Fitting, bruising and battering, which are apparent upon ihe surfaces of many 
chopping implements, suggest their casual use as hammers when the neerJ 
arose. This occurs frequently upon pebble choppers of the Kangaroo Island 
Industry (Cooper, 1943). 

Twenty-five hammerstones of considerable size, many heavily battered or 
broken, also upper and nether millstones were found at the Hallett Cove Kite. 


They consist mostly of water-worn stones and angular blocks of indifferent 
material which would suffice^ however, to meet the cardinal needs 01 primitive 
man at this stage, including die trimming of the heavy, massive stone members 
of bis archaeological implement culture, in which the fundamental principle of 
weight and bulk, as a menus to em end, had nut yet given way to lighl ness, 
sharpness and a wider assortment of types, The existence of many small hanv 
inerstoncs found in association with more recent cultures indicates, apart from 
other functions, a simple adjustment mad* necessary hy the introduction and 
preparation of this series of new implements greatly reduced in size. 

There is at the present time little information available with which to de- 
termine, with accuracy, the ag* of ihe large stone implements of South Aus- 
traliu> all of which are tentatively and broadly assigned tu the Kartan Culture 
(Tindale, 1937). The approximate age of the Tartangan Culture, huwever 
(Hale and Tindale, 11)30), consisting of small, well -executed implement*, ap- 
parently much more recent, has been ascertained following Carbon 14 dating 
of stralified material from Tartanga and Cape Martin, the respective dates being 
6020 ± 150 B.P. and 8700 ± 120 B.P. (Tindale, i957 T 2). 

in the absence of any time dating figures a few observations may be made 
iu the meantime which, when considered collectively, indicate that a consider- 
able period of time must have elapsed upon Kangaroo Island — the Kartan 
Culture tvpe locality — since the industry flourished and later ceased to exist 
there as also upon the mainland- Captain Matthew Hinders, R.N., who dis- 
covered this island in March, 1302, found it uninhabited, with the native animuls 
totally fearless m the presence of man. its typical pebble chopper industry, 
exposed by ploughing, was concentrated, but unly so far us the presort coast- 
line iudicatcs> around the banks and fringes of inland swamps and creeks in 
former heavily timbered country, now cleared. No skeletal materiid bus been 
recovered. Kvaminations of favourable situations amid extensive series of recent 
sand-dunes, facing the shores in many places, have Failed so far to reveal the 
existence of any camping grounds there. This would indicate that the island's 
large stone implement eulfm'e probably predated their formation. The period 
and entry path of Kangaroo Island's former dwelleis as well as those of their 
departure— or local extinction— are unknown. 

The Kuugaroo Island pebble industry is represented at the Ilallett Cuve 
site by some examples, such as Fig. 8, and at other scattered places including 
Artipena Water and elsewhere (Cooper, 194.'}). Types similar to Figs. 5. 6, 7 
and 14 appear upon Kangaroo Island, the adjacent mainland and further north, 
It is probable, therefore, diat must if not all of this material is related to the 
same archaeological origin, although not necessarily to any one particular period. 

Some former eumps, if of sufficient antiquity, may now lie submerged within 
the present confines of the waters in the adjoining straits and the Gulf of St. 

The exf.xtenee at HaJlett Cove of many small pieces of slate, some showing 
evidence of wear ami capable of scraping skins to serve as cloaks, although 
devoid of any regularity in shape, could indicate diat at least a porUou of tire 
Km tan occupation may have coexisted with a time of rigorous climatic condi- 
tions, such as during the last Glacial Period. They may be early and crude 
equivalents of the beautifully-made, slender slate scrapers used by the recently 
extinct tribes of the Adelaide and adjoining regions. 

During April, iy53 ? the author discovered upon the eroded summit of a 
i<h! sand-dune, west of Port Augusta, a native hearth of burnt stones apparently 
quite recently uncovered. Twelve well preserved teeth, including molars unci 
incisors, lay nearby in association with fragmentary bone.x, some showing evi- 

58 ft M. COOPER 

dence of fire and others reduced to powder by complete disintegration. Mr. 
II. 11. Finlayson, Hon. Curator of Mammals. South Australian Museum, who 
kindly examined the. material, concludes that almost all can be. reconciled with 
a small phase of Dipmtodan, Owen, e.g. D, minor. Large stone implements, 
.some similar to certain types figured in this paper, were scattered about upon 
the adjoining surface. Whilst not ignoring a possibility that the presence of 
the teeth and bones in this situation may be enincUlcntal, the evidence of their 
existence amidst such surroundings is significant and suggests the site of an 
undent tribal least, or at least the place of its preparation" 

If sufficient firm evidence is later forthcoming which confirm* the contem- 
poraneity of early man with Diprotodon, some of the thinner, heavy implements 
of the Kartan Culture, including large saws, cleavers and choppers, would ptnve 
efficient working tools for employment in the preliminary preparation of their 
hides and flesh. 

Movius (1944) in his detailed survey of stratified material in Asia describe* 
several types of large, crudely trimmed implements assigned by him to the 
Pleistocene Period winch arc identical with others figured in this paper, In 
stratified deposits discovered there the massive block and pebble chopper indus- 
tries, dependent upon weight for efficiency in use, tend to appear at much 
earlier periods than the later groups of small artefacts with their specialised 
series of many types as represented in South Australia by the Mtirunriian. Mudu- 
kmn> Pirrian and Tartagan Cultures (Hale and Tindale, 1930). 

Tlie possible retention and continued manufacture by natives in subsequent 
periods of one or two implement types of the Kartan people, to perform certain 
work t. m heavy for their small artefacts, sueh as chopping through boughs and 
branches for tlie framework of their shelters, justifies some consideration. A. 
few of the Knrtan-made implements, indeed, may have been used either in their 
original state or with the addition of more advanced trimming. The tempor- 
ary overlapping of some differing types, associated with two succeeding cul- 
tures, terminating with the estinetion of the older, and also improvisation, such 
as that referred to above, have been noted in South Australia and elsewhere 
Such instances,, although of interest, appear to be merely of transient significance, 
in m) way Interrtnpting the establishment of the incoming stone culture. 

Although the extent of the antiquity of the Hallett Cove implements and 
the iuutau Culture as a whole remains in deter ruinate. Indications including 
those discussed above, suggest a period considerably earlier than the Tartangan 
dating of 8700 ± 120 B.P. Futuro investigations, indeed, may reveal that this 
early heavy implement industry was one of long duration, necessitating its 
eventual division into separate periods or even into additional cultures. 

Although the stone implements of the Kartan Culture may appear to us 
massive, rough and clumsy in comparison with the symmetry and beaut}' of 
the Pirn point, the polished axe-head and the microlith which followed after 
them, there is no reason for supposing that these imperishable products, de- 
veloped by primitive man, failed in the accomplishment of all that the maker 
required of them in meeting the simple needs of his huruble environment 

They represent, too, a great advance since the day when his ancestor sought 
to perceive upon the ground in some primeval forest, a random piece of rock 
with which to fashion laboriously, in default of anvthing better, a clumsy spear 
or lough-hewn dub- 

The inventiveness of man. such as that associated with the development of 
this early culture* as with so tmmy others— primitive though it inuy seem to os 


when judged by civilised standards— represents, nevertheless, an essential part 
<Jl that vital structure, founded upon trial and error, perseverance and success 
so necessity in his endless struggle for survival. 


It is desired to acknowledge, with axrpreeiation, the assistant <ifforded by 
the following; Mr. A. K. Stone, Hal left Cove, for permission to carry out fl pro- 
longed and detailed examination of land below the railwav siding whereon the 
main collection of implements was made; Miss M. P. Boycc. Artist, South Aus- 
tralian Museum, for the excellent drawings, Figs. 1-21 (Fig. 22 was drawn bv 
the author) accompanying this paper; Dr. B. Daily, Curator of Fossils and 
Minerals in the same institution, for most helpful advice in identifying certain 
rocks employed by the natives; and Mr. V. P. Daly, Wilmington, for permission 
to.veareh his fields adjoining the banks of Beautiful Valley Creek. 


Coowzn H.. M., 1943. Large stone implements from South Australia. Hoc. S. Ausl Mas 
Adelaide, 7, pp. 313-369. *' 

liu.K, II. M., and Tindale, N. B., 1930. Note*, an some human remain* in the Lower Mm ray 
Valley, bouUi Australia. Roc. S. Anst. Mus., Adelaide, 4, pp. 145-213 

MoVfoSi H. L. s 1944. Early man and Pleistocene stratigraphy in Southern and Eastern km 
Papers or the Peahody Museum of American Archaeology and Ethnology Harvard Uni- 
versity, XIX, 3, 

■T.noale, N B 1937. Relationship of the extinct Kangaroo Tslaud Culture with Cultures of 
Australia, Tasmania and Malaya. Kec. S. Aust. Mus., Adelaide, 6, pp. 39-60. 

Tikuale, N. B J957, 1. Culture succession in .South Eastern Australia from Late PloJi- 
tocene to the Present. Hcc. S. Auat Mus., Adelaide, 13. ran; 1-49. 

Ti-vimjle, N. B., 1957, 2. A dated Tartajigun implement site from Cape Martin, Saudi-East 
of South Australia. TpWffl, Hoy. Soc. S. Au&t, Adelaide, 80, pp. 109-123. 


Tbi- inset scale itt the equivalent of six incites. 
Figs. 1-17 arc all semi-uiufuee trimmed implements 

Fig. 1.— A large bjgMy patinatcd and weathered flat bloc* with rough primary flaking aiomr 
the frontal edge and two sides of its base margin. Weight 4 lbs 

Fig* S.— Large triangular block with secondary trimming confined to one straight chopping 
edge along its forward uwrgiri. It represents a type well established upon this 

m o (Jf^S™ aJthou ^ casual blocks of any suitable shape were used in its construction 

tig. 3.— Koughly trimmed from an irregnU water-worn block arcmnd its base pnriphcrv 
except at the rear ^ where tlie original cortex has been retained fur convenience u 
use, Weight 5.i lbs. JSgft, 1, 2, 3 and many others appear to be examples *tf 
two-hniulcd chopping implements intended fur working in the direction of fche 
opcrator, ihe largest ITallctt Cove example weighed 6 lbs. 

Figs. 4, 5 and 6,— Flat blocks, the latter two discoidul. All exhibit tolerably good secondary 
stepped trimming. * 

Fuj. 7 T — A well-defined trimmed eore in which the margin of the Hat working base has been 
worn to such an extent by use and retouching as to be overhung f>y its apex Its 
original form was possibly "horsehuof" in shape, VW« Cooper, 1943. 

Flg> 8 and 9. — Two pebbles with rounded and flat bases respectively; home stepped aeermd- 
avy lamming. Examples in this croup are similar to the more poorly executi-d Btfeef- 

O ,» mens existing in the Kangaroo Island pebble chopper industry (Cooper, 1943). 

riiMO. — Mat-based block with well-defined secondary stepped flaking. "Slug" sloped 

Figs. 11 and l : ±.~ Represent a type with working margins roughly triangular in shape *ru\ 
ending in a pronounced pointed extremity. Also made from pebbles. Fig, \1 ts 
l&in. in thickness; made from a stone with upper and lower irregular faces 

60 H. M. COOPEH 

Fig. 13. A large cleaver or saw; it is a thin (lake implement. Length 8in,; thickness l&in. 

Cleavers or saws are relatively rare here. 
Figs 14andJ5.— Two substantial flake chopping or scraping adzes with well developed 

percussion bulbs and striking platforms, both of which have been retained. 
Figs. 16 and 17, — Appear to be smaller examples of types represented by Figs. 13 and 11. 
Figs 18-22. — These five implements, representative of many others, display such crudeness 
in preparation that they appear to have escaped general notice and it was only 
the recurrence of so many similar examples which finally drcv attrition to thoir 
existence. There seem to be at least two types, Figs. 18, 19 and 22, serving as 
pounders and Figs. 20 and 21 for some form of scraping. They are finished, with 
few exceptions, from smooth yellowish soft siltstones of the Tre-Cambrian Marinoan 
Series, such as those present in die bed and upon the banks of the little stream 
previously referred to, No methodical preparation is indicated, although a little 
extremely rough primary trimming has been attempted in order to produce the 
desired shape. The natural form of the stone, with a little flaking here and there, 
is all that is evident in nianv cases. There are indications that at least some of the 
implements in these two groups were fastened to a crude form of wooden handle 
or withy because certain individuals exhibit a slight grooving due to possible wear 
whilst in others flakes have been roughly removed as if to make the haft more 
secure. The improvisation of some rough method of handgrip in certain eases, by 
means of gum or kangaroo hide, might also be considered. The softness and shaly 
nature of the stone often employed suggest their unsuitability for any purpose 
w r hich involved undue stress. One possible use would have been in the prepara- 
tion of skin cloaks as proposed above— Figs. 18, 19 and 22 for pounding and 
softening; Figs. 20 and 21 as scrapers. This group, with few exceptions, exhibits 
intense patination, severe weathering and patches of calcareous coating. Examples 
indicated by Figs. 20 and 21, if mounted and employed foT cutting and scraping, 
would have been more efficient if hafted broadside on. An examination of the 
base of Fig. 18 discloses heavy wear upon one end of the working edge only. 
indicating that it was held in such a manner that pounding and hammering were 
concentrated upon that particular area. During November. J 957, the author found 
two isolated implements upon cultivated land alongside the banks of Beautiful 
Vallev Creek, Wilmington, 200 miles north of Hallett Cove. One was similar to 
Fig. 3 the other being identical with Fie, 22, both in shape and in softness or 
material. It is possible, therefore, that this latter type may have considerable 

It, M. Cooper 

Plate 1 

I J \J. CdQPJffl 

Flats 2 

XL M. CboPKfl 

PLvrt 3 

H. IVI. Coopeh 

Plate 4 





This paper presents the results of structural mapping of the Kanmantoo Group in the area north and 
south of Kanmantoo township. The mapping shows that the Nairne Fault does not exist. The 
Kanmantoo Group lies conformably on the Marinoan series of the Adelaide System and the whole 
succession was folded in post- Kanmantoo time. 


by A. W. Kleeman and B, J. Skinkek 

[Read 12 June 1958] 


This paper presents the results of structural mapping of the Kanmanroo 
Group in the area north and south of kanmantoo township. The mapping shows 
that the Nairne Fault does not exist. The Kanmantoo Croup lies conformably 
on the Marinoun scries of the Adelaide Syatern and the whole succession was 
folded in post-Kanmajitoo time. 


The area described in this paper lies on the eastern side of the Mt Lofty 
Ranges, from Strathalbyn in the south to Harrogate in the north. In this region 
a vast thickness of generally fine-graiued, dark grey rocks outcrop. Originally 
xandstones, grcywaekes anil siltstoncs, they have been metamorphosed into 
micaceous quartzites, arkoses, quartz-felspar-mica schists and andalusite-stauro- 
lite schists. This group oi rocks lies to the east of, and stratigrapbically above, 
a scries of rocks which are correlated with the rocks of the Adelaide System, 
Ivpicullv exposed on the western slopes of the Mt. Loftv Ranges (Sprigg, 1942, 
1946; Howchin, 1929). 

Woulnough (1908), in referring to the rocks he saw on the eastern slopes of 
the Mt. Lofty Ranges, coined the name Barossian and misled by their meta- 
morphism, believed them to be Archaean in age, Howchin, on the other hand, 
considered all of the rocks east of the core of the ranges to belong to the Ade- 
laide System and correlated the Barossian of Woolnough with {he upper portion 
of the Adelaide System. 

In 1953 Sprigg and Campana gave the name Kanmantoo Group to the 
upper portion of the post-Archaean sequence in the eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges. 
Although the name Barossian has precedence, it is not advocated on the grounds 
that its reinrroduction would cause unnecessary confusion. 

The Kanmantoo Group, as generally understood from the definition by 
Sprigg and Campana (1953), consists of greywackes and micaceous quartz- 
ites with minor siltstones and shales in contrast to the quartzite, shale, limestone 
association of the Adelaide System. Sprigg arid Campana stated that the Kan- 
mantoo Group lay conformably above Lower Cambrian Strata, which in turn 
lay above the Adelaide System. However, for the whole distance from Birdwood 
to near Macclesfield, the Kanmantoo Croup was supposed to be thrown against 
the Adelaide System by a fault, generally called the Nairne Fault ( Sprigg et aL 
1951 ) . The normal sequence of beds could supposedly be seen in the Maccles- 
field Syneline and also in the Angaston region. We do not propose to deal with 
the Angaston area in this paper. 

In 1956 Campana and Horwitz disagreed with the fault hyopthesis of Sprigg, 
mainly on the basis of mapping on the Milang and Yankalilla Sheets, and sug- 
gested that the boundary between the two groups of rocks was a transgression 

* Geology Department, University of Adelaide 
Trans. Boy. Soc. S. Aiwt. <1950), Vol. B3. 


and diat Lhc Kanmantoo Croup was laid down directly on the eroded surface or 
the Adelaide System rocks. 

To attempt to resolve these conflicting hypotheses, and to huther an interest 
in the Nairae Pvritic Formation, we have studied the Kanmantoo Group in the 
area outlined in die max) (fjfc L). This map ts on a relatively small scale, but 
die more detailed maps arc Indeed in the Geology Department. University Of 
Adelaide. Much of the mapping bus been very detailed and a complete presen- 
tation of the data could only he efleeted on a scale of & inches to the muc. 


Pyrite and pyrrliotitc bearing schists and qua.rt7.ites outcrop for at least 
65 miles along the regional strike. These beds have been the subject of a more 
detailed study (Skinner, 1958) and are believed to be true sedimentary de- 
posits and not subsequent replacements of favourable horizons. The pyritic 
sediments as a whole have been called the Nafrne Pyritic Formation though two 
main sulphide bearing tin its and several minor ones exist within the formation. 

We have followed the pyritic beds from near Harrogate to within a few 
miles of Strathalbvn. Over this whole distance the pyritic beds can be traced 
by the characteristic "boxwork" in the weathered and ironstained outcrops. The 
width of the pyritic bands varies greatly. At Shephard Hill the main or lower 
band is 400 feet wide and another band, about 1500 feet higher in the sequence, 
is only about 50 feet thick The lower band persists strongly for about 8 miles 
to the south, but 2 miles south of Barker Creek it pinches out, and after several 
reappearances finally disappears at a point north-east of Tinpot, The upper 
hand reaches a thickness </f 200 feet and can be traced as a strong horizon W 
beyond Tinpot, about 2 miles furthec south than the lower band, ft then thins 
out to a width of only a few feet and cannot be traced with certainty tor about 
half a mile. It reappears as a thin horizon and then thickens to about 200 feet 
ugaiii, 5 miles north of Stiathalbyn. After about a mile it again becomes thin, 
and remain.-* so until it finally disappears Mi miles north of Stradialbyn. The 
breaks in continuity arc due to patches of alluvium and deep soil cover, as well 
as tiunnmg of the beds. 

Both the tipper and lower bands can be followed as continuous horizons 
from Harrogate to near Tinpot with only minor breaks due to alluvium in 
creeks. They are always conformable, with the other sediments and minevalogical 
studies suggest that the sulphide and silicate minerals are compatible phases. 
Tins leaves" no doubt that the pyrites is an original sedimentary deposit. At 
places a third or even a fourth band appears either between the two main bands 
or above the upper band. These minor bands are never greater than 10 feet 
thick and arc verv limited in distribution 

North of Harrogate, White (1956) (see also White and Thatcher, 1957) 
followed the Nairne ""Pvritic Formation till it meets the Bremer Fault to the east 
of Bhdwood. He also* mapped it cast of the Bremer Fault, south of Kockleigh. 
Two bands of pyritic schist re-appear just to the west of the Bremer Fault south- 
east of Harrogate, and arc believed to be the Nairne Pyritic Formation. 

Neat* Macclesfield, pyritic beds were first met in a tributary of the Angas 
River a mile soudi of the town. In the creek sections the beds still retained 
much of their original pyrite, but on the hill slopes only the wcadiered roek 
enuld he seen. From here the rocks can be traced south, with several small 
breaks, till they pass under the Recent (and Tertiary) cover south-west of 
Strathalbyn. This pyritic bed dips to the west and must obviously lie on the 
west limb of an autielinc* as was confirmed by structural mapping in the core 







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of the .inticline. There is little doubt that this is the Nairne Pyritic Formation, 
The gap i" outcrop around the nose of the Strathalbyn anticline is small. 

Tl* wide extent, the continuity and excellence of outcrop «JW the Nairne 
Pyritic Formation an excellent marker horizon in mapping the structures of the 
Kanmantoo Croup. It is the only satisfactory marker horizon in the group, and 
appeal's to separate two series nf rucks of s<unewhat differing liuiolngy. Con- 
sequently, it is convenient to discuss the rocks above and below the Nairne 
Pyritic Formution separately. 


Over most of the area mapped the beds immediately below the Nairne 
Pyritic Formation are massive cross-bedded micaceous quartzites and arkoses. 
The Barker Creek cuts a magnificent section through these beds. Here the 
cross bedding is on a large scale, the individual units being about 2 to 3 feet 
thick in manv instances. "The quartette of Mt barker Summit appears to be 
only a local lens nf pure quartzite near the base of this formation. Small out- 
ciops of glassy quartzJle south of Mt, Barker Summit also appear to be local 
lenses near the base of the massive cross-bedded quailzitc. 

Below the massive cross-bedded quart/are, which is at least 2000 feet thick 
in Barker Creek ; there are quart/.-folspar-mica schists, mica schists, bands uf 
andulusire and andalusile-staurolitc scliisLs ( Vt Paringite ' <jf Woolnough). thin 
quartzites and a few lenses of marble and of cale-silicatux. These rocks do not out- 
crop well and underly a great belt of fertile agricultural land between Mt. Barker 
town MCJ Macclesficlcl. Below this .sequence comes a prominent grptlp of quartz- 
ites which Sprigg and Wilson ( 1954) placed at the base of the Sturtian Series. 

Near Macclesfield the Nairne Pyritic Formation in underlain by about 1100 
feel of quartz-fclspar-mica schists (impure arkose.s) followed by a thin band 
of quartzite, some ot it micaceous, known as the Macclesfield Quartzite. Belmv 
this ftgrtita comes more qnarl /-felspar-mica schist followed by mica schists ami 
undalust'te-staurolite schists. The micaceous quartzite and arkoses are not so 
conspicuously current bedded, nor are they as thick as in the Barker Creek section, 
but they are undoubtedly the same horizon. There is, on the other hand, a Strong 
development of the aodn'lusite-staurolitc schist forming the core of the Strathalbvn 
Anticline, whilst a similar thickness of andalusite-staurolite schist is not found in 
the Barker Creek, It is possible that the thickening of these rocks in the core of 
(he anticline js due to their plasticity during tectonic deformation rather than a 
sedimentary thickening since they are much contorted in the core of the fold. 

There is no evidence to suggest that the Macclesfield Quartzite lies at the 
same horizon as the quurtzite of ML Barker Summit. 11 is, in fact, probable that 
the Macclesfield Quartzite occurs near the middle of the micaceous quartzite 
horizon and the Mt. Barker quartzite at the base, but the position is compli- 
cated by a thickening of the micaceous ouartzite horizon as it ^oes north 

Calcareous beets are found at several levels below ehe Nairne Pyritic Forma- 
tion, but none can be traced far along the strike. In the northern part of the 
area nVrc is a ealc-silicate band - a diopside-scapolite rock — near the base 
of the micaceous quartzite horizon. It occurs on the Callington road south of 
Mt Barker Summit but can only be traced a few hundred y;urds. South of 
Macclesfield in the east limb of the Macclesfield Syncline, there is a small out- 
crop of calc-silieatc rock a few hundred feet below the Nairne Pyritic Forma- 
tion and above the micaceous quartzite. The position of this ealc-silicate cor- 
responds roughly with the Macclesfield Marble which has been mapped ftp the 
west limb of the Macclesfield Svucline. On the west limb of the syncline the 


marble is first seen south of Paris Creek, emerging from below Tertian' sands 
and Iaferttefl, and can be traced easily to about 2 miles north of Paris Creek 
where it is again obscured by sands and laterites- It is seen again just west 
of the township of Macclesfield as a small outcrop. Another marble band occurs at 
the base of the Marinoan as defined by Sprigg and Wilson (Echunga Sheet). It, 
too, can he Seen only in Bull Creek west of Paris Creek and in three places in the 
north. We have seen this in several places*, hut we have not extended our map- 
ping far enough down into the Marinoan to correlate its various incurrences. 

There is no evidence to suggest that there are any continuous marble beds 
in the area investigated. Rather, the evidence suggests that the marble beds 
occur as small lenses, possibly at definite horizons, hut not with sufficient cer- 
tainty to allow safe correlation over large distances. 

Extensive calc-silicate horizons occur in ihe Woodsidc region but all of these 
arc below the cross* bedded micaceous sandstone and we have not mapped them* 


The sediments: above die pyritic formation are in general more micaceous 
and finer-grained than those below. The original sediments may fairly be de- 
scribed as fine-grained greywackes and sillstones with minor shales. The bulk 
of the rocks arc quartz-fclspar-mica schists, representing the greywackes and 
siltstonos. The shales, however, have produced schists containing micas, anda- 
lusitc, -staurolite, felspars and quartz. The andalusite schists are often very 
conspicuous as they sometimes coutain andalusite crystals up to an inch in length, 
The development of large andalusite crystals is confined hi the cores of the 
folds. On I he limbs of the folds the andalusite sclusts are generally fme- 
sraincd and inconspicuous. 

The first notable andalusite schist occurs about 7000 feet above the lowest 
puite band. The base of this bed can he mapped for several miles in the nose 
and on the western limb of the syncline near Dawesley- It is obvious that the 
andalusite schist is greatly thickened in the nose of this synelinc because the 
outcrop is much wider along the road than it is further to the north or south. 
In the Barker ('reek section only a few narrow bands of andalusite and anda- 
Iusite-staurolite schist are met. It fa possible that in the area east of Dawesley 
these schists reach their maximum development and that to the south they 
grade laterally into mica schists. Higher in the sequence these pcraluminous 
bids grade up into normal mica schists and then into fine-grained quurt a- felspar- 
mica schists which persist to the top of the- exposed section, Small bands, how- 
ever, are found at several places in the Barker Creek and, as in the Dawesley 
Synelinc, they have been greatly thickened and contorted in the CaHington 
Syncline. It is widi the structurally diickeued andalusite schists that the Calling- 
ton-Kanmantoo mines are associated. 

The andalusite schists above and below- the Nairne Pyritic Formation cannot 
he distinguished in hand-speeiiucu. They are always iucorupetent relative to 
the quartz-felspar-mica schists and the quartzrtcs* and consequently show ex- 
treme contortion and thickening in the noses of the folds. On the limbs they 
are thin beds which make poor outcrops and consequently drey are nut satis* 
factory marker horizons. 


The greywackes and siltstones which form the bulk of tin* rocks in the 
Kauinuutoo Croup have reerystallised to fine-grained quartz-felspar-mica schists. 
All of these rocks show die original bedding, and where foliation is present it 


generally follows the bedding. As in the Tungkillo- Palmer area (Klccnxan and 
White 1^57 ) the mica flakes often have a preferred orientation which differs 
from the bedding plane, but this rarely develops a foliation plane at an angle 
to the bedding. In the more micaceous rock types, however, originally shales, 
the bedding is often obscured by axial-plane foliation. 

The pera hi ruinous shales have recrystallised to mica schists in which anda- 
lusite, staurolite, kyanite, garnet and sillimanite occur. Sillimanite is only known 
from near Harrogate in a sill imanite-andalusite-rnuscovite.-bii >tite rock and 
kvanite in a similar assemblage from Shephard Hill. Andalusite and staurolite. 
both together and separately, occur over the whole area wherever rocks of a 
suitable" composition occur. White (1956) has shown that the siilimanlle- 
museovite assemblage is stable in the area north-east of Harrogate, and it is 
]ii<ib;ih)e that there is a general increase iu the grade of metamorphisrn from the 
S.S.W. to the N.N.E. This is hump out by the absence of andalusite and stau- 
rotiN to the .south-west of Paris. Creek west of the mapped area. However, 
amlulustte, staurolite and garnet are to be found only a few miles north-west 
r>f Mrdtlialhya. 

'Hie prominent andalusite crystals in the andalusite schist give the rock a 
more highly metamorphosed appearance than the surrounding fine-grained 
qua! tz-f el spar-mica schists. The copper mines of the Kannrantoo-Callington area 
are a.<M>eiated with andalusite and anduhisite-shuirolite schists and this led 
Dickinson (1942) to suggest (hat the copper mineralisation was associated with 
"highs" of metamorphism. There seems, nowever. no evidence to support this. 
The quartz grains in both the andalusite schists and the qnartz-felspar-mica 
schists are approximately the same size, and the coarse-grained look of the. 
former rock is due solely to the large andalusite crystals and very obvious stau- 
rolite and garnet crystals. The difference m appearance between the andalusite 
schists and quartz-felspar-miea schists is therefore due to small differences in 
original composition and has nothing to do with degree of metamorphism. 

We believe that mineralisation in the Kanmantoo Croup, other than the 
Nairne Pyritie Formation, is always associated with the andalusite and anda- 
lusite-staurohte schists and is localized by shearing or extreme contortion within 
the incompetent andaliiMte and stauxolitc-andalusite schists. The Kanmantoo- 
Callingtun mines are the most prominent group, but many others do occur. The 
most outstanding of the other mines is the Wheal Ellen Mine, 5 miles north 
at Stmthalhyn. The inuicrali2>ation here is confined to a thin hand of garnet* 
staurolite and andalusite-mica schist* enclosed in a massive scries of fine- 
grained quartz-iniea-felspar schists. Although the silicate minerals here are tire 
same as those found in the Kanmantoo Mines area, there is no spectacular de- 
velopment of large crystals since the Wheal Ellen is on the limb of a large 
synehne. Sprigg and Wilson (1954) luive mapped the Wheal Ellen as occur- 
ring in a pyritie schist. The pyrite in this case is associated with the later 
mineralisation and the racks bear no resemblance to the Nairne Fyritic Forma- 
tion nor do thev appeal* to be in any way associated with the Nairne Pyritie 
Formation. It is unfortunate that Sprigg and Wilson did not satisfactorily 
differentiate between the two very different rock types on their map. 


The Kanmantoo Group lies on the eastern limb of the "Ml Lofty anticli- 
ntniura" (Catnpana, 1955). This structure is overturned to the west due to 
lateral compression from the east. Our mapping has shown no recognisable 
break in deposition between the Adelaide System and the Kanmantoo Group and 


demonstrates (bat the two Lave folded together as one unit. The east limb of 
the antfehuoriuni between tile Archaean core of the ranges and the "Bremer 
Fault is diversified by two inclines and an anticline. The Bremer Fault is be- 
lieved by Klccman and White (1956) to be the sheared west limb of another 
anticline and a further succession of syneJnve.\ and anticlines occur to the east 
itf the Bremer Fault. The structures east of the Bremer Fault will not be dis- 
cussed further in this paper. 

The syncline nearest to the Archaean core — the Macclesfield Syncline — is 
well shown by the uutcrop of the Macclesfield Quartzite at the top of the 
Adelaide System and by the quartzites at the base of the Stuvtian Series lower 
down in the Adelaide System The Macclesfield Quartzite is broken in the 
trough of the syneline and there is the suggestion oi one, perhaps two, minor 
anticlines modifying the major synchne. 

The major anticline — the Strathaibyn Anticline — is shown by the fold in 
die Sturtian quart/ires near Mt. Barker town, and by the piesenee of the Nairne 
Pyritic Formation on both limbs of tin? fold near Strathaibyn. Unfortunately 
the pyritic horizons have not been traced completely annind the uose of the 
fold owing to cover of later rocks, but structural mapping confirms the anticlinal 
structure. Along the main road from Macclesfield to Strathaibyn several minor 
anticlines and synclines have been seen. In tin's area there are several reversals 
of plunge, measurements varying between 30° S. and 20° N. No marker hori- 
zon of any value can be traced over the axis of tin's anticline. Numerous bands 
of andalusite-staurolite schist were found but they do not outcrop well and are 
only seen where gully erosion hns stripped the soil cover. The Macclesfield 
Quartzite dies out on the western limb of die Strathaibyn Anticline. Sprigg and 
Wilson (Joe. cit) in their mapping ot the Echunga Sheet show this quartzite 
cut ofl at the "N'uimo Fault" but it can in fact fci traced across the imfipcd 
position of the fault. A similar quartzite a few feet thick can be seen further 
south but it ceases to be a nmppable horizon. 

(>ra*so and MeManus (1954) mapped the Cullington Synchne west of 
Calbngton and extending north to Kanmantoo township. 'Ilieir mapping showed 
isompIcA folding and the complete absence of usable marker beds. In diis area 
the Structures are very well shown by air photographs. Wo have traced the 
synclinal axis further W the north to within 2 or 3 miles south of Harrogate 
where its location becomes more difficult, A big band nf ondalusite-taurolite 
schist which served as a marker horizon on the western limb of the sy incline 
cast and north-east of DawcsJcy could not be identified on the eastern limb. 
Moreover, as a consequence of the steep plunge (40-50°) and tight overturned 
folding all beds dip to the east and the two limbs aie distinguished only by a 
change of 20-30° in strike. There is little doubt tliat the fold axis passes a 
short distance to the east of Harrogate and what is most probably the same 
synclinal structure is represented by two synclines and an anticline in the Nairne 
l\Titic Formation north-easl of Honda llill (sec Mannnm Sheet — White and 
Thatcher, I3B7). 

Fast of Callington the Kanmaniuu beds pass under alluvium of the Bremer 
Valley but further to the north, new "Lucenhrac", a series of tight folds — am- 
plitude about 500 feet - indicate, another anticline. This Is, moreover, sug- 
gested by an outcrop of the Nairne Pv;rftc Horizons about 38 miles north of 
^Lucernbrue". Here the pyritic beds pass into a minor svncline before being 
cut off bv the Bremer Fault. Traced to the south they become involved in the 
tight folding and probably turn back northward before being lost under allu- 
vium. This whole belt of folding merges into the Bremer" Fault south-east 
of Harrogate. 

68 A. W. KLKEMAN \W B. J. SfilNNSB 

In the vicinity or Shephard Hill the west limb of the Callingtcm Synejme 
is bent into a subsidiary anticline and syncline. This structure dies away to 
tlie south but becomes more prominent in the Adelaide System beds lb Uio 
nortli near Mt Charles. 


When the Kanmantoo Group was first defined the boundary between the 
Adelaide System and the Kanmantou in the eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges was 
considered to be a fault-named the Naiine Fault (Sprigg, op. cit.). The rocks 
inside the Macclesfield Svneline avkfc considered to he Kanmantoo resLiug on 
the Macclesfield Marble and separated from the bulk of the Kanmantoo Group 
by the Nairne Fault. Much of die mapping was based on a supposed lithologieal 
difference between the Adelaide System and Kanmantoo rocks. The Adelaide 
System rocks arc dominantly slutey and when mefcunorphosed form mica seliists 
which do not make good outcrops. The Kanmantoo rocks are dominantly grcy- 
vvaekvs which form quartx-felspar-miea schists, and these form eunspteuous 
slabby outcrop*. On going eastward in the ML Lofty Ranges the change in 
outcrop pattern is quite marked and the "Nairne Fault' largely coincides with 
this line. From a point west of Shephard Hill to a point east of Macclesfield 
the "Nairru? Fault" follows more or less closely the base of a thick series of 
cross-bedded micaceous quartzites which outcrop in the- typical Kanmantoo 
style —although we would prefer to place them in the top of the Adelaide 
System (Marinoan Series),* To the .south of Macclesfield the Nairne Fault, was 
hclieved to cut off the Macclesfield Quartzite. From this point the fault in 
its further passage southward lay between Kanmantoo rocks on either side. 

The only area on the Eehunga Sheet in which evidence for the Nairne 
Fiuilt is to be looked for is thus immediately south of Macclesfield. Wo consider 
the Nairne Fault does not exist in this area for three reasons. Firstly, we have 
Tumid an outcrop of the Nairne Pyritic Formation which can be traced for at 
leasl half a mile north of the supposed position of the fault and for about a 
mile south of die fault without any break in the outcrop, and then with breaks 
due Hi poor outcrop fur another sis* miles south- Secondly, the axes of both 
tlie Macclesfield Svneliue and the Strathalhyn Anticline can be traced unde- 
vjated riqross the line of the fault, Although this dues not preclude a fault with 
a tltrnw parallel to the axial plane of the folds it does preclude any fault which 
was required to do what the Naime Fault was supposed to do Lastly., the 
Macclesfield Quartzite which appears at first to be cut olf by the Nairne Futile, 
does in fact cross the ' fault" before dying out by change of facies. A thin, 
white quart7ite band can be seen interbedded between quartz and felspar 
mica schists for a few hundred yards south of the "fault", and similar quart/jtcs 
can be seen further to the south. On the other side of the Strathalhyn Anti- 
cline there is a cross-bedded micaceous quartzite in a similar position below 
the Nairne Pyritic Formation. 

iu 1956 Campana and Horwitz. rejected the idea of the Nairne Fault and 
suggested that the boundary was an uneoivformity. They said that the relalioas 

• Owing to tlie- tact that the Adelaide System beds on the eastern side nf the Mt. ) .ofcy 
[1 ::. r v - uro Ot iiiJirkrdly different sedimentary utei«s from those of the type localities on the 
■western side, the division into Torrensuin. SlurUuri and Vlaunoati riHfeft b»* -tentative only. 
Ill (Jiis nape.r wo have followed the current usage of Spngg et at, (1951. 1054 I . We Iijivp 
extended, tins usage by enniidering all the bods between the Mnj(inn nml fC-inm/inhxi to he 


observed between the Adelaide System and the Kanmantoo Group wore due 
to "erosion preceding the transgression of die Kanmantoo beds". They also 
inferred that the Adelaide System was folded before the erosion and subse- 
quent transgression. 

In the Macclesfield Syncline the Adelaide System beds pass up through the 
Macclesfield Quartzlte, tlie Macclesfield Marble and Nairne Pyritic Formation 
to the greywackes of the Kanmanton Croup. There is au evidence At all of 
angular unconformity or any interruption in the sequence of sedimentation. 
Furthermore, it is apparent that the Adelaide System beds and tlie Karunantoo 
Group have been folded as a single unit, 

Our mapping has nut revealed any evidence for a sedimentary break of any 
kind from Paris Creek to Harrogate. North of Harrogate White and Thatcher 
(1957) .suggested conformity between the Nairne Pyritic Formation and the 
beds below. South of Paris Creek, however. Campana and Horvvitz (1956) 
state tbat the Kanmantoo Group overlies successively older rocks until at ^art- 
kalilla it lias on the Archaean. 

This is beyond the limits of our mapping, although we have seen the 
sections in several places. Nlawson (1939) has recorded rocks which are slightly 
metamorphosed greywackc, similar in appearance to the rocks of the Kan- 
mantoo Croup, immediately above the quartzites of the Mt Magnificent Ridge 
(base of Sturtian Series). Mawson accords about 2500 feet of Adelaide System 
rocks below the topmost of the Mt. Magnificent Quartzites. 

In the Grey Spur area further south Forbes (1957) records about 4000 feet 
of shale and qnart/.ites overlain by greywaeke.s and micaceous arkoses. 

In the Mt. Magnificent area the quartzites of the Mt. Magnificent Ridge 
appear to be continuous with quartzites which Spring and Wilson (1954) place 
at the base of the Sturtian Series. At Grey Spur there is no evidence upon 
which to correlate the various rock types but the thicknesses measured suggest 
that the transition from the Adelaide System rocks to "Kanmantoo-type" nicks 
occurred at roughly the same time as at Mt Magnificent 

It is clear that in the Mt. Magnificent- Wflfr greywackes: and impure arkoses 
appear to be conformably upon Adelaide System rocks of the Sturtian Series 
whereas in the Mt. Harlcer area the greywackes and impure arkoses do not 
appear until high in the Marinoan Series. 

There are three possible cvplunalions for tlie .superposition of "Kunmantoo- 
typc r rocks on the Sturtian Series at Mt. Vlagnifieent. 

1, Campana and Horvvitz (1956) have suggested erosion of the upper part of 
the Sturtian and of the Marinoan and subsequent deposition of Kanmantoo. 
They also postulate folding of Adelaide System rocks during this interval 

'2. Non-deposition during Upper Adelaideau time and subsequent deposition of 
Kanmantoo greywackes on to Sturtian beds. 

3. Deposition of greywackes in the Mt Magnificent area during Adelaideau 
lime while normal Adelaide System sediments were being deposited further 
to the north. 

Our mapping has shown that in the region between Harrogate and Paris 
Creek the Adelaide System and Kaumautou rocks have folded as a single unit 
Mild we could find no evidence for an earlier period of folding involving only 
the Adelaide System. Tlie Adelaide System beds are folded in the McIIarg 
Creek area south of Paris Creek but the kanmantoo beds are folded also. Fault- 
ing and lack of outcrops have obscured the detail in tins area, but no unequivocal 
ovidenoe for im unconformity can be seen. 

70 A. W. KLEEMAV *n.» B. J SKIWT.R 

In tlie absence of Fossils and marker horizons, it is impossible to decide the 
second and third hypothesis, but we feel that they explain the observed fucts 
fetter than the hypothesis involving uplift, folding and erosion of the Adelaide 
System rocks as suggested by Campana and Horwitz. 


The definition of the base of the Kanmantoo Grouj) In our area rests upon 
the correlation of the Macclesfield Marble with the Delamere Marble and there- 
fore with the Arehcocyatha Marble. If we accept that correlation the base of 
f he Kanmantoo would lie at some indefinite horizon just above the Marble. The 
Marble, however, does not outcrop well and has not been located east of 
Macclesfield. It is probably only pi limited extent and lenses out before reach- 
ing | be east side of the Macclesfield Syncline, although a small lens of a calc- 
silieare rock has been found below the Nairne Pyritic Formation in the eastern 
limb of the Macclesfield Syncline. From our mapping it is clear that the lowest 
member of the Nairne Pyritic Formation must he very close to the base of the 
Kanmantoo Croup in the Macclesfield region. The lowest pyritic band lies 
about 120(1 ± 200 feet above the Macclesfield quartzite on the eastern limb, 
whilst the Macclesfkkl marble lies about 1000 feet above the quartzite on the 
western limb, 

A further justification for making the Nuirne Pyritic Formation the base 
of the Kanmantoo Group is that it obviously marks a boundary between two 
contrasting but conformable series of sediments. Below the pyritic beds are 
massive cross-bedded quartzites and arkoscs, greywackes, slimes, marbles and 
eale-silicates- Ahove the pyritic beds -arc a vast thickness of very fine-grained 
gieywaeke.s and stftstones with minor shale bands. We do not consider that 
the pyritic beds mark a break in sedimentation. 


This paper presents the results of mapping of the Kanmantoo Group rocks 
in the area around Kanmantoo township. It shows that these rocks rest con- 
formably above the rocks mapped as Adelaide System, The mapping suggests 
that the Macclesfield marble and quartzite are two lenticular' beds of limited 
extent and quite useless as marker horizons. The correlation of the quartzite 
of Mt. Barker Summit with the Macclesfield quartzite, as suggested by the 
mapping of the Echunga Sheet, in incorrect. It is more probable that the Mt. 
Barker quartzite represents a lens uf pure quartzite in a dommantly aiki>vic 
and greywacke series. 

The contact between the Adelaide System and tbc Kanmantoo Group seems 
to be one of definition on the Echunga Sheet. The earlier concept of a faulted 
contact is disproven by the mapping of marker horizons and structural features 
across the; line of the supposed fault. The later suggestion of a transgression of 
the Kanmantoo Group over the Adelaide System can neither be proved nor dis- 
proved in this area. In (he sequence of sediments we have examined there is 
certainly no reason to believe that a break in sedimentation has occurred. 

Wc propose that the base of the Nairne Pyritic Horizon be defined us the 
base of the Kanmantoo Group in this area, and until further evidence can he 
found, the beds immediately below the Nairne Pyritic Formation be considered 
as Marinoan. The base of the Maiinoan has not been considered. 


Expenses in connection with this work were defrayed from the University 
Research Grant. We arc indebted tu Mr. & Offler for assistance widi field work 


and to Mr. B. P. Webb and Mr. B. P. Thomson of the Geological Survey for 
helpful discussions. 


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BS a transgressive sequence, Aust. Jour. Sci., 1<S, pp. 128-9. 
Dickinson, S. B., 1943. The Structural Control ol Ore-Deposition in some South Australian 

Copper Fields, Geol. Surv. S. Aust. Bull. No. 20. 
Forres, B. G., 1957. The SU*atigraphie Succession East of Grev Spur, South Australia Trans. 

Roy. Soc. S. Aust., SO, pp. 59-66. 
Ghasso, R.. and McManls, J. B„ 1954, The Geology of the Callington Area. Thesis fox 

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Eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges, Jour. Geol. Soc. Aust., 3, pp. 17-31, 
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Skinner, B. J., 1958. The Geology and Metamorphism of the Naime Pyritie Formation ■ — a 

Sedimentary Sulfide Deposit in South Australia, Economic Geology (In press). 
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Aust., 66, pp. 185-214. 
Spricc, R. C., 1946. Reconnaissance Geological Survey of Portion of the Western Escarp- 
ment of the Mt Lofty Ranges, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 70, pp. 313-347. 
Spricg, R. C.,, and Campana, B., 1953. The Age and Eaeies of the Kanmantoo Group, 

Eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges and Kangaroo Island, South Australia, Aust Jour. Sci.. 16, 

pp. 12-14. 
Sprigg, R. C, and Wthttle, A. W. G. ; and Campana, B. f 1951. Geological Atlas of South 

Australia, Sheet Adelaide, 
Sprigg, R. C., and Wilson, R. B., 1954. Geological Adas of South Australia, Sheet Echunga. 
White, A. J. R. s 1956. The Granites and Associated Metamorphic Rocks of Palmer, South 

Australia, Thesis for Ph.D., University of London. 
White, A. J. R., and Thatcher, D., 1957. Geological Atlas of South Australia, Sheet Mannum, 
Woolnough, W. G., 1908. Notes on the Geology of the Mt Lofty Ranges, Chiefly the 

Portion East of the Onkaparinga River, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 32, pp. 121-137. 


by T. Z). Scott 


Seven new species from North Western Australia are described and figured. New localities and 
ranges of distribution are given for seventeen Western Australian fishes. Sixteen further species are 
recorded as new records for that State, and eight species, one of which is figured, are listed as new 
records for Australia. Polynemus specularis De Vis is considered to be a synonym of Polynemus 
multirudiutus Gunther. 


by T. D. Scott 

[read 12 June 1958] 


Seven new species from North Western Australia are described uud 
figured. New localities and ranges or distribution are given for seventeen 
Western Australian fishes. Sixteen further hpeeics are recorded as new records 
for that State, and eight species r one of which is figured, are listed as new 
records for Australia. Palyncmus speculum De Vis is considered to be a 
synonym of Vohjnemm muUiradiatus Gunther. 


During the. past five years the Underwater Spearfishermen's Association of 
Western Australia has sent to the South Australian Museum for identification, a 
collection of about 500 onshore and reef-living fishes from that State. These 
fishes, collected by means of the spear-gun, or multi-pronged hand spear> were 
preserved in formalin, packed in 4-gallbn collecting drums, and forwarded to 
the Museum. The accompanying notes on the specimens provided useful in- 
formation as to the distribution, abundance and habitats of these fishes. In 
many cases, coloured photographs were taken at the lime of capture of the 
specimens, and these have provided useful records of life colouration. 

This is the first of a series of papers dealing with the fishes of Western 
Australia; I wish to express my thanks to the Underwater Spearfishermen's As- 
sociation of Western Australia and in particular to Mr. F. Barrett-Lennard for 
his valuable assistance in the collecting of many of these specimens, and for the 
most useful notes and colour photographs which he has placed at my disposal. 


Genus Saurida Cuv. and Val., 1849 

Sauiida tumbil (Bloch) 

Salmo tumbil Bloch, 1795, Nat. Ausl. FLsche, 9, p. 112. 

Two specimens measuring 155 mm. and 170 mm. total length were taken 
at Point Samson, August, 1957, and Exmouth Gulf, November, 1954, respectively. 
Add area 5 to Whitley's (1948, p. 13) distribution of this species in Western 


Genus Liza Jordan and Swain, 1884 

Liza vaigiensis (Quoy and Gairnard) 

Mugil vaigiensis Quoy and Cairn ard, 1824, Voy. Uranie Physic, p. 337. pi, 50, fig. 2. 

A small specimen measuring 108 mm. total length was taken at Point Sam- 
son, December, 1957. Add area 5 to Whitley's (1948, p. 17) distribution of this 
species in Western Australia. 

Trans. Roy, Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. 8£. 

74 T D. SCOTT 


Genus Poi.ynemus Linnaeus, 1758 
Polynemus multiradiatus Gunther 
Polynemwt multimdiatm Gunther, I860, Cut. Fish. Brit, Mus., 2, p. 324, 
Pohjne.rruts specularis De Vis, 1883 s Proc. Linn. Sol: N.S.W., S (2), p. 2S5. 

A small specimen measuring 145 mm, total length was taken at Point Sam- 
son. August, 1957. This species was first recorded from Western Australia by 
Whitley (1952-53, p. 29) as Polydactylus specularis (De Vis). The above 
feVnorlymy of P. specularis De Vis is suggested. 

My thanks to Mr. T. C. Marshall for material from the collection of the 
Department of Harbours and Marine, Queensland. 


Cenus Epinkpiielus Bloch, J 793 
Epinephelus homosiuensis Whitley 

Epinephelus homo-vineum WhiLley. 1944, Austr. Zool., 10 (3), p. 267. 

A -specimen measuring 315 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
August, 1957. Previously recorded only from the Ceraldton-Abrolhos region, 
Western Australia, where it is known as die "Chinaman Cod". Add areas 4 and 
5 to Whitley s (1948, p. IS) distribution of this species in Western Australia. 

Cenus Pi.kcthopomus Cuvier, 1817 
Plectropomus maculatus (Bloeh) 
Boditmux mavulatus Bloth, 1790, Nat. Ausl. Fische, 4 ? p. 48. 

A specimen measuring 258 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
August, 1955. Add area 5 to Whitley's (1948, p. 18) distribution of this species 
in Western Australia. 

Key to tiie Psetjdociiromidae of Western Australia 

1. Dorsal spines more than 4 Stigmatonotus australis 

Dorsal spines less than 4 ... ... _ 2 

2. Dorsal spines 2, palatines toothless 3 

Dorsal spines 3, palatines with teeth - ,, 4 

3. Ventral fins close together; a large pink spot on side of body 

Dampieria ignita sp. nov. 
VentTals separated by a scaly process; body with 16 to 17 dark longi- 
tudinal lines Dampieria lineata 

4. All dorsal and anal rays branched Leptochromis tapeinosoma wilsoni 

Some anterior dorsal rays simple, the posterior rays branched 5 

5. Teeth of vomer and palatines in 4 or 5 rows; lateral line scales 

38 + 6-7 - .... Pseudochromis (Assictdus) punctatus 

Teeth of vomer and palatines in a single row; lateral line scales 
30 -f 8-10 ,. . Pseudochromis (Devisina) fuscus 

Genus Dampieria Castelnau, 1875 
Dampieria lineata Castelnau 
Dampierui Unvata Castelnau, 1875, Res. Fish. Austr., p, 30, 

A specimen measuring 166 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
August, 1955. Add area 3 to Whitley's (1948, p. 18) distribution of this species 
in Western Australia. 


Dampieria ignttu sp, nov. 
D.ii.25. 1\I7. AUli.ll V.i.5. C.17. Br.6. 
tiUt Hue 57 + 21-23. 
Length uf head 48 mm. (4*1 ), greatest depth of budv 45 (i 1), greatest 
width of hotly 23 (8-6) id tl>c total length 1% mm. Jleignt i>f head 12 in ft* 
length. Liyo 10 (1*3) in the snout, and 0-7 in the convex intcxurbital space. 
.Snout 13 (3-7) in the head. 

Cleft of muulh very oblique, curved downward posteriorly, almast caching 
(he* ventral profile, terminating below the anterior border of ihe eye, l.mvcr 
juw louder thah upper. Teeth hi upper jaw iu several series, the outer row 

Fi% I, — lyoiniriirUi iuuita sp. now {)'.%). 

enlarged. Two pairs of canines in front, the outev pair lai'ger\ slightly curved. 
Teeth in lower jaw uniserial laterally. 2 pairs of enlarged canines in I'tont, ■ ^t 
♦Nuial si/e, a patch of smaller teeth behind each pair. Palatines without teeth, 
vomer with a single row of small conical teeth. 

Ten rows of cycloid seules on the cheek, the upper scales the largest 
Operculum with six to seven rows of larger scales, rrcopereulnm entire, oper- 
culum unarmed. 

Head scales beginning between eyes, small and cycloid. Rest ut hod} covered 
with ctenoid scales of moderate size, forming a losv basal sheath on the vertical 
fins. Lateral line interrupted below the twentieth dorsal ray, the upper part 
separated from the lower by five rows of scales. I-alend line scales with a snort 
simple tube. 

Dorsal long, originating above hiudbnrder uf operculum, consisting . >t 2 
weak spines and 25 rays, the posterior rays prolonged. Anal with 3 strimger 
spines, the (liird the longest, but not equal to (he eye diameter. Venrrals close 
fogetlier, the third ray produced. Pectoral of moderate size, its length 15 in 
die head. Caudal fin rounded, 

Colour in alcohol, -Body coloured a dark brown, with some truces of daiker 
longitudinal bands us in Uneata. A large whitish oval patch (which is pink in 
liie) on the sides, behind the pectoral fin, extending downwards to the ventral 
pmftle, upward tolhc fourth row of scales below the lateral line, and back- 
ward almost fo the beginning of the lower lateral line, Dorvn! and anal fins 
With dark spots, anteriorly, parallel dark bands posteriorly, these bands extend- 
ing on to the caudal fin. 

76 T. D. SCOTT 

Described from a specimen 198 mm. total length, taken Sharks Bay, May, 

1954. Type in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. F2997, Further specimens 
measuring 119 mm, 130 mm.» and 156 mm. total length were taken at Point 
Samson. December, 1957. 

Affinities— Differs from D. lineata in body proportions, in colouration, in the 
more posterior insertion of the anal fin, and' in the separation of the ventrals. 
In D, ignite; the ventrals are very close together; D. lineata has the ventrals 
more widely separated, and there is a scaly process between their bases. 

Genus Evtherapon Fowler, 1904 
Euthcrapon theraps (Cuv. and Val.) 
Therapon theraps Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1829, Hist. Nat Puiss., .% p. 129, pi. 53. 

A specimen measuring 138 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
August, 1955. This species was first recorded from Western Australia as Ther- 
apon ntbricatm Richardson, 1842, and Whitley (1948, p. 19) does not indicate 
its distribution in Western Australia, except "N.W. Australia". Add area 5 to 
Whitley's distribution of this species m Western Australia. 


Genus Cakanx Lacepcde, 1S02 

Caranx bucculentus Alleyne aiid Macleay 

Caranx buccuk-ntiu Alleyne and Macleay, 1877, Proc. Linn. So<?. N.S. Wales, 1 (4), p. 326, 

pi. ii;ftt 1. 

A specimen measuring 124 nun. total length was taken at Broome, June, 

1955. Dorsal fin i,viii;U9. Anal fin ii,i,16. The straight part of the lateral line 
commences below the 6th dorsal spine, and bears 37 scutes. The five broad dark 
cross-bars from the back to the middle of the sides, as noticed by McCulloch in 
a specimen 123 mm. in length, are apparent. 

A second record of this species for Western Australia. 

Genus Bennett, 1835 

Elagatis bipinnulatus (Quoy aud Gaimard) 

Seriola bipmnulotu Quay and Oaiimtrd, 1825. Voy. Frame Physic. (Zool.), L p. 363, pi. 61, 

m 3. 

A large specimen measuring 650 mm. total length was taken at Point Sam- 
son, August, 1957. A second record for Western Australia. Add area 5 to 
Whitley^ (1948, p. 20) distribution of this species in Western Australia. 

In' this specimen ; the two detached anal spines characteristic of the Caran- 
gidae, have become obsolete with age. 


Subfamily Littianinak 
Genus Lutianxs Bloch, 1790 
Lutianus russelli (Bleeker) 
Mesoprion rmficlh Meeker, 1849, Verh. Bill, Gen., 22, Pure, ft, 41. 

A small specimen measuring 160 mm. total length was taken at Exmouth 
Gulf, November, 1954. Above the lateral line there is a series of narrow bands, 
passing obliquely upwards and backwards to the dorsal profile. Below the 
lateral line, the specimen bears three horizontal wider bands, parallel to the axis 
of the body. The black, oval, lateral blotch, measuring 13 mm by 9 mm., is 


almost entirely above the lateral line, and is situated below the junction of the 
posterior dorsal spines and anterior rays. 
A new record for Western Australia, 

Lutianus chrysotaenia (Rleeker) 
Mesoprion chrysotaenia Blocker, 1851, Nat Tijdsch. Ned. Indie, 2, p. 170, 

A specimen was taken at Point Samson, August, 1955. Add area 5 to Whit- 
Icy s [JSf0t p. 21) distribution of this species in Western Australia. 

Lutianus vitta (Quoy and Gaimard) 
Serranus vitta Quoy and Gaimnrd, 1824, Voy. Uranie Physic. (Zool), p. 315, pL 58, fig. 3. 

A small specimen measuring 125 mm. total length was taken at Point 
Samson, August, 1957. Add area 5 to Whitlcvs (1948, p. 21) distribution of this 
species in Western Australia. 

Sub-family Nkmjpterikae 

Cenus Nemiftfhus Swainson, 1839 

Key to thk Australian* Sfecirs. ov Nemdpterus 

J. Lower jaw with canine teeth „.. 2 

Lower jaw without canines ____ . . 4 

2. Eleven rows of scales below lateral line; body with yellow bands 

_i _ , , A r . iaeniopterus 
Fourteen rows of scales below lateral line; body without bands 3 

3. Lower jaw with six canines: colour uniform ... TV, robustus 

Lower jaw with eight canines; colour brown above, silvery below 

N> sundanemis 

4. Posterior dorsal spines longest .... .,., ,.,„ f/ t theodorei 

Median dorsal spines longest ... „ ... 5 

5. Upper caudal lobe greatly produced .,, #. aurifilwn 

Upper caudal lobe not produced u|il ^ 

6. Upper jaw with three pairs of canines N. upemoides 

Upper jaw with one pair of canines N. sanuonensix sp. nov. 

Nemipterus samsonensis sp. nov. 

D.x,9. P.16. A.iii.7. V*jfc C.18. Br, 6. 

Lat line 49-50. Lat. trans, 3 : 11. 

Length of head 44 mm (4-5), greaLest depth of body 51 (4-0), greatest 

width of body 25 (8-0) in the total length 200 mm. Height of head 11 in its 

^$5P^% e r 13 , (1 i> in the snout and N in thc nat interorbital space. Snout 
15 ('1-v) m the head. 

Body elongated, not very deep, rather compressed. Mouth of moderate size 
horizontal, maxillary reaching to posterior nostril. Jaws equal. 

Bands of small pointed "teeth in both jaws, narrowing laterally with the 
outer row enlarged. One pair of moderate canines in upper "jaw, lower jaw with- 
out canmes. Palate without teeth. Lips rather thick. 

Preoperculum rectangular, rounded at ans;le, smooth behind. Suborbital 
rather deep, more than half vertical diameter of eye. Posterior ancle very 
obtuse, the hindborder a straight line which when produced above reaches the 
origin of the dorsal fin. Naked limb of preoperculum about half depth of scaly 

, Body covered with moderate ctenoid scales. Nape, operculum and cheek 

scaly, rest of head naked. Three oblique rows of large cycloid scales on cheek 

7tt I D. .SCOT1- 

below suborbital, leaving a naked limb below on preopercuhim. Body scales 
continued tci end of caudal 8u. Lateral line complete, not sharply bent, con- 
sisting of unbranched ublique tubes. Ventral fins with an axillary process. 

Dorsal fin consisting of ten slender spines, ihc middle spmes the longest. 
Membrane between dorsal spines slightly emargmale. Posterior spmes shutter 

j.-jg. o. — Nemipterw sam&nnrw>Us sp. nov. (-<%). first ravs. Pectorals long, almost equal to bead Ventrals shorter, not 
SSSlS? tb vent. £j*l spines slender, the first very short the thud longest 
equal hi lwrgth to diameter of eve. Anal rays longer than third spmc. Caudal 
fin deeply forked, consisting of eighteen principal rays Pscudobranchiae present 

« U,lLs in life- -body and head pinkish above, silvery below. A argc dark 
natch on the operculum. A round dark patch on body immediately behind 
Lid and helow lateral line Fins, without any markings. 

Described horn a specimen 200 mm. total length, fctaar, gnat Samson, 
November, 1954. Type in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. HJbo. 

Ceuns. Scoi.OPSis Cuvier, 1817 
Scolopsis bilincatus (lMoch) 
AntlUti* htib&m, 1793, Nut. Ausl Fisehc 7. £. 3. 

Two specimens measuring 195 mm. and 96 mm. total length Were tnkon at 

Point Samson, December. 1957- «•-„,„,.„;.< «.» 

The adult and juvenile specimens exhibit a considerable difleionce m u.l- 
watiuri and pattern. The colours in alcohol are as follows:- 

\dult, greenish above, breast silvery, sides yellow, Two src-ytsh-vdvci 
stripes on sides, one arising immediately above the eye, the second from t he 
upper part of the eve, passing backwards and upwards towards the dorsal pioble 
but not reachinc; it A third much broader stripe arises below the eye and 
passes upwards obliquely U) end below the last dorsal spme and the hist sott 
rav It is bonlered above and helow by a dark brown stripe. A black patclt 
covers the membrane and distal parts of the last two dorsal spines and Brat hiiir 
rays. Anal spino, first two anal rays and the membrane between them black. 
Other fins, hyaline. r . ■ 

In the juvenile, ill addition to the three longitudinal stripes, there arises >n 
the interorbil-al *pacc a narrow stripe which passes buck to the beginning Of the 
dorsal fin The three inferior stripes are all parallel and of approximately equal 


width, passing back obliquely to the dorsal profile, the interspaces coloured 
dark brown. A black patch on the posterior part or the dorsal fin. as in adult. 
In addition, there is a large black ocellus on the membrane between the first 
three dorsal spines. Anal tin black at the tip of the last spine and first two 
rays. Other fins hyaline, without any markings, 
A new record of this species for Australia. 


Genus Gerkiiis Quoy and Gairnard, J 824 

Gerres australis Caste! nau 

Gerres awtralis Castclnuu, 1N75, Res. Fish. AastT. (Vict. Offic. Rec, Philail. Exhib.), p. 43. 

A specimen measuring 110 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
August, 1955. 

Upper parts dark metallic blue, under parts silvery, the two colours sharply 
defined by a line passing above the orbit and through the middle of the caudal 
peduncle. There are 7 to 8 thin dark vertical bars on the sides, which become 
more obvious in alcohol. 

Add area 5 to Whitley's (1948. p. 21) distribution of this species in Western 


Genus Plectoiuiykchus Lacepede, 1802 
Plcctorhynchus ehactodonoides Lacepede 
yicct\?rhtjnchu$ cjiaeturionoides Laeeputfe, I802 4 Hist Nat. Poiss., 3, p. 134. 

A specimen measuring 490 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
August, 1955. An adult specimen in which the first and second dorsal fins and 
caudal fin are densely covered with large brown spots. Back, sides and upper 
caudal peduncle similarly spotted. Pectorals, anal and ventrals -a uniform dark 

Weber and De Beaufort (1936, p. 414) record the maximum size of this 
species as 450 mm., but the specimen from Point Samson measured 490 mm., 
total length. 

A new record of this species for Australia. 

Plcctorhynchus ordinalis sp. nov, 

D.xiU6. 1M7. A.iii/7. V.i.5. C.17. Br.7. 

Lat. line 58-60. Lat. trans. 23 I 26-30. 

Length of head 50 mm. (4*0), greatest deptb of body 66 (3*0), greatest 
width of body 21 (9-4) in the total length 198 mm. Height of head 1 -0 in its 
length. Eye 12 (1-7) in the snout and 1-0 in the convex interorbital space. 
Snout 20 (2*5) in the head. 

Body rather deep, somewhat compressed. Mouth small, slightly oblique, 
scarcely protractile. Maxillary reaching to below posterior nostril. Lips thick. 
Both jaws with several rows of small conical teeth, the outer row in both jaws 
enlarged. No canines, Palatines and vomer toothless. 

Prcoperculum rectangular, serrated posteriorly. Body and head covered 
with small ctenoid scales, With the exception of the snout, np5 and chin, Inter- 
orbital scales extending forward to anterior nostril. Soft dorsal and anal fins 
with a scaly sheath. Ventral fins with an axillary process. A row of six pores 
on the chin, behind lower lip, Lateral line complete, gently curved throughout 
its length, each scale with a simple oblique tube. Body scales above lateral 
line much smaller than those below. 

80 T. D. SCOTT 

Dorsal fin with 12 strong spines, tho third and fourth spines the longest, 
length IS mm. Spines decreasing gently in length posteriorly, the last spine 
not much shorter than the first ray. Pectorals of moderate length, equal to 
length of ve-ntrals. Ventral fins pointed, reaching to vent. Fust anal spine 
minute, second spine the longest, length equal to greatest body width. Caudal 
fin truncate. 

fifft 3. — Pltctorhijiv:hns (mlinuUx $p. nov. ("<£)- 

Colours in Ufe— Body coloured blue-grey abow. white below, Eight to 
nine bright yellow longitudinal bands on the head, extending on to the body. 
Those bands remain distinct on the lower half of the body, hut become broken 
up into a series of dots and short bands on the upper half. Two distinct rows 
Of similarly wilcmred spots along the entire length ol the dorsal fin, All other 
fins coloured a transparent light yellow. 

Described from a specimen 19S mm. total length, taken Sharks Bay* May, 
1954. Type in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. F3006. 

Affinities.-- Similar to chnjsotacnia Bleeker^in body proportions and coloura- 
tion, hut differs m the dorsal fin counts (12 spines and 16 rays, compared with 
13 spines und 19-20 rays in chn/soUieniv), and in scale counts. 

Family MULL! DAE 
Genus Barbvfkneus Wliitley. 1931 
Barbupenetix signatus (Cuolher) 
Uvenou* nignatua Cnnther, 1867, Ann. Miva. Nat Hist (3), fifl, $ 59. 

Two specimens measuring 180 mm. and 211 nun. total length were taken 
at Point Samson, December, 1957. 

A new record of this species lor Western Australia. 

Genus LF.THRWtCHTi its Jordan and Thompson, 1912 
Lcthrinichthys nematacanthux (IMeekcr) 
Lethrtnm twmatacanthus Bleeker : 1-S51. Nat. Tidjdschr. Nt:rl. Tnri., 6, p. 403, 

A small specimen measuring 174 mm. total length was taken at Point Sam- 
son, August, 1957, Add area 3 to Whitley's (1948, p. 22) distribution of this 
species in Western Australia, 


Lethnnichilujs, erected as a sub-genus by Jordau and Thompson, has been 
regarded by previous authors (McCulloch, 1929: Wcbcr and de Beaufort, 1936) 
as a synonym pf Lethrinus, However, Whitley (loc. cit.) lias raised the sub- 
genus to generic status, the two genera being separated by the character of the 
lateral teeth- 

Genus Mvuo Laecpedc, 1802 
Mylio latus (Houttuyn) 
S/wtM lutux Hanthiyn, 1782, Haarlem, Verli. Hull Maatseh. Wet, 20 (2), p. 322- 

D.xjM2. P.15. A.iii,9. V.i,5. C.17. 
Lat. line 50. trans. 4:11. 

A young specimen measuring 165 mm. standard length was taken at Point 
Samson, August, 1955. 

Six curved incisors in each jaw. Upper jaw with 4 rows of molars on each 
side, the outer row considerably flattened laterally. Lower jaw with 3 rows 
of molars, the outer series not much flattened. A small dark blotch at the 
origin of the lateral line, and a dark hind border to the operculum, No black 
spot in axil of pectoral. Dorsal fins dusky, ventrals and anal without markings, 
A narrow dark border to the caudal fin. 

Genus Pilmpijilius Cuvier, 1829 
Pempheris compressa (Shaw) 
Spurua ctmwrcsxa White, 1790, Voy. N.S. Walt:s, p. 267, pi. 12, fig. 2. Ex Shaw MS. 

Two specimens measuring 114 mm. and 131 mm. total length were taken 
at Point Samson, December, 1957. This species was recorded from Western 
Australia by McCulloch (1929, p. 234), but was omitted from Whitlevs (1948) 
list of the fishes of Western Australia. 


Genus Mkgaprotodon' Guichcnot, 1848 

Megaprotodon strigangulus (Gmeliu) 

Chmtodon stiif:uaguJu\ Gmdin, 1788, Syst. Nat, cd. 13, p. 1269. 

Two specimens measuring 145 ami, and 147 mm. total length were taken 
at Point Samson, December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Australia. 

Genus Anisochaetouon Klunzingcr, 1884 
Anisochaetodon lineolahis (Guv. and Val) 
Chnetodon liiwalatux Gnvier and Valenciennes, 1831, Ilist Nat. Poiss., 7 S p. 40. 

A small specimen measuring 145 mm. total length was taken at Point Sam- 
son, December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 

Genus Chaetodon Linnaeus, 1758 
Ghaetodon lunula (Lacepede) 
t> umai entntx lunula LareneHe, 1 802, Hist Nat. Poiss., 4 t p. 507. 

Two specimens measuring 185 mm, and 190 mm. total length were taken 
at Point Samson, December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 


Genus Euxiphtpops Frascr-Brunner, 1934 
Eturiphipops sexstriatus (Cuv. and Val.) 
Ilolacanthus sexstriatus Cuv. and Val., 1831, Hist. Nat. Poiss., 7, b, 194. 
Previous Australasian records: Cape Grerrville, Queensland (Alleyne and Maeleay, 1877, p. 
277)- Port Darwin, NX (Maeleay, 1878. p. 352); Port Moresby (Maeleay, 1BBJ, p. 
244); Darnky Is. (Ogilby, 1915, p. 105); Low Is., Queensland (Whitley, 1932, p. 288). 
A specimen measuring 265 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
August. 1955, 

* A new record for W.A., and the most southerly record for this species to date. 

Genus Hbmochus Cuvier, 181? 
Heniochus acuminatus (Linnaeus) 
Ckaetndtm acuminatum Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., 10, p. 272. 

Previous Australasian records ; Port Darwin and Port Essintfun (Maeleay,. 1881, p. 94): Hood 
Hiy New Guinea { Maeleav, 3,884, p 263*1, Cape Byron Light, N.S. Wales (McCulloeh. 
19]_6\ p. 19:i); northern N.S. Wales (McCulloeh, 1022, p. 91). 
A specimen measuring 155 mm. total length was taken at Sharks Bay, May. 

A new record for Western Australia, 

Genus Chaktodox Linnaeus, 175S 
Chaetodon aureofascialus Maeleay 
Chaetndon uureofawiatm Maeleay, 1878. Proe. Linn. Soc. N-S. Wales, 2 (1), ]>. 35L pi. K, 
fig. 3. 

D.xi,23- A.ihU9. 
Lat. line 35-36. Lat. trans 13 : 23-24. 
Length of head 28 mm. (4-2), greatest depth of body 88 (1-4), greatest 
width of body 15 (7-9) in the total length 118 mm. Height of head 0-4 in its 
length. Eye 9 (0*8) in the snout and 1-2 in the convex interorbital space. Snout 
7 (4-0) in the head. Depth of body equal to standard body length. Depth of 
caudal peduncle 11, equal to interorbital space. 

A specimen measuring US mm, total length was taken at Point Samson, 
August, 1955. 

This specimen has the two bands across the caudal peduncle as seen by 
Maeleay in the juveniles of this species. 
A new record for Western Australia. 

Genus Amphacanthus Bloch and Schneider, 1801 
Amphaeaiithus vcrmieulatus Cuv. and Val. 
Amphacanthus vermiculatw Cuvier and Valeneiennes, 1835, Hist. Nat. Poiss,, 10, p. 126 

A specimen measuring 293 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 

Amphacanthus chrysospilos 13lceker 
Amphacanthus chrr/so.spilos Bleeker, 1852, Nat. Tijdsehr. Ned. Indie. 3, p. 66. 

A specimen measuring 250 mm. in length (to caudal fork) was taken at 
Point Samson, December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 

Amphacanthus doliatus Cuv. and Val. 
Ampiiacanthus doludm Cuvier and Vale.nciennes, 1835, Hist. Nat. Poiss., 10, p- 132. 

A specimen measuring 184 mm. in length (to caudal fork) was taken at 
Point Samson, December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 


Genus Tkuthis Linnaeus, 1766 
Teuthis glaucopareius (Cuvier) 

Acanthurus glaucopareius Cuvier, 1829, Re^mi Anim. ed. 2 (2), p. 224. 

A specimen measuring 152 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Australia. 

Teuthis triostegus (Linnaeus) 
Ckaetoflon trimti'gw, Linnaeus, 1758, Sysl. Nal M eel. 10. $>. 274. 

A specimen measuring 185 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
December, 1957. 

Add area 5 to Whitley's (1948, p. 24) distribution of this species in Western 

Genus Naso Laeepede, 1802 
Naso unicornis (Forskal) 
Choc teflon unicornis FoTskal, 1775, Deser. Anim.„ p. (i3. 

A specimen measiuing 335 mm. total length (excluding caudal filaments) 
was taken at Point Samson, December, 1957. 

Body coloured a uniform dark brown. Dorsal fin with narrow, dark longi- 
tudinal bands. The horn on the forehead is very well developed in this specimen. 
A new record of this species for Western Australia. 
Naso lituratus (Bloch and Schn.) 
Acunlhurus lituratus Bloch and Schneider, 1801, Sysl. Ichlh., p, 3L& 

A specimen measuring 256 mm. total length (excluding caudal filaments) 
was taken at Point Samson. December, 1957. 

Bodv coloured a uniform dark grey. The two bony spines on each side of 
the caudal peduncle surrounded by a yellow oval spot. A thin yellow band 
passing forwards below the eye and thence downwards to behind the angle of 
the mouth. Lower lip light coloured. Dorsal fin black, bordered by a broad 
cream band, followed by very thin black band, 

Anal fin bordered by a similar- black band, otherwise dark grey. Pectorals 
black, ventrals grey. Caudal bordered by a broad white band. 
A new record of this species for Australia. 

Genus Agantucuus Forskal, 1775 
Acanthurus doreensis Cuv. and Val. 
Acanthurus doreensis Cuvier and Valenciennes, 1835, Hist. Nat. Poiss.. l(K p. 220. 

A specimen measuring 220 mm, (length to caudal fork) was taken at Point 
Samson, December, 1957. 

Colours: Body, dorsal, ventral and anal fins a uniform dark brown. Pectoral 
fin brownish at base ? its upper distal port yellow. A narrow white posterior 
border to the caudal fin. 

A new record of this species for Australia. 

Cenus Zaiscli/s Cuv, and VaL 1S31 
Zanclus canescens (Linnaeus) 
Chaeiodon canescens Luinanns, 1758, Syst- Nat., e<\, 10, p. 272. 

Two juvenile specimens measuring 119 mm. and 140 mm. total length were 
taken at Point Samson, December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 

84 T. D. SCOTT 


Cemis Clythisodon Lacepede> 1802 

Glyphisodon coelestinus Cuv. 6c Val. 

Glyphitadfm awtextiinis Cuvier and Valenciennes, IS30, Hist. Nat. PoLss., 5, p. 464, pi. 135. 

A specimen measuring 115 mm* total length was taken at Point Samson, 
December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 

Genus Ciiromis Cuvier, 1815 
Chromis cinerascens (Cuv. and Val.) 

Helioses cinaruscem Cuvior and Valeneieimns, 1830, Hisl. Nat. Poiss. ? 5 > p. 495. 

Two specimens measuring 104 mm. aud 115 mm. total length were taken 
•at Point Samson, December, 1957, 

A new record of this species for Australia. 

Genus Chkiuo Laeepcde, 1802 
Chcilio incrmis (Forskal) 
Labrus inermU; Forslcal, 1775, DestT. Anitn., p. 84. 

A specimen measuring 202 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 

Genus Thaj-assoma Swainson, 1839 

Thalassoma septemtasciata sp. nov. 

D.viii,13. P.15. A.iii,ll. V.i,5. C.14. 

Lat. line 45-46. Lat. trans. 4 : 16. 

Length o£ head 56 mm. (3*8), greatest depth of body 54 (3-7) > greatest 
width of body 22 (9-7) in the total length 214 mm. Height of head 1-3 in its 

Fig. 4. — Thahssoma septemfascUila $$. nov. (X 50. 

length. Eye 10 (21) in the snout and 1*3 in the convex interorbital space. 
Snout 13 (4-3) in the head. 

Mouth small, horizontal., not reaching anterior border of eye- Lips very 
thick. Prcmaxilla only slightly protractile. Teeth pointed, in a single series in 


ouch jaw, decreasing in size posteriorly. Two moderate canines in each jaw* 
Head naked, with the exception of a few scales on the upper part of the operde. 
About ten small scales before the dorsaL 

Body covered With moderate sized cycloid scales, which form a basal sheuth 
on the dorsal and anal fins. Lateral line following the dorsal profile far the 
greater part of its length, sharply deflected below the tenth dorsal ray. Dorsal 
spines short and slender, the first very short, the last spine the longest, but not 
us long as the rays. Origin of anal slightly behind first dorsal ray. First anal 
spine very small, third longest, equal to diameter of eye. Pectorals equal to 
head without snout the second and third rays the longest, decreasing uniformly, 
the shortest ray one-fourth of the longest First ray of vcntrals producou 1 , 
reaching anus. Caudal rounded. 

Colour in life.— Body colour light blue, with seven darker blue bands, the 
width of the bands much greater than the interspaces. The first band arises in 
front of the dorsal fin, and runs to the base of the pectoral. The second and 
ihfrd arise below the spinous dorsal, aud pas* obliquely across the bodv. The 
fourth to Sixth arise on the middle of the soft dorsal membrane and run obliquely 
tp the base of the anal. The sevendt crosses the broad caudal peduncle. Caudal 
fin bluish, with light spots. Dorsal fin uniform bluish, with a narrow light 
burder to the soft part. Anal blue with light streaks, a broad light border the 
entire length of the fin. The upper five rays of the pectoral dark blue, the lower 
part lightish, a broad dark band covering the distal part of the fin above, becom- 
ing obscure below. Head without any distinct markings, dark bluish. 

Described from a specimen 214 mm. total length, taken Sharks Bay, Mav, 
1^54. Type in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. F2984. 

Material witnined,— Two specimens, measuring 202 and 214 mm. total 

Affinities.— Similar to T. hardwicki (Bennett) in body proportions and band- 
ing on body, but differing in colouration, absence of bands on head and much 
greater number of scales in lateral line (45-46, compared with 27-28 in hard- 

r.enus Anampsjss (Cuvicr) Quoy and Gaintanl, IN24 

Anampses pterophllialmus Rleeker 

AmwtJsttt ptvrotththahntui Bkokcr, 1K57, Acta. Sac, Sc. indo-Ncerl , 2, (T, Hi, 

DAxAl P.12. AJii.lS. V,i,5, C.14. 

Lat. line 52. Lat. trans. 9 ; 19. 

A specimen measuring 119 mm- total length was taken at Sharks Bay, May, 
1954. A new record of this species for Australia. 

Length of head 34 mm- (3 '5), greatest depth of body 30 (4 J 0), greatest 
width of body 1.3 (9 1) in the total length 110 mm. Height of head 1-4 in its 
length, Eve 6 (IS) in the snout and 1-5 in the convex interorbital space. 
Snout 11 (30) in the head. 

Mouth small, slightly oblique. Maxillary not reaching to below anterior 
nostril, laps thick. A single series of very small teeth In the jaws. Upper and 
lower jaw with two prominent incisors, directed forwards, compressed, with 
cutting edges. No posterior canines. 

Body somewhat compressed, covered with small cycloid scales, those on 
hack and thorax much smaller than those of sides. Head naked, except for the 
small pre-dorsal scales beginning behind the eye. Vertical fins without a basa! 
scaly sheath. About fourteen pie-dorsal scales, very minute, most of which 
are embedded in the skin. Lateral line continuous, hut sharply deflected below 

posterior part of soft dorsal tin About 34 l"o 35 scaler in its upper part, ]1 
scales in the lower part. Lateral line canals short and unbranched. 

Dorsal xpiiies short and slender the last spin* 8-5 mm., 4 in the head. 
The longest ray 11 nun . cqv*al to the length of die snout. Pectoral tins short, 
length 2-0 in the head Vcntnds very short> length 2-8 in the head. Third 

FSk 5. — Anam/>sc.v pteroi)hfhtilmu.\ Blocker ( X 

anal spine longest, length 8 mm., 42 in the head- Caudal rounded. Caudal 
peduncle compressed, rather deep, tlepdi 7-5 in the total length 

C<*hur in life— Body colour dkrk brown. Median fins all dark brown, caudal 
bordered by a narrow white band on die hnid margin. A large black white- 
edged ocelliis on the posterior dorsal and anal rays. Federal fins light yellow. 

Anampves lemutrdi sp. nov. 

D.01,13. P.12. A.iiUi V.i.5. C-14. 

Lat, line 29. Lar. trans. 1 : 8- 

Length of head 54 mm. (3*7). greatest depth of body 61 (3-3). greales* 
Width of body 26 (7-4) in the total length 203 mm. Height oi head 10 in its 
lenutk Eye '7-5 (2-5) in the snout and 19 in ihe slrontdy convex intcrurbi<al 
space. Snout 19 (2*8) in the head. 

Mouth very small, rather oblique. Maxillary not reaching to below anterior 
nostril. Lips thick* upper lip mueh thicker tkan lower. A single series of 
minute teeth in the Jaws. Both jaws with a pair of prominent anterior incisors, 
directed forwards, compressed and with cutting edges. No posterior canines. 

Body oblong, compressed, covered with large cycloid scales, those be- 
fore the dorsal and on the breast very small and embedded in the skin. Head 
naked, except for the small patch of pre-dorsal scales beginning behind the 
eye. Vertical fins without a basal scaly sheath. Lateral line continuous, 
sharply deflected below posterior part of soft dorsal fin. About 19 scales in 
upper part of lateral line, 8 in lower part. Each scale widi a rather long un- 
branclied canal. 

Dorsal spines very slender and flexible, gradually increasing in length pos- 
reriurly, the last spine 19 mm., 2-8 in the head. Pectoral fins short and rounded, 
length 1 5 in the head. First ray of ventral fins somewhat produced, reaching 
past vent. Anal spines slender, the third longest, length L4 mm.. 3*9 in the head. 
Caudal margin rounded, caudal peduncle shorl and deep, its depth 28 mm., 
7-2 in the total lengUi. 



Colour in life, 
j.*-- figured. Three 
nf the body. Two 
nape. Posterior pai 
blue marginal band 
hranc between the 
and rays. Pectoral 
Spine and first ray 
yellow, with a thin 

-Head,, body and fins a bright yellow, with blue markings 
broad blue bars on [he head, continued on to the middle 
of these bars cross the snout, and a further bar crosses the 
t of body with blue bars and spots. Dorsal fin with £ thin 
, below which is a series of round blue spots, on the mem- 
spines and rays. Membrane blue between bases of spines 

fin plain yellow. Anal with thin blue bands as figured, 
of ventral fin coloured blue, rest of fin yellow. Caudal Gn 

blue band on the first and last ray. 

Fig. B. — Anampnes Ivnnunti sp thjv. (x&). 

Described from a male specimen 203 mm. total length taken at Point 

Samson, December, 1057. Tvpc in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. F30&4. 

Mntwlttl examined,— Two specimens measuring 2GB mm. and 189 mm. total 

length. , 

A///m7/V\y.~Similar lo A. melca grides Ctiv. and Val. in incristic iealures but 
differing in bodv proportions and colouration. The ventral fin is much more 
produced in knnordi the venti als of mek'O&ridrx being shorter than the pectorals. 

Genus Svrrrrorttis Cuntheiv 1861 

Stetliojuh's rubromacula sp. nf>\'. 

Dix.11. P13. Aiii.ii. V.i,5. C.14. 

Lai. line 2S-29. Lat. trans. 2 : 7. 

Length of head 32 mm. (3*8), ffrcatcst depth of body 34 (3-6), greatest 

width of body 17 (7-2) in the total length 122 mm. Height of head equal to 

its length. Eye 5 (2-6) in the snout and lM in the convex interorbifal space. 

Snout 13 (2-S) In the head. 

Mouth very small, oblique. Maxillary not reaching to below anterior nostra. 
Teeth small incisil'orm, in a single series in both jaws. No anterior canines, but 
a small posterior canine at comer of mouth. Lips rather thick. Preinaxilla 
slightly protractile. Head naked, except for a few small scales embedded in 
the skin> be.^inriint; mid-way between the eye and upper angle of the operculum. 
Five to six pre dorsal scales. 


r. D- soott 

Body covered with large cveluid scales, those nt tlmmv larger than thtx&e 
of sides Prc-dursal scales smafier than those of sides. Vertical fins withour .1 
basal scaly sheath. Lateral line following the dorsal piofile, sharplv bent down- 
wards before the caudal peduncle. Lateral line canals single, unbratiched. 

Dorsal .spine.* short and slender, the Hist very shorU smaller than the eye 
diameter. The last spine the longest* but not as lung as the >avs. Vertical fins 
shrwr. not ieaching vent. First anal spines minute, the third largest, equal to 
one eye diameter and a half, Pectoral equal to length of head without snout. 
Caudal fin rounded. Depth of caudal peduncle equal to snout. 

Fig. 7. -Stethoiulis luhtvmutula Nfe. 


( I). 

Colour in life— Body colour olive green above, silvery white below Thxee 
light blue, lines tin the face. The first passes horizontally from the dorso-ixontiil 
profile to the middle of the eye, thence upwards to the. upper an^Ic of the oper- 
culum. The second arises from (he mouth and passes slightly obliquelv upwards 
below the eye to the must posterior edge of the operculum, and continues on 
to th*» first 4 or 5 body scales above the pectoral fin. The third arises below 
the mouth, passes upwards tin to the cheek, thence almost horizontally to the 
edge of the operculum. Upper part of head green, cheeks grafting *" y«lluw, 
chm pink. Body with two Jjght blue lines. Hie first arises immediately behind 
the pectoral fin. and passes backwards horizontally on to about seven body 
scales. The second arises below the base of the pectoial. and runs back hori- 
zontaFFy, ending about five scales before the beginning ot the caudal rays. A 
dark band extends back from the -end of this blue line across the caudal peduncle 
on to three rays of the caudal fin. The remainder of the caudal, and all other 
fins, are amber coloured. A large oval-shaped splash of red, immediately above 
the base of the pectoral fin. 

Described from a specimen 122 mm. total length, taken Sharks Bay, May. 
1954. Mr. Barretl-Lenuard .%ays that this appears to >*- 3 boot the maximum 
size tir which this species grows. 

Type in South Australian Museum, Reg. No. F2993. 

Affinities.— Allied to S. sbi^iventrr (Bennett) in merisric features but difier- 
jng jjj body proportions, body colouration and number aud distribution of 
hands on head and body. The silvery longitudinal bands of -tfrigiventer arc 
blue in this species, and the brown spot on the posterior dorsal rays and brown 
candid cross-bars arc lacking. 



Ccnus Ciieilinuk Lacepede, 1802 
Cheilinus ehlorourus I'Gloch) 
Sporm ctdnroHrun TMucb, 7701, Nat AosI Ffstafas 5, pr. M, pi. 2G0, 

A specimen measuring 232 nun, total length was taken at Point Samson. 
August, 1957. Add area o"to Whitley's (1948. p. 26) distribution of thU species 
111 Western Aiistruliu. 


Genus Cmolkopon BIeekcr> JS-19 

Chocrodon rubidus sp. nov. 

D.xiiiJ. P.17. AaU.JL V.i,5. C.U. Br.6. 

Lat. line 28-29. Lat trans. 3& : 9. 

Length of head 57 mm. (3-7), greatest depth of body #3 (3-3), greatest 
width of body 2tt (7*5) In the total foflgth 210 mm. Height of head !•! in its 
length. Eye 12 (1-7) in die snout and 1*3 in the convex interorbital space, 
Snout 2J (2-7) in the head. 

Mouth oblique, scarcely protractile, reaching to below posterior nostril, 
Upper lip thin, covered l>y preoibital when mouLh is closed. Four peg-lilce 
canines in each jaw> the outer pair in the upper jaw much smaller than the 
inner pair. Canines of lower jaw small, the outer pair slightly Ha reel out Teeth 
behind the canines coalesced, forming a vSerrated ridge. No posterior canine. 

Fig, 7. — SU'tlioiulix Tubromticttfo sp. tww. ( >' 1 ). 

Six to seven rows of small scales on the cheek. Operculum with five rows 
of much larger scales. Preoperculum finely denticulate. Scales on nape begin- 
ning above vertical through hind border of preopereulum. Body covered with 
large cycloid scales, which form a low basal sheath on the dorsal and anal fins. 
Lateral line complete, without a sharp deflection. 

Six ptedorsal scales, twelve to thirteen preventral scales. Scales on thorax 
much smaller than on body. Dorsal spines short but pungent, the membrane 
behind them produced into a short filament. First spine equal to diameter of 
eye, the second spine the longest. Soft dorsal pointed behind* the last ray almost 
twice as long as the first. 

Anal spines pungent die diird longest, but not as long as the first rav, Anal 
fin pointed behind. Pectoral fin rather long, the longest rays 4-4 in tho total 
length. Ventrals pointed, reaching to the anus. Caudal truncate. 

90 T. D. SCOTT 

Colour in alcohol— Body and fins coloured a uniform reddish brown, the 
Hus without any conspicuous spots or markings. A small black spot on the back, 
immediately below the eleventh and twelfth dorsal spines, and covering the 
small scales forming the basal sheath of the dorsal fin. 

Described from a specimen 210 mm. total length, taken Sharks Bay, May, 
1954. Type in South Australian Museum, Reg, No. F2985. 

Affinities.— Similar to C. vitta Ogilby in meristie features and body propor- 
tions, but differing in colour pattern, unevenly rounded shape of pectoral fin 
and truncate hind margin to the caudal fin. The caudal fin of vitta is emarginate, 
and die pectoral evenly rounded. 

Genus Lf.pidaplois Gill, 1862 
Lepidaplois vulpinus (Richardson) 
Lcpidulpins nulv'inus Richardson. 1850, Proc. Zook Sue, Lond., p. 71. 

A large specimen measuring 435 mm, total length was taken at Hamlin Bay, 
January* 1955. Body and fins coloured a bright red. Membrane black between 
the first five dorsal spines. 

Add area 3 to Whitley's (1948, p. 26) distribution of this species in Western 


Genus Paratiucxa Ogilby, 1911 
Paratrigla papilio (Cuv. and Vul.) 
Trivia pay/iUo Cnvier and V'idpncirnrn's. 1829, TTist- N;it. Poiss., 4, p. 80, pi. 73. 

Two small specimens measuring 92 mm. and 95 mm. total length were taken 
at Perth, September, 1954. 

Add area 3 to Whitley's (1948. p. 30) distribution of this species in Western 


Genus Dactylohtena Jordan and Richardson, 1908 
Daclyloptena oriental is (Cuv. and Val.) 
Dtictijlujitvrtts orientaUs Cuvier acid Valenciennes. 1829, Hist Nat. Poiss., 4, p. 134, pi, 76- 

A small specimen measuring 172 mm. tolal length was taken at Point Sam- 
son, August, 1957. Add area 5 to Whitley s (194S, p. 30) distribution of this 
species in Western Australia. 

Genus Osthacion Linnaeus. 175S 
Ostracion tuberculatum Linnaeus 
Oxtracion tuhetculatiix Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat,, ed f 10, p. 331. 

Two specimens measuring 345 mm. aud 153 mm. total length were taken at 
Point Samson, December, 1957. 

A new record of this species for Western Australia. 

Genus Omegofhoua Whitley, 1934 
Omegophora armilla (McCulloch and W r aite) 
Tetraactan armitlu McCulloch and Waite^ 1915, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aastr, t 39, p. 475, ph 15. 
A female specimen measuring 1S5 nun. total length was taken at Point Sam- 
son, December, 1957. 

Add area 5 to Whitley's ( 1948, p. 32) distribution of this species in Western 


An examination of 12 specimens of Omegophora armitta taken in Southern 
Australian waters during the past few years, shows that this species exhibits 
sexual dimorphism in ils colour pattern. In the female the upper surface of 
the snout, back and tail are dark grey, this colour continued on to the sides 
behind the pectoral fins. There is a dark band passing from the eves to below 
the snout. A black ring encircles the gill-opening and pectoral fin.' The lower 
three or four rays of the caudal fin arc dark brown to black. 

The colouring of die male is similar, with the following additions. Blue 
spots on the head from the interorbilal space to tip of snout. Blue longitudinal 
bars between frout border of eye and tip of snout. Sides with blue spots extend- 
ing down to level of ventral insertion of pectoral fin, A thin blue horseshoe- 
shaped bar encircling the pectoral fin ? situated on the outer side of the black 
bar, and running parallel to it- 


Genus Dioeo.nt Linnaeus, 1758 
Diodon holocanthus Linnaeus 

Diadon holocanthus Limmeus, 1758, Sytf. Nat., ed. 10, p. 335. 

A specimen measuring 128 mm. total length was taken at Point Samson, 
December, 1957. This species is doubtfully recorded from North-Western Aus- 
tralia by Whitley (1948, p. 32) in area 5. It has been recorded previously from 
Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, and erroneously recorded from" Soul h 
Australia by McCiJloch (1929, p. 435). 

Cenus Leptechenets Gill, 1864 
Leplecheneis neucratcs (Linnaeus) 
Echancti neucratcs Linnaeus, 1758, Syst. Nat., ed. 10, p. Ml, 

D.xxv,32. P.20. A.33. C.17. 

A large specimen measuring 162 mm. total length was taken at Point Sam- 
son, August 1955. 

The edges of the soft dorsal and anal are bordered with a thin white hand. 
Caudal with white margins, the central part black. A dark longitudinal band 
on the sides of the body. 

Add area 5 to Whitley's (19-18, p. 29) distribution of this species in Western 


Ai.r. K YKE, H. G., and Macxeay, W 1877. Proc. Linn. Soc, N,S. Wales, 1, pt. 2 pp. 321-359 
De Beaufort, L. F M 1940. Fish. ln*lo-Au*t Archiuelugo, & 
Fraser-Brunnek, A rf 1933. Proc. Zool. Soc: Lemur, pp. 543-599. 
Macleay, \V., 1878. Proc. Linn. Sac. X.S. Wales. 2, pt 4 py 344-307 
Macxeay, W., 1881. Desor. Cut Atwtr. Fish, 1. 

Macxeay. W., 1883. Proc. Linn. Soc. M.S. Wales, 7. pi. 2, pp. 224-250. 
Macleay, W\, 1884, Proc. Linn. Soc. N,S. Wales, 8, pp. 3^2-280. 
McCuu.oon. A. R.. 1916. Biol. Res. Endeavour, 4. pp. J 69-200. 
MeCuLUX.H, A. H., 1922. Austr, ZnoL 2, pt. 3, pp. 86-130. 
McCtJixocH, A. R., 1929. A Check-list of the Fishes Recorded from Australia 
Ocllhy, J. D., 1915. Mem. QW- Mus l( ;3, pp. 99-116. 
Winn fy, G, P., .1932. Kep. Great Barrier RppSr, 4, No. 9, pp. 267-316. 

Whitley, G. P., 1948. A List ol' the Fishes of Western Australia, W.A. Fisher-ins Dent 
Bull. No. 2. ™ 

WiiiixKY G. P., 1952-53. Proi\ K»y. Zool. Soc. N.S. Wales. 


by J. T. Hutton, G. Blackburn and A. R. P. Clarke 


Soil samples that have been unmistakably affected by volcanic ash and collected from within 2 
miles of the Blue Lake, Mt. Gambier, may contain up to 40 per cent, of particles in the range 
2p-50p diameter, and the particles in this range show a clearly defined straight line relationship 
between their amount and size. This feature is interpreted as representing accessions of volcanic 
ash. When a soil contains less than 4 per cent, of particles within this size group, it is considered 
that there is no significant amount of volcanic ash in the soil. Using these criteria, volcanic ash has 
been demonstrated in soils up to 10 miles from the Blue Lake and the approximate distribution of 
the ash is shown on a map. Almost all areas within 4 miles received volcanic ash but at greater 
distances the distribution was irregular. Ash soils were identified in the Mil Lei district 7 miles to 
the north-east and in the Caroline Forest 7 miles southeast of the Blue Lake. 


by J. T. Hutton, G. Blackbujrn and A, R. P, Clauki^ 

[Head 10 Jidy 1958] 


Soil samples that have been unmistakably affected by voLcanic ash and 
collected from within 2 miles of the Blue Lake, Mt. Gambiei, may contain up 
to 40 per cent, of particles in the range 2u-50V diameter, and the particles 
in this range show a clearly defined straight line relationship between their 
amount and size. This feature is interpreted as representing accessions of 
volcanic ash. When a soil contains less than 4 per cent, of particles within this 
size group, it is considered that there is no significant amount of volcanic ash 
in the soil. 

Using these criteria, volcanic ash has been demonstrated in soils up to 10 
miles from the Blue Lake and the approximate distribution of the ash is shown 
on a map. Almost all areas within 4 miles received volcanic ash but at greater 
distances the distribution was irregular. Ash soils were identified in the Mil 
Lei district 7 miles to the north-cast and In the Caroline Forest 7 miles south- 
east of the Blue Lake. 


The extent of volcanic ash around Mt- Gambier is of particular interest 
in South Australia, this being the best known of the few volcanic centres in the 
State. A detailed geological map of the Mt Gambier area by Sprigg (1951) 
shows the boundary of this ash as no further than 3 miles from the Blue Lake, 
but observations made recently during a reconnaissance soil survey of County 
Grey suggested that the ash distribution extended to greater distances from this 
centre, In earlier accounts there had been a claim by Howcliin (1909) of 
volcanic ash as far as 7 miles north-east of Mt. Gambier and a denial of this 
by Fenner (1921) whose map of the ash distribution is similar to diat given 
by Sprigg (1951). The soils associated with the ash were described by Prcscott 
and Piper (1929), who mentioned that the soil type is limited to within a 3 to 
4 miles radms of the town, altiiougb in the north-easterlv direction the limits 
arc less clearly defined than in the south. Some of tne samples listed by 
Prescott and Piper were taken, however, at distances greater than 4 miles from 
Mt. Gambier. 

U C analysis of charcoal collected from the sand immediately below the 
bed of tuff at one site in North Terrace, Mt. Gambier, indicated an age of not 
more than 5,000 years (Fcrgusson and Rafter, 1957) and this is taken to be 
the maximum age of much of the volcanic ash ejected from the Mt. Gambier 


The dunes of leached siliceous sands in the Mt. Gambier area are covered 
by several feet of tuff near the mountain and the contrast of the brown to dark 
brown soil and the compact tuff beds with the underlying loose white sand is 
clearly seen in new road cuttings, pits and auger holes. At 3 miles from the 
Blue Lake there is barely 2 feet of ash and at successively greater distances 

* C.S.LR.O., Division of Soils, Adelaide 
Trans, Roy. Soe. S. Aust. (195$), Vul. 82. 




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the layer of compact tuff becomes thinner until it is no longer distinguishable 
from the surface soil of the dunes. These surface soils, however, are more like 
the soils of the ash zone than those on the dunes of leached siliceous sands 10 
01 more miles away. It is thought to be significant that the crest* of dunes 5 to 
7 miles from the Blue Lake have merited cultivation for corrals and after many 
crops the surface soils still retain sufficient aggregation to protect bare soil from 
erosion — circumstances which are not associated with sand dunes farther from 
Mt Gambier. 

Mt. Sehanck, the volcanic formation T miles south of Mt. Gambier, is prob- 
ably similar to it in age and structure, but the area affected by its ash has not 
been studied in detail. The field observations of the soils near Mt Sehanck 
suggest that there is an overlap of the zones of ash distribution from the two 
centres and it is not possible, therefore, to clearly define the southern limit of 
ash from ML Gambier. 


Soils and tuff layers were inspected at many points in the district and it was 
lound that clearest evidence of volcame ash could be obtained on the higher 
sand dunes, especially those identified by Sprigg (1951) n$ the Cambicr and 
Caveton dunes. On the flat land between the dunes there is rarely such a 
contrast in texture and colour between ash and underlying soil and so most 
samples chosen for detailed study were from soil profiles associated with the 
dunes. Altogether, 46 samples from 21 profiles were studied and in addition to 
the surface samples, one or more samples from depths up to 6 feet were in- 
cluded. The profiles were all located between 1 and 11 miles from the Blue 
I -ike, Mt- Gambier, and their location is shown in Fig. 1. 


