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Full text of "Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, Incorporated"

VOL. MARCH, 1960 




TRANSACTIONS OF 
THE ROYAL SOCIETY 
OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

INCORPORATED 



ADELAIDE 

PUBLISHED AND SOLD AT THE SOCIETTS ROOMS 
KINTORE AVENUE, ADELAIDE 

Price: Two Pounds Two Shillings 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

B. G. Forbes: Magnesite of the Adelaide System: Petrography and De- 
scriptive Stratigraphy 1 

H. K. Fry: Classificatory Systems of Kinship 11 

H. Womersley: Some Acarina from Australia and New Guinea Paraphagic 

upon Millipedes and Cockroaches and on Beetles of the Family 

Passalidae 21 

H. Womersley: New Records of Species of Leptolaelaps (Acarina, Meso- 

stigmata) from Australia and New Zealand 25 

H. Womersley: A New Genus and Species Laelaptoseius novae- 

zelandiae from New Zealand (Acarina, Aceosejidae) 31 

H. Womersley: A Second Species of Pristolaelaps (Acarina, Laelaptidae) 

from Australia 33 

A. F. Wilson: The Charnockitic Granites and Associated Granites of 

Central Australia 37 

R. Melville: An Aberrant Species of Eclipta from Australia 77 

H. H. Finlayson: Nomenclature of Notomys (Muridae) in the Lake Eyre 

Basin 79 

J. N. Black: The Relationship between Illumination and Global Radiation 83 

S. J. Edmonds: Some Australian Echiuroids ( Echiuroidea ) 89 

D. King: The Sand Ridge Deserts of South Australia and Related Aeolian 

Landforms of the Quaternary Arid Cycles 99 

Bernard C. Cotton: Distorted Cowries 109 

M. J. Tyler: Observations on the Diet and Size Variation of Amphibolurus 

adelaidensis (Gray) (Reptilia, Agamidae) on the Nullarbor Plain Ill 

I. A. Mumme: Determination of the Absolute Gravity Values on the 

Summits of a Number of Prominent Hills in the Mount Lofty Ranges 119 

H. H. Finlayson: On Ratios greyi Gray and its Derivatives 123 

R. V. Southcott: Notes on the Genus Sphaerotarsus (Acarina, Smarididae) 149 
Paul G. Wilson: A Consideration of the Species Previously Included 

within Helipterum albicans (A. Cunn.) DC 163 

H. Wopfner: On Some Structural Development in the Central Part of the 

Great Australian Artesian Basin 179 

C. D. Boomsma: Notes on the Genus Eucalyptus in South Australia L95 

G. Chippendale: Contributions to the Flora of Central Australia, No. 1 199 

Henry Kenneth Fry, d.s.o., m.d., b.s., b.sc, dip.p.h., 1886-1959 205 

List of Lectures, 1958-1959 206 

Balance Sheet 207 

Awards of the Sir Joseph Verco Medal and List of Fellows, 1959 208 

Index 213 



MAGNESITE OF THE ADELAIDE SYSTEM: PETROGRAPHY AND 

DESCRIPTIVE STRATIGRAPHY 

byB. G. Forbes 



Summary 

A dolomite-magnesite sequence, the Montacute Dolomite formation, occurs at scattered points 
northward from Adelaide at a constant stratigraphic level within the Adelaide System. The 
formation is richest in magnesite and contains very little arkose at Copley, while near Beetaloo it is 
rich in arkose, is thickest and contains much less magnesite. Individual units show little facies 
change over a few miles. The most common rock is dark grey dolomite, chiefly massive, but also 
laminated. Magnesite rock is generally a conglomerate, pale grey in colour. Dolomitic arkose forms 
a significant part of the succession in certain regions. Ripple marks, mud cracks, slump bedding 
and, in magnesite conglomerate, reverse graded bedding are common structures. Flow direction is 
indicated by sedimentary structures and by preferred orientation of grains. 



MAGNESITE OF THE ADELAIDE SYSTEM: PETROGRAPHY AND 
DESCRIPTIVE STRATIGRAPHY 

by B. G. Fobbes* 

[Read 9 April 1959] 

SUMMARY 

A dolomite-rnagnesite sequence, the Montacute Dolomite formation, occurs 
at scattered points north ward from Adelaide at a constant stratigraplue level 
within the Adelaide System. 

The formation is richest in magnesite and contains very little arkose- at 
Copley, while near Beetaloo it is rich in arkose, is tlriekest and contains much 
less magnetite. Individual units show little facies change over ;< few miles. 

The most common rock is dark grey dolomite, chiefly massive, but also 
laminated. Magnetite, rock is generally a conglomerate, pate grey in colour. 
Dolomitie arkose forms a significant part of the succession in certain regions. 
Hippie marks, mud cracks, slump bedding and, in ma«nesite conglomerate, 
"reverse*' graded bedding are common structures. Flow direction is indicated 
by sedimentary structures and by preferred orientation of grains. 

INTRODUCTION 

The Proterozoie rocks of South Australia have for some time been known 
to contain deposits of magncsite, hut the great extent and sediineutary nature 
of these deposits have been recognized only in recent years. 

This paper covers the petrography and stratigraphy of the most notable 
formation containing these beds, A discussion of their origins is reserved for 
a later paper. 

METHODS 

At most of the fourteen localities examined stratigraphic sections were 
measured from the top of the Aldgate Sandstones to the base of the Sturt Tillite 
of the Adelaide System. In addition, detailed examinations were carried out 
of that part of the section equivalent to the Montacute Dolomite formation, a 
collection made of oriented and other specimens, together with a record of 
directed sedimentary structures and the mapping of selected units. 

Size distribution and preferred form orientation of grains in detrital rocks 
were determined both in thin section and on flat surfaces in the laboratory. 
Laboratory procedures included chemical analysis and qualitative tests, refrac- 
tive indev determinations, insoluble residue studies and routine examination of 
thin sections. 

DESCRIPTIVE STRATIGRAPHY 

General 

Magnesite of the Adelaide System is confined largely (but not entirely) to 
the Montacute Dolomite or its equivalent, in the Torrensian Series, this forma- 
tion in most areas being easily identified by its distinctive lithology and its 
stratigraphic position between the Aldgate Sandstones and the Sturt Tillite. 

The composition and thickness of the formation at various localities are 
shown in Table 1. The positions of the localities appear in Fig. I, which also 



* Department of Geology, University of Adelaide. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. <1960), Vol. 83. 



2 U. G. FORBES 

shows contours of thickness and sand-content. The tahle and figure are based 
on my own stratigraphic sections and those of Spry (1952), Wilson (1952) and 
Wymond (1950) at Hawker, Rhynie and Clare respectively. Fig. 1 is necessarily 
in part hypothetical. 

TABLE T. 

Properties of the Montacute Dolomito 



Locality 


| Thickness 

(ft.) 




Percentage 


tiiickness of 

i 






magnesite 


Sand 


Shale 


Carbon a to 


1. Adelaide* (Torrena (iorge) 


550 


2 


14 


3 


83 


2. Rhvnio 


too? 


0? 


0? 


little? 


much 


3. Clare 


100? 


0? 


03 


little? 


fULK'li 


•4. Rohi'rtatovvn 


470 








little? 


mut'h 


5. Bundalfmr 


450 


1 


27 


j 


00 


6. Crystal Brook 


1400 


i 


40 


i 


53 


7. Beetaloo 


2800 


l 


10 


14 


70 


X. PL Germain 


2900 


l 


22 


28 


tfO 


9. Mmulallio Oroek 


000 


5 


g 


33 


02 


10. Depot Creek 


aoo 


6 


9 


23 


OS 


1 1 . John burg 


600? 


8? 


12? 


43? 


4r,? 


12. Hawker 


1420 


10 


1 


3i 


OS 


13. Copley 


2000 


17 


2 


56 


42 


14. Arkaronla 


2300 


7 


6 





88 


15 t WitoheJina 


1600-2800 1 


1 


35 


21 


44 



The greatest percentage thickness of magnesite is present in the northern 
Copley region, The formation itself is thickest in the Beetaloo region, where 
also there is a great thickness of sand of arkose composition. Those associated 
facts suggest that near Beetaloo the area of accumulation was of the nature 
of a zcugogeosyncline (a basin of subsidence with complementary highlands 
nearby), to use Kays (1951) terminology*, It has not been found possible to 
correlate units between distant localities. However, diagrams showing per- 
centage composition of various constituents per 50 or 100 feet have revealed 
general tendencies common to most sections. These are (1) a low proportion 
of dolomite near the middle of the succession and, in the same place, a high 
proportion of sand; (2) a high proportion of magnesite near the top of the 
succession. 

Local Variation 

Local facies changes in individual units could onlv be evaluated along the 
strike of outcrops. This study in particular is made "difficult by the poor ex- 
posure of most carbonate rocks. 

The Montacute Dolomite has not been recognized as such by the S.A, 
Department of Mines on either (he Gawler or Echunga map sheets (respec- 
tively north and south of the Adelaide sheet). On the Adelaide sheet this 
formation shows rather rapid facies changes, expressed mainly in its disappear- 
ance to the north and east. 

Thin magnesite beds at localities further north show little change where 
examined over one mile or more. The magnesite beds once worked by the 
B.II.P Company at Mundallio Creek wedge out a little north of the Cardassis 
workings, but extend north for at least five miles from this point. Dolomitic 



.MAGNESITE OF THE ADELAIDE SYSTEM 3 

arkose beds at Beetaloo, Port Cermein Gorge and Witchelina commonly thin 
out after being followed a mile or so along ihe strike. 

It thus appears that magnesite beds are thin lenses of great extent (at least 
five miles diameter; perhapslO-30 miles). Dolomite beds reach a greater thick- 
ness,, and are probably more extensive. Dolomitic arkose beds are probably 
not as extensive as magnesite. 

PETROGRAPHY 
General 

Rocks of the magnesitic succession are varied both in composition and 
fabric. The chief mineral component is dolomite, which forms a dark blue- 
grey dolomite rock or may be mixed with detrital quartz and feldspar, magne- 
site or argillaceous material. No ealcite, even as a vein mineral, has been found 
in the magnesitic succession. 

Magnesite and dolomite were distinguished by determining refractive index 
or a rapid turbidimctric determination of calcium, where special tests were 
necessary. 

Contrasting properties of magnesite and dolomite rock are tabulated below: 

Matrnvxite rock Dolomite rock 

!, Colour generally pale grey to white. 1. Colour generally dark blue-grey. 

2. Occurs chiefly as a conglomerate, 2. Occurs chiefly in the massive or lamiu- 
rarely as a breccia or massive. ated form. When f ragmen ta! it is a 

i t i- -i i u i ~ •.! •« breccia, rarely a conglomerate. 

3. Individual beds are thin. / ." Z 

, . „ 1U n %lK , iB 3. Average thickness of beds greater than 

:ic " U " ! " '■■ i-' 11 '""-- XvW m for magnesite. 

4, Occurs chiefly as matrix when in 
rocks of mixed composition. 



roeJtB of mixed composition. 



Magntesite Rock 

Components of magnesite rock are magnesite, talc, dolomite, authigenic 
albite, carbon, and detrital quartz and feldspar. Most magnesite rocks contain 
between 5 and 10 per cent, acid insoluble material. 

Authigenic albite has been encountered only in a few specimens of mag- 
nesite conglomerate or artmite, Crystals are in most cases significantly located 
just inside the borders of magnesite pebbles The idiomorphic albite has prob- 
ably been derived bv solution within the matrix of the conglomerate and deposi- 
tion within magnesite pebbles. Detrital quartz and albite both show peripheral 
solution. 

Dolomite is intimately mixed with magnesite or appears as detrital frag- 
ments m the matrix. It forms idioblastic rhombs more commonly than mag- 
nesite, and is generally coarser-grained than magnesite crystals, which are about 
0-002 mm. in diameter. The term "crystal" is used to avoid confusion with 
detrital magnesite, such as magnesite pebbles which are aggregates of crystals, 
as also is massive magnesite rock. 

Magnesite weathers to a white or cream colour irrespective of the colour 
of a fresh surface. This is a useful guide in distinguishing the rare dark varieties 
of magnesite from the normal grey dolomite. 

Magnesite conglomerate and arenite are composed of rounded magnesite 
pebbles in a matriv of chiefly magnesite and dolomite. Individual pebbles range 
hi diameter up to about 12 cm. 

The size, distribution of pebble long diameters in section has been studied 



4 



B. G. FORBES 



on a number-frequency basis. Results for six fine-grained conglomerates from 
Copley have been recalculated bv Creenmans (1951) method" to give cumu- 
lative curves. The following data were thus derived (Table 2): 



TABLE 2. 

Size Distribution of Magnesite Pebbles. 



^peoimeu A77 


Median diameter 
ram. (Md) 




Sorti 


ug coefficient 
(So) 




J 40 


2-3 






1-20 




161 


0-04 




1-33 




175 A 


0-65 






1*40 




185 


2-3 






1-33 




J03 


0-57 






1-29 




277A 


1*7 






1-53 





The conglomerates are all well-sorted. 

The average of maximum pebble sizes for some localities, together with 
the average thickness of a magnesite bed for that locality is shown in Table 3. 



TABLK 3. 

Froperlbis of Magnesite Conglomerate Bods. 



Locality 



Adelaide 

Port Germoin Gorge 

MundtUIio CVoek 

Depot Oreok 

Copley 

Arkaroola 

Witehelinu. 




Average Bed 

thickness, feet 



0-4 

I 

1-6 

1-7 

2-1 

1-4 



It was possible to collect at Copley individual magnesite pebbles which 
had weathered out of the conglomerate matrix. Sphericity has been calculated 
and shape plotted according to Zingg's method by determining for each pebble 
its volume and its largest, intermediate and shortest intercepts (a T b and c 
respectively). For 50 pebbles there is a preponderance of discs with b/a about 
0-8 and c/b about 0-4. Average sphericity is about 0-65. 

Certain characteristics of the pebbles— such as pinched or contorted margins, 
central depressed areas and curvature — cannot be represented numerically 
Magnesite pebbles show no internal structure. Most conglomerates show pre- 
ferred orientation of magnesite pebbles. This feature has been studied in 
sections parallel to bedding and in the vertical section parallel to the direction 
of preferred orientation. A distinction may be made between groups of low 
and high matrix content in the preferred orientation data. Rocks of low 
matrix content possess a larger number of pebbles at a high angle to the bedding 
than those of high matrix content. This is perhaps due to mutual interference 
of pebbles during deposition. 

Magnesite breccia at Montacute occurs chiefly as thin zones of fragments 
which are lath-shaped in section. At Copley the breccias are thicker \up to 



MACNESlTii OF HIE ADELAIDE SYSTEM 5 

", feet) and comprised of a poorly-sorted mixture of dolomite and magnesite 
fragments in a dolomitic matrix. This matrix sometimes forms only a small pro- 
portion of the rock and mav be crowded with small magnesite fragments. Large 
magnesite fragments are chiefiv disc-shaped, hut are traversed by cracks arid 
possess irregular boundaries. Manv plates have been bent. Others, m the 
section offered by the rock face are completely wrapped around portions ot 
the matrix. Fragments show preferred orientation. * . 

Massive or laminated magnesite occurs in thin beds, often at the base Of 
magnesite conglomerate and has much the same composition as magnesite 

pebbles. 

Dolomite Rock 

Dolomites of the magnesitic succession are not chemically distinguishable 
from dolomite rock of other formations, Most of the analyzed dolomites are 
the common massive or laminated variety. They contain about the same pro- 
portion of insoluble material as non-fragmental magnesite, hut less than that 
of the average magnesite rock. . 

Individual dolomite crystals arc about 004 mm. diameter. Irregular dark 
chert nodules or lenses occur within some dolomite beds. 

Massive or laminated dolomite varies between medium and dark grey. 
This is based on comparison with the chart of the Rock Colour Chart Committee 
(1&5] ). The colour depends largely on carbon content and shows no systematic 
variation. Weathered surfaces of dolomite are pale bluish grey. 

Dolomite breccia is very common in the Crystal Brook-Beetaloo region. 
The composition of ansular dolomite fragments is the same as that ui massive 
dolomite. Dolomite fragments are chiefly lath-shaped in section, and up to 
about 5 cm. long. Manv laths are curved and arranged with their long axis 
parallel to the bedding.' The rock contains about 70 per cent volume of 
arenaceous matrix. Bedding planes are undisturbed. 

Dolomite-Quaut/. RocJts 

This grttlip forms an important part of the magnesitic succession at Torrcns 
Come between Crystal Brook and Depot Creek, and at YVitehelina, The term 
dolomitic arkose is* applied to qnartz-fcklspar-dolomltc rocks containing up to 
.50 per oent. dolomite The majority of these rocks have 20 to 40 per cent, 
dolomite. Their fresh surface is very P&£ grey to dark grey and they weather 

to a pale bnrwn. * . 

Some arkescs show lamination due to alternation of fine and coarse layers. 
Imperfect graded beddine; was seen in only one specimen. 

Large quartz and feldspar grains are chiefly rounded to sub-rounded, while 
most grains (particularly quart/.) are irregular in shape. Irregularity of shape 
b partly doe to recrvslalKzatiuJi and peripheral reaction with the carbonate 
matrix " Tiny cubes of pvritc are frequently present in Hie heavy fraction. 
Zircon occurs chiefly as well-rounded elongate grains whose sue is proportional 
to the mean diameter for the rock. The predominant vanety of tourmaline is 
brown and crystallized : 

Magnesite is present in small amount either as matrix or delritaJ particles in 
some dolomite-quartz rocks. Dolomite, whether as matrix or discrete fragments. 
is most commonlv vcrv fine-grained, Some spherical dolomite particles possess 
at their centre an angular grain of quart/. A few rocks contain largo patches of 
reerystalhzed dolomite as well as the normal fine-gained variety. The dolomite 
matrix may be completely reerv.stallized where there has been dynamic mcta- 
morphisra.' This is so at Torrcns Cor^e.. Arenaceous dolomites are ot wide 



B. G. FOKBES 

occurrence. At Torrens Gorge they are associated with magnesite breccia and 
at Crystal Brook with dolomite breccia. 

^ ^i Dol( l m ! tic arlcose Possesses a significant regional variation in properties. 
Tabic 4 below shows that, with the exception of Torrens Gorge, there are two 
petrographic "provinces". 

TABT.K 4. 
Properties of add -insoluble residues of Dolomitio Arkose 



Place 



Torrens Gorge 

Crystal brook 

Port. Germein Gorge 

Mundallio Cr<*ek 

Copley 
Ark areola 

"WitcheJma 



Foklspar% 



11-38 
31-37 

37-47 

36-48 

35 
l>l-30 

25(-) 



Feldspar 



Heavy Minerals 



acid plafiioclwso 

mifiroliue 

microlme 



pink zircon 

tourmaline 
(pink zheon) 
pink zireon and 
tourmaline 



Moan size (mm) 



0-0!) 
0-7f5 
0-24 
0-43 
0-22 

0-41 



mic.roline 


tourmaline 


0-22- 




(pink slruou) 


0-42 


acid plagioelasc 


colourless zircon 


10 


aeid plagioelaso 


eolouHesw zircon 
and tourmaline 


0-07 


acid plagioclasfi 


colourless zircon 
and tourmaline 


0-07 



In the northern (Coplcy-Witehelina) province arkoses arc finer-grained, 
contain acid plagioclase with little or no microcline, and colourless zircon as 
the chief heavy mineral. The mid-northern region (Crystal Brook-Mundalho 
Creek) is characterized by a larger mean size, microcline and pink zircon. The 
feldspar content is a little lower in the Copley-Farina group. 

Cijkut 

Two main kinds of chert may be recognized. One represents the silici- 
ficatioTi of separate fragmental carbonate beds while the other occurs as lenses 
and nodules within dolomite rock. 

At Copley some thin chert beds extend for several miles. Other beds of 
similar fabric and composition occur as lenses within magnesite conglomerates. 
The cherts are dark-coloured, show a relict conglomerate or arenitc fabric and 
are composed largely of fine-grained quartz and medium-grained dolomite, 
together with an extremely fine-grained material, possibly carbon. 

Nodular chert within dolomite rock occurs as black or grevish lenses parallel 
to bedding. Short extensions of the nodules cut across thebedding. Sometimes 
lamination in the dolomite is diverted around the nodules. 

Of four nodules examined in the laboratory, one showed lamination parallel 
to that of the enclosing dolomite, while the other three showed outlines of small 
elongate and rounded fragments. 

It would seem that most chert was formed by the preferential silicification 
of fragrnental carbonates either as distinct and separate beds of fragmental 
carbonates or as lenses of fragmental carbonates intercalated in massive rocks. 

ARCrLUTE 

Rocks of this group have been given little attention in the laboratory. 
Slates or siltstones do not form a significant part of the succession except at 
Witchelma. Colour is cormnonlv dark grev or shades of blue- and green-grey. 
A reddish variant was noted at Copley. 



MAGNESITE OF THE ADELAIDE SYSTEM 7 

Structures 

Ripple marks are common at Witchelina and are observed at the five 

northernmost localities, They are chiefly regular, with parallel ridges of low 

relief. They are found mainly on dolomitic arkoses and arenaceous rocks, but 




Fig. 2.— Flow directions as shown by sedimentary structures in the Montacatc Dolomite. 

For explanation see text. 

are also found in dolomite rock. About one-third of the ripple marks observed 
arc slightly asymmetrical. Compound and arcuate ripples are much less 
common. 



* B. a FORBES 

Mud cracks were noted in largest number at Copley and Arkaroola. They 
are present also at Depot Creek, Mundallio Creek and Witchelina. The struc- 
ture is found in dolomite rock (paler-coloured varieties), dolomitic arkose and 
mixed rocks. Cracks range in size up to about half an inch across, and generally 
contain detritus (including small rnagnesite fragments) contrastingly coarser 
than the cracked layer. Polygons arc up to ten inches in diameter,' and are 
sometimes superimposed on ripple marks. The presence of coarse detritus 
within cracks indicates formation before burial of the cracked layer. 

Slump structures are found in fine-drained sediments such as rnagnesite 
(massive) and dolomite rock. The vertical thickness disturbed is generally only 
a few inches, Breeciation due to slumping was seen only once, Both the slump- 
ing and breeciation were on a minute scale. Crests of slump folds are occa- 
sionally truncated by layers above. 

Wavy bedding is a feature of laminated dolomite and some dolomitic 
arkoscs. Irregularities in most places are only slight In the sequence of 
arenaceous dolomites near CrystaJ Brook the amplitude of the crumpling is 
about 15 mm. Some of the folds are slightly ovei turned. At Torrens Gorge 
the Structure is very common in banded dolomites. In some contorted bands 
the crests were several inches high, broke under pressure and allowed material 
to pass upward from the lower bed. Differential pressures during compaction 
of soft sediment would therefore appear to be an important factor here in the 
production of wavy bedding. 

"Reverse" graded bedding is a persistent feature of rnagnesite conglomerate 
beds. Not all rnagnesite conglomerate beds show vertical grading, but when 
grading is present it is normally from finer-grained at the base to coarser-grained 
at the top. Beds showing reverse grading are from about 2 to 4 feet thick. 

Both normal grading and current bedding are rare. Clay-pellet impres- 
sions tire common in the siltstones and fine-grained arkoses of Witchelina- 

Summary of Dihkctiokal Structures 

Results obtained by various authors (e.g. Brett. 1955; McKee, 1054) show 
the palaeogeographic value of measuring numerous directional structures of 
sedimentary rocks. In the present study it is unfortunate that in most localities 
information of this kind is meagre. However, what is available is fairly con- 
cordant for each locality, and therefore significant. In Fig. 2 is a geographic 
summary of flow directions interpreted mainly from asymmetric ripple marks 
Sufficient data were obtainable at Witchelina,' Arkaroola and Depot Creek for 
representation by an orientation diagram. In other localities directions arc 
indicated by arrows with a letter showing whether the inference is based on 
symmetric or asymmetric ripple marks (SorR), measurement in rnagnesite or 
quartzite of preferred orientation of grains (M or Q), or current bedding (C). 
The downwards tilt of the deposit* ma] surface causing slumpimr is indicated 
by a bent line. 

ACKNOWLEDG M E NTS 

Acknowledgment is due to many people and organizations for their assist- 
ance during the period of research. 1 am particularly grateful for the kind 
advice of Prolessor A. It. Alderman and the friendly atmosphere, of the Ceoloev 
Department j 01 the university of Adelaide. 

Till* study has been financed by University' of Adelaide Senior Research 
Scholarships and a James Barrans Scholarship. 



MAGNESITE OF THE ADELAIDE SYSTEM 9 

REFERENCES 

Brett G. W., 1955. Cross-bedding in the Baraboo quartzite of Wisconsin, J. Geology, 63, 

pp. 143-148. mi _ 

Greenman, N. N., 1951. The mechanical analysis of sediments from thin-section data, J. 

Geology, 59, pp. 447-462. 
Kay M„ 1951. North American Geosynclines, Mem. geol. Soc. Amer., 48. 
McKee, E. D., 1954. Stratigraphy and history of the Moenkopi formation of Triassic age, 

Mem. geol. Soc. Amer., 61. 
Rock Colour Chart Committee, 1951. Bock colour chart, Geol. Soc. Amer., New lork. 
Spry, A. H., 1952. Sediments of the Adelaide System in the Mount Plantagenet area, South 

Australia, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, 75, pp. 164-180. 
Wtlson, A. F., 1952. The Adelaide System as developed in the Riverton-Clare region, 

northern Mount Lofty Ranges, South Australia, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 75, pp. 131-149. 
Wymond, A. P., 1950. Unpublished M.Sc. thesis, University of Adelaide. 



CLASSIFICATORY SYSTEMS OF KINSHIP 

byH. K. Fry 

Summary 



CJASSIFJCATORY SYSTEMS OF KINSHIP 

By H. K. Fhy 

[Read 9 April 1959 J 

Nearly a century ago Morgan published (1871) his monumental work on 
Systems of Consanguinity and Affinity, lie hud discovered that in many parts 
Ot the world every person in a society was included in one of several great 
classes of kinship terms. He deduced that systems of kinship could be ex- 
plained "on the assumption of the antecedent existence of a series of customs 
unci institutions, one reformatory of the other, commencing with promiscuous 
intercourse, and ending with the family as now constituted". 

This hypothesis has not been sustained. It is now generally conceded that 
live family has atwa\s been the fundamental unit in human societies, and that 
kinship systems are correlated most significantly with existing social structures. 
However, Morgans separation of kinship systems into the two divisions of the 
descriptive and the classifieatory still holds good, and his tables of kinship terms 
ol the classifieatory systems include examples of most of the types recognised 
today. 

There* hus been much controversy concerning the significance of these 
various types of classifieatory kinship systems. McLennan (1876), who intro- 
duced the term exogamy, claimed that kinship terms were only tenus of addies.v, 
Kohler (1S97) postulated that systems of the Omaha type were derived from a 
custom of marriages with the daughters of a wife's brother, and that svslcms 
of the Crow type were based on a custom of marriage with the wife of the 
mother's brother. Further observations have shown that Omaha-t\pc systems 
are associated consistently with patrilineal societies, and Crow-type systems 
usually associated with matrilineal societies. Kroobcr (1909) insisted that kin- 
ship terminology was not determined by, nor indicative of, a particular social 
organisation, but that linguistic and psychological factors were of primary,, or 
at least equal, importance. Rivers (1914) strongly suppoiled Kohier's hypo- 
thesis, and considered that social organisation was all-important in the deter- 
mination of a system of kinship terminology. Radcliffe Brown developed the 
method of tracing the genealogical sequences of kinships, which later (1941) 
he termed the method of sociological analysis. He emphasised the importance of 
the sh'iichire of societies, and considered that (he class ificatorv terminologies 
Kmld bo interpreted by reference to the principles of the unity of the sibling 
gjtiUp and the unity of the lineage group. 

For many years I have been using what may be termed a synoptic method 
in studying kinship systems. The basis of this method, which has been pre* 
vented in previous papers ( 1931, 1934, 1950, 1957), is a set of svmbols expressing 
in a marriage diagram the dominant custom of marriages between the social 
units of a society, and in a genealogical pattern the framework of tfcc social 
.structure emerging bom such a system of marriages. 

These symbols are based on rite letters A a and R b representing male and 
lemale members respectively of family social units which intermarry. These 
are usually representatives of exogamons moieties A and B. Additional letters 
can be used when the more numerous primary divisious of phratries are |n 
question, Numerals as prefixes arc added to these letters to indicate inember- 

'fTans. Boy. Soe. S. Attti. (19fi0). Vot «3. 



12 if. K. 1'KY 

ship 61 successive generations. Numerals as suffixes are added tti the letters to 
identify members of lines of descent differentiated by the kinship system* Mar- 
riages between members of these social units in each generation are indicated 
by the linkage- in the diagrams of marriage. The genealogical patterns r»rc 
hiiilf up by arranging the symbols for all the representatives of one generation 
in a horizontal line, and plotting the symbols for sons below those of their respec- 
tive fathers, and those of daughters below their respective mothers, m accord- 
ance with the appropriate diagram of marriages. Moiety or phratry identifica- 
tion of these children will he that of the father in a patrilineal society, that of 
the mother in a inatrincal society. 

The marriage diagram* and genealogical patterns can be simplified usually 
by relegating the prefixed numerals to the commencement of the series of 
symbols appropriate tn each particular generation. Should this be done, any 
reference to any individual unit should include this numeral prefix; e.g., an 
individual unit of a series 1 Al al Bl bl should be referred to as 1A1, lal, 
IB1, or Ibl. 

Genealogical sequences can be followed readily tn these patterns By iden- 
tifying brother and sister in one generation line, father and mother can be 
located in the line above, and are also hmbantl and wife in that generation. 

In a society with a elassificatory kinship svstcm> if all the genealogical inter- 
pretations of every kinship term be plotted on an appropriate genealogical 
pattern from the basis of a brother and a sister in one generation line as Egos? 
each of these terms will be found to be associated significantly with one recur- 
ring unit in the pattern. 

This is a demonstration of the correlation of social structure and kinship 
terminology. It is more reasonable to postulate that a system of customary 
marriages between family groups determined social sttueture and therefore 
kinship terminology, than the alternative improbability that the members of 
a society elaborated a system of kinships to enable the obligations and privileges 
of certain social functions to be allocated to certain individuals and so deter- 
mined their social structure. 

Also, in primitive societies, it is most improbable that the acquisition of 
wive* was limited by principles of eugenics; nor does it seem possible that 
abstract ideas of the unity trf the sibling and the lineage groups were compelling 
forces tn determining the $£XUa| associations of men and women. 

It is suggested that three general principles have applied with paramount 
importance to all classifieatory kinship systems: 

!• Although the fundamental social unit of the family is based on sexual 
association, sexual competition is the most disrupting force which social asso- 
ciations can experience. Therefore the elimination of sexual competition within 
the family imit must have been always a basic principle in shaping the de- 
velopment of human societies. It is the. most obvious reason for the institution 
of exogamy. 

2. The avoidance of sexual competition between father and sou is of major 
importance in maintaining the integrity of the local family #roup, 

3. The third principle is that in the human mind prohibitory Ideas tend to 
radiate and involve associated concepts. Kinsliip terms, which have the signi- 
ficance of warning labels against sexual competition within the family, tend 
to be applied to families of associated or collateral lineages. The operation of 
this principle is fostorcd by the institution of totemtsm. 

The first of these principles is axiomatic, evidence in support of the second 
And the third will be given in this paper. 



CLASSIFTCATORY SYSTEMS OF KINSHIP 



13 



Classificatory systems reached their most complete development in Aus- 
tralian aboriginal societies, which also exhibited many hallmarks of primitiveness 
owing to the isolation which they shared with their native fauna. Their systems, 
therefore, provide an exceptionally appropriate field for investigation. The 
members of all these societies were organised in totemic clans and family groups, 
and the clans were usually combined in two exogamous moieties. (Exact tribal 
boundaries are detailed in Tindale's (1940) map.) 

Throughout Australia, with few exceptions, a man could marry only women 
of his own or his grandson's generation, and kinship terms alternated in and 
with alternate generations. Moieties were a feature of most Australian societies, 
and the normal function of the moiety is the demarcation of the clans, whose. 
women the father or the mother's brother could marry, from those which the 
son or the sisters son could marry. The societies which divided moieties into 
named classes (sections) made the first division emphasise this distinction of 
alternate generations. In the Kamilaroi tribes of New South Wales marriage 
customs sometimes ignored the usual prohibition of marriage within the moiety 
and named class division of the same generation, but the class divisions defined 
sharply the prohibition of marriage between alternate generations as is shown 
in Figs. 1 and 2. 







nilbi 




Ku path in 


]. 


A 


a 


B 


b 




MUKHI 


math a 


KTTMTU) 


hiit ha 


2.. 


B 


a 


A 


b 




ippai 


kubbhba 


KUBHI 


iiqnitha 


1. 


A 


a 


B 


b 




MUKKi 


ma-tha 

Fig. 1 

Dilbi 


KUMBO 


but ha 
Kupathin 


J- 


A 


a 


B 


b 




MUBRT 


matha 


KUMBO 


but ha 


2, 


A 


a 


8 


b 




KUBBI 


Ictibbhha 


IH'Al 


ippatha 


1. 


A 


a 


B 


b 




MUKHI 


matha 


KUMBO 


butha 



Fig. 2 

Over a large region in South and Western Australia alternate generations 
were distinguished as named groups. Many of these societies were even with- 
out moieties, but where the western peoples adopted conflicting systems of class 
nomenclature, these were so adjusted that a mother's class never became that 
of a wife (Elkin, 1940, p. 326). 

All these facts seem to be significant in relation to the second principle 
mentioned above. 

The prevalent custom throughout Australia, with the exception of some 
northern coastal districts, was that women were exchanged in marriage (a 
primitive feature), and that the marrying pairs were cousins "not too close up", 
in other words, that the women should not be of the men's father's or mothers 
clans. The marriage diagram expressing the simplest form of such a custom 
is that of Fig, 3, 



Al=bl 
al = Bl 



A*=b2 

Q.2-B2 



Ai=b3 
a!=B2 



A2 = bJ 
a2=BI 



Fig. 3 



I IF. K FRY 

The genealogical pattern corresponding to this marriage diagram in a palil- 
lineal society is illustrated in Fig. 4, which is also the genealogical pattern typical 
o( a system of marriages between second cousins. 

1. AT al 11) Bl A 2 «2 R2 H2 



1'. 


A! 


bl 


HT 


nl 


A3 


&2 


m 


ttJ 


1. 


Al 


d£ 


Bl 


b2 


A3 


at 


B* 


bl 


:'. 


Al 


ht 


HI 


»2 


AS 


bl 


B2 


ul 


1. 


A3 


til 


m 


bl 


M 


•2 


B2 


bl 



f3& 4 

This pattern is asymmetrical in regard to male and female lineages. Matri- 
lineal and jmtrilineal forms of this pattern appear to represent the basic social 
structure of the majority of aboriginal societies; that is, they ate systems of the 
Iroquois type, with sister exchange, and with the wife's clan distinguished from 
that of first cousins. This is known in Australia as tlie Aranda type. 

Aboriginal kinship systems can be grouped under two headings, those asso- 
ciated with the inland tribes, and those associated with the marginal coastal 
tribes (cf. Davidson, 1926). 

Tht* inland systems were matiilineal in the eastern half of tlie couture-it, 
patrilineal in the western half. They were characterised by division into moieties 
and usually also into named classes ( sections ). 

The marginal coastal tribes often had no moiety divisions. They were 
usually patrilineal, but matrilineal regions existed in recent times in the Swan 
River district of Western Australia and in the north-western corner of Arnhem 
Land. A former larger extension of these matrilineal areas is suggested by the 
facts that kinship terms such as kami kaka, ngandrh nttpa, and unuili, or their 
anologues, are common to the matrilineal tribes of South Australia and the tribes 
of southern Western Australia; also in northern Western Australia the class of 
the child of an irregular marriage was determined by that of die mother. 

The normal genealogical pattern of Fig. 4 being asymmetrical w regard to 
male and female lines of descent, the pattern of kinship terms takes a some- 
what different form in matrilineal and patrilineal societies. Jt is reasonable to 
expect some simpler forms of kinship terminology as a compromise when tribal 
unils inlemiarry across die borders of these zones (Fry, 1934), 

In the inland patrilineal regions of the Northern Territory and Western 
Australia where inhospitable conditions could support only a sparse popula- 
tion, which made every iudividual important, die kinship terminologies conform 
most accurately to the Aranda pattern*. Further, kinships in those areas w<\re 
stabilised and pin-pointed by the development of systems of eight named sub- 
classes which conform completely with the pattern of Fig. 4. Marriage rules, 
therefore, in these societies can be described in positive tenns related to all 
of the four male lineages of (he Aranda genealogical pattern, e.g., mother's- 
molherVbrorherVdaughter's-dnughtcr marriage, and so on. The usual condi- 
tion, as Firth (1930) has pointed out, is '"die kinship principle enters not as a 
determinant but merely as a barrier against the union of close relatives". 

The marginal coastal tribes were often of a stockier build than the inland 
peoples, which might be a racial feature or related to a better food supplv. They 
usually did not practice circumcision The clan organisation at times was 
emphasised by the application of one kinship lerm to all the members of the clan 
irrespective of generation. This again could be a racial feature, or dependent 
upon a denser population due to a better food supplv. ll exemplifies Radcliife 
Biown's principle of the unity of the lineage group, but as a result rather than 



CLASS1F1CATOKY SYSTFMS OF KiNSJIlT 10 

as a cause of the social structure. Another possible featuie of these systems wis 
the maximal extension of marriage prohibition tr> any known relative by blood, 
exemplifying die third principle suggested earlier in this paper. Under those 
circumstances the significance of the distinction between (he children of brother 
and sister diminished and was reflected in the kinship terminology. The kinship 
terminology of most of these marginal tribes was basically of the Aranda type 
with the exception of some northern tribes who did not practice sister exchange 
in marriage. But this tendency to fail to distinguish between the children of 
brother and sister meant that cross-cousins could be equated with siblings. 
Consequently, the kinship system approximated to the Hawaiian type. Klkin 
(1939, p. 215) drew attention to this feature in describing the kinship system 
of the tribes between the Bight and the Mnsgrave and Petermann Ranges, and 
suggested that these systems be known as the Aluridja type. Other examples 
of "systems of the Aluridju type arc the Rardi (EJknv 1932a), the Dalv River 
Tribes (Stanner, 1933, 1930), the Kaftans (Elkin. 1932b), and the Kurnui 
(Ilowitt, 1904). The Yaraldc (Radcliffe Brown, 19 IS; emphasised the clan 
organisation in their terminology, but did not adopt the Aluridja-typc charac- 
teristics. 

iladchffe Brown described the Kariera kinship system (1913). as the type 
of a system based on a dominant custom of marriages of first cousins, and (1930, 
p. -152) as the norm of an earlier form of society in the evolutionary sense than 
the systems <ri second-cousin marriages typified by the Aranda. If, however 
l«is male- and female-speaking kinship terms be integrated in one table (Fry, 
1950), the Kariera kinship system conforms basically to the Aranda type but 
with Aluridia-type characteristics. The Kariera class system is frankly of Aranda 
type. 

At the time of white colonisation the. western and northern marginal tribes 
were apparently in the process of adapting named totemie groupings (phratries) 
to the named class (section) kinship divisions which were diffusing from Central 
Australia. The Swan River tribes (Grew 1941; Salvado, 188fi), Tngarda (Rad- 
cliffe Brown. 1930. p. 213). Bardi (Elkm/l932u), Iwaidja (Wilson, 1835; Spencer, 
11J14). and the Melville Islanders (Speueer, 1914; Hart, 1930) may be cited 
as examples of tribes with a phratry organisation uninfluenced by the innovation 
of classes, and the Mardudhuncra, Kariera (Radcliffe Brown, 1913), Karadjeri, 
J\yul-Nyul. and Lunga (Elkin, 1932a) as examples of compromise systems. 

Unfortunately* the coastal tribes bore the brunt of the earliest conflict with 
colonisation with consequent detribalisation in most cases before adequate re- 
cords of their social systems were attempted. 

As mentioned previously > some of the marginal tribes on the northern coasts 
of Australia practised unilateral marriages and sistcr-cxehangc, if occurring. Was 
rather complicated. Miss McCounel (0&34, 1840. 1 9.10 T recorded the Wife- 
uauikan system of this type which is based on marriage- with the mothers 
younger brother's daughter, and marriage forbidden with (he father's sister's 
daughter- Miss McConnel recognised six lineages in the social structure of this 
tribe, distinguished by their relative seniorities. The kinship terminology, buw- 
ever, was relatively simple. The Yir-Yoront was an analogous system (Sharp. 

jam 

Warner (1930) described the Mui-ii^in system based on marriages unilater- 
ally with the mothers brother's daughter. This kinship terminology is very 
complicated. I published (1950) a marriage diagram expressing a cycle of 
marriages between eight clans, the genealogical pattern of which conformed. 
accurately with Warner's complex Murngin kinship terminology. 



IB IT. K. FRY 

This marriage diagram is illustrated in Fig. 5, and the corresponding genea- 
logical pattern in Fig. 6, 

b2:B2=a2;A2=b3:B3 

II II 

Al A3 

a I A3 

I! II 

Bl:bl-A4:a4 = B4:b4 

m all generations. 

Fig, 5 

1. Al al Bl bl A2 ft2 B2 b2 A3 &3 B3 h3 A+ al B4 b4 

2. Al bl Bl a4 A2 b2 B2 al A3 b3 B3 a2 A 4 b4 B4 a3 

3. Al a4 B! b4 A2 at B2 bl A3 a2 B3 b2 A4 a3 B4 b3 

4. A 1 b4 Bl a3 A2 b 1 B2 a4 A3 b2 B3 al A4 b3 B4 oS 

1. Al a3 Bl b3 A2 a* B2 b4 A3 a I B3 bl A4 nS B4 b2 

2. Al b3 B 1 a2 A2 h4 B2 a3 A3 b 1 B3 a4 A4 b* B4 a I 

3. Al a2 Bl b2 A2 a3 B2 b3 A3 a4 B3 b4 Al a I B4 bl 

4. Al b2 Bl al A2 b3 B2 »2 A3 b4 B3 a3 A4 bl B4 a4 
1. Al al Bl bl A2 «2 B2 h2 A3 a3 B3 b3 A4 a4 B4 b4 

Fig. 6. — The prefixed numerals refer io the class system. 

I did not recognise the significance of this pattern, but later (1957) realised 
that it could be explained by the Wikmunkan system, but that the seniority 
principle had been extended a stage beyond that of the Wikmunkan. 

Subsequently I learned that Laurence and Murdock (1949) had preceded 
me in publishing a description of the Murngin system as the expression of a 
cycle of marriages between eight clans. Radcliffe Brown ( 1951 ) strongly op- 
posed this interpretation, claiming that it demanded a system of marriages with 
a father's fathers sister's daughter's daughter's husband's sisters husband's sister's 
husband's sister's husband's sisters husband's sister, which Warner failed to 
observe. This genealogical sequence can be followed readily in Diagram 6 and 
the woman in question will be found to be also a mother's brother's daughter 
who is the normal marriage partner observed by Warner. Radcliffe Brown's 
criticism is therefore evidence in support of the interpretation which he sought 
to refute. 

If the male and female symbols of the marriage diagram of Fig. 5 be trans- 
posed as in Fig. 7 T the corresponding genealogical pattern will take a slightly 
different form from that of Fig. 6. but will present identical characteristics. 



B:!:b2 = 


=A2:a2^ 


=B3ib3 


(1 
al 

Al 

1 1 




II 
A3 
a3 


bl;Bl = 


-a4:A4 


=b4:B4 




Fig. 


7 



These junior marriage systems provide another mechanism whereby sexual 
competition between father and son is avoided. Also, Miss McConnel recorded 
that when a man marries a woman of his grandson's generation, she must be of 
senior lineage in that generation. 

If the marriages of Fig. 5 and 7 take place in alternate generations, father 
and son many into alternate clans as in the Aranda system. The genealogical 
pattern corresponding to such a marriage diagram is of a type expressing a 
system of marriages wilh the fathers sister's daughter but not with the mother's 
brother's daughter. Miss McConnel (1950) has described the Kandyu\ neigh- 
bours of the Wikmunkan, as a society based on marriages with trie father's 
younger sister's daughter. 



CLASSIFJCATOKY SYSTEMS OF KIXSIIU* tf 

It is interesting to note in these last two systems, where a man marries 
unilaterally a crass-cousin of junior status, that the forbidden eross-cousin is 
termed cousin-mother, and that her husband by the Wikmunkan is called father, 
and by the Kandyu alma, which is a term applied to a senior lineage. There is 
a hint here of the characteristics of the Omaha-Crow systems. 

Sharp (1935) has noted the kinship system of the tribes on Mornington 
Island and the near-by coast of the Gulf of Carpentaria. Their marriages and 
kinship terminology normally follow the patrilineal Aranda partem. However, 
three types of irregular marriages are permitted. The first is marriage with the 
mothers brother's daughter. The second is marriage with the daughter of the 
mother's brother's son and is associated with the use of the term cousin- mother 
for the mother's brother's daughter. As mother's brother's son's daughter is 
normally son's wife and termed mother, the term mother may be applied to three 
successive generations of women in the mother's brother's clan. The third 
form of irregular marriage is with a wife's father's sister or with a wife's brothers 
daughter. In the first and third types of irregular marriages the children are 
clawed in the semi-moiety alternate to that of the father (e.^. A 2 instead of 
Al ). The first and second types entail members of the mother's brothers elan 
being termed wife's father in two successive generations if both types of mar- 
riage are contracted with that clan. The husband of cousin-mother is termed 
father. The kinship system of these tribes therefore includes several charac- 
teristics of an Omaha system in association with their irregular marriages. 

The Kandyn marriage diagram exhibits one form of a oermuialion of uni- 
lateral marriages iu alternate generations. Another type is that of Fig. H. 

l.2:B2=a2A2^b3:B3 M-:B4 = a2:A2=bl \B\ 

I I. 1 

I. Al *S 5. Al aS 

ul Ail « A» 

II II 'I I 

Hl.M-A4.u4 = R4:bJ B*:b3-A4iui — K2;W! 

Fig. 8. 

The genealogical pattern nf a patrilineal system corresponding to tins mar^ 
riage diagram is illustrated in Fig. 9. 

Love (194b 1950) has supplied data which provide sixty-five genealogical 
placements of kinship terms for the Worora tribe, a neighbour of the Ungarinyin 
and with the same organisation (Elkin, 1932a). The pattern of Fig. 9 con- 
forms to all of these complex placements., which is reasonable evidence for its 
validity as a graphic representation of the Worora social structure. 

The Worora, like other systems of the Omaha type, have a marriage custom 
whereby "a man may, and among the older men often has done so, many an- 
other man's sister and his daughter" (Love, 1950). The Worora also apply 
one term, waia, to all the male members of the wife's clan irrespective of genera- 
tion, which is a characteristic of the Omaha-Crow systems. The Worora also 

1. Al Hi Bl hi A2 a'2 B'J b2 A# »3 B3 US A4 r4 R4 b4 

2. Al bl Bl u4 AS b2 82 »l AH b3 B3 a2 A4 b4 B4 u3 

1, A I 03 151 ba AS a,3 BS l>3 A3 a4 B3 b4 A4 al H4 bl 

3. A I bt Bl al A2 KB B2 u2 A3 b4 B3 a.» A4 bl B4 r*4 
J Al t*S Bl h3 A;! a* B2 U A3 *) H3 M A4 h* B4 b2 

2. A l W BT «e A 2 1>4 Bit att A'A bl B3 a4 A4 b? B4 al 
I. Al 04 Bl b4 A3 »1 H2 It! A3 &2 B3 b3 A4 a3 B4 h3 
•2. Al L.4 Bl a» Ai bl B2 a4 A3 b* B3 ul A4 b3 B4 a2 
I, Al ul Bl bl A3 a2 B2 b2 A3 «3 B3 h3 A4 a4 B4 fid 

1%. 



13 IT. K. FRY 

apply the same terms (ibaia and ibanga) to paternal eross-cousius and to nephew 
and niece, again an Omaha feature. The kinship terms of the mother's father's 
dan, however, alternate m alternate generations, and the maternal cross- 
cousins arc equated with Ego's generation, althongb the wives of a mothers 
brother, his son, and his noun son are all termed motJiers mother (kadjan}a). 
The Ungarinyin apply the terms kandingi, mother's brother, and n^nhi, mother, 
to all member* of the mother's father's clan irrespective of generation. Con- 
sequently, maternal cross-cousins are equated with mother's brother and mother, 
die paternal cross-cousins (malengi) again being equated with nephew and 
nieee. The Ungarinyin kinship system therefore comes into full conformity 
with Hie type examples of an Omaha system, 

There is one point in Elkin\s description (T9,'32a) of the Ungarinyiu kin- 
ship system which can be challenged, fie states that as the mother's mother 
(koiw^i) is the mother of ngadzi, mother's mother's brother's daughter cannot 
be u wife's mother. But actually n^adzl is of the elan handingi, which is r>o 
reason why a woman of the clan wolmingi could not be a wife's mother. Elkin 
does not give the term for mother's mother's brother, but by analogy with the 
Worora system it should be icolmingi. 

Tbe avoidance of .sexual competition between father and son is particularly 
interesting in these Jast-mentioned tribes. If Ego be 1A1 his wives are 11*2 
and 2b2, whose sons respectively are 2A1 and 1A3. The wives of 2A1 are 2b4 
and lb4; the wives of 1A3 are l*h4 and 2b4. 

The clans of many American Indian tribes were much more numerous than 
those of Australia, it is interesting to note that, if the kinship terms of the Fox 
tribe (Tax, 1955), which is of die Omaha type, be plotted on the Worora 
genealogical pattern, all the lineages noted by Radelilte Brown (1941) and many 
more will be found to be aligned with the clan lineages of Fig. 9. 

No examples of the Crow type of system have been described in Aus- 
tralia. Spencer (1914) recorded marriages with die widow of a father and 
the widow of a mothers brother in the Kakadt.i tribe, but there is rm evidence 
that these were customary practices or that they influenced the .social structure 
Probably these marriagt-s were of no more signficance than the information 
given to me by members of the detribalised Wailpi people that marriage with 
the lathers sister was in order. 

Kinship terminologies of the Crow type, such as those of the Banks 
Islanders (Codrington, 1891) or the Cherokee (Gilbert, 1955), do not conform 
to a malrflineal version of the Mtitngm pattern, but fall into neat lineages when 
charted on a matrilincal form of the YVorora pattern. This suggests that although 
the Iciftthlp terminology may be influenced by marriage with the mother'.* 
brother's widow or wife, yet the social structure nit which the terminology is 
founded is determined by marriages with women of clans which are more 
distantly related. This suggestion is supported by a statement of Codriimton 
(1891, p. 244) concerning the Banks Islanders: 'a woman when once the proper 
payment has been made for her, belongs to those that have paid, the family 
generally; hence a man. as in rhe story ol* Canaviris, will set up his sister's son 
in hie by handing over to him one of his wives, not because the young man 
has a right to his uncles wives, but because the woman is already in the family'*. 
The coastal tribes of Cape York Peninsula apparenth exhibited another 
example oi the operation of the principle of the radiation of prohibitory ideas. 
Miss McConnel (1950) has described the kinship systems of the Yaraidyana 
and Nggamiri tribes. These system* are apparently dependent upon the mar 
riaqe of women of one lineage in three successive Generations to men of different 
lineups (Fry, 1957), 



CLASSU'ICATORY SYSTEMS OF KINSHIP 10 

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Codkjngton, R. H., 1891. The Melancsian.% Oxford* 

D*vmsc>N. D. SI 1926 The Basis of Social Or^anizatiun ia Australia, Arner. Anthropologist, 

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Elktn', A. P., 1932a. Social Organisation in the Kiraberley District, North Western Australia, 

Oceania, 2 (3). p. 296. 
F.lkint, A. P., 1932b. Note on the Social Organisation of the WcarttlUj a KattanK-spwikiutf 

people. Oceania, 2 (3). p. 359, 
Elkin, A. P., 1938-1940. Kinship in South Australia, Oceania. 6 (4 ), 9 ( 1 ), 10 (2), (3), (-1). 
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WOi, H. JC, 1931. A Tahle Showing the Class Relations oi' the Aranda, Turn*. Roy. Soc. S. 

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ErV- H. K., 1934. Kinship and Descent among tbc Australian Aborigines, Ttaus. Hoy. Sue. 

S. Aust., 58, pp. 14-21. 
RAY, H. K., 1950. Aboriginal Social Systems, Trans. Boy. Soc. S. Aust., 73. pp. 282- Ii94, 
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SO. pp, 1-16, 
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Rchafp, 11 p- <# 7 - (Qnoted from Rivers, 1914.) 
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LAuiuiNr.fcL W. E., and MubdocKj C P., 1949, Murngin Social Organisation, Amer, Anthro- 
pologist, 51, p. 5b. 
I.OVK, J. R. R., 1941. Worora Kinship Gestures, Trans. Rov. Soc. S. Aust . 65, pp, 108-109. 
Lovk, J. K. H„ 1950, Woror* Kinships, Trans. Boy. Soe. S. Aust., 73, pp. ."280-281. 
McConnkl, V. II., 1931. The Wikuumkun And Allied Tribes of Cape York Peomsnk, 

Oceania, 4 (3). p. i!JC. 
McConnki., V. II.. 1940. Social Organisation oi: tin Tribes (rf Cape YorV IVniqsula, Oeo.inia, 

10 (4). p. 4:34. 
VIcConiwi., U. H., 1950, Junior Marriage Sysleras; A Comparative Survey, Oecanin, 21 

(2), p. 107. 
McLennan, J. F., 1876. Studies in Ancient History, London 
Mum; an, L. H., 1871. The System 1 ; of Consanguinity and Affinity, Smithsonian Cootnbu- 

tions to Knowledge, 17., New York, pp, 12, 14'.^ 
HWKUKFE Biiown, A. R. 5 1913. Three Trit>es of Western Australia. j.K, Anth. Inst., 4& l>. '43. 
HAucLiIffb Bhcavn, A. R., 1918. Notes on ilte Social Organisation of Australian Tribes, J.R. 

Anth. Inst., 48, p. 222. 
Raucliffe Brown, A- R-. 1930. The Scicial Or^anisutii-'n of Aualralisui Tribes, Oceania. J 

(!), (2), Ul (4).' 
B-UJCLiFht Bkown, A, R.. 1941, The Study ol Kinship' Systems, J.R. Anth. lust., 71, p. I. 
Ratkxiffk Bhown, A. R.. 1951. Murngin Social Organisation, Airier, Anthropologist, 53, p, 57. 
Kn wks, W\ H. R., 1914. Kinship flfla Social Organisation, London. 
Sai.vado, R.. 1886. New Noreia and Lesehenault Bav; in 'jPftc Australian Rtict, *.«J, E, M. 

Curr T Melbourne, Vol. 1, p. 320. 
Sn\Rp, I.., 1934. The Social Organisation of the Yir-Yorunt Tribe, Cape York Veniosiila, 

Oceania, 4 (4). p 404. 
Smut*, L,, 1935. Semi-Moieties in North Western (.)ueeu.sland, Oceania, (? (3). p, 1?^ 
Si'i-ncer, B., 1914. Native Tribes ot the Korthem Territory oi Australia. London, 
SiANNiin, W. K. H.. 1933. The Da1> Riwr Tribes, OoeauiA, 3 (4). p. 377. 
SiajsNIlH. W. E, H. s 1936. Muriubata Kinahip and Tolemism, Oeeama. 7(2), p. 186. 
Tax, S., 1955. The Social Organisation of the. Fox Indians; in Sochi Anthropnlo{rtj o\ North 

American Trthes, cd. F. Kggan, Chicago. 
iiNOALE, N. B., 1940, Distribution oi Australian Abori^iiu-il Tril.ie.s; A f»eld S'nivev, Tiaite. 

Roy. Sck: S. Aust., «4, pn. 140-231. 
WauniiU. W. L., 1930. Morphology and Function of the Australian Murngin Type of KiuvLlp, 

Amer. Anthropoloeist N.S, 32. p, 307. 
WiLsnv, T. B., 1835. Narrative of a Voyage Hound the World, London, p. 163. 

CORiUCF.NDUM 

Tn my paper Trans. Boy. Soe. S. Aust., 1957, 80, p. 4, lino 3, instead of reterener, 
(MatO'ew's and EverUt, JOOO), substitute (Matthews, 1900], the latter reference in bdl beiug: 
Mattiujws. K, tb, 1,900. Marriage and Decent vunonj: the Australian Aborigine*, journ. 
R<ty. Soe. N.S.W., 34, p. .126. 



SOME ACARINA FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW GUINEA 

PARAPHAGIC UPON MILLIPEDES AND COCKROACHES AND ON 

BEETLES OF THE FAMILY PASSALIDAE 

byH. Womersley 



Summary 

A new species of the genus Heterocheylus Lombardini, 1926, H. lombardinii sp. nov., is described 
from under the elytra of a Passalid beetle from Mt. Lamington, Queensland. This is the first record 
of the genus from Australia. The only other two described species are H. fusiformis Lomb., 1926, 
from Brazil and H. lomani Tragardh, 1950, from Africa. A key to the three species is given. 



SOME ACABINA FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW GUINEA 

FARAPHAGIC UPON MILLIPEDES AND COCKROACHES AND ON 

BEETLES OF THE FAMILY PASSALIDAE 

By H. Wqmersley 6 

[Road 9 July 1959] 

SUMMARY 

A new species of the genus Heterochetjht-s Lombardini, 1926, II. lombar- 
dinii sp. nuv. f is described from tinder the elytra of a Passalid beetle from Mt. 
Lamington, Queensland. This is die first record of the genus from Australia. 
The onlv other two described species are- H. fmiformis T.tmil)., 1926, from 
Brazil and II, lomani Tragardh, 1950, from Africa. A key to the three species 
is given. 

Pt. 3. -The family Hclerocheylidae 
( Acarina-Trombidiformcs ) 
Family PSEUDOCHEYL1DAE Guderaans, 1909. 
Oudcrnans, A. C„ 1909, Tijds. v. Entom., 52 (1-2): pp. $&&!< 

Subfamily Heterocheylinae Tragardh, 1950. 
Tragardh, I., 1950, Entom. Tklsk.. 71 (2). p. 109. 

Genus IIETEROCHEYLUS Lombardini, 1926. 
Lombardini, C, 1926, Boll. Sor. Entom. ItaL, 57 (1), pp. 160-1. 

Type. Heierochcylus fusiformis Lorn., 1926. 
In 1926 Lombardini erected tins genus for H, fusiformis n. sp. found on a 
Passalid beetle from Brazil. In this paper be described and figured only the 
female, but later (Mem. Soc. Entom. Ital., 17 (1), p. 120, 1938) he briefly de- 
scribed and figured what he regarded as the nymphal male, also from a Brazilian 
Passalid. 

In 1950 Tragardh described and figured a second species II. lomani ft, sp. 
from a single specimen from a Passalid from the Belgian Congo. Tragardh 
placed fusiformis in the subfamily Heteroeheyletinae, a mis-spelling for Hetero- 
eheylinae, now raised to family rank as the Heterocheylidac. In my present 
studies of the Aearina paraphagie on Passalid beetles, millipedes, etc., from 
Australia and New Guinea, a third species, II. lotnhardinii sp, nov., has been 
found on a Passalid (Mastochilus sp.) from Mt. Lamington, Queensland, 
December, 1948 (coll. H.W. ). it is represented by three females and three 
nyrnphs (? males )\ now in the South Australian Museum collections. 

Heteroeheylus lombardinii sp. nov. 
Text Fig. T A-J 

Halo type female.— Fig. A-H. Shape as figured and as in other species. 
Length overall 638^, of idiosoma 522^; width of idiosoma 278/t. 

Dorsal— Gnalhosoma somewhat triangular, but slightly swollen apically just 
behind the mandibles, with a pair of minute setae immediately behind the 
chelicerae. Propodosoma anteriorly with two pairs of widely separated minute 

fl South Australian Museum. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Auat. (1960), VoL 83. 



22 



IT. WOMF.R.SLEY 



setae, the posterior pair slightly nearer together than the anterior pair, posteriorly 
and near to the posterior margin with a pair of closely adjacent conspicuous 
clavate papilliform setae. Hysterosoma with four segments, the anterior (I) 
somewhat hexagonal in shape, as long as wide, with a long 150/t lateral seta at 




Fig. J 

lleterocheylus lombardmii sp. oov. A-II. Female; A, dorsal view; B, ventral view; 

C, ehelieurae; D, pulp: F, \r.g T; F ? tibia and tarsus ley JT; G, tibia and tarsns 

kg IV; IT, genitalia. H, Nymph; I, dorsal view, j, ventral view. 

the lateral angles; slightly in front of these and 132/a apart is a pair of minute 
setae and midway betv\cen these and the posterior end of die segment is an- 
other pair equally distant apart; segment II is rather collar-lilce, slightly more 
than tliree times as wide as long, with a long setae 127/a in each posterior angle 



SOME \OARJNA FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW OllNfcA 53 

ami with a minute seta fn front ot each of those; segment III is about twice 
41$ long as It, with tapering sides and with two pairs of long setae, a mid-lateral 
one on each side UJftu hing and a snbmedian suhposterior pair lOfyi Krfife segment 
IV is more triangular, hilohed with a longitudinal incision, a pair of lateral 
setae 127ja long and a pair of apical setae 66// long situated one on the tip of 
wteh lobe. 

The mandibles uve smalt with the cheh'cerae outwardly curved and edentate. 
Palpi as figured, curved inwards and forceps like; femoral segment large, as 
broad as Jong with a long 62/f. dorsal seta reaching to tip of palp; next segment 
as long as broad at its base with a finer dorsal seta 33/*. mag; the apical segment 
is a strong edentate claw wilh an inner basal accessory tooth and a pair of 
minute setae. 

Ventral.— -Gnathoaomu with a pair of minute setae just behind the elieliceme 
and a longer One an each side at the base of the palpi. Fropadosomu without 
epimera to leg I, but with a seta just behind the basal segment of the leg; 
epunera of leg U roughly rectangular, its inner margins confluent with each 
other in the medial line for about three-fourths of the length, the posterior 
margins are outwardly oblique a little in front of the propodosomal suture 
and not eonlluent therewith, there is a short seta on each side placed medially 
and near to the inner margins and not on shicldlcts. Hysierosnma with the 
epimera of legs lit and IV coalesced to form long shields separated medially 
by a strip of cuticle only slightly narrower than the shields, each shield is fur- 
uished with one seta near tin* anterior margin and one in the middle of epimera 
III, near the posterior end of the intervening ventral strip is another pair of 
small setae; posterior of legs TV, segment II, III and IV are confluent to form 
a single unit, which is tapering, and which bears the elongate genital orifice, 

Legs.— All 7-segmented, short, fairly stout and tapering, l-IV of equal 
length 197/*; I is anteuoaefonn, somewhat more slender than the others* and the 
tarsus without caruncle or claws; 1 1 -IV ate much stouter, the tarsi ending in a 
strong small claw-like spine which is much larger on II than on III and IV. each 
tarsus also with a distinct caruncle, pail and a pair ol fine minute claws. 

Vymjth, Fig. I-J. As figured. Length entire 580,/,, of idiosomn *ff>4p, 
width idiosoma 378/*. 

Dorsal— C.iHtlJwsonitt as in adult. Pvupoflosnma with shield completely 
covering dor.salJy, with two pairs of widely separated minute .setae iinieriorly 
as in adult, without the median posterior clavate setae ot the adult but with 
a pair of long simple setae 108/< long, 89«; apart and 3ffy from the posterior 
margin. Hysferosoma with four dorsal shields indicating the four segments as 
in the adult, but these shields evcepf the fourth do not nearly cover the dorsal 
surface of the segment being surrounded laterally by longitudinal striatums 
and separated from each other by transverse striatums, the large shield of 
.segment 1, however, is divided medially into two parts, of which the anterior 
is rectangular, wider than long, and slightly longer than die posterior part, jl is 
furnished with one pair of minute setae situated in the antero-Iateral angles; 
the posterior part of this shield tapers posteriorly to a margin of about half the 
width of die anterior margin, it is wider than long and idso furnished with a 
pair of minute setae in the antero-luroral angles, the pair of long lateral setae, 
I IN/* long, aic situated on small shields on the extreme margins of the body 
away from the shield itself; the shield on segment II is rather transversely ovai, 
not extending right across the. segment anil furnished wilh one pair of sub- 
la I era) long 104/j setae; the shield of segment ill is similar' hut narrower, with 
one pair of lateral setae 7fy long and a pair of subposterior setae 7,V long; 



•2i HL WOMEHSLEY 

I he shield of segment IV covers the whole segment, is bilobed with a longi- 
tudinal fissure as in the adult and with two pairs of long setae 56/* and 33/t. 

Legs— As in the adult, all 174u. long: the claw-like spine on tarsi is small 
and of equal size on legs II-IV. 

Ventral.— * No epimera to leg L Epimera of Jeg II roughly rectangular, nut 
touching in the medial line and the posterior margin not confluent with the 
propodosomal suture, with one small seta in the medial angles, Epimera of 
legs 111 and IV confluent as in the adult forming two wide longitudinal shields 
separated by a narrower strip of the venter with distinct longitudinal striations, 
each shield has one small seta in the epimeral area of leg III, and there is an- 
other pair at the posterior end of the intervening striated stri^. There- is uuly 
a single roughly quadrate shield on segments II and III together which is 
furnished with one pair of small subposterior setae, this .shield is encircled by 
striations. Segment IV is as figured, bilobed as in the adult. 

Remarks.— This species is readily separated in the adult from the type species 
H. fusiforrrm Lomb. from Brazil in the pair of propodosomal clavate setae being 
set close together. In his species H, lomani Tragardh was unable to see these 
setae, but this species differs from both fmijormis add lombardmii in that the 
posterior margins of the epimera of legs II are confluent with the propodosomal 
suture. 

Lombardini hi his description of the nymph regards his specimen as a 
"nympham maris"". This is somewhat hypothetical. Iii his figure he docs not 
delineate any shields dorsaJly on the segments of the hysterosoma, but as he 
probably failed to notice their outlines by the striations it cannot be assumed 
that tbey were not present in his species. He does not figure the ventral surface. 

Modifying Tragardh's key to the species (fusifomris and lomani) the three 
species now known may be separated in the adult stage as follows: 

Key to the species of Heterochcyhts, 

1. Posterior margin of epimera II oblique and not confluent with propodosomal 

.suture, 2 

Posterior margin of epimera II straight and contiguous with propodosomal 
.suture. Ventral strip between epimera III and IV of equal width through- 
out—Belgian Congo. 

H. lomani Trag., 1950. 

2. Clavate setae on propodosoma closely adjacent. Ventral strip between 

epimera III and IV slightly narrower than width of epimera and almost 
equally wide throughout —Australia. 

H. lomhardinii sp. nov. 
Clavate setae on propodosoma widely separated by about four diameters. 
Ventral strip wider than epimera III and IV and much wider anteriorly 
than posteriorly — Brazil. 

H. fwiformis Lo?nb M 1926. 
It is a pleasure to name the above new species after the creator of the genus, 
Prof. C. Lombardini of Florence, Italy. 

REFERENCES 

LoMHARDiAi, C, 19:16. Duo nova Gcnrra Aearorum — Boll. Sue. Entom. itoL 3S (fVJiO 
p. 160. v '' 

LnMBARTrtN% O., 1938. "Xcari novi", Mem. Sot-, Ent. ital., 17 (1), p. 44, 

Tragaudu, I., 1950. Description of a new fflmsgfeli o( Hett'rocheylm Lombardini from Able* 
with notes on the classification of the .Pseudnchcvlotidae — Kntom. Tiids. 71 (21 uu 
104-110, '* HH " 



NEW RECORDS OF SPECIES OF LEPTOLAELAPS (ACARINA, 
MESOSTIGMATA) FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

byH. Womersley 



Summary 

The New Zealand species of Leptoluelaps, L. reticulatus Evans, 1957, is now recorded from moss 
from S. Australia, and L. macquariensis (Worn., 1937) is recorded from New Zealand. The hitherto 
unknown male of macquariensis is described. 



NEW RECORDS OF SPECIES OF LEPTOLAELAPS (ACARINA, 
MESOSTIGMATA) FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

By H, Womersley* 

[Read 9 July 1959] 

SUMMARY 

The New Zealand species of Leptolaelaps, L. reticrji.tfcis Evans. 1057, is 
now rororded from jnoss from S. Australia, and L. macquariensis (Worn., J 937) 
is recorded from New Zealand. The hitherto unknown male of irwcqttttru:'ni>v> 
is described. 

The genus Leptolaelaps Berlese, 1918, has recently been revised by Evans, 
1U57, and a key given fur the six known speeies. These are elegans Berk (the 
genotype) from the Transvaal, lambda Evans from Knysna, capensis Evans 
from Cape Province, and lawrencei Evans from Natal, reticuhtus Evans from 
New Zealand and macquariensis (Womersley) from Macquarie Island. 

All the known species arc free living Mcsostigmata occurring in moss and 
humus litter, except perhaps macquariensis which was recorded from "between 
tide marks. West Coast, Macquarie Island, 1913". 

In the present paper two of the known speeies are recorded, namely, 
Leptolaclaps reticulatus Evans from South Australia, and L. macquariensis 
(Worn.) from New Zealand. Fresh drawings of these speeies are given, chiefly 
for accessibility by Australian students. 

Genus Lkptolaklaps Berlesc, 1918 

Leptolaclaps (suhgen. of Ilypoatpix Can.) Berlese, 1918, Hr.dia 13, p. 122; emend. Evans, 
G. O., 1957, Arm. Xatal Mtis., 14 (1), p. 45. (Type Leptalaelxips elegant Berl., 1018.) 

Leptolaelaps reticulata.? Evans 

Fij*. 1, A-E 
Leptolaelaps rcticulatus Evans, 1957, Ann. Mag. Nat- Hist., 14 ( I ), p. 43, 

Specimens of this New Zealand species have recently been obtained from 
moss from Upper Start, S, Australia (3 females), 24/8/58 (G. F. Gross), and 
moss from Myponga, S. Australia (3 females), 4/11/58 (H.W.). 

A comparison of the accompanying figures of this Australian material with 
the description arid figures of Evans of the New Zealand specimens confirms the 
specific identification. Tbc only slight and unimportant differences are the 
lighter reticulation of the ventral shields and the prolongation of the sternum 
scarcely reaching the posterior margin of coxae 111. Also the lateral sclcrites 
of the genital shield, which in Evans* description and figure project posteriorly 
beyond the lateral margins of the shield as far as the posterior pair of adjacent 
lateral cuticular setae, only reach as far as the first pair of these setae. The 
male is still unknown. 

The figures given here were made before a separate of Evans* paper was 
received when it was thought to be a new species of Leptolaelaps Berl. 

* South Australian Museum. 
Trans. Ray. Soc. S. Aust. (19C0), Vol. 83. 



26 



H. WOMERSLEY 




Fig. 1. — Leptolaelaps retlculatus Evans, female: A, ventral 'view; B, dorsum; C\ 
chelicerae; D, Beta of palpal tarsus; E, tectum- 



NKW KIiCOHDS OF SPbClhS OK LfcPTOLAF.I.ArS 27 

Lcptolaelaps macquariensis (Womersley. 1937) 
Fig. 2, A-T 

P<tefn/Map.<: macquarlauis WomersW, 1037, *Watin*r in "Sd. Kvp?5. AustraJnslon Antarrrfu 

fcxpeflirmn. I911-HM4' . 
Lvutohdups //«/c(/(k/mV"m^ £vrtuH„ If**37. Ann. Nat.il Mns., 14 (lh p -16'. 

This species was originally described and figured from a single fermde 
collected "from between tide marks, on the West Coast of Macquarle ls/\ by 
the Australasian Antarctic Expedition, 1911-1914, led by the late Sir Douglas 
Mawson. 

It was placed by Womersley in the genus PachyUtelaps Burlcse, 1888, hid 
Rvans has shown dmt although closely allied to Pachylaetaps it is more properly 
to be put into Lcptoluehips Berlese. 1918- 

\jy the South Australian Museum are a female and a male specimen received 
some years ago from an old correspondent, Mr. ft. D. Pritchard, and collected 
from moss from Mannrewa, New Zealand, 14th July, 1931. 

These specimens have now been studied and found to be con-specific wSth 
the specimen from Maequarie Island. 

The male sex has not hitherto been known and is herewith described and 
figured, while the opportunity is taken to re-describe the female, sex from the 
additional specimens and to give fresh figures. 

Re-description of female (from the New Zealand spccimen). 

Dorsal shield covering entire body and underlapping narrowly on to the 
venter right around, with about 35 pairs of setae to 50/*, long, and some pores. 

Ventrally — The sternal shield is strongly reticulate with a more strongly 
marked median strip, anteriorly it is 178^ wide and the median length is SSZfJL, 
it is furnished with the usual 3 pairs of setae and 2 pairs of pores, it extends 
posteriori) lo between coxae IJ! and IV: the pre-endopodal shields are trans- 
versely elongate with concave anterior and convex posterior margins; the meta- 
\ternal shields are distinct, small and roughly oval with seta 50/t long and a 
pore; the genito-ventral shield is flask-shaped with broadly rounded posterior, 
and only slightly longer than broad > 188;*. by 164/w. t it almost touches (lie anal 
shield and is furnished with only one pair of setae (genital) 5fyr. long, the 
lateral sclerites are distinct and reach to between the first and second of the 
adj-aeent lateral setae; the anal shield is pyriform and as wide as long, the anus 
ix situated anteriorly and die paranal setae are in line with its posterior edge; 
the metapodal shields are small and roughly elliptical and lie in a line between 
the two setae later-ad irf the genito-ventral sliield: on the cuticle between the 
genito-ventra) shield and the anal is one pair of setae and on each side latecad 
of the anal is uunther pair of setae; the podal shields arc well developed and 
extend slightly beyond coxue IV. and are coalesced with the exopodal shields; 
the endopodal shields of coxae II and III are coalesced but separated by a fine 
suture from those of eo\ae IV; the stigma lies between coxae ill and IV and 
the peritreme extendi to the level of coxae 1, the perihemal shield is narrow 
and extends poster iad to middle of coxae IV and vit the tip it is furnished with 
;i small pore, anteriorly the shield is coalesced \v;th the underlapping edge of 
the dorsal shield. 

The base of the tritnstemum is elongate and about 4 times as long as 
wide, it is furnished with the usual pair of ciliated lacmiac. The gnathosoma 
MS as figured with normal arrangement of setae; the palpf are 5-segmented and 
216/i long with the specialised tarsal setae £-tined: the cornicles are long and 
slender, Oiit long, and reach almost to the tip of palpal segment IT, thev are 
flanked by the equally long and elongate salivary stylets. The tectum is as 
figured with a short median muoro and about 9 denticles on each side, The 



H. WOMERSLEY 




Fig. 2. — Lcptolaelaps viacquariensis (Worn.). A-F, female: A, ventral view; B, 

dorsum; C, gnathosoma; D, ehelicerac; E, acta of palpal tarsus; F, tectum. CM, 

male; G, venter \ H, mandibles; I, femur, genu and tibia leg I 



NEW RECORDS' OF SPECIES OF LEPTOLAELAPS 29 

chelae are as figured, the movable digit with two moderately strong teeth be- 
tween which is a number of minute teeth, die fixed digit has two moderate 
teeth and several smaller ones, with a short pilus dentalis 

i rfirfT legS . are &*&!*& s J ender > 1 and IV **&* fa®* than the idiosoma; 
V? » tarsus With slender geniculate caruncle and paired claws; II rather 
stouter 5S V. lung with normal caruncle; III 487 > long; IV 696> long; III and 
IV more slender than II and the setae on tarsi to 70> Tone 
Dimemiom of idioxoma, length 603//, width 370,x 
Description of Male Motype.-Ceneral fades as in female. Dorsal shield 
kSy to* y Fk> 2G) erlapping Ventei ' m ° re than ** fcmale > specially postero- 

SMfS *T St u' na1 ' g T\ al and ventral shields ^aksced into a single 
shield winch is broadly rounded postcriad of coxae IV and almost reaches the 

q'n n'Jn ^f enC !i V/' 1 * "l*"^ much as in *e female, it is furnished with 

P&.5ffH^ 1 S£C&£& 376 ' ,ong; the Ul *•* * ** ** 

che^'rsgmS .'ysfiyayai as sfc&fct a 

fnrmshed with a fairly thick and long spcrmatophoral process 
Dimemiom of idiosoma, length 522^ width 324/. 

i^SS ! *^|/SfeLT raalc frorn inoss ' Manurewa ' New Zealand * 

ri fe^ ma , ,e a &W and the female specimen are in the collection of 
the South Australian Museum. The female has been dissected the S Soma 
and mandibles on one slide and the rest of the mite on another gnath0S0UU 

REFERENCES 

Behlase A 1918 "Cenhma Quarta di Atari N'uovf, Hedia IS n 12« 
Evans, O. 0„ 1957. Annals Natal Mus, H {if, pp. 45-57 ' l 



NEW RECORDS OF SPECIES OF LEPTOLAELAPS (ACARINA, 
MESOSTIGMATA) FROM AUSTRALIA AND NEW ZEALAND 

byH. Womersley 



Summary 

The New Zealand species of Leptoluelaps, L. reticulatus Evans, 1957, is now recorded from moss 
from S. Australia, and L. macquariensis (Worn., 1937) is recorded from New Zealand. The hitherto 
unknown male of macquariensis is described. 



A NEW GENUS AND SPECIES LAELAPTOSEIUS NOVAE-ZELANDIAE 
FROM NEW ZEALAND (ACARINA, ACEOSEJIDAE) 

By H. Womehsley* 

[Read 9 July 19S9J 

SUMMARY 

A new genus Luelaptoscim- BtJj » *** species L. nox-nmahndiav nre 
described from New Zealand. 

Genus L.vKLAinoSEius nov. 
With entire dorsal shield with scabrous reticulations. Logs I and IV longer 
than body. Procndopodal shields preseut. Sternal shield with three pairs of 
setae and reaching to middle of coxae III. Metastcmal shields present with 
seta and pore. Genital shield with truncate base. Fcritreme. on the inner 
margin of well chitinised, strongly reticulated, wide, lateral shields which extend 
posteriorly beyond coxae IV. Metapodal shields conspicuous and round. Tectum 
denticulate, 

Laelaploseius novae-zelandiae sp. n. 
Fig, AIT 

Types— Two females collected from humus from Manurewa, New Zealand, 
2/9/34 (eolh % D. Pritcbard). 

Location— The holotype and one paratype are in the collection of the South 
Australian Museum. 

Description— Female; A rather large, broadly oval, well sclerotised mite. 
Idiosoma 10SS/i long, 760/*. wide. 

Dorsum— Dorsal shield entire and covering the whole body with scale-like 
reticulations and about 32 pairs of simple setae which are fairly thick basally 
and tapering to a fine point to 70/a long. 

