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VOL. 84 

MARCH, 1961 





Price: Two Pounds Two Shillings 



Memoir and Bibliography: Joseph Garnett Wood, 1900-1959 1 

H. Womersley: Some Acarina from Australia and New Guinea Paraphagic 
upon Millipedes and Cockroaches and on Beetles of the Family 
Passalidae. Part 4. The Family Diarthrophallidae 11 

H. Womersley; On the Family Diarthrophallidae (Acarina-Mesostigmata- 
Monogynaspida) with Particular Reference to the genus Passalobia 
Lombardini 27 

M. J. Tyler: On the Diet and Feeding Habits of Hemidactylus fremitus 

(Dumeril and Bibron) (Reptilia-Geckonidae) at Rangoon, Burma 45 

N. H. Ludbrook: Subsurface Stratigraphy of the Maralinga Area, South 

Australia 51 

Mumme, I. A.: Determination of the Crustal Thickness of the Earth in the 

General Region of Adelaide, South Australia 61 

L. M. Angel: Larval Trematodes from Australian Fresh-water Molluscs, 

Part XV. Cercaria velesunionis n. sp ... . 63 

D. E. Symon: The Species of Oxalis Established in South Australia 71 

H. Womersley: Description of the Female of Trichonysstis womersleyi 

Domrow ( Acarina-Macronyssidae) 79 

Warren T. Atyeo and D. A. Crossley: Labidostommidae from Australia 

(Acarina-Prostigmata) with the Description of a New Species 83 

E. H. Ising: Bassia uniflora (FvM.) (Chenopodiaceae) and Allies in 

South Australia 87 

G, M. Chippendale: Contributions to the Flora of Central Australia, No. 2 99 

H. M. Cooper: Archaeological Stone Implements along the Lower River 

Wakefield, South Australia 105 

D. King: The Occurrence and Comparative Mineralogy of South Aus- 
tralian Magnesian Crocidolites (Rhoducites) 119 

N. H. Ludbrook: Outline of the Biostratigraphy of Andamooka Opalfield 129 

N. H. Ludbrook: Mesozoic Non-marine Mollusca (Pelecypoda-Unionidae) 

from the North of South Australia . 139 

H. H. FiNXAYsoiv: Re-examination of Mesembryomys hirsutus Gould, 1843 

(Muridae) , 149 

R. V. Southcott: Notes on the Genus Caeculisoma ( Acarina-Erythraeidae) 163 

List of Lectures, 1959-1960 179 

Balance Sheet 180 

Awards of the Sir Joseph Verco Medal and List of Fellows, 1960 181 

Index 186 




Professor of Botany, University of Adehildt: 

Joseph Curuett Wood's most tangible memorials are the Botany School of 
tlie University of Adelaide with its graduates of the last thirty years together 
with a body of research work in plant physiology and ecology. More diffused 
Is his share in the building up uf science in Australia. 

The salient features of his life arc these. He- was born and bred in South 
Australia. After a distinguished undergraduate course in the University of 
Adelaide and a two years' post-graduate period at Cambridge University, he 
returned to Adelaide in 1927 as Lecturer in Botany. This was the beginning 
of his thirty-two years in charge of the Adelaide University Botany Depart ment, 
so that in its present form it is largely his creation. 

The measure of Wood's stature among his scientific colleagues was firstly his 
appointment in 1948 to the interim Council working to establish the Amtralim 
National, thiivcmly, and subsequently to its Conneil (1932-59).; secondly. Iris 
connection with the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organiza- 
tion as Member of the Advisory Council (195U-56. 1959) and Chairman of the 
South Australian State Committee (1953-56, 1959); thirdly, and above all, his 
election as a Fellow of the Australian Academy of Scfciice in 1954 and to its 
Council in 1956-58. These three organizations wort founded in Wood's scientific 
lifetime, the C.S.l.R. (as it was first called) at the dawn of his undergnuluate 
days and the other two institutions in his actively participating years; he found 
it extremely exciting to share in their work. 

His association with our Society, the Royal Society of South Australia, has 
been a long and profitable one, many of his ecological papers were published 
in our Transactions and he was a member of the Council for ten years, and 
President in 1942; he was our representative on the Fauna and Flora Board, and 
the? Society has honoured him with the award of its Vereo Medal (1944). 

Some of the details of the preceding summary will now be filled in, Joseph 
Curnett Wood was born in Miteham, September 2nd, 1900. His father was 
John Wood, there were two oilier ehildren, a brother and a sister who survive 
Joseph, His childhood in Soudi Australia certainly influenced his later work, 
puibeularly that in local ecology. lie attended the Unley High School from 
1913-1916 and matriculated from there with a Government Bursary tenable at 
this University. Me first took an Honours B.Se- Degree (1922) uy Chemistry under 
Professor IE, H. Rennie, studying also Assaying and Metallurgy, and had come 
top in first year Botany (John Ragot Scholarship and Medal) when halfway 
through this chemical, physical and mathematical course. He then turned from 
Chemistry, in which he had been an honours student and a demonstrator, to 
Hotanv, where he became a demonstrator in 1923, simultaneously studying the 
second and third year botany courses and then lecturing to the senior srudrnts 
in plant physiology and also to certain elementary students. In addition, he 
carried out research on photosynthesis (John L. Young post-graduate Scholar- 
ship) and water relations in plants. 

At (hat time (1925), the University s Koonamnrc Vegetation Reserve in the* 
arid saltbush region south of Lake Frome was newly established and Wood col- 
laborated in the work, He evidently found Professor T. G. B. OsbonVs Botany 
Department a satisfying and stimulating place, and plant biochemistry and 

Trans. Roy- Sue. ft. Ana*. (19*1) , Vol. 84. 




X>]i\su)|oti;y offered him a more challenging field than did pure chemistry; of 
course, lie always rclained the stamp of his extensive grounding in chemistry 
Qsborn welcomed such a man in his Department, unci probably exercised a 
critical influence in Wood's choice of a botanical career. 

After two or three years in the Botany Department, he was awarded an 
I&fil Kxhibitioii Scholarship as a result of work on the transpiration ol arid plants, 
and vent as a Research student to Gonville and Caius College. Cambridge Uni- 
versity. Here he came under die influence of Dr. F. F. BlaeUman and G. K 
Biiggs in PJant Physiology, and Professor Sir Gowland Hopkins and the Hon 
Mrs. Onslow in Plant Biochemistry; he also served as Junior Demonstrator jti 
Botany to first year students at Cambridge. He was now highly trained in 
plant chemistrv and physiology but he still retained a strong interest in pluut 
ecology, in wnich he had collaborated earlier with Professor Oshorn. After 
making the most of lii.s two years abroad with some travel on the Continent 
during vacations and visits to six research institutions in Creat Britain, upon 
which he reported to the Empire Marketing Board and to C.S.I.R. in Australia, 
he returned to Adelaide late in W27 to take up a lectureship in Botany In 
1 928, when Osborn transferred to the Chair in Sydney, Wood became- Lectmei 
in-Charge of the Adelaide Department and had nearly all the teaching on 
his hands- 
He had fine qualities as a teacher and in his early years taught over the 
whole range of his subject Latterly he lectured to his students m plant physio- 
fogy, directed most of the research students and though he had delegated the 
routine leaching in ecology, he was an examiner for a majority of the theses 
in plant ecology written in Australia for higher degrees: he also administered 
his Department very smoothly. To his research students, he wus always verv 
stimulating; part of the story ol their- collaboration with him appears* irj the 
appended list of publications, but this is by no means a record of all his best 
students, some of whom were attracted from overseas, His inllueuee will live 
through his students. 

lie saw his position very dearly as intermediate between the sehuol life 
and the professional life of las students, and he interested himself eneigetieally 
in the school curriculum for science as well as in thtt spheres which claimed 
bis best students alter graduation, tui*mng theni to the 1 vanguard of Australian 
botanical research and teaching whenever he could. Few persons come- hi 
know the quality of young graduates so well as their teachers, and Wood had 
a Hue appreciation of the potentialities of his students and the way m which 
rhey could be developed and strengthened by opportunities and responsibilities*. 
lie took a long view of their caret-rs and whs always ready to help fhem with 
his influence at the crilical turning points of their lives in steering them to a 
post where the greatest mutual benefit might come to them and then eoimtrv. 
He had a veiy strong belief that Australia's science could be developed best 
by her own University graduates, with opportunities for them of esperteiue 
abroad. This part of his activities probably gave a great deal of satisfaction 
to Wood in h«s later years. It enabled him to realise many of his ambitions 
in an impersonal way and was Certainly one of his st-ungest reasons for par- 
ticipation in the work of so many important but time-consuming, high-level 
committees, to the detriment of his personal research work (see appenriiV). 
Also, he developed undoubted genius for committee work with his balanced. 
agile, wonderfully disciplined mind, his capacious and retentive memory, his 
very equable fempernmeTit together with a genuine understanding aud svmpathv 
for opposing points of view. He apparently really loved such large-scale plan- 
ning ivtci had a remarkable facility lor seeing the core of any problem free of 


its trimmings; o( a sanguine outlook and an abiding sense Df proportion, he 
always had the major goals in mind, and was not ruffled by the inevitable jims 
carnage of details, a philosophy not achieved by many. 

llis bent lor the ecological approach in botany, combined with tlw* physio- 
logical and biochemical one, becomes crystal clear when one realises the east 
ol his mind with its natural aim for tundamentals. its skill and efficiency in 
eontrollinii; volumes of detail and rising above them- He Wftj probably the 
ruosf influential Australian eeolojnst ol his time. 

Wood wus promoted to the lung-vacant Chair of Botany in 1935, after 
some s*-ven years as Ueotnrer-in-Char^e^ it was an esample of art \n\-laiile 
graduate rising from the ranks in his own university.; he had received the D.Se. 
( Adelaide) in 1933, Such appointments have always been rare in Adelaide, as 
thev arc in a majority of other universiliesy and they usuailv cause comment 
when they are made; this attitude no doubt acted as a spur to Wood, and those 
early years were productive of much persona! or collaborative research with 
various colleagues who stimulated his thinking; his own students were, of course, 
drawn into these projects to their considerable advantage and many have since 
made their mark. 

Now that we have a view of his whole career, it can be seen that the local 
appointment was amply justified; it produced some fine research work in local 
ecology which was a tradition that could only develop locally and in a gradual 
wav with the considerable personal continuity which we have been so fortunate 
as to have in the Adelaide Botany School, beginning with the youthful and 
vi<£o*ous Professor T. G U. Osborn from Manchester in 1912-27. His student 
Wood next directed the destinies of the Department tor 32 yeaTs with gTudnul 
developments of policy rather than major changes. 

In these days, when sn much stine is .set on a wide experience in more 
than one university, what can we leans from this career which continued from 
peisonal choice in vme department for thirrv-lwo vears? Oms comment is that 
Australia needs this kind alt continuity in her formative period, and (he deep 
understanding of national needs that develops from it. Wood has undoubtedly 
served this ideal veu well, and it) later years it took with him the place of 
the more closely personal ambitions of youth. A pertinent criticism of steady 
careers ol ihi.s kind is that the individual does not have breadth of outlook. The 
valuable contacts made by scientific literature, however, cannot be too greatly 
emphasised, and from his earliest years Wood worked to build up the highest 
standard in young Australian scientific journals; he was on the Editorial Board 
of the Aufiirtil'um Journal of Experimental Biolopj and Medical Science from 
1932- 1V59, this very successful journal was founded in Adelaide (1924) and 
l.iler sponsored by the University; he laboured most strenuously for the An.v- 
trahan journal of Scientific HcH-arch (as it wos first called) published by in various subjects, from its beginnings in 1947 until his death. He 
contributed frequently to the first journal until 15M7, after thai sending his 
plant physiology pajXTS to the new C,S«I.rvO. journals. Tie was also on (he 
liditorial Board of a Dutch journal, Plant and Soil, 

Wood was not narrow in outlook; he went abroad four times, first to Oam- 
hml^e University as a Ph.D. student; second to travel in the long vacation and 
study the tropical vegetation in the Malay Archipelago, much to the enrichment 
of his ecology lectures; third, on study leave m 1U3S for eleven months to Leiden 
and Cambridge; fourth, again mi study leave in 1953 fur five months to Holland 
and the United Kingdom especially to sec work dealing with the mineral nutri- 
tion ol plants, he alsn represented his University on this occasion at the Seventh 
ton cress of Universities of the Commonwealth. 

4 MKvroin amd mm tograh-iy 

In his own University Ins ability and long experience were invaluable, he 
held some very responsible positions and was senior professor for his last two 
yean*. As Chairman of the tun most important research committees and 
member of three others, he had great influence on research both within the 
University and in Us momentous and exacting dealings with the national com- 
missions set up since 1950 to enquire into the present and future needs of Uni- 
versities, viz. the Murray Committee and subsequently the Australian Univer- 
sities Commission, it was he. who prepared the ease for a greatly increased grunt 
to research. 

The main developments in the Botany Department during Wood's 32 years 
were as follows. The Staff at first consisted of one lecturer (himself), a secretat v- 
teehnician and a very few piece-work demonstrators recruited from among post- 
graduate students and even undergraduates. This finally increased to a professor 
and eight full-time graduates plus technical assistants. Student numbers had 
riven accoidingly and included an increased percentage of agricultural students 
US tliis new Faculty developed, also a few forestry 7 students. First year courses 
in biology were gradually planned and developed largely by Wood, and rare- 
fully integrated with the introduction of biology more generally into the second- 
ary schools, a step also chiefly initiated by him. these biology courses now meet 
the needs of large numbers of students; ho thought of biological understanding 
in terms of human happiness. The teaching of mycology and plant pathology 
had been delegated to the Waite Institute before Wood's tunc, and in 1952 the 
teaching in genetics was assumed by a new Department in thai subject, the 
first such University Department in Australia being in Adelaide. 

Other outstanding developments in this period were the steady building up 
of the courses and research in plant physiology; the continuation of the emphasis 
on phint ecology, especially fit South Australia, relating it to some serious soil 
deficiencies typified by heath country of the Ninety Mile Plain; continued obser- 
vations at Koonamore Vegetation Reserve; much specialist work on the taxonomy 
and ecology of marine algae; the successful completion of the second edition 
of J. M. Black's Flora of SatitJi Australia posthumously; the foundation of a 
State Herbarium of South Australia in connection with the Botanic CaTdon, the 
nucleus being the University collections on long-term loan and the Schombiirgk 
collection originally at the Botanic Garden, 

There was also expansion of space. In 1939, just before the outbreak of 
World War II, the Benham Building was erected, largely designed by Wood and 
shared equally by the Departments of Botany and Zoology, In his hist years 
Wood was again working hard at various alternative plans for urgent further 
expansion of space fur his Department 

His own rrsearch work, in brief, was firstly in Australian plant ecology. 
paitieulaily of South Australia, with investigations into the physiology kind 
regeneration of arid plants; secondly, in detailed studios of the paths ol plant 
metabolism, particularly those leading from nitrogen to protein, and of the rela- 
tionship to them of some vital plant processes. 

He published one bonk, Trie Vt^etatioti of South Australia (1937), now out 
q$ print, and over fifty papers; his work is surveyed in the analytical bibliography 
appended to the presenf account. Death interrupted his wotk on the Cooning 
and its waters. 

In 1930 he married Joan Uozeb und she slurred his arduous career with 
devotion and loyalty, three daughters were bom to them; all survive him, His 
family life was characterized bv happiness, hard work and simplicity, but not 
austerity • visiting colleagues and staff were delightfully entertained in the family 

jojsnru garnftt wood 5 

circle at his home. The Woods had extracted tremendous pleasure in the last 
itfw years from making a lovely hillside garden at their new home, rapidly and 
with characteristic industry. Another of their pleasures was painting and the 
world of art, especially Australian art. Wood's recreation came largely from 
various aspects of his work, whether it was in his garden, an ecological trip in 
the country, travel ahroacl or in the choice of his friends, though his circle of 
friends was by no means narrow: he enjoyed good company and conversation 
and understood very well how to be gay. 

To celebrate his Silver Jubilee in the Chair of Botany in the middle of 1959, 
there were two happy parties which now are particularly precious memories; 
one at his home, for the Botany Department Staff, the other at the- University 
for him as a gesture from many past and present students and staff, when the 
history of his Department was revived and he was presented with a silver salver. 
His teacher. Professor Osborn, now retired and again a member of the Adelaide 
Department, was present on both occasions. 

Wood had generally good health and powers of endurance, but the problem 
that was overtaking him in his last w r ecks was how to conduct life to suit his 
energetic mind, quick actions and code of obligations, with a heart disease. He 
had a way of accepting graciously what fate mctcd out to him, but his friends 
saw vividly some very irksome and laborious years ahead of him at the vexy 
legist. His much regretted sudden death on December 8j 1959-, at the ftgti *>f 
59, undoubtedly spared him great unhappiness; his life has been a very fulf one, 
to the great benefit of his University, his country and the science of hotanv. But 
J. G. Wood was more than a distinguished botanist, he was modest, kindly, 
tolerant and wise; it is a rare privilege to have been bis student and colleague and 
to have seen his character grow to a rich maturity. 

His life was gentle; .tint the elements 

So uuVd in him lhal Nature mii^bt stand up 

And say to all the world, "This was a man!''* 


1920. John Biiyot Scholarship and Medal in Botany, 

1923. John L. Voting Scholarship for Post-Graduate Research, on Fhotoaun thesis 

in plant*. 
1925. Scholarship of the Fxhibiiion of 1851, for research in Plant Physiology. 

1022. Degree of B.Se.. Adelaide. (Honours Chemistry,) 

1026. Degree of M.Sc, Adelaide. (Subject; Transpiration of arid Australian 

plants. ) 
1932. Decree of Ph.D., Cambridge. (Subject; Phot osunth (Mix.) 

1033. Degree of D.Sc, Adelaide. (Sublet: Arid Plants.) 

192.3-59. Fellow, Royal Society of South Australia. 
1046-50, Fellow, Royal Australian Chemical Institute. 

Fellow of Ausl.-N.Z. Assoc. Advano. Sel. nod Member of (Jollification and 

Mueller Medal Committees. 
195*2-59. Fellow, Royal Society of Arts, London. 

Mudieal Sciences Club, Sooth Australia. 

Agricultural Sciences Club. Australia. 

Field Naturalists' Society of South Australia. 
1044. Verco Medal, Royal Society of South Australia. 

1952. Clarke Memorial Medal, Royal Society of New South Wales. 

University of Adelaide. 

1032-59. Kditmial Hoard, Amtraliatt Journal of Exparirntmtal Biology and Medical 

l')4f>-48 f Dean, Faculty ot SciCTiee, 

1949-59. Waito Committee (recommends all academic appointments at Waite Re- 
search Institute). 








194-2 f 



1 957-59 [ 



1952-59 f 





1953-56 (' 

1959 J 




1956-58 f 








Chairman. Research Executive Committee and Chairman. Board of Reseat ch 


Member, Public Examinations Board. 

Member, .Equipment Committee, 

Vice-Chairmam Education Committee. 

President, Section M. Aust.-N.Z. Assoc. Advanc. Scr 

Member, Board of Commonwealth Forestry School. Canberra 

Member, Council, Royal Society of South Australia. 

President, Royal Society of South Australia. 

Member of Board. Carton Girls' School. 

Editorial Board, /Australian Journals of Sr/enfri/iV: Research 

(Foundation Member. ) 

Chairman, Board of Standards. Auutraliun Journuls . . . 

Australian Academy of Science,,) 

Editorial Board, riant and Soil (Holland). 

Member, Interim Council, Australian National University. 

Member, Council, Australian National University. 

Member, Noxious Weeds Committee, South Australia. 

Member, Nuffield Fellowship Selection Committee (Australia) 

Member, Advisory Council, C.S.I. P.O., Australia. 


(C.S.IH.O. and 


South Australian State Committee, C.S.I.R.O. 

Member, Arid Zone Biology Panel, U.N.E.S.C.O, 

Member. Board of Governors, Botanic Garden, South Australia. 

Fellow, Australian Academy of Science. 

Member, Council, Australian Academy of Science. 

First President, Australian Society of Plant Physiologists. 

Member, Fauna and Flora Board of South Australia (representing Royal 

Society, South Australia). 


7th Pacific Science Congress, New Zealand (representing Australia). 
British Commonwealth Scientific Conference (representing Auslralian 
National Research Council ) . 

Seventh Congress of Universities of the Commonwealth ( representing Univer- 
sity of Adelaide). 

notices have appeared in the following publications; 
Nteufe 185: 4709. January 1969. 
Atfit. L Science, 22: .10. April I960. 
Australian Academy of S'cvcnce Year Book, 1960. 


Some 57 publications are grouped under ten headings; there arc 26 items in ecology 
and 31 in plant physiology, but these two classes merge. 

A. Plant Ecology (26 contributions in five groups). 

(1) The Ualophytic Habit 
Three early papers of a very apt student in collaboration with his professor. 
1923 (a) (Appendix to paper by T. G, B. Oshorn.) Analyses of soil samples from Pearson 
Islands. Tram; Roy, Sac. S. Al/sk, 47 ; pp. 111-14. 

(b) (With T. G. R, Osborn.) Zouation of vegetation in the Port Wakefield Distuct. 
idem, pp. 244-254. 

(c) (With T, G. B. Osbom. ) Some balophytic and non-halophytic plant communi- 
ties in arid South Australia, idem 47, pp. 388-99. 

(2) Physiology of Xerophijtimi in Australian Plants 
Eight independent early papers, 1923-39, the prelude to "Wood's fnereasinidy fundamental 
approach to plant tolerances. 

' The records of the Botany Department, University of Adelaide, were free 
the writer in the eompilation of this paper. 

avnihfblc tn 


1923. Transpiration »* some arid plants .... with notes on anatomy. Tram, Roy, $$£. 
S. Aust., 47, pp. 259-278. 

1924. Hclations between distribution, structure and transpiration ul arid South Australian 
plants, ihid., 48, pp. 226-235, 

1925. Selective absorption of chlorine ions; and absorption of water by leaves in genus 
Atri))lex. Attst. J. Exp. Biol, 2, pp, 45-56. 

1929, The. relation between water content and amount of photosynthesis. Ansf. J. Exit. 
Biol, % pp. 127-131. 

1932. Carbohydrate metabolism of plants with tomentose : succulent leaves, Aust. ]. Exp. 
Biol, 1G\ pp. 89-95. 

1933, Carbohydrate changes in the leaves of sclerophvll plants. Ami. ]> Exp. Biol, 11. 
pp. 139-150. 

1 0S4 . Stomalal freoaieneies. transpiration and osmotic x>ressure. J, F,eoL t 22, pp. 09-&7. 
1939. The plant in relation to water. Rip. Auxt.-TWZ. Assoc. Advanc, See, 24, pp. 281-299. 
(Presidential Address, Section M.) 

(3) Koonamore Vc^etJihw (the Arid Flora RaearcJt Station oj the 

University oj Adelaide) 

four major joint papers { 1931-1 936 J and one minor (1947), the reports ol extensive 
field work at Kuovnouore with some long-term observations. The latter arc still bcin^ 

1931. { With T. G. B. Osborn and T. B. Paltrid^e.) The autecologv oF Stipa. nitida. Froe. 
Linn. See, A 1 SAV., 56 (4L PP- 299-324. 

1932. (With T. G, B. Osbom and T. B. Partridge. ) Growth and reaction to grazing of 
the perennial saltbush, Atriplex vcxicarium. Prar. Linn. Soc. N.S.W., 57 (5-7). pp. 
377-102. ' 

1935. (With T; O. li. Osborn and T. U. Paltridye. 1 The climate fltid vegetation of ihc 

Knonaoiorc Vegetation ttosorve to 1931. /\ot\ I, inn. Sor. WSAV., 60 (5-6), pp. 

1930 ( "Regeneration of the vegetation on flic Koonamore Vegetation Reserve. 1920-1930. 

Tmws. Bo>/- S<'e. S\, 60, pp. 90-1 IT 
1947. (With K.' Woodruff e and H. C. Truujble-) South Australia, 25-29, in TItc use 

fmd misuse uj bhruh* and trees as fodder. Imperial Ajjricuhufal "Bureaux, Joint 

lamination No. 10. Aberystwyth. Great Hritahi, 

(4) Descriptive and Analytical Endotfij 

Two early independent papers and one, book (1937) which is still the best available 
treatment at the subject, together with four contributions of Wood's final deeudo. to lifcTJIft 
collaborative works af?out Australia, 

1929. Floristics and ecology of the mallec. Tram. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 33, pp. 359-37S. 

1930. Auaksis oi the vegetation of Kangaroo Island and the adjacent peninsulas, ih'ul, 
54, pp. 105-139. ' T 

1937. The vt^etatiou of South Australia. 1-164. Adelaide; Govt. Printer. (A Handbook 

of the Flora and Fauna of bouth Australia series.) Out of print, 
1949. 1 Vegetation of Australia. Chapter VI in r lhe Australian Environment. Ed. 1. \Tot- 

'49. 1 Vegetation of Australia. Chapter VI it 

\ bourne: C.iU.K.O. 
loO. ; tdmUi Ed. 2. Without revision. Mel 

1930. ; tdene Ed. 2. Without revision. Melbourne: O.STK.O. 

1900. (With R- J. Williams.) Idem. Ktf, 3. Much revised. Melbourne: C.S.I.H.O. 

I95S. The vegetation of South Australia. Chapter 9 In Introducing South Australia. Ed. 

IT J. Best for Ausl.-N.Z, Assoc, \dvanc. Sei. Adelaide: Govt, Printer. 
1959. The pbytogeo£raphy of Australia (in relation to radiation of Eucalyptus, Acacia, etc.). 

Oh. XV HI in BUffle<}graph{j and Ecolopif in Australia. Ed, A. Keast and others. 

Don Im.iai. W. Junk, (Mono^rapbiao Binbgieae. Voh H.) 

{ 5) Ecological Concepts 

Three philosophical studies demonstrating the author's prc-oec.upution with fundamentals, 
based on personal experience. 
1937. (With L. G. M. Baas Bcoktue; of Leiden) Motes on convergence anil identity in 

relation to environment. Blumea.. 2, pp. 329-338, 
1939. Ecological concepts ami nomenclature. Trans. Rom Soe. S. Amt... G3 (2), pp. 215-223. 
1947. (With H. I.. Crocker.) Historical influences on development of South Australian 

vegetation eerumunitit-*. -.ind their bearing on concepts and classification in tsc^Iojty, 

ibid.. 71 (1). pp. 91-13(1 


B. FuANT FkYSKH.OGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY (31 papers in 5 groups). 

(6) Studies- on the Nitrogen Metabolism of Plants 
Nine papers (J 933-480 ohiefly in collaboration with his colleague Petrie of the Waitc 
Institute until tlu* death of the latter, then in collaboration with four of Wood's students, ThfJ 
1935 papers were published outside Australia m lite Annuls of Botany, the remainder all in 

1933, Nitrogen metabolism of leaves of Atriplex nummulariuni. Aunt J. Exp. Biol., 11, 
pp. 237-252. 

1938. (AIL with A. H. K. Petrie.). 

I. delation between eontent of proteins, amino-aeids and water. Ann. Bat. A'. if., 2, 

pp. 33-60. 
11, Inter-relations among soluble nitrogen compounds, water and respiration rate. 

idem.* pp. 729-750. 
III. Effect of water eontent on relation between proteins and amino-acids. idem,, 

pp. 8K7-yy«. 

1939, (With G. L. Amos.) Effects of variation in nitrogen supply and water content 
on carbohydrates in leaves of grass plants. Anst. J. Exp. Biol. } 17, pp. 285-320. 
(No. IV in this sorices was a paper by Walkley and Petrie, 1941, Ann. o\rf. 
N.S.5, pp. 66.1-673.) 

1942. V.. (With A. H. K. IVtric. ) Halation of carbohydrate content to protein svntliesis 

in leaves. Aust /. Exp. Biol : 20 ; pp. 249-256*. 
VI. Inter-relations among respiration rate, carbohydrates and soluble nitrogen com- 
pounds in leaves, iclem^ pp. 257-202. 
llMo*. Vll. (With M. H. Hone, M. K Mattner and C. P. Symons.) Toxicity of some oximes 
and nximino-acids to Azotohacte-r. Aust. J. Sci. Res, B. I, pp. 38-49. 
VIII. (With Mi R. I lone ) Utilization of o-oximino-earbovvlie acids bv fcflM plants; 
idem* pp. 163-175. 

(7) The Metabolism, of Leaves 
Eight papers (1941-45), chiefly on starving leaves; with his student and colleague. Miss 
Cruickshank and some ether students. All these were jpublished in Aust J. Kxp, Biol 

194 1, Relations between respiration rate and metabolism of carbohydrate^ protein, ami 
organic acids in leaves. Anst J, Ex})> Biol., 19 7 pp, 313-321, 

1943. (a) (By the late A. H. K. Pelrie and J. t. Arthur, compiled by J. G. Wood.) Physio- 

logical ontogeny in i)ie tohaccn plant The effect of varying, water supply on 
drifts in dry weight, leaf area and various components of leaves, idem., pp, 

Metubolhm of Starting Loams. 

1943. (b) I-III. (With D. If. Crufcksrmnlc and fL II. Kuchel.) 1. The nature of respira- 
tion jale/time curves hi qir and in nitrogen and their relation to carbohydrates. 
II, Changes in amounts of total and chloroplast proteins, chlorophyll, ascorbic 
acid and soluble nitrogen compounds. III. Changes in malic and citric acid 
contents and their inter-relation with soluble nitrogen compounds, Aust. J, 
Exp. Hif)U 21, pp. 37-53. 

HUl. IV. (With V. V. Mercer and C Pedlow.) Respiration rate and metabolism of leaves 
during air-mtroge-n transfers, ibid., 22, pp. 37-43. 
V, (With D. II, Cnricksfiunk.) Chanties in amounts of some amino-acids during 
starvation of grass leaves and their bearing on the nature of the relationship 
between proteins and amino-aeids. ktem. s pp. 111-123. 

HJ'lo- VI. (With D, H t Cruickshank.) Nitrogen balance sheet and changes in organic 
acid content during starvation of oat leaves. ihid. : 23 r pp. 243-247. 

(fc) Studies on iJte Sulphur Metabolism of Planis 
four papers ( 1939-41 ) with bis student and colleague, M'ss Barrien (New Phutol.) and 
Ilausou (Aust. /. Exp. Biol.), 

1939. (Ah with B. S, Barrien. } Studies on sulphur metabolism of plants. I. Tbc effects 

of different external concentrations of sulphate, ammonia and cystine on the 
amount** of sulphur-containing compounds in leaves. Ncit' Plu/tnl., !}&, pp. 
II. The effect of nitrogen supply on the amounts of protein sulphur, sulphate solpbnr 
mid on the ratio of protein nitrogen to protein sulphur in leaves at different 
stages during the life cycle. iV/e/U., pp. 2o7-26'4. 
III. On changes in amounts of protein sulphur and sulphate suli>hur during starvation, 
idem., pp. 265-272. 


1941. (With E. A. Hanson and B. S\ Barrien. ) Relations between protein-nitrogen, protein- 
sulphur and chlorophyll in leaves, Aust. J. Exp. Biol., 19, pp. 231-234. 

(9) Studies on Some Metallic Micro-nutrient Elements in Plants, 

viz. Copper, Zinc, Molybdenum and Sodium 

Six papers with advanced students (J 946-57). Three of these papers with his student 

Miss Sibly (1950, '51, '52) were on zinc and the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. Any of these 

elements except sodium may be deficient in various South Australian soils. All these papers 

were published in Australia except the letter to Nature on sodium. 

1946. (Willi H. B. S. Womersley.) Development and metabolism of copper-deficient oat 
plants. Aust. ]. Exp. Biol, 24, pp. 79-94. 

1950. (With P. M. Sibly.) The distribution of zinc in oat plants. Ai«& J- Set Rbw« B. 3, 
pp. 14-27. 

1951. (With P. \f« Sibly* ) The nature of carbonic anhvdrase from plant sources, ibid., 
B. 4, pp. 500-510' 

1952. (With P. M. Siblv. ) Carbonic anhvdrase activity in relation to zinc content. ibid., 
B. 5, pp. 444-255. 

195-1. (With D. Spencer.) The role of molvbdenum in nitrate reduction in higher plants. 

Aust. j. Biol. Sci., 7, pp. 425-134, 
1957. (With P. F. Brownell. ) Sodium as an essential mieronutrient element for Atriplex 

vesicaria Hew. Nature, 179, pp. 635-636. 

(10) Reviews 

Three independent papers (1942-53), dealing with plant aspects of sulphur and nitrogen, 
in important international publications, and one more limited review (1949). 

1942. Metabolism of sulphur in plants. Chronica Botanica, 7, pp. 1-4- 

1945- Nitrogenous constituents of plants, Ann, Rev. Biochem,, 14, rip. 665-684. 

1949. Some aspects of nitrogenous metabolism of plants. Paper presented to British Com- 
■tmmtceaftJi Specialist Conference in Agriculture— Australia, 1949. (Plant and animal 
nutrition in relation to soil and climatic factors.) Melbourne: Cyclostyle. 

1953. Nitrogen metabolism of higher plants. Awn. Rev. Plant Physiology, 4, pp. 1-22. 

( 11 ) Miscellanea-us 
1929. Physiological derangements in vines subsequent to injurv bv cold. Aust. J. Exp. Biol., 
6, pp. 103-106. 



byH. Womersley 


The genotype of the genus Brachytremella Tragardh 1946 from New Guinea, B. spinosa, is 
redescribed from freshly discovered specimens, and two new species belonging to this genus of the 
Diarthrophallidae are described from Passalid beetles from Australia. Two other species of the 
family requiring two new genera, Lombardiniella and Brachytremelloicles, are also described from 
Australia from similar hosts. This is the first record of the family of Diarthrophallidae from 



by H. Womerslev* 

[Read 12 May 1960] 


The genotype of the genus Bradiytrvtnelfa Trayardh 1946 from New 
Guinea, B. spinoM, in redeseribed from freshly discovered specimens, and two 
new species belonging to this genus ft| the Diarthrophallidae are described 
from Passalid beetles from Australia. Two other species of the family requiring 
two new Genera. LombardinU'lla and ttrurfnjtnaudloidca, are also described 
from Australia from similar hosts. This is the first record of the family of 
Diarlhrophallidae from Australia, 

Pt. 4 —The family Diarthrophallidae 
( Mesosti\gmata-\]onogynaspida ) . 

The family Diarthrophallidae and genus Dinrthvophallus were erected by 
Triigardh 1946 fur Uroxcius qucrcus Pearse el al., 1936. Tt comprises some small 
and little known, rather flatfish and poorly selerotised miles found under the 
elytra of passalid beetles. 

Triigardh recognised three genera Diarihrophallus g, nov.. Braclnjtremelfo 
g, nov. and Pasmlobia Lombardini 1926 as belonging to tbe family. None of 
these have lutherto been found in Australia. The genotype of BradiytremeUn, 
B> sphiosa Trlig, 1946 has only been known from a single female described from 
New Guinea. 

This species has now been rediscovered in New Guinea and is here re- 
described from both sexes and the nymph. Two other species of Brachyircuudla, 
B. trii^urdhi sp. nov., and B. borneinrnzai sp. nov. arc described from Australia, 
while two new genera are erected for two other species of the family, Lotnhm'- 
dinidhi lomhanlinii g* et sp. now and BraclnjtwmeUoidcs Uriaia g. et sp. uov M 
bolh from Australia. 

Concurrently with this publication a further study of the Diarrhrophahidac 
as a whole will be presented til which all known genera and species will be 
considered, with special reference to the genus and species of Pfi-ssalohia de- 
scribed by Lomburdini. 

Genus Brachytbemella Triigardh, 1946. 

Triigardh. I. 1946. Diarthrophallina, a new group of Mesostifiinata. found on Passalid 
beetles. Ent. Medd., 24 (6), p. 384. 

This genus was diagnosed as follows; 

"Body flat, oval, wilb six pairs of long plumose bristles of the same type 
US in Diarthrophallus. Tritosternum with praesternal hairs. Legs and gnatho- 
soma of the same type as in Diartlirophatius. Epigynial shield not separated 
from the ventral shield by a suture. 

Type B. spinosa nov. spec." 

* South Australian Museum. 
Trans. Ro.v. 8oc. S. Anst. (1961), Vol. 84. 




Broeh>lTieme1la spinosa Triig. 1946. 
Text ft£ 1. A-C, K A-TI. 

Triu/urih, 1 »040. DUruironhiuiJiici. a nmv gmur> of Mesostitfindta, found on JVxsalid 
Lectin. KtiL Aledd.. to («), jv 384. 

This species was described by Txagskrdh from a single female found OH A 

specimen of Proiomocerus sp. ( Passalidae ) from New Guinea, from the colloclirni 
of the Zoological Museum of Copenhagen awl was made the type of a new 
genus Bruchyfrfitnclla. 

Inquiries of my friend. Dr. S. L. Tuxen, of the Copenhagen Museum, have. 
unfortunately, failed to traec the specimen, nor has it been found amongst the 
Tiagardh material in the Stockholm Museum, ll must, therefore, he presumed 
to he 

The fWhUs was separated from DiarthrophaUm Tragardh 1946 by Triigardh, 
on the fact that posteriorly the genital opeuing was not marked off by a semi- 
circular suture, and the genital shield was coalesced with the ventrol shield, 
Although some workers in correspondence have been inclined to disregard this 
difference. I am convinced, after having examined specimens of D, querevs ax 
well as several species of BmcJujtremt'fla and allied genera, including Loinbar- 
dini's speeies of rt&w labia, that the .separation from Din r thro phallus is valid. 

In 1954 1 was able to colled Passalids in Mew Guinea and from them 
obtained a male, a female and two nymphs of what seem undoubtedly to be 
Triigardlfs B. apinosa, As his description was inadequate and he only gave 
a sketch figure of the intereoxal part of the ventral surface, ihe species is now 
redescribed from the female, and descriptions and figures of the male and 
tritouymph are given. 

Rt'flesrrlption of female, A lightlv ehiunised ilattish speeies. Idiosoma 526/t 
long, 351/a wide. Shape broadly oval. 

Domwi.-F\#, 2A; dorsal shield entire, but not eompletely covering dorsum, 
surrounded hv a "narrow strip of cuticle, it is 4A)ji long by 336/*. wide, as stated 
!»v Tragardh it bears a pair of distinct pores on a level with the middle Of 
coxae 111 and a number of very minute setae (rpores), it is furnished with 5 
paiis of long shortly cilraled and apically knobbed setae of which three pairs 
arc lateral on the shield, the other two pairs are posterior and on the cuticle, 
the setae from anterior backwards ure approximately 312ft, 312,a, 340/*, 360,u and 
261,' long. 

Vf>ni t >r.— As figured, Fig. lAf tritostermrm (Fig. 2E) with a fairly elongate 
base flanked by a pair of setae and with paired filamentous laciniac; sternal, 
mctastcrna! ami ventral shields eoaJcseed and extending broadly behind coxae 
TV and reaching to within a short distance, 30//., of the ana] shield, from the 
middle of coxae IV it fuses with the endopodal shields to surround the posterior 
border of acetahula IV, the whole shield is 403/* long and 144^ wide across 
the almost straight anterior margin, anterior to (he middle of coxae II the shield 
narrows to 125/1 and then expands to 1Q3# between coxae IT and TTI, helv, eeti 
coxae ill and IV it begins to contract to 125,/ between eoxae IV and posterior 
of coxae IV it is 250/1 wide and then becomes evenly rounded, the shield is 
furnished with 5 pars of setae of which the anterior pair are close to the 
anterior margin and much longer than the, others, rhe fifth pair arc of interme- 
diate length and lie close to (he posterior margin; the genital orifice is large 
and tongue-shaped and lies in the middle of (he sternal shield between coxae 
II and HI, it eneloses the similarly shaped genital shield which is l<Bip long 
bv 135/x, the genital shield is completely fused posteriorly with the ventral 





shield but appears to be flexible on lateral pivots of the fn0Wi sclerotiscd margin 
of the orifice at 125,/ from the front; the anal shield is roughly rectangular with 
th? anterior margin straight and slightly excavate medially, and approximately 
W f K>. it carries a pail of long ciliated capitate setae 384// long; stigma be- 
tween coxae 111 and IV with an anteriorly curved peritrcme <&3jfc long. 

Gnttthrwmw. -Ryposlomc as figured (Fig. 2R)> with three pairs of setae o{ 
which the maxillary pair are fairly fang, as are also the anterior pair which are 
situated on the margins of the base of the long eilialeel outwardly curved styli; 
f he labial cornicles are abuut 4 times as Ions as broad at the base> slander salivary 
Styli are pn-scnt, rlimsally the gnathosormi' (Fig. 2C) is covered by a distinct 
conical apieally qnadrifureate teetuni as figured, with .slightly outwardly curved 
apical arms between whieli arises a pair of longer and more slender ciliated 
laeiniae; palpi 5-segmented as shown, dorsally the farilxr carries a very long 
slender .shortly ciliated seta; cheliceme as figured (Fig, IC), movable digit 
willi small tooth at about one-fourth from apex, fixed digit willi Iwo small 
siibapieal teeth, a small tootli midway and apieally with hyaline excrescence. 

Etfgtf. All 6-segmenled, I (Fig. 2F) the shortest and tap.-ring, without ambu- 
lacra on tarsi but tarsi apieally hitid with a long apical seta, with one; long 
shortiv ciliated seta on lemur and genu, length $2pi ,NV tMgc* ™d very much 
stouter, II 307^ Jong, femur with one long and one rather shorter ciliated seta, 
III 312/A long with two long cilialed setae on femur and otic on genu, IV with 
two medium length ciliated setae on femur and genu with one much longer; 
larsi 11-1V with large pad-like ambulacra without claws; coxae of leg 1 well 
defined, fragmented, wilh the seta on the larger fragment. 

Male Allotype.— Somewhat larger and more chitinised than the lomalc. 
ldiosoina 6'Ofyi* long, 5G0> wide, Shape broadly oval. 

Dorsum— Dorsal shield entire as in female, 3Gb/ loHfi by 491(1 wide, fur- 
nished with 5 pairs of long ciliated capitate setae arranged as in female, anterior 
pair of setae 432// long, second pair 490// t ne\l 432//, next 528// and posterior 480/a. 

Venter (Fig. 1 H ) .— Triloslei num as in female; sternal, metastemal and 
vetilral shields coalesced together with the endopodal shields of coxae ll-IW 
the whole shield js 456// long, its anterior margin almost straight and 230/'. wide, 
the sides contract between coxae II to a width of 187/' and then widen between 
coxae ITT to 283/*, after whieli they contract to 133,« between coxae IV find 
pus(erior of aeetabula IV reach a width of 288//., Ihe posterior march) is 
evenly rounded and reaches to 4S^i from the anterior of the anal shield the 
shield is furnished with 4 pains of setae of which ihe anterior and the posterior 
are the longest; the genitalia lie in an elongate oval cavity containing the pos- 
teriorly directed genital shield (bi-articuluted r.ienis of Tragardh), it is 13(// 
long and 82/f wide with a posterior head about 40//. long; the anal shield is M 
figmed, 90>. wide and carries a pair of long ciliated capitate setae 38 V. Peri- 
irenie 77^ long and strongly curved forward, with the stigma between cttxtic 
111 rtnd IV. 

Cinuhosoma with palpi, chelicerae as in female hut somewhat larger. 

Legx— Generally and proportionally as in the female. 
VTritonympIt (Fig. 2H).— Of the same general facies as in the iomale. Length 
ol idiosoma 468^ width 339//.. 

Dorsum— Dorsal shield as in female, I36> long by 307/*. wide, furnished 
wilh three pairs of long ciliated capitate setae situated laterally, two other pairs 
of shch setae posteriorly of the shield-, the anterior pair of setae arc 36u> long. 
I he second pair 432^ 7 the next 480//, next 480>< and posterior 432/n. 


Ven7<?r.~-Widi the ventral shield as figured, 336, A long and 139/* wide, 
anteriorly it is in a line with the anterior margin of coxae 11 and evenly rounded, 
i( gradually expands to between coxae II and III at the maximum 'width and 
thou gradually tapers to the posterior margin of coxae IV where it is u^ain 
rounded, only the fourth pair of setae are actually on the shield, there is a pair 
of pores in a Hue with coxae 111; endopoda! shields II. Ill and IV, especially 
II, well developed; anal shield as in the female, 61 t t wide, peritrome 53/x long. " 

Gnathosoma with palpi and chelicerac as iu female. 

r>g.s,-As in female, 1 206^. long, 11 31% J IF 336,« r IV 365^. 
Remarks,— Despite the hrief description given by TYagardh of the genotype, 
B. apinosus, the female and nymph described above can without question 
be referred to his species. The male, however, is considerably larger 
but otherwise agrees iu the number and arrangement of the dorsal setae and 
fllso iii the ventral shield, as well as other morphological characters. Except 
for the size difference it agrees genericsily with the female. 

Brachytremella triigardhi sp. nov. 

TeU i'ig*. 3A-F, 4A-K 

Types.— Holotype female, two tritooymphs and one dcutonymph in the collec- 
tion of the South Australian Museum. 

Localities— The holotype female and one tritonymph from Masfochilus sp. 
Mr. Lamingtom Queensland, Dec. 1948 (eo)l, H.W.), and one tritonvmph and 
the dcutonvrnph from a Passalid. 8 miles east of Woudeeia, Queensland! 30/10/43 
(coll. R. V, Snutheott). 

Description,— Female, {Fig. 3A-E). A flattfch lightly sclerotisied species. 
Length of idiosoma 560/*, width 374/x. Shape oval. 

Dorwm (Fig. 3B).— Dorsal shield entire, 490,u Jong l.>y 34$j wide, not com- 
pletely covering dorsum, separated marginally by a fairly wide band of cuticle; 
humshed with six pairs of long slender setae which are shortly ciliated and 
end In a small but distinct knob, all except the second pair from the auterior 
arc to 270/y. long, the second pair are only about half this length, 144^ the anterior 
lour pairs of setae arc on the margin of the dorsal shield, the posterior two pairs 
on the posterior margin of the body, on the shield are a number of pores 
(Fig. 3B). 

\ rnfer— As in Fig. 3A; tritosternum as shown, with arnica! base flanked by 
.i pair of setae, and with paired laciniae; sternal, rnctasternal and ventral shields 
coalesced and extending past coxae IV. the combined shield is 394,* long, the 
anterior margin is almost straight, between coxae 11 the shield narrows to J15/» 
MJ id then widens to I9&t between coxae III, contracts slightly between coxae iV 
and then expands behind coxae IV to 206/1, the posterior margin is rather flat- 
tened, the shield carries 5 pairs; of .setae of which the first pair are fairly long, the 
others shorter; the genital opening is large and tongue-shaped in which the 
genital shield fits, it is llti/i long "by 134/a at the widest part, posteriorlv the 
genital shield is coalesced with the ventral shield, the front portion of the shield, 
however, is probably capable of being lifted up in a line between the second 
and third sternal setae where a strong ehitinisation of the anterior margin of the 
orifice ends; the anal shield is transversely diamond shaped, and furnished with 
only two long 312/t. setae similar to the dorsal setae, Ihc shield is 72/ A wide; the 
cndopndal shields are well chitinised on coxae 111 and IV and not fused with 
the sternal; the Stigma lies between coxae III and IV and has only a short peri- 
treme of 2o>. length; metapodal shields absent. 





Fig. 4—Bmvlnjtremella trligdrdhi sp. nov., from Wondecla, Q. A, rritrmvmph in 

ventral view; B, tritonymph dorsum; C, tectum of tritonymph; D ? mandibles of 

tritonymph; K, deutonymph in ventral; Y } deutonymph dorsum. 


(Imtlhowma.—Afi in Fig. 3C and D; hypostome with only three pairs of setae 
ui which tht? maxillary pair are fairly long, and the anterior pair ore also long 
.and situated marginally on the base of the- long ciliated paired ivtyli; the labial 
cornicles arc fairly long, about 3 times as long as wide at base, slender salivary 
slyli reacli almost to the tip of the cornicles^ dorsally the gnathnsoma is covered 
by a distinct conical apically quadrifureate tectum which ends in a pair of 
slightly outwardly curved arms from between which arises a pair of longer 
and more slender filaments: the palpi are 5-segmented as figured, dorsally thr-- 
femur carries a very long ciliated tapering seta; the mandibles carry a pair of 
small chelate ehelicerae, the movable digit having a minute tooth subapically, 
and the fixed digit with subupical excrescence. 

Legs.— All short, I ( Fie*. 5JR) the shortest and rather tapering, to 2W/.K long, 
fctmir and genu with one long ciliated seta each, tarsus bifid apieallv and with 
a long apiea] seta; legs II-IV stouter, tarsi without claws but with large ambu- 
lacra! pad, femur of II with one long ciliated seta, lemur of IT I with two and 
gfini with one long seta, femur ant! genu of IV similar to III; the coxae of leg 1 
arc demarcated and fragmented as shown with the posterior seta situated on tlie 
larger of the separated portions. 

Male— Unknown. 

Tritonymph (Fig. 3F).— Of the same form and texture as the female; length 
of idiosoma 520/a, width 397^. 

Dorstwi (Fig. 4B)— Shield entire. 408^ long by 33G/.t wide, with six pairs 
of long setae as in the female, o{ which (lie second anterior pair is only 120/< 
long, the others to 240//, the shield is supplied witli many fine pores, bul only 
takes in the second and fourth pnirs of dorsal setae, the first and third pairs 
being on the surrounding cuticle, as are the posterior two pairs. 

Venter (Figs. 8P, 1 A), -With only a single ventral shield as figured, with 
longitudinal striate markings, this shield is 317,* long by 125^ wide between 
co\ae 1J1, it is round and narrow apically, and tapers to a rounded e.ntl on a 
level with the posterior edge of aeetabula fV> the first sternal setae are faitly 
long and off the shield, setae II, 111 and IV are on the shield marginally, but 
setae V arc off, endopodal shields of coxae N-1V free and well sclerotised. those 
of II elongate, wide anteriorly, tapering to a point and curved postcriorlv, the 
amd shield is diamond-shaped, 62;/. long, with one pair of long ciliated apically 
Knobbed setae to 3i2,u long: the peritreme and stigma arc as in the female. 

Cnatfiosomo (Fig. 4C, D). -As in the female. 

Lesv.-As in the female, I 192/* long, JI and TJT 264,*, IV 28fl& 
Dcntonymfilt (Fig, 4E, F).— Length of idiosoma 432,i., width 269/u 

Dorsum.— Shield as in female and tritonymph but 360>. long bv 254/x; dorsal 
M*!-ie as in tritonymph with setae 11 105/x long, rest 225^ long. 

Venter.— As figured, ventral shield as in tritonymph 288/.t long by 77jm wide 
but more slender and extending rather further back from coxae IV; endopodal 
shields of coxae II distinct. Peritreme small, 19y/. long, 

(Uxathasomd. as in female arid tritonymph. 

Lciti'.—As in other stages. 1 175,./. long, Li 206,*, III and IV 22<y 
Brnwrks. -This species differs from all other known species ii'i the second pair 
of dorsal setae being only about half the length of the rest. In D. quartets, which 
also has only siv pahs of long dorsal .setae, they are all of about equal length in 
both adult and Iritonymphal stages, and all longer than the anal setae, whereas 
in 8, triigardhi the anal setae are longer than I lie dorsal setae. 



Brachytremella homemisszai sp, nov. 
Text Fig. 5A-C. 

Types.— Two txitonymphs, one liolotype and one paratype, in the South Aus 
tralian Museum collection. 

Localities and Hosts— The liolotype from the Passahd Aulucocyclus 
edentulus MeL. from Wilson's Downfall, New South Wales, 8/10/56 (coll. 0. F. ) , the paratvpc From the same host, Ilinchinbrook Is., N. Queens- 
land, 8/9/56 (coll. G.F.B.). 



Fig. 5.—Bmch{ftwmcll(t bornemisszai sp. nov, Nymph— A, ventral view; B., dorsum: 

C, tectum. 

Description— Tritonymph. A flattish, lightly chitinised, oval species, Idio- 
soma 334/j long, 225/1 wide. 

Dorsum (Fig. 5B).— Shield entire, not completely covering body as figured, 
furnished with only two pairs of long slender ciliated capitate setae, one pair 
of which are marginal on the shoulders, the other on the posterior margin, there 
are also two other pairs of such setae off the shield, one pair on die body edge 
and midway between the two pairs on the shield, the other pair are on the 
cuticle posterior of the dorsal shield, these setae are to 240/i long. 

Venter (Fig. 5A).— Ventral shield as figured, 216/;. long by 10(V wide, 
widest in a line between coxae II and If I, the anterior margin is only lightly 
convex and 48/x wide, the sides almost immediately narrow to 38^. then expand 
to the maximum width between coxae II and III and then converge to the 





~ o 
3 - 


£ 3= 

O g 



rounded end slightly beyond posterior margin of acetabula IV, only the fourth 
pair of setae are actually on the shield and these are well inside the margin, of 
the other four pairs of setae, I are longer than die others; the endopodal shields 
of coxae IJ-1V are well developed especially those of II which are more curved 
and moon-shaped than in other species; the anal shield is transversely diamond- 

Fig. 7.—Lo7nhardinieIla lornhardinii g. ot sp. uov. A, nymph in ventral view; H. 

guatbosoma of female from below; C, gnathosuma and tectum of female from above: 

D a tarsus of leg II from below; E, leg I; F, stigma and perilreme. 

shaped, 48/i wide with one pair of long ciliated capitate setae to 18G>; the 
stigma lies between coxae III and IV with hardly a distinct peritreme. 

Gnafhosoma as figured and as described for B. spinosa; tectum (Fig. 5C), 
however, apparently with only two apical filamentous branches as figured. 


legs as in other species 3 I 773,/ long, with fragmented coxae, IT, Til and 
IV 2U), t fOHg and stouter than L 

httiuirks— This species differs from B. spinosa Triig. /md H, Imgtirdhi sp, n. in 
the number and arrangement of the long dorsal setae. Ifi tire absence of the 
female, however, it is only tentatively referred here (ti the genus Brudnjtremdlu. 

{Sen, Lomisabdinikixa nov. 
Allied to Brachytremclh but with the metapodal shields separated from the 
slorno-ventral shield and extending posteriad of coxae IV as a triangle; tectum 
an elongate cone with one pair of long apical laciniae. 

Type Lamhnnhnivllu Jomhardinii sp. nov. 

T.ombardinklla lombardinii sp. noy. 

Figs. (U-F, 7A-F. 

7)//w>.v. ilnfotype female, allotype male, 8 paratype females, one paratype 
male and 6 paratype nymphs in the South Australian Museum. 

IsOctdUk'S.— The paratypc male from under the elytra of a Passalid beetle 
Aulacoctjchis nliUilvlus .VleL. from a rotting euealypt log, Hampton, Queens- 
land, 3rd Oct, 1036 (Coll. C. F. Bornemissza), all ihe others from the same- 
host and habilat (mm Wilson's Downfall, New South Wales, Sth Oct. IMG 
(coll. C.F.B), 

Di'Mription.-Fenioli' (Fig. 6A). A lighdv .seltroHsed oval species. Length of 
idiusoma to 490^ (average of 8 speeanens -1SL M ); width to 3GIV (average o42/i), 
Dorsum (Fig. 6C) -Dorsal shield entire, not completely covering dorsum 
but surrounded by a fairly wide ship of striated cuticle, clorsally with onlv 3 pairs 
of long, ciliated and upieally knobbed setae to 2\\\ f i long (Fig. (IK), "of these 
setae two pairs arc situated on the posterior margin of the .shield, the other pair 
is on tlie cuticle and on the posterior margin of the dorsum. 

Vrnter (Fig. 6A).— Tritoslernum (Fig. <1D) with not verv long conical base v 
flanked on each side by a short seta, and apieally with a pair of shortly ciliated 
laciniae, sternal, metastonial, and ventral shields coalesced to form a single shield 
reaching posteriorly almost to anterior margin of anal shield, antero-mc*lialIy 
the shield surrounds with an oval ehWinous rim the large tongue-shaped genital 
shield, close to the rim it carries three pairs of small setae, the sternal II and 
III and the mehisternal setae; anteiior of the genital shield is a pair of longer 
setae, sternal setae I, and posterior on the shield beyond coxae IV is another 
longer pair of setae probably the genital pair in other groups, the whole shield 
is wide and the margins confluent with the inner edges" of the coxae as figured, 
die length of the whole shield is J70/< by 2(% wide with a slight constriction 
between coxae IV to 197/.u the genital shield 2I1,,. long bv 149^ wide, is without 
setae and is not hinged to the ventral shield although there is a faint sub- 
cuticular transverse line between the third and fourth pair of sternal setae which 
may indicate a weakness allowing the genital shield to lift un and open from 
Ihe anterior; the anal shield is small, transversely lozenge-shaped and is furnished 
with only two setae which are similar to and as long as Ihe dorsal setae, lar^e 
metapodal shields extend backwards from eoxac IV as fairly large triangles, 
anteriorly as wide as the coxae and tapering to a rounded blunt apex at abuut 
hiiltway from the eoxaejo the apex of the ventral shield; peritrernal shields small 
with ihe stigma (Fig. 7F) between coxae III and TV and the peritreme short. 
29/r, and curved, 

Qnathomma as figured (Fig. 7B) ; with apparently four pairs of short livpo- 
stomal .setae, hypostume svith a pair of long curved, shortly ciliated stvli; cornices 
moderately long; in the dorsal view (Figf 7C) the inaxiilarv part has two pair* 


i>f setae near the base of the palpi of which the inner pair are long, the outer 
short, between the bases of the palpi is an elongate cone-shaped bifurcate tectum 
carrying apically a pair of equally long laciniae, the base of the tectum k de- 
marcated by a transverse line: palpi as* figured 5-segmented, the femur dorsally 
has <i strung straight ciliated seta and there also are some fairly long setae On 
tJie tibia and tarsus; the chclicerae (Fig. 6E) are small, apparently edentate, and 
the movable finger has a subapical excrescence. 

Legs— All relatively short 1 (Fig. 7E) thinner than 1I-1V and autennacforni, 
with the tarsus apically bifid with some long taetilo setae, femur and genu 
dorsallv with a long straight outstanding ciliated seta, coxae with two small 
setae and fragmented, legs 1I-JV moderately thick all tarsi with pad-like am- 
bulacrum (Fig. 7D) but no claws, femur of II with one long seta, of III and IV 
with two such setae; length of i 206,*, 11 26% III 298^, IV 29S,<, all legs directed 

Mide (Fig. 6B).— With the fades of the female, length of idiosomu 475^ and 
44U/* width 350/.. and 312^ (allotype and paratype respectively). 
' L>orsum as in the female, shield 40&jt by 302^., setae 220,*.. 

Venter {Yin,. 6B). -Generally as in the female but the genital ojgan consists 
of a two- segmented shield as figured lying in a longitudinal groove in thesterno- 
vcntral shield; the shield is 134/; long by 58^ wide; the stigma and peritremc are 
similar to the female, but the peritremal shield is peculiar in that posteriorly it 
nuts inwards between coxae III and IV (see Fig. 7F) and is more distinct; the 
stcrno-ventral shield is 345^ long by 182/t wide (173// between coxae IV). 

Nymph (Fig. 7A).— General fades as in female. Length of idiosoma to 432^ 
(aver, of 6 specimens 407/a), width to 293/r (aver. STSjbT). 

Dorsum,— Similar to that of female, dorsal shield 336ta by 240>. 

Venter.— With a single elongate sternal shield, 2G0> lung by 130//. wide as 
figured, extending posteriorly to half-way between coxae IV and the anterior 
margin of anal shield, the first sternal setae are lateral and anterior of the apex 
uf die shield, setae II are also off the shield, but cluselv adjacent to the morgan, 
setae III-V are distinctly on the shield, while just off the shield and between 
setae I and II is a pair of pores and there is another pair of pores between 
setae IV situated near to the setae. Anal shield as in female. Peritrcme 19/* long. 

Cyutlhosomn as in female. 

Legs as in female, I 192a long, tl 240 /t , Ill 260/,., IV 28Q^ 

Genus Biuchyt^ulm^ixoides nov. 
Body form elongate. Dorsum without long setae. Genital shield in female 
coalesced posteriorly with ventral which expands immediately behind coxae IV, 
then tapers posteriad to a short straight posterior margin confluent with the 
anterior margin of the anal shield. In male genital shield relatively short. Legs ] I 
similar to III and IV in both sexes. Tectum bifurcate. Coxae I coalesced to 
form a single tnmsversc shield. 

Type B. striata sp. nov. 

Brachytremelloidcs striata g. et sp. nov- 
Tea I Jig. 8A-H. 

7 r/fns.-Ifriloiype female, allotype male. 10 female and 8 male paratypes in 
the Smith Australian Museum. 

L.}</iHtit's.— Holotype female, allotype mule, i pnratvpe females and 1 paratope 
mule from a T'assalid, Autdutctjclus ulcntulus MeL from a euealypt tog at 
Wilsons Downfall, near Tenterfield, New South Wales. 8/10/58 (coll G.F.U). 
Other specimens: 4 females and 2 males from Hfneninbrouk Is\, Nth. Queens- 


land, 9/9/56 (G.F.B.); 4 males and 1 female from a Passalid, 8 miles east of 
Wondccla, Queensland, 20/10/45 (R. V. Southcott); one female from A. 
cdcntidxis McL. from Bell, Blue Mountains, New South Wales, 27/11/50 
(G.F.B.); and one male from A. edentulus McL., Hampton, Queensland, 2/10/56 

" ^m 

Fig. B.-Bnwhi/tremelaides striata g. et sp. nov. A. female in ventral view; B. male in 

ventral view; C } dorsum.; D> gnathosoma from below; E, gnatbosoma and t< etnm 

from above; F, mandible; ft leg h H, stigma. 

Description, -Female (Fig. 8A, C-H). An elongate oval species. Jdiosoma 
432fi long, 206^. wide. Fairly well sclcrotised, 

Dorsum (Fig. 8C ).— Shield entire, almost completely covering dorsum 
except posteriorly as figured, smooth and without any long setae, 413^ long 
by 201 fi wide. 


Venter (Fig. 8A)-As figured; sternal, metasternal and ventral shields 
coalesced, the combined shield rounded anteriorly between coxae II, widening 
to LOO/* between coxae III then contracting between coxae IV to 72^ then con- 
touring aeetabula IV to a width of L'44p after which the sides converge to a 
width of 33//. in a flattened apex almost touching the anterior margin of the 
septate anal shield, the mtercmal portion of the shield is provided with 5 
pairs of setae of which the anterior and longest pair are between coxae II, the 
second and third pairs are short and on a level with coxae IIL the fourth pah 
between coxae III and IV, and the fifth on a level with the posterior margin 
uf acetabida IV, the ventral portion of the shield is longitudinally striate medially 
wilb about seven lines on each side of the mid-line; anal shield transversely 
tii.p.'.-.oidal 53/j. wide by 9fc deep, and furnished with two long, nude and 
slender, forwardly curved setae to liSty* these arise anteriorly uf the anal open- 
in"; the genital 'orifice is long, oval and lies between the posterior ed^<- of 
coxae II and the posterior edge of coxae IV, the genital shield is 86,/ long and 
62/a wide and contours the inner edge of the orifice-, posteriorly it is coalesced 
with the ventral shield and not clearly hinged, below its surface can be seen 
a Y-shaped apodemal structure: the stigma lies between coxae III and IV and 
is tin a small triangular peritremul shiVUI but no distinct peritreine is present. 

Cnnthosoma us figured; hypoMome fcjflte. 8D ) with three pairs of setae of 
which only the anterior pair on the base tif the paired outwardly curved livptv 
stomal stvli are long, labial cornicles short; palpi 5-segmented with the Jong 
dorsal setae on femur and genu nude, tectum (Fig. SE) a long cone but apically 
with only a single pair of short laciniae; chelkcrac edentate (Fig. 8Fh fixed 
digit with a thick hvaline apparcntlv fringrd excrescence. 

tegft— J short llO/i and tapering (Fig. 8C), tarsus apically bifid, without 
ambulacrum, coxae ill-defined, not fragmented and coalesced to form a transveis.- 
shield U6/i across, IMV longer and much stouter, H .204/1, III 216/*, TV 220/i, 
tarsi with pad-like ambulacra but no claws, long dorsal seta present only on 
femur ol I and this seta nude. 