The method used was essentially that described by Hutton (1955) for the 
particle size analysis of soils. The plummet balance was used to measure tie 
amount of material of particle size less than 5^, jtflp and 50> as well as that 
less than 2/x and gQp> the usual limits for clay and silt plus clay. Material larger 
than 20> was separated by an automatic decantation unit (Hutton, 1955) and 
then divided into 5 fractions using appropriate sieves. Ten points were thus 
obtained from which the particle size smnmation curves, such as those shown 
in Fig. 2, could be drawn, 


The outstanding feature of the summation ciuvcs is the lineal poition be- 
tween 2fi and 50/*. Four typical curves are shown in Fig. 2. For convenience 
of comparison these curves show the distribution of the material greater than 
2i*. and the straight line is considered to indicate the unseated fine volcanic 
ash. On a logarithmic plot, the mid point between 2 and 30 is 10 and henco 
a straight line on the summation curve belween k 2 ft and 50u is indicated by the 
l>crcentage in the range 2,u to 10> being equal to that in the range 10> to 50^,* 
Table .1 sets out some uf the results obtained and it has been divided into two 
parts to indicate the presence or absence of volcanic ash. 

The results in Table 1 show thai close to Mt. Cambicr up to 40 per cent, 
of the particles in the surface are in the range 2p to 50/«. but further out the 
percentage of particles in this range falls off rapidly. When the percentage 
is less than 4, it is considered that t\\e accession of volcanic ash has not been 



* VTf*12RJH 

Boundary ot volcamc pfpos/ts, / / 

AFT?* 5PK16G f*9$t) 

Main rqai>$ .•. 



Or$r#/B</r/j// J oerERMtMfD i'mom son 0AfA 

Sampic toc'AT/ous O A352 


SCAt£ AM M/irs 

Fig. 1. — Map of Mt. Gambier District showing area considered to have received accessions 

of volcanic ash. 


By defining volcanic ash as material with more than 4 per cent, of un- 
seated particles in the range 2ft to 50/*, H has been possible to delineate the 
area around Mt. Gambler that came under the influence of the showers of ash 
ejected during its volcanic activity. The boundary is naturally ill-defined but 
within the limits imposed by the number of samples examined it is considered 
that the area indicated in Fig. 1 received accessions of volcanic ash. 

Close to the actual source, particularly if there is more than 20 per cent, 
of materia] in the range 2/a to SDjcb, the relatively high amounts of acid soluble 
phosphorus and potassium confirm the presence of material of igneous origin 
(Prescott and Piper, 1929, and unpublished data, C.S.I.R.O., Division of Soils). 
When, however, the amount of ash is low, phosphorus and potassium may not 
be reliable indicators, as both elements are translocated by plant growth and 
tend to accumulate in the surface of soils. 

The map showing the ash distribution supports the earlier claim by How- 
chin (1909) of ash 7 miles north-cast of Mt. Gambier. The irregular shape of 
the ash zone north of Mt. Gambier may help to explain the difficulty mentioned 
by Prcscott and Piper (1929) of defining the north-easterly limits of the ash 
shower as compared with the southerly limits. 





LU 70 




-J 50 


-> 40 


Z> 30 









Wig. 2. — Rrpn-srutuUve particle size summation curves. 

The distribution of ash indicated by Fenner (1921) was regarded by him 
as being governed by winds similar in direction and velocity to those of the 
present day, while Gill (1950) suggested that for south-west' Victoria the pre- 
vailing winds approximately 5,000 years ago were from ihe north-west. The 
map presented in this paper suggests that the distribution depended mainly on 
south-west, north-west and north winds, but it is quite, possible that the irregular 
distribution resulted from different wind effects prevailing during a limited 
number of eruptions. 

The work described in this paper was carried out as part of the research 
programme of the Division of Soils, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Re- 
search Organization. 



Fenner, C, 1921. The craters and lakes of Mt. Gambier, South Australia, Trans. Roy. Soc. 
S. Aust., 45, pp. 169-205. 

Fergusson, G. J., and Rafter, T. A., 1957. New Zealand 14 C age measurements- — 3, 
N.Z. J. Sci. Tech.; B 38, pp. 732-749. 

Gill, E, O., 1950. An hypothesis relative to the age of some western district volcanoes, 
Victoria, Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic, 60, pp. 189-194. 

Howchin, W., 1909. In Howchin, W., and Gregory, J. W., The Geography of South Aus- 
tralia, Whitcombe and Tombs, London. 

Hutton, J. T., 1955. A method of particle size analysis, C.S.I.R.O., Div. of Soils, Div. Rpt. 
No. 11/55. 

Prescott, J. A., and Piper, C. S., 1929. The volcanic soils of Mt. Gambier, South Aus- 
tralia, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 53, pp. 196-202. 

Sprigg, R. C, 1951. Map of Gambier and Northumberland, 1 mile Geological Series, Geol. 
Surv., S. Aust. 


byC. /. deMooy 


The geomorphology of an area surrounding Lakes Alexandrina and Albert is discussed. Two 
stranded coastal dune ranges were mapped in detail and tentatively correlated with the former 
coastlines in the south-eastern Province by methods of photo-analysis. Three consecutive stages of 
construction were recognized in the younger range. The origin and mode of deposition of the black 
clay plains surrounding the lakes are discussed. Evidence of two former mouths of the 
River Murray is presented. Crocker's hypothesis of formation of the present aeolian topography 
during a Recent Arid Period (Flandrian transgression) is rejected. It is postulated that the 
redistribution of sands by aeolian activity occurred in Pleistocene arid cycles and was interrupted by 
periods of stability of the landscape. It is suggested that stages of construction of beach ridges, 
periods of consolidation and soil formation alternated with periods of aeolian redistribution during 
each glacial and interglacial cycle. 




by C. J. de Mooy* 

(Communicated by B. C. Sprigg) 

[Read 10 July 1958] 


The geomorphology of an area surrounding Lakes Alexandrinu and Albert 
is <UscussecL Two stranded coastal dime ranges were mapped in detail and 
tentatively correlated with the former coastlines in the south-eastern Province 
by methods of photo-analysis. Three consecutive, stages of construction vvto-e 
recognized in the younger range. 

The origin and mode of deposition of the black clay plains surrounding the 
lakes are discussed. Evidence of two former mouths of the River Murray is 

Crocker's hypothesis of formation of the present aeolian topography during 
a Recent Arid Period (Flandrian transvyression) is rejected. It is postulated that 
the redistribution of sands by aeolian activity occurred in Pleistocene arid cycles 
and was interrupted by periods of stability of tire landscape. It is suggested 
that stages of construction of beach ridges, periods of consolidation and soil 
formation alternated with periods of aeolian redistribution during each glacial 
and interglacial cycle. 


Some information on the Quaternary gcomorphic history of the area sur- 
rounding Lakes Alexaudrina and Albert emerged from an analysis of the land- 
scape made during a reconnaissance soil survey (de Mooy, in press). 

It is a complex area, The present and former coastal dune ranges abut on 
the eastern slopes of the Mount Lofty Ranges. The stranded shorelines enter 
the area from the south-east and reach their lowest elevation here due to pro- 
gressive downwarping in the same direction (Sprigg., 1952). Large tidal lakes 
occupy the central depression between the stranded coastal dunes and the 
Mount Lofty Ranges. The River Murray and several smaller rivers discharge 
into the lakes and How through the Murray Mouth into the ocean, Waterluid 
deposits around the present lakes therefore have a lacustrine as well as a tidal 
and estuarinc character. Changing sea levels in combination with negative 
tectonic movement, and changing climatic conditions have influenced this 

The geomorphology and stratigraphie relationships of the surface layers 
are the main sources of information. These are supported by limited micro- 
palaeontological data. A soil survey, even on a reconnaissance basis, supplies 
unusual detail about stratigraphical relationships of surface layers. In the area 
under review it w r as found that the distribution of certain groups of soils mapped 
at the level of the soil combination correlates well with the extent of the geo- 
morpbic elements of the landscape. 

tt C.S.I.R.O., Division of Soils, Adelaide. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. 83. 

100 C. J. uk M(X>Y 


Tlie thickness of the Pleistocene cover of the region \'i\ries greatly. Howchin 
(1929), dealing largely with country further cast, gives an average, thickness of 
20 feet The materials are largely sands, clays and lime. Limestone is abun- 
dant; it is the aeolianite described by Crocker (1946a) with the exception of the 
nim-fusNiliferous limestone in the northern poition of the area (Seymour com- 
bination, figure 1), which is referred to as "travertine limestone"" by Crocker. 

Underlying is •level-bedded fossiliferous Textiury limestone, which also has 
a variable thickness ( Howchin, loc. cit.). The Miocene Murravimi Cult' covered 
the entire area and extended far over the New South Wales and Victorian 
border. The Gambier limestone and its equivalents, deposited during this trans- 
gression, have been recorded in the >»rea. ifnvvchin (1929) recorded 60 ft. 
thick Miocene marine beds from a bore at Cooke Plains starting at 139 It. 
below sea level- King (1950) mentioned outcrops of Miocene biyozoal lime- 
stone in the area comprised by die Hundreds of Maleolnu Cool in on g and Sey- 
mour, The Oligocene **Ianjukiajr stage of the Gambier limestone was identi- 
fied from samples taken auring the soilsurvcy from section 305, Hd. nl S^vmonr, 
by Dr. N. H. l.udhrnok (personal cojnmunication), who also discovered Pliocene 
deposits along the Murray cliffs between Tailcm Bend and Wellington, Tate 
( 1900) identified iCnuene hcd> Jn the Hundred of Brinkley. 

The Tertiary mariue beds rest upon Precambrian crystalline bedrock, usually 
granites of varying composition, which outcrop in several places (e.g. near 
Taitem Br-nd and Lake Albert). Permian tillites and boulder clay have been 
reported by King (1950) to occur above the bedrock and in depressions. 


Fi>*. l.—Soil ctimhimition map. 


(a) The Soil Combinations 

Tilts area is composed of 7 distinct geomorphic units which are equivalent 
to soil combinations. 



1. The Mifang combination consists largely of alluvial and colluvial de- 
posits of a clayey nature. It is situated on the eastern slopes and in the plains 
at the foot of the Mount Lofty Ranges, which grade gently towards Lake Alexan- 
dria. During upheaval and dissection of the Mount Lofty flanges the Currency 
Creek and Finniss River carried materials from the mils* including lateritic 
gravel, which were deposited in the older terrace and plains along the rivers 
(EC and RB in Figs, 2 and 3). This and two lower aggradational terraces 
bear witness of former high sea levels (plate 1, fig. a). The middle terrace is 
mapped as the Currency Creek-a association (CC-a). Its soils have lextural 
differentiation. The low terrace (CC-b) could correspond as to elevation with 

Fig. 2. — Fragment of soil association map showing rivt*r terraces along Currency Creek. 
Legend figures 2 and 3: EC — East Currency association: RB — River Bank association; CCa — 
Currency Creek a association; CCb — Currency Creek n association; BL- -Black Swamp; W — 

tipen water. 

the Malcolm deposits (see Fig. 1). It is remarkable that soil formation in both 
deposits has been restricted to structural development and redistribution of 

2. The Seymour combination may be regarded as portion of Ihc Mallee 
country extending eastward across the Victorian border. It consists of gently 
undulating plains of Pleistocene age. Jt grades gently seaward and was traced 
to some feet below sea level underlying the Malcolm combination, The materials 
are predominantly coarse textured, redistributed by aeolian activity, and com- 
monly travertinized near the surface. West of the River Murray the plains 
extend north beyond the surveyed area to the foot of a range, which it is sus- 
pected represents a former coastal dune range, Its approximate position be- 

102 C. J, MB MOOY 

tvvcen the 100 and 150 foot contour lines is sketched in Fig. 6. Its shape has 
been influenced during formation by the River Murray. This suggests that 
deltaic conditions prevailed in the plains south of Murray Bridge and in much 
of the Seymour combination during this period of higher sea level. Repeated 
redistribution of sands formed several N-S transverse, dune ridges in the Sey- 
mour unit as well as a superimposed WNW-ESE ridge topography. 

Fig. 3. — Fragment of soil association map showing river 
terraces along the River Kinniss. 

The Alexandrina combination is a steep former coastal dune range with 
(ianirc core. In places it is ridded to a WNW to ESE direction. No 

an aeolianirc core. In places it is ridged 

gcomorphological significance can be attached to the spur curving around the 
Malcolm combination to the south. For reasons of soil mapping convenience 
tins spur of deep leached sands was included 

4. The Bouncy combination is another stranded coastal dime system with 
irregular or SW to NE trended undulating to hilly topography. It has a core 
of aeolianite. 

5. The Bremer combination was formed by alluvial activity of the Bremer 
and Angas Rivers. The alluvium can be divided into an older and a younger 
phase. The older deposits, the Bremer Plains and Lakes Plains associations have 
eroded the ridged Seymour and Milang combinations. The material was sub- 
sequently redistributed by aeoliau activity to its present gently undulating topo- 
graphy, which can be distinguished from the older surrounding country by the 
absence of E-VV sand ridges. Subsequently, soils of die Red-Brown Earth type 
developed on the fine sandy micaceous sediments. Finally, up to 10 feet of 
younger alluvial materials (Angas Plaius and Langhorne Creek associations) 
locally buried the soils formed on the older material. The latest deposition of 
this material overlies the Malcolm clays, which in turn overlie the soils of the 
older alluvium. The distribution of the old and young alluvial deposits in rela- 
tion to the pre-existiug ridged landscape is illustrated in detail in Fig. 4. 

6. The Malcolm combination is largely composed of fine textured lacustrine 
and cstuarinc sediments at low elevation. 


7. The Younghushand association is the present coastal dune range con- 
sisting of unconsolidated calcareous sands. The area can be subdivided into 
a relatively stable dune landscape, and a system of SW-NE drifting sands, which 

pjgt 4, — Fragment of soil association map showing the Hisrribnrlon i>f fine alluvial deposits til 

relation Id the older ridged Landscape. 

are moving in from the coast and gradually covering the former. The stable 
dune landscape is steep, has a thick vegetative cover and decalcified scales. 

Further subdivision of these units and greater detail is given in the soil 
association map (de Mooy, in press). 

(b) Stranded Coastal Dimes in the Area 

The stranded coastal dunes in the area have an aeolianite core. The term 
aeolianite, variously named calcareous aeolianite, coastal limestone, sandy itrne- 
stune or calcarenile, has been used by Crocker (1946a) for both consolidated 
and unconsolidated windrrfled calcareous material which consists largely of 
sands,, fragmental shells and foraminifeni. Fairbridge et at (1952) gave the 
following general description: "Coastal limestone is a medium grained clastic 
sediment in which the grains consist mainly of fragmental calcareous algae, 
mnllusca, foraminifera and bryozoa with varying amounts of inorganic consti- 
tuents and a cement of secondary calcium carbonate " Aeolianite in the lakes 
area is comparatively siliceous, which may be related to the proximity of the 
Murray Mouth. It contains only small fragments of shells. This applies in a 
larger degree to the Alexandrina than to the Bonney system. 


<J. J. de MOOY 

1. The Alexandrina Coastline 

The Alexandrina coastal dune range has a strong relief. It rises sharply 
from Lake Albert to elevations of 100 and 150 ft. Here the range is up to four 
miles wide. WNW-ESE sand ridges, pronounced in several places, have largely 
been re-distributed presumably under a south-westerly wind component. The 
regular soils are sandy, deep or shallow, and, without textiue differentiation, 
occupy swale positions iu certain areas. The soils are separated from the under- 
lying aeolinite by travertinized limestone which contains no shell fragments. 
Commonly there are two sheets of this nature, separated by soil materials. 

The Alexandrina coastline runs in approximately E-\V direction. It can 
be followed across the lakes to Goolwa and abuts against the foothills near 

2, The Bpnney Coastline 

The Bonney coastal dune range runs parallel with the present coastline 
and follows the inner edge of the Coorong. The accompanying dune range of 



1 * mIlES 



• 7 • ' n 

* s - ; • rD 




Fig 5. — Stages of construction of the former Bonney coastal dune range. 

approximately 1 to 2 miles width is relatively steeper than inland areas and 
reaches elevations of 50 to 100 feet. This Bonney Range terminates at Pelican 
Point on Narrurig Peninsula, The soils can be easily distinguished from those 
of the Alexandrina Range. The decalcified sandy soils directly overlie the traver- 


tinizcd craat of aeolianitc, which contains coarser and more shell fragments titan 
the Alcxandrina Kange. The leached sands have been re-sorted by wind action, 
This has nut led to drastic separation from limestone areas and the landscape 
has preserved much of its original topography. 

Closer examination of the morphology reveals that this unit was constructed 
in three stages. The older stage is outlined by the 25 ft. contour, which follows 
the Bonney coastline for many miles along the Coorong in a north-westerly 
direction. At Ma.exath Flat it turns inland along the Princes Highway. East 
o£ Meningie the. coastal dunes smooth out to a large plain at an elevation of 
approximately 25 ft. above sea level. This flat could represent a former Coorong 
associated with the first stage of the dune range. This is confirmed by micro- 
palaeontologieal information obtained from semi-consolidated calcareous sands 
at 3 to 4 ft. below the surface in section 214. Hd. of Bonney (site 1 in Fig. 5). 
Thte assemblage contains the foraminifera Lagcna, Camdtdinu. Rotalia and 
Glohigerina. "Nearby the micro-fauna consisted of Triloctdinci tricarinata 
d'Orbigny, Miludittdln oblouga Montagu, Elphidium simplex Coshman, Dis-cvrbis 
dimidUitus Junes and Parker. Cham and Ostmcoda. The forarninifera indicate 
deposition under protected conditions in shallow watei with limited access to 
the sea. Succinea shells occur sporadically in the assemblage. They could have 
entered Hiis Coorong with tlwi wind from the seaward dune ranges. The fauna 
at site 2 (section 206, lid. of Bonney) consists of Coxiella^ Elphidium simplex 
Cushman, five species of O&iracofta* Cfutra, and a small land gastropod and 
iudieates deposition in protected brackish water, into which gastropods are 
readily washed. 

During the second stage of construction the Bonney coastline was extended 
to the place where Lake Albert comes nearest to the Coorong. Ft is separated 
from the previous stage by a strip of low-lying land whore Coorong-like condi- 
tions prevailed during formation of the dune. It has a somewhat lower eleva- 
tion than the former Coorong East of Meningie and chains of pipeclay swamps 
occupy the lowest positions. Cross-bedding in the aeolianitc was found to 
represent lagonnal deposition (site 3) similar to that taking place now along 
the seaward side of the Coorong. 

The final .stage of construction took the Bonney coastline to Pelican Point. 
There arc chains of swamps just inland of the dune range (unit 5 in Fig. 5) and 
former channels which the River Murray maintained for some time between 
the dunes of the second and third stage. If these swamps represent a Coorong, 
it has a lower' elevation than those of the first and second stages. 

The subdivision of the Bonney dune range in three parts correlates well 
with the Distribution of various soils in the Bonney combination; the East- 
Meningie, Meningie and Baker associations respectively ( see soil map. de Mooy, 
in press). 

The East-Mcningie soils are characterized by a grey surface sand, a bleached 
subsurface merging into yellow sand and sometimes a thin, weakly developed 
texture — B horizon. 

Typical Meningie soils lack the bleached layer and the B horizon. The 
Baker soil is an undifferentiated brown sand over aeolianitc. On the basis of 
the geomorphic history outlined above, it may be suggested that these soil 
differences are primarily related to the factor time. If these striking differences 
are indeed related to time ol soil formation another older phase could possibly 
l>e distinguished in the Easl-Meningie association. This phase includes the 
sands near the Alexandria system. Here boulders of lateritc have formed on 
the slopes of limestone ridges exposed to south-westerly winds, whereas coxa- 

100 C. J. de MOOV 

mnnlv in the Kast-Meningie association only light iroostaining is found on lime- 
stone Also, the textme B horizon is better developed in this area. 

The various stages as brought out by the 25 ft contour from military mam 
and modified by geomorphic and general soils evidence arc sketched in Fig. 5. 

3. the Relationships Between the Former Coastal Dunes in the Area 
and those in the South-East 

The stranded shorelines in the south-eastern province have been studied 
extensively by Tindale (1933 and l u 47), Hossfeld (1950) and Sprigg (19Q2). 
Sprigg mapped them in detail up to County MacDonnell and discussed their 
downwarping to the north-west under the influence of the rising Motmt Lofty 
flanges. He calculated the degree of tilt ul various dunes, stalling from the idea 
(hat the Hals immediately in front of the dune approximately represent the 
origimd foreshore and that they were level when the dunes were formed. He 
found a progressive decrease in downwarping from the older to the younger 
dimes and therefore that the warping has been fairly continuous throughout 
the formation of this sequence*. Using his figures and assuming that the rate 
of downwarping of the dunes id the north is constant, the tilt of these dunes 
can be extrapolated over the remaining distance to Lake Albert. The toe of 
the Nuratonrte Range would there be at an elevation of 50 ft. above sea level 
(LW.O.S.T., Port Adelaide) and at 13 ft. below at Naming. The Peacock, East 
Avenue and West Avenue Ranges would he at respectively 50, 7 and 13 ft. below 
sea level when reaching Lake Albert. The Reedy Creek Range would eilter the 
Hundred of Bonney at 7 ft. elevation and fall to 2 ft. below sea level near the 
Murray Mouth. The Wuakwine Range would be at 40 ft- below sea level in 
the Hd. of Bonney. It must be suspected that the toe of the dunes in die lakes 
area which is commonly at a few feet above lake level, arc adapted to more 
recent deposition and not lepresentativt? of the ancient shoreline, which may 
be submerged. One of the places where it is believed that the original Alex- 
andria shoreline can be observed, is south uf Gnokva (plate 1, fig. b). This 
{■\r end of the shoreline was probably near enough to tne rising Mount Lofty 
Ranges to be little influenced by downwarping. 

To relate the formations of the lakes area to the system of stranded coastal 
dunes in the South-Fast more conclusive results dian from elevations may be 
expected from a study of the topographic continuity of the south-eastern shore- 
lines cu the north. The aerial photographs of the area between Count}' MacDon- 
nell and the lakes district were analysed by stereoscopic interpretation. 

Sprigg's geological map (1952) and a soil map of au area surrounding Tin- 
tinara (Jackson and Litchfield, 1954) provided baste information to extrapolate 
from- The results are reproduced in Fig. 6. The geographical disbribution and 
nomenclature of the ranges as defined by Sprigg (1952) were adopted. The 
West Avenue and Peacock Ranges and an unnamed range following the land- 
ward shore of the Coorong could be traced over- a long distance northwaid into 
County Cardwell The unnamed range along the Coorong consists of two parts 
widi different topography. They have been distinguished as units 3 and 4 in 
Fig. 6. Unit 3 is typified by a topography of beach ridges parallel with the 
coastline. Towards the western fringe their height decreases, Unit 4 is an 
undulating dune range without a .vpecial trend. It is evidently older than unit .1 
It is inconspicuous in County MacDonnell and was not mapped by Sprigg. Fur- 
ther north in County Cardwell the proportions of the irregular* dune landscape 
of unit 4 increase. Simultaneously swamps gain significance in the ridded unit 
3 and this terminates at Salt Creek. Unit 4 continues, and ultimately becomes 
part of the Bonney dune landscape, which is a much larger formation. A 


J 07 

possible explanation for the asymmetry of unit 4 is a greater accumulation of 
sands in the proximity of the former Lake Albert channel of the River Murray. 
Another explanation is that other ranges as well contributed to the Bonney 


SAND DIMS „ . m 











DUNE R1DGL5, _. ^ 


arrcROPS or basement rock. __ + " 

C. J. &L MO&y 


Fig. 6. — Gcoraorphological photo-inrorproratioii jimp vtf thfi Upper South-East. 

Earlier correlations have been made by others. Tindalc (1947) claims to 
have traced the Woakwine Range over a distance of 230 miles from the Glenelg 
River to Lake Alexandrina. lie includes the East and West Dairy Ranges in 
the Woakwine Terrace and mentions a break at Kingston. At Lake Albert 
Tindale suggests that a later phase runs along the Coorong shore towards Hind- 
marsh Island and that an earlier phase forms the northern shore of Lake Albeit 
and runs down to Naming and Point MeLcay. Tindale attempted to trace the 
Reedy Creek Range northwards to the River Murrav. His Reedy Creek Range 
correlates with Hossfeld's (1950). It joins the West' Avenue Range north of tie 

20fc C. J- ue MOOY 

Hundred oi Mmrabinna, Countv MacDonncll. This is shown as the West 
Avenue Range on the present map in accordance with Spnggs nomenclature. 
Tiudale presumes that it can be correlated with a sandy ridge between Welling 
ton and Tailcm Bend, primarily on considerations of height above sen level, lie 
docs not account for differences in height with the Suuth-East due to tectonic 
movements. It follows further from the soil association map v de MuOy> W 
press) that these deep sand ridges (Mason Hill association) and their topo- 
uruphv do not continue over long distances- 

Ilossfeld (1950) and Spring (1952) in more recent wtirk have shown that 
the Woakwine Range bends «ovjt to the ocean and terminates at Cape Jaffa. 
Swiffi claims that it is the Reedy Creek Range that can be followed from Vic- 
toria to the mouth of the River Murray The course of the Reedy Creek Range 
mirth of Reedy Creek .East of Kindlon) is not clear from Sprigg's map. He 
mapped manv parallel beach ridges, following the Coorong at the landsidc and 
refuted them to more recent "Woakwine truncation" and "Anadara high 7 ' sea 
levels. Tliis is unit 3 in Fig. 6. Since then remnants of an older dime range have 
been discovered amonust these voungcr ridges, and Sprigg (personal communi- 
cation) now regards them as possible remnants of the Reedy Creek Range. 
Some of them are shown <m the Kingston geological sheet. 

From a combination of this evidence with Fig. fl, it appears to he the Reedy 
Creek Range (unit 4) that contributed to the formation of the Bouncy landscape* 

Just north of the area mapped by Sprigg the distinct and straight shore- 
lines disappear, due probably to the. effect of progressive dov\ mvarpina in this 
direction. The West Avenue Range and others to the exist of it as well as the 
liUerthmal swamps have been affected by strong redistribution of sands in an 
E-W direction. 

The original limits of die various geomorphic units have been obscured by 
this aeolian activity. Swampv areas traversed bv occasional E-W steep dunes 
give the impression that the movement of sands occurred when the ground 
water level was lower than at the present time. The boundaries must be re- 
garded as a simplified outline of the elements of the landscape. Apart from 
redistribution in E-W direction at a later stage, the ranges have also been in- 
fluenced during dieir formation by granitic outcrops. Granite Is. for example, 
responsible Jot the small inclusion of unit 4 in the West Avenue Range (see 

Fig. 6). 

The Naracoortc Range jv discontinued at the northern limit of Countv Mao 
Donnell. Hossicld (1950 J considers that it divides here and that one branch 
continues bo the NW, This is known as the Black Range (unit 11), It is a 
distinct formation which, however, shrinks to inappreciable size towards its 
northern extremity. An entire Cordite shell (identification R. C. Cotton) re- 
covered from the aeolianite at the northern limit of the range by Mr. G. Black- 
burn and the author confirms Us formation as a coastline. Tlie Black Range 
and the remains of the Hvnam Range to the oast of it (unit 12), although 
older than the ridges to the west, have themselves not been affected by the 
widespread ^distribution of sands in E-W direction. They terminate SW of 
Ttntinarw. Continuing in the same direction a range of considerable volume can 
be distinguished noxtrnvard from the hdly Mt. Hoothhy landscape characterized 
by granite outcrops (unit 10). This range lias a volume comparable to the 
Alexandria Range and meets the Alexandria combination at the eastern limit 
of the soil-surveyed area. The deep sands of the oncoming range axe of the 
Bouncy type (East-Meningie association, fle Mooy„ in press) and it is clear that 
thev join a pre-existing landscape here. They partly overlie the local Alexan- 
drina soils winch continue for some distance due cast aloug die 100 foot contour 


line. Portions of the Alexandrina combination nnd particularly the portion 
mapped as the Ashville association during thr soil survey, possibly served as 
a core for the forming coastal dune landscape as was the case with the Mown 
Uoothby unit. Perhaps it is significant in this respect that Sprigg (personal 
eommuniea! ion ) claims that the coastal dune range running east of Keith nnd 
T'mlinara in a north-westerly direction bends westward towards Binnies Look- 
out. A fraction of this range was mapped by Jackson and Litchfield (1954) 
ami is reproduced m Fig. 8. It probably joins up with the Naracoorte Range 
via Mount Monster and is the- same range as referred to bv Ilossfeld (1950) 
• is the West-Naracoorle Range. 

A possible connection between the south-eastern ranges and the Mount 
Boothby granite area bus been obscured by a system of steep E-\V sand hills 
(unit 7), The regular alternation of ranges and interdunal swamps can no 
longer be recognized here- It appears that the E-W alignment noticeable over 
the ^ntrre area of County Cardwell has joined the ranges. Tho reason may he 
that the ranees converged here as suggested by flossield (1950), possibly com 
bitied with the influence of pre-uiti.sting granite outcrops. The entire sheet uf 
E-W dunes could have been formed in the one operation, but for one obser- 
vation; no E-W orientation is obvious in a fringe along tho Coorong. ilere the 
dominating trend is SW TO NE (unit 4, Fig. ft). Going east across the boundary 
between units 4 and 7 there; is a merging increase of E-W" orientatiou. while at 
first the original trend is still recognizable This rather suggests that several 
periods of E-W trending are involved, alternating with SW-NE trending in 
every newly formed dune range. The effect of each following E-W redislrf- 
butLon of sands here overlapped and amplified the effect of the former, while 
the tast Pleistocene coastal dune unit failed to experience E-W redistribution 
of sands. This possibly will be dealt with further in the discussion of the aooliaii 
activity in the area. 

From the mode of contact of the K\V dunes with the Black and flyuam 
Ranges it appears that they crossed those ranges, while the latter showed no 
signs of instability or movement of their materials. 

Evidently no complete topographic connection of former coastlines Can be 
made, if further remains occur in the E-W trended dune Landscape, detailed 
soils inspection could provide the information required tu reconstruct 4 further 
extension of the ranges. 

The available information suggests diat the Alexandrina Range of the 
lakes area corresponds with the Black Range, although this has a considerably 
smaller volume, and further with the Naraeuorle Range. The coastline was in 
places deformed by pre-existing formations, sometimes Wipe a granitic core, 
(c) The Malcolm Deposits 

During the last period of greater extent of fhe likes Ah-xandriru aud Albert 
there was extensive sedimentation in low-lying surrounding of the present 
lakes. Its maximum extent is marked bv the outline of the kfalcolm combina- 
tion^ Fig. 1), Black, fine- 1 ex tared materials containing up to 70 per cent, elav 
particles form the principal deposit. Jt is certain from die contact of the Mai- 
culm combination with the surrounding country that this sedimentation activity 
post-dates all other deposition and acolian activity in the area with the excep- 
tion of recent alluvial deposition along die Angus and Bremer Rivets ("VininfiS 
alluvial departs" in Fig. 4) and sand drift caused by human beings/ " 

The Malcolm deposits wore bud behind the shelter of die present coastal 
dutic range as an extension of the alluvial clays along the lower course nf the 
River Murray. Tho mode of deposition, although of cstuarine character varied 
considerably in various portions of the are*. East of Utc lakes Alexandrina and 

Ilu C. 5- »r. M(X>Y 

Albeit there were shallow cmbaymenLs where near-lacustrine conditions pre- 
vailed. Towards the island near the Murray Mouth brackish water sedimen- 
tation occurred under greater tidal influence. In the Hindmarsh association 
manv sharply defined, curving depositionary creeks fingered out into the plains 
(Pi I, Fi^. C), The deposition was a very slow process, continuing tor a long 
oeriod , 

The original landscape was not disturbed. The thickness of the deposits 
is related to the topography of the landscape prior to flooding. Depressions 
received more than nses which mav have only one foot of clay. A buried 
soil overlying limestone can usually be detected within 6 feet from the surface. 
Movement o? water to and fro followed the low-lying central areas and an occa- 
sional well-defined connecting channel. Blind Creek wltich has previously het-n 
mistaken for a former stream bed of the River Murray (Tindale s 1947) is 
one of them. 

The maximum level of the deposits can be estimated from the extent and 
maximum level of the floodwaters of the River Murray in 1956. The 1956 floods 
are the highest on record. They were unable to inundate a considerable portion 
of the MaTcolm clays in higher positions. Records in the Engineering and Water 
Supply Department state maximum Hood levels of 111 '3 ft. R.L. at the Gooiwa 
barrels, 113-05 ft. RJL at Milang, 113-02 ft. R.L. at Mcningie and 1.15 85 ft. 
R.L. at Wellington. Taking the mean sea level at the Murray Mouth as 103-75 








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Pig. 7, — Fragment tit soil association map showing three parallel barriers i>i' Lakv Akaanrtriim 

ft. R.L., it appears tliat a water level 10 ft. above the sea is insufficient to cover 
the entire Malcolm deposits, in addition to that, if subsidence is considered to 
bnvc been negligible, there is still shrinkage of the sediment to account for. 
The clay was probably subjected to similar shrinkage as that in the lied rf 
Lake Albert for which Taylor et at (1931) found a loss of volume of SO to 90 
per cent, on air drving, It means that the depositing waters reached at least 

LAKES Al.tfY/VNOniNA AKD albert hi 

several feet above the present rises. River floods wuuld have had to be banned 
up by a higher *eu level to reach this level Trace* of a 10 ft. higher sea level 
are abundant along the Australian coast and it is possible that the Malcolm 
deposits reached their greatest extent and height during that period, 

Ketreut of die high lake level occurred by degrees. During its maximum 
extent Lake Alexandria formed a border tlirough rearrangement of local 
materials. This border. B° -a in Fig. 7. runs diree miles east of the lake, parallel 
with the present edge, and joins ridged land that preserved its original topo- 
graphy (P til, On this ridge developed a soil profile with distinct texture 
change. A second former Take border developed approximately one mile 
from the lake. It represents a standstill of the retreating water level> or a 
return after a more complete retreat. The coarse, sandy soil has no textural 
development, it overlies the original heavy clay where this was not first removed 
by wave action The third sandy border formed at the present lake edge. This 
evidence can be correlated with phenomena in those swales of the present 
coastal dunes, deep enough to be affected by groundwater. The level of the 
groundwater in the narrow dune range would fluctuate with the level of the 
sea. It appears that pauses In the lowering groundwater formed concentric 
rings in the sand which are now marked hv different vegetation through different 
salinity conditions (PI. 2). 

The origin of tlie material and the conditions of deposition are- borne out 
by mieropalueoutolugieal examination of samples taken from (he area east of 
Lake. Alexandria, TauwiLehere (sland and Ewe Island. Tlic foraminifera as- 
semblage revealed considerable differentiation in the conditions of sedimenta- 
tion both geographically and between various sedimentary horizons of the one 
profile. East of Lake Alexandria no foraminifera could he found in the clay 
deposits at sites 4, 5 and 6 in Fig. 7 to conflict with freshwater deposition, nor 
in the buried soil at site 4. It is interesting that only a thin layer at 63 to 66 
inches below the surface, at the top of the buried soil, bears witness of an incur- 
sion of brackish water by virtue of an assemblage including! Elphidlvm simplex 
Cushman and (hiracodes, 

On Tauwitchcrc Island (see Fig. I ) the microfauna including Twclutntmina 
infhtta Montagu is indicative of brackish water deposition. Closer to the 
Miiuav Mouth on Ewe Island the assemblage while reflecting more saline sedi- 
mentary conditions also indicates that tire materials were deposited while pro- 
tected from direct contact with the ocean, The microlanna consists of sponge 
spicules and the foraminifera. Trochatnmina inflatti Montagu, Discorbis sp., 
Clohigeritw bullotdes d'Orhigny, Pktnorbtdina mat liter ronen sis d'Orbigny, El- 
phidium macellnm Fichto] and Moll, and other Elphidium sp.. and "Roialia 
hecr.ariC Linne. Some of the planktonic foraminifera on Ewe Island may have 
l>een washed through the nearby Murray Mouth, Evidently the present coastal 
dunes were in existence prior to deposition of the Malcolm clays. This is m 
accordance with the retreat of sea level by degrees, as is recorded by the 
swales of the coastal dime range. 

Subsequently the diatoms at site 4 were examined to render further in- 
formation on the depositional environment of the presumed fresh water horizons 
devoid of a forarnimfeial assemblage. The diatoms CampyltrdisLUS chjpexts and 
C I'chenU's are common and there are a few specimens of HtjaJodiscus l/Jeois. 
This is a brackish water assemblage. It remains the same with depth, but the 
diatom content increases greatly at 57 to 6fl inches, approaching the top of the 
buried soil, for which the foraminifera indicated a brackish environment. It 
diatoms may be used to draw e-coJugieal conclusions for tlris area where the 

112 r„ J, nr. MOfn 

environment varied considerably (villi the distance from the Murray Mouth* it 
would appear that freshwater conditions never prevailed. 

(d) Periodicity of Formation of gypsum and pipeclay 

Deposits and Their Relative Age 

The material known as pipeclay in the Coorong Rats is, ia fact, a dolomltic 
lake-marl deposit according to Mawson (1929), whereas Jack (192L) suggests 
that the pipeclay at Meningie and along the Coorong is flam gypsum. Rather 
similar material taken from swamps during the soil survey of the lakes area 
proved by chemical analyses to be a mixture of gypsum and dolomite. Pipeclay 
swamps are found in depressions east of the lakes in places where Malcolm clay 
deposits had no access. They overlie undisturbed buried soils. 

Jack (1921) extensively dealt with the varieties, distribution and origin 
6t the gypsum deposits of South Australia, He discussed three possible sources 
for gypsum deposits; 

1, Decomposition of sulphides to sulphates in the presence of limestone. 

2. Derived from sea wain* ivhen au arm of the .sea is ent off by a bar, 
permitting sea water intake to keep pace with evaporation. 

3l Concentration from cyclic salts in evaporating areas> while excess sodium 
and the more soluble salts would be carried to the sea by the gradual 
circulation of groundwater. 

lie considers the 'pipeclay" swamps near Meningie and Cooko Plains to bt* part 
nf die former extension of Lakes Albert and Alcxandrina. They were then more 
readily accessible to sea water and would act as efficient evaporating pans. At 
Cooke Plains gypsum dunes piled up subsequently. 

This view is also taken by King ( 1951 ), who states that the gypsum deposits 
arc related geologically to the old lake bed, where they crystallized. He re- 
lates the formation of gypsum on the bed of the saline flats and the commence- 
ment of accumulation in dunes to the gradual emergence of the land after the 
inundations during the high sea-level period () f the middle Recent. King found 
impure granular gypsum overlying concretionary limestone in shallow tcstholcs 
in the 'pipeclay Hats". The limestone carried an assemblage of marine fossils 
"typical of the middle Recent period" including Coxiella, Diala kvttta and abun- 
dant foraminifera, 

The soil survey, however, has shown that the history of development is 
somewhat more complicated. The "former lake bed" can be divided into two 

] A low-lying portion of the Seymour combiuutiun where the "pipeclay" 

and the gypsum dunes were formed (Fig. 8). 

2. The black clay deposits of the Malcohn combination which extend from 
Lake Alcxanarina to just east of Cooke Plains. They are a younger 
formation and overlie the Seymour combination- It has been pointed 
out that these materials, winch probably originated during the latest 
greater extension of the lakes contain no foramirufera. This suggests 
that the formation of the gypsum deposits at Cooke Plains may predate 
die formation of the lake bed indicated by the Malcolm combination. 
They may be related to the top of the buried soil at 5 ft. depth below 
the surface, which witnessed an incursion of relatively brackish water 
according to its microiauna. 

Conditions for the accumulation of gypsum dunes apparently prevailed 
periodically. Hnwchin (1929) recorded several beds of gypsum alternating with 



sandy limestone in a bore at Cooke Plains. Actually, the Malcolm combination 
abuts on smaller gypsum dunes at the windward side of the pipeclay flats (see 
Fig. 8), which may represent an earlier phase of gypsum dune formation. Older 
gypsum dunes occur due west of Cooke Plains along the channel of the Murray 
River (Fig. 7). Here they have subsequently been eroded and have undergone 
several cycles of aeolian activity. Sands have been deposited over them, soil 
profiles formed and sh ipped to limestone making them identical with the soils 


^sk pi 

■ %£%*£** \j • • • • 


-<• SCALE •— 

40 ! 

2 Ml US 



— key to coMBmanons 


MALCOLM * r-T-1 



NOTE 'Soil ' moffcincf urtts,_.4«m*\}iw-.$$sy 

Fig. 8- — Fragment of soil association map joining Fig. 7 to ihv west and blowing the geographic 
relationships between the Malcolm deposits, pJ&eohtf swamps unci gypsum dimes. 

Of the Seymour combination. The gypsum is present in crystalline form* whereas 
the dunes at Cooke Plains are unconsolidated and composed of seed gypsum. 
One explanation for the false bedding described by Tale (1882) is that a 
Pleistocene high sea level inundated these older dunes, 

(e) Former Mouths of the River Murray 

Howehin (11)29) has stated that the Coorong may represent a former outlet 
of the Murray when the river had a more southerly position, from which it Has 
been .gradually driven northward by the encroaching sand ridge. 

Taylor and Poole (1931) suggested that the River Murray Af some stage 
(lowed "through Lake Albert to join die Coorong, They recognized silted up 
river channels and mentioned a cut-oft billabong in Meningic Bay. The soil 
survev provided further evidence that the Murray at one stage maintained 
some channels across the Bonney Range. A system of depressions (unit 5 in 
Fig. 5) nearly joins the toe of Lake Albert with the Coorong. Presumably the 
river channel tnrough the present Lake Albert became confined to this passage 
upon construction of the third stage of the Bonney dune landscape, when also 
the inlet of the ocean was transformed into the lake; contrary to Howchin's 
view the present coastline was not in existence at that time. Finally, the main 
channel shifted to Lake Ale.vandrina. 

Another former outlet of the River Murray was found south of Goolwa (PI, 
3, Figs, a and b). Seaward of, and at lower elevation than the Alexandria* 
shoreline, which is well preserved here, the small creek draining the Middleton 

Hi C. J- )>e MOOY 

association, and the cstuarine Hindmarsh deposits converge to the site of a 
former opening in the present dunes. The dunes are locally narrow and re- 
latively low. 

(f ) PeriotUcUy of Aeolian Activity and the Theory 
of Flcistocene Climatic Changes 

The strongly WNW-ESE orientated dune ridges of the Seymour combina- 
tion are superimposed on a gently undulating landscape also originating from 
acolian activity, without such orientation, West of the River Murray it is clear 
that after soils had formed the old landscape was stripped down to a lime- 
enriched horizon by renewed acolian activity and remnants of the redistributed 
sands formed the present dunes. Formation of this landscape required two 
periods of instability and acolian activity (PI. 4 7 Fig. a)* 

East of the River Murray three transverse dunes running approximately 
noFth to south can be recognized. They have a considerably larger volume 
than the E-W dune ridges. In a section from Wellington to Sherlock (Fig, 9) 
the first dune (Mason Tlill association) is followed bv an E-W ridged landscape 
(Perkindoo association ) . This peters out in stony plains (Tailem Bend assocla* 

E. 3: £ 5 C 

|.|; MiSON HiLL'-o. . PES XtKbOG-* ,|, | . Z , g . j rTOQRUWS .ASSOC* 



Fig. 9. — East-West section botwooo Wellington ami SftHriplfc 

tioii ) . The second transverse dune (Coolinong-a) rises sharply from the plains 
and is followed by parallel longitudinal dunes ( Coolinong-b ) which merge into 
stony plains. The tlnrd dune is the westernmost part of the Moorlands asso- 

The first system is differentiated into deep sands (Mason Hill) on the dunes> 
a ridged landscape with finer textured subsoils and plaius with stoney soils. 
This becomes lost in the eastern units. In the second system the soils of the- 
ridged landscape intrude upon the range itself and rn the third dune the lime- 
stone follows similarly. This suggests that the third dune has undergone more 
stages of erosion and soil formation than the other two. An older age for the 
third dune is also indicated by the fact thai it is overlain by the soil pattern 
of the second dune in places. The formation of transverse dunes may be ex- 
plained by repeated activity of the same winds which formed the longitudinal 
dune riflges. Transverse dunes could form where there is an abundant supply of 
sands, whereas setf dunes could form when materials become scarcer. A con- 
nection between the origin of the transverse dunes and the shores of former 
extensions of Lake Alexandria is unlikely, because tire dunes are parallel to 
the gradient of the country. 

The Alexandrina combination has also been influenced by several periuds 
of wind activity as indicated by two sheets of travertinized limestone, overlying 
aeoliunitc (PL 4 ? Fig. b), and rurally there is the repeated formation of gypsum 
dunes, mentioned earlier. 

Redistribution of sands hi the Bouncy landscape has not greatly disturbed 
the original topography. A S\V tu KE trend is evident in areas of steep topo- 
graphy, If there has been redistribution of sands in au E-W direction the efrect 


has been weak It may he concluded that the formation of the Bonney land- 
scape rjost-dates nil or at least most of the aeolian activity which resulted in 
WXW-ESE dune alignment elsewhere. The situation in the Seymour and 
Boojjey combinations is in agreement with the impression gained by stereoscopic 
examination lhaf an E-W orientation is superimposed on the originally NE 
treading former coastal dunes in County CardwefJ (units 6 and 7, Fig. 6) and 
that the westernmost dune range (unit 4) has preserved its predominantly NE 

There is general agreement that the south-eastern coastal dune ranges date 
from file Pleistocene. Tin's certainly applies to the Bonncy Range, which from 
correlation with its .south-eastern equivalents may he relatrd lo me Great iuter- 
glacfal (according to Spilgg, 1952),, or the Penultimate Glaciation (according to 
llossfeld, 1950). Hence the formation of WNW-ESE sand ridges of the older 
units in the area which actually extend over a large portion of southern Aus- 
tnilia also dates from the Pleistocene period. This is in contrast with the hypo- 
thesis postulated by Crocker, who relates the distribution of leached sands to 
i\ severe Heeent Arid Period of some 3.000 to 6.000 years ago (Crocker, 1.946a 
and h). Further supporting evidence is that the alluvial deposits of the Bremer 
combination eroded the older Seymour and Nfilung combinations, which at that 
lime already had their E-W orientation fully developed- 

Several soils formed on the Bremer materials Lave been sampled and their 
mechanical analysis compared with those from the Milang combination in 
Table 1. Firstly" it is clear that tiie soil materials of profiles A227. 220, 232 and 
235, representing the Mining landscape, have a typical mechanical composition. 
They contain inuctieally no silt and have a rather constant cx^arse to fine sand 
ratio. These (Solndired Solonelz) soils have a very shaip texture contrast be- 
tween the surface ( A) and subsoil (B) horizon. The ratio is remarkably con- 
stant verticallv also and both horizons are genetically strongly related. Secondly, 
the soils of alluvial origin of the Milang (A230. 231 and 239) and Bremer com- 
binations have a much lower coarse to fine sand ratio quite distinct from those 
of die old landscape. They contain an appreciable amount of silt. In this 
respect the young alluvial soils (A400> 405 and 425) are best provided. These 
figures indicate that no mixture of materials between the hwi units occurred, 
not ev«*n>Ir( the small alluvial inclusions within the Milling combination; which 
is tu bo expected if there were two separated periods of aeolian activity. 

It would lie untenable to maintain that the sand ridges of the Mflang com- 
bination originate from the Recent Arid Period, because in that case deposition 
of the Bremer materials coupled with removal of portion of the ridged land- 
scape, followed by aeolian redistribution into gently undulating plains without 
specific trend, subsequent formation of mature soils and deposition of the 
Malcolm deposits as well as younger alluvium should all post-date the Recent 
Arid Cycle. The geomorphology of the lakes area is rather in agreement with 
iho hypothesis furthered by Fairbridge et al. (1952) who concluded that evi- 
dence in Western Australia corresponds closely with the conclusion reached in 
Morocco that successive generations of aeolianites correspond to interglacial 
periods. Kach major cycle, of dimes and lugh shorelines was separated from 
the next by erosional phenomena of a short period when sea level was consider- 
ably lowered. The maxima of the pluvial? correspond to die glaciu! maxima 
when all the climatic belts migrated equatorwards and temperate-wet climates 
interrupted the desert conditions when tlu* aeolianites were formed. 

Fairhridge (1953) and also Hossfcld (1950) associated the suggestion that 
erosive cycles occurred repeatedly during the Pleistocene period with the theory 


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of climatic changes as expressed by Flint (1945), Keble (H>17) and Gentilh 

Flint claims that glacial periods of the regions affected by glaciers* were 
replaced by pluvial periods at lower latitudes, during which the climate was 
relatively moist and cool while the interpluvial periods were characterized by 
wanner and drier climates, His hypothesis, based on fluctuations o[ atmos- 
pheric turbuluncc, allows for a number of erosive cycles during the Pleistocene. 

Kehle (toe. cit.) and Geutilli (loc, cit) expressed the opinion that during 
glacial maxima most of Australia was covered by humid., cool forest. This 
would be due to the advanced temperate belt during the expansion of the 
glaciers. During glacial minima the north would be tinder supcrbumid forest, 
while the south would still fall in a subhumid woodland zone. This would be 
associated with the expansion of the wet equatorial belt. It follows from this 
[hat during each major glacial and interglacial cycle the arid climate belt would 
move across the Australian continent twice, theoretically creating two cycles of 
unstable vegetation and landscape in general. 

Regarding the alignment of longitudinal dunes in relation to the prevailing 
winds, Barkley (1935) pointed out that the direction of tlie Mallee sand dunes 
appears to be determined not by the prevailing winds which are north in winter 
and south in summer (s.i.c. ) but by the direction ol the strongest gusts accom- 
panying the change of wind. 

The prevailing winds of the present day, however, create a nortlvcastcrly 
trend in the coastal dunes and it is difficult to sec how the WNW-ESE dune 
ridges could be in balance with them. Yet they are longitudinal dunes which 
developed parallel to the direction of the dominating wind at the rime of their 

Madigan (1936, 1938, 1946) showed that the sand dunes of the Australian 
deserts are everywhere longitudinal ridges. Their trend is parallel to the dir<N> 
tiou of the prevailing wind, which varies in different parts of the desert. The 
general trend in the Simpson desert is to the \NW. 

The hypothesis of migrating climatic belts offers an explanation for the 
direction of the Mallee thine ridges, whereby the wind regime associated with 
each climate is not affected. Southward shifts of the climatic belts during 
periods of decreasing glaetation can even account for recurrence of those desert 
conditions, separated by periods of dominating south-westerlies. 

Such n theory even if it is an over-simplification of the real climatic fluctua- 
tions is quite able to explain the formation of the landscape in agreement with 
field observations: formation at the visible coastal dune ranges as unconsolidated 
sands during Pleistocene high sea levels, aeoliau redistribution in SW to NE 
direction under subsequent arid conditions, Icaehing of lime and soil formation 
in temperate-wet climates of the glacial maxima, E-W redistribution of leached 
sands under unstable landscape conditions during subsequent aridity and per- 
manent coastal dune formation when the sea level approaches a new maximum 


Grateful acknowledgment is made ol the work by Dr. fcffi 11. Ludbrook tif 
the Department of Minos, South Australia, who carried out the palacontological 
determination of the environmental conditions of deposition from soil samples 

Mr, li. Tindale from Yarra Junction. Victoria, examined the diatoms, 
Mr. G. Blackburn, C.S.I.K.O., Division ol Soils, contributed with very 
helpful suggestions and criticism on the manuscript. 

1 IB Ci J. de MOOY 

The mechanical analyses were carried out under tlie direction of Mr. J. T. 
Hutton, of the same division. 


Barklev, II., 1935. Dune building in tlie Victorian roallee, Rept. A.N.Z.A.A.S.. 22. pp. 

436-437 (absrr.). 
Crocker, R. L., 1946a. Post-Miocene climatic and geologic history and its significance in 

relation to the genesis oi' the major soil types of South Australia, Bull. C.I.S.H. No. 193. 
Crocker, R, L., 1946b. An introduction to the soils and vegetation of Evrc Peninsula, S.A.. 

Trans. Roy, Soc. S.A., 70, pp. 83-107. 
Fairrridge, R. Wy and TEicrosnT, C, 1952. Soil horizons and marine bands in the coastal 

limestones of W.A., J. Proc. Roy. Soc, N.S.W. : 86, pp. 68-87. 
Fauibridce, R. W., 1953. Australian stratigraphy. 
Funt, R. F.. 1945. Pleistocene geology and the Pleistocene epoch. 
Gentilli, J., 1949. Foundations of bird geography. The Emu. 49, pp, 85-129. 
Hossfeld, r. S.. 1950. The late Cainozoie history or the South-East ot South Australia. Trans. 

Roy. Soc. S.A., 73, pp. 232-279. 
Howchin, W., 1929. Notes on the geology of the Great Pyap fiend (Loxton), River Murray 

Basin and remarks on the geological history of the River Murray, Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A. t 

53, pp. 167-195. 
Jack. 11. L... 1921, The salt and gypsum resources of South Australia, Dept. of Mines, Geo]. 

Survey of S.A., Bull. No. S. 
Jackson, K. A., and W. H., 1954. The soils and potential land use of part of 

County Card well in the Coonalpyn Downs, South Australia. C.S.T.R.O. T Soils and Land 

Use Scries, No. 14. 
Keple, R. A., 1947. Notes on Australian Quaternarv climates and migration, Mem. Sat. Mus. 

Vict., 15, pp. 28-81. 
Kino. D., 1950. Unpublished data. 
King, D., 1951. Cooke Plains gypsum deposit. Mining Review (S\A. Dept of Mines), No. 

91. pp. 141-148. 
Maoican, C. T. f 1936, The Australian sand ridge deserts, Geogr. Rev., 26. pp. 205-227. 
Madtgan. C. T.. 1938. Tlie Simpson desert and its borders, J. Proc. Rov. Soc. N.S.W., 71. pp. 

Mawcan, G. T.j 1946. Tlie Simpson desert expedition 1939: Scientific reports: \'o, 6 Geo 

logy; the sand formations, Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 70, pp. 45-63. 
Mavvson, D., 1929, South Australian algal limestones in process of formation. Geol. Soc. 

London Quart. Journal, 85 (IV), pp. 613-623. 
nfe MsoV, C, J. (in press). Soils and potential land use of the area around Lakes Alovun- 

drina and Albert, South Australia, C.S.I. R.O., Soils and Land Use Series. 
Sprtgo, R. O., 1952. The geology of the South-East Province. South Australia, with special 

reference to Quaternary coast-line migrations and modern beach developments, Dept, 

of Mines. Geological Survey of S.A., Bull. No. 29. 
Tate, R M 18S2. Geological sectiuus about Wellington or north-east shore of Lake Alexan- 

drina. Trans, and Proc. and Report Roy. Soc. S.A., 4, pp. 144-145. 
Tate, R., 1900. Section of a well bore at Mulmmdawa. near Wellington, S.A.. Trans. Rov, 

Soc. S-A,, 24, pp. 109-111. 
Taylor, j. K., and Poole, H. C., 1931. Report on the soils of the bed of Lake Albert, Sooth 

Australia, J, C.S.LR., 4, pp. 83-95. 
Tindale, N. B,. 1933. Geological and nhvsiographical notes, Tantanoola Caves, South-East 

of South Australia. Trans, Rov- Soc. S.A., 57, pp. 130-142. 
Tindale, N, B., 1947. Subdivision of Pleistocene lime in S.A.. Rec. S.A. Mus., S. pp. 619-652. 

De Moov 

Plate 1 

Fig, a. — View of fiver terraces at Currency Greek, Middle terrace (CCa) in foreground, 

Fig. r>. — Stranded shoreline i\e<\v Coolwa. The toe of tlic dune (J) is Situated above 
the level of the flats ( IT) in foreground, 

J 3k \1<x» 

Plate I (cont) 

Fij^. c. — Detail of depositionury creeks in Makolui combination on Hindiuarsh Islam: 
The Murray Mouth just helow the photograph is at the south of the island. 

De Moov 

Plate 2 

Dk Moo*. 

-Pl.ATK 3 




Fitr. a. — Detail of possible former Murray Mouth near CooKv.t 

Fig. b. — Site of possible Former Murray Mouth looking south IV Alevnmlnua Kange. 

Surf visible OV0T low dunes. 

I)i; Moot 

h.ATK I 

r i'4 a.— ( »l*iiN\ UnfriUMHflJg liittcslonr bljHl&cupv \\ itli siijicriiiipi sctl (!iiik: ffcl&'S ill 

Seymour tomlniiulimi. 

Plfi It. — I \\<» slucls ol linn-.sloiu- overlying amlianiU' in tin- \lrv,iii<1riiia inml>iuaO'on. 
(-lass K jjrnuitiji on top ol On- limn limrvhmc Iiyir. 



by Norman B. Tindale 





[Read 10 July 3958] 

The Pleistocene Terraces of the South-East of South Australia have received 
much attention because the low slope of the. continental shelf has caused the 
successive stnmdlines of the Pleistocene and Recent Periods to be spread out 
over a width of more than 60 miles from the present coastline, enabling detailed 
study of many minor phases elsewhere obscured by erosion and by compression 
on a much steeper continental margin. The. present writer first contributed tO 
the discission of this subject in 1933 and again in 1947. 

On several journeys between Naraeoorte and Keith since 1954 the fore- 
dune of the Naraeoorte Terrace has been closely followed and it was established 
that it remains on the right of the observer all the way from Naraeoorte in Keith, 
there being a hinge or change of direction from north-north-west to nurth by 
east in the vicinity of Dai went Waterbole (Section 7* Hundred of Willalooka), 
where outcrops of granite, forming low domes at or near former sea level cause 
local disturbance in the regularity' of the dune line. There are other granite 
outcrops in the Hundred of Marcollat and lo the west. At a point three miles 
east of Keith the Naraeoorte Terrace fore-dunes can be seen in section at quar- 
ries in the vicinity of Section 51, Hundred <»{ Slhline. The front of the dunes 
appears to face a vast embayment forming the Keith flats wliich also at one time 
seem to have been a lake. The section was demonstrated to Dr. Brian Daily 
on a brief visit to Keith on 15 February, 1957. 

Elevation oi Keith R.R, Station on the former sea and lake floor fronting 
Ihe Naraeoorte Range is 101 ft,, and the line of railway rises sharply to 210 ft. 
as it climbs the terrace escarpment towards Brimbago, Naraeoorte K,R, Sta- 
tion is at 189 ft, It is situated on a Hood fan at the mouth of Naraeoorte Creek 
where it opens on to the old sea floor of Naraeoorte times. Away from this 
alluviated area the intcrdunc flat in the vicinity of Naraeoorte may be as low 
as 120 ft. above sea level, as at Lake Roy about "twelve miles north-north-west. 

The interpretation placed on the maps of the Geological Survey and out- 
lined in Bulletin 29 of tlie Mines Deimrtment of South Australia delineates the 
Naraeoorte Terrace as running north-westward in a direct continuation of the 
line of the Terrace at Naraeoorte (Sprigg, 1952), The new facts indicate that 
just beyond the point where their maps terminate there' is a marked change in 

Some revision may be necessary in our views and in particular there may 
have been less warping than postulated by Sprigg or it may have affected a 
smaller area. The writer ha?, formed the opinion, indeed, that the Naraeoorte 
Terrace reported as standing at approximately 145 ft. above present sea level 
and considered to be down-warped to the north at a tilt of T3 ft. to the mile, 
may be less down- warped than has becu suggested, some part of the apparent 
warping being an expression of differential erosion and sedimentation, and an- 
other the diversion of die stxandline to the north which alters our interpreta- 
tion of the positions of the strands. It may be significant that a feeble prior 
river system has maintained itself across the area ever since this series of strand- 

Tnui* K*>- Soc. S. AtWt (1959), Vol. «2. 


lines commenced to form and the scale of warping docs not appear to have 
induced rejuvenation or marked diversion as a result of the deformation. 

Unfortunately, the testing of the area presents difficulties for, although very 
accurate survey heights are available for the South-East of our State, these 
liccome fewer and fail altogether towards the Upper South-East, leaving prin- 
cipally the Railway Survey heights as the basic guide. However, these observa- 
tions may serve to draw renewed attention to earlier deductions by Tindalc 
(1933, 1917). He considered it possible to trace each Pleistocene strandlinc 
across the area broken by granitic domes northward of the Hundreds of Land- 
seer and Peacock, etc., in such a way as to link up with corresponding strand- 
lines at roughly similar heights above sea level, alon^ the Murray River, The 
Marmon Jabuk Range north of Keith was considered, for example, to be a north- 
ward extension of the "earliest Pleistocene dune Ran^e", which he then con- 
sidered to be the Naracoorte Strand. It can now be re-asserteel that it is likely 
to be part of a complex with a front of Naracoorte and a rear of Hynam stranj- 
line features representing an early Zntcr-Glacial sea margin or margins, perhaps 
of Miiazzian date. The seaward face of the Naracoorte slrandlirm can be 
traced northward from the vicinity of Keith into the Hundred of Archibald 
as an extension of the fore-dunes of the Naracoorte strandlinc. Tindale did 
not differentiate between die Hymau and Naracoorte Terraces described by 
Sp Ti MJf ( 1952) and his work must be read with this deficiency in mind. 

The dual nature of the Naracoorte Terrace where it turns northward is 
evident in the south-west corner of the Hundred of Wirrega. It was well 
illustrated as early as in the May, 1905, edition of the Hundred of Wirrega 
incli-to-thc-mile map. This shows by its delineation of the original vegeta- 
tional pattern, the Naracoorte strandlinc in the south-western corner of th* 
Hundred, with Swede Flat compressed between it and what would probably 
equate with the older Hynam strand. This last named runs north-north-west 
to east-south-east and is denoted by a belt of dunes, ranging from three and a 
half to five miles in width, seaward from a line joining Sections 433 and 362. 

In passing, it may be noted that Sprigg interpreted the shallowing of the 
rjresent Coorong lagoon in a southerly direction to be due to the progressive 
northward do\vn-waq)ing he had postulated. Alderman and Skinner (1957) 
have shown that precipitation of dclornitic limestone from incoming sea water 
is occurring and it may well be this activity which was either the chief agent, 
or at lca^st another factor, in causing the shallowing of the Coorong lagoons 
southward at a distance from the sea mouth. 


Aldeh_man ? A. 0., and Skinneh, Ih C, 1957. Amur, fmirn. o£ Suicno^, New York 255 

pp. 561-567. 
Hossfeld, P. S.> 1950. Trans. Roy, Soc. S. Aust, Adelaide, 73, pp. 232-274 
Si'iuco, R. C. 1952. Geol. Surv. of S r Aust., Adelaide, Bulletin 29 
TiNTMt.F., N. B., 1933. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. Adelaide, 57, pp. 130- MS, 
IrvriALfc, N. B., 1947. Roc. S. Aust Mus«. Adelaide, H f pp. 619-652 


by Francis J. Mitchell 


The following observations were made in the Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, between 1949 
and 1955. It is suggested that the communal nests discovered indicate that this species may form 
aggregation- which possess a higher degree of social organisation than that usually credited to 
reptile communities. 

LEIOLOPISMA GUICHENOT1 (Dumcril and Bibron) 

by Francis J. Mitchell* 

|Read 11 September 1958] 

The following observations were made in the Mount Lofty Ranges., South 
Australia, between 1949 and 1955. It is suggested that the communal nests dis- 
covered indicate that this species may form aggregations which possess a higher 
degree of social organisation than that usually credited to reptile communities. 


On 1st May, 1949, at YVaitpinga., South Australia, the writer observed 
several small lizards emerging from the centre of a dead Cruss-tree stump 
(Xanlhorrhea) about 12 inches in diameter. On further investigation no fewer 
than 211 eggs were found closely and uniformly packed in the. sawdust-like 
material whieh surrounded the hard central cure to a depth of about six inches. 
Of these, 62 had hatched, many of the young being busily engaged digging 
themselves to the surface, and the majority of the remainder hatched in the 
laboratory during the ensuing 48 hours. Of the 37 which failed to hatch, 31 
contained fully developed embryos which had been dehydrated in transit to 
the laboratory, and the remaining six, which were much smaller, measuring only 
8 X 5 mm, were apparently infertile, Immediately before hatching the eggs 
measured 13 X & mm. Gravid females taken at the same locality between the 
7th arid 14th November, 1948, each contained three eggs measuring 7x4 nun. 
The size of these eggs as compared with that immediately before hatching indi- 
cates considerable assimilation of fluid during development, the volume increas- 
ing almost four times. On hatching the lizards measured 11 mm. and they grew 
without external food to 47-48 mm. 

In the hope of being able to observe the actual deposition of the eggs, a 
further search of the area was made early in December, 1949, but no aggrega- 
tions of more than four or five individuals were seen 7 and these small cliques 
were found to include males. All females examined were still carrying eggs. 
However, the investigation of potential nesting sites resulted in the discovery 
of an old nest containing 29 egg-slielk. These were inside another Xanthonhea 
slump about two miles fi'om trie first site. The nest was old, and appeared to 
have been dug out by a native rat. 

Since May, 1949, all casual inquiries received at the South Australian 
Museum concerning lizard s eggs have been investigated, and this has resulted 
in the discovery of four more communal nests. 

On the 23rd December, 1953, a nest containing 49 eggs measuring 9x6 
mm. was found in a garden at Stirling, South Australia. The eggs were buried 
about two inches beneath the surface in loose loamy soil, and w x crc exposed 
when a small hole was being dug to plant a shrub. The eggs had been freshly 
laid as the garden was only prepared for planting during the previous week-end. 
Specimens of L, guichenoii were abundant in blackberry bushes adjacent lo 
the garden* 

• Curator of Reptiles, South Australian Museum 
Tram*. Hoy. Soc. fi. Aust. (1A&9), VoL ft$- 


On ihc 22nd January, 1955, a nest, estimated to contain over 100 eggs mea- 
suring approximately 1 cm. long, was found in a heap of vegetable debris lying 
against the wall of a wooden shed at Aldgatc, South Australia. Unfortunately, 
these eggs were not examined, but using E. R. Waiters "Reptiles and Amphi- 
bians of South Australia", the observer, Mr. L. K. Clarke, of Adelaide, South 
Australia, identified the embryos as L. metallwum. The species metallicum and 
guichanoti are closely allied and could easily be confused; L. ^uichcnnfi is the 
common species in this district 

On the 4th February, 1955, another nest was discovered af Stirling, South 
Australia. It contained SS eggs which were found lying side by side in a 
hollow under a rotting log. The embryos were sufficiently well developed for 
recognition as Leiolopisma ^nichenoti, 

A nest containing "many dozens of eggSr' was exposed during the ploughing 
of a partly cleared paddock near Port Macclormeil, South Australia, during April. 
1948. Some of the eggs had hatched, and the finder, Mr. G. H. Tilley of 
Muorak, South Australia* captured several of the young and preserved them 
in methyjated spirit, together with a dozen unhatched eggs. These specimens 
were presented to the South Australian Museum in June," 1955, and identified 
as /,. liuichtmoii, (Specimens registered under S«A,M. R3713.) 


Sociologists have accepted the greater majority of group behaviour in 
reptiles as simple tropistjc aggregation without a communal aim or internal 
organisation. Although in the present case the deposition of the eggs has not 
been directly observed, the data suggests that the gravid females congregate 
for the purpose of locating a common nesting site. Assuming this to be correct, 
these lizards must possess a well-developed sense of recognition and be capable 
of forming communities in which there is distinct enaction between the indivi- 
duals. Reviewing the observations it is difficult to conceive any Other means 
by which 30-70 female lizards could independently seek out a single nesting 
site. Furthermore, the nesting sites chosen do not appear to be unique witliin 
the general environment. Vegetable debris and dead Xanthorrhca stumps are 
abundant throughout the sclerophyllous scrub which forms the major habitat of 
this species in the Mount Lofty Ranges, while the <I9 eggs discovered at Stirling 
in December, 1953, were in the loose soil of a garden plot, all sections of which 
appeared to be of uniform consistency and humidity. 

The present evidence is fragmentary and inconclusive, but it is hoped that 
the publication of these observations will stimulate the interest of other workers 
who may be able to undertake a complete field study of this interesting socio- 
logical problem. 



by J. B. Cleland and Norman B. Tindale 


A general description is given of the country around Haast Bluff on the northern side of the 
MacDonnell Ranges, Central Australia, and the native names for over 120 plants are given, together 
with notes on use, if any, made of them by Aranda and Pintubi natives. 



by J. B. Clelakd ajsd Nobmak B. Tindai.e 

[Head 11 September 1958] 


A general description is given oi the country ammul Haust BluD" on I he 
northern sick 1 of the MuoDonnclI uange.s. Central Australia, ami the native 
names fur over 120 plants are given, together with notes on use, it" any, nmle 
of them by Amnda ami Pintubi natives. 


The Seventeenth and Eighteenth Anthropological Expeditions organised by 
the University of Adelaide to study the natives, left Adelaide for Alice Springs 
on 10th August, 1956, and loth August, 1957, respectively. These Expeditions 
were financed by a liberal grant from the Wenner-Grcn Corporation for Anthro- 
pological Research Incorporated (previously tire Viking Fund) of New York, 
supplemented by substantial assistance from the University of Adelaide and its 
Board for Autliropologieal Research and from the South Australian Museum, and 
by transport facilities granted by the Commonwealth and State Governments. 

The members of these Expeditions have been very much indebted to the 
Minister for the Interior (the Hon. Paul Ilasluck), the Administration at Alice 
Springs and the Department of Native Affairs and its officers for much help 
and cordial assistance in making their investigations. 

On arrival at Alice Springs, the party journey by motor veliicles to Haast 
Bluff Aboriginal Reserve Station situated 15 miles SAW from Haast Bluff (,of 
recent geographers), itself about 160 miles due west of Alice Springs and on 
the Tropic of Capricorn. Here, during a stay of about three weeks in each case, 
an iutensive study of the natives was made by various members of the party. 
Though the natives were detribalised, the Pintubi people from the Western Aus- 
tralian border area only recently and imperfectly, and were in more or less 
permanent residence at the Government Station, they still retain much of their 
knowledge of the natural history of their surroundings and readily supplied 
names and uses of plants that were shown to them. During our stay, visits 
were paid to Blanche Towers, Mt. Palmer and Ml, Liobig, to Areonga in the 
Krichauff Range and to Hennanusburg, to Mt. Wedge Station and Yuendumu, 
and to the Einke Gorge> at which places some additional plants were gathered. 

After the plant was shown lo the natives, it was placed in an envelope or 
paper bag and given a number with the appropriate information. These plants 
were then crudely pressed and at the same time similar specimens were placed 
in a botanical press. On return to Adelaide, the plants in the envelopes were 
identified, and we would like to acknowledge the help we have received from 
the State Botanist (Dr. II. Eichler); Dr. Consert Davis of the University of New 
England; Mr. George Chippendale, Botanist to the Animal Industry Division 
of the Northern Territory Administration; and Mr. David Symon of the Watte 
Institute. These specimens, seen by the natives, will be. presented to the South 
Australian State Herbarium. 

ITans. Roy. Soc. 8. Aiwt. <19Sft). Vol. 82. 

124 J B. CUILAKD am> N. B. TIN DALE 


Ilaast Bluff Reserve, commencing about 150 miles due west of Alice Springs 
and straddling the Tropic of Capricorn, has an area of about 3,900 square miles. 
Much at it is "low, red sandhill country with a vegetation of its own. We were 
camped at the eastern end cm a mulga plain between the bold mountain masses 
uf the Haast Bluff Range, running west almost to \lt. Liebig. and (he distant 
Mereenie Range, the west end of the MacDonnclls. gradually diminishing in 
height. The northern section of this plain run* west to terminate between the 
picturesque Blanche Towers and Mt. Palmer nn the south and the ilaast Bluff 
continuation on the north. 

For descriptive purposes, this terrain can be divided into the plains, the 
Usually dry watercourses, and the mountain masses with their gorges and talus 
at the base where .slopes wore thickly covered with fibbers. 

The mulga (Amcia ancura) on the settlement is of two kinds, one with 
the usual narrow phvllodcs, 3 to 8 cm. x 1 mm., and the other (var. latifHuiy 
with broader glaucous foliage, the phyllodes 4 to S cm. x 5 to 8 mm. n. There 
was much voung mulga 2 to 3 feet high. Some of the young mulgas spread 
out laterally for 5 Feet when only 2 feet high, others tended to grow upwards. 
Same half grown trees have branches stretching out horizontally, but there seem 
only ihe two kinds of adult trees here, in height about 18 tu 25 feet, There axe 
manv mulga honcv-ant holes with rounded raised rims 3 to 4 ins. high, covered 
with fallen mulga' phyllodes, and about 10 to 16 ins. across, with several broad 
openings to the nest in the ecutre, which is about 5 ins. wide. These mulga 
ant hofes are only seen in the mulga country and usually close to the bases of 
the trees, Deep incgular excavations indicate where the natives have been 
digging out the "honey bugs". The flowering of the mulga is probably irregular, 
depending on the occurrence <i| rain. A few trees were coming into flower 
during our stay, No honey could be tasted in the cylindrical spikes of flowers 
but, as will be* mentioned fater> a sweet fluid exudes from the gland at the base 
of die phyllodes when the sap is rising, and a lac scale, when it infests a tree, 
may result in an abundance of sweet exudate, 

" At the time of our visit, a sea of a beautiful pink, due to the everlasting, 
Hrlivhriimm camirdanum, spread out under the mulga, to be replaced elsewhere 
by white from Hdipterum florilmndum (the specific name well deserved), or 
yellow, from H. charsleytw. Very abundant and widely spread was the Imvlv 
Composite bindi-eye (Gttlatis hispidnh) with its painful spined aehenes, tend- 
ing to get into ones clothing, following on the insignificant flowers. Very abun- 
dant also was the Crueifcr, Stcnopcialum nutans giving a rather dull yellow 
tinge to the surface when very abundant and having a rather unpleasant smell, 
resembling the B.B.C. (bromobenzvl chloride) (ear gas of the war. In driving 
through where this was abundant the smell permeated into the vehicle, whereas 
the fragrance of the pink everlasting was almost confined to a nosegay \A it. 
Another magnificent mass of colour was the dazzling brilliance in places of the 
yellow flowers of Sencaio gregorih a brilliance almost painful to the eye when 
thfi sun shone upon an acre or so in an open space. Bassia convtxuki. with five 
prickles on the fruits, was also very common with some B. conilshiana similarly 

Witched, v bushes {Acacia kempeana) were abundant in places, and especi- 
ally on light'stony vises* Cassia bushes, chiefly C vremophila var. platyptxia. 
In addition to the mulga, the plants particularly used by the natives were the 


berries of Sohnum ellipticum, which may be fairly abundant, and the Ascleplad, 
Pent (if.ropts kempeuriu, seen occasionally scrambling up a mulled stem. 


Low reddish Triodia covered sand-ridges, running east and west, extend 
north of the Haast Bluff Range towards Mt Wedge. We passed over 40 milo 
i)t the^e to the east of the Mount between the new aboriginal settlement of 
Koolpunya and Mt. Wedge Station in part of the range of that name. Pic- 
turesque groves of Desert Oaks (Casuarim decainscanu) grew on many of these. 
The seedling Casuanna becomes first a rather intricately branched shrub. It 
then grows into a cylindrical small tree like a church-yard cypress, and finally 
branches out Iatcraliy on top into quite an umbrageous head. Another feature 
of the sand-ridges was the glaucous mallcc-like Eucalyptus gamophiflla with 
Us broad opposite leaves joined together at the stem. On many of the ridges 
there was little, else, but when the soil became more suitable, as towards Mt, 
Wedge Station, various shrubs appeared between the Triodia, and the long 
siphoned Nicotiana ingulha> much sought after by the natives, grew by the side 
of the track, its fragrant white flowers scenting the air at dusk. Occasional 
lilnodwoods, corkwoods and whitewoods (Atnunja) were on the ridges and 
some yellowish leafless shrubs oi Erocarpus sportea with a drooping bruom- 
like appearance. Broad-leaved parakcclya (Caland.rinia balonncmis) found 
shelter under the Triodia. Several belts of Melaleuca glorncrata, usual I v asso- 
ciated with watercourses, were jttasfed through and a couple of SoUcornin 
(Samphire) flats. 

As far as this type of country is concerned., there did not appear to be much 
of use to the natives. The tobacco was, of course, important- The bhuxlwood 
Eucalypts might yield some "bloodwood apples" which contain a large juicy 
female cooridL and the witchetty hushes (Acacia kempeana) could contain the 
grubs of that name in their roots. The Triodia near the north edge of this 
country seemed larger, more flexible and less prickly than that in the ridges, 
and "No.sepeg", the Pintubi native with us. pointed out the red sand-enorusted 
resinous tunnels on some of the leaves protecting the underlying Cuccid from 
which THoditt (usually spoken of as 'spinifex') gum is obtained 


The country for the 27 miles to Blanche Towers is nearly fiat. There arc 
some belts of dense mulga and many patches of Triodia in heavy sandy lounv 
sometimes quite open with occasional hill boshes of GrevdUea futwifolia, Euca- 
lyptus papuana, and bloodwoocl or Ettc. gamophyUa, Towards the western end 
were many fine Desert Kunajongs with tail rounded boles and spreading 
branches high up., growing in sandy loam. These were succeeded by Desert 
Oaks, the halt-grown trees cinucocylindrieal. Often Hut, very hard tcrrnitavia, 
occurred amongst the Trinditi and "tall ones, three to four feet and fiat-sided. 
amongst the mulga. 


The watercourses Iwive a vegetation of their own. Li most uf them, the 
Red Cum (Eucalyptus cawoldidensis) with bluntly conical rather dian rostrate 
opercula, is to be found as well as Solanums, C rot aloha dissitiflwa. Coral Trees 
(Enjthrina vcspcrtiUo), the fragrant Prostanthcra slrialtfiora, sedges, grasses, 
Cassias and other shrubs, 

126 J- B, CLELANU xsu N. K T1NDALL* 


The mountains ate covered with scattered Triodm tufts where the slope 
permits them to grow. On the tops, as at Mi Liebig, Acacias and other shrubs 
may be foufld not seen lower down. In the gorges glow Native Hop-bushes 
(Dodonam petiokms), the Native Currant {Cahssa brovmii), GrcvUlca utitifa 
homi* tufts of scented grass, Solanums, and many other under-shrubs and herbs. 
Native pines (Callitris glauca) are uncommon here. At Talipcrta Spring near 
Mt Palmer, ft permanent spring under the shadow of a ledge has given for muny 
centurics a shower-bath which has enabled something like five species of fern 
to survive desiccation. 

Triodia-covmed rocky outliers of the Haast Bluff Range near the settlement 
had scattered small trees of Eucalyptus papunnn arid Euc. gamophylla 
(shrubby), two species of Coma, Acacia itntabllis, Ac. patcm, a Lycopodium- 
like Acticia, a viscid species of Acacia and one with very long phyllodes. and 
as more lowly plants, scattered Goodania rrnxvidlL an Indigofera, Kewndrinui 
with its blue' flowers, GrcviUea wickhami, a daisy (Minuaria ?) and the tern 

In such types of country, the original Aranda, Kukarja and Jumu natives 
and the intruding Pintubi of later years, successfully obtained the necessities 
of tribal Me. It is the object of this paper to record the names and uses of 
the plants that were available to them. The uses comprise food plants, such ax 
berries, other fruits, cresses* tubers, roots, grains, honey, gall-insects, etc.; the 
Native Tobaccos; woods for weapons and utensils; and plants used for adorn- 
ment and other purposes. 

There are probably more than 1,400 species of vascular plants in Central 
Australia between 20 ,J vS. (passing through Tanami and well south of Tennant 
Crwk) and 26° S. at the South Australian border. One of us (J. B.C.) has 
himself collected more than 530 separate species. During the. 1956 Expedition, 
133 specimens comprising L10 species of vascular plants and two fungi, were 
submitted to the natives. During the 1956 Expedition, the number of speci- 
mens was 165, consisting of 132 species. Some of these species were the same 
as were submitted on the first occasion and this served as a check on the native 
names tlut were given then. The total number of species including 3 varieties 
shown to the natives was 191, On a rough estimate one might say that about 
one-sixth of the vascular plants of the area were shown to the natives. This 
list must comprise nearly all the species of economic use to them. There must 
be a considerable number of small ephemeral plants that come up after rum 
which are of no consequence to them. Of the total of 191 species, 55 had no 
name or use, and a number of others had a name but were not used. 

The uses of the plants can be placed under the following headings: — 

Grains of grasses, winnowed and made into a paste: 

Tragus racemosus, Bwchiftria piligera, Panicum decompositaut, F.ragmstis 
eriopoda, E* dielm, Dacitjlocnemium radtdam. 

Other seeds ground into a paste: 

Cticnapadium rfwdinostachytmu Porhdaca oleracea* Acacia li^tdnht, Acoctii 
patens, Brachychiton gregotii (Desert Kurrajong). 

Seeds eaten: 

Cftsitarina decaisneana. 

Currant-like berries: 

Corissa hrttwtui, Plcctrania latifolin. 


Tomato-like fruits: 

Solanum iwmophilum, S, coac(iliferwn> S. elllplicum, S. eremophiluvi^ S. 
dwersifhmmiy S. phlomoides. 

Other fruits: 

Ficus platypoda, Eucarya acuminata, hnranthus ivurrayi, Enchtjlaena tomen- 
tosa, Capparis mUchcllii (native orange). 

Leaves and sccd-vcssels eaten: 

Marsdenia australis (leaves and young banana-shaped fruits), Cyanchum 
jlorihundum (leaves and young fruits), Pentatropis kempeana (leaves and 

Roots eaten: 

Boerhaavia diffusa, Portulaca oleracea, Vigna Uuweolaia, 

Leaves steamed: 

Lcpidium muelleri-ferdinandi. 

Flowers sueked for honey: 

Hakea tonryi (corkwood), Eucalyptus terminal-is (bloodwood). 

Ash used with Pituri: 

Acacia sp. 
Tobaeco leaves chewed: 

Nicotiana gossei, N. ingulba. 

Plants used as medicine by steaming: 

Though the idea may have derived from contact with Europeans who doubt- 
less imputed medicinal qualities when there was an aromatic scent, it is 
probably original. Steaming is used iix all parts of Australia and steaming- 
oven stones occur m deposits from the Pirrian Culture onwards, a period 
of at least 4000 years, 
Prostanthera striaiiflora, Stemodia viscosa, Eremophiln gitesii. 

Yielding adhesives; 

Tnodia hasedowli, Xanthorrhoea thortdom* 

Apart from these vegetable sources erf food, whose food values can be as- 
certained if necessary in years to come, the natives obtained animal foods in 
the shape of flesh (of marsupials, dingoes, small rodents, birds, lizards and 
snukes), of birds* eggs and of insects (witchetty grubs from moths and beetles, 
termites and their eggs, grasshoppers and locusts, female coecids in galls on 
the bloodwood, and lerph and honey from the mulga honey-ants and native 


'Hie Solauums of Australia arc of considerable interest as being a source of 
food for the aborigines. In fact, in Central Australia one species, Solanum eUip- 
ticiirtL is of real importance as it is said to furnish small edible green tomatoes 
all the year round and is a widely distributed species and with reasonable as- 
siduity in the search for it numerous enough to furnish food on most occasions 
and situations. 

In South Australia, 26 species of Solatium are known. S. laniophyllmn hav- 
ing been found in the Toinkinson Ranges too late for inclusion in Black's Flora, 
Part IV, Second Edition, where the names of 25 appear. Of these five are 
introduced species, S. triflomm, S. gigajiieum, S. elaeagm folium, S. sodomaettm 
and S. rastralum, none of which are edible. 

Ewart and Davies in "The Flora of the Northern Territory" record 19 
species with an additional one for North Australia, of which '-) occur in South 

12S J. B. CLEMND aki» \. ft TLNDALE 

Australia. The other eleven, are mostly only recorded from the northern end 
of the Territory. 

During the two expeditions to Haast Bluff Reserve, at least eleven species 
of Svlonum were collected, live of these being found within a few yards* oi each 
other in wash-aways leading into a creek. 

Of these, five specie.* had few prickles and six were furnished with abun- 
dant spines. Some of the latter supplied an important item m the diet of the 
nomadic natives, and others were of no account in their ecology. The aborigines 
readily recognise each species and have names for them, but to European eyes 
the distinction was often difficult. The following points we found useful in 
recognising the different species of very prickly Solanums. 

Leaves entire 

Solatium elliptleum. Semi-prostrate to scrambling with purplish tints on the 
young foliage. The spherical green fruits marbled with white are hidden, 
so that one turns the foliage over wi(h one's foot to pick the edible berries. 
The piickles are not very aggressive so that one can handle the bush with- 
out being severely punished. There are purple spines on the stems and 
calyx and some pale ones on the petioles and even midribs but not else- 
where on the leaves. 

Solatium elliptleum var. Mr. J, M. Black referred specimens like this to S. eremo- 
j)hilum, hut Mr. R. V. Smith, of the National Herbarium of Victoria, says 
our plants are definitely not S. t'.reitiopjtilum. This has smaller leaves than 
S, ellipHe.utu. and lacks the purple tints. It is more or less prostrate and the 
prickles are not aggressive- The edible fruit is like that of S. ellipticum. 

Solatium quadrilocti latum, This is an upright species; abundantly furnished with 
spines which make it difficult to collect specimens. The leaves arc thicker 
and broader than in S-, ellipticum, but acute like them. The young foliage 
may be purplish. The berries are more numerous and easily seen, usually 
not quite? round but somewhat pentagonal, showing five bulges, green be- 
coming suffused with purplish tints before becoming hard and pale. Fruit 
inedible, four-celled. 

Leaoes pinnate-lohed or pinnatiful 

Solatium pcrftophilum. This resembles S. quudr'docnlut um but the leaves ure 
shortly lobed. The berry is hard and inedible. The prickles arc very 
aggressive. The calyx lobes arc narrow, acuminate, with prominent keels. 

Solmmm melatiospermtim, Mr. K. V. Smith considers onr plants as probably 
referable to this species. They agree with the type in leaf lobing, f omentum, 
spines, etc. Unfortunately, he adds that the type shows no flowers, lie 
says it is not referable to S, die ersif latum as we had suggested. Has deeply 
tubed leaves and calyv lobes narrow and acuminate without prominent keels. 
The fruit is un inch in diameter, pale yellowish green and edible. 

Solatuan sp. aff. with S. phi om aides, A. Cunn. and S. melon :«tpcnnum, F. Muell. 
(R. V, Smith). Has the remains of a large calyx still on the rcflcxed stem. 
The calyx lobes are broad and there are pale prickles on the stems and ealyv 
and a few on the leaf veins. The large fruit is edible, 

Solatium ferocissimum. Upright, about a foot high, with small pale flowers and 
narrow leaves hastate or cordate at the base, grew on the banks of a creek. 
Fruits red and not eaten. 

Solatium centrale and S. orbieulatum. Were growing in proximity to each other. 
The former has a rust-coloured roinentum with ovate to ovate-oblong leaves 
and calyx segments oblong-linear. It was not found in fruit which Black 
described as ovoid, yellow, succulent and edible. 


Solatium orbicuUitum. Has thicker oblong leaves which Black described as 

sinuate-lobed, with a hairy calyx whose lobes arc ovate-lanceolate,, and 

yellow globular berries. 
Solarium sp, A small Solonwn, only a few inches high, with an elongated berry 

was found on an open plain north of Mt Hay. 
Solannm coadilijerum. Petals 4, edible sperical yellow fruit. Mt. Wedge. Sta* 

tion and sandy rises on Haast Bluff Reserve. 
Solatium esuriale. With five petals and yellow edible fruit has also been found 

in Central Australia. 


The native names here recorded in several tribal dialects were transcribed 
by the one hand from information supplied by different informants. It was not 
convenient tu keep a record of the name of each informant since it was some- 
times necessary to refer the specimen to a whole gathering of interested on- 
lookers before a decision was made. In all cases, unless specified to the contrary, 
the words were spoken by a man of the tribe concerned and not repealed from 
hearsay by one of another tribe. Where marked variations in pronunciation 
were noted they are indicated. Principal differences are in the vowel sounds, 
but there are also some interesting variations in stress. Some minor differences 
may be ascribed to the modern reaction between tire Aranda language as used 
in formal mission teaching and the several versions of it being acquired by the 
Western Desert tribes people as they come into the area. The Kukatja (Loritja) 
have been closely associated for at least three generations with the Aranda., the 
Jinnu for two generations and the Ngaiia and Pintubi only since about 1932. 
Since the break between Aranda-like languages and the Western Desert ones 
( Fttjandjara, Kukatja, Pintubi, etc.) is one of the more conspicuous ones in 
Australia it will be of interest to have data enabling a clear-cut distinction to 
bo drawn between the plant names used east and west of this linguistic bound- 
ary. The names are written in the system adopted by a Committee at the Uni- 
versity of Adelaide in 1932. A convenient exposition may be found in Volume 64 
of these Transactions, at page 147. 

In the following list of plants, if the species concerned appears in Black's 
Flora of South Australia, the author's name is not given. 


Chciianthcs tcmtifolia (81b). No name; grows on sides of cierks. 
NothokH'na brownli (44b). No name; grows only near water in gorges. 
Marsilea, probably A/, hirsttta (55b) Nardoo. No name; animal food, no good 

for man. 

CftHitris glmtca ( 15a). Native Pine, knlilpuru, Pintubi. waqkarti, Xgalia. 

'ulkrjarta and 'ilukwa, Aranda. Not used; appreciated only for the shade 

it casts. 


Ivtperata ? (I8u and 99a). talbalhi, Ngalia. lalbulara, Aranda. A bladey grass 
found only at springs such as Ulambaura where there is a permanent swamp. 
The leaves agree with those of hnperata cytindrica var. at Encounter Ray. 

Dicanthium sericeum (107b and 108b). 'tjawila, Pintubi; 'nam: a, ATanda 
(Generic terms). 

Bothriochloa eioatliana (130a). No native name, "only a grass". 

Cymhopogon bomlnjcmus (68a). No native name. 


Themedu australis (39a). 'eria, Pintubi. 'knlbulbi, Ngalia, 'ara 'ara, Aranda. 

It is used to stop the splash of water in wooden dishes while they are being 

carried on women's heads. 
TrtifiM australkmus (76a). i:ka t Pintubi. 'punda'ro, Ngalia. jaka, Aranda. A 

prickle glass; it provides 'mi ? a clamper which is made from the seed by 

nulling between stones. 
Neurachne milchelliana (121a, 93b). 'mana, Pintubi. It has- no native use. 
Brachiaria pdigcra (129u ? 135a). 'mana ? Pintubi. 'etuta, 'indaluruka, Aranda. 

The grass seed is milled with water between stones and cooked as a damper, 
Dtgilarw ummophila (117a). Has no native name, "only a grass". 
Ponicum dccvrnptmltim (107a, 75b). iPtja:dua, Aranda. cltja:lua, 'jalkatra, 

Pintubi. Yields a good grass-seed fund; ground with water between mill- 
stones and cooked as a damper ('juma t Pintubi). 
Pt'wiiwtun} ciliare L. (P. cenchroides Pers.) == Ceiicfxrus pennisetifowiix Hochst 

et Stand. (138b). Bufflc grass. Only a grass, a stranger. 
7Ajgorh\oa (Spinift'x) paradoxa (160b). Only a grass, 'along sandhill'. 
Aristidti bwwniami (118a). Has no native name, "only a grass". 
Aristida arenana (96a). 'okari, Pintubi. 'eudalkura, Aranda. Grass eaten by 

animals, a prickly grass. 
Aristida arenarta (71b). 'ipiri, Pintubi- 'jawila, Ngalia. 'endunikura, Aranda. 

Has sharp 'spincd heads'. 
Aristida nitidtda ( 164b ) . 'awila, jawila, Pintubi 'cndurukuni, Aranda. No use, 
Etmcapogon polyphtjUus (81a). 'jc:pari ; Pintubi. 'man:a, Ngalia. 'nam:a, W. 

Aranda dialect, 'taruka, E. Aranda dialect. Only a grass, not a food. 
Enneapogon chlandii (5a, 1491)). Has no native name and is of no use. Only 

a grass for cuttle, horses and sheep. 
Enneapo&on sp, (54a), Drumstick grass. Has no native name, "only a grass ft 
Danihonia bipartite! (78a. 123a, 155b). Only a grass, of no use except to animals. 
Triraphis mollis ( 105a). 'endumkura, Aranda. When the seed is taken in while 

drinking water it causes an irritation to the throat, and is much disliked. 

The seed pierces the gums of horses' mouths causing an inflammation, 
Triodia pnngens (2la). 'undia, Pintubi. 'ju:ta, Aranda. This species is said 

not to yield a gum; the Triodia from which the valuable native gum is ob- 
tained is said to "look greasy". 
Triodia Inuedowii with gum (101b). tjanbi, Pintubi- undia, Kukatja. 'ju:ta. 

Aranda. Flowers and seed are animal food. 
Ewgroslis eriopoda (71a, 133b). waquniu Pintubi. in'tjira, n'djira, Aranda. 

The seed is gathered, milled with water between stoues and cooked as a 

Eragrostif? didsii (.lS0b). -'intjirintjira, Aranda, Provides seed for milling. 
Chloris acicuhm (23a). No native name, "only a food for animals'". 
OucUjhtcteniinn rachdam (SOa). 'pnrnndjari, Pintubi. 'inda'luruka, Aranda, 

Seed is used tin ihe. same manner as that of Emgrosfis eriapodu. Is consid- 
ered to be a good food. 


Cyperus xerophilm (35a). 'laripulara. Aranda. A mark oi water country. 

Cypcrus sp, (54b). an'garan'gara, Aranda. Found near springs, sign of water. 

Fimhvisiylvi nutans (Rctz.) Vahl. (31a). 'judumburu, Ngalia. 'laribulara, 
Aranda, Not used. A sedge at UJambaura, a permanent spring. The 
Ngalia name for the spring is based on the presence of reeds. An Aranda 
name for the spring is Paura. 


Scirpas litoralis (158b). 'ankararjka, Pintubi. No name in Aranda. Lives in 
spring water. 


Xanthorrhoeil thortoni (48a). alunkurtu Ngalia. alunkuru, Aranda. It grows 
in the sandhills in the MacDonnell Ranges and on the plains to the South. 
Aborigines have never seen it to the north of the Hanges. It is of economic 
importance to them because the resinous excretion from it is made into the 
gum which provides the most highly-sought-after form of hafting medium 
for stones set in the ends of speartbrowers. Tins gum is known as 'pal: a, 
Ngalia; 'tjalana, Aranda. 


Casuarina decaisneana (53a). 'korukara, Pintubi. 'karukara, Ngalia, arkapa, 
Aranda. "There is good food in the seeds; pick out kernels, chew them 
when green, they taste Like milk.'' 


Picas platypoda (50a). 'ili ; Pintubi. 'witjiriki, Ngalia. 'tjuruka, Aranda. Figs. 

Trema aspern (45b). Only a tree, no name. Grows only near water in gorges. 


Parictaria dehilia (159b) (under rocks). "Only a flower, near water." [Does 
not grow near water.] 


Hakea lorea (1 43b). Corkwood, pirdwa, Kukatja, an'tjuija, n'kwala, ndjujamba, 
Aranda. Flowers yield sugar by steeping in water. 

Hakea woryi (8a, 87a, and 124a). Corkwood, 'piriwa, Pintubi. bi:ru, Kukatja. 
n'dfuia, Aranda. When emus eat n'djuia flowers they are stupified and 
cannot run and thus easily killed; it flowers in summer. Corkwood flowers 
are steeped to get a black, sweet liquid. Use the bark, charred, to rub on 
the breasts of women when the child has a sore tongue. 

Hakea leucoptcra (126a, 85b). 'marawakara, 'marawakal, Pintubi. ilburjga, 
Aranda. Used for making hut shelters; no( used as root source for water 
as is the case further south. 

Grevillea juncifolia (92b). 'jultukun, Pintubi. 'tehykalinba, Aranda. 

Grevillea striata (70b). ildeilba, Pintubi ildidba, Ngalia. ildidba, Aranda. 

Grevillea tvickhami (63a). 'ljaka, Aranda. No use. 


Exocarpus spartca (43a). 'wilpiu, Pintubi. 'wiubaruru, Ngalia. 'itjartitjarda, 
Aranda. No use; iL is plentiful on Mt. Wedge and in the sandhill country. 

Ettcanja acuminata (62a). Native peach, 'marjarta, Pintubi (occurs in country 
to the south-west), 'marjarta, Kukatja. 'malba, Aranda. Some trees grow 
near Alalba. where it is a big tree; it is said by the natives to grow com- 
monly along the southern side of the MacDonnell Ranges. 

Santaium hnceolatum (23b). kandurarjo, Pintubi. kanduraija, Kukatja. 'kaluda, 


Loranthu.s mttrrayi (on Acacia rhetmocurpa and Acacia aneura) (102a, 27b, 
104b, 119b). 'rjantja, Pintubi. 'mi:pum'pa 5 Pintubi. 'tjangina, tjankanu, 
Aranda. Emit orange or red coloured, 'eaten as a plum, very nice". 

132 J. B. CLELAND and N. B. TINDALE 

Loranthus exocarpi (on mulga) (91b). 'nantja, Pintubi. Edible fruits. 

Loranthus gibberulus (on GreviUea wlckhami and Grccillea. striata? beef wood) 
(20b, 86b). 'miipurupa, Pintubi. 'tjan'ga, Aranda. Bird food only. 

Loranthus miqueliana (ou Euc. mmophylla) (24b). The mallee (Euc) = 
'warilja, Kukatja. lalba. Aranda. The mistletoe — im:ara, Kukatja. im:ara, 

Loranthus maidenii (on mulga) (59a, 35b). etjitja (mulga), 'tjan'ga {Loran- 
thus), Aranda. Children eat die sticky fruits in play; birds cat the fruits. 
It has no further use other than as attracting buds which may be killed by 
throwing a boomerang ur stones. 


Rhagodia spinesceiis (89a. 3Sb). 'bulam'bula, Aranda. Used as red paint lor 
the face; the ripe fruits are red. 

Rhagodia nutans (la, 37b, 1 18b). 'iria, 'cria, Aranda. Emu food; only a bush; 
no use. 

Chenopodium cristaium ( 74b ) . 'tjilka, Pintubi, 'rnadara'madara, Aranda. 
Food for kangaroo, emu and stock. 

Chenopodium rhadinosfrachuum (13a). 'induku, Aranda. The black seed ob- 
tained from it is soaked and when swelled with water rubbed between stones 
to make a damper. 

Atriplrx nummuturium (101a). Saltbush. 'eria, Aranda. As an animal food it 
attracts and concentrates game for hunters. 

Atriplcx ducophyllum (69a). No name. Only cattle, goat and sheep food. 

Bassia selerolaenoides (69b). tjilka, Pintubi, 'No good: only a flower.' 

Bassia quinquecuspis (94b). marawakalba, Kukatja. jeltja 'tanidma, Aranda. 
The Kukatja name means literally 'hand piercer*, it is' often used as a generic- 
name for spin) plants. No use, 

Kochia enchylaenoides (163b). Only a bush. 

Sakola kali (65a, 22b). tjilka : la , Kukatja. 'elkala, ilkala, Aranda. Only an 
animal food. 

Enchijlaena lomenlosa (7a, 90a, 91a). 'jcwcte r wete 3 Ngalia. indi;ndia, Aranda. 
The red fruits are soaked in water and the liquid drunk like tea; it is very 
sweet; use a 'tanja, an especially shaped pitji (dish) f for its preparation. 


Ptilotus nohilis (14a). No native name, only a flower. 

Gomphrcna brownii (63b). Only a flower. 

Alirrnanihera nodiflora (134a). Has no native name: no use, only a flower. 


Boerhaaoia diffusa (55a). r waipi. Kukatja. 'iup:a or 'jaipa, Aranda. Has a 
long parsnip- like root; food, 


Portulficea oleracea (83a). 'wakati, Pintubi. 'rjgotjika, Aranda. Food; eat the 

black seed; the root is also eaten, 
Calandrinui balommis (17a, 52a, 16b). Parakcelya. 'parldlja, 'tjonqi tending 

to 'shonrji, Pintubi. partandjarupa, Ngalia. 'tjungi, Kukatja. ilkijoalia, 

knilja, e;emba. Aranda, 

Capparls mitchellii (92a, 2b, 129b). Wild orange, 'ulpundjatu, Pintubi. 

'omboltja:di, 'umbutja:di, Kukatja. bultjaita, m'bultjeda, m'bartjada, 

Aranda. Eat the fruit, "no seed, very sweet". 


Capparis spinom (145b). 'uranini, Pintubi. 'aratnana, a'ro.tnana, Aranda. Yield 
a fruit which is eaten when ripe. 


Codonoearpm cotinifolius (66b, 89b). 'kanduranu, Pintubi. 'kaluta, kaludi, 
kaluda, Aranda. Grubs 'niako 'kaluda, Kukatja, found on the routs are eaten. 


Stcnopetalum nutans (70a, 26b). 'eninart'eninarta, Aranda- Emu food. 

Stcnopetalum lineare (81a, 100b). 'enmarta, Pintubi. enmarta, 'murti murta, 
Aranda. "Too 'strong'; only fit for emus, makes you giddy if you try to 
eat it" 

l.epidium rotundum (97a, 116a, 116b). 'enmarta, Pintubi. ju;taju:ta ; Ngalia 
and Pintubi. 'enmarta, 'enraatua, Aranda. Emu food. The same name is 
applied to Glussogyne (Compositae). Aranda eat it after steaming; PinLubi 
do not use the steaming method of cooking greens and make no use of 

Lcpidium oxxjtrlchum (105b). 'enmarta, Pintubi. 'enmarta, Aranda. Emus eat 
it. Aranda steam it. 

