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Full text of "USPTO Patent Full Text 1978 July-September"

HHHHHT        APS1        ISSUE - 780926
PATN
WKU  D02495961
SRC  5
APN  7479816
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761206
TTL  Lacrosse elbow guard
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Corrigan; J.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Rule; Robert J.
CTY  Manhasset
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  W. H. Brine Co.
CTY  Needham
STA  MA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 2 27
ICL  D0202
FSC  D 2
FSS  1;25;27
FSC  D24
FSS  64;49;99
FSC  128
FSS  77;165
FSC  273
FSS  189 R
UREF
PNO  1525298
ISD  19250200
NAM  Hartman
OCL  D 2 27
UREF
PNO  3074400
ISD  19630100
NAM  Schulman
OCL  128165
UREF
PNO  3406406
ISD  19681000
NAM  Lutz
XCL  128165
UREF
PNO  3473527
ISD  19691000
NAM  Spiro
XCL  128165
LREP
FR2  Sacks; Stanley
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front, top and left side perspective view of a lacrosse elbow
      guard showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a left side elevational view, the right side being a mirror image
      thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a front elevational view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a lacrosse elbow guard, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02495970
SRC  5
APN  7216963
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760909
TTL  Welding shield
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Dillon; Nicholas T. E.
STR  10 East St.
CTY  Magill, South Australia
CNT  AUX
CLAS
OCL  D 2234
ICL  D0203
FSC  D 2
FSS  234;231;232;246;247
FSC    2
FSS  8;9;10;12
UREF
PNO  D139883
ISD  19450100
NAM  Le Vasseur
OCL  D 2232
UREF
PNO  1841054
ISD  19320100
NAM  Powers
OCL    2  9
UREF
PNO  2354415
ISD  19440700
NAM  Woodward
OCL  D 2234
UREF
PNO  2445355
ISD  19480700
NAM  Hurt
OCL    2 10
UREF
PNO  3492062
ISD  19700100
NAM  Hoover
OCL  D 2234
LREP
FR2  Chaskin; Jay L.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a welding shield showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational section taken through the center of FIG. 1 and
      FIG. 3 is a plan view of FIG. 2.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for welding shield, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02495988
SRC  5
APN  7413459
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761112
TTL  Sport sock
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Corrigan; J.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  7
INVT
NAM  Magnuson; Elizabeth A.
STR  4148 Yates Ave. N.
CTY  Robbinsdale
STA  MN
ZIP  55422
CLAS
OCL  D 2330
XCL  D 2337
ICL  D0204
FSC  D 2
FSS  265;270;329;330;334;337;267;275;264;335
FSC    2
FSS  22;61;239
UREF
PNO  D108342
ISD  19380200
NAM  Morrison
OCL  D 2267
UREF
PNO  D245294
ISD  19770800
NAM  Chesebro
OCL  D 2337
UREF
PNO  1607256
ISD  19261100
NAM  Friedenthal
OCL  D 2267
FREF
PNO  247692
ISD  19471200
CNT  CHX
OCL    2 61
FREF
PNO  13168
ISD  19140000
CNT  GBX
OCL    2 61
FREF
PNO  240585
ISD  19240700
CNT  GBX
OCL    2 61
LREP
FR2  Babcock; William C.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a left side elevational view of a sport sock showing my new
      design in flattened condition, the right side being a mirror image
      thereof;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a view similar to FIG. 1 with the skirt portion folded up, the
      right side of the sock in this condition being a mirror image thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a fragmentary perspective view of the lower portion of the sock
      in partially unflattened condition.
PAL  The ornamental appearance of the side opposite to that shown in FIGS. 1 and
      2 corresponds to that shown in FIGS. 1 and 2, subject to normal reversal
      of the left and right portions of the same design when viewed from the
      opposite side.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a sport sock, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02495996
SRC  5
APN  8078246
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770620
TTL  Combined brush and scraper
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Whitaker; Wiley M.
CTY  Ramseur
STA  NC
ASSG
NAM  Whit Corporation
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 4  6
XCL  D 4 12
XCL  D 7183
ICL  D0401
ICL  D0705
FSC  D 4
FSS  6;10;11;12;29;31
FSC   15
FSS  159 R;159 A;160;105;106;111;112;236 R;245
FSC  D 7
FSS  181;183;184
UREF
PNO  3199139
ISD  19650800
NAM  Vallis
XCL   15111
FREF
PNO  1266610
ISD  19610600
CNT  FRX
OCL  D 4 12
LREP
FR2  Rabin; David
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a combined brush and scraper showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view of the opposite side being a mirror image
      thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined brush and scraper, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496003
SRC  5
APN  7249047
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760920
TTL  Make-up brush
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Bowman; Arleen
CTY  New York
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Bowman Trading Co., Inc.
CTY  New York
STA  NY
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 4 25
XCL  D 4 20
ICL  D0402
FSC  D 4
FSS  1-38
FSC  D28
FSS  7
FSC  132
FSS  DIG. 3;79 A;82 R;85;79;82
FSC   15
FSS  159 R;159 A;160;167 R;167 A
FSC  128
FSS  260;265;269
UREF
PNO  1197210
ISD  19160900
NAM  Jordan
UCL  132 85
UREF
PNO  2075570
ISD  19370300
NAM  Carpenter
XCL   15160
UREF
PNO  2218738
ISD  19401000
NAM  Boysen
OCL  132DIG.3
UREF
PNO  3167806
ISD  19650200
NAM  Hogan
XCL  132 85
FREF
PNO  223520
ISD  19430300
CNT  CHX
OCL   15167R
LREP
FR2  Raskin; Martin G.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a make-up brush, showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a make-up brush, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496011
SRC  5
APN  6477070
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760109
TTL  Seat
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Dunkins; Bruce W.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Burridge; Robert E.
CTY  Mt. Lebanon
STA  PA
ASSG
NAM  Contourpedic Corporation
CTY  Saddle Brook
STA  NJ
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 6  5
XCL  D 6  9
XCL  D 6 48
ICL  D0601
FSC  D 6
FSS  47-78;5-12;355;361
UREF
PNO  D195672
ISD  19630700
NAM  Hamilton et al.
OCL  D 6  7
UREF
PNO  3252734
ISD  19660500
NAM  Berlin
XCL  297361
UREF
PNO  3583762
ISD  19710600
NAM  Strien
OCL  297361
UREF
PNO  3747976
ISD  19730700
NAM  Lacey
OCL  297361
UREF
PNO  3768861
ISD  19731000
NAM  Goldberg
XCL  297355
LREP
FR2  Marn; Louis E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a seat showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevation view thereof and a mirror image of the
      side view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom elevation view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a seat, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496020
SRC  5
APN  669604&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760323
TTL  Support for use with electronic computer units
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Dunkins; Bruce W.
NDR  2
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  O'Connor; David A.
CTY  Virginia Beach
STA  VA
ASSG
NAM  Virginia National Bankshares, Inc.
CTY  Norfolk
STA  VA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 6 85
XCL  D 6157
XCL  D 6186
XCL  D 6190
ICL  D0699
FSC  D 6
FSS  191;184;181;186;158;159;85;162;165;166;163;167;169
FSC  D25
FSS  58
UREF
PNO  D241549
ISD  19760900
NAM  Rota
XCL  D 6164
UREF
PNO  D243306
ISD  19770200
NAM  Moyer
OCL  D 6191
UREF
PNO  3095975
ISD  19630700
NAM  Cassel et al.
XCL  D 6191
LREP
FR2  Kondracki; Edward J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is an overhead perspective view of my new, original and ornamental
      design showing modular wings arranged to form a T-shape environment for a
      computer banking terminal disposed within the arrangement;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of FIG. 1, viewing the environment as
      seen in FIG. 1 from the upper right hand corner;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an overhead perspective view of my new and original design
      showing modular wings arranged to form a cross-shape environment for a
      computer banking terminal disposed within the arrangement; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is an overhead perspective view of my new, original and ornamental
      design showing modular wings arranged to form an L-shape environment for a
      computer banking terminal disposed within the arrangement.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a support for use with electronic computer units,
      substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496038
SRC  5
APN  7715315
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770224
TTL  Display stand for pierced earrings
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  DiBartolo; Vincent
CTY  Cresskill
STA  NJ
ASSG
NAM  Mele Manufacturing Co.
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 6 85
ICL  D2002
FSC  D 6
FSS  20;23-25;28;29;85;114;116-118;127-130;132;136;140;146;152;158;167;175;172
     ;186;188;189
FSC  211
FSS  13;32;45;49 R;49 S;87;88;105.1;106;123;129;131;163;169;181;182
UREF
PNO  D165404
ISD  19511200
NAM  Talmadge
OCL  D 6 28
UREF
PNO  D176818
ISD  19560100
NAM  Robinson
OCL  D 6 85
UREF
PNO  D242403
ISD  19761100
NAM  Webster
OCL  D 6 24
UREF
PNO  D245650
ISD  19770900
NAM  Mueller et al.
OCL  D 6 85
LREP
FR2  Kane; Daniel H.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevation of the display stand for pierced earrings,
      showing my new design.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view taken from the right of FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a display stand for pierced earrings, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496046
SRC  5
APN  8264309
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770822
TTL  Protective cover for rolls of toilet paper
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Woo; Wai-Hung
STR  C/O Woody Trading Co. H.K., 38 Kam Lam St., 5th floor, Block "S"
CTY  Mongkok, Kowloon
CNT  HKX
PRIR
CNT  GBX
APD  19770223
APN  978994/77
CLAS
OCL  D 6 86
ICL  D2302
FSC  D 6
FSS  86;89-92;94;96;97;99-102;114;130;132;136
FSC  312
FSS  39;41
FSC  242
FSS  55.2;55.3;55.53
UREF
PNO  D191739
ISD  19611100
NAM  Rosenblum
OCL  D 6 86
UREF
PNO  D204865
ISD  19660500
NAM  Stewart
OCL  D 6 86
UREF
PNO  D241593
ISD  19760900
NAM  Wriede
OCL  D 6 86
UREF
PNO  2606724
ISD  19520800
NAM  Hertz
OCL  312 39
UREF
PNO  3467456
ISD  19690900
NAM  Chmela
OCL  D 6 97
LREP
FR2  Townsend; Stephen S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a protective cover for rolls of toilet
      paper showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a side elevational view, with the cover in the raised position;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a perspective view; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a front elevational view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a protective cover for rolls of toilet paper, as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496054
SRC  5
APN  7265840
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760927
TTL  Soap bar holder
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Skermetta; Geraldine J.
STR  7914 Village Oak
CTY  San Antonio
STA  TX
ZIP  78233
CLAS
OCL  D 6 89
XCL  D30 42
ICL  D2302
ICL  D3099
FSC  D 6
FSS  86;89-92;94;96;97;99-102;114;130;132;136
FSC  D30
FSS  42
FSC  D34
FSS  2 C
FSC  206
FSS  77.1
FSC  248
FSS  309 R
FSC  D73
FSS  1 A
UREF
PNO  D162921
ISD  19510400
NAM  Aitken
OCL  D 6 89
UREF
PNO  D188592
ISD  19600800
NAM  Arrix
OCL  D34  2C
UREF
PNO  D218137
ISD  19700700
NAM  Smith
OCL  D34  2C
UREF
PNO  2003958
ISD  19350600
NAM  Salisbury
OCL  D30 42
UREF
PNO  2195399
ISD  19400400
NAM  Eagen
OCL  D73  1A
UREF
PNO  2722719
ISD  19551100
NAM  Altstadter
OCL  206 77.1
LREP
FR2  Comuzzi; Donald R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a soap bar holder showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a bottom perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a soap bar holder, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496062
SRC  5
APN  7143796
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760816
TTL  Container display rack
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Terdina; John W.
CTY  West Chicago
STA  IL
INVT
NAM  Kec; Clarence A.
CTY  St. Charles
STA  IL
ASSG
NAM  J.W.T. Industries
CTY  West Chicago
STA  IL
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 6125
XCL  D 6247
XCL  D 6252
ICL  D2002
ICL  D0608
FSC  D 6
FSS  20;28;85;87;93;113;114;130;132;134-137;179;182;186;125;247-257
FSC  D 7
FSS  70;71
FSC  211
FSS  74;75;113;115;117;118;119
FSC  223
FSS  85;87-93;95;96;98;DIG. 1;DIG. 2
UREF
PNO  D203057
ISD  19651100
NAM  Diesinger
OCL  D 6113
UREF
PNO  D205152
ISD  19660600
NAM  Lockhart
OCL  D 6113
UREF
PNO  D242097
ISD  19761100
NAM  O'Neal
OCL  D 6125
UREF
PNO  1607749
ISD  19261100
NAM  Rice
OCL  D 6256
LREP
FR2  McDougall; Dugald S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a container display rack showing our new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view of a second embodiment of the design of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a front elevational view of FIG. 4;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a rear elevational view of FIG. 4.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a container display rack, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496070
SRC  5
APN  7308124
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761008
TTL  Jewelry organizer or similar article
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  3
NFG  10
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Goldman; Jerrold J.
STR  6 Ridgeway Ter.
CTY  Spring Valley
STA  NY
ZIP  10977
INVT
NAM  Petre; Robert
STR  25 Longspur Rd.
CTY  Yonkers
STA  NY
ZIP  10703
CLAS
OCL  D 6130
XCL  D 6134
ICL  D0604
FSC  D 6
FSS  20;25;28;29;85;114;116;127-130;132;136;140;146;152;158;167;172;175;186;188
     ;189;134
FSC  211
FSS  13;32;45;49 R;49 S;87;88;105.1;106;123;129;131;163;169;181;182
UREF
PNO  D227727
ISD  19730700
NAM  Beder
OCL  D 6130
UREF
PNO  D243490
ISD  19710300
NAM  Reusink
OCL  D 6114
UREF
PNO  2733113
ISD  19560100
NAM  Humbargar
OCL  211 13
UREF
PNO  3032204
ISD  19620500
NAM  Sheinberg
OCL  211 88
UREF
PNO  4047615
ISD  19770900
NAM  Browne
OCL  211 88
LREP
FR2  Lawrence; Lawrence S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a jewelry organizer or similar article showing
      our new design.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevation view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevation view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 5 is a side elevation view taken from the left of FIG. 2.
PAL  FIG. 6 is a side elevation view taken from the right of FIG. 2.
PAL  FIG. 7 is a sectional view taken on line 7--7 of FIG. 2.
PAL  FIG. 8 is a sectional view taken on line 8--8 of FIG. 2.
PAL  FIG. 9 is a reduced isometric view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 10 is a reduced isometric view in the closed position.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a jewelry organizer or similar article,
      substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496089
SRC  5
APN  6955118
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760614
TTL  Display unit or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Wright; Benjamin V.
CTY  El Cerrito
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  Primo Incense Corporation
CTY  Los Angeles
STA  CA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 6146
XCL  D 6188
ICL  D2002
FSC  D 6
FSS  85;143;144;146;157-158;164;166-169;172;174;181;186-189
FSC  206
FSS  44 R;45.11
FSC  248
FSS  174
FSC  211
FSS  126;128
UREF
PNO  D121485
ISD  19400700
NAM  Spanel
OCL  D 6188
UREF
PNO  986395
ISD  19110300
NAM  King
OCL  211126
UREF
PNO  1909473
ISD  19330500
NAM  Keppler
OCL  206 44R
FREF
PNO  789,030
ISD  19580100
CNT  GBX
OCL  D 6146
LREP
FR2  Young; John B.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of the display unit or the like showing
      my new design.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a display unit or the like, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496097
SRC  5
APN  7554915
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761229
TTL  Educational module with swingable end panels
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Dunkins; Bruce W.
NDR  11
NFG  18
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Kramer; Edward J.
STR  19320 Sound View Dr.
CTY  Stanwood
STA  WA
ZIP  98292
RLAP
COD  72
APN  567613
APD  19750414
PSC  04
RLAP
COD  90
APN  567614
APD  19750414
PSC  04
RLAP
COD  90
APN  567706
APD  19750414
PSC  04
CLAS
OCL  D 6157
XCL  D 6181
ICL  D0603
FSC  D 6
FSS  157-180;181;186;190
FSC  D25
FSS  16
FSC  108
FSS  60;61;64;69
FSC  312
FSS  195-198
UREF
PNO  D197651
ISD  19640300
NAM  Sundberg et al.
OCL  D 6180
UREF
PNO  D231062
ISD  19740400
NAM  Kramer
OCL  D 6157
UREF
PNO  D232607
ISD  19740900
NAM  Kramer
OCL  D 6157
UREF
PNO  3858528
ISD  19750100
NAM  Petersen
XCL  D 6157
LREP
FR2  Cole; George M.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a single educational module showing my new
      design with the end panels shown in a closed position.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view of the single educational module of FIG.
      1.
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view of the single educational module of
      FIG. 1.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view of the single educational module of FIG.
      1.
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top plan view of the single educational module of FIG. 1, with
      the end panels shown in an open position.
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view of the single educational module of FIG. 1.
PAL  FIG. 7 is a perspective view of a first educational module cluster showing
      my new design, with the end panels shown in a closed position.
PAL  FIG. 8 is a front elevational view of the first educational module cluster
      of FIG. 7.
PAL  FIG. 9 is a right side elevational view of the first educational module
      cluster of FIG. 7.
PAL  FIG. 10 is a rear elevational view of the first educational module cluster
      of FIG. 7.
PAL  FIG. 11 is a top plan view of the first educational module cluster of FIG.
      7 with the end panels shown in an open position.
PAL  FIG. 12 is a bottom plan view of the first educational module cluster of
      FIG. 7.
PAL  FIG. 13 is an elevational view of the first educational module cluster of
      FIG. 7 taken at an angle of 45.degree. counterclockwise from the front
      elevational view of FIG. 8.
PAL  FIG. 14 is a perspective view of a second educational module cluster
      showing my new design, with the end panels shown in a closed position.
PAL  FIG. 15 is a front elevational view of the second educational module
      cluster of FIG. 14.
PAL  FIG. 16 is a top plan view of the second educational module cluster of FIG.
      14, with the end panels shown in an open position.
PAL  FIG. 17 is a bottom elevational view of the second educational module
      cluster of FIG. 14.
PAL  FIG. 18 is an elevational view of the second educational module cluster of
      FIG. 14, taken at an angle of 45.degree. counterclockwise from the front
      elevational view of FIG. 15.
PAL  Applicant's design of an educational module with swingable end panels is in
      general characterized by (1) a writing panel of generally arcuate
      configuration as shown; (2) elongated cylindrical supports having a
      configuration, and arranged relative to the writing panel, as shown; and
      (3) three back panels arranged relative to the writing panel and the
      cylindrical supports as shown, with two outer back panels being configured
      as shown. The design is particularly characterized by two end panels,
      which are arranged relative to the remainder of the educational module
      precisely as shown, and are configured precisely as shown. The design is
      further particular characterized by the end panels being swingable between
      two positions, as shown.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for an educational module with swingable end panels,
      as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496100
SRC  5
APN  7211686
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761018
TTL  Convenience food service center
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  1
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Burton; Theodore R.
STR  305 Miltwood Rd.
CTY  Greensboro
STA  NC
ZIP  27408
CLAS
OCL  D 6169
XCL  D 6172
XCL  D15 85
ICL  D0604
ICL  D2002
ICL  D1507
FSC  D 6
FSS  85;143-144;146;157-158;164;166-169;172;174;181;184;186-189
FSC  D15
FSS  81;85
FSC  312
FSS  116
FSC  211
FSS  134;135
UREF
PNO  D137791
ISD  19440500
NAM  Doner
OCL  D 6172
UREF
PNO  D243985
ISD  19770400
NAM  Brown
OCL  D15 85
UREF
PNO  3170541
ISD  19650200
NAM  Werner
OCL  312116
LREP
FR2  Rhodes; Charles R.
DRWD
PAL  The sole FIGURE is a front perspective view of a convenience food service
      center showing my new design; the side not shown is identical to that
      shown and the rear, top and bottom are flat and unornamented.
PAL  The words "brand" and "waste" are shown in broken lines for illustrative
      purposes only.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a convenience food service center, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496119
SRC  5
APN  7211678
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761018
TTL  Convenience food service center
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  1
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Burton; Theodore R.
STR  305 Miltwood Rd.
CTY  Greensboro
STA  NC
ZIP  27408
CLAS
OCL  D 6169
XCL  D 6172
ICL  D0604
ICL  D2002
FSC  D 6
FSS  85;143-144;146;157-158;164;166-169;172;174;181;184;186-189
FSC  D15
FSS  81;85
FSC  312
FSS  116
FSC  211
FSS  134;135
UREF
PNO  2826046
ISD  19580300
NAM  Tobiasz
OCL  312116
UREF
PNO  3170541
ISD  19650200
NAM  Werner
OCL  312116
LREP
FR2  Rhodes; Charles R.
DRWD
PAL  The sole FIGURE is a front perspective view of a convenience food service
      center showing my new design; the side not shown is identical to that
      shown and the rear, top and bottom are flat and unornamented.
PAL  The words "brand" and "waste" are shown in broken lines for illustrative
      purposes only.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a convenience food service center, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496127
SRC  5
APN  7211694
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761018
TTL  Convenience food service center
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  1
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Burton; Theodore R.
STR  305 Miltwood Rd.
CTY  Greensboro
STA  NC
ZIP  27408
CLAS
OCL  D 6169
XCL  D16172
XCL  D15 81
ICL  D0604
ICL  D2002
ICL  D1507
FSC  D 6
FSS  85;143-144;146;157-158;164;166-169;172;174;181;184;186-189
FSC  D15
FSS  81;85
FSC  312
FSS  116
FSC  211
FSS  134;135
UREF
PNO  D137791
ISD  19440500
NAM  Doner
OCL  D 6172
UREF
PNO  D244019
ISD  19770400
NAM  Brown
OCL  D15 81
UREF
PNO  3170541
ISD  19650200
NAM  Werner
OCL  312116
LREP
FR2  Rhodes; Charles R.
DRWD
PAL  The sole FIGURE is a front perspective view of a convenience food service
      center showing my new design; the side not shown is identical to that
      shown and the rear, top and bottom are flat and unornamented.
PAL  The words "brand" and "waste" are shown in broken lines for illustrative
      purposes only.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a convenience food service center, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496135
SRC  5
APN  7211708
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761018
TTL  Convenience food service center
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  1
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Burton; Theodore R.
STR  305 Miltwood Rd.
CTY  Greensboro
STA  NC
ZIP  27408
CLAS
OCL  D 6169
XCL  D 6174
XCL  D 6186
ICL  D0604
ICL  D2002
FSC  D 6
FSS  85;143-144;146;157-158;164;166-169;172;174;181;184;186-189
FSC  D15
FSS  81;85
FSC  312
FSS  116
FSC  211
FSS  134;135
UREF
PNO  D137791
ISD  19440500
NAM  Doner
OCL  D 6172
UREF
PNO  D241735
ISD  19761000
NAM  Goetz
OCL  D 6157
UREF
PNO  3170541
ISD  19650200
NAM  Werner
OCL  312116
LREP
FR2  Rhodes; Charles R.
DRWD
PAL  The sole FIGURE is a front perspective view of a convenience food service
      center showing my new design; the side not shown is identical to that
      shown and the rear, top and bottom are flat and unornamented.
PAL  The words "your", "brand", and "waste" are shown in broken lines for
      illustrative purposes only.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a convenience food service center, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496143
SRC  5
APN  7334583
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761018
TTL  Convenience food service center
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  1
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Burton; Theodore R.
STR  305 Miltwood Rd.
CTY  Greensboro
STA  NC
ZIP  27408
RLAP
COD  72
APN  721168
APD  19760907
PSC  04
CLAS
OCL  D 6169
XCL  D 6172
XCL  D 6187
XCL  D15 85
ICL  D0604
ICL  D1507
FSC  D 6
FSS  85;143-144;146;157-158;164;166-169;172;174;181;184;186-189
FSC  D15
FSS  81;85
FSC  312
FSS  116
FSC  211
FSS  134;135
UREF
PNO  D137791
ISD  19440500
NAM  Doner
OCL  D 6172
UREF
PNO  D243985
ISD  19770400
NAM  Brown
OCL  D15 85
UREF
PNO  3170541
ISD  19650200
NAM  Werner
OCL  312116
LREP
FR2  Rhodes; Charles R.
DRWD
PAL  The sole FIGURE is a perspective view of a convenience food service center
      showing my new design, the indicia being shown in broken lines for
      illustrative purposes only; the side not shown is identical to that shown
      and the rear, top and bottom are flat and unornamented.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a convenience food service center, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496151
SRC  5
APN  7207921
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760907
TTL  Knock down display stand
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Frisbey; De Vern C.
STR  8430 SW. Canyon Dr.
CTY  Portland
STA  OR
ZIP  97225
CLAS
OCL  D 6180
XCL  D 6188
ICL  D0604
ICL  D2002
FSC  D 6
FSS  20;25;28;29;85;114;116;127-130;132;136;140;146;152;158;167;172;175;188;186
     ;189;190
FSC  211
FSS  13;32;45;49 R;495;87;88;105.1;106;123;129;131;163;169;181;182
UREF
PNO  D161559
ISD  19510100
NAM  Warp
OCL  D 6 85
UREF
PNO  D162397
ISD  19510300
NAM  Fink
OCL  D 6180
UREF
PNO  2495109
ISD  19500100
NAM  Kramer
OCL  211 49R
UREF
PNO  2691238
ISD  19541000
NAM  Svatos
OCL  211182
LREP
FR2  Klarquist; Kenneth S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a knock down display stand, showing
      my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a knock down display stand, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496160
SRC  5
APN  8119945
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770630
TTL  Stand for potted plants
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Connolly; Joseph B.
STR  9 Pleasant St.
CTY  Waverly
STA  NY
ZIP  14892
CLAS
OCL  D 6182
ICL  D0606
FSC  D 6
FSS  105;114;137;125;182;183
FSC  211
FSS  75
FSC   47
FSS  41 R;41 G;40.5;39
UREF
PNO  D242316
ISD  19761100
NAM  Bowman
OCL  D 6137
OREF
PAL  Gift and Art Buyer, 2/1956, p. 217, Music Wall Planter.
LREP
FR2  Clark; George E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevation view of a stand for potted plants showing my
      new design.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view taken from the left of FIG. 1.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 6 is a side elevational view taken from the right of FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a stand for potted plants, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496178
SRC  5
APN  7761333
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770310
TTL  Combined storage and tying container for newspapers
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Word; George P.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  2
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Bozicnik; Ronald
STR  4017 Grant St.
CTY  Westmont
STA  IL
ZIP  60559
CLAS
OCL  D 6184
XCL  D 6 85
XCL  D 6185
XCL  D 6190
XCL  D 7 72
XCL  D 9171
XCL  D87  1R
ICL  D0604
FSC  D 6
FSS  184;185;85;190
FSC  D 7
FSS  72
FSC  D 9
FSS  171;172;242;243;246;248
FSC  D87
FSS  1 R
FSC  100
FSS  34
FSC  224
FSS  48 R
FSC  211
FSS  50
FSC  206
FSS  503-509
UREF
PNO  D230802
ISD  19740300
NAM  Morita
OCL  D 6184
UREF
PNO  3038403
ISD  19620600
NAM  Orelind
OCL  100 34
UREF
PNO  3171347
ISD  19650300
NAM  Elrod
OCL  100 34
UREF
PNO  3491681
ISD  19700100
NAM  Saro et al.
OCL  100 34
UREF
PNO  3591012
ISD  19710700
NAM  Grady
OCL  211 50
UREF
PNO  3759416
ISD  19730900
NAM  Constantine
OCL  206505
LREP
FR2  McWilliams; Thomas F.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a combined storage and tying container
      for newspapers showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is an end elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined storage and tying container for
      newspapers, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496186
SRC  5
APN  7522622
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761220
TTL  Shelf unit
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Dunkins; Bruce W.
NDR  2
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Oxenhandler; Allan
STR  444 Crest Ave.
CTY  Kirkwood
STA  MO
ZIP  63122
CLAS
OCL  D 6186
ICL  D0604
FSC  D 6
FSS  186-190;85;184;183
UREF
PNO  D209839
ISD  19680100
NAM  Tisdall et al.
OCL  D 6184
UREF
PNO  D243906
ISD  19770400
NAM  Ware
OCL  D 6183
UREF
PNO  D244116
ISD  19770400
NAM  Zola
OCL  D 6186
UREF
PNO  D244165
ISD  19770500
NAM  Palmer
XCL  D 6186
UREF
PNO  D245744
ISD  19770900
NAM  Brooks
OCL  D 6186
UREF
PNO  3244127
ISD  19660400
NAM  Evans
XCL  D 6186
LREP
FR2  Cohn; Lawrence H.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of the shelf unit, showing my new
      design,
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear view thereof, and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side view thereof, the opposite side view being the same.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a shelf unit, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496194
SRC  5
APN  8079862
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770620
TTL  Shirt hanger
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Wolff; Douglas F.
CTY  Marshall
STA  MI
ASSG
NAM  John Thomas Batts, Inc.
CTY  Zeeland
STA  MI
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 6247
ICL  D0608
FSC  D 6
FSS  113;125;247-256
FSC  211
FSS  113;119
FSC  223
FSS  85;87-93;95;96;98;DIG. 1;DIG. 2
UREF
PNO  D158000
ISD  19500400
NAM  Patrick
OCL  D 6247
UREF
PNO  D229148
ISD  19731100
NAM  Rivman
OCL  D 6247
UREF
PNO  3401855
ISD  19680900
NAM  Balzer et al.
OCL  D 6250
LREP
FR2  Price; Peter P.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is an enlarged perspective view of a shirt hanger of my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof taken from the right-hand side of
      FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a side elevational view thereof taken from the right-hand side of
      FIG. 4;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for shirt hanger, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496208
SRC  5
APN  7542577
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761227
TTL  Combined food and beverage tray
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Vigue; Henry R.
CTY  Waterville
STA  ME
ASSG
NAM  Keyes Fibre Company
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 7 38
XCL  D 9187
ICL  D0799
FSC  229
FSS  2.5;4.5 M;29 M;30
FSC  D 9
FSS  184-189;219;242;243
FSC  D 7
FSS  38
UREF
PNO  D170237
ISD  19530800
NAM  Randall
XCL  D 9185
UREF
PNO  D171104
ISD  19531200
NAM  Randall
XCL  D 9185
UREF
PNO  D218554
ISD  19700900
NAM  Goings
OCL  D 9185
UREF
PNO  D236575
ISD  19750900
NAM  Vique
OCL  D 7 38
UREF
PNO  3942671
ISD  19760300
NAM  Florian
XCL  229  2.5R
LREP
FR2  Connolly; Arthur G.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a combined food and beverage tray showing my
      new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a sectional elevational view taken along line 2--2 of FIG. 1; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a sectional elevational view taken along line 3--3 of FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined food and beverage tray, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496216
SRC  5
APN  8239827
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770812
TTL  Deep fat fryer basket
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Herrmann; Winifred E.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Ondrasik, II; Vladimir J.
STR  17044 Westbury Dr.
CTY  Granada Hills
STA  CA
ZIP  91344
CLAS
OCL  D 7 47
XCL  D 7 95
ICL  D0702
FSC  D 7
FSS  41;99;47;85;86;90;94;95;96;97;189;132
FSC   99
FSS  403;413
FSC  D 9
FSS  246;247
FSC  210
FSS  DIG. 8;470;471;485;499
UREF
PNO  D15429
ISD  18841000
NAM  Ayres
XCL  D 7 47
UREF
PNO  1763174
ISD  19300600
NAM  Morris
XCL  210474
UREF
PNO  2581613
ISD  19520100
NAM  Ullrich
XCL  D 9247
UREF
PNO  3380376
ISD  19680400
NAM  Preis
XCL  D 7 95
FREF
PNO  448507
ISD  19480500
CNT  CAX
OCL  D 9247X
FREF
PNO  183864
ISD  19220800
CNT  GBX
OCL  D 9247X
FREF
PNO  254563
ISD  19260700
CNT  GBX
OCL   99403
OREF
PAL  Speedy Clean Cookware-Everedy Cat. 12-17-42, p. 7, French Fry Basket at
      bottom.
PAL  Home Furnishings Daily, Fri., Aug. 14, 1964, p. 6, Item #8, Fry basket in
      Fry Pan at bottom right.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a plan view of the deep fat fryer basket.
PAL  FIG. 2 is an elevational view of the deep fat fryer basket as seen from the
      front thereof.
PAL  FIG. 3 is an elevational view of the deep fat fryer basket as seen from the
      right thereof.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a perspective view of the deep fat fryer basket.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a deep fat fryer basket, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496224
SRC  5
APN  7542593
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761227
TTL  Beverage tray
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Vigue; Henry R.
CTY  Waterville
STA  ME
ASSG
NAM  Keyes Fibre Company
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 7 71
XCL  D 9176
ICL  D0799
FSC  D 7
FSS  3;70;71
FSC  D 9
FSS  176;179
FSC  206
FSS  143;203
UREF
PNO  D174552
ISD  19550400
NAM  Hagen
OCL  D 9176
UREF
PNO  D232295
ISD  19740800
NAM  Vujnovic
XCL  D 7 71
UREF
PNO  D233882
ISD  19741200
NAM  Domnitz
OCL  D 9219
UREF
PNO  D236575
ISD  19750900
NAM  Vique
XCL  D 9187
UREF
PNO  D237686
ISD  19751100
NAM  Torokvei
OCL  D 9179
UREF
PNO  3891084
ISD  19750600
NAM  Elizondo-Garcia
XCL  D 9176
UREF
PNO  3944109
ISD  19760300
NAM  Holz
XCL  D 7 71
LREP
FR2  Connolly; Arthur G.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a beverage tray showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the beverage tray shown in FIG. 1; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a sectional elevational view taken along line 3--3 of FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a beverage tray, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496232
SRC  5
APN  6659578
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760311
TTL  Electronic cooking range
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  3
NFG  8
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Kosako; Mikio
CTY  Osaka
CNT  JPX
ASSG
NAM  Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
CTY  Osaka
CNT  JPX
COD  03
PRIR
CNT  JPX
APD  19751024
APN  50/42776
CLAS
OCL  D 7128
ICL  D0702
FSC  D 7
FSS  128;135
FSC  219
FSS  10.55
FSC  D15
FSS  92;104;108
UREF
PNO  D225578
ISD  19721200
NAM  Miyake
OCL  D 7128
UREF
PNO  D225579
ISD  19721200
NAM  Suganoya et al.
OCL  D 7128
UREF
PNO  D228313
ISD  19730900
NAM  Suganoya et al.
OCL  D 7128
UREF
PNO  D230124
ISD  19740100
NAM  Ludvigsen
OCL  D 7135
UREF
PNO  D236792
ISD  19750900
NAM  Miyake
OCL  D 7128
LREP
FR2  Flehr; Paul D.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of an electronic cooking range showing
      my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view with the door closed;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view with the door open;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a right side view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a rear elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 8 is a bottom view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for an electronic cooking range, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496240
SRC  5
APN  7675194
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770210
TTL  Cover for a canister
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Herrmann; Winifred E.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Solomon; Jack
CTY  Harbor Isle, Island Park
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Pearl-Wick Corporation
CTY  Long Island City
STA  NY
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 7131
XCL  D 7 40
XCL  D 7 79
XCL  D 9254
ICL  D0701
FSC  D 7
FSS  79;80;81;82;131;40;16;17;18;76
FSC  D 9
FSS  140;141;150;154;280;218;254;283
UREF
PNO  D43566
ISD  19130200
NAM  Eichhorn
XCL  D 7 79
UREF
PNO  D155288
ISD  19490900
NAM  Hellberg
OCL  D 7131
UREF
PNO  D192742
ISD  19620500
NAM  Stephens
OCL  D 7 79
UREF
PNO  D219531
ISD  19701200
NAM  Solomon
OCL  D 7131
UREF
PNO  D219611
ISD  19701200
NAM  Swett et al.
OCL  D 7131
UREF
PNO  2731663
ISD  19560100
NAM  Thompson
XCL  D 7131
OREF
PAL  Anchor Hocking Glass Corp., Catalog H, p. 13, Item #372 "2 Gal. Provision
      Jar & Cover", top r.
PAL  Colonial Garden Kitchens, p. 37, "Martini Icer" #2607, top left.
LREP
FR2  Lerner; Henry R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a cover for a canister, showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is an elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken along line 5--5 of FIG. 2.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a cover for a canister, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496259
SRC  5
APN  715481&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760818
TTL  Spoon or similar article of flatware
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Herrmann; Winifred E.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Seibel; Ben
CTY  New York
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Oxford Hall Silversmiths, Ltd.
CTY  New York
STA  NY
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 7137
ICL  D0703
FSC  D 7
FSS  137;138;140;141;142;143;147;148;149;150;151;152;132
FSC  D 8
FSS  107
UREF
PNO  D22564
ISD  18930600
NAM  Boutwell
OCL  D 7137
OREF
PAL  H. Nils Danish Silver Cat., p. 13 "Ripple" Pattern.
PAL  J.C.-K Flatware Pattern Directory 1973, Georg Jensen Inc. Sterling,
      "Pyramid".
LREP
FR2  Collard; Allison C.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevation view of a spoon or similar article of flatware
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken along section 3--3 of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along section 4--4 of FIG. 1; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along section 5--5 of FIG. 1.
PAL  The design of the handle is intended for use with spoons, knives, forks and
      other articles of flatware.
PAL  The back of the handle is similar to the front of the handle, as shown in
      FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a spoon or similar article of flatware,
      substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496267
SRC  5
APN  7155964
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760818
TTL  Spoon or similar article of flatware
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Herrmann; Winifred E.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Seibel; Ben
CTY  New York
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Oxford Hall Silversmiths, Ltd.
CTY  New York
STA  NY
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 7137
XCL  D 7151
ICL  D0703
FSC  D 7
FSS  137;138;140;141;142;143;147;148;149;150;151;152;132
FSC  D 8
FSS  107
UREF
PNO  D59405
ISD  19211000
NAM  Bernstein
OCL  D 7137
UREF
PNO  D63815
ISD  19240100
NAM  Barney
OCL  D 7137
UREF
PNO  D83198
ISD  19310200
NAM  Herndon
XCL  D 8107
UREF
PNO  D114096
ISD  19390400
NAM  Zimmer
OCL  D 7132
UREF
PNO  D236419
ISD  19750800
NAM  Sebring
OCL  D 7137
UREF
PNO  D238997
ISD  19760300
NAM  Sneidman
OCL  D 7137
LREP
FR2  Collard; Allison C.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevation view of a spoon or similar article of flatware
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an end view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken along section 4--4 of FIG. 1.
PAL  The handle design is intended for use with spoons, knives, forks and other
      articles of flatware.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a spoon or similar article of flatware,
      substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496275
SRC  5
APN  8352488
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770920
TTL  Electric iron stand or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Otsuji; Tadao
STR  1856 Ninth Ave.
CTY  Honolulu
STA  HI
ZIP  96816
CLAS
OCL  D 7205
ICL  D0799
FSC  D 7
FSS  205
FSC  248
FSS  117.1;117.2;117.3;117.4;117.5;117.6;117.7
UREF
PNO  D151668
ISD  19481100
NAM  Wriede et al.
OCL  D 7205
UREF
PNO  2485472
ISD  19491000
NAM  Baxter
OCL  248117.6
UREF
PNO  2791390
ISD  19570500
NAM  Grommons
OCL  248117.2
UREF
PNO  3550888
ISD  19701200
NAM  Lehrman
OCL  248117.2
LREP
FR2  Berman; Stanford W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an electric iron stand or the like showing
      my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof, shown on a smaller scale;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view, the opposite side being a mirror image
      thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a front elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for an electric iron stand or the like, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496283
SRC  5
APN  7356749
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761026
TTL  Housing for plant turntable
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Levine; Robert F.
STR  13107 Mindinao Way
CTY  Marina Del Rey
STA  CA
ZIP  90291
CLAS
OCL  D 8  1
XCL  D 6183
ICL  D0606
FSC  D 8
FSS  1
FSC   47
FSS  39;71
FSC  248
FSS  131;349
FSC  D 6
FSS  181;182-183
FSC  D96
FSS  1;2
FSC  D11
FSS  164
UREF
PNO  D191809
ISD  19611100
NAM  Robbins
OCL  D 6181
UREF
PNO  3360885
ISD  19680100
NAM  St. Clair
OCL   47 39
UREF
PNO  3479632
ISD  19691100
NAM  Galles
OCL  248349
UREF
PNO  4026067
ISD  19770500
NAM  Wengel
OCL   47 71
LREP
FR2  Lande; Gary E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top frontal perspective view of a housing for plant turntable
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a bottom rear perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a housing for plant turntable, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496291
SRC  5
APN  7690193
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770216
TTL  Folding control handle for lawn and garden implement
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Droegemuller; Walter H.
CTY  Arlington Heights
STA  IL
ASSG
NAM  The Toro Company
CTY  Minneapolis
STA  MN
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 8  1
ICL  D0805
FSC  D15
FSS  12;18;28
FSC  D 8
FSS  5-8;1
FSC   16
FSS  110 R;111 R;111 A;112;114 R;125
UREF
PNO  2096940
ISD  19371000
NAM  Platt
OCL   16110R
OREF
PAL  Hardware Age, 4/76, p. 159, Auxiliary Handle on Edger-Trimmer, upper left
      side of page.
LREP
FR2  Johnson; Vernon A.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a folding control handle for lawn and
      garden implement embodying my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a rear elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a folding control handle for lawn and garden
      implement, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496305
SRC  5
APN  7175043
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760824
TTL  Rotary lawn edger, trimmer or similar article
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Ballas; George C.
CTY  Houston
STA  TX
ASSG
NAM  Weed Eater, Inc.
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 8  8
ICL  D0803
FSC  D 8
FSS  8
FSC  172
FSS  13;15;16;18
FSC   30
FSS  264;276;347;DIG. 1;DIG. 5
UREF
PNO  D219006
ISD  19701000
NAM  Gale et al.
OCL  D 8  8
UREF
PNO  D221507
ISD  19710800
NAM  Bunyea
OCL  D 8  8
UREF
PNO  3959879
ISD  19760600
NAM  Sellers
OCL   30276
UREF
PNO  4047299
ISD  19770900
NAM  Bair
OCL   30276
OREF
PAL  Hardware Age, 8/75, p. 184, Lawn Trimmer, top left side of page.
LREP
FR2  Bard; Edmund F.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a rotary lawn edger, trimmer or
      similar article embodying my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is an isometric view thereof.
PAL  The handle has been omitted in FIGS. 3 and 4 for convenience of
      illustration.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a rotary lawn edger, trimmer or similar article,
      substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496313
SRC  5
APN  7412835
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761111
TTL  Scissors
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Herrmann; Winifred E.
NDR  2
NFG  8
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Hellmann; Reiner
CTY  Solingen
CNT  DEX
ASSG
NAM  Wilhelm Boos, Jr. (GmbH & Co.)
CTY  Solingen
CNT  DEX
COD  03
PRIR
CNT  DEX
APD  19760612
APN  5 MR 8681
CLAS
OCL  D 8 57
ICL  D0803
FSC  D 8
FSS  57;5;52;53;55;56;58
FSC   30
FSS  253;254;255;256;257;259;341;260
UREF
PNO  D236080
ISD  19750700
NAM  Hopcraft
OCL  D 8 57
UREF
PNO  D238245
ISD  19751200
NAM  Backstrom
OCL  D 8 57
UREF
PNO  3486227
ISD  19691200
NAM  Somervell
XCL  D 8 57
FREF
PNO  2249577
ISD  19740400
CNT  DEX
OCL   30340
OREF
PAL  Sew Business, Apr. 1975, p. 25, "Serra-Lite" by Marks Specialties, Inc.,
      Scissors shown.
LREP
FR2  Farber; Martin A.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a plan view of a front side of scissors showing my design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a right side elevational view of the scissors of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a left side elevational view of the scissors of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a front view taken in a direction viewed towards the tips of the
      blades of the scissors of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear view taken in a direction viewed towards the handles of
      the scissors of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a plan view of the other or rear side of the scissors of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a side elevational view of the right handle portion viewed along
      the lines 7--7 of FIG. 6 with the rear portion of the blade being broken
      off for clarity;
PAL  FIG. 8 is a side elevational view of the left handle portion viewed along
      the lines 8--8 of FIG. 6 with the rear portion of the blade being broken
      off for clarity of illustration.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for scissors, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496321
SRC  5
APN  7413300
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761112
TTL  Sheet metal working tool
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Douglas; Alan P.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Meis; William J.
STR  6 Valley Dr.
CTY  Crescent
STA  IA
ZIP  51526
CLAS
OCL  D 8 70
XCL  D 8 14
ICL  D0805
FSC  D 8
FSS  14;70;75
FSC   72
FSS  705;76
FSC  113
FSS  54;57;58
UREF
PNO  3194022
ISD  19650700
NAM  Dougherty
UCL  D 8 14
UREF
PNO  3487669
ISD  19700100
NAM  Kemp
OCL   72 76
LREP
FR2  Strom; Louis J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the sheet metal working tool showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevation view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevation view at a 90.degree. angle to FIG. 2 and;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a sheet metal working tool, substantially as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496330
SRC  5
APN  7784910
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770317
TTL  Ski lock device
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Sasaki; George N.
STR  P.O. Box 61121
CTY  Sunnyvale
STA  CA
ZIP  94088
CLAS
OCL  D 8331
XCL  D 8334
ICL  D0807
FSC  D 8
FSS  333;334;343;344;331
FSC   70
FSS  58;57;19
FSC  280
FSS  11.37 K;11.37 A
UREF
PNO  3727934
ISD  19730400
NAM  Averbook et al.
OCL   70 58
UREF
PNO  3742740
ISD  19730700
NAM  Pyzel
OCL   70 58
UREF
PNO  3962893
ISD  19760600
NAM  Anderson
OCL   70 58
UREF
PNO  4011740
ISD  19770300
NAM  Ljungberg
OCL   70 58
LREP
FR2  Hamrick; Claude A. S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view of a ski lock device showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the bottom half of the ski lock device;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view of FIG. 2, the rear being substantially
      a mirror image thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a left side elevational view of FIG. 2, the right side being
      substantially a mirror image thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view of FIG. 2.
PAL  The top half of the ski lock device as viewed in top plan and front, rear,
      left and right side elevation is substantially identical to those views of
      the bottom half of the ski lock device shown in FIGS. 2, 3 and 4
      respectively.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a ski lock device, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496348
SRC  5
APN  6946593
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760610
TTL  Bearing cover plate for a vertical bar cam lock
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Pastva, Jr.; John V.
CTY  Parma Heights
STA  OH
ASSG
NAM  The Eastern Company
CTY  Naugatuck
STA  CT
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 8346
ICL  D0807
FSC  D 8
FSS  343;346;339;341
FSC  292
FSS  241;218;145;DIG. 32
UREF
PNO  1140517
ISD  19150500
NAM  Lewis
OCL  292218
UREF
PNO  2204753
ISD  19400600
NAM  Dwyer
OCL  292218
UREF
PNO  2625421
ISD  19530100
NAM  Haseltine
OCL  292218
UREF
PNO  3572794
ISD  19710300
NAM  Pastva
OCL  292218
UREF
PNO  3695661
ISD  19721000
NAM  Pastva
OCL  292DIG.32
UREF
PNO  3737183
ISD  19730600
NAM  Pastva, Jr.
OCL  292218
UREF
PNO  3756671
ISD  19730900
NAM  White
OCL  292218
UREF
PNO  3912312
ISD  19751000
NAM  Cerutti
OCL  292DIG.32
UREF
PNO  4014138
ISD  19770300
NAM  White
OCL  292218
FREF
PNO  7,847 OF
ISD  18940000
CNT  GBX
OCL  292145
LREP
FR2  Hoffmann; James T.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a bearing cover plate embodying my
      new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof to an enlarged scale;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof to an enlarged scale;
PAL  FIG. 4 is an end elevational view thereof to an enlarged scale looking from
      the top as viewed in FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 5 is an end elevational view thereof to an enlarged scale looking from
      the bottom as viewed in FIG. 2; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a rear elevational view thereof to an enlarged scale.
PAL  The broken line showing the bearing back plate, vertical bar, cam latch and
      keeper in FIG. 1 is for illustrative purposes only.
PAL  The characteristic feature of my design resides in the specific
      configuration of the sides of the bearing cover plate.
DCLM
PAR  An ornamental design for bearing cover plate for a vertical bar cam lock,
      substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496356
SRC  5
APN  6935699
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760607
TTL  Bottle
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Elliott; Barry J.
CTY  Shirley
CNT  GB2
ASSG
NAM  Azlon Products Ltd.
CTY  London
CNT  GB2
COD  03
PRIR
CNT  GBX
APD  19760224
APN  974610/76
CLAS
OCL  D 9 71
ICL  D0901
FSC  D 9
FSS  18;59-71;162;164
UREF
PNO  D113434
ISD  19390200
NAM  Petty
OCL  D 9162
UREF
PNO  D121270
ISD  19400700
NAM  Calhoun
OCL  D 9 18
UREF
PNO  D213305
ISD  19690200
NAM  O'Brien et al.
OCL  D 9 60
UREF
PNO  D235812
ISD  19750700
NAM  Barr
OCL  D 9 59
UREF
PNO  D242223
ISD  19761100
NAM  Welker
OCL  D 9 71
UREF
PNO  D245149
ISD  19770700
NAM  Hartung
OCL  D 9 60
LREP
FR2  Collard; Allison C.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a bottle showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is an elevational view looking from the left of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an elevational view looking from the right of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a horizontal sectional view taken in the line 6--6 of FIG. 1; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a longitudinal sectional view taken on the line 7--7 of FIG. 4.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a bottle, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496364
SRC  5
APN  7481527
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761206
TTL  Bottle
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Wolstenholme; Donald A.
CTY  Harrogate
CNT  GB2
ASSG
NAM  Saml. Smith Old Brewery (Tadcaster) Limited
CTY  Tadcaster
CNT  GB2
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D 9159
ICL  D0901
FSC  D 9
FSS  146-148;151;159
FSC  215
FSS  1 R;1 C
UREF
PNO  D36226
ISD  19030200
NAM  Schilling
OCL  D 9151
UREF
PNO  D80868
ISD  19300400
NAM  Gallagher
OCL  D 9159
UREF
PNO  D100230
ISD  19360600
NAM  Steelman
OCL  D 9151
UREF
PNO  D229746
ISD  19740100
NAM  McPhee
OCL  D 9159
UREF
PNO  D241012
ISD  19760800
NAM  Abadal
OCL  D 9151
UREF
PNO  3182839
ISD  19650500
NAM  Hoag
XCL  D 9159
LREP
FR2  Laubscher; Lawrence E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is an elevational view of a bottle showing my new design, the
      opposite side being the same in appearance;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the bottle; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of the bottle of my new design.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a bottle, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496372
SRC  5
APN  7407750
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761111
TTL  Dispenser for razor blade cartridges
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Iten; Clemens A.
CTY  Staunton
STA  VA
ASSG
NAM  American Safety Razor Company
CTY  Verona
STA  VA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 9187
ICL  D0903
FSC  D 9
FSS  184-189
FSC  D87
FSS  1 D
FSC  206
FSS  352;557-567
UREF
PNO  D224997
ISD  19721000
NAM  Petrillo
OCL  D 9187
UREF
PNO  D226553
ISD  19730300
NAM  Glaberson
OCL  D 9189
LREP
FR2  Helferich; Elmer R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a dispenser for razor blade cartridges
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a bottom perspective view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an end elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevational view with the dispenser for razor blade
      cartridges standing on its end; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top plan view on an enlarged scale.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a dispenser for razor blade cartridges, as shown
      and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496380
SRC  5
APN  7542569
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761227
TTL  Packing tray for fluorescent tubes
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Chadbourne; Gilbert R.
CTY  Oakland
STA  ME
ASSG
NAM  Keyes Fibre Company
STA  ME
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 9189
ICL  D0903
FSC  D 9
FSS  185-189;294
FSC  206
FSS  418;443;521;585-589
UREF
PNO  D172665
ISD  19540700
NAM  Emery
OCL  D 9189
UREF
PNO  D180396
ISD  19570600
NAM  Emery
OCL  D 9187
UREF
PNO  D217541
ISD  19700500
NAM  Vigue
OCL  D 9187
UREF
PNO  D233416
ISD  19741000
NAM  Jansen
OCL  D 9187
UREF
PNO  3163312
ISD  19641200
NAM  Chaplin
XCL  206443
UREF
PNO  3708084
ISD  19730100
NAM  Bixler et al.
XCL  206443
LREP
FR2  Connolly; Arthur G.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a packing tray for fluoresecent tubes showing
      my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a sectional elevational view taken along line 2--2 of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 3 is rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is an end elevational view thereof and;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a cross-sectional view taken along line 5--5 of FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a packing tray for fluorescent tubes, as shown
      and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496399
SRC  5
APN  732670&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761015
TTL  Display package
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Hogg; John W. L.
CTY  Benton Harbor
STA  MI
INVT
NAM  Heaton; G. Norman
CTY  Elkhart
STA  IN
ASSG
NAM  Shepherd Products U.S. Inc.
CTY  St. Joseph
STA  MI
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 9193
XCL  D 9224
ICL  D0903
FSC  D 9
FSS  193;224
FSC  206
FSS  44 R;45.31
UREF
PNO  D208671
ISD  19670900
NAM  Lang
OCL  D 9224
UREF
PNO  1725372
ISD  19290800
NAM  Richman
XCL  D 9224
UREF
PNO  1809335
ISD  19310600
NAM  Golden
XCL  D 9224
UREF
PNO  3608705
ISD  19710900
NAM  Moshel
OCL  206 45.31
UREF
PNO  4020694
ISD  19770500
NAM  Mayhew
XCL  206461
LREP
FR2  McWilliams; Thomas F.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a display package showing our new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a side elevational view; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a rear elevational view thereof.
PAL  The side elevational view opposite to that shown in FIG. 5 is a mirror
      image of the side elevation illustrated in FIG. 5.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a display package, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496402
SRC  5
APN  6124747
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19750911
TTL  Combined packaging container and lid therefor
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  3
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Edwards; Frederick Harold
CTY  Mentone
CNT  AUX
ASSG
NAM  Vinyl Clad Proprietary Limited
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D 9220
XCL  D 9240
XCL  D 9281
ICL  D0903
FSC  220
FSS  306
FSC  150
FSS  0.5
FSC  D 9
FSS  240;220;267;216;254;281
FSC  D 7
FSS  16;17
UREF
PNO  D239999
ISD  19760500
NAM  Christian
OCL  D 9220
UREF
PNO  3421681
ISD  19690100
NAM  Frank
XCL  D 9281
UREF
PNO  3609263
ISD  19710900
NAM  Clementi
OCL  220306
LREP
FR2  Bucknam; Ralph E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a combined packaging container and lid
      therefor showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is an elevational view with the lid removed;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view with the lid removed;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a fragmentary view partially in section taken on the line 4--4 of
      FIG. 3;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top plan view of the lid;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view of the lid; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a fragmentary sectional view taken on the line 7--7 of FIG. 6.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined packaging container and lid therefor.
PATN
WKU  D02496410
SRC  5
APN  7359330
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761027
TTL  Dispensing container or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  2
NFG  8
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Dali; Carmelo P.
CTY  Cheshire
STA  CT
ASSG
NAM  American Home Products Corp.
CTY  New York
STA  NY
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 9224
ICL  D0903
FSC  D 9
FSS  224;222;237-240;191
FSC  229
FSS  17 R;17 G;22;6 R;11;7 R
FSC  D87
FSS  1 R
FSC  206
FSS  389;411;409
UREF
PNO  3627118
ISD  19711200
NAM  Daggs
XCL  D 9191
UREF
PNO  3913786
ISD  19751000
NAM  Kartasuk
XCL  206409
UREF
PNO  3944072
ISD  19760300
NAM  Budington et al.
XCL  206409
LREP
FR2  Routh; John W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a dispensing container or the like
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a side elevational view showing the side opposite that seen in
      FIG. 4;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a rear elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a front perspective view on a reduced scale; and
PAL  FIG. 8 is a fragmentary perspective view of one of the corners thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a dispensing container or the like, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496429
SRC  5
APN  709597&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760729
TTL  Dispensing top for granulated material
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Ames; John B.
STR  100 Valley Rd.
CTY  Marion
STA  AL
ZIP  36756
CLAS
OCL  D 9257
ICL  D0907
FSC  D 9
FSS  275;278;279;207;208;281
FSC  D 7
FSS  54
FSC  222
FSS  525;480-481
FSC  220
FSS  200
FSC  215
FSS  200;355
UREF
PNO  D206915
ISD  19670200
NAM  Amburgey
OCL  D 9257
UREF
PNO  D244091
ISD  19720700
NAM  Swartzbaugh
OCL  D 9257
UREF
PNO  3100589
ISD  19630800
NAM  Love, Jr.
XCL  D 9257
UREF
PNO  3317087
ISD  19670500
NAM  Landis
XCL  D 9257
LREP
FR2  Jeffery; Donald D.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a dispensing top for granulated
      material showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof looking from the right of FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top view thereof, and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a dispensing top for granulated material, as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496437
SRC  5
APN  675404&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760409
TTL  Closure or similar article
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Smith; Ernest L.
CTY  Kansas City
STA  MO
ASSG
NAM  Phillips Petroleum Company
CTY  Bartlesville
STA  OK
COD  02
RLAP
COD  72
APN  588122
APD  19750618
PSC  03
CLAS
OCL  D 9267
ICL  D0907
FSC  D 9
FSS  254;267
FSC  220
FSS  200
FSC  229
FSS  2.5;1.5 B;43
FSC  215
FSS  200;316-317
UREF
PNO  D207356
ISD  19670400
NAM  McCormick
OCL  D 9267
UREF
PNO  D239437
ISD  19760400
NAM  Boduch
OCL  D 9267
UREF
PNO  3112841
ISD  19631200
NAM  Martinelli
XCL  D 9267
UREF
PNO  3362565
ISD  19680100
NAM  McCormick
XCL  D 9267
UREF
PNO  3401825
ISD  19680900
NAM  Weiss
XCL  D 9267
LREP
FR2  Quigg; Donald J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a closure or similar article showing one
      embodiment of my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of the closure or similar article of FIG.
      1; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view taken on line 3--3 in FIG. 2.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a closure or similar article, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496445
SRC  5
APN  7138121
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760812
TTL  Dispensing closure for condiment bottles
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Herrmann; Winifred E.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Oeckl; Rudolf L.
STR  c/o Englebert Knipfler, 262-15 Hillside Ave.
CTY  Floral Park
STA  NY
ZIP  11004
CLAS
OCL  D 9275
XCL  D 7 52
ICL  D0907
FSC  D 7
FSS  52;54;55;57
FSC  D 9
FSS  275;290;279;218
FSC  222
FSS  566;567;568
UREF
PNO  D49049
ISD  19160500
NAM  Bostwick
OCL  D 7 52
UREF
PNO  D172777
ISD  19540800
NAM  Bernabo et al.
OCL  D 9275
UREF
PNO  2535837
ISD  19501200
NAM  Coyle
OCL  222566
UREF
PNO  2660355
ISD  19531100
NAM  Allen
XCL  222566
UREF
PNO  2734665
ISD  19560200
NAM  Flamm
XCL  222568
FREF
PNO  4435 OF
ISD  19120000
CNT  GBX
OCL  222566
LREP
FR2  Temko; Charles E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a dispensing closure for condiment
      bottles showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a central longitudinal sectional view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a dispensing closure for condiment bottles,
      substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496453
SRC  5
APN  7123043
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760806
TTL  Paint can attachment
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Tedesco; Edward
CTY  Fort Lauderdale
STA  FL
ASSG
NAM  Tedco Products
CTY  Fort Lauderdale
STA  FL
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D 9289
ICL  D0999
FSC  D 9
FSS  289;290
FSC  222
FSS  566-571
UREF
PNO  D126200
ISD  19410400
NAM  Eisenberg
OCL  D 9290
UREF
PNO  2873881
ISD  19590200
NAM  Nichols
XCL  D 9290
UREF
PNO  2960257
ISD  19601100
NAM  Sasse
XCL  D 9289
UREF
PNO  3994424
ISD  19761100
NAM  Koeller
OCL  222570
LREP
FR2  Pollock; Elliott I.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a paint can attachment showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a bottom plan view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentary cross-sectional view taken on line 4--4
      of FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a paint can attachment, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496461
SRC  5
APN  6637310
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760304
TTL  Pouring spout
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Ritter; John C.
STR  12645 Duchess
CTY  Detroit
STA  MI
ZIP  48224
CLAS
OCL  D 9290
ICL  D0907
FSC  222
FSS  571-574;566-570
FSC  D 9
FSS  290
UREF
PNO  1708416
ISD  19290400
NAM  Herburger, Sr.
OCL  222566
UREF
PNO  3120912
ISD  19640200
NAM  Mount et al.
OCL  222567
UREF
PNO  3154226
ISD  19641000
NAM  Petitto
OCL  222528
UREF
PNO  3491924
ISD  19700100
NAM  Bloomfield et al.
XCL  D 9290
UREF
PNO  3853249
ISD  19741200
NAM  Weir, Jr.
OCL  222570
LREP
FR2  Basile; Andrew R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a pouring spout showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a right-side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left-side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a rear elevational view; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a pouring spout, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496470
SRC  5
APN  6818099
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760430
TTL  Pouring spout for a container
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Spangler; Robert C.
NDR  1
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Goodall; Donald T.
STR  30 Beach St.
CTY  Blakehurst, Sydney, New South Wales
CNT  AUX
PRIR
CNT  AUX
APD  19751104
APN  68068/75
PRIR
CNT  AUX
APD  19751124
APN  68166/75
CLAS
OCL  D 9290
ICL  D0999
FSC  D 9
FSS  290
FSC  222
FSS  566-570
UREF
PNO  D194717
ISD  19630200
NAM  Purviance
OCL  D 9290
UREF
PNO  D205924
ISD  19661000
NAM  Zelisko
OCL  D 9290
UREF
PNO  D206360
ISD  19661100
NAM  Pastorius
OCL  D 9290
UREF
PNO  D217233
ISD  19700400
NAM  Stehl
OCL  D 9290
UREF
PNO  D247350
ISD  19780200
NAM  Witt
XCL  D 9290
UREF
PNO  2552154
ISD  19510500
NAM  Danielson
XCL  D 9290
LREP
FR2  Groff; Emory L.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a pouring spout for a container
      embodying my new design; and
PAL  FIG. 2 is a bottom perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a pouring spout for a container, substantially as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496488
SRC  5
APN  6251544
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19751023
TTL  Clock body
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Geitenbeek; Theodoor W.
STR  16 Dulcie Grove
CTY  Moorabbin, 3189 Victoria
CNT  AUX
CLAS
OCL  D10  1
ICL  D1001
FSC  D10
FSS  1-2;15;20-26;122
FSC   58
FSS  53-56
UREF
PNO  D90793
ISD  19330900
NAM  Wrench
OCL  D10 20
UREF
PNO  D235138
ISD  19750500
NAM  Blessing
OCL  D10 23
UREF
PNO  3604200
ISD  19710900
NAM  Sapper
XCL  D10  1
LREP
FR2  Waters; Eric H.
DRWD
PAL  This application relates to the ornamental design of a clock body
      illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
PAL  FIG. 1 is a right rear perspective view of a clock body showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a right front perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a clock body, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496496
SRC  5
APN  7577281
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770107
TTL  Universal calendar clock
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  4
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Ohtani; Takashi
CTY  Chofu
CNT  JPX
ASSG
NAM  Realtone Electronics, Inc.
CTY  Tokyo
CNT  JPX
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D10  3
XCL  D10 15
XCL  D10 10
ICL  D1001
FSC  D10
FSS  1;2;3;15;10;21;24-27
FSC  D14
FSS  68;71;72;73
FSC   58
FSS  152 R;425;43;44;23 R;4 R
UREF
PNO  D226322
ISD  19730200
NAM  Wills
OCL  D10  3
UREF
PNO  D229437
ISD  19731100
NAM  Miyamoto
XCL  D10 10
UREF
PNO  D229959
ISD  19740100
NAM  Christie
OCL  D14 73
UREF
PNO  D239091
ISD  19760300
NAM  Toyoshima
OCL  D10 15
UREF
PNO  D243619
ISD  19770300
NAM  Olsson
XCL  D10 10
LREP
FR2  Klauber; Stefan J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a universal calendar clock showing my
      new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a universal calendar clock, substantially as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496500
SRC  5
APN  7519079
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761217
TTL  Digital clock
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Schoenfeld; Mark J.
STR  4037 W. Garden Dr.
CTY  Phoenix
STA  AZ
ZIP  85029
CLAS
OCL  D10  6
XCL  D10 12
XCL  D10 15
ICL  D1001
FSC  D10
FSS  6;12;15
FSC  116
FSS  116;129
FSC  D12
FSS  209
FSC   58
FSS  50 R;50 A;152 R
UREF
PNO  D232432
ISD  19740800
NAM  Clary
OCL  D12209
UREF
PNO  3726250
ISD  19730400
NAM  Merk
OCL  116116
UREF
PNO  3845562
ISD  19741100
NAM  Dallas
OCL   33169R
LREP
FR2  Von Hellens; C. Robert
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a left front perspective view of a digital clock showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof.
PAL  The numerals 12:00 are typical time indicators in FIGS. 1 and 2.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a digital clock, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496518
SRC  5
APN  7484410
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761208
TTL  Digital clock
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  1
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Hirosawa; Nobuyoshi
CTY  Chofu
CNT  JPX
ASSG
NAM  Kabushiki Kaisha Sankyo Seiki Seisakusho
CTY  Shimosuwa
CNT  JPX
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D10 15
XCL  D14 73
ICL  D1001
FSC  D10
FSS  1;2;15;24-27
FSC  D14
FSS  73
FSC   58
FSS  53-56;50 R;50 A
UREF
PNO  D222162
ISD  19711000
NAM  Tsukamoto
OCL  D14 73
UREF
PNO  D241771
ISD  19761000
NAM  Yamamura
OCL  D10 15
OREF
PAL  European Jeweler-4/73-p. 113-Dig. Clock at top right.
LREP
FR2  Sughrue; Richard C.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front, top and right side perspective view of a digital clock
      showing my new design; and
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear, bottom and left side perspective view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a digital clock, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496526
SRC  5
APN  737559&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761101
TTL  Casing for a timer controlled thermostat or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  McElroy; Jerry W.
CTY  St. Louis County
STA  MO
INVT
NAM  Kerper; Michael A.
CTY  Richmond Heights
STA  MO
ASSG
NAM  Emerson Electric Co.
CTY  St. Louis
STA  MO
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D10 51
XCL  D10 40
XCL  D10 60
ICL  D1004
FSC  D10
FSS  49;50;51;52;53;57;60;30;31;40
FSC   58
FSS  152 R
FSC  236
FSS  46 R
FSC  337
FSS  301
UREF
PNO  D151905
ISD  19481100
NAM  Kronmiller
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D185598
ISD  19590600
NAM  Dreyfuss
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D191955
ISD  19611200
NAM  Briggs
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D205006
ISD  19660600
NAM  Federico
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D213800
ISD  19690400
NAM  Bieger
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D235197
ISD  19750500
NAM  Cross
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  4041325
ISD  19770800
NAM  Angott
OCL  236 46R
UREF
PNO  4045760
ISD  19770800
NAM  Marquis
OCL  337301
LREP
FR2  Becker, Sr.; Paul A.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a casing for a timer controlled
      thermostat or the like showing our new design, the rear being
      substantially flat, plain and unornamented;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a casing for a timer controlled thermostat or the
      like, substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496534
SRC  5
APN  7377258
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761101
TTL  Casing for a timer controlled thermostat or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  McElroy; Jerry W.
CTY  St. Louis County
STA  MO
INVT
NAM  Kerper; Michael A.
CTY  Richmond Heights
STA  MO
ASSG
NAM  Emerson Electric Co.
CTY  St. Louis
STA  MO
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D10 51
XCL  D10 40
XCL  D10 60
ICL  D1004
FSC  D10
FSS  49;50;51;52;53;57;60;30;31;40
FSC   58
FSS  152 R
FSC  236
FSS  46 R
FSC  337
FSS  301 R
UREF
PNO  D151905
ISD  19481100
NAM  Kronmiller
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D185598
ISD  19590600
NAM  Dreyfuss
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D191955
ISD  19611200
NAM  Briggs
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D205006
ISD  19660600
NAM  Federico
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D213800
ISD  19690400
NAM  Bieger
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  D235197
ISD  19750500
NAM  Cross
OCL  D10 51
UREF
PNO  4041325
ISD  19770800
NAM  Angott
OCL  236 46R
UREF
PNO  4045760
ISD  19770800
NAM  Marquis
OCL  337301
LREP
FR2  Becker, Sr.; Paul A.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a casing for a timer controlled
      thermostat or the like showing our new design, the rear being
      substantially flat, plain and unornamented;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a casing for a timer controlled thermostat or the
      like, substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496542
SRC  5
APN  7417462
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761115
TTL  Moisture meter
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Shaper; Stephen J.
STR  P.O. Box 125
CTY  Houston
STA  TX
ZIP  77001
CLAS
OCL  D10 53
XCL  D10 56X
ICL  D1004
FSC  D10
FSS  46;52;53;56;57;60;75;77;78;80;81;102;103
FSC   73
FSS  73;335;336;336.5
FSC  116
FSS  116
FSC  324
FSS  61;61 P;65;157;149
UREF
PNO  D190096
ISD  19610400
NAM  Wayne
OCL  D10 56
UREF
PNO  D245585
ISD  19770800
NAM  Bru
OCL  D10 56
UREF
PNO  3522732
ISD  19700800
NAM  Bauer
OCL   73336.5
UREF
PNO  4069716
ISD  19780100
NAM  Vanasco
OCL   73 73
OREF
PAL  Retailing Home Furnishings, 1/17/77 Sec. 3 p. 54, Plant Meter at right.
LREP
FR2  Pravel; B. R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a moisture meter showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a moisture meter, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496550
SRC  5
APN  6933769
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760607
TTL  Faucet connector size guide
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  1
NFG  8
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Gullaksen; Gregory G.
CTY  Frankfort
STA  IL
INVT
NAM  Lordahl; Var E.
CTY  Chicago
STA  IL
ASSG
NAM  Beatrice Foods Co.
CTY  Chicago
STA  IL
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D10 64
ICL  D1004
FSC  D10
FSS  64;61;62;74
FSC  D19
FSS  37;40
FSC   33
FSS  178 B;199;178 R
UREF
PNO  D104867
ISD  19370600
NAM  McIntosh
OCL  D10 64
UREF
PNO  1881651
ISD  19321000
NAM  Judge
XCL  D10 64
UREF
PNO  3218724
ISD  19651100
NAM  Schaumberger
OCL   33199
UREF
PNO  3406461
ISD  19681000
NAM  Gunderson
OCL   33199
UREF
PNO  3858325
ISD  19750100
NAM  Goerler
OCL   33178B
OREF
PAL  Plastic Merchandising, 2/52, p. 31, Gauge at bottom-left.