Mttitj-Qi (he same shape and general fades as in the female. Length of 
idiosoma 112/c width 206/t 

Uomtnt— As in the female. Length of shield 3S4^> width 206ft, Nft l<»Tig 

Venter (Fig. SB).— The stcrno-metasterno-vcntral shield as in female, length 
345/y fey <S2//wide between co.\ae III, narrowing to Tip, between coxae fV then 
i uuloiiving aeetabula to a width of 168/.*, afterwards the sides converge to almost 
luoc-li anterior margin of anal shield with a posterior width of -18/a. Anal shield 
as in female, width 43,. : depth 2fy, setae simple to 1-Mja long. TViHreme and 
ab'ftirut as in female. 

<snathof>oma with palpi, chelicerae and tectum as in female. 

legs.-hs in female, I 1X3/1 long, the coxae ill-defined, not fraejment-ed, 
coalesced to form a transverse shield ftclft across, II stent and somewhat stoutei 
tlian III and IV. 230^ long, 11 and IV stout but less so than II. IT 230/* KK*g, 
IV 210^, 


Camin. J. ft., atnl ConiROSsr, 1*\ E., 1955. A revision of I In Sul7rn<hi MftSOflMgWftta { Ai^uina) 

1))ise(i on New inter positions of CorhpiirHtlve Morphological Data- Special Bull. No. It. 

C*Jit'ca«"r) Ai-iid. Sei« 
Pr.*n*K, A. S. f ftt &u. t L936. The Ecology of l\mi(hts vormrtu.i Kal>t\, u l«/Wh< U^lVAl )»v* In 

n tiling InftS. Ecol. Mono,^. $S Pp. 455-490. 
Tivyoakoh, I., l*i 16. Diarthrophallina, a JCSW Uioup of Mesostiirmiita I mind on RftWtd 

beetles. Eul. Mtf&U 24 (6), pp. 369-394. 




byH, Womersley 


The family Diarthrophallidae Tragardh 1946 is discussed and all known genera and species 
belonging to it considered. Two subfamilies, the Diarthrophallinae comprising the genera 
Diarthrophallus Trag., Brachytremella Trag., Lombardiniella Worn. 1960 and Brachytremelloidcs 
Worn. 1960, and the Passalobiinae containing the genera Passulolia Lomb. 1926 and Passalana g. 
nov. are erected. The gentus Passalobia Lomb. is redefined and the species P. duodecimpilosa 
Lomb. is removed therefrom as a synonym of Diurtl-rophullus sirnilis 

Trag. 1946. A new genus Passalana is erected for Passalobia peritrematica Lomb. 1951. The 
subfamilies, genera and all known species are keyed. 





[Read 12 May 1960] 


The family Diwtbropballiclae Truganih 1946 is discussed and »1I known 
genera aiid species belonging to it considered. Two subfamilies, the Diarthro- 
phailin-je comprising the genera ViarthrophAlus Txtig.,, Brachytremella Trag., 
Lombardiniella Worn. 1960 and Bruvhytrenuiloitkx Worn. 1060, and the Passa- 
lobiinae containing the genera Passalohia Lomb. 1926 and Passaluna g. nov. use 
erected, The genus Possalobia .Lomb. is redefined and the species }\ dtto(lccim~ 
)>ihmt Lomb. is removed therefrom as a synonym of Diurthropltulhiti ximilh 
Trkg. 1946. A new genus Passakma is erected for Passalabio peritr^mtitica 
Lomb. 1951. 

The subfamilies, genera and ftlj known species arc keyed. 

The family DiarthrophaUidae was erected in 19'I6 by Triigardh in his very 
important paper, "Diarthrophallina, a new group of Mesostigmata, found on 
Passalid beetles", published in the Ent. Medd., 24 (6), pp. 369-394, 1936. 

It was founded upon a study of the eurious mite found under the elytra of 
Passalus comutus, in North Carolina and described by Pearse ct ul. as Urnseius 
qtterciis n. sp. in Ecol. Monog. 6, pp. 478-479, figs. 31-34, 

For the species Tragardh erected the genus Diar thro phallus. The family he 
placed in a new cohort, the Diurthrophallrna, withm his subdivision, the 
Eugynaspida of the Mesostigmata, in which the epigynial shield ( stcrno-gynial 
of Camin and Gorirossi, 1955) is developed or if absent then secondarily so. He 
stressed the relationship of his cohort to the Uropodina and defined the cohort 
and family as follows: 

"Body flat, shield-shaped. Legs very short; legs I without anibulacrcs, 
legs Il-Iv with large ambulaeres but no claws. TritosLernum flanked by 
two praesternal hairs. Mandibles short, chelate. Palpi without bi- or 
trifurcatc bristle on the base of Lhe Lenninal joint. PeriUeme very short. 
Female epigynial shield large, tongue-shaped, without hairs, not articulated 
at the base. Metasternal shields fused with the. other sternal shields and 
the ventral shield forming a rim round the genital aperture. Male genital 
armature consisting of a large, biarticulated penis fitted into a groove and 
directed backwards. 

Typical genus D in r I hro phallus nov, gen," 
In 1955, Drs. Camin and Gorirossi reduced the Diarthrophallina to the rank 
of a superfamilv, the Diarthrophalloidca, and together with the Trachytoidea and 
Uropodoidea placed it in the cohort Uropodina. 
They diagnosed the superfamilv thus: 

"Epigynial shield elongate, tongue-like, fused or hinged to ventral 
shield. Metasternal shields fused with sternal shield. Sternal shield inde- 
pendent or fused with ventral to form perigenital ring; enlarged jugulars in 
some. Base of tritostemum moderate to broad, unconcealed, flanked by a 

* South Australia/) Museum. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1961), Vol. 84. 


pair of prae-sternal' setae. Stigmata between coxae III unci TV. One or 

two dorsal shields without marginal .shields. No camerostome or Toverilae 


Besides the genotype of Diarthropliallaw Triigardh (loo. cit. ) described a 
second species of iho genus, D. similis from Mexico, and erected a new genus, 
RrrJchtjln'tnella for 8 new vspeeies B, spinom from New Guinea. He also h\ the 
same paper referred to his family the little known genus Passalobia Lombardini, 

Through the great kindness of the authorities of the Stockholm Museum and 
the assistance of Dr. K. II. Forsslund of the Swedish Forest Research Station, 
Stockholm, I have been able to examine the material i>£ D, qucrcus which was 
sent t<j Triigardh by Dr. Pearse for study. Tn addition, 1 have received from 
Dt. D. E. Johnston of the Inst, of Ac.arology, Univ. of Maryland, U.S.A., a number 
of slides labelled and identified by him as D. cptcrcus. Actually not all of these 
are this species but as will be shown later some are to be assigned to D. diiodt'- 
Livtpilom (Lomh.), which is the same as D. similis TrLig. I have also a .single 
male aud nymph of D. qtwrcus which I collected from a Passalid in a rotting Jojj 
at a saw mill in Annapolis, Maryland, U.S.A., in June 1947. 

Inquiries of my friend. Dr. S. L. Tuxen, as to the present existence of the 
unique female of Brachijtremella spirumi Trag, from New Guinea have failed to 
Joeate it. It seems therefore to be now lost. However, on Passalids which 1 
collected at Bulolo, New Guinea, in 1954. I was fortunate to find a single speci- 
men of each sex and two nymphs which agree with Tragardh's description. The 
.species is therefore redescribed in this paper. 

The third genus which Triigardh referred to die Diarthrophalhdae is the 
little known Passalobia Lomb, 1929. This genus was erected for P, quad*i- 
CfWiltHtl from a Passalid from Brazil. 

Later Lombardini described three other species as belonging to his genus, 
namely, P, duodecimpilosa L93S, P. major 1938, and P. pentremaiictt 1951 

Hitherto, no one but Lombardini has seen material of this genus or even 
re-examined his material It is therefore a very great privilege that I have l**m 
permitted by Dr. Lombardini to examine what is e\tunl of his Passalobia spp. 
an<l with bis permission to remount them. Unfortunately, the war resulted in 
the loss of much of his collection and the whole lot still existing and sent to me 
t omprises 1 slide of P. tptudricaudata. £ , 1 ditto larva, 2 slides of major, nymphs, 
1 slide of fluoiiecimpilosa, $ , and 1 slide of peril r e mat ico, nvmph. Of these 
species dtiodccimpilttsu is considered to be a synonym of and to have priority 
over simills Trau« and not to be a true Passalobia but probably a Diarthrv phallus. 
For the very curious P. periirematica, a new genus Passtdrma is created. I have 
therefore been able to study all the described species of Diarthrophalhdae while 
in a concurrent paper to this I have described two new species of Bracing rcitadfa 
from Australia, as well as erected the genera T^ombardinkUa and Bracliytremel* 
hides for two other new species also from Australia. 


TffigaHh, J\ 1946 Dtartlirophnllmn, u new group of Mrsostiginata found on Passed linlVrv 
Enf. \1«in\„ 2i (6). pp. 3WKifM. 

is T cw Diagnosis, —Body form flat, broadly oval to elongate, sometimes con- 
stricted medially. Dorsum with a single shield, generally surrounded by a 
ttanow band of culiclc, with or without a number of long ciliated capitute 
setae. All legs short, I thin arid antennaef<jrm without ambulacra, tarsus apiealK 
bifurcate, II -IV much stouter with Iar^e ambulacra but no claws; coxae 1 

THE fcENta rASSALOWA lomhaudini *i> 

coalesced medially to form a single transverse praesternal shield or well differen- 
tiated and fragmented. Tritosternum at base flanked by a pair of setae. Sternal, 
mefa.stemal and ventral shields coalesced, forming a perigenital oval ring be- 
tween the coxae; sterno-gynial shield in female tongue-shaped fitting the genital 
orifice and fused posteriorly with the ventral shield, in the male fused anteriorly 
with the sternal shield and the sterno-gynial shield directed posteriad. Ana] 
shield srnalh with one pair of long adanal setae. Metapodal shields present or 
absent. Ilypostome with 3 pairs of setae. Tectum hi- or qnadrifurcate or 
he'mct-shaped with apical spike. Chelicerae with excrescence on fixed digit, 
Stigma between coxae II and IV, rarely between If and III, peritreme short or 
absent and directed anteriorly,, or long, free and directed backwards. 

Typical genus Dutrfhrophaihts Trag. 

Subfamily Dr^KTTmoerTAT-T.rN ak Triigardh. 1946 

Tectum bi- or tril'oreale. Body broadly oval to elongate oval, not medially 
constricted, dorsally with long ciliated capitate setae or entirely without setae. 

Typical genus Diaithrophallus Trag 

Cenus DiAKTirBOPiiAixus Trag. 
Tragurrih, I., K>4fi. Hot. MwliL 24 (6), p, .371. Type Uwseim quercm ttsarse <H al t 193fi. 

Body broadly oval, witli long dorsal ciliated capitate setae. Perigenital ring 
in Female closed behind by a well-defined semicircular suture. Tectum a ratlwr 
elongate cone, apically qnadrifurcate with the outer styli simple and strongly 
bent outwards, the inner styli directed straight forwards closely adjacent and 
b/isally with long ciliations. Leg II in male similar to female. ... . 

Gcuotypc Dianhroplutfluii quercus (Pearse et /■?. ). 

This genus so far contains only two species and seems to be confined to 
North America. Besides the type Tragardh, ]&46> described a second species 
D sirnilLs from a single nymph found on a specimen of the Passalid Procnlu.? 
ttovyi from Mexico, In the Hope Museum, Oxford. As is shown later, similis is 
a synonym of Lombard infs Passalobia duoJecimpilosa 1938 which trivial name 
lias priori ty. 

Diarthxophalius ojuereus (Pearse et ///.). 
Tod fi#*. 1A-F ; 2A-B. 
Vrusfiwi qitenux Peurst* ci al. % 193G. Kcol, Mono«., 6, p. 178, fig?, 31-34, 
nimthropluttlw querent TriigArHh, 1946. Hut. Mudd., 24 (G), pp. 371-380, figs. 1-2, 4-5. 

Femolc, Fig. 1A.— A broadly oval, brownish species. Length of idiosoma 
52Gfi. width 409,*, 

Dorsuvt- Almost entirely covered by dorsal shield, only a narrow baud of 
onlicle surrounding shield, length of shield 46S^, width 398^, with 6 pairs of 
long ciliated capitate setae to 440/t long, second and fourth pairs of setae 7nar- 
crinal on shield, first, third, fifth and sixth pairs on I bo cuticle, shield with a pair 
of pores in line wilh coxae III and a number of fine pores or setae (not shown in 
Fig. 113). 

Vcnh>r t Fig. ] A.- As figured; tritosternum with a moderately Jong conical 
base flanked by a pair of setae; sternal, cndopodal, mctasternal and ventral 
shields coalesced to form a single shield 394/* long, 12<V wide anteriorly, ex- 
panding to £16jJ between coxae IT and coxae III, then contracting to 13<V 
between coxae IV to expand again to 149/* befnre rounding off a short distance 
ffrim anal shield; in the intcrcoxal portion is the large oval perigenital ring in 
whirh lies the close-fitting oval tongue-shaped sltrrnngymal shield, the margin 
of the orifice is thickened to 134/t from the anterior and across at this point is 





a faint sub-cuticular transverse line, the orifice is posteriorly closed by a semi- 
circular suture, the anterior pair of sternal setae are long, 48/*, the second to 
fourth pairs 14//. and the fifth pair in line with posterior margin of coxae IV 
24/*; anal shield transversely diamond-shaped, 5Hfi wide by 20/t, with a pair of 
long ciliated capitate setae to 440/x; there are no metapodal shields: on each 
side of the ventral portion of the stern o-v en oral shield are 2 or 3 small shieldlets; 
stigma between coxae IK and IV with a short curved forward!)' directed peri- 
treme 48/t long. 

GnathosomOy Fig. 1C— As figured, with 3 pairs of hypostoma] setae of which 
the anterior pair is Ihc longest, with a pair of strong outwardly curved liypo- 
stomal styli and a pair of long salivary styli; dorsally with a long conical tectum. 



- r^V mi 

I retvs 

Fig. 2— Diarthro phallus querent (Puarse at a!.). Nymph. A. venter- B, clnrsum. 

Fig. ID, with 4 apical branches, the outer ones bent rather sharply outwards 
and nude, the inner ones about the same length, closely adjacent and directed 
straight forwards with long eiliations basally. Palpi 5- segmented (l'ig« 1C), 
femur with straight long-ciliated seta dorsally. Chelicerae (Fig. IE), fixed digit 
without teeth but with a subapical excrescence, movable digit with a small 
median inner tooth. 

Legs,— All 6-segmented and shorter than body, I slender and tapering to 
216V, tarsus without ambulacra but apically bifid with a long seta, with a long 
straight and ciliated seta on femur and on genu, IT-1V much stouter and the 
tarsi furnished with large ambulacra but without claws, II 312/x king with two 
long ciliated setae on femur and one on genu. III 336/x with similar setae on 
lemur and genu, IV 360/t and similar. 

Male, Fig, IF.— Of the same size and facics as in the female. 

Dorsum as in the female. 


Venter, Fig. IF, as in the female but the coalesced sternal, endopodak mcttt- 
sterrud and ventral shield somewhat narrower, length 374 /jt , anterior width 120^ 
expanding between coxae II and between coxae III to 178u., contracting to 101// 
between coxae* IV and then widening to 120^ before rounding off, the "setae are 
as in the. female, between the coxae is the oval pcrigenital ring which is not as- 
large us in the female, 110,... long by 72^, wide, within it lies the elongate; haek- 
wardly directed and two-segmented sternogynial shield, S&a long by 62/* wide, 
with Hie apical segment 24//. long, coalesced anteriorly with the" sternal shield; 
the stigma is between coxae lit and IV with peritreme 58//, long, 

Cmtlhoxoma and Legs as in female; leg I 226/x long, II 326> ? III 360^ IV 
384/ 1- 

Triionymph, Fig. 2A-B.-Of the same general shape as in the female. Length 
of kliusotna 433/*, width 304^.. 

Dormm, Fig. 2B.— Dorsal shield with 2 pairs of lung, 409//, ciliated capitate 
setae and surrounding cuticle with 4 pairs of such arranged as in the female 

Venter, Fig. 2 A. -With a single shield 2S3,u long by 82/i wide between eoxae 
If and (II. rounded anteriorly and tapering from coxae 111 to just past the 
posterior of aeeiabula IV, between coxae IV it is 53,x wide, of the 5 pairs of 
sternal setae only IV and V arc on the shield, sternal setae I are longer than 
the others; endopodal shields of coxae I are free and well demarcated, rafher 
moon-shaped as shown; stigma between coxae III and IV with peritreme 2®a 
Jong; anal shield as in female, 53/; wide by 19^ long, with adanal pair of long 
ciliated setae In 338/*. 

Cttathosoma as in female. 

Legs as in female, I 206//. long, 11 2S8 M , III 298/., IV 312 M . 
Remarks— The above descriptions and figures are from preparations s cn( by 
Dr. P. E r Johnston of specimens from Oakland Co., Michigan, U.S.A.. 14/4/57". 
The female was from slide T-241-1. the male from slide T-241-3 and the nvmph 
from slide 1-241-4, 

]>iui-thrr>ph<illiis duodccimpilosus (Tomb., 19-3S) new comb. 

Kisr. 3A-C. 

VimntohUj (ItutfJt'citnfnh'Mi Lnml>.. £63& Mtutf. Soc eJ4, ittJ. XVII. fasc. 1. p. Ad. Ffcfii. V 

and VI. 
DuittUrnithnUns K : miH$ Trrig.. l!;MG. £nt. MedcL, 24 (fi), pp. 3S0-3S4. Kin*. € :\m\ 7, 

I.ombavdini described tlvis species from a single, specimen taken from under 
the elytra ot a Passalid from Brazil lie ascribed it to his genus Passalobui 
and regarded it as a male. Actually his figures show clearly that it is a nymph 
and tin's is confirmed from an examination of the specimen itself which * Prof. 
Lombaidini has very kindly loaned to me and permitted me to remount for 
critical study. 

D. xitniliv was described by Tragardh also from a single nymph from a 
P;ivs;t)id, PrOcttlttx goryi from Mexico in the Hope Museum a! Oxford, Unfor- 
tunately, it has not been possible (o trace Tragardh's slide of this specimen, 
either in the Tra^ardh material in the Stockholm Museum, or m the Hope 
Museum, to which ii was supposed to have been returned. It must therefore 
be presumed to have been lost. 

However, in addition to being able to examine Lombardiins type, I possess 
a single nymph collected by myself from a Passalid, at Annapolis, Maryland, 
l-.SA., in .1949, and amongst a number of slides of Diurthroplwilns querent 
(Pearse et al) sent lo me hv Dr, D, E. Johnston of the University of Maryland. 
was one of nymphs, all of which agree with Tragaxdh's and Lomhardini's species 
thus establishing the synonymy of slm'tUs with duudecimpilosa. In his descrip- 




■ H I- V 

Fig. 3,—Diarthrophalhis duodecimpilosa (Lomb., 1938)* Nymph: A, venter; B, 
dorsum (A-B from Lombardini's type); C, venter; D, dorsum; E, gnathosoma from 
below: F, tectum; G, obeliccrae (C-G from specimen 1-241-6, from Michigan, U.S.A.). 


turn Tragardh described the tectum (sic epistome) as having u triangular muero 
with u very fine fctoge and figures it so ^Ffe 7C). In this Tragardh was mis- 
taken, for in all three specimens before me the tectum is eonieafwith a quuehi- 
fureate apex as in most species of Diarthrophallinae: the outer members <irc 
strong and angled, and the inner straight but with long basal dilutions. It is 
these ciliations which Tragardh saw and interpreted as* the fringe of a triangular 

The species is principally characterised h\ having only 5 pairs of' lone 
dorsal setae, but whether it should be strictly placed in Dia'rihrophallus or the 
allied genus Bruchytremc/tn Tragardh, must await the discovery of the adult 
female For the present it is as well to retain Tru«ardh s placing' 
Rexlcscription of Holulr/pe. Fig. 3A-B. 

AV/mp/*.-I,ength of idiosoma 38<V, width 240,u. Shape broadlv oval. 

Dorsum.— With entire dorsal shield not completely covering dorsum as 
hVorvd, with live pairs of Ions ciliated slender capitate 'setae, of approxumtelv 
etjpal length from 336^ to 408//: shield 312,/ long by 230/< wide. 

Vrnlcr as figim*L with the median shield 2o4/< /long by 96/a, widest between 
coxae II and III, the shield is furnished with short broken elongate rnarkintrs and 
carries A pair of marginal pores in line with front of coxae II and another pair 
in Jiue with anterior of coxae IV, of the 5 pairs of ventral setae onlv the fourth 
pair are on the shield arid marginal; only the endopodal shields 'of coxae II 
nod IV are well sclcrotised, thump of Tf being somewhat kidney-shaped as shown, 
ftffyi long by 14u wide and do not tend to contour the coxae as in other species, 
ihnse of coxae TV contour the coxae normally: the anal shield is roughly triangular 
and furnished with a pair of long setae, 3.%, .similar to the dorsal setae; pcri- 
freme small, 2\)p. long. 

Giiftthowmt: similar to that of other species as are also the palpi. Clwlicemc 
as figured, movable digit with a small median tooth, fixed digit with subapk/.il 
excrescence; tectum as figured, quacbifureate, the outer members strongly angled 
mifwards, the inner straight, closely adjacent. 

fjQ&$ as in ]} t querent, (Pearse et ai), the coxae of leg I not conjoined 
medially, but distinct and fragmented. I 182/.* long, H-TV 240/i 

Hcmark&\-T\ir accompanying figures of this specimen arc drawn after re- 
mounting. For comparison figures and details of a specimen from Michigan 
(one of three) are given as well as measurements of the specimen collected by 
myself at Annapolis. 

Specimen from Oaklands Co., Michigan, U.S. A- (one of tlrree labelled 
Diarfhwphallus quctxus) coll. D. E. Johnston, 24lh Apiil, 1957. No. T-241-6, 
Length of idiusoma 359^, width 307,t. Dorsal shield 317,, long by 245/* wide. 
Dorsal setae 5 pairs to 381// Jong, Ventral shield 215/* long, maximum width 
96/i; endopodal shields of coxae I 48 /A by 74//; pcritreme 24,1 long. Anal setae 
264/w long. 

Specimen from Annapolis, Murvlund. U.S.A., June, W47 (coll. H.W. ). 
l-englh of idiosoma 442,u ? width 330/*. Dorsal shield 336/x long bv 23(V wide. 
Dorsal setae, 5 pairs to 384^ long. Ventral shield 254^ by 100/. mavunum width; 
endopodal shields of coxae I 48/x by 14^; peiitreme 2fy long. Anal setae? 

Genus J3HACHYrm*;MKi.r.A Tragardh, 194(1 
'iia«utrJTi. I., 1946. Enr. Model., 24 (fi), p. 38G. 

This genus was erected by Tragardh for a single female obtained from a 
Passalid Frotomoccrus sp. from New Guinea. lie distinguished the genus on 
the laet that fhe perigeuital ring was open posteriorly with the stcriio-gvma] 


shield completely coalesced with the ventral and not closed by a semicircular 
surnre as in Diarthro phallus. The genus has been redefined and the genotype 
rodescrihed from freshly discovered material hi the concurrent paper. 1 

Besides the above difference from DiarlhTophallm there is a significant 
one in the form of the tectum. In the two known species of DiatfhrophaUus 
the tectum is apieally quadriplicate with the outer elements bent angularly 
outwards and simple, the inner elements but little shorter directed straight 
forwards, closely adjacent to each other and with long eiliations basally, in 
BrftcliijtreDtclla the tectum is ciuadri furcate in B. spinosa Triig. aud B. tra^ardhi 
Worn* I960 (this Journal, p, 11). with the outer elements shorter and stouter 
than the inner and slighdy curved outwards, the inner elements arise well within 
the basal junction of the (niter ones, are much longer, simple and divergent. In 
B homeinisszai Worn., 1960 (this Journal, p. 20 ) T rhe- tectum is only niiurcate 
apieally with two Idttg slender simple elements. 

The above three species placed in the genus are separaled as in the follow- 
ing key to subfamilies, genera and species of DiarthrophaUklao. 

Rrachytremella spinosa Triig. 
Tri^anlh, I., 1946. ErA. Model, 24 (6), p. 385, B& S. 

VVomursley, H.. ITJuu. Some 1 Aearina from Aastridi.i and New Cnimra, upon 
millipedes' unci cockroaches unci on beetles of the family Passalidac. PL 4. The family 
Diurthropruillidae* This Journal, p. lo? figs. 1 and 2, 

The type specimen of this species described from New Guinea from Tw- 
tomocerM sp. has apparently been lost. The species was rcdescrihed (Womers- 
ley. this Journal, p. ??) in the concurrent paper from fresh material of both 
sexes and the tritonvmph, from a Passalid from Bulolo, Mew Chiinea, Aug., 1954 
(coll II.W«), 

Brachytrcmella tragardhi Worn. 

W<>m«-rslc:y\ H., I960, thhi., this Journal, p. t#i $#. *J $P<I $ 

This species was described from the female, tritomruph and dcutonymph 
from specimens from Passalids (Mastochilus sp.), from Mt. Lamington. Queens- 
land, collected in December, 1948 (H.W.). 

Brachytrcmella bomemisszai Worn. 
Wom«rsIcy t II., JBfiO. lhid. s this Journal, p. 20, fig- $ 

Only the tritonymph of dus species is known, it Avas described from two 
specimens found on Atdacocychts crfenttthis McL., Hinchinbrook Is, 3 North 
Queensland, 9/9/56 (coll. G.F.B.)- <md on the same host from Wilson's Down- 
full, near Teuterficld. New South Wales, 8/10/56 (coll. G.F.B.). 

Genus Passalobm Lombard ini. 

Lonihardiui, G.„ 1026. Duo novo genera acaronnn. Boll. Snc\ rntoin. itat., pfj (9-10), j). 
158, fios. 1-2. 

Lombardini erected this genus for a new species Vassulohia quadricaudnUi 
found under the elytra or a Passalid beetle from Brazil His generic diagnosis 
was very brief and inadequate and merely stated that it belonged to the Lae- 
laptidae, that the sexes diflered in some secondary characters and that the tarsi 
of leg ( lacked ambulacra. 

1 Some Aoarina from Australia and New Guinea paraphagie upon millipedes' and cock- 
roaches and on hectics of the family Passalidac. T*f. A. The family Diarthrophallidae. 
Womer.slcy. H.. I960. Tins Journal, p. 11. 

•-yti n. wo.unnsixv 

Since his original diagnosis of tin: genus and description of the type species 
Lonibardmi has described three other species which ho assigned to his £<-nns- 
Theso were duodccimpilosa 1938, Mem. Soc. ent. ital., 17 (1), p. 44, figs. V and 
VI; major, 1938. ihid., pp. 118-120, ftg, H vvritmnntun, fast Rftjta 3fl; WW, 
fit*. I. ' 

la Iiis original description of fpiadrictiudoio he figures the female and wftut 
he then considered to he the male, but In 1943, in "fAgricoltura Coloniuie. 37 
(3), pp. 3-fi, figs. 1 and 2» he described a true male which he ascribed to qiiadri- 
TS/Utwta and concluded that his original figure and description of the male were 
those of I he nymph, Tn the same paper lie described and figured a larva as of 
this species. 

Apart from the above species, no others have been described or met with, 
tinx has further material been reported hy other workers. The first reference 
to the genus, however, by other workers appears to be that of Tragardh, 1916, 
rn Ins important paper on tlie Diarthrophallidae, when he placed Pa-mdobia in 
association with his genera Dimthrophtdlm and Brochyl re niello, mainly on the 
structure of the genital shield of the female in thai family, Triigaedh himself 
came to the conclusion thai I.omhardinfs male of 1926 was a uvmph. but as 
In- apparently had tally Lornhardini's 192.6 paper before him, he was unaware 
that Lombardini himself had earlier corrected this while at the same time de- 
scribing a (roc mule. Triigarclh, 1946; 394. in a key to the genera of the 
Diarthrophallidae, separates Passalobia from Dinrfhrophallus and Bntvhylremetla 
un tlic presence of a constriction of the body posterior of coxae IV- This !eu- 
hirn apparently was not considered as generic hy Lombardini, but it is one of 
several mentioned in the original description of quadrkauditto which may be 
so regarded. 

Owing to the uncertainty ol the slatns of Passnlohia the writer requested 
the loan, of Lombardinfs original material, and I have been privileged (o be able 
tO .study what is now extant of this, lor which I am truly grateful tO my colleague. 
i have received from Prof- Lombardini 6 slides. (1) the unique male and the 
Jarva ot qitadricaudata described by him in HJ5], (2) the unique specimen of 
(fuvdccimpilosa, (3) two nymphs of major, one of which agrees with bis figure, 
and ( 1) one of the two recorded specimens oi prritrtttittfit/i. These are all the 
material which now exists, the remainder including the original female and 
nymph of (fiiadriraitdtitti having, J am informed, been Inst in the war. 

With Prof. Lumbard'nfs permission I have been able to remount these 
specimens and they are redescrihed and figured in ihis paper. 

Of, it is now shown (hat except in dttodeti)npilosii mid perilreviotica. 
the constriction behind coxae IV is present in both the lemale, male and nymph 
ol tpufflrk'iludtila and in the nymph (the only stage known ) of major. P. 
duod.' is shown to be synonymous with and to have priority over 
Bwchiflvcmedrt similis Trag., 1946. Tims it must he removed horn Passtdohiti. 
Tomtom-dim's peritrcrtuttica is a iflfrst interesting form and a new genus, Passaltmu, 
is erected for It Thus the only two .species to remain in Passtdohin are the 
genotype qttudriatudftUl, and mt!\o\\ Of all these four species, except dtt<fdcc}m 
idiom, however, there is one character by which they differ from the other genera 
of the Diarthrophallidae, namelv, the tectum is a short conical helmet shape 
with an apical spine, it does h«t tcrmmale in tour or two branches. The original 
female and nymph of qimdricmuhtttt are now presumably lost. The male attri- 
buted by Lombardini to quadrlcimdata is here redescribed. If the correlation 
is correct, and at present I see no reason to disagree, then the characteristic 
enlarged and armoured second leg in this sev can he considered as generic fur 
Pns.-iidohuL There is, however, one verv remarkable feature by which it differs 



from all other species of Diarthrophallidae so far known, The stigmatic open- 
ing instead of lying between coxae III and IV is placed between coxae 11 and 
III as figured and is apparently more dorso-lateral than vcntro-lateral. Although 
Loinbardini does not mention the stigmata in his description, the position be- 
tween coxae 11 and III is clearly indicated in his figure. 

The slide containing the larvae described by Lombardini, showed that his 
figure was probably correct, although when received the specimen was in poor 
condition. Unfortunately, however, this specimen was lost in remounting. It 
is clear, however, from what was seen of the specimen before it was lost, and 
from Lombardini's figure 3, that it is not the larva of a Diurthrophallid. The 

Fig. 4.—Pnssalohia qtiadtlcmtdata Lotnb. Male: A, venter: B,, uVirgujui; C, j^natliusoma 
from above showing tectum; D, gnathosoma from below; E, oholiccruo. 

number of dorsal selae, the. formation of the gnaihosoma and the legs, especially 
the tarsi with the ambulacra bearing two claws on all legs clearly separate it. 
At present, however, I would not venture to place it. 

Pasmlohia major agrees with all the characters of generic value shown in 
the nymph of quadrkauduta as figured and described by Lombardini and 
although only known from the nymph is probably a good and valid species. 


Passalobia perifrcmalica, however is a very striking creature. The body 
is not constricted behind coxae IV as in V. quadricaudata and P. major but 
tapeis postcriad pf coxae IV to a rounded end and thus is somewhat obovate 
in shape. The most striking feature is that while the stigmal opening although 
small is between coxae III and 1V 5 lite perHreme.s are Jong, rather wide lobe- 
like structures with indistinct chambers and arc directed posteriorly and free 
of the body. As Lombardmi remarks, tins is a unique feature in the Acarina. 
In the tectum the species agree with Passalobia. A new genus Pa&mlana is 
erected for it. 

On the structure of the tectum the two genera Pasmlobui Lomlh (genotype 
P. tjwiflrk'Oiniatf} Lomb. ) and PasmUmci g. nov. (genotype P. peril rematica 
(Lomb.)) arc placed in a separate and new subfamily of the Diarthrophallidae, 
the Passalobfinac, 

The genus Pawdohia may now be, more adequately diagnosed as follows: 

Diarthrophallidae, with the body aud dorsal shield, more or less, con- 
stricted medially posterior of coxae IV and furnished with only ouc pair 
of long anteriorly curved simple setae subposteriorly; tectum a shell 
rounded cone with apical spike, helmet-like, stigma between coxae III and 
IV ( 9 ) or between coxae LI and 111 ( ,$ K coxae I coalesced Lo form a 
transverse shield; ventral shield in nymph extending well past coxae IV. 
In the male, leg II Jj very much stouter than III or IV and armed with 
strong apophyses on femur and a strong claw-like spur vcntrally and snb- 
apicallv on tarsus. 

Type P. quadricaadaUi Lomb., J 926'. 

Passalobia quadricaudala Lomb 

i'i'5. 4A-E. 

I'awalvhia tfttatlricttmlttta Lombardini- 1920, Bull. Soe. etttom, Hub. 63 (9-10), p. 158, Il«> t 
1-2 (nymph <*n<l 9 ); H^3, fAgriooluirn Colonials, No. S,_ pp. 3-5, fles. 1-2 { * I. 

Fas,'iatt>hi(t tvtruiandtita Lomb.. 1938. Mom. Soe. ftrfrofft ttal., J7 ( I }, p. 46 (a h}*sxts- t<ilvu\ 
tor quadrictiudata)'. 19.'^S- ihirf,, 17 (1), p. 120 (a similar lapsus calami).. 

f ■'({$*(( I uhi a quuilricaudata, Tr;ig., 1946, Ent. Medd., 24 (6), p. 38. (M.B.— Legend under 
fljy, 9 copied from J .cmibardini, 1^6, reads "qwttlrU anuria' in error.) 

No material of the female and nympb now being available tlic follmving 
red e.s cript ion.s of these stages is drawn up from a careful consideration of Lom- 
barclini's descriptions and his excellent figures of 1926. For the male 1 have been 
uhie to study the unique specimen, 

rtniule,— Body form bilobed with a distinct constriction just behind coxae IV; 
approximate length 500/4. width 250/*,. 

Dfwstim with a single dorsal shield which anteriorly completely covers 
dorsum, with one pair of long simple forwardly curved setue subposteriorly. 

Venter,— Tritosternutn with basa] cone Hanked by a pair of setae, with a 
paii' of long laeiriiac; sternal, endopodal, metasternal and ventral shields 
coalesced, expanding widely behind coxae IV to occupy almost all the ventral 
surface with rounded margin, with 5 pairs of setae, the anterior pair, sternal 
setae 1, not much if at all longer than IT, setae TT-TV between the second and 
third pairs of coxae, V subposterior on the ventral portion of shield: in the 
intercoxal portion is the large oval perigeuital ring which is open posteriorly, 
its anterior is in line with the middle of coxae II and the sides extend to beyond 
coxae IV, at its open posterior end the sternogynial shield which is the same 
shape and occupies the whole of the perigeuital ring is fused with the ventral 
shield; the stigma is small and placed between coxae ITT and TV and has no 


Giuith oxvm a —No hypostomal setae are shown on I.nmbardinfs figure, but 
duubtless there are the usual 3 pairs; tectum a short cone with rounded sides and 
an apical spike, helmet-like; palpi 5 -segmented, tapering. 

Legs as in other Diarthrophnllids, generally directed forwards, shoitej thai) 
body, I tapering, tarsi without ambulacra and apieally bifid, with a lung apical 
.tela (shown in Lombardinfs fig. II as arising from the tibia), Il-IV stouter mid 
somewhat longer than I, taisi with large pad-like ambulacra but no claws, leg 
setae minute and sparse, without any long setae on femur or genu and only a 
Tew moderately long setae subapically on tarsi. 

Male Uctutype, Fig. 4A-E.— Of rather elongate shape with slight constriction 
posterior of coxae IV. Length of idiosnma 180^, width 24(V, 

Dorsum— With single dorsal shield 442yu long by 22G> wide, anteriorly, sur- 
rounded by a narrow band of striated cuticle (Fig- 4B), one pair of long J6u> 
setae posterior of the shield. 

Vent vr f Fig, 4A. as figured: tritosternum with conical base flanked by a 
pair ol setae and with paired laemiae; sternal, endopodul, met asternal and 
ventral shields coalesced to an elongated shield extending well beyond coxae 
IV but still widely separated from anal shield, with 1 pairs of short setae, the 
anterior pair somewhat behind anterior margin, the. shield is 336'/* long and 
12{) { x wide he{\vecn coxae IN and 1 I0,a wide posterior of coxae IV, hi the inter- 
cuxal portion lies the perigenital ring 67/a long and 43/* wide, containing the 
backward!)' directed, double-segmented sternogymal shield Q3u long by 3S,u 
wide with the anterior part 48/t long, the sternogyuial shield is fused aotcfrorly 
with the sternal portion; bel\v<?en the ventral shield and the anal is a xxiir n£ 
short wider spaced .setae; anal shield small, triangular, 2S,u wide by 2Sm long 
with adanal setae 9G>* Jong; stigma situated between eo\ae II and III and 
apparently more duisal than ventral, without peritreme, 

Gnutlnmmui, Fig. 4C, Di with 3 pairs of hypostoma] setae, the anterior 
pair much longer than the others, and with paired styli; dorsally with helmet- 
shaped tectum, labial cornicles moderately long; palpi 5-segmeuted, without 
rmy long setae oh femur or genu; chciicerac, Fig. 4E, with short edentate chelae, 
the fixed digit with subapieal hyaline excrescence. 

/.eg.?.— Six-segmented, I slender and much shorter than the rest>, r92y ( with- 
out ambulacra or claws, tapering, genu with a very long simple seta, tarsus 
apieally bifid with a long terminal seta, coxae coalesced to form a single trans- 
verse shield, II very stout, much more so than HI or IV and armed on femur 
with a strong inner process and a sum I hi' one subapically, tarsus with ambulacra 
of a large pad but no elaws : subapieally with a strong claw-like spur, length uf 
leg 336/1, width of femur 72/l; III and IV thicker than 1 ( ISHfi long, without any 
lone, setae except on tarsi when they are only of medium length, tarsi with large 
ambulacra but no claws. 

Remarks — The male is a remarkable creature and should the correlation uf it 
with the female described earlier by Komhardini be correct, then the character 
of the enlarged and armoured leg II can be considered a generic cluLructer, 
Another remarkable feature is that the stigma, normally between coxae TIT and 
IV in the female, is in the male placed between coxae II and III as is {dearly 
indicated in Lomburdinfs original figure. The rediscovery of the species in 
both sexes is badly needed to verify the above features and check the correhiti'm, 

In his IV)43 paper Lombardhrj also described and figured (Fig. ,3) what he 
regarded as the larva of quart ricaudata. Amongst the slides sent to nifl bv Dr. 
Lomhurdini was that of this specimen Although in bad condition, it could be 
seen that Fmuhardinfs figure was a reasonably good one. Very regrettably, 
however, in an attempt to remount this specimen it became lost. 



From what was seen of the specimen and from Lombardini's figure and 
description, it seems pretty conclusive that on the structure of the ambulacra 
which consisted of a longish caruncle with only a small pad and paired claws on 
all tarsi, as well as the body setae, it is not a Diarthrophallid and probably does 
not belong to the Uropodina. Until rediscovered little more can be said. 

Passalobia major Lornb., 1938. 

Fitt. 5. 
Lombardini, G., 1938. Mem. Soc. entom. ital., 17 (1), p. 120, fig. IT. 

This species was described from the nymph only, from under the elytra 
of Passalfcls from Brazil. Amongst the slides sent to me by Dr. Lombardini 
were two nymphs of this species, one of which in good condition appears to be 


Fig. 5-Fasmlobia major Lomb., J 938. Nymph: A, venter; B, gnatbosoma from below; 

G, tectum. 

that figured by Lombardini. It differs slightly, however, in the shape of the 
ventral shield and is refigured and redescribed as follows; 

Trif any mph— Body of elongate bilobed form with a strong constriction behind 
coxae IV, length of idiosoma 480//, anterior portion 298/x wide, posterior portion 
187^ wide and across the constriction 115^. 

Dorsum? Fig. 5A.— Dorsal shield entire, roughly contouring the body shape 
36(V long by 206/* wide, posteriorly with a pair of submarginal long setae 67/x 
apart and IJfijj* long and directed forwards, 

Venter, Fig. 5A,— Tritostcrnum with paired lacunae and flanked by a pair of 
setae; with a single elongated shield 240/* kmg and 94/* at the widest part be- 
tween coxae III > extending well past coxae IV but not nearly reaching anal 


shield, with 5 pairs of small setae; endopodal .shields not marked; anal shield 
small, triangular, 21/2 wide by 2 1/j. long with a pair of forwardly directed setae 
57/i, long. 

Cnafhowma, Fig. 5B, with three pairs of hypostornal setae, the anterior 
pair much the longest., with long salivary .styli, dorsally with helmet-shaped 
tectum. Fig, 5C; palpi 5-scgmented, without long setae on femur or genu Kg, 
5H; chehcerac not clearly seen. 

Legs.—L the sliortest and slender, 192// long with a long seta on genu, tarsus 
apieallv biQd with a long terminal seta but without ambulacram, envae coalesced 
to form a single transverse shield; 11-1V stouter, 210/* long, without any long 
setae, with pad-like ambulacra but no claws*. 

Remarks — This would seem to be a valid species, differing from the uymph 
of liuadrkwtdata I,onib. finned as a male by him (192(1). in the shot lei* ventral 
shield and in the shorter dorsal and anal setae. 

Genus Passaj ana nov. 

"this genus is erected lor the very curious .species desnibed in 19.11 In 
Lorubardini under the name of Vaxsalohio peritrcwativa. The genus may be 
diagnosed as follows: 

Diurthrophallidae in that legs 1 are antennaeforrn without ambulacra or 
claws and with the tarsus apieally bifid with long terminal seta; legs JI-IV 
stouter than T with large ambulacra but no claws; body shape obovate with a 
single dorsal shield, with only one pair of long dorsal setae sub-posteriorlv on 
cuticle between dorsal shield and end of body; sternal shield extending only 
slighfly beyond coxae TV and into the angles between coxae Jl and III, and 
between coxae 111 and IV; ventri-anal shield large with a pair of small sub- 
anterior setae and a pair of long adanal setae; stigma between coxae XJ J and 
TV with long tubular blunt-ended peritreme with a number of indistinct chambers 
and extending backwards and free of the body almo,st to the end of it; coxae of 
leu r coalesced; tectum helmet-shaped. Type Pasmlobia perilrematien I.omb 

The unique ipeeimen is redescribed thus: 

Passalana peritrematica (Lumb.). 
Ltmiltarcliiii, C 19.51. Keilia 36, 2nd «cr., pp. 245-247, fi^. 1. 

Of this species Lombardini states that he had found only two females from 
under the elytra of Passalid beetles from Brazil. 

It is clear from his figure, however, as well as from the single specimen now 
extant and amongst the slides he sent me. that the specimens are not adult in 
that there is no sign of the genital organs. True there is a peculiar large ring 
nidi crenulate margin lying between the third and fourth coxae which might 
suggest on superficial examination an ovum in situ; that it is not so, is evident 
from the absence of genitalia and the fact that (I appears to be on the dorsal 
surface. Until fresh material can be examined the precise nature of this feature 
is problematical, but it is possibly a dorsal protuberance which in mounting 
has been depressed to give the ring-like appearance; the marginal erenulations 
till to some extent extend on to the surface from the margin inwards. 

HympK fr'ig. GA-C— Shape of body obovate, idiosoma 528p long by 199/j. wide, 
widest part m liue of coxae 111. 

Dorsum^ Fig. 6B; with a single dorsal slneld as shown, which is only 
separated frum the margin of the body anteriorly and ends about midway be- 
tween coxae IV and the anus t with only one pair of long simple setae margin- 
ally, which are 82/*. apart, 53/i. from the anus* and 72/i. loug. 



Venter, Fig. 6A.— Tritosternum with short conical base flanked by a pair 
of setae and with paired laciniae; with the sternal and endopodal shields 
coalesced, with almost straight anterior margin, 120/a, and strongly convex 



posterior margin extending to slightly beyond acetabula IV, length of shield 
140> 3 width between intercoxal angles 120/a, with 3 pairs of setae; anal shield 
large, apparently embracing the ventral, with strongly convex anterior margin 
and sides contouring the body margin, 72^ long, 82/e wide, with the anus and 


adanal .setae posterior, adanal setae simple and 96/* long, sub-anteriorly and 
about 5Q> apart is a pair of short setae; stigma small and situated between 
coxae TT I and TV with a long, sausage-like chambered pcritremc, 150ii long and 
ea. 12// Wide which lies free from the body and is directed backwards. 

Giwthosoitm with 3 pairs of hypostomal setae, the anterior pair much the 
longest, with a pair of long hypostomal styli; tectum helmet-like (Fig. 6C); 
palpi 5-segmented, without any very long setae; chclicerae not clearly seen. 

Legs— All 6-segmentecl, I the longest, 1J5S/*, but not so stout as II-IV, anten- 
nacform, without ambulacra or claws, tarsi apically bifid with a long apical 
seta, a very long node sela on genu: legs II-IV stouter, with large ambulacra 
but no claws, without any long setae on any segments, 11 216/»., Ill 178y, IV 
17S/.*; coxae or leg I coalesced to form a transverse shield. 

Remarks.— The curious ring structure noticed above is HO/i, in diameter. 

Key to the Subfamilies, Genera and Species of the DiarthrophalHdae, 

1. Tectum bi- or quadrifureate; dorsum generally with some long ciliated 
capitate setae 2 

Subfam. Diarthraphallhiae Trag- 
Tectum helmet-like with apical spike, not bi- or quadrifureate; dorsum with 
only one pair of sub-poslerior long simple setae. 5 

Subfam. Fassalobiinoe now 

2. Of broadly oval body form, with some long ciliated capita! e dorsal selae. 3 
Of elongate form, without any dorsal long setae. Ventral shield reaching 
to the anal, with longitudinal lines. Tectum bifurcate. 

Gen. Braclu/tremelJoides nov. 
B. striata Worn., I960. 

3. Genital orifice of female closed behind by a semicircular suture; coxae of 
leg 1 not coalesced, fragmented. Tectum quadrifureate, with inner elements 
ciliated basallv. 

(a) With 6 pairs of long dorsal setae. 

(b) With 5 pairs of long dorsal setae. 

Gen. DiarlhrophaUus Trag,, J 946. 
D. ipiervus (Pearse ct ah, 1936). 

D t duvdvcimpilom (Lomb., 1938). 
— shnilis Trag., 1946*. 
Genital orifice open behind, genital shield coalesced with ventral. 4 

4. Merapodal shields present, large and not coalesced with ventral. Tectum 
bifurcate. Dorsum with only 3 pairs of long setae posteriorly. 

Gen. LombardinMla nov. 
L. totnbardimi Worn., 1960. 
Metapodal shields absent or fused with ventral. Tectum bi- or quadrifureate. 
Dorsum with more than 3 pairs of long setae, not confined to the posterior. 

Gen. Brachytremella Trag., 1946. 

(a) With 6 pairs of long dorsal setae of which the second pair from the front 
are only half the length of the others. Tectum quadrifureate with the 
inner elements the longest. 

B. iraganlhi Worn*, 1960, 
With all the dorsal setae equally long (b) 

(b) With 5 pairs of long dorsal setae. Tectum quadrifureate with the inner 
elements the longosl. 

B spinom Trag.. 1946 
With 4 pairs of long dorsal setae. Tectum bifurcate. 

B. bomemisszai Worn., 1960. 


5. Body constricted more or less behind coxae IV then widening. 

Gen. Passalobia Lomb., 1926. 

(a) In nymph with ventral shield although surpassing coxae IV not nearly 
reaching anal; adanal setae much shorter than dorsal. 

P, major Lomb... 193S, 

(b) In nymph with ventral shield nearly reaching anal; adanal setae as long 
as dorsal setae. In male leg II with femoral apophyses and subapical 
tarsal spur, and stigma between coxae II and III. 

P. quadricaudata Lomb,, 1926, 
Body form obovate, tapering from coxae IV; with backwardly directed long 
and free, chambered peritremes. Tectum bifurcate. (Only known from 
nymph. ) 

Gen. Passalana now 
P. penlrematica (Lomb., 1951). 


Camtn., J. H., and Corirossi, F. E m 1955. Revision of the Suborder Mesostigmata (Acarina) 

based on New Interpretations of Comparative Morphological Data. Spec. Bull. II, 

Chicago Acad. Sei., pp. 1-70. 
Lombardini, G., 1926. Duo nova genera acarorum. Boll. Soc. cnt. it&L 58 (9-10), pp. 

Lombakdini, G,, 1938, Acari novi. Mem. Soc. ent. itul., 17 (1), pp. 44-46. 
Lojvirardini, G., 1938. Acari novi II. Mem. Soc. ent. itaL, 17 (1), pp. 118-120. 
Lombardini,. G., 1943. Acari. Tl masehio adulto e larva di feminius della specie Passalobia 

quadricaudata Lomb. rAgricoltura Coloniale, 37 (3), pp. 3-6. 
LoMBARDiNr, G., 1951. Acari nuovi. Kedia, 36, pp. 245-250. 
Pearse, A. S. ; et al.., 1936. The Ecology of Passalus cornutus Fabr., a beetle which lives 

in rotting logs. Ecol. Monog., No. 6, pp. 455-490. 
Tracardh. L, 1946. Diarthrophallina, a new group of Mesostigmata, found on Passalid 

beetles. Ent. Medd., 24 (6), pp. 369-394, 



by Michael J. Tyler 


Twenty-one specimens of Hemidactylus frenatus (Dumeril and Bibron) were examined at Rangoon, 
Burma; the stomach contents were listed and observations were made on the feeding habits of 
several communities. Consideration of these observations and records of geckos ingesting prey 
normally regarded as aposematic, led to the conclusion at insufficient evidence exists for it to be 
possible to establish whether H. frenatus is a discriminate feeder, although it has been previously 
believed to be so. 




by Michael J. Tyler* 

[Read 12 May 1960] 


Twenty-one .speeimens of Jlentidactylua frenatus (Dinneril and Bibron) 
were examined at Rangoon, Burma; the stomach contents were listed and ob- 
st*jv;ititni!j were made on the feeding habits Cat several communities. Considera- 
tion or these observations and records of geckos ingesting prey normally 
regarded as aposematic, led lo the conclusion thai insufficient evidence exists 
for it to be possible to establish whether IL frenatus is a discriminate feeder, 
although it has been previously believed to be SO, 


Numerous references to studies of Hemidacft/lus spp. may be found in 
bibliographies of zoological literature, and H. frenatus is probably one of the 
better kuown species. 

Several papers list food items which were accepted, or examined, but re- 
jected, by the geckos. Of these the most comprehensive is probably that by 
Sevastopulo (1936) in India, whilst a note by Lamborn (1921) of an observation 
in Malaya on a species which was possibly H. frenatus, is also of interest. More 
recently Nagtegaal (1954) in a paper describing his successful method of breed- 
ing specimens of //, frciwtus and H. platxjurus (Schneider) from eggs exported 
from Indonesia to Holland, mentioned the food items accented or rejected in 

The present investigation, which is based on observations made at the 
Young Men's Christian Association, Llaumadaw Branch Hostel at Rangoon, 
Burma, during the period 13th-28th December, 1958. was carried out to deter- 
mine the range of prey ingested. Close attention was paid to observations of 
feeding habits to determine whether this species is a selective feeder. 


In the majority of eases the specimens were collected by hand hot, when 
not within reach, capture was quite simply effected by means of a large butterfly 

After the geckos had been lolled with carbon tetrachloride vapour, the 
following data was recorded prior to dissection: the length of the body, includ- 
ing the tail, measured dorsaliy from the external nares to the extremity of the 
tail; the length of the body, excluding the tail, measured ventrally from the 
anterior extremity of the lower jaw to the vent; the tail was examined for the 
presencc of scars revealing previous loss and subsequent regeneration of that 
appendage. The stomach was then removed and the contents examined and 

a Department of Human Physiology and Phunnaeulo.ey. The University of Adelaide. 
Trans, Roy. Soc, S. Aust, (1961). Vol. 84. 



During the hours of daylight II. frewtus lives in crevices in walls within 
hftagesj restaurants, shrips, etc.. hut at an hour or two before dusk the geckos 
emerge, and at night are to be found congregating near electric lights in search 
oi insects. 

hi Calcutta geckos were seen clinging to the plate glass windows of shops 
below neon lights, whilst the outer surf-ace of warehouse walls on the docksidc 
at Surabaja, Java, provided a hunting ground for several hundred specimens. 

The specimens examined at Kangoon Y.M.C.A. were captured on the 
walls of the dormitories, staircase, showers and lavatories, and on the walls of 
A small cafeteria situated adjacent to the Y.M.C.A. 

The status of H, fren/itus in private dwellings in Burma is a rather unusual 
one. There is no doubt that its presence is beneficial to the occupants, for the 
control of household insect pests, a fact noticed also in the Philippines by 
Taylor (1922). However, since many of these Burmese people arc Buddhists, 
aud the beliefs of some of these followers restrain them from harming even an 
insect, it is probable that geckos would be tolerated in houses even if such a 
symbiotic relationship did not exist. Furthermore, it widely accepted super- 
stition exists which states that if a person is bitten by a gecko, he or she must 
immediately drink water for, it the gecko does so before the victim, the victim 
will die. It is claimed by others that this myth applies only to the Tokay (Gecko 
gecko) but, whatever the origin, there appears to he a distinct reluctance 
atnongst some Burmese to handle these creatures. The bite of both can be most 
painful and that of the Tokay severe, but it is worthwhile reflecting here that 
only two species of venomous lizard exist in the world, one in North America 
anil the other in Borneo. The result is that the geckos |n Burma are 
respected, tolerated and therefore permitted to propagate their kind unmolested 
in the habitations of man. 


The Cekkonidae are well known for their rapid rate of growth, and Cagle 
(1016) records one species (1L garuoti Dumeril and Bibron) completing develop- 
ment in 30-40 davs* of hatching from the egg. Nagtegaal's captive specimens of 
//. fremitus, however, took considerably longer, and a specimen which mea- 
sured 35-10 mm. total length when hatched on 31.8.5,% had only mtohed a length 
of 70 mm. six weeks later. His specimens had been reared in a terrarium at 
a temperature of 25 ri C. ; and it is probable that the optimum temperature, based 
on Uwt experienced during the season when the eggs are laid, is several degrees 
htghci than this figure. 

Tlie histogram in Fig. 1 compiled from the body lengths (measured ven- 
trally from the vent to the snout) of the twenty-one Burmese specimens, reveals 
a rltsiiiiet bimodality representing juvenile and adult specimens. In view of the 
small number of individuals involved, it is not possible to determine here whether 
the adult specimens (55-70 mm. body length) represent one or more fenerations. 


The method of approach of .//. jrcnaftts to an insect is initially a rapid move- 
ment followed by one of great stealth, until the gecko is within a few inches 
of its prey when it mades a sudden rush at the object. The tongue plays little 
or no part in the capture which is accomplished by a rapid movement of the 
jaws. The writer's observations support those of Sevastopulo who considered 
that ihis last rush is provoked by some slight movement on the part of the prey. 



At the Rangoon Y.M.C.A. fierce competition for food items was observed 
amongst the geckos, well illustrated by the following example. Two mature 
specimens simultaneously approached the same food item, a dragonfly, and the 
larger upon noticing that a competitor existed, turned from the prey and at- 
tacked the other gecko. Despite the fact that the commotion disturbed the 
dragonfly, which hurriedly escaped, the larger gecko, which already lacked one 
eye, grasped the smaller by the lower jaw and clung there for several minutes. 

40 45 50 55 60 65 70 

Length in millimetres 

Fitf. I.— Histogram of body lonyfhs of specimens examined. Ilori- 
yrrnbil scale: bod}' lengths in millimetres; vertical scale: frequency. 

Each lizard in turn made violent spasmodic sideways movements with its head, 
with the result that in a few minutes both were bleeding profusely and at the 
end their issue remained apparently undecided. 

Whether tins attack by the larger upon the smaller was, as it appeared, 
to be induced solely as competition for the same food item or whether a distinct 
territorialism also exists as a contributory factor could not be determined. 


A total of eighty-three food items were recovered from the twenty-one 
stomachs examined, and is tabulated in the form of a point frequency diagram 
in Fig. 2. Facilities for the detailed identification of the stomach contents were 
not available at the time that the observations were made. The food items 
were therefore only classified to the orders and occasionally to the familv. 



Three stomachs each contained single specimens of Hymenoptera of which 
one was an aphid (Family: Aphididac), another an ant (Family: Formicidae), 
whilst the remaining specimen was in such an advanced state of digestion that 
identification was impossible. Of eight specimens of Coleoptera recovered from 
four stomachs, digestion was advanced in seven cases, but the eighth was a 
member of the Curculionidac Family. 

The seventeen Lepidoptcra found in a total of eleven stomachs consisted of 
ten adult microlepidoptcra and seven adult macrolepidoptera. Of the latter, 
the bulk of the food item was frequently large in comparison with the size of 














































Fig. 2.— Point frequency diagram of 
stomach contents. Horizontal scale: 
types of prey; vertical scale : nurvi- 
her of specimens recovered from 

the predator. The wing spau measurements of the three largest prey were 
33 mm., 28 mm., and 21 mm. from predators with body lengths of 65 mm., 
55 mm., and 48 mm. respectively. 

Three stomachs each contained two nymph crickets (Orthoptcra: Family 

Diptera were the prey most frequently ingested and a total of thirty-five 
specimens (of which fourteen were mosquitoes, Family Culicidae), were re- 
covered from thirteen stomachs. 

The remainder of the food items consisted of five small Hemiptera, one 
dragonfly: Zygoptera, and five spiders (Arachnida: Family Araneae). 


As has been revealed by the observational data, the habit of large numbers 
of geckos to congregate together results in fierce competition between them for 
any potential food item. It is therefore most interesting to note instances where 


none of the geckos in a group would attempt to capture a particular type of 
insect Such a case is described in a note by Lamhorn (1921), who observed 
three geckos separately examine a specimen of Hypva (— Asola) ulciphron Cram. 
which had sealed upon the ceiling of a room in his house at Kuala Lumpur. 
Mc noted that although geckos captured, or attempted to capture, other species 
thev ignored the H* alriphnm. Cott (1955) concluded lhat this was an example 
(if selective feeding 1>ut a since Lamborn stated that the moth did not move at 
all during ihe period that it was examined by the geckos, and thus did not 
provoke attack as was found to be necessary by Scvastopulo and Hie wn'ler, it 
would not appear to he qm'te as convincing an example as Cott believed. 

A much better example of geckos avoiding a type of prey is that mentioned 
by Scvastopulo, who observed geckos approaching the bee. Apis mcllif era mdhn, 
and then retreating from it. Since the bee would be regarded as disHnctlv 
aposematic this reaction is perfectly normal if ihe predator is a discriminate 
feeder, ft is therefore indeed quite remarkable when the same author found 
that Jhc brilliantly coloured larva of Varaspa Irpida Cr., which, covered with 
urricating bristles, must be considered distinctly aposematic although proeryptic 
in its natural surroundings, was devoured by the geckos promptly. 

The present Burmese data reveal that a wide variety of prey is ingested 
in the probable proportion in which they occurred in the hostel. Mosquitoes 
and other Diptcra were undoubtedly the insects most frequently occurring there, 
and it is therefore not surprising that these insects were found with equal 
frequency in the stomachs examined. None of the items could be regarded 
as aposematic. 

Since many of the prey are to be regarded as household pests, it is estab- 
lished that the presence of 11. frenatus is beneficial to the occupants. 

Although examples of feeding which are clearly selective do occur, the con- 
verse cases are just as frequently recorded, and it is therefore concluded that 
there is insufficient evidence to date to assume that II. frenatus is a discriminate 
feeder, if discrimination of prev is determined by the visual senses. 


I wish to acknowledge the helpful advice received during the preparation 
of this paper from Professor R. K Whehm and Dr. 1. S. de la Landc (Depart- 
ment of Human Physiology and Pharmacology, the University of Adelaide), 
and Mr. F. J. Mitchell (Curalor of Reptiles, the South Australian Museum ), 

My thanks are also due to Miss J. Kayner for typing the manuscripts, Mr- 
M. E. Maude for his assistance in the capture of some of the specimens, and 
Mr b Leenders for his translation of Nagtegaal's paper, 


CAf.LE, K tt,, .104(5, A lizard papulation on '1 inian. CovK'iu, T pp. 4-9. 

CoT-r, TT t B., L955. Adaptive Colouration iu Animals. MtHhucic London, 

Lamborn, W. A., 1921. A Hypsiri moth inspected and neglected by Geckos, Pioo, F.nt, 

Soc. Loudon, p. 7. 
Na«.;tko*ai . J. ; 1954. Mijn evaxiugon met Tjitjaks. Lactera, 12 f 2; 1, pp. 10-11. 
Skvastoi-'ilo. D. G.. 193f>. The. prev of house lizard* (lh<)mdact\)lu\ sp.) in Calcutta. T'roc. 

Roy. Ent. Sue. London, 11, pp.' 91-92, 
Tavi.oh, K. 11., L922, The Lizards of tin? Philippine Islands. I'uhl. JSo. 17, .Hun/aii o( 

Science. Manila, pp. 269, oTl, 



byN. H. Ludbrook 


Eighteen bores in a previously unknown locality at Maralinga in the west of South Australia 
established a sequence of about 1,000 feet of Proterozoic (Marinoan) shales and sandstones resting 
on diorite. These are overlain by a thin series of kaolinizcd grits of either Permian fluvio-glacial 
origin or of Mesozoic age with reworked Permian glacigenes. They are followed by thin paralic 
Eocene silts and limestone with a relatively thick cover of Tertiary to Recent terrestrial sands. 
Extension of the Eucla Basin to the north is disproved, although there has been over-deepening into 
the Proterozoic in the vicinity of Tietken's Plains probably as the result of Permian glaciation. 



by N» Hi Ludbkouk* 

[Read 9 June 1960] 


Eighteen bores in a previously unknown locality at Maralinga in the Vi&st 
of South Australia established a sequence of about 3,000 feet Of Proterozoie 
(Marinoan) shales and sandstones resting on diorite. These fire overlain by a 
thin series of grits of either Permian iiuvio-glacial origin or of 
Mesozoic age with reworked Peruvian glacigencs. They arc followed by thin 
pantlic Eocene silts and limestone with a relatively thick cover of Tertiary 
to Recent terrestrial sands. 

Fxtonsiou of the Eucla Basin to the north is disproved, although there has 
been over-deepening into the Proterozoie in the vicinity of Tletkcn's Plains' rtfob- 
ably as the result of Permian glaeiaticm. 


During 1954 and 1955 a survey was conducted by the South Australian 
Department of Mines to locate supplies of underground water for the Long 
Range Weapons Kstablisbrnent project at Maralinga. Eighteen percussion bores 
were drilled fa an area extending from 15 miles north of Watson on the Trans- 
continental Railway through Maralinga and Tietken's Plains to Mareoo, 45 miles 
north of Watson. 

Maralinga is located near ihe north -eastern margin of the Eucla Basin. 
Prior to the investigation the subsurface stratigraphy and geological structure 
of the terrain immediately to the uoith of the Eucla Basin were unknown. 
When the first (Numbers I to 5) bores drilled at Tietkcns Plains in 1954 estab- 
lished the presence of older Tertiary sediments it was thought that there might 
be an extension of the Eucla Basin to the north beyond the. margin as it is at 
present delimited by the Nullarbor Limestone. Subsequent drilling showed 
this not to be the ease, although Eocene .seas gained access to the overdeepened 
shallow basin at Tietken's Plains. 


Stratigraphie units intersected by the wells are as follows: 


depth related Approximate 

to sea level thickness 

(feel:) (feet) 

Tertiary to Recent non-marine .sediments ... + 900 to -j- 500 48 to 500 

Upper Eocene brvo^oal calearenite (Wilson 

Bluff Limestone) * -460 to +300 100 

Eoeene paralie silts and sands with lignite 4- 430 to 4* 330 1 00 

rTcmrian kaolinitic grits and sandstone ... +410 to +270 J 20 

Upper Proterozoie chocolate and blue shales 

and brown sandstone ... ... +380 to —751 1,426' 

?Arehaean diorite ... ... ;i . — 751 

* Palaeontologist, Geological Survey of South Australia, Published with the permission 
of the Director of Mines. 