Venter— Pre-stema) shields present, transversely ovoid; tritostcrnum with 
elongate base and a pair of ciliated lacima; sternal shield as figured with light! v 
concave anterior margin and somewhat less so posterior margin, anterior width 
197,11, posteriorly across arms between coxae II and 111 235>, length in median 
line 188/*, furnished with rather strong reticulations especially medially, with 
three pairs of setae to 56/a long and two pairs of pores; metasternal shields con- 
spicuous with seta 47/*. long and a pore; genital shield about as long as wide, 
with truncate posterior margin, length 210>, width across base 210jw t with one 

Eair of setae tffyi long and 160>. apart, with strong reticulations; immediately 
ehind the posterior margin is a line of four transverse lenticular small shield- 
lets; the anal shield is well separated frorn the genital shield, it is roughly 
triangular, about as wide as long with rounded anterior and on each side with a 
conspicuous outstanding pore on the margin; the cuticle carries about eight 
setae on each of which two pairs lie between the genital and anal shields; the 
metapodal shields are fairly consyMcuous and round; the stigma lies between 
coxae III and IV and the peritreme runs forward to coxae I on the inner edge 
of a large podal shield which extends laterally to the body margin and pos- 
teriorly beyond coxae IV, laterally this shield is confluent with the body margin 
to the shoulders, and is remarkably reticulate, length of shield 487//, width 2<)G>. 

South Australian Museum. 
Trans. Roy. Soe> S. Au*t. (i960), Vol. «S. 



32 H. WOMERSLEY 

Gnalhosoma as figured with four pairs of hypostomal setae, cornicles small 

gS g* 2 - tnie ;- tarsal «*V ^ a P^fr ^ 'specialised setae (Fin H ) on 

.side of genu C/u-^e™ as figured, movable digit wilh two teeth feed digj 

u.lh two teeth 7 ec/um denticulate. L,: e .s~CeneVallv slender tarsi with c? 

Rfc KftSSBg SfiSfc* 1V * S R, ^er than idfit^ 

Male— Unknown. 

S^rtarfe^jh the form of the genital shield, and in the truncite no.^Hn,- 
margm of that shield, this ge,W is provisionally in Z Isenccoi SffS 
placed m the family Aceosejidae Ralcer and Warton. SfSSrftelXv 
to the families of the Mesostigmata-Parasitoidea by Evans 1957 V 




LarlaplmtHus novae-zt'landiac g. et m nav Fern-tie- ft vUhiWI • i 

tarsal seta; j-i, seaside on irenu oi palp. 

REFERENCES 
IK » BS 589, Witahton-, G. W-, 1952. An Vntrrrfuct/™ to Avarohw, New York 
Kva.ns G. U, 195/. An Injrodurtfcm to tin- British Mesostiismala (Aran «) will , &U h, 
families and jpnera, J. Linn. Soc. London. 43 <2f>I) P p WS9 



A SECOND SPECIES OF PRISTOLAELAPS (ACARINA, LAELAPTIDAE) 

FROM AUSTRALIA 



byH. Womersley 



Summary 

The genus Pristolaelaps was described by Womersley, 1956, with P. tasmanicus sp. n. as genotype. 
Further records of this species are here given for South Australia and a second species P. obovata 
sp. n. is described from Victoria. 



A SECOND SPECIES OF PRISTOLAELAPS (ACARINA, LAELAPTIDAE) 

FROM AUSTRALIA 

By H. Womi^sley* 

[Read 9 July 1959] 

SUMMARY 

The genus Pristoluehips was described by AVoinersley, 1956 : with P. (as- 



nanictix sp. n. as genotype. Further records of this species are here given for 
south Australia and a second species P, ubovcrta sp. n. is described from Victoria. 



The genus Pristolaehps with P. tasmanicus sp, n. as the type was described 
by the writer (1956) and the genus defined as follows: 

"Female.— Elongate oval, with undivided dorsal shield entirely covering 
dorsum. Palpal tarsus with 2-tined seta. Pre-endopodal shields present. 
Sternal shield longer than wide with three pairs of setae. Metasternal shields 
only represented by seta. Genital, ventral and anal shields coalesced, the 
combined shield widened behind coxae IV. Exopodal shields fused and ex- 
tending widely behind coxae IV. Peritremal shield separated from exopodal 
by a narrow line of cuticle, ending opposite coxae IV and with stigma between 
coxae III and IV. Legs slender, unarmed. 

Male— Unkn own. 

Genotype— Pristolaehps tasmanicus sp. nov* 

With the discovery of the following second species of the genus, the above 
diagnosis requires amending in some minor details. The shape varies from 
elongate oval to broadly oval and the sternal shield may be about as long as 
wide as well as longer than wide. 

Genus Tiustolaelaps Womcrslcy, 1956. 

Prhti doe-hips Womcrslcy, 1956, "On somt* new Araxina-Mesostitunata from Australia, New 
Zealand and New Guinea/ 1 J. Linn. Soc, Loudon, Zoology^ 42 (228), p. 571. (Type: 
Prtetolaelaps tawuwims sp. noy. ) 

Pristolaelaps obovata sp. nov- 
Ffg. 1, A-E 
Types.— Holotype female and one paraiype female in the collection of the 
South Australian Museum. 

Locality ^Koroit Victoria, August 23rd, 1935 (coll. R. T. M. Pescott). 
Description of Fewiale.—A very strongly ehitinised, dark brown species of 
broadly oval shape. 

Dorsum with entire dorsal shield which underlaps narrowly on to the venter, 
surface smooth and apparently without selae except for a few minute ones on 
the underlapping strip. 

Venter.— Generally as figured and as in the genus with the genital, ventral 
and anal shields coalesced and expanded behind coxae IV. Pre-endopoda 1 
shields present and transversely elongate; sternal shield about as long as broad 
with concave anterior margin and almost straight posterior margin, with 3 pairs 
of setae 47/i long and in almost straight oblique lines, with 2 pairs of pores, 



* South Australian Museum. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Ausi, (I960), Vol. 83. 



34 



H. WOMERSLEY 



length of shield in median line 99/x, maximum width 197/x; metasternal shields 
absent and only represented by the setae: genito-ventri-anal shield large and 
occupying most of the venter behind coxae IV, anterior margin lightly rounded 
and fibrillated, expanding behind coxae IV to 300/x, then rounding to include 
the anus, with 5 pairs of setae besides die 3 anal setae, surface faintly reticulate; 
endopodal shields of coxae III and IV distinct; cxopodal shields coalesced and 
produced behind coxae IV as a triangular podal shield; metapodal shields 




Fig. 1 

PrUtoladaps ohovata sp, nov. Female; A. venter; B : gnathosormi from below; C 7 ehelicerae; 
D, iined seta of palpal tarsus; E, tectum. 



elongate oval. Stigma between coxae III and IV and peritrerne running for- 
ward to coxae I, on a distinct peritremal shield well separated from the cxopodal 
shields, rather widened in the region of the stigma and extending posteriad to 
the margin of coxae IV. On the cuticle laterad of the gcnito-ventri-anal shield 
with 3 long setae on each side. A pair of well chitinised spermatheca are clearly 
to be seen (Fig. 1A). 

Gnuthasoma as figured; palpi and cornicles normal. 



PRISTOLAELAPS FROM AUSTRALIA 35 

Chelicerae as figured, movable digit with two small teeth, fixed digit with 
a prominent subapical tooth and four smaller ones, two on each side of the pilus 
dentilis. Tectum denticulate. 

Legs all shorter than idiosorna, I 598/a long with normal ambulacral arrange- 
ment, II 383^, III 360^, IV 487/*; all without special armature. Dimensions of 
idiosorna, length 580/x, width 464/a. 

Remarks.— This species differs from the genotype in the much greater sclero- 
tisation, its broader shape and in the length and shape of the sternal shield. 

Pristolaelaps tasmanicus Womersley, 1957 
Pristolaelaps tasmanicus Womersley, 1957, ]. Linn. Soc. London, Zoology, 42 (228), p. 571. 
New Records— Originally described from Burnley, Victoria, on strawberry 
plants imported from Tasmania, this species has now been found in moss from: 
Upper Sturt, S. Australia, 19/9/58 (G. F. Gross). 
Naracoorte, S. Australia, 8/1/59 (P. Aitken). 



THE CHARNOCKITIC GRANITES AND ASSOCIATED GRANITES 

OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 

by Allan F. Wilson 



Summary 

Igneous rocks from a long E.-W. bel( in Central Australia vary in (ype from orthopyroxene granites 
in the Musgrave Ranges through augite-hornblende granites to hornblende granites and sphene- 
biotite granites in the Ayers Ranges and Kulgera Hills. Ferrohypersthene granites form large 
meridionally-trending discordant masses in meridionally-trending synclinoria of hypersthene 
granuliles in the Musgrave Ranges. Field study indicates a fluid (or magmatic) emplacement of the 
partly crystalline granite. In the Ayers Ranges similar pseudophacolithic granite masses are 
hornblende-bearing (and devoid of orthopyroxene). The basement metamorphic rocks there are of 
amphibolite facies. A regional deep-seated E.-W. downwarp (possibly associated with deepseatcd 
E.-W. transcurrent shearing) may have been sufficient to have caused a thorough reconstitution of 
the basement rocks (now represented by hyperslhcne-bearing. or hornblende-bearing granuliles of 
many types), and the development of "pockets" of potential magma in favoured areas. It is further 
postulated that subsequent emplacement of the resulting rheomorphic masses would have been 
assisted by pre-existing weaknesses such as those due to the N.-S, attitude of many of the original 
rocks. This may explain the apparent anomaly of E.-W.-trending granites which are often found 
within rocks of N.-S. tectonic trend, and could throw light on some of the lineation problems in 
parts of Central Australia. A superimposed metamorphism (initially more thermal than dynamic) of 
already highly metamorphosed rocks could explain some of the "anomalous" mineralogic and 
textural features of certain charnockitic granulites. Thus, in the Musgrave Ranges charnockitic 
rocks of more than one origin have been found. The charnockitic granites, for which a part-fluid, 
part-metasomatic origin is postulated, differ structurally from the charnockitic granulites of the 
basement, for the granites have been magmatically emplaced. They also differ mineraiogically, that 
the mafic minerals of these granites are consistently more ferriferous (and otherwise different) than 
the corresponding minerals of the basement rocks. This is well illustrated by the different trends of 
compositional tie-lines of co-existing pyroxenes in the two groups of rocks. The Ernabella 
Adamellite, the Ayers Ranges Adamellite, the Kulgera Adamellite are formally named and 
described. Eight new chemical analyses of granites (including three of orthopyroxenic granites), 
much mineralogic and pctrographic data, arc included in this paper. 



THE CILVRNOCKITIC GRANITES AND ASSOCIATED GRANITES 
OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 

by Allan F. Wilson* 

[Read 9 July 1959] 

SUMMARY 

Igneous locks from a long E.-W. belt in Central Australia vary hi type from 
orthopyroxene granites in the Musgrave Ranges; through augite-hornblende 
granites to hornblende granites ami sphenc-biotite granites in the Ayers Ranges 
and Kadgera Hills. Eerrohypersdiene granites form large mendionally-trending 
discordant masses in meridional ly-trcndin« synclinoria of h> r peri<thcne granu- 
lites in the Musgrave Ranges, Kield study indicates a fluid (or magmatie) em- 
placement ol" the partly crystalline granite. In the Ayers Ranges similar pseudo- 
phaeohthie granite masses are hornblende-bearing (and devoid of ortho- 
pyroxene)- The basement metamorphic moles there are ot amphibolic facics. 

A regional deep-seated E.-W. dow'nwarp (possibly associated with deep- 
seated E.-W. trauscurrent shearing) may have been sulficiejiL to have caused a 
thorough reeonstitutiun of the basement rocks (now represented by hypcrs- 
thene-hearing, or hornblende-bearing granulitcs of many types), and the de- 
velopment of "pockets" of potential jnaguia m favoured ;ue;Ls. It is further 
postulated Ural subsequent emplacement of the resulting rheomorphie masses 
would have been assisted by pre-existing weaknesses such as those due to the 
N.-S. aititude of many of the original rocks. This may explain the apparent 
anomaly of E.-W.-treuding granites wlneh are often fmuid within rocks of 
N.-S. tectonic trend, and could throw light on some of the linealion problems 
in parts of Central Australia. A superimposed met am or pi asm ( initially more 
thermal than dynamic) of already highly metamorphosed rocks could explain 
some of the "anomalous*" mineralogic and lextural features of certain ehar- 
uoeJdtie granulites. 

Thus, in the Musgrave Uanges eharnockitie rocks of more than one origin 
have been found. The eharnockitie granites, for which a pact-fluid, part-meta- 
somatic origin is postulated, differ structurally from the eharnockitie granulires 
of the basement, for the granites have been magmatieally emptaced, 'they also 
differ mineralogicaHy, in that the mafic minerals of these granites are consistently 
more ferriferous (and otherwise different) than the corresponding minerals of 
the- basement rocks. This in well illustrated by the different trends of com- 
positional tie-lines of co-existing pyroxenes in the two groups of rocks. 

The Ernabella Adamellite, the Ayers Ranges Adamellite, the Knlgera 
Adamellite are formally named and described, Eight new chemical analyses 
of granites (including three of orthopyroxenie graniLes), much mineralogre and 
petrographie data, are included in this paper. 

INTRODUCTION 

Large masses of granite occur throughout tlie arid mountainous country 
which extends E.-W. for 300 miles along the South Australian-Northern Territory 
border in Centra) Australia (Fig. 1). In hand-specimen sonic of these granites 
(especially the orthopyro.xenic) cannot be distinguished from typical eharnock- 
itcs of India, Others are augite-, or hornblende-, or biotite-beaiing granites, and 
some are very coarsely porphyritic. 

The granites cut a gneissic complex of gramdite faeies throughout much 
of the Musgrave Ranges, and of high amphibolite fades in the Ayers" Ranges and 
Kulgera IT ills. 



* Department of Geology, University of Queensland, Australia (formerly of the De- 
partment of Geology, University of Western Australia, Nedlauds, Western Australia ) . 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (I960), Vol. 83. 



;s au^n r. wilsox 

Brief mention of some of the geomorphologic fealuies of this area has been 
made in olhor papers (W&Jftr> 1947a, 1,947b), 

TUE FIELD WORK 

The field work was done from Dec, 1043-Feb. 1941; Dec. 1945-Jaji. 1946; 
Dec. 1918-Feb. 1949. u»d Jau.-Fcb. 1952, The field work was hampered by 
bail seasons and summer heal:, and by inadequate equipment and research funds. 
Air-photographs were available- only for the Avers Ranges for the fourth ex- 

Jieditioii (see foot note, p. 39). Some oE the difficulties- of mapping tin's terrain 
iave been mentioned elsewhere (Wilson. 1947b. p. 196), 

PHEVIOUS WORK 

Although most of the early explorers remarked on the large expanses nf 
"granite" occurring in these regions* few geological details were given (e.g., 
Giles, 1S74; Gosse, 1874; and Forrest, 1875). Brown (1890) and Streieh (1893) 
make brief mention of the coarse porphyritic granite of the Plverard Ranges, but 
Basedow (1905) seems to have been the first geologist to attempt a structural 
synthesis; of the granitic rocks of the Musgrave Block. His petrographie notes, 
however, arc scant Robinson (1949) has since published good descriptions 
of some of Basedow's rocks. 

Lockhart Jack (1915) made valuable structural observations of the granitic 
rocks, especially of the Kverard Ranges, mid .suggested that the granites of the 
Musgrave Ranges* were probably eo oval with the Evcraxd Ranges granite 
(p. 16). In 1947, the present author published the first of several papers dealing 
with penological and structural feal i ires of the main granitic rocks of the 
Musgrave Ranges and the Kulgera Hills (see list of references J. Sine* this 
paper was first written, maps of parts of the Musgrave Ranges (J inch — 4 miles) 
have been published (1955) by the Geological Survey of South Australia, 

NOMENCLATURE 

The classification used by Hatch. Wells and Wells (1949) is here largely 
adopted. In addition, a prefix to the general name 'granite", or to a more 
specific name (e.g.. adamellitc) is also used, thus— hypersthene adamellitc. The 
prefix "micro" denotes a medium-grained Kick (thus, micro-adamellite). 

The term "charnoekitic g/Ymi/r" is used here to draw attention lo the fact 
that some of these granites show important similarities to the charnoekitic rocks 
id the h pe locality in Madras, India. The term has almost onllivcd its usefulness. 

Rucks nf charnoekitic type normally are very dark greasy bluish grey or 
greenish grey, medium-grained and coarse-grained rocks with xenomorphic 
texture ranging (in composition) from granite through novite to pym.vcnitc. 
and characterized throughout by (he presence of ojthopyrovene, 

For purposes of general description the charnockites mav be referred to as 
acid, intermediate, basic and ultramafic in much the same way that igneou* 
rocks have heeu subdivided by Hatch, Wells and Wells (1949/ p. 181). For 
further details of characteristics of the acid and intermediate charnockites the 
reader is referred to Holland (1900), Washington ( 1916), or Pichamuthu (1953). 

In the type areas of India it would appear that the charnockites (origm-illv 
considered to be igneous rocks) are rooks of diverse types (igneous and mera- 
morphic) which have suffered more than one mebimorpliism The metamor- 
phism which has produced the ehaniocktrje rocks has produced at the same 
time khondalites aud other rocks which be'ong To the eranulite facics. In 
Western Australia charnoekitic basic rocks appear to have formed in four 
different environments (Wilson. 1958b). 




133' 



^V 



^i KULGERA 



A Y E R S 
RANGES 



38W 



VICTORY DOWNS 



[345681 ®*^// 



30210 






\ 



v 



4 ' \ 



ALCURRA CREEK 
REGION 



/ 



/ 



32° 

J 



SOME MAJOR GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES 

OF THE 
MUSGRAVE AND AYERS RANGES 



Fig. 1 



33° 

J 



MOUNT CAVENAGH 






HI LLS 



26 



i 



i 



/ 



TIEYON 



LEGEND 



STRIKE AND DIRECTION OF DIP OF 
GNEISSES & CHARNOCKITIC GRANULITES 

DIRECTION OF PLUNGE OF LINEATION 

MAJOR SHEAR ZONES 
(MOSTLY SHALLOW DIP SSE.) 

Cj!«V MOSTLY INTRUSIVE GRANITES 

STRIKE AND DIRECTION OF DIP OF 
— *— MAJOR PLATY FLOW LAYERS IN GRANITES 



® 



HOMESTEADS 
SPECIMEN NUMBERS 



IO 



20 MILES 



GKANTTOS OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 3*> 

GKNEUAL FIELD CHARACTERS AND STRUCTURE 

MAPS 

A map showing the distribution of Hie major rock types, as known afu*r 
tny Brst two expeditions into the \luse;rave Ranges, has already been published 
(Wilson, 1947b). u ( . 

During two subsequent expeditions several weeks were spent re-stimying 
restricted areas and mapp&ig certain new areas in reconnaissance. In the 
absence of air-photographs, only u reconnaissance map, showing strike and dm 
of the banding, and lineation of the basement rocks (the gneisses and gxannlites) 
and the contacts of the main intrusive masses, has been prepared.* 

The altitude of dolcrite dykes is not shown, but some dykes arc plotted on 
a previous map (Wilson, 1947b), and others appear on the new maps published 
by ihe South Australian Mines Department, Another area of about -100 square 
miles (the Avers Ranges and Kulgera Hills) lias been mapped in reconnaissance 
with the assistance o£ air photographs used in the field. This area will be de- 
scribed in detail in later papers. 

THE GNE1SSKS AND GHANUL1TKS 

The oldest rocks in the area are gneisses and granuhtes in which banding 
appears to be parallel to bedding planes of original sedimentary rocks. De- 
tailed petrologies I and structural descriptions of these rocks appear elsewhere 
(Wilson, 1954b, vol. 2). 

Fig, 1 shows that the trend of banding or foliation (- bedding) is roughly 
meridional for about 150 miles across the strike, i.e. throughout the central and 
eastern Musgrave Ranges. In many places the gneisses have been thrown iiUo 
folds, manv of which are tight, and all of which arc ornamented with minor 
(olds. The trend of the fold axes, and of a lineation is also sub-meridional. 
There can scarcely be any doubt that tho tectonic strike of the original meta- 
morphic rocks of the central and eastern Miisgrave Ranges is sub-meridional 
(Wilson, 1953b, 1954a ? and 1954b> vol. 2). 

In the Avers Ranges (particularly in rhe eastern half) the gneisses arc 
folded on sub-meridional axes, and the lineation is sub-parallel to the fold axes. 
In Ihe Kulgera Hills the tectonic trend (as shown by tight fold axes and linea- 
tion, and average sti ike-trends ) is 330 deg. to 340 deg. 

The basement rocks of the Musgravc Ranges are mostly of granulite fades, 
but many of those of the eastern portion of the Ayers Ranges and all of those 
of Ihe Kulgera Hills are typical of higher levels of the amphibolite fades. 

THE ORTITOPYROXENE-BEAHING CRAMTKS OF TIIR MUSGIUVE RANCICS 

(inductive the T.mahdia Adamollite) 
The shape of the largest granite mass, which has been called the Ertwhdln 
AtltimeMte, is shown in Fig. 7. (For a more detailed map showing actual hills 
ami extent of sand cover, see Wilson, 1947b.) In the Ernabella and Alalka 
regions it is merklionally-trentling, and seems to occupy the axis of a south- 
plunging synclinorium in the granulites. Notwithstanding its position within a 
synclinal structure the granite rarely shows truly cuneordaut contacts (PL 1, 
Fig. 1 ). Wherever studied, the transgressive contacts are marked by xenoliths 

* Air-photograph mosaics of ihe Mn.^nive Rank's svert kindly forwarded by the SouLb 
Australian MinL-s Department, in 1954 but they arrivrd too Mfl to nllow ;tnv KtojninVaut addi- 
tions to the map to be made- Subsieuuently, the Mines Department Kuti published geological 
maps of part of the Musuruve RdBgctf based on Hie use ot CfcMSBft air-photographs in the 
field, but th<:s<: are nlso ot reconnaissance type., for the gnowsie compter has not been 
systematically subdivided. Vly mnp lis published as completed hi KC>4, for H shoe's in3iiy 
features not included in the maps ol the Mines Department (and vice versa?. 



40 ALLAN i«. WILSON 

containing hornblende and hiotite. The xcnoliths arc so alined as to demon- 
strate that the granite has moved into its present position. Angular xcnoliths 
lieshly broken from the wall rocks have been found, Xenoliths are best seen 
neat Harris Springs in the vicinity of Mt Carruthers, and at the Alallcn rock-holes. 

In me Ahdka region (sec p. 46) not only are How-banding and corroded 
xenoliths of the country rocks alined parallel to the sharp transgressive contacts, 
but a mmked decrease in graiu*sizc is evident close to the contact (Pi. 1, Fig. 2). 
Tbe gneisses and granulitcs of tlie wall rocks have been rendered garnetiferous 
bv the intrusion, 

At the eastern contact just N. of Aeroplane Well the granite shows some 
mH aromatic action on the granulitcs, but this is not a feature of the granite 
as a whole. The contacts are usually sharp and distinct. 

Near Tlatjtt, about 514 miles S. of Ernahella. the granite mass appears 
to swing in trend toward the SW. Insufficient field work has been done to 
say whether or not this granite is related to the somewhat sheared granites said 
to occur between Upsan Downs and Possum Well (which is 5 or 6 miles S. 
of Upsan Downs). 

Notwithstanding the presence of xenoliths near the main contacts* and a 
weak ii linemen t of rare plagioclase phenocrysts and mafic clots, those gramles 
are so massive that in many places no reliable structural data could be obtained, 
Tlie overall dark greasy appearance of the rocks in field and hand-specimen 
greatly hinders a macroscopic .structural study. Such data as are available, 
however, suggest that the intrusion is similar to several in the Avers Ranges 
and Kulgera Hills, where the granites tend to occupy synclinal positions in flic 
gneisses. These granites, however, do not seem to "he true phaeolirks, for the 
flow-layers., which arc fairly shallow and dip into the intrusion near the edges, 
steepen to almost vertical near the axis of the elongate structures (see Fig. "2). 
Although the structure is fairly clear in the Ayers Ranges and Kulgera I Tills, it 
is unwise to assume that the available data are suifieient to prove u similar 
structure for (he Ernahella Adamclltto. 

The occurrence in the Koli Koli and Tjafamja regions of outcrops of rocks 
almost identical with the Emabclla Adamellite is difficult to explain. The 
assumption that they are cupolas on a granite mass upon which the gneisses 
"Hoar is too great an extrapolation of the scanty field data. There is very strong 
evidence, however, that the granite of tlie Harris Springs area, which underlies 
the gneisses to the west, re-appears in the valley to the east of the Koli Xoli 
ridge. In this area a hypothesis somewhat similar to that put forward for Hie 
Kakamav churnoc-kftic adamellite should be rested in the field. (This bus nut 
yet been possible; field work in this area was done in 1944 ) At Kakawas the 
adamellite (which petrographically is somewhat similar to the Ernahella 
Adamellite) occurs as a sheet which "generally occupies ihc synclinal troughs 
ol the folded terrain, while the crest of the anticlines torm ridges within the 
intrusion. False windows' of older rocks are. a conspicuous feature throughout 
the sheet. Contacts with the associated rocks often transgress across the foliation 
at a low angle, but both wm-transgressivc and high^'-transgressivc contacts arc 
also observed .... It is thought that tile magma spread out along the 
vynclines of the folded terrain . . ." (PoloVrvaart and von Backstrom, "1949. 
p. 483). 

The development of some such hypothesis may throw light on the problem 
in Central Australia where there is the apparent contradiction of a long K.-W 
string of petrologically closely related irmgrnatic granites., many of which form 
N.-S. bodies sub-parallel to the major fold structures of the basement rocks. 

In the Sentinr! Hill region (see p. 49) the trend of the granite intrusions 



GRANITES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 41 

and associated granulites to the west is approximately meridional, but the 
gneisses and granulites U> the east have a north-west tectonic (rend. In this 
region the granite is orthopjToxene-bearing in most parts, but coarser hum- 
blende facics are common, In the nearby Bald Hill, and elsewhere, the rods 
arc -devoid of orthopyroxenc, yet on petrographic evidence should be con- 
sidered "co-mngnuUie" with the orthopyroxenie rocks. 

TitK CLINOPYHOXKKK-HKAJUNC AND HORNT*LENDE-BfiAHl\G ail ANITAS 

OF THfc AYfc'KS K.ANGKS AND KaSTF.kN OUTLILIBS OK THK 

MUSCHAVE HANGES 

In the j\Icnrra Ctcrk Region a group of low hills of coarse granite appear 
l<i lonn petrographic and geographic links belween the nrfhopyroxenc-bearing 
granites of the Musgrave Ranges to the west and the hornblende-rich granites 
of the Ayers Ranges to the easl. A structural link between the two ranges, how- 
ever, is not so obvious. No attempt has been made to map this area of pucrf 
outcrop. Reconnaissance, however, has shown that contacts with the gnei&scs 
are rare- The available evidence (see p- SI) is that the granites have been 
cmplaeed as a (palingenetic) magma into meridionally-trcnding gneisses und 
granulites. Flow-structures are very Aveak except near contacts. The general 
trend of platy-flow layers appears to be between 325 deg. and 335 deg. Although 
random recording of plarv-flow layers may be dangerous and misleading, it seems 
significant that platy-How layers which trend E.-W. have not yet been found. 
It would appear, then, that if the granites of the Musgrave and Avers Ranges 
axe related, they are linked in a much more complicated Fashion than by a 
-normal" elongate mass of granite which extends westward from the Avers 
Ranges through the Musgrave Ranges, and beyond. 

In the Ayers Ran^vs the structure of the granite is more easily mapped, for 
although xenoliths arc uncommon, platy-(1ow layers are revealed in most places 
by the alinement of large K-feldspar phenocrysts. With the aid of air photo- 
graphs the greater part of the Ayers Ranges wa.s mapped in reconnaissance. 
Only die main structural Features are mentioned in this paper. 

As shown on Fig. i, the main granite mass lies west and north-west of Mt. 
Cavcnagh Homestead, whereas to the east major and minor folds and hneation 
in the gneisses are approximately meridional in trend. The southern contact 
with the gneisses was not mapped, but near Victory Downs Homestead (which 
lies close to the WSW contact of the main outcrops of the granite of the Ayers 
Ranges) the gneisses strike E.-W'., and are meridionally lincated. The attitude 
of the flow-layers of the granite shows what may be considered to be a large 
cuivcd structure, crescent-shaped in plan with shallow plunge in a north- 
westerly direction. 

The structtu-es oi the granite are sub concordant with garnetized gneisses 
on parte of the eastern side of the intrusion. Within the granite area nn gneiss 
h.is been found, but some may be covered by the sand through which the more 
resistant hills of granite protrude. The flow-structures ftf some of the hills (such 
as Mt. Reynolds, and a smaller hill 3 miles to the west) show that the mode of 
emplacement oF the granite, was complicated within the main granite area. Jn 
these hills the flow-structure presents the picture of a synclinal granite budv% 
closed on the eastern end and plunging iit a low angle to the west. These 
granite bodies can scarcely be phucoliths, however, for on the western w<\> 
where subhomontal flow-layers could be expected to complete the synclinal 
shu< tine, there are vertical or steep dips A similar structure on a small scale 
was more closely mapped in the Kulgcra Hills, some 10 miles ENF. of Me. 
Reynolds (sec Fig. 2). It appears that structural weaknesses in the basement 



42 



ALLAN F. WILSON 







Kig, 2.— Geological sketch map and sections of Pinnacle Hill, Kulgcra Hills, Central 

Australia, 



GTIAVTTFS OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 43 

rocks (faults or fold-axial ^ISlh^T} have been utilized by upsurging palingenetic 
majmia. Insofar as it remains within old synclinal structures, the outer flow- 
str uctures appear to delineate a synclinc, but the "feeder dyke", situated nearer 
the axial "plane" of the fold, may well be steeply-dipping. By analogy with 
the Kulgcra Hills, it is concluded "that gneisses may he biuied at shallow depths 
beneath" the sand from which protrude the more resistant granite masses. 

The Kulgnra Hilh arc separated from the Avers Ranges by a westerly- 
trending trough in which (?) Mesozoic seuunents are the only outcrops. The 
granites of Kulgera Hills themselves may be considered to Jie about 15 miles 
NE. of the main granite area of the Ayers Ranges. Since a large manuscript 
describing thr. geology of the region is awaiting publication, only a few of the 
major structural features will be mentioned here. 

Study of platy-flow and linear-flow structures in the granites indicates that, 
notwithstanding marked local trunsgressive structures, the general treud of the 
granite intrusions is sub-parallel to the fold axes and lineation of the gneisses, 
ic.. 330 deg. to 340 deg. • 

The most instructive granite intrusion is that seen at The Pinnacle, a small 
pointed hill two miles E. of Kulgcra Homestead. In Fig, 2 the main structural 
features are shown. The Pinnacle is the end of a granite body similar to some 
of those in the Avers Ranges. The contact with the contorted gneisses is sharp 
and i'eldspathi/.cd only in places. It dips inwards on the S„ E. and N. contacts, 
but near the middle of the structure the flow-layers are vertical. On top uf the 
hill tlie bottom contact (which is here also the E. contact) is found to dip about 
30 deg. to the WNW. This dip is also the plunge of elongate plagioclase plieuo- 
crysts" and represents the plunge of the linear-Bow of the intrusion at that point. 
Oil top of the hill, although the intrusion is synclinal, the contorted mcta- 
sediments are n<»t conformable with die intrusion. As one proceeds WNW. 
along the "axis" of the structure the plunge appear* to steepen, but the platy- 
flow "layers rapidly steepen. At the bottom of the hill both granite contacts 
dip into tlie granite but near the middle of tlie structure, the dip of the flow 
layers is vertical, not horizontal as woidd be expected if the body were synclinal 
(sec Fig. 2, E-F). The granite body takes on the appearance of a wide, steeply- 
dipping dyke as it is traced KNE. along the strike. 

It "thus appear that the intrusion at The Pinnacle is really a special type 
of dyke. The magma ( which has given rise to a rock very similar to the Kulgera 
Adaincllite) has been forcibly injected up shears sub-parallel to the regional 
structure* and in favourable structural positions has formed tension-controlled 
gashes which are crescent-shaped in plan. The other granite masses of the 
area appear to be of similar type. Microfacies of the main granite, and pegma- 
tites, occur in the gneisses* especially near the contacts of coarse granite and 
gneiss. 

PETROGRAPHY 
OnTSIOPYROXE.N ^BEARING GRANITES 

tn an earlier paper (Wilson, 1947b v p, 206) the belief was expressed that 
these rucks are probably mostly granodioritie in composition, Since subsequent 
work has shown that in this region adamellite is more common than granodiorite, 
the name F.rnabelUt AclamcllUc is thought to be suitable as a general term of 
reference, notwithstanding the fact that the only available chemical analysis 
from the immediate vicinitv of Ernabella was carried out on a rock which nas 



*4 ALLAN K. WfLSOX 

been found to lie between adamelhte and granodioritc in composition, Two 
related orthopyroxenic granites from the Musgravc Ranges arc adameUites, 
according; to chemical analyses (Table 2). 

Firrohypcrxthene granodiorite (close to udamellite) (30789). '-Collected 
quarter rnile duo west of Ernnbella water-hole; typical of granitic rucks in 
vicinity; no primary planar or linear flow structures noticed in (En Jield ( Fig, 7), 

In hand-specimen : massive coarse-grained greasy bluish dark Jffw rock 
composed of bluish grey feldspars, small bluish "grey glassy quartz irregularly 
distributed, and small ragged clots of greasy dark rm<\vn mafic minerals; dark, 
nature of rook- renders malic minerals k\ss conspicuous; rare pyrJte; plagioclasc 
commonly .shows albite-twins, and K-f eld spar commonly contains numerous small 
round inclusions of quart/.; phenocrysts of plagioelase rare, but one well-twinned 
crystal measuring 40 mm X 12 mm Was found; common accessory zircon 
fluoresce* yellow; weathering commonly deeply penetrates boulders, rendering 
collection of fresh material very difficult; tendency for uniform discolourathm 
to resinous brown very deceptive -compare the "Brown Granites" of Mozam- 
bique (Assimeao and Pinto Coclbo, 1855); 

Iu thin-section: xenomorphie granular, with mafic minerals and quartz (n 
smaller grains than feldspars: average uraiu-sizc between 15 mm and 2 mm 
(sec PJ 2, Figs. S and 4). 

PJaMioela.se (49$) — andesinc. An 3S, non-zoned; anhedxal, mostly 2 mm 
dium., well-twinned on albite-pcrklino laws, but development of twinning ap- 
pears related to warpiug and shattering of many grains; corroded nn large 
scale by K-feldspar especially where shearing has developed wealmesses in 
.mains, weakly micra-anOpertlntic, with irregular inclusions of K-foldspai 
apparently produced by K -feldspar couosinu rather than exsolution (PI. 2, 
Fill,. !fy inclusions of sagenitic ruthV common, and clouds of squat rurilo rods 
and distorted magnetite uctahedra in some grains; apatite and zircon crystals 
in sumt* K-feldspar inclusions; quart/ inclusions negligible: extinction = 20 dcg. 

K-foldspar (245- )— orthoclase rnicroperthite partly inverted to microclino" as 
shown by incipient shadowy cross-hatch extinction on (001), and large negative 
optic axial angle (about 80 dog.); mostly 2 mm diam.; moderately miero- 
pcrthitic; round quart/ inclusions about 0-2 mm rliam.; corrodes plagiocLwe, 
and duis occurs as small irregular patches of rmcro-antipctthire in plugioelase,- 
needlc inclusions very rare, smudges of iron ore dust plentiful. 

Quartz (155) — mostly ragged grains J mm diam.; also small corroded 
round grains ("millet seed" type) about 2 mm diam. in K-feldspar (PI. 2s 
Fig. 4): noedlc inclusions rare, smudges of iron ore dust and bubbles plentiful; 
soinrvvhal shadowy extinction. 

Oirhopyroxcne (4%) — ferrohvpersthene, Fe 64J8. non-znncd; rounded an- 
hedral; mostly 8 mm < 0-1 mm, commonly as core of irregular mafic clots 
which arc mostly 2 mm x 1 mm (but: up to 20 mm x 10 mm, 45 seen in hand- 
specimen), and in which it is closely associated with clinopyroxcne, iron ores, 
apatite and zircon, fine lamellar structure (including some narrow clinopyroxcne 
exsolution lamellae) // Optic piano (010); lamellae commonly bent and frac- 
tured as in plagioclasc, but chtiopyrovcne which is occasionally found o.orrod- 

e KgCictoCH numbers K»fur U l\w n<-k ^riffectiOai of tkx University at Wftftcm Australia 
Duplicate* are housed in the Lfilimirfty of Adelaide. Tt.i Conserve spacr the folbwing e^n- 
Lractiuib. are mvd in this piper. Tho cxlmcUoji untfle of pLiirioc-Iase (alwftys TUOrtsiirrd ;i* 
a' A 010 in .;tvtion.<; ya) K r^(M thus: "extinction = 20" 'V Unless olhmvisr indicated, 
mrNtfmoornt* "I -2\ nr* correct to -+- 2 dog. Fur pyroxenes and biotilc and ± 4 <\cy\ for 
ampbihole-, retractivfc indices to ± 0-001, isrinctiuii anjuVs to -*: 1 de& Pleochntfc coIoi.ik 
arc M&Uxi in the order r>. £, y. or a. /jl - y knd absorption is a<£<y for orthnpyrnv*ue, 
ft > y > rt for ajiiphibole. flnon'smiee -is .irunv* as for 25,17 A. 



< 'KAMI Kb OF CTATKAL AVSTRM.U K 

(tig orthopyroxene .shows no evidence of such (?) protoclastio structures; alters 
along irregular cracks and pom' cleavages to dull light brown ehloritic mallei, 
whereas associated dinnpyroxeu* tends to remain unaltered; pleochroism weak — 
pale pinkish fawn, pale fawn, very pale greenish grey,; A- 1*745; 2V/«— 59 ; 
dispersion v > r. moderate. 

Iron Ores (3* 5%) -apparently ilmenite and magnetite equally represented:, 
together with a feW grains of pyrite;. aiihcdral masses, about 0*3 mm diam.. 
mostly associated with orthopvroxeuc, apatite and -/ireon iu mafic clots; several 
grains corroded by hornblende' or hiotitc; also, tiny distorted oetahedra of magne- 
tite and iron ore (lust in several larger plagioclase grains. 

Clinopvroxcne (2%) -calcic augitc, C&MK Mfi32S Fe27, non-zoned, an- 
heclral grains mostly 0-4 mm diam.; commonly as groups of two or three grains 
a^octatcd with iron ores, or as irregular grains adjoining (and in some cases 
apparently corroding) orthopyroxene; clear, unaltered and exceedingly weakly 
pleoehroic (or not at all) in very pale greenish greys; (110) cleavage, prominent 
parting // (1.00) and (001), and less prominent // (0.10); cleavage and parting 
surfaces not bent and fractured as are those of associated orthopyroxene, narrow 
pyroxene lamellae //<100); A.- 1-726; 2V/y - 51° ±1°; y Ac-42°. 

A.patite (1 *o£)-squat subhcdral colourless grains (commonly 0-l.^rnm X 
0-1 mm) mostly associated with iron ores, zireon and hypcrsthene in malic clots, 
or as elongate euhedral grains associated with K-fcldspar inclusions in plagio- 
clase; non -fluorescent*, tubular inclusions //c; w - I 635, indicating fJuor-apaliio. 
Hornblende ( ■ 51 ) -mostly small irregular anhcclrail grains (with rare 
patches up to 3 mm X 1*5 mm) corroding iron ores;, associated blebs of clear 
tniurU. may be derived from transformed pyroxene; unaltered non-sheaied, clear; 
pleochroism strong- fawn, dark khaki-brown, greenish khaki; X -=1-7'.H. 

Zircon (0*5%) -mostly very pale pink onliedral crystals up t<> 0-3 mm > 
0-2 mm. and usually associated with apatite and iron ores; yellow fluorescence. 

BhHite— rare ragged flukes adjoining iron ores; pleoenroism. light SWSW- 
yellow. chestnut-brown. 

Calcite - very rare alteration product of plagioelase. 

A chemical atmhisis, norm and mode of this rock are set out as 10 in TrtWe 
3, and also in Tabic 2, ion percentages are set out in Tabic 4, and further refer- 
ence, is made in Figs. J and 6. Discussion of these data is reserved for the 
pedogenesis section. 

Ferrohtfpcrsthcne ^ f /rn/tci[/i;e-(308.l6).-Wjthin a tew feet of the summit 
of Mt. Carruthers, a prominent landmark MS miles W. of Ernabella, and 0*4 
mile from the intrusive contact with the gneisses and grauulitcs; similar to 
30789, but a more normal adamcllitc, and orthopyroxene much less ferriferous, 
exsolution lamellae of cl in op y rove no coarse, and there arc no large plagioelase 
phenocrvsts, See Table 1. 

Fcrrohyjwrslhr.uc mkroodnnwIlUe (close to adameJIite)— (30*71 ).— At the 
month of a gorge 2 miles VVfciVV, of Emabella. and .1-4 miles SSW. of Mt. Car- 
rut hers; not far from basement grannlites; considerably finer grain-size than 
most of the hypcrsthene granites of the area (feldspars average 0-6 mm diam.. 
pyroxenes average 0-2 mm dumi.J; textures and mineral relations as for 30789, 
but plagioelase "more miero-antipertfotie than in 30789; although pyroxenes 
contain corroded masses of iron ore, and the rock contains more iron ore (11 
per cent.) than any other granite? so far .studied from the area, several rocks 
in Musgrave Ranges contain more ferriferous pyroxenes; iron ore al.su plentiful 
as irregular plates "healing" shears and cashes in most mineiak .See Table 1- 
Fcrrohifpersthime adameMte—i 30(358). —About half-way down the SW. side 
of the prominent hill 3 miles NXE. of Ernabella. probabK typical of consular- 



4fi ALLAN K WILSON 

able portions of the group of hills about 4 miles NIMH, of Ernabella, although 
amphibole-beaiing variants may be present among some of the coarser-grained 
rocks in the area; although finer in grain-size, textures and mineral relation:* 
as in 30789; calcite, apparently of late mugmatie origin, as small irregular patches 
mostly associated with biotite and rare chlorite. See Table 1. 

Alalka Reciox 

The largest masses of the Ernabella Adamelhte axe developed in the Alalka 
region, about ten miles X. of Ernabella (Fig. 7). Where contacts were studied 
(e.g., at the Alalka rock -holes, and at Razor Hill) there is very good evidence 
of the magmatic emplacement of the Ernabella Adamelhte. A typical contact 
near Alalka is shown in PI. 1, Fig. 2. Not only are flow-banding and corroded 
xenoliths of the country rocks alined parallel to the sharp transgressive contact, 
but a marked decrease in grain-size is evident close to the contact. Tlie gneisses 
and granulates of the wall rocks have been rendered garnetiferuus by the 
intrusion. 

Ferrohypersihene granodioritc (close to adamelhte)— (30476).— Near the 
contact with granulites 2% miles NNW, of Alalka rock-hole and 3 miles SE. of 
Wardulka rock-hole, and also only a few yards from a small olivine dolente 
dyke; fawn in colour due to superficial weathering: dull dark brown mafic clots 
only Faintly oriented; texture and mineral relationships as for 30789, but mafic 
clots somewhat more prominent, magnetite in the form of in-fillings of cracks 
more common, quartz sagenitic and with tendency to be flattened parallel to 
weakly developed streakrncss of mafic clots (PI. 2, Figs. 1 and 2). See Table I. 

TjATJA-OMBAGUNlM HeCJON 

The map (Fig. 7) shows that the Ernabella Adamelhte, as developed in the 
Tjatja area, continues ENE. into the Omhagunda area. Mt. Ferdinand, how- 
ever, which is midway between the two areas, is composed of banded acidic 
pyroxene granulites. It is not known whether there is anv visible link between 
tin? igneous rocks of the two areas To the south of Mr. Ferdinand most of 
the rocks appear to be gneisses and graniililcs. 

Verrahtftiersthcne adamellite—( 30.385), -Typical of the granitic rocks about 
one mile SSE, of Ombagunda Well where they inject the acid pyroxene granu. 
Htcs which make up the basement rocks of large ports of Hie eastern Musgrave 
Ranges; collected about 20 yards S. of the junction of a nohte dyke which" cuts 
the gpuiitfej dull greasy brown, typical of incipient weathering of an iron-rich 
rock. 

In thin-section: similar to 30789 (p. 44) in texture and mineral relations, 
but with following differences: mafic minerals notably less ferriferous and not 
so obviously in clots: K-feldspar more micropcrthitit , and closely associated with 
grotesquely poikilitic hornblende ( pleochroism— fawn, brown, greenish khaki) 
and clear vermiform quartz where plagioclase is corroded; quartz mostly as 
sagenitic "millet seed" inclusions 0*35 mm diam. in K-feldspar, apatite murky 
light grey clue to aeieular inclusions // c\ zircon pale fawn with dusty inclusions. 
Details of mineral compositions arc set out in Table 1, 

A chemkxd analysis, norm and mode of this rock arc set out as 6 in Tabic 3, 
and also in Table 2, ion ptm-.enlugcs are set out in Table 6, and farther reference 
is made in Figs, 4 and (i A discussion of these data is reserved for the. pctro- 
ger>csis section. 

TjAKUNJA KdT.K'-V 

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\'W. of Ernabella), and a few hundred yards N. at a small pinnacle-shaped hill, 



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4S ALLAN F, WtLSOV 

greasy hliu'sh-^rey ferrohypersthene adamellites occur as intrusions into acid 
hypersthene granulites (Fig. 7). When the VV. face was visits in \$41 it 
seamed that Lhe whole of Tjakunja was eharnockitic gneiss, and it was mapped 
Is such, In 1949, a traverse from Alalka ended at Tjakunja, and i( was then 
that the igneous rock so common in the Ernabella area was found to he present 
(hut inconspicuous) near the ENE. base of the mountain. About one mile 
across the plain to the E, a minor intrusion of hypersthene adamellite of the 
type developed at VVardulka makes a well-marked transgressive and intrusive 
<\>ntact with the acid hypersthene granulites. No other "rmigrnatie* hypeis- 
them? granitic rocks are known from this region, hut in view nf the Jack of 
detailed study of the mountains to the SE. of Tjakunja some may exist there 
and thus provide a link wid* die Ernabella region. 

Verrohtjprrsihenc tulameUilc— (30700).— SE. side of the small pinnacle near 
the NK. of Tjakunja; identical in appearance, and similar in texture and mineral 
relations, lo 30780, but with the following differences: plentiful grotesque masses 
of micro-antipcrthite produced by intimate corrosion by K-feldspar (PL 4, Fitf. 
1 ), hut siurb n-placement most obvious where andesine grains shattered and 
bent and where twinning best developed; andesine inclusions in hypersthene 
not antiperthitic. Lending to confirm that the antipcrtbite is result of corrosion 
of plagioclase by K-feldspar rather than of cxsoluliOn of K-feldspur from plagin- 
cla.se; pyroxenes most ferrous yet recorded in Musgravc Ranges. Details of 
miueral composition are set nut in Table 1. 

l^'trofujpersthenc adamellite (close to granodioritc)— (30701).— ENE. side 
of Tjakunja; miueral composition identical, and mineral relations similar to 
30700 but with the following differences: although andesine heavily corroded 
by K-feldspar, the micrn-anlipcrthite so formed is nut as grotesque m appearance 
(cf. ri. 3, Figs. 1 and % PI. -L Fig. 1); in 30700 the K-feldspar is microperthitic 
except where it occurs as filaments and impregnating bands in the andesine, but 
in 307<J1 the impregnating K-feldspar itself is very finelv pertfntic (PL 3, Fi^s. 
L mid 2). 

.SiMisuux lliuu Hkgio.v 

A small mass of ferrohypersthene adamellite appears to inject the sub- 
meridionully-trendiiig gneisses and granulile of Spmifex Hill, a prominent hill 
about ft miles N\V. of Kenmme Park homestead (Fig. 7). No time was avail- 
able to make a structural survey of the hill, hut its relative ease of access and 
excellent outcrops should encourage detailed study. 

Fcrrohij]te7stht:nt' aclutncllitc— (.30558 )•— Near the summit of Spinifcx Hill; 
medium- to coarse-grained fresh greasy dark grey massK-v rock composed of 
dark -colon red feldspars and quartz, and subordinate greasy clots of mafic 
mineral. 1 ;, in thin-section, minerals roughly oriented, and quart/ somewhat 
elongate as is quart?, of hasernenl grannlites; features linking this rock more 
with Ernabella Adamellite than with the (older ) basement granulites are 
appaient intrusive relations, typical arid distinctive "ebarnoekitkT appearance tu 
hand -specimen, distinctive mineralogy and similar chemical composition: similar 
to 30789 in texture and mineral relations but with the following differences: 
nl igiicla.se, much corroded hy K-feldspar, irregularly antipcrthitic: hornblende 
sheaths pyroxenes and iron ore; clinopyroxene corrodes orthopyroxene. Details 
ol mineral compositions in Table 1. 

X chemical analysis, norm and mode of this rock are set out as 4 in Table 3, 
and als" in Table 2, ion percentages art: set out in Table tf, and further reference 
is made in Figs, 4 and 6. A discussion of these data is reserved for the pedo- 
genesis section. 



titUNITES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA M 

StNUNEL HiLL Region 

Sentinel Hill (also called ML Carnarvon) is a prominent maintain of granite 
which forms the NE. outpost of the Musgravc Ranges. Fig. 7 shows other 
granitic hills in the vicinity. Where contacts have been seen the igneous rocks 
appear lo have been emplaeed magmatically. The trend of the Sentinel Hill 
intrusion and of the associated granulates to the W. is meridional, but the gneisses 
and granulites tr> the E. have a NW. tectonic trend. The Sentinel Hill and 
associated intrusions to the NW. were studied in reconnaissance only, but suffi- 
cient was done to slmw (fUit the bulk of the igneous rocks arc orthopyroxene- 
bearinu; adamellites. Some of the coarser fades, however, are hornblende 
AtlarnelliteSy which are devoid of hypcrsthene, and may only contain a few relics 
•of augittt. 

One of the most striking features of the orthopyroxenc-bearing adamellites 
of this region is the development of micro-autiperthitie masses by tJie heavy 
corrosion of r>lagioelaso by K-felclspar. Moreover, the orthopyroxene Cs com- 
monly corroded bv clinopvrovene. Textural details (illustrated) are s*ct out 
elsewhere (Wilson, 1954b, Vol 3). 

CL.INOPYROXENE-BEAHING A.NU HOHNBLKNDE-BEAKINC CHANiTKS 

Four rocks of this group have been chemically analysed, and show some 
striking similarities to the three analysed orthopyroxe.ne-hearing granites. 

Ualj Hill, HfcciOM' 

Bald Hill is a small prominent bare hill about % mile NE. of Donald Well, 
which is twelve miles ENE. of Ernabclla (Fig. 7). Bald Hill and some of 
the nearby hillocks are composed of a coarse, hornblende adamellite which is 
cut by rare flat-lying microgranite dykes. Tlie basement rocks, vvliich are cut by 
these magmatieally-emplaeed adamellites. are mostly meridionally-trending acid 
hvpersthene granulites and acid hornblende granulites. C>n the Sf. side of Tict- 
kin's Creek at Donald Well, however, a remarkably contorted cordieritc-silli- 
manite gftfc&S (30606) was found. This is the furthest west that this type of 
ruck (which is commonly developed near intrusions of hornblende adamellite 
in the Kulgera Hills which are 75 miles ENE. of Bald Hill) has been found 

Owing to ihc difficulty of collecting sufficient fresh rock Iron* Bald Hill itself, 
I he specimen for analysis was taken from a nearby knoll. It is representative 
of the region. 

llornhkmlv adamellite (close to hornblende granodiorite) — (30o()4).— Erom 
ci knoll about half-way between Bald Hill and Donald Well, which is about 12 
miles ENE. of Ernabclla; coarse-grained, composed of fawn-grey feldspars 
and dull black mafic clots of hornblende and pyroxene, very faintly oriented; 
rare pale fawn andesine phenoerysts (up to 16 mm long); in thin-section, xeno- 
morphie granular and similar to, but somewhat coarser than the t'erro-hvpers- 
thene-bearing rocks of comparable chemical composition (-A.g.j $0789} from 
Ernabclla region; many of same replacement structures and mineral associations 
appear, but absence of orthopyroxene, raritv of clinopyroxene, and coarse de- 
velopment of hornblende, link the adamellites from Bald Hill with many of 
those of Aycrs Ranges. 

Plagioclase (37$)— andesine. An 37; non-zoned; up to 9 mm X i mm: albitc— 
ijerieline twin-lamellae cracked and curved; corrosion by K-lcldspar not as 
obvious as in many similar rooks from the M us grave Ranges (but note: curved 
and shattered twin-lamellae occur iu andesine which is strongly corroded by 
K feldspar in almost identical hornblende adamellite (30506) from W. (ace 



50 ALLAN K. WILSON 

of Bald Hi[l— see PI 2, Fig. 5); plentiful inclusions of wtiJe needles, pink- 
brownish dust, and some oetahedra of magnetite as in scaie of the ferrohypors- 
thone granodiorites near Alalka; no lenticular micro-antipcrthite inclusions, and 
only a few ragged patches of corrosive K-feldspar; extinction = 19 cleg. 

Quartz (27^)— irregular giains 1*5 mm diam., and as round grains 05 mm 
diam. in K-feldspar; non-sagenitic. 

Microdinc rnicroperthitc (21$)— very fine cross-hatch twinning; irregular 
masses up to 5 mm chain.; corrodes plagioclase to small degree; u few rutile 
needle-inclusions. 

Hornblende {!%)— irregular masses up to 5 mm diam,; encloses iron ore-, 
corroded pyroxene, apatite and zircon; pleochroism— pale fawn, khaki-green, 
yellowish green; y = 1-682; y A c = IS? ± 2 : ; 2V/a=73°. 

Iron ores (5$)— mainly as clots in hornblende. 

Apatite (1*6$)— in mafic clots, and in plagioclase, especially where K-feld- 
spar has corroded plagioclase; tubular inclusions // c; u=l-636 > indicating 
fluorapatite. 

Clinopyroxene (1%) — similar to calcic augites of Emabc-Ua region; corroded 
relics in hornblende. 

Zircon (0-3&) —mostly in mafic clots; yellow fluorescence. 

Biotite (0-1%) — corrodes iron ores; strong pleochroism — fawn, chestnut- 
brown, yellowish brown; y = 1-623: 2V/« - 10 G -15 Q ; dispersion strongs r < v. 

Sphene and calcitc absent. 

A chemical analysis, norm and mode of this rock arc set out in Table 2-* 
ion percentages are set out in Table 6, and further reference is made in Figs. 
5 and 6- A discussion of these data is reserved for the pedogenesis section. 

Sentinel IUlu Wkgiok 

Although the bulk of the acid instrnsions of this region are orlhopyroxene- 
bearing adamellites, some of the coarser facics of these arc hornblende adamel- 
htes de\ r oid of orthop\TOxene (see page 49). 

Thev differ in no essential respect from the hornblende adamcllitc from 
Bald Hill (30604). 

Srcwv-JuMr-Up Reciok 

A large mass of homblcudosphene-biotite granite fonns prominent hills 
about one mile S, of Stony-Jump-Up about 11 iniks E. of Einabella (Fig. 7). 
The eastern edge of what appears to be a large shallow-dipping dyke shows 
well-marked intrusive features, but little is known of the western and southern 
contacts. Micro-faeies of this granite cut the gneisses on the S. side of the 
Stony- Jump-Up. The intruded rocks of the region are mostly acid hypersthene 
gramilitrs, but in the vicinity of this non-pyroxenic granite the basement rocks 
are biotite-hornblende gneisses and granulites which are apparently devoid of 
hypersthene. 

This is the only known granite from the Musgrave Ranges which is devoid 
of pyroxenes, and contains sphene, biotite and a bluish green hornblende. 

Hornblendc'Siihcne-biutite alkali-granite — (30573).— About 100 feet W. of 
the eastern contact of main granite mass about % mile S. of Stony-Jump-Up, pale 
bluish grey coarse even-grained granite, streaked irregularly with greasy dark 
brown bfotitc-rich mafic clots about 20 mm X 5 mm; in thin-section (supple- 
menting Table 1):— microcline microperthite well twinned, abundant^ quartz 
non-sagenitic; oligoelase sagenitie; biotite. pleochroism — very pale straw, dark 
chocolate; hornblende, pleochroism — dirty yellowish green ? deep brownish 
green, dirty bluish green; sphene corroding iron ores; zircon fluorescent. 



CFUXITES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 51 

Tiic Alcckka Cm^tx Hecion 
{previously knuwn as ftgtfftttMNii Creek Beghni) 

The Alcurra Creek, a tributary' of the Alhexga River near its source, rises 
in a group of low lulls which are composed almost wholly of coarse granites of 
considerable interest (Fig. ljL Although devoid of hypersthenic, most of these 
rocks are elinopvTOxenc-bcaring, and display features: which suggest a peno- 
logical link between the granites n! the Ayere Ranges and the Musgravc Ranges, 
As these hills have not been mapped, the major structure is unknown. More- 
over, most of tile individual granite hills probably represent the more resistant 
portions of a granite and gneiss basement. The gneissie components, have been 
largely eroded away, are now mostly covered by a thin veneer of sand from 
which they protrude fti favoured position*. The available, evidence (best seen 
no ihe track about 14 miles SNA', irf Victory Downs Homestead and 2-5 miles 
WSW. of Alcurra Creek Crossing) is that the granites of this region have been 
emplaced as a magma into ineridionally-trcnding gneisses and granulftes. 

In addition to outcrops near Alcurra Creek, several small granite hills near 
the Marryut Creek about nine miles SW. of the Alcnmi Creek Crossing have 
been included, for convenience, in the Alcurra Creek region. 

Auizitc-homblende rt</m>je/Mc-( 30210). -At 195& Cm&ifig of Alcurra Creek 
(Reefwuod Creek of earlier publications: Wilson, 1947b. p. 199» and 1950b, p. 
230); n o contacts with older rocks were found; rare xenoliths of coarse quartztte 
and amphlbolite; approximate 1 trend of a poor flow-structure between 325° and 
335°; fairly fresh coarse-grained pinkish fawn homogeneous rock compused of 
pink plagioclase (up to 15 mm long), light fawn K-feldspai\ very light grey 
vicrcous quartz, and non-oriented mafic clots containing shiny black hornblende 
and greasy dull greenish grey pyroxene. 

In thin-section (supplementing Table 1):— andesiue- tabular grains, needle, 
and x^'ate inclusions common, patchy development of pinkish dusty inclusions 
cn'vtng andesine pink colour (and fluorescence) in hand-specimen and pale pink 
colour even in thin -section, grains shattered and twin-lamellae- bent, most grains 
extensively replaced by non-shattered microcline microperthite; quartz — long 
rutilc needles oriented in three directions; hornblende — poildlitic auhedral 
masses enclosing corroded clinopyroaene and iron ores; pleochroism — fawn, dull 
khaki-green, grass-green; calcic augite — clear pale greenish non-ptcuchroic 
anhcdral grains up to 1 mm diain., (100) and (001) lamellae aud parting not 
as common dks in calcic augites of Musgravc Ranges even though composition 
apparently identical, heavily corroded by hornblende; biotite — assneta ted with 
iron ores, pleochroism — pale straw-yellow, yellowish brown; zircon — fluorescent, 
and similar to 7arcon of orthopyroxciric granites of Musgrave Ranges (Wilson, 
1950b, p. -29); sphene — encnistrations on some grains of iron ore. Details of 
mineral compositions in Table L 

A chnniml onuLysis, norm and mode of this rock are set out in Table 2, ion 
fuiramtages are set out in Tabic 6, and luither reference is made in Figs. 5 and 6. 
A discussion of these dala is reserved for the pedogenesis section. 

AugUe-hombletide fuhitni f Uitt:—('M39S).—T\\}icnl ol several low hills- just S. 
of track about 8-5 miles WSW. of Victory Downs Homestead and 3 miles ENE. 
of Alcurra Creek; flow-banding not obvious, but the attitude of rare xenoliths 
suggests trend of 338* and possible dip of How layers 40° NF. In outcrop and 
thin-sectmn this rock is similar to that at tbe Alcurra Creek Crossing (30210); 
plagioclase (17*2#. An 32) extensively replaced by microcline microperthite 
120*5%, see PI. 2, Fig. 6): in addition to normal anhedral grains of sagenitic 
quartz, some, smallei euhedral grains of clear quartz occur with culcite, sphene 



TABLE 2 

Chemical Analyses. CN'W, Norms, and Modes of Granites from Omit-ral Anstra'm. 





66.96 


301 as 


30385 


30397 


30004 
04 05 


3078.) 


30210 


3+508 


ki0 2 


66.20 


65.92 


65.73 


03 52 


03.44 


61.48 


Ti0 2 


97 


0.84 


H8 


1.04 


o 09 


84 


1.12 


1.16 


Al g 3 


14.32 


14 70 


14 33 


U +2 


15,27 


10 70 


15.28 


1007 


Fo a O a 


J. 7:3 


'2.70 


1.81 


2.32 


2. OH 


0.90 


2 97 


3 98 


FeO 


3 8;> 


2-72 


4, lb" 


4 02 


3.50 


3.97 


3.75 


3.20 


flfnti 


0.23 


0-32 


10 


24 


23 


00 


0.24 


0.IS 


ftigO 


1.12 


0.92 


1.24 


1.37 


0.96 


0,91 


I 12 


1.38 


CaO 


2.0G 


3 24 


3,23 


'6.15 


4.42 


4.01 


4.37 


4.77 


BaO 


0.10 


0.04 




11 


tr 


0.12 


04 




N'r, b O 


2.73 


3.18 


3.33 


2.(50 


2.54 


3.88 


3 lO 


2 82 


K f O 


n u 


4.30 


4.16 


4.34 


3 71 


4.01 


3 . 58 


3.59 


H,<> + 


0.04 


0.1"> 


0.14 


02 


o . i i 


13 


o in 


0.89 


H a 


0.18 


nil 


10 


0.00 


04 


0t5 


05 


0.24 


P 2 6 


0.33 


56 


0.38 


o.'tfi 


0.70 


52 


0.55 


0.85 




99.87 


99.96 


m . $& 


99.94 


00.86 


100. 54 1 


99.72 


100.07* 



Includes: 10~O.11, ZrO s = 0.0H, 01=0.07; UO a =nil; a CO a -riii 











CEFW. 


KOKM 










f,U 




21.12 


23,58 


20.99 


24 10 


25 GO 


H 20 


20 73 


20 93 


or 




30.37 


25 41 


24.58 


2) m 


21 .92 


23.70 


21 15 


2122 


ftb 




23.10 


20,91 


28. IS 


22 51 


21 1) 


32.83 


20.74 


23-Kli 


an 




8.36 


12.49 


12.01 


!2 &% 


10.97 


I6 r 43 


16 94 


18.10 


cor 


r wo 


1.20 


0.33 


04 


. 05 


SO 


1 14 


51 


0.01 


di ■ 


[IM 






0.25 
0.40 






, 30 
81 


24 
20 




hv ■ 


fen 


2 70 


2 20 


2.S4 


3 41 


2.39 


1 .90 


2.55 


3 44 


U* 


4 42 


1 ... 97 


4 09 


4. L9 


3 £0 


4 21 


2 77 


1.17 


mr 




2.58 


3 92 


2.(53 


3 3Q 


JSJS'J 


1 . 39 


4 31 


5.77 


il 




I 84 


1 59 


1.07 


1 08 


1 :U 


1.50 


2 13 


2.20 


up 




- 78 


1.32 


0.90 


l no 


1 60 


I 23 


1 30 


2.01 



-A..U zir = o. 12, |>/r — J 20. 

MODE <V >1. %\ 



Quartz 


20 


24 


23 


28 


27 


15 


21 


19 7 


K-fekUpar 


38 


24 


27 


20 


21 


i4 


23 


24 


Plagiocl. 


23 


37 


37 


33 


37 


19 


<!! 


41 


Ortbopyrox, 


2 




4 






4 






Olmopyrox. 


3 




3 


2 


1 


•> 


3.5 


I 3 


Hornblende 


3 


1.5 


1 


2 


7 


5 


4 5 


5 5 


Biofrite 


tr 


5 


tr 


6 


0.1 


tr 


5 


0.4- 


Iron Ores 


1 


3-5 


4 


g 


5 


3 5 


4 


3!l 


Apatite. 


0.5 


1 2 


1 


1 


M 


1.5 


1 5 


l_n 


Zire-ou 


0.3 


3 


tr 


tr 


0.3 


0.5 


tr 


0.3 




4 


5 




6 






7 


8 



Add: — *culcito=tr; ft aphone — % oiliers— -0.5; «garoet ~ 5 ; 7 spheno>— tr; s otb-Bi ! S^l. 

30558. Feri'ohyporHthcnc adamellite, Spinifex Hill, Muserrave Range*. Anal., W. H. rTerdamun. 

1950. 
30138. Hornbtojnlo-bmtite adamellite (Kulgera Adaim-llite), Kulgera Hill. Kulgera Hilly. Anal, 

W. FL Herdsman. 1950. 
30385. Ferrohypei'sthone adamellite, Orabagirnda, TVTusgravo Ranges. Anal., W. H. Herdsman, 

1051. 
30397. Oarnetderous pyroxene adamellite (Upsan Downs Adame-lUte). llie Pass ? east of UjWao 

Downs, Muagrave Ranges, Anal., W. II. Herdsman, 1950. 
30604, Hornblende adamnllite, n oar Bald Hill, Musgrave RangRS. AnaLiW. H. Herdsman. 1050. 
30789. Ferrohypersthene firanodioi lie, near Ermibella water-hole, Musgrave Ranges. Anal., 

A, F, AVilson, 1944. 
302 1 0. Augi te-homblonde adamellite, Aleurra Creek. K. Musgrave Ranges. .4 »<-*/.. VV. H. Herdsman, 

1950. 
34598. Hnj-nblende udamelUte (the- Ayers Ranges Adumeltitc), 3$ miles N\V. Mi, Cave:iagh 

boniHstBari, Ayers Rltnisoa. AvHiL, W. H. Herdsnuui, 1953. 



ciUNnr.s or c.extkal Australia 83 

and biotite as late magmatic crystallizations (total quartz — 16'9$), hornblende 
(4*1& y = 1*682), irregular poikilitic masses corroding clinopyroxene (1-7& 
7^ I 718) and iron ores (4*2&), and closely associated with apatite (1*5*, 
t»- 1 638), epidote and (?) lawsonite rare accessories associated with ehlori- 
ti/rd biotile (2-9U, y - 1-632), calcilc, .sphere and late iron ores. 

Tur. Avrus Kavc.ks 

The Ayers Ranges (Fig. 1) is a group of hills which rise 4< like islands out 
of a vast ocean of scrub" (Giles, 1874, p. 78). Basedow published a sketch map 
o| (he general distribution of rocks in the area, and pointed out in his brief 
report that large portions of the Ranges arc apparently composed of somewhat 
<.oarsoly crystalline normal to slightly porphyritic granite Intruded in a direction 
north of west ( Basedow, 1005, p. 7S, and Plate XX). lie also points out (p. 78) 
that "outcrops of identical rock were found intermediate iu position between 
Mount Sir ilcnry and Mt. Carnarvon (Sentinel Hill), thus geologically con- 
necting the Musgrave and Ayers Ranges' Basedow's "intermediate hills" are 
probably the lulls of the Aleurra Creek Region of this paper. 

In a brief petrographie description of what he presumably considered to 
h:' the lypical granite (taken from Mount Sir Henry), Basedow stated (p. Wd) 
that orthoelaso was somewhat subordinate to plagioelase, and that the main mafic 
mineral was a green hiotite. Jn a later, more, detailed description of a rock, 
also presumed to bo typical of Mount Sir Henry, Ruhinsnn (1949, p. .38) pointed 
mil that (he ruck was a hornblende graoodiorite. Since Robinson makes no 
mention of biotitc but gives details of a green hornblende it seems likely that 
Basedow mistook hornblende for biotite. 

Reconnaissance mapping with the aid of air-photogjaphs was carried out 
in the Avers Ranges in January, 1952. Since papers are befog prepared Qfll 
special aspects of the geology, only the Ayers Ranges Adamellite will be de- 
scribed in this paper; Some of the granitic rocks of the area are course 
porphyritic udatnellites, others arc granodiorites. The rock described below was 
ehemicallv analysed, for it appeared fo be fairly typical of the acid intrusions 
of the Ranges. In all of the rocks hornblende appears to be the principal mafic 
mineral, ami clinopyro.vene and biotite occur in some. No orthopyroxene was 
found, and sphene is an accessory in some rocks. 

llotnhifttdi- rulomellile (Ayers Ranges Adamellite) — (34568).— NW. end of 
large low hare, granite hill 2li miles SSW. of Mt. Reynolds and 3% miles NW. of 
Mt, Cavenagh Homestead; probably typical of Ayers Ranges; good platy-llowage 
of K-feldspar phenocrysts trends XW. with dip 60/ SW .nearest known outcrop 
of gneiss 5ii miles E. 

In hand-specimen: coarse-grained purplish grey porphyritic; coarse ground- 
mass of pole pinkish grey K-feldspar and cream-coloured plagioeluse; very 
roughly oriented mafic clots (mostly 10 mm X 5 nun) of block hornblende, iron 
ore. dull greasy light green augitc; few phenocrysts pale pinkish jjwsy K-feld- 
spar (15 mm diam.); occasional light bluish grey plagioclaso (15 mm X*12 mm). 

fn thin. section (supplementing Table 1): occasional phenocrysts of K- 
iddspur set in coarse xenomorphic granular groundrnass; andosinc, non-zoned, 
mostly 2 mm diam., albite-pericline twins curved, shattered and healed by 
K-f'eldspar and sometimes by apatite or hornblende, many inclusions of dis- 
torted magnetite octahedra and rutile needles, corrosion by K-fcld$p;u nut as 
common as in many comparable granitic rocks of Central Australia, but nryrme- 
fcitc present, K-foldspar. moderately micropcrthitic. no cross-hatch twinning: non- 
sagenitie quartz; hornblende corrodes iron ores and clinnpyroxene, and smears 
of magnetite dust in hornblende Suggest early replacement of ferriferous 



51 ALLAN K. WILSON 

pyroxene, pleochroism — yellowish fawn, greenish khaki green; biutitc, mostly 
corroding iron ores and hornblende in mafic clots, pleochroism — very pale 
yellow, golden brown; zircon, colourless, mostly euhodral crystals associated 
with mane clots, fluorescent as in other rocks of this suite; epidote, lawsunite > 
greenish hiotite are rare secondary minerals. 

Details of mineral compositions are set out in Table 1. 

A chemical analysis, norm and mode of this rock are set out in Tabic 2, ion 
percentages are set out in Table fi, and further reference is made in Figs. 5 and 
6k A discussion of these data is reserved for the pedogenesis section. 

Tnx Kulcejia Hills 

The Kulgera Hills arc separated from the Ayers Ranges, which arc some ten 
miles to the south, by a bough in which remnants of flat-lying (?) Mcsoroic 
sandstones are the only outcrops (Fig* 1). Gneisses, mostly of amphibolitc 
fades, tiend approximately 330° to 340° (both strike and lineation). In places 
these are heavily granitized, and some are cut by magmatieally-einpiaeed gran- 
ites, microgranitcs and muscovitc-bcaring pegmatites. Notwithstanding marked 
local transgressive structures, the overall trend of the granite inti usioni appears 
to he sub-parallel to the fold axes of the gneisses, i.c>"330° to 340° (Fig. I). 

The first geological study of this area was made by the author in 1949 when 
the main distribution of rock types and structure were worked out. Some 
features of the granitic rocks of (he Kulgera Hills have been published (Wilson.. 
1950b, pp. 228, 230; 1952a, p, 78 )> find other papers await publication. 

In the present paper a description is given of the Kulgera Adamellite, the 
most important granitic rock of the region, 

llornbiende-biotite. adamellite (The Kulgera Adamellite) — (30138).— East 
taex* Of Kulgera Hill, one mile KNE. of Kulgera Homestead; coarse massive 
even-grained rock composed of flesh-coloured microclme, dull white plagioclase 
(with occasional phenocrysts of bluish grey plagioclasc, 30 mm long), shiny 
black biotite, dull black hornblende and plentiful accessory brown sphene; 
inicrochne fluoresces pink and zircon yellow (Wilson, 1950b, pp. 227-228, 230). 

In thin-section (supplementing Table 1): coarse *enomorphic texture with 
non-oriented mafic clots; oligoclasc> An 26. slightly zoned to An 23 near the 
edges of large crystals, grotesquely-shaded relics within well-twinned micro- 
eline mlempertbite, nr as aggregates of suhhedral tabular crystals which* by 
their bent and fractured twin-lamellae, indicate some (?) protuclastic shearing 
prior to or during their partial replacement by nticrocime, rods of rutile and 
flakes of haematite common inclusions; sagenitic quartz; biotite, corroding horn- 
blende and iron ores, tends to occur as buffer between these minerals and rniero- 
cline, pleochroism — pale fawn, dark brown; iron ores (3-5%) —mostly magne- 
tite, pnrniinent constituent of mafic clots, in places corroded by sphene, hem- 
blende or biotite; pale fawn sphene, and a little purple fluoritc, arc in contact 
with microelinc and corrode iron ores; hornblende, corrodes iron ores and is 
itself corroded by biotite, pleochroism — pale greenish fawn, khaki-green, clear 
greenish blue. 

Details of mineral compositions in Table 1. 

A chemical analyst, norm and mode ol this rock are set out in Table 2. ion 
percentages are set out in Table 6, and further reference is made in Figs. 5 and 
G. Discussion of these data is reserved for the pedogenesis section 

MINERALOGY 

Notwithstanding the marked differences in uppt-aranee in hand-specimen, 
ihe main granitic intrusions of a large portion of the Musgravc Block sliow many 



GR/VKTTrS OF ORXTTUT. AUSTTUI.U 5? 

mineralogical and te.xtural features in common. The general range of properties 
of the minerals is set out below. 

QvAinz 

Bluish-grey in hand- specimen (as in many Indian charnockitic rocks) in 
only some orthopyroxene-bearing granites; bluish tint absent from clinopyroxeno- 
bearing, and hornblende-bearing granites-, quart?: not always sagenitic; sagenitio 
quartz not restricted to pyroxenic gr.mil cs.; may also occur as small rounded 
gmins (sagenitie or otherwise) in K-feldspar (PL 2, Fig, 4); water-clear blebs 
may be included in hornblende, 

Mostly moderately microporthiUc non-twinned inicrocline, presumably in- 
verted from monoclinic phase (Wilson, 1950a, p. 219); typical cross-hatch 
twinning of microcline best seen in biotite-rich or sphene-bcaring granitic rocks 
where it may show characteristic pale pink fluorescence (Wilson, 1950b, p. 232); 
pronounced corrosive action on plagioclase (discussed, p. 49); no phenjocrysts 
of K- feldspar in the orthopyroxenic granites described in this paper, but are 
important in some granites from the A vers Ranges. 

TLAGtOfXASF 

Similar habit in both orthopyroxene-bearing and orthopyroxene-free graiu'les; 
mostly as corroded relics 2 mm diam. from provable originals at least 6 mm long; 
rare bluish-grey non-zoned phenoetysts up jo 10 mm X 12 mm in some pyroxenic 
granites, but greasy blue phenocrysts about 20 mm >■ H mm not rare in many 
liurnbleude-beruing grauites of Avers Ranges and eastern outliers of Musgrave 
Ranges. Composition oi phenocrysts or groundmass very similar in either ortho- 
pyroxenic rocks or otherwise (see Table J); determined (bv reference to 
Winchell and Winehell (1951, p. 283)) from extinction u'AOlO in sections 
x« (to conserve space, recorded thus: "extinction — 20'"); in orthopyroxenic 
granites commonly andesine (about An .37) (contrast (a) "charnockitic adarneh 
lite" from Kakamas, South Africa ( Poldervaart and von Backstrom, 1949)): 
phenocrysts commonly strongly zoned (An 54-28 with average composition An 
45); plagioelase non-zoned in Australian rocks, (b) Finnish "chumockites" at 
Turku (Hietanen, 1947> p. 1039) with trondhjeinitic affinities: comparable rocks 
much more sodic (An 25 — An 33) than the Australian rocks). Dark colour of 
plygioelasc in hand-specimen probably due to almost ubiquitous presence of 
inclusions (? exsolution phenomena) such as slender, hair-like crystals til rutile 
(as iu quarts of many associated poctef), and associated in some grains with 
erratic development of squat rods ol vulile, oetahedra of magnetite or flakes Of 
haematite. Albite and perieline twiihlamelhtc ol almost all rocks bent and frac- 
tured; development of the twinning appears to have been facilitated and even 
controlled by shearing in many rocks: K-ieldspar replacement pqssiblv proceeded 
pari passu with shearing (see p. 68), and there is probably a <rimilur control 
lor ei mtie and poor development of miexoantiperthite which is here of replace- 
ment not ex.vulution origin (see p, 88). 

OnTrrtrPYRO'tEXJr 

Within restricted areas hypersthene-bearing and hvpersthene-free granites 
closely associated as though or similar age and uenetieally related (e.g., Sentinel 
Hill): orthopyroxenic granites restricted (as car as is known) to Musgrave 
Ranges; in some rocks evidence ol development al expense of elinupyroxene; ju 
others a lamellar structure ( '// optic plane (010)) in orthopyroxene Is some- 



56 ALLAN Pi WILSON 

what bent and shattered, and the mineral corroded by urjshearcd clinopyroxene; 
in many rocks, no clear evidence of order of crystallization of the two pyroxenes. 
Composition estimated by measurement of y in immersion J [quids in sodium 
li«ht (accuracy about ± 0*001, and reference to the graph by Hess (1952, Fig. 
2)); outstanding feature is very ferriferous character grange Fe G5*A to Fe 50 with 
average about Fe 57) in marked contrast with less ferriferous basement granu- 
les (average about Fe 37 and maximum Fe 50, and marked tendency for most 
ferriferous orthopyroxenes to occur in granulites of intermediate rather than 
basic or acid, composition); chemical and modal analyses of the. Central Aus- 
tralian granites show that more ferriferous pyroxenes (both ortho- and chno-) 
are in the more basic of the granitic rocks; contrast the commonly recorded irou- 
enrichment in acid differentiates of igneous bodies and note that Hictnnen 
(1947, p. 1040) points out that the iron content of the pyroxenes (both ortho- 
and chno-) seems to rise regularly with increasing silica-content in the charnoc- 
kite series of Turku, Finland, where chamockitic rocks are basic, intermediate 
and acid types, and said to he magmatie and related to trondhjemitcs^ very ferri- 
ferous ortnopyroxenes also typical of intermediate eharnockites from Varberg, 
Sweden (Qucnscl, 1951, p. 247). where orthopyroxenes from two typical rocks, 
more basic than the rocks described in the present paper, contain Fe r>4& and 
Fc 77B respectively (using Mess's graph (1952, Fig. 2)). Dispersion, r<v. for 
observed range of composition (cf '., Kimo, 1U41). Correlation between composi- 
tion as suggested by y and 2V not as good as for orthopyroxenes of basement 
granulites. Pleochroism weak as in most other ferriferous orthopyroxenes of 
other chamockitic areas (e.g., Qucnsel, 1951, p. 248; IIietanen r 1947, p. 103H; 
Howie, 1955, p. 7.S3) —colours noted, a.— pale pinkish fawn, fi — pale fawn, y — 
very pale greenish grey, 

CsjrXnPTTHOXR-VE 

Present m all rocks under discussion except certain granites vcr> r rich in 
hornblende and biotite, and some sphene-bearing rocks; in orthopyroxenie 
granites confusing evidence of pyroxene relations (as pointed out above); in 
many hornblende-rich rocks clinopyroxenes strongly corroded by hornblende; 
in addition to normal (110) cleavage, (100) and (001) partings usually strongly 
developed, and (010) partings less prominent; very fine lamellar structure 
commonly developed //(100); exsofuticn lamellae of ortbopyroxene not com- 
mon; inclusions of corroded orthopvroxene and magnetite uncommon; cleavages 
and lamellar structures not cur vert as commonly as those of oithopywccnc oi 
same rock; colour— clear, very pale greenish grey with very rare weak pleo- 
chrnism. Composition— estimated by using y (measured in Na light on grains 
yielding centred Has!) figure— owing to poor (010) parting such grains not diffi- 
cult to locate) and 2V, and appropriate curves (superimposing plates I and II; 
Hess. 1949); accuiacy about ±2$ fur each component, since influence on optics 
of A), Fe a , Ti, etc., not known; extinction y A c, measured directly in Na light 
un universal stage by orienting grains normal to both (001) and (100) partings, 
and accurate to -± V; mostly calcic augites, somewhat more ferriferous than those 
of basement granulites (Fig. 3). The optically derived compositional tie-lines 
uf vo-cxixtbi& pyroxenes iu intrusive orthopyroxenie granites are distinctly dif- 
ferent from those of basement granulites, thus suggesting a possible method fnr 
recognising intrusive (mobilized) chamockitic rocks, for Hess (1941, p. 585) 
pointed out (hat for igneous rocks "if a liue joining the two pyroxenes of a given 
specimen be extended upwards to the KivWo composition line it will intersect 
that line at approximately Kn 25 Wo 75"-contrast C. Australian othopyruxenic 
granites (En 24?i Wo 75S), and basement granulites (En 15JK Wo 84S). The 



GRANITES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 



57 



compositional tie-lines are shown in Fig. 3. The significance of variation in 
optically derived tie-line trends of co-existing pyroxenes has been discussed 
elsewhere (Wilson, 1959b). 