LREP
FR2  Bicknell; Albert W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a faucet connector size guide showing
      our new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a left side elevational view as taken from line 4--4 of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a right side elevational view as taken from line 5--5 of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top edge view of FIG. 2 as taken from line 6--6;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a cross sectional view of FIG. 2 as taken from line 7--7; and
PAL  FIG. 8 is a cross sectional view of FIG. 2 as taken from line 8--8.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a faucet connector size guide, substantially as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496569
SRC  5
APN  7580525
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770110
TTL  Aircraft navigation plotter
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  2
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Mihail; Marcus A.
STR  6832 Antigua Way
CTY  Sacramento
STA  CA
ZIP  95831
CLAS
OCL  D10 65
XCL   33  1SD
ICL  D1004
FSC  D10
FSS  61;65;67
FSC  D64
FSS  11 C
FSC   33
FSS  1 SB;1 SD
UREF
PNO  D201385
ISD  19650600
NAM  Pelletier
OCL  D10 65
UREF
PNO  D201829
ISD  19650800
NAM  Marcoline
OCL  D10 65
UREF
PNO  2404386
ISD  19460700
NAM  Levine
XCL  D10 65
UREF
PNO  2916207
ISD  19591200
NAM  Vohland
OCL   33  1SD
UREF
PNO  3110965
ISD  19631100
NAM  Kittock
OCL   33  1SD
UREF
PNO  3643333
ISD  19720200
NAM  Pepper
OCL   33  1SD
UREF
PNO  3724079
ISD  19730400
NAM  Jasperson
OCL   33  1SD
UREF
PNO  3745313
ISD  19730700
NAM  Spilhaus
OCL   33  1SD
UREF
PNO  3844042
ISD  19741000
NAM  Hodge
OCL   33  1SD
LREP
FR2  West; Robert G.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of an aircraft nagivation plotter showing my new
      design, the lower circular transparent disc having been rotated for
      exemplary purposes, so that 265.degree. is indexed at the diamond on the
      subjacent opaque base plate and the arrows on the uppermost substantially
      semi-circular transparent plate point respectively to 115.degree. and
      295.degree. on the underlying circular transparent disc;
PAL  FIG. 2 is an elevational view of one side edge, the elevational view of the
      opposite side edge being substantially a mirror image thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an elevational view of one end edge of FIG. 4, the elevational
      view of the other end edge being substantially a mirror image thereof;
      and,
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for an aircraft navigation plotter, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496577
SRC  5
APN  7585071
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770111
TTL  Golf tee level
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Griffiths; Leighton E.
STR  325 Pompton Ave.
CTY  Pompton Lakes
STA  NJ
ZIP  07442
CLAS
OCL  D10 69
XCL   33390
XCL  D34  5CB
ICL  D1004
FSC  D10
FSS  69;62
FSC   33
FSS  390
FSC  D34
FSS  5 CB;5 GT
UREF
PNO  D155684
ISD  19491000
NAM  Crawford
XCL  D10 62
UREF
PNO  2723126
ISD  19551100
NAM  Spluvak
OCL   33390
UREF
PNO  3101554
ISD  19630800
NAM  Gottula
OCL   33390
UREF
PNO  3186101
ISD  19650600
NAM  Wolpert
OCL   33390
LREP
FR2  Witherspoon, Jr.; Fred L.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of my golf tee level,
PAL  FIG. 2 is an elevational view of the device of FIG. 1,
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view of the device of FIG. 1,
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view of the device of FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a golf tee level, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496585
SRC  5
APN  7100914
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760730
TTL  Telephone carrier equipment multitester
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Holtje; Nelson C.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Fields; Gary C.
CTY  Oakland
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  Leemah Electronics, Inc.
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D10 78
ICL  D1004
FSC  D10
FSS  46;75;78;102;103
FSC  324
FSS  72.5;156;115 R;73 R
FSC  D13
FSS  21;32-34;37;40;49
UREF
PNO  D124210
ISD  19401200
NAM  Soderberg
OCL  D10102
UREF
PNO  D212306
ISD  19680900
NAM  Minix
OCL  D10102
OREF
PAL  New Equip Digest - 4/77-p. 84- Alarm at bottom.
LREP
FR2  Wickersham; Robert E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a right front perspective view of a telephone carrier equipment
      multitester showing my new design.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a right side elevational view thereof, the left side being
      substantially a mirror image thereto;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a telephone carrier equipment multitester,
      substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496593
SRC  5
APN  6955207
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760614
TTL  Plaque
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Zarfas; Louis S.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Balzano; Alfiero F.
STR  606 N. Acacia
CTY  Fullerton
STA  CA
ZIP  92631
CLAS
OCL  D11132
ICL  D1102
FSC  D11
FSS  131;132;141;164
FSC  D 6
FSS  232;233;240;241;242;244
FSC  428
FSS  13;14
UREF
PNO  D28048
ISD  18971200
NAM  Tourny
XCL  D11 95
UREF
PNO  D184141
ISD  19581200
NAM  Mook
OCL  D 6242
OREF
PAL  Circuits Manufacturing, Feb. 1972, p. 32--Printed Circuit Board at left.
LREP
FR2  Marrs; Roger A.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a plaque showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a fragmentary section taken on line 3--3 of FIG. 1.
PAL  The bottom plan view of the plaque is plain and unornamented.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a plaque, substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496607
SRC  5
APN  8476772
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19771101
TTL  Holder for floral arrangement
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Bullock; B. J.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Meyer; Gene
STR  12 Quay Ct.
CTY  Centerport
STA  NY
ZIP  11721
CLAS
OCL  D11149
XCL  D11143
ICL  D1102
FSC  D11
FSS  143-146;148;152;153;154;155;156;164;149
FSC   47
FSS  66;69;72;83;85-87;41 R;41.11;41.12;41 SS
UREF
PNO  2702441
ISD  19550200
NAM  Jones
OCL   47 41.12
UREF
PNO  2850826
ISD  19580900
NAM  Testa
OCL   47 41.12
UREF
PNO  4004367
ISD  19770100
NAM  O'Connell
OCL   47 41.12
LREP
FR2  Loveman; Edward H.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a holder for floral arrangement
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view taken from the right of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a holder for floral arrangement, substantially as
      shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496615
SRC  5
APN  7042493
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760712
TTL  Combined coin chest and coin
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Zarfas; Louis S.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  2
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Goodwin; David C.
STR  1258 Rosita Rd.
CTY  Pacifica
STA  CA
ZIP  94044
CLAS
OCL  D11157
XCL  D 9193
XCL  D 9235
XCL  D87  1B
ICL  D1102
FSC  D 9
FSS  193;230;231;235
FSC  D87
FSS  1 B
FSC  D11
FSS  80;157
FSC  428
FSS  13;14
FSC   63
FSS  1 R-2;18-21;23
FSC  206
FSS  0.8-0.82
UREF
PNO  D44633
ISD  19130900
NAM  Flauder
OCL  D87  1B
UREF
PNO  D178896
ISD  19561000
NAM  Meyer
OCL  D87  1B
UREF
PNO  D234339
ISD  19750200
NAM  Shiffman
OCL  D 9230
UREF
PNO  1123650
ISD  19150100
NAM  Anderson
OCL  206  0.81
FREF
PNO  1,400,076
ISD  19750700
CNT  GBX
OCL  206  0.82
LREP
FR2  Puishes; Alfons
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of the combined coin chest and coin
      showing my new design.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view of the coin chest of FIG. 1.
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view of the coin chest with the cover in a closed
      position.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view of the coin chest with the cover in a
      closed position.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined coin chest and coin, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496623
SRC  5
APN  7779461
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770302
TTL  Bowling ball caddy
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Word; George P.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Morley; Blanche A.
STR  3401 N. Franklin
CTY  Stockton
STA  CA
ZIP  95204
CLAS
OCL  D12 33
ICL  D1202
FSC  D87
FSS  1 R;5 R;5 D
FSC  D12
FSS  33;32;34;23
FSC  280
FSS  10;79.1;79.2;47.17;47.19;47.24;47.13 R;47.37
FSC  190
FSS  18 A
UREF
PNO  D125988
ISD  19410300
NAM  Anderson
OCL  D87  5D
UREF
PNO  D157597
ISD  19500300
NAM  Huber
OCL  D12 34
UREF
PNO  2984499
ISD  19610500
NAM  Humphrey
OCL  D12 32
UREF
PNO  3830514
ISD  19740800
NAM  Green
OCL  280 47.19
UREF
PNO  3873119
ISD  19750300
NAM  Koch
OCL  D12 34
UREF
PNO  3934895
ISD  19760100
NAM  Fox
OCL  190 18A
UREF
PNO  4066156
ISD  19780100
NAM  Basile
OCL  D87  5D
LREP
FR2  Brown, Jr.; Elton H.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a bowling ball caddy showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a left side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a right side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top plan view thereof with the cover in an open position.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a bowling ball caddy, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496631
SRC  5
APN  6284051
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19751103
TTL  Container cradle for a hydraulic cane dumper
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Willett; Harold A.
STR  P.O. Box 968
CTY  Thibodaux
STA  LA
ZIP  70301
CLAS
OCL  D12 60
ICL  D1205
FSC  D12
FSS  58;60
FSC  214
FSS  314;61;750;130 A;130 R;312;700;149
FSC  198
FSS  158;157
UREF
PNO  952108
ISD  19100300
NAM  Gilleland
OCL  214149
UREF
PNO  2781929
ISD  19570200
NAM  Uhrich
OCL  214314
UREF
PNO  2854126
ISD  19580900
NAM  Rosenberger, Jr.
OCL  214 61
FREF
PNO  1,225,842
ISD  19600200
CNT  FRX
OCL  214 61
LREP
FR2  Laiche; Calvin J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is an isometric view of a container cradle for a hydraulic cane
      dumper showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a container cradle for a hydraulic cane dumper,
      as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496640
SRC  5
APN  6656056
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760310
TTL  Mounting bracket for fishing outrigger pole
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Word; A Hugo
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Hall; Lloyd V.
STR  238 S. Florette
CTY  Anaheim
STA  CA
ZIP  92804
CLAS
OCL  D12 70
XCL  D 8363
XCL  D22 13
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  155;70
FSC  248
FSS  538;535;534;279
FSC   43
FSS  21.2
FSC  D22
FSS  13;14
FSC  D 8
FSS  363
UREF
PNO  D171175
ISD  19531200
NAM  Wells
OCL  D12 70
UREF
PNO  D198395
ISD  19640600
NAM  Gusdorf
XCL  D 8363
OREF
PAL  Goldberg's Marine Discount Accessory Catalog 76, c. 1975, p. 191, item B,
      junior wishbone outrigger.
LREP
FR2  Knobbe; Louis J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of said mounting bracket for fishing
      outrigger pole;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a right side view of said mounting bracket for fishing outrigger
      pole;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom view of said mounting bracket for fishing outrigger
      pole;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a back side view of said mounting bracket for fishing outrigger
      pole;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side view taken along line 5--5 of FIG. 1 of said mounting
      bracket for fishing outrigger pole; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top view of said mounting bracket for fishing outrigger pole.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a mounting bracket for fishing outrigger pole, as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496658
SRC  5
APN  7614403
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770121
TTL  Front discharge mixer truck
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  3
NFG  8
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Silbernagel; Frederick J.
CTY  Huron
STA  SD
ASSG
NAM  Forward, Inc.
CTY  Huron
STA  SD
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D12 95
ICL  D1504
FSC  D15
FSS  19
FSC  D12
FSS  95
FSC  259
FSS  161;172;173;175-176
OREF
PAL  popular Science, 8/76, p. 67, Mixer, top right side of page.
PAL  Commercial Car Journal, 8/75, p. 114, Oshkosh Front-End Mixer.
PAL  Construction Methods & Equipment, 2/75, p. 12, TC, Mixer.
PAL  1974 American Rite-Way Truck Corp. Brochure, Mixer, front page.
LREP
FR2  Johnson; Clayton R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a front discharge mixer truck
      embodying my new design it being understood that the opposite side is
      substantially a mirror image thereof;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view thereof taken along line 5--5 in
      FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a side elevational view of a front discharge mixer truck showing
      a second embodiment of my new design, the difference being in the length
      thereof and the addition of a pair of rear wheels, it being understood
      that the opposite side is substantially a mirror image thereof;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a front elevational view of FIG. 6; and
PAL  FIG. 8 is a rear elevational view of FIG. 6.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a front discharge mixer truck, substantially as
      shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496666
SRC  5
APN  7751737
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770307
TTL  Cargo trailer
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  4
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Thompson; Noel G.
STR  2517-3 Abbey Dr.
CTY  Fort Wayne
STA  IN
ZIP  46815
CLAS
OCL  D12 97
XCL  D12102
ICL  D1210
FSC  D12
FSS  102;97
FSC  296
FSS  28 M;24 R
FSC  280
FSS  402;406 A;424;423 R;423 A;433
OREF
PAL  industrial Equipment News, 2/75, P 104, Commercial Trailer, upper left side
      of page.
PAL  R. V. Dealer, 9/74, P 78, Commerical Fifth Wheel, Trailer, bottom right
      side of page.
LREP
FR2  Lundy; David A.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a rear elevational view of a cargo trailer showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top rear and side perspective view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a front and side perspective view thereof opposite to that shown
      in FIG. 4.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a cargo trailer, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496674
SRC  5
APN  7751729
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770307
TTL  Combined travel and horse trailer
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  5
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Thompson; Noel G.
STR  2517-3 Abbey Dr.
CTY  Fort Wayne
STA  IN
ZIP  46815
CLAS
OCL  D12103
XCL  D12 97
ICL  D1210
FSC  D12
FSS  102;103;97
FSC  296
FSS  23 R;28 M
FSC  280
FSS  402;406 A;424;423 R;423 A;433
UREF
PNO  D229402
ISD  19731100
NAM  Edler
OCL  D12103
UREF
PNO  3574388
ISD  19710400
NAM  Stone
OCL  296 23R
UREF
PNO  3893711
ISD  19750700
NAM  Goodwin
OCL  280423R
OREF
PAL  R. V. Dealer, 8/76, p. 75, Mobile Home, top of page.
PAL  R. V. Dealer, 10/76, p. 49, 5th Wheel Trailer, center of page.
LREP
FR2  Lundy; David A.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a rear elevational view of a combined travel and horse trailer
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top, rear and right side perspective view thereof with the side
      doors in open condition; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a front and left side perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined travel and horse trailer, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496682
SRC  5
APN  7628692
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770127
TTL  Tricycle
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Penner; Herbert
STR  Box 97
CTY  Turpin
STA  OK
ZIP  73950
INVT
NAM  Penner; Philip
STR  Box 97
CTY  Turpin
STA  OK
ZIP  73950
CLAS
OCL  D12112
ICL  D1211
FSC  D12
FSS  112
FSC  280
FSS  267;282;261;270
UREF
PNO  D145135
ISD  19460700
NAM  Hecht
OCL  D12112
UREF
PNO  D224126
ISD  19720700
NAM  Huley
OCL  D12112
FREF
PNO  19654 OF
ISD  18960000
CNT  GBX
OCL  280282
LREP
FR2  Dunlap; Jerry J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a right side elevational view of the tricycle showing my new
      design.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a left side elevational view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a tricycle, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496690
SRC  5
APN  7361939
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761027
TTL  Infant walking trainer
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  3
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Kassai; Kenzou
CTY  Higashishimizu
CNT  JPX
ASSG
NAM  Kassai Kabushikikaisha
CTY  Higashishimizu
CNT  JPX
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D12130
ICL  D1212
FSC  D12
FSS  130
FSC  280
FSS  87.02 W;649
FSC  297
FSS  5;6
FSC  272
FSS  70.3;70
UREF
PNO  D240518
ISD  19760700
NAM  Ishida
OCL  D12130
OREF
PAL  1973 Sears Fall & Winter Catalog, p. 918, Walker-Jumper 5, center left side
      of page.
LREP
FR2  Browdy; Alvin
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of an infant walking trainer showing my
      new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a right side elevational view thereof, the left side being
      substantially a mirror image of the right side shown herein.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for an infant walking trainer, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496704
SRC  5
APN  7866860
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770411
TTL  Behind seat storage compartment for trucks or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  VanderWaal; Jack C.
CTY  Sumner
STA  WA
ASSG
NAM  Sea-Lect Products Inc.
CTY  Kent
STA  WA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D12155
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  155-157
FSC  296
FSS  37.1;37.6;37.8;37.14;37.15;37.16
FSC  224
FSS  29 R;29 D;42.42 R;42.42 A
UREF
PNO  D205448
ISD  19660800
NAM  Grove
OCL  D12155
UREF
PNO  1412680
ISD  19220400
NAM  Fuller
OCL  224 42.42R
UREF
PNO  2934374
ISD  19600400
NAM  Mortenson et al.
OCL  296 37.16
UREF
PNO  3326596
ISD  19670600
NAM  La Spina
OCL  296 37.16
LREP
FR2  DeVogel; Nicolaas
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a behind seat storage compartment for
      trucks or the like showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a right side elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a behind seat storage compartment for trucks or
      the like, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496712
SRC  5
APN  7866879
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770411
TTL  Behind seat storage compartment for trucks or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  VanderWaal; Jack C.
CTY  Sumner
STA  WA
ASSG
NAM  Sea-Lect Products Inc.
CTY  Kent
STA  WA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D12155
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  155-157
FSC  296
FSS  37.1;37.6;37.8;37.14;37.15;37.16
FSC  224
FSS  29 R;29 D;42.42 R;42.42 A
UREF
PNO  D205448
ISD  19660800
NAM  Grove
OCL  D12155
UREF
PNO  1412680
ISD  19220400
NAM  Fuller
OCL  224 42.42R
UREF
PNO  2934374
ISD  19600400
NAM  Mortenson et al.
OCL  296 37.16
UREF
PNO  3326596
ISD  19670600
NAM  La Spina
OCL  296 37.16
LREP
FR2  DeVogel; Nicolaas
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a behind seat storage compartment for
      trucks or the like showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a right side elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a behind seat storage compartment for trucks or
      the like, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496720
SRC  5
APN  7866887
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770411
TTL  Behind seat storage compartment for trucks or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  VanderWaal; Jack C.
CTY  Sumner
STA  WA
ASSG
NAM  Sea-Lect Products Inc.
CTY  Kent
STA  WA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D12155
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  155-157
FSC  296
FSS  37.1;37.6;37.8;37.14;37.15;37.16
FSC  224
FSS  29 R;29 D;42.42 R;42.42 A
UREF
PNO  D205448
ISD  19660800
NAM  Grove
OCL  D12155
UREF
PNO  1412680
ISD  19220400
NAM  Fuller
OCL  224 42.42R
UREF
PNO  2934374
ISD  19600400
NAM  Mortenson et al.
OCL  296 37.16
UREF
PNO  3326596
ISD  19670600
NAM  La Spina
OCL  296 37.16
LREP
FR2  DeVogel; Nicolaas
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a behind seat storage compartment for
      trucks or the like showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a right side elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for behind seat storage compartment for trucks or the
      like, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496739
SRC  5
APN  7915853
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770427
TTL  Automobile armrest
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Cortez; Robert S.
STR  1617 Pomona Ave.
CTY  San Jose
STA  CA
ZIP  95110
CLAS
OCL  D12155
XCL  D 6194
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  155
FSC  D87
FSS  1 R
FSC  D 6
FSS  194
FSC  248
FSS  118
FSC  296
FSS  153
FSC  297
FSS  194;413;415
UREF
PNO  D76952
ISD  19281100
NAM  Payton
OCL  D12155
UREF
PNO  D204999
ISD  19660600
NAM  Edwards
OCL  D12155
UREF
PNO  D213102
ISD  19690100
NAM  Berg
OCL  D12155
UREF
PNO  1426787
ISD  19220800
NAM  Spencer
OCL  297413
UREF
PNO  1760450
ISD  19300500
NAM  Taylor
OCL  296153
UREF
PNO  1873414
ISD  19320800
NAM  Jarvis
OCL  297413
UREF
PNO  3068048
ISD  19621200
NAM  Mahon et al.
OCL  D12155
UREF
PNO  3603637
ISD  19710900
NAM  DePinto
OCL  297413
FREF
PNO  1,016,138
ISD  19520800
CNT  FRX
OCL  296153
LREP
FR2  Hamrick; Claude A. S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an automobile armrest showing the front,
      top and left side of my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a left side elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevation view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for an automobile armrest, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496747
SRC  5
APN  7138660
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760812
TTL  Automobile top attachment
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Tamura; Jeffrey K.
STR  14540 Delano St.
CTY  Van Nuys
STA  CA
ZIP  91401
INVT
NAM  Grundfor; Scott I.
STR  14163 Friar St.
CTY  Van Nuys
STA  CA
ZIP  91401
CLAS
OCL  D12156
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  156
FSC  296
FSS  23 MC;23 R;23 A;23 E;10;26;27;99;100;102;137 R;137 B
FSC  224
FSS  42.1 R
FSC  135
FSS  1 A
UREF
PNO  D230261
ISD  19740200
NAM  Woodward
OCL  D12156
UREF
PNO  3198571
ISD  19650800
NAM  Majeski
OCL  296 26
UREF
PNO  3781059
ISD  19731200
NAM  Davis
OCL  296 27
UREF
PNO  3879080
ISD  19750400
NAM  Freeman
OCL  296 24R
LREP
FR2  Sepulveda; Victor
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of an automobile top attachment showing
      our new design, the broken lines being for illustrative purposes only;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevational view thereof, the opposite side being a mirror
      image of the side shown herein;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a front elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a rear elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for an automobile top attachment, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496755
SRC  5
APN  7937024
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770504
TTL  Truck bed closure
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  3
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Mashigan; Charles
CTY  Redford
STA  MI
ASSG
NAM  American Motors Corporation
CTY  Southfield
STA  MI
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D12156
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  156
FSC  296
FSS  10;23 MC;24 R;99 R;100
UREF
PNO  3903663
ISD  19750900
NAM  Bainter et al.
OCL  D12156
OREF
PAL  Popular Mechanics, 3/77, p. 107, Truck bed cover, top right side of page.
PAL  Diamond Toppers Flyer, Truck bed cover.
LREP
FR2  Barnard; Richard P.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevation view of a truck bed closure showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof.
PAL  The broken lines in the drawing are for illustrative purposes only.
PAL  The side opposite to that shown in FIG. 1 is substantially a mirror image
      thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a truck bed closure, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496763
SRC  5
APN  7108109
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760802
TTL  Luggage carrier for bicycles or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Pletscher; Oskar
CTY  Marthalen
CNT  CHX
ASSG
NAM  Gebruder Pletscher
CTY  Marthalen
CNT  CHX
COD  03
PRIR
CNT  CHX
APD  19760220
APN  62544/76
CLAS
OCL  D12158
ICL  D1211
FSC  D12
FSS  158
FSC  224
FSS  32 A;32 R;39;37;38
FSC  D10
FSS  111
FSC  350
FSS  307;97;99
UREF
PNO  D203064
ISD  19651100
NAM  Schreckengost
OCL  D12158
UREF
PNO  3905678
ISD  19750900
NAM  Blasy et al.
OCL  350 97
UREF
PNO  3963158
ISD  19760600
NAM  Clenet
OCL  224 32A
FREF
PNO  211,586
ISD  19401200
CNT  CHX
OCL  224 32A
OREF
PAL  American Bicyclist & Motorcyclist, 11/74, p. 87, Luggage Carrier, second
      row up from bottom of page.
PAL  American Bicyclist & Motorcyclist, 3/75, p. 9, Pletscher Light Alloy
      Carrier, center right side of page.
PAL  American Bicyclist & Motorcyclist, 4/76, p. 91, Lug-A-Pac, top of page.
LREP
FR2  Kleeman; Werner W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a luggage carrier for bicycles or the like
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof looking from the right of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevational view thereof showing the side opposite to that
      shown in FIG. 3;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a front elevational view thereof.
PAL  The characteristic feature of my design resides in the specific appearance
      of the skirt attached to the rear of the luggage carrier.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a luggage carrier for bicycles or the like, as
      shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496771
SRC  5
APN  7768788
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770311
TTL  Truck tailgate
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Cline; Ted L.
STR  Box 37
CTY  Rush Springs
STA  OK
ZIP  73082
CLAS
OCL  D12196
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  196
FSC  296
FSS  50;51;56;57 R
UREF
PNO  3148912
ISD  19640900
NAM  Curtis et al.
OCL  296 50
LREP
FR2  Laney; William R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a rear elevational view of a truck tailgate embodying my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 3 is an end elevational view thereof, the opposite end being
      substantially a mirror image of the end shown herein.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a truck tailgate, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496780
SRC  5
APN  7383193
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761102
TTL  Molded wheel
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Rotheiser; Jordan I.
CTY  Highland Park
STA  IL
ASSG
NAM  American Wheel & Engineering Co., Inc.
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D12204
XCL  D12135
XCL  D12148
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  204;212;135;148;150;210
FSC   16
FSS  45
FSC  301
FSS  63 R;63 PW;64 R;64 SD;65;66;37 R;37 TP
UREF
PNO  D221424
ISD  19710800
NAM  Golden
OCL  D12135
UREF
PNO  D239457
ISD  19760400
NAM  Chesler
OCL  D12210
UREF
PNO  2597881
ISD  19520500
NAM  Lyon
OCL  301 37TP
UREF
PNO  3888545
ISD  19750600
NAM  Braun
OCL  301 63R
UREF
PNO  3907370
ISD  19750900
NAM  Bard
OCL  301 63PW
LREP
FR2  Dressler; Max
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a molded wheel showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an end elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a sectional view thereof taken along lines 4--4 of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the front thereof.
PAL  The dot-dash lines in the drawing are to indicate that the ribbed pattern
      which is partially shown is repeated throughout the circumference of the
      wheel.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a molded wheel, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496798
SRC  5
APN  7385560
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761103
TTL  Molded wheel
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Rotheiser; Jordan I.
CTY  Highland Park
STA  IL
ASSG
NAM  American Wheel & Engineering Co., Inc.
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D12204
XCL  D12135
XCL  D12148
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  204;212;135;148;150;210
FSC   16
FSS  45
FSC  301
FSS  63 R;63 PW;64 R;64 SD;65;66;37 R;37 TP
UREF
PNO  D221424
ISD  19710800
NAM  Golden
OCL  D12135
UREF
PNO  D239457
ISD  19760400
NAM  Chesler
OCL  D12210
UREF
PNO  2597881
ISD  19520500
NAM  Lyon
OCL  301 37TP
UREF
PNO  3888545
ISD  19750600
NAM  Braun
OCL  301 63R
UREF
PNO  3907370
ISD  19750900
NAM  Bard
OCL  301 63PW
LREP
FR2  Dressler; Max
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a molded wheel showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an end elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a sectional view thereof taken along lines 4--4 of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 5 is an enlarged fragmentary perspective view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a perspective view of the front thereof.
PAL  The dot-dash lines in the drawing are to indicate that the ribbed pattern
      which is partially shown is repeated throughout the circumference of the
      wheel.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a molded wheel, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496801
SRC  5
APN  7975902
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770516
TTL  Wheel
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Smith; Bruce N.
STR  c/o Spherex Inc.
CTY  Seabrook
STA  NH
ZIP  03874
CLAS
OCL  D12205
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  205;204
FSC  301
FSS  58;59;63 R;63 PW;64 R;64 SD;65;66;73;74;79;86
UREF
PNO  D214728
ISD  19690700
NAM  Reid
OCL  D12205
UREF
PNO  D221833
ISD  19710900
NAM  Haydock et al.
OCL  D12204
UREF
PNO  D224221
ISD  19720700
NAM  DePuydt et al.
OCL  D12205
LREP
FR2  Blodgett; Norman S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of the wheel showing my new design,
PAL  FIG. 2 is a sectional view thereof taken on the line II--II of FIG. 1,
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view thereof,
PAL  FIG. 4 is a right side elevational view thereof,
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof,
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top plan view thereof, and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a wheel, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496810
SRC  5
APN  7719418
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770225
TTL  Bicycle light generator
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Lucas; Susan J.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Glasenapp; Werner
CTY  Essen
CNT  DEX
INVT
NAM  Glasenapp; Jorg
CTY  Essen
CNT  DEX
ASSG
NAM  Union Sils, van de Loo & Co.
CTY  Frondenberg
CNT  DEX
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D13  2
ICL  D1301
FSC  240
FSS  7.1 R;7.55;7.6
FSC  D48
FSS  32 R;24 A
FSC  322
FSS  1
FSC  D13
FSS  1;2;3
FSC  310
FSS  75 C
UREF
PNO  3894281
ISD  19750700
NAM  Bloomfield
OCL  322  1
FREF
PNO  1068298
ISD  19540200
CNT  FRX
OCL  310 75C
FREF
PNO  161538
ISD  19571200
CNT  SEX
OCL  362193
LREP
FR2  Fogiel; Max
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top view of the bicycle light generator, in accordance with the
      present invention;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a view of one side of the bicycle light generator;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front view of the bicycle light generator;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a view of the side of the light generator, opposite to the side
      shown in FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear view of the bicycle light generator; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a view of the bottom of the bicycle light generator.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for bicycle light generator, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496828
SRC  5
APN  8123063
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770701
TTL  Combination microphone, speaker and control unit for a radio transceiver
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Ansher; Bernard
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Kushida; Keizo
CTY  Hirakata
CNT  JPX
INVT
NAM  Ohta; Kikuo
CTY  Katano
CNT  JPX
INVT
NAM  Fujimoto; Munenori
CTY  Neyagawa
CNT  JPX
INVT
NAM  Igo; Toshio
CTY  Katano
CNT  JPX
ASSG
NAM  Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.
CTY  Kadoma
CNT  JPX
COD  03
PRIR
CNT  JPX
APD  19770112
APN  52-707
CLAS
OCL  D14 12
XCL  325 15
XCL  D14 94
ICL  D1401
FSC  D14
FSS  12;99;68;94;95
FSC  325
FSS  15;16;118;25;183;391
FSC  179
FSS  115 R;121 R;122;179
UREF
PNO  D195957
ISD  19630800
NAM  Darien
OCL  D14 12
UREF
PNO  D203187
ISD  19651200
NAM  Deschamps
OCL  D14 12
UREF
PNO  4032844
ISD  19770600
NAM  Imazeki
OCL  325 15
LREP
FR2  Sughrue; Richard C.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front and right side perspective view of a combination
      microphone, speaker and control unit for a radio transceiver showing our
      new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear, bottom and left side perspective view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a right side view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combination microphone, speaker and control
      unit for a radio transceiver, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496836
SRC  5
APN  6616372
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760226
TTL  Loudspeaker
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Ansher; Bernard
NDR  3
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Rams; Dieter
CTY  Kronberg
CNT  DEX
ASSG
NAM  Braun AG
CTY  Frankfurt am Main
CNT  DEX
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D14 33
ICL  D1401
FSC  D14
FSS  33;37;34
FSC  181
FSS  150;155;147;146;153;144;152;156
FSC  312
FSS  7
FSC  179
FSS  1 E
UREF
PNO  D131483
ISD  19420300
NAM  Rockola
OCL  D14 37
UREF
PNO  D214321
ISD  19690600
NAM  Dvern
OCL  D14 33
UREF
PNO  D225748
ISD  19730100
NAM  Boldt et al.
OCL  D14 33
UREF
PNO  D233842
ISD  19401200
NAM  Petroff
OCL  D14 33
UREF
PNO  3765504
ISD  19731000
NAM  Itoh
OCL  181155
LREP
FR2  Striker; Michael J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevation of a loudspeaker showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a right-side elevation thereof, the undisclosed opposite side
      being a mirror image of the side shown;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevation thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top-plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom-plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a front elevation of a modified embodiment of the loudspeaker
      illustrated in FIG. 1; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a loudspeaker, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496844
SRC  5
APN  6932789
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760607
TTL  Loudspeaker
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Ansher; Bernard
NDR  2
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Rams; Dieter
CTY  Kronberg
CNT  DEX
ASSG
NAM  Braun A G
CTY  Frankfurt am Main
CNT  DEX
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D14 33
ICL  D1401
FSC  181
FSS  148;150;155;147;146;153;144;152;156
FSC  179
FSS  1 E
FSC  312
FSS  7
FSC  D14
FSS  37;33
UREF
PNO  D131482
ISD  19420300
NAM  Rockola
OCL  D14 37
UREF
PNO  D233842
ISD  19741200
NAM  Petroff
OCL  D14 33
UREF
PNO  3371742
ISD  19680300
NAM  Norton et al.
OCL  181153
UREF
PNO  3967065
ISD  19760600
NAM  Ward
OCL  181148
LREP
FR2  Striker; Michael J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of my design, showing also one side
      thereof;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view of my design, showing also the same side
      as in FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an elevation showing the side not visible in FIGS. 1 and 2;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view of my design; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a loudspeaker, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02496860
SRC  5
APN  6994296
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760624
TTL  Modular document processing encoder
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Clayton; Richard G.
CTY  Detroit
STA  MI
INVT
NAM  Schade; Robert C.
CTY  Farmington Hills
STA  MI
ASSG
NAM  Burroughs Corporation
CTY  Detroit
STA  MI
COD  02
RLAP
COD  72
APN  574724
APD  19750505
PSC  03
CLAS
OCL  D14 44
ICL  D1402
FSC  D14
FSS  40;41;42;43;44;47
UREF
PNO  D205513
ISD  19660800
NAM  Hockenberry
OCL  D14 47
UREF
PNO  D236351
ISD  19750800
NAM  Clayton et al.
OCL  D14 43
UREF
PNO  D238492
ISD  19760100
NAM  Clayton
OCL  D14 44
UREF
PNO  D243956
ISD  19770400
NAM  Clayton et al.
OCL  D14 43
LREP
FR2  Peterson; Kevin R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a modular document processing encoder
      showing our new design; and
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a modular document processing encoder,
      substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496879
SRC  5
APN  756631&
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770104
TTL  Radio transceiver and the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Ansher; Bernard
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Imazeki; Kazuyoshi
CTY  Tokyo
CNT  JPX
ASSG
NAM  General Research of Electronics, Inc.
CTY  Tokyo
CNT  JPX
COD  03
CLAS
OCL  D14 68
XCL  D14 94
XCL  D14 95
XCL  D14 52
ICL  10403
FSC  D14
FSS  94;68;95;52
FSC  325
FSS  119;353;355;21;16
UREF
PNO  D226316
ISD  19730200
NAM  Seiden
OCL  D14 68
UREF
PNO  D235449
ISD  19750600
NAM  Holcomb
OCL  D14 68
UREF
PNO  D237893
ISD  19751200
NAM  Wennerstrom
OCL  D14 68
UREF
PNO  D244615
ISD  19770600
NAM  Mariol
OCL  D14 68
UREF
PNO  D244697
ISD  19770600
NAM  Tokiyama
OCL  D14 95
OREF
PAL  Radio Shack 1976, .COPYRGT. 1975, p. 160, Base/Mobile CB 2-Way Radio,
      Bottom of page.
LREP
FR2  Trexler; Richard R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a radio transceiver and the like
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevation of the transceiver; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevation thereof.
PAL  The undisclosed rear side is plane and unornamented.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a radio transceiver and the like, substantially
      as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496887
SRC  5
APN  689769&
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760525
TTL  Paper take-up reel for web fed facsimile transceiver or the like
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  3
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Hughes; Robert E.
CTY  Lewisville
STA  TX
ASSG
NAM  Xerox Corporation
CTY  Stamford
STA  CT
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D14 94
ICL  D1499
FSC  D14
FSS  50;94
FSC  D64
FSS  11
FSC  358
FSS  256;296;300;304
FSC  242
FSS  67.1 R;67.3 R
UREF
PNO  3113742
ISD  19631200
NAM  Bevan et al.
OCL  242 67.1R
UREF
PNO  3338531
ISD  19670800
NAM  Novotny
OCL  242 67.3R
UREF
PNO  3857527
ISD  19741200
NAM  Kranz
XCL  242 67.3R
UREF
PNO  4030677
ISD  19770600
NAM  Wojdyla et al.
XCL  242 67.3R
LREP
FR2  Ralabate; James J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a paper take-up reel for a web fed
      facsimile transceiver or the like, showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a left-hand end view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a right-hand end view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a paper take-up reel for a web fed facsimile
      transceiver or the like, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496895
SRC  5
APN  7418604
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761115
TTL  CB Radio transceiver
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Wisherd; David S.
CTY  Monte Sereno
STA  CA
INVT
NAM  Mieth; Stephen L.
CTY  Los Gatos
STA  CA
INVT
NAM  Mitchell; Larry H.
CTY  Los Gatos
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  Communications Power, Inc.
CTY  Mountain View
STA  CA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D14 94
ICL  D1403
FSC  D14
FSS  68;94;72
FSC  325
FSS  15;16;21;25;119;352;355
FSC  312
FSS  7 R;8
OREF
PAL  popular Electronics, 1/76, CB Radio inside front cover, top of page.
PAL  Popular Electronics, 5/76, p. 65, CB Radio, center right side of page.
LREP
FR2  Schatzel; Thomas E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a CB radio transceiver showing the front,
      top and left side of our new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a right side elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a CB radio transceiver, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496909
SRC  5
APN  7610432
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770121
TTL  Lawn mower
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  6
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Thomas; George A.
CTY  Des Moines
STA  IA
ASSG
NAM  AMF Incorporated
CTY  White Plains
STA  NY
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D15 14
ICL  D1503
FSC  D15
FSS  14
FSC   56
FSS  13.3;13.4;16.6;16.7;17.2;17.5;202;255;320.2
UREF
PNO  2910818
ISD  19591100
NAM  Beal et al.
OCL   56202
UREF
PNO  3065588
ISD  19621100
NAM  Shaw
OCL   56 13.4
UREF
PNO  3199277
ISD  19650800
NAM  Moody
OCL   56 16.6
UREF
PNO  3398514
ISD  19680800
NAM  Nolan
OCL   56202
UREF
PNO  3952484
ISD  19760400
NAM  Van Swearingen
OCL   56320.2
UREF
PNO  3971198
ISD  19760700
NAM  Lane
OCL   56 16.6
LREP
FR2  Price; George W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a lawn mower showing my design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a front perspective view of a lawn mower showing a second
      embodiment of my design;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear perspective view of FIG. 4; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top plan view of FIG. 4.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a lawn mower, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496917
SRC  5
APN  7761554
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770310
TTL  Guiding and locking device for electrical cords
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  3
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Clowers; Earl R.
CTY  Anderson
STA  SC
INVT
NAM  Davis; John C.
CTY  Greenwood
STA  SC
INVT
NAM  Pearman; Fred E.
CTY  Five Forks Community
STA  SC
ASSG
NAM  The Singer Company
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D15 62
ICL  D1505
FSC  D15
FSS  62
FSC   15
FSS  323
FSC  242
FSS  107.2
FSC   24
FSS  132 AA;133;134 R;134 KA;134 L;132 R
UREF
PNO  3251107
ISD  19660500
NAM  Scott
XCL   15323
UREF
PNO  3308247
ISD  19670300
NAM  Doersam et al.
XCL   15323
LREP
FR2  Bell; Edward L.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a guiding and locking device for
      electrical cords showing our new design with the locking member in the
      release position;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is an end view thereof as seen from the right end of FIG. 3;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a front perspective view thereof, but with the locking member in
      the locking position;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a rear perspective view thereof with the locking member in the
      locking position; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view thereof with the locking member in the release
      position.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a guiding and locking device for electrical
      cords, substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496925
SRC  5
APN  655007&
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760204
TTL  Push sweeper
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Bothun; Eugene L.
CTY  Berthoud
STA  CO
ASSG
NAM  Clarke-Gravely Corporation
CTY  Muskegon
STA  MI
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D15 50
ICL  D1505
FSC  D15
FSS  34;48;49;50;51
FSC   15
FSS  49 R;50 R;349;340
UREF
PNO  2782434
ISD  19570200
NAM  Parker et al.
OCL   15 49R
UREF
PNO  3201819
ISD  19650800
NAM  Wilgus
OCL   15349
UREF
PNO  3570040
ISD  19710300
NAM  Wada
OCL   15349
LREP
FR2  Price; Peter P.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a push sweeper, showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a front elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a push sweeper, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496933
SRC  5
APN  7132050
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760810
TTL  Sewing machine
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Corrigan; J.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  4
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Kasahara; Takahiko
CTY  Anjo
CNT  JPX
INVT
NAM  Shichi; Sigeharu
CTY  Anjo
CNT  JPX
INVT
NAM  Kato; Masayuki
CTY  Owariasahi
CNT  JPX
INVT
NAM  Suito; Senji
CTY  Kariya
CNT  JPX
ASSG
NAM  Aisin Seiki Kabushiki Kaisha
CTY  Kariya
CNT  JPX
COD  03
PRIR
CNT  JPX
APD  19760212
APN  51-4356
CLAS
OCL  D15 68
ICL  D1506
FSC  D15
FSS  66-72;74;76;78
UREF
PNO  D161246
ISD  19501200
NAM  Robert
OCL  D15 68
UREF
PNO  D178190
ISD  19560700
NAM  Hosoe
OCL  D15 68
UREF
PNO  D193696
ISD  19620900
NAM  Szuba
OCL  D15 72
UREF
PNO  D232384
ISD  19740800
NAM  La Police
OCL  D15 76
OREF
PAL  Design, 6-76, p. 35, bottom, Sewing Machine.
LREP
FR2  Finnegan; Marcus B.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a sewing machine showing our new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a left side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a right side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a front, top and left side perspective view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a sewing machine, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496941
SRC  5
APN  6929060
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760604
TTL  Key cutting machine
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Douglas; Alan P.
NDR  2
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Sagarian; John H.
STR  c/o Worcester General Repair, 43 Chandler St.
CTY  Worcester
STA  MA
ZIP  01605
CLAS
OCL  D15125
ICL  D1509
FSC  D15
FSS  127;125
UREF
PNO  D193026
ISD  19620600
NAM  Rossetti
OCL  D15125
UREF
PNO  D198866
ISD  19640800
NAM  Gale
OCL  D15125
LREP
FR2  Fay; Charles R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a key cutting machine showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a view in front elevation thereof, looking in the direction of
      arrow 2 in FIG. 1 and,
PAL  FIG. 3 is a view in end elevation looking in the direction of arrow 3 in
      FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a view in elevation looking at the end of the machine opposite
      FIG. 3; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a side elevation of the side opposite the side shown in FIG. 2.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a key cutting machine, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496950
SRC  5
APN  7167210
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760823
TTL  Removable undersize sheet edge guide sheet feed cassette
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  3
NFG  8
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Smith; Craig A.
CTY  Pittsford
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Xerox Corporation
CTY  Stamford
STA  CT
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D16 32
ICL  D1699
FSC  D16
FSS  27;28;29;30;31;32
FSC  355
FSS  3 R;8 R;11 R
FSC  271
FSS  169;171
FSC  D87
FSS  1 R
UREF
PNO  3893663
ISD  19750700
NAM  Sanchez et al.
XCL  271169
UREF
PNO  3957366
ISD  19760500
NAM  Taylor et al.
XCL  271171
UREF
PNO  4030725
ISD  19770600
NAM  Fukui et al.
XCL  271171
FREF
PNO  2243964
ISD  19730600
CNT  DEX
OCL  271171
FREF
PNO  1419508
ISD  19751200
CNT  GBX
OCL  271171
LREP
FR2  Ralabate; James J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a removable undersize sheet edge guide for a
      sheet feed cassette showing one new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a top perspective view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 8 is a bottom perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a removable undersize sheet edge guide feed
      cassette, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496968
SRC  5
APN  6615236
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760226
TTL  Ball point pen
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Word; George P.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Henkels; Walter
STR  Holunderweg 1
CTY  5142 Huckelhoven
CNT  DEX
CLAS
OCL  D19 45
XCL  D19 51
ICL  D1906
FSC  D19
FSS  35;36;41-51;38
UREF
PNO  D189260
ISD  19601100
NAM  Indermill
OCL  D19 38
UREF
PNO  D216490
ISD  19700100
NAM  Wakai
OCL  D19 49
UREF
PNO  D217646
ISD  19700500
NAM  De Groft
OCL  D19 49
UREF
PNO  807500
ISD  19051200
NAM  Sanford
OCL  D19 45
UREF
PNO  821940
ISD  19060500
NAM  Holland
OCL  D19 45
UREF
PNO  1038068
ISD  19120900
NAM  Barrett
OCL  D19 45
LREP
FR2  Brown; Charles E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a ball point pen showing my new
      design, the rear elevational view being identical;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof, the opposite side being
      identical to that shown;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a ball point pen, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496976
SRC  5
APN  6789242
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760421
TTL  Combined educational game board and counting board for teaching
      fundamentals of arithmetic
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  2
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Hester; Gene A.
STR  1045 Shook No. 164
CTY  San Antonio
STA  TX
ZIP  78212
INVT
NAM  Dominguez; Olga A.
STR  P.O. Box 433 (115 Scott St.)
CTY  San Marcos
STA  TX
ZIP  78666
CLAS
OCL  D19 59
ICL  D1907
FSC  D19
FSS  59
FSC   35
FSS  31 D
UREF
PNO  3871114
ISD  19750300
NAM  Honig
OCL   35 31D
UREF
PNO  3982331
ISD  19760900
NAM  Solomon
OCL   35 31D
LREP
FR2  Comuzzi; Donald R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a combined educational game board and
      counting board for teaching fundamentals of arithmetic showing our new
      design. The bottom of the board is a flat planar surface.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a perspective view taken from the right thereof with the counting
      board removed for convenience of illustration;
PAL  FIG. 3 is another perspective view taken from the left of FIG. 2.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined educational game board and counting
      board for teaching fundamentals of arithmetic, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02496984
SRC  5
APN  7683871
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770214
TTL  Scented fluid applicator for paper currency
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Word; George P.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Stephens; Ronald M.
STR  305-1400 Camosun
CTY  Victoria, British Columbia
CNT  CAX
ITX  V8V 4L4
CLAS
OCL  D19 65
XCL  D19100
XCL  D31 24
XCL  D34 15R
XCL  D52  4R
ICL  D1999
FSC  D19
FSS  65;75;95;100
FSC  D34
FSS  15 R
FSC  D31
FSS  24
FSC  D52
FSS  4 R
FSC  D 9
FSS  224;222
FSC  D 8
FSS  98;102
FSC  D10
FSS  1;21;24;27;46;70;96;102
UREF
PNO  D119743
ISD  19400400
NAM  Dreyfuss
OCL  D10 46
UREF
PNO  D167386
ISD  19520800
NAM  Berman
OCL  D34 15R
UREF
PNO  D175762
ISD  19551000
NAM  Deickens
OCL  D 8102
UREF
PNO  D181743
ISD  19571200
NAM  Molloy et al.
OCL  D10 46
UREF
PNO  D226270
ISD  19730200
NAM  Sakuma
OCL  D10 46
UREF
PNO  D237591
ISD  19751100
NAM  Gutkowski
OCL  D 9222
OREF
PAL  A Salm Cat., 1974, p. 16, Item #694.
LREP
FR2  Seed; Richard W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a scented fluid applicator for paper
      company currency showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a left side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a scented fluid applicator for paper currency, as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02496992
SRC  5
APN  7897057
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770421
TTL  Hand caster
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Word; A. Hugo
NDR  2
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Lapinski; Richard
STR  23 Norfolk Ave.
CTY  Fairfield West, New South Wales
CNT  AUX
ITX  2165
CLAS
OCL  D22 25
XCL  D22 26
ICL  D2205
FSC  242
FSS  84.1;85.1;96
FSC   43
FSS  19;20;21
FSC  D22
FSS  26;25
UREF
PNO  D177000
ISD  19560300
NAM  Ayers
OCL  D22 25
UREF
PNO  D193144
ISD  19620700
NAM  Marriott et al.
OCL  D22 25
UREF
PNO  2492587
ISD  19491200
NAM  Ledingham
XCL  D22 26
UREF
PNO  3010673
ISD  19611100
NAM  Marconi
XCL  D22 25
LREP
FR2  Holman; John C.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a hand caster showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear-end view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side-elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a hand caster, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497000
SRC  5
APN  6523390
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760126
TTL  Combined transparent charging tube and base for use with a gunpowder
      flask
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Word; A. Hugo
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Wilson; Hugh R.
STR  10840 SW. 120th St.
CTY  Miami
STA  FL
ZIP  33176
CLAS
OCL  D22 99
ICL  D2205
FSC   42
FSS  85;90
FSC   86
FSS  29;23;27;24;25;26;33;28
FSC  102
FSS  43 P
FSC  D22
FSS  99;10;11
UREF
PNO  D231983
ISD  19740700
NAM  Rodger
OCL  D22 99
UREF
PNO  2008571
ISD  19350700
NAM  Wesson
OCL   86 24
UREF
PNO  3073208
ISD  19630100
NAM  Agnese
XCL   86 33
UREF
PNO  3361024
ISD  19680100
NAM  Sherrill, Jr.
OCL   86 33
UREF
PNO  3658008
ISD  19720400
NAM  Larson
XCL  102 43P
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of a combined transparent charging tube
      and base for use with a gunpowder flask, showing my new design,
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined transparent charging tube and base for
      use with a gunpowder flask, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497018
SRC  5
APN  7648316
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770202
TTL  Water purification unit
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Largen; James R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Maples; Paul D.
STR  772 S. Sierra Ave.
CTY  Solana Beach
STA  CA
ZIP  92074
INVT
NAM  Ropp; Ralph E.
CTY  Los Angeles County
STA  CA
INVT
NAM  Klepa; Peter P.
CTY  Los Angeles County
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  Maples; Paul Douglas
CTY  Solana Beach
STA  CA
COD  04
CLAS
OCL  D23  3
ICL  D2301
FSC  D23
FSS  2;3
FSC  D 9
FSS  528;175
FSC  D 7
FSS  61;76;77
FSC  210
FSS  241;244;245;321 R
UREF
PNO  D212089
ISD  19680800
NAM  Peifer
OCL  D23  2
UREF
PNO  D212440
ISD  19681000
NAM  Cannon et al.
OCL  D 7 77
UREF
PNO  D225883
ISD  19730100
NAM  DiPierro et al.
OCL  D 7 61
UREF
PNO  D227345
ISD  19730600
NAM  Bell et al.
OCL  D 9 52
UREF
PNO  D232550
ISD  19740800
NAM  Fushihara
OCL  D23  3
UREF
PNO  D240624
ISD  19760700
NAM  MacMurray
OCL  D23  3
UREF
PNO  3670892
ISD  19720600
NAM  Baerg et al.
OCL  210321R
UREF
PNO  3939074
ISD  19760200
NAM  Bray
OCL  210257M
LREP
FR2  Brown; Carl R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view taken from the top, front and left side of a
      water purification unit showing our new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a front elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a rear elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a water purification unit, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497026
SRC  5
APN  8186189
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770725
TTL  Wood stove
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Dugan; Jay M.
STR  R.F.D. 1
CTY  Brooks
STA  ME
ZIP  04921
CLAS
OCL  D23 93
ICL  D2303
FSC  D23
FSS  72;86;89;92;93;94;97;105;107;108;127;128
FSC  D 7
FSS  112;113;114
FSC  126
FSS  4;6;58;59;60;62;65;120;121;123;126;138
UREF
PNO  D236346
ISD  19750800
NAM  Kemple
OCL  D23 93
UREF
PNO  D238949
ISD  19760200
NAM  Giovagnoli
OCL  D23 93
UREF
PNO  4027649
ISD  19770600
NAM  Jackson
OCL  126  4
LREP
FR2  Hulbert; W. R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a stove, showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a wood stove, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497034
SRC  5
APN  7492901
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761210
TTL  Cover for rooftop air intake for vehicles
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Zimmerman; Alan R.
CTY  Wichita
STA  KS
INVT
NAM  Baugh; Benjamin C.
CTY  Wichita
STA  KS
ASSG
NAM  The Coleman Company, Inc.
CTY  Wichita
STA  KS
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D23142
XCL  D23153
XCL  D12181
ICL  D2304
ICL  D1216
FSC  D12
FSS  181;190
FSC  D23
FSS  142;153;139;140;151
FSC  296
FSS  15;91;137 J
FSC   98
FSS  2;2.14;2.11;2.16;2.17;2.18;37
UREF
PNO  1518319
ISD  19241200
NAM  Freeman et al.
OCL   98  2.14
UREF
PNO  2550353
ISD  19510400
NAM  Hopfinger
OCL   98  2.14
OREF
PAL  R. V. Dealer, 8/73, p. 151, Rooftop Air Conditioner.
PAL  Evans Ventilator Tri-Master Antenna Flyer.
LREP
FRM  Dawson, Tilton, Fallon & Lungmus
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a left side elevational view of a cover for rooftop air intake
      for vehicles showing our new design, it being understood that the broken
      lines are for illustrative purposes only;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a greatly enlarged front elevational view of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view of FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view of FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom front perspective view of FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 6 is an enlarged top plan view of FIG. 1; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom plan view of FIG. 6.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a cover for rooftop air intake for vehicles, as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497042
SRC  5
APN  7498349
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761213
TTL  Combined vent and block baffle
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Word; A. Hugo
NDR  3
NFG  20
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Ward; Bruce K.
STR  2904 Virginia Ave.
CTY  St. Louis Park
STA  MN
ZIP  55426
CLAS
OCL  D23163
XCL  D25 80
XCL  D25 97
ICL  D2304
FSC   98
FSS  37;35;DIG. 5;DIG. 6
FSC   52
FSS  198;199;302;303;305
FSC  D23
FSS  153;163
FSC  D25
FSS  80;98;81;87;97
UREF
PNO  3160987
ISD  19641200
NAM  Pinkley
OCL   52 95
UREF
PNO  3683785
ISD  19720800
NAM  Grange
OCL   98 35
UREF
PNO  3863553
ISD  19750200
NAM  Koontz
XCL   98 37
UREF
PNO  3972164
ISD  19760800
NAM  Grange
OCL   52 95
UREF
PNO  4050364
ISD  19770900
NAM  Maus
OCL   98 37
LREP
FR2  Bartz; Richard O.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a first modification of a combined vent and
      block baffle of my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view of FIG. 1; the opposite side of FIG. 1 is
      a mirror image of FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom plan view of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is an end view of the left view of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 5 is an end view of the right end of FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top plan view of a second modification of a combined vent and
      block baffle of my design;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a side view of the left side of FIG. 6;
PAL  FIG. 8 is a bottom plan view of FIG. 6;
PAL  FIG. 9 is an end view of the left end of FIG. 6;
PAL  FIG. 10 is an end view of the right end of FIG. 6;
PAL  FIG. 11 is a top plan view of a third modification of a combined vent and
      block baffle of my new design;
PAL  FIG. 12 is a side view of the left side of FIG. 11; the right side of FIG.
      11 is a mirror image of FIG. 12;
PAL  FIG. 13 is a bottom plan view of FIG. 11;
PAL  FIG. 14 is an end view of the left end of FIG. 11;
PAL  FIG. 15 is an end view of the right end of FIG. 11;
PAL  FIG. 16 is a top plan view of a fourth modification of a combined vent and
      block baffle of my new design;
PAL  FIG. 17 is a side view of the left side of FIG. 16;
PAL  FIG. 18 is a bottom plan view of FIG. 16;
PAL  FIG. 19 is an end view of the left end of FIG. 16;
PAL  FIG. 20 is an end view of the right end of FIG. 16.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combined vent and block baffle, substantially
      as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497050
SRC  5
APN  7990766
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770520
TTL  Device for use in implanting a prosthesis in the humerus
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Ansher; Bernard
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  London; James T.
STR  429 Via Anita
CTY  Redondo Beach
STA  CA
ZIP  90277
CLAS
OCL  D24 26
ICL  D2402
FSC  D24
FSS  26;33
FSC  128
FSS  92 E;92 EC;92 EB
UREF
PNO  D230097
ISD  19740100
NAM  Rylee
OCL  D24 26
UREF
PNO  D245919
ISD  19770900
NAM  Shen
OCL  D24 26
UREF
PNO  3857389
ISD  19741200
NAM  Amstutz
OCL  128 92EC
UREF
PNO  3955568
ISD  19760500
NAM  Neufeld
OCL  128 92E
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view of the device for use in implanting a
      prosthesis in the humerus,
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side view, and
PAL  FIG. 3 is an end view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a device for use in implanting a prosthesis in
      the humerus, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497069
SRC  5
APN  751929&
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761217
TTL  Sample cup tray for chemical analysis of biological fluids
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Ansher; Bernard
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Adamski; Henry S.
CTY  Rochester
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Eastman Kodak Company
CTY  Rochester
STA  NY
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D24 32
XCL  D 9189
ICL  D2401
ICL  D2402
FSC  D 9
FSS  189
FSC  D24
FSS  1.1;55;21;56;7;99;32
FSC  195
FSS  103.5 R
FSC   23
FSS  292;259
UREF
PNO  D210720
ISD  19680400
NAM  Anthon
OCL  D24 32
UREF
PNO  D245352
ISD  19770800
NAM  Moran
OCL  D24  1.1
UREF
PNO  3540856
ISD  19701100
NAM  Rochte
OCL   23292
UREF
PNO  3713985
ISD  19730100
NAM  Astle
OCL  195103.5R
UREF
PNO  3932141
ISD  19760100
NAM  Beall et al.
OCL   23259
LREP
FR2  Hampton; Robert W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a sample cup tray for chemical analysis
      of biological fluids showing my new design; and
PAL  FIG. 2 is a bottom perspective view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a sample cup tray for chemical analysis of
      biological fluids, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497077
SRC  5
APN  6799590
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760426
TTL  Moisturizing massager
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Zarfas; Louis S.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  3
NFG  9
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Burke; Frederick A.
CTY  Riverside
STA  CT
INVT
NAM  Long; Douglas A.
CTY  Wilton
STA  CT
ASSG
NAM  Clairol Inc.
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D24 41
ICL  D2803
FSC  D24
FSS  36;40;41;63
FSC  D28
FSS  7;8;20;49;50;58;99
FSC  132
FSS  112-116;11 A
FSC  128
FSS  24.2;32;41;42;48-51;65;67;57
UREF
PNO  D213165
ISD  19690100
NAM  Boldt
OCL  D28 49
UREF
PNO  D226583
ISD  19730300
NAM  Welch
OCL  D24 23
UREF
PNO  D232275
ISD  19740700
NAM  Yamada et al.
OCL  D28 50
UREF
PNO  D234725
ISD  19750400
NAM  Yamada
OCL  D24 41
UREF
PNO  3994290
ISD  19761100
NAM  Springer et al.
OCL  128 57
LREP
FR2  Mugford; David J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a moisturizing massager showing our
      new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a right side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a left side elevational view with auxiliary plate added;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a front elevational view with auxiliary plate added;
PAL  FIG. 8 is a top plan view with auxiliary plate added; and
PAL  FIG. 9 is a bottom plan view with auxiliary plate added.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a moisturizing massager, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497085
SRC  5
APN  7519281
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761217
TTL  Sample cup for analysis of biological fluids
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Ansher; Bernard
NDR  2
NFG  11
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Smith; Michael R.
CTY  Rochester
STA  NY
INVT
NAM  Ferris; James E.
CTY  Rochester
STA  NY
INVT
NAM  Adamski; Henry S.
CTY  Webster
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Eastman Kodak Company
CTY  Rochester
STA  NY
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D24 56
XCL   24 55
XCL   24 99
ICL  D2402
FSC   23
FSS  292
FSC   73
FSS  427;423 A;53
FSC  356
FSS  246
FSC  D24
FSS  55;21;56;7
UREF
PNO  D245352
ISD  19770800
NAM  Moran
OCL  D24  1.1
UREF
PNO  D246800
ISD  19771200
NAM  Wong
OCL  D24 56
UREF
PNO  2363474
ISD  19441100
NAM  Schlesinger
OCL  221148
UREF
PNO  3190731
ISD  19650600
NAM  Weiskopf
OCL   23292
UREF
PNO  3680967
ISD  19720800
NAM  Engelhardt
OCL  356246
LREP
FR2  Hampton; Robert W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a sample  cup for analysis of
      biological fluids, showing our new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a bottom perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevation thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top perspective view thereof with the top cap removed;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 8 is a side elevation thereof;
PAL  FIG. 9 is a bottom perspective view thereof, with the bottom cap removed;
PAL  FIG. 10 is a side elevation thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 11 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a sample cup for analysis of biological fluids,
      as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497093
SRC  5
APN  7438095
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19761122
TTL  Eye drop bottle guide
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Ansher; Bernard
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Trovinger; Douglas J.
STR  311 Audubon Dr.
CTY  Lodi
STA  CA
ZIP  95240
CLAS
OCL  D24 99
XCL  D24 63
XCL  128233
XCL  128249
ICL  D2402
FSC  128
FSS  249;233
FSC  D 9
FSS  158;159;169;261;262;10
FSC  D24
FSS  99;63
UREF
PNO  D210179
ISD  19680200
NAM  Mahoney et al.
OCL  D24 63
UREF
PNO  D242491
ISD  19761100
NAM  Campagna et al.
XCL  D24 63
UREF
PNO  3058466
ISD  19621000
NAM  Routsong
OCL  128233
UREF
PNO  3439674
ISD  19690400
NAM  Lelicoff
XCL  128249
UREF
PNO  3598121
ISD  19710800
NAM  Lelicoff
OCL  128233
UREF
PNO  4002168
ISD  19770100
NAM  Petterson
XCL  128249
LREP
FR2  Brown, Jr.; Elton H.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of an eye drop bottle guide showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevation thereof.
PAL  The broken lines representing the eye drop bottle is shown for illustrative
      purposes only.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a eye drop bottle guide, substantially as shown
      and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497107
SRC  5
APN  7029713
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760706
TTL  Link chain support post
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Word; A. Hugo
NDR  1
NFG  8
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Russo; Michael T.
STR  1805 Larchwood St.
CTY  Troy
STA  MI
ZIP  48084
CLAS
OCL  D25 78
XCL  D25 77
ICL  D2501
FSC  D25
FSS  77;78
FSC   52
FSS  720;737
FSC  256
FSS  19;1;24;51;DIG. 5
FSC  249
FSS  143;51
UREF
PNO  D239452
ISD  19760400
NAM  Russo
OCL  D25 77
UREF
PNO  1517119
ISD  19241100
NAM  Luhring
OCL  256DIG.5
UREF
PNO  1551863
ISD  19250900
NAM  Berry
XCL   52737
UREF
PNO  3891189
ISD  19750600
NAM  Russo
OCL  D25 78
OREF
PAL  Sweet's Architectural Catalog File, 1962, Section be/Li, p. 4, Post P-302.
LREP
FR2  Cantor; Bernard J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view showing my new design, the rear being
      identical to the front with a post cap shown in broken lines for
      environmental purposes and not part of the design sought to be patented.
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof, the opposite side with a post
      cap shown in broken lines for environmental purposes and not part of the
      design sought to be patented.
PAL  FIG. 3 is a cross-sectional view taken on line 3--3 of FIG. 1.
PAL  FIG. 4 is a cross-sectional view taken on lines 4--4 of FIG. 1, looking
      downwardly.
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom view thereof.
PAL  FIG. 6 is a front elevational view of a modification having a modified
      lower end, the rear view being identical.
PAL  FIG. 7 is a side elevational view of the modification of FIG. 6, the
      opposite side being identical.
PAL  FIG. 8 is a bottom view of the modification of FIG. 6.
PAL  The characteristic features of my design resides in the conical appearance
      of the floor flange in conjunction with the X-shaped post member.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a link chain support post, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02497115
SRC  5
APN  7209576
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19760907
TTL  Water pipe
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Flesher; Robert W.
STR  628 Round Oak Rd.
CTY  Towson
STA  MD
ZIP  21204
CLAS
OCL  D27 03
ICL  D2702
FSC  D27
FSS  3;5;7
FSC  131
FSS  170 R;171 R;173;174;178;179;191;192;194;198 R;199;200;213;214;216;222;226
     ;227
UREF
PNO  848424
ISD  19070300
NAM  Abizaid
OCL  131173
UREF
PNO  1967438
ISD  19340700
NAM  Hartzes
OCL  131173
LREP
FR2  McClellan, Sr.; John F.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a water pipe showing my new design in
      carrying position;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an end elevational view as seen from the left in FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a front elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is an end elevational view as seen from the right in FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a rear elevational view thereof, shown as the device appears in
      use.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a water pipe, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02497123
SRC  5
APN  7970463
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770516
TTL  Combination coaster and ashtray
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Dolezal; Joseph R.
STR  1511 Lee Shores
CTY  St. Louis
STA  MO
ZIP  63125
CLAS
OCL  D27 21
XCL  D 7 45
ICL  D2703
ICL  D0706
FSC  D27
FSS  15;20;21
FSC  D 7
FSS  38;45
FSC  248
FSS  346.1
FSC  131
FSS  231;238;240 R
FSC  220
FSS  1 H
UREF
PNO  D159396
ISD  19500700
NAM  Schulz
XCL  D27 21
UREF
PNO  D243142
ISD  19770100
NAM  Chmela
XCL  D27 21
UREF
PNO  2109727
ISD  19380300
NAM  Klein
XCL  131238
LREP
FR2  Haverstock; Charles B.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a combination coaster and ashtray, showing my
      new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is left end elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a right end elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a combination coaster and ashtray, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497131
SRC  5
APN  7875959
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770414
TTL  Farrowing crate
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  2
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Gilbertson; Glen A.
CTY  Hoffman
STA  MN
ZIP  56339
CLAS
OCL  D30  1
ICL  D3002
FSC  D30
FSS  1;2
FSC  119
FSS  18;20
UREF
PNO  3237600
ISD  19660300
NAM  Behrens et al.
OCL  119 20
UREF
PNO  3307519
ISD  19670300
NAM  Rink et al.
OCL  119 20
UREF
PNO  3415227
ISD  19681200
NAM  Welsh
OCL  119 20
UREF
PNO  3509854
ISD  19700500
NAM  Osbahr
OCL  119 20
UREF
PNO  4006715
ISD  19770200
NAM  Redmon et al.
OCL  119 20
FREF
PNO  2501909
ISD  19760700
CNT  DEX
OCL  119 20
LREP
FR2  Schroeder; Everett J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a farrowing crate showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a front elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof.
PAL  The side opposite to that shown in FIG. 2 is substantially a mirror image
      thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a farrowing crate, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497140
SRC  5
APN  8297851
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770901
TTL  Hanging aquarium
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Largen; James R.
NDR  1
NFG  2
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Mandel; Beth E.
CTY  East Brunswick
STA  NJ
ASSG
NAM  Mandel; Doris
CTY  East Brunswick
STA  NJ
COD  14
ITX  A part interest
CLAS
OCL  D30  6
XCL  D 6113
ICL  D3002
FSC  D30
FSS  6-12
FSC  D 6
FSS  113
FSC  119
FSS  5;7
UREF
PNO  D77225
ISD  19281200
NAM  Danz
OCL  D 6113
UREF
PNO  D222949
ISD  19720200
NAM  Souder
OCL  D 6113
UREF
PNO  D228360
ISD  19730900
NAM  Sunshine
XCL  D30  6
UREF
PNO  D232283
ISD  19740800
NAM  Wagschal
XCL  D 6113
UREF
PNO  D235601
ISD  19750700
NAM  Humboldt
OCL  D 6113
UREF
PNO  D241098
ISD  19760800
NAM  Durfee
OCL  D 6113
UREF
PNO  295218
ISD  18840300
NAM  Zanetti
OCL  119  5
UREF
PNO  415506
ISD  18891100
NAM  Gunther
OCL  119  5
UREF
PNO  2064826
ISD  19361200
NAM  Gabriel
XCL  D 6113
LREP
FR2  Plevy; Arthur L.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a hanging aquarium showing my new design;
      and
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view thereof.
PAL  The broken line representation of a ceiling support, water, a fish and
      aquatic material in FIG. 1 is for purposes of illustration only.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a hanging aquarium, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497158
SRC  5
APN  8316090
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770908
TTL  Pig waterer
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Largen; James R.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Lage; Lyle W.
CTY  Gladbrook
STA  IA
ZIP  50635
CLAS
OCL  D30 15
XCL  119 71
ICL  D3003
FSC  D30
FSS  13-99
FSC  119
FSS  71;72.5;75
FSC  222
FSS  482
UREF
PNO  D245029
ISD  19770700
NAM  Hedstrom
OCL  D30 13
UREF
PNO  3042002
ISD  19620700
NAM  Liell
OCL  119 71
UREF
PNO  3090355
ISD  19630500
NAM  Gains
OCL  119 71
UREF
PNO  3122130
ISD  19640200
NAM  Brown et al.
OCL  119 71
UREF
PNO  3208431
ISD  19650900
NAM  Kloss
XCL  119 71
UREF
PNO  3691997
ISD  19720900
NAM  Hatch
OCL  119 71
UREF
PNO  3874342
ISD  19740400
NAM  Kloss
XCL  119 71
LREP
FR2  Zarley; Donald H.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a pig waterer showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design of a pig waterer, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497174
SRC  5
APN  8397880
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19771005
TTL  Hoof cleaner
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Largen; James R.
NDR  1
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Moran; Carlo J.
STR  4340 Cinnabar
CTY  Dallas
STA  TX
ZIP  75227
CLAS
OCL  D30 99
XCL  168 48R
ICL  D3099
FSC  D30
FSS  13-99
FSC  168
FSS  48
UREF
PNO  D25866
ISD  18960800
NAM  Pinkerman
OCL  D30 99
UREF
PNO  176768
ISD  18760500
NAM  Blakeslee
OCL  168 48
UREF
PNO  D243541
ISD  19770300
NAM  Cullen
OCL  D30 40
UREF
PNO  274570
ISD  18830300
NAM  Davis
OCL  168 48
UREF
PNO  490474
ISD  18930100
NAM  Faestl
OCL  168 48
UREF
PNO  541793
ISD  18950600
NAM  Schenek
OCL  168 48
UREF
PNO  544540
ISD  18950800
NAM  Jones
OCL  168 48
LREP
FR2  Moore; Howard E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a hoof cleaner showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a rear elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a front elevational view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a hoof cleaner, substantially as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497182
SRC  5
APN  6558860
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760206
TTL  PROJECTOR FOR TOY GOLF BALLS OR THE LIKE
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Rademaker; C. A.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Arndt; Otto G.
STR  1708 S. Dahlia St.
CTY  Denver
STA  CO
ZIP  80222
INVT
NAM  Arndt; James J.
STR  1708 S. Dahlia St.