Lcpidium muetleri-j ordinandi (95a, 98a, 29b), enmota, Pintubi. inmutu, 
Kukatja, 'inmorta, enmarta, cntnatua,. Aranda. Plant .steamed in a hole 
with hot stones by the Aranda, the plants are enclosed in a covering of 
Zygophyllura plants ('Ijawuljawa). The steamed green is stripped off the 
sterns and eaten; die stems are then pounded to a meal and also eaten. 
When stones are not available it is laid on heated ground on top of wet 
grass, covered by more grass, then with colder sand. Enough heat is sealed 
in to cook tire food. The aborigines strip off the leaves and eat them, throw- 
ing away the stems. A big heap is cooked and all eat together. 


Piltosjjorum phillyreoides (102b). wanukutu, Pintubi. 'mara mara, Xukatrja. 
knauta, Aranda. Provides shade only; no other use. 

Styloba.mtm spathulalum (97b). 'tulpulpa, Pintubi. 


Acacia ligulaia (27a). Broad leaf wattle, 'wardaruka, Ngalia. 'itjiruka, Aranda, 

Seeds eaten. Grows at Ulambaura Spring. 
Acacia ligtdata, a form (on stony hill) (79b, 120b). wardaruka, wa:daruka, 

Pintubi and Knkatja. i:'turuka, 'i:tjaraka, Aranda. Not used. 
Acacia notahilis (as hitherto identified but really a new species) (31b). 'itjiruka, 

Aranda. Not used except as dry wood for fires; just like iron wood, very 

good for fires. 
Acacia palens [ 115b). 'Jiiba'luba^ Aranda. Seed eaten, ground on a stone to a 

meal; it makes a bean soup with water. 
Acacia slrongylophylh (43b). Only flower, grows on the ranges. 
Acacia lycopodifolia^ (77b). No native name. 
Acacia coriacca vai\ angitstiar (83b). baqgunu, Pintubi. parjkuna, Ngalia. 

'pankicna, Aranda. Multi-striate phyliodcs* 20 cm. X 4 mm. Yellow 

branches, grows on rocky hills. Use ashes for drawing with. Freshly 

burned ashes of the leaves are mixed with native tobacco (mirjgulba) when 

making a chewing quid. 

134 J- f$. OLFXAXD anu N. B. TJNUALE 

Acacia aneura (15b ? 72b 1. Mulga at the settlement, Haast Bluff Reserve. 
'wanari> PiiHubi, Ngalia. i/titja, 'u.titja, Aranda. 

Lac Scale (AmtrotachanHa acociac, Maskcll) on Acacia aneura (131b), 
Tutandja, Aianda. Lerp scale and honey exudate; on the phyllodes of the 
mulga. According tu native belief -'kapada:da, the larva of a Geometrid 
moth, is the leader (inkata) of the honey ant (jcramba.) which gathers 
this lioney. 

Honey on Acacia aneura { 130b). lutandji, Aranda. A particular source of mulga 
sugar Is from the exudate of glands in the young mulga tips themselves. 
Alwrigines showed us that when viewed against the light the tips bore 
gleaming beads of honey-lilce sap at the bases of the phyllodes. These 
glistening particles ('lutandja, Aianda) are supposed in native zoology to 
hw-ome larger, form together along the stems and become the lerp scales 
which yield sugar. The larva of a Geometrid moth of the mulga (species 
not yet identified, but close to Amclora) occurs as a larva in many hundreds 
on mulga trees; when the trees are disturbed the larvae lower themselves on 
long silken strands so that the whole tree appears decorated with them; 
the larva is called 'kapudarda, Aranda, It is considered to be the leader 
or inkata of the 'jeramba, Aranda (lioney ant) and causes it all to happen. 
Honey ants gather and talce the honey below ground to form the honey ant 
"bags' 5 , The 'kapadaida (Aranda) is known also as nanda (Aranda) and 
as puma parutji:ta, Kukatja. 

The lerp scales grow large and fall off on the ground whence they may 
be gathered or are stripped from the twigs and soaked in water to make a 
drink. Lerps are also eaten off by drawing the twigs through the mouth. 
One of us (N.Ii.T. ) some years ago, observed the extensive use of tins 
larp scale in the Maim Range where the women's lips were bleeding and 
sore from the continual rubbing of ihcm along the rough twigs. In 1957 
he found that a family group at Lightning Rocks, Western Australia, had 
been living in tins way for a week almost solely on lerp sugar. The amount 
of food available on these twigs is surprisingly great and they can br seen 
tn he literally running with honey-dew. 

Acitcw aneura var. hitifolia (73b, 143b). Blue mulga, Mclc-le, Pinttiht. 
Ijalpiljaro, Ngalia, i:t'itja il'paljata, Aranda. Seed eaten. Honey-dew at 
tin base of the phyllodes, 'muni m'da:na, Aranda. Seeds gathered, parched 
and ground for meal- 

Acttckt holoscticca (28a, 125b). 'kalkadi, Pintubi. 'intjira, Aranda- No use. 
A wattle growing around Ulamhuara Spring. The same species in 1957 on 
a rocky hill with lac insects ( Aitxlrotachardia acaciac Maskcll). 
'nkwala'hritja, Aranda, Eat the sweet scale (mako karulco). The jeramba 
or honey ants sometimes gather honey from these scales. Tree is named 
'papa same word as for dog. 

Acacia hrachystachya (106a. 82b) (probably) a mulga. wanka, wanari, Ngalia. 
'i*titja } Aranda, The ashes from freshly burned phyllodes are chewed with 
pitjiri. Shrub not in flower or fruit when collected, The phyllodes are 
9*0 cm. to 11-5 cm. long and agree with this species, but it may be merely 
a long phyllode form of A. ancura. 

Acacw farnesiana (154b), i'lakwa — i'Jokwa, Aranda. From the flower conies 
a seed which is eaten by parching and milling. 

Acacia monticufa, J, M. Black (SOb). On rocky but- No native name. Lacerated 
bark, several nerves, much reticulation, 

Cfzottfl sophcra (146h). 'madaru'madaru, Aranda. Coed medicine. Steep in 
warm water, wash face with liquid and inhale the steam from the dish. 


Cassia pleurocarpa (4b, 120b). 'kalpukalpu, kalbirkalbir, Pintubi. 'leilara, 
'lelara, Aranda. Emu food only. 

Cassia desolata (95b). 'pundi, Pintubi. 'irjkutirjkuta, Aranda. For decoration 

Cassia eremophila (40a, 33b). 'axibi, pundi* Pintubi. 'pundi, Kukatja. 'wari, 
Ngalia, 'pundi, 'punda, Aranda. Has no important use; only a flower, 
used, mainly because of its soft foliage, for brushing off flies. 

Cassia eremopliila var. platypoda (114a, 65b). 'pundi, Pintubi, 'punda, 

Cassia ariemesioides (22a, 58a, 30b, 78b). pundi, Pintubi- pundi, Ngalia. 
'punda'punda, inkurtaankurta, Aranda. The flowers are used for decora- 
tion, being inserted in the head band as a fringe falling over the brow. 

Brachijsema chambersl (161b). omba. Sugar obtained from the flower called 
'nkwala omba, Aranda. 

Crotalaria dissitiftora (41b). Only flower; no name. 

Indigofera hrevidens (126b). No name. 

Indigofera hasedowii (127b). Too shrivelled for identification", "might be 

Psoralen (148b). Pea. 'woraka'ljilja, Aranda. No use. 

Swainsonu flacocaHnata (151b). Only a flower, animals eat it, 

Vxgim lance.olata (19a). 'papurti, Ngalia. latjia, Aranda. The root of tins 
plant or the one for which the aboriginal informant mistook the leaf is 
eaten; it is supposed to have a large tuber like a sweet potato. 


Erodiwn cygnorum (82a, 40b. 64b). Has no native name and no use is made 
of it. 


Oxalis comiculata (34a). Native sour sob. 'elkart'ilkarta, Aranda. Wallaby 
food only. 


Zygophyllum tesquorum (53b). 'ilk'rjwalja, Aranda. Animal food only. 
Tribidus terrestris (75a). tjilka.da, Pintubi and Ngalia. 'jaka, Aranda. A 
prickly plant wliich causes trouble by injuring feet. 

Euphorbia drummondii (52b). ma'dara'madara, Aranda. Animal food. 
Euphorbia wfwehri (57b). rna'daramadara, Aranda. Bullock and horse food 

Euphorbia cltttioides (6a). 'rjotarjoto, Ngalia. 'kwarakclilja, Aranda. Although 

it has a name, neither the plant nor its milky sap has any use. 
Phyllanthus sp, (36a). tjilkatjilkarupa, Pintubi. 'pojov'pojorupa. Ngalia. Not 

used, and is poisonous. 

Stackhousia muricata (140b), Only animal food, no name* 


Atalaya hemiglauca (25b, 87b). 'wanukutar, Pintubi. ilbara, ilpa'ra, Aranda. 

Shade tree only. 
Hvterodendron oleifolium. (115b). wanjikutu, Pintubi. knjira, Aranda. 
Diplopeltis stitartii (84b). Only a flower. 
Dodonaea petiolaris (47a). njalpihnj, Pintubi. anjilinu, Ngalia. walukara, 

Kukatja, 'ilpa'manda* Aranda. No special use except as a shade tree. 

136 J. B. CLELAND and N. B. TINDALE 


Ventilago viminath. Supple Jack (113a, 34b). k'njira, aknjira, Araada. Kan- 
garoo and euro shade tree. A big tree and it gives good shade. When it 
has a hollow stem find wild honey (ultamba) in it 


Malvastram spicatum (112a). Has no native name, only noticed by them be- 
cause of its flower, 
Sida corrugata (47b). Only u flower, 
Sida tHrgata (144b, 156b). Only a flower bush, no use. 
Sida inclusa (96b). alputadi, Pintubi. Fruit eaten. 
Cianfiwgosia gompioides (49b). Only a flower. 

Rulingia loxophylla (58b). No name, only a flower. 

Brachychilon gregorii (51a). rjalta, Pintubi. rjalta, Ngalia. rjalta, Aranda. 
'naltatjita, Pintubi (the seeds). Eat the seeds milled, considered a very 
fattening food. 

Hibbertia glaberrima (46a). 'jukuri, Ngalia. 


Eucalyptus camaldiriensis (16a). Red Gum. 'rjapari, Ngalia. 'pira, 'pa'ra 7 

Eucalyptus tcrminalis (103a). Bloodwood. airkanka, Aranda. Not used except 

as giving honey when in flower. This bloodwood grows six to eight feet 

tall on the slopes of rocky hills, and as larger trees on flat ground. 
Eucalyptus gamophylla (128b). 'warilja, Pintubi. 'lalba, Aranda. No use is 

made of it. 
Melaleuca domerata (lib), 'ilbili, Kukatja. 'ilbala, Aranda. 
Melaleuca imophylla (42a). 'ilbili Pintubi. 'ilbila, Aranda- Grows in the 

sandhill country by watercourses. 

Didiscns glmicifolius (2a). Has no native name, emu food only. 


Carissa brownii (33a, 85a, 93a, 17b, 18b). 'rjamunboro, 'rjamtinburu, Pintubi. 
'manikitji, Ngalia. 'manikitja, Kukatja. 'inikitja, 'lulitja, c'nukitja, e'nokitja, 
Aranda. Grows at Ulambaura Spring. The purplish fruits arc eaten; the 
taste is considered by aborigines to be very sweet, a good food. 


Sarcostemma auslrale (15b). alk'rjaiknai, Aranda. 

Fentatropi-s kempeana (8Sa ? 18b). 'maua 'rjaraka, Aranda. "Good tucker; eat 

the leaves; when they find it while hunting, tliev alwavs stop and oat their 

fill of it." 
Marsdenia australis (21b). ondoroqo, Pintubi. 'ondorokrjo, Kukatja. al'tjeia, 

Aranda. Eat the fruit. 


Ipomoea sp. (in leaf only) (57b, 67b). Leaves and stem only used. No potato, 
only a flower. No name. 


Convolvulus eruhescens (152b). 'tnalja tnalja, Aranda. All cooked and eaten, 
steamed and stripped to get only the leaves. Long Lime ago lives on this. 
II is cooked in the same manner as Lepidium. 

Breweria rosea (48b). Only a flower. 

Evolvulux aUinoides ( 58b ) . Only a flower, no use. 


lleliotropium asperrhnum (7b). Only a flower. 

Hetiotropium undulatum (100a). Has no native name, "only a flower". 

Trichodesma zeylanicum (46b). Only a flower. 


Dicraslijlk gilesii F. Mucll. (110b). Taliperta Spring, Mt. Palmer Range. Only 

a flower. 
Spartothamnella teucrHflora (76b). alk'neiak'neia, Aranda. Food for birds and 

Clcrodmdron floribundum (30a, 61a). 'crcmari, Ngalia. 'cremarta, Aranda. 

The purple fruit is eaten; also the carrot-like rools. Grows at Ulambaura 



Pw&tunthera strmiiflora (131a). tjiruka tjiruka, 'tjurika 'tjurika, Aranda. Pound 
with stones; the plant is then put in a dish (wooden), water poured in and 
heated with hot stones; allowed to go cold and the body washed with it; a 
good medicine. 


Solarium centrale ( 77a, 90b ) . kararuba, kamburarupa, Pintubi. 'karalba, 
kararupa, Ngalia. 'kafjara, Aranda. Agrees with a specimen from Liddle 
Hill, with a rusty tomentum like this, identified by J. M. Black as S. centrale 
which appears to be distinct from S*. nemaphihtriL Leaves with a rusty 
tomentum. Fruit green then yellow, slightly elongated, 1-7 X 1-2 cm. Fruit 
like a plum, eaten. 

Solarium sp. (10b). With occasional small prickles tliiekened downwards on the 
stems and even on calyx. Leaves with paler tomentum than S. nemophilntn 
but perhaps a form of this species. Not 'warjgi; only a flower. 

Solatium orhiculatum (73a, 9b). 'itumba, Aranda, kamburarupa, Pintubi. 
Fruit green, spherical 8 mm. diam., becoming whitish and diy. Good fruit, 

Solatium coactitiferum (100b, 166b). 'itunba, Pintubi. 'etunba, Aranda. It is 
a food. The 'maaa, yellow spherical fruit, arc eaten. 

Solanum pJUplicum (64a, 74a, 125a, 8b, 56b, 60b, 68b, 99b, 121b, 122b, 123b). 
'kuilpura, warjki., Pintubi. wanki, warjgi., Kulcatja. wanki, Ngalia. Fruit 
eaten at all times and is an important staple diet of emu, kangaroo, dogs 
and people. 

Solanum ellipticum var. (127a). a'leljaka, Aranda. The small green fruits arc 
good food, 

Solanum quadtiloculatum (11a, Ilia, 62b). 'warakahikalu, Pintubi. arcilba,, 
'eriujalkna* Aranda. Only a kangaroo food; not the same species as warjgi 
though very like it; fruit not eaten, 

Solanum quadriloculatum ? ( 162b ) . 'warjgi, Kukatja. alparandji, randa, 
Aranda. Fruit is called karjera and is thought to be a far smaller plant 
than 'warjgi. 

138 J. B. CUELiWD amj tf. B. ilNDALK 

Solarium en'mophihtm (5b, 6b. 36b), 'wciajeri, Pintubi. weriijwerirjba, Kukatja, 
a/Jjeljaka, Aranda. Yields a fruit very nice to eat. Fruit 1 cm diameter, 
green to pallid. 

Sohinnm sp. aff. with S. ph lorn aides A. Cunn. and S. melanospermum F. Muell. 
(lb, 12b, 13b, 103b, 165b, 167b). Lobed leaves. Fruit large on long re- 
curved pedicles, long spines on calyx which is ribbed, 'kura., 'pura, Pintubi. 
'kura, 'pura, Kukatja. 'pigi> Aranda. Large fruit, the black seed in this 
fruit is thrown away, the skin and flesh only being eaten. 

Sohmum metanospcrmum F. Muell. (prnb.) (37a., 51b, 59b). Both numbers 51b 
and 59b were given the sum* native name as Solatium sp, aff. S. phlomoides. 
No. 51b has deeply Iobed leaves and delicate prickles on the stem, and 
occasionally on the leaves and even on the calyx. No fruit. No. 59b has 
rather short pale prickles on the stem and petioles but none on the leaves 
and calyx. The leaves seem undulate. There is a whitish dried fruit about 
1 cm. in diameter in a rather short recurved pedicel These two plants are 
considered to be probably S. melanospcrmitm and the native identification 
incorrect. One would naturally infer dial their identification was more 
likely to be correct than ours but it should be remembered that the natives 
were shown a broken-off branch and did not see the plant growing with its 
natural habit. 'kura> 'pnra T Pintubi. 'kura, Kukatja. 'kura, Ngalla, 'pii^i, 
Aranda. Large tomato-like fruit eaten, The black seed in it "is taken out 
and thrown away and is spoken of as *not good*, only the flesh and skin 
being eaten. It is called 'good food', 

Solontrm pelrophilum (14b). Given the same native name as Sohnum sp. uff. 
H. pmomoides. Very numerous white spines up fn 1 -3 cm. low; on the stem, 
wmmon on the leaves and on the calyx. Leaves shortly lobed. A dried 
white fruit is 9 mm, diameter. This is considered to be S. petropkUum 
and the native identification incorrect. 'kura, 'pura, Pintubi. 'kura, 
Kukatja. 'pigi ; Aranda. Has a good fruit like a tomato which is eaten 
(The fruit of S. petrophilum is hard and not edible] 

Datum Icichardtii ( 139b). a'ranga'rakata, Aranda. No use is made of it. Onec- 
two boys ate these and they became drunk. Their mother wanted to know 
what was wrong. Very ^strong" and dangerous, only makes one drunk. 

Nicotinna rotundifolia Lindl. (38a), mingulha, Pintubi. 'mingul'mingulha, 
Aranda. Not used by Aranda. 

(70). 'ingul'ingulba, Aranda. Chew it when nothing better is available. 

Nicotiarut gas.wi Domin. (56a). pitjnri, Aranda. ingulba, Aranda, 

Nicotiana sp. ? not\ afl*. A 7 , gossei. Dr. H. Eichier, State Botanist, reports: "This 
species is characterized by the long flowers similar to N. gossei and N, 
rotundifolia, the pubescence of A 7 , gossei and N. rotundifolia, the short 
calyx (ca. 9-11 mm.), the cauline leaves having not such a broad base as is 
characteristic for A T . goswi and the inflorescence being more elongated than 
in N. gossei and r*esombling more A', ingulba:" 

(3a). mingulmingulba, Kukatja. ingulingulba, Aranda. Not used for any pur- 
pose by the Aranda. Tin's species grows near water. The species on the 
.sandhills and the one on the ranges are chewed by all. 

1 32a). tjunbunbu, Ngalin. pitjuri, Aranda. This species is the hills tobacco 
«*md is considered a good kind. 

(.136a J. ingulbu, Pintubi. pitjuri, Aranda. 

(ilJb) mingulba, Pintubi. ingulba. Aranda. This Nivotitma is chewed with 


(141b). ingulingulba, Aranda. Some people use it as a tobacco. (The differ- 
ences in native nomenclature and use are perhaps due to their mis-identify- 
ing the insufficient material.) 

Nicotiuna rehitina (136b). mingulmingulba, Pintubi. ingulingulba, Aranda. 
Sometimes men chew it when they have no pitjuri. It is wilted in hot ashes 
but is not as good as ingulba. 

(Nicotiuna ingulba with its very long corolla tube was also collected and is used 
by the natives. However, a specimen was not submitted for the native 
name. ) 


Stemodia viscosa (104a). Has no native name. Has a strong sine]]; to make a 
medicine, it is put in boiling water and allowed to cool; in use the head is 
washed with the liquid. Tt is considered a good medicine. 

Tccoma doratoxijlon (44a). 'urtjanba, Pintubi. 'winbiri, Kukatja. ' 
Ngalia. 'janhara, Aranda. The wood of this shrub, because of its flexibility 
and strength, is considered to bo the best spear wood. Short lengths are 
spliced together when long oues are not available. 


Myoporum montanum (147b). tjuruku tjuxulcu, Aranda. Used as medicine, 
steep in water with hot stones in dish, wash head with it; very strong medi- 
cine. fc Heat branches in fire and spread down, lie on them for medicine.' 

EremophUa latrolwi (32b). knjilana, Aranda. Eat the bases of the flowers, pull 
off flower and eat base; is very sweet sugar = rjkwald. 

EremophUa gifasii (24a, 79b). 'rnolih\ Pinlubi. 'knjirlana, Aranda. Ermi food, 
also a native medicine; boil it, wash the body with the liquid for the cure 
of body sores - 

EnmiojUiila $turlii (109a). "Kerosene Bush." 'inkotinkota, Aranda. Has no use. 

EremophUa longifolia (20a). 'nalurupa, Pintubi, Kukatja. tnuruna, Aranda. 
Has no use. 

EremophUa freelingu (124b). 'aratja, Pintubi. 'aratja, Aranda. Euros eat it. 

EremophUa goodwini (50b)- Only a flower, no food. Unpleasant smell. 


Plectronia latifolia (86a). awulura, Pintubi. agia, Aranda. This wild currant 
is plentiful on the sandhills and on the ranges. 


Melothria maderaspafano (133a, 39b). 'elkart'elk(w)arta, Aranda. Kangaroos 

eat the fruits; has no other use. 
CitruUm vtdgaris (60a). kma, Kukatja. pikiu, Aranda. The introduced pic 

melon, blackfollow melon. 


Isotoma pelntea (137b). "Euro fingers" is one of names, 'mara'kanjala, Pintubi. 
Mraneratja, Aranda. l Very strong.' tf ent this with pitjuri it makes one 
very drunk, very strong. 

Condemn larapinta Tate (25a). Has no native name. 

140 J. B. CLELAND and N. B. TINDALE 


Brachycome ciliaris (67a). Has no native name, "only a flower", 

Calotis Icttiuscula (109b). tjintatjinta, Pintubi, Kukatja, Aranda. Kangaroo and 

emu food only. 
Calotis hispidula (66a, 132b). tjilga, PintnbL tongara, Aranda. Nuisance only 

(from the spines); hard to find place to camp where there are none, 
Siegesbeckia orientalis (12a). Has no native name. Only a flower; no use 

except that it is used to decorate the hair of girls. 
Podocoma cimeifoUa (142b). Only a flower. 
Olearia sabspicata (98b). Only a flower, no name. 
Glossogyne tenidfolia (117b). 'cnomarta, enmorta, Aranda. Emu food. 
Senecio magnifims (137b). 'knulja, knamba, lelena, 'knuljaknambalelena, 

Aranda, Only a flower. 
Senecio gregorii (122a). Has no native name and no use, only a flower. 
Heliptenim floribundum (72a). Has no native name, only a flower. 
llelipterum stipilaium (41a, 112b), eno:tji (a flower), Pintubi. 'wamala- 

'wamula, Ngalia, andata, Aranda. (The Aranda speak of it only under 

this general name, meaning a flower.) andata raara, a good or pretty flower. 
Heliptenim thomsoni (153b). Only a flower. 

Helichrysum (tpiculatum (3b). 'kembakemba, Aranda. "Only a flower." 
Helichrysum bracteatum (26a). Has no native name, "only a flower". 
Helichrysum ambiguum (9a). Has no native name and no use. 
Rutidosis helichrysoides (4a> 114b). kembakemba, Pintubi. kembakemba, 

Aranda. Not used. 
Myriocephalus stuartii (29a, 108a). Has no native name, "only a flower". 
Cahcephalus multiflorus (10a, 113b). Has no native name and is not used; 

onlv a flower, 
Sonchus oleraceus (79a). The introduced Sow Thistle, 'ulbu'rulbura. "Came 

with the white man; not eaten," 


Pisolithus (Pfilysaccum) tinctorius. awingura, Aranda. Said by the aborigines 

to grow under mulga trees. 
Phellorhina sp. No native name or use. 


byN. H. Ludbrook 


The present paper is the first of a series revising the molluscan species described by Tate. 
The scaphopoda are all lodged in the Tate Museum Collection, University of Adelaide. 


by N. H. IiLT>HHooK* 

[Read 11 September 1958] 


Tlte present paper is the ?JK*! r# a series revising the mnlluscan species' de- 
scribed by Tate. The seaphopoda are ali lodged i*» the Tate Museum Collec- 
tion.. University of Adelaide. 


At the suggestion of Dr, M. F. Glae.ssuer the writer has undertaken, on a 
long-term basis, the revision of the type collection of mollusca described by 
Ralph Tate between 1878 and 1899. 

For the 50 years following the death of Tate in 1901 this material consti- 
tuted the principal basis of Tertiary correlation in South Australia. It is now 
desirable that the mollusca be revised and aligned with the microfaunas wluch 
have been studied during the last six years at the University of Adelaide and the 
South Australian Department of Minos. 

The scaphopod species are all in the Tato Museum Collection. They are 
a small group of some significance in stratigraphic interpretation. 




Genus Dentaitvm Linne, 1758 
Type species (s.d. Montfort, 1810) Dentalium elephantinum Linne 
Subgenus Disntalium s. str. 
Dentalium (Dentalium) aratum Tate 
pl. 1, fi«. & 
Dentalium aratum Tate, 1837, Trans. Roy. Soc. &■ Aust., 9, p. 192, pl. 20, fh£ 8. 
Dentalium aratum Tate, Harris, 1897, Cat. Tcrt, Moll. Brit. Mus., 1, p. 293. 
Dentalium aratum Tate, PiLsbry & Sharp, -1898, Txynn's Man. Conch-, 17, p. 199. 
Dentalium (Epkiphou) urutum Tate, 1899, Traus. fitly. Soc. S. Aust., 23 (2), n, 26'5. 
Dentalium aratum Tate, Chapman & Crespin, 1928, Roe. Geol. Surv. Vic., 5(1), p. 159. 

Dentnlium ( Paradental inm) aratum Tate, Cotton and Ludbrook, 1938. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Aust, 62 (2), p. 223. 

Diugnosls—A small Dentalium with from 6 to 8 primary ribs narrower than 
the interspaces with fine secondary riblets and threads developing anteriorly. 
Strongly curved posteriorly, nearly straight anteriorly. 

Description of Hololype—Sh<A\ small* fairly strongly arcuate, polygonal in 
section with 7 strong primary ribs and fine longitudinal threads or riblets in 
the interspaces. Ribs narrow, interspaces wide, shell strongly curved posteriorly., 
straightening anteriorly, gradually tapering, Apex and aperture polygonal. 

Dimensions— Length 20 mm., diameter at apex 1 mm., diameter "at aperture 
2 mm., arc 2 mm. 

° Department of Mines, Adelaide. Published with the permission ot : the Director of Mines, 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. 82. 


Type LocaWtj-Caddl Marl Lens, River Murray, 4 miles below Morgan, 
Hundred Cadell. Section G; Lower Miocene. 

Holotype-Tnte Mus, Coll., T256A. 

Matcrial-On original tablet T 256 holotype and 25 paratopes in 3 rows; top 
row numbered 1-1 seven paratopes Muddy Creek, numbered 4 one paratype 
Spring Creek; middle row numbered 5-5 four paratypes Gellibrand, the holo- 
type, "and 4 paratopes R. Murray: bottom row numbered 2 one paratype Fyans- 
ford, nmnbered 3' two paratypes Sehnapper Point, 6 paratypes R. Murray, 

The original deseripLion cites the species as occurring in the Muloowurtie 
Clays, but no specimens from this locality are in Tates material . 

Slratigmpkical Range— Miocenc-?Pliocene. 

Dentalium (Dcntalium) latesulcatum Tate 

P l. 1. fig. 1 
Dentalium latemclatum (err. pro latesulcatum) Tate, L899, Trans. Roy. Sou. S. Anst., 23 

(2), p. 362, P L s, fr y- x . _ . 

Dentalium (Faradcntalium) howchmi, Cotlou & Ltidbruok, .1938, Turns. H"v. Sou. .S. Aust.. 

62 (2). P- 224, pl. 12, fig. 6. 
Dentalium, (Dentalium) htesulcatum Tate r Uulhroolc, 1950, Ti'aiis. Hoy. Soc. S, Aust, 79, 

X^p. 1-2, pl, 1, figs. 10-14 {gives hill synonymy). 

Dw<>nosis-A short thick solid Dentalium with 7 to 16 strong primary ribs 
approximately equal to interspaces in which secondary ribs may be developed 

hv intercalation. , , i- . i fe Lii i 

' Description of Ilololtjpc-Shett short, thick* solid, only very slightly curved, 
rapidlv taperine;, sculptured with 10 strong primary ribs narrower than the inter- 
spaces' in which secondary riblets rise near the aperture by intercalation. Inter- 
spaces irregularly and strongly crossed by growth striae which pass less con- 
spicuously 'over 'the ribs. Apex with a notch. Aperture circular internally, 

polygonal external ly. 

' nimcmiom-hvn£ih 40 mm., diameter at apex 3 mm., diameter at aperture 

8 mm. , M , n „ 

Type LocaUhj-^Yimge Burn, Hamilton., Victoria; Grange Burn Coquiua, 


//o/o/r/pc-Tate Mus. Coll., T 1610A. 

A/ak'/ : ia/-The holotype and 6 paratypes on original tablet; specimens 
labelled Dentcdium elephanttnum and recorded as such (Tate, 1S90, p. 177) 
Dry Creek Bore. 

Stratigmphical Range— Pliocene. 

Subgenus Aktalis H. Adams & A. Adams, 1854 

Type species (s.d, Pilsbry & Sharp, 3S97) Dentalwm entalis Linne 

Dentalium (Antalis) bifrons Tate 

Dentalium (?)bijmm Tato, 18S7 T Trims. Roy. Sot S. Aijst., 9, pp. LB2-3, pl. 20, fi& 5. 
Dentalium bifrons Tate. Tate & Dermant. 1803, Trans. Roy. Sot\ S, Anst, 17 ( I ;, p. SM, 
Dentalium bifrons Tate, Harris. 1897, Cat TVrL Moll. Brit. Mus., 1. t>, Bffi* 
Dentalium. hijmns Tate, Pilsbry & Sharp, 1893, Tryon's Man. Condi., 17, a fiflD; 
Dentalium (Fiswhntalium) bifmts Tat«, Cotton & UunVook, H.J38- '1 iuus. Hoy. Sol-. S. Anst, 

62 (2). p. 222. 

Ditf£«<:vri.v-A large solid, gradually tapering and only slightly curved Antalis, 
finely ribbed in the posterior one-quarter, obsolete or smooth elsewhere but tor 
conspicuous oblique growth lines. Apex with or without slit. 


Description of II olotype— Shell large and solid, only slightly curved, more 
so in the posterior one-third, nearly straight in the anterior two-thirds. Posterior 
one-quarter with about 4i) fine ribs which rapidly become obsolete. Anterior 
portion of shell smooth, with microscopic and conspicuous oblique growth striae. 
Shell gradually tapering over all. Apex circular in the holotype, without slit, 
Aperture circular, only slightly oblique. 

Dimensions— Length 92 mm., diameter at apex 2 mm., diameter at aperture 
9-4 mm., arc 3-6 mm. 

Type Locality— Muddy Creek, Hamilton, Victoria; Grange Burn Coquina, 

Halufype-Tiiiv Mus* ColL T255. 

Material— On tablet T255, the holotype and 2 paratypes from Muddy Creek, 
< trif * paratype Spring Creek. One large topotype 96 mm. long with apical slit 
5*5 mm. 

Sfratigmphical Range— Miocene-Pliocene, 

Dentalium (Antalis) sectiforme Tate 
pi. 2, fig. 5 

Dentalium (Groptacnw) secUfarme Tate, 169U, Tiaus. Roy. Sot.*. S. Aust.., 23 (2), p, 262, 
pi. 8, figs. 6, &i. 

Dentalium (Graptucmtj ) wctijorfiu: Tate, Cotton ,md rmlbmolc, 1938, Trans. Rov. Soc. S 
Aust., 62 (2) : p. 225. 

Diagnosis—A small, slender Antalis, moderately curved, sculptured poste- 
riorly with fine riblets increasing by intercalation from about 16 at the apex to 
about 30 where they become obsolete in the anterior quarter. 

Dcscriplion of Holotype— Shell small, very slender and gradually tapering, 
fairly thin but solid, glossy, translucent, sculptured in the posterior three-quarters 
with fine riblets, 16 at the apex increasing by intercalation to about. 30 at the 
anterior one-quarter where they become obsolete, but arc still visible under 
die microscope. Anterior quarter showing fine growth striae. 

Aperture circular, peristome thin; apex vpitft a short slit and small supple- 
mentary pipe. 

Dimensions— Length 11 mm., diameter at apex 0-05 mm, diameter at aper- 
ture 2-2 mm,, arc 1-5 mm. 

Type Locality- Muddv Creek. Victoria; Grange Bum Coquina, Pliocene. 

HoLohjpe-Tatc Mm. ColL, T 1615A. 

Material— The holotype and 5 paratypes. 

Stratigraphical Range— Lower Pliocene of Muddy Creek. 

Subgenus Fustiahia Stoliczka, 1S6S 

Type species (s.d. Pilsbry & Sharp, 1897) D. citcinalum Sowerby 

Dentalium (Fustiaria) tornatissimuin Tate 

pi. 2, fitfs. % 7 

Dimtalium (Episiphsm) tornatissimtttn Tate, 1899, Trnnn. Rny. Sue, S. Aust., 23 (2), \\ 90S 1 , 
pi. 8, Cgs. 7-7tt. 

Dentalium {Episiphon) tomatixximum Tate. Cotton and Ltulhnmk, 1938. Trans. Kuv. Soc. 
S. Aust., €2 (2), p. 226-7. 

Diagnosis— A very small solid Fttstiaria with conspicuous annular grooves, 
about 8 per mm. 

Description of Holotype— Shell small but solid, nearly straight, sculptured 
with incised annular grooves, varying from 10 per mm. in the apical portion to 
less than 8 towards the aperture. Apex with a short terminal pipe, aperture 
broken, circular in section. 


Dimension*— Length 7*3 mm., diameter at aperture 1*37 mm., diameter at 
apex 0-55 mm., arc 0-27 mm. 

Type Localit y— Jemmy's Point, Gippsland; Jemmy's Point Formation, Kalim- 
nan (Pliocene). 

HoloU/pe-Tnte Mm. Coll., T1609. 

Material— The holotype and paratype. 

StraUgraphical Range— Kalimnan (Pliocene). 

Subgenus Gadilina Foresti, 1895 

Type species (monotypy) D. triqiietrum Brocchi, 1811 

Dentalium (Gadilina) tatei Sharp & Pilsbry 

l>l. 1, &fe S 

Dentalium (?) triquetrum Tate, 1887, Trans. Kov. Soc. S. Aust.. 9. p. 193, pi. 20, fig. 3 {nnn 

Brocchi, 1614). 
Dentalium tatei Sharp & Pilshry, 1898, Tryon's Man. Conch,, 17. p. 318 {nom. nou.), 
Dentalium (Gadilina) tatei Sharp & Pihbrv, Tute, 1899, Tnim. Kov. Soc, S. Aust, 23 (2), 
p. 266\ 

Dentalium (Gadilina) tatei Pilsbry & Sharp. Cotton & Ludbrook, 1938, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. 
Aust., 62 (2), p. 227. 

Diagnosis— A small but solid Gadilkui. very slightly curved. 

Description of Holotype— Shell small, solid, smooth but for microscopic 
growth lines, thick, only very slightly curved and only slightly tapering. Later- 
ally compressed. Aperture broken, apex triangular in section* 

Dimensions— Length 10 mm, diameter at apex 0-7 mm. 

Type Locality— Adelaide Bore, Kent Town, glauconitic sands. Upper Eocene. 

Holotype-Tatc Mus. Coll, T252A. 

Material— The holotype and six paratypes. 

St rat (graphical Range— -Upper Eocene. 

Subgenus Laicvidisntawuai Cossmann, 1888 
Type species (o.d. ) D. incertum Deshayes 

Dentalium (Laevidentalium) acriculum (Tate) 
pk I, fig, '2 
Entail* acricuium Tate, 1887, Trans. Hoy. Soc S. Aust., 9 ? p. 192, pi. 20, fig. 11. 
Dentalium lacteum Tate, 1887, ibid., p. 193. utm Dushaycs, 
Dentalium acriculum Tate, Pilsbry is Sharp, 1898, Man. Conch., 17, n. 197. 
Dentalium (Laevidentalium) lacteohim Tate, 1899, Trans. Roy. Soc. S, Aust., 28 (2), p. 284. 
Dentalium (Frntiuria) acriculum Tate, 1899, ibid. 
Dentalium ( Laevidentalium ) lacteohim Tate, Cotton und JLudbrook, 1938, Trans. Roy. Soc. 

S. Aust., 62 (2), p. 226. 
Dentalium {FwttinHa) acriculum (Tate), Cotton and Ludhrook, 1938, ibid. 

Diagnosis— A. small, smooth, thin, gently curved Laevidentalium. 

Descripiion of Holotype— Shell small, thin, subulate, gently curved, smooth, 
polished, with microscopic growth lines. Apex with a slit, aperture circular, 

Dimensions— Length 33 mm., diameter at apex 0*85 mm., diameter at aper- 
ture 2-5 mm., arc. 2*0 mm. 

Type Locality— Muddy Creek, Victoria; Muddy Creek Marls, Lower 

Hnfotype—Tate Mus. Coll., T 251. 

Material— On tablet T 251 the holotype and 8 paratypes (Muddy Creek); 
on tablet T 253 originally labelled Dentalium lactemn Deshayes and later cor- 
rected to Dentalium lacteolum Tate, six specimens Muddy Creek, one Gelli- 


brand. Tate separated these from acriculum on the absence of the apical fissure 
which is not regarded as a diagnostic feature. 3 of the parutypes of acriculum 
have no fissure and the two species are indistinguishable. 

The annular striae of the type description are merely very faint growth 

Strati graphical Range— ~Lower Miocene, 

Dentalium (Laevidentalium) aust rale Sharp & Pilsbry 
pl 2. fo 1 

EitUdis anmihtum Tate, 1887,. Truiis. tloy. Soc, S. Aust, 9. pp. 191-2, pi. 20, fifis. 6»i, 6b, 

non Gmolin, nee Meyer, nee Ssmdbcrgcr. 
Dentalium australi? Sharp & Vilsbry, 1898, TryonV Man. Conch., 17, p. 199 (nam. unit). 

Dentalium IFuxtiaria) ausirale- Sharp & Pilsbrv, Tate. 1899. Trans. Roy, Soc, S. AusU 23 
(2), pp. 264-5. 

Dentalium {Fmiiarla) auttmk- Sharp & Pilsbrv, Cotton and Ludbrook, 1938, Trans. Hoy. Soc. 
S. Aust, 62 (2), p. 226. 

Diagnosis— A fairly large solid Laevidentalium nearly straight in the adult, 
with conspicuous fairly even growth striae about 6 per mm. 

Description of Holotype— Shell stout, fairly large and evenly tapering, only 
slightly curved, more particularly in the posterior one-third. Shell smooth but 
for conspicuous incised and fairly even groAvth striae, generally about 6 per milli- 
metre. Apex rounded with a slit about 3 mm. long. Aperture circular, not 

Dimensions— Length 58 mm., diameter of apex 2 mm, diameter of aperture 
7 mm, t arc 2 mm. 

Type Locality—Muddy Creek, Victoria; Muddy Creek Marls, Lower 


Holottjpe-Tixte Mus. Col., T250A. 

Material— The holotypc and 3 paratopes, on tablet with six mounted speci- 
mens. The holotype is the second from the left, the paratype third from the left 
is a specimen 53 mm. long of which the apex with terminal pipe was figured 
(Tate, 1887, pi. 20, fig. 6b). 

Two specimens, the extreme left and the second from right on the tablet, 
do not belong to the species but to a large undescribed species on tablet T258 
with 4 specimens of D. subfissum from the Murray Cliffs. 

The dimensions of the holotype are incorrectly given in the original de- 

Stratigraphical Range— Upper Oiigocene-Lower Miocene. 

Dentalium (Laevidentalium) largicresccns Tate 

pl. I. fig. 3 
Dentalium lurgiorcscem Tate, 1899^ Trans. Rov. Stic. S- Aust.. 23 (2), p. 264, pi, S, figs, 

10, 10a. 
Dentalium fargicrescen? Tate, Chapman & Crespin, 1928, Rc-c. Cool. Surv, Vic., 5 (1), p. 159. 
Dentalium (LaerMhmtaliim) largicrescem Tate. Colton and Ludbrook, 1938, Trans. Roy. 

Soc. S. Aust., 62 (2), p. 225. 

Diagnosis— A short, solid, rapidly tapering and slightly curved Laeviden- 

Description of Holotype— Shell of moderate size, moderately thick, smooth 
and shining with conspicuous slightly oblique growth striae. Shell rapidly 
tapering, gently curved in the posterior one-third but only slightly curved to- 
wards the aperture. Apex circular, thick, with an apical fissure on the ventral 
side, aperture circular, relatively thin. 


Dimensions— L^n^th 14 mm H diameter at apex 1-0 mm., diameter at aper- 
ture 6 5 mm., arc 2-5 mm, 

Type Locality— Beaumaris, Victoria; Sandringham Sands, Black Rock Mem- 
ber, Chcltenhamian (Upper Miocene). 

Holotype-TdU* Mus. Coll., T 1611. 

Material— On tablet T 1611, the holotype and five paratypes from Beaumaris, 
one paratope from the Pliocene of Muddy Creek. One specimen Muddy Creek. 

Stratigraphical Range— Cheltenhamian (Upper Miocene )-Kalimnan (Lower 

Dentalium (Laevidentalium) pictile Tate 

Entalis subfissura Tate, Tate and Dormant, 1896, Trans. Rny. Soc. S. Aost., 20 (1), p. 134. 
Denialmm (Laevidcntullum) pictile Tate, J899. Trans. Row Soc. S. Aust., 23 (2). p< 263, 

pi. 8, fig. 8. 
Dentalium (Laevidentalium) pictile Tate r Cotton and laidbrook, 1938, Trans. Rov, Sue. S. 

Anst, 6*2 (2), p. 225. 

Diagnosis— A strongly curved Laevidcntalium of moderate size, evenly 

Description of Hololype—ShvU slender, of moderate size, gradually tapering, 
strongly curved, smooth but for fine growth striae, dark grey to black in colour 
with light bands. Apex slightly oval, with a short broad notch, aperture rounded, 

Dimensions— Length 52 mm., diameter at apex 1 mm,, diameter at aperture 
5 mm, arc 6-5 mm. 

Type Locality— Table Cape, Tasmania; Qligocenc, 

Ihdotype-Tcitv Mus. Coll., T 1608. 

Material— Tablet T 160S with holotype and paratype only. 

Stratigraphical Ran^e— Upper Ohgocene-Lower Miocene. 

Dentalium (Laevidentalium) subfissura (Tate) 
pi 2, %. 3 
Entalis subfissura Tate, 1887, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 9, p. 191, p3. 20 r fig* 4u-h. 
Dentalium stMssum Tate, Harris, 1897, Cat. Tort. Moll. Brit. Mus.. (1), a ±96; Pilsbry * 

Sharp, 1868, Man. Conch., 17, p. 216, 
Dentalium mbfissura Tate, 1899, Traas. Hoy. Soc. S. Anst. t 23 (2), p. 263. 
Dentalium subfissura Tate, Chapman & Cnc.spin, 1928, ttee. Geol. Surv. Vic., 5 (1), p. 159. 
Dentalium (Laevidentalium) subfissura Tate, Cotton & Lud brook, 1938, Trans. Roy, Soc. S. 

Anst., 62 (2), p. 225. 

Diagnosis— An evenly tapering and moderately arcuate Laevidentalium of 
moderate size. 

Description of Holotype— Shell of moderate size for the subgenus, thin, 
subulate, slightly compressed dorso-ventrally, smooth except for oblique growth 
striae. Apex small, subcircular, with a fairly broad V-shapcd notch on the 
ventral side and a small supplementary pipe. Aperture oblique, slightly oval, 
dorso-ventrally compressed . 

Dimensions— Length 46 mm., diameters tit aperture 4 and 4*25 mm. : 
diameter at apex 1 mm., arc 4 mm. 

Type Locality— River Murray Cliffs 4 miles downstream from Morgan, Hun- 
dred of Cadell, Section G. Morgan Limestone (Lower Miocene). 

Uohtypc-Talc Mus. Coll., T249A. 

Material— -On tablet the holotype and the following paratypes: River Murray 
2, Muddy Creek 3, Gellibrand River 3, Spring Creek 1, Schnappcr Point 2, 
Aldinga Bay (Blauche Point Marls) 3, Corio Bay 1. Table Cape specimen was 


evidently removed from the tablet and described as D. pictile, the holotype of 
which just fits the unfaded space, T 258 consists of 4 topotypes from River 
Murray, and one large Laeviaeniaiium belonging to another species. 

Also in the Tate Collection 1 specimen Dry Creek Bore, 34 examples un- 
localized probably from Muddy Crock, 1 specimen from the Eocene of Adelaide 
Bore, 12 specimens Schnapper Point, 12 specimens Blanche Point Maris, 11 
topotypes River Murray, 27 specimens Muddy Creek. 

Stmtigraphical flange— Upper Eocene to Lower Miocene. Common in 
Lower Miocene of Murray Basin. 

Family SIPHONODENTALHDAE Simroth, 1891 

Genus Caduiajs Fhilippi, 1844 

Type species (monotypy) DentalUnn ovulum Philippi 

Subgenus Gadila Gray, 1847 

Type species (o.d.) Dentalium gachis Montagu 
Cadulus (Gadila) mucronatus Tate 
pl. I. rig, H 
Cadulus mucTonatm Tate, 1KH7, Tram. Roy. Soc. 8. Avst., 9, p. 193. pl. 20, Ar. 10, 
Cotlulus mucromtus Tate, Harris, J897 T Cat. Ttat-i Moll. Brit. Mus,, L p. jfcBY. 
Cadulus mucronatuSt Tate, PiLshry k Sharp, 1S98> Tryon's Man. Conch., 17, p 237. 
Cadulus mwroTuitm Tsitc, 1899, Trims. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 23 (2), p. 2Co\ 

Dut gnosis— A small Gadila, bulging slightly to the anterior of die middle. 
Gently curved, fairly rapidly tapering at each end. Wider anteriorly than tr> 
wards the apex. 

Description of Holotype— Shell fairly small, solid, narrow, gently arcuate 
on the ventral surface and bulging on the dorsal surface, Contraction towards 
the anterior aperture fairly pronounced over 2 mm-; contraction to the posterior 
more gradual over a length of 3 mm. 

Aperture broken in the holotype, otherwise oblique, apex also broken, other- 
wise rounded, sharp, and tliiekcned within. 

Surface smooth, polished, with slightly oblique growth lines and faint signs 
of banding to the anterior. 

Dimensions— Length 6-3 mm., diameter at apex 0-7 mm., at aperture 1-0 
mm., at swelling 1*63 nun. 

Type Locality (here designated)— Muddy Creek, Victoria; Muddy Creek 
Marls, Lower Miocene. 

Hobti/pe-Tdte Mus. Coll.. T229A. 

Material— The holotype and 14 jiaratypos' in 2 rows mounted on card in box 
mounted on tablet labelled ^Cadulus mneronahJS Tate pl. XX., fig. 10, Eocene 
Muddy CL, 1 Spring Ck." 

The holotype ft the specimen at the left of the bottom row. 

There is nothing on the card to indicate which specimens come from 
Muddy Creek and which from Spring Creek. 

One large shell fifth from the left of the bottom row does not belong to 
the species. 

Stmt ^graphical Range— Lower Miocene. 

Cadulus (Gadila) acuminatus Tate 

pi- 1, fig. 7 
Cttduhtt acnmituitus Tata, 1887, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. AusU. 9, p. 194, 

Cadulus (Gadila) ucuminatus Tate, Pilsbry & Sharp, 1S98, Tryon's Mao. Couch., 17, p, I .S3. 
Cadulux (Gadila) acuminatum Tate, 1899, id. 2» (2), p, 266, pl 8, fig. 12. 

148 \ H. LUDBROOK 

Caduhts actwunatus Desk. Dennant & Kitson, 1903, Rec. Geol, Surv. Vic- 7 I (2) + p. 145, 
CaduUist acuminatus Tate, Ludbrook, 194I„ Trans. Koy. Soc. S. Aust., 65 (I), p. 101. 
Cadultts (Gadila) acuminatus Tate, Ludbrook, 1958, k/. 79, p, o, pi, I, fig. 2, 

Diagnosis— A very small Gadila slightly curved and not bulging. 

Description of Holotype— Shell rather thin, very small, slightly curved, 
gently tapering anteriorly and slightly mure so posteriorly. Dorsal face with 
gentle curvature, ventral face somewhat more arcuate. Surface of shell some- 
what eroded, otherwise smooth. 

Apex circular* slightly oblique, thin; aperture small, circular, thin. 

Dimensions'— Length 5-3 mm., diameter at the middlo I mm., diameter at 
aperture 0-75 mm. 

Tt/pe Locality— Aldinga Bav; Oyster Beds, Pliocene. 

Holntype-Tnte Mua. Coll./ 1 231 A, 

Material —The holotype (the middle specimen) and 2 paratypes mounted 
on card in tube on tablet labelled "Cadultis acwnhuitus Destiny es Miocene Ah 

Tate's ( 1899, p. 266 ) explanation of his use of Deshayes's MSS name is 
sufficiently clear. Deshayes's material has not yet been described; the tabh*t 
as originally labelled is still in the British Museum. 

Stnttigraphical Range— Pliocene of Aldinga Bay and the Adelaide Basin. 

Cadulus (Gadila) infans Tate 
pi. 1, fie 6 
Cadutus iTifom- Tate, 1899, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 23 (89, p. 3GCJ, pi. & Ji£. 11. 

Diagnosis— A very small Gadila, very slightly curved and slightly bulging in 
the anterior one-third. 

Description of Holotype— Shell thin, white, smooth, very small, shining, 
slightly bulging in tile anterior one-third and very gently tapering posteriorly, 
slightly more so in the anterior third. Dorsal face nearly straight, ventral face 
gently arcuate, Apex broken, apparently circular, aperture oblique, thin. 

Dimemkvis— Length 3-2 mm., maximum diameter 0-51 mm., diameter at 
aperture 0-5 mm., arc 0*05 mm. 

Type Locality—Muddy Creek, Victoria; Grange Burn Coquina, Pliocene. 

Hoiotype-Tate Mus. Coll., T 1614. 

Material— The holotype only. 

Siratigraphical Range— Pliocene. 


Chapman, F. 7 1916. Cainozoie Geology of the Mallee and other Victorian Bores. l\cc. Geol. 
Snrv. Vic, 3 (4), pp. 327-430, pis. 63-78. 

Chapman, F., Crejspik, I, and Ke&i.e, R. A., 1928. The Sorrento Bore, Murnint*ton Peninsula. 
Rec, Geo), Surv. Vic., 5 (1), pp. 1-195, pis, 1-12. 

Cotton. B. C, and Ludbhook, N t . H m 1938, Recent and Fossil Species of the Scaphopod 
Genus Dentalium in South Australia. Trans. Koy. Soc. 6; Aust., 62 (2L pp. 217-228, 
pL 12. 

Dennant, J., and Kttson, A. E., 1903. Catalogue of the Described Species of Fossils (ex- 
cept Bryozoa and Fonuiuxiifeju) in the Cainozoic Fauna of Victoria. South Australia and 
Tasmania. Roc. Geol. Surv. Vic, I (2), pp. 80-147. 

Ludbrook, N- IT., 1955,. The MolVuscan Fauna of the Plfocefie Strata Underlying the Ade- 
laide Plains. Part ill. Seuphopoda, etc. Trans. Koy. Soc. S. Aust., 79, pp. 1-36, pis. I, 2. 

Prujwvv, 11. A., and Sua hp, B M 1897-8. Scaphopoda. Tryon's Manual of Concholojiw 17, 
pp. 1-280, pis. 1-39. 

Tate, R-, 1886. The Scaphopoda of the Older Tertiary of Australia- Trans. Rov. Soc. S. 
Aust., 9, pp. 190-194, pi. 20. 

Tatt, II.,. 1890. On the Discovery of Marine Deposits of Pliocene Age in Australia. Trans. 
Roy. Soc, S. Aust, 13 (2), pp. 172-180. 




Fig. 1. — Dentalium (Dentalium) lutesidcatum Tate. Holotype, T 1610A, x2-5. 
Fig. 2. — Dentalium (Laevidentalium) acriculum (Tate). Holotype, T 251, x2-5. 
Fig. 3. — Dentalium (Dentalium) aratum Tate. Holotype, T 256A, x 5. 
Fig. 4. — Dentalium (Laevidentalium) largicrescens Tate. Holotype, T 1611, x2, 
Fig. 5, — Dentalium (Gadilina) tatei Sharp & Filsbry. Holotype, T 252A, x 12. 
Fig. 6. — Cadtdus (Gadila) infans Tate. Holotype, T 1614, x 20. 
Fig- 7. — Cadulus (Gadila) acuminatus Tate. Holotype, T231A, x 10, 
Fig. 8. — Cadulus (Gadila) mucronatus Tate. Holotype, T 229A ; x 11. 


Fig. 1. — Dentalium (Laevidentalium) australe Sharp & Pilsbry. Holotype, T 250A» x2-5. 

Fig. 2. — Dentalium (Antalis) bifrons Tate. Holotype, T 255, xl-5. 

Fig. 3.— Dentalium (Laevidentalium) subfissura (Tate). Holotype, T 249A, x2*5. 

Fig. 4.— Dentalium (Laevidentalium) pictile (Tate). Holotype, T 1608, x2. 

Fig. 5. — Dentalium (Antalis) sectiforme Tate. Holotype, T 1615A, x 10. 

Fig. 6. — Dentalium (Fustiaria) tomattesimum Tate. Holotype, T 1609A, x 9. 

Fig. 7. — Dentalium. (Fustiaria) tornatissum Tate. Paratypc, T 1609B, x 9. 


Plate I 

\. II. LtU)WUX)K 

Pi. vtk '1 


byPatricaM. Thomas 


Four species are described as new, and amplified descriptions are given of six other species. The 
following are included: Capillaria miniopterae n. sp. (Miniopterus blepotis); Amidostomum 
biziurae Johnston & Mawson (Biziuralobata); Nicollina echidnae Baylis and N. cameroni n. sp. 
(Tachyglossusaculeata); Nycteridostrongylus uncicollis Baylis and Molinostrongylus dollfusin. sp. 
(Miniopterus blepotis); Austrostrorzgylus thylogale Johnston & Mawson (Setonix brachyura) ; 
Pharyngodon australis Johnston & Mawson ( Tiliquascincoides ) ; Porrocaecum (Laymanicaecum ) 
sp., immature ( Emusium balloti ) ; Amplicaecum mackerrasae nom. nov. syn. Ophidascaris varani 
Johnston & Mawson ( Varanus varius ) ; Ophidascaris sp. ( Amphibolurus barbatus) ; Hedruris 
longispicula n. sp. (Lygosoma challenged); Abbreviata bancrofti (Irwin-Smith) (Aspidites 
melanocephalus ). 


by Patricia M. Thomas" 
[Read 11 September 1953] 


Four species are described as new, and amplified descriptions arc given of 
six other species. The following are included: Capilhria miniopteme n. sp. 
(Minhptenis blepotis); Amidostomum hiziurae Johnston & Mawson {Bizhira 
lobcita); Nicollina echidnae Baylis and A 7 , camcumi ». sp. (Tachygloxxus 
acuUsatu): Nycteridostrimgyhts vvcicoUU Ray lis and Mulinostrongyhu; dollfus-i 
tii sp. (Miniopterns hhpotis); Austrastroniiyhu* ihylogale Johnston ik Mawson 
(Sftonix brachyuru); Pharyngadon ai/stralte Johnston & Mawson (Tiliqua 
scmcoitles); Purrocaecum (Laywanicaecum) sp., immature (Emmium balloti); 
Amplicaecwn mackerrasfic none nov. syn. Vphidmcam vanmi Johnston & Maw- 
son (Varamt.s- varkis); Ophidasairis sp. (Ajnphihohmts harbatuH); ITedmris 
tongispicula u. sp. ( Lygosovw vhallr-ngeri ) : AhbrcvitUa honcrofti ( Irwin- 
Smith ) ( Aspidites mclanocepfmlus J . 

Amusiwn haltoti Benwrdi, Shark Ray, W.A. Tonomecum (Laymanicaecum) 

Hcmiscyltium ocellutum Bonnaterre. Low Is., Qui Proleplus austmlis Baylis. 
Lygosoma cludlengeri Boulengcr. Springbank, Qu. Iledruris longispieula 

Varanus varius Shaw- Mt. Nebo, Qil Amplicaecum mackerrasae nom. nov. 

Aspidites melanocepludm Krefft. Caii'ns, Qu. Abbreviala hancrofli (Irwin- 

Amphiholunis barbatus Cuvier. West Burleigh. Volydclphis sp, 

Tiliqua scincoides Shaw. Brisbane, Qu. Pharyngodon australis Johnston and 

Biziura tobata Shaw. Pnmong, S.A. Amidostouimn hiziurae Johnston and 

Tacliifidossm aculeala (Shaw and Nodder). Kangaroo Island, S.A.: Nieollina 
echidnae Baylis; N. caviewni u. sp.; Glen Davis, N.S.W.: Nieollina echidnae 

Setonix brachyura Qnoy and Guimard. Rottnest Island, W.A. Ausfrostron^ijlus 
thylogale Johnston and Mawson. 

Miniopterns blepotis Temminek. Naraeoorte, S.A.: Nycteridostrongylus unci- 
collis Baylis, Molinostrongylus dollftisi n. sp. Canungru, Qu.: CapiUarkt 
minioplerae n. sp., Nycteridostrongyhis vncicoUis Baylis, Mnlinosl rangy Ins 
dollftisi n. sp. 

Capillaria rniniopterae n. sp, 

(Figs. 1-3) 

Four female and four male worms were taken from ihe stomaeh of Miniop- 
teris blepotis from Canungra, Queensland. 

The males are 8-0-8-3 mm. long, the females 11-1-14*4 mm. The body 
diameters are, in the male and female respeetively, at the head 6/-., 8**3wj at 

ft Zoology Department, the University of Adelaide. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol, 82. 

152 ]\ M, THOMAS 

the base of the oesophagus 41-47/*, 01/fc at ihc widest part of the body 35-5^, 
88-10u>. The ratio of oesophageal to intestinal regions is as T;l. • 9-!i * 1 in the 
female and 1:1*6 in the male. 

The eggs axe about 50// by 25,a. The vulva lies close behind the end of 
the oesophagus and its position is marked by a large tubular flap ot the cuticle. 
The anus hi die female is 20ju from the rounded posterior end. 

In tlie male there are two Literal bursal lobes each with a double-headed 
bursal ray. Prebursal lateral ake are present. A spicule is apparently absent, 
or is so lightly cuticulurised as to be invisible; the sheath docs not project from 
the body in any specimen; it is not spinose and appears to be voluminous and 
transversely striated. 

The species differs From others from bats in winch proanal alae in the male 
have been described, in the absence of spicules and m having a nonspinous 
sheath, and m the absence of bucillnrv bands in the cuticle. 

AmidoNlomum bfzuiruv Johnston and Mawson 
(Figs. -1-10) 

This species was first described from a single female specimen. A number 
of rnnfes and females have now been obtained from the type host, Biziura lobatfy 
in which they occurred m considerable numbex* from ouder the lining of the 
gizzard in each of two birds examined- Tlie species has been distinguished 
from others of the genus by the. presence of anterior projections around the 
mouth* and by the nature of the cuticle. 

The length of the males is 7 • 1-8-1 mm., that of the females y*4-li*5 mm. 
The cuticle is annulaled* each annuie being formed of a i-ow of coarse bosses 
of more or less equal size; these latter are discontinued in the lateral lines and on 
the f/aif of the female. Underneath this outer layer the cuticle is longitudinally 
striated, but these striae are set obliquely over most of the body, running to- 
wards the lateral lines. The anterior end of the worm is rounded and the 
cuticle not inflated; around the mouth is a ring of six small triangular cuticular 
outgrowths. Six cephalic papillae are distinct. 1 No epaulettc-like structures are 
present, unless these arc represented by the ring of cuticular outgrowths. 

The buccal capsule is strongly built and measures in the female 15/x ex- 
ternal, and 12yx internal, diameter,, and 7.S> in length. The large dorsal tooth 
is n<ir nnrieeably recurved. Other teeth if present are insignificant. The oeso- 
phagus is 530-Cfc20^ long in the male, flO()-6S6> in the female; it is surrounded 
by the nerve ring a little in front of its mid-length, and shortly behind this, at 
almost the same level, are. the excretory pore and the minute cervical papillae. 
hi a male in which the oesophagus is '5 l J0/x long, the nerve ring lies 280/*, the 
cervical papillae at 340/*, and the excretory pore at 345/*, from trie anterior end; 
m a female In which the oesophagus is 610/* long these distances are respec- 
tively 30071;, 350fu and 350/i. The oesophagus is" lined by several long tbick 
cuticularised bands, referred to by some authors as triturating rods, and these 
are broken (each possibly projecting as a small tooth) just in front of the nerve, 
ring, where the oesophagus i*= very slightly swollen. The oesophagus widens 
slightly in its posterior third and ends in an elongate bulb, into winch the 
triturating rods do not enter. 

The female tail, 210-240//. long, is strongly striated, though not mummillaled, 
and ends in an unstriated bulb. The distance <tf the vulva from tlie posterior 
end of the body is 1/4*4-1/4-9 of the total body length. The vulva itself is a 
wide slit. The eggs are. 70-75,)* by 42-45/j. 

Thv spicules are 115-130/* long. Each ends in two points of almost equal 
feneth, of these the dorsal, sometimes shorter, is the narrower, and the other 



wide and membranous. The gubernaculutn is 70/i long. A pair of lateral pre- 
bursal papillae are present. The bursa is infolded along the outer edge of the 
lateral lobes so that the tips of the rays are hard to see. A small dorsal lobe is 
present. The arrangement of the lobes and rays is shown in Figs. 8 ? 9 and 10. 

Figs. 1-10. Figs. 1-3, Gapitlatkl miniopterae. 1, vulvar region of female; 2, ventral, and 3, 
lateral, views of posterior end of male. Figs. 4-10, Amido&tomum bizhirae. 4, dorsal, and 
5, lateral, views of head; 6. oesophageal region; 7, tail of female; 8, posterior end of male; 
9, ventral view of bursa; 10, dorsal ray. Figs. 1, 2, 3 and 8 to same scale; Figs. 4 and 5 to 
same scale; Figs. G, 7, 9 and 10 to same scale. 

The genus Nicollina Baylis, 1930 
Baylis in 1930 (p. 17) described two species of a new genus from echidnas. 
He stated that neither of them appeared to be that recorded (unnamed) by 
Nicoll (1914), because Nicoll described the worms as retaining their coiled 

131 P. M, THOMAS 

shape in hot alcohol, whereas those of Baylis were not coiled. Cameron in 
1931 (p. 153) added another species to the genus, from a marsupial Sarcopiiilus 
hnrrmi, and stated that this species assumes the tightly coiled habit when pre- 

Of two echidnas recently dissected in this department, only one was rxiKl- 
sitiscth and this had two species, one coiled tightly in a long spiral and the 
oilier loosely curved. The latter are identified with one of the species described 
by Baylis, but the Former appears to be so fax uudescribed, and may be thai 
recorded by Dr. Nicoll. 

NicoUina echidnae Baylis, 1930 

(Ki£S. H-12) 

A number of specimens* were obtained from Tacliyiitos&tts ttcnlcata from 
kangaroo Island. Six of each sex were measured. The specimens agree in 
most points with diose described from echidnas from Queensland, The males 
arc about the same si^e. the females rather longer, 5-2^-5 mm. and O-T-S- 1 mm. 
long respectively. The body bears one lateral ala as described by Baylis and 
the cuticle posterior to the cephalic inflation is longitudinally as well as trans- 
versely striated; it is, however, raised into broken longitudinal crests, of which 
there are about two at flic anterior end and more in the wider part of the body. 

The eggs are 30-35,.. by 70-80/t, whereas those measured by Baylis are 55-75/1. 
by 30-33/', These are tin* only [joints in wliich the new specimens differ from 
(he description given by Baylis. The spicule shape and length (340-390/.'.) and 
the dorsal ray of the bursa, are exactly as described. It is possible that the 
Queensland specimens were yoimujer ami the longitudinal crests were not de- 

The month is surrounded by six prominent lips, not figured en* described by 

Nicollina eameroni n. sp. 

(Fitrs- 13-10) 

A large number of specimens were taken from Echidna acnlcutn from Kan- 
garoo Island. In the closely coiled habit of the body the species resembles N. 
s-arcoj)hili Cameron, but it differs bom this species in the presence of two lateral 
alae and in the shape ot the spicules and of the dorsal ray. It is distinguished 
from N. eehidtwe Baylis by the si?e ol' the dorsal tooth, the absence of marked 
lougitudinal crests, the presence of two lateral alae, the spicule length and the 
shape and the coiled habit of the body, the last being distinct in both living 
and fixed worms. The presence of the two lateral alae and the exact shape of 
the spicules do not agree with the original description of the genus, but it is 
thought that the species nevertheless belongs among Nicaliinn species. 

The males are 4-5-5-2 mm. long, the females 6*2-7-0 mm. The. inllatcd 
nuchal cuticle is coarsely striated and extends 95-115/* from the anterior end 
of Lhe worm. The succeeding cuticle is strongly but closely striated, and in some 
parts of some specimens is finely rugose. There is some appearance of longi- 
tudinal banding, in that the striae arc less obvious at intervals, but the cuticle 
is nut raised into crests as in N. echidnae. The six lips are distinct, The buccal 
capsule is well cutieularised, and the Eooth is small, lying at the entrance t« 
tht- oesophagus. The oesophagus widens onlv vcrv slightlv at the posterior end: 
il <s 310-110,* long in the male. 450 -190/* in the female. ' 

The female tail is 140-loO.u lung with a terminal spine and two small sub- 
terminal prominences. The vulva is 700-750/1 from the x_>osterior end; the uteri 
are opposed; the eggs are 70-77^. by 37-38/x, 


The bursa is particularly difficult to unroll, and its dorsal region Is ob- 
scured by granular inclusions; a distinct dorsal lobe is absent. The arrange- 
ment of the bursal rays is shown in Figs. 15-16; the dorsal ray resembles that 
fit jV. echidnas except that the first branches arc longer. Id some specimens 
there seems to be three final brandies instead of two, but this appearance may 
htfi due to the granular nature of the bursa. The spicules arc 400-550* long, 
slender and needle-like, without alae. The tips are different, however, the 
right-hand one ending in a ball point and the left-hand one in a simple point. 
A lightly euticular ised elongate gubernaculum is present. 

Nycteridostrongylus uiicicoDis Baylis, 1900 
CfSjflii 17-19) 

Five adult worms were taken from Miniopteris' blepotis from Naracoorte, 
South Australia, and seven males, two females, and three immature males, from 
the same host specimens from Cammgra. Queensland. 

The adults, from the small intestine of the host, agree very well with those 
described by Baylis. The measurements arc as follows Length of males 4-5-6-3 
mm., of females 4-5-6*5 ram.; length of euticular inflation 35-70*t; length of 
oesophagus 350-500/t in both sexes, with the nerve ring 150-155/* from the 
anterior end and the cervical papillae and excretory pore at the same level The 
female toil is 70-80/* long. The spicules are 510-600/* long. In one broken speci- 
men the tips are distinct; they are provided with a striated flange extending 
from near the proximal end nearly to the tip- flic spicule is hollow., more or 
less cylindrical, and the tip does not appear to be split into several processes, 
or, if so. these remain closely applied to one another. 

The three immature males, probably 4tii stage larvae, were from cysts in 
the mesentery of the host. In the two shortest (2-8, 30 ram.), neither oblique 
euticular ridges nor cephalic inflation arc present, and these arc ooly referred 
to the species by their association with the third (40 mm.), apparently slighttv 
older, specimen (Fig. 19), in which these ridges and the cephalic inflation are 
distinct- In all three the rudiment of the bursa is present, and in the longest 
there is some sclerotisation of the spicule. 

Austrostrongyfus thylogale Johnston and Mawson, 1940 
From Setonix brachyura, Tlottnest Island, Western Australia. 

Mr. Shelley Barker of the Zoology Department of the University of Western 
Australia, who collected these specimens, states that the species is exceedingly 
common in this host, up to 6000 worms having been collected from one animal. 

The specimens are larger than those recorded ft om Thylogale eugenii brum 
Kangaroo Island, but the proportions and appearance are similar. The males 
are about 6 mm. long, the female up lo 7 mm. The spicules are 4-5 mm. long 
and in most specimens a small oval gubernaculum is visible, 20-30** long. The 
eggs are also larger, 90** by 45**. 

it is possible that the difference in size nf the worm* from the two localities 
is constant and connected with the isolation of each on an ofl-shore island for 
a considerable time. There is no other difference between them; it is unneces- 
sary to propose a new sppcies or variety. A gubernaculum is not mentioned 
hi the original description, but it is very small and easily missed in a long 
preserved specimen; those from Western Australia are newly collected and very 
well preserved, and even m these the structure is not alwavs clear. 

356 r M THOMAS 

Molinostrongylus dollfusi n. sp. 

(Figs. 1U--U) 

From Mmiopteris btepotk from Cnmingra, Queensland* ami from Naiatoorte, 

South Australia. 

This new species is very close to Af. panousi Dollfus, 1054. It is distin- 
guished from this species by the length of the spicule and by its shape as well 
as by the presence of a well-developed dorsal lobe on the bursa and by the 
longer cephalic inflation. The worms from South Australian hosts are smaller 
than those from Queensland: but axe believed to belong to the same species, 
their measurements follow those of die Queensland ones in parentheses. The 
drawing are taken from Queensland specimens. 

The males are 3-5-3*7 mm. long { 2-6-2 -9 mm.) and the females 5-0-5-2 
mm. (3-4-3-9 mm.). The cuticle is finely striated longitudinally and trans- 
versely; the lateral alae start shortly behind the cephalic inflation and extend 
to the vulva in the female, behind which they are narrower and resemble the 
other longitudinal bands. Jn the male they extend almost to the bursa. In 
addition to the lateral aiae there are a number of finer longitudinal ridges, four 
on each side, in the posterior oesophageal region, and seven on each side further 
hack. They extend to the tail region in both sexes. The cephalic papillae are. 
not distinct- The cephalic inflation is 50-55^ long (48>t) in the male and 6G> 
(50>) in the female. 

The length of the oesophagus is 300/1. (30%) in the male and 350-360/x 
(320-330/*) in die female. The nerve ring is 160-170*. (170*0 and the excretory 
pore 220-230*1 (160-170/*) from the head in the male. The cervical papillae are 
at the same level as the excretory pore. 

The female tail ends in five conical processes, three lung and two short, and 
a spike 33^ ' on g- Including the spike, the tail length is 60-70/i (50-55**). The 
vulva is not prominent, and lies 1 3-1-5 mm. (0 9-1*0 mm.) from the posterior 
end of the worm. The eggs arc 90-100/* by 45-50p in the Sooth Australian speci- 
mens; none were present in those from Queensland. 

The spicules in all specimens have a very distinct and constant curvature 
when seen in lateral view (Fie. 22). The anterior end of the gubcrnaculum is 
bent dorsal at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the posterior, longer, part. 
The spicules are alate, the alac extending along the length of the spicule nearly 
to the tips, where the spicule bifurcates, ending in two proogs, of which the 
shorter, more median, is bent back into a hook, and the longer is gently curved 
The spicule length is 350-160,1 (130-140/*), that of the gubernuculum 50/* (40/*). 
The lateral lobes of the bursa arc lined with hooks, of which the larger ones 
are postero-dorsal in position and the smaller ones ventral and anterior The 
dorsal lobe is well developed and trilobed. The size and position of the rays 
is best seen in Fig. 23. Prcbursal papillae arc present. 

Phuryngodon australis Johnston and Mawson, 1942 
Krrwu the largo interline of Tiliqua s&ncoides, Brisbane, 

The measurements of the new material are as follows: Male— maximum 
breadth 130-160/*; length of body 1-8-2-3 mm., of oesophagus 200-250**; distance 
of excretory pore from anterior end 530-640/*; length of tail spine 40-70** (less 
than length of bursa); spicule not chitinised. Female— breadth 230-250//; length 
of body 3-2-3-8 mm., of oesophagus 300-400/., of tail 540-720/*; distance of an- 
terior end from excretory pore 50Q-550/* r of vulva 600-650/*. 

P. australis was separate from P. tiliquae Bay lis by the size of the body and 
of the eggs, the position of the excretory pore and vulva in the female, and 



the length of the tail spike in the male. In this new material, the size, and the 
positions of vulva and excretory pore agree with P. tiliquae, eggs are absent, 

Figs. 11-24. Figs. 11-I2 T Nwollina echidnae, 11, anterior end of male; 12, dorsal ray. 
Figs. 13-16, Nicotlina cameroni. 13, anterior end; 14, posterior end o£ female; 15, bursa; 
16, dorsal ray. Figs. 17-19, Nycteridostrongylus uncicollU-. 17. posterior end of female; 
18, distal ends of spicules; 19, posterior end of immature male. Figs. 20-24, Molinostnmgtflus 
dvllftm. 20, oesophageal region; 21, posterior end of female; 22, posterior end of male; 
23, part of bursa; 24, rips of spicules. Figs. 11, 12, 17, 18 and 24 to same scale; Figs. 13, 
14, 16 and 21 to same scale; Figs. 15, 20, 22 and 23 to same scale. 

and the tail of the male agrees in every particular with P. australis. The author, 
having seen specimens of P. tiliqwie, prefers to keep P. australis separate, at least 
until larger numbers of specimens are available. 

158 F. M. THOMAS 

Porrocaecum (Lajmanicaecum) sp. 

(Figs. 25-29) 
From Emusium balloti, Shark Bay, Western Australia. 

Only larval worms are present, although in at least two the rudiments of 
the spicules are to be seen, The parasite is apparently common in the scallop 
beds in this region. It is assumed that the adult will be found in some predator 
of the mollusc, such as rays, from these waters. 

The specimens are allotted to die genus Porrocaecum because of the pre- 
sence of intcrlabia, elongate oesophageal ventriculus, and intestinal caecum. The 
subgenera Porroctwatm s. str. and Laymanicaecum Mozgovoy are separated by 
the presence or absence of a gubernaculum., a distinction impossible to make 
in the present case. However, as the former is found as adults in birds, and 
the latter in elasmobranehs, it is assumed that the scallop parasites belong to 
(Laymanicaecum). Only two species have so far been allotted to the subgenus, 
P. laymani Mozgovov and V. pasiiaacme (Rud.) sensu Dollfus and Desportes, 
1945 (Campana-Rouger, 1955. 829). 

Figs. 25-37. Figs. 25-29, Foirocaecunt {Laymanwaecum) sp. 25, dorsal, and 26, lateral, 
views of head; 27, region of ventriculus: 28, posterior end; 29, tail of young male. Firs. 
30-34, Ampl-ieaecum nuickerrasae, 30, lateral view of head; 31, dorsal lip; 32, en face \ie\v 
of head; 33, tail of female; 34, tail of male. Figs. 35-37, Ophidascarix sp. 35, sublateral, 
mid 36. dorsal, views of head; 37. tail of male. Figs. 25, 32, 35 and 36 to same scale: Figs. 
26, 30 and 37 to same scale; Figs. 27, 28, 33 and 34 to same scale. 

The length is up to 30-13 mm.., the maximum breadth 750>. The oesophagus 
is 2-9 mm. long (43 mm. specimen), including the ventriculus which is 600/* 
long, 250^ wide. The intestinal caecum is very short, no more than half the 
length of the ventriculus; it may not be visible when viewed so that it is behind 


the ventriculus, but when the specimen is rolled over it is clearly seen as a 
hollow diverticulum, It is possible that the length in the adult is greaLcr. 

The shap^ of the lips is shown in the figures. Each bears a row of teeth 
which in en face view show a rounded rather than pointed profile. The excre- 
tory pure lies at the base of the ventral interlabinm. The nerve ring lies 550/a. 
and cervical papillae 75Dp. 3 from the anterior end. 

The conical tail is 300/t long, in specimens in which a rudimentary spicule 
can be seen, it is 400/*, long (Fig. 29), At about midlength of the tail, m all 
.specimens, are two large lateral papillae. These are presumably the phasmids ? 
and they are present in the male as well as the female larvae, 

Amplicaecum mackerrasae nom, now 

(Fitfs. 30-34) 

Two female, one male, and several immature specimens ncrc taken from 
Vuranw variu-s. Sit. Nebo, Queensland. 

The i>resenee of au intestinal caecum, distinct in whole mounts of the im- 
mature specimens and on dissection of the adult showed that the species be- 
longs to the gemis Arnpticaectwi, but in other features closely resembies that 
described as Ophidascaris varani Johnston and Mawson (1947, 23), The type 
( and oidy ) specimen of O. varani has been re-examined and a very tirin intestrrid 
diverticulum, half of the length of the oesophagus, found to be present The 
species is therefore transferred to AmpUco^cum but as the specific name in this 
combination is preoccupied a new name is proposed, A. mucker rasi. The length 
•riven in the original description, 7 mm., is a misprint for 70 mm. 

The species lies with those of the genus in which the vulva is anterior to 
the midbody, the intestinal caecum about half the length ot the oesophagus. 
i.e. A. hrumpli, A. numidica^ A, cacopi, and A, schouledem. It is distinguished 
from all of these by (lie greater length of the spicules as well as by other small 

The length of the male is G7 mm., that of the female 102-10S mm. The 
shape of the lips and configuration of the head is shown in Figs. 30 to 32. The 
length of the oesophagus is 6 mm. in the male, 7 mm. in the female, and that 
of the intestinal caecum is a little less than half this. The nerve ring is at one- 
eighth and one-ninth of the oesophageal length in the female and male respec- 

The vulva lies in front of the middle of the body, 40-42 mm. from the head. 
The eggs are about 90^ by b0/v. in size, The tail of the female is rounded but 
<nds in a small spine, It is 8(V long, less than the anal breadth. 

The conical tail of the male is 60/* 10R& There are 33 pairs of pre-anal 
papillae and six pairs of post-anal, arranged us in Fig. 34. The spicules are 
I *3 mm. long. 

Ophidascaris sp. 

(Figs. 35-37) 

From Amphlbolurtte harhatm. from West BurHgli, Queensland, in tlte 
retroperitoneal tissues. 

Only one male is present. This is 56 mm. long; the body tapers in the 
anterior half, the greatest breadth, 780/z, being behind the mid-length. The lips 
have well developed dentigerons ridges. The interlabia arc very short. The 
oesophagus is 3 1 mrn. long, the nerve ring is at 520^. from the antcrW end. 
The specimen was dissected and no intestinal caecum could be found. 



The tail is very short, 150**, while the anal breadth is 210/*. There are 43 
pairs of pre-anal papillae, one pair of double-headed adanal, and five pairs of 
post-anal, clustered on the second half of the tail. The spicule is 4*38 mm. 
long; no gubemaculum was seen. 

Hedruris loagispicula n. sp, 

(Figs. 38-41) 
From I,ygosoma challnngeri, from Springbank, South Queensland. 

The males reach 3 mm. in length, 115^ maximum breadth. The females 
are 4-0-5*0 mm. long, the width of the anterior part of the body (at level of 
the nerve ring) 130-190/*, and that at the widest part 550-600**. The cuticle is 
finely striated transversely and beneath these coarser longitudinal striae are 
seen, in both sexes. The head is short and there are no balloon-like inflations 
posterior to the lips. The length of the oesophagus is 550/* in the male, and 
900/4 in the female, and the distance from the anterior end of the cervical papil- 
lae, nerve ring, and excretory pore are respectively 130-140/*, 180-200**, and 230- 
260/x in the female, and 150/*, 170/* ? and 280/* in the male. The vulva is 750/* 
from the posterior end of the worm. The eggs are 55/* by 25/*, without lateral 
protuberances, The anus is 500-550/* from the posterior end, 



yu\ti k 

Figs. 38-41, Hedruris hmgivplcula, 38, entire female; 39, head of female; ventral view; 
40, head of male, lateral view; 41, tail of male. 

In the male the tail is 350/* long and is coiled in two to three rings, for most 
of which region the ventral surface anterior to the anus bears broken longitu- 
dinal ridges, The caudal alae extend from just in front of the anus to near the 
tip of the tail and support eleven papillae on each side. The spicules are 300/* 
long. A short (70m) chilinised bar lying anterior to the spicule appears to be 
a gubemaculum. 


In the shape of the head and lips the species is closest to H. tiara Van 
Cleave & Mueller; it differs from this in the position of the vulva and the length 
of the spicule. In the female the ratio between the maximum body width and 
that in the oesophageal region is greater than in any other species, though this 
may he at least in part due to their being at a more advanced stage of egg' 
bearing than the types of some other speeies. The spicules are almost as long 
as fh<* tail, whereas in only one other species in which the male is described 
(//. spinigera Baylis) is it more than two-thirds of the tail length, and in other 
species it rs half the tail length or less. 

Abbreviate bancrofti (Irwin-Smith) 
From Aspidites melarwcephuliis_, from Cairnx. 

The type host of the Abbreoiata bancrofti is an Australian gecko, Gumno- 
<lactijlw platurus* and the species has not been recorded since. The specimens 
from the snake, one male and two females, agree very closely in characters of 
tlie head and tail and reproductive system, with Irwin-Smith s description, and 
cannot be allotted to any other species. It was pointed out by Chabaud (1956, 
41) in his valuable revision of the physalopterans frtim reptiles that P. oligO- 
papilluta (Krcis. 1940) is very close to A. bancrofti. 

The mfiisurements of the new specimens are as follows: Male— 18*7 mm. 
long, oesophagus 2-6 mm. long (a seventh body length), spicules 1*25 mm., 
and 0-3 mm. long; female— 14*7-18*3 mm, long, oesophagus 2*3-2-5 mm. long 
(a sixth to a seventh body length), distance of vulva from anterior end 3' 9-4 5 
rnm n a quarter of the body length, eggs 43 ; * by 23-28^, 


The specimens described in tin's paper were very kindly sent for identifica- 
tion from various institutions: those from Queensland and New South Wales 
by Dr. M. J. Maekerras (Queensland Institute of Medical Research), from the 
VVestern Australian scallop by Dr. K. Sheard (C.S I.R.O., Fisheries Division); 
from the wallaby by Mr. .Shelley Barker (Zoology Department, University of 
VVestern Australia), Other material was collected by colleagues of this Uni- 


Bayms, H. A. t 1930. Four new trichostremgytid nematodes from Queensland. Ann. unci 

Mag. Nat Hist, 10 (31), ft pp. 1-18. 
Cameron, T. W. M., 1931. On a spades of triehnstrontjviV from tho Tasinanian devil. J. 

Helminth, 9, pp. 153- 156. 
CaMpana-Kovcet, Y., 1955. Parasites <]s Potions do raft* our-nt-africanis reeoltes par J. 

Cadenat IV. Nematodes ( 1 ere Note) parasites do Sclaetens, Bull, Tnst Franc 

Afrique Noire, 17 (3), pp. 82849$ 
Ocabavd, A. G., 1956. Essai de revision ties pbysalopteres parasites <le reptiles. Ann. tic 

Parash\> Paris, 30 (1-2), pp. 09-52. 
DullfuS, K. P., 1954. Miscellanea Utiliuiuthologtea Moroccan;* Xti-WIM. Arch, de l'lnst. 

Pasteur Moroe. IV (9), pp. 501-711. 
Uolxfus. R. P., and DtsponTES, C, 1945. 8v* Pt*rrt>ctiecnm pastinacertr ( Kudolphi). ln- 

constance el variabilite qu caecum intestinal. Bull. soc. Path. e\ot, 3S, pp. 93-09, 
In win-Smith, V-, 1922. Notes on nematodes of the genus PhysalopU'ra, IV, The Physalop- 

tera of Australian lizards. Proe. Linn. Soo. Mow Smith Wales, 47 (4), pp, 415-427. 
Johnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M., 1940. IWmatniks from South Australian marsupials-. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 64 (1). pp. 95-100. 
J0HN8TON, T, H*| and Mawson, P. M,, 1942, Tlie Callard collection of parasitic nematodes 

in the Australian Museum. Rec. Aust. Mus., 21 (2). pp. 110-115. 
Johnson, T. H., and Mawson, P. XT., 1947. Some nematodes from Australian lizards. TTahx. 

Hoy. Soc. S. Aust, 71 (1). pp. 22-27. 

162 P. M. THOMAS 

Johnston, T. H., and Mawson, P. M., 1947. Some avian and fish nematodes chiefly from 

Tailcm Bend, South Australia. Rec. S. Aust. Mus., 8 (4), pp. 548-553. 
Kreis, H. A., 1940. Beitrage zur Kenntnis parasitischer Nematoden, IX. Parasitische Nema- 

toden aus dem Naturhistorischen Museum Basel. Zentr. fur Bakteriol. Parasit. und Infek., 

Orig. 1, Abt. 145, pp. 163-208. 
Mosgovoy, A. A., 1953. (Asearidia of animals and man.) Pt. 2, 616 pp. (Osnovy nema- 

todologii) vol. 2. Moscow. 
Nicoll, W., 1914. Remarks on the worm parasites of tropical Queensland. Med. Journ. 

Australia, Sept. 12. 
Van Cleave, H. J., and Mueller, J. F., 1932. Parasites of the Oneida Lake fishes. Pt. 3, 

A parasitological and ecological survey of the worm parasites. Roosevelt Wild Life 

Ann., 3 (3-4), pp. 161-334. 


byK. Abele 


Counts have been made of the chromosomes of 28 Australian species of Danthonia. Counts of 24, 
42, 48, 72 and 96 somatic chromosomes were recorded. A study of stomatal lengths showed this 
character to be highly correlated with the level of polyploidy except in a few species. Except in 
three species, increasing levels of polyploidy are associated with increased hairiness of the lemma. 
No other conspicuous morphological character showed any relationship with the level of 
polyploidy. Two species displayed intraspecific polyploidy, viz. D. caespitosa (2n = 24, 48 and 72) 
and D. longifolia (2n = 24 and 48). The number of collections of D. longifolia was inadequate for 
an effective examination of the geographic distribution of the two chromosome races. 
Characteristics such as floret morphology, stomatal length and geographic distribution were not 
entirely satisfactory as criteria for distinguishing the chromosome races of D. caespitosa. 
The distribution and the interspecific relationships of polyp lo id A levels in the genus Danthonia are 


by K. Abele* 

[Read 12 June. 195S] 


Counts Lave been made of Lite chromosomes of 28 Australian species of 
Danthonio. Counts of 24,. 42, 48, 72 ami 96 somatic chromosomes were re- 
corded. A study of stomatal lengths showed tin's character to he hitrhly cor- 
related with the level of polj-ploidy eveept in a few species. 

Except in three species, increasing levels of polyploidy are associated with 
increased hairiness of trie lemma. No other conspicuous morphological character 
showed any relationship with the level of polyploidy. 

two species displayed intraspeeific polyploidy, viz. D. caenpitosti 
(211=24, 48 and 72) and P. longifoim (2n = 24 and 48). The number of 
collections of D, hmgifolia was inadequate for an effective examination ol the 
geographic distribution of the two chromosome races. Characteristics such 
as floret morphology, stomatal lengtii and geographic distribution vvere not en- 
tirely satisfactory as criteria for distin^uislring the chromosome races of 
D. cacspitixsa. 

The distribution and the interspecific relationship* of polyploidy levels in 
the genus Danthonia are reviewed. 


Some 100 species of Danthonia arc known in temperate and sub-tropical 
parts of the world; rnanv are valuable fodder grasses. The papers of Trumble 
(1927), Richardson, Trumble and Shapter (1931), Trumble and Davies (1931), 
and Cash more (1932) deal with the taxonomy and agronomic value of the Aus- 
tralian .species of Danlhonki; eleven new species of Australian Danthonia have 
been described by Vickery (1950), and more recently a revision of the Aus- 
tralian species has been earned out by the same author (Vickery, 1956). 

Several studies dealing with chromosome numbers in Danthonia have been 
made in the United States and South Africa (see 'Discussion') and these have 
included .some Australian species. The present study was designed to examine 
chromosome numbers and the possible occurrence of inrraspecific polyploidy 
in a range of Australian species. 

The plants studied were collected from natural Australian habitats as plants 
or seed. The individual plants were numbered, and specimens of most of them 
are preserved in the herbarium of the Waite Agricultural Research Institute, 


The root tips for cytological examination were pretreated for four hours 
in a 0-003 mot solution of S-hydroxy-qtiinoline (Tjio and Levan, 1950), and fixed 
in acetic acid-alcohol. The prctrcatment was advantageous in spreading the 
motaphase chromosomes, so that even in cases of polyploidy the counting and 
study of chromosomes presented few difficulties. Root tips were stained in bulk 
using Feulgen. 

Generally, there is no difficulty in germinating seed of Danthonia. The 
dormancy shown by some species following harvesting can be broken by ex- 

c Waite- Agricultural Research Institute, the University of Adelaide, 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. %Z. 



posing the seed, previously soaked in water, to a temperature of 2-3° C. for 
a week. An exception is the seed of D. bipartite, which is difficult to germinate. 

1- Chromosome numbers and morphology 

The Australian species of Danthonia examined in this study have 24, 42. 
48. 72 or 96 chromosomes (Table 1), but in contrast with some species from 
overseas none of the Australian material had 12 or 36 chromosomes. 

Numbers of chromimumus in Australian species of Danthonia. 





D. olpicola J. W. Victory 


l) t longifolia R. Br. 


I), un-rieulatii J. M. 13hu;K 


D. bipartU'i F. Mu**lt. 


i). ntuh'flora P. F. Morris' 


U, cae&pitom Gaud. 


/>. occide/iluUy J. W. Viokrtry 


ah y 

i>. pallida K. &r» 


72 J 

/J. penieillatii (Ltibill) Bettuv. 


O. carphoidea F. Muttll. 


T>. pilosa K. Br. 


D. cMandil J. W. Viokory 


1). pitosa var. patcacea J. W. Viokerv 


T>. duttonianu A. B. Oayhmol't) 


/>. prwe.ra J. VV- Yickory 


D. erinfttha L*mfJ). 


/>. puTpuriMCfiW J. W. Vu*k«ry 


D. frigidti J. W. Vieksry 


E> r racwnnHti var. obtumta V. Muell. 


D. (jfviculnhi J* M. Blaok 


/>. richard#tjr>ii A, B. Oashmorc 


D. hiduta J. W\ Victory 


£>. tictitiuntwUirir' (Latnll) K. Br, 


_D. Iuci?i.# J. W. Viokery 


/>, aetocrfi R. Br. 


D. Unkii Kuiitli 


D. Unkii var. /w/w/ >X- \W Vickfeiy 


The chromosomes of all the above species are uniform in size and mor- 
phology. Length is of the order of 4/x except D, bipartita, which are 1-2/4. 

No morphological features such as differences in size, secondary constric- 
tions or trabants have been seen. In several cases small particles attached to 
the end of the chromosome were observed staining in Feulgen and closely re- 
sembling trabants, but as they appear rarely and irregularly they could not be 
definitely identified as such. This absence of morphological differences accords 
with the work of other authors except De Wot (1953). Calder (1937 ? p, 5, fig. 
7) draws two somatic chromosomes of D. setlfolia with apparent trabants, but 
there is no mention of them in the text. 

The bivalents at diakincsis in pollen mother cells are about 3/* long, with 
the exception of the bivalents of D. bipartita, which are about lp long. The 
diakinetic chromosomes in the pollen mother cells show bivalents only; no uni- 
valents or multivalents have been observed at any stage. 

For all species, again with the exception of D. bipartita, a complete ter- 
mioalization of the chiasmata of the bivalents by diakinesis is characteristic 
No terminalization of die chiasmata was observed in D. biportita. 

2. Measurements of stomata 

Stomat;d size is widely used as a criterion for assessing the degree of 
polyploidy. It is considered to be a better index of the chromosome number 
than the size of the pollen grains (Miintzing, 1937). 

(a) In order to determine the extent to which length of the stomata in 
Danthonia may be influenced by environmental factors two species of Danthonia> 
D, dvttoniana and D. richardsonii, were each grown under different environ- 








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M S 

166 K ARELE 

mental conditions and the length of their stomata measured. All plants were 
obtained by dividing 3 single parent plant grown from seed- 
One plant from each species was grown in the open and was well watered. 
All the other plants were grown in pots in an open-sided glasshouse. Two 
plants of each species were grown in full glasshouse light. While another pair 
svas covered with a perforated zinc iron cage admitting about 30 per cent, of 
the light. One plant of each pair was well watered, while the other was given 
only as much water as was necessary to prevent killing. The growth ot the 
plants in the glasshouse was slightly retarded compared with the control plauts 
in the open, while plants receiving limited watci showed a further reduction 
in size. 

The stomata on the upper surface, of the leaf are restricted to the lougi- 
tudiuul grooves whilst the lower surface is ungrooved and often has fewer 
stomata, in some species even none. Sections from the upper surface were 
used lor the measurements. 

The leaf subtending die inflorescence was called the first leaf, the other 
leaves being numbered accordingly. In D. duttoniana the stomata of the first 
leaf, especially when this leaf was small, were sometimes shorter than the 
stornata of the third leaf by 2-3y.. In D. richtinUonii where the leaves arc more 
robust, tins difference could not be observed. 

The third leaf was used for the comparison of stomata developing under 
various environmental treatments. The length of stomata near the base ot the 
lamrtm. in the middle and neai tin,' tip, were measured. In all cases the lengths 
of 100 stomata were measured. The results are shown in Table 2, 

Restriction of water or Jight supply led to significant but small decreases 
in the length of the stomata. The reduction due to water restriction was 2*4 
per cent, in D. ditltaniana and 3*7 per cent, in D. ridwrdso?iii Stomata were 
!arg<-r in the central position on the leaf than at the base or tip. 

The data establish clearly that differences in stomatal size due to grossly 
varying environmental conditions or to positiun on the leaf do not exceed 
V&IUftS of the order of 5 per cent. Substantially greater differences between 
plants — even between those grown under different environmental conditions — 
may he properly regarded as being due to differences of genetic constitution. 

(b) To study the correlation uf the stomatal length with the chromosome 
number-, measurements were made un all species included in this study, these 
were grown at the Institute under field conditions with the exception of D. 
iHjxtrtiitt. Measurements of the stomata of this species were made cm the leaves 
of mature plants brought from the John Mortloek E?q>ei fmental Station at Yudna- 
pimt;«. 250 miles to the north of Adelaide* where the mean annual rainfall (9in. ) 
is much lower than at the Waite Institute (25in.). 

In all cases die leaves taken for stomatal measurements were from plants 
whose chromosomes had been counted. Stomata from the middle of the lamina 
of the third leaf were selected for measurement. 

The variation within most species was small For instance, the range of 
variation in stomatal size between plants of £>. purpurascens was 60 '7/1-61 *4j*, 
in D. txnkii var. ftdoa -11 4 f t.-42'5fA, anJ in D- stmutnmdaris was 38 '2^-40* 3/*- 

Wklc variation, however, was encountered in two species. Plants 01 D. 
coetpitosa having the same chromosome number, 2n — 48, showed a ranee from 
42-lft to 53-2^. The variation is also wide in D. tripartita which showed values 
among six- plants of 32 -4, 33*4, 3-1-0, 370, 37-8 and 42'6y. These ranges of 
variation in stomatal size in plants of D. atespitam having 48 chromosomes 
(11 *!/<.), and in D bipartita ( 10*2^) are each about as great as that within 
the entire group of 10 species having 48 chromosomes (51S^-41-^i = 10*6/*) 






























2N*24 2N-42 3*1-4* 2N-72 2N-96 


Fig, 1. — Mean stomatal lengths plotted against the chromosome numbers of Aus- 
tralian species of Danthonia. 


Fig. 2. — The distribution of three chromosome races of D. caespitosa. Reference: 
hollow circles = 24 chromosome D. caespitosa; full black circles = 48 chromosome 
D, caespitosa; crosses — 72 chromosome D. caespitosa. Each symbol covers one 
habitat from which the plant was collected for chromosome counting, except the 
cross near Adelaide which covers 5 habitats. The position of the symbols in the 
crowded areas is approximate only. 

















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so far studied. The wide variation in D. caespitosa agrees with the morpho- 
logical variability of this species and may be explained by the presence of 
various races among the plants. 

There is a marked positive correlation between chromosome number and 
length of stomata (Fig. 1). The exceptions are few. D. linkii var. fulva and 
D, bipartite, each with 72 chromosomes, have markedly shorter stomata than 
other 72-chromosome species. D. nudiflora (2n = 24) has stomata slightly longer 
dian the shortest stomata found in the 2n — 48 chromosome plants. However, 
the most conspicuous deviation from the correlation was found in D. frigida, 
which grows in the alpine region of Australia and has 2n = 42 chromosomes. 
The stomata were found placed deeply in the grooves and are extremely small, 
measuring only 26-6/a. 

Fig. 3. — Distribution of 24-ehroniosome D. caespitosa, Keferencc; hollow circles g 

the chromosome number of collected plants counted; black triangles = only length- 

of stomata on herbarium specimens measured, 

3. Interspecific polyploidy and morphological characters 

The principal character used in the identification of species of Danthonia is 
the abundance and arrangement of the hairs on the lemma. Accordingly, an 
examination has been made of the correlation between the hairiness of the 
lemma and level of polyploidy (Table 3). 

It is apparent that increasing levels of polyploidy are associated with in- 
creased hairiness of the lemma. In some groups of species the relationship is 



particularly strong, e.g. all species with only a lower ring of hairs have 24 
chromosomes. On the other hand three species show disconformity from the 
general pattern, namely D. linkii, D. carphoides and D. procera. 

4. Intraspeclfic polyploidy in Danthonia caespitosa 

The taxonomic species D. caespitosa at present includes a complex of 
forms distributed over southern Australia (Fig. 2). Collections from southern 
States have been grown, and from these a number of distinct forms have been 
separated (E. L. Robertson, private communication). Of the 62 plants examined 
cytologieally, 51 had 48 chromosomes. 5 had 24 chromosomes, and 6 had 72 

The 24-chromosome group represents a morphologically distinguishable 
form, designated "form 6" by E. L. Robertson. As shown in the Fig. 3, this 
variant has been collected only from the drier areas of South Australia. 

The contrast between a floret of this form and a 48-chxomosome type is 
shown in Fig. 4. 



Fig. 4. — D. caespitosa. A, B- — flowers of the 24-cbromosome plant (A ventral, B 
dorsal view); C, D — flowers of the 48-chromosome plant (C ventral, D dorsal view). 

Two 72-chroinosome forms are very distinct from each other, but only one 
of them is distinctly different from the 48-chiomosome group. The former has 
been found only in the Verdun-Ambleside area of the Adelaide Hills and possibly 
represents a distinct variety or species- It has robust, tall stems (2-3 feet in 
height) with glaucous-green foliage, entirely devoid of hairs except for the 
short ligule. 

The other form representing one collection from Ungarra, Eyre Peninsula, 
has short, setaceous, pubescent foliage, with very short basal sheaths, and very 


slrnder stems, and is not readily distinguishable from some of the 48-ehromo- 
sumes material. 

AH of the otfcK?r specimens of D. caespitasa examined had 4S chromosomes 
and were of very diverse morphology. 

1. Polyploidy in the genus Danthonia 

Since the levels of polyploidy in the qenus Dtmthonia in various paits of 
the world are recorded as 2u = 12, 24, 3fc 48, 72, 96 and 120, it is clear that 
6 js the basic number of most Danthonia species. The only species hnviue 
2n = 96 or 120 chromosomes have been found in Australia, but no Australian 
species is yet reported with 2n = 12 or 36. 

Calder (1937) postulate* a basic number of 7 fur New Zealand species 
with 2n == 42. D. frigida is die only 42-chromosorne species so far recorded 
in Australia. 

In view of D. frigida $ affinity with some New Zealand species (Vickery, 
1956) which also have 42 chromosomes, and the fact that only bivalents are 
formed at meiosis, 7 would appear to t>e a more logical basic number for this 

The counts here recorded are in agreement with the previous counts made 
by other workers, except in three instances: D. pilosa, D. semiannttlaris and D. 

The different chromosome number recorded for D. pilona by Calder (1937) 
from that found by Stebbins (Myers, 1947) and by the author may have re- 
sulted from a wrong identification of the material Chromosome counts were 
made on D. pilosa and D. semiannu!ari$ sent by Calder from New Zealand. 
D. pilosa had the same number as found in Australian D. pilosa, i.e. 2n = 24. 
One of the two plants received as D. scmiannulaw had 2n -24 chromosomes 
the other was identified at the Waite. Institute as P, caespitosa. Colder kas* 
advised that botanists in New Zealand do not recognise D. caespttosa as grow- 
ing in that country, and the 48 chromosome D. cacspitosa hud been identified 
as a form of D. semiannularis. 

If each identification is correct the diEerence in the chromosome number 
of EK bipartita were De Wet (1954) found 2n =* 48 chromosomes and the author 
2n - 72 (derived from 36 bivalents in diakinosis and counted in root tip*) may 
indicate that this species had developed mtraspecific polyploidy. D. hiparina 
grows only in remote arid areas of inland Australia, and as mentioned above is 
difficult to germinate and grow. Brock (unpublished) has recently counted 
2n - 120 chromosomes in D. indula in material sent to him from the'Waite In- 
stitute, but all material of D. indtita examined here has shown 2n = 72. 