Ca(Wo) 



CHARNOCKITIC GRANITES 



GRANULITES 

(mean* 15-5 Mg) 



INTRUSIVE GRANITES 

(mean -24' 5 Mg) 



1 


- 


No, 


307B9 


2 


- 


No. 


30816 


3 


- 


No. 


30871 


4 


- 


No. 


30653 


5 


- 


No: 


30476 


ft 


9 


No. 


30385 


7 


- 


No. 


30700 


e 


- 


No. 


30558 




Mg(En) 



MUKYKUXtNtS S* 



Fe (Fs) 



Fig. 3. — The optically derived compositional tie-lines of co-existing pyroxenes in. 
charnockitic granites compared with those of the granulites which arc intruded by 

the granites. 

Amphibole 

Hornblende of the orthopyroxenic granites: Dominant mafic mineral in some, 
absent from others; normally charged with apatite and corrodes iron ores (PI. 2, 
Fig. 4) and both pyroxenes; in some rocks grotesque poikilitic masses de- 
veloped largely at expense of plagioclase and associated with gramdes of clear 
quartz in contrast to more normal sagenitic quartz of rest of rock; y ranges from 
1 '703 to 1*685 with higher values in more basic rocks; pleochroism— a = pale 
fawn or fawn, f$ — brown or dark khaki, y == greenish khald, with fS > y > a; 
2V/a = 72° to 78 n ; y A c — 15° to 19°; probably ferriferous hastingsites; con- 
sistently more ferriferous than hornblendes of basement pyroxenic granulites. 

Hornblende of the clinopyroxenic and hornblendic granites: Habit and 
mineral associations, 2V and y A c are similar to those of hornblende of ortho- 



SH ALLAN I*. WILSON 

pyroxenic granites, but refractive indices (y range 1-682-1-673) consistently 
lower (only exceptions: siuiene-bearing biotite adamellite from Kulgera, 30138, 
in which y — 1 -692; pleochroism — u = pale greenish fawn, ft — khaki green, y = 
clear greenish blue, and a similar rock from Stony-Jump-Up, Musgrave Ranges) * 
Pleochroism (for *,— 1*681 to 1-682, y A c = 18°) — *~ pale fawn, p = khaki 
green, y — yellowish green, or (for y = I -673, yAc= 17") a, — yellowfsh fawn, 
ji= greenish kljaki, y = green. In composition, hornblendes of granites free 
from orthopyroxene are less ferriferous than those of orthopyroxenic granites. 

BlOTlTfc. 

Biotite of the orthopyroxenic granites; Rare, but may occur as small irregular 
grains encrusting some grains of iron ore and hornblende; strongly pleochroic — 
ii— light straw-yellow; {$ = y = chestnut brown; y ranges from 1-640 to 1*665 
indicating biotite more ferriferous than in granites devoid of orthopyroxene; 
2V/u mostly 0\ 

Biotite of granites devoid of orthopyroxene: Plentiful; corrodes iron ores 
and hornblende, and in some rocks (e.g., 30138) biotite tends to act as buffer 
hftween those minerals and corroding microcline; pleochroic haloes rare (best 
seen in 30573); mostly biaxial (2V/u = D to 15°, r<v, strong); y (1*632 to 
1-616) lower than for biotites of orthopyroxenic granites; pleochroiNrn — «- 
fawn, ft = chestnut brown, y ^ yellowish brown, or u = very pale yellow, /? = 
y = golden brown. 

Biotite of pegmatites: In pegmatites closely associated with orthopyroxenic 
granites near Erriabella, greenish khaki or khaki in thin (001) flakes, sensibly 
uniaxial negative with y ranging 1*654 to 1-678 (one biotite has 2V/« — — 7 U , 
y = 1-680); more ferriferous than those of orthopyroxenic 'parent rocks'*. 

I box Ohes 

llmenite and magnetite of equal importance as main iron ores, and pyn'te 
and pyrrhotite very rare,; corroded grains in pyroxene, hornblende and biotite 
in fcfob hasie clots, small octahedral inclusions of magnetite in ptagioclasc, irre- 
gular plates "healing' shears and gashes in most minerals (PL 2, Figs. 3 and 4), 
small euhedral orange-coloured and ted Hake inclusions of (?) haematite in 
some plagioclase grains. 

FU'OH/U'ATITK 

Abundant accessory; no consistent differences in composition or type of 
inclusion (commonly colourless tubular inclusions alined // c) or fluorescence 
(in si>me rocks pale dull yellow in contrast with associated zircons which always 
llnore.see bright yellow or orange) notwithstanding variable habit as subhedral 
masses intimately associated with all minerals of mafic chits* or as euhedral 
grains in hornblende, or as euhedral grains in K-feldspar near contact with 
plagioclase grain in process of replacement by K-fcldspar (as though F and F 
Bxed by Ca expelled from plagioclase bv K)— see PI. 2, Figs. 2 and 6. 

Z.I UPON 

Clear, almost colourless, non-zoned, euhedral grains usually associated with 
mafic clots; commonly with characteristic tubular and crystal inclusions; bright 
yellow or orange fluorescence (2537 A); only one type m intrusive rocks (con- 
tfwfli with several types in some basement granulites), thus suggesting close 
genetic relationship as discussed in previous papers (Wilson, 1947b, pp. 201, 
209; 1950b, p. 209); similar zircons occur in granulites which have suffered 
extreme motusomatic activity and recrystallization (compare Poldervaart and votl 
llackstrbm. 1949, p. 467: "Vecrysrallization of zircon accompanies the produo 



TABLE 3 
Acid and Intermediate Chamoekitie Rocks, including some known to be magmatieally emplaced. 





1 


2 


3 


4* 


5 


6* 


7 


8 


9 


10* 


II 


12 


SiO, 
TiO a 

A1 2 C> 3 


77.47 


70.63 


69.57 


60.96 


66.93 


65 . 92 


65.89 


64.62 


63.85 


63.52 


60.45 


60.12 


0.26 


0.01 


0.02 


0.97 


2 . 59 


0,88 


55 


1.26 


0.83 


0.84 


1.50 


0.95 


11.00 


14.34 


15.08 


14.32 


1 2 . 50 


14.38 


14.89 


13.76 


14.87 


16.76 


17.56 


16.63 


Fe,O a 
FeO 


1.04 


0.32 


0.26 


1.78 


0.87 


1.81 


2.00 


3.28 


2.32 


0.96 


0.62 


2. 19 


2.02 


2.20 


3 . 20 


3.85 


4.25 


4.16 


3.10 


3.52 


5 07 


3.97 


5.77 


4.79 


MtiO 


nil 


0.04 


0.02 


0.23 




0.16 


. 04 


0.11 


0.05 


0.09 


0.10 


0.10 


MgO 


0.43 


0.56 


2.09 


1.12 


1.36 


1.24 


2.10 


1.62 


3 29 


0,91 


1 .60 


0.82 


CaO 


1.02 


2.04 


2.62 


2.06 


3.43 


3.23 


5 . 25 


5.06 


4.48 


4.51 


4 72 


3.75 


BaO 






0.20 


. 1 6 


O.IK 








nil 


0.12 


IS 


0.21 


Na 2 () 


2.86 


3 . 02 


2.87 


2.73 


2.82 


3.33 


2.42 


2 59 


3.72 


3.8S 


3.75 


4.73 


K„G 


4.14 


5 . 5!) 


3 . 99 


5. 14 


3.39 


4.16 


3 18 


3.58 


1.09 


4.01 


2.45 


4.25 


H 2 + 


20 


0.40 


JO. 53 


. 04 


0.38 


14 




33 


\o. 11 


13 


75 


. 25 


H a O- 


0.05 


0.09 


0.18 


. 08 


0. 10 




. 1 


0.00 


53 




P B a 


nil 


0.25 


0.04 


0.33 


0.78 


0.38 


0.29 


0.65 


. 08 


. 52 


0.31 


77 


8 






08 








0.12 




15 


0,11 


09 




ZrO a 






tr 












tr 


0.08 


01 






100.40 


100.09 


100. 60 l 


99 . 87 


99. 89* 


99.95 s 


99.83 


100. 4S 


99 . 95 4 


100. 54 5 


100.39° 


99 . 56 



Include*:— l SrO-tr; 2 SO 3 = 0.26; 3 C0 2 = nil; *SrO = 0.04, Cl=tfU; 6 CI=0.07, CO t =nil; B C0 2 -iul 



CIPW. NORM 



qu 
or 


41.22 


24 . 3 


25.26 


24.12 


29.46 


20.99 


25.56 


24 . 9 


20.95 


14.20 


13.88 


7.26 


24.46 


33.3 


23.91 


30 37 


20. 02 


24 58 


18 90 


21.1 


6 67 


23 . 70 


15.01 


25.02 


ah 


24.10 


27-7 


24.63 


23.10 


23.58 


28 . 1 8 


20. 14 


22.0 


31.44 


32.83 


31 .44 


39 82 


an 


5.00 


8.8 


13.07 


8 36 


11.68 


12.01 


20 29 


15.3 


20 57 


16.48 


21.78 


11.68 


cor 






1.12 


1.20 














0.64 




Two 












64 


1 


2.1 


I 


1 , 14 




| 


di < en 












25 


V 3.40 


t 1 


I 1.30 


0.36 




y 1.89 


U 












0.40 


f 


5 




81 




J 


i Ton 


| 3.34 


1 .6 
2.4 


lfO.81 


2.79 
4.42 


1 5 SI 


2.84 
4 , 59 


| 6.31 


2.7 
1 .2 


\ 13.74 


1 . 90 
4 24 


1 1 1 . 60 


| 6.68 


rat. 


1.62 


0,4 


46 


2.58 


1 . 39 


2.63 


3.02 


4.9 


3 25 


1 , 39 


0.93 


3.25 


il 


0.61 


1.0 




1.84 


5.02 


1.67 


1.06 


2 4 


1.52 


1 . 59 


2.89 


1.82 


pyr 














0.22 






. 30 






ap 




5 




0.78 


2 02 


o 80 


0,67 


1.7 




1 . 23 


67 


1 .68 


zir 




















12 







MODE (Vol. % 



Quartz 


40 


26 8 


20 3 


26 


29.46 


23 




27.1 




15 5 


15 


11 




K-feldspar 
Plagiocl. 


},. 


42.3 
23 4 


\ss 


38 

23 


20.02 

33. 58 


27 
37 




22.7 

29 8 


} 


55 . 5 


24 

49 


}• 




Orthopyrox. 
Clinopyrox. 


3 


5 7 


12 3 


3 


| 7.52 


4 
3 




| 3.8 




23-6 


4 


12.0 
1 




Hornblende 








3 




1 




2.5 






5 


14.3 




Biotite 


1 


3 


9 4 


tr 




tr 




5.7 






tr 






Iron ores 


n 


1.2 




4 


6.41 


4 




6.6 




5.4 


3 5 


6 9 




Apatite 




0,3 




0.5 


2 . 02 


1 




1.3 






1.5 






Zircon 








0.3 




tr 










0.5 






Etc. 
















M 1 








5.1* 





T mostly nphene; 8 garnet 



S.G. 



2,67 



05 



2.80 



2.728 



2.74 



78 



37 



1. Charnockite, St. Thomas* Mount. Madras. India (Washington. 1916. p. 325). 

2. Charnockite, Ivy Point, Alfred County, Natal, S. Africa (Gevei.s and Dunne. 1043. p. 201). 

3. Charnockite, Bunyore district, Uganda (Groves, 1935, p. 163). 

4. *30558. Ferrohypersthene adamellite, Spinifex Hill, Musgravo Kg*.. < 1 . Australia. AnaL._ W. H. Herdsman. 1950. 

5. Charnockite, Nuwara Eliya. Ceylon (Adams, 1929, p. 481). 

6. *30385. Ferrohypersthene adamellite. Ombagunda. Musgrave Kgs., C. Australia. Anal., W. H. Herdsman, 1951. 

7. Charnockite, Galle, Ceylon (Adams. 1929. p. 481). 

8. Charnockite adamellite. Kakamas. Cape Province. .S. Africa (Poldervaart and von Backstrnm, 1949. p. 487). 

9. Intermediate charnockite, Yerea'id. Shevaroy Hills, Madras State, India (Washington 1916, p. 328). 

10. *30789. Ferrohypersthene granodiorite. Ernabella, Musgrave Hgs., C. Australia. Anal., A. F. Wilson, 1944. 

11. Quart'/.drypersthene diorite, Mt. Wati, Uganda (Groves, 1935, p. 166). 

12. Intermediate charnockite, Fastningsberget. Varberg, Sweden (Quensol, 1951, p. 258). 

*Imlicates a new analysis. 



GRANITES OK CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 39 

tioo of ultramctamojphic granite"); in pegmatites closely associated with both 
the orthopvroxene-bearing granites in Ernabella region and sphene-beurrng norn- 
blcnde-biotite granites of the Kulgera Hills, very dark brown weakly radio- 
active non-fluorescent zircon (possibly cvrtolite) occurs as euhedral crystals 
up to 3 cm. long (Wilson, 1947b, p. 208), 

Sl'HKNK 

Absent from orthopyroxene-bearing granites, but very rare accessory hi 
pegmatites closely associated with these rocks near Ernabella; usually absent 
from clinopyroxene-bearing granites, but appears as crusts on some llmenite 
in a few of the granites from Avers Ranges; abundant in some biotite-nch 
granites (especially those containing a hornblende more typical of rocks of 
the arnphibolite rather than granulite fades, e.g., 30138 and 30573); some petro- 
graphic evidence of its formation by fixation of Ti Irom ilmcnite by Ca liber- 
ated from plagioclase in process of corrosion by K-feldspar; sphene and bluish - 
green amphibole axe late magmatie phenomena in charnockitic adamcllitcs of 
Kakamas. South Africa (Poklcrvaart and von Baekstroiru 1949, p. 486), and 
sphene is rare in Swedish charnockitic rocks (Quensel, 1951, p. 251). 

Catxitk 

Rare, apparently late magmatie concentration in both orthopyroxenic and 

biotite-rich granites. 

Oahnkt 

Garnet absent but spessarlitic types (with n=l-817_. approx.) in associ- 
ated pegmatites; basement rocks commonly garnetiferous (see p. 66). 

Rirm.K 

As needles in some quartz atid plagioclase, 

Allanitk 
Absent from granites, but found in pegmatites closely associated with the 
graniles of the whole area, 

PETROCKNES1S 
CHEMICAL DATA 

Ei^ht new chemical analvses of granites from the Musgrave Block are set 
out together with CfPW. norm, and mode in Table % f hree are of ortho- 
pyroxenic granites ( "'cbaraockites" ) (30588, 30385 and 30789), and also appear 
in Table 3 'with other orthopyroxenic rocks. 

Notes on Individual Analvsls 

L'vtTohypersthciw adamdlite, 30558 (Table 3, 4, Table 2).-Petro 
graphy, p. 48; in hand-specimen closely resembles type acid eharnockite from 
Madras (Table 3, 1), but tills resemblance is of no chemical significance for 
the greasy dark grey colour is a feature of a wide range of pyroxenic rocks; 
similar to" acidic eharnockite from Uganda (Tabie 3, 3), and Ba content of both 
rocks is high, a feature noted by Groves (1935, p. 174) in several charnockitic 
rocks from Uganda, similar to some charnockitic rocks from Ceylon (Table 3, 
5 and 7), but is more potassic (late magmatie enrichment in K reflected in 
analysis— see Fig. 6). 

'Hornhlcndc-biotite adumcllile (the Kulgera Adamellite), 3013S (Table 2).— 
Petrography, p. 54; sphene-bearing granite devoid of pyroxene, and emplaeed 
within rocks of arnphibolite faeies; chemically similar to more deep-seated rocks 



60 ALLAN F. WILSON 

west of Kulgera (all other analyses of Table & and see discussion, p, 64), but 
ratio of ferrous to feme iron much lower in 30138, and Ba low. 

Ferrohxjpersthene adtmtelUie, 30385 (Table 3, 6; Tabic 2). -Petrography, 
p. 46; very similar to 30558, thus resembling some charnockitic nicks from 
Ceylon (Tabic 3. 5 and 7) and from South Africa (Table 3, 8); richer in Ca 
Uuui 30o58, as shown by appearance of diopside in the norm in 30385, but 
both rocks contain modal cUnopyroxene; high ratio of ferrous to ferric iron in 
both mofkt and normative pyroxenes is significant (see p. 64). 

Gmnetijewtis pyroxene adamellite (The Upsan Downs Adamellite), 30397 
(Table 2), -Formal description not in this paper; typical of granites of Upsan 
Downs region, all of which have suffered a characteristic metamurphism with 
production ol abundant microscopic pink garnet (n= 1-799*1 developed at 
expense of iron ores and pyroxenes during (?) deep-seated shearing; many 
granges converted to flaser-granites and augen-gneisses; approximate mode of 
3QW. the typical granite from the middle of The Pass (about 1 mile E. of 
Upsan Downs Well) set nut in Table 2; no orthopyroxene remains but was 
probably present m the igneous rock prior to the mctamorphisni; chemical 
analysis remarkably similar to those of other granites from the Musgrave Range*. 

Hornblende adamellite, 30604 (Table 2 ) — Petrographv, p. 49; this ortho- 
pyroxene-frcc rock probably typical of the hornblende fades of the Ernabdla 
Adamellite; main chemical difference — Ernabella rock (30789) contains much 
less foJD* and PmO, but more Ka-.O; very similar to 30210. the angite-hoiu- 
ii!° * daine " it0 fmm Alcurra Creek, and to 30138, the sphene-hearing horn* 
blendc-biotite adamellite from Kulgera, moreover, all three nocks unusually 
low in BaO. 

Ferrohypcrsthcne gmnodiorifc (close to adamellite), 30789 (Table 3, 10r 
Table 2). -Petrography, p. 44; when first analysed, thought typical of granites 
m vicinity of lirnabella where orthopyro.venic granites best displayed in IV! us 
grave Ranges; normative and modal quartz are lower than in any other granite 
from the area, and owing to the high potash-content it is not a typicalWno- 
dtontc; further work now shows that this rock, 30789, mav be considered a 
shghtly more basic fades of the Ernabella Adamellite- although closelv re- 
sembling 30385 and 30558 (the other two analysed orthopyro'xenic granites 
from Musgrave Ranges) 30789 is not closely comparable with other charnoc- 
kitic rocks; some resemblance to "quartz-hvpersthene diurite" from Uganda 
(Table 3, 11), but closer to intermediate charnockite from Sweden (Table 3^ 12), 
thus pointing out another feature of this rock, viz., it could be of intermediate 
eompositiou rather than acid if it were not for its high potash content and high 
mocJal quartz - petrographic evidence for late magmatic replacement of plagfo- 
clase hy K-fcldspar Ls significant especially since similar replacements arc more 
common tn 30558, a rock (Otherwise similar to 30789; the high FeO/Fenth ratio 
is feature of nrthupyroxenic granites of Musgrave Ranges, and of charnockitic 
nicks of Uganda and Sweden. 

Augite-hornblende adamellite, 30210 (Table 2). -Petrography, p. 51; tvpicat 
of Alcurra Creek region, and similar to 34568 fiom Avers Ranges and 30604 from 
Musgrave Ranges; link with 30604 and 30138 suggested bv law BaO content 
of all three rocks. 

Hornbletuh' adamellite (the Avers Ranges Adamellite ), S1568 (Table 2).- 
Petrography, p. 53;, typical of Avers Ranges; although the least silicic uf the 
analysed granites, contains Oyer 20 per cent normative quartz; low ratio 
FcO/Fc s O, as in most non-urthopyroxenic granites; TiO^ and P 2 5 more abun- 
dant than in any other analysed granite from the Musgrave Block. 



GRANITES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 61 

Ghavhiciax, Methods *oh the Study of the Analyses 

Both Harker and Larsen linear diagrams were prepared but show no signi- 
ficant features not equally well shown by other diagrams. 

Larsen triangular diagrams. -These diagrams show the relative proportions 
of Or, Ab and An (shown by •), and Felsic, Quartz and Femic constituents 
(shown by o) as calculated from the CIPW. norm. A study of the length and 
slope of the lines joining the two points of a group of analyses has commonly 
lead to indications of differentiation trends, and has suggested which rocks of 
a group are magmatically related (Larsen, 1938). In the calculations for the 
diagrams in the present paper the small amount of corundum has been ignored. 




Ab 

Feldspar 

Fig. 4, — Variation in proportions of normative minerals of three related ortha pyroxene- 
bearing granites. Limits of variation of associated hornblende-hearing granites are also 
shown. 1 = 30789, Z~ 30385, 3 = 30558. 

In Fig. 4 the Or-Ab-An field and the Quartz-Felsic-Fcmic field of the three 
orthopyroxene-bearing granites are compared with those of the five other 
granites of Table 2. The fields for the non-orthopyroxenic granites (taken from 
Fig. 5) show remarkable similarity. Tht» shape of the fields for the ortho- 
pyroxene-bearing granites, however, is interesting. The shape of the Or-Ab-An 
field tends to support the conclusion suggested by the xerography that, prior 
to considerable late-magmatic replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar and 
quartz, 3Q55S was similar to 30789. 

BramThall triangular diagrams,— These* diagrams show the relative propor- 
tions of Or + Cor, Ab, and An + Femic as calculated from the CIPW. norm. 
Brammall used such variation diagrams in an attempt to show the importance 
of syntexis and differentiation in igneous rocks. The positions of average shale, 
sandstone, phyllite, mica schist and limestone are after Brammall (1933, p. 101, 
Fig. 1). The position of average greywacke was calculated from Pettijohns 
average greywacke (1949, p. 250, Table 64, analysis G). 



62 



ALLAN P. WILSON 



F$& g shows the position of the analysed granites described in this paper 
The three orthopyroxenic granites (A, B and C) are clearly related, The 
diagram illustrates the petrographic evidence that the granite from Spinifex 




fc . Ab 
Feldspar 

Fig. 5.-— Variation in proportions of normative minerals of hornblende-hearing araniten. 

Limits of variation of related orthopyroxene-bearing granites are also shown 

1 ~z 30604, 2 =s 34568. 3 = 3021ft 4 s= 30397, 5 - 30138. 

Hill (C) has been formed from a rock like A (from Ernabella) by late magmatic 
replacement of piagioclase by K-feldspar. 

The non-orthopyroxenic granites are also shown m Fig. 6. The granites 
from the Ayers Ranges (F), Alcurra Creek (E), and Bald Hill (D)\ue all 
remarkably alike chemically, even in lesser components, such as BaO and MnO. 
These three rocks appear very close together in Fig. 6, tending to confirm the 
petrographic evidence of the co-magmatic relationship between tie granites of 
the three areas. The sphene-bearing granite from Kulgera (G) appears from 
the diagram and petrography to be a slightly alkaline differentiate of the granite 
from the Avers Ranges (F). 

The bulk of the granites are found to lie between average grcywacke (S) 
and average mica schist (T). This could be taken as evidence in 'favour of a 
palingcnctie origin of the granites. 

Four analysed granitic granulites from the basement complex are also shown 
in Fig. 6, and certain basic granulites are shown on the lower continuation of the 
trend-line through the acid granulites, The similarity of the trend-lines of the 
metamorphic and igneous rocks is obvious. Its significance, however, is prob- 
ably not as great as one might be tempted to think. Rocks which, for various 
reasons, have been largely converted to granite-like rocks during regional meta- 
rnorphism may be expected to fall on a "trend-line" comparable with that dis- 
played by these granulites. The curve merely means that as basic rocks be- 
come less femic the tendency is for them to become first enriched in soda feld- 



GRANITES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 63 

spar and later in potash feldspar. The differentiation curve is that shown by 
"normal" igneous rocks (whether ultimately derived from melts or by palin- 
genesis). It would seem that while "Erammall diagrams" are useful as pictorial 




Ab An + Femic 

Fig. 6.— Diagram to show variation of normative orthoelase -r corundum. tdbUe. 
and anorthite — fcun'c minerals in certain groups of Central Australian granites, and 
related granules. The spots represent urihopyroxew -bearing granite* (A — 30789, 
B = 30385, C — 30558) . The solid triangles represent related hnrnblende-bearing 
granites (D = 30604, K - 30210, F-345G8). The circle represents the Kulgera 
Adamellite (G -30138). The triangles represent associated acid granuhtes (30726, 
30829, 30674, 30521 — numbered from top to bottom). The V's represent associated 
basic gnvmlitcs (30730, 30581, 30840, 30638, 30630, 30543, 30230 — numbered from 
left to right). The crosses represent average sediments ( S =~- greywaeke. T = mica 
schist, IT - phyllite, V = shale — Brammall, W = shale — Pettijkmn, Y - sandstone, 

Z — limestone. 

means of displaying the feldspar ratios of groups of rocks they can be mis- 
leading if too much petrogenetic significance is placed on them. Much better 
impressions arc obtained from Larsen triangular diagrams, but even these must 
be carefully studied before the true significance of "trends" is decided, 

SUMMAHY OF THE Af*3tt ClIEMICAk FEATURES Otr THE Gra.MTKS 

Notwithstanding the similarity of the orthopyroxenic and non-orthopyroxenic 
granites there arc sonic significant chemical differences. 

In Table 4 the percentages of the oxides of the three analyses of orthopy- 
roxenic granites (A) and of the four related non-orthopyroxenic granites (B) 
are contrasted (the sheared garnetiferous granite from Upsan Downs (30397) 
omitted from Tables 4-6). The main features are: 

a. The ranges of SiOo, ALO^, TiOo and MgO are about equal in both groups, 

b. BaO shows a small but marked preference for the orthopyroxenic rocks, 
notwithstanding that normative orthoclase is comparable in both groups of 
granites. 

c. PX) r , is high in all of tiiese rocks, but is higher in the rocks rich in horn- 
blende and biutite, 



64 



ALLAN F. WILSON 



d. K 2 tends to be slightly more plentiful in the orthopyroxenic granites, 
and K 2 > Na^O in both orthopyroxenic and non-orthopyroxenic granites. Note, 
however, that if cation % (rather than weight %) is considered, K is almost equal 
or slightly less than Na in both types of granite (see Table 6), 

e Although the range of Ca6, and the An content in normative plagioclase 
tend to be higher in the rocks free from orthopyroxene, the range of An content 
in the modal plagioclase is about equal in both types of granite. 

TABLE 4 
A comparison of the main chemical features of some of the granites from Central Australia 





Comparison 


Orthopyroxenic granites 


Nnn-orfr.hopyroxorvio 








(A)— variation in 3 


granites (B) — variation in 


4 


Weigh t% 




Weigh* % 


Woight% 


SiO a 


A^B 


63 '52-66^ 96 


6! -48-0(5-20 




Ti0 2 


A=*B 


0-84- 0-97 


09 116 




Al 3 3 


A«=B 


14-32-16*70 


14-79-16-07 




yc a o 3 


B>A 


0-90- 1-81 


2-6H- 3-98 




FeO 


A>B 


3<8o- 4-ltf 


2-72- 3-75 




F&iC&H-JfeO 


B>A 


4- 93- 5-»7 


5-4.2- 7-27 




FcO -( MnO \ 


A>B 


0-70- 0-81 


0*47* 0-58 




Frf)4-MA-t-Jfc»Qf J 










Of in CJli'VV 


A>B 


61-3 -C9-I 


25-4 -59-2 




norm arthopvrox* 










MnO 


BM 


0-09- 0-23 


018- 0-32 




MgO 


A*wB 


0-91- 1-24 


0-92- 1-38 




CaO 


B>A 


2-06- 4-51 


3 24- 4-77 




An in CIPW \ 
norm plagio. f 


B>A 


26-8 -33-4 


31-7 -44-1 












An in modal plagio. 


A^B 


2ft -39 


26" -37 




BaO 


A:>B 


012- Olfi 


tr - 0-04 




Na £ 


A>B 


2-73- 3-88 


2-54- 3-18 




K„C) 


A>Ji 


4-01- 5-14 


3-58- 4-30 




H a O-f. 


B>A 


004- 0-14 


0-0G- 0-26 




p,o s 


B>A 


0-33- 0-52 


0-55- 0-80 





/. The most obvious difference is in the state of oxidation of the iron- Al- 
though the orthopyroxenic granites are somewhat lower in combined Fe>Oy and 
FcO than the granites free from orthopyroxene, they are much richer in FeO. 
The difference in state of oxidation of the two groups of granites is further em- 

^, ';' . , ' FeO + MnO , s 

phasized in Table 4 by the contrast in the ratio _ _ j== g , jr e ,Q. m 

normative orthopyroxene. 

In Table 5 an interesting relation is suggested between geographic location 
and the content of iron oxides (here expressed as cations— see also Table 6) 
in the granites. From Ernabclla in the west to Kulgcra in the east the granites 
tend to become less orthopyroxenic and increasingly hornblendic and bioritic, 
and, chemically, there 1 is a general increase in the state of oxidation of iron 
from west to east. The basement gneisses and granulites, moreover, tend to 
change in facies from granulite to amphibolite from west to east. 

An important conclusion from the chemical data of Tables 4 and 5 is that 
the orthopyroxenic rocks are in a lower state of oxidation than the hornblendic 
and biotitic rocks. On increase in I^Oa (**}d presumably F, since the &Qs *s 
fixed in these rocks as fluorapatite ) > and on slight increase in H 2 0-h the Fe 
has become increasingly oxidized. These features are independent of the SiOn 



GRANITES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 65 

content. It is suggested that the availability of oxygen was an important factor 
controlling the formation and stability of the orthopyroxenic granites, The lack 
of any significant difference in the total oxygen content of the orthopyroxenic 
and non-orrhopyroxenic rocks is interesting but not disturbing (see Table 5). 
It should be remembered that the small but significant changes in oxidation 

TABLE 5 
The variation in state of oxidation of iron in iho grunifces, arrange! in order from west to east. 







Cation ratio 
Kfy*+Mn 3 


Ca.tion% 

Fe^ + MiiHFo 3 


Oxygen no. 
for 100 oa.tions 






Fe 2 -} Mn-4-Fe 3 






307K9 


Kmab*Ua 


•825 


3-8H 


163 4 


30385 


Ombagunda 


■726 


4-71 


136-0 


aos&e 


Sputifex Hill 


-718 


4 51 


167-5 


30604 


Bald Hill 


•608 


4-90 


167 7 


30210 


Aleurra Hill 


•599 


5-29 


166^ 


34668 


Avors ftang«a 


-403 


5-62 


165-2 


30138 


Kulgera 


-557 


4-33 


1671 



state or the iron are masked by variations of little or no penological significance 
in some of the more abundant cations. Thus, Si 4 and Al 3 between them hold 
about 150 out of a total of 167 oxygen ions whereas Fe* and Fe 3 between them 
hold only about 5 or 6 oxygen atoms (readily calculated from cation & — see 
Tabic 6). In basic rocks, however, the change of valence of Fe shows a more 
significant change in oxygen distribution among the cations of the rock. 

TABLE C> 
Ion -Percentages in (Iranitns 





O 


rthopyroxenic 


Non-arthopyroxonic 


Ion 


307S9 


30385 


30558 


30604 


30210 


34GG8 


30138 


Si 


59- 16 


62-25 


63*54 


61-80 


60-10 


58-48 


62-56 


Ti 


0-59 


0-62 


o-m 


0-49 


0-80 


0-83 


0-60 


AI 


18-40 


16-00 


16-02 


1713 


17-09 


18 02 


16-47 


F<v> 


o-r»- 


1-29 


1-27 


1-02 


2-J2 


2-85 


102 


fife* 


3-09 


3-20 


3-06 


2-79 


2-98 


2-02 


2-15 


Jftn 


0-07 


0-13 


1-18 


n-io 


0-19 


0-15 


0-26 


m 


1-26 


1-74 


1-H 


1-36 


1-58 


1-90 


1 30 


Ca 


4-50 


3-27 


2-00 


4-51 


4.-44 


4 86 


3 28 


Bo. 


0-04 




0-0(3 




0-015 


0-015 


Na 


701 


6-10 


5-02 


4-09 


5-81 5-20 


5-83 


K 


4-71*1 


5-01 


6 22 


4-ra 


4-33 


4-36 


5-18 


P 


0-41 


' 30 


0-27 


0*61 


0-44 


0-68 


0-43 


(OH) 


0-80 


0-8* 


0-20 


0-88 


0-32 


1-61 


0-94 


for 100 


163-4 


165-08 


167-54 


167-71 


166-03 


165*18 


167 09 


cations 

















RELATION OF THE GRANITES TO METAMORPIIIC FACIES 
Ohthopyroxenic Guami ££s 

The country rocks in the vicinity of these granites are rocks of grantilite 
facies. Details of these rocks are set 'out elsewhere (Wilson, 1954b, vol. 2). 

Sphene is absent, and where hornblende is present it is the dark brownish, 
hastingsitic type which appears to be stable in rocks of granulite facies. Where 



m ALLAN R, WILSON 

garnet occurs" it is the typical gurnet of granulitc facics (a pyrope-almandirw. 
verv deficient in spessartite, with n - J 772 to I 796, and MnO — 0-5W ti> 

The granites themselves show many features in common with eharnockitie 
rocks from several parts of the world. They are composed essentially of ande- 
sine, K-feldspar, quarts, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and iron ores. Horn- 
blende <md biotite may be present,, but ate relatively late magmatic minerals. 
However, pyroxenic xenoiiths are partly converted to hornblende, thus indicat- 
ing that the 'magma" was not as dry as has sometimes been supposed. The 
hornblende is more ferriferous than that, of the granulites, but is not the green 
hornblende so commonly found in rocks of iimphibolitc factes. Sphene is 
absent. The potash feldspar is a moderately microperthitic orthodase or non- 
twinned mierolinc. and is not fluorescent (Wilson, 1950b, p. 229). 

In the mctamorphic aureole garnet and eordierite-beariug. rocks arc de- 
veloped in a narrow zone near most contacts of the ortLopyroxenie granite in the 
Ernabella region. The garnet is not the spessartitie almandinc so commonly 
found in mctamorphic rocks of amphibolite facies. The known range of re- 
fractive index (n) is 1 781 to 1 794. Tim suggests that the granite was em- 
placed under P : T- conditions equivalent to at least the lower grades of granu- 
lite facies. However, the co-existence of eordierite and "granulite" garnet in 
rucks which appear to be isofaeial with rocks containing "grannlite" garnet and 



hypersthene is possibly explained in terms of a more purely "thermal* meta- 

ie hornfels facies (namely, 
co-existence of eordierite and hypersthene ) have been superimposed on rocks 



morplilsm. whereby some of the features of the pyroxene hornfels facies (name!; 



of granulite facies. Indeed, the thermal melamorphism of "'day" metamorphie 
rocks by a fairly "dry" granite could be expected to produce rocks having features 
in ecJTnioon with both the gramillte facies and tile pyroxene hornfels facies. 

The associated pegmatites of the orthopyroxenic granites contain horn- 
blende, biotite, sphene, allanite aud spessartitie garnet (n=l , 817). Such an 
assemblage is foreign to rocks of grauulite facies, but is stable in amphibolite 
facics. This suggests tlwt, although the patent orthopyroxenic granite could 
have been em placed under "granuhte metamorptric conditions", the associated 
pegmatites formed under the lower P,T- conditions of amphihoKto facies. 

ST>xik;s"E-Hoit\BrK\nK-DioTnK Granites 

The country rocks in the vicinity of these granites belong to amphibolite 
facies- Details of these rocks will appear in subsequent publications dealing 
with the Avers Ranges and Kulgera Hills. Sphene-bearing gneisses, eordierite- 
soessartitie' almandine-sillimamte gneisses, and amphibofitic rocks rich in a 
bluish green hornblende (y — 1*690) are characteristic rocks. The spessartitic- 
almandines have n — 1 807, and MnO - 11 -0%. These niineral assemblages arc 
unstable in gronulite facies. but stable in certain portions of amphibolite facies. 

The Jirtuiifes themselves are devoid of orthopyroxene, and elinopyroxeiK-* 
occurs onlv as reJics heavily corroded by a bluish green hornblende (y — 1 -692, 
2V/o. —55°, y A c =- 19°). which is, in turn, heavily corroded by biolite. Sphene 
is common and the potash feldspar (niierocliuc) fluoresces pink under short- 
wave ullra-violel radiation. 

The associated pegmatites of these granites contain muscovite, beryl, tour- 
maline, biotite, mieroelinc> and a spessartitie garnet with n = 1-S17- 

These features suggest that both the parent sphene-homblende-biotile 
granite and end-phase pegmatitic material were einpiaced under "amphibolite 
mctamorphic conditions". 



GKAMTLS OF CfclNlKAL AUSTRALIA 67 

HoTiKDTv.N'nKT GuATffTtt or IvrnnMEniATr. TY£t 

Between the two extremes of the orthopyroxenic granites and the granites 
containing sphene and hiotite there aitt many gfanites which are hornblcndic 
but contain neither orthopyroxenc on the one hand T nor sphene on tlic other. 
The hornblende is not the bluish green type noted above, nor the common 
firieen type. Fl is rather a brownish green type, in some respects similar to that 
found in certain metamorphie rucks of the ^runulite faeies*. but in other respects 
it is somewhat like the hornblende of the orthopyroxenic #ruuit<^. Tire country 
rocks are difficult to place? in faeies as there arc portions whicli may bo taken as 
lypieal of the granulite faeies, and others where characteristics of the un'iplu- 
bohre faeies appear. 

H is thus concluded that the granites described in this paper may be taken 
to be largely isofacial with their country rocks". The orthopyroxenic "igneous" 
rocks were empluced under P.T- conditions comparable witti (but probably a 
little lower than) those which produce typical metamorphie rocks of the granu- 
lite faeies. The granites containing sphene and blue-green hornblende were 
fiuplaced under F,T- conditions comparable with those which produce certain 
high grade rocks in the amphibolitc faeies. The normal hornblendic granites, 
hmvevei, were probably emplaced under P,T- conditions capable of producing 
metamorphie rocks intermediate in many features between those of the grauulite 
faeies and the amphibolitc faciei;, 

TtJK PENOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE OK CKKTA1N M1NLIIAL REACTIONS 

Kti*LAC*:MfcA: I OF OH1Mt>l'VKO.\i:Mi, Ci.INOPYItOXF.NK AM) IRON QHV. BY HoBMU.LMIrt 

Replacement of orthopyroxene by cluumyroxene, and replacement of 
pyroxene by hornblende are reactions commonly of considerable importance in 
the metamorphie rocks which are associated wilh Ihe granites under discussion 
in this paper. The latter phenomenon usually represents a fixation of certain 
components such as water, \*a, Ca and F from migrating metasomatizing agents. 

Since similar reactions are also common in the associated gramies, some 
penologists may be (erupted to favour a hypothesis of inetusoiuatic einpJaeejneut 
for the granites. However, the field evidence for magrnalie emplacement of 
these rocks is more easily satisfied hy considering that many of the reactions arc 
due to concentration of end-phase liquors, as is the ease in most normal igneous 
rooks. This is suggested by the fact that xenoHths of hvmersthene-augite- 
labradcjiitc granulite in orthopyroxenic granite urn found to be impregnated 
with biotite, fluonipatite. potash-feldspar and hornblende, and rimmed with 
a sheath ol brown hornblende. Thus the orthopyroxenic granite contained 
sufficient "end liquors" to carry out considerable corrosion of basic xenoiilbs. 
On the other hand, the orthopyroxenic granites cannot be considered to he rich 
in volatile components, for ihcy have had little laelajsomatrzing effect on the 
wail rocks, and they contain only small quantities of tninerals normally asso- 
ciated with the end-phase of normal igneous rooks. 

In hornblende-rich granites pyroxene is found to be more completely re- 
placed by hornblende, and apatite, biolitu, ealcitc and late quartz arc more 
important than in the orthopyroxenic granites. In the biotite-rich granites 
Sphene and fluonte may be additional end-phase minerals. These reaetiuns tire 
probably strongly influenced by the availability' of oxygen as well as of fluorine 
and water. 

Connowox ov Pi, Anion, ask rv K-Wi.t^pap 

Corrosion of plagioelase appears to have taken place in at least three ways, 
resulting in the development of mtoro-antiperthitc, nu'cTOpcxthite. and an exten- 
sive replacement of shattered and bent plagioelase (see Plads 2, 3 and i). 



68 ALLAM F. W1LSOK 

Miero-antipertkite.*- The irregular development of micro-antipcrthite appears 
to be confined in some rocks to those portions most affected by the same stresses 
which controlled the formation ot twinning. In some granites (as in some of 
the basement granulates) it would even appear that the K-feldspar lenses tend 
to be localized in "potential" tension gashes in the newly formed twtn-lamel!ac. 
While it is possible thai (he shearing may have initiated exsolution of dissolved 
K-feldspar only in those zones most affected by the shearing, it is thought that 
it is more likely that the structural weaknesses, such as developing twin-planes 
and potential tension gashes, have merely assisted to localize the replacement 
of the plagioclase by migrating K-feldspar or its equivalent ions. Tiue eAsolu- 
tion micn^anliperthite has not been recognized in these rocks. 

MicruperthUe.—In some rocks microperthite has been developed by the 
replacement of plagioclase by K-feldspar. The replacement of plagioclase hns 
been SO extreme that tt is difficult to decide which is the host and which is the 
included mineral. FI. 4. Fig. 1 shows how such a microperthite can sometimes 
be developed from micro-antiperthate. This* Is identical with a phenomenon 
described from the basement granulites of the Musgrave Ranees (see Fig, 28, 
Wilson, 1954b, vd, 2, p, 92), 

Extensive rephevment of hent and shattered plagioclose crystals.— This is 
one of the most common replacement phenomena found in these granites. Fti 
almost all cases the twin-lamellae are bent and shattered. The petrographic 
evidence is clear that the twinning and distortion took place at about the same 
time, and it appears that the twinning itself has been largely developed by 
shearing. In the associated granolites and gneisses, identical 1 tending and shat- 
tering of plagioclase grains appear to have gone on at the same time as potash- 
Mdspathization. Not only has K-feldspar lephced plagioclase in the solid 
state, hut enhedral fluorapatite crystals arc commonly found in such positions 
within ernbayments of the plagioclase that thoy must represent a fixation of P 
and F by some of the Ca expelled from the plagioclase. For replacements of 
this type, K, SL P and F were necessary. Such reactions seem to have taken 
place during a period of shattering and upwarp, or even of active folding which 
Iras been superimposed on the products nf a metamorplitsm which took place 
under P,T- conditions characteristic of the granulitc feezes. This is suggested 
by the fact that in the granulites the plagioclase grains tend to be poorly twinned 
in most of those rocks where bending of (010) cleavages (and twin -lamellae) 
and K-feldspathization arc not well developed. It is well known that plagio- 
clase is very poorly twinned in many rocks of the granulitc facies. Develop- 
ment of un-bent clinopyroxene from the corrosion of bent nxthopyroxene and 
fixation of Ca expelled from replaced hent plagioclase, and the development 
throughout tlie rock of irregular cracks filled with hands of magnetite, emphasise 
that considerable metasnmacic adjustments have token place in many of the 
original granulites during or just after a period of folding or warping. 

AH nf these features are also common in the granites which appear to inject 
the granulites. How, then, can the granites be magmatic. for wherever similar 
phenomena are present in the granulites it is clear that the reactions have gone 
on in situ in the solid state? This is a question of fundamental importance, and 
must now be discussed. 

Corrosion of plagioclase by K-feldspar is well known as a late phase of 
crystallization of silicate melts. This phenomenon is often attended by corro- 
\ion and replacement of orthopyroxene by clinopyroxene, clinopyroxene by horn- 
blende, hornblende by biotitc, and by crystallization oF late apatite, calcite, 
quartz, iron ores and certain other accessories. Since these mineralogical re- 
actions arc all developed in varying degrees in most of the granites of the area 



GEOLOGICAL SKETCH MAP 



CENTRAL & EASTERN MUSGRAVE RANGES 




rvVv\\ 



Fig. 7 



GRANITES OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA tf> 

one could argue a magmaric origin and emplacement of these granites, While 
it is true that such reactions do occur, certain grave textural anomalies appear 
if such a view is accepted without modification. 

If corrosion of plagioclase took place in a potassic liquid,, a grain would 
be gradually disintegrated, and, before completely dissolving, may be expected 
to drift apart as corroded microxenocrysts with random orientation. Bending 
and fracturing of the crystals could take place during corrosion by the liquid 
but only if there were a small amount of mtergranular liquid, foff free-fioating 
crystals cannot be bent If it can be demonstrated that distortion uf crystals 
took place during their corrosion the phenomenon could perhaps he called a 
protoclastic shnctttre. 

Jn the granites under discussion, however the corroding K-teldspar could 
scarcely have been merely an intergranular liquid for the following reasons: 

(1) The sheath of K-fcldspar is usually much too wide to have allowed 
protoclastic bending and shattering to go ou during corrosion by K-feldspar. 

(2) Relics of plagioclase have not drifted apart as they would in liquid. 
In many cases the plagioclase has clearly been replaced in situ. 

It is tli us concluded that the extensive replacements of bent and broken 

plagioclase crystals would appear to favour a metasomatic mode of emplacement 

of the granites. A suggested reconciliation of the field and laboratory evidence 

concerning origin and mode of emplacement of these granites is set out under 

Conclusions . 

AGE OF THE OnAXTTRS 

The granites and intruded gneisses and granulites of the Musgravc Block 
are presumed to be of Precambrian age. Almost unmet amorphosed Upper 
Protcrozoic sediments of the Adelaide System are reported to lie unconform- 
ably upon the Precambrian gneisses east of the Everurd Ranges (Jack, 1915. 
figure facing p. 46). Tillites have been recorded in these sediments (Wilson, 
1952c). 

Since dolcrite dykes arc found cutting both the goeissic complex and the 
granites of the Everard Ranges yet have not been found cutting the Upper 
Proterozpic sediments, it is presumed that the granites of the Everard Ranges 
are Pre-Upper Protcrozoic in age. Similar dolerites cut the granites in the 
Ayers and Musgravc Ranges, hence an early Precambrian age for the granites 
of the Musgrave Ranges is reasonable on the evidence at" present available 
(Wilson, 1948). 

CONCLUSIONS 

Two major problems have, become evident in this study. One is the peno- 
logical relation between the granites, and the gramdites and gneisses; the other 
is the structural relation between the granites^ and the granulates and gneisses. 
These are problems because diere is strung pctrographic evidence that the 
granites have been derived from the granulites and gneisses by metasomatism, 
but there is equally strong field and pctrographic evidence that the granites 
were magmaticalry emplaced. Moreover, some of the most important granites 
arc more or less mcridionallv-trcnding masses which are set within more or less 
meridionally-trending granulites and gneisses, and yet, when they arc considered 
regionally, they are distributed geographically as an E.-W. string of granites 
rattier than as a N.-S. string. 

Consideration of these two allied problems raises many side issues of im- 
portance, hut much more field wc«-k must he done before these can be discussed 
with profit. 



70 ALLAN F. WILSON 

ASTROLOGICAL RELATION BETWEEN THK GKAM TES AND THE 
BASEMENT GRAN UU TJHlS AND GNEISSES 

Three, main hypotheses may be brought forward to explain the Origin of 

the granites and their relation to the basement rocks. The hypotheses emphasize 
(respectively) the role of metasomatism, or of a silicate melt, or of mobilization 
of a reconstituted basement. None of these hypotheses indicates the ultimate 
cause of the granite formation, and the favoured hypothesis (mobilization of a 
reconstituted basement) is to be looked upon as one which should stimulate 
more fundamental geoenemical research, Moreover, it will lie noted lhat some 
of the evidence which is listed under a particular hypothesis is not strong, and 
is capable of otheT interpretations. 

Metasomatism hypothesis— features which could support the hypothesis of the 
formation of the granites in situ by metasomatism. 

Petrographie evidence: 

a. K-fcldspathization of plagioclase on i\ scale larger than is normally >reu 
m an end-phase magmatic liquid (see p, 69). 

b, Replacement of plagioclase by hornblende in some granites. 

C. Zircon is of one type in the granites, whereas many of the basement 
granoliles contain a suite of zircons as in meta-sedimentary rocks. In some 
granulites, however, a complex zircon suite would appear to be in process of 
homogenization. Poldervaart and von Baekstrotn. (1949, p. 167) give some 
evidence that zircon may undergo granulation and reerystallization by ultra- 
Tnelamwrplusui of a grade higher than the silliinauite zone. 

Field evidence.— Nil. 

Stlicate-mclt hypothesis— features v>hieh could support the htjpotliesis that the 
granites crystallized from a fairly pure silicate melt. 

Petrographie evidence: 

u. Orthopyroxene and hornblende are notably different from those of ilic 
Intruded basement. 

b. An order of crystallization for the mafic minerals (commonly wrtbo- 
pvroxene, followed in order by etinopyroxene, hornblende and hiolile) is the 
same as that of basic magmas. 

c. Zircon is of one type in the granites, whereas many of the basement 
granulites contaiu a suite of zircons as in meta-sedimentary rocks. 

d. Occasional phenoerysts of non-zoned andesine (almost identical in ortho- 
pyroxenie and non-orthopyroxenie granites ) may be found throughout the whole 
area. (But note that similar., though smaller, non-zoned andesine grains are 
common in the basement granulites of comparable composition. Moroowr, 
there is evidence that many of these grains have developed in the granulites 
in a manner comparable with the growth of K-feldspar porphyiohlasts. Thus, 
it could be argued that the occasional phenoerysts in the granites do not neces- 
sarily support the silicate-melt hypothesis, for the phenoerysts could be relics of 
andesine porphyrohlasts which grew during a mctamorphic phase prior to 
mobilization of the granite magma). 

Field evidence.— Xenoliths (sheathed with hornblende) are alined parallel 
lo haiisgressive contacts with the basement granulites. Xenoliths are uncom- 
mon in areas away from the contacts. 

Surrounding the masses of orthopyroxenic granite there is an aureole in 
which cordierite and pyrope-almandine co-exist in the basement rocks of ap- 
propriate composition. The basement rocks are elsewhere dominantly granu- 
lito faeies. Similar aureoles, but at a slightly lower temperature range, surround 
the clinopyroxenic, hornblendic and biotlHc granites. 



OrUKlTfc.S OK CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 71 

Mobilization hypothesis- features which could support the hypothesis that the 

granites were formed hu mobilization of a via&na produced btj reconstitutlm 

of the iMtsentent pyroxenic granulites. 

{This is the hypothesis favoured in tins paper.) 

Petrographic evidence: 

a. Zircon. This is nun-zoned and nf one type, whetW found in ortho- 
pyroxenic, hornblendie or bintitic granites. It appears to be a fairly "early 
mineral" in the granites If the zircon ha* been formed by homogen Nation and 
rccry&tallization of heterogeneous suites ui zircons in the basement locks the 
process would need to have been very efficient, for no evidence of "original* 
zircons has been found in the granites themselves, Pnldervuart and vou Back- 
Strom (1949. p. 467) bring forward some evidence that complete reerystaili- 
zutiun of this sort can go on during the formation of granite hy "ultra-meta- 
morphic* processes. 

b. K-feldspathization. Replacement of bent and shattered plagioclase by 
K-feldspar is common in both granites and basement rocks, but is more con- 
sistently developed and is generally more effective in the granites. The de- 
velopment of those and other K-feldspar replacement phenomena (as discussed 
on p. 68) is strong evidence for ft replacement origin of the granites (as pointed 
out above). However, it must be remembered that the hypothesis now under 
discussion also requires widespread reconstitution of the basement rocks. lu- 
dee£, the act of mobilization itself is thought to be largely controlled by more 
intense "Hooding" of the reconstituted basement rocks (in structurally favour- 
able pactions) by ions of K, P and R In a sense, some of the more extensively 
replaced shattered plagioclase grains may be looked upon as a result of cor- 
nision of the rhcomorphio crystal mush by the K-rich "lubricant*. 

c- Fluorapatitc. Euhedra tif fluorapalitc commonly have been formed by 
the fixation of P and F by Ca in process of being displaced from plagioclase 
during K-mctasomatism. 

d Orthupvroxcne. In the granites orthopyroxene is consistently much more 
ferriferous than the orthopyroxene of both acid and basic basement rocks. 
Moreover, the* Fe content of the orthopyroxene is not linked with the Si0 2 or 
alkali content of the granites. However, the orthopyroxene of the granites is 
thus not mcrclv xenoorystal orthopyroxene from the nasement rocks, as in some 
granites (e.g.. Wilson* 1958a,, p. 39). From theoretical considerations, one 
wimld expect the magma which has been produced by partial melting of the 
basement to contain mafic minerals which are more ferriferous than those of die 
basement, if for no other reason than that ferrous silicates have a lower melting 
point than corresponding magnesium silicates. The differences in ccoimosition 
(determined optically) of the co-existing pyroxenes of the granites and of the 
basement granulites (Fig. 3) may be explained if the orthopyroxenie granites 
resulted from palingeuetie magma produced by partial melting of the basement 
in structurally favourable positions. If a paliugcnetic granite magma were 
lonrted from erustal or goosynclinal rocks rich in volatiles the mafic minerals 
would probably be biotite or hornblende These, too, should be richer in Fe 
than corresponding mineral phases in the original rocks- If paleogenetic granite 
magma were produced by partial melting of igneous or mctamorphic rocks 
which are low in volatile content (such as pyroxene granulites) pyroxenes are 
likely to be prominent among the new mafic minerals. Moreover, the mafic 
mineials may he expected to be more ferriferous than corresponding mineral 
phases in the original rocks. Thus, it is significant that in Central AusliaUa the 
orthopyroxene of the orthopyn>\ciiie granites and the hornblende of the horn- 



72 ALLAN F. WILSON 

blcnclic granites are more ferriferous than corresponding mafic minerals of the 
basement gneisses and granulites. 

Possibly due, in large measure, to an increase in availability of oxygen in 
Mir areas undergoing injection. orthupyruvrnic granites appear to have ipven 
way tu elinu-pyroxenic and humblendic granites. A]) of these types of grapitc 
may he found in a single restricted are-i, eg., Sentinel Hill. This emphasizes 
the genetic unity of the long E.-W. string of granites which range from ortho- 
pyroxene granites in the Musgravc Ranges through augite-biotite granites in the 
Avers Ranges and Kulgera Hills. 

Field evidence.— As for the silicate-melt hypothesis. 

.smucTuriAT. ket atton between the ghamtes and the 
CKANUUTES AND gneisses 

Extensive field work must precede the explanation of the apparent contra- 
diction of the long E.-W. string of petrologicallv eiuscly-rclated magmatic 
granites, manv of \vnich fonn N.-S. bodies sub-parallel to the major fold struc- 
tures of the baisCtiKMjt rocks. An origin of the granites by an orthodox geo- 
synclinal-disintegiation mechanism is difficult to substantiate. The weight of 
available evidence is that the granites here described may have been formed 
hy a leconstitution. of the basement rocks (now represented by hypersthenic or 
horublcudic granulites of many types). It is suggested that a regional de**p- 
seated E.-W. downwarp (possibly associated with deep-seated E.-W. traas- 
currcnt .shearing) may have been sufficient to have caused thorough rcconsH- 
tutiot) of the basement rocks, and to have produced "pockets" of potential magma 
in favourable areas. Subsequent emplacement of the resultant rheomorphic 
masses would be assisted by pre-existing weaknesses due to the N.-S. attitude 
of many of the original roclcs. 

This- may explain the E.-W string of granites which arc often found within 
rocks of N.-S, tectonic trend and could throw light on some of the lineation 
problems in parts of Central Australia (sec Wilson, lU53b, 1954a, 1959a). K.*W. 
downwarping is not technically foreign to this portion of Australia. There 
have been some major E.-W. dowmvarpings and arc-lungs immediately to the 
N. and possibly to the S. of the Musgravc Block. The Amadeus Trough seems 
to be the relic of downwarping and other crustal disturbances which later 
became the basin for sedimentation ranging from late Proterozoio to at least 
Ordovician. It is not suggested, however, that the Amadeus Trough as such 
has had anything to do with the origin of the granites under discussion, but 
there seems to be evidence that there has been a very early E-.W. crustal weak- 
ness in this area which may have been the ultimate cause of the granite 
formation. 

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE GRANITES IN THE CHARNOCK1TE PROBLEM 

A superimposed metmnorphism (which is essentially thermal aud metu- 
somatie rather than dynamic) could be responsible for some of the puzzliug 
features of charnockitic rocks. For example, the granulosa texture of many nf 
the basic granulites associated with these granites is remarkably like that pro- 
duced by prolonged thermal metamorphism of dolerite. Regional downwarp 
on E.-W. axes may have first developed rocks of granulite facies (or uppei 
levels of the amphibolitc facies) from metamorphic oi' igneous rocks which, 
many millions of years previously, had suffered their original metamorphism 
ur injection. These have undergone intense granulation in structurally unstable 
zones (e-gv near zones of "plastic shear" which Avould represent fault zones at 



CHAXJTtiS OF CENTRAL .U-STAALIA *3 

liigher structural levels),, and reerystallizatioii elsewhere. In favourable zones 
the orthopyroxcnic granites were aeveloped by a reeonstitution of the basement 
rucks. 

The restriction of orthopyroxenie granites hi awaj; where the associated 
xneks are dominantly of granulite facics* arid the restriction of hornblende 
granites and spheric-bearing granites to areas within the ampiuboJite fades 
suggest that the metamorphism of the basement rocks and the generation of the 
granitic magmas are closely related phenomena. Moreover, on the up-rise of 
the mobilized "igueous" masses the basement rocks have suffered a further meta- 
TTiorphism (of relatively local extent). This is more akin to the conditions 
necessary to produce the rocks of pyroxene hornfels fades, As was seen nil 
p. 66, rocks of granulite and pyroxene hornfels fades have much in common , 
mineralogically. 

Whether or not the hypothesis of a downwarping of already metamorphosed 
rocks can be substantiated, there are some important facts which do emerge from 
the present study. 

In the Musgrave Ranges charnockitic rocks of more than one origin hflVB 
been found. The basement rocks are mostly hypcrslhene-bearing grammtcs and 
gneisses which are of granulite fades. They are metamorphosed sediments of 
various types, basic igneous rocks, and rocks which have been so affected by 
metasomatism that their original character is unknown. Moreover, some of the 
basement rocks show evidence of superimposed mctamorphism whereby features 
of the amphibolite facks, or of the pyroxene hornfels fades, may appear. 

The orthopyroxenie granites described in this paper may also be called 
charnockitic. These differ structurally from the charnockitic rocks of the base- 
ment rocks in that they have been pragmatically emplaced. Although there are 
some important features of these magmatically emplaced rocks which owe 
their origin to metasomatic rneramorphism, there are other important features 
which appear to have resulted from crystallization from a silicate melt, evwn 
though this may not have been any more than the interstitial material of the 
partly crystalline mush from which these charnockitic granites were formed, 

These "rnagmatic" charnockitic granites, moreover, grade into augitc gran- 
ite*, hornblende granites and ev^n spheric-bearing biotile granites where the 
P,T- conditions (and possibly availability of oxygen and water) are more like 
I hose pertaining to the amphibolite facies than to the granulite facres. 

Although these 'magmahV charnockitic rocks cover a large area nf the 
Musgrave Ranges, charnockitic rocks of purely metamnrpbic origin (i.e., the 
botscmeut granulites} are more Important both there and elsewhere In Australia, 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Part of the cost of the second and third field operations was borne by Com- 
monwealth Research Grants administered by the University of Adelaide. Initial 
laboratory work was carried out in the University of Adelaide. Research grants 
from the University of Western Australia have paid for several chemical analyses, 
and the preparation of the manuscript and final drafting of the maps for pub- 
lication, and have borne most of the cost of the fourth field trip. Laboratory 
work was done at the University of Western Australia after 1949. Messrs. F, 
Billing and Ft Morris have rendered valuable technical assistance. The co- 
operation of Richard Brock and Lester Russell on the second and third field 
trips (respectively) was outstanding. The staff of the Ernabella Mission Station 
was particularly Helpful during the field work in the Musgrave Ranges. 



71 ALLAN F. WILSON 

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EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

PLATE 1 

Fig. 1. — Shan? intrusive contact of the c* thopyroxem^-be;u ing Krnabella Adunielblo and 
steeply '-dipping elmroockitic graijulites % mile SW. of summit of Mt. Carruthers, Mus- 
grave- Ranges, The adamellite contains a few dark bluish grpy pheuoerysts of plngio- 
elase. 'flic granulates do not appeal' to have been metamorphosed by the intrusion, which 
is hen? shown (in a cliff section) to have been emplaced above the gtamdltos. 

fcwJE. 2i — Shuip intrusive contact of orthopyroxene-bearing finite (bottom right) and garnet- 
bearing gneiss (top left). Large hammer-head is on contact (which has sttiike 30(1° and clip 
8& q S., i.c, parallel to the small hammer handle), and the hoodie of large hammer is ap- 
proximately parallel to the strike of the gneisses (which have strike 340'-' and dip 4(V" W. ), 
The gniuHe lp much finer-grained at die contact and shows rough platy-flow structure 
parallel to Lhe- contact. Looking KE. High up on S. wall of valley near Afolka rock- 
hole, Musgrave Ranges. 

PLATE 2 

t'i_4, 1. — Elongate mafic clot compiled of magnetite, (black), ferrohypersthene dud less 
common calcic augite (both dark groy), apatite (highly retringent wnite grains in mafic 
clot). Most of the salic minerals shown in this figure are poorly twiuued fflralnfl or 
plagioclase. Ferrohypersthene grauodiorite (30476), 2% miles NNW- of Ala Ufa inok- 
holc, Musgruve Ranges. Field of view; 4 mm. diom. 

rig. 2. — Shattered plagiocliiSL: crystal ( white, ou cross -wire rutadrants I and 4) replaced by 
K-feldspar (dark jfrey), Note relics of plagioeUise in K-feldapar. Most of the black 
areas in the plaginckise are K-fcldspjr. Apatite crystals are commonly associated with 
these corrosive palehes of K -feldspar* Fetrohypersthem? granodiorite (30476), -IS miles 
NNW. of Aklka roek-holo, Musgrave Ranges. Crossed nicols. Field of view: 5 7tmi. pliant. 

Tig. 3. — MIcro-antiperthite formed by Tcplnccmrnt oF sndesine (twinned mineral forming 
die major portion of the field) by K-feklspar (dark grey irregular patches in the artdo- 
sine). The patches of K-feldspar commonly contain grains of pyroxene (as in -quadrant 
1) ? apatite, zircon or iron ore-. There is no lenticular micro-antiperthite in this rock. 
Note the healetl shatter &rpe and tla- shears filled with iron ores crossing quodrrmts 3 
and 4. Typical chamoekitic granodiorite, No. 397t>9, Ernabclla, b'itAd of view; 5 nun. 
cliam. Crossed nicols. 



76 ALLAN F. WILSON' 

Fig. 4. — Texture of a typical charnockitic granodiorite. No. 30789, Eruabclla. There is a 
tendeucy for alinement ol the mafic clots, which are composed or ferrohypersthene (sur- 
rounded by calcic augitc in upper part of quadrant 3). calcic augite. (quadrant 3), iron 
ores, hornblende (surrounding iron ores in quadrant 2), and qnartz, whether -as granules 
(e.g., on the cross-hairs intersection) or as larger .grains (e.g., in quadrant 2) have 
plentiful dust-like inclusions. Microperthite commonly encloses quartz granules (e.g., 
centre of figure). Plagioclase is shown in bottom of quadrant 3 (see also Plate 2, Fig, 
3). There are shears filled with black iron ores in quadrant 4. Field of view; 4-5 mm. 
diameter- 
Fig. 5. — Relies of corroded plagioclase (twinned) in K-feldspar (mieroperthitie). Attitude 
of relics suggests bending and shattering of plagioclase prior to replacement by K- 
feldspar (cf. PI. 2, Fig. 4). Hornblende adamellile (30596), Bald Hill, E. Musgrave 
Ranges. Crossed nicols. Field of view: 5-4 xr>m. diam. 

Fig. G. — Relics of plagioclase (white) corroded by K-feldspar. Note crystal of apatite (dark 
grey needle near A) which occurs in tiny "pool" of K-feldspar introduced intj the 
plagioclase. The round dark objects are bubbles in the thin-section. Augite-homblende 
adamellile (34598), 8 miles WSW. of Victory Downs, W. Avers Ranges, Central Aus- 
tralia. Field of view: 4-8 mm. diam. Crossed nicols. 

PLATE 3 

Fig. 1. — Irregular development of micro-antiperthite due to replacement of plagioclase 
(white) by K-feldspar (light grey)- K-feldspar content of some portions of the feldspar 
reaction complexes is such that all gradations may be seen from plagioclase through 
miero-antiperthite to micro-perthitc. Very fine micro-perthitic lenses of albite (probably 
due Lo exsolution rather than to replacement) may be seen in the middle of most patches 
of K-feldspar (e.g., near cross-wires, and see Fh 3, Fig, 2), Ferrohypersthene adamellitc 
(30701 ) ; Tjakunja, Musgrave Ranges, Crossed nicols. Field of view: 2-8 mm. diam. 

Fig. 2,< — Very fine micro-perthitic inclusions (centre) in K-feldspar lens in miero-autiperthitic 
plagioclase. Enlargement of central portion of PI. 3, Fig. 1. Crossed nicols. Field of 
view: 0-4 mm, diam. 

PTATE 4 

Fig. L— Miero-anHperthite ( quadrant 2 ) and microperthite ( quadrants 3 and 1 ) both 
formed by metasomatism of a single plagioclase crystal. K-feldspar (K) has irregularly 
replaced plagioclase (P), and the small relics of plagioclase in quadrant 3 are clearly 
in optical continuity widi the parent plagioclase mass. The plagioela.se grain which is 
slu'elded by pyro.\ene from K-inetasomatism (white grain, P, in quadrant 4) is not anti- 
perthitie. Pyroxene is ferrohypersthene in which lamellae of diopside show as several 
vertical narrow white bands. Q - quartz. Ferrohypersthene adamcllite (30700). near 
Tjakunja, Musgrave Ranges. Crossed nicols- Field of view- 3 mm, diam. 



A. F. Wji,so\ 



P.LATE 1 




m 







*H 



A. F. Wilson 



Plate 2 




A. F. Wilson* 



Plate 3 




A. F. Wilson 



Plate 4 






Q 




Q 



AN ABERRANT SPECIES OF ECLIPTA FROM AUSTRALIA 

byR. Melville 

Summary 



AN ABEMIANT SPEC1KS OF ECUPTA FROM AUSTRALIA 

by R. Melville 

[Read 9 July 195U] 

The composite described below was discovered by Mr. E. II. Isiuc: an the 
Arkaringa Greek about 60 miles south of Oodnadatta. On examination it was 
seen to he a member of the HidianLhi f <K 7 -Vcrbcviniuac, but at first it did not 
appear to fit any hitherto described genus in this section of the family The 
Vcrbesininm include a number of weedy species and it seemed likely that the 
plant was an adventive in Australia from sonic other part of die world. Accord- 
ingly, a search was made through the available material of the Vcrhesininm to 
determine whether the plant was an aberrant member of any of the recognised 
genera, either from Australia or elsewhere. It was found to resemble Kclipta 
alba (L.) Hassk. and E. platij&losm F, Mnell. very closely in foliage, involucre 
and indumentum and the aspect of the capitula, A comparison of dissections 
of the several species of Eclipta with the new plant showed that all were very 
similar in floral morphology. However, the fruits differed strikingly in the pos- 
session of rather broad wings, us well as in a greater development of the pappus. 
They were similar to those of Vfrbeaina cncelioktes (Cav.) A- Gray, which is 
in other respects widely different. This Verhcsina is itself rather aberrant in its 
own genus in the possession of winged fruits, but it serves to draw attention to 
the existence of winged and wingless fruits in a number of composite genera 
Sometimes, as in Yerbesina the Oxalate forms predominate, at others, as in 
Brachycome ulute forms are most abundant. Such variation is not, of itself, 
sufficient to warrant separation as a new genus, in the absence of Other dis- 
tinctive features and the conclusion was reached that the new plant should be 
aligned to Ecli}iia. No evidence was found that it occurs anywhere but in 
Australia. 

Eclipta alatocahpa Mclcille, sp. now, E. plotygloss/nr F. Muell affinis. sed 
deniibus papporutn suhulalis ct acheniis late alatis differt 

Herba annua crecta ramosa 20-30 cm alta : eaulibus scabridulfc vol sub- 
glabrts. Folia opposita vel interdum alternate, lanceolata, acuta> basibus 
cuneatis, supra et infra scabndula, laminae 15-35 mm longae, 5-10 mm latae, 
petiolis 5-12 mm longis munita, Capitula florifera 3-5 mm lata, in tixillis foliorum, 
pedunculis 4-6 mm longis apprcsso-hirsutis: bracteae involucrorum S-JO, 1-2 
seriateae, oblongo- vel ovato-acutae, scabridac, 5-6 mm longae, 1*5-3*0 mm 
latae, eae reccpraculorum lineari-subulatac,. circa 1-5 mm longae breve ciliatae: 
(lores radiati 3 p circa 10, flavu corollis ligulatis, emarginatis, 2-5-3-5 mm longis, 
2 vel 3 nervatis; flares disci circa 20-25, hermaphroditi, ruhi eorollarum 1 -5 mm 
longi, 4-!obati; ovaria oblonga. applanata, circa 2-5 mm longa, supra hirsuU et 
setis 2 vel 3 pappomm eoronata. Capitula fructifera S-10 mm lata, cypselae 
Hororum radiatorum tri-alatae, eae Hororum discomm upplanatac, obovatae, late 
bialatae, 4-5-5-5 mm longae, 3-4 mm latae, facirbus lateralibus papillis corucis 
vel iifegiitaribus indutis. 

South Australia: Aikaringa Ck., 12 nils. N. of ML Barrv stn., 60 mis. S. of 
Oodnadatta, li. H. Irfng No. 8790* Aug. 30, 1955 (K holo.; Adelaide, Uo.). 
Queensland; S. Oestrus, Gilruth Plains, Coll K. C, Baker. No. GS30, March 7, 
mm {in Herb., Canberra). 

Trans. Boy. Soc. S. Wrt, |1960|, \ot H'S. 



78 



R. MEIATLLE 



During this investigation, a second collection, from the Gilruth Plains, was 
sent to me by Miss N. T. Burbidge. Both occurrences were of single plants so 
that the species may be scarce, though, with its undistinguished appearance, it 
may easily have been overlooked. 



a 4 



$ mm. 




Edipla alatocurpu Melville, sp. now I, flowering capitulum, scale A; 2, 3, rav 
floret, adaxial and lateral views; 4, disc floret: % inner bract of involucre; 6, 
reccptaciilar scale; 7, stamens and sriyraas of disc floret; 8, pappus of di.se 
floret; 9, fruit of disc floret; 10, fruit of ray floret. Figs. 2-6, scab B. Ki^s. 
7-8, scale D. Figs. 9-10, scale C. Camera lueida drawings from the holotype. 



NOMENCLATURE OF NOTOMYS (MURIDAE) IN 
THE LAKE EYRE BASIN 



byH. H. Finlayson 

Summary 



NOMENCLATURE OF NOTOMYS (MUR1DAE) IN THE 
LAKE EOT BASIN 

By H, H. FraiAYsoN 

[Read 13 August 1959] 

Jn identifying some recent, collections of Notomt/s my attention has been 
directed again to the unsatisfactory state of the nomenclature of two of the 
species which are widespread in the arid districts of the State of South Australia 
and are particularly important numerically in the Lake Eyre Basin. 

In 1939, hi checking the results of my own field work in that ares against 
the considerable series of Notamys, which had accumulated in the South Aus- 
tralian Museum from the same district, L was drawn to the provisional con- 
clusion (for reasons fully stated in my subsequent paper), that Nototmjs aistoni 
Brazenor, 1934, was a colour phase only of N, cervintts Gould, 1853; this species 
is known to the local aborigines (Wonkanooruo) as ooiartie, A second specjes 
known as wilkinlie, which I then considered to be the -V. cvrvinus of Wlaite and 
Wood Jones and most modern authors,, was thereby rendered innominate; but 
as any measures towards stabilization depended on a re-examination of the type 
of TV. ceri'inus Could in Loudon, die matter was left in abeyance. No further 
lactual evidence bearing on the subject was published until 1951. when Tate 
in his review of the genus, made this reexamination in relation to topotypes 
of N. uisUmi and found sufficient agreement to substantiate my suggestion of 
1939, and to relegate the latter to the synonymy of N. cewinus Gould, 

The way was thereby opened for the recognition of the wilkintie in nomen- 
clature, but this step was complicated by a doubt as to the real status of Notomys 
fmcus Wood Jones, 1925, of which no type was designated and of which only a 
single topotype of the Wood Jones series is available for study. Ircdalc and 
Troughton (Check List of Aust. Mammals, 1934) have already equated N, 
fuscus to A 7 , cervinus of Gould, but it is not clear whether this finding was* based 
on the Wood Jones series from Ooldea or on some of the several "dark forms* 
which have been recorded from other localities; their synonymy is, of course, 
jio longer acceptable owing to the revolution in the conceptions of the real 
character of Gould's species ( infra ) . 

A critical re-examination of the above topotype of N.. fuscus has convinced 
me of its* specific identity with the Lake tiyre Basin wilkintie, but the question 
remains as to whether the differential characters relied on by Wood Jones 
(most of which show considerable variation in the Lake Eyre Basin) should be 
accepted at the sub-specific level or regarded merely as a phase of polvmorphism 
of which there are already illustrations in the genus. The single specimen 
available is quite inadequate for a solution of this problem, which will depend 
ultimately on extended field work. Wood Jones, however, writes (1925) of 
having had numerous specimens from Ooldea and as lie was evidently assured 
of the uniformity of IV. fuscus at that place it: may be accepted that the differen- 
tial characters at least have a higher frequency at Ooldea than in the Lake Eyre 
Basin. I have therefore chosen the Fust alternative and now regard N. fuscus 
as being represented by two geographical forms based on these respective areas. 

These conclusions may be summarised as follows: 

Traitt. Roy. Soe. 8. Aust. (1U6UJ, V»L 83. 



80 H. H. F1NLAYSON 

1. NOTOMYS CERVJNUS Could, 1S53. 

Unpnlotis cervinm Gould, 1S53, Proe. Zool. Soe. London (1851), p. 127. 

Nettwt'js ccrvinus ThomuS, 1921. Ann. Matf, Nat Hfct,, i> (8), p, 425, el j$Q, (leetot>).n;) 

rndanamulus aktoni Bmzcnor* 1934* Moms, Nat. Musoum Melbourne, 8 18$), Pi. V, pTig. 8: 

J»l. VI, Fig, 5. 
NoUmt/ss niktoni Finlayson, 19.19, Trans. Hov. Sot:. S. Aust., 6*) (1), p. 10.1, PL IV, Fig*. O, 

H'and P; Pi. V, Fifefe M, X ant) O. 
Nntntui/x crrcinns Tate, 1951, Bull. Am, Mus. Nut. Hist., 97 (4), p. 2&2. 

A specif s of medium sixe, with no gular pouch, grey based belly fur in- 
variable in adults, conspicuously shortened skull and grooved upper incisors. 

A nosed nude prcsternal gland is seasonally developed iu the male, but 
there is no tract of specialised hair on either gular or sternal sites. Pes onjt 
para lively stout, with large plump pads and the hallucal pad always present; 
under surface of toes very lightly haired. Ear long. 

Pelage soft; mid-dorsally from 10-14 mm long, colour dnrsally exceedingly 
variable, ranging fl!Dm pinkish cinnamon of Ridgway scarcely pencilled with 
near black tips in the richer phases, through intermediate strongly grizzled 
drabs, l.o near blackish. Ventral fur wlnte terminally and usually pale plumbeous 
at base, though white-based sub-adults occur. 

Skull short and hro;icl, with the anterior zygoma root strongly out-thrust 
and a square zygomatic outline. Intevorbital space wide. Anteorbital fossa 
broad and shallow, with the external wall turned uniformly inward. Free margin 
of zygomatic plate with a shallow concavity only and with the upper spur little 
developed. Anterior palatal foramina usually exceeding the anterior margin 
of M 1 and very wide. Mesopterygoid fossa constantly wide and frequently 
lyrate in outline. Bulla small. 

Upper incisors distinctly orthodont; narrow and delicate and with the 
anterior surfaces constantly marked by a broad and shallow groove. 

Dimensions.— The range of flesh dimensions in 47 individuals and of skutl 
dimensions in 17 is given in my paper of 1939 and Tate (1951) quotes some 
measurements of the lectotvpe. 

Type (leccotype of Thomas, 1921). -British Museum No. 53, 10, 22, 7; col- 
lected by Capt. Charles Strut in 1845 at 29°06' S. lat. and 141 c E. Irmgl. Also 
recorded from Ooldea and several intermediate localities. 

Ninety-three examples examined, many of them collected by L. Reese, Estj, 

From 1929-34 this species appeared to be much more numerous in the Lake 
Kyre Basin than the next, but in recent collections the proportions have been 
reversed. 



2. NOTOMYS FUSCUS Wood Jones, 1925 

Tht/hinrmtj.s- r.^riHnux Wtdtv, 189H Proc. TW Sue, Vict , **, 2. !22; Pi. VI, Mr. 4 (iu part) 

rwc, lUtpahtiti vervinun (Jonla, 1N53. 
Affcvphurynx cervitnis VVaite, 1900, Ann. Mutf. Nat, Hist,, 7 (5'. p. 22H (in niirt)t rwc A. 

vftrvinux Waite. 1915. Trans. T\o\. Soe. a. Aust., 39, p. 735 (-~N. ulexui Thos. ' 
Ascupharynx vervinus Wood Jooes, 19:25, Uec S. Anst. Mmmoy lit (J),.p. 3 (In Dft<0 
AtH-ophorijnx f metis Wood Jones, 1925. Jhnl. 