CTY  Denver
STA  CO
ZIP  80222
CLAS
OCL  D34  5CB
XCL  D34 15PP
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 R;5 CB;5 GC;5 CT;5 GP
FSC  273
FSS  87 R;87 H;87.2
UREF
PNO  1173818
ISD  19160200
NAM  Lins
OCL  273 87.2
UREF
PNO  1739467
ISD  19291200
NAM  Klutho
OCL  273 87.2
FREF
PNO  224709
ISD  19241100
CNT  GBX
OCL  273 87.2
OREF
PAL  Ohio Art Catalog, 3-1966, Golf Driving Device.
LREP
FR2  Lowe; Frank C.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a projector for toy golf balls or the like
      showing our new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a top plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a projector for toy golf balls or the like, as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497190
SRC  5
APN  7057520
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760716
TTL  Game board
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  2
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Hadjis; George C.
STR  28009 Montereina Dr.
CTY  San Pedro
STA  CA
ZIP  90732
CLAS
OCL  D34  5SS
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 SS;13 A
FSC  273
FSS  148 R;130;131;134;135;136
UREF
PNO  D161352
ISD  19501200
NAM  Madieu
OCL  D34  5SS
UREF
PNO  1616884
ISD  19270200
NAM  Bosley et al.
OCL  273130E
UREF
PNO  2896951
ISD  19590700
NAM  Snow
OCL  273135R
UREF
PNO  3427027
ISD  19690200
NAM  Kenyon
OCL  273134C
LREP
FR2  Schwartz; Charles H.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the game board in accordance with my new
      design, having a substantially flat configuration;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view of a detail of FIG. 1 showing an individual
      player position; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view of an enlarged detail of FIG. 1.
PAL  The game board is of conventional thickness.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a game board, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02497204
SRC  5
APN  7141092
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760813
TTL  Game board
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  1
TRM  7
INVT
NAM  Morris; William E.
CTY  Appleton
STA  WI
ASSG
NAM  Super Games Inc.
CTY  Green Bay
STA  WI
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D34  5SS
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 SS
FSC  273
FSS  131 K;131 KC;131 KN
UREF
PNO  D158523
ISD  19500500
NAM  Smith et al.
OCL  D34  5SS
UREF
PNO  1396425
ISD  19211100
NAM  Harlow
OCL  273131K
LREP
FR2  McDougall; Dugald S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top view of the game board embodying my new design.
PAL  The board is flat and conventional in thickness.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a game board, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497212
SRC  5
APN  7223331
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760909
TTL  Toy animal figure
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Rademaker; C. A.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Saitoh; Shigeru
STR  No. 6-4, 2-chome
CTY  Kuramae Taito-ku, Tokyo
CNT  JPX
CLAS
OCL  D34 15B
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  15 C;15 B;2 A;2 B;2 D;2 R;4 R
FSC   46
FSS  115-118;123;124;174-177
UREF
PNO  118441
ISD  18710800
NAM  Fallows
OCL   46123
UREF
PNO  D230748
ISD  19740300
NAM  Matteson
OCL  D34  2R
UREF
PNO  2600340
ISD  19520600
NAM  Strauss
OCL   46123
UREF
PNO  3688435
ISD  19720900
NAM  Sapkus et al.
OCL   46123
OREF
PAL  Toys & Novelties, 12-1962, p. 24, Toy Frog.
LREP
FR2  Striker; Michael J.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a toy animal figure showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a bottom perspective view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a side elevational view showing the side opposite that shown in
      FIG. 3.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a toy animal figure, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02497220
SRC  5
APN  7257023
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760923
TTL  Playing piece for game
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Cosman; Michael A.
CTY  Kearns
STA  UT
ASSG
NAM  Balmforth; Ernest Lynn
CTY  Salt Lake City
STA  UT
COD  04
CLAS
OCL  D34  5GP
XCL  D34  5CH
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 GP;5 CH
FSC  273
FSS  137 R;131 K
FSC  D 9
FSS  222
UREF
PNO  D231844
ISD  19740600
NAM  Singleton
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  1405988
ISD  19220200
NAM  Erwin
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  3964747
ISD  19760600
NAM  Balmforth
OCL  D34  5CH
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a playing piece for a game showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view, the bottom being a mirror image thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevation view, looking directly at a corner of the
      playing piece, the opposite side being a mirror image thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is another side elevational view, looking directly at a flat face
      portion of the side of the playing piece, the opposite side being a mirror
      image thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a playing piece for a game, substantially as
      shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497239
SRC  5
APN  7257031
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760923
TTL  Playing piece for game
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Cosman; Michael A.
CTY  Kearns
STA  UT
ASSG
NAM  Balmforth; Ernest Lynn
CTY  Salt Lake City
STA  UT
COD  04
CLAS
OCL  D34  5GP
XCL  D34  5CH
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 GP;5 CH
FSC  273
FSS  137 R;131 K
FSC  D 9
FSS  222
UREF
PNO  D51395
ISD  19171000
NAM  Schwartzberg
OCL  D73  1A
UREF
PNO  D231844
ISD  19740600
NAM  Singleton
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  1405988
ISD  19220200
NAM  Erwin
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  3964747
ISD  19760600
NAM  Balmforth
OCL  D34  5CH
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a playing piece for a game showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevation view, looking directly at a corner of the
      playing piece; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is another side elevation view, looking directly at a flat face
      portion of the side of the playing piece.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a playing piece for a game, substantially as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497247
SRC  5
APN  725704&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760923
TTL  Playing piece for game
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Cosman; Michael A.
CTY  Kearns
STA  UT
ASSG
NAM  Balmforth; Ernest Lynn
CTY  Salt Lake City
STA  UT
COD  04
CLAS
OCL  D34  5GP
XCL  D34  5CH
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 GP; 5 G;5 CH
FSC  273
FSS  137 R;131 K
FSC  D 9
FSS  222
UREF
PNO  D51395
ISD  19171000
NAM  Schwartzberg
OCL  D73  1A
UREF
PNO  D231844
ISD  19740600
NAM  Singleton
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  1405988
ISD  19220200
NAM  Erwin
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  3964747
ISD  19760600
NAM  Balmforth
OCL  D34  5CH
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a playing piece for a game showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view, the bottom being a mirror image thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevation view, looking directly at a corner of the
      playing piece; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is another side elevational view, looking directly at a flat face
      portion of the side of the playing piece.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a playing piece for game, substantially as shown
      and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497255
SRC  5
APN  7257058
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760923
TTL  Playing piece for game
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Cosman; Michael A.
CTY  Kearns
STA  UT
ASSG
NAM  Balmforth; Ernest Lynn
CTY  Salt Lake City
STA  UT
COD  04
CLAS
OCL  D34  5GP
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 GP;5 CH
FSC  273
FSS  137 A;131 K
FSC  D 9
FSS  222;135;145;140;141
UREF
PNO  D170489
ISD  19530900
NAM  Wright
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  D187540
ISD  19600300
NAM  Sparkman
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  1405988
ISD  19220200
NAM  Erwin
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  3964747
ISD  19760600
NAM  Balmforth
OCL  D34  5CH
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a playing piece for a game showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevation view, looking directly at a flat side of the
      upper portion of the playing piece; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is another side elevational view, looking directly at a corner of
      the upper portion of the playing piece.
PAL  The bottom of the playing piece is not shown since it is simply a flat
      circular surface.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a playing piece for a game, substantially as
      shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497263
SRC  5
APN  7259832
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760923
TTL  Playing piece for game
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Cosman; Michael A.
CTY  Kearns
STA  UT
ASSG
NAM  Balmforth; Ernest Lynn
CTY  Salt Lake City
STA  UT
COD  04
CLAS
OCL  D34  5GP
XCL  D34  5CH
EDF  2
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 GP;5 CH
FSC  273
FSS  137 R;131 K
FSC  D 9
FSS  222
UREF
PNO  D51395
ISD  19171000
NAM  Schwartzberg
OCL  D73  1A
UREF
PNO  D231844
ISD  19740600
NAM  Singleton
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  1405988
ISD  19220200
NAM  Erwin
OCL  D34  5CH
UREF
PNO  3964747
ISD  19760600
NAM  Balmforth
OCL  D34  5CH
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a playing piece for a game showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view, looking directly at a flat face portion
      of the side of the playing piece, the other three sides being mirror
      images thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a playing piece for a game, substantially as
      shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497271
SRC  5
APN  726254&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760924
TTL  Hoop roller
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Rademaker; C. A.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Soos; Joseph
STR  313 Walker St.
CTY  Tiltonsville
STA  OH
ZIP  43963
CLAS
OCL  D34  5HP
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 HP;5 GC;5 GH;5 BC;5 CQ
FSC   46
FSS  114;220
FSC  273
FSS  129 C;97 R
UREF
PNO  D170677
ISD  19531000
NAM  Chrisco
OCL   46220
UREF
PNO  D190084
ISD  19610400
NAM  Kewell
OCL  D34  5HP
UREF
PNO  3715834
ISD  19730200
NAM  Gelis
OCL   46220
LREP
FR2  Kollin; Jacob L.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a hoop roller showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof; and,
PAL  FIG. 6 is a side elevational view of the side opposite that shown in FIG. 3
      with the handle member in an alternate position.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a hoop roller, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497280
SRC  5
APN  7441320
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761122
TTL  Lawn pool target frame
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Fried; Donald P.
STR  7895 Landale Ave.
CTY  Dublin
STA  CA
ZIP  94566
CLAS
OCL  D34  5NN
XCL  D34  3
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  3;5 NN
FSC  273
FSS  12;2;3 R
UREF
PNO  1670608
ISD  19280500
NAM  Christoph
OCL  273 12
UREF
PNO  2014788
ISD  19350900
NAM  Strickler et al.
OCL  273 12
LREP
FR2  Zimmerman; Harris
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of a lawn pool target frame showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is an end elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top plan view similar to FIG. 1, but showing a modified form of
      the design;
PAL  FIG. 6 is an end elevational view of the design of FIG. 5;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a side elevational view of the design of FIG. 5.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a lawn pool target frame, substantially as shown
      and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497298
SRC  5
APN  7497865
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761213
TTL  Combined video game and table
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  3
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Olson; Verl O.
CTY  La Mesa
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  Gremlin Industries, Inc.
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D34  5J
XCL  D 6 25
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 J;5 L
FSC  D 6
FSS  20;26;27;25
FSC  273
FSS  1 E;85 R;DIG. 28
UREF
PNO  D235597
ISD  19750700
NAM  Loomis
OCL  D 6 24
UREF
PNO  D237727
ISD  19751100
NAM  Runte
OCL  D34  5J
UREF
PNO  D238379
ISD  19760100
NAM  Miller
OCL  D34  5J
OREF
PAL  Vending Times, Aug. 1976, p. 58, lower left, Electra Games Table.
LREP
FR2  Parker; Robert L.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the combined video game and table showing
      two sides and the top. The side opposite to the one shown on the right is
      not shown and is identical to the side shown on the left in FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view of the combined video game and table; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevation view of the combined video game and table
      showing the side opposite to the one shown on the left in FIG. 1.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for combined video game and table, substantially as
      shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497301
SRC  5
APN  7600712
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770117
TTL  Reusable golf and bowl hand scoreplate
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  3
TRM  7
INVT
NAM  Linton; John T.
STR  43 Bond St.
CTY  Dayton
STA  OH
ZIP  45405
CLAS
OCL  D34  5MM
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 MM;5 BB;5 GL
FSC  116
FSS  120;130 R;135
UREF
PNO  D239957
ISD  19760500
NAM  Linton
OCL  D34  5MM
UREF
PNO  3805411
ISD  19740400
NAM  Andrews, Jr.
OCL  D34  5GL
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a plan view of a reusable golf and bowl hand scoreplate, of which
PAL  FIG. 2 is a vertical section taken on line 2--2, FIG. 1, and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a vertical section taken on line 3--3, FIG. 1, showing my new
      design.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a reusable golf and bowl hand scoreplate, as
      shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497310
SRC  5
APN  7672551
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770210
TTL  Pinball game cabinet
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  3
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Langieri; Michael
CTY  Butler
STA  NJ
ASSG
NAM  Louis Marx & Co., Inc.
CTY  Stamford
STA  CT
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D34  5JJ
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 JJ
FSC  273
FSS  121 R;121 A
UREF
PNO  D112686
ISD  19381200
NAM  Williams et al.
OCL  D34  5J
UREF
PNO  2551023
ISD  19510500
NAM  Levitt
OCL  273121A
UREF
PNO  3870307
ISD  19750300
NAM  Meyer et al.
OCL  273121A
OREF
PAL  F. A. O. Schwarz, Fall/Winter, 1975-1976, p. 29, item "D," Super Pinball.
LREP
FR2  Friedman; Alex
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front, top, right side perspective view of a pinball game
      cabinet embodying my novel design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a left side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a pinbal game cabinet, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497328
SRC  5
APN  767256&
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770210
TTL  Table ball game cabinet
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  4
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Patterson; Keith D.
CTY  Stamford
STA  CT
ASSG
NAM  Louis Marx & Co., Inc.
CTY  Stamford
STA  CT
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D34  5JJ
EDF  2
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 JJ
FSC  273
FSS  121 R;121 A
UREF
PNO  D239638
ISD  19760400
NAM  Cecchetti
OCL  D34  5JJ
UREF
PNO  3582074
ISD  19710600
NAM  Menotti
OCL  273121A
FREF
PNO  1373806
ISD  19640800
CNT  FRX
OCL  273121A
LREP
FR2  Friedman; Alex
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top, front, right side perspective view of a table ball game
      cabinet embodying my novel design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a left side view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a table ball game cabinet, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497336
SRC  5
APN  7740298
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770303
TTL  Table tennis racket
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  7
INVT
NAM  Zabaldo; Carmen
STR  13080 Tripoli St.
CTY  Sylmar
STA  CA
ZIP  91342
CLAS
OCL  D34  5SP
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 SP;15 P;5 ST
FSC  273
FSS  76;67 R;97 R
UREF
PNO  D192253
ISD  19620200
NAM  Kather
OCL  D34 15P
OREF
PAL  Sporting Goods Dealer, Oct. 1968, p. 247, lower right, Harvard Paddle.
LREP
FR2  Shapiro; Allan M.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a rear elevational view of a table tennis racket, showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2  is a front elevational view thereof, only representative portions
      of the surface being shown;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a side elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is an end elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is an enlarged scale fragmentary perspective view of a
      representative portion of the surface shown in FIG. 2.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a table tennis racket, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02497344
SRC  5
APN  7679645
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770211
TTL  Game board
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Feifer; Melvin B.
NDR  2
NFG  3
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Morgan; James L.
STR  3411 Altura St.
CTY  Los Angeles
STA  CA
ZIP  90031
CLAS
OCL  D34  5SS
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  5 SS;5 TT
FSC  273
FSS  236-287
UREF
PNO  D231542
ISD  19740400
NAM  Munson, Jr.
OCL  D34  5SS
UREF
PNO  1713455
ISD  19290500
NAM  Stickney
OCL  273262
UREF
PNO  3460834
ISD  19690800
NAM  Nickel
OCL  D34  5SS
LREP
FR2  Parker; Robert I.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 2 is an end view; and
PAL  FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing my new design.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for game board, substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497352
SRC  5
APN  7042906
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760712
TTL  Toy crib
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Rademaker; C. A.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  2
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Nelson; Norman
CTY  Southington
STA  CT
ASSG
NAM  Nelson Tool & Machine Company, Inc.
CTY  Southington
STA  CT
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D34 15AC
XCL  D 6 81
ICL  D2101
FSC  D 6
FSS  79;81;82;84
FSC  D34
FSS  15 AC;2
FSC   46
FSS  11;12;13;14;15
UREF
PNO  D28769
ISD  18980500
NAM  Baldwin
OCL  D 6 81
UREF
PNO  D36606
ISD  19031000
NAM  Woodruff
OCL  D 6 82
UREF
PNO  D84786
ISD  19310800
NAM  Kindel
OCL  D 6 82
UREF
PNO  D198561
ISD  19640700
NAM  Kupchick
OCL  D 6 81
OREF
PAL  Hall's Catalog, 1972, p. 11, Spool Cradle.
LREP
FR2  Fishman; David S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a side elevation view of a toy crib showing my new design, the
      opposite side being substantially identical to the side shown;
PAL  FIG. 2 is an end elevation view thereof, the opposite end being
      substantially identical;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a top plan view thereof; and,
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a toy crib, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497360
SRC  5
APN  7371764
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761029
TTL  Wheeled toy and figure therefor
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Rademaker; C. A.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  4
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Bergman; Andrew I.
CTY  East Aurora
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  The Quaker Oats Company
CTY  Chicago
STA  IL
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D34 15AN
XCL  D34 15AJ
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  15 AJ;15 AM;15 AT;15 AN
FSC   46
FSS  201;202;206;210;213
FSC  280
FSS  87.01;87.02 R;87.04 R
UREF
PNO  D141174
ISD  19450500
NAM  Jones
OCL  D34 15AJ
UREF
PNO  3671055
ISD  19720600
NAM  Aarup
OCL  280 87.01
OREF
PAL  J. C. Penny, Xmas, 1975, Catalog, p. 338, Toy Figures at Item 6.
LREP
FR2  Shaw; George W.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a wheeled toy and figure therefor
      showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a left-side elevational view thereof shown on a reduced scale;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a wheeled toy and figure therefor, substantially
      as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497379
SRC  5
APN  7548095
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19761227
TTL  Toy railway track
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Rademaker; C. A.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  3
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Tong; Duncan
CTY  Hong Kong
CNT  HKX
ASSG
NAM  Playart Limited
CTY  Hong Kong
CNT  HKX
COD  03
PRIR
CNT  GBX
APD  19760708
APN  976377/76
CLAS
OCL  D34 15MM
XCL  D34 15K
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  15 R;15 K;15 MM
FSC   46
FSS  216;43;1 K;202
FSC  109
FSS  60
UREF
PNO  2265965
ISD  19411200
NAM  Frisbie
OCL  D34 15MM
UREF
PNO  3140784
ISD  19640700
NAM  Goldbeck et al.
OCL  D34 15MM
OREF
PAL  Hollingsworth Catalog, .COPYRGT.1972, p. 22, Female Slip-On Connector at
      top of page at "A".
PAL  Tyco Catalog, .COPYRGT.1970, p. 13, Toy Track at bottom left corner of
      page.
LREP
FR2  Townsend; Stephen S.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top perspective view of a toy railway track showing my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top perspective view of a second embodiment thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a bottom perspective view of the design shown in FIG. 1;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a bottom perspective view of the design shown in FIG. 2;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top plan view of the design shown in FIG. 1; and,
PAL  FIG. 6 is a top plan view of the design shown in FIG. 2.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a toy railway track, as shown.
PATN
WKU  D02497387
SRC  5
APN  7638825
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19770131
TTL  Toy store
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Rademaker; C. A.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  3
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Gordon, Sr.; William D.
CTY  Glenview
STA  IL
ASSG
NAM  Arvey Corporation
CTY  Chicago
STA  IL
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D34 15LL
ICL  D2101
FSC  D34
FSS  15 LL;11 A
FSC  D25
FSS  1;17;22
FSC   46
FSS  11;12
OREF
PAL  wards Xmas Catalog, 1976, p. 339, Item A, Clubhouse.
PAL  F. A. O. Schwartz Catalog, 1975-1976, p. 38, Item E, Sheriff's Office; Item
      D, General Store.
PAL  Playthings, 3-1973, p. 9, Item 291, Toy Building.
LREP
FR2  Dressler; Max
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front perspective view of a toy store showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a right side elevational view thereof and is a mirror image of
      the left side elevational view;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a toy store, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02497395
SRC  5
APN  7931786
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770502
TTL  Vehicle lamp
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Lucas; Susan J.
NDR  1
NFG  6
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Moore; Dennis G.
STR  576 Debra
CTY  Livermore
STA  CA
ZIP  94550
CLAS
OCL  D48 32R
ICL  D2606
FSC  240
FSS  7.1 R;7.1 C;7.1 E;7.1 F;8.1 R;8.2;8.22;8.3;41.55
FSC  D48
FSS  32 R;32 A
FSC  D10
FSS  114
FSC  340
FSS  84;87;50
UREF
PNO  D62945
ISD  19230800
NAM  Godley
OCL  D48 32R
UREF
PNO  D181996
ISD  19580100
NAM  Ornas
OCL  D48 32R
UREF
PNO  1664536
ISD  19280400
NAM  Bement
OCL  240  7.1R
LREP
FR2  Roehrig, Jr.; August E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a frontal perspective view of a vehicle lamp embodying my new
      design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a frontal elevational view thereof on an enlarged scale;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a rear elevational view thereof on an enlarged scale;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevational view thereof on an enlarged scale, the
      opposite side being identical;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a top plan view thereof on an enlarged scale; and
PAL  FIG. 6 is a bottom plan view thereof on an enlarged scale, the electrical
      bulb and holder being shown in broken lines for illustrative purposes only
     .
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a vehicle lamp, substantially as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02497409
SRC  5
APN  8022399
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770531
TTL  Leading edge light for a motorcycle fairing
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Gandy; James M.
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  6
NFG  8
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Vetter; Craig W.
CTY  Rantoul
STA  IL
ASSG
NAM  Vetter Fairing Company
CTY  San Luis Obispo
STA  CA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D48 32E
XCL  D48 32A
ICL  D2606
FSC  D48
FSS  32 R;32 A;32 E
FSC  240
FSS  7.1 R;7.55;8.1 R;8.2;8.22;8.3;41.4 R;41.4 D;106 R;106 D
OREF
PAL  J. C. Whitney Catalog No. 359A, p. 143, Running Lights on Fairing [A], top
      center of page.
PAL  Corbin-Gentry 1976 Factory to Dealer Catalogue, p. 33, Running Lights on
      Fairing, top of page.
PAL  Cycle, 6/76, p. 111, Turn Signal Lights on Fairing, bottom of page.
LREP
FR2  Wegner; Ernest A.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a top plan view of the leading edge light embodying my new
      design, as mounted on a motorcycle fairing;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is an enlarged front elevation view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view of FIG. 3;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view of FIG. 3;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a rear elevation view of FIG. 3;
PAL  FIG. 7 is a right end elevation view of FIG. 3;
PAL  FIG. 8 is a left end elevation view of FIG. 3;
PAL  FIG. 9 is a sectional view taken along line 9--9 in FIG. 3; and
PAL  FIG. 10 is a sectional view taken along line 10--10 in FIG. 3.
PAL  The broken lines in the drawing are for illustrative purposes only.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a leading edge light for a motorcycle fairing, as
      shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497425
SRC  5
APN  831067&
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770906
TTL  Electronic calculating machine
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Lucas; Susan J.
NDR  2
NFG  7
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Ohie; Yoshihisa
CTY  Osaka
CNT  JPX
ASSG
NAM  Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha
CTY  Osaka
CNT  JPX
COD  03
PRIR
CNT  JPX
APD  19770310
APN  52-9105
CLAS
OCL  D64 11B
ICL  D1801
FSC  D64
FSS  11 R;11 B;11 C
FSC  D14
FSS  42;40;45
FSC  200
FSS  5 A
FSC  235
FSS  145 R
UREF
PNO  D229065
ISD  19731100
NAM  Maeda et al.
OCL  D64 11B
UREF
PNO  D238951
ISD  19760200
NAM  Herr et al.
OCL  D64 11B
UREF
PNO  3996428
ISD  19761200
NAM  Buan et al.
OCL  200  5A
OREF
PAL  Office Products, Apr. 1974, p. 62, Mod. BC-0808B, Electronic Calculator.
PAL  Office Products, May 1975, p. 70, Eight Digit Pocket Calculator.
LREP
FR2  Flehr; Paul D.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of the electronic calculating machine showing
      my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a plan view thereof on an enlarged scale;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof on an enlarged scale;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a rear elevational view thereof on an enlarged scale;
PAL  FIG. 5 is a right elevational view thereof on an enlarged scale;
PAL  FIG. 6 is a left elevational view thereof on an enlarged scale; and
PAL  FIG. 7 is a bottom view thereof on an enlarged scale.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for an electronic calculating machine, as shown and
      described.
PATN
WKU  D02497433
SRC  5
APN  4427769
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19740215
TTL  Carrying case for tape cartridges and cassettes
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Word; George P.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  3
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Berkman; Joseph L.
STR  48 Country Rd.
CTY  Mamaroneck
STA  NY
ZIP  10543
CLAS
OCL  D87  1D
XCL  D87  5F
ICL  D0302
FSC  D87
FSS  1 R;5 F;5 C;5 E;5 G;1 B;1 C
FSC  206
FSS  387
UREF
PNO  D197752
ISD  19640300
NAM  Holtzman
OCL  D87  5F
UREF
PNO  D230528
ISD  19740200
NAM  Berkman
OCL  D87  1D
UREF
PNO  3269495
ISD  19660800
NAM  Bush
OCL  190 57
UREF
PNO  3710900
ISD  19730100
NAM  Fink
OCL  206387
UREF
PNO  3743081
ISD  19730700
NAM  Roberg
OCL  206387
OREF
PAL  Casemakers Inc. Flyer, Apr. 1, 1972, p. 2, Item STR-30.
PAL  Casemakers Inc. Flyer, Apr. 1, 1972, p. 2, Item CAS-30.
PAL  Luggage and Leather Goods, Oct. 1966, p. 19, Suitcase shown.
PAL  Prestolock Hardware Catalog, .COPYRGT. 1963, Garfield, N.J., p. 14, Item
      #1646/1836.
LREP
FR2  Lackenbach; Armand E.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a carrying case for tape cartridges and
      cassettes showing my new design with the lid in an open position, the
      inside rear wall, and the opposite side of the central partition being
      identical to the sides shown;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a top plan view with the lid in closed position;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a front elevational view thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a side elevational view thereof; and,
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a carrying case for tape cartridges and
      cassettes, substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497441
SRC  5
APN  6727786
APT  4
ART  292
APD  19760401
TTL  File box
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Word; George P.
EXP  Stearman; Joel
NDR  1
NFG  5
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Lyman; George
CTY  Weston
STA  MA
ASSG
NAM  Data Packaging Corporation
CTY  Cambridge
STA  MA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  D87  1R
XCL  D19 90
ICL  D1902
FSC  D19
FSS  65;75;90
FSC  D87
FSS  5 F;1 D;1 R
FSC  206
FSS  425
FSC  229
FSS  42
FSC  312
FSS  183;184
FSC  211
FSS  11
UREF
PNO  D217080
ISD  19700300
NAM  Fleming
OCL  D87  5F
UREF
PNO  D221264
ISD  19710700
NAM  Brown
OCL  D19 90
UREF
PNO  3874501
ISD  19750400
NAM  Cronheim
OCL  206425
FREF
PNO  1346825
ISD  19631100
CNT  FRX
OCL  206425
OREF
PAL  Bainbridge Kimpton & Haupt Cat., .COPYRGT. 1962, p. 229, top left.
LREP
FR2  Greenfield; George L.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a file box showing my new design;
PAL  FIG. 2 is a front elevational view, the opposite side being a mirror image
      thereof;
PAL  FIG. 3 is a left end elevational view, the opposite right end elevational
      view being a mirror image thereof;
PAL  FIG. 4 is a top plan view thereof; and
PAL  FIG. 5 is a bottom plan view thereof.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a file box, as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  D02497450
SRC  5
APN  7899882
APT  4
ART  291
APD  19770422
TTL  Sign
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Kemper; Catherine
EXP  Burke; Wallace R.
NDR  1
NFG  1
TRM  14
INVT
NAM  Pasternakiewicz; Adam
STR  2428 N. Bernard St.
CTY  Chicago
STA  IL
ZIP  60647
CLAS
OCL  D96 12E
EDF  2
ICL  D2003
FSC  D96
FSS  12 R;12 E
FSC  D64
FSS  12 A;12 B
FSC   40
FSS  125 R;125 F;137;140
UREF
PNO  D2289
ISD  18660000
NAM  Carter
OCL  D64 12B
UREF
PNO  D231712
ISD  19740500
NAM  Snitzel
OCL  D64 12B
UREF
PNO  D233185
ISD  19741000
NAM  Lengyel
OCL  D96 12E
UREF
PNO  D234167
ISD  19750100
NAM  Lengyel
OCL  D96 12E
UREF
PNO  D234835
ISD  19750400
NAM  Lengyel
OCL  D96 12E
UREF
PNO  D242186
ISD  19761100
NAM  Lengyel
OCL  D96 12E
LREP
FR2  Trexler; Richard R.
DRWD
PAL  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a sign showing my new design, the
      sign being shaded to indicate contrast.
PAL  The sign is of no substantial thickness and the undisclosed side is flat
      and plain.
DCLM
PAR  The ornamental design for a sign, substantially as shown and described.
PATN
WKU  PP0043060
SRC  5
APN  8238510
APT  6
ART  337
APD  19770811
TTL  Kalanchoe plant
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Bagwill; Robert E.
NDR  1
NFG  1
INVT
NAM  Hope; Claude
CTY  Cartago
CNT  CRX
ASSG
NAM  Mikkelsens, Inc.
CTY  Ashtabula
STA  OH
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  PLT 68
EDF  2
ICL  A01H  500
FSC  PLT
FSS   68
LREP
FRM  Beall & Jeffery
ABST
PAL  A new asexually reproduced kalanchoe characterized by its intense bright
      red purple flower color, uniform mounded inflorescence, and broad
      versatility of sizes of plants that can be produced with equal keeping
      qualities regardless of size.
BSUM
PAR  The present invention relates to a new and distinctive variety of kalanchoe
      plant, known by the cultivar name Adagio and botanically known as
      Kalanchoe, developed by me through controlled breeding by crossing
      selected Swiss Rose clone #2 (seed parent) with commercial seed strain
      Swiss Rose (pollen parent). Both parents are unpatented. Asexual
      reproduction of stem cuttings has shown that the unique features of this
      new kalanchoe are stabilized and are reproduced true to type in successive
      propagations.
PAR  The following characteristics distinguish the new kalanchoe from both its
      parent varieties and other cultivated kalanchoes of this type known and
      used in the floriculture industry:
PAR  1. In comparison to the seed produced strain, the color of my new selection
      is more intense and the flowers have much better keeping qualities. The
      new cultivar does not come true to type for commercial seed production.
PAR  2. In comparison to my seedling M-12, known by the cultivar name Largo and
      disclosed in an application filed simultaneously herewith, the plant
      growth and general habits are quite similar but the flower color of Largo
      is considerably lighter and has a greater tendency to fade. Flower petals
      of Adagio are wider and shorter than Largo.
PAR  3. The intense, bright red purple color of the flower petals.
PAR  4. The extremely long keeping qualities of the flowers, which have been
      known to remain in excellent condition in the home for 10 to 12 weeks. As
      illustrated, flowering is quite uniform.
PAR  5. The large quantity of blooms in flower at one time, thereby presenting a
      floral display twice the diameter of the extremities of the foliage.
      Mildew has not been observed to date on my new cultivar.
PAR  6. Quite small compact foliage for kalanchoes, allowing for pot to pot
      growing up to the time of flower development. This is of economic
      importance to the flowering pot plant producer.
PAR  7. Profuse self-branching habit which is of economic importance to the
      propagator and to the finished plant producer. My new cultivar is ideally
      suited for small pot plant production.
PAR  8. The excellent and rapid rooting qualities of top stem cuttings, with the
      rooting being less than 21 days when the propagation media is
      21.degree.-22.degree. C.
PAR  9. Research has determined that my new cultivar is ideally suited for
      production of miniature flowering kalanchoe plants as illustrated in FIG.
      2 of the photographic drawings. Unrooted cuttings of the plant shown
      therein were stuck directly into 5 cm. pots and placed directly into short
      day treatment on 5.5 cm. centers. Such flowering plants can be used in
      terrariums or combination flowering pots. Most kalanchoes become too tall
      or "stretched" when given this technique of producing miniature flowering
      plants.
PAR  10. Additional flowering trails indicate that my new cultivar also can be
      produced in 15 cm. pots by allowing additional time for plant development
      before pinching and giving short day treatment. Thus my new cultivar has
      very broad versatility for production purposes.
DRWD
PAR  The accompanying colored photographs illustrate the overall appearance of
      this variety taken as face views of the plants and showing the colors as
      true as it is reasonably possible to obtain in colored reproductions of
      this type.
PAR  FIG. 1 comprises a large plant grown under lights in a peat/perlite media
      in a 12 cm. clay pot, having been potted Dec. 20, 1976, pinched and given
      short day treatment Feb. 7, 1977, and flowered May 2, 1977. This plant was
      approximately 20 cm. in height and 25 cm. in diameter. The photograph
      comprising FIG. 1 was taken May 24, 1977.
PAR  FIG. 2, as above noted, comprises plants the cuttings of which were placed
      in a 5 cm. pot, with the result being a miniaturization of the plants and
      reduced flower size.
DETD
PAR  The following is a detailed description of my new kalanchoe variety based
      on plants produced under commercial practices in Costa Rica and Ashtabula,
      Ohio. Color references are made to the Royal Horticultural Society Colour
      Chart except where general terms of ordinary dictionary significance are
      used.
PA0  Parentage: Selected clone #2 of Swiss Rose crossed with commercial seed
      strain of Swiss Rose, and specifically selected out of the fifth seedling
      generation.
PA0  Propagation:
PA2  (A) Type cutting.--Vegetative terminal stem cuttings in 5 cm. pots.
PA2  (B) Time to root.--15-18 days at 22.degree. C. summer, 20-25 days at
      21.degree. C. winter.
PA2  (C) Rooting habit.--Very rapid, profuse, dendritic, fibrous.
PA0  Plant description:
PA2  (A) Form.--Short, bushy, compact, vigorously upright.
PA2  (B) Habit of growth.--Slow, self-branching.
PA2  (C) Foliage description.--Small, dark green, close internode, slightly
      concave upward, nearly horizontal to approximately 15.degree. above
      horizontal except where side shoots may force leaf to greater angle. (1)
      Size: From 3 cm. wide by 6 cm. long, petiole 15 mm. long, base nearly
      acute, apex toward acute. (2) Shape: From oval to elliptical. (3) Texture:
      Glabrous, coriaceous. (4) Margin: Crenate. (5) Color: Mature foliage top
      side darker green than 136A, underside near 139B.
PA0  Flowering description:
PA2  (A) Flowering habits.--Inflorescence develops very uniformly on nearly
      every peduncle, thereby giving a massive display of flowers best described
      as a paniculate cyme. The subcymes usually carry 15 to 20 flowers.
PA2  (B) Natural flowering season.--Under good light conditions is late
      December, and under adverse light conditions is early to mid-January.
      Flowering time under controlled daylength at 22.degree. C. in summer is
      68-70 days, in winter is 85-87 days. Flowering time varies considerably
      with the intensity and duration of day light.
PA2  (C) Flower buds.--Typical for kalanchoes, being tubular, with the petals
      being wrapped. The bud measures approximately 2 mm. in diameter by 7 mm.
      long, and up to 13 mm. long when opened.
PA2  (D) Flowers borne.--Small flowering groups in cymes carried collectively on
      stiff wiry peduncles making up a paniculate cyme.
PA2  (E) Quantity of flowers.--Flowering shoots originate in nearly every leaf
      axil, flowering developing from apex to the crown, profuse and uniform.
PA2  (F) Petals.--(1) Shape: Elliptical. (2) Color: Top side when opening red
      purple 74B with very little fading throughout development, from 74B toward
      74C; under side red purple 74C-D. (3) Number of petals: Four, 4 mm. wide
      by 6-7 mm. long; flower diameter 14 mm.
PA2  (G) Reproductive organs.--(1) Stamens: Eight in number. (a) Anther: anvil
      flat shape, color light brown. (b) Filament color: Translucent green. (c)
      Pollen color: Light yellow. (2) Pistils: (a) Stigma: shape coalesced,
      irregular, color pinkish white. (b) Style: Light green in color. (c)
      Ovaries: Four in number, size 5 mm., color green; produces good viable but
      variable seed.
PA0  Disease resistance: No diseases observed to date other than common
      botrytis.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A new and distinct cultivar of kalanchoe known by the cultivar name
      Adagio and characterized particularly as to uniqueness by the combined
      characteristics of intense red purple flower color; excellent keeping
      qualities of the flowers; large floral display; small compact foliage;
      profuse self-branching; rapid rooting habit, and by the characteristic of
      being ideally suited for either normal or miniature flowering.
PATN
WKU  PP0043079
SRC  5
APN  8238529
APT  6
ART  337
APD  19770811
TTL  Kalanchoe plant
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Bagwill; Robert E.
NDR  1
NFG  1
INVT
NAM  Hope; Claude
CTY  Cartago
CNT  CRX
ASSG
NAM  Mikkelsens, Inc.
CTY  Ashtabula
STA  OH
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  PLT 68
EDF  2
ICL  A01H  500
FSC  PLT
FSS   68
LREP
FRM  Beall & Jeffery
ABST
PAL  A new asexually reproduced kalanchoe characterized by its double crenate
      green oblong to elliptical foliage, branching at many of the leaf axils,
      peduncles of the inflorescence and individual flower pedicels being small
      in diameter but distinctly wiry and stiff, uniform flowering and very
      floriferous with orange red flowers, with both the foliage and flowers
      possessing outstanding keeping qualities.
BSUM
PAR  The present invention relates to a new and distinctive variety of kalanchoe
      plant, botanically known as Kalanchoe, and known by the cultivar name
      Rhumba. The new cultivar was developed by me through controlled breeding
      by crossing a fourth generation seedling selection of Red Empress
      (unpatented) as the seed parent with a second generation seedling
      (unpatented) originating from a cross of Brilliant Star with Swiss Rose as
      the pollen parent. Asexual reproduction of stem cuttings has shown that
      the unique features of this new kalanchoe are stabilized and are
      reproduced true to type in successive propagations.
PAR  The following characteristics distinguish the new kalanchoe from both its
      parent varieties and other cultivated kalanchoes of this type known and
      used in the floriculture industry:
PAR  1. In comparison to the varieties used for parentage purposes, my new
      cultivar has foliage that resembles Brilliant Star, the self branching
      typical of Swiss Rose and flower color and size similar to Red Empress,
      with earliness of flowering related to all three genotypes.
PAR  2. Flower color is a clear orange red with the throat being a light orange;
      very little fading occurs so that the color of the inflorescence remains
      uniform, colorful, and attractive; the flower color is more intense than
      the variety Brilliant Star (from seed) or the cultivar Morning Star (not
      patented). Flower size of my new cultivar is smaller than those of
      Rotkappchen, U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,851, or Sirius, disclosed in pending
      U.S. application Ser. No. 709,282 of Adolf Grob. Flower response size, and
      quantity, are very comparable to the cultivar Pixie, disclosed in pending
      U.S. application Ser. No. 766,737, now U.S. Plant Pat. No. 4,209 of James
      C. Mikkelsen, but the flower color of Pixie is deep orange-red. Both my
      new cultivar and Pixie have Red Empress as a common parent, but other than
      the flower comparison, there are no other significant similarities between
      Rhumba and Pixie.
PAR  3. The inflorescence of my new cultivar is massive, and made up of an
      abundance of individual flowers 15 mm. in diameter, a particularly unique
      quality being the depth of the inflorescence, nearly two-thirds of the
      diameter. The total flower placement of my new cultivar has greater eye
      appeal than that of Morning Star.
PAR  4. My new cultivar has extremely good shelf life, a feature important for
      distribution and the ultimate consumer. The keeping qualities are far
      superior to the seed variety Red Empress, especially as to foliage.
PAR  5. Several years of testing have demonstrated that my new cultivar can be
      readily produced in 9 cm. or 12 cm. or 15 cm. pots with remarkably uniform
      and dependable quality.
PAR  6. The testing and development program has also shown that Rhumba can be
      produced equally well as a pinched plant or a non-pinched plant, thereby
      allowing the grower a wider range of plant forms.
PAR  7. A very distinguishing characteristic of my new cultivar is the
      relatively thin but stiff, wiry flower stems and individual flower
      pedicels, an excellent quality for shipping.
PAR  8. Unlike most kalanchoe cultivars, the inflorescence of my new cultivar
      has a placement very noticeably above the foliage, which tends to remain
      basal.
PAR  9. The foliage is attractive, long, elliptical, double crenate with deep
      indentations toward a tendency to be lobed; basal and cascading; has
      better keeping qualities than Rotkappchen or Siruis, but similar to the
      cultivar Morning Star.
PAR  10. Early uniform flowering occurs in as little as 60 days in late spring,
      summer, and early fall and up to 77 days during the reduced light period
      of winter.
DRWD
PAR  The accompanying colored photograph illustrates the overall appearance of
      my new cultivar, and shows the colors as true as it is reasonably possible
      to obtain in a colored reproduction of this type. The plant illustrated in
      the colored photograph was propagated in a 5 cm. plastic pot; repotted
      into a 12 cm. clay pot Apr. 4, 1977. After removing the apical tip on Apr.
      19, 1977, the plant was placed into short day treatment the same day and
      the first open flowers were recorded on June 12, 1977. The photograph was
      taken June 28, 1977, the plant at that time having an inflorescence 26 cm.
      to 28 cm. in diameter, vertical flowering being approximately 15 cm. high.
      The total plant height was 32 cm. above the pot. The detailed descriptions
      which follow are based on this illustrated plant.
DETD
PAR  The following is a detailed description of my new kalanchoe variety based
      on plants produced under commercial practices in Costa Rica and Ashtabula,
      Ohio. Color references are made to the Royal Horticultural Society Colour
      Chart except where general terms of ordinary dictionary significance are
      used.
PA0  Parentage: The seed parent was a selected fourth generation seedling out of
      my controlled inbreeding of Red Empress which was crossed with a second
      generation seedling that originated from a controlled cross of Brilliant
      Star with Swiss Rose as the pollen parent.
PA0  Propagation:
PA2  (A) Type cutting.--Terminal stems rooted in 5 cm. plastic pots.
PA2  (B) Time to root.--15-18 days at 22.degree. C. summer; 18-22 days at
      21.degree. C. winter.
PA2  (C) Rooting habit.--Profuse, dendritic, fibrous.
PA0  Plant description:
PA2  (A) Form.--Stiff, upright, compact basal foliage, close internodes; a
      definite gap appears between top of the foliage and the beginning of
      flowering.
PA2  (B) Habit of growth.--Vigorous rate of growth, being more rapid than the
      Bull or Wyss cultivars to date.
PA2  (C) Foliage.--Generally, green, convex, cascading, close internode, large
      foliage. (1) Size: Up to 6-8 cm. wide by 12-15 cm. long, petiole 2 cm.,
      base obtuse, apices normally acute with some tendency to obtuse. (2)
      Shape: Oblong to elliptical. (3) Texture: Glabrous, coriacious, thick,
      rigid. (4) Margin: Strongly double crenate to lobed. (5) Color: Mature
      foliage top side, green 137A; underside yellow green 148-B.
PA0  Flowering description:
PA2  (A) Flowering habits.--Flowers open uniformly in 10-15 days, inflorescence
      being in the form of paniculate cymes up to 26 cm. to 28 cm. in diameter
      and up to 15 cm. in vertical height, flowering continuously for 12-15
      weeks.
PA2  (B) Natural flowering season.--Under good light conditions at
      19.degree.-20.degree. C. flowering occurs in late December; under poor
      light at 20.degree. C. early to mid-January. Flowering time under
      controlled day length at 22.degree. C in summer is 60 days; in winter is
      77 days. Flowering varies considerably depending mostly on daylight
      intensity and duration relative to temperatures.
PA2  (C) Flower buds.--Typical kalanchoe flower buds with petals swirled before
      opening, pointed, 12 mm. long, 2 mm. in diameter, pedicel 2 mm., length of
      bud up to 15 mm. when open.
PA2  (D) Flowers borne.--Individual flowers are on a short, stiff pedicel
      branching from secondary thin stiff peduncles which in turn are carried on
      primary peduncles originating from the leaf axils; total inflorescence
      paniculate cyme.
PA2  (E) Quantity of flowers.--Terminal cymes up to 150 flowers, secondary
      laterals 75-100 flowers. The illustration has an estimated 600 flowers;
      considered highly floriforous.
PA2  (F) Petals.--(1) Shape: Broad elliptical to oval, usually pointed. (2)
      Color top side when opening, orange red 30C, fading slightly to 30D; under
      side 28-C, (3) Number of petals: 4, nearly separated, 5 mm. wide by 7-8
      mm. long, flower diameter 15 mm.
PA2  (G) Reproductive organs.--(1) Stamens: Eight in number. (a) Anther shape:
      Flat anvil, color dark brown. (b) Filament color: Light translucent
      yellow. (c) Pollen color: Dark yellow/tan. (2) Pistels: (a) Stigma shape:
      4 stigmas, coalesced to irregular crystalline, color translucent green.
      (b) Style color: Translucent light yellow. (c) Ovaries: Four in number, 6
      mm. before pollinated, color green.
PA0  Disease Resistance: No diseases of commercial concern have been noted to
      date.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A new and distinct cultivar of kalanchoe plant known by the cultivar
      name of Rhumba and particularly characterized as to uniqueness by the
      combined characteristics of clear orange red flower color, with the throat
      being light orange; massive inflorescence, having substantial depth of
      flowering; excellent keeping qualities for both flowers and foliage;
      relatively thin but stiff, wiry flower stems; long, elliptical, double
      crenate foliage, excellent branching habit, and by its early, uniform
      flowering.
PATN
WKU  PP0043087
SRC  5
APN  8392854
APT  6
ART  337
APD  19770930
TTL  Violet plant named Vera
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Bagwill; Robert E.
NDR  1
NFG  1
INVT
NAM  Fischer; Arnold W.
CTY  Fallbrook
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  Geo. J. Ball, Inc.
CTY  West Chicago
STA  IL
COD  02
CLAS
OCL  PLT 69
EDF  2
ICL  A01H  500
FSC  PLT
FSS   69
LREP
FRM  Rummler and Snow
ABST
PAL  A new and distinct variety of African violet plant for greenhouse culture
      and potted plant production distinguished by the purple violet coloration
      of its abundant flowers which are borne on strong upright peduncles and
      held well above a horizontally spreading abundance of variegated dark
      green leaves of a generally orbicular shape, the flower petals being of
      both light and dark coloring in each blossom and most having a fine white
      marginal edging, and the foliage having an attractive quilted velutinous
      texture which enhances the appearance of the flower mass.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  My new variety of African violet plant was discovered by me as a seedlling
      of unknown parentage grown among random pollinated plants cultivated by me
      at my breeding facilities at Hanover, Germany, with the object of
      developing novel flower coloring and improved growth characteristics and
      stamina for indoor potted plant culture. This new plant is much like the
      variety Rachel (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 4,113) in many respects, differing
      particularly in its coloration and for that reason was selected for
      propagation and testing. Propagation was carried on by me at Hanover,
      Germany, by means of leaf cuttings, through successive generations and
      demonstrated to me that the distinctive characteristics of this plant were
      holding true, appeared to be firmly fixed, and that this new variety was
      worthy of commercial exploitation. Accordingly propagation of this new
      variety of African violet is now being done at West Chicago, Ill., and at
      Woodburn, Oreg., U.S.A., by means of leaf cuttings and divisions of shoots
     .
DRWD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  This new variety of African violet plant is illustrated by the accompanying
      photographic drawing which shows, in full color, a potted plant of the new
      variety in full bloom and a series of the flowers in full face display to
      show variations of flower coloring that may occur on a single plant, the
      color rendition being as nearly true as it is reasonably possible to
      obtain by conventional professional photographic procedures.
DETD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW PLANT
PAR  The following is a detailed description of my new African violet plant
      based upon observations of greenhouse pot plants at West Chicago, Ill.,
      during the spring of 1977, the color designations being determined
      according to the R.H.S. Colour Chart published by The Royal Horticultural
      Society of London, England.
PAC  THE PLANT
PA0  Origin: Seedling.
PA0  Parentage: Unknown.
PA0  Classification:
PA2  Botanic.-- Saintpaulia ionantha.
PA2  Commercial.--African Violet.
PA0  Form: Compact potted plant.
PA0  Height: About 11/2 to 2 inches from soil to top of foliage and about 4 to 5
      inches from foliage to top of the flowers.
PA0  Growth: Condensed and vigorous with very strong horizontally spreading
      petioles and sturdy upright peduncles.
PA0  Branching: Axillary branching can occur on older plants.
PA0  Foliage: Abundant with a variable number of leaves.
PA2  Blade size of mature leaf.--About 11/2 to 21/2 inches long and about 13/4
      to 21/2 inches wide.
PA2  Leaf form.--Orbicular with sagittate base, an acute to obtuse apex, and
      crenate margins.
PA2  Texture.--Velutinous.
PA2  Venation.--Pinnately veined. The veins are pronounced on the under side of
      the leaf.
PA2  Color.--Upper side -- Yellow-Green 147A with lighter green main vein and
      the marginal area of the leaf. Under side -- Greyed-Purple 186B with older
      leaves becoming Greyed-Green 194D. Main veins are Greyed-Red 182B with
      older leaves becoming Greyed-Green 194B.
PA2  petioles.--About 2 to 4 inches long, averaging 31/2 inches.
PAC  THE BUD
PA0  Form: Globular, becoming urn-shaped as bud opens.
PA0  Size: About 1/4 to 3/8 inch in diameter, just prior to opening.
PA0  Rate of opening: 3 to 5 weeks from visual bud to opening.
PA0  Color:
PA2  When sepals first divide.--White 155A.
PA2  when sepals begin to unfurl.--Purple 79B to 79A.
PA0  Sepals: Hooded over bud for a short period.
PA2  Shape.--Spear-shaped and upstanding.
PA2  Curlback.--Slightly appressed to petals.
PA2  Color.--Greyed-Red 182B.
PA0  Calyx: Shape -- funnel-shaped.
PA2  Splitting.--Calyx splits to star shape.
PA2  Aspect.--Smooth on inside; hairy on outside.
PA0  Peduncle: About 13/4 to 21/4 inches long, with a velutinous surface.
PA2  Strength.--Erect and exceptionally strong.
PA2  Color.--Greyed-Red 182B becoming green at the apex.
PAC  THE FLOWER
PA0  Blooming habit: Recurrent to continuous the year around, blooming more in
      spring and fall than in other periods.
PA0  Size: Medium to large.
PA2  Diameter.--About 1 to 13/4 inches, average 11/4 inches.
PA2  Depth.--About 1/4 to 1/2 inch.
PA0  Shape: Cupped when bloom first opens becoming flattened as bloom matures.
PA0  Borne: The inflorescence is a cyme.
PA0  Petalage: Petals are basally connate.
PA2  Number.--5 when single with petaloid anthers to 10 when fully double with
      petaloid anthers.
PA2  Arrangement.--Gamopetalous.
PA2  Form.--Zygomorphic when single, with slightly wavy margin.
PA2  Texture.--Soft.
PA2  Appearance.--Glittery on upper side. Satiny on lower side.
PA2  Color.--Upper petals -- Purple-Violet 82A to 83B with a more or less
      distinct White (155B) margin which may be up to 1/16 inch wide, depending
      on culture. Lower Petals -- Purple-Violet 80B and 81B. Reverse Side --
      Uniform to mottled Purple-Violet 81B to 81C.
PA0  Petaloids: Number -- 1 to 4 petaloid anthers.
PA2  Size.--About 1/4 to 1/2 inch long. Average -- 1/4 inch.
PA2  Color.--Same as petals.
PA0  Peduncle: Length -- 11/4 to 21/2 inches. Average -- 2 inches.
PA2  Strength.--Sturdy and upright.
PA2  Color.--Greyed-Red 182B becoming Greyed-Green at apex.
PA0  Discoloration, after full bloom: The white edging of the petals becomes
      less distinct.
PA0  Effect of weather: In hot weather, the color becomes less vivid and flower
      life is decreased.
PA0  Persistence: Flowers hang on and dry, turning brown at senescence.
PA0  Fragrance: None.
PA0  Lasting quality: 12 to 14 days as a fully opened flower.
PAC  REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
PA0  Stamens:
PA2  Anthers.--Number -- 2 when single, each with 2 anther cells, 4 when double,
      occasionally 6. Arrangement: Basifixed, connate at apex.
PA2  Filaments.--About 1/16 to 1/8 inch long. Color: White 155A with or without
      a purple blush.
PA2  Pollen.--Color -- Yellow 7A.
PA0  Pistils: Number -- One, occasionally two.
PA2  Style.--About 1/4 to 3/8 inch long. Color: Green at base, purple at apex.
PA2  Stigmas.--Color -- Purple-Violet.
PA0  Ovaries: Superior and velutinous.
PA0  Fruit: Normally none, except were special attempts have been made to
      pollinate the flower.
PAR  This variety of African violet most nearly resembles the variety Rachel
      (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 4,113) in most of its growth and blooming habits and
      characteristics, the main differences residing in flower coloration, the
      new plant having flowers of a purple-violet color whereas Rachel has
      violet-blue flowers. Other differences are found in the foliage shape and
      texture of the two plants, the new plant having leaves that tend to be
      more rounded at the apex and more guilted than the leaves of Rachel.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A new and distinct variety of African violet plant substantially as
      herein shown and described, characterized by its purple-violet flowers,
      most petals of which are delicately edged with white.
PATN
WKU  PP0043095
SRC  5
APN  854512&
APT  6
ART  337
APD  19771125
TTL  Rose plant
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXP  Bagwill; Robert E.
NDR  1
NFG  2
INVT
NAM  McGredy; Samuel D.
STR  P.O. Box 14-100
CTY  Auckland
CNT  NZX
CLAS
OCL  PLT 16
ICL  A01H  500
FSC  PLT
FSS   11;16-17
LREP
FR2  Gioia; Vincent G.
ABST
PAL  A novel rose variety of the hybrid tea class characterized by blooms of
      bright orange coloring and high centered form, as hereafter shown and
      described.
BSUM
PAR  The present invention relates to a new and distinct variety of rose plant
      of the hybrid tea rose class, which was originated by my crossing as seed
      parent the rose known as "Bond Street" and the rose known as "Peer Gynt"
      as pollen parent.
PAR  Among the novel characteristics possessed by this new variety which
      distinguish it from its parents and all other varieties of which I am
      aware are: (1) blooms of persistent orange blend coloring displaying a
      brilliant orange tonality from a distance and developing soft salmon
      general tonality on aging, (2) high centered flowers borne primarily
      singly to a stem in a manner typical of hybrid tea plants, (3) flowers of
      many petals displaying high centered, spiral form, and (4) long lasting
      blooms on the plant and after cutting. Asexual reproduction by budding of
      the new variety as performed in Clackamas County, Oreg., shows that the
      foregoing and other distinguishing characteristics come true to form and
      are established and transmitted through succeeding propagations.
DRWD
PAR  The accompanying drawing shows typical specimens of the vegatative growth
      and flowers of the new variety in different stages of development and as
      depicted in color as nearly true as it is reasonably possible to make the
      same in a color illustration of this character.
DETD
PAR  The following is a detailed description of my new variety, with color
      terminology in accordance with the Royal Horticultural Society Color Chart
      (RHSCC). The terminology used in color description herein refers to plate
      numbers in the aforementioned color chart, e.g., "40C" is plate 40C of the
      Royal Horticultural Society Color Chart.
PA0  Parentage: Seedling.
PA2  Seed parent.--"Bond Street".
PA2  Pollen parent.--"Peer Gynt".
PA0  Class: Hybrid tea.
PAR  The following observations are made of specimens grown outdoors in
      Clackamas County, Oreg. during the month of October.
PAC  FLOWER
PA0  Blooming habit: Continuous.
PA2  A. bud.--(1) Size: Medium. (2) Form: High center. (3) Color: When sepals
      first divide -- 40C. When petals begin to unfurl -- 24B edged with 32B.
      When half-blown -- 28B. Reverse side of petals -- 24C edged with 32B. (4)
      Sepals: Simple, long, pointed, 144A outside with Scattered reddish
      glandular hairs (145A), inside densely hirsute. (5) Peduncle: Length --
      long. Aspect -- straight, upright. Strength -- strong. Color -- 144A
      flushed with 172B on the sunny side.
PA2  B. bloom.--(1) Size: Average size when fully expanded -- about 4-inches.
      (2) Borne: Primarily singly, if side buds present, often vegetative. (3)
      Form: High centered blooms, becoming flat upon opening, petals remaining
      at first loosely rolled outward, petals roll downward at maturity. (4)
      Petalage: Number of petals under normal conditions -- about 36 to 40. (5)
      Color: (during first 2 days) Inner petals at center of flower -- 28B.
      Outer petals -- base color 30C with overlay of reddish tones over orange.
      Base of petals (point of attachment) 23B. Reverse of petals -- 23B.
      General tonality from a distance -- brilliant orange. (6) Color change: As
      bloom ages -- center rows of petals 32B, and on aging, displays a soft
      salmon orange general tonality with little further fading.
PA2  C. petals.--(1) Texture: Thick, rigid. (2) Appearance: Inside -- satiny,
      flat texture on reverse. (3) Form: Broad, obovate. (4) Arrangement:
      Regularly arranged. (5) Petaloids in center: Few. (6) Persistance: Drop
      off cleanly. (7) Fragrance: Pronounced fruity fragrance. (8) Lasting
      quality: Very long lasting on plant and as cut flower.
PAC  REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS
PA0  A. stamens, filaments and anthers:
PA2  (1) Arrangement.--Regularly arranged, uneven length, incurved.
PA2  (2) Color.--14B.
PA0  B. pollen: Color -- 14A.
PA0  C. styles: Long, slender, hirsute.
PA0  D. stigmas: Color -- 30A, stigmatic surface -- 14C.
PA0  E. hips:
PA2  Shape.--Globular, sepals persist.
PA2  Size.--Medium.
PA2  Color.--153D (mature).
PA2  Do seeds protrude?.--Slightly, seeds large.
PAC  PLANT
PA0  A. form: Upright growing.
PA0  B. growth: Very vigorous, free branching. Height attained -- 51/2 feet.
PA0  C. foliage: Compound 5 to 7 leaflets, noticeable proportion of 7-leaflet
      leaves.
PA2  (1) Size.--Large.
PA2  (2) Quantity.--Abundant.
PA2  (3) Color.--New foliage: Upper side -- near to 79A. Under side -- near to
      72A. Old foliage: Upper side -- 139A. Under side -- 139A.
PA2  (4) shape.--Elliptic, acuminate.
PA2  (5) Texture.--Upper side is leathery and under side is smooth.
PA2  (6) Edge.--Serrated.
PA2  (7) Serration.--Regular, dentate.
PA2  (8) Leaf stem.--Color -- near to 172A. Under side -- 139D, few thorns on
      rachis.
PA2  (9) Stipules.--Medium length, bearded, pointed and edged with reddish
      glandular hairs.
PA2  (10) Resistance to disease.--Blackspot -- excellent. Mildew -- Average
      (susceptible in fall). Rust -- excellent.
PA0  D. wood:
PA2  (1) New wood.--Color -- near 60A. Bark -- smooth, waxy.
PA2  (2) Old wood.--Color -- near 146A. Bark -- smooth, lusterous.
PA0  E. thorns:
PA2  (1) Thorns.--Quantity (main stalk): ordinary, regularly spaced. On laterals
      from stalk -- few just below node. Form -- flat base, long pointed. Length
      -- medium. Color -- 42A. Position -- regular.
PA2  (2) Prickles.--None.
PA0  F. winter hardiness: Good winter hardiness.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A new and distinct variety of rose plant of the hybrid tea class,
      substantially as shown and described, characterized particularly by high
      centered, spiral flowers of persistent orange blend coloring borne
      primarily singly to a stem which display a brilliant orange to salmon
      orange general tonality upon aging and are long lasting on the plant and
      as cut flowers grown on a very vigorous upright growing, free branching
      plant with large abundant foliage.
PATN
WKU  PP0043109
SRC  5
APN  7323697
APT  6
ART  337
APD  19761014
TTL  Poinsettia
ISD  19780926
NCL  1
ECL  1
EXA  Feyrer; James R.
EXP  Bagwill; Robert E.
NDR  1
NFG  1
INVT
NAM  Ott; Cleveland
STR  677 Grater Ave.
CTY  Graterford
STA  PA
ZIP  19426
CLAS
OCL  PLT 86
EDF  2
ICL  A01H  500
FSC  PLT
FSS   86
UREF
PNO  PP2962
ISD  19700100
NAM  Hegg
OCL  PLT 86
UREF
PNO  PP3160
ISD  19720500
NAM  Ecke
OCL  PLT 86
UREF
PNO  PP3392
ISD  19730800
NAM  Ecke
OCL  PLT 86
UREF
PNO  PP3764
ISD  19750800
NAM  Hegg
OCL  PLT 86
LREP
FRM  Paul & Paul
ABST
PAL  A new and distinct variety of poinsettia is characterized by a flower
      having generally the same characteristics as its parent, Annette Hegg
      Supreme (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,392) but the new variety is a brighter
      darker red and under normal growing conditions the bracts are between 10
      percent and 40 percent wider with less open space between bracts. The new
      plant is 10-20 percent shorter than its parent and is more compact. The
      new plant blooms 3-5 days earlier than its parent. The new variety is a
      self branching plant. When pinched, the sprouts finish more uniformly than
      the parent. Leaf and bract retentions are equal to those of the parent.
BSUM
PAC  ORIGIN OF THE VARIETY
PAR  The new variety of poinsettia was discovered by applicant as a sport in a
      bed of Annette Hegg Supreme poinsettias (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,392) in
      applicant's greenhouse near Graterford, Pa. This discovery was made in
      December, 1974 but none of the new variety was sold, or offered for sale,
      until the following season, December, 1975.
PAC  ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION OF THE VARIETY
PAR  Following applicant's discovery, applicant asexually reproduced the new and
      distinct variety in his greenhouse by the rooting of cuttings from the new
      sport. The asexually reproduced poinsettias have uniformly new and
      distinct characteristics.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE VARIETY
PAR  The new and distinct variety of poinsettias is characterized by the
      following features:
PAR  (1) The color is bright red but a darker red than the parent, Annette Hegg
      Supreme; the closest designations of the color of the new variety of
      poinsettia on the Royal Horticultural Society (R.H.S.) color chart are
      44-A and 45-B. On the British Colour Council (B.C.C.) Dictionary of Colour
      Standards the closest designation is "Post Office Red BCC209". On Wilson's
      Horticultural Color Chart, the closest designation is Blood Red No. 820.
PAR  (2) The bracts are between 10 and 40% wider than the parent, Annette Hegg
      Supreme, and there is less open space between bracts.
PAR  (3) The new plant is approximately 10-20 percent shorter than its parent
      and is more compact.
PAR  (4) The plant grows more uniformly than does the parent, Annette Hegg
      Supreme.
PAR  (5) When pinched, the sprouts finish more uniformly than do the sprouts of
      the parent, Annette Hegg Supreme.
PAR  (6) Leaf and bract retentions are equal to those of the parent.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
PAR  The drawing comprises two different photographic reproductions in color of
      the new and distinct poinsettia of this application. One photograph is a
      reduced perspective view of the potted new poinsettia plant. The other
      photograph is a reduced close-up view of one of the groups of bracts.
DETD
PAC  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIETY
PAR  The new and distinct variety of poinsettia of this application was
      asexually reproduced from a sport of the parent, Annette Hegg Supreme
      (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,392). The parent, Annette Hegg Supreme, is a sport
      of Annette Hegg (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 2,962). The new poinsettia has
      generally the same characteristics as its parent, Annette Hegg Supreme,
      but the color of the new variety is a brighter darker red than the Annette
      Hegg Supreme.
PAR  A comparison of the color of the bracts of the new variety of poinsettia
      with those of its parent (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,392), its grandparent
      (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 2,962), and other related sports, on Wilson's
      Horticultural Color Chart are as follows:
PA0  Ott Sport (U.S. Plant patent application Ser. No. 732,369) -- Blood Red --
      #820
PA0  Annette Hegg (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 2,962) -- Currant Red -- #821/3
PA0  Annette Hegg Supreme (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,392) -- Blood Red -- #820/3
PA0  Dark Red Annette Hegg (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,160) -- Currant Red -- #821/2
PA0  Annette Hegg Lady (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,764) -- Currant Red -- #821/2
PAR  The bracts of the new variety are wider from 10 to 40% than bracts of the
      parent Annette Hegg Supreme so that there is less open space between
      bracts.
PAR  The new plant is 10-20 percent shorter than its parent and is more compact.
PAR  The new plant is a self branching plant. When pinched, the sprouts finish
      more uniformly than do the sprouts of the Annette Hegg Supreme. The plant
      grows more uniformly than the Annette Hegg Supreme.
PAR  The plant has very good leaf and bract retention. The plants retain their
      beauty for many weeks.
PAR  The new plant blooms 3 to 5 days earlier than its parent, Annette Hegg
      Supreme. It also blooms 3 to 5 days earlier than its grandparent, Annette
      Hegg (2,962), and its sport Dark Red Annette Hegg (3,160).
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A new and distinct variety of poinsettia plant, substantially as herein
      illustrated and described, characterized particularly as to novelty by a
      color which is bright red but a darker red than its parent, Annette Hegg
      Supreme (U.S. Plant Pat. No. 3,392), its grandparent, Annette Hegg (U.S.
      Plant Pat. No. 2,962), and related sports which have evolved directly or
      indirectly from said grandparent, bracts which are between 10 and 40%
      wider than in the parent Annette Hegg Supreme, thereby providing less open
      space between bracts, a plant which is approximately 10-20 percent shorter
      and is more compact than its parent, Annette Hegg Supreme, its
      grandparent, Annette Hegg, and sports thereof, a plant which grows more
      uniformly than does the parent, Annette Hegg Supreme, a plant which blooms
      3-5 days earlier than its parent and its grandparent, and a plant which
      has good leaf and bract retentions equal to that of the parent.
PATN
WKU  RE0297771
SRC  5
APN  8182442
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  354
APD  19770722
TTL  Concrete tank of precast concrete panels with pretensioned beam means
ISD  19780926
NCL  5
ECL  1
EXP  Braun; Leslie
NDR  5
NFG  14
INVT
NAM  Crowley; Francis X.
STR  24 Lanark Rd.
CTY  Wellesley
STA  MA
ZIP  02181
REIS
COD  50
APN  576121
APD  19750509
PNO  04015383
ISD  19770405
RLAP
COD  71
APN  418443
APD  19731123
PSC  03
CLAS
OCL   52224
XCL   521694
XCL   52227
XCL   52246
XCL   52248
XCL   52259
XCL   52264
EDF  2
ICL  E04H 1216
FSC   52
FSS  224;264;332;341;169.4;396;249;227;259;248;247;246;245;340
UREF
PNO  796669
ISD  19050800
NAM  Mather et al.
OCL   52248
UREF
PNO  1161973
ISD  19151100
NAM  Reynolds
XCL   52248
UREF
PNO  1162085
ISD  19151100
NAM  Layton
OCL   52248
UREF
PNO  1251230
ISD  19171200
NAM  Holland et al.
XCL   52248
UREF
PNO  1295341
ISD  19190200
NAM  Madsen
XCL   52248
UREF
PNO  2052934
ISD  19360900
NAM  Mire
OCL   52248
UREF
PNO  2275523
ISD  19420300
NAM  Goldbeck
XCL   52248
UREF
PNO  2937065
ISD  19600500
NAM  Harza
OCL   52396
UREF
PNO  3180057
ISD  19650400
NAM  Pritzker
XCL   52224
UREF
PNO  3217451
ISD  19651100
NAM  Closner
OCL   52224
UREF
PNO  3241278
ISD  19660300
NAM  Magers, Jr.
OCL   52224
UREF
PNO  3280525
ISD  19661000
NAM  Crowley
XCL   52227
UREF
PNO  3385016
ISD  19680500
NAM  Crom
OCL   52224
UREF
PNO  3504474
ISD  19700400
NAM  Dykmars
XCL   52224
UREF
PNO  3824751
ISD  19740700
NAM  Shelander
XCL   52223R
FREF
PNO  221,262
ISD  19611000
CNT  ATX
OCL   52248
FREF
PNO  788,684
ISD  19351000
CNT  FRX
OCL   52248
FREF
PNO  1,011,931
ISD  19520700
CNT  FRX
OCL   52248
FREF
PNO  1,524,148
ISD  19680400
CNT  FRX
OCL   52224
FREF
PNO  1,527,160
ISD  19680400
CNT  FRX
OCL   52248
FREF
PNO  1,065,539
ISD  19670400
CNT  GBX
OCL   52224
ABST
PAL  A tank constructed of either cast-in-place concrete, or of precast panels
      of concrete which are separated from each other around the periphery of
      the tank with the open spaces between the panels being filled with
      concrete filler units poured in place. One or more collar-like
      horizontally-lying concrete beams surround the wall of the tank and
      reinforce it. Each beam is reinforced by one or more tendons encased
      within the beam.
PARN
PAR  This is a continuation of application Ser. No. 418,443, filed Nov. 23,
      1973, now abandoned.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  It is known to construct a concrete tank using precast concrete panels
      which are cast on the site one on top of the other, these panels then
      being erected on a foundation with spaces being left between the panels.
      Using proper form boards, the spaces between the panels are then filled
      with concrete which is poured at the site. After the latter has cured, the
      forms are removed. Such tanks are then coated on one or both sides with
      material such as pneumatically placed mortar and are then stressed with
      wires wrapped under tension around the tank. See, for example, U.S. Pat.
      Nos. 3,280,525 and 3,408,784 issued respectively on Oct. 25, 1966 and Nov.
      5, 1968.
PAR  However, the type of tank shown therein, and other known tanks, are
      relatively expensive in certain cases, in view of the additional steps
      involved in both the construction of the tank itself, and the necessity of
      transporting to the site the equipment for applying the pneumatically
      placed mortar.
PAR  In addition, when it is desired to pour concrete structures during severely
      cold weather, elaborate precautions must be taken to insulate the concrete
      against sudden changes in temperature. If, for example, the tanks
      described in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,280,525 and 3,408,785 are wire wrapped in
      freezing weather, normally the entire wall area of the tank must be
      enclosed and heated to prevent frost from reaching the protective coating
      of pneumatic mortar. This entails a loss of time, of course, but more
      important, the cost of this protection makes it economically prohibitive,
      resulting in a shutdown of this work in the winter months .[.of.].
      .Iadd.in .Iaddend.many sections of the country.
PAR  For more than thirty years, pneumatically placed mortar has been used as
      the exclusive material for protection of prestressing wire in wire wrapped
      tanks, despite the fact that its cost is high, the quality control is
      difficult and winter protection is prohibitively expensive.
PAR  There is a need, therefore, for a simple way of construction and
      reinforcing concrete tanks which will be of higher quality and less
      expensive than those of the prior art, and which makes it economically
      feasible to build them during the winter months.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  Accordingly, it is the prime purpose of this invention to solve the above
      problems, and to this end and in regard to the tank itself, one of the
      objects of the invention is the provision of a tank made of precast panels
      which does not require additional finishing operation after the precasting
      process.