JJ. Chromosome numbers and length of stornuta 

Apart from the high correlation of chromosome number and stomatal length 
and the aberrant species already noted, the principal point of interest is that D 
procera with 2n = 96 chromosomes has shorter stomata than any of the 2u = 72 
chromosome species. Though here based on a single spedes, this phenomenon 
has already been reported in ottier instances. Yamamoto (1938) observed (hat 
a hexaploid Rumex acefosa had smaller stomata than a pentaploid plant Love 
(1944) noticed in his studies in Ramex acetosella that "from the hexaploid to the 
octoploid staip, however, a diminution in die length of stomata is calculated' 
Tischler (1854) mentions (p. 230) the measurements of Duffield, who fuund 
that a hexaploid Avar rubrum has longer stomata than an octoploid plant of 
that species. Apparently there is a limit beyond which the length of stomata 

172 & ABELE 

ceases to increase with further increase in number of chromosomes. and trui 

may also be the case in Danthonia. 

3. lntwspcdfic polyploUhj 

(a) Turning tp intraspecific polyploidy, il has been shown that the levels 
Of ptoWy in D. CBKSpttp* arc not wholl> satisfactorily related to morphological 
characters. The 24-chvomosomo form appears to be reasonably well-differen- 
tiated and to have a limited distribution {Fig. 2). On die other Land, the 72- 
ehromosome material includes two very distinct growth forrns : though each has 
to date been recorded within a very limited area. 

Present evidence does not elucidate the origin of the 72-chrorousomc race. 
However, its collection from the vicinity of both the 24- and 4S-chromosomr 
types in South Australia would support the hypothesis of it being a hybrid 
between these races. . 

Within die 4S-chromosome material, which includes most ol the material 
collected, there is a considerable diversity of morphological characters. Roth 
Niumrctdt (1938) and Love (19S1) express the view that if more than one 
chromosome number is recognized in a taxonomie species, the species should 
} je reexamined taxonomically with a view to its subdivision, even though dif- 
ferences in morphological characters prove Lo be small In D, cacspltosa. as now 
recognized bv botanists, there i.s clear evidence for subdivision of the species 
bused on chromosome numbers, and less sharply on morphological characters. 
The limited amount of material examined suggests that in South Australia some 
chromosome races may be geographically delimited in that the 24-chromosome 
type appears to occur on I v in the drier areas of the southern part of the State. 
Collections could profitably bo made from the eastern edge of the distribution 
area of the 48-chromosomc type in Western Australia and in western New South 
Wales to determine the generality of this situation. 

(b) D. longifolia, Fn this species two chromosome numbers have been 
recorded, viz.: 

(i) Chromosome number 2n — 24, die length of stomata about 29f t 
(ii) Chromosome nnmher 2n — 48 ? the length of stomata about 41^t. 
As one one plant of D. longifalia 2n - 48 and two plants 2n = 24 were collected, 
no comment can be mado concerning the existence or distribution of chromo- 
some races based on different chromosome numbers. No morphological differen- 
tiation among the three collected plants could be observed. 

The regular pairing of the chromosomes and absence of multivalents at 
meiosis would suggest allopolyploidy. As the species of the genus Danthonia 
are recorded as being mostly autogamous, the small degree of outcrossing which 
must have occurred would result in rapid stabilization of new chromosome races. 

4. Interspecific relatiomJiipx 

Vickery (1956) used the characteristics of the lemma as the morphological 
feature most likely to show the affinities of the various species within the genus 
Danthonia. Four scries of species were postulated in this way 

The first consisted of a single species D. bipartiift which was relatively iso- 
iatcd both in habit and floral character. Cytologically, this species is unique m 
that its chromosome morphology and behaviour at meiosis differ from that of 
all other species which tend to be rather uniform. 

Hie second series was characterized by the scattered distribution of hairs 
on the body of the lemma. The chromosome numbers of these species were 
2< 4S and 72. Vickery (1056) felt that the affinities of D. fri^ula appeared to 
be with a gioup of New Zealand species represented by D cunnin<ihnmii. D. 
raouUii and ID fhvescens rather than with this series. The cytological evidence 


supports this view as both D. frigida and these New Zealand species arc the 
onJy 42-chroniosonie: species so far identified in the two countries. 

The third series is centred on D. ctws-pitosa and its extreme taxonomic 
diversity has not been clarified by a etiological study, as species with chromo- 
some numbers oL 21, 48, 7*2 and* 96 have been identified in this group, quite 
apart from the complexity of D. caespifosa itself. 

The final series have hairs of the lemma represented only by isolated mar- 
ginal and dorsal tufts. All species of thU series have 24 chromosomes, 

A more extensive ecological and cytological investigation will be necessary 
to clarify the complex of inter- and intraspecific polyploidy but a definite pattern 
of relationships within the Genus is becoming obvious from the cytological and 
jourphological evidence presented. 


The author would like to thank Mrs. E. L. Robertson, formerly Systematic 
Botanist at the Waite Institute, for identifying and growing all the plants in- 
eluded in tin's study, and Dr. K. W. Unlay. Messrs, F> M. Hilton and ]X E. 
Sjraon for their advice and criticism. 


CATKLn, J. \V\. 1037. A cytologic l1 .study of some- New Zealand .species and v,.rifiii's of 

Danthoniu, Linn. Soc. J. Eat*, 51. pp. 1-9. 
Cashmori£ : A, B., 1932. An investigation of tfo toxunomic and agricultural c!mr;« ter.s of 

the, Danthoma group, Coun. Sei. tndustr, lies. Bull. .\u« fiO. 
Darlington, C, D„ and \V\mu, A. P., 1955. Chromosome Atlas oi Flowering Hants LimrtftO 
Dk Wet, J. M. J., 1953, Nucleoli numhers in Dtinthuwa polyploids, Cytologic' IX, pp. 

On Wet, J. M r J., 1954. The genus Dnnihonia uj grass phylogenv, Amer. \, Bot. 41 no 

201-211. ' iy ' 

Love, A. } 1944. Cytogenetic studies on ffcuima suhgetiuf; Ae€i>ttiseUu, Hereditus t 30. pp. 

Love, A., 1951. Taxiiuonue evaluation of polyploids, Caryologia, H, pp. 263-284. 
Mlntvum;, A., 1937. The effects of chnmiosaJ variation io J3aitylis, Hcreditas 23 pp 113-235 
Myers, W, M. s 1947. Cytology and genetics of forage grasses, Bot. Rcv.,*13/pp. 318-367^ 

Naxntouu*,. J. A. T J. 938. Poa mm-occam Naimf„ n. sp. and Puu Hvtdorum Mflire arid Trahut 

two more tetrapioids of sect. Ochhpoa A. and Gr.. and some, additional notes on Ochlnpou 

Svcnsfc Hot. Tidsfa,, 32.. pp. 295-321, 
TCichabdson, A. E. V., Thumhlk, H. C, and Shapter. K. (v., 1931. Factors affecting the 

mineral content oi pastures, Coun. Hci. Induslr. Res. Bull. -No. 49. 
Stj-bbins, L. G* and Lose, R. M. a 1941. A cytological sftidv oi California*! foratfe &&foie& 

Amer. J. Hot.. 28, pp. 371-382. S r 

TtscHLETt, G., 1954. Allgemeino Pf]a*enkaryolo£m. Ergaimingsbynd zum Band 11 Zweite 

Lielerung, Berlin-Nikolasce. 

Tjm J. H., and Li;van, A., 1950. The use of oxyqimioliue in chromosome analysis Ann, 
Est. hxp. do Aula Dei., 2(1), pp. 21-64. 

Tm.MHLK, H. C, and Davu-:s, J. G., 1931, The role of pasture species m regions of winter 
rainfall pnn summer thought, J. Conn. Sei. Jndnstr. fi$S„ 4, pp. 140-151 

Yjckekv, J. \V„ 1950. New species of Danthoniu DC. (Grammeae'i from Australia Con- 
tributions^ from the Mew South Wales National Herbarium, 1 ; pp. 296-301. 

Vk:kery. J. W*i 1956. A revision of the Australian species of Danthonia DC. Contributions 
from the New South Wales National Herbarium, 2, pp. 249-325. 

Yamamoto, Y_, 1938. Karyogenetisoho Untersuehungcn bei der Galtuntf Rumex, Memoirs of 
the Collece of Agriculture, Kyoto Imperial University* 43, pp. 1-50 


by Harry F. Lower 


The test of A. acaciae consists of chitin, protein, a dye, a wax, and a complex of lacs and lac-like 
substances. Of the latter, which constitute more than half the dry weight of the test, none could be 
identified as shellac. The dye and wax are also chemically distinct from those described from other 



{Honioptcra : Lacciferidae) 

by Haahy F. Lower* 
[Read 11 September 1958] 


The test of A, acaciae consists of chitin, protein, a dye, a wax. and a 
complex of lacs and lac-like substances. Of the latter which constitute! more 
than half the dry weight of the test, none could be identified as shellac, The 
dye and wax are also chemically distinct from those described from other insects. 


Among the Homoptera, certain groups within tho super-family, Coccoidea, 
are characterized by their secretion of large quantities of various waxes, or 
resinous materials, or both, which they incorporate into their tests or "scales". 
This mode of forming a protective covering for the body is most highly de- 
veloped in the Lacciferidae or "lac insects" of which Laccifer lacca (Kerr), the 
Indian lac insect is the best-known species. 

There is an extensive literature dealing with its most important commercial 
product, shellac, and scattered references to insect waxes and dyes are to be 
found. The literature of the two latter has recently been reviewed by Warth 
(1956) and Fox (1953), respectively, wlule detailed accounts of the manu- 
facture, physical and chemical constants, and industrial applications of shellac, 
such as those of Gardner (1937) and Parry (1925), are numerous. Apart from 
Fox (op. cit.) whose interest is in the chemistry of animal dyes generally, and 
Chamberlain (1923, 1925) who has provided the only complete taxonomic 
study of the family, the literature is entirely technological. Not only is this so, 
but its scope is limited to discussing thTee components of the test— shellac, wax 
and dye— and these of the one species L. lacca. Of the materials constituting 
the remainder of its test, en- of any of the components of the tests of other lacci- 
fer ids, nothing is known. 

Austrotachardia acaciae (Maskell) is an endemic lac insect which is widely 
but irregularly distributed throughout the dry inland parts of Australia, where 
the environmental conditions admit of the growth of its host tree, Acacia aneura 
F. Muell. (mulga). The female secretes a thick, hard, brittle, dull orange-red 
test (Plate 1) which, in addition to the normal chitin-protein complex, contains 
over 60 pet cent, of a variety of complex organic substances. 

The material studied was collected from mulga trees on Yudnapinna Station, 
50 miles N.W. of Port Augusta. Within the time at my disposal, practical diffi- 
culties made impossible the collection of material in quantity adequate for the 
complete examination of all substances present. Considerable distances often 
separate affected trees, rarely are parts of more than one or two boughs of any 
one tree infested, and in their colonies the insects are relatively dispersed. A 
further restriction of yield was imposed by the need for confining selection to 

Waite Agricultural Research Institute, University of Adelaide, South Australia. 
Trane. R«t- Bee. S. Anal* 11950), Vol. 82. 


dead insects, to obviate contamination of the sample wBJb *C body fats and fluids 
of living ones, Some extraneous matter was thereby unavoidably introduced 
in the form of desert dust, and the webbing and fras.s of spiders and larval 
scavengers. While die proportion o£ thesfc wa< greatly reduced by subsequent 
treatment, it is almost certain that the greater part of the inorganic matter 
found was of external origin. Somewhat less than 50 g. of crude material were 
collected from whicli about 35 g. of sample were prepared. 

(To obviate repetition throughout the paper attention is drawn to the fol- 

l t All drying was done to constant weight at 103° C. 

2. ir Etbanor means absolute ethanol unless otherwise specified. 

3, The substantive, luccokl, has been coined for substances which, while 
exhibiting many of the properties of the laes : show by their mode of 
formation that they have much in common with fatty; acids.) 

Tltg crude material was dried and the resulting cake, after breaking, was 
ground and as much as possible passed through a sieve of mesh diameter 0*240 
mm. This eliminated webbing, and wood and leaf debris. The resulting powder 
was vigorously stirred with water in a tall cylinder and allowed to stand until 
the denser fraction had settled. The floating matter was then skimmed off, dried, 
ano vc-ground. This was the sample with which all work was done. Micro- 
scopic examination of the sludge showed it to consist alm ost entirely of silt. 

Throe 10 g. portions of the sample were individually Soxhlct-exttacted with 
ether for 30 hr. The extracts were united, the ether distilled off, and the residue 
collected (Extract A), 

The residues in the thimbles were then further extracted with ethanol for 
40 hr, The extracts were united and evaporated to dryness (Extract B). 

The residues in the thimbles, after drying, were digested under reflux for 
10 hr. with boiling 5 per cent hydrochloric acid, filtered under pressure, and 
Washed with hot water until free from acid. Filtrate and washings were evapor- 
ated to dryness (Extract GJL. 

The residue was digested Under reflux for 6' hr. with 200 ml. of 0-1 molar 
boiling sodium carbonate solution. The mixture was filtered under pressure and 
the residue washed with hot water until the. washings were free from carbonate. 
Washings and filtrate were evaporated to dryness (Extract D). 

The residue was dried and weighed. It was then ashed, and the ash 

llie ash was boiled in three changes of aqua regia, each for 15 mrn. After 
each boiling, the insoluble matter was allowed to settle and the liquid decanted. 
The three extracts were united and evaporated to dryness (Extract £). 

The residue remaining after treatment with aqua regta was heated to red- 
ness for 5 min., cooled and weighed. 

EXTRACT A (Ether-soluble) 

Extract A was a soft, deep orange-brown solid. It was boiled under reflux 
for 12 hr. with 200 ml of a proprietary wax solvent of high efficiency (see note 
at end). After cooling, die clear yellow solution was decanted and the residue 
botfed with three successive 50 ml. portions of the same solvent, each for hr. 
The final extract was colourless and a drop of it evaporated without residue. The 
extracts were united and the solvent distilled off. The wax, after solidification, 
was twice rocryslallized from a hot mixture of equal parts of chloroform and 
ethanol (charcoal), 


After extraction of the wax, the residue was finely ground, well stirred with 
cold chloroform and filtered. The filtrate was evaporated, dissolved in ethanoh 
activated charcoal was added, and the mixture filtered. Evaporation of the 
solution gave a pure Lie ( Lac I ) . 

The residue remaining after treatment with chloroform was dried, dissolved 
in 10 ml. of ethanol and sufficient N/10 ethanolic potassium hydroxide solution 
added lo convert the original dye present into a potassium compound (insoluble 
in ethanol). The mixture was filtered arid the potassium dye washed with hot 
ethanol until free from lac and alkali. The potassium dye was then dried, dis- 
solved in 10 ml. of water and a slight excess of N/10 hydrochloric acid added to 
reform the original dye which precipitated . The dye was extracted Avith ether, 
the solution washed twice with water, and the ether evaporated. The dye was 
twite rccrystalli/.ed from hot chloroform, 


The wax is soft and pale yellow in colour, Its melting point is 60-2 c C. 
It has an acid value of 95, a saponification value of 233, an ester value of 140 : 
and an iodine number (Htihl) of 32; 3. Approximately 6 per cent, nf it is un- 
sapomfjablc. This fraction consists of a hard, faintly coloured, wax-like material 
of melting point 70-4° C. Lack of adequate material made further investigation 
of the wax impracticable. 


Lac I is a dark, reddish-black, very hard lac which is brittle and breaks 
with a eonehoidal fracture, It is very soluble in ethanol, chloroform or ether, 
but is insoluble in water, acetone or liquid hydrocarbons, 

It has an acid value of 145, a saponification value of 302 ami an ester value 
of 157. About 3 per cent, of it is imsaporufiable and consists of a hard, cream- 
coloured, wax-like solid melting at 83 T" C. 

After removal of the unsaponifiable fraction, the solution was acidified and 
again extracted with ether. On evaporation of this extract, the lac acids re- 
mained as a soft, brownish- white, sticky mass comprising 55-6 per cent, of die 
weight of lac used. They were reciystallized several times from acetone (char- 
coal) and formed thin colourless plates having a melting point of 55*5° C. 


The dye is apparently present as* the dye acid. It is insoluble in water or 
acids, irrespective of temperature. Hot concentrated sulphuric acid char*? it; 
hoi eonceutrated nitric acid vigorously oxidizes it. It is readily soluble in ether, 
ethanol of any concentration higher than 60 per cent, and somewhat less so 
in hot chloroform. On cooling its solution in the latter, the dye separates as 
glittering scarlet rhombic crystals. Depending on concentration, the colour of 
its solutions varies from dark blood rod to yellow. Its absorption spectrum in 
ethanolic solution is shown in Fig. 1. 

On addition of sufficient ethanolic alkali to solutions of the original dye, a 
compound of dye and alkali precipitates. This is apparently insoluble in all 
liquids except water in which it is highly soluble. Tne colour of the solution, 
depending on concentration, varies from blackish violet to pale violet. Addition 
uf ethanol to the solution precipitates the dye compound as a black, microcry.stuU 
line solid; addition of acids precipitates the original dye. From the almost black 
saturated aqueous solution, the potassium compound crystallizes as black, glit- 
tering prismatic needles having a violet reflexion. Its absorption spectrum in 
aqueous solution is shown in Fig, 2. 



Over the range pH 6*9 to 8-5, its colour changes from orange, through red, 
to violet. The colour is red at about pH 7*8 to 7-9. 



1 1 

\ r 1 

y* 00 ^ S *~ 

S / 

/ / 

/ / 

y i 

f i 

/ f 

/ i 

1 f 











■** / 




\ f* ~~~ ~~ s 

,--y \ 


\ V 

t* \ A 


I \ J \ 


1 V / ^ 


' \— y 


i i ■ 



Fig. 1. — Absorption spectra of dye of A. acaciae. 
Original dye in ethanolic solution. Concentration: 0-03125 

g./ litre. 
Potassium compound in aqueous solution. Concentration: 
0-03125 g. /litre. 

EXTRACT B (Ethanol-soluble) 

The solid dark brown material was finely ground, digested under reflux for 
10 hr. with boiling ethanol, and the residue twice digested (eacli for 5 hr.) with 
fresh boiling ethanol. The three extracts were united, activated charcoal was 
added, the mixture filtered and the filtrate evaporated to dryness (Lac II). 

When ethanolic extraction was complete, about 54 per cent, of the original 
extract remained as a flocculent material closely resembling precipitated copper 
ferrocyanide in appearance. This was dried and weighed (Gel lac). 


Lac II is a hard, brittle, bright orange lac, very similar in appearance to 
orange shellac. It melts between 140° C. and 142° C. Very soluble in ethanol 
and somewhat less so in methanol, it is insoluble in any other of the commonly 


used organic solvents. It has an acid value of 95, a saponification value of 
246, and an ester value of 151. The unsaponifiable fraction comprised 2-4 per 
cent, and consisted of a hard, yellowish, wax-like material melting at 96- 1° C 

After removal of the unsaponifiable material by ether extraction, the mix- 
ture was acidified and the resulting lac acid extracted with ether; the ether 
extract was evaporated and the residue thrice reervstailized from hot acetone 
(charcoal) forming golden-yellow, glittering scales whose melting point was 
107-3° C- On cooling the melted material, it solidified as a hard orange-yellow, 
transparent, resin-like mass lacking the physical properties associated with fatty 
acids generally. It is only slightly soluble in boiling ethanol, but is very soluble 
in cold ether/ chloroform, carbon disulphide or boiling acetone. From its solu- 
tion in the latter most of it separates on cooling. 


This consisted of a brittle, black, vesicular mass which boiling ethanol 
restored to the original flocculent condition. It was inviluhlp in any of the 
43 organic solvents and solvent mixture tested. 

When the solid is heated, it does not melt but decomposes into a spongy, 
carbonaceous mass evolving a dark dense vapour wliich condenses as dark red, 
oil-like droplets soluble in ethanol forming a reddish solution. 

It was boiled with N/2 cthanolic potassium hydroxide and formed a deep, 
brownish-black, opaque solution which passed unchanged through filter paper. 
Ether extracted nothing from this solution. It was then diluted with water, 
placed in a separating funnel, sufficient hvdrochloric acid was added to make 
the mixture acid, and the whole was well shaken with ether. On standing, three 
layers formed. The lowest consisted of an aqueous-ethanolic solution of potas- 
sium chloride coloured yellow by a trace of impurity The middle layer was 
oily and black, and above this floated the orange ether layer. After running off 
the bottom Jaycr, the two upper ones were well washed several times with 
water, allowed to stand, and then separated. 

The black material was dried, dissolved in ethanol (charcoal), filtered, and 
again evaporated giving a black lac-like material (Laocoid 1). 

The ether extract was evaporated, and the residue rccrystallizcd several 
times from hot acetone (charcoal) (Gel lac acid). 


Tins is a highly polished, pitch-like material, very hard and brittle, readily 
soluble in ethanol but insoluble in other solvents. On heating, it melts quietly at 
about 127° C. Boiling it with either aqueous or ethanolic alkali rc-sapontfics it 
forming a deep reddish-brown solution from which it can again be set free by 
acidification. Prolonged boiling with fat or wax solvents dissolves nothing from 
it. Its nitrogen content is 45 per cent, 


From its solution in hot acetone, the acid separates as a deep orange, ap- 
parently amorphous, material. On heating, it softens and finally melts at about 
109° C On re-solidifying, it forms a transparent, glassy, deep orangc-rcd. 
brittle solid. It dissolves readily in fat solvents ana in hot acetone, nut is 
insoluble in boiling ethanol. Aqueous or ethanolic solutions nf alkalis readily 
re-saponilv it. 

EXTRACT C (Hot IIC1 Extract) 

As first obtained, this was an orange-brown solution which, during evapora- 
tion, underwent chemical change so that the dark brown amorphous residue 

180 HARRY F. hOWF.R 

could not be re-dissolved in hydrochluric acid, nor was it soluble in any olber 
solvent tested. After boiling with r thanol, and evaporating the yellow solution, 
a trace of a dark brown, mucilaginous substance remained. This was dissolved 
in u little hot water, and the solution after decolorizing with charcoal and filter- 
ing, gavfe a positive result with Molisch's reagent, but none with Felding's solu- 
tion. Since less than -01 g. of material was available, further tests could nut 
be performed. 

The original residue contained 6-1 j)er cent, of nitrogen and probably con- 
sisted largely of ^humin" formed by decomposition of arninoueids resulting from 
hydrolysis of the proteins of the test by the hydrochloric acid used for the 

EXTRACT D (Sodium Carbonate Digest) 

The sodium carbonate extract, on evaporation, left an almost black residue. 
After boiling with water, a small quantity of black insoluble matter was filtered 
off. Ether extracted practically nothing from the filtrate which was then acidi- 
fied with hydrochloric acid. A dense precipitate formed. When the mixture 
was warmed, this coagulated to a yellowish-brown rubber-like mass. The mix- 
ture was then evaporated to dryness and the residue digested three times (each 
for 5 hr.) under reflux with boiling ether. The extracts were united and the 
ether distilled off, leaving a lac acid. 

After expelling remaining ether, the residue was ground, dissolved in 
ethanol (charcoal)* filtered and evaporated (Laccoid TI). 

The crude lac acid was a soft, orange-coloured, wax-like material. It was 
several times recrystallized from hot acetone (charcoal) and finally obtained 
as almost colourless plates (melting point 6S-2' C.). When the acid was melted 
arid allowed to solidify it formed a soft, cream-coloured, waxy material. 

This was a very hard, black, lac-like material practically insoluble in all 
liquids except cthanol and methanol, it is extremely soluble in the former. 
Boiling with aqueous or ethanolie alkalis quickly brings about its saponification* 
From the solution it can be recovered by acidification. On heating, the solid 
does not melt but swells, bubbles, and evolves dense fumes which on condensing 
form an oil-like stain easily soluble in liquid hydrocarbons. Its nitrogen content 
is 2 *3 per cent. 

The residue left after sodium carbonate extraction, when dried, was a white 
material resembling bleached paper-pulp. It was weighed, ashed, and the ash 
then weighed. The loss in weight was assumed to be chitin. 

The ash, after treatment with aqua regia (presumed to be silica) was 

After weighing, the dry aqua regia extract was dissolved in dilute hydro- 
chloric acid and the *oIutiun tested qualitatively for inorganic ions. The follow- 
ing were identified; Nfc* K ■% Ca~\ Mg-+,Fc-T+, F0 4 ; and S0 4 ~ - 


The major components of the test of A. nntrina are shown in Table 1. Since 
the dye. wax, and lacs i and II were separated in a relatively pure state, their 

Eroportions are reasonably eoneet. The "gel lac" and the acid and sodium cat- 
onatc extracts arc mixtures of at least two and probably more substances. 
Evidence obtained during the investigation proved that had more material been 


available, the diversity of substances identified would have been much greater. 
Frequently, traces only of certain organic compounds were isolated, the quan- 
tities of which were too small for anything other than a very general classifi- 
cation. The figures for silica and the inorganic ions are artificial; these materials 
are almost certainly of extraneous origin and form no intrinsic part of the test 


Principal constituent* of the ttMt of" 4. acnciup. 


Weight in grams 

pBrrent.igw of weight 
of last 





Lib' 1 



Liie 11 



"Gel Lac"' 


5 027 






.Sodium earhonule s*> 




'T'hitin' 1 



4 -OSS 





TnorRrtiiio ionH 







30 000 


Since no corresponding study of any other lac insect has been published, 
little comparison with allied forms is possible. The wax and the dye are both 
chemically distinct from those of Laccifer lacca (see Warlh, 1956; Fox, 1953), 
and the clye differs from any which has been described from other insects. Of 
the various members of the lac complex present, none is shellac as is shown by 
their solubilities, and acid, saponifieation, and ester values (see Gardner, 1937; 
Parry, 1925). The two laccoids separated are interesting compounds. In their 
general behaviour they resemble high melting point lacs, but their mode of 
chemical formation indicates a relationship to the lac acids. They are not 
present in the test as laeeoids since their ready solubility irj ethanol would result 
in their extraction earlier in the analysis. 

As the name "lac insects" implies, production of lacs is characteristic of the 
Laeciferidae. In A acaciae they comprise over half the dry weight of the test, 
but their biological significance in any species has never been explained, little 
is known of their mode of secretion, and nothing of their metabolism or function. 

Notk. — The proprietary wax solvent mentioned above is marketed by the Vacuum Oil 
Company as "Stanvac Hoxanc" It consists of 9.V95 per cent, saturated hydrocarbons and 
7-5 per cent of aromatic hvdrocarbous. The boiling point range (A.S.'JWU is from 66° C. 
to 68- 5° C. 


Ckambeblix, J. C, 1923. A Systematic juouograph of the Tachardiiuau or lac insects (Coc- 

cidae). Bull, cnt Res., 14, pp. 147-212. 
Cjtambkhliv, J. O., 1925. Supplement to u monograph of the Ltuoilcrklae ( Tachardiiuae) 

or lac insects (Homopt, Coccidae). Hull. cut. Kos., 10.. pp. 31-41. 
Fox, D. L., 1053. Animal Bioehromes and Structural Colours, Cambridge University Press, 

pp. 205-2OS. 
Gardner, H. A., 1937. Physical arid Chemical Examination ol Fronts. Varnishes, Lacquers 

and Colors, Eighth edition, Institute of Paint and Varnish Research. Washington, IXC, 

pp. 870-902. 
Parry, E. J., 1925. In Allen's Commercial Organic Analvsis. Kifth edition. Churchill, 

London, pp. 290-299, 
Warth. A. H., 1956. The Chemistry and Technology of Waxes. Second edition. Reinhold 

Publishing Corp., New York pp. 76-12L 

Harry F. Lower 

Plate 1 



byK C. Sprigg 


Highly detailed geomorphic information concerning the distribution of sand dune systems in the 
upper south-east provinces of South Australia is provided. A large "stranded coast" embayment 
encloses Tintinara and Keith as part of the earliest Naracoorte beaches, and with it the deep 
Pleistocene shell deposits described by Tate (1898). This is the Tintinara "Bay". Suggestions are 
made for the northerly continuation of the Kanawinka fault or its en echelon associations from 
Naracoorte immediately east of Keith to the Marmon Jabuk Range. These fault escarpments did 
much to fashion marine and lake coasts at about the beginning of the Pleistocene Era. A rapid 
increase in quartz is found in modern beach sands north of Kingston towards the outlet of the 
Murray River. This is held to be of principal importance in the development of the leached silicious 
sand sheets in the upper south-east rather than simply podolization of high-lime beach sands. Wind 
directions remain dominantly E.-W. during the course of all high sea level phases of the Pleistocene 
(as evidenced by inland dune trends). The modern coastal dune structures, however, approximate 
N.E. in conformity with prevailing wind patterns requiring a four or five degree southward 
migration of the "Roaring Forty" prevailing westerly belt since the Pleistocene. 


by R. C. Spbigg* 

[Read 11 September 1958] 


Highly detailed isomorphic information concerning the distribution of 
sand dune systems in the upper south-east provinces of Smith Australia is pro- 
vided. A large "stranded coast" emhayment encloses Tintinara and Keith as 
part of the earliest Naracoorte beaches, and with it the deep Pleistocene shell 
deposits described by Tate (1898). This is the Tintinara "Bay". 

Suggestions are made for the northerly continuation of the Kanawiiika fault 
or its en echelon associations from Naracoorte uninediately east of Keith to the 
Marmon Jabulc Range. These fault escarpments did much to fashion marine 
and lake coasts at about the beginning of the Pleistocene Era. 

A rapid increase in quartz is found in modern beach sands north of King- 
ston towards the outlet of the Murray River This is held to be of principal im- 
portance in the development of the leached silieious sand sheets in the upper 
south-east rather than simply podolizution of high-June beach .sands. 

Wind directions remain dominantly E.-W. during the course of all high sea 
level phases of the Pleistocene (as evidenced by inland dune trends). The 
modern coastal dune structures, however, approximate N.E. in conformity with 
prevailing wind patterns requiring a four or five degree sattthisMtd migration 
of the "Roaring Forty" prevailing westerly belt since the Pleistocene. 


Ground observations supported by widespread aerial reconnaissances by 
the writer since 1954 have provided much new information concerning the his- 
tory of this region. A highly detailed map compiled by the writer from the 
latest aerial photography by the South Australian Lands Department goes far 
to elucidate this history. 

The present paper is one of a series, arising from efforts to obtain more 
factual information on .structural deformation of the larger sedimentary basins 
in South Australia, during Recent geological times. The dating of certain land 
movements in these basins arc of particular interest in the search for commercial 

This present paper is designed to deal Math coastal migrations of the late 
Cainozoie Era as thev affect the upper south-east, tn this respect it is supple- 
mentary to earlier papers by N. B, Tindale (1933), P. Hossfeld (1950), R. 
Sprigg (1950-2) and P. Du Mooy (1958). Of particular concern is the fate of 
the older "Naracoorte" and "Hynam* beaches, as they trend north-north-easterly 
from die Naracoorte vicinity beyond the immediate influence of the scarp- 
forming Kanawinka fault. These beaches were known generally to strike to- 
wards Tintinara where Tate (1S98), Howchin (1929) and others had described 
a thick section of "Newer Pleistocene" shell beds extending from 38 feet above 
tn 182 feet below modern sea-level. 

Considerable laud warping continued throughout the period of beach 
formation, and strong differences of opinions amongst geologists still reniain»to 

■ Ceosurveys of Australia Ltd. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. 8fc. 

184 R < , SPMGG 

be resolved as to the eftectiveness, and even the existence. ami direction nF 
these complicating movements. 

(hit cropping basement rock in the south-east are all acid igneous types 
which Mawson (1913., 44, 45) has classified in three major groups. They in- 
clude the reddish granite of the Murray Bridge type in whieh iluoriLe is a" not- 
able accessory, also the greyish porphyritic adarnellites and grunodiorites, and 
finally the quartz koratophyrcs considered to he effusive equivalents of the 
adajndlites and granodiorites. They are considered to be eonmgmatic with 
similar intrusions in the eastern Mr. Lofty Ranges and southern Kangaroo Island 
t<3 '.lie north and west, and perhaps with those of Dereholm to the south-east in 

\r* i • ° 

These granite rocks outerop in isolated inliers, as knolls and Vhalebacks" 
throughout the present regain along the crest of the so-ealled Padthaway buried 
horst (Sprigg, 1952), 

Permian glacials intill many glacial valleys in an. ancient buried topography 
excavated in the foregoing terrain. Glacigcnc sands and clays and boulder beds 
are indicated m drilling, but these do not appear to outcrop in the area. 

Mesozotc subgrcywaeke. eoak and shales are present to a thickness of 3,000 
ieet in Hobo Bore ; , but are not recorded in tire present area. Three samples 
l>elvveen 1,400 and 2,630 feet iti Kobe Bore have been determined (Cookson and 
Dcttrnunn, 1958) as of Lower Cretaceous age- 
Older Tertiary sediments of Eocene age are principally piratic sediments 
Witt local lignite or the Knight and Buccleueh Groups (Ludbrook% 1957). They 
are overlain by normal marine limestones mostly ot Upper Oligocene age. 

Most or the present land surface is now blankcttccl by sands highly siliceous 
i?i the north, but more calcareous to the south where "they form '"aeolianilo" 
dune rock. Travertinjzation is widespread where the calcareous element is 
stronger, and laterization or soil hard-pan formation is conspicuous in restricted 


There is no reliable indications us to the exact dating of coasts in this area. 
At ahuut die end of the Pliocene f ht* sea receded completely from the "Mur- 
ravian v Gulf of which the present area is pari. This was accompanied by uplift 
Of an ancient N.N.W.-S-S.E. ridge known as the Padtrunvav Horst (Spngg,' 1952). 
As Howchin (1929) had noted, the original mid-Tertiary Gulf became a great 
inland lake or series of lakes behind this general, zone.' The engrafted River 
Murray drained into it. The position of the sea coast diuiug laic Miocene to 
early Pliocene times is not. known and may have retreated beyond the limits 
of the modern coast, but certainly appears to have retreated at least to the, 
PadUiaway Horst. 

During Pliocene times the sea gained access to an elongate topographically 
negative zone close by the uprising Mt- Lofty Ranges, and inassLve oyster beds 
extended along the general course of the Murray valley in this region, as far 
north as Morgan . 

To the south of Naracuortc, there is a multiplicity of very obvious stranded 
sea beaches mostly of Pleistocene ages. These have been stranded in turn on 
an upwarping but gently seaward sloping plain (ftjg; 2). Some complications 
have been noted (Sprigg, 1948, 1&52; Hossfeld, 19oQ) by later inundation of 
the lower (younger) beaches. 

The hest developed of the higher (older) stranded beaches occur at Nara- 
eourtc against the Kanawinka fault scarp, developed in mid-Tertiary polvzoal 

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limestones, and uttuining more than 100 feet high. Remnant sub-parallel coastal 
dimes occur further inland at still higher levels marking the "HynanT and "Bin- 
rmin v coasts. The Nameourte dune has been tuken by Sprigg (1952) to bo the 
earliest Pleistocene chine, and the llynam and Binnum coasts on this assumption 
would be of Pliocene age. 

Further to the south extensive oyster deposits occur inland from the Dismal 
Swamps on flic "back" of the Ml. Gambier arch (Sprigg, VMS, 52), or Cape 
Banks axis (IFossreid, 1950). These may or may not be time-ccmivalcnts Ctt the 
Murray Valley deposits to the north. They appear to be cn-extensive with the 
Plio-Fiei^torfjie deposits of the Glenclg River at Heywood u\ south-western 
Victoria described by Singleton (1939) as spanning this "time* boundary. The 
western Namcourte beaefi is contemporaneous with those oyster deposits and 
so u Plio-Pleistocene "boundary* age for th.s beach seems reasonable. The sea 
at this time lapped at the tool ol the Kanawinka fault scarp. 

The Naracoorte beach dune is compound. It consists of two major ridges 
separated a short distanee (a few hundred yards) from tiic Kanawinka fault 
at Naracoorte, which also appears to have Formed a (slighlh older) coast 

To the north, the seaward facing aspect of the "west" Naracoorte component 
tif this beach dune trends consistently N.N.W. with only gentle arching more 
lo the NAY. to within 15 miles of Keith. Here there appear numerous compli- 
cations. Granites outcrop boldly, and at least 3 or 4 coastal dunes appear east 
of the 'rVaracourrc^ trend, variously arched into successive embayments con- 
trolled in part by protecting granite ''headlands" ( Fig- 3). The younger of these 
may he correlated with the west Naracoorte dun? and this interpretation is pre- 
ferred. The next east includes several granite eminences within ils boundaries 
near the southern end. The Mount Monster dune, next to the C&St* may not 
have been a complete coast, but rather a string of granite islands "tied" by dime 
accumulations, further east the compounded Keith dunes make a prominent 
COrtSt forming the Tintinara 'Bay" and backed by enormous east-blown siliceous 
sand sheets which rise relatively sharply from the puns fore-front level of 90-100 
feet to 200 feet or more. It is not improbable that this dune skirts the northern 
continuation ol the Kanawinka fault or a related en echelon fracture and escarp- 

The Keith "beacV can be traced north-eastward lo opposite Tintinara (74 
feet above sea level J beyond which it U lost beneath enormous sand blows 
originating from about tlic seaward grauil:e "islands" nf the Binneys Lookout 
and Ylt. Boothby "archipelago' 1 . This and associated 'blows effectively obliter- 
ate all eoaslal clones north of this latitude. South from Keith this Tintinara 
' ISav" swings seaward to link with the Naracourte trend, but in doing so, also 
1$ "tied" lo the ML Monster archipelago. 

Of the younger (lower level) dunes west of the "Naracoorte" line, most 
uf them lose their identity north of the latitude of Keith. Only the Peacock 
dune can be traced beyond this limit, with the exception rjf the immediate sob- 
coastal "Reedy Creek" beach and others of the Xourong" association. 

In the region of the Morray Lukes, to the north (Fig. 4) evidence of former 
eoasts is difficult to elucidate. Enormous sand sheets and 'blows*, and lakes, 
effectively blanket most of the evidence. The northern shore of Lake Albert has a 
gently arched form and is backed by high *and dunes and is thought to represent 
an old sea stand, probably the Xaraeoorte coast Further west, constrictions on 
Naming Peninsula also suggest the trace of an ancient coast, possibly one of 
the "Avenue 1 ' beaches, from the south. This has been tentatively termed the 
Lnveday Ikry Beach. 

The role of the Mt. Boothby and Binneys Lookout granite wbalebacbs in 
coastal configuration can only be surmised, although the protection must have 


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188 H. C, SPMGG 

had considerable influence on local coastal configuration. Presumably these 
granite knolls formed archipelagoes and tied-tslands and finally headlands in 
successively younger stranded coasts. The outcrop undoubtedly facilitated 
inland sand drift, for the most massive *1>lovvs" surround these and extend fYjr 
20ft miles inland directly eastwards, 


(a) The Tintinara Marine Shell Deposits 

Appreciation of the form of the stranded 'Tintinara Bay" and associated 
coasts throws new light on several previously puzzling features. Tate (1S9S) 
examined fossil shell assemblages from the Tintinara Railway Bore, and de- 
clared them to be New Pleistocene, He recorded that "the total tJiickness of 
New Pleistocene beds is 220 feet extending in depth from 38 feet above sea level 
to 182 feet below it. AH the examined species as a result of comparison with 
authenticated specimens are., with three exceptions, living in our local seas." 

Chapman (1918) following this evidence of deep shell beds extending well 
below modern sea level, suggested the possibility of a rift valley or an eaTth fold 
by which the sea was admitted. Some ovexdeepening seems certainly to have 
occurred, and may have marked an ancient erosional valley, or as Howchin and 
Tate suggested, a possible outlet of the Murray River. 

The new view of the landward swing of the *£ast-Naracoorte" or older 
coasts, as herein described, accommodates the Tintinara shell deposits within 
the older Tintinara embayment. Tates identification of "Newer** Pleistocene 
should he accepted cautiously in the absence of more precise determinations, 
but an older Pleistocene age would appear to be more in accordance with the 

(b) The Northward Continuation of the Kanaicinka Fault 

Another problem concerns the northern extensions of the Kanawinka fault. 
This gently arcuate fault extends more than 100 miles from near Portland in 
Victoria, west of Casterton and through Naracoorte, to disappear into the Nara- 
cooito stranded coastal dunes only a few miles north of the latter town. 

Topographic data is sparse in this direction. Baikvav gradients between 
Tintinara (R.L. 62) and Keith (R.L. 101 ) are quite low (30 feet in 24 miles), 
whereas to the east, the rise across the "Keith Coast" is 40 feet in 6 miles. This 
could indicate the position of the projected Kanawinka fault extension or a 
en echelon partner, but is also attributable to sand accumulation. No granites 
outcrop west of this line. 

To the north-west, numerous faults all trending N.W. ; W.N.W. or N.N.VV. 
continue the general zone of uplift, aud certain of these mark the boundaries 
of the Marmon Jabuk Range. (See Figs. 2 and 6. ) These relationships are being 
discussed more fully in a parallel paper. 

(c) Jtftmlwarping Movements, 

Particular interest centres upon the extent of landwarping movements active 
throughout the Late Cainozoic Era, which is widely known in Australia as the 
"Kosciusko Epoch". 

A graph (Fig. 5) has been prepared of stranded beach '"forefront" levels. 
projected onto a sub-parallel plane taken along the general average trend <>f 
the beach system. It is appreciated that true strandline, or other "datum", may 
vary plus or minus 10 or 20 feet or more along these situations. In general, how- 
ever, erosion and deposition along the fore-dime flats since the stranding of the 
respective beaches will have acted to reduce these elevational differences. Pot 
example, in the extreme south, on the axis of the transverse Mt Gambler arch 









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(or uptvarp) Tertiary rocks are extensively exposed by sediment stripping, 
whereas to the north the intcrduno Hats are progressively more deeply swamped 
by iater sediments. The graph, then, wiU tend to indicate rather a lesser amount 
of warping tlian has actually occurred. 

The warping trends are quite obvious from the graph, indicating progressive 
apworp about the ML Gambicr {or Cape Banks) line, with greatest downwarp 
towajds the foot of the (developing) Mt. Lofty Ranges. It is this type of down- 
warp towards the eastern edge of the Mt. Lofty Ranges and the eastern and 
noithern margins of the Flinders Ranges which has exercised a major control 
on stream patterns in the Murray River and Lake Eyre basins. These patterns 
are notably asymmetrical with all trunk streams trending towards, and finally 
along, the base of the previously mentioned margins of these ranges. These are 
uInu the zones of South Australia's major lakes. The graph produced clearly 
supplies the controls for this situation. 

(d) The Origin of (he SW* 

Enormous volumes of white ur cream coloured sands in vast sheets extend 
for up to 150 miles from the present coast almost directly eastwards into Vic- 
toria (the "Bigj Desert" is the north, and "Tittle Deseit" to the south). Thesv 
are the leached siliceous sands described by Crocker (1946) and others. Crocker 
concluded the enormous volumes of sand to be "aeolian resorted leached A-hnri- 
zons from the former calcareous dunes . > , die consolidation of the calcareous 
dunes by downward leaching of lime and re-deposition in a R-C horizon, has 
resulted in the formation of a residual siliceous A horizon. The stripping of this 
siliceous horizon by acoiian agencies during a subsequent arid period, and its 
re-sorting is considered to have led to the development of the large areas of 
siliceous sand in die lower south-east". 

Obviously these processes have played some part in the development of 
die siliceous sand sheets of the upper south-east, and of some consolidated 
"aeoh'anite" dunes, but other more important factors have been overlooked. 

Firstly, all coastal sands in the south-east are not dominantly calcareous. 
Crocker (1946). for example, has quoted 5-35 per cent, insoluble, matter as the 
normal range of variation for "our Australian calcareous sands'. Analyses of 
sands taken by Sprigg (1952) in the lower south-east certainly do indicate uni- 
formly high lime content (63-95 per cent.) as suggested by Crocker (i.e. 5-35 
per cent, insolubles). However, these samples were all taken from tire vicinity 
of Kingston or south in a region, notable for destruction of enormous shell popu- 
lations on open ocean surf beaches which lack river outlets winch would other- 
wise provide non-calcareous sedimentary material. Kingston, for example, is 
almost 90 miles from the Murray River mouth to the north, and 120 miles from 
the Clenclg River outlet to the south-east. 

A scries of sand samples taken at intervals along the Coornng Beach north 
from Kingston show a progressive increase in insoluble as follows: 

10 ml. S.W* of Kingston L.T.L. Jl 7 

HI mt N. of Kingston j gfjjjj S3 

20 ml. N of Kingston ... Dune 2S-9 

40 mh N. of Kingston I h*?$? ^3*5 

Dune 30 -8 

90 ml N. of Kingston (Coolwa Barrage (H.T.L, (53*0 

vicinty) .. ] Dune 74*1 

100 ml. N. of Kingston (Surfers* Beach, ) H.T.L. 81*6 

extreme north) . ( Dune 79 5 


The progressive change in composition to the north is obvious and micro- 
scopic examination reveals the increase in solubles to be almost entirely due 
to quartz, although some silicate mineials are also pi*cscnt. 

On tins coast only one source is likely to be important in inducing the Com- 
positional change revealed, namely, those sediments introduced via the Murray 
River. Lesser sources are from coastal erosion in Encounter Bay, and from 
submarine outcrops of granite, and Air Pre-Tertiary and Tertiary sedimentary' 
rocks. Littoral drift would tend to spread these insoluble products particularly 
to the south from the Mntnty mouth which is eccentrically situated on the gently 
arcuate Coorong sea-heach. 

A comparable state of affairs seerus to have held throughout the period of 
"stranded beach" formation in the south-east. .North of about Kingston sand 
Blows extend increasingly further inland and finally bt*xuue sufficiently massive 
to inundate, and obliterate, all earlier-formed coastal beaches. Moreover, as ex- 
pectcd, the coarsely-grained acolianite of the south gives away to finer-grained 
aeolinite with obviously increased insoluble (quartz sand) content, in this more 
northerly aspect. 

North o! Keith, siliceous sand sheets reach enormous dimensions, and extend 
for up to 150 miles inland. With one or two exceptions, the northern boundary 
at this sand lies about along the latitude of Tailein Bend and corresponds with 
the northern limit of the settling basins provided by the lakes before the Murray 
River mouth. More northerly accumulations extend east from about Jabuk and 
Karoonda. Two principal dune systems extend away from local fault escarp- 
ments and may possibly indicate former coast formation in earlier Plio-Pleis- 
toeene times, or fluviatile activity. 

A complication in the concentration or the heaviest siliceous sand sheets 
north of Keith is apparent with the Naraeoorte Beaches, whereas the lower* 
level beaches, south of the Keith, cease to be smothered by later distributions 
of sands from successively younger beaches, these Litter still produced large 
easterly distributions extending almost south to Naraeoorte. The presence of 
granite knolls within these older coastal complexes, and associated outcropping 
older Tertiary fluviatile sedimentary sources, may be sufficient source. There 
remain, however, the possibilities of a more southerly Outlet, he?e, to the Murray 
River, as suggested also by the overdeeprncd (? croded-vallev) deposit*; of 
fossil shells of Tintinara as described by Tate (1898) and Ilowchiu (1938). 

(e) Dotninant Wind Directions 

Relatively "inexhaustible™ supplies of fine sand, free to move under condi- 
tions of favourable climate (and other factors), may provide excellent "fossil* 
record of former wind patterns. Few areas could excel the south-east region in 
I his respect. 

In this paper it is not intended to anticipate a much more exhaustive treat- 
ment of the subject oi "fossil wind regimes" as indicated by our Australian fixed 
desert dnnc systems which is now in an advanced stage of preparation by the 
writer. In diis treatment particular consideration is given to "high impact force" 
winds (of 1$ miles per hour or more) which are considered most efficient in 
transport of sand (other conditions of moisture content, vegetative cover, etc., 
being equal). Frequency-dominance of winds (in terms of direction) may or 
may not he a less important factor, assisting more in sweeping the interdune 
corridors and producing bias in lateral avalanche tendencies. 

The dune patterns reproduced herein (Figs- I and 2) higlilight the domino 
aling influence of prevailing "high impact force" westerly winds during most of 
ihe periods of active sand transport. The long axes of all major sand aocumu- 

192 a C. SPMGG 

lations (inland from) West Avenue Range show this westerly factor very clearly. 
To the north this influence is , overwhelming whereas to the south some ohlique 
ffietucU arc superimposed on the still dominating westerly influence. 

This westerly "dominance" is remarkable in view of modern wind patterns 
tor this same area which show a strong prevalence, both in relative frequency 
and force of impact, for "south-westerlies". The sand drift lines of the modern 
Coorong coastal dune reflects this direction quite faithfully. The most accept- 
able explanation for this seeming anomaly would appear to be that ihe present 
day wind pattern is strongly at oariance with conditions obtaining during the 
Pleistocene Period when the inkind blows were most active. The dune pattern 
of the Karoonda-Pinnaroo '/one is strongly reminiscent of the modern active dune 
system of the Watcrhousc district in north-eastern Tasmania which are still 
active under conditions of high rainfall. A plentiful sand supply and strong 
force westerly winds are the controlling factors. These are sufficient to negative 
the influence of a strong, but quite comparable stunted vegetative cover in this 
region. (Both are areas of deeply leached sands apparently with low nutritive 
status of the soils. ) 

The directional change of dune structure near the Murray River mouth is 
from N90-100 E. to N35-45" E. This can best be explained by a significant 
migration of climatic belts in geologically recent times suggesting also that our 
modern climate may not simply be that of a "Pleistocene Interglaciaf*. 

It would appear, thcn ( that the anticyclone belt is now removed further 
south The so-called "Roaring Forty" belt (an unstable zone at the best of 
ttme=0 of high impact Force westerly winds, and now passing over Tasmania, 
would appear to have been located at least 4 to 5 degrees of latitude further 
north. Moreover, there is no necessity to invoke arid periods to account for 
these desert-like developments, although drought and aridity may well have 
been significant factors. High impact force winds in areas of heavy and con- 
tinuing sediment supply are adequate to overwhelm stunted vegetative cover 
and lead to dune formation. 


Clark, E. T., 1896. Notes on tin; Oology of lh« Ninety Mile Desert. Trans. Hoy Sot., S 
Aust.. Vol 30. 

CqokzoK I. C, and Dettm^nn, \j. E \9XK. Cretaceous "megaspoiea" and ft olosely asso- 
ciated microspore from the Anstrali.m region. Mlrempulaeoutology, 4(1), dc 30-49 
pto. 1-8 lejrt) Juys. i-3, i tabic. 

Cnootm, R. L., 1943. Post : Mtoocne Climatic 3j*I Geologic History and its significant* lu 
relation to tho Genesis of the major soil types of S. Aust, CS.I.H.O. Aust. Bull. .\o, \§X 

CaxrMAN, F„ 1918. CuJnozuic Ceolojry of tW NUtlVe mid other Vit toTiuu Bun.*, (tec Uuol 
Surv. Vic, 3 (41- 

HosstiOJj. JP; S , 3950. The Lata Cainoxoii History o[ the SimiiIi Kas-l of South AnsWia. 
Tmru!. Floy. Sue. S.A., 73 (2). 

liowoMTW, \V V 1959- .Votes an the Grulugy or the Great Py*ip Bond ( Loxton/, Biver Murray 
Basin and remarks on the geological historv of the River Murray. I VaiiA Hoy, Soo S 
Aust, Vol 53. * 

JLuuEffiooK, N. H. r 1957. A Reference Column for the Tertiary Sediments of the South Aus- 
tralian Portion of the Murray Basin. Journ. Hoy. Soe. N.SAV-, 90, pp. 174-180. 

Spbjoc, R. C. ? 194S (1932). Strantled Sea Beaches of the south-east of Sooth Australia and 
aspects of the Theories of Milankavitch and Zeuuer. Bop. 18th Sit- Ceol. Congress 
{f.ondnn, 1048). 

Si'RiGG, R. C, 1952. The Geology of the South-East Province*, Sooth Australia, with special 
T@er.6aod to Quaternary ooasl-line migrations and motWu Beach Development. Bull. 
29, Ccol. Survey, S. Australia. 

Sprtcc, ft, C, and Boutaxofj\ N., 1953. Summary Report on the R£roletim Possibilities of 
the Cambier Sunktands. Mining Review. No. 95, S. Aust. Department of Mines. 


Tindale, N. B., 1933. Tantanoola Caves, Geological and Physiographical. Trans. Roy. Soc. 

S. Aust., 57. 
Tate, R., 1898. Two Deep Level Deposits of or over Pleistocene Age, Tintinara and Port 

Pirie. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 22. 

Stephens, C. G., et al. A Soil and Land Use Survey of the Hundreds of Hindmarsh, Young, 
Riddock, Grey and Nangwarry, South Australia. C.S.I.R., Aust. Bull. 142. 

Singleton, F. A., 1939. The Tertiary Geology of Australia. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vic, 53. 



byR. C. Sprigg, M.Sc. 


Three, possibly four, submarine ridges lying transversely to the general contour of the continental 
platform opposite Beachport are interpreted to be submarine lava flows. A marginal submarine 
valley accompanies one or more of them. The heads of these presumed flows coincide closely with 
the epicentres of the 1897 and 1948 earthquakes, and this activity may represent the last phase of 
the late Quaternary basaltic volcanicity in south-eastern Australia. 


by R. C. Sprigg, M.Sc* 

[Read 1.1 September 1958] 


Three, possibly four, submarine ridges lying transversely to the general 
contour of the continental platform opposite Beachport are interpreted to be 
submarine lava flows. A marginal submarine valley -accompanies one or jnore 
of them. 

The heads of these presumed flows coincide closely with the epicentres of 
the 1897 and 1948 earthquakes, and this activity may represent the last phase 
of the late Quaternary basaltic, volcanicity in south-eastern Australia. 


Volcanoes have almost certainly been active beneath the sea opposite Beach- 
port in late Cainozoic, perhaps even geologically Recent times. 

Highly scoriaceous basalts have been collected washed up on beaches at 
many places from Beachport to Port MacDonnell. These may be the origin of 
local ''old timer" rumours of volcanoes beneath the sea in this vicinity* Some 
have contended that the basalts came from greater distances, and the inevitable 
"clinkers" brought in with such samples, and also one example of imported basalt 
ballast, dumped at local seaports, rather more confused the issue. 

The writer, while an officer of the South Australian Geological Survey, be- 
came interested in the fascinating possibility of submarine volcanicity in this 
vicinity, during prolonged field activities In the coastal zone during 1949-51, but 
at the time decided that the available evidence was insufficient. However, 
Captain Little, commander of the survey ship Lachlan, with whom the writer 
was associated during the Robe Harbour investigations, undertook several echo 
sounding traverses across the local continental shelf, and reported a submarine 
eminence off the coast between Robe and Beachport which appeared suggestive. 
This "peak" has been located on the latest hydrographic charts of the area which 
form the basis of this contribution. Of special interest is that this position cor- 
responds closely with the epicentres of the 1897 and 1948 earthquakes, and also 
ties in with other anomalous submarine topographic features of the immediate 

T.ate Cainozoic Volcanicity 

Readers are referred to publications by A. V. G. James (1949) and R, C, 
Sprigg ( 1952) for summaries of volcanic activity in the local hinterland (Fig. 1), 
A roughly east-west volcanic belt extends across southern Victoria into south- 
eastern South Australia, ending rather abruptly, as far as outcropping evidence 
goes, in Mt. Muirhead, in the Mt. Rurr range. Two solitary centres of late Ter- 
tiary activity occur much further to the north-west on Kangaroo Island. These 
groups are the so-called "Newer Volcanics" as distinct from earlier Tertiary 

* Ceosurveys of Australia Limited. 
Trans. Roy. Soc, B, Aust- (1959), Vol. S3. 






I* ill 

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Fissure eruptions played a major role in the Victorian activity with die 
extrusion of basalt sheets covering more than 10,000 square miles over the western 
district plains and highlands. Near Portland, coastal eruptions jiourcd out lava 
streams which even now can be traced across the coastline out idong t!ie sea 
floor, far nut to sea. 

In South Australia the activity was entirely basic, and the various vents 
can be related to presumed lines of fissuring> although Irue fissure eruption Js 
not obvious. Small flows usually proceeded cone formation, but the rapid 
accumulation of steam quickly led to the growth of large explosion craters. 

In the Mt. Cambier vicinity, the earlier of these fate Tertiary volcanoes, as 
exemplified by Mrs. Burr and Mclntyre. are considered to be late Pliocene to 
Earlv Pleistocene phenomena (Sprigg, 1952), and the latei group by Mt- Gam- 
bier arc late Pleistocene. Other writers have placed the activity still Liter, and 
N. B. Tindale and others, in drawing attention to possible r*rerenees in local 
aboriginal legends have suggested very recent activity. This is not impossible, 
as even a short cycle of activity could well span the time interval concerned, 

Late CalnazAiic Faulting 

Brief mention of* faulting during late Tertiary and Quaternary times is im- 
portant for its possible bearing on recent earthquake activity in the area- 
Minor late Tertiary faults occur throughout outcropping Tertiary limestones 
in the Mt Cambier area. They conform well with the major geological struc- 
tural pattern of the area, and the jointing (Sprigg, 1952), and mostly they strike 
VV.N.W. or X.W. Fault downthrow is usually to the south-west* and the extent 
of movement is generally small. Loci ot volcanic eruption may be aligned along 
some of those. One of these, the "Tartwaup" line, would appear to pass out 
beneath the sea near Beacbport which is also the site of an unexplained extremely 
sharp positive gravity anomaly ( Department of Mines, unpublished information ) . 


In view of the known late Cainozoic volcanic activity* and the considerable 
arching (upwarping), occuring Jn the south-eastern area (Sprigg, 1952), it is 
not surprising that two of the State's major earthquakes have been centred in 
this area in historic times. The first -occurred ou May 10th, 1897, and the second 
on April Sth, 1948. 

Mr. G. V. Dodwell (1909), the late Government Astronomer, in describing 
the 1897 earthquake wrote that "tremors in the vicinity of Kingston „ . . con- 
tinued at intervals for some months, all appeared to point to a focus in the 
ocean somewhere west of that neighborhood**. The earthquake showed u large 
epiccntral area and was recorded over southern Australia from Streaky Bay and 
well into Victoria. An isoseismal map (Fig. 2) prepared at the rime suggests 
an epicentre off die coast near Beachport The disturbance was accorded the 
value 9 on "Merculli" scale. 

According to local reports by persons still living, the shock dislocated the 
lighthouse machinery at Cape Jaffa, throwing the light off its beam and spilling 
die mercury at the base of the lamp. A large mass of acolianite nearby was 
split, and portions collapsed into the sea. To the north-west of Mt. Benson, 
opposite Nitlook bark mill, the travertinscd limestone was cracked deeply. Ac- 
cording to Mr. F. Winter, a local resident, the tremors continued for some weeks. 

The more recent tremor of 1948 had its epicentre beneath the sea 10 miles 
north-west of Bcachport, in much the same place as the. 1897 earthquake. The 
shock was less severe, even though it was felt as far as 250 miles away, At 
Bcachport, it cracked buildings, stopped clocks and dislodged crockery from 

198 K. C. SPRIGG 

shelves. Nearer Adelaide the tremor lasted from a few seconds to five minutes, 
and in some areas it was proceeded by low rumblings. 

The Evidence from Submarine Topography 

Lt. Commander Little's report of a rock eminence rising to 13 fathoms, but 
lying approximately on the trend of the 25 fathom contour, raises considerable 




(after hocben) 

Z6£>S8 pjan prepared by GeosurW/s of Austrsha Ltd. 

SEP 3 

Fig. 2 

interest. The continental shelf in this vicinity is at about its narrowest expression 
in South Australia. The trend of its outer margin is very direct, and almost due 
north-west. A general contouring of the depth soundings (Fig. 3) produces a 
gently sloping surface, steepening rapidly as it approaches the 100 fathom line, 
and thereafter plunging increasingly rapidly into the Jeffrey abysmal deep. 
Information is sufficient to show the broad form of this shelf quite clearly 



except in a few zones. While appreciating the effects of i^ersonal bias, most of the 
contouring is reasonably smooth, and can be readily reproduced by independant 
investigators. However, several obvious anomalies stand out clearly. Three 




m v\ N 





Dolg from *0mir«H( Ctiort IQIi 

M.L 3i it. » jh »»a' prepartyi t> J. foSt/rrP>a iJ Ar;«'rMlA It* ^EP 1 

Fig. 3 

transverse ridges, and possibly a fourth, interrupt the trend of the general sea 
floor contour boldly. In addition, valley-like depressions margin two of these 

The eminence recorded by Lt. Commander Little represent the apparent 
abrupt landward termination of one of the ridges. Down-slope, it appears to 



continue as a ridge for at least 12 miles, and is elevated 30 to 60 feet or more 
above its surroundings. Unfortunately, the density of soundings is insufficient 
to be more precise as to its exact morphology. Trie ridge is clearly elongated 
across the continental platform, in the direction of the steepest slope which is 
also transverse to the grain uf faulting on the adjacent mainland. It is proposed 
to call this feature "Littles ridge" The upper (?) termination of this feature 
lies near the projected 15 fathoms contour, where it also appears to have its 
greatest differential elevation above the local sea floor (summit at 13 fathoms). 
This point is approximately 17 miles N60W of fieachport and 7 miles from the 
nearest coast. There appears to be no deviation of the recently surveyed 100 
fathom line opposite this feature and it is presumed not to extend that far. 

A second prominent ridge structure also lying transverse to the genera 1 , 
contour of the shelf, occurs almost due west of Beachport. This will be termed 
the Keachport ridge. The soundings suggest this to be similarly elevated 60 
to 100 feet above the projected level of the local platform. In the absence of 
suitably positioned soundings, the nature of its "head" is unknown. This ridge 
almost certainly crosses the 100 fathom hue, for the marine charts show a clearly 
intended and definite outward bulging on the line at this situation. (This line 
was resurveyed in "continuity" by the "Lachlan" and replotted accurately.) 
The structure has elongation of twenty miles or more. A third ridge, apparently 
only slightly less conspicuous, lies a few miles to the south; its form is quite 
comparable. It is termed the Rivoli ridge. 

On the northern margin of the Beachport submarine ridge there exists a 
deep trench, apparendy also trending in the direction of steepest slope. This 
appears to be an erosional feature, and the few random surroundings centred 
on it indicates overdeepening tu 100 feet or more. The valley may be of the 
nature uf a miniature submarine canyon, but more evidence is required to justify 
this conclusion. The valley to the south of the Beachport ridge appears not 
to have been overdeepened, rather it appears to be present by virtue of the 
existence of the ridges on either flank. 

Directly south of Beachport distant approximately 20 miles, there is yet 
another associated ridge and valley topographic "anomaly". The evidence is 
meagre in view of the paucity of local soundings, but the general indication is 
similar to the foregoing. Its position is indicated on the plan. Interpretative 
statistics on each of these incompletely known features is given in Table I. 


From Beaehport 

Mm. dist. 
from coast 


Max., inforrwl 

Name of Sutanarinp 



(in miloa) 





( miles) 


(in feot) 

Little's ndgtv 






13eeH'h}tort ridge 






Bivoli ridge 




10 f- 


JS'orthumWland ridge 






Ik-Kt'hpott. groove 


due W 


on - 

XoiUmmborlaiKl groove 






Submarine earthquakes in 1S97 and 1948 indicated epicentres to the north- 
we>t of Beachport distant some 10 to 20 miles. Tins general zone encompasses 
portion of the local continental shelf which carries several prominent ridge struc- 


tures consistent in form with submarine lava Hows. The structures are remark- 
ably persistent, extending for 10 to 2rt) miles or more in the direction of maximum 
sea floor slope. The more northerly or "LittleV submarine ridge on present in- 
formation lias relatively greater prominence at its head, indicating perhaps re- 
stricted erosion, and suggesting very "youthfuP characteristics, if the volcanic 
interpretation is correct. This location corresponds very closely with the calcu- 
lated epicentral location of the 1897 earthquake. The 1948 epicentre admittedly 
also very approximately located is placed somewhat nearer to the head ot the 
Beachport submarine ridge. 

The nature of the (?) canyoning on the northern side of the Beachport 
submarine ridge is little known. It is possible that submarine density cmrents 
have been concentrated about the former sea floor anomaly and have lead to 
active exosimj by buttom density currents. As the landward portion of the 

Slatform consists of Tertiary and Mesozoie sediments to more than 4000 feet 
eplh, these soft sediments "are also predicted for the platform edge and would 
be readily eroded. 

Outcropping rock is reported on three of the four ridge structures, even 
though the adjacent continental platform surface is almost exclusively of sand, 
shell or "coral" (? poJy7.ou). This supports the lava flow interpretation, which in 
the light of all the available evidence appears logical. The flows would be 
conceived to have had "tunncr form with the chilled lava surfaces providing 
crusts to insulate lava continuing lo flow. Portland vents were spread rather 
more and produced wider and less regular flow associations. Relative sea 
floor elevations of the order of 100 feet above the surroundings were produced. 
The lava flow within Portland Bay originated on die land, but die position of 
the sea margin at the time is not known. Its course beneath the existing sea 
is clearly defined ( Fig. 4). Iu its landward extension this flow has left some very 
fine elongate lava caves where the central liquid lavas had drained away. 


Three, and possibly four, presumed submarine lava flows erupted opposite 
Beachport in late Cainozoic times. The earthquake epicentres of the 1897 and 
1948 correspond with these positions, and >eoriaeeous basalt has been washed 
upon the beaches along the local coast. The flows are of great length (10 to 
2U miles or more) and one of them (die Beachport flow) is margined by a deep 
tiough on its northern side, possibly by submarine scouring by marine bottom 
density currents, 

There is no evidence, fur or against, extrusion of any of these presumed 
flows during a low level phase of the sea. In either case, the lower portions of 
the flows must have been below sea level even at the height of the generally 
accepted 40 fathom or 240 feet maximum lowering. Tho Beachport structure 
displaced the 100 fathom line markedly Co seaward, a fact which has been 
clearly recognised in drafting the latest hydrographic charts. A lowering of 
existing sea level by about SO feet would be sufficient to expose the head of 
Little's "flow". 

It is presumed that the "flows" belong to the Mt Gambier-Mt. Sehank phase 
(if latest vulcanicity> and in view of the associated seismic activity, may be the 
latest of them all. 

There is a need for more detailed echo sounding surveys to fully elucidate 
these structures, and grab sampling of rock fragments WOOW quickly verify the 
presumed volcanic nature. A search for volcanic glass or other material on the 
open beaches near Beachport may also help confirm these opinions. 






Appreciation is expressed for the kind co-operation of Mr. T. A. Barnes, 
Director of Mines, South Australia, in making available the block reproduced as 
Fig. 1 herein. 


Dodwell, G. F., 1909. South Australian Earthquakes. Aust. Ass. adv. Sci. (12). 

James, A. V. G., 1949. 'Hie last of the Australian Volcanoes. Walkabout, February issue. 

Howchin, W., 1918. The Geology of South Australia. Gqvt. Printer, Adelaide. 

Sprigg, K. C., 1947. Submarine Canyons of the New Guinea and South Australian Coasts. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S, Aust., 71 (2), pp. 296-310. 

Sprigg, R. C., 1952. The Geology of the South-East Province, South Australia, with Special 
Reference to Quaternary Coast-line Migrations, and Modern Beach Developments. GeoL 
Surv., S. Aust., Bull. 29. 


byR. C. Horwitz, B. P. Thomson and B. P. Webb 


This paper presents the results of recent mapping by the Geological Survey of South Australia in the 
eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges. The area covered forms portion of the Adelaide, Echunga and Milang 
Sheets (1:63, 360 scale). In the north and south of the area, field evidence establishes an 
unconformity between Adelaide System sediments and younger Cambrian sediments. An attempt is 
made to locate the base of the Cambrian in the central region where both sequences are 
conformable. The stratigraphy of the Adelaide System and the lowest beds of the Cambrian, 
including the Kanmantoo Group up to the Nairne pyrite formation, is outlined. The facies variations 
of these sediments are described. 


by R. C. Hoitwn/,,* B, P. Thomson and B. P. Wkbh* 

[Read 11 September 195S] 


This paper* L>rnseur>i the results of recent mapping by the GcjLogieal Survey 
of South Australia in trie eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges. The urea covered forms 
pore ion of the Adelaide-- Eehun.Ha and Mi lung Sheets (1:63, 360 scale). In the 
north and south of the area, field evidence establishes an unconformity between 
Adelaide System sediments and younger Cambrian sediments. An attempt is 
OUtdo to locate the basts of the Cumbrian in the central region where both 
sequence!" are conformable. The. stratigraphy of the Adelaide System and the 
lowest beds of the Cambrian, including: the Kanmantoo Croup up to the Nairnc 
pyrite formation, is outlined. The faciei variations of these sediments aie de- 

( a ) History 

Metamorphosed Cambrian sediments, now known as the Kanmantoo Group, 
form the extreme eastern flank of the Mt. Lofty Ranges. Until some seven years 
Hgp there was much doubt as to the age of those sediments, and the opinion was 
held by many geologists that they were either Archaean or Late Proterozoie. 
This was elite mainly to inadequate regional mapping. Karlier, Madigan (1925) 
bad assigned a Cambrian age to these sediments farther south on trie Fleurieu 
Peninsula, where the metamorphic grade is low. 

Systematic mapping of the region on I inch to 1 mile sheets by the Geo- 
logical Survey of South Australia led to the publication in 1951 of the Adelaide 
Sheet (Sprigg, Whittle and Campana). 

The schistose metascdimeuts on the eastern side of the Sheet were assigned 
to the "Kanmantoo Series** of (?) Early Palaeozoic age and the contact with 
Adelaide System rocks to the west was interpreted as a fault (the Kairne Fault). 
A similar interpretation was adopted for the Gawler Sheet (1953) and in part 
on the Eehunga Sheet (1954). 

Mapping of the Jcrvis and YankaJilla Sheets (Campana and Wilson, 1954 ; 
1954a) represented a major advance in the understanding of the geology of the 
Mt. Lofty Ranges- This work clearly demonstrated die correlation of the Ade- 
laide System sediments along both flanks of the Archaean core of the Ranges 
and the closure of these sediments to the south. The earlier Cambrian correla- 
tions of Madigan were confirmed and Jed to the proposal by Sprigg and Cam- 
pana (1953) to the name "Kanmantoo Croup" for the characteristic marine 
*flysch" fades overlying Cambrian phosphatic slates and limestones. A thick- 
ness of the Kanmantoo Group exceeding 30>000 feet was recognized on the 
Jervi.s Sheet. This greal thickness suggested to Sprigg and Campana that the 
upper boundary ol the Kamcumtoo Croup may extend into the Ordovician, 

As a result of preliminary mapping on the Milang Sheet in the Ashbourne- 
Mt. Magnificent area, Campana and Horwitz (1956) interpreted the Kanmantoo 

Geological Survey of South Australia. 

f Published by permission of the Director of Mines. South Australia. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. HZ. 

206 K. C IfOHWtTZ. B 1*. THOMSON' AMi B, P, WEBB 

Croup as a transgressivc sequence on the (?) Cambrian and older rocks. One 
important result of this interpretation was the inference that the eastern bound- 
ary of the Adelaide System in the Mt Charles area (Adelaide Sheet) and 
further north was marked not by a fault (tile rVairne Fault) but by an uncon- 
formity with the younger Kanmantoo Croup. More detailed mapping on the 
Milang Sheet later led Horwitz (1958) to the conclusion that both the Kun- 
niantoo Group and basal Cambrian were transgressivc, viz.:— 

towards the east a great thickness of detrital cocks are found ... It is 
St deeper geosynclinal Cambrian equivalent and transgressive nn the Adelaide 
System In this region, changes of facics also affect the Adelaide System." 

Unpublished mapping by Coats on the Truro Sheet demonstrated that the 
basal Cambrian (Angaston and Stockwcll marbles) and overlying Kanmantoo 
sediments were best irUeipreted to be transgressivc on the Adelaide System. 

KJeeman and Skinner ( 1958 ) do not accept the evidence for Cambrian trans- 
gression on the Adelaide System and prefer to explain their field evidence in the 
Strathalbvn-Harrogate region as the result of complex facics clianges in the 
upper members of* the Adelaide System and arbitrarily place the base of the 
Kanmantoo Group at the Naiine pyritc formation, stra'tigraphically well above 
the base of die Kanmantoo Group as established by the Geological Survey. 

liorwitz commenced field work on tlie Mtlang Sheet In 1954, initially under 
the direction of Campana. Horwitz subsequently mapped on this Sheet the 
stratigraphy and facies variations of the Adelaide System and the basal Cam- 
brian sediments and lower members of the Kanmantoo Group and thereby was 
able to recognize an imconformity between Preeambrian and Cambrian sedi- 

In 1958 Webb mapped the Mt. Charles area (Adelaide Sheet). This map- 
ping established relationships between the Adelaide System and basal Cambrian 
sediments., which can only be satisfactorily explained as an unconfomnity, 

Thomsim in late 1957 e(/ramcneed a study of the stratigraphy of the Kan- 
mantoo Croup on the Miking Sheet and extended it north and south on to the 
adjoining sheets- This mapping proved that the Nairne pyrite formation, and a 
related shaley facie.*, extended south from Macclesfield to the Southern Ocean 
near Victor Harbor (Encounter Sheet). The thick arkosc formation below the 
\airne pynte formation was also found by Thomson to be one of the persistent 
major units in the whole of the exposed Kanmantoo Croup on the mainland. 
All three writers have examined together numerous sections of the Marinoan 
;««d Lower Cambrian on the Echunga and adjoining sheets. 

The recent mapping of the Kanmantoo Group on the Milang and Encounter 
Sheets was done in collaboration with A. H. Crawford. Valuable and enthu- 
siastic assistance wus given by University students K. J. Mills, I R. Pontifex 
and R. G. Brown. 

(b) The Problem of the Base of the Cambrian 

Daily (1956) gives an excellent account of this problem as applied to the 
South Australian Cambrian generally. Lower Palaeozoic fossils have not yet 
been recognized on the eastern side of the Nit. Lofty Ranges. This fact make.s 
the positioning of the base of the Cambrian in that region a task involving strict 
attention in the field to the mapping of stratigraphy, lithology and structure of 
the sedimentary units. This work must be extended to a regional scale before 
oven fairly reliable conclusions can be drawn. The writers believe that this 
stage bus now been reached. Restriction of observations to small local areas 
n inadequate and misleading because of facie* changes in both Cambrian and 


Precarnbriun sedimentary units. Amttlicr fuctor to be considered is I he variation 
in grade of rrghmul metamorphism 

The base uf tl-ie Cambrian on the western side of the Mt. Lofty Ranges at 
Sellick Hill bus been taken by Campana and Wilson (1954b) to occur below 
a dommantly limestone sequence, die upper member of which contains Lower 
Cambrian fossils including Archaeocyatha. Daily (1956>. p, 134; Horwitz nod 
Daily .1958, p. 5*4) on palaeontological evidence suggests that this approximates to 
tin* base of the Cambrian. The Sellick Hill limestone scouence or its meta- 
morphosed equivalent is overlain by phosphatic shale. In this paper these two 
units will be referred to as the "basal Cambrian". At Carriekalinga Head on 
the Yankalilla Sheet. Carnpana and Wilson ( 195 1a) found the phosphatic shale 
!o be overlain by a gieywacke-shale sequence which they took to be the basal 
member of the Kanmantoo Croup. They found this sequence to be preserved 
in a structurally complex area on the Jervis Sheet to the south where the phos- 
phatic beds finally turn north across the axis of the regional anticline and con- 
tinue up the eastern flank to the vicinity of Delomcrc, 

Spring and Campana (1953), in dealing with the Kanmantoo Group on the 
eastern side of the Ranges, tentatively correlated the Macclesfield marble horizon 
with the basal Archaeocyatha limestone. 

Subsequent mapping on the Milang Sheet has enabled more precise corre- 
lations to he made. Horwitz (1958) mapped a marble similar to that at Maccles- 
field in the Fhmiss River Gorge near VJt. Magnificent. This marble overlies h 
black phosphatic and pyritic shale which can be reasonably correlated with the 
Jjuisiil Cambrian phosphatic shale on the Yankalilla and Jervis Sheets where it 
overlies the Archaeocyatlia limestone. The .Finniss River marble is, therefore, on 
the basis of this correlation within the Kanmantoo Group. Similarly, it is be- 
lieved that the Macclesfield marble, is a member of the Kanmantoo Crimp be- 
cause it is strurigraphically 2000 feet above the Macclesfield quartzitc (Plate 3). 
Near Ashbourne this quartzitc is immediately overlain by about .150 feet of 
black pyritic and (?) phosphatic: slate, which is here correlated with the phris- 
phatic shale at the base- of the Kanmantoo Group. This slate d'ws out to the 
north of Ashbourne where it either lenses Out or changes facies to a dun-bedded 

In the Ashbourne area, Ilorwirz (1958) recognized the Hallett Arkose 
formation of the Marinoau Series. Tim observation showed that the underlying 
marbles there, previously interpreted as (?) Cambrian (Campana arid Horwitz, 
J9tffi) belonged to the Brighton Limestone formation of the Sturtian Series 

These, findings narrowed considerably the problem of locating the base 
of the Cambrian i" this region and at the- same time presented strong evidence 
fi* a Cambrian (pre-Kanmantoo Croup) transgression on the Adelaide System 

Since the ueee-ssarily generalized definition of the Kanmantoo Croup by 
Sprigg and Campana (1953), many geologists have tended to associate *grey- 
wucke facies" solely with the Kanmantoo Grnup. Horwitz (1958), however, 
litis found in the Bull Creek-Ashbourne area that a restricted greywaeke facics 
occurs in association with the Marinuan Hallett Arkose and also locally deeper 
m the Proterozoic sequence, This is generally in contrast to the Proterozoic 
facics on the western tiunk of the regional antieh'norium. 

The interpretation of Kleeman and Skinner (1958), however, represents 
un extreme development of this concept. By shifting the base of the Kan- 
mantoo Croup upwards to the base of the Nairne pyrite formation, and includ- 
ing rile underlying arkose and greywaeke sequence in the Adelaide System, they 

20« n. C. HORW1TZ H. I 3 . THOMSON jlnh B. 1*. WKBH 

haw- made stratigraphic correlations which are not compatible with field evi- 
dence for the region, 

(<•) The Scope of the Taper 

In this paper an attempt is made to locate the base fit the Cambrian sedi- 
ments in the region between Mt. Magnificent (Mil tog Sheet) and Mt Charles 
East (Adelaide Sheet), a distance of about 34 miles. The purpose of iliLs study 
is to provide a basis for fixing the Preeambrian-Cambrian boundary for the 
future publication of the Barker and Adelaide Sheets of the 4-mile series tit 
Geological Atlas of South Australia. The emphasis has been on lithologieal uud 
stratigraphic observations. The interesting structural details, which are readily 
available in the field, are described only in so fax as they have a bearing on 
the solution of local stratigraphical problems. No attempt is made here to deal 
fully with the variations in mctamorphie grade which show a general increa.w 
from soudi-west to north-east. The original sedimentary character of the rucks 
at the northern end of (he area are in many eases still readily recognizable in 
the Held. Very useful aid has been given, particularly in the classification of 
some of these rocks, hy petrogruphic studies* carried out in the Mines Depart- 
ment laboratories both personally- bv and under the direction erf A. W. G. 


(u) General Litholo«ij t thv "Kanmanhxt Faciei ami 

"Adelaide Sijatnn Fucks" 

The much abused term "greyvvacke" has been loosely adopted by many 
South Australian geologists as synonymous with the Kanmantoo Group rocks. 
Creyvvaekes (as defined by Pcttijohn in 19.57) appear to be most abundantly 
developed in the Kanmantoo Group rocks immediately above the Nairne pyrit© 
formation. Below this formation, exclusive of thin, h'ne-graiiied phyllites mem- 
bers, there are local greywacke units and a variety of sediments covering a 
range of grain size and composition from sub-greywacke to Similar 
compositions have been found by Forbes (1957) for his Strangway Hill Beds. 
Inman Hill Formation and Browuhill Beds In the Grev Spur region width lie* 
in the south-western portion of the Milang Sheet Add extends on to the En- 
counter Sheet. All these beds have subsequently been demonstrated tv belting 
to the Kanmantoo Group. 

These sediments have a variety of field characteristics which may be sum- 
marized as follows: 

(i) Colour Drab grey on weathered surface. Often finely mottled by dis- 
seminated ferroma.gnesian minerals. 

(ii) Texture. Homogeneous and granular texture is a feature of tlrick- 
bedded members. When struck with a pick these rocks do not generally frac- 
ture readily, due to die 'woody" character of the rock structure. This "woody" 
character is presumably due to the binding ability of the fine-grained matrix in 
which the detritai grains are set. On weathered surfaces the outer layer of the 
rock may be slightly friable, particularly if close to the Tertiary laterite level. 

(iii) Outctop Shape. Generally, shapes arc rounded to sub-rounded, de- 
pending on grain si/.e. silica content and degree of cleavage or schistosity de- 

Rocks of the Kanmantoo Croup are generally of the above type, but, m the 
area dealt with in this paper, local horizons and lenses of sediments with similar 
characteristics occur throughout the Adelaide System, In this paper the term 
"Kanmantoo fades" is used to include all such rock types. Such occurrences in 






PJ.B. /^^1 XJ 


Compiled from Geo/. Survey S. A / /??i/e series geo/ogica/ mdps, and /a fer mappmij 
by P.CHormh, 8. £ Thomson £ 3. f? Webb. 


Proterozoic time heralded the general change to unsorted sediments, which de- 
veloped in the vicinity of the Mt. Lofty Ranges and extended an unknown 
distance to the east in Cambrian time. 

The normal "Adelaide System fades" can be considered to oceut in the type 
:>e< turns near Adelaide (Mawson and Sprigg, 1950). 

Pelitie rocks form the greatest proportion of the whole Adelaide System 
sequence on the eastern side of the Ranges. This is clearly Illustrated by the 
great thickness of approximately 20,000 feet of slat* and siltstone in a total 
thickness of 31,700 feet as shown in the legend of the Adelaide Sheet, although 
it is now believed that more detailed mapping and structural interpretation will 
considerably reduce these figures. 

The thickness of HkOOOO) feet for the Adelaide System sliowu in Plate II 
has been largely determined on the eastern side of tne antidinoriiim ou the 
Milang Sheet. This agrees with recent measurements oo the Echtinga and 
Adelaide Sheets for SturtJan and Marinoan Series. Other features of the "Ade- 
laide System fades", apart from the tillites. arkose and dolomites, are the hard, 
white quartzites with 75 per cent, or more quartz, associated with the Stonyfell 
Quartzite, the Shirt Tillite and the Hallett Arkose. Apart from tile Mt. Barkcr- 
Macelcsficld quartzite and lower minor members such riuart/ites do not occur 
in the Cambrian. 

Tt is in the Marinoan that the 'Kanmantoo fades" and the "Adelaide System 
lacics" overlap and intertongue to the greatest extent. 

(b) Stratigraphy 

The generalized stratigraphy of die region is outlined on Plate 1. 

( 1 ) Archaean 

Campana and Wilson ( 1954b ) describe these rocks on the Yankalilla and 
|ervis Sheets as schists, gneisses and stressed granites. Gneisses range from 
quartz-mica to silhmanitc-garnet gneisses. Basic dykes and pegmatites, in part 
possibly of Proterozoic or Palaeozoic age, are also present. 

Strong schistosity is developed in the metasediments and in places in the 
basal beds of the Adelaide System. The metamorphic grade pi die Arelutean 
is generally much higher than the Proterozoic and Cambrian rocks, but has 
been to a large extent obscured by retrograde changes caused by Palaeozoic and 
earlier folding and shearing. 

(2) Proterozoic: Adelaide System 

The Proterozoic succession in the southern part of the Mt. Lofty Ranges 
on the Flcuricu Peninsula shows some interesting fades variations. As previ- 
ously recorded by Sprigg, Whittle and Campana (1951). rucks to the west of 
the Archaean core differ in fades from those to the east. Despite these fades 
variations some good marker beds* persist on both flanks of this structure (Mt. 
Lofty Anticlmorium of Campana, 1865ft}< The succession can be summarised 
ajj follows— further details being shown on Plate Tf. 

(i) Torretvdan. The lowest members are the Basal Crits and Conglomer- 
ates (Howehin, 1906) or the Aldgate Sandstone (Mawson and Sprigg, 1950). 
This formation varies in thickness from 200 to 700 feet. Boulder* are usually 
present at the base. The basal formation is overlain, on both limbs of the antx- 
eliuorium by a sequence, less than 4000 feet thick, in which siltstones or their 
metamorphic equivalents (phylhtic siltstones or siliceous schists) predominate. 
There is, however, a difference, for on the eastern side of the Archaean core 
bands of greywacke are interhedded with the siltstones. All of these sediments 
are correlated with the Torrensian Series. The upper limit had already been 
citusen as such on the published sheets. 



These sediments persist to the northern limit of the area here described, to 
the north and west of Mt Charles where the metamorphic grade has converted 
them to quartzitc-scricitc-museovite schists. Here, one specimen examined by 







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Whittle was found to have the composition of a greywacke and to contain traces 
of sillimanite. 

(ii) Sturtum. The Torrensian Series is overlain by well marked bands of 
quartzitc ( usually three) with boulder beds and coarse arkoses, interbedded with 
slate and greywacke lenses. 


Tillite sometimes overlies these beds. The quartzjte and the tillite are cor- 
related with the fielair Group and Sturt Tillite of the tvpe section near Adelaide 
(Mawson and Sprigg, 1950). These lower beds of trie Sturtian are very con- 
stunt in facics on the Milang Sheet and on the eastern side of the antielinorium 
measure 1000 feet hi thickness. Further north the quartzilc.s decrease in number, 
but persist to Mt. Charles East, where thev are terminated hy the flnmhrian 
unconformity. Howchiu (1929) records tillite in the upper members in the 
vicinity of Mt. Barker township. 

Overlying these lower Torren&iuii beds is u constant succession, 2000 feet 
in thickness, of laminated siltstones and shales with limestone hands and leuses 
towards (he lop. These sediments, which are valuable markers, arc correlated 
With the Tapley Hill Slates of the type area. Near the base- of this setpience the 
slates are blueish in colour and show traces of pyritc. In a similar srratigraphic 
position, immediately .south of Ml, Charles, a low grade schist was found by 
Whittle to huvB a typical greywackc composition. 

Local marble lenses are inlcrbcdded with the Tapley Hill Slates which 
themselves are also locally calcareous, In the northern part of the area these 
beds arc represented by flaggy cale-silieure- rooks. The Sturtian Series ends with 
the Brighton Limestone- represented by a white marble, which persists alone the 
strike for four to five miles in places., and may reach a thickness of over 100 feet. 

(hi) MurmoatK The lowest beds of die Mannoun Series arc arkosic sand- 
stones, interbedded with silky phyllite, greywacko, gritty and pebbly arkose 
(Hallett Arkose) and gritty marble. These atkosie brds ;ire locally lenticular, 
but combine to form a well-defined and easily recognisable unit reaching a 
thickness of over 2000 feet. In the northern part of the area in the Vicinity of 
Murdock Ilill calc-silicate horizons develop at the top of ihe sequence and are 
apparently truncated at the unconformity by the overlying Cambrian scdiments. 
Of interest arc the local pockets or tillite occurring with arkouies and greywacke 
in the vicinity of Mt. Barker Creek (Howchin, 1929) and near Boll" Creek 
(Ilorwitz, 1958). 

The upper sequence of the Marinoan Series is finer grained and is noticeably 
phyllitic throughout the regiim. Andalujate-staurolite" schists develop in this 
unit to the north, The thickness varies from 1000 to 2500 feet, the maximum 
thickness being observed in the vicinity of Macclesfield (see Plate III). At the 
top of these beds, near Hull Creek, quaitzite members, Generally not exceeding 
one foot in thickness, oeenr and arc intcrlcnsed with phyllite and fine-grained 
greywackc. These quartzites disappear to the north and are hero provisionally 
interpreted as the thin eastern extension of die Pound yuartzite, a frteres de- 
veloped veiy extensively towards the north-west of this region, [t is also possibly 
present on the western side of the anticliuorium as thicker sandv sequeuoes that 
occur extensively at the top of the Marinoan (see Plate 11). 
(3) Basal Cambrian 

(i) Ml. Magnificent- Ashbourne Area, Since it Is in ibis area that the 
stalling point for the Cambrian correlation in thr region under discussion Is 
assumed, it will be discussed in some detail. 

Phosphatio slate and underlying marble lenses which wc correlate wJth basal 
Cambrian sediments arc exposed in the bed of the Finniss River. Tin's sequence 
continues north for three miles where it changes to fine-grained phyllitic grey- 
vvacke which is folded in a tight syncline-anticlme structure. The greywackc 
overlaps uneonfurmahly the underlying Sturtian quartzites whieh being more 
rigid were deformed by imbricate thrusting during the major folding piocess. 

A north-east striking fault near McHaigs Creek is developed on the un- 
conformity and the "Kanmantoo arkose fades" Is there in contact with Marinoan 




sediments. A dark phylin>. possibly equivalent to tiie phosphatie slate, emerges 
from the fault contact arid is exposed in a syncline one ana a half miles north - 
eust of McHarg's Creek. 

Overlying the phyilites are fine-grained qreywackes winch become courser 
in tpain size until the sequence is represented by coarse cross-bedded arkose 

The eastern limb of the syncline is sheared out to the south and develops 
into a steeply clipping north-south .stretch-thrust. To the east of the thrust the 
structural setting is even more complex. Isolated exposures of black pvritic 
slate occur overlying thin (?) Cambrian quartzite west of the main road. This 
slide is believed to be the equivalent of the Mt, Magnificent phosphatie and 
pvritic slate. On the main road, one mile north of Ashbourne, the black slate 
is well exposed in a deep cutting, where it is folded into a tight anticline with 
a quartzite core. The shite is repealed in a succession of sterp plunging anti- 
rimes which are disposed in an en echelon pattern to the south and finally 
below the arkose of the kanmantoo Croup near Ashbourne. The slate finally 
emerges from this anticlinal environment as an cast facing limb and persists 
for one. and a half miles north of the main road cutting, where- it is underlain by 
the Macclesfield quartzite as described above. 

(ii) The "Basal QimrtzUe^, Northwards from the main road cutting the 
beds underlying the Macclesfield quartzite diverge in strike to the west and 
grcywaekes and interbedded slates appear in the sequence. The sequence ap- 
pears to be continuous down to a lenticular qnartzitic unit which is well exposed 
in outcrop at Bull Knob Trijr.. Below this quartzite, which is provisionally re- 
ferred to as the "basal qitartzite" typical Marinoan phyilites appear, The quartz- 
ite and related sandstones can be followed intermittently' to the north around 
the Macclesfield syneh'ne About one mile cast of Macclesfield the "basal quartz- 
ite" is exposed in the nose of the Strathalbyn anticline which At this point plunges 
gently south below andalusitc schists containing minor greywacke bands. The 
unit reappears one and one-third miles soiidi as massive quartzite in a dorrud 
structure., the result of a pitch reversal. Local calc-silicatc minerals are here 
developed at the base of the quarL/ite. The quartzite can be followed fur 
about one mile north along the eastern limb of the Strathalbyn anticline where 
it gradually changes facies to a massive greywacke. The greywacke in turn 
becomes increasingly phyllitic in character like the underlying Marinoan sedi- 
ments and it cannot he located Willi certainity in I he field at the latitude of Bugle 
Banges. Structural evidence shows that the stratigraphic position of the basal 
member is located approximately midway between the Hallett Arkose to 
the west ami the Mt. Barker quartzite to the east. At this stratigraphic 
level one mile east of Wistow, greywackes reappear, and continue north tn the 
Mt. Barker Creek. Here a well defined greywacke and quartzite sequence is 
exposed which continues with interbedded phyilites up to the persistent calc- 
.sihc/itc bed at the base of the Mt. Barker quartzite. Quartzite, massive grey- 
wacke and arkose continue to one mile north of Naicne, Further north tifie 
formations thin gradually and converge in strike. The. "basal quartzite* is re- 
presented by discontinuous lenses of white quartzite associated with lenses of 
diopside granulitc rocks. These rock units persistently maintain a northerly 
strike to the northern edge of the area, in contrast to the general east-wt^st 
strike of the Adelaide System rocks to the west. 

(iii) The Macclesfield-Mt. Barker Quartettes, Massive quartzite is ex- 
posed about one mile nurth-west of Macclesfield where it readies 1000 feet in 
thickness. It c.^o be followed smith-west to the northern boundary of the MiUng 
Sheet as dcseiihed above. This formation lenses out or intertongues with grey- 
wackes one and a half miles south-east of Macclesfield, on the eastern limbs of 


the Macclesfield syoc.lme. Tectonic t limning appeals to have contributed in 
part to the disappearance of die quartzite. The greywaekes at this slraligraphic 
level continue south and enter the complex folds d>at are part of die major 
structure comprising the Strathalbyn anticline. A massive quartzite outcrops 
two and a half miles south-east of Macclesfield. Analysis of the structure shows 
that tins quartzite approximates closely the stratigiaphic level of the Maccles- 
field quart/ite. 

The massive quartzite can he followed nortli fur fifteen miles to tlie northern 
boundary of the Kehnnga Sheet where it forms the Mfc Barker ridge. On the 
Adelaide Sheet the quartzite is concealed by younger sediments south of Mur- 
dock Hill. lenticular quart/ites outcrop north-east of this point and the strikes 
gendy converge to the north. In Inverbrachie Creek the most easterly 
quartzite has been taken to represent the Mt. Barker quartzite horizon. This 
formation is associated with calc-silieate lenses which may be correlated with 
the dfopside granuHte exposed in Mt. Barker Creek at the base of the Mt. 
Barker quartzite. This calcareous metasediment can be followed inter- 
mittently to the south for five miles. Wc believe that it is an echo of the 
more vigorous limestone sedimentation of the basal Cambrian in the Selliek 
Mill region. Considerable support is given to this interpretation bom the regional 
geology to the north of Mt. Charles. A thick marMe horizon, which underlies 
greywaekes, occurs three-quarters of a mile cast of Mt. Torrens. On the GawJer 
•Sheet marbles also occur west of Mt. Kitchener. The thick marble soquoncc in 
the basal Cambrian on the Kapunda and Truro Sheets indicates a carbonate 
sequence comparable in thickness with the Selliek Hill area. 

(4) The Kunmanfoo (*roup 

by definition die Kanmantoo Group commences at tin? top uf the hasal 
Cambrian phosphatie slate. Good sections are obtained in the Finniss River 
east of Mt. Magnificent and in the vicinity of Ashbourne (see Plato III). Here 
the lowest beds are lentienlar massive greywaekes interbedded and intertonguo- 
ing with phyllites, the Litter increasing ~m proportion in the ascending sequence. 
At 1200 feet above the base is I he white marble lens of the Finniss River. At 
2500 feet above tin? base, thick cross-bedded arkose suddenly appears fti the 
sequence. The contact with underlying phyllites can be readily uutpped to the 
north and south. In die Ashbourne sccdoo die same arkose appears al 1200 
feet above the base, and is liere 3000 feet thick. 

North uf Ashbourne the base of the Kanmantoo has been taken at 
top of the Macclesfield quartzite, although die precise location h prob- 
ably several hundred feet above this level. In the Macclesfield section (Plate 
III, section 3) phyllites and greywaekes extend for about 3300 feet above the 
quartzite and include the marble member winch is approximately 300 feet thick. 
This marble may be contemporaneous with the Finniss River marble and also 
with a rale-silicate horizon reported by Klecman (personal communication) 
one and a quarter miles north-east of Mt- Charles East. The arkose formation 
in the Macclesfield section is only 1600 feet thick. The proportion and thick- 
ness of the coarse arkose factes increases to the north until it occupies all the 
strarigraphic column between the Naime pyritc formation and the Macclcs- 
fiekl-Mt Barker quartzites as seen in the area between sections 4 and S on 
Plate III. in section 5 the basal Kanmanloo sequence is dun-bedded arkose and 
phyllite. The typical coarse cross-bedded arkose docs not appear mitil 1200 
feet above the base The finer-grained fades appears to lens* out completely 
to the south and in a large degree to the north. The thickness of the Kanmantoo 
Croup sequence below the Nairnc pyritc formation varies from 4400 tn 5200 

vi», it c woww-rvi, a. i*. Thomson **p tv p, wcbb 

feet between sections 1 and 5. In these sections the coarse arkose Varies from 
1600 to 4700 feet. This range of thickness can only be satisfactorily explained 
as the result of faeies variations within the sediments (as indicated on Plate 111). 
The 10,000 feet thickness uf coarse arkose in section 6 and 10,000 ( — ) feet 
in section 1 can be attributed largely to original sedimentary thickening. This 
is shown by the divergence of strike lines north-east of Murdock Hill. 

(c) Structure 

(J) Sedimentary Structures 

Minor sKliineutarv structures such as slump bedding arc found in 8 few 
places in the grcywaeke facics of the Marinoan Series us also arc fine scale 
cross-bedding and graded-beddiug. 

fn the coarse arkose of the Kanmantoo Group both slumping and cross- 
bedding are developed in sonic localities on a large scale. Beds up to three 
reel iii^thiokness may show intense slump folds and cross-bedding has an am- 
plitude of up to lour feet between topset and bottomset beds 

The most spectacular large-scale sedimentary structure is in the vicinity ot 
McHarg's Creek near Ashbourne where a north-east contact between ea.-t- 
north-east h-endiug Ylarinoan sediments and north-south trending Kanmantoo 
arkose marks approximately the boundary of a zone of rapid thickening in the 
arkose pnssiblv related to a fault line which was active during sedimentation. 

The geometry of the structure demonstrates that the hinge line, formed by 
intersection uf bedding planes with the plane of the contact, plunges steeply 
south-east and that the present surface in this locality represents a section of 
die Cambrian basin. The contact has been the locus for later local faulting. 

(2) Tectonic Structures 

In the Mt Magnificent-Ashbourne area the tectonic structures have theii 
strongest development. East of Mt. Magnificent the incompetent Lower Cam- 
brian sediments are light!) folded and strongly sheared between the Adelaide 
System quart/ite and the Archaean core to the; west, and the resistant block of 
coarse Kanmantoo Croup arkose to die east, The arkose block has also been 
thrust against the underlying unconformity with the Adelaide System. Near 
Ashbourne, the right-handed en echelon of domes of basal Cambrian, although 
locally overturned in plunge, represents in miniature the regional pattern of 
folding. This is consistent with the zig-xag and elliptical patterns of en echelon 
folding described by Campbell (195S). The en echelon pattern is repeated 
along the axis of the Strathalhyn anticline which is a composite structure made 
up of numerous individual anticlines. These structures, however, are not us 
right as those in the Ashbourne area. 

The en echelon pattern is preserved on the Adelaide Sheet in the Mt. 
Charles area Avhcrc the unconformity traces in plan a sinuous course reflecting 
the Paleozoic folding. The individual folds in the thickeued Kanmantoo Group 
to the east appear to die out as they approach the unconformity, whereas the 
folds to the west in the Adelaide System appear to plunge below it. The pattern 
and degree* of folding established in the Adelaide System priur to Cambrian 
sedimentation is difficult to establish. We believe that it was most probabh 
monoctmal in character. 


(a) Validity of St rat (graphic Correlations 

In the absence so far of fossil and isotope dating evidence for inferring a 
Cambrian age for tlie sediments in the area dealt with hi this paper, the writers 
have accepted the lithologieal and structural evidence. An important key Imri- 


zun is the phosphatie slate o£ the Mt. Magnificent area. Evidence for accepting 
ibis us a member of the basal Cumbrian is as follows: 

(i) Considering the evidence in section. At about ten miles "west of Mt 
Magnificent in the Sellick Hill area, on the western side of the Mt. Lofty Anti- 
eliiiorium, the Lower Cambrian calcareous sequence is overlain by the phos- 
phatic shale horizon. A litholo^ieaUy similar sequence, facing east, is observed 
eust ol the Mt. Magnificent quart/.ite, which is interpreted as marking an un- 
conformity in this area, trlic? limestone being restricted to small lenses at the 

(ii ) Considering the evidence in plan. 'Hie cross-bedded KaumaTitno 
arkose has been followed south by one of us (8.P.T.) on to the Yankalilla and 
Jervis Sheets, where in ihc vicinily of Delamen% phosphalic slate and maihle 
appear at approximately the same stratigraphic interval below the arkose as they 
dn at ML Magnificent. From this point the succession can be followed with 
minor interruptions to the Sellick Hill locality. Field evidence north uf the 
Adelaide Sheet has already been discussed (see "Basal Cambrian" above). The 
writers believe therefore that the most reasonable interpretation of the c\idcnce i 
now available is lo include die Ml. Magnificent slate aud marble in the basal 

The dating of (lie "basal quart/He" as lower Cambrian in the area between 
Ashbourne and Mt. Charles has been influenced by the discovery of a gritty 
arkose ( Horwilz. 1958) at the base of the Cambrian sequence on the Miking 
Sheet north-cast of Sellick Hill. This arkose would imply a hiatus and change 
in condition ol sedimentation in this area towards the end of Pound QuarUite 
time and possibly into the curliest Cambrian. We correlate this change and 
possible disconformity with the folding and erosion ol the Adelaide System 
which took place farther east during this tunc interval, The possibility remains 
I hat the Macclesfield-Mt. Barker quart/.ite represents the equivalent of the 
round or ABC Range Quartzite The writers consider this unlikely and assume 
[hat the unconformities exposed at Ashbourne and Mt. Charles are the re^ilt 
of contemporaneous transgression. 

(b) Tectonic History 

The tectonic history, commencing with the Upper Protcrozoie, is summar- 
ized as follows; 

(1) Deposition of Torrcnstan sediments on Archaean. 