NotomfiK cert:inus Tkruonor, 1934, Mems. Nat. Mus. Melbourne, 8, p. 82 (in part). 
Notomitf ccrtinus Kiulavsmi, 1939. Trans, Hoy, Soe. S. Aust v 63 (t). p. J08; PI, IV, Figs. 

J, J and O; PI. V, Fgaf. J, S a&3 U 

A medium-sized species with a gular pouch in both sexes, strongly haired 
undersurfacc of toes and an elongate much modified skull, with tapered zygo- 
matic outline. 

The gular gland is constant and the floor of its pit is densely clothed with 
sbfniny adpressed white hair, which forms a conspicuous disk in dried skins. 



\OTOMYS (MUHIOAK) l\ THE LAKE EYRE BASIN 81 

Rarely a sternal gorget of glandular hair is feebly developed in males. In tl»e 
pes the undersurface of the toes is often thickly clothed with bristle hairs obscur- 
ing the integumental folds and overlapping the apical pads. The interdigital 
pads are relatively small and the hallucal pad may be absent. Ear very long. 

The skull is differently shaped from that of N, ectvinm Gould with a longer 
muzzle region, much less prominent anterior root of zygoma and a zygomatic 
outline which tapers markedly forwards. Interorbital region narrower. Ante- 
orbital fossa narrow and deep and in fully adult examples the external plate 
often nearly parallel to the rostral axis. Free margin of zygomatic plate, deeply 
concave and with a well-marked upper spur. The anterior palatal foramina 
variable in length, sometimes falling short of M l and relatively narrow. Meso- 
pterygoid fossa somewhat variable and decidedly narrower than in N, cervinus 
Gould and the processes less frequently flared outwards at their extremities and 
often parallel. Bulla very large. 

Upper incisors heavier than in N. ccrcinus Gould, less ortliodont and their 
anterior surfaces ungrooved. 



Subspecies A. NOTOMYS FUSCUS FUSCUS Wood Joncs> 1925 
(as given by the author op. cif. supra.) 

Pes relatively heavy; hallucal pad absent; rhinarium heavier and less 
hooked. 

Pelage with dorsal colouration darker isabelline brown or drab and with 
the bases of the ventral fur pale smoky. 

Type (leetotype).— Young adult male in alcohol with skull removed and 
prepared. Formerly of the private collection of Professor F. Wood Jones, sub- 
setiuently No. 524 iu the museum of the Zoological Department of the Univer- 
sity of Adelaide and now registered number M6258 of ihe South Australian 
Museum. 

Type Locality— Ooldea district. South Australia. 

Dimcnsiom of the Type,— Head and body, 105; tail, 127; pes, 34-5; ear, 25. 

Skull— -Greatest length, 30 0; basal length, 24 5 ca.; zygomatic breadth, 
15-2; brain ease breadth, 14-4: interorbital breadth, 5-3; nasals, length, 10-7; 
nsisals, breadth, 26; palatal length, 150; anterior palatal foramina, 4*9; bulla 
length, 5-8 ca.: upper molar series, 4-7. 



Subspecies B. Notomys fuscus ey rents nov. 

Hallucal pad present in about 70 per cent, of the series examined. Pelage 
somewhat thinner and slightly crispcr than in N. cermnus Gould of the same 
districts; the dorsal colour variable but generally brightly fulvous or rufescent; 
at its richest, orange cinnamon of Ridgwa\% more vinaeeous than N, cstvitlUs 
Could and with light sepia pencilling rather than black, but in a large propor- 
tion of specimens scarcely different from the buff forms of that species. A dark 
ashy phase (about wood brown) occurs, with a frequency of less than 2 per 
cent, in the available sample. Ventral fur most frequently pure white to the 
1k*sc, but distinctly grey (pale plumbeous ) in 10 per cent, of individuals. 

Type.— Adult female; skin and skull. South Australian Museum, registered 
number M4595. Collected by G. Alston, Esq., April, 1934. 

Type Locality— Mulka (New Well), on the east side of Lake Eyiv jihttul 
50 miles ENE of the Barcoo inflow. 

Dimensions of the Type.—llcdd and body, 100; tail, 141; pes, 35: ear, 25. 



82 H. H. FINLAYSON 

Skull— Greatest length, 30*3; basal length, 24-8; zygomatic breadth, 16-2; 
braincase breadth, 15-3; interorbital breadth, 5-6; nasals, length, JO -9; nasals 
breadth, 2-8; palatal length, 15-1; anterior palatal foramina, 5-1; bulla length, 
6-2 ca.; upper molar series, 5-0. 

The range, of flesh dimensions in 22 examples and of skull dimensions in 
four examples are given in my paper of 1939 (supra). 

Fifty-two examples examined, including a series of 27 paratypes from 
Mulka and 25 from other localities in the Lake Eyre Basin, most of the latter 
having been collected and carefully prepared in the field by Mr. Paul Lawson 
of the Museum staff, and Mr. R. Tcdford. 

This species which occurs sympatrically with N. cervinus Gould and N. 
mitchelli vars. both in the Lake Eyre Basin and Ooldca district is readily dis- 
tinguishable from them by both somatic and cranial features. From N. alexis 
Thomas which is now known to occur on the north-east margin of the Basin, 
the distinction is equally valid, though sometimes less obvious, and is more 
justly appreciated in series than individually. 

The chief points in which N. alexin differs are as follows. Both foot and 
ear are smaller; the ear decidedly so, both length and breadth averaging lower 
and the overall size therefore markedly less. The dorsal pelage shows a range 
of ferruginous brown tones in the subterminal band quite absent from -V, fuscus. 
White-based belly fur occurs in TV. alexis, though with much less frequency than 
in A 7 , ftjscus eyteiUS; but distinction from N. fuscus fuscus in this character may 
not be practicable. The gular pit is less strongly haired, and in dried material 
its site is marked by an oval area of nude skin rather than a disk of specialised 
hair. On the other hand, the sternal tract of glandular hairs in males is strongly 
developed and resembles the condition in N, mitchelli, 

The adult skull is generally less modified in outline and more p&vtulnmys-Mke 
than in A 7 , fuscus, though examples occur which are difficult to distinguish and 
in the remaining points listed the distinction is also of an average character. 
The brain case is smaller, narrower and less pvriform; the zygomatic process of 
maxilla in lateral aspect less expanded and differently shaped; the anteorbital 
fossa broader and shallower: the anterior palatal foramina wider; the bulla de- 
cidedly smaller and the incisors more opisthodont. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

In the preparation of this note 1 have been indebted for loan of material 
and various courtesies in correspondence to Dr. Donald Thomson of the Uni- 
versity of Melbourne; to Mr. G. B. Sharman of the Zoological Department of 
the University of Adelaide; and to Mr, B. J. Marlow of the Australian Museum, 
Sydney; to all of whom rnv thanks are rendered. 



THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ILLUMINATION AND 

GLOBAL RADIATION 

by J. N. Black 



Summary 

An examination has been made of the relationship between illumination and global radiation for 
five stations for which long term records of both factors are available (Helsinki, Stockholm, Kew, 
Vienna and Jerusalem), to determine whether radiation data can be used as an index of the light 
climate in studies of agronomy and plant ecology. Despite differences in instrumentation and 
climate there was found to be a high correlation between illumination and radiation and there is no 
significant departure of the data for any individual station from the common regression. It is 
concluded that, at least for the climates of which the six stations are representative, radiation can be 
used with confidence as an index of the light climate. 



TliE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN HXUMINA1 ION AND 
GLOBAL RADIATION 

By J. N. Black* 

[Read 13 August 19S9| 

SUMMAKY 

Aii examination Las been made of the rekhonslnp between illumination 
and global radiation tor five stations tor which long term records of both factors 
are available (Helsinki, Stockholm, Ke-W„ Vienna and Jerusalem), to determine 
whether radiation data can be used as an index of the light climate in studies 
of agronomy and plant ecology. Despite differences in instrumentation and 
climate there was found to he a high correlation between illumination and 
radiation and there is no significant departure of the data for any individual 
station from the common regression. It is concluded that* at least for the 
climates of which the six u tattoos are representative, radiation cau be used with 
confidence as an index of the light climate. 

In the study of agronomy and plant ecology there frequently arises a need 
for data on the average illumination to which plants arc exposed, for instance 
when the growth or geographical distribution of field crops or pastures are 
under consideration. Recent studies ia the relationship of leaf area and incoming 
light energy (e.g. Brougham, 1957; Donald and Black, 1958; and Black, 1958), 
which have led to a better appreciation of the basic principles involved in the 
growdi of pastures, have drawn attention to the limited understanding nf the 
spatial distribution of illumination. Unfortunately, the number of station*; for 
which long term records of light energy are available is very small, aud in the 
absence of such records- recourse has often been made in the past to some 
general relationship between light intensity and global radiation such as that 
put forward by Kimball (1924) (e.g. Black, 1957; Brougham, 1958), or to the 
values given by Moon (1940) for the distribution of energy between various 
wavelength hands of the incoming solar radiation (Tamiyaj 1957; Blaekman 
and Black, 1959). Both Kimball's and Moon's values vary, as would be expected, 
with atmospheric conditions; Kimball quotes a range of values for different 
cloud cover while Moon's are calculated for a number of optical air masses. 

Since it has not been possible to study the distribution nf illumination 
directly from measured values, interest has been concentrated on the distribu- 
tion of radiation; a study by Black, Bonython and Prescott (1954) of the 
relationship between radiation and sunshine could not be extended to the 
charting of radiation since the distribution of sunshine was itself unknown, 
except in the broadest terms. A further attempt was made by Black (1956) 
to relate radiation to mean cloud amount, ami this was followed by the prepara- 
tion of monthly maps of the distribution of incoming global radiation. It 
appears that two other studies were proceeding simultaneously witb similar 
objects: Buclyko (1955) was interested in radiation balance, but his "Alias of 
Iieut Balance 1 ' includes maps of global radiation, and a more recent study has 
been published by Bernhardt aud Philipps ( 195S ) . It is therefore of considerable 
interest to ascertain to what extent the use of maps of radiation to obtain an 
estimate of illumination climate is justified. Blackwell (1934). examining the 

* Waite Agricultural Hcsearch Institute, University of Adelaide. 
Trans, Buy. Sor. S. Aust. IHWUI, Vol- KH. 



84 



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RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN' TLLUMIVATtOV AND CUmAl RADiATION" (ft 

scries of records of Illumination and global radiation maintained at Kew between 
1947 and 1951, pointed out that from the mean monthly values of luminous 
efficiency obtained from these records il would be possible to deduce 
approximate illumination values where only radiation data were avail- 
able, and that these values would hold regardless of cloud amount Blackwcll 
further observed that his results were somewhat tentative and were only relevant 
to the five-year period under observation, to the methods rif measurement and 
to the local conditions of exposure and climate. 

More recently, a detailed study of the illumination climate of Pretoria, 
South Africa, has been published by Drummond (1!J58) T which includes a 
comparison of the luminous efficiency of daylight for various locutions. Drum- 
mum! discussed in particular th* values of luminous efficiencv on clear duys, 
and its relationship to atmospheric moisture content and turbidity, and showed 
that for fom selected months (March, June. September and December) there 
were differences in luminous efficiency between the various stations examined. 

It was felt that a suitable approach to the problem would be to assemble, 
for ns many locations as available, data of radiation and illumination for 
average conditions of cloudiness, using mean values for each month over as 
long as possible periods of years. A list of stations for which suitable records 
are available, with the appropriate literature references, is given in Table 1, It 
will be seen that they are all located in Europe or the eastern Mediterranean, 
and that no records are available for tropical conditions, Unfortunately, Drura- 
mond (195S) did not publish illumination values for average cloud condition*, 
and his data for Pretoria cannot be used in the present study, It is probable 
that other records exist but arc not known to the author; lor instance T.opukin 
(1953) has published illumination values for Tashkent, but it has not bceu 
possible to obtain appropriate global radiation data- There are % moreover, a 
tiumbcr of Ktuitutkms which must be borne in mind when data from these 
various stations are being examined, Firstly, different instruments have been 
used at the different stations; this is perhaps of more consequence in the 
illumination than in the radiation measurements, but it has not proved possible 
to introduce any correction factor. Secondly, the data for the various stations* 
arc for different years. This is unlikely to be of importance, since it is reason- 
able to assume that the relationship between illumination and radiation will 
not vary between years, and the data for each individual station were obtained 
simultaneously. Thirdly, the illumination data for Jerusalem were not obtained 
by continuous recording but by instantaneous hourly readings on clear days 
only. (Ashbel, personal communication.) Since there are practically no clouds 
during the summer at Jerusalem, Ashbel considers that the data for die months 
May to October may be accepted as representative for die whole month, whereas 
ihe values for the winter months must be ducurded. In view of the marked 
difference between the climates of Jerusalem attd the other stations, it is imfor- 
tunatc that the data are limited not only in this way, but also in having been 
taken only for a very short time, Two firhall points may also be noted: firstly 
the illumination values for Helsinki and Stocksund (a suburb of Stockholm) 
were published in KsH units, and have been converted fur the purpose of this 
study into Kiloluv-hours by the factor 1 Es = 77,000 lux Riven by Fohjakallfo 
(1952). Secondly, the illumination data for Kew have been amended in accord- 
ance with the suggestion of Blackwcll, Eldridge and Robinson ( 1954). 

The mean monthly values of illumination and global radiation calculated 
from the available data are given in Figure 1, It will be seen that despite 
Ihe differences hi instrumentation, geographical location, time of year and length 
of record, the data show little scatter and are, in fael. remarkably consistent. 



S6 



J. N, BLACK 



There is ? in fact, no significant departures of individual stations from the 
common regression, and any effect of varying cloud cover on the relationship 
between illumination and radiation has disappeared in the use of long term 
average data. It may therefore be concluded that the use of radiation data, 



fOOO- 



T eocM 

s 



400- 



20O- 



O JERUSALEM 

• KEW 

« VIENNA 

<» STOCKHOLM 
C HELSINKI 




200 400 600 

MONTHLY MEAN GLOBAL RADIATION— GM CAL/CM 2 /DAY 



flOO 



Fig. 1. — The relationship between illumination and global radiation. 



either directly, as indicative of light energy, or by the use of a suitable con- 
version factor, is a satisfactory method of estimating light climate where no 
illumination data exist. It must, however, be stressed that the extension of this 
relationship to other climates — e.g. tropical or sub-tropical — which are not 
represented in the stations examined, will not be justified until confirmed by 
further data. 



RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ILLUMINATION AND GLOBAL RADIATION 87 

REFERENCES 

Ashhki., D., 1950. Global solar radiation and daylight in Jerusalem. Jerusalem, The 

Hebrew University. 
Acren, T. E., 1933. Illumination from sun and sky. Ark. Mat. Astr. Fys., 24A, pp. 55. 
Auhen, T- E., 1939. Radiation climate in Scandinavian peninsular. Ark, Mat. Astr. Fys., 

26A, pp. 50. 
BtKNHAiu.iT, F., and Philiiu-s, II., 1958. Die riiumliche uad zeitliche Verteilung der 

Einstrahlung, der Ausstrablung und der Strahhmgshilanz im Meersniveau, 1. Die 

Ei.n*trahlimg, Met. Hydr. Dicnst der D.D.K. Abh. 15, pp. 227. 
Black, J. N., 1956. The distribution of solar radiation over the earth's surface. Arch. Met, 

Ccoph. Bioklim., B, 7, pp. 165-189. 
Black. J. N., 1957. The influence of varying light intensity on the; growth of herbage plants. 

Herb. Abaft., 27, pp. 89-9H, 
Black, J. N., 1938, Competition between plauts of different initial seed sizes m swards of 

subterranean clover (Tri folium subtermnvuvi h>) with parlicidar reference to leaf area 

and the light microclimate. Aust. J. Agric. Res., 9, pp. 299-318. 
Black, J. N., Bonythgn, C. \V\, and PiitscoTT, J. A., 1954. Solar radiation and the duration 

of sunshine. Q. Tourn. Roy. Met. Soc, 80, pp. 231-5. 
Blackmax, G. E., and" Black, J N-, 1959. Physiological and ecological studies in the analysis 

of plant environment. 12. The role of the light factor in limiting growth, Ann. Bot, 

N.S. 23, pp. 131-146, 
Rlackwell, M. J., 1053. Five years continuous recording of daylight illumination at Kew 

Observatory. Air Ministry, Met. Res. Comm., Met. Res. Publ. 831. 
Blackwexl, M. J., 1954. Five years continuous recording of total and diffuse solar radiation 

at Kew Observatory. Air Mim'stry, Met. Res. Comm., Mot. Res. Publ. 595. 
Blackwell, M. J., Elukidue, R. H., and Hohixsos, G. D., 1954. Estimation of the reflection 

and absorption of solar radiation by a cloudless atmosphere from recordings at the 

ground with results for Kew Observatory. Air Ministry, Mot. Res. Comm., Met. Res. 

Publ S94 
Brougham, R. W\, 1957. Effect of intensity of defoliation on regrowth of pasture. Aust. J, 

Agric. Res.. 1, pp. 377-387. 
Bbol-cham, R. \V\, 1958. Interception of light by the foliage of pure and mixed stands of 

pasture plants. Aust f. Agric. Res., 9, pp. 39 -52. 
BunVKO, M. I., 1955. Atlas of heat balance (Russian). Leningrad, 1955. 
Dojsalli. C. M., and Black, J. N. t 1958. The significance; of leaf area in pasture growth. 

Herb. Ahstr., 28, pp. 1-6. 
Dkummo^o, A. J., 1958. Notes on the measurement of natural illumination. 2. Daylight 

and skylight at Pretoria; the luminous efficiency of daylight. Arch. Met. Geopln Bioklim., 

B. 9. pp. 149-163. 
Kimball, II . IT, 1924. Records of total solar radiation and their relation to daylight intensity. 

Month. Weath. RfcY-, 52. pp. 473-9. 
Locukin, E. A„ 1953. Natural daylight in Tashkent (Russian). Bull -WL Scl U.S.S.R. 

Ser. Geoph., 5, p. 469. 
Lunllund, H. t 1936. Varmestralning och ljusstralning i Finland. Sv. Tek. Vet. Akad. Fin- 
land, Acta 12, pp. 126. 
Moon P., 1940. Proposed solar radiation curves for engineering use. J. Frank. Inst, 230, 

pp. 583-617. 
PonjAKALLio. O., 1952. Ljusintensitctcn i norra och sodra Finland samt dttKS inverkan pa 

odlingsvaxtcma. Nord. Jordb-, 34. pp. 99-112. 
Sa^uekeh, F.. 1958. Mcteorologischc Liohtmessungen in Wen. Arch. Met. Geoph. Bioklim., 

B. 9. pp. 16*1-1 S4. 
Svcruzos Meteorologiska och Hvdrolognka Institut. Arsboker. 

Tamiya, H. l 1957. Mass culture of algae. Ann. Uev. Plant. Physiol., 8, pp. 309-334. 
Zentralaustalt fur Moteorologie und Geodynamik, Wien. Jahrbucher. 



SOME AUSTRALIAN ECHIUROIDS (ECHIUROIDEA) 

byS. 7. Edmonds 

Summary 

Four new species of echiuroids, Thalassema sydniense, Arhynchite hiscocki, Anelassorhynchus 
adelaidensis and Ochetostoma autraliense are described and six other species are listed from 
Australia. Some anatomical details of Pseudobonellia biuterina Johnston and Tiegs are redescribed 
and a key to the genera of Australian echiuroids is given. 



SOME AUSTRALIAN ECHIUROIDS (ECIHUROEDEA) 

By S. J. Edmonds* 

[Read 10 September 1959] 

SUMMARY 

Four new specks of eohiuroids, Uiaktsscma sydniense, ArJiynchite htscochl, 
Anelussorhtjnchus adelaidensis and Ochctostoma australiense are described and 
six other species are listed from Australia. Some anatomical details of Pseudo- 
bonellia biuterina Johnston and Tiegs are red escribed and a key to the genera 
of Australian echiuroids is given. 

T. INTRODUCTION 

The phylum Echiuroidea consists of a group of unsegmented, coelomate, 
marine invertebrates that is closely related to the Annelida and the Sipuncu- 
loidca. The phylum contains two chief families, the Echiuridac and the Bonel- 
lidae, 

The present paper describes four new species and refers to the species pre- 
viously recorded from Australia. Some anatomical details of one of the latter 
are re-described. The scheme of classification used is that adopted by Fisher 
(1946, 1948). The species are: 

Family ECHIURIDAE 

1. Tfialassema sydnieme n. sp. 

2. Arhynchite hiscocki n. sp. 

3. Anelassorhynchus vegrandis (Lamperl). 

4. Anelassorhynchus porcellus Fisher. 

5. Anelassorhynchus adelaidensis n. sp. 

6. Ochetostoma axtstraliense n. sp. 

Family BONELLIDAE 

7. Boncllki haswelti Johnston and Tiegs. 

8. Pseudobonellia biuterina Johnston and Tiegs. 

9. Archibonellia michaelseni Fischer. 
10. Archibonellia mjobergi Fischer. 

II. DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES 

1. Thalassema sydniense n. sp. 

pi. la, figs. 1-2 
ThalMsema Lamarck, 1801: Fisher, 1946, & #ME 

Specimens— 4 (2 dissected): Aust. Museum specimens G11219. 

Locality-OS Watsons Bay, Port Jackson, N.S.W. 

Description— The four specimens are small and In the preserved state grey- 
brown in colour. The length of the trunk is 6-12 mm. and the maximum width 
2-5 mm. The proboscis, still attached to the trunk in all specimens, is about 
half to a third as long as the trunk and gradually narrows antcriorlv. The sur- 



" Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide. 
Trans. Roy, Soc. S. Aust. (1960), Vol. 83. 



90 S. J- EDMONDS 

face Of the animal is covered with numerous, very small, rather Hat papillae 
which appear to lie almost in transverse rows. They arc more noticeable at 
the anterior and posterior regions of the trunk. The longitudinal musculature 
of the body wall is continuous. 

Only a limited amount of information about the internal anatomy was ob- 
tained from the dissected specimens. The setae are comparatively large and 
prominent and strongly recurved at the tip. They are connected by a very 
prominent intcrbasal muscle. Another well-developed muscle runs from the 
base of each seta to a point on the body wall posterior to the nephridiopore 
of the first pair or nephridia. There are two pairs of nephridia all of which 
open to the exterior posteriorly to the point of extrusion of the setae. The lips of 
the nephrostomies are not elongated or spirally coiled and the internal opening 
is on a short peduncle near the base of the nephridia. 

No satisfactory information can be given about the alimentary and vascular 
Systems. The anal vesicles arc about half as long as the trunk. No prc-cloacal, 
intestinal caecum appears to be present, but this point should be checked 
when more specimens are available for examination. 
Systematic Position. 

This species resembles Thafassema stcinhecki Fisher, 1946, which is found 
along the Pacific coast of America from California to Ecuador. It differs, how- 
ever, from T. stainbecki because the nephrostomies are on short expanded 
peduncles and for this reason it is considered to be a new species. 

T sydnieme is known only from four specimens all of which are small- ft 
differs from A. porcellus and A. adelaiclensis in that: 

(J) the lips of its nephrostomes are not spirally coiled; 

(2) a strone intcrbasal muscle joins its setae; 

(3) the ncphndiopores of the first pair of nephridia lie between the setae 
and the point of fixation on the body wall of a well-developed, pos* 
tcriorlv directed, setal muscle. 

Type Locality-OS Watson's Bay, Port Jackson, N.S.W. 
Type Specim en— Australian Museum, Sydney. 

2. Arhynchite htscocki n. sp. 
pi. IK 6$ 3 

ArhyiwhUe Sato, 1937, p. N& fisK-r, I94!*l. p. U*>. 

Specimen~i (collected bv Dr. t. Hiseoek, University of Queensland). 

Locality— "Dug from sand 18 in. down on the sandspit", Dunwich. Queens- 
land. 

Description— The specimen is long, slender and pencil-like, Tlie length of 
the trunk is about 10 cm. and its width 4-6 mm. The specimen, preserved in 
alcohol, is yellow in colour. The body is covered with small, uniformly dis- 
tributed papillae which are slightly larger at its anterior and posterior extremi- 
ties. The papillae give the impression of being arranged in transverse rows. 
Anteriorly ihere is a very delicate and .slender proboscis about 3 cm. long and 
1-2 mm- wide. It is still attached to the trunk and its anterior extremity is 
flattened so as to make it fan-like. The longitudinal musculature is continuous 
and not grouped into bundles. 

The specimen possesses one pair of nephridia about 1-5 cm. long thnt 
open to the exterior behind the setae. Each of the nephridia possesses a rather 
elaborate, leaf-like ncphrostomal lip. The setae are long and are connected to 
strong, radiating muscles which arise from the body-wall. There is a well- 
developed interbusal muscle. The alimentary canal is very long and consider- 
ably coiled. The oesophagus if firmly fastened to the body by well-developed 



SOMK AUSTRALIAN ECHtVROIDS (ECHIUKOIUKA ) M 

mesenteries and the prosiphoiial segment is very long. No precloacal caecum 
is present on the intestine f . t| 

The vascular system consists of a prominent, tubular dorsal vessel that is 
closely associated with the alimentary canal for a considerable part of ft* length. 
It then appears to fuse with the intestine. The ventral vessel gives utt a 
branch that joins the intestine at a point posterior to ttie point of fixation of the 
dorsal vessel. There does not appear to be a ring vessel. The system re- 
sembles rather closelv Uiat of a boncllid. . 

There are two very thin, slightly brown anal vesicles, Hie length ot which 
is about one-qnarter that of the trunk. On then- surface there are numerous 
very small structures, presumably the ciliate funnels, that arc visible only with 
die aid of a magnifier. The anal vesicles are fastened throughout their whole 
length by numerous fine muscles to the posterior region of the alimentary canal 
but to tlie body wall only over the last quarter of their length. 
Systematic Position. 

This species differs from other species of the genus in (1) the structure 
of its vascular system, and (2) the way that the anal vesicles are attached 
principally to the alimentary canal and not to the body. The most closely 
related species is A, arhtffichite (Ikeda) described from Japan. 

The genus Arhynchite as denned bv Sato ( 1937, p. 142) contained cchiurids 
which did not possess a proboscis. Fisher (1949, p. 485), after finding two 
species that possessed a long deciduous proboscis, re-described the genus. The 
proboscis of the Australian species described in this paper was still attached 
tr> the specimen when it was collected 

A. hiscacki differs from other Australian eehiurids in that: 

(1) its proboscis is very slender and flattened anteriorly: and 

(2) the lips of the nephrostomies are expanded into elaborate, leaf-like 
structures. 

Type Localihj-Dumv ich (Stradbroke Is.), Queensland. 
Type Specimen— Australian Museum, Sydney. 

3. Anclassorhynchus vegrandis (Lamport) 

TlwIwtiCfnti r>t'wuiule Lamport, 1883. p. 'ML. 

Anviusm rhynchns x^grdndis Fisher, 1^49. p. 481. 

Amtralktn Record- Low ls, s Great Barrier Reef, Queensland (Monro. 1931)- 
nemarh-'Momo gives no detail* of the anatomy of his specimens. A. 

w<i)vndis possesses three pairs of nephridia, all of which open to the exterior 

posteriorly to the setae. The lips of the nephrostomes arc coiled, 

4. Anclassorhynchus porcellus Fisher 

pi. lc 
Anebts&arhynchus porcellwi Fisher, 1918, p. 274. 

Specimens— 12 (6 dissected), Collected by the author from under pieces 
Ot coral rock lying in loose coral sand near the level of low spring tides: 19/8/55. 

Locality- "Heron Is (Capricorn Group), Queensland. 

Dr.smption-The animals arc plump and sue-like and when alive sandy-grey 
in colour. The length of the trunk is 2-5-4-0 cm. and the maximum width 
1-5-2*3 cm. The proboscis is 12-1 -8 cm. long and readily deciduate; it tapers 
slightly anteriorly. The bodv wall is wrinkled and made verrucose by the 
presence of numerous flat papillae, which are largest on the anterior and pos- 
terior surfaces of the trunk. The skin appears to be thinner and smoother on 
the dorsal than the ventral surface. The musculature is continuous and not 



«2 S. J. KDMONDS 

grouped into bundles and two rather Inconspicuous golden-coloured setae lie 
just posterior to the mouth. No intcrbasal muscle was found connecting them, 

The alimentary canal is very long and frail. In all specimens it was filled 
with fragments of coral, small shells and coral sand which had ruptured the 
thin wall in many places, This prevented a thorough examination of the alimen- 
tary canal being made. The presiphonal section, however, is very long. The 
dorsal blood vessel is attached only to the anterior-most part of the loregtit. 
There is a ring vessel, two dorso-ventral vessels which unite at a Jevel just 
posterior to the setae and eventually connect with a rather poorly developed 
ventral vessel. There are two pairs of nephridia which open posteriorly to 
the setae. Their nephrostomes bear long, slender and slightlv coiled prolonga- 
tions which arc often entangled in the coils of the intestine. The nephridia 
vary in size and in shape; in most specimens they are slender, There are two 
Jong, anal vesicles with numerous small unslallce.d funnels which appear to be 
in longitudinal rows* No caecum was found in the intestine 
Systematic Position. 

J have nnt been able to find any character which can be used to distinguish 
these .specimens from A. parccllus, Fisher described from Hawaii, where it has 
been foimd m sand under rocks in tide pools. The lips of the nephrostomes 
of the specimens from Queensland are less coiled and the ventral blond vessel 
appears to be not as well developed us those of A. porcrllus. These differences 
may be caused by different methods of fixation. 

A. porvellus possesses two pairs of nephridia which opeu behind the setae 
and which possess long spirally coiled lips. The presiphonal of the gut is very 
long. 

Distribution— Hawaii; Heron fs., Queensland. 

!>« Anekumrhyiichus adelmdenste n. s>p, 

pi. 2a 
Arwlussvrhynchu.t Annmtriate, 1022, p. 118. 

Specinicm~H (5 dissected). 

Localitw.s~St Vincent Ciilf, South Australia. Seven specimens were col- 
lected by the author from the sand and gravel amongst the roots of the marine 
anciospenn, Cymodocea ant/mika at Aldinga Beach and one at Can* Jervis 
by Mrs. P. M. Thomas. 

Of scrip/ ton-Thi* species is closely allied to A, pora'lbts Fisher, described 
from Hawaii and reported in the present paper, from Heron Is., Queensland. 
The South Australian specimens when alive arc rich dark green in colour, while 
those Irom Queensland arc sandvgrey. The length of the trunk of the specimens 
is G-lfl i W . and the maximum wultli ln-3-0 cm. The proboscis, a deciduous 
structure, is 2-4 cm. long and 0-5 cm. wide and tapers anteriorly. Us margin, 
though slightly wavy, is not frilled and its groove or trough is 'light green iri 
colour, The skin of the annual is wrinkled and bears numerous small. Mat, glan- 
dular papillae* The maximum length of the setae is 5 mm. And there' is no 
interhasal muscle. The longitudinal musculature of the body-wall is continuous, 

There are four nephridia which open behind the setae and which possess 
spirally coiled and donate lips. The alimentarv canal is Jong and tangled. 
its presiphonal section is very long (as much as S cm. in one specimen Tand 
thin-Walled. There is no prccloacal caecum. 

The* blood vascular system consists of a dorsal blood vessel, a rim; vessel 
and two dorso-ventral vessels which join the ventral vessel. The latter* is closely 
pressed to the ventral nerve cord. There are two long and slender anal resides 
which are attached to the body-wall only posteriorly. The vesicles are brown 



SOME AUSTRALIAN KailUKOlDS (F.CIUUKOIDEA) »3 

in colour and their surface is covered with numerous, minute, brown funnels. 
The diameter of eggs found in the nephridia of one female was 0*13-0' 17 mm. 
Whether they were'ripc could not he ascertained. 
Systematic Position, ( 

These specimens resemble Iwo specimens of a dark green cchinnd collected 
at Amboina and described bv Fischer (1896) as Thahssenui semonl A, semoni 
possesses four nephridia with spirally coiled lips. In one of Fischer's specimens 
all the nephridia open to the exterior behind the setao but in the other the first 
mix do not. Wharton (1913, u. 247) re-described the species from Buquei Is. 
(Philippines). According to him the first pair of nephridia open in front of 
and the second pair behind the .setae. Since both pairs of nephridia 'it hV 
South Australian specimens open behind the setae, it is most likely that they 
are a different species from A semonl, 

A. tidehklenm possesses two pairs of nephridia which open behind the 
sotac and which have long, spirally coiled, nephrostomal lips. The presiphmal 
vection of »he gut i* long." It is dark green in colour, differing in this respect 
from Ar porcelLts Fisher. 

Type Locality- Mi'mgn Beach (near Adelaide), St. Vin«nt Gulf* S.A. 

Type Specimen— Australian Museum, Sydney. 

6, Ochctostoma uustraliensc n. sp. 

pi, 2I>, % 4 
OchctusUntta Leuckurt and KupiX'H, 1K28; Fisher, I040 ? n. 240. 
Specimens- 21 (12 dissected). 

Localities- .Queensland l Stradbroke Is. (3 three specimens coll. S. Ilyrul), 
Mvnra (two specimens coll. I. Iliseock)> Dunwieh (eight specimens coll. 1. 
Hfscock), Palm Is. (two specimens, from Univ. of Queensland). New South 
Wales; Coodwood is , near mouth of Clarence River (six specimens coll. P. 
Duvic), Aust Museum specimens W3375, W315(l W3187. 

Description— Mr. P. Durie says, that the worms from Goodwood Is. are 
(omul "between high and low water marks in rather dark sand, .situated close 
tu some small mangrove clumps. The proboscis is white and fleshy and pro- 
vides from a hole in the sand. It lies along ihc surface of the sand and is about 
6 m. long and 34 in. wide. In this condition it appears to be quite flat (like a 
ribbon) and docs not appear to take en a lube-like shape as in preserved speci- 
mens. The body of the worm is soft and bright red in colour. Twelve longi- 
tudinal muscle bundles show up very clearly." 

The length of (he trunk of preserved specimens is 4-3-10-2 cm. and the 
maximum width 1-8-2-8 em. The proboscis is 1S-4-1 cm. long and not readily 
dcckluate. Living specimens are red but preserved specimens are pale pink 
or slraw coloured* The. thickness of the skin varies. In some specimens it b 
thick, in others thin, the condition probably depending on the state <it Hit* 
musculature at fixation. There are usually 12-13, occasionally J.1-.U, U.gi- 
tudinai muscles which are best counted in dissected specimens. In all speci- 
mens except two there was one more hand in the posterior half Mian the anterior 
half of the trunk. Of the 12 dissected specimens the maximum number of bands 
was 14 in one specimen, 13 in five, and 12 in six. The oblique musculature 
belween the longitudinal bundles is grouped into numerous fascicles. The. 
fascicles are nirt always noticeable in those parts of the body which have been 
strctclied considerably. The anterior and posterior surfaces of the trunk bear 
small flat papillae. 

There arc three pairs of nephridia which vary in size and .shape; gcncraDy 
they are long. One pair opens anteriorly to and the other two pairs posteriorly 



m 



S. J. EDMONDS 






niv 



mv 




Figs. 1-2.— Thalassema sydmense; 1, anterior region dissected to show nephridia, setae and 
setal muscles; 2, seta. 

Fig. 3. — Arhf/nchite hiscocki; dissected specimen. 

Fig* 4 -— Ochetostoma australiense; dissected specimen showing anterior region of body. 

Fig. 3. — Fseudobonellia bittterina; dissected specimen showing anterior region of body. 

Legend.— -dv = dorsal vessel, lm = longitudinal muscle, mt = male tube, n = nephridium 

mv - neuro-intestmal vessel, np - nepliridial process, om = oblique muscle, yv = 

ventral vessel. 



SOME AUSTRALIAN ECHIUROIDS (ECHTimOlDKA) flflj 

to the setae. All the nephrostomcs have long spirally coiled lips. No inferhasal 
muscle was found between the. setae. The alimentary system consists of a 
short anterior region, a long intestinal region possessing a filiate groove and 
siphon and a short rectum. The anterior region is held in position by strong 
mesenteries attached to the body- wall and the other regions by numerous fine 
filaments. There is a prccJoocal, intestinal caecum. 

The blood system is similar to that found in a number of species of Oclie* 
toxtonuu e.g. O. octomuofum Fisher, KH& There is El dorsal vessel, a ring 
vessel, two dorsn-veiHra! vessels and a ventral vessel. The latter is placed close 
to the nerve cord and connects posteriorly with the preeloacal caeeum. There 
are two long anal vesicles with small unslalked ciliate funnels, 
Systematic Position, 

At least six species of Qcheiostotw have been described that possess three 
pairs of nephridia, one pair of which opens in front of and two pairs behind 
the setae; O. erylhrograrnmon Leuckart and ttuppell, 1828. O. stvhbnanm 
I Fischer, 1892). O. leptodcrmon (Fischer, 1892). O. caudex (Larupcrt, 18S3), 
O. kokoionicmc (Fischer, 1892) and O. firiffini (Wharton, 1913). Sato (I&J9, 
p. 357) considers the first five of these species to be synonymous. 

The specimens from Australia are very close to O. crytlira^rammon de- 
scribed from the Bed Sea by Leuckart and Ruppell (1828). According to 
Fischer (1927, pi 112) the original description (which was not available to the 
present author) is "nur oberflaehlich". Fischer (1927, p, 115) re-examined rhe 
species and described it as possessing 14-18 longitudinal muscle banners. This 
last point has been re-confirmed recently by Wesenberg-Lund (19^)7, p. 9) 
who re-examined a number of species of O. vnjthw&rammon from the Red Sea. 
She says, "There are 17 longitudinal muscles but at the level of the hooks the 
two dorsal-most bands on each side unite so that there are only 15 bands in the 
anterior part of the trunk". 

There seems little doubt, therefore, that the species from the Red Sea 
possesses 14-18 bands, whereas that from eastern Australia possesses ll-l 1 V 
usually 12-13, For this reason the latter is regarded as new and described as 
O. mistr alt erne. 

O. austmliense is a rather large species in which the longitudinal muscu- 
lature of the body-wall is divided into 12-13, occasionally 11-14, bundles. It 
possesses three pairs of nephridia, the first pair of which opens in front of and 
the other two pairs behind the setae. Its anatomy resembles that of O. crythro- 
zxamman. 

Type locality Dunwich (Stradhrokc Is.)., Queensland. 

Type Specimen- Australian Museum, Sydney. 

7. Boncllia haswclli Johnston and Ttrgs 

tioiidtict huswt'Ui Johnston and Tiegs, 1920, p. 7.'i. 
H\mW//<i virldit Whitelegge. lggti. 

Australian Record— Port Jackson, N-S.W. (Johnston and Tiegs, 1920). 

Remarks— This species is known only from the account of Johnston and 
Tiegs (1920). The length of the trunk is nver 2 in. and the maximum breadth 
X in.; the length of the contracted proboscis 4 in. and of each of its arms LH in, 
A siphon, about # in. long, originates as a very narrow tube on the dorsal surface 
of the pharynx, widens posteriorly and ends blindly iu a lobed structure. A 
single ncphridium about 7a in, long is situated on the left side of the body, The 
uephrostome is situated about a quarter of the length of the ncphridium from 
its free end. The ovary is mid-ventral along the nerve cord. There are two 



ttO S. f. EDMONDS 

anal vesicles into Avhieh open about 15 tubes from which arc given off smaller 
tubes with eiliate funnels. Coloured green when alive; the male is unknown. 

This species possesses only one nophridium and consequently can be readily 
distinguished from PseudolxmeWa hiuferina, Archibonellia michaetseni and A. 
mjoberpi which possess 2-3 nephridia. 

8. Pseudobonellia biuterma Johnston and Ticgs 
pi. 2e. Kg 5 
Pseudohoncllia butte/ina jolimttm ami T legs, 1919, p. *13; Fisher, M-)10, p. Hft 

Specimens and Lowlitws^lQ (12 dissected). 

Queensland: North West Is. (5) (University of Queensland), Arkhuxst 
and Havman In. (2-1 (coll. Dr. Maekorras), Whitsunday Passage (2) 
fAust. Mus. Coll.,' W3029), Heron Is. (2) (coll S. J. Kdmonds). 
Western Australia: Fremantle Harbour (21) (Mrs, L. Marsh), Dongarr.i 
(6) (coll. Prof. A. G. Nicbolls), PL Pcron (2) (coll. Prof. T. ft John- 
ston), Trigg is. (S) (coll. M. J, Littlejohn). 

Previous Australian Record— North West Islet, Masthead Ts. (Capricorn 
Croup), Queensland (Johnston and Tiegs, 1919). 

Drsrription and Disctissioti—lhc specimens from Queensland, although they 
differ in a few respects from Johnston and Tiegs's description of the species, 
are considered to be P. hiuterina. Five specimens were collected at one of the 
type localities and two others at an adjacent island. They possess two nephridia 
(ulcrij and carry a degenerate male in a small blind tube which opens lo the 
exterior between the two nephridiupores. The male aperture shows up clearly 
jus I below the setae in all species* 

The vascular system of the specimens is much more like that of a typical 
bonelh'd (Fisher, 1946, Fig. 15) than that described by Johnston, and Ticgs. 
There is a dorsal vessel wliieh makes contact with the alimentary canal at three 
points: anteriorly with the pharynx, then (usually) at a point on the oesophageal 
wall near the crop and finally at a point where iL fuses with the intestinal wall 
just anterior to the origin of the siphon. A ventral or neural vessel rims along 
the nerve corcl to the posterior region of the animaL Anteriorly, the ventral 
vessel gives off a neuro-intestinal vessel which makes contact with the intestine 
near the anterior extremity of the siphon. The neuro-intestinal vessel runs 
along the intestine and is closelv associated with the siphon for about 1*5 cm. 
(Fig. 5). 

The anal vesicles do not seem to communicate with the cloaca as simply as 
described by Johnston and Ticgs The ciliate tubules arise in groups or fascicles 
from a slight outpoeketing of the cloaca! wall and show in some specimens some 
branching basally. 

Johnston and Ticgs state that the ovaries "lie transversally on frenulue". 
Tin- ovaries were inactive and invisible in the dissected specimens from North 
West Is. but in the specimens from Arkluust and Hayinnn Is. developing ova. 
although small, lie clearly longitudinally along the posterior third of the vcntml 
rn-rve eoixl. The transverse position ol the ovaries, therefor**, must be regard<\] 
with reserve until more specimens with gonads arc available for study. 

The vascular system and the anal vesicles of the Western Australian speci- 
mens are like those of the Queensland specimens. The ovaries of six specimens 
lie along the nerve cord. Kggs Avith a diameter of 0-25-0-3 mm. were found 
in the nephridia of the W.A. specimens. About 15 nematodes were obtained 
(rom Lite intestine of two specimens from Fremantlo. They were found in the 
mid-gut and showed no sign of attrition or digestion. Whether they were 



SOME AUSTRALIAN ECHI.UROTDS ( KCTTTUttOlDEA) 07 

ingested along the sand and debris or whether they arc intestinal parasites is 
not known. 
Systematic Position. 

P, biuterina is dark green in colour. It possesses two nephridia and a 
small blind tube which opens to the exterior between the ncphridioporcs. The 
male is carried in the tube, P. biuterina differs from A. michaelseni Fischer, 
also described from Fremantlc, W.A., in that its intestine is long and lacks a 
caecum and in the structure of the anal vesieles. 

9. Archibonellia michuelseni Fischer 
Archihondliu miclhiekviti Fischer, 1019. p. S3: 1921, p. 7. 

Australian Record— Fremantlc and Roltnest Is., Western Australia (Fischer, 
1919). 

Remarks— This species Is described from a single specimen. The trunk of 
the specimen is about 12 mm, long and the proboscis terminates in two .short 
lappets. The colour of the animal when -dive is grey. The species possesses two 
very small nephridia and an impaired "uterus". The intestine is short and bears 
a small caecum. The ovary lies along the posterior region of the nerve cord. 
The anal vesicles terminate in a bundle of (ubules. 

10. Archibonellia mjobergi Fischer 

Archibonellia mjobergi Fischer, 1921, p. 6. 

Australian Record-Broome, Western Australia (Fischer, 1921). 

Remarks— This species is also described from a single "coal black" specimen. 
The trunk is 45 mm. long and the proboscis 18 mm. One arm of the proboscis 
is 50 mm. long and the other 10 mm, The species possesses one pair of large 
nephridia between which lies a very small unpaired nephn'dium. 



III. KEY TO THE GENERA OF AUSTRALIAN ECH1UROIDS 

1. Proboseis usually conspicuous (although sometimes deciduous if speci- 
men is handled) and often several times the length of the body but newer 
bifid. AuaJ vesieles long, sac-like, unbranched and covered with minute 
ciliate funnels — family Echiuridae . . ... ... 3, 4 

2. Females with elongate, bifid proboseis. Anal vesieles with many branches 
that end in eiliale cups. Male degenerate, living in or on the female — 
family Buwdlidae ,. . ... ,, .... 9, 10 

8. Longitudinal muscles of body-wall grouped into bundles. The interval 
between the buudles is crossed by numerous separate, small bundles of 
the Inner oblique layer. 1-4 pairs of nephridia Avith spirally coiled, nephro- 
stomai lips— genus Ochctostoma* 

1, Longitudinal muscles of body-wall not grouped into bundles ..._ 5, 6 

5. Nephrostomal Jips either coiled or expanded into leaf-like structures 7, 8 

6. Nephrostomal lips neither coiled nor expanded into leaf -like structures — 
genus Thalassema. 

7. Nephrostomal lips long and spirally coiled — genus Anelassorhynclius. 

S. Single pair of nephridia with nephrostomal lips produced to form leal 
like structures. Proboscis long, deciduous and slender with a small fan 
like extremity — genus ArhijncliUe. 



9S S. J. EDMONDS 

9. Only one nephridium or uterus present. Coelornic aperture of the nephri- 
dfrux) is situated near the base of nephridium at tlie end of a short lateral 
lube — genus Bonellia. 

10. More than one nephridium or uterus — ._ 1L. 12 

11. Two nephridia or uteri with nephrostomes plaeed near their distal ends. 
male permanently lodged in a small blind tube which opens between th* 
ncphridiopores — genus Pseudobonellia. 

12. Third nephridium plaeed between two railed nephridia — genus Archi- 
bonelUa. 

IV. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to thank the following for supplying specimens of 
echiuroids: Mrs. L. Mar.sk and Mr. M. Littlejohn (University of W.A.), Mrs. 
P. M. Thomas (University of Adelaide), Dr. I, Hiscock, Dr. J. Mackerras, Mr P. 
Dune and Professor W. Stephenson (University of Queensland), and Miss K. 
Pope (Australian Museum. Sydney). 



V. REFERENCES 

Amsanuaui:, N., 1922. The rnailue element iu the fauna of the Ganges, Bijdr. Dierk., 22, 

Feestuummer 70. Oboortedag van Dr. Ma* Wrber, pp. 143-154. 
Fischer, W.. 1892. Ubcrsieht dcr von Herrn Dr. F. Sttihtmunn auf Sansibnr und an dw 

gegenuberiiegenden Festlandkuste ge&tmraelten Gephyrcen. Tahrb. Hamb. Wiss. Anst., 

9, pp, 80-89, 
Fisoheh, W. T 1890. Gephyreen. Hamburger Ma&elhaensische Sammelreise, pp. 1-7. 
Fischeh, W-, 1919. Gephyrcen dcr sudwcstkmte Australians. Zool. Anz., 50, pp. 283-2(45. 
Fischer^ W., 1921. Gephyrtwm (Results of Or. Mjoberg's Swedish Scientific Expeditions to 

Australia, 1910-1913). Kuugl. Swung Vctcnsk. Akad. Hamll., 61 (8), pp. 1-8. 
Fischkk, W., 1926. Sipunculoidea und Echiuroidea. Die Fauna Sudwest-Australiens Er^cb- 

niss der Hamburger Sudwest-anstralisehcn Forsch-ungreiSe, 5 (3), pp. 199-216. 
Fisher. W. K., 1946. Eehiurid worms of the North Pueifio Ocean. Proc, U.S. Nat, Mus,, 96, 

pp. 215-292. 
Fischer, W. K-, 1947. New genera and species of echiuroid arid sipuneulid worms. Proc 

U.S. Nat -Mtis., 97, pp. 351-372. 
Fishkh, \V. K., 1948. A new echiuroid worm from the Hawaiian Islands' and a key to the 

genera of the Eehhiridae. Pacific Science, 2 (4). pp. 274-277. 
Fisher, W. K., 1949. Additions to the echiuroid fauna of the North Pacific Ocean. J'nte. 

U.S. Nat. Mus., 99, pp. 479-497. 
Ikeda. I., 1924. Further notes on the Gephyrea of Japan with descriptions of some new 

species from Marshall, Caroline and Palan Islands. Jap. Jour. Zool., 1 (2), pp. 23-44. 
Johnston, T. H.. and Tiecs, O. W., 1919. Pseudobonellia, a new echiuroid genus from the 

Great Barrier Kecf. Proc. Linn. Soc- New 9»utfl WmVx, 44,, pp. 213-230. 
Johnston. T. H., and Ttegs, O. W., 1920, A new species of BoneLIia from Port Jackson. 

flee. Aust. Mus. Sydney, 13, pp. 73-76. 
Lampert, K,. 1883. Obex einige neue Tlmlassemen. Zeit, Wiss. Zool., 39, pp. 3Si-'H% 
Monivo, C. A., 1931. Polyehaeta, Olijioehaettt, Echiuroidea and Sipunculoidea. Great Bar- 

rici Reef Expedition, 1925-1929, 4 (I )„ pp. 1-37. 
Sato, H.. 1937. Echiuroidea, Sipimculoidea and Priapuioidea obtained in north-cajst Honshu, 

Japan. Sairo Ho-on Kai Mus. Res. Bull. 12, pp. 137-176'. 
Sato, H., 1939- Studies on the 'Echiuroidea. Sipimculoidea and Priapidoide of Tapan. fSjrf. 

Rep. Tohuku Imp. Univ., 4 <14), pp. 339-460. 
\VEKt:NnKni>LuNr), E., 1958. Sipunculoidea and Echiuroidea from the Ked Sea. Sea Fisheries 

lies. Stat. Haifa. Bull., 14 (3), pp. 1-14, 
Wharton, L. D., 1913. A description of some Philippine TJialassemac with a revision of the 

genus. Phil. Jour. Sci., 5, pp. 243-270. 
Whitelecue, T., 1889, List of marine and freshwater jnvrrtebrate fauna ol Tort [ac\soiJ. 

Proc. Boy. Soc. X.S.W.. 23, pp. 103-323. 



S. J. Edmonds 



Plate 1 



fc' - ^ 


bMII 

1 " :k: .§ > 




1 1 ft* 


RPj^H 



Thalassema 

sydniense 

la. — This figure is 

twice natural size. 



Arhynchite 
hiscocki 
lb.— This figure is 8/10 
natural size. 



Anelassorhtjnchus 

porcellus 
lc. — Natural size. 



S. J. Edmonds 



Plate 2 




Anelassorhynchits 

adelaiclensis 
2a. — Natural size. 



Ochetostoma 
australiense 
2b. — 2/3 natural size 



Pseud oh onellia 

biuterina 
t. — 1*5 x natural 

size. 



THE SAND RIDGE DESERTS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND RELATED 
AEOLIAN LANDFORMS OF THE QUATERNARY ARID CYCLES 

byS. 7. Edmonds 



Summary 

A map is presented of the South Australian sand ridge deserts and a detailed description given of 
the dune morphology. The mode of origin of the ridges is analysed and the conclusion reached that 
a channelling action, accompanied by shepherding of loose sand, has been the principal element 
responsible for the evolution of the corrugated desert landscape. 

Thus it is proposed that the dune systems are to be classified in the main as windrifts. The numerous 
playa lakes occurring within and bordering the deserts are similarly believed to be due essentially to 
deflation during the Quaternary Arid Cycles; observations clearly show that excavation rather than 
deposition has occurred despite their endoreic setting. The composition of the desert floors is 
reviewed, and it is shown that the sand ridge belts are limited to areas featuring a mantle of 
unconsolidated Early Quaternary deposits which would be readily liable to windrift development. 
While the prevailing winds of the present day do not everywhere account for the pattern of the sand 
ridges, there is a close correlation of ridge trends and the predominating strong wind direction 
recorded at inland meteorological stations. 



THE SAND RIDGE DESERTS OE SOUTH AUSTRALIA AND RELATED 
AEOLTAN LANDFORMS OF THE QUATERNARY ARID CYCLES 

By D. King 

[Read 10 September 1959] 

SUMMARY 

A jnnp is presented of the South Australian sand ridge deserts and a 
derailed description given oi the dune morphology. The mode of origin oi the 
ridges is analysed and the conclusion reached that a channelling action, accom- 
panied by shepherding of loose sand, has been the principal clement responsible 
for the evolution of the corrugated desert landscape. 

Thus it is proposed that trie dune systems are £n be classified in the ?nain 
as wirH'Irtflx. 

The numerous playa lakes occurring within and bordering the deserts are 
similarly believed to be due essentially to deflation during the Quaternary Arid 
Cycles; observations clearly show that excavation rather than deposition has 
occurred despite their endoreic setting. 

The composition of the desert floors is reviewed, and it is shown that the 
sand ridge belts are limited to areas featuring a mantle of unconsolidated Early 
Quaternary deposits which would be readily liable to windrift development. 

Wlule the prevailing winds of the- present day do not everywhere account 
tor the pattern of the sand ridges, there is a close correlation of rid^e trends 
and. the predominating strong wind direction recorded at inland meteorological 
stations. 

INTRODUCTION 

A striking feature of the existing South Australian physiography is the 
advanced development and uniformity of the sand ridge formations covering 
vast areas oi die interior. These aeolian landscapes provide ample proof of 
the role of the wind as a major transporting agent during the Quaternary- 
Aridities, s a feature which has been commonly described in earlier works. 
The primary effect of the wind as an erosional agent aud the resulting land- 
forms have, however, not been considered to the full extent which they deserve 
in the South Australian example. 

One of the main objectives of this contribution is to illustrate that aeolian 
effects, both erosional and transporlational, have been principal elements in 
die evolution of the landforms which now characterise the arid interior of the 
State. In particular, it is suggested that deflation has played a direct role in 
dune formation and in die excavation of the extensive system of playa lakes 
bordering and accompanying the dune belts; deflation also contributed to some 
extent in the dissection of the inland plateaux and gibber plains, and in remodel- 
ling bedrock inliers within the desert provinces 1 . 

A map of the South Australian desert sand ridges is presented as Fig, 1. 
Tins has been compiled from a study of all available aerial photographs 
supplemented by direct aerial observations of the writer and odiers (Bennett, 
1935; Madigan, 1930) and from the Jew existing published descriptions. It 
provides a reliable record of the overall distribution of the sand ridge deserts, 
and also shows diagrammatically the relative abundance, the orientation and 
the general planimetric forms of individual dunes comprising die various desert 
provinces. Other topographic and climatic elements which influence the study 

fl Throe distinct Quaternary Arid Cycles have been recognised as a xecmlt of soil studies 
in the arid zone of Australia (Jessnp, 1958), 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S, Attst. (19G0), Vol. S3. 



100 D. KJNC 

of the sand ridge deserts are also indicated These include the principal ranges 
or' bedrock hills, the dissected inland plateaux, the various centres of lagoon- 
type internal drainage, and wind analyses based on Bureau of Meteorology 
recordings from widely scattered weather stations The broader orographieal 
subdivisions, and present-day climatological data are summarised in the inset 
on Fig. h 

The sand ridge deserts cover a total of 145,000 square miles, thus embrac- 
ing more than a third of the total urea uf South Australia. Together with the 
adjommg sand ridge areas of Western Australia and Northern Territory, they 
comprise one of the most extensive and perfectly developed systems rif" desert 
dunes existing in the world today. 

The South Australian dune systems lie within two broad provinces. One 
ts m (lie north-east of the State, where the greater part is known as the Simpson 
Desert The other, the Cecal Victoria Desert, occupies the western part of the 
State, being portion of the vast Desert Tableland extending into Western Aus- 
tralia. The two dune provinces approach each other between latitudes 26 and 
31, where they are divided hy a dissected plateau up to one hundred and fifty 
miles wide characterised by the "breakaway' (or tent-hill) crosional forms. 

The formation of the sand ridge deserts probably occurred in several stages 
during the Quaternary Arid Cycle's. In Lhe Lake kvre region, a gradual de- 
(cn'oiation in climate to aridity is testified by teterte^flecf gypsunTlayers and 
fill assemblage of fossils of a braekisli-watcr faeies in the Late Pleistocene— F.arly 
Accent stratigraphic record, while it can also be clearlv demonstrated that dune 
formation post-dated deposition of these particular beds (Kings 1956). 

In Pleistocene time, prior to the onset of aridity, pluvial conditions had 
prevailed throughout the interior, Extensive lakes and Hood plains in the v^st 
lowland areas received detritus from the bedrock ranges and from dissection 
of the Tertiary tableland to the breakaway forms of the existing marginal desert 
areas. As desiccation reached a climax and lacustrine and iluviatile'sedimcula- 
tion diminished, this mantle of unconsolidated Pleistocene waste — which, we 
can expect from the environmental changes, would have been sparsely vegetated 
— was remodelled by wind erosion into the sand ridge deserts. 

In both provinces the dunes consistently assume the form of elongated 
ridges arid although their spacing and magnitude may vary considerably in 
different localities, locally they arc always regular m magnitude and planimeMc 
pattern. 

It will be observed that dunes of an inland type are ulso widely developed 
iti the northern Murray Basin, east i>f the Mount Lofty Ranges. These, however, 
arc subordinate foims not characteristic of a truly desertic environment. Ex- 
cluded from consideration are the stranded marine shoreline dunes of (he 
south-east, and the calcareous aeolianite mantle fringing the coastline of Yorke 
and Eyre Peninsulas* 

PHYSIOGRAPHY OF THE SAND RIDGES 

The Simpson Desert named and defined by Macligan, embraces an area of 
43,500 square miles lying between the Finke River on the west and the Queens- 
land bonier on the east, and extending from the Marshall River in latitude 23 C S. 
(Central Australia) southward to Lake Eyre in latitude. 28°S. Tin's region 
embraces most of the north-eastern desert dune province, the exceptions being 
an extension southerly to Lake Frome and a relatively small area south-west 
of Lake Eyre. Arid conditions prevail today in the Simpson Desert, the greater 
part receiving less than five inches annual rainfall 






NORTHERN 



133* 



1 . -i-> ... .-•.•.:.' 

f ";;; • w.^ : "X -.. "' ''■'•"•'*• ted 



4 

g 

d •:•.■.■.'■•••■•.,... .- - 



TERRITORY 

163* J36' 137' 



J41' 




Oro gmzphlo divisions 
Over JOOO 
SOQ to JOOO' 
Urtder 500 ' 

I&rzjifall , ccverxzae annual in Lnchm — — ~<5 



Bvayora tian, averaps annual in inches — ?o'^-~ 



ICeu to jneteoroloaical stations 
J. Cediaur 2 Woamera 3. Adelaide 4 MrohenJfiU 
S.Iseigrh Creak eOodnadatta 7 Forrest 



Fig. 1.— Sand Ridge Map ol SboHl \nstralfn. 



SAND RIDGE DESERTS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 101 

The sand ridges of the Simpson Desert are developed to an especially high 
order of magnitude and symmetry, for which reason the region has proved 
most attractive for geomorphological researches. The physical characteristics of 
the dunes and the dune belt as a whole have been fully described in earlier 
published works and maps (Madigan, 1936, 1946; King, 1956) and are only 
briefly summarised here. 

In the Simpson Desert proper there are individual dunes that exceed 200 
miles in length. They vary in height from 40 to 100 feet, lie 300 to 500 yards 
apart, and are slightly asymmetric in section with the steepest slope facing 
easterly to southerly, depending on trend. The axial trend of the ridges varies 
throughout the Lake Eyre Basin in a broadly arcuate manner, from north- 
easterly in the area west of Lake Eyre to meridional in the Simpson Desert, 
and to approximately east-west in the south-east portion of the Basin near Lake 
Frome. The dimensions and perfection of the ridges also vary gradationally, 
changing from short and indefinite formations west of Lake Eyre to the bold, 
corrugated relief of the Simpson Desert 

An outstanding morphological feature is the widespread occurrence of dune 
convergence, despite the otherwise rigid parallelism of the sand formations. 
The convergences are represented in ground plan by an asymmetric Y, which 
in every case points to the north to east quadrant — depending on trend. 

In one locality it has been shown by boring that the dunes are not entirely 
composed of sand drift, but that the drift is superimposed on similar elongated 
ridges of older Pleistocene sediments which form the desert pavement in this 
region (King, 1956), indicating erosion of some twenty feet of the desert floor 
from the interdune corridors. 

The second province, the Great Victoria Desert, comprises an area of 
some 70,000 square miles in the north-western portion of the State, together 
with an adjoining area of comparable size in Western Australia, all featuring 
a monotonous repetition of sand ridges with interspersed playa lakes and a 
complete absence of surface drainage courses. Rainfall in the desert is between 
five and eight inches annually. A narrow belt of sand ridges of the same 
system extends from the desert province into higher rainfall areas of Central 
Eyre Peninsula. 

The sand ridges of the Great Victoria Desert have the same general forms 
as those of the Simpson Desert, although panoramically they are less spectacular 
because of an established vegetation cover. The ground plan of the dunes 
in this area has been compiled from R.A.A.F. photographs of die Everard 
Range and the Ooldea — Coober Pedy areas, supplemented by data of the 
Mackay Aerial Survey (Bennett, 1935) and observations by the writer while 
taking part in airborne geophysical surveys (Bureau of Mineral Resources, 
1956) covering most of the desert area. 

The spacing of the ridges varies appreciably in the different parts of the 
desert, being most commonly of the order of a quarter to a half a mile, but 
in places, and especially near the margins of the desert, as little as one sixth 
of a mile. The usual height is from 30 to 40 feet and the length may exceed 
twenty miles. 

The orientation of die ridges changes gradationally from approximately 
east-west near the W. Aust. — S. Aust. border, to north-easterly between Coober 
Pedy and the Everard Range, finally swinging to west of north in the Simpson 
Desert. On Eyre Peninsula they trend south-easterly. Tietkens Plain marks the 
divide between the north-easterly and south-easterly trending dune systems. 
The southern flanks of the ridges are generally the steepest- 
Dune convergences are common throughout the Great Victoria Desert and 



102 D. KING 

the resulting V or U-shaped planimetric forms are without exception open to 
the west (Plate 1, upper figure). 

Vegetation is notably sparse throughout the Simpson Desert province, and 
is represented chiefly by the non-aggressive Spinifex and Triodia, while in the 
Great Victoria Desert there are also stunted acacias (Mulga, Myall) and other 
drought-resistant plants. 

As a general rule, the corridors of the ridges support the densest vegeta- 
tion, while the crests are normally devoid of growth with local patches of live 
sand. The meagreness of plant growth in most places gives the general impres- 
sion that dune development has become essentially stabilised, but minor scale 
sand migration is still taking place and might readily recur on a grand scale 
in the event of but a slight climatic deterioration. 

CLASSIFICATION AND ORIGIN OF THE SAND RIDGES 

As a result of detailed studies and comprehensive publications by C. T. 
Madigan (1936, 37, 38, 46), the ridges of the Simpson Desert have become 
widely known, and are now accepted in overseas literature as classical examples 
of longitudinal dunes — which may be generally defined as elongated ridges 
composed entirely of drift sand lying parallel to the causal wind, to the leeward 
of the sand source (Bagnold, 1941; Price, 1950) and believed by some (Melton, 
1940) to be accumulations in the lee of obstacles. 

In his valuable records, Madigan clearly indicated his appreciation of the 
longitudinal windrift phenomenon and its possible role in the formation of the 
Simpson Desert ridges. He preferred, however, to consider the adjacent dis- 
sected tableland country as the principal sand source, and suggested that the 
dunes were composed entirely of transported material forming a shallow veneer 
upon a presumed hard desert floor. The following extracts from his works 
(1936) are clearly relevant in the light of more recent observations, which 
demonstrate the dominant role of wind channelling rather than shepherding 
of loose sand in the evolution of the sand ridge landscape: 

"In a private communication M. Aufrere has informed me that his essential 
theory of the formation of longitudinal dunes is that they are derived from 
forms similar to the caoudetjres of Gascony, which begin as wind-made excava- 
tions in the sand similar to the ftdjes ... of the Nefud of Arabia and elsewhere. 
These excavations, accompanied by a piling of the excavated sand on the down- 
wind side and a trail of sand left behind on each side of the excavation, extend 
downwind until they form a U-shaped dune, open to the windward, and, when 
the closed portion of the U disappears, become a pair of parallel dunes, longi- 
tudinal or parallel to the wind direction. . . ." 

"The sand ridges of the south-western part of the Indian Desert, apart 
from their height, bear a much stronger resemblance to those of Australia. . . . 
The longitudinal form of the ridges was ascribed by Blanford to the particu- 
larly strong force of the winds, which blow for long periods at 30 miles an hour. 
. . . Blanford considered that the Indian Desert was at one time more thickly 
covered with sand and that the hollows between the sand ridges were due to 
denudation by the wind, so that the ridges would be residual rather than heaped 
up by the wind. This is an entirely different point of view, but it has much 
to recommend it could it be established that there had once been an accumula- 
tion of sand hundreds of feet thick." 

Indeed, as previously described, a section revealed by boring in the sand 
ridges and corridors near Lake Eyre has shown that the formation of ridges 
here has essentially resulted from wind channelling of the desert floor, and the 



SAND RIDGE DESEHTS OK SOUTH AUSTRALIA 10$ 

consequent corrugations have been accentuated by deposition of the released 
drift material along the ridge crests. While nut denying that some of the sand 
ridges, especial lv at the desert margins, may he longitudinal-type accumulations 
of drift sand, tfce present study has led the writer tu believe that residual or 
winrlfift dunes, as observed to occur at Lake Eyre, are predominant among the 
sand ridge furms incurring throughout the South Australian desert provinces. 

In his classification, VI el ton (1940) states that windrift dunes are charac- 
teristic of arid areas underlain by deep sand, with a non-aggressive vegetation 
and featuring strong winds of constant direction. 

"Many (windrifts) arc a roile ur more in length, though the width is only 
a few hundred feet The sand rim is a hairpin or elongated chevron sjiape, 
opening towards the wind. In the best developed windrifts the wings are quite 
parallel throughout their extent. In the most common form, however, the wings 
gradually approach each other in the down wind direction, indicating that the 
blowout gradually became smaller as it migrated." 

A reference to the accompanying aerial photographs of the dune systems 
(Plate 1) and to those previously published (King, 1956) will demonstrate 
ttrat the windrift principle provides a compelling explanation of the various 
converging sand ridge patterns. Further supporting criteria arc the numerous 
claypans of the interdnne rifts which are clearly a result of wind erosion, and 
the actual example of wind flu tings observed to be taking place in some present- 
day windswept areas near Lake Eyre. 

The composition of the desert floors would certainly be a fundamental 
condition determining areas liable to windrift dune activity, an essential pre- 
requisite being a thick mantle. oF poorly cemented or friable sandy material 
which in a dry state can be readily eroded by the wind. It is surely convincing 
evidence that the main dune systems are in fact restricted to areas featuring a 
mantle of poorly consolidated Early Quaternary fluviutile deposits (Stephens 
1WSS) and arc best developed in the Simpson Desert where the mantle sediments 
— unconsolidated gypseous sand, sandy clays and fine sands (King, 1956) — 
arc especially well represented. Hence we also have a sound explanation why 
the sand ridges ftj the Great Victoria Desert terminate precisely at the margins 
of the Nullarbor Plain, which is capped by hard silicified limestone, and why in 
Western Australia it has been observed that inland sand ridges are confined 
to areas underlain by sedimentary rocks, a feature described by Talbot and 
Clarke (1917) in their own words as follows: 

"It is difficult to account for the fact: that, while the sand derived from 
granite tends to spread out oyer a comparatively feVcl surface, in the sedimentary 
area ... it is piled in long ridges/' 

In a personal communication, D. M Travcs states that microscopic analyses 
nf samples from the south-western Canning Basin of Western Australia (part 
of the Great Sandy Desert) has revealed that the heavy mineral composition 
of the sand ridges closely corresponds from place to place with that of the 
underlying or nearby desert pavements; thus he concludes that no appreciable 
mttgrotion of sand has been involved in the formation of the ridges. 

The sand ridge provinces are apparently independent of the regional ground 
relief showu on the orographic map of Hie State (Fig. 1). 

CLASSIFICATION AND ORIGIN OF THE DESERT PLAYA LAKES 

Ihe larger salt lake* and playa lakes of the interior of the State, especially 
Lake*; Frorne, Callabonna. Blanche, Gregory. EyTe and Torrcns. have commonly 
been described ns shrunken relicts of exoreic drainage systems believed to have 
existed under pluvial conditions just prior to the Recent Arid Cycle (ilowrhln, 



lOi D. KING 

1913). It is to be understood, however, that all die playas of the north-east 
lie within a vast area where strati graphic records reveal active lacustrine sedi- 
mentation during the Pleistocene and possibly Early Recent (Mawson, 1934; 
King, 1956), but the direct association of the existing playa fates with the 
Pleistocene physiography is a generalisation which is considered untenable in 
view of further researches outlined hereunder. 

Geological and topographical studies conducted by die author in the Lake 
Eyre Basin in 1953 have dearly proved in the case of Lake Eyre that lake 
development has post-dated all fluvialilc sedimentation in the area, the lake as 
we know it today being a very youthful feature formed by wind erosion doting 
the Recent aridity, and'thus comparable in origin with the great Qatrara depres- 
sion Of the Libyan Desert ( Ball 1927). 

Lake Eyre North is approximately 25 feet below L.W.O.S.T, Port Adelaide 
(Bon> -thou, 1955) and would therefore lie expected to have silted up appreciably 
under the prevailing conditions of encloreic drainage. On the contrary, excava- 
tion rather than deposition has occurred as shown by the occurrence of undis- 
turbed Early Recent CoxielUi-hcarhig sediments in the shoreline cliffs at a 
height of 36 feet above the lake bed, which itself comprises an eroded platform 
of Quaternary sediments of a lower stratigraphic level and is geneially free 
of any newer silt material. This is so, despite periodic flooding? of the lake 
such as that experienced in 1949-50. and earlier Hoodings maiked by a series 
of stranded beach ridges observed along the southern shores. 

The formation of Lake Eyre by deflation would be materially assisted bv 
wind-generated wave action during periodic Hoodings, especially as regards 
the lateral growth of the shorelines. Indeed, it will be observed that the larger 
lakes of this north-east province are the ones receiving drainage from distant 
higher rainfall areas. 

Tn proposing an neolian origin for all the playa lakes of the interior, n 
more radical explanation arises for the highly asymmetrical form i>r the greater 
Lake Eyre ^drainage system**, and the .soeniingly paradoxical condition ( Browne. 
1934) that the lakes are largest and most abundant in the driest parts of the 

State. 

The sandy fractions removed from the playa depressions hto believed tu 
have contributed to the deposits of "Jive" sand occurring on the crests of the 
accompanying sand ridges. Independent soil studies have revealed that finer 
fractions of deflated material provided the principal source of the soils existing 
in the arid portions of Australia (Jessup, 1938). 

Fig. 1 illustrates that diere are scores of other isolated playo lakes and 
clay pans of appreciable size King among the sand ridge deserts to the east of 
Lake Evre and extending northwards into the Simpson Desert Lake Kitta- 
kittaonla (tat. 28 \ long. 138 C: ) is one of the largest, measuring about 25 miles 
lone and up to 5 miles wide. 

These lagoons have remarkably regular shoreline characteristics, all of which 
bear testimonv to a purely aeoliau origin; the northern (or leeward ) inargins 
are bare and fluted surfaces of arcuate shape, concave to the south, and featuring 
a wind-swept rim, beyond which there is a gradual restoration of the sand rfdgC 
formations. The southern shorelines are marked by classical enspate indenta- 
tions in which the cusps correspond with the steep termination of dune ridges, 
while the intermediate emhayments coincide with interdune valleys (Plate L 
lower figure). These dispute playa lakes an* similar in profile to the fytff& jrrf the 
Libyan Desert, and there seems* little doubt that they are of similar physical 
origin. 

Identical cuspate playas have been observed by the author among sand 



SAND H1DOK DgSBKtS OP SSOC1H Al'SlKAUA 105 

ridges in the Great Victoria .Desert, along the Western Australian border between 
latitudes 27 30' and 29°3(y.; others have been described from the Great Sandy 
Desert of north-west Western Australia (Traves et alia. 1956) and are con- 
sidered by these authors to have, 'probably formed in the same arid period as 
the sand dunes". 

Another Iagoonal form which can similarly be attributed to strictly aeolian 
origin is the typically small oval-shaped claypan which occurs abundantly in 
the interduue valleys throughout all the sand ridge deserts of the State, and 
which reflect wind excavation of the interduue corridors as proposed previously 
in this paper. These corridor claypans arc usually less than a mile in their 
largest dimension and are now commonly partly vegetated. Although jralivjdn* 
alfy too small to be shown on the State maps, the dune corridor claypans would 
collectively cover say five per cent of the sand ridge desert areas. 

The relative abundance and dimensions of these claypans are regarded by 
the writer as u measure ol the maturity o! sand ridge development, Their 
presence indicates that deflation has reached a hase level below which further 
erosion is inhibited by ground moisture. This condition would now appear 
to apply generally to the various types of pluya lakes of the Simpson Desert. 

In briefly considering the extensive Iagoonal depressions of northern riyre 
Peninsula, including the larger Lakes Everard, Gairdner and Gilles, it is true 
that the lake beds are in most places eomposed of a weathered bedrock pave- 
ment (predominantly Preeambrian ) with negligible silt accumulations — which 
also often applies in similar basement playa lakes of SaliuaUuiil. Western Aus- 
tralia (Julson, 1054), Again there is evidence of the major role played by 
deflation in the course of the Quaternary Arid Cycles. 

CAUSAL WIND REGIME 

In proposing the windrift rather than longitudinal mode of origin for ihe 
eluncated sand ridges of the South Australian deserts, no modifications arc 
required in reviewing evidence of the causal wind regime as both are basically 
leeward growth phenomena. A difference arises, however, in considering the 
origin of the Y-shaped convergences formerly' regarded (Macbgam 10S6) to 
he due to infrequent gusty side winds capable of locally deflecting the smaller 
bulk of sand at the leeward end of the ridges. The suggestion here is that the 
convergences mark the termination of individual rifts, which might readily 
become inactive as the result of more effective erosion and growth of adjacent 
troughs. Thus two wings of a "captured" windrift may unite in an inverted V 
or crescent and continue to the leeward as one wing of a larger rift. 

As previously described, dune convergences — or windrift terminations — are 
rommon to all the South Australian desert tracts, und not one example of 
nrientvition opposed to the trends shown in Fig. 1 have been observed by 
the writer These forms, open to the windward and pointing to the leeward, 
thus provide a unique physiographic index of Early Recent wind activity. The 
windrift patlern indicates that the causal winds were westerlies in the Great 
Victoria Desert, with a gradatfonal change lo south-westerlies north of Woomera, 
and swinging through souther-lies to south-sooth-c;tstcrlies in the Simpson Desert; 
north-westerlies (Eyre Peninsula) and westerlies (east of the Flinders Range) 
were operative south of latitude 30°, 

The CTispnlo playa lakes of the Simpson Desert are similarly consistent in 
shape and orientation and reflect erosional characteristics produced by southerly 
winds. A lew of Una playa lakes \n the Great Victoria Desert have identical 
m.spatc shorelines on the windward (western) margins. 



106 



U. KING 



An interesting question which arises from the sand ridge study is whether 
the Early Recent wind record is comparable with the present day wind regime. 
Madigan (1936) associated the dune trends throughout the whole of Australia 
with the prevailing wind directions based on a mean annual pressure map of 
1910. lie was able to provide confirmatory morphological evidence of this 
correlation in the Simpson Desert, but his conclusion that the Great Victoria 
Desert dunes were formed by the prevailing south-east trade winds is incon- 
sistent with the detailed ridge pattern here recorded. 

While denying any overall association of dune trends and prevailing winds 
such as those of today, the writer nevertheless considers from evidence outlined 
below that the present wind regime can satisfactorily account for the sand 
ridge systems providing that a discrimination is made between prevailing wind 
and predominating strong wind directions, The frequency of low velocity winds 
has a considerable effect upon the geometry of the annual wind roses but little 
or no bearing on deflational erosion and transportation of sand. 

The significance of this distinction is illustrated by the following wind 
recordings at Woomera over a three-year period, 



Wind 






Wind HVequenoy Per Cent 






Velocity 
M.P.H. 
















X. 


N.E. 


K. 


S.E. 


S. 


R.W. 


W. 


X.W. 


Less than 20 


12 


8 


3 


14 


24 


20 


10 


9 


20-35 


27 


4 


-i 


3 


19 


19 


21 


5 


(iroaior than 35 


2a 




— 


— 


16 


22 


18 


18 



Wind roses based on the percentage frequency distribution of afternoon 
winds exceeding 18 m.p.h. at principal meteorological stations in South Aus- 
tralia are shown in Fig. 1 and further particulars arc given in Table 1. 

TABLE 1. 
METEOROLOGICAL RECORDS USED IK COM PI LATLOX OF WIND H&KBS 



Station 


Poriod 


Tiirm 


Velocity 


Predominating Wind 






(Houra) 


(M.P.H.) 


Direction 


Kreqnerury% 


I. Cerhma 


1942-46 


14-30 


exceeding; 20 


S 


20- 1 


2. Woomora 


1 &4SM)3 


'* 


i$ ii 


wsw 


18*7 


3. Adelaide 


1936-40 


15 00 


IS 


:s\v 


15-9 


4, Broken Hill 
tr. Leigh Creek 


1942-47 
1952-54 


14-30 


11 jl 


vv 


(5. Oodnadatta 


l<>44-48 


" 


15 


f s 


Ui-S 
ltf-8 


7. Forrest 


1*M5-4Q 


15-00 


1« 


w 



It will be seen that in the interior there is a generally close correlation of 
predominating strong wind directions and the causal wind directions proposed 
by analysis of the sand ridge map. The only anomalous case is at Ceduna (and 
to a lesser extent Adelaide), where the wind records arc probably influenced 
by variations dne to the coastal setting. 

9 Originally suggested in a personal commnnieation by B. Mason. Senior Meteorologist 
of the Bureau o{ Meteorology (S.A.). 



SAND RIDGE DESEBTS OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA 



107 



The wind roses shown similarly account for the disposition of the trunsver$e 
gypsum sand ridges which occur adjacent to saliue swamps and playas in parts 
of the State; believed to be formed by westerlies in the Nlurray Plains at Cooke 
Plains and Craigie Plains, and at Lake Bumbunga. north-westerlies at Lake 
Fowler, and south-westerlies at Lake MacDonnell near Ceduna. 