PAR  A second object of the invention is the provision of tanks of the above
      kind in which external reinforcing means may be provided during cold
      weather at reasonable cost.
PAR  Another object of the invention is the provision of tanks of either of the
      above kinds in which the walls of the tanks are strengthened by external
      circular beams which are reinforced by steel reinforcing means.
PAR  A still further object of the invention is the provision of a tank in which
      minimum external reinforcing need be used, and which requires minimum form
      work during construction.
PAR  Yet another object of the invention is the provision of a tank in which
      protective coatings such as pneumatically placed mortar may be eliminated
      and the metal tension rings are spaced away from the liquid containing
      wall with the metal entirely surrounded by a protective coating.
PAR  Another object of the invention is the provision of methods for
      constructing any of the tanks above which are economical and thereby
      reduce the cost of the tank.
PAR  In regard to the method of constructing the tank of this invention, a first
      object is the provision of steps of construction utilizing, as one of the
      steps, an external back-fill built up in successive layers, each layer
      providing a work surface on which to perform construction acts. The
      back-fill of the next layer constituting, in addition to providing the
      next work surface, a protection for the cast concrete against severe cold,
      during setting; and reinforcing for the tank wall in use.
PAR  A second object of the method of this invention is the provision of steps
      of construction and manners of reinforcing, which are applicable to all
      sizes of tanks, use a minimum of concrete for a given size and capacity of
      a tank, may be used in all kinds of weather and in all seasons, and which
      are economical as compared to prior art methods.
PAR  Other objects and advantages will be in part apparent and in part pointed
      out hereinafter.
PAR  The invention accordingly comprises the elements and combinations of
      elements, arrangements of parts, features of construction, and steps and
      sequence of steps of construction, all of which will be exemplified in the
      structures and in the methods of making the same hereinafter described,
      and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the
      appended claims.
DRWD
PAR  In the accompanying drawings, in which one of the several embodiments of
      the invention is disclosed;
PAR  FIG. 1 is a simplified illustration of a first structural embodiment,
      showing a portion of a tank wall of this invention, the portion
      illustrating the tank after an initial phase of its construction;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a plan view, enlarged, of a portion of the FIG. 1 illustration,
      given to show the construction of pilasters and water stop means used in
      the first embodiment of the invention.
PAR  FIG. 3 is a section of a portion of a construction site for the tanks of
      this invention, the drawing illustrating successive steps in a first
      embodiment of the method of construction of the tanks of this invention;
PAR  FIG. 4 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation showing a portion of a panel
      wall and circular reinforcing means comprising one detail of the first
      embodiment of the invention;
PAR  FIG. 5 is a simplified illustration of a portion of a second structural
      embodiment of the invention, showing the use of precast panels using
      spacers for the reinforcing wires different from the pilasters of FIGS.
      1-4, and also illustrating a second embodiment of the method of this
      invention;
PAR  FIG. 6 is a .[.cross-sectinal.]. .Iadd.cross-sectional .Iaddend.elevation
      of .Iadd.a portion of .Iaddend.the second embodiment of this invention,
      showing the use of a tendon comprising plural wires per circular beam.
PAR  FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional elevation of a portion of a third structural
      embodiment of the invention, in which no spacers for the reinforcing wires
      are used.
PAR  FIGS. 8 and 9 are respectively elevation and plan views of a portion of a
      fourth structure embodiment of the invention.
PAR  FIG. 10 is a plan view in section of a portion of a tank wall used in a
      fifth structural embodiment of the invention.
PAR  FIG. 11 is an illustration of a portion of a tank wall, showing steps of a
      third embodiment of the method of this invention;
PAR  FIG. 12 is a view of a portion of a tank wall, illustrating the use of
      earth troughs rather than form boards, to contain the poured cement of the
      beams of this invention.
PAR  FIG. 13 is an illustration in section of a portion of a tank wall used in a
      sixth structural embodiment of the invention particularly as to a tank
      only partially inground; and
PAR  FIG. 14 is an enlarged view of a portion of a tank wall of a seventh
      structural embodiment of the invention.
DETD
PAR  In the drawings, similar reference characters indicate corresponding parts
      throughout the several views. In addition, dimensions of certain of the
      parts, as shown in the drawings, may have been modified and/or exaggerated
      for the purpose of clarity of illustration and understanding of the
      invention.
PAR  Referring to FIG. 1, there is shown a portion of a tank wall of a first
      embodiment of the tank of this invention, the portion shown illustrating
      precast concrete panels 2 arranged, in exemplary manner, in a circle on a
      concrete base 4. The base 4 may conveniently be placed in a pit or
      excavation 1. .[.it.]. .Iadd.It .Iaddend.will be understood that since
      only a portion of the tank is shown, the precast panels shown represent
      only a portion of the total number of such panels needed to complete the
      tank. The panels 2 rest on a base 4, for example a base of concrete, which
      in turn rests on a level foundation such as earth 6. Desirably, a groove 8
      is precast in the base 4, and then the bottom ends of the precast panels
      rest in this groove, seal 10 being provided as shown in customary manner.
      The seal 10 may be mortar placed after the surfaces of the groove have
      been treated with a bonding agent. If desired, a suitable water stop may
      be used.
PAR  The panels 2, while being placed on base 4, are arranged so that spaces are
      left between the adjacent vertical edges. These spaces are filled by a
      cast-in-place concrete to form the filler units 12. In the FIG. 2
      embodiment, the filler units 12 are formed by establishing in conventional
      manner a form board 14 (see FIG. 2) on the inside walls of the panels, and
      then a suitable form board 16 on the outside walls. By shaping the outer
      form boards as shown, the resulting filler unit for this embodiment is in
      the form of pilasters whose outer walls have the vertical flange portions
      18 which overlap the outer faces of edge portions of adjacent panels.
PAR  Preferably, water stops 19 have been cast in the edges of the panels 2,
      .[.there.]. .Iadd.these .Iaddend.being, for example, one of several kinds
      manufactured and sold by Weather Guard Enterprises, 2339 Chattertown
      Avenue, New York, New York, as explained in the co-pending U.S. patent
      application of Francis X. Crowley, Ser. No. 354,497, filed Apr. 26, 1973,
      and now abandoned. (For purposes of clarity of the drawings, the water
      stops are not illustrated in FIG. 1).
PAR  If desired, and as shown, the adjacent vertical edges of the panels may be
      provided with the grooves 20 which are filled with the concrete of the
      pilaster, thus giving increased strength to the filler units. By the use
      of the pilaster construction, the joint width (i.e., the width of the
      individual filler units) can be made a minimum.
PAR  As an example of the relative dimensions of the panels and the filler
      units, the panels may be, for example, 13 feet wide and 20 feet long, ie.,
      the wall may be 20 feet high; the portions 18 of the pilasters may be 3
      inches thick and may overlap the face portions of the panels by a matter
      of 6 to 8 inches. The panels may be 4 to 8 inches thick and the thickness
      (between adjacent panels) of the pilasters may be in the order of 6 inches
      between the grooves 20 and 3 inches between the remaining portions of the
      panel edges. These dimensions are given only as exemplary.
PAR  It will be understood that the pilasters forming the filler units 12
      preferably extend the entire length of the panels 2 from the top thereof
      down to the top surface of the base 4.
PAR  After the concrete of the pilasters has set, suitable insulation having
      been provided if required by cold weather, the forms and insulation are
      removed, and then in a first embodiment of the method of this invention, a
      layer of earth 24 (preferably part of the earth which was removed to make
      the excavation 1 in which the base 4 is established, if the tank is so
      located) is moved back into place and surrounds the tank as shown. This
      earth is compacted, and constitutes a back-fill which has a top surface 26
      (level 2). An exemplary thickness of this first back-fill layer, may be
      approximately 1 foot thick or deep. Exemplary width may be 8 feet, but of
      course this can be varied.
PAR  Of course, the tank does not have to be located in an excavation. It can be
      located on level terrain, and an embankment may be suitably provided for
      the purpose described in the above embodiment as to each level of dirt to
      act as a working surface, and as protection for a poured concrete beam
      during setting of the latter. (See FIG. 11).
PAR  In the first embodiment of the process of erecting the tank, the next step
      is to wrap a reinforcing tendon 28 about the tank, this tendon being
      spaced from the outer face of the panels by the exposed outer face of the
      pilasters which form part of the filler units 12.  (Throughout the
      description and claims the word "tendon" is used to describe either a
      single metal wire or rod, or a plurality of wires or rods placed closely
      together to form a band of wires or rods. This same remark applies to
      FIGS. 3, 5, 11 and 12. Where plural wires are used to make up the bands
      76, 90 and 96, which are exemplary, the wire may be, for example, steel
      and approximately 1/8 inch in diameter.) Tendon 28 is wrapped under
      tension, by suitable means and the overlapping ends thereof may be clamped
      together in conventional manner. For clarity and simplicity of the
      drawings, in FIGS. 1 and 2, the tendon is shown as a single wire.
      Reference is made to FIGS. 4, 6 and 7 for an illustration of preferred
      tendons comprising plural wires. This same remark applies to FIGS. 3, 5,
      11 and 12. Where plural wires are used to make up the bands 76, 90 and 96,
      which are exemplary, the wire may be, for example, steel and approximately
      1/8 inch in diameter. Since the form of machinery used to make the
      wrapping in a large tank is conventional, it will not be described here
      except to say that it could constitute a tractor or some other moving
      vehicle which would utilize the surface 26 as the track on which it rides
      while circling the tank. The wire constituting the tendon would pay out
      from a spool on the tractor or vehicle, one end of the wire being first
      attached to the tank wall at its proper place. As the tractor then
      proceeds about the tank, the wire would pay out from the supply under
      tension, during its traverse across the pilasters around the tank.
PAR  The first reinforcing tendon 28 can desirably be wrapped about the
      pilasters approximately 3 inches above the level 26. After the tendon is
      wrapped, then a form board 30 (see FIG. 2) is placed about the tank wall,
      and rests on the surface 26, being held in upright position by suitable
      stakes 31. The form board preferably is spaced from the outer wall of the
      panels 2 a distance of approximately 6 inches. This means that the form
      board will be spaced approximately 3 inches from the outer face of the
      pilasters 17. The height of the form board should be approximately 6
      inches. Concrete 32 is then cast or poured in the space provided by the
      form board, thus embedding and protecting the reinforcing wire.
PAR  At this point, one of the .[.most imortant.]. .Iadd.more important
      .Iaddend.and surprising advantages of the invention is now described. In
      the ordinary course of construction, suitable insulation would be placed
      on the cast concrete 32 in cold weather in order to prevent its freezing.
      This insulation would have to remain for a week or more and thus would
      delay construction and increase cost. In the instant case, this insulation
      is left on until the concrete has its initial set, a matter of hours, not
      days. The insulation and form can then be removed and replaced with
      backfill layer 34 which will protect concrete 32 from freezing while
      construction proceeds. Backfill layer 34 is placed until top surface 36
      (level 3) is reached. This surface can then be used by the vehicle for
      winding the next reinforcing tendon 38 around the tank and for supporting
      the form boards 40 by means of the stakes 42. It will be noted that
      backfill layer 34 will not only prevent concrete 32 from freezing but will
      also provide superior conditions for long term curing of the concrete. In
      FIG. 3 the surface 36 is called level 3 to distinguish it from level 2.
PAR  After the concrete 44 is poured, a third layer 46 of backfill is put in
      place on the surface 36, and its top is leveled off to provide level 4 as
      shown in FIG. 3. Again, the third reinforcing tendon 48 is wrapped about
      the pilasters, the form board 50 is put in place, held properly by the
      stakes 52, and the concrete for the third reinforcing circular beam 54 is
      then poured.
PAR  After pouring, a fourth layer 56 of backfill is provided and is leveled at
      the top as in the previous backfills, to provide level 5. Reinforcing
      tendon 58 is wrapped about the pilasters 17, form boards 60 are put in
      place and held there by the stakes 62, and the concrete 64 for the fourth
      reinforcing beam is then poured.
PAR  Finally, for the exemplary tank as shown, a sixth backfill 66 is put in
      place and level 6 is established thereon, reinforcing tendon 68 is wrapped
      in place, and by means of the suitable form boards and stake, the concrete
      70 of the topmost reinforcing beam is poured. Thereafter, additional
      backfill 7 can be used, and in this .[.invention.]. .Iadd.instance
      .Iaddend.insulation may be necessary over the top of the concrete 70.
PAR  Thus, the tendons are established as a series of discreet bands encircling
      the tank horizontally, the bands being spaced vertically from each other.
PAR  After the last concrete beam 70 is poured and preferably set, a top 72 may
      be placed or constructed over the entire tank, following methods
      conventional in the art.
PAR  In the exemplary tank a portion of which is shown in FIG. 1 partly
      constructed, and as to which FIG. 3 shows the stages of assembly, the
      height of the reinforcing tendon 28 above the level 2 (FIG. 3) has been
      given as 3 inches but of course this can be varied if desired. The
      thickness of the backfill layer 24 has been given as 1 foot approximately.
      Therefore, the reinforcing tendon 28 will be approximately 15 inches above
      level 1. The concrete beams 32, 44, 54, 64 and 70 will be approximately 6
      inches in height and approximately 6 inches in radial thickness. The
      embodiment shown presents five reinforcing circular beams, and it will be
      noted that these beams establish a general horizontal plane, and also that
      the reinforcing tendons 28, 38, 48, 58 and 68 also form a generally
      horizontal plane parallel to the general plane established by the
      reinforcing beams. The tank shown can be 150 feet in diameter, and the
      circular reinforcing beams are spaced approximately as shown, that is, the
      positions thereof will be established by the separations of the
      reinforcing tendons, and if the first reinforcing tendon is approximately
      15 inches from level 1, and the last reinforcing tendon is 3 inches from
      the top of the tank, then the separation of the reinforcing tendons is
      approximately 41/2 feet, allowing for a set down of the bottom edge of the
      walls of 3 inches into the groove 8. Of course, more beams may be added,
      or, in a smaller tank, a fewer number of beams may be provided.
PAR  In the above, the use of form boards 30 is described. However, as shown in
      FIG. 12, instead of form boards, after winding the levels of the several
      successive backfill can be raised to a height indicated in FIG. 12 by
      numeral 74 equal to the desired top surface of the individual concrete
      beam. Troughs 75 in the backfill adjacent the tank wall are then prepared
      around the periphery of the wall, these troughs enveloping the tendons as
      shown and constituting forms for concrete. The concrete of the collars is
      then poured in the troughs and allowed to initially set. The next level of
      backfill is then put in place, and so forth.
PAR  Also in the above description, the reinforcing beams have been called such.
      They are like collars that surround the tank for the purpose of
      reinforcing it. When the reinforcing tendons are applied with tension,
      then they apply an inwardly and radially directed force which prestresses
      the wall of the tank, thus eliminating part or all of the tension which
      would normally be encountered in the filler units 12 when the tank is
      filled, if such stressing were not applied.
PAR  As pointed out above, by the use of the embankments or levels of earth to
      cover the concrete of the beams after they have been poured, the beams are
      protected against sharp changes in weather, and this means that such tanks
      can be constructed even in the dead of winter in the cold parts of the
      country with a minimum of time and cost.
PAR  For the purposes of providing suitable work surfaces for men, and the
      equipment used to do the winding, it is suggested that the initial
      distance of the exemplary inner perimeter of the hole or pit 1 should be
      approximately 8 feet from the outer wall of the panels 2. From this point
      on, the wall of the pit or hole can be slanted according to safety and
      other conventional construction needs.
PAR  The reinforcing tendons shown are normally made up of multiple wires placed
      under tension. The number of wires will depend on the size of the tank,
      and the outward forces caused by the contained fluid. (See FIGS. 4, 6 and
      7.)
PAR  Referring to FIG. 4, a reinforcing tendon 76 is shown to be spaced away
      from the precast panels 2 by the pilasters 17 and is shown to comprise
      multiple wires. Such wires may be 1/8 of an inch in diameter and are
      applied uniformly and under tension by means of conventional wire wrapping
      machinery such as described above. The tendon is encased in a concrete
      collar or beam 78.
PAR  Referring now to FIG. 5, for a second embodiment of the invention, panels 2
      like those of the FIG. 1 embodiment are shown, these panels resting on a
      base 4 in a groove 8 having the water barrier 10, all as in the FIG. 1
      embodiment. The base 4 rests on a suitable foundation such as earth 6.
PAR  In this embodiment, however, pilasters are not provided. Instead, the
      filler units 80 are cast, using suitable form boards, so their exterior
      surfaces are flush with the outer faces of the panels 2. If desired, as
      shown in FIG. 10, a pilaster may be provided on the inner face and may
      include water stops.
PAR  Again, as in the FIG. 1 embodiment, the levels 2-6 can be provided by means
      of suitable back-fills such as 24, 34, 46, 56 and 66 of FIG. 1. The levels
      so established will be used, as in the FIG. 1 constructional details, as
      tracks or surfaces on which tendon wrapping machinery may operate.
PAR  However, in this embodiment, since there are no pilasters which project
      from the outer face of the panels 2 as spacers for the reinforcing
      tendons, individual spacers 82 are provided. These could be concrete
      bricks 2 inches by 4 inches by 8 inches in size. They are placed, as
      shown, against the outer faces of the panels, as many being used as
      desired. In the drawing, one is shown on each side of the edges of a
      panel, in the second circular beam to be constructed. The bricks are
      placed with their long edge vertical, and they extend outwardly from the
      tank wall for the thickness of the brick, that is, two inches. The number
      of bricks is determined by the forces from the reinforcing tendons and the
      minimum spacing desired between the tendon and the wall.
PAR  As the winding proceeds about the tank walls, the bricks are placed in
      their proper positions, and the winding itself will hold them in place.
      FIG. 5 shows the first circular reinforcing beam 84 in place, enclosing
      the reinforcing tendon 86. The spacing bricks 82 are shown in the position
      that they will occupy after the second layer of backfill (such as layer
      34) is provided, with its surface 36 (this layer not being shown in FIG. 5
      in order to clarify the FIG. 5 illustration), and the reinforcing tendon
      88 is shown in the position it will occupy, holding the bricks 82 in place
      as the wrapping progresses.
PAR  As indicated, after the wrapping is finished, then the second concrete
      circular beam is cast in place using suitable form boards, in order to
      encase both the spacers 82 and the reinforcing wire.
PAR  FIG. 6 is a section at the spacer showing the concrete bricks 82 (a metal
      or other type spacer could be used) the reinforcing tendon 90 and the
      concrete beam 84. In some instances it may not be necessary to space the
      reinforcing wires from the outer faces of the tank panels. FIG. 7 is a
      section showing a portion of a third structural embodiment of the
      invention, in which the reinforcing tendon 96 placed directly against the
      wall panels 2. After such wrapping is placed, using the backfill layer
      methods given above for the previous embodiments, the proper form boards
      are used in which is cast the concrete to form the circular reinforcing
      beam 98. The successive wrappings of reinforcing wires, and the
      construction of the reinforcing means, are carried out in accordance with
      the steps given above for previous embodiments.
PAR  Referring to FIGS. 8 and 9, a fourth structural embodiment of the invention
      is shown, the illustration being that of a portion of a tank during its
      initial stages of construction. In the previous embodiments, the use of
      reinforcing tendons which are applied under tension is described. The
      advantages of such reinforcing are given and such applied tendons are
      preferred. However, there may be some instances in which the tanks are
      small or as to which the outward pressure of the enclosed fluids does not
      require wrapped reinforcing under tension. In such cases, it will be
      desired to use some form of reinforcing for the concrete collar-like beam,
      and FIGS. 8 and 9 shows such a formation. In this embodiment, the main
      advantages are that the successive layer method given above for the
      previous embodiments is the one to be used, with the resultant saving in
      construction costs and in time, particularly during extremely cold
      weather. Therefore, in this embodiment, the base 4 for the tank is
      provided as in the previous embodiments, and the first layer of backfill
      material 24 is used as in the previous embodiments, the latter being
      provided with the first working level 26, that is, level 2 (see FIG. 3).
      The wall panels 2 are provided as before, and the filler units 80 will be
      the same as shown in the FIG. 5 embodiment. No spaces and no pilasters are
      needed in this embodiment. Of course, if water stops are needed, then they
      may be suitably provided.
PAR  Using the level 1 as a suitable work and support surface, and using
      suitable supports, individual reinforcing rods 102 are placed about the
      periphery of the tank wall. With the rods thus supported, and with the
      ends of each rod overlapping the ends of adjacent rods 104, suitable form
      boards are provided spaced about six inches from the wall of the tank, and
      about six inches high. Concrete 106 is then poured in order to form a
      circular collar-like reinforcing beam at this level. Thereafter the next
      layer of backfill is put in place to provide the next level, and again a
      collar-like circular beam is constructed in the manner aforesaid.
PAR  Referring to FIG. 10, a fifth structural embodiment of the invention is
      shown, which is applicable, insofar as the type of reinforcing beam is
      concerned, to all of the previous embodiments. That is, the reinforcement
      which surrounds the wall of the tank may be that shown in any of the
      previous embodiments. In this embodiment, the panels 108 are shown, these
      being precast. During the casting of the panels 108, the plural-finned
      water stops 19 of the FIG. 1 embodiment are cast into the inner edge faces
      of the panels. As indicated above, the water stops are the kind shown, for
      example, in the copending U.S. patent application of Francis X. Crowley,
      Ser. No. 354,497, filed Apr. 26, 1973, and now abandoned, and are
      manufactured by several companies, one of which is Weather Guard
      Enterprises, 2339 Chattertown Avenue, New York, New York.
PAR  After the panels 108 are mounted in the manner described for the other
      embodiments on a suitable base 4, then suitable form boards (not shown)
      are utilized both on the inside face of the wall to shape the inner
      pilaster 112 and to contain the filler units which are an integral part
      thereof.
PAR  As indicated above, once the wall is constructed and the pilasters are thus
      formed, either the reinforcing wires can be wrapped directly against the
      opposite face of the tank wall, or suitable spacers such as the bricks 82
      may be used to space the reinforcing wire from the outer wall of the tank.
PAR  Referring to FIG. 11, a third embodiment of the method of this invention is
      shown, utilizing the separate spacers 82. In this embodiment all of the
      tendon wrapping is done before casting the concrete beams (by using a wire
      spacing mechanism), all of the reinforcing tendons being thus placed prior
      to backfilling. In this way the tank can be tested for tightness with the
      wall exposed. FIG. 11 shows the tendon wrappings 114 completed, and one
      exemplary concrete beam 116 is shown as having thereafter been made, other
      beams remaining to be formed. As in the FIG. 1 embodiment, successive
      layers of backfill are used to support the forms, facilitate placing the
      concrete for the beams, (concrete trucks can ride the tracks and place
      concrete directly into the beam enclosures eliminating the necessity of
      concrete pumps), and to insulate and cure the concrete. FIG. 11 also shows
      the backfills being used without the provision of an excavation, the first
      backfill 118 being shown in full lines, and a prospective second backfill
      120 being shown in broken lines, the latter, when in place, to be used as
      the ramp to support concrete pouring means for the second tendon.
PAR  Referring now to FIG. 12, a sixth structural embodiment of the invention is
      shown. A tank wall 124 is shown which may be made up of the precast
      concrete panels described above or be cast in place concrete, the tank
      having a top 126 thereon. Also as previously described, the bottom ends of
      the precast panels rest on a suitable concrete foundation 128, the latter
      being placed upon an earth foundation 130. In a circular groove 132 of the
      base is placed a fluid sealing means 134 on which the bottom ends of the
      panels rest.
PAR  Using the top surface of the ground level 136 as the track for a wire
      winding machine and a wire spacing mechanism, tendons 138, 154, 162, 166,
      167, 168, and 169 are wrapped about the wall of the tank, suitable means
      being used as described above to space the tendons from the wall. Then,
      spaced around the bottom portion of the tank wall between the spacers is
      set in position a layer 140 of compressible material such as sponge rubber
      of the order of 1/4 to 1/2 inch thick. Thereafter, form boards are placed
      in position and a circular section 144 of concrete is cast in place up to,
      for example, the level indicated by dotted lines 146, this concrete
      section enveloping and protecting tendon 138.
PAR  Backfill indicated by dotted lines 148 is then moved into place, and serves
      as a track way on which are placed form boards which, with the layer 140,
      form a circular trough about the tank into which is poured concrete to
      form the concrete circular ring 150 which surrounds the tank as the next
      section of an abutment. Backfill indicated by dot dash lines 152 is then
      put in place, and serves as a track on which the concrete for section 156
      is cast, this section enveloping and protecting tendon 154.
PAR  It will be realized that when a tank is filled with fluid, the outward
      forces are greatest on the tank wall at the bottom thereof, and lessen as
      one progresses to the top. Therefore, the tank walls need to be
      prestressed most at the bottom portions of the tank, and the prestressing
      itself can be reduced as one progresses vertically upward. Since, for
      reasons of economy in forming, concrete tank walls are normally as thick
      at the top as at the bottom, the upper reaches of the tank wall have
      reserve strength with which to resist the forces of the backfill.
PAR  Under such conditions, in order to prestress the tank wall the most at the
      bottom, larger tendons are applied there. These tension wires or tendons
      are so gauged as to their inwardly directed forces, that their force, plus
      the resistive strength of the tank wall itself at the bottom, are
      sufficient to withstand the outward pressure of the bottom layers of the
      water or other fluid with adequate safety factors. The inward forces of
      the backfill when added to the forces of the prestressed tendons
      themselves frequently are of such magnitude that the tank wall must be
      extra thick in order to withstand these forces when the tank is empty.
      This is more costly for in-the-ground tanks, then need be in view of the
      present invention. The solution to the problem is to place a layer of
      compressible material such as sponge rubber 140 which has the thickness of
      1/4 to 1/2 inch (for example) between the abutting reinforcing wall
      comprising the members 144 and 150 and 154 which will then "shield" the
      tank wall 124 itself (at the bottom thereof) from the forces inwardly
      directly by the earth embankment. Thus, this economical method of
      shielding the prestressed tank wall from the forces of the backfill
      provides a substantial saving in concrete in the upper reaches of the
      wall.
PAR  After the aforementioned abutment and reinforcing tendons are applied with
      the backfill, then the steps given above for constructing the tanks are
      used, such as providing the next layer of backfill 160, and using this as
      a track for placing reinforcing beam 164. In similar manner, embankments
      (backfills) and their circular reinforcing beams are placed up to the
      maximum level of backfill.
PAR  In the above method and construction, it will be observed that the
      advantage of using the backfill in order to shield the cast concrete beams
      and abutment sections from inclement weather during setting of the
      concrete, provides the same advantages as are found in the previous
      embodiment.
PAR  Referring again to FIG. 13, prestressing tendons 168 and 169 have been
      placed above the maximum level 171 of backfill. They are encased in
      concrete beams the same as the lower tendons, by using conventional
      forming and pouring methods. The advantages of using these concrete ring
      beams above ground instead of the previous method of winding wire directly
      against the tank wall and covering the wire with pneumatically placed
      mortar are first that in this invention the wire is spaced away from the
      wall and can be completely surrounded and encased in vibrated concrete or
      mortar. Thus the tendon is not dependent (as contrasted to earlier
      constructions) on the bond between the pneumatic mortar and tank wall for
      protection against corrosion. Second, the concrete ring beams are outside
      the tank wall itself and are not subject to the bending stresses in the
      wall. Leakage through cracks or other defects in the wall cannot reach the
      tendons and cause corrosion. Third, cost is reduced because equipment
      required for pneumatically placed mortar is not required. Fourth, the cost
      of cement finishing is substantially reduced. Fifth, provision for
      apertures through the wall is significantly simplified. Sixth,
      concentration of the prestressing wires into the concrete beams simplifies
      correction of leakage due to honeycomb or cracks in the concrete wall.
      Heretofore, the prestressing wire which has spread over the entire wall,
      formed a barrier which severely impeded correction of these defects.
PAR  Referring now to FIG. 14, a seventh structural final embodiment of the
      invention is shown, which is the same as the FIG. 13 embodiment in that a
      prestressed concrete wall 124 is provided along with the concrete platform
      128, seal 134, and if desired, an additional seal 170. In this embodiment,
      the wall 124 is prestressed in the conventional manner and circular beams
      are not provided. However, a sponge rubber layer in the order of magnitude
      of 1/4 to 1/2 inch in thickness 172 like rubber layer 140, is placed
      around the tank wall to a predetermined height. Then, using the backfill
      layered method given in the previous embodiments, the sections 174, 176
      and 178 of the stepped-in reinforcing abutment structure are
      cast-in-place. The backfill layers for this progressive construction are
      shown by dotted lines 180 and 182.
PAR  As in the previous embodiments, the advantages of the use of the backfills
      both as a track on which a succeeding reinforcing structure is provided,
      as well as a means of protecting cast sections of the concrete against
      inclement weather, are present.
PAR  In view of the above it will be seen that the several objects of the
      invention are achieved and other advantageous results attained.
PAR  It is to be understood that the invention is not limited in its application
      to the details of construction, and arrangement of parts illustrated in
      the accompanying drawings, since the invention is capable of other
      embodiments and of being practiced or carried out in various ways. Also,
      it is to be understood that the phraseology or terminology employed herein
      is for the purpose of description and not of limitation.
PAR  As many changes could be made in the above constructions without departing
      from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained
      in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings, shall be
      interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense, and it is also
      intended that the appended claims shall cover all such equivalent
      variations as come within the true spirit and scope of the invention.
CLMS
STM  Having described the invention, what is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A tank wall comprising:
PA1  a multiplicity of precast panels concrete, laterally spaced-apart over
      their entire thickness, and vertically one-piece integral over the entire
      height of said wall,
PA1  cast concrete filler units filling the entire spaces between said panels,
PA1  a plurality of vertically spaced-apart cast continuous circular concrete
      beams contiguous with said panels,
PA2  said beams forming horizontal collars surrounding said wall to reinforce
      said wall, and
PA1  metal reinforcing means surrounding said wall and covered by the concrete
      of said beams,
PA2  said reinforcing means being in tension while the tank formed by said wall
      is empty, thereby to stress said wall.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. The tank wall of claim 1 in which said metal reinforcing means is spaced
      away from said panels by circumferentially separated spacers, and the
      concrete of said concrete beams completely surrounds said metal
      reinforcing means between said spacers.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. The tank wall of claim 2 in which said metal reinforcing means is a
      multiplicity of tendons. .Iadd. 4. A tank wall comprising:
PA1  a multiplicity of precast panels of concrete, laterally spaced-apart over
      their entire thickness, and vertically one-piece integral over the entire
      height of said wall,
PA1  cast concrete filler units filling the entire spaces between said panels in
      a circumferential direction,
PA1  a plurality of vertically spaced-apart cast continuous circular concrete
      beams contiguous with said panels,
PA2  said beams forming horizontal collars surrounding said wall to reinforce
      said wall, and
PA1  metal reinforcing means surrounding said wall and covered by the concrete
      of said beams,
PA2  said reinforcing means being in tension while the tank formed by said wall
      is empty, thereby to stress said wall. .Iaddend..Iadd. 5. The tank wall of
      claim 4 wherein said cast concrete filler units fill the entire spaces
      between said panels in a panel thickness direction. .Iaddend.
PATN
WKU  RE0297780
SRC  5
APN  7369913
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  335
APD  19761029
TTL  Pediatric respirator
ISD  19780926
NCL  9
ECL  4
EXA  Recla; Henry J.
EXP  Michell; Robert W.
NDR  1
NFG  1
INVT
NAM  Stewart; Jeffrey L.
CTY  Brookfield
STA  CT
ASSG
NAM  Bio-Med Devices, Inc.
CTY  Stamford
STA  CT
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  477194
APD  19740607
PNO  03949749
ISD  19760413
RLAP
COD  72
APN  445758
APD  19740224
PSC  01
PNO  3910270
CLAS
OCL  1281458
XCL  1281423
EDF  2
ICL  A61M 1600
FSC  128
FSS  145.5-145.8;142.2;142.3;188;203;202;DIG. 17;140 R;145 R;28
UREF
PNO  2121311
ISD  19380600
NAM  Anderson et al.
OCL  128145.8
UREF
PNO  3366109
ISD  19680100
NAM  McAllister
OCL  128145.5
UREF
PNO  3586021
ISD  19710600
NAM  McGuinness
OCL  128145.6
UREF
PNO  3604415
ISD  19710900
NAM  Hoenig
OCL  128145.8
UREF
PNO  3754550
ISD  19730800
NAM  Kipling
OCL  128145.8
UREF
PNO  3827433
ISD  19740800
NAM  Shannon
OCL  128145.5
UREF
PNO  3840006
ISD  19741000
NAM  Buck et al.
OCL  128145.8
UREF
PNO  3842828
ISD  19741000
NAM  Bird
OCL  128145.8
FREF
PNO  1,287,564
ISD  19720800
CNT  GBX
LREP
FRM  St. Onge, Steward, Johnston, Reens & Noe
ABST
PAL  A respirator is described using pneumatic elements to generate a variety of
      operating modes. A gas mixture is passed through a patient connection
      which is coupled to supply the gas through a patient port to a patient.
      After passing the patient port the gas is controllably exhausted to
      atmosphere through an exhaust port in control valve. The control valve
      regulates the closure of the exhaust port to provide inspiration and
      expiration control at the patient port. Pneumatic logic elements are
      combined to provide automatic inspiration and expiration support with
      different modes such as volume limited or pressure limited and with
      selection over the duration of the respective breathing phases. Various
      operating modes are obtained with variable restrictors selectively placed
      with the pneumatic logic elements.
PARN
PAR  This application is a continuation in part of a copending patent
      application entitled "Portable Volume Cycle Respirator" filed on Feb. 24,
      1974 with Ser. No. 445,758, now U.S. Pat. No. 3,910,270, filed by the same
      inventor as this application.
BSUM
PAR  This invention relates to respirators. More specifically, this invention
      relates to a time cycled pediatric respirator utilizing pneumatic logic
      elements.
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  Respirators have become widely used in a large variety of applications by
      hospitals and medical practitioners. Respirators may be used to cure
      diseases such as pulmonary edema, central nervous system depressions,
      tetanus neonatorum, asphyxia neonatorum, respiratory distress syndromes,
      hyaline membrane disease as well as many others.
PAR  There are many different respirators available some of which are designed
      for specific diseases and others of greater complexity to provide a
      multitude of operational modes for different physiological requirements.
      For example, some respirators provide intermittent positive pressure
      breathing (IPPB), either with or without a positive end expiratory
      pressure (PEEP). Other respirators may also provide such respiratory
      supports known as intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) whereby a
      patient may be provided with inspirations with relatively long
      expirations, or continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) to provide
      oxygen or other breathable gas mixtures at a constant pressure on a
      continuous, as needed, basis.
PAR  Respirators may involve electrical controls such as described in the U.S.
      Pat. to Wilson, No. 3,191,595 or a pneumatic control as described in the
      U.S. Pat. to Hoenig, No. 3,604,415. An intermittent positive pressure
      breathing respirator is described in the U.S. Pat. to Liston, No.
      3,434,471.
PAR  The Hoenig patent describes a respirator using three basic pneumatic logic
      elements. The flow of breathable gas to the patient is not continuous but
      interrupted by a logic element whose opening and closure is controlled by
      other logic devices.
PAR  The Wilson patent describes a respirator which senses pressures generated
      in the gas tube leading to the patient mask to initiate control and
      operation of a main control valve.
PAR  Other respirators known to be available in the art provide a patient
      connection tube with a continuous flow of gas. The gas flow is permitted
      to pass through to a control valve which exhausts the gas to ambient in a
      controllable manner to thereby provide respiratory support at the patient
      mask. Such respirators utilize complex and expensive controls to generate
      the desired respiratory support.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  In a respirator formed in accordance with the invention, a supply of
      breathable gas is passed to a patient through a connection having a
      patient port to supply the gas to the patient and a parallel coupled
      control port. The control port is so located that it permits the supply of
      breathable gas to flow continuously to an ambient environment through a
      control valve to thus allow the patient to draw from the gas as the
      patient requires. A pneumatic control circuit is coupled to the control
      valve to regulate the exhaust of the gas from the patient connection
      through the control port. The control includes pneumatic elements to
      provide maximum and minimum pressures at the patient port in
      correspondence with desired inspiratory and expiratory paressure levels. A
      pneumatic timing network provides timing control over inspiratory and
      expiratory periods.
PAR  A respirator in accordance with the invention can be formed of a
      conveniently portable device with a simple construction of pneumatic
      components. A respirator of this invention advantageously employs a few
      logic elements for a wide variety of respiratory support modes such as
      IPPB, PEEP, CPAP and IMV. A range of inspiratory to expiratory ratios are
      conveniently included as well as selection over operational
      characteristics such as volume limited mode for the delivery of fixed
      selectable volumes of gas or a pressure limited mode for the delivery of
      gas with a predetermined maximum pressure limit. The respirator provides a
      constant flow of breathable gas which makes the device particularly useful
      for pediatric applications. The respirator consumes a very small quantity
      of gas, thus making it particularly suitable in a portable form.
PAR  It is, therefore, an object of the invention to provide a respirator of a
      relatively simple, inexpensive construction yet capable of providing a
      large variety of respiratory support modes which can be conveniently
      adjusted to the physiological requirements of the patient to be treated.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING
PAR  These and other objects and advantages of a respirator formed in accordance
      with the invention may be understood from the following description of a
      preferred embodiment described in conjunction with the drawing wherein
PAR  The FIGURE is a schematic representation of a pneumatic respirator in
      accordance with the invention.
DETD
PAC  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF EMBODIMENT
PAR  With reference to the FIGURE, a respirator 10 is shown for controlling and
      supplying breathable gas through a supply conduit 12 coupled to an inlet
      port 14 of a wye or T-shaped patient connection 16. The patient breathes
      gas provided by a supply 17 from a patient port 18 in the connection 16
      while the gas may continue to flow through a control port 20 in the
      connection 16 for exhaust at a control valve 22.
PAR  Gas is continuously made available to the patient port 18 without
      interruption to provide respiratory support. Inspiration and expiration
      control are obtained by regulating the exhaust of gas passing through
      control port 20 to an exhaust port 24 in control valve 22. Such control is
      achieved by controlling the pressure of a control chamber 26 on one side
      of a diaphragm 28 operatively coupled to regulate the exhaust of gas from
      port 24. The pressure control chamber 26 in turn is regulated with a
      pneumatic control 30.
PAR  With the arrangement as illustrated, the patient port 18 is continuously
      provided with gas so that a patient's breathing demand can be met at any
      time without interruption.
PAR  The medicinal gas supply 17 provides air or a special mixture of oxygen,
      depending upon the particular requirements for the patient. A gas source
      32 for air, and an oxygen source 34 are respectively connected through
      check-valves 36-36', filters 38-38' and pressure regulators 40-40' to flow
      meters 42-42'. The flow meters 42-42' are individually adjustable to
      provide control over the respective rate of the supply of gas. The outputs
      46 of the flow meters 42 are joined to a common mixing juncture 48 coupled
      to pass the gas mixture through a heated humidifier 50. The heated
      humidifier 50 includes a suitable heater 52 and supply of water 53 and
      other control elements as is conventional in the art to impart the desired
      amount of water vapor to the medicinal gas. The humidified gas is then
      passed through a water trap 54 formed of a sufficiently large tank to
      enable water droplets to condense and settle out from the gas mixture and
      provide a suitable breathable medicinal gas mixture.
PAR  A conduit network formed of tubes 12, patient connection 16 and tube 58
      arranges the flow of gas from the water trap 54 past the patient port 18
      to control valve 22. The tubes 12 and 58 are formed of rigid small bore
      tubes exhibiting very low compliance. In this manner the supply of gas to
      the patient connection 16 is not exposed to shape changes of the tubes due
      to pressure variations imposed by the action of control valve 22. The
      tubing 12, 16 and 58 are furthermore kept small to reduce the effect of
      gas compression. However, the tubing is selected not too small lest the
      flow of gas would be unduly restricted and expiration through tube 58
      would be made more difficult.
PAR  A pressure gauge 60 is coupled to tube 58 to sense and register the
      pressure occurring at the patient port 18. The control valve 22 includes
      an emergency relief valve 62 used to exhaust gas to ambient when the
      pressure in tube 58, and thus at the patient port 18, achieves a
      predetermined dangerously high level.
PAR  The passage of gas through port 24 to atmosphere and thus also the pressure
      at the patient connection 16, are a function of the force exerted by a
      diaphragm 28 on the seat 63. This force, in turn, is determined by the
      pressure developed in chamber 26 and area of the diaphragm 28. The
      pressure in chamber 26 is controlled by pneumatic network 30 coupled to
      chamber 26 through conduit 64.
PAR  Pneumatic logic circuit 30 is formed of a pneumatic oscillator 66 and a
      pressure control pneumatic bistable element 68. The pressure control
      bistable element 68 provides regulation for the inspiration and expiration
      pressures to be established at the patient connection 16 while the
      oscillator 66 regulates the duration of the inspiratory and expiratory
      periods.
PAR  The pneumatic logic control circuit 30 uses three bistable elements 68, 70
      and 72 which are identical though elements 70 and 72 are coupled in
      oscillator arrangement. The pneumatic bistable elements are shown in
      schematic fashion since their physical shape may, as is well known in the
      art, take many different forms. Thus each element 68, 70 or 72 has a
      control port 74 to receive an input gas pressure with which a three port
      valve 76 is switched from a normal position to an actuated position as
      long as gas is supplied to control port 74.
PAR  Valve 76, as illustrated in the drawing, normally is biased by a spring 78
      to close an input port 80 and permit the passage of gas between another
      input port 82 and output port 84. When gas pressure is applied to control
      port 74, the valve element 76 is switched against the spring bias to close
      input port 82 and allow gas flow between ports 80 and 84. Another control
      port 86 is provided to back bias spring 78. In such case the operation of
      spring 78 may be given a snap action effect.
PAR  Pneumatic power for network 30 is obtained from normally identical sources
      88, 90 which are derived from the air regulator 40 with a shut-off valve
      92 interposed between air source 90 and regulator 40. The shut-off valve
      92 enables the removal of pneumatic power from most of network 30 to
      establish a particular mode as will be further explained.
PAR  The breathing pressure control element is provided with a variable maximum
      inspiratory pressure control in the form of a variable restrictor 94 which
      establishes the inspiration pressure through input port 80. An expiration
      pressure control in the form of a variable restrictor 96 is coupled
      through a fixed restrictor 98 to the other input port 82 of element 68.
PAR  The oscillator 66 is provided with an inspiration time control in the form
      of a variable restrictor 100 coupled to input port 80 of element 70. A
      similar restrictor for an expiration time control 102 is shown coupled to
      input 82 of element 70.
PAR  In the operation of the respirator 10, before gas is supplied to the
      bistable logic elements 68, 70 and 72, they are in the position as shown
      in the drawing due to the bias action of springs 78. When gas is turned on
      and valve 92 is open, the gas source 90 coupled to input port 82 of
      element 72 pressurizes line 104 connected to control port 74 of element
      68, feedback line 106 coupled to control port 74 of element 70 and back
      bias line 108 connected to control port 86 of element 72.
PAR  Pressurization of lines 104 and 106 results in the switching of elements 68
      and 70, closing their inlet ports 82 and enabling gas flow from their
      input ports 80 to output ports 84. In the oscillator 66, the
      pressurization of output port 84 of element 70 results in the delivery of
      gas to a volume 110 coupled between element 70 and control port 74 of
      element 72. The rise in pressure of volume 110 is, however, initially
      insufficient to overcome the combined action by spring 78 and the back
      bias pressure generated at control port 86 in element 72. This back bias
      pressure is reduced from that available in line 108 by virtue of the pair
      of series coupled fixed restrictors 112 and 114 bleeding gas to
      atmosphere.
PAR  In the bistable pressure controlling breathing element 68, gas flows
      through inspiration pressure control 94 to line 64 and to atmosphere
      through a fixed restrictor 116. The pressure in line 64 is determined by
      the fixed restrictor 116 and the setting of the maximum inspiratory
      pressure control 94. The gas pressure in line 64 pressurizes chamber 26
      and thus diaphragm 28 which thereby blocks exhaust port 24 with a force
      proportional to the diaphragm area facing chamber 26.
PAR  The blockage of exhaust port 24 in turn prevents the escape of medicinal
      gas whose pressure at the patient port 18 increases. Since the compliance
      of the gas tubes 12 and 58 is very low relative to the compliance of the
      patient's respiratory system, most of the gas flows into the patient's
      respiratory system to initiate an inspiratory phase.
PAR  The volume of the gas supplied to the patient is a function of the flow
      rate of the gas as determined by the flow meters 42, 42'. The volume is
      further a function of the length of time that the exhaust port 24 in
      control valve 22 is closed as determined by the inspiration time control
      100. Since the compliance of the tubing is low, and the pressure attained
      at the patient port 18 is primarily a function of the patient airway
      resistnce, the volume of gas supplied to the patient is effectively
      constant and the respirator operates in a volume limited mode.
PAR  The inspiratory phase continues until the pressure in volume 110 reaches a
      level sufficiently high to cause bistable element 72 to switch, thus
      blocking its inlet port 82 and opening inlet port 80. Since port 80 of
      element 72 is open to atmosphere, the gas in lines 104, 106 and 108 are
      dumped to atmosphere, allowing bistable elements 68, 70 to be reset by
      their respective springs 78 to their normal positions as shown in the
      drawing and thus begin the expiratory period.
PAR  With bistable pressure control element 68 reset, the gas in line 64 and
      control chamber 26 in valve 22 is allowed to flow to atmosphere through
      restrictor 116 and series coupled restrictors 98 and 118. The restrictor
      116 is so selected that the end pressure established in line 64 is a
      function of the position of variable restrictor 96. Thus when the latter
      is set to produce gas flow at some pressure at junction 120, a residual
      pressure is retained in line 64 and a residual force maintained against
      diaphragm 28 throughout hte expiratory period.
PAR  Hence, with variable restrictor 96 set to a desired level, a positive end
      expiration pressure (PEEP) is obtained. Such PEEP state has been shown to
      be beneficial in different respiratory diseases such as hyaline membrane
      disease.
PAR  The expiratory period continues for a time period determined by the time
      needed to exhaust the gas in volume 110 through expiration time control
      102 to atmosphere. When the pressure exerted by the gas in volume 110 at
      control port 74 of element 72 falls below the force of its spring 78,
      element 72 is reset to its normal position as shown in the drawing. The
      reset action occurs quickly with a snap action as a result of the feedback
      obtained along line 108.
PAR  Note that the restrictors 112, 114 are so selected that the total reset
      force including the force of spring 78 exerted at control port 86 of
      element 72 is less than the maximum setting pressure developed at control
      port 74 from volume 110 during the inspiratory period.
PAR  When the bistable element 72 has been reset, a new cycle commences in the
      manner described above. The durations of the inspiratory and expiratory
      periods are respectively determined by the settings of variable
      restrictors 100 and 102. The ratios of inspiration to expiration duration
      may thus be varied to meet a diverse range of requirements.
PAR  For example, expiration time control 102 may be adjusted to provide
      inspirations with relatively long duration expiration, e.g. a ratio of
      inspiration to expiration of generally less than about one to five. This
      mode is considered an intermittent mandatory ventilation (IMV) which may
      be desirable to wean the patient away from dependence upon the respirator.
      IMV thus gradually (as the ratio is reduced) increases the patient's
      ability to sustain his own respirations.
PAR  The above description of the operation of the respirator 10 involved an
      inspiratory period during which the gas pressure at the patient port 18
      was not sufficient to overcome the exhaust port 24 closing pressure
      exerted by diaphragm 28. This mode of operation is volume limited which
      results in the application of a constant volume of gas to the patient.
      However, when the maximum inspiration pressure control 94 is adjusted so
      that the gas pressure at the patient port 18 is sufficient to overcome the
      diaphragm closure force during each inspiratory period the respirator is
      operated in a pressure limited mode. When such upper pressure limit
      occurs, the excess gas at the patient connection 16 is dumped to
      atmosphere through exhaust port 24.
PAR  Another operating mode may be achieved with respirator 10 by closing valve
      92 at the gas supply to effectively disable logic network 30. In such case
      only input port 82 of element 68 receives a supply of gas from source 88.
      In this mode the breathable gas mixture at the patient port 18 is allowed
      to be exhausted to atmosphere through port 24 in valve 22. However, the
      continuous presence of a back pressure from surce 88 as applied through
      restrictors 96, 98 and tube 64 to control chamber 26 assures a continuous
      positive airway pressure (CPAP) at the patient port 18. This mode is
      considered beneficial in treatment of diseases such as hyaline membrane
      disease.
PAR  When the gas supply source 88 as well as source 90 is removed by closing
      variable restrictor 96, the respirator is still functional and maintains a
      constant flow of gas past the patient port 18. This mode may, for example,
      be used to deliver a specified concentration of oxygen to a patient who
      does not require other respiratory support.
PAR  Having thus described a respirator in accordance with the invention, its
      many advantages can be appreciated. Gas is constantly flowed past the
      patient who thus may inspire at any time. The respirator may be formed
      with relatively inexpensive components and is sufficiently light in weight
      to render it portable. The variety of operating modes provide a versatile
      respirator suitable for treatment of many different disease states. The
      use of pneumatic controls provides a respirator which may be used in
      explosive environments.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is: .[.1. A compact respirator operating in an ambient
      environment comprising
PA1  patient connection means having a patient port, an inlet port and a control
      port coupled in communication with the patient port for delivering
      breathable gas;
PA1  means for supplying the inlet port with a flow of breathable gas at a rate
      selected to aid the breathing cycle of a patient breathing gas from the
      patient port, said gas being continuously suppliable through the inlet
      port to the patient port and to the control port;
PA1  a control valve coupled between the control port and the ambient
      environment to controllably release gas from the control port for a
      corresponding control of gas at the patient port;
PA1  means including a pneumatically controlled bistable gas pressure
      controlling element operatively coupled to the control valve to control
      inspiratory gas flow to the patient port during one state of the bistable
      element and enable expiratory gas flow away from the patient port during
      the other state of the bistable element; and
PA1  pneumatic oscillating means for providing cyclic gas pressures between
      levels selected to actuate the bistable gas pressure controlling element
      between its states, a first gas pressure level from the pneumatic
      oscillating means being selected to endure in correspondence with a
      desired length of time of inspiratory gas flow to the patient port and a
      second gas pressure level from the pneumatic oscillating means being
      selected to endure in correspondence with a desired length of time of the
      expiratory gas flow away from the patient port;
PA1  whereby the patient port may be provided with a continuous supply of
      breathable gas from the inlet port independent of the state of the control
      valve while producing inspiration and expiration respiratory support..].
      .[.2. The respirator as claimed in claim 1 wherein the control valve is
      formed with an exhaust port and a diaphragm controllably interposed
      between the control port and the exhaust port to regulate the exhaust of
      gas from the patient through the control port to the exhaust port in
      response to gas pressure applied to one side of the diaphragm;
PA1  said one diaphragm side being coupled to the bistable gas pressure
      controlling element for diaphragm operational control thereby..]. .[.3.
      The respirator as claimed in claim 2 wherein said control valve is further
      provided with an emergency pressure release valve operatively coupled and
      selected to exhaust the breathable gas to ambient upon a predetermined
      maximum tolerable pressure level at the patient port..]. .Iadd.4. A
      compact respirator operating in an ambient environment with a source of
      pressurized gas comprising
PA1  patient connection means having a patient port, an inlet port and a control
      port in communication with the patient port for delivering breathable gas;
PA1  means for supplying the inlet port with a flow of breathable gas at a rate
      selected to aid the breathing cycle from the patient port, said gas being
      continuously suppliable through the inlet port to the patient port and to
      the control port;
PA1  control valve means coupled between the control port and the ambient
      environment to controllably release gas from the control port for a
      corresponding control of gas at the patient port;
PA1  means including a pneumatically controlled bistable gas pressure
      controlling element operatively coupled to the control valve to control
      inspiratory gas flow to the patient port during one state of the bistable
      element and enable expiratory gas flow away from the patient port during
      the other state of the bistable element; .Iaddend.
PA1  .[.The respirator as claimed in claim 2 wherein the means to control
      inspiratory and expiratory gas flow at the patient port further
      includes.].
PA1  .[.means producing a source of gas under pressure;.].
PA1  .[.a.]. maximum pressure control .Iadd.means .Iaddend.operatively coupled
      between the .[.gas.]. source .[.producing means.]. .Iadd.of pressurized
      gas .Iaddend.and the bistable gas pressure controlling element to
      establish a desired maximum inspiratory pressure level .[.at the patient
      port; and.]. .Iadd.on said control valve means and thereby regulate
      inspiratory gas flow to the patient port during one state of the bistable
      element effectively through the bistable gas pressure controlling
      element.Iaddend.;
PA1  .[.a.]. minimum pressure control .Iadd.means .Iaddend.operatively coupled
      between the .[.gas.]. source .[.producing means.]. .Iadd.of pressurized
      gas .Iaddend.and the bistable gas pressure controlling element to
      establish a desired expiratory pressure level .[.at the patient port.].
      .Iadd.on said control valve means and thereby regulate expiratory gas flow
      to the patient port during another state of the bistable element
      effectively through the bistable gas pressure controlling element;
      and.Iaddend..Iadd.
PA1  pneumatic oscillating means for providing cyclic gas pressures between
      levels selected to actuate the bistable gas pressure controlling element
      between its states, a first gas pressure level from the pneumatic
      oscillating means being selected to endure in correspondence with a
      desired length of time of inspiratory gas flow to the patient port and a
      second gas pressure level from the pneumatic oscillating means being
      selected to endure in correspondence with a desired length of time of the
      expiratory gas flow away from the patient port;
PA1  whereby the patient port may be provided with a continuous supply of
      breathable gas from the inlet port independent of the state of the control
      valve while producing inspiration and expiration respiratory support.
PAR   .Iaddend. 5. The respirator as claimed in claim 4 .[.wherein said gas
      source producing means further includes.]. .Iadd.and further including
      .Iaddend.
PA1  means for interrupting the flow of gas from the source to the maximum
      pressure control while enabling gas flow to the minimum pressure control
      to provide a continuous pressure to the .[.diaphragm.]. .Iadd.control
      valve .Iaddend.and establish a continuous positive airway pressure at the
PAR   patient port. 6. The respirator as claimed in claim 4 wherein the
      pneumatic oscillating means further includes .Iadd.
PA1  a pair of pneumatically operated bistable elements coupled in feed-back
      relationship to provide a pneumatic oscillator and a pneumatic delay
      element operatively interconnecting the pair of bistable elements to
      provide a time constant with the inspiration and expiration time control
      for control of the pneumatic oscillator; .Iaddend.
PA1  .[.an.]. inspiration time control .Iadd.means .Iaddend. operatively
      responsive to the gas source .[.producing means.]. to provide an
      inspiration pressure control pulse .[.of.]. .Iadd.through one of the pair
      of feed-back coupled bistable elements to the pneumatic delay element
      .Iaddend.a magnitude selected to establish the duration of the maximum
      inspiratory pressure level at the patient port; and
PA1  .[.an.]. expiration time control .Iadd.means .Iaddend.operatively
      responsive to the gas source .[.producing means.]. to provide an
      expiratory pressure control pulse .[.of.]. .Iadd.through said one bistable
      element in the pair of feed-back coupled bistable elements to the
      pneumatic delay element with .Iaddend.a magnitude selected to establish
      the duration of the desired expiratory pressure level.  .[.7. The
      respirator as claimed in claim 6 werein the pneumatic oscillating means
      further includes
PA1  a pair of pneumatically operated bistable elements coupled in feed-back
      relationship to provide a pneumatic oscillator and a pneumatic delay
      element operatively interconnecting the pair of bistable elements to
      provide a time constant with the inspiration and expiration time control
      for control of the pneumatic oscillator..].  .[.8. The respirator as
      claimed in claim 7 wherein one of the pair of pneumatic bistable elements
      is coupled to drive the bistable gas pressure controlling element and the
      other of the pair of pneumatic bistable elements is coupled to the
PAR   inspiration and expiration time controls..]. 9. .[.A.]. .Iadd.In a
      .Iaddend.respirator for supplying a patient with breathable gas from a
      supply of gas .[.comprising.]. .Iadd.with .Iaddend.
PA1  .[.a..]. a control valve having an input port, an exhaust port, a control
      chamber and means operatively located between the control chamber and the
      exhaust port to controllably release breathable gas to atmosphere at the
      exhaust port during inspiration and expiration cycles of the respirator;
PA1  .[.b..]. tubing network means, having a patient port, for operatively
      coupling the supply of breathable gas to the input port of the control
      valve while enabling continuous breathing from the patient port;
PA1  .[.c. pneumatic control means operatively coupled to the control chamber
      for alternately pressurizing the control chamber to levels which
      respectively establish inspiratory and expiratory breathing conditions at
      the patient port in the tubing network means, said pneumatic control means
      including.].
PA2  .[.i..]. pressure control means for alternately producing high and low
      pressure levels in said valve control chamber with pressure levels being
      selected to determine the magnitude of the inspiratory and expiratory
      .Iadd.pressure .Iaddend.conditions at the patient port,
PA2  .[.ii..]. means for cycling the pressure control means between its high and
      low pressure levels at a rate and for respective durations selected to
      enable the varying pressures in the valve control chamber to establish
      desired inspiratory and expiratory .Iadd.pressure .Iaddend.conditions at
      the patient port in the tubing network means,
PA2  .[.iii..]. first variable means coupled to the cycling means for
      pneumatically controlling the cycling periods of the cycling means and
      establish correspondingly desired time periods for the inspiratory and
      expiratory conditions at the patient port, .[.and.]. .Iadd.the improvement
      comprising .Iaddend.
PA2  .[.iv..]. second variable means .Iadd.effectively .Iaddend.coupled .[.to.].
      .Iadd.through .Iaddend.the pressure control means .Iadd.to the control
      chamber in said control valve .Iaddend.for pneumatically selecting
      inspiratory and expiratory pressure levels in the control chamber of the
      control valve to correspondingly determine inspiratory and expiratory
      pressure levels of the gas supplied through the tubing network means to
PAR   the patient.  .[.10.  A respirator for supplying breathable gas from a
      supply of gas to a patient port comprising
PA1  a. a control valve having an input port, an exhaust port and a control
      chamber and means for controllably releasing breathable gas to atmosphere
      from the exhaust port
PA1  b. tubing network means having a patient port for coupling the supply of
      breathable gas to the input port of the control valve while enabling
      continuous breathing from the patient port;
PA1  c. pneumatic control means operatively coupled to the control chamber of
      the control valve for selectively pressurizing the control chamber to
      regulate the exhaust of breathable gas from the exhaust port and
      correspondingly and selectively establish inspiratory and expiratory
      breathing conditions at the patient port in the tubing network means, said
      pneumatic control means including
PA2  i. variable pneumatic oscillator means for repetetively producing a pair of
      time variable pressure levels respectively corresponding to the time
      duration of the inspiratory and expiratory breathing conditions, and
PA2  ii. means including a bistable pneumatic logic element coupled to said
      oscillating means to respond to the pair of time variable pressure levels
      produced in the variable pneumatic oscillator means and coupled to said
      supply of gas for generating a first gas pressure to the control chamber
      selected to enable an inspiratory state at the patient port with a first
      stable state of the logic element and a second gas pressure to the control
      chamber selected to enable an expiratory state at the patient port with a
      second stable state of the logic element..]. .[.11. The respirator as
      claimed in claim 10 wherein said means including the bistable pneumatic
      logic element further includes.]. .Iadd.A respirator for supplying
      breathable gas from a supply of gas to a patient port comprising
PA1  a. a control valve having an input port, an exhaust port and a control
      chamber and means for controllably releasing breathable gas to atmosphere
      from the exhaust port;
PA1  b. tubing network means having a patient port for coupling the supply of
      breathable gas to the input port of the control valve while enabling
      continuous breathing from the patient port;
PA1  c. pneumatic control means operatively coupled to the control chamber of
      the control valve for selectively pressurizing the control chamber to
      regulate the exhaust of breathable gas from the exhaust port and
      correspondingly and selectively establish inspiratory and expiratory
      breathing pressure conditions at the patient port in the tubing network
      means, said pneumatic control means including
PA2  i. variable pneumatic oscillator means for repetetively producing a pair of
      time variable pressure levels respectively corresponding to the time
      duration of the inspiratory and expiratory breathing conditions,
PA2  ii. .Iaddend.a first variable restrictor selected to provide an output
      pressure .[.to correspond.]. .Iadd.corresponding .Iaddend.with a desired
      maximum inspiration pressure.[.;.]. .Iadd., .Iaddend..[.and.].
PA2  .Iadd.iii. .Iaddend.a second variable restrictor selectd to provide an
      output pressure .[.to correspond.]. .Iadd.corresponding .Iaddend.with a
      desired minimum expiration pressure.[.;.]. .Iadd., and .Iaddend.
PA2  iv. a bistable pneumatic logic element having a control port, input parts
      and an output port, with its control port effectively coupled to said
      oscillating means to respond to the pair of time variable pressure levels
      produced in the variable pneumatic oscillator means and with the input
      ports effectively coupled to said first and second variable restrictors to
      generate at the output port a first gas pressure effectively coupled to
      the control chamber and selected to enable an inspiratory pressure
      condition at the patient port with a first stable state of the logic
      element and to generate a second gas pressure to the control chamber
      selected to enable an expiratory pressure condition at the patient port
PAR   with a second stable state of the logic element.  12. The respirator as
      claimed in claim 11 wherein the pneumatic oscillator further includes
PA1  a pair of bistable pneumatic logic elements.Iadd., each having a control
      port, input ports and an output port, with the output port of one element
      in the pair effectively .Iaddend.coupled in feedback relationship .Iadd.to
      the control input of the other element in the pair.Iaddend., one of said
      pair of logic elements .[.being.]. .Iadd.having one input port
      .Iaddend.provided with a third variable restrictor .[.selected.]. to
      provide .[.an output pressure.]. .Iadd.a gas flow rate
      .Iaddend..[.whose.]. .Iadd.through said one element with a
      .Iaddend.magnitude .[.is.]. selected to determine the time period desired
      for the inspiration cycle and a fourth variable restrictor .[.selected to
      provide.]. .Iadd.effectively coupled to the other input port of said one
      element, said fourth variable restrictor .Iaddend..[.an output pressure.].
      .Iadd.providing a flow rate through said one element with a
      .Iaddend..[.whose.]. magnitude .[.is.]. selected to determine the time
PAR   period for the expiration cycle. 13. In a respirator for supplying a
      patient with .Iadd.a .Iaddend.breathable gas from a supply of pressurized
      gas including patient communicating means for controlling the flow of
      breathable gas from said supply and from said patient communicating means
      to atmosphere, the improvement comprising
PA1  first, second and third pneumatic elements each having an output port and a
      pair of input ports and a control port to select pneumatic communication
      between one input port and the output port;
PA1  .Iadd.means for intercoupling said .Iaddend.first and second of said
      plurality of pneumatic elements being .[.intercoupled,.]. with the output
      port of each said latter elements being connected to the control port of
      said other of said first and second elements in positive feedback
      relationship to form a pneumatic oscillator, with the output port of the
      second pneumatic element providing a pneumatic output oscillating between
      pressure levels corresponding to the inspiratory and expiratory cycles for
      the respirator;
PA1  volume means coupled between the output port of said first pneumatic
      element and the control port of said second pneumatic element;
PA1  first variable means coupled between the supply of gas and one input port
      of the first pneumatic oscillator element and second variable means
      coupling the other input port of the first pneumatic element to atmosphere
      for respectively selecting the time periods for the inspiratory and
      expiratory cycles of the pneumatic oscillator;
PA1  a third pneumatic control element having its control port responsively
      communicating with the output port of the second pneumatic element in the
      pneumatic oscillator and having its output port connected to said means
      for controlling the flow of breathing gas; and
PA1  third variable means coupled between the input ports of the third pneumatic
      control element and the supply of gas to select at the output port of the
      third pneumatic control element inspiratory and expiratory pressure levels
PAR   for breathable gas supplied to the patient. 14. The respirator as claimed
      in claim 13 wherein the second variable means includes a variable
      expiratory duration determining gas flow restrictor effectively coupled
      between one input port of the first pneumatic oscillator element and
      ambient pressure, said first variable means further including a variable
      inspiratory duration determining gas flow restrictor effectively coupled
      between the other input port of the first pneumatic oscillator element and
PAR   the supply of pressurized gas. 15. The respirator as claimed in claim 14
      wherein the third variable means includes
PA1  a variable expiratory pressure determining gas flow restrictor and a
      variable inspiratory pressure determining gas flow restrictor effectively
      coupled between said supply of pressurized gas and the respective input
      ports of the third control pneumatic element.
PATN
WKU  RE0297798
SRC  5
APN  760520&
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  241
APD  19770119
TTL  Child-proof and pharmacist-assisting reversible closure for containers
ISD  19780926
NCL  20
ECL  18
EXP  Marcus; Stephen
NDR  2
NFG  18
INVT
NAM  Morris; Glenn H.
STR  4203 Highwood Dr.
CTY  Chattanooga
STA  TN
ZIP  37415
REIS
COD  50
APN  426534
APD  19731220
PNO  03865267
ISD  19750211
CLAS
OCL  215206
XCL  215214
XCL  215223
XCL  215224
EDF  2
ICL  B65D 5502
ICL  B65D 8556
ICL  A61J  100
FSC  215
FSS  201-226;228;319;320;321;250-253
FSC  220
FSS  287;379
FSC  138
FSS  96 R;967
UREF
PNO  2487728
ISD  19491100
NAM  Quiring
OCL  215213
UREF
PNO  3025988
ISD  19620300
NAM  Williams
XCL  215320
UREF
PNO  3044648
ISD  19620700
NAM  Cohn
OCL  215213
UREF
PNO  3269576
ISD  19660800
NAM  Law
XCL  215208
UREF
PNO  3409159
ISD  19681100
NAM  Velt
OCL  215213
UREF
PNO  3432058
ISD  19690300
NAM  Burgess
OCL  215206
UREF
PNO  3606074
ISD  19710900
NAM  Hayes
XCL  220287
UREF
PNO  3627160
ISD  19711200
NAM  Horvath
XCL  215206
UREF
PNO  3744654
ISD  19730700
NAM  Bromberg
OCL  215213
UREF
PNO  3811590
ISD  19740500
NAM  Hall, Jr.
XCL  215215
UREF
PNO  3831796
ISD  19740800
NAM  Claasen
XCL  215204
UREF
PNO  3841513
ISD  19741000
NAM  O'Conner et al.
XCL  215204
UREF
PNO  3868037
ISD  19750200
NAM  Grossman
XCL  215211
UREF
PNO  3926325
ISD  19751200
NAM  Benson
OCL  215206
UREF
PNO  3974938
ISD  19760800
NAM  Steadman
XCL  215250
LREP
FRM  Brady, O'Boyle & Gates
ABST
PAL  A unitary reversible closure for containers of medicine and the like is
      applied in one position to the container to render the container
      child-resistant and in such position requires a complex manipulation .[.of
      the closure.]. to release it from the container. In a second position of
      application to the same container, the closure seals the container but
      requires only a simple manipulation by the pharmacist to release it from
      the container, thereby lessening irritation and discomfort to the
      pharmacist's fingers cause by manipulating closures or caps over a period
      of time and saving the pharmacist considerable time in removing closures
      over a period of time to fill the containers.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  A new Federal law requires medicine containers to be equipped with
      child-resistant caps or closures to avoid injury or death to curious
      children who seek access to the contents of containers. Generally, the
      child-resistant closures which have been developed to satisfy the
      requirements of the law require a complex manipulation to release them
      from the containers, so that normally only an adult will be able to open
      the container of medicine or the like. The required complex manipulation
      of the closure is usually a plural step movement thereof, such as turning
      aligning and lifting, or pressing inwardly, turning and lifting, or some
      similar combination of manipulative steps. A typical example of the
      patented prior art relating to child-resistant closures for medicine
      containers is U.S. Pat. No. 3,432,058 of Mar. 11, 1969 which exhibits a
      closure or cap for medicine bottles which must first be rotated to align
      an internal lug thereof with a notch provided in a flange on the neck of
      the container, followed by a lifting of one side of the cap while the lug
      is aligned with the notch. Quite a large number of arrangements have been
      devised in the prior art to satisfy the requirements for a child-resistant
      closure for medicine containers and the above-identified patent is merely
      an illustrative example of the prior art.
PAR  It is customary in the interest of convenience and cleanliness of
      containers to supply medicine containers to pharmacists with the closure
      elements in place thereon. This avoids separation and loss of the parts
      and assures that the interiors of the containers are in a clean condition
      at the time of being filled. In the case of child-resistant closures, a
      rather serious problem has arisen in connection with the necessity for the
      pharmacist to constantly remove the safety closure from the container
      prior to filling the latter with medicine and reclosing it. This problem
      concerns increasing opening time and discomfort and irritation of the
      fingers of the pharmacist who must manipulate the closures during an
      entire working day. Because the child-resistant closures require a series
      of movements or steps to release them, and are purposely made difficult to
      manipulate for the protection of children, it takes the pharmacist longer
      to remove the safety closures from the containers and the pharmacist's
      fingers by the end of the day are frequently very sore and uncomfortable
      to the extent that some of the skin may actually be damaged and this slows
      him up even more in opening the containers and substantially reduces the
      number of containers he can fill in a day. This condition has led to many
      complaints by pharmacists and thus far no satisfactory solution to this
      annoying problem has come forth. With the safety closures a pharamicst can
      no longer fill the same number of medicine containers in a day as he could
      in the past and this is causing an increase in medicine cost to the
      consumer.
PAR  Accordingly, it is the objective of this invention to completely and
      satisfactorily solve the above-discussed problems of lost time and finger
      irritation through the provision of a uniquely constructed reversible or
      combination closure for medicine containers which is first applied to the
      container so as to seal the same against the entry of contamination and to
      maintain the container and its closure in assembled relationship prior to
      use. In this first applied position of the closure element, only a very
      quick and simple release procedure by the pharmacist is required for
      separating it from the container. This may consist of a simple pulling or
      twisting or lifting movement, such as that customarily required to remove
      a bottle stopper or simple snap or screw cap from a container. Such a
      procedure, even when repeated many times during the day, will not tend to
      cause any noticeable discomfort to the fingers, will not slow down the
      pharmacist, and will permit him to fill as many containers with safety
      caps as he has been able to fill in the past with non-safety caps.
PAR  In a second use position of the same closure on the same container
      following the removal of the closure in its first-applied position and the
      filling of container with medicine, the closure becomes a child-resistant
      safety closure which requires a more complex manipulation in order to
      separate it from the container. Thus, by means of the invention, a simply
      unitary reversible cap or closure alleviates the annoying problems of lost
      pharmacist time and finger irritation as commmonly caused by the constant
      handling of child-proof or safety caps. At the same time, due to the easy
      reversibility of the closure, the advantageous practice of furnishing
      containers and closures to pharmacists in assembled relationship is
      retained, and all of this without any appreciable cost increase.