(2) Sturtian and Marinoau sedimentation and continued slight variation.'; tfi 
stability in the region. 

(J) Local uplift and erosion of the Adelaide System in the Mt. Lofty Ranges 
region at the close of Marinoan time; probably due to positive movement 
of the Archaean core. Sedimentation continuous- (o the east during this 

(4) Transgression of Cambrian on the eroded and folded Adelaide System 
platform, relative increase in the rate of sedimentation to east and west 
of the present Mt. Lofty AnUelmorium. 

(5) Sedimentation of the Kanmantoo Group marked by the intermittent but 
relatively rapid subsidence over eroded areas of the Adelaide System. 

(6) Fre-Permian Palaeozoic orogeny; deep folding of the Adelaide System; meta- 
morphism of the Kanmantoo Croup and the eastern zone of the Adelaide- 
System sediments; granite intrusions; positive movement of the Archaean 

(7) Prolonged erosion of Pre-Permian mouulaiu terrain and associated arching, 
warping and faulting with the formation of localized younger sedimentary 

218 K, C. HORWJTZ, B. P. THOMSON .anu ft. P. WEBB 

basins and continental areas. These phenomena arc still active and tux? 
rvsponsibh 1 for the present physiography of the region, 

The authors express their gratitude to Mr. T, A. Barnes. Director of Miros. 
and Mr. L. W. Parkin, Deputy-Director of Mines, for granting permission to 
publish and prepare this paper. They are very grateful to Mrs. E. N. Teesdule- 
Sinith for carefully cheeking the M.S. and to Mr. Peter J. Brown and Mr. Bruce 
Thomas for iheir drafting of the plates. 

Campbell, J. D., 1958, Kn vchchm folding. Econ. Geol., 53 (4), pp. 44S-172. 
Campana, B., J 953. Geological Atlas of South Australia.. Shod Gawler. GeoJ. Sikv S. Aust. 
Campana, B., 1955. The Geology of die Gawlcr Military Sheet. Hep. Invest. Gcol. Surv. 

hi. Aust.. 4, 24 pp. 
Camkana, B., 1955a. Tlie Structure of the Eastern South Australian Baiigi.s. The Mount 

LoJtv-Olary Arc- J. GeoL Soe. Aust., 2 T pp. 47-61. 
Camk^Ma, B., 1958. the Ml. Lofty-Olary Begion and Kangaroo Island, being Chaptci I of 

*Thr- Geology of South Australia", by M. K. Glaessner and L, W. Parkin (Ed.). J. Geol. 

Soc. Aust., 5 (2), pp. 3-27. 
Campana, B., and Homvrrz, B., 1956. The Kanmuntoo Group of South Australia Considered 

as a Tran^resitive Science. AuSt J. Sci M 18 (4), pp. 128-129, 
Campana, B., and Wilson, B., 1954. Geological Atlas of South Australia, Sheet Jcrvis. Geo], 

Surv. S. Aust. 
Campana 11, and Wilson, B., 1954a. Ccolwglcul Allan i»f South Australia, Sheet Yankalilla. 

Gcol. Surv. S. Aust. 
Campana, B., and Wilson, B., 1054b. The Geology of the Jcrvis and YanKaliila \tilitaj\ 

Sheets. Rej). Invest. Geo). Surv. S. Aust,, 3 V 26 'pp, 
Coats, H. P. ? and Thomson, B. f\, t$B$ Geological Atlas of South Australia, Sheet Tturo. 

Geol. Surv. S. Aust., in press. 
Daily, B., 1956 The Cambrian in South Australia. El Sisiemu Cumhrioo, mi Pulaeogeo- 

graJia y el Problems dc su Base. Part 11. §0fh Innrnat G*OL Congress, Mexico, pp. 

Dickinson, S, B., and Coats. It P., 1957, Geological Atlas of South Australia, Shei-r 

Kapimdu. Geol. Snrv. S. Aust. 
Fohbks, B. G., 1957. Strtitigraphk; Succession Ea>t of Grey Spur, South Australia. Tlfthd 

Roy. Soc. S, Aust., Sty PP . 59-66. 
Hohwitz, U , 195S. Geologic de la Region de Ml. Compass, Au.stralie meridionals D. es Sc 

Thesis, Univ. of Lausanne. UnpubiJshiv.1, 
Hohmitz, R. } and Daily, B. t 1058. Vnrke Pcniniuk, heioir Chapbu' III of the "The Geologv 

of South Australia", hv M- f. Clacssnir aud L. W Parkin (Ed.). J. GeoL Soe. Ami., 5 

(2) e pp. 46-60. 
JToruttz, B., and Thomson, B t r 1 ,, 1958, Geological Atlas of South Australia, Sheet Milan*;. 

Gcol. Surv. S. Aust.j in press. 
IIowliiln, Wu 1906. The Guologv of the Mount I.ofty Hunzts. Part II. Trans. Hoa . Nncr. 

S. Aust... 30, pp. 227-262. 
IIovvtHw, \V., 1929. On the Probable Occurrence of the Sturtian Tillitc near Nairne and 

Mount Barker. Trans, Hoy. Soc. S. Aust., 53, pp. 27-32. 
Kleeman, A. W. f and Skinner B. J. ? 1959. The Kanmantoo Group in the Strathalbyn- 

Flarru^atc Region, South Australia. Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Aust., 82, pp. 01-71, 
Maoigatc, C. T., 1925. The Geologv o£ the Fbairieu Peninsula. Part I — The Coiwt from 

Schick Hill to Victor Harbor. Trans. Roy, Soc. S. Aost., 49. pp. 198-212. 
Mawson. D., and Snucc, R. C 3 1950. Subdivision of tlie Adelaide System. Aust J Scl.. 

13 (3), pp. 69-72. 
Pki nroHN. F. J. 3 1957. Sedimentary Bocks, 2nd cd. N.Y., Harper, 1957. 718 pp. 
Sphigo, R. C., and CAxmANA, B., 1953. The Auc and Facics nf the Kanmuntoo Group. &ttst 

J. Sci., 16 (1), pp, 12-14. 
SfWiGC, K. C, WinrrLK, A. W. G., and Campana, B.. L95L. Geological Atlas of South Ati*- 

trahn, Sheet Adelaide, Geol. Sun r . S. Aust. 
Sfiooo, R. C, and Wilson, B., 1954. Geological Atlas of South Australia. Sheet Echunga. 

Gcol. Surv. S, Aust. 
rnoxc&GK, B. P., and Chawforo, A. R. t 1958. Geological Atks of South Allodia, Slii^ 

Encounter. Gcol. Surv. S. Aust.. unpublished. 


byN. H. Ludbrook 


A shallow water molluscan fauna with large pelecypods including Anodontia sphericula (Basedow) 
is described from transgressive Pliocene sediments occurring from Fishery Bay on Eyre Peninsula 
to Moorlands in the Murray Basin. 


by N H. Ludbrook* 

[Read 11 September 1958] 


A shallow water mullusean fauna with large pelecypods including Ana- 
dontia sphertcula (Basedow) is described from transgressive Pliocene sediments 
occurring from Fishery Bay on Eyre Peninsula lo Moorlands in the Murray Basin. 


At widely separated localities in South Australia, thin, apparently syn- 
chronous Pliocene limestones and sandstones cany a fauna characterized by an 
abundance of large pelecypods. The most conspicuous and interesting is a large 
globular shell the size of a flattened tennis ball, casts of which readily weather 
out from the limestones. These globular casts have been variously known as 
Dosinia grcyi Zittel and Meretrix sphericuto- Basedow, but the adductor impres- 
sions and the pallial line are those of the Lucinidae. The only complete speci- 
men so far recovered consists of a pair of valves recorded by Howchin (1936, 
p. 7) from the Cowandilla Bore at 470-485 feet. From this specimen it has been 
possible to identify the genus Anodontia to which Basedow's species should be 


The molluscan assemblage has been identified from as far west as Fishery 
Bay on southern Eyre Peninsula to Moorlands in the Murray Basin. Many of 
the outcrops represent strand lines of the transgressive shallow seas distinguish- 
ing this part of the Pliocene. Deposition took place in shallow bays, the abun- 
dance of PecHnidae indicating sandy bottoms and of Ostreidae the existence 
locally of restricted conditions favourable to the development of thick oyster 
beds. Not all oyster beds occurring in the Murray Basin were contemporaneous 
with tlie present fauna. There has been a tendency to regard those of the 
western margin of the Basin as belonging to a single unit, out this is not so. 
The stratigraphic levels at which oyster beds occur still awaits the result of de- 
tailed mapping and examination of the vertical ranges and associated faunas 
of the three species* which occur in the Lo.\ton Sands and Norwest Bend Forma- 
tion — Oslrea hi/of idoidea, O. startiana, and O. arenicola. 

Most of the Pliocene outcrops are very thin ; seldom exceeding five feet in 
thickness. They were deposited in markedly transgressive seas. At both Fishery 
Bay and Moorlands the conglomeratic limestones overlap bedrock, of which 
pebbles up to small boulder size are. caught up in the limestone!. The probable 
margins of the. seu at this time are indicated in Fig. 1; areas known to have been 
inundated arc shaded. 

Palaeontologist, Department of Mints, South Australia: published with the permission 
of die Director of Mines. 

Tr*ns, Roy. Soc. S, Auat. (1959), Vol. 82. 


On Eyre Peninsula at Fishery Bay, at the south end of Sleaford Bay, 20 
miles south-west of Port Lincoln, basement granite pebbles occur in limestone 
with molluscan moulds and casts of Anodontia sphericula, Vasticardium sub- 
rnaculosum, Fulvia temticostata, Miltha horn, Antigona cognata, Cassis (Hypo- 
cassis) Salisbury ensts, all of which have been identified from casts weathered 
from the matrix. This assemblage is represented in the molluscan fauna of the 
Dry Creek Sands. The material from Fishery Bay was collected by R. K. Johns. 

The occurrence in Deep Creek, Hundred of Poynton, 20 miles south-south- 
west of Whyalla, has been described elsewhere (Miles, 1954, p, 25), 




Fig. 1. — 1. Fishery Bay; 2. Hcl. Povnton; 3. Wallaroo; 4, Hd, Moorowie; 5. Giles 

Point; 6, Edithburg; 7. Hd. Menzies; 8. Redbanks; 9. Adelaide: 10. Hallell Cove; 

11. Aldinga Bay; 12, Tailem Bend; 13. Moorlands; 14. Waikeric 

On Yorke Peninsula, Pliocene sandy limestones outcropping on the coast at 
Eclithburg and entered in wells west of Edithburg, were described by Basedow 
(1901) and correlated with other Pliocene occurrences then regarded as of 
Miocene age. From the Edithburg material Dr. Basedow described four mol- 
luscan species including Meretrix sphericukt and Campanile iriserialc. Base- 
dow's types and also the type material of Tellina basedowi, which according 
to Basedow (1901, p. 148) was deposited in the Museum of the University of 
Adelaide, have disappeared. 

Recently, Mr. E. J. Carmichacl, of Yorkctown, has collected assiduously 
from the Pliocene on his property on Section 140, Hundred of Moorowie, where 
the limestone is burned for lime and underground water is obtained at shallow 


depth at the base of the formation where it rests on Permian tilL Mr. Car- 
michael's interest has greatly helped in replacing .some of the Basedow types and 
in identifying the extent of the Pliocene in southern Yorke Peninsula. 

At Edithburg itself 3 feet of Pliocene sanely limestone covered by 15 feet 
of kunkar is exposed at Point de Mole at the root of the steps leading to the 
old bathing pool. Limestone blocks with abundant Chlamys ontiaustralis and 
Spondytus spOndyloides are strewn at high tide level From this locality the 
neotype of Catdita dennanti was collected by Mr. Carmicbacl. 

Two miles north of Coobowie at Giles Point, Section 319, Hundred of 
Melville, a three-foot oyster bed in .sandstone is exposed above high tide level 
at the base of low cliffs 27 feet high. Tcttina hnsedou'i was re-collected from 
this exposure. Associated moliuscan specie* arc Ostrea arenicala and Chlamys 
(Chlamys) antiaustralis; the foraminifera include Cribrobulhnxtut polystonia, 
Triloctdina lrigonula y Distorins dimidiatus, Etphidiurn adelaidense. E. rotatum, 
"Rotalia" beccarii, and Marginopora tertebralis. The oyster bed is overlain by 
22 feet of mottled clayey sandstone with a gravel bod at the base. This is usually 
considered though not proven to be of Pleistocene age. 

From the wall 30 feet below; the surface of a well on Section 200, Hundred 
of Melville, Hi miles west of Edithburg, A. A. Gibson recently collected a sample 
of sandy limestone with Chlamys anliaustralis and Chlamys (Kquichlamys) 
pahnipes. This appears to be the well described by Basedow (1901, pp. 146-7). 

No Pliocene has been observed north of Giles Point on the eastern side of 
Yorke Peninsula although some marginal limestones near Kidpara and Clinton 
lithologically resemble the characteristically sandy limestones of the Pliocene. 
The limestones at Kulpara and Clinton,, however* carry Auttrotrittiiut hou>chini 
and locally Looenia and Monostychia; they are of Lower Miocene age. 

On the western side of the Peninsula two exposures are known near Wal- 
laroo, one at Point Hughes I mile west-south- west and a second 2 miles north 
of the town on Section 925, Hundred of Wallaroo, where Pliocene limestoue 
with abundant moliuscan moulds and casts was formerly ouarried for flux for 
the smelters. The fauna, identified from latex casts, includes abundant rather 
small moulds of Anodontkt s)dierictda and Diastema protiti, with Cucuttaea. 

An interesting expos tue of the Pliocene occurs on Kangaroo Island. Lime- 
stone boulders collected by E. P. O'DriscolI on Section 268, Hundred of Men- 
zies. 11 miles west of Kingscote, cany abundant Chlamys anttauairalte in asso- 
ciation with Qstrea, mostly juveniles. ? Cordiia sp., BamaUa sp,> CttcuUaed sp.. 
Chlamys (K(fidchlamys) consohrifia and Diastema provisi. Although no basalt 
was actually seen by Mr. O'Driscoll during liis short visit to the locality, the 
limestone has been baked by the basalt which occurs to the west of Kingscote. 
The fauna is consequently poorly preserved, mainly as casts, moulds, anf bald- 
ened shells in reddish and grey limestone. 

Along the eastern coast of Gulf St. Vincent the Pliocene occurs discontinu- 
ously from Aldinga Bay to Adelaide, and the exposures at Aldinga. Hallctt Cove 
and Adelaide have been described by many authors. The sequence in the Dry 
Creek Sands of the Adelaide Plains Basin is, however, understood only in general 
teiins at present, only one of the molluscan faunas has been described (Lud- 
hrook, 1954-8) and no zoning of the foraminifera has been undertaken. 

An exposure of Tertiary beds at Redbanks on the River Light was described 
by Ilowchin (1912) and correlated with rocks of Older Tertiary ("Eocene 1 *) 
age elsewhere in South Australia. Some anachronous features of the molluscan 
species collected from this locality led to the recognition (Ludbrook, 1957, p. 
17) of a very thin remnant of Pliocene calcareous sandstone overlying Miocene 
limestone (Howchin's Eocene). 

££o \. II. LUDBROOK 

The general features of the occuiTcncc have been adequately described by 
Howchin. The Tertiary bods consist Of from L2 to 15 feet of hard fossiliferous 
yellow limestone (calcarenitu), gmty near the base, carrying the echinoids 
Lovcnio jorheM T. Woods", Fibutciria gregdta, and the pelecypods Leniipecten 
sp. and Eotrigonia seinkouhdntti. The associated microfauna contains Amphi- 
steghui lessonih Calcarlm vcmvukrta, Notorotalia howchini and species of Gau- 
dnjitrt* Doroihia, Nonkm, Cibicidv** and Cassidulina. An echinoid band occurs 
near the top of the limestone, with abundant Lovcnia, Monostychia. Fibuhria 
And Leniipecten, together with Kiftrignnia semitindulata and Pioajtrrwhm. 
Krnsion has considerably obscured the contact between the top of the echinoid 
band and the overlying thin remnant of leached white calcareous sandstone with 
chalky remains of Glyajinerls convexa. Where it is best exposed under Pleis- 
tocene mottled clays, the sandstone rests upon poorly fossilifcrous Miocene 
eaicarcnitc with echinoid spines, sponge spicules, and miiiolid foraminifera; el.-se- 
where it may be represented by a coarse grit resting on die eclunoid baud of the 
limestone, ilowchin (p. 17) noted the rich fossil content of this "thin siliceous 
laver", It is obvious Irom the raegafossil assemblage that thfs is not a bed of 
the underlying Miocene, but a remnant of the Pliocene Dry Creek Sands en- 
countered in Borings in the Adelaide Plains Basin. 

One small, loose boulder from the ecliinoid band of the Miocene carries, 
vertical to the bedding, a mould of the boring mollusc Pholas on the infilling 
of a tube bored into the limestone. An irregolar junction between limestone 
and grit is also visible on the same hoolder. 

The RedbanVs exposure probably represents the north-eastern margin of the 
Pliocene sea in this part of the St. Vinceut Basin. Although the total exposure 
is only about 8 te$t mug and 1 foot thick, the following lonlluscan \pecie.s,. some 
rtf which arc restricted to the Pliocene, have been identified; Nucufana verconh, 
Gtycyvierte conoexa, Cuetdlara sp., Chlamys antiaustmlis, Cnrdita comtfoh Miltha 
hont, NotocalHsta (Striaatllwta) sp., Dentalitim hfesulcntum, TurriteUa acricida 
adelaidemis. Diastoma provisi. Thericium iorri s Folmices suhstolhto, Cowls 
(Floraconus) addaidav "Rotalia" beccarii is associated with this assemblage. 

Overlying the Tertiary marine beds are about 40 fe^t of Pleistocene mottled, 
mainly led, clays and loam. 

At Tailem Bend the low clifis forming the eastern bank of the Murray River 
are cmouoved of fine calcareous loosely coherent sandstone wi(h abundant Mar- 
glnopora vcrtcbralh visihle <m weathered sui faces. In this area the Miocene 
has been puitially or wholly removed by erosion and Pliocene sands rest directly 
on grey limestone of the Ettrick Formation. 2JS miles south of Tailem Bend on 
the stock route adjacent to Section 321, Hundred of Seymour, well preserved 
mollusca occur in a bed of Ostraa urenicota 25 feet down the low cliffs. The 
splendid specimen of Spandylux spondifloidc s (Pi, 2, Fig. 1) was collected at 
dris locality with Chlnmip (C.) antktustraUs, Chlamys {Equichlamyx) ptdmipes. 
and Miltha how, 

The associated microfauna is similar to that of die Dry Creek Sands. 

The sample taken on tin* eastern bank at Jtrvuis punt contains a xliallow 
water fornuiminifcral assemblage with Margiii-opora ijcrfehrotis and "RotaUa" 
beawrli in abundance, in association with Trochummina infhtta. Clavtdisia multi- 
murwahu (Jribrolndimitui pohjstama, Quinqwdomdina <:ostata, Tedoanlinn tri- 
gomda. T Mat "finata, Fcneroplls pt'iiums, Dts'corlm dimhliatus, fiotorbineUn 
cychchjfieus. The foraminifera of the oyster bed with Spondylus, 2& miles 
south of Tailem Bend, include "Rotatia* beccarii with Quiaquc load inn costafsJ, 
Q, poiygona, TriltKtdina tncarmata, GitUtdina irregtdum, G. problema, C. regina* 
SipmoidcUo elc&tmfLss'ima, S. kaa,acnsu<i, Discorbis dimidiatus. RotorhineUti cyclo- 



clypeus, Planulinoicks biconcava, Planorbtdina mediterranensis, Elphidium 
adelaidense, E. rotattxm, E. macdlam, E, advenutn. 

The Pliocene at Moorlands has been described by McGam (1953, p. 87). 
Five species of mollusca occurring in this locality were recorded by Mawson 
and Chapman (1922, p. 136). Thin, highly fossiliferous sandy and gritty lime- 
stone with large slate pebbles overlies bedrock on Section 6, Hundred of Sher- 
lock, on the roadway where it is thinly covered with kunkar, and to the south 
of the roadway. Anodontia sphericula is abundant, iri association with Macoma 
basedowi, Chlamys (Equichhmys) consobrina, Diasloma provisi, Barnea tiara, 
Anapella variabilis, and doubtfully identified Antigona cognata. 

The distribution of the fauna at these localities is tabulated below. 

The sandy limestone quarried at Waikerie as a building freestone also con- 
tains Anodontia sphericida and Diastoma provisi< with moulds of Polinices and 




















5 a 











Cacuilaea sp. 







Gh/c.y merit convexn 




Ostreu urvnicMa 







Oh let niys a nlia u stra lis 







Chlamys (flqnifihlmm/fi) conmbrina 





Ohlmnyx (-Equichlamt/x) pahmjws 






Oklarm/s (EquickUimys) sahbifrons 


8-pandyh.u-i xpondyhittet* 




Glaus tletiitttnli 

Anodontia sphericttln 







Antigotia cognata 


Du&in'ut {Plmcvsoma) ertithb-urtfenxis 

Luciolina al'ttnt/ae 

Macoma bawlowi 



A iuipdla tyiruthili* 



Diastema promHt 







( '(/ mprtniip, trUprinlt 




Type locality 

x Occurrence nol-otl. 



Genus Cht.amys Roding, 1798 

Subgenus Culamys s, str. 

Chlamys (Chlamys) antiaustralis (Tate) 

Synonymy: Ludbrook, 1955, p. 30. 

Observations— The species was well figured by Gatliff and Singleton (1930, 
pi. 2, fig. 3; pi. 3, figs. 6, 7; pi. 4, fig. 10). It occurs commonly in calcareous sand- 
stones carrying the present fauna. 


Subgenus Equichlamys Iredale, 1929 

Type species (cul.) Fecten bifrons Lamarck 

Group of Chlamys (Equichlamys) bifrons (Lamarck) 

Three species described by Tate, Fecten consohrtnus, V. subbifrons and P. 
palmipcs, are each morphologically close to variants of the living Chlamys 
(Equichlamys) bifrons, the type of which is in the Lamarck Collection in the 
Museum of Natural History, Geneva. These either represent allopatric popu- 
lations* of a single Pliocene species or arc Pliocene subspecies of a single polytypic 
species of which bifrons is the living South Australian representative. The 
amount of material available is, however, too limited for satisfactory compara- 
tive study. 

Chlamys (EquichUimys) subbifrons (Tate.) 

pi. ii && i 

Pecten mbhifrom Tate, L882, % 44; 1886, p. 104, pi. a, fitf. 2. 

Diagnosis— A rather small Equichlamys with 12 square-cut bifid ribs equal to 
the interspaces, cut into riblets in the early stages by a median groove and into 
4 or 5 riblets by diehotomous grooves towards the ventral margin. Main inter- 
spaces and rib grooves shagreencd. 

Description— The holotype figured by Tate is a juvenile right valve, narrower 
than the adult. Shell of small to medium size, weakly inflated, height (in the 
juvenile) greater than the length, anterior-dorsal and posterior-dorsal margin 
slightly concave, ears large, unequal, posterior ear triangular, wilh 5 rays with 
shagreen interspaces; anterior car larger, upper margin directed slightly upwards, 
lower margin with a broad but not very deep bvssal notch, 6 rays, the tipper 
bifid and much broader than the rest which are divided by one or two grooves, 
interspaces shagreen. 

Main shell sculpture of 12 square-cut ribs, equal to the interspaces. Bibs 
cut into riblets by one increasing to three square-cut grooves towards the ventral 
margin. Riblets more or less granular, about 13 granules in 10 mm. Groows 
shagreen, interspaces between main ribs shagreen with a secondary riblet de- 
veloping by intercalation. Valve margin squarely undulating, 

Dimensions— Height 30, length 28 mm. 

Type Locality— Pliocene, "Government House Quarry", Adelaide. 

Location of Holotype— Tate Museum Collection. University of Adelaide, 
T 959A. 

Material— The holotype and 4 paratypes, Adelaide. 

Observations— The holotype is an ornamented phase of the species. The 
granules are not always present on the ribs which in juvenile paratype D are 
shagreen ed over. 

Chlamys (Equichlamys) consobrina (Tate) 

pl. 1, & 2 
Srjiumipnij: Ludbrook, 1955, p. 31. 

Diagnosis— A fairly large Equichlamys with about 8 low radial folds. Folds 
and interspaces covered wilh narrow radial riblets increasing by intercalation to 
about 100 in the adult. Interspaces shagreen. 

Description— Holotype left valve. Shell not fully grown, of medium size, 
moderately inflated, height equal to length, equilateral, anterior-dorsal and pos- 
terior-dorsal margins concave, ears large, unequal, anterior car triangular, with 


10 narrow radial riblets separated by broader shagreened interspaces, posterior 
ear subtriangular, carrying narrow radial riblets, outer margin broken but 
apparently very gently sigmoidal, upper margin straight. 

Shell with" 8 low folds strongest at the middle and almost obsolete anteriorly 
and posteriorly, both folds and interspaces carrying 3 or 4 flat, slightly granular 
ribs with shagreened interspaces a little wider than the ribs Valve margin very 
gently undulating. 

Dimtfmh ms~ Height 67, length 67 mm. 

Type Locality— Pliocene, Aldinga Bay 

Location of Holotype—Tatc Museum Collection, University of Adelaide, 
T «J7B. 

Material— The holotype. one paratype (adult 85 X 85 mm.). 5 fcopotypc 
fragments; one poorly preserved specimen in limestone, Moorlands. 

Chbtmys (Equichlarays) palmipes (Tate) 
i>l. t. Sid, 3-fi 

rvctcn palmipea Tute, 1886, p. 105, pi. 5, fig, 4; p|. 7, figs. 4a-4b. 

Diagnosis— A fairly large Equichlamys with 9 strong broad ribs on th* right 
valve and 8 narrow elevated ribs on the left valve, ribs and interspaces covered 
with flat, square-cut riblets up to 15 on each rib on the right valve. Interspaces 
shagreened. Height greater than length. Dorsal margins conspicuously concave. 

Description— Lectotypc, Shell fairly large, roundly triangular, ineqiulatcral, 
slightly incquivalvc, higher than long, anterior-dorsal margin shorter than pos- 
lerior-dorsal, but both relatively short, concave, ventral margin strongly convex. 
Fars large, unequal. 

Right valve with 9 strong broad subrectangular ribs with U-shaped inter- 
spaces- The ribs in the median part of the shell arc straight and radial, but both 
anteriorly and posteriorly they become increasingly concave. The two border- 
ing the dorsal margins are separated from the adjacent ribs by a narrow inter- 
space, which varies in intensity in individual specimens. It seems, therefore, a 
matter of individual preference as to whether the valve is regarded as having 7 
(Tate, 1886) or 9 ribs\ Ribs broadening and flattening ventrally. Interspaces 
shagreened. Kars unequal Posterior ear triangular, outer margin slightly in- 
clined to the vertical, with 11 radiating riblets grooved towards the umbo. An- 
terior larger, upper margin directed slightly upwards, outer margin convex, 
lower margin with a broad shallow byssal notch. 

Left valve rather flattened in the umboual region, anterior dorsal margin 
shorter than posterior, concave; posterior-dorsal margin concave; ventral margin 
roundly convex., profile narrowly undulating. Valve with S narrow inverted U- 
shaped ribs with deep interspaces twice as wide as ribs which widen and flatten 
ventrally, Ribs and interspaces carrying riblets developing by intercalation 
from about 3 per rib in the middle of the shell to about 7 at the ventral margin. 
Interspaces between ribs and ribleLs shagreened. Ears unequal. Anterior 
burger than posterior, triangular with 5 primary and radiating riblets with a 
secondary rimet developing in each interspace; posterior subtriangular, upper 
margin sloping downwards, outer margin meeting it at 115°, 

7)/mtfm , mn.v--Height 75, length 72, inflation (both valves) 27 mm. 

Type Locality— Pliocene, Edithburg. 

Location of Lectotype— Tate Museum Collection, University of Adelaide. 


Material— The lcctotypc and paratype T932B, both complete specimens 
except for damage to posterior-ventral margin of holotype. One complete 
juvenile with smooth ribs and 4 valves, Tailem Bend; 1 valve in limestone with 
Chlamys antiaustralis, well at 20 feet, Section 200, Hundred of Melville, 1& miles 
west of Edithhurg. 

Observations— Tate's description was based on two specimens, both of which 
were figured. The larger T 932A (figured 1886, pi. 7 3 figs. 4a-4b), of which Tate 
gave the approximate dimensions, is chosen as lectotype. 

Genus Spoxdyiats Linne, 1758 
Spondylus spondyloides (Tate) 

pi. 2, fif. 1 
Synonymy. Ludbrook, 1955, p. 34. 

The magnificent specimen (pi. 2, fig. 1) Tate Mus. Coll. F 15470, with both 
valves intact was collected south of Tailem Bend in calcareous partially coherent 


Genus Glans Megerle, 1811 

Type species (monotypy) Glaus trapezia = Venus trapezia Linne 

Glans dennanti (Tate and Basedow) 

pi. 2, fijjS. 2, 3 

Cardita dennanti Tate and Basedow, 1902, p. 132, pi ft, fig. •! 

Diagnosis— A subtrapezoidul inflated Glam with about 20 rather broad 
nodulose ribs. 

Description— Neotype. A single right valve of moderate size, broadly sub- 
trapezoidal in outline, strongly inflated, solid. Umbo prominent, inflated, strongly 
prosogyrous, situated at one-third from the anterior margin. Lunule small, 
cordate, escutcheon well defined. Anlcrior-dorsal margin almost straight, an- 
terior margin arcuate, posterior-dorsal margin gently convex, posterior margin 
obscured by matrix, Ventral margin gently convex. Sculpture of about 20 broad 
nodxilose ribs wider than the interspaces* Ribs and interspaces crossed by irre- 
gular growth lines. Inner valve margin coarsely crenulate. Hinge fairly broad, 
damaged, but showing a strung, hign, prominent, triangular 3b. 

Dimensions— Height 2-3, length 24, inflation (one valve), 10 mm. 

Location of Neotype— S.A. Museum No, P 12657. 

Type Locality— De Mole Point, Edithhurg, 

Material— The neotype only. Although the dimensions are greater, the speci- 
men collected by Mr. E. J. Carmichael from Point de Mole is so like the figure 
of the holotype that there can be no hesitation in selecting it as the neotype. 

Genus Anodontia Link, 1807 
Anodontia Link, 1807, p. 156, 
(Loripinus Monterosato, 1SS3, p, 91). 

{Eoplvjxemu Stewart, 1930, pp. 37, 186; non Anodontia Stewart, 1930, p. 179. 
Anodontia Link, 1807, Earnes, 1951a. 

Type species (monotypy) Anodontia alba Link == "Venus" edentula Linn-:: 


Anodontia sphericula (Basedow) 

pL 3 ? fitfs. 1, 2 : 3; pi. 5,«gs. 1, <A 

Merctrix spheriL-uh Basedow. 1902, p. 13J. pi 2 fie. 2, Homliin, 1935, pp. 84, £9; 1&36, 

pp, 7, 14. 

Diagnosis-A large globose Anodcm/fa, thin shelled, sculptured with irregu- 
lar growth lines about I mm. apart, with verv fine secondary threads between. 
Hinge edentulous, anterior adductor well within palhal line, rectangular, about 
20 mm. X 6 mm., posterior adductor subtriangular. about 10 X 10 X 15 mm, 

Description— Shell large, thin, transversely orbicular, strongly inflated, sculp- 
tured with fine distinct accremental ridges about 1 mm. apart in the middle of 
the shell with fine secondary irregular microiscopic threads between them and 
very fine short microscopic radial striae discernible on some portions of the adult 

Anterior area narrow, marked externally by a slight interruption of die con- 
centric ridges which fold over on a slight iimho-vential furrow. Posterior area 
narrow, less conspicuous than anterior area but similarly separated from the 
main part of ihe shell by a slight depression from the umbo to the posterior 
ventral edge. 

Umbo small, smooth, sharp> not prominent, prosogyrous, situated anteriorly 
in the ratio 26:37. Anterior-dorsal margin almost straight, directed slightly 
upwards.-, meeting the anterior end in a broad curve. Posterior-dorsal margin 
relatively long and gently convex; gently dependent towards the posterior, 
meeting the posterior margin at a rounded obtuse angle. Ventral margin 
strongly convex. 

Hinge edentulous, ligament long, narrow, bounded by a ridge. Anterior 
adductor long, rectangular, within the pallia! line and diverging from it at un 
angle of about 20 degrees over three-quarters of its length, 21 nun. long. 6 mm. 
wide in the Cowandilla hypotype. Posterior adductor subtriangular, pointed 
dorsally with straight sides each 10 mm. long, ventral side convex towards the 
ventral margin, about 15 mm. long There is a conspicuous u mho-ventral ridge 
bordering the inner side of die posterior adductor and a less conspicuous furrow 
extending from the inner margin of the. anterior adductor in a broad sigmoid 
curve towards the posterior end of the hinge at the top of the pedal retractor. 
Pallia! line simple, area outside pallia! line smooth, inside granular. 

Dimensions— Neotype height 72, length S2, inflation (cast, both valves, 47). 
Hypotype, Cowandilla Bore, height 57, length 63, inflation (both valves) 31 mm. 

Type fAKaltty— Edilhhurg. 

Location of Types— South Australian Museum, Neotype P 12656; Hypotype, 
Moorowie, P 12659; Hypotype, Cowandilla Bore, 170-485 feet. Tate Mus. Cull. 
University of Adelaide, F 15471. 

Material— The neotype- and 2 topotypes collected from Edithburg in the 
Howchin Collection, S.A. Museum. 1 specimen 305 from Giles Point in collec- 
tion of E. J. Cuxinichael, 9 specimens, Hundred Moorowie, Section 140, E. J. 
Carmichael Collection. 4 casts Wallaroo, 2 casts Aklinga, 2 casts Moorlands, 3 
casts Fishery Bay; 17 fragments Cowandilla Bore, 1 valve Bore. Hundred of 
MunnoPara, Section 4251, S.A. Mines Department Collection, Hypotype F 15471 
placed in Tate Collection. 

Observations— The whereabouts of the holorypc arc not known, but there 
has been no difliculty in finding specimens to re-place it. The hypotype from 
Hundred of Moorowie is a. large example fc partly decorticated but with a fair 
amount of die outer shell layer still remaining. 22 adult specimens were mca- 


sured, the average dimensions of which were height 64 mm., length 71 mm.. 
inflation 43 mm., umbo-anterior 29 mm., umbo-posterior 42 mm., ratio height: 
length 901, ratio umb<>posterior:nmbo-anterior 1-44. In the adult the height: 
length ratio varies from 0*90 tu 095, in the juvenile from 0-50 to 0-95; in the 
adult the position of the umbo is more central in the ratio UP:UA is 1-23:1 -62; 
in the juvenile the ratio UP:UA is 1-00:1-61. 

Large globular casts of this species are very common in the limestones. 
With the removal of the shells by solution, the casts readily weather out. Casts 
appear to be similar to those of Anodontia pharaonis (Bellardi) occurring in the 
Eocene from Spain to India (Cox, 1936, p. 32; Eames, 1951b, pp. 390-2). A. 
philippiana (Reeve) from North Queensland is a close living relative. The 
species, or one very close to it, also occurs in the Pleistocene sandy limestone* 
of the ICyre (Roe) Plain south of the Hampton Scarp in the Eucla Basin, 

Family OOSINitDAK 

Genus Dosinia Seopoli, 1777 

Tvpe species (nwnofypy) Clvimn thmn Adanson = Venus concentricn Bom 

Subgenus PiiAcosotvfA Jukes-Brown, 1912 

Type species (o.d.) Artemis japonica Reeve? 

Dosinia (Phacosormi) edithburgensis sp. nov. 

pi a, ife, 4 

Duviniu xraijii Zittel, Basedow, 1901, p. 147 (non Zittel ). 

Diagnosis— A fairly large suborbicular Phacosoma, moderately thin-shelled, 
sculptured with fine, erect ridges about 2 mm. apart, with about 8 fine striae on 
die interspaces and ridges. Pallial sinus deep, triangular, with apex about the 
middle of the median umbo-vcntral line. 

Description (Holotype )—Sheft large, suborbicular^ umbos inflated, promi- 
nent strongly prosogyrous, lunule deeply impressed, somewhat sagittate. 
Escutcheon narrow, deep. Sculpture on adult portion of shell consists of narrow 
concentric ridges about 2 mm. apart with finely striated interspaces. 

Hinge plate moderately narrow, partly obscured by matrix. Hinge of right 
valve with long, narrow, high grooved posterior cardinal, a prominent bevelled 
median cardinal and a narrowly triangular enure anterior cardinal. Anterior 
lateral portion of hinge obscured. Pallial sinus not visible in holotype. 

Dimensions of Hololypc— Height 66. length 63. inflation (both valves) ap- 
proximately 34 mm. 

datatype— internal cast with a good deal of the original shell. Part of the 
pailial sinus visible, broadly triangular, deep, inclined, with apex directed to- 
wards the anterior end of the hinge at the probable position of the anterior ad- 
ductor;; apex at about the middle of the median umbo-ventral line. 

Tijpe Locality— Edithburg, Pliocene. 

LiX-aiion of Types- r £dt& Museum Collection. University of Adelaide. Holo- 
type F 1.5467, Paratypc F 15468. 

Observations— T\m is one of the shells recorded by Tate as Dosinia grayti 
Zittel. It is a larger shell with only a superficial resemblance to D. (Kereia) 
greyi Zittel from New Zealand and has not so far been collected from any other 
locality than Edithburg. Two specimens in the Tate Collection from "Miocene, 
Gippsland Lakes"— probably Jemmy's Point Formation (Pliocene)— appear to 
be long to Kereia, although the hinge is obscured. They are somewhat similar 


to but not conspecific with greyi Marwick (1926, p. 570) has noted that the 
Japanese subgenus Phacosoma is not known to occur in New Zealand before the 
Lower Pliocene. 


Genus Macoma Leach, 1819 

Type species (monotypy) Macoma tenem T.each — Tallinn calcarea Linne 

Macoma basedowi (Tate) 

pi. 4, figs, o, -1 
Tdlina basedowi Tate in Basedow, 1901. p. 148, pi. 3. 

Diagnosis— A fairly large suborbicular-triangular Macoma with slightly irre- 
gular concentric lamellae up to about 1 mm. apart and faint radial striae visible 
in oblique light. 

Description— Interior cast and portion of right valve selected as neotype. 
Shell of moderately large size, suborbicular-triangular* probably fairly solid, sub- 
equilateral, gently inflated. Umbos probably small, antemedian. Anterior- 
dorsal margin nearly straight, gently sloping; posterior-dorsal margin longer, 
gently arcuate, more steeply sloping. Anterior margin roundly arcuate, pos- 
terior margin more narrowly arcuate, Ventral margin roundly convex. 

Sculpture of sharp concentric lamellae widely spaced and generally about 
6 in 4 mm., the interspaces crossed by numerous faint radial striae. Pallia! sinus 
widely rhombic, apex at about the posterior one-third* 

Dimensions (internal cast)— Height 32, length 36 : inflation 15 mm. 

Type Locality— Giles Point, near Edithhurg. 

Location of Neotype— Tate Museum Collection, University of Adelaide, 
P 13460. 

Material— The neotype and 2 topotypes, Giles Point, 2 miles north of Coo- 
bowie; 4 specimens Moorlands, Section 6, Hundred of Sherlock. 

Observations- -The species appears to have features in common with Tellina 
piratica Hedley, 1918, collected by Basedow in the Buccaneer Archipelago. The 
pallial sums in similar in shape to that of piratica. 

Genus Laciouxa Iredale, 1937 

Type species (o.d.) Tellina quoyi Sowerhy 

Laciolina aldingae sp. now 

gL 2, fig. 4j 

Tdlina lata T;tle, 1887, p. 164, nan Quoy and Gaimard. 

Diagnosis— A large Laciolina with conspicuous concentric sculpture consist- 
ing of crowded striae on the outer layer, the inner layer and shell interior with 
broad concentric ribs about 2 mm. apart. Anterior margin rounded, posterior- 
ventral margin rostrate with fairly strong flexure. 

Description— Shell large, subellipttcal-subtriangular, only moderately inflated. 
Umbos small, snbmedian. Anterior of shell broken in holotype, posterior dorsal 
margin apparently straight, fairly steeply descending, posterior end produced, 
rostrate, strongly flexed, ventral margin convex, 

Sculpture on surface layer on undecorticated portion of valve consisting 
of fine irregular crowded concentric striae about 4 per mm. Decorticated shell 
with broad rounded concentric ribs about 2 mm. apart on median part of shell. 
Pallial line only partly visible, pallia! sinus not known. 


Paratype an internal cast showing anterior margin; anterior-dorsal margin 
steeply sloping, anterior end narrowly rounded. 

Dimensions— Holotype: Length (estimated) 125, height 75, inflation 28 mrn, 

Material— The holotype and two paratypes, I doubtful topotype. 

Type Locality— Aldinga Bay. Pliocene, 

Location of Types— Tattt Museum Collection, University of Adelaide, holo- 
type T1210A, paratypes TJ210B, 1210C. 

Observations— Tate (1S87) referred the Aldinga specimens to the Recent 
"Tellina lata Quoy and GaimarxT on description and figures. A splendid series 
of the Tctlina lata Q. and G. group has been generously made available on loan 
from the Australian Museum; Laciolina quoyi (Sowerby) (? = Tellina lata Q. 
and C) C 15874 Hargraves Collection, from New Caledonia; Laciolina chloro- 
leuca ( Lamarck ) C 15873 Hargraves Collection, New Caledonia; Laciolina 
quoyi ? attracfa Iredale C 62322, Heron Island, Queensland; Laciolina quoyi 
attract a iredale Paratype C 62323 Lord Howe Island ; Laciolina francesae Iredale 
Paratype C 59874 Roy Bell Collection, Norfolk Island. From these it is clear 
that me Aldinga Pliocene species is distinct both in its dissimilar sculpture and 
in the strongly rostrate posterior margin- The state ot preservation of the fossil 
renders the generic location a little doubtful. The lo\\\ rather narrow pallial 
sinus of Laciolina is not confirmed. 


Genus Ana pell a Dall, 1S95 

Type species (o.d.) Anapa triqucia Hanley 

Anapella variabilis (Tate) 

pi. 4, figs. 5, ti 

Anapa varialnlix Tate, 1887, p. 172, pi. 17, figs. 5a-5b. 

Anapella variabilis Tultx LudJnook, 1955, p. 76 ( synonymy ) . 

Diagnosis— \ small rather tumid subtrigonal Anapella with a rather narrow 

Description— Holotype,. left valve. Shell small for the genus, tumid, sub- 
trigonal, inequilateral, thin but solid, umbo inflated, prosogyrous, anterior margin 
moderately narrowly arcuate, posterior dorsal margin longer than anterior dorsal 
margin. Anterior dorsal margin incurved near the umbo. Surface sculpture 
with fine growth ridges about 1 mm. apart near the umbo but increasing to about 
4 per mm. towards the ventral border. Fine striae about 7 per mm. in the inter- 

Hinge wilh a deep triangular resilifer. Dorsal margin deeply 7 and narrowly 
notched under the umbo by the rcsilium. A grooved, oblique, narrowly 
triangular anterior cardinal bordering the resilifer with a small secondary denticle 
overhanging the resilifer at the top of the anterior cardinal. Both anterior and 
posterior laterals long and thin. 

Anterior adductor moderately large, subovate. near the anterior-ventral 
margin, posterior adductor subovate at the posterior end of the hinge; pallial 
line simple. 

Dimensions -Length 17-5, height 13*5, inflation (left valve) 6*5 mm. 

Type Locality— -Blanche Point, Aldinga Bay, Pliocene. 

Location of Types— Tate Museum Collection, University of Adelaide, Holo- 
type T1209A, Paratypes T1209. 


Material— Holotype and 13 paratypes on Tate's original tablet; external 
moulds on limestone, identified from latex casts, Moorlands; specimens from 
Adelaide Plains Basin Government Bore No. 20, Woodville South, 362-380 feet 
associated with a larger species of Anapdla (? pinguis Crosse and Fischer), aud 
a megafauna distinct from that described by the writer from the Dry Creek 



Subfamily Campanjlinak 

Genus Campanile Bayle, 18S4 

Type species (s.d. Grossman, 1906) Cerithlum gigantewn Lamarck 

Campanile triseriale Basedow 

pi & figs. 2, 3, 4 

Campanile triseriale Basedow, 1902, p. 130, pi. 2,, fig, 1. 

Diagnosis— A Campanile of normal size for the genus, sculptured with three 
rows of tubercles the adapical row axiab coarse, usually about 4 in 5 mm., separ- 
ated by interspaces of the same size, median row narrow, set on a narrow cord 
)i mm. wide, about 7 in 5 mm., adapertural row oblique, on a rib about 1 mm. 
wide, 6 tubercles per mm. 

Description— Neotype. The neotype has been selected from the Huwchin 
Collection in the South Australian Museum. It is a broken specimen tightly 
embedded in limestone with nine adult whorls only the posterior of which is 
visible externally. The original description and figure given by Basedow are 
consistent with the neotype, the estimated dimensions of which arc height 130 
nun., diameter 40 mm. 

Hypotype. Mould in limestone, north side of Aldinga Bay, south of Blanche 
Point described from latex cast. Shell large, isostrophic, multispiral, turriculale. 
Early whorls (about 15) missing, 17 whorls remaining in a height of 00 mm. 
Whorls narrow, flat regularly sculptured with 3 rows of tubercles^ the adurncal 
row broad, one-third width of whorl, with broad tubercles 3 in 5 mm. in the 
last whorl, separated by approximately equal interspaces, median row of tubercles 
on a narrow, well-defined cord, about 1 mm. apart, adapertural row bordering 
the suture, with oblique tubercles about 4 in 5 mm. in the last three whorls. 

Location of 7V/>as~Neotype, South Australian Museum, No. P 12660. Hypo- 
type, South Australian Museum, No, P 12661. 

Ttjpc Locality— Edithburg, Pliocene. 

Observations— Seven good specimens of the original shells of this species 
arc in the South Australian Museum with the locality label **Bore~. The preser- 
vation leaves little doubt that the shells arc from the Dry Creek Sands nf (he 
Adelaide Plains Basin. It is unfortunate that the locality has not been recorded 
as these are the only well preserved specimens showing the early part of the 
shell so far obtained; they are also the only record of the species from the 
Dry Creek Sands, 

In the early whorls a narrow somewhat irregular cord occurs between the 
adapertural row of tubercles and the suture, this cord is gradually engulfed and 
disappears on later whorls. The aperture is obliquely rhomboid, sipbonal canal 
strongly retroflexed. 

Associated Species— Associated with the pelecypoda and one gastropod de- 
scribed above arc several species the synonymy and descriptions of which have 
been published previously. These are included in the distribution table. 


1 am indebted to Messrs, E. P. CXDriscoll, R. K. Johns and A. A. Gibson of 
the Geological Survey of South Australia for collecting material and tu Mr. E. J. 
Carmichae], of Yorkctown, tot the loan and donation of material, to Dr. D. 
McMidjaeL of the Australian Museum. Dr. B. Daily, of the South Australian 
Museum, and Miss Mary Wade, of the Univeisity of Adelaide, for the to&Q of 
specimens, and to Miss Basedow, sister of the late Dr. Basedow, for assistance in 
endeavouring to trace Dr. Basedow's types. 

The illustrations are the work of Miss G. E. Num, Assistant in the Palaeon- 
tology* Section. Geological Survey of South Australia, The j:> holographs, Plate 5, 
were kindly supplied by the South Australian Museum. 


Basedow, H., 1901. On the Occurrence of Miocene Limestones at Edithburg and their 

Strutigraphical Relationship to the Eocene of Wool Bav, with Description of a New 

Species by Prof. R. Tate. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 25 (2), pp. 145-148, pi. 3. 
Basedow, H., 1902. Descriptions of New Species of Fossil MolJuacu from the Miocene Lime- 
stone near Edithburg. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 2fi (2), pp. 130-132, pi. 2- 
Cox, L. R., 1936. Fossil Mollusea from Southern Persia (Iran) and Bahrein Island. Mem. 

Geol. J»ujV< India, Pal. lad. n.s. vol. 22, Mem. 2, 69 pp., 8 pis. 
Fames, F. E., 195 La. The Type Specie* of AnutLmliu Link, lfcS()7. Proc. Mulac. Soc. Lcmd.., 

2S (6), pp. 232-233. 
EAfctES-, F. E., 1951b. A Contribution to the Study of the Eocene of Western Pakistan and 

Eastern India. B. The Description of the Lauiellibranehia from Standard Sections in 

th* Ralchi Nala and Zinda Tir Areas of the Western Punjab and in the Kohal District 

Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond., Ser. B. Biol. Set 627, vol. 235 T pp. 311-482, pis. 9-17. 
Gamut*, J, H., and Singleton, F* A.-, 1930, On the Relationship of "Pecten" asperrimw 

Lamarck and "Pccteti* antumstralis Tab;, with a Description of an Allied Fossil Farm. 

Prnc. Roy. Soc. Vic, 42 (2) (n.s.) 3 pp. 71-77, ph. 2-4. 
II : i j . . C.j 1918. Mollusea, in Basedow, It. Narrative of an Espendition of Exploration in 

North- Western Australia. Trans. Rov. Geo*. Soc. Aust., S.A. Branch. 18. 191 6-1 91 T. 

pp. 263-283. Tract fig, 1, pi 41. 
IfowmrN, W. s 1912. On an outlier oi Older Cainozoic Rocks in the River Light near Mal- 

iuln. Trans. Roy. Soc. ff, Aust., 3t>. pp. 14-20, pL L 
HnwcHiK, W* ? 1935. Notes on the Geological Sections obtained by several Borings situated 

On the Plain between Adelaide and Gulf St. Vincent. Part 1, Trans. Hoy. Soc. S, AuSV. 

59. pp. 68-102. 
Hgwctttn, W., 1936. Idem, Part 2— Covvandilla (Government) Bore. Trim*, Roy. Sue. S. 

Aust., 60, pp. 1-34. 
Ijusdaxj.. T., 1937. Middletou and Elizabeth Reefs, South Pacific Ocean. Aust Zuul. 8 

(4), pp. 232-261, pis. 15-17. 
Ixtwdook, N H.. 1954-1958. The Molluscan Fauna ol the Pliocene Strata underlying the 

Adelaide Plains, 1H, 1, 1954, Trans. Roy. Soc. S.A., 77. pp. 42-64. pt. 2. 1955. id,. 7*. 

pp. 18-87, pis. 1-6, pt. 3, 1956. id, 79, pp. 1-36, pK 1-2; pt. 4, 1957, id.. SO, pp. 17-5S. 

pK 1-4; pt. 5, 1958, id.> 81, pp. 43-111, pis. 1-6. 
MAmncK. 1„ 1927. The Vencridae of New Zealand. Tons. N.Z. Inst., 5f; pp. 567-636, 

pis. 35-54. 
Mawsow, D., and Chapman, F., 1922. The Tertiary Brnwn-Coal Bearing Beds of Moorlands. 

Tnuis. Roy. SOC. S. Aust-, 40, pp. 131-147. 
McGakrv, D. f., 1953. Ceolocy of the Moorlands Brown-Coal Field. S. Aust. Dept. Mines, 

Min. Rev.; 94, pp. S2-90. 
M'lxs. K. R. 1954. The Geology and Iron Ore Resources of the Middleback Range Area. 

Gool. Surv, S, Aust, Bull. 33. 
SrvwAHT. R. B. ? 1930. Gabb's California Cretaceous and Tertiary Type LauiclUbianchs. 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. Spec. Pub. 3. 
Tate. R.. 1882- Diagnose* of New Species of Miocene Fossils from South Australia. Truro. 

Roy. Soc. S. Aust.. 5, pp. 44-46. 
Tatk. R.. 1880. The LomeUibranchs of the Older Tertiary of Australia, Part 1. Trans. Hey. 

Soc. S. Aust., 8. pp. 96-158, pis. 2-12. 
I'me, h\, 1887. The Laincllibranchs of the Old.-f lYrtLuy of Australia, Part 2 Trans Hoy. 

Soc. S. Aust., 9. pp. 142-200, pis. 14-20. 












1. — Chlamys 
2. — Chlamys 
3. — Chlamys 
4. — Chlamys 
5. — Chlamys 

( Equichlamys ) 


suhbifrons ( Tate ) . 
ccmsobrina ( Tate ) . 
palmipes (Tate). 
palmipes (Tate). 
palmipes ( Tate ) . 

x2. Mines Dept. Coll. 
G. — Chlamys ( Equichlamys ) 
x2. Mines Dept. Coll 

1. — Spondylus spondyloides (Tate). F 15470, x 1. 
2. — Glam dennanti (Tate and Basedow). Neotype, S.A. Mus. 
3. — Glans dennanti (Tate and Basedow). Neotype, S.A. Mus. 
4. — Laciolina aldingae Ludbrook, sp. nov. Holotype, T 121GA, 

Holotype, T959A, x2. 

Holotype. T 937B, xO-75. 
Lectotype, T932A, left valve, 
Lectotype, T 932A, right valve, 

Juvenile, Tailem Band, left 




palmipes ( Tate ) . Juvenile, Tailem Bend, right valve, 

P 12657, x 2. 
P 12657, x 2, 
c 1. 


1. — Anodontia sphericula (Basedow) Hypotype, F 15471, left valve*, x 1. 

2. — Anodontia sphericula (Basedow) Hypotype, F 15471, right valve, x 1. 

3. — Anodontia sphericula (Basedow) Hypotype, F 15471, exterior, x 1. 

4. — Dosinia (Pliacosoma) edithburgensis Ludbrook sp. nov., Holotype, F 15467, xO-85. 

5. — Dosinia (Thacosoma) edithburgensis Ludbrook sp. nov., Holotype, F 15467, x0*85, 

L— Ostrea atenicola Tate. Tailem Bend. S.A. Mines Dept., F 196/58, left valve, x 0-75. 
2. — Ostrea arenicola Tate. Tailem Bend. S.A. Mines Dept., F 196/58, right valve, xO-75. 
3, — Macoma basedmvi (Tate). Neotype, F 15469, xl'5. 
4. — Macoma basedowi (Tate). Neotype. F 15469, xl-5. 
5. — AnapeUa Variabilis (Tate). Holotype, T 1209A, x3*7. 
6.— Anapella variabilis (Tate). Holotype, T 1209A, x3-7. 

1. — Anodontia sphericula (Basedow). Neotype, Edidihurg. S.A. Mus., P 12658, xl, 
2. — Campanile triseriale Basedow. Latex east of hypotype, P 12661, x I. 
3. — Campanile triseriale Basedow. Neotype, Edithburg. 5, A. Mus t , P 12660, xL 
4. — Cast of Anodontia sphericula and mould of Campanile triseriale hypotype, in lime- 
stone, Aldinga Bay. S.A. Mus., P 12661, x 1. 

(All photograplis by courtesy of S.A. Museum.) 



N. H. Ludbrook 

Plate 2 


Plate 3 






. . 

* > ^ 



Flail: i 


■. ■ 

\. IL Lt'lMUlOOK 

1'i.VTi; 5 


byB. R. Jephcott 


The results of an investigation into the relationship between recharge of the Alice Springs basin and 
the salt content of the town water supply are presented. 


by B. R. Jepiicott* 

communicated by T. Ni Lothian 

[Read 9 October 1958J 


Tho results of an investigation into the relationship between recharge of 
the Alice Springs basin and the salt content or the town water .supply are pre- 


Alice Springs is nestled in the heart of the Macdonnell Ranges and is com- 
pletely surrounded by hills. The average annual rainfall is of the order of 10 
inches and evaporation is about 100 inches. Hence, knowledge and conserva- 
tion of water supplies is all important. 

The water for the town has always been obtained from wells or bores sunk 
into the porous structure which forms the water-retaining beds underneath the 
town itself. The basiu is recharged by infrequent flowing of the Todd River. 

Estimates of the capacity vary from 900,000,000 gallons (Owen, 1954) to 
330,000,000 gallons (Jones, 1957), but regardless of this, with a peak summer 
loading of the order of 3,500*000 gallons per week and a winter loading of 
about 1,500,000 gallons per week, there is, at the moment, considerable, margin 
for error in estimation of volume since either capacity far exceeds the drain per 

Pumping, at the time of a survey in 1954, was performed at four major 
points, namely, Town Wells, Army Wells, Bent Tree Well and Todd River 
Well. Since then* numerous other town supply bores have been opened and 
there are many private wells or bores which do not feed into the town mains. 

The depths and pumping rates of the town wells and bores used for this 
investigation are given in Table 1 and their positions arc indicated on Fig. 1: 



Town Wells (2) 
No. 1 Array Well 
No. '2 Armv Well 
Todd Kiver Well 


'25- r 
9'1 ,V 

Capacity used. 

2 f 000 gallons per hour ench, 
3,000 gallons per hour 
6,000 gallons per how 
8,000 gallon* per hour 


Owen (1954) performed a survey of the Alice Springs basin and found that 
the most important additions of water to the storage are made from the river 
when? and shordy after, it flows. Water also enters the basin from the west at 

* Chemist, Animal Industry Branch, X.T. Administration. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. 83. 



the west comer of the town aerodrome, probably a small quantity from the 
north-west towards the Railway Station and also from the west near the southern 
boundary of the town aerodrome. These additions are likely to be more saline 
than the river water and he considered this poinL should be checked by analyses 
of water from the bore used by Connellan Airways. 

The only early analyses available are those performed bv the author in 
October, 1953. 

Fig. 1. Map of the Alice Springs area showing the localities of the principal wells 
supplying water to the town. The dark areas represent stony ranges providing the 
local watersheds. 1. Todd River Well 2. A.l.M. Well. 3. Town Wells. A. Mount 
Gillen Motel Bore, 5. Bent Tree Well. 6. Army Well No. 1. 7. Armv Well No. 2. 

8. Heavytrce Gap Well. 








1 65 pp?u 

110 ppm 

2)3 ppm 

311 ppm 


























Sod him 





Silien, Kprrio and other oxides 





Total Suits (purt-s por million) 





Total Salts (groin* per gallon ) 





Whore: 1. Todd River Bore. 2. Power House Tank 3. Town WA 6-in, main. 

4. Army Well No- 2. 






tig. 2, Composition of monthly samples of water from the Town Wells, 

The positions of the sources of samples 1, % 3 and 4 are shown on Fig. JL 
It is interesting to note the increase in salt content to the south. The above 
results suggested that the Army Well may mark the southern limit of potable 
water. These observations indicated that a more detailed study would be im- 


Monthly water samples from four sites. Town Wells, Nos, 1 and 2 Army 
Wells and Todd Kiver Well, were collected as from September, 1954. Mt. Gillen 
Motel from August, 1955, and Australian Inland Mission (Lot 75) from April, 





Composition of monthly samples of water from trie Mount Gillen 
Motel Bore. 


1956, until April, 1957. The results were plotted for 14 different factors, but 
only eight were finally considered of any significance. All these samples were 
collected as near as possible to the 18th of each month. 

The methods used were: — 
Nitrate: The standard method using Phenoldisulphonic acid (Am. Public Health 

Assoc*, 1955), 


'955 /&5G * 

j FMAMJJ A S N D J P m A W J vl A^NO 

3,Qt> — - 


J F M 

Fig. -I, Composition of monthly samples of \yater from Array Well No. 2, 

Fluoride: A modification (jephcott 1953) of the method of Huckahy, Welch 

and Metier (1947) was used. 
Chloride: Estimated by the universal method of Fr. Mohr. 
Sulphate: The standard Gravimetric method (Am. Public Health Assoc, 1955) 

was used. 
Bicarbonate and Carbonate: Estimated bv using selective mixed indicators 

(Murray, 1954). 
Sodium and Potassium: Estimated bv Flame Photometry, Collins and Polkin- 

home (1952). 


Calcium and Magneshnm Determined bv the Schwarzenbaeh method (1948) 

as modified by Diehl et at (1950). " 
Hardness: Determined by the Schwarzenbaeh method (1916), (1947) and 

(1948), as modified by Bel* and Noll (1950). 


The results are as presented in Figs. 2-7 and arc tabulated with one co- 
ordinate being parts per million salts, and the other being time in months. The 
mid-position of each of the monthly values coincides with the 13th day of that 

The times of river flow are as shown, and an estimate of the relative strengths 
of flow is indicated. 


(I). Lag Period. Wilson (1957) observed that the lag period between 
river flow and filtration to the six watering points were as in Table 3, 


(1) Todd River Well Immediate. 

(:>) Town W.iU 8-10 rlavs. 

(3) Army Well No. I 2 mouths. 

(4) Aimv Well No. 2 \ 31 iunurtir*. 
{5} Lofi H (A.T.M.) 9dfl.Vfi. 

(6) Mt. (iilten Motel j 5 months. 

However, the following factors make these generally unreliable: 

(a) From Fig. 5 (Army Well No. 1) the lag appears more closely to approximate 
one month than two months, this being especially noticeable in trie sodium, 
bicarbonate, total hardness, and total dissolved solids- 

(b) From Fig. 4 (Army Well No. 2) the lag would again be nearer one than SK 
months. However, the Storm Water drain near No. 2, which has a most 
irregular flow depending on the distribution of the rain, may account for 
certain very cmick responses — e«g. 7 end of February, 1956, especially in the 
sodium and free alkan levels. 

(c) Normally the height of the water table will influence flow rate— i.e., a low 
table will increase the speed of filtration to a large extent. Unfortunately, 
this is not obvious in the graphs due to the regular distribution of the river 
flows and the masking effect of the heaviness of the February, 1956, flow 
after one of the longer dry spells. 

(d) The si/e of the flood on the river bed influences the filtration rate — i.e., a 
small flow may not even reach the furthest points and the amount of re- 
charge will be relatively small — e.g., the medium flow in Watch, 1955, did 
not create the magnitude of salinity drop of the two flows in July and 
August, 1955, the combined flow of which amounts to quite, a large factor, 
especially since the porous structure above the basin would still be quite 
moist from the first flow. All relevant graphs show this marked response 
after this dual flow. Naturally, the size of the flood is determined by volume 
which in itself is dependent on duration of flow, and speed of flow which 
is in itself dependent on the head of water. The following observations 
were made for the period September, 1954, to April, 1957 (Table 4). 






■ oo 

s a W 




F M A 


J J 

A 5 



J F 










J F 




■ w 


OSSSOf. 'ft? 






■SO _'/,-'. 

94 eci 
















73 -< 

:- -*• 












l n 


.- 0ti 





























- c 



p m - 







7*- r 




■ % 

























J r 






* k 






* 1 



'«fl / 

a d 





Fig. 5. Composition of monthly samples of water from Army Wrll No. 1. 


Fig. 6, Comt>osition of monthly samples of water from the Todd River Well. 



J F M 

Fig. 7. Comparison of the analyses for Total Dissolved Solids for all wells. 


Fitf. 8 r Comparison of the analyses for Fluorides for all wells. 




Strength of flow 

Strength of flow relative 
to Feb., 1956 

Mid October 1954 



Mid March 1955 



Early July] 055 


Kflrly Augjllftt 1&&S 

Very small 

End February 106$ 

Very heavy 


End June IffcHj 

Very small 

- " D 

Hence the major effects should be noticed after the flow at the end of July 

to early August, 1955. and the end of February, 1956. and in practice, this 

is so. especially as already stated in the dual July-August, 1955, flows. 

(II). Individual Responses. On first examining the Figs, 2-8 it appears 
obvious that ihe responses of chloride, fluoride and snlphale is seldom indicative 
of river flow, especially with the No. 1 and No. 2 Army Wells and the Town 
Wells. After the largest flow.s the fluoride (Fig. 8) in the No. 2 Army Well 
actually increased and similarly with No. 1- The response of chloride and sul- 
phate follows a most irregular pattern. 

Tin's then leaves two other ions, namely, sodium and bicarbonate, two other 
factors partly dependent on bicarbonates, namely, total dissolved solids and free 
alkali, and the overall picture of total dissolved solids (Fig. 7). 

Naturally, it is best to examine the uncomplicated factors first to see if 
their response is simple and in this, such is the case. Sodium and bicarbonate 
respond truly if due allowance is made for time lag and flow strength. 

With bicarbonate, in every ease, a response is noted, the most obvious being 
the Army W 7 ells No. 1 and No. 2 and the Town Wells, Allowing the five-month 
lag for Mt, Gillen Motel, the fall is quite accurate. 

Sodium likewise responds to flow ix\ the correct pattern and duplicates the 
responses ol the bicarbonate. 

The two ions combined must have, in the majority of eases, a greater effect 
than all other ions since, apart from isolated eases, the total dissolved solieLs 
fall with river flow, 


In the waters from wells in the Alice Spriugs basin the most sensitive indi- 
cators of the basin recharge are sodium and bicarbonate, these two combined 
having an effect on the total dissolved solids* 


American Public Hkaliii Ansc, 1955. Standard Methods lor E.\;immutiau oi Water> Sew- 
age and Industrial Wastes, lOtli edition. 
Btrrz, J. D,. and Noll. C, A , 1950, Am. Water Works Assoc. 42 ( 1 ) s np. 49-56. 
BunKE, G. W., 1U26. h Am. Watr-r Works Assoc., 15. pp. 169-170. 
Chamot, E. M., and Prati:, D. £., 1909, J. Am. Chem. Soc, 31. pp, 922-8. 
Chaaiot, E. M,, PiiArr, D. S., and Rtin-ifcajj, H. W-. 1911. J. Am. Chem. Soc, 03, pp. 366-84. 
Colljns, G. C, and Polkjnhohn*;, jrj„ 1952. Analvst, 77, pp. 430-436. 
DitHL, H., Goicvy.. C. A., and Hach, C. C. t 1950. * Am. Water Works Assoc, 42 (1), pp. 


Huckaby, W. B., Welch, E. T., and Metler, A. V., 1957. Anal. Chem., 19, pp. 1,54-6. 

Jephcott, B. R. Unpublished data. 

Jones, N. O., 1957. Preliminary Report on the Groundwater Reserves of the Alice Springs 

Area, Bur. Min. Res. 
Murray, L. R. Personal communication. 
Owen, H. B., 1954. Report on Geological Investigations of Underground Water Resources 

at Alice Springs. N.T. Adm. 
Schwarzenbach, G., and Ackermann, H. ? 1948. Helv. Chim. Acta., 31, p. 1029. 
Sciiwarzenbach, G., and Ackermann, H. } 1947. Helv. Chim. Acta., 30, p. 1798. 
Schwarzenbach, G., and Biedermann, W., 1948. Chimia 2, p. 56. 
Schwarzenbach, G., Biedermann, W., and Bangerter, F., 1946. Helv. Chim. Acta., 29, 

p. 811. 
Taras, M. J,, 1950. Anal. Chem., 22, pp. 961-1072. 
Wilson, T., 1957. Personal communication. 


byW. Johnson and M. 7. Bucknell 


The field occurrence and petrology of some rocks of igneous appearance occurring at the top of the 
Triassic succession in the Springfield Basin are described. It is concluded that they are natural slags 
formed by fusion of argillite and coal ash due to heat from a burning coal seam. Some forceful 
ejection of the molten slag may have occurred. The peculiar mineralogical association in the slags is 
due in part to the highly siliceous, lime and magnesia-free, composition of the coal ash and the 



[Read 9 October 1958 J 


The field occurrence and petrology of some rocks or igneous appearance 
occurring at the top of the* Triassie succession hi th« Springfield Basin are de- 
scribed. It is concluded that they are natural slags formed by fusion of argillite 
and coal ash due to heat from a horning caul seam. Some forceful ejection of 
the molten slag may have occurred, The peculiar mineralogieal association in 
rise slags is due in part to the highly siliceous, lime and magnesia-free, composi- 
tion of the coal ash and the arjallirc. 


In 1957 u party of students mapping in the Wilson area under the super- 
vision of Dr. A. VV. KIccman collected specimens of Indurated or silicificd pink 
and buff argillite, containing leaf impressions of Triassie aspect, from an area 
9 miles due east of Gordon. 

The possible economic importance of this find was immediately obvious 
and as soon as the Department was informed one of the authors (Johnson) 
made a reconnaissance of the area (in November. 1957), when it was found 
that the silicified pink and buff argillite was the top member of a relatively 
thick succession of Triassie sediments forming a true structural basin of some 
considerable areal extent 

On a subsequent brief visit with L. W. Parkin fragments of a material re- 
sembling scoria or clinker were picked up on the slopes of a small mesa at the 
top of which the argillite occurs. At this stage, the analogy between the occur- 
rence and that of the "burnt coal" at Leigh Creek (Parkin, 1953) obviously in- 
viting comparison between the two, a similar origin for the igueous-looking 
material at Springfield was considered. Then at a later stage, field and labora- 
tory evidence, particularly the similarity between some of the fragments and 
volcanic ejacrarnenta, led to our consideration of an igneous parentage for 
them. Finally, more detailed examination of the occurrence in the field and 
laboratory has shown mat the material originated chiefly from the fusion of the 
argillite. by burning of coal in situ. 

Investigation of the field occurrence, described in the first part of this paper 
was the responsibility of Johnson. Rucknell describes the petrology of the 
material in the second part. 


As it is intended to publish a detailed description of the geology of the 
Springfield Basin at a later date a brief account only is given here to assist in 
the understanding of the occurrence. 

The Basin in situated some 9 miles due west of the abandoned township of 
Gordon on the Quorn-Hawker road and is reached from a road running directly 
between Gordon and Cradoek. 

* Department of Mines, iyrutri Australia 
Traits. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. <1959), VoL 82. 



20 o 

I * L 

20 to 







Hrf. Ctiila Wudti 




-■■ : ' .-■ ■ ■ . ' -■ ' . ' .-- ' . 

• " • - « 

So// eowr 

Sana's fo*t*s &ntf 


* * p a - B H 
o * a - 1 1, « 

Geological sketch plan of the Springfield Basin near Cradock, South Australia. 


It lies In an area of moderate topographic relief and is almost bisected by 
Slaty Cliffs Creek, a large tributary of Wirrcanda Creek. It is elongated in a 
direction Slightly north of east and is asymmetric, the eastern end bfilrjg broader 
And having a semi-circular periphery. The length of the Basin is 2% miles and 
its greatest width 1% miles. 

The Triassic sediments have been extensively eroded and for the most part 
lie in a topographic depression. A small central mesa, to which the pscudo- 
voleanie materials are confined, has been left and the basal conglomerate forms 
a hounding ridge around three-quarters of the periphery of the basin. 

Outcrop conditions are poor and nowhere is the full Triassic- succession 
exposed in One section nor is it possible to build up an accurate composite 
.section from a number of strat {graphically overlapping discontinuous sections. 
Estimates of maximum thickness therefore vary and estimate of total maximum 
thickness given in this paper is subject to an error winch may be in excess of 
2:500 feet. The succession as built up from fragmentary sections is as lollows, 
starting at the top. 

Thickness Description of Lithology 

70-80 feet Pink and buff baked argillite with leaf impressions and fresh water 
molluscs underlain by whitish paper shales with ash beds at the 
200 feet Grey sandy shale, fine-grained sandstone with a coarse-grained 

lenticular arkose or greywacke at the top. 
150 feet Carbonaceous shales, argil lites and siltstones with impure coal 

125-140 feet Chiefly white to yellow sfltstone or fine-grained micaceous sand- 
stones with interbedded carbonaceous shales and impure coal 
seams. Sandstones weathered to concretionary ferruginous box 
200-700 feet Carbonaceous shales and argilhtes with impure coal scams. 

Cypsum weathers out of shales. 
170-940 feet Red, mauve and buff argillite with beds of red, grey, purple and 
buff, very coarse-grained sandstone, some containing clay pellets. 
At western end grades into a predominantly sandstone sequence. 
At the eastern end argillite is 600 feet thick and overlain bv the 
.sandstone sequence 340 feet thick. May contain interbedded coal 
seams. Sandstones contain leaf impressions. 
16-fJGO feet Basal conglomerate. Consists of interbedded torrential conglom- 
erate and red and mauve coarse-grained current-bedded sand 
stone. Conglomerate boulders arc predominantly quartzite. Some 
beds are vein quartz pebble conglomerate, 
200 feet Possible basal beds at eastern end of basin consisting of grey 

gypsiferous shales. 
The best coal seam sn far discovered by drilling is 12 feet thick. It is possible 
that the coal seams responsible for the formation nf the pseudo-igneous rocks 
were much thicker. 

All the material of igneous appearance has been found on the top and the 
side slopes of die small mesa, on the structural axis of the basin. The top 70 
to 90 feet of the mesa consists of baked argillite and shale with at least two 
thin clinker beds at die base and pseudo-basalt dispersed in isolated patches 
amongst the argillite near the top. Clinker, ropy lava-like masses and "bombs" 
of pseudo-basalt are. scattered erratically over the side slopes and some black. 


highly ferruginous lumps are concentrated about a small depression in the 
surface of the mesa near its central point, 

There is a clear-cut division between the normal sediments of the Triassic 
succession and the "abnormal" rocks on the mesa. The dividing line i.s the 
lowest clinker bed. The succ«.«sion above (his bed, so far as can be ascertained 
honi Lhe talus obscured outcrops, consist of (from the top downwards): 

f Huff and pink argillite with plant remains aud fresh water 

60-80 teet I molluscs. 

[ VVlu'tc argillite with molluscs, white paper shale and plants. 

J4 inches Pink, red and greenish-black ash-like material. 
6 inches Clinker. 
8-10 feet White and buff shale, 
ft inches Clinker. 

The thickness of the individual beds except for the clinker and ash cannot 
be determined accurately owing to the talus cover. 

The pink and buff argillite is highly siliceous (see analysis in the section 
nn Petrology) and massive It is hard and tough, though light, and it breaks 
with a conchoidal fracture and weathers in angular and cuboidal masse?. It 
contains abundant leaf impressions and external casts of molluscs. These are 
particularly well displayed on weathered faces of the cuboidal and angular 
bhicks. Leaf impressions have been observed within a few inches of com- 
pletely fused argilhtc. 

The white "t>aper" shale beneath the pink argillite is a soft, crumbly rock 
splitting into paper-thin layers with numerous poorly preserved leaf impressions 
between the layers. In places the bedding of this shale dips vertically and, 
although apparently in situ, is overlain by normally dipping shale. 

The clinker at the base of the abnormal succession consists of irregular 
small masses of black aphanitic vesicular material whose vesicles are filled in 
pint with white and yellow substances of possible secondary origin. It is em- 
bedded in a layer of vari-coloured powdery material bearing a strong resem- 
blance to coal ash, or clay soil strongly heated by burning tree roots. 

The only other material of igneous appearance found in situ is the rather 
coarser grained greenish-black "basalt" occmring in flat slabs and thin seams in 
the pink argillite. It forms chiefly horizontal tabular masses with irregular out- 
lines apparently intrusive into the argillite, and in some places completely en- 
veloping pieces <rf it. In other places thin seams of basalt can be observed in 
vertical and subvertical cracks leading up into the horizontal layers, Adjacent 
to the contact* in a zone of varying width, the normal pink or buff colour of 
the argillite has been alteied to a light or dark grey. 

The other types of igneous-looking material found are small bomb-like 
masses; ropy lava, black, highly Ferruginous lumps and loose masses of heavy 
basaltic clinker scattered over the side slopes and the top of the mesa. Ex- 
amples arc figured in the text and their microscopic appearance is described 
in aetail by Bucknell in the pctrolngieal section of this paper. 


Although the remarkable resemblance between some of the material and 
volcanic ejectaraenta led to a consideration of an igneous origin for it, the weight 
Of field and laboratory evidence points to it having been formed fr<jm argillite 
or shale by the heat from burning cnaJ or from gases distilled frum the coaL 

Firstly, let us examine the evidence of the general circumstances of the 
LHx.imen.ce. In the coal-bearing basin of Triassic rocks at Leigh Creek, some 
lot! miles north, similar material has been proved hy Parkin (Parkin, 1953) and 


Baker (Baker, 1953) to have been Formed by heat from burning coal. Likewise, 
in other parts of the world numerous occurrences of baked clays and natural 
slags are described by various authors (Sherburne Rogers*, 1917). In fact, it 
seems a normal occurrence in coalfields, given the right type of coal, suitable 
topography and climate. 

On the olhcr hand if the material in the Springfield Basin were truly igneous 
it would be unique, for no other volcanic rocks of Triassic age are known in 
Australia west of the Tasman Geavynchne, This, of course, cannot be taken as 
proof and stronger evidence against the igneous origin and in support of the 
burning coal hypothesis is supplied by the form of the material in *itu and altera- 
tion effects in the argillite. As mentioned above, apart from the clinker lower 
down the mtsa, the "pseudo-basalt" occurs us thin, tabular, horizontal masses and 
thinner vertical sefttns or veins, with ifrcgular, but quite sharp, boundaries, 
showing chilled edges against the argillite. The vertical scams fill small cracks 
and join the horizontal masses from telow. 

To explain this form of occurrence as due to igneous activity would require 
a very Quid lava either flowing by gravity into pre-existing holes and cracks in 
the argillite or else intruding the argillite from below. Such a fluid lava rmplies 
quiet volcanic or igneous activity on a large scale. The fluidity and the iubu- 
sive hypothesis are incompatible with the ropy lava and bombs and seoriaceous 
basalt (clinker) and the postulated laigcscule volcanic activity is mcoinpubljl- 
with the small volume of igneous material remaining on the mesa. 

Two other lacts weighing against an igneous origin are die complete absence 
of volcanic or igneous material lower down in the Triassic succession of the 
Springfield Basin and the apparent absence of a neck or pipe representing the 
source of the material, 

The unusual chemical and jmjneralogical composition of the pseudo-igneous 
material and the variation between its various forms also weigh heavily against 
their being uf common igneous Origin. 

Finally, there is the problem of the quantity of heat required to hake the 
argillite. A layer 15 feet thick has been converted to a hard, tough pink or buff 
rock over an area of 400,000 square feet. Though the amount of heat needed 
to eftect tins conversion cannot be calculated precisely, it obviously must have 
been large and could onlv have been supplied by a thick sill or Java flow. 
Either of these would surely have left more traces than the few remnants found 
scattered over the top and slopes of the mesa. Furthermore, it seems doublfuf 
it even a thick flow or sill could have caused such a thick zone of baking beneath 
» because of the limited heat transfer in a downwards direction and the lack of 
heat renewal in the sill, or lava flow, once emplaced. 

To pursue the igneous hypothesis to the end it would be feasible to postulate 
small-scale volcanic activity, operating about a locust centred on the mesa, as a 
source of the heat. This would have to have been cpi-Triassic to explain the 
clinker or scoriae beds* toward* the base of the mesa r overlain by fossiliferaus 
Triassic rocks and surely would have left more evidence of its occurrence. 

Turning to the hypothesis of fusion of the argillite by heat from burning 
coal we find that it presents CM inexplicable difficulties. Firstly, coal scams are 
known to occur at various levels in the Triassic succession of the basin, and thev 
are of a similar type to Leigh Creek coals, which are notoriously liable to spon- 
taneous combustion. Then, as previously mentioned, it requires no unique 
sequence of events, as the formation of the pseudo-igneous rocks or natural 
slags, and the large-scale baking of shales overlying coal seams as a result of 
combustion of the seams, is a well-known phenomenon recorded at various 
places throughout the world, including Leigh Creek. 

250 W. JOHNSON* ano M. J. BHCk"\F.LL 

The combustion of one or more thick scams beneath the mesa would have 
quite adequately supplied tile heat required to bake the argillite and shales at 
(he top and to partially fuse them. 

The patchy occurrence in situ of the pseudo-basalt is explained by the 
bchavinm of the burning coal, Burning and super-heated gases resulting from 
the partial combustion of the coal, penetrating upwards through cracks termed m 
the strata ovcrlving the coal, would fuse the argillite in situ in places where the 
t>assa-e of the sases was restricted, or where further combustion took place. Hot 
gases could pass through cracks of capillary size or not much wider and hence 
The- presence or lava-like material in thin vertical and subvertieal seams is ade- 
quately explained. The presenee of quite extensive slabs of pseudu-basrtit is no 
doubt in part due to flowage of completely fused argillite in the hottest zones or 
to the extrusion of fused coal ash as postulated by Bucknell. 

The presence ot bomb-like fragments of pseudo-basalt implies forceful 
ejection of lava in small masses. It is suggested here that the hot and burning 
eases from the coal were channelled principally up a crack near the centre of 
the u.csa and eventually travelled upwards at sufficient velocity to simulate 
the effect of a small volcano. In this phase the. small bombs were ejected and 
perhaps part of the molten fused anjillitc extruded in the form of ropy lava. 
The site of this pseudo-volcano is thought to be the small depression near the 
centre of mesa which is marked by a concentration of heavy, highly ferruginous, 
black, angular blocks, A concentration or iron near the channel ways for the 
burning gases is nn*ed bv Sherburne Rogers (Sherburne Rogers, 1917). 

Further support to the burniug coal hypothesis is given by the variation in 
the mineralogical and chemical composition of the natural slags. This is also 
discussed in detail bv Bucknell. 

Other evidence is given by the two clinker beds situated near the base or 
the mesa. These consist principally of irregular masses of vesicular light and 
black coloured clinker in a reddish van-coloured, fine, powdery material identical 
with the unfused ash horn burning coal, and are overlain in places by white 
paper shales tilted nn edge. The latter occur erratically around the mesa and 
arc almost ccrtuiuly due to slumping of the beds following withdrawal ot 
support bv consumption of the coal beneath. 

Taking all the evidence into consideration and coupling it with the general 
circumstances of the occurrence there seems little doubt that the pseudo-igneous 
rocks and the baking of the argillite and shale were caused by heat emanating 
from a burning coal seam or seams. 


The two occurrences obviously invite comparison and have many similari- 
ties such as the baking of the shales, the presence of ash from burning coal and 
the resemblance of the black aphanitic vesicular ciinker at both localities. 

There are, however, a number of differences which are probably chiefly 
due to the differing topography in the two localities at the time when burning 
tuok place. 

At Leigh Creek, so far as can be ascertained by personal inspection ana tram 
descriptions bv Raker and Parkin, coarse-grained material similar to the bombs 
and "basaltic'' slabs of Springfield, do not occur. The "basaltic" material at 
Springfield also occurs in much larger masses and there Ls definite evidence that 
it formed bv fusion of the argillite 

The mineralogical and chemical composition axe obviously different btrt this 
may be due principally to difference in composition of the source material. 'flicsc 
differences arc discussed in more detail in the comments by Bucknell below. 


The chief difference, however, appears to be the stratifiraphic position of 
the clinker and other pseudo-igneous material in relation to the burnt coal, At 
Leigh Creek it is apparently intermingled with the (infused ash formed by bum* 
ing of the coal seam. At Springfield, the slabs, bomb-like fragments, some nf 
the clinker, and the highly ferruginous lumps are on top of the mesa, are inter- 
mixed with the argillite, and on visual evidence., above the level of the burning 

The mincralugical evidence suggests that the temperatures attained were 
higher than at Leigh Creek and it is suggested here, that most of the differences 
are due to tire topographic situation Cre the coal seams at Springfield* 

The mesa occurs on the synclinal axis of the Triassic basin, it fs physio- 
graphically normal for a mesa or ridge to be left by erosion in such a situation 
and it is thought ignition of the coal scam or seams took place subsequent to 
the cycle of erosion which formed die mesa. 

Tins allowed oxygen to have access to the 83AXQ5 arouud the perimeler of 
the mesa. Following ignition of (he coal, cracking occurred in the overlying 
rocks, more oxygen was admitted to the coal v and gas, distilled off the coal 
ahead of the burning zone, began to pass up through the cracks to the surface 
of lire mesa. This woidd soon ignite at the surface and cause a forced draft up 
the larger cracks, drawing in more oxygen from the atmosphere and resulting 
10 better combustion and higher temperature. The process would be cumu- 
lative, self-sustaining and would eventually result in the formation of blast 
furnace conditions m one or more of the larger cracks, with argillite being fused 
up the cracks and at tbe surface. At the period of maximum combustion and 
emission of gas it is suggested that blobs or molten fused argillite were ejected 
tn form the oomb-Kke fragments. 

It seems probable that when the ignition occurred the mesa was not much 
larger than at present, certainly not having more than twice iis present surface 
area. Baking nf the argillite to a hard porcellanite type material would Assist in 
the preservation of the mesa by formation of a crust resistant to weathering. It 
soems probable that it owes its present shape to that cause. 

The likely mechanism of ignition would be spontaneous combustion after 
sudden exposure of the coal seam or seams at one or more points around the 
perimeter of the mesa by erosion following torrential rainfall. Burning of coal 
has been noted in America chiefly in areas subjected to rapid cutting of stream 
channels (Sherburne Rogers, 1917 t pp. 2-4). 

An alternative explanation would be that the coal seams ignited at a stage 
when the Triassic sediments were penepluined to a level approximately that 
of the present surface of the mesa and that the mesa owes its existence to th^ 
resistance of the hard-baked argillite. The coal seams coidd have still burnt ptit 
completely due to their synclinal basin structure. However, if this latter ex- 
planation were Correct, one would expect remnants of baked argillite, clinker 
una 1 pseudo-igneous material spread over a wider area than its present occur- 
rence. Tlie explanation also introduces difficulty in explaining tbe ignition of 
the coal, and on the whole the evidence favours the hypothesis of combustion 
in comparatively recent times when the mesa was not much different in shape 
and size than at present. 


The host-rock for intrusive members of die pseudo-volcanic series is a sili- 
ciCed, yet highly fossiliferuus argillite- This is often mottled in pink and grey, 
depending on the state of oxidation of thi- small amount of ferruginous matter 


present. Sometimes the pink areas can be related to. small fissures; these would 
cause oxidation, whether by atmospheric agency or by seepage of hot, oxidizing 
vapour. Microscopic examination of a thin section from this material reveals 
a mass of very fine, mainly kaolinitic clay which has been impregnated with 
secondary silica, giving a hard rock with a conchoidal fracture. There is a 
tendency for the clay mineral flakes to be orientated in parallel. The ground 
mass also contains traces of zircon, nitile : a chlorite and opaque matter, while 
Sporadic porphyroclasts of quartz coated with secondary silica occur as well as 
cavities lined with chalcedony. The chemical analysis of this rock is recorded 
in Table 1 ? column B. 

Pseudo-volcanic rocks include the following: 
Veinlcts intruded into the argillite. 
Extruded material resembling "ropy lava*. 
"Volcanic bombs". 
Massive vesicular material. 
Massive material .slightly to non-vesicular 

An example of the argillite with an intruded veinlet is shown in Fig. J. 
Xenoliths of the sediment can be seen floating in the intruded material. Fig, 2 
is. a photomicrograph of a thin section across the contact, showing the radial 
structure of white and black minerals in the veinlet as well as the concentration 
of opaque matter along the margin. 

A sample of material having the texture of ropy lava is shown in Fig. 3, and 
a chemical analysis is given in Table 1. column D. The rock contains pseudo- 
sphemh'tic grains 0-4-OS mm. across, each having a fine-grained centre sur- 
rounded by a slightly coarser margin. Rods of alpha-cristohalite. having a 
roughly radial orientation, are associated with opaque members of the spinel- 
magnetite family. A polished surface reveals three spinels, with differing reflec- 
tivities. X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the unit cell dimensions in nrder 
of abundance of die constituents were: 8-J9A'', S-35A\ 8-40A°. The first of 
these is slightly higher than hercynite (8-I4A°), and implies some substitution 
of ferric irun for aluminium in the octahedral positions of the lattice, since the 
chemical analysis shows no significant amount of any other elcmeut which enuld 
enter the spinel structure. The unusual cell dimension suggests a metastable 
variety arising by rapid cooling from a high temperature. This is confirmed by 
the presence of cristobalite, which does not normally form below 1470" C, 

Photomicrographs illustrating the textures of the thin and polished sections 
axe shown in Figs. 4 and 5. 

Some small rounded cobbles resembling volcanic bombs have been ob- 
tained (see Fig. 6). Under the microscope these were seen to possess a similar 
pseudivspheruhtic texture to that of the "ropy lava". A lower temperature uf 
tormution is indicated by the occurrence of "alpha-tridvmite instead of cristo- 
balite, os well as the formation of cordicrite in the more coarse, outer zones nf 
the spherical aggregates. This cordierite has refractive indices (1-56-1-58) cor- 
responding to die iron-bearing member of the series, and is pleochroic' from 
colourless to violet; the untie axial angle is negative and low. It also gives a 
slightly unusual X-ray diffraction pattern. Locally, this mineral has been pini- 
ttzed to a pale biotite. associated with chalcedony and silica glass. 

In Fig, 7 the texture of the material in thin section is portrayed. Fit*, 8 in 
taken from a polished surface, and shows two members of die spinel family 
Most of tlie grains appear to be composites of the two and would probably all 
be so if die grain were viewed in three dimensions; this suggests that unmi'xin* 
has taken place. The spinel and magnetite families probably form rmx-crvstuk 
at very high temperatures, and these separate into two pliases on cooling. ' Unit 



cell dimensions similar to the extreme members in the "ropy lava" were obtained 
from the X-ray diffraction pattern. 

Similar textures are found in the massive vesicular material. But in this 
case the cordierite has been completely altered to a pale biorite, while silica 
glass separates the tridymite from the opaque fraction. Many of the cavities 
are lined with chalcedony, geotliite, or linionite; the formation of these sub- 
stances, as well as the breakdown of the cordierite, was aided by the vesicular 
texture. Small amounts of zircon and rutile may point to a sedimentary origin 
for some of the material. A chemical analysis is given in Table 1, column C. 

Rocks containing only a few vesicles, or none at all, have been studied. The 
radial and "spherulitic" structures are absent and the individual crystals larger. 
Chemical analysis (Table 1, column E) of one containing a few vesicles gives a 
Si:Fe ratio approximating to fayalite. No fayalite has, however, been observed 
in the specimen, which consists of an irregular network of tridymite rods with 
interstitial opaque grains. The latter are mostly titaniferous magnetite, which 
is martitized to haematite in an irregular fashion. Every grain is criss-crossed 
with exsolution lamellae, believed to be of another spinel, forming along definite 
crystallograpnic directions in the magnetite, and persisting unaffected Jn the 
haematite. Some of the grains are partly free of these exsolution bodies, the 
clear portions being composed of spinel or titaniferous haematite. The features 
of these opaque grains are shown in Figs. 9 and 10. 

Iron-bearing chalcedony fills the interstices of the tridymite rods while some 
of the former vesicles now contain ferric oxide in various states of hydration. 
Fig. 11 is a photomicrograph of a thin section taken from this material. 

The other variety is non-vesicular and highly magnetic. Roughly polygonal 
grains of the various spinels already described are set in a siliceous matrix (sec 
Fig. 12). No chemical analysis has been obtained for this rock-type, but it 
certainly has lower silica and higher iron contents than any of the other species 




Highly vesicular 



Coal Ash l?i>m 


; spherulitic" 

"Ropy lava" 


lowf r seam 




09 14 


-52 -26 



Al a 6 3 


22 -OR 




P«0 J 






in> A 

12 3 





- &8 




I -72 






1 -44 



















TiO a 


! • 94 




K0 3 










■ 03 




D 03 




Loss on 



2 21 










The Chemical Analyses, (Analyst P. C. Hemingway) 


The first analysis given in Table 1 refers to the ash from a coal seam lower 
in the succession. Apart from somewhat higher magnesia, lime and sulphur 
u» the former* the coal ash and the argilUte are strikingly similar in composition. 
Proportion of alkalies in the latter are not given, but tie low lime and magnesia 
content is consistent with deposition in a freshwater and slightly acid environ- 
ment (Pettijohn,, 1956). The low percentage of iron is a significant feature, while 
the fiikh titunia content is not wholly explicable in terms of the mineral com- 

In column E the composition of the massive, slightly vesicular rock illus- 
trated in Figs, y-11 is given. This is consistent with the minerals present. Highly 
significant is the fact that l r e:Si ratio closely conforms to that of fayalite. 

Analyses of the highly vesicular rock described ahove, ns well as the "ropy 
lava" (Figs. 3-5) are shown in columns C and D respectively. 

It may he safely assumed that the "bombs" illustrated in Figs, 6-S have a 
kindred analysis. Columns C and D arc alike, and both arc intermediate in 
composition between A and E: in fact, a mixture of lli-2 parts of the argdlite 
with one of the "fuyalitic magna'" Mould give a rock with a similar analysis. The 
oolv component that does not conform is the magnesium — the high content of 
llu.> jn C and D may he related to the sulwequent development of biotite, 
although the source of this element is obscure. The rise in SJOs" content from 
the Srgiltjto to the ' fayalitie rock" may have some tearing on the genesis of 
this series, 

Conijhtrison with ihc \atwwl Clinker at Usfgh Creek 

Baker ( 1VJ53 ) has described four samples of clinker collected from tlte upper 
coal svam, lobe "I} M , in the Noith basin at the Leigh Creek coalfield. This 
includes light-and-durk coloured vesicular as well as non-vesicular types; he 
also mentions that (he associated shale has been baked and reddened in a similar 
manner to the argillite from the Springfield basin. Chemical analyses of the 
coal ash and of tlio various clinkers are quoted; there has been a significant and 
not unexpected fall in the proportion of soda, sulphui and chlorine from the 
former ro the latter, as well as a notable rise in lime and alumina. Chemically, 
the clinkers vary considerably amongst themselves only m their iron and silica 
contents (inversely) and in the amount of residual soda and sulphur. These 
facts are summarized in Tabic 2, columns F and G, in which the analyses are 
reproduced for purposes of comparison. It is obvious that this material is quite 
different from any of the specimens from the Springfield basin that have been 
analyzed. The high proportion of calcium and magnesium in the Leigh Creek 
clinkers would probably lead to a higher range of fusion temperatures, a motv 
.sensitive eqtulibriuin between liquid and solid, and a greater variety of minods^ 
including pyroxenes (titanaugite, fassaitc), plagioclase and gehlenite Baker 
quotes fusion temperatures for the ash between 1250° C. and 1300" C. under 
reducing conditions. Also the molten ash remained within, or close to, the 
seam, where locally the reducing atmosphere aided the formation of native frun 
and iron sulphides. 

in the Springfield basin the ash appears to have been practically free of 
the more refractory elements so thai a liquid of fayalitic composition was ob- 
tained at a temperature of about 1205 n C. ( Bowen aud Sclrairer, 193S; Barrel!, 

The subsequent behaviour of this liquid would depend pardy on the oxida- 
tion -('eduction potential and partly on the small amount of alumina present. 

The l^eigh Creek clinkers carry spinel, magnetite and haematite as do the 
fused rocks at Springfield. It scorns that the former, by remaining in site, became 


locally subject to more oxidizing conditions, as evidenced by the presence of 
haematite and magnetite. Exsolulton bodies of .spinel from magnetite (see 
Figs. 9-10) occurring along definite cryslalfographic directions are reported from 
both. The Xeigh Creek spinel would appear to be more magnesian, as would 
be expected from the composition of the mineral matter in the coal seam. 

Comparison with Overseas Occurrences 

Sherburne Rogers (1917) has discussed the factors conducive to spontaneous 
combustion of a coal seam, and describes the effect of this on strata overlying 
seams in various parts of Montana, U.S.A. The strata are silicified plant-bearing 
shales; near the seam they are red or mottled by baking, as at Springfield. 
Fusion has resulted in vitrified, glassy and recrystallised slags., die first some- 
times having a ropy lava texture and the second containing true sphemlites. 
Both these varieties are devoid of recognisable crystals. The recrystallised 
material from the sandy shale has diopside and labradoritc. Magnetite and 
ahnanditc also ocenr; the latter should change to hercynite, iron cordicrite and 
fayahle above 780° C. at normal pressures (Yoder, 1955) and this would be 
an unusually low temperature of crystallisation. When derived from aluminous 
shale, the slag has silUmanite, mrdierite and ? spinel. In the chimney above 
the coal seam is a mass of spinel and haematite, and it is suggested that icon is 
distilled from the seam as ferric chloride vapour. 

At Springfield, however, the ash from a lower seam is practically devoid 
of chlorine, and this element is not significantly enriched in the pseudo-volcanics 
as compared to the argillite; contrast the rise in the sulphur content. The 
chemical analyses of the two types of Montana clinker is shown in Table 2, 
columns H and 1, and the composition is intermediate between that of the 
Springfield and Leigh Creek coal ashes for most of the constituents. 

Fused shale from East Wyoming (Bastin, 1905) has oligoclase, pyroxene, 
cordierite, magnetite and haematite, while magnetite, cordierite, cpidote* plagio- 
clase. tridvmite and spinel are reported in similar rocks from the Boehmischen 
Mittelgebirge (Hibsch, 1908). 






SiO a 


25- S 






1M -6 



'20-* 50 

v**o t 

1 2 H 

12 3 



4 23 



3 1 








I Hi 






4 40 

Xtt a O 

10 12 











hJ§ - 





H.O + 



1 0-G 




1 -20 

1 i 

-I 0-05 













GO s 









-[ 0-8 





-h0 -2 


F Leigh Cr^nk tfgfJCtf Seam *'D" V Lobe Ash (Analyst T. TV. Dnlwood) 

O Leigh Ort*ak Clinker — Average and variance of four anfl|yf^K (Analyst <3. C. ('alio?) 

H Montana U.S.A. KeeryAtaNiRncJ from Karnly £hu-fe (An&lynt G. C. Carlos) 

f Montana U.»S,A t HccrystalJisetl from Aluminous Shale (Analyst 0* S. Kngerw) 

256 W JOHNSON and M. ). Bl'CKNEJX 


The spontaneous combustion of low-grade coal, whether at surface or in 
disused mines, is a well-known phenomenon occurring in various parts of the 
world. Ignition of surface exposures may arise where the surface gradient is 
steep, such as would arise horn a quick cutting stream (Sherburne Rogers, 
1917 ) or where the seam is capped by a fairly hard indurated rock us at Spring- 
field, Once the coal has ignited, it will burn away from the exposed face. As 
(he Springfield outlier has an elliptical shape the coal would have burned to- 
wards the centre, the overlying strata slumping down in the wake or the advanc- 
fog fire. Both low and high angle fissures were probably developed, the former 
acting as inlets for the air and the latter as chimneys for the combustion pro- 
ducts and distilled volatile cnmlitulents. Heat accumulated owing to the con- 
fined space and poor thermal conductivity of the coal and temperatures of 1200° 
C. or more were attained. 

Reducing conditions prevailed at the level of the coal seam, so that at about 
1205° C. a liquid of essentially fayalitic composition was produced. The source 
of the iron necessary for this liquid is obscure, since both the ash from a lower 
seam and also the argillite are very deficient in ibis element; possibly it came 
from ferruginous bands within the scam or immed lately above it. Coal scams 
always fire at or near the top (Sherburne Rogers, 1917), However, a liquid of 
fayalitic composition would melt out whatever the local SuFe ratio, and would 
dissolve the residual constituent only when the temperature was further elevated, 
Generally, however* it would be squeezed up into the chimney cracks by the 
pressure of the overlying strata, as a foaming liquid containing bubbles of dis- 
tillate (methane and other hydrocarbons, hydrogen), carbon mi>n<ivide > and pos- 
sibfv some hydrogen sulphide. In the upper hssnn-s the addition of air led tn 
further oxidation of the volatiles. Heat from this reaction raised the tempera- 
ture still further and enabled the liquid to dissolve up to twice its own weight of 
country rock. When distillation ceased this Mas not possible, so that the non- 
vesicular specimens are poor in dissolved silica* 

At the surface a temperature of more than 1470° C. was sometimes attained* 
so that on chilling cristobalite was formed. Sudden slumping of the overburden 
caused the liquid to sport up and be extruded in the form of rounded nodules 
or "ropy Fava\ The former may have been ejected from smaller fissures, where 
the high ratio of surface area to volume resulted in a higher heat loss and a 
lower maximum temperature, so that tridymitc instead of cristobalite was 

The change from reducing to oxidizing conditions affected the subsequent 
crystallization. Gnldscbrnidt (1954) suggests that an oxidizing potential would 
prevent the formation of fayalite, spinel and magnetite being produced instead. 

It has been calculated that the complete combustion of a foot of sub- 
bituminous coal would provide enough heat to raise the temperature of 100 feet 
of shale by -300° C Considerable beat loss would arise at the level of dio scam 
especially iu the initial stages as well as where the fused material was extruded. 
However, heat loss at the ends of narrow fissures would be small compared to 
that conducted out through the country rock. It therefore appears that enough 
heat would be evolved to bak<- and redden the argillite. This process would 
earn* on for some lime after the material in the fissures had solidified. 


The field evidence points to the basalt-like clinkers and other material uf 
igneous appearance being natural slags formed during combustion, of a coal 
seam under a small mesa in the triassic sediments of the Springfield Basin, The 


penological evidence supports this and indicates that the slags were formed 
by fusion of coal ash and argillite and modified by interaction between slag and 
unfuscd argillite. 

Combustion of the coal seam was complete due to its topographic situation, 
outcropping around the perimeter and some height above the base of the mesa. 
This probably also contributed to a rapid rate of burning and consequent rela- 
tive rapid rise in temperature of the rocks above the coal seam. 

Partial differentiation of the semi-fused cod ash by pressure from the 
superincumbent strata accounts for some of the peculiarities of composition of 
the natural slags. 


This paper is published by kind permission of the Director of Mines. 
Thanks are also due to Mr. L. W. Parkin for encouragement and helpful discus- 
sion during the writing of the paper. Chemical analyses and X-ray diffraction 
studies were made by P. C. Hemingway and A. E. Tynan, respectively, of the 
Research and Development Branch, Department of Mines. 