Trans. Roy. Sot. S. Aust. (1961), Vol. 84. 


The sequence differs from that of the Eucla Basin. No marine Cretaceous 
was intersected in any of the bores, and the possible connection of the Eucla 
Basin with the Great Artesian Basin during the Lower Cretaceous was not estab- 
lished. In view of the thinness of the Cretaceous at Lake Phillipson and Mabel 

]_ j{j£TJJJ.?L?L Lf^f.L^-fX \&£fS£f**#& 

Creek it is likely that any marine sediments deposited during the Cretaceous 
have been removed by erosion. 

The Nullarbor Limestone of Miocene age was not proved to extend any 
further north than Lake Yarle, 


At 1,720 feet Bore 7 entered fine-grained diorite presumed to belong to 
the basement complex, though intrusive diorites are known to occur in the 
Upper Proterozoic (B, P. Webb, personal communication). 












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With the exception of the most northerly bores 1, 2, 4, S, all bores entered 
ill depths not greater than 631 feet a series of chocolate siltstones and shales, 
blu**-green siltstones And brown sandstones. No organic remains were delected 
in any of the cuttings. Lilhologically., the formation consists of soft cither 
chocolate siirstonc or pale grceu-blue pyritic siltstone passing downwards into 
fine to medium grey-brown sandstone or shale inter-bedded with sandstone 
,md then into chocolate shale. There is considerable mottling of the grecu- 
blue and chocolate shale. The sandstone is generally soft, and may be loose 
and unconsolidated. Siderite content is high. Dolomite or doloinitie limestone 
was intersected in Bore 17 between .122 and 170 feet This litbology is con- 
sistent with the Upper Froterozoir (MaWnoan) and the sediments are cor- 
rvlaled with the Tent Ilill Formation, which is currently placed in tlie Upper 

The formation was completely penetrated in Bore 7 [o a total thickness 
of J ,090 feel between depths of 631 feet and 1.721 foot. In ibis bore the 
following sequence occurred below 631 feet: 


git- 740 ItM.t Green iiilbtonc with sandstorm bars 109 fort 

710-1,220 foot Clioeolntc Kiltstone fnUvbroMnl with red brown i'andsiom 480 IWm 

L22&-l»3Bfl foci i-!ci1-brown aillstom* mid sundstono 140 feci 

I ,.':100 -1,370 fool Keel-brown sandstone and ■airde 10 fret 

1,370-1,690 fcrt Ohocoiah- nhftJe u*Uh ihin fiundsUm..' him 320 feel 

1, 000-1 ,000 iVcl Chocohito aifiAki «wl Mind stnrre ... 6 foot 

31,696 -1,708 IVvt Chocfttete Mink- 12 M\ 

J.70K-1.721 foct Dark red sandstone itf feet 

The formation appears to be flat-lying, the sandstones in particular giving 
very Hi! f o evidence of disturbance since their deposition, which is believed to 
have taken place under non-marine conditions. 


A maximum of 127 feet of grey-white highly kanliniaed gritty clays was 
intersected in bores north of Bore \2 y although they wore absent in Bore J2 
itself. They arc characterized by a high kaolin content and the presence of 
znuscuvitc, pyritc, and grey opalescent quartz grains to grit size. The grains 
are usually subjugular but the degree of roundness varies from angular to 
rounded. Muscovite flakes are fine and abundant, pyritc is also abundant and 
may bo present as large aggregates or nodules. Facet led pebbles occur near 
the base of the formation. 

The age of the sediments is uncertain. On (be western margin of the 
Artesian Basin south-wesi of Mount Eba and northwards from Lake Pbillipson 
surface exposures have been mapped as ?Jiuassic. it has now been shown 
(Bahne, 1957) that a thiolcnoss of at least 1.800 and possibly 3,000 feet of 
Permian tillites, clays and sandstones passing upwards into carbonaceous shales 
is present in Lake Philb'pson Bore, overluiu by some 80 feet of Lower Cretaceous 

The kaolinized grits and gritty clays in the Maralinga area may therefore 
be (hivio-gbicial sediments of Permian age or Permian glacigenes redeposited 
during the Mesozoic> probably the Lower Cretaceous. The sediments differ 
from most Permian glacigenes in South Australia in that the pebbles and pits 
consist almost entirely of quartz, generally blue-grey or opalescent and arc 
DMt heterogeneous. "JLirfa would tend to favour a younger age for the sediments 
w;lh re sorting of the material. However, they cannot be correlated lithu- 
















O O 




















?i l 


■ r 














logically with the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous Blythesdale Group of the 
Great Artesian Basin. 

The slight overdeepening of the area north of Bore 12 may well be related 
to Permian ^laciation, 


Overlying the grits arid days arc paralic dark grey-brown silty 
sands up to 100 feet thick with lignite in Rores 11 and 3B. These are of Eocene 
age. Weathering and lateritiy-ation have destroyed most of the organic remains. 
No foramimfera were recovered buL pynli/.ed shell fragments are not uncommon. 
These include Turrilelta tddmgO(/\ 'DcnfaUum sp., Nuadana sp. ? and JAvtina, 
all of which commonly occur in Upper Eocene sediments of this type elsewhere 
in South Australia. 

The carbonaceous silts occur between Bore 12 and Bore 3A and are to be 
correlated with the lignirie clays outcropping at Piclinga. 


North of Bore 3B bryozoal eaJcarenite and calcareous sands either over- 
lying or partially equivalent to the paralic silts were intersected in all bores. 
These appear lo be a marginal remnant of the Wilson Bluff Limestone (Eocene) 
of the Eucla Basin, In the sandhills area between Watson and Tierken's Plains 
the formation was either cut off in Eocene times by bedrock highs or subse- 
quently removed by erosion and formation of the high dunes. 

The ealearenite contains fairly abundant, u not very well preserved, small 
foraminifera including Sherbomitw atkinxoni (juveniles), Anomalina perthcnMS. 
Globiz,erina UnupcHa. Cibicides tnnboitifrr. Cibicides psevdoconocxtm, Herottrd- 
lenia pusilhu Planorbulina sp., and other small forms, 


The northern margin of the Eucla Basin is marked by a series of great 
dunes, which attain a maximum thickness of about 500 feet in the neighbour- 
hood of Bores 12 to 11B. The base of the sands is generally marked by a In recite 
and ihe carbonaceous silts between Bores and 11 show evidence- of lateritiza- 
tion. The sands are generally pink, red, ot yellow in colour near the base and 
are rich in iron minerals. For the most part they consist uf up to 200 feet of 
Due cream sand with some coarse rounded grey quartz grains. 

On Tietkens Plains Bores 1 to 5 passed through lake marls and sands with 
fresh water oolitic limestone containing ostracodes. 

Bore 1, 

0-120 fact Existing well with bryozoal cak-aretiite occurring somewliero in the julervul. 
Uie evict UuekuesS bi>im/ indeterminable. Sample K 10/5-1, collected from 
spoil rrmsiits of a fmc-graiufcil >elkiw cukarenite \yilh abundant bryo?.oa 
and the following foniUHinfera: Tvxtularut sp., OrntoHtw sp.. Put'udu^ian- 
ituUna cfurkei Pmr, Lazma spp., Fiimritia sp., Vu&iwdnw ef.. jmtcm Brady, 
Yiia'mulUia pp._. Marxirwlirw ^ sjj; ( Guftulina irrciitrfaw d'Orlrigny, Gultuhna 
sp., Gultulirm pruhfcina d'Orbi^ruy. Angtilo^erhia spp L( Tiifarinu hradyi 
disannul, BolirJtm spp.. Gassiduh'ta spp., GymUfina Sp. a Alahamina sp., 
CihicUlcH vortex Doircen, Cihicidc-t jwettdaconrexut Parr, Cibicidra um- 
hortffer Parr, Ant»n(iHiut )irrtheum FwT; Gli>hii:,orina linttperia Finluy, 
PUutorhuliua tip., Astronattion sp., Nonion sp., Elphldium spp., Hcronallenia 
j.msilla Parr. Xotarotalit/ sp. nov\, Sht-'rhnruina {jthinxom (juvenile). The 
assemblage »s of tipper Eocene aire. 

56 N. H. LU OB HOOK 

121-137 feet F 15/34 to F (6/54. White pyritic ijiuirfsaiss kaolhrized clay with abundant 

Quartz grains mostly clear, angular to subrounded with etched surface. 
137-145 feet F 17/54 tr> K 18/54. Fine to coarse micaceous quart/, sand into clay, pyritu 

and lunointc. 
145-180 feet F 19/54 to F 20/54. White* sandy micaceous tiny with quartz pebhles. 
1SO-200 feet Quartz sandstone vPilh pyrite, mnseovitc and siderite. 

From 121-200 feet the boring is in the kaolinized PFermian grits. 

Bore 2. 

0- 12 feet Samples F 22/54 to F 21/54, Brown soil and day subsoil. 
12- 39 feet F 25/54 to F 27/54. Brown bull and pink calcareous clay or marl and 

argillaceous limestone ol lacustrine origin with probable ostraeodes. 
39- 48 feet F 28/54. Brown argillaceous sand with huge rounded quartz grains and 

small angular to suhangular grains. 
48- 60 feet F 29/54. YHUrw calcareous quartz sandstone. 
60- 75 feet F 30/54. Yellow fossiliferous calcareous sandstone with a mierofauna 

similar to that of Bore 1, F 10/54, including Lagena spp. ; Va^hmlinu cf. 

pateHs, Cuttulina sp., Angulogerhut spp,, Trdarina sp., Bolivina spp., Cus- 

sididina sp., Gyroldhm sp , Alabamina sp M Cdifckle-i umbonifer, C/bicides 

spp., Arumiulhw perthen^is, SJicrbomiw atkimoni. 
7.5- 95 feet F 31/54 to F 33/54. Yellow calcareous sandstone with a few nucrofossils 

i winding Cibinidcs timhonifcr, Rcw<sella sp., Notorotaiia sp. 
Scdimeuts from 48-95 feet are of Upper Koceuc age. 

Bore 3. 

0- 50 feet F 34/54 to F 38/51 Red brown surface soil, groy-hrown clay and sand- 

50- 82 feet F 39/54 to F 41/54. Yellow coarse f ossiferous calcareous sandstone pass- 
ing into limestone, Cibtcidex nmhnnifvr occurs throughout, and from 
71-82 feet is associated with species of VaginutintK Spirit) 'ina, Cibiculcs and 

82- 91 feel F 42/54. Yellow fossihferuus crystalline limestone with echinoderm spines, 
ostraeodes and small foramuiiFera including Lwiena spp., Ariguloizer'ma sp., 
Guroidina sp., Cibicides umbonijvr, C, psctidtningerianus, C. vortex, C. 
lobatulus, C spp., liotorbindla sp. r Plwiorhulhut sp.. ElphidUim sp,, Slier- 
barnirtu s*p. 

91- 98 feet F 43/54. Dark grey carbonaceous sandy clay with pyrire and a few fora- 

ininifcra, including Heimvlla sp. T CihU:idt:s itmbanifer, Cibicides sp„ and 
Elphidium sp. 

From 48-98 feet the boring passed through Foeenc sediments. 
98-207 feel F 44/54 to F 47/54. F MO/51 to F 143/54. Grey white gritty kaolin 
and sandy clay with massive kaolin at 190-207 feet. 
207-225 feet F 144/54 to K 145/54. Grey mostly coarse clayey quart./ sand. 

Below 98 fret the formation is "the kaolimtie grits of ?Fernrian age, 

Bore 4. 

0- o'8 feet K 147/54 to F 154/54. "Bed brown surface soil, calcareous clays., fresh- 
water oolitic limestone and brown sand. 

68- 90 feel F 155/54 to F 157/54. Yellow calcareous sandstone with a few fora- 
mmiicra including Cibicides wnhonifcr, 

90- 92 feet F 158/54. Ferruginous sandy clay with an assemblage of small forammi- 
fcra, including Bolwinop&ix awpbicic, Angulogcrhw spp., Trifarina bradtji, 
rXcttxsella sp., CibinldcH uirdionifcr, CAhicidcx cf. refulgent. CH?icidc6 %PP- ? 
Stomulorbhia concetitnca, PutcUlna cf. wyrrugntn, Gl V tbiger i tui sp., Giimhclirta 
sp- Elphidium sp.. Nonioa sp. 

92- 95 feet F 159/54, Diirk grey gritty carbonaceous clay with dark grey nodules, 

carbonaceous matter, pyrite, Hmonirc anil a small forammifcral assemblage 
with Angirfogeritut sp. 7 Reusxclla sp.. Cibicides ambimifcr, Cibicidt's spp., 
Ghtbiwrimt sp.. Gumbcliria sp.. Alubamina sp. 

Eocene sediments occur between 63 and 95 feet. 
95-102 feci F 1G0/54. Grey gritty clay with angular quartz grains, lhnonUe and pyrito, 

Bore j 



43 feet 


6*2 feet 


78 feet 


«7 fret 


F 120/54 to^ F 127/54. Red brown surface sand and clay, passing down- 
wards into fine light brown and pale yellow sand. 

F 128/54 to F .120/54, Fine yellow calcareous micaceous sand with broken 
eehinodenn spines and Nucutoivi from 53-62 feet. 

YeUow fossiliferous calearenite with bryozoal fragments, eehinodenn spines 
and Cihickles spp. 

F 1 31 /54 to F 133/54. Yellow sandy fossiliferous calearenite with an 
assemblage of small foraminifera including Lagena spp., Vaginulina of. 
pattern; GuttuHna sp., Trifmina sp.., Angulogerina sp,, Cihtcides vvrtex, 
Cihicules umbonifer, Cibwide'i spp., Ahbamina sp., Planorbulina sp., 
(Ujroidina sp,.. AstronuiUon sp., Sherhomina sp., Heronullenia pusitla, 

87- 9G feel F 134/54 to F 135/5 1. Dark grey gritty clay with dark grey aggregates 
described by the Petrology Section as being composed of quartz, cryplo- 
erystallmc calcium carbonate, alteration products of iron minerals, Willi 
pvrite, carbonaceous and clay material, mica in small amount. A small 
assemblage of foraminifera includes Lagetui sp., Anaulogerina spp, ? Tri- 
faritm sp., Heimella sp., CibivklL'x voiiax, Cibickh'M umhonifrr., Cibicides 
spp. : Alahaminn sp., Nonum spp. 

9fH 19 feet F 136VM, Pale grey sand, with Trifurina, AnguZo^erma, Cibicidc umboni- 
fer, Nonion sp. 

From 53 to 119 feet the boring passed through the Eocene, 
11.0-140 feel F 137/54 to F 139 '54. Grey-white micaceous kaoliuitic sandstone widi 
abundant musoovite Makes, pytiU 1 and grey aggregates of carbonaceous 
matter in sand. 

These arc the kaolmitic grits of PPermian age. 

Bore 6. 

0-451 feet 

451-531 fast 

531-5S3 feet 
563-743 feet 

This bore was examined in (he Petrology Section and de-tails of the 
heavy mineral assemblages and differentiation of the sediments are con- 
tained in Penological Laboratory Report No. 59/5-1. 

F 55/54 to F 92/54, Post-Eocene Sands. Celestito was reported by the 
Petrology Section as characterizing the interval from 384-304 feet, 
F 93/54 to F 1.00/54. Grey eajbouaceous pyritic clay and silty sands 
with pyritrvX'd shell fragments including Niif.-nfana. 

These arc of Eocene agfe 
Samples F 101 /M to K 106/51. Grey kaoliuitic and yjyritic sands. PPermian, 
F 107/54 to F 119.54. Grey partly indurated unfossilifcrous sandstones 
with abundant pyrile aud siderite. 

Present information permits correlation of this formation with rocks of 
the Marinoan Series. 

Bore 7. 

0- 98 feet Red and yellow clayey sand. 

98-303 feet Cream sand, mostly fine. 

.303-323 feet Yellow and pink fine sand. 

323-390 feet Fine cream sand. 

390-406 feet Pink medium sand. 

408-435 feet Giearn ;ind yellow medium sand. 

435-520 feet Fine pink SU ncl 

520-527 feet Pink sand and ironstone— lateritc. 

527-540 feet. Dark grey black pyritie and carbonaceous sand- 

540-567 feet Fine, dark grey carbonaceous silty sand with fine, angular to subaugular 

quartz grains, pyrite, biotite. 

5G7-595 feet Grey-white kaohnized sandstone and clay (PPermian). 

595-740 feet Green pyritie siltstone interbedded with sandstone and conglomerate. 

740-1721 ft. Chocolate and brown silrstone and shale. 

Below 959 feet the formation belongs to the Marinion Series. 
1721-1724'G" Diorile, believed to be basement. 

Bore 8. 

0- 90 feet Red-brown clayey sand and grit. 
90-324 feet Fine ereurru grey and pink sand. 
324-398 feet Reddish and yellow sand. 


398-410 feet Ked-brown sand and clay. 

419-425 feet Dark red siheified ferruginous .sandstone— latcrite. 

425-465 feet Red-brown and pink sand with ferruginous quartz pebbles ? from Jaterite. 

465-492 feet Dark grey black carbonaceous silty sand with pyritized shell fragments in- 
cluding Nucultmu sp. and pyritized brynzoa including Cellaria sp., of 
Eocene age. 

492-591 fuet Grey clayey quartz grit and kaolinized gritty silt with pebbles and flat 
boulders between 571-591 feet. (PPcrmian). 

591-617 feet Fine brown sandstone and siltstone. 

617-674 feet Chocolate siltstone. 

674-691 feet Brown sandstone. 

691-800 feet Chocolate shale. 

Sediments below 591 feet are believed to be Upper proterozoic 

Bore 9. 

0- 80 feet Red clayey sand. 

80-373 feft Fine cream sand with red sand at 245-250. 

373-395 feet Red-brown clay with conglomerate at base, probably lateritized. Eocene 

silts and sands'. 

395-470 feet Grey kaolinized sandstone and gritty clay (?Permian). 

470-493 feet Chocolate and green siltstone. 

493-580 feet Grey-buff and brown silty sandstone, 

5S0-7C0 feet Chocolate shale or siltstone. 

Boie 10. 

0- 59 feet Mainly red-brown sand and clayey sand. 
59-273 feet Fine white and cream sand. 
273-454 feet Yellow, white and pink sand. 

454-484 feet Red and pink sand, ferruginous sandstone (Platerite) at 476 feet. 
484-505 feet Dark grey carbonaceous pyritic silts and sand with numerous pyritized 
shell fragments, including "futr'tteUa aldingac" , Dentalium sp. and Nuculana 

505-587 feet Grey pyritic kaolinitie sands and gravel with abundant muscovite. { PPer- 

miau. ) 
587-605 feet Green gritty siltstone. 

605-786 feet Greenish grev siltv sandstone and shale (Upper Proterozoic— Marinoan). 
7«6-900 feet Sandy chocolate shale. 

Bore 11. 

0-115 feet Red clayey sand. 
1 1 5-275 feet Fine cream sand. 
275-325 feet Red and yellow sand. 
325-406 feet Bull and brown sand. 
406-425 feet Brown sandstone and conglomerate. 

425-469 feet Dark grey pyritic carbonaceous silts and silty sand with fine angular quartz 
grains, a few large subrounded grains and large irregular pyrite nodules. 
Ugriified wood from 457-462 feet, 
469-552 feet Gre> -white kaohnized grits and clay (?Permian). 
552-565 feet Grey-brown sandstone — Upper Proterozoic. 

Bore 12. 

0- 85 feet Pied clayey sand. 
85-325 feet Fine buff, cream and ^rey-whitc sand. 
325-440 feet pink, yellow and brown sand, Lateritc at 440 feet. 
440-444 feet Femighn'zed grey sandy and carbonaceous silt, with rounded opalescent 

quartz and pyritized shell fragments of Eocene atie r 
444-493 feet Chocolate siltstone with a little green siltstone and white sandstone bars. 
493-605 feet Chocolate and blue-green shale mterbedded with brown sandstone. 
61)5-875 feet Brown sandstone. 
875-9P3 feet Chocolate shale. 

No kaolinized grits were present in this bore, in which the paralic Eocene 
rests directly on Upper Proterozoic. 


Bore 13. 

0- 50 feet Mostly brick red clayey sand and kunkar. 
50-363 feet Mostly fine cream passing to grey-buff sand with occasional bluish opalescent 

quartz grains. 
363-438 feet Pinkish-buff, yellow and red sand and clayey sand. 
438-456* feel Dark grey-brown carbonaceous clay and silty sand, with pyrite of Eocene 

456-583 feet Brown and light blue-grey clayey sand and grit to pebble size. Facetted 

pebbles at 550-556 feet ( Pfluvio-giacial Permian). 
583-645 feet Chocolate and blue shale and sandstone (Upper Froterozoic). 
645-000 feet Chocolate shale. 

Bore 14. 

0- 68 feet Red brown sand and clayev sand. 
68-202 feet Chocolate and blue-grey siltstones and shales and brown sandstones (Upper 

Bore 15. 

0-114 feet Dark red sands and clayey sand. 

114-126 feet Yellowish-brown sticky gritty clay with nuartz grains black carbonaceous 
and pyritic aggregates, shale fragments. Trie age is uncertain, but the black 
aggregates may represent weathering or reworking of the Eocene paralic 

126-402 feet Greenish grey and chocolate siltstones and sandstones (Upper Protcrozoic ) , 

Bore 16. 

0- 78 feet Red and yellow terrestrial sands, 

78- 87 fact Yellow-brown clay of uncertain age. 

87-227 feet Blue and chocolate siltstoncx and sandstones. 
Bore 17. 

0- 80 feet Red brown clayey sand and kunkar. 

80-103 feet White sandstone — age undetermined. 

103-220 feel Red brown and white siltstone, chocolate, brown and green shale and 


Drilling of the Maralinga area has Brmly established the northern margin 
of the Euela Basin. Between Bore 16 and Bore 12 Proterozoic bedrock comes 
to within 68 feet of the surface. To the south it falls; away under the sediments 
of the LCucla Basin, and to the north it forms an apparently fairly even floor 
to the small basin filled with the ?Permian kaolinitic grits anil Eocene carbona- 
ceous sands and clays and sandy limestone. 

So far as can be deduced from bore sludges, the rocks appear to be flat- 
lying and to have been virtually undisturbed since deposition. 


Balmii, B. E. t 1057. Upper Palaeozoic microfloras in sediments from the Lake Phillipson 
Bore, South Australia. Aust. J, Sci., 20, pp. 01-62. 


byL A. Mumme 


From the average gravity value for a large number of absolute gravity stations located in the region 
of Adelaide, the average Bouguer anomaly obtained was - 11-2 milligals. From this value the 
crustal thickness of the earth in this region has been calculated to be 33 kilometres. 




T>y I. A. Mummk 

| Read 14 July I960] 


From the average gravity- value for a lur^o number of absolute gravity 
stations located in the region of Adelaide, the avn-age Brmguer anomaly obtained 
was - tl'$ milligals. 1'Yora this value the erustal thickness of the earth in this 
region has been ealeulated to be- 33 kilometres. 

World-wide geophysical investigations show that there is a regular rela- 
tionship between the erustal structure, density, elevations of the continents, and 
the related gravity anomalies. Sueh equations were applied to die Adelaide 
region where the writer carried out both elevation and absolute gravity measure- 

Geophysical work lias shown that the earth's crust floats on a vitreous sub- 
stratum referred to as the mantle. The discontinuity between the outer onist 
and the mantle rocks is a zone of seismological discontinuities and is called the 
Mohnrovicie Discontinuity. Soismological information suggests that the. mantle 
(which is the /one beneath the Mohnrovicie Discontinuity) has a constant 
density of 3-32 grammes per ec. s and the mean erustal density increases from 
a minimum value below the ocean of 2*86 grammes per ce v to 3* OS grammes 
per cc. beneath the high plateaus and mountains. 

In spite of the fact that geophysical work shows that the earth's outer crust 
is the region of the greatest density variations, nevertheless, regional isostatic 
balance occurs everywhere on the earths surface, and consequently a regular 
relationship between erustal structure, density, elevations, of eontinents and 
the related gravity anomalies occurs. 

in obtaining an average Bouguer gravity Anomaly for the Adelaide Region, 
the writer determined an average gravity value for a large number of absolute 
gravity stations located in the region with a Carter gravimeter. 

These absolute gravity values are based on an absolute gravity value of 
979-7237 gals fur the absolute gravity station located at the new Adelaide 
Observatory, The average bouguer Anomaly value obtained was —11*2 

Elevations for these stations were obtained by tieing the stations, read 
with the gravimotcr, into railway bench-marks by optical and micro-barometric 
measurements. The average elevation Mas 320 metres. 

The Bouguer gravity Anomalies were computed for the gravity stations by 
subtracting the theoretical gravity values for tin* gravity stations from the 
reduced observed gravity values by applying the 1930 International Gravity 
Formula. of the Crcstai Thickxkss tn thtc Arf.a Invkstioatko 

(1) Applying Andreevs formula, IJ~0-lAg + 30, where H is thr erustal 
thickness in Kilometres, and Ag is die Bouguer Anomaly, vve obtain a value 
of 29 kilometres, 

Trans. Roy, Soc. S. Aust. (1961), Vol. 84. 

62 I. A. MUMMK 

(2) Applying YVookrcTs equation relating elevation and depth to the Mohoxo- 
vicic Discontinuity, we obtain a value of 34 kilometres. 

(3) Applying WooJard's equation relating gravity anomaly and depth to the 
Monorovicie Discontinuity, Ave obtain a value of 32 kilometres. (From 
the relationship grapliicuilv represented in the journal of geophysical re- 
search. Vol. 64 (1959).) 

(4) Applying equation relating elevation and crustal tliickness used bv the 
Russian ^and Chinese Seismologists, 11 = 33 tanh. (0-38 /\h - 0-lS)>38, 
where 14 is the crustal thickness and Ah is the elevation, we obtain a value 
of 35 kilometres. 

(5) Applying equation relating gravity Anomaly and crustal thickness used by 
(he Russian and Chinese Seismologists, H ™ 35(1 + ninh 0*0037 Agh where 
H is the crustal thickness and Ag is the gravity anomaly, we obtain a 
value of 36 kilometres. 

(6) Applying Ilciskuncn's and Vening Meinesz's formula, namely, 

Tc-T M'45h + h, 
where Tc is the normal thickness of the earth's crust at the place of eleva- 
tion h, T is the normal thickness of the earth's crust, and h is the elevation 
of the area where the crustal thickness is Tc, wc obtain a value of 32 
Summarising these results, we have: 

Crustal Thickness Equation Applied 

(1) 29 kilometres - Audreev's equation. 

(2) 34 kilometres - Woolard's elevation method. 

(3) 32 kilometres - Woolard's gravity method. 

(4) 3f> kilometres - Russian and Chinese gravity equation. 

(5) 35 kilometres - Russian and Chinese elevation equation. 

(6) 32 kilometres - Heiskanen and Vening Meinesz equation. 
Average 33 kilonwtri'x. 

An average value of 33 kilometres for the crustal thickness in this area is 
accepted from an analysis of the above results. 


Andrekv. B. Am BJ3& Gravity Anomalies and crustal thickness of continental realms. 

C.K. Acad. Sci., U.R.S.S., U9, pp. 253-25G. 
An-'dhe&v, B, A b 1959. Relation between structural relief and gravity anomalies for the ease 

of some density layer boundaries, C.K. Acad. Sci., LMLS.S., 124, pp. 311-313. 
Hfci.sKAM-fcJN. YV\ A., and Vennsc. M^ikksz, P, A., 1958. The earth and its gravity field. 

McGmw-IIill, New York. 
Wilson, J. T., 1959. Ceopbysieal institutes of the U.S.SJi. Trans. . . . Am. Geophys. 

Union, 40> pp. 3-24. 
Wooj^Ann, G. P., 1^)43. Tranoontinenta] gravitational and magnetic profile of North America 

and the relation to geologic structures. Bull. geol. Sot*. Ame-r,, 54, pp. 740-790. 
Wooi.AVtn, G. P & 1054. Crustal structure beneath Atlantic Islands. Fioc. Roy, Sac. London. 

A. 222, pp. 361-387. 
Woolaitd, d P., 1950. Crustal structure. The Journal of Geophysical Research. Vol. 64, 

No. 10. 
Mcmmk, T. JL t I960. Absolute gravity determinations on the Sumon'ls of a number of 

prominent Hills in the Mount Lofty Ranges. Trans. Roy. Sue. S. Aust., 83, pp. 119-121. 



BY D. E. Symon 


Cercaria velesunionis, a gasterostome, is described from the fresh-water mussel, Velesunio 
ambiguus. (It is possible, but is not considered likely, that Aluthyria jacksoni can also serve as 
host.) It is not a common parasite, having been found in only 16 of 1818 mussels examined. 
It has a different excretory formula, 2 { (2 + 2) 4- ( 2 + 2) 1, from gasterostome cercariae for which 
the excretory formula has been described. Since it cannot be compared fully with cercariae for 
which the excretory formula is not known, it is assigned to a new species. The cercaria has been 
found, experimentally, to encyst in the fish Gambusia affinis, Carassius auratus, Oryzias latipes and 
Galaxias sp. Adult gasterostomes have never been identified from fresh- water fish examined in this 
department. These are Maccullochella macquariensis, Plectroplites ambiguus, Pseudaphritis urvillii, 
Tandanus tandanus, Therapon bidyana, Fluvialosa richardsoni and Macquaria australasica. 
Immature gasterostomes, probably of the same species as Cercaria velesunionis, were found in four 
Percalates colonorum. Until the adult trematode is found, Cercaria velesunionis cannot be assigned 
to a genus. 



Tart XV 

Cercaria velemnionis n. sp. 

by L- Madeline Angel* 

[Read 8 September 1960] 


Cercarkt velemmronis, a. gastei nstome. .is described from the fresh-wetter 
mns.sel s Vefvmmo ambitus. (It is pontile, but is not considered likely, that 
AlutJtyria jacksvni can also serve as host.) It is not a common parasite, having 
been found in only J6' of 1818 mussels examined. 

Jt has a different excretory formula, 2((2-r2) -f (2 + 2)}, from gastero- 
stome eereariao for the excretory formula has been described. Since 
it cannot be compared fully with eeroariae for which the excretory formula is 
not known, it is assigned to a new species. 

The cercaria has been found, experimentally, to encyst m the fish Gamhusta 
affiniti, Cbra&itts auratus, Qrytias lallpSit and CdtdXiOS sp, 

Adult &asterostonu*s have never been identified from fresh-water fish 
examined in this department. These are Mmculhchfiila mucquariensiSy Plectra- 
plite.s ambiu,uxt$ ? Pseudaphritis itrvillii, Twulenus tuudanm, Tlicrupcm bhhjanu, 
Fliwialovu richurduuui and Nacquarut umtruU/xhui. 

Immature gasteroslonies, probably of the same species as CercaHa velcs- 
umonis, were found in four Percalntt^- fioUmarum. 

Until the adult tremalode is found, Cercaria t^/c.vnmVmis: cannot be as- 
siqned to a giums. 

Type material has been deposited in the South Australian Museum. 

Fielder, in a paper read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria on 
May 10th, 1896, recorded as "the most interesting find of the month", "curiously 
aioclificd fluke embryos in the fresh-water mussel (l J nio aufitralis)", From 
Fielders short description, without figures, these were obviously gasterostome 
cercariae, and it would seem likely that it is the first record of Cercaria vdcH- 
unionis, which is described in this paper, I know of no other records of cercariae 
from fresh-water mussels in Australia. McMiehael and TTiscock (1958) list 
Unio australis Lam., of Smith, 1881, as a synonym of Velesunio awk/gw/tf; 
Unto aitrtralis Lamarck, 1819, tiiey assign to the genus Hijridella, subgenus 

In this paper is given a description of the sporocyst, cercaria, cyst and 
metaeercaria of C uekmnionis. Only immature adults have been obtained, 
however. Mature adtilts could not be obtained with attempted infections of 
three Carassius aurdtus. 

Since June, 1937, gasterostome cercariae have been identified in 16 of 1818 
fresh-water mussels collected in the River Murray between Tailem Bend and 
Morgan. They have been found on only seven occasions, in 1 of 3, 2 of 6 ; 2 of 
16, 5 of 31 and 2 of 106 mussels from Tailem Bend, in 3 of 25 from Morgan, 
and m 1 of 70 from Teal Flat. 

* Department of Zoology, University of Adelaide, 
Trans. Roy. Soc. 8. Aust. <1961), Vol. &4. 


Mussels from the River Murray were always identified as HijrklclUi aualialis 
(Lamarck). However, in 1958, MeMiehael and Hisc.ock published a "Mono- 
graph of the fresh-water mussels (Mollusca : Felccypoda ) of die Australian 
regtoi", According to this, there are two species of mussel in the Tuilem Hend- 
Murgan stretch of the Murray. Vctesunio ambiguus (Philippi) and Alafhyria 
fatksorii Iredale. Of the sixteen infected mussels collected, ten are .still avail- 
able and arc now identified as Veleswiio ambiguus. My impression is drat 
probably no Ahiihyria iacksoni (fully thrown shells of which ai*e bigger and 
ht-uvier than those of Vclcsunw uuthigutts) have been found infected. The 
matter, however, must remain in some doubt. In the most recent collection^ of 
70 mussels from Teal Flat, only about 15 were V. ambifztius, but it was from 
fliese that the single infection was found. 

The cercariae tend to lie at the bottom of the dish in which the mussel is 
isolated* Here, as observed with a dissecting microscope, they contract and 
expand the body, and may extend the fureae ro great lengths and then cant met 
them to become quite short. (These movements are not necessarily syn- 
chronised.) If the water jn a beaker containing the cercariae is disturbed 
slightly, they can just be seen hanging suspended in the water by the iwn 
outstretched fureae. The body occasionally contracts, and, not always id the 
*ame time, one or both fureae contract also, bill the cercariae do not change 
their position in the water by this means, and have never been seen to swim. 

The following measuiemenls were made on 20 cercariae which h;id he^n 
fi\ed by adding an equal volume of boiling 10 p.e. formalin to the water con- 
taining' them. Body length 742-222 p. (average 175 /*); Kreatest width of body 
55-97 /a (average 70 >*); length (.if anterior organ 37-71 ft (average 50 ^t); breadth 
of anterior organ 23-43 u (average 31 /»); width ol : tail stem (i.e. transverse 
diameter) #1-116 /i (average 100 ^); depth of tail stem (vertical measurement) 
41-70 fx (average 45 //.), The fureae are too coiled in formalinised specimens 
to permit of measurement. In one living specimen ihe fureae were drawn out 
in a straight line by a current of Mater, uiid at their greatest length measured 
2 f 4 mm 

The preceding measurements were taken from cereuriuft collected in h\U* 
tySS) and early ].%X), A collection made ut Morgan in February 1956 frum 
three mussels comprises cercariae noticeably larger. Measuiemenls of 20 of 
these fixed in the same way as the later infection* are body length 175-330 ^ 
/average 300 p); greatest width of body 72-115 u (average 93 /t); w-idth of tail 
s<em 58-130 ,u (average 84 /*); depth of tail stem 44-65 & (average 51 ft). 
Although the difference in size probably has no real significance, ihe descrip 
Hon is- hawed on cercariae from the 1959-1960 collections; in a few instances, 
information about the 1956 material has been included, but where this is so 
the date is stated. 

The body of the cercaria is set with rows of fine .spines which are qu:te 
prominent anteriorly but are very inconspicuous towards the posterior end of 
the animal* The anterior organ is quite well-developed; its cavity is compara- 
tively small, elongated in die antero-po.sterior axis, and is lined with closely-set 
spines* which, though small, are much longer than those on the surface m the 
hoJv This region is more or less cversible, and when everted gives the 
appearance of a small spine-eovcred snout protruding anteriorly. In one favour- 
able specimen five pairs {tf ;2land cells were seen in the anterior organ (Fie. I )- 
hi arrangement these resembled those figured for Cercclria sctoil hy Woodhead 
(19G8, plate TIX, fig. 1), with the exception that they did not rest on the 
busnnent membrane of the or^an, but were situated more anteriorly. The ducts 


opened into the inverted part of the organ, which in this region appeared to 
be divided in two as in Woudhead's fteum, 

The month opens behind thp middle of the body, nearly as far hack as the 
level of the posterior third. There, is u large muscular pharynx, an oesophagus, 
and a gut. which varies in shape from spherical to oval. 

Gland cells scattered throughout the body shew up after staining with 
neutral red. They do not appear to have uuy recognisable arrangement, but 
the ducts pass forward anteriorly. 

The flame cell formula is 2((2-f 2) f (2 * 2)}. The most posterior pair 
of flume cells lies near the hind end trf the body, and in much flattened speci- 
mens the last flume cell may appear to lie in the tail stem itself. The bladder 
is l-shaped; the anterior and posterior collecting lubes join the main excretory 
tube at the level of the mouth, and at the point of their union is a distinct 
dilatation of the: tube [Fig. 1} The positions of the (lame cells vary slightly in 
the ccrcariae examined, probably due to the relative compression of the various 
piirtS, The bladder upens at the posterior end of the body. 

Tl]e base of the tail has the appearance of a cushion which consists ol two 
regions. The upper segment is relatively clear and contains an extension of 
the bladder, winch contracts at times so that the cavity disappears completely. 
The cytoplasm of the lower segment is filled with fatty globules. Some part (»f 
the base of the tail has a sticky secretion, for the animal can attach itself to a 
glass surface by this region. In one Specimen, in which the body was quite 
Free, the animal was attached by the base of the tail; it was impossible lo dis- 
lodge it with currents of water directed Irom a fine pipette, and needles Nvck 
requited to free it. Dawes (1946, p. 456) stated that, according to VVuudcr 
(U>24) ? the "rudimentary tail" of Bucephalus polymorphvs' secreted a \ Uriel 
material which served to fasten the cercaria to the body or ihc fish intermediate 

The iiireao leave the outer margins of the upper segment of the base of the 
tad. They, too, are sticky; they become attached to fine needles used in handling 
the cercaria, and tpnd to break if pulled, rather than become detached. Even 
m formalmised cercariae, die furcae arc sticky; it is difficult to clear them of 
any debris adhering and at the same time prevent them from breaking with 
any traction. 

Woodhead (1936) made tests with live fish and stated that, with Carcuria 
zcioti. C. bast and C. argK the long furcae became entangled on the edge of a 
fin, and the tail stem functioned as a holding organ by becoming firmly attached. 
with the posterior portion in contact with the scales of the fish. 

The fm-cac have extraordinary powers of extension. When contracted, thev 
may be little more than the length of the body (Fig. 3), but when extended 
mav he ten times as long. The contracted condition is not, apparently, the 
normal one; when the animal is suspended in water the furcae are elongated 
most of the time, and in formaHuised material contracted furcae arc not seen. 

Thf. Sporocyst 

The sporocysts form a thick mass in the digestive gland, and are scattered 
through the region of the gonad and heart. They branch, apparently very freely, 
but it is difficult to obtain a sporocyst that one is sure is complete. Formalirused 
material is brittle and breaks easily* and it is hard to dissect out living sporo- 
cysts intact Living sporocysts contain many cercariae, the furcae of which may 
protrude from the broken ends of the sporocyst to a great distance. No flame 
cells were seen in the ■sporocyst walls. 



Figs. 1-3, 5, 6. CvTCtirht velcsttniotiU; I, compressed; 2, 3, 5, in different attitudes; 
6, showing gut. Fig. 4. SporoeysL gig, 7. Cyst. Fig. H. Young gasterostome from 
Murray Perch. Balsam mount. Figs. 9-13. Metacercaria oT C. velffaminni.s; 9, ll a 13, 
different aspects: 10, compressed; 12 ; alimentary canal from lateral view, showing lip. 
Fig. 8 is to the same scalp as Fig. 12. Figs, 2, 7, 11 are to the same scale as Fig. 5. 

Figs. A, 9, 10 are sketches. 

1), extretory bladder; c, cirrus sac- e, excretory pore; g, gut; 1, lip; p, pharynx; 

U, uterus; r, reproductive aperture. 


Thk Cyst 

Tbe cereariae have been funnel, experimentally. W encyst in the aquarium 
fish Gmnhusia a[Jinis 7 Cftws.siits nuratus, Ort/zias lalipcs and the native fish 
Galaxias sp, Gasterostome cysts were f< >und as a natural infection in tluec 
Ctira\\ius auratus ham Tailem Bend in 1937; these appear to he the same as die 
cysts obtained experimentally. 

The cysts may be found in great abundance in the infected fob In lOStf, 
when detailed dissections were made, tliey were more numerous jn the head 
region than elsewhere in the body. In one fish 103 cysts were recovered from 
the head region and only four in the rest of the body. In another there We* 
25 in the head region; 9 in the tail and 20 in the tissue between the tin rays of 
oilier fins- However, in heavily infected fish (1959-1960) there were literally 
iumdn ds of cysts in the tail region. (The rest of the body was not dissected, 
but Mas used i'n feeding experiments to try to find the adult stage.) 

The cyst walls art? thin and the mctacereariae so active that the cysts con- 
thiualk change shape, from oval to circular, to pear-shaped, etc. The cyst wall 
breaks extremely readily, and cxeystment lakes place spontaneously shortly 
after the tissues' of the host ate dissected apart- A few hours afterwards it is 
rare to find even one intact cyst, hi order to collect sufficient cysts for measur- 
ing it was found necessary to transfer them into formalin as soon as they Were 
dissected out. (Table J.) 

Thk Mkt\o:rc:\ri\ 

Mctacereariae dissected into 0-65 p.e. saline live for several days at 4 C C , 
and up to twenty-four hours at room temperature. 

Two fish, Gambn&la fiffinis, were infected four and eight weeks respectively 
before they were killed: the mctacereariae from these were accidentally mked, 
but could be separated into two distinct ranges of size. The smaller size is 
presumed to comprise the younger metaeereartae (see Table L for measurements 
of the two groups). 

Tlie bodv is spincd all over; the spines are relatively large and obvious In 
the anterior half of the body, but become smaller and are very inconspicuous 
posteriorly. After staining with methylene blue., granular subcuticular cells 
of irregular shape can be seen (though they do not take up the stain) scattered 
throughout the body; no nuclei are visible, \fter neutral red a mass of gland 
cells show r s up behind the anterior sucker. Individually, these cells are not very 
distinctly defined, but the area as a whole is very definite (fig. 10). ft extends 
behind the anterior sucker to a dist;mce roughly equal to the length of the 

The anterior organ has increased greatly in size and lias much more the 
appearance ol a normal sucker than was the/ case in the eercaria. It has no 
fobes or appendages. 

The mouth opens into a muscular pharynx which is followed by a distinct 
oesophagus, this is- quite eonUactile, and opens into the sac-like gut. From the 
lateral vicav, a definite lip on the anterior border of the mouth is s^n [Wig. 12). 
The gut, which occupies, roughly, the middle ol the body, is generally lounded. 
but sometimes elongated. It often shows as a conspicuous yellow mass because 
of its bright yellow contents, which consist of a somewhat viscous liquid hi 
which are rcfraclilc glohulcs of various sizes. The mass of the gut contents 
stains deeply with neutral red. 

The name cell formula is the same as in the eercaria. The excretory bladder 
is elongated; it extends anteriorly beyond the mouth, and posteriorly opens on 
the end of the body close to the excretory pore, Very often it lies diagonally 



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across the body (Fig. 11). In freshly dissected specimens it is filled with dark 
excretory granules, Hay to small in size, some of them compound. These are 
extruded readily through the excretory pore. 

The anlage'u of the reproductive organs are fairly well defined (Fig. 10). 
There ;tre three small rounded masses of cells which are evidently ovary and 
testes. The ovary is smaller than the others, and ]ies slightly anterior to the 
anterior testis; from it a ribbon of cells which is presumably to become the 
uterus, winds backwards between the diagonally placed testes, and then runs 
alongside the cirrus sac. which is a large organ lying to the side of the bladder 
at the posterior end of the body. The genital pore opens at the posterior end 
of the body, close to the excretory pore, Vasa deferentta are not seen, nor is 
there any trace of vitellaria. 

Tin-; Anei.T 

A laboratory-raised carp, Caruwirts aurafus, was fed over a period of .five 
weeks with J 5 GtnnhusUt afjinis and one small carp, all of which had been ex- 
posed to infection with ('crcarut vdcsiatitmis. Some of these small Gsb were 
partly dissected before being fed to the Cftfl2* $>&& it fa estimated that it was 
probably given two or three thousand cysts. The carp was killed five days after 
Hie last small fish had been fed to it, Two young gaslerostomes were recovered 
from its intestine. Although these had had at least five days (and could have 
had as much as five weeks) in the gut, thev showed little difference from the 
metacercaria of C, oclesvnionis. (See Table 1 for measirrements. ) The guts 
f»t the two specimens measured • 068 x -068 mm. and -06S x '056 mm, 
respect ively. 

Two more caip were fed with an unknown number of cysts; they were 
killed 1H and 27 days respectively alter thfi latest feeding. Neither yielded 
gastert glomes <ui dissection. The failure to establish infections indicated thai 
Ctiromtts rturahts is not a suitable host for the species. 

Adult gnsterostomes have not been found in any fresh-water fish examined 
in this department. These, include 31 Murray cod (MacadlochcUu mac- 
quaiicn.sis), 96 eallop ( Plrclroplilc^ ambigtim) , 33 congolli ( Pscttdaphritis 
umillii), 52 catfish (Trmdanusiandanm), 10 Murray bream (Thcrapon hidi/ana), 
4 bony bream (Flttviatnsa ticlutrdsoni) and 12 Macquarie perch (Mdctiuaria 
itustralnsiat ). 

Immature gastcrostomes % however, were found in four o( seven Australian 
p*Teh, Fcrailalrs coUmorum, taken from the River Murray at Swan Reach in 
September 1937. (They have not been found in uine P. colonontm collected 
from the River Murray since that time,) In size and general appearance, and 
in the presence of a lip. these young flukes axe very similar to the inelacercoriac 
of C.rrr.tuia vetestttiionis. They are regarded as belonging to this species. 


Cercaria velcsuuionis is regarded as a new species. It cannot be identified 
with cercariae which have been described without details of the excretory 
system, and it differs from other gasterostome cercariae in which the excretory 
svsteiu has been described (C. (dedans Wood head, 1930: C. papillaris Wood- 
head. 1930; C sciott Woodhead, 1930; C. ar?i Woodhead, iV)3f\ and C. basi 
Woodhead, 3936) in having an excretory formula of 2{(2 I 2) t (2 2)). 
Hopkins (\U56) pointed out that in the taxonomy of Bueephalidae, the sfiuo 
luce of the excretory system had not heen given phylogenetie significance. The 
excretory formula, 2f (2 + 2) 4- (2 4- 2) [, was found in species of three different 
genera, while four different loinui lac were found in one genus (Rhipidocatytel , 


Hopkins was of the opinion (and many other workers must agree with him) 
that no natural classification can be made without taking the excretory system 
into consideration. The nature of the anterior attachment organ, however, has 
been regarded as of great taxonornic importance in the Bucephalidae. In 1954, 
Hopkins (p. 355) pointed out that the cercariae of Bucephalus elegam Wood- 
head, 1930, Rhipidocofyle papillosum Woodhead, 1929, and R, scptpapilhta 
Krull, 1934, the only bucephalids whose life cycles had been established by 
experiment, did not show any signs of the papillae or hoods which distin- 
guished the adults from the forms which Nicoll ( 1914) assigned to Bucepiialopsis. 
lie stated thai, so far, there was no way of telling which genus of the Bucepha- 
lidae a given cercaria belonged to, tmtil the life cycle had been worked out by 
experimental infection. To my knowledge, no life histories have been described 
since Hopkins' statement. 

Until the adult form is found, it is not possible to assign Cercaria vele-sunionis 
to a genus. 


1 wish to acknowledge the help given by my nephew. Dr. R, H. Buruell, 
in collecting mussels, and by Mr. T. D. Scott, of "the South Australian Museum, 
in identifying fish. I wish also to express my indebtedness to the late Professor 
T. Harvey Johnston for records of the parasites of fresh-water fish dissected in 
South Australia. 


Dawks, B., 1946, The Trcmatnd;r. with special reference to British and other European 

forms. 644 pp. Cambridge ( England j . 
Fielder. \V., 1896. .Intermediate hosts of fluke, Third note. Victorian Naturalist, 13 (2), 

pp. 24-28. 
Hopkins, $. H-, 1954. 'the American species of trematodo confused with Bucepliahts ( Bttce- 

phalop-m'l havneunns. Parasitology. 44, pp. 353-370. 

Hopkins. S\ II.. 19F56. Two new tr< matndes from Louisiana, and the excretory system of 
Bucephalidae, Tr. Am. Mier. Soe., 75 (J), pp. J 29-135. 

McMtcjuei., D. F., and Hi.seocK, J. D., 1958. A monograph of the freshwater mussels 
(Mollusea; Pelecvpoda) of the Australian region. Ausl. Jour. Marine and Freshwater 
Research, 9(3). pp. 372-508. 

Nicoee. W.„ 1914. The trcmatode parasites of fishes from the English Channel. J. Marine 
Biol. Ass. U.K., n.s. 10 (3), pp. 466-505. 

Wooohead, A, E. y 1930, Life history studies on the trematode family Bucephalidae Th Tr. 

Am. Mier. Soe., 49 (1), flrji. 1-17. 
Woodhead, A. K., 1936. A study of the gastetoslome cercariae of the Huron Hiver. Tr, 

Am. Mier. Soe., 55 (4) r pp. 465-476, 


byD. E. Symon 


Eleven species of Oxalis established in South Australia are discussed and a key provided. 


by D. E. SYMON* 

[Read S September 1960] 


Kloven species of Chalk established in South Australia are discussed and a 
key provided. 

A recent attempt to identify plants of OxaUs growing in South Australia 
has show n that die treatment of the genius in die Flora of South Australia, Fart 2: 
484 (Black, 1948) is now inadequate. 

The genus is a large one with possibly 800 species. There are two main 
centres of distribution each with large numbers of species, one in Soutb Africa 
and one in South America. There are two species native to Australia, O. liwtea 
Hook, in Victoria and Tasmania, and O. comiculata L, which is very variable 
and is almost cosmopolitan, All other species have been introduced, usually as 
garden plants, and some of these have later proven to be aggressive and have 
become weeds. An early catalogue of the plants grown in the Adelaide Botanic 
Garden (Sehomburk, 1878) lists forty species and includes nearly all the species 
listed below. Similarly, the early catalogue of the plants in the Melbourne 
Botanic Gardens (Gmlfoyle, 1S83) lists twenty-nine species, but few species 
are grown in either Botanical Gardens today, nor are more than three or four 
species deliberately grown in domestic gardens. 

The following species have been found in Smith Australia: 

1. O, arlicuhita Savigny. 

2. 0, bowiei Lindl. 

3. O. comprexm \,A\ 

4. O, comiculata L. — Yellow Wood Sorrel. 

5. O. corymbosa DC — Pink Shamrock. 

6. pi ftova L. 

7. O, hirta L. — Hairy Wood Sorrel, 
S. O. incarnala L. 

9. O. hUijoha Kunth. - Large Leaf Wood Sorrel. 

10. O. pes-enprae L. — Soursob. 

11. 0, purpurea L. — One o'clock, 

Vegetative' reproduction is common in the genus, with the consequent estab- 
lishment of numerous distinct clones to which specific names have been freely 
given. The selection and distribution of horticultural variants which have later 
become naturalized has also added to the difficulties of naming specimens 

The phenomenon of trimorphism is also common in the genus and plants 
with short-, mid- or long-styled flowers may occur. As is usual in such plants, 
pollen from the appropriate anther level of another flower is needed for satis- 
factory seed setting, In South Australia, seed is produced freely only in the 
O. comiculata complex. Seeding does occur occasionally in O. pvs-caprae. but 
all other species depend on bulbil formation for their distribution. Because 

5 Waite Agricultural Research Institute 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (11)61), Vol, 84. 

72, D. E. SYMOX 

vegetative propagation is so common, large populations may consist almost 
entirely of plants With a single style length, and within these populations seed 
production is negligible. The flowers of nil species are sensitive to weather 
conditions, and only open widely under bright, mild conditions. 

The species, O, bowwi, O. jlava and O. hirtd, all flower early in their sea- 
sonal development and the first two may Hower whilst having only one or two 
leaves; after this initial flowering there is continued leaf production. The stem 
of O- hirta elongates and branches freely after flowering has finished. 

Most species produce one or more tuberised roots below the bulb during 
the growing period. These roots vary greatly in size, and may be from 1-40 em. 
long" and from 3-10 mm. thick according to the species. They collapse late in 
the growing season and at least in some species their shrinkage results in pulling 
a newly formed bulb along the channel formed in soil and so assists in distri- 
buting the bulbs, 

Despite the size of the genus and the importance of some of the species 
as weeds, relatively few counts of chromosome 1 numbers are available; of the 
eleven species discussed here only O. hirta, 2n — 30; O. corniculotiK 2n — 24; 
and O. pe$-caprac (as cernua), 2n = 35, arc listed by Darlington and Wylie 
(1955). J n view of the interesting situation in O. pes-capnic described by Oram 
(1956), further cytological studies on the aggressive weedy species wonld be 

In the following account, where two measurements arc given separated by 
the sign X, the first is to be understood as the length and the second the breadth. 

Key to the Species of Oxalis Established in South Australia 

It. No stem developed above or below ground, leaves radical and springing 
directly from the bulb. Flowers pale or bright pink. 
2. Now bulbils sessile, leaflets with rounded lobes broadest below (he apex. 
hirsute ,. . .,.,. . ~ - O. conjmbosit 5 

2a. New bulbils on stolons -5-2 cm. long, leaflets with prominent lobes 
widest at the apex and often having a "fishtail" appearance, almost 
glabrous, sometimes with a brown crescent O. latifolia 9 

la. Stem developed to ground level (when leaves basal) or above ground. 
3. Stem usually developed to ground level only, simple, the leaves 
crowded ut its apex. 
•1. Flowers solitary. 

5. Leaflets 3, flowers white, pale, or deep pink .,,., O t purpurea 11 
5a. Leaflets 2-7, flowers yellow - O, jlacn 6 

4a. Flowers umbellate or eyrnose. 

6. Petioles flattened, narrowly winged, with a prominent fringe 
of hairs, leaves and petioles hairy, flowers yellow 

O. comprcssa 3 
6a. Petioles cylindrical. 

7. Stems woody, perennial, no bulbs formed O. atlicutata 1 
7a. .Stems succulent, annual, bulbs formed. 

8. Flowers pink, leaflets often large, to 5x6 cm., finely glan- 
dular pubescent ... O. botoki 2 
rSa. Flowers yellow, leaflets smaller, to 2 x 3 em., almost 
glabrous O, pes-caprae 10 


3a. Stem usnally developed above ground, branched, with leaves along 
its length. 

9. Flowers yellow, no bulbs formed, stems often prostrate 
on the ground and rooting at the nodes 

O. corniculata 4 
9a. Flowers pale mauve or bright pink, bulbs formed, stems 
spreading or erect, 
10, Petioles very short 1-2 mm., flowers bright pink, 
bulbs formed below ground only ,..,. (), hitia 7 
10a. Petioles several em. long, flowers pale mauve, bulbs 
formed in leaf axils above ground, and also under- 
ground _ _ _ O. incarnata 8 

I, & orticulata Savigny, 1798, in Lamarck, Encyl. Method, But, 4, 686. 

Perennial, no bulbs formed, rhizome thick, almost woody and covered with 
the sears of leaf bases, sparsely branched and marked by constrictions which 
divide the rhizome into segments of varying length. 

Leaves crowded at the apex of the- stem, leaflets three, obcurdatc, pubescent, 
up to 4 em. broad, with many orange ealli along the lower margin, and sometimes 
flushed purple below. Petioles 10-20 cm. long, pubescent with appressed hairs. 

Peduncles longer than the leaves, ilowers many, corolla to 15 mm., bright 
mauve pink or white in a contracted cyme wilh the appearance of an umbel 
or with the cyme branches up to 5 cm. lung and variously developed in diiferent 
clones. Flowering in spring and summer. 

Occasionally grown as a garden plant and one colony has been reported 
established in the field at Mount Compass. 

Native to temperate South America, the involved synonomy of this species 
is discussed by Young (1958), 

O. hoicifi. Lindl, Bot Reg, XIX ( 1833) t. 1585. 

Bulb long ovoid, tapered, somewhat curved. 1-4 em., tunic pale brown when 
young, dark brown when old, producing up to three stout contractile roots 
5 x 1 cm. Stem thickened at the erouncl level, the leaves crowded at its apex. 

Leaflets broadly obeordate. often large and op (o 5x6 cm., glabrous above 
but densely pubescent below along the veins and leaf margins with short, erect, 
glandular hairs. Petioles terete, to 10 cm. finely and densely glandular pubescent 

Peduncles 12-25 cm,, 3-1.0 flowered, bracts 1 cm., pedicels to 5 cm. Corolla 
bright pink 2-5 em. Flowering in winter and spring. 

A native of South Africa that has been long cultivated as a garden plant and 
It is still to be found occasionally in gardens. Now established over 40 acres 
near Gawlcr where it is reported to have spread rapidly m recent years. It has 
also been recorded at Laura, Angle Vale and Victor Harbour in addition to 
suburban gardens. 

o. O, cvmprcsaa L.L Supp. 1781. 

Bulb ovoid, pointed, 1-2 x 1 cm. with a brown tunic, the outer bulb scales 
somewhat woody and ribbed. During growth up to three tubenscd contractile 
roots are produced from the original bulb. Stem slender, but thickened at 
ground level and not usually developed above ground. 

74 V. E- SYMON 

Leaves numerous, crowded at the apex of the stem. Leaflets three, broadly 
enneate obovate 1-2 x 1-3 cm., hirsute below : the base of each leaflet sometimes 
with brown markings. Petiole 3-20 cm. long, compressed and narrowly winged, 
villous, dilated below the articulation. 

Peduncles several, 5-20 em. long. Flowers 2-6 in an umbel, calyx 3-7 mm.. 
corolla yellow 2 em. long. Flowering Jnne to October. 

Established at Roseworthy and Pt. Lincoln, but possibly overlooked else- 
where due to its general similarity to O. ]tcs-capraf J . 

4. O, cormculatn U 5ft PI- I (1753) 435. 

Perennial, taproot thickened and at times almost woody, no bulbs produced. 
Stems prostrate and rooting at the nodes or long slender and ascending, branched, 

Leaflets three, obeordate, 3-16 mm., with a deep sinus, pubescent, stipules 
Peduncles slender, axillary- iiowcrs 1-5 in an umbel, wrollu 1-10 mm., yellow, 
pedicels often reitexed in fruit. Capsule angular cylindrical, pubescent, beaked 
5-25 mm. Seeds reddish brown, compressed, tnmsversely rugose. 

All over the State, almost cosmopolitan. An extremely variable plant with 
an involved synonymy of allied species and their varieties (Young, 195S). Plants 
believed to be indigenous do not appear to root freely at the nodes and the 
corolla may be relatively large up to 15 mm. Those, found as weeds of gardens 
usually have smaller flowers and rout at the nodes. In lawns extremely small 
Iilauts may be found bearing solitary flowers. It is the only Oxalis which pro- 
duces seed freely in South Australia. It is a nuisance at times as a weed of 
put plants and lawns, but it is not important as a weed in fields. The plant 
grows actively whenever moisture is available and flowers throughout the year, 

5. Q. conjmhosa DC, LS24, Prod., T S9& O. martiium Zucc. 

Bulbs globose 2-20 mm., tunics brown, with slight vertical striatums, flu* 
original bulb producing a large number of sessile bulbils during die growing 
season. Several short, thick, conical, contractile roots may be formed at the 
base of the parent bulb. 

Plant stemless, the leaves arising directly bom the bulb. Leaves numerous, 
petioles weak and thin below ground, to 15 cm., sparsely hirsute. Leaflets three, 
roundish with a deep narrow indentation at the apex of the rounded lobes, 
sparsely hairy below on the veins and leaf margin which bears small reddish calli. 

Peduncles up to 30 cm. bearing flowers in a contracted cyme. CoTolla 
purplish pink 15-20 mm. Flowering in spring and .summer. 

Native to South .America, it is a troublesome* weed in sub-tropical areas 
and in the eastern States oF Australia. In South Australia it is restricted to 
suburban gardens. It is mainly summer growing but does retain some foliage 
during the Winter. It is a prolific producer of bulbils, and one pot-grown bulb 
lias produced 110 bulbils during one summer. These may be quite small and 
arc virtually impossible to pick nut of the soil, and the often ineffectual efforts 
at removal assist in spreading the plaut. 

Harossa intake weir J. B. Cleland, Adelaide suburbs. 

tf. O. flavu L. Sp. PI. (1753) 433. 

Hulb ovoid 1-3 cm. long with a thin light brown tunic, young bulbs with a 
pinkish brown iunie are almost globular. The tubcrised contractile root is long. 


40 cm., and slender 3-4 ram. Stem slender underground but thickened at 
ground level t 

Leaves, 1-10, petioles 2-10 cm. long, dilated below the. articulation, glabrous. 
Leaflets 4-7 sessile, spreading palmafccly, linear oblong 30 x 3-5 mm. 

Peduncles one flowered, about the same length as the leaves, with two 
bracts below the calyx. Corolla yellow 2 cm. long and the flowers are short 
.styled in our clone. Flowering in autumn. 

Salter describes it as a variable group species with many forms, and the 
South Australian material belongs to his typical form. 

Established in South Australia at Clen Osmond, Victor Harbour, Tooperang, 
Cambrai, Freeling, Middlctown, Hartley, Ft. Lincoln, Tatiara. Although not 
yet classed as an important weed, a repor[ from Pt, Lincoln describes it as 
spreading at a considerable rate aiid causing concern. 

7. O hirto L. Sp. PI. (1753) 434. 

Bulb ovoid, pointed, 2-3 cm. x 2 cm. with a brown tunic. Stem to 30 cm., 
pubeseentj at first erect* later sprawling, simple or branched especially after 
dowering, glabrous and scaly below ground. 

Leaves with short flattened petioles 1-2 mm. long. Leaflets Ihree, sessile, 
oblong cuncatc, slightly emarginate, glabrous above pilose below, 5-10 x 3-4 mm. 

Peduncles axillary 1 flowered, to 3 cm. with two bracts below the calyx. 
Corolla bright purplish pink 3 em. Flowering in autumn and winter. 

An extremely variable species in South Africa and Salter describes many 
varieties. The South Australian plants appear to be the typical form. 

Established in the Meningie and Victor Harbour Cemeteries. 

8. O. incarrtvta L. Sp. PI. (1753) 133. 

Rnlb ovoid 1-1;a cm. with a brown tunic, smaller sessile bulbils develop in 
Uie leaf axils during growth and later drop off. Stem rather stiff, branching, to 
20 cm., the internodes relatively long, S cm., and bare. 

Leaves crowded at the nodes in clusters of 4-10 (lake whorls), petioles 2-4 
cm. Leaflets glabrous above sparsely pilose below, obcordatc 5-10 x 10-17 mm, 
The foliage is sweetly scented under w r arm still conditions. 

Peduncles one flowered, to 4 cm. long, and with two bracts above the 
middle and at an articulation, pedicel 2 cm., corolla 1 -5 em., pale lilac, long 
styled in our clones. Flowering in spring and summer. 

Sparingly established in South Australia in moist or shady places at Ml, 
Barker, Mt. Lofty, Adelaide suburban gardens, and on the river embankments 
at Tailem Bend. 

9. O. bitifolia Kunth. 1S82. Nov. Gen. et Spec. 237, t. 7 467. 

Bulb globose 1-5 x 1-5 cm. tunics brown, outer scales filiate and with 3-1 
vertical ridges. Several short conical tuberised roots may be pr/odueed. The 
numerous new bulbils are produced txoui the old bulb on stolons up to 2 cm. 
long. Plant stemless, the leaves and flowers issuing directly from the bulb. 

Leaves numerous., petioles to 20 em. terete, almost glabrous. Leaflets three, 
almost glabrous, broader than long, obdeltoid with a wide shallow indentation 
with straight sides giving ihem a fishtail appearance. Other clones Willi more 
rounded lobes and with a brown crescent on the leaves also occur and are 
rather similar to O. cortpnbosa in appearance. 