      Additionally, in situations where no children are present, the combination
      cap embodying the invention has the added capability of being used as a
      simple stopper or cap without the safety feature.
PAR  It is a further object of the invention to provide any form of
      child-resistant medicine bottle closure with means for applying the
      closure to a container in a non-safety position for the stated purpose of
      eliminating finger irritation and discomfort and lost time in opening
      containers on the part of the pharmacist who must manipulate the closures
      time after time while filling prescriptions. In essence, therefore, the
      closure of the invention is a two-position closure for use on the same
      container which in a first position of use is easy and quick to separate
      from the container and in a second position of use is more difficult to
      separate from the container while providing the required child-resistant
      features.
PAR  Other features and advantages of the invention will become apparent during
      the course of the following description.
DRWD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF DRAWING FIGURES
PAR  FIG. 1 is an exploded perspective view, partly in cross section, showing a
      closure element embodying the invention and a coacting container.
PAR  FIG. 2 is a central vertical section showing the closure applied to the
      container in a first use position.
PAR  FIG. 3 is a perspective view showing the closure applied in a second use
      position to thereby constitute a child-resistant closure.
PAR  FIG. 4 is a central vertical section through the closure and container as
      shown in FIG. 3 and depicting in broken lines the removal of the
      child-resistant closure.
PAR  FIG. 5 is an exploded perspective view of a modified form of closure and
      container involving a combination screw-thread and snap-on mode of
      operation.
PAR  FIG. 6 is a central vertical section showing the assembled relationship of
      the closure and container of FIG. 5.
PAR  FIG. 7 is a similar sectional view illustrating the removal of the
      child-resistant closure from the coacting container.
PAR  FIG. 8 is a perspective view of a modified form of cap or closure which may
      be utilized instead of the caps illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 5.
PAR  FIG. 9 is a perspective view, partly in section, showing a modified type of
      reversible closure for medicine containers in accordance with the
      invention.
PAR  FIG. 10 is an exploded sectional view of the closure shown in FIG. 9 and a
      coacting container.
PAR  FIG. 11 is a further cross sectional view showing the closure of FIG. 8
      assembled with the container in the first non-safety use position.
PAR  FIG. 12 is a central vertical section showing a further modified form of
      closure embodying the invention.
PAR  FIG. 13 is a bottom plan view of the closure shown in FIG. 12.
PAR  FIGS. 14 and 15 are similar cross sectional views showing two additional
      modifications of the invention.
PAR  FIG. 16 is a perspective view, partly broken away, of a closure embodying a
      further modification of the invention.
PAR  FIG. 17 is a central vertical section taken through the closure of FIG. 16
      with the same inverted.
PAR  FIG. 18 is a vertical section taken on line 18--18 of FIG. 17.
DETD
PAC  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
PAR  Referring initially to FIGS. 1 to 4 of the drawings, there is illustrated a
      reversible closure or cap 20 for a container 21 of a type adapted to
      receive medicines. The particular container 21 illustrated is of the
      general type disclosed in the aforementioned U.S. Pat. No. 3,432,058 and
      the invention embodied in the closure 20 has its child-resistant or safety
      aspect disclosed substantially in terms of the construction shown in said
      patent. However, it should be clearly understood that the invention which
      involves a two position reversible closure for the same container may
      employ as a part thereof any one of a variety of types of child-resistant
      constructions in combination with one or more of the structures according
      to the invention which adapt the closure for a non-safety application to
      the container for the convenience and comfort of the pharmacist who must
      manipulate the same.
PAR  More particularly, the closure 20 which is unitary and formed of a tough
      plastic, such as polystyrene, comprises a crowned generally cylindrical,
      although slightly tapered, plug or stopper section 22 having a flat end
      wall 23. The side wall of plug section 22 is preferably provided with an
      external annular bead 24 to promote a snug engagement and snap action when
      the plug section 22 is forced into the open mouth of container 21, as
      shown in FIG. 2.
PAR  The reversible closure 20 additionally comprises an enlarged flat annular
      wall 25 at the base of plug section 22 and projecting outwardly therefrom
      substantially at right angles to the side wall of the plug section. This
      wall 25 abuts the end face 26 of container 21 when the closure is applied
      thereto in either of its two use positions depicted in FIGS. 2 and 4. An
      annular cylindrical marginal wall 27 is attached integrally to the wall 25
      in right angular relationshp thereto and is concentric with the plug or
      stopper section 22, as shown. If desired, the exterior face of the wall 27
      may be grooved or knurled to facilitate grasping and twisting of the
      closure 20.
PAR  On the interior of the annular wall 27 and close to the open end of the
      hollow closure 20, there is provided a pair of diametrically opposed
      radially narrow arcuate lugs 28 and 29, the former of which is somewhat
      shorter circumferentially than the latter, for a reason to be described.
      Adjacent to the shorter lug 28, the closure 20 is equipped on the exterior
      of its wall 27 at its open end with a lift tab 30. In alignment with this
      lift tab and the adjacent shorter lug 28, an indicator 31 such as an arrow
      or dot is visibly marked on the end wall 23 of the closure for alignment
      during the removal of the child-resistant closure with a cooperating
      indicator 32 provided on the side wall of container 21.
PAR  This container, which may be cylindrical, is equipped adjacent to its open
      end with an exterior preferably tapered flange 33 having a single release
      notch 34 formed therein. A second annular flange 35 may be formed on the
      container 21 in axially spaced relation to the flange 33, the latter
      flange constituting the means for retaining the child-resistant closure in
      its position shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, prior to release of the closure by a
      series of relatively complex movements.
PAR  In use, the medicine container 21 and child-resistant closure 20 is
      supplied to the pharmacist in assembled relationship, with the plug or
      stopper section 22 pressed into the neck of the container as shown in FIG.
      2. In such position, the closure seals the container and excludes
      contamination and the two parts are retained together to avoid
      misplacement or loss. In this first use position of the closure on the
      container 21, only a simple single manipulation by the pharmacist is
      required to separate the parts and this can be done without inconvenience
      and without discomfort to the fingers even where the operation must be
      repeated a large number of times during a working day. A mere twisting of
      lifting force exerted on the closure 20 will be sufficient to separate it
      from the container in this first applied position shown in FIG. 2.
PAR  After filling the container with medicine, the pharmacist inverts the
      closure 20 from its first use position and after aligning the indicators
      31 and 32, simply presses the closure 20 down onto the container. The
      longer retainer lug 29 will easily engage under the retainer flange 33,
      and with the parts positioned as described, the shorter lug 28 will pass
      through the notch 34 and the wall 27 may bottom on the flange or shoulder
      35. Following this, the closure 20 is rotated to shift the lug 28 out of
      alignment with the release notch 34. In order to remove the
      child-resistant closure from the second applied position shown in FIGS. 3
      and 4, it is necessary to first rotate the closure to realign the lug 28
      with the notch 34 and then to lift the adjacent side of the closure,
      utilizing the lift tab 30, and the closure will then separate from the
      container by rocking or pivoting around the lug 29 which is engaged below
      the flange 33. The lug 29 is too long to pass through the notch 34 and
      therefore the closure can be removed from the container only after
      adjustment to a rather precise location and after two separate and
      distinct types of manipulation. Children ordinarily will be unable to
      remove such a safety closure. However, the pharmacist can very simply
      separate the closure 20 from the container when the closure is in its
      initial use position without any discomfort or damage to the fingers. Thus
      the invention consists of a unitary reversible closure having two
      essential use or application positions on the same container, the first of
      these positions being a simple release position to avoid discomfort to the
      fingers of the pharmacist, and the second use position of the closure
      being a more difficult or complex release position to protect small
      children from poisoning.
PAR  In FIGS. 5 through 7, a modification of the invention is shown wherein the
      reversible two position closure, while in the child protecting position,
      is engaged with the container though a compound retaining means involving
      screw-threads in addition to the interlocking means already described
      relative to lugs 28 and 29 and the flange 33. More particularly, in FIGS.
      5 to 7, a container 36 having the aforementioned retainer flange 33 and
      release notch 34 is additionally equipped below the flange with
      screw-threads or partial screw-threads 37. A cooperating closure 38 has a
      plug or stopper section 39 which is identical in construction and
      operation to the previously-described plug section 22 of closure 20. In
      the present embodiment, the exterior cylindrical wall 40 of the closure 38
      is somewhat longer axially than the corresponding wall 27 in the prior
      embodiment and is provided internally with the identical lugs 28 and 29
      which cooperate with the flange 33 and notch 34 in exactly the same manner
      described in the prior embodiment.
PAR  However, in connection with the embodiment in FIGS. 5 to 7, when the
      closure 38 is applied in the child-resistant position on the container 36,
      after the shorter lug 28 has been passed through the notch 34 and the
      closure engaged with the retainer flange 33, the same two lugs 28 and 29
      coact with the screw-threads 37 when the closure is rotated to establish a
      threaded connection between the two parts, as shown in FIG. 6. To remove
      the safety closure, the same must be reversely turned to separate the
      threaded elements and the closure will then be released from the threads
      to the position shown in FIG. 7 where it is still retained by the lugs 28
      and 29 in the same manner described in the prior embodiment. As in the
      prior embodiment, to separate the closure 38 from container 36, the
      closure must again be rotated to align the narrower lug 28 with the notch
      34, FIG. 7, and then by lifting the tab 30, as previously described, the
      closure or cap will separate from the container. It will be understood
      that when the closure 38 is inverted, its plug portion 39 will enter the
      bore of the container in the identical manner shown and described in FIG.
      2, and the resulting advantages of the invention in terms of child safety
      and relief of the pharmacist from finger discomfort are identical to the
      previous embodiment.
PAR  FIG. 8 shows a modified cap or closure 41 which may be utilized in either
      form of the invention shown in FIGS. 1 to 4, or 5 to 7. In this
      connection, the cylindrical body portion 42 of the closure may be
      constructed as illustrated to interlock with the container 21, or if
      preferred can be constructed to interlock with the container 36 having
      screw-threads. In either case, the generally cylindrical plug or stopper
      portion 22 or 39 is replaced by a bar-type generally rectangular plug
      portion 43 having bead segments 44 on its opposite ends to serve the same
      function as the annular bead 24. The plug portion 43 may have an indicator
      marking 45 or may be tapered itself to point toward the tab 30 and the
      cooperating indicator marking 32 on the container. When applied to the
      container in the first use position corresponding to FIG. 2, the
      bar-shaped element 43 engages the mouth of the container in the manner
      shown in FIG. 2 and the end wall 46 of body portion 42 abuts the end face
      26 of the container. In the second use position for rendering the
      container child-resistant, the closure 41 functions in the manner
      described for the closure 20 or the closure 38, depending upon which
      embodiment of the safety structure is incorporated in the body portion 42.
      Actually as illustrated in FIG. 8, the body portion 42 contains the safety
      structure of the initial embodiment, FIGS. 1 through 4.
PAR  FIGS. 9 to 11 illustrate another form of closure cap 47 embodying the
      invention and being applicable reversely or in two positions to the
      previously-described container 21. In the safety or child-resisting
      position of the closure, not shown in FIGS. 9 to 11, the construction and
      operation is substantially identical to the initial embodiment. More
      particularly, the closure 47 comprises a cylindrical side wall 48 divided
      into two oppositely facing sections by a transverse wall or partition 49.
      On one side of this partition, the closure 47 is equipped with the
      previously-described elements 28, 29 and 30 which coact with the described
      elements 33 and 34 of the container 21 in the manner shown in FIGS. 1 to
      4. On the other side of the partition 49, the closure 47 has its
      cylindrical wall provided with an internal annular bead 50 which is
      located close to the adjacent end of the closure. This bead is adapted to
      snap over the retainer bead 33 of the container whereby the wall 49 will
      abut the end of the container and the two parts will be assembled for easy
      separation by the pharmacist without finger discomfort. When the closure
      is reversed and applied on the same container 21, in the child-defeating
      mode, its removal will be more complicated, as described.
PAR  FIG. 12 shows a further modification of the invention wherein a container
      closure 51 constructed simiarly to the closure 47 possesses the same
      elements 28, 29, 30 and 49 already described. These elements coact with
      the container 21 to defeat child entry into the container as described
      previously. The opposite end of the container 51, however, in lieu of the
      bead 50, possesses a pair of equally sized diametrically opposed internal
      lugs 52 of slightly lesser radial thickness than the lugs 28 and 29. The
      thickness of the lugs 52 or the diametrical distance between them is such
      that the two lugs may snap over the flange 33 of the container when the
      closure 51 is applied thereto in the use position for easy release
      illustrated in FIG. 11 for the similar closure 47 having the snap bead 50.
PAR  FIG. 13 illustrates the face of the divider wall 49 remote from the safety
      structure and this face is visible to the user when applying the safety
      cap to a container or removing it. Consequently, this face of the wall 49
      carries an alignment indicator 53 for the smaller lug 28 and suitable
      instruction indicia 54, if desired.
PAR  FIG. 14 shows a slight variation in a closure 55 of the construction in
      FIG. 12. In FIG. 14, the cylindrical wall portion 56 of the closure on the
      side of divider wall 49 remote from the safety structure is formed thin so
      as to be relatively flexible. In this instance, the two opposed
      identically-sized lugs 57 are relatively thicker radially than the lugs 52
      although still thinner than the safety lugs 28 and 29. When applied over
      the container 21 or flange 33 as illustrated in FIG. 11, the thin wall
      portion 56 will yield to allow the lugs 57 to snap into easily releasable
      interlocking engagement with the flange 33.
PAR  FIG. 15 shows another modified cap or closure 58 whose safety section and
      components are also identical to the previously-described forms and
      therefore need not be redescribed. In this form of the invention, the
      means to retain the closure 58 in the first or non-safety use position for
      the convenience of the pharmacist, FIG. 11, consists of a relatively thin
      elastic cylindrical wall 59 on the side of the divider wall 49 remote from
      the safety structure. When applied over the flange 33 of the container,
      the thin wall 59 will bulge outwardly and form a snug but readily
      separable connection with the container so that the pharmacist can
      separate the closure easily from the container without finger discomfort.
      The instructional indicia 54 and indicator 53 shown in FIG. 13 is also
      applicable to the two embodiments of the closure shown in FIGS. 14 and 15.
PAR  FIGS. 16 to 18 show a further form of container closure possessing the same
      basic combination of the invention. More particularly, in these figures,
      the cap or closure 60 is equipped at one end with the described elements
      28, 29 and 30, which form the essence of the child-defeating mode of
      operation. On the other end of the closure divided by a transverse wall
      61, there is provided a bar-like plug or stopper element 62 similar to the
      element 43 in FIG. 8 and serving the same purpose as the element 43 during
      use in the manner illustrated by FIG. 2. In addition to the plug element
      62, the same end of the closure 60 has an annular skirt or wall 63
      provided with an internal annular bead 64 and these elements surround the
      bar-like plug 62 in spaced relation thereto as shown in the drawings. This
      arrangement enables the closure 60 to be applied to the container 21 in
      the first use position with the plug element 62 inside of the container
      neck, FIG. 2, and the skirt 63 external to the neck, FIG. 11, with the
      bead 64 engaged below the retainer flange 33. Again, the pharmacist may
      separate the closure from the container by a simple manipulation to save
      his or her fingers from discomfort.
PAR  The terms and expressions which have been employed herein are used as terms
      of description and not of limitation, and there is no intention, in the
      use of such terms and expressions, of excluding any equivalents of the
      features shown and described or portions thereof but it is recognized that
      various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention
      claimed.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A closure for containers defeating entry thereto by children and
      relieving finger discomfort by pharmacists who must separate closures from
      containers during container filling operations comprising a reversible
      closure body having first and second .Iadd.independent .Iaddend.use
      positions on the same container, the first use position protecting the
      interior of the container from contamination and the second use position
      allowing the closure to defeat entry by children, a first retainer means
      on a portion of the closure which is coupled to the container in said
      first use position and being releasable therefrom by single simple
      manipulation of the closure, and a second retainer means on another
      portion of the closure which is coupled to the container in said second
      use position and requiring a complex manipulation of the closure
      consisting of at least two types of movement before separation of the
      closure from said container may be effected.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A closure for containers as defined by claim 1, wherein said first
      retainer means is a friction means which releases easily from the
      container by a simple force application, and said second retainer means is
      a positive interlocking detent means on the closure which cooperates with
      a positive locking element on a container and requires a movement of the
      closure to a position on the container where the detent means is aligned
      with a release passage in the locking element on the container before
      separation of the closure from the container can be effected with the
      closure in the second use position.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A closure for containers as defined by claim 2, wherein the first
      retainer means is a plug element on said closure body adapted to enter the
      mouth of a container and to be readily removable therefrom, and said
      second retainer means comprises a skirt section on the closure body
      applicable over the mouth of a container externally of the mouth, and
      interlocking lugs on the interior of said skirt section movable into
      positive locking engagement with said positive locking element on the
      container and separable therefrom by said movement of the closure to cause
      alignment of one of said lugs with said release passage.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. The structure of claim 3, wherein said interlocking lugs are a pair of
      diametrically opposed lugs of unequal size with the smaller of said lugs
      only adapted to pass through said release passage, both lugs adapted for
      positive interlocking engagement with said locking element on the
      container when the closure is rotated to a position where the smaller lug
      is unaligned with said release passage.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. The structure of claim 3, wherein the plug element is a substantially
      circular element which completely plugs the mouth of the container when
      placed therein.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. The structure of claim 3, wherein the plug element is an elongated
      bar-like element rising from one end of said closure body and spanning a
      container mouth diametrically and only partially plugging it.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. The structure of claim 2, wherein said first retainer means comprises a
      substantially annular skirt extension on the end of the closure which is
      remote from the second retainer means and said skirt extension appliable
      over the exterior of a container mouth to cover said mouth while the
      closure is in said first use position and while the second retainer means
      is in an inactive position.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. The structure of claim 7, and yielding internal detent means on said
      skirt extension to interlock with said locking element on a container.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. The structure of claim 8, and said internal detent means comprising an
      internal annular bead on said skirt extension.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. The structure of claim 8, and said internal detent means comprising a
      pair of opposed lugs on the interior of the skirt extension.
NUM  11.
PAR  11. The structure of claim 7, wherein said skirt extension is a thin walled
      annular extension adapted to snugly embrace and conform to the shape of
      said locking element on a container.
NUM  12.
PAR  12. The structure of claim 2, wherein said first retainer means on the
      closure comprises a friction plug element on the end of the closure which
      is remote from the second retainer means and a substantially annular skirt
      extension on the last-named closure end surrounding the plug element.
NUM  13.
PAR  13. The structure of claim 12, and the plug element consisting of a
      bar-like formation extending substantially diametrically on the closure.
NUM  14.
PAR  14. The structure of claim 1, wherein the closure body comprises first and
      second separated container coupling parts, .Iadd.on the same closure body
      .Iaddend.said first retainer means being on the first coupling part and
      the second retainer means being on the second coupling part.
NUM  15.
PAR  15. The structure of claim 14, and a transverse divider wall separating the
      first and second coupling parts of the closure and said divider wall
      adapted to abut the end face of a container when the closure body is in
      said first or second use positions.
NUM  16.
PAR  16. The structure of claim 4, wherein said lugs additionally comprise
      screw-threading elements on the closure adapted to cooperate with thread
      elements on a container inwardly of said container positive locking
      element.
NUM  17.
PAR  17. A reversible closure having two .Iadd.independent .Iaddend.positions of
      use on a container comprising a first coupling part on said closure
      adapted to engage a container in one use position of the closure wherein
      the closure protects the interior of the container from contamination, the
      first coupling part separating from the container by application thereto
      of a simple force, and a second coupling part on the closure having
      positive interlocking engagement with the container in the second position
      of use of the closure on the container, the second coupling part being
      releasable from the container only following a compound movement thereto
      relative to the container. .Iadd. 18. A reversible closure having two
      independent positions of use on a container comprising a first coupling
      part on said closure adapted to engage a container in one use position of
      the closure wherein the closure protects the interior of the container
      from contamination, the first coupling part separating from the container
      by application thereto of a simple force, and a second coupling part on
      the closure having positive interlocking engagment with the container in
      the second position of use of the closure on the container and being
      releasable by complex manipulation, whereby said first coupling part is
      the only part closing the container in said one use position and said
      second coupling part is the only part closing the container in the second
      position of use. .Iaddend. .Iadd. 19. A reversible closure having two
      independent positions of use on a container and being reusable in each of
      the two positions, comprising a first portion adapted to engage the
      container in one position of use and separable therefrom by a simple
      release manipulation, and a second portion constituting a safety closure
      having interlocking engagement with the container in a second position of
      use whereby said first portion is the only portion closing the container
      in said one position of use and said second portion is the only portion
      closing the container in the second position of use. .Iaddend..Iadd. 20. A
      reversible closure as set forth in claim 19 in which said first portion is
      adapted to plug the mouth of the container and said safety closure portion
      is adapted for engagement over the mouth of the container exterior of the
      mouth.
PATN
WKU  RE0297801
SRC  5
APN  8313555
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  325
APD  19770907
TTL  Multiple socket assembly for electrical components
ISD  19780926
NCL  7
ECL  1
EXA  Desmond; E. F.
EXP  Lake; Roy
NDR  1
NFG  3
INVT
NAM  Rutkowski; John L.
CTY  Mount Prospect
STA  IL
ASSG
NAM  Appleton Electric Company
CTY  Chicago
STA  IL
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  649477
APD  19760115
PNO  04032209
ISD  19770628
CLAS
OCL  339 91R
XCL  339 22R
EDF  2
ICL  H01R 1354
FSC  339
FSS  22 R;22 B;76;75 R;75 M;91 R;94 R;94 M;116 R;116 C
FSC  174
FSS  97;101
UREF
PNO  3015795
ISD  19620100
NAM  Meacham
XCL  339 22B
UREF
PNO  3501735
ISD  19700300
NAM  Ballman et al.
OCL  339 75M
UREF
PNO  3566336
ISD  19710200
NAM  Johnson et al.
OCL  339 91R
UREF
PNO  3821688
ISD  19740600
NAM  Larsile
OCL  339 22R
LREP
FRM  Darbo & Vandenburgh
ABST
PAL  A track has spaced rails, each of which holds a plurality of clips, each
      clip being at a respective station. Thus, there are a pair of clips at
      each station. A multiple socket unit is mountable between the rails at
      each station or at adjacent stations. An electrical component, as for
      example a relay, can be plugged into each socket unit and when so plugged
      in is engaged by the clips which hold the component unit and the socket
      unit together and the combination of the two locked to the track at the
      station(s).
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND AND SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  For many electrical wiring requirements, it is desirable to use electrical
      components which are discrete units or modules. This is particularly
      advantageous for several reasons. For example, it facilitates the repair.
      Thus, it is possible to trouble-shoot a disabled assembly by test
      inserting new units one at a time for existing units until the defective
      unit is located. Secondly, as is thus readily apparent, the overall
      assembly need not be replaced when a defect exists only in one individual
      component thereof. Another advantage is the ability to tailor-make an
      assemblage of electrical components to fit a particular job. Thus, where
      there is only a few, or even one, of a particular assemblage to be
      produced, this can be done from a series of standard modules at a cost
      that is usually far less than it would be to otherwise fabricate the
      overall assembly. Furthermore, as improvements are made in the
      characteristics of one particular module, an improved module can readily
      be substituted for the original, unimproved version to thus up-date the
      overall assembly.
PAR  The foregoing advantages have been recognized and electrical components
      have been produced as unitary modules (e.g., radio tubes, plug-in relays,
      etc.). Tracks for holding wiring sockets are known (e.g., U.S. Air Force
      MIL-R-6106/3A; U.S. Air Force MIL-R-6106/5A; and U.S. Air Force
      MIL-R-6106/1).
PAR  The principal object of the present invention is to provide such an
      assembly having a number of advantages. One significant advantage is that
      the electrical component or module is securely held onto the socket unit
      and the two are locked to the rail against any possibility of accidental
      displacement. Not only are the two locked together, but a constant
      pressure is exerted to the end of forcing one against the other so that
      pressure is maintained on a sealing gasket between the two. Another
      advantage is that while the socket unit can be inserted and replaced at
      will at a station on the track, it is securely held by the track against
      accidental displacement, such as might result from the force applied when
      an electrical component or module is removed from that socket.
PAR  Further objects and advantages will become apparent from the appended
      disclosure.
DRWD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
PAR  FIG. 1 is an isometric view of an assembly embodying the invention;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a section as viewed at line 2--2 of FIG. 1; and
PAR  FIG. 3 is an isometric view of a multiple clip component used in the
      embodiment of FIG. 1.
DETD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF SPECIFIC EMBODIMENT
PAR  The following disclosure is offered for public dissemination in return for
      the grant of a patent. Although it is detailed to ensure adequacy and aid
      understanding, this is not intended to prejudice that purpose of a patent
      which is to cover each new inventive concept therein no matter how others
      may later disguise it by variations in form or additions or further
      improvements.
PAR  In the disclosed embodiment there is a track, generally 10, which defines a
      plurality of stations A . . . H, et seq. Single wiring connector units,
      generally 11, may be mounted at each station or multiple wiring connector
      units, generally 12, may be used at adjacent stations. A single electrical
      component or module, generally 13, plugs into the single connector unit 11
      or a multiple electrical component or module, generally 14, plugs into the
      multiple wiring connector 12. These electrical components or modules might
      be one of a wide variety of forms. It could, for example, house one or
      more relays, an electrical amplifier, a bussing module (i.e., a particular
      arrangement of electrical connections between the various prongs of the
      module), a suppressor for voltage transients, etc., etc. It could be
      merely a connector plug having wires extending therefrom to some remote
      electrical device. To facilitate its use, the exterior of the module could
      well have a description of what is contained therein and/or a wiring
      diagram of its contents.
PAR  The track 10 preferably is an extrusion of aluminum or plastic. The various
      openings therein would be cut after extrusion. It comprises a base 16 and
      two upstanding rails 17 and 18. The base has a plurality of openings 19 to
      receive mounting screws 20. The rails have a series of openings 21 so that
      wiring to the connector units 11 can be brought out of the assembly as
      required. Extending longitudinally of the rails are ribs 22 which serve to
      stiffen the rail. At the distal end of the rail (at the top of the rail
      web) each rail has an enlargement or head 23. Thereby the adjacent sides
      of the heads extend closer to each other than do the corresponding sides
      of the rail web. This provides a pair of locking abutments or lips, one on
      each rail. The distal ends of the rail heads have grooves 24 extending the
      lengths thereof. At each station A . . . H are a pair of openings 25 and
      26 in the web of each rail.
PAR  The wiring connectors 11 comprise a body having sides 30, ends 31 and a
      face plate 32. The ends 31 have slots 33 extending thereacross from side
      to side. Above these slots on each of the ends are a pair of spaced
      projections 34. Below the slots, the ends 31 are approximately the same
      distance apart as the distance between the webs of the rails 17 and 18.
      Adjacent the bottom, the ends have inward tapers 35. Within the body are
      secured a plurality of sockets 37. Each socket is associated with a
      respective opening 38 in face plate 32 and has a wire 39 which extends
      outwardly from the body. A gasket 40 of elastomeric material is mounted on
      face plate 32 about each of openings 38 to serve as a seal. Multiple
      connectors 12 are substantially the same. The only major difference is
      that they have a single projection 36 at the end rather than the two
      projections 34. The electrical components or modules 13, 14 have a
      plurality of metal plugs or prongs 41 positioned to be received in sockets
      37 to make an electrical connection therewith.
PAR  At each of the stations A . . . H are a pair of spring metal .[. chips.].
      .Iadd.clips.Iaddend., generally 45. These clips are identical and are
      formed of a single sheet of metal with integral connectors 46 between each
      adjacent clip. Each clip includes: a foot 47 which extends through opening
      26 in the web of the rail; a leg 48; a hip 49 which is of a "U"
      configuration so that it extends through opening 25, about the inner face
      of head 23 of the rail and across most of the top of the head of the rail;
      and an upper body 50. The hip has a prong 51 cut and bent downwardly
      therefrom so as to extend into groove 24. The upper body of the clip has
      an opening 52 which receives a projection 53 on the end of the electrical
      components 13, 14.
PAR  For a particular installation, a user would initially decide as to the
      number of stations A . . . H, etc., that would be required. An appropriate
      length of track 10 would be cut off, as well as an appropriate length of
      two strips comprising clips 45 and their connectors 46. Each strip of
      connectors would be mounted on its respective rail as a unit. To do this,
      the foot 47 is inserted through openings 25 from the inside. This is done
      with the clip rotated down from its position as illustrated
      (counterclockwise in FIG. 3). After the foot is passed through opening 25
      the clip is rotated toward the erect position so that the foot 47 can be
      inserted through opening 26 from the outside of the rail. As the clip is
      rotated to the fully erect position illustrated, the prong 51 drops into
      groove 24 to lock the clip in that position.
PAR  To insert a wiring connector unit 11, 12 into place, the unit is positioned
      above the rail (as illustrated at the left end of FIG. 1) at the desired
      station (or stations if it is a multiple unit). It is then moved
      downwardly into the rail in a position such that the projections 34 are on
      opposite sides of a clip, or the projection 36 of the multiple units 12
      are between adjacent clips. To permit the portions of the wiring connector
      body which are below slot 33 to move past rail heads 23 and the hips 49 of
      the clips, the rails are spread apart at the heads thereof. The tapered
      areas 35 on the connector bodies act as cams to aid in so spreading the
      distal ends of the rails apart. The inherent resiliency of the rails
      permits them to be so spread and for the rails to return to the
      illustrated position after the slots 33 on the connector bodies are
      aligned with the heads of the rail. At this time the inwardly
      .Iadd.extending .Iaddend.protrusions formed by the heads of the rail and
      the hip of the clips securely locks the wiring connector body onto the
      rail. Thus, the electrical components 13, 14 may be plugged into and
      removed from the wiring connector units 11, 12 without fear that the
      latter will become disengaged from the rail.
PAR  The electrical components 13, 14 are positioned over the particular wiring
      unit to which they are to be connected. The plugs 41 are inserted into the
      sockets 37. As the electrical component then is moved into its fully
      seated position the projections 53 cam the distal ends of the clips
      outwardly to allow the projections to slip down past the outer end of the
      clips to their final position opposite openings 52. At this point the
      clips lock about the projections as seen at the right side of FIG. 1 and
      in FIG. 2. In this position the clips hold the electrical component onto
      the wiring connector and the two are locked to the track 10.
PAR  An important feature of the invention is that the wiring connector unit and
      the electrical component are urged together so that the gaskets 40 form an
      effective seal between the two. Thus in FIG. 2, the upper body portion 50
      of each of the clips is securely locked on the respective projection 53 so
      that the electrical component 13 cannot move upwardly with respect to the
      clip. At the same time, the distal end or toe of foot 47 is pressing
      upwardly on an abutment 57 at the end of the wiring unit and applies .[.
      and.].  .Iadd.an .Iaddend.upward force thereto so as to urge the wiring
      unit upwardly toward the removable electrical component 13. This force is
      transmitted between the two units through the seals 40 and hold the seals
      in compression so that an effective seal is maintained. It will be noted
      in FIG. 2 that the vertical depth of slots 33 is greater than the
      corresponding depth of the hips 49 of the clip. Thus the wiring unit 11
      has some freedom of vertical movement with respect to the track and clip.
      When the electrical component 13 is not in place (or at least the clips 45
      are disengaged from the projections 53) the spring force of the feet 47,
      as above described, causes the wiring unit to move up, closing spaces 58.
      However, when the electrical component 13 is put into place it is
      necessary, in order to engage the clips 45 with projections 53, that the
      electrical component and the wiring unit 30 be pushed downwardly opening
      up spaces 58. As this occurs, a spring force is generated in the feet 47
      for the above described purpose. The amount of this spring force can be
      controlled during manufacture by the size of the space between the two
      parts of the bifurcated end.
PAR  Various modifications will become apparent to those skilled in the art from
      the above. For example, the wiring connector unit and/or the electrical
      component or module can occupy a selected number of stations, not
      necessarily one or two. While the clips 45 are unitary (and advantageously
      so) it would be possible to use separate spring components for the feet 47
      and the upper clip body 50, with the two components being locked together
      or both locked to a rail. In that event, the ends of the wiring unit 30
      could seat against the head 23 of the rail at slots 33 rather than seating
      against the hip portion 49 of the clips as in the illustrated embodiment.
PAR  The space between the bottom of the connector units 11, 12 and the base 16
      of the track serves as a raceway for confining and protecting electrical
      wires, e.g., 39. In the event that a malfunction would develop in a
      socket, e.g., 37, the respective connector unit 11, 12 can be removed and
      replaced by reversing the procedure of its installation.
PAR  While reference is made to top, bottom, vertically, etc., herein, this is
      just for convenience of understanding. The various parts can, of course,
      be oriented in diverse manners with respect to the vertical without
      changing the structure involved.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. In an electrical apparatus comprising electrical component means,
      connector means having wires extending therefrom and a mounting track,
      said track including a pair of parallel rails defining a space
      therebetween, said connector means being positioned in said space and
      supported on said rails, said means having a plurality of mating plugs and
      sockets for releasably securing the component means to the connector
      means, the improvement comprising:
PA1  a plurality of pairs of spring clip means engaging the track, the two clip
      means of each pair being mounted opposite each other on respective rails
      and each pair defining a station, said track having the general shape of a
      U shaped channel having an open side and including a base between said
      rails opposite said open side, said rails at each station having members
      for supporting a connector means at said open side and at a specific
      location above said base whereby the wires may extend through the part of
      that space between the connector means and the base, said clip means and
      said component means having interengaging devices for releasably securing
      the clip means to the component means, said clip means applying a spring
      force between the track and the component means urging the component means
      onto the connector means and holding the combination of a component means
      and a connector means onto the rail.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. In an apparatus as set forth in claim 1, wherein each rail has a web
      extending outwardly from said base and a head at the distal end of the
      web, said head forming a lip extending closer to the other rail than does
      the web, each connector means having ends in juxtaposition to the rails
      and sides from end to end, said ends having slots extending from one side
      to the other for receiving said lips.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. In an apparatus as set forth in claim 1, including integral connectors
      between adjacent pairs of clip means.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. In an electrical apparatus comprising electrical component means,
      connector means having wires extending therefrom and a mounting track,
      said track including a pair of parallel rails defining a space
      therebetween, said connector means being positioned in said space and
      supported on said rails, said means having a plurality of mating plugs and
      sockets for releasably securing the component means to the connector
      means, the improvement comprising:
PA1  a plurality of pairs of spring clips, the two clips of each pair being
      mounted opposite each other on respective rails and each pair defining a
      station, said track having the general shape of a channel and including a
      base between said rails, said rails at each station having members for
      supporting a connector means at a specific location above said base
      whereby the wires may extend through that space, said clips and said
      component means having interengaging devices for releasably securing the
      clips to the component means, whereby the clips hold the component means
      onto the connector means and the combination of a component means and a
      connector means onto the rail, each rail having a web extending outwardly
      from said base and a head at the distal end of the web, said head forming
      a lip extending closer to the other rail than does the web, each connector
      means having ends in juxtaposition to the rails and sides from end to end,
      said ends having slots extending from one side to the other for receiving
      said lips, as measured normal to said base, said slots being sufficiently
      wide to permit the connector means limited movement toward and away from
      said base, said interengaging devices limiting the extent to which said
      combination of a component means and a connector means may move away from
      said base, each spring clip including a foot contacting a part of the
      connector means and urging the connector means away from the base and thus
      against the component means of the combination.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. In an apparatus as set forth in claim 4, wherein
PA1  at each station each rail has two slots through the web substantially
      parallel to the base, one of said slots being adjacent the head and the
      other slot being between said one slot and the base,
PA1  said foot extending through said other slot, said clip having a portion
      extending from said foot along the outside of the rail between said slots,
      through said one slot and about said lip. .Iadd. 6. In an apparatus as set
      forth in claim 1, including gasket means between said connector means and
      said component means, said gasket means being of elastomeric material, and
      being in compression when said clip means is so holding the component
      means onto the connector means..Iaddend..Iadd. 7. In an apparatus as set
      forth in claim 6, wherein the gasket means comprises a plurality of
      individual grommets, each grommet encircling a respective plug..Iaddend.
PATN
WKU  RE0297810
SRC  5
APN  836740&
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  176
APD  19770926
TTL  High oxygen utilization in BOD-containing water treatment
ISD  19780926
NCL  10
ECL  1
EXP  Wyse; Thomas G.
NDR  10
NFG  11
INVT
NAM  McWhirter; John R.
CTY  Williamsville
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Union Carbide Corporation
CTY  New York
STA  NY
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  838467
APD  19690702
PNO  03547812
ISD  19701215
CLAS
OCL  210  7
XCL  210 15
XCL  210 63R
EDF  2
ICL  C02C  110
ICL  C02C  112
FSC  210
FSS  4-7;14;15;63 R;104;120;195 S;197;220;242
FSC  261
FSS  26;87;93;125
UREF
PNO  1286017
ISD  19181100
NAM  Jones
XCL  210 15
UREF
PNO  2380465
ISD  19450700
NAM  Proudman
XCL  210220
UREF
PNO  2559426
ISD  19510700
NAM  Pirnie
XCL  210 14
UREF
PNO  2684941
ISD  19540700
NAM  Pasveer
OCL  210  8
UREF
PNO  3054602
ISD  19620900
NAM  Proudman
XCL  210 15
UREF
PNO  3236766
ISD  19660200
NAM  Levin
OCL  210  6
UREF
PNO  3342727
ISD  19670900
NAM  Bringle
XCL  210220
UREF
PNO  3348829
ISD  19671000
NAM  Grimes
OCL  261152
UREF
PNO  3356609
ISD  19671200
NAM  Bruemmer
OCL  210  7
UREF
PNO  3401113
ISD  19680900
NAM  Pruessner et al.
XCL  210 15
UREF
PNO  3412017
ISD  19681100
NAM  Abson et al.
OCL  210  7
UREF
PNO  3444076
ISD  19690500
NAM  Sekikawa
OCL  210  6
UREF
PNO  3505213
ISD  19700500
NAM  Anthony et al.
OCL  210 15
FREF
PNO  415,775
ISD  19340900
CNT  GBX
OCL  210220
FREF
PNO  521,365
ISD  19400500
CNT  GBX
OREF
PAL  Grant et al., "The Oxygen Requirements of the Activated Sludge Process,"
      Sewage Works Journal, vol. 2, Apr., 1930, pp. 228-244.
PAL  Kalinske, "Mechanical Air Dispenser for Sewage and Waste Treatment,"
      Biological Treatment of Sewage and Industrial Waste, papers presented Apr.
      13-15, 1955, vol. 1, Reinhold.
PAL  Budd et al., "High Purity Oxygen in Biological Sewage Treatment," Sewage
      and Industrial Wastes, Mar. 1957, pp. 238-244.
PAL  Laws et al., "Oxygen Transfer and Power Cost with Turbine Type Equipment,"
      proc. 14th Ind. Waste Conf., Purdue U., May 5-7, 1959, pp. 638-641.
PAL  Eckenfelder et al., Biological Waste Treatment, Pergamon, 1961.
PAL  Pfeffer et al., "Oxygen-Enriched Air for Biological Waste Treatment," Water
      and Sewage Works, vol. 112, Oct. 1965, pp. 381-384.
PAL  Kountz et al., "Metabolic Energy Balances in a Total Oxidation Activated
      Sludge System," Sewage and Ind. Wastes, vol. 31, Jul. 1969, pp. 819-826.
PAL  Babbit, "Aeration with a High Oxygen Atmosphere in A. S. Process," Waste
      Engineering, vol. 23, No. 5, May 1952, pp. 258-259.
PAL  Drier, "Aeration with a High Oxygen Atmosphere in the Activated Sludge
      Process," Master's Thesis, Univ. of Illinois (1942).
PAL  Kehr et al., "Experiments on the High Rate Activated Sludge Process," Jour.
      Water Poll. Control Federation, vol. 32, Oct. 1969, pp. 1066-1080.
LREP
FR2  Humphreys; Harrie M.
ABST
PAL  BOD-containing water such as municipal waste is mixed with at least 60%
      oxygen gas and active biomass in accordance with specified relationships
      of oxygen feed gas quantity/energy supplied ratio, oxygen concentration
      range in the aeration gas, and degree of oxygen saturation in the mixing
      liquor.
BSUM
PAC  CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATIONS
PAR  The following applications relating to oxygenation of BOD-containing water
      were filed simultaneously with this application:
PAR  Ser. No. 838,442, cyclic Oxygenation of BOD-Containing Water, J. R.
      McWhirter; Ser. No. 838,498, Bio-chemical Oxidation With Low sludge
      Recycle, E. K. Robinson and J. R. McWhirter; Ser. No. 838,499,
      Bio=Oxidation With Low Sludge Yield, J. R. McWhirter; Ser. No. 838,500,
      Staged Oxygenation of BOD-Containing Water, J. R. McWhirter.
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  This invention relates to a method for treating BOD-containing water by
      oxygenation. The BOD-containing water may for example be municipal waste,
      chemical waste from petrochemical or paper plants, or fermentation liquor.
PAR  Biochemical oxidation methods employ aerobic bacteria to convert various
      substrates and nutrients to other forms of matter. A common example is the
      activated sludge method for purifying sewage and industrial wastes. In
      such methods, the type and rate of reactions which occur are critically
      dependent upon the presence of ample oxygen for use by the bacteria. The
      oxygen is made available to the bacteria by dissolution into the liquor
      from an aerating gas, and by uptake of the dissolved oxygen (DO) by the
      bacteria.
PAR  High DO levels in the liquor are desirable for several reasons. For
      example, anaerobic zones are avoided and the rate of the biochemical
      reaction is not hindered from a lack of oxygen. Moreover, the bacterial
      population is improved by high DO levels because the growth of anaerobic
      and facultative strains is suppressed. Such strains cause odors and extend
      treatment time. Under certain conditions including high DO, a bacterial
      floc is formed which settles more rapidly to higher densities. This
      produces an improved effluent and renders the BOD-containing water
      treatment system less susceptible to upsets. Another desirable
      characteristic is that the large, desirable floc particles are more
      adequately supplied with oxygen throughout their mass because the DO
      gradient supplied through the particle is higher. Finally, high DO in the
      liquor in the system means that higher solids levels can be sustained with
      resultant higher treatment rate and lower production of excess sludge.
PAR  Air is the common source-gas for dissolution of oxygen into the liquor. A
      common dissolution technique is to sparge or diffuse compressed air into
      lower levels of open treatment tanks filled with a mixture of liquid and
      bacterial solids (mixed liquor). The sparge air serves the dual purposes
      of creating a large gas-liquor interfacial area for dissolution of oxygen,
      and of stirring the mixed liquor so that the solids remain in uniform
      suspension. For municipal sewage treatment, about 500 to 700 cu. ft. of
      air is usually diffused per lb. BOD removed from the influent water, and
      with 4 to 8 hours solids retention time, this corresponds to about 110-150
      cu. ft. air per hour per 1000-gallon aeration tank capacity. Of the oxygen
      contained in this air, about 10% is dissolved and utilized in the
      biochemical oxidation and the remaninder is wasted. The amount of air
      which needs to be introduced solely to keep the solids in suspension is on
      the order of 70-80 c.f.h. per 1000-gallon tank capacity, and is
      substantially less than that actually introduced in order to dissolve
      sufficient oxygen. Hence, it is seen that the amount of air supplied is
      dictated by "oxygen demand," and the amount of air is very large because
      of the low fraction of its contained oxygen which can be dissolved. The
      air is compressed to a level determined by friction in the system and
      submergence of the diffusers (e.g., 10 p.s.i.g.). Power costs vary between
      about 0.25 and 1.6 k.w.h. per lb. BOD removed, and average about 0.56
      k.w.h. per lb. BOD removed.
PAR  It has long been recognized that the use of air as an oxygen source imposes
      a serious limitation on the rate of oxygen dissolution which can be
      sustained. Air contains only 20.8% oxygen and its other constituents are
      inert to the biochemical reactions. In practice, the dissolved oxygen is
      consumed from the mixed liquor by the bacteria so rapidly that the DO
      levels economically achievable with air aeration are suppressed below safe
      levels for a healthy, profuse growth of desirable aerobic bacteria.
      Anaerobic and faculative strains of bacteria may develop which cause odors
      and extend treatment time.
PAR  High solids levels in the aeration zone are also beneficial to
      BOD-containing water aeration because the rate of BOD removal becomes
      higher and the rate of excess sludge production becomes lower. However,
      high solids levels result in more rapid uptake of DO by the biomass, and
      in deference to the limited rate of dissolution of oxygen from air, waste
      treatment practitioners have deliberately reduced and suppressed active
      solids levels in the mixed liquor. When the solids level is reduced, the
      rate of BOD removal is decreased and treatment tanks remain large in order
      to retain the waste for the requisite time period (3-6 hours) necessary
      for purification.
PAR  The rate of oxygen dissolution can be increased by more violent agitation
      of the body of mixed liquor using surface aerators, beaters and submerged
      turbines. However, severe agitation breaks up and disperses the flocculant
      agglomerates so that after treatment, the solids do not separate properly
      from the effluent. Moreover, the solids, when gravity-settled, possess a
      high specific volume (Mohlman SVI) and the necessary recycle of such
      solids as inoculant represents a severe hydraulic burden on the system.
      Under conditions of low DO and low solids levels, the floc particles are
      small and fragile and are particularly susceptible to dispersion by
      attrition. Attempts to "overpower" the aeration system have also led to
      prohibitive investment and operating costs of the equipment involved.
PAR  It can be seen that the use of air as an oxygen source for biochemical
      reactions imposes serious penalties on the method. It has been proposed to
      use pure oxygen or oxygen-enriched air for aeration as a means of
      increasing dissolution rates. With pure oxygen, it is possible to increase
      the oxygen partial pressure difference between gas and liquid by
      five-fold. Many attempts have been made to utilize oxygen-enriched
      aeration gas but without commercial success. In some of these attempts,
      the oxygen-enriched gas was merely substituted for air using equipment and
      procedures common to air aeration. The high cost and low economy of these
      efforts resulted from the ineffective utilization of the oxygen which
      unlike air, is not "free" from the atmosphere. For example, when pure
      oxygen is sparged or diffused in the normal way into a conventional
      treatment tank for municipal sewage, only about 5-10% of the oxygen is
      consumed (i.e. Dissolved and utilized) and the remainder escapes to the
      atmosphere.
PAR  One of the best known of the prior art attempts to employ oxygen-enriched
      aeration gas is the bioprecipitation process wherein a fraction of the
      effluent from a combined reactor-clarifier is mixed with the influent,
      oxygenated to near saturation, and then returned to the base of the
      reactor. The reactor contains a blanket of active solids and the highly
      oxygenated liquid rises slowly through the blanket, thereby transferring
      its organic pollutants to the bacterial floc and also supplying the needed
      oxygen for assimilation. The influent plus recycle effluent is oxygenated
      by downflow through a countercurrent gas-liquid contacting column--the
      oxygen-rich aeration gas being introduced at the base of the column and
      vented at the top. Although the countercurrent contactor is probably the
      most efficient mass transfer device for most chemical processes, it too
      has failed to achieve the economy necessary for oxygen aeration of a
      biochemical oxidation process. Only 20 to 25% consumption of the feed
      oxygen has been realized.
PAR  One reason for the low utilization of the bioprecipitation process is the
      very fact that the DO level in the oxygenator or contactor was pushed to
      near saturation with the result that the oxygen partial pressure driving
      force essentially vanished in the lower levels of the colume.
      Simultaneously, the CO.sub.2 and N.sub.2 impurities stripped from the
      liquid severely depressed the oxygen partial pressure driving force in
      upper levels of the column. These combined factors prevented dissolution
      of an economical, high fraction of the oxygen introduced. The near
      approach to DO saturation is a necessary objective of the process, since
      the full DO supply to treat the BOD-containing water must be contained and
      "carried" in the flow of diluted influent to the reactor.
PAR  It is an object of this invention to provide an improved method for
      treating BOD-containing water by oxygen-enriched aeration gas.
PAR  Another object is to provide a method characterized by relatively high
      consumption of oxygen in the aeration gas.
PAR  Still another object is to provide a method characterized by relatively
      high oxygen consumption, high dissolved oxygen in the mixed liquor, and
      high solids concentration.
PAR  Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the
      ensuing disclosure and appended claims.
PAC  SUMMARY
PAR  This invention relates to a method for treating BOD-containing water by
      oxygen-enriched aeration gas in contact with active biomass.
PAR  In this method, BOD-containing water, biomass and feed gas comprising at
      least 60% oxygen (by volume) are mixed in an aeration zone to form liquor.
      The mixing is continued while simultaneously maintaining: (a) the oxygen
      feed gas to mixing plus gas-liquor contact energy ratio at 0.03-0.40 lb.
      moles oxygen per horsepower hour of energy supplied, (b) the aeration gas
      above said liquor at oxygen partial pressure of at least 300 mm. Hg but
      below 80% oxygen (by volume) while consuming at least 50% (by volume) of
      the feed gas oxygen in the liquor, (c) the dissolved oxygen concentration
      of the liquor at below 70% of saturation with respect to the oxygen in the
      aeration gas but above about 2 p.p.m. and (d) continuously recirculating
      one of the aeration gas and liquor fluids in intimate contact with the
      other of said fluids in said aeration zone. Oxygenated liquor is
      thereafter withdrawn from the aeration zone.
PAR  This method may be used to treat municipal waste in a manner significantly
      more efficient .[.(in terms of oxygen consumption).]. .Iadd.than the
      widely used air aeration treatment or than could be achieved in previously
      proposed oxygen aeration treatment methods.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  FIG. 1 is a graph showing the relationship between both oxygen consumption
      and aeration gas oxygen concentration as ordinates versus oxygen feed gas
      rate/energy supplied ratio as the abscissa, for a municipal-type waste
      water having 250 p.p.m. BOD, dissolved oxygen concentrations of 2 p.p.m.
      and 8 p.p.m. and 99.5% oxygen feed gas.
PAR  FIG. 2 is a graph similar to FIG. 1 but for 80.0% oxygen feed gas.
PAR  FIG. 3 is a graph similar to FIGS. 1 and 2 but for 60.0% oxygen feed gas.
PAR  FIG. 4 is a graph similar to FIG. 1 but for an industrial-type waste water
      having 2500 p.p.m. BOD using 99.5% oxygen feed gas.
PAR  FIG. 5 is a graph similar to FIG. 4 but for 80.0% oxygen feed gas.
PAR  FIG. 6 is a graph similar to FIGS. 4 and 5 but for 60.0% oxygen feed gas.
PAR  FIG. 7 is a graph showing the total annual aeration cost as the ordinate
      versus oxygen feed gas rate/energy supplied ratio as the abscissa, for
      dissolved oxygen concentrations of 2 p.p.m. and 8 p.p.m with the
      municipal-type waste water and 99.5% oxygen feed gas of FIG. 1.
PAR  FIG. 8 is a graph similar to FIG. 7 but for 60% oxygen feed gas.
PAR  FIG. 9 is a shematic view taken in cross-sectional elevation of apparatus
      including a single submerged agitator and sparger assembly within an
      aeration chamber, and a clarifier arranged to practice one embodiment of
      the method of this invention.
PAR  FIG. 10 is a schematic view taken in cross-sectional elevation of apparatus
      characterized by a multiplicity of submerged agitators and spargers all
      positioned within the same aeration chamber to practice another
      embodiment, and
PAR  FIG. 11 is a schematic view taken in cross-sectional elevation of apparatus
      to practice still another embodiment characterized by a multiplicity of
      aeration chamber each having a surface-type mixer and oxygen feed gas
      introduction means and arranged for staged flow of oxygenated liquor.
DETD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
PAR  Practice of the improved oxygen aeration method requires the use of a feed
      gas of at least 60% oxygen purity. As will be explained later herein, the
      oxygen content of the gas in the aeration zone is significantly lower than
      the feed gas owing to the accumulation of inert gases in the zone.
      Therefore, a substantial oxygen concentration margin should be provided in
      the feed gas to offset the mixing losses which occur in aeration and to
      maintain a high oxygen partial pressure in contact with the liquid.
PAR  The aeration gas must be held in the aeration or contact zone within the
      biochemical reactor, isolated from the atmosphere for a time sufficient
      for the dissolution of a large fraction of its contained oxygen into the
      liquor. During the retention period of the gas, at least one of the fluids
      (gas or liquor) is recirculated within the zone and contacted against the
      other. Devices such as packed columns which afford only momentary,
      once-through contact between the gas and liquid do not provide enough
      retention time. Even if "dosed" to saturation, the BOD-containing liquid
      to be treated would not hold all the oxygen in solution required for the
      reaction, and as will be described hereinafter, the oxygen gas to liquor
      dissolution process is not to be driven to near-saturation nor should the
      dissolved oxygen after treatment be wholly depleted from the oxygenated
      liquor. Hence, the time that the fluids are in contact is extended so that
      the rate of dissolution keeps pace with, but does not greatly exceed the
      rate of DO consumption.
PAR  In the aeration zone, a large interfacial area is generated between gas and
      liquor to promote rapid dissolution. However, this area must be produced
      in a manner which avoids a close approach to oxygen saturation in the
      liquid bounding the interfacial area. This is accomplished by producing
      the interfacial area in a large volume of liquor so that not more than a
      thin film of liquor at the interface will be near saturation, and so that
      the DO gradient from the interface to the bulk liquor will be high.
      Preferably, the liquor phase in the aeration zone should be continuous, or
      should approach continuity. Small bubbles of gas in the liquor constitute
      a desirable interfacial system, and surface aeration conducted by throwing
      relatively massive spouts or sheets of liquid into the gas is
      satisfactory. A liquid spray should be avoided because a droplet possesses
      a large surface area and a small volume of liquid.
PAR  As stated previously, the interfacial area should be produced in the liquor
      contained within the biochemical reactor. All the liquor in the reactor
      should participate in gas-liquor contact so that the DO can be replenished
      as it is consumed throughout the mixed liquor.
PAR  In order to preserve sufficient driving force for high-rate dissolution,
      the average mixed liquor DO level should not be forced above 70% of
      saturation with respect to the aeration gas oxygen purity, temperature and
      pressure prevailing in the aeration zone. Preferably, the DO level should
      be less than 35% of saturation. Avoiding excessive DO level in the bulk
      liquor assures a high total DO difference between the gas-liquor interface
      and the bulk liquid so that the DO is dispersed rapidly from the
      interface. Such dispersion proceeds by diffusion and by mixing, and both
      mechanisms become more rapid as the DO gradient increases at the
      interface.
PAR  The oxygen concentration of the aeration gas is significantly lower than
      the feed gas owing to the accumulation of gases such as nitrogen, CO.sub.2
      and argon. In the method of this invention, the accumulation of inerts is
      limited by venting gas from the aeration zone, continuously or
      intermittently, so as to maintain an oxygen partial pressure in the
      aeration zone as previously indicated of at least 300 mm. Hg and
      preferably at least 380 mm. Hg. Such concentration is needed, not only to
      maintain a high rate of dissolution but also to insure the growth of
      heavy, settable agglomerates of biomass.
PAR  If the oxygen feed point and the "spent" gas vent point are remote from one
      another, and if the flow channel between the two points is somewhat
      restricted, then the oxygen content of the gas will change significantly
      along the flow channel. The oxygen content will be highest at the feed
      point and lowest at the vent point. Where this situation exists, the
      foregoing minimum oxygen partial pressures refer to the zone of lowest
      oxygen content, or the venting region.
PAR  One important factor in control of the oxygen partial pressure in the
      aeration zone is the rate at which oxygen feed gas is introduced. Other
      factors remaining equal, an increase in the rate of oxygen introduction
      will increase the oxygen partial pressure in aeration and vice versa.
      Certain factors will tend to oppose this trend: as the partial pressure
      rises, the biochemical reaction rate will often increase and gaseous
      by-products will evolve more rapidly. Thus, a greater total quantity of
      inerts must be vented per unit time along with its complement of oxygen.
      More importantly it has now been recognized that with higher oxygen feed
      rate, each unit volume of vent gas will contain more oxygen due to the
      higher oxygen partial pressure in the aeration zone. Accordingly, the
      percentage of the oxygen which is consumed in the liquor will tend to
      decrease. Stated in another manner, during the venting of a given quantity
      of inerts the amount of oxygen wasted will increase as the oxygen content
      of the aeration gas increases.
PAR  This invention utilizes the foregoing relationship by limiting the aeration
      gas to less than about 80% oxygen and preferably less than about 65%
      oxygen (by volume). As in the instance of the lower limit of oxygen
      partial pressure, the upper composition limit refers to the region of the
      aeration zone from which the inerts are vented. If the feed-to-vent gas
      flow channel sustains an oxygen purity gradient, as described previously,
      then upstream regions in the aeration zone will advantageously contain
      aeration gas of higher oxygen content than the vent gas.
PAR  It will now be evident from the foregoing explanation that the desire for
      high oxygen partial pressure in aeration and for high percentage
      utilization of the feed gas oxygen are conflicting objectives. This
      treatment method resolves the apparent dilemma by adherence to the
      foregoing lower limit of oxygen partial pressure and upper limit of oxygen
      content in the aeration gas. The method can be controlled to maintain
      operation between these limits and the rate of oxygen introduction is one
      factor in achieving such control.
PAR  In this biochemical treatment method, at least 60% oxygen feed gas is
      supplied to the aeration zone, energy is supplied for contacting the gas
      and liquor, and a portion of the aeration gas in the form of a gaseous
      residue of undissolved oxygen and accumulated impurities is vented. The
      relationship between oxygen feed gas flow rate and energy input is a
      further important factor of the invention. If more contacting energy is
      supplied with each volume of oxygen feed gas, then a larger fraction of
      its oxygen will be dissolved and a lower fraction will be wasted in the
      vent gas. Energy cannot be increased without limit because each additional
      percentage point of oxygen utilized must be dissolved from gas of
      progressively lower oxygen partial pressure. Moreover, with a given
      quantity of liquor in the aeration zone to receive the dissolved oxygen,
      an increase in energy will drive the DO level closer to saturation and the
      rate of dissolution will drop. Hence, incremental energy affords
      diminishing returns. As a further restraint, it was previously indicated
      that excessive mixing energy will damage the flocculant biomass and impair
      subsequent separation. It has now been discovered that the amount of
      oxygen supplied bears a close relationship to the amount of energy
      supplied. High oxygen partial pressure and mixing energy both provide
      driving force for dissolution, but by this invention the forces are
      employed in balance to achieve remarkably higher percent utilization than
      attainable by the prior art with high oxygen partial pressure in the
      aerator zone. This balance is achieved by maintaining the oxygen feed gas
      to mixing plus gas-liquor contact energy ratio as 0.03-0.40 lb. moles
      oxygen per horsepower-hour of energy supplied. In a preferred embodiment
      the ratio is 0.1-0.2 mole oxygen per horsepower-hour of energy supplied.
PAR  The energy supplied to the aeration zone must of course be used efficiently
      to generate the gas-liquor interfacial area required for oxygen solution,
      i.e., the gas-liquor contact energy. Mixing energy must also be employed
      to hold the solids uniformly in suspension and to circulate the mixed
      liquor repeatedly through the gas-liquor contactor. Many types of aeration
      devices are commercially available, and generally, they are rated
      according to a "standard air transfer efficiency." The latter rating
      specifies the lbs. oxygen which the device will dissolve from air into
      zero-DO tap water per horsepower-hour at 20.degree. C. and 1 atmosphere
      pressure. An aeration device should be chosen whose air transfer
      efficiency is at least 1.5 and preferably 2.4 lb. oxygen/horsepower hour
      in order that the oxygen may be dissolved rapidly despite the relatively
      small volume of gas fed to the system, and in order that the heavy floc
      will not be damaged and dispersed. In view of the small volume of
      oxygen-enriched gas involved (relative to the volume of air commonly
      used), it is preferable to employ a combination of a mechanical agitator
      for liquor stirring (mixing energy) and a submerged gas diffuser for
      gas-liquor contacting. However, some surface type aerators of the splash
      type will perform both functions in a satisfactory manner.
PAR  Within the above stated range of 0.03 to 0.40 lb. mole oxygen/horsepower
      hour, the oxygen and power supplied should be matched for best economy
      depending upon the applicable costs of aeration equipment, power and
      oxygen. Notwithstanding variations in these cost elements, aeration in
      accordance with this invention can achieve at least 50% utilization of the
      oxygen supplied while maintaining an oxygen partial pressure several times
      greater than obtained with air aeration and while consuming substantially
      less power than required for dissolution of an equal quantity of oxygen
      from air.
PAR  FIG. 1, 2 and 3 show computed results based on information confirmed by
      operating data in a pilot plant used for testing municipal waste with
      oxygen-enriched aeration gas. The computed results are for a single stage
      aeration system handling mixed liquor with a 2-hour solids residence time,
      with 4000 p.p.m. volatile suspended solids content (MLVSS), and with a
      waste feed BOD strength of 250 p.p.m. The biomass for the aeration zone is
      provided by recycling activated sludge from a clarifier which in turn
      receives oxygenated liquor from the aeration zone. Six sets of data are
      included for oxygen feed purities of 60%, 80% and 99.5% and for DO levels
      of 2 p.p.m. and 8 p.p.m. In each data set, the power requirement and
      percent oxygen consumption were determined for various oxygen feed gas
      rates. FIG. 1 summarizes the results with 99.5% oxygen feed, and FIGS. 2
      and 3 with 80% and 60% oxygen feed, respectively.
PAR  Referring to FIG. 1 for 99.5% oxygen feed, it is seen that high percent
      oxygen consumption can be obtained while maintaining high oxygen partial
      pressure in the aeration zone. The oxygen partial pressure curves, plotted
      on the right-hand ordinate, provide an indication of the lower limit of
      oxygen feed rate which will still produce a lower limit partial pressure
      of at least 300 mm. Hg. oxygen in aeration. The percent consumption
      curves, plotted on the left-hand ordinate provide an indication of the
      upper limit of oxygen feed rate which will still permit at least 50%
      utilization of the oxygen in the feed. Extrapolation of the partial
      pressure curves to the minimum pO.sub.2 of 300 mm. Hg indicates that feed
      rates as low as about 0.075 lb. moles O.sub.2 /HP-hr. are permissable for
      8 p.p.m. DO, and as low as about 0.095 lb. moles for 2 p.p.m. DO.
      Similarly, the percent consumption curves can be extended to about 0.21
      lb. moles O.sub.2 /HP-hr. before falling below the minimum 50%
      consumption. The percent oxygen consumptions corresponding to 300 mm. Hg
      partial pressure are above 90% for both DO levels. FIG. 1 also shows that
      for the aeration gas oxygen concentration upper limit of 80% (about 600
      mm. Hg at 1 atmosphere) the oxygen utilization drops to about 60% for both
      DO levels.
PAR  FIG. 2 for 80% oxygen feed shows minimum feed rates corresponding to 300
      mm. Hg partial pressure of about 0.07 and 0.10 lb. moles/HP-hr. for 8 and
      2 p.p.m. DO, respectively. Maximum feed rates corresponding to 50%
      consumption are about 0.18 and 0.20 lb. moles O.sub.2 /HP-hr. for 8 and 2
      p.p.m. DO, respectively. Thus, the range of feed rates which permit
      operation within the limits of the invention is still ample. However, it
      will be noted that about 80% consumption is the best that can be achieved
      with partial pressure above 300 mm. Hg. It is also significant that if the
      oxygen partial pressure was increased by higher O.sub.2 feed rate to
      achieve 80% oxygen (600 mm. Hg), the corresponding percent consumption
      would be far below the required 50% and thereby outside the scope of this
      method.
PAR  A study of FIG. 3 for 60% oxygen feed will show that operation according to
      the invention requires precise control of the oxygen feed rate with a very
      narrow range. The partial pressure curve for 8 p.p.m. DO rises above 300
      mm. at about 0.12 lb. moles O.sub.2 /HP-hr. and the percent oxygen
      consumption curve falls below 50% at about 0.10 lb. moles O.sub.2 /HP-hr.
      For 2 p.p.m. DO the same near-coincidence of minimum and maximum feed
      rates occurs at about 0.15 lb. moles O.sub.2 /HP-hr. Thus, dropping the
      feed purity to 60% has greatly narrowed the operating range. The best (and
      only) percent consumption which can be achieved with a partial pressure
      above 300 mm. Hg is 50%. Upon further reduction in oxygen feed purity, the
      "minimum" feed rate established by 300 mm. partial pressure would be
      higher than the "maximum" established by 50% consumption and the
      requirements of this method could not be met at any feed rate.
PAR  To illustrate use of the FIGS. 1-3 curves, Table A compares the three feed
      gases at an oxygen gas feed rate of 0.11 lb. moles O.sub.2 HP-hr. and a DO
      level of 8 p.p.m.:
TBL                TABLE A                                                     
     ______________________________________                                    
                         Aeration                                              
                  O.sub.2                                                      
                         zone O.sub.2                                          
                  con-   partial                                               
                  sumption,                                                    
                         pressure,                                             
                  percent                                                      
                         mm.                                                   
     ______________________________________                                    
     Feed gas:                                                                 
     60%, O.sub.2   .about.50                                                  
                               300                                             
     80%, O.sub.2   70       350                                               
     99.5%, O.sub.2 90       450                                               
     ______________________________________                                    
PAL  Similarly, Table B compares feed rates and percent oxygen consumption for
      the three feed gas purities at a uniform partial pressure of 300 mm. Hg:
TBL                TABLE B                                                     
     ______________________________________                                    
                  DO=8 p.p.m.                                                  
                         O.sub.2 con-                                          
                  Feed   sumption,                                             
                  rate   percent                                               
     ______________________________________                                    
     Feed gas:                                                                 
     60%, O.sub.2   .112     50                                                
     80%, O.sub.2   .067     80                                                
     99.5% O.sub.2  .072     95                                                
     ______________________________________                                    
PAR  The FIG. 1 curves also illustrate the low sensitivity of the method to
      variations in DO-level when an 99.5% oxygen feed is employed. The two sets
      of curves for 2 and 8 p.p.m. DO are very close together so that increasing
      the DO-level in this range would have no significant effect on either
      percent oxygen consumption or aeration zone oxygen partial pressure.
      However, the FIGS. 2 and 3 curves for 80% and 60% oxygen feed both show
      appreciable sensitivity to DO-level changes. Because DO levels do in fact
      vary in waste treatment plants due to changes in feed flows the BOD level,
      this insensitivity in oxygen consumption represents an important advantage
      of the preferred embodiment over that wherein the feed gas comprises at
      least 90% oxygen. That is, a 90% oxygen feed gas would be relatively
      insensitive to changes in DO levels as compared to 60% oxygen.
PAR  The air standard transfer efficiency  of the aerator upon which FIGS. 1-3
      are based in between 3 and 3.5 lb. O.sub.2 /HP-hr. The effect of using a
      less efficient device would depress the percent consumption curves and
      raise the partial pressure curves, whereas a more efficient device would
      have the opposite effect. However, the conclusion drawn with respect to
      the limited utilization at 60% oxygen feed would not be materially
      affected.
PAR  It should also be understood that the power consumption to which the oxygen
      feed rate is related in the abscissas of the figures is the total power
      required for solid-liquid mixing and for gas-liquor contact. For
      conventional air diffusers, the total power is usually consumed by air
      compressors. In other aerator systems, a part of the power is consumed by
      mechanical agitators to hold the solids in suspension, and the remainder
      of the power is used by compressors which supply gas to submerged
      spargers. In still other surface aerators, all the power is consumed in
      mechanical agitation of the liquor.
PAR  Because the mixing power is included in the ratio of the oxygen feed/total
      power, the latter values are influenced by the treatment or relention time
      of the mixed liquor solids in aeration. Mixing energy must be supplied at
      steady rate, and if treatment time is long, the basins will be large and
      mixing energy consumption relatively high. Also, if treatment time is
      long, the rate of oxygen feed may be relatively low, reflecting slow
      volumetric uptake rate of DO. Thus, with extended treatment time, mixing
      energy constitutes a larger fraction of the total energy, and the ratio of
      oxygen feed/power is relatively low. For short treatment time, the
      opposite is true.
PAR  FIGS. 4, 5 and 6 are similar to FIGS. 1, 2 and 3, respectively, except that
      the mixed liquor MLVSS is 6000 p.p.m. and the waste feed BOD strength is
      2500 p.p.m. While the FIGS. 1-3 typify low strength municipal wastes, the
      FIGS. 4-6 typify treatment of higher strength industrial wastes by the
      instant method. One effect of increasing the BOD strength (and the MLVSS)
      is to increase the uptake rate of dissolved oxygen. At a given oxygen feed
      rate per horsepower-hour, this increases the percent oxygen consumption
      and decreases the oxygen partial pressure.
PAR  With reference to FIG. 4 for 99.5% oxygen feed gas and 8 p.p.m. DO, the
      oxygen feed rate to maintain 300 mm. Hg oxygen partial pressure may be
      approximated from the curve and is about 0.10 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr. and
      the oxygen feed rate for 50% consumption is 0.42 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr.
      It will be apparent that for this particular embodiment the aeration gas
      must be maintained considerably below 80% oxygen (600 mm. Hg at 1
      atmosphere) to avoid exceeding the 0.40 upper limit on the ratio of oxygen
      feed rate/energy supplied and dropping below the 50% oxygen consumption
      lower limit. For 2 p.p.m. DO, the minimum feed rate is about 0.14 lb. mole
      O.sub.2 /HP-hr. for the aeration gas minimum of 300 mm. Hg oxygen partial
      pressure and the maximum is 0.52 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr. for 50%
      consumption, but the latter is above the upper limit of this invention for
      oxygen feed gas rate/energy supplied. The permissible operating range is
      large and includes high percent consumption and corresponding high oxygen
      partial pressures.
PAR  FIG. 5 for 80% oxygen feed gas shows minimum and maximum oxygen feed rates
      of 0.12 and 0.28 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr., respectively, for 8 p.p.m. DO,
      and of 0.18 and 0.36 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr., respectively for 2 p.p.m.
      DO. Again 80% oxygen in the aeration gas is precluded by low oxygen
      consumption and high oxygen feed gas rate/energy supplied.
PAR  With reference to FIG. 6 for 60% oxygen feed and 2500 p.p.m. BOD waste
      liquid, it is clear that the oxygen feed range for practicing the
      invention has vanished at both 2 and 8 p.p.m. DO-levels in the liquor. For
      example, at 8 p.p.m. DO-level, the oxygen feed rate must be at least 0.24
      lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr. to reach a partial pressure of 300 mm. Hg, yet
      the oxygen feed rate cannot be above 0.15 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr. and
      still obtain an oxygen consumption of 50% or higher. Returning to FIG. 3,
      for 60% oxygen feed and 250 p.p.m. BOD waste liquid, the same "negative"
      operating range is seen to exist, although there is much less disparity
      between the limits imposed by oxygen consumption and oxygen partial
      pressure. While the disparity for high strength, 2500 p.p.m. BOD liquid is
      0.15-0.24= -0.09 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr., the disparity for 250 p.p.m.