Some strikingly severe dust and sand storms are xn'omoted under present- 
day conditions by strong northerly winds, which arc well represented on the 
wind roses of the desertic interior. These northerly winds would undoubtedly 
modify the forms assumed by accumulations of live sand, but it has been 
observed in the Simpson Desert that the cooler southerly winds have a much 
greater effect on actual sand migration (Madigan, 1936), 



4*— --^"""^""^^'"'"TTI — t~* 


1 | JfxS ' l 1 H ' 


1 A 1 I ^J J \ ' 


-y — ^£~, a rrii n~ \tr" H ~* * 


j/^T ■■ ; — T k ^ r ■ ' i I \j 


u^^P ! SP^ST f """ jv* 


\ i i L'utwf'- -ji vV:vdv^ri jf \ \ \ 


__JV — ~~~~ \3P& ( v^^S!**^ I'M? ' " "t^ 


1 i i _ ' '••.'■-'', , •"'••(;' 1 1 / 


v\ 1 s^t iSr^fc 1 ' 1 : / 


\ i /^^ ' i t[/^**v *■***■- •■• ' ^y 


^h^i "H""1"^^-or-~ -»• 


S 1 1 ! i iV ~-v-^/ 

f5* 121* i:-7' 153" 139* Ki 4 l?t" 



Fig. %. — Generalised map showing the distribution and orientation of Australian desert sand 

ridge Formations. The arrows indicate the direction of Y-shaped ridge convergences (or rift 

terminations) which are represented throughout the desert provinces and are considered 

to be coincident with the causal wind pattern. 

1, Great Sandy Desert. 2. Great Victoria Desert. 3. Simpson Desert. 

A study of published data on the whole of the Australian desert zone 
has shown that the morphological characteristics of the sand ridges and playa 
lakes as observed by the writer in South Australia are also applicable in the 
desert provinces of adjoining States, The distribution and orientation of the 
desert sand ridges throughout die Continent arc shown on Figure 2, where also 
is given an interpretation of the causal wind regime based on the principles 
outlined in this paper. 



108 L>. KL\G 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The observations contained in this contribution were largely made while 
the writer was employed by the South Australian Mines Department He is 
grateful to the Director of Mines for encouraging the research work and for 
granting permission to publish its results. 

The drafting of the text figures was undertaken by staff of Rio Tinto Australian 
Exploration Pty. Ltd., by kind permission of the Managing Director, Mr. S, B- 
Dickinson. Dr. B. Campana, Senior Geologist of the same Company, is to be 
credited with much helpful guidance during the preparation of the paper. 
Thanks are also due to Professor J. A. Prescott for his assistance in finalising the 
text and figures for publication. 

Meteorological records and interpretations were supplied by Mr. B. Mason, 
Senior Meteorologist of the Bureau of Meteorology (S.A. Division) and by the 
Director of Meteorology, Melbourne, The Division of National Mapping of 
the Department of National Development, Canberra, assisted by suggesting 
and supplying relevant cartographic data. 

REFERENCES 

Bac\ou>, R. A : 1941. The Physics- of Blown Sand ami Desert Dunes. -YletUuen & Co. Ltd., 

London. 
Bam.. J., 1027. Problems of the Libvan Desert, Part 2 — The Sand Dunes. Goog. louiual, 

70 (3), pp. 211-220 
Bennett, H. T.. 1935. Tfojs work of the Maekay Aerial Survey Expedition Ln Western and 

South Australia, 1935, Australian CeogruphtTi 2 (H'h pp. 3-7. 
Bonytiion, ct at., 1955. Lakr Eyre, South Australia; 'Hie Groat Flooding of 1940-50, Ttoy. 

Gcoi4. Sot:, of Aust, (S.A. Branch). Report of the Lake Lyre Committee, 
Bkowne, \V, H. s 1031. Some Peculiarities of Australian Drainage. Systems, Australian Geo- 
grapher, 2 (4), p. 13. 
FknNur, C, 1930, The Major Structural and Physiographic Features of South Australia. 

Trans. Roy, Soe. S.A., 54, pp. 1-36, 
HowttiiiN, W, 1913. The Evolution of the Phvsiograprucal Features of South A ustf^liM, 

Hi«pt. AAAS, Melbourne, 14, pp. 148-178. 
Jessup, H. W,, 195S. Eiosional Phenomena Associated with Quaternary Aridities in the. 

Arid Zone of Australia. Read at ANZAAS, St -etiou C. Adelaide, 
Jutson, J. T., 1034, The Physiography (Geomorphnlogv) of Western Australia, CcoL Surv. 

WiA* Bull. 95. 
Kisa, D., 1958, The Quaternary Stratigrapluc Record at Lake Eyre N'orLli and rlie Fvolutiou 

flj Existing Topographic Forms,, Inuas, Rov, Soc. S,A., 79, pp. 93-10-3. 
Madicav. C. T M 1936. The Australian Sand-Rid^e Deserts, Gftoc, Review, 2G (2). pp. 

205-227. 
Maoio,\n. C. T.. 1937. A review of the Arid Regions of Australia and Their Kooitovnic 

Potentialities. Presidential Address, Station ft AN'/AAS, Auckland, pp 375-307 
Maoioax, C. T., 1,938. The Simpson Desert und Us Borders, Jouvu. and Proc. Hoy. Soi . 

N S.W., 71 (2), pp. 303-535. 
Mauigan, O. T., 1946. The, Simpson Desert Expedition, 1039, Scientific Reports: No. G — 

The Sand Formations, Trans.' Hoy. Soe, S.A (( 70, pp, 45-63. 
\Uwson.. D„ [644, The MunvalUna Bode: A Lote Proterozoje Formation. Tram". Rov. Sue. 

S.A., 58, pp. 187-196. 
Mfitok, K A., 1940. A Tentative Classification ot S:mtl Dim<> — 'Its Application 10 Dune 

History in the Southern High Plains. Journal of Geology, 48 (2), pp. 113-174. 
Piuce. W. A., 1950. Saharan Sand Denies aud the Origin of the Longitadiual Dune — A, 

Review, Geog. Review, 40, pp. 462-46*5. 
Srcruiovs, 6. G., 1958. The Phenology of Australian Soils, Trauy Rov. Soc. S.A., #1, 

pp. 112. 
Talbot. 11. W. B,, 1910. Geological Observations in the Countrv between Wiluna, Hall's 

Creek, and Tanumi, Bull. 39, Geol. Surv._Wcst Aust. 
Tacbot, II. VV. B., and Clakke, E, de C, 191/. A Geological Reconnaissance of the Country 

between Lavertori and the South Australian Border, Bull. 75, Geol. Surv. West Aust. 
Tuavi;s, O. M., cl al„ 1956. The Geology of the South-Western Canning Basiu, Western 

Australia, Report No. 29. Bur. Min. nesoot. Anst. 



D. King 



Plate 1 




Converging dune ridges of tin* Great Victoria Desert. View 

looking north from near Ooldea, South Australia. There arc Six ridges 
per mile m this area. 




Shores of a euspate pta\a lake to the east of Lake Eyrc North 



DISTORTED COWRZES 

by Bernard C. Cotton, F.R.Z.S. 

Summary 

The paper records some distorted cowries in the South Australian Museum collection. 



DISTORTED COWRIES 

By Bernard C Cotton, F.R.Z.S. 
[Read 8 October 1959) 

SUMMARY 

The paper records some distorted cowries in the South Australian Museum 
collection. 

Lyncina lynx caledonica Crosse 
Cypraea wledimica Crosse 186*). Journ. dc Conch., Vol. 17, p. 41, pi. 1, fig. 1. 

A scries of five specimens of rt C\ caledonica 7 (D. 3920), the name given to 
a distorted form of L. lynx, from New Caledonia, range from the C. caledonica 
form to almost typical C\ lynx, The largest specimen agrees exactly in size 
with the holotype of C. caledonica, height 59 mm. X width 24 mm. X dorso- 
ventral 29 mm. The second largest specimen is 56 mm. X 25 mm. X 25 mm. 
The remainder are smaller and merely slightly narrower in proportion than 
typical (J. /{/nx. Another series of eight specimens (D. 3917 ), from the same 
locality, are somewhat irregularly weakly pustulose on the margins, but are 
nearer to typical C. lynx than the distorted form, both in colouration and shape. 

Ornaxnenturia annulus noumeensis Marie 

Gtfpraea noammisis Mario 1869, Journ. de Conch., Vol. .17, p. 18. pi. 2, fig. 6. 

Two mature specimens, from Noumea, examined are miniatures measuring. 
length 15 mm. x width 9 mm. x dorso-vcntral 7 mm.* and 14 mm. X 8 mm. 
X 6 mm. The holotype is 30 mm. X 15 mm. X 13 mm. 

Monetaria moneta barthelemyi Bernardi 
Cyt>tfJGa hartheletmji Crosse 1861. Journ. de Conch., Vol. 9, p. 48, pi. I, figs. 3, 4. 

Holotype measurement of this New Caledonian species is height 37 mm., 
width 22 mm. 

Our scries of thirteen shells grade from tvpical C. barthelemyi, to normal 
C. moneta. D. 3529(13). 

The most distorted pair measure, height 31 mm., width 17 mm., dorso- 
ventral 12 mm., 34 mm, X 18 mm. x 15 mm. 

Bistolida stolida erossei Marie 
Cywaea cro.s.tei Marie 1869. Journ. de Conch., Vol. 17, p. 16, pi. 1, &£. 3. 

Onr three specimens are from Noumea, and arc shorter than the holotype. 
Height 38 mm., width 19 mm., dorso-ventral 16 mm., 3S mm. X 20 mm. X 15 mm., 
37 mm. X 19 mm. X 15 mm. D. 3587(3). 

The holotype measurements are 43 mm. X 20 mm. X 15 mm. 

Arabica arabica niger Roberts 
Cyprnra niger Roberts 1885. Tryon's Manual Conchology, Vol. 7, p. 174, pi. 8, fig. 3. 

A series of seventeen specimens grade from the typical narrow-, high, dark 
C, niger through normal shaped dark specimens to slightly narrower lighter 



Trans. Koy, Soc. S. Aust. (I960), Vol. S3. 



110 B. C. COTTON 

coloured shells. The narrowest and most distorted specimen measures, height 
55 mm., width 29 mm., dorso-ventral 27 mm. The surface is pustulose and 
the colour dark blackish-brown. D. 3930(10). D. 3931(4). 

Notocypraea declivis Sowerby 
Ctjpraea declivis Sowerby 1870. Thes. Conch., Vol. 4, p. 31, figs. 287, 328, 329. 

This sinistral specimen of Notocypraea declivis is briefly referred to in the 
"Journ. Malacological Soc, Aust.", No. 2, p. 9, 1958. D. 14602(1). 

The shell is typical in colour and noticeably wider than the Western Aus- 
tralian N. occidentalis Iredale 1935, as figured by the present author in the 
above publication. The height is 22 mm. and width 19 mm., and dorso-ventral 
11 mm. 

Since writing the above, Mr. R. V. Drogemiiller mentioned a sinistral 
specimen of N. verconis taken at Port MacDonnell by Ian Carrison. 



B. C. Cotton 



Plate 1 







S : oiocijl>r(wa decUpls Sawerby, sinistral. Tasmania. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIET AND SIZE VARIATION OF 
AMPHIBOLURUS ADELAIDENSIS (GRAY) (REPTILIA: AGAMIDAE) 

ON THE NULLARBOR PLAIN 

by Michael J. Tyler 



Summary 

Forty-one specimens of A. adelaidensis (Gray) were captured and the stomach contents examined. 
Measurements of the body length of the lizards were recorded, and the variation suggests that the 
life span in the natural environment does probably not exceed two or three years. A general 
description of the specimens captured was made, and the taxonomic problems associated with the 
original description are discussed. From analyses of the stomach contents, it is concluded that A. 
adelaidensis is probably a discriminate feeder. 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE DIET AND SIZE VARIATION OF 

AMPHIBOLURUS ADELAIDENSIS (GRAY) (REPTIUA: AGAMIJME) 

ON THE NULLARBOR PLAIN 

By Michael J. Tyler* 

[Rend 8 October 1959] 

SUMMARY 

bV>rty-nnc specimens of A, adelaidensis (Gray) were captured and ihe 
stomach contents examined. Measurements of the body length of the lizards 
were recorded, and the variation Suggests that the life span in the natural 
environment does probably not exceed two or three years. A general descrip- 
tion of the specimens captured was made, and the taxonomie problems associated 
with the original description are discussed. From analyses of the stomach con- 
tents, it is enndutjed that A. adeiaideuMs is probably a discriminate feeder, 

INTRODUCTION 

The food items selected by large reptiles may be determined by direct 
observation upon die animals iu their natural habitat, or examination of faecal 
matter (Leydig, 1896). For smaller species, where it is impossible to identify 
at u distance the food items ingested, different methods are employed. 

Acceptance or refusal of food items offered to a captive specimen may 
provide interesting data, but the obvious limitations, due to the reduced variety 
of available prey, imposed upon the animal, could result in the acceptance in 
captivity of prey normally rejected iu the natural environment. 

By far the most satisfactory method, which has been employed for both 
the Reptilia and Anura., is the examination of the stomach contents of a series 
of specimens captured at random in the field. 

Food items selected or rejected by Australian lizards have been mentioned 
by several writers, the earliest probably being an observation by Krefft (1871), 
who noticed that Tiliqua (Cyclodus) sp (3 "feeds, besides insects, upon the 
berry called 'jee-bung 1 , and also on other berries and leaves". 

More recently Coleman (1945) reported thai Tiliqua (Trachysaitrus) rugasa 
(Gray) and Amphibolurus barhatus (Cuvier) iu captivity ate soft fruits, dan- 
delions and other flowers, snails, eggs (previously broken), milk, bananas and 
raw beef; similar observations upon die former species having been previously 
mentioned in a publication by Longley (1940). The latter author also records 
Gtjmnndactylus spyrums (Ogitby) accepting caterpillars, isopods, the native 
cockroach PancsthUi laevicollis and an introduced species quoted to be Blatta 
americana (presumably a confusion between Blatta orientals and Periplaneta 
nmericana), but rejecting the vine moth Agarista ghjeiwa. G. phtturus is stated 
to cat similar food items, and was also found to reject both the larvae and adults 
of A. ghjeinea- 

A very interesting observation by Davey (1944), revealed that Moloch 
horrtdus (Cray) rejected certain species of ants but accepted others. Those 
rejected were stated to be Irklomyrmex delectus, L niiidus, Eetafomma mefal- 
licum, Moiioromorium, Camponotu.s and Vheidole spp,, whilst Iridomynnex 



* Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of Adelaide, 
Xnujs. Kojr- S»c, S. Aunt. (UMiOl, Vol. 18. 



n: m. J. rvr.KA 

rufoniger was accepted at a daily consumption rate estimated by the writer at 
1,350 specimens. 

N cither previous papers mentioning stomach analyses of Australian spec'* 
mens captured in the field, nor any record of food items ingested by Ampluho- 
luntfi adelaidensis (Gray) (The Queen Adelaide Dragon) have been traced by 
the writer of this paper. 

For reasons discussed later, the distribution is a matter of some conjecture. 
It has apparently been recorded in Western and South Australia, Victoria and 
Tasmania (Zicte, 1920; Lord & Scott, 1924; Waite, 1929). 

Large numbers were observed by the writer upon the Nullarbor Plain at 
the Commonwealth Railways f eiders' camp "639 miles" W.N.W. of Fort Pirie 
durinu die period 6th-15th February, 1959. In this region A. adelaidensis 
was the predominant species, being associated with Cijmnodacttjhts milii (Botv 
d«* Vine.), and Tiliqua ragosa (Gray). 

METHODS 

A. adelaidensis lives cither singly or gregariously in short burrows beneath 
large rocks or flat stones from which they emerge, in search of food. If dis- 
turbed whilst upon die surface of the ground, the lizards return to the burrow 
willi considerable speed. It was observed in the course of collecting thai ii the 
rook covering the burrow was then removed, the lizard did not rely upon 
escape by fleeing from the intruder, but searched haphazardly for a new retreat 
within the immediate vicinity, frequently selecting the instep of the writer's 
shoes. Young specimens, however, remained in the exposed burrow, relying for 
protection upon their excellent camouflage which closely resembled the sanely 
soil. Forty-one specimens were subsequently captured at random by hand widi 
very little difficulty. 

Shortly after capture the specimens were killed with the fumes of ammonia 
or carbon tetrachloride or by pithing, Measurements of the body, dorsally. 
from the external nares to the ape.\ of the tail and, ventrally* from the anterior 
tip of the upper jaw to the vent were recorded. 

The body viseera were examined for the presence of anatomical abnor- 
malities and parasites, whilst the stomach contents were removed and the food 
items, where insects, identified to the order and if possible to the family. 

OBSERVATIONS 

(a) Size variation 

The sizes of the specimens illustrated ixi the form of a histogram in Figure 1 
arc ventral measurements of the body from the anterior cxtremitv to the vent 
and not the total length of body plus tail, because it was observed that the tails 
of several of the mature specimens had been previously severed and were in 
various stages of regeneration. 

The largest total lengths recorded were: 135 mm., 142 mm., 134 mm. 
males; 159 mm., 160 mm.. 172 mm. females. 

The distribution of the sizes in the histogram falls into two clearly defined, 
apparently homogeneous groups wliieh have been lettered A and B. The 
specimens in A are all juveniles which will have hatched from e«;gs laid by 
group ii in the previous season. A is therefore homogeneous in sexual immaturity 
sinco all its members are incapable of reproduction. Post mortem examination 
of the gonads of group B revealed what was believed to be sexual maturity in 
all specimens and homogeneity similarly applies. 



AMPHIBOLOUS ADELA1DKNSIS ON T1TC NULLARBJK .'LAIN 



113 



The presence of a distinct gup between the groups (only one specimen 
being recorded between 36-45 mm. ) represents the growth made by the next 
preceding generation during the winter months before the appearance of the 
generation seen in A, a time when no lizards are born. 

Similar observations were made by Simpson and Roe (1939), who examined 
data compiled by Blanchard and Blanchard (1931) upon the salamander Hemi- 
datAylium scutatum, and by the writer (1958) upon the frog Rana esculenia. 



Number of 
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Length of body in millimetres 



Fig. 1 



The rapid initial rate of growth by A. arfelaidensis, the increase in size 
during the first year, and the presence of only a single peak in B would suggest 
that the life span in the natural environment does not exceed two or three 
years, although it was previously believed that this species lived for much longer. 

(b) Food items recovered 

No apparent difference in the food items recovered from juvenile and 
adult lizards was recorded, and so the entire prey have been treated as a whole 
in the histogram (Fig. 2). 

The Colcoptcra consisted of single specimens of the families Staphylinidae 
and Tenebrionidae, whilst the Ileiniptera was represented by four specimens 
of the family Pentatomiclae and one other unidentified specimen. 

Three of the Lepidoptera were adult moths, the remainder being larvae 
varying in size from a specimen measuring 14 mm, in length to first or second 
ltistars of approximately 1 mm. length. 



114 



M. J. TYLER 



The Orthoptera were all small grasshoppers (family Acrididae). 

With the exception of one small parasite (family Ichneumonidae ) the 
Hymenoptera recovered consisted of various species of ants (family Formi- 
cidae). 

The remainder consisted of one fly (Diptera, family undet.) and five 
spiders (Arachnida, family Araneae), 









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Fig. 2. Number of prey. 

DISCUSSION 

( a ) Taxonomic problems arising from the original description 

The specimens upon which this paper is based are typical of the form 
regarded as Amphibolurus adelaidensis by Boulenger, 1887, and Waite, 1929. 
The original description by Gray (1841) of specimens collected by Gould 
in the locality of the Swan River is very scant by modern standards, and is 
based mainly on colour pattern which, as described below, is variable. He 
named the specimens Grammatophora muricata var. adelaidensis, 



AMt'HliJOLUKUS ADELAIDENSIS ON THE NUU .ARBOR PLAIN 115 

The following description or the specimens examined by the write* on the 
Nntlarbor Plain incorporates and elaborates those of Waite and Gray. 

The adpresscd hind limbs extend to or almost to the tympanum. 

The scales are strongly keeled and are largest on the dorsal surface, where 
rhey appear in distinct posteriorly projecting rows on either side of the mid-line, 
extending from the cranium to the base of the tail. On each lateral aspect of 
the base ot the tail is a series of outwardly projecting spines extending pos- 
teriorly for a distance in mature specimen* of approximately ten millimetres,, 
and are similar (o those previously mentioned in that they also possess three 
spines. 

The i pores are either regularly situated or interrupted in the preana! region, 
and extend little more than half way down the thighs. The total number of 
pores varies between twenty and thirty, more commonly nearer the lower figure. 

The ground colour on the dorsal and lateral surfaces of the body varies 
from grey to olive-grey. There is a series of paired, small brown, angular mark- 
ings on the back which are adjacent superiorly to larger,, similarly coloured, 
but less clearly defined markings on the dorso-laterul surface between the limbs. 

The head is of a reddish-brown colouration with symmetrical dark brown 
miiiklngSi dark brown bars on the hind limbs arc narrower and less con- 
spicuous on the fore limbs. 

The tail with a series of pairod, dark brown markings of rectangular foiiU 
at the base which become irregular posteriorly, and merge into symmetrical 
bands; towards the extremity. 

The ventral surface a pale cream colouration with a broad black stripe 
extending from the abdominal vcnrru-lateral surfaces, which fuses on the mid- 
ventml line in the region of the thorax. Black markings on the throat cxtrrmely 
variable, being present as an irregularly shaped patch, spotted producing a 
marbled appearance or completely absent, 

A rapid colour change was observed in specimens placed from dark mi Id 
light surfaces and vice versa. On the dark surface the brown dorsal markings 
greatly increased in intensity. When placed on a white surface, the brown 
markings became paler, and approached a reddish-orange tint and u pattern 
of markings appeared that bad not been observed in the field. 

Three very distinct longitudinal, pale grey stripes appeared on the dorsal 
surface, nnc extending as a vertebral stripe, between the angular markings, 
from the base of l In* skull posteriorly to the base of the tail, where it was 
replaced by a series of pale brown bars also not previously visible. From a 
site posterior and superior to the typanae appeared two similarly coloured but 
slightly narrower stripes which diverged slightly in the middle of the back, 
and then passed beyond the termination of the- vertebral stripe, and parallel 
to it, to A point situated approximately one third of the way down the tail 
where they merged with the ground colouration. 

Since the colour of A, ade!a4dcmi$ varies so much from one individual to 
another, the extremes of the range may be retained after preservation ot speci- 
mens for museum collections, and thus he a contributory cause to the present 
confusion of the status of the species. 

Stirling and Ztcrz (1893) found the measurements of the larger of two 
specimens collected between Queen Victoria Spring and Frascr Range to he: 
body 50 mm.; tail 70 mm. -total lenglh 120 mm." Waite (1929) recorded a 
specimen measuring: body 48 mm.; tail 78 mm. —total length 126 mm. Since 
the Nidlarbor material included several specimens exceeding these in length- 
it is suggested that the former had not readied maximum size when captured. 

A form distributed in S.W. Australia and observed by the writer on the 



lift w j ivr.nu 

Nullarbor Plain a few iniles east of Deakin, lacks the lateral spines at the base 
Of the tail. 

There exists a very real need for a revision of all species at present with 
the genus Ainphiholurus% for only after such a measure can the distribution oi 
-A. ttdctaide lists lie correctly determined, 

(b) Factors limiting the variety of potential prey 

Before discussing the diet of A. arlehiidensis, it is advisable to consider 
the environmental factors, especially seasonal and climatic conditions, which 
determine die variety and population density of those insects which can, by 
virtue of their size, be regarded as potential prey. 

The region where the lizards were captured is one of the most barren 
parts of the Nullarbur Plain. Live vegetation consisted of occasional xerophytie 
plants which, because of their high salt concentration, are unsuitable host plants 
to any but a few species of specialised insects. 

The presence of occasional dense swarms of Hies, however, provided a 
reminder that the region is not entirely lacking in organic matter. 

The temperature at the time of most of the captures was 90°-110 F,, 
whilst Northerly winds were maintained, which is of interest since it has been 
established that wind inhibits the flight of insects, particularly flies. 

It may be presumed that the conditions on the Nullarbor Plain are most 
suitable, so far as lepidoptcrous insects are concerned, for those species capable 
of completing their metamorphosis in the short period after the rainy season 
when the vegetation is most prolific, and then adapt themselves to arid con- 
ditions. 

A seasonal variation in the insect population will be reflected by stomach 
contents of insectivorous lizards, if they are indiscriminate in their feeding habits. 

( c ) The feeding mechanism 

Knowledge of the powers of sight and the stimuli inducing ingestion in 
the Snuria and Batrachia is improperly known, and certainly varies between 
different species. 

If the feeding mechanism is an automatic one induced solely by the move- 
ment of a small object within the animal's range of vision, then the creature 
must be, an indiscriminate fcedci'. 

Such a case is well illustrated by the example of large frogs of the family 
Haniclae, which were observed by the writer to inhabit a reservoir at Maltepe, 
near Istanbul, Turkey, which automatically ingested any small object thrown 
near to them, including stones, 

The other extreme is where animals are capable of distinguishing between 
closeh allied insect species, as is the case with Moloch horridm discussed earlier. 
In litis instance sight probably played very little part in the discrimination, 
for the species selected was characterised by & strong smell (obnoxious to the 
human being), which was absent in the species rejected. 

As has been seen in Fig. 2, the Ilymenoptera was the order of insect 
most frequently ingested by A. adelaidensis, and it is most difficult to decide 
whether the species discriminated between different typos of prey, or whether 
availability is the all important factor, Ants were undoubtedly the insects 
most frequently seen, and would presumably form a high proportion of the 
total insect population were an ecological survey undertaken. 

A consideration of many papers on various animals led VlcAtee (1932) lr> 
conclude that availability is the all important factor governing the food items 



AMPHIBOLUHUS ADELAIDENSIS ON THE NULLAftBOfi HAIN 117 

ingested. This can hardly be considered a complete answer in itself, for species 
of similar size and habits in the same region (CotL 1957) show marked difler- 
enccs in the pi'cy selected, Another point previously almost completely ignored 
is that individuals within a species captured under identical conditions differ 
widely in prey selected and demonstrated, even in the Batrachia, apparent 
individualistic tendencies (Tyler, 1958). 

The present paper records the diet of A. adeJoidensis. which foraging for 
food is probably a discriminate feeder, but its limitations reveals the need for 
new field techniques for dietary studies upon small animals, 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to acknowledge the advice and assistance during the preparation 
of this paper extended to me by Mr. F, J, Mitchell (Curator of Reptiles, The 
Smith Australian Museum), Professor R. F. Whelan and Dr. T. 5. tie la Lande 
(Department of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, The University of 
Adelaide). 

T am also indebted to the staff of the Adelaide Public Reference Library 
and the South Australian Museum Library for tracing many publications; to 
Miss D. Tinning for typing the manuscripts; and to Mr. M. E. Maude for 
assistance rendered in the capture of some of the specimens. 

REFERENCES 

Ih.ANCHAitn. F. N\, and Ui.anchakix F. C. 19fU. Size groups and their characteristics in the 

salamander Hemidacttjhuin sruiatum ( Schtegel),. Amer. Nat. I. XV. pp. 149-164. 
BocXenoer, G. A. ? 18-S5, Catalogue of the LirarcU in the British Museum (Natural History), 

2nd edition, 2 Vol: London, 8vo. 
Colemay, E., 1944. Lizards under domestication, Viet. Nat., Melbourne, 61 (8), pp. 137-138. 
Ctm*. H. 11., 1957. Adaptive Coloration hi Animals, MeLliuem 

Davky, IT. W., 1044. Some lizards I have, kept, Viet. Nat.. Melbourne. 61 /5), pp. 82-83. 
Ghay, j, K.. 1841, A catalogue of the species or' reptiles and amphibia hitherto described 

as inhabiting Australia, with a description of some new species from Western Australia. 

and saint? reuuu s on then geographical distribution. Grey's Trav. Aust n \, 11 3 p. 439. 
Khe*>t, G.. 1871. Australian Vertebrata, Fo.ssil and Recent, :Svo.. p 96. 
T..evi>to, 1896. Remarks on the faccae of Laeertilians, Biol. OontraltH:, XVI. p. 101. 
Lonolev. G„ 1940. Notes on certain lizards, Proe, R. Zool. Soe. Scyv South Wales, 1039- 

1940, pp. 34-39. 
McAtf.f, \V. L., 1932. Elfoc liven ess u-\ Nature of the so-called Protective Adaptations in 

the Auinial kingdom, eliieflv as illustrated by the Food Habits of Kearctie Birds, 

Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections.. 85 (7) J 201 pp. and errata sheet of 2 pp. 
HiCHAm>soN, J., and Gka\, J. E., i#44 t The Zoology of the Voyage of H.M.S. K rebus and 

Terror, under the command of Capt. James C. Ross, during the years 1839, 40, 41. 42 

and 43: London, 
b'lMfSOiSr. G. G., and Roe, A., 1039. Quautilalive Zoology: McGraw-Hill. New York. 
Stinging, E. C, and Zrerrz, A.. 1893. Vertebrata, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Austral., XVT, pp. 

150-176. 
T\t f.tu M. J., 1958. On the diet and freding habits of The Edible Frog (Rami esculcttfa 

Linnaeus), Proc. Zool, Soc. Lond., Vol. 131 (4), pp. 583-595. 
W'm'ii-:, K. K. 3 1320: The Reptiles and Amphibians of South Australia, ( British Kcienes 

Guild Handbook. } 
Znrrz, F. R., 1920. Catalogue of Australian Lizards, Records of S\ Austral. Mus„ Vol. L No. 3. 



DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE GRAVITY VALUES ON THE 
SUMMITS OF A NUMBER OF PROMINENT HILLS IN THE 

MOUNT LOFTY RANGES* 

BY I. A. MUMME 



Summary 

Gravity observations have been carried out on a number of prominent hills in the Mount Lofty 
Ranges. 



DETERMINATION OF THE ABSOLUTE GRAVITY VALUES ON TIIE 

SUMMITS OF A NUMBER OF PROMINENT HILLS IN THE 

MOUNT LOFTY RANGES* 

I5y I. A. Mumme 

[Read 8 October 1959] 

SUMMARY 

Gravity observations haw boon carried out on a number of prominent hills 
in the Mount Lofty Ranges. 

INTRODUCTION 

The gravity measurements were conducted with a Carter Y2 gravimetcr 
and the gravity values determined in the Mount Lofty Ranges are based on an 
absolute gravity value or 979- 7232 gals, af the gravity base station in the 
New Observatory (in the grounds of the University of Adelaide). 

In determining the absolute gravity values on the summits of the hills 
investigated, it was necessary to establish a number of intermediate gravity 
stations. 

The observed gravity values for the gravity stations on the summits of the 
hills were reduced by applying the following corrections: 

(1) Elevation correction, 

(2) Topographic correction. 

Bougucr Anomalies were computed by subtracting the theoretical gravity 
values for the gravity stations from their reduced gravity values, 

PREVIOUS GEOPHYSICAL WORK 

No previous programme of gravity measurements on the summits of hills 
have been conducted in South Australia. 

However, a number of gravity determinations have been carried out on 
the summit oi Mount Lofty with gravimeters. 

K. McCarthy, of the Bureau of Mineral Resources, determined the gravity 
interval between the Old Observatory (West Terrace, Adelaide) and the Mount 
Lofty Summit gravity station with a B.M.R. gravimeter during 1949. 

lie obtained a value of 979-5893 gals, for Mount Lofty, which is based 
on a value of 979-7219 gals, at the Old Observatory. 

From June, 1949, to January, 1952, Muckenfuss. on behalf of Wood's Hole 
Oecanographic Institute, carried out world-wide gravimeter observations with 
a geodetic Worden gravimeter. 

He determined a value of 979-7258 gals, for gravity at the New Observatory 
in the University of Adelaide, and a value of 979-5932 gals, for the Mount Lofty 
gravity stations. 

The writer obtained a value of 979-5906 gals, for the Mount Lofty gravity 
station, which is based on a value of 979-7232 gals, for (he New Observatory 
gravity station using a Worden gravimeter. 

A gravity interval identical with that obtained by Muckenfuss was deter- 
mined. 

? Published by permission of the Director of Mines,, South Australia. 
Trans. K*y. Soc. S. Aust. (I960), Vol. 83. 



120 



L A, MUMME 



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GRAVITY VALUES IN THE MOUNT LOFTY NANCES 121 

METHODS USED 

The Carter Y2 gravimeter was calibrated by measuring the dial interval 
(allowing for instrumental drift) between the New Observatory and the Mount 
Lofty gravity station, assuming a gravity interval of 0-1326 gals,, and a factor 
of 0-0809 milligals per division was obtained for the sensitivity factor. Gravity 
differences between the New Observatory gravity station and the summits of 
die hills investigated, were obtained by establishing a number of intermediate 
gravity stations and measuring the gravity intervals between successive stations 
and thus obtaining the total gravity interval between the New Observatory and 
the summit of a particular hill in the Range. 

Repeat readings were taken in measuring the gravity intervals and curves 
drawn up to allow for instrumental drift. 

REDUCTION OF RESULTS 

The observed gravity values for the gravity stations located on the summits 
of the hills were reduced to mcan-sea-level by applying the following corrections. 

(1) Elevation Correction 

This correction is composed of two components, namely the Free-Air correc- 
tion and the Bouguer correction. 

The Free-Air correction is a constant correction per unit change elevation 
and is equal to 0-0946 milligals per foot. 

The Bouguer correction is to allow for the gravitational effect of the rock 
material between the gravity station and the datum level (mean sea-level), 
assuming that the material consists of an infinite plate of rock. 

The correction is 0*01270 milligals per vertical foot, where d is the density 
of the rock material between the gravity station and mean sea-level, 

(2) Topographic Correction, 

Due to the hilly nature of the terrain surrounding the gravity station, a 
topographic correction had to be applied. 

A graticule devised by S. Hammer was used. 

THEORETICAL GRAVITY VALUES 

The 1930 International Gravity Formula was used in obtaining the theoreti- 
cal gravity values for the gravity stations at mean sea-level, namely; 
Go = 978 « 049 (1 + 0- 0052884 sin-* - ■ 0000059 suv^ ) gals. 

Bouguer Anomalies of the gravity stations were calculated by subtracting 
theoretical gravity values for the gravity stations from the reduced gravity values 
obtained by applying Elevation corrections and topographic corrections. 

The observations, corrections and theoretical values are brought together in 
Table (1). 



RATTUS GREYI GRAY AND ITS DERIVATIVES 

byH. H. Finlayson 

Summary 



RATTUS GREYI GRAY AND ITS DERIVATIVES 

By II. H. Finlayson 

[Read 8 October 1959] 

3 Plates and Text Fie. 1 

CONTENTS 

Page 

1 . Introduction - • I™ 

Distribution and Habits ... ... 125 

2. Definition of a Standard Population of R. greyi Gray, 1841 129 

(a) External Characters 130 

(b) Dimensions .< 134 

(c) Pelage »• 134 

(d) Cranial and Dental Characters ... , 136 

3. Other Populations of R. greiji ... .... ... ■■ 138 

(a) Mainland Districts North of Fleurieu Peninsula 138 

(b) Greenly Island ... ... ... 138 

(c) North Gambier Island 141 

(d) South Western Victoria 142 

4. Rattm ammilis Gould - ■ 144 

5. Interrelation of R. assimilis, R. greyi and R. fuscipes Waterhouse 146 

1. INTRODUCTION 

The original form of this distinctive Australian rat was described by J. E. 
Cray (1841) from two cotypos sent lo London from South Australia. Captain 
G. Grey, who is traditionally credited with being their collector, visited South 
Australia unofficially in 1840, before his assumption of the governorship of the 
province in the following year, and it has been generally accepted that the 
locality "vicinity of Adelaide" quoted in the appendix on mammals in his 
[ournal is to be accepted Literally in localizing the type. While the circum- 
stances of this early Colonial time might be thought to render this probable 
enough it cannot be regarded as definitely established and some evidence lo the 
contrary is later presented (infra), 

No further systematic work was done on the species for more than 80 years, 
during which time several "records" of it were later shown (or have come to be 
regarded) as erroneous and based on misidentifications (Collett, 1887; Ogilby, 
1892; Waiie, 1896). It is somewhat remarkable that Gould who also travelled 
widely in the State did not recogni.se the distinctness of *Mw greyf of Gray, 
bnt relegated that name to the synomymy of Mm gouldi Waterhouse (now re- 
ferred to Thetomtjs); and later (1858) 'in describing R. asshnilis from New 
South Wales, which is so close to R. greyi as to be considered conspeciflc by 

Trans, Roy. St>c. S. Aust. (I960), Vol. 83. 



124 IT. H. RNLAYSON 

some authors, he did nor alter that opinion. In 1921. O. Thomas obtained 
further material from Mt. Compaq through the good offices of Professor Wood 
Jones, then working in Adelaide, and after reviewing the series referred to R, 
grr.i/i m the British Sluseum, concluded that it was not homogeneous, and desig- 
nated one of the former cotvpes as: a leetocype to represent Gray's species. This 
specimen (B.M. 41, }'26<1) is stated by Tate (1951, 329) to be ot the "Gould 
Collection". At the same time, Thomas (op. cih) described Ratttts culmonim 
auxtrmu* from a specimen collected by J. B. Harvey, and donated to the Zoo- 
logical Society Of Loudon in 1841. Harvey collected both on Kangaroo Island 
and at Port Lincoln mi Eyre Peninsula and the place of origin of the type of 
ttwtrimm is qJm> quite uncertain, Thomas (1921) and Tate (1951) accepting 
Kangaroo Island, and Iredale and Troughton (1934) and EUcrman (1941), Pt. 
Lincoln. This dispute would have no relevance here were it not for the fact 
that Tate ( 1951 ) has been brought to the conclusion tliat ousfrinus is a form of 
R. grctji and not of R. ctdmonun. Troughton (1920) recorded the persistence of 
tile spikes (under the pseudonym R. (mimilis) on both Kangaroo Island and 
Eyre Peninsula, 

A second insular representative was discovered bv Wood Jones on Pearson 
Isles in die Investigator Croup of the Eyre Peninsula coast, and this was de- 
scribed by Thomas (1923) as a full species, Hathts murrayi T hut now more 
geneially regarded as R. greyi mwrnyi. Wood Junes (1924, 1925) gave an 
excellent general account of both the mainland and island forms and provided 
the first illustrations of the species, In 19.30 Bra'/.cnor separated a western 
Victorian population from the typical form under the name R. g« ravus; but this 
being preoccupied by Epimys ravus (- Rnttus ravus) of Robinson and Kluss 
was replaced by pyrcntus by Troughton (1937); Tate (1940) independently 
noted the preoccupation of rauts and suggested hmzenorl as a substitute. These 
described tonus have since been noted and discussed in monographic works on 
muridae by Ellennan (1910-1949) and Tate, 1051. In spite "of this consider- 
able body of work it cannot be said that R. grer/f is a well understood specie*. 
Not. only the vagueness in the provenance of early types, but still more, the 
tendency to limit the basis of differential characters to the barest conventions 
of museum systematics, renders the subspecific identification of material from 
descriptions 1 , a hazardous proceeding. 

The local mteiest of R. gft % tjt derives largely from its insular representatives 
which are frequently the only mammals on the islets of the continental shelf 
which can be obtained in uumhexs, and which if fullv studied might give 
valuable information on the post-Pleistocene history of this area. The immediate 
origin of the present paper ha* been the necessity of assessing the degree of 
differentiation which has boon attained by an island population as compared 
with one from the mainland, and in such work holotypcs. however well de- 
scribed, are uf limited service if unaccompanied by data on topotype series 
which can supply the key to the range of variation normal to the form thev 
represent. The correspondence or divergence of individual specimens oY 
closely related and intergrading forms may be largely a matter of chance, 
but population trends, as shown by the frequency with which characters recur, 
is likely to be much mme. significant of affinity. 

Although several considerable series of R. preyi are stated to exist in col- 
lections, both in this country and overseas, no adequate analysis of their charac- 
ters is available for such a purpose as I have indicated. Between 1938 and 1939 
during the course of field work by the writer in the Flcurieu Peninsula, chiefly 
upon the associated species R. lutrcola, a considerable scries of R. grcyi was 
obtained as a by-product This material, personally collected over a restricted 



lUrrUS GRFYI GRAY A\'D ITS DERIVATIVES 123 

irea and fullv authenticated with field data, lends itself well in making good this 
deficiency, which farms the chief content erf the sequel. The series is then used 
as a standard ill a reexamination of other groups both insular and mainland, 
wfrteh" are available here, and in addition, the distribution, status, and habits of 
the species are briefly discussed and some derails given of its behaviour fa 
captivity. 

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITS 

The present distribution of the species, as far us it is known, involves a 
narrow suhcoastal strip extending from the Portland district of western Victoria 
to the southern portion of Eyre" Peninsula in South Australia and some of its 
off-lying islands, and is thus almost entirely within the territory of the latter 
State, its eastern extension in Victoria, however, may be considerably greater 
than is supposed, as it tends to be masked by the overlap with Lhe very similar 
/?. wsimilis, the most westerly record of which appears to be at Beech Forest 
ill the Otw.iy Peninsula of Victoria. 

The riin^ thus interpreted is one of the most restricted for Australian raK 
but if Tate's" suggestion (1951) is adopted of considering R. greyl as a sub- 
specific sou tii-wcsWn off-shoot of R. as$intilit>\ the combined range is then prob- 
ably the most extensive, the forms K a, comcim extending to north Queensland 
and R. a. tntmiatttts to the Arafura coast of the Northern Territory. The absence, 
so far as knowu, of any representative of the species group in Tasmania and 
the frequency of its occurrence on the islands of the South Australian coast, 
is n significant point m its distribution. Shortridge (1936) claimed K gretji (as 
distinct from R. fmrtpea) as a member of the Western Australian lauua, but 
this is not confirmed by Glauert (1950). Tate (op. cit.) suggests that such 
an extension whs established during the last pluvial phase of the Pleistocene 
and has lapsed during subsequent dry times, but he was inclined to underrate 
the arid tolerance of modern K. «reyi as shown, for example, by the dune colonies 
of Eyre Peninsula and some of its Islands, and it may yet be found to extend 
mucn further along the south coast in this direction also. 

In South Australia at the present lime it ts well established in the southern 
portion of the Mt. Lofty Range and on Kangaroo, Greenly, Pearsons, Nth. 
Neptune, and Gamhier islands and probably on several other islets off the coast. 
It occurs much more sparsely in the lower South-eastern District and persists 
also in small numbers along the coastal portion of the Adeiaide-Wakefield Plain 
and tti the southern portion of Eyre Peninsula. The early obliteration both 
of fauna and vegetative cover by farming operations in large portions of lower 
South Australia, necessarily leads to a patchy, discontinuous distribution common 
to most local mammals at present, but how far this was true of the pre-Euronean 
cr:» and to what extent the present Occupied areas were formerly linked, is 
largely conjectural, Its survival north of Adelaide, in sheltered, unutilized 
spots, such as the mangrove belts, suggests that, it: may formerly have occupied 
many of the timbered poitions of the wheat lands of Lhe Lower North and of 
Yorke Pcnisula. It is absent front the major expanses of rfw Mallee, and sub- 
fossil records Ho not appreciably extend the existing distribution. 

Today, in the hill tracts south of Adelaide, wherever sufficient cover has 
been left for its needs, it holds out in small numbers and seems able to survive 
the attentions of both the fox and domestic eat. and is one of the very few native 
mammals which are at all likely to be taken here by random trapping. Twenty 
YOSTS ago. before the use of trace elements led Let ;i phenomonal increase of 
pasture and sheep breeding, the portion of the Flcurieu Peninsula south of the 



1-26 IT. H. K1NLAYS0M 

watershed and including (he valleys of the creeks beLween the Waitpinga in 
the cast and the Tapanappa in the west, was an almost virgin wilderness and 
R, greyi was in very large numbers, here and almost ubiquitous. It could be 
Mapped with almost equal certainty on div lateritc ridges under stands of 
■stringy bark timber (Eucalyptus obliqua and E. btixtevi) and dwarf cucalypt 
scrubs or in the tangled jungly growth along the swampy heads of creeks; the 
former, however, and hill slopes with moderate eover of bracken and xanthorrhea 
were die more characteristic stations. In this area it had no marsupial eta* 
petitors and lew effective predators and the periodic bush fires which .swept the 
creek valleys from the divide down to the sea were the only cause of large 
scale mortality, From these disasters, however, it made rapid recoveries and re- 
occupied the burnl country with remarkable speed. Its relations with R, hitreola 
which also has a firm hold on this country will be more particularly discussed 
elsewhere, but it may be remarked tliat It is a much more wide ranging and 
adaptahle animal than (he latter and only comes into competition with it in 
the immediate vicinity of the restiieted hitreola colonies which are usually in 
damp areas near the creek beds or in wet swamps. Unlike the west Victorian 
and Kangaroo Island populations which make considerable living burrows in 
suitable soils the local lorm of the Flcurieu Peninsula docs not normally burrow, 
but shelters in or under fallen logs and in matted banks of grass and sedges 
and dried fern. Even where very plentiful it is quite inconspicuous, leaving 
no well-defined runways and being seldom seen by dav. 

Some information on the feeding habits has been obtained by the examina- 
tion iif stomach contents of considerable numbers from the Flenrieu Peninsula; 
this consists most frequently of a dark coloured, finely ground pulp in which 
seed case fragments form the chief recognisable constituent. Incineration of the 
dried mass yields an ash rich in sand which gives colour to the view that xub- 
tcrrauean materials are largely used for food/ This had been inferred indepen- 
dently from the frequency with which the rat had been trapped on burnt clear- 
ings under timber where the soil was much scarred by fresh, shallow excava- 
tions, About one-half the .stomachs contained appreciable quantities of insect 
material representing both Coleoptera and Orthoplera, und in two cases a 
fleshy mass derived, at least in part, from an Amphibian. .No trace of green 
vegetation could be detected. The available evidence, therefore, suggests"' that 
in this district at least, seeds, ruots and lubers are the chief elements of the diet, 
with u not unimportant intake of insects and small veitehrutes, It is very easily 
(rapped with a variety of baits of which bread fat and sliced apple were found 
about equally effective. 

The stomach frequently carries a heavy infestation of a nematode, identi- 
fied by Mrs\ f. M. Thomas as a Flujmlvptrra species, and several unidentified 
ectoparasites occur, of which the m»wt important quantitatively is a Laehim 
species*. 

As regards reproduction, the data is scanty and the evidence mostly negative 
as the greater part of die Flcurieu Peninsula series was obtained at fames when 
reproduction was largely suspended. However, by combining such information 
as it yields, both in the field and in captivity, with that fnmi other South Aus- 
tralian mainland localities and horn Greenly and Cambici Islands, and western 
Victoria, it may be seen that, in the male, testes first undergo a sudden enlarge- 
ment and become scrotal in site in July and August and may be found so tJll 
the following February; and that in the female activity in the" form of observed 
littering of wild caught rats in captivity, and lactation and x>regnuney in the 
wild, extend from September till February. While the evidence from ftfry one 
locality is inadequate for a positive statement, the combined data might be 



KATTUS GKKV1 OKAY AND ITS M£WVAT1VF.$ 127 

taken as indicating that the overall reproductive pattern foT the species is one 
flf activity from fete winter or early spring to late summer (July-February) and 
thai there is a period of quiescence in autumn and eurly winter (March-June). 
Vulval occlusion is absent in the Fleurieu Peninsula series and in other main- 
Jajid material lias been noted in one example only, a subadult from the Meadows 
Creek area, slightly north of the main scries, in April Jt is more frequent in 
a Greenly Island collection (infra). The number of litters per year is not 
ascertained. In the single littering observed in captivity four young were pro- 
duced, but in western Victoria, six full-term uterine embryos were observed in 
two cases. 

Numbers of /I. greiji taken in the Kleuricu Peninsula were kept in eaplivity 
for varying periods under conditions similar to those described for Pseudomy.s 
{Cijomtjs) apodcmokles in my paper <if 1941 On a diet of mixed grain, potatoes 
and hard fruit, which was always present in the cages in excess of require- 
ments, and supplemented by a small ration or egg, honey, powdered mffR and 
fat bacon, it appeared to thrive and produced and reared young. Water was 
drunk sparingly when supplied, but is not essential, and two groups, one captive 
burn and one wild, lived through a hot summer without it. 

In general, it proved to be a vigorous, restless and aggressive little creatine. 
The males made almost ceaseless attempts frrt escape and frequently succeeded by 
gnawing holes in the wire netting, but the escapees made little use of their 
freedom, seemed nonplussed by their enlarged surroundings and were usually 
easily retrapped in the vicinity of the cages. I cannot confirm Wood Jones' 
(1925) description ol its gkntlfi* character. Its failure to bite when handled 
(which is not invariable) .seems to be due to a paralysis of fear rather than 
to tolerance, and though it may not move away when touched, it heiiueiirly 
trembles, its tail beats an invuluntacy tattoo and its ayes bulge in their sockets. 
Impressions of temperament no doubt depend on the social balance of the 
communities observed, The groups which I have watched always contained 
an excess of males and under these conditions it appears in a very different hfjir. 
Its libido during the season is quite insatiable and under stress of sexual com- 
petition it wages relentless war on all rivals real or potential and either kills or 
incapacitates them or enforces a recognition ol its dominance. New additions 
in the colony were always treated with hostility though they all came from a 
very restricted ami of the Peninsula. On at least one occasion house mice 
straying into the cage were killed and eaten. 

Naluial vegetation from the site of capture was used to eaipet I he cages 
and hollow logs and nest boxes were provided for shelters; these were generally 
occupied by pairs, but solitary males often made grass nests for themselves in 
the corners, either of an open cup-shaped form (PL 2. Fig. A) or a much 
laigei domed structure, with an entrance near the base (PI. 2 Fig. R). Much 
time and labour were expended In eOnstmcUng these nests, whicK arc not just 
random heaps of material, but were made by interweaving selected stems. 
They were demolished and rebuilt al frequent intervals, and nest building is 
evidently an important natural industry of the species. Transference of a 
group to a new' cage was always Followed by a tremendous burst of activity, 
all crannies and furnishings being examined in minute detail and moved if 
possible. At .such times it ventured out heck in daylight, but ordinarily its 
activities were strictly nocturnal, II gave no evidence ol any special climbing 
ability, and though it clambcied about the netting un occasion, it made no use 
• •I the perches provided. The voice is much in evidence in young animals, but 
adults are rather silent, except when fighting nr threatened, when they squeal 
harshly. The ectoparasite Laelaps sp. which >'s almost always normally present 



A2-H H. tf. HNLAYSON 

in the wild, tends to increase unduly in captivity but may be checked by fre- 
quently dusting with pyrethruiu. 

The following serial notes cover some points of general interest in the de- 
velopment of a litter in captivity. The female, having left her male and begun 
to make a nest separately, -was transferred alone to a smaller cage, where four 
young were born next day (September 8) at unascertained intervals, They were 
uniformly pink on all surfaces and smooth and very vocal, using a shrill bird- 
like trail when left in the cold by the mother. If disturbed at the nest she fre- 
quently jumped out, dragging some of the young with her, but they did not 
adhere firmly to the nipples. The female had but four of the ten mammae 
functioning— two inguinale and twu pectorals. 

Ai 5 days: The young were removed from the nest, examined and weighed, 
using a stoppered weighing bottle; weight 5 g. They were now perceptibly 
darker above than below and wrinkled; the mystieial vibrissac quite apparent 
and all white. When returned to the nest, the young were immediately flung out 
by the mother and rolled to and fro on the grass of the floor with her hands 
for a minute or more. She then took them in ber mouth and carefully replaced 
theni in the nest. This decontamination rite was frequently, but not invariably, 
earned out on future occasions of handling. 

At 9 days: Dorsum now much darker than ventrum and completely clothed 
m a fine lead coloured down which is linged with yellow on nape. The neslliugs 
>verc vigorous but not capable of locomotion- 

At 12 days: All young weighed 8 g.; pelage considerably advanced, the 
yellow areas extending nearly to the rump and on the outer aspect of the fore- 
limb a conspicuous patch of lead coloured underfur has appeared. Though stdl 
blnul thev could now scramble slowly over a bench, The three males were 
recognisable by minute paired spot?* of pigmented epidermis on the scrotal sites. 

At 16 days. Pelage now markedly thicker, but or the same length and cover- 
ing all the trunk and hmlm but not the ears nor tail. The young were able to 
remain balanced on all four limbs and to walk an inch or two. 

At 19 days: Weight 10 g>; furring of body and appendages complete; on 
the tail both scutatiou and hairs were appareut and its dorsal surface distinctly 
darker than below; dorsum of the pes haired with pure white on the toes only, 
that on the Tnetatarsal area hiring slightly darkened at base. The soles of the 
pes were now darkened to a pale slate colour, but the palms of the manus, pink. 

At 4 weeks: Eyes opened on the 22nd day. When removed from the nest 
the young jumped freely and ran and climbed about the cage and when handled 
made determined attempts to bite; the lower incisors were still white. 

Af 6 weeks: 3 13 g.; 6 11 g.; fi 13 g.; ? ]3 g. The pigmented scrotal sites 
are still conspicuous and in the female (here is no vulval occlusion. Though 
they were not seen to voluntarily leave the nest they undoubtedly do so at night 
and ore taking solid food freely. Rotit upper and lower incisors were nmv 
yellow, but the former much darker. On tnc 34th day one of the 13 g. males 
wiib found drad; head and body. 73, tail., fifl. pes, 20, ear, 15-5 X 10; rhinarium 
to eye, 12; eve to ear. 12, skull greatest length. 25-6. The third molar had not 
yet erupted. 

At 8 weeks: Another male found dead and partly eaten; the survivors 
weighed $ 14 g.; v 16 g. 

Af 9 weeks. * 23 g.; s 33 g. The young had not been under close obser- 
vation since last weighing and the remarkable disparity in size was rjUfte im~ 
expected; the male appeared to be entirely normal and healthy and active but 
was much less bulky than the female. Areas of exposed epidermis were still 
relatively unnigmentod and when exposed to sunlight or handled, the light 



RATTUS CREYF GRAY AND ITS DITJUVATIVKS 1:2-0 

coloured parts of maims, tail, pes and rhinariUm, but not the ears, became deep 
pink. They were still comparatively leggy and awkward; they climbed about 
the ucttmg more than adults but showed' mi agility at it. The male, having 
given evidence of nil. the dam was removed from the cage. 

At 10 week*: .5 30 g.; 9 38 g. \t this time the pair made a grass nest 
exactly as fabricated by the wild bom rats, and shared it. Regular observation 
and weighing had to be abandoned at this point, but in the next six months 
the young weathered their first summer successfully on the standard diet and 
without water. They were somewhat tamer than wild caught specimens, but 
the male always attempted to bite when handled. The pelage was now gener- 
ally similar to that of the duller coloured adults, but less dense and glossy, and 
with fewer guard hairs and correspondingly reduced grizzle, 

At 37 ivecks: The female was found dead, having delivered four premature 
young, head and body, 136; tail 130; pes 27-5; ear, 19 '< ll-Si weight SO g.; 
these dimensions arc still somewhat below the approximate means of adult wild 
females, as selected by molar wear in the sequel (infra). 

The surviving male was mixed in with u wild caught group or both sexes. 
but after resisting steady persecution for six months with varying success, lie 
was removed to a cage of his own where he outlived the entire colony, dying 
during ;i heat wave on January 13, 1939, when day temperatures rose to 113 dcg. 
in the shade; head and body, 151; tail, incomplete; pes, 27; ear, 20 * 12: wt, 
145 g.; skull greatest length, 35 • J , These values for head and body and weLght 
exceed the approximate means of the adults of the wild caught series, but somo 
others, notably the pes, are much lower, though all fall within the. range except 
the weight. This exceeds the maximum for the wild caught group by 30 per 
cent and was due to excessive fat. The skull length barely attains the minimum 
h"tr the wild "adult" group subsequently measured (infra). 

The death of this male at two years four months of age was almost certainly 

|)remature arid probably due to heat apoplexy. Though the skull characters jhftj 
wve been modified by captivity, they do not suggest an aged condition, when 
compared with the oldest of the wild series, A life span for the species in 
nature of three nr lour years seems probable. 



2. DEFINITION OF A STANDARD POPULATION OF 
R. GREYt CRRY1 DRAY, hSJI 

The material examined below, which i^ later used as a standard series for 
assessing the status of other populations, was taken near the heads of the Cal- 
lawonga, First, Boat Harbour, Tupaiwppn and BlaeldVllows Creeks in thfl 
Flcurieu Peninsula at the southern extremity of the Mt. Lofty Range. Thut it 
may be accepted as representative ot the primary subspecies is indicated (within 
the' limitations inherent in such comparisons) by the consonance of die lectotype 
with the range of variation now described and by the specific statement of 
Thomas (1921), that Wood Jones' donation from Mt. Compass was in agree- 
ment with the lectotype; this locality being but a few miles north in the ranges 
and presenting very similar ecological conditions to those of the drainage of 
the creeks named. 

A strict interpretation of the term "vicinity of Adelaide" might put the 
type locality on the coastal Adelaide-Wakefiekl plain, which has some claim to 
be considered as a disiincl natural region, differing from the highlands fifty miles 
to the south, which yielded the present material, in lower rainfall, higher mean 



t&i ir. n. fintaysov 

temperatures and, of course, in soils and vegetation. As will be shown later, 
the few* specimens which arc certainly known from this plain, show slight differ- 
ences, and give colour to the vbw that the type locality lies in the Hills district 
to the south. 

The Fleurieu series comprises 45 individuals representing an adequate range 
of sexual, sca.son.al and age phases; approximately one half of it is in the form 
uf skins and skulls, with the remainder alcohol preserved. The sex ratio is 
23 & : 22 9 . 

(ri) EXTERNAL CHARACTERS 

Sij^e small; the phase <rf the .species under consideration being one uf tl>e 
smallest of Australian rats. Limbs and appendages slender and delicate and the 
body build light and gracile, the dumpiness, which has been remarked (Wood 
Jones, 1925), being due to posterior lengthening of pelage rather than to a 
somatic character. The head (Pi 3 f Fig. A) is relatively large in comparison 
to body length and general bulk and has a well arched profile and but medium 
rostral development. The car is thin in substance, bluntly rounded and carried 
conspicuously free from the head fur. The eye is large and prominent, and 
under emotional stress is capable of a remarkable degree of protrusion. 

The facial inbrissae are relatively very strongly developed in R, greyi; all 
sets are well represented and the mysticials, gcnals and supraorbitals in par- 
tieuku are very long though slender bristles with extremely attenuated tips. As 
they are much subject to shortening fey abrasion and breaking, the lengths 
quoted have been taken from a selected group of apparently undamaged 
examples, and except for the mvsticials which alone have been used compara- 
tively, the maximum observed length only is quoted, 'llir counts have been 
made on fully furred examples., which in the case or the smaller bristles, present 
more difficulty than 111 earlier nude or part furred stages, so that these numbers 
arc subject to correction. 

In the mysticial set. the shorten anterior, members are white for the greater 
part of their length, the remainder blackish brown with white tips; length in 
adults ranges bom 42-53 with an approximate mean of 46-7; the three longest 
example's were supplied by males, but the mean for females is almost as high 
(46*0 ef'. 47 "1). The pencil set is most frequently reduced to a single bristle, 
hul rarely two of almost the same length and vet very closely together, may lie 
pjesent; maximum 29 mm. Supraorbitals apparently normally two. though only 
a single bristle survives in some and a third very small member may be present 
in others: these, with the geuals, have the same colour distribution as the longer 
mysHeials; maximum 32 mm. A pastoral papilla is strongly and consistently 
developed at a site about 6 mm, behind the oral canthus and supports three 
hristles'. the longest (to 14 mm.) being dark at base and white tipped and the 
other two entirely white. The submental* are often difficult to delimit as a 
m<*dian group since numerous irregularly disposed bristles extend from the 
midline across to the angle of the mouth, where they are often longer than on 
the name site; the longest noted was 7 mm. and all are white to bast*. The 
int.crratnah are also difficult to define in furred material owing to a tendency- 
id the median papilla to break up into two or even (luce separate papillae, each 
{WOVfdcd with sensory hairs so IqaJ A total of six or more may be present; the 
argent complement noted on the median site was four, and the maximum length 
14 mm.: these, like the submentals, are all white to the base. 

The manus (PI. 3, Figs. C and D) is slender and narrow, with a length 
from the base of the metacarpal pads to the summit of the apical pads ( excluding 



rurrus ftfljEYj c;kay and its derivatives 1:11 

claw) raugiug in fully adult examples from 13*0-14*0 mm* and the breadth 
transversely across the paltn from the base of the 2nd digil from 4*5=5*0 mm. 
yielding un approximate rueau breadth/length ratio of 0*37; the 3rd dig?t til 
5 5 mm. anil its claw to 2-5 mm. as maxima. The digital formula (length only) 
is 3>4>2>5> 1 but 4>3 occurs rarely, and the 4th digit is always the 
stoutest. The claws are moderately developed, yellow horn coloured and witli 
a free projection about equal to the apical pads and lightly fringed with 
bristles. The pollex is relatively well developed and its nail is large and con- 
spicuous dorsally. The genera! colour of the palmar surface in life is pink; 
the central portions are deeply creased hot not punctate nor granular. The 
grooves of the palmar surface of tho digits are deeply incised and the 4-5 senii- 
annolar ridges which they enclose are prominent and entire distally. but the 
proximal two are commonly broken up into scales, in a more decided fashion 
than is usual in Australian Roltus* 

The pahnor pads are smooth and rounded in outline but are relatively large 
and with bold relief; the surfaces are feebly striate. The intcrdigitals are 
mounted on prominent folds uf integument which in available illustrations 
(Wood Jones (1925). Bra7enor (1936) op. cit.) are not always distinguished 
from the pads themselves, so that very <lifferent conditions appear to he attri- 
buted lo the species. The metacarpals vary considerably in shape and area 
and have extensions on to the lateral aspects of the manus, which complicate 
tin? overall appraisal under these heads. The alitor metacarpal (hypothenar) 
is always the longer and extends lower towards the carpus and in pa hoar aspect 
is usually twice as long as broad, and a pointed oval in shape. The inner meta- 
carpal is shorter and broader and is sometimes equal and rarely greater in area 
than the ou(er; its palmar portion is roughly an inverted U or bell shape, with 
a depression between the arms and an accessory fold on the lateral aspect 
towards the pollex, separated fiom the main portion by a distal notch. The 
interdigitals are somewhat more constant, the most frequent shape being an 
inverted broad piriform lor (he median pad and inverted cardiform for the 
1st and 3rd. The 3rd interdigilal has a small circular satellite pad at its postero- 
external angle with a frequency of about 90 per cent., which, however, may be 
reduced to a dependant heel or disappear altogether, in point of area the pre- 
vailing pad formula is; outer metacarpal > inner metacarpal > 2nd intcirligiUil 
> 3rd > 1st 1 , but as shown above the metacarpals may be equal, or the inner 
tile larger. 

Neither median antebrachial nor anconcal vibrissae were traced on the 
fureliinb in the available material: (he ulnar carpals are 4-5 in number, arranged 
in two groups, and arc pure white to base with the longest of the set reaching 
13 mm. as a maximum. 

The pfts. relative to head and body length, is one of the longest amongst 
Australian species of LlattUit, with an approximate mean value in adults ol IS)' 7 
per cent, irf the h<r&d and body, and also one of tho narrowest, the ratio of 
breadth across the sole from the l>ase ot the 1st digit, to the length, averaging 
about 0-22. It tapers gently for most of its length and has a well constricted 
calcaneal portion; the 3rd digit reaeh+'s 7 mm., its claw 3 5 mm. and the liallux 
4 mm., as maxima. The digital formula is as in the maims and the 4th digit 
again usually 'he stoutest; the claws sharp and delicate, coloured as in the 
manus, but with longer fringing bristles which may exceed them by their own 
length. Digital rings increased to ft on the 2nd, 3rd and 4th and all except 
the distal member divided into 2 (or basally into 3) large scales. The colour 



1 The 2nd of the primitive ptriitaduetyl manus. 



132 H. If, F1NLAYSON 

of the sole is pale pink with the central portions sometimes darkened with an 
infusion of slate* which, however, dues not extend to the pads. 

The plantar path are strongly developed and more definitely striate than 
in the mamis. The inner metatarsal in this series is notable in being broader 
than usual and generally lacks the long, djawn-out, comma-shaped tail, commun 
in the germs; in shape it is an irregular oval narrowing proximally but widi its 
maximum breadth uHeu more than half its length. The outer metatarsal is 
broad oval or nearly round and only one-quarter car less of the area of the inner. 
The median interdigitals are regularly pirifnim and the laterals inverted cardi- 
form; the 1st with a slight depression towards die heel, and die 4lh with a distinct 
separate satellite pad at the postcro-c.xtcrnal angle in 50 per cent, of eases only; 
in the remainder, it may be represented by an accessory fold or heel or be 
entirely absent (20 per cent.); much more rarely a heel or satellite may appear 
at the base of the 1st intejdigital. In adults, the most frequent size relation i.s: 
inner metatarsal > 3rd interdiqitul > or = 2nd >4th > 1st > outer metatarsal; 
this accounts for 85 per cent, of cases, but it is characteristic of the species that 
the lateral interdigitals arc large with respect to the median and a condition 
of subcquality between all four may be reached; in two cases the median inter- 
digitals are larger than the inner metatarsal. 

Calcaneal vibrissae were nut traced. 

The tail is slender and gently tapered, with attenuated apex and no ter- 
minal expansion The relation of its length to thai of the head and body ranges 
from 85-110 per cent, with an approximate mean of 94-3 per cent. In the group 
of seven species which have been chiefly used in these comparisons and com- 
prising R. grvyu assimili 1 }, lutreoh, villosissimm, collctti, norvegkw, and H. 
tjtexandrimts, tins mean is exceeded by the latter atone. In the entire series of 
H zreyi from the Fleurien Peninsula, the length of tail equals or exceeds that 
of the head and body in about 24 per cent, ol eases and the distribution of the 
frequency uf this relation shows only slight differences between jj and f 
(26 cf. 21 per cent) and adults and stibadults (22 ef. 25 per cent), so that the 
variation in this feature is veiy largely an individual one. Scale counts were 
not made upon animals in the field, but as the range observed in alcohol pre- 
served material and In filled skins is identical, it is probable that the results 
obtained are characteristic of this* form. The middorsal count in adults ranges 
from 12-14 per cm., 13 scales having the highest frequency (54 per cent.) and 
14. 38 per cent. Proximally, the dorsal counl averages slightly less, while dis- 
tally it may rise as high as 21 per cm, at the apex, m subadult and immature 
phases the count is decidedly higher., the middorsal number ranging from 13-15 
per cm. with frequencies of 44 per cent, for 15 scali.*s > 31 per cent for 14 and 
25 per cent, for 13. Hie number of hairs per scale is normally three, but shows 
considerable irregularity dorsally, especially towards the base, where it may 
van from one to three. The length of tail hairs is from 2-2-5 scales rniddorsally 
and increases distally. The tail is decidedly darker above than below in a 
larg<> majority of specimens, both scales and hairing contributing to the eifeet, 
but the degree of the difference varies widclv and it may be almost as pole 
above as below, but in never darker below. Light eolnuredepidermal markings. 
possibly traumatic in origin, are sometimes present and rarely as much as 20 
mm. at the apex may be entirely white> both as to epideirms and hair. 

The mammary formula in lactating females examined is 2^3 ~ M» but in 
subadults or quiescent adults, the nipples arc very completely retracted and in 
many of these the pectoral and sometimes the thoracic as well, could not be 
traced by ordinary macroscopic examination under a lens, but whether !hey 
are completely suppressed as implied by Wood Jones (op. ciC) remums to be 



EATTUS GuTCYI GRAY AND ITS DERIVATI\ 7 ES 133 

shown. As mentioned above, in a female lactating in captivity for four young, 
only four of the ten were functioning; two pectorals and two abdomino-inguinals. 
The pectoral and thoracic nipples lie respectively just in advance and just behind 
the insertion of the forclimb and upon lines which diverge posteriorly, the 
thoracic being always more laterally sited. The abdomino-inguinals show con- 
siderable variation in pattern due to changes in both the lateral and antero- 
posterior intervals separating them. An evenly-spaced erescenUe arrangement 
(Text Fig. 1 A) is frequent, but a rectilinear "form in which the 2nd and 3rd 

O O G 



© G 

G G 



© G GO 

O © 



G G 
G 

u 



Fig. 1. 

Diagram showing extremes of variation in the mammary 

pattern of H. greyi greyi (x 1*0 ca. ). 

are nearer both to the midline and to one another, than to the 1st, also occurs 
(Text Fig. 1 B) as well as intermediate conditions. The B pattern is apparently 
that noted by Tate (1951) in thej form R. g. peccafus from West Victoria. The 
intervals represented in the diagrams were meastired with die limbs extended 
laterally to the maximum. The first (lower abdominal) lies well in advance 
of the insertion of the hind limb. 

The testis is relatively very large and at its maximum development in the 
scrotum has diameters of 23 and 14 mm. approximately and weighs about 2 g.; 
it is as large as in the much bulkier R, lutreola of the same habitats, but a more 
squat oval in shape. The scrotum is well furred except at the caudal extremities, 
which arc nude and have the epidermis pigmented dark gray. The epidermis 
of the perineal site in the female is also darkened slightly, but the pigment is 



KM !l. H. f'JNLAYSON 

diffused and not concentrated on the two distal sites us in the male. In adulls 
the genital tubercle has a free projection of about B mm in both sexes- 
Sexual variation in external characters except where noted in the account is 
slight or largely obscured by individual variation. 

(b) DIMENSIONS 

The four chief dimensions quoted were obtained as follows: Head and 
body— This is the total length of the dorsal contour, minus the tail length. Tail— 
The length of the ventral surface of the tail from the posterior margin of the 
anus to apex of the last vertebra, excluding the terminal hair. The measure- 
ment is made with the tail Hexed at right angles to the body. Pe.v— The length 
of the plantar surface from the extremity of the heel to the extremity of the 
most distant apical pad, excluding the claw, the digits being straightened and 
tn line with the metatarsal. Ear— Length from the lowest point of the tragojd 
notch td the apex of pinna. 

The figures give the range and approximate mean for two overlapping age 
groups.; (1) an adult plus aged group of 10 males and 6 females in which all 
molar crowns have sustained sufficient wear to obliterate the pattern of indi- 
vidual cusps and replace it by on^ of transverse lophs and in which rostral de- 
velopment is marked and the zygomatic outline untapered, and (2) an advanced 
subaduk group of 9 males and 13 females in which all cusps show appreciable 
wear and tbe rostral development is less. In the adult group the range and 
approximate mean of the percentage relation of length of tail, pes, and car, to 
that of head and body, follow the absolute dimensions. Head and body and tail 
are to the nearest mm,: others to the nearest 0-5 mm. 

1. Head and bodv, 6 138-159(146-7), 9 139-153 ( 1 15-0); tail, J} 130- 
353 (139-7), S4-7-H0-0 (9G-1) p^r cent., ? 127-146 (134-6). 33-9-104-0 
(92*5) percent.: pes, 3 27-32 (29-3), 17-2-22-2 (19- -9) per cent., ? 28-28-5 
(28-2), 181-20-1 (19-4) per cent; car length, $ 20-22 (21-1). 13-3-15-8 
(14-3) per cent., 9 19-21-5 (20-2), 13-1-14-6 (13-9) per cent.; ear breadth, 
& 11-13-5(12*2)., V 11*13 (12-lhrhinarium to eye, & 17-19(18-4). j? 16-19 
( 17*9). eye to ear, | 13-5-16 (M-o), 9 14-16 (15*1); weight in grammes, t 
80-142 (9'2-7), 9 70-90 (S2-6). 

2. Head and body, $ 120-146 (131 8), ? 122-145 (131*8); tail, i 115- 

137 (125-0). Q 115-135 (123-2): pes, ,* 27-30-5 (28-5), g 26-5-29 (27-8); 

ear length, i 19-21 (197), ? 18-21 (19-7); ear breadth, 10-14 (11-9), 3 

10-13-5 (11-8); rhinarium to eve. 16-18 (17-0), 9 16-18 (16-9); eye to ear, 

,'. 13-5-15 (14-1). 9 13-15 (13-8); weight hi grammes, £ 56-85 (67-4), y 

51-75 (65-7). 

Though there is a wide overlap in all dimensions between the sexes, it 
would appear that in fully adult animals, the female is approximately equal to 
t]\e male in head and body length, but is decidedly lighter when i ion-pregnant 
(10 per cL-mt.) and averages slightly shorter in pes, ear and tail. The enormous 
example quoted by Wood Junes (3925, 304) with a head and body length of 
186 mm. has no near counterpart in this series The very low foot length of 
26 mm. associated with it, suggests that the former may be a typographical 
error. 

(c) PELAGK 

The pelage is fine and soft and in prime condition is dense and copious and 
lmddorsally consists of three piles: (1) a fine silky unclerfur of nearly uniform 
diameter and IS mm. long., the basal two-thirds is a deep slate (near Ridgway's 



RAttUS GRFYT CRAY AND ITS DERIVATIVES IVi 

dark plumbeous) and the terminal one-third is broken up into three colour 
bands, successively dark brown black, a bright tan between ochraceuus tawny 
and ochraceous orange, and the extreme Up again brown blaclc; this pile is 
both quantitatively and chromatically the most important element in the pelage; 
(2) a second pile may reach 25 mm. in length and is made up of much smaller 
number* of Itairs with flat snorts wlu'eh broaden in the upper third of thcir 
length; they are plumbeous at base, but with the terminal 6 mm. brown black 
and the extreme tip buff or ivory; (3) a sparse admixture of guards which reach 
35 mm. in length and darken from plumbeous tu brown black over their distal 
half. Posteriorly the three sets of hairs may lengthen to 20, 30 and 45 mm.. 
respectively and over the ramp and sides an increasing proportion of the latter 
aie tipped with white or ivory. 

The general colour effect dornuJIy is a fine almost uniform grille nf rich 
tan, brown black and buff or ivory which almost entirely obscures the basal 
slate colour and when viewed from a littlt* distance approximates to Ridgway's 
cinnamon brown in the warmest and lightest coloured individuals, and to bistre 
In the coldest and darkest. 

The sides arc lighter than the back owing to a progressive weakening of 
the subterniinal band to a buity brown and reduction in the overlay of black 
tipped guards, but in most individuals the lateral surfaces remain distinctly 
grilled and the passage to the pale veutrum is abrupt. Mid-vcntrally. there 
are two piles; an underfur 10 mm. long with its basal S mm. a somewhat Jightej- 
plumbeouv than dorsally and with the tips greyish white or pale buff and a 
sparse uUcnnjxture of guards 15 mm. long which are slate with the distal flat- 
tened 5 mm. white or near white The basal slate shows through more than 
on the dorsum and the general colour here is a greyish white with a more in 
less decided wash of yellow or buff over the belly. Gray (1841) singled out 
this variation of the yellow tune of the vent rum in his original description; but 
in tile whole of the present series it is appreciable and sometimes decided over 
the mid-bell v. while the throat, chest and perineal areas may remain grey 
white. In a few examples there i» an invasion of the belly area just in advance 
of the insertion bf the hind limb, by the buff or brown of die sides. 

The facial areas and crown are paler and inore huffy than the back, though 
still well grizzled. The ear backs in dried material are usually darker than 
the head, chiefly owing to the blackish pigmentation of the epidermis, (he very 
scant hairing being a pale brown externally and greyish white internally — in 
a small proportion, however, greyish ear "backs lighter than the head are 
present. The outer aspects of the forehmb arc greyer than elsewhere— about 
Ridgway s light drab, and long haired, and just above the carpus a conspicuous 
dark brown black marking is constantly developed, sharply contrasted with the 
silverv white carpus and manus; the hairs of the latter, however, are usually 

f)ale brown at base and there is sumetimes a very slight grizzling of all-dark 
nuts* over the metacarpus. The outer aspects of the hind limb are brown like 
the sides, with a slight darkening above the caleaneum sometimes developed, 
and with the dorsum of the pes as fn the manus. 

The tail is thinly clad with short hairs closely adpressed inid-dorsally and 
then lifting and lengthening slightly distally. Tn untaded pelage, the dorsal 
suitaee is decidedly darker (both as to hairs and epidermis) than the ventral — 
tile mid-dorsol hairs being new bistre darkening to near black at the apex, while 
cm the sides and beneath they are greyish white proximal ly and various shades 
of weak brown, distally. However, as m<mtioned above, as a result of what 
are no doubt periodic changes in each individual dark strongly tricolor tail* 
and others which are equally pale on alt surfaces, may be seen at all seasons. 



136 If. H. FIKLAYSON 

Variation of a strictly individual kind is well shown by the series and may 
be seen in examples of equally fresh and copious pelage, trapped at the vame 
time on the same .site. In such eases it is due chiefly to marked differences in 
die tone and length of the subterminal band of the first pile and to the length 
aud profusion of the black overlay of the second and third- the white tips of 
the latter arc too sparse to have appreciable effect. In examples with a short 
subterminal band of relatively weak colour (ochraccous buff) with a heavy 
overlay of second pile and guards, dark blackish brown scarcely grizzled coats 
result," whereas, with a broad richly coloured band of uehraceous orange and 
few guards, the coat becomes strongly nifescent and appears markedly grizzled. 

in addition to these individual differences, there are others due to pro- 
gressive fading and delapidation of the pelage, resulting in a general weakening 
of the colour and a change of hue, caused by the showing through of the slate 
basal colour zone of all three piles. This leads to pale fluffy coats of a slightly 
avelktteous tinge, approaching wood brown, which is also more or loss charac- 
teristic of early immaturity. I am of opinion that this phase has unduly influ- 
enced some existing descriptions of the species. Wood Jones, for example, hi 
emphatically repudiating Ogilby's (1802) description, states lhat there is no 
"intense reddish" anywhere in the coat and that the smoky colour of the under- 
lie shows through and subdues the whole. This, however, is not true of the 
pelage at its best as described above, and it would be difficult to avoid the 
terms "red brown" and "blackish brown* in ordinary parlance, in defining such. 

Although the area has a hot summer and comparatively sharp winter with 
marked difference of mean day temperatures in February and July, seasonal 
differences lu the pelade arc at a minimum. While the richest pelage t»f the 
series was taken in August others of almost equal quality were seen in February 
aud May, and conversely, worn, short and faded coats were obtained in all 
three months. The time of renewal of the coat is evidently an individual matter 
independent of seasonal conditions and following a cycle determined largely 
by the time at which the rat was littered. No evidence of an orderly moult 

Eroceeding successively over different areas of the surface, with well marked 
oundaries between the old and new coats, could be detected; but in two indi- 
viduals taken in May, large areas of both dorsal and ventral surfaces, simul- 
taneously:, showed a short replacing coat mingling with the base of the main pile. 
Nu valid sexual differences in pelage could be traced. 



(d) CRANIAL AND DEXTAL CHARACTERS 

Twenty skulls, all extracted from animals of known external characters 3ud 
dimensions, have been e\amineil and measured, 

The skull (Pi. 1, Figs. A-D) is notable for its smoothly rounded outlines 
and weak muscular impressions, which arc retained without appreciable altera- 
tion into advanced age- This gives it a distinctive appearance which at nnce 
marks it off from other Australian species of Ratitts, and recalls somewhat the 
form of the larger species of rscudowys $,s. 