7rt D. E. SVMOV 

rodunclcs to 23 cm. sparsely pubescent in the Tt^gion 0| the bracts which 
subtend the umbel of S-13 3dflvEr$ Sepals with prominent orange ealli at the 
tip. Corolla bright or pale pink, 1-1*2 cm. Flowering in snmmc.r- 

A native to Central and Tropical South America, it is now widely spread as 
h wood in many parts of the world. It is aggressive in the Eastern States of 
Australia,, but in South Australia it is still restricted to suburban gardens in 
Adelaide and Mount Gambier, It is .summer growing in contrast to the South 
African species growing here and it appears to be less tolerant of cold condilious 
than O. coripnhom. The production of new bulbils is considerable^ one pot- 
gruw>i plant producing over 80 new bulbils in a season. 

10. O. pes-capnw L M Sp. Pl ( 1753, 131. 

O, cernuu Thunb. 1 T<S I , De Ovalide. 

Soursop, Soursob of Australia. Bermuda buttercup of England and America. 

Buib ovoid, pointed 1-3 v I cm, with a brown tunic, producing U while 
tubcrised contractile root during growth and a thin annual underground stem 
which may bear bulhils along its length. The stein is onlv developed ahove 
ground when the plants are crowded or shaded.. 

Leaves many, on terete petioles up to 15 cm. long which are jointed and 
broadened near the base and arise from the top of the underground stem at 
the soil surface, Leaflets obeordate 1-3 cm. broad, notched, sparsely hairy 
below and often with Humerus purple Hecks on the upper surface, 

Peduncles to 30 cm. long bearing an umbel of 3-1 6' flowers which ;ire 
bright yellow, sepals 5-7 mm., petals 20-25 nan. long. Flowering June-October. 

Two chromosome races occur in South Australia (Oram, private communi- 
cation, 1956). Small populations ol tetraploids (4jr~ 2S) have been found and 
include all three style lengths, as well as variations in leaf and calyx marking. 
S-vnc seed production appears to occur amongst these plants. The largest 
populations are of short styled pentaploids (5x = 35) which occupy hundreds 
of acres of land on the Adelaide Plains and Lower North. 

These plants are virtual I), sterifc and are very uniform morphologically. 
It would appear from overseas descriptions that it is the sterile short styled plant 
that is weedy in North Africa, fsrael and Great Britain. The plants are almost 
wholly weeds of arable land and they have not mvaded undisturbed sites to 
any extent. Continued consumption by sheep causes chronic kidney damage 
and may result m death, particularly with sheep new to the plant (Watts, 1953). 
This species is an important weed, smothcriug young crops and pastures with its 
vigorous autumn growth. Field distribution in South Australia is mainlv on the 
Adelaide Plain and is approximately delimited by the 600 ft. contour line and the 
11-12 inch April-October rainfall isohyet (Michael 1958). However, domestic 
gardens are infested in almost every township in South Australia. 

11, O, purpurea L, Sp, PI. 1753, 433. syn. O. variabilis Jacq. "One o'clock". 

Bulb ovoid, 2 cm., with a firm gummy blackish brown tunic. Amongst the 
plants grown contractile roots were onlv produced on plants- from the smaller 
bulbils Stem thickened at ground level and the leaves crowded at its apex. 

Leaves numerous, usually prostrate, petioles tereio > 2-10 cm. long. Leaflets 
three, glabrous above, eiliate. broadly euneate rhomboid up lo 8$ x 3i« cm. but 
usually less, 

Peduncles one flowered, as long as, or slightly longer than, the leaves, with 
two alternate linear bracts at or below the middle. Sepals *5 em., glabrous or 


villous, ciliate. Corolla 2 cm. long, white, pale or bright pink, or pale violet 
usually with a yellow throat. Flowering in autumn, winter and spring. 

This species is widely spread in South Australia as a garden escape although 
it is rarely common or weedy. There is a variant with reddish purple tints to the 
stems and leaves which occurs as a weed of lawns. Under continued mowing 
its dimensions may he very reduced, the leaflets being only -5 cm. in diameter 
with petioles 1 cm. long. Another variant with leaflets completely flushed with 
purple has been grown as a garden plant and is perhaps more aggressive, it 
differs from the typical plant fn that the stem arises obliquely from the bulb 
and may emerge up to 6 inches distant from it, instead of almost directly above 
it. New bulbils are formed along the length of this stem and contractile roots 
were not juoduced. 

At least five colour variants and all style lengths of the typical form occur 
in South Australia. 


Black, J. M., 1948. Flora of South Aust., Part II, p. 484, Gov, Priut-r, Adelaide. 
Darlington, C. D.> and WmB> A. P,_. 1955. Chromosome Atlas cf Flowering Plants. Allen 
and Unwin, London. 

GuiLFOYLE^ W. R., 1883. Catalogue ol the Plants under Cultivation in the Melbourne Botanic 
Gardens, Gov, Printer. Melbourne. 

Ingham, J., 1958-1959. The Cultivated Species of Oxalis. Baileya 6, pp. 2,1-32, 1958; Baileyu 

7, pp. 11-22, 1959. 
Michael, P., 1958. Some Aspects ol' the Ecology and Physiology <f Soursob (Oxalis pe&~ 

capme), Ph.D. Thesis, University of Adelaide. 
Oram, K.. 195(1 Private communication. 

Salter, T. M.. 1944. The genus Oxalis In South Africa. J. S. Afric. Bot. SuppL, Vol. 1. 1944. 
Schombukk, R., 1878. Catalogue of the Plants under Cultivation in the Government Botanic 

Garden, Adelnfde. Coy. printer, Adelaide. 

Watts. P, S.. 1953. The toxicity of Oxalis pes-caprae . Fifteenth Repoit Inst, of Med. and 
Vet. Sci.. Adelaide. 

Younc, D. P., 1958, Oxalis in the British Jsles. Watsonia. 4, pp, 51-69. 


byH. Womersley 


The female of Trichonyssus womersleyi Domrow, 1958, a species hitherto known only from the 
male, is described. 


by H. Womersley 

[Read 8 September 1960] 


The female of Trit'lumtjb^ux ivairterslmti Domrow, 1U58 : a species hitherto 
known only from the male, is described. 

In 1958 my colleague, Mr, R, Domrow (Proc Linn. Soc., N.S.W., 83 (3), 
p. 220) erected a new genus Trichontfssus for tbc species described by myself in 
1956 as Chiroptonyssus austrolicus (J, Linn, Soc.» London, ZooL 43 (28S), p. 597) 
and cnlleeted from an unidentified bat from South Australia. The species was 
only tentatively assigned to Chiropt (myitis. 

The genus Tricftonyssus was differentiated from Chiropt onysxus by Domrovv 
as follows: in the female by the motasternal setae- being free on (be cuticle and 
not on small platelets., and in the mule by the complete holoventral shield, the 
absence of a strong process on the femur of leg IV and the presence of very 
long setae posteriorly on the opisthoma. 

In addition to designating Chirojxtonyssus amimlicus' Worn, as tbc genotype 
of his new genus Trichonyssm Domrow (loc. cit.) erected a second species 
Tricfionysms womersleyi for the two specimens which 1 described in 1957 as 
the males of Ptesiolaektps minioplerus sp. nov, (Trans. Roy, Soc.. S.A., 80-70) 
from a bat Miniopteras schreibersii blepolis (Temuiink) from Joanna, S. Aus- 
tralia. He showed that these males were not truly correlated with the holotvpc 
female, The genus Plevialaelupt he placed in synonymy with Spinolaetaps 

The males of womersleyi were distinguished from those of australicu* by the 
long posterior opisthosomal setae being in I wo groups of seven instead of a 
continuous circlet of many more. The female of womenleyi has hitherto been 

Recently, however, from a bat, Chalinolobus gouldi gouldi Gray, found on 
board a vessel at Port Adelaide, South Australia, 26th Feb., I960, were obtained 
three males which were fouud to be conspecific wid\ the holotvpe of womersleyi 
and two females winch showed distinct diiferences from the females of 
atttfralicus and are now ascribed to T. woihersleyi Domrow. 

Trichonyssns womersleyi Domrow. 
Douitow, R,, 195R. Acarfn;i from Aiishralfnn TUK Pror. Linn. Sor.., N.S.W., #3 (3), p. 23b 

Description of Allotype Female— A rather lightly sclerotised ovoid species. 
Length of idiosoma (gravid) SOO/jl, width 468^,. 

Dorsum— With entire dorsal shield, not covering the whole body, 500/x long 
by 260/x wide, posteriorly becoming contracted to a rounded tip. Both shield 
and surrounding cuticle with numerous short pointed setae to 24/< long. 

Venter— With only two pairs of setae on the sternal shield, the other pair being 
just, but only just, off the posterolateral comers, the sliield is 115yx wide between 

* South Australian Museum. 
Trans, Hoy. Soc. S. Aust. (1961), Vol. 81. 



\ ^r: s. 

*-..*- ,-- 1 

"-~ -~/ 



_r - x x 



* r "^'\ 



v / / "\ 


i \ 

* »■*■ '- '/^ \ 

_ x -. ' * ^ 

- ■■-. 

o> ^ | 



■^ _>"' 




^ — « w 

-s. -— / ■'/ 

^ *- ' V / 

— 1. V V' 

c"!* - " ~~^' 


the third pair of setae and 43/* long in the median line, with strongly concave 
posterior margin and the posterior half more sclerotised and band-like; the meta- 
sternal setae are free on the cuticle; the genital shield tapers posteriorly to a 
very acute point, its length from the setae to the tip is llOfx and the setae are 
67/^ apart, anteriorly it is fimbriated; the anal shield is an elongate pear-shape, 
105/x long bv 52/a wide; ventral setae as on the dorsum and to 24/x long. 

Legs-Normal, II the stoutest, I 608/* long, II 352/*, long, III 327/*", IV 409,*; 
coxae II with a strongly antcro-dorsal spur. 

Remarks— Differs from the female of aiisiralicus Worn, in the shape of the 
dorsal and genital shields. 


by Warren T. AtyeoandD. A. CrossleyJr. 


Current investigations on the labidostommid fauna of the Australian realm required the 
redescription of the type of the Australian species, Labidostomma adelaideae Womersley. Through 
the cooperation of the South Australian Museum, the type specimen plus unidentified specimens 
were loaned for study. Among the materials received, one new species was discovered which is 
described herein. 


WAimftN T. Atyfo- \m> D. A., Jh.* 

(Conwmnieaied hxj II. Womenley) 

(Read 8 September 1 [ J60] 

Current investigations on the labidostomrnid fauna of the Australian realm 
required tlie redescription of the type, of the Australian species, hahidoslomma 
adelaideae YVorncrsley. Through the cooperation of the South Australian 
Museum, the type specimen plus unidentified specimens were loaned for study. 
Among the materials received, one new species avus discovered which is described 

Labidoslomiua adelaideae Womersley, 1935 
Ami. Mag. Nat. Hisl., lOtli ser„ 16 (9), pp. 132-15:3. 

The dorsal integumenud pattern of (his species resembles tliosc of Tabido- 
stomma lateum Kramer. L. barbae Grecnbcrg, and L. vejdosskyi Storlcan, but is 
easily distinguished from these species in thai adelaideae lacks the large glarid- 
lilce structures ("pustules 7 ' of Crandjean, 1942; "Seitenhocker*' of Thor, 1931) 
immediately behind each lateral eye. 

Female— Colour in life dark olive-green to greenish black. Length, includ- 
ing gnathosoma, 1004/x. Umfhofiomu.— Chelicera (Fig. 1C): length, 189,u; height, 
117//; median surface with 2-3 short vertical rows of small spicules at bases ol : 
fixed digit. Fixed digit with 8-11 subequal teeth slightly larger Irian 10-13 sub- 
equa I teell'i of movable digit; longest cusp of fixed digit minutely denial e 
apically. Palpus, 144^ in length; gnathosomal base with 3 pairs of setae. Dorsal 
htiosonui (Fig. 1A). Length, BIQpj without anterolateral projections: without 
large gland-like organs on median lateral surfaces; sensilla minutely branched. 
Ventral idiosoma. Rpimera with polygons except: epimeron 111 with small 
striated area near median line, epimeron IV with striated areas on medial and 
lateral thirds. Paragenital region with large striated area as in Fig. ID, Legs* 
Measurements; tibia 1, 185//; tarsus T, 76/i; prelarsus I, 36a; tibia I\\ InSfi; tarsus 
IV, 143/t; total lengths of legs (excluding coxae and pretarsi): 1, 651^,; H, 523/a; 
III, 46fyt; (V, Gil/*. Famulus with single dichotomy; solenfdia short, extending 
to insertion of famulus (Fig. IB). 

Male,— Unknown. 

Type— Female, collected at Morialra Gorge. Adelaide, South Australia, Sep- 
tember 2, 1034. by H. Womersley, among hepatics. 

T 4 ocat\<m of Type,— The South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Remarks— A second female collected at Long Gully, ttelair, South Australia^ 
in August, 1938, by II. Womerslcy from moss, was available for study and was 
found not to deviate from the redescription of the type. All drawings are of the 
type specimen. 

1 PuhKshr-rl with the approval of the Director a3 .Paper No. 1032, Journal Scries, Nebraska 
Agricultural Experiment Station. 

* Department oF Entomology, University of Nebraska. Lincoln 3, Nebr, 

S TTmlth Phy.sirs Division, 0;ik Ridtfe National Laboratory, Oak "Ridge, Tennessee. 

XHUKfc Roy, Soc. & Au»t (1961), Vol. 84, 



Labidostomma womersleyi a. sp. 

This new species is similar to L, adelaideae, but can be distinguished by the 
lack of striated areas surrounding the genital plates, tarsus IV being longer than 
tibia IV (rather than shorter), and being slightly smaller in size. 


Fig, L Labidostomma adelaidfHw Womerslcy, 1935, type female. $g$, A and D, 

fads I: Figs. B and C, scale 2. A. dorsum of idiosoinaj B, tarsus I showing two 

solenidia and branched famulus, C, lateral aspect of right chelieera; D, ventral aspect 

of op.'.sthosnrrm allowing paragenital, genital, and anal regions. 

Female— Colour in life deep > ellow. Length, including gnathosoma, 780/;. 
Gnathowma.—CheMcoxa (Fig. 2C): length, 170>; height, 98,q median surface 
witliout spicules. Fixed digit with minute serrations on inner face, much smaller 
than dentations of movable digit; both cusps of fixed digit minutely dentate 
apioally. Palpus, 102/j. in length; gnathosomal base with 3 pairs of setae. Dorsal 



itliosoma (Fig, 2A). -Length, 610/*; without anterolateral projections; without 
large gland-like organs behind lateral eyes; scnsilla minutely branched. Ventral 
irfio.somu.—'Epimeni with polygons except for striated Outer third o[ epimeron IV. 
Genital and anal areas as in Fig. 2D. Lc^s.— Measurements: tibia I, 153/*; tarsus 

Fig, '2,,—i,uhUtostommii inmK'vslcfji, n. sp,, holotjpo rVmulo. Figs. A and D, stink* I; 

Kijjs, Jl Lintl C, scale -1, A, dorsum or* idiosormi; B, tarsus I showing two rsolcnklia 

iuui hrmnjhed famulus; C. lateral aspect of risht ebelicera: D, ventral aspect of 

opi_*rhosorna showing paragpnital. gonial and .ana! regions. 

I, 75//,; pretarsus I. 31$ tibia TV, 1-13^; tarsus IV", tlS/i; total lengths of legs (ex- 
cluding coxae and pretarsi): I, 572^; II, 452/i: III. 392 ( u; IV : 551m. Famulus 
with single diehoLonrv: solenidia long, extending almost to tip of tarsus 1 
(tiK. 2B). 


Male.— Unknown. 

Holotype — Female, collected at Remarkable Creek, Wilmington, South Aus- 
tralia, altitude 2,000 feet, September 18, 1958, by H. M, Cooper, in moss. 

Location of Type —The South Australian Museum, Adelaide. 

Remarks.— Although the new species is based on a single female, the differen- 
tiating characters are unique when compared with those of any known species 
from the Australian realm. This new species is named in honour of Dr. H. 
Womersley of the South Australian Museum. All drawings are of the holotype. 


The authors wish to thank the University of Nebraska Research Council for funds to 
employ a scientific illustrator. 


Grandjean, F.. 1942, Observations sur les Labidostommidac. Bui!. Mus. Hist. Nat. Ser., 2, 
p. 14; (2), pp. 118-125; (3), pp. 185-192; (5), pp. 319-326; (6), pp. 414-418. 

Greenrerg, Bernard, 1952. New Labidostommidae with Kevs to the New World Species 
(Acarina). J. New York Ent. Soe. LX, pp. 195-209. 

Storkan, J., 1938. Reitrage zur Kcnntiris der Familie Nicoletiellidae. Mem. Soe. Zool. 
Tchecoslovaque Praque V, pp. 436-453. 

Thor, Sic., 1931. Bdellidae, Nicoletiellidae, Crvptognathidae, Das Tierreich, Lief., 56, 
pp. 66-77. 

Womersley, H.> 1935. On some Crvptognathid and Nicoletiellid Acarina from Australia 
and New Zealand. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 10 ser., 16 (91), pp. 151-154. 



by Ernest H. Ising 


An examination of herbarium specimens of Bassia Sect. Anisacantha Series 1 Anderson 
(Proc.Linn.Soc. N.S.Wales 48(1923)322) revealed specifically distinguishing characters of 
B. uniflora ( R.Br.) FvM. and B. diacantha ( Nees ) FvM, (The latter name had been treated in the 
more modern local floras as a synonym of the former.) These two and four new species, 
B.burbidgeae, B. constricta, B. eichleri and B. gardneri, are described. A key for the determination 
of the species recognized in the series (except B. anisacanthoides) is given. Of each species the 
distribution is illustrated by citation of a selection of the approximately 600 specimens examined 
from the following herbaria: AD, ADW, BRI, CANB, MEL, NSW, NT, V, PERTH, SYD (symbols 
as in Index Herbariorum ed. 4), and special features are briefly discussed. 


by Ernest H. Ising 

(Communicated by Hj. Eichler) 

[Read 13 October I960] 


An t wimmation of herbarium specimens of Ftassui Sect^ A'tiwininfJui Scries ) 
Anderson ( Proe. Linn.! Sot. N.i>. Wales 4&{ 192-3)322) revealed specifically (Bs 
tingnishing characters of B, miifktru (Tt.Rr. )Fv\l- and B. diactintha (Nees)FvM, 
(pe latter name had been treated in the more modern local floras as a synonym 
of the former. } Those two and four new species, ft. huri'ld^cat', B. cotisiticla, 
B. eichlari and B, gtirdneri. arc described. A key for the determination of the 
species recognized in the serifs (e\ H, uiiisacanlhuidiis) is given. Of each 
species the distribution is illustrated by citation of a selection of the approxi- 
mately 600 specimens examined from the following hcrbi-m*: AD. ADW, 
HHI, CANB, X1EL, NSW. NT, [\ PKHTff, SYO (symbols as in Index Hcr- 
bariornm ed. *\) % and special features art 1 briefly discussed. 

Since Ferdinand von Mueller (Census Ausfral.Pl 1(1882)30) transferred 
tiie Australian species described in the genera Chcnolea, Sclerohenc^ Anhci- 
canlha, Echlnapsdoti > Kentropsls, Dissocurpus, Enochiton. Osteovarpum and 
Codocarpus to the genus Bassia, he was, in Australia, followed by most of the 
writers of State Floras and check lists. J. M, Black, for example, in his Flora 
of South Australia ((1924)188), follows Anderson's "Revision of the Australian 
species of the genus Bassw' (Proc.Linn.Soc.N.S.Wales 48(1923)317-355, 
t. XXX1V-XXXVI ) in this "lumping" trend. 

Douiin (Ribl.Bot.S9( 1921)625) pointed out that the circumseription of the 
genera within the Chcnoleac '(sensu Beufh, and Jlook.f,, GemPL3/l( 1880)46) 
represents greatest difficulties, and that one may become inclined to lump into 
one genus all the groups of species which have been described as genera. He, 
however, regards such a proocdiue as being not suitable. The unification of 
Sclemlaena and Amsacaatha he regards as fully justified; the delimitation of the 
other genera, however, wih\ in DomitTs opinion, bo only possible following a 
thorough monographic study. 

Ulbrich in his treatment of ChcnapnduK-ear (in F.nglor u. Prantl. NaturL 
rflanzenfarr.. 2nd ed.lfief 1934)448,449, 532-540) referred to the Australian 
species treated in modern Australian State Floras under Bassia as belonging to 
the genera Austro bassia, Scleroktena, Diasocarpm\ Coihcarpus and Scterohctssia. 
All these genera are restricted to Australia whereas Bassist (sensu Ulbrich) occurs 
in the Mediterranean area. Orient to Central Asia, Siberia, and one species in 
Central Europe (naturalized in North America) but is absent from Australia, 

Black (Trans.Roy.Soe.SAustral. 58(1931)175-176) explained the reasons- 
why he did not follow IJlbriel/s treatment and retained the generic name Bassia 
for the Australian species in the 2nd edition of his Flora of South Australia 

ft appears, neverlheless, desirable that the justification of the Australian 
genera distinguished by Ulbrich be examined carefully and the Australian species 
referred to Bassia by other authors be revised in vie\v of their generic TX>sition. 

•fians. Roy. Soe. S Aust. (1961), Vol, $4. 


This large task could not be undertaker) for the present study which deals 
only with a few selected species which 1 regard as being closely allied. It is 
noteworthy that two of them are treated by Ulbrich as Auxtmbassia and three 
are referred to as Sclcrolacna, The other species recognized here were unknown 
when UJbrich published Jus treatment. 

In this study the species are treated as Baxxia from conventional reasons 
(m order not to confuse nomenclature without sound reasons), following Black's 
remarks, and especially as the group dealt with here has been selected as defined 
in Anderson's revision. 

The species of the present study belong to Bassiu Sect Anisacdrttha Ser. I 
Anderson (Pro^Linn.Sot\N,SAVaW 48(1923)322). According to Anderson 
this series is characterized and distinguished from the remainder of the genus 
as follows: 

Sect Ani.wctmtlui: Perianth becoming hardened from the base, usually much hardened 
in Truil: (lowers solitary; without any wing- like expansion; spines acicular. not 

.Sfi\ /: Kruirmg perianth much hollowed at base, the cavity occupying almost or more 
than half the perianth. 

All species belonging to this series with the exception of B. anisacanfhohles 
( FvM. ) Anders, are treated hereunder. Of B. anisucttnfhoide.s (Sclerolaena anisa- 
canthokle.), (Fv-M.)Domin according to Ulbrich's classification) which differs 
from the other species of this series by "fruits with 5-6 spines" and which is 
known from Queensland and New South Wales (Broken Hill district), T haye 
seen no specimens. 

la. Fruit covered with loug silky hairs, spines 2, rarely 3 3. B. eriacantho 

lb. Fruit densely tomentose to glabrous; spines 0-3 

2a. Tubercle on posterior dice- at base of one of the spines hooked; margin of iireole at 

base of fruit eiliate ..,.,, , . . . r , . . . . 4. B. gwn/nen 

2b, Tubercle on posterior face at base of one of the spines not hooked; margin of areola 
tit fast! o£ fruit glabrous. 
3a. Srjines -e parallel and erect. 

4a. Fruiting perianth .soft, longitudinal furrows deep; spines 1-3 imequid in length 

and thickness 5. B. tatei 

4b. FVuitmg perianth hard, longitudinal furrows shallow: spines 2 i equal, acicular 

0. }1. pciitiltelicuspis 
3b, -Spines divergent (slightly in B. uutflora), 

5a. Fruiting perianth thin walled, easily broken, usually longer than broad. 
0a. Tubercle large, beak-like, erect, prominent, usually longer than spines 

8, B, cfiptJt-casuarli 

Bbj Tubercle inconspicuous, much sliorter than spines 7. B, consiricta 

Six Fruiting perianth thick walled, not easily broken (except B. diacontha); about 
as long as broad. 
7tt< Style glabrous or almost so. 

Ha. Seed horizontal to slightly oblique; spines 0*2Ji mm. long. 

9a. Leaves lanceolate, villous; perianth tomentose: tubercle almost 

absent;, not deeurrent . 9, B. vichleri 

Ob. Leaves linear, pubescent' perianth glabrous; tubercle often prominent, 

deeurrent 10. B. burbidgeav 

8h, Seed vertical to slightly oblique; spines 3-7 mm. long: tubercle small, 

slightly deeurrent ...., 11. B. holtiatm 

7b. Style pilose or hirsute; seed horizontal to slightly oblume; periauth 

,10a. Leaves :£ eh; vale, imbricate, densely tomentose: spines absent 

to about }t ttftSL long; tubercle prominent 1. B. uniflurz 

10b. Leaves narrow to broad linear, not imbricate, — densely pubescent; 
spines usually 1-7 mm. long; tubercle not prominent 

2. B. riiaemtha 

A B C O 


Scale for Figs. A to C 2 mm. 

1%; 1: Bax&iti vniflom t tt.BrJFvM.: 2: B. diaaintha (Noes)KvM.; 1: B. gU'dnari 
Isiug: 7: B. comtiicta Lsing, 8: £. caput-eastwrii Willis; '9: #. ewhleri Ising: 10: B. 
Intrbidgeac Ising; A: Fruiting perianths (hairy indumentum omitted), posterior face; 
tt: anterior fact:; C: median section; D: Styles. Figures A~C drawn to same scale (as 
shown in drawing); D: various indefinite magnifications (to indicate hairs on style 
and direction of radicle only). (All drawings from type specimens.) 


J, Bassia uniftora (R.Br.)FvM. s •Vustiai.R 1(18S2)30; FvM., Second 

Censna 111880)51, Tote, Har»dh.FI.L:\trntrnp,S.At.straL( LS90)51,218; 

Vnders. Proe.Liim.Soc.N\b.\Valcs 48(ly23)32f> p.p.; Black, Kl.S.Austral. 

(1924J190 P-l>.; Gardner, En.ri.Austnd.Oeoid. 0930)38 p.p.; Black, Fl.S. 

An.stral.2nd ed. (1948)303 p.p.; Blackall, W.AnstnilAVlkU. 1(1984)188 

p.p.- Sctewlaena tmiflont ft Ik., frud.l(lSK)UlO: DC!., Prod. 

13/2( 1819)123 Clemen vcrti<ale~ appears to be an error), ffeflfh, Fl. Austral, 

5(1870)194; FvM., Fiagm. S<1873j3S; Ulbrich in Fogler & Prantl. Nat.PII. 

farn. 16c ( 1934)53 J.- Fig. 1 A-D. 

Undershrub. diffuse, much branched, covered with a dense indumentum. 
Hranehcs terete, densely tomentosc. Leaves ± lincar-clavatc, slightly tapering 
t<t base, 4*8 nnn. long. J&-2 mm« wide pfskr ape*, acute (obtuse in appearance 
before clothing \& removed), ± thick, very densely tomentosc. imbrieale and 
erect chiefly in* upper part of branches. Flowers solitary. Stamens 5, filaments 
mcmbmruuis. dilated to base. Fruiting perianth pear-shaped, 1^-2 nnn, long, 
wide and thick, f/tnueutosc: anterior face convex, with several vertical and one 
horizontal rib: posterior lace convex, with 1-2 vertical ribs. Spines usualK 2, 
up to Ji mm. long or one- or both rudimentary. Tubercle very obtuse, lariuj. 
oltco higher than limb. lamb inconspicuous. Base S circular, oblique, deeply 
hollowed; septa radiating; margin glabrous. Style linear, hirsute; sti^matie 
branches 2, red. Seed horizontal to slightly oblique; radicle superior. 

SutTH Absr«Aiu. K, brown 3070, AD 0601 1.073 (i.sotvpe: fragment oi iiolotypc irom 
i\M) : Fowler* Bay. 1802. H. liasi-dnw: NSW 45,519: Kintfoonya to Mt Eba. 1V-V 

1917.- 1, M. BV.hV: A\X NSW *5$8h TutaUMO. 1X4920.- N. T, BaihklHte awi M. 
t: f ;iv 4021* nr.<! 1022; CANJ8: ea. ffl km. south of Mt. Wiltongliby Station. |0,\\I05V- 
1 KCMuwh A.U 95.S20I25:;.. 33.1X,>036.- id.: AD 95820104: Cane TJievanatd, 
U. iflQ km* west of Port Anensta. U.VH1J928.- id.; AD O.W2010K: Plnluoib a 
Ml) Win, east of Western Australian border near the eousL 20,1 X.I ^7.— K L. Grower; 
AOW 4085 (h and c wjv); K;duhit\ Station, 10 km. north of Olary. IX. 1039.- V. \l 
Hilton 707- ADW: Ymluppuuia. I.XVn.L&54.- L. H, ISFftg: AD 05907080: Oodimdolta. 
20.Ytl.J952.- T. G. B. Usbohit NMV 4555ft Flinders Is. I0.I.MI21.- niermrds; MBLi 
Bgltyttn EuSfl Rlftl Fuvvlrrs Bay. 1875. [>. R, Symon: AD. ADW 20017, 2IHJIS- Ovhn»u.- 

Thevenard coastline. G-f. B sandy soil ovvr limestone, 2.X.1950- id. AD, ADW 20010- 
20022; en, 20 Win. N. tit Kooiahba Sidti.ii. road to Tniia Boek. E.I'., niallee, 
reel soil. 30,1X1050 i m ,i ^Jfe; tyjrfpaiK- id.: AU ADW 20023. 2002-1; H. 
Sinclair, near Pomm«. E.P., sandy dunes near the beach front. 27.lX.l050 (fruits arid 
I. v.v>, larger).- "ul.; AD, ADW 20025. 20026; Uh 6 few, N. of Fowlers Bay, K.P., ?n agnt 
latidy M«l "in cleared malice 20. (\. 1050 (leaves less densely tonuattost ). - 1. C. VVrc»> 
and W, G. Torr: NSW 45555: St. ftoftci* ft* Vtyffi AreliipolaKo. IT. 1000.- J. H. Willis: 
MKLi Ca-cat Australian LMylit, ea. 13 km. snnlh ot White Wells. 28 VIII 1947. 

Wkstv-tin At.soiAi.iA, N. '1*. Rnrl.idg. 1535: OK0TH: Pavdoo SUiOrm. VT1.I941. 
A, faiimmch.'ni 162; MEL; Dirk H«rrny\ InI.iimJ. Voyage of 'Hu0.i.rst\ 1622- Fomst: 
MEL- LaK ol LI 46'. Tamp,. J2S°20\- E. H I, Johnson -16 ({}; AD. ca. 22 km. north of 
Freted. 2HJU9S&- OTdfeU (?): SOW 502e7i MiuXbthOD Kiv,,r - 1R ^ 3 (vcr >' v|r,5r t(l 
typcK- A. W. Hcl>ble\vliile 8: 'OANB:, Nullarbor Plain, 26.LX 1045. 

New Sottth Waiks H. Caiolifl d23: SVD; Sandy Crock Gortfe : Fowlers Gap, 112 ■ W 
\ ( of RTokeu JM1I. Viil.1057. J. T vA'afcrhnase: SYD: N. <4 FowIctv Cap. ^1A ,«H. 

(BoUi thf.xr h pei-iio«os from Kowlers Gan ;uc not qtiile typical.)- A. CuunuiKhano J; 
Ij^eipool Plains. IN2G. {Pci'iMitl.s imdevelnpcd hut pothahly ItBiCBUjft to iflW species. ) 

The on^iiial description of Schrahuna unifhra R.Br. evidently icqiiirei a 
oomma iiftcr "solitariis" ftillowed by "foliis", Tliis would th«a oiukc tlic dc- 
^riplion IntelliVOfjIf and in lumnony with the type specimen. 

In K. Brown's ms. notes (microfilm in AD) the leaves of this species are 
d-eseriherl as obtuse; tlm appears correct if the apex outline is observed with its 
very dense fomenti^ eoVflrtog- When the indornenturri is removed the leaves 
are found to be acute, alfhuiie,li not prominently so. 

Roth Anderson and L5l<iclc describe the seeds as horizootal, but they arc 
into': often slightly oblique. 


B. unijloia U confined to the coastal and dry interior portions of South and 
Western Australia and north of Broken Hill in New South Wales. 

In 1934 Black described a new variety as B. tiniflum (R.Br, )FvM. van 
iWOngruens (Trans.Roy.Soc.S.Austrul. 48 ( 1924 )254 ). Two collections were 
cited, one from Hergott (Marrec) and one from Arkaringa Creek. The one 
from Marrec (J. M, Black) (chosen as kctotype of ihe variety) is B. enmincia 
ising and the one from Arkaringa Creek (Mi.vs Slaer) is B, holtiam Ising. Both 
these specimens arc referred to by Anderson (I.e. 329, the locality of the second 
ittivtpcU "Arkumgu") as B. uiiifhmt 

2. B. diactwthu (Noes) FvM., Census AqsMlJPL li"1862V30; FvM., Second 
Census 1(1889)51, FvM„ lc.Aushul.Salsol.Pl.(lSS9)t. LXXVUi; Tate, 
itandh.Fl.Fvtratrop.S Austral (1890)51. 218; Moore and Betche, Handb.Fl. 
VSAVales (1893)111, Diels and Prit/el, But.Jb. 35(1904)186 (specimen 
not seen); Maid, and Betchc, Cons.N.S.WalesPI. (1918)69.- Anwtamtha 
(liucanrfni Nees in Lehm., Pi. Pxeiss. 1( 1845)635; FvM., Fragm. 7(1869)14; 
V)( 1875)75.— Kcnttvpsis diacantha (Nces)Moq. in DC, Prod. 13/2(1849) 
138.- ? Anisacatdha kciiiiopaiileu FvM M Trans A'ietlnst. 1(1855)133; 
FvM.i Uook.rvew |. 8(1856)204.- Sclrrolaena diaciotiha ( Noes ) Benth.. 
FI.Austrul. 5(1870)194 (i nc |, v »r. hn»isphw? Bcnth.. I.e. 195 p.p.); Bailew 
Syn.C v )u« (1883)407; Bailey, Queens!. Fl. 4(1901)1257; IJaitev, Compr 
Cat.Quccnsl.Pl. (1913)409; Ulb'rich in Engfer and Prantl, Nat.PH.fum- 
10c( 1934)534. - Chenoiea dmcantha (Noes) FvM., Fragm. 10(1876)91.— 
*Bit3sia uniflora (rum (R.Br. ) FvM. ) Anders., Proe.Linn.Soe.N.S.Walcs 
48(1923)329 p.p.; Black, Fl.S.Austral, (1924)190 p.p.: EwarL Fl.VicL 
(1930)456; Gardner, Fn.PI.Amtral. Occid. ( 1930)38 p.p.; Blade, Fl.S, Austral. 
2nd td (1948)303 p.p.; Blnckall. W .Austral. Wil'dO. 1(1954)153 p.p.|- 
pfg. 2 A-D. 

J ftevw not seen the. {ym tijicciiucu hi Anisvrimlhti krnttnfhsidtv PvM« tor which .special 
?earoli bus kfnfHy been mfttfl in K rind MRT - The stpplfcfirfrtn nf this name remains there- 
fuit somewlvU ilouhlTuI. F.vALil'Mci' plmed il ;is -ivtiauvnt of A Jktrunthu in luy i*rujun, 


Low .shrub, pubescent, branching. Blanches terttte. torncyitosc. Leaves lroeai\ 
5-22 mm. long. IS to 1 : S mm, wide (usually about 1 mm. vide), acute, pubescent, 
usually tlu'n ami spreading. Flowers solitary. Stamens 5; filaments membranous, 
dilated to base. Fruiting perianth about 2 mm. long and 2& mm. broad, tomen- 
tose; anterior face convex with several longitudinal and one horizontal rib; 
posterior face convex. Spines 2, 3)i-2 mm. long (sometimes longer),, nearly 
equal, divergent, tomentose in lower part, otherwise glabrous. Tubercle obtuse, 
small, rlecui'ient, higher than limb, lamb short, bent downwards. Base ? ovate, 
deeply hollowed; margin glabrous. Style linear, hirsute; stigmatic branches 2, 
red. Seed hori/.ontal to slightly ohlkjue; radicle superior. 

WESTiiriN Ait5trat.ta. 1 ,. HrotV.t 2tt~fl: MEL ( tsotypr ot Ajtiwrftntha diamntlm Nee«; 
tin* holutvuc could not be traced at HBG): Quaugcri tUiuu (Victoria)-. TTL1840.— Aitonvoi : 
PERTH t - Tnm*.KuiI\\MV Survey. 1901.- K.H.: fcERTHi <JuoU;.r<l»V. V L.Syy - ft J, 
Bailey 13; .PERTH: MVHtfidgiQi X.1945.- 357: CANR, PERTH: W.irkkm. Rack*. 
BUS47>- VV D. Campbell: P: Boulder. 2S,VII.UH)(i (Pen'unths auiuVvelopetl but NlOftl 
likrlv si.cvtcs)- W V. FiUgemld: AD 95438007. Nanninr-. 1X.IW3.- C. A. 
Gnrriner 172-3: T'ERTIT: Dcmkrii^. 17A 7 L1922.- 6542; I'liHt H: Cun.leuli.i 23.X-IU1X- 
kl.: PKRTHi \nlverting. VTI.1940.- U. Hflnm NSW. MEfcs Victoria Desert. Cftfilp 5T. 
l(jJX.I8yi.- K. H. Kin^; AD U5U38002: Wyalkatchem. LIX.1926.- \1- Koch 1372: MEL. 
eE'RTH: Cosvcravinff. IX. lfll»-4.- 287.3: jNSW: Mwrtfdin 19.X.1923.- J. H. Mnf'dau 
NSW 45564: Guk X.KHJ9.-K. \WmlT. V1KL. GoWr-n. V*Hey. 188H.-A. Wtrfrl&orl; PK81H; 
Woi.^iitj HiDs. 7.X.19U'3.- L. C- Webster: NSW 4S5U5: CoolKm-dic. 1900. 

South Au^thalla (selection only). Ajiomviii, ( Herb, J. M. Bio civ I : AD: .Mariec: 
ll-X.1917; Pinnaroo. 12.V191.S; Wnolsheu" War. * 2.X. l»16; be'tri. X IflSMj tVucofiK.. H*30; 
Dublm. 12.LX.1032- W. H. Andrew: AD 95708122: Mt. Buyky iumt ButUma. 

92 KlvNESi H (MNC 

U).VtlI.l92tJ,- It. G. Andrcivirtlid, AttHfc ADW: 58.4 Is*. Cmnaiu'tu.., .24,111.1937 
D. Bate: AD: Ooldea It t9»J «ucl 25 VH1.19SI.- E. C BUok: AD 9570H133: Runnui*. 
r,J007— J. M. Black: AD, NSW 45558. Moliose. lo..\.J9l5.- id.: AD, NSW 45556; 
Muml Way. i5.XI T I^l6 Ufcd 17X1,1915.- id AD 95708133; ft, Kourlitnga. I5.UU0R.- 
&\ AD 95708123: Wudimu. IOM.IOL.7- UU NSW 45552: Tiiicouk >.l AD 

aeroaiatti wjtrflwilta. c& 34 h», M.nti.-soniis-tast <ir viamv. i-5.x.iui7.- n. 'i. biu- 

bidge: CANB \22Wi Yudtupiun*. 1 1.1X. l'<Uti. C. H. Clark*; ADW 32GB: Ki.mstoi. 
1'nck. I2.IVHI3H— |. R. CVhmd: AD 95820149. Ern.ihelU, Mnsgrave- Kango.— 
itl.: AD W5820003: HahVtts Ccve. JI.IX, 1032,- hI.j AD S8fl§O0S}7i Pinery, Tort River. 
27. M lOaaA Id.: AD 0689)013; SUiilung- iy.VIU.iy2t.- id,: AD flffSJ&OW; Fto- 
cldlnu. 20A')U.192I.- ul.: AD 95820035: Oi,h!**u Soak. 20.V! 1 1.1989,- ul.: AC 
9583**0003; 1'oneljcru And Ccdwm. &Xll#4.. id.: AD 9582000S: Near nae- 

*d#>. Bluff, Ivnctmntcr Bay. 8.1.1932.- id.; AD y5teUO0&; AQfdM Cdgorm. 23.VUl.193l. - 
Id; Al> 9&&00IO: OpifiwrlattSu 1.1927.- id.: AD 95820079; Coondamh... 29.X 1929 - 
id.: AD 93810073: Pi. Genntin, 3M UKVr- J. Cover: BIU 014279: Kionif BiveT. Mol- 
j-ioorh.:* l .1950.- R. L. Crocker; ADW 16MB unci 4fe8& Yudiiapiima Sin- 12X1939 
jnd !fl.:\.1939.- ul.: AD 95939009: ca. Dmnuntirin River, Burts Wntcrhol. . 15X11.1939.- 
id ; AD ^5**^9(108: Simpson Dosert l>:|Mn1iti<«n. Camp 1Q. 27A T I-l939 !>. onlyl- id.. 
AD 95935W0fi: ibid. Gump 4t£ 4.VII1.I939 (b. only).- Hj. EieLlcr IJ741 AD: Monash. 
IM.rv 1937.- AD; Marino. 1.11959.- W. Fntill iohm : MFJ.r Apt* of Spem-/* 
Culf. I.SKn. - F OnVst MEL: Wilt nf PV.wltrr. Bav.- K. M. Hilton 673. 677 : AOW 
YfirifigPinna Stn. RMS, y ATM 951- 1438; ADW; Copley Corgiv lfl.TV.1955.- id.: 
ADW 19092: Near Salt lake, (faflartai Hain. 24.VU1.1955.- K H. Uinjs: AI> 95W123: 
fcivt'lvi, Dowrw Stn.. en. 120 km. soitth-weU of Oodnadalta. 20.V1T1 1954.- id.; AD. ADW 
11540,, 11563, NSW AM»4& Othn* eollortlons from li\rlyn Downs. 1 952- i 0r^!5— 1 6f >;* : AD: 
Ooldea. 13.JX.I920.- 1718, 1737 and 1757: AD, \fRL,*NSW, BRI: Tnrcoola. 21.fX.1020.- 
i.l - ;VD 95907090; Ml. Mary, met Mown. 3.X.I922-- id.: AD 939[»708S; IftlUftM Cove. 
21 IV.192'1.— id.: AD 9. c i907098; t-ti'lUi. 23.IV.I9'i2- id.: AD 95907095: 1 ,iromid:i 

1 !'j:<7- id.: AD 95007091: Mt. Mnri.i. WihuinKLou. 21 X .102.8 - id*: AD 95907079; 
Purin.i. 0.V11I.1954.- 2dt3s AD: e.-rlirku. 2t VIII. 1032.- id.: AD 95907077: Wudimtt, 
F..V. I9.X.1938.- id.: AD 95907092 ; Pt. GeiWwiP. < *» 1936- L. A. S loWm: NSW 
42^7 1 Murinn. 25 1X1957- M. KnHi :^2. \1K1.; \ff. Lyndluirsl. i.N.lS^. f. 
Mueller. NSW -15557. MEL; TUdfusi Bay. 1847 trad V.IS51.- H. J. Mun.iv 102: AO 
Ai^oona, rn H5 km. wcsl i>f conrre rl kike T<itrcn ■ 10.L\.1«27.— I H Pulnidur: AD 
959390I.3: Koonamonr \«MeULffn Kw • •_ 21 IX lOfV.)- T.. IfefStt AD U57(^123i Mtntfh 
DovnA. Cfl NVS Lin. snn(t>-soiitl>-M.U t>f Birdsvill-, Qslil. 1927.- A. I* V. glpltATdson 
ADW ySl: BucMebou. E-P. Ut 1931— id-; ADW 9H0: Mnnnv Mullrc. K O 
HnWhu-li 120: AD. i'mkawdlimo. I5.TM05Q.- It. Schoddc 1078: AD: SandMon, 30 Ul. 
.muth-west "f UWVrmvn. 30.111. lf»59. 11 18, 1120 und 1123: AD; <)1:u>' Spur, KnnnA- 
.nore Vevt-tntion Hcmtvc. 27 and 2« J. C, 9\ Trpp-r 33H and 350: MKL Y"ot1;c 
IVtuiMiiUf. 1S79- D. J. Rs Whihtov .165: AD; 22 fcru, eaKL of PaiV.rlnlnM. 20.Ul.i959.- 
i\ «:. Wilson 14-d; AD: WhvuMa-Kitnh;. Ilcunl. KP. 2.X.1958.- 'Ilfl: AD: 16 km. (OuJllI 
J Kvaiic-.Ua, E.P., ca. 150 km. north of H. Limoln. 13\.H».%S~ -1K5: AD. Mmyjna, 
E.V. * 15.X 1958- KlfiS: AD: K. Willi.n^i. I3.t.l959.- F. Wullaston; AD 95938005: 
Kftfiivirnorr* Stn. s i;i. 60 lcn». nortli of "iunli. 30«V I9a4< 

NoiWtffiHN TvHKiir.:.v. C. Cloppendalt: 279H. .3937, 31»80: AD. BIU. CAN15. NSW, NT. 
ca 17 1cm. east of NVw Cnwn Sin. 3.1X.195a-- | B. Gleland; NSW 45541; Braofctf 
Sauls, CA. 15.VIII.1931. id.: AD 95H2C001; Hamilton Bon*. c:i. 90 »o.». nottl.-wKl nf 
Aliif Spring. 7J.L927.- K A Dafcj NSW 15510: Sfandlev Chosm, f*4 lin. We4t «.d 
AIilv SprinKs. 7.VII.1939.- VV. J. BraM&ttOw MKI ,W^bI1s Creek. i«95.- L:. H, 
IsjjJKJ AD 95<)07K)7. K.-dnmn. 5.IX.1933. 2702: AD: Utin«hfl>a Bond. 21.V1II.193I.^ 
f. jtilmsun and C. Chippendale d92fl: AD, WW: ca. 1H km. woHi of Horseshoe- Bend. 
H,VIUY7.- H- Ke,..p,-. ML'l,; Finke Hivor. I8S9. M. U?.,irid..s 5979: BIU. CANB 
NT: no loculitv 12IXJ950.- fi0(>7 BK1, XI: 0«, 5 km ftOftfi «4 Bund Sidings Sen. 
24.IX 495G.— 11 A. Perry 5455: CANB: ca. 11 Vm. soullj-eaat vi Rin^wood Stn.. Siinp.snai 
D sell. 9.IX.I955.- 3236: CANB, NT: ou. 8 1m. CiUvt of Alice Spring*. 5.111.1953.- 
D. t. Syiuon 70: ADW- ca. 19 km inn lit of Alio- Spring. 8.VMW53,— K Tuh- AD 
959'108«: Ilpitla GorfiB, affluent ot Fulkc River.- B. JS. WinKortb 130: BRI. NT: 6a. 
?7 Int. north of fCuleora Stn. 10.111.1954.- 149: BRI, NT: i-a. 32 km. sooth nt Honlnm- 
ilead Station. 1179: NT: New Crij*vn Stn- 7.Vn.l955. 

nco-KN-fii.ANT). W, Barton: MKLi AnnmliUa. 1867.- S. T. Blakr- 5607: BKI: Onmti- 
innbV 29.IVM934.- 5fiS9; IiUl. NSW: Moncn. 1.V.1934.- 6S01t NSWTi \Vondstm*k. 
2fl.VI.1934.- !■;. Bowman 2C2: MEL- Capcti lti\oi.- H. Cl.oko: NSW 45-5.37: Mitlll^ii 
Ri%iv li.1904. R. L. Cnukcr: AD B570S04B: Shnpom Dtittit, i:n. 31 km. n:) 

01 Birdsvill'*. 5.VII.I939,- S. I.. TCw-rKr 7S4: BBT: Noonrloo Stn. 14.\n.t$34- 160S: 
BRT; Bluokull 13.11.1938. 2810: BRI. CANB- Boataww Stn 2I.TU.IM17.- ^U3r RHT 


CANR: Tttkfe, SI. rV. 1048.- AflQ: iilU, CANB: 04. ^1 kin, south-east of Roll.n. 
L7.VIJ.104H.- A. A. Holland and C CiitUKft 1UU: CANS $W4i St, QtiWiM-Bollwi K.l 
TV.1<lo&- C, E, Hubbard and C. W. Winders (1021; Bid: \ln..;;allula. .'H.XIMvWi - 
L. S. Smith SttiSs I5RI: Kmdcm Sta. Darling Downs. 7.XII.193M.- [. WYdd 821, bKJ- 
St, GoOJgf. VJfltt- Dr. Wheelrr: MKl: lnwni'<b Stokes Hanj>e and CtmBpffS Ou>-k- 
C. T. WllittiJ UHI 014277= Wy&fc, GbtodMwU district. fX.IEHU, 

Nnv South "\V\ N, C. RYudle: SiD: Condoboiin. 30,I.IU4o- Annie Hell- MF.I • 
BoriMiCH); r.achlan River. IX.188T.— F. Buchc; NSW 45/508: Plates ROM BiHrrke. 
ITJVl. 19(19.- id..- NSW 454U0: .Kuoo Kivw. J\.1 C J00. id.; NSW, MEL- Wutwflrt Tuver 
0C.1A8&- A. D. Blank: AD 95938003: Rrnla-n Hill. X.1917.- F. Tneukwcti- N.SW 
I551S: NynKnn. V.L0I2,— N. T. BiirbMge 200& CANB; DOthtfWtim, 9.1.1950.- F V 
Cnnsrublr; JftfVV 106S: Bourko. 1fUX.IU47, £. G. Cuthbwtxnn 28: CANR ^IS805: I/Aftiiui 
5tn„ LU i(> km. Wftgt <jfi Wan;.aniui, ::0.V.19o2.- IT. DeJUic; N'SW 45502- Broken IMI 
Jiytl Tmuwiutiiv. VHl. 1*9.3. K, E. Hiivil.nul: X.SVV 455itfr Cobax. IV. 101 1 . — f> /. \v 
HvwtafaQi NSW 45511: CundabnnU. 2.M01H. Mrs. Holding: \iKT. : Darling Wr. 
\.ihW7.- J, A S, Johnson: NSW 43765: Talee.lmu, &$t of Runt ins Sprints. 7.V,I055- 
SH/JSS: NSW: W/maarinfr. 1.VJJ.947.- L. A. S. Johnson and E, P. Cgnstabfe 997: 
NSW. Wuniallxv Mu.. 90 km. west or Milpnrmko. 4,VjLl955 — A. S. Little i NSW 43507 
WftUtfH N-l'^99 I H. Maiden and J. L Buormun: NSW 45512: CuilmiiUme. VIII. 1910, 
C; W, I-.. Moniv 14.13: CANB: <a. 22 km. I'rotn Jerildeiie on Darlington Porl Road. 
£r,\.MM»- 349: CANB: "MyaU fttUQdf'i TAouife. 26.iU»104ft- f.44§J CANB 50721- 
M«ir Wan l^ti. •!(,>. Su.X.f &•><).- A. Morris: NSW 45504: Broken Hill 715: ADW NSW 
BUT Mr Slurt Stn. trmt Milp.irmU. 27.1X.1921.- 2234: ADW, BM: SWrffitt& Creek! 
jftubra Hill. 12.VlTU^fs.- 1055: ADW: Tborodnl,;. 12. t 192-1.- A. Cnnningh.i.n: ?: 
Whhu River. [PeriandM undeveloped but probably this spews.)- F. \, Mueller: MEL* 
Lacldim River. 187N— id- \UU . Mumtmbidgee River. TX.IS7H— (j. T. Muxson 12ft 1 
XERL. Nnmoi River. 1-S»J0.- I,. R. Pnacockr: NSW 45516: Miandctta (NynjMri to CobntJ 
I \ l!J52. 1. Pidgcfm and J V'i.jkcry: NSW 45503; 90 kn._ cast ol'* Broken Hill. 
20A4M.193!).- u,\- NSW 50265: Broken HtJI. 21 V.lll,li)39 (form with gfohtQiil stv!.-j- 
J. H Uk-h^; -11: CANB: TflirV- t> , M-Mdauifiii. 28.\.10-19.- 72 jvp.j CANB (*b and f')- 
r>l ki„, ettst north-rast rtf Mrokt'u Hill. l^.XI.U'UO.- K. R..e K422: CANB: Bvi*rook 
MAM94I- J. W, \'io!corv; SVD: Co1I;iandri-WdgcU 21AII.39r;4— O. H. WjQkiuB 
|?3; CANB: WimjM»>L'lla. l-SA'lil.1919. 

VicronrA. f(. R. Htowne 15:. CANB: ca. SO km limn S--v:iii Hill. 20.VTTT.h14H- 
J. D.dkn'.h.v: MbiL, AD: 179 So..d hills. Bint* J'bins. Wimmr-rr, 2.XMfif : il.- J. M.dnn.-. 
N.^vv 45390: Cndcrhool. N.1015.- F. KfnrJl^t; MEL; Avfai. 1K33.— K. M. Rr^d.r • 
MR1.: SWrt of' Dimboola. 17.XI.1892 and 2.l\ 1900.- id.: MF.I.. NSW 4*533; Wimmrra. 
!85a— E. J. HoM'Iand.s S: MK1 : Baimerton via RohinviH*.' ^rviH.1958. C. Widtrr: 
NSW 45532; Lake Uindmank. X.1H99- W, W. Walts 4!S: NSW Nmvl^lv. TX.iniY.- 
S.-vi: NSW: DuinOi* Rood i.a, 12 km. from Wyehquoof. XT. 1917— H. B. Wdli.mwmi: 
AD. tok Alka.ittyji. 

This species is perhaps Hie most widely dislt ibutcd ot the tfenns Ua.vviV/ lb 

It may appear that the naxrow-linrar leaf forms (less than 1 mm. in wklth), 
svhicK remarkably enough, are mostly confined to Queensland and New Suuth 
Wales, should he separated specifically. Tliis, howcyer, is not ad\isahi«- as 
other distinguishing; charaeters have not been observed. Onerally the leaves 
in the dried state are linear, i.e.. with ]")ara!lcl margins, without iiny aetiad 
wid^niu^ towards the sumniit which i.s usual in the clavute leal oF B. nnifhmi. 

The hair clothing of tlie leav(\s is =fc pubescent and yew rarely approacliint; 
the density of Qifl lomentose indutncnttim of B. toriflora. 

The character of the style has rarely been used for diagnostic purposes. Tt 
lias been found to be a gppfl r>ne, Tn both B. unijhra and B. tliacantha the 
style is ± hirsute and otton the lower part of the stigmatie branches are the same. 

Sometime* the tubercle has a slight hencl forward. 

Other cliaracters such as the limb, base avfi filaments generally constant. 

One of the specimens cited with the original description of Seleralacnu 
diaamthii var, longixpina ? by Bentham (FI.Austi*a], 5(1870)1^5: "Wimmera, 
DiiUachy") is BtWid tfiatxtnfhu (Nees)FvM. I have not seen the otfier specr 
mens quoted by Rentliam, but part of one of tbcm is refcired by Anderson 


(fUocXinn.Snc.NS.Wules 48(1923)337) to D. ohliquicuspis Anders, and another 

part to B. patentUuspis Anders. 

3 B. eriacantba (Fv\l.)Anders., Proc.Linn.Soe.N.S.VValcs 48(1923)828, Black, 
Fl.S.AiistruJ- ( 1924)190; Gardner, Eu.PlAustral.Oceid. (1930)38 ( eri- 
canrha'); Black, FJ.S.Austnd. 2nd cd. (1948)303; Blackall, WAustralAVildfl. 
i'1954)i52.- Kcnlropw eriacuntlta. FvM., Fragm. 2(1801)140.- Sclero- 
liwtm erkicanlha (FvM.) Ulbrich in Engler and Trantl, Nat.PIli'am. 2nd ed, 
I fle( 193 1 )534-— [AnimcaiUha lonirmpis ( non FvM.) FvM ., Fragm. 
7(1869)14 p.p,] [Sticrolarna hmcuspis (non (FvM.)FvM. ex Bentn.) 
Benth.. FUustral. 5(1870)195 p.p., Maid, and Betchc. Census N.S.Wales PI. 
(1916)69 p.p.] 
Additional details to description: Flowers solitary, Stamens x filaments 

rnHnbramuis <iilated downwards. Style, connate part * hirsute, .stigmatie 

branches 2s red. The long, dense, silky covering of the perianth, particularly 

flit- hairs on tlio margin of the areole are a marked reature of this specie*. The 

limb is -t erect. 

iN£.\v SfMTH Walks. H. .Heckler: MEL (part of bolotypc) \ Dailing Kiver {thssmk 

N .$.Wil«f, Victorian Expedition ISttO.- X, C Ben* He; SYD: 10 ton. casr tH Broken JIill. 

NriRTHruN TuoitroRv. M. l.uyariuVs j74<M. AD: en. 14 km south of Drop Well. 
1<) ¥111.1956- E II. Isiiig: AO 9o'00<S017; MAC&HMtld Downs Station, en, 240 Wro. 
< : f Alk-e Springs. KtX.1933. „ „ 

Norm Ai^timi.i.\. J- B. C'WW: AD 958:0038: Abm*n§&. 8.VUU93L B R 
Jsinv' 1H0O: AD; KingoGAYfl. 23.IX.t920,- iiH(H4: .\Dt Oodlitolfttta. R- IX.1931 - 29B2: 
AD; Pedfrfcd. 1 !X.H>32.~ 1752i AD; Tarooola. 21.TX.1&20. - H. It Pulldnc; AD 
958£0Ufe JSonnln.!*. V.193L 
-1. Bassia gardneri Isiug, sp.nov. Fig. 4 A-D. 

Fmtieuius, iuclumento fulvns. Ranu -"- costati, tomentosi. Folia linoaxia, 
7-20 nun, longa, 1-2 mm. lata, acuta, tenniu, pubescentia. Floms solilarei. 
Sbimhiu 5; filamenta membranaeea, deomim dilatata. Perianthium fruetifenim 
ea. 2K mm. longum el latum, dense tomentosum; faet'es anterior convcxa, aliquot 
COSttS lungitudmalihus et nno costa horizontal!' bases spinis eonneetu; iacies 
posterior convexa, 3 costis longitudinalibus. Spiiiue 2, 5-6 mm. hnig#fi few 
aequules, divergentes, magnara partem plerumquo dense tomentosae. Tuber- 
enlum ohlusunr apiee uncinato; costa deeurrens, erassa. Limbus brevis, iiielf- 
luittis, ciltatus. Basis clliplica vel prope cireularis, obliqua, profunde exeavata; 
septa radiata: margo dense ciliatus. Stylus linearis Inrsutus; rami stigmatiei 2, 
sub-rubn. multo evseiU. Semen horizoutale vol leviter obliquum; mdicula 

I'riclerslnui). indumentum brownish. Branches ! ± ribbed, tomentose. 
Loaves linear, 7-20 mm. long, 1-2 mm. wide, acute, thin, pubescent. Flowers 
Military. Stamens 5, filaments membranous, dilated downwards. Fruiting 
perianth fca, 2H mm. lone; and broad, densely tomentose; anterior face convex 
wilh several longitudmaf and one ln>iizorital rib connecting the bases of the 
.spines; posterior "face convex wilh ca. 3 longitudinal ribs. Spines 2, 5-fi mm. 
lOflg, nearly equal, divergent, usually densely tomentose for most of length. 
Tubercle obtuse, hooked "at summit; rib deeurrent, tliick. Limb short, bunt 
downwards, ciliate. Base elliptic, to almost circular, oblique, deeply hollowed; 
septa radiating: margin densely ciliate Style linear, hirsute; stigmatic branches 
2, pink, much exserted. Seed horizontal to slightly oblique: radicle superior. 

WKstiaiN Ait.v,kaua. C. A. Gardner 6184- I'EKTH ( hnlotyije); AO f)6(H000l (iso- 
EWnC): Wandu^ee, Minihu RtVBT, &X.1941.- W. V. FilzCerakl; .NSW 4.350.1: Kanoiiftir 
IX iM03 t - C. A. Gonhu'r 8&tf; PKinn: 96 Ion. cast of Carnarvon. 20.1X.I94I.- fili'J.'i;.: 
PERTH ; \V;mdagep. 8.X.I941. K. W llnniphiies: PERTH r Woolrrn, Killer Paddock. 
2aiX.1950.- 1. H. MMiden; NSW 45562: Luverton. IX 1^09. 


B. gardneri is recognized chiefly by its hooked tubercle, densely- filiate 
margin of the areolc at the base of the fruit and long ribbed branches. It is 
only known from semi-arid localities in Western Australia. 

5. Bassia tatoi FvM. } Vict.Nat 7(18fl0)6fl ; KvM. Ieon.AustraLSnlsnl.Pl, (J KM) 
r.71; Tale. Traus.Rov.Soe.SjYustral. J9( 1895)80; Koch. Trans.Rm.Soe.S. 
Austral. 22( 1808) 100; Anders., PmoJ .innSoc.N.-S.Waies 48 ( 1923 mi ; 
Black, Fi.S.Austral. (1924)193, 2nd ed- (1948)303.- Auslrobama Httrt 
(FvM.)Ulbrich in Engle* and Virmtl, NatPHium. 2nd cd. 16c ( J 934) 532. 
Additional details to description: Style linear, hirsute; stigmatte branches 2, 

thick at base, tapering upwards. 

Snurn AiisruAMA. R. Tale; AD 96034039 (tsotvnc); Laic Tnrrens, 11VII8&3 — 
H. W. Andrtw; AD M5ti41G46s Rnh»i. 15\'IT. f &i20.— id.: AD M^UCWIt Mm niftou i. 
2KA II (920- H. C. Andnwavtha S300: ADW: Pinplr Downy Stn, V,19.%S - f B 
ClL-lundj AD 95820105, 959-U047: Mu>ax\ 13.VtS.IB3C- H. t> Crocker: AD 0504104*2;* 
Toward* T..tfcr. Kyre. Camp -34, Simpson Desert K\prdtli<>n, 21 A'l 1.193^).— Hi Eklilw 
I29M9; AD; uth 3 km. Mmtli fif bMh Qscfc. 2G4\.1950.- R. 1011 7G; AD. Wttchrfinu 
H.VIU955.-. F. \l_ Hilton; ADW 2I3flflj JVtw^n Mt Lymlhurst and Avmi'klfr 
10.1V.1955- M. Koch: NSW 4549ft: Mr. Lyndhum. Vlll.18^7 (drt, \\, TalH.- id 
102 ih>.! AD, BK1, MM., NSW: ibid. VTO, IX ami X.IK9.S and VJil. 181)9.- T. ft, N 
i.irtv.iu 1M, II.}, 1XH, 119, rUO, 122. 127. V2H. 131: AD; Near Ldgli CnvV ^Ol\'.1959 
aid l.X.lOaO— M. Murray; AD 900^4020: Cootannnritmti,- id.: AD 06031021; Nflrrinna 
Flat*- D. E Syinon: ADW I153T: Vaiinu, 20AM. 195.1.- R. Tate; NSW 45407; no 
finality (pn^aldy kotypr, rm-ivod l'mui Adelaide University HefbaMum on TJ.190;>) 

6. Bussia purallclieuspis Anders,, l^oe.Linn.Soc.N.S. Wales 48(1923)331, t.34 
H-l.; Black, FIS.Austral. (1924)193; 2nd ed, (1948)303.- Amlrotxnw 
IkimUcIicusph ( Anders. )Ulbn eh in Engle* and PranlL Nat.Ptii'arn. 2nd ed. 
16'c( 1934)532. 

AddilinmtJ details to description; Limb short, erect, pilose; style usually 
lilahroua; sligmatic branches 2; several weak ribs on anterior lace 
of periauth; radicle superior. 

Sot-Jit Australia. Mi KiK-h 202 p.p.: NSW -15192 (Ueinkpe) : Mt. LvndlnirNt. 
Ml IH^T. J. B Clehnd; AD 05820007. \SW 502H«: JVdirk.i. hlvm.1932.- id.: SO 
Qo>>2007«; Mt. Chambers Coffc. WllnistB RuiMta. 30AM037, id ; \D 95820070" 

uhutltfri* ^A'111.1931- H. L. Crocfcw 2: AD: Ahrnln^;, OvA. 3.V1.I930.- E. H, Jsi.c 
2078, 2S7d, 2910: AD: ftwdm. 22.V 111.1931, 21.Y([U932 t 14X4932,- \J Koch 292 
!>.)>.: NSW 45401 (syntypo). Mt. Lvtidlmrst. 1X1800 : quolcd by AfUlftttffl \ C as 
VIJUS99}.- 292 [i.p.; I'KRTH: ibid. X1898.- 292 p.p.: AD: ( |>id. V.IK90.- K |, 
Murrav 101 p.p: AD: Arcomn). 164X4927. 