      BOD liquid is only 0.10-0.12=-0.02 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr. It is apparent
      that a still further reduction in the BOD strength of the waste liquid fed
      to the process, as may readily exist in dilute municipal wastes, will
      rsult in a finite operating range applicable to 60% oxygen feed. However,
      a comparison of the 80% and 60% oxygen feed curves for either waste
      strength (FIGS. 2 and 3 or FIGS. 5 and 6) shows that a further reduction
      in oxygen feed purity below 60% is not feasible since the requirements for
      at least 50% oxygen consumption and at least 300 mm. Hg oxygen partial
      pressure cannot be met simultaneously.
PAR  FIGS. 7 and 8 illustrate the variation in cost of treating 250 BOD waste at
      different oxygen feed rates. The "cost units" shown on the right-hand
      ordinate are relative values only, but they reflect the total costs of
      aeration, including investment in aeration equipment, depreciation,
      maintenance and power. FIG. 7 for 99.5% oxygen feed shows very sharp
      optimums at about 0.12 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr., where the costs for
      maintaining 2 and 8 p.p.m. DO-levels are about 27 and 28 cost units,
      respectively. The corresponding values of oxygen consumption are about
      90%. FIG. 8 for 60% oxygen feed shows optimums for 2 and 8 p.p.m. DO at
      about 0.11 lb. mole O.sub.2 /HP-hr. where the aeration costs are about 50
      and 60 units, respectively. Thus, the location of the optimums of FIG. 8
      establish 50% oxygen consumption as the minimum consistent with lowest
      cost treatment of BOD-containing liquids.
PAR  By comparing FIGS. 7 and 8, it is also apparent that the method using 99.5%
      oxygen feed gas is relatively insensitive to change in DO-level. In
      contrast, the use of 60% oxygen feed gas entails significantly higher
      operating costs with increasing DO-level.
PAR  Referring to FIG. 9, BOD-containing water, as for example municipal sewage,
      enters chamber 10 through conduit 11. A source (not shown) of oxygen
      comprising at least 60% oxygen is provided and the oxygen gas is flowed
      therefrom through conduit 12 having control valve 13 therein to chamber
      10. The latter is provided with gas-tight cover 14 to maintain an
      oxygen-enriched aeration gas environment over the liquor. Recycling sludge
      is also introduced to chamber 10 through conduit 15, although the
      BOD-containing feed water and sludge may be mixed prior to introduction in
      the chamber if desired.
PAR  The aforementioned streams are intimately mixed to form liquor preferably
      having volatile suspended solids content (MLVSS) of at least 3000 p.p.m.
      in chamber 10 as the aeration zone. This mixing is by mechanical agitation
      means 16 driven by motor 17 having a shaft passing through seal 18 in the
      cover 14. Although the agitation means may comprise one or more impellers
      located near the liquor surface, it is illustrated as positioned below the
      surface. In this particular embodiment, oxygenating aeration gas
      disengaged from the liquor body into the overhead gas space is withdrawn
      through conduit 19 by blower 20 for compression and return through conduit
      21 to submerged sparger of diffuser 22 preferably positioned beneath
      agitator 16. That is, the aeration gas is continuously recirculated in
      intimate contact with the liquor body in chamber 10. Blower 20 is driven
      by a motor (not illustrated) representing the gas-liquor contact energy,
      and is preferably provided with controls to permit adjustment of its speed
      of rotation. Oxygen-depleted or spent oxygenation gas is discharged from
      chamber 10 through restricted flow conduit 23 which may also be provided
      with flow control valve 24.
PAR  To practice the method of this invention, the BOD-containing water,
      oxygen-rich feed gas and sludge are mixed to form the mixed liquor, and
      the oxygenating gas is continuously recirculated into the liquor for
      dissolution. Inert gases such as nitrogen entering with the BOD-containing
      water and with the oxygen-rich feed gas, and gases such as CO.sub.2
      produced in the biochemical reaction are evolved and collected with
      unconsumed oxygen in the space above the liquor. This aeration gas has an
      oxygen partial pressure of at least 300 mm. Hg and preferably at least 380
      mm. Hg. The oxygen-rich gas may be continuously introduced to chamber 10
      through conduit 12 during the mixing step, or the gas flow may be
      terminated when mixing is started. The oxygen-depleted aeration gas may be
      continuously or intermittently discharged from the overhead space through
      conduit 23.
PAR  The liquor level in enclosure 10 is controlled by weir 25 which discharges
      into overflow trough 25 and thence through discharge conduit 27. The
      dissolved oxygen level in the oxygenated liquor formed in the mixing step
      is maintained at below 70% of saturation with the oxygen in the aeration
      gas and is preferably at least 2 p.p.m. Adjustments in DO level may be
      accomplished by varying the rate of oxygen-rich feed gas flow using valve
      13 in conduit 12 thereby increasing or decreasing the oxygen partial
      pressure in the enclosure 10 gas space. The DO level may also be adjusted
      by varying the power input and speed of rotation of blower 20, thereby
      increasing or decreasing the rate of diffusion of oxygenated gas into the
      liquor. The DO level may also be controlled by varying the retation time
      of the liquor in chamber 10. All other parameters being constant, a longer
      liquor retention time tends to provide a higher DO level.
PAR  At the end of the mixing step for example 20 to 180 minutes duration,
      oxygenated liquor is discharged through conduit 27 to within a central
      concentric baffle 28 of clarifier 29. Baffle 28 preferably extends from
      above the liquid level to a point intermediate this level and the
      clarifier's conical bottom. Motor 30 drives a slowly rotating rake 31
      across the clarifier bottom to prevent "coning" of the dense settled
      sludge. The purified supernatant liquid overflows weir 32 into trough 33
      and is discharged through conduit 34. The sludge is withdrawn from the
      clarifier bottom through conduit 35 and at least a portion thereof is
      pressurized by pump 36 for recycling in conduit 15 to enclosure 10 for
      inoculation of the incoming BOD-containing water. Any sludge not needed
      for recirculation is discharged through bottom conduit 37 having control
      valve 38 therein.
PAR  FIG. 10 illustrates different apparatus for practicing this method,
      employing a multiplicity of submerged agitators 16a-e and recirculation
      oxygen enriched gas spargers 22a-e spaced longitudinally from end-to-end
      of oxygenation enclosure 10. After premixing, BOD-containing water and
      recycling sludge are introduced through conduit 11 at one end of enclosure
      10. The resulting liquor is mixed with oxygen-rich gas introduced through
      conduit 11 and the oxygenated liquor discharged from the opposite end of
      enclosure 10 through conduit 27 to a clarifier (not shown).
      Oxygen-depleted gas is also discharged from the space above the liquor
      level and at this opposite end through conduit 23 oxygentating aeration
      gas is withdrawn through longitudinally spaced conduits 19a-e for pressure
      recirculation through blowers 20a-e and spargers 22a-e in a manner
      analogous to the FIG. 9 embodiment.
PAR  Enclosure 10 may be designed so that its length is very large relative to
      its width and depth. For a given enclosure volume such geometry increases
      the velocity of liquor flow from feed end to discharge end, and suppresses
      backmixing of liquor from downstream zones into upstream zones. Such
      suppressed backmixing or plug flow is beneficial when multiple mixing
      means are employed in the instant method. When back-mixing is prevented,
      the food/biomass ratio (lbs. BOD.sub.5 /day.times.lb. MLVSS) is high at
      the feed end of the enclosure where the BOD-containing water enters, and
      is low at the discharge end where the oxygenated liquor overflows to the
      clarifier. Both of the local conditions are beneficial to complete and
      high rate bio-oxidation.
PAR  It will be apparent from the foregoing description of FIG. 10 that the
      liquor is oxygenated in a series of stages from the feed to the discharge
      end of container 10 even though the stages are not physically partitioned
      from each other. If container 10 is designed with small lateral
      cross-sectional area in the gas space beneath cover 14, a similar staged
      or plug flow effect can be realized in the oxygenation gas flow from feed
      to discharge end. This also promotes virtually complete BOD removal at
      high flow rate, because a substantially higher partial pressure of oxygen
      can be maintained over the liquor at the feed gas end. Another advantage
      of staged gas flow is that the inert gaseous impurities can be discharged
      from the opposite end in a smaller volume of aeration vent gas. As the
      oxygenation gas flows from end-to-end of the enclosure 10 the rate of
      oxygen dissolution into the liquor is substantially greater than the rate
      of inert gas evolution from the liquor. Accordingly, the volume of the
      oxygenating gas stream progressively diminishes and its fractional content
      of inerts increases from the gas feed to discharge end. It is desirable to
      aerate the high food/biomass zone (where BOD-containing water is
      introduced) with the gas of highest oxygen content available because the
      oxygen demand is greatest in this zone. Conversely, the oxygen demand is
      lowest at the oxygenated liquor discharge region and it is preferable to
      employ the available aeration gas of lowest oxygen content in this region.
      Accordingly, in embodiments of this invention wherein liquor is flowed
      through a multiplicity of zones for staged mixing with oxygen-enriched
      aeration gas, it is also preferred to flow the aeration gas concurrently
      with the liquor from stage-to-stage with the gas of highest oxygen content
      mixing with the water of highest BOD.
PAR  The FIG. 11 apparatus illustrates a mixing chamber 10 divided into four
      separate compartments or stages 30a, 30b, 30c and 30d. Partition 31a-b
      extends from bottom to top of chamber 10 to separate first and second
      compartments 30a and 30b. Similarly, partition 31b-c separates second and
      third compartments 30b and 30c, and partition 31c-d separates third and
      fourth compartments 30c and 30d. Restricted opening 32a-b provides flow of
      partially oxygenated liquor from first compartment 30a to second
      compartment 30b, restricted opening 32b-c provides flow of further
      oxygenated liquor from second compartment 30b to third compartment 30c,
      and restricted opening 32c-d provides flow of still further oxygenated
      liquor from third compartment 30c to fourth compartment 30d.
PAR  Oxygen-rich gas is introduced through manifold 12 and control valves 13a,
      13b, 13c and 13d in branch conduits to each of the four compartments for
      simultaneous mixing therein with BOD-containing liquor. These valves may
      for example, be responsive to a suitable variable such as DO level in the
      liquor or gas composition with the compartment. Surface-type aerators 22a,
      22b, 22c and 22d throw massive spouts or sheets of liquor into the
      aeration gas. Accordingly, these aerators provide both liquid-solid mixing
      energy and the gas-liquor contact energy for the aeration step. In
      contrast to this, the FIGS. 9 and 10 subsurface-type units continuously
      recirculate the liquor (instead of the aeration gas) in intimate contact
      with the aeration gas in each compartment. Because the chamber walls and
      partitions confine the fluids within each compartment, surface mixers may
      be used in this embodiment without backmixing of the liquor thrown upward
      and outward of the impeller. The oxygen-depleted aeration gas disengaged
      from the liquor is discharged from each compartment through restricted
      flow conduits 23a, 23b, 23c, and 23d. These conduits may be provided with
      flow control valves if desired.
PAR  An advantage of the FIG. 11 apparatus is the close approach to true plug
      flow of liquor. The liquor velocity through restricted openings 32a-b,
      32b-c and 32c-d is sufficient to prevent backmixing. The liquor in each
      compartment or stage is substantially uniform in composition and the BOD
      content progressively declines from the liquor feed stage 30a to the
      liquor discharge stage 30d.
PAR  Although the biomass mixed with BOD-containing water in the apparatus of
      FIGS. 9-11 is provided by recycling activated sludge, this is not
      essential to the practice of the invention. The aeration zone may in the
      form of a covered chamber positioned within and in open communication at
      its lower end with a body of BOD-containing water, e.g., a lagoon or a
      fermentation tank. In this event, the biomass may be circulated by natural
      flow and the aeration devices. In the lagoon waste treatment embodiment
      part of the sludge (biomass) settles to the lagoon floor and may be
      periodically withdrawn therefrom and removed by dredging means.
PAR  In a preferred embodiment of this method is which waste water is treated by
      oxygenation in contact with sludge, waste water, sludge and feed gas
      comprising at least 90% oxygen (by volume) are mixed in an aeration zone
      to form a liquor body having MLVSS of at least 3000 p.p.m. The mixing is
      continued while simultaneously maintaining (a) the oxygen feed gas to
      mixing plug gas-liquor contact energy ratio of 0.1-0.3 lb. mole oxygen per
      horsepower hour energy supplied, (b) the aeration gas above the liquor at
      oxygen partial pressure of at least 380 mm. Hg but below 65% oxygen while
      consuming at least 70% of the feed gas oxygen in the liquor, (c) the
      dissolved oxygen concentration of the liquor at below 35% of saturation
      with respect to the oxygen in the aeration gas, and (d) continuously
      recirculating aeration gas in intimate contact with the liquor in the
      aeration zone. Oxygenated liquor is withdrawn from the aeration zone and
      separated into sludge and lean effluent. At least part of the sludge is
      recycled to the aeration zone.
PAR  Summarizing this invention, an aeration method is provided whereby
      oxygen-enriched gas may be employed economically in biochemical oxidation
      reactions. A high percentage of the oxygen fed to the reaction is utilized
      while maintaining a high partial pressure of oxygen in the aeration gas.
      Dissolution rates are high affording dissolved oxygen levels, even with
      very high solids concentrations in aeration, well above those previously
      obtained economically. Power consumption and investment in aeration
      equipment are low and a heavy, fast-settling floc is produced which is not
      damaged during treatment.
PAR  Although certain embodiments have been described in detail, it will be
      appreciated that other embodiments are contemplated along with
      modifications of the disclosed features, as being within the scope of the
      invention.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. In a method for treating BOD-containing water by oxygenation in contact
      with active biomass, the improvement comprising: mixing BOD-containing
      water, biomass and feed gas comprising at least 60% oxygen (by volume) in
      an aeration zone .Iadd.of a reactor .Iaddend.to form .[.a.]. .Iadd.an
      oxygenated .Iaddend.liquor body and .[.continuing said mixing while.].
      .Iadd.a body of aeration gas isolated from the atmosphere above said
      liquor and continuously recirculating one of the aeration gas and liquor
      fluids in intimate contact with the other of said fluids in said aeration
      zone while venting a portion of the aeration gas to the atmosphere; and
      .Iaddend. simultaneously maintaining: (a) the oxygen feed gas to mixing
      plus gas-liquor contact energy ratio of 0.03-0.4 lb. moles oxygen per
      horsepower hour of energy supplied, (b) the aeration gas above said liquor
      at oxygen partial pressure of at least 300 mm. Hg but below 80% oxygen
      while consuming at least 50% of the feed gas oxygen in said liquor, (c)
      the dissolved oxygen concentration of said liquor at below 70% of
      saturation with respect to the oxygen in said aeration gas but above about
      2 p.p.m. and .[.(d) continuously recirculating one of the aeration gas and
      liquor fluids in intimate contact with the other of said fluids in said
      aeration zone; and thereafter.]. withdrawing oxygenated liquor from said
      aeration zone.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A method according to claim 1 in which said aeration gas is continuously
      withdrawn from said aeration zone and reintroduced to the body of said
      liquor.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A method according to claim 1 in which said feed gas comprises at least
      90% oxygen.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A method according to claim 1 in which the dissolved oxygen
      concentration of said liquor is maintained at below 35% of saturation.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A method according to claim 1 in which the oxygen partial pressure of
      said aeration gas is maintained above 380 mm. Hg.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A method according to claim 1 in which said oxygen feed gas to mixing
      plus gas-liquor contact energy ratio is maintained at 0.1-0.3 lb. moles
      oxygen per horsepower hour of energy supplied.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. A method according to claim 1 in which the aeration gas is maintained
      below 65% oxygen.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. A method according to claim 1 in which the volatile suspended solids
      content (MLVSS) of the liquor is at least 3000 p.p.m.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. A method according to claim 1 in which municipal waste comprises said
      BOD-containing feed water, said oxygenated liquor is separated into sludge
      and clean effluent, and at least part of said sludge is recycled to said
      aeration zone as said active biomass.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. In a method for treating municipal waste water by oxygenation in
      contact with sludge, the improvement comprising.Iadd.:
      .Iaddend.mechanically mixing waste water, sludge and feed gas comprising
      at least 90% oxygen (by volume) in an aeration zone .Iadd.of a reactor
      .Iaddend.to form .[.a.]. .Iadd.an oxygenated .Iaddend.liquor body having
      volatile suspended solids content (MLVSS) of at least 3000 p.p.m. .[.and
      continuing said mixing while.]..Iadd., and a body of aeration gas isolated
      from the atmosphere above said liquor and continuously recirculating
      aeration gas in intimate contact with liquor in said zone while venting a
      portion of the aeration gas of the atmosphere; and .Iaddend.simultaneously
      maintaining: (a) the oxygen feed gas to mixing plus gas-liquor contact
      energy ratio at 0.1-0.2 lb. moles oxygen per horsepower hour of energy
      supplied, (b) the aeration gas above said liquor at oxygen partial
      pressure of at least 380 mm. Hg but below 65% oxygen while consuming at
      least 70% of the feed gas oxygen in said liquor, (c) the dissolved oxygen
      concentration of said liquor at below 35% of saturation with respect to
      the oxygen in said aeration gas but above about 2 p.p.m..[., and (e)
      continuously recirculating aeration gas in intimate contact with said
      liquor in said aeration zone.].; withdrawing oxygenated liquor from said
      aeration zone and separating said oxygenated liquor into sludge and clean
      effluent; and recycling at least part of said sludge to said aeration
      zone.
PATN
WKU  RE0297828
SRC  5
APN  8367574
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  176
APD  19770926
TTL  Cyclic oxygenation of BOD-containing water
ISD  19780926
NCL  14
ECL  15
EXP  Wyse; Thomas G.
NDR  4
NFG  6
INVT
NAM  McWhirter; John R.
CTY  Williamsville
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  Union Carbide Corporation
CTY  New York
STA  NY
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  838442
APD  19690702
PNO  03547811
ISD  19701215
CLAS
OCL  210  7
XCL  210 15
XCL  210104
XCL  210120
XCL  210197
XCL  210220
XCL  261 26
XCL  261 93
XCL  261125
EDF  2
ICL  C02C  110
ICL  C02C  112
FSC  210
FSS  4-7;14;15;63 R;104;120;195 S;197;220;242
FSC  261
FSS  26;87;93;125
UREF
PNO  1242445
ISD  19171000
NAM  Ittner
OCL  261 87
UREF
PNO  2380465
ISD  19450700
NAM  Proudman
XCL  210220
UREF
PNO  2684941
ISD  19540700
NAM  Pasveer
OCL  210  8
UREF
PNO  3049489
ISD  19620800
NAM  Ciabattari
OCL  210 15
UREF
PNO  3054602
ISD  19620900
NAM  Proudman
XCL  210 15
UREF
PNO  3236766
ISD  19660200
NAM  Levin
OCL  210  6
UREF
PNO  3342727
ISD  19670900
NAM  Bringle
XCL  210220
UREF
PNO  3348829
ISD  19671000
NAM  Grimes
OCL  261152
UREF
PNO  3356609
ISD  19671200
NAM  Bruemmer
OCL  210  7
UREF
PNO  3401113
ISD  19680900
NAM  Preussner et al.
XCL  210 15
UREF
PNO  3412017
ISD  19681100
NAM  Abson et al.
OCL  210  7
UREF
PNO  3444076
ISD  19690500
NAM  Sekikawa
OCL  210  6
FREF
PNO  521,365
ISD  19400500
CNT  GBX
OREF
PAL  Kehr et al., "Experiments on the High Rate Activated Sludge Process," Jour.
      Water Poll. Control Federation, vol. 32, Oct. 1969, pp. 1066-1080.
PAL  Grant et al., "The Oxygen Requirements of the Activated Sludge Process,"
      Sewage Works Journal, vol. 2, Apr. 1930, pp. 228-244.
PAL  Okun et al., "Preliminary Investigations into the Effect of Oxygen Tension
      on Biological Sewage Treatment," Biological Treatment of Sewage and
      Industrial Wastes, vol. 1, Reinhold, New York, p. 207 (1956).
PAL  Pfeffer et al., "Oxygen-Enriched Air for Biological Waste Treatment," Water
      and Sewage Works, vol. 112, Oct. 1965, pp. 381-384.
PAL  Kountz et al., "Metabolic Energy Balances in a Total Oxidation Activated
      Sludge System," Sewage and Ind. Wastes, vol. 31, Jul. 1969, pp. 814-826.
PAL  Babbit, "Aeration with a High Oxygen Atmosphere in A.S. Process," Waste
      Engineering, vol. 23, No. 5, May 1952, pp. 258-259.
PAL  Drier, "Aeration with a High Oxygen Atmosphere in the Activated Sludge
      Process," Master's Thesis, Univ. of Illinois (1942).
LREP
FR2  Humphreys; Harrie M.
ABST
PAL  BOD-containing water such as sewage is mixed with active biomass and a
      first quantity of oxygen feed gas in a first cycle for biochemical
      oxidation to produce oxygenated liquid-solid and unconsumed
      oxygen-containing gas of lower purity than the feed gas. The unconsumed
      oxygen is discharged and a second quantity of oxygen feed gas is
      introduced for mixing in a second biochemical oxygenation cycle.
BSUM
PAC  CROSS-REFERENCES TO RELATED APPLICATION
PAR  The following applications relating to oxygenation of BOD-containing water
      were filed simultaneously with this application:
PAR  Ser. No. 838,467, High Oxygen Utilization in BOD-Containing Water
      Treatment, J. R. McWhirter; Ser. No. 838,498, Biochemical Oxidation with
      Low Sludge Recycle, E. K. Robinson and J. R. McWhirter; Ser. No. 838,499,
      Bio-Oxidation with Low Sludge Yield, J. R. McWhirter; Ser. No. 838,500,
      Staged Oxygenation of BOD-Containing Water, J. R. McWhirter.
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  This invention relates to a method of and apparatus for treating
      BOD-containing water by oxygenation. The BOD-containing water may for
      example be municipal sewage, chemical waste from petrochemical or paper
      plants, or fermentation liquor.
PAR  With few exceptions, biochemical oxidation methods have employed air as the
      oxygen source. The large quantity of air required to supply the necessary
      oxygen is largely due to the 4/1 dilution with nitrogen, and typically
      only 5-10% of the potential oxygen mass transfer efficiency of the method
      is attained. However, the air is "free" and the large amount of energy
      supplied to the air is normally sufficient to mix and suspend the
      bacterial solids (active biomass) in the liquid.
PAR  The direct use of oxygen instead of air in treatment of municipal and
      chemical wastes has been considered for many years because of its
      potential advantages in reducing the quantity of gas required. Moreover,
      it has been speculated that the rate and completeness of such biochemical
      reactions are suppressed by low dissolved oxygen (DO) levels in the
      liquor. Because of the additional cost of oxygen, it must be used
      sparingly and effectively. This necessitates a small volumetric ratio of
      gas-to-liquor as compared to air aeration. Also, the partial pressure of
      oxygen in the aerating gas must be sustained at high level to achieve
      economies in the cost and operation of aeration equipment while still
      obtaining high overall levels of oxygen utilization. The prior art has not
      discovered a method which maintains high oxygen partial pressure in
      aeration while simultaneously utilizing a high percentage of the oxygen
      contained in the valuable gas. Convention air aeration techniques do not
      satisfy these requirements.
PAR  Other conventional gas-liquid contacting techniques such as packed or
      plate-type columns, sparged columns, or agitated gas-liquid columns which
      are commonly employed in chemical processing are not well suited for this
      particular purpose. Although these systems can be designed to achieve a
      high percentage oxygen absorption, they are not readily adapted to the
      handling of mixed liquid-solid suspensions such as encountered in
      activated sludge processes for waste water treatment. Neither are the
      conventional systems suited for contacting large volumes of liquor and
      small volumes of gas with high rates of dissolution and with low energy
      consumption.
PAR  The achievement of both high oxygen utilization and high oxygen partial
      pressure in biochemical oxidation processes is further complicated by the
      evolution of diluent gases from the mixed liquor undergoing aeration.
      Usually the BOD-containing feed water to the process is nitrogen-saturated
      with respect to air. While mass transfer of nitrogen is not a
      consideration when air aeration is employed, it becomes a very significant
      factor when the nitrogen content of the aeration gas is reduced and the
      volume of aeration gas becomes small. This is because the dissolved
      nitrogen will be stripped from the liquor into the gas and will reduce the
      oxygen partial pressure of the gas. Other gases evolved from the liquor
      which are inert to the biochemical reaction will have a similar effect,
      e.g., argon and moisture. Carbon dioxide, which is a product of the
      oxidation, will also evolve in substantial quantity and further suppress
      the oxygen partial pressure.
PAR  If the oxygen-enriched aeration gas is utilized effectively, then its
      volume relative to air will be very low, e.g., 1/90. While this offers
      opportunities for cost savings in gas compression, it aggravates the
      problems of liquid mixing and of oxygen dilution with impurities. The
      total energy input to the small quantity of gas for purposes of oxygen
      solution may now be far less than that required for suspending and mixing
      the solids in the liquid. The inert gases evolved from the liquor will
      also impair the oxygen partial pressure to a greater extent as the
      quantity of aeration gas is reduced.
PAR  It is an object of this invention to provide an improved system for
      treating BOD-containing water with oxygen gas for biochemical oxidation.
PAR  Another object is to provide a system characterized by high rate of oxygen
      transfer to the BOD-containing water per unit of energy input, which
      represents a substantially higher energy transfer efficiency as compared
      to conventional atmospheric air aeration techniques.
PAR  Still another object is to provide a system for oxygenation of
      BOD-containing water characterized by high oxygen partial pressure and
      high oxygen utilization efficiency.
PAR  Other objects and advantages of this invention will be apparent from the
      ensuing disclosure and appended claims.
PAC  SUMMARY
PAR  This invention relates to a method of and apparatus for the treatment of
      BOD-containing water by cyclic biochemical oxygenation in contact with
      biomass.
PAR  The prior art has been unable to quantitatively elucidate the complex
      multi-component gas-liquor transfer process and related liquor phase
      reaction characteristic of oxygen aeration of BOD-containing water. This
      is undoubtedly one reason why oxygen has not been commercially utilized
      for biochemical oxidation of sewage. This combined gas-liquor mass
      transfer process and liquor phase reaction have now been positively
      identified. The method and apparatus of the invention effectively utilizes
      the relative component equilibrium solubilities and stoichiometry to
      afford a highly efficient system characterized by high percentage oxygen
      absorption while simultaneously maintaining a high oxygen partial pressure
      in the aerating gas system.
PAR  In one method aspect, as a first oxygenation cycle BOD-containing water and
      biomass, i.e. liquor, are mixed with a first feed gas quantity comprising
      at least 50% oxygen (by volume) and having oxygen partial pressure of at
      least 7.3 p.s.i.a. while simultaneously continuously recirculating one of
      such fluids against the other fluids in a chamber for at least 10 minutes
      and with sufficient mixing and gas-liquid contact energy input to consume
      at least 60% (by volume) of the oxygen in the first feed gas. First
      oxygenated liquor or liquid-solid, and first unconsumed oxygen-containing
      gas are formed in this first cycle, the gas comprising 10-70% oxygen but
      of lower oxygen purity than the first feed gas and having oxygen partial
      pressure of at least 1.47 p.s.i.s. Because more oxygen is consumed in this
      cycle than gas is evolved from the liquor, the product gas quantity from
      the first oxygenation cycle is appreciably less than the oxygen feed gas
      quantity. This first unconsumed oxygen-containing gas is discharged from
      the chamber at the end of the first cycle, and a second oxygenation cycle
      is initiated having the same general parameters.
PAR  In the second cycle, a second feed gas quantity comprising at least 50%
      oxygen and having oxygen partial pressure of at least 7.3 p.s.i.a. is
      mixed with second BOD-containing water and second biomass in the same
      chamber while simultaneously continuously recirculating one of the fluids
      against the other fluids. The second cycle mixing also continues for at
      least 10 minutes and with sufficient mixing and gas-liquid contact energy
      to consume at least 60% of the oxygen in the second feed gas to form
      second oxygenated liquor or liquid-solid, and second unconsumed
      oxygen-containing gas comprising 10-70% oxygen but of lower oxygen purity
      than the second feed gas and having oxygen partial pressure of at least
      1.47 p.s.i.a. The second unconsumed oxygen-containing gas is discharged
      from the chamber at the end of the second oxygenation cycle, and the first
      and second cycles are thereafter repeated.
PAR  The mixing liquor in this second cycle is at least in part composed of the
      first oxygenated liquid-solid formed in the first cycle, and unoxygenated
      liquor affords the balance of the second BOD-containing water and biomass.
      Additional oxygen feed gas may be introduced during each cycle as the
      oxygen is consumed, for example to maintain constant aeration gas
      pressure. As a further alternative, additional BOD-containing water and
      biomass are introduced to the chamber during the first and second
      oxygenation cycles.
PAR  In one embodiment, the biomass is concentrated from the oxygenated
      liquid-solid, for example in a clarifier, and recycled in sufficient
      quantity to provide volatile suspended solids content (MLVSS) of at least
      3,000 p.p.m in the first and second oxygenation cycles. In waste water
      embodiments the latter adds very little MLVSS as compared to the sludge
      (active biomass). Accordingly the sludge must have an appreciably higher
      MLVSS value to afford at least 3,000 p.p.m. on dilution with the waste
      water. For waste water systems the MLVSS comprises at least 0.55 of the
      total suspended solids (MLSS). By way of example, MLVSS/MLSS ratios of
      0.70 to 0.75 have been measured in the treatment of wastes from two
      different municipalities.
PAR  One apparatus embodiment of the invention includes a liquor storage
      enclosure, an oxygen gas source, and at least one oxygenation chamber
      preferably fixedly positioned within the storage enclosure below the
      liquor level with its lower end in fluid communication with the storage
      enclosure. A gas-tight cover is provided over the chamber's upper end.
      Oxygen supply conduit means extend between the oxygen gas source and the
      oxygenation chamber, and conduit means are also provided for discharging
      unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from the upper portion of the oxygenation
      chamber. A vent valve is positioned within the gas discharge conduit.
      Means are included for mechanically mixing the oxygen gas and liquor in
      the oxygenation chamber, as for example a motor-driven surface-type
      aerator.
PAR  Gas flow control means for this apparatus include a gas inlet flow control
      valve arranged to maintain a predetermined gas pressure in the oxygenation
      chamber, and an inlet shut-off valve, both in the aforementioned oxygen
      supply conduit. Means are included for sensing gas pressure in the
      oxygenation chamber, with signal transmitting means from the pressure
      sensing means to the gas inlet flow control valve. Cycle control means are
      provided for simultaneously closing the gas inlet shutoff valve and
      opening the gas vent valve to permit venting of oxygen-depleted aeration
      gas (i.e. the unconsumed oxygen-containing gas) under the force of the
      unbalanced hydrostatic head flowing into the chamber lower end from the
      liquor enclosure. The chamber liquor level rises and displaces the
      oxygen-depleted aeration as through the discharge conduit and vent valve.
      The cycle control means also performs the function of thereafter
      simultaneously closing the gas vent valve and opening the gas inlet
      shutoff valve, thereby permitting repetition of oxygen gas inlet flow
      through the control valve to the oxygenation chamber.
PAR  In another apparatus embodiment, an oxygen gas sparger is positioned below
      the liquor level in the oxygenation chamber, and gas-liquor mechanical
      mixing means such as a motor-driven propeller is also positioned below the
      liquor level. A gas blower is provided with the suction side in flow
      communication with the oxygenation chamber upper portion and the discharge
      side in flow communication with the sparger.
PAR  The gas flow control means of this apparatus embodiment includes low liquor
      level sensing means in the oxygenation chamber and signal transmitting
      means from this level sensing means arranged to close the oxygen gas inlet
      control valve when inflowing oxygen gas has downwardly forced the liquor
      level to a predetermined elevation. Means are also provided for sensing
      the chamber oxygen gas content, and signal transmitting means to open the
      chamber vent valve when the sensed oxygen gas content descends to a
      predetermined value. As used herein "gas content" may be either
      composition, e.g. oxygen purity, or pressure. High liquor level sensing
      means are included with signal transmitting means therefrom arranged to
      close the vent valve and open the oxygen gas inlet control valve when the
      rising liquor reaches a predetermined elevation.
PAR  The method and apparatus of this invention may be used to treat
      BOD-containing water in a manner significantly more efficient than the
      widely used air aeration treatment processes.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  FIG. 1 is a schematic view taken in cross-sectional elevation of apparatus
      according to one embodiment of the invention, including a fixedly
      positioned oxygenation chamber and a clarifier;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a schematic view taken in cross-sectional elevation of another
      embodiment characterized by a floating oxygenation chamber, with a
      submerged propeller and gas sparger as the gas-liquor mixing means;
PAR  FIG. 3 is a schematic view taken in cross-sectional elevation of still
      another embodiment characterized by a gas cycle control system utilizing a
      recirculation blower for exhausting oxygen-depleted gas;
PAR  FIG. 4 is a schematic view taken in cross-sectional elevation of a multiple
      oxygenation chamber embodiment with staging of oxygenated liquid-solid;
PAR  FIG. 5 is a graph showing the gas and liquor compositions in terms of
      oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide as a function of cycle time for the
      oxygenation step of a typical cycle using municipal waste as feed; and
PAR  FIG. 6 is a graph showing the variation of instantaneous oxygen feed rate,
      oxygen transfer rate to the liquor, and the cumulative overall percentage
      oxygen absorption during the FIG. 5 cycle.
DETD
PAR  Referring now to the drawings and in particular FIG. 1, BOD-containing
      water as for example sewage is introduced to enclosure 11 through conduit
      12. Active biomass is introduced to enclosure 11 through conduit 13,
      although it may alternately be premixed with the BOD-containing water and
      introduced through conduit 12. The biomass is preferably obtained from
      oxygenated liquid-solid discharged from enclosure 11 in conduit 14. Solids
      concentration may be practiced in clarifier 15, where the oxygenated
      liquid-solid is separated into purified water and concentrated biomass.
      Clarifier constructions are well-known to those skilled in the
      bio-oxidation art, and may for example include a rotatable scraper 16 at
      the lower end to prevent coning of the concentrated biomass. The latter is
      withdrawn from clarifier 15 through conduit 17 and at least a portion
      thereof is recycled through pump 18 to conduit 13 for introduction to
      liquor enclosure 11. The purified water is discharged from clarifier 15
      through conduit 19. In the embodiment wherein waste comprises the
      BOD-containing feed water, the recycled solid is commonly referred to as
      activated sludge.
PAR  Oxygenation chamber 20 is fixedly positioned in enclosure 11 below the
      liquor level by members 21, with gas-tight cover 22 below the edge of
      discharge weir 23. The lower end 24 of oxygenation chamber 20 is in fluid
      communication with enclosure 11. The system also requires oxygen gas
      source 25, which may for example be a pressurized gas container or a
      thermally insulated liquid vessel with vaporizing means. Oxygen gas supply
      conduit 26 communicates between gas source 25 and oxygenation chamber 20.
      Gas inlet control valve 27 and shut-off valve 28 are both provided in
      supply conduit 26, with valve 28 preferably downstream of control valve
      27. First pressure switch 29 may also be provided in oxygen supply conduit
      26 if desired, but is not essential.
PAR  The feed gas must comprise at least 50% oxygen so that the gas-liquor
      mixing time (to achieve at least 60% consumption of the introduced oxygen)
      does not become prohibitively short, i.e. less than 10 minutes. The "turn
      around" time required at the end of each cycle for venting the waste gas,
      recharging the aeration chamber with oxygen gas, and restarting the mixer
      is normally 2-3 minutes. Accordingly, if the mixing time decreases below
      10 minutes the "turn around" period of non-mixing becomes an excessively
      large and ineffective portion of the total cycle time, despite the lower
      cost of low purity oxygen. Sufficient oxygen feed gas is introduced to
      provide oxygen partial pressure of at least 7.3 p.s.i.a., so that the
      gas-liquor mixing will be performed at least at atmospheric pressure.
      Sub-atmospheric pressure are to be avoided because of the resulting
      increased "turn-around" period, lower oxygen transfer rate, and possible
      atmospheric inleak to the oxygenation chamber.
PAR  For purposes of this description, the BOD-containing water and biomass in
      enclosure 11 will be referred to as "liquor." Means are provided for
      mixing oxygen gas and liquor within oxygenation chamber 20, as for example
      rotating surface-type impeller 30 powered by electric motor 31. The latter
      two components are joined by a shaft suitably sealed by collar 32 against
      gas leakage through a central opening in the chamber cover 22.
PAR  Discharge conduit 33 communicates with the upper portion of oxygenation
      chamber 20 for release of unconsumed oxygen-containing (spent) gas. Vent
      valve 34 is provided in discharge conduit 33 and second pressure switch 35
      may be positioned therein upstream of valve 34.
PAR  The practice of a method aspect of the invention will now be described
      using the FIG. 1 apparatus. Assuming that the cycle begins with the
      oxygenation chamber 20 substantially completely filled with liquor and
      with the mixer 30 de-energized, vent valve 34 is closed and shut-off valve
      28 is opened by the cycle control means. In this manner, first feed gas
      comprising at least 50% oxygen (by volume) and having oxygen partial
      pressure of at least 7.3 p.s.i.a., is introduced to chamber 20 and thereby
      progressively downwardly displaces a portion of the liquor from the upper
      end thereof into the liquor enclosure 11. Pressure switch 29 senses the
      gradually rising feed gas pressure in conduit 26 and when a predetermined
      value is reached, a signal is transmitted through means 36 to energize
      motor 31 and initiate mixing of gas and liquor. Alternatively the mixer 30
      may be continuously operated during even the gas discharge step of each
      cycle, and in this event first pressure switch 29 is not required. The
      advantage of including mixer energizing and deenergizing components in the
      cycle control means in that energy for operating the mixer is consumed
      only when mixing is needed.
PAR  Gas inlet flow control valve 27 comprises one component of the system's gas
      flow control means, and is set to maintain the oxygenation chamber gas
      pressure at a predetermined level. This pressure is above atmospheric and
      preferably 15-25 p.s.i.a. If first pressure switch 29 is employed, this
      predetermined level may be the same as or greater than that at which mixer
      motor 31 is energized. During the mixing step of each cycle, only
      sufficient oxygen gas is introduced through conduit 26 to replace the net
      mass transfer of gas into the liquor. As nitrogen and carbon dioxide
      impurities evolve from the mixed liquor into the overhead gas space, the
      oxygen content gradually declines. The mixing step of each cycle continues
      for at least 10 minutes and with sufficient mixing and gas-liquor contact
      energy to consume at least 60% (by volume) of the oxygen in the feed gas.
      As used in the description of this embodiment "feed gas" comprises the gas
      initially introduced to reach the predetermined pressure plus any gas
      introduced during mixing to maintain this pressure.
PAR  It should be recognized that the manner in which power is used represents
      an important part of this invention. Two functions must be provided: The
      solids must be held in suspension in the liquor (to maintain the
      liquor-state), and the oxygen gas and liquor must be contacted intimately.
      In many previous aeration systems using air, the two functions were served
      by the air alone. The air volume was large, as required to provide the
      necessary oxygen from a gas highly diluted with nitrogen, and the stirring
      action of the gas on the liquor, while inefficient, was adequate to hold
      the solids in suspension.
PAR  In this efficient oxygen aeration system, the quantity of gas needed to
      supply the oxygen is much smaller and does not provide the mixing action
      needed to suspend the solids, especially when solids loadings are high.
      The energy needed for stirring the liquor is preferably supplied by a
      mechanical agitator or propeller, which is considerably more efficient in
      this respect than gas bubbling. The stirrer may be a different device from
      the gas-liquor contactor, as for example, a submerged propeller in
      conjunction with an additional gas sparger. Optionally, the two functions
      may be served by the same device but, in either event, the device should
      be of a type which sustains a high oxygen partial pressure differentiaL
      across the gas-liquor interfacial area generated by the device.
PAR  The energy required for gas-liquor contact is substantially less than the
      energy required by the solid-liquid suspension. The gas-liquor contact
      energy is nevertheless significant, and unless the contacting method is
      properly chosen, the power consumption for this function can become
      excessive. Moreover, the DO (dissolved oxygen) level and oxygen
      utilization may suffer. A device should be chosen which generates a large
      amount of interfacial area between gas and liquor, yet which does not
      produce a fine dispersion of liquid in the gas. Considerable power is
      required to produce fine liquid dispersions and such dispersions represent
      relatively inefficient mass transfer functions for this system. Suitable
      mixing devices produce a large contact area in a large volume of liquor,
      such that the liquor adjacent the interfacial area does not approach
      saturation. The oxygen partial pressure driving forces for rapid solution
      are therefore sustained, and mixing losses are reduced when the liquor in
      the contacting zone returns to the main pool. Satisfactory mixing devices
      include spargers which produce fine bubbles in the liquid pool and surface
      aerators which throw relatively massive sheets or streams of liquid into
      the gas. Suitable devices are commonly characterized by the so-called "air
      standard transfer efficiency." This performance parameter relates the rate
      of oxygen dissolution per unit of input horsepower from atmospheric
      pressure air into zero DO tap water at 20.degree. C. Suitable devices
      would have an air standard transfer efficiency of at least 1.5 lb. O.sub.2
      /H.P. hrs.
PAR  One feature of this method is a balance between the overall level of oxygen
      consumption in the liquor, and the average oxygen energy transfer
      efficiency to the liquor. Extremely high overall percentage oxygen
      absorption may be realized by continuing the mixing until virtually all of
      the oxygen in the feed gas is consumed. However, the energy transfer
      efficiency would become prohibitively low, with extremely high dissolution
      power and capital investment costs. It has been discovered that these
      opposing characteristics may be be balanced in a method vastly superior to
      the prior art by continuing the gas-liquor mixture step for at least 10
      minutes but for sufficient duration to consume at least 60% of the oxygen
      in the feed gas to form fist oxygenated liquid-solid and first unconsumed
      oxygen-containing gas. The latter comprises 10-70% oxygen, but is of lower
      oxygen purity than the feed gas and has oxygen partial pressure of at
      least 1.47 p.s.i.a. That is, if the gas discharged from the chamber at the
      end of the mixing step comprises only 10% oxygen, it will be discharged at
      least at atmospheric pressure. Sub-atmospheric pressure is to be avoided
      for the previously indicated reasons. In a preferred embodiment the feed
      gas comprises at least 90% oxygen, mixing is continued for at least 20
      minutes, at least 75% of the oxygen is consumed and the unconsumed
      oxygen-containing gas comprises 40 to 60% oxygen.
PAR  It is preferred to introduce oxygen at cycle average feed rates of
      0.10-0.50 lb. moles per horsepower hour of the mechanical mixing and
      gas-liquor contact energy during each of the succeeding oxygenation
      cycles. Lower feed rates limit the rate of oxygen dissolution into the
      liquor and higher oxygen feed rates provide more oxygen than can be
      effectively mixed by this level of energy input and nominal gas-liquor
      contacting effectiveness.
PAR  It is also preferred to introduce oxygen at cycle average feed rates of
      0.08-2.0 cu. ft. per cu. ft. of liquor. Lower oxygen feed rates limit the
      biochemical oxidation reaction rate and higher rates provide more oxygen
      than can be dissolved in the liquor per unit time.
PAR  The cycle control means also simultaneously close feed gas shut-off valve
      28 and open gas vent valve 34 at the end of the gas-liquor mixing step of
      each cycle. As previously indicated, the mixer motor 31 may also be
      deenergized through signal transmitting means 36 at this point in the
      cycle. These changes may be instigated by any of several well-known
      process monitoring means illustrated schematically as controller 37. By
      way of illustration, an automatic preset timer could be employed and
      joined to valves 28 and 34 respectively by signal transmitting means 38
      and 39. A timer would be most suited for relatively stable process
      conditions and long cycles. It should be noted, however, that the set
      period of such a timer could be altered by suitable controls to compensate
      for variations in the volume and strength of BOD-containing water fed to
      the system. Other compensation can be made for changes in DO level of the
      mixed liquor, for example by increasing or decreasing the power input to
      mixer motor 31 and altering its speed of mixer rotation.
PAR  If the process conditions or the oxygen demand fluctuate significantly, it
      may be necessary to provide means for continuously analyzing the oxygen
      purity of the gas in oxygenation chamber 20. The valve changes would then
      be initiated by a signal from the analyzer (not illustrated) indicating
      that the oxygen purity within the aeration chamber 20 has declined to a
      predetermined value. The preferred purity for this step change depends on
      the feed gas purity and the relative costs of oxygen, oxygenator
      investment and power. For oxygen feed gas purities of at least 90 percent,
      the spent gas discharge step is preferably initiated at purities of 40 to
      60%.
PAR  The spent oxygenation gas is vented through conduit 33 under the force of
      the unbalanced hydrostatic head which causes the chamber 20 liquor level
      to rise and displace the gas. For this reason, the chamber must be fixedly
      positioned below the liquor level, i.e. the edge of weir 23 is above
      chamber cover 22. The cycle control means senses the end of the gas
      discharge step, simultaneously closing vent valve 34 and opening shut-off
      valve 28. This may for example be accomplished by second pressure switch
      35 set to operate at the reduced hydrostatic head in the oxygenation
      chamber attained when the liquor level rises to near cover 22. Signal
      transmitting means 40 joins second pressure switch 35 to controller 37.
      The latter in turn communicates respectively with gas inlet shut-off valve
      28 and vent valve 34 through signal transmitting means 38 and 39.
PAR  The aforedescribed cycle sequence is thereafter repeated in at least a
      second oxygenation cycle wherein a second feed gas quantity comprising at
      least 50% oxygen and having oxygen partial pressure of at least 7.3
      p.s.i.a. is introduced to chamber 20 through conduit 26 for mixing with
      second BOD-containing water and second biomass. This liquor is preferably
      composed at least in part by the first oxygenated liquid-solid, i.e. the
      product liquor from the first cycle. The degree to which the first cycle
      product liquor comprises the second cycle feed liquor depends on several
      factors, including the relative sizes of the oxygenation chamber 20 and
      liquor storage enclosure 11, the liquor and gas flow rates, the feed gas
      oxygen purity, the gas-liquor contact energy and mixing time, and the
      desired effluent water BOD-level. It should be understood that under some
      circumstances it may be desirable to discharge the first oxygenated
      liquid-solid through conduit 14 at the end of the first oxygenation cycle,
      and thereafter introduce the second BOD-containing water and second
      biomass through conduits 12 and 13, respectively, before introduction of
      the second feed gas through conduit 26 to chamber 20. The second and
      succeeding oxygenation cycles are performed in an analogous manner. This
      constitutes a batch-type treatment of BOD-containing water according to
      the invention.
PAR  As still another embodiment, additional BOD-containing water and biomass
      may be introduced to enclosure 11 during each of the first and second
      oxygenation cycles.
PAR  The FIG. 2 embodiment differs from FIG. 1 in several respects. Liquor
      storage enclosure 11 is a naturally occurring reservoir, as for example a
      lagoon. The active biomass is sludge circulated within the lagoon by
      natural flow and submerged propeller 30. Part of this sludge gravity
      settles to the lagoon bottom and may be periodically removed therefrom by
      dredging means. Depending on the relative positioning of the
      BOD-containing water feed conduit 12 and oxygenator 20, the feed liquid
      and sludge mixing may, and in fact usually does occur prior to contact
      with the oxygen gas in oxygenator 20.
PAR  The FIG. 2 mixing means includes sparger 45 submerged in the liquor beneath
      impeller 30. The oxygen-containing gas bubbles discharged from sparger 45
      are distributed through chamber 20 in intimate contact with the liquor and
      rise to the surface where the unconsumed portion disengages into the gas
      space along with the reaction product gases. To provide the necessary
      pressure driving force for continuous circulation of oxygen gas through
      chamber 20, the inlet of compressor or blower 46 is positioned in as flow
      communication with the chamber gas space as by conduit 47, and the
      discharge thereof is directed through conduit 48 to sparger 45.
PAR  When a submerged propeller and sparger are employed as in FIG. 2, the
      system should be operated such that the local downward velocity of liquor
      is not sufficient to sweep the dispersed gas bubbles below the chamber
      lower end and outwardly into the uncovered portion of the liquor storage
      enclosure. The gas must be substantially confined within the chamber and
      recirculated. The local downward liquid velocity and recirculated. The
      local downward liquid velocity should be less than the terminal velocity
      of bubbles produced by the sparger to insure that the bubbles will rise.
PAR  Although the oxygenation chamber 20 and other connected apparatus may be
      fixedly positioned in a lagoon, the FIG. 2 embodiment is arranged to float
      therein and is supported by flotation collar 49. A separate clarifier is
      not employed and the purified water is discharged through conduit 50
      having control valve 51 therein.
PAR  The practice of the instant method will be described in connection with the
      FIG. 2 apparatus, starting with the introduction of a fist
      oxygen-containing feed gas quantity through conduit 26 and flow control
      valve 27, with vent valve 34 in gas discharge conduit 33 being closed. The
      liquor level in oxygenator 20 is thereby depressed relative to cover 22,
      and liquor is forced back into the surrounding lagoon 11. Propeller 30 may
      be continuously operated during this gas charging period if desired, and
      the gas flow control means may be used to energize motor-driven blower 46
      for gas recirculation when the chamber is filled with the first quantity
      of oxygen-containing feed gas such that the liquor level reaches desired
      level "H" relative to cover 22 of chamber 20. This function may be
      performed by low liquor level sensing means as for example probe 51a.
      Signal transmission means 52 joins probe 51a with controller 53, which in
      turn transmits a signal through means 54 to close oxygen feed valve 27.
      Controller 53 simultaneously energizes blower 46 through signal
      transmission means 54a.
PAR  In this embodiment, oxygen gas is not continuously introduced to chamber 20
      as makeup for that consumed by the liquor, so that the quantity of gas
      therein continuously decreases as well as its oxygen purity. The gas flow
      control system includes means for sensing the chamber gas content, as for
      example probe 55 for monitoring the oxygen gas purity. Upon reaching a low
      predetermined oxygen concentration, a signal is transmitted through means
      56 to second controller 57 which in turn initiates a cycle change by
      deenergizing recirculation blower 46 through signal transmission means 58
      and opening vent valve 34 in discharge conduit 33 through signal
      transmission means 59. First unconsumed oxygen-containing gas is expelled
      by first oxygenated liquid-solid and unoxygenated liquor rising in the
      chamber 20 and when the level rises to near chamber cover 22, float switch
      60 is actuated as part of the gas flow control means and in turn transmits
      a signal through means 61 to controller 53. The latter in turn sends a
      signal through means 54 to reopen oxygen feed valve 27 and another signal
      through means 62 to simultaneously close vent valve 34. The second
      aeration cycle is thus initiated and oxygen gas flows into chamber 20
      until terminated by a signal from low liquor level probe 51a, as
      previously described.
PAR  FIG. 3 illustrates another embodiment wherein gas recirculation blower 46
      is used to exhaust the unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from oxygenation
      chamber 20 at the end of the gas-liquor mixing step of each cycle. This
      feature allows greater flexibility in locating the oxygenation chamber 20
      relative to the liquor storage enclosure 11, as the rising liquor level is
      not relied on to force out the unconsumed oxygen-containing gas. The gas
      flow control system includes cycle controller 38 which may for example be
      a timer or a gas purity analyzer plus a timer. Controller 37 is joined to
      feed gas shut-off valve 28 by signal transmitting means 38 and also joined
      to vent valve 34 (in gas discharge conduit 33) by signal transmitting
      means 39. Gas discharge conduit 33 branches from the discharge side of
      blower 46.
PAR  During the gas discharge step valve 63 in the oxygenation gas recycle
      conduit 48 is closed, and the unconsumed oxygen-containing gas is
      withdrawn by blower 46 for release to the atmosphere through opened vent
      valve 34 in conduit 33. At the completion of this step, cycle controller
      37 closes vent valve 34 through means 39 while simultaneously opening feed
      gas shut-off valve 28 through means 38 and oxygenation gas recycle valve
      63 through means 64. A predetermined gas pressure may then be maintained
      in chamber 20 during the gas-liquor mixing step by gas inlet flow control
      valve 27, as described in connection with FIG. 1.
PAR  It should be appreciated that whereas single oxygenators have been
      illustrated and described in FIGS. 1-3 for simplicity, a plurality of
      oxygenators may be positioned in a liquor storage reservoir and either
      connected in parallel flow relation to the same oxygen gas source,
      individually connected thereto, or joined to different oxygen gas sources.
      Moreover, all oxygenators may be operated identically or each may operate
      wholly independent of the others, e.g. on different cycle times, different
      maximum purity levels in the gas before starting the spent gas discharge
      step, different gas recirculation rates (if blower 46 is employed) and
      different power inputs to the various mixers.
PAR  Such flexibility of operation may be particularly advantageous where the
      liquor reservoir is a large basin or lagoon for waste, since the BOD level
      will normally be higher near the waste inlet and consequently the oxygen
      demand will be greater in that zone.
PAR  FIG. 4 illustrates another multiple oxygenator arrangement wherein the
      liquor storage enclosure is a tank 11 having vertical partitions 65
      extending across the tank width from the bottom to above the liquor level.
      Partitions 65 together with the tank walls form a series of compartments
      joined by restricted flow openings 66 between adjacent compartments. One
      or more oxygenation chambers 20 may be positioned in each compartment with
      the rotating surface-type impeller 30 powered by electric motor 31, as
      illustrated in FIG. 1. Oxygen gas is provided by manifold conduit 67
      joined to each of the multiple, e.g. four oxygenation chambers through
      branch conduits 68. The latter contain gas inlet flow control valve 27,
      shut-off valve 28, and vent valve 34. Although not illustrated in the
      interest of simplicity, gas flow control means as described in any of the
      single oxygenator chamber embodiments of FIGS. 1-3 may be employed with
      modifications which will be apparent to those skilled in the art. Whereas
      the spent gas is discharged from each chamber 20 through its particular
      vent valve 34, the oxygenated liquid-solid is flowed in stage-to-stage
      manner from the compartment nearest BOD-containing water feed conduit 12
      through restricted openings 66 to the compartment from which the
      oxygenated liquid-solid is discharged over weir 23 and through conduit 14.
      As the feed liquor for a particular compartment comprises the oxygenated
      liquid-solid from the immediately preceding compartment, the BOD content
      progressively decreases in the liquor from stage-to-stage.
PAR  The invention will be more fully understood by the following example in
      which apparatus similar to the FIG. 1 embodiment is used to cyclically
      oxygenate municipal-type waste liquor at 30.degree. C. in a single stage
      treatment with 99.5% oxygen gas at constant gas pressure. A single
      surface-type aerator of 100 horsepower rating is used and the "air
      standard transfer efficiency" is assumed to be 3.00 lbs. O.sub.2 /H.P.-hr.
      A separate clarifier is not employed but the active biomass is provided by
      forced circulation of activated sludge in the manner of FIG. 2. The
      "alpha" factor (ratio of aerator mass transfer efficiency in mixed liquor
      to that in pure tap water) was assumed to be 0.90, and the "beta" factor
      (ratio of equilibrium concentration of dissolved oxygen in mixed liquor to
      that in pure tap water) was assumed to be 0.95. The aerator is positioned
      in a 30 feet diameter cylindrical chamber 4.0 feet deep (including 3.5
      feet high gas space), the chamber volume being 2,830 cu. ft. The chamber
      is in turn positioned in a liquor storage enclosure which is also
      cylindrical and has the following dimensions; 65 feet diameter, 20 feet
      deep, and 496,000 gallons liquor capacity.
PAR  Biochemical oxidation parameters for this example are listed in Table I,
      and are typical for a high rate activated sludge process treating
      municipal sewage.
TBL                TABLE I                                                     
     ______________________________________                                    
     Feed, BOD        240 p.p.m.                                               
     Effluent BOD      25 p.p.m.                                               
     Feed flow rate    16 million gallons/day.                                 
     Oxygen consumption rate                                                   
                      200 p.p.m./hr.                                           
     Lb. O.sub.2 consumed/lb. BOD                                              
     removed           0.70                                                    
     Feed liquid concentration:                                                
      O.sub.2          0.0 p.p.m.                                              
      N.sub.2          13.2 p.p.m.                                             
      CO.sub.2         0.39 p.p.m.                                             
     Mean oxygenation time for                                                 
     feed liquid       50 minutes.                                             
     Total cycle time (oxygena-                                                
     tion plus venting)                                                        
                       53 minutes.                                             
     BOD loading      423 lbs. BOD/day 1000 ft..sup.3.                         
     ______________________________________                                    
PAR  FIGS. 5 and 6 show the relation of certain process variables and
      performance parameters with time for 85% oxygen absorption and 50 minutes
      cycle mixing time. In particular, FIG. 5 illustrates the gas phase mole
      fraction (left side ordinate) and liquor phase composition in p.p.m.
      (right side ordinate) for oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide. It will be
      apparent that the oxygen gas partial pressure (Y.sub.O.sbsb.2) rapidly
      decreases during the first several minutes of oxygenation as the CO.sub.2
      content of the oxygenation gas rapidly increases (Y.sub.CO.sbsb.2).
      Fortunately, however, since CO.sub.2 is about 35 times more soluble in the
      liquor (BOD-containing feed water and biomass) than is oxygen, the
      oxygenation gas rapidly reaches CO.sub.2 equilibrium with the mixed liquor
      at a relatively low CO.sub.2 partial pressure--a Y.sub.CO.sbsb.2 of about
      0.14. This means that despite the continuous formation of additional
      CO.sub.2 by virtue of the biochemical reaction, the CO.sub.2 concentration
      of the oxygenation gas remains virtually constant after the first few
      minutes, thereby minimizing its effect on the oxygen partial pressure. In
      contrast to CO.sub.2, the nitrogen content of the oxygenation gas
      (Y.sub.N.sbsb.2) gradually increases as the oxygen content decreases
      (Y.sub.O.sbsb.2), and the gas-liquor mixing step of the cycle is
      terminated when the oxygen partial pressure has declined to a level at
      which oxygen is no longer effectively consumed by the liquor. In this
      example, the Y.sub.O.sbsb.2 at the end of the 50 minute cycle is 0.58 or
      8.5 p.s.i.a. at atmospheric pressure. The unconsumed oxygen-containing gas
      is discharged in about 3 minutes to complete each cycle.
PAR  The liquor phase oxygen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide contents also vary
      considerably during each cycle. The DO content initially increases very
      rapidly at the start of the cycle when the oxygen partial pressure
      (Y.sub.O.sbsb.2) and hence oxygen transfer rate to the liquor are high.
      The DO reaches a peak of about 5.9 p.p.m. after about 10 minutes and then
      gradually decreases to approximately the initial DO level at the end of
      the cycle mixing step. The X.sub.N.sbsb.2 and X.sub.CO.sbsb.2 contents
      vary in the reverse manner as X.sub.O.sbsb.2 since they are being desorbed
      from the liquid at initially very high rates (due to high rate of oxygen
      absorption) and then at necessarily lower rates during the remainder of
      the cycle. As this example represents periodic steady state conditions,
      the liquor phase concentrations are equal at the beginning and end of the
      cycle as are the gas phase concentrations.
PAR  FIG. 6 shows the changes in instantaneous oxygen feed gas rate (curve A),
      instantaneous oxygen transfer rate to the liquor (curve B), and the
      cumulative overall percentage oxygen absorption throughout the cycle
      mixing step (curve C). The oxygen feed gas rate is initially zero and
      rapidly rises to a peak, then quickly decays to a gradually decreasing
      rate. The feed rate is initially zero at the start of the cycle due to the
      extremely high CO.sub.2 desorption rate (see Y.sub.CO.sbsb.2 of FIG. 5).
      This condition prevails for only about 30 seconds, however, and the
      oxygenation chamber pressure increase and liquor level change is
      negligible.
PAR  Table II summarizes the pertinent oxygenation performance parameters and
      compares them to air aeration performance capability at the same mixed
      liquor DO level.
TBL                TABLE II                                                    
     ______________________________________                                    
     Percent oxygen absorption    85                                           
     Length of cycle mixing step (min.)                                        
                                  50                                           
     Time average energy transfer efficiency (lbs. O.sub.2 /H.P.               
     hr.)                         8.50                                         
     Time average liquor phase compositions (p.p.m.):                          
      Oxygen                      4.00                                         
      Nitrogen                    3.87                                         
      Carbon dioxide              198                                          
     Air operation energy transfer efficiency at same                          
     mixed-liquor conditions and DO level (lbs.                                
     O.sub.2 /H.P. hr.)           1.48                                         
     Air operation energy transfer efficiency at same                          
     mixed liquor conditions and DO level of 2.0 p.p.m.                        
     (lbs. O.sub.2 /H.P. hr.)     2.04                                         
     ______________________________________                                    
PAR  Table II shows that an overall oxygen absorption efficiency of at least 85
      percent can be obtained while maintaining about a five-fold increase in
      average energy transfer efficiency relative to air operation at the same
      mixed liquor conditions. Relative to a DO level of 2.0 p.p.m. which is
      characteristic of current air operation, a four-fold increase in
      efficiency is attainable. It is thus apparent that the invention affords
      substantially higher oxygen absorption and average energy transfer
      efficiency than conventional air aeration of BOD-containing water, as for
      example municipal waste.
PAR  The use of a multiplicity of individually-cycled oxygenators in a single
      mixed-liquor enclosure would largely dampen out the liquor phase
      concentration fluctuations shown in FIG. 5 (X.sub.O.sbsb.2,
      X.sub.N.sbsb.2, and X.sub.CO.sbsb.2), and afford a more uniform liquor
      composition. The time average mixed-liquor compositions of Table II should
      be quite similar to the average liquor compositions obtained in a multiple
      oxygenator system. Accordingly, the time average energy transfer
      efficiencies of Table II are also representative for multiple oxygenators.
PAR  Although certain embodiments have been described in detail, it will be
      appreciated that other embodiments are contemplated along with
      modification of the disclosed features, as being within the scope of the
      invention.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A method for treatment of BOD-containing water by cyclic oxygenation in
      contact with biomass comprising: as a first oxygenation cycle.Iadd.,
      introducing a first liquor of BOD-containing water and biomass into a
      chamber having a closed upper end and a lower end in fluid communication
      with a surrounding liquid storage enclosure and substantially filling said
      chamber with said first liquor, introducing into said chamber
      .Iaddend..[.mixing said BOD-containing water and biomass as liquor and.].
      a first feed gas quantity comprising at least 50% oxygen (by volume) and
      having oxygen partial pressure of at least 7.3 p.s.i.a. .Iadd.to
      progressively downwardly displace said first liquor from an upper level in
      said chamber to a lower chamber level, mixing said first feed gas and
      first liquor in said chamber .Iaddend.while simultaneously continuously
      recirculating one of such fluids against the other .[.fluids in a
      chamber.]. .Iadd.fluid .Iaddend.for at least 10 minutes and with
      sufficient mixing and gas-liquor contact energy input to consume at least
      60% (by volume) of the oxygen in said first feed gas to form .Iadd.a
      .Iaddend.first oxygenated liquid-solid and first unconsumed oxygen
      containing gas over said first oxygenated liquid-solid comprising 10-70%
      oxygen but of lower oxygen purity than said first feed gas and having
      oxygen partial pressure of at least 1.47 p.s.i.a. .[.;.]..Iadd.,
      .Iaddend.discharging said first unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from said
      chamber .Iadd.by raising a hydrostatic head of a second liquor of second
      BOD-containing water and second biomass into said chamber until said
      chamber is substantially filled.Iaddend.; as a second oxygenation cycle,
      .[.mixing in.]. .Iadd.introducing into .Iaddend.said chamber a second feed
      gas quantity comprising at least 50% oxygen (by volume) and having oxygen
      partial pressure of at least 7.3 p.s.i.a. .Iadd.to progressively
      downwardly displace said second liquor from an upper level in said chamber
      to a lower chamber level, mixing said second feed gas and second liquor in
      said chamber .Iaddend..[., second BOD-containing water and second
      biomass.]. while simultaneously continuously recirculating one of such
      fluids against the other .[.fluids.].  .Iadd.fluid .Iaddend.for at least
      10 minutes and with sufficient mixing and gas-liquid contact energy to
      consume at least 60% (by volume) of the oxygen in said second feed gas to
      form second oxygenated luqid-solid and second unconsumed oxygen-containing
      gas over said second oxygenated liquid-solid comprising 10-70% oxygen but
      of lower oxygen purity than said second feed gas and having oxygen partial
      pressure of at least 1.47 p.s.i.a., said second BOD-containing water and
      second biomass .Iadd.of said second liquor .Iaddend.being composed at
      least in part of said first oxygenated liquid-solid .[.;.]. .Iadd.,
      .Iaddend.and discharging said second unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from
      said chamber .Iadd.by raising a hydrostatic head of liquor of
      BOD-containing water and biomass in said chamber until the chamber is
      substantially filled with said liquor. .Iaddend.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A method according to claim 1 wherein additional BOD-containing water
      and biomass are introduced to said chamber during each of said first and
      second oxygenation cycles.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A method according to claim 1 in which said biomass is concentrated from
      said oxygenated liquid-solid and recycled in sufficient quantity to
      provide volatile suspended solids content of at least 3000 p.p.m. in said
      first oxygenation cycle.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A method according to claim 1 in which .[.said chamber is substantially
      filled with liquor on discharging of unconsumed oxygen-containing gas
      therefrom at completion of an oxygenation cycle, said first feed gas is
      thereafter introduced and progressively downwardly displaces the liquor
      from the chamber upper portion, and.]. the mixing .Iadd.steps .Iaddend.of
      said first .Iadd.and second .Iaddend.oxygenation .[.cycle.]. .Iadd.cycles
      each .Iaddend.is initiated when the liquor is displaced to a predetermined
      chamber lower level.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A method according to claim .[.4.]. .Iadd.1 .Iaddend.in which part of
      .Iadd.each of .Iaddend.said first .Iadd.and second .Iaddend.feed gas is
      introduced during the mixing .Iadd.steps .Iaddend.of said first .Iadd.and
      second .Iaddend.oxygenation .[.cycle.]. .Iadd.cycles, respectively.
      .Iaddend.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A method according to claim .[.4.]. .Iadd.1 .Iaddend.in which part of
      .Iadd.each of .Iaddend.said first .Iadd.and second .Iaddend.feed gas is
      introduced during the mixing .Iadd.steps .Iaddend.of said first .Iadd.and
      second .Iaddend.oxygenation .[.cycle.]. .Iadd.cycles, respectively,
      .Iaddend.to maintain constant gas pressure and volume in said chamber.
      .[.7. A method according to claim 4 in which the lower end of said chamber
      is in fluid communication with a surrounding liquor storage enclosure and
      said first unconsumed oxygen-containing gas is discharged from said
PAR   chamber by a rising hydrostatic head of liquor in the chamber..]. 8. A
      method according to claim 1 wherein gas disengaging from the liquor during
      the mixing is continuously recirculated and reintroduced to said liquor.
PAR      A method according to claim 1 in which the oxygen feed gas is
      mechanically mixed with said liquor at average rate of 0.10-0.50 lb. moles
      O.sub.2 per horsepower hour of mixing and gas-liquor contact energy input.
PAR   0. A method according to claim 1 in which the oxygen feed gas is mixed
      with said liquor at average rate of 0.08-2.0 cu. ft. O.sub.2 per cu. ft.