The muzzle is of moderate length but very narrow and with a marked ten- 
dency to parallelism of its sides. The maximum width of nasals i.s always suh- 
ternunal, but fluctuates over a 20 per cent, range, with corresponding variation 
in the overall shape Of the bones which, however, never develop an abrupt or 
bulbous expansion. The fronto-nasal suture i.s usually broad and square imd 
the premavillioiy process may overlap it posteriorly or fall short. The zygomatic 
outline is broad with some flattening at the mid point of the curve and with 



RATTUS GRKYI GKAY AND TTS DERIVATIVES 15? 

the maximum witltli <il\vays at the squamosa) root, but in adults the middle 
width is almost as peat and it is only in distinctly subadult skulls that there 
ft anv appreciable posterior laper of the arch, The interorhital region tends 
to be tubular and smooth, and the supraorbital margins are not ridged. The 
bruin case is broad and smoothly rounded and temporal crests are only slightly 
developed or even quite absent. The lacrimals are lajge, and the antt*orbital 
ft issue, though variable, are never srnm<dy developed and are sometimes con- 
spicuously small. 

In lateral aspect the dorsal profile is well arched but less so than in such 
forms as K cuhnorntn and R. luin:olt\. The zygomatic plate is shorter vertic- 
ally than in R, assimilh\ but is otherwise .similar and its anterior margin may be 
either strictly vertical or with a slight concavity at base. Conflicting statements 
have been made about the size and shape of' the anterior palatal foramina in 
it greyi and their relation to that of ft. ammilis. In the present series the adult 
condition Lv that length is comparatively constant and always decidedly greater 
than the molar rows, but width (like that of the nasals) is nm* oF the most 
variable of dimensions, with a range of 15 per cent, or more — however, in 
relation to such species as R. culmorum and httreola they could only be described 
as wide, and though the exact shape is variable, their combined aperture docs 
not narrow posteriorly at all markedly as in a&nmihs and is sometimes as wide 
pmterioTlv as in the middle. The bullae are small with their length about equal 
to that of the molar rows, but ihev are relatively broad and well rounded. 

Age changes in the skull arc less marked than usual, buL can generally bo 
recognised in the change in shape of the Tvgomatie arches above mentioned and 
in the elongation of braincase and rostrum, Sexual differences are inappreciable 
in the subadult t>roup; m that of adults the largest example is from a very aged 
male and is disproportionately enlarged in relation to its somatic dimensions — 
whether females equally enlarged occur, the material is insufficient to dcterminr. 

lu the molars (Pi' 1.. Figs. E and F}» >rnall but distinctly developed an- 
terior cin^ular cuspids can be made nut on .VI 1 in about one-third uf the irn- 
nvHure skulls and vestiges of them persist in one or two adult dentitions. The 
buccal element (T.3) of the first lamina of the same tooth is usually very eom- 
p'ctc'y suppressed but is weakly indicated in a few examples, in Hie lower 
molars thfc interproximal accessory cusps nf Vb and M* are always present in 
unworn teeth, but are often very small and are frequently eliminated from 
the adult dentition by wear. The rale of molar wear is stibfeet to much Itw- 
tfulanty owing, no doubt, to varying amounts of earthy abrasive invested with 
the food, and the crown pattern by itself is only a veiy rough guide to age. 
There arc several examples in the series of distinctly immature animal? judged 
by somatic and cranial characters, in which the cusps of all the laminae are. 
transversely linked by broad bands of dentine. 

The tallowing figures give in turn the range and approximate mean of the 
skull measurements and molar rows for (I) five males and two females in the 
adult group as defined (supra)* and (2) fiver males and four females in the 
subadult group; 

Greatest length, 8 35-7-38-7 (36-7), i 35-S-36-9 (36-3), j 33-0-35*0 
(33-7), ? 32-G-.34-3 (33*6); basal length, 4 31*0-34-3 (32-3), C 31M-32 5 
(32-0), 4 28-6-30-1 (29 -J), 5 28 • 5-30*4 (29-5 »; zygomatic breadth, i 17 ■ 5- 
lft-9 (17-9, 6 18- 1-18-2 (13-15), 6 16-9-17-5 (17-0), 9 16 -3-17-2 (16-Ui; 
ioterorbital breadth. } 5-0-5 7 (5 4), *4-S-5I (4-9), 3 50-5F> (5-2), 5 
5-0-5-0 (S-0); nasiils lengtli, 6 13-2-14-5 (13*8), * 13-8-14*0 (13-0), 3 
12 j2-13 (12-6), 3 II -6-12-7 (12-1); nasals greatest breadth. 3 3-3-4*1 
(3-5), 5 3- 8-3-8 (3-8). $ 3-2-3*9 (3'fi), ? ?*&3*S <3'4); paJntal length, 



133 


H. H 


i 18-6-20-5 (19-3), 


? 19-2-19-2 



FINLAYSON 

19*2), & 17-5- UM (17--S), 9 17-3-18-2 

( 17 7 I anterior palatal foramina, length, g 7-2-7-5 (7-3), $ 7 -3-7 -3 (73), 
t 6-5-6-8 (6-7), * 6-5-7-0 (6* fi ); ditto, breadth, s 2-3-2-7 (2-5). 9 2-3- 
2-4 (2-35), i 2-0-2-4 (2-2), 9 2-0-2-3 (2-2); bulla, length, 6 61-67 
(6-3), ? 60-G-l (fi-05), ^ 5-8-fi-3 (6*0), 2 5-8-6-3 (6 : 1); Ms/-*, $ 
6-2-6-3 (626), 9 5-8-5*9 (5*85), i 5-H-6-3 (G-l), <? 5*9-6-3 (6-1). 



3. OTHER POPULATIONS OF R CREYl 
U) MAINLAND DISTRICTS NORTH OF FLEUKIEU PENINSULA 

A group of ten specimens from hill tracts north of the Flcurieu Peninsula 
in the valleys of the Stmt and Onkaparmga, offer no appreciable distinction 
from the standard series. Two examples are slightly shorter tailed and another 
gives an extralimital value of 58 mm. for rnysticial vibrissae. 

Three female specimens from a mangrove swamp near the mouth of the 
Cawler River about 20 miles north of Adelaide on the Adelaide- Wakefield plain 
in a very different environment from the Hills scries, are of interest as showing 
the first signs of significant differentiation. While in full agreement with th<* 
standard series in external characters and pelage, they carry the shortening of 
die tail a stage further (min. 78 per cent.) and are longer tooted (29-295 mm.). 
One of them provides the largest female skull from the South Australian main- 
land, measured (greatest length 27*3) and the anterior palatal foramina are 
longer and narrower (7-57-6 and 2'1-2'1 )> and the molar rows just below the 
lower limit of the range (5-7-5*8) and the individual leeth narrower than in 
the standards. 

I have no relevant material on which to base an independent opinion m 
to the extent of the westward extension of R, greyi UTCyi on the mainland, but 
bqth Iredale and Tronghton (1934, 72) and Tate (1951, 329) record it from 
Pt. Lincoln on Eyre Peninsula, Tatcs position in so doing was only made 
tenable by Ins willingness to accept Kangaroo Island as the type locality of the 
form which he regarded as R, greyi uusfrinus. But the few specimens from 
Kangaroo Island which I have examined convince me that the form of R. grr.yi 
which occurs there does not represent austrinus as defined by Thomas, and is, 
in fact, very doubtfully separable from the typical Fleurieu race on the opposite 
shore of Backstairs Passage. 

In spite of Thomas's assumption that his R. culmorum amfrinus was "a 
common form in South Australia in the 1S40V\ it does not seem to have found 
its way into any local collections, and its origins are as obscure, as when de- 
scribed. But whether it came from Kangaroo Island or Eyre Peninsula, or 
formerly occurred on both ? its place, on a nasis of described characters, seems 
to be definitely with culmorum and not groyl and it is not further considered 
here. 

Tentatively and as a working hypothesis I accept the above opinion on the 
range of R. greyi greyl but the Cawler River specimens suggest that the case 
may have been less simple than that. 

(b) GRKENLV ISLAND 

Tins site is a steep granite ridge with a peak of 750 feet at the eastern 
end and two semidetached masses at the western end, lying about 19 miles 
west-south-west of Point Whidbey on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula. The 



RATTUS CRKY! GRAY AND FTS DF.RIVATIVKS 139 

gre-ater part i>1 the island surface consists of unbroken rock slides, but near the 
summit and on the south slope where sume remnants of the original limestone 
capping persist there is a stunted tares* of Casuannct stricta trees and thickets 
of rlio same species in bush form, together -with Melaleucas, and Carrens ikxw 
un broken ureas of the north slope. TIrto is a considerable small flora in suit- 
able localities where soil has accumulated, including such genera as Airiplex, 
nff(i^<nti(i f Frankf'uki and Colundrinnui. 

The island is uninhabited and seldom visited. The writer made a six days 
stay there in November, 1947, to investigate the local wallaby, tracks of which 
hail been seen by Wood Jones (1923), and found a form of Battus gretji abun- 
dant on tiie main mass of the island. It apparently docs not burrow and there 
are few parts of the island where it could indulge such a hubtit except on a 
very limited scale, but there is ample ground cover in debris under the she- 
uak Umber and in the denser thickets and it evidently camps in such shelter 
nm\ in rock crannies. It is much less sophisticated and shy than its mainland 
relatives, and was frequently seen foraging about in the more open parts in 
the* late afternoons and at night it invaded the camp in numbers and could be 
freely inspect e*d in a torch beam at a distance of a foot or so — in the beam the 
eye is blood red. It was extremely newsy, ransacking all camp gear and sampling 
all provisions left unprotected. Although it must of necessity be largely vege- 
tarian, it showed a strong partiality fur flesh foods at the camp and multilatcd 
wallaby carcasses left there. The stomach contents of those examined consisted 
largely of tuberous vegetable material with seed case fragments and in two 
cases insects and remains of a (?) gecko. 

The material on which the following account is based comprises 23 indi- 
viduals:, belonging to three collections all from the main island, two made per- 
sonally in November. 1947, and February, 1949, respectively, and a third by a 
party which included South Australian Museum personnel, in December, 1947. 
The sev ratio in the combined collection is 16 *$ ; 7 9 . During November and 
December reproduction was evidently active, all males having enlarged scrotal 
testes and some females laetating, though no young were taken; in February., 
however, when only females were taken, their condition was quiescent, with 
occluded vulvae and strongly retracted nipples. 

Ectoparasites were present m large numbers and have been found by H. 
Womcrsley to include two species of fleas, Xcnyllopsis cheopia and Ccrataphtjllm 
fascUrfus; two species of acarids, Luefaps nutfoli Hirst and Haevuiphysalh Icochi 
And., and the louse UupJoplevru bidentata. Of eiulopara sites an extraordinarily 
heavy stomach infestation of nematodes was found in several individuals and 
theso have beon tentatively identified by Mrs- I, M. Thomas as species of 
Physatoplrt'tl and Protospirura. About one-third of the specimens examined 
showed pathological conditions in the tail and manus and pes, with malforma- 
tion of digits and ulceration of the papillae of facial vibrissas. In spite of these 
afflictions, however, the rats were commonly vigorous and well nourished, ;iml 
sometimes fat. 

The Greenly Island rat has attained a considerable level of differentiation 
both from that of the standard scries of the Meuricu Peninsula and from its 
jie^mtr neighbour R, gretji murmui Thos. of the Pearson Islands, about 60 mil** 
to the norVest. 

It is nearer the latter, especially in the more obvious characters of pelage. 
hut in other important respects is quite distinct and I p:nopose to separate it 
snbspccifically us 



140 H. H. PINT WSO\ 

RATTUS GflEYI PELOBI suhsp. nov. 

It may be diagnosed with respect to K. g. murrayi, as follows: 

A relatively large form, und when fully adult, thickset and bulky and with 
powerful hands and feet- General size considerably exceedingly vnmtiui and 
the tall and pes longer both absolutely and relative to head and body; trie pes 
much modified, broader and with structural differences noted hclow; tail scales 
finrr; pelage still paler and more grizzled, the car backs lighter than the head, 
nut darker* and the prccaTpal bar conspicuous, In the skull the anterior palatal 
foramina are shorter and the dentition less reduced, 

The longest mysttcial vibrissa in 13 apparently undamaged examples gave 
a range and approximate mean of 38-58 (45), The ear is thick in substance 
and relatively broad with a IV L ratio of 63- -75 ( -09), The manus is stouter 
than in the Fleurieu series, the 1J/L ratio averaging '42 as against *37, and 
though the size sequence of the. pads is the same, the individual pads are stouter 
and more squat and the metacarpals nearly always subequal. The pes is also 
noLably large and broad, the breadth Tanging from 7-8 5 and the B/L value from 
•22--27 (*25) as against 21-24 { -22.). The pad sequence is much the same. 
but the inner metatarsal tends to he smaller and narrower, while the rest of the 
pads, especially the interdigitals J. and 4 are rounder. Fresh ot alcoholic speci- 
mens of ft. g. tnurratji suitable tot accurate measurement have not been avail- 
able, hut direct comparison of dried material of all ihrec forms lias shown that 
the agreement of niuitatji. in manus and pes is with thr* standard Fleurieu series 
rattier than with that of Greenly Island and the above metrical comparison 
of the two latter is inserted to give an approximate estimate of the difference. 
The tail is stout and, by mainland standards, short although less so titan in 
nuirwyi, the mean percentage ot bead and body length being S8 per cent, as 
against 77 per cent, in the latter; the scale rows arc constantly 15 per em. mid- 
dorsully in adults, rising to 17 in subadults, as against 12-13 in adults of murrayi. 

The pelage is subject to much heavier wear than has been observed on the 
mainland and, as a consequence, differences due. Lo this factor are correspond- 
ingly high. The November and December batches contain many thin and lax 
coats, largely denuded uf guards Oil the rump and with a short replacement 
coat showing basally here and there on die dorsum, In February, however, 
the pelage was prime and in point of density about equal to thai of the Flemieu 
scries dorsally, but always thinner vcntrally. In spite of these differences, the 
general colour range is less than in the latter. The following notes are based 
chiellv on the prime pelage. Middorsally the three piles average 16, 18 and 
20 mm. in length, respectively, witli gtuuds on tlie posterior back from 40-45 
mm. The sxibtermirjuT band is a weak yellowish buff, never brown nor rufous, 
and is longer with less black or brown amiulutioii and less overlay from the 
guards. The general dorsal colour is a somewhat olivaceous 1 grey brown, near 
ftidgway's drab, very uniform from the crown of the head to tail base in good 
jieJage but irregularly mottled with wear, and with a tendency in November 
skins to a warmer scapular and darker lumbar area. The ear backs are paler 
than the head in dried skins though n<*t always appearing so m life. The sides 
are cnld drab merging imperceptibly with the ventrum which is pale plumbeous 
hasally for three-quarters of its length and weakly lipped with ivory buff, the 
general effect near drab grey. Ylamis ami pes may be pine white or feebly 
grizzled with drab or brown and there is always a conspicuous dark preeurpal 
hai on the outer aspect of the forelimb. The tail is long-haired as in munayi 
with hairs 3-3*5 scales in length when not abraded, and radier erect; its colour 

1 A sldn m ihi- South AnstTrtlioji \fu.%eum rande up from alcohol after 12 years untiiersinii, 
shows marked changes from ttw h».$li Condition lien, 1 described. 



RATTl.S GKKYI CRAY AND ITS DF-ttlVATlVES HI 

variable but most frequently a pale drab on all surfaces and with no dorsrv 
ventral contrast. . 

Tti pelage R- g; pfitori shows the same divergent trends from K. g. greiji as 

R. g, murmtjt does, but carries them a static further resulting in increased pallor, 
weaker and yellower *ubterminal colour and more conspicuous tarsal grizzling, 
especially on the head where the ear hacks arc lighter, not darker. !n the five 
$kly\$ oi'murrayi which have been used W &B comparison the tail is much 
darker on all surfaces than in. the new form but the standard series has shown 
this character to be so unstable that I hesitaLe lo advance it as a good distinction. 
Ffcslt DimetisioM-l'ht* following figures give in turn the range and approxi- 
mate mean for five adult ft and five adult 8, and of Efa type 6 . Head and 
hody, 158-IfiS (1B2-8), 117-162 (154-0), 168; tail, 127-145 (135*7), 1:37-142 
(139-7). 142; pes, 31-32 (31-3), 30-5-31 -3 (31-0), 31'5; ear length. 20-20 o 
Ufrtil \fy5&Q (19-9), 20-5; ear breadth. J3-15 (14-0), 13-14 (13-5). 13; 
weight in -ramme S> 110-111 (110-5), 91-105 (98-8), 110, 

"The adult skull is slightlv larger than that & R. g. mutrayi, but otherwise 
ix m general agreement vvirH it and in particular shares (in varying decree) 
the three man. distinctions of the Jatter from ffi fy gretji as defined (sitpra), i.e., 
slightly greater rostra! length, slightly broader bulla, and decidedly reduced 
molar 'rows. It differs fatal mwrayl in a wider interorbital region, shorter an- 
terior palatal foramina and in a smaller decree of molar reduction, especially 
noticeable in transverse diameters, which are scarcely below the Fleurieu stan- 
dards. Other minor differences from R, gmji ffem of an average kind are 
shown in the interparietal which in adulls are smaller; in the zygomatic plate 
winch tends to be higher and with a slightlv different curvature of the free 
margin and in the posterior margin of the pafate which is evenly rounded and 
not produced into a spur or prominence at the paMion. 

Skull (Hmt'mintu-Thc following figures give, in turn, the range and ap- 
proximate mean for five adult 6, three adult S 8 nnd the type £ : Greatest 
length. 36-6-39-0 (376), 36-0-37-3 (36-6), 37-5; basal Length, 32*1 35-6 
(33-7), 32-0-33-0 (32-4), 34*0; z.v^omatic breadth, IS*. r >-19-6 (18*9), lS-4- 
1S-5 (18-47), 190; interorbital breadth, 5-5-5-6 (5-56). 5-5-5-6 (5-57), 5-5; 
nasals lenelh, 14-2-14-8 (14-5), 13'7-14-n (14-1). 14-8; nasals Neatest breadth. 
3-7-4-0 (3'8). 3-6-3-7 (3-67), 3-7; palatal lcntUk 18-6-20-7 (19-6). 190-19S 
(19-3), 20*1; anterior palatal foramina, length, 6*8-7-2 (7-0), 6-7-6-7 (6-7), 
7-1; anterior palatal foramina, breadth. 2-3-2-6 (2-4 I, 2-2-2-5 (2*3), 2-5, 
bulla length, 6-2-6*6 (6-4), 6-l-6'2 (6-17), C-4; Ms} \ 56-5-fl (5 8), 5*5- 
5*8 (5-7), 5-9- 

'JHj/pc— Adult male; South Australian Museum, registered number M.6268- 
a, field-made skin and prepared skull collected by the writer in November. 1947, 
on the north slope of ihe main mass of Greenly Island, af- approximately .31 C, 39'S. 
tat. and 134'49'E. longt. 

(c) NORTH GAMB1KR BLAND 

Tin's islet of a few hundred acres, and about 150 feel high, lies about a 
mile and one-half norlh of the much larger Wedge Island in the Cumber Group 
at the mouth uf Spcueer Gulf at 35° 08'S, lat, and 136 e 28'l£. longt. approxi- 
mately. 

It is believed to be waterless and lias never had human occupation, nut 
Jong ago— possibly as early as 1820— goats were introduced and have persisted 
to fhe present time, and provide an "attraction for fishing cutters in search uf 
fresh, meat. Originally, the central portions of the plateau wore well grassed 
with Danthttyivs'uud supported groves f well-grown Casuannci trees. Twt as 



|4£ 11. ii. riM.AVSDN 

a result of an erosion cycle which I have sketched elsewhere (1951), this area 
has now been denuded to the limestone and only a narrow belt of bush vegeta- 
tion remains surrounding it on the cliff tops. This vegetated zone is colonized 
by mutton birds (Puffinus sp.) which burrow and by a local form of Rattus 
grey/, which lives chiefly under the tangle of a sprawling bush, Nitmria arhob'M, 
The rat was formerly in very large numbers, and boat crews killed them in spoil: 
by lifting up the tangle and sending terriers in after thorn. Although now much 
reduced- it still seems to have a good hold on these parts of die island, but in a 
short daylight visit in February, 1949, I succeeded in trapping only tlrree 
among the limestone blocks or the. cliffs on the south-east coast. 

The.se were two males and one female; one of the males with enlarged 
scrotal testes, the other retracted and the female apparently reproduetively 
cpiiescent. A motile ectoparasite (? lloplopleura) was noted, but not collected 

l!xte.rnally : this rat is somewhat intermediate between tlutt of Greenly and 
Pearson Isles. It is slightly smaller than the former and ha.s a slightly longer 
and narrower car, though still broad by mainland standard*. The pes, although 
smaller, is of the same broad robust type, with similarly rounded though smaller 
pads Mysticfal vibrissac range from 47-55 (50): the tail scales are coarser. 
13-14 per cm., and the tail hairs shorter. 2-l>5 scales length. The tone of the dorsal 
pelage is slightly warmer, but the general condition very similar; manus and 
pes pure white as they are in a proportion of the Greenly rut. 

I ksh Dimensions of the two £ ; and one 9 are as follows: Head and body, 
15^155. 132; tail 123436, 130; pes, 29-29, 27; e^r length, 21-21, 21; car breadth. 
13-13, 14; weight in grammes, 1(30-105, 80- 

The skull if regarded as fully adult, as the molar wt^ar and zygomatic shape 
suggest, is the smallest examined in this work and as compared with that of 
Greenly island is weak and fragile and lightly ossified. The nasals and rostrum 
arc .shorter and weaker, the bullae surallcr. and the anterior palatal foramina 
slightly longer, but the molars are within the Tange and therefore comparatively 
lartre, in so small a skull. 

Skull dimensions of the two $ undone 5 arc respectively; Greatest length. 
35'0-3.V2, 35-2; basal length, 30-0-31 fl, 31-4; zygomatic breadth. 775-177, 
LS'O: interorbilal breadth, 51-5-3, 5-2; nasals length. 12 9-13 ^ ; 13-0: nasals 
breadth, 3-5-3-S, 3-5; palatal length, 17-9-l.S-G, 18-5: anterior palatal foramina, 
length, 7-2-7-2, 7-4; bulla, length, - 6-0, 5 -'J; MsJ~\ 5'7-oS. 5-7. 

if lie characters of the Cambier Island population are reliably represented 
by these three specimens, it would appear to differ appreciably from that of 
both Greenly and Pearson islands and, while nearer these, shows some links 
with the mainland phase from the Gawler River, but with a marked reduction 
in skull size. The clearances in characters, however, are so small that 1 have 
not felt justified in basing another name upon so little material, and defer a 
decision on its status until an adequate series can be assembled. 

Evidence of varying vuhio from miscellaneous sources indicates that "native" 
rats, presumably of the R. ^.reiji type, o\ist or formerly uccurred on several other 
islands off the South Australian coast, besides those alread\ listed, including 
the main island of the North Xeptunc tfroup, Hopkin's Taylor's, gyre's. Goat. 
St. Francis and St. Peters. 

l4J .SOrTK-VVESlfcKN VIC I OKU 

Bia/cnor { 1936) reported tm a large scries of R. gtfftfii from the Portland 

district, which he compared with both "South Australian'' /£. &tetii and with 

Victorian <miiitilh'. and separated subspeeifieally from the former. * Althouqh I 

agree with his chief findings the first of his "comparisons was hampered by 



lunrs <;tifyi c.ray and tts derivatives 1*3 

shortage of material and some emendation and ainplihciitiou of both am called 
Jnr. The following notes arc based upon a batch of twelve taken at Heatb- 
more in December, 1937, and on the east bank or. the Glenelg River about 20 
miles north-west of that place, in June. 1951. These localities axe only 10-20 
miles north of Portland in a .similar environment and the material is regarded 
uk lopotypical of R, g. peccatus. 

in habits this form differs from R, gretfi gretji of the Fleurieu Peninsula in 
being a more consistent burrowcr; this was confirmed both at Hcathmere and 
on the (Jlenclg where it was quite numerous but I doubt whether burrows 
were plentiful enough to shelter the whole population, part of which probably 
makes use of surface camps. In December at Ileatluuere all adult males taken 
showed enlarged and scrotal testes and females were pregnant. 

The range in dimensions shows a plus overlap in the chief items with means 
averaging about 8 per cent, higher than in the standard series of H. greyi gtriji. 
In relation to head and body, the tail and, to a lesser extent, the pes, are longer 
en the female than in that form, but this changer is not shaved by the uuile. 
ignoring the sexual difference, it would appear that the chief distinction in the 
dimensions of the Victorian animal is in an increase of overall size and in a 
somewhat narrower car. Brazenors means of 20 selected specimens are de- 
cidedly below mine in ear and pes (and skull length also, see infra) and his 
sample prolaably includes what is here regarded as a definitely subadult element. 
I am unable to substantiate his finding that the female is necessarily smaller in 
linear dimensions than the male T when fully adult as judged by skull characters, 
nor is this the case with the standard series of R. g. greyi, and its use as a dif- 
ferential character against asslmilis is, 1 think, invalid. The other metrical pru- 
position which he uses differentially, ic> that in large specimens of greyi the 
tail is relatively shorter than in small, 1 am unable to test adequately with 
peccatus or attsimilis, but il seems to work out in the standard series: 'where 
(ignoring ses ) the six largest give a per cent, tail length of 84-110 (91-6) us 
against 93-110 (100-7) for the six smallest- 

The mann.s and pes are very similar to those of R. g; grcyi, the former per- 
haps a little heaviei, hut the pes, unlike ffyft rjt </.y,yhni/ts, even narrower, "liie 
pads are of the same type, with distinctly angular lateral mterdigitals. The 
rnysticial vibrissae range I mm 47-50 (49) and the tail scales are slightly coarser, 
with 11-13 (L2-6) per cm, middorsally- The mammary pattern, discussed by 
Tate (1951, 330) in connection with this subspecies, is not characteristic of 
il, luit occurs (with variants) in R. £. grcyi as well. (Supra.) 

In the pelage characters of the budy> the West Victorian series can he com- 
pletely merged in that of the Fleurieu Peninsula; it does not yield any examples 
of the rich coppery variants of the latter, but all its other phases can be closely 
matched therein, and it offers nothing novel in tone, grizzling or pattern; it 
is certainly not darker as a whole. On the dorsum of inanus and pes the hairs 
are always decidedly darkened at base imd this leads to occasional grizzling, 
particularly when the covering is sparse, and there arc two eases of all dark 
hairs at base of the claws not noted in other groups. The ureearpal bar is 
usually fainter and sometimes lost, but on tin? inner aspect of the lower surface 
of the corpus there is frequently a tract of adpresseck contrasted brown hairs 
outlining the bases of the metacarpal pads, absent, or very feebly indicated, in 
the Fleurieu series. The tail is usually appreciably darker above than below, 
as in the latter, but there arc equally striking variations both in its colour and 
in the prominence of the scale rings. In worn pelage where replacement has 
begun, there is a tendency for a darker lumbar patch to be isolated as In the 
November skins from Greenly Island. 



144 It. H. IHNXAYSON 

Flesh Dimt mions— The following figures give in turn the range and approxi- 
mate mean for the dimensions of three 3 unci four ? , adult. Head and body. 
152-169 (160-in, 153-166 (156-0); tail, 138-155 (1490), 140463 (154-7); pes. 
31 -5-33 -5 (32-5), 30-32-5 (31-6); ear, length, 22-23 (22'5i, 21-23' (22*5); eat, 
breadth. 13-6-13-8 (13*7). 13-8-15*0 (14-4); weight in grammes 100-130 
(115-0), 85-130 (1100), 

The adult skull is larger than in R. greyi gretji, with the female giving higher 
values in most measurements than males. The range in the majority of items 
shows a plus overlap with that of the standards with an average inereasc in the 
means of the order of 5 per cent, in most longitudinal dimensions. It is rela- 
tively narrower zygomatieallv, with slightly longer rostrum aud relatively shorter 
tooth rows with broader molars. A notable nonmetrieal distinetion from the 
primary form is to be found in the temporal crests, which are more strongly 
developed and produced anteriorly on to the supraorbital margins which hi 
consequence are distinctly ridged. 

Skull DimcnMotis — The range and approximate mean follow in turn for 
four adult 6 , three adult 2 . and a single anomalous stunted adult or aged 9 , 
which gives vafues below the minima for the Fleurieu series, and which cannot 
be regarded as a normal inlergrade between R. g, wetji and peccalus:— Greatest 
length, 36-9-3&-0 (37-5), 37-7-3S-S (38-2), 34*0;* basal length, 32-S-35-0 
(33-8). 33-6-34-3 (33-9), 29-8; zygomatic breadth, 18-3-18-9 (18-5), .18 3- 
18-7 (18-5). 17-3;' mteroilutal breadth. 5-3-5-5 (5 4). 5 3-5-5 (5-4), 5-1; 
nasals length, 14-2-15-6 (14-S), 15-0-15-2 (15*1). 130; nasals greatest breadth, 
3-7-4-0 (3-9), 3r>3 S (3-7), 3-6; palatal ten gtiw 19-6-21-5 (20-2), 20-3-20-6 
/ 20-4), 18-1; anterior palatal foramina, length, 7-3-S-0 (7-6). 7*9-8-0 (7-95). 
6-8; --interior palatal foramina, breadth, 2*5-2-8 (2-6) )( 2-5-2-5 (2 5K 2-5; 
bulla, length, 6-5-6-6 (6*55), 6-5-6-8 (6-6), 5*9; Ms. 1 I, 5*9-6-1 (6-1), 
60-6-4 (6-2), 5-5. 

Rattm greyi petxattts in undoubtedly a valid form, recognisable beyond the 
limits of the conventional 75 per cent, allocation, by metrical, pelage and cranial 
characters. It is at present known from u very restricted area of south -western 
Victoria at sea level, in ecological conditions appreciably different bum thtwe 
Df the Soutii Australian highlands, which harbour the primary subspecies. To 
what extent it iuterdifhises with nssimilis to the east and how effective the 
Glenelg River is us a burrier to its westerly drift, are matters which await 
bother field work. 



J. FtATTUS ASSUniJS COUTD 

T'Uc relationships of this sriceies to R. gretji fte?-P&N*$ 3 to which it heats 
much external resemblance, have been examined by tfruzenor (1936) in bruud 
outline with a large series of Victorian specimens. There is need, however, 
foi' a more detailed statement of its characters and range of variation before 
these can be regarded as well established. The material in hand is inadequate 
for this, but for the purpose of a limited and provisional cheek, skins and skulls 
of some 15 individuals are available. These belong to two batches personally 
taken jn January, 1928, on upper Ryan's Creek in the Tolmie district of north- 
east Victoria, and in December, 1928, at Hillas Brook in the Batlow district of 
southern New South Wales, Both localities art; highland sites, the second 
above 3,000 feet. In addition. 1 have examined miscellaneous specimen* from 
French Tslanrl in Westernport Bay, Victoria* and from Dorrigu and the Barring- 
ton Tops in New South Wales. At the Ryan's Creek camp the species was plea- 



ffcviTUS gkkyi <:bay and ns df.tuvativks lift 

ttrul Lhough not at all obtrusive and was first taken unintentionally in wallaby 
and opossum snares under tree ferns in a we* gully and later was trapped with 
bread baits in the undergrowth of dense wattle scrubs. At llillas Brook it was 
in km in the same wuy under bracken in more open valleys of big eucalypts, 
aud ft few also in a bain where they had begun to raid potatoes in sacks - a type 
nt depredation which R, gret/i in South Australia never seems to attempt, 
Whether this combined series is as homogeneous sutxspecifically as current 
nomenclature would imply, may be questioned but it suffices for a general 
appraisal of the R. g. ^ycccatus-assmnlis relation. 

Dimensions of adults just overlap the maxima for flio.se of peccotus, as 
quoted above, in head and body, pes and ear, but the means are highei, de- 
cidedly so (10-12 per cent.) m the ease of the first. The means for tail length 
are equal in lite ease of the males and lower with the single female. Propor- 
tionally to head and body, therefore* the pes and ear axe slightly shorter than in 
peccatu^ and the tail markedly so, with a mean for the two sexes of S3 per cent, 
as against 1)5 per cent, in the latter; this finding is supported by the short-tailed 
condition of the cotypes (80-84 per cent.), but conflicts with Brazenors lUl 
per cent. us a mean for 20 itsximilis, No weights are available, but would prob- 
ably be much Eight* than for any form of R. &rcyi 

In dried specimens both maims and pes appear to be much stouter than 
in R, ft, pecWfns, though the pads are of the same general type. Brazenor. how- 
ever (op. cii. Pi. Xiliv 2d) figures a somewhat more elongated inner meta- 
tarsal. Iti the maims the digital rings are increased to (\ and, in the pes, to 8, 
and ehev arc less divided than in the forms of H. #*!/*. Mystieial vibrissas in 
five undamaged adults range from 59-67 (61), which is much longer than in 
pevcatits and' the tail scales ore slightly coarser, 11-12 (11-7) per em. 

In pelage characters the group shows an extraordinary range of variation, 
due partly to pha.se, but partly to local or individoal influences, and it is obvious 
that until comprehensive series are examined illustrating the entire sequence 
of the coat replacement, only tentative, conclusions are possible under this head. 
Rrazcnor (1036, 67) has already Mated that the pelage of nssmtiln is indis- 
tinguishable from lhat of H. greiji pecaitus of the Portland district. So far* as 
I he Victorian specimens of the present xriim are concerned, this is substantially 
true. The single French island skin is much richer coloured and more cupreous 
in tone than any of my pevmf a* t though it can he matched in the Flcurieu Penin- 
sula, and of the remainder it is generally true that the coat is somewhat more 
spinous dorsal Iy. the darkening of manus and pes more Irequcnt and the pre- 
sence of the brown infraearpal tract more constant than in the latter. Tlrcpre- 
earpal bar is present in two skins only The New South Wales examples from 
Batlow and Dungog are appreciably distinct being colder iu tone and with a 
finer ticking. 

FlexJi Dimensions — Vauv adull males and one adult female give the fol- 
lowing values:-Head and bodv, 168-195 f 170). 173; tail, 143-157 (150), 1-12; 
pes, 33-35 (33-5), 34; car length, 22-24 (23-2), 23. 

Skull size in these two groups is consistently much larger at all comparable 
stages of growth than in H. g. peccaiux, The range i^ seven ol the eleven dimen- 
sions studied shows a plus clearance from that of the latter, with the means of 
tho chief longitudinal dimensions 10 per cent, higher, and the overall superiority 
in size is still more impressive in direct visual comparison. The chief depart- 
ures from eopruporlionality with peccatm as gauged by the percentage rela- 
tion to the greatest length of skull, are; Shorter rostrum, shorter and much 
narrmvrv anterior palatal foramina (— 6 and — 25 per cent, respectively)., shorter 
bulla (—10 per cent), and longer molar rows (+14 per cent). 



#6 IT, H, F1NLAV.S0K 

Tn nonmetrical cranial characters there is considerable variation and over- 
lap, but the following may be noted as valid diUerential trends. In the nasals 
there is a distal shift in the maximum width which leads to a straight, mure 
wedge-shaped outline, than is usual in any of the forms of R, greyi; the temporal 
and supraorbital ridges are similar in outline but more strongly developed; the 
dorsal profile is straighter and less arched; and the posterior fialf of the anterior 
palatal foramina is more narrowed and parallel-sided than the anterior, with 
a characteristic change of shape. 

One sknll presents the anomaly of a paired interparietal (PL 1, Fig. Gl. 

Shtl.1 Dimensions — The values for seven adult males arc as follows --Great- 
est length 40- 0-43-1 (41-4); basal length, 35- 3-39-1 (36-9); zygomatic breadth. 
20 0-21 '4 (20-8); interorbital breadth, 5'7-6-0 (5-9); nasals lengths, 15-OI70 
(15-7): nasals greatest breadth. 41-4-5 (4-3); palatal length, 21-6-23-5 
(22-.1); anterior palatal foramina, length, 7-5-S-3 (7-9); anterior palatal fora^ 
mma. breadth, 2 0-2-5 (2-3); bullae., length, fi-2-r>7 (6 -5); .Ms. 1 " 3 , 7-0-7-6 
(7*3). 

5 fNTERRELATION OF R, ASS1MILIS, E, CREYl AND it. FUSCIPES 

WATERHOUSE 

Etlerman (1949) consideivd R. assimilis and R, greyi to be oonspecific* a 
view with which Tate (1951) evidently sympathised, though he did not give 
effeet rt) it in nomenclature. Though they are undoubtedly very ciosely re- 
lated animals, a study of the two forms, which may be assumed to be in contact 
in mid- Western Victoria, has convinced mc that tlie differences separating them 
are mure than subspecific and confirms me in the opposite and older view. 
Althuu^h occasional specimens may transgress the limits of the three groups, a 
more or less clinal relation in general body size subsists between the east to west 
series, R. assimiUs (?a$similis), R. greyi jwcwtw* and R. fpeffi gretjL with a 
much steeper gap between the first two forms, but this trend is not* continued 
into the offshore colonies of Eyre Peninsula where, in the case of R. g. ptdori 
at least, a slight secondary enlargement has taken place. 

These island forms, although well differentiated, have so many unmistak- 
able links with the Fleuiicu Peninsula population that their relegation to R. 
Rfeui seems the only natural course. The alternative allocation tr/fl. ftiscipes, 
which is regarded as having a modified representative i>n Mondrain Island on 
the continental shelf of Western Australia, has some, attractions on palaeogeo- 
graphie grounds and is foreshadowed in the views of Ellerman (op. cit.)\ I 
have not tested this de novo, but if the generally accepted links of R, fuxcipes 
with R. httreola are well founded (and they have been recently reaffirmed by 
Tate (1951) with tfood material), it would sccui to be strongly contraindica(ecl 
None of the torms here considered show any convergence crani'ally to R. lutnofn 
as known in South Australia. 

REFERENCES 

IlRAZENon. C. W., I93fi. MimiK. Nut Museum, 10, pp. rtfi-fft). 

Cotxinr, R, 1S«7. Zaol: JnHrh., 2, p. 837. 

Eu,iatMAfs, I. R., 1JM1. "The FntoflJee and Oont-ra ot Iavtiui Roili-ntx**. 2 \> 30fi. 

Kj.UiUMAK, ). tt., 194ft tbi<lu 3. 

Fiicr.tvhox, H. H., 1944. Trans. Rov- Soc, S". Auefc, OS. 2, pp. 210-004. 

Fjnlayspn, IT. H,» 1951. Soutlt Australian Ornithologist, 20, 1, p, 4. 

Gray. J. E„ 1841. In Grey, G.. "Journal oi two E\.[ie<litiMtis of dbtovvTy mi uurfh-wwr ami 

western Australia," London. Apptinliy C, p. 2. 
Gol'ld. J., 1858. Proc. 2ool. Sor. Utti&to, XXV, p. M\. 
Glaueiit, L., 1950\ Jout. Roy. Sue. West. Aust, XXXW. pp 115-134. 



H. H. FlNLAYSON 



Plate 1 






II, II. Fin i ayson 



Platk 2 








*f 




11. II. FlM.WSON 



Plate 3 



j; ": : ■:■." 







: 







a 



: ■' 





IMTTUS GREYI GRAY AND ITS DERIVATIVES 147 

Iredale, T., and Trouciiton, E. le G., 1934, "Checklist of Mammals Recorded from Aus- 
tralia/" Sydney, p. 74. 

Jones, F. Wood, 1923. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust, XLVI1. p. 94. 

Jones, F. Wood, 1924. Ibid,, 48, pp. 10-14. 

Jonks., F. Wood, 1925. "Mammals of South Australia/' Adelaide, pp. 302-307, Figs. 210-211. 

O'ilijy, J. D., 1892. "Catalogue of Australian Mammals/' Sydney, p. 108. 

SKORTRmr.F., G. C., 1936. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, pp. 743-749. 

Tate, G. H. H., 1940. Am, Mus. Novit,, 1061, p. 0. 

Tate, G. H. H., 1951. Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Ilfct., p. 97. 

Thomas, O., 1921. Ann. Mag. Nat, Hist., 8, VI, pp. 423-7. 

Thomas, O., 1923. Ibid., 9, XI, p. 601. 

Trouciitox, B. le G. ( 1937, Rec, Aust. Museum, XX, 2, p. 189. 

Thoughton, E. le C., 1920. Ibid., XIII, p. 119, Plates. 

Waite, E. R., 1896. "Reports of Work of the Horn Scientific Expedition to Central Aus- 
tralia," 2, p. 401. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATES 

Plate 1 

Fig. A. Dorsal aspect of the skull of an adult $ of flattus greyi greyi Gray from the Caha- 

wonga Creek, Fleurieu Peninsula.. South Australia (x 2*1) . 
Fig. B. Lateral aspect of the same (x 2-1), 
Fig. C. Palatal aspect of the same (x 2*1). 
Fig. D, Dorsal aspect of \\\e skull of a subadult A) of the same from the Bout Harbour 

Creek, 1 Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia (x 2*3). 
Fig. E. Slightly worn right upper molars of an immature 9 of the same from the same 

locality (x 7-1). 
Fig. F. Well worn right upper molars of an adult x of the same from the Yankalilla Creek, 

Fleurieu Peninsula, South Australia (x 7*4) . 
Fig. G. A paired interparietal bone in the skull of an adult 4 of Rttttus ,'tsahnilis, from 

upper Ryan's Creek, Tolmie district of north-east Victoria (\- 2*7). 

Plate 2 

Grass nests constructed by R. greyi greyi in captivity, with the builder in occupation. 
Fig. A. A simple open type nest (x 0-4 ea.). 

Fig, B. Part of a more elaborate domed structure showing the entrance near the base 
(x 0-6 ca.). 

Plate 3 

Fig, A. Characters of the head of an adult $ of R. greyi greyi from the Boat Harbour 

Creek (x 1*5 ca.). 
Fig. B. Right pes of young adult 3 of the same from the same locality (x 2*4), 
Fig. C. Right manus of same individual (x 3*0). 
Fig. D, Oblique view of the uncalloused pads of the right mantis of an immature ^ of the 

same and from the same locality (x 4 ca.). 



1 Two streams on the Peninsula bear this name; the one Sowing west into Investigator 
Strait and the other south into Backstairs Passage; the latter is indicated. 



NOTES ON THE GENUS SPHAEROTARSUS (ACARINA: SMARIDIDAE) 

byH. H. Finlayson 

Summary 

The egg, larva and adult male and female of Sphaerotarsus leptopilus, Womersley and Southcott, 
1941, are described; the species was hitherto known only from the nymphal stage. The nymph and 
adults were correlated on morphological characters. The two adults were captured under Eucalypt 
bark, at Myponga, South Australia, in late December. The female laid eggs in January-February, 
and these hatched to larvae during April-May. The larvae survived into June. Some observations 
were made on the biology of the species. Attempts to rear the species beyond the larval sta e were 
unsuccessful, as no suitable insect host could be found. Aspects of tie biology of the Smarididae are 
discussed. The systematics of the adults and nymphs of the genus Sphaerotarsus, Womersley, 1936, 
are revised. 



NOTES ON THE GENUS SPHAEROTARSUS (ACARINA: SMARIDIDAE) 

By R. V. Southcott 
[Read 12 November 1959] 

SUMMARY 

The egg, larva and aclttlt male and female of Sphaerotamts leptopilus, 
Womerslev and Southcott, 1941, are described; the species was hitherto known 
only from the nymphal stage. The nymph and adults were correlated on 
morphological characters. 

The two adults were captured under Kucalypt bark, at Myponga, South 
Australia, in late December. The female laid eggs in January-February, and 
these hatched to laTvae during April-May. The larvae survived into June. 
Some observations were made on the biology of the species. Attempts to rear 
the species beyond the larval stage were unsuccessful, as no suitable insect 
host could be found. Aspect* of the biology of the Smarididae are discussed. 

The systematic* of the adults and nymplis of the genus Sphaerotarxitf, 
Womerslev, 1936, are revised. 

INTRODUCTION 

In 1941 Womersley and Southcott reviewed the systematics uf the Smari- 
didae of Australia and New Zealand. Among new species described was 
Sphaerotarsus leptopilus, Womersley and Southcott, which was described from 
a single nymph obtained by sweeping tea tree (Melaleuca hahnaturorum, 
F. v. M.) along the banks of the Hindmursh River, Victor Harbor, South 
Australia. That nymph was distinct from the other described post-larval stages 
in the narrowness of the dorsal setae (idiosonmlac), as well as in other 
characters. 

Some years ago the present writer captured two adult Smaridids at Myponga, 
South Australia. Those adults were kept in the same tube, and both have been 
identified finally, on morphology, as the adults of S. leptopilus* At the time of 
capture the male was identified as belonging to Sphatrofurxtis, this recognition 
being easy on account of the great enlargement of the fourth tarsus of the male, 
but the female was not gencrically identified (if desired this can be done by 
immobilizing them under one or more cover-glasses on a microscopic slide; they 
can then be identified after examination with the high power of the microscope 
for study of the eyes, crista, sensillae and dorsal setae; they suffer no damage 
if carefully handled). 

The female laid eggs in captivity, which hatched to larvae, Larvae belong- 
ing to this genus have not been observed hitherto, fn a recent monograph 
(1960) of the systematics of the genera of the superfamily Erythraeoidea the 
writer drew up a set of generic characters for larval Spluierotarms ; using these 
larvae. 

It is proposed in the present paper to describe the adult male and female, 
the egg stage, and the larva of SphaeTOtarms lepiopilus. It is proposed also to 
describe the experiment in detail and to remark on significant aspects of the 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1960), Vol. 83. 



159 



H. V. SOUTHCOTT 



A) 






[TW^ #EM */ # ^ 












4§w 



$ 



Fi£. l.Sphaerotarmx bcptopilus Womersley and Soothcott, 1941. A-F Adult female. 
A, Entire, dorsal view, setae mostly omitted: B. Moutliparts. crista, eves and adjacent 
-setae (ventral view of palp on left); C-F dorsal idiosomal .setae. C 'in situ, showing 
dorsal and lateral aspects, D : E from below (optical section), F end view; O-J nvmph, 
dorsal tdiosimial setae, C from above, H from below, I a longer seta (Figs. C-I 'based 
on figures of Womersley and SourhcoU, 1941). (All setae ~< C-I) to same scale on 

left, the same as Fi£. 2 A.) 



.NOTES OS THE GENUS SI'HAJlHOTAKSL'S 151 

biology of this mite seen in the experiment. Some aspects of the systematica 
of the genus Spliaetotarsus will be discussed, and a revised key given fur the 
separation of the post-larval active stages of the four known species, 

Sphaerotarsus leptopflus Womersley and Southeottv 1941 

Figs. 1-1 

Description of adult female (Fig. 1 A-F) (from specimen AC A 1504): 
Colour orange, with brown setae, Idiosoma of the usual Smaridid form, flat- 
tened, elongate, slightly waistcd and somewhat pointed anteriorly (i.e. with a 
short blunted nasus). Tdiosomal length 1070^ to tip of iiasus, idiosorrm 530,u 
wide where widest. 

Crista present, normal, with two sensillary areas. Anterior scnsilkuy area 
placed in a Y formed by the division of the anterior end of the crista; it carries 
12 setae (scobalae), similar to the normal dorsal idiosomalae, 22-30/*. long;. 7 
of these are pigmented, the others tmpiginented. Anterior seusillae slender, 
davate, with short cihations along the entire length, these longer over the elon- 
gate-spindle-shaped terminal club of the sensilla; anterior sensillae 24/*. long. 
Posterior scnsillary area as figured (Fig. IB); there is a central boss, somewhat 
nodular, which forms a transverse oblong. The posterior sensillae are set in the 
centra] boss; they arc clavatc, ciliated along their entire length, the terminal 
club as in the anterior sensillae, elongate-spindle-shaped; posterior sensillae 
50^i long. The crista continues some distance beyond the posterior scnsillary 
aTea, and in the specimen divides terminally as figured into two short divaricat- 
ing arms. Length of crista behind the centres of the posterior sensillae (VI* 
distance) a£>proximately 175,«. 

The standard data* arc; 

ASens PSens SBa SBp 1SD DS 

24 M 3<V 14,x 17^ 391^ 2U-28 M 

Eyes one on each side, circular, 30/*. across. Eyes placed a little before the 
midpoint of crista (i.e. the midpoint between the centres of the anterior and 
posterior crista! sensillae). Distance anterior scnsillae-eye centres in the median 
plane (OAS) 207^ distance between eye centres and midpoint between posterior 
crista! sensillae in the median plane (OPS) LS4/x. 

Dorsal idiosomal setae typically Smaridid in type, They have a strong 
roughened dorsal flange, strongly convex, lanceolate, about one-half or two- 
thirds the width of the seta. The dorsal flange carries 4-5 irregular nrws of 
projections (modiOed ciliations) : , aud frequently the dorsal flange has a basal 
excavation (these scobalae are similar to those of IHrsHosoma novaehollandiae 
(Womersley, 1936) from New Zealand— see Womersley and Southeott, 1941, 
p. 71). Dorsal setae 20-28/a long. Some setae are pigmented, others not. Those 
on the anterior part of the dorsum of the idiosoma and particularly around the 
crista are mostly uupigmented. Those of the posterior half of the dorsum of 
the kliosoma and also of the more lateral aspects of the dorsum of the icUosoma 
are mostly pigmented. The dorsal setae are somewhat longer at the posterior 
nart of Hie idiosoma. 

Venter of idiosoma with bushy strongly ciliated idiosomalae of the usual 
Smaridid type. 

Genitalia normal for female; lacking internal chitmous armature (in the 
preparation the ventral surface is not clearly seen, owing to its being mounted 

9 Fox these terms and the descriptive terms for the setae use-d in this paper, see the 
writer^ (I9fi0) monograph on the KiylJiraenid genera. 



132 



K. V. SOUTHCOTT 



normally, from the density of the dorsal idiosomal setation) (the sex of the 
specimen also clearly recognizable from the normal tarsus IV). 

Legs as figured, of normal Smaridid appearance. Supraonvchial tactile 
setae present (seobalae= tactalae), but not unduly prominent. Leg I 1660/i. 




Fig. 2.—Sphaerotar$us lepiofiilus Womersley and Southcott, 1941, adult male. A, Same 
dorsal setae near the posterior pole of the. idiosoma, selected for display of various 
aspects of the setae, the positions shown being in part due to the distortion of mount- 
ing (to same scale as Fig. 1,, C-l), B, Internal genitalia from above, io show chitin- 
ized parts. G, Left leg IV, detached at the troehauterofexuoral joint. 



long, IT 102%,, III IIOS/a, IV 1460/* (all including coxae and claws). Tarsus I 
228/4. long (excluding claws and pedicle) by 8$p wide (height not available); 
tibia 1 320/t long. Tarsus IV 135/*. long (excluding claws and pedicle) by 63/t 
high; tibia IV 307/t long. 



NOTES ON THE CENUS SPHAEROTAHSUS 1&* 

Tarsal claws % normal, ciliated obliquely along then' sides. Legs HiicVIy 
provided with setae uf normal type (i.e. scobalac); various other sensory setae 
*ire also present on the legs. The anterior tarsi thickly provided distally Willi 
short solenoidalae; a number of spinal ae ("eupathidies") are present upon the 
middle segments (telofemora, genua, tibiae) of the legs. 

Gnathosoma of normal Smaridid type, with extrusile palpi and mouth-cone, 
with the normal sleeve or armilla. Palpi normal, as figured; setae of palpi 
eomparatively slender. 

Description of adult male (Fig. 2 A-C) (from AC A 1505): The general 
appearance is as described for the female, the most significant points of differ* 
once being in the possession of the male internal genital armature, and the 
secondary sexual character of the greatly enlarged tarsus IV. Other diffcrcuccs 
are as detailed here, 

Idiosoinal length 855/i.„ maximum width 455;/. The standard data ate: 



ASens 


Pbens 


Sba 


SBp 


ISD 


DS 


18 P 


46/* 


16 M 


IS/* 


309/1 


14-30,u 



The crista extends only a short distance (32jn) behind the PSens; this is 
much shorter than in the female. 

Eyes one on each side, 27//. across. OAS 166/a, OPS 14Suj hence the eyes 
arc well anterior to the cnstal intersensillary midpoint. 

The dorsal idiosomal setae are somewhat more slender and regular than 
those of the female, and resemble more closely those of the nymphal S. lepUy- 
piius. They are less pigmented than the pigmented female dorsal idiosomalrtc, 
and the dorsal flange does not show the basal excavations. The dorsal flange 
has 4-5 rows of spicules, fairly regular (Fig. 2A). Dorsal setae l4-30> long, 
the opisthosomal dorsal ones being considerably longer than those placed more 
anteriorly, and in fact the opisthosomal group forms almost a separate group 
with a reasonably sharp line of differentiation, 

Genitalia with the normal internal male apparatus (Fig. 2B). 

Legs (except IV) similar to those of female; leg I 1210,1. long, II 73G>, 
[Tl 790,1, IV 1015/x (all lengths including coxae and claws). Tarsus I 189^ long 
{exclusive of claws and pedicle) by 45//, high by 56/* across. Tibia 1 215/* lon^. 
Tarsus IV greatly enlarged as usual, ovoid (see Fag. 2C), 173/* long (excluding 
claws and pedicle) by 120/t across. Leg setation as for female, 

Gnathosoma as described for female. 

Description of Egg (from those laid by ACA 1504): Colour orange-brown 
until the deutovum stage, then becoming deep red; smooth, spheroidal, 190-230> 
Jong by rtbont 1.65/* wide. 

Description of I<an;a (Figs. 3, 4) (from ACA 1504L2 principally . includ- 
ing measurements, but description supplemented from ACA 150 1L1). Colour, 
red. Length of idiosoma (unengorged) 325//.. width 23% animal 440/* long to 
the tip of the eheliceral blades. The idiosoma has the usual rather slender shape 
of the la/val Smarididae. 

Dorsal scutum roughly a transverse trapezoid, but somewhat rounded 
anteriorly, and posteriorly projecting in die median line into an acute point; 
hence almost stellate in outline (see Fig. 3); with two pairs of scuta lae and 
two pairs of sensillae. 



154 



R. V. SOUTHCOTT 




Fig. 3. — Sphaerotarsus leptopilus Womersley and Southcott, 1941, larva, dorsal aspect. 



NOTES ON THE GENUS SPHAEROTAttSUS 



155 



The standard data of the two specimens used in the description are as 
follow: 



Specimen 

AW 

MW* 

PW 

SBaf 

SBp 

A>SU 

ISO 

L 

W 

A-V 

AL 

AIL* 

PL 

AHous 

PSens 

ASB/ISD 

OH 



ACAl504Lt! 
55 



74 
11 
13 
11 

OH 
81 
22 
91 



jae 

27 

m 
•ai 

104-121 



ACAI504L1 

52 

68 

10 

It 

U 

u 

73 

82 
16 
89 

108 

32 

58 
•20 
95-120 



* Not available in tetrascutalate genera; listed here for the sake of comr>leteness of 
Standard Data table. 

f Strictly these are negative in Sphaerotarms and Clipeosiyma. 

Scutalac long, tapering, with barb-like ciliations, the setae terminally 
blunted, AL thicker than PL and with coarser and more outstanding (bractate) 
ciliations. AL arise behind middle of anterolateral borders of the shield; PL 
arise inside the lateral angles of the shield. ASens arise well anterior to the 
AL scutalae in the projecting anterior part of the scutum. ASens with adprossed 
dilations, and ai'e slightly thickened in their distal, part. PScns arise within the 
posterior triangular piece of the scutum. PSens longer than ASens, and with 
adprossed ciliations; PSens parallel-sided except distally where they taper a 
little. 

Eyes one on each side* circular, 12/a across, in the unengorged specimen 
slightly behind the level of the PL scutalac. 

Dorsal idiosomal setae long, strong, but are slender among larval 
Smarididae,f tapering, pointed, and with adpressed ciliations. 

Venter: between coxae I a pair of scobalae (the sternalae), long, pointed, 
ciliated, 45/w long; in the central area of the venter between coxae II and ITT 
a pair of slender tapering scobalae with adpressed ciliations, 50/j. long; well 
behind coxae III, on the ventral opisthosoma, are 2 rows of more robust setae, 
arranged 4, 2, similar to sternalae, 49-85/a long. Each coxa with one seta 
(coxala): that on I long, pointed, ciliated, 70// long; on II pointed, slender, 
with faint adpressed ciliations, and 53/a long; on III more robust, pointed, 
ciliated, 60/a long. 

Legs long and thin: I 650/x long, II 625^, III 790/t (all lengths including 
coxae and claws). Each trochanter with one seta. Tarsus 1 thickened, fairly 
short, 71/j. long (excluding claws and pedicle) by 31/x high. 



* See Southcott (1960) for definitions of these. 

f These setae are broadened in Snuiris larval and in Clipcostmut copiohrttm, Southcott* 
1948, but are narrow in CUpmmnna winter, bouthentt, 1060, and in Tilosorrui phito. South- 
colt, I960, to list larval Erythracoidca whose position Mdthin the Sniaudidae is undoubted. 



156 K V. SOUTHCOTT 

On the legs the following is the arrangement of the specialised setae : 







tnchobothi'ialaft 


solenoidalao 


fipinnlfte 






(wnsillae) 


(solonidia) 


(^upwthidies) 




gnnu I 


^{+1 to!..*) 


2 


•f 




geou ii 





B 


'► 




gtiuiu th 





j 


" 




tibia I 


r.( i i iui..*) 






Lltrto 11 


B 


j 




tibia ITI 
tur.iutj I 





I 




UltWILS 11 


a 


1 


»> 




tttrsus III 





o 






hit. — intermediate type of sensjDa, it inoOifUxl or transitional seobala. 

t These show possibly faint internal sole nr/.-ition, i.e. the development of the helical 
or banded striae characteristic of the solenoidalae. The solenoidalae and tlie spinalue rimy 
lie dilRculL to distinguish. 

Further comment on the? chaelotaxy of the legs: On tarsus I there is a 
compound trichohotlirial pit: such is not present ou tarsus II or III. Companala 
present on tarsus I and tibia I, as figured. Vestigiala present on genu 1 and II 
as figured. Famulus (famala) present on tarsus I, 

Tarsal claws : lateral ( neolateral ) claws identical, falciform, with long 
outstanding ventral ciliatious and adpressed dorsal eiliations, Neomedian claw 
(eiupodium) falciform, more slender than the neolateral, similarly ciliated. 

Gnathosoma as figured. Chelae bases ("mandibles") an ovoid mass, with 
finely punctate chitin, and striated longitudinally (see Fig. 3). Chcliceral 
blades simple. Galeala (galeal seta) curved, simple, 12/* long. Hypostomal lip 
present, delicate. Anterolateral hypostomak simple, 12/x long, situated on a 
chitinous thickening of the hypostome, 23p from midline and about 22/tt behind 
the tip f>f the cheliceral fang. Posteromedial hypostomala stronger, pointed, 
ciliated, 26^ long, arising from a chitinous boss close to the anterolateral hypu- 
stomala, but slightly inferior and posteromedial to it 

Palpal setal formula 1, 1 7 3, 6. No palpal coxala or troehanterala pros<*nt 
Palpal supracoxala present, 4-5^ long. The claw of die palpal tibia curves 
anterolateral!}', and has a short terminal split, 4/a long, with little or no separa- 
tion of the two elements. There is no projecting process from the ventral or 
flexor aspect of the palpal tibial claw (which occurs in CHpcasovia) . A stout 
accessory separate conical tooth present ventrally at die base of the tibial daw. 
Hip. long by 7(x wide, directed anteromediallv. 

The nymph (Fig. 1 C-l) was described in 1941 by Womersley and South- 
cott The dorsal setae are illustrated here (by figures based on those of 
Womersley and Southcott, 1041) for comparison with those of the adults (female 
in Fig. 1 C-F, male in Fig. 2A, all to same scale). 

Locality, The adult male (ACA 1505) and the adult female (ACA 1504) 
were both captured under bark of Eucalyptus sp. (not identified specifically, 
but presumably it was Etcc. cosmophylla F. v. M, since it was a smooth-barked 
species) at Myponga, South Australia, on 31st December, 1951. by the writer;, 
in Eucalyptus haxtvri-Eucalyptwi casmophylki scrubland (tile piece of scrubland 
concerned has since become the Nixon-Skinner Reserve). The larvae were reared 
frnm eggs laid by the adult female in captivity (see under biology). 

Biology. The two adults, taken as recorded, were placed immediately iu a 
dry tube, sealed with a cork. The only additional contents were water drop- 



MOTES ON THE CENU5 SPHAEHOTARSfS 157 

lets, which wore given periodically for the mites to drink. The following account 
of the remainder of the experiment is from my notes (somewhat contracted 
and rephrased). 

6th January, 1952. Mites are well. No eggs present. More water added. 

27th January. 1962. The larger (female) mite was lying on her back, rather 
shrunken (due to dehydialion), clasping the apparently dead male. Theie were 
no eggs in the tube. Further water was added, 

24th February. The male unaltered, dead. dry. The female is well but 
shrunken. "There is a chain of about 21 brown smooth spheroidal eggs in the 
tube, which have obviously been laid by the larger Smaridid" (this was the 
fitst occasion on which the writer had ever seen eggs laid by any Smaridid 
mite, despite many attempts at rearing them over a number of yeans). 

2nd March. The large (female) Smaridid feeble, shrunken, mostly King 
on her back, but waving her legs about a good deal When righted by my 
help the mite "walks a bit". The mite soon mauaged to get itself stuck in the 
water, but on turning around, drank, Tt remained itt au attitude of drinking, 
and in about 5-10 minutes it had regained its normal form and was quite 
plump again, At this stage it managed tn get ttselt stuck in the water again, 
1 look it ont of the tube to dry (this would have been done by placing it on 
a piece oE blotting paper with a hue sable brush). "Aflcr an initial few minutps 
of incoordination ana possibly of flexor spasms it ran quite actively." It was 
then placed in a clean fresh tube in an attempt to stop its fouling the eggs with 
mould- The dried male was removed from the tube of the eggs. 

16th March. The eggs arc beginning to sprout mould filaments, so no 
further water is to be added. The eggs a*e quite plump. 

The adult female ls lying on her back u in a tetanic state'. Legs 1 are 
pxrended, the others are flexed. Occasionally one leg moves, add then flicks 
back to the Hexed position. Still under observation some minutes later the juile 
Hexed its left leg I to a right angle at the femorotibial joint, simultaneously 
extending right leg 111. with the uther legs remaining semiflexed, all this while 
the female was lying on her back. Water was added to the tube. (Note: 
no food was proffered to the adult mites at any stage, and the only possibility 
of their getting any food while in captivity lay m their attacking each other, 
or the eggs after oviposition. Such behaviour, however;, has not up to the 
present been observed in any Smarididae or other Erythraeoidea.) 

2-3rd March. The eggs appeal* possibly very slightly shrunken, The other 
tube containing the adult female is wet. The adult female lies immobile, and 
is beginning to sprout mould filaments. In her monthparts a huge amber globule 
of liquid is present. It was concluded she was dead, decomposing and mouldy. 
She remained thus, and was finally mounted through lactic acid to polyvinyl 
alcohol medium on 8lh May.. 1992. 

Ou 25th April, 1952, one egg was observed to be in the deutovum stage, 
and of the oth-ers it was recorded they "nearly all look plump and healthy' 1 . 

On 5th May (the no\t observation) six lurvue had hatched, the other eggs 
remaining uuliatched and appearing hrallhy. 

On 7th May 11 larvae were present in the tube. Two were removed for 
mounting and study ( ACA 1504 LI and 1.2) 

On 8th May the larvae in the tube appeared well. Two days later "'about 
3" of the larvae were stated to be Mead or look very poorly "» Insects obtained 
from Hevwood Park, South Australia, wot'c added to the tube to servo as 
possible hosts for the larvae, during the afternoon and evening. Among insects 
offered initially were various small Diptera, Hymenoptera and Hnmoptera, 
including an unidentified Delphaeid, as well as Psylloidea of the genera Spun- 



158 



R. V. SOUTHCOTT 




Fig. 4. — Sphaerotarsus leptopilus Womersley and Southcott, 1941, larva, ventral aspect. 



NOTES ON THE GENUS SFHAEROTARSUS Irt9 

dylutspis, Eucalyptolyma and Cardtajpim. No parusitizatiou was observed with 
any of these living insects, and the larval mites appeared to take only a 
momentary interest in them (in general if a suitable insect host is provided (or 
thetn larval Erythraeoidea will attack at once, or within a v^fv lew minutes), 
Later I added a number of T-ractes sp. or spp. (Psocoptcra) from under bark 
of Eucalyptus comaldulensis, bom East Parklauds, Adelaide (l(Kh May, J952). 
These Psocoptcra were added since the only host that has been discovered so 
far for an undoubted* larva of the -Smarididae is this genus of Psoeoplera 
(recorded by Womersley and Southcott (1941)) for the larva of Smart* pro- 
minens (Banks, 1916). Siuce then the writer has seen other specimens of larval 
Smarts from Troctes from north Queensland (see below). (These insects have 
been identified on the advice of various specialists, to whom a number of insects 
have been submitted, notablv Mr. K. L Taylor of the Division of Entomology, 
C.S.I.rU)., for the Psylloidea* and Dr. J. V. Pearman, of die British Museum, for 
die Tsocoptcra. ) 

The larval Sphaerotorstts* however, took no interest in die Troctes. 
On 12th May, 1952. 6 eggs remained unhatcbrd in the tube. Some of the 
insects added earlier remained alive. Further living insects were added to 
tin* tube Oti 12th and 13th May: further psyilids, a fly. an aphis, and although 
the larval mites walked over the insects they made no attempt to parasitize 
them 

On L4di May only one larva remained alive. Several eggs remained in the 
tubes being recorded as "ruby red". On 19th May one larva was running around 
in the tube, and on 20th May the tube contained two living larvae. Only four 
eggs now remained unhatched. On 26th May four larvae were active and well 
III the tube. The only insects remaining alive were the Troctes. but ugaiu no 
attempt to parasitise them by the miles was observed Further insects were 
proffered to the larval mites, but none was. accepted as a host- 
On 1st June, 1952, one larva remained in the tube. No further record 
was made, of this experiment until 1st August, 1952, when all the contents of 
the tubes were dead and dry. 

tn summary, therefore, the eggs are laid in late summer ( January-February) 
aud hatch out in die late autumn or early winter (April-May). The egg period 
lasts therefore, approximately three months. 

REMARKS ON BIOLOGY 

The only other undoubted Smaridid upon which any substantial observa- 
tions have been made upon the life history is Stfirtrt* pmmineiis. The principal 
details of the life history of that species were given by Womersley and South- 
cott (1941). In a subsequent experiment done by the writer two adult females 
of S. prominent- (number ACA 1506), captured from tinder bark of Eucalyptus 
hmcoxtjlon, Heywood Park, Adelaide. South Australia, on lfith February. 1952. 
were placed in a tube, One had died by the following tiny, The other remained 
well and laid about 17 eggs in captivity, between 2nd and 16th March The. 
feggjl were dark hrowrj, smooth, spheroidal, 170-205^ Ion? by 1110-125/* across. 
These e£gs did not hatch, possibly due to an infection with inuuld. It t> known 
from the earlier field observations that the larva is parasitic upon Troctes in 
April-May in the Adelaide region, hence it may be concluded that the egg 
stage lasts about 1-3 months. 

Tt may be remarked also that the writer has captured two further larvae 
of 5. promiiu'W at Kaban, nortb Queensland (Map reference Pahnerston 1:633#0 

* The status of FlumohtphuH us a Smaridid is not absolutely certain (see Southcott. 
1960). Tbe larva of this aionotypk ixeuus\ P oetUpidtitum, is an ectoparasite of lncasU in 
Uk- Mediterranean region and in central Europe. 



Ijgj) K. V. SOLTHOOTT 

269982,270981), 24th August, 1944 specimens ACA 1633 A, B, parasitic upon 
the Psocoptera Troctes sp. (nymph) (Trocddac) (A 190) and a nymph (A 191 ), 

}>robahly of Pteroxanhmi kdloggi (Kib.) (Lcpidopsocidae) ( = Tawiunopsocm 
itomlvs Hickman) (identifications by the kindness of Dr. J. V. Pearman, British 
Museum; Dr. Pearman has given the foregoing synonymy and commented that 
in the case of A 191 "Identification based on what is discernible [in the slide 
mount |; some distinctive features obliterated"; pers. emnm., in lit,, 1958). 

In general it may be concluded that the life histories of the two Smavidids 
studied, Svtoris prominens and Sphacrotarsus leptopihts > are broadlv compar- 
able, with {in southed) Australia) the features of summer opposition and the 
larval stage in autumn- winter. 

The attempt tn find a .suitable host for the larval Sphaerotamts by trial 
and error was unsuccessful, and the larvae have never been captured parasitic 
(or at alt) in the field. It is possible that they have a restricted insect or other 
arthropod host. The hosts offered had not come from the locality where the 
species has been captured. The recorded range for the species is the southern 
end of the \!t. Lofty Ranges, the adults having been captured in Eucalyptus 
haxtcri'Rucuhjptus cosjnophylla forest. Tt should be noted that die genus 
Sphavrotarsus is found burly widely in Australia, so far having been recorded 
(with a total of four species) from Smith Australia Victoria and New South 
Wales (see Womersley and Southcott, 1941). 

REMARKS ON THE SYSTEMAT1CS OF SPHAEROTARSUS 
The study of the adults of S, leptopilus allows some commcnl on tire classi- 
fication of the adults and nymphs of die genus. The writer sees no reason to 
doubt that the adults described are conspceific with each other and with the 
nymph of Si leptopilus described earlier. The dorsal idfosomalac correspond 
to each other reasonably well, allowing for the tendency to elongation which 
occurs in the Erythraeoid nymphal tdinsomalae. The variation between the 
setae of the male and the female described should be noted, both in the dorsal 
uliusotnal setae and in the cristal sensillae. 

Ill the key of Womersley and Southcott (1941, p. 78) the nvmph of 
S. h'ptopUtts was separated off in the fust caption by "Posterior s< nsilbry &etae 
15 X as king as anterior" (i.e. the ASens/PSens ratio of -67) together with 
other characters. The discovery of the adult Stage with the ASens/Pens rutin 
of 24/47 = -51 (female) and 18/46= *39 (male) makes some alteration to the 
key given necessary. At the present time, pending a full review of the genus 
in Australia, it is proposed that the following will serve tn separate the adults 
and nymphs of this purely Australian genus; 

i Posterior cristal sensillae up to 2 -3 X as long as anterior. . . t .3 

PostxMior cristal sensillae 3-0 x as long as anterior, or more. , . 4 

2 The dorsal flange of the dorsal idiosomal setae in outline a narrow triangle, 
apex pointing distally, and with "cross-bars ,v running out laterally; in the 

nymph the dorsal setae are simitar, and broad .,,,.,.. 

Si wamerslaji -Southcott 1946 (- S. rijiicolus Womersley 1936, nam. invalid.) 
The dorsal flange of the dorsal idiosomal seta not tapering distally, and 
without "cross-bars" running ont laterally. In the adult the dorsal tlangc 
is rugose, and either broad-linear or elongate-oval in outline; to the female 
basal excavations may be present; in the nymph the setae elongate and 
slender S. Upiopihis Womersley and Southcott liJil. 

3 As in (3) of the key of Womersley and Southcott (1941, p. 7ft) for S. atfauml 
Womersley 1936 and S. rtaciger Womersley and Southcott 1941. 



NOTES ON THE GENUS SPHAEROTARSUS 161 

REFERENCES 

Banks, N., 1916. Acarians from Australian and Tasmanian ants and ant-nests, Trans. Roy. 

Soe. S. Aust., 40, pp. 224-240. 
Southcott, R. V,, 1946. On the family Smarididae (Acarina), Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 

70 (3-4), pp. 173-178. 
Soutiicott, R. V., 1948. Larval Smarididae from Australia and New Guinea, ibid., 72 (5-6), 

pp. 252-264. 
**Southcott, R. V., 1960. Studies on the systematica and biology of the Erythraeoidea 

(Acarina), with a critical revision of the genera and subfamilies (in the press). 
Womersley, H., 1936. Additions to the Trombidiid and Erythraeid Aearine fauna of Aus- 
tralia and New Zealand, J. Linn. Soe. Lond. Zool., 40 (269), pp. 107-121. 
Womersley, PL, and Southcott, R. V., 1941. Notes on the Smarididae (Acarina) of 

Australia and New Zealand, Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 65 (1), pp. 61-78. 

** Contains a full bibliography of the family, 



A CONSIDERATION OF THE SPECIES PREVIOUSLY INCLUDED 
WITHIN HELIPTERUM ALBICANS (A. CUNN.) DC. 

by Paul G. Wilson 



Summary 

A key to and description of the species, varieties, and forms previously included under Helipterum 
albicans is given. One new species (H. saxatile), and three new infraspecific taxa, all from Central 
or South-eastern Australia are described. One specific (H. molle), and three infraspecific 
combinations are made. All specimens cited from the following herbaria have been seen: State 
Herbarium of South Australia (AD); Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Adelaide (ADW); 
Botanic Museum and Herbarium, Brisbane (BRI) ; C.S.I.R.O. Div. of Plant Industry, Canberra 
(CANB) ; Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric Authority, Soil Conservation Section (COOMA) ; 
Gauba Herbarium, Canberra (GAUBA) ; Geneva, De Candolle Herbarium (G-DC) ; University of 
Tasmania (HO) ; Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K) ; National Herbarium of Victoria (MEL); 
National Herbarium of New South Wales (NSW); Herbarium of Northern Territory, Alice Springs 
(NT) ; State Herbarium of Western Australia (PERTH) ; Department of Botany, University of 
Sydney (SYD) . 



A CONSIDERATION OF THE SPECIES PREVIOUSLY INCLUDED 
WITHIN HELIPTERUM ALBICANS (A. CUNN.) DC. 

By Paul G. Wilson* 

(Communicated by Hj. Eichtcr) 

[Read 12 November 1959] 

SUMMARY 

A key to and description of the species, varieties, and forms previously in- 
cluded under Hetipterum albicans ix tfiven. One new hpecies (//. unxaiilv), and 
three uew infraspeijiGe taxa, all from Central at South-eastern Australia arc 
described. 

One specific [H. nwlle), and three irifra.Npeeifu' combinations arc made. 

All specimens cited from the following herbaria have been seen: State Her- 
barium of South Australia (AD); Waite Agricultural Research Institute, Ade- 
laid (ADW); Botanic Museum and Herbarium, Brisbane (BRi); C.SJ.K.O. 
Div. of Plant Industry, Canberra (CANH); Snowy Mountains Hydro-Electric 
Authority, Soil Conservation Section (COOMA); Cauba Herbarium, Canberra 
(GAUBA), Geneva, De Candolle Herbarium (G-DC); University of Tasmania 
(HO), Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (K.); National Herbarium of Victoria 
(MEL); National Herbarium of New South Wales (NSW); Herbarium of 
Northern Territory, Alice Springs (NT); State Herbarium of Western Australia 
(PERTH); Department of Botany, University of Sydney (SYD). 

INTRODUCTION 

De Candolle in his Prodromns 6:215 (1937)> created under the genus 
Helipterum a Section Leiicaclmjsum, in which he placed four species, H. 
incanum (Hook.) DC, II. bicolorum A. Cunn. ex DC, H. albicam (A- Cunn.) 
DC, and H. coiuki (Benth.) DC All these except for IL cotufo are character- 
ised among other points by having stipitate involncral bracts. H. cotula is 
anomalous as its bracts have broad short bases. 

Mueller in 1S59 united the first three and H. brachyrrhynchum under H,, 
incanum but recognized seven varieties, some of which I have retained. Ben- 
tham (and later authors) followed Mueller in recognizing unly one species, he 
also included within it Helichrymm molle DC, a species placed by De Candolle 
in HeUchrysam Section Blepharolepis, but it differs from the other members of 
that section in having a plumose, not barbate, pappus, and rightly belongs in 
the section Leucoclirymm of Helipterum. Subsequently F. von Mueller, R, 
Tate, and later J. M. Black, included a further distinct plant within incanum^ 
which I am describing as a new species, H> saxatile. This species is apparently 
more closely related to Helichrysum elatum DC. from which It differs among 
other points in having a more plumose pappus, 

George Don in 193S placed H, incanum in David Don's genus Aphclexis 
which as defined by D. Don is a purely South African group and possesses a 
receptacle with 'rigid, pointed paleae", in //. incanum the receptacle is naked. 

The variation between the taxa within Helipterum albicans appears from 
the herbarium material to be continuous (except in the variety graminifolium 
which is at the moment represented by only a lew collections), and it is ap- 

* State Herbarium of South Australia, Adelaide. 
Trails. Roy. Soc. % Aust, (1960), VoL 83. 



164 PAUL G. WILSON 

parent that, except for the one variety noted, each taxon intergrades with one 
or more of the other taxa, although, possibly due to geographical separation, 
intermediates in all directions have not yet been found, 

Two additional species have been described since De Candolle s Prodronius 
which are similar in capitula characters, Helipterwn slipitatum F v M. and 
H. fitzgibhonii F v M. From material seen these two species appear to be 
invariable and show no signs of hybridization with any other species. II stipi- 
taium is easily distinguished by its outer involueral bracts which are narrow and 
stipe-like; H. fitzgibbonii by its glandular-hairy (not woolly) indumentum- and 
its narrowly lanceolate, ciliate, outer involueral bracts. 

Key to the "Helipterum albicans* group. 

I. Leaves broadly oblong to obovate, sessile; margin wrinkled; plant somewhat shrubby. 

11. xaxatile 
L Leaves filiform to narrowly oblong or oblanceolate, or if obovate then pctiolate and "with 
a smooth margin; plants at most with a woody perennial branching base. 
2- Plant annua]; achene densely and prominently papillose; intermediate bracts broadly 
ovate to suborbieular. pale yellow; leaves broadly linear to oblong or oblanceolate. 

2. Plant perennial (or if animal then with narrowly ovate brarts and filiform to narrowly 
linear leaves); achene smooth to coarsely papillose; intermediate bracts from narrowly 
lanceolate to ovate, or if deltoid then with red streaks, 

3. Leaves obovate or oblanceolate, thick, planl densely lanuginose. 

//. albicans subsp. olpimtm 
3, Leaves filiform to narrowly oblong or narrowly oblanceolate, thin. Indumentum 
variable. 

4. Leaves with the upper surface glabrous, filiform, congested. 

H. albicans subsp. albicans var, gramini folium 
4. Leaves lanate on both surfaces, filiform to linear, narrowly oblong, or oblanceo- 
late, congested or somewhat scattered. 

5. Inner involueral bracts white. 

6. Involueral bracts with the lamma (9-) 1,0-15 mm. long, elliptic or 
lanceolate (raTely obovate or ovate), leaves filiform to linear, disc pale 
greenish yellow. Tasmania anil Crampians of Victoria. 

7. Intermediate involueral bracts with lamina elliptic, usually narrowly 
so, rarely narrowly obovate or narrowly ovate, ubhi.se. 

subsp. albicans var. incanum f. incantim. 
7. Intermediate involueral bracts lanceolate, acute or acuminate. 

subsp. albicans var. incanum f. grampianum 
6. Involueral bracts with the lamina from 5 to 10 mm, long, obloujtr, to 
ovale (or rarely elliptic), obtuse to acute, disc yellow. Leaves filiform 
to linear or narrowly oblanceolate, Mainland plant. 

subsp, albicans var. incanum f. purpureo-album 
5. Inner involueral bracts yellow. 