K'pnr Sovm N. C, Boarlle: S\D: Yalpm^'i- X.1030, 

N'okihkhv TnmitouY. S, A, White: AD 95051002: Make- rliwr r>et\v<'<<ti Cvuwn Pntnt 
ond itmcihah Bend AUtf. 1913.- ft. L. Crevknr: AD 95052(HH : Clint lotto Waters (Smu.- 
HSu Desert EA*ped.). 27AM939. 

7. Hrtssw constricts fttojfe sp.nov.— /^. unifhirn \'ar. hicon^rtiaji^ Black, 
Ti , ;ins.Roy.Soc.S.Au i strul. 4S ( 1924 1254 p.p. (specimen from Ht-rgnU).— 
Fig. 7 A-D. 

I r ruticnlus; rami temntcr costati. spirrse tttmentosi. Kolin linoun'ii, 3-iO mm. 
longa, i J mm. lata, acaita, tennia. puljoscontia. Florcs solitarci, Stamina 5; 
filarnenta iiiembranacca, deorsurn di!t»ti»ta. TVriunthiurn fruetifeixun niech,iliter 
coiLstrictum, 1K-2K mm. longnm, IK-U2 mm, latum, apico unilutcraliter productn; 
miiri (cnui, straniineai, sparse tomentosi; fades anterior oonrava, aliquot testis 
lonfiritudinalibus costa horbrontali singnlari prominonti; fades posterior coneava. 
Spinac plcrunume 2. interduni fnehoatae, J-i-4 mm. longae, diver^enfes, inaequHlts, 
acfcularcs vol ci)tusae, fere vel omnino clahrar. Tuborcuhun obtusum, in costae 
tunui clecunr.Titi. Li?nl>us hre.vis, iuclinutti:?. ciliaUiii. Basis obhmga valde 
obliqiui saepe sursum in flabcllo producto. — tumiiia, pndnndo ovcavata; septa 
radiata, inconspicuora; majgo glaber. planus. Stylus linearis. Tore vcl omnino 
glAhtirj rami sti^matici 2, sub-ruhri Somen verticale: radicoila supera. 

Undershrub; branches finely ribbed, sparsely tomentuse. Leaves linear. 
3-10 mm, long, ± 1 mrn. wide, acute, thin, pubescent. Flowers solitary. .Stamens 
5; filaments membranous, dilated downwards. Fruiting perianth -"£ constricted 
in middle-, l&-2Ja mm. long, 1)1-1'* mm. broad, unilaterally produced ut the summit, 
walls thin, straw colomea 3 sparsely tomentose; anterior face concave with several 
lon^fitudinal and one prominent horizontal rib; posterior face concave. Spines 
usually 2, sometimes both or one only rudimentary, Yt-A mm. long, unequal, 
aeicular or obi use; divergent glabrous or almost so. Tubercle oblnsc, decurrcnt 
in a thin rib. Limb short, bent downwards, eiliate. Base oblong, very oblique, 
often extended upwards in a lip, =t swollen, deeply hollowed; septa ladiatinL;. 
inconspi<uous; margin glabrous, flat. Style linear, ulabntus or almost so: stig- 
jnatic brandies 2, pink. Seed vertical; radicle Anperiur. 

SotrrtT Austkaua. K II. Isiuj- 4000; AD &SWBW (hololvpe), L, NS\V T LS, l: Ood- 
nadutU. 21J.VI 1 1.195:5.- J. M Black s.n.: AD 95946028 (!o<'t<jtvpe of 11. untftnm vnr. 
fnfcrnngWttW Black), .NSW 4o.5'l«: HdrffOS fMS*W)« 14.V KH7.- H. \V. Antltrw; AD 
957081.35: Mwutttiwfe, i-u. 100 lam north-east ot Lcic'h Cierfc (Teltord). 1&VU.I920,— 
J M. Black: AD 959W029; ttecjaitt (Murm). 11 .X.iyl7.- id.: AD 05940027: Mun- 
flowclna. 15.X. 1917,- N. T. Burhiclgc: CANB 131 JS: Paruchilrui Gorge. l.tX.IMB.- 
j B, CIclmul; AD 9581700W: All. LviidlitusL SbiVfto, 45 fcrq. oi-rhVcast Oi fafttfl Ct*d& 
19A'.iy24,- k),- AD 05820142; MiarfcffA 25.VJIW933.- id.: AD 95820131: H 
\, of NfitrrLv. 5.V1U. 192V).- F. M. Hilton liM3- ADW: Mem Mama, en. 35 km, smilli of 
Hawker. 8.TV.If)55.- 1326: ADW: Mt. LyitillHiKt. west side. 9.1V. 1955— ISffk ADW: 
War Liikc Finnic, alluvial plain*. 10.lVJy.55,— 1410: ADW; Between Lvudhiml and 
Avomluli', 10. IV. 1955, - R H, Tsinjr 3003; AD: Al*t-tmrldna, ax. W km. south of Ootlnu- 
dutta. 3.XI.i9r>3.-id\: AD 05909088: Kitlyn Downs, en. 120 fcm. fiAtttfunist «jf Oorm:i- 
ilari:i. VIII. 1953, i J Further collections- of a. H. limy from Evelyn Downs in AD.)— Jd.: 
AD 93^09089; Fioina, ca. 55 km nftftil <rf LfiMl Qta& 18A'JIJ,H)33. - 2055: AD: 
Mmnc. ca. .340 km. north ot Port Auspisti. 21 VIII. 1931 (and s.ii. of 1&V11I.1U3& 
15. VH. 1953 and 31.X.1055).- 2S68 tod 3752; AD; QbdsSftrfatfftj ca. 350 Icin. wnth-wi?** 
of \tcirroc. 7. IX J 931 ami 26.1X.195a.- id.: AD: OodnudutUu IKV11J»W and SWnt 
iy55.- id.; ADVV I 1657; OooWlatt*. 25.1X1^3.- F. S. loncs: AD 95909067: Oodua- 
drtttu. 5.VIJJ.I9o4.~ E. C. Millard: AD !fc9O9U0Oi WwfburtOm fliver = Dimnnnlii»n lliver 
in north-east cnruei of South AuMThUa/— T, G, H Oshorn; NSW 455M: Mt. Lyndlnmt. 
XTl l c lli- D K Symon: ADW JO590: Oodnad.Uta. 1«.V1.U)53. (This «prcimen W#B 
seen hv L. A. S. Johnson and dtl'jnniiK'd by him an u fl6tt» species ( affim'tv IJ. patcutini<'ipv t ) 
on ll.i.1935.) F. D. Wurr«n: AD 95009091: FinniNs Spring. CK. 05 km. WcnI oj Mtttf* 

Nkw Suu-ni Walks. Anonvm; Mk*L: Upper Darling K. 1800.- J. H. nii.-hes 72 p.p.: 
CANB 21570 (a): fM km. F N,K. of 'ftrnhm Hilt, I.IVU949- 

Tht* JruitiTi^; pfriutttli ts longer tlian liroad, usually coustrith^l ui tiffe niiddlo. 
produced at one side tit summit and base ss elongated upwards; these characters, 
with the Vertical scccl^ arc good distinguishing fealurcs. 

8. B. c-3«put-caAu;*rii Willis, Vict.Nat. 73(1957)153. — Fig. 8 A-JJ. 

This species is remarlcable for its largp tubercle; this and the u-hole perianth 
is likened by i*.s autlun* to a cassowarx \ hfad and is a good distinguishing charac- 
ter, The hollow tubercle in many, if not all, the species of Ba&aia. acts as a 
receptacle and protection for the radicle, and this is the ca^e with this species. 
The s^ed is vertical or almost so. 

ViLaOMA. b\ Hamsny: AD 957J..5012 (iMilype): MenVliin Ho;id, go. 5-6 miles (S-7 
km.) scinth <if Bcnornok, n(»rH'i-\ Vicitori.i. l.V*n.l950. (FTnlotyx)e jit Mi*X. imt KeCpJ 

9. Itassta eichteri Ising, sp.nov,— Fig. 9 A-D, 

Frulieulns fidiVio^ 10-20 cm. altus. ramts ct rumulis nnmerosis, aseenden- 
lihus, tnmcnto.sis. Folia linearia vel angusle Lincenlutu. 7-14 mm. lon^a. ad 
baseru ui. l?i mm. lata, sursuni aeuminatu, sessilia, "* irrdirieata, acuta, temiia. 
± villus*!. Fhjrcs sulitarci- Stamina 5, filamentis m(^mbranaceis. deorsurn dila- 
lalis. IVrianthimn fructiferum prope t;lt,»bosum, ea. 2 mm. Ionium ft faimn; 
rnUri erassi, tom^ntosl; facie.s anterior con\'C,\a, plurihus costis lon'4itudinalihns: 
fncies posterior eonvexa, Spinae 2, lz-2% mm. lon^ac. intcrduni inclioalae,, diver- 


gentes, auieulares : prupe glabrae. Tubereuhun parvuhiin, baud dccurrc.iiA'. 
Iambus hrevis, melinatus, eiliatus. Basis elliptica, obllcpin, profunda excavata; 
septa rudiata. ineonspicua; margo glabcr; .stipes erassus, saepe excentrieus. 
Stylus linearis, tcrc vol ornm'no glabcr; minis stigmatieis 2, subrubris. Serneu 
horizontal e vol loviler obliquum; radicula levator aseendens. 

Uudershruln small, 10-20 em. high, many ascending touientose branches 
arid branchlets. Leaves linear-lanceolate 7-11 mm. long, ca. IS mm. wide in 
lower part, tapering to apex in upper part, sessile, — imbricate, acute, thiiK 
— villous. Flowers solitary. Stamens EL filaments membranous, dilated down- 
wards. Fruiting perianth almost globular, ca. 2 mm. long and broad; w<ills 
thick., tomenlose; anterior face convex with several longitudinal ribs; posterior 
face convex. Spines 2, &-2J£ mm, long, often rudimentary, divergent acicular, 
almost glabrous, Tubercle very small, not dceurrent. I.imli short, bent down- 
wards, ciliate. Base elliptic, oblique, deeply hollowed; septa radiating, incon- 
spicuous; margin glabrous, stripes thick, often exceotric occupying ca, half of 
cavity. Style linear, glahjous 01 nearly so; stigmalic branches 2, pink. Seed 
horizontal to slightly oblique; radicle slightly ascending. 

Soltji Aiixtiulia." K. II. Isintf .1001: AD UJW07073 (holotvpe): B\1, 1A. A. L. A1EL, 
NSW, US: Evelyn D'»wn* ( cm, IfO hu, w>uth-w<mt or OOttofttfHttA, -ISA .1955.- 3997. 
AD: ibid. I0.IX.JU"i. - id.. AD 95907074; ibid. 8X1953; 

The lanceolate leavers, small globular almost spineless hinting perianths 
with their thick walls and thick stipes clearly divide this species from others in 
this series. 

10. Bassta burbxdgcac Ising. sp.nov.— Fig. 10 A-D. 

Rami graciles, tomentosi. Folia lineara, 5-10 mm. longa, ca. 1 mm. lata, 
± acuta, lennia. pubescent ia, pafenlia. Floies solitaiei. Stamina S t iiiaiueuUs* 
membranacois, deorsum dilatatis. Perianthium fructifcrum pyriiormc, ltt-Qi mm. 
Jongtau, lJ-i-tJ mill, latum, glahrurr^ iusco-rubruui; tacies anterior eonvexa, aliquot 
castis longitudinalibus el una eosta horaontali bases spinis oonneeta; facias 
piKterior ei.mve.xa, pluribtis eostis longitudinahbus. Spinae 2, ?2-2 mm. Iongao. 
interdnm lino inchoato, divergences, glabrae, crassae. Tubereulum oblnsum, 
latum, saepe amplius quam dimidium titbo longius, interdum apice Icvitcr 
inclinato vel uneinato, in costa tenui decurrenti, Limbus brcvis, inclinatus. ad 
apicem tuberculi eiliatus. Basis H circularis, obliqua, profunde cxcavaU; 
.septa radiata; margo glabro, Stylus linearis, glabcr; rami stigmatici 2. rubri. 
Semen hojizbrrlale vel leviLer obliquum; radicula supera. 

Branches slender, Leaves linear, 5-10 mm. long, ca. J mm, wide, 
± acute, thin, pubescent, spreading. Flowers solitary, Stamens 5, filaments 
membranous, dilated downwards. Fruiting perianth pear-shaped, l&SJa mm. 
long, 1/2-2 mm. broad, glabrous, dark red; anterior face convex with several 
longitudinal and one hori/oulul rib eormeeting the bases of the spines; posterior 
lace convex and with several longitudinal ribs. Spines 2,. Yi-2 mm. long, some- 
times one rudimentary, divergent, glabrous, thick. Tubercle obtuse, sometimes 
more than half as long as tube, ohen slightly bent forward at summit, or hooked, 
decurrent in a thin rib. Limb short, bent downwards, ciliate to summit of 
tubercle. Base =t circular, oblique, deeply hollowed; septa radiating: margin 
glabrous. Style linear, glabrous; stigrnatic brandies 2. reddish.- Seed horizontal 
to slightly oblique: radicle superior. 

WttSTi:a.v Avsthaua, N. T. Burbidgfl M\ PfittTiT (botatvjv), AO 90W0W6 (iWVtwjC:] i 
Clenorn Station VIIM938.- 71; PERTH: ibid. iV.IVM.S. 

The fruiting perianths of this species arc quite distinct in this group in being 
glabrous (although B. tatei becomes glabrous in age) and dark red in Colour; 
the large broad tubercle is unusual which is sometimes nearly as long as the 


tube. It is confined to Western Australia, and only two collectings were received 

for examination. 

11. Bassia holtiana Ising, Trans.Roy.Soc.S.Austral. 78(1955)111, Fig. I, 17-19.— 

[B. uniflora var. incongruens Black, Trans.Roy.Soc.S.Austral. 48(1924)254 

p.p. (lectotype excluded; c£. B. consiricta Ising).] 

South Australia. E, H. Ising 3624: AD 95708045 (holotype): Evelyn Downs, 120 
km. south-west of Oodnadatta. VIII. 1953.— id.; s.n.: AD: Evelyn Downs (further collec- 
tions from type locality). 18.X.1952, 1I.VIIL1954, 20.X.1953 and 19.VIIL1954 (perianth 
reddish almost glabrous), 27. VIII. 1955 (leaves densely villous, perianth glabrous), 16 ATM. 
1952 (perianth densely tomentose), and VIIL-X.1952-3.— Miss Staer s.n. (Herb. J. M, 

Black): AD 95942007: Arkaringa. VIIL1914. (This is one of the specimens which have 
been cited in die original description of B. uniflora (R.Br. )FvM. var incongruens Black, 
yet J. M. Black did not write the varietal name on its label,) 


My thanks are expressed to the following: the curators of the Herbaria AD, ADW, 
BRI, CANB, MEL, NSW, NT, V, PERTH and SYD for the loan of specimens; Mr. L. 
Dutkiewicz for preparing drawings; Dr. IT j . Eichler for help, advice and facilities given in 
the State Herbarium of South Australia; Mr. P. G. Wilson for the translation of the diagnoses 
into Latin. 


byG. M. Chippendale 


New records of 32 species, deletion of four species, and notes on three species are given for Central 


No. 2 
by 6. M. Chippendale 
[Read 13 October 1960] 


New records of 32 species, deletion of four species, and notes on three 
species arc given for Central Australia. 


The specimens mentioned in this paper, when not collected by the writer, have been 
cinVr donated to the Northern Territory Herbarium at Alice Springs, or have been notified 
by personal communication. 

In quoting specimens collected by members of C.S.I.H.O., M. Lar-arides and K. A. ferry, 
I have used tire citation "Herb. Aust." with the collector's initials and number. This has 
been necessary, as these, collectors have overlapping numbers, and to my knowledge, these 
numbers do not represent a number from the Canberra Herbarium. 


Ophioglossum coriaceum A. Cunn. This species has been repeatedly col- 
lected on Ayers Rock, but has not been published as a new record for Central 
Australia before. 


Aristida echirmta Henr. 9-5 m. north-north-west of Alice Springs, M. Laza- 
rides, 12/6/1958 (Herb. Aust. ML51S3). 2 m, north-east of Hcrmannsburg, \L 
Lazarides, 16/5/1955 (Herb. Aust. ML5312). 

A new record for Central Australia. 

Avena fatua L, 37 m, south-east of Yuendemu, M. Lazarides, 16/7/1956 
(Herb. AusL ML6010). An escape plant, probably from hay, and hardly to be 
considered as a naturalised plant as yet, It is, however, a new record for 
Central Australia. 

Digitarki erlolepis Henr. Hatches Creek township. M. Lazarides, 9/5/1957 
(Herb/AusL ML6264), 

A new record for Central Australia. 

Eriochne isingmnn J. M. Black. 2 m, south-south-east Aileron, M. Lazarides,, 
22/8/1956 (Herb. Aust. ML5790). 

A new record for Central Australia. 

Eriachne mucronala R. Br. var. desvrtorum C. A. Gardner. 32 m. north-cast 
of MacDonald Downs Homestead, M. Lazarides. 8/9/1956 (Herb. Aust. 

A new record for Central Australia. 

Paspalidkim clemenfii (Domin ) C. E. Hubbard. Elkedra Station, M. 
Lazarides, 29/3/1956 (Herb. Aust. ML6210). 

A new record for Central Australia. 

Sorghum plumosum (R. Br.) Beauv. 14 m. north-west Ooratippra Home- 
stead, M. Lazarides, 11/6/1958 (Herb. Aust. ML5272). 

A new record for Central Australia. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1961), Vol. 84. 



Ficux platypodn A. Cunn. var. minor Benth Dr. E. 
sity of Cambridge has redetermined a number of specimens previously placed 
under F. phtypodu var. platypoda, so that the variety is a new record in Central 


Atriplex pseudocampanukifa Acllcn. 13-1 m. east of Finke town, G. Chip- 
pendale and L. Johnson, 12/10/1957 (NT3933). 

A new record for Central Australia. diacantha (Nees) F. Much, Following redeterminations by Mr. 
E. II. Ising of many specimens previously placed under B. uniflonh this makes 
a new record for Central Australia. 

Eassia qainifiwcrjsph {¥. Muell.) F, Mucll. var, quinqtwempis. 35 m. south 
of Napperby IT.S. T M, Lazarides, 28/9/1956 (Herb. Aust. ML6082). 36-2 in. 
east of Xew Crown H.S., C. Chippendale and L. (olmson, 12/10/1957 (NT3940). 
26 rn. east of Armstrong River, G. Chippendale, 25/6/1958 (NT465I). 

A new record for Central Australia 

Brmia qumquecuspis (F. Muell.) F. Muell. var. vilhsu (Benth.) R. H. An- 
derson. 24m. south of Barrow Creole Township, R. A. Ferry. 3/9/1955 (Herb. 
Aust. RAF5353). 

A new record for Central Australia. 


Following critical determinations of a large number of specimens by Dr. 
C. Benl, Munich, the following are new records for Central Australia; 

Ptilohts alopecuroidcus (Lindl.) F. Muell. var lonuistochyits (W, V. Fitzg.) 
Benl. 1 rn. south of Clen Edith, G. Chippendale. 24/6/i959"( NT6257). 11 m. 
south of Plenty River, G. Chippendale. 1 4/8/1959 (NT6514). 

Pfdolus astrolashts F. Much. 14-2 m. south-east of Tanami, C. Chippen- 
dale, 3/5/1958 (NT4268), 

Pttiohts uiviphcijolius (A, Cunrr e.x Moq ( ) var elderi (Farmar) Benl. Mt. 
Qlgil, C. Chippendale., 13/9/1056 ( NT2S-S9 ) . 6 m. south of Police Station, Harts 
Ranire, C. Chippendale, 9/7/1957 (NT3482). 

Ptilotuti cnlostachifus (F. Muell.) F. Muell. var. procerus ( Diels ) Benl. The 
Granites. C. Chippendale, 2/5/1 95S (NT4212). 

Flilolus jtisifoimis (R, Br.) Poir. var. fusiformis. 6-1 m. south-cast ol 
Tanarni, G. Chippendale, 2/5/195S (XT4258). 

Pt'dotus lalifolkis R. Br. var. maior (C. A, Gardn.) Benl. 22-1 m. east of 
NOw Crown U.S., C, Chippendale, 12/10/1957 (NT3936). Simpson Desert, 
46 m. north of Andado H.S., G. Chippendale, 7/9/1959 (NT6602). 


Trianthema amiralis Melville. Tin's is delated from records of Central 
Australian plants, as the original record was based on a specimen from Char- 
lotte Waters, which has been redetermined as T. galcriculata Melville. 

TriantJiDva oxtfcalyplra F. Muell. 30*2 m. north-west of The Granites, C. 
Chippendale, 2/5/1958 (NT4229). 

A new record lor Central Australia. 


Datiesia chordoplnjllu. Meissn. Tin's is deleted from records of Central 
Australian planum following; redetermination by Miss II. Aston, Melbourne ITer- 


barium, of the specimen quoted by Chippendale (I960). This specimen is 
now placed as Daviesia sp. aff. lerefifalia U. Br. 

Swainsona hurkei F. Muell, suhsp. bvrkei A. Lee. This was omitted in 
error from the Check List of Central Australian Plants (1959). The subspecies 
occurs widely in Central Australia. 


Acacia ponoclada F. Muell. ex Benth. 13 in. cast-south-east of Tanami, 
M. Lazarides, 22/4/1957 (Herb. Aust. ML6253). 
A new record for Central Australia. 


Cassia rtuttdaiiihma Gaud. This is deleted from the records of Central 
Australian plants, as the record was based on a C. F. Hill specimen No. 393, 
which was redetermined by Mr. D. Symon as shown in the following species. 

Casski contain Bail, et' White, 70 m. north of Survev Camp IV (about 20 
m. north of Lander River), G. F. Hill, 28/6/1911 (G. F. HilL 393). 

A new record for Central Australia, 

Cassia luersscnii Domin. 23 m. west of Pine Hill H.S., G. Chippendale, 
11/8/ 1959 (NTG439), 

A new record for Central Australia. 


Phyllanthus ramosissimus (F, Muell.) Muell.-Arg, Tcmpe Downs, Thorn- 
ton, undated. A specimen noted while examining specimens in Melbourne Her- 

A new record for Central Australia. 


Dodonaea petiolaris F. Muell. 2 m. south-west of Lucy Creek Station. M. 
La?.arides, 5/9/1956 (Herb. Aust. ML5901). This specimen matches the frag- 
mentary type and other specimens in Melbourne Herbarium. 

A new record fur Central Australia. 


Ahutihn macrum F. Muell. 12 m. north of Crosses Bluff, G. Chippendale, 
4/4/1958 (NT4159). 

Originally recorded by Tate (1896), but herbarium specimens seen were 
without reliable labels. Now definitely recorded in Central Australia. 


Thryptomem parviflora (F< Muell, ) Domin or vel. aff. Palm Valley, G. 
Chippendale, 25/8/1956 (NT2678), 

A new record for Central Australia, but will need Further examination when 
more records arc made. 


Ileliohvpium crispatum F. Muell. ex Benth, Can be deleted from Central 
Australian records, as was based on two specimens which have been redeter- 
mined as H. bacevferum Forsk., viz., Ellery Creek, G. Chippendale. 15/4/] 956 
(NT2037). 2 m. north-east of Limestone Bore, Napperbv, G. Chippendale, 

17/5/1956 (NT2073). 


Eremophila alternifolia R. Br. 32 m. north-north-east of Angas Downs H.S. 
M, Lazarides, 20/6/1958 (Herb. Aust. ML6131). 
A new record for Central Australia. 


+ Recorded by Smith (1956). 
• New records. 

Eremophila dalyana F. Muell. 7 m. south-south-east of MacDonald Downs 
H.S., M. Lazarides, 8/9/1956 (Herb. Aust. ML5931). 9 m. west of deserted 
Huckitta H.S., G. Chippendale, 13/8/1959 (NT6488). 

A new record for Central Australia. 

Eremophila exotrachys Kraenzl. Previously rarely collected but now known 
to occur frequently in the sandridge areas west and south-west of Alice Springs. 
It is found mostly under trees between sandridges. 


Eremophila obovata L. S. Smith var. obovata. Following the description of 
this species in 1956, it has been recorded in many localities in Central Australia 
as shown in Fig. 1. 


Anotis scleranthoides (F. MuelL) Domin. 35 m. south-west of Alice Springs, 
R. A. Perry, 10/9/1955 (Herb. Aust RAP5475). 
A new record for Central Australia. 


Angiantlws tomentosus Wendl. 30 m, south-south-west of Napperbv H.S., 
M. Lazaridcs, 28/9/1956 (Herb. Aust. ML6088). 

A new record for Central Australia. 

Heliptenim sp. nov. aff. albicans. As recorded in the Check List (1959), this 
refers to the species described in last year's Transactions as Helipterum saxatile 
P. G. Wilson. 


Chtppendale, G. M., 1959, Check List of Central Australian Plants, Trans. Kov. Soc S. 
Aust., 82, pp. 321-338. 

Chippendale, G. M., 1960. Contributions to the Flora of Central Australia, No. 1, Trans. 
Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 83, pp. 199-203. 

Smith, L. S., 1956. Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensland, LXVII, No. 5, p. 33. 

Tate, R., 1896. Report of the Horn Expedition to Central Australia — Botany, 3 (1896), 
p. 142. 

Wilson, P. G., 1960. A Consideration of the Species Previously Included Within Helipterum 
albicans (A. Cunn.) DC. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 83, pp. 163-177. 



byH. M. Cooper 


This paper records the occurrence of large stone implements, many primitive in type and 
manufacture, discovered upon a series of former native occupational sites adjoining the banks of the 
lower reaches of the River Wakefield. Their resemblance to material from Hallett Cove (Cooper, 
1959) and also the similarity in position of the principal camps in both areas is discussed and it is 
suggested that at least some of the implements may represent the earliest stone culture associated 
with man in these parts of South Australia. A brief description relating to relevant physical and 
floral features at present prevailing in the district is given. 


by PL M. Cooper 8 

[Read 13 October 1960] 


This paper records the occurrence of huge .stone implements, many primi- 
tive in type and manufacture, discovered upon a series of former native 
occupational sites adjoining die banks of the lower reaches of the Kiver 
Wakefield, Their resemblance to material from Hallett Cove (Coopcr } 1959) 
and also die similarity in position of the principal camps in both areas it* dis- 
cussed and it is suggested that at least some of the implem<_xits may represent 
tin 1 earliest stone eeJtute associated widi niun in thcvse parts of South Australia. 

A brief description relating to relevant physical and floral features at present 
prevailing in the district is given. 


The River Wakefield (native name Undalya) rises in elevated country 
north o£ Manoora. Its water flow is augmented by many small erecks and water- 
courses which drain considerable areas wilh yearly average rainfalls of up to 
26 inches, dining its course through hilly country for a distance or about 25 miles. 
Thence it emerges on to the open plains through a gorge with almost perpen- 
dicular cliffs in the Dalkcy Hills (mile accompanying plan) which exhibits in 
this place a fine example of rock sccnerv. U resembles a typical "gum creek" 
oi the Far North upon entering the plains, its meandering course being lined 
for a few miles downstream with fine examples of F t ucahjpftts canuthUd-ensiS- 
(Red Cum). The stream thereafter wanders across almost flat country by way 
of a multiplicity of bends, some so sharp as to almost encroach upon each 
other until it finally enters Gtdf St. Vincent in the vicinity of Port Wakefield. 
The total length of its lower course from the Dalkey Hills* gorge to the sea, 
owing to the extraordinary maimer in which it meanders across the plains, must 
be nearly 40 miles if one includes all the minor curves and bends. 

The present stream appears to be cutting itself a channel in the bed of an 
old river valley which in places is about oOf) yards wide- and at a point about 
one mile below its exit from the gorge it has scoured deeply into the alluvial 
banks producing a vertical cliff over 65 feet in height. 

The River Wakefield runs permanently, and often stronglv, from upstream 
until about half a mile below its emergence from the gorge,' when its flow dis- 
appears below the sandy bed. There is no more permanent running water 
between tin's place and the sea with the exception of a soak, somewhat saline, 
in the vicinity- of Whitwarta. The river, alfer good winter rains, runs as far as 
the gulf ? .sometimes in heavy fiooch but normally ceases to flow below the spot 
mentioned near the gorge during September or October. The sea, which rises 
about ten feet at spring tides, extends urjstrearn for about hall; a mile above 
Port Wakefield. No tributaries nor even watercourses of any consequence enter 
the river downstream from just below its exit from the hills whence practically 
the whole of its normal How h derived. 

ITon. Associate in Anthropology, South Australian Museum. 
Trans. Roy. Soc. S, Aust. (1961). Vol. 84, 




Average Annual Rainfalls in Ikciees 


Port Wakefield 12-8 

Balaklava ... 14-3 


Auburn . 22-6 

Mintaro 23-7 

Watervale . 25*7 

Elevations t\- Feet of Railway Stations above Low 

Watkr Spuing Tzdks, Port Adelaide 

Port Wakefield . 18 

Bowmans 96 

Saints - .. ... 147 

Balaklava 224 

Ridgwuv ... „ 287 
Watervale J, 359 


The flora ol : the plains' country, through which the river runs below the 
gorge, has mostly disappeared as the result of clearing the laud for cultivation, 
but scattered patches which survive serve to indicate in part some of the larger 
.species which grow there recently. They include Casuarina stricta (Drooping 
Sheoak), Acacia salitina < Broughton Willow), Eucalyptus camaldulemis (Reel 
Cum ) , Eucalyptus oleosa (Red Mai lee ), FiUosporum philhjrcoides ( Native 
Apricot), CaUifris propinqua (Native Pine), Rucenja acuminata (Native Peach 
ur Quondong) and Melaleuca puhescens- (Black Teatree). 

All the above species disappear, however, after descending downstream to 
a point a little above Port Wakefield where the couutry lias been almost denuded 
of the local flora, being replaced with dense* thickets of Lycium ferocissimum 
(African Boxthorn). The littoral vegetation, commencing below this place and 
working inland from the sea-shore, includes, amongst others, a sequence of the 
following species: A coastal fringe or Aviccnnia marina (Mangrove); Arthroc- 
■twmum and Salicornia spp. upon the saline flats; Atriplex spp. including 
A. paludosa upon the slightlv higher ground, and also Nitraria schohcri (Nitre 


The principal camp-site discovered by the writer is one situated upon level 
elevated ground at a height of about 100 feet adjoining the western Limit of the 
Dalkey Hills on the south side of the river and identified upon the accompany- 
ing plan as Camp A. Its location, an ideal one for primitive man, provides an 
extensive view of the .surrounding country generally and at its immediate foot 
runs a permanent water supply along the river bed. Material for the massive 
stone implements, in addition, was readily available in part from a large supply 
of waterworn pebbles in the river-bed just below the camp and also from large 
angular blocks of convenient natural size weathering out of a quartzite outcrop 
situated upon a hill adjoining the eastern boundary of the site. 

The material employed, although comprised chiefly of coarse quartzites, 
includes a small proportion of other rocks, including igneous, milky quartz. 

108 IT. Nf. COOPER 

chalcedony, fossil ilerous Lower Cambriim limestone and a type of quariziU:. 
flmiarilc in origin, apparently rare in this locality, which clue to its excellent 
coricboidal fracture, produced the best trimmed implements. 

The 4 presence hereabouts of a large number of slightly used Immmerstunes 
is ui economic interest because it indicates that they were discarded after little 
us*- owing to the ease with which replacements could be made from the nver- 
1>etl, This is in marked contrast to well-worn examples found upon many camp* 
sites elsewhere in South Australia where, owing to the absence or scarcity nf 
suitable material, they were in (he nature of family treasures and retained regard- 
less ol heavy wear due to continuous use. 

An examination uf 170 large implements found upon Camp A reveals the 
existence of two well-defined types.. (1) "horsehooF'-.shaped coxes jnosth with 
well-developed stepped trimming, having in most cases discozdal or setni- 
dtscvadal flat bases, and ( v 2) pebbles and angular blocks of cusnal shapes pivsse.vs- 
uig a simple flaked working edge. 

These two groups arc separated by a large intermediate series of other 
massive implements, variable and nondescript in form which tends to merge 
the -whole assemblage to sucb a degree as to render impossible the satisfactoiy 
demarcation of any arbitrary division between types ( I ) and (2). It appears 
convenient, therefore, to consider them as a single unit, tentatively at least. 

Some "horschooF-shaped implements., type ( I ) ; derived from water-worn 
pebbles, possess natural rounded or curved bases and this form, which is re- 
tained without trimming in any way, is in marker! contrast to the conventional 
llat-bottomed examples. Many "horsehoofs" were reduced to a slate of ""over- 
hang" by wear and retouching such as Fig. 11. Fig. 1, on the other hand, which 
weighs 4% lb., and is the largest or this type yet recorded, shows little evidence 
of tiso. A few examples possess two distinct and .separate trimmed Hat-bottomed 
wurking margins, the second being produced by merely reversing the implement 
when worn and fluking the nether side as a replacement. VtWr Fig. 8. Others, 
occasionally, are made from blocks with a natural "keel" (such as Fig. 7) which 
is retained, the margins upon both sides being trimmed in the normal fashion- 
Pebbles and angular blocks - type (2)— from which a few Hakes have 
boon struck, provided simple but eificient single-edged cutting and chopping 
tools. No predetermined effort was made to select material uniform in shape, 
rite prime requirement being provision for the primitive flaking referred to. Vide 
FigS- 12 and 13. The nether sides of some of the implements indicate that they 
had been reversed when in use and used as hammers similarly to others at 
Hallctt Cove. The sjmrjlieity of construction needed for the evolution of the 
massive implements, generally, is indicated by the existence of a comparatively 
small Dumber of discarded waste flakes struck off during their manufacture. The 
imly other large types found were two or three pebble choppers with wcll- 
cxccultd stepped trimming — somewhat comparable with poorer examrdes in 
die kangaroo Island series — Cooper (1943) and two bi face implements. 

The occurrence of very few small quartzite implements upon Site A 
Indicates that even the poorest examples of large trinrmed cores were manutac- 
hued deliberately as tools and do not, therefore, represent discarded wording 
cores. An examination nf material iound upon camp-sites proceeding down- 
stream discloses that the incidence of small implements — apparently more recent 
and Murundian in type (Hale and Tfndale, 19311) — increased and that of the 
larger implements decreased as the coast was approached. This ratio was ap- 
parent in an even nv>re m, irked degree upon camp-sites Qti the low-lying esten- 
sivc areas mound the head ot the gulf above Poii Wakefield. The possible use 
by the earlier communities in ihc vicinity of Camp A of simple thin flukes of 

1*1*. 1. Large implement derived from d H&t blocV. Weight 4£ lb, Imfaetj. 

Fig, 2, ''Horsi-hoof-slmpcd with Hat base. Trimmed along one straight working ^cIrc. 

Kg, 3. L'mTaee implement with Hut lm*t\ 

Fig. 4. Um'faee implement, almost diseoidal. Made from a thick flake. 

Fig. 5. Ovate imifaee implement. Figs. 3, 4 and 5 lmve boon made from superior material 

and possess well-executed secondary stepped trimming. 
Fig. 6. Angular \v;iter-v\om block with primitive trimming. "Horsehpof" shape. 
Fig. 7. r.arrrr jmimlaj block with "keeled" base both margins of which have secondary 

trimmed working edges. 


milky quartz, devoid of secondary trimming, is retened to in detail later in 
Hun paper. 

The locations, generally* of camp-sites along the lower reaches of (be Kivei 
Wakefield were confined tu situations upon the banks sufficiently high to be 
hv-e from inundation doe to heavy (lood ruins in the hills, This refers meat 
especially to the vicinity of sharp bends where iloodvvaters bank up and 'spread 
oul over large areas rendering them unfavourable for human occupation. 

A small field iust below Rrreora U.S. adjoining the river, where a large 
patch of reeds suggests the possible existence of a soak below the surface, yielded 
about 10 ha miners tones and one or two millstones but a lack of discarded chip- 
pings. This suggests the former existence here of a women's camp, probably a 
fairly rceeut one, established for domestic purposes. 

Site B, iipon the north bank of the river, is situated upon a raised and 
extensive level expanse of cultivated Jand which leads down in this place by" 
a gentle slope to the old river valley hereabouts about 250 yards wide. 1 he 60 
large implements found upon this site are comparable with those from Camp 
\. There is no permanent water supply in the river bed fronting Camp H 
at the present time, but it is probable that one may have existed during the 
period of its occupation. 

A "horsehooF core with its well-defined trimmed working faces greatly 
smoothed was discovered upon a raised cultivated field 300 yards iuland in on 
the channel of the present river, together with others in normal condition, about 
one mile below Camp 13 The reason for the heavily rolled condition of this 
interesting specimen is difficult to explain. 

All large implements collected upon the camps denoted on the accom- 
panying plan, with the exception of two bitaee tools already mentioned, possess 
seiiii-unitace and, rarely, unilace trimming, The flaking in every case appears 
to have been confined solely to hammer dressing, The total number of large 
implements recovered from camps along the river exceeds 350 and the total 
distance necessarily traversed on foot during the survey amounted to over 100 
mile*. The examination of this area is l>y no means complete, because ii was- 
found impracticable to follow every small eur\ T o and bend in the meandering 
stream during the time available Large tVjjfi material upon etmps wJiieh max 
have been overlooked, hovvcvei, is unlikely to alter, appreciably, the general 
I rend of that discovered. 

Local inquiries confirm that neither Camp A nor Camp B, the prin- 
cipal sources of material discovered, had liccn examined previously and prob- 
ably nunc of the others with the possible exception of one. The materia! 
recovered, therefore, may be considered as truly representative of the stone 
implements used and left behind by the former inhabitants of these areas. 

An examination of a typical scries of the large implements, -17 in number, 
practically all from Camps A and R and of which the accompanying drawings 
are representative, indicates a concentration of individual weights which docs 
not differ materially from an average of almost 2' 8 lb. There are occasional 
specimens, however, such as Fig. 1 (45* lb.) and Fig. 15 (IK lb.) widely outside 
tbc prevailing weights, a variation which appears to occur in many material 

Neither pebbles nor rocks,, apart from Kunkar-Travertine, were found in 
the Led of the river or upon its adjoining banks, below a point about three- 
quarters of a mile from Us emergence through the hills, to the sea, A little 
material of inferior quality, however, may have been secured upon die surface of 
undulating country away from the river near a weathered bar of sandstone 
which crosses the bed of the .stream abo\e Bowuums. The main portion of the 

I i v* & TiimiiU'tl fun, original ionn pmn»»hly "borsi-nficiIVd'' in shnpc. It hj.s two \i*ry 

warn ^vcrkirju tucirs »nc rw<!*ntK- servinc a« d renlm-eim-iit foe the tirigin:il. Wcfi'M 
I lb, 
IV Mi A worn rnmmnl n\w tropJement derived from .1 w.iter-wom pebble wlurte- nrtaiiml 

T01J^Hi*cl hast* Kas bvn nfUlTlrrt. Si-jik pittiMv; t -ml hn.jsiiri titiLc^le as ^ul.1»f ;*l 

Ira i>s ;i hajiiwf? Weight -1 lh, 
kij^, III. '*Hor.sfl»»>ol T)*iuiiti*tt, coiluweoClHC b) tj*b»l/U ?isiii vf veai, iftWri by it* «ul*» 

temltny to brcCutw veitU.d. lilu* rvsult uf continued use and eon^iuicnt irtrrneriiny* 

li| .sci'|i])iil liMilhiint* 
Kg. IT. "Hor.-tehnof' trimmed core flrifll the <k-\ eJopment ot 'ViVci-htmL^ .ht._- pj t-ceeAsive 

%vt*:ir tin«1 i)eei'vs>ip. n^hnjjiiig 

l r iii, 12- A lint wUet-wMTn p*.-bble which t^U*bits &impli< ilale Uutmiina upon its working oJjie. 


workshop material, therefore, appears to have been transported downstream from 
the river-bed and slopes in the vicinity of Camp A. Implements and hamvuer- 
stiuu'A- of fine-grained quorate pebbles towards the Port Wakefield secthm of 
the river may have been derived from Yorke Peninsula and the South Hummocks 
Ranges to the west and north-west of Port Wakefield, where such material is 
available. Stone for the manufacture of implements discovered along the lower 
reaches of the river, therefore, could have been secured from at least two sources 
with a possible overlap somewhere along the course of the stream. 

The existence of a very small proportion of large implements, which exhibit 
trimming and shaping of a high order, amongst the material existing alone the 
Ibver Wakefield and possibly elsewhere should not be considered, without some 
qualification, as being associated, necessarily with a more refined culture period 
rather than with those of similar technique but inferior workmanship. \o unlive 
worker in stone, however superior his skill as a craftsman, can produce a finished 
impli-menl of the finest quality if his supply of rocks is confined to those refrac- 
tor, in nature vueh as granites, micaceous schists, coarse, gritty qnarr/ile* ;uid 
mifky quaicz. The trimmmg of all implements of outstanding merit found in 
the urea referred to in this paper was due to the excellence of the material, ap- 
parently limited in supply, which was utilised in their manufacture. This 
suggests that they may not belong, necessarily, to a later period, Type, not 
Workmanship alone, appears to warrant consideration in many cases when deter- 
mining the correct sequence in which to place such artifacLs where stratification 
does not occur. 

A few examples of the shells of Aitadara twpezio. a species of seu-sliell 
extinct in this area and elsewhere, us far as is known iji all South Australia, were 
found upon several camp-sites below BnwmanSs including one showing evidence 
of use as a scraper. Another, with extensive wcht, was discovered at Port Arthur 
near the head oi the gnlt opposite Port Wakefield. 

Large native kitchen middens composed of tins species along parts of the 
New Sooth Wales eoasl, whore it is a living form, indicate its use as a favourite 
source of food supply. No similar mounds nor hearths have been discovered 
upon camping grounds in South Australia including the head of Gulf St. Vincent 
and the Port Wakefield area where extensive stratified layers and lagoon deposits 
exist. These include unusually large single valves up to (i% ounces in weigh! 
and over *i'i niches long, An isolated occurrence nf Awidara trapezia shells in 
situ, about fJs miles upstream from Port Wakefield, exists in a small surface 
cupping of Kunkar- Travertine situated upon n slight rise in agricultural land 
about 200 yards from the river-bed. Its height above low water spring tides — 
25 feet— suggests their possible association with a laic Pleistocene terrace. The 
absentia of Anndura trapezia middens and their casual appearance upon camp- 
sites, apparently collected for domestie purposes, tend to suggest that they were 
already fossil forms when earned I here during the native Occupation. 

Paired Anudaru trapezia shells, dm* op ih situ by the author from a KttLe 
below the surface ot a salt lagoon a few miles inland from Port Wakefield, have 
been supplied for a Carbon 14 Dating which should prove nf interest, even 
indireelly, in relation In cerlnin aspects referred to in this paper. 

All the camp-sites described in this paper lie just within the N.E. bourn larv 
of the now extinct Kaurna (Adelaide) tribe, thcii neighbours in (his direction 
being the \>ad|uri people (Tindale, 1940). Material discovered along the 
RiveT Wakefield, in the absence of eaves and rock shelters suitable for unlive 
occupation and resultant stratification which are somewhat rare in South Aus- 

114 M. \i COOPER 

traliu, is confined to implements embedded near the surface and disturbed by 
ploughing during (he course of agricultural pursuits in the fields. A small rock 
shelter, suitably situated ar a moderate elevation in the gorge cliffs adjoining 
Camp A was examined for possible stratified material, but without success- 
The decomposed nature of the rock composing it, however, indicates that its 
formation may be recent. A search for other shelters along the river above the 
goitre in hilly country might prove more successful. 

An examination of material from Gamps A and B, the principal sites, 
<if which the accompanying drawings are representative, indicates that the 
assemblage of stone implements is composed of., it may Ik* repeated, typos (1) 
and (2) with an intermediate admixture of various shaped forms, which lend 
to link them., as already described in [his paper. 

Type (I) is "horschoofed" in shape with stepped trimmiug which suggests 
a more advanced technique in flaking than that employed in type (2). The 
presence of large numbers of examples in group (1) with excessive wear indi- 
cates that it was' of considerable economic importance in the earnp life of the 
natives and if contemporaneous with the simpler form of hand chopper (type 
2) il may have been utilised for domestic purposes of another nature or for the 
completion of wooden implements primarily fashioned by those of type (2). 
The "horsehouf", however, in view of its stepped trimming technique, may repre- 
sent a later cultural period. 

Type (2) was trimmed with a definitely preconceived motive, irrespective 
ol its natural form, for the production of a heavy implement fashioned to provide 
a simple working edge which with the aid of its weight would be quite effective 
iu supplying the needs of primitive man, such as cutting, chopping and scraping. 
The great diversity in shape of pebbles and blocks chosen lor the construction 
of this type indicates the simplicity of its construction and, indirectly, tends <n 
u-tlcet the primitiveness and lack of variety of the makers' domestic and hunting 

It is most difficult to define any mbitraiy distinction for the separation of 
tvpes (1) and (2) into two well-defined blocks because the intermediaries, as 
described before, lend to merge the one into the other. It seems probable, 
however, thai all, whether they were contemporaneous or are indicative of Q 
gradual refinement in teelim'ijue with the passing of time, are the components 
of a stable dominant material culture which endured over a considerable period 
move especially if undisturbed by any incoming inliuences from outside. 

Possible uses would have included cutting and chopping boughs and 
branches for the manufacture, of clubs, spears* wnrlie.v or ,sb<Ntors : . for scraping 
purposes generally- including the final preparation of hunting weapons and 
domestic appliances and also the making of loe holds for the ascent of trees 
in search of food. All the above, therefore, with few exceptions may have been 
employed as general purpose tools. 

The almost total absence bt millstones and pounders may indicate that the 
unlives of that period were hunters who relied upon the chase to a large extent 
for their sustenance. 

It seems reasonable to assume, too, that the peculiar native flora nF their 
times, somewhat similarly to that existing today, would have tended, amongst 
nttun causes, to have made them not food producers but food gatherers. 

In order to artenrpt a true evaluation of the significance and purpose of 
archaeological stone cultures of primitive form, such as those referred to in 
tins paper. It Is helpful to bear in mind the changes in climate, flora, possible 
tsolaJion and environment generally existing at that time when compared with 
rnnre. recent and even historic periods Jennings (1957) referring to primitive 

Fijir. 13. A thin, flat, angular slab with n roughly fashioned wording margin. 

Fig. 14. An angular and jrregwJarly shaped water^worn block which lias been very simply 

trimmed. Flat base. 
Fig. .15, A triancular-shaped implement with well developed .stepped trimming; similar to 

Ilullett Cove, Fig. 12 (Cooper, 1959). Irregular-shaped nether surface. 
Fig. 1G. A well designed implement farmed from a fiat water-worn pebble. The trimmed 

wurking edge extends around about three-quarters uf its periphery: the remainder 

being retained in its natural shape, apparently, as a grip for the hand. 



man in North America remarks; '"His entire economy and, of course, his objects 
of material culture were geared to the resources of the land." 

Stone age man, even during the early developmental periods of his material 
cultures — despite the need for massive stone implements for his essentially 
heavy requirements — would have an undoubted need for comparatively small. 
thin pieces of rock with sharp knife-like edges for various light duties, such us 
blond letting and ceremonial rites, cutting and shaping the skins of animals in 
ihe preparation of skin cloaks and other suchlike duties, the nature of which 

t'ijL!. IT. A massive water-worn pebble implement. Its stepped gric&talitg is Somewhat similar 
to the more inferior example* amon^l tire characteristic Kangaroo Island pebble 
chopper industry. Weight gft lb. 

* . _ i.S A. *liorsohoof"-shiiptK! trimmed core found by Holmes (1805 J M Mitl.i, Mexico. 

Figured specimens 1 to 17 are all cure implements -with llie CRwrt|1i*fi tit' Fitf -1, which 
Iium been derived from a rlaVe. Fitfs. J, 3, 4. 5 and 11 were provided with :i unibice trimmed 
WU'fcfua niuruin; the remainder, as f;rr »a die worn condition of some permits, appear to hove 
been M-mi-utiiinec Jo design. 

wonld depend chiefly upon climatic and environmental conditions at present 
obscure. The earliest materials for such work ? doubtless, were- natural random 
fragments of rock with sharp edges which he could secure from the surface of 
his hunting grounds. These, if is logical to suppose, he found later could he 
replaced with simple and far more efficient primary flakes easily made by striking 
them off a block of rock wilh a hammerstoue. 

Reference was made by Cooper (1960) to the existence upon certain Kan- 
garoo Island camp-sites not only of a very limited number of small milky quartz 
implements with secondary trimming, but also an unduly large quantity of small 
cores of the same material from a few of which they had evidently been derived. 
These were associated, however, with scores of simple primary flakes, many with 
keen edges* some of which were lightly chipped upon their nelhcr sides. This 
often suggests damage due to use and if true in this case it indicates that these 
particular flakes were deliberately made and explains the existence of an other- 
wise inexplicably large number of small working cores. 


\ number of milky quartz cores, similar in si/** and shape Ifl thusc o{ Kan- 
garoo Island, were found upon the River Wakefield Camp A, btft practically 
no small implements of (hat material with secondary trimming. There exists, 
however, an abundance of simple flakes, many sharp edged, similar to thnse 
upon the island. The inuirixiulalion of milky quartz to produce secondary trim- 
ming is most difficult owing to its refractory nature as aheady stated, but this 
material provides, with little difficulty, thin primary flakes with razor-like edges 
ideally Suitable for light cutting purposes. The probable contemporary use of 
the latter for such purposes by the makers of the massive implements described 
herein merits some consideration. 

In Ihe absence nf confirmatory stratified material the age of the River Wake- 
field large implements, similarly to those at Hallott Cove which tlicy so closely 
resemble (Cooper, 1959), must he one of surmise at the present time. The 
complete absence of tools of other than primilive forms, however, tends to 
suggest that in part at least they represent the earliest occupation of man in 
both areas. The types from these two localities arc almost similar in concep- 
tion and some individual specimens from both areas are weathered to such an 
extent Miat they can be overlooked entirely unless examined with the greatest 

The general situations of Camps A and B near the River Wakefield 
gorge, in addition, are significantly identical with those upon the high ground 
hordrring both sides of the creek and gorge at Hallctt Cove, and in many cases- 
other sites found upon Kangaroo island. 

It appears, therefore, that these large implements from the River Wakefield 
area arc archaeological in period, belong to the culture termed Kartan and 
are possibly Negrito (Tasmanoid) in origin. The occupational period may have 
been wetter awl colder Mian that now prevailing. 

These early communities along, the river, if this proves to be true, were 
probably very small ones, later to be driven out or assimilated by Ihe advancing 
Australoids or other new arrivals, The astonishingly high proportion of "horse- 
hoof'' and intermediary types worn, apparently, to the utmost limit of their 
usefulness* may suggest that for some purposes at least they were equal or 
superior to newly formed tools, especially Fti the light of the availability of an 
unlimited supply of raw material. This significant proportion, upon the other 
hand, mav strengthen the suggestion that the communities were very small one's. 

The scarcity and in places the almost total absence of the smaller tyt>es. 
generally recognised as more recent, along the course of die River Wakefield to 
Ihe sea and the areas around the adjoining head of Gulf St. Vincent, together 
with the paucity of food shell remains in the vicinity of the latter., may appear 
somcwhal surprising., it suggests, however, that the area as a whole was an 
unattractive ont - to the aborigines during recent times due to its' aridity, large 
areas of saline marsh, precarious water supplies and consequent scarcity of game. 

ft loav be of interest to refer in this* particular place to the existence of 
'iiorschoof'-shaped trimmed implements discovered by W. H. Holmes in Mexico 
amid the ruin of buildings apparently associated with a Mayan Period which 
was described by liim iu 1895 

Fig. 18 is a drawing based upon the third reproduction in his Plate XLII 
and us will he observed it is remarkably similar in design, nieludinff stepped 
tiirnming and wear, to a typical smaller implement of "horsehoof" simp* from 
South Australia. Holmes noticed other specimens of corresponding shape but 
larger in bulk. 

Those implements were found in large numbers* by Holmes not only 111 the 
Siotl of the surrounding fields, but also intei mixed with the adubt) mortar em- 
ployed in constructing the great buildings of the Mayan Period. 


Holmes, in discussing the source ot these implements, concludes that he 
ootilrt not determine, with the evidence at his disposal, whether the\ were 
contemporaneous with the construction of the Mavnn linildings — and wears in 
consequence devised to dress in some way the stotie utilised in the building of 
their edifices — or whether they represented an earlier culture period upon'the 
50m<| site and were merely retrieved from the nearby fields by the Mayans inr 
admkture with their adobe material in order* to strengthen it or for some other 
purpose now* unknown. 

The existence of "horschoof" trimmed cores in Yle\ico> similar in type to 
Those of South Australia, docs not indicate, necessarily, that both series are <if 
the same antiquity. This is a problem which is governed to a considerable 
degree both by the period of time needed for their diffusion by primitive tvuiti, 
often over considerable distances — assuming that they were derived from a 
common source — and also by the length of (heir persistence in a given locality. 

Their use intermixed with the adobe mortar in the latter suggestion by 
Holmes, therefore, would indicate the presence of an earlier material culture 
period upon the same site*. 

'the rapid expansion of settlement and commercial activities in the vicinity 
of Adelaide has necessarily obliterated, dispersed or buried the original camping 
grounds inhabited by the former native dwellers of die surrounding plains and 
coastal areas. These localities, fortunately, were carefully examined during 
recent years by several experienced collectors and the implements retrieved have 
been classified and stored in the Sooth Australian Museum for future reference. 

The material discussed in this paper owing to its deposition, being merely 
displaced and exposed from near the surface by the ploughing of the fields, assists 
but little in terms of constructive stratification, but similarly to that recovered 
elsewhere upon the Adelaide PlainSj it will be of assistance at some latei date 
when further information may enable a correct sequence of the relevant i^rioils 
In l>e established. 


It is desired lo acknowledge, with appreciation, assistance afforded by tin* 
following: Mr. K. Tiller, Balaklava, for his courtesy and land permission to 
collect upon fields where the principal native camps were discovered; Mr. 15. 
Penmu South Hummocks; Mr. H. Frascr, Bowmans; ihe manager of Faieoru 
homestend, Port Wakefield; Messrs. Angel and Son, Whitwarta; Dr> 13. Daily, 
Curator of Fossils and Minerals, South Australian Museum, for invaluable assist- 
ance: in identifying certain roelcs; Miss V. Richardson^ of the same institution, for 
the escellcnt plan and drawings which accompany this paper,; Mr. A. S. Under- 
wood. Balaklava: Mr. R. R, Underwood, Port Wakefield; and the South Aus- 
tralian Railways for most useful information relating to the heights above sea 
level of various places. 


Coorwv H. _\L, 1943. Large Stone fcgndenittntS from South Australia. Rws S. Vust Mus 

Adelaide, 7., pp. 34&3ffl. 
CODrhP, it J&i 1959. LdHSti AiL'ha*ultJKk-ul Stone Implements front Italian Cove, South 

Australia. Trans. Hoy. See. S., Adelaide, S2, pp. 53-60. 
ti.MK, II. M., anil TtvnAt.n, N, TV. J«"rjo ( N'utcs on Sniue Human Tii?iKiiM>; -,n |]la LtKvcr 

Mttrrav Valley, South Aifftfrfiltfi Kec. ft, Ausir. Mu>., Adelaide, 4. pp. 145-218. 
Uoi.mim, Wi H-, P4U5. Archaeological Studies among riie Ancient Cities of Mevieo. Field 

Columbian Mmn;m, Chieojro, pp. 28.^-288. 
Jm&mtfi, J. D., L&3T. ttyti&rr Caw : . American Antiquity, Salt Lake Cilv, l!iab. U.S.A , 23, 

prot 2. pp, 1-328, 
Tirw>.w,u. N, IS.. 1010, ftemdhs of the Harvard-Adelaide Universities AtUhropologionl Fv[> d-'- 

tion. Tr.itw. Hoy. S'oc. S Aost, Adelaide, 64 (I), pp. MO-231. 




ryD, King, M.Sc. 


The numerous deposits of crocidolite asbestos in South Australia are confined to dolomite and 
marble horizons of the Precambrian and Cambrian bedded sequences. South Australian and 
Bolivian crocidolites differ in chemical composition, physical properties, mode of origin and 
industrial importance from the wellknown commercial crocidolites (or blue asbestos) of South 
Africa and Western Australia. No related fibrous amphiboles of intermediate chemical composition 
have been described in published literature and it is suggested that two varieties of crocidolite can, 
therefore, be distinguished. These are crocidolite proper and magnesian crocidolite ( rhodusite ) 




by D. King, M.Sc. 

[Read 13 October 19601 


I'liK numerous deposits of eroeidolite asbestos in South Australia ore con- 
fined to dolomite i\nd marble horizons of the Preeambriun and Cumbrian budded 

South Australian and Bolivian croeidolite.s difter in chemical composition, 
physical proptrrtlCih mode of origin and industrial importance from thjp well- 
known eeirmiereinl crmidolitos (or blue asbestos) of South Africa and Western 

No rehired fibrosis amplnboles of intermediate chemical composition have 
been described in published Literature and it is suggested that two varieties of 
eroeidolite can, therefore, be distinguished. These art 1 craciihdite proper and 
nwgnesian eroeidolite (rltoduxite). 


Crueidolitc occurs at numerous localities in the Flinders Ranges of South 
Australia, mostly in bedded dolomitic rocks of the Proterozoic Torrensian Series. 
The most productive of the eroeidolite deposits, none of which are currently 
mined, were those in the Precambrian dolomites of the Robertstown district 
(Fig. J (6)), Qtter deposits occitr in the same rock sequence at Burra (Mor- 
pheas Shaft), near Eurelia arid Orroroo (lid. of Coomooroo), in the Hawker 
district (Hds. of Wonoka, Arkaba and Adams), and at Oraparinna Station in 
the northem Flinders Ranges. Similar deposits occur in the same Precambrian 
formations 314 miles south of Ml. Fox, in the Peake and Denison Ranges (Fig. 
1(1)) and in marbles of Cambrian age near Dutton township (Hd. Dutton), 

In most of these deposits, including those of the Cambrian marbles at 
Dutton, the eroeidolite is localised within zones of intense? fracturing, and is 
accompanied by irregular discordant bodies of a mufioigneous-looking rock. 
Crocidolite veins occur within this rock and extend into the adjacent dolomites. 

The igneous looking rocks arc composed mainly of nlbUc, biotite and tour- 
malins and in the largest observed outcrops are up to 100 feet wide. The fol- 
lowing brief petrographic descriptions, and others previously published (King, 
1955), illustrate that these rocks are very variable in composition, distribution of 
constituent minerals and grain size. 

Specimen No. P 224/55 from the quarry floor. Blue Hole deposit, Roberts- 
town, consists mainly of albite and a very dark iron-rich tourmaline. Small 
flakes of a pah 1 biotite accompany rife albile and some crystals of alkali-amphi- 
bole arc also present. The grain size of the albite and tourmaline varies from 
0-2 to 0-6 nuns. An adjacent coarser specimen contains abundant tourmaline 
with some associated quartz, deeply weathered feldspar and eroeidoliie. Banded 
aggregates of tourmaline occur adjacent to veins of eroeidolite. 

Specimen No. A 1476/56 from the southern face of the same quarry is com- 
posed of orthoclase. iron-rich tourmaline and interstitial, randomly orientated 

Trans, Roy. Soc. S. Au$t. (1961). Vol. S4. 



biotite. Minor amounts of albite, quartz and yellow rutile are also present. A 
chemical analysis of the specimen is presented in Table 4. 

A distinctly different rock is exposed in the adit just east of the main road 
at Reudigers workings, Hundred of Bright. Specimen No. 176/55 from this 
locality consists essentially of a pale-coloured magnesian biotite with accessory 

y - Atr. fox 

2 - QfiApAftfA/NA 

3 - tfAWX£$ D/5T#/CT 

4 - £VR£l/A -Q##OfiOO 

5 - 8U##A 


7 - Di/rro/v 

!00 200 300 40Q 

I i l 


Fig. 1. Map of South Australia showing distribution of crocidolite asbestos deposits. 

hematite, magnetite, pyrite, quartz, apatite and rutile. Feldspar and tourmaline 
are absent. 

Trenches in the Hallelujah Hills area, Hd. of Bright, expose fibrous croci- 
dolite accompanying a medium to fine-grained rock (P.176/55) composed of 
green biotite, andesine feldspar and prisms of alkali-amphibole ( riebeckite ) . 


The biotite grains occur in clumps which appear to be pseudomorphous after 
ajnphibole. Small crystals of tourmaline are present. 

The mineral described as tourmaline in these Kicks differs from common 
tourmaline in being readily friable, and apparently is very susceptible to weather- 
ing, ft occurs as brownish-black anhedral grains which arc strongly plewelmJlc 
in thin section. The refractive index (i) e — 1*705: r^ — 1'735) is exceptionally 

A sample of dolomite from adjacent to an asbestos vein at ReudigeVs Work- 
ings. Kobertstown, was analysed with the following result; 

Silica, 4 16 p.e.; calcium carbonate, 4S-8 p.e.; magnesium carbonate, 
39-9 p.c; oxides of iron and alumina, 6-68 p,c\ 

Thm beds of magncsite arc iuterbcddod with the dolomites of the Toneu- 
sian Series. There are also numerous rock phosphate deposits throughout the 
State in the same sequences (King. 1965). These minerals normally occur 
independently of the eroeidulitc and the tourmaline rucks. 

Other Crocidolite Occurrences. 

The major producing crocidolite deposits of South Africa and Western Aus- 
tralia are confined to bedded ironstones adjacent to dolomites in the Precain- 
brian sedimentary terrains. Miles (1942) observed in Western Australia that 
"tlie crocidolite occurs as conformable seams enclosed In the banded ironstones 
which are frequently interbedded with thin bands of dolomite". Dealing with 
the Transvaal crocidolite deposits, Hall (1919) states that "the veins' invariably 
lie in country rocks of the banded ironstone type and elose to the underlying 

The Bolivian deposits (Aldfckh 1943) are likewise "limited to the vicinity 
of dolomitic beds' 1 , but in this ease of possibly Cretaceous age. 

No igneous rocks arc known in proximity to the Western Australian or 
Bolivian deposits. In South Africa, while some amosite deposits are considered 
to have been induced by hydrothermal solutions derived from the Bushvcld 
intrusion, the crocidolite is developed to a similar extent over wide tracts far 
beyond the influence of die igneous rocks (Peacock, 19281 


(a) Physical Properties, 

In all the deposits described above, the crocidolite is found fn a wide variety 
of physical states, including an earth) amorphous form described as incipient* 
or potential crocidolite (Peacock 1928: Miles, 1942), dggsegatef of interlocking 
minute fibres termed crocidolite wool (King, 1955), the commercial crocidolite 
asbestos* and prismatic crystals deseribed as needle riebeelatc. These distinctive 
iorms ol eroeidoltte are usually closely associated and are considered to repre- 
sent progressive blages of eiystal integration in the process of eroeidolitisation, 
reflected in their chemical composition bv a gradual loss of wafer (Peacock. 

The tensile strength of the South Australian and Bolivian crocidolltcs is 
vers- variable but consistently less than that of the commercial blue asbesU-s, 
Accordingly, they are of subordinate industrial importance, and unsuitable or 
inferior for the production of protective fabrics and m asbestos-cement products. 
The weak fibre croefdohtes have, however, a limited market as a refractory 
packing heini* a better insulator than blue asbestos (Garlrell, 1029), and as a 
filter medium und medical dressing (Asiliean Compound). These are special 

* A simitar fori a of' crocitlolitc from an occurrence in the Abriachim district ol Smlljud 
hats beoM named AJmttchanite. 



uses related to their unusual tendency to flocculate in water and form a matte 
by wet separation,, but the demand for such products is now largely .satisfied 
by fibre glass materials. 

(b) Chemical Composition. 