IUkek, G., 1953. Naturally fused coal ash from Leigh Creek. South Australia. Trans Rov 

Soc. S. Aust, 76, pp. 1-20. 
Barrett, E. P., 1945. The fusion, flow and clinkerin^ of coal ash— a survey of the chemical 

background. Chemistry of Coal Utilization (H. H. Lowry, Editor), chap. 15. (John 

Wiley & Sons.) 
Bastin, E. S., 1905. Note on baked clays and natural slags in eastern Wyoming. Tour. 

Geology, 13, pp. 408-412. * , J 

Bowen, N. C, and Sciiaiheh, J. F., 1938. Crystallisation equilibrium in nepheline-alhite- 

silica mixtures with fayalite. Jour, Geology, 46. pp. 397-411. 
Goldschmidt, Vi M,, 1954. Geochemistry, p. 65S (Clarendon Press). 
Hibscm, J. E., 1908. GeologischtJ Kartc oes boehmischen NlUtelgebirges: Min. pet Mitt., 27, 

pp. 35-40. 
PARKrM, L. W., et aj„, 1953. The Leigh Creek Coalfield, Bull. 31, Ceol. Surv. S. Aust. 
Pettijohn, F. J., 1956. Sedimentary Rocks, p. 360. (Harper and Bros.) 
Sherbubnk Hogers, G., 1917. Baked slag and shale formed by the burning of coal beds. 

United States Geological Survey, Professional Paper 108-A. 
Yoder, H. S., 1955. Crust of the earth. Geo). Soc. Amer. Memoir. 

|nn\ v <>\ \\p IUcknki i 

Plati I 

Johnson and Bl'ckmxl 

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by E. J. Waterhouse 
[Read 9 October 1958] 


A survey of the mosquitoes of Coonalpyn Downs during the period January 
to March, 1952, is reported. Twelve species have been collected either as larvae 
or as adults; three are recorded from South Australia for the first time. 

The relationship of the distribution and abundance of various species of 
adults to the type and frequency of breeding places has been investigated. 


The Australian Mutual Provident Society in 1949 initiated a land develop- 
ment scheme in the Upper South-East of South Australia. During January to 
early March, 1952, at the request of this Society, the author made a survey of 
the mosquito fauna on a portion of the Coonalpyn Downs in the area to be 
developed. The primary objectives were to determine the mosquito species 
occurring in the area, whether these could be vectors of myxomatosis in rabbits, 
and how the disease could be exploited. The area surveyed was approximately 
200 square miles. 

The present paper records some notes on the biology and distribution of 
the mosquitoes collected during this survey. Mosquitoes had not previously 
been collected from the area although Lines collected to the north-west and 
west during 1951-1956 (in preparation), Waterhouse in 1953-1954 made col- 
lections further north in the Murray Mallee in South Australia (in preparation), 
and Douglas collected in the north-west Mallee area in Victoria in 1955-1956 
(in preparation). 

Development of this land has been hindered by the low fertility of the soils 
and by problems of management. Settlement is now rapidly expanding, largely 
as a result of an increased knowledge of the fertilizer requirements of the soils 
and improved methods of clearing. Much of the area in this survey had not 
been cleared or settled. It was anticipated that an increase in the rabbit popu- 
lation following clearing might menace sown pastures. 


The topography, soils, vegetation and availability of water in the Coonalpyn 
Downs area surveyed have been described in detail by Taylor (1933), Coal- 
drake (1951), Blackburn et al (1953), and by Jackson and Litchfield (1954). 

The area is part of an extensive sandy plain between the South Australian 
coast and the Victorian border and is covered mainly by low shrubs, known col- 
lectively as heath, and by mallee-eucalypt rarely higher than 15 feet. 

The area is in the "warm temperate" zone of Davidson (1936) with a mean 
annual temperature of 55-60° F. and a growing season for pastures, as defined by 

* Wildlife Survey Section, C.S.I. R.O., Regional Pastoral Laboratory, Armidale, New 
South Wales. 

Trans. Boy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. 82. 



Trumble (1948), from May to November. The rainfall has been analysed by 
Coaldrake (1951), who indicates that the greatest local variations in the monthly 
totals occur in the summer months. Because of the porous nature of the soils, 
surface streams have not developed in the area, and surface waters are restricted 
to shallow swamps, excavated water-holes and dams, and shallow wells. 

Two approximately parallel ranges of sand-covered, limestone hills, the 
Stirling Range and the Black Range, 100-200 feet in altitude and running north- 
west to south-east, divide the area surveyed (see Fig. 1). 






















4 6 MILES 

Fig. 1. — Locality Map: Location of portion of Coonalpyn Downs in South Australia surveyed 
for mosquitoes — 1952. Key to Hundreds; C — Cannawigara. L — Laffer. M — Marcollat. 
P— Pendleton. PE— Pcthcrick. S— Stirling. SE— Senior. W— Willalooka. WI— Wirrega. 

The area south-west of the Black Range (referred to subsequently as Divi- 
sion 1) was relatively undeveloped at the time of the survey and is comprised 
largely of swampy flats. These flats are mostly very saline and carry either 
samphire (Salicornia spp., Arthrocnemum spp. ) in the wetter areas, or cutting- 


grass (Cladium spp. ) or red-gum (Eucalyptus camaldulensis) in those areas 
which are wet for only part of the year and are less saline than the samphire 
flats. In Division 1, during the period of the survey, most of the mosquito 
breeding-places were waterholes. Most swamps were dry; those which did con- 
tain water were relatively unproductive of mosquitoes. 

Between Black Range and the Stirling Range (referred to subsequently as 
Division 2) the area had been largely developed for agricultural purposes. The 
natural vegetation consists of heath ( Banksia spp., Casuarina spp., and Xanthor- 
rhoea spp.), mallee-heath associations (Eucalyptus incrassata) on well-drained 
soils, mallee-broom association (E. incrassata, Melaleuca uncinate) on the moder- 
ately drained soils, and mallee-tea-tree associations (Eucalyptus spp. and Mela- 
leuca spp. ) on the poorly drained soils which are liable to water-logging and are 
very saline. 

In Division 2 the potential mosquito breeding-places are of two types: (1) 
Shallow ground waters, which may be at the surface or down to 25 feet below 
the surface. These are saline, but provide the bulk of the mosquito breeding- 
places in the form of shallow wells and water-holes; (2) Much less saline waters 
pumped from 100 to 200 feet; these supply the stock-watering tanks and troughs, 
which are common. The latter potential mosquito breeding-places were of 
much less importance than those provided by the shallow ground waters. 

East of the Stirling Range (referred to subsequently as Division 3) the 
area covered by the survey was mainly undeveloped. The vegetation is a 
complex of rnallee-broom-bush association ( Eucalyptus incrassata, E, leptophylla- 
Melaleuca uncinata) and pink-gum (E. fasciculosa) . 

In this division die only source of permanent underground water is in the 
marine limestone 50 to 200 feet below the surface. The salinity of the water 
is high. Surface waters in the form of soakages, springs and dams are not 
common. Gilgai zones occupying the lowest or most poorly drained sites are 
extensive in the Hundred of Senior and extend westward into the Hundred of 
Cannawigara; small areas also occur in the Hundred of Pendleton. These gilgai 
areas probably provide breeding places for mosquitoes during wet seasons. 


Ten visits were made to Division 1 from 12.1.52 to 29.2.52. Eighteen water- 
holes, representing approximately a third of the estimated number within the 
Division, were examined for mosquito larvae. Most of these were inspected 
only once, three were visited twice, and two were visited on three dates, at 
approximately weekly intervals in February. Two shallow wells, one inspected 
twice, and one fresh-water rain tank, one small dam, and two swamps were also 
examined. Of the latter group, the swamps provide the major potential breeding 
areas for mosquitoes. Because this Division is relatively undeveloped, wells, 
tanks and dams were rare. 

During the same period, six visits were made to Division 2 where three 
waterholes, nine wells, five tanks, and eight troughs were examined for mos- 
quito larvae; these all received one visit each. Water-holes were not as frequent 
as in Division 1; the important breeding places were provided by shallow wells. 
Only a small proportion of the total potential breeding areas was visited. 

Four visits were made to Division 3 from 17.1.52 to 11.3.52. Nine water- 
holes or soakages (practically the total number in the Division), two of which 
were dry, seven wells, and two dams were examined. The wells comprised 
approximately half those present in the area; only two could be examined for 
mosquito larvae as the depth to the water surface in the others was over 100 feet. 


Mosquito larvae were sampled by dipping from surface pools and shallow 
wells, and from deeper wells by lowering a conical net which had a glass tube 
fitted at the bottom of the net. Individual larvae were reared where possible, the 
resulting adults pinned, and the corresponding larval and pupal sloughs and 
representative samples of larvae preserved in Pampel's fluid. Adult mosquitoes 
were collected in the field in a cyanide killing bottle as they came to man. 


Larval Mosquitoes 

Five species of mosquito were collected as larvae. These were: 

Anopheles (Myzomyia) annulipes Walker 

Aedes (Finlaya) notoscriptns (Skuse) 

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) camptorhynchus (Thomson) 

Culex (Culex) globocoxitus Dobrotworsky 

Culex (Culex) pipiens australicus Dobrotworsky and Drummond. 
Of these five, An. annulipes and C. globocoxitus were commonly found to- 
gether and were the most widespread. The latter were frequently more abun- 
dant (5 to 10 per dip) than An. annulipes (1 to 5 per dip). Although adults 
of Aedes alboannulatus were more abundant than other species of mosquitoes, 
the larvae were not found. 

Larval Habitats 

The main mosquito breeding-places during this survey were water-holes and 
shallow wells; 24 out of 28 water-holes, and 10 out of 15 shallow wells contained 
larvae. Two out of six tanks contained larvae; one of these was the only fresh- 
water rain tank with the top practically covered and it contained large numbers 
of A. notoscriptns larvae. The other was an open tank with a few C. globocoxitus 
larvae which were probably pumped into the tank with the water from a well. 
Four out of eight troughs examined contained larvae of C. globocoxitus, An. 
annulipes and C. pipiens australicus in that order of dominance and frequency; 
these four troughs were very dirty and were those with the ball-float covered so 
that a relatively sheltered situation was provided. The only species found in 
the shaded edges of the swamps examined, or in the small pools nearby, was An. 
annulipes in low numbers. No mosquito larvae were found in the eight dams 
examined; which all had relatively large expanses of exposed windswept water- 
surfaces with no emergent vegetation. 

The water in most of the breeding places ranged from non-saline to slightly 
saline as determined by tasting. 

Details of the main larval habitats are as follows: 

(a) Water-holes 
The water-holes were of two main types — natural surface pools, and holes 

excavated to expose the water table. The latter had three steep sides varying 
in height from 3 to 6 feet, and the water, which was up to 3 feet below the 
ground level, was directly available to stock on the fourth side. Thus the water 
surface along three sides was relatively well sheltered. The surface areas of 
these pools were rarely greater than 200 square feet. 

The larvae of C. globocoxitus and An. annulipes were frequently found to- 
gether. Neither species appeared to tolerate very saline conditions, but C. 
globocoxitus seemed to be more tolerant of moderately saline conditions than 
An. annulipes. A. camptorhynchus larvae were found only in very saline pools. 

(b) Wells 

Larvae were more common in wells in which the depth to die water surface 
was less than 12 feet. Larvae of C. globocoxitus were collected from wells in 


which the water surface was as much as 24 feet below ground level; larvae, prob- 
ably of the same species, but not specifically identified, were collected in the 
Hundred of Pendleton (Division 3) from a well in which the water surface 
was 80 feet below ground. C. globocoxittis occurred in both covered and un- 
covered wells. In contrast, An. annulipes was found only in wells in which the 
surface of the water was not more than 12 feet below ground level and was 
exposed to sunlight. These two species were occasionally found together, and 
one or the other species was nearly always found to be present in the wells. 
Few C. pipiens australicus larvae were found, either associated with these two 
species or alone. 

Few of the larvae which were collected from wells were reared to adults 
as they had a much higher mortality rate in rearing tubes than those which 
were collected from the sunlit water-holes. 

Adult Mosquitoes 

Eleven species of adult mosquitoes were collected. These were: 

Anopheles (Myzomtjia) annulipes Walker 

Anopheles (Anopheles) atratipes Skuse 

Aedes (Finlaya) alboannulahis (Macquart) 

Aedes (Finlaya) notoscriplus (Skuse) 

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) camptorhynchus (Thomson) 

Aedes (Ochlerotatus) sagax (Skuse) 

Aedes (Vseudoskusea) bancroftianus Edwards 

Aedes (Chaetocruiomyia) undescribed sp. 

Aedes (Macleaya) tremula (Theobald) 

Ctdex (Culex) globocoxittis Dobrotworsky 

Cidex (Culex) fatigans Wiedemann. 
Of these, An. atratipes, A. bancroftianus, and an undescribed species of 
Aedes (Chaetocruiomyia) were recorded for the first time from South Australia. 
Locality and date records for these species are as follows: 

Anopheles atratipes 

Hundred of Marcollat, Section 7, "Leder Swamp", 26.2.52. 

Aedes bancroftianus 

Hundred of Pendleton, Block H, 28.2.52. 

Aedes (Chaetocruiomyia) sp. (undescribed) 

Hundred of Senior, Section 42, 17.1.52; Section 36, 11.3.52; 

Hundred of Pendleton, Section 3, 28.2.52; 

Hundred of Petherick, Section 2, 23.2.52. 

Adult mosquitoes generally, as determined by their biting of man, were 
present in relatively low numbers. For those species present in sufficiently 
large numbers to enable comparisons to be made, it appeared that in Divisions 
1 and 2 A. alboannulatus was more abundant than An. annulipes. In Division 3 
these two species were equally common but were much less abundant than in 
Divisions 1 and 2. 

The only other adult mosquito which was at all widespread or abundant 
was A. (Chaetocruiomyia) sp. which was largely confined to Division 3. 


At the time of the survey, C. globocoxittis, An. annulipes, and A. alboannu- 
latus, either as larvae or adults, were widespread; these species occurred most 
frequently in Division 1 and least in Division 3. This is closely related to the 
relative availability of suitable breeding places in the three Divisions. Like- 


wise, A. camptorhynchus larvae and adults were found only in Division 1, the 
only one in which very saline pools occur. C. pipiens austraticus was found only 
in the non-saline and very slightly saline waters in Divisions 2 and 3. The wide- 
spread distribution of A. (Chaetocruiomyia) sp. in Division 3 suggests that its 
range probably extends further east and north into similar country in the "Big 
Desert" area in South Australia and Victoria. 


Preliminary identifications of the mosquitoes were made by Mr. F. N. Rat- 
cliffe, Officer-in-Charge, Wildlife Survey Section, C.S.I.R.O., and later were 
checked by Mr. N. V. Dobrotworsky, Zoology Department, Melbourne Univer- 
sity, Mr. D. J. Lee, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Sydney, and 
Dr. E. N. Marks, Zoology Department, University of Brisbane. 

The helpful suggestions of Mr. D. C. Swan, head of the Entomology De- 
partment, Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide University, and also 
the special facilities made available by this Department during the course of 
this survey are acknowledged. Special thanks are also due to Mr. David 
Kentish, formerly the Research Liaison Officer of the Land Development Scheme, 
A.M. P. Society, for his interest and help in the initial reconnaissance of the area. 
Permission granted by the A.M. P. Society to publish the material contained in 
this paper is acknowledged. 


Blackburn, G., Litchfield, W. H., Jackson, E. A., and Loveday, J., 1953. A survey of 
soils and land use in part of the Coonalpyn Downs, South Australia. C.S.I.R.O., Aust. 
Div. Soils, Soils Land Use Ser, No. 8. 

Coaldrake, J. E., 1951. — The climate, geology, soils and plant ecology of portion of the 
County of Buckingham (Ninety-Mile Plain), South Australia. C.S.I.R.O., Aust. Bull. 
No. 266. 

Davidson, J., 1936. — Climate in relation to insect ecology in Australia. Bioclimatic zones 
in Australia. Trans, and Proc. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 60, pp. 88-92. 

Jackson, E. A., and Litchfield, W. H., 1954. — Soils and land use of part of County Card- 
well, Coonalpyn Downs, South Australia. C.S.I.R.O., Aust, Div. Soils, Soils Land Use 
Ser. No. 14. 

Taylor, J. K., 1933. — A soil survey of the Hundreds of Laffer and Willalooka, South Aus- 
tralia. Counc. Sci. Industr. Res, Aust. Bull. No. 76. 

Trumble, H. C, 1948. — Rainfall, evaporation and drought frequency in South Australia. 
J. Agric. S. Aust., 52, pp. 55-64. 


by Madeline Angel 


A historical account of the parasitic trematode Plagiorchis maculosus (Rud.) since its description in 
1802 is given. An amended diagnosis of the species is given. It is recorded from South Australia 
from the birds Hirundo neoxena, Rhipidura leucophrys, R y flabellifera, Gymnorhina hypoleuca, and 
Pomatostomus superc'diosus. Two trematodes from Grallina cyanoleuca may also be Plagiorchis 
maculosus. To avoid confusion in taxonomy, it is urged that authors give full details of treatment 
and fixation of worms. It is also desirable to know the age of the worm, and the number of 
specimens examined. Given details such as these, it is possible to make allowance for characters 
which may be variable. Tables are given, showing measurements of P. maculosus recorded by 
different authors since Rudolphi; of other species which are discussed for synonymy; and of South 
Australian specimens which have been studied in the present investigation. A history of knowledge 
of the life history is followed by an account of the life history in South Australia, in P. m d o s u s 
from swallows, wagtails, babblers and, experimentally, chickens. A description of the various larval 
stages is given. The size of the stylet in the cercaria should not be used as a diagnostic character in 
this species. The synonymy is discussed. Plagiorchis clelandi, P. spatulatus, P. notubilis and P. 
orientalis are given as synonyms. It is suggested that examination of the types of Plagiorchis sp. 
from insectivorous birds, or animals which (normally or accidentally) ingest insects, may reduce the 
number of species still further. Plagiorchis russii is shown to be invalid, being a synonym of P. 
potanim. The three varieties, Plagiorchis muculosus anatis, P. maculosus citelli and P. maculosus 
motacitlae, are discussed. The variety citelli shows no differences from the typical form, and is 
made a synonym. If the large size of the testes is a uniform character, the variety anutis stands, with 
var. motacillae a synonym. 


by Madeline Angel* 

[Read 9 October 1958] 


A historical account of the parasitic nematode Phgiorchvi nt'tvulovus (Mud.) 
since its description ia 1802 is given. 

An amended diagnosis of the species is given. 

It is recorded from South Australia from the birds Hirundo uaoxetia, Rhiyi- 
tlura feucophrys, R, flabellifvra, Cymnorfuna hypoleuca, and Pomatostomus 
mpercilimit£. Two trematodes from Gntllirui cyanoleuca may also he Pla&iorchu 

To avoid confusion in taxonomy, it is urged that authors give.: full details 
of treatment and fixation of worms. It is also desirahle to know the ngc of the 
worm, and the number of siseeimens examined. Given details such as these, it 
is possible to make allowance for characters which myy he variable. 

Tables are given, showing measurements of P. mnctilamn recorded by 
different authors .since Kudolphi; of other species which are discussed for 
synonymy; and of South Australian specimens which have been studied in the 
present investigation. 

A history of knowledge of the life history is followed by an account of the 
life history in South Australia, in P. maculoms from swallows, wagtails, babblers 
»mdj e.\perj mentally, chickens. 

A description of the various larval stages is given. The size of the stylet 
in the eerearia should not be used as a diagnostic diameter in this species. 

The synonymy is discussed. Plagiorchis clelandi, P. spatuhtuit t P. natabllis 
and P. orienCalis are given as synonyms. It is suggested that examination of 
the types of Pfoxintchis sp. from insectivorous birds, or animals which ( norm- 
ally or accidentally) ingest insects, may reduce the number of species still 

Plagiorclm russii is shown to be invalid* being a synomm of /', pnVmlnl. 

The three varieties, PlagioTchus maculosus anatuw P. citctli and 
P. rttactilmvs motacilhw, are discussed, The variety citelli shows no differences 
from the typical form, and is made a synonym. If the large size of the testes 
is a uniform character, the variety atwtis stands, with var. motacilhe a synonym. 


In 1802, Rudolphi described Fasciola maculosa from the terminal part of the 
intestine of Hirundo rust'tca. He gave as synonyms Fasciola hirtindinis Froelich 
(1791) and Distoma hirwndinum Zedcr (1800), from the rectum of Hirundo 
apus and II. urbica respectively, mentioning that, though their descriptions 
differed in many respects, the worm itself was very variable. In 1809 (p, 374) 
he referred to it as Distoma maculosum, arid in 1819 (pp. 382-3) recorded it 
(by this name) from Capritnulgus europaeus. 

The species was recorded or listed by various authors in the following 
century, but it was not until 1902 that an adequate figure was published, by 
liraun, who assigned the species to the genus VhgiorcKis Ltihe (1899).f 

* Department of Zoology. University of Adelaide. - 

} On the same day that Lube's generic name, appeared, Looss published the name 
Lepodemia fur the same genus. Luhe did not name the genotype till latex, and it would 
seem that Lepodvrma should have had priority. However, relatively few workers have used 
the name since that time, aud Plagiorchis seems now commonly accepted, although Dollfus 
in 1949, referring to fanuly Lepoderrnatidae, gave Plagiovchidae as a synonym. 

Tranu, R oy . Sue. S. Aust. <1959), Vol. 82, 

204 L. M. ANCFX 

Braun examined fludniplus specimens, which he staled had deteriorated 
over the years, so that the .species could not be sufficiently described from these 
specimens alone, However", they corresponded with similarly named examples 
from the Vienna, Munich ami Xonigsberg collections. He gave figures of the 
dorsal and ventral view of a specimen from Hirundo rustica from Konigsbcrg. 
From the magnification given the worm would be 2*7 X 0'8 mm. Braim gave 
no real description of the species, but he referred to the variability in the size 
fl} the suckers (even among animals of the same size) and in the arrangement 
of tluft yolk glands. 

Jtj 1909, Liihe gave a key and a description of 6 species of Plaaiordm. An 
this was the first real de*e/ijUion of P. maatfasus to be published, a translation 

is giVCH here: — 

Ahout 2-0-2-3 juni. lonjs; 0-5-0*7 xjht|, wiata (jVflJ in croBS-set-'tion, Qr.u sucker about 
2-6-3 mm. Ventral snekvr oppToxiniiitt^lv at end of fifSt third of hodv IesnguSj fltoant 0*15- 
0-2H mm. in diiuueter. Phurvnx smolfer. »*d ovi-ry usually somwlmf itti&Dpt- than the 
vtntral Sucker: Yolk glands lateral, ovtondmy from the plmryitv to the hind end of iho houy;. 
nuly at the hiurl end' spa-adintf out to moot <m fit*; dovsnl surtace. 1'isicfi cootpnrirnvcly 
Urge, spherical, occupying about the third quarter of the body I&ngfc Uterus hchuid Icsta 
fnitmng no clearly dcfinnl loops. 

Bruun's fitnire and Lube's diagnosis seem to have formed (he basis ot sub- 
sequent identifications. Table II lists the measurements recorded tor P. 
maculaws from muny hosts since Lubes time. 

In J#S9 Massino gatts <i kpy to 24 species of the genus. This was ln«.>ed 
primarily on the position of Ihc testes and secondarily on the relative sizes of 
OVftrV in id testes. , 

Itt 103i ( Schulz and Skorzow proposed two subgenera for rlagwrchis, 
namely, Pfagiorchiv and iSlitlti&lctruhtku% according to whether the yolk glands 
do not meefin front of the ventral sucker, or join to form a marked commissure. 
Mogiorcltis nuwulosus was placed in the subgenus Plagiorchis 

in 1937 Olsen published a study of the Pia<a~orchiinae, which included a 
key to the subgenera and species of Plagiorchis. There were 43 species and 2 
suospeeies. {Olsen also listed 4 species the descriptions of which were not 
available to him.) It would seem that many of the characters given in Olson's 
key arc subject to a gOGcJ deal of variation within any one species, and the key 
is, tliercfore, not very satisfactory. In 1932 Schulz had expressed the opinion 
that 8 critical revision of the whole genus was; necessary; Plagiorchis contained 
Mime -vO species from various orders ot vertebrates, but specimens showed great 
variability, and a much-needed revision might reduce the number of species to 
15 or 20. Other authors have shared Schulz's opinion of the desirability of a 
revision of the genus, but so far this has not been made. 

There are now some 80 described species of Plagiorchis, and the number 
seems likely to grow unless authors will appreciate the necessity of allowing for 
some considerable amount of variation of characters within a species, whether 
due to differences in age, fixation or treatment, etc> and for the possibility that 
some species may occur in fi more or less wide range of hosts. 

Ulmcr (1^52): iu a critique of methods for the measurement of parasitic 
worms, thought I hat much of the present-day confusion in taxonomic studies 
might be avoided it authors would state, as far as possible, the age of the worms, 
whether specimens had previously been Battened., and what fixatives were em- 
ployed. Cover glass pressure, may cause marked changes, not only in lx>dy 
size, but also in the shape and relationship of non-muscular mgans, such as the 
genitalia, which are often of taxonomic importance. 

Cilford (1955) examined 300 specimens of AUussogonoporus mur^inaiis, 
mid reported that the relative positions of internal structures of the worm change 


during growth. Flattening during preparation for staining also will alter size, 
shape and position of these structures. 

Cat lot (1046) gave measurements for a living specimen of Lepodertna nuicu- 
lo&tim (, and for the same specimen, fixed. These figures are shown in 
Table 2. It will he noticed that though the size of tho brail sucker remained 
unchanged, the ventral sucker was smaller in fixed than in living material. The 
pharynx, too, 140 X 75 /j. living, was only 75 X 50 a fixed. 

One of the characters Olsen used in his key was the position of the oral 
sucker, which, according to the key, is sub-terminal in Plagiorchis nmcu1o$ns. 
In hi* description, Rudolph! stated that the mouth aperture was terminal. 
Among 14 specimens collected from 7 swallows from Wellington, S, Aust, in 
March 1956, most showed the oral sucker terminal, but in at least one it was 
sub-terminal. It is clear from an examination of such a series, as well as of 
Jiving animals, that the apparent position of the oral sucker may depend OS the 
position and state of contraction of the animal at the time- of fixation. 

Again, too much stress should not be placed on the relative sizes of (lie 
organs (oral and ventral suckers, pharynx, ovary and testes) and of their posi- 
tions in the body. Descriptions oi trernatodes have often been given from one. 
or very few, specimens, and the condition of the animal (whether living, com- 
pressed, etc.) is seldom stated. 

The absentee of a icceptaculum seminis was given by Ltihe (1909) as one 
nf the characters of the genus Plagiorchis. Olsen (1937) put P- noblei Park, 
1936 into a new genus (Plagiorehoides) , on the grounds that it had a recepta- 
culum seminis, and in the same year, for this and other reasons, tVichia trans- 
ferred it to N eolepoderma n.g. In 1939, Paik suggested that it the possession 
nf a seminal receptacle is to be a generic character the study of serial sections is 
absolutely necessary for diagnosis. In 1943* Baer (p. 43) stated that the presence 
of a seminal receptacle was typical of the genus Plagiorchis; this was quoted 
by Dollfus (1949, p. 437) without comment- 

Yamagutt (1954) recorded P. maculo&us from single specimens* from 
Sturnia philippirumsis and Passer jnonfatuts from Macassar The specimen from 
the first host was examined as a mounted specimen; there was a prepharynx and 
a small receptaculum seminis, which suggests that the identification is doubtful 
On the other hand, the excretory system was studied in the second specimen. 
living. The excretory formula was given as 2J (2 + 2) -f* (2 + 2)} — 16, If all 
the name cells were observed, the specimen could not belong to Plagiorchvi, 
in which the flame cell pattern is 2{ (3 + 3 + 3) + (3 + 3 + 3) | (McMullcni 
1937). However, flame cells are not easily seen, and with only one trematodc 
to study, it is probable that some were missed. 

The rjresence or absence of a receptaculum seminis seems thus to be a 
character of doubtful value- Without good serial sections, it would seem unwise 
to be dogmatic on Its presence or absence in Plagiorchis species. It was net 
observed in the present investigation, although serial sections of two specimens 
(from swallow and wagtail) were studied. 

The shape erf the cirrus has been made a descriptive character, especially 
to. the earlier accounts. Examination of a number of specimens of P. fltJUilteltf 
in the present investigation suggests that its apparent shape and size are variable, 
probably depending largely on the state of contraction of the animal, and the 
extent to which the cirrus is extruded. Fig. 1 shows a relatively broad cirrus, 
not greatly elongated; in most specimens in which it was everted, it was very 
narrow, One specimen (from a chick) showed the narrow cirrus projecting a 

268 L M. ANCKL 

diNtiujte of 245 p from the genital pore; in another (from a swallow), self- 
fertilization was observed, the cirrus being inserted well into the inctratcrm. 

From records of Plagiorehis maculosus (details of which appear in the fore- 
going pages and in the tables) and from observations recorded in the pje>^nc 
paper, the following amended diagnosis has been compiled:— 

Flagiowhis maculosus (Rud.) 

Diagnosis— Mainly in Insectivorous birds; also occasionally in other birds 
and in mammals. Snail host a lymnaeid; second intermediate host an insect 
with an aquatic larva. 

Just under 1 ram.-* mm. long; 0-4-1 25 mm. wide. Suckers about the same 
size, Or oral sucker slightly larger than acetabulum. Acetabulum at end of first 
third of body length, or further caudad; well behind intestinal bifurcation Pre- 
pharynx, if present, very short Oesophagus present in cercaria; very short or 
apparently absent in adult, intestinal caeca extend to near posterior end of 
body; wide, though not necessarily fixed in this position. Ovary smaller than 
acetabulum, or nearly equal to it; smaller than testes. Vitcllaria extend 
anteriorly and laterally between pharynx and anterior border of acetabulum; 
posteriorly they extend to hind end of body, and fields may remain separate 
or may become confluent in mid-line. 

The name tnaadosns wav evidently giv«*n by Rnclnlphi for the testes and 
ovary— two or three "light spots " behind the ventrai suckers which were especially 
characteristic for this worm Other authors have attributed the name to the 
spi nation of the lore part ot the body, and even to "the diffuse grannies whirh 
remain from the eyes of the eerearia'. 

This nematode is now identified from South Australia from the swallow 
( Hirundo ncoxt<iur) } the willy wagtail (Rhipidum Ictwophrys) , the grey fanbul ( R, 
flabellifcra), the magpie (Cymnorltina Jnipoleuca) and the white-browed babbler 
{Potnato.stornus SHperciliusus). Measurements of the parasite from these hosts 
and from two chickens infected experimentally are given in Table 1. This table 
also includes measurements of Hvo specimens of Pluguirc.hix from the Murray 
magpie (Urallina ajanolctica). It is considered probable diat they are Ffa&i* 
orchis niftnd<tstjs\ but one specimen was not well preserved and does not look 
quite typical, and the other showed the ovary relatively larger than in specimens 
from other hosts. Jo die absence oi further specimens from this host it is per- 
haps safer to identify these two trematodes as Plagiorchis sp. 

Most of the specimens from Pomatostomus mpercUtosus did not resemble the 
typieal Phigiorckts maculosttx at fiust sight. They had been fixed, when alive, with- 
out any pressure; they were relatively short and stout, the anterior sticker was 
always subtcrminal. and the two suckers appeared to be placed close together, 
due to the curvature of the body. The skin was wrinkled and rather dark. In spite 
of this apparent dissimilarity it was not possible to name any essential differ- 
ences, and sizes of organs conformed to the pattern of P. mactdavus from other 


Fig.s 1-10. Flagwrchte -rmfCtllmm, Figs. L, 3, 4. Adults from swallow (March. 1956,'; 
N3. — Variations in extent oi vitcllaria anteriorly, position of testes, oral sucker, etc.; L #td»ne<t 
alum carmine- Fi^- 2, T.S. Adult from wagtail, through genital pone. Figv $Jft a AdnJU tit)&\ 
babbler, ft-8 fixed alive, uncompressed; 5, fixed after death. Fig. 9, Crrurriit; .fixed spi.-viui'-n. 
povtiou of fiomo {haw: OelU shown r Fig", 10 ? Stylet, 

Fig. 4 is to the same? scale at Fig. 3. Figs. 6, 7, 8 arc In ihv same scalu ub Fly.. T> 
b, bladder; B, clous; e, excretory canal; gp., genital pore; i. intestine: met. t metrutrrtm 
m.g., Mehlis* gland; yd., yolk duct; yg., yolk glands; yr M yo|V re*ervi>if 



270 L. M ANGEL 

hosts, although the distances between organs was generally reduced owing to the 
contracted state of the specimens. A few of the trcmatocles from the same col- 
lection had beea fixed after death £Fig. 5); they were extended, were not dark 
in appearance, and wore much more like P itutculosits from other hosts. 

Of 8 specimens obtained experimentally from clucks, 4 were dissected when 
alive to obtain the eggs, so that measurements of onlv 4 aie given The suckers 
of die dissected specimens were measured in formalin and are included in tin? 


\a* early as the 1850's diere were suggestion* concerning the life history of 
Divtomum macalostw. Fitippi's Cercaria virgula (named in 1837), the sporo- 
cysts of which were found in Valvata piscimlis and Poludina Itnpura, and which 
encysted in pcrlids and some other aquatic insect larvae, was suggested as the 
larva of Dlslomum mtwnhmmi. Filippi and Diesing both referred to tins. 1 
have not had access to all of Filippi s papers, but. iu 1901 von Linstow men- 
tioned that Filippi (1857) assumed, and probably rightly., that D, mnculosum 
was the adult of these larval forms. Diesing ( 185S) stated that whether Cercarm 
tjlfgula was the true larva of Distomum macutosum was still sub judiee. 

Thcsc^ two molluscs belong to different families, neither of which is closely 
related to the Lymnaeidae. The more recent work of Noller and Ullrich (1927), 
Strunzke (1952)* and the present investigation lias shown a lymnaeid to be the 
snail intermediary for Phtgiorchis maculoms. !t seems likely that Filippi was 
identifying two different ccrcariae in his CermrUt vir&tln, and that neither ot 
them was the cercaria of Plagiorchis maculostts. 

Von Linstow described thick-walled, oval cysts in the neuiopteian, Drusus 
Infichts. The contained mctacercaria agreed so closely with Distomum macu- 
hsum that he considered it belonged to this species. He gave a figure of the 
moracercaria which showed ovary, testes and cirrus, but no uterus. The figure 
certainly suggests PUi&iorchis y hut from the description of the cyst, as well as 
its size, it seems unlikely that the species is maculosa. 

Noller and Ullrich (1927) reported that a xiphidioccrcaria of the "Armata" 
group, from fAmnaca stagnaliw encysted in chironomid larvae. After adult and 
larval ehironomids had been fed to canaries, finches and other small birds, trcma- 
todes identified as Plagiorchis maculosus were recovered. (35 mature trema- 
todes were found in a canary on the 9th day.) Photographs of the various 
stages were given; though these do not show much detail, there is no reason 
(of appearance or size) to doubt that P. mactdosm was the trematode involved 
Although 7-week-old ducks were fed many larvae on successive days, none he- 
came infected. Noller and Ullrich did not give a description of the sporocyst 
and cercaria, which they hoped to do later. 

Shen/ke (1952) gave an account of the life history and a description o( the 
various stages of P, maculosus in Holstein. Sporocysts occurred in the mid-gut 
of Radix (wrwularia, the cyst was found as a natural occurrence in the larvae of 
Chironomua thumrm and Psectrotanijpus varius, and experimentally in larvae of 
the midge, Chaohorus crystallinm, arid Culex pipiens. Two specimens uf Aide- vunians were infected (with 85 and £62 trematndes respectively) by 
feeding with infected ehironomids. 

Experiments in South Australia 

On 5di March, 1955, 2 of 55 Li/mnaea tensor*} collected at Manmim (River 
Murray) were found to be infecrcd with a small xiphidioceream. One of these 
snails was used for tie following work. 


The cercariae were found to encyst in mosquito larvae. From 8/3/55 the 
cercariae were* put in small dishes each day with a batch of mosquito larvae. 
As the larvae and pupae died, or til* adult mosquitoes hatched, they were led 
to voting chickens. Two of these chickens were later found to be infected with 
udult trcmatodes which were identified as Flagiorchis mactdosus, and three were 
uninfected.* Most of the larvae could have contained several cysts, and some 
of them possibly many. The attempted infection?, of these five chickens may be 
summarised as follows; — 

( 1 ) Fed with 50 larvae; died 12 days after first, and 5 days aftex last larvae 
fed. \o trcmatodes recovered, 

(2) Fed with 81 larvae, etc.; killed 49 days after first and 40 days after Inst 
larvae fed. No trcmatodes recovered. 

(3) Fed with about 250 larvae, etc.; lulled 40 days after first and 25 days 
alter last larvae fed. No tremntndes recovered. 

(4) Fed with 227 larvae, etc.; died 13 days after the first and 3 days after 
last larvae fed. Six adult trcmatodes recovered. 

(5) Fed with 216 larvae, etc.; killed 21 days after the first and 14 days after 
last larvae fed. Two adult trcmatodc-.s recovered. 

The results from chicks (1) and (5) show that the tremaludes had reached 
maturity- within 33 days, and possibly less, after the cysts WW© invested. 
(Stroiizkc fed finches with infected larvae and found trematode eggs in the 
faeces 7 days later In one finch he recovered 85 trematnde,\, and in the second 
262 specimens; the birds died as a result of the- infection.) 

The foregoing results suggest that chicks, not being the natural definitive 
host of V. maculosus 7 do not become infected unless given a massive dose of the 
cysts or that the infections arc Jost early. 

The six PkgiOrchh maculo&tx from chick (1) were left in saline from 
4-8/4/55, and the eggs laid, with those dissected from three of the trcmatodes, 
were kept for a further seven days in boiled water, which was changed daily. 
No miraeidia were seen during this time. On 15/4/55 the dish containing the 
egg* was put in a small infection tank with 12 young Jaboratory-raised l.ijmnaea 
lessoni, One snail was eompletelv disintegrated when found* 32 days later. Of 
the remaining snails, 10 died, in '39, 42, 43, 45. 48. 48, 19, 53, 53 and 55 days. 
Spuroeysts were found in all, tailed cercariae being present in those which died 
jr) 43, 48, 49, 53 and 53 days, The twelfth snail was isolated, for the first time, 
56 days after it had been placed in contact with the eggs, and was found to be 
emitting cercariae; it died 8 days later. 

Eggs from the two Pla^fdhts maeufaws From chick (5) were left at room 
temperature for 17 days before being placed with 9 young Lijmnaea lessoni It 
is not known whether the eggs were still \iable, The snails died from 42 to 132 
days afterwards, and none was infected. 

Mosquito larvae were infected with cermrtue from the infected snail. Only 
about 50 infected larvae were available to feed to two chicks when the snail 
died; the chicks were killed 7 weeks later, but were not infected- 
Life history studies were also carried out with Plagiorvhis rnaculosus from 
swallows, wagtails and babblers. 

Eggs laid in normal saline were collected, and others went? dissected from 
the adult trcmatodes. The eggs were kept in boiled water at room temperature 
during the week, and were examined daily when the water was cliangecL Over 
week-ends they were kept at 4 C. 

* Rees (1952, p. 93; noted that a mouuU'd specimen of P. (P.) fjwvuloituii (from a 
turlrey) in the Natural History Museum sho*wd no diffcronoos from tin* sn\mc specie* twovctmI 
from the normal bird host*. 


Lymnaea lessoni reared in the laboratory were used. Dead snails were dis- 
sected under binocular microscope. Results arc summarised below; the result 
"apparently negative" means that larval stages were not seen. (Records of 
deaths of snails which were too disintegrated for examination are not given ) 

Pomatostomus superciliosus 

Eggs laid 1-3/3/56; dissected 7/3/56; put with snails 9/3/56. 

One snail apparently negative in 14 days. 

Four snails had sporoeysts, but no free cercariae., al 27, 33, 34 and 3D days. 

Hirundo neoxena 

Eggs dissected from 4 trematodes 14/3/56; put with 12 snails 22/3/56, 
Three snails apparently negative when they died in 15, 21 and 21 days, 
1 snail had sporoeysts at 21 days. 

One snail had numerous sporoeysts and a few motile cercariae at 39 days. 
One snail emitted cercariae when tested at 40 days- ( It had not done so 
when previously isolated at 26 days.) Died at 43 days. 

Rhipidura leucophrys 

RJggS dissected from 6 trematodes 15/3/57: and from 2 trematodes 18/3/57; 
put with snails 22/3/57. 

Three snails were dead and apparently negative at 17, 24 and 36 days. 

Remaining 7 snails all gave abundant cercariae when first isolated at 45 
days. (These snails died at 45, 46, 47, 43, 50., 69 and 73 days.) 

The above results show that the shortest time observed for the production 
of cercariae was 39 days (in L< les.wni subjected to infection in March), and 
it seems probable that this was not much longer than the actual time taken for 
infections at this time of year, 

Snails other than Lymnaea lessoni have also been used in experiments on 
a number of occasions. In the earlier experiments the trematode eggs were put 
with the snails witiiin a day of being dissected from the trematode; although 
all results were negative, this cannot be regarded as significant, in the absence 
oi L. lesscmi, since it is probable that the eggs would not be infective for several 
days after being laid or removed from the adult. However, in March l956 r S 
Amerianna sp. did not become infected in 21, 25, 28, 36 and 64 (4) days, in the 
same tank in which 3 Lymnaea lessoni were infected with Plagiorchis maculosus 
from the swallow; and an the same month, 4 Amerianna sp. were uninfected after 
56 and 62 (3) days, in the same tank in which 4 Lymnaea k'ssvni showed sporo- 
eysts as early as 27 days. 


The Egg and Miracidhtm 

The eggs averaged about 30 p X 19 /x, but the length varied from 29-31-5 ^, 
and the breadth from 17-20 /*. 

There is no evidence as to the hatching of a miracidium. If there is a 
free-swimming miracidiuiri, the experiments suggest that hatching does nut 
occur earlier than 7 days alter the egg is laid. Strenzke did not find a mira- 
cidium. It seems probable that hatching follows ingestion of the eggs by the 
snail host. 

It was not possible to make out any detail in viable eggs under ordinary 
high power, though the miracidium was seen to move within the shell several 
days after the eggs were laid. 

tLACI ORCHIS MAC* » U iS [ )$ T* S 

The SporocyU 

The sporocysts were small and contained only a small number of cercariac. 
They corresponded in appearance with that shown in Strenzke's photograph. 
Formaliuised specimens measured up to OS X 0-14 mm, in snads infected 46 
davs previously; while in snails infected 39 days previously the largest sporoeyst 
observed was • 54 >: • 14 mm - Strenzke's figures were • 7-1 • mm. X ■ 20-0 * 25 
nun.; his measurements were probably of living material and in newly killed 
snails. In the present Investigation sporocysts wexe not examined until the sna»l 
was found dead, and under these circumstances most of the eemuiae have 
escaped from (he sporoeyst. leaving it thinner in appearance. As shown by the 
dimensions above, the size is probably also dependent to some extent on age. 

The Ccrcaria 

The cercuia has been found as a natural infection of Ltjmnam lessoni from 
the River Murray swamps, from Wellington to Morgan, in 73 of over 8000 of 
the snails examined between April 1937 and March 1935 (0-85 per cent, infec- 
tion). It has also been found in a small pond in a garden at Tailem Bend in 
37 of 1700 h. leswni since 1943 (3-3 per cent.) 

The cercariac emerged normally in the early morning (before 9.30 a.m.). 
Their activity diminished noticeably during the morning, and by afternoon only 
a few were still swimming; the remainder were still alive, but lying at the 
button* ol the tube. About 4 pan. some cercariae were put at 5° C, and 24 
horns later, when brought out to room temperature., they swam quite actively. 

Measurements of cercariac collected at different times from naturally in- 
fected individual L. leswni t as well as from L. te^soiu winch had been experi- 
mentally infected with eggs from different bird hosts, are given in Tabic 3, They 
were fixed by adding an equal volume of boiling 10 per cent, formalin to the 
water in which they were swimming. It will be noticed that there is a slight 
variation in size range for the cercariac from individual hosts. This j* regarded 
as being of no significance, considering the number of variable factors involved. 
The cercariae were deliberately chosen for measurement from those which liad 
been fixed in the must extended position. The time ol day at which they are 
killed is likely also to affect the state, whether extended or otherwise. 

Strenzke gave the following measurements for cercariac "killed by slight 
heating". Length 250-300 f x: breadth 120- M0 f r, diameter of oral sucker 00 j», 
ventral sucker 36 fti 

The size of the stylet in this particular cercaria is somewhat variable. The 
stylet is also rather fragile in formalin, and splits lengthwise under even moderate 
pressure of a coverslip. Tt was difficult with almost all the formaliniscd materia] 
tu find an adequate number of stylets which were in good condition and also in a 
suitable position to be measured accnrately. The actual range for length of 
foimalinised stylets was 21 5-34- H ^,* in the comparatively small tiumbej mea- 
sured, while Cor living specimens it was 24-3-28*9 ju* in all cases measurements 
<m stvlets of livu*s» eereariae were greater (by 1-2-3-8 p) than on stylets of 
formaliinscd cercariae from the same snail. Strenzke gave a measurement of 
25-27 /t. and this would probably be the normal range in uur material, though 
larger and smaller specimens do occur. Precise length of stylet should not be 
used as a diagnostic character for Ptagiorchis maculosvs- 

The stylet is shapely, 6-7 p across the shoulders, the main stem being of 
fairly uniform diameter except near die base, where it increases slightly, being 
about 4-1-4*5 ;/.. The base itself is rounded and has n o plug. 

* In 1951 we reported (Johnston and AngnL 19nl. p. 34) thiit the only lummon xiphidw- 
cet curia found by us in TAtmnaea Lewnm wan a form Willi stylet 24 a iWVg ThU is tlte co/eaun 
nctw identified as the larva of Pla^iotcim mavalosus. 

274 L. M. ANGEL 

Tiit* whole surface of the hodv is beset with rows of tiny spines. The aceta- 
bulum is situated in the posterior half of the body. 

There is an obvious pharynx, but the rest of the alimentary system is not 
easily seen. Sometimes there appeared to be a slight prcpharynx; if this is 
indeed present (and not an artefact), it is, as was noted for tnc adult, very 
short. There is a short oesophagus; this, and the alimentary caeca, were very 
narrow when seen at all. 

The excretory svstem is very difficult to elucidate. Treatment with intra 
vitam stains such as feasic fuchsin in saline, improved it only slightly. The gland 
and cystogenous cells which occur throughout the body are sometimes ex- 
tiemely opaque and murky in appearance, and it is impossible to sec through 
them. The bladder itself can generally be seen quite clearly. It is Y-shaped, 
and in life is continually changing shap?; the upper part of the stem sometimes 
contracts so strongly thiit the bladder appears to consist of two parts, the pos- 
terior one rounded, the anterior one with short, wide arms in the form of a V. 
McMullcn (1937) showed the main excretory vessels arising from the tips of the 
arms of the bladder for Phtgiorchis spp. Jn the material examined here it was 
almost impossible to come to a decision. At one time the vessels would appear 
to arise terminally* at another it would seem equally certain that thev were 
sub-terminal. It was pointed out for F. jaenschi (Johnston and Angel,' 195)) 
Mint the twisting of the main and accessory tubes, widi other factors, made the 
supposed point of entry of the main vessels into the bladder a matter to be 
legarded with some reserve. The anterior and posterior collecting vessels 
diverge from the main excretory tube at a point level with the middle of the 
acetabulum, but, of course, lateral to it. Beyond this, little detail of the excre- 
tory system was seen, with the exception of odd flame cells, as shown in Fig. 9. 
EefracHle granules are scattered throughout the body. Thev arc not abundant 
as in some cercariae; the size is variable, some being very small. The gland 
cells occur in about 3 rows from just anterior to the acetabulum to midway 
between it and the pharynx. Laterally, and also posteriorly to the acetabulum, 
the body is filled with cells which stairi with neutral red and faintly with methy- 
lene blue. They may be only eystogenous cells, but if this is so it seems strange 
that the anterior pairt of the body is quite free of them. These cells stain a 
uniform pale pink with neutral red, some of the nuclei showing a bright red. 
Without .stain the cells appear greenish, finely granular, with clear nuclei. In 
the more darkly stained specimens the bladder shows up clearly as an unstained 

The ducts of the gland cells, which showed only in the pn>acetabular 
icgion, were greenish, finely granular, and seemed to be only about three in 
number on each side 

The genital primmdium shows after staining with neutral red as a tna*ts 
of small undifferentiated cells in the region of the future cirrus complex. 

The Cyst 

Cercariae encysted readily in mosquito larvae. 

Th^ cysts were found most commonly in the head and the abdomen, ami 
a few were found in the thorax. In the pupa it was difficult to determine the 
exact site of infection. One larvae which was examined after 18 hours with the 
host snail contained 117 cysts— 29 in the head, 3 in the thorax, and 85 in the 

The cysts resembled those figured by Nollcr and Ullrich I 1927) and photo- 
graphed by Strenzke (1952). 


They were small, rounded and fairly thin-wallcd; the dark concretions in 
ihe excretory Madder were a regular and characteristic feature. The bladder 
showed through the cyst wall as a very dark Y or V shape, in which the arms 
and tail stem were short and stout. 

Cysts one day old measured about 90-105 p x 90-98 u» and three cysts of 
20 days old (which were die largest of alnmt 80 measured) were 106-130 >* X 
106-113 fit The average size or &) cysts, most of which were from 1-6 days old, 
was 106-100 jx. 

Strcnzkc recorded the cysts as heing usually round, seldom oval; an average 
of 100 cystt 128 /* hi diameter, the range 102-150 fa 

The cyst described by von Linstow which was mentioned previously h\ this 
paper, was thick-walled, oval and measured 440 x 300 jh As stated above, tliis 
w.\s probably another species of Pldgiorchis, According to von Linstow, FJlippi 
gave the cyst diameter as 190 p. 

The natural secondary bo«t is probablv a chirouoinid, though no doubt 
the cercaria sometimes utilizes mosquito and other insect larvae- under natural 
conditions. Chironomid larvae were not available in the laboratory at any of 
the times that infections were being tried. 

Animals used in tttfcl infections, from none of which were cysts recovered, 
were the crustaceans. Daphnia sp., shrimp (Pamtya, yabbie 
{Chcrax destructor), amphipod (Chiltama .subtcJiuis); the molluscs henamcria 
sp., Planorbh- isin^i. Lyimuica IcssonU 2 leeches; the fish Gamhusitt affinis, and 
tadpoles (Limnoaynashis sp. ). 

The only other xiphidiocercaria which has been found ft* a parasite of 
Lymnaea la>soni in South Australia. Cercaria Plagiorchis jaenschi Johnston and 
Angel, 1951, is verv similar in size and appearance to C. Plogiorchte nmculosus. 
It is distinguishable in fresh material, without detailed microscopical examina- 
tion, only by the size of the stylet, which is noticeably larger (34 jt) in C. Plagi- 
orchis jaenschi. The gland cells arc more extensive in C. Plagiorchls macahfsus. 
The normal secondary intermediate host of P. jaenschi was thought to be the 
crustacean. Chcrax destru-clor (in which encystation took place tearWv); in 
Plagiorchls macnlosus encystaliou occurs in insect larvae, but apparently not 
in crustaceans. 

PhigiorcJm mactdosus has now been recorded from a large number of birds, 
most of which are insectivorous, and from the rodent Ciietltfs musicus plunicaia. 
It was found in 50 per cent, of the Citellus examined by Schnlz ( 1932) in what 
whs apparently a fairly wide survey, It appears that Pla^iorchis mamdams has 
DO great specificity for its adult host, though the- second intermediate host is 
very restricted. It seems likely that many species of Ffafziorchis have been de- 
.seiilied as new Largely because they occurred in unrelated hosts, and an examina- 
tion of She types may indicate a large number of synouyms of P, nutculosas. 

I have been able to examine types of P, clelandi Johnston, 1917^ and P. 
vpatulalm Johnston, 1917 (Australian Museum VV.435 and W.434 respectively), 
and was unable to find any points by which they could be separated from the 
Australian specimens of P. nuunlosus I have examined, and measurements; of 
which are given in this paper. 

iohnston stated that P. clehndi was more closely related to P. nuiculostts 
.) than to any other species. Tt differed mainly in the arrangement of the 
fields of the yulfc glands, which in the Australian species never extended as far 
forwards us the fork of the intestine, and always remained separate in the pos- 
terior region, in the type specimen the follicles of the yolk glands have taken 
up the stain more deeply in some parts than in others, close examination of the 

276 I-. M. ANCKL 

dorsal surface shows that some follicles do extend between the Iwo main fields 
and (hat there are even one or two follicles right in the median line. The testes 
axe bigger than in most specimens examined, but I do not consider this justifies 
the placing of the species in the variety (in(*ti$> 

The inclusion of P. spatuhUus as a synonym of P. maciihsus means that the 
lower range for size of this species must be extended. However, there seem no 
other differences hy whieh to separate the two species. According to Johnston, 
P. xpatutatux resembled P , wavidosvs more closely than any other species. He 
separated f\ vhdandi from P. spttttdatus on a number of points, but especially 
Jn (he extent of the yolk gland fields, which extended further forward, were more 
lateral in front of the testes and extended furdicr in towards the middle behind 
them in F. spatitlatus. 

Johnston (p. 248) rioted that whereas P. clelandi* P. maculosus. P, nishetii 
were from passerine birds, P. spalulaftts occurred in one of the Motacillidae 
(Anfhus australh). He did not compare it with P, notabilis Nicoll, 1909, which 
was from Anthtis ohscttrm and Motacilta flaou. Nicoll gave as the chief diag- 
nostic features of the species the short eirrus-pouch and the forward position of 
the ovary. The figure is presumably drawn from the one adult specimen Irom 
Anthm ohscunts, which was described first, and "the main features of difference 
in the specimen from Motacilla' were then indicated. From the figure, the 
anterior part of the worm is contracted, and tins seems enough to explain the 
apparent forward position of ovary and, with the fact that the cirrus IS evcrted> 
the shortness of the cirrus pouch. Yamaguti (1&54, p. 337) noted that the 
posterior extent of the cirrus pouch being subject to considerable variation in 
the members ol this genus, does not constitute by itself a decisive criterion i\\ 
specific determination. 

Jn J.954, Horton-Smitli and Long recovered 35 treinatudes from the small 
intestine of a pullet from Scotland, which were identified as Plagiorchis natabih-H 
hy Dr. S. Prudhoe. of the British Museum {Natural History)- The metaceroariae 
were found encysted in die larvae of chironomid and other Hies. 

I can find no record of where the type is deposited. It seems probable that 
Pkitiwrchis nttiuljilis is a synonym of P. 

Nicoll (1909) described from Towns ville, Queensland, Lepodvrmti nishetii 
from Chlhin (Vienna) bracteata, Nicola's figure is not very detailed, and he 
stated that the two specimens, from which the description was made, were 
"somewhat macerated*. Nicoll did not designate a type, nor state where the 
specimens were deposited, but Mr, A. J. IJeurup, of the Australian Institute of 
Tropical Medicine, has sent mo two spirit specimens whieh are obviously the 
ones from which Nicoll gave his description (AJ.T.M. No. 121). Mr. Bearup 
tells me that the label is in Ni coil's handwriting; the details are similar to those 
given in the paper. One worm was in pieces, the other very dark. Though 
treatment with trisodium phosphate improved die intact worm, it was not in 
good enough condition to enable any real description to be given. 

It is not possible to say that this is a synonym of Plagiorclils maculosa^ 
though the differences (from the description and the figure) may well be attri- 
butable to the poor condition of the specimens. Nicoll did not name any dif- 
ferential characters for the species 

Yamaguti and Mittmaga (1943) stated (hat ft seemed probable that P. 
arientalis Park (19.39) from the Korean Htrundo dautlca nipaletms was identical 
with P. maculnsus. Park had distinguished it from var. citclU by (1) the vitel- 
laria Iving confluent dor sally, and (2) the fact that the cirrus sac extended only 
to the posterior margin of tie acetabulum. 



Cft 1928 Skrjabin described P, maculosw var. 0*rt?&, from 1 specimen found 
in 1 of 2 ducks (Casarca casarcu) from Transbaikalia. A character tslie differ- 
ence beLween tins variety and the typical P. moculosus was the structure of the 
vitelline follicles \vhich> in the variety, were rather small individually but very 
closely placed^ and in the typical form "plus gros, plus grands'* and fess thickly 
distributed. From Skrjabin's figure, the most obvious feature is the size nf the 
testes, which appear relatively huge. The measurements given were 0-4 mm. 
diameter for each, which is appreciably larger than iu any "specimen prev iuiisly 
it-corded, or In any examined in the present collection. The size of the eggs, 
also, 36 -< 22 ^ is somewhat greater than in other P. maculoms. 

The condition of the animal, whether living, dead, compressed, etc., was not 
mentioned. To my knowledge, this variety ha* not been recorded since it was 

Massino, in 1921). included a description of Skrjabin & specimen. His paper 
has an obvious mistake in labelling, His Fig. 9 which was labelled P. mucultwis 
vai. (tna/iuus, corresponds to Skrjabin's Fig. 2 of Plagtorchi*: poianinL while his 
Pig, 8, called P. poianhd, corresponds with Skrjabin's Fig. 1 or P. maculoms van 

Mehra jj 1937), who had apparently seen Massino & figures and not Skrjabin s, 
IninsTerrocl Lepodenna maculosus var. anutinua to a new species, 7,. (Mtdti- 
"kmdtdaris) rttssti on the grounds that it did not belong to the subgenus Flagir 
orchis, as did P. macidosus. The species P. nmii is thus invalid, being n synonym 
of P. potanlni. 

P. mttculastis var. cltelli was described by Schuiz in 1932 from the rodent 
Citvllus mii.sicus pltinicold, Scliul/, stated that it did not really differ from the 
typical Plagiorchifi macidosus described in 1802, or from Skrjabins P. maeufosu.s 
atuttix (from a duck); on the other hand, it was very near to P. popowi Palirnp- 
scstow which was described from a dog and was later found by Skwurzow in 
a pig. Sohulx placed it as a separate subspecies because of its host, but thought 
it possible that when more material was available and the biology of the parasite 
better known, it might be necessary to synonymtsc these previously mentioned 
f i trms. 

lu 1939 Yamuguti described P. macidosus miJta<:itf,ae from Mptacillu cinerea 
caapica. He stated lhat it differed from the closely related Plagiorchis notabilis 
Nieoll, 1909, R xpafitdfihis Johnston, .1917, and P. mocidostts (Rud.), in the pos- 
terior position of the testes. From his figure, the anterior border of the anterior 
testis is at exactly the middle of die body. The posterior testis does appear to 
lie nearer to the posterior end of the body than Is usual in P. mactilosus > hut 
this is partly due to the large size nf the testes, and partly perhaps to the con- 
tracted slate of (he body, which is evident from the figure in die anterior region. 
Yamaguti did not mention P. mactriosus onads, in which the testes are large and 
extend almost as far posteriorly as in P. muculosvs motacillae. There seems no 
valid distinguishing feature between these two varieties. If the large size of 
the testes is a uniform character, the variety (tnutis should stand, with var. mota- 
cillae a synonym. However, anatls was described from a tingle specimen, and 
Yamaguti s motacillae was described from only 3 specimens, 1-0-1*5 mm. long, 
in which the range of size for the testes was 0-15-0-31 X 0- 15-0- 28 mm., while 
the suckers varied only slightly. The si/.e i>f the testes may be variable, or 
apparent differences may be attributable to treatment or fixation. 

£78 L M. ANGEL 


The earlier collections of adult Plagiordm maculosus were made by the 
late Professor T. Harvey Johnston. Thanks are due to Mr, H. T, Condon and 
Jo Mr. B. C. Cotton of the South Australian Museum; fc'O Mr. Condon for advice 
on the identification and relationships of the birds and to Mr. Cotton for advice 
on the molluscs. I am also indebted to the Director of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney* and to Mr, A. J- Bearup, of the Australian Institute of Tropical Medicine, 
Sydney, for courtesy in enabling me to study type material, 


&a*m, J- C, 1943. Bull. Soe. Neuch&te.l. Sc. Nat t> 68, pp. 33-81. Les trcmatadc* parasites 

de la lniiNnrai^no dV:au Nt-'u/ttyx fodiem, 
BkauN, M., [902. Zool.Jahrb., Jena, Abt. Syst* 10 ( I h pp. 1-165. Pasemhden der Vogi:I. 
Caj.lot, JL 1946. Ann. Parasitol'., 21 (3-4), pp. 199-201. Matoriaux pour v.rvir a la Kaune 

des DSItOfriea de France. 
Dieswc, K. M., 1858. Sitwingsh, K, Akatl. Wissensch. Wion, Math. — Natarw. GL, 32 (23), 

pp. 307-390. Revision der Myzhelmlnthcn. Abtli'-ilun^: Trcmatoden 
Douaars, R. Ph., 1949. Ann, Parasilof, 24 (G-6), pp. 436-442. Dtetoma ruhens F. Dojardin, 

J845 ( — exnaperatum Rudolphi, (810), retrouve on Franco et redecrit. 
m Fiuppi, F., 1857. Mem. R. Accad. Sc. Toiino L *„ 16. CL &?. Fis. e Mat., pp. 410-112. 

fi^s 1-21. Douxieme memoire pour servir a I'hisroire grmHiqiie d< s trcmatodes (Read 

Apr, 15, 1855), 
Gilkuw, j. H., 1955. J. Parasit, 41 (6J 3 Sect. 2, SuppL, pp. 27-28. A re-Mudy of the g«nus 

AUtmoHOtwporm (Olivier, 1938) Maey, 1940. 
HcmroN-SMrm, P.. and Long, P. U, 1954. Vfefr. Keeoid., fifi (41 ), p. 01 1. The oeairreiux 

of the fluke Flagiorchis nohibilis Nicoll, 1909 in die .small intestine of ft domestic fowl 
JoHKsmw S. J., 1917. Jour. Proc. Koy. Soe. \.S.\V M 50. pp. 187-261, Plates IX XIX. Oh 

tile trematodes of Australian birds. 
Johnston T. II., and Awsr* L. M. ? 1951. Trans. Koy. Soe. S.A., 74 (1), pp. 49-58. Tli. 

lite history of Plagiarchis -jaemchi, a new ttemattulr from the Australian water rat. 
von- Linjwow, O. F. B., 1901. Arch. Mikr. Auat,,. 58 (1 f, pp. 182-108, pis. 8-9, fi^s. 1-30 

Beohachnmgen an llelnuudien des senekenbergisehoii naturhistorischen Museums, dr-N 

Brv»latier znologisclieu Instituts mid andere.n. 
LIjhe, \l . 1909. Siisswasserfmma Deutschlands (Tirauerl, Tfeft. 17 IV I 2i7 pp. Para- 

sirjsehe Plattwurmer: I Trematodes. 
MuMttixen, D. B., 1937- Jour. ParasiV, 23 (3), pp. 244-236. A discussion of tbe taxonomy 

ot" the familv Plagioahiidae Luhe, 1901 „ and related trematodes. 
Massimo, B. C, t 1929. Zontralhl. BaktcrioL, 2. Abt., 78 (1-7), po. 125442. Otc Trema- 

toden der Gattnug Plagiarchis- Ltihe, 1899 der Vogcl Russlands. Hciirug xur KenntnLx 

<ue>* Helminthenfauna Russlands. 
MurtfA, H. R., 1937. Ztsohr. Parasitonk. Berlin, 9 <4)_. pp. 129-46*9, illus. ("Jet tain new and 

ilrcjidy known distom^n of tlte Family Lepoderrnatidae Oclhner (Trematoda), with 

diiLiissioii on the clas^ineatinu of the familv. 
Nicoio, W- 3 1909. Quart. J. Micr. Ses n. s., 53 (3), pp. 391-4ST, pis. 9-10. Studies on the 

stmcliire and classification of the ditienetie tiematodes. 
Xjcoll, VV.. 1914. Parasitology, 6 (4), pp. 333-350, pis, 2.3-24. The trematode parasites 

ol North Queenslaud. f. 
Nt'uXLH, W., and Ullrich, IC., 1927. Sit/ Cesellsch. X'uturf. Fr. ftextWi (Jtrth Pl>- 

81-90. pi. 1 (Plate bound widi (fi-10), ivsned 192H). Die EntwiekhHia einer tHu^iurchiS' 

Art. (Ein Beitrag zur Kennttiis dt-r Cerariaf atmatac), O. W. ? 1937. Tr. Am. Micr, Sue,. 56 (3), pp. 311-339. A systematic study oi the 

tretnatode sub-family Plai^iorcltiinae Pratt, 1902. 
Vauk, J. T., 1939. Keijo J. Med., 10 (1) ; pp. 1-0, pi. 1. Tj'ematodes from Afummaha nvtd 

Avtw. II. Two new tt^matodes of Plagiorchidae: Pla^iorchoidcfi rhiualo^hi u. sp. and 

Pfatttortliis o-rientativ n. sp. from Tvosen (Korea). 
Rr.i:s, (£, 1952. Parasitology. 42 (1 and 2), pp. 92-113. The. Mmrtiire of the adult and 

larval stages of Phigiorchitt {Multlghmdularvi) megakirehis n. iwm from the tirrkey and 

an experimental dcmonittrati<m Of die life history. 
Rudolf**!. C. A., 1883, Arch, Zool, u, Zoot., 3 (1), pp. fil-l^. forset/ung der Bco- 

IwchtuiiEen abei die Eingeweidewiirmcr. 


Rudolphi, C. A., 1809. Entozoorum sive vennium intestinalium historia naturalis, 2 (1), 

457 pp. 
Rudolphi, C. A., 1819. Entozoorum synopsis X + 811 pp. 
Schulz, R. E., and Skworzow, A. A., 1931. Ztschr. Parasitcnk., Berlin, 3 (4), pp. 765-774. 

Plagiorchis arvicolae aus der Wasserratte. 
Schulz, R. E., 1932. Vestnik. Mikrobiol., Epidemiol, i ParazitoL, 11 (1), pp. 53-60. Trema- 

toden der Gattung Plagiorchis Liihe der Xageriere. (Russian Text, German Summary, 

p. 60.) 
Skrjabin, K. I., 1928. Ann. Parasit., 6 (1), pp. 80-87. Sur la faune des trematodes des 

oiseaux de Transbaikalie. 
Strknzkk, K., 1952. Ztschr. Parasitenk., Berlin, 15 (5), pp, 369-391. Der Wirtswechsel 

von Plagiorchis maculosus. 
Ulmer, M. J., 1952. Pap. Mich. Acad. Sci. Arts and Letters. Year 1950, 36, pp. 149-152. 

A critique of methods for the measurement of parasitic worms. 
Yamaguti, S., 1935. Ztschr. Parasitenk., Berlin, 7 (4), pp. 513-514. Plagiorchis macnlosus 

(Rud., 1802) aus der japanischen Schwalbc, Hirundo rustica gutturalis (Seopoli). 
Yamaguti, S., 1939. Japan. J. Zool., 8 (2), pp. 129-210. Studies on the helminth fauna of 

Japan. Part 25, Trematodes of birds. IV. 
Yamaguti, S., and Mitunaga, Y., 1943. Tr. Nat. Hist. Soc. Taiwan (241), 33. Trematodes 

of birds from Formosa 1. 
Yamaguti, S., 1954. Acta Med. Okayama, 8 (4), pp. 329-340. Parasitic worms mainly 

from Celebes. Part 4. Trematodes of reptiles and birds. 










^ i- 

^ 0/ 


c p 

C „- 


c r 4 


* r^ 




02 jf 


H 3 









*i c 

» Jc ^_ 



a- 1 aS P 




w ff tC 





■ — i 


B3* 1 

■s a as 
St ti 1 a 
3 6 fi 

* 1 

sx £ 







pj £ - ■? 


a 9V-3 


— ■ ^n 


3 9 3 

* II 


E- * 


£ 46 

S3 «i 

■- .55 

g-* s 



i— I 

1— I 



X « 







x 3 




X | X 

o I o 






15 C 



— tt 

■ J> 






i s 


& - 




«? i D- 

1 & 

a b 

■t« -- cp 



Measurements in inverted commas estimated from drawings, or by converting ''linics" into millimetres. 
Measurements, in mm, are given to nearest decimal place; in some cases, e.g. tor P. oriental-is, approximate measurements are estimated, 








Oral Sucker 













Kudo) phi 






.... ,,, 










"2 06" 





A pus apu* 
Hirundo rustica 




•20- -30 

- 15-20 

1 928 


P. marulfmus 
var. nnfUin 






•25- '30 
X 20- -28 


•30- -31 

- -20- -32 

•40* -40 







P. maatlotus 
var. ntelli 

CiMhm t 
plan [cola 


•90-1- (Ml 


>: -28- -26 

X -28 

x -25- -27 





P. maculottus 

Hirundo rustica 


1 92 

■ >7- ro 

20 ::.i 




* 14-10 





J', -macutow* 

Hirundo ruxtirn 
H. daurica 
it ipalensis 


Fixed la acetic 
under slight 


1 -0-3-9 

•56-1 25 


•20- -35 

•22-50> 1H- 43 


:< 13- -30 





P. mactUosu-x 
var. motacillae 

cinerm caspica 





10-- IS 


•15-31x -15-28 



x 17-. 20 





P. nwculosus 

Hirundo ruaticu 




Mi-I S 


•22- -25 
-: -21-25 


x -20-25 

•20-25 X -20-20 









-75-1 -00 

•19- -30 
x -20- -30 



•21- 35 x -20--35 


x * 28- • 29 






Apm apu.-i 




o -m 


•Si < -30 




same specimen 









P, maculoms 

A itlrmosynr 



mature, with 

wit)) only 
few f (WW 

1 -0-2-0 
1 -1-1 4 


0-5 0-8 
0-1-0 -2 





P. notabilis 

A nthuft 




•20x -is 

•10* -10 





M 'fttaciUa fiava 





14* 13 








P. nisbetii 






•22* -24 

•15> 14 

•1 long 





•llx -11 


| S.J. 

P. ttpaiulatm 

A nikUs 

oust rolls 

Balsam muUnt 


SS- 39 

■ i*; 





2 9-33 




P. cklandi 



Balsam mount 

■ •» - a 


•29 h 25 


•31 x -29 







P. orieidalis 




■09- -75 


23 > -24 






* Type specimens. In the ease of P. .spatulatux, the range of length and breadth is given for an unspecified number of worms; the type was 

0-im mm.:-: (I'3it mm. 





Host, Locality 
















From .4 Lymnaea 
Tailem Bend 








From 1 Lymnaea 









From 1 Lymnaea 








From 1 Lymnaea 
Tailem Bend 





35 x 38 



From 1 Lymnaea. 





41 x4l 








41 x40 

28 x 33 







33 x 36 

26 x 30 







40 x 35 


NOTES: All measurements in microns, of 10 specimens fixed in boiling 10% formalin. 

The last three sets of measurements were from Lymnaea which had been infected ex- 
perimentally with egg of Plagiorchis mactilosufi from the given hosts. 


byH. H. Finlayson 


An analysis of the characters of a small series of Bettongia cuniculus Ogilby from Tasmania is 
made for comparison with mainland forms of B. penicillata Gray and B. lesueuri Quoy and 


by H. II. Flni.ayson 
[Read 9 October 1958] 


An analysis ol the characters or a small series of BeUongkl cxmoutm 
Ogilby from Tasmania is made for comparison with mainland forms ol U. 
peniciUata Gray and B, lesueuri Qnay ami Cainiard. 

This species was formerly regarded as exclusively Tasmauian in occurrence, 
and its supposed insularity has tended to minimise somewhat the importance in 
practical taxonomy o£ several areas of vagueness and conflict in its description. 
Since Brazenor (1950) confirmed the Victorian status of the species, as origin- 
ally claimed by Hall and Kershaw (1917), the necessity for clarifying its ilis- 
tinetions from the well ascertained mainland species has sharpened. A small 
scries of four sidns and eleven skulls personally collected in the district of the 
upper Maequarie River in eastern Tasmania, while inadequate for complete 
re-description, has prompted the examination summarized below, which may 
reduce these uncertainties. The comparisons instituted are chiefly with B. peni- 
cillata ogiWyi of South and Western Australia, and B, lesueuri of South and 
Central Australia; B. gaimardi and the eastern form u£ B. peniclllala y which may 
be closer to B, cunicu1u&4 have not been available locally. 


Rhinarium very coarsely granular, much more so than in B. penicillota and 
B. lesueuri, but its upper margin with a backward and upward directed spur, as 
in the former, 

Facial vibrissae weak in comparison with body size, the mysticials reaching 
37 mm. as a maximum, the lower rows are white, the upper brown and none 
black. The supra orbitais may be longer than the mysticials (max, 42 mm.) and 
are pale brown, as are the gcnals also with length ranging from 29-36 mm. 
Black eyelashes are present on both upper and lower eyelids, but are weakly 
developed, On the lower border of the orbit a crescent of stout black bristles 
is developed, the longest 17 mm., and there is a similar but weaker series on 
the upper border; the development of these bristles is very strong in Aepy- 
piymmts and falls oil in the order B. cunicuhts', B. pcnicillutu, B. lesueuri. Sub- 
mentals and intcrrumals wore not checked in the fresh material and are ineom- 
})lcle in the skins; the interramals present arc two in number, silvery wltite. and 
'torn 12-17 mm. long, springing from a common median site about 20 mm. pos- 
terior to the mid point uf the lower lip. 

The mantis is much stouter than in B. jn'nicilLita; the digital foruuda is 
3 > 4 > or = 2 > 5 > or = 1; the 2nd digit is .shorter relative to the 3rd than in 
that species and the 4th is much stouter than the 2nd, and its claw is both 
stouter and longer, so that its general size superiority over the 2nd is more 
decided than is indicated by the formula. The claws are straighter and wider 
at the base and taper more to the point in a superior view than in B. penicilkitu 
in which they are nearly parallel sided, when seen from above; 3rd claw (maxi- 
mum) 15*5 mm.; 4th claw 13*5 mm. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1959), Vol. 82. 


Pes stout with short blunt digits and nails; the plantar surlace is completely 
naked as in Aepijprymnus, therein differing from B. Ivsueuri and B, pemciUata 
in which it is more or less completely haired in the young animal; in colour of 
integument it is dusky though less so than in B. peniciltata; granules 14 per cm 
under the midmctatarsus, as in B. tesueuh, coarser than m B> penicillata', nails 

The tail is stout and in the single example measured ha& the length about 
106 per cent, of that of head and hotly, as in the Central Australian B. lesuewi, 
and relatively longer than in Acjnjprijntuus and B.p. ogilbyi, 


The following fteures give ehe dimensions in mm. of an adult male (P'M 4 ) 
measured in the flesh; head and body, 3*25; tail, 345, chest giith, ISO; marius 
length, 28; nail of 3rd digit, 16; pes. 1*21: 4th toe. 57; nail of 4th toeji* 1. ear. 
43 X 23; rhinurinm to eve. 46; eve to ear, 28; eve { intercanthal j, 15; weight, 
1590 g 


The texture of the coat is intermediate — crisper than in B. lesucuri, much 
softer than in adults of B.p, ogilbyi; it is longer than in eidier but not denser 
as bo underfur, There is a strong overlay of guard hairs over all the dorsum, 
except on the nape, where the fur is longer and looser and ruff-like. General 
colour a pale, strongly grizzled brownish grey, with the head and tail some- 
what darker, and the limbs decidedly lighter than the body. In two examples 
a wd!<nurked pale hip stripe is present, contrary to Thomas's statement. 

The composition of the pelade is similar to that of B, Icsueitri and B.p. 
ogilbyi, but somewhat more complex. Mid-dorsally the main pile of underfur 
is from 20-23 nun. long; the basal three-quarters of which is Ridgway s blackish 
plumhcous, a subtermmal hand of 3-4 nun. wood brown and the points clove 
brown, not black. Guard hairs vary in length from 27-30 mm. and show vjiuc 
variation in the number of colour bands and their length. The more numerous 
and stouter have the normal lour bands ad in the above named species, i.e. 20 
mm. plumbeous, 4 mm. sopiu, 4 mm. ivory shading to buff and sepia, and 5 mm. 
sepia. The minority are more slender and the ivory' band is split into two by 
interposition of a very narrow, dark sepia band. There is also a sparse repre- 
sentation of a 3rd category of very stout, all dark guards, reaching 36 mm. and 
medium sepia. The resulting external colour dorsal ly is a pale, strongly grizzled 
drab — the pallor due largely to the blend of ivory' and ash buff, which is not 
much darkened by the overlay of weak sepia points. The colour is warmer on 
nape and crown and slightly paler on rump. Ventrum, basally deep plumbeous* 
externally greyish white washed lightly with yellow buff. There are two piles— 
the underfur of 23 mm, ca. in which the basal half is plumbeous and the rest 
creamy white and the sparse guard hairs of 30 mm, in which the basal Xths is 
plumbeous, median &th sepia and terminal %ths creamy white. The skie* are 
slightly paler than the dorsum, the subternvinal colour being reduced to tilleul 
buff as on the rump. The head is slightly darker than the mid back with a 
small variable area ou the muzzle bistre. The ear backs are well furred a pale 
tawny olive, lighter than the head, hut variably darkened on the margins; inner 
surfaces a pule buff; autitragoid tuft not conspicuous. Fore aud hind limbs like 
the sides externally, but less grizzled; internally, like the venbrum. Manus and pes 
much paler than in the forms of B. lesueuri and in B.p, ogilbyi; a uniform greyish 
white, very faintly tinged with buff. T#i1 with the dorsal hairing proximallv 


more erect than in the species named; colour distribution much as in the latter 
but with Hie proximal russet areas dulled to buffy drab, gradually darkening to 
blackish brown. over the crest which may occupy % of the length of the tail awl 
reach 25 mm.; in two specimens the terminal 12 mm. is pure white; the crest is 
less defined than B.p. agitinji and its darkest parts are still grizzled with white; 
the lateral surface is buff fading to buffy white on tlie ventral surface. 

Three of the skins examined were taken in mid-winter and the other in mid- 
summer, but though they show slight differences in general warmth of colour, 
degree of grizzling and density, Ihese are not obviously related lo a seasonal 
or sexual factor. 

In comparison with B. te&uettri \tud B.p. ogilhyi the pelage irf B. emdculus 
is generally conspicuous for pallor; its lighter examples are deciderv paler, colder 
m tone and more conspicuously gii&eled than either of these- Its darker variants 
upuroach them in colour, but have the further distinction of a much longer 
pelage, a ruif on the nape', anfj near white hands and feet, lire diagnostic 
value of the hip stripe is doubtful. 


In the 11 skulls examined, 10 are fully adult H the P*M 4 dental phase and 
one is subadult and at the tooth change, The scries is more uniform both metric- 
ally and non-metrieally than any other Bettonfiia group recently examined 
{l9S8)i the mean variation in 20 linear dimensions being 6 per cent. 

The skull is the largest of (he genus, the range of its e-liiei dimensions over- 
lapping the maxima for B.p, o^illnji and ft lesucuri or showing a plus clearance; 
witii an average deviation of the mean values of — 7 per cent, from those of the 
former. The mean displacement volume is 66' cc. as against 64 ec. for B.p. ogilbiji 
and a jan^e oj 53-64 ee. in diree populations of B. Umwiri recently studied. 
The ossification is light — the mean adult Weight of the prepared skiiII being 
16 g. as in the smaller penicillci la; its surfaees .smooth and with muscular ridging 
even mure reduced. 

In general outline (Pi. 1, Fig. A-E) (he skull is close (o B,p, ogilbiji with 
which comparison is chiefly made hereunder, The breadth/length ratio i$ oi-ol 
( *55); the rostral index is -41-43 ( -42), and the facial index 223-211 (232). 

The rostrum is conical and stwpfy tapering, but shallower. The propor- 
tions of the nasal bones are much the same, but the expanded portion is more 
extensive and its posterior margins bowed backwards and gently rounded at the 
comers, and commonly Just reach or slightly exceed the luterorbital line. The 
zygomatic arches slightly wider anteriorly, their maxima at or anterior to the 
midpoint. Interorbilal space relatively still wider, remaining quite parallel skied 
in the oldest skulls available, its concavity rather greater and its edges smooth 
and rounded. Temporal crests very weakly developed; the interparietal per- 
sistent and constant, sharply triangular not semilunar nor creseentic 

Ju Jater;il aspect the premasillae usuaJly make a smaller contribution, to the 
wall of the orbit than in B.p. ogilhyi, but with wade variation in the extent of 
the premaxilliary and maxilliary suture with the nasals. The orbital plate of 
the lachrymal is very large and the maxilliary process below it, correspondingly 
reduced, sometimes to a mere splint and in three cases to extinction. In these 
latter skulls the lachrymal articulates directly with the palatine as in Potorous 
and Oixychogulv and many polyprotodouts. This feature is a good distinction 
of U. cunicttlus from B. lesueuri and B. pemcillata, iu which as in most Macro- 
podidae the orbital proee_ss of the maxilla is a substantial squarish element fre- 
quently more than halt the area of the lachrymal and sealing off the latter from 


contact with the palatine. The zygomata are weak and shallow as in li.p. ogilbtrL 
The supratympanic canal is not completed by hone ; though the process of the 
squamosal which is chiefly responsible for the closure in S, tesueurl is strongly 
developed. The squamosal frontal contact on the temporal wall is constant. 

The structures of the palate are generally similar, such proportional differ- 
ence* as occur being caused chiefly by the different character of the seeator P 4 
and the greater xxirallelism of the molar rows. The anterior palatal foramina 
are both absolutely and relatively larger, and the breadth of palate at M- also 
— *Ji<- latter averaging 20 per cent, of the basal length. Hie diastema and the 
posterior vacuities are relatively shorter, the latter reaching to about the middle 
of the anterior lobe of M-: they are equally broad and are almost entirely in- 
vested by the palatine, a small portion of the anterior margin only, sometimes 
formed by the maxillae; paired satellite vacuities are sometimes developed in 
the maxillae. The bulla is much smaller, its length averaging about 10 per eeiit. 
and lis breadth 26 per cent, less than in the smaller B, pcnicilhitu skull and its 
volume is probably less than one-half; as in that species, however, when aged, a 
thin lamella descending from the eetopterygoid margin of the alisphenoid may 
reaeh the autorointernnl wall of Ihe bulla, roofing over the foramen ovale and 
its attendant groove to form a closed canal. 

The occipital plane is much as in B. penicillata, the paraoccipitals and the 
mastoid process also, hut rather stouter and the latter are not always closely 
contoured to the bulla, 

Mandible, comparatively slight, tin* maximum breadth, breadth of ascend- 
ing process and depth of ramus below M t . and breadth of condyle all relatively 
lower; masseteric fossa and foramen with a similar range of development, but 
the process of the angle is shorter and more obtuse. 


The following figures give the range and approximate mean of the dimen- 
sions in a bisexual series offl skulls of adults at the P'M' stage: Greatest length, 
79-7-&41 (82-2): basal length. 6S -6-72-9 (71 -2); zygomatic breadth, 440-46-6 
(45-4): nasals length, 33-t>36-3 (34-8): nasals greatest breadth, 13-6-16-0 
(14*3). nasals least breadth, 7-0-8-3 (7-8); rostrum depth, 15-0-18-0 (.15*3); 
int**iurbital constriction, 190-21-0 (19 fi); palate length, 45-6-48-0 (4fJ-7): 
palate breadth inside \K 14 0-15 -2 (14-5); anterior palatal foramina, 3-4-4-9 
(4-3), diastema, 12-5-14-2 (13-4); bulla length, 124J-13-4 (.13-1); bulla 
breadth, 6-7-8-0 (7-3); basicranial axis, 20-8 22-2 (21-4); basifacial avis, 
48-4-51 »7 (50-4), facial index, 223-241 (232); mandible maxjmum breadth, 
39 1-11-4 (40-4); depth of ramus below M& 8-54JS (9*41). breadth of ascend 
Ing process. 42-4-13 4 (12-9). 


The following data is derived from the complete prepared skeleton of the 
young adult male, the flesh measurements of which are given above: Vertebrae,- 
cervicals, 7; fhuraetc, J3; lumbar, 7; sacral, 2; caudal, 22. Scapula. length, 44- 
do. maximum breadth, 21; clavicle length, 25*5; humerus length, 39j do. distal 
breadth. J3-7; radius length, 45-5; do. maximum breadth, 5-5; ulna length, 55-5; 
do. maximum breadth (coronoid), S-0; femur length. £)3-7; do. proximal (tro- 
chanteric) breadth, i l J-5; do. distal (condylar) breadth, 18-0; tibia length, 115; 
do. proximal breadth (medial aspect). 19-5; fibula length, 112; do. firtfatoBBt 
breadth (proximal), 7*a; pelvis maximum length, 88; do, iliac breadth, 51*0; do. 


acetabular broadlk 52 6; do. ischial breadth. 50 5; cpipubic maximum length, 
lfts«5; do. articular breadth, 7-7. 


The semblances uF fhe dentition (PI. 1, Fig. F-l j are divsded, the incisors 
fcrVfisttfog B, pemcilhta, the premolars B. tesucttrf with some degree of intcr- 
moduiey, and the molars combining the crown features of the. former, with 
rnWrieul characters quite different from both; the mean variation in linear dimen- 
sions of post -diastema I teeth is 12 per cent. 

The incisor tows meet at a somewhat wider angle than in B. penioilhta. 
V is a relatively small tooth, its dimensions about as in B.p. agilbyi and decidedly 
smaller than in B. lesueuri, Tate (1918) implies that this tooth is longer in cuni- 
culus, though he does not quote dimensions for it, but I cannot substantiate this 
in the present material. It is comparatively upright and the mediul surfaces 
ure separated by a wider interval than usual ; and in anterior aspect have an out- 
ward (lateral) curvature culminating in eversion of the tips (Pi. 1, Fig. F); dorso- 
ventral height 4-7-6-0 (5-8); anteroposterior breadth, 2T>3-fl (.TO). I 2 is 
larger than in penicillatu but has much the same proportions; it is much narrower 
transversely and less rugged than in lestwuri. The height of Us crown is much 
reduced in aged skulls, a condition which may exaggerate the apparent height 
of F. antero posterior length, 3-0-3-2 (3-0); transverse breadth* 1>8-8*<J (V$> 

l'\ as represented by the series means, is somewhat shorter dorso-vcnrmlly 
and longer antero-posteriorly than in either of the above species, but changes in 
shape of this Inoth are so rapid that without more age phases chan ate avail- 
able, it is difficult to decide whether this is characteristic of the species or simply 
of the phase measured. Its general resemblance to that of R,p. ogilhyi is close, 
and in particular there is no iirtuming of (he crest as in B. lesueuri and Aeptj- 
prymnm\ dorso-ventral height, 2-5-3-6 (3-1); anteroposterior length, 2-5-3-6 
(3-0). J, is a larger tooth than in pcmidlfalo hut similarly proportioned; nar- 
rower lhan in H. lasutrttri; antero posterior lencrth. 12-8-14-0 (13-3) and breadth, 
3M-6 (3-3). 

The canine is smaller than in B.p. o»ilbyi and about equal to that in the 
lower South Australian B. lemcuvk its alveolus lies on the niaxillo-premaxillary 
suture which, as Tale has shown, oiten approaches it obliquely from behind 
rather than above; dorso-ventral height. 3*3- 1 1 (3 8). 

Uoth the 3rd (and more especially) the 1th premolars arc much longer 
teeth than in B.p. ngilhiji and in this approximate tu the standards of B. lexueuri, 
Their alignment in the tooth rows is normal, 'he avis in the upper teeth being 
nearly parallel to the midline of the palate, The profile of the crests is straight 
or nearly so. though in P 1 when quite unworn, it may show a slight VKKtern>r 
concavity and although the wall is higher anteriorly than posteriorly, the- dis- 
propoition is much less than in B. pemciilata. llysodorrtism as gauged by the 
r;0io of greatest height (of enamel) to length is intermediate but much nearer 
to /?. lesueuri, 

P s narrower and less bulky than in the other species, its maximum breadth 
posterior to midpoint and with a constriction at about its anterior ?*„ and its 
outline as aeen from above more elongate and less regularly oval; grooves 5. Pu 
is very similar, the length as compared with its opponent, reduced by about 
6 per cent, and the breadlh and height by shout 3 per cent.; grooves 5. The 
dimensions of a siugle example of P 3 and Py are respectively; length. 5-1, 4*3; 
breadth, 2-5, 2 4- height (of enamel wall), 3 5 ? 3-3. 

P 4 . the secator, is also a narrower tooth than in either B.p. ogllbyl or 
U'sltturi, but is much longer than in the former, its length overlapping that of the 


Central Australian population of B. lesnettri which it resembles in general rather 
closely; its postero-internal talon and ledge are equally variable and may be 
virtually absent, but the maximum development of these features is less, and 
it differs \n the deeper hallowing of the buccal lace below* the cmgulum. Though 
the tooth as a whole Is nearly parallel to the sntcrmaxilliary suture, there is 
sonie torsion Or crest, with very slight extravcrsinn of the anterior portion, which 
is accentuated by wear. Distinct grooves 6 in 70 per cent., 7 in 30 per cent, of 
examples, hut additional vestiges are sometimes present as in all the species. 
P| is similar in its general characters to the upper tooth, its length is reduced 
by 11 per cent> but its breadth and height are both slightly increased; the uver- 
afl size reduction is therefore less than in the other two species; u posterior 
talon and ledge are not developed. Grooves 6 in 30 per cent.. 7 in 70 per cent, of 
examples; they are shortei than in the other speeies and liave a tendency to 
bifurcate in their lower course and become lost in obscure erenellatums uf 
enamel. Range and approximate mean of dimension* in 10 <ltglitly to m<Kler- 
ately worn examples 0$ P* and Pi respectively are; antero-posterior length, 
7-5-S-9 (8-2), 7-0-7 6 (7-3): breadth/2-7-3-]" (2 9), 2'S-3'2 (3-0); height 
(ol enamel). 24M-2 (3-7), 3-6-4-5 (4-0). 

The milk premolars arc larger than those of B.p. o^ilhyi and B. Ivswuri 
hut appreciably narrower, MP 1 is about equal in crown area to M* and its 
trenchant antcro-extcrnal cusp is very strongly developed; much more so than in 
these two species and almost as in Acpijpnfmnus. MP 4 much smaller, its crown 
nearly triangular through redueh'on of the an tern-external cusp. Dimensions of 
a single example of MP 1 and MP,i are respectively: antero-posterior ienglli. &<9 f 
:j-5; breadth anterior Iobe ? 2-S, 2*4; breadth posterior lobe, 3-3. 2-H. 

The upper molar rows are very weakly arched, with the anterior interval 
but slightly greater than Hie posterior. The metrical characters of the molar* 
of g, cvniculus are markedly distinct from those of B. pcniciUato and B, fesucuri; 
absolute dimensions are higher in most categories, the length of Ms T-3 m sltti. 
exceeding the means of the combined South and Central series of ri. ksueuri 
by 10 per cent, and Hie sum of the crown areas by 30 per cent., while the 
super torily over B.p. ogilbtji is still greater. 

In relative si/e as interpreted by the sectional crown areas* the 2nd is in- 
variably the largest molar both above and below, while in the upper jaw M 1 is 
sometimes .smaller than M*, a condition not seen in the other species examined; 
M, is invariably smaller than M :i . The overall antero-posterior declension in 
size is also much less than hi B. pcnicillala or B. k&uvuri, the index of reduction 
being 1-5-2- 1 (1-S) in the upper and 1-3-1-7 (1-4) m the lower teeth. The 
mohu formulae and their approximate frequencies in the upper jaw are 
fcl a > JVC > M :t > M ] 70 per cent., and M* > W > M* > M\ .SO per cent.; and 
in the lower jaw, M* > M. v > M, > M 4 . 100 per cent.; the range ami approximate 
mean of the crown areas expressed as percentages of (hf»sc of the first molars 
are M' (100); M- 104-123 (111); M H 90-107 (97); M 1 52-72 (82); and M, 
(100 K Mi 117-134 (125); Ma 107-125 (1M); M, 31-96 (88). 

In the size relations of upper and lower molars a notable feature is that 
M- t4h well as VI 1 aud M* is invariably larger than its lower opponent, M, alone 
of the lower* series exceeding the upper tooth with a frequency of 86 per cent. 
Shape differences are also appreciable; there is a general tendency towards nar- 
rowing of the molars and breadth > length occurs as a minority frequency in 
two molars only (M\ M-), whereas in B.p. ogilbyl and B. lesuettri this condi- 
tion is represented in ail molars, and is dominant in four teeth in the former 
species and in three of the latter. Further, the condition, posterior lobe > anterii>r 


lobe, which is dominant in both M l and Mi oi tlie above species, is lost in M l 
of ff ctmirtihts, but persists in Mi with a frequency of .100 per cent 

The range and approximate mean of the antero-posterior length, breadth of 
interior lobe and breadth of posterior lobe, in the molars of a bisexual series 
of U skulls, is as follows; M T , 4-2-4-9 (4-5); 4-2-4-8 (4-5); 4-0-4-6 (1-2); 
M*-\ 4/6-5-1 (4-8); 4*5-5*1 (4-7); 4-1-4-6 (4*3); M : \ 4-3*1 (4-7), 4 1-47 
(4*3); 3-6-4-2 (3-8); M\ 3-3-4-0 (3*8); 3*0-3-0 (3*5); 2*7-3*0 (2-9); Ms 13 
(in situ) !3<4,-14'G (14-0); ;md in the mandible: M„ 4*0-4-5 (4-3); 3*4-3-6 
(3-5); 3-3-4-0 (3-8); M,, 4-6-5*0 (4-8); 4*0-4-6 (4*2); 3-7-42 (4 0); M a , 
1-34 6 (4'5);41-4*4 (4-3); 3-6-4*1 (3 : 8); M,, 3-S-4-3 (4*1); 3-6-3-9 (3*8); 
3-0-3-3 (3-2); Msi s (in situ), 13*144-0 (13-5). fn examples showing heavy 
wear on the crowns, interproximal wear between molars is also appreciable, and 
the value for Ms 1 "* may fall to 12-3. 

The molars are slightly more brachydont than in B. pcniciUata and de- 
cidedly more so than in B. lesueuri and the working surface occupies a larger 
proportion of the crown than in cither. The crown pattern is relatively unde- 
veloped as in the former, the cusps and lophs being generally low and obtuse, 
with the longitudinal elements reduced much below the B. lesueuri condition; 
the midlinks well developed in that species and feebly in B. penicillala, are 
absent. The posterior lophs on the upper 2nd and 3rd molars are scarcely de- 
veloped as continuous transverse ridges, the buccal and lingual cusps being 
almost completely separated down to base level by a longitudinal median fissure. 
The anterior lophs of these teeth, and both anterior and posterior lophs of the 
lower molars nevertheless, although lower, arc often more continuous and more 
extended transversely than in either B.p, ogilhyi and B. lesueuri. 

Accessory euspules corresponding to those of B.p, ogilhiji are very weakly 
developed on the 1st and 2nd upper molars in two skulls only. In one skull, Ni 4 
in one maxilla is much smaller and simpler than in the other; in all others the 
posterior molars are structurally and functionally normal bilobed teeth, appear- 
ing regularly m the succession, There are no examples of supernumary molars 
or incisors. 

In the single example of the tooth change afforded by the series, P 1 is 
erupting simultaneously with M 4 . 


Bjiazknor, C. \V., J950. 'Wlimuuals of Victoria." Melbourne, p. 40\ 
Finlayson, IT. Jf.. tf)XH. fti-cv S. Atisrr. Museum, MV, yo. 235-302 
Tat*;, G. H, H. : 1946. Bull, Am, Mm, Nat. Hist., »L p/268 


Fitf. A. Dorsal aspect of thfi skull of uti adult ^ from the uppsr Maoijiurio TClwr, eastern 

Tasmania, (x 0. ) 
KiK. B. Palatal aspect of the same. (xO-D.) 

Fig. C. Lateral aspect of the same. (xO-9.) The pterygoid plate is not shown, 
Fig. D. Occipital aspect of the same. (xO-9.) 

Fig. E. Lateral aspect of right mandibular ramus of the same. (\ I •<), ) 
Kig W Anterior aspect of upper 1st incisors of the same, (x4*4.) 
Mg, C. Buccal aspect of an unworn P* of the right side in another young adult .Name 

locality. (\4-7.) 
Fig. II. Buccal aspect of slightly worn l\ of the right wide in another young adult. Same 

locality. (x4-3.) 
Fhr. 1. The light maxillary tooth change in ;m advanced Mibadult from the same locality. 

P 4 (upper), is simultaneously displacing V* (lower right) and MP-* (]mvw jniddlo)-. 

W (lower left) persisting in s-Uu t is reruesenre 1 by it* anterior lobe. (x4 r 7.) 


Plate 1 



byK H. Finlayson 


Collections of cranial and dental material of subfossil Potoroinae from South Australia are reviewed 
and compared with recent populations. In B. lesueuri Q and G. the wide range of variation in skull 
characters and the sporadic dwarfism found in recent populations are confirmed in a cave series of 
smaller average size from Yorke Peninsula. A small form of B. penicillata Gray, close to B.p. 
ogilbyi Gould but with smaller 4th premolars, is noted as persisting in the Devon Downs 
archaeological site in the lower Murray Valley from about 5000 B.P. almost to the present. A phase 
of B. cuniculus Ogilby, at present an exclusively Tasmanian species, is recorded from volcanic ash 
beds at Tantanoola. Potorous morgani Finlayson closely allied to P. platyops Gould of Western 
Australia and originally described from Kangaroo Island is now recorded for the mainland of South 
Australia in the middle and upper levels of Devon Downs. 


by H. H. Fixlayson 
[Read 9 October 1958] 


Collodions of cranial and dental material of subfossil Potoroinae from 
Souih Australia are reviewed and compared with recent populations. 

In B. liHUcuu Q and G. the wide range of variation ni skull characters 
and the bporadic dwarfism found in recent populations are confirmed in a cave 
series or smaller average size from Yorke Peninsula. 

A small form of B, pemcilldta Gray, close to B.p, agrlbtji Gould but with 
smaller 4tli premolars, is noted as persisting in the Devon Downs archaeological 
site in the lower Murray Valley from about 5000 B.P, almost to the present. 

A phase of B. cunicutus Ogilhy. at present an exclusively Tasmanian spedwf, 
is recorded from volcanic ash beds at Tantanoola. 

Futoruxts mvrguni Fitilayson closely allied to P. ptntyopfi Gould of Weatmi 
Australia and originally deserihod from Kangaroo Island is now recorded for 
the mainland of South Australia in the middle and upper levels of Devon Downs. 

During a review (1958) of recent members of this sub -family., chiefly from 
South and" Central Australia, the characters and status of its representatives in 
some osteologlcal material horn aboriginal archaeological sites and cave deposits, 
have come up for consideration. The collections studied are for the most part 
hi the South Australian Museum and have been culled from 13 sites extending 
from the North Flinders Ranges to Kangaroo Island and the lower Soutb-Eastera 
district the chief collectors being Mr. N. B. Tindale and Mr. H. M. Cooper of 
the Anthropological Department of the Museum and the Cave Exploration Croup 
of South Australia. Brief references by the writer in the form of provisional 
identifications have already appeared in contributions by the above authors, 
For the most part, the age of the deposits yielding the material is only vaguely 
known from field observations on the site; but in the case of the Devon Downs 
collections, dates for several horizons based upon C14 determinations have 
been published by Tindale (1957) and the earliest of these, relevant here, is 
about 5000 B.P- Much of the collection, however, is much more recent and 
some of it may be no more than a century or so old. 

Four species are represented, referable to described forms but providing a 
usefid extension of knowledge on the variation in cranial and dental characters 
which must be expected within their limits. 


The cranial material under this head falls into two main groups; a miscella- 
neous assemblage of specimens consisting mostly of mandibular fragments de- 
rived from widely scattered sites — aud a series of relatively complete skulls from 
caves in the Curramulka district of Yorkc Peninsula. The latter provides the 
greater interest and will be dealt with first. 

Material from these caves was first obtained about 30 years ago and has 
since been augmented at intervals, most recently by the Caves Exploration 
Croup, so that 25 skulls from the very restricted area of the site are now avail- 
able. The bone is heavily impregnated with deliquescent calcium and magne- 
sium salts, but is otherwise unmineralized and well preserved; about £ of the 

Trans. Roj. Sue. S. Ami. 11959), Vtil. 83. 


skulls arc stained a deep chocolate colour, but the remainder are almost us clean 
US a recently macerated preparation, and with one possible exception, are entirely 
free from soft tissue and Eat. The series Is well balanced between adults at the 
P'M 1 phase, and sub-adults Irani P 5 M~ onwards and in these respects gives more 
information on age changes than could be safely inferred from (he recent series 
from lower South Australia and Central Australia just studied (.supra). Eleven 
separate mandibular rami were also taken and some of these were associated by 
the collectors with individual skulls; but as dental unconformities asperse the 
validity of this in some cases, I have disregarded it in all and studied the 
mandibles separately as a uondependent group. Other genera of mammals, asso- 
ciated with Beilongia in the deposit arc all of recent and include Lagur- 
chestes. Thxjlogale, Trichosunts, Thaiacomys and Cams. 