8. Intermediate involueral bracts ovate to oblong obtuse to acute. 
Outer bracts pale to dark brown; leaves filiform to linear; peren- 
nial (or occasionally annual?). 

subsp. albicans var. albicans 

•B. Intermediate involucial bracts broadly ovate to deltoid or orbi- 
cular, apex rounded to acute. 

9. Outer bracts dark brown or purple, often streaked, central 
ones with the lamina broadly ovate to deltoid; leaves linear; 
perennial. subsp. albicans var. buffuloensis 

9. Outer bracts colourJess to pale brown, central ones with the 
lamina broadly ovate to suborbieular, obtuse to rounded; 
leaves broadly linear to oblong or oblanceolate; annual. 

H. mnlle 



■Sl'KClKS WITHIN HELIPTEBUM ALBICANS 



165 




Fig 1, — Helipterum saxatile P. G. Wils. (Ising s.n. Evelyn Djwns): J, 
habit; 2, corolla; 3, achene; 4, an intermediate bract. 



166 



PAUL G. WILSON 



Helipterum saxatilel\ G, Wihon sp. now; H, albicans (A. Cunn. )DC. affinis 
sed foliis latis, niarginibus undulatis pedunculis brevis, braeteis anguste ellipticis 
differt 

[H. stipitatum F v M- var., Mueller, Fragm. 10: 109 (1877).] 

[H. incanum (non (Hook.)DC.)-F. v. Mueller, Trans. Roy, Soc. S. Austral. 
3; 134 (1880); Tate, Fl. Extratrop. S. Austral. 125 (1890), and in Rep. Horn 
Exped. Dot. 81 165 (1896),] 

[//. albicans (non (A. Cunn.)DC\)-J. M Black, Fl. S { Austral. 624 (1929), 
p.p., and 2nd ed. 901 (1957) p.p.] 

[H. incanum (Hook.) DC. var. irvineae F v M. in sched.]— Figs. 1, 3, 7(1). 

Herba perennis frutieulosa dense ramosa ad 40 cm alta; rami inferiores 
lignosi ad 1-5 cm crassi. Caulcs annotinorum dense albido-lanuginosi ad 15 
cm longi, 2 mm lati. Folia sessilia oblonga vel anguste obovata, apiee obtuso 
vel acuminata, apiculato, ad 3-5 cm longa, 0-7 f— 1*1) cm lata, rnarginibus 
undulatis, utrinque albido-lanata. Pedunculus terminals, 1-8 cm longus, dense 
lanuginosus pauci bracteatus; bractcac lineares vel filiformes 2-5 mm longac. 
lnvolucrum hemisphericum ad 2 cni latum, cxterius album vel pallido-rubrum, 
iiitcrius album. Bracteae laminaruxn basibus lanatis, cxtoriores sessiles anguste 
oblongae, acutae ad 2 mm Iongae, inleriores stipitatae, stipite viridi plano- 
subulato 4-5 mm lnngo, lamina elliptica c. 6 mm longa apiee obtuso basi 
anguste cuneata; bractea intimae stipite lincari viridi c. 6 mm longi, lamina ovata 
t\ 3 mm longa. Receptaculum planum c. 4 mm latum. Flosculi bomogami; 
corolla tenuis 6-8 mm longa., lauce vix tubo latiorc, lobis aculis c. 0-8 mm longis; 
anthcrae a 2-5 mm Iongae basi sctiferac. Styli rami c. 2 mm longi, apiee 
rotundati. Achaenia glabra, dense et minute papillosa, c\ 2 mm longa. Pappi 
setae 15-20, albae, brevissime plumosae, c. 6 mm Iongae. 

Distribution—Central Australia, northern South Australia, eastern Queens- 
land and north-eastern New South Wales. 




Fig. 2. — Distribution or Helipterum saxatile. 



Northehk Territory, Arlluuga or Claravillc, \t. L. Bunda (AD); near Harts K&age 
Police Depot, 12 Sept. 1956, U, Lazarides 5976 (CANB): Mt. Sqpthr, 11894 1, R. Tate (AD): 
Mt Gillen, 9 Aug. 1936, J. B. Clehnd (AD); Alice Springs-Charlotte Waters, 1875, G. Giles- 
(MEL); Alice Sprin&s-Standley Chasm, 11 CM\ 1950. Gouhn filfi (GALBA); :ir_ fti'ntl 
Springs, 22 Apr. 1934, H. E, Wiakworth 201 (NT): Maerlonnell llange-Que^nsland border, 
18H2~K. y'lint (MEL); Gosse Range, 28 Aug. 1956, J. ft. Cleland (AB): near Hermannshur^, 



SPECIES WITHIN HELIPTERL'M ALBICANS lu7 

24 /Vutr. 1956. G. CkippcndaU 2632 (NT hoWypc, NSW Uo, CANH iso) and 22 Aug. 1956, 
2551 (NT); ihid., 2B AaU. 1956, G Ohipymitoh 2704 (AD); ihid,, 13 Aug- 1929, /. ff. 
CteAuirf 23 (AD); m\ Ilpilla Gorge [Mc-MiHa Cr,|, [J 8941, R. Tate (NSW); nr. Drrp Well 
Siding, 3 Sr.pt 1956, C. Chippendale 2716 (BUI, NSW, CANH); Tohermurtsy Bomneiang 
bafldOck, 9 Sept 1054. G. Chippendale 220 (Bill, AO); Fink*, K, H, Kempe 400 (MEL); 
i/Wd., 1879, II. Kempe 61 (MEL); HtHK Shoe Bend (Mt. Engoorclina), 24 Aug. 1931, E. H 
ftjng (AD); ibid., H Ktmpe S.n. (AD); Henbury, 3 lune 1935, /. 6 Cldand (AD): lOr 
Wiird*: Mt. Olgn 1 18731, W. C. Go&sr (MELV, LilL CreeL, r&ftf Old Crown, 17 Alt*. 1055, 
W. C;«r/t W 1915 (NSW, NT, CANB); .VW. Australia. 1903. U. tiawdow 126 and 443 (NSW), 

Queemmnp, duchess TuWiislnp, 2 Sept. 1933. M. Lazartdc* 40.30 (CANB). 

Ni:vv SotrXM Wai.tw. Harrier Knngi\ Sent. 1889, J. F. Zn^ltua (AD):. Corona Station. 
SikertOu, Sept 1389 and 1-S90, h K. frrtrtO {Mfclj; iu. SilveitQn . Axi*. IflSO, /. F- JfoilW 
(NSW): Mt. Brown, W. BAWW 315 (MF.L)- 

S'otTir AusiiULiA. iivolvn Downs, Ooclnadattu. 3j0 Sefct 1055, £. fi. /*fog 3836 (T\S T W. 
AD), jfcfaL 10 Soj]L 1858, E, ;/. /*«« (AD 95923004); *W., .3 Sept. !<Jo5, K. *i. Mt$ 
3832 (AD); ihid,, 17 Srpt. 1952, £. '/. ftfag (AD); ftf&, Oct. 1950. £. H 2«fttf (AD)? 
ihid., 26 Aug. 1954, & ff, /«&« 3739 ( AD ): *«/«/„ 1G Sept- 1955, F. /L fanig 3991 (AD); 
ihid., 22 Oct. 1955, £. II. Lwig (AD), Mt. Cbtferttft, L. S. i'Varicw (AD); Upper Aikutirma 
Vallov, 10 Mm 189J, 6i tftimv (AD, MEL. SfSW. K); Intel lar r.F South Australia, W. C. 
CAuw<? 101 and 198 (K). 

This plant is present in many herbaria, under the name of Hclipterum in- 
canwn var. IrvAncae F v M-> Mueller having thus labelled specimens sent to him 
by Mrs. Jemima F. Irvine from near Silvcrton, south of the Barrier Ranges, 
X.S.W., which he received in 1339 and 1890. In the Melbourne Herbarium 
there is a specimen of tins plant collected by William Christie Gossc in 1S73 
"towards ML Olga", attached is a lengthy manuscript written by Mueller in 
which he describes it as a new species of Hclipterum and states that he is naming 
it after Reynolds [Thomas Reynolds, Commissioner of Crown Lands 1872-73 
and previously Treasurer and Premie t of South Australia.] However, neither die 
name "irvincav" nor "rcynoldsif appear to have been published. In 1877 
(Fragm. 10: 109) Mueller remarked on a plant collected between Alice Springs 
nud Charlotte Waters which he considered to be a variety of Helipterutn sfipi- 
tatum having, however, lanuginosc-tomeniose lanceolate leaves, lanceolate not 
subulate 1 outer jnvolueral bracts, and white inner bracts, apparently bein« 
intermediate between llehchnjsum and llelipirrum. There is* a corresponding 
specimen of II. mxatile in the Melbourne Herbarium collected by Christopher 
Ciles in 1875 between Alice Springs' and Charlotte Waters, on which Mueller 
has made similar notes, presumably therefore his remarks in the Fragmenla 
were based on this collection. In 1&90 Mueller, in passing, makes another note 
on this species [Trans. Hoy. Soe. S. Austral., 13: 170 (1S90)] in which he refers 
to it as "the broader leaved form <rf II, incunum, with the usual lanuginons 
vestiiure, [which] penetrates also quite as far as the Tropic of Capricorn into 
Central Australia^. It is, I feci, fairly certain that although Mueller several 
times considered describing this plant as a new variety or species, he never 
finally did so. That both Ralph Tate and J. M. Black also noted tin* plant and 
eonfmed it with H. alhinam Is indicated in the liler-ilure cited above and was 
made apparent by a studv of the specimens m the herbaria of these authors 
fAD). 

//, sUxqtfle appears, as noted by Mueller, to be intermediate between Ueti- 
chrystm and Hclipterum. It is probably closely allied to tlelichrysutu t-Utium 
A. Cuuu. ex DC. and Hctichrysinn Innu^inonttiti. A. Conn. e.\ DC, both oi which 
have similar involueral bracts and florets, but differ in having smooth ucoenes 
and pappus bristles only shortly denticulate. In //. mxatlle the pappus bristles 
are Jieaier to those of H. albicans, i.e., subpluniose, however, the change from 



168 



PAUL G WILSON 



the denticulate bristle of Helichrysum hnuginosum to the sub-plumose bristle 
of Helipterum albicans is not sharp and certainly not in itself a natural basis for 
generic distinction. Although H, saxatile is not closely related to H. albicans, 
they are considered together in this paper because of their constant associa- 
tion and confusion in previous works. 

"The name saxatile is given to the plant because of its growing in stony 
habitats. 

I should like to acknowledge my thanks to Mr. E. IL Ising, who has col- 
lected both H. saxatile and II, molle fairly widely in South Australia; he felt 
sure that these were two distinct species, drew my attention to the confusion, 
and gave his collections and extensive notes to mc for study. 

Helipterum albicans (A. Ctmn.)DC. Prod., 6: 215 (1838); Ewart, FL Vict., 

1130 (1931). 

Elichnfsum albicans A. Cunn. in Field, Gcog. Mem. N.S.W, 3-59 (1825), 
Type, Forest Land, Cox's River, 9 Oct 1822, A. Cunningham 71 (holo K, iso? 
MEL), 

Argyrocomc albicans (A. Cunn.) O. Kuntze, Rev. Gen, PL 1: 308 (1891). 

[Helipterum incanum (non (Hook. ) DC. sensu stricto) —Hooker, Icones 
Plt.318 (1841) as to specimens cited; Bentham, FL Austral, 3: 643 (1867); 
Bailey, Syn. Queensl Fl 251 (1883); Moore, Cens. PI N.S.W. 38 (1884); Mueller, 
Key Syst. Vict. PL 33 (1885); Mueller, Sec. Svst. Cens. Austral. PL J 36 (1889); 
Woolls, PL India and Nat. Neighb. Syd. 33 (1891); Bailey, Queensl. FL 831 
(1900); Dixon, PL N.S.W. 192 (1906); Bailey, Compreh. Cat. Queensl. PL 266 
(1913?); Sulman. Wild. FL N.S.W. 2; 73 (1914); Maiden and Betche, Cens. 
N.S.W. PL 203 (1916); Field Nat. CI. Viet, Cens. PL Vict. 68 (1923).] 

A perennial herb (or occasionally annual ?), 12-45 cm high, base branched 
and often woody, sometimes decumbent, the older stems often covered with 
brown scarions persistent leaf bases. Young stems sparsely to densely lanate, 





Fig. 3. — A, Distribution 
of Helipterum albicans I, 
piirttureo-album; B, var. 
buffahensis; C, var. 
graminifolhtm. 



Fig, 4. — Distribution of 

Helipterum albicam var. 

albicans. 



erect, leafy- Leaves more or less lanatc at least below, scattered or congested 
on the younger portions of the stems, filiform with revolute lamina, to linear, 
narrowly oblong, or obovate, the base clasping, 2*5-10 cm lone, 0-1-1 cm wide. 
Peduncle terminal, sparsely to densely lanate, 5-20 cm long, with a few scattered 
scariotis linear to filiform bracts. Capitulum solitary, terminal. Involucre 2-3 
(-5) cm wide, hemispherical, reHexed in fruit Outer bracts sessile, oblong to 
ovate, with the apex obtuse to acute, intermediate ones stipitate with die lamina 
deltoid to narrowly elliptic, apex rounded to acute, base woolly ciliate, truncate 



SPECIES WITHIN HELIPTi-RtM ALBICANS 109 

l<> narrowly cuneate, 6-10 (-15) nun long., 2-5-4 (-6) mm wide, stipe subulate, 
minutely papillose on the outer surface, to 6 mm long; iruieimost bracts with a 
shurt lamina and a flattened scuxmusly winged stipe. Outer bracts purple, 
brown, pale yelluw, iff colourle,ss\ fading with age. Inner bracts yellow or wliite. 
Disc pale greenish-yellow to bright yellow. Florets homoganious. Corolla 
sparsely papillose on the outside c. 5 mm long, with the tube 2-3 mm long, 
tfiroat nurnmiy campanulate 2-3 mm long, lobes ovate to lanceolate 0*.>1 mm 
long. -Aeliene ± obovoid obscurely four angled, curved, smooth to verruculose, 
2-3 mm long. Pappus bristles 14-20, sub-plumose except at base, iree, more or 
less equalling the corolla iu length. 

suhsp. albicans. 

Leaves filiform to linear. Corolla c. 5 mm long. Achenc ^ smooth to 
vcmiculose or papillose. 

var. albicans. 

H. fncmum (I look.) DC. van ftavidiceps- F. v. M. Rep Babbage's E.xpcd. 14 
(1859). Type* "Snhalpine plains on the Snowv River", F. v. Mueller (iso K, 
holo IV1EL)*. 

H, Uiconum var. aurievm. F. v. M - I.e. 

U. Incanum var, filifoiium F. v. M. I.e. Type, Station Peak, You Yungs 
Mts., iir. GeeJantf, Victoria, F. v. Mueller (iso K- holo MKL). 

[W. incanum (A. Cunn.jDC. var. aurkeps (F, v. M.) liwart, Fl. Viet 1130 
(1631) (combination not validly published).]— Figs. 4, 7(3), 

Plant perennial (or occasionally annual?). Leaves scattered or congested, 
filiform to linear, Lmatc. Intermediate involucrai bracts with the lamina, ovate 
to oblong or lanceolate, yellow, 5-8 (-10) mm long ? outer bracts pale tu dark 
brown. Disc yellow. Achenc smooth to coarsely verruculose. 

Distributiim. South-east Queensland, eastern New South Wales, central and 
eastern Victoria. 

Queensland. Canal Creek\ 1882, Jlartnumn 769 (MEL); Bomet, C. Hah (MEL) 
Cuwhunin**, tAStiut &54 (MEL); Kamsay, J. Margins (BRJ); Warwick Sflverwood 24 \\itf 
1934, S. L, Evcmt (BRI) ; ibid., Sept. 1922. V. 7'- Whae 1755 (HR1); The Suinmfc 22 
Nov. 1946. Everist and Webb £332 (CANB); Stautln«?pt?. T. A. Burmys <BHI>- ihid 
Qatidson J3 (BRI); ibid, Fi M. Bailey (BHL): ibid.. Oct. 1910, ii, Wright (BRI) Upper 
Macintyro ft., Oct. 1887, A. Butter (MKL); Severn R., 1*73, Hartmann 40 (MEL, BH1)- 

Nkw SVmmh Walks Clarence R.. 1872. Wilcox (MEL); Maryland, Mar. 1885 E 
Hickey 21(1 (MEL); Wilson's Downfall, Nov 1904, y. L. Boannun (NSW); Boonoo Boonoo 
Wilson's Downfall » Jan. 1950, M. Gray .'V751 (CANB); JVnterlicId, 22 \% IS47 a F. F 
Constablv ( NSW h thid. t Nov. 1874, Hftoju (MKL), Open Plains, Nkw England anon 30 
(MEL); New England. 2000 ft., C. Stuart 55 (MEL), New England, 1880, X. 'Colli*- (MEL)* 
Eironiivillo, Oct. 1911, J. L. Boatman iNSW), ibid*. Oct. 1944, W. HuHhy (GANB*- Pbd- 
rmry, 10 Jum IJJSft M'w/< "W^ Ormf 1948 (CANB); Cop^anluust, Oct. 191L H, Si\ Hupp 
(NSW); Glen Enjtti Deo. 1913, J. L. Boatman (Bin); ibhi, f Mar. 1917, /. Boorman (NSW)- 
Glen Hsfn, Dec. 1910. ]. Boorman (NSW); Ciiyia, 11 Jan, 1936. £. Fraser (NSW, SVD • 
ibui„ Mar. 1917, /. Boorman (NSW); lleuMtnt HUla. 1889. Flatter (\1EL); Banabj Sept 
191)3 R D. Uuu 11 (NSW); Yarrowyek v •! Afar. 1954, Jcftmp and Cratf 270S (CAIVS): 
licml of pWVflft RU 12 Apr. Tft43 ( U'ichJwrdt (NSW); Am>i<! v1 lr, 20 Jan. 1941 
Dttrfe* (SYD): ibid.. 18 Jan. 1^20, K McDt>*udd (A1)\V); ibid., Perrott (MEL) : 
Waleha, 1884, A. H. Crawford 49 (MEL); Upper Maeqnarie H M Oct. 1BH2 f Af'. 
Cttfrfln (MEL); Scone, 1-S83. F. C. Carter (MEL); ibid., 31 Aug, 1907, H. H. 
Camba»e 1691 (NSW); Blandford, ii Oct, 1944, H. \1. Rupp (NSW); C.in^al, Sept. 1904 
/. L. Bitonmn (NSW). Dnhhn, \hHl, M. Cumw (MEL), Hustings B,, Or, H«ckh'r (MEL) 
Mudgee, Wnolh (KfFX): Wingcn, 30 Oct. 1909, B. It. Cnmbogc (SVD), Llthgaw. 2 Jan. 
1936, J.W.V., L.H.F. and /.AI.W. (SYD); BowenfcliJ. 2 Oct. 1904, R. H, Gamboge UfW 
(\SVV); Ratl«ur.t T 22 Apr. 1889. /Jeon^ (NSW); WnllenuvanK, Dec. 1917, J. L. Bnorman 
(AD); Hartley Vale, Nov. 1913, A. A. Hamilton (NSW); Jeoolan C«V£l Oct. 1890, W. F 
B?«M/ (NSW); Lidstklc-WallcTawanK, 2 Jan. 1041, A-D.E, (SYD); Kirkeonnel $tm EorcSt, 
22 Mar. 194J. G. W. Althofer (NSW): Forest Land, Cox's R M 9 Oct. 1822, A Cunningham 
71 (Type of ttdiehrijtium albicans A. Ctinn., MEL Iso, K lu'lu); ibid., S. G Jtannnford 



17') I'AVL C. WILSON 

(NSW); Temoro, Nov. 1016. /. W Dtcyer 959 (NS'W); Cavnrt, J. Calvert (MEL): 
Yass-Boorowa, 30 uov. 1053 v C. W. £. Afow/w 281 (NSW); Yasfl, 30 Nov. IftSS, 
C. W. £, A£ t ^*« 2811 (CANB); Albuiy, Oct 191ft T. H. rattmon 166 (NSW); 
Table Top, //. Health (MEL); Nflfl On Mill, 17 Oct. 1940. ft /. Mclhtthm 3810 
(AD SVD); IfeftL 22 J;in. 1949, E. J. McBarron 2095 bis (NSW). Br,iJdvmxi, 3fl Oct. 
I0OK, fl. //. Camhage 2082 (NSW, SVO); &&L 3100 ft, Dec. IWJ4, W, P$U4f70i 2.52 
'MED. ibid., Feb. 1000, /. L. Boorman (NSW); Wajfi&J Wagga, Hammond 1 (MEL); 
lU^t MML /. R. Gar&rtd 18 (MEL); ibid* 1884, ft. T/iorrt (MEL); Tumbamwba, 6 Nov. 
1019, K. ]. McBarron 4001 (SYD); Lindsay slntion. 4 Nov. 1000, R. II. Camhagto (S\D); 
Blue Mouotftius* F. v. Mueller (MEL); base or' Mt KowtJusKo. Oct. 1H87, R o. Afuc/ter 
(MRLK 

Victoria. Beecli worth, 1881, Ftikk 21 (MEL); HoHierKlen-Chilti-Tn. 10 Oct 1050. 
C W. f:. Mwrc 1418 tflANBJ'j MvrtMoul, lSB3. Or. LtlUU (MEL)j Mt. Holbwm, Jan. 
1900, /. //. A/atcira (NSW), fttft, Jan. 1899, C\ Walter (NSW); ibid., OlOti it., 13 Nov. 
1952 £, L, Hobcrtson 7200 (ADvV); thtd.., 1800, C. ffaftcp (MED; Uppylaw . M83, 
Woiciff 60 and 447 (MEL); Australian Alps, 3000 ft, 23 Cot. 1880, SfMiiitf I ? J 4|> (MEL); 
OjucO, 1882, Ihncitt 839 (MEL); Upper Murrav K., 1886, mrt (MEL;; *l>|//. IShb, 
K. Rquw 39 (MEL); ffflWt Y«rm, Aug. 1891, C, WiA«f (C-DC, NSW); Red JhriCcl Qfleek. 
1874 CflfgfWvife* (MEL); Research, 12 Doc. 1017, Cdirtti (GAUBA), Castloinnmo IW1, 
P. DfWt-n (NSW); RjtfMtfc Jfafol (MEL); Port SMKft F- <•'■ M«*f Jf MRU* *WSfft 
WWi 8 (MEL); Wimmera, DdS. (MEL); ffad„ Cuiy/k? <MKL); Iloalcsville .18 Oct, UU, 

): Little Paver. PuJWfllffH *MEL); St.uloo 



K. Ketfw (-QjSCH Ibid., C. Wtffer fG-OC. MEL 
Peak, R e, Mueller (K); fete Yanjw Mfe,, 3 Sojvt- 



1900, A. G Combefl (G-DC 

This variety exhibits considerable variation at the extremes of its distribu- 
tion, both in its leaves and its iiivolucral bracts. In the region south-west of 
Melbourne (the type locality of H. incanum var. jMfolium FvM.), the leaves 
are filiform. Jn eastern Victoria around Mt Ilotham, they beeome thicker, per- 
haps due to the influence of subsp. alpinttm, while in the westerly limits oFtfl 
occurrence in New South Wales, they become flattened, and the plants .smaller 
Suggesting hybridization with 11. malic. The variation in colour and shape of 
the invulucral bracts is also great. Thus plants from central Victoria have lanceo- 
late bracts, in the east and north-east of New South Wales and Queensland and 
they arc narrowly ovate to oblong, while (o the west they become more broadly 
ovate, again a tendency towards II. moUe. 

In Cippsland is found a form with pale yellow narrowly ovale intermediate 
Jnvolucral tracts and linear to narrowly oblanccolate leaves, this represents var 
flnvidiccps F v M. described from the Snowy River. 

It seems probable that Mnellei had no precise plant in mind when he de- 
scribed H incttnum var. aurkeps, bis description "involucral scvuVs lanceolate. 
i»oldcn yellow" and "Australia Felix^ one of the regions of distribution eitcd> 
would fit the central Victorian form of var. albicans, but^Muellcr also mentions 
it as occurring in the "Northern parts of South Australia" whecc the only plant 
m this group found is H. malic. It is possible that Mueller was not satisfied 
with his delimitation of the varieties of II. albicans as described in Rep. Bab- 
bale's Evped., for he does not appear to have used the varietal epithets in Ins 
later publications. 

var. buflfaloerms P. G. Wilson var. uov. -Fiys. 3k 7(4), 8(1). 

llerba petennis sufTrutescens. Bracteae involucri exteriores ovatae> rubrn- 
litscae. intpriore^ late ovatae vel ddloidea, llavae. Corolla 5 mm longa. Achacnia 
levitej 1 verrucosfi! ohovoidea. 3 mm longa. 

A tall erect perennial herb to 45 em high, much branched, with the branches 
ascending fr<»m a woody brtse. Leaves linear closely lanate, scattered along 
t^e stem when flowering. Outer involucral bracts dark reddish brown ? often 
streaked, the intermediate ones yellow with acute broadly ovate to deltoid 
laminae which are up to 10 mm »ng and 6 mm wade. 

Distribution.— Apparently confined to Ml. Buffalo. 



SPECIES WITHIN ITCLUTEKUM ALBICAN'S 171 

Vtctoiua. Mt. Buffalo. 25 Dofc UK .Vf«r;CiHieruy 116G (NSW, ADW); 4.300 It, 
19 Jan. (Ul.'l ft ff« C<2tn/>«£« 372-1 (NSW); Dec. 190*2, fffffttfat (NSW); 4,0UU K.i ? J«tD- 
1950, tf. C. Bi SfeJfMrt {BR!); 3.000 ft,, 10 Nov. 1955, Cuuhu (GAl.TU, type). 

It differs from othicam in being a Uilier plant, and in the colouring and shape 
of the involueral bracts, some collections from near ML Buffalo are. however, 
intermediate between var buffaloemis and var. albicans in this respect. 

war; graminHolium F. C. Wilson var. nov. — Figs. 3c, 7(5). Herba perennis 
inferne lignosa ad 30 cm ultu, dense compacta, ramomsima; rami maturi basibns 
rigidis foliorum delapsorum ixicrustatt. Caulis annotinus dense foliatus, paroc 
lanahis. Folia filiformfa ud 12 cm longa, margimbus revofutLs. supra glabra 
vena impressa, infra vena promiuenti glabra aliter lanata. Pedunculus gracilis 
panci bractcatus, apice versus lanatus, 8-15 em lungus. Involncrum nanis- 
phcricum. 2-2-5 cm latum. Braetcac involuero extreme scssiles, ohlongae vel 
cllipHeae, obtusac, scariosae. ba,si lanata, interiores stipitatae. stipite 3-3-5 mm 
longo, lamina elliptica ad 7-5 mm louga obtusa vel acuta basi lanata; bractea. 
int/mae stipite anguste searioso-alato c. 4 mm longo, lamina oblonga c. 4 mm 
longa. Bracteac exterioies palhdo-fuscae vel puniceae, interiores aurcac vel 
flavae. Aehacnia minute rugosa vel levia, lutgida, leviter curvata c, 2 mm long*. 
Pappi setae M-IBj sub-plumosae, c. 4 mm longac. 

Distribution. — Known only from the one district about 75 miles north-west 

of Sydney. 

NiSW South Wat.™. Clarence- Wol^n na : uJ, 31 Dec. L©9, W*. I'. Blukeit/, /, and W. }, 
Hwkiwhnm 44378 (AD, NSW); ihkl> 26 Feb, 1930, W. JT BMrhf., /■ f^djm }. Button^ 
ktmt 3306 (AD isotypc, NSW holotypc); Woigait Cap, 3,200 ft., 12 Apr. 1989, L. Johnson 
(NSW); Wolgan R.* Nov. 1900, H Oeanc (NSW). 

This is a clearly distinguished variety noteworthy for its closely rcvolutc 
leaves which are glabrous above and lariate beneath except for the glabrous 
midrib, and for the hard scale-like leaf bases on the old stems. 

I am grateful to Sydney Herbarium (NSW) for sending me all their material 
of this interesting plant, and for the accompanying notes made on it by the 
late W. F, Blukeiy, whose manuscript epithet I have adopted. 

var, ineanum (Hook.) P. G. Wilson var. et comb, nov- 

lielichnfmm incamtm Hook. Hot. Mag. t. 2SS1 (1829). Type, ).c, L 2BBL 

Hdipttmtm mcanttm (ilook.) DC, Prod. 6: 215 (1838); Hooker, Icon** 
Pi. t. 318 (1841) p.p., as to tab- and Tasmanian plants cited; Hooker, Fl. iasman. 
1 214 (185$>| Rodwaw Tasman. Fl. 85 (1903); Guil/ovle, Austral. PL 213 
(1910?). 

Aphekxis hicam (Honk.) G. Dun in Sweet, Hurt. Brit. ed. 3. 379 (1830). 

f*. ineanum. 

Helipterwn mcamirn var. tricolor DC. Prod. 8; 215 (J838). (Name illegiti- 
mate as the variety is based on Rot. Mag. t. 2881 > the type figure of fl. inatnum 
Hook.), Hooker. Fl. Ta*m. 1: 21 1 (SflSB); F- v. Mueller, IWp- Babbage's Exped. 
14 (1859) p.p. 

[H. ineanum var. purpnreo-album F v M. I.e., p.p.. not as to lectotype.]— 
Figs. 50/7(7). 

A perennial herb 10-40 cm high. Base branched and woody, covered with 
the, persistent membranous bases of the old leaves. Branches erect, or slightly 
decumbent in old plants, lanuginose when young. Leaves more or less con- 
gested, narrowly linear to filiform with revofute margins, lamiginose, to 12 em 
kmg. involucre hemispherical, 2-5 con. wide. Outer bracts oblong, sessile; 
intermediate ones sh'pitate, the lamina elliptic, usually narrowly so (occasionally 
narrowly ovate or obovate), apex obtuse, hase ovate to narrowly cuncatc, 10-15 
mm long. 2-4 mm wide; stipe subulate to 6 mm long. The outer 5-6 rows of 



ITS J'AIL C. \VILS.(M\ 

im olueral bracts with purple tips which become brown with age, the rest white. 
Achcnc four angled, ± smooth to coarsely verruculose^ curved-. 2-5-2*8 mm long. 
Distribution .—Northern Tasmania. 

Tasmania, Circular Head, 3 Nov, 1841, Milliwn 551 I MEL, JlO); ihid. y 30 Jftui. 1888, 
Oahdvn 115 (MEL); Circular Head Bluff, Sept. 1838, Cunn 108 (NSW); &&£. Stmt, 1838, 
Gum/ 442 (NSW); Punt, Norfolk Plains, 8 Dec. 1842, Cunn, 108 (NSW); MuUlleso* plains, 
3000 It., 19 Jan. 1842, Gunn 513 (MEL); &tf., Frb. 1924, L, /f. Etofifetl (NSW); Scrubby 
Corner. Nov, 1848, AnsRtfr 71 (NSW): Cradle Mr.-Moirui, 1 Fob. 1949, N. T. Butfatge 
3B&S (CANB, HO). Without definite locality; X. PrtWI (MEL); Story '•& (MEL); C. 
fifettfi (<;-DO. MEL); 1844, Gunn 55 (MEL). Cunn 108 (MEL, K), 100, 124 (oricin of 
Icone* figure) (K)„ 1863 s,n. (G-DC)« 

This form is restricted to northern Tasmania. It is similar to the south-cast 
Australian L purput co-album which also has purple tipped outer mvolucral 
bracLs. In the latter plant, however, the bracts arc smaller, normally ovate to 
oblong, usually acutely tipped, while the disc is Of a deeper yellow colour. 

\V. J. Honker in his description of H, incanum (BoL. Mag. t. 2881] states 
that the inner involneral bracts are pale yellow ur cream-coloured, the inter- 
mediate ones tipped with red, and the outer white, while De Cumlolle in his 
Prodromus, under var. tricolor based on the same figures in the Hot. Mag., de- 
scribes the inner ones as white, intermediate yellow, and outer purple, which 
statement is repeated hy Mueller in Rep. Babbagcs Exped. 14 (1859). I have 
not seen any specimens of Tasmanian plants with yellow bracts, although various 
colour combinations sometimes occur on the mainland. The seed from which the 
plant illustrated in the- Botanical Magazine was grown, is said to have come from 
Tasmania, but no details are given, and I have not been able to find any cor- 
respond iug specimen in the Kew Herbarium. 

f. grampianum P. G. Wilson form, nov.— Figs, 5A, 7(8). 

Biacteae involucri in tenures laneeolatac* acutae ve! acuminatae 12-14 mm 
longae, 4-5 mm latae. Folia fififormia, lanata. 

Distribution.— The Grampian Region of Victoria. 

Yhtohia. Mt. Emu, F- 1>. Muriier (MEL); Skiptim Plains. I860. W. J. Wthjn 39 
(MELhofotype, NSW iso); Crrtnipfons, 1885, ft v, Mueller (MEL); ibid, y Wilhelmf (MEL); 
Western Plain of Victoria, 1857, Wilhclml (MEL); "Loamv Plains towards tlu- Gramninns , 
arum, (MEL), Wicklifle, Nov. 1908- J.l'.M. (MEL); "Interior of New HoMind", 18H 
Mitchell (MEL). 

This variety has a very limited distribution as is indicated above. It ap- 
peals from the collections available that there is no continuity of distribution 
with the south-eastern form of f. purpurco-album, aldiough intermediates occur 
between L grampianum and tin- western Victorian form of f. purpu mo-all mm. 

It clascly resembles the Tasmanian t. incanum but has characteristic acutely 
lanceolate reddish -brown involucral bracts- 

f, purpurco -album (F v M.) P. G. Wilson form, et comb, nov* 

H incanutn (Hook.) DC. var. ptsrpureo-ttlbum F v M. Rep. Rahbagc's 
Exped. 14 H859) p,p Lectotvpe "Maneroo Plains" [Monaro], 1855, P. v. Mueller 
(MEL). 

H. hieohmun- A. Cunn. ex DC Prod. 6: 215 (183S). Tvpe "Hills of the 
Laehlun River" 33*'4'2"S., 146"47'30"E., A. Cunningham. 31* July 1817 (holu 
G-DC photo, iso X, MEL, BR I). 

\H. incanum (Hook,) DC. var. tricolor (now DC. semn stneto) — F. v. M. 
Rep B;<hhage T s Exped. 14 (1859) p.p.] 

[IL incanum (mm (Hook.) DC. .seusu strietu ) — Quilfovle. Austral. PI. 213 
{1910?) p.p.J-Figs. 3A, 7(6), 8(3) 

leaves filiform to linear or narrowly oblanoeolate, Involucre 2-2-8 cm 
wide, Outer bracts pale brown to purple, intermediate bract* oblong to ovate 
(or rarely elliptic) obtu.se to acute, 5-8 (10) mm long. Disc yellow. 



SPECIES WITHIN HELIPTERUMI ALBICANS 173 

Distribution. — South-east New South Wales, south-west and south-east 
Victoria. 

New South Wali^s. Gulgong. Barnard 89 (MEL); Dubbo, 29 Sept. 1911, J. B. 
CtelatuI- (AD); Mudgee, 1870, Taylor (MEL); Mutlgee South, 16 Oct. 1953, M. Tindale 
(NSW); Wellington, "Oct. 1883, Betche (NSW); Hill End, 3 Jan. 1925, MacGillwmy 1172 
(NSW, ADW); ibid,, Apr. 1885, /. Lautercr 28 (MEL); Bat-hurst, ApT, 1817. A. Cunning- 
ham (BIN); Tnnikcy, 18 Nov. 1918, ). Bowman (NSW); Trimkey Cr., 22 Oct. 1951, £ 
Mair (AD); Ahercrombic district, Jan. 1936, /. Wihurd (NSW): Abercrombie Caves, Nuv. 
1918, /. Boonnan (NSW); Lnchlan R-. Julv 1817, A. Cunningham 302 (Type oi #. />!- 
oy/omrn DC?) (BRI); Laggan-Tnena, 15 Oct. 1953, C. W. £. Aioore 2682 (NSW, CANB), 
Bcrrima. Apr/ 1889, H. Deant: (NSW); Goulbnm, Sent. 1916, /. W. Duty*? 848 (NSW); 
Buudanoou, lo Apr, 1947 T A/. Tindale (NSW), Oldbury [near Bemmab L. A^irwon 1G 
(MFD; Midway rivulet L. AfJamwi 17 (MEL); Wingcllo, anon, (NSW); ihid, } Feb. 1901, 
and Dee. 1913, 7. L. Boorman (C-DC); Tallbnfc 28 Oct. 1933, & C/^e/. (NSW); &«/., 1 
Jan. 1935. O.D.E. (SYD>; Ya.ss district, BaariO Qnarrv, 3 June 1949, K. A. Oxen/ord (NSW). 
Yass-Gunnmg, 12 Oct l~953 t C. W. £. Af<«>«* 2629 (NSW, CANB); Tarago, 25 Sept. 1928, 
A. Mmru (AUW); Barbers Creek, Ocr. 1899, 17. ]. Rumsey (SYD); S&L tf, /, ili/wwei/ 
98 CNSW'h ^irf-s Of* M|8& /• ft Mftfefew (BHl); Braidwood. 30 Oct. 1908, R. H. Cambuge 
2082 p.p. (SYD); ibid., 3200 ft., Jan. 1885, W\ flawerfen- 362 and 390 (MEL); Marulan, 25 
Oct. 1948, E. J. HcBarron 2430 bis (NSW, SYD); Cavan, L S ( Coined (MEL); Casllereagh 
R., Woolb (MEL), Cobar, 1887. //. Andrae .342 (MEL), Port JaoLsun, anon. (MEL); New 
Adaminabv-Cooma, 21 Jan. 1958. /. Thompson 48 (NSW); Cooma. 2 Nov. 1908, R. }L 
Camha^o 2101 (NSW, SYD); Cooma district, Dec. 180ft. antm. (AD); Niiwinitabel-Cooma. 
Dee. 1890.7. H. Maiden (NSW); NimmitabcL, Dec. 191b, J. Bowman (NSW, SYD). Kybean, 
5 Nov. 1908, R. H. Camlmge 2123 (NSW, SYD); Mancroo Plains [Monaro], 1855,. F. v. 
Mueller (MEL Icctotypc). 

A.C.T. Nr. Mt. Majura, 24 Sept. 1950, C. W. E. Moore 1415 (CANB); Canberra, 1 Nov. 
1949, Gauha (GAUBA); Ainslie-Duutroon, Oct. 1947, H. R. Browne (CANB). 

Victoria. Hamilton, Oct. 1900, JL B. Williamson (BRI); Maeartbur, Tsov. 1896, H, B. 
Wdliamaon (NSW); ibid., Nov. 1894, B, B. M''illiumson (MEL). 



•jpjti 5. — A, Distribution of fig. 0. — Distribution of Ilcliptcrum molle. 

llelijrterum albicans i. gram- 
planum; B, Mibsp. alpinum: C, 
f. invunum, 

In the northern limits of its distribution tins form has smaller capitula and 
involueral bracts, and agrees closely, except for colour* with tire eastern New 
South Wales form of vat. albicans' Tn the south, the capitula and involueral 
bracts are larger although they do not reach the size of those found in f. incannm. 
the south-west Victorian plants have flat linear leaves and white to pale-brown 
outer involueral bracts, and grade lo the east into f. uxampiauum. 



174 PAW, Q WILSON 

In south-east Now South Wales from Collector south to Conma occurs a 
form with the Onler mvolucral bracts blown to reddish brown, the intermediate 
ones white, and the inner yellow fading to white with age. This may be a hybrid 
between f. albicans and f. purpureo-otbum. Collections of this form are; Collec- 
tor, K Hill 1003 (AD); Qiieanbeyart, M. Mueller and S.W, J2I17 (COOMA); 
Coorna, M, Mueller 780 and 780a (COOMA); Coulburn-Collector, Hi. Eichler 
13312 (AD). ' 

P. v. Mueller gives the following description and distribution of var. pur- 
pureo-album; "inner involucre scales "white, outer ones purple or brown. Tas- 
mania, Manerno, Snowy River, Grampians, Clenelg River, Bathnrst, etc." He 
cites no specimens. J am here excluding from pttrpureo-itlbum the Tasmanlan 
and Grampian plants, and have chosen as a lectotype as specimen collected by 
Mueller at \Waneroo" x>reviuus to the publication <>F his variety. 

subsp. alpinum (FvM.) F. G. Wilson subsp. et comb. nov. 

UeUpterum incanufit (Uook.) DC. var. alpinum FvM. Rep. Babbages 
Kvpod. 14 (1859). Type, "Summit of the Australian Alps" F. v. Mueller (iso'K, 
NSW, holo MEL).-Kigs. 5B, 7(9), 8(2). 

A decumbent perennial herb 10-24 cm high; ba.se woody, branching cov- 
ered with persistent membranous brown leaf bases. Young stems densely 
lanuginosa Leaves thick, congested, densely lanujjinnse, obovate to oblanceo- 
LUe, with the apex obtuse to rounded, 2-5-6 cm long, 0-6-1 cm wide. Peduncle 
terminal lanuginosa, 4-12 cm long. Involucre hemispherical, 2-6-4 cm wide, with 
numerous bracts. Outer bract/ sessile, ovate to lanceolate, intermediate ones 
with the lamina narrowly ovate, obtuse to acute, 10-12*5 mm long, 4 mm wide. 
The outer bracts pale reddish brown to pale blown, the intermediate white 
and the innermost sometimes with a purple spt»t at the lamina base. Disc 
yellow. Corolla 4-5-5 mm long, pappus setae subplumose 4-5-5*5 mm long. 
Aehene smooth, obscurely 4-Hirftled, obovoid, slightly curved. 

Distribution.— The Australian Alps. 

Nkw S'oerH Wai.es. Mt. Kosciuako, F<-b. 1046, F.U.M. (SYD): J Hn 1953. A T. 
liotchhss (SYD)i Feb, IW28, /. McLurMt? (16 (SYD); Feb. 1927, kfi/feVnV 7000 ft \o 
Mar, 1957, C. L. JWfiwjft 440 (NSW); Feb. 1954. CL W. AUhofer (NSW)- Dec 189* 7 
Krehrhmur (NSW); Dec. 1912, //. M. R, Rujip (NSW); Jan, t90* C. if. Grave fG-DG 
MEL); 7200 ft,, M.S. 23 (MEL); Jan. 1885, Van L. mderfeUl (MEL); J*n. 1859 / //' 
Maiden and W. Ftiftyth (MFL. AD);. Jan. 1.925, ]. McLuckts and A, //, K, Pt'tric (OANB)- 
Nov. 1928, /. Mr.fMckie 110 (CAMB): 7000 ft., 30 Jan. 1953, M. Mudler 781 and 78U 
(COOMA); (3500 ft., 22 Jan. 1952, Gouba (GAl/liA); Fvh. 1901, H. Uehns (AD) 7100 ft 
anon, (AD), 10 Doc. 1910, J, pi Chland (AD); ML Kofieiusko, Whites Creek, 6000 ft' 
ioiftmm and Constable (NSW); Mt. Kosciusko Rattle; Jan. 1880, Findlmj (MEL); Mt. Kos- 
cMafc above Lake Album, 6800 fib., 20 Jon. 19.51, Johwon and Constable (NSW)- Belts 
Cuuu>Mt. Kosciusko, 16 Feb. 1914, ;. H. Maiden (NSW), Snowy Mh., Bin** LuJee c 6300 
ft, .*> Feb. 1957, Eichler 13(370 (AD); Snowy Mtt.. 7000 ft., Feb, 1S90 ty 4 Bauerlen 65 
(MKL). Mt. Townsetitl, 7250 ft., 5 Mar. 1889. R. I trims (NSW); Munvans Mt*., 6-7000 
ft., Jin.. 1874, f t v. Mwrffer (MEL). ' ' 

Vjctohia. Mt. Hothatn, Jan. 1900, /, fa \tuiden (NSW). Stick* Jan. 1899 C Walter 
(NSW, MEL, CANB); ibUi, Dec. 1914. A. J. Tatfedl 75 (MEL); ibid., .1890, C. Frwh 
IMELh BogongHigh Plains, nn Mt. Nelfie, e. 6300 ft., 13 Feb. 1958, Eichler 14845 (AD); 
"Sum* i » i it :if the Australian Alps", F. ft Mueller (K isotype, NSW iSo?, MEL holo), 

.suhsp. alpimim X f. purpurco~albtinn? 

New South Wales. Happy JacW^ Plain, 4850 ft., 18 Jan. 1958, /. W. Vtckenj (N8W). 

A.C.T. Tklbinbtlla. 5115 ft., 7 Nov. 1911, It. H. Camhage (CANB, SYD); Mt Franklin, 
I I FeK 1.953, C. W, E. Moore 2356 (CANR, NSW); ibid., 7 Feb. lift", N. T. Burhtd&> 1711 
tCANB*: Brind^helli Bane.r. <-, 4000 ft.. 2i Feb. 1U59. E. Guulux s.n. (AD). 

Vic -ifmiA Dar>iu Higli Plains, 1883, Uvwitt (MEL); Dclece(e. 18fi2. Howitt 575 
(MEL). 

T\m suhspecies is conspicuous because of its broad thick leaves and rela- 
tively short peduncles (but when cultivated at lower altitudes the peduncle 



SPECIES WITHIN HELIPTERUM ALBICANS 



175 



becomes considerably longer). Towards the north, as far as Mt. Franklin, the 
leaves become narrower and the capitula smaller, grading into the northern form 
of f. purpureo-album. Similarly in south-eastern Victoria, in districts adjacent 
to those where alpinum occurs, are found plants more or less intermediate be- 
tween alpinum and the southern form of f. purpureo-album. 





2 





7 8 9 

Fig. 7. — Intermediate involucral bracts ( outline only ) : 1, Helip- 

terum saxatile; 2, H. molle; 3, H. albicans var. albicans; 4, var. buffa- 

loensis; 5, var graminiforlium; 6, var. incanum f. purpureo-album; 7, 

£. incanum; 8, f. grampianum; 9, subsp. alpinum. 



H. malic (A. Cunn. ex. DC.) P. G. Wilson comb. nov. 

Helichrysum molle A. Cunn. ex DC. Prod. 6: 194 (1838). Type, Molle's 
Plains, Lachlan River, New South Wales, July 1817, A. Cunningham (holo G-DC 
photo ) . 



170 1'AOL G WILSON 

Wuitzla bradwrrhum-hxt F v M. Linnacu, 25: 407 (April 1853). Typo, 
Cmhtuka [Kanyaka], Flinders Range, S. Australia, F. v. Mueller (hnio MEL). 

Ilelipterum bmvhijrrhynehum' (F v M.) Sund. Lc. 517 (June 1853). 

H. hwamtm. (Hook.) DC. var. brachylepis F v M. Rep.' Babbages Exped. 
S. Austral. 14 (1859). ^Flinders Ranges, etc." Presumably based on W, 
brochtjrrhtjiiclui F v M. which was cited in the general synonymy under //. 
incanum by Mueller in tbe same paper. 

IH. albicans (non (A, Cunn.) DC.) -J. M. Black. Fl. S. Austral. 621 (1929) 
p ( p.. and 2nd ed. 901 (1957) p.p.] - Figs. & 7(2h 8(4). 

An erect annual herb, 6-30 cm hi^h, branclung at the base. Leaves scat- 
tered, sessile, broadly linear to oblanteolatc, Ianate. to 7 cm long and 0-7 cm 
wide, apex obtuse to acuminate^ apiculatc. Involucre hemispherical, the outer 
bracts broadly ovate, colourless to light yellowish brown or tinged with Hglit 
fed u heu young, intermediate ones stipitato, (he lamina gulden yellow 3-10 mm 
king, broadly ovate tn suborbicular, apex rounded to obtuse, base rounded to 
truncate. Aehenes densely and prominently papillose, tetrangular, c. 3 mm long. 

Distribution -Southern cenhal South Australia, south-west Queensland, west 
and central New South Wales and north-west Victoria. 

Queensland. Thnr£ovmnd:di, 1 885. Spencer (MELl; Cmuiumutfo, 22 Jnlv 1^41 R 
Roe R357 (CAXB); ibid., G Sept. 194.7, G 71. Allen A340 (CANH). Ciirwann. Jta*. t&SS. 
'(' Cotter (MEL). l 

Niav South Wales. Furt Croy, 20 Aug 1950. .V. A. Biltdft and S, C b'vudlc (SVD 
NSVVJj Evelyn Cr„ 1887, A. Kinn (ME1A \V.a-rcga R, lflSfe 2i t\ Closf 51 (MEL)- War- 
rego. L Uennj 57 p.p. (MEL); Barrier Rfiiige, Sept. 1921, M. i. Cpflfew (S¥B); ffitf., ISffij 
/ F rryjinfi (MKL); f/w/., tyy3, //. Dbinfe Silvertou. ffeVL IHH4, anon. (MKL); Hvrock 
SfcpG l*S5. A'. tfete/ic (NSW); ftfefc, SVpL 18S5, ««a«, 7 (Sfl2L> Hro-km Hill, 4 Oct. 1820 
A, jtfivffe 437 (NSW, ADW); ibid., Aug. 1926, E. Chert (\SW"l; Wileamiiu, 18S6> fl. Ken- 
mt/y 27 (MEL); $id., 1SH5, H. Kennedy (MEL); Warned, 11 Oct., men, 451 (NSW): 
Mt. Brown, Sept. LS^S, ctrion. (\SW); Mr. \latuira, 20 Nov. I05fi, J. and J. WhaiUt 2ll>$ 
(AD'; GuLtrg.unbone, 27 Sept. 1952, II. 5. A/iTCV 20H (SYD); Darling H., 14 Oct 1860 
F. t;. Mur.Uer (MF.L); JVJBffn K.-JDariintf It., 1877, L. ftfaftmi (MKL); Uiirtog ft.-Laehlan R. 
Atlff, 1H55,/. Briekner (WEMi Hfllstor.. I8&9, Kcdns (MLL); YVurroo, Nov. [ffife A. Mdffifi 
(NSW); BoateaL Sept 1887, A. Br?/ (i\ia); Lower Edwards R,. Wein (MKL): C-jstlc- 
tuRtfh R. f IWS, Brumby (MEL); WitttVfcrik Oct. 1«H7, /. Minchin (MEL); D.pUngtnn 
Point-ITay, 3 Sept. 1950. C. Vl r . £. Moore 1349 (CAKB); M«mi»tkK*1i ( 5 Sept t&U. C. H f . £. 
MaiM l'-^0 (CANB): TranffiV-NiiiTiunine. « Oct. 1SM7; C. W. /•;. Moore M375 (CANB)- 
Uonilitium, 21 Oct. 1945, f, VV, £. Moore (CANB'. i&feL Sept. 1945, V. AL Willmtuhbtj V7 
(CANR); fofldMe, ^l C)..t. 1950, C t \V, K. Moore 1430 (CANB); Whngtunjfitt, Oct. lflO.3, 
E. O^flF (AD); Ibid., L tal: ( MKL L 

VirrronTA. Murray 1L. anon (MEL); SwMn Hill, Cur?n?ir...i (MKL). 

Sfovnt AcsTnALtA- Evelyn Downs. Ondnodittn, Oi4. WSb, K- ?/. /jn'«^ 3073 /AD. 
ADW'. Wunjaanu, 7 Aim. 1991, 7. i>\ CU-lamt (AD). <W.. 18 A115. 1033 nnrl 21 ^t l g. Ly3t. 
and 19 Aug. 1932, E. U. htng (AD); Mt. Lvndhurtt, JoU JfiOS VMx ^1 (AD)s &«/.. 
Ai.i;. 1S99. AjQtf K«r-/£ 4fi5 (AD, NSW)-. Tilinntun. 10 Oct. I&94, VV i' ( ' RumbaU (AD); 
Qtrtua. Sept 1U27, ofitra (AD); Lcisl.'s Cttxtk (Coplev). 15 Oct. 1917, Herb. ]. M. Block 
(AD). KinKoonya, 23 ,S>^pt. 192(», £. I/, /i-iag t85* (NSW, AD), CnuUmvn-.Mfr>£*rv, [Q 
An.e. UI21, A. Monte (ADW); i/./f/.. 14 Auc'. 1^21, A. Morrfe G5S (B1U. AD); Pfc riric s 
anon. (AD); Gladstone, anrm. (AD); Cawlcr Rwtikus, Auu. «nd Sept. I9J2, White (AD); 
Lake CairdiiL'r, 18 Oct. L^58. P. Witeon 589 (AD); CndnuU [Kttnyft&], V. Mnellev (MEL); 
Sponcei CXdf-Mt. Elbe, E. {Sil&t (MEL); Central S. Australw, arum. (AD). 

Acsi'hai.ia. "Nov. Hall, anstr. inter", P. ul ^fuclter (MEL). 

This species exhibits considerable variation in the shape of* the involueral 
bracts and in the papillosity of the aehenes. In specimens from the more 
northern districts the bracts are deltoid to sub-orbicular with rounded apices, 
while in the southern districts they become ovate and obtuse. Towards the 
easterly limits of its distribution forms intermediate between H. motte and H. 



SPECIES WITHIN HELIPTERUM ALBICANS 



177 



albicans var. albicans are found, but the typical South Australian plant and the 
typical New South Wales form of II. albicans are so distinct that specific de- 
limitation seems warranted. 

It may be distinguished by its flaccid oblong to oblanceolate leaves, its 
normally golden-yellow involucral bracts which are normally deltoid in shape, 
the normally dense papillosity of its aehenes and its annual, not perennial, nature. 

I should like to thank Mr. R. Schodde for his help, while visiting the Mel- 
bourne Herbarium he made notes and drawings for me of the type of Helipterttm 
incantim var, brachylepis. 







Fig, 8. — Aehenes 1 . 1. Ihdipterum albicans var, buffaloemis; 2, subsp. 
atpinum; 3. f. purpureo-album; 4, H. molle. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

Besides those persons and institutions mentioned in the text, I should like 
to express my thanks to the Curators of those Herbaria, indicated in the Sum- 
mary, for the loan of specimens, and to Mr. L. Dutkiewicz for kindly preparing 
the drawing of H. saxatile and of the aehenes iu Fig. 8. 



ON SOME STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CENTRAL PART OF 
THE GREAT AUSTRALIAN ARTESIAN BASIN 

byH. Wopfner, Ph.D 



Summary 

Newly discovered structures outcropping in the central part of the Great Australian Artesian Basin 
are described. They are situated in the extreme north-east comer of South Australia and the 
adjoining area in Queensland. The structures, which are developed in sediments of lower Upper 
Cretaceous age, consist of a half-dome in the south (Cordillo Uplift) from which two lines of 
anticlines develop, one to the north and a second one to the north-east. Each line comprises several 
huge anticlines with "closure" between them. The Nappamilkie anticline and the Betoota dome are 
the most prominent structures of the western development (trend approximately north), whilst Mt. 
Howie anticline, Curalle dome and Morney anticline form the eastern line (trend approximately N. 
30°E.) The individual closure of the structures is of the order of 400 feet to at least 600 feet. The 
dips on the limbs of the anticlines range from 2 degrees to 20 degrees. The two lines of anticlinal 
development are divided by the north-plunging Haddon syncline and its northern continuation, the 
Farrars syncline. The folding movements were initiated in Upper Cretaceous time, and probably 
reached a climax during the early Tertiary. Transcurrent movements in the deep-seated "basement"- 
rocks are thought to be responsible for the folding. 



ON SOME STRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT IN THE CENTRAL PART 
OF THE GREAT AUSTRALIAN ARTESIAN HASIN 

by H. Wopfneh, Ph.D.* 

[Read 9 April 1959 1 

SUMMARY 

Newly discovered .structure;; outcropping in the central part of the Great 
Australian Artesian Basin are described. They arc situated in the extreme 
north-east corner of South Australia and the adjoining area in Queensland. 

Tile structures, which are developed in sediments of ]o\yer Upper Creta- 
ceous a^e, consist of a half-dome hi the south (Cordillo Uplift) from which two 
lines of anticlines develop, one to the north and a second one to the north-east. 
Each lino comprises several huge anticlines with "closure" between them. 

The NappainUkie anticline and the Betootu dome aro the most prominent 
structures of the western development (trend approximately north), whilst Ml. 
Howie anticline. CuraUe dome and Morney anticline form the eastern line 
(trend approximately N, 30°E. )> The individual closure of the structures is of 
the order of 400 feet to at least 600 feet. The dips on the limbs of the anti- 
elines range from 2 degrees to 20 degrees. 

The two lines of anticlinal development arc divided by the noiih-plunginc 
Haddon syucline and its northern continuation, the Farrars syncline. 

The folding movements were initiated in Upper Cretaceous time, and 
probably reached a climax during the early Tertiary. Tfanseurrcnt movements 
in the deep-seated "basemcnt"-roeks are thought to be responsible for the folding. 

INTRODUCTION 

More than 30 years ago, R. Loekbart Jack, visiting Cordillo Downs Station, 
observed indications of a large, dome-like structure occupying the extreme 
north-east corner of South Australia. In 1925 and 1930 he published several 
cross-sections through the southern and south-western part of the area. These- 
cross-sections were based mainly on water-bore logs ajid the correlations were 
based on similarities of water analyses within the different water-bearing 
horizons. 

Since then. Jack's observations were almost forgotten and were given only 
passing reference in later geological literature. 

lu the course of petroleum exploration on behalf of SANTOS Ltd., R. C 
Sprigg, Managing Director of Ceosurveys of Australia Limited, used this in- 
formation to select the Cordillo area as a possible prospect. Early in 1957, the 
author was sent to Cordillo Downs to obtain first-hand information, and a short 
ground and air reconnaissance was carried out. Parts of south-western Queens- 
land were also included in this reconnaissance, jack's observations were found 
to be basically correct in so far as the southern development was concerned, 
but the dome-like Cordillo structure further north proved to sub-divide into 
two major lines of anticlines. Moreover, three additional large elongated domes, 
the Betoota dome, the CuraUe dome and the Morney anticline, were discovered 
across the Queensland border. 

Several domes and anticlines were revealed in subsequent aerial surveys, 
The most important of them are: the lnnamincka dome, situated between Inna- 
mincka and Lake Pure (Sprigg, 1958); the Orie.ntos structure, a dome-like 

d Geosurveys of Australia Limited. 
Trans. Koy. Hoc. S. Au*t. U960), Vol. 83. 



180 



H. WOPFNEH 



upwarp north of Orientos station; several complex anticlines which iorm the 
McGregor Ranges between Wilson Creek and Cooper Creek; the Mooraberry 
anticline north of the Betoota dome; the Turret Hill anticline north of the 
Morney anticline. 

Later in 1957, the Cordillo area was mapped in detail, and reconnaissance- 
investigations were carried out on the Betoota and Curalle domes. 

The present paper is concerned only with the geological structures about 
Haddon Corner. The area dealt with is shown in Figs. 1 and 2. 




LOCALITY PLAN 

SHOW INC CORDILLO- BETOOTA AREA 



SCALE a 



' 4.O0 MILES 

Plan prtpartd by Geosurvty* sF ,W- lid fiC T2-4 59 SAM 217 



Fig. 1. — Locality j)ian ? showing boundary of Great Australian Artesian Basin and 

area described. 



PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GENERAL GEOLOGICAL FEATURES 

The structures described in this article lie in the central part of the Great 
Australian Artesian Basiiij in the extreme north-east of South Australia and in 
the bordering region of south-west Queensland. The area is bounded by lati- 
tudes 25°15'S. and 27°00'S., and by longitudes 140 C 15'E. and 141 D 15'E. (see 
Figs. 1 and 2). 

The country is undulating, and is dominated by table-topped hills and large 
ilats covered by gibbers formed in the breakdown of siliceous duricrust. In the 
northern part, the flanks of the anticlines form NNE-SSW trending cueslas, with 
their slopes also covered with gibbers. The structures form the watershed be- 
tween the Diamantina River and the Cooper Creek. The climate is arid with 



THE GREAT AUSTRALIAN ARTESIAN BASIN 



181 




aaua* 



CONTOUR PLAN SHOWING 
STRUCTURES OF THE COROILLQ-BETOOTA AKE/k 

ConVoura bas«4 on ctuncrusV phantom 
horizon. Contour interval 100 P«t 



SCALE 



iQ MILES 



HWof ifncr Ph.D. Pten prepared by CtoxurvtjS Ami ltd, ffC Z2-4-3B SAM. Zlfc 

Fig. 2 



1.92 H. WOPFNER 

tin average annual rainfall of about 8 inches Sandy deserts occupy the low- 
lying great plains. 

Alo.st of the stratigraphie members exposed at die surface belong to the 
Winton formation of lower Upper Cretaceous age, most probably Cenomaniaii. 
Only the uppermost part of the Win Ion can be observed in outcrop, the maximum 
exposure being about 350 to 700 feet- The sediments are mainly sandstones, 
siltstones, mudstoues and shales, thinly bedded in the lower section, but occur- 
ring in thick hanks in the upper development. Plant fossils {BraclxiphyUum , 
EUttocladtu; etc.), carbonaceous shales and thin coal seams are common. In 
the lowest exposed zones, layers and lenses of calcareous sandstone, intcrbedded 
with partly concretionary, and sandy, or marly limestones occur. This cul- 
earwits horizon is henceforth referred to as the "Betoota limestone horizon'**. 
At two outcrops of Betoota limestone, ripple marks with orthorlu *irnbic symmet- 
rical features (wave ripples) were observed. 

Within sandstones and siltstones. current bedding is very common. Para- 
diagenetic slumping is common throughout the whole sequence. 

In several places, particularly on the limbs of the anticlines, the Cretaceous 
is overlain by conglomerates, grits and torrential bedded sandsLoncs. Apart from 
silicificd wood no fossils have been found, but generally these sediments are 
regarded as lower Tertiary. The contact between the Cretaceous and the Ter- 
nary shows a slight erosional disconfonnitv including cut-and-fill effect. Only 
along the south-cast limb of Murney anticline has an angular unconformity of 
2 degrees been observed (see Fig. 1). 

The top layers of the sediments (Cretaceous and/or Tertiary) are strongly 
kaolini&cd and bleached. Below the bleached horizon a mottled tone is de- 
veloped. The thickness of this altered horizon (bleached and mottled) varies 
between 100 and 250 feet. The bleached horizon is capped by a hard and highly 
silieified crust, commonly known as duricrust. The duricrust averages a thick- 
ness of 15 to 30 feet The time of formation of die duricrust t\ uncertain, but 
it has to be placed after the Tertiary sediments were deposited. 

In sync'lines and generally in structural depressions, the duricrust is over- 
lain by x*ed ; nodular laterite and lateritised sands. Their maximum obseived 
thickness is 120 feet in the Iladdon syncliue. At several localities a thin con- 
glomeratic lied, built up by well-rounded pebbles of duricrust (diameter 1 
to 2 inches), is present between the duricrust and the laterite. 

In low situations the luterites are covered by sand-dunes arid recent river 
silts. 

THE FOLD STRUCTURES 

Approaching Cordillo Downs from the south, one notices a remarkable 
change in landscape. The sand-dunes which predominate the flat country 
gjjVfc way sharply to large stony plains (gibber-plains) rising; gently to the north. 
Those gradually lead on to a strongly dissected region of table-topped hills. 
Comparable features will be observed when the area is approached cither from 
the west across Rainbow Plain or from the east. This sudden change has its 
reason in tin: geological sliucture of the area. The gently rising, gibber-covered 
slopes represent dip slopes of the southern-most part of a large area of upwarp* 
ing. Quaquaversal dips of 3 degrees to 4 degrees in the west, south and south- 
cast mark this southern part 0$ the structure. The beds rise from 220 ft. M S.L 
at Cordillo to about 650 ft. M.S.L. north of Needle ilill, where u steep. tl\l> 
WSW trending escarpment forms the southern margin of the valley oi Provi- 
dence Creek (compare Fig. 3, cross-section I). The escarpment gradually re- 
duces Its height towards the west and finally disappears under the alluvial 



THlf GKEAI' AUSTKAUAN AKTESfAN BASIN 1&3 

deposits of Rainbow Plain. To the east it swings into a NNE-direclion, and 
there forms the eastern edpe of the valley of Haddnn Creek and its tributaries. 

At the latitude uf Providence Creek., the structure, which so far has the 
simple form of a half-dome, divides into two distinct anticlines. The western 
structure is henceforth referred tu as Nflppamilkic uplift and has u general 
northern trend, whilst the eastern structure, now referred to as the ML Howie 
anticline, trends 31) to 35 decrees east. The intervening syncline is the lladdon 
vyncline (see Figs. 2 and 3, section 2), 

There art 1 hulietaions to suggest a minor fault Line alonjj; Providence Creek. The 
southern part wooUl appear to be the downthtown tfcfe, jfcd nx- aumimr ol' throw (ru-rcase* 
from east to weal. However, the amount uf faulting wuulrl not exceed about 30 feet iti total. 

The Nappamilkie uplift forms a broad, fhtMopped;. up warped area, it.s main 
development being situated between the meridians 140 o 42'lL and 140' 44'E. It 
comprises two anticlinal culminations, a western one with an axial trend tit 
KSr*£« and another in the east, trending N20 C 'K. Roth culminations are con- 
nected hy an extremely shallow synclinc, which deepens gradually towards its 
northern end (see Fig. 2). Jamb dips average 2 to 8 degrees to the west and 
J 2 to 20 degrees on the eastern limb. The two anticlinal culminations have an 
obvious plunge to the north. 

The western limb of the structure forms gibber-covered clip slope* whi'eh mi*o drajned 
hy several systems uf C0M6Wt$A aixrum thanm-ls ( Dooneonuae*, KVtonabera and Is'appa- 
iiiilMo Crrets), In the southern zone, between Providence and Kominhcrn Creeks, mo 
beds show d constant clip of 2 a tn 2#*W; North of Koouahera Creek, particularly Within 
tlic drainage area of Nappamilkie Creek, the dips on the flunk of the structure attain 8°W. S 
but Hatten tu about P^W. further west. Tho strike is ohaut N..VF..., CxCggt in the extreme 
northern poiitoc of the h'mh where it is N.20° to 25*4£., and dips are at 4°\V. The npex 
of this western anticline is roughly marked hy the watershed between Nappamilkie Ctfiek, 
Kooaabeia Cfo6fc and Dnorienonara Creek, flowing westwards, and the eastwards draining 
creeks Jibhc, Kuchumba and Haddon. The culmination at about 700 it. M.S.L. in marked 
hy the wtar-likc divergence of the Nappnimlkio-, Kuehumba- nod lladdon Creeks. From 
this area of eulminatnm, the long axis, trending N.5°E., pluu&'cs al about 2° to the north. 
and :j° to the south. Again, (a the extreme northern part of the anticline,, the plunge W- 
cveawe* lo 4°, forming a shallow closure. In this extreme northern poilion the *tomm 
removed most of ihe eastern limb of tin- aiifieHur. cutting well hack heyonri the ape* into 
tin- western Hank. In this area, the beds of the eastern limh show a jionttal duretuju oJ 
N.I5°W. and dip r-'E. (feu Vi& 2). 

South ol the headwaters of Kwhmnh.i Creek the eastern limb lies a dip ol 2 '. but $000 
flattens out to near horizontal position. To the east, a slight reversal of clip is indicated 
tfP to l°W.). The central parts of ttiese flat-lying beds form the targe Lyiuaiuoiii Platr.in 
l>ee Fig. q. Section 2). 

Ou the eastern margin of the Lamumonr Plateau (north of tftt ruins of Haddon home- 
stead) strong shearing plane* have been observed. The main zone of shearing trends about 
Nj3S°Ei Several irregular I'raeturcd /ones cross the main one .<*t angles between 3Q and 
50 degrees, and very much resemble the pattern of feather joints. All shear /oius aro 
vetlieal or near vertical and uneven. Well developed slickcustdea are prominent along all 
Hi them and some autoolastie breeeias are prexent. Those and other indications surest mine* 
[Wltmg hIoui' Iht direction N.35°E. with a downthrow of the oaslurn part of about 20 feet 
and eauwug dips of up to I2PW. (romparo fig. -3. Section %) 

East of this slicur zone the bed« rise wilh an average dip of 3 e to the eastern 
upsv;up. 11k axis of this eastern culmination trends N.20 'E. In the uorthern- 
inost part uf Ibis anticline, the axis plunges 4 to 6 degrees north. Towards the 
■couth the anlicline becomes sulxhicd and finally fuses with the western uuU- 
t line »ntn u large uplifted tableland, intensively disxt-cted by creeks. Between 
the site of lladdon Downs homestead and Knohnmba Plain, most of the central 
part of the anticline has been eroded and onlv the extreme eastern limh has 
been preserved. It forms a very prominent ridge, about 16 miles long, on the 
west side of lladdon Crock. Trending in the general NNE -direction, the beds 
exposed along this ridge show dips of 12 c to 20° K. (see Fig. 5 and PI 1, Tig. 1). 



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tfifE GREAT AUSTRALIAN ARTESIAN BAS1K 183 

This relatively steep dipping limb forms the eastern limit of the Nappa- 
milkie uplift. It dips into a well-developed structural depression, the Haddon 
syncline. 

The Haddon syncline is strongly assy-metrical. The western limb dips 12° 
to 20°E,, whilst along the eastern limb an average dip of 2)a° to 4°W. is fairly 
persistent (see Fig, 3\ Section 2, also Fig. 6). The axial trend is N.30°E. and 
shows a continuous plunge of 2°N. Due to the steady rise of the long axis to- 
wards the south, the Haddon syncline becomes less pronounced in its southern 
extension and flattens out completely after becoming level with the broad Cor- 



W.NW- 



E.S.E. 




UNCONFORMITY 



4C 



Fig. 4. — Scarp-section an the south-east limb pf Morney dome showing angular 
unconformity Iwtwcen Cretaceous and Tertiary .sediments. 

Cretaceous (dip 6°): 1. White and purple shales; 2- White feldspatic sandstone; 
3. White kaolinitie shale; 4. White feldspatic sandstone; -5. While kaolinitic silt- 
stone. 

Tertiary ( dip 4° ) : 6. Grey grit; 7. Fawn, coarse, torrential-bedded sandstone; 
8. Pebble conglomerate; 9. Whitish to light brown gritty sandstone; 10. dense, 
highly silk-riled, coarse sandstone, '"duricnist". 

dillo uplift (see Fig. 2). This gentle rise to the south is very well demon- 
strated by the progressive surfacing of certain stravigraphic members, exposed 
along the centre of the valley of Haddon Creek. 

A comparatively narrow, but distinct structure is developed east of Haddon 
syncline. Tt is called Mt. Howie anticline after the highest morphological point 
within the area occupied by it. Similar to the Nappamilkie uplift, the Mt. Howie 
anticline consists of a major anticline on the west, and a smaller, lower anticline 
on the east. The two anticlines are divided by a very shallow syncline (see 
Fig. 3, Section 2). The western limb of the main anticline dips 2° to 4°, the 
eastern limb about 3°. The eastern anticline has l)z° to 2° west-dip and about 
3° east-dip. The loug axis trends approximately N.30 D to N,35°E. and plunges 
with 2° to the north, forming a good closure in the northern part of the strue- 



ihli \\. WOPFNKK 

Cure. The north-plunge of the western anticline seems to be slightly steeper 
than that of the eastern anticline. Towards the south u minor local closure of 
about 50 feet might be present but generally the Mt. Howie anticline fuses with 
the broad Cordiflo uplift. The culmination of Mt. Howie anticline is reached 
ill the vicinity of Mt. Howie (800 ft. JVJ.S.L.) and the amount of structural 
relict is 440 feet in relation to the Haddon syncline and 550 feet in comparison 
w;th tlie plains south-east of the structure. 

Neither the Nappamilkie uplift nor the Mt. Howie anticline have an obvious 
individual closure in their southern parts. They finally fuse together to the 
half-dume of the CordilJo uplift which forms die common closure for both of 
them towards south. Tins gives the whole structural unit the. shape of a hand, 
four of its fingers' spread out radially between north and north-east. 

As mentioned previously, the western anticline of the Xappamilkie uplift 
hams a shallow closure at its northern end. This structural depression is also 
morphologically expressed. At the latitude of the border fence (near 10-mile 
gate) die eastern limb of this structure descends below the present plane of 
alluvial sedimentation and is hidden under alluvial clays and drrftsand- Approxi- 
mately S to 10 miles north of the border fence this eastern wing emerges from 
beneath the sand-dunes, and gradually gains elevation to form the eastern fimb 
of the Hetoota dome (see Fig. 2). 

The Hetoota dome is a simple, ellipsoidal-shaped dome with near "orthor- 
hombf'c" symmetrical features. The trend of the long axis is about N.lfTE. On 
cither direction from the domal culmination, distinctive plunges of l u to 2'* 9 
slightly increasing towards the extreme northern and southern end of the domc r 
aic observed. Both the western and the eastern limbs have dips of 3^ to 5 C . 
in places, the dip on the western limb might be slightly more. Centrally, ever 
about 'J to 7 miles in width, the roof of the Bctoota dome has been eroded, 
leaviog only two north-south trending euestas on either side, nosing together 
at the ends. The cuesta which is built by the eastern limb, forms a west-facing 
escarpment, uninterrupted for nearly the whole length of the structure. The 
western iimb ? though also forming an escarpment, lias been more deeply eroded 
and dissected, particularly in its northern half. This may indicate that the 
western limb of the anticline is slightly steeper-dipping than the easlern one. 

On its extcejue northern outcrop, the Bctoota dome causes n deviation of FaTiars Creek. 
"1'hts creek, previously following a south-westerly course, b uVviated mto a due. easterly 
direction. Ou the nonh-wosteru-most edge of the dome, thfr eTrrfinn hy Farrars Creek li*t* 
cut into '.lie structure, isolating a few low, north-west dipping hilt*. After passing beyond 
tlw dotnu, Farrax.s Cuvk jofnrns to its eld eoirrw\ 

Tlte length of the Bctoota dome is about 35 miles, and the maximum width 
approximately 8 to 12 miles. The maximum structural relief of the dome (situ- 
ated at a latitude ot about 25*41' to 25M5'S.) is 500 feet, 

From the Retuotu dome going east, driftsand and alluvial flats dominate 
the country. This t\pe of country r's very typical of structural depressions and 
persists lor about 20 miles, ft represents the northern extension of tire Haddon 
Mriehne. As far as is known, this northern part of the lladdon syncline forms 
a wide, but rather shallow, trough, apparently with its long axis nearly horizontal. 
Minor warping parallel with the strike of the long axis could be present. North 
of Planet Downs a rise of the synclinal axis is indicated (see Figs. 2 and 3, 
Section 3). 

To tlie east v the northern extension of the Haddon syncline is bordered by 
ii row <)i low, NNE.-SSVV. trending hills, which are the eroded remnants of the 
strongly dissected western limb of the Coratte dome. This dome is the most 
prominent structure within the whole area. It is situated north of the Mt. Howie 
anticline and continues in the same trend. Broadly speaking, the Curwlle dome 



THE GREAT AlttTBAUAK AtlTESlAN BASIN 1*7 

is a simple, elongated structure broadening markedly in its northern extension. 
The general symmetrical features are "monoclinic". The surface expression ttf 
the structure is very good. The eastern limb, which dips at 2° to 7°, forms a 
large cucsta with a pronounced escarpment facing west and trending in a NNE.- 
SSW. direction. The maximum height of the scarp is 500 feet above the plain,, 
in places possibly more-. The maximum elevation is approximately 900 feet 
above MS.L. This range is also known as Beal Range. 

The western limb dips 12° to 23° W., the steepest dips being situated at 
about 26° south latitude. The strike along the southern part of the western 
limb is varying between N.5°W. and N.30°E. (see PL 1, Fig. 2 and PL 2. Fig. 1 ). 

Two recently excavated water-daim, inuli tfituwied Just east of the strongly eroded 
mnnanfcs of the western limb provide excellent exposures of attain. Linljt gfey culutued 
shales inteibt'dded wtth carbonaceous shales exhibit the west-dipping structure very clearly. 
The dips, are 14°W. in rfie .soulhern exposure, and 30 C WSW. in tlu- northern Ana 

Abont e miles mtrilveast of Planet Downs the strike of the western limb swings 
into a westerly direction (about N/10 a to 50°\V. ), causing a considerable widening «»f 
the dame in the north- The dip alio flattens to 2°-4^S. Alter continuing in this wrsterly 
strike for about 4 to 5 miles, the remnants nf the western linih become coveted by alluvial 
sediments. 

Iu a manner similar to the wettem limb, the eastern limb also HalcenS in tfc northern 
part, and Mmth of Lake Cuddayai. sbrnvs a slight dip reversal from 2K°K. to .*StW. « 
forms a small, strongly dissected hmnp and le.ids ro a bulging of the limb towards the cash 
Tbr final east-dip in this part \s UJf (see Fly. 2). 

The long axis pf the Curalle dome treuds approximately N,30 C E. and has 
an obvious plunge in its southern part. In its northern extension it is possible 
that tht asis takes a more northerly tr«nd. The northern plunge of the fang 
axis is 2". In its southernmost part, the Curalle di)ir>e flattens out slightly (limlv 
dips 4° to 3 1 ') arid finally plunges 2 south, forming a good closure towards the 
Mt. Howie anticline. 

The uver.il! length of the Curalle dome is about 40 miles. In the south 
the .structure in outcrop in 10 to 12 miles wide, whilst tri the northern part the 
width is between 14 and lb miles. The maximum structural relief at the -surface 
h at le-ast 600 feet. 

A shallow depression (approximately 250 feet) separates the CJnralle dome 
from the Momey anfidine whicb follows 'to the north (see Fi^.2). The Moruey 
anticline is a huge ellipsoidal-shaped structure with slightly ^monoelink" synv 
metrical featured The limbs dip with 2° to 3* to the west and 2" to 6° to the 
east (see Fig. 4). The trend of the long axis is K.35*E. and the maximum struc- 
tural relief about 500 to 600 feet, The Morney anticline us about 55 miles long 
and on its broadest part 30 miles wide. 

Local drainage patterns have been strongly influenced by the geological 
structure. Here, as elsewhere iu the basin, it is clearly evident tliat streams 
which originated on the steeper limb (having the steeper gradient) have the 
.greater rrosional energy. These cieckh on the steeper limb of the structures were 
originally "consequent" streams, hut in view of their greater erasional capacity, 
headwater erosion led to measure of encroaebment and capture across the anti- 
cline. On most of the anticlines, the centre has been completely eroded out by 
these streams. Now they arc superimposed streams, draining through narrow 
gaps in the remnants of the steeper limb (see PI. 2, Fig. 1 ). They expanded their 
eatelxment areas well beyond the axis of the structure, capturing the headwaters 
of streams of the flatter limb. In several places one can observe the old crerk- 
bed of deserted "consequent" streams of the flatter limb, filled with gravel and 
alluvial sand, dismembered from the opposite stream pattern on the escarpment 
which leads down to the drainage area of the creeks originated on the steeper 
dip slope 



188 



H, WOPFNER 



The creeks on the flatter limb continue as consequent streams and usually 
retain shallow channels. For instance, on the Curaile dome, it has been esti- 
mated that about SO per cent, of the area is drained toward the steeper western 
limb and only 20 per cent, toward the flatter eastern limb. 

The big structural depressions, as, for instance, the Haddon- and the Farrars 
syncline, act as depositional troughs for the drainage systems of the broad uplifts. 
Debris from the structural highs still gets deposited in the structural lowlands 
(e.g. Rainbow Plain, Lake Cuddapan, Lake Yamma Yamma) which surround 
the anticlines. 