The few previously recorded chemical analyses of South Australian croei- 
dolite asbestos (Jack, 1920; Wyinond and Wilson, 1951) arc representative of 
Lhc grade of fibre which has been mined, However, in view of the wide range 


New analyses of Sout<h Australian Orocidohte, 

! S.A.I. 

















l^ a U 3 


Hi- 11 

it- 16 





1 87 

1 • i?3 




11- 1H 


IS 3»1* 










el -ft 2 



7 -OS 


K a O 






H e O^ 






Ii E ()- 

2 • 40 

J rt.n 








• 30 


co a 






so a 


















Analyst P. O. Hemingway. 
* Dolomite impurity. 

S.A.I, T)ulh earthy, lavender-coloured "incipient" crocidolite. Roudiger workings, Ro'ertstown. 
Tho sample contains hold earthy material and layers of fibres. The earthy portion contains traces 
of felapathie material together with many minute opaque grants. 

S.A.2. Pale "blue silky, sHp-tibi^e crocidolite, Reudiger working, Robert-atou-n. The yumplft ronftists 
of crocidolite with only traces of fine interstitial material. 

S.A.3. Silvery grey, slip-fibre erociidolite. 'Reudteet 1 working, .Robert stown. It consists mainly of 
crocidolite containing traces of a colourless asbestos with a much lower K.I. and positive elonga- 
tion. Doloonlei i* abundant as an impurity.. 

S.A.4. Lavetnlor coloured cros? -fibre crocidolite which partly reduces to a powder cm crushing, 
Blue Hole deposit, Kobertstowti. Tho sample contains botb flexible and brittlo varieties of short- 
fibre rroctdohte, with similar optical properties. The fh^ible fibres contain little interstitial material, 
while the brittle eroeidobtft has up to 5 per cent, of extremely line grained impurities. 

S.A.5. Pale blue-gr'vy, silky, lotnr fibre crocidolite — washed gfi^-te, Oraparimm Station. The 
crocidolite ia free from tjrnamlar impurities. A tew of tho dbrc.H have a relatively low R.I. and 
posif i vo elongation* 

of forms and physical properties of the mineral, additional chemical analyses 
representing 9 variety of crocidolite types were undertaken. The selected 
samples were prepared for chemical analysis by microscopic methods, so that 
they were essentially freed of impurities, Mineralogieal details of the analysed 
samples arc recorded along with the new chemical analyses in Table 1. Sample 
S.A. 3 contains a noteworthy amount uf dolomite, which is reflected in the 
analyses by the higher values for lime, magnesia and carbon dioxide, and by a 
proportional decrease of the elements constituting crocidolite. 


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12 i D. KING 

The analyses show that the various forms of crocidolite from the South 
Australian deposits are of uniform chemical composition, and are largely com- 
puted of silica (54 p.c\), ferric iron (16-18 p.c.), ferrous iron (2-6 p.c.), magnesia 
( 11-13 p.c,) and soda (6-8 p.c.). 

The analyses listed in Tabic 2 are representative oi the published chemical 
fltlAfysas of crocidolites. They show that the South Australian crocidolite ** 
identical in chemical composition m ith asbestos from the Cochabauiba Province 
of Bolivia (Ahlteld, 1943), but differs considerably from the commercially iua- 
purUiU crocidolites mined id SouLh Africa and Western Australia. Thus, two 
vanctios of crocidolite can be identified on the evidence of chemical composi- 
tion and correspond with the two different typos recognised in the marketing 
n\ crocidolite . 

1. The common variety o! crocidolHc (crocidolite proper or blue asbestos) 
fr<an South Africa, Western Australia and Rhode Island is a sodium iron silicate 
wirh a jubnrebnate content of magnesia (1-4 p-c). It is a high (luality asbestos. 

2, The limp and silky asbestos which is found in South Australia and 
Bolivia is a magncuim crvcidotite and differs from the common variety in con- 
taining from 10-15 p.c. magnesia and tip to 5 p,c. alumina, which lake the place 
of fcirous and ferric iron. The silica content is slightly higher in the magnesimi 
varieties. Babahndauie frum India and rhodusitc from Siberia (Smeeth, 
1108) arc also to be classed chemically as magnesian crocidolites. 

The available analyses provide no evidence of the existence of any croci- 
dolite intermediate in composition between the two varieties. 

Despite the contrast in chemical composition, the two varieties have in 
common the peculiarity of occurring in any one- deposit in a number of physical 
states, including the amorphous or incipient form. Miles (1942) remarks that . t* 
"the close similarity in composition of the pure crocidolite to potential' eroei- 
dolife and to the associated host rocks from both Western Australia and South 
Africa is remarkable '. This is equally true of the magucsian crocidolites. 

The superior insulating qualities of the magnesian crocidolite is gftJMhly 
to fee related to the high magnesia content, The much luwer tensile strength 
nf tin* mugnesian varietv accords with the observation of Uutoit quoted by 
Frankel (1913) that the strength of crocidolite is proportional to the amount of 
ferrous oxide in the molecule— 2-6 p.c. in magnesian crocidolite. as compared to 
J7-19 p.c. in blue asbestos proper, A higher silica content (54 p.c, as compared 
to 52 p.c.) and higher magnesia content may account for the greater brittleness. 
;is was found with chrysotile asbestos (SobolcfT and Tatarinuff. 1933), 

(c) Oprical Mineralogy. 

The optical constants of crocidolite and magucsian erocidolile an; gjwn in 
Table 3. The data on the Souih Australian crocidolite is a combination of the 
published work of Wyrnond and Wilson (1951) and determinations by VI. [. 
Bueknell on samples collected by the author. Only slight variations from the 
mean optical constnnts given were observed in the numerous specimens 

The main difference to be noted is the lower refractive index of the mag- 
nesian crocidolite, which is even more evident by reference to the complete 
determination for South African blue asbestos bv Peacock (1928), vi*/., 
. 3 = 1-698, p^ 1-699, y -1-706 

(d) X-ray 

X-ray studies of the magnesian crocidolite from Bolivia and the common 
vaiUtv from South Africa by Whittaker ( U-JJ9) . . . "show a greaier resemblance 
to one another than to fibre photographs of other amphihole vnrieh'es. II is 


tlms confirmed that the mineralogieal classification of the Bolivian material as 
crocidulite is correct, in spite of some considerable differences in properties from 
South African erocidolite". Garrod and Rami (f952) also observed close simi- 
larities in the unit cell dimensions of Bolivian and Western Australian crocidolites. 
(e) Electron Micrographs, 

The electron micrographs (Figs. 2 and 3) provide a further means of com- 
parison of the crocidolites. Fig. 2a is a sample of the best grade bine asbestos 
from Wittenoom Gorge, Western Australia, and Figs. 2b, 3a 'and 3b are magne- 
sian erocidolite from the Blue Hole deposit, Roherfstown, South Australia, The 
specimens were prepared by teasing and dispersion in water and separation 
of the finest fibres which remained in suspension. These were dried on col- 
lodion films on the microscope specimen carriers. 

T\BLK f. 

Optical ronsUmU of c-t-oeuktlitea. 


.1 / as/neMff! > C r<X V h. 1 fte 

\\t*.st*iru Australia 

South Atmralia 

Mile*. VM-1 

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1 • U05 






1 • HTft 





l>««p prussian '-'luo 

Blue green (or bky- hhin) 


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2 to 3 <t<ij2Tr?pR or li^3 

to 6 defccr*>»>R 






W'c-.ilv to rno'Jeratf 


Length fn-=t 

Ken^th lust 

The micrographs illustrate the superior quality of the Western Australian 
mineral, which is seen to be frayed longitudinally into nltrafine unbroken fibres 
which are bent in places into smooth curves. The fibres of the Rohertstown 
asbestos are much shorter and coarser by comparison, with some irregular broken 
edges (Fig. 3a) vvlueh may be due to intergrowths of other minerals, such as 
talc, as observed iti some thin sections. 

In both cases, the finer fibres appear to be tubular and similar in this respect 
to elirysotilc asbestos (Rales ei aL 1950). The tubular form of the magnesian 
erocidolite is clearly evident from Fig. 3b, at X 15,000 magnification^ This 
micrograph shows the presence of discontinuities alont< the length of the tu bides 
marked by darker-coloured rings orientated normal or slightly oblique to the 
length of the fibres, The orientation of the rings Is consistent in individual 
fibres and miry correspond to crystal directions. The minute cylindrical partings 
are commonly of slightly greater diameter than the adjoining; sections of the 
individual tubes (Fig. 2b). and are similar to the "multiple tubes" which Bates 
ct aL (op. eit.) described in chrysotile. 


It is evident from the investigations cited that the process of crocidolitisa- 
tfon is largely confined to rocks of dolomflic composition; and that, in the case 
(if erocidolite proper as found in Western Australia and South Africa* it involved 
the recrystallisation oi : rock material in situ, under conditions of mild load meta- 




Peacock (1928) conceives crocidolitisation as . . . % mild, static, non- 
additive mctamorphic process resulting in the chemical union, tilting soda-rich 
bedding planes, of the necessary constituents already in situ". The process is 
described as a . . . "sweating action, facilitated by interstitial rock moisture, and 
induced by a moderate rise of temperature and pressure such as would result 
bom simple burial of the ironstones to moderate depths". The same conclusions 
arc recorded by Miles ( 1942) in his report on the Western Australian deposits. 

The magnesian crocidolitcs arc found similarly in proximity to dolomitic 
rocks, but the mineralogy of these deposits is indicative of a different mode of 
origin which would involve the introduction of some of the constituent elements 
by hydrothermal solutions, 

Chemical analysis of the tounnuliiuserf Jiintitic rock. Blue "Rule deposit, Kobmtstown. 



ALO a 

20 -40 

Fe. 2 O s 







Na 4 




H.O + 

I, OB 




2- 22 

co a 







99 67 

Ahlfeld (1943) considers that the magnesian crocidolitcs of Rolivia are a 
product of dynamic metamorphism, accompanied by the introduction of iron 
and magnesia by thermal solutions. Hematite, pyrite, chalcopyritc and the 
calcium boro-silicate, daziburitc are associated minerals. 

The magnesian crocidolitcs of South Australia are likewise confined to 
bedded dolomites and marbles, but arc localised in faulted zones and commonly 
in intimate association with small and irregular bodies of albile, biotite and 
tourmaline-bearing rocks. Wymond and Wilson (1951) have described such 
rocks from Robertstown at mcla-dolerites and tourmalinised meta-dolerites and 
attribute the crocidolitisation to . . . "late magmatic activity associated with 
'doleritic intrusion". Rocks associated with the Oraparinna crocidolite deposits 
are also classed as dolcritcs ( McBriar, 1949). The writer has since expressed 
the opinion (King, 1955) that the so-called dolerites are not intrusive igneous 
bodies but are of metasomatic origin. The evidence favouring this view is con- 
sidered below. 

The igrjeous-lonldng rocks vary considerably ^composition. Their prin- 
cipal constituents occur in the following combinations— albite-tourmaline- 
biotite; orthodasc-biotite-tourmaline; biotite; biotite-andesine-riebeckite. Albite- 
biotite types with variable tourmaline arc the most abundant (Wymond and 
Wilson, 1951). Marked variations such as these are found within individual 
exposures and the erratic distribution of tourmaline is clearly apparent in the 


A sample of the freshest available rock from the Blue Hole deposit, Robertx- 
town, was analysed with the results shown in Table 4. A pelrographic descrip- 
tion of this sample (No. A H76/56, above) reveals an unusually high content of 
orthoclase, reflected in the chemical analysis by a high potash content ( 9 ■ 58 p.C. ) . 
Although albite is the more common ieldspathio constituent of the rocks ex- 
amined in section, and probably in all of the more highly decomposed exposures, 
the low content of CaO (0-62 p.e.) does no! accord with the classification of 
these rocks as dole-rites. The aventu;e lime content of Tasmanian duierites, Hot 
example, is 11 34 p.c. 

Over extensive areas, these alhite-biotite igneous-looking rocks liave heetj 
found only within the dolomitic members ol the bedded sequences, 

The principal mineral constituents of these rocks also occur in variable 
amounts as replacement clots and veins til the. adjacent dolomites. A specimen 
from the Hallelujah Hills deposits (P65/5n') is described as a metasomutised 
dolomitic rock composed of tourmaline, dolomite and albite. Vesicle-like struc- 
tures evident in the hand specimen are composed of albite and ^ramilar dulo- 
mite enclosed by an aureole of Inurmoline. Another specimen (P177/55) from 
Reudiger's Workings is a dolornitic marble which is replaced in small pints by 
bfofrte. feldspar and ferruginous material. Hematite is abundant in the inter- 
stices of the marble. 

The mineral assemblage of the eroddoluV-beanni* rocks is in many respects 
comparable with that of the talc deposits of the CnmeTacha district, distant some 
sixty miles southerly of Robcrtstown. Talc ft locally abundant in the dolomites 
in proximity to the asbestos occurrences, while ulbite, tourmaline, rutilc, mujjne- 
sian-rich biotite (and pblogopite), pyrites and apatite are common to both types 
ol deposits. According to Stillwell and Edwards (1957) the formation of the 
talc bodies involved alteration of magucsian rocks by soda-rich solutions. 

It is envisaged, therefore, thai the biotite-albite-tourmahne and related rock 
types resulted from metasomatic alteration of dolomites by hydrothermai solu- 
tions, derived from a deep-seated acid igneous source, and which entered the 
dolomites tilting existing fault zones. The formation of crocidolite would mark 
<\ late stage in these processes. This postulated conversion of dolomite into 
alhite-biotite-tourmaline-rich rucks and crocidohte would involve the introduc- 
tion ol solutions rich in soda, ferric and ferrous iron, boron and possibly silica 
and alumina. II is inferred from the constant association of the crocidolites with 
dolomites thai the magnesia is derived from the dolomites, and not introduced. 


This contribution is largely based on data obtained while the writer was 
employed as a geologist with the Mines Department of Soutli Australia, Most 
JiclpJtd laboratory determinations were contributed by colleagues in the Depart- 
ment. These include all chemical analyses performed under the direction <iF 
T. Fixxsr arid pehotnaphie and minerugraphie studies by A. U, YV. Whittle and 
M. J. RuekrieJl. The electron micrographs were taken at the Physics Depart - 
lu.nt. Inhvrsity of Adelaide. 

The assistance of Dr. A. B. Edwards, C.S.I.R.O., Mmeragraplue Investiga- 
tions, in the preparation of this paper is greatly appreciated. 

The autimr is grateful to the Director of Mines of Soulh Australia (Mr 
T. A. flames) for granting permission to publish. 


Aiii.vkio, F., HMX Los- Yaeimimtos tie Crnc-irkilita rn los Yungas cte CovliubmulM. Notas 
Mus*n t t * I'YMix, «, pp. 0,55-371. 

lUrts, T. F., t>ANi>, L B., aiul Mink. J. 1'*., IflSO. Tubular Crystals n\ Chry.tntik* Aibwlos, 
Scinwo, ill, 2889. VV- 94^ 

128 D. KING 

Chester, A. H., and Cathks, F. J., 1887. Crociclolite from Cumberland, Rhode Island. Amur. 
Journ. Science., Vol. 34, pp. 108-116. 

Frakkel. J. J,, 1953. South African Asbestos Fibres. Min. Mag., 89, pp. 73-83, 142-9. 
GATtnOD, K. L, and Rann, C. S., 1952. Preliminary X-ray Studies of Crocidolite and Amosite. 

Acta. Cryst, 5, p. 285. 
Gahtrell-j W. H,, 1929. Relative Heat Conductivities of Samples of Asbestos. Mining 

Review No. 50, S. Aust Mines Dept., ]jg, 40-45. 

Gumucio, J, F., 1949. Memorandum Sobre los Yaciinicntos de Asbestos del Chapare, Mineria 

Boliviano, Vol. 6, No. 44 5 pp. 8-11. 
Halt,, A. L., 1918. On the Mode of Occurrence and Distribution of Asbestos in the Trans- 
vaal. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Africa, Vol. 21, pp. 1-3(1 
Jack, R, L. t 1921. Report on the Asbestos (Crocidolite) Deposits on Sections 2A and 3A, 

Hundred of Rright. Mining Review No. 33, Dept. of Alines, S. Aust., pp. 48-53. 
Kinc, D., 1955. Investigation of Asbestos Deposits in the Robertstown and Truro Districts. 

Mining Review, No. 105, Dept. of Mines, S. Aust., pp. 58-73. 
MoBiuar, E. M., 1949. Petrological Examination of Rocks from the Oraparinna Asbestos 

Deposit at Oraparmna. Mining Review No. 87, Dept. of Mines, S, Aust., pp. 179-180. 
Miles, K. R., 1942. The Blue Asbestos Bearing Banded Iron Formations of the Hamersley 

Ranges, Western Australia. Bull. No. 100, Geol. Surv., \V. Aust. 
Peacock, M. A., 1928. The Nature and Origin of the Amphibole Asbestos of South Africa. 

Arner. Min., 13, No. 7, pp. 241-286. 
Riugway, J. E., 1949. Asbestos Deposit— Oraparinna Station. Mining Review No. 87. Dept 

of Mines, S. Aust., pp. 175-179. 
Simpson*, E. S., 1929-30. Contributions to the Mineralogy of Western Australia, Ser. V, 

Riebeckite, Hamersley Range, N.W. Div. Proc. Roy. Soc, W- Aust T) 16. 
SMEimr, W. F., 1908. Notes on a Variety of Riebeckite (Bababudanite) and on Cumming- 

tonite from the Mysore State. Rec. Mysore Geol. Dept,,. Vol. 9, pp. 85-94. 
SoROt.EFF, N. B. T and Tatabinoff, M. V., 1933. Cause of Brittleness of Chrvsotile Asbestos. 

Econ. Geo!., 28, 2, pp. 171-177. 
Stiixwell, F, L., and Edwards, A. B., 1957. Petrologv of the Gumeracha Talc Deposits. 

Bull. No. 26, Geol. Survey, of S. Aust., pp. 31-49. 
Wiuttaker, E. T. W., 1949. The Structure of Bolivian Crocidolite. Acta Cryst., 2, pp. 

Wymono, A. P., and Wilson, R. B., 1951. An Occurrence of Crocidolite near Robertstown, 

South Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust., 74 (1), pp. 44-48. 

D. King 

Plate 1 

Plate J. Electron micrographs, at x 5,000 magnification, of crocidolite 
proper from Wittenoom Gorge, Western Australia ( a ) , and magnesian 
crocidolite from Robertstown, South Australia (b). 

D. King 

Plate 2 

Plate II. Electron micrographs of magnesia eroeidolite from Roberts- 
town, South Australia. The top figure (a), at x 5,000, illustrates incon- 
sistencies in the fibrous habit and the lower figure, at x 15,000, shows the 
tubular form of the individual crystals. 



byN. H. Ludbrook 


Precious opal occurs at Andarnooka in conglomerates interbedded with sandy clays carrying a rich 
microfauna of arenaceous foraminifera of Aptian age. A notable discovery from recent sampling is 
the presence of late Pleistocene or early Recent marine mollusca and foraminifera in sediments at 
the top of several of the shafts. This confirms the belief that late Pleistocene-early Recent high sea 
levels converted the area from Spencer Gulf northwards towards Lake Eyre into an extensive 



by N. H. Ludbrook* 

[Read 13 October I960] 


Precious opal occurs at Andamooka in conglomerates interbeddeel with 
sandy clays carrying a rich mictofaunn of arenaceous foranuniferu of ApLian age. 
A notable discovery from receuL sampling is the presence of late Pleistocene 
or early Recent marine molln.sea and lorummifera in sediments at the top of 
several ol the shafls. This confirms the belief that late Pleistocene-early Recent 
liigh sea levels converted the area from Srjeneer Gulf northwards towards Lake 
Eyre into an extensive estuary. 


The present paper is based on mieropalaeontological examination of 57 
samples collected from 17 shafts over a wide area of Andamooka Opalfield by 
L. C, Nixon and M. B. Langsford in July and August: 1958. The general geology, 
structure and economic geology of the field were discussed in a recent report 
by Nixon (I960), but biostrarigraphic details were not included. 

Almost without exception the Cretaceous and younger rocks are extensively 
kaolinized, a feature commonly produced by weathering in arid parts of South 
Australia and not of any particular stratigraphic significance. As a high pro- 
portion of the Lower Cretaceous foraminifera are arenaceous forms they survive 
the process of kaolinization but are generally preserved as distorted and deflated 
tests which are not always easy to identify. 


The sequence of lithologic units occurring on the field was tabulated by 
Nixon (I.e. p. 17). Disregarding the red-brown earth and red sand dune cover, 
tlu'ee stratigraphic imits are present: 

1. Late Pleistocene-early Recent marine gypseous sandy clay. 

2. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) mottled red and grey clays., kaolinitic sandy 
shale and kaolinitic sandstone and conglomerate. 

3. Upper Proterozoic (Marinoau) dolomites, quartzites, chocolate shales and 
brown sandstones. 


The only pre-Cretaceous material examined was sample F 195/58 (3) from 
a bore near Bickford Ridge which entered chocolate shale and brown sandstone 
at 80 feet. These belong to the series of dolomites, slates and quartzites tenta- 
tively correlated with the Marinoan Scries. They unconformably underlie the 
Lower Cretaceous and outcrop on the north and east of the field (Nixon I.e. 
p. 15 and Fig. 1). 

° Palaeontologist, Geological Survey of South Australia, Published with the permission 
of the Director of Mines. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1961), Vol. 84. 


Manne Pleistocene ..-- ^^B 1 

Cretaceous outcrop £ ) 


Opal workings xxx 


Opal horizon 

Scarp: Approximate limit ^% 
of Cretaceous 8$ ' 




2. iWortfcrr 
m Genua n 
v* Gutty 

a y 1 


v a,fe DAM 


• • .... 

/ Yarloo . /@.* 

/ Yarho * .< 


-r 1 



\ I 

\ ! 


& '5. ?%■ WW* 

V V\ 

\ 7HF 




3 « tf**ft 

ife \l'VV 







y «H>t 

\ „ WHITE 
6 D DAM 


bftxfifred ' jffer Afav/T /&%? 

Andamooka opal field showing Cretaceous outcrops and opal workings. 



The Cretaceous sediments al Andamooka consist of approximately 75 feet 
of iuterbedded clays, shales, sandstones and conglomerate. The upper half 
of tins sequence was sampled from die "bottom gouge" or "bottom toe dht" 
upwards to above the opal horizon. The accompanying Table 1 slunvii the 
disliihution of forarninifera within the horizons "bottom gouge"., "bolmv the 
dirF". "toe dirt", "opal horizon", and "above opal horizon". Twenty-five species 
of arenaceous forarninifera are present, only uiuc of which have been described 
or can be identified at present with named species. They arc. however, all 
common species occurring in the Gnat Artesian Basin. The assemblage is 
characteristic of the Aptian (Roma Formation). The "bottom gouge" and toe 
dirt clays arc distmguisheel by an abundance of llaplopftra^moidcs chapauitu 
Crespin. This species lias not been recognised above the Lower Albian hi Snulh 
Australia and occurs in varying abundance In the Aptian mainly in siltstoues 
and mudstones. Tcxttdatw anacoaraoisis Crcsprn with which it is associated 
in most of the Andainooka samples is known to occur only in the lower part 
of rhe marine Aptiau, to which Gtuuhyina sp. 3 is also Uniited. 

"Cenus A" occurs in the Aptian intersected by water bore* at Marree. 

Most of the associated species have less restricted ranges. 

The distribution table indicates no considerable stratigraphie .range nnd (he 
whole of the thin Lower Cretaceous sequence probably should be placed in the 
lower part of the Apliau equivalent of die Roma Formation. 

(1) The "bottom gouge" or lower toe dirt horizon is represented by sample 
F 146/58 at 29 feet depth in Tcrrv Moore's shaft at blaekhoy. The material ;s 
mostly clay, very rich in Tcxtidorw nnaccHimtmsi'i anil other associated foramiui- 
fera which consiilute almost the entire residue after washing, 

(2) Between the. "bottom gouge" and the "toe dirt" the sediments eons : st 
ai fine grey-white kaohmtie and sericitie sandstone with a poor] 
assemblage. Most of the samples appear to be unlossjlifeious. but a few indivi- 
duals ol Trochanwutui sp.. itajdoplirasynoidcv ctuijtfuanU and Tcxfulnriu ana- 
cooracmis were recovered from samples F 159/h'O and F 160/58 from the lower 
part of Opal No. J, north-west of Hallion flill. This horizon is probablv repre- 
sented in F 162/58 to F £6ff/&5 from the While Dam area, F 167/58 and F J68/5S 
from Sehutton's Shaft, Trelnnr Hill, and F 170/58 from bpal Creek. Sample 
K 167/58 carried au unusual test of Trochmnminn sp. 2 in which the agglutinated 
grains are of opaf 

(3) "Toe dirt", Opal miners apply this name to a mottled, partially ferru- 
gruized clay or shale immediately below the opal horizon. Most of the elay 
disappears on washing leaving a residue rich in arenaceous foratninifera, mainly 
Haplophru^moidcK chapmani and Tcxfulttrla tirMlcoortictms. Furamiruleral tests 
are heavilv ferruginizod and brick red in colour. F I3f-)/58, F 145/58, F 148/56, 
F 153/58,. F 15S/5S, F 169/58. F 174/58. F 177/58, F 180/58, F 183/5$, F 185/58, 
F 187/5S, F 189/58, F 190/58 and F 102/58 were taken from this horizon. 

(4) Opal Horizon. The conglomerate band in which the opal commonly 
occurs is represented by sample F 140/58 from W ( Cixmin's shaft at The Saddle 
anil is distinguished by the presence of Ammobactdiles austndis (Ilowehin) 
which occurred in only one sample below this level, At German Gully the 
ennglomcrate eanies fossil wood and the pclecypod Pheudavicuh ciri-sfrnto 

(5) Above Opal. The sediments above the opal horizon are heavily kaulin- 
r/fd sandstone and gypseous shale with a rather sparse microfauna in which 
several species of arenaceous forarninifera arc generally represented in small 



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numbers, Tcxtularia atuicooiwnsis and TTOchamm'ma minuta are usually pie> 
Stffit Haplophmgnioideb chapntani was absent from all but two samples. 


n of Recent species of foraininifcra and inolJusca in samples 
us shaft, German Cully, and W. Cronins shaft, The Saddle, is 

The delect ion 
taken from Kevin' 

quite unexpected. This discovery provides positive evidence of the existence 
of a late Pleistocene or early Recent estuary extending northwards from Spencer 
Gulf by way of Lake Torrens towards Lake Eyre where brackish water or 
cstuarine fonmiinifcrrt were recovered from clays intersected in two shallow 
boreholes and From a thick shell bed with Coxiella gilesi 36 feet above the 
present level of the lake (Ludbrook, 1956). 

Tlie foraminiferal assemblage in ihe sample from Kevin's Shaft consists of 
Crihtvhfdimina potysfomu (Parker and Jones), Nahecularia lucvfuis,a Defranec* 
abundant Pt'twroplis phmutus (Fiehtef and Moll), Disvorbh mira Cusliman. 
Klphidium <:j. cniticidutum (Fichlel and Moll). Associated molluscan species 
arc Macoma deltoidalis (Lamarck), Dhdu lautu (Adams), Salinator frugUis 
(Lamarck), Batillarhi {Zeacumanim) dfcmrtvvws (Quay and Gaimard). Both 
liie foraminifcra and inollusca are well preserved. The assemblage is typical 
of that living in very shallow water in warm, sheltered inlets in South Australia 
at the present time. 

Several other samples (rom the Gun Cully-Lunatic Hill area contained 
sporadic examples of FAphidium, Gibicidex rr[nlgcn% and bryozoa, but a* they 
appeared to be fortuitous no conclusions are drawn from their occurrence. 

Fresh water ostTacoda and oogonia of Cham were present in samples 
F lfifi/58 from Whites Dam and F I9V58 in red clayey sand from the bore near 
Buliord Ridge. These are considered to have been recently deposited. 


(1) W, Cronins Shalt. The Saddle, 
F 139/58- Floor of shaft. 

Iron-stained red and grey clay, washed residues consisting of fernigiin/ed 
clay, line angular quartz grains, ferrugmi/ed foraininifcra. 
The sample contains a mixture of Cretaceous and Recent species. The 
Cretaceous species arc dominated by fhiplophragmoides chapmani and 
'Vcxtulariu atutcooren&ls. The Recent species are t?iscorbis mira Cnsh- 
ni;ni, El.phidium cf. craticid-atitin (F. & M.)> Pimcroplis planalm (F. tit 
\J . ) and Mur^inopora cerlchrajis Blainville. It would appear that 
Pleistocenc-cariy Kecent material assumed to occur at the top of the 
shaft has fallen in and contaminated ihe toe dirt forming the bulk of 
(lie sample. 

F 140/58. Immediately above toe dirt-opal horizon. 

White kaolinitic sandstone wilh Ammobaculites oustralis. Washings 
consist of medium angular quartz grains, kaolin, gypsum and some 

F 141/58. 5 feet above F 140/oS, Kaolinitic sandstone with fine to 
medium angular to subrounded quartz grains with pitted surfaces, some 
hematite. No microfossils observed, 

(2) BdFs Shaft, Hani Hill Wear German Gully. 

F 142/58. At 2 feet depth kaoluvized clayey sandstone with medium fine 
subrounded quarlz grains and a good deal of iron staniin^;. No micro- 
fossils observed. 


F 143/58. At 10 feet depth. Hard rcsilicified kaolinitic sandstone, 
F 144/58. At 20 feet. WWte kaolinitic sandstone with a few foraminifera. 
F 174/58. At 25 feet, Iron-stained mottled siltstone— toe dirt— with abun- 
dant iorauunifera dominated by Haplophragrn aides chapmani (68 

(3) Terry Moore s Shaft, Blaekboy. 

F 145/58. 27-28 ft. 6 in, Mottled red and grey clay (toe dfrt)., washings 
consisting of kaolin, fine angular quartz grains, abundant partly ferru- 
gini/ed foraminifera dominated by Haplophragrn aides chapmani (84 
examples) and Textularia anacooraensis. 

F 173/58, 28-29 feet. Hard kaolinitic grit with quartzite pebbles. 

F 146/58. At 29 feet. Lower toe dirt horizon, Most of the sample is 
clay and the residue consists almost entirely of foraminifera, with Tex- 
tularia arutcoomemis in abundance (76 examples). 

(4) Yarloo Extension. 

F 147/58. White gypseous kaolinitic rock, the washings consisting mostly 
of kaolin and gypsum, with a fragment of precious opal. Two doubtful 
foraminifera only were observed. 

(5) Jubilee. 

F 148/58. No. 1. 19 ft. 6 in. Toe dirt with abundant ferruginized fora- 
minifera, mostly Haplophragrn aides chapmani. 

F 149/58. No. 2. 15 feet. White kaolinized sandstone, with fine angular 
quartz grains, muscovite, very abundant Textularia anacooraensis, and 
abundant Twcltcmmina minuta. 

(6) Kevins Shaft, German Gully. 

F 150/58. Red surface sandy clay with medium subangular to sub- 
rounded quartz grains and grains of silicified sandstone. Abundant iron 
oxide staining. 
F 151/58. At J 4 feet. Mottled red and white soft gypseous sandy clay 
with fine quart7 grains and some iron oxide. The sample contains well- 
jjreserved foraminifera and mollusca living in shallow estuaries at the 
present time. 

Crihmhidimina polystoma (Parker and Jones) (1 specimen). 

Nubecutaria lucifuga Defrance (1 specimen). 

Peneroplis plauatus (F. & M. ) (23 specimen*). 

Discorhis icAra Cu.shman (1 specimen), 

Elphidium cf. craUculaium (Fichtel and Moll) (1 specimen). 

Macoma deltaidalis (Lamarck) (1 valve). 

Dkda lauta (Adams) (3 specimens). 

Salinutar fmgilis (Lamarck) (4 specimens). 

Baf Maria {Zeacamantus) diamerwnsis (Q, & G. ) (1 specimen). 
The material is probably of late Pleistocene or early Recent age- 
There is in addition a test of Troehammino sp. which may be of Creta- 
ceous age. 
P J 52/58. At 28 feet. Channel sample over 5 to 6 feet. 

White kaolinized shale with fine angular quartz grains, sericite and one 
specimen each nf Textularia sp. 2 and GaudryineUa sp. L 
F 153/58. At 30 feet. Toe dirt. Mottled reddish and grey-green clay 
with abundant Haplophragmoides chapmani (58 specimens). 


(7) Gat'oies Shaft, Hallion Hill 

F 154/58; At 6 feet. Hard white kaolinizcd and siliciiied sandy shale. 

No foraminiicra were delected. 
F 155/5S. At 13 feet. White kaolinizcd sandy shale, with fine to medium 

angular to subrounded quart/ grains, limonite and abundant foramini- 

fera dominated bv Gaudrt/ina sp. 3 (44 specimens). 
F 156/5S. At 17 ft. 9 in.' While kaohnized sandy shale with fine to 

mednim angular quarts grains and foraminifera dominated by Taxtu- 

larki anticuoracnsis (10 specimens). 
{&) Shaft, Horse Fad dock. 

F 157/58, Above opal horizon. White kaolinizcd sandstone with line 

angular quartz grains and a toramimferal assemblage with a few indi- 
viduals of several species. 
F 158/58. Toe dut. Femiginized clay with subrounded to angular quartz 

grains and abundant forarniniiera dominated by Haplophragmoides 

chapmani (66 specimens). 
(9) Opal No. 1, north-west of Halticm Hill. 

F 171/58. 0-1 feet. Hard kaohnized sandy clay. No fossils observed. 
F 172/58. 4 ft. 7 in.-5 ft. 6 in. Hard kaolinitic sandstone and conglomerate 

with occasional facetted pebbles- 
F 159/5S. 7 ft. 3 in.-lO ft. 2 in. White iron-stained sandy clay with 

Haplophm^moidcs chapmani. One fragment of precious opal noted, 
F 160/58. 10 ft. 3 ui.-ll ft. Mostly pinkish white kaohnized sandstone 

with a few impoverished foraminifera. 

(10) Shwns Gidltp 

F 161/58. Adit. Grcy-whitc kaolinitic fine sandstone with fine angular 
quartz grains, abundant serieite and foraminifera dominated by Tro- 
cJutmmina mhxula (67 specimens). 

(11 ) White Horn Arm. 

¥ 162/58. East end, working J,$ miles from White Dam. 3 fed. Partly 
lerruginized kaolinitic sandy shale with fine angular quartz grains, 
hematite and limonite. staining. 

F 163/58. 1& miles from Wlute Dam; soil profile as at Andamooka. 

2 feet. Iron-stained kaolinitic sandy shale with fine to medium angular 
iron-stained quartz grains. 

F 161/58. 1% miles north-west of White Dam. 

3 feet. Kaolinizcd shale with some iron-staining and abundant serieite, 
F 165/58. Central workings, bearing 020° from White Dam 300 yds. 

Iron-stained kaolinized sandy shale. 
F 166/58. White Dam. Brownish-white kaolinitic sandstone, Washings 
consist of light brown fine to medium angular to subrounded quartz 
grains with much Iirnonitc staining. A shell fragment and an oogonium 
of Chara are present, but it is uncertain wmcther these arc of Pleistocene 
age or of recent introduction, 

(12) Scludtons ShafL Treloar 1131. 

F 167/58. Below toe rock. White kaolinizcd shale with some rounded 
and subangular quartz grains, serieite, a piece of precious opal and a 
test of Trochammina sp. 2 with opaline quartz grains. 

F 168/58. At 10 feet. Crey kaolinitic sandstone with serieite. 

F 169/58. Toe dirt. Purplish ferrugiuizod shale with abundant ferni- 
ginized arenaceous foraminifera dominated by Haphphmgmoidcs chap- 
man! (83 specimens). 


(13) Opal Creek. 

F 170/58. Dirty white kaolinitic sandstone with fine even-grained angular 

quartz grains. No foraminifera were observed. 
F 175/58. Hard dark ferruginized .sandstone (a) R.L. 945; (b) R.L. 941. 

(14) LunafAc Hill, 

F 177/58, Locality 81 (1). Toe dirt. Mottled ferruginized shale with 

abundant foraminifera dominated by Haplophragmoides chapmani (37 

F 178/58. 81 (2). 5 ft. above 81 (1), While kaolinized sandy clay. 

Washings consist mainly of kaolinitic material with fine angular quartz 

grains and serieite. Cretaceous foraminifera are present, together with 

Cihicidcs refulgent; and bryozoal fragments. The sample, tbereft >re, 

seems to be a mixture of Cretaceous and Pleistocene material. 
F 179/58. 81 (3). 5 feet above 8.1 (2). Powdery white kaolinitic sand, 

with iron-stained rounded to subrouuded and polished quartz grains. 
F 180/58. 82 (1). Toe dirt. Red brown ferruginous shale wUh Haph- 

phra&nwhles chapmanL 
F 1 81 /58. 82 ( 2 ) . 5 feet above S2 ( 1 ) , White sandy kaolinized rock, with 

KlpUidium ef. maceUum (F. fij M.). ? Pleistocene. 
F 182/58. 82 (3). 5 feet above 82 (2). White kaolinized shale with 

Haphphragmoides chapmani and two fragments of ?Ploistoeene shell. 
F 183/58. 83 (1). Kaolinitic rock with fine angular quartz grains and 

Haphrphrngmoidcs ehajxmanL 
F 184/58. 83 (2). 5 feet above 83 (1). Kaolinized shale with medium 

subrounded quartz and serieite. 
F 185/58. 84 (1). Red and white mottled kaolinitic sandy shale with 

subrounded quartz grains and Haplophw^noides chapmani. 
F 186/58. 84(2). 5 feet above 84 (1). Hard white kaolinized sandstone. 

(15) Gun Gully. 

F 187/58. 85 (1). Toe dirt. Pink and white mottled ferruginized shale 
with abundant Ilaplophragmoides chapmani There is also one speci- 
men of Qtiintjuetocttlina vtdgaris presumably contaminating from the 
overlying Pleistocene. 

F 188/58, 85 (2). 5 reet above 85 (1). Somewhat ferruginized soft 
gypseous sandy elay with Clobigerina btdloides, Diseorhis sp. and 
brvozoa, indicating a Pleistocene or earlv Recent age. 

F 189/58- 86 (J). Toe dirt. Mottled tVrruginized shale with Unfit* 
plira^moides chapmani. Ttxtularia anacooraensis. 

F 17G/5R. 86 (2), 5 foot above 86 (1 ). Gypseous clay. 
( W) Boundary Riders Hill 

F 190/58. 88 (1 ). Mottled red and grey fcrruginized shale with Hapln- 
phragmoides chapmani and Texttdaria anacooraensis. 

F 191/58. 88 (2). 5 feet above 88 (1). Kaolinized sandstone with, 
rarely, Haptopltragmoides chapmani aud Texttdaria anacooraensis. 

V 1-92/58. 89 (1). Toe dirt. Pinkish sandy shale with l!aplophrag;mokles 
eluipmani and other species in relative abundance. 

F 193/58. 89 (2). 5 feet above 89 (It. White kaolinitic sandstone witli 
abundant foranriuifera, including /hnmohaculitcs australis and Textu- 
larin anacooraensis. 

F 194/58. 89 (3). 5 feet above 89 (2). Soft powdery clayey sand and 
kuukar with mostly subrouuded iron-stained quartz grains. A sponge 
spicule and one specimen of Texlidaria were the only organic remains 
recovered. The sample may be of Pleistocene age. 


(17) Near Bickford Ridge. 

F 195/58. Three samples from bore collected from spoil. 

(1) Reddish and buff clayey sand with medium subangular to sub- 
rounded quartz grains with both clear and iron-stained quartz grains. 
Organic remains consist of ostracode fragments, Chara and mol- 
luscan shell fragments, the age of which is probably Recent. 

( 2 ) Sandstone and chocolate shale, containing a small Trochammina 
and two small shell fragments of diverse origin. 

(3) Chocolate brown sandstone— presumably bedrock. 


Iajdhkook, N. H., 1956. Mierofossils from Pleistocene to Recent Deposits, Lake Eyre, South 

Australia. Trans. Roy. Soc. S. AuSU 79, pp. 37-45, pi, L 
Nixon, L. G., I960. Andamooka Opaffield. S.A. Dept. of Mines Mining Review, 109, pp. 

13-23 (includes bibliography of previous reports). 


byN. H. Ludbrook 


Three species of Triassic freshwater mollusca of the family Unionidae occur in the Leigh Creek and 
Springfield Coal Basins. One species, Unio eyrensis, is redescribed and two, Unio springfieldensis 
and Protovirgus iaenschi, described as new. One Lower Cretaceous (Neocomian) species, 
Protovirgus coatsi, is described from the upper part of the Blythesdale Group on the Gardiner 
Military Sheet. 


by N. H. LrDBnooK* 

[Read 13 October 19601 


Three species of TriitsSic freshwater mollusca, of the family Unionidae occur 
in the Leigh Creels and Springfield Coal Basins. One species, Unit) eij remix , is 
re described and two, XJnin s^ninij.ficlfh'.rixi.s and Frotorirgits jaenschi, described 
as new. One- Lower Cretaceous (JSeocomian) species, ^rotovtrtztis cootsi^ is 
described from the uprjor part of the Blvthcsdale Croup on the Gardiner 
Military Sheet. 


This report deals with Triassie and Lower Cretaceous freshwater mussels 
collected by officers of the Geological Survey of South Australia during mapping 
of the Gardiner Military Sheet, bordering the north-eastern Flinders Ranges, 
about 351) miles north of Adelaide, and during investigation of the economic 
prospects of the Springfield Coal Basin about 210 miles north of Adelaide in 
the Flinders Ranges. The fauna of the Leigh Creek Coalfield is also considered. 
Jlolotype and hypotypc material is lodged in the Adelaide University 
Geology Department. 

Abbreviations used for collections are: 

A.U.C.D.: Adelaide University Geology Department. 

A.M.: Australian Museum, Sydney, 

N.M.V.: National Museum, Victoria. 

S.A.M.; South Australian Museum. 

G.S.S.A.: Geological Survey of South Australia. 


During 1958 the South Australian Department of Mines investigated the 
economic prospects of the Springfield Basin, a structural basin containing Triassic 
sediments similar in many respects to those of the Leigh Creek Coal Basin. 
Results of mapping and drilling the Basin (Johnson, in press) and penological 
studies of the pseudo-igneous rocks (Johnson and Bucknell, 1959) have been 
published elsewhere. 

The SpiingDold Basin, located in moderately hilly pastoral country 26 
miles north-east of Quorn, 239 miles by road north of Adelaide, is accessible 
from the road running east from the deserted town of Gordon to Cradock. 
Fossil freshwater mollusea were collected by W. Johnson and C. von der Borch 
from the pink and buff argillires at the top of the succession on the remnant 
mesa in the centre, of the basin (Johnson and Bucknell, 1959, p. 247), Further 
material was' collected by Dr. Mary Wade and the writer on April 24, 1960, 

Two species are present in the pink and bull argillites, both previously 
undoscribctl, The brittle conchoidal fracture of the argillites does not assist 

Palaeontologist, Geological Survey of South Australia, published with the permission 
of the Director of Mines. 

Trans. Boy. Soc. S. Aust, (1961), Vol. &4, 



recovery of the specimens; preservation is poor and almost entirely as moulds, 
with valves open. An occasional specimen occurs with black epidermis retained 
on the mould. Associated with the mussels are numerous plant remains, prin- 
cipally "Thinnfeldia' feistmanteli, recently redescribed (Townrow, 1957) as 
Dicroidiam feAstmanteli. 


The geological setting in which the Triassic molluscs occur on the Leigh 
Creek Coalfield operated by the Electricity Trust of South Australia has an 
extensive literature reviewed in Bulletin 31 of the Geological Survey of South 

Locality Map. 

Australia (Parkin, 1953). Unto eyremis described from the field in 1891 was 
known only from limonitic casts until 1957 when Mr. A. E. Jacnsch of Leigh 
Creek showed the writer the specimen (pi. 1, fig. 1) from which the external 
features of the shell can now be described. Unio eyrensis has not so far been 
found in ihe Springfield Basin, but a specimen of the Protomrgus here described 
as Pwtotrirgtis jaenschi which is a distinctive species of the Springfield fauna 
was found among original material from Leigh Creek in the Tate Collection at 
the University of Adelaide. The Leigh Creek specimens are much more sub- 
stantial than those from Springfield, 



The two specimens which represent the entire knowledge of the new species 
ProtocirgM coatsi were collected on the Gardiner Military Sheet on the margin 
of the Great Artesian Basin off the north-casteni slopes of the Flinders Ranges, 
locality P/L 915 Sheet 115, 1 mile south-south-east of Western Spur, 3 miles 
south of Village Well The species occurs as ironstone casts weathered out of 
fcrrugrni/cd gritty sandstone with plant impressions belonging to the upper 
part of the Blythesdale Group. The age is considered to be Neocomian, 


In restoring Unio cyrensis to the germs Unio and confirming Etheridge's 
recognition of the presence of the Unionidae in the Australian Triassic, the 
writer differs from McMichael and Hiscoek (1958) who have (pp. 493, 495) 
on the assumption that Unio eyremix was seulptureless and might be presume*! 
to he a primitive mutelid, postulated the arrival of the Australian mutelid stock 
during the Triassic. 

Certain morphological features of Unio etjrcmis — the deep conical anterior 
adductor impression bounded by a buttress and the internal subumbonul ventral 
ridge arc related to those of some early Mesozoic genera of the Cypricardiacea, 
notably Kalcntera Marwick, 1952, and less closely to Falaeopharus- Kittl, 1907. 
The similarity between the hinge-characters of Palaeoptwrus and of Unio were 
observed by Kobayashi and fehikawa (1951, p. 8), who suggested that Pafoeo- 
pharus might be a transitional form between the Pleurophoridae and the 
Unionidae, and the Uniunidae characterised by pseado-eardinals might be poly- 
phvletic (p. 9). Cox (1960, p. SI) lias recently discussed the possible origins 
and phylogcnctic relationships of the Unionacea. 



Subfamily U.moninae 

Genus Umo Phihpsson, 1788 

Type Species (I. C.Z.N.) Mya pictorttm Linne 

Unio eyreusis Etheridgc jr. 
<pLi, £*s. 1-0; pl<3, fig. 5) 

Vnlo vtji'ensis "Etlwridse jr., 1891, p. U, pi, 3, fi«s. J.-3: 1892, p. 389, pi. 28, fig. 1. 
Fwhrjria eyremti (Etheridge jr.) McMiclmcl, 1957, p. 228, pi. 13 ; figs. 8, II (non figs. \\ r 10). 

Dwgnmis— A large solid fairly broad Unio, heavily sculptured with flattened 
concentric ridges, hinge with, two triangular pseudocardinals and one long 
posN-rior lateral in the right valve, one triangular pseudo-cardinal and two long 
posterior laterals in the left valve. Anterior adductor impression deep, bounded 
by a buttress, Broad low subumbonal- ventral ridge on the interior. 

Hedescription '• — External characters (known from hypotype A.U.C.D, 
F 15*172)— Shell inequilateral, elongate-ovate, rounded anteriorly, bluntly pointed 
posteriorly, inflated and solid, Periostracum thick, dark brown. Sculpture of 
prominent narrow flattened concentric ridges a maximum of 5 mm. apart in the 
dorsal half, fine concentric lirae between the ridges; owing to preservation ventral 
half showing fine growth lines and rest marks only. Beaks somewhat flattened, 
curved inward and forward* situated anteriorly. Smooth for about 10 mm. then 


wrinkled with irregular bifurcating plications for about S mm, before the 
concentric ridge develops. 

Anterior lriargin sliott, curved downwards under books, then roundly curv- 
ing to ventral margin, posterior-dorsal margin nearly straight; ventral margin 
gently arcuate. 

Ligament large, prominent, long; lunule apparently long, narrow and in- 

Internal Characters (holotypc A.l'.CD. T 1347)— Shell deep, inflated, hinge 
plate fairly vide and flat with two triangular psendueardinals and one long 
posterior lateral in the right valve, one triangular pseudo-cardinal and two lomr 
posterior laterals in the left valve. 

Anterior adductor impressions deep and conical, bounded posteriorly by a 
strong buttress, anterior retractor impressions small, posterior adductor impres- 
sion- inconspicuous. Pallial line firm. A broad low subumbonal-ventral ride,? 
in JVunt of which the shell was probably thicker than it was posteriorly. Ridue 
represented by a conspicuous sulcus on casts by which the species is mostly 
represented. The sturdiness of the shell is indicated by the fact that the ca.>t$ 
are fully inflated showing no Mgns of collapse during deposition. 

Di'mcmiom— Holotype (internal cast) T 1347; Length S7 mm, height 45 
mm., inflation (both valves) 40 iuin., ratio posterior; anterior 75:12 mm. 

Ilyporjpe. F 15472: Length (est.) 00 mm., height 54 mm., inflation (both 
valves) 41 mm, posterior, anterior approx. 72:18 mm. 

Location of T//^a' - Hulotvpc Tate Coll, A.U.G.D. T 1347; Hypotype 
A/IT.G.D. ¥ 1M72: Paratvpe Aust Museum, Svduev, A.M. F 9&S1. 

Tifpe Loev/ta//- Black Hills, Leigh Creek, latitude S0°30\ longitude 13S°25'. 
(>n the southern end of the Leigh "Creek Coalfield (Parkin, 1953; Parkin and 
King, 1953b, Sheet Myrtle)* 134 miles south of the present township of Leigh 
Creek and 3 miles north of the Copley Railway Station, formerly Leigh Creek 
R,S. and shown as such on H- \\ L. brown's map 1891. ('mo eyremis weathers 
out a.s casts from ferruginous sandy shales occurring just above the Main or 
Telford Seam, which is about 400 feet above the base of the Triassie sequence 
(verbal information of R. K. Johns). 

Wa/erwe-Tho holotype T 1347, A note on the original label in KthoridgKs 
handwriting reads "1 taken as duplicate" — this would be the paratypc A.M. 
F i-OSl, which carries a similar label. 

The hypotvpe A.U.G.D. F 15472 collected by A. E. Jaensch about VJi5 
in Tel lord Cut shortly after commencement of operations about 10 ft from 
the surface on top of shale on the up-dip of the Cot and now presented to the 
writer for lod^inij, in ihe Adelaide University Ce.ology Department, and the 
following topotypes: 

(1 ) Ailcln'uU: University Geology Department, IS) specimens in all, including 
one from Tate's original material labelled "Burnt Plain 10-12 miles north 
of Leigh Creek". 11 internal easts, about half of which show the hiJiqc 
features; 3 showing traces of external sculpture, 1 external nvnild. 
{2) South Australian Mmeum. 31 topotypes, including V 2111 2 ferruginous 
easts labelled "Unio eyrensis Tate*" from old collection o£ S.A. School of 
Mines; P 2589 labelled "Unio eyrensis Tate 7 collected frnm shale and prob- 
»bly original Tate material, some shell preserved near the umbo, casts of 
(interior adductor impressions very well shown; P 4435 cast in shale from 
S.A. School of Mines old collection; V 9096 seven ferruginous casts collected 
by Sir Thomas Play ford 1915; F 1302S twenty limonitized casts collected 
Dr. B. Daily 7/11/59 from ridtfe outcropping 1 mile SS'W of present town 
iif Lei^h Creek. 


(3) Geological Survey of South Australia. 16 topotypes with the following 













J 00 




















72 + 



-37 + :15 

110 + 

















Geological Survey of Queensland. 

Ifypotype F 2450 Bundamba S,E. Qld. "in brick clay overlying coal*. 

Ipswich Coal Measures (Upper Triassic) mentioned Etheridge jr. 
1892 G.S.Q. Tub. 92. p. 3S9, Coll. t, Malboti Thompson. 

Hyputype F 227 Bundamba S.E. Qld. "in brick clay overlying petal"! 

Ipswich Coal Measures ( Upper Triassic) figd. Etheridge jr. 1892 
G.S.Q. Pub. 92, pi. 28, fig. 1. Coll, j. Malbon Thompson, 

Observations— McMiehacl (1957, p. 227) introduced the germs Fwltyria 
for V nio johnstoni Etheridge jr, 5 of which he had 5 specimens, and T J nio eyrensis 
Etheridge jr, of which he examined and figured the paratvpe (A.M. F 9081 
pi. 1ft fie;. 8) and probable topotype (N.M.V. P 16767 pi. 13.' figs. 11. 12), The 
specimen rs.M.W P 1676*1 (pi. 13, figs. 9 and 10) referred to U. eyrensis from 
Lake Eyre was Idrtdly lent to the writer by the National Museum of Victoria. 
It is neither morphologically nor lithologically related to the Triassic species 
and is a well-preserved example of the Aptian marine species Panopea maccoyi 
which, by comparison with other specimens including Fanopea maccoyi collected 
by Dr. B. C. Forbes from the Lower Cretaceous of Freds Springs two miles 
east of Lake Eyre railway siding has almost certainly come from the same 
locality. The locality "Lake Eyre" (attached also to the holotype of Unto 
eyrensis) is a hazard for students nl museum specimens, as a fairly wide geo- 
graphical and stratigraphical range was included in the name *Xake Eyre 
Basin" in early records. 

Unio johnstoni by original designation is the type spceies of Vrohyria, but 
die generic description given by McMiehacl includes that of the "hinge well 
developed., with large cardinal teeth" of Unio cyrensis, The hinge of Unio 
johnstoni has not been described. 

The two species appear to be unrelated, The hinge of Unio eyrensis is 
unionid (pi. 1, fig. 5} and can be reproduced in latex from man)- of the limonitic 
casts in which the species is usually preserved. The casts show very charac- 
teristic internal shell features — a broad well-marked umbo-ventral depression 
which corresponds to the internal ridge on the shell interior and the deep conical 
anterior adductor muscles bounded posteriorly by a buttress are represented 
negatively (pi. 2, fig. 5). These are clearly visible in the paratvpe F 9081 
(McMichael, pi. 13, fig. 8) and were well illustrated in the original figures of 

144 K H 1 TOTiROOK 

(he holotype (Etheridge, 1891, pi. 3> figs. 1-3) here refigured (pi. 1, figs. 2, 3, 4). 
The internal characters have features in common with fife living European 
Unio fvmidus. although the pseudo-cardinals are narrowly cuneiform like those 
Of the Bear River Cretaceous Liguutia velusfus (Meek) and the Laramie Creta- 
ceous Margaritifcra cndlichi (White), recently allocated (Modcll, 1957) to 
genera other than Unio. Etftefidgfl (I.e. p. 12) drew similar comparisons in 
his original description: "Little more can lie suid of these Mesozoie Unios, 
except that they arc quite unlike any of the Recent Australian species, being 
evidently much more substantia! shells, hi the presence of I he partition behind 
the anterior muscular scars our fossils correspond to a certain extent with some 
of the more ponderous American species/' The species was known only from 
internal moulds until Mr. A. E. Jaensch collected the splendid specimen (pi. 1, 
fig. 1 ) from Telford Cut on the Leigh Creek Coalfield which has e-nabled. the 
external characters to be determined for the first tune. European Tertiary 
Uuins (Modcll, 1950) appear to have somewhat similar sculpture. 

Tire species from Bundamba, Queensland, Ipswich Coal Measures ( Upper 
Triassie), referred to Unio eyremis "Tate" (Etheridge, 1892, p. 389. pi. 28, fig. I ) 
Is retained in the synonymy. The two specimens C.S.Q. F 227 (fed. Etheridge 
I.e. pi. 28 : fig. 1) and F 2450 (internal cast mentioned by Etheridge. p. 389) 
liave been kindly lent by the Geological Survey of Queensland. Both aie close 
to and congeneric with Unto et/teimSj although the strong concentric ribbing 
is not preserved. The Queensland specimens are very thick shelled and solid, 
with relative dimensions: F 2450 length 71, height 34 mm; F 227 length (esti* 
mated) 79, height 38 mm. 

Like the Leigh Creek examples, they are preserved RS Jimonitized casts 
for the most part, with internal features similar to those of the type series. Their 
habitat was probably similar also. In shape and such features as are preserved 
the Bundamba specimens may be compared with the living European U twnidus 
Philipsson and with Unto karrooensh Cox from the Manda Beds (Lower Stortu- 
berg, or Upper Triassic) of the Rubuhu Coalfields, Tanganyika (Cox, 1032)- 

Apart from the conspicuous concentric sculpture, the writer is unable to 
distinguish any generic characters which would appear to separate the Triassic 
cynnsis from Unio. The species has so few morphological characters in com- 
mon with Prahyria jolmsfoni that its retention in Prohyria seems unwarranted. 
The genus Unio is therefore regarded as the best available location for cyie.mfo 
at piesent. 1 Unio was formerly considered to be established in North America 
u.\ elsewhere during the Triassic ( White, 1907; Hendeison, 1935), but most 
of the American species have now been placed in other genera (Model!, 1957). 

The slrong sculpture and substantial ruitiue of the shell of ryrehsi'i and 
the restricted area hi winch most 01 the specimens are found indicates that they 
were probably of fhivialilc habitat, deposited at the mouth of a river entering the 
Lci^li Creek Basin. 

1 While the present paper was in proof volume ST part ii, nf die Kecoids of the GeoJo- 
Xitut Survey of India dated 1938 was received . This contained a paper by M, R. Snhm 
and. A. P. Tewuri entitbd Jfew Unionids from the TrUssdc (Coiuhvana) Rock, 1 ; of Tihku 
Viotiliva Pradesh and Malori, Hyderabad Ueec-m Her, Geo!, Sum, Indltt vol. fi? f pt. 2. 
pp 41.10-417. pLs, 1-2, fu which the uulhnrs haw described ftJUT species of unionid.s trorn the 
Upper Triassic of India for which die genus Tihkia is created. From the figures :»n<-| de- 
scription, Tihkia conugata agree* SO closely wjtfi \h\io Utif&nHy that tin ire can he lil lie drmbl 
(h;.f rliey ftre romienrrie. If, thcrehtfr, t'tiiu is ntit the ( t>rret r local too for eyrvivth and 
winpjielrlcmk the genus Tihkia should he considered for species.. 


Unio springficldcnsis sp. nov, 
(pi. 2, 6gs. 1-2.) 

Diagnosis— A. medium sized thin Unto, smooth but for growth lines, posterior 
margin broadly rostrate. 

Description— Shell of moderate size, apparently thin arid easily squashed, 
broadly wedge-shaped. Anterior margin somewhat obliquely arcuate; posterior 
margin produced and broadly rostrate where preserved. Cardinal margin 
arcuate. Anterior dorsal margin oblique and gently slightly arcuate poslerioi* 
dorsal margin nearly straight. Ventral margin curved; a slight umbo-posteriur 
ridge, Ligament prominent. Shell apparently nearly smooth but for fine 
growth lines and irregular concentric folds which are probably mostly due tn 
compression of the shell during deposition. Internal features unknown, 

Dimensions— llolotype external mould A.U.G.D. F 15473. Length 75 -f- 
(estimated 85) mm.; beak height 30 mm.; posterior: anterior ratio 60:25 mm 
Ligament 19 mm. Paratype: A.U.C.D. F 15474, Length 90, beak height 36 mm, 

Material— llolotype and paratype both external moulds and examined from 
latex easts, bodi valves open and preserved upside down on weathered surface 
of argillite. Paratype G.S.S.A. F 11/60 figured pi 2, fig. 2 showing posterior 
margin. Paratype: External mould of a fairly large specimen preserved upside 
with 2 valves open flat and partly obscured: valves crumpled. Length 100 
UBftn beak height 30. Topolypos 2 moulds ol single valves and 23 incomplete 

Location of Types - Holotvpc A.U.C.D. F 15473. Paratype A.U.G.D. 
F 15474. Paratype GenL Sun-. S.A. F 44/60. 

Type Locality— Sm&]] central mesa, Springfield Basin. Section 48, Hundred 
of Cudlsi Mudla,. 13 miles west of Cradock, in innk and buff argillites at the 
top of the Triassic succession. 

Observations In contrast with Unto eyreiis'is, this thin, smooth species was 
probably of lacustrine habitat and was deposited in the fine mud of the still 
waters of the Springfield Basin. 

Genus Protovikcus Mc\li<liael, 1957 
Type species (o.d.) Unio ditnstuni Kiheridge jr., LS38 

iFrotovirgus jaensehi sp. nov. 

(pi. 2,. figs. .% 4) 

Diagnosis— A fairly large inflated and solid Prolovirgus having close-set 
fairly coarse rounded ridges with fine growth lines towards the ventral margin, 

Deseripfion Shell narrow, elongate-ovate, beaks very anterior, situated at 
less than the anterior one-tenth, flattened and apparently smooth. Anterior 
margin short and well curved, posterior margin attenuated, obliquely rounded, 
dorsal margin nearly straight, ventral margin gently curved, with an inflexion in 
the posterior one-third, Sculpture of fairly coarse and close rounded ridges 
wilh fine growth hues, strong ventral margins. Ligament fairly long and 

Hinge unknown. Shell anterior apparently with a broad subumbunal- 
ventral ridge represented by a sulcus on the internal cast. Anterior adductor 
impressions fairly deep, bounded behind by a buttress. 

Dimensions— Length SO mm.; maximum height 31 mm. (posterior to beaks); 
beak height 30 mm. 

Type Locality— According to Tate's old label "Burnt Plain 10 to 12 miles 
north (if Leigh Creek". This is the present location of Lobe C, northern hash), 


Allies north of Leigh Creek township, where shale outcrops continuously around 
the margin of the Basin (Johns, 1956, p. I3S ). 

Location of II oloiijp c-T ate Coll. A.U.C.D. F 15475, 

Loaitkm of Paratope— F 15478, 

Location of Idcolypes -G.S.S A. F SQ/oH B-C, F 43/60. 

Material— The holotype F 15475, the only specimen known from the Triassic 
of the Leigh Creek Basin. 

Paratope, external mould, from the pink argillites at the top of the Triassic 
succession in the central mesa, Springfield Basiru 

Sample; F 80/85. Ideotypes. all external moulds from pink argillites top of 
mesa Springfield Basin. 

Observations— The hinge of the species is unknown, but some of the internal 
characters are preserved on the holotype. Tire anterior adductor and buttress 
though less prominent, resemble those of Unio ctjrensis. In erecting the genus, 
McMichael (1957, p. 231) noted its uncertain affinities. The visible characters 
of the South Australian species appear to be similar to those of T r nio and on 
l^reseut evidence there is no apparent reason for placing P. jaenschi elsewhere 
than in the Unionhlae. 

The species is named for Mr. A. E. Jaenseh who collected the first speci- 
men of Unio eyrams showing the external features. 

The external resemblance of Protovirgus jaenschi to the marine form 
Kalentera waru-ieki Crant-Maclde is, however, very striking. Kalentera vutrwicki 
ocenrs with an abundant associated marine fauna ( Grant- Muckic, I960, p. 77) 
III the Orapiiian (Rhaetie) and W;u*cpan (Norian) of New Zealand. 

Protovirgus coatsi sj>. nov, 

(pi. i, fa, 6) 

Diagnosis— A medium si'/ed Protovirgus with gently curved posterior rUlgv, 
convex posterior dorsal margin and concave ventral margin. 

Description— Shell of medium size, compressed, elongate, narrow., length 
about 2Ji times maximum height, beaks anterior, situated at about one-fifth of 
length of shell from anterior. Mavimum height just posterior to beaks. Dorsal 
and ventral slopes approximately parallel; dorsal margin gently convex aud 
elevated posterior to beaks then curving more sharply downwards to the pos- 
terior margin which is produced narrowly rounded; dorsal margin slightly 
excavate, anterior lo beaks, then straight; ventral margin concave, with a broad 
sinuiition in the middle of the sheik Posterior ridge fairly well marked and 
gently arcuate. Beaks flattened, apparently unsculptured, not prominent; liga- 
ment moderately prominent, no lunnle visible. 

Sculpture of concentric ridges. 

Internal characters unknown. 

Dbncnsions— Length 56 mm., maximum height 25 nun., beak height 24 mm.,. 
poslerior:anteiior 45:11 mm. 

Type Locality— Gardiner M.S., P/L 915, Sheet 115, 1 mile south-south-casl 
of Western Spur 3 miles south of Village Well in ferrugimzed gritty sandstone 
with plant impressions. 

Strafittraphic Position— Ncoeomian sandstones of Blvthesdale Croup. 

Location of #o/o/t/pe-A,U.G.D. F 15477. 