Metrical. The largest adult skulls are decidedly smaller than the largest in 
the recent series from lower South Australia and about equal to the largest from 
Central Australia. However, the size range though considerable is less than in 
tiie other groups and its smallest skulls are bigger than in these and there are 
unmcrous intermediate conditions, which arc indistinguishable in this regard in 
all three. In detailed linear dimensions the average range is smaller than in the 
lower South Australian group in the proportion of 14 to 22 and in most items 
can be completely merged. The approximate means, however, in 17 of 23 
dimensions examined are lower by from 2-11 per cent, with a mean difference 
of 6 per cent. 

Outstanding differences in the approximate means of absolute dimensions 
are.- depth ot ro.vtrum which is less than in either; length of anterior palatal 
itmtrniiui which is equal to the recent South Australian figure and IS per cent. 
higher than For Central Australia; lilVgjf) sh.e of bulla in which length is equal 
to the recent South Australian mean and the breadth 4 per cent, greater; wnile 
both arc 6-7 per cent, greater than in Central Australia: and a slight mandible 
in which breadth rjf ascending process and condyle arc again lower than in 

On eliminating the size factor by expressing absolute dimensions as per- 
centages of basal length a comparison ot mean proportional development be- 
tween Ihc three groups is possible This indicates that the chief average dis- 
tinctions of the lower South Australian skull from that of Central Australia are 
maintained by the Curramulka series in the lower zygomatic breadth, shallower 
rostrum, lower facitd index, shorter mandibular body and narrower condyle and 
ascending process, while (he distinction of the longer anterior palatal foramina 
is accentuated, these being both absolutely and relatively longer than in either. 
On the other hand, intermediate conditions occur and in a few items the agree- 
ment is with the Central Australian group, as for example in the falling off of 
relative depth of mandibular ramus and in the increased relative length and 
breadth of bulla - the last is particularly notable. 

The overall metrical balance arrived at by this tysonian method favours the 
Central Australian condition in absolute dimensions and the lower South Aus- 
trian in dimensions relative to ba.val length; but there arc wide overlaps In 
many items and no clearance in the range of any. 

.V/iri -metrical Morphology 

Features such as the taper of the rostrum am! interOrbital space, shape of 
the nasal bones, shape of the zygomatic arch, curvature of interparietal, extent 
and position of temporal crests and axial inclination of bulla axe as variable. 


here within strictly limited age groups (as interpreted by dentition) as in the 
recent South and Central Australian series, and serve to connect all three by 
numerous links. The skull is generally smoothly rounded and with slight 
muscular impressions and less dense in substance and less rugged than in 
Central Australia. The general resemblance in non-metrical characters is 
possibly more often with the South Australian series: but some of the largest and 
broadest skulls are a close match for Central Australian types. 

The foramen ovale is partially canalized in three examples but to a lesser 
extent than occurs in B, CHniculvs. The orbital process of the maxilla is invari- 
ably present and the lachrymal in never in contact with the palatine. The frunto- 
squamosal contact at the temporal pterion is constant; but in two examples is 
exceedingly narrow. 2 mm. or less, and men* irregular that I have yet seen it in 
this species. 

The Submhtlt Skull 

A difficulty in interpreting cranial variation in scries of Beltongio arise.\ m 
th^ eompaiatively slight differences which distinguish the adult from tin? sub- 
adult skulk both in relative proportions and in non-mebiCid features. This is true 
nl all rotoroinae in neater or Jess degree; but is particularly so with short 
muzzled forms such as the present species., in which differential factors in 
regional growth rate of the SKull are much less responsive to age changes than 
10 ihe Maeropodiuae. The Curramulka serie.v consists of nearly equal numbers 
of adults (P'M 1 ) and suhadults of the dental categories P 3 M- t PM\ and PIvP. 
and the opportunity has been taken therefore of making comparisons between 
them under more favourable conditions than obtained with other scries examined. 

Taking the subadolts en Mac, it would appear that neither the facial index, 
rostral index (length of nutic/.le/greatest length), nor breadth index (zygomatic 
breadth/greatest length) afford any appreciable distinction between these 
grourxs. In lunu muzzled (onus, .such 3$ rl penicillata, the testimony of ihe 
rostral indev and facial index is often quite contradictory; the termer inoeasing 
with uge, while the latter may do so or not; in B. lesueuri neither appears to 
respond reliably. In relative dimensions as shown by the percentage basal 
length relation, 15 items of the -1 examined show substantial agreement (less 
titan 3 per cent. difiVrorvce), while of the remainder the length of nasals, least 
breadth of nasals, and breadth of palate average 6-7 per cent, lower in sub- 
adults and the breadth of condyle, ant. palatal foramina and mterorbital breadth 
4-7 per cent, higher. The most consistent difference is in I he relative dimensions 
uf nasals and interorbital breadth, but here as in all not a lew examples fail 
to conform, and a conclusion tentatively reached in earlier tests is tiuirefore- 
confirmed — namely, that within these dental limits a characteristic subadult 
skull form, it it can be said to exist at all. is largely swamped by individual varia- 
tion and its metrical definition rendered impracticable. 

The position is similar in non-uK'triea! cluiraeters, and practically all shape 
variants both of the entire skull and of its constituent bones occur irrespective 
ol age. A zygomatic outline, which tapcrb anteriorly, somewhat as in TricftQ* 
stmts, vi more frequent in suhadults but by no means confined to them. Closure 
of the bnsioccipito-sphenuid suture appears to take place generullv between the 
dental stages FM" and P*M 4 but it is not reliable as an indicator nf adult status; 
closed sutures have been observed in skulls with unworn P 3 M 2 and open in 
Skulls with worn P'M''. With experience it is possible to sort skulls into approxi- 
mate age groups without reference to dentition, by employing subjective quali- 
tative tests not easy to define in few words, but the P^M 4 coincidence is hy 
far the best criterion and is not, in my present belief, liable to serious error. 



Dwarfffd Skulfa 

The Curramulka material provides further evidence of the characteristic 
condition of sporadic dwarfism, which has already been noted in recent series 
of B, lesueuri both from Central and lower South Australia and in B. penicillata 
ogilbyi (op. cit). The size reduction of the smallest examples as compared with 
the rest of the series is less extreme in the present case than in either of the recent 
series, but they occur with greater frequency- This has provided an opportunity 
of testing and confirming the tentative conclusions which were based upon the 
single examples which were found in the other geographically widely separated 

The examples arc fully adult skulls at V { M 4 and the chief dimensions of the 
two smallest arc set out in tabular form below for comparison, with their recent 
analogues and with a skull of the largest size group of each scries, 

TA13LK J, 

Comparison of some dimensions of it skull from Uie largest Rtx« group with tin*- smnlk'st, in 3 series 

of Be-lfan-ffitt, lexacuri-. 

(All al POt*) 

(-V'tltrnl , 



Son Hi 







Australia. Kocent 
C5 - 9 M i 



ISaatfl length 


57 -S 

Zygomatic broad" t h 






41 7 


Xasals length 



2!) -6 





Depth rostrum 



14- 1 

I 1-5 




Tjiti-Toilntal bvoa<itli 

14 1 







Palate lenpUi 

:\i • 5 







Ant. pulntul foru-rmnn 

■2 7 














7 5 

Bulla length 








Bulla breadth 

13 3 



10* 5 




Jfaei&l ukIloc 













12 3 

1' 1 









Examination of these figures and of their percentage relation to the respec- 
tive basal lengths show's a somewhat higher degree of total differentiation, both 
in size reduction and detailed proportion in the dwarfs of the recent series than 
in those from Curramulka. There is very litde correspondence in the nature of 
the proportional change in the three cases; die sign of the change is the same 
for nasals, anterior palatal foramina and diastema, but the amount varies within 
wide limits and in other items is quite erratic and unpredictable. In the case of 
the two Curramulka dwarfs also the divergence occurs in different and unre- 
lated items and is sometimes of opposite sign. These quantitative relations 
support the qualitative morphology of the skull in denying any special com- 
munity of structures to die dwarfs, which are obviously as closely related to 
the rest of the parent series as they are to one another. A notable difference in 
the two Curramulka dwarf's is the failure of the dentition to keep pace with the 
cranial reduction, though die difference in tliis is less when the comparison in 
these items is extended to the range and mean for the series (infra). 

Similar dwarfing almost certainly exists in the subadult group, but it is 
difficult to define 4 ; inequality in general size at the same dental phase is fre- 
quent in young skulls, but may be due in part at least to differences in growth 


role which would have been later equalized before reaehiug the adult condi- 
tion; at the more or less static P*M 4 stage Mich differences may be safely re- 
garded as permanent. 


The Following figures give the range and approximate moan in (I I IS adult 
skulls atP*M' and (2) 12 subadults at P&M* 4 * grealnst length, 66-7*71-1 (693), 
63*8-68-6 (66-3); basal length, 57-2-61-6 (50-8), 55-5-60*0 (57-5); zygomatic 
breadth, 40-0-44*5 (42-1), 38-8-43-8 (41-7): nasals length. 25*2-28'0 (26-6' 
22-8-25-3 (24 1); nasals greatest breadth, 11 2-13-V) (12*5), 11 0-14 (123 
nasals least breadth. 4*6-6-8 (5-8), 4-2-6-2 (5*2); rostrum depth. 11*8-13-2 
(12*5), 114-12*5 (121); inlerorbital constriction, 13 7-15*5 (14-9), 13 5-156 
(14*8): palate length, 34*8-37-3 (35-9). 31-0-36-9 (34-4); palate breadth ins. 
M\ 11-0-12*6 (11^7), 9-5-12-1 (10-5); anterior palatal foramina, 2*7-3-7 
(3-3). 2-7-4*5 (3-4); diastema, 7*0-100 (S'2), 6-6-9*5 (7-8); hulla length, 
16 1-18-5 (17-4) > 16-(W8-2 (17-0); bulla breadth, 12*5-14-2 (13-2), 11-7-14-2 
(12-5); basicranial axis, 21-3-23-7 (22-2), 19-9- 22*3 (21*3); bast facial axis, 
37 1-41 U (38-8), 33-8-39-4 (36*6): facial index, 163-190 (174), 168-183 (172); 
and in 4 adult and 2 subadult mandibular rami: depth below M , 8-0-9-7 (8*9), 
8*2-8*8 (8-4); breadth ascending process, 13 1-14*6 (13-S), J2-3440 (13 3). 


The range in dimensions hi tiie majority of items overlaps the minima for 
the recent South and Central Australian series and the means are usually belmv 
both, though nearer the latter; the mean variation for post diastema! elements 
is 15 per cent The dentition as a whole has a tendency to slightness, the reduc- 
tion iri most items being relatively greater than the skull si/.e (basal length) 
demands and where there are differences in an tero -posterior as compared with 
transverse diameters, the change is almost always iu the direction of narrow- 
ness, as in the South Australian group. 

Prediustemal teeth are too lew or alveolar damage too frequent to permit 
of strict eomparisons, but I 1 ,!] and the canine tend to be smaller teeth than in 
either of the recent scries, while P and P are intermediate. The greatest breadth 
(of enamel) for 9 examples of I 1 is 2-3-2-8 (2-6) and 7 examples of li give a 
coustant value of 3 mm. 

P* is proportionally reduced in both length and breadth and is close to the 
recent South Australian condition and narrower than in Central Australia, its 
grooves vary from 5 to 7 —5 occurring in 6 of the samples examined, 6 (n 4. and 
7 in 2; the 7 grooved variant has not been observed in recent material, but the 
extra grooves are vestigial and posterior. P ; j has 5 grooves only in the 3 ex- 
amined. The range and approximate mean of antero-posterior length in 12 
examples of P l and 3 of P% are respectively: 4'7-5*5 (5*1), 4*1-4-5 (4-4); and 
the maximum transverse breadth of the same 2*5-30 (2-6), 2--2-2*7 (21), 
The seeator P 4 lias dimensions close to the means for Central Australia and re- 
duced by 5-6 per cent, as compared with those of the recent South Australian 
material. Its talon development is frequently as marked as in the latter, but is 
equally variable and the cusp may be almost suppressed; the ratio of posterior 
breadth to length in the range of wear illustrated is about as in the recent 
material but the body of the tooth is frequently slimmer. Grooves vary from 
7 to 9. with the maximum frequency with the latter, as is usual; a 10 grooved 
variant docs not occur. Two examples ace of interest as showing very slight 
e.vlraversion of the anterior portion of the crests reminiscent of the condition in 
(he jnnmnlou\- Form recently referred to tentatively as B, penicMata anhydra. 


Pa is also it narrower tooth than |H the recent series, hot its grooves are con- 
stantly 8. which is the higher frequency in these also. Anteroposterior length 
m 13 examples of P^ and 4 of P 4 (with slight or moderate wear) arc respec- 
tively 7'2-8-S (8*1). 6*5-7 (6*7) and maximum transverse breadth in the 
same 8'3**2 (2-8) and 2*3-2*5 (2-4). 

Of the milk premolars the lower tooth is reduced slightly further when com- 
pared with the means of the recent scries than the upper onc> and the posterior 
lohe in both is narrower especially in comparison with the Central Australian 
condition, dimensions m )3 examples of MP 1 and 3 of MPi lire respectively; 
anteroposterior length. 3-3-3*8 (3-5), 31-3-3 (3*2); breadth anterior lobe, 
2-8-3-0 (2*9), 2*0-2-3 (2-1)- and breadth posterior lobe 30-3-5 (3-2), 
2-6-3-0 (2-7). 

The molar sue as assessed by the approximate crown area (length x half 
sum of the breadth of die two lobes) is smaller in all categories tlian in either 
of the recent series; die reduction being particularly marked in M\i and M 4 4 as 
compared with recent South Australian values- The interrelations of molars in 
point of size, gauged in the same way, is decidedly nearer the Centra] than the 
South Australian condition. The relative enlargement of the 2 posterior teeth 
characteristic of the latter is not shown. Both M 1 and M- art 1 large teeth which 
increase a collateral superiority of this pair over M :i and M 1 in the upper jaw, 
and in the. lower, the mean increase of Mi with respect to M ! is accentuated 
sLi II bother than m Cenlrai Australia, The index of reduction (largest/smallest 
molar) is 2 -4-6 -3 (3-G) in the tipper jaw and 2 -5-3 '2 (2-8) in the lower; the 
mean value for both is higher than in the recent South Australian series and 
that for the lower jaw is higher than in Central Australia as well, The mn-lar 
formulae and their approximate frequencies, and the percentage relation of the 
crown ureas of the several teeth to the corresponding first molars ifi as follows: in 
the upper jaw MP > M- > M s > M' 100 per cent, (the conditions M 1 > M- and 
M { = M* being absent) and M' 100; M- 101-115 (108): M* 54-93 (77); M 1 
16-43 ( 32 ) . In the lower jaw Ms > Ma > M, > M* 50 per cent, and 
M.. > M, >M S >M* 50 per cent. (M a ~M 2 being absent) and M, 100; M ; 
100-131 (124); Ma 88-113 (09); M 4 41-53 (52). 

to shape of molars as shown by the relation of anteroposterior length to 
greatest breadth and anterior to posterior lobe the agreement is wil.h the re<*mt 
South Australian condition, many of the molars being still narrower than in that 
series. The maxima for linear dimensions are here not infrequently with the 
subudnlt group > and the following figures for anteroposterior length, breadth of 
anterior lobe and breadth of posterior, lobe are derived bom 25 crania and 7 
mandibles, irrespective of age: M 1 3-7-4-2 (4-0), 3*5-4 2 (3 8). 3 74 2 H-0); 
M- 3-9-4-5 (4-2), 38-4*4 (41), 3-6-4-2 (3*9); M* 31-1*0 (3'B), 3 0-39 
(3*5), 2*4-3-5 (30): M< 1^-0 (2*4), 1 -7-2-8 (2*4), 1-4-2*0 (IS); M, 
3-6-40 (3-8), 3-03-4 (3-2). 3-5-3-9 (3*7); M- 4'hi'S (4*4), 37-40 (3-8), 
3*5-40 (3 8); Ma 3-6-40 (3 9), 3-5-4-0 (3*7), 3-1-3-5 (3-4); M, 2*4-29 
(2*6). 2-5-2-7 (2-6), 1-7-2 1 (1-9). The length of the- molar rows in situ arc. 
MV' 3 10-9-12-4 (11*8); M sl - 3 11-6-12-3 (11-0) 

The Curramulka series is of interest as confirming in a strict homorwtrie 
group of examples what ma)' be called the normal heteroeenitv of B. lesucuri 
in cranial characters as already seen in the Central and lower South Australian 
groups, which were drawn from much wider geographic limits. What was true 
for the earlier dual comparison is equally so in the present tripartite one, differ- 
ences being manifest in the average characters of groups rather than in indivi- 
duals, a large proportion of which arc indistinguishable, or &o dubiously so. as 
to be beyond the reach of a practical taxonomy. 

sunrossn. POTOIlOINAr; *97 

There is at present no information on the age of the Cirrrojmiika rave 
deposit, and an alternative view of the high variability of the scries might be 
based on the reasonable assumption that the caves have been acting us traps 
for a very long time during which the B. lesucttri population has undergone 
changes in average character, particularly in size, and that possibly the smallest 
adult forms represent an earlier population, and the largest, a later one. Nothing 
iu the appearance of the material as a whole suggests such a stratification. The 
species was known to occur on Yorke Peninsula in the early days of settlement 
there, but no recent examples axe available for direct comparisons. Moreover, 
the occurrence of similar dwarfs in recent populations uf Central und South Aus- 
tralia would still require explanation. This might perhaps be met by invoking 
the phenomenon or re-emergence, as accepted in the physical anthropology of 
Europe in explanation of the appearance of archaic types in urban populations, 
but there is much against this in the present case. 

While there may well be considerable differences in the antiquity of dif- 
ferent portions of the series, its dwarfs, as pointed out earlier, do n<»t form a 
recognisable structural type apart from the similarity in overall size. The posi- 
tion adopted elsewhere (op. cit.) in discussing the same problem as it occurs in 
B. penicillata o^ilbiji srill seems the mure probable; namely, that the dwarfing 
in this species is due to individual physiological anomalies, which either prcde- 
»<niuiie the subject to a stunted maturity, or at least predispose it to sneh when 
the life cycle is run under adverse conditions. 


For reasons developed above in connection with the normal variability of 
ihe species little of theoretical m teres I can safely be inferred from isolated speci- 
mens of infra specific distinction and all that can be done is to record the more 
eunspiouoos variations which occur,, irrespective of their possible significance. 
Two such claim attention. 

In the lower South -East district of the State at Mount Gambler and Tan- 
tanoola, in beds which have been regarded as coeval with the last phase of 
vulcanism there> examples occur with a narrow P* upon which the grooves of the 
external face are reduced to 7, thus adding considerably to the difficulty of dis- 
tinguishing Ihe species from others which accompany it (infra). 

A specimen from the Baldina Creek in the Burra district of the mid-north 
of South Australia is remarkable for its large size. It is a nearly complete skull 
without mandible of a young adult at P'M 1 and is the largest example of any 
series of B. le.sunuri measured by the writer. Most of its dimensions exceed the 
maxima for the recent series from lower South Australia and many of them 
exceed those of the available skulls from south-western Western Australia. The 
chief maxima are: greatest length 78*5; basal length 67 S; nasals length 30*7; 
rostrum depth 14-2; inteiorbilal breadth 17*5; anterior palatal foramina 5; 
diastema 10*5; bulla 18*8 x 15*0; basicranial axis 24-5; basifacial axis 44-4. 
Dcutul dimensions are witiiin the recent South Australian range and the molars 
(Ms 1 -*, 13*0) arc characteristically narrow. The left zygoma is lacking, but the 
estimated zygomatic breadth of 44-6 yields a breadth index of -57, which is 
low for ihe species. The skull has no claim to age and its place is obviously 
with the, recent series; tartar crusts arc still firmly adherent to the molars, anil 
tlit* circumstances of the find (6 feet deep in loatn) which were responsible for 
its relegation to the subfossil collection axe not significant of age in an animal 
which lives {and dies) in deep burrows of its own making. 



J i) identifying collections of mandibular fragments of Betiongia from the 
lower South-East* district of the State, the inherent difficulties due to normal 
irveilap in dimensions are much increased by the occurrence of a 3rd species, 
somewhat intermediate between B. lemeuri and B. panicittaia, In examples 
with worn dentition the difficulties of discriminating between this and B. 
Icmciirf may be almost insuperable if the molar sets arc incomplete, owing to 
Ihe occurrence of a 7-grooved and somewhat reduced variant of F lr in the latter 
(supra). By a fortunate chance the position was clarified by the recovery of 
an unworn Fj from the crypt of a mandible, which, proved that the intermediate 
form was a somewhat microdoot phase of B, cuniculm and the evidence of the 
premolar was then found to be supported by the molar condition, in which the 
gradation of the series is slight, Msi •■, being subcqual and M< remarkably large 
— in oik* ease impreeedeutedly so, in a mainland species, 

The dimensions of Pi in two examples from volcanic ash beds of Tan- 
ruuoola arc: length G'4.fb7; breadth *2*6-2-7: II/L -31-54; grooves 7; Ms x - y . 
i: 3-12 S; M 4 crown area, 10-2-11 -1 

B. cunicuhts as an extant species is exclusively Tasmanian; it has been 
claimed as a recent species for Victoria, but us far as 1 am aware no evidence 
of its former presence in South Australia has been previously adducedL 


(i) From southern districts (Kongarati* Mypolonga, Mo;uia, etc) come a 
aeries of specimens* broadly referable to the modern form B. peniciUata ogiUnjl 
rrcenllv extinct in South Australia. The range of dimensions determined upon 
thctn is wider in most items than in the recent series (op. eifc.), frequently over- 
lapping both maxima and minima, but the means are generally equal or slightly 
lower. Tire group is not only reconcilable with B,p. ogiJbyt as recently defined, 
but in some structural details may be said to represent that form in excehte- 
The premolar P- in particular while equal to the modern tooth in size has several 
of its characteristic features accentuated. The grooves on the external wall are 
swmctinves increased from 7 to 8 and arc frequently so on the internal wail and 
they are deeply incised and conspicuous and continue so almost to the lower 
margin of the enamel Extroversion of the axis is marked, the crest making an 
angle \A 15" or more with the lingual margin of M L and the height of the blade 
(eiMmiO) reaches a maximum of 1-6 mm. in unworn teeth, yielding the very 
high H/L ratio of -70. 

The molar rows reach a maximum of 12*8 for Msi-a with a mean of 11 6; 
M, i\ extremely variable*, its crown area ranging from 5'2-10*2 (8*1 ), this maxi- 
mum exceeding that of modem B.p. ogilbyi as represented here. The size 
icqitcnee is generally M* > Mi > M n > Mi us in the recent scries; but there are 
examples of"M^> M:t>Ma >M t and these when they Incorporate a huge M* 
priwenfc a molar combination scarcely distinguishable, from that ot B. cunlculus 
of Tunbinoola. 

A remarkable feature in this group, foreshadowed in a milder form m the 
recent series, is the anomalous distribution of tooth wear as between molars 
and premolars in some examples, Mandibles occur in which the molar series 
is so worn its to be almost denuded of crown detail, even on M*. while I\» is 
intact in every detail and dimension. Normally, the crowns of molars teamed 
with an unworn premolar are themselves scarcely touched by wear, while on 
the other hand a premolar working with molars as worn as these suhfussils would 
be denuded of groove* and reduced to one-half oi its nascent height. A rela- 
tively late toolh change was inferred (from indirect evidence) for the recent 


series ( 1958) and these present anomalies may be due simply to eases of extreme 
retardation in eruption of P*. On the other hand, they may possibly indicate a 
revolution in the feeding habits ol some individuals, cither ulnmimaJIy en- 
vironed or abnormally selective of foodstuffs. 

(2) A collection from the archaeological site of Devon Downs in the lower 
Murray Valley is of interest as being derived from a series of stratified beds, 
systematically excavated by Hale and Tmdalc (1930) and in part dated by 
C14 determinations (1957)" 

The material consists of about 50 fragments of maxillae and mandibles with 
teeth both in situ and displaced, the mandibles being about 1 times as numerous 
as the maxillae. Bcitangui is represented in levels 1. 3. 4, ft, 7, 8, 9 and 11, 
giving a lime span of approximately 5000 years, but % of the material was taken 
from levels ti and 7. A selection of 33 of the best preserved examples repre- 
senting all the levelh named has been measured and examined in dctaih but m 
forming conclusions as to identity, reliance has been chiefly placed upon speci- 
mens with pmuolars, as these are diagnostic to a much greater degree than 
molars. All premolars examined are undoubtedly of B. penicilhua $. lata and 
as mII molar sets not associated with premolars show about the same variety 
us diosc which are, there is a strong probability that this is the only species of 
B&ttOrlglti present. 

The denial and mandibular- characters indicate a small phase of the species 
muchly intermediate in size between the modem B.p. ogilhiji and the small skidl 
described as u dwarf oE that form ( 1958 op. cit. 287) and larger than the types of 
B.p. francisca and B.p. anhydra. The series is comparatively uniform and al- 
though most items measured give dimensions which overlap the minima of the 
range tor B.p, o^ilhyi, the means are decidedly lower and after a serial compari- 
son of all specimens it is considered unlikely that that form is represented any- 
where in the collection, nor is there evidence of any progressive change from a 
larger to a smaller type or vice versa with changing age of the beds. 

The permanent premolars of both jaws in essential structural points, such 
us extraversiou, torsion and shape, and distribution of grooves are very much 
as in B.p. ogilbyi, but they are narrower teeth, less high anteriorly and the 
grooves in 50 per cent, of examples arc reduced from 7 to 6 and on P 8 from 5 
to 4, The molars are also smaller: but although the size sequences are as in 
B.p. ogilbyi, the size gradation of M 1 and M 4 with respect to the subequal Af 1 
and M- is frequently much steeper, approaching the standard of B.p, jmncrsca 
and anhydra; u well-marked example of this trend givc^ the relative crown areas: 
MM 00; -VI -98; M a 63; M*20 : with a reduction ratio of S-U. which is unequalled in 
B.p. opiUnji. Some dimensions of teeth with the numbers of each measured arc 
as follows: P 4 (4) length. 6 1-71 (6-4); do. hraulth, 2-5-2-8 (2-6): do. H/L. 
•56- -64 (60), P 4 (8) length. 5-6-6-3 (GO); do. breadth, 2-1-2 7 (2 4); do. 
11/L, -58- -85 ( ■fBj! P 3 <5) length, 3-6-4-0 (3-0); do. breadth, 2-1-2-5 (2-3); 
MP><7) length, 2-7-3-0 (2-9); do. breadth posterior lobe, 2-3-2-7 (2«5); 
Ms'- a (7) HM)-11*8 (11-3); Ms x - 3 (9) 10-5-11-7 (11*2); the minima for the 
molar rows are derived from very worn examples. 

This population evidently persisted almost into modern times and wa\ 
coeval with that of B.p. o*ilhyi> but not syrnpatric with it, so far as the Devon 
Downs site is concerned. Its existence raises some curious problems regarding 
its possible relations to the hypothetical subarid race represented by the soli- 
tary infantile specimen of the Waldana knrpitchi and of which it may actually 
project a former south-eastern extension. 



Since this was described from caves at the western end of Kangaroo Island 
(1938), Mr. II. M. Cooper has taken it in camp site debris at Pennington Bay 
at the other extremity of the south coast of the island. The specimen was a 
much-eroded fragment of a mandible, but yielded a perfect crown of P 4 from 
its crypt. It proves to be a prominently 2-grooved and 3-cusped tooth with ,the 
median cusp undivided, much smaller and distinctly lower than its fellows; the 
axis is straight and the body constricted to correspond to the grooves of the 
crown, so that in the superior view it is distinctly trilobed with the maximum 
width near the middle; its length and greatest breadth are identical with those 
of the type, in spite of the difference in wear. 

The srjecies also occurs in levels 1. 6 and 7 of the Devon Downs deposits, 
as mandibular parts, and comparison of these with the Kaugaroo Isand man- 
dible may be had from the following figures, which give in turn dimensions 
for the single type mandible and the range in five specimens from Devon Downs: 
length, dental foramen to masseteric fossa, 15-H, 1S-5-16-3 (15-9) (2), depth 
below' M*, 5-8, 6-0-6-8 (6-3) (5): P, length, 4-1, 4-1-4-2 (4*1 ca) (3); P 4 
breadth, V% 1-8-2-0 (1-9) (3); Ms i;; , 9-5, 9-7-10-3 (10-0) (5). The main- 
land mandible appears to be slightly heavier than in the type and the molar 
rows are a little longer, but there is overlapping in some items and with more 
insular specimens this would no doubt he increased. The premolar agreement 
is close, both in dimensions and general structure, though they are all too worn 
for fine detail to be assessed. The molar sequence is M 2 > Mrs > or = Mi > M\ 
as in the type; the single mainland example of M* is a larger tooth than its 
Kangaroo Island counterpart, but empty alveoli iu mainland jaws indicate that 
it may sometimes be very minute. 

Most of the dentitions are heavily worn and in this condition show a charac- 
teristic pattern, in which a remnant of the floor of the nndvalley persists as a 
central island of enamel, sharply defined against the dentine by crescentic 
margins — they are suggestive of the worn crowns of the (?much larger) ^Hypsi- 
primnus" figured by Johnston in 1.881 from the Tertiary of One Tree Point, 

Fotuwm cf tridactijlus is chiefly represented by collections from cave de- 
posits on the Glenelg River, and will be reviewed elsewhere with the recent 


Finlaysgn, H- H-, 1938, Trans- Kov. Soo, S. Aust, 62 (1), p. 132. 
FiNLAiSox. H. H., 1958. Rest S. Aust. Museum. XIII (2). pp. 236-302. 
Haus* H. \!., und Tjmulk, N. B.. 1930. Ree. S. Aust. Museum, 4, pp. 145-218. 
TrNDAtE. N. B-, 1988: Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Aust, LVII, p. 134. 


byC. AbeleandB. McGowran 


The Lower Cambrian rocks between Sellick Hill and Yankalilla have been divided into five 
formations. In the continuous Precambrian-Cambrian sequence the base of the Cambrian has been 
defined by the lowest known occurrence of Hyolithes in the area. The Cambrian sequence is 
characterized by a much greater carbonate content than the underlying Marinoan. Correlation with 
the Cambrian elsewhere in the State is only tentative. The Marinoan rocks in the central part of the 
area are thrust over the Cambrian to the north-west, and the Cambrian is now found as a series of 
folds lying mainly between the Black Hill Fault and the Willunga Fault. 


C, Abele and B. McCowhan* 

[Read 9 October 1958] 


The Lower Cumbrian rocks between Selliek Hill unci Yankablla have. been 
divided into five formations. In the continuous Prcoanihrian-Cainbrian sequence 
the base of the Cambrian has been defined by the lowest known occurrence of 
llyolithes in the area. The Cambrian sequence is characterized by a much 
greater carbonate content than the underlying Marinoan. Correlation with the 
Cambrian elsewhere in the State is only tcnlative- 

The .Yhirlnoan rocks in the central part of the area are thrust over the 
Cambrian to the north-west, and the Cambrian is now found as a series of folds 
lying mainly between the Black Hill Fault and iht; \Villunga Fault. 


The discoveries by Howehiu (1897) of Archaeocyatha in crystalline lime- 
stone at Norman ville and Selliek HilL and of 'ptcropod remains" (Hyolithes 
Eietiwald) in ""black marble near Nomianvllle" by David (Howchin. 1897). 
conclusively proved that at least a part of the rocks of the Mt Lofty Ranges 
was of Cambrian age. Howclrin (1897) drew a rough geological section of the 
strata at Selliek Hill, dividing the rocks into argillites, limestones and quartzites. 
He considered the Archaeocyatha to occur at two main horizons and that they 
formed "a true coralline reef in the Cambrian seas". Howclrin admitted the 
possibility that the succession in the Selliek Hill area was to some extent re- 
versed or extensively faulted. 

Madigan (1925) published a sketch-map of the geology of the Fleurieu 
Peninsula, together with geological sections at Selliek Hill, Myponga Beach, 
Cairickidmga Head and Carrickalinga Creek. lie also published a paper on 
fossils and the indications of organic activities within the Selliek Hill Limestone, 
at Myponga Beach (1926). Mavvson (1925) also examined this limestone., and 
considered that its origin was associated with algal activity. He measured a 
detailed section within the Cambrian at Selliek Hill. 

The idea that the stratigraphie succession was overturned at Selliek Hill 
was definitely stated in print by Madigan in 1927. Madigan also mentions the 
possibility of an unconformity between (he Cambrian and the Prccambrian 
rocks. Segnit (1039) published u geological map with observations on the 
Myponga Beach area. 

The publication most helpful to the writers was the geological map of the 
Yankalilla sheet and its accompanying explanation by Caropana, Wilson and 
Whittle of the Geological Survey of' South Australia (1*954, 1955). 


The north-western boundary of the area studied is formed by the Willunga 
Fault scarp, bordering the Willunga Basin, which is filled with Tertiary and 
Quaternary sediments. 

11 University of Adelaide. 
Trans. Rny. Soc. S. Ausfc. (1959), Vol. 83- 



To the south of the scarp the topography is the result of rejuvenation of the 
old peneplaincd plateau of folded Precambrian and Cambrian rocks. Valley- 
in-valley topography, indicating at least two periods of rejuvenation, is seen in 
the creek to the south of the new Sellick Hill road. 

The drainage system is oriented approximately perpendicular to the shore 
line, with numerous bends and small branches at light angles to the main 
direction. Creeks have cut deeply into the hills, forming steep-sided gullies. 
This fact, combined with the rough coincidence of the general strike of the beds 
with the direction of the shore line, enables good structural sections to be ob- 
served in the creeks. 

Since the limestone is the most common rock type, with Cambrian sand- 
stone practically absent, the area consists of rounded hills. Most of the shore 
line, however, is characterized by steep cliffs. Where the Sellick Hill Limestone 
outcrops on the coast, wave-cut platforms are common: the Archaeocyatha 
limestone sometimes forms narrow, sandy beaches. 

In the southern part of the area a coastal plain, with sand dunes on its 
western side, separates the sea from tile hills. The plain is covered with flat* 
lying Quaternary and Permian sediments. 



The locality in which most previous work on the succession has been done 
is Sellick Hill (Ilowehin, 1897; Mawson, 1925; etc.), Hence the section through 
the relatively undisturbed Cambrian strata in this locality is considered as the 
type section for the Cambrian of the Willunga Scarp and the coastal areas to 
the south-west. The writers divided the Cambrian rocks into five formations. 
The lowest is referred to as the Wangkonda Formation and may be subdivided 
in the north into two members: the Hyotithes sandstone at the base, and the 
limestone member. At Carrickalinga Creek the formation is a calcareous sand- 
stone. The Sellick Hill Limestone succeeds this, and is for the most part a 
characteristically banded limestone. The Fork Tree Limestone includes the 
dominant Archaeocyatha limestone with a thin mottled limestone at the top. 
In ascending order, the rest of the succession is included in the Hcatherdale 
Shales. With a lower and a thicker upper member, and the alternating sequence 
of greywackes and shales of the Kanmantoo Group. 


Campana and Wilaon 195f» 

A bole and AluUowmn IMS 



upper filatfrs with phosphotie nodules 

upper Arc-hafOCtjfLtkhi'-n- liuiesUmo 

motrlod limes t on ws utid ealeareoiia slates 

low**** ArckneocyulMnap limestone 




upper momhflr 

lovvet' member 

mottled limest.ono 






limestone TOTrarber 


Ilf/olith^ sr. 




Geographical names used in naming the formations have been taken from a 
well-known topographic feature (Sellick Hill) and from local pastoral properties. 
The Heatherdale farm extends over part of the area to the north, where good 
exposures of the shales are found; similarly the Archaeocyatha and mottled 
limestones are well exposed on the Fork Tree property, situated inland from 
Carrickalinga Head. "Wangkonda" is the aboriginal name for a salt pan south 
of Sellick Beach (Mr. N. B. Tindale, personal communication). 

Since Campana and Wilson carried out the most detailed geological map- 
ping of the area previous to the writers" work there, S comparison of their strati- 
graphic units and the ones described in this paper is tabulated in Tabic 1, 





H-^-i. y 

i "," \ 




i i i i i 

J .".~T 

: l_ 


1 I 1 




_j (L^J 


1 1 

■ ■ - ' • ^ 



t 1. ~~ 1IJ 



.'.."-i.i 1 

i i i 




<M,j .■",-,-; »»5V» 


Fig. 1. — Cambrian Sequences, Sellick IliltCarrickalinga Creek, 

A scries of stratigraphic sections is given in Fig. 1. The section from the 
new road includes measurements of the mottled limestone, and succeeding units 
taken where they outcrop on the coast to the south-west. The southernmost 
section is also composite, and is poorly known due. to structural complications. 
Thus the thicknesses of the Fork Tree Limestone and younger formations can 
Only bo indicated very roughly. 


Although they have not been specifically studied, these rocks of late Pre- 
eambrian age are mentioned here because of their apparently conformable re- 
lationship to the Cambrian strata. They occm* in three structurally separated 
areas: at Schick Hill in the north and at Carrickalinga Creek in the south the 
succession is evidently undisturbed; in the central part, from Black Hill to near 
Carrickalinga Plill, the rocks considered to be of Marinoan age are separated 
from the Cambrian bv the Black Hill Fault. 

;: : i- C, AhF.T.K and D, McGOWHAN 

Below the. lowest known fossdiferous unit at Sellick Hill the rocks are 
mainly shales and slates, sometimes sandy and occasionally slightly calcareous. 
Exposure is usually fairly good in the creeks, but poor on the hills. Massive 
quart/.itcs with a tendency to lense occur In the sequence, and felspathie sand- 
stones have been found near the top. The uppermost Precambrian is well 
exposed on the new Sellick Hill road, where hands of rpiartzite, interbedded in 
shalcs» arc better dcvelox^ed than on die old road. 

The quattzite bands of Black Hill are evidently equivalent to those on the 
new road-, although the two localities are structurally separated by the fault. 
The litholo^y 01 the sequence beneath these is fairly uniform. Slates are most 
common, often phyliltic and often calcareous. Small bands and lenses of sandy 
material may occur in the argillites, and the coarser material is frequently cross- 
bedded. The sequence contains Jensing bands of well sorted quortzitc, and also 
of dense blue limestone. In comparison with the Marinoaa at Sellick Hill, u 
higher carbonate content is evident. 

The roclcs below the Waugkonda Formation in the neieh bom hood of Car- 
rtekahnga Creek are highly calcareous. These beds, considered to be of upper 
Marinuan age, and to be. in an undisturbed sequence, include slates, commonly 
calcareous, limestones, both massive and slaty, and quartzites. 

A trend of overall increase in the carbonate content in rocks of this age. from 
uorth-east to south-west is evident However, the trend is in the opposite direc- 
tion m the Myponga Creek area, and the facies change to the south, toward 
the highly calcareous Myponga Creek section, is very pronounced. 



A peculiar heterogeneous sandstone outcrops above the Mai moan on the 
new road. It persists to the north-east bevond Sellick Hill and is found below 
a massive limestone to the south of Black Hill. The rock consists of quartz 
and felspar grains, mainly angular, and contains dark discontinuous bands and 
streaks of clay, the whole being set in a carbonate matrix in fresh material. In 
most outcrops, however, the rock is leached of carbonate. It is slightly more 
than fifty feet thick on the new road. An important feature is the occurrence 
of a deeply weathered band of clay containing numerous Hijoltthes. This band, 
found on the new road, is only a few inches thick and may be of very limited 
lateial extent. Although Hyolithes has not been found elsewhere in the poorly 
outcropping unit, the latter is referred to as the Hyolithes sandstone because 
of die importance of this earliest fossil occurrence in the area, and is mapped 
as the lower member of die formation, 

The second member differentiated in the Sellick Hill region corresponds in 
part to the "lower Archaeocijatkinae" limestone of Campana, Wilson and Whittle 
( 1954, iy.56) and is called the limestone member. It consists of massive, mainly 
blue-grey and grey recrystallized limestone, with n median band rich in quartz 
grains, The h>wer contact of the member is gradational in some places, chang- 
ing upwards from a diin, discontinuous layer of banded rock to massive lime- 
stone, fn other localities the contact is well defined. 

The member is cut off by the Black HiTl Fault to die north of Black Hill. 
An isolated outcrop occurs to the south of Black Hill, possibly terminated by a 
fault at one end and covered by Permian at the other. Anodier isolated outcrop 
nf the member, surrounded by younger formations, occurs slightly more than a 
mils tu the west 


The outcrops of the Wangkonda Formation in the south of the area arc 
separated from those in tlie north, described above, by a distance of several 
miles. South of Myponga Creek, the northernmost occurrence of rock outcrops, 
correlated with the limestone member, is within a loop of outcropping quartzite 
to the north of the sharp bend in the Myponga Bcach-Normaavflle road. These 
isolated outcry patches consist of massive limestone However, the pre- 
dominant rock type in the Carrickalinga Creek and neighbouring areas is a 
calcareous sandstone consisting of abundant quartz grains in a calcareous matrix 
It usuallv weathers to a light buff or greyish colour; fresh surfaces are most 
commonly dark blue* but less often a light brown, colour. It is essentially a 
stratified rock, aJthough usually the bedding is poor and parts are quite massive. 
Less common rock types include pale grey massive milestone and reddish-brown, 
coarse, arkosic sandstone. ^ 

The calcareous sandstone is stratigraphically immedialely below the Sclhck 
Hill Limestone and is correlated with the two members of the Waugkonda 
Formation at Sellick Hill (Fig, 1). Because of the great difference in lithulogy 
of the sequence below the Sellick Hill Limestone in the northern and southern 
part of the area respectively, the correlation of the base of the Waugkonda 
Formation is not as conclusive as desirable. 

The thicknesses of the subdivisions of the limestone member were measured 
as follows; 

On the hill above the new Sellick Hill road: 

Upper massive limestone 100 ft. 

Median band 88 ft. 

Lower massive baud ...... 210 ft. 

At Sellick Hill; 

Upper massive limestone . 105 It- 

Median band 15 ft 

Lower massive band 200 ft. 

The median band is a markedly lousing unit. The thickness of the Wang- 
konda Formation in Carrickalinga Creek was estimated by pacing as approxi- 
mately 300 feet. It increases somewhat inconsistently towards the north. 

The writers have failed to find any fossils either in the calcareous sandstone 
ox in the limestone member, though microscopic Archacocyatha were recorded 
in the latter bv Campana, Wilson and Whittle (1955, p. 9). These, however, 
were stated to average 0-25 mm. in diameter, i.e. much smaller than the earliest 
known growth stages of this gioup {Dr. B. Daily, persona! communication). 


This formation, like the Arehaeocyatha limestone above it, is persistent and 
easily traced over nearly the whole length of the Cambrian in this area. It 
characteristically consists of an alternation of bands of pale or dark grey crystal- 
line limestone with buff, shaly bands (PL 1> Fig. 4). 

There is a wide variation in the thickness, clastic/non-clastic ratio and 
degree of lateral extension of die bands, and the sharpness of contacts between 
them. The "shalv" bands axe commonly largely calcareous and only relatively 
more sbaly than the "calcareous"" bands. Weathering exaggerates the difference 
in composition. The average thickness of the bands is approximately £-3 cm.; 
however, bands as thick as W cm. occur. The calcareous and the shaly bands 
arc not always of the same magnitude: sometimes the Uiicknesses of the shaly 
hands exceed those of the calcareous bands or vice versa. The shaly layers 
usually form continuous bands. The calcareous layers are more variable. They 
are of irregular thickness, showing pinching and swelling, and often disappear- 

$$ C- *&KL£ ani> B. MeGOWKAN 

ing entirely for short distances. Commonly the shaly bands are crudely bedded^ 
the .limestone layers show such lamination only rarely. 

Thin .sections were made of part of the rock where the calcareous bands 
were discontinuous arid lumps of limestone were surrounded by more shaly 
rock. In most sections the shaly laminae drape, around the limestone Jumps to 
some extent (this is often observed in the unit at Myponga Beach, where "bed- 
ding planes, marked by a concentration of small Htjolithex (P3. 1 Fig. 2) ex- 
hibit undulations parallel to the irregular upper surface of the limestone hands) 3 
or <-nd against the shale-limestone boundary. In only one section the calcareous 
portions are weakly laminated. The thicknesses enclosed between any two 
laminae are less in the shaly part thim those between the corresponding famLnac 
in die calcareous lumps'. 

hi the Schick Hill area the formation consists of a lower, mainly clastic 
part, characterised by an abundance of angular quartz grains (from silt to 
sand size) in a calcareous matrix. The upper part exhibits better developed 
banding. The boundary between die two subdivisions is rarely distinctly observ- 
able, hence the formation was mapped as a single unit. 

At Myponga Beach and neighbouring areas the base of the Se.llick Hill Urne- 
stone* is covered by the sea. The exposed part exhibits well developed banding. 
B;mtLs rich in coarse quartz grains occur at some horizons, as well as internally 
breccia ted layers. 

In outcrops in the Carrickalinga Head region the formation commonly 
OOffttfttn of bands rtf massive, dark blue or purplish- black limestime and finely 
laminated shale. Weathering produces a characteristic serrated surface — pro- 
jecting more or less 7 consistently thick bands ate separated by recessed layers. 

Generally speaking, the formation is more shaly towards its base vertically 
and towards the south horizontally. 

The thickness of the formation, as measured at Sellick Hill, is 580 feet In 
Carriclcalinga Crock it is about 310 befe in the two creeks to the north it is 
approximately 400 and 560 feet respectively (calculated from aerial photo- 
graphs). At Myponga Beach a thickness of over 400 feet is exposed; the rest 
is covered by the sea. 

At Schick Hill the formation contains Hyolithcx at various horizons from 
just above its base to 2& feet above it, as well as worm casts and burrows. At 
Myponga Beach a remarkably rich concentration of large Ittjolithes is associated 
with several layers of internally brecciatcd rock, each approximately 10 cm. thick, 
recording minor diastems within the unit. At this same general horizon (ap- 
proximately 300 feet below the contact with the Archacocyatha limestone) less 
notable concentrations! of small Hyultlhrs occur nt various levels within the shalv 
bands. This is* the best known locality for Ui/olithes. The gastropod HdcioneU'a 
Grabau and Shimer antl braebiopods (Dr. M. F. Claessner, personal communi- 
cation; Daily, 1956) also occur here. Htjolillies has been found at approximately 
the same horizon to lire east of Myponga Beach. Sponge spicule fragments 
{Clufticellona Walentt ) were discovered just below the contact with the 
Archacocyatha limestone in the creek about a mile to the south from Mvponga 
Beach, and u solitary Archaeoeyathid within a calcareous band of the formation. 
HtjolHhes was found at an undeterminable horizon within the formation to the 
south-west of tiro isolated outcrop of Archaeocyatha limestone about a mile east 
of Carrickalinpa Head. 


Lower member— ArchacoctjatlM limestone. Of all the Cambdan rock units 
in the region the outcrops of Archacocyatha limestone ooctipv the largest area. 
The major anticline, of which the Arehaeocyalfia limestone is the thickest com- 

c;eodogy or cambrian south of Adelaide ao? 

patent member, is the dominant, structural feature. The Archaeocyatha hine- 
stone unit is htijologieally remarkably uniform. 

The limestone is most commonly light grey to moderately dark blue on 
fresh surfaces. It weathers to a pale grey, nearly white or somewhat light 
brownish colour, it is generally a very pure, finely crystalline limestone, with 
more than 90 per cent, of carbonate minerals, A small amount of detrital minerals 
is present, quartz being the most common. It is probably dolomitized to a certain 
extent in various parts. 

The limestone is characteristically massive and occasionally jointed. 

The thickness of the unit was measured as 570 feet at Sellick Hill. In the 
Myponga Beach region the thickness is approximately 7flll feet; in the southern 
part no reliable measurements can be obtained of the total thickness because of 
folding and faultiug (in Carriekalinga Creek the observable* fhtokness was esti- 
mated by pacing as about 380 feet). The limestone thus varies in thickness 
(Fig. 2), thinning to the north beyond Sellick Hill. 

Ufypcr member— mottled limestone. Towards the top of the Fork Tree 
Limestone a marked change in lidiology from a massive lo a mottled limestone 
is observed. The characteristic appearance of this motthnl limestone is diat of 
dark blue (sometimes approaching black) angular lumps of limestone sur- 
rounded by yellow-brOwn (sometimes reddish), somewhat more shaly material. 
Characteristically the distribution of the*, two components is highly irregular, 
often indicating breceiation; sometimes a degree of parallelism of the two distinct 
lithologics is exhibited. There is only a slight differential weathering of die 
two components. 

The member is observed, or, in some creeks> inferred^ to extend as a con- 
tinuous band from north of Sellick Hill to about two miles north of Myponga 
Beach. Tlit; mottled limestone does no!, outcrop between this locality and 
Myponga Creek, to the south of which it continues for approximately two miles, 
(Uitil it is cut off by the Black Hill Fault It reappears on the other side of 
the major anticline in the neighbourhood of Carriekalinga Head, truncated by 
the sea at its northern and by the inferred continuation of the Black Hill Fault 
at its southern extremity. 

The tliickness of the member was measured as 38 feet on the old Sellick 
Hill road, and 60 feet near the coast west of Black Hill. Near Carriekalinga 
Head it is approximately 100 feet thick. Even though the mottled limestone 
is much thinner than the Arehaeocyatha limesron-e, its greatly different litbology 
■mil persistence and ease of mapping justifies its separation as an upper member 
of the l'ork Tree Limestone. 

Spicules of Chancelloria were found in this unit at Mt Terrible Cnlly. A 
braehiopod has also been found in the same locality* by Dr. B. Dailv* {personal 


Tlirs formation can be divided into two members. 

Lower member, The lop of the mottled limestone is taken as the formation 
boundary, hi some localities the contact is marked by an abrupt change in 
weathering. The shales are here less resistant to leaching, and the member is 
found as an alternation of very friable shales and more resistant limestone. On 
llie oilier hand, in other localities the lower few feet consist of highly calcareous* 
banded rock which does not disintegrate so easily. 

The shales are usually brightly coloured (red, pink), with colour banding. 
Tli*? beds may he sandy .and sometimes (rarely) show cross-beddtng on a small 
se-de. The more or less regular dark-blue bands of limestone which alternate 
with these tend to be replaced by large nodules toward the top of the member. 



On the old road at Sellick Hill this member does not outcrop. To the 
south, die mottled limestone is succeeded by a well-bedded and banded sequence 
of blue limestone and yellow or pink shaly limestone. Soft pink shales with 
blue nodules follow these. To the north of the old road similar shales imme- 
diately succeed the mottled limestone. In Mt. Terrible Gully and the next creek 
to the south the rocks are deeply weathered. The sequence is cipparently 
almost completely clastic, and often sandy. There is little indication of the 
abundant carbonate which characterizes this horizon in other parts of the area. 
The uppermost few feet, especially hi the creek to the south, contain numerous 
ovoid hollows, which obviously once contained limestone nodules. 

Still further south-west (on and near the coast to the west of Black Hill) 
the rocks are highly calcareous. Dark blue limestone is found hi bands, some- 
times broken and a few centimetres thick. The shale/limestone ratio varies con- 
siderably but in the sixty feet developed in this section there L a definite but 
irregular upward increase in the clastic component. Large ovoid nodules then 

\ s 5 \ \ v 

k If Y i 


Fig. 2, — Structural sections, Sellick Hilt-Carrickalinga Head. The location 

of each Section is shown on the map (Fig. 4). Topography accurate; 

vertical scale not exaggerated. 







.3-0 <7 . 


_ — — - 

1, 1 J 

i I 

1 1 li 


4- rrr 

T-l ■■!--)■ 





j i 

i > 

Heafh ercfs/e Sh&/e 
Fork Tree L /snesfone 
Se///c/< ///// Lf'/riesfone 
W3noUonc/& Form&fton 

40 SO 




appear and become common toward the top of the member* Many arc 15 
inches or more in diameter (the largest found is over 3 feet across). Distorted 
laminations may bo traded around these nodules, although the latter MJmetimcs 
show laminations. A concentric structure is seen in thin sections of the nodules 
which, although not phosphatic, contain quartz and some fine opaque dark 
material, probably organic, lite nodules are arranged in rows: certain bedding 
pfaoes may be traced for several yards with nodules roguTarly placed about six 
feet apart. Where well preserved the shales at the top nf the member are black 
and occasionally pyritic. Small phosphatic nodules and elongated segregations 
uccur iu the tapper part of the member. 

Many of these features ate found at Myponga Creek. The beds ihere are 
deeply weathered, however, and large nodules are tumid only in a lew bands 
immediately below the brown shales of the upper member. 

At Carrickalinga Head the member is aguin highly calcareous tliroughout. 
In the cliffs about one-quarter of a mile to the north there is a sequence of 
black rubbly limestone layers separated by black shales, with the latter deeply 
recessed by' weathering. This rock-type is found when occurring inland, to be 
similar to the alternating limestone and shale bands described above. Shales 
with Ititge nodules are again found above, the bands, and they -are pyritic when 
well preserved. 

The memher is about 2-30 feet thick to the south of Seilick Hill; 225 feet 
west of Black Hill; and about 200 feel (an esilmation only) at Myponga Beach. 
The iiicompelently folded sequence at Carrickalinga Head could not be properly 
measured; novvevcr, the unit is thicker here lhan to the north. 

Abundant small ribbed gastropods were found as internal and external 
moulds in the creek immediately south of the new road. They occur in the 
deeply weathered shales about fifty feet above the uppermost outcrop nf 
Archaeocyatha limestone (the mottled limestone does not outcrop here). The 
gastropods are An undescrihed species of Uelicionella. Hiiolithes was found just 
above this level, on horizons a few inches apart. The fossils seem to be pre- 
served largely as iron oxides, also in a deeply weathered matrix, and each 
bedding, plane contains a targe number of specimens. This indicates accumu- 
lation and sorting during the tune break represented by each bedding plane. 
Although flattened and altered, they are rather large, and are possibly H. piano- 
ixmvc^o (Tate) (Dr. H. Daily, personal communication). Hyolithes is also 
present at lire same level (approximately), north of Seilick Hill, west of Black 
Hill, at Cairickalinga Head (found by Dr. B. Daily), and on th^ coast about 
three-quarters- of a mile to the north of the latter locality. Sponge spicules., over 
one em. in length, occur in the large nodules at CarriukuKnga Head. 

iJftfwr member. The contact between ihc i\\o members Fs well shown west 
of Biar.k HilL and is also found at Myponga Beach and south of Seilick Hill, 
About five feet of shales sandwich^ between the large nodules and the grey- 
wackes at Carrickalinga Head are also considered to belong to (he upper mem- 
her. the Ileathcrdalc Shales cannot be subdivided sufficiently clearly, for the 
purposes of mapping, south of Myponga Beach. 

In till cases a sudden decrease in carbonate content is evident. Tlve contact 
has been mapped as being the upper limit of the occurrence of large nodules. 
Above this, and evidently conformable, is a uniform scries of often dark, grey 
oi brownish shales often dominated by cleavage, so that the bedding planes 
are difficult to detect. Small phosphatic nodules, cither concentrated on certain 
bedding planes or scattered more uniformly, are common, ft I on gate inclusions 
of die same composition occur. In one of the sections west of Black Hill, how- 


ever, large carbonate nodules arc found 3 feet .above the first appearance of the 
upper member. 

Red nodules occur iu this area, in :i six* foot band several feel below* the 
contact with the Tertiary limestones. These euotain hematite and goyazlte 
(determined by Dr, JB. J. Skinner), as well £H apatite. The black nodules, which 
are abundant throughout the area, have apatite, sometimes goyazite, and prob- 
ably organic matter. Carbonate is lacking* as in the matrix. 

Elsewhere in the region the sequence is fairly uniform. The shales ate black 
or grey on the fresh surfaces, and apatite nodule* appear at varying distances 
above the lower contact. The upper contact is not seen except at and to the 
south-west of Myponga Creek, where the member is very greatly thinned. To 
the north the Willunga Fault may have cut off the topmost beds, although it is 
possible that this is not the case (seo Fig. 2). Consequent erosion of the scarp 
back from the fault has resulted in the covering of others by Recent outwash 
material. Campana and Wilson (Campana, Wilson and Wfuttlc, 1&55, p. 8) 
give the observable thickness of the formation as 700 feet; it fs likely that the 
figure for the upper member alone approaches 800 feet. 

The only fossil found in the upper member of the Ilcatiu rdule Shales fs a 
flattened gastropod from north of Cartiekalinga Head With a concentric structure 
and eccentric af&K, Dr, B, Daily (personal communication) lias suggested that 
it may be a species of Scenella Billings, and this seems likely. 


Iu the cove north of Carrickalinga Head there are five feet of .shales follow- 
ing the uppermost appearance of the large nodules. The rest of the sequence 
is an alternation of greywaeke ami shale, or weathered slate. Each band of 
greywaeke seems to be a unit of deposition, usually up to five feet thick. Such 
units may be separated by a comparable thickness of shale, or the two grey- 
wackc units may be almost adjacent. 

Several thin sections of greywaeke were studied. The texture is tlie most 
noticeable feature: the angularity of the coarse component, and the presence 
of fine material. Quartz is the dominant mineral. The grains are in some rases 
more than 0-2 mm. in maximum diameter with some more than 0-5 mm.; in 
others the average is less, the bulk being closer to 01 mm. Other minerals of 
similar grain size include microcline, plagioclasc and epidote, all varying con- 
siderably in amount. Rock fragments, of low regional meramorphic gracTc, are 
often found, as Ls muscovite* 

The interstitial material is apparently nearly all detrital matrix, cither un- 
altered or slightly metamorphosed since accumulation. A black component is 
seen, under very high power, to be opaque and fibrous. This, according to 
Dr. B. J. Skinner (personal communication), is almost certainly organic. Iron, 
perhaps in the form of goethite, accompanies this. Although the detrital matrix 
is very much in evidence in thin section, it tends to be wrapped around the 
grains, and occupies less of the total volume of rock than is evident under lower 

The coarser components of I he rock are within the sandstone range, The 
mainly detrital interstitial matrix is more abundant than is the case" in sur>- 
greywacke. It is concluded that the rock may best be termed a greywaeke 
(taking the distinction between greywaeke and subgreywacke as hased primarily 
on degree of textural maturity, rather than on mineralogical grounds). 

These rocks are found only in the soudiern part of the area, from Myponga 
Reach to Carrickalinga Creek- Although the greywaeke units retain their shape 
during folding, they are very jumbled on the coast. This is evidently due to 

312 C. ARE1.F. Asn B. MrOOWIMV 

the incompetent folding of the Ileatherdale Shales against the massive crystal- 
line limestone. Unfortunately neither group could be accurately measured, but 
the maximum thickness of the exposed greywacke-shafc sequence is approxi- 
mately 450 feet. 


Unconsolidated sand and boulder clay of glacial origin cover isolated parts 
of the area- No detailed mapping of these subhorizontal sediments was at- 


Bryozoal Miocene limestones rest unconformably on the Cambrian rocks at 
the edge of the Willunga Basin. 


Quaternary deposits hi the area include coastal sand and dunes, subhori- 
zontal alluvial clay and gravel, and kunkan 


( a ) The Precambrian 

A close resemblance has been found between the pre-fossiliferous sequence 
in this area and the Adelaide System of the western Mt. Lofty Ranges to the 
north (Camj)ana, Wilson and Whittle, 1954, 1955). All units thin to the south, 
and some, such as the limestone correlated with the Brighton Limestone, dis- 
appear locally, General similarilies with the type areas are seen, as in the 
Tapley's Hill Slates, and the Sturt Tillitc. 

(b) The Base of the Cambrian 

As in many parts of the State, the Precambrian-Cambrian sequence is tran- 
sitional. The Pound Quartzite., however, is not found. The total thickness of 
the massive quartzite. bands of the new road or Rlack Hill sections is less than 
the known minimum thickness of the Pound Quartzite- Shales occur* in greater 
quantity than in the Pound Quartzite. and the quartzite bands are not laterally 
persistent. This change in facies indicates deposition further from the source 

The base of the Hyolithes sandstone is taken, for mapping purposes, as the 
base of the Cambrian. No fossils have been found below the Sellick Hill Lime- 
stone in the neighbourhood of Carrickalinga Creek, and there the boundary is 
placed at the base at the calcareous sandstone, which is equivalent to the Wang- 
kondu Formation at Schick Hill. 

(c) Correlation 

The association at Myponga Beach of Hijolilhes communis Billings and 
Helcionelui taiei Resser is referred by Daily (1956, p. 138) to bis fauna! as- 
semblage No. 3, which is elsewhere characterized by the trilobite Yorkella wis- 
tralis (Woodward). Helcionella is a long-ranging form and the affinities of the 
Myponga Beach fauna could be more with assemblage No. 4, although H. 
communis is not listed here. Owing particularly to the failure to find trilobites 
in die Selliek Hill-Myponga region > any biostratigraphie correlation with other 
Cambrian rocks in South Australia must be somewhat inconclusive. 

If the equivalence with assemblage 3 is valid, then the Archaeocyatha fauna 
is younger than tins assemblage, This helps to elucidate certain points in con- 
nection with the Cambrian of South Australia. 


Firstly, the earliest known appearance of Archacocyalha on Ynrke Penin- 
sula is somewhat later than in the northern part of the State (Daily, 1956, p. 
129). Jt is now apparent that it is still later further to the south> at Selliek Hill 
and Mypunga Reach (assuming that, as it now seems, there arc no Archaeo- 
cyathrt in tlje upper member of the Wangkunda Formation). 

Secondly, Die White Point conglomerate o£ Kangaroo Island contains 
boufders of Archaeoeyalha limestone. The earlier lane limit for movement in 
the source area (whether in the formation of one or more fault scarps, or of a 
broad uplift), was placed after that of assemblages 1 and 2. The. limestone 
component was transported as consolidated material. The latex limit is below 
I lie tipper l.Ower Cambrian (the Emu Bay Shale of Kangaroo Island)- If the 
Fork Tree Limestone was developed to the west, where the movements evi- 
dently occurred, then the lower time limit could be raised to beyond assemblage 
3, Recent examination by Daily of a boie core horn Curramolka supports this, 

Beyond the possible correlation of part of the Selliek Hill Formation with 

iiriit of the Parava Limestone on Ynrke Peninsula, little more can be said. Hie 
lyoUthex at the base of the Selliek Hill Formation is the oldest known Cambrian 
fossil m South Australia, if the jellyfish bearing Pound Quartzite is regarded as 
uppermost Precambr ian . 

The fauna of the lower member of the Heutherrtale Snides, With Hyolithcs 
(possibly planoconvexa) and Ihdcionella sp., is not known from this level else- 
where; neither is the gastropod ? HmmHUi Billings, from (he upper member. 


The fossiliferous Cambrian formations lie on the western flank of the 
Myuonga Hill-T ittle Gorge anticline, which has been shown by Campana and 
Wilson to dominate the structure of the region. The structural relationships of 
the Cambrian are shown on the tectonic sketch and in the structural sections 
(Fig- 2). The Cambrian is separated from the older rocks by the Black Hill 
Fault, except at the northern and southern ends of the region. To the north-west 
Of the fault the attitudes of the beds are controlled mainly by tbe development 
of a series of south-west-north-east running folds, extending from south-west of 
Carriekalinga Hill to north of Black Hill. The tectonic sketch (Fig. 3) indicates 
the tendency toward development of a structure en echelon. It is convenient to 
describe the structures on either side of the Black Hill Fault separately. 

At Scllick Hill and to the north-east along the Willuuga Scarp the beds 
are overturned (Fig. 2) as first staled in print by Madigan (1927). Further 
south-west near the new road, the upper member of the Wangkonda Formation 
may be h*a<«d over the axis of an anticline, and around onto the eastern flank 
<iF the adjacent syncline, The anticline pitches south-west, and to the north- 
east the stress is taken up in the contortions of the Mai moan. Tins axis is the 
first of the series. The continuity of the latter is broken bv ;i transverse fault, 
about at right angles to the Black Hill Fault, one mile cast pi Myponga Beach. 

The coastal section to the north of the transverse fault is very complicated. 
Above the Archaeucyatha limestone in the first creek nnrth of* the fault the 
mottled limestone is found to be repeated at least three times, as is the. Arehaeo- 
cvatha limestone, and certain pink shales and limestones. Brown and grech 
shales outcrop in the cliffs. Theso may be a drug back of the upper Heather-dale 
member, but the lower was; not recognized. Further nordi there is evidence 
of tight folding, and some indications of faulting, hut it is not known how thfs 
fits into the regional structural pattern, and the area is too complex for details 
to be shown on the map. 



u. o i l. wi < i 







The cliff sections at Beach (-Fig. 2) are on the southern flank 
"t the most persistent anticline in the screes. The rocks, including the succession 
from the Selliek i It'll Limestone to the greywueke at the top of the sequence, 
dip inland at successively lower angles, To the south-cast the gieywacke is 
abruptly succeeded by steeply dipping phyllitic and calcareous slates. The 
.sncce.s.sion at Mypiinga Beach is ri*»t overturned, and it is evident that the 
relationship of the Cambrian to the older rocks to the south and south-east is 
a fault contact, not a relatively uncomplicated, although overturned, sequence 
through the Marinoan and Stnrtian to the Torrensian basal gilts and conglomer- 
ates ahove the. Archaean, as has usually been stated or inferred in the past. 

This sequence may be traced along the coast for about two miles to die 
south-west of Mypnnga Beach. Beyond this tike Archaeoeyatha limestone onlv 
is found, and here, as over an extensive area inland, the attitude of tike beds 
can rarely be detected, it .seems fairly certain, however that the beds are 
flatter than to the north, as (he anticline pitches south-west Further south the 
beds are cut off by the major fault, but small folds are developed to the west 
(Fiu, 2). These small flexures inland from Curriekalingu Head are indicated 
in the outcrop (rare of the mottled limestone. To the south, beyond the lime- 
stone, folds are inferred in the greywaekes and shales. 

The duck Archaeoeyatha limestone has dominated the structural evolution 
i if the area; the more argillaceous units on cither side show signs of relative 
Incompetency, with contortions and drag folds near the coabact. The most pro- 
nounced result of this is the apparent variation in thickness in the Heatherdale 
Shales at Carrickalinga Head. All the Cambria u and older limestones are re* 
crystallized, and many show signs of stress They have sometimes become very 
blocky, due to the formation of a system of joints. 

Structural trends to the south-east uf Black Hill Fault are shown on the 
tectonic sketch. Tiuneatr-d cross-bedding in the sequence invariably' shows 
the beds to be the right way up. Hence it appears that the Black Bull Fault 
cuts off beds successively lower in the sequence, from Black Hill tn Mypouea 
Creek. Outcropping further east up Myponga Creek, however, is a* south- 
dipping limestone, blue or buff in colour. According to Campana and WiIson> 
who have mapped it, it is a "blue siliceous limestone grading in places to a huff' 
coloured dolomite" (Campana, Wilson and Whittle, 1955, p. 9). Thev correlate 
it with the Brighton Limestone. Still further to the east arc characteristic 
Sturtian and Torrensian horizons, including the Sturt Tillite, It is evident that 
fhts part of the succession is overturned. 

Isoclinal, synclinal folding, probably with accompanying strike faulting* is 
provisionally postulated, although the field evidence has not been examined in 
detail. The tectonic sketch shows some quartzito bands of the Black Hill area- 
It is somewhat diagrammatic, as there is extensive soil cover in places and it 
seems that the bands haw been bioken teclonionlly, but the general trends 
can be followed. In the creek to d>e south of Black Hill the quart/ites on either 
side of the Wimgkonda Formation arc dipping south-easl at about the same 
angle. The structure is considered to bo a synch'ne, overturned toward the 
north-west. The southern limb is postulated as having been thrust over the 
other, with non-repetition of the younger beds as a result. The tirnits of this 
fault arc not known; to the north-east it disappears under the Permian; to the 
south-west it dies oui. However, the syneline may continue with a flexure to- 
ward the south. To the north of Carrickalingn Hill a syneline is indicated by 
the outcrop trace of quartettes, and the core contains a massive limestone cor- 
related with the upper part of the Wangkouda Formation* Since there is a 
normal sequence further south in Carriekulinga Creek, a transverse fault may 


separate these two localities; the significant area, however, is covered by the 

Although the Black Hill Fault plane has not been observed, there is abundant 
evidence for its existence. Successive cutting off of beds on either side has been 
mentioned Tins, together with the sudden change in ltthology and attitude on 
either side, is shown on the maps. The fault is the result of an overthrust to- 
ward the north-west, and some of its effects are shown in Fig. 2. Other evidence 
for its existence may be found east of the new road. Campima and Wilson have 
mapped, beyond die Permian outlier, a straight, overturned sequence from the 
Cambrian to the Stmt Tillitc. Assuming the Taplcy Hill Slates to be equivalent 
to the slates to the south-east ( there is no development of "Brighton Limestone"), 
the Sturtian is scon to be displaced. The syneline of Black Hill (Cambrian and 
Upper Marinoan) also continues to the south of part of the Sturtian. Tight 
folding, or thrusting, or both seem to have occurred. 'This coidd be an extension 
of the fault, as the latter is broadly arcuate in outcrop trace, and convex toward 
the north-west 

To the south, the fault probably extends beyond Carnekalinga Creek, but 
there is little field evidence for this. It is indicated, however, by the. proximity 
of the grcywaeke to the Fork Tree Limestone in Carrickalinga Creek. In this 
area there* is fossiliferous Cambrian on either side of the fault. To the west 
of Carrickalinga Hill the sequence from calcareous sandstone (Wangkouda 
Formation) to Arehaeocyatha limestone occurs in a syneline, cut off on the 
north side by a transverse fault and on the east by another fault. The evidence 
for these includes structural discordancy and litholoejcal discontinuity. The 
extent tf the eastern fault to the south, toward the undisturbed sequence {from 
Marinoan to Fork Tree Limestone) is unknown; there i& also the problem of 
die syneline still fiuther to the cast and its relationship to the Carrickalinga 
Creek section, as indicated earlier, 

Campana, Wilson and Whittle (1955. pp. 16-17) have discussed the Wil- 
hmga Fault, which has been the locus of several episodes of movement since 
the early Paleozoic. The fault evidently originated in the same stress field re* 
sponsible for die thrusting along the Black Hill Fault plane (Fig. 2). Later 
movement was important in the formation and evolution of the Willunga Basin 
(Glaossner, 1953, text- fig, 1). 

The Miocene Port Wilfunga .Beds overly the Heatherdule Shales,, having 
transgressed to the south-east bevond the earlier limits of the sedimentational 
basin (Campana, Wilson and Whittle, 1955, PI 1, ft& 2, 3). These beds have 
been tilted steeply to the west hy movement along the old fault plane (Fig. 2), 
The existence of kite- and pusl-Pleistocene disturbances lias been claimed by 
Campana and Wilson, 


Sedimentation in the Adelaidean geosyueline continued from late Proterozoic 
into Cumbrian (Daily, 1956, p, 135). Rapid thinning of the Adelaide System 
toward the south has been interpreted by Caxapana aud Wilson (Campana, 
Wilson and Whittle, 1955, p, 17) to indicate that this area was situated toward 
the southern limit of the sedimentational trough. Daily (1956, pp. 135, 136) 
has made an alternative suggestion, considering it likely that the area was a 
local isolated high within the geosynchne. The writers agree that the belt now 
occupied by the Archaean core of the Myp<jnga Hill-Little Gorge anticline was 
probably mobile during the Lower Cambrian. 

There are some indications of earlier mobility in this general region. The 
nature of the sediments described by Fiubcs (1957) and correlated by him with 




C. Abele and B. McCowran. 

Fig. 4. — Geological Map of the Sellick Hill-Yankalilla Area. Sections A-A to G-G are illustrated in Fig. 2. 


the basal Torrensian, suggests a nearby source area of tectonic origin. A later 
gap in sedimentation seems indicated by the absence of the upper members of 
the Adelaide System to the east of the Archaean core of the Myponga Range 
(Campana, Wilson and Whittle, 1955, p. 17). Thinning of Proterozoie forma- 
tions west of the core points to uplift in this anticlinal area. This could inhibit 
deposition without being important at this stage in the formation of a source 
area. Marinoan sedimentation in the Schick Hill urea seems to reflect the con* 
dirionx present elsewhere in the State a! this time. Absence of the typical 
Pound Quartzite may be due to non- deposition, as .suggested by Daily (1956, 
p. 136). On the other hand the qnartzites of Black Hill and to the north, not 
far below the Ht/alithes sandstone, may be its stratigraphic equivalents in a 
somewhat different fades. There is evidence of shallow water conditions, but 
no breaks tit deposition have so far been found. 

The Ihjolithest sands tone* with angular grains of quartz and felspar in a 
partly detrital mutrix. .suggests transportation over a short distance. Rather 
than from a distant source in the west, it was more likely derived from nearby 
in the cast. More of this material was brought in during the succeeding time, 
of formation of the limestone member. In the north a leasing, clastic band is 
found within the limestone; more rounded sand grains characterize the undif- 
ferentiated Wangkonda Formation in the neighbourhood of Gartickalinga Creek- 

The carbonate of the limestone member is completely recrystalliied, and 
t*o evidence for the possible importance of biological activity m its deposition 
has been found. Any evidence of deposition as a calcareriite has also been 

Another influx of angular elastics occurred later, during the initial time of 
deposition of the Sellkk Hill Formation, It is concluded that an area with inter- 
mittent uplift tendencies existed not far to the east. 

The origin of the Selllck Hill Limestone is a puzzling, unsolved problem. 
No single explanation Is sufficient because of the litnological aud toxtura! differ- 
ences within the unit due to horizontal and vertical variation. 

The cause of the most striking feature of tin? rock, namely, the rhythmic 
alternation between the shaly and the calcareous layers, is unknown. Two ex- 
planations are suggested for the pinch-and-swell structure commonly observed 
in the limestone bands and the relations between the laminae in the shaly parts 
to those in the cakareous parts as observed in thin sections. The first one pos- 
tulates differential compression of the calcareous and the shaly bands respec- 
tively, probably during the subsequent tectonic disturbances. The second ex- 
planation attrinutes the formation of the calcareous bands to a biochemical 
agency, such as calcareous algae (Mawson, 1925). Variations in their rates of 
growth resulted in different thicknesses at different positions in the limestone 
hand-s'. At the loci of rapid limestone accumulation (swells) the depositional 
interface was at a higher level than in the intervening depressions (pinches), 
where contemporaneous deposition of more shaly material took place: at a slower 
rale. It must be emphasized that no positive proof of algal action can be pro- 
duced, if any microstructure was present, it lias recrystullized beyond recog- 

Although conditions of vigorous wave or current action were present at 
various times during the deposition nf the Sellick Hill Limestone, intraforma- 
tional brccciation is considered to be of restricted importance in the formation 
of the tcxhtral and structural features of the unit. 

The Archaeocyatha limestone was deposited in a embroilment at sufficient 
distance from a source area to receive only a small amount of fine clastic material. 
Recrystallization of this "normal marine limestone* (Krumbcin and Sloss, 1951, 


p. 137) has destroyed any evidence of whethei the precipitation of calcium 
carbonate was due to purely chemical m biochemical causes. 

Archacocyatha have been found very close to both the upper and the lower 
contacts, but occur in patches rather than being evenly distributed throughout 
the member. Contrary to the expressed opinion of several workers, the writers 
do not consider the term "reef" to he at all applicable to this limestone. This 
is particularly so when the essential reef property of active growth is considered, 
Arehaeocyatha did not form mounds or banks m the Fork Tree Limestone. This 
view has already been expressed by Daily, who says that "they [ArchaeocyathaJ 
arc true hiostromc organisms" ( 105h\ p. 137 J . It should he mentioned, how- 
ever, that Twenhofel (1950, p. 189), in his discussion of Cambrian reefs, men- 
tions that some large accumulations of Arehaeocyatha in Labrador are m the 
form of reefs; and Rodgers (1956, p. 375) speaks of Archaeocyatha reefs in the 
Lower Cambrian of !he Appalachians. 

The fucies change from Arehaeocyatha limestone to Heatherdale Shales is 
essentially gradational, although rriagpable units with fairly clear-cut boundaries 
arc recognized within this transition. The change is one of increasing elastic 
deposition in an nnvln mmenl with a high carbonate content* with the disap- 
pearance of the bendionic Archaeocyatha at the beginning of die transition. 
Sedimentation again became rhyihmie, although not to the same extent as before. 

The origin of the large carbonate concretions is unknown. Apart from the 
high concentration of cnlcite their composition is very similar to that of the 
shales. Clifton (1957) has given a clear description of events to account for the 
growdi of a nodule From a point of crystallization. lie -distinguishes three pos- 
sible times of formation: contemporaneous (syngeneic), peueconremporaneous 
(shortly after depiction) aud subsequent, after consolidation. That the nodules 
of the lower Heatherdale number are not subsequent is .shown by their orien- 
tation on (to tain bedding planes, where the longest axis is always parallel to 
the bedding and the nodules are spaced over a plane. Clifton postulates a 
peneconlemporanenus origin for the nodules of the Ohio Shale, evoking vertical 
compaction and the restriction of water circulation to horizontal movement, due 
to the impervious nature of I he finely divided enclosing sediments. Thus lateral 
growth would tend to exceed that in a vertical direction, e^peefally during the 
later stages, and large nodules would be more flattened than smaller ones. This 
agrees with observations at Carrickalinga Head and elsewhere Compaction 
and orientation of intraoodnlar material is suggested by horizontal laminae in 
the centres of the Ohio Shale concretinns. The South Australian nodules have 
a dense finograincd texture, but similar lamination is indicated by differential 
weathering on die surface. Finally, compaction restricted and stopped circu- 
lation and growth ceased. Laminae then arched over the nodules. 

Such an explanation does not explain why outward growth starts fiom a 
certain favourable locus, although a peneeontempotaneous origin would help to 
explain why nodules form instead of beds of carbonate. Thus segregation, for 
whatevef reason, is more likely to have occurred below the depositional inter- 
face. Both nodules and beds of limestone are found in the SelHck HjU-Curricka- 
Iinga Head area, sometime.* tending to alternate. 

The "dark Carbonaceous phyllires" of the Rapid Bay-Cape Jem's region have 
been eonsideicd to be the lueturnorphic equivalents of what are here described 
as the Heatherdale Shales (Catupana, Wilson and Whittle, 1955> p. 8). Nodules 
are said to occur at the south of Campbell Creek, but their nature is not stated. 
These beds are described from Rapid Bay by Skinner (unpublished thesis), who 
does not mention any nodules. It seems most probable, then, that the beds are 
equfvalent to the upper Heatherdale member (with small nodules, but not 


nodular throughout), rather than to the shales, large nodules and limestone 
bands of the lower member. The latter thins out towards the north and was 
probably not developed above the marble of Rapid Bay. The black shales with 
occasional pyrite toward the top of the member at Carrickalinga Head indicate 
nxygiui deficiency in the environment. 

A break in sedimentation could have accompanied the subsequent change 
in environmental roiidih'oiis. The upper member, which contains a few silt- 
stones, is more elastic than the lower; there are W limestone nodules or bands; 
and no disseminated carbonate has been found in the shales. Thus the next 
phase was the accumulation of fine muds with a high phosphatic content, which 
concentrated to form apatite-bearing nodules ;md elongated segregations. 
VVhether these formed on isoehemical surfaces at or below the depositional 
interface is not known. The upper parts of this member, too> show some indx- 
eation of the e\istenec of a reducing environment. 

The greywaekes appear successively higher m the sequence from Second 
Valley (Campana and Wilson, 19fVJb. plate 0) to Myponga Beach. They were 
deposited intermittently as well defined units. With regard to the phosphatic 
shale-greywaeke relationship, the alternatives are interfingering of the two units*, 
or completion of most of the deposition of the former before the appearance of 
the latter. 

The sect mil alternative is favoured. Although, nodules arc abundant in the 
upper Heatherdalc member, they are not found in the shales separating the grey- 
wneke units. This suggests a change in depositional environment before tfie 
advent of the coarse material. 

It is therefore considered x^robable that the clastic fractions of the Heather- 
dale Shales come from the west and north-west. From the onset of greyivackc 
deposition the poorly sorted material was introduced possibly from the opposite 
direction. The Myponga-Little Gorge anticline could have acted as a carrier 
(o this material during the relatively 3ow accumulation of shales and limestones. 
The first cycle quarts and felspar found in the earlier sediments is considered to 
f>e derived from the exposed core, but this was unimportant as a source area 
during greywacke sedimentation as low rank melaphorie rock fragments are 
<\jmmon and felspar is unimportant in the greywackes. 


Dr. M. F, Glaessner (University' of Adelaide) suggested and supervised the 
project, and the Avriters are indebted to him for much helpful advice and 
criticism. Stimulating discussion of the problems with Dr. B. Daily (South 
Australian Museum), Miss M. J. Wade (University of Adelaide )> and others on 
the stall of the School of GeoJogy of the University must also be acknowledged. 
Mr. I. Stucey provided accommodation during part of the time spent in die field. 
Thanks arc due to Miss B. C*. Scorer who typed the manuscript, and to Miss 
A. M, C, Swan, who assisted in much of the drafting. 


I-Vmvana. B., H)5i. w l'hc Structure of ihe EasU-ru S<h»Qi Australian fiangrs; the Ml )Aitty- 

Olury Arc". J own. GeuL Stic-. Aust.. 2, pp. 47-61 
Camp.wa, B., and Wilson, R. B., 1955. " Tillites and Keluted Clauul Tonograpln ot $oul1) 

Australia.' 1 Eclogae Genlagicue Helvetiae, 4&, fifl 1-30. 
Camfaxa, B,, Wilson-, H. B.. and Whittlh, A. W. C, 1954. Ccol. AM** S, AusU. Yauka- 

Mia Sheer; Geo). Survey S. Aust. 
r^MPANA, B., Wilson, R. B. 3 nod WianxE, A. W. G. 7 lv);15. "1 he Geology of the jervis 

and Yarikalilla Military Sheets". Rept. Inves ligations No. 3; Ool. Simoy S. Aus|. 

320 C. ABELK a*u JJ. MvGOWRAX 

Clark, E. V. 5 1899. "Geological Notes on the Cliff* Separating Aiding* and Myponga Bays". 

Trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Aust., 24, pp. 1-5. 
Clifton. H. E., 1957. "The Carbonate Concretions of the Ohio Shale." Ohio Journ. Science, 

57 (2), pp. 114-124. 
Daily, B., 1950. "The Cambrian in Smith Australia." XX Conyreso Geologico Jnternacion.U, 

Toino 2, Parte 2, pp. 91-147. 
Etherxdok, R. ; Jui\. t 1890, "On Some Australian Species of the Family Archaeiiiyatlunac," 

Trans. Koy. Soc. S. Aust., 13, pp. 10-22. 
Forbes, B. G., 1957. "Stratigraphic Succession East ol Groy Spur, South Australia," 'Ikuiv 

Koy. Soc. S. Aust., 80, lip fy4& . „ 

Guessnkh, M. F, 1953. "Some Problems of Tertiary Geology in Southern Australia. 

Clarke Memorial Lecture, Journ. Pioc. Roy. Soc. New South Wales, 87, pp. 31-45. 
Howchfx. W-, 1897. "On the Occurrence oi Lower Cambrian PhsgfliS in the Mount Lolly 

Karnies." Trans. Koy. Soe. S. Aust., 21, pp. 74-86. 
HoweHihL W.. 1904. "the Geology ot the Mount Lofty Ranges. Pail F. The Coastal Dis- 
trict." Trans. Rov. Soe. S. Aust., 2S, pp. 253-2S9. 
JTowr.HrN, W„ 1907. " "A General Description o| the Cambrian Scries of South Australia." 

Austral. AWta Adv. Sci v 11, pp. 414-422. 
IIowchi.v, W., 1911. "Description of a Disturbed Area ot Oaino/oic Rocks in Soulo Aus- 
tralia with Remarks on its Geological Significance", j'mus. Roy, Soc. S, Au>U 35. pp 

Kaumukis', W. ti, and Sloss, L. L., 1951. "Strati graph)' and Seiliinnttutiou- 
Maotc.'\n. C, T.. 1925. "The Geology of the r/louriiui Peninsula, Part !; 'I he Coast fiom 

Schick Hill to Victor Harbor" trans. Hoy. Soc. S. Aust, 49.. pp. 198-21:}, 
Madigax, C. T. : 1925. "Organic Remains from Below the Archaeoeyfithinae Limestouo al 

Myponga Jetty." Trans, hoy. Soc. S. Aust,, 50, pp. -31-33; 
Madican, C. T.. 1927. "The Geology of the Wilhmga Scarp/"' (Vans. Roy. Soe. 5. Aust.. 51, 

pp. Q$HO& ... 

MawSON, D.. 1925. "Evidence and Indications of Algal Contributions id the Cambrian ind 

Precambian Limestones of South Australia." Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 49, pp. ISb-iyU, 
tieix, A, A., 1957. "Cambrian Palaeogeography of Australia." XX Cougteso Oetupgfcq 

tnternacional, Tamo 2. Piute 2, pp. 239-2H4. 
Raotvit, H. G., et at... ISSfl. "Australian Code of Strar.igraplue Nomenclature, Aust. 

fourn. Sei.. IS (4), pp. 117-121. 
Ronoeas, J„ 1956. 'The Known Cumbrian Deposits of the Southern and Central Appalachian 

Mountains." XX Con^veso Geoloineo International, Tomo 2>, P;irtc 2, pp. 353-3S4. 
Skgmt, R. W„ 1939. GeCtogy tff the MyfcGflga Jetty District." Geol. Survey S. Aust., Bull. 

1A Part Al. pp 133-142.' xr . 

Sfiavyv. A. K. C, I860. M Gfiwl«gh't*l Notes. S. Aust. Parliament Paper lm. 20. 
SiiiMirn. H- W„ and SwnoflK. H. R., 194L "ludex Fossils of \orth America." 
Skjlnnkh, B. J. "Geology of (he Rapid Bay Aran, South Australia" LniveTsity ot Adelaide 

(unpublished thesis). , 

Sviuoo. K. C, 1952. "Sedimentation in thr Adelaide Ceosyncline and thr Formation o! the 

Continental Terrace." Sir UotpTOs Muwsnn Ann VoJmne, University o) Adelaide. 
Sprigc, R. C, and Campawa, BV, 1953. "'the Age and tin- Fucies of the Kanmantoo Group; 

Eastern Mount Loftv fturapfl and Kuu^uoo Island, S.A." Aust. Jouin. Sei., .16 Big, 

pp. 12-14. . .. 

Ta\loh T. G., 1910. "The ArchaeocyHthimu* from (he (i/.mbrian ot S:mth Australia, Mem- 

Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 2, Pari X pp. 58488. 
Tm-enhukll \V. H., 1950. "tibfal .md other Organic Reefs in Gtoloj-ti (a)linun, Hull. Am. 

Assoc. Petr. Geol., 34 (2), pp. 182-202. 
Wi-i-jca. L. G., 1953. "Krivironuient and Mode of Orito'n Bfld faeics Relationships of Car- 
bonate Coneretions in Shales." je.nn.. Scd. Petrology, 23 (3), pp, 102-173. 


Scale below each figuie represents t ern, 

Efo i — Mottled limestone member of the Fork Tree Limestone. Mt. Terrible Gully. Ap- 
proximately perpendicular to the bedding, which runs from left to right. 

Fijr. 2. Parallel orientation of Hyolithes on a bedding plane m the Schick flill Limestone. 

Myponga Beach. 

irijy 3, Small phospbarte nodules in the upper member of the Heatherdale Shales. Wave cut 

platform Iii miles N.W. of Black Hill. 

jr-tr 4. Seliick Hill Limestone, Seliick Hill. View perpendicular fcri thr biMlding. 

C. Abele V\l) B. McGoWHAN 



byG. M. Chippendale 


The Central Australian area is delineated for the purposes of a Flora. There is brief mention of the 
main vegetation types, probable refuge areas, and the collection of plants within the area. A check 
list of the plants recorded for Central Australia is given. 


by G. M. Chippendale 4 

[Read 13 November 1958] 


The Central Australian area is delineated Va the purposes uf a Flora. 
There 15 brief mention of the main vegetation types, probable refuge areas, and 
the. collection of plants within the area. A eheok list ol the plants recorded 
for Central Australia is given, 


The value of a regional flora. when, published, can be gauged by its useful- 
ness to agricultural workers, pastoralists, botanists, and other workers. A flora 
of an area was outlined by Bentham (1863) as "to afford the means of deter- 
mining any plants it) it, whether for die purpose of ulterior study or of intel- 
lectual exercise". The need for a knowledge of the plants in Central Australia, 
and indeed in the whole of the Northern Territory, has grown from the impetus 
and encouragement given the cattle industry in the Northern Territory. In 
particular, gaining a proper knowledge of poisonous and edible species of in- 
terest to pastoralists in Central Australia, as anywhere, moans, firstly, to gain as 
completely as possible a knowledge of the whole flora. There is a further value 
in such a projected Flora of Central Australia in that it can show the true rela- 
tionship with other State Floras. This can he important in providing a link 
between the .Eastern States, South Australia and Western Australia, for the areas 
of these States adjacent to the Northern Territory am still little visited by 

A consideration of the flora of the Northern Territory leads to the conclu- 
sion that there are at least two fioristic groups- with a fairly natural boundary' 
at Ihe 12-inch rainfall isohyet There is the northern "wet* 1 country, and the 
central arid country. A consideration of the northern area show the advisability 
of further 1 regional divisions, such as the barkly Tableland and related zones. 

For the purpose of a Flora, Central Australia is best regarded as the area 
bounded east aud west by the Queensland and Western Australia borders re- 
spectively, on the south by the South Australia border and on the north by the 
20th parallel. Though this area can hardly be considered a distinct: geographical 
entity, there is some great convenience in treating it as a single unit It can be 
divided in turn into three broad '/ones, (a) the Saltbush country and Spinifex 
sandiidge country south of the \Jacdonnell Ranges, where the area is drained 
by a system of rivers,, including the Hale, Todd, Finkc, Hugh, Palmer and 
Goyder, which flood out towards and into the Simpson Desert. Gibber plains, 
elaypans and minor watercourses arc common, with some saline lakes, (b) The 
mountain ranges in the centre dominated by the highly tilled and folded Mac- 
donnell Ranges, stretching east, and west from Alice Springs, and associated 
with the James, Waterhouse and KrisehaofT Ranges, and (c) the various Acacia 
scrubs, on desert sandplains, desert loams, and desert sandhills northwards from 
the latitude of the Macdonnell Ranges. The number of species over this Central 

'Animal Industry Branch, Department of Territories, Alice Springs, S.T. 
Trans. Roy. Sot. S. Aust. (19S9), Vol. H2. 


Australian area is not great considering it covers approximately 210,000 square 
miles, JJntaniealiy, the cast, west and south boundaries are not good, for the 
plant groups at those positions extend, into the adjacent States, but until botanical 
work can be treated on a national basis, this objection cannot be overcome satis- 

There is at this time no published work on the Flora of Central Australia, 
for until recent vcars it has been little visited, and there has been no resident 
botanist until IB34. Ewart and Davies, "Flora of the Northern Territory" (1917), 
possibly fulfilled a need at that time, but it was not a true Flora, being compiled 
inaiulv'of survey reports. So manv Central Australum plants even known at 
rhaL time were excluded* and the localities of collections bt those mentioned 
were often vague. This latter point is, uf course, not entirely due to the authors 
of die book. Other inaccuracies a* reported by Willis (1942 and 1945) can be 
added Uk and in fact a general lack of a true knowledge of the area make 
Ewart and Davios "Flora of the Northern Territory" useless today in Central 

The Macdonnell-Jarnes-Krisct'iaiifl Range system has in the past been shown 
10 be an important refuge area. Here we can accept the view, as did Speucer 
(1921), and Cocker and Wood (1947), that species such as Livistnna 7mmac 
F. Muell. and Macrozttmia macdoiinellii K Muell. are undoubted relics. How- 
ever-, in such areas as Palm Valley, Standley Chasm. Tallaputta Corge, and other 
similar places, there is still work to be done, in analysing the occurrence of 
many smaller plants than these two prime examples. Plants are being collected 
tfl varying seasons to get as complete as possible the record of these areas. Al- 
ready many new records have been made here, and several probably unde- 
scribed species will need evaluation. 

In the past there have been two tendencies with Central Australian plants. 
Sutnu material occurring widely diroughout Australian arid areas has been de- 
scribed by early authors as separate species- Other Central Australian material 
has been placed into species occurring elsewhere, despite morphological differ- 
ences. While realising die dangers of accepting too many taxa based on regional 
differences, there seems to be good reasons tor treating a number of taxa as 
subspecies, A, Lee's (1918) remarks concerning regional variants being pertinent. 
It is probable also, that some of die "lumped" species willjdunv as true variants, 
and some varieties will b«- dropped. As Burbidge (1953) pointed out, it is 
characteristic of the inland flora "thai the variations that do occur tend to be 
repeated through the range of distribution". 


Tate's ( 1 896 ) essay on Larapintine and Emmian plants was au outstanding 
summary or the knowledge of Central Ausbalian plants to that time. A list at 
plants compiled from other collectors, including Macdouall Stuart (1SG0-2), 
Giles (1872-4), Kcmpc (187790), Tietkens (1889). and Cillen. together with 
those "f Tate (L894) gave some reasonable localities and included a remark- 
able percentage of the total known species today. Since that time, tile collec- 
tions of C. F. Hill (1911-12) and S. A. White (1913) have added new records, 
and then there have been many itinerant collectors whose specimens are scat- 
tered throughout the herbaria of Australia. 

Collections by J. B, Cleland, E. H. Ising, H. H. Finlaysou, and some others, 
and I- M. Black's descriptions in the Transactions of the Royal Society of South 
Australia from 19TMJ to 19-J9 have been the only reliable systematic work nn 
Central Australian plants, and theses together with the references in both cdi- 


tions of Black's "Flora of South Australia have been the basis of all work on plants, In this respect, however, dure is still a great deal of work in 
some groups lo elucidate whether Black's conception of certain species is 
accurate for these Central Australian plants. 

in recent years, members of the Division of Land Research and Regional 
Survey of the C.S.l.R.O. including R. Perry, H. YVinkworth, M. Lazarides, and 
K. Fordo have contributed large collections. Members qI the Animal Industry 
Branch of the Territories Department have collected specimens in most areas 
of Central Australia to build up an Herbarium at Alice Springs, and searches 
for some rarer species have been made, but more collections are planned to 
expand locality records for individual species and to obtain first-hand know- 
ledge of little known species. 

As u result of collections 1 have made In ttie last few years, the plants in 
the area east of the Stuart Highway to the Queensland border, but including 
only the fringe of the Simpson Desert, are fairly well represented. R. Crocker's 
collection and C. Kardley's (1946") enumeration of the species from Madigans 
Simpson Desert Expedition have given a good, if not complete, record of an 
area still nut easily accessible. West of the Stuart Highway, collections have 
been made in the area for about 150-200 miles, but the area of semi-desert west 
of the Devil's Marbles still ueeds investigation. Collections have been made 
as far as the Lake Maokay ur ca and also along the Ccorgc Gill Range and the 
Fetermarm Range, though these were in an unfavourable season. 

Monographic works generally lack adequate records for Central Australian 
species because <rf the absence of collections. The impression from such mono- 
graphs could be that soma species are rarelv, or not, represented in Central 
Australia^ though A. Lee (1948) stated that the area was " . . . not so much 
barren of Suaimonn as insufficiently collected", 


The following check list has been compiled from records of historical speci- 
mens,, together with the records of more recent collections, as mentioned earlier. 
I have been able to examine a large number of the historical specimens housed 
in Sydney, Melbourne and Adelaide, and these have enabled me to alter the 
lists of plants given for the early expeditions and to bring their nomenclature 
into line with more recent works. However, there are some little collected 
specimens as vef not examined, and these have been included. It is felt tlut a 
list of species will form a basis for work on the Flora Q& Central Australia, and 
undoubtedly' there will be some changes in determinations and nomenclature 
in the preparation of such a work. A number of uadescribed species mentioned 
in the list are either awaiting description by specialists at the various State 
Herbaria, or will be described when & better indication of their distribution is 

Tate (1896) stated that 602 species were recorded for the Central Australia 
area following the Horn Expedition. This has bsen reduced to 510 species due 
to misrecords or redeterminations. 62 of these species have not been rerecorded 
in Central Australia to my knowledge. 

Including the species listed by Eardley (1946) for the Simpson Desert 
Expedition, the number of species to that time was 683. Of these, 71 species 
are still rather rarely collected in Central Australia. 

Since 1946, collectors have recorded a total of 919 species, including 150 
species not listed in literature for Central Australia, but possiblv some of these 
have been recorded in the various State Herbaria. 



The total number of species, including naturalised plants, is 1101- 
Naturalised plants are listed separately. Mainly, these are only found near 
settlements, but several have spread further, notably Xanthium spinosum, and 
Citrulltts colocynthis and Citrutlus vulgaris, Sonchus oleraceus has been found 
in so many localities where there is no settlement that it has been included in 
the main check list. 



Gymnogrammc rexjnoldMi F, MuelL 

Pleurosortts rutif alius (R. Br.) Fee. 
Plcurosorus mbglandulosus (Ilook. et 
Orev.) M. Tindale 


Marsilea drummondU A. Br. 
Marsilea exarata A. Br. 
Marsilea hirsuta R. Br. 
Marsilea mutica Mett. 

Adiantum his-pidulum Swartz. 
Cheihnthes lasiophyllu Pic.-Ser 
Cheilanthas sieberi Kuntze 
Cheilanihes tenuifolia (Bnrmi.) 

Cheilanthes vellea F. Mucll. 
Cijclosows gongijlodes (Schkuhr. ) 

Histiopteris ineisa (Thunb.) J. Smith 
Lindsaca emtfolia Swartz. 
Nephrolepis cordifolia Presl. 
Pteris tremula R. Br. 


Psilot urn nudum (L.) Grisebach 


Macrozamia macdonnellii F- Muell. 

Callitris hugelii (Canv) Franco 

Typha angustijolia L. 

Putauiogeton tricarinatus A. Bennett 
Ruppia maritima L. 


Naias major All. 


Triglochin calcitrapa Hook. 
Triglochin ctntrocarpa Hook. 
Triglochin hexagona J. M. Black 


Ottelia ovalifolia (R. Br.) I- C. Rich 

Atnphipogon caricinus F. MuelL 
Amphipagon caricinus F. Muell. var. 

sericeus J. Viekery 
Aristida anthoxanthoides (Domin) 

Aristida arenariu Gand. 
Aristida biglandulosa J. M. Black 
Aristida browniana Henr. 
Aristida capillifoliu Henr. 
Aristida inaequiglumis Domin 
Aristida latifolia Domin 
Aristida nitidula (Henr.) S. 1\ Blake 
Aristida ohscura Henr. 
Aristidu pruinosa Domin 
Aristida ramosa R. Br* 
Aristida strigosa (Henr. ) S, T. Blake 
Astrebla elymoides F. Muell. 
Astrebla lappucea (Lindl.) Domin 
Astrebla pcetinafa (Lindl.) F, Muell. 

ex Benth. 
Bothriochloa ewartiana (Domin) 

C. E. Hubbard 
Bothriochloa intermedia (R. Br.) A. 

Brachiaria gilesii (Benth.) Chase 
Brachiaria holosericm (R. Br.) 

Brachiaria miliformis (Presl.) Chase 
Brachiaria noiochthona (Domin) 

Brachinria piligcra (F. MuelL) 

Brachiaria praetervisa (Domin) 

C. E. Hubbard 
Brachyachnc ciliaris (Benth.) C. F. 

CJdoris acicularis Lindl, 
Chloris pcctinala Benth. 
Chloris scariosa F. Muell. 
Chloris oirgata Swartz. 
Chrysopogon fall ax S. T. Blake 

homhycinus ( R. Br . ) 
(R. Br.) 



ex Steud. 

Cymbopogon exaltatus 

Cymbopogon obtectvs S. T. Blake 
Dacfylocteniurn radulans (R. Br.) 

Danthonia bipartita F. Mucll. 
DichanthiUTU annulatum (Forsk. ) 

Dichanlhium humilius J. M. Block 
Dichanthium sericeum (R. Br.) 

Dtgitaria amrnophUa (F. Mucll.) 

Dtgitaria brownii (R. & S.) Hughes 
Dtgitaria coenicola (F. Muell.) 

Digitaria ctenantha (F. Muell.) 

Diplachne fusca (L.) Beauv. 
Dipfachne muelleri Benth. 
Diplachne parvijlora (R. Br.) Benth. 
Echinochloa turneriana Domin. 
Ecfrosia leporina R. Br. 
Ehjtrophorus spicatus (Willd.) A. 

Enneapogon avenaceus (LindL) 

C. E. Hubbard 
Enneapogon cldandn N. T. Rurbidge 
Enneapogon cylindrtcw N. T. Bur- 
hid ge 
Enneapogon lindlcyamis (Domin) 

C. E. Hubbard 
Enneapogon oblongus N. T. Burbidgc 
Enneapogon pallidas (R. Br.) Beauv. 
Enneapogon polyphyuus (Domin) 

N. T. Burbidgc 
Enneapogon pubescens (Domin) 

N. T, Burhidge 
Emgrosfis attstrahtslca (Steud.) C. E. 

Eragrostis barrelieri Daveau 
Eragrostis concinna (R. Br.) 
Erugwslis confertiflora J. M. 
Eragrostis cumingii Steud. 
Etagro-stis dielsii Pilger 
Ertigrost is efottgata ( Willd. ) 
E.ragrostis eriopoda Benth. 
Eragrostis falcata Gaud. 
Emgro.stis japonica ( Thunb. ) 

us (R. Br.) Trie. 