PAR   liquor. 11. A method according to claim 1 wherein said feed gas comprises
      at least 90% oxygen, gas-liquor mixing is for at least 20 minutes, at
      least 75% of the oxygen is consumed and the unconsumed oxygen-containing
PAR   gas comprises 40-60% oxygen. 12. A method for cyclic treatment of sewage
      by oxygenation in contact with activated sludge comprising:
PA1  (a) providing said sewage and activated sludge as liquor within and
      substantially filling a chamber having a closed upper end and a lower end
      in fluid communication with a surrounding liquor storage enclosure;
PA1  (b) introducing first feed gas comprising at least 50% oxygen (by volume)
      of said chamber in sufficient quantity to provide oxygen partial pressure
      of at least 7.3 p.s.i.a. and progressively downwardly displace the liquor
      from the chamber upper portion to a predetermined chamber lower level;
PA1  (c) as a first oxygenation cycle, mechanically mixing said first feed gas,
      sewage and activated sludge for at least 10 minutes while simultaneously
      continuously recirculating one of such fluids against the other fluids and
      also simultaneously introducing only sufficient additional first feed gas
      to maintain constant gas pressure in said chamber to form first oxygenated
      liquid-solid and first unconsumed oxygen-containing gas comprising 10-70%
      oxygen but of lower oxygen purity than said first feed gas and having
      oxygen partial pressure of at least 1.47 p.s.i.a., the mixing and
      gas-liquid contact energy input being sufficient to consume at least 60%
      (by volume) of the oxygen in said first feed gas;
PA1  (d) discharging said first unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from said
      chamber by a rising hydrostatic head of liquor in the chamber until the
      latter is substantially filled with liquor; and
PA1  (e) thereafter consecutively repeating steps (b), (c) and (d) as subsequent
PAR   oxygenation cycles. 13. Apparatus for cyclic oxygenation of BOD-containing
      water comprising:
PA1  (a) a liquor storage enclosure;
PA1  (b) an oxygen gas source;
PA1  (c) an oxygenation chamber having a wall extending below the liquor level
      within said storage enclosure and its lower end in fluid communication
      with the enclosure, and a gas-tight cover;
PA1  (d) oxygen supply conduit means between said oxygen gas source and said
      oxygenation chamber;
PA1  (e) means for mechanically mixing said oxygen gas and said liquor in said
      oxygenation chamber;
PA1  (f) conduit means for discharging unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from the
      upper portion of said oxygenation chamber and having a vent valve therein;
      and
PA1  (g) gas flow control means comprising: a gas inlet flow control valve
      arranged to maintain a predetermined gas pressure in said oxygenation
      chamber, and a shut-off valve in said oxygen supply conduit; means for
      sensing gas pressure in said oxygenation chamber; signal transmitting
      means from the pressure sensing means to said gas inlet flow control
      valve; and cycle control means for simultaneously closing said shut-off
      valve and opening the gas vent valve, and thereafter simultaneously
PAR   closing said gas vent valve and opening said shut-off valve. 14. Apparatus
      for cyclic oxygenation of BOD-containing liquor comprising:
PA1  (a) a liquor storage enclosure;
PA1  (b) an oxygen gas source;
PA1  (c) an oxygenation chamber within said storage enclosure having its lower
      end in fluid communication with the enclosure, and a gas-tight cover;
PA1  (d) oxygen supply conduit means between said oxygen gas source and said
      oxygenation chamber and having a gas inlet flow control valve therein;
PA1  (e) an oxygen gas sparger positioned below the liquor level in said
      oxygenation chamber;
PA1  (f) gas-liquor mechanical mixing means positioned below the liquor level in
      said oxygenation chamber;
PA1  (g) a blower with the suction side in flow communication with the
      oxygenation chamber upper portion and the discharge side in flow
      communication with said sparger;
PA1  (h) conduit means for discharging unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from the
      oxygenation chamber upper portion and having a vent valve therein; and
PA1  (i) gas flow control means comprising: low liquor level sensing means
      associated with said oxygenation chamber; signal transmitting means from
      such low level sensing means arranged to close said gas inlet control
      valve when inflowing oxygen gas has downwardly forced the liquor level to
      a predetermined elevation; means for sensing the chamber gas content;
      signal transmitting means to open said vent valve when the sensed gas
      content descends to a predetermined value; high liquor level sensing
      means; signal transmitting means from such high level sensing means
      arranged to close said vent valve and open said gas inlet control valve
      when the rising liquor reaches a predetermined elevation. .Iadd. 15. A
      method for treatment of BOD-containing water by cyclic oxygenation in
      contact with biomass comprising: as a first oxygenation cycle, introducing
      a first liquor of BOD-containing water and biomass into a chamber having a
      closed upper end and a lower end in fluid common with a surrounding liquid
      storage enclosure and substantially filling said chamber with said first
      liquor, introducing into said chamber a first feed gas quantity comprising
      at least 50% oxygen (by volume) and having oxygen partial pressure of at
      least 7.3 p.s.i.a. to progressively downwardly displace said first liquor
      from an upper level in said chamber to a lower chamber level, mixing said
      first feed gas and first liquor in said chamber while simultaneously
      continuously recirculating one of such fluids against the other fluid for
      at least 10 minutes and with sufficient mixing and gas-liquor contact
      energy input to consume at least 60% (by volume) of the oxygen in said
      first feed gas to form a first oxygenated liquid-solid and first
      unconsumed oxygen containing gas over said first oxygenated liquid-solid
      comprising a 10-70% oxygen but of lower oxygen purity than said first feed
      gas and having oxygen partial pressure of at least 1.47 p.s.i.a.,
      exhausting said first unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from said chamber
      and raising a hydrostatic head of a second liquor of second BOD-containing
      water and second biomass into said chamber until said chamber is
      substantially filled with said second liquor; as a second oxygenation
      cycle, introducing into said chamber a second feed gas quantity comprising
      at least 50% oxygen (by volume) and having oxygen partial pressure of at
      least 7.3 p.s.i.a. to progressively downwardly displace said second liquor
      from an upper level in said chamber to a lower chamber level, mixing said
      second feed gas and second liquor in said chamber while simultaneously
      continuously recirculating one of such fluids against the other fluid for
      at least 10 minutes and with sufficient mixing and gas-liquid contact
      energy to consume at least 60% (by volume) of the oxygen in said second
      feed gas to form second oxygenated liquid-solid and second unconsumed
      oxygen-containing gas over said second oxygenated liquid-solid comprising
      10-70% oxygen but of lower oxygen purity than said second feed gas and
      having oxygen partial pressure of at least 1.47 p.s.i.a., said second
      BOD-containing water and second biomass of said second liquor being
      composed at least in part of said first oxygenated liquid-solid, and
      exhausting said second unconsumed oxygen-containing gas from said chamber
      and raising a hydrostatic head of liquor of BOD-containing water and
      biomass in said chamber until the chamber is substantially filled with
      said liquor.
PATN
WKU  RE0297836
SRC  5
APN  7667965
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  176
APD  19770208
TTL  Process for treating aqueous chemical waste sludges and compositions
      produced thereby
ISD  19780926
NCL  19
ECL  1
EXA  Hruskoci; Peter A.
EXP  Hart; Charles N.
INVT
NAM  Smith; Charles L.
CTY  Conshohocken
STA  PA
INVT
NAM  Webster; William C.
CTY  Warminster
STA  PA
ASSG
NAM  IU Technology Corporation
CTY  Miami
STA  FL
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  029561
APD  19700417
PNO  03720609
ISD  19730313
CLAS
OCL  210 59
XCL  106109
XCL  106DIG1
XCL  423DIG2
EDF  2
ICL  C02C  502
FSC  106
FSS  103;104;109;117;DIG. 1
FSC  210
FSS  24;28;42 R;45;47;51-53;59;66;67
FSC  423
FSS  554-556;558;170;242;127;636;DIG. 1;DIG. 2
UREF
PNO  584397
ISD  18970600
NAM  Nahsen
OCL  106120
UREF
PNO  1185773
ISD  19160600
NAM  Conwell
OCL  106 89
UREF
PNO  1185774
ISD  19160600
NAM  Conwell
OCL  106118
UREF
PNO  1456924
ISD  19230500
NAM  Haynes
OCL  106118
UREF
PNO  1672584
ISD  19280600
NAM  Travers
OCL  210 43
UREF
PNO  2165344
ISD  19390700
NAM  Colton
OCL  106109
UREF
PNO  2184271
ISD  19391200
NAM  Colton
OCL  106109
UREF
PNO  2532548
ISD  19501200
NAM  Heide
OCL  210 45
UREF
PNO  2606127
ISD  19520800
NAM  Weber
OCL  106109
UREF
PNO  2746920
ISD  19560500
NAM  Wunderley
OCL  210 28
UREF
PNO  2803556
ISD  19570800
NAM  Carlsson et al.
OCL  106109
UREF
PNO  2810633
ISD  19571000
NAM  Cooper
OCL  210 45
UREF
PNO  3155526
ISD  19641100
NAM  Klein
OCL  106 89
UREF
PNO  3164463
ISD  19650100
NAM  Graham et al.
OCL  423147
UREF
PNO  3388060
ISD  19680600
NAM  Clark
OCL  210 52
UREF
PNO  3446731
ISD  19690500
NAM  Harsh
OCL  210 53
UREF
PNO  3510326
ISD  19700500
NAM  Miki
OCL  106109
UREF
PNO  3565648
ISD  19710200
NAM  Mori et al.
OCL  106 89
UREF
PNO  3634115
ISD  19720100
NAM  Minnick
OCL  106 85
FREF
PNO  1,051,116
ISD  19540100
CNT  FRX
FREF
PNO  235,257
ISD  19250600
CNT  GBX
OREF
PAL  Nicol, "On the Mixture of Slag-Flue Dust at Elevated CaSO.sub.4 Contents
      and Deficient in Lime", 29th Int. Cong. of Ind. Chem., Paris, Nov. 1956.
PAL  Plumley et al., "Removal of SO.sub.2 and Dust from Stack Gases", American
      Power Conference, Chicago, Apr. 25-27, 1967.
PAL  Cockrell et al., Interim Report, Cont. No. PH86-67-122, Limestone
      Symposium, Clearwater, Fla., Dec. 4-8, 1967.
PAL  Cockrell et al., Study of the Potential for Profitable Utilization of
      Pulverized Coal Flyash Modified by the Addition of Limestone-Dolomite
      Sulfur Dioxide Removal Additives", Final Report, Contract No. PH86-67-122,
      Apr. 30, 1969.
PAL  Cockrell et al., "New or Underdeveloped Methods for Producing and Utilizing
      Coal Ash", Second Flyash Utilization Symposium, Mar. 1970.
PAL  Martin et al., "The C-E Air Pollution Control System", Industrial Coal
      Conference, Univ. of Kentucky, Apr. 3-9, 1970.
PAL  Minnick et al., "Lime-Fly Ash Composition for Use in Highway Construction",
      13th Annual Meeting of Highway Research Board, Dec. 1950.
PAL  Davidson et al., "Activation of the Lime-Flyash Reaction by Trace
      Chemicals", Lime & Lime Flyash as Soil Stabilizers, Highway Research Board
      Bulletin 231, 38th Annual Meeting, Jan. 5-9, 1959.
PAL  Minnick, "Reactions of Hydrated Lime with Pulverized Coal Fly Ash", Fly Ash
      Utilization Symposium, Mar. 14-16, 1967, pp. 287-310.
LREP
FRM  Miller & Prestia
ABST
PAL  Waste sludges containing small amounts of certain types of reactive
      materials are treated by adding to such sludges materials capable of
      producing aluminum ions, lime and/or sulfate bearing compounds to produce
      a composition having a sufficient concentration of sulfate ions, aluminum
      ions and equivalents thereof, and calcium ions and equivalents thereof.
      Fly ash is preferred source of aluminum ions for this purpose. Over a
      period of time such compositions harden by the formation of calcium
      sulfo-aluminate hydrates. Hardening of the sludge facilitates its
      disposition and may permit the reclamation of the land now occupied by
      large settling ponds for such sludge. Still further, the solidification of
      such settling ponds may provide permanent land fill which permits
      immediate use of the land without the necessity for removal of the sludge.
      Aggregate materials may also be incorporated in the solidified waste.
BSUM
PAR  The present invention pertains to the treatment of aqueous chemical waste
      sludges, utilizing residual amounts of certain reactant materials commonly
      found in such sludges, whereby the sludges are converted into hardenable
      material.
PAR  Common by-products of plants in which chemicals are made or treated on an
      industrial scale are aqueous sludges often containing a high proportion of
      relatively inert fine particulate materials and a variety of reactive
      materials in sufficiently small concentrations as to make the reclamation
      thereof uneconomical. In some instances, industrial wastes may be
      relatively monocompositional in character (As for example, the manufacture
      of hydrofluoric acid can yield waste sludge with a solids content which is
      in excess of 98 percent calcium sulfate.), but even in these cases the
      materials are not generally utilized in commercial applications due to the
      uncertainties regarding the other materials which may be present in
      varying quantities. Often the available reactive compounds in the sludge
      solids include concentrations in the 0.5-5.0 weight percent range of
      common materials such as sulfate ions, calcium ions, aluminum ions, and
      iron ions or sources thereof. The water content of such sludges may vary
      considerably, and is typically in the range of 10-90 percent by weight.
      The disposition of such sludges has always been a problem. With the
      increasing awareness of the undesirability of discharging such waste
      materials into the environment and the resulting governmental regulation
      of such discharges, the need for a convenient, harmless, and economical
      way of disposing of such sludges or converting them into a useful product
      is becoming increasingly apparent. A further incentive is provided by the
      capital investment and land required for the disposition of such sludges
      by conventional means, which often include large settling ponds or storage
      piles.
PAR  Another and entirely different kind of waste material is that referred to
      herein as fly ash. This is the finely divided ash residue produced by the
      combustion of pulverized coal which is carried off with the gases
      exhausted from boilers or furnaces in which such coal (typically in
      electric generating stations) is burned and which is collected from these
      gases usually by means of suitable precipitation apparatus such as
      electrostatic precipitators. Finely pulverized ashes resulting from
      combustion of oil and from combustion of waste materials in large
      incinerators may sometimes by used interchangeably with fly ash providing
      their chemical compositions and physical state are reasonably similar to
      pulverized coal fly ash. Fly ash is a heterogenious mixture of both
      crystalline and non-crystalline particulate material which includes a
      variety of chemical elements (in various forms) including, among others,
      calcium, aluminum, iron and sulfur.
PAR  Fly ash has been used heretofore, with lime, to produce a variety of
      cementitious materials. Nevertheless, fly ash is an inexpensive, readily
      available waste material, the supply of which exceeds its use, thereby
      necessitating its disposition as a waste material. While relatively large
      quantities of fly ash are also used as a filler material, its value in
      such application is limited.
PAR  It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a method for
      treating aqueous chemical waste sludges by the utilization of residual
      reactive material therein, and certain commonly available additive
      materials, to solidify such sludges either for the purpose of facilitating
      the disposition thereof or for hardening the sludge as a land fill or base
      material thereby permitting use of land now occupied by such sludges,
      raising the ground level of low-lying or boggy areas, or extending land
      areas into regions previously occupied by water.
PAR  It is a further object of this invention to provide a new construction base
      or fill material produced from aqueous chemical waste sludges by the
      addition thereto of other commonly available materials.
PAR  Briefly, the present invention includes a method for treating by-product
      sludges from chemical plants and treating facilities and the product of
      this treating method. In this method, residual reactive materials,
      including sulfate ions, aluminum ions, iron ions, calcium ions and
      magnesium ions or sources of these ions present in various forms in the
      sludge, are reacted with ion yielding aluminum compounds, lime and soluble
      sulfates, added when necessary to raise the concentrations of these
      materials in the sludge above certain minimum levels, to produce a
      composition which will harden over a period of time, usually on the order
      of days or weeks. The sludge may therefore be handled in solid form for
      disposition. Alternatively, the hardenable composition may be used as a
      cementitious material either as a filler or base material in some other
      location or in the place of treatment, e.g., a settling pond. For the
      latter purpose an aggregate material may be included in the hardenable
      sludge mixture.
PAR  The sludge treatment process of the present invention depends on the
      formation of cementitious materials generally known as calcium
      sulfo-aluminate hydrates or calcium alumino-sulfate hydrates. The basic
      reactants in this process are calcium ions, aluminum ions, and sulfate
      ions. Further, iron ions may be substituted for the aluminum ions; and
      magnesium ions may be substituted for the calcium ions. Certain minimum
      concentrations of these materials must be present and available for
      reaction to produce the hardenable composition of the present invention.
      When tested, in accordance with the procedure described hereinafter, the
      dry weight percent of available sulfate ions should be not less than 0.5
      percent; that of aluminum ions, or equivalents thereof, expressed as
      aluminum oxide, 0.2 percent; and calcium ions, or equivalents thereof,
      expressed as calcium oxide, 0.5 percent.
PAR  In the accompanying drawing, which is a ternary composition diagram of the
      available aluminum, calcium, sulfate ions in the system there is shown a
      preferred range of available reactants in the composition produced by
      treating waste sludges as disclosed herein. More specifically, this range
      may be expressed as preferred ratios of available ions. These preferred
      ratios are as follows, wherein Al.sup.+3 and Ca.sup.+2 include Al.sup.+3
      and Ca.sup.+2 equivalents respectively:
PA1  Al.sup.+3 :Ca.sup.+2, from 1:10 to 1:2
PA1  Al.sup.+3 :(SO.sub.4).sup.-2, from 1:2 to 1:10
PA1  Ca.sup.+2 :(SO.sub.4).sup.-2, from 1:2 to 2:1
PAR  It will be appreciated that the foregoing preferred range is based on the
      chemical reaction necessary for solidification of the sludge. Often, the
      availability and cost of one of the materials may be such that an excess
      of this material is used even though this increases the proportion of
      available reactants contributed by this material above the preferred
      range.
PAR  It will be apparent that in the large variety of chemical making processes
      and chemical treating processes conducted in numerous plants throughout
      the country, a multitude of types of aqueous waste sludges are produced.
      These sludges have in common only the fact that they include some residual
      amounts of reactive materials, including most often common chemical
      materials such as calcium ions, aluminum ions, and sulfate ions or sources
      thereof. Depending on the particular sludge to be treated therefore, the
      amount and type of material which must be added to produce the hardenable
      composition as taught herein will obviously vary. In some cases,
      practically nothing but a small amount of fly ash may be needed while in
      other cases materials contributing all three of the reactive materials may
      be necessary to solidify or treat the sludge in accordance with the
      present invention.
PAR  Aluminum compound bearing waste materials, generally, and fly ash,
      specifically, are preferred additive materials, as the source of aluminum
      ions because of their low price, availability and high reactivity. Lime,
      which includes quicklime and hydrated lime (slaked lime) is the preferred
      material for increasing the concentration of calcium ions or one of its
      equivalents, namely magnesium. Materials of various types may be added to
      raise the available sulfate ions concentration as needed. Typical of these
      are calcium sulfate anhydrite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate (plaster of
      paris) and calcium sulfate dihydate (gypsum).
PAR  In treating any specific sludge the determination of which of these
      treating chemicals should be used and in what quantity they should be
      added may be made in a number of ways. If it is known for example, that
      the sludge is primarily a lime neutralized acid waste sludge in which the
      proportion of calcium sulfate is relatively high, the treatment may be
      carried out by addition of an aluminum ion source, such as aluminum ion
      yielding wastes or fly ash. In some cases, a determination of available
      ionic concentrations and comparison of the ratios of these concentrations
      to the preferred ionic ratios taught herein may be the most convenient way
      of determining which and how much of the treating chemicals are necessary.
      Trial and error based on the known characteristics of the sludge is a very
      practical approach which may often be used. The available sulfate ion,
      aluminum ions or equivalents thereof, and calcium ions or equivalents
      thereof, may also be determined by the following test devised for the
      purpose of determining the availability of these materials to the reaction
      upon which the present invention is based. Necessarily, this availability
      is defined in terms of dry weight percent sulfate ion, dry weight percent
      aluminum ions and equivalents thereof (expressed as aluminum oxide), and
      dry weight percent calcium ions, and equivalents thereof (expressed as
      calcium oxide).
PAR  In determining the available aluminum ions or equivalents thereof, ferric
      ions (Fe.sup.+++) are considered as equivalents. Ferrous ions (Fe.sup.++)
      will not react directly, although under certain conditions ferrous ions
      will oxidize to ferric ions and become useable substitutes for aluminum
      ions. Available ferrous ions are therefore not generally included as
      available aluminum ion equivalents.
PAC  TEST PROCEDURE
PAR  Place 7.500 grams of the material under test in a small vial of
      approximately 14 ml. capacity. (The materials which shall be tested are
      the cementitious (non-aggregate) portion of the composition). Add
      sufficient water to fill the vial, stirring continuously so that a uniform
      mixture is maintained. Seal the vial with a screw cap and store at
      38.degree. C. Open the vial at the age of 7 days and transfer the liquid
      contents of the vial to a 250 ml beaker and the solid cake to a mortar.
      Grind the cake with the addition of some water until a uniform slurry is
      formed and no large lumps remain. Transfer this slurry to the same 250 ml
      beaker and adjust the volume to 100 ml.
PAR  Add 100 ml of HCl (1 to 4.5 dilution ratio to yield an overall final
      concentration of free HCl equivalent to a dilution volume ratio of 1:10).
      Allow the beaker and its contents to stand overnight after frequent
      stirring for the first several hours. Filter the liquid into a 250 ml
      flask and wash the residue thoroughly with hot water. Allow the liquid to
      cool and fill the flask to the mark. Aliquots of this solution shall be
      used for the determination of the acid soluble constituents.
PAR  Available Al.sup.+3 and Fe.sup.+3 (reported as weight of molar equivalent
      amount of Al.sub.2 O.sub.3), Ca.sup.+2 and Mg.sup.+2 (reported as CaO) and
      SO.sub.4.sup.-2 is then determined in the resulting filtrate using atomic
      absorption spectrograph X-ray spectograph, or some other standard
      .[.qualitative.]. .Iadd.quantitative .Iaddend.elemental analytical
      procedure.
DETD
PAR  The following are several examples in which the present invention has been
      used to produce solidified load-bearing products from aqueous chemical
      waste sludges from industrial chemical plants, or synthetic approximations
      thereof.
PAC  EXAMPLE 1
PAR  Using a synthetic pickle liquor (approximately that which might be
      discharged by a steel plant) consisting of a water solution containing
      10,000 ppm Fe.sup.++ and 150,000 ppm SO.sub.4.sup.-  ions, sludges were
      formed by neutralizing portions of this liquor to approximately pH 7 and
      in excess of pH 12 with dolomitic monohydrated lime. The two sludges so
      prepared were treated by addition of varying weight percentages of fly ash
      (by weight of sludge) as indicated in the table below. The blended
      materials were placed in segments of glass tubing 2 inches in diameter and
      6 inches long which were capped at the bottom end with nylon cloth held in
      place with a rubber band. The filled test assemblies were placed in 1 inch
      of deionized water in aquaria.
PAR  At varying intervals as indicated in the table these specimens were tested
      for resistance to penetration (determined as resistance in lbs./sq. in.
      required for penetration of 1 inch into the specimen by a 0.025 sq. in.
      rod).
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF SLUDGE/FLY                                      
     ASH MIXTURES                                                              
     Sludge Sludge  % Added   Deoionized Water                                 
     Type   pH      fly ash   2 weeks 4 weeks                                  
                                             8 weeks                           
     ______________________________________                                    
     Dol.   12+     0         0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   12+     10        0       0      *                                 
     Dol.   12+     20        0*      *      *                                 
     Dol.   12+     50        2200    3200   *                                 
     Dol.   12+     75        3000    5600   8000+                             
     Dol.   12+     100       4400    8000   8000+                             
     Dol.   7       0         0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       10        0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       20        0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       50        0       0      400                               
     Dol.   7       75        0       400    1400                              
     Dol.   7       100       Trace   1400   1840                              
     ______________________________________                                    
      *Indicates glass tube cracked (usually from expansive forces), no reading
      possible in most cases.                                                  
PAC  EXAMPLE 2
PAR  Specimens were prepared as in Example 1 using dolomitic monohydrated lime
      to neutralize synthetic pickle liquor to approximately pH 7 and in excess
      of pH 12. These were placed in test assemblies as in Example 1 but were
      cured in sea water.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF SLUDGE/FLY                                      
     ASH MIXTURES                                                              
     Sludge Sludge  % Added   Sea Water                                        
     Type   pH      Fly Ash   2 weeks  4 weeks                                 
                                             8 weeks                           
     ______________________________________                                    
     Dol.   12+     0         0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   12+     10        0       400    *                                 
     Dol.   12+     20        400     2000   1000                              
     Dol.   12+     50        3200    2400   8000*                             
     Dol.   12+     75        3600    4800   *                                 
     Dol.   12+     100       6200    8000+  *                                 
     Dol.   7       0         0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       10        0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       20        0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       50        0       0      440                               
     Dol.   7       75        0       600    2400                              
     Dol.   7       100       600     1400   2800                              
     ______________________________________                                    
      *Indicates glass tube cracked (usually from expansive forces), no reading
      possible in most cases.                                                  
PAC  EXAMPLE 3
PAR  Specimens were prepared as in Example 1 using dolomitic monohydrated lime
      to neutralize synthetic pickle liquor to approximately pH 7 and in excess
      of pH 12. These were placed in test assemblies as in Example 1 but were
      cured in synthetic mine effluent consisting of a water solution containing
      300 ppm Fe.sup.++ and 75 ppm Al.sup.+++, adjusted to pH 3 with sulfuric
      acid.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF SLUDGE/FLY                                      
     ASH MIXTURES                                                              
     Sludge Sludge  % Added   Mine Water                                       
     Type   pH      Fly Ash   2 weeks 4 weeks                                  
                                             8 weeks                           
     ______________________________________                                    
     Dol.   12+     0         0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   12+     10        0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   12+     20        Trace   *      *                                 
     Dol.   12+     50        2400    4800   *                                 
     Dol.   12+     75        1200*   *      *                                 
     Dol.   12+     100       4800    *      *                                 
     Dol.   7       0         0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       10        0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       20        0       0      0                                 
     Dol.   7       50        0       0      Trace                             
     Dol.   7       75        0       800    800                               
     Dol.   7       100       Trace   1600   1600                              
     ______________________________________                                    
      *Indicates glass tube cracked (usually from expansive forces), no reading
      possible in most cases.                                                  
PAC  EXAMPLE 4
PAR  Specimens were prepared as in Example 1 using high calcium hydrated lime to
      neutralize synthetic pickle liquor to above pH 12. These were placed in
      test assemblies as in Example 1 and were cured in deionized water.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF SLUDGE/FLY                                      
     ASH MIXTURES                                                              
     Sludge Sludge  % Added   Deionized Water                                  
     Type   pH      Fly Ash   2 weeks 4 weeks                                  
                                             8 weeks                           
     ______________________________________                                    
     Hi Cal 12+     0         0       0      0                                 
     Hi Cal 12+     10        0       0      0                                 
     Hi Cal 12+     20        0       400    1840                              
     Hi Cal 12+     50        1400    4000   3200                              
     Hi Cal 12+     75        1800*   *      *                                 
     Hi Cal 12+     100       3800    8000+  8000+*                            
     ______________________________________                                    
      *Indicates glass tube cracked (usually from expansive forces), no reading
      possible in most cases.                                                  
PAC  EXAMPLE 5
PAR  Specimens were prepared as in Example 1 using high calcium lime to
      neutralize synthetic pickle liquor to above pH 12. These were placed in
      test assemblies as in Example 1 but were cured in sea water.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF SLUDGE/FLY                                      
     ASH MIXTURES                                                              
     Sludge Sludge  % Added   Sea Water                                        
     Type   pH      Fly Ash   2 weeks 4 weeks                                  
                                             8 weeks                           
     ______________________________________                                    
     Hi Cal 12+     0         0       0      0                                 
     Hi Cal 12+     10        0       0      0                                 
     Hi Cal 12+     20        0       Trace  4000                              
     Hi Cal 12+     50        2600    3600   5600                              
     Hi Cal 12+     75        2800*   *      *                                 
     Hi Cal 12+     100       2800*   *      *                                 
     ______________________________________                                    
      *Indicates glass tube cracked (usually from expansive forces), no reading
      possible in most cases.                                                  
PAC  EXAMPLE 6
PAR  Specimens were prepared as in Example 1 using high calcium hydrated lime to
      neutralize synthetic pickle liquor to above pH 12. These were placed in
      test assemblies as in Example 1 but were cured in synthetic mine effluent
      consisting of a water solution containing 300 ppm Fe.sup.++ and 75 ppm
      Al.sup.+++, adjusted to pH 3 with sulfuric acid.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     PENETRATION RESISTANCE OF SLUDGE/FLY                                      
     ASH MIXTURES                                                              
     Sludge Sludge  % Added   Mine Water                                       
     Type   pH      Fly Ash   2 weeks 4 weeks                                  
                                             8 weeks                           
     ______________________________________                                    
     Hi Cal 12+     0         0       0      0                                 
     Hi Cal 12+     10        0       0      0                                 
     Hi Cal 12+     20        0       0      1680                              
     Hi Cal 12+     50        1400    4600   4200                              
     Hi Cal 12+     75        1800    3600   4800                              
     Hi Cal 12+     100       2400*   * *                                      
     ______________________________________                                    
      *Indicates glass tube cracked (usually from expansive forces), no reading
      possible in most cases.                                                  
PAC  EXAMPLE 7
PAR  A synthetic pickle liquor including 150,000 ppm SO.sub.4.sup.-  ion and
      10,000 ppm Fe.sup.++ ion was prepared and divided into several portions.
      The portions were neutralized with dolomitic monohydrated lime to
      different pH's. The resulting sludge mixtures had pH's of 4, 8, and 12.
      Each of these wet sludges was mixed with a typical bituminous fly ash in
      five additive ratios. The compositions prepared were placed in 2 inch
      diameter glass tubes (6 inches long) which were capped at one end with
      nylon cloth held in place with a rubber band. These test assemblies were
      placed in separate aquaria (so that leaching effects of the extremely
      different pH's cause no side effects) containing 1 inch of deionized
      water. At the intervals indicated below the individual compositions were
      tested for resistance to penetration. Penetration resistance was measured
      as the effort in lbs/sq. in. required to force a 0.025 sq. inch rod 1 inch
      into the mix.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
                         Penetration Resistance                                
     Sludge    Fly ash   (psi)                                                 
     pH  weight, g weight, g 2 weeks 4 weeks 8 weeks                           
     ______________________________________                                    
     12  100       10        400     600     760                               
                   20        600     600     760                               
                   50        600     1000    1200                              
                   75        1200    1600    1720                              
                   100       1400    1600    2400                              
     8   100       10        0       0       0                                 
                   20        0       0       0                                 
                   50        0       0       520                               
                   75        0       0       520                               
                   100       600     600     1920                              
     4   100       10        0       0       0                                 
                   20        0       0       0                                 
                   50        0       0       0                                 
                   75        0       0       480                               
                   100       0       0       480                               
     ______________________________________                                    
PAC  EXAMPLE 8
PAR  A synthetic waste pickle liquor including 150,000 ppm SO.sub.4.sup.-  ion
      and 10,000 ppm Fe.sup.++ ion was prepared and divided into two parts.
      Parts were neutralized with either high calcium hydrated lime or dolomitic
      monohydrated lime to a pH of 12.4. Portions of the resulting sludges were
      mixed with varying quantities of a typical bituminous fly ash indicated in
      the table below. The resultant compositions were formed into 2 inch cubes
      using where possible those techniques described by ASTM. After moist
      curing for 14 and 28 days the cubes were broken in compression
      (unconfined). The table below gives the compressive strength data in
      lbs/sq. inch; in each case the result is the average of three specimens.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     SLUDGE/FLY ASH CUBE COMPRESSIVE                                           
     STRENGTH DATA                                                             
                    % fly ash Compressive Strength                             
     Type           Added to  (psi)                                            
     Sludge     pH      Sludge    14 days 28 days                              
     ______________________________________                                    
     High calcium                                                              
                12.4    10        17      39                                   
     High calcium                                                              
                12.4    20        57      138                                  
     High calcium                                                              
                12.4    50        324     441                                  
     High calcium                                                              
                12.4    75        783     1362                                 
     High calcium                                                              
                12.4    100       548     588                                  
     Dolomitic  12.4    10        22      58                                   
     Dolomitic  12.4    20        74      167                                  
     Dolomitic  12.4    50        373     718                                  
     Dolomitic  12.4    75        866     1780                                 
     Dolomitic  12.4    100       1776    2625                                 
     ______________________________________                                    
PAC  EXAMPLE 9
PAR  Samples of two waste sludges from a chemical processing plant were
      obtained; these had elemental analyses as noted in the first table, below.
PAR  These were adjusted to a pH of 12 with dolomitic monohydrated lime, and
      varying amounts of fly ash, as noted in the second table, were blended
      with the sludges. The resultant mixtures were placed in segments of
      stainless steel tubing 2 inches in diameter by 6 inches long which were
      capped at one end with nylon cloth held in place with a rubber band. The
      test assemblies were placed in 1 inch of deionized water in aquaria.
PAR  At varying intervals, as indicated in the second table, these specimens
      were tested for resistance to penetration (determined as resistance in
      lbs/sq. in.) required for penetration 1 inch into the specimen by a 0.025
      sq. in. rod.
PAR  Note specifically that certain of the specimens which, because of their
      high fly ash content, would have been damp sandy masses were modified with
      excess water to a pourable state.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     X-Ray Fluorescence Analysis Of Wet Basin and Dry                          
     Waste Samples                                                             
               Wet Basin   Dry Waste                                           
     ______________________________________                                    
     Pb          >5%           >5%                                             
     Ca          0.2-5.0%      0.2-5.0%                                        
     Ba          0.2-5.0%      0.2-5.0%                                        
     Fe          0.2-5.0%      0.2-5.0%                                        
     Al          0.2-5.0%      0.2-5.0%                                        
     Si          0.2-5.0%      0.2-5.0%                                        
     S           0.2-5.0%      0.2-5.0%                                        
     Ti          <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     Ni          <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     Cu          <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     Zn          <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     Mo          <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     Sb          <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     Sr          <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     P           <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     Cl          <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     K           <0.2%         <0.2%                                           
     % Solids    .apprxeq.21   .apprxeq.40                                     
     pH          .apprxeq.5    .apprxeq.6.5                                    
     ______________________________________                                    
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     CHEMICAL PLANT WASTE SLUDGES ADJUSTED                                     
     TO pH 12, WITH VARYING PROPORTIONS OF                                     
     FLY ASH                                                                   
     ______________________________________                                    
     Wet Basin                                                                 
                Penetration Resistance (psi)                                   
                  1 week    2 weeks    4 weeks                                 
     +20% Fly Ash 0         0          0                                       
     +50% Fly Ash 0         0          0                                       
     +75% Fly Ash 0         0          0                                       
     +100% Fly Ash                                                             
                  0         400        800                                     
     +125% Fly Ash                                                             
                  240       400        3000                                    
     +150% Fly Ash                                                             
                  960       3080       7200                                    
     The following compositions                                                
     were modified with excess                                                 
     water to a pourable state:                                                
     +125% Fly Ash                                                             
                  160       920        1680                                    
     +150% Fly Ash                                                             
                  160       1280       2000                                    
     Dry Waste                                                                 
                Penetration Resistance (psi)                                   
                  1 week    2 weeks    4 weeks                                 
     +20% Fly Ash 0         0          0                                       
     +50% Fly Ash 0         0          300                                     
     +75% Fly Ash 0         0          Trace                                   
     +100% Fly Ash                                                             
                  0         0          600                                     
     +125% Fly Ash                                                             
                  160       600        6800                                    
     +150% Fly Ash                                                             
                  680       1480       8000+                                   
     The following compositions                                                
     were modified with excess                                                 
     water to a pourable state:                                                
     +125% Fly Ash                                                             
                  560       8000+      8000+                                   
     +150% Fly Ash                                                             
                  800       8000+      8000+                                   
     ______________________________________                                    
PAC  EXAMPLE 10
PAR  The waste sludge from a hydrofluoric acid manufacturing process was found
      to be principally CaSO.sub.4 (commonly referred to as anhydrite) with only
      minor impurities. The moisture content was found to be approximately 15
      percent.
PAR  Penetration resistance specimens were prepared and tested as in the
      previous examples.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
                   1 week 2 weeks   4 weeks                                    
     ______________________________________                                    
     HF Sludge + 0% Fly Ash                                                    
                     0 psi    0 psi     0 psi                                  
     HF Sludge + 10% Fly Ash                                                   
                     0 psi    0 psi     0 psi                                  
     HF Sludge + 20% Fly Ash                                                   
                     0 psi    0 psi     0 psi                                  
     HF Sludge + 50% Fly Ash                                                   
                     400 psi  400 psi   400 psi                                
     HF Sludge + 75% Fly Ash                                                   
                     400 psi  1200 psi  2400 psi                               
     HF Sludge + 100% Fly Ash                                                  
                     0 psi    0 psi     600 psi                                
     ______________________________________                                    
PAC  EXAMPLE 11
PAR  The same waste sludge used in Example 10 (principally a CaSO.sub.4 sludge
      with only minor impurities and approximately 15 percent water content) was
      mixed with fly ash and water, then formed into 2 inch cubes. The mix
      composition was 1,000 g sludge, 750 g typical bituminous fly ash and 105
      mls deionized water. A laboratory Hobart N-50 mixer (similar to a kitchen
      mixer, but heavy duty) was used to blend the sludge and fly ash. The
      compositions were tamped into 2 inch cube molds of the type used for
      Portland Cement compressive strength testing. These were broken as for
      unconfined compressive strength; the results are tabulated below:
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     Curing Age        Compressive Strength                                    
     ______________________________________                                    
     1 week            765 psi                                                 
     2 weeks           883                                                     
     4 weeks           1475                                                    
     ______________________________________                                    
PAC  EXAMPLE 12
PAR  Cylinders 4 inches in diameter were prepared using the compositions listed
      below in conjunction with the following method: Dolomitic monohydrated
      lime, fly ash, sludge, (prepared as outlined in Examples 1 through 6) and
      graded dolomitic aggregate were dry mixed, then thoroughly mixed with
      approximately 8 percent water. The dampened material was formed into 4
      inch diameter cylinders using a 10 lb. rammer to compact each of its three
      layers. Formed specimens were cured in sealed containers at 100.degree. F
      for 7 days. At the end of this time they were saturated in water and were
      tested for unconfined compressive strength. The specific test procedure is
      ASTM C 593 (Specification for Fly Ash and Other Pozzolans for Use With
      Lime); the dolomitic aggregate used meets Pennsylvania Department of
      Highways Specification Section 703 Designation 2A.
TBL  ______________________________________                                    
     0.5% sludge solids neutralized to pH 7                                    
     with high calcium hydrated lime                                           
     1% dolomitic monohydrate                                                  
                           Strength: 192 psi                                   
     11.5% fly ash                                                             
     87% dolomitic aggregate                                                   
     0.5% sludge solids neutralized to pH 12                                   
     with high calcium hydrated lime                                           
     1% dolomitic monohydrate                                                  
                           Strength: 380 psi                                   
     11.% fly ash                                                              
     87% dolomitic aggregate                                                   
     0.5% sludge solids neutralized to pH 7                                    
     with dolomitic monohydrate                                                
     1% dolomitic monohydrate                                                  
                           Strength: 385 psi                                   
     11.5% fly ash                                                             
     87% dolomitic aggregate                                                   
     0.5% sludge solids neutralized to pH 12                                   
     with dolomitic monohydrate                                                
     1% dolomotic monohydrate                                                  
                           Strength: 470 psi                                   
     11.5% fly ash                                                             
     87% dolomitic aggregate                                                   
     ______________________________________                                    
PAC  EXAMPLE 13
PAR  Additional compositions were made utilizing the method of preparation and
      curing outlined in Example 12, and the same waste sludge as in Example 10.
      These results were as follows:
PAR  Mix A
PA1  Fly Ash - 28.0%
PA1  Graded Ottawa Sand - 72.0% - Compressive Strength: 63 psi
PAR  Mix B
PA1  1.5% sulfate sludge pH adjusted above 12 with dolomitic monohydrated lime
PA1  Fly Ash - 26.5%
PA1  Graded Ottawa Sand - 72.0% - Compressive Strength: 495 psi
PAC  EXAMPLE OF USE OF THE COMPOSITION OF PRESENT INVENTION
PAR  Typically, a composition consisting of about one part waste sludge and 0.5
      to 4 parts fly ash may be mixed in a pug mill type mixer.
PAR  Other reactive materials, such as alumina, sulfates, or lime, and
      aggregate, such as crushed stone, gravel, sand or soil, may also be
      included in the mix and water may be added to produce a damper or even
      pourable mixture. This composition would then be distributed over a
      placement site and if used damp could be compacted to produce, for
      example, a sub-surface which may then be overlaid with asphaltic concrete
      and immediately opened to traffic or other intended uses.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. The method of treating .Iadd.an .Iaddend.aqueous chemical waste
      .[.sludges.]. .Iadd.sludge including a sulfate compound
      .Iaddend.comprising adding to said .[.sludges.]. .Iadd.sludge
      .Iaddend.sufficient lime, .[.aluminum-containing material.]. .Iadd.fly ash
      .Iaddend.and water soluble sulfate compound to produce a composition
      having available sulfate ions, a second type of available ion selected
      from the group consisting of aluminum and ferric ions, the concentration
      of which is expressed in Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 equivalents, and a third type of
      available ions selected from the group consisting of calcium and
      magnesium, the concentration of which is expressed in CaO equivalents,
      wherein the composition, including available ions in said added lime,
      .[.aluminum-containing material.]. .Iadd.fly ash .Iaddend.and water
      soluble sulfate compounds includes at least 0.5 weight percent
      .[.--SO.sub.4 .]. .Iadd.(--SO.sub.4).sup.-2, .Iaddend.at least 0.2 weight
      percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and equivalents thereof, and at least 0.5 weight
      percent CaO and equivalents thereof, .Iadd.the fly ash being present in
      said composition in an amount of at least 20% by weight of the amount of
      sludge in said composition, said composition being cementitiously
      hardenable through chemical reactions the products of which include
      calcium sulfo-aluminate hydrate or calcium alumino-sulfate hydrate, and
      allowing said composition to harden by chemical reaction to develop
      penetration resistance therein under atmospheric conditions. .Iaddend.
      .[.
NUM  2.
PAR  2.  A method, as recited in claim 1, wherein said aluminum ion yielding
      material is fly ash..].
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A method, as recited in claim 1, wherein the weight ratios of available
      ions in said composition are in the range (Al.sup.+3 and Ca.sup.+2 include
      Al.sup.+3 and Ca.sup.+2 equivalents, respectively):
PA1  Al.sup.+3 :Ca.sup.+2 from 1:10 to 1:2
PA1  Al.sup.+3 :(SO.sub.4).sup.-2 from 1:2 to 1:10
PA1  Ca.sup.+2 :(SO.sub.4).sup.-2 from 1:2 to 2:1
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A method, as recited in claim 1, wherein said water soluble sulfate is
      calcium sulfate anhydrite, calcium sulfate hemihydrate, or calcium sulfate
      dihydrate.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A method, as recited in claim 1, wherein said sludge is the waste
      product of an acid making plant, said method consisting of adding lime and
      fly ash to obtain a composition as recited in claim 1.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A method, as recited in claim 1, wherein said sludge is the pickle
      liquor waste product of a steel plant, said method consisting of adding
      lime and fly ash to obtain a composition as recited in claim 1.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. A composition comprising the reaction product of an aqueous chemical
      waste sludge .Iadd.including a sulfate compound .Iaddend.and selected
      additive materials said additive materials being selected so that the
      total composition of said additive materials and said sludge includes
      .Iadd.fly ash in a proportion of at least 20% of said sludge,
      .Iaddend.available sulfate ions, a second type of available ion selected
      from the group consisting of aluminum and ferric ions, the concentration
      of which is expressed in Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 equivalents, and a third type of
      available ions selected from the group consisting of calcium and
      magnesium, the concentration of which is expressed in CaO equivalents,
      wherein the composition includes at least 0.5 weight percent .[.--SO.sub.4
      .]. .Iadd.(--SO.sub.4).sup.-2, .Iaddend.at least 0.2 weight percent
      Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and equivalents thereof, and at least 0.5 weight percent
      CaO and equivalents thereof, wherein the weight ratios of available ions
      in said composition are in the range (Al.sup.+3 and Ca.sup.+2 includes
      Al.sup.+3 and Ca.sup.+2 equivalents, respectively):
PA1  Al.sup.+3 :Ca.sup.+2 from 1:10 to tol: 2
PA1  Al.sup.+3 :(SO.sub.4).sup.-2 from 1:2 to 1:10
PA1  Ca.sup.+2 :(SO.sub.4).sup.-2 from 1:2 to 2:1, .Iadd.
PAL  said composition, prior to reaction, being cementitiously hardenable
      through chemical reactions the products of which include calcium
      sulfo-aluminate hydrate or calcium alumino-sulfate hydrate, and allowing
      said composition to harden by chemical reaction to develop penetration
      resistance therein under atmospheric conditions. .Iaddend. .[.8. A
      composition, as recited in claim 7, wherein said aluminum ions yielding
PAR   material is fly ash..]. 9. A composition as recited in claim 7, wherein
PAR   said sludge is the waste product of an acid making plant. 10. A
      composition as recited in claim 7, wherein said sludge is the pickle
PAR   liquor waste product of a steel plant. 11. The method of making a
      cementitious composition comprising adding .[.the.]. .Iadd.to an
      .Iaddend.aqueous chemical waste .[.sludges.]. .Iadd.sludge including a
      sulfate compound, .Iaddend.sufficient lime, .[.aluminum-containing
      materials.]. .Iadd.fly ash .Iaddend.and water soluble sulfate compound to
      produce a composition having available sulfate ions, a second type of
      available ions selected from the group consisting of aluminum and iron
      ions, the concentration of which is expressed in Al.sub.2 O.sub.3
      equivalents, and a third type of available ions selected from the group
      consisting of calcium and magnesium, the concentration of which is
      expressed in CaO equivalents, wherein the composition includes at least
      0.5 weight percent .[.--SO.sub.4 .]. .Iadd.(SO.sub.4).sup.-2 .Iaddend. at
      least 0.2 weight percent Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 and equivalents thereof, and at
      least 0.5 weight percent CaO and equivalents thereof, .Iadd.the fly ash
      being present in said composition in an amount of at least 20% by weight
      of the amount of sludge in said composition, said composition being
      cementitiously hardenable through chemical reactions the products of which
      include calcium sulfo-aluminate hydrate or calcium alumino-sulfate
      hydrate, and allowing said composition to harden by chemical reaction to
      develop penetration resistance therein under atmospheric conditions.
      .Iaddend. .[.12. A method, as recited in claim 11, wherein said aluminum
PAR   ion yielding material is fly ash..]. 13. A method, as recited in claim 11,
      wherein the weight ratios of available ions in said composition are in the
      range (Al.sup.+3 and Ca.sup.+2 include Al.sup.+2 and Ca.sup.+2 equivalents
      respectively):
PA1  Al.sup.+3 :Ca.sup.+2 from 1:10 to 1:2
PA1  Al.sup.+3 :(SO.sub.4).sup.-2 from 1:2 to 1:10
PAR  Ca.sup.+2 :(SO.sub.4).sup.-2 from 1:2 to 2:1 14. A method, as recited in
      claim 11, wherein said water soluble sulfate is calcium sulfate anhydrite,
PAR   calcium sulfate hemihydrate, or calcium sulfate dihydrate. 15. A method,
      as recited in claim 11, wherein said sludge is the waste product of an
      acid making plant, said method consisting of adding lime and fly ash to
PAR   obtain a composition as recited in claim 11. 16. A method, as recited in
      claim 11, wherein said sludge is the pickle liquor waste product of a
      steel plant, said method consisting of adding lime and fly ash to obtain a
      composition as recited in claim 11. .Iadd. 17. A method, as recited in
      claim 11, wherein said composition is damp and compactible.
      .Iaddend..Iadd. 18. A method, as recited in claim 11, wherein said
      composition is pourable. .Iaddend..Iadd. 19. A method, as recited in claim
      11, wherein the ratio of calcium and magnesium ions in said composition to
      sulfate ions in said composition is in the range of from 2:1 to 1:2.
      .Iaddend..Iadd. 20. A method, as recited in claim 1, wherein said
      composition includes from 0.5 to 4 parts fly ash per part sludge (by
      weight). .Iaddend..Iadd. 21. A composition, a recited in claim 7, wherein,
      prior to reaction, said composition includes from 0.5 to 4 parts fly ash
      per part sludge (by weight). .Iaddend..Iadd. 22. A method, as recited in
      claim 11, wherein said composition includes from 0.5 to 4 parts fly ash
      per part sludge (by weight). .Iaddend.
PATN
WKU  RE0297844
SRC  5
APN  4839722
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  213
APD  19740628
TTL  Thermal dissipating metal core printed circuit board
ISD  19780926
NCL  8
ECL  1
EXP  Grimley; Arthur T.
NDR  5
NFG  18
INVT
NAM  Chadwick; Donald H.
CTY  Northbridge
STA  CA
INVT
NAM  Apodaca; Ruben T.
CTY  Inglewood
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  International Electronics Research Corp.
CTY  Burbank
STA  CA
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  772672
APD  19681101
PNO  03514538
ISD  19700526
RLAP
COD  71
APN  370792
APD  19730618
PSC  03
RLAP
COD  81
APN  131102
APD  19710405
PSC  03
CLAS
OCL  174 685
EDF  2
ICL  H05K  100
FSC  174
FSS  68.5;52 PE;153 R
FSC  317
FSS  101 B;101 C;101 CC;100
FSC  204
FSS  15
FSC  156
FSS  3;150
FSC   29
FSS  625;626;627
UREF
PNO  2768293
ISD  19561000
NAM  Kepple et al.
XCL   74 68.5
UREF
PNO  2848359
ISD  19580800
NAM  Talmey
XCL  174 68.5
UREF
PNO  2940018
ISD  19600700
NAM  Lee
XCL  174 68.5
UREF
PNO  3155770
ISD  19640300
NAM  Hollenden et al.
OCL  174153R
UREF
PNO  3206342
ISD  19630900
NAM  Briggs
XCL  174 68.5
UREF
PNO  3264524
ISD  19660800
NAM  Dahlgren et al.
XCL  174 68.5
UREF
PNO  3296099
ISD  19670100
NAM  Dinella
XCL  174 68.5
UREF
PNO  3652333
ISD  19720300
NAM  Warren
XCL  174 68.5
FREF
PNO  892,451
ISD  19620300
CNT  GBX
ABST
PAL  A metal core printed circuit board which includes multiple layers of
      synthetic plastic resin material on a sheet of metal, and wherein the
      surface of the plastic material is of such character that it provides an
      acceptable bond on which are built up sundry layers of different metals,
      the innermost layer on the plastic surface and the other layers positioned
      one upon another, ultimately comprising a built up circuit pattern, and
      wherein areas intermediate the circuit pattern comprise an exposed surface
      of the resin material.
PARN
PAR  This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 370,792, filed
      June 18, 1973 now abandoned, which was a continuation of reissue Ser. No.
      131,102, filed Apr. 5, 1971 now abandoned.
BSUM
PAR  Due to the fact that printed circuits are necessarily electrically
      conducting metallic lines applied to some appropriate surface, the surface
      upon which such lines are placed must be electrically nonconducting.
PAR  Heretofore the practice almost universally pervalent has been to make use
      of a board or sheet which itself is of nonconducting material, the surface
      of that material being one on which metal lines have been printed and
      built up to a sufficient thickness throughout the circuit pattern to
      provide a mechanically stable circuit, and wherein those portions
      intermediate the circuit pattern have been etched away to leave only the
      circuit pattern.
PAR  Although circuit boards possessed of a core comprising a sheet of naturally
      electrically nonconducting material have been widely used and have been
      highly effective, they lack the desirable property of being capable of
      quickly and effectively dissipating heat which is generated by components
      in the circuit when the apparatus in which they are used is operated. This
      situation has progressively become more critical as circuits and
      components have become smaller, especially those of micro-miniature size,
      in that compaction of the components and circuits into increasingly
      smaller spaces diminishes the amount of space available around them for
      the circulation of cooling whereby to keep the temperature of the
      electrical apparatus when operating at a desirable minimum.
PAR  In recent years some developers have undertaken to make use of metal cores
      for circuit boards. Typical developments have materialized in the issue of
      certain patents among which are: Eisler, 2,706,697; Gellert, 3,165,672;
      Dinella, 3,296,099.
PAR  Although the developments mentioned have undertaken to make use of some
      form of dielectric material for coating the surfaces of the metallic sheet
      or core, dielectric materials which heretofore have been made use of have
      been hard to handle, difficult to apply in a manner assuring an adequate
      bond and hard to prepare in such fashion that the electric circuit
      pattern, once applied to them, will be durable as well as precisely
      dependable, to the degree required by complex electronic circuitry. The
      high expense of adequately treating a metallic board to accept a
      satisfactory circuit pattern has been an additional deterring factor.
      Other difficulties have been experienced when the metallic sheet has been
      drilled and fabricated, as for example, insulating the walls of holes
      drilled through the metallic sheet sufficient to avoid shortcircuiting of
      electric leads from electric components passed through the board.
PAR  A still further obstacle to the design of a metal core printed circuit
      board has been the difficulty of having components in close enough contact
      with the circuit board so that heat generated in the components can pass
      readily to the metal core, serving in such instances as a heat sink, and
      at the same time have the components adequately insulated electrically
      from the electrically conducting metal core.
PAR  It is therefore an object of the invention to provide a new and improved
      metal core printed circuit board which is provided with an especially
      adequate layer of electrically insulating but thermally conducting coating
      of such character that a circuit pattern is applied to the coating in a
      dependable fashion whereby to result in a finished circuit board of
      precision character and capable of long life.
PAR  Still another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved
      metal core printed circuit board to the metal surface of which are applied
      multiple films of a synthetic plastic resin material wherein the resin is
      such that it will be tough and durable where left exposed, providing
      adequate electrically insulating properties, an which also is thin enough
      to pass heat, generated by components in the circuit, readily through the
      resin to the metal core to be carried away by conduction as the primary
      mode of heat transfer, notwithstanding the benefits of radiation and
      convection modes.
PAR  Still another object of the invention is to provide a new and improved
      metal core printed circuit board wherein the resin surface is in a special
      condition providing a keying bond between an initial metallic layer and
      the resin surface so that a hard, fast, durable and permanent bond will be
      achieved.
PAR  With these and other objects in view, the invention consists in the
      construction, arrangement, and combination of the various parts of the
      device, whereby the objects contemplated are attained, as hereinafter set
      forth and illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
DRWD
PAR  In the drawings:
PAR  FIG. 1 is a fragmentary perspective view of a metal core subsequent to
      drilling and machining.
PAR  FIG. 2 is a fragmentary perspective view partially broken away showing the
      metal core after application thereto of an insulating coating, on line 2-2
      of FIG. 1.
PAR  FIG. 3 is a fragmentary perspective view on the line 3-3 of FIG. 2, after
      the step of mechanical etching.
PAR  FIG. 4 is a fragmentary perspective view on the line 4-4 of FIG. 3 showing
      the condition of the insulating coating after the chemical etch.
PAR  FIG. 5 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view of the coating in a condition
      of the step following FIG. 4. FIG. 6 is a fragmentary view of the
      insulating coating after a nucleating step.
PAR  FIG. 7 is a cross-sectional view showing the material in the same condition
      as in FIG. 6.
PAR  FIG. 8 is a fragmentary cross-sectional view showing the insulating coating
      after application of the first nickel layer is complete.
PAR  FIG. 9 is a perspective view partially in section showing the condition of
      the board after initial build-up of all of the layers of material.
PAR  FIG. 10 is a perspective view partially in section similar to FIG. 9
      illustrting the step following that shown in FIG. 9.
PAR  FIG. 11 is a perspective view partially in section similar to FIG. 10
      wherein the build-up of the line of the circuit pattern has been
      completed.
PAR  FIGS. 12 and 13 show fragmentary perspective views partially broken away
      similar to FIG. 11 illustrating successive steps for producing the
      finished circuit pattern which is illustrated in FIG. 13.
PAR  FIG. 14 is a cross-sectional view on the line 14-14 of FIG. 13 showing the
      build-up of materials in one of the holes.
PAR  FIG. 15 is a perspective view partially in section similar to FIG. 10 but
      wherein a different method is employed for applying the circuit pattern.
PAR  FIGS. 16 and 17 are perspective views partially in section similar to FIG.
      15 but showing respective successive steps in the production of the
      circuit pattern and removal of materials therebetween.
PAR  FIG. 18 is a fragmentary perspective view of a finished circuit board.
DETD
PAR  In an embodiment of the invention chosen for the purpose of illustration,
      there will be described a metal core printed circuit board which has an
      electrically conducting printed circuit pattern on both sides of the
      board, the circuit pattern being interconnected by means of conducting
      metal extending through holes in the board. It will be understood,
      however, that the technique which produces the product is readily
      applicable to a single surface where a single circuit pattern on one side
      is sufficient.
PAR  Customarily, the thickness of a printed circuit board is assumed to be the
      over-all finished thickness of the composite board, after the circuit
      pateern has been applied. For that reason the sheet of material, which in
      this instance is a metal sheet, is made slightly smaller than the expected
      finished thickness to allow a build-up of lines on one or both sides which
      will ultimately determine the finished thickness. Quite commonly, a
      finished printed circuit board is one which is 1/32 of an inch thick.
      Other thicknesses are prevalent, however, but irrespective of the relative
      thickness of the finished board, the process herein described of preparing
      it and applying to it an electrically conductive circuit is substantially
      the same.
PAR  In the chosen embodiment, where the finished board is to be 1/32 inch
      thick, the initial metal sheet should be approximately 0.025 inch thick to
      allow for the build-up of the sundry layers of material. Other sheets may
      be double, triple or even four times as thick in actual practice or may be
      thinner. Board thicknesses of less than 0.025 inch can be processed. The
      limiting factor is hole size to board thickness ratio. Processing has been
      limited to a finished hole of 0.020 inch in a 0.25 inch thick substrate.
      The nature of the electrically nonconducting coating application is such
      that hole diameters greater than 0.020 inch would allow thinner substrates
      to be used.
PAR  The metal sheet is preferably of aluminum because of its toughness, its
      thermal conducting ability, and other physical attributes which make it
      readily workable. Other kinds of metal however will also serve. A metal
      sheet 10 is initially trimmed to size and then drilled so as to provide
      the holes 11 which will be needed to interconnect circuit patterns on
      opposite sides of the sheet and also to permit the wire leads from
      electric components mounted on one side of the board to be extended
      through the board and electrically connected to a circuit pattern on the
      opposite side. In the sheet 10 only some of the holes 11 are shown and it
      should be understood that the precise location of the holes is coded so
      that when the printed circuit pattern is ultimately applied, it will
      encompass the holes in their initially drilled position.
PAR  It is also desirable to fabricate the sheet before any succeeding step is
      undertaken. This means deburring the holes 11 previously referred to and
      also preparing any other slots, cuts or sundry configurations, like for
      example the slot 12, the cutout portion 13, and the cutoff corner 14.
      These cutout portions are referred to merely by way of example, since each
      different circuit board will in all expectation be individually tailored
      to fit the cabinet in which it will be ultimately used.
PAR  Following fabrication, the sheet is etched in a caustic solution and then
      anodized. Anodizing amounts to a chemical surface treatment, the object
      being to make use of a treatment which will chemically clean the surface
      upon which subsequent applications of materials are to be made. Anodizing
      is a suitable surface preparation for aluminum, chemical conversion
      coatings such as the various chromate conversion films such as Iridite are
      suitable. Other metals such as copper, copper alloys, titanium, steel,
      magnesium, lithium-magnesium alloys or other base metals or alloys would
      require other or similar surface preparations to provide a receptive
      surface to promote coating adhesion to the metal substrate.
PAR  The sheet is now ready for application of an electrically nonconducting
      coating 15 which, in the present instance, is a coating of such character
      as to be capable of offering relatively a minimum amount of resistance to
      the transfer of heat to the sheet. In the chosen example, both sides of
      the sheet 10 are coated whereby to provide for the application of a
      circuit pattern to both sides. Initially, a primer is applied to both
      sides or surfaces of the sheet and over the primer are applied multiple
      successive, relatively thin coats of a synthetic plastic resin material
      containing an appropriate hardener, the consistency of which is thin
      enough so that each successive coat will be a very thin coat. While the
      actual number of successive coats of the synthetic plastic resin material
      is not critical, it has been found in practice that there should not be
      less than three coats and that as many as ten coats may be found desirable
      to achieve the needed physical, electrically nonconductive and thermally
      conductive properties which will be needed in the finished printed circuit
      board of the quality sought. It will be understood that the same multiple
      coats of synthetic plastic resin material will also be applied to the
      walls of the holes 11 which have been drilled through the board. A
      synthetic plastic resin material which is especially advantageous is
      polyurethane resin and a primer of desirable characteristics is a
      catalized primer such as described in MIL-P-15328B or MIL-P-24504A.
PAR  After the multiple layers of resin have been built up, the composite sheet,
      coated as described, is stabilized. Stabilization in the present instance
      contemplates heat curing at temperatures of from 150.degree. to
      220.degree. C. for a period of about 72 hours. Curing as described
      stabilizes the resin and also makes it appreciably dense. In practice, it
      has been found that a curing such as that herein recommended produces a
      coating layer, the ultimate thickness of which is about 50% to 60% of the
      thickness when initially applied.
PAR  Since the synthetic plastic resin is depended upon to electrically insulate
      the metal core or sheet of metal material from the metallic lines of the
      circuit pattern and also to provide a base upon which the circuit pattern
      is to be built, it will be appreciated that the coating of the resin
      material must be durable and must also be one which will be compatible to
      a build-up of materials on it in such a manner that the materials when
      built upon it will be mechanically stable and not readily damaged or
      removed.
PAR  A multiple step procedure is found advantageous to prepare the surface of
      the synthetic plastic resin for the process. Initially, the surface of the
      coating 15, which in the present instance means the surface on both sides
      of the sheet, is sandblasted, preferably with No. 220 garnet particles and
      at a pressure of 50 to 100 pounds per square inch. Sandblasting
      mechanically creates a multiplicity of pockets 16, 17, 18 etc. throughout
      the surface, the pockets being of various shapes and sizes depending in
      part upon the size of the garnet particles, in part upon the pressure, and
      in part upon the concentration of particles when the sandblasting takes
      place.
PAR  After the sandblasting has been completed, the board is thoroughly cleaned,
      as for example, by a spray rinse or mechanical scrubbing, followed by
      application of an alkaline cleaner to remove any possible oils or greases
      which may have accumulated on the surface, followed by a clear water
      rinse. The next step is to chemically etch the mechanically etched
      surface. An acceptable chemical etch is a chromic type mixture in solution
      which is capable of eating into the resin material. The purpose of the
      chemical etching step is to form smaller pits in the bottoms of the
      pockets 16, 17, 18 etc. formed by the mechanical etching step as shown by
      the reference characters 16', 17', 18' etc. so that they are more capable
      of retaining materials which may be deposited into them and so that they
      will provide a keying effect for a material buildup. In practice, the
      surface of the resin is normally nonwettable and the successive etching
      steps hereinabove described are for the purpose of making it temporarily
      wettable for application of subsequently applied materials.
PAR  An acceptable chromic type mixture solution capable of chemically etching
      the mechanically etched surface of resin to a desirable degree consists of
      the following: Niklad #230 Etchant.
PAR  Following the successive etching steps, the coating is sensitized. This in
      the present disclosure comprises subjecting the coated board to a bath of
      "noble" metal salts, namely metallic salts in which agents are present to
      cause the metal from the salts, that is to say pure metal, to deposit on
      the surface and especially to deposit in the pockets 16', 17', 18' etc.
      which were created by the mechanical etch step followed by the chemical
      etch step. The effect of sensitizing as described is to cause tiny seeds
      20 or pure metal to accumulate in the pockets created initially by the
      mechanical etch and subsequently enlarged.
PAR  A satisfactory "noble" metal is palladium in the form of palladium
      chloride. This is a solution having a pH of from 0.01 to 5 for example.
      Palladium is one of the more stable and long lasting of the noble metal
      salts. Although in fact expensive, such a relatively small quantity is
      needed to sinsitize a composite coated sheet of the kind described that
      the relatively high cost of metal is not a determining factor.
PAR  Following the deposit of the tiny metallic seeds 20 in the pockets,
      build-up of layers or films of materials on the surface of the resin
      commences. An initial step is to nucleate the surface prepared in the
      manner heretofore described. This means to interconnect the metal seeds 20
      of palladium, which have been deposited in the pockets. An acceptable
      material for this interconnection has been found to be nickel in the form
      of a nickel salt solution using a boron reduction system. Other solutions
      are also acceptable, as for example, those described in Pats. 2,532,283,
      .Badd..[.2,767,723.]..Baddend. .Iadd.2,762,723 .Iaddend.and 2,935,425.
      What is accomplished by the foregoing step is to commence a growth 21 of
      nickel upon the seeds 20 left by the sensitizing step so that the nickel
      growing as described fills the pockets and expands over the outside edges
      of the pockets over the surface of the resin material.
PAR  In practice it is a growth in patches 22 within which are appreciable bare
      spots 23. Hence to nucleate alone will not provide a dependable nickel
      surface over the entire resin material. Consequently, the nucleating step
      is immediately followed by an electroless nickel deposit. This means
      subjecting the previously nucleated surface to an electroless nickel bath
      of a more rapid plating rate to build up thickness sufficient for
      electrical conductivity, namely a layer 25.
PAR  The layer of nickel 25 is from about 10 to about 50 millionths of an inch
      thick. The nickel covered board is then dipped in a weak acid for cleaning
      purposes. Such a weak acid being, for example, 2 to 10% sulfuric acid
      solution. Following this treatment the board is again rinsed.
PAR  Different types of markets demand ultimately different types of printed
      circuit boards. One type of market can be met by providing a board the
      circuit pattern of which is formed, built up, and cleared in accordance
      with the following procedure.
PAR  The layer of nickel 25 formed, as previously described, is subjected to a
      copper strike. This consists of building up a film 26 of copper upon the
      nickel to a depth of 20 to 100 millionths of an inch by making use of a
      copper pyrophosphate bath or other suitable strike bath. Such a bath
      results in the deposit of only a very small amount of copper but does not
      produce a copper film wherein there is good adhesion. After the copper
      strike which resiults in providing a film of copper over the entire
      surface, the surface of the copper is cleaned. In production it has been
      found that, if semi-finished raw materials are to be inventoried in
      quantity, the semi-finished material can best be handled by carrying the
      process through to the end of the copper strike, after which the boards
      may be stored. If there is no need for storage, then a cleaning step will
      follow the application of the copper strike immediately rather than at
      some future date when the inventoried boards are to be used.
PAR  The succeeding step is an electroplating step wherein a second layer 27 of
      nickel is electroplated to the copper strike, as for example, by
      employment of a nickel sulfamate bath. Nickel plating over the copper
      strike serves the purpose of forming a barrier film to prevent dissolution
      of the electroless nickel deposit by the copper electroplating bath.
PAR  From here on, if the board is to be shifted from one tank to another, the
      next step will be a 2% to 10% sulfuric acid rinse which, however, may be
      omitted when the process is to be carried on continuously in the same
      tank. The exposed surface of the second nickel layer 27 is then subjected
      to a pyro-copper strike, this being accomplished by immersing the board,
      coated to the extent that it has now become, in a pyrophosphate copper
      solution for about 30 to 90 seconds, to build up a layer 28 of thickness
      of about 10 to 50 millionths of one inch of copper of the type referred
      to.
PAR  Pyrophosphate copper is then plated on the pyro-copper strike by
      electroplating in a pyrophosphate copper solution long enough to build up
      the required thickness. The thicker built up pyrophosphate copper layer is
      identified by the reference character 29. Following the copper build-up
      the board is cleaned with pure water and by physically scrubbing the board
      with a mild abrasive, followed then by a spray rinse. After cleaning, the
      surface of the pyrophosphate copper is subjected to a mild etch of
      ammonium persulfate.
PAR  The built up multiple metal layers are now ready for application of a
      resist 30 which, in terms of the trade, means a light-sensitive or
      photo-sensitive, emulsion. After the emulsion is coated on, it is cured,
      using care not to expose the coating to ultraviolet light.
PAR  In the first described method sequence, the photo-resist or light-sensitive
      emulsion is next covered by a photographic negative (not shown) and the
      surface of the photo-resist exposed to ultraviolet light. This creates a
      circuit pattern 31 (FIG. 18) which means a pattern of lines 32, 33 etc.
      which will ultimately be the conducting lines of an electric circuit. In
      this step the electric circuit is a positive image. Where the ultraviolet
      light has hit the area of the photo-resist, the photo-resist will be
      hardened and resistant to plating solutions, clean-up solvents and
      solvents in general. The lines 32, 33, however, which are created by the
      positive of the image, which will be the lines where the circuit is to be
      traced, are not subjected to the ultraviolet light and will remain soft.
PAR  Following exposure to create the circuit pattern 31, the surface is dipped
      in a developing solvent. The developer dissolves the lines which
      constitute the surface pattern, the photo-resist in that line pattern
      being washed away and exposing the pyrophosphate copper 29 beneath it. The
      remaining coating is dyed so that the operator will have something which
      can be visually inspected for imperfections. After such inspection by the
      operator, excess developer is washed off as by a spray rinse, the surface
      then hving the water dried from it, and subsequently cured in an oven at a
      temperature of, for example, 100.degree. C., for up to 1/2 hour in time.
      The step last described produces a hard surface on the board which can be
      handled. It is now time for touching up pin holes which may exist in the
      conducting circuit pattern, physical imperfections, damage, defects in the
      negative, dust particles falling upon the pattern, and perhaps other
      defects. The touch-up is done by use of a paint brush to paint on a
      compatible material such as an asphalt or vinyl paint.
PAR  Now that the circuit pattern consists of recessed lines 32' etc. which
      reveal bare pyrophosphate copper, they are in condition to have applied
      thereto another unlike or different metal. Commonly, an acceptable unlike
      metal is a tin-lead mixture which is applied in layers 35 to the exposed
      pyrophosphate copper to a thickness of 0.0005 to 0.0003 inch. Another
      acceptable metal is gold, except that when gold is used, applied to the
      exposed pyrophosphate copper, the thickness will be built up only 80 to
      100 millionths of an inch.
PAR  Once the exposed pyrophosphate copper circuit pattern 31 has been covered
      with the unlike metal 35, the resist is then removed from the spaces
      intermediate the lines of the circuit pattern. This is accomplished in a
      conventional manner by use of what is commonly called a "resist stripper."
      After the resist has been removed as described, the surface is cleaned by
      a spray rinse to be centain that no resist remains. Removing the resist
      lays bare the surface of pyrophosphate copper 29 over all portions except
      those where the overlying unlike metal, such as tin-lead, has been
      applied. Throughout all of the preceding steps it should be borne in mind
      that the metallic layers are being built up on the walls of the holes
      which go through the sheet as well as on the surface or surfaces of the
      sheet. Where there are circuit pattern lines on both sides, the multiple
      layers of metal build-up will coat the wall of each hole 11 and form a
      bridge or connection between the lines of the surface pattern on one
      surface of the sheet and lines of the surface pattern on the other surface
      of the sheet, as shown in FIG. 14.
PAR  With the resist having been removed from intermediate areas 37 of
      pyrophosphate copper, the composite sheet is then ready for etching.
      Etching may take place in an appropriate bath, as for example, a ferric
      chloride solution, an ammonium persulfate solution, or a chromic-sulphonic
      acid solution. The selection of the solution will depend upon what the
      overplating or overlying unlike metal is on the board. For example, if the
      unlike metal were tin-lead, then a chromic-sulphuric solution would be
      used. If gold were the unlike metal, then a ferric chloride solution would
      be used. Although ferric chloride solution is cheaper, such a ferric
      chloride solution would not be used where the unlike material is tin-lead
      because ferric chloride would affect the lead and destroy the overplating.
      Etching as described takes away all of the copper and the nickel layers
      and leaves the lines 32, 33 etc. of the circuit pattern 31 on the surface
      by themselves. The etching away clears all of the spaces between the lines
      32, 33 etc. of all metals leaving only the bare surface of the synthetic
      plastic resin coating 15.
PAR  The composite printed circuit board is then cleaned to the extent of
      cleaning of the entire surface so that all acids and/or salts have been
      neutralized and removed, and the product is then ready for use by having
      appropriate electronic components (not shown) applied thereto, and leads
      (not shown) extended through the holes 11 and soldered to the lines of the
      circuit pattern on the opposite side of the sheet.
PAC  SILK SCREEN PROCESS
PAR  In a second form of the invention the circuit pattern may be applied by
      means of a silk screen process. In this form of the invention, the steps
      of the process already described are followed partially through, to and
      including the pyrophosphate copper strike and pyrophosphate copper
      build-up followed by the customary cleaning by physically scrubbing the
      board with a mild abrasive and spray rinse followed by a mild etch using a
      material such as ammonium persulfate. At this point the process changes in
      that resist is applied by a conventional silk screen process in such a
      manner that the circuit pattern is left bare with the exposed surface of
      pyrophosphate copper build-up defining the circuit pattern whereas the
      resist, applied by means of the silk screen process fills the spaces
      intermediate the lines of the circuit pattern. A cross-sectional view of
      the build-up of layers at this stage will be similar to that of FIG. 9
      except for the build-up having been arrived at without the step of
      printing from a photographic negative and washing off the resist from the
      circuit pattern.
PAR  Thereafter the overplating or application of unlike metal such as tin-lead
      or gold to the exposed pyrophosphate copper is carried on in the same
      manner as previously described, followed by removal of the resist and
      subsequent etching away of the metal layers initially covered by the
      resist, down to but not through the coating of resin.