Material— The holotype, an internal cast in ferrugimzed sandstone, collected 
R. P. Coats, One paratypc, internal cast of two spread opened valves in ferm- 
ginized sandstone, collected N. H. Ludbrook, sample F 114/58. 


Plate 1 

1. Pfrif) ctjrcnsis Etircridge, jr. Hypotype A.U.G.D, F 15472. 

2. Unio eyreims Etheridue, jr. Holotype A.U.G.D. T 1347, dorsal view. 

3. Unto vijreiisis Ktherid^e, jr. fjolotype A.U.G.D. T 1347, side view. 

4. Unio cyremis Elheridtfe, jr. Holotype A.U.G.L). T 1347, anterior view. 

5. Lalex mould of dorsal interior of holotype of Unio ctjrcnsis showing hin^e features, 

6. Latex mould of anterior portion ol left valve of holotype of I ! nio cyrensis showing anterior 
adduetor impression and buttress. 

All fitrures natural sue. Irom unietuuched photographs of 15. Huxton. 

N. II. Iadbrook 

Pi .ati: 2 

1. UnfO .s)iruttf1irltlcnxis sp. inn, Latex rust of holotypt' A.U.G.D. F 15473. 

2. Unto s}>ringfiel(len.sis sp. tins'. Paratype F 44/60 with Ditioidium friMtmauteli on pink 

3. Pmfovirgtts jaailscki sp, nqy- Latex cast of para type /V.U.C.D. F 15476. 

4. Pmtov>irgu.s jacmchi sp. nov. Molotype A.U.G.D. K 15475. 

5. (JntO cijrcnxis Ethoridge, jr. Tnpntyyie showing cast of deep anterior adductor impression 
and cast of umbo-ventrul ridge. 

8. Protovirgus coattii sp. nov. Holotype A. I 1 .CD. K 1 5 177. 

All (inures natural size from unrctouehed photographs of B. Huxtoii and wash drawings 

( Pigsu 1, 3) of the author, 


The species is named for Mr. R. F. Coats of the Geological Survey of 
South Australia, who collected the holotypc during field mapping of die 
Gardiner M.S. 

Observations— The species resembles an unnamed specimen P 17670, 
National Museum of Victoria from Korrurnburra, the stratLgraphie position of 
which is probably comparable with that of Protovirnttx coatsi 


For the donation and loan of material the writer i.s indebted to Mr. A. F. 
Jaen.seh of Leigh Creek, Dr. Mary Wade. University of Adelaide, Dr. B. Daily, 
South Australian Museum, Mr. K. D. Cilh National Museum of Victoria, and 
Mr. A. Denmcad, Chief Government Geologist Queensland. Dr. D. F. 
Vk'Mieliael kindly criticized the manuscript. The photographs were taken by 
Mi. B. Ruxton, Department of Lands, 


Cox, L. R._ 193*2. Lajnellibranehia from the Karroo Bods of the Kuhnhn Coalfields. Tan- 
ganyika I'trriti7rv-. Quart. Joimi. Geoh Sue, Lund., HH (4), pp. 623-633, pk S9t. -10. 
Cox, L, H.. I960. Thoughts on the Classification uf the Bivalvia. Proe, Make. Soc, Loud . 

34 (2), pp. 60-88. 
EthebhicEs P.., jh., 1891, Description (it some South Australian Silurian and Meso/.oie 

Koasils T bein;* it Portion of H. \\ L. Brown HepoTts on Coal-bearing Area jjj the 

Neighbourhood of Leigh Crock S. AuSt. Pari. Tapers, 15S, pp. 9-M, pis. 1-3, 

F/nrcnroc.E. H., jn.. 1#92. In Jack, H, L„ and Ktherid^o. R., Jr. The Geology and Puitwon- 

loluzv of Ouoensland and New Guinea. Geol .Surv. Qld. FubL 92, pp.l-XXX. 1-768, 

p!s. 1-68. 
Chant-Mackik, J. A.. 1900. On a New Kalcntom (Pidrcypoda: Cypncardiacca ) from die 

Upper Triassie of New Zealand. K.I. Journ, Geol. Geoph, T 3 ( 1 ), pp. 74-h'O, figs. 1-6. 
ITr>jrmRSON\ J., 1335. Fossil Non-marine Mollusc* of North America. Geol. Soc. Amer. 

Spec. Pap.. 3. pp. 1-313. 
Urns*. H. K.. 1956. Lfcfeh Creek CouIScld. Northern Basin-Lobe °C". S.A. Depl Mines 

Mm. flev., 9f) r pp. 136-1 -19. 
Johnson, VBL, and lltr<-K\F.i.r._. W. J., 1959, Pseudo-igneous Rocks in the TrLtssie Succession 

uJ die- Springfield -Basin, Gordon-Cradock District. Trans. llov. Soc. S. Aust. 82. pp. 

245-257, pis.' 1-3. 
KuHAVASHi, '['., and 1<;hik.ava, K., 1951. On PaLieophnrns, a T.nte Tmssic Peleeypod Genus. 

Trails. Proc, Palaeunt. Soc, Japan N.S, 1, pp. 7-12. pi. 1. 
McMicmael, D, K, 1937. A Review of the Fos.sil Freshwater Mussels (Molhisca. Pelecy- 

podu) of Australasia. I*roe. Linn. Son. N.S.W., 81 (.3), pp. 222-212, pk 13, 14. 
McMkhak)., D. |iL and Hiscock, 1. D., ]95<S. A monogrnph of the Freshwater Mussels 

(Mollusr.a: Pok-evpoda ) 61 the Australian Region. Anst r Jouni, Mar. Kreshw. Res., 9 

(o), pp. 372-50*. pis. 1-19, 
\!ahwh:k, ]'., 1953, Divisions and Faunas of the Hokomii Svstem (Tnassic and Jurassic). 

N.Z. Geol. Sun-. Pal, Bull.. 21, pp. 1-141, pK 1-17. 
Mom-i.i.. H., 1957. Die iossilen Najadcn Nordmnerikus. liiu KlassifizierunjLrversuch. Arch. 

Mull., &6, 4/6, pp. 183-300. 
Motjr.i.i.. H., HJ59. Die Loxliarcu Najaden ties un^arisehen Beekens, Con!, Tb„ 75, pp. 

197-250, 5 pis., 2 tables. 
PAitKiiv L. W., 1953. The Leigh Cr^ok Coalfield. Geo], Surv. S,A. Ball. 31, pp. 1-74, 

pis. 1-S. 
pAjtKiN,, L, "W-, and Kino, D-, 1955. Geological Atlas ol SouUi Australia, sheet Goplcy. 

1 inehT mile (l:#J,M))j 
Pakkjn, L. W. s unci Kini;. O., 1952. Geological Atlas of South Australia, sheet Mvrtle. 

I inc-h/1 mile ( !ifl&3flQj-, 
TowMtovv, J. A-, H»57_ On Dicroiditnn, Prohahl> a Pteridospernums Leaf and other Leaves 

now Removed from this: Genus. Trans. Geol. Soe. S. Africa, 60, pp. ^1-60, pis. 2-3. 
White, C. A., 1907. The Ancestral Origin of the North American Unionidae, or Freshwater 

Mussels-. Smithsonian Misc. Coll.. 48, .No. 1702, pp. 75-S8 : pis. 26-31. 


1842 (MURIDAE) 

byH. H. Finlayson 


The characters of Mesembriomys hirsutus Gould are re-examined with fresh material. Detailed 
evidence of its arboreal specialization is presented. The validity of the insular form M. hirsutus 
melvillensis Hayman is confirmed. Some aspects of the living animal, of skull and dentition, manus 
and pes, are illustrated. 



by H, IT. Fivlayson 

[Read 13 Oct. I960] 


The characters of Mfisnnhrhuixjs hinutuii Gould are re-e.vamincd with 
fresh material, Detailed evidence of its arboreal specialization is presented. 
r l'he validity of the insular form M. hirsutns, -mWoi7//'ri.\i> Ilnymau is con- 
firmed. Some aspects of the living animal, of skull and dentition, nvanus and 
pes, are illustrated. 

f pWfi to the kindness of my friend and former student, Wilfred Batexnan, 
Esq., now of the Commonwealth Administration in Porl Darwin, a magnifieent 
living specimen of this great tree rat of Northern Australia, which though 
formerly much collected and written upon taxononiically, is still very imper- 
fectly known. 

The specimen was caught by blacks near Garden Point, Melville Island, 
where it is still rjlentiful and it occurs also on the adjoining Bathurst Island 
across the mile-wide Apslcy Strait. Formerly it was a common animal in suit- 
ably forested country over much of the Northern Territory as far south as Daly 
Waters, but in recent years its numbers have declined and in many of the 
localities of the Daly River scctor > where Knul Dahi found it plentiful in 1894- 
95, it seems now to be a rarity- It occurs also on Cape York Peninsula, Queens- 
land. Dahi recorded the aboriginal names Nunjala. Dombnt and Kalambo for 
the species and the last of diese is still in use by mixed Tchingilli and Mudburra 
blacks at Daly Waters, though it is 20 years since the animal was seen by them 
there. Mr. Bateman also supplies the names Intamunga and Puturamueka as 
being used on Melville Island. About 60 specimens have been listed in over- 
seas collections, but it is much less well represented in Australian museums. 

The animal was flown to me from Port Darwin and the air lift of 2.000 
miles, spanning, a considerable climatic gap, terminated in unusually cold 
weather in an Adelaide spring (August) which continued lor much of the 
period of captivity. Although it was provided with artificial warmth and much 
thought taken fur its comfort in roomy quarters, it remained extremely secretive 
and could only be momentarily glimpsed by torch light. When denied its 

1 The specific name hiisittws was consistently used for the species through all the 
changes in its &enrn"e designation from Aiwa Jiirsutw; of Gould 1&42, through HapalotL% 
Conilurus-, Amvumajs to Masemhriomt/s,, anil in the definitinn of its three subspecies. Jo 
recent years it has been superseded by ^>tultlii of Gray 1843 on the grounds of its pre- 
occupation by Mux hirsutus oi Elliot 1839. The animal So named by Elliot is now known 
as Golurida cllloti Gray 1837 (fiile HlkTinao) and belongs to an Oriental ^eiius whose species 
cannot possibly lie confused with those of the Australian Mcwmhriomi/s. 7n view of these 
facts and of its nnambieruoTts use for 90 years- in all the formative contributions to the 
knowledge of the animal, there would seem to bo a strong oaso tor tho conservation of 
hirsutus in MfJiemhriomtffi. This would make possible the continued use of goukiii m Nntttniys, 
as is done a* late a* 1951 by Tale. 

Trans. Roy, Soc, S. Aust (1961), Vol. 84. 


nesting hoy occasionally tor observation it repulsed all advances with implacable 
frrocity and was a difficult subject for photography, so that Lhe attempt to gam 
some insight into its habits aud peculiarities was largely nugatory, Dahl (1897) 
writes of its irritability and savage tamper in the wild and the severity of it* 
biting, and the blacks I interrogated at Daly Waters in 1953, who formerly 
took it by hand from hollow trees, also spoke feelingly of what they called its 
"cheekiness". In its frequent rages, the captive displayed considerable vocal 
power* of a kind quite different from the squealing and piping of more normal 
Forms, such as Hatttis, Psetulomys, Gijomtjs and Mtt& } raising its voice progres- 
sively into a #irl of whirring machine-like crescendo, not unlike some of the 
t'ltafangnrid/lC, such as PeUmrus hrt-vicepx. There was no difficulty in keeping 
it nourished us it ate very freely of sugared biscuits of several sorts (a taste 
evidently inculcated by the air hostess, as his box was strewn with them on 
arrival), of bananas and other soft fruits and of mixed grain, but show**! no 
interest in green vegetation nor flesh foods. Dahl records that the chief food 
of the species in the Daly River districts is the fruit of the local Pmidnnufi 
odowMmmm\ but the stomach of one of those examined below, which was taken 
on tlw> Stewart lliver in North Queensland, was crammed with a gritty mass 
in which die shell of a fresh water mussel appeared to be the chief constituent. 
When examined after three months' detention, the Garden Point animal was 
iotiud to be in excellent condition, weighing 670 g. arid showing a smooth, well- 
groomed coat; nti externa] parasites were noted. Kllerrnan (J941) records a 
life span of more than four year?* in captivity in London. 

hi checking over the characters of the species, I have used for comparison 
eight other specimens in the South Australian Museum representing all three 
of tin. 1 areas from which the described geographic forms have come. Six of 
tli^se were collected for the Museum in I913-M by Mr. W\ P. Dodd. whose 
itinerary in the field was planned during the directorate of Sir Edward Stirling 
and two are donations from Mr. P. Foelsche, formerly stationed at Port Darwin. 
The account which follows is based primarily on roy freshly chloroformed cap- 
tive, which is a young adult male, and four additional examples from Melville 
Island, and thus represents the form M. hirsutus mcloitlensis Ilayman 1936; 
where subspeeific uniformity is departed h*om : it is noted in the text, and an 
appraisal of the validity of the described forms, as far as the material permits, is 
appended later. 


Form stout, with sturdy arms and shoulders and thick neck; the hind 
quarters <>re considerably larger than the fore, but not greatly exaggerated. 

The head (Plate 2 and Plate 3. Fig. A) large and deep, with a strongly 
protuberant rhujarhun and labia well developed but not pouted as ill LaporiUus. 
At a point one-third of the distance from the ihmarinm to anterior eanthus of 
the eye. the?e Is a dent in the profile, the remaining curvature to the crown being 
roodcralcK convex. The eye is large, black and very brilliant and is sur- 
rounded by an area of almost nude epidermis, which in turn is conspicuously 
ringed by a narrow band of jet black hair; the upper eye lashes are fairly well 
developed Teaching 4 mm. in length. The ear is large, thick in substuuee. rather 
narrow and with its maximum breadth below the midpoint; it is carried well 
away fruin the head and conspicuously pricked. The epidermis of its inner 
surface is dusky brown with bluish pink areas showing through on the couch 
and the margins almost black; processes of the conch are well marked ant! the 


toured notch deep and undivided. The cephalic vlhrhsae are strongly developed 
and entirely black except for the interramals which are paler at the tip. The 
rt'ivslieial set reach 100 nun. as a maximum, the supraorbitals 38 mm., and the 
tenuis, two of which spring from a very stronglv developed papilla, 35 mm. 
The posloral group was not traced in adults of the Melville Island lot, but in 
a snUididt all-black bristles on this site reached .14 mm. and in an adult female 
iii KfJt raito:ctc$. 20 mm.; the submentals reach 12 mm. and the jnterrainals 
23 mm. 

The gencrul physiognomy is distinctive and in some features sder^id 
rather than murine. 

The mantis is variably developed, but is usually in respect to the 
CUK'taJ size of the animal, and sometimes much stouter than in the example* 
figured (PI, 3, Klg. C). The length from of metacarpal pads to apical 
pad. excluding claw, reaches 30 mm. in adults, the breadth from base of digit 
5, 1A mm., yielding & breadth/length ratio of (M7, the 3rd digit. 13 mm., and 
its nail 8 mm ; in two examples of the typical race in which the manus is vcrv 
heavy the breadth rises to 16 mm. and the value of B/L to 6*33 us ma.vimu. 
The digital formula is* the normal 3>4>2>5> 1, but the polle.\ is unusually 
large and apparently functional and provided with a broad, hhmt. pro-rctim* 
sheath-like naif; the claws of die other digits varying much in length from 
individual to individual, hut always stout and strongly curved and unusually 
deep clorso-ventrallv al the base: pale yellowish in colour, but slightly dark- 
ened along the dor.sal curve. 

The. genera! palmar surface is lightly creased,, not noticeably punctate 
and in Hie its colour is a pale slightly bluish pink with the pads and digital 
ridges .strongly contrasted in blackish brown. The palmar aspect of the digils 
is quite hairless, -and the ridge.s prominent, entire and unusually numerous; 8 or 
t) eta D3 and D4 t but Teaching 11 in one subadult of the typical race— the 
highest count noted on an Australian murid. The metacarpal pads are broad 
and obtusely oval and greatly exceed the interdigilals in area; the outer (hypo- 
t lienor) much larger than tiie inner, which has its long axis inclined laterad 
towards the pullex and its distal margins well raised above the base. The 
lateral interdigitals are subtriangular or inverted heart-shaped, with a strongly 
developed satellite pad a( (he base of the outer, and the median pad ij broad 
inverted pyriiorm, the size sequence for area is outer metacarpal > inner meta- 
carpal > 3rd mterdigital > 1st > 2nd, The palmar pads are strongly striated, 
the apical pads of the digits, feebly so, 

The pes (Plate 3, Kig. B) has numerous well-marked peculiarities. Its 
dimensions vary, but yield several maxima which exceed all other Australian 
muriris, except possibly the species of Vromtjs, hi plantar aspect it tapers 
stronglv Iron* a broad interdigital area to a nude strongly constricted heel; its 
relative #Ze is large, attaining in the largest examples 25 p.e. of the head and 
body length and a maximum breadth/length ratio of 30; the 3rd digit reaches 
16 mm. and its nail 9-5 mm. (II mm. in one example of M,h. tdth)i(h>s). The 
digital formula is 4>3>2>5:-J 7 but the disproportion between the lateral 
and median digits is much less than that which prevails in the majority uf 
Australian .species, both the hallux and D.5 being longer in their phalanges and 
at die same time their bases are brought into a more anterior position on the 
pes. by longer metatarsals supporting them. Thus the apical pad of the hallux, 
which in most Australian species lies far below the level of the base of D.2, 
here reaches to its posterior tliird, and similarly that ol DTi lo [he anterior third 

152. 11 H. FLNLAYSON 

of VA. The digital ridges arc strongly developed and clear cut and are entire 
except posteriorly, where some obscure bifurcation may be seen; all show mor« 
or less distinctly the novel feature of anteroposterior striation, hut there is no 
scalation; they are numerous, ranging from 9-11 on the median digits in the 
Melville Island material and to 14 in a subadult of the typical race, which (like 
that of the manus) is the highest count I have obtained in an Australian rat. 
The claws are still stronger than in the inarms and almost equally curved, and 
slightly darker in colour. 

The plantar surface generally is soft and plump, markedly punctate, but 
with the creasing reduced to a minimum; the colour in life as in the manus. but 
with the differential darkening of the pads and digital ridges carried still 
further* The disposition of (he interdigital pads is unusually symmetrical 
Owing to the above peculiarity of the lateral digits; they are of but moderate 
si/e, but very sharply defined and well raised above cingulum-likc structures, 
which also have margins almost as well defined as the pads which surmount 
them, in contrast to the rather amorphous folds of integument usually found in 
that site. The lateral pair arc somewhat kidney shaped; the inner (l.D.l) with 
two rather ill-defined accessory pads at its post era- external corner and the outer 
(I.D.I) with a single well-defined satellite at the middle of its postero-latcral 
margin, and a vestige of another anterior to it; the 2nd inter-digital is obtusely 
oval and the 3rd inverted pyriform, and the size sequence (area) is approx. 

Hie metatarsal pads are remarkably elaborated. The inner pud takes the 
form of a shallow crescent- or boomerang-shaped structure, concave outwards 
and with an overall length of 19 mm. and average width of about 2 mm., ex- 
panding to 3-5 mm. at the club-shaped Tipper extremity. In the* example 
figured (Pi. 3, Fig. B) there is a well-marked antero-internal process reaching 
out into the centre of the sole towards a corresponding process of the opposite 
pad — this feature, however, is absent or only very weakly indicated in the 
other eight examples examined. The outer metatarsal pad is of enormous 
length and when undivided may span two-thirds of the interval between the 
heel and the 4th iiiteidigital; it runs an almost straight line course parallel to 
the margin of the foot and has a maximum length of 2** mm. and average, witlth 
iif 2-5 mm. expanding tu 4-5 nun. at the anterior extremity. It is constricted 
at several points in its length and in must examples splits up at these nocks into 
a cltam of from two to four separate elements with low gaps between, but 
cutirc and divided pads may occur on opposite feet of the same animal. All 
pads are strongly strialed at right angles to their long axes, except the apicaU, 
which are concentrically cngra\<"cd. 

'the tail is very long and Hexile, but gives no external evidence of pre- 
hensile functions; its length ranges in the Melville Island material from 108-128 
pe, hut reaches 150 p.c. of the head and body length in one example from 
Arnhem Land; it t;ipers gently and uniformly to the small horny spur winch 
[onus its apex. The scrottim in the captive male is conspicuous and well dis- 
tended to accommodate enlarged testes in November, hot the condition WMJ not 
cheeked satisfactorily in wild caught examples. The mammae are abdomiuo- 
inguinal only; 0-2 — 4; in a subadult female of the typical race, they were lar^e; 
the posterior about 5 mm. from the bast; of the genital tubercle and the antcrmr 
ii mm. from the- postejior. 



Some external dimensions of nine examples are summarized in the table 
below. Number 4 was measured \v\ the flesh shortly after death; number 5 
is a filled skin, and the rest arc alcohol preserved, 


ARN11T i 


MELVU.1 r ■ .. v 'i 



































Head and Body 











Tail: longth 











r j a. 



OS, % Hand B 

- - 









White Of Tail 

- - 





. — 



P«s: iefigtrj 














§8 X in 







lUnnarium to oyo 





— ■ 





Kye to oar 





— - 






The type on which Haynian (1936) based his description of the pelage of 
M. Itirsufus metvillen&is was an animal kept in captivity in London, Although 
in good agreement with the material now examined, it has been thought well 
to supplement it in some particulars by the following observations made upon 
field skins of animals killed in the wild as well as on the Garden Point specimen 
kept in captivity here. 

Coat comparatively harsh and thin; mid-dorsaIly there are three series. 
(1) An undcrfur of 14 rnm. not slaty nor plumbeous as is usual;, but very dark 
grey or blackish (about Ridgway's fuscous black) and not, or very obscurely, 
annulated. (5!) Stouter hairs of 23 mm. concolorous with the undcrfur in the 
basal half, which is followed by a 5 mm. band of warm buff, and the extreme 
tip, black, (3) All black guard hairs to 42 mm. The general colour of the 
dorsum is a coarse grizzle of black and buff, paler on the nape and forcquarters, 
but rapidly darkening to almost black tin the mid-dorsum and rump, through a 
great increase in the number and length of the guards. K smnll area on the 
nape and preseapular area is mure richly coloured than the rest, the subtermraal 
hand here being an orange buff, near Ridgway's oehraeeous tawny. 

The ventrum is shorter furred, and with the basal colour paler than on 
the dorsum, but still drab rather than plumbeous (about hair brown). The 
undcrfur of 10 mm. is overlain by a second series reaching 18 mm. with a 
terminal band of pale buff, and lightly sprinkled with all black hairs. The 
basal drab shows through strongly and lire general effect is of a dull butfy 
grizzled grey which occupies all the ventrum and extends on to the anterior 

t&1 M. H. KiNLAYSON 

lateral surface as well. Except for the darker scrotum, the whole ventrum js 
verv uniform. There is a narrow nude area in advance of the genital tuheTcle 
and the narrow posterior extremities of the scrotum are also nude and with the 
epidermis nearly black. 

Crown of head, cheeks and neck grizzled like the lower forcback. Lips, 
rhinal and inysticiaJ area and a ring round the eyes jet black and the muzzle 
also much darkened though finely grizzled. Ears densely furred jet black on 
the whole external surface and on [ho interior margins, and strongly contracted 
with the crown. Outci 1 aspect of forelimb darker than the adjacent lateral 
surface and becoming increasingly so distally until carpus* metacarpus and 
dibits of maims are jet black, with uo lighter markings. Hind limb also darker 
externally than the adjacent body surface and becoming flossy jet black ou 
tarsus, metatarsus and digits with a similar absence of variegation. Thr tail 
strongly haired on all surfaces, largely obscuring the scales which are S per cm. 
proximally and 6 per cm. mid-dorsully, where the hairs are 5 scales long. It is 
jet black on nil surfaces except lor a variable apical portion which becomes 
abruptly greyish white and lengthens progressively on ufi surfaces to a terminal 
pencil of 10 mm. ca. 

The Garden Point specimen, after three months captivity in Adelaide, was 
found to be in a different moult phase from the above, the three components 
of the much shorter coat averaging mid-dorsally 9 r 1G and 27 mm, respectively. 
The coat tv^s glossy and even hut on the posterior back showed a heavily 
gri/y.lccl replacement Coat rnincrjmg with the fuseus underfur. The seoontl 
series in the London type, with a length of 35-40 nun,, is much longer than in 
any of the Joenl material. 


The cranial and dental characters of the species wcie briefly diagnosed 
by Thomas (1906, 1909) and dealt with in more debut by Ellerman (1941) 
and T;ite (1951), sometimes with corirlieting result*. The following notes at 
species level covering some additional points, are based on the skull of the 
Garden Point specimen, together with that of a young adult # from Arnhem 
Lund at the same stage, and a inueli younger male skull wflh unworn molars 
from die same area. 

The skull is stout and densely ossified. The general form in dorsal aspect 
is narrow, with the maximum zygomatic breadth less than half the greatest 
length (O'14-O 'IS), zygomatic arch with Hie maximum width either median nr 
posterior in adults and the combined outline a narrow oval somewhat flattened 
at the sides and in the young .skull slightly concave; the anterior root of the 
y.vgomm though massive, has little Literal development, dropping rapidly below 
the dorsal level. Rostrum heavy and broad, the nasals with little posterior 
taper and the least width at the nasofrontal suture nbout 28 p.e. of ihe length. 
Preorhital fossa medium In siv.c, rather narrow from above and with the outer 
wall slanting inwards rather markedly. Anterior frontal region unusually broad 
and inflated and infringing on the orbits so that the lacrymals, which arc small 
and rugose, are deeply imbedded between the front u Is and the zygoma root 
and scarcely project into the orbit at all. lnterorbital region strongly coneuve 
as noted by Ellerman, a distinct depression extending to or beyond the coronal 
suture Brain ease much longer than wide and with feebly developed temporal 
crust* following the rather sharply angulated parieto -squamosal suture to the 
supraorbital ridges, which in the Melville Js. example especially, are sharp and 


slightly overhanging. Interparietal as given by Collett (J 897); a large, broad 
sharply undulated element. 

in lateral aspect the most conspicuous feature i.s the sharp division of the 
dorsal profile into two distinct planes meeting in an angle of ca. 155% the 
junction being slightly in advance pi W and marking the" maximum depth of 
the skull. The anterior margin of the zygomatic plate has a convex but some- 
what sloping shoulder without spine and its lower course is variably pitched 
and may be the scat of racial difference ( infra). The tympanic annulus is 
large, and has prominent thickened margins and the Ungulate process of the 
squainosal overlying the petrous temporal and mastoid is developed to remark- 
able strength and is a conspicuous object above and behind the meatus. 

The anterior palatal foramina are variable as to breadth, overall shape, posi- 
tion of septal suture and posterior extension—in the latter particular they fall short 
of the molar rows by half the length of M 1 in the Melville Island" skull and 
almost reach them in the immature Arnhem Land specimen. Two minute 
{? nasopalatine) foramina are constantly developed in the premaxillae. anterior 
to the incisive canals and wilhin 2 mm. of the alveolar border; they are evidently 
homologies with those which in LepoHlhts coalesce to form a single median 
aperture at the same site. The palate has been described m contradictory terms 
hy Ellerman and Tate; in the present material, at its narrowest point between 
rm first molars, I find that its breadth compared with that of M 1 varies h'oiu 
1*7 in the heaw toothed Arnhem Land skulls to 2-1 in that of Melville Island; 
so measured, the palate is certainly not nart'ow therefore, and might be de- 
scribed as* broad in relation to the majority of Australian species; the median 
spur on its posterior margin may be strongly developed or almost suppressed. 
The pterygoid plales are also very strongly' developed and terminate bhmtlv 
without hamulur processes. The bullae fall short of the molar rows in length, 
and in so large a skull, are relatively small. A very conspicuous feature m 
the pulubrl aspect of (he skull is the great width of the mesopterygoid fossa — 
half as gJeat again as (hat of the eefoptervgoid. 

The mandible is massive, has u straight inferior border and comparatively 
slight cnmrgmaHon of the posterior border above the angle; the coionohl is 
distinctly developed though much minted, its relative size about a* in Mwttt* 
cotm/s fusntx and hc)K>ri{lu$ joncsi Within the Zyzomyid group of genera, the 
relative development flf the enronoid appears to follow the sequence Zyzatttifs > 
Laomys > Xfrsmihriomijs > Couilttrub, 

The upper incisors are very large teeth with a variable angle: the Melville 
Islnnd example bn'ng less opisthodent than those from Arnhem Land, in the 
toimer also the incisors arc notched almost as in Mas muscuht*. in the molars 
tbe eingulum ol M 1 is large and prominent anteriorly, but the accessory disputes, 
hvo or more of which arc usually claimed lor the dentition, are cither absent 
or very small and imperfect and could not justly be compared with the Le-^rJ- 
thwt condition. The buccal cusps Vary from skull to skull and someiimcs on tht 
rvyo sides of the same skull; T.3 of M' although small is generally quite distinct 
and sepanile, but and T.9 are almost absorbed By the median cusp. In 
W a tia interesting feature in one of the mainland skulls is a very distinct though 
minute T.3 as in ApoJamta and Aromys of the Talaearctio; it is also feebly 
indicated in the Melville Island individual. In the latter also (on one side 
only) a supplementary eusplct is crowded in between T.i and T4 giving the 
appearance ol* a duplication of the former, In M a the posterointernal cusp 
T-7 is well developed in the two Arnhem Land skulls (which therefore have 
Hie fid I antero-postcrior complement of nine lingual cusps), but is absent in 


the Melville Island example. The cusp formula of the upper molars, using 
the Miller potation is:— 

T.3 : T.3 f T.l : X : X or (T.3) f T.l : X : X 

M 1 \ TA : T.5 : T.G M 2 \ T.4 : T.5 : T.6 W \ T.4 i T 5 T.8 

Y&i (T.9) 1 1t.7:T.8: (T.9) [XwT.7 r T.8 --X 

) = greatly reduced.. 

In tlie lower molars the posterior median supplementary cusp is strongly 
developed in Mt and M-. and feebly indicated also on M :v In the Melville 
Island specimen an anterior .supplementary cusp also appears on the first lamina 
of Mi in a median site between the two main elements — again us in Apt?(htnus. 

Johnson (1952) has recorded the occurrence of supernumaiy upper check 
teeth in this species. 

The following figures give in turn some skull dimension* of the young 
adult male from Garden Point, Melville Island; a young adult male at the same 
growth stage from the Northern Territory mainland, and it much younger male 
From the same area. Greatest length, 62 : 8, B3 V & 58-0: basal length, 56 -7, 57-4, 
50*7; zygomatic breadth. 30-2. 28-8, 264); interorhital breadth, 10-2. 10-5, 9-3; 
imvals length, 26-3. 25-1, 22-2; nasals greatest breadth, 7*3, 7*0, 6-7; palatal 
length, 370, 37-0, 33-4; anteiior palatal foramina, length, 11-6, 11 9. 11-8; 
(Mill breadth, 4-2, 3 4. 4-0; bulla length, 9-1, 8-8, 89; Ms 1 '\ 1M> 113, 11 -6. 


The disarticulated skeleton of the Garden Point specimen gives the fol- 
lowing data. Vertebrae; cervical 7; thoracic 13; lumbar 7- sacral 2; caudal 35, 
Possibly the element here reckoned as the first caudal woold be fused to the 
I roe saerais in later life, but there would not be four sacrals as is frequent iu 
ruttm. The mesosteruum has 5 segments. Scapula, max, length, 36*5; ditto, 
max. breadth, 17-5; clavicle, length, 18-3; humerus, length, 43-0; ditto, distal 
breadth, 10-5; radius, length, 38-7; ditto, max. distal breadth, 4-9: ulna, length, 
47-8; ulna, max- breadth (coronoid), 5-5; femur,, length, 56-5; ditto, distal (inter 
condylar), breadth, 11-6; tibia, length, 65 - 4 ; ditto, proximal breadth (medial 
aspect), 11 0; maximum, combined tibio-fibular breadth, 12-5; fibula, greatest 
proximal breadth, 7-£; ih'o-ischial length of 1 pelvic ramus, 59*4; ilium breadth 
ditto, 11-0; ischial breadth, ditto, 18-5. 


Two subspecies have been distinguished from the primary form of Arnhcm 
Land, by reference to differences in such characters as general pelage colour, 
markings of the maims and pes, pes length, extent of white on the tail, and 
the relative development of the zygomatic plate in the skull, etc. Although 
the species is represented by considerable series in more than one European 
Museum, no detailed analysis of characters has so far been attempted, and until 
this is done and the normal range of variation in a homopatric group is deter- 
mined, the real stains of the described forms must remain to some extent un- 
certain The material here reviewed is not sufficient to explore this field 
adequately, but the following comments may contribute to a partial clarification. 

1. Xtescnibriomyx Irir.snhis li'trsutm Could, 1842. 

Three specimens only have been available and none is accurately localized: 
there is conrribiitory evidence, however, that all three are almost certainly from 
Amhem Land or die Daly River drainage of the Northern Territory. 

iu:-h;\aminatjon ok mesembukwys irtjtsCTtra goltd iw 

Published dimensions might be taken to indicate thai this farm is larger 
than M.h. mclcillcnsix and with a relatively longer tail, but tin's may be due in 
part at least to the lack of aged males of the latter for eomparisun. The data 
available, however, is too heterogeneous and scanty to permit of reliable dedue- 
llQKIS on this head at present. 

The body form and limbs in the- three examined here are somewhat stouter 
than in the Melville Island examples, the mauus in particular being thick and 
heavy and with shorter claws and mterdigital pads and there is a tendency h>r 
higher counts in the digital ridges, one suhadult carrying 11 on D3 of the 
manus and 14 on D4 of the pes. The two complete tails are relatively loneor 
than in the other examples - 136 to 150 pc. of the head and body length US 
compared with a range of 108-125 p.c. in similarly immature nwlvilknsis, but 
previously published figures do uot indicate any significant difference in the. tuil 
hn0b of adults. 

Tlie pelage in all three is less harsh and more profuse (ban in the island 
lorin and the general colour much paler especially on the outer aspect of the 
limbs, The ventral fur is creamy white to base withoul trace of darker tickinc; 
Tlit* dorsum of the pes (PI. 3„ Fig. D) is strikingly variegated with blotches 
of cream and black in all three specimens and this is apparently almost invari- 
ably the case as (here seeins tc> be no siwxific record to the contrary in the litera- 
ture of the 5G-odd examples which have been noted. Gould's plate, however 
(18.57), which is presumably diawn from the second specimen from Port 
Easington (since the type skin lacked feet) appears to have the dorstun of the 
feet all black. The dorsum of the manus also carries marking* though less 
conspicuous and generally confined to a cream or buff area along the outer 
margin of the metacarpus and some white fringing bristles at the apical pads 
<if the digits. 

2. Mcsemhriomyx fiirsutus nwtrtlJett.w llayman, 1936. 

This appears to me to be a well-round arid even strongly differentiated 
insular racv. Its disthictinns lie chiefly in pelage characters, and llayman 
based his excellent description on four examples, three of which were living 
at tin: time in the Zoological Gardens, London; the five additional specimens 
I rum Melville Island here examined are in good accord with his findings and 
\v< II contrasted with both the abnve primary forrn from the Northern Territory 
mainland and that of Cape Ynrk Peninsula. It is a somewhat slimmer animal 
than M,h, himttus and with a rather harsher coat and a distinctly atrale colour 
scheme, which affects the head and external, aspect of the limbs differentially 
so that they are thrown Into contrast with the lighter sides and forebaek. The 
ears are more densely furred externally und are uniformly jet black, as are also 
the dorsal surfaces of manus and pes, the characteristic markings of the animal 
from the adjacent mainland being cpiite suppressed. The ventral surface is 
quite different in appearance from that of the latter, bcin* dark grey at the 
base and huffy grey externally and with a distinct admixture ni all black hufrs 
so that the genera] cnlour is a rather dark grizzled drab like the sides and 
totally different from the all-cream veutrum of the primary race, 

Dimensions ^iven by llayman for the type, which is a male at about the 
same developmental statue as Nci. 4 of the table (.supm), agree as to head and 
body and talk but his pes length is lower (63 e.f. 71); Tate's remeasuremenl of 
the type, however correcls this to 68. The local material gives widely different 
values for pes length in the adult 4 and 9 (71 e.f. 62). which is not fore- 
shadowed in tlie other I wo groups, and is probably an individual rather than a 
sexual peculiarity. Tlie car' measurement of 14 for the type is higher than in 

|fty )|. H. FINLAYSON 

any Rf the four taken here from the tragal notch (44 ei. 38 max.), hut tlif* 
method of measurement may be different. 

Comparison of the dimension* of the three skulls here examined with those 
already published, suggests that there* are tew, if any, valid differences between 
die Melville Island and Arnhem Land fonas. Considerably higher values have 
been recorded for tire latter, but tin's is very likely due to age differences as no 
aged niclvillcnm skull has yet been examined. It is possible that the molar 
lows iuav bcshortei in the latter (1M-11-I c,f. 11-3-12) and individual molars 
a little narrower. 'lute's claim of a difference in the bulla does not stand. In 
non-metrical points, Hayman's opinion that there is a difference in the slope 
of the free margin of the zygomatic plate, seems to be confirmed and it should 
also be mentioned that the arching of die profile is mm-ii steeper in the Garden 
Point skull than in the two Arnhem Land examples. In both these latter also. 
the parieto-squamosal suture shows an abrupt angle of re-entrance into the 
squamosal near the posterior root of the zygoma, which is much less developed 
in die island example. Several other minor differences are noted (Kupra), but 
it is unlikely dtat dicsc have a geographical baxix. 

I am at a loss to understand Tate's statement that "the type differs little 
from other races"— the general level of distinction of melvillcnm' from hirsutus 
is distinctly higher than that generally accepted as justifying a trinomial in 
Muridae and appears to be maintained with satisfactory constancy in the nine 
specimens now examined. Moreover, the faclor of complete geographical 
isolation and the considerable differential gradient attained across so small a 
water gap as Clarence Strait, arc. as llayinan suggested, additional reasons for 
accepting it as a valid form. 

The status of the Balhurst Island representative, separated by the still 
narrower Apsley Strait, remains to be determined. 

3. Mcsembriomijs hivmtui rattoides Thomas, 1U24. 

Thomas founded this name on three specimens from Cape York Peninsula 
tif Queensland, which were more or less intermediate between M.h. hirxitttis 
ami M.h. mchlUonls in ventral pelade, being gn# at base and greyish white 
rather than cream externalh. lie flttfl considered that the foot was longer in 
(Queensland than in Arnhem Land. Tate (1951) on re-examiniutf the Ivpe. 
described the ventral fur as light grey basally and yellowish externally, which 
considerably reduces the distinction in this feature. He alao found marked 
differences ill pelage due to moult phase in additional specimens taken at the 
Paseoe Fiver and Port .Stewart in 1948, but confirmed the longer jwqj.. it is 
en be noted in the latter connection, however, that the 1 range in M.h. ntehittenfiis 
reaches the maximum for rattoults (71 mm.). Hayman (193(5) states that both 
all black and variegated feet occur in the three raUoideH in the British Museum, 
hnt Tale does not discuss this feature in his four additional examples. lbs 
skull measurements suggest that the anterioi' palatal foramina average longer 
in rttttoktes than in hirsutits. 

A single specimen, an adult 9 In alcohol, collected by W. P. Dodd in 19M 
on the Stewart River of the Pacific Coast or Cape York Peninsula, Queensland, 
has been examined for external and pelage characters only. The general eulora- 
lion is nearer MM, hirsutux than M.h. melviUenm, though die venlral pelade 
is intermediate and possibly somewhat nearer the hitter. The cars in this 
specimen arc nearly nude, the dorsum of manns and pes quite black, and the 
font length low (64 mm.). No skull of miloideH has been examined here and 
there is no comment by Tate on his new material apart from dimensions; these 
mfijdil indicate that it lias the largest skull of the tnree forms. 


With this degree of overlapping it is impossible at present to assess the 
standing of mU.oi(les\ though clearly it is much less distinct from typical hirxnius 
than from melvillemis, There is a prol nihility that in recent times at least the 
Arnhein Land and Queensland populations have been isolated; the characteristic 
northern Eucalyptus savannah woodland, which seems to be the chief habitat of 
the mainland forms is interrupted by a /one of treeless Mitchell grass downs 
towards the southern shore of the Gulf of Carpentaria. 


It is remarkable that the .arboreal adaptations' of Mesemhrionajs, partknWIv 
in the pes, have Found icunt mention in the definition of the genus, bnt have 
been ousted and overlain by traditional and tjuite erroneous views of its ter- 
resln'jtl saltatory or Jerboa-like modifications. 

On emergence Irom the ecn'ly omnibus "genus" iV/u.v, the two species of 
Mf^tmbriomys were lumped with many others which are now considered vci'y 
diverse, in the almost equally omnibus hot purely Australian genus. Rapohtis 
of Liechtenstein, in which enlarged hind limbs, modified feet, lengthened ears 
.•iid long aud tufted tail were considered to indicate adaptive unuJugy to I he 
Jerhoas of the Old World. Analysis of this complex of species, chiefly by Old- 
field Thomas, had by 1909 split Lichtenstems JlapaloHs into the Lwo groups of 
currently accepted genera, Zyzainys, r,/vmm/s\ Conih.tti.tfi xensn stricin. and 
Mcscmljriamff* on the one hand and f^poriUus and Notowtjs on the other. Tho 
saltatory clement in the original complex is now seen to be isolated in Notomus 
alone, hut recognition of this fact, was long delayed and as late as 191-1 the 
species of Mescinbrlorny-'i are still described in Brehm's Tierleben as v; Anstra- 
lischen springratten" with "nanieutlleh aber vedangerten hinter biencn". 

The first references of Gould and Gray contained no mention of the babirs 
of the animal and Gilbert, who forwarded the type to London, if he had in Lot ma* 
t/ou on this head, evidently did not transmit it. in 1871 Gerrard KrefTt in 
Sydney, who appears to have had very sound views on the field relations of 
many Australian mammals, published a list: of Australian rats with a broad 
classification into hour categories, based on what was known locally of their 
habits. In this scheme he divided llapaloti.'i into two sections, "The Tree Rats 
representing the Scjnirrels in Australia" and the "Jerboa Eats". His allocation of 
some of tire species to the first group would not meet with acceptance now. but 
Mcsembrknvys hirvninx was correctly placed their as "The Great Ha|>aInt)S oi 
Tree Rat of North Australia". Krefft, I believe, never worked personally in the 
habitats of the species, but evidently had access to information on it, derived 
from Strange or Macgillivray or other early collectors in the North. In LSW7. 
Knut Dahl published an excellent first-hand account of both species of Nesem* 
hritntMjs- in which the tree haunting habits ol hirsufus and its ability as u climber 
were well documented tor the first lime. These two contributions on the natural 
history of the animal, as noted above, made no impact on the classifications 
which were worked out in 1 .ondon, which followed severely theoretical IhieSj 
and it wa.s not till 1931 that the arboreal character of the genus was plainly 
stated by Tate. 

The significance of the moderately enlarged hind limb (in controdistinctinn 
to elongation and narrowing of the £>es) which is found more or less developed 
in must erf the six genera named above, is evidently rail adaptive in the narrow 
and immediate sense, since it occurs alike in arboreal, cursorial, truly saltatory 
and rock-haunting foims of Australian niurids and tn monodclphia. in groups 
as different in habits as Lcporidac and Sciundae. Gray earlv recognised this 
peculiarity of the larger members of "Hapalatis" and coined the not altogether 


inappropriate name of "Babbit Ratx" tut them, though it has been suggested 
that the ear form also had its influence in this. Jo the evolution of the generic* 
concept of Mesembriomys it play* a diminishing part and the above statement 
10 Btehm's Tierleben may be contrasted with that o[ Thomas in 1909, Turin 
normal" — or of Longman, 1916 — 'legs not markedly unequal 4 ', justification 
for the latter may be obtaiued by expressing the length of the humerus plus 
nhia-radius as a percentage of that of femur plus tibia, thus obtaining an apprnvi- 
matc intcnnembral index which gives, an estimate of the relative "development 
of the fore and hind limb, sans manus and pes. In Mescmbrionujs Idrsuhis this 
is 75, LeporUtiis jonesi 73, Ilattus lutreola 78, B, ratlus alexaudrinus 79, 
Oryctolagus euniculus 11, and fj'pus evropaeus S3. 

The pes was thought by Thomas (1900) to be Jong and narrow; a mistake 
corrected by Ellerman in 1941 and again by Tale in 1951. Its Irngdi in rela- 
tion to that of liead and body (max. 25 p.c.) is certainly Jrfgh wheti computed 
With most Australian llatttts species, but is closely approached in this by several 
non-saltatory forms such as Gtjomys apodemoides 25 p.c, LetmriUus eonditu! 
and apicatia 24 p.c, and Laomys pedunetdalus and Rotius greyi 22 p.c., and 
talis much below its value in saltatory Notomys, which in Ihe five species 
mcusiired ranges from 32-35 p.c. The hallmark of the saltatory pes, moreover, 
is in the low breadth/length ratio, which in the above Notomys spa. has the 
range 11-12 (11 ) p.c. as against the remarkably high value of 24-30 (2fj) p.c- in 
Mesembriomys himttus vars. Metrical support of terrestrial saltatory speciali- 
zation is therefore lacking. Tate claimed as "scansoiial" modifications, chiefly 
the width of the metatarsal segment of the foot and the large size and strong 
eucvature of the claws. In view of what is now well established as to the habits 
and habitats of the animal, ihis wide term may wive place to one of narrower 
connotation, and most of the features of the pes listed below may be regarded ai 
evidence of arboreal adaptation, analogous to those found in other groups of trec- 
vlhnbers, and including verv likely, the modified type of arhoreal "snication~ 
from branch to branchy frequent iu such forms. 

J. The relatively great length of the hallux and of D5 and their more anterior 
position on the pes. The former of these two conditions was recognised by Eller- 
man and the latter is also valid. Whether these features are to be regarded as 
specializations de novo, or rather as a retention of primitive conditions may be 
debated, hut they certainly run counter to the trend in most Australian terrestrial 
genera, which (especially in snbdesert areas) show a progressive reduction in thr 
size of the lateral digits with a markedly posterior position on the pes, culminat- 
ing in the extreme condition of Notomys, whieh (s inescapably specialised. 

The disposition of Ds, 1 and 5 on the £>cs of M. hirsutus is similar to that 
tin some arboreal species of the Austro-Paeifie genera Cyromys and Vnicom\js\ 
but whether it is accompanied in life by an increase \u the range of lateral 
movements of these digits, there is no evidence to show. 

2. Ht^h Vtdue of the breadth /length ratio of fhc foot. This trend in h 
^CJKral way is parallel to the above, the neatest analogues amongst Australian 
forms being species of Melomys nnc\ Uromys. with Notomys again providing 
the opposite extreme. Laomys pedunetdalus and some Ratlus sp[j. ('e.g. 
lutteola)^ which are not usually suspected of arboreal habits, offer partial excep- 
tions and have very high IJ/L values, Laomys, however, may be sean.snnal in 
the sense of ruck climbing. 

3. Increased size, strength and curvature of the nam of the digits. This is 
a strongly marked feature shown also in the manus, and equalled by few, if 
any, Australian .species. 


4. Increase in the number, area, and effectiveness oj the plantar structures 
involved in jrkiional con/act. This is the roost obvious, if not the most signi- 
ficant, modification of the member. It is shown in the rubber-like consistence 
and pimetutiori or the general plantar surface; in the prominence and multi- 
plication of I he digital ridges and their striation: in the height and sharp sculp- 
turing of the interdigital pads; and particularly in the enormous development 
of the metatarsal pads, which (especially in the outer of the two) is probably 
unique in Australian muridae and recalls the condition of some of the arboreal 

The tail, as mentioned (supra), gives no evidence of prehensile powers, 
but it may be recalled that the long lenumally tufted tail in general is by no 
means exclusive to terrestrial saltators like the Jerboas, but is strongly developed 
in such typical arboreal animals as the Tree Shrews (Titpaia) and Tarsius. 

In some particulars the modifications listed above may fall short of what 
is found in some Austro-Pacific muridae and are certainly much inferior to 
those of the perfected arboreal forms of the Oriental region, such as Haeromifs 
and Oriromysciis. Nevertheless, they probably entitle Mesembriomifs hirsutus 
(in spite of the Jerboa myth) to rank at least equally with the tree-living species 
of Uromys and Melomys. as an Australian arboreal product. 


CotXE-rr, R., 1S97. Proc. Zool. Soc. London (1897). p. 322. 

Dahl, K.> 1897. The Zoologist, No. «7I, pp. 195-196. 

EixKttNtAN, J. B., 194 L "l'Yiinilitfs and Genera of Living Undents", London. 2, pp. 38-64. 

Cray, J. lv. 1841 (in Grey. G.). '^fnuniiil of Two Expeditions of Discovery in North-wy&t 
and Western Australia , London, pp. 404-413. 

Gray, J. E., 1843. "List: of Specimens of Mammals in the British Museum", London, p. 11(>. 

Gouu>, J., 1842. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, X, p. 12. 

Gould, ].[ 1851. Ihid., XIX, p. 127. 

Gouuj, )., 1857. "Mammals of Australia", tfl. PL 4 and Text. 

IIayman, H. W., 193G. Arm. Mag. N*fc Hist! 10, XVTI, p. {jfift 

Heck. L., 1914. In Brehm's Tierleben, 2, p. 380. 

[kehale, T., and Tkouuhtox, E. ljl C., 1934. "Checklist of Mammals Recorded from Aus- 
tralia", Sydney, p. 81. 

Johnson, D. H., 1952. Jour. Marnra., 33, 1, p. 70. 

Khkfkt, G., 1871. "Mammals of Australia", text and plate on rats ( unnumbered). 

Lova^rAK, TL A., 1916. "Notes on the Classification of Common Rodents". Melbourne, 
pp, i() r lu', G^s. 5 aJicl G. 

Ocilby. J.. 181)2, ''Catalogue of Australian MammaL", Svdnev. p. 117. 

Tate, G. H. H„ 1051. But!. Am. Mns, Xat. Hist., 97, 4^ p. 208. 

Tate, G. H. R, 1952. Ihid., 98, 7, pp. 572-573. 

Thomas, C r 1904. Nov it, Zoo]., XT, p. 222. 

Thomas, O., 19(6. Ann. Ma>£. N'aL Hist. r 7. XVII. p. 84. 

Thomas, O., 1909. Ibid., S, III, p. 372. 

Ttiomas, O., 1924. Ibid., 9 ; XVII, p. 296\ 

TuuvoHiON, E. ck G„ 1935. Rec. Anst. Museum, XTX, 4 t i>p, 259-262, plate XIX. 



Fig. A. Dorsal aspect of the: skull of a ytiuu^ adult * of Meserrdmomys hinvtus mvlvillcnsis 

fxuiu Garden Point, Melville Island, Xortheru Territory of Australia (xld). 
Fig. B. Lateral aspect 1 of the same (xl-l). 

1 The ltnvcr profile of the bulla figured is modified by a malformation; normallv it is 
less flattened than as shown. 


Fig. C, Palatal aspect of the same (xl-1), 

Fig. D. Buccal aspect of the mandible of a young adult $ of Mesemhriomys hirsutus 
hirsutus from the mainland of the Northern Territory of Australia (xl-3). 

Fig. E. Ditto, in an adult $ of Rattus norvegicus Erxl. for comparison with Fig. D (x 1-6). 

Fig. F. Occlusal aspect of slightly worn right upper molars of the above example of Mesem- 
hriomys hirsutus meivillensis (x5*0). 

Fig. G. Ditto, in the above example of Mesemhriomys hirsutus hirsutus showing the full 

complement of 9 lingual cusps and T3 on M2 (x5-0). 
Fig. H. Ditto, in an adult ^ of Apodemus solvations Linn, for comparison with Fig. G 


The above example of Mesemhriomys hirsutus meivillensis in captivity in Adelaide (x 0-30 ca,). 

Fig. A. Ditto (x0-27ea.)- 

Fig. B. Plantar aspect of right pes of the same (x l-0ca. ). 
Fig. C. Palmar aspect of right manns of same (xl-9ca.). 

Fig. D. Dorsal aspect of right pes of the above example of Mesemhriomys hirsutus hirsutus 


Plate 1 




Platk 2 


Plate 3 




The larva of the genus Caeculisoma Berlese, 1888, is defined from the rearing of a larval species 
C danviniense n. sp. to the nymphal stage. Larvae were captured parasitic upon the locust Goniaea 
sp. aff. hyalina Sjostedt at Coomalie Creek, Northern Territory. The larva* pupa I and nymph are 
described, and figures given. The nymph is compared with previously known adults or nymphs. 
Mites answering to Caeculisoma clavigerum CanestrinL 1897, are recorded from the 
Aitape-Wewak region of New Guinea; this is the first occasion on which this species has been 
possibly identified since the original record. Caeculisoma argus ssp. io n. ssp. is recorded from 
South Australia. The biology and distribution of Caeculisoma is discussed. It is pointed out that the 
wide geographical distribution of the genus is at least partly explicable on the grounds of dispersion 
of larvae parasitic upon locusts and grasshoppers. A comparison is made between the annual cycles 
of life histories of various Australian Erythraeoidea. It is shown that two broad classes are 
distinguishable in temperate Australia, these being the long-duration-egg class ( I ) and the short- 
duration-egg class (11). In class I the animal passes about 2/3 of the annual cycle as the egg 
(including deutovum), and the other instars are fairly short. The larva hatches from spring to early 
summer, the animal passing through successive instars to the adult stage by the summer, with 
oviposition in general from mid- to late summer. In class 11 the animal passes about 1/3 of the 
annual cycle in the egg, and the successive instars are comparatively long. Oviposition is in early 
summer, and the larvae occur over the autumn (March-May). Some variation occurs to the above 
general patterns, which are tabulated and commented upon. 


by R. V, Southcott 

[Read 13 October 1960] 


The larva of the genus Caecniiitoma Rt-rlese, 1388, is defined from the 
rearing of it larval species C. dfirw-iitiewc n, sp. to the lrymphal stage. Larvae 
were- captured parasitic upon the locust Ctmiaea sp. aft. hijalinn Sjostcdt at 
Coomalie Creek, Northern Territory. The larva, pupa T ami nymph are de- 
scribed, and figures given. The nymph is compared with previously known 
adults or nymphs. 

Mites answering to Caeculhomu tiavigerum Gancstrfni, 1807, are recorded 
from the Aitape-Wewak region el New Guinea: tin's is the first occasion on 
which this .specie* has been possibly identified sinue the uiuiinal record, Caccu- 
lisonui argus ssp. fa ti. ssp. is recorded from South Australia. 

The biology and distribution of Caevulisnma is diseu.ssfd. It is pointed 
out that the wide geographical distribution of the genus is at least partly rv- 

f>lioable on the grounds of dispersion of larv T ae parasitic upon locust and grass- 

A comparison is made between the aunual cycles of life histories of various 
Australian Erythraroirlea. It is shown that two broad classes are distinguishable 
in tenuperato Australia, these being lite kmg-diiratirm-cgg class (I) and the 
short-duration-ctfK class (II). In class I the animal passes about 2/3 of the 
annual cycle as the egg (including deutovum), and the other instars are fairly 
short- The larva hatches from spring to early summer, the animal passing 
through successive instars to the adult statue hy the Miuuuef, with oviposition in 
general Iruin mid- to late summer, hi class It the animal passes about 1/3 of 
pie annual cycle in the egg, and the successive instars are comparatively long. 
Oviposition is in early summer, and the larvae occur over the autumn { March - 
May). Some variation occurs to the above general patterns, which are tahulated 
and commented upon, 


The writer has recently defined the characters of the larva of the genus 
CarcuUscmui Berlcsc, 1888, in bis monograph on the genera of the Erythraeoidea 
(1961). That definition was based upon the rearing of an undeseribed larval 
Erythraeoid mite to the nyrnphal stage in 1943, specimens of the. mite having 
been taken parasitic upon a species of locust at Coomalie Creek, Northern 
Territory. From that definition it was apparent that no previous larvae of 
Caeculisama had been described. 

In the present paper the species concerned is described as C. dnnoiniense 
n. sp. from the larva, pupa I and nymph. The species is compared, in the 
nyrnphal sta^c. with previously described adults (or possibly nymphs) of 
Caecutisoma. Some reference will be made to other species of the genus, both 
from the systematic and distribution aspects. 

A comparison wall be made between the annual life cycles of various 
Erythraeoidea, and the present knowledge of the durations of the various stages, 
and some general conclusions drawn. 

Trans. Roy. Soc. S. Aust. (1961), Vol. 84. 



Caeculisoma darwiniense n, sp. 

Figs. 1-4 

Description of Larva (Figs. L 2) (from the holotypc ACA1062B; also 
supplemented where indicated from the paratype specimen ACA1062A): Colour 
in life, red, Length of idiosoma (unengorged), 29G>, width, 220>; animal, 4l5 f i 
long to tip of eheliccral blades. Jdiosoma the usual venrrally flattened elongate 

Dorsal scutum as figured, oval with anterior margin flattened, slightly con- 
cave; anterolateral angles rounded; posteriorly produced into two flattened 
projections in relation to the posterior sensillae", with a shallow notch between 
them. Shield laterally convex; slightly concave posterolateral^ at the level 
of the PScns. 

The Standard data iu micra of the type and paratype are as follow: 










A M* 







S3 -5 
















* Pittance between centres of AL and 1VTL .scutalae: equivalent to A— T\ but using the second 
row of scutalae instead of the posterior pair. 

Scutalae of medium size, lightly curved, with fine adpressed barb-like dila- 
tions, die setae tcnninally blunted; AL and ML setae of about the same thick- 
ness, PL a little thinner. AL setae arise near the anterolateral angles of the 
shield- ML posterior and slightly lateral to AL; PL scutalae arise near the edge? 
of the shield, and as the shield narrows posteriorad the PL scutalae are slightly 
medial to ML. 

acuta! sensillae are fine, tapering pointed, very lightly ciliated (under oil 
immersion). ASens arise a little (about &*) behind the ML scutalae. PSens 
arise about 5/i anterior to posterior end of shield. 

Eyes one on each side, circular, lenses 14fx across, and situated in the 
unengorged specimen between the levels of" the PL scutalae and the PSens. 

* For the technical descriptive terms used and the definitions of the "Standard data' 
tlie writer's account ( L96J ) should be referred to. 



Fig. 1,— Caeculisayna dartviniense n. sp. Lai'va, dorsal view of holotype. The 
tracheae are also shown, and some o£ the internal structure or* the gnathosoma. Let- 
tering shows the sensalac of the legs: comp. eompanala, sin, sinuala, solgen. solcno- 
genuala, soltars, solcnotarsala. sahib, solenotibiala, spin, spinala. 

Fig. 2,—Caeculisoma n. sp. Larva, ventral view of halo type. Some of 
the internal structure of the gnathosoma is shown. Sensalae of the legs lettered as 
in Fig. 1. (In general, as in previous illustrations, an effort has been made to dis- 
tinguish in Kigs. 1 and 2 between the dorsal and ventral setae, in the limbs* as well 
as elsewhere, but where a seta, particularly a scnsala. is so placed that its seta base 
is visible from both sides, it may be shown in both the dorsal and the ventral views.) 


Dorsal idiosomalae similar to scutal scobalac, lightly curved, parallel-sided 
or slightly tapering (blunted terminally), with fine adpressed barbed dilations 
along the convex side, a few more outstanding barbs being present distally along 
the concave side; arranged 2 (ocular row), 8, 6, 6, 4, 2; total 28, The ocular 
setae are the largest of the dorsal idiosomalae; the setae nevt in size are only 
41/.! long (type) "or 44,u (paratype); the smallest dorsal setae are the 5 lateral 
setae down each side (see Fig. 1), 

Venter: between coxae I a pair of scobalae (slernalae), fairly short, pointed, 
ciliated, 30/.t. long; between coxae 11 a similar pair, but stronger and longer, 36// 
long; between coxae 111 a similar pair, 31^. long; behind coxae TIT, on the ventral 
opistbosoma, are similar setae, which gradually change in character postcriorad, 
to approximate those of the posterior pole of the idiosoma dorsallv, arranged 
4, 2 + 5 + 2, 1 + S + i; 22-30> long. 

Coxal formula 1, 2, 2, Coxala T strong, pointed, ciliated, 40/j. long. Medial 
coxala II pointed, slightly ciliated, 32// long; lateral coxala If curved, blunted, 
ciliated, 20 t w long. Medial coxala XT I similar to 1I 7 28/*. long; lateral coxala III 
curved, somewhat pointed, ciliated. 20/a long. Supracoxala present to coxa l s 
normal, peg-like, 4{x long, 

Legs normal for family: 1 520// long, II 455//, 111 535/t (all lengths including 
coxae and claws). Each trochanter with one seta (troohantcrala, a seobala), 
Tarsi tapering, with irregularities, as figured. The femur-tibia segments more 
or less cylindrical. Tarsus 1 J04/x long (excluding claws and pedicle) by 18u 
high. Tibia I 102/* long. Tarsus III 104/x long (without claws and pedicle) 
by 15/x high. Tibia III 143/t long. 

On the legs the following is the arrangement of the specialized setae: 







genu I 




genu 11 


ge?m 1 1 \ 


tibia I 


1 (nomp,*) 

tibia 11 


tibia ITT 


tarsus I 


4 ( 1 dorsal 
1 subterminal 

1 COTTip, 

1 ped.**) 

tarsus TI 



1 (pod.**) 

tarsus TTI 



1 (ped.) 

* companala, accompanying the posterior solenoid a la. 

** the spinalti alongside the pedicle. This lias been named the prtHarsala in the trorobiculid 
system of nomenclature. Unveil (1957 p. 407) finds tin's term imacropt-abto, "a misnomer". 
T'oHHibly v 1 \ here proposed, in an acceptable term; llmae swifts Sfr6 etiaraeterisUeatly jsiuuoud. 

The scobalae of the legs do not in general show a high degree of differen- 
tiation. Troehanteral formula 1, 1, 1; basifemoral 4, 4, 2: tclofcmoral 5, 5 S 5. 

Tarsal claws; anterior strong, nearly straight with strong terminal venlrally 
directed hook ? uneiliatcd; middle claw falciform, more slender; posterior claw 
strong, falciform, wilh long vcnlral eiluitious, 

Gnathosoma as figured. Chelae bases ("mandibles") form a compact 
cordate mass, with finely punctate chifcin. Chcliccral blades rounded, simple. 


hook-like, without barbs but with a concave cutting edge. Galea la ( ^iilral seta; 
curved, pointed, lightly ciliated., 20/i. long. Hypostomal lip present, delicate, 
fimbriated. Anterior lrypostornata simple, pointed, curved, 17/:< lOHg. Posterior 
hypuslomala pointed, ciliated; 46//. long. 

Palpal setal formula 0, 0, 1, L, 3, 7, i.e. no palpal cnxala or troehanterala. 
Palpal supraeoxala present, 3/x long. The claw of the palpal tibia bifid* curving 
ventromedially, the ventromedial tooth the stronger. 

Description of Pupa 1 (from ACA1060B, supplemented from ACA1060A). 
Colour red. General shape typical for the erythracoid pupa l a ovoid, flattened 
ventrully. notched anteriorly, and with various protuberances, as normal. Length 
iSflOj&t, width 1000/* (estimated from the preserved cast skin). The pupa, par- 
ticularly river the dorsal surface, is provided with a bristly coating of typical 
pupal setae, mostly projecting posteriorud. Setae 56-130^ long, slender, stiff, 
nude., swordlike, gradually tapering except in terminal part, which then tapers 
abruptly to a slightly blunted point; setae provided with the normal papillate 
basal socket. 

Description of Nymph (Figs. 3, 4) (from ACA1060A, freshly emerged, 
unfed, then dried, finally mounted in polyvinyl alcohol, and possibly slightly 
compressed from above; also supplemented from ACAI060B). Colour in life 
red Length of body to tip of mouthparts (hypostomal lip) 136Gy, width 930/a. 
External appearance normal for genus, with the usual squarish and lumpy 

Hie standard data are (in rmcra): 








cci 150* 




Hil — 16l> 

* From AOAiOGOB 

Cristal sensillae long, thin, pointed, nude. Anterior end of crista with ovoid 
boss, about 125^ long by 95/* across; anterior point of boss 8 by ahead of centres 
of ASous. Buss provided with about .18 scobalae, long, tapering, pointed, with 
slender projecting barbed ciliations, these being longest hasally; setae 160-200V 
long. Anterior sensillary area enclosed by the forking anterior arms of the 
crista, which separate ut an angle of about 6ft* Posterior sensillary area en- 
closes a transverse ovoid roughened boss. 