Generally, the extensive control of the drainage pattern by the fold struc- 
tures suggests comparative geomorphie youth of the structures. 

SUBSURFACE GEOLOGY 

Very little subsurface information concerning all of these structures is yet 
available. Lockbart Jack (1925 and 1930) correlated all available bore informa- 
tion for the southern part of the areit, but within the northern part of the struc- 
tures only a few water bores have been sunk. These water bores only yield 
information on the position of the duricrust. 



ill and *gi&b»i-s ; 



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CROSS SECTION THROUGH THE WE.STERW 
UM& OF HADOOM SYNCLINE 



Vs*riC*t- 4 HtftiKi^TAL 



F«cr 



SAK TM4- 



Fig. 5. — -Suction through the western limb of Hudclon synciinc {also eastern limb 

of Nappamilkie anticline), approximately six miles north of Haddon No. 4 bore, 

showing the strab'jnaphie sequence aud the position of strata. 



A few pastoral bores off the east limb of the Curaile dome show that the 
duricrust submerges underneath the present surface arid consequently Is now 
covered by "post-dnrierust" sediments. Duricrust was struck at 100 feet below 
surface level in Long-Hole Well, situated on the eastern shore of Lake Cadda- 
pan, and at 97 feet in Bloodwood Bore, 4 miles ENE. from Long-Hole Well. In 
Murphy's Bore, approximately 4 miles due north of Lake Cuddapan, duricrust 
was encountered at 50 feet. The continuation of the east-dip of the Curaile 
dome below the present surface level is further demonstrated by a few bores 
surrounding Lake Yamma Yamma. Apparently the duricrust reaches its deep- 
est position on the north-side of the lake, where it is reported at a depth of 280 
feet in Duck-Hole Bore. 

To supplement surface observations, five shallow structural bores were 
drilled by SANTOS in 1957. The bores were drilled on the apex and on tire 



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)ifQ If. WOPFNER 

western limb of Mt. Howie anticline and across lladdun syncline. The position 
of bores Nos. 1 to 4 is shown in Fig. 6. Bore Nu. 5 is not .shown in this plan 
and was situated about 4 miles south from No. 1. The bores proved the con- 
tinuity of the particular structures to a depth of at least 750 feet (see Fig. 6). 

As a marker horizon, the uppermost section uf the "Betocrta" Limestone 
horizon was used. As mentioned previously, this zone has a Very widespread 
occurrence for it is exposed in the centres of the Betoota and the Curalle domes 
as well as in die centre of the Momey anticline. 

The calcareous heck occur at an average slratigraphie deptli of 700 {vet and arc intcr- 
bedded with green, friable, medium-grained sandstones. The thkkncss of the individual 
liriuMitm: bed varies between 6 inched and 2 feet fi inches, and usually two to four limestijue 
bedt were struck. The. author is awure of the possibility that some nf the thinner calcareous 
beds iau.'ht be only lenses with limited lateral extension^ but the whole zone itself repie- 
sents a type of sedimentation with definite calcareous tendencies, far more than normal for 
tlie dominantly clastic sediments of the Winton Formation According to ait analysis, 
carried out by R, Grasso, Geosurveys of Aust. Ltd., the hard calcareous bceK have an AVMpge 
composition of 47 per cent, calcium carbonate, 33 per cenr. pelitic material and 20 per cent, 
fine-psammitic material. Due to a high content of dark mineral* in the sand-r>:ie«nn (mainly 
Wubleode and hion'te), these sandy limestones have a rather unusual and characteristic 
appearance. 

A second marker horizon, a hard pyritic pelite, was .struck betvveea 1352 
feet and 1357 feet in No. 1 bore and between 938 feet and 942 feet in No. 5 
boTc. This sediment is built up of minute, interlocking crystals of pyrite sus- 
pended in a very fine-grained clayey matrix. Both Nq. 1 and No. 5 bores are 
situated on the crest of Mt. Howie anticline and the different position of the 
pyritic band corresponds with the north plunge of the anticlinal axis of Ul to Z 
degrees. 

A preliminary seismic survey, undertaken by the Bureau of Mineral Re- 
sources, showed that at least the east-dip of the same structure is still present 
at a depth of 6500 feet (Smith, 1958). 



DISCUSSION 

Concerning the origin of these structures, consideration of the nature tif the 
sedimentary system comprising the basin is essential. The Great Australian 
Artesian 13asin, as a Mesozoic structure, was an epicontinental development 
which has experienced no orogeme deformation* 

In marginal areas, reflected structures due to sedimentary "'draping ef- 
fects over old, prc-Mcsozoic morphological highs are quite common, Examples 
of reflected structures have been observed along the Peak and Denison Ranges 
and recently at Oodnadatta (Wopfner, 1957). This explanation can hardly be 
applied to the structures described above, situated in the cental part of this deep 
h^sin The seismic survey by the Bureau of Mineral Resources, fur example, 
indicates probably 8000 feet* of Mesozoic sediments in die Haddon synclinc 
(Smith, 1958). Such a thick sedimentary blanket would even out all but the 
most extreme morphological features <»f buried old relief. Rather it is felt, it 
must br assumed that ihr only forces which could create structures of the ob- 
served type within this part of the Great Australian Artesian Basin, would be 
of the cpeiwgenctic type, 

Fpcirogenetic forces could have acted either as normal uplifts ov as differen- 
tial movements along planes of dislocation both in vertical and/or transoufreril 
direction. As regards these latter possibilities, pre-existing dislocation planes 
lu the basement could have been rc-aetivated, with the movements transferred 
tit the overlying younger sediments. 



the GREAT Australian AivrrsiAX basin isi 

Wliile the movements within the more rigid rucks of the basement would 
be expressed in straight dislocation planes (vertical or horizontal) the over- 
King, more pliable Mesozoie rocks (in particular the Cretaceous) would tend, 
to absorb some of these stresses: e.g. a normal fault in the basement would be- 
extcnsively modified and/or compensated through the several thousand feet 
of overlying sediments, and be expressed on the surface by a monocbnal fold. 
Depending on the type of movements and their directions, various patterns oF 
deformation can be x^rcdtctccl- The morphology of the contact between the 
rigid "basement" and the pliable 'IxisirT sediments, and also internal niluwo- 
geneities within the pliable sedimentary body itself may also influence the final 
structural pattern. 

For the following reasons, i.e. the epicontinental character of the Great 
Australian Artesian Basin, the gathering of the axial trend within the north- 
east sector and the en-echelon arrangement of the anticlinal axes (see Fig. 2), 
the author favours transeurrent movements as having been the cause of the 
fold-structures. Though he realises that the stage of our knowledge on this 
particular matter is still incomplete and skctchy> he would like to present the 
following working-hypothesis for discussiou. 

Transeurrent movements within the basement following a general north- 
east, south-west direction with the north block translated relatively to the north- 
east, would introduce a rotational strain that could produce the present struc- 
tures. Within the rigid basement this shearing strain would develop two sets 
of shearing planes. One of these sets lies closer to the direction of the shearing 
couplr* titan the other, and the main slip would occur along these planes (in 
our case approximately N,70 r 'E. initial stage). 

As the thick blanket of Mesozoie sediments is weaker and much more 
pliable than the "basement", it reacts differently upon deformation, instead of 
developing differential shearing planes, folding occurs in en-echelon pattern, 
whereby the axial trend lies at a right angle to the direction of maximum com- 
pression. The maximum compression will be perpendicular to the longest axis 
of the strain ellipsoid. (A verv rough experiment, whereby a laver of putty was 
sheared on two boards, produced folds nearly identical with the structures 
eoncerned. The experiment was repeated several times and yielded the same 
results each time.) 

In the initial stage the axis of the strain ellipsoid is approximately 45 L to 
the direction of the shearing couple (in our case about north), hoi as the amount 
ol transeurrent movement- increases the angle between the direction of the 
couple and the longest axis of the strain ellipsoid becomes more acute, It may 
he assumed, therefore, that the structures wjth the closest trend to north are 
those which were initiated first, while the anticlines with more north-easterly 
trend originated at a later stage. If this hypothesis is correct it would mean 
that the Nappamilkie and the Hetoota anticlines are those which were initiated 
first Following this- first stage of warping the developing anticlines presented 
a mure rigid body than the surrounding lmwurpetl sediments. Therefore, the 
origmally established trend remained constant, even the amount was still in- 
creasing and lite longest avis of the strain ellipsoid moving constantly east of 
north. With continued movement, other parts of the sediments were folded 
hut along a more easterly trend (Mt. Howie, Curulle and Morney anticline), 
while the southern extensions of both anticlinal lines fused together to the 
Curdillo half-dome. 

In the marginal areas of the basin the sedimentary cover of the basement 
was too thin to compensate the shear movements and single shear planes may 
be expected to puss through into the Mesozoie sediments. The foregoing out- 



1*2 H, WOPFNER 

line would presumably explain the restriction of actual folding of cover .sedi- 
ments to the central, thicker portion of the Great Australian Artesian Basin. 

There are several reasons for selecting north-east, south-west transeurren? 
movements, Firstly, this is the most favourable direction to explain the observed 
trend of the anticlines. Secondly, the north-east, south-west direction is a pre- 
ferred direction of geological features, not only within the Great Australian 
Artesian Basin itself, but also within its surrounding older rocks. 

The age of the foldiug can only be established within a rather wide time- 
limit. At the stage of our present knowledge we have to assume that the 
sediments of the Winton Formation have been deposited in the lower Upper 
Cretaceous, most probably in Cenomanian time. The Winton is overlain tlis- 
conformably by grits and torrential bedded sandstones thought to be Lower 
Tertiary in age. 

The Tertiary sediments are usually most prominently developed on the 
limbs of the anticlines and towards the synclincs. In several instances the Ter- 
tiary wedges out completely towards the crest of the anticlines, Within the 
area described by this paper the Tertiary beds are folded disconformably ( un- 
conformable' in tire case of Morney anticline) with the underlying sediments 
of the Winton Formation. 

The oldest, unfolded beds, following on top of the Tertiary grits and sands 
(usually "duricrusted") are lateritcs and lateritised sands. These, in turn, are 
overlain by travertines, alluvial clays and silts and sand-dunes. The travertines 
and sand-dunes are considered to be of Quarternary age which would suggest 
that the lateritcs are of late Tertiary age Assuming that the dating of the grits 
and torrential bedded sandstones as Tertiary is correct, the abovtvmentiomnl 
observations would give evidence that the folding movements have been 
initiated not later than in Upper Cretaceous time (post-Ccnomanian). 

Subsequently, the Cretaceous sediments were exposed to erosion, but be- 
came covered again, this time fey fresh-water lakes, and the coarse Tertiary 
grits and sandstones were deposited. While this sedimentation was still well 
in progress, folding movements were renewed and probably reached a climax, 
in lute Eocene to Oligocene time. 

Together with vertical uplifts, this last phase finally displaced the water 
cover into large depressions whereof Lake Eyre, Lake Gregory and several other 
low-lying salt pans are the last remnants. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The author wishes to express his thanks to Mr. J. L. Bnnython, Chairman 
of the SANTOS Board, for the permission to publish this article, and also to 
Mr. R. C. Sprigg, Managing Director of Gcosurveys of Australia Limited, for 
die opportunity to investigate the area. The author was assisted in his field 
investigations by W. G. Swindon, B.Sc., S. M. Rowc* B.Sc. f A* Hess, B.Sc, and 
R. L. Chase. B.Sc. ? all of Gcosurveys uf Australia Limited. An intensive air 
reconnaissance was carried out by R. O. Bmnnsehweilor, Ph.D., and the author. 
Particular appreciation is accorded to Mr. R, B. Reekwith, Manager of Cor- 
dillo Downs Station, for his valuable assistance during the field operations. 



II. WOPFNFH 



Plate 1 




Fig. 1. — The western limb of the- Haddori syncline about one mile north of f Iaddon 
No. 4 bore, looking south. The top lavers are strongly silieified. Dip 15°E. 

(Photo H. Wopi'ner.) 





Pijr, 2. — Part of the western limb of Curalle dome, north of Goppacunda Well, 
looking south. Dip 16°\V. (Photo H. Wopfner.) 






H. WOPFNER 



Pi>;VTE 2 




Fig 

air. 



1. — The strongly eroded western limb of the Curdle dome seen from the 
The widening of the dome towards north can he clearly observed in the 
top left of pietnre. The hitfb scarp, built op by the eastern limb of the anticline 
(Beal Rajige), is in the ri^lit far background. Direction of view. NNE, (Photo 

If. Wopfner.) 



THE GREAT AUSTRALIAN ARTESIAN BASIN 193 

REFERENCES 

Glakssner, M. F., 1956. Erdiil-Aufschlufiarbeiten in Australien, Erdol-Zeitschr., Heft 2, 

Vienna. 
Jack, R, L., 1925. Some Developments in Shallow Water Areas in the North-East of South 

Australia, Geol. Survey South Australia, Bulletin No. 11. 
Jack, R. L., 1930. Geological Structure and other Factors in Relation to Underground Water 

Supply in Portions of South Australia, Geol. Survey South Australia, Bulletin No. 14. 
Mott, W. D., 1952. Oil in Queensland, Queensland Gov. Mining Journal, October. 
Smith, E. R., 1958. Notes on Seismic Survey at Hadclon Downs, South Australia, unpublished 

report, Bureau of Mineral Resources, Melbourne. 
Sprjgg, R. C., 1958. Petroleum Prospects of Western Parts of Great Australian Artesian Basin, 

Bull Amer. Assoc. Pet. Geol, 42, p. 10. 
Whitehouse, F. W., 1948. The Geology of the Channel Country of South-Western Queens- 
land, Bureau of Investigation, Technical Bulletin No. 1. 
Wopfner, H., 1957. The Geology of the Area West and North-West of Oodnadatta, Final 

Report for 1956 on Work Carried out on Behalf of SANTOS Ltd. (unpublished). 



NOTES ON THE GENUS EUCALYPTUS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

BY C. Z). BOOMSMA 

Summary 

A revision is made of the geographical locations of a number of species of the genus eucalyptus in 
South Australia. 



NOTES ON THE GENUS EUCALYPTUS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

By C. D. Boomsma* 
[Read 13 August 1959] 

SUMMARY 

A revision is made of the geographical locations of a number of species 
of the genus eucalyptus in South Australia. 

INTRODUCTION 

Owing to the amount of clearing for agricultural settlement that has taken 
place of recent years in South Australia, it is almost inevitable that many of 
the original occurrences of trees of the genus eucalyptus will eventually be 
known from the records only, rather lhan from actual sites. The following notes 
deal with new observations on the geographical occurrence of a number of 
species of the genus. 

Of recent years very little material, if any, has been collected in South 
Australia of E. eudeomoides, E. ewartiana, E. gongylocarpa> E. pachijphylla, 
E r oldfieldii, and E, mridis. 

E. albens Miq. 

Only two trees have been located near Wirrabara township, in the type- 
area, which agree with the type description. However, there are many 
which agree with the description of £. hemiphhia, amongst the commonly 
occurring greybox, E: microcarfia, It has been suggested by Pryor (personal 
communication) that mixed type material formed the basis of the descrip- 
tion of E. alhcms. 

E. onceps (R. Br.) Blakely 

On the south side of Torrens Gorge, Hd. Onkaparinga, approximately three 
miles east of Athelstone, a small outlier of 10-12 steins. C. Boomsma, 1947. 

E. haxtcri (Benth) Maiden and Blakely 

1. A stunted small tree to 30 ft. high, mature leaves with long acuminate 
point, bud has a conical operculum, and typical exsert valves to capsule. 
Mt. Kitchener, R, V. Woods, 1954 (personal communication). This may be 
the most northerly occurrence of this species. 

2. A stunted small tree to 30 ft, high. Sec. 42, Hd. Waitpinga, now cleared. 
Mature leaf wider and thicker than type, fruit larger than type, 15 mm. 
X 15 mm. C. D. Boomsma, 1950. 

E. hehriana F. v. M. 

Collections were made from Currwillia Creek, CowelI> D. Smith* 1956; 
Wanilla, W. C. Johnstone, 1956; Stockport in the lower north, C. D. 
Boomsma. 1957; and Mt. Woodforde, the far north, J. J. Johnson, 1955. 

E. calycogona Turc/ 

Small island inliers, Sec. 140, lid. Howe, Southern Flinders Ranges. C. D. 
Boomsma, 1949. 



* An officer of the Woods and Forests Department, 
Trans. Roy. Soe. S. Aust. (1960). Vol. 83. 



196 C. D. BOOXfSMA 

E. camaldulensis Debn 

Although a generalised occurrence by Burbidge ia Traas. Roy, Soa, 1947, 
includes "water courses throughout S.A.", and by Black, 1957, includes "all 
over S.A. except the dry creekless area north of the Great Bight", an area 
of 20 acres, half mile east of Minlaton, Boomsma, 1949, is the only known 
occurrence on Yorke Peninsula, and a larger area occurs at Polda, Eyre 
Peninsula, in the Hds, Squire, Tinline and Ulipa, R. French, 1956 (personal 
communication ) . 

E. cladaculyx F, v. M. (Figs- 3 and 4) 

Three genetic variants showing some characteristics of E. camaldulensis 
and E. dudocalyx were noted in Chapmans Gums Swamp, Wanilla, Eyre 
Peninsula, W. C. Johnstone, 1951; C. D. Boomsma and Pryor, 1958, 
The form and shape of E. cladx)calyx varies in the three areas of natural 
occurrence, very crooked to stunted tree to 35 ft. high on Eyre Peninsula; 
with an improvement in straightness and increase in height* on Kangaroo 
Island to tall shaft-like trees to 90 ft. high in the Southern Flinders Ranges. 
No natural stands have been found agreeing with the description uf the 
horticultural variety nana. 

E. cneorifolia D.C. 

1. Two small ridge top outliers on lateritic soil in Sec, 381, Hd. Encounter 
Bay, have now been cleared, 

2. A recently observed occurrence nearby on a friable sandy soil 5 miles 
south-west of the Back Valley P.O. on Rivington Farm. J. G. Wood, 1959; 
in the University of Adelaide^ Herbarium. 

E. coficinna Maiden and Blakely 

Along the E,-W. transcontinental railway line, Whynbring, J. Johnson, 1955. 

E. eosinophylic*. F. v, M* 

In areas between two associations, E. obliqua and £. cneorifolia, on Kan- 
garoo Island, and E, obliqua and E. fasciculosa on Flcurieu Peninsula, speci- 
mens with more than three buds per umbel, and atvpical bud characters, 
C. D. Boomsma, 1947. 

E. dutnosa A. Cunn 

Smooth budded specimens arc found in eastern localities of South Australia, 
but specimens which are not smooth budded are usually referable to other 
species. 

£. ehreophora F. v. M. 

Small tree to mallee, 10-15 ft. high, on the upper slopes and summit 
of two peaks in Elders Range surrounding Wilpcna Pound. G. Gross, 1953, 
and R. French, 1957 (personal communication); T Brooker, 195S. 

E. gamophylla F. v. M, 

While tin's species is best known by its perfoliate juvenile foliage, the 
intermediate foliage, not often seen, is sessile, to shortly petiolate, opposite, 
to alternate and lanceolate 1-5 — 2 cm. X4 — 6 cm. Mature foliage not 
seen. Mann Ranges, J. Johnson, 1955 

E. gttlii Maiden 

No specimens have been located by me, in the vicinity of Wirrabara during 
the period 1945-1958 which is in the type area. Its most southerly occur- 
rence appears to be Biblianda Station. J. Johnson (personal communica- 
tion). 



NOTES ON THE GENUS EUCALYPTUS IN SOUTH AUSTRALIA 197 

E. intertexta R. T. Baker 

Mature foliage, robust, coriaceous, ovate-lanceolate 7-10 cm. X 2-5 — 4 cm. 
fruits about twice normal size. Mt. Moulden, Blyth Ranges, J. Johnson, 
1955; R. L. Crocker, 1956. 

E. jugalis Naud 

Probably a "nomeri dubiunT, Pryor (personal communication), but not 
£. leucoxylon var. pauperita, J< E.B. Throughout the high rainfall parts of 
the Southern Flinders Ranges, scattered individuals or small groups up to 
50 trees having intermediate characteristics between a box aud a gum. They 
could be genetic variants of E. leucoxylon and a box, the common box 
is E. miewcarpa, C D. Boomsma, 1947. 

E. largiftorenn F. v. M. 

Several restricted disjunct occurrences either on swamps or along flood 
plains to water-courses far removed from the large occurrence along the 
Murray River. Mingary Creek, Oakvale Station, and Kalkaroo. J. Johnson, 
1953; Halbury, C, D. Boomsma, 1956. 

£. inacrorryncJm F. v. M. 

A genetic variant, a single tree with level valves to the fruit. Seveuhills. 
Pryur aud Boomsma, 1953. 

E. microtheca F. v. M, 

Large broad-lanceolate foliage, Evcrard Park. J, B, Cleland, 1954. A num- 
ber of specimens with enclosed valves examined by L. Johnstone. 1958, 
were stated to be genetic variants of E. microtheca, Mann Ranges, J. 
Johnson, 1955. 

E, obliqua L'Herit 

Stunted tree to mallee-like, 10 ft. high, fruit with level, to exsert valves. 
Ridge Road, Parawa, C. D. Boomsma, 1946. 

E. odorata Behr and SchL 

Lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate intermediate foliage predominates on trees on 
the west facing lower slopes of the Mt. Lofty Range, while the lanceolate 
to narrow lanceolate mature foliage is characteristic of the northern areas 
to form variety angustifolia, Blakely 

E. Qxymitra Blakely 

Widespread in the vicinity of the far north-western ranges, J. Johnson, 
1955,; R. Crocker, 1956 (personal communication). 

E. pauciflora Sieb 

Genetic variants from Sec. 574 Hd. Caroline. N. Lewis, 1952. 

E, pileata Blakely 

Occasional specimens have been collected from the far north, J. Johnson, 
1955; R. Crocker, 1956 (personal communication). 

E. pyriformis Turcz 

Fruits nearly smooth, Bulgunnia Station, J. Johnson, 1952, 

E. rubida Dean and Maiden 

A disjunct occurrence of only a few acres in Sec. 304 Hd, Yankalilla, It is 
adjacent to the E. obliqua and E. fascictthsa associations. C. D. Boomsma, 
1947. 

E. rugosa R, Brown and Blakely 

Hybrid swarms in the Hundred of Coonaric, Yorkc Peninsula; and Fishery 
Bay, Eyre Peninsula. C. D. Boomsma, 1947; and Boomsma and Pryor, 1958. 



I9S C. D. BOOMSMA 

E. terminalis F. v. M. 

The forms with narrow lanceolate mature leaves, and ovate-globular thick 
walled fruits with a constricted orifice, usually only a few per umbel at 
maturity, are referable to E. dichromophlaia F. v. M.> L, Johnstone, 1958, 
Observed by J. Johnson in Musgravc, Mann and Tompkinson Ranges. 

E. tmcinata Turcz 

Because specimens are rarely collected, if at all, in South Australia, this 
species could be regarded as endemic to Western Australia. 

E. vimiyialis Labill (Figs. 1 and 2) 

Hie rough barked coastal form has been known to occur on Eyre Peninsula 
since 1951, but verification was not made until 1958 by Pryor and Boomsma. 
The occurrence is typical for the species being confined to the lower 
slopes and bottoms of valleys in undulating country on terra-rossa soils. 
Several hundred trees were seen distributed over Mickera Station, Hd. 
Sleaford, where it is known as the Mickera Gum. 

E. uitrea R. T. Baker 

Ts now regarded to have a hybrid origin, so it is not surprising to record 
a wider range of characters than in the original description. L. Johnstone, 
1952; Pryor, 1955 (personal communication). 

E. tcehstcr'iana Maiden 

A new record for South Australia. Single specimen of three dozen mature 
leaves, eight buds and one capsule. Mature foliage bunched together, sub- 
glaucous, ovate, obovate to obcordate or emarginate. Petioles, young 
braneblets, peduncles and pedicels glaucous. Buds and inflorescence agree 
with the original description. Capsule larger, 14-0 X 0-8 rnrn,, broad disc 
gentlv rising to the base of the small triangular exert valves. Mt, Wood- 
roof'e, 3,000 feet altitude. J. B. Cleland, 18/4/59, State Herbarium 95, 951, 
132. Determined by S. T. Blake. 18/6/1951. Maiden refers to cultivated 
seedlings ex Taicoola blocks P. 381, Vol. VIII, Pt. 5. 

A New Record for South Australia 

A malice, mature leaves somewhat oblong- lanceolate, widely spaced, al- 
ternate, long acuminate point, petiolate, and venation indistinct size 7-8 
cm. X !•]— 1*8 cm. Fruit shortly pedicellate, axillary umbels, on short 
compressed peduncle, cupular shape 7 mm. X 7 mm. with raised rim 2 
mm. wide, valves short, exserted and subulate. J. Johnson, 1955; R. Crocker. 
1956; Lothian and Hill, 1958. 

REFERENCES 

Black, J. M., 1943-57. Flora of South Australia. Govt. Printer, Adelaide, 2nd Ed. 

Boomsma, C. D„ 1947. M.Se. Thesis, University of Adelaide. 

BoTumrocE. N. T., 1947. Key to the South Australian species of the genus Eucalyptus L'llcrit. 

Trans. Roy. Soe. S. Anst., 71 (2), pp. 137-67, 1947. 
NfAroKN. %. R„ 1903-2-5. A critical revision of the genus Eucalyptus, Govt. Printer, Sydney. 



C. D. Boomsma 



Plate 1 




c +: 

SI 
— -js 



^ 5 




C. D. Boomsma 



Plate 2 










w - w 










CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA NO. 1 

byG. M. Chippendale 

Summary 

A new name is proposed, Borreria hillii (syn. Spermacoce scabra Ewart). Amended descriptions 
are given for two species, Bassia spinosa Ewart e^Davies and Eucalyptus gongylocarpa Blakely. 
Additional notes are given for several species, and ten species including two naturalised species are 
given as new records for Central Australia. 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 

No. 1 

By G. M. Chippendat.k* 
[Read 8 October 1959] 

SUMMARY 

A new name is proposed, Borrcria hillii (syn. Spermacocc xcuhra TCwiirt). 

Amended descriptions are given for two species, fiassia splnosa Kwart ut 
Duvies and Eucalyptus gongijlocarpa Blakeh. 

Additional notes are given for several species, .and ten species fneludintf 
two nuttmdised species arc given as new records for Central Australia. 

IsOETACrtAK 

Isoetes muelleri A. Br. Tup of Avers Rock in rock pool* D. E, Svmon, 
14/6/1953 (ADW 9715). 

This is a nav record for Central Australia, arid was brought to my notice 
by Mr. David Symon. 

Orami.\kak 

Eruichne armitii F. MuelL This species was omitted accidentally in the 
Check List in last years Transactions (Chippendale, 1959). 

Pkotkace.ve 

Hakca arborescens R. Br. One mile east of Kurundi H.S., Neville Forde, 
11/5/1957 (NF 821). A new record for Central Australia. 

CHKNOPOIttACKAU 

B(mia spinosa Ewart et Davies. Subshrub to 30 cin. high, grey, tomentose 
with branching hairs on stems and leaves, branches often taugled, more or less 
procumbent. Leaves sessile, narrow, oblanceolate or obtuse, 10 mm. to 1.4 mm. 
long, 2 mm. to 2-5 mm. wide near apex. Flowers solitary, axillary. Fruiting 
perhinth tube 2 mm. long, attached firmly to stern, mostly with 4 spines, one to 
4 mm. long, two shorter divergent at base ? the fourth spine often snorter again, 
Seed vertical or slightly oblique to summit of perianth. 

Lander CreeCC. F Hill, 15/6/1911 (CJ?.R 346, Holotype, seen on loan 
from Melbourne Herbarium ), 10 miles east of Central Mount Wedge H.S., R, E. 
Winkworth, 1/7/1954 ( Herb. A ustf REW 383 ) . Five miles cast of Alice Springs, 
R. A. Perrv. 5/3/1953 (Herb. Aust RAP 3232), Twenty-five miles west of Haast 
Bluff Settlement, R. E. Winkworth, 9/6/1954 ( Herb. Aust. REW 317). Fifteen 
miles south-west of Alice Springs, R. E. Winkworth, 7/5/1954 (Herb, Aust 
RFAV 262). Three miles south of Angus Downs, M. Lazarides, 9/10/1956 (Herb. 
Aust, ML 61 S3). 

The above is an amended description, as the species is not well known, and 
was* not seen by R. H. Anderson at the time ol his revision of the genus Bassia* 
(1923). Examination of fragments of the holotype showed that G. F. Hill's 
specimen was affected by insects, and it was these affected parts which were 



* Botanist, Animal Industry Branch, Department of Territories, Alice Springs, N.T. 

t Tlu- official abbreviation Tor the herbarium in Canberra, cited as "Herb. Ausl/\ is CAMB, 

Trans. Uoy. Soc, S. Aust, (I960), Vol. 83. 



200 C. M. CHIPPENDALE 

described by Ewart and Davies as "fruiting perianths connate into a hard mass 
of about half-inch diameter". Mr. Burns and Mr, Xeboiss of Melbourne Museum 
agree that the hard musses are "indeed galls caused by insects,, possibly flies". 

The affinities of this species are with B, quinquectispis F. MuelL, and not 
with B. paradoxa (R, Br) F. Much, as originally stated by Ewart and Davies. 
It is sometimes a common species in mulga scrub, and is also found on some 
low calcareous hills, and in sandy soil on eroded flats with scalded patches. 

AlZOACEAE 

Trianthema rhynchocalyptra F. Mnell. Twenty-four miles south of Barrow 
Creek township, R. A. Perry, 3/9/1955 (Herb. Aust, RAP 5350). ? 

This is a new record for Central Australia, and the collectors note states 
'prostrate mat plant, with pink flowers". 

Paptuonaceae 

Daviesia chordophylla Mcissn. Twelve miles north-cast of Narwietuoma 
H.S., M. Lazarides, 15/9/1956 (Herb. Aust. ML 5991 ). A new record for Central 

Australia. 

MlMOSACEAE 

Acacia tondosa Bench. Four miles north of Wauchope, Neville Forde, 
8/11/1956 (NF 695), A new record for Central Australia. 

Caesalpiniaceae 

Cassia curvistyla J. M. Black. 14*2 miles south-east of Tanami* G, Chippen- 
dale, 3/5/195S (NT 4267); 17 miles north-east of Lake Maekay, G. Chippendale 
17/671957 (NT 3412). 

These recent records, together with the two localities quoted by Black with 
his original description (1938) help to show the distribution of this little - 
colFccted species. These records were all in sandy soil in Triodia sp. communi- 
ties, in one case in latcritic sand, and in one other case in an area of burnt 
Triodia sp. It seems most likely that this species extends over most of the arid 
area north and south of Tanami. 

Zycophyllaceae 

Zygophyllum iudacarputn F. MuelL Twelve miles south-west of Tempe 
Down! H.S., M. Lazarides, 4/10/1956 (Herb, Aust. ML 6120). This is a new- 
record for Central Australia, with the collectors note: "common in undulating 
area with low htlls and Acacia estrophiolata". 

EUPIJORBIACEAE 

Petalosti^ma quadriloculare F. MuelL var nigrum Ewart ct Davies. Five 
miles north of Kurundi Station, M. Lazarides, 28/8/1956 (Herb. Aust. ML 5866). 
Five miles south of Wauebope, R. E. Winkworth, 21/3/1955 (Herb. Aust. REW 
962). Two miles north of Wauchope, R. E. Winkworth. 22/3/1955 (Herb. Aust. 
REW 979). Ten miles north of Murray Downs ILS., R. E. Winkworth, 29/7/1954 
(Herb. Aust. REW 522). Seventeen miles west of Rockhaurpton Downs turn-off, 
JSaridy Highway, G, Chippendale, 14/8/1955 (NT 1533). Forty-one miles south 
of Wave Hill H.S., C. Chippendale, 11/7/1956 (NT 2204). Muckaty turn-off, 
Stuart Highway, C Chippendale, 11/3/1955 (NT 1075). 

The description of this variety by Ewart and Davies states: u Fruit black, 
34-Inch diam., glabrous, seeds smooth, dark brown". Examination of fragments 
of the varietal types seen on loan from Melbourne Herbarium showed that all 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 201 

nf the above specimens were vegetatively identical with these types, A sug- 
gestion that the original description of the fruit of this variety may be faulty 
was checked at Melbourne Herbarium by Miss H. Aston, and it seems clear 
that the descriptions were made from fruits which were not in a perfect state. 
The blackness was due to age, as was also the glabrousncss. There were no 
collectors notes. In Ihe specimens quoted above, the fruit is quoted in the field 
•is being "apricot-yellow'* and '"orange-yellow", and the capsule i\s silky pubescent 
when immature, and appears to lose some of tlus pubescence with age. A fur- 
ther specimen in Melbourne Herbarium, matching CJ. F. Hill's No. 387, col- 
lected by j. McDouall Stuart, North Australia, lat. 20°20' s had a collectors 
note stating, "Small, bitter, orange-coloured fruit". 

This species is sometimes known as Strychnine Bush in the Northern 
Territory. 

Malvaceae 

Sida plaitjcahjx b\ Muelh ex Bcirtb. FI. Aust i.197. 1S63. 

Synonyms: 

S. itwlusa Benih. FI. Ausl M97. 1863. 

S. podopetala F. Muell. et R. Tate in Trans. Roy. Soc. South Australia, 13, 
94-109. 1889-1890- 

Abutilon pedulum Ewart in Ewart eL Davie* Ft. Northern Territory, p. 182. 
1917. ' l 

The case for the synonymy of S. inclusa was accurately made by While 
(1922). In the case of S- po'dopetaUi, (ho authors separate it as having "narrower 
leaves, hy the calyces being not provided with very prominent ridglets and 
further by the petals emerging beyond the calyx". In describing S. platyadyx. 
BeMham slates: "Petals broad, shorter than calyx", but more than likely he did 
not sec adequate material. He only quotes "Sturts Creek*'. In dried specimens, 
the buds of Ibis species sometimes give the impression of being mature flowers, 
but in the field the species varies greatly in the size of leaves on the same plant,, 
and also according to season conditions and habitat. The petals are al length 
longer than the Calyx. The ridges on the calyces is also a variable factor. Tiet- 
Icens specimens from Glen Helen, June, 1889, and Warman Rocks, 10/fi/1889, 
tlltd a specimen from Ilpilla Gorge, James Range, were examined on loan from 
Adelaide Herbarium. 

A type <rf Abutilon pedatum seen on ban from Sydney Herbarium had 
been correctly determined by Miss Neridali Ford as S. plutycalyx. 

Myrtaceau 

F.ucalyptus gongylocarpa Blakely. Near King Creek, 233a miles south of 
George Gill Range, G. Chippendale, 27/6/1959 (NT 6326). Twenty-eight miles 
north of Lake Amadous, G: Chippendale, 28/6/1959 (NT 6343). Scmdv .dope 
at Lake Amadeus, G. Chippendale, 29/6/1959 (NT 6390). Ten miles* south- 
west of Glen Edith, G. Chippendale, 24/6/1959 (NT 6274). 

No description of the buds of this species appears in literature^ and the 
following description is made from the above specimens: 

Umbels axillary, slightly deflcxed, 3-9 flowered, but mostly 4-7 flowers 
peduncles terete 10-15 mm. long, buds pruino.se 3-3-5 mm. diameter, pedicels 
•1-6 mm. long, operculum hemispherical, truncate at summit with faintradir^ine 
raises, 1-0-1 -6 ram. high, tube short conical 2 0-3 5 mm. mostly 3 0-3*5 mm 
long. 

This species is common in aeolian sands in Triodiu pungent associations 
which are west of the settled areas in Central Australia. 



202 



G. M. CHIPPENDALE 



SOLANACEAE 

Solatium melanospermum F. Muell. Stirling bore, 20 miles south of Barrow 
Creek Township, R. A. Perry, 3/9/1955 (Herb. Aust. RAP 5349). This is a 
new record for Central Australia. 

Rubiaceae 
Borreria hillii nom. nov. 
Spermacoce scabra Ewart in Flora of the Northern Territory, p. 260, 1917. 
Ewart's specific epithet had been used previously in Borreria by K. Schum., 1895. 

Cucurbitaceae 
Cucumis myriocarpus Naud. Temple Bar Creek, eight miles south-west of 
Alice Springs, G. Chippendale, 22/1/1959 (NT 5327). This is an addition to 
the naturalised plants of Central Australia. 

COMPOSITAE 

Vernonia cinerea (L.) Less. var. lanata Koster in Blumea I No. 3 (1935), 408. 
This was recorded as V. cinerea in last year's Transactions (Chippendale, 1959). 

Erigeron bonariensis L., Alice Springs, G. Chippendale, 3/4/1958 (NT 415.1 ), 
This is an addition to the naturalised plants of Central Australia. 




Fig. 1. — Buds of Eucalyptus gongylocarpa Blakely. 
(Twig is natural size.) 



CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FLORA OF CENTRAL AUSTRALIA 203 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

The assistance of interstate botanists is gratefully acknowledged. Figure 1 
was drawn by Mr. D. J. Nelson. 

REFERENCES 

Anderson, R. H„ 1923. Proc. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., xlviii, part 3 (1923). "A Revision of the 

Australian Species of the Genus Bassia" . 
Black, J. M., 1938. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 62 (2), p. 354. "Additions to the Flora of 

South Australia, No. 37". 
Chippendale, G. M., 1959. Trans. Jtoy. Soc. S. Aust., 82 (1959), pp. 321-338. "Check 

List of Central Australian Plants". 
Ewart, A. J., and Davies, O. B., 1917. The Flora of the Northern Territory. 
White, C. T., 1922. Queensland Agric. Journal, 17-18 (Jan., 1922), 34-5. "A Western 

Burr". 



HENRY KENNETH FRY, D.S.O, M.D., B.SC, DIP.P.H 

1886-1959 



Summary 



HENRY KENNETH FRY, d.s.cx, m.d v b.s., b.sc, wp,f.h. 

1886-1959 

H. K. Fry was elected a member of this Society in 1923, became a member 
of its Council" from 1933 to 1938, and was President for the last year of this period, 

Dr. Fry Graduated at the University of Adelaide in Science in 1905 and in 
Medicine in 1908, In 1909 he was awarded the Rhodes Scholarship and pro- 
ceeded to Oxford, where he gained the B.Sc. degree in 1912 and the Diploma in 
Public Health. His post-gradnate study was in the subject of Anthropology. 

Returning to Australia in 1913, he joined the Northern Territory Health 
Service and in the Territory found an outlet for his training in anthropology 
through his interest in the Australian aboriginal. 

After serving for some time in the far north, he took up private practice 
but continued in his academic leanings and in 1934 gained his degree of M.D, 
in the University of Adelaide and was also made a Fellow of the Royal Australian 
College of Phvsicians. During the later vcars of his life, he served as Medical 
Officer of Health for the City of Adelaide. 

Dr. Fry always maintained an active interest in anthropology and for many 
years was a member of the University Board for Anthropological Research. He 
took part in a number of University field expeditions to Central Australia — in- 
cluding those to Hermannsburg, Cockatoo Creek, Mount Licbig, the Granites, 
Ernabella and Yuendurnu, He was especially interested in social anthropology 
and made a special study of some aspects of the social structure of Central 
Australian tribes, on which subject he published a number of recognised authori- 
tative papers. 

Most of his anthropological papers are contained in the Transactions of this 
Society, his main works being: 

1931 A table showing the Class Relations of the Aranda. 

1932 Genealogical studies of Australian tribal systems. 

193! Kinship and descent among the Australian aborigines. 

1950 Aboriginal Social Systems. 

A major anthropological contribution, "Fear in Primitive Society", was published 
by the Anthropological Society of South Australia as No. 1 of its Occasional 
Publications (1938). He was among the foundation members of this Society. 

Kenneth Fry will always be remembered for his quiet, friendly personality 
and for the patient tenacity with which he applied himself to his chosen problems 
of study. 

T.D.C. 



LIST OF LECTURES GIVEN AT MEETINGS DURING THE 

YEAR 1958-59 

Summary 



LIST OF LECTURES GIVEN AT MEETINGS DURING 
THE YEAR 1958-59 

Oct., 1958. Mr. K. H. Northcote: "The Problems of Classification, with Special 
Reference to Soils". 

Nov., 1958. Mr. L. W. Parkin; "Geological Progress in South Australia in the 
Post-war Period" (Presidential Address). 

Apr., 1959. Dr. K. Thomson: "Rugiri, a newly discovered ceremonial site in 
the Western Desert, Northern Territory". 

May. 1959. Dr. J. N. Black: "Light, Climate, Leaf Area and the Growth of Plant 
Communities". 

June, 1959. Sir Ronald Fisher: "Tobacco and Lung Cancer". 

July, 1959. Dr. A. F. Bird: "The Physiology of Root Attraction in Plant Parasitic 
Nematodes". 

Aug., 1959. Mr. D. E. Symon: "The History and Domestication of Subterranean 
Clover". 

Sept., 1959. Dr. D. J. Sutton: "Palaeomagnetism" 



BALANCE SHEET 

Summary 



ROYAL SOCIETY OF SOUTH AUSTRALIA (INCORPORATED) 
Receipts and Payments for Year ended 30th September, 1959. 





£ 


s. 


d. 






£ s. 


d. 


To Balance, l/10/5o 


... 898 


18 


5 


Bv 


Printing and Publishing Volume Hi 


1 




„ Subscriptions ... •, 


359 


17 


o 




Reprints, etc. 


.. 2,678 13 


1 


„ Government Grant 


... 1,750 










Library Assistants 


196 12 


1 


„ Sale of Publications, etc. ... 


- 431 


12 


1 




Printing and Stationery- 


55 17 


ID 


„ Rent of Rooms ... 


5 


2 







Postage and Duty Stamps, etc. 


95 





,> Interest — 










Cleaning ... 


67 12 





Endowment Fund £239 11 


7 








Insurance ... 


61 12 


R 


Savings Bank of 










Lighting 


6 15 


5 


S.A 44 14 


8 








Sundries ... 


L3 


3 




284 


6 


3 




Balance — 

Savings Bank of 














?? 
















S.A.. Rundle St. £598 8 


3 














Less Outstanding 
















Cheques ... 43 15 J 


I 

554 13 


1 








£3,729 


16 


2 


£3,729 16 


2 



Audited and found correct. 
Adelaide, 5th October, 1959. 



F. M. ANGEL \ Hon. 

N. S. ANCEL, A.U.A. Com. f Auditors. 



ENDOWMENT FUND 
Receipts and Payments for Year ended 30th September, 1959. 



To Balance, 1/10/58 
„ Interest — 

Inscribed Stock 
Gas Co. 



£234 1 7 
5 10 



£ s. d. 
6.110 



239 11 7 



£6,349 11 7 



By Revenue A/e 
Balance — - 

C\vealth Inscribed 

Stock £6,010 

S.A. Gas Co. Bonds 100 



£ s. d. 
239 11 7 



6,110 

£6,349 11 7 



Audited and found correct. The Stock has been verified by certificate and the Gas Co. Bond has 
been inspected in the hands of the Treasurer. 



F. M. ANGEL 1 Hon. 

N. S. ANGEL, A.U.A. Com. f Auditors. 

Adelaide, 5th October, 1959. 



H. WOMERSLEY, Hon. Treasurer. 



AWARDS OF THE SIR JOSEPH VERCO MEDAL 

Summary 



AWARDS OF THE SIR JOSEPH VERCO MEDAL 

1929 Prof. Walter Howchin, F.G.S, 

1930 John McC. Black, A.L.S. 

1931 Prof. Sir Douglas Mawson, O.B.E., ~D.Sc, B.E. FR.S, 
1933 Prof, J. Burton Cleland. M.D. 

1935 Prof. T. Harvey Johnston, MA*, D.Sc 

1938 Prof. J. A. Prescott, D.Sc, F.A.C.I. 

1943 Herbert Womersley, AJ-.S., F.R.E.S. 

1944 Prof, J. G. Wood, D.Sc, Ph.D. 

1945 Cecil T. Madican, M.A., B.E.. D.Sc, F.G.S. 

1946 Herbert M. Hale, O.B.E. 

3955 L. Keith Ward, I.S.O., B,A., B.E„ D.Sc, 

1956 N. B. Timdale, B.Sc. 

1957 C. S. Piper, D.Sc. 
1959 C. G. Sn-PHENs, D.Sc. 

LIST OF FELLOWS 

AS AT 30th SEPTEMBER 1959. 

Those/ marked with an asterisk ( ° ) have contributed papers published in the Society's 

Transactions. Those marked with a dagger ( f ) are Life Members. 

Any change in address or any other changes should be notified to the Secretary. 

Note. — The publications of the Society arc not sent to those members whose subscriptions 

are in arrears. 
Date of 

BKSSjaS f iM no . r ^ ry Honorary Fellows 

Election Election 

1895 1949 * Cleland. Prof. J. B., M.D., Dashwood Road. Beaumont, S.A.-V'erco Medal 
1933; Council, 1921-26, 1932-37; PrexitUnt, 1927-28, 1940-41; Vice- 
President, 1926-27, 1941-42. 

1913 1955 *Osborn 9 Prof. T. G. B., D.Sc, St. Marts College, Pennington Terrace, 
North Adelm'dc-Cowrurtf, 1915-20, 1922-24; Vice-President, 1924-25, 
1926-27; President, 1925-26. 

1912 1955 *Ward, L. £., I.S.O., BA, B.E., D.Sc, 22 Northumberland Street, Heath- 
pool. MarryatviUe, S.A.-Counci/, 1924-27, 1933-35; Vice-President, 
1927-28; President, 1928-30. 

1946. "Aerie. Prof. A. A., M.D., D.Sc. Ph.D., University of Adelaide. 

1958. °Ahelf, k\ Dr, Phil. (Marburg). Dr.Phil.Nat (f artu-Dorpat), M.Sc (Riga), 42 

Kilclonan Road, Warradale Park, S.A. 

1959. Aptken, P., B.Sc-., South Australian Museum, North Terrace., Adelaide, S.A, 

1927. •Alderman, Prof. A. R., Ph.D., D.Sc, F.G.S., Department of Geology, University of 

Addaide-Cotmrit, 1937-42, 1954-57. 
1951. Anderson, Mas. S. H., B.Sc, 31 Laktanan Street, North Adelaide. 
1935. *Andrewartha, H. G., M.Ag.Sc, J3.Sc, Zoology Dept, University of Adelaide — 

Council, 1949-50; Vice-President. 1950-51, 1952-53; President, 1951-52. 
1935. *Andrewartka, Mrs. IT. V., B.Agr.Sc, M.Sc. (nee H. V. Steele), 29 Clarcrnont 

Avenue, Netherby, S.A, 
1929. •Angel, F. M., 34 Fullarton Road, Parkside, S.A. 

1939. * Angel, Mrss L. M.. M.Se., 2 Moore Street, Toorak, Adelaide, S.A. 
1945. •Bartlett, H. K., L.Th., 2 Abbntshall Road, Lower Mitcham, S.A. 
1958. Bauer. F. H<, Australian National University, Canberra, A.C.T. 

1950. Beck, R. G. t B.Ag.Sc, R.D.A., Lynewood Park, Mil-Lei, via Mount Gambler, S,A. 

1932. Begg, P. K t D.D.Sc , L.D.S., Shell House, 170 North Terrace, Adelaide. 

1928. Best, R. J., D.Sc, F.A.C.I., Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag, No. 1), Adelaide. 
1956. Black, A. B., A.S.A.S.M.. M.I.M.M., 36 Waotojft Avenue, St. Georges, S.A. 
1934. Black, E. C„ M.B.. B.S., Matfll Road, Tranmere, Adelaide. 

1950. Bonnin, N. J h M.B., B.S., F.R.C.S. (Eng.), F.R.A.C.S., 40 Barnard Street, North 

Adelaide, S.A. 
1945. t*BoNYTHON, C. W„ B.Sc, A.A.C.I., Romalo House, Romalo Avenue, Magill, S.A. 

1940. Bonython, Sm J. Lavtngton, 263 East Terrace, Adelaide. 

1945. •Boomsaea, C. D., M.Sc, B.ScFor., 6 Celtic Avenue, South Road Park, S.A. 



LIST OF FELLOWS 
D*tt cd 

Elrc|ion 

1957. "BnooKES, Miss H. M„ Dept. of Faitomokn^y. Waite Imtitute (Private Mail Ba$, No. 
1), Adelaide 

1957. Stick, \V. G., B.A . e/u Country Lending Service, Public Library, South Austndh 

1&M, 'BuniuocE, Miss N. T.. M.Sc, C.S.I.B.Q., Dtv, Want Industry, P.O. Boa loU Can- 
berra. ACT, 

1925. Burdon, R. S.. D.Sc, rhy.sies Dcpt-, University of Adelaide— Council, 1946-49. 

1955. Buring, I. r 51 ntcliTnond Road, Westhounie Park, S.A. 

1922 *Camfhkll, Pmof. T. D, D.DSc, D.Sc, 24 Lyningtou Street, Tusmore, S.A. — 

Council, 102,5-32. 1935. 1942-45: Vice-Presulent 1932-34; PrewdenK 1934-35. 
1959- Carroous. B. B.. R.D.Gcn.. St Marie's College, North Adelaide, S.A, 
I95X GATi-ren, A. N., B.Sc, 70 Madeline Street, Burwood, E .13, Victoria. 

1957. *Ghiwkndalk, G. M., B.Sc, Lindsay Avenue, Alice Springs, N.T. 

1029. Christie, W., MB. B.S., 7 Walter .Street, Hvde Park, Adelaide, S.A.— ty&ttiMfi 

1933-38. 
1055. Clothier, E A., Hydroelectric Commission. HobaU. Tuv 

1949. CoLLB'En, F. S., Geology Department, University ol Queensland. 

1929. "Cotton, B. C, F.R 2.S., J.P t .S,A. Museum. -North' Tenaeo, Adelaide— Council, 1943- 

46, 1948-49; Vice-PresidejU, 1940-50, 1951, President, 1950-51; Programme Sec- 
retary, 1959-. 
J 050, Crayviokd. A. H. r B.Sc. Dept. of Mines, Adelaide. 

1956. Daily, B., Ph.D., S.A. Museum— Pnmromme SccrcUny, 1957-59. 

1951. Davidson. A. L, C, Ph.D.. B.Sc, c/o Messrs. Simpson & Brookman, 26 Pirie .Street. 
Adelaide, S.A. 

1950. DhLANu, C, M.. VT.B.. B.S.. D.P.H,, D.T.M., 29 Gilbert Street, Goodwood S.A.— 

Council, 1049-51, 1954-59, Vkv-P indent, 197U-52, 1053-54; Pm.vu&mt, 1952-5-3, 

1930. D\x, E, V\, Box 12. Aldiiate, S.A. 

1957. Docli., K. M., M.Atf.Sc. Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag, No. 1), Adelaide. 
1959. DtWROP, P, R. G.. ji86.. 13 Walton Ave, Clourviow. S.A. 

1944 DlWtftOon-, S. M. L.. M.B., B.S., 170 tVivnehain Road, St. Peters, Adelaide. 

1931. Dwvitft, J. M., MB.. B.S., 105 Port Road, Hinclmarsh, S.A. 

1&38L *Earolkv, Miss C. M.. M.Sc, F.L.S., University of Adelaide— Council, 1943-46. 

1945. "Edmonds, S. J., B.A . M.Se . Ph.D., Zoology Department, University of Adolaidi. — 

Council, 1954-55. Programme Secretary. 1955-50; Secretary, 1956-57. 

1902. *Ei>Quisr, A. G., 19 Farrel! Street, Oteflejfe S.A,— Council, 1949-53. 

1956. ^Eichi.kr, H„ Dx.rer.nut.. State Herbarium, Bolanie Garden* Adelaide. 

1959. Fielder, O. K.. B.Sc. Dept. of Zaolojrv, University, North Terrain AdeJaldc, S.A. 

1927. "Finlayson, H- H.. 305 Ward Street, North Adelaide — Council. 1937-40. 

1951. Ffcson&l* R. ft., 21 Senvievv Road, Lyuton, South Australia. 

1958. ♦Form*, B. G.. Ph t \X. F'jG&j 9 Flinders Road. Hil^ost, S.A. 

1958. Ford. A. W.. F.I.C.S., A.C.C.S., 380 Smith Terrace, Banxstnwn, N.S.VV- 

1959. Foede. X.. Dip.Fm ., CS.lR.O-, Canberra, A-C.T. 

1954. Gmsov. A. A., A.W.A.S.M., Mines DepailmenL, Adt-laide. 

7053. c Gi_Ai:ssNEn t M. P u D.Sc, e/o Gcolot^v Department, University of Adelaide — Coxtnril, 

19.>V54; Vice-Pres-klent, 195S-59. 
1927. Godfhky, F, K., 5 Hubert Street. Pavneham, South Australia. 
1935. fGoLDSACic H.. Corornandcl Valley, SA. 
1959. Green, Miss L. M A., R.A., M.Sc, Dept. of An.rtomv and Histology. Unfvcrsirv. 

Adelaide, S.A. 
1949. Gross-. G. F,, M.Se,. South Australian Museum, Adelaide — Sixrctary, 1950-53. 
1944. Goppy, D. J., B.Sc, e/o W.A, Petroleiuu Co.. 251 Adelaide Terrace, Perth, W'A.. 
1022. °Hale„ H. M., OB F., c/o S.A. Museum, North Tsrraco, Adelaide— Wm. M#dut t 

1940; Council, 1931-34, 1950-53, 1956; Vice-President, 1934^36. 1937-2-^, i> t yi- 

dent, 1936-37; Trea*ut>rt l 1938-50. 1953-56. 
1940, Mao, I), R„ Ten Tree Cullv, S.A. 

193(f IMancock, N. L.. 3 Bowdlev, 66 Beresford Road, Rose Bay, N SAV. 
1953. ° Hansen t 1. V., B.A., Qiuen Flbahrth School. Cre<litnn, Devun, England. 

1946, *Hahi>y. Mmr. J. E. (nee A. C. Beekwith). M.Sc. Boa 62. SuiilUon, Tas. 
1944. ILvnais, J- R., B.Sc, e/o Waite Institute (Private .Mail Bug, No. 1), Adekide, 
IQS8, .Havhai.l, J. F., B-Se., 68 Pleasant Avenue, Cljmdore, S.A. 

19-14. Hekhiot, R. I., B.Aar.Sc. 49 Halsburv Avenue, Kingswood. S~\. 

1951. Hocking, L. 1 . 46 Kauri Parade. SeacMff, S.A. 

1959. HonwiTz, K. G. H.. D.S'c. 6 Vardon Street, Seaeombe Gardens. SA* 

192^1. c Ho.ssfeld, P. S.. Ph.D., 132 Fisher Street, Fullurton, S.A. 

1944. Hltmble, D. S. VV., M.P.S.. I.F.. 238 Pavneham Road, Puvnelinm, $A. 

1&17. °HuriON, J. T. ( B.Sc, AS A .S.M., 10 Bellcvm; Ph«- t! , Unlrv Park— CnuwiiV, 19VT-39 



•110 LIST OF FELLOWS 

tana erf 

1925. Irouui, P., 11 Wvatt Road, Burnsidc, S.A. 

19*5, °Jtinmuv\. R, Wm kCS0 H Division of Plant Industry, C.S.I R.O., P.O. Box 109, City, 

Canberra, A.C.T. 
1950 "Johns, R. K,, B.Sc.. Department of Mines, Adelaide, S,A, 

1957 Johnson, B., B.Sc.Agr., Ph.!)., Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag, No. 1), Adelaide. 

1958 MoitKSON, W., B.Sc. (Huns), 33 Ryan Avenue, WoodviUe West, S.A 
1054. KfcA|8, A, L., B.E , 44 Lelevre Terrace. North Adelaide. 

1939. fKHAKHAK, H. M., Ph.D. r M.B , F.R.G.S., Khakhar Building, C.P Tank Road. Rum- 
bay, India. 

1919. *King j D., M.Se, c/n Commercial Rank of Australia, King William St, r Adelaide. S.A, 
1933. ^Klffaian, A, W„ PhD.. Dtpt. of (Oology, University of Adelaide — Sccnstartt, 1945- 

48; Vice-President, 1948-49, 1050-tilf £&$&&* 1949-50. 
1932. Lenoost, G. A„ M.D., B.S., K.R.C.P., c/n. Elder's Trustee and Executor Co. Ltd.. 
37 Curric Street, Adelaide, S.A, 

1958. Livns.w, TI, A.. UO Cross Road. Hitfhcute, S,A. 

1948. Lothian, T. R. N., N.D.IT. (N.Z.), Director. Botanic Garden, Adelaide— Treamrcr, 

1952-53; Coutu-il, 1953-57; Vice-Prudent. 1957-58; President, 1988, 1959. 
J 931, *Lvjjbhouie. Mrs. N. II., M.A., Ph.D., D.I.C., F.C.S., Department of Mines, Adelaide 

— CnunciL 1958-59, 
J 953. MaElZer, D. A m B.Se. (Hons.J, Waite Institute (Private Mail Ba^. No. 1 ), Adelaide. 
1939. Marshall, T. J., MjtoScs Ph.D., C.S.I. R.O., Division of Soils (Private Mall Bag, 

No. I .), Adelaide— Count-*/, 1948-52. 

1959. MAHrnv, Miss H. A., 43 Dunrobin Road, Brighton, S.A. 

1920. Mayo, Sm Hekbeht, LL.B., Q.C., 19 Marlborough Street. Collide Park, S.A. 

1950. Mayo, G. M. E. v B.Ar.Sc, Ph.D., 146 Melbourne Street, North Adelaide. 

1943. McCakthv, Miss D, F. t B.A., B.Se., 17 Brookside Ave., Tramnei'c. 

IB4B McCltlloch, R. N., M.B.E., B.Sc., B.Agr.Sc, Roseworthy Agricultural ColieKC, Rtwe- 

worthv, S_A, 
194,5, 1 "Miles, K. R. ; D.Se., F.G.S., 11 Chureh Road, Mitt-ham. S.A. 

1951. Mu.es, J. A. R., M.A., M.D , B.Chir. (Cant.), University of Otugo, N.Z 
1952w Mir.\-E, K. L._, F.C.A., 14 Burlington Street, WalkeiWlle. S.A. 

1939. MnvcriAM, V. H., 30 Wafnhouse Street, Torrensville. S.A. 

195S. Mirams, R. G., B.Sc., 5 Myrtle Rd., ScatM S.A. 

Iy51, *MiTt;HKi.i„ F, J. t South Australian MKhCUm, North Terrace, Adelaide, S.A. — Treasurer. 

1959-. 
1&33. Mitchell, Phok. Sih M. L„ M Sc l( e7o Elder's Trustee and Executor Co. Ltd., 37 

Cnrrfe Street, Adelaide. 
1928i i Mitchell, Prof. Sm W., K.C.M.C. ( M.A., D.Se., Fitzroy Terrace, Prospect, SjV 
1938. MoonnousE, F. W., M.Se., Chief Inspector of Fisheries, Simpson Buildings, Guwter 

Place, Adelaide. 

1936. niot-NTFonn, C. P., 25 Kir&t Avenue, St. Peters, Adelaide. 
1957. "Mtjmme, Ivan A., B.Sc. (Hons. h Dept. of Mines. Adelaide. 

1944. Mukhell, J. W., Engineering and Water Supply Dept., Victoria Square, AdeLuVle-. 
1944. Ninnes, A. R., B.A., R.D.A., 62 Sheffield Street. '.Malvern. SjA. 

1915. ♦NoBTiicoTE, K. IL, n.Agr.Sc., A I.A.S., C.S.I.K.O., Division of Sirflx, Privuto Wall 

Batf, No. 1, Adelaide. 
1930. Oc-kendex, C. P., B.A., 10S Hockey Street. Wfiyalh South, S.A. 
VlSfi O'Diuscoll, E. S., B.Sc, 9 VinaJt Stn^t, Dover Gardens, S.A. 

1937. 'Parkin, L. W., M.Se., A.ST.C, Mines Dept,, Adelaide — Secretary, 1953-56. 

Vice-President, 1956-57, 195S-59: P^tt/enf. 1957-58. 

1949. PAKKiNsoN, K. J. e B.S( ., Birdwood. S.A. 

1929. Paull, A. C., M.A., B.Sc, 10 Milton Avenue, r/ullarUm Estate, S.A. 

1926. °PieeK. C, S.. D.Se., C.S.I. R.O., Division oi Soils, Private Mail B*g, No, 1, Adelaide— 

Verco Medal r 1957; Council, 1941-43; Vimfament 1043-45, 1946-47; Pre- 

tfti&tii 1945- 1940, 
IMS. Powrik, J. K,. B,Se„ Waito Institute (Private Mail Rag. No. I), Ad.-laidr. SA. 
1025. 'Prescott, Pnop. J. A., C.B.K., D Se., FJR.A.CJ,, t'.R.S,, H2 Cross Road, IVbrtlo 

Rank, S.A.— Verco MtMl, 1938; Council 1927-30. 1935-39; Vrce-Pre.videvit, 

1930-32; Frexidcnt, 1932-33; Editor. 1955-. 
i$57. PnTNGi J E, Miss L. A. B.. Bc»x 87fi( T , G.P.O., Adelaide. 
3^15. 6 Pnyon. L. D., M.Se.. Dtp.For,, 32 La Perouse Street. Griffith. Canberra. A.C.T. 

1950. *Rattk;an, J. IT., M Se. T Box 229e. C.P.O., Melbourne, Victoria. 

1944. Ricealajvl D. S.. M.Se., B.ABt.Sc-,, C.S.I.R.O. ? Division of BioclH , niist» , y, Adelaide. 
1947. Rikdel, \V. R., B.Sc., e/o Seripps Jjutitntiun of Oceanographv, Dcpt. oi Pnlaron- 
tology, Univci-^ity of California. La Jolla, California, U.S. A 



LIST OF FELLOWS 211 

Da\e of 
EleitlOP 

1947, Rnr, C. K;„ -12 W.iymouth Avenue, Glundon*, S.A. 

1953. Bocur*, PROP; W. P.. Ph.D., F.A.A., Znologv Department, University of AdeuiinV. 
3051, IIowk, S. A., 22 Shelley Street, Eixk\ S.A. 
1930. Ruoo, Phoc R A., B.Sc, A.M., University of* Adrhnde, S.A. 
1851. Russell, L. U-, t/o Adelaide "says' Hijrli School, West Termec, Adelaide, S A. 
lQifL RvMitt. J. R.. Old Ponohi Estate. Penola, S.A, 
193?. Schneider, M.. M.B., B.S., 175 North terrace, Adelaide, 
1959. Scjhoode, H-, 23 French .Street, Netherhy. S.A. 

J95L °St;orr, T. D. 3 M.Sc. S.A. Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide^ S.A. — Programme 
Sw.-rrtary, 1953-54, 1956-57; Seeretnrtj, 1057-50. 

1937. Sharman*, G. B., B.Sc., Department of /oology. University, North Terrace. Adelaide, 

S.A. 
1925. *Sm>:auu, H„ Port Elliot, S.A, 
1fl36\ "SufauPj K., D.Sc, Fisheries Research Div., C.S.T.B.O,. Division of Fisheries *md 

Oceanography, UnivevMty of W.A., Nedlands, W.A. 
195-1. SiurriLEun, R. Lu- B.Sc., c/o Department of Muxes. Adelaide, 
11)34. Shuskjielo. R. C. 57 Canterbury Avenue, Trinity Gardens, S.A. 
1925. t Smith, Sm Tom Baku, Kt.. B.A., .25 Cnrrie Street, Adelaide; 
1641.. *Smitu, T. L,, B.Sc.. Dept, ol Geography, University of Svdnev, N.S.W. 
1941. Southcott, R. V.. M.D., B.S., D.T.M." & II., 13 Jasper' Street. Hyde P:»ii, .S.A.- 

CotmciL 11)40-91, IdS^SSi J*?* Treasurer. 1951-52; VfV.;e-Prc.viuV/n\ 1953*754, 

1955-50; FreMvnk 1954-55. 
• 936. Soumwoon, A, R., M.D., M.S. (Add,), M.R.C.P., 170 North Terrace, Adel.ude. 
MJ7. *$ffKaxt M H. L., Ph.D., Botany Department University of Adelaide— Council, 1951-52, 

1958-59; Pt'oi-rammc Secretary, 1952-53. 
1936. +*Srioxc, R. C., M.Sc, 5 Ra'or Street, Ssimert;m Park. 
1051, Steammam, Ri-v. W. B_. 8 Blairgowrie Road, St. Georges, S.A. 
1917. Srem_JNG, M. B., B.Ai;.Sc. 3 Horticultural Branch, Department of A^ntmltm.^ RoH 

901 E, C.PO., Adelaide. 
1319. °Sphy, A. H., M.Sc, Geology Department, University of Tasmania. 

1938. °Stevhi?ks. C, G., D.Sc.. C.S.I.R.O.. Division of Soils, Private Mail Bay, No. L Ade- 

laide— Wreo Medal, 1959; Council, 1952-54; Yice-P resident, 1954-55, liVSft-rV,; 

President, 1955-50. 
1955. Swalxe, C. D M M.B., B.S., 220 Esplanade, IfitrgS North, S,A. 
1932. Swan, D C. M.Sc, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag. No. 1). Adelaide— SwrMnjL 

19-10-42; Vice-President, 1946-17, 1918-19; President, 1947-18; Cttuncil, 1953-5*8. 
1951. Swiivwa. P., MAg.Sc, 11 Wall Street, Norwood, S.A. 
|MS4, Symons, I, CL 85 Murray Street, Lower Milchani S.A. — Editor, 1947-55; fftmnctL 

1955-58. 

1958. Taylou, D. J., Dept. of Entomology, Waite Institute (Private Mail Baa, \\. 1i, 

Adelaide. S.A. 
1929. *Tayi-oh, J. K.. B.A.. M.Se., C.S.I.R.O., Division of Soils, Private Mail Bag.. No. l r 

Anmub-- Coimag 1940-4.% 1947-50; f.lhrmfan, 1951-52; Vtec-Presuhnt. 1952- 

.53, 1954-55; President, 1953-54; Conned, 1955. 
1955. Thatcher, D., B.Sc, Department of Muh-s, Adelaide 

1948. ° Thomas, L, M., M.Sc. (Wales), Department of 'Zoology, University of Adrl/ildo- 

Sccvetajy, 1948-50; Conned, 1950-53; Vice-Vrevdent. 1955-56, 1957-58: i'rcsid. -or. 

1956-57: Assistant Editor, 1958-. 
1938. Thomas, Mrs, I. M. (nee P, M. Mawso a ) ( M.Sc. 18 Dunhice Ave., Bri^hUin, S\A. 
1957. TnoMAS, J., B.Sc, Woodleigh Road, Blackwood. S.A. 
1940. A, J 'homrson, Cavt. J. M., 135 Militnrv Road, Semaphore South, SA. 
1059. Thomson, R P, M.Sc. 33 OaMands Rcmd, Parkhohuc, S.A. 
1923. 'TrNUALK N. B„ B.Se.'. South Australian Musculo. Adelaide-Vereo Medal, 1056; 

Secreturn, 1935-30; Council, 1946-47; Vitd-PtH&t&tlt. 1947-48, 1919-50; Trcsidmt, 

1948-49; Lihrariritu 1952-. 
1955. ^Tucker, B. M., B.Sc, C.S.I.llO,, Division of Soils, Private Mall Hfta, No. 1, Adelaide 

1959. Twioalu, C. B., Ph.D.. M.Sc, Dept. ot Geography, Uni\er.'lly, North Terratnt, 

A deb (do, S.A. 
1959. ^Tvi.tit. At, J., Drpt. of Ph\^io|o^v, i:niv.rsit>'. Adckidc, S.A. 
1950. Vkhoh, J. T.; Box 92, Port Lincoln, S.A. 

1953. Waterman n. A., B.A.. \[.A. ? Ph.D., Wnvne State Umversitv, Detroit, Miehit/.an. 

U.S.A. 

1954. Ww-Ui. B, P., M.Sc. Miut-s Deyt., Bundle Street, Ail<daidr 
1954. Wells, C. B., B.Ae.Sc, Broadlees, Waverley Ridge. Crafen. S.A. 
1040. °Whittle. A. W. C„ M Sc. Mines Department, Adelaide. 



212 LIST OF FELLOWS 

Date of 

Election 

1950. Williams, L. E., "Dumosa," Meningie, S.A. 

1946. *Wilson, A. F., D.Sc., Dept. of Geology, University of W.A., Nedlands W.A. 

1938. *Wilson, J. O., 42 Wilson Terrace, DaCosta Park, Glenelg, S.A. 

1933. *Womersley, H., F.R.E.S., A.L.S. (Hon. causa), S.A. Museum, Adelaide - Verco 

Medal, 1943; Secretary, 1936-37; Editor, 1937-43, 1945-47; President, 1943-44; 

Vice-President, 1944-45; Rep. Fauna and Flora Protection Committee, 1945: 

Treasurer, 1950-51, 1956-59. 
1954. "Womersley, H. B. S., Ph.D., Botany Department, University of Adelaide. 
1944. Womersley, J. S., B.Se., Dept. of Forests, Lae, New Guinea. 
1923. *Wood, Prof. J. G., D.Sc, Ph.D., F.A.A., Botany Dept., University of Adelaide— Verco 

Medal, 1944; Council, 1938-40; Vice-President, 1940-41, 1942-43; Rep. Fauna and 

Flora Board, 1940-; President, 1941-42; Council, 1944-48. 
1957. Woods, R. V., B.Sc, Mt. Crawford, S.A. 
1949. Yeates, J. N., A.M.I.E., A.M.LM.E., Highways and Local Government Dept., 

Adelaide. 
1944. Zimmer, W. J., Dip.For., F.L.S. (Lon.), 7 Rupert Street, Footscray West, W.12, Vict. 



GENERAL INDEX 

Summary 



GENERAL INDEX 

Names printed in italics as separate entries indicate that the forms are new to science. 



Absolute Gravity Values, Determina- 
tion of the. on the Summits of a 
Number of Prominent Hills in the 
Mount Lofty Ranges: I. A. Mnmme 119 

Acarina, (Some) from Australia and 
New Guinea Paraphasia upon Mil- 
lipedes and Cockroaches and on 
Beetles of the Family Passalidae; 
H. Womersley ... 21 

Adelaide System, Ma£ne.site of the; 
Petrography and Descriptive strati- 
graphy: B. G, Forbes ... 1—9 

Aeolian Landforms: The Sand Ridge 
Deserts of South Australia and, 
Related, of the Quaternary Arid 
Cycles: D. Kmjr ... ... 99 

Amphibolurus adelaidcnsis ( Gray ) -, 
Observations on the Diet and Si/e 
Variation of, on the NuUarbor 
Plain: M. J. Tyler .,. Ill 

Awdassorhtjnchm adelaidensis .,. 92 

Arhtjnchite hiscocki .„ „ t ... 90 

Black, J. N,: The Relationship be- 
tween Illumination and Global 
Radiation 83-87 

Hoomsmn, C. C. : Notes on die Genus 

Eucatm>ttts in South Australia . 195-198 

Borreria hiUii 202 

Central Australia, Contributions to 

the Flora of: G. M. Chippendale 199 

Central Australia, the Charnockitic 

Granites and Associated Granites of 37 

Chainnekitie (The) Granites and As- 
sociated Granites of Central Aus- 
tralia 37 

Chippendale, G. M.: Contributions to 

die Flora of Central Australia 199-203 

Classih'tatorv Systems of Kinship: 

H. K. Fry 11 

Consideration ( A ) of the Species 
Previously Included with Helip- 
terum albicans (A. Cunn.) DC,: 
P. G. Wilson 163 

Contributions to the Flora of Central 

Australia; G. \h Chippendale ... 199 

Cotton, Bernard C: Distorted Cow- 
ries ;. ... ion-no 

Cowries, Distorted: B. C. Cotton 109 

Diet and Size Variation of Amphi- 
baturtis adelaidensis ( Gray ) on 
thcNullarbor Plain: M. J. Tyler .. Ill 

Kchiuroidea; Some Australian Echin- 

rokls; S. J, Edmonds . 89 

Kclipta afatocarpa 77 



Edmonds, S, J.: Some Australian 

Et'hiuroids (Eehiuroidea) ... 89-98 

Eucalyptus, Notes on the Genus in 

South Australia; C. D. Boomsma _ 195 

Finlayson, H. H.. On Rattus greyi 

Cray and its Derivatives - 123-147 

Finlayson. ff B H.; Nomenclature of 
Notomys (Muridae) in the Lake 
Eyre Basin 79-82 

Ffcak of Central Australia, Contri- 
butions Lo die: G, Ml Chippendale 199 

Forbes. B, G.: Majrnesitc of die Ade- 
laide System. Petrography and De- 
scriptive .Stratigraphy ... 1 

Fry, II. K.: Classifkntory Systems of 

Kinship 11-19 

Fry, Henry Kenneth, An Appreciation 204 

Great Australian Artesian Hasin, on 
Some Structural Development in 
the Central Part of the; HL 

Wopfner .. 179 

Hetiptemm albicans (A. Cunn.) DC, 
a Consideration of the Species Pre- 
viously Included with : P. G, 

Wilson ,.. ... 163 

Hetiptemm saxatile ,.. _. ._ 166 
HeterocJutylus lomhardinii 21 

Kinship. Classifieatorv Systems of: 

H. K. Frv ' 11 

King, D.^ The Sand Ridge Deserts of 
South Australia and Related 
Aeolian Landforms of the Quatern- 
ary Arid Cycles ... 99-108 

Laelaptoscius navue-zelxndiae ,., 31 

Lake Eyre Basin, Nomenclature of 
Notomys (Muridae) in the: H. II. 

Finlayson ,,. 79 

Lcptolaelaps ( Acariua, Mesostig- 
mata ) , New Records of Species 
from Australia and New Zealand: 
H. Womersley „. .. 25 

Magnesite of the Adelaide System: 
Petrography and Descriptive 
Stratigraphy: B. C. FnTbes 1. 

Melville, R.: An Aberrant Species of 

Eclipta from Australia 77-78 

Mount Loft)' Ranges, Determination 
of the Absolute Gravity Values on 
the Summits of a Number of Pro- 
minent Hills: I. A. Mumme ... 119 

Mumme T T. A.; Determination of the 
Absolute Gravity Values on the 
Summits nf a Knnibw of Promi- 
nent Hills in the Mount Lofty 
Ranges 119-121 



214 



GENERAL INDEX 



Notomys ( Muridae ) , Nomenclature 
of, in the Lake Eyre Basin: H. H. 
Finlayson .„ 79 

Nullarbor Plain, Observations on the 
Diet and Size Variation of Amphi- 
bohtrus adelaidensis (Gray) (Rep- 
tilia, Agamidae): M. J. Tyler 111 

Ochetostoma australierise ... ... 93 

On Some Structural Developments 
in the Central Part of the Great 
Australian Artesian Basin : H. 
Wopfner , 179 

Frtitolaelaps obovata ... ... ... 33 

Rattus greyi and its Derivatives: 

II. II. Finlayson ... ., 123 

Rattus greyi pelori ... ... ... 140 

Relationship ( The ) Between Illu- 
mination and Global Radiation: 
J. N. Black 83 

Sand Ridge Deserts of South Aus- 
tralia and Related Aeolian Land- 
forms of the Quaternary Arid 
Cycles: D. Kino: ... 99 

Southcott, R. V'.: Notes on the genus 
Sphaeratarsus (Acarina, Smuri- 
didae) 149-161 

Sphaerotarsm, Notes on the Genus: 

R, Vi Southcott ... 149 



Thalaxsema sydniense ... ... 89 

Tyler, M. J.: Observations on the 
Diet and Size Variation of Amphi- 
holurus adelaidensis (Gray) 111-117 

Wilson, A. F. : The Charnockitic 
Granites and Associated Granites 
of Central Australia 37-76 

Wilson, Paul G.: A Consideration of 
the Species Previously Included 
with Helipterum albicans ( A. 
Cunn.) DC 163-177 

Wopfner, H,; On Some Structural 
Development in the Central Part 
of the Great Australian Artesian 
Basin __ 179-193 

Womersley, H.: A New Genus and 
Species, Laelaptoseius novae- 
zehndiae from New Zealand ( Aca- 
rina, Aceosejidae) ... „. .. 31-32 

Womersley, H.r A Second Species of 
Pristolaelaps (Acarina, Laelapti- 
dae) from Australia 3.3-35 

Womersley, H.: New Records of 
Species of Leptoladaps (Acarina, 
Mesostigrnata ) from Australia and 
New Zealand ... .,. .. 25-29 

Womersley, H.: Sonic Acarina from 
Australia and New Guinea Fara- 
phagic Upon Millipedes and Cock- 
roaches and on Beetles of the 
Family Passalidae ,',, ... .. 21-24 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 




B. G. Forbes: Magnesite of the Adelaide System: Petrography and De- 
scriptive Stratigraphy -- * 

H. K. Fry: Classificatory Systems of Kinship 11 
H. Womersley: Some Acarina from Australia and New Guinea Paraphagic 
upon Millipedes and Cockroaches and on Beetles of the Family 

Passalidae **■ 
H. Womersley: New Records of Species of Leptolaelaps (Acarina, Meso- 

stigmata) from Australia and New Zealand 25 
H. Womersley: A New Genus and Species Laclaptoseius novae- 

zclandiae from New Zealand (Acarina, Aceoscjidae) 31 
H. Womersley: A Second Species of Tristolaelaps (Acarina, Laelaptidae) 

from Australia 33 
A. F. Wilson: The Charnockitic Granites and Associated Granites of 

Central Australia 37 

R. Melville: An Aberrant Species of Eclipta from Australia 77 

H. H. Finlayson: Nomenclature of Not amy s (Muridae) in the Lake Eyre 

Basin ^9 

J. N. Black: The Relationship between Illumination and Global Radiation 83 

S. J. Edmonds: Some Australian Echiuroids (Echiuroidea) 89 

D. King: The Sand Ridge Deserts of South Australia and Related Aeolian 

Landforms of the Quaternary Arid Cycles 99 

Bernard C. Cotton: Distorted Cowries 109 
M. J. Tyler: Observations on the Diet and Size Variation of Amphibolurus 

' adelaidensis (Gray) (Reptilia, Agamidae) on the Nullarbor Plain 111 
I. A. Mumme: Determination of the Absolute Gravity Values on the 

Summits of a Number of Prominent Hills in the Mount Lofty Ranges 119 

H. H. Finlayson: On Rati us greyi Gray and its Derivatives 123 

R. V. Southcott: Notes on the Genus Sphaerotarsus (Acarina, Smarididae) 149 
Paul G. Wilson: A Consideration of the Species Previously Included 

within Helipterum albicans (A. Cunn.) DC. 163 

H. Wopfner: On Some Structural Development in the Central Part of the 

Great Australian Artesian Basin 179 

C. D. Boomsma: Notes on the Genus Eucalyptus in South Australia .. 195 

G. Chitfendale: Contributions to the Flora of Central Australia, No. 1 199 

Henry Kenneth Fry, d.s.o., m.d., b.s., b.sc, dip.p.h., 1886-1959 205 

List of Lectures, 1958-1959 206 

Balance Sheet 2ffI 

Awards of the Sir Joseph Verco Medal and List of Fellows, 1959 208 

Index 213