Eragrostis kennedyae F. Turner 
Eragrostis lacunnria F. Muel). ex 

Eragrostis laniflora Bentii. 
Eragrostis lepiocarpa Benth. 
Eragrostis parvijlora (R. Br.) Trio. 
Eragrostis setifolia Nees 
Eragrostis speciosa (R. & S.) Ste«d. 
Eragrostis xerophila Domin 
Eriachne aristidea F. Mucll. 
Eriachne aristidea F. Muell. 
Eriachne benthamii W* Hartley 
Eriachne helmsii (Domin) W. Hart- 
Eriachne mvcronata R. Br. 
Eriachne nervosa Esvart ct Cookson 
Eriachne oblusa R. Br. 
Eriachne pulchella Domin 
Eriachnc scleranthoides F. Muell. 
Eriochloa atistraliensis Stapf ex Thelh 
Eriochloa longiflora S. T, Blake 
Eriochloa pseimoacrntrichu (Stapf ex 

Thell.) C. E. Hubbard 
Eulalia fuha (R. Br.) Kuntze 
Ichnanthus atistraliensis (Domin) 

Iseilema dolotriclium C. E. Hubbard 
Iseilma eremaeum S. T. Blake 
Iseilema macrathcrum Domin 
Iseilema tnembranaceum ( Lindl. ) 

Iseilema vagintjlorum Domin 
iseilema winderm C. E. Hubbard 
heptochloa digitata (R. Br.) Domin 
Neumvhnc alopecuroides R. Br. 
Netirachnc mitchelliana Nee* 
Neurachnc muelleri Hack. 
Neurachne munroi F. Muell. 
Panicum ctpnhiforme Hughes 
Panicum decanvpositum R. Kr. 
Panicum elusion R. Br. 
Panicum whitei J. M. Black 
Paractacnhtm novae -hollandiac 

Paspalidium constrictum (Domin) 

C. E. Hubbard 
Paspalidium rarum (R. Br.) Hughes 
Perotis rara R. Br. 
Phragmitcs karka (Retz.) Trin. ex 

Plagiosetum refructum ( F. Muell.) 

Plectraclme helmsii C. LI. Hubbard 


Plectmchne pungens (R 

Plcclrachne schinzii Ilenr. 
Solaria broivnii Herrm. 
Setaria diehii Herrm. 
Spafhia neurosa Ewart et Archer 
Sporobolus aclinocladm (F. MuelL) 

F. Muell. 
Sporobolus aus/ralasicus Domin 
Sporoholus caroli Mez. 
Sporobolus etongalus R. Br. 
Sporobolus milcheltii (Trin. ) C. E. 

Sporobolus sp. nov. 
Theiueda atistralis (R. Br.) Stapf 
Thcmeda atvmaeea (F. Muell.) Dur. 

et Jacks. 
Tragus attstraliamis S. T. Blake 
Triodia based owii E. Prta. 
Triodia irritans R. Br. var. irritans 

N. T. Burbidge 
Triodia longieeps J. M. Black 
Triodifi purtgeus R. Br. 
Triodia spieata N. T. Burbidge 
Triodia sp. nov, aft hrizoides 
Triodia sp. nov. afF. pungens 
Tripngon loliif omits ( F. Muell.) 

C\ E. Hubbard 
Triraphis mollis R Br. 
Uranfhoecium tmncahmx (Maid, et 

Bctchc) Stapf 
Zygochloa paradoxa (R. Br.) S. T. 
* Hlake 

Bulbosfiflis harbata (Rottb.) C. B. 

Cyperus aristafus Rottb. 
Cyperus btilbnsus VaH. 
Cyperus ronicus Boeckel 
Cyperus cunninghamii (C. B. Clarke) 

C. A. Gardner 
Cyperus ductylotes Benth. 
Cyperus difformis L. 
Cyperus fasciculigems (F. Muell.) 

Cyperus gunnii Hook. 
Cyperus gymnocaulos Steud. 
Cyperus iria L. 
Cyperus ixiocarpus F, MuelL 
Cyperus relzii Nees 
Cyperus rufilans (C. B. Clarke) 

Maid, ct Betche 
Cyperus vagiruitus R. Br. 

Br.) C. E. 

Cyperus vieforiemis C. B. Clarke 
Cyperus sp. nov. 
Cyperus sp. nov. 

Eleoeharis genicttlata (L.) R. et S. 
Eleoaharis pollens S. T. Blake 
Fimbristylis diphylla (Retz.) Vahl. 
Fimbristylis ferruginea Vahl. 
Fimbristylis humuis S. T. Blake 
Fimbristylis oxystachya F. Muell. 
Fimbristylis squarrosa ValiL 
Fimbristylis sp, nov. aff. dichotoma 
Fuirena glomerata Lam. 
Ftiirena incrassalu S. T. Rlake 
Lipocarpha microcephala (R. Br.) 

Scirpus Utoralis Schrad. 
Scirpus maritimus L. 


Livislona mariaa E Muell. 


F.riocaulon graphUinum F. Muell. et 
Tate e\- Ewart ct Cookson 

Cenfrolepti polygyria (R. Br.) Hieron 


Cammelina ensifolia R. Br. 
Commelina uiultdatu R. Br. 


Junetts sp. nov. 


AnguilUtria dioica R. Br. 
Corynotheca lateriflora (R. Br.) F. 

Lomandra sp. nov. aft c7«ra 
Lomandra leucocephah (R. Br.) 

Ewart var. nov. 
Thysanolus exiliflorus F. Muell. 
ThysanoUts tuberosus R. Br. 
Xanthorrhoca thomtonU Tate 

Crlnum flaccidum Herbert 

Casuarina deeaisneana F. Muell, 

Trcma aspcm SET, 


Funs pJafypoda A. Cuim. 


Pnrietarht dehilis Forst. f. 




Grevillea eriostachya Lindl. 

Grevillea juncifolia Hook, 

Grevillea ne.matophylla F. Mucll. 

Grevillea refracld R, Br* 

Grevillea slenobotrya F. Muell. 

Grevillea striata R, Br» 

Grevillea tvickhamii Mcissn. 

Hakea chordophylla F» Mucll. 

Hakea intermedia Ewart et Davies 

Hakea leucoptera R, Br, 

Hakea lorea (R. Br.) R. Br. 

Hakea maerocarpa A. Cunn. e.\ R. Br. 

Hakea rnuliiUneata Meissn. var. 
gramtmtophylla F. Muell. 

Hakea purpurea Hook. 

Hakea sp. (possible hybrid chordo- 
phylla x intermedia) 

Hakea sp, (possible hybrid inter- 
media x lorea) 

Hakea sp. now 


Amyema bifurcate (Benth.) Tiegh. 
Amyema ^ibberula (Tate) Darner. 
Amyema )iiUiana. (Blakcly) Danscr. 
Amxje-ma miquelii (Lehra. ex Miq.) 

Amyema preissii (Miq-) Tiegh, 
Amyema quandong (Lindl.) Tiegh. 
Amyema sanguiuea, ( F. Muell. ) 

Diplatia firandihraetea (F Muell.) 

Diplatia moidenU (Blakcly) Danser. 
Jj/siana exoearpi (Behr. ex Schlecht.) 

Lysiana exoearpi (Behr. ex Schlecht-) 

Tiegh. var, 
Lysiana murrayi (F. Muell. et Tate) 
* Tiegh. 

Atithobotus leplomerioides F. Muell. 
Eucarya ueuminata (R. Br.) Sprague 

et Suxnincrhaycs 
Kxoearpos sparleus U. Br. 
Santalum laneeolalum R. Br. 
Sanialum laneeolalum R. Br. var. 

angustifolium. Benth. 

XI uehlenbeckia cunninghamii 

(Mcissn.) F. Muell. 
Polygonum attenuatum R. Br. 

Polygonum' lapathifolium R. Br, 
Polygonum minus Huds. 
Polygonum plebeium R. Br. 
Eumex erystallinus Lange 

Atlhrocnenwm haloenemoides Nce.s 
Arthrocnemum leiostachyum 

(Benth.) Paulsen 
Atriplex angulaia Benth. 
Atriplex conduplicata F. Muell. 
Atriplex elachophylla F. Mucll. 
Atriplex holoearpa F. Muell, 
Atriplex inerassaia F. Muell. 
Atriphx limhata Benth, 
Atriplex lindlcyi Moq. 
Atriplex muelleri Benlh. 
Atriplex nummularia Lindl, 
Atriplex nendbaecata R. Br. 
Atriplex spongiosa F. MuelL 
Atriplex turbinuia (R, H. Andersm) 

Atriplex velutinella F. Mucll. 
Atriplex vesicaria Heward ex Eendi. 
Babbagia acroptera F* Mucll ct Tate 
Babbagia dipleroearpa F. Mucll. 
Bassia andersonii Ising 
Bassia auisaeaiitlioides (F. Muell.) 

R. H. Anderson 
Bassia bieornis (Lindl.) F. Muell. 
Bama biflora (R. Br.) F. Mucll. 
Bassia birchix (F. Muell) F. Muell, 
Bassia eonvextda R. H. Anderson 
Bassia eormshiami F. Muell. 
Bassia eostata R. H. Anderson 
Bassia divarieata (11. Br,) F. Muell. 
Bassi/i echinopsila F. Muell. 
Bassia eriaeanlha (F. Muell.) R. II. 

Bassia intricate II H. Anderson 
Bassia lanicuspis F. Mucll. 
Bassia longleus-pis F. Muell. 
Bassia luehmannii F. Muell. 
Bassia paradoxa (R. Br.) F. Muell. 
Bassia parallejicuspis R. H. Anderson 
Bassia patentiempis R. H. Anderson 
Bassia seleralaenoides F. Muell. 
Bassia spinosa Ewart et Davies 
Bassia nniftom (R. Br.) F. Muell. 
Bassia sp. a If. quinquecuspis 
Chenopodium anidiophyttum Aelien 
Chenopodium auricomum LmdI. 
Chenopodium eristatnm F. Muell. 



Chenopodium cristatum x C. melano- 

carpum (possible hybrid) 
Cheiiopodiuvi melanocarpum (J. M. 

Black) J. M. Black 
Chenopodium nitrariaceum ( F. 

Muell.) F. Muell. ex Benth. 
Chenopodium rhadmostachyum 

F. Muell. 
Dysphagia littoralis R. Br. 
Dyspltonia plnntuginella F. Muell. 
Dysphania simulans F. Muell. et Tate 
Enchylacna tomentosa R. Br. 
Kochia aphylla R. Br. 
Kochia appressa Benth. 
Kochia utfrotricha L. Johnson 
Kochia brevifolia R. Br. 
Kochia coronata J, M. Black 
Kochia enchylacnoides J. M. Black 
Kochia georgei Diels 
Kochia lanosa Lindl. 
Kochia lohiflora F. Muell. 
Kochia plmiifoJia F, Muell. 
Kochia scleroptcra J. M. Black 
Kochia spongiocarpa F. Muell. 
Kochia tomentosa (Moq.) F. Muell. 
Kochia tripiera Benth. 
Kochia sp. nav. aff. spongiocarpa 
Pachycornia tenuis (Benth.) J. M. 

Pachycornia triandra (F. Muell ) 

J. M. Black 
Rhagodia nutans R. Br. 
Rhagodia paraholica R. Br. 
Rhagodia spineseens R. Br. 
Salsola kali L. 

Salsola kali L. var. strobilifera Benth. 
Tecticornia cinerea (F. Muell.) F. M. 

Threlkcldia iucJioafa J. M. Black 
Thrclkeldia proceriflora F. Muell. 

Achymnthes aspera L. 
Altcrnanthem angustifolia R. Br. 
Alternanthera denticidxita R. Br. 
Alternanthera nana R, Br. 
Alternanthera nodiflora R. Br. 
Amaranthus grandiflorus (j. M. 

Black) J. M. Black 
Amaranthus interruplus R. Br. 
Amaranthus mitchellU Benth. 
Gomphrena brownii Moq. 
Gomphrena sp. aff. brac^ystylis 

Gomphrena sp. aff. conferta 
Gomphrerut sp. aff. pusttta 
Ptilotus alopecuroideus (Lindl.) F. 

Muell, var. alopecuroideus 
Ptilotus alopecuroideus ( Lindl. ) F. 

Muell. var. alopecuroideus ionna 

rubrif torus- (J. M. Black) Benl. 
Ptilotus arthrolasius F. Muell. 
Ptilotus utriplicinij alius (A. Cuun. ax 

Moq.) Ben). 
Ptilotus calostavhym- (F. Muell.) F. 

Ptilotus clcmcntii (Farmar) Benl. 
Ptilotus exaltatus Nees 
Ptilotus gaudichaudii (Steud.) J. M- 

Black ' 
Ptilotus helipieroides (F. Muell.) F. 

Ptilotus hoodii F. Muell. 
Ptilotus incanus ( R. Br. ) Poir. 
Ptilotus latif alius R. Br. 
Ptilotus leucocoma (Moq.) F. Muell. 
Ptilotus macrocephalns (R. Br.) Poir. 
Ptilotus murrayi F. Much, 
Ptilotus nobilis (Lindl.) F. Much. 
Ptilotus obovatus (Gaud.) F. Muell. 
Ptilotus pamfolius F. Much. 
PUlolus schwarlzii (F. Muell.) Tate 
Ptilotus spicaius F. Muell. ex Benth. 

Boerhavia diffusa L, 
Bocrhavia repanda Wilkl. 


Codonocarpus cotinif alius (Desf.) F. 

Gyrostemon australasicus (Moq.) 

Gyrostemon ramuhmts Desf. 
Gyrostemon sp. (rnss. nomen C. A* 

Gardner ) 

Mwon zygophylloides F. Muell. 
Clinus lofoides LoefL 
Glinns oppositifolia (L. ) A.DC. 
Glinus orygioides F. Muell, 
Mollugo cerviana (L.) Scr. 
Mollugo molluginis (F. Muell.) 

Triantlicma ausf rails Melville 
T riant hema crtjstallina Vahl. 
'frianthema crystallina Vahl. var. 

clavata J. M. Black, 



Trkinthema galericulata Melville 
frianthema pilosa F. Mutsll. 

Calandrinia balonensis Lindl. 
Calandrinia eremuea Ewart 
Calandrinia polyandra Benth. 
Calandrinia ptychosperma F. Muell, 
Calandrinia pumilu F. Muell. 
Calandrinia remota J. M. Black 
Calandrinia s^iergularinn F. Muell. 
Calondrinia stagnenm J. M. Black 
Portulaca fdifolla F. Muell. 
Portulaca intraterranca J. M. Black 
Porttdaca oleracea L, 


Polycarpaea hrcviflora F. Muell. 
Polycarpaea corumhastl (L.) Lam. 
Polycarpaea invotucrata F. Muell. 
Polycarpaea synandra F. Muell. 
Polycarpaea triloba Ewart et Cookson 
Spergularia rubra (L) J. et C. Presl. 


Tmoxpora snidacina Benth. 

Cassytha glabella R. Br. 


Btennodia blennodioides (F. Muell.) 

F. Muell. 
Blennodia canescens R. Br. 
Blennodia ptcrosperma J. M. Black 
Lepidium mueUeri-ferdinandi Thell. 
Lepidium oxytrichuin Sprague 
Lepidium papillosum F. Muell. 
Lepidium rotundum DC. ( including 

var. phlebopetatum ( F, Muell. ) 

Maid, el Betehe) 
Menken sphaerocaqm F. Muell. 
Menkea villosula (F, Muell. et Tate) 

J. M. Black 
Phlegmaiospermttm cochlearinum (F. 

Muell) O. E. Schulz. 
Stenopetalum lineare R. Rr. ex DC. 
Stenopetalum nutans F. Muell. 
Stenopetalum velutinum F. Mue.IL 

Capparis lasiantha R. Br. 
Capparis mitchellii Lindl, 
Capparis sp'mosa L, 
Capparis umbonata Lmdl. 
Cleame viscosa L. 

Drosera burmannii Vahl. 
Drosera indica L. 

Crassula sieberiana (Schultes) Druoe 

Pittosporum phylliraeaides DC. 


Stylobasium xpathulatum Desf. 

Acschynomene indica L. 
Brachysema chambersii (F. Muell.) 

F. Muell. ex Benth. 
Burtonia polyzyga (F. Muell,) Benth. 
Clianthus fonnosus (G. Don) Ford 

et Vickcry 
Crotalaria crispata F. Muell. ex 

Crotalaria ctmninghamii R. Br. 
Crotalaria dissitifiora Benth. 
Crotalaria. dissitifiora Benth. var. 

rugosa Benth. 
Crotalaria incana L. 
Crotalaria linifolia L. f. 
Crofalana mitchellii Benth. vur, 

tomentosa Ewart 
Crotalaria novae-holla ndiae DC 
Crotalaria sfiThlowii E. Fritz. 
Crotalaria trifoliastrum Willd. 
Daoiesia arlhropoda F. Muell. 
Desm odium muelleri Beuth. 
Desmodium ncurocarptnn Benth. 
Erythrina ccspertilio Benth. 
Gastrolobium grandiflontni F. Muell. 
Glycine clandestina Wendl. 
Glycine falcata Benth. 
Glycine sericea (F. Muell.) Benth. 
Indigofera basedowii E. Prit7- 
Indigofera hrevidens Benth. 
Indigofera brcvidens Benth. van 

uncinata Benth. 
indigofera enneaphyUa L. 
Indigofera georgci E. Pritz. 
Indigofera hirsuta L. 
Indigofera leucotncha E, Pritz. 
Indigofera linifolia Retz. 
Indigofera monophylln DC 
Indigofera pa rvi flora Hcync ox Wight 

et Arn. 
Indigofera viscosa Lam. 
Indigofera sp. nov. aff, hirsula 



Isotropis atro purpurea F. Muell 
Isotropis ivheelcri F. Muell 
Isotropis winneckeana F. Muell. 
Jacksonia anomala Fwart et Morrison 
Jaeksonia odontoelada F. Muell. 
Kennedya prorepens F. Muell. 
Lotus ausiralis Anclr. var. exsfipuUh 

tus I M. Black 
Loins eoccineus Schlecht. 
Mirbelia viminalis (A. Cuun.) C. A. 

Paratcphrosia lanuta (Benth,) Domin 
Psoralen balsamica F. MuelL 
Psoralen cinerea Lindl. 
Psoralen eriantha Benth. or sp. nov, 

(hiss, N, T. Burbidge) 
Psoralen leucantha F. MuelL 
Psoralen patens Lindl. 
Psoralen pustulnta F. Muell. or un- 

deseribed C, Aust. form 
Psoralen walkingtomi V. Muell. 
Piychnsema unomulum F. Muell. 
Ptychosema stipulare J. M. Black 
Ptychosema trifoliolalum F. Muell. 
Rhynchosia australis Benth. 
Rhynchosia minima (L.) DC. 
Scsbania benthamiana Domin 
Swainsona beasleyana F. MuelL 

subsp. beasleyana (F. Muell,) A. 

Swainsona burkei F. Muell. ex Benth. 

subsp. acuticarhutta A. Lee 
Swainsona campyhntha F. Muell. 
Swainsona canescens (Bcuth. ex 

Lindl) F. Muell. var. canescens 

(Bentn. apud Lindl) A, Lcc 
Swainsona canescens ( Benth. ex 

Lindl) F. Muell var, horniana 

J, M. Black 
Swainsona cyclocarpa F. Muell var. 

cyclocarpa (F.* Muell) A. Lee 
Swainsona fhwicar inula J. M. Black 
Swainsona. microcalyx J. M. Black 

subsp. microcalyx A. Lee 
Swainsona microphylla A. Gray 

subsp. nffinis A, Lcc 
Swainsona nucrophijlla A. Gray 

subsp. glabrescens A. Lee 
Swainsona microphylla A. Gray 

subsp. pallescens A. Lee 
Swainsona oligophylla F. Muell 

Swainsona oroboides F, Muell subsp. 

oroboides (F. Muell et Benth.) A. 

Swainsona phacoides Benth. subsp, 

phacoides (Benth,) A. Lee 
Swainsona. rigida J. M. Black 
Swainsona slipularis F. Muell var. 

gentctdata J. M. Black 
Swainsonu uuifoliata F. Muell. 
Swainsona viltosa J. M. Black 
Ternpletonia egena (F. Muell.) 

Ternpletonia hookeri (F. Muell.) 

Tcphrosia hrachycarpa F. Muell ex 

Tcphrosia eriocarpa Benth, 
Tcphrosia filipcs Benth. 
Tcphrosia phaeosperma F. Muell. ex 

Tcphrosia purpurea Pers. sens. lat. 
Tcphrosia purpurea Pcrs. var lon«i- 

folui Benth. 
Tcphrosia sphaerospora F. Muell. 
Tephrosia uniovulata F. Muell 
Trigonelta suavissima Lindl 
Vi^na lanceolata Benth* 
Zornia diphylla Vers. 


Acacia cidsur^cus Maid, et Blakely 
Acacia ancistrocarpa Maid, et 

Acacia uneura F. Muell. 
Acacia ancttra F, Muell var. latifolia 

J. M. Black 
Acacia basedowii Maiden 
Acacia basedowii Maiden var. viridts 

Acacia hraelnjstachrja Benth. 
Acacia bynoeana Benth. 
Acacia calcicola Forde et Ising 
Acacia cambagei R T. Raker 
Acacia colletioides A. Cuun. 
Acacia coriacea DC. 
Acacia cowleana Tate 
Acacia, cttthberfsonii Lue-hm. 
Acacia cyperophylla F. Muell 
Acacia diclyophleba F. Muell, 
Acacia estrophiolata F. Muell. 
Acacia farnesiana Willd. 
Acacia galioides Benth. 
Acacia georgiruie F. M. Bail, 



Acacia hemignosta F. Muell. 
Acacia hilliana Maiden 
Acacia jennerae Maiden 
Acacia kempeana F. Muell, 
Acacia ligulata A. Cunu. ex Benth. 
Acacia linophylla W« V. Fitzg. 
Acacia htcrssenii Domin 
Acacia lycopodifolia A. Cunn. ex 

Acacia lysiphloia F. Muell. ex Benth. 
Acacia mangiwn Willd. var. holo- 

sericeum (A. Cunn.) C. T. White 
Acacia microbotrya Benth. 
Acacia minuHfolia F. Muell. 
Actuia mimficoh J. M. Black 
Acacia murrayana F. Muell, ex Benth. 
Acacia patetis F. Muell. 
Acacia peace F. Muell. 
Acacia pyrifolia DC. 
Amcia ramulosa W. V. Fitzg, 
Acacia retivenia F. Muell. 
Acacia salicitui LindL 
Acacia sessiliccps F. Muell. 
Acacia spoudylophifla K Muell. 
Acacia stenophylh 'A. Cunn. ex. 

Acacia stipuligera F. Muell. 
Acacia stwngylophylla F. MuelL 
Acacia tetragonophylla F. Mvicll. 
Acacia translucens A. Cunn. 
Acacia wnbellata A. Cunn, ex Benth. 
Acacia validinewia Maid, et Blakcly 
Acacia victoriae Benth. 
Acacia xylocarpa A. Cunn. ex Benth. 
Acacia sp. no v. aff. notabilis 
Acacia sp. now aff. ostvuldii 
Acacia sp. nov- aff. signata 
Acacia sp. nov. aff. sibirica 
Acacia sp. nov. aff. doratoxylon 
Acacia sp. nov. alf. kempeana 
Neptunia dimorphanlha Domin 
Neptunia dimorphanfha Domin var. 

clement ii Domin 
Neptunia gracilis Benth. 
Nephmia monosperma b\ MueJl. 


Cassia artemmoides Gaud, 

Cassia aHemisioides x C. desolata var. 

involucrata (presumed hybrid) 
Cassia chal elainiana Gaud- 
Cassia concinna Benth. 
Cassia eurvistyla J. M. Black 

Cassia desolata F. Muell, 

Cassia desolata F. Muell. var. invalu- 

crata j. XL Black 
Cassia eremophila A. Cunn, 
Cassia cremophila A. Cunn. var. 

platypoda (R. Br.) Benth. 
Cassia cremophila A. Cunn. var. zygo* 

phylla (Bcnth/) Benth. 
Cassia glulinosa DC. 
Cassia notabiUs b\ Muell. 
Cassia oligophylh R Muell. 
Cassia phyltodinca R. Br. 
Cassia plearocarpa F. Muell, 
Cassia pruinosa F. Muell. 
Cassia sophora L. 
Cassia slur HI R. Br. 
Cassia venusta F. Muell. 
Eysiphyllum cunninghamn ( Benth, ) 

"de Wit 
Felalosiylis labiclteoides R. Rr. var- 

cassioides Benth. 
Pctalosiylis spincscens E. PriU. 

Erodium. aureum Carolin 
Erodium erinUum Carolin 
Erodium cygnorum Nees subsp. 

Erodium cygnorum Nees suhsp. 

glandulosum Carolin 


Oxalis corniculata L. 


Tribtdus angvsHf alius (R. Br.) Benth. 
Tribtdus astrocarpus F. Muell. 
Tribulus hystrix R. Br. 
Tribtdus macrocarptts F. Muell. 
Tribulus occidentalis R. Br. 
Tribulus ferresMs L. 
Zygophyllum ammophilum F. Muell, 
Zygophyllum apiadaium F. Muell. 
Zygophyllum aurantiucum (LindL) 

f, Muell 
Zygophyllum compressum], M. Black 
Zygophyllum glaucescens F. Muell. 
Zygophyllum howittii F. Muell. 
Zygophylhwi prismatothecum F. 

Zygophyllum (esquorum J. M. Black 


Eriostemon amyreus F. MuelL et 


Owenia acklula F. Muell. 
Owenia reticulata F. Muell. 


Comesperma sylvcsire Lind!. 
Comesperma vhcidulum F. Muell. 
Polygala chmensis L. var. sqmrroms 
(Benth.) Domin 


Adriana hookeri (F. Muell.) MnelL- 

Euphorbia australis Boiss. 
Euphorbia eoghlaniiF. M. Bail. 
Euphorbia drummondii Boiss. 
Euphorbia cremophiln A. Cunn. 
Euphorbia finlaysonii J. M. Black 
Euphorbia stevenii F. M. Bail. 
Euphorbia tcheeleri Baill. 
Fctalostipna quadrdoctdare F. Muell. 

var, nigrum Ewart el Da vies 
Phtjllanlhus fuernrohrii F. Muell. 
PhyUnnthus lacunarius F. Muell, 
PhtjllantJtus rhytidospcrmus F. Muell. 
Phyllanthus ihesioides Benlk 
Phyllanthus trachyspcrmus F. Muell. 
Sebasiiania chamdaea ( L. ) Muell .- 



Mac<ireg,oria racemigera F. Muell. 
Stuckhousia intermedia F. M. Bail. 
Stacldumsia megaloptera F. Muell. 
StackJiousia viminea Sin. 


Atahnja hemiglauca (F. Muell.) 

F, Muell. ev Kenth. 
D/phpeltis sfrtarlii F. Mue]]. 
Dodonaea aitenuata A* Cumi. 
Dodonaea lanceolata F. Muell. 
Dodonaea microzyga F. Mue.lL 
Dodonaea pedunculaiis Liucll. (inch 

var, coriacea Ewart el Davies) 
Dodonaea viscosa (L>) Jacq- var. 

spathuhtum (Sm.) Benth. 
fleterodendrum floribnndum E, Pritz. 
Heterodendrum aleifolium Desf. 


Spyridium spatlmlatum ( F. MuelL ) 

F. Muell. ex Benth. 
Ventilago viminalis Hook. 


Corchorus elderi F. Muell. 
Corchorus sidioides F. Muell. 
Triumfelta micracantha F. Muell. 
Trhimfetta tcinneckeana F. Muell. 

Abutilon cryptopetalum F. MuelL 
Abuiilon frascri (Hook.) Hook, ex 

Abutilon leucopctalum F. MuelL 
A.butilon malvifolium (Benth.) J. M. 

Abutilon olucarpum F, Muell. 
Cienfu^osia ^ossypioides (R. Br.) 

Hibiscus brachyehlaenus F. Muell, 
Hibiscus erassicalyx J. M. Black 
Hibiscus farragei F. Muell. 
Hibiscus int rate none us J. M. Black 
Hibiscus krischauffianus F. Muell. 
Hibiscus pinonianus Gaud. 
Hibiscus radiaius Cav. 
Hibiscus sturtii Hook. 
Hibiscus stuiiii Hook. var. grandiflora 

Hibiscus sturtii Hook. var. muell&ri 

Hibiscus sturtii Hook. var. 

plafych Ian i ys Benth . 
Hibiscus sturtii Hook. var. sturtii 

Hibiscus trionum L. 
Lavaterd plebeia Sims 
Mahastrmn spicaium (L.) A. Cruy 
iKotoxylinon australe (Benth.) 

Notoxtjlinon pedaium (F. M. Bail) 

Plagktntlms glomcralus (Hook,) 

Sida cardiophylla F. Muell. 
Sida corrugata Lindl. 
Sida vorrugafa Lindl. var. angttstifolia 

Sida corruzata Lindl. var. goniocarpa 

F. Muell. 
Sida cryphiopeiala F. Muell. 
Sida eunningharnii C. T. White 
Sida fibulifera Lindl. 
Sida filifonnls A. Curm. 
Sida intricata F. MuelL 
Sida Icpkla F. MuelL 

Sida macropoda F. MuelL ex Benth 


Sida phtycalyx F. Muell. ex Benth. 
Sida rhomhifolia L. var. incana Benth. 
Sida rohlenue Domin 
Sida trichopoda F. Muell. 
Sidu virgata Hook. 
Sida virgata Hook. var. phaeofricha 
(F. Muell.) Benth. 

Brachychitan gregorii F. Muell. 
Coynntersonia crispa Turcz« 
Commersonia melanopetala F. Muell. 
Gilesia bimflora F. Muell. 
Hannafordia hissillii F. Muell. 
Keraudreniu integrifolia Steud. 
Kcraudrenia nephrosperma (F. 

Muell.) Benth. 
Melhania incaaa Heync 
Rnlingia kempeana (F. Muell.) F. 

Muell. ex J. M. Blaek 
Uulingia Joxophylla F. Muell. 
Uulingia magnifhra F. Muell. 
WaltJiewi indica L. 

llihhcrtia glahcrrima E Muell 


Hypericum graminetmi Forsl. r\ 

Bcrgia perennis (F. Muell) F. Muell. 

ev Benth. 
Bcrgia trhnera Fiseh, ct Mey 
Elatine grufioloides A. Cuan. 


Erankcnia connata Spmguc 
Frankenia cantata J. M. Black 
Frankenia gracilis Summerh, 
Frankenia inuscosa J. M. Blaek 
Fiankeida plunifolui Sprague ct 

Frankcnia serpyUifolia LindL 
Frankenia speciosa Sumnierh. 
Frankenia shiariii Summcrh. 

Uyhanthus enneaspermus (L,) F. 

Pimelea ammocharis F. Muell. 
Pimelea microcepliala R. Br. 
Pimelea trichostachya Lindl. 


Ammannia auricidata Willd. 
Ammannia multiflora Roxb. 
Rotala diandra F. MuelL 
Rotala KcrticiUcim L. 

Baeckca polystemona F. Muell, 
Callistetuon viminalis (Sol. ex 

Gaertn*) G. Don. ex Loud, or veL 

Calytrix longiflara F. Muell. 
Calytrix microphylla A. Cunn. 
Eucalyptus Itpp&ra F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus brevifolia F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus camaldulcnsis Dehnh. 
Eucalyptus dichromophloia F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus dumosa^ A. Cunn. ex 

Eucalyptus gamophylla F, Muell. 
Eucalyptus gongylocarpa Blakely 
Eucalyptus interlexta R. T. Baker 
Eucalyptus viicrotheca F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus morrisii R. T, Baker 
Eucalyptus normantonensis Maiden 

et Cambage 
Eucalyptus odoniocarpa F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus oleosa F. Muell. ex Miq. 

var> glauca Maiden 
Eucalyptus oxymitra Blakely 
Eucalyptus pachyphylla F. MueJJ. 
Eucalyptus papuana F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus pruinosa Schau. 
llitcalyptus scssilis (Maiden) Blakely 
Eucalyptus setosa Sehau. 
Eucalyptus tenninahs F. MuelL 
Eucalyptus ihozeliana F. Muell. 
Eucalyptus sp. nov. aft*, cwartiana 
Eucalyptus sp. now 
Mehdeuca acacioides F. MuelL 
Melaleuca bracteaia F. MuelL 
Melaleuca dissitiflora F. MuelL 
Melaleuca glomeruta F. MuelL 
Melaleuca lasiandra F. MuelL 
Melaleuca tinariifolia Sm. 
Microtnyrtus flaviflora (F. MuelL) 

F. MuelL ex J. M. Blaek 
Thnjptomene maisonneuvii F. Muell, 


Haloragis gusset F. MuelL 
Ualoragis heterophylla Brongn. 
Haloragis odoniocarpa F. Muell. 



r.aiuhmui roei (Endl.) Schlechtd. 
Myriophyllmn verruccmim LindL 


Actinotus schtcarzii F- Muell. 
Daucus glochidiattis ( Lab. ) Fisch. 

Mey. et Ave-Lav. 
Hydrocolyh truclnjcarpa F. Muell. 
Trachymenc gill mat? (Tate) 13, L- 

Trachymene glaucijolia (F. MuolL) 

Trachymene hcmicarpa (F« Muell. ) 



Slyplidia ■miichelln F. Muell. 


Samolus repens Pers. vav. nuv. 

Plumbago zcylanica L. 

Jaxnunum catcarcum F. Muell. 
Jasminum linearc R. Br, 

Centaunum spicatum (L.) Drucc 
Nymphodcs geminata (Griscb.) O, 

Carism lanccahita R. Br. 

Cynanehium floribumlwn R. Br, 
Marsdenia attstralis (R. Br.) Druce 
PeMatropis kempeana F. Muell. 
Pcntatropis linearis Dene. 
Sarcostemma ausfrale R. Br. 


Bonumia brevifolia Benth. 
Bonamia rosea (F. Muell.) Hall. f. 
Convolvulus erubescent Sims 
Cuscuta attstralis R. Br. 
livolvulus alsinoidcs L. var. villosi- 

calyx v. Oeststr. 
Ipomoea. aqualica Forsk. 
Ipomoea cosiata F P Muell. 
Ipomoea daoenpoitii F, Muell. 
Ipomoea lonchophylla j- M. Black 
Ipomoea muelleri Benth. 
Ipomoea racemigcra F. Muell. et Tate 

Cynoglossum australe R. Br. var. 

drummondii Brand. 
Halgania cyanea Lindl. 
Halgania cyanea Lindl. var. preissiana 

(Lehrn.) Maiden ct Betcne 
Halgania erecta Ewart et Rees 
Halgania glabra J, M. Black 
Halgania solanacea F. Muell. 
Ileliotropiurn aspcrrimiim R. Br. 
Heliotr opium hacciferum Forsk. 
Heliotropium crispatum F, Muell. ex 

Heliolropium cttmssaincum L. 
Heliolropium dwersi folium F. Muell. 
Ileliotropiurn fasciculalum R. Br. 
Heliolropium fihginoides. Benth. 
Ileliotropiurn hetcranthvm F. Muell. 
Heliolropium ovalifolium Forsk. 
ileliotropiurn ovalifolium Forsk. var. 

gracilc R. Br, 
Ileliotropiurn panlculaiitm R. Br. 
Hetioirophim pleiopterum F. Mueil. 
Heliotropium sirigosum Wilkl. ex DC. 
Heliotropium Icnuijolium R. Br. 
HeUoiropium tenutfolium R. Br. var. 

parvifhrum J. M. Black 
Heliotropium sp. nov, aff. fascicu- 

Ornphalolappula concava (F. Muell.) 

Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm. f.) 

R. Br. (inel. var. sericeum Benth.) 

FJiretia saligna R. Br. 


Clerodendrum florihundum R. Br. 
Dicrastylis beveridgci F. Muell. 
Dicrastylis coslelloi F. M. Bail. 
Dicrastylis doranii F. Muell. var. 

eriantha. F. Muell. 
Dicrastylis exsuccosa (F. Muell.) 

Dicrastylis gilesii F. Muell 
Dicrastylis lewellinii (F. Muell.) P, 

Newcastlia bracieosa F. Muell. 
Netccastlia cephahntha F. Muell. 
Newcastlia spodiotricha F. Muell. 
Spartothamnella ptdmrulus ( F. 

Muell.) Maiden et Betehe 



Spartothamnella teucriiflora (F. 

Muell.) Moldenke 
Verbena maerostachya F. Muell. 
Verbena officinalis L. 

Mentha australis R. Br. 
Mtcrocorus macredieana F. Muell. 
Plectmnthus sp. nov, afr\ parvifhrus 
Prostanthera haxteri A. Cunn. var. 

crassijolin Benth f 
Prostanthera baxteri A. Cunn. var. 

sericea J. M, Black 
Prostanthera schullzu F. Murll. ex 

Prosianthera striatiflora F. Muell. 
Prostanthera wilkiedna P t Muell. 
Tettcrium grand ivscul urn F. Muell. et 

Teucrium integri 'folium F. Muell. c.\ 

Teucrium racemosum R. Br. 

Dufnra leichhardtii F. MucU. 
Duhoisia hopwoodii F< Muell. 
Nicotiana benf.hamiana Domiii 
Nicotiana exechior JL M. Black 
Nicotiana gossei Domln 
Nicotiana ingtilba J. M. Black 
Nicotiana occidentaUs H. M. Wheeler 
Nicotiana rotundifolia Lindl. 
Nicotiana velutina H. M, Wheeler 
Solanum chenopodinum F. MueJI. 
Solatium coactiliferum J. M. Black 
Solanum diversiflorum F. Muell. 
Solanum eUiptieum R, Br. 
Solanum eremophilnm F. Muell. 
Solanum esuriale Lindl, 
Solanum ferocissimum Lindl, or vel. 

Solanum uemophilum F. Muell. 
Solarium nigrum L. 
Solanum orbieulatum Dun. 
Solanum pefrophilum F, Muell. 
Solanum phlomoides A. Cunn. ex 

Solanum quadrilocuhtum F, Muell. 
Solanum sturfianum F. Muell. 

Adenowta coemtea R. Br. 
Buchnera linearis R. Br. 
Klacholoma hornii F. Muell. et Tate 

(F. Muell.) 



Urjsanthes lobetioides 

lAmosella amiralis R. Br. 
Mimulus gracilis R. Br. 
Morgania florxbunda Benth. 
Morgania glabra R. Br. 
Morgania gracilis R. Br. 
Morgania pubescem R. Br. 
Stemodia lythrifolia F. Muell. 
Stemodia ciscosa Roxb. 
Stemodia viscosa Roxb. var. nov. 


Pandorea doratoxylon J. M, Blucfc 


foscphinia citgeniae F. Muell. 

Uisticia kempeana F. Muell. 
lusiicia procumbens F. Muell. 
Ruellia corynotheca F. Muell. 

Ruellia primulacea F. Muell. 


Eremophila battii F. Muell. 
Eremophila baUH F, Muell. var. 

major J. M. Black 
Eremopldln calycina S. Moore 
Erenwphila caslelli arminii E. Pritz. 
Eremophila christopheri F. Muell. 
Eremophila cordatisepalea L. Smith 
Eremophila duitonii F. Muell. 
Eremophila elder i F. Muell. 
Eremophila exoirachtjs Kraenzl. 
Eremophila freclingii F. MuelL ,. 
Eremophila gibsonii l'\ Muell. 
Eremophila gilesii F. Muell. 
Eremophila gilesii 

argentea Ewart 
Eremophila gilesii 

fd if or me Ewart 
Eremophila glabra (R. Br.) Ostenf. 
Eremophila goodwinii F. Muell. 
Erenwphila latrobei F. Muell. 
Eremophda leonhardmna E. Pritz. 
Eremophila longifolia (R, Br.) F. 

Eremopliila macdonnellii F. Muell. 
Eremophila macdonnellii F. Muell. 

vai\ glabriuscuh J. M. Black 
Eremophila m/icdonnellii F. Muell. 

var. maewcarpa Ewart et Davies 

F. Muell. vox. 
F, Muell, var, 



Eremophila macufata (Ker. ) F. 

Eremophila ohovata L. Smith 
Eremophila paisleyi F. Muell. 
Eremophila rotundifolia F. Muell. 
Eremophila serrulata (A. Cunn.) 

Eremophila strehlowii E. Pritz. 
Eremophila strongylophylUi F. Muell. 
Eremophila sturtii R. Br. 
Eremophila willsii F. Muell. 
Eremophila tvilhii F. Muell. var. 

integrifolia Ewart 
Mtjoporum montanum R. Br. 

Plant-ago varia R. Br. 

Borreria australiana R. L. Specht 
Borreria brachystema (R- Br. ex 

Benth.) Valet 
Canthium attentiatum R. Br. ex 

Canthium latrfolium F. Muell. ex 

Canthium lineare E. Pritz-. 
Canthium sp. nov. aff. lucidum 
DenteUa asperata Airy-Shaw 
Dentella pulvinata Airy-Shaw var. 

repanda Airy-Shaw 
Oldenlandia galioides F. MuelL 
Oldenlandia- pterospora (F. Muell-) 

F. Muell. 
Oldenlandia, iillaeaceae (F, Muell.) 

F. Muell. 
Pomax umheUata Sol. 
Spermacoce scahra Ewart 

Cucumis chate Hesselq. 
Melothria mttderaspatana (L.) Cogn. 
Melothria micrantna F. Muell. ex 


Isotoma petraea F. Muell. 
Lobelia heterophylla Labill. 
Wahlenbergia sieberi A.DC. 
Wahlenbergia sp. nov. 
Wahlenbergia sp. nov. 
Wahlenbergia sp. nov. 
Wahlenbergia sp. nov. 

Calogyne berardiana (Gaud.) F. 


Catospcrmum goodeniaceum (F. 

Muell.) Krause 
Dampiera candicans F. Muell. 
Dampiera cinerea Ewart et Davies 
Goodenia armitiana F. MuelL 
Goodenut armitiana F. Muell. var. 

imdticanlis Blalcely 
Goodenia azurea F. Muell. 
Goodenia basedowii Krause 
Goodenia cycloptera R. Br. 
Goodenia erecta Ewart 
Goodenia glabra R, Br. 
Goodenia glauca F. Muell. 
Goodenia grandiflora Sims 
Goodenia heterochila F. Muell. 
Goodenia hirsuta F. Muell. 
Goodenia horniana Tate 
Goodenia larapinta Tate 
Goodenia linifolia W. V. Fitzg. ex 

Goodenia lunata J. M. Black 
Goodenia microptera F. MuelL 
Goodenia mitcheUiana Benth. 
Goodenia mueekeana F. Muell. 
Goodenia ramelii F. Muell. 
Goodenia strangfordii F. Muell. 
Goodenia subintegra F. Muell. ex 

J. M. Black 
Goodenia vilmorinae F. Muell. 
Leschenaultia divaricata F. Muell. 
Leschenaultia striata F. Muell. 
Scaevola aemula F. Muell. 
Scaevola collaris F. MuelL 
Scaevola daleana Blakely 
Scaevola depauperata R. Br. 
Scaevola ovaltfolia R. Br. 
Scaevola ovalifolia* R, Br. var. glabra 

R. Br. 
Scaevola pan/if olia F. MuelL ex 

Scaevola spinescens R. Br. 
Scaevola sp, aff- aemula 
Velleia connata F. Muell. 
Velleia pamdoxa R. Br. 

Brunonki australis Sm. 

Stylidium floodii F. MuelL 
Stylidium floribundum R, Br. 
Stylidium inaequipetalum J. M, Black 

Arigianthus pusillus Benth, 
Bidens bipintiatus L. 



Brachycome bhckii G. L. Davis 
Brachycome ciliaris (Lab.) Less. var. 

ciliarte G. L. Davis 
Brachycome ciliaris (Lab.) Less. var. 

lanuginosa (Steetz) Benth. 
Brachycome iberidifolia Bcnth. 
Brachycome lineariloha (DC.) Druce 
C 'otocephalus knappii Ewart et White 
Calocephalm platycephalus (F, 

Muell.) Benth. 
Calotis cuneijolia R. Br. 
Calotis ctjmbacanfha F. Muell. 
ColoUs erinacm Steetz 
Calotis hispididu F. Muell. 
Calotis kempei F. Muell. 
Calotis latiuscula F. Muell. et Tate 
Calotis multicauli? (Turcz,) J. M. 

Calotis porphyroglossa F. Muell. ex 

Centipeda minima (L.) A. Br. eft 

Centipeda thespidioides F. Muell. 
Coleocoma eeniaurea F. Muell. 
Epaltes australis Less. 
Flaveria australasica Hook. 
Ghssogyne tenuifolki (Lab.) Cass. 
Gnaphalium japonicum Thimb. 
Gnaphalodes uliginosuri} A. Gray 
Gnephosis eriocarpa (F. Muell.) 

Gnephosis gnephosioides (F. Muell.) 

HeUchrysum amhiguum Turcz, 
HeUchrysum amhiguum Turcz, var, 

paucisetum J. M. Black 
HeUchrysum apiculatttm (Lab.) DC. 
HeUchrysum ayersii F. Muell. 
HeUchrysum bracteatum (Vent.) 

HeUchrysum casstnianum Gaud. 
HeUchrysum kempei F. Muell. 
HeUchrysum rumossisimum Hook. 
Heliehnjsum wseum (Liudl.) Druce 

var, davenportii Bcnth. 
Helicltrysum semifertile F. Muell. 
Hfiichrysttm thomsonii F. Muell. 
HeUchrysum j»p. nov, aJf. ambiguum 
Helipterum charslexjac F. Muell. 
Helipterum coryndnflorum Schlcehtd. 
Helipterum fitzgibbonii F. Muell. 
Helipterum floribttndum DC. 

Helipterum moschatum (A. Cutm. ex 

DC.) Benth. 
Helipterum pterochaetum (F MuciL) 

Helipterum stipitatum (F, Muell.) 

F. Muell. 
Helipterum strict urn (Lindl.) Benth. 
Helipterum tietkensii F. Muell. 
Helipterum sp. nov. aff. albicans 
Ixiolaena leptolepis (DC.) Benth. 
Millotia kempei F. Muell. 
Minuria cunninghamii Benth. 
Minuria denticulata (DC.) Benth. 
Minuria integerrima (DC.) Benth. 
Minuria leptophylla DC. 
Myriocephaius rudallii (F. Muell.) 

Myriocephaius stuartii ( F, Muell. et 

Sond.) Benth, 
Olearia ferresii (F. Muell R Muell. 

ex Benth. 
Olearia stuartii (F. Muell.) F. Muell. 

ex Benth. 
Olearia subspicata (Hook.) Benth. 
Fluchea dentex R. Br. ex Beuth. 
Pluchea rubelliflora ( F, Muell. ) 

Pluchea rubelliflora (F. Muell.) 

Druce var. major Benth. ex J. M. 

Pluchea scpiarrosa Benth. 
Pluchea tetiunthera F. Muell. var. 

tomentosa Benth. 
Podocoma cuneifolia R. Br. 
Padocomu sp. nov. aff. nana 
Podolepis canescens A. Cunu. ex DC. 
Podolepis capittaris (Steetz) Diels 
Podolepis georgei Dicls 
Pterigeron adscendens Benth. 
Pterigeron cylindriceps J, M. Black 
Pterigeron decurrens (DC.) Bcnth. 
Pterigeron dentatifolius F. Muell. 
Pterigeron liatroides (Turcz.) Bcnth. 
Pterigeron odorus (F. Muell.) Benth. 
Pterocaulon ghtndulosum (F. Muell.) 

Benth. et Hook. 
Pterocaulon glandulosum (F. Muell.) 

Benth. et Hook, var. velutinum 

Ewart et Davies 
Pterocaulon sphacelatum (Lab.) F. 



Rittidtms helichrysoides DC, NATURALISED SPECIES 

Senecio gregorii F. Muell. (In alphabetical order) 

Senecio hcemtus (F,. Mucll.) Belcher Altenumthera pungens H.BJC. 

Senecio lautus Sol. Hrassim lournfortii Gouau. 

Senecio magnijicus R Mucll. Carthamus lanatus L. 

Senecio odoraius Hornemann Cenchnts cilUiri$ L. 

Senecio sp. nov. aff, cunning] tamii Citruttus colocynthis (L.) SchracL 

Sigexbeckia orientalis L. CitruJhis vulgaris Schrad. 

Sunchux uleracew L. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pcrs. 

Veruonia cinerea Lees Echiitm plantagineum L. 

Vittcutinia ptemchaeta. (F. Muell.) Emex ausfralis Steitdi 

J. Mi Black Lrigcron floribundus (H.B.K.) 

Vitiadinia seabra DC. Sch.Bip* 

Vittadinia triloba (Gaud.) DC. Malva panAjlora L. 

Wtfftsifl acuminata Steetz Nicufiana gluuca Grah. 

Waitziu citrma (Benth.) Steetz Polygonum avlctdare L. 

Wedelia asperrima (Dcaie.) Benth. Hicinns communis L, 

Wedelia spilanthoides F, Muell. Rtunex vesicarius L. 

Wedelia verbesinoides F. Muell. ex Sisymbrium erysimoides Desf. 

Bcuth. Xanfhiurn spinosum L. 

Tb<? co-operation of botanists at interstate herbaria in searches for speci- 
mens and in corrections to the list is much appreciated,- as is also the action of 
the Directors of the Herbaria in Brisbane, Sydney; Melbourne and Adelaide in 
allowing me to borrow specimens. 


Bumtham, C, 1SG3. Flora Australiensis, Vol 1. 

Black, J. M., 1946-1957. Flora of South Australia, Parts 1-4. 2nd Ed, 

Black, J. M. ? 1914. Transactions of ife Hoyal Society of South Australia, XXXVIII (1914) 

pp. 460-471. '"Scientific Notes on an Expedition into the interior of Australia. Botauy. 
Black, J, M., 1936. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, LX (1936). pp 

Bubbuogl, M, T. t 1953. Australian Journal oi Botany 1. No. 1 ( 1953), pp, 121-184, "Thu 

Genus Triodia". 
Cleland, J. B, (unpublished), last of HpeciVs collected in Central Australia. 
Crocker. R. L., and Wood, J. G., 1947. Transactions of tlic Royal Society of South Aus- 
tralia, 71, part 1 (1947), pp, 91-136. "Some Historical Influences on the Development 

of the South Australian Vegetation Coniuiumtics." 
Eahi>lk\. C. M. t 1940. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 70 (1946), )>p. 

145-174. Catalogue of Hants of the Simpson Desert Expedition (1939). 
EwAHr. A. J., and Davies > O. B., 191/. The Flora of the Northern Territory. 
Gn.Es/E., 1875. Geographic Travels in Central Australia HS72-4), pp. 211-223. List of 

Kempe, H.. 1881-2. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, V (1881-2), pp, 

19-23. "Plants Indigenous to the Neighbourhood of Henna ffiisburjf," 
Kemfe, H m 1879-80. Ibid., Ill (1879-80), pp. 129-137. 
Lel, Alma, 1943. Contributions from the New South Wale* National Herbamirn, 1 No. 4 

(1948), pp. 131-271. "The Genus Swainsona." 
Mueller, FL 1884-5. Proceedings of the Royal Society pi South Australia. S (18S4-5). pp. 

10-13. "Plants Collected in Central Australia by Charles Winnecke. T 
Mulller, F.. and Tate. R., 1889-99. Transactions of drc Royal Society of South Australia. 

13 (1889-90), pp. 94-109. "List of Plants Collected During Mr. Tietken's Expec1il«ai 
i into Central Australia (1889 ).** 
Tatk, R., 1896. Report of the Horn Expedition to Central Australia— Botany 3 (1896). pp., 

Willis, l y 1942. The Victorian Naturalist, 59 (4), p. 72. 
WiLtas, J., 1945. Void., 61 (10), p. 175. 




John Burton Cleland, the .senior fellow of the Society, was born on 
22nd June. 1878, and was elected to fellowship of the Royal Society vf 
South Australia in 180.5. His father, Dr> W. L. Clcland y was already a 
member ahen the Adelaide Vhilosophieal Society became the Royal 
Society in 1880. 7- R. Clcland has been a member of the Council of the 
Society at carious times from 1921 until 1942 and was President in 
1927-28 and again in 1940-41. He was awarded the Sir Joseph Verco 
medal in 1933. 

Clet and belongs to the old tradition of the medical man who is 
also a naturalist, the following appreciations of his work in three fields 
of Natural History have been contributed by Miss C. M, Eardley, Dr. 
C. £*, Hansford and Professor T. D. Campbell. 


Dr. J, B. Cieland's botanical activities have always been recreational and 
non-professional, but so well-directed, continuous and serious hi their aims that 
his scientific achievements beta* favourable comparison with those of professional 

His major publication, Toadstools and Mushrooms and Other Larger Fungi 
trf South Auslraliih Parts I and 11 (1934-36, Adel. Govt. Printer), was the result 
of his observations, collections and extensive field experience, together with long 
study. In scope, the work is a taxonomic textbook for South Australia, but 
useful beyond that State; it also contains many fine illustrations and coloured 
plates of great perfection, together with general chapters on die uses, edibility 
and poisonous nature of many of the species. 

These two books are the standard reference text on toadstools and mush- 
rooms in this State and of a high, scholarly level; they were published in the 
.series of "Handbooks of the Flora and fauna of South Australia",, and the 
author is an acknowledged authority on this subject 

This is perhaps the best place to refer to Dr. Cleland's large part in the 
foundation of this scries of Handbooks. The idea grew rather naturally out of 
the need felt by him, as a keen and lifelong field botanist, for a good handbook 
till the flora of South Australia. Many of his scientific colleagues were in a 
similar position with regard to other brandies of Ideal natural history and were 
enthusiastic about this vision of a set of Handbooks, though the work was all 
si ill to come. Dr. Clcland himself has told the story of this beginning (Australian 
Herbarium News, No. 2, March, 1948), but: it will bear repeating. It goes back 
to 1920-21 when the South Australian Branch of the British Science Guild (no 
longer existing as such) was particularly interested in the wider diffusion of 
.scientific knowledge and methods among amateurs and the general public. 
Cleland had already collaborated with the amateur systematic botanist* J. M. 
Black, and subsequently published various papers with him in these Transac- 
tions, recording collections of plants made, in the more inaccessible northern 
and western parts of the State, as well as comprehensive censuses' of southern 
areas, like Kangaroo Island, Monarto South and Encounter Bay especially, the 
perennial holiday home of his family. Black already had to his credit a small 
published work, The Nuturulm'd Flora of South Australia (1909), and Cleland 

Tran^ Hoy. Snc. S. And (iASty 4 Vol. >.-.*. 


recognised his genius for this task of preparing i flora of the native plants of 
tlie State. Cleland was instnamental in proposing to the British Science Cudd 
tfoit Black be invited to nndertakc this task; there remained the large question 
nf pubheatrun and it was agreed that the South Australian Government might 
be approached on tin's matter. 

Cleland and his colleagues* could see the potential authurs or other science 
handbooks in their immediate circle -cm Mammals. Fishes and. indeed, a com- 
prehensive list— *nd the proposal that was finally put before the Government 
bv a deputation, consisting of Professor Wood Jones, Professor T. G. B. Osbom 
and Professor Cleland. The scientific deputation could offer a scheme for pre- 
paring and editing the volumes under the control of the South Australian Branch 
of the British Science Guild, with tho voluntary labours of the specialist authors 
contrihuting the text — no mean offer- the scientific, educational, and economic 
value to agriculture and other industries was stressed. Could the Government 
accept tins offer and in return arrange for publication by tho Government 
Printer? The immediate reaction of the Premier, Sir Henry Barwell, as he 
became later, was that this was a very handsome offer; Cabinet concurred and 
returned a favourable reply in a fortnight, early in 1921. Since then, Handbooks 
have appeared in a do7en or more special fiofds. and they have enjoyed a high 
reputation. The Handbook* Committee of four or five still contains two or its 
original members, namely, J. B. Cleland and II. M. Hale, Editor since its incep- 
tion: this te a ven proud record of nearly 40 years' generous service, 

Cleland was'ablo to give J. M- Black quite expert help with the drudgery 
of Getting such technical matter printed, because of his own familiarity with the 
subject. ^ And similarly about 1940 when Black, as a man of over SO, was 
persuaded to undertake a Second Edition of Part 1 of his Flora, J- B. Cleland 
was the prime mover and it is due largely to his activity that arrangements were 
made for the completion of the Second Edition after Blacks death. One has the 
impression that Cleland laboured almost more to promote Black's Flora than in 
the cause of his own Handbooks on tire. Toadstools and Mushrooms, Black's 
flora in two editions of four volumes each has certainty been the most ambitious 
publication of the Handbook's Committee. 

Clelands knowledge of plants has its basis in the great love of an active 
ma»i for outdoor life and Iris talent for field studies; there could not have been 
many weeks in his life when he failed to go for an outing pr expedition. These 
were always occasions for collecting and noting or listing plants and always 
directed to the end of increasing the store of knowledge about plants in the field 
in Australia. He could name almost any plant at sight and could therefore 
quickly pick out rarities, for which he was always searching. His mental and 
physical energy are equally great and he has laboured continually to record 
observations which could be useful. Countless short papers recording local lists 
of pknt distribution have (lowed from his pen. marry of these being published in 
the South Australian Naturalist. The memorable and frequent longer expedi- 
tions to the north of the State, and the far west and Central Australia tiavc 
yielded big collections which have been faithfully worked up and published, 
sometimes with another botanical collaborator, usually in these Transactions. 
New or interesting plants were turned up quite frequently and passed on to a 
taxonomist, particularly J. M. Black foe description and publication; many of 
Black's new species were collected by Cleland, who has really acted in the 
capacitv ol a discriminating plant explorer 

Black described four new genera which are still standing and Cleland was 
the first collector of two of them; one was a small shrub of the family Violaceae 
collected in Wilpena Pound and named in 1932 after the collector— Clekmdia — 


it resembles another plant of the same family in its habit, Hybantlim floribiitithte; 
the other was a small annual herb of the family Boraginaccae which was pnb- 
lished as Eruhadium in 1931, having been collected west of Lata? Torrens afte* 
ruins. To find unknown genera of plants in Australia at this time implies the 
handling of thousands of specimens and closely observant eyes. 

The number of new species which came to Black via Cleland was consider- 
able, some were named after the collector and others received the usual de- 
scriptive epithets; moreover, the literature of Australian plant taxonomy also 
commemorates J. B. CIclands forbears in the matter of names. 

Sets of many of his more interesting collections and rare specimens went 
to the Kew Herbarium; Mr. Black load whatever he needed and die rest went 
into Cleland s large private collection, winch was only kept within reasonable 
proportions by giving away a large section of it periodically to one or other of 
the important public herbaria in Australia, especially Adelaide, where he and 
his interests are very well known. There were collections from successive 
periods of residence in Perth, Sydney, and then from 1920 Adelaide again; South 
Australia has certainly been the centre of most of his botanical activity, and we 
owe a good deal of our knowledge of the extent of distribution of individual 
species to liis activities. 

The approach to plants was also influenced by his other strung interests — 
medicine, anthropology* zoology and ornithology;, he published papers on poison 
plants, with medical case histories, on drug plants used by the aboriginals, on 
native plants eaten by animals and birds, There arc also several important 
papers on the uses of plants by the aboriginals, especially the food plants, often 
published in collaboration with scientific colleagues in whose company he made 
many anthropological expeditions. These numerous publications are a mine of 
information for subsequent workers and many are valuable records of a dying 
col tme. 

Cleland has made very efficient use of time; odd moments, walks and drives 
are regularly spent in observing plants or collecting them, and the notebook is 
never far-distant; when in the city and suburbs he observes introduced weeds 
ami has regularly furnished an exhibit of fresh named weeds to the South Aus- 
tralian Museum during recent years; if a plant lias escaped or became natural- 
ized, he is generally among the first to record or notice it, for he has travelled 
widely and constantly about the State. 

Cleland has made his mark as one who has loved and filled his leisure with 
the studv of Australian plants, especially in the field, to such a degree thar 
science has received much benefit, and also as one who has conceived great 
plans for the advance of systematic Botany in Australia and who has not spared 
himself in assisting to canv them out. 


J. B. Ct,i;i,am) as a MycoLOorsx 

During the past hulf-ceutury J. B. Cleland lias been a most assiduous col- 
lector of Australian Fungi, and has accumulated what is undoubtedly the most 
extensive herbarium of these in existence. His main collecting grounds have 
been New Soudi Wales and South Australia, but on his journeys around Aus- 
tralia and abroad, he has supplemented his collections with specimens from 
other parts of the continent; from New Zealand, Nordi America and Europe. In 
addition, he has received many named specimens of foreign fungi in exchange 
for his own from Australia. 

Cleland has been unique as an Australian collector of fungi, in that he has 
paid particular attention to the larger fungi* especially the Agaricales. which 

34a T1UBUTK 

have been almost totally neglected since the appearance; of Cooke's Handbook 
of Australian Fungi (1892), a work which was very unsatisfactory and even 
misleading Clcland, with the assistance of E. Cheel of Sydney, and W other 
specialists in various groups of the fungi, published the results Qt his collections 
in New South Wales in a scries of papers from 1911 to abnut 1925, and on his 
return to the University of Adelaide, continued the collection of the fungi of 
South Australia. His results on the latter were gathered into his monograph, 
The Totulsloots and Mushrooms of Sot///* Australia, in 1934 ? since when a few 
additional species have been published. This monograph represents the only 
major work on the AguricuJcs of Australia to appear since 1592; unfortunately, it 
has not been followed up by similar accounts of these fungi in the other States 
of the Continent, so even today we have little u* no data on the distribution 
of individual species in Australia, nor any general picture of the agaric flora here. 
Since 1031, a new system of classification ol the Agaricales has been de- 
veloped outside Australia, hugely as a result of the investigations of Dr. R. 
Singer"; the older "i'riosian" classification was based maiuly on macroscopic 
characters, eradualiv supplemented by microscopic details of spores, cysddia 
nntl other organs of the fructifications. The newer classification is fundamentally 
different, heing based prhnarilv upon details of the microscopic structure of the 
fruit bodies, and has resulted in the amalgamation of many of the older "genera 
trrid die segregation of others into separate new genera. Hitherto no specialist 
ha* arisen *i Australia to applv this new classification to our agarics, and at 
present such work is most urgently needed, before the accumulation ol speci- 
mens and ^species" becomes too great for a single specialist to aLtempt to sort 
oat. Unfortunately, such a work requires the services of a specialist famihar 
wirii similar fungi in other parts of the world and thus capable of pronouncing 
With some degree of certainty whether the specimens encountered here are 
identical with species recorded elsewhere, This necessitates examination of 
living material of each species and variety in the field, followed by relation to 
existing herbarium specimens: only after .such study can the latter be utilised 
as the basis for specific and varietal names. Recent attempts to induce Dr. Singer 
himself to come to Australia and undertake this work proved unsuccessful, and 
the whole study of Australian Agaric-ales must remain m abeyance until he or 
.some similar specialist arrives. 

The Clcland specimens are pariicnlarly valuable in that a complete descrip- 
tion of macroscopic characters is included with each, and there \& no doubt drat 
eventually this herbarium will form the foundation, collection of Australian 
agarics, a position similar to the Kricsian herbarium in Europe, The material 
ovists, coupled with all information at present available on each speenucn; tt 
now needs working through to the light of modern concepts of classification 
and specific determination." There is no doubt in the present v. tilers mind that 
rrU&t, if not all, (h+* new species and varieties described by Cleland and his Cti» 
workers from his specimens will stand in the future, though complete new do 
serlplions of each will be necessary to include details of microscopic structure 
On the othei hand, it is doubtful whether many of the European and American 
specific names attucheel to the remaining specimens will stand close examina- 
tion, there is a good deal of reason to suspect I hat these specimens differ materi- 
ally fn>m their relatives in odier countries, and they may have to he described 
as new species or variciies. 

f. 11. Clclarid has generously donated the entire collectiou of some groups to 
the Plant Pathology Herbarium of the Waitc Institute, Adelaide, wliieh nr>w 
houses the following: 


Lirlir.ns. Unfortunately, it lias not yet proved possible to locate any specia- 
list iu this group willing tn undertake I he determination of the 1,500 specimens 
of the collection, Hitherto, in Australia there are records of over a thousand 
spmes and varieties, based mainly on collections made in 1890-1910 in (Queens- 
land and Victoria, It is probable thai (he Cleland specimens include many new 
records' for the Australian Lichen Flora. 

Gasteramycetev. The Cletaud specimens were revised by Dr. G. 11. Cun- 
ningham and included in his book. The Ca.stcromycetcs of K'ew 7<ealatuJ owl 
Australia, though further collections have been made since this appeared. The 
specimens of Tulastoma are now under furtlier revision by Dr. Jorge Wright of 
Argentina, in connection with a new world monograph of this genus. 

Dixcomueeten. The whole Clelaud collection of this group in now being 
worked (Hit by Dr. Dennis of Kew; it is prolxible that many of the existing re- 
cords of Australian species are inexact, 

Clamriaccar.. The now classification of this family dates from Comer's 
monograph (1950); Mrs. Womersley, a former student of Corner, has cOfli- 
menecd working out the Cleland specimens. 

Myxomyceies. These have now been determined- bv the present writer 
from Listers monograph. 

Polyporaceae, Thelephoraccae, tf$ The Cleland specimens at present in 
the Waile Institute comprise mainly the foreign specimens he received as fete 
changes; his own Australian specimens are still in his own charge; they will 
require very detailed revision in the light of Cunningham's work oo the Xew 
Zealand specimens: this has involved what is virtually a completely new classi- 
fication of these families, based upon microscopic structure. The revisirm of 
Australian specimens can only he undertaken by a speeiabsl , and it is to be hoped 
thai Dr. Cunningham himself may find time to undertake this work. 


J. B. Clela.vd and Antiibopolo^.y 

The inlerrst of J. B. Cleland in the natural history of man and, in particular, 
of the Australian aboriginal, was probably stimulated during his boyhood through 
his father's professional association with the Parkside. Mental Hospital and the 
aboriginal inmates of that institution. 

With his maturer interest in natural history, it was inevitable that he be- 
came one of the enthusiastic members of the University staff who joined in the 
local revival of interest in Australian anthropology, stimulated by the presence 
hern of the late Professor Wood Jones. 

Cleland was one of the University parly who accompanied Professor Clark 
Wissler and VIr. Edward Kmbrec (of the Rockefeller Foundation) on a visit 
to Wilgena, in (he far north-west of South Australia hi 1925. These two Ame- 
rican visitors were here in connection with the proposed establishment of an 
Australian School of Anthropology. The visit to Wilgena gave the Americans 
tlu*ir first acquaintance with aboriginal life and no doubt stimulated their interest 
in Australian anthropology. 

From Ihen onwards. Adelaide University field studies on aboriginal life- 
revived after the long past work of Sir Kdward Stirling — became almost annual 
events. In ajl this activity, Cleland was among the earliest workers. To pro- 
mote these studies, a JJoard for Anthropological Research was formed in 1927. 
For several years the late Dr. W. Ray was Chairman: but in 1930 Cleland he- 
came its Chairman, a position he has held up to the present time. 

The first of these Central Australian major field expeditions was in 1927, 
with visits to Mucumba and Alice Springs; and Cleland was a member of that 


first project- In the following years, he maintained his active participation in 
manv expeditions to the outback of Central and South Australia. In 1928, to 
Koonibba; 1929, Hermannsburg; 1930, Macdonald Downs; 1931, Cockatoo 
Creek; 1933; Mt. Licbig; 1933, Ernabella; 1934, Diainantina; 1936, Granites; 
1937, Nepabunna; 1939 ; Ooldca, 

During the period prior to World War II, Cleland accompanied several 
minor exclusions to more accessible native Settlements in South Australia. 

Since the War, field expeditions to Central Australia were revived in 1951, 
and Cleland still continued his active work among the natives at Yuendumu; 
with earlier visits to Haasts Bluff and Aryonga Settlements. 

All these activities were not enough to absorb all of Clcland's enthusiasm. 
He was among the foundation members of the Anthropological Society of South 
Australia, founded in 1925. He occupied the position of President for three 
sessions and has been almost continuously a member of its council throughout 
die history of the Society. For a number of years he was a member of the State 
Aborigmes Advisory Council. In 1939 a new Aboriginal Act was passed; and in 
1940, "the Aborigines Protection Board was constituted. For eighteen years he 
has been Dcputv to the Minister's Chairmanship of this Board and has given 
valuable and unremitting service in its duties. The functions of the Board have 
necessitated many visits v of inspection to the far outback of the State. Cleland 
has been untiring in these ardous excursions; and his well-maintained physical 
energy was evidenced on one occasion in relatively recent years when visiting 
Ernubella Settlement in the Musgrave Ranges; he was one of a small band of 
enthusiasts who climbed to the summit of Mt. Wooclroofe — the highest peak in 
South Australia, 

From all this wide and varied experience, Cleland has placed many or his 
observations on permanent record in a long list of valuable publications. These 
are too numerous to list in detail; but altogether they make an outstanding con- 
tribution to the ecology of the Australian aboriginal. To mention only some of 
his major works, these" have dealt with: diseases of the natives; his pioneer in- 
vestigations in blood grouping; indigenous plants as native food materials: and 
his remarkable story of the aboriginal's discovery of the properties and uses of 
the plants Nicotiana and Duboisia, is a subject far more fascinating historically 
and scientifically than the traditional romance of Sir Walter Raleigh and tobacco. 

Just as impressive as Cleland's extensive experience and unbounded enthu- 
siasm in these anthropological studies, has been his sincere interest and affection 
for the aboriginal as a human being. His studies and interest in these native 
folk will long remain as one of the fitting memorials to a lifetime of faithful 
service to science and his State. 



YEAR 1957-58. 



YEAR 1957-58. 

Oct., 1957. Presidential Address by Mr. L M. Thomas: "The Evolution of the 

Nov. ; 1957. Mr. J. Silsrury, Dept. of Agronomy, Waite Institute: "Some As- 
pects of the Ecology and Distribution of the Genus Kennedy a 
(Leguminosae) in Western Australia". 

April, 1958. Dr. M. F. Glaessner, Dept. of Geology, University of Adelaide: 
"The Oldest Fossils of South Australia". 

May, 1958. Professor R. K. Morton, Dept. of Agricultural Chemistry, Waite 
Institute: "The Fine Structure of Cells in Relation to Biological 

June, 1958. Dr. W. G. Elford, Lecturer in Physics, University of Adelaide: 

"Artificial Earth Satellites". 

July, 1958. Mr. J. C. Fornachon, Director of Research, Australian Wine Re- 
search Institute: "The Organisation, Function and Programme of 
the Wine Research Institute",, 

Sept., 1958. Dr. F. W. Wood, Superintendent of Range Development, Weapons 
Research Establishment: "The International Geophysical Year . 



Receipts and Payments for year ended 3"th September, 1958, 




£ s, d 

To Balance 1/10/57 




Printing and Publishing 




„ Subscriptions 




Reprints, etc. 


1,439 6 1 

„ Government Grant 

. 1,775 

Library Assistants 


107 1 

„ Sale of Publications, etc. 

.: 352 



Printing and Stationery 

129 18 ' 

„ Interest — ■ 

Postages, Duty Stamps. 



Endowment Fund £229 19 



Cleaning ... 



58 7 

Savings Rank of 



58 1 

S.A 51 1 





6 10 




Binding Volumes 

Shelving ... 

1 3 175 19 
114 1 


Packing Transactions , 

41 16 


Vacuum Cleaner 
Periodicals, etc. 

21 9 1 
14 10 


5 3 

Sundries ... 

9 7 


Balance — ■ 

Savings Bank of 

S.A., Rundle St. £914 



Less outstanding 

cheques ... 




898 18 





14,158 12 

Audited and found correct. 
Adelaide. 1st October, 1958. 

N. S. ANGEL, A.U.A. Com. \ Hon. 
F. M. ANGEL I Auditors 

Receipts and Payments for year ended 30th September, 1958 

To Balance 1/10/1957 •. 
., Interest — 

Inscribed Stock .. £224 9 3 
Gas Co 5 10 

£ s. d. 

229 19 3 

By Revenue A/c. 
., Balance 1 — 

Cwealrh Inscribed 

Stock . _. £6,010 

S.A. Gas Co. 

Bonds __ 100 

£ s. i 
229 19 

£6,339 19 3 

- 6,110 
£6,339 19 

Audited and found correct. The Stock and Bond have been verified by certificates from the respet 
tive institutions. 

F. M. ANGEL \ Hon. 

N. S. ANGEL, A.U.A. Com, J Auditors 

Adelaide, 1st October, 1958. 

H. WOMERSLEY, Hon. Treasurer. 




1929 Prof. Walter Howcjitn, F.C.S. 

1930 John McC. Black, A.L.S. 

193J Prof. Sm Douglas Mawson. O.B,E, D.Sc,. B.E., F.R.S. 

1933 Prof. J. Burton Cleland, M.D. 

1935 Prof. T. Harvey Johnston, kJL. D.Sc. 

1938 Prof. J. A. Prescott, D.Sc, F.A.C.l. 

1943 Herbert Womersley, A.L.S., F.R.E.S, 

1944 Prof. J. G. Woon, D.Sc, Ph.D. 

1945 Cecil T. Madigan, M.A., B.E., D.Sc, F.G.S. 

1946 Herbert M. Hale, O.B.E. 

1955 L. Keith Ward, I.S.O., B.A., B.E., D.Sc 

1956 N T B. TtNDAi.F,, B.Sc 

1957 C. S. Piper, D.Sc. 


AS AT 30th SEPTEMBER, 1958. 

Those marked with an asterick (*) have contributed papers published in the Society's 
Transactions. Those marked with a dagger ( f ) are Life Members, 

Any change in address or any other changes should be notified to the Secretary. 
Note,-' The publications of the Society are not sent to those members whose subscription* 

are in arrears. 
Date of 

Election Electjoo 

1895 1940 "Cleland, Prof. J. B.. M.D., Dashwood Road, Beaumont, S.A.-Wrco Medal 
1933: Council L92L-26, 1932-37; V resident, 1927-28, 1940-41; Vice- 
President. 1926-27, 1941-42. 

1905 1955 "Mawson, Prof. Sm Douglas, O.B.E., D.Sc, B.E., F.R.S., University of 
Adelaide-Verca Medal. 1931; President, 1924-25, 1944-45; Vice-President, 
1924-25, 1925-26, Council 1941-43. (Sir Douglas Mawson died on 14th 
October, 1958.) 

1913 1955 *OsnoRN J Prof. T. & B. 7 D.Sc, St, Mark's Colleger, Pennington Terrace, 
North Adelaide -Counc il 1915-20, 1922-21: President, 1925-26; Vice- 
President, 1924-25. 1926-27. 

1912 1955 *Ward, L. K. % I.S.O., B.A., B.E., D.Sc, 22 Northumberland Street, Heath- 
pool, Marryatville, S,A.-Cottncil 1924-27, 1933-35; Vice-President, 
1927-28; President, 1928-30. 

£ at * of Fellows 


1948. AniiiK, Prof, A. A„ M.D., D.Sc, Ph.D., University of Adelaide. 

1958. Abkle, K., Dr. Phil. (Marburg), Dr.Phil.Nat. ( Tartu -Dorpat). M.Sc. (Riga), 42 

kildonan Road, Warradalo Park, S.A. 
1953. Adcock, Miss A., 4 Gertrude Street, Norwood, S.A. 

1927. 'Alderman, Prof. A. R., Ph.D., D.Sc., F.G.S., Department of Geology, University of 

Adelaide-Cot/nctf, 1937-42, 1954-57. 
1951. Anderson, Mrs. S. H., B.Sc., 31 Lakeman Street NVnth Adelaide. 
1935. °Andhewartha> H. G., M.Ag.Sc, D.Sc, Zoology Dept.. University of Adelaide — 

Council, 1949-50; Vice-President, 1950-51, 1952-53; President, 1951-52. 
1935. °ANnRE\vARTHA, Mrs. H. V,, B.Agr.Sc, M.Sc. (nee II. V. Steele), 29 Clarcmont 

Avenue, Netherby, S.A. 
1929. ° Angel, F. M., 34 Fuliarton Road, Parfoade, S.A. 

1939. "Angel. Miss L, M, M.Sc. s c/o Mrs. C. An^cl, 2 Moore Street, Toorak, Adelaide, S.A. 
1945. *Bartlett, H. K., L.Th.. 2 Abbotshall Road, Lowtr Miteham, S.A. 

1950. Beck, R. G.. B.Ag.Sc, R.D.A,, Lvnevvood Park. Mil-Lei, via Mount Gamhier, S.A. 

1932. Blgg, P. R., D.D.Sc, L.D.S., Shell House, 170 North Terrace, Adelaide- 

1928. Best, R. J., D.Sc» F.A.C.L, Waite Institute (Private Mai! Bag), Adelaide. 
1956. Black, A. B.. A.S.A.S.M., M.I.M.M., 36 Woodcroft Avenue, St. Georges, S.A 
1934. Black, E. C-, M.B., B.S., Magill Road, Tranmere, Adelaide. 

1950. Bonnin, N. J., M,B,| BS., F,R,C.S. (Eng.) f F.R.A.C.S., 40 Barnard Street, North 

Adelaide. S.A. 
1945. f •Bonython, C. W., B.Sc., A.A.C.I., Romnlo House, Romalo Avenue, Magill, S.A. 

1940. Bonython> Sir J, LAvmcTON, 263 East Terrace, Adelaide 

1945. °Boomsma. C. D.. M.Sc. B.ScFor., 6 Celtic Avenue, South Road Park, S.A. 

31» LIST t>r FKUjOWS 

Ualc til 

fcJe> littn 

1937. fl BrtooKKS, Miss II. M., Waite Institute (Private Mail Bhk, No. 1 L Adelaide, 
1939, Bhookman. Mrs. K. D. (nee A. Harvey). B.A., Meadowy, S.A. 

1957. Euick, W. C, B.A., r/n Country Lending Service, Public Library, South Australia. 
1914. *Bobijidce, Miss N. T., Miic. C.S.I.R.O., Div. Plant Industry, P.O. Box 109, Can- 
berra, A.C.T- 

1925. Butook, H. S., D.Sc, Vnivcrsity of Adelaide— Council, 1916-17, 1947-15. 10-18- Ifi 

1958. Burinc;, I., 51 Richmond Road, Warradale Park, SA. 

1922, ""Campbell. Prof. '1'. D., D.D.Sc, D;S&, Dental Dept., Adelaide HusrnUl, A<Jelan-K- 

Council 1928-32, 1035, 1942-45; Vice-President, 1502-34; President, 1934-35. 

1953. CIahtkh, A. N., B.Sc., 70 Madeline Sheet, Burvvood, E.I3, Victortn. 
1957. "CmrrENDALE, G. M,, B.Sc, Lindsay Avenue, Alice Springs, N.T. 

192!;), Cubistii:, W., M.B., B,S., 7 Walter Street. Hvde Park, Adelaide. S A— Treasurer, 

10$*?. Clothhr, E. A., Ilydroelf-ctifc Commission, Hobau. Tai. 

1949. Collivlu, K S., Geology Department L r nivej*itv nr Quccnslreid, 

iy29 'CortON. %. C., SA. Museum. AdeWto— £nrtidfc 1913-1G. HUiVl'J, Wt iVrvrJimt, 
1919-50, 1951. President, 1950-51. 

1956. Cma>v*oki\ A. H.. B.Sc., Dept. of Mines, Adelaide. 

195G. DAILY, B,, Ph.D.. S.A. Museum — Programme Secretary. 1057-59 
1951- Oavjdson, A. C. L., Ph.D., B.Sc, c/o Burns Fhtl^i Trust Co, / )Wtfe. Su<vt 
Sydney, N.SAV. 

1950. Dftamo, C. M., M.B. t B.S.> D.P.H., DIM,, 20 Gilbert Street, Goodwood. J>A- 

Council, 1919-51. 1951-59; Vice-President 3 1951-52. 1953-54-- Premier*. 195*2-53. 
193(1. Drx, E. V. ? Hospitals Depaitinont. Kundle Street, Adelaide, $A. 

1957. Doull, K. M M M.Ag.Sc., Waite Institute (Private Moil Bag. No. 1), AduUtJb, 
1944- DiN&io.NL. 8. M, L, M.B.. B.S , 170 Pavneharn Road, St, Peters, Adelaide. 
1931. Dwykh. J. M., M.B., B.S., 105 Port Road, Hindraarsh, S.A. 

1933, ♦EABMirSy, .Miss C. M, 3 M.Se, F.L.S., University of Adelaide- Council, 1943-46. 

1945. *Eumonus, S'. J., B.A., M.Se., Ph.D., Zoology Department University of Adelaides— 

Council. 1954-55; Programme Secretary, 1955-56; Secretary, 1956-57. 
1902. •Edqutst, A, C, 19 Fatrell Street, Glunulg, S.A.— Council, 1949-53 

1950. *Eichler, H., Dr.rer.nat., State Herbarium, Botanic Gardens. Adelaide. 
1927 *Fi*aAYM)Ai , t H. H. : 305 Ward Street, North Adelaide— Council, 1937-40. 
1051. Fisher, R. H., 21 Seaview Road, Lyntan, South Australia. 

VJ5& Forums, B. G., Ph.D., F.G.S., 9 Flinders KoaiL Jlillerest, S.A. 

1958. Fopo, A, W. t FJ.C.S,, AC.C.S., 3S0 South Terrace. Btotelawn, N SAV, 

1923. °F«y, H. K., D.S.O., M.D„ B.S., B.Sc, F.R.A.C.P., Town Hall, Adi'lMdt— Council, 

(033-37; Vtet-Bmifoftt, 1037-38, 1939-40; Premtent, 1989-39 

1954. Gibson, A. A., A.W.A.S.M., Geologist, Mines Department, Adelaide*. 

1953. *Glae8SNI^k, M F.. D.Sc-. c/o Geology Department, University i/f Adelaide — Cumictf, 

J 953-54; Vice-President, 1958-59. 
1927. ConrnKY, F. K., 5 Robert Street, Paynelmm, Soutli Australia. 
1935. iGor.n.sACK, H-, Cormnaiulel Vallev, SA. 
19*^4. Cmrrrni, H. D., 13 Dnnrobin Rojid, Brighton, S.A. 

1048. Gross, G. F< ( M Se. f South Austialusu Mu^urn. A<h4aidr — ^<u:rr(un/, 1050-53, 
1944. Guppy, D. J., B.Sc, c/o W.A. Petroleum (>i., 251 Adelaide Terrace, Perth, W.A. 
1922. d ITaix, H. M., O.B.E., c/o SJi, Museum— VYrro Medal 19-16; Council, lftlUTi, 

1950-53, 1958-5$; Vice-Pretideta, 1934-36, 1937-38: Prcsidim, lf> V(i-.'iT; TreaxtMT, 

1938-50, 1953-56. 

1949. >1aix. D. R.. Tea Tree Gully, S.A. 

1930. IRwrorif, N- Ly 3 Bewdiey, 66 Beresiord Road, Hose Hay, N.S.W, 

1953. 'Hansf.n, 1. V., BA. ? Queen Elizabeth School, Credilnn, Devon, Kudawd. 

1946. *Haw>Y, MaSt /. E, (nee A. C t Beckwith), M.Sc, Box 02, Smithhm, Tils. 
1944. IIauhks J. R., B.Se., c.'o Wailc Institnte (Prh'ate Mail Bag). Adelaide 
1944. IltRnroT, R. T., P^.Agr.Sc. 49 Ilalsbun- Avenue, Kingswood. S.A. 

1954. Hu-TOK, E. M., B.Agr.Sc, 17 Kay Avenue, Bern, S.A. 

1951. Tfoc.KiNt:. L. J., The SehooL Scott's Ci'eek, S.A. 

1924 •Howi*x2jj J P.*S.. Ph.D., 132 Fifrhcr Street, Fullarton, S.A. 

1841. H11MHS.K. D. S. W„ M.P.S., J.P., 238 Pavneharn Hoad. Pftyneliam, S..A. 

1947. Hutton-. J, T.. B.Sc., A.S.A.S.M., 10 Bellevuc Place, Unley Park— Council, 1957-39. 
192& Ifouxd, P.. 14 Wyatt Road, Bumsidc. S.A. 

194.5. •Jbssup, R. W.. M.Se... Division ol Plant Industry, CS.t.fl.O.. Canbetra. A.C.T. 

1950. *foHNS, R. K.. B.Sc.. Department of Mines, Adelaide, S-A. 

1957. JonvsoK, B-, B.Sc.Agr., Ph.D., Waite Institute (Private Mad Bae), Adelaide, 

1958. Jounson. W.. B.Sc. (Hon*.), 33 Ryan Avenue, Woodville West, S«A. 


nw (.( 

1954. Kkats. A. Irt. B.E., 41 LcFevre Terrace, North Adelaide. 

1939. fKnAKiiAR, H. M.. Ph.D., M.B., F.R.G.S.', Khaldiar Building, CF. Tfltt Ho;nl. Horn- 
bay, India. 

1933. 'Kuslmaw A. W., Ph.D., University of Adelaide— Secretary, 1945-4S; Vice- President, 
1U4S-49, 1950-51; President, 1949-50. 

1922. Lkmjon', C. An M-D., B.S., Fjt.C.P., A.Vf.P. Building, ling William Street, Adelaide 

J 958. Ljndsav, H. A., 110 Cross Bead, Hiidigate, S.A. 

1948. Lothian. T. R. N., N.D.IT. (N.Z.j, Director, Botanic Gardens, Adelaide — Ireuyitfcr, 

1052-53; CvunCll s 1953-57; Vicc-PTeridcnL 1957-58: President. 195H-59. 
1931, *Ltjwjrook, Mas. N. It., M.A., Ph.D., DJ.C, F.G.S., Department of Mines. Adelaide 

—Council, 195S-59. 
1953. Mfcju.yjtrtt, £>. A., B.Sc. (Hons.), Waite Institute (Private Mail Hag. No, l'l. Adelaide. 
1939. Marshall. T r L M-Atf-So.. Ph.D., C.S.I.U.O., Division of Soils 1 Private Mail Ba<?, 

No. I U Adelaide— Council 1948-52. 
19SIX Mavo. Sik Hehheht. LL.R., Q.C., 19 Marlborou&h Street, College Parle, S \ 
1050. Moo, C. M, Jg tl 6,Aj^Ch Ph.D., 146 Melbourne Street, North Adelaide. 

1943. McCarthy, Mres D. F. 3 R.A., B.Sc,, 17 Brookside Ave., Tnmmere, 

19'1&\ McCui.i.ocn r B, N tJ M.B.F., B.Se., B.Agr.Sc, Roscworthy Agricultural College, Bote- 

worthy, S.A. 
1945. |*Mn.ES. K. R., D.Se., F.C.S., Jl Cimreh Road, MitchaoE S.A. 

1951. Mu-ls, J. A. R., M.A., M.D.. H.Chir. (Cantt, Universe ol Otago, N.Z 

1952.* K. L., F.C.A., U Builiugtou Street, Walker viUe f *S. A. 
1939. Mincjeiam, V. H. 3 30 Wainhonse Street, Torrensville, S.A. 

1951. Mn-otux.Lj F. J., e/o The South Australian Museum, .North Terrace. AdcUduV. 
1933, MnrtiKLL, Pbof. Sm Mi L., M.Se., c/o Elder':- Trustee and Executor Co. Ltd., .37 

Curric Street, Adelaide. 
1925. f Mitchell, Pnor. Sin W. y K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Se., Fitm>y Terrace .Prospn t, S.A. 
1938. Mooiuiousk, F. W., M.Se, Chief Inspector of Fisheries, Simpson Bttiktingt. CkiwIct 

Plate, Adelaide. 
193& 6 Mouwuonu, C< P., 25 First Avenue, St. Peters. Adelaide. 
1957. Mummj; Tvav A., B.Se. f Hons. J . pepL of Mines, Adelaide. 

1944. MunRE,u, f f. \V„ Engmceiiiij: and Water Supply Dept, Victoria Sqnaio, ■.■■ ■I...<!< 

1944. Niknks, A. R., B.A., R.D A., Qg Sheffield Street, Malvern, S.A. 

1945. ♦Nohthcote, K. H. t B.Agr.Su, AJ.A.S., C.S.I.K.O., Division of Soils. Private Mail 

Bag No. 1, Adelaide 
1930- (trxfcNMff, G. P., R.A., I0S Hockev Street, Why alia South, S.A. 

1956. O'Druscou., E. S. f B.Se., 9 Vinall Street, Dover Gardens, S.A. 

1937. •Pjwrt*i a L. W., M.Se., A.S/iX.. c/o Mines Dept,, Adelaide— Secretary, 1953-56; 
Vice-President. 1956-57, 1958-59; President. 1957-58. 

1949. Parkinson, K. J., B.Se,, Birdwood, S,A 

1929 Paom., A. C, M.A., B.Se., 10 Milton Avenue, Fullarton Estate, S.A. 

1920. °Pjpcr, C. S., D.Se., C.S-T-1LO.. Division trf Soils, Private Mail Bag, No. 1, AdeLiide— 
Verco Medal. 1957; CouneiL 1941-43, Vice-President, 1943-45, 1046-47; Pre- 
sident, I94n-4b\ 

194a PflswWE, J. K., B.Sc., C.S.I.R.O., Keith, S.A. 

1925. ^Ppescott, Prof, |. A., C.B.E., D.Su., F.R.A.C.I., F.R.S.. HZ Cross Road, Mvrtle 
Bank, S.A.— Vcrco Medal, 1938; Council 1927-30, N35^i9: Vice-President, 
1930-32; President, 1932-33; Editor, 1955-59. 

1957. °Princle, Miss L. A. B., Box -S76u, G.P.O-, Adelaide. 

1945. *Prvoh,. L. D., M.Se., Dip.For., 32 La Perouse Street. Gritfidi, Canberra. A.C.T. 

1950. '"Rattioan.. J. Tl., M.Sc., Boa 22^^, G.P.O., Melhounic, Victoria. 

1944. RrcF.NrAN, D. S., M.Se., B.Agr.Sc., C.S.I .R.O., Division of Biochemistry, Adelaide. 
1947. Riedel, W. R. ( B.Se., c/o Stripps Insbtutiun of Ocean* taruphy, Dept. of palaeon- 

tt;lu^y. Lu Jolla, California, USA. 
1947. Rix, C. E., 42 Waymoutli Averjiie, Giandore. S.A. 

1953. Rogchs, Pkof. S. W. P., Ph.D.. F.A»V, Zoology Department, L T iuversitv of Adelaide, 

1951. Bowe, S. A., 22 Shelley Street, Fiile, SJl. 

1951. Roue, S. E., B.Sc, Gordon Lislitute- of Teclmologv, GeeL.yjy;, Vit4o^«fc 

1950. But>d, Pbof. E. A., B.Se., A.M., University of Adelaide S.A. 

1951. RussKLE, L. D , <:/o Jliirh SehiKiI, Port Pine, S.A. 
1945- Uymiu,, J. R., Old Penola Estate, Penola, S.A. 

1933. SrHNFinEH, M-, M.B., B.S., 175 North Terrace, Adelaide 

1951. ^Scott, T. D., M.Se., S.A. Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, &k.—$wputmm 
Secretary, 1953-54, 1956-57; Secretary, l957-5a 


o»t« of 


1957. SiiAimAN, C B, t B.Sc.. Department of Zoology. UnivenLlv of Adelaide. 
IQ2Si °Stieari>. H, Port EUiot, S.A. 

1936. «5heabo, Db. X., D.Sc., Fisheries Research DJv„ C.S.i.R.Q., University «* WJUl 
Nedlands, W.A. 

1954, Shepherd, R. G., B.Sc. c/o Department of Mines, Adelaide. 
1934. Shinkfield. R. C., 57 Canterbury Avenue, Trinity Gardens S.A. 
1025. | Smith, X E, Baiw, b\A., 25 Cucric Street. Adelaide. 

194 1, *SWtfBi T. L.. B.Sc, Dent, of Geography, University of Ss'dnev, N.S.W. 

1941, °tio\fmcarr, it. V., M.D.,. B.S., D.T.M. & ft,, L3 Jasjher Street. 0/cfo P;uk S.A,— 

ferttneft 1949-51, 1932-53, 1957-59; Treasurer, i951-52; Vice-President, 1953-51, 

1955-56; President, 1954*55 
1036. Soutkwood, A. R„ M.D., M.S. (Adel.), M.R.C.P,, 170 North Terrace Adehudc 
1947. »SrEcirr, R. L , Ph.D., Botany Department, University of Adelaide— Council 1031-54 

1958-59; Programme Secretary, 1952-53, 
19*5. F^SwteCC, R, C, M.Sc., 5 Baker Street, Somerton Park. 
1951. Steadman, Rfv. W, H. y 8 Blairgowrie Road, St; Georges, S.A, 
1947, Sitjrunc, M. B M B.Ag.Sc, Horticultural Branch, Department rif Agriculture r Boo 

901 E, G.P.O., Adelaide. 

1949. °Sphv. A. H., M.Sc, Geologv Department, University of Tasmania 

1938. *Stpwi:vs, C. G,, D.Sc, C.S.I.R.O., Division of Soils-, Private Mail flag, No. t. Ade- 
laide — Council, 1952-54; Vice-? resident, J 954-55, 1^56-57; tt&ilt&ft 1035-66, 

1655. Swaine, G. D., M.B., B.S., 320 Esplanade, Law North, S.A. 

193?. §««** D. C, M.Sc, Waitc Institute (Private Mail Bag. No. 1). Adelaide— SS0K?toW, 
1940-42; Vice-President, 1946-47, 1948-49; President., 1347-48; Council, 1953-38. 

1051. Swtkski, P., M.Ag.Sc, 11 Wall Sheet. Norwood, S.A. 

1934. Symons. I. G.. 35 Murray Street, Lower Mitcham, S.A, - Kditnr, 1047-55; ConnclL 

1958. Taylor, D. J„ B.Sc, F.R.L.S., Department of Entomology, Waire Institute, Private 

Mail Bag No, I, Adelaide. 
!<*2D. b T\yloii, J. K.. B.A., M.Sc. C.SJ.B.O., Division of Soils. Private Mail Bag, No. 1, 
Adelaide— Oormc//, 1910-43, 1947-50; Lihrurlan. 1951-52. Vice 'President, 1952- 
53, 1954-55: Prexidenf. f 1953-54; Council, 1955. 

1945. °Tkomas. I. M., M.Sc. (Wales), Department of Zooloev. University of Adelaide- 

Secretary, 1948-50; Council, 1950-53: President. 1956-57; Vice-President 1955-56, 

1957-58; Astiktant Editor, 1958-59. ' 
1938. *Thomas, Mrs, T. M. (nee P. M. Mawson), M.Sc, 30 Kens Street, Brighton. 
1957. Thomas, J„ B.Sc, WoodleiRh Road, Blackwood, S.A, 
1940. d Tuomfson, C/\vr, T. M„ 135 Militarv Road, Semaphore South, S.A- 
1920. 'Tinhale, N. B., B.Sc, South Australian Museum. Adelaide- Verro Medals 1956; 

Secretary, 1935-36; Council 1946-47; Vice-President. 1947-48, 1949-50; President* 

1948-49, Librarum. 1952-59, 

1955. c TrrKi;R. B. M., B.Sc, C.S.l.K.O., Division of Soils-, PriiMt- Bttffi No. 1, Adelaide 

1950. Vtirar, J. T., Bov 92, port Lincoln, S.A, 

1953. W.vrKHMAN, R. A., B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Nurthvwstrrn University, Rvamtrm, Illinois. 


1954. WtiBn. B T.. MSc, Mines Dept.. Kondh: Street, Adelaide 
1954. Wklls. C. B., B.Ag.Sc, Broadlees, WuvctIcv Rfdtft\ Crater*. S.A. 
19W Wiiailkv-Dai.k. K. E., FJnstEjt.R. 

1946. *WijrTTLK. A. W. G., M.Sc, Mines Department, AdeLide 
»SD; Williams, L E., "Dumnwt," Meninric S.A. 

1946. °Wn.soN, A. F., D.Sc, Dept. of Geolo.Gv, University of W.A., N< tllarnls. W.A. 

1938. *Wjlson, J. O., 42 Wilson Terrace, DaCosta Part, Glcnvlg, S.A. 

1933. ♦Womkhslky, H., F.B.K.S., A.L.S. (Hon. causa), S,A. Mu^vum, Adelaide - Verco 

Medal, 1943; Secretary, 1936-37; Editor. 1937-43, 1945-47; Praxidvnt. 1943-4 3; 

Vice-Trvsklent. 1944-45; Hep. Fauna and Flora Protection CommitteCy 194.5; 

Trcatiurer, 1950-5 U 1956-59. 
1954. *WoMCKSi.r:Y, IT. B. S., Ph.D., Botany Department, University of Adrluide, 
1944. WoMiiutiLta-, J. S., B.Sc, Lae, New Guinea. 
1923, *VVoot>. 1'nor. J, C. J3,Sc. PhD . F,A.A., Botunv Dept . University of AifclMe—Verca 

Medal, 1944; Council, 1938-40; Vice-President, 1940-41, 1942-43; Hev Fauw) and 

Plena Board, 1940-; President, 1943-42; Council 1944-48. 
1957. Woods, B. V., B.Sc, Mt. Crawford, S.A. 
1949. Yxxte5, J. N. ( A.M.I.E., A.M.T.M.E., Highways and Local Government Dept., 

1&44. */tMMK8. W.J., Dip.For., F.L.S. (Lon.), 7 Rupert Street, Footscray West, W.12, Vict. 




Names printed in italics as separate entries indicate that the forrwt are new to science. 

Abele, C, unci MeCowran, B.: The 
geology of the Cambrian south of 
Adelaide (Sollick Hill to Yanka- 
Ifik} 301-320 

Abele, K.: Cytological studies in (lie 

ppmuB Danthonia 16S-173 

Acarina (Some) from Australia and 
New Guinea paraphasia upon mil- 
lipedes and cockroaches and an 
beetles of the family Passab'dne: 
IT, WomcrsJey , . . ... 11-54 

Alice Springs town water supply 
(The correlation between salinity 
and river flow): B. R. Jephcott 2.35-244 

Anampses lennardi ;.. 86 

Angel , Madeline : Art account of 
I'laghrchis mucidosas (Kuc!.), its 
synonymy awl its life history in 
South Australia 265-281 

Bett(mu,ia cunirnfus Ogilhy, 1838 

(Marsupialia). H. H. Fmlaysou 2B3-2S9 

Blackburn, C;. (Ilutlon, T. T. ? and 
Clarke, A. R. P.): Identification of 
volcanic ash in soils near Mount 
Garnbier, South Australia „. .. 93-98 

Bowes, D. R,; The distribution and 
field relations of the granitic rocks 
of Port TCUiot, South Australia 7-9 

Bucknell, M. J. (Johnson, W., and); 
Psoudo-ignuOus rocks in the Trias- 
sic succession of the Springfield 
Basin, Gordon-Cradock district 2-15-257 

Camhrtan-Precambriari boundary in 
the eastern Mt. Lofty Ranges re- 
gion, South Australia; 11. C. 
Horwitz, B. P* Thomson, and 
^ B. P. Webb 205-218 

Cambrian south of Adelaide — Selliek 
Hill to Yankalilla ( Geology of 
the): C. Abele and B. MeCow- 
ran .. _. 301-350 
Capillaria m in ioptcme . 1 5 i 
Chaeradnn ruhidns- 89 
Check list of Central Australian 

plants: G. M. Chippendale 321-338 

Chippendale, G. M.: Check list of 

Central Australian plants 321-333 

Clarke, A, H. P. (Hulton, J. T., 
Blackburn, G. ; and): Identification 
of volcanic ash in soils near Mt 
Garnbier, South Australia 93-98 

Cleland, J. B M and Tindatc, K. B.i 
The native names and uses n( 
plants at Huast Bluff, Central Aus- 
tralia 123-140 

Cloland, John Burton — a tribute on 

his eightieth birthday 339-344 

Conper, II. M.: Large archaeo- 
logical stone implements from 
Hallett Cove, South Australia ... 55-60 

Dnmpieria ignita ,. „. 75 

Danthnnia ( Cytological studies in 

the genus): K. Abelo 16-3-173 

de Mooy, C. J.; Votes on the gno- 
morphie history of the area "sur- 
rounding Lakes Alevandrina and 
Albert, South Australia 99-1 IS 

Dnsinia ( Phaeosoma ) cdithhur- 

E^g-ldyrnj; (Communal) in the 
lizard Luiolopi&na gniclteuoti 
(Dumeril and Bibronj: F. J. 
Mitchell _ , 121-122 

Fedrizzia harmmisszai ... 26 

Fedrizzia carahi 20 

Fedrizzia derricki .„ 22 

Fedrizzia oudemmtsi .. 24 

Fedrizzia sellnicki ... ]$ 

Finlayson, H. II.: On ficUongia 
cuniculus Opilbv, 133b' (Marsu- 
pialia) 283-289 
Finlaysoi), II. H.: Subfossil poto- 
roinae ( Marsupialia ) from South 
Australia) 291-300 
Fishes ( Notes on Western Australian) 

No. 1: T. D. Scott __ 7-3-91 

Granitic rocks of Port Elliot (Dis- 
tribution and field relations); 
D. B. Bowvs .... 7-9 

GeomorpiuV history (Notes on the) 
of the area surrounding Lakes 
Alexandrrna and Albert, South 
Australia: C. J. de Mooy ... 9,9-1 IB 

Hedruris longisptcula 160 

Horwitz, It. C, Thomson, B. P., 
and Webb, B. P.; Tho Cambrian- 
Preeambrian boundary in the east- 
ern Mt. Lofty Ranges jcgion 7 South 
Australia , " ,., 205-218 

Hutton, T-