Eyes 1 -f L, 57/i across, placed well behind mid-cristal point (MCP. pt 
midpoint between centres of bases of ASens and PSens; distance from eve level 
to MCP 170,0. 

Dorsal idiosomulne long, tapering, curved, slender, often simious in die 
slide mount, quite ciliated (more marked basally), 80-160/* l° n K- Setae dense, 
forming a hairy covering over the body. Venter of idiosoma with similar setae. 

Legs as figured, with the normal somewhat beaded and irregular appear- 
ance of the genus- Leg I 1345/. long, IT 790//, Til 985/*, TV 1470> (all measured 
from the distal point of the co_\a to the tips of the tarsal claws). Tarsus I 215^ 
long by 89/4 high, tibia T 319//. long. Tarsus IV 153/t long by 72//. high, tibia 
IV 352jti long. Tarsi with scopuUic. Tibial tuberosities present, normal, situ- 
ated a little beyond middle of segment in tibia 1, 11, ill, but in IV about 3/5 
along length of segment. Clear areas with a punctate appearance to the chitin 
are placed dis tally and dorsally on some leg segments (such as Vitzthum (1926) 



Fig. o.—Caeculisoma duru-inieme n. sp. Nymph., entire, doisal view. 



Fig, 4,~Co«cuUsoma tlarwiniewip n. sp. Nymph- Part of propotlosomn* 
including crista and left eye, and adjacent structures. 


describes and figures for C. argus Vitzthum, 1926, and C. infernale Vitzthum, 
1926, and Cooreman (1958) figures for C, afrum Cooremun> 1958; they arc 
present also in other species of Cacxulisoma and Callidosoma examined by the 
writer). One such of these is figured dursodistally upon the trochanter I of 
the nymph in Fig. A. 9 Tarsal claws 2, normal, strong, falciform, simple. 1-^-gs 
thickly covered with setae, the scobalae similar to those on the idiosoma. 

Gnathosoma normal, as figured. Palpi as figured,, characteristic of the 
genus (see redefinition bv the writer (1961)). 

Locality. (1) The type (ACA1062B) and paratype (ACAI062A) were two 
larvae, captured ectoparasitic upon the external surface of the right hindwing of 
a locust, in hilly country about 3-4 miles south of Coomalie Creek, Northern 
Territory, 13 June, 1U43 (R, V. Sonthcott). The host has been identified as 
Coniaea sp. aff. hytdina Sjostedt, 5 i by Dr. K. Hi L. Key, Division of Ento- 
mology, C.S.J.H.O., Canberra (pers. comm. 11 Nov., 1957). 

(2) Another batch of 6 larval mites (ACA1060) was obtained from the 
same locality, 7 May, 1943, attached to himkvings of a ? specimen of Gomaeu 
.sp. atf. hyulinti (identified by K. H. L. Key, as above) (R. V. Sonthcott). All 
specimens of mites were attached by their mouthparts tu veins of the wings, 
except one specimen Avhich was recorded as "sitting astride a cell" of the wing. 
This latter specimen couldj of course;, have been dislodged from some other 
situation by the trauma of capture and handling. 

Biology. The miles were detached from their host in each case„ and tlie 
host preserved. The mites were transferred individually to clean> dry tubes. Of 
I he eight specimens two subsequently underwent ccdysis to pupa I aud nymph. 
The details of these two successful roarings are as follow: 




CHptnimtJ and removed 
B-vunio immobile 
Skin Hpht otf 
Nymph emerged 
Survived until 

7 May, Um 
10 May 
fj May 
27 May 
Ml June 

7 ,\Uv, 1U43 
7 Ma'y 
11 Muv 
22-2. r » May 
SJ.Q Juno 

No attempt to feed the nymphs thus obtained was made. During the ex- 
periment the tubes were kept as cool as possible, i.e. by being kept in the 
shade, but without any special facilities or procedures. 


( 1 ) Labvae 
The definition of the larva of Cuecitlisonw Ikrlese. 18S-S, has been given 
by the writer elsewhere (Sonthcott, 1961). That definition was based on the 
species' described above, C. darwinieme n. sp. 3 and its experimental rearing from 
larva to nymph. From a study of those larval Callidosomatinae that have pre- 
viously been described it is apparent that no larvae of Caeculisoma have been 
described hitherto. The species C. (Irtrwinunse n. sp. is based upon the larva 
as type., but as there are no other published accounts of larval Caeculiso?na its 
systematic position within the genus must depend upon the characters ot the 
nymphal stage reared (see below). The writer has seen a number of unde- 

* The tibial tuberosities have ihe same punctate cbitin and it is nivpurent that the tibial 
tuberosities are homologous structures. Probably tbey serve as chemical sense organs, and 
not us organs of ocular fuucliou, as Vjlzlhiuu Mijigt^Ltd. 

J 72 U V. 50UTHC0TT 

.\atbcd species o( laivae of Cacculisomu and other genera of the Cullkloso 
jTiatinae eetopdrasitic UflCfl Australian locusts, grasshoppers and other insects, 
v.tueh it (s hoped to describe formally later, and to make appropriate- com- 

(2) ADUJvTS am) Nymphs 

Cuoroman (H)5S) has reviewed (lie species of (Jftrcujisonut of the world, 
listing the important systematic characters of each species, Ineludine; his (>*. 
afruui Cooremaa, 1U5«S, the total of described adults (or possibly nymphs) 
amounted to 10 species. Among these 10 species the dorsal idiosomal setae are 
of diverse character, e.g. bating been recorded as expanded, clavatc, eylludn- 
cal, usparagus-tip-Iikc, etc.. hut in none does the dorsal setation resemble that 
of d darwhuense n. sp., where such .setae are of a single kind, uniform in 
character over the dorsum, bring long, flexible, pointed, tapering and ciliated. 

There fs, however, one species of the genus which has been recorded from 
Indonesia and New Guinea, Coecttliwrna .ntkutum (Cancstrfni, 1S9S) ? ° where 
som*- Tiirther comment is required. Of C. sulcatum Cooremun (1958, p. 45) 
states: "Les poils de I'idiosnma sunt dc deux types: les uns portent quelques 
ramifications laterales, les antres sont simples, lisses ot rigides. quoique pn> 
gressivemeat efEles distalcmenl; ces dernicrs sont daillcurs aussi plus longs que 
les autrcs". Originally Carie&trim hod described a species Rhyncholophm suieaius 
in 1898 and 1899.°' His description of the setae (1898; p, 481) was: "Corpo 
vestito di setole cigliate; arti pure- copcrti di setolc cigliate, fra le quali se ne 
osservano aJcime rare ussai sottih e semplici che sono piantate sulTavto ad 
anf^olo quasi ret to". The specimen came from Eriinu, Astrolabe Bay, JNcw 
Guinea. Unfortunately the remainder of the description is also brief, and 
Canestrini provided no figures. Vitzthum (1921, pp. 3o7*y) redeseribed this 
species from Krakatau Island, Snnda Islands, Indonesia, placing it in Belaitsthtm 
(sic). In 1926 (pp. 16S-9) he referred again to this species, placing it in 
Caeculisoma, and again stated (p. 169) his belief that his specimen from Kra- 
katail was identical with Canestrini's species: "Audi heute noeh glaube ieh 
an der Identitat der Art mit Canestrinis Rhyncholophns stdcotus, Derm Canes- 
trinu Besehreibung passt Wort 1'iir Wort auf sie. . . ." (apart from one point 

• Some doubt r.ltac-hes to the dates 1898 and lH&J of Cane-mini's two articles. These 
dates will be used lietti as given by the writer in his nionojnuph on the genera of the 
Kryrfuutccudea (1WG1), following Vilv.lluun ( 1024, 1926). The writer ha.x not seen the 
■ ■•tond of these two papers hy Canestrini ('US99"). Vitzthum ((024. 1926) hud, Itow- 
UyWi seen both papers, referring to the pagination of tlu- second paper from a reprint ,U 
Vihrrhnm pnrvides (KJ2I, p. @r*j a translation of Cane*trini\ description in Italian into 
Gmnmi, corresponding to Canestrini (1898) as used here, the present writer assumes that 
hh "lBW paper contains at least no further descriptive Material i elating to his Rhttnchnhphus 
xtiltuti,*. (N.B.: hi 1924 Vimhnm dated both of these papers as "LSOlS".) A minor further 
point 1$ that it is possibly surprising that Cunr.strjui did not place Hhyncholophus sukatuA 
immediately in CoccultMnna, SrWe he had earlier (1897) described a species oi' mite fnim 
New Cmnea ns Crjcwlifinma rfaviper Canestrini, 1897. Cooremau (1.958) lias amended the 
specific name to ctutri^rnttn, presumably correctly, since Canestrini was probably using changer 
;ta an adjective and not as a substantive, and lios remarked that C. rhvigrruni, which was 
unfortunately originally very briefly deserihed without figures, has not been recorded snb- 
Seguentlv. f lov\'evti', the present Writer has hi his own eollretion five specimens of GVeeu- 
(istntm from the Akape-Wewak '^rea of New Cuinoa which '.iiiswci to t'ifJM&lriaTs description. 
Locality records of thitfe are; 3 speciioens Jial)ianL;. 2i l>eremh«r. 19M (ACA1619, 1H20, 
1621). % specimens, Sunm, 15 February. 1945 (ACA1622, 1623). All *pecmicnt weo- COl- 
Ireterl In leaf-lifter and humus on the forest floor, near the coast ( R. V. binUlicott). Possibly 
rwo ^peeies ar«e present among these five specimen*, It is hoped to icier h> tin's material 
further in a later x^per. 


m lto«S description of the palp where he believed Canestrini was in error). TIus 
present writer believes that this viewpoint of Vitzthum on the identity of the 
species may be accepted. 

Vitzthum (W2A, p. 359) stated of the setation of his Krakatau specimen 
"Die- Behaarung de.s Rumpfcs die in dex Abbildtmg [of Vitzthum] weggdasson 
ist, tst sehr dicht and bestoht in feinen, weichen, rnassig kurzen, beiderseits 
sparlich geficdertcn Haaren, die den Rcfiederten Haaren dcr Bcine durehans 
gleieheu. Einen besonderen Radiationspunkt, wie in der Gattung Leptufi 
Lalrcillc. 1795 : ° zeigon dieso Jlumpfhaare uieht". As he stated, he did not 
figure the dorsal idiosomal setae, but he did figure (his Fig. 4 on p. 359) the 
le£ setae, which were mostly similar lo the dorsal idiosomal setae, but included 
also some more outstanding simple spinii'orm setae. It is apparent that Coore- 
iiian has taken these latter as being present also upon the idiosoma, which is 
in fact not stated by Canestrini or by Vit/.thum. Womurslcy (1934. p. 2411 in 
his key to the genus Cacculisoma has made a similar error. 

Neither Canestrini or Vilzthurn gave any measurements of the lengths of 
the dorsal idiosomal setae in C. sulcatum, although Vitzthum (1924) described 
them as short, On a comparative basis the presenl writer would consider the 
dorsal idiosomalae of C. dancinhmsc as long, which is a fair description of 
>rUic 80-160/./. long among the Erytluaeoidea and Trombidioidea. The ciliated 
teg setae of C. sulcatum, as described and figured by Vitzthum (1924), and 
which he states are the same as the dorsal body hairs of the same species, arc 
obviously different in character from those of the C darwmiense nymph. Those 
of C. sulcatum arc from Vitzthurn's Fig. 4 fairly short, and carry only 4-6 filia- 
tions throughout their length. In C. dafivmitmv nymph the dorsal idiosomalae 
arc long, tapering gradually, heavily ciliated, particularly basally, and the usual 
leg seobalac have the same character, 

There are also other differences which may be noted between C. dar- 
winiense and C, stdcatum (Canestrini) Vitzthum. In the two nymphs of (7. 
darwinieme available the posterior projection of the crista behind the posterior 
senstltary area appears to be comparatively .short* but unfortunately pigment 
within the specimens prevents much study at that feature. In C. sulcatum the 
posterior process is of great length, being almost as long in VitzthunYs specimen 
as the remainder of the crista (sec 1924, p. 358, including his Fig, 3). However, 
this point is not stressed here, since this feature is not necessarily comparable 
between a nymph and an adult (Vitzthum stated his specimen was -an adult). 
Another difference between these two species, undoubtedly of specific signifi- 
cance, lies in the leg structure, going on VitzthunYs Fig. 3 (1924, p. 358). This 
in (\ the legs are inure irregular in outline, and the tarsi of the 
legs comparatively shorter, at least in leg II. 

Adults or nymphs of this genus arc terrestrial predators, being found in 
humus, leaf-litter, under hark and other similar situations. The larva recorded 
in this paper was taken parasitic upon a locust, and the writer lias seen other 
Australian larval species of Cacculisoma, at present niKle^cribcd, taken octo- 
parasitie from other Australian locusts and grasshoppers. 

'AcueptaJ now as I7y0. See Southeott (10G1). 


At the present time, recorded specimens of the genus are distributed ueo- 
eiaphically us follows: 

South America - - C. tuberculatum (Berlcse- 1888), 

Marquesas Islands - C cmdipes Vitztlimn, 1935. 

Africa C. ufrum Cooreman. 1958. 

New Guinea, Sutidu Islands - C, sulcatum (CanestrmL, 1S98). 
New Ciuinei: - C. claviRcrum Canestrini, 1897. 

Sumatra - C argus Vit7thnm, 1926. 

C. infernale Vitzthum, 1926, 
Australia C. montuuuUi (Rainbow, 190(3). 

C. tumitmn Jlirst. 1928. 
C. jofmsttmi Womersley, 1934. 
C. danoinieme n. sp. 
C. argus ssp. io n. ssp.* 
This wide geographical distribution of the genus has been commented on 
by previous writers; most recently by Cooreman (1958), who has pointed out 
that all specimens recorded so far have come from the southern hemisphere*, 
between 0" and -MV S. latitude. Such a wide geographical dispersion could at 
least in part be explained on the hypothesis that they are spread, or have been, 
by larvae parasitic upon hosts winch themselves have considerable powers ol 
dispersion, e.g. by flight or other means. It would appear that locusts and 
grasshoppers coulcl fulfil such a requirement. The extent to which these larva) 
mites are host-specific requires further study. Some Eryth7'aeoid larvae have 
mi far been found only upon a restricted host range, while others have a wider 
nuitt'c. Thus Smarts (Smarididae) larvae have so far been found ouly upon 
Psoeoptera, while within one genus, e.g. Ertjiltrites (Erydiraeidae), one species 
may be restricted, thus Rrytltt'ites osmondenm- (Southeott 1946) has been 
found onlv upon Thysanoptera, while other species, such as Enjthrites regime 
(Hust, 1928) and Enjthrites urrhraa (Womerslcv, 1934) will parasitise a wide 
rauee of insects (Womersley and Southeott (1941); Southcott (1946, I960)). 


It is proposed to make some comparisons qf the durations of die stages in 
the life histories of various Evythraeoidea. Such data arc now available for a 
number of Australian species of both the families Erythracidae and Smarididae. 
Details of the durations are given in Table I. 

* Based tftfctri ft specimen from Glen Osmond. South Australia. January. 1934. (It. V. 
SYmtheoU) and recorded b> Womersley { 1934, p. 236) a6 C> <f'#»* Vitv.tlnnn. A lesiudy of specimen shows that it has eears-iderably shorter si?fot« than C. urgtw i. p. from Sumatra 
and the following new subspeoific name is proposed h>T it.* C. orgus ssp. w n. ssp. hi 
<7, nrgm io the dorsal idiosornal setae are 20-1 36|r long and the seobtdac of the anterior 
seriMUary area arc 7G-131u long, as a^ainsL the figures given by Vifc'thum of 35-1 90n for 
tin: jtliosomalan and 190u lor the sc olnilae of the, anu-rior SensdLuy area in C. argut f. v). 

My lioid notes for tlic type specimen (AOA1041) of C. avgtfs io record it as being 
collected "very early in January, rprobably 1st" January, 1934 "on surface of >yater in a 
horse land cntlfo] hvmgh (Trough A) v at Glen Oxmuml That trough was one of the three 
upon which specimens 0* Spcieofimtthu^ tnt^tralU Womei>ley, 1936, were collected by 
myself over !0.'M-1941. as noted elsewhere ( Snotheott. 1957). The map reference Cor tho 
site u[ Tiough A is #56808 Map Adelaide K(t33G0 No. S'U) Zone fl Sheet Bmuh 15'I\K IV 
*sK fit SW. Tlir tronph has now been mnoved ha several years. Over the years it was 
under study it was placed in eon tad with the ground, under tho nbaile of ajoigar jrnm. 
Kumtuplus cttufnrolyx. one of some rows thai had been planted in about )N9.tL avoiding 
to Gill (lvi05, p. b). It was found that frequently inserts, sneh its uMes, hymeuoptera, imi 
eolleiiibola, were l.»h»wn onto the water surface o» otherwise neeum-d tliere, also mites, etc. 
rresimiablv u»o%t ol (h^se earoe IVem the smrrouoding vegetation. It would appaOT probftW« 
thai die Corntli.'iutUij was blown in irom the b»liage of the Eucalyptus vlmhmhjx above, 


An inspection of Table 1 indicates that over the instars pupa I to pupa II, 
as well as the immobile stage immediately before pupa I, the durations of the 
stages or iiistars are broadly comparable over the species studied in the two 
families. These data have all been obtained with Australian Erythraeoidea in 
experiments conducted by the writer, all being in the Adelaide region of South 
Australia with the exception of Caeculisoma aanvinieme, which was conducted 
in the Darwin region of the Northern Territory, No comparable data exist for 
other Erythraeoidea elsewhere in the world, and in fact for the fauna of other 
parts of the world only fragmentary data on lifc-historv are available (see 
Southcott, 1961), 

Durations of the stages of Eiytliruooidou, in days. 

immobile stage 

Pupa I 


Pupa II 

Erythrites reginae* 

2 } 3, 2 

12, 13, 12 






Erythrites pilovm* 



Erythrites urrbme 1 * 

2,2,4.2, 12, 1-2, 12. 
1-2, 1 

13, 15, 14. 12, 13-18, 
14-15, 15-16, 16 

39, 11+, 
21+, 13 + , 

16, 15 





6, i t 0, 4, 1, 4, 6, & 5 

2& T 27 + , 58, 15. 25- 
20, 23-24, 22, 26. 27, 



4, 2 

9v 12 



15, 11-14 

Pollux sp.* 



Sman* 2>ro?tnnw-**** 

3-7, 7-9,4-5 | 27*30. 21-24. 35, 31- 

51 + 

804- ! 


* Data from tfoufchcott (1946) 

*+ Data IVom SonthooU (1901 ) 

*** Data from. Womeraley and Smithftotfc (1941 j, 

A closer inspection of Table 1 shows, however, that two main groups can 
be separated, thus; 
Class 1, the "fast group". These have a prepupal immobile stage of in general 

1-3 days, a pupa I stage of the order of 9-16 days. The group includes 

species listed belonging to the genera ErtjthrUcs, Erythwides, CalUdosama, 

Caecirfisoma and Pollux. 
Class II, the "slow group", have a prepupal stage of the order of 4-6 days (the 

range extending occasionally over 3-9 days) and u long pupa I stage last- 



ing on an average about 30 days, and xauging over 18-58 days. This group 
so far includes only Rainhowia invperator (Hirst, 1928) (family Ery- 
thraeidae) and Smaris prominens (Banks, 1916) (family Smarididae). 
Wc may then ask whether these two classes correspond to other biological 
features in the Erythraeoid mites. Table 2 shows a table of the seasonal inci- 
dences of the various instars of mites of the Erythraeoidea where there is suffi- 
cient knowledge available to list the seasonal incidences of these instars. This 
last condition restricts the table to species occurring in temperate Australia, in 
fact, most of it is derived from observations made by the writer on the fauna 
in the Adelaide region of South Australia (using the same sources as given in 
the footnote to Tabic 1, and in addition Sonthcott (I960)). 




t^Mi sen- 





Fig. 5.— Diagram to illustrate the two broad classes of life lu'story in the Erythraeoidea. 
The numbers represent the months of the year, by their ordinal number. For class 11 
the diagram is interpretative, for pupa IT, as precise data are not available for that, instar. 

As will be observed from the data in Table 2, the larvae have in each case 
a limited seasonal distribution. Inspection of the seasonal distributions of the 
larvae shows that they arc classifiable into two groups: those occiu*ring over 
September to February (exceptionally into March), i.e. spring-summar larvae 
(genera Erylhroldes, Eiyihrites, Callidosoma. Pollux), on the one hand, and 
on the other those with larvae occurring in March to June (Smarts, Sphacro- 
tarsus, RmnboiCia). 

Thus it is found that attain we have segregated the same genera as by our 
previous classification of the durations of the instars and stages. The follow- 
ing two classes may therefore be proposed: 

Class I: the long-duration-egg group, with spring larvae aud summer adults, the 
non-egg developmental stages being passed through quickly. About 2/3 
of the annual cycle is passed in the egg. Examples Ertjthritcs,, 
Callidoaoma, Caecidisomu, Pollux, Minosmaris (all family Krythraeidae). 
Class II: the short-duration-egg group, with autumn larvae and spring adults, 
the non-egg developmental stages being passed through more slowly. About 
1/3 of the annual cycle is passed in the egg. Examples Rainhoivia (family 
Erythraeidae), Smarts, Sphaerotarsus (family Smarididae). 
















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its k. v. southoott 

Although there are variations from the basic classification proposed, e.g. in 
ihe fact lhat adults of Smarts prominens may be found throughout the year, or 
that Erythrites pilosus adults appear over January to August and the egg.s over 
May-December, it is apparent that there is a broad separation into the two 
classes proposed. An attempt to show these two broad groups in a generalized 
way is made in Fig. 5, where the months of the year are represented by their 
ordinal numbers as in a conventional 15-hour elnclcface, thus January by 1, 
February by 2, and so on. For tiie southern hemisphere, therefore, summer will 
be represented at die top of the circle and winter at the bottom- Autumn will 
be at about 3 o'clock and spring at about 9 o'clock. In the northern hemisphere 
the reverse would be the case by the same cloekface convention. 

In Table 2 the details of Caacullsoma clarwiniense were not shown, since 
the species has so far been recorded only from northern Australia, and only 
limited collecting could be done there over May-June, and no information is 
avadable as to trie possible seasonal occurrence of the sr^ecies in other months; 
furthermore, the seasonal temperature differences over the year are different 
from those of southern Australia, there being no cold season. 


Canks-irimt, G., 1897. Nuovi Aearoidei delia N. Guinea, Tcnnes. Fuzctok, 20, pp. 461-474. 
Canesthimt, G. (?1898). Nuovi Aearoidei della N. Guinea (Terza scric), Tonnes Fiizetek 

21, pp. 480-487. 
Canestjuni, G. (?1S99). Acan' delln NuOvfl Guinea. Atli Soe. Veneto-lrent, Sci. nat. (2) 3 

(2), ca p. 397 (not seen). 
Coohemav, Ji, 1958. Aearions clu Congo Beige (2* scrie), Note sur le genre CaocxdUoma 

Berlese, 1888 (Acari, Krythraeidae) et description cl'iine espeee iionvelle du Cotlgfj 

Beige, Rev. Zool. But. Air., 58 (1-2), pp. 43-53. 
Gill, T., 1005. History and Topography of Glen Osmond. Pp, \i and 1-161. Adelaide, 

Vardon and Pritchard, Printers, Grrshnm Street, 
Newell. 1. M., 1057. Studies on the Johnstonianidae (Acari. Parasitengona). Pacific 

Science, 11 (4), pp. 396-466. 
Sournc.oTT. R. V.. 1946. Studies on Australian Ervthraeidue (Acarinn). Proe. Linn. Soe. 

N.S. Wales, 71 (1-2), pp. 6-48. 
Soutticott, R. V., 1957. Description of a New Australian Kaphignathoid Mite, with Re- 
marks on the Classification of the Trombidiformes, Proc. Linn. Soe. N.S. Wales, 81 

(3), pp. 306-312. 
Southxott, R. V., I960. Notes on the Genus ^>haerotursas (Acarino; S'marididae ) . Trans, 

Roy. Soe. S. Aust., B3, pp. 149-161. 
Southcott. R, V., 1961. Studies on the Sysrcmnties and Bioldgy of the Erythraeoidea 

(Acarina), with a Critical Revision of the Genera and Subfamilies. Aust. J. Zool. 

(in press). 
VirzniuM, H. G., 1924- Die heutigc Aeiirofaunu der Krakatau-lnseln. Trcuhia. 5 : pp. 353-370. 
VrxzTUUM, H. G., 1926. Malayische- Acari. Treubia, S, pp. 1-198. 
Wqmkiisley,. H., 1934. A Revision of the Troinbid (sic) and Erythractd Mites of Australia 

with Descriptions of New Genera and Species. Roc. S, Aust. \lus-, 5 (2), pp. 179-254. 
Womkrslev, H., and Southcott, R. V. % 1941. Notes on the Smarididae ( Ion ) nl 

Australia and New Zealand, Iran*. Hoy. Soe. S. Aust, 65 (1), pp. 61-78. 

* Principal references only arc given here. A full bibliography of the genus Caecutixoma 
is tiivon by Cuoreman (1958) ;»nd Southcott (19(51), the latter containing u full bibliography 
ot the Erythraeoidea. 


YEAR 1959-60 


THE YEAR 1959-60 

Oct., 1959. Mr. V. J. Bosciier; "Missile Testing at Woomera". 

Nov., 1959. Mr. T. R. N. Lothian: "Plant Collecting in Central Australia". 
This was delivered as a Presidential Address. 

Apr., 1960. Prof. J. H. Bennett: "The Role of Heredity in Human Disease". 

May, 1960. Mr. R. C. Sprigg: "Oil Search in Australia", 

June, 1960 Dr. T. D. Campbell, Dr. P. Miles, Dr. R. Speciit and Mr. L M. 
Thomas: "A Symposium on the University of Adelaide's Expedition 
to Pearson Island". 

July, 1960. Mr. B. C Newland: "From Game Laws to Fauna Protection in 
South Australia. Evolution of an Attitude", 

Aug., 1960. Mr. E. J. Symons: "Production of Uranium Oxide at Port Pirie". 

Sept., I960. Mr. G. B. Siiarman: "Reproduction in Marsupials". 





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590 1 

£3,282 1 

Audited and found correct, 

F. 51- ANGEL I Hon 

N. S, ANGEL, A.U.A. Com. J Auditors. 
Adelaide, 6th October, 1960. 

Hon. Treasurer. 

Receipts and Payments for Year ended 30th September, 1960. 

To Balance, 1/10/59 
„ Walter Howchin Bequest- 
Received from 
Public Trustee— 

Stock ., £810 

Gas Co. Bonds 200 
S.A. Inscribed 

Stock _ T . 150 
Cash— Since In- 
vested in In- 
scribed Stock 2,400 

Balance Interest 

Investment Interest- 
Inscribed Slock ... 
Gas Co. 

1 14 9 

251 17 7 
6 7 6 




3,561 14 9 

— 258 5 1 

£9,929 19 10 

£ k 

By Revenue A/e Transfer 

259 ll 




Stock ... .. 9,220 

S.A. Inscribed 

Stock 150 

S.A. Gas Co, 

Bonds _ ,., 300 

9,670 < 

£9,929 K 

Audited and found correct. The Stock has been verified by certificates and the Gas Co. Bonds 1 
been inspected in the hands of the Treasurer. 

F. M. ANGEL \ Hon. 

N. S. ANGEL, A.U.A. Com. /'Auditors, 

Adelaide, 6th October, 1960. 

Hon. Treasurer. 




1929 Prof. Walter Howcklnt, F.G.S. 

1930 John McC. Black, A.L.S. 

1931 Prof. Sir Douglas Mawson, O.B.E., D.Sc., B.E., F.K.S, 
1933 Prof. J. Burtok Cleland. M.D, 

1935 Prof. T. Harvey Johnston, MA., D.Sc. 

1938 Prof. J. A, Prf-scott, D.Sc, F.A.C.I. 

1943 Herdert Womersley, A.L.S., F.R,E.S, 

1944 Prof. J. G. Wood, D.Sc, Ph.D. 

1945 Cecil T. Madigan, M.A., B.E.. D,Sc„ F.G.S. 

1946 Herbert M. Hale, O.B.E. 

1955 L. Kfith Ward, I.S.O., B.A., B.E-, D.Sc 

1956 N. B. Tindale, B.Sc 

1957 C. S. Piper, D.Sc. 

1959 C. G. Stephens. D.Sc. 

1960 H. II, FlNLAYStW. 


AS AT 30th SEPTEMBER, 1960. 

Those marked with an asterisk (*) have contributed papers published in the Society's 

Transactions. Those marked with a dagger ( r ) are Life Members- 

Any change in address or any other changes should be notified to the Secretary. 

$ij|a ; — xho publications of the Society ure not sent to those, numbers whose subscriptions 

arc in arrears. 

Dale of 
Date of Honorary HONORARY FELLOWS 

Election Election 

1895 1949 "Ci.ELAxn, Prof. J, B,, M.D. 3 Doshwood Bead, Beaumont, S.A.-Verco Medal, 

1933, Council, 1921-26, 1932-37; President, 1927-28, 1940-41; Vice- 

President, 1920-27, 1941^52. 
1913 1955 *OsnonN, Prof. T. G. B., D.Sc, St. Mark's CtfllpfCCt Pennington Terrace, 

North Adelaide-Conner/, 1915-20, 1922-24; Vicc-PremtenK 1924-25, 

1926-27; President, 1925-26. 
1912 1955 'Ward, L. K\, I.S.O., B.A., B.E., D.Sc, 22 Northumberland Street, Heath- 

pooh Manyatville, S.A.-Cnuncil, 1924-27, 1933-35; Vice-President, 

1927-28; President. 1.928-30. 

Date of 


1946. °AnwLE, Prof. A. A., M.D., D.Sc, Ph.D., Department of Analomy, University of 
Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide. S \. 

1958. "Abele, K„ Dr. Phil (Marburg), Dr.PhiLNat. (Tarru-Dorpat), M.Sc. (Bi^a), 42 

Kildou.iii Road, Warradale Park, S,A. 

1959. Aitken, P., B.Sc., South Australian Museum, North Terrace., Adelaide. S.A. 

1927. 'Alderman, Prof. A. R., Ph.D., D.Sc, F.G.S., Department of Geology, University of 

Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, S.A.-Council, 1937-42, 1954-57. 
1951. *Anulrson, Mrs, S. H., B.Sc, 31 Laleman Street, North Adelaide, S.A. 
1935. * Andrew ahtha, H. G„ MAti.Sc. DSv., /oology Dept., University of Adelaide, 

Norlli Ten-ace. Adelaide, S.X-Cowtcil t 1919-50; Vicr-Prtwdrrrf, 1950-51, 1952-53; 

President, 1931-52. 
193.5. a AMT)RKwARTHA, Mm. H. G., B.Agr.Se.,. M.Sc (nee H. V, Steele), 29 Claremont 

Avenue, Netherby, S.A. 
1929. *Ancel, F. M., 34 Fullarton Road, Parkside, S.A. 
1939. ^Aa&isLj Miss L. M., M.Sc, 2 Moore Street. Tuorak, Adelaide, S.A. 

1960. Ahchuold, K, T., South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, S,A. 
1945. •Bartlett, H. K., L.Th., 2 Abbotshall Road, Lower Mitcham, S.A. 

195.S. Hauku, F. H.. Department of Geography, University of California, Riverside, Cali- 
fornia. U.S.A, 
1950, Beck, R. G., B.Ag.Sc, R.D.A., Lvnewood Park, Mil-Lei, via Mount Gambler, S.A. 
1932. BegGj P, R., D.D.Sc, L.D.S., Shell House, 170 North Terrace, Adelaide. 

1928. Best, R. J.. D.Sc. F.A.C.I., Watte Institute (Private Mail Bag, No, 1), Adelaide. 


Dili: Of 
El eel ion 

1956. Black, A. B., A.S.A.S.M., M.I.M.M., 36 Wooderoft Avenue, St Georges, S.A. 
1031. Black, K, C, Mft, B.S., Ma^ill Road, 'lYantuere, S.A. 

MJS$ Buvnin, N. J., M.B., B.S\. F.K.C.S. (Eng.), F.R. A.C.S., 19 Marlborough St., College 

1945. ^Bonython, C. W,, B.Sc. A.A.C.T., Romaic House, Romaic* Avenue, Magill, S.A. 
1040. Bomtwn. Sih J. Lavincton, 203 fcusc Terrace, Adelaidv:, S.A. 
1945. 'Boomsma, C. D., M.Se, B.Sc.For., 6 Celtic Avenue, South Road Park, S.A. 
19-17. *Boves. D. K., Ph.D. (LniK.1), D.l.C. F.G.S., Department of Geology. University, 

Glasgow, Scotland. 
1097. "Brookes, Miss H. M.. Dopt. of Kntomulocv, Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag. Nu. 

I ), Adelaide, S.A. 

1957. Ruick, W. G., B.A., e/o Couutry Lending Service, Public Library, South Alitalia. 
1044. fi Bi-imiDGK r Miss V. T.. M.Se , C.S.I.R.O., DiV. Plant Industry. PO- Bov 100. Cuu- 

buna. A.C.T. 

195S. Bujunc, L, 51 Richmond Road, Wostbonrnr Park, S.A. 

1922 'CAMPHbii, Prof. T. D., D.DSc, D.Sc., 24 Lvnington Street, Tu^uion... &L- 
C^wttft 1928-32, 1935, 10.12-45; Viro-Pro^W 1932-34; Prv*ulent> WSUVt, 

19BU, Canduji\ C, 2 Harris St., Clenelg, S.A. 

1959. Carrodus, B. B., R.D.Oen.. 26' Deqiiettvillc Terrace, Kent Town, S.A. 

193-1 CARTfia, A. N„ B.Se.. 8 Scott St.. Maroubra Ray, N.S.W. 

fOW Ca-jlev, D. E., 8 Cudmore Terrtioe. Whynlkt, S.A. 

19.57. "^Chjfpkndale, C. M., B.Se., Lindsay Avenue, Alice Springs N/1. 

tym Ciirtstte, W., M.B., B.S., 7 Walter Street, Hyde Park, Adelaide, S.A.-7Vuvnrcr, 

• 955 Ci.oi-hikh, E. A., Hydroelectric Commission, Hobart, Tas. 

l&W. Coi/uver, P. S., Geology Department, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Bris- 
bane, Q. 

J929. "Cotton, B. C, F.R.Z.S., J.P., South Austi-alian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide- 
Cowicil, 1943-40, 1948-40- Vwc-PreMent, 1949-50, 1951-52; President, 1950-51; 
Programme Secretary t 1959- 

I95b\ Craw rom\ A. R., B.Sc, Mines Department* 169 Riuidle St., Adelaide, S.A. 

19o6. Daily, B,, Ph,D„ South Australian Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, S <\, -Pro- 
gramme Secretary s 1957-59, 

195L Davison, A. L, C," Ph.D., B.Se., e/o Messrs, Simpson & Brookrmm, 33 GrenfcII SL, 
Adelaide, S.A. 

1950 Delano, C. M>, M.B., B.S. V D.P.H., D.T.M.. 29 Gilbert Street, Caodwood. S.A.- 
CounciL 1952-. 

1930. Dix, E. V,, Box 12, AHgffite, S.A. 

1957 Doull, K. At., M.Ag.Sc., Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag. No. 1). Adelaide. 

1959. Dunlop, P. R. G., B.Sc., 13 Walton Ave., Clearview, S.A. 

1944, bufcsTQNE, S. M. L„ M.B., B.S., 1.70 Payneham Road. St. Peters, S.A, 

1931. Dwyer, J, M., M.B.. B.S., 105 Port Road, Hindmarsh, S.A. 

1933, *Eaiuh.t:y, Miss C. M., M.Se., F.L.S., Department of Botonv, University of Adelaide, 
North Terrace. Adelaide, S.A.-CQuncil. 1943-46. 

1945. *Ei>monds, S. J., B.A. r M.Se, Ph.D., 7oology Dcpartoient. University of Adelaide, 

North Terrace, Adelaide, S.A.— Council, 1954-55; Programme Svcreturtt. 1955-55; 

Secretary 1956-57. 
1902, *EDpuiST a A, G.. 19 Fairell Street, Glenel^, S.A.-Council, 1949-53. 
)05n\ "Eiculeit, H., Dr.rer.nat., State Herbarium, Botanic Garden, North Terrace, Adelaide, 

J 959. Fiexdkk, D. R., B.Sc., Dept. of Zoology. University. North Terrace, Adelaide, S.A. 
1927. °Finlayson, H. H,. 305 Ward St, North AdeIaide-Verr:o Me<tai, i960; Council, 

1051. Fustier, R. H., 21 SeavirW Ro^d, Lynton, S A. 
L9S5. °KoRQirs, B. G., Pl.JJ. y F.O.S., 9 Flinders Road, Ilillcrest, S.A. 

1958. Fouo. A. W. t F.I.C.S., A.C.C.S., 380 Srjllth Terrace, Bankstown, N.S.W. 
1959 Forol, N., Dip.For., C.S.l.R.O,, Canberra, A.C/! 1 . 

1954. Gibson, A. A., A.W.A.S\M.. Mint* Department, 169 Bundle St., Adelaide, SJi. 
1953. ^Glaessxeu, M. F., D.S<^., Geology Department, University of Adelaide, North Ter- 
race, Adelaide, S.A,-Cm/f«:a?, 1953-54: Yicc-Prt'\idcut, 1958-59. 
1935. fGoi.osACK, If., Coromandel Valley, S.A. 

1959. Gvu>;y. Mi46 L. M. A., B.A., M.Se., Dept. of Aunti.ftty and Histology, Univwtfity or' 

Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide. S.A, 
1918. Gross, C. F, M.Se.. South Australian Museum, Adolaide-S<-'r^torf/, 1950-53. 
1U44. Cui'tn, D. b, B.Se., e/o W.A. Petroleum Co., 251 Adelaide Terrace, Perth. W.A 


Due- of 

192i *Halk» H. M., O.B.E., 25 Rochester SU Leabrook. S.A.-Vc/co iV/ecW, IB4Gj ptHMcfc 
1931-34, 1950-5.1 LftSfr-j V*^J*Wfcfea»*, 1034-36, tSST-JMs P^ttftttfl; 1936-37; 
Treasury, 1938-50, 1953-56. 

1040. Haix, D. R., Tea Tree Gullv, &A, 

1930. fHAKCork, N. L. ( 3 Bewdley, GO Hereford Road, Rose Bay, N.S.W. 

1953. ^Hansen, I. V., B.A., Queen Elizabeth School Crediton, Devon, Knid.o.d. 
1946- °Hai«jv, Mns. J. E, (nee A. C. Beclcwith}, M.Se, gtovmit Ave*, Sulinbury S.A. 
J944, Harris, J. R., IVSc, c/o Waite Institute* (Private Mali Rag, No. 1), Adelaide, {kA- 
1900. Hakwsow, J. t 7 McQuillan Ave, Kcuowii Park, S.A. 

195& Haybaix ; J. V., R.Se., 68 Pleasant Avenue, Clundore, S.A, 

1900. Hayman. D. L., Ph.D., Genetics Department. University oi Adelaide. North 'lUiaOO, 

Adelaide, S.A. 
1911. Hkiuuot, R. 1., U.Agr.Sc., 49 Halshurv Avenue, Kingswood. S.A. 

1951. Hocking. L. J., 40 Kami Parade. Seaelill, S.A. 

IBJfK Honwrr/., R. C H., D.SC, Vimlon Street, Seaeonibe GarUcJts, S.A. 

1924. *Hos^-ulu, P. S„ Ph.D., 132 Fiiher Street, Fulinrton, S A. 

1944. HoMm-h. D. S. W., MPS., J P„ 238 Paviuh*M» ffo«!L Pavneiuin, S.A. 

1947. *Hutton. J. T., B.Sc, A.S.A.S.M., 10 Bcflevue Plaer, Unh-y Park Council 1957-. 
1928. IrouLn, P., 11 Wyatt Road, Bmmide, S.A. 

MGQ. Incham, L. J.. 31 Florence Sfe, Fullarlou, S.A. 

1945. •Jwwuv, R. W„ M.Se., Division of Plant Industry, C.S.I.R.O., P.O. Box 109, City, 

Canberra, A.C.T. 

1950. "Ioitns, R. K., B.Sc., Department of Mines. 169 Rundle St., Adelaide, S.A. 

1957. Johnson, B., B.Sc.Atfr., Ph.D., Waite Institute (Private Mail Bag. No. 1), Adelaide. 

1958. •Johnson, W., B.Sc. (Hoii6\), 33 Rvan Avenue, Woodville West, S.A. 

1954. Kkata, A. L.. B.K., 44 LcFevre Terrace. North Adelaide. S.A, 

1939. IK'hakhab, n. M., Ph.D., M.B. ? F.R.G.S., Khakhar Buildings C.P. Tank Road, Bom- 
bay, india. 

1949. °KiNf;, D., M.Se., e/o Commercial Bank of Australia, King William St., Adelaide. S A, 
1933. *KiJ?hM\N, A W., Ph.D., Dept. of Geology. University' of Adelaide -Secretary, 1945- 

48; Vice-Prcrhknt, 191S-49, 1950-51; ' Pmiiticnt, 1949-50. 
1900. K'tthej.,, K, H., IhiSfUOithy Agricultural College, Roseworthy, S.A. 
1941. "Lanci-omj-Smjth, T.. B.A.,M.Se., Ph.D., Dept."of Geography, University of Sydney, 

Sydney, N,S.\V\ 
1922. U'.noon, G. A., M.D., B.S., F.R.C.P., c/o. Elder's Trustee and Executor Co. Ltd. : 

37 Currte Street, Adelaide, S.A. 
195«. Lindsay, H. A., 110 Cross Road, Highgale. S.A. 

1948. Lothian, T. R. N„ N.DJT. (N.Z.), Director, Botanic Garden, Adelaide., S.A.- 

Treaswer, 1952-53, Council, 1953-57: Vke-PresulcnL 1957-5H, 1900-01, President, 

1031. ♦LviittRooK, Mrs. N. H., M.A., Ph.D.. D.l.C F.G.S., Department of Mines, 169 

Bundle St, Adelaide, S.A. -Council, 1958-59; Vice-President, 1960-01, 
1953, Maklzeh. D. A., B.Sc. (lions.), Waite Institute (Private Mail Bqg, No. 1), Adelaide. 
1939. Mau.shau., T. L M.Agr.Sc, Ph.D., C.SXR.Q., Division of Soils (Private Mail Bag. 

No. 1), Adelaide— Council. 1943-52, 

1959. Mahtin, Mtss II. A., 43 Dunrnum Road. Brighton. S.A. 

1950. Mayo, G. M. E., B.Ak.Sc, Ph.D., 29 Ansas Rd.. Lower Mitcham, S.A. 
1920. Mayo, Sin HKtuAWr. LL,B- Q,C, 19 Marlborough StieU. College jiik S.A. 

1948. McCuia.ocM, R. N.. M.B.E., B.Sc. B.Ajlt.Sc. ; Rosewortliy A^rieulliiTal College, Rntft- 

worthy, S.A. 
1915. tVMiLb;s, K. R. f D.Sc, l-'.G.S., 11 Church Hoad. Mitcham, S.A. 

1952, Mii.xe, K. L, F.C.A., 11 Burlington Street, Walkerville, S.A. 
1939. MiN-niAvr, V. IT., 30 WaOtltoi.^ Street, TorreowOle. S.A. 
1958. Mjrams, H. C. B.Sc, o Myrtle Kcl, SertdifF, S.A. 

I95i. .MiTrnELT-, F. J., Stnttb Australtuii Xfnscuni. Nordi Terrace, Adelaide. S.A. — Tn-asunr, 

1933. MircMi-a.i., Phok. Sih M. L., VfSc, c/o Elder's Trustee and Executor Co, T.ld. H7 

Cniiie StO't't, Adelaide. 

1925, fMrrcrrELL, Prof. Sih W„ K.C.M.G., M.A., D.Sc^. FHzniy Teiraee, Trospect, S.A. 
1930. *MovNTronD. C. P.. 25 l r irst Avenue. St. Peters, Adelaide. 

1957. °Mu\fMK, Ivan A., B.Sc. (Hons.), Department of Mines, 169 Rundle St., Adelaide. 

. S.A. ' 
1941. MumuiLL, J. W"., EnKioeering and Water Supply Dept., Victoria Square, Adelaide. 
J944. Ntnnes. A. R.. B,A. s R.D.A., G2 Sheffield Street, Malvern, S.A. 

1915. •Nobtwcote, K. H., B.Agr.Sc, A.I.A.S., C.S.T.R.O.. Division of Soils (Private Mail 
Bag, No. 1), Adelaide. S.A. 


O&te ot 


J 930. Ockexden, G. P., B.A., 68 Holbrooks Rd., Flinders Park, S.A. 
1056. (VDwscoll, K. S.. B-Sc, 9 Vnmll Street Dover Gardens, S.A, 

1037- •Pabxw, L. W., M.Sc, A.S.T.C, Department of Mines, 169 Kundle St.. Adelaide, 
S.A,-Secrel(tty, tQSJ-rJft yfef-Pf^tfnt. 1958-57, 1958-59; tV^W<mt. 1957-58. 

1949. Parkinson, K. |., B.Sc., 91 Stuart St., 1 liikrest, S.A. 

1929. Pavll, A. C. M.A,. B.Sc.. 10 Milton Avenue, FulUurton Estate. S.A, 

1926. •Piped, C. S., D.Sc, C.S.I.R.O., Division erf Soils (Private Mail Bag, No. 1). AdeUide- 

Verco Medul, 1957; Council. 1941-43; Vice-President 1943-45, 1946-47; pre- 

trident, 1945-1946. 
1^18. Powme, J. K\ ( B.Sc., Watte Intitule (Private Mai! Bag Ko. 1), Adelaide. S.A. 
fy2$ x •PnEscxrrr, Prof, J. A., C.B.E., D.Sc, F.H.A.C.I., F.R.S., S2 Cross Road, JVlyule. 

Bank, S.A.—Yurco Medal 1938; Counc/J. 1927-30, 1935-39; Vtee-Prexidt'ra, 

1930-35; President 1932-33; fiditot\ 1955-. 
1957. "PniNCLE. Miss L. A. B. f Box 870a, GJL'.O., Adelaide. 
1945. °Pryoh, L. D., M.St:., Dip. For., 32 La Perouse Street, Griffith, Canberra. A.C.T. 

1950. °Battican. J. H.„ M-Se., Newcastle UniversiU College-, Tigh's Hill, 2N, N.S.W. 

1944. Riceman, D. S., M.Sc.> B.Atf.r.Sc., C.S.I.R.O., Division of Biochemistry, AdcLUdc, 
1947. Rikdvx, YV R M B.Sc, c/o Soripps Institution flf Oceanography, Dept. of Palaeon- 
tology, University of California, La Jolhi, California, U.S.A. 

1947. Rix. ST k* 42 Waunouth Avenue, Glundore, S.A. 

\fm, Rogers, Pkok. W. V., Ph.D.., F.A.A.. M.l.BioL, Zoology Dept,, University of Adelaklr. 
North Terrace. Adelaide, S.A. 

1951. Rome, S\ A., 22 Shellev Street. Firlc S.A. 

1950. Rudd, Phof. E. A.. B.Sc., A.M., University of Adelaide, North Twnoe, Adelaide, 


1951. Kussexl, L. D., c/u Adelaide Boys' Hijrh School, West Terrace, Adelaide. S.A. 

1945. Hymiul, J. R., Old Pcnola Estate. Peno3a_ S.A. 

31)33 Schnkiohh, M., M.B., B.S., 175 North Terrace, Adelaide, S.A. 

1050. ScHonnr., R„ DivJxtaa of Land Research and Divisional Survey, C.S.I.R.O., Can- 
be) ra, ACT. 

1951 *Scott, T. D., .M.Sc, S.A. Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, S.A. — Programme 
Stutret/iry, J 953-54, 1956-57; Svcretam, 1957-58. 

1-957. Shakman, G. £., .B.Sc, Department of /oology, University, North Terrace, Adelaide, 

1925, "Shkaku, H., Fort Elliot. S.A- 

1936. °SnEAnn. K. t D.Sc. C.S.T.R.O., Division of Fisheries and Occanoguiphy. University 
of W.A., NedLmds, W.A. 

1954. Shepherd, R. C , B.Sc - e/o Department of Mines, 109 Rundh St . Ail.-l«idr, S.A. 

1959, Sueflky, Miss E. A : M.Se . 97 Xortli Terrace, Kensington Cchis.. S.A. 

1931. Shinkfjeu>, R. C. s 57 Canterbury Avenue, Trinity Gmdcns S.A. 

1955, fS'Mim. Sir Tom B A nrt, Kt. 3 B.A., £5 Currie Strefti Adelaide 

1911 . *Southcott, B. V., M.D., B.S., D.T.M. & H., 13 Jasper Str.xt, Hyde ftjrfe S.A.- 

Coitrwil 1919-51. 1952^33. I9o7-60; frcosttrer, 1951-52; Vicc-i'residcnt, 1953-^4, 

1955-5fh ftytfbafa 1954-55, 1960-01. 
I93G. SotmiwooD. A. R., M.D.. M.S. (Adel.) : M.R.C.P., 170 North Terroce, Adelaide, S.A 
1947. °S'peoht. H. 1 PluD.. Botanv DcpartrneTit. Uiiivwsity of Adelilde — Council, 1951-52, 

1958-60: Programme Svcrctartf, 1952-53. 
1936. t«SPBiGG, R. C, M.Sc, 5 Baker Street, Soinerton Park. 

1949. *Sphy, A. IL M.St;., Geology Dcpai-hneitt, University of Tasmania, Honnrt, Tas. 
J 947. Sprmi.iNG, M. B., BAg.Se., TTorticuItural Branch. Department of Agrieulture, Rax 

991 E ? G.P.O., Adelaide, S.A* 
1951. Steadman, Rev. "W. R., S Blairgowne Road, St, Georges, S.A. 
193S. *Stepiiens j C. G. v D.Se., C.S.I.R.O.. Division oi Soils (Private Mail Sag, N<> 1} Ad,-- 

laide— Verco Medal, 1959; Council 1952-54; Vice-Preside id, 1954-55, 195r3^57i 

President, 1955-56. 
1955, Swaink. C, D.. M.B., B.S., 220 Esplanade, Lar^s NorLh, S.A. 

1932. StvKN, D. C- M.Sc. Waite Institute ( Private Mail Bag. No. I), Adelaide — Sacni.ont. 

1940-42; Vice-President, 1946-47. 1948-49: President. 1947-48; Cttuncil, 1953-53. 
1951. SynKsKi. P., MAe.Sr . 13 Dn-went Ave., Ro.slrevnr, S.A. 

1960. Symons, E. F-, Oraiiioui Treatment Plant, Pent Pine, S.A. 

1931 Symons, I. G., 35 Murrav Street, Lower Mitvbati.. SA-— Editor* 1947-55^ Council, 

195tf. Ta\xoh, D. J,, Dept. of Entomology, Wavre b.stiri.t^ ( Private Mall Bag, No, 1), 

Adelaide. S.A. 
1959. Taylok, D/ J-, 23 WeNtbourne St, ; Prahran Eaht. \ W 


Date of 

1929. *Tavi.or, J. K, r B.A., M.Sc, CJ.S.LR.O., Division of Soils (Private Mail Bug, No. 1), 
Adelaide— Council, 1940-43, 1047-50; Ul>tarian, 1951-52; Vice-Prcxktent, 1952- 
53, 1954-55; President, 1953-54; Council, 1955. 

1955- Ttmtcheb, D., B.Sc, Department of Mines, 169 Rundle St., Adelaide, S.A, 

1948. *Thomas, 1. M., MSo. (Wales), M.I.Biol., Department of Zoology, University of 

Adelaide-See^ry, 1948-50; Council, 1950-53; Vice-President, 1955-56, 1957-58; 

President, 1956-57; Assistant Editor, 1958-, 
1938. °Thomas, Mh.s. I. M. (nee P. M. Mawson), M.Sc, Department ol Zoology, University 

of Adelaide, North Terrace, Adelaide, S.A. 
1957. Thomas, J (> B.Sc., Woodlcigh Road, Blackwood, S.A. 
1940. ^Thompson, Capt. J. M., 1,35 Military Road, Semaphore South, S.A. 
1959. Thomson, B. P M M,Sc„ 33 Oaklands Road, Parkholme, S.A. 
1923. *Tinwau;, N. B.. B.So., South Australian Museum, Nurtli Terrace. Adelaide, S.A.— 

Vera* Medal, 1956; Secrehm/. 1935-36; Council, 1946-47; Vice-President, 1947- 

4& 1949-50; President, 1948-49; Librarian, 1952.-. 
1955. ^IVckek, B. H., B.Se. 7 O.S.T.U.O., Division of Soils (Private Mail Bag, No. 1), 

Adelaide, S.A. 
1959. TwrnAt.E, C. R., Ph.D., M.Se., Dept. of Geography, University of Adelaide, North 

'terrace, Adelaide. S.A. 
1959. *Tyjlkh, M. J. ? Dept. of Physiology, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, S.A. 
1900. Tvna\, A, E,, e/o **\uslralian Mineral Development Laboratories, Fleminston St., 

Farkside, S.A. 
1950. Vkitch, J. T ' Box 92, Port Lincoln, S.A. 

1953. Watkhmak, R. A m B.A., M.A., Ph.D., Wayne Stale University, Detroit, Michigan, 


1954. Weuo, B. P.. M.Se., Department of Mines, 169 Bundle St., Adelaide, S.A. 
1954. Wells, C. B., B.Ag.Sc, Broadlees, Waverley Ridge, Crafers, S.A. 

195!). Whelan, Prof. R. F., Department of Physiology, University of Adelaide, North 
Terrace, Adelaide, S.A. 

1916, 6 WiUTTLK, A. W. G., M.Se., c/o Australian Mineral Development Laboratories, Park- 
side, S.A. 

1950. Williams, L. E., "Dumostt," Meningic, S.A. 

1946. ^Wilson, Pbof. A. F,, D.Se-, Dept. of Geology, University of Queensland, St. Lucia, 
Brisbane, Old. 

1938. nVn.soN, J. O., 42 Wilson Terrace, DaCosta Park. Gleneltf, S.A. 

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1944. Womeusley, J. S., B.Se., Dept. of Forests, Lae, New Guinea. 

1957. Woons, R. V., B.Sc., Mt. Crawford, S.A. 

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Names printed in italics as separate entries indicate that the forms are new to science. 

Acarina., Description of the Female 
u{ Trichonyssus ii>omer$le\ji 
Domrow ( Acarina, Mesostig- 
matu): H. Womcrsley 79 

Acarina, Labidostommidae from Aus- 
tralia with the Description of a 
Now Species : Warren T. Atyeo 
and D, A, Crossley S3 

Acarina, Notes on the genus Caectdi- 

Wiifl; R, V, Sourhcott „ 163 

Acarina* on the Family Diarthro- 
phallidae with Particular Refer- 
ence to the Genus Pass<dobkt lom- 
bardini 1926: H. Wornersley ... 27 

Acarina, (Some) from Australia and 
New Guinea Paraphagic upon Mil- 
lipedes and Cockroaches and 
Beetles of the Family Passalidae. 
Part 4 , The Family Diarthro- 
phallidae: H. Wornersley 11 

Adelaide. Determination of the 
Crustal Thickness of the Earth in 
the General Region of; I. A. 
Mumme 61 

Andamookfi OpaIfield> Outline of 
Biostrutigraphy of: N. H. Lntl- 
brnok 139 

Angel, L. M.: Larval Trematodes 
from Australian Fresh-water Mol- 
luscs, Part XV. Cercaria aeles- 
unicmis n. sp. ... ... ,. ... 03 

Archaeological Stono Implements 
alomr the Lower Kiver Wakefield, 
South Australia: H, M- Cooper 105 

Atveo, Warren T., and D. A. Cross- 
ley : Labidostommidae ( Acarina, 
Prostigmata ) from Australia with 
the Description of a New Species 83 

Bassia hurbidgeac ., ... 37 

hassui const ricta , . 98 

Bassia eichleri ,,, ,.. SO 

Bassia "ardneri , ... ... ,. 94 

Bassia uniflora { FvM. ) ( Chenopo- 
diaeeae) and Allies in Australia: 

E. H. Tsing .. . 83 

BrachytremeHa bomemisszai ... .,. 20 

Bra^htjtremt'Ua tra^drdhi 10 

BracJiytrcmelloidrs xlruxta _ .. 24 

Caeculisoma argus- to ... .„ .,- 174 
Caeeulisoma darwinense , . 164 

CacculiMmia (Acarina, Erythraei- 
dae): Notes on the Genus: R. V. 

Sonthcott ... 164 

Central Australia, Contributions to 
the Flora of. No, 2: G. M. Chip- 
pendale .., 99 

Cercaria velesunUmis 

Chippendale. G. M.: Contributions 
to to Flora of Central Australia, 
No. 2 

Contributions to the Flora of Central 
Australia, No, 2: G. M. Chippen- 

Cooper, H. M.: Archaeological Stone 
Implements along the Lower Kiver 
Wakefield, South Australia 

Crocidolites, the Occurrence and 
Comparative Mineralogy of South 
Australian Magnesian: D. King ... 

Crossley, D. A., see Atyeo, Warren T. 

Crustal Thickness of the Earth in 
the General Region of Adelaide, 
South Australia: I. A. Mumme ... 

Diarthropliiullidae (Acarina, 
stigmata, Mouogyriaspida) 


Ftnjayson, H. H.; Re-examination of 
Mesem hryornys h irs-utus Gould, 
1S42 (Muridae) 

Freshwater Molluscs, Larval Tre- 
matodes from, Part XV, Cercaria 
velesunionis, n. sp.; L. M. Angel 

Hnnidactylus frenatus (Dnmeril and 
Bibron ) ( Replilia— Ceckouidae ), 
Diet and Feeding Habits at Ran- 
goon, Burma: M. J. Tyler .„ 

Ising, E. H,; Bussia tmflora (FvM.) 
( Cfienopodiacea ) and Allies in 

King, D.: The Occurrence and Com- 
parative Mineralogy of South Aus- 
tralian Crocidolites ( Khoducites ) 

I.abidostotnma womersleyi 

Labidostummidae from Australia 
( Acarina, Mrsostigmata ) , with 
Description of a New Species: 
Warren T. Atyeo and D. A. Cross- 

Larval TTcmatodcs from 
Fresh- water MoDuscs, 
Cercaria velcsimionis, n. 

Lmnba rdii i alia lorn hard in ii 

Ludbrook, N- H ; Mesnzoic Non- 
marine Mollusca { Pelecypoda- 
Unionidae) from the North of 
South Australia _ 

Ludbrook, N H.: Outline of the Bio- 
stratigraphv of Andamooka Opal- 

Part XV, 
sp.: L. M. 
















Ludbrook, N. H.: Subsurface Strati- 
graphy of the Maralinga Area, 
South Australia ... ... _ 51 

Maralinga, Subsuiface Stratigraphy 

of: N. H. Ludbrook 51 

Mesemhrxjomys hirsuttts Gould, 1842 
( Muridae ) , lie-examination of: 
H. H. Fiulayson „ ... M 149 

Meso/oic Non-marine Molkisca 
( Felecypoda-Unionidae ) f roni the 
North of South Australia: N. TL 
Ludbrook 139 

Mumine, I. A.: Determination of the 
Crustal Thickness of the Earth in 
the General Region of Adelaide, 
South Australia - ... .. 61 

Occurrence and Comparative Miner- 
alogy of South Australian Magne- 
sian Crocidolites (Rhoduciles): D. 
King ... 119 

Oxalic the Species of, Established 

in South Australia: P. E. Symon 71 

Vussalana ... } 41 

Protovlrgus coatsi ,.. 146 

Fwtovirgus jaenschi ... 145 

Reptilia, on the Diet and Feeding 
Habits of Hemiductylus fremitus 
( Dumoril and Bibron) at Ran- 
goon, Burma: M. J. Tyler 45 

Rc-examination of Mesembrtfomys 

hirstttwi Gould, 1842 (Muridae) ... 149 

South Australia, the Species of 
Oxalis Established in : D. E. 
Symon _. ... ... 71 

Symon, D. E. : The Species of 
Oxalis Established in South Aus- 
tralia: D. E. Symon 71 

Southcott, R. V.: Nates on the Genus 
Caeculisoma ( A e a r i n a - E r y- 
thraeidae) 163 

Trichonyssus woinersleyi Domrow, 
Description of the Female of: H. 
Womersley . . ... ... 79 

Tyler, M. J.: On the Diet and Feed- 
ing Habits of Hemic] actylus fremi- 
tus (Dumeril and Bibron) (Rep- 
tilia-Geckonidae ) at Rangoon, 
Burma ... ... ... ... ... 45 

XJniu springfieldensis ... ... .„ 145 

Womersley, II.: Deeseription of the 
Female of Trichonyssus tvomers- 
leyi (Domrow ( Acarina- Macro- 
nyssidae) ... ... ... ,„ 79 

Womersley, H.: On the Family Diar- 
throphallidae (Acarina, Meso- 
stigmata, Monogynaspida ) with 
Particular Reference to the Genus 
Passalobia lambardini ... 27 

Womersley, H.: Some Acarina from 
Australia and New Guinea Para- 
phagic upon Millipedes and Cock- 
roaches and Beetles of the Family 
Passalidae, Fart 4. The Family 
Diartlirophallidae ... ... ... 11 

Wakefield River (Lower, South Aus- 
tralia ) , Archaeological Stone Im- 
plements along ... ... ... 105 



Memoir and Bibliography: Joseph Garnett Wood, 1000-1959 1 

H. Womehsley: Some Aearina from Australia and New Guinea Paraphagic 
upon Millipedes and Cockroaches and on Beetles of the Family 
Passalidae. Part 4. The Family Diartluophallidae 11 

H. Womersusy: On the Family Diarthrophalfidae (Acarina-Mesostigmata- 
Monogynaspida) with Particular Reference to the genus Passalobia 
Lombardini .... ... 27 

M. J. Tyler: On the Diet and Feeding Habits of Hemidactylus frenatus 

(Dumeril and Bibron) (Reptih";i-Geckonidae) at Rangoon, Burma 45 

N. H. Ludbrook: Subsurface Stratigraphy of the Maraiinga Area, South 

Australia 51 

Mummk, I. A.: Determination of the Crustal Thickness of the Earth in the 

General Region of Adelaide, South Australia 61 

L. M. Angel; Larval Trematodes from Australian Fresh-water Molluscs, 

Part XV. Cercaria oelesurdonis n. sp. 63 

D. E. Symon: The Species of Oxalis Established in South Australia 71 

H. Womersley: Description of the Female of Trichonysms womersleyi 
Domrow (Acarina-Macronyssidae) 

Warren T. Atyeo and D. A. Crosseey: Labidostommidac from Australia 
(Acarina-Prostigmata) with the Description of a New Species 

E. H. Ising: Bassia uniflora (FvM.) ( Chenopodiaceae ) and Allies in 

South Australia ..... 87 

G. M. Chippendale: Contributions to the Flora of Central Australia, No. 2 99 

H. M. Cooper: Archaeological Stone Implements along the Lower River 

Wakefield, South Australia 105 

D. King: The Occurrence and Comparative Mineralogy of South Aus- 
tralian Magnesian Crocidolites (Rhoducites) 110 

N. H. Ludbrook: Outline of the Biostratigraphy of Andamooka Opalfield 129 

N. H. Ludbrook; Mesozuic Non-marine Mollusca (Pelecypoda-Unionidae) 

from the North of South Australia 139 

H. H. Finlayson: Reexamination of Mcscmbryomys hirstiius Gould, 1843 

(Muridae) ... 149 

R. V. Soutkcott: Notes on the Genus Carculisoma (Acarina-Erythraeidae) 163 

List of Lectures, 1959-1960 179 

Balance Sheet ISO 

Awards of the Sir Joseph Verco Medal and List of Fellows, 1960 181 

Index 186