PAC  THIN COPPER PROCESS
PAR  In still another form of the invention which is somewhat more economical of
      materials and process time, the initially described steps of the process
      are repeated up to and through the pyrophosphate copper strike over the
      nickel plating. By this third form there is in fact a pyrocopper film or
      layer applied but the strike is not followed up at this point by a
      build-up in thickness of pyrophosphate copper.
PAR  Thereafter the board is cleaned as previously described by scrubbing the
      board with a mild abrasive, then spray rinsing followed by a mild etch
      using, for example ammonium persulfate, or in other words, cleaning and
      deoxidizing. The photo-resist is then applied to the thin layer of
      pyrophosphate copper strike, the emulsion cured as heretofore described,
      and then exposed to ultraviolet light through a negative, thereby to
      create a positive circuit pattern on the resist. In the alternative at
      this point, the positive circuit pattern may be created by the silk screen
      process, previously described, wherein the areas intermediate the circuit
      pattern are filled with a resist leaving the pyrophosphate copper exposed
      in the circuit pattern. Again the process throughout all of the steps
      heretofore defined takes place inside of the holes on the walls of the
      holes, as well as on the surfaces.
PAR  Here again the resist is dried, cured and the circuit pattern touched up as
      previously described.
PAR  In this third form of the invention, the material is cleaned in a mild
      alkaline solution, as for example, to remove fingerprints and comparable
      blemishes, and activated, as for example, by means of a deoxidizing step
      with ammonium persulfate solution. In either of the alternatives, last
      made reference to, the pyrophosphate copper material is laid bare in a
      receptive condition in the circuit pattern so that the next step which is
      the build-up step for the pyrophosphate copper can take place only in the
      circuit pattern. In other words, the copper build-up is confined to the
      circuit pattern and not to the entire surface of the board.
PAR  Following the build-up the circuit pattern is overplated much as previously
      described with another unlike metal, tin-lead or gold, in the example
      chosen for illustration.
PAR  The resist is then removed by employment of a substantially conventional
      resist stripper thereby to bare the surface of the thin layer 28 of
      pyrophosphate copper strike which heretofore has been located beneath the
      resist. The surface is then cleaned by spray rinse, for example, to be
      sure that all resist is completely removed and the cleaning followed by
      etching. Although the etching step for this form of the process is similar
      to that initially described, wherein ferric chloride or ammonium
      persulfate or chromic sulphuric acid is suggested, depending upon the
      metal used for the overplate, the etching requirement is less strenuous in
      that only a very thin layer 28 of pyrophosphate copper need be removed by
      etching instead of a built up thickness like the layer 29. Thereafter, as
      etching progresses, the copper strike 26 first applied is removed and the
      layer 25 of electroless nickel baring as previously the surface of the
      resin coating 15 which is left intact.
PAR  From the foregoing description it will be appreciated that in the last
      decribed form of the invention several saving features are taken advantage
      of. The pyrophosphate copper is built up only in the circuit pattern,
      thereby saving appreciably in the application of the copper, and in the
      etching step only a very thin film of pyrophosphate copper needs to be
      etched away. Despite these savings, the circuit pattern itself and all
      lines of it are built up to the same desirable degree and structure as in
      the initially described form of the process.
PAR  While the invention has herein been shown and described in what is
      conceived to be a practical and effective embodiment, it is recognized
      that departures may be made therefrom within the scope of the invention.
CLMS
STM  Having described the invention, what is claimed as new in support of
      Letters Patent is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A metal core printed circuit board comprising
PA1  a sheet of metal having a thickness slightly less than the thickness of a
      standard complete printed circuit board,
PA1  a base film of synthetic plastic resin forming a coating extending over at
      least one surface of said sheet, said coating having a roughened surface
      texture comprising a multiplicity of keying depressions,
PA1  a circuit pattern on said coating comprising conducting metallic lines,
PA1  said metallic lines comprising a base layer of nickel in keyed bonded
      engagement with said coating and the depresions therein, a film of copper
      in electroplated engagement with said nickel, an outer layer of nickel in
      electroplated engagement with said film of copper, a layer of
      pyrophosphate copper in bonded engagement with said last identified layer
      of nickel, and an overlying layer of metal unlike said copper and nickel
      in adhesive engagement with said pyrophosphate copper, there being spaces
      between said conducting metallic lines wherein said coating is exposed and
      said metal core is covered by said coating.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A metal core printed circuit board as in claim 1 wherein said base layer
      of nickel comprises a nickel deposit having initially applied portions in
      said keyed bonded relationship with the coating and other subsequently
      applied portions extending between said initially applied portions.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A metal core printed circuit board as in claim 1 wherein holes extend
      through the metal core and said coating extends throughout walls of said
      holes.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A metal core printed circuit board as in claim 3 wherein said holes
      communicate with said conducting metallic lines and portions of the
      material comprising said conducting metallic lines extend into the holes
      and are secured to the walls of said holes.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A metal core printed circuit board as in claim 1 wherein said coating
      and said circuit pattern is on both sides of said sheet.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A metal core printed circuit board as in claim 5 wherein holes through
      the sheet interconnect with the circuit pattern on both sides of the sheet
      and portions of the material comprising said conducting metallic lines
      extend through the holes and interconnect said lines.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. A metal core printed circuit board as in claim 1 wherein said base film
      comprises a plurality of layers of successively applied films of heat
      cured polyurethane resin .[.separated by a primer.]. .Iadd.and wherein
      only the layer of resin nearest the metal is separated from the metal by a
      primer. .Iaddend.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. A metal core printed circuit board as in claim 7 wherein there are not
      less than six layers of said resin.
PATN
WKU  RE0297852
SRC  5
APN  8041199
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  212
APD  19770606
TTL  Replaceable element ultrasonic flowmeter transducer
ISD  19780926
NCL  2
ECL  1
EXP  Budd; Mark O.
NDR  1
NFG  2
INVT
NAM  Leschek; Walter C.
CTY  Monroeville
STA  PA
INVT
NAM  McShane; James L.
CTY  Pittsburgh
STA  PA
ASSG
NAM  Westinghouse Electric Corp.
CTY  Pittsburgh
STA  PA
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  479057
APD  19740613
PNO  03925692
ISD  19751209
CLAS
OCL  310327
XCL   73194A
EDF  2
ICL  H01L 4110
FSC  310
FSS  327;335;336;346;334
FSC   73
FSS  67.5 R;71.5 US;194 A
FSC  340
FSS  8 MM;8 RT
UREF
PNO  2803129
ISD  19570800
NAM  Bradfield
XCL  310327
UREF
PNO  3427481
ISD  19690200
NAM  Lenahan et al.
OCL  310327
UREF
PNO  3489932
ISD  19700100
NAM  Kopel et al.
OCL  310327
UREF
PNO  3771117
ISD  19731100
NAM  Shaffer et al.
XCL  310327
UREF
PNO  3794866
ISD  19740200
NAM  McElroy et al.
OCL  310327
UREF
PNO  3798473
ISD  19740300
NAM  Muryama et al.
OCL  310334
UREF
PNO  3890423
ISD  19750600
NAM  Zacharias, Jr.
XCL  310327
UREF
PNO  3935484
ISD  19760100
NAM  Leschek
OCL  310327
FREF
PNO  467,981
ISD  19511200
CNT  ITX
OCL  310  8.2
LREP
FR2  Sutcliff; W. G.
ABST
PAL  An electroacoustic ultrasonic transducer is described which is usable under
      high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, and is readily
      replaceable. A piezoelectric transducer element is disposed within a
      metallic housing and coupled to a metallic acoustic window which is
      exposed to the sensed acoustic medium, with very efficient acoustic
      coupling between the piezoelectric element, the acoustic window, and a
      damping block disposed behind the piezoelectric element.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The present invention relates to acoustic or ultrasonic transducers, and
      more particularly to a transducer assembly designed for flowmeter
      applications. Such electroacoustic transducers have found wide application
      in the non-destructive testing of material as well as in flowmeter
      applications.
PAR  For flowmeter applications, a pair of such transducers are typically used
      with each transducer alternately serving as a transmitter and receiver. It
      is also the common practice to shock excite the transmitting transducer
      with a voltage pulse and to detect the first or second half cycle of the
      received ultrasonic wavefront, such a technique being known as leading
      edge detection. For such a mode of operation, the received wavefront
      should be sharp and clean, and the ringing of the receiving transducer
      following its use as a transmitter should decay quickly, so that
      subsequent arriving wavefronts can be easily detected. It is thus
      desirable to minimize the mechanical Q of both the plezoelectric
      transducer element and the acoustic window. The transducer, and in
      particular its acoustic window, should be structured to detect the
      arriving ultrasonic signal while reflecting as little energy as possible
      back into the medium. This is to avoid measurement errors which may arise
      from sensing of reflected signals, as well as to obtain maximum
      sensitivity.
PAR  When the transducer device is used in a high temperature corrosive fluid
      medium under high pressure, it is desirable that the acoustic window be
      made of a high temperature, high strength material which is chemically
      resistant to attack by the medium.
PAR  It is desirable that the piezoelectric element be replaceable in the
      transducer assembly and that such replacement be effected while the
      assembly is in position in the fluid medium. It has been the practice to
      adhesively bond a thin disk of piezoelectric material to an acoustic
      window in most ultrasonic flowmeter transducer constructions. The adhesive
      bonding holds the piezoelectric element in place and provides relatively
      good acoustic coupling between the window and the piezoelectric element,
      however, the adhesive bond prevents ready replacement of the piezoelectric
      element. Also, organic adhesive bonds may degrade at elevated
      temperatures, and the technique of applying metallic adhesive bonds, such
      as brazing or soldering, may degrade the sensitivity of piezoelectric
      elements by depoling.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  An acoustic transducer utilizing a readily replaceable piezoelectric
      element is detailed comprising in part an electrically conductive metal
      transducer housing, with an acoustically transmissive window portion. A
      thin disk piezoelectric transducer element is acoustically coupled to the
      window portion. A tubular insulating sleeve is disposed within the
      transducer housing adjacent to the tubular interior surface of the
      housing. An acoustic energy damping block made of electrically conductive
      material is disposed within the tubular insulating sleeve, which damping
      block is in electrical contact with and acoustically coupled to the thin
      disk piezoelectric transducer element. A metal contact is disposed within
      the tubular insulating sleeve and held in physical and electrical contact
      with the conductive damping block by a coil spring means disposed within
      the tubular insulating sleeve. An insulating plate is provided at the end
      of the tubular insulating sleeve, and holds the coil spring in
      compression. The insulating plate has an electrical lead-in extending
      therethrough, with the electrical lead-in electrically connected to the
      metal contact. A closure member is connectable to the transducer housing
      to retain the insulating plate within the housing and thereby compress the
      spring means to press together the metal contact, the damping block, and
      the piezoelectric transducer element which is pressed against the acoustic
      window. The interior surface of the acoustic window portion, both surfaces
      of the piezoelectric disk transducer element, and the end surface of the
      damping block which contacts the piezoelectric disk transducer element are
      lapped optically flat, and a liquid acoustic coupling film may be disposed
      between these mating surfaces to provide effective acoustic coupling
      therebetween.
PAR  The damping block is preferably a solid cylindrical body of electrically
      conductive graphite which minimizes ringing of the device.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWING
PAR  FIG. 1 is a sectional view of the replaceable element transducer assembly
      of the present invention.
PAR  FIG. 2 is a sectional view of an alternate embodiment.
DETD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
PAR  The present invention can best be understood by reference to the exemplary
      embodiment of FIG. 1. In FIG. 1 the replaceable element transducer
      assembly 10 comprises an electrically conductive metal transducer housing
      12, which is preferably formed of stainless steel. The transducer housing
      12 comprises an elongated generally tubular portion 14 with an enlarged
      diameter portion 16 containing an annular recess at one end thereof. An
      electrically conductive metal acoustic window 18 is disposed at the end of
      the tubular portion 14 and sealed thereto preferably by welding. The
      exterior surface 20 of the window 18 has a good machined finish, and a
      slight conical taper, while the interior surface 22 is lapped to an
      optical flatness, typically within .+-.2 microinches. The acoustic window
      18 has annularly stepped portions 19 and 21 which fit respectively the
      tubular portion 14, to facilitate sealing connection thereto, and the
      tubular insulating sleeve 24. The acoustic window 18 is also preferably
      formed of stainless steel. The generally tubular insulating sleeve 24 is
      disposed within the tubular portion 14 of the transducer housing 12.
PAR  A thin disk piezoelectric transducer element 26 is disposed within the
      insulating sleeve 24 adjacent the interior surface 22 of the acoustic
      window 18. Both sides of the disk of piezoelectric material are lapped to
      an optical flatness, typically within .+-.2 microinches. A
      lead-zirconate-titanate piezoceramic material has been found to be a very
      effective piezoelectric material. A rod-like electrically conductive
      damping block 28 is disposed within the insulating sleeve 24 with an
      optically flat end portion 30 being in contact with the piezoelectric
      element 26. The damping block is preferably made of graphite material. The
      other end 32 of damping block 28 has a generally conically shaped end
      surface, the shape serving to prevent a stong internal reflection from the
      end surface. A metallic contact member 34 is disposed within the
      insulating sleeve and has a cone receiving surface 36 on one side thereof
      which mates with the conic end 32 of the damping block 28. Electrical
      lead-in 38 extends from the other side of the contact member 34 and serves
      as one of the electrical lead-ins for the transducer assembly. A spring
      member 40 shown as a coil spring is also disposed within the insulating
      sleeve 24 about the electric lead-in 38 with one end of the coiled spring
      seating against the contact member 34. An insulating plate member 42 fits
      over the open end of the insulating sleeve 24 and engages the other end of
      the coiled spring means 40 when in place. Insulating plate 42 has an
      annular shoulder portion 43 on the exterior surface side, and a closure
      plate 44 fits thereover and is connectable to the enlarged diameter end
      portion 16 of the transducer housing. The closure plate 44 is typically
      screw fastened in place. A screw 46 passes through aperture 48 in the
      closure plate 44 and is threadedly engaged in threaded aperture 50 in the
      end portion 16 of the housing 12. Three such symmetrically spaced screws
      are utilized.
PAR  The electrical lead-in 38 is brought through the insulating plate member
      42. The electrically conductive metal transducer housing 12 and window
      assembly 18 serves as the other electrical connection point for the
      transducer assembly. A thin film of silicone oil is disposed between the
      end surface 30 of damping block 28 and the piezoelectric element 26 as
      well as between the piezoelectric element 26 and the acoustic window 18.
      This thin film provides an effective acoustic coupling between the mating
      surfaces. If desired, the silicone oil can be eliminated, and greater
      mechanical compressive force can be used alone to get good acoustic
      coupling.
PAR  The exterior surface 20 of acoustic window 18 is machined to a slight
      conical taper which, when two opposing transducers are used in a sensing
      operation such as a flowmeter, will not substantially reduce the direct
      received signal, yet will serve to aim acoustic reflections into the fluid
      away from the other transducer to prevent interference with the direct
      signal. The angle of the conical surface depends on the distance between
      transducers, being greater for shorter distances. A 2.degree. taper as
      shown is suitable for a spacing distance of approximately 3 inches.
PAR  A variety of piezoelectric materials which can be used at high temperatures
      such as lead metaniobate, bismuthstrontium-titanate, or lithium niobate
      can be used as the piezoelectric material of the piezoelectric element 26.
      Various other electrically conductive materials can be used for the
      damping block 28 such as zinc, cadmium, silver, gray iron, and sintered
      tungsten impregnated with copper, which materials are effective in damping
      the acoustic energy. The transducer housing may also be hermetically
      sealed and evacuated or filled with inert gas to extend the range of
      temperature usage by preventing oxidation at high operating temperatures.
      Other high temperature liquid, plastic, or metallic acoustic couplants can
      be used as substitutes for the silicone oil, or dry coupling and high
      compressive force can be used exclusively. The coiled spring means 40
      applies an effective mechanical compressive force to hold together the
      acoustically coupled surfaces of the damping block, the piezoelectric
      element and the acoustic window.
PAR  In another embodiment of the present invention seen in FIG. 2, the
      transducer assembly 60 includes the metallic housing 62, formed of a high
      temperature resistant and noncorrosive metal such as stainless steel. The
      housing 62 can be substantially immersed in the fluid and can be
      semipermanently affixed in place in the pipe section through which the
      fluid flows. The housing 62 comprises enlarged end 64, intermediate
      portion 66, and extending tubular end portion 68. A thin disc-like
      acoustic window 70 is welded in place to close the tubular end portion 68.
      The exposed face 72 of the acoustic window 70 is preferably machined,
      after the window is welded in place, to slope the exposed face at a slight
      angle or to give it a slightly tapered conical surface. This sloping or
      conical surface permits directive transmission of the acoustic signal
      while reducing interfering reflections. The interiorly disposed surface 74
      of window 70 is lapped before welding to an optical flatness of about
      .+-.2 microinches.
PAR  A disk-like piezoelectric transducer element 76 fits within the tubular end
      portion 68. The piezoelectric material is again preferably
      lead-zirconate-titanate piezoceramic material. Such transducer elements
      are generally supplied with metallic electrodes deposited on the flat
      major surfaces of the disk. In lapping the piezoelectric transducer
      element the electrodes are normally removed; they are not needed because
      of the efficient electrical coupling of the transducer element to the
      lapped optically flat conductive surfaces of the window and the damping
      block 78. The transducer electrodes could be left deposited on the major
      surfaces of the disk if they were lapped optically flat for good acoustic
      coupling.
PAR  The damping block 78 is formed of an electrically conductive material which
      has high internal mechanical loss for attenuating or damping acoustic
      energy. A typical damping block material is zinc or graphite. The damping
      block 78 has a reduced diameter rod end portion 80, which fits generally
      within tubular end portion 68. An electrically insulating coating is
      provided about rod end portion 80 to maintain electrical isolation between
      rod end portion 80 and the tubular end portion 68. A "Teflon" tape
      insulation material has been found useful. The backing block has a central
      transition portion 82, and enlarged diameter end portion 84. The terminal
      86 of end portion 84 is generally conic, and a mating core receiving
      electrical contact element 88 is abutted thereto. An insulating sleeve 87
      is disposed within the enlarged end 64 and intermediate portion 66 of
      housing 62 to electrically isolate the housing from the backing block 78.
      An electrical lead-in 90 extends from the contact element 88. A
      compression spring 92, such as a coil spring, is disposed within the
      housing 62, one end of the spring contacting the electrical contact
      element 88, and the other end contacting the electrically insulating plate
      94 which acts as a closure member for the insulating sleeve 87. A holding
      plate 96 fits over the insulating plate 94 and is secured via retaining
      means, such as screws, to the housing. The electrical lead-in 90 passes
      through an aperture provided in insulating plate 94.
PAR  The end surface of the damping block 78 which abuts the transducer element
      is lapped optically flat to provide a good acoustic coupling therebetween,
      with a thin film of fluid couplant therebetween.
PAR  The enlarging diameter of the damping block as it proceeds from the
      acoustically coupled end to the cone shaped end, as well as the provision
      of a cone shaped end facilitates the damping or attenuating of internally
      contained acoustic waves by increasing the path length traveled by the
      waves and by increasing the number of reflections which they must undergo.
PAR  The exterior surface 97 of the intermediate housing portion 66 is threaded
      to permit the assembly to be mounted in place. The enlarged end portion 64
      has an externally threaded portion 98, and a generally tubular cover
      member not shown may be threaded thereon, with an electrical connector
      provided on the cover member.
PAR  It is possible to further adapt the transducer assemblies shown in FIGS. 1
      and 2 for specific applications. The acoustic window need not be a simple
      disk-like member disposed at the end of the housing, but may be an
      extending rod-like member which provides thermal insulation for the
      transducer element from a hot fluid. In the same way the window may be
      joined to a thermal and/or electrical insulator extension. The mating
      surfaces of these acoustic transmissive members are all lapped optically
      flat for good acoustic coupling.
PAR  It is also possible to dispose a second transducer element abutting the
      other disk transducer to provide a device which is operable at different
      frequencies. The mating surfaces between the two transducers are lapped
      optically flat. The transducers would then be serially electrically
      connected via the conductive window and backing block. It is also possible
      to provide a conductive element between two such abutting transducer disks
      to permit parallel electrical connection.
PAR  In summary, the electroacoustic transducer assemblies detailed employ
      lapped optically flat mating surfaces between the piezoelectric transducer
      element and the acoustic window and backing block. The liquid film
      couplant does not degrade the uniform electric field because the film is
      negligibly thin. For high temperature application, the liquid film
      couplant may be dispensed with, and compressive dry coupling utilized.
PAR  The flatness to which the lapped mating surfaces must be processed depends
      on the coupling force applied by the spring means and the resonant
      frequency of the element. When a liquid couplant is used, adequate
      flatness can be provided by grinding, while an optical flatness is
      necessary for dry coupling for an element operating at about 5 megahertz.
CLMS
STM  We claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. An acoustic transducer assembly comprising:
PA1  an electrically conductive, generally tubular metal transducer housing;
PA1  an acoustically transmissive metal window sealingly disposed at one end of
      the transducer housing, with the .[.exterior and.]. interior
      .[.surfaces.]. .Iadd.surface .Iaddend.of the metal window being lapped
      optically flat for optimum acoustic coupling;
PA1  a thin disk, piezoelectric transducer element having opposed surfaces
      lapped optically flat and one such surface in optical contact with the
      interior surface of the metal window;
PA1  an insulating sleeve disposed within the generally tubular metal transducer
      housing;
PA1  a generally cylindrical acoustic wave damping block disposed within the
      insulating sleeve, which damping block is electrically conductive and has
      one end surface lapped optically flat and in optical contact with the
      transducer element disk, while the other end of the damping block has a
      convex cone shaped terminus;
PA1  an electrical contact member disposed within the insulating sleeve and
      having a concave conically shaped surface which mates with the damping
      block convex cone shaped terminus, which contact member is retained in
      physical and electrical contact with the damping block by a coil spring
      means disposed within the insulating sleeve;
PA1  an insulating plate provided at one end of the insulating sleeve contacting
      the coil spring and having an electrical lead-in extending therethrough
      connected to the contact member, whereby electrical connection is made to
      the interior surface of the transducer element serially via the electrical
      contact member and the conductive damping block, with the metal transducer
      housing serving as another electrical lead to the other side of the
      transducer element via the metal window;
PA1  a closure member closing the tubular transducer housing and connectable
      thereto about the insulating plate and contacting the insulating plate to
      thereby compress the coil spring to compress together the contact member,
      the damping block, and the transducer element to the metal window.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. The acoustic transducer assembly specified in claim 1, wherein the
      generally cylindrical damping block comprises an enlarged diameter end
      portion which terminates with a convex cone shaped end so that the length
      of travel of internally reflected acoustic waves is extended.
PATN
WKU  RE0297860
SRC  5
APN  768102&
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  256
APD  19770214
TTL  Combined 82-position UHF and VHF television tuner with memory fine tuning
ISD  19780926
NCL  23
ECL  15
EXP  Chatmon, Jr.; Saxfield
NDR  4
NFG  12
INVT
NAM  Weigel; Morton L.
CTY  Bloomington
STA  IN
ASSG
NAM  Sarkes Tarzian, Inc.
CTY  Bloomington
STA  IN
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  537841
APD  19750102
PNO  03973229
ISD  19760803
CLAS
OCL  334 86
XCL   74 1041
XCL   74 106
XCL   74 108
XCL  334 87
XCL  334 88
EDF  2
ICL  H03J  102
ICL  H03J  312
FSC  334
FSS  50;51;86;87;88
FSC   74
FSS  10.41;10.6;10.8;10.51
UREF
PNO  3196695
ISD  19650700
NAM  Dotto
XCL  334 51
UREF
PNO  3251234
ISD  19660500
NAM  Valettard
XCL  334 51
UREF
PNO  3364753
ISD  19680100
NAM  Bidlack
XCL  334 51
UREF
PNO  3593226
ISD  19710700
NAM  Weigel
OCL  334 50
UREF
PNO  3824507
ISD  19740700
NAM  Speer et al.
OCL  334 47
UREF
PNO  3842683
ISD  19741000
NAM  Valdettaro
OCL  334 47
UREF
PNO  3916820
ISD  19751100
NAM  Valdettaro
OCL  334 86
LREP
FRM  Mason, Kolehmainen, Rathburn & Wyss
ABST
PAL  A combination UHF and VHF television tuner having a single detented
      selector shaft for individually selecting each one of the 82 UHF and VHF
      television channels and a single fine tuning shaft for providing memory
      fine tuning of channels in both the UHF and VHF bands. A single digital
      type channel indicator is used for precisely displaying at a single
      location the channel number of the UHF or VHF channel selected by the
      common selector shaft. .Iadd.
BSUM
PAC  CROSS-REFERENCE TO RELATED APPLICATION
PAR  This application is a reissue of U.S. Pat. No. 3,973,229, which issued on
      Aug. 3, 1976 to the present applicant. .Iaddend.
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  This invention relates generally to tuners, and more particularly, to a
      combined UHF and VHF television tuner utilizing a single selector shaft
      for selecting all of the 82 UHF and VHF television channels, a single fine
      tuning shaft and a single indicator for displaying each of the individual
      UHF and VHF channel numbers.
PAR  Several combined UHF and VHF television tuners are known. In certain prior
      art combination tuners, two separate selector shafts, one for selecting
      the UHF channels and the other for selecting the VHF channels, are used.
      In other such tuners a single selector shaft is employed for selecting
      channels in both the UHF and VHF bands. Both memory and non-memory type
      fine tuning mechanisms have been used, and single and multiple fine tuning
      shafts have been utilized for driving the fine tuning mechanisms. In
      addition, both single and multiple indicators have been employed to
      display the number of the channel selected by the appropriate selector
      shaft.
PAR  Whereas these tuners provide a way to select both UHF and VHF television
      channels, the use of multiple selector and fine tuning shafts is not
      entirely satisfactory because it results in an inconvenience to the user
      when switching between UHF and VHF bands. In addition, the operation and
      feel of the two tuning shafts is generally sufficiently different that the
      user has to learn two different tuning techniques for tuning the channels
      from the two different bands. The use of two separate tuning shafts also
      usually requires the use of two separate channel indicators, because the
      use of a single indicator controlled by two separate shafts would tend to
      confuse the operator as to which of the selector shafts to turn to obtain
      a change in channels. In the alternative, a complex and expensive
      switching and lighting arrangement is required to inform the operator
      which turning shaft is being displayed. Also, the Federal Communications
      Commission requirement that UHF tuners be compatible in all respects with
      VHF tuners must be met, preferably without materially increasing the
      overall cost of the combination tuner.
PAR  Combination tuners utilizing a single selector shaft have generally been
      provided with a predetermined, relatively small number of UHF positions
      for selecting preselected ones of the UHF channels. The aforementioned UHF
      positions may be interleaved between the VHF positions or may be
      positioned at one end of the tuning range. While such an approach does
      simplify the tuning procedure, it requires the customer to add on a tag or
      label indicating the channel numbers of the television stations the user
      wishes to receive in his area if a unique channel number indication is to
      be provided as the UHF stations are selected. Also, with such an approach
      the number of available UHF positions is limited, thereby limiting the
      number of UHF stations that can be selected. Furthermore, the UHF channel
      positions are not generally arranged in a continuous numerical sequence of
      channel numbers, particularly when the interleaved UHF and VHF approach is
      used.
PAR  Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a new and
      improved combination UHF and VHF tuner.
PAR  It is yet another object of the present invention to provide a combined UHF
      and VHF tuner having a single detented selector shaft capable of uniquely
      and sequentially selecting each channel in both of the UHF and VHF bands.
PAR  Another object of the present invention is to provide an improved
      combination UHF and VHF television tuner wherein the tuning of the UHF and
      VHF bands is operationally so similar that both the UHF and VHF channels
      may be selected by an operator using a single tuning technique.
PAR  Still another object of the present invention is to provide an improved
      combination UHF and VHF television tuner having a channel indicator that
      sequentially displays a unique channel number for each station in the UHF
      band and each station in the VHF band.
PAR  A further object of the present invention is to provide an improved UHF and
      VHF television tuner utilizing a single fine tuning shaft for memory fine
      tuning both the UHF and VHF channels.
PAR  In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the invention, a continuously
      tunable UHF tuner is provided with a detenting mechanism and a detented
      selector shaft for rendering the UHF tuner incrementally tunable between
      detent positions with each detent position corresponding to a single
      distinct UHF television channel, thereby making the tuner of the UHF tuner
      similar to that of a standard VHF tuner.
PAR  A standard detented VHF tuner is mounted adjacent to the UHF tuner, and a
      gear mechanism is utilized to couple the selector shaft and the tuning
      shaft of the VHF tuner to permit the VHF tuner to be driven by the same
      selector shaft that drives the UHF tuner. A disengaging mechanism
      responsive to the position of the selector shaft is utilized to disengage
      the gear mechanism to decouple the VHF tuner from the selector shaft when
      the common selector shaft is rotated into the UHF range.
PAR  The UHF tuner is provided with a plurality of cams disposed about a
      rotatable turret for providing a memory type fine tuning in the UHF band.
      A single fine tuning shaft is coupled to a second gear mechanism for
      selectively engaging the UHF fine tuning cams and the fine tuning elements
      of the VHF tuner. A lock out mechanism is provided in the fine tuning
      mechanism so that only the VHF tuner is tuned when the selector shaft is
      positioned to receive one of the VHF channels. Finally, apparatus is
      provided for reducing the effects of the UHF detenting mechanism when VHF
      channels are being selected to maintain the "feel" of the selector shaft
      substantially the same regardless of whether a UHF or a VHF channel is
      being selected.
DRWD
PAR  The other objects and advantages of the present invention will readily be
      apparent from the following specification and drawings wherein:
PAR  FIG. 1 is a side view of the combination UHF and VHF tuner according to the
      invention;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a front sectional view of the tuner according to the invention
      taken along the line 2--2 of FIG. 1, showing the tuner tuned to channel 2
      in the VHF band;
PAR  FIG. 3 is a front sectional view of the combination tuner according to the
      invention taken along the line 3--3 of FIG. 1;
PAR  FIG. 4 is a detailed side sectional view of the combination tuner according
      to the invention taken along the line 4--4 of FIG. 3 showing the
      push-to-engage UHF fine tuning mechanism in its disengaged position;
PAR  FIG. 5 is a rear view of the combination UHF and VHF tuner taken along the
      line 5--5 of FIG. 1 and showing the gear mechanism interconnecting the UHF
      and VHF portions of the combination tuner;
PAR  FIG. 6 is a rear sectional view of the combination UHF and VHF tuner taken
      along the line 6--6 of FIG. 1 showing the gear mechanism and the VHF
      detenting mechanism in greater detail;
PAR  FIG. 7 is a front view similar to FIG. 2 showing the tuner tuned to channel
      14 in the UHF band;
PAR  FIG. 8 is a side sectional view of the push-to-engage UHF fine tuning
      mechanism in its engaged position;
PAR  FIG. 9 is a rear view similar to FIG. 5 showing the interconnecting gear
      mechanism in its disengaged state with the tuner tuned to channel 14 in
      the UHF band;
PAR  FIG. 10 is a side sectional view of the interconnecting gear mechanism
      taken along the line 10--10 of FIG. 9;
PAR  FIG. 11 is a rear view similar to FIGS. 5 and 9 showing the interconnecting
      gear mechanism rotated to another channel in the UHF band;
PAR  FIG. 12 is a top sectional view of the gear mechanism taken along the line
      12--12 of FIG. 11.
DETD
PAR  Referring now to the drawings, with particular attention to FIG. 1, there
      is shown a combination UHF/VHF television tuner having a UHF tuner 12, a
      VHF tuner 14 and an indicator dial 16. The UHF tuner 12 and the VHF tuner
      14 are standard television tuners mounted to a frame comprising a front
      plate 18 and a rear plate 20. The UHF tuner 12 is provided with a
      memory-type fine tuning mechanism 22 similar to the one described in U.S.
      Pat. application Ser. No. 499,201 filed Aug. 19, 1974, issued to the same
      inventor and assigned to the same assignee as the assignee of the present
      invention. The indicator dial 16 is similar to the one described in U.S.
      Pat. application Ser. No. 257,846 filed May 30, 1972, now U.S. Pat. No.
      3,916,820, assigned to the same assignee as the assignee of the present
      invention. Both of the above references are incorporated hereby by
      reference.
PAR  The VHF tuner 14 has a modified tuning shaft 24 extending from opposite
      ends of the VHF tuner 14. A gear 26 is attached to the rearwardly
      extending end of the tuning shaft 24 for rotation therewith. The
      combination UHF/VHF tuner is tuned by a selector shaft 28 extending
      through the front plate 18. The forward end of the selector shaft 28 is
      adapted to receive a selector knob 30 while the other end is affixed to a
      pinion gear 32. The pinion gear 32 extends through the rear plate 20 and
      has a gear 34 attached thereto. The gear 34 engages the gear 26, and a
      third gear 36 engages the teeth of the elongated pinion gear 32.
PAR  A fine tuning shaft 38 is mounted concentrically with the selector shaft
      28, and a fine tuning knob 40 is employed to rotate the fine tuning shaft
      38. The fine tuning shaft 38 drives the UHF fine tuning mechanism by means
      of three gears 42, 44 and 46 similar to those described in the
      above-referenced Weigel application Ser. No. 499,201. The VHF fine tuning
      mechanism is driven by a pair of gears 48 and 50 which are driven by the
      gear 46. The fine tuning mechanism of the VHF tuning mechanism 14 is a
      rotate-to-engage memory-type fine tuning mechanism similar to that
      described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,183,726 issued to Joe G. Badger and assigned
      to the same assignee as the assignee of the present invention, and
      incorporated herein by reference.
PAR  Both the UHF tuner 12 and the VHF tuner 14 are tunable by means of the
      single selector shaft 28, rotation of which is effective to turn the gear
      34 and the pinion gear 32. The selector shaft 28 also drives the indicator
      dial 16 through a pair of gears 31 and 35 to provide a numeric indication
      of the number of the channel being received. The film strip of the
      indicator described in U.S. application Ser. No. 257,846 is extended and
      the numbers 2 through 13 are added in similar script so that a unique
      number between 2 and 83 is displayed for each of the 82 individual
      channels that can be received by the tuner 10.
PAR  The selector shaft 28 is provided with a ten-position detenting mechanism
      52 comprising a detent wheel 54 and a detenting spring 56. The detenting
      mechanism 52 provides 10 detent positions per revolution of the selector
      shaft 28 to thereby provide 36.degree. of rotation of the gear 34 between
      detent positions. A stop mechanism 57 limits the range of rotation of the
      selector shaft 28 to the approximately 8.2 turns necessary to cover the 82
      UHF and VHF channels.
PAR  The VHF tuning shaft 24 is provided with a 13-position detenting mechanism
      60 comprising a detent wheel 62 and a detenting spring 64. The 13 detent
      positions include one detent position for each of the 12 VHF channels and
      a detent position wherein the VHF tuner serves as an amplifier for signals
      received from the UHF tuner 12. As a result, the gear 26 must be made
      larger than the gear 34 by a 10-to-13 ratio to make the 10 detent
      positions of the selector shaft 28 compatible with the 13 detent positions
      of the tuning shaft 24. This is accomplished in the present embodiment by
      providing the gear 34 with 50 teeth and the gear 26 with 65 teeth.
PAR  The UHF tuner 12 is driven directly by means of the selector shaft 28
      through a gear reduction mechanism of the type described in the
      above-identified Weigel application Ser. No. 499,201. The reduction
      mechanism is driven by the pinion gear 32 which corresponds to gear 30 in
      the Weigel application. The tuner 12 has a continuously variable tuning
      shaft (not shown) that is rotatable over a range of approximately one half
      revolution for covering the 70 UHF channels. A speed reduction ratio of
      approximately 14-to-1 is provided in the gear reduction mechanism so that
      the one half revolution of the tuning shaft corresponds to approximately
      seven revolutions of the selector shaft 28. This permits the 70 UHF
      channels to be covered by rotating the selector shaft 70 detent positions.
      An additional range of rotation is built into the tuning shaft of the UHF
      tuner 12 to permit the selector shaft 28 to be rotated an additional 12
      detent positions to cover the 12 VHF television channels.
PAR  The VHF television tuner is driven from the rear by means of the gears 26
      and 34 attached to the tuning shaft 24 and the selector shaft 28,
      respectively. In the VHF mode of operation, the gears 34 and 26 are meshed
      as shown in FIG. 5 and rotation is transferred from the gear 34 to the
      gear 26 to effect tuning of the VHF television tuner 14.
PAR  For purposes of illustration, the gears 26 and 34 are shown positioned in
      the channel 2 position in FIG. 5. As the selector shaft 28 is rotated to
      tune the tuner 14 to the higher numbered channels, the gear 34 is rotated
      in a counter clockwise direction (when viewed from the rear) and the gear
      26 rotates clockwise for slightly less than one revolution until the gear
      position shown in FIG. 9 is obtained. This position corresponds to the
      channel 14 position of the selector shaft 28. At this point, further
      rotation of the gear 34 in the counter clockwise direction will not impart
      rotary motion to the gear 26 because a gap 70, devoid of teeth, is formed
      in the periphery of the gear 26 to provide clearance between the gears 26
      and 34 when the gap 70 is adjacent the gear 34. Consequently, further
      rotation of the gear 34 does not affect the position of the gear 26, and
      only the UHF tuner 12 is tuned by the selector shaft 28.
PAR  In order to reengage the gear 26 when it is desired to tune a VHF channel,
      a spring loaded pin 72 (FIGS. 1, 5 and 9) is provided for engaging an arm
      member 74 extending beyond the periphery of the gear 34 and over the gear
      26. When it is desired to tune the tuner 10 to a VHF channel, the gear 34
      is rotated in a clockwise direction by the selector shaft 28 to
      incrementally tune the UHF tuner 12 through the UHF channels in a
      descending order of UHF channel numbers until the gear 34 reaches the
      channel 14 position shown in FIG. 9. Upon rotation of the selector shaft
      28 one more increment to the channel 13 position, the pin 72 is engaged by
      the arm member 74, thereby causing the gear 26 to rotate sufficiently to
      bring the teeth thereof into mesh with the teeth of the gear 34. The lower
      numbered VHF channels are then tuned by the now-meshed gears 26 and 34.
PAR  The engagement and disengagement of the gears 26 and 34 must occur only at
      the position of the selector shaft 28 corresponding to the transition
      between the channels 13 and 14. Because the selector shaft 28, and hence
      the gear 34, is rotatable over approximately 8.2 revolutions over the
      range of the UHF and VHF television channels 2 through 83, it is possible
      for the gears 26 and 34 to become engaged and disengaged at other points
      besides the transition between the channels 13 and 14. Accordingly,
      apparatus must be provided for suppressing the engagement of the pin 72 by
      the arm member 74 at points other than the transition between the channels
      13 and 14. This is accomplished by making the pin 72 axially movable with
      respect to the gear 26 to permit the pin 72 to be retracted sufficiently
      to prevent it from being engaged by the arm member 74 except when the
      transition between channels 13 and 14 occurs.
PAR  The axial movement of the pin 72 is provided by mounting the pin 72 on a
      resilient pin supporting strip 76 (FIG. 1). The resilient strip 76 may be
      fabricated from hard copper or any other suitable resilient material. A
      bias is built into the strip 76 for retracting the pin 72 sufficiently to
      permit the arm member 74 to clear the top of the pin 72. As a result of
      the bias built into the strip 76, the pin 72 normally remains in its
      retracted position and cannot be engaged by the arm 74.
PAR  The pin 72 is extended for engagement by the arm member 74 by means of a
      rearwardly extending protrusion 78 formed in the gear 36. The gear 36 is
      driven by the pinion gear 32 and the gear ratio is chosen so that the gear
      36 rotates approximately one revolution as the selector shaft 28 is
      rotated approximately eight revolutions, i.e. over its entire tuning range
      of the UHF and VHF channels 2 through 83. The rearwardly extending
      protrusion 78 (best shown in FIGS. 11 and 12) is positioned on the gear 36
      so that the protrusion 78 engages the resilient pin supporting strip 76 in
      the channel 14 position (FIGS. 9 and 10). In this position, the protrusion
      78 exerts a rearward pressure against the pin supporting strip 76, thereby
      causing the pin 72 to be moved axially in the rearward direction an amount
      sufficient to permit the pin 72 to be engaged by the arm member 74 upon
      subsequent clockwise rotation of the gear 34 (to the channel 13 position).
      If the gear 34 is rotated counter clockwise to tune the tuner 10 to higher
      numbered UHF channels, the gear 36 is rotated by the pinion gear 32 to
      bring the protrusion 78 out of engagement with the pin supporting strip
      76, as shown in FIG. 11. With the protrusion 78 out of engagement with the
      pin supporting member 76, the pin 72 will be retracted by the member 76 to
      permit the pin 72 to be cleared by the arm member 74 upon each subsequent
      counter clockwise rotation of the gear 34. Only when the protrusion 78 is
      again brought into engagement with the member 76 in the channel 14
      position and cams this member rearwardly, can the pin 72 be engaged by the
      arm member 74.
PAR  In accordance with another important feature of the invention, apparatus is
      provided for reducing the amount of detenting action provided by the UHF
      detent 52, when the tuner 10 is in the UHF mode. Both the UHF tuner 12 and
      the UHF tuner 14 have detent mechanisms 52 and 60 defining the channel
      locations on the selector shaft 28 and the tuning shaft 24, respectively.
      When the tuner 10 is in the VHF mode, the simultaneous operation of the
      two detent mechanisms 52 and 60 would require the operator to apply a much
      greater torque to the selector knob 30 to tune the VHF channels. To avoid
      this, a mechanism is provided for reducing the detenting force generated
      by the dententing mechanism 52 when the tuner 10 is operating in the VHF
      mode. The reduction in detenting action is accomplished by reducing the
      pressure applied to the detent wheel 54 by the detent spring 56 when a VHF
      channel is selected.
PAR  Detenting force is exerted on the U-shaped detent spring 56 by means of a
      rod 80 (FIGS. 1, 3 and 7) that is secured to a pivotally mounted rod 82
      and engages one arm of the spring 56. The pivoting rod 82 is supported by
      the front and rear brackets 18 and 20 and extends forwardly through the
      front bracket 18. A second rod 84 is attached to the forwardly extending
      end of the pivoting rod 82 as shown in FIGS. 1, 2 and 7. A cam wheel 86
      having a crank pin 88 is affixed to the tuning shaft 24 and rotates
      therewith, thereby causing the crank pin 88 to engage the rod 84 when the
      tuner 10 is in the UHF mode.
PAR  In the UHF mode, with the VHF tuning shaft 24 positioned as shown in FIGS.
      7, 9 and 11, the cam wheel 86 is positioned with the crank pin 88 in
      engagement with the rod 84. The engagement of the rod 84 by the crank pin
      88 causes a torsional force to be applied to the pivoting rod 82, thereby
      causing the rod 80 to exert a biasing pressure on the detent spring 56 to
      increase the detent force on the selector shaft 28, provided by the
      detenting mechanism 52. This is necessary because in the UHF mode, all of
      the detenting force must be provided by the detenting mechanism 52.
      However, when the tuner 10 is tuned to one of the VHF stations, the
      detenting mechanism 60 also generates a detenting force which is applied
      to the selector shaft 28 through the gears 26 and 34. Consequently, the
      amount of detent force generated by the detenting mechanism 52 must be
      reduced. The reduction in detenting force is achieved by rotating the cam
      wheel 86 with the VHF tuning shaft 24 to bring the crank pin 88 out of
      engagement with the rod 84 when the VHF tuning shaft 24 is rotated to any
      position other than the UHF position. This reduces the pressure on the rod
      84 (FIG. 2) and permits the detenting spring 56 to force the rod 80 back
      against a limit stop 89 (FIG. 1). The detenting force generated by the
      detenting mechanism 52 is thereby substantially reduced to a value
      determined by the position of the limit stop 89. As a result, the force
      necessary to turn the selector knob between detent positions in the UHF
      and VHF modes remains substantially constant.
PAR  In accordance with another important feature of the present invention, the
      cam wheel 86 provides a means to prevent the fine tuning of the UHF tuner
      12 when the tuner 10 is operating in a VHF mode and a VHF fine tuning
      operation is desired. In the embodiment shown in the drawings, the UHF
      fine tuning system is a push-to-engage fine tuning system and the VHF fine
      tuning system is a turn-to-engage fine tuning system similar to the type
      described in the referenced Badger U.S. Pat. No. 3,183,726. The tuner 14
      in the present embodiment is a turret type tuner having a separate fine
      tuning adjusting member for each of the VHF channels. When the VHF tuning
      shaft 24 of the VHF tuner 14 is in the UHF position, all of the fine
      tuning adjusting members are out of engagement with the fine tuning
      mechanism, and consequently, any rotation of the tuning shaft 51 by the
      gears 42, 44, 46, 48 and 50 does not affect the fine tuning of any of the
      VHF channels. Therefore, no provision for preventing the fine tuning of
      the VHF tuner 14 during the operation of the tuner 10 in its UHF mode is
      necessary.
PAR  The fine tuning mechanism employed to fine tune the UHF tuner 12 is similar
      to the mechanism described in the above-identified Weigel application, and
      employs a plurality of cams 90 mounted on a rotatable turret for
      sequentially adjusting a fine tuning cam follower 92. The cam turret is
      rotated by a ring gear (not shown), similar to the gear 36 in the Weigel
      application which engages the pinion gear 32. Rotation of the selector
      shaft 28 sequentially brings each one of the cams 90 into engagement with
      the cam follower 92 and maintains each cam in engagement with the cam
      follower 92 for a predetermined number of detent positions (e.g. 3 to 5)
      to provide a memory type fine tuning mechanism wherein each predetermined
      group of adjacent channels (e.g. 3 and 5) shares a single one of the fine
      tuning cams 90.
PAR  That one of the fine tuning cams 90 which is in engagement with the cam
      follower 92 is engageable for rotation thereof by a cam driving member 94.
      The cam driving member 94 is rotated by the fine tuning shaft 38 through
      the gear train including the gears 42, 44 and 46. The gears 42, 44, and 46
      are attached to a gear supporting member 96 which is slidingly mounted
      over the selector shaft 28. A resilient biasing spring 98 exerts a
      forwardly directed pressure on the gear supporting member 96 to normally
      maintain the cam driving member 94 out of engagement with the cams 90. The
      cams 90 are engaged by applying a rearwardly directed axial pressure to
      the fine tuning knob 40 to overcome the pressure from the resilient
      biasing spring 98 and to move the gear supporting member 96 rearwardly a
      sufficient amount to bring the cam driving member 94 into engagement with
      the head of one of the cams 90 (FIG. 8).
PAR  Because excess travel must be built into the tuning shaft of the UHF tuner
      12 to permit the 12 extra detent positions required for the 12 VHF
      channels, the cam turrent and the cams 90 continue to rotate even when the
      tuner 10 is in the VHF mode. Consequently, depressing the fine tuning knob
      40 when the tuner 10 is operating in the VHF mode would permit one or more
      of the cams 90 to be adjusted. If one of these cams had been previously
      used to fine tune a UHF channel in the area, such a readjustment would
      destroy the "memorized" fine tuning information for that channel, and
      result in that UHF channel being received in a detuned condition when
      selected again. Consequently, the camming wheel 86 is made a sufficiently
      large diameter to engage an extension 100 of the gear supporting member 96
      (FIGS. 1, 2 and 4) to prevent the supporting member 96 from being moved
      rearwardly a sufficient amount to permit the member 94 to engage the cams
      90 when the tuner 10 is operating the VHF mode.
PAR  Upon rotation of the VHF tuning shaft 24 to the common UHF position, the
      camming wheel 86 is rotated to the position shown in FIG. 7 to align the
      extension 100 with a notch 102 formed in the camming wheel 86. This
      permits the extension 100 to enter the notch 102 (FIGS. 6 and 7) when the
      tuner 10 is operating in the UHF mode, thereby permitting the engagement
      and adjustment of the cams 90 by the cam driving member 94. Because the
      gear 26 is out of engagement with the gear 34 when the tuner 10 is in the
      UHF mode, the camming wheel 86 is maintained stationary when the UHF
      channels are being tuned. As a result, the extension 100 remains in
      alignment with the notch 102 as long as any one of the UHF channels is
      being received, thereby permitting the individual adjustment of each of
      the cams 90. When the tuner 10 is operating in the VHF mode, the camming
      wheel rotates, but because of its large diameter, the camming wheel 86
      engages the extension 100 to prevent the fine tuning of the UHF tuner 12
      regardless of the position of the camming wheel 86.
PAR  While certain preferred embodiments of the invention have been described by
      way of illustration, many modifications will occur to those skilled in the
      art; it will be understood, of course, that it is not desired that the
      invention be limited thereto, since modifications may be made, and it is,
      therefore, contemplated by the appended claims to cover any such
      modifications as fall within the true scope and spirit of the invention.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent of the
      United States is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A combination tuner comprising:
PA1  a first tuner tunable over a first predetermined frequency band;
PA1  a second tuner tunable over a second predetermined frequency band;
PA1  a selector shaft; and
PA1  means coupling said selector shaft to said first and second tuners, said
      coupling means including means for operatively coupling said selector
      shaft to said first tuner over a predetermined range of rotation of said
      selector shaft for tuning said first tuner over the entire first
      predetermined frequency band and for operatively coupling said selector
      shaft to said second tuner for a second predetermined range of rotation of
      said selector shaft for tuning said second tuner over said entire second
      predetermined frequency band, said coupling means including a first gear
      rotatable by said selector shaft, a second gear coupled to one of said
      tuners and engaging said first gear, means for disengaging said first and
      second gears and a third gear rotatable by said selector shaft, said third
      gear having means associated therewith for rendering said disengaging
      means operative to disengage said first and second gears only in a single
      predetermined  position of said selector shaft, wherein said disengaging
      means includes an arm member affixed to one of said first and second gears
      and a retractable pin member affixed to the other one of said first and
      second gears, said thrid gear being operative to extend and retract said
      retractable pin.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A combination tuner as recited in claim 1 wherein each of said tuners
      includes a fine tuning mechanism, said combination tuner further including
      a fine tuning shaft and means responsive to the rotation of said selector
      shaft for rendering said fine tuning shaft operative to tune the fine
      tuning mechanism of said first tuner when said selector shaft is
      operatively coupled to said first tuner, and for rendering said fine
      tuning shaft operative to tune said second fine tuning mechanism when said
      selector shaft is operatively coupled to said second tuner.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A combination tuner as recited in claim 1 wherein each of said first and
      second predetermined frequency bands is divided into a predetermined
      number of channels each channel having a unique number assigned thereto,
      said tuner further including channel indicator means for sequentially
      displaying the unique channel numbers of all of the channels in said first
      and second predetermined frequency bands in response to the rotation of
      said selector shaft.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A combination tuner as recited in claim 2 wherein each of said fine
      tuning mechanisms is a memory type fine tuning mechanism.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A combination tuner as recited in claim 4 wherein one of said fine
      tuning mechanisms includes a plurality of memory members, each of said
      memory members being effective to fine tune a plurality of adjacent
      channels.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A combination tuner as recited in claim 1 wherein one of said tuners is
      a detent type tuner having a tuning shaft incrementally rotatable between
      a plurality of detent positions, said combination tuner futher including
      detenting means effective to define a plurality of detenting positions on
      said selector shaft and means for reducing the effect of said detenting
      means during the operation of said detented tuner.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. A combination UHF and VHF television tuning system comprising:
PA1  a VHF television tuner having a detented tuning shaft, each detent of said
      VHF tuning shaft corresponding to a different one of each of the
      television channels in the VHF television band,
PA1  a UHF television tuner having a continuously variable tuning shaft,
      rotation of said tuning shaft being effective to tune said UHF tuner over
      the entire UHF television band;
PA1  a single selector shaft coupled to said UHF and VHF television tuners,
      rotation of said selector shaft being effective sequentially to tune said
      television tuners to all of the UHF and VHF television channels in the UHF
      and VHF television bands, said selector shaft including detent means for
      rendering said selector shaft incrementally rotatable over a predetermined
      number of detent positions equal to the total number of television
      channels in the UHF and VHF television bands, each of said detent
      positions uniquely corresponding to one of said UHF and VHF channels; and
PA1  means for providing at a single location a unique indication of the channel
      number corresponding to each detent position of said selector shaft.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 7 further including
      means for fine tuning each of said UHF and VHF tuners and a single fine
      tuning shaft coupled to said fine tuning means, rotation of said fine
      tuning shaft being effective to fine tune one of said UHF and VHF
      television tuners in each detent position of said selector shaft without
      affecting the indication of the channel number provided by the channel
      number indication providing means.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 8 wherein said fine
      tuning means is a memory type fine tuning means.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 9 wherein said memory
      type fine tuning means includes a plurality of memory members, .[.and.].
      wherein first predetermined ones of said memory members are effective to
      fine tune said VHF television tuner, each of said first predetermined ones
      of said memory members being operative to tune said VHF tuner only when
      said selector shaft is positioned in a single predetermined one of the
      detent positions of said selector shaft, and wherein .[.said.]. second
      predetermined ones of said memory members are effective to fine tune said
      UHF television tuner when said selector shaft is positioned within a
      predetermined range of rotation thereof corresponding to a plurality of
      adjacent detent positions of said selector shaft.
NUM  11.
PAR  11. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 8 wherein said fine
      tuning shaft is axially movable over a predetermined range, and wherein
      said VHF television channels are fine tuned by rotating said
      .[.selector.]. .Iadd.fine tuning .Iaddend.shaft in a first axial position,
      and said UHF television channels are fine tuned by rotating said fine
      tuning shaft in a second axial position.
NUM  12.
PAR  12. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 7 wherein said
      predetermined number of detent positions is eighty two, including twelve
      corresponding to the twelve assigned VHF channels and seventy
      corresponding to the seventy UHF channels.
NUM  13.
PAR  13. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 7 further including
      means responsive to the position of said selector shaft for reducing the
      detenting effect of said detent means when said selector shaft is tuned
      between those detent positions corresponding to the VHF television
      stations.
NUM  14.
PAR  14. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 7 wherein the tuning
      shaft of the UHF tuner extends in a forward direction and is mechanically
      coupled to the selector shaft, the tuning shaft of said VHF tuner extends
      in a rearward direction, and the selector shaft extends through the
      combination tuning system, wherein the combination tuning system includes
      means for mechanically coupling the rearwarding extending VHF tuning shaft
      to a rear portion of the selector shaft. .Iadd. 15. A combination UHF and
      VHF television tuning system comprising:
PA1  a VHF television tuner tunable to each of the television channels in the
      VHF television band;
PA1  a UHF television tuner having a continuously variable tuning shaft,
      rotation of said tuning shaft being effective to tune said UHF tuner over
      the entire UHF television band;
PA1  a single selector shaft coupled to said UHF and VHF television tuners,
      rotation of said selector shaft being effective to tune said television
      tuners to all of the UHF and VHF television channels in the UHF and VHF
      television bands, said selector shaft including detent means for rendering
      said selector shaft incrementally rotatable over a predetermined number of
      detent positions for selecting each of the channels in the UHF and VHF
      television bands, each of said detent positions uniquely corresponding to
      one of said UHF and VHF channels; and
PA1  means for providing a unique indication of the channel number corresponding
      to each detent position of said selector shaft. .Iaddend..Iadd. 16. A
      combination tuning system as recited in claim 15 wherein said unique
      channel number indication providing means includes means for providing
      said unique indication at a single location. .Iaddend..Iadd. 17. A
      combination tuning system as recited in claim 15 further including means
      for fine tuning each of said UHF and VHF tuners and a single fine tuning
      shaft coupled to said fine tuning means, rotation of said fine tuning
      shaft being effective to fine tune one of said UHF and VHF television
      tuners in each detent position of said selector shaft without affecting
      the indication of the channel number provided by said channel number
      indication providing means. .Iaddend..Iadd. 18. A combination tuning
      system as recited in claim 17 wherein said fine tuning means is a memory
      type fine tuning means. .Iaddend..Iadd. 19. A combination tuning system as
      recited in claim 18 wherein said memory type fine tuning means includes a
      plurality of memory members, wherein first predetermined ones of said
      memory members are effective to fine tune said VHF television tuner, each
      of said first predetermined ones of said memory means being operative to
      fine tune said VHF tuner only when said VHF tuner is tuned to a single
      predetermined one of said VHF television channels, and wherein second
      predetermined ones of said memory members are effective to fine tune said
      UHF television tuner, each of said second predetermined ones of said
      memory members being effective to fine tune said UHF television tuner when
      said UHF television tuner is tuned to any one of a predetermined plurality
      of UHF television channels..Iaddend..Iadd. 20. A combination tuning system
      as recited in claim 19 wherein said memory type fine tuning means includes
      a rotatable turret mechanically coupled to said selector shaft for
      rotation thereby, and each of said second predetermined ones of said
      memory members includes a cam member rotatably mounted to said turret,
      wherein said tuning system includes means operatively coupled to said fine
      tuning shaft for selectively engaging one of said cam members for rotation
      in response to rotation of said fine tuning shaft and cam follower means
      positioned adjacent to said turret and engageable by said one cam member,
      each of said cam members being engageable by said selective engaging means
      in more than one detent position of said selector shaft. .Iaddend..Iadd.
      21. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 20 wherein said
      selective engaging means includes a cam driving member disposed adjacent
      to said one cam member and gear means coupling said fine tuning shaft to
      said cam driving member for rotating said cam driving member in response
      to rotation of said fine tuning shaft. .Iaddend..Iadd. 22. A combination
      tuning system as recited in claim 21 further including means coupling said
      fine tuning shaft to said cam driving member for axially moving said cam
      driving member in response to axial movement of said fine tuning shaft.
      .Iaddend..Iadd. 23. A combination tuning system as recited in claim 17
      wherein said fine tuning shaft is axially movable over a predetermined
      range, and wherein said VHF television channels are fine tuned by rotating
      said fine tuning shaft in a first axial position and said UHF television
      channels are fine tuned by rotating said fine tuning shaft in a second
      axial position..Iaddend.
PATN
WKU  RE0297879
SRC  5
APN  7659490
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  233
APD  19770207
TTL  Color phase matching system for magnetic video tape recordings
ISD  19780926
NCL  16
ECL  1
EXP  Martin; John C.
NDR  4
NFG  7
INVT
NAM  Bargen; David W.
CTY  Pleasanton
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  Orrox Corporation
CTY  Santa Clara
STA  CA
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  390577
APD  19730822
PNO  03890638
ISD  19750617
CLAS
OCL  358  4
XCL  358  8
EDF  2
ICL  H04N  578
FSC  358
FSS  8;4;17;19
UREF
PNO  3562413
ISD  19710200
NAM  Coleman
OCL  358 19
UREF
PNO  3594498
ISD  19710700
NAM  Smith
OCL  358 17
UREF
PNO  3684826
ISD  19720800
NAM  Hurst
OCL  360 14
UREF
PNO  3735015
ISD  19730500
NAM  Mesak
OCL  358  4
UREF
PNO  3761604
ISD  19730900
NAM  Ozawa et al.
OCL  358  4
LREP
FRM  Limbach, Limbach & Sutton
ABST
PAL  Color burst phase matching is achieved in magnetic video tape recording by
      coding the recording tape to identify alternate video frames to provide a
      synthetic color phase reference, comparing this synthetic color phase
      reference with a system frame reference and, based upon the comparison,
      controlling the tape speed or position relative to the system frame
      reference when required to achieve the proper color phase relationship.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The present invention relates to recording and editing of magnetic video
      tape color recordings and, in particular, to an improved system for
      insuring proper color burst phase matching during recording.
PAR  Electronic splicing of television magnetic tape containing composite NTSC
      or PAL color signals is complicated by the nature of the television signal
      itself, and by the manner in which the standard video tape recorder (VTR)
      processes the signal on playback.
PAR  In the NTSC system, the color burst phase differs 180.degree. from one line
      of video to the next. This is because the color subcarrier frequency is a
      455/2 multiple of the horizontal scanning frequency. That is, for each two
      lines of video, the subcarrier is able to complete a whole number of
      cycles. Consequently, succeeding frames of NTSC video have opposite burst
      phases, when compared on a line-for-line basis, and four television fields
      must occur before the unmodulated subcarrier exactly repeats itself.
PAR  In the PAL system, the combination of the 90.degree. alternating burst and
      the 90.degree. dropping back of the burst phase causes consecutive pairs
      of lines to have the same burst phase, and adjacent pairs to be
      180.degree. out of phase. Because each frame has an odd number of lines,
      625, four PAL video frames, eight video fields, are required before the
      burst phase repeats itself, line-for-line, within a frame.
PAR  If a continuous signal is to be reproduced, splices must join succeeding
      color frames. If they do not, there will be an abrupt 180.degree. shift of
      burst and chroma at the splice, which can adversely affect, for example,
      some modes of editing.
PAR  Thus, for either the NTSC or PAL systems, when new video signals are to be
      recorded on a VTR following a previously recorded segment, the VTR has a
      50--50 chance of locking to the correct color frame. This is discussed in
      greater detail in "The Problems of Splicing and Editing Color Video
      Magnetic Tape", by C. A. Anderson, IEEE Transactions on Broadcasting, Vol.
      BC-15, No. 3, September 1969, pp. 59-61.
PAR  Thus, one-half of the time, the VTR locks up with a frame of the video
      which has its color burst 180.degree. out of phase with that which was
      previously recorded. For an ordinary, uninterrupted replay, this presents
      no problem. But, if a number of video segments are mixed and sequentially
      recorded, serious difficulties are encountered. As the video head moves
      from old recording to new recording during replay of the edited tape, a
      180.degree. phase shift is encountered with respect to sync at the edit
      point, and the VTR time base correction circuits, to compensate, insert or
      remove a 140 ns delay, causing the picture to jump sideways.
PAR  This effect is not disturbing if such edits are only occasional,
      particularly if the scene content changes. But if there is a series of
      closely spaced splices or if there is animation, the picture continually
      hops back and forth. At worst, a complete break-up of the picture occurs.
PAR  Several approaches have been suggested or implemented to overcome this
      color phase matching problem. Several of these are discussed in the
      Anderson article referred to above. The way which is most commonly used
      involves changing the edit point by one frame, in the case of NTSC, or two
      frames for PAL, if improper color phase matching occurs. This technique
      involves the following steps.
PAR  First, when a video signal is to be recorded by the VTR, it is provided to
      the VTR in the usual manner and the conventional synchronization process
      begins. The sync pulses from the recording tape are compared with the
      plant reference sync pulses. Any phase deviation results in regulation of
      the VTR capstan tape drive to regulate the tape speed so that the tape
      sync pulses are in phase with the reference sync pulses.
PAR  Next, the tape color burst signal is compared with the plant color burst
      reference, a 3.58 MHz subcarrier. Since the phase of the tape color burst
      varies because of time-base instabilities, a delay is introduced or
      deleted to compensate for these time-base instabilities, so that the tape
      color burst is synchronized with the 3.58 MHz plant reference.
PAR  At this point, there is a 50--50 chance that the VTR has locked to the
      correct color frame, as explained previously. A signal is developed to
      indicate which of these two conditions occurs. If there is a phase
      mismatch, the tape capstan drive speed is altered so that the VTR tape
      "slips" one frame relative to the plant reference, and the entire
      synchronization process is repeated, but with proper color framing.
PAR  This technique has a number of significant disadvantages. First, when
      editing, all playback VTR's, i.e. those VTR's containing the scenes to be
      edited, are normally slaved to the plant reference signal and the color
      burst is automatically in phase with the plant color burst. The effect of
      causing the record VTR tape to slip back relative to the plant color
      reference to bring about proper color framing is that it also slips back
      relative to the playback VTR's and so the edit point is shifted by one
      frame, in the case of NTSC, or two frames in the case of PAL. Many
      editors, concerned with the aesthetics of the composite edited tape,
      object to alteration of edit points, even if it is only by one frame.
PAR  Secondly, this approach relies upon some method of detecting, at the
      beginning of each recording, the color phase to see if a frame slip is
      required. For example, sensing a phase error voltage or sync timing signal
      is required, which experience has shown requires frequent, critical
      adjustment.
PAR  Third, the "detect-and-bump" cycle, during the 50 percent of the times when
      color framing is required, introduces a 4-5 second delay into the editing
      sequence, and the worst case condition must be allowed for in judging roll
      timing.
PAR  Fourth, the color phase, the very thing which is sensed immediately after
      initial synchronization is most disturbed at that very moment in time.
      Therefore, poor editing results frequently occur where a series of closely
      spaced edits occur. The undesirable alternative is to sequence or space
      the edit points.
PAR  Examples of this type of system are the Ampex Color Framing Accessory and
      the device described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,594,498.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  It is, therefore, an object of the invention to provide an improved
      magnetic video tape recording system which insures proper color burst
      phase matching.
PAR  Another object of the invention is to provide an improved color framing
      system which does not introduce unnecessary time delays into the recording
      process.
PAR  Another object of the invention is to provide an improved color framing
      system for a magnetic tape editing assembler which enables proper color
      phase matching without altering the frame number at which the edit is
      made.
PAR  Another object of the invention is to provide an improved color burst phase
      matching system which is compatible with different VTR's and different
      video recording formats.
PAR  Another object of the invention is to provide a VTR with improved means for
      color phase framing with incoming color video signals.
PAR  Another object of the invention is to provide improved means for enabling
      editing of closely spaced editing points while maintaining color phase
      burst integrity.
PAR  In accordance with the present invention, proper color framing utilizes a
      time or frame code associated with the tape as a synthetic phase
      reference, to identify alternate frames. This identification is
      independent of the actual color phase. That is, the alternate frames on
      the tape having 0.degree. and 180.degree. nominal phase conditions, may
      have, for example, an odd or even frame identification. But the same
      relationship is consistent throughout a particular record tape.
PAR  A system frame reference signal, slaved to the plant or system sync is
      generated to distinguish alternate frames in time, i.e. alternate frames
      of the plant sync generator. Most conveniently, this is done by deriving a
      15 Hz square wave from the 30 Hz plant sync.
PAR  A comparison is made between the synthetic phase reference and the system
      frame reference prior to beginning the record. If the comparison
      determines that the two have the proper relationship, the recording is
      made and the color phases will be correctly matched. If the comparison
      determines that they have the wrong relationship, then the recording tape
      speed or position is controlled for correcting the recording tape frame
      position relative to the system frame reference to achieve the proper
      relationship between the synthetic phase reference and the system frame
      reference to achieve proper color framing.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  FIG. 1 is a block schematic diagram of a magnetic video tape editing system
      incorporating the present invention.
PAR  FIG. 2 is a graphical illustration of the relationship of the NTSC code
      with respect to the actual tape color phase.
PAR  FIG. 3 is a more detailed block schematic of the improved color framing
      system of the present invention for use in a magnetic video tape editing
      system.
PAR  FIG. 4 is a graphical illustration of various signals and waveforms
      occurring in the operation of the system of FIG. 3.
PAR  FIG. 5 is a graphical illustration depicting the relationship of the VTR
      velocity during the synchronization cycle.
PAR  FIG. 6 is a flow diagram of a computer program using the operation of the
      color frame system depicted in FIG. 3.
PAR  FIG. 7 is a block schematic representation of a single VTR employing the
      improved color frame system of the present invention.
DETD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
PAR  Referring to FIG. 1, a typical video magnetic tape editing system 10 is
      illustrated in block form. A plurality of playback video tape recorders
      (VTR's) 12 contain previously recorded video segments; for example,
      different camera recordings of a single scene rehearsed for a television
      show.
PAR  A record VTR 14 records a master or composite tape composed of the
      sequences selected by the editor as he reviews the "takes" on the playback
      VTR's 12. An operator control console 16 is used by the editor to control
      the operation of each of the playback VTR's 12 and the record VTR 14. The
      console 16 is also provided with a display monitor to enable the editor to
      see a list of edit characteristics and decisions. One example of such an
      editing system is the "CMX System/300", manufactured by the assignee of
      the present invention.
PAR  In accordance with the present invention, an improved color frame system 18
      is provided to insure that as video segments recorded and stored by
      playback VTR's 12 are replayed and recorded on the master or composite
      tape of record VTR 14, there is proper color phase matching or framing
      between that which has previously been recorded on VTR 14 and that which
      is to be added.
PAR  It should be understood at the outset, however, that the present invention
      should not be limited to magnetic tape editing applications. As will be
      explained in more detail later, the present invention has application to
      other aspects of video recording, such as, for example, direct recording
      from a live camera or another VTR.
PAR  Additionally, the embodiments described herein are based upon the NTSC
      format. However, it is also to be understood that the principles of the
      present invention are equally applicable to video applications using the
      PAL format.
PAR  The assignment of a frame code to identify alternate frames of video can
      best be seen by reference to FIG. 2. A sequence of video frames is
      depicted in FIG. 2A. Each frame is one-thirtieth second in duration and
      consists of two video fields, each one-sixtieth second in duration in the
      well-known manner.
PAR  With present standards in the video industry, the phase of the color
      subcarrier with reference to any part of the sync signal is not specified.
      That is to say, that if one looks at the actual phase at the beginning of
      a color burst for a given frame, it may have a value anywhere from
      0.degree. to 360.degree.. The actual phase at the beginning of a color
      burst is entirely arbitrary. In the two examples of FIGS. 2B and 2C, the
      phases are opposite one another for a given frame relative to the frame
      code of FIG. 2A. It is equally possible for frame 1 to have an actual
      beginning phase of 60.degree., frame 2, 240.degree., frame 3, 60.degree.;
      etc., or frame 1, 5.degree.; frame 2, 185.degree.; frame 3, 5.degree.;
      etc., or any other beginning phase value.
PAR  But what is important and consistent is that the color subcarrier phase of
      periodic frames will either be in phase or 180.degree. out of phase. Thus,
      in FIGS. 2B and 2C, frames 1, 3, 5, etc. are 180.degree. out of phase with
      frames 2, 4, 6, etc.
PAR  For purposes of editing, it is standard practice to identify each recorded
      frame, normally with audio signals recorded, in the case of a 4-track
      magnetic recording tape, on the cue track. Although there are many ways in
      which individual frames can be identified, presently the most commonly
      used is the SMPTE time code. As a recording is made, each frame is
      assigned a sequential number representing the hour, minute, second and
      frame of the recording.
PAR  FIG. .[.2D.]. .Iadd.2E .Iaddend.illustrates the SMPTE time code for 10
      frames of a sample recording. As an example, after 30 frames, the
      "seconds" digits would register ":01", since 30 frames or 15 odd-even
      frame pairs occur each second.
PAR  The SMPTE time code provides a very convenient way of distinguishing
      alternate frames recorded on the tape. One needs only examine the least
      significant digit of the frame code to identify "odd" or "even" frames
      .Iadd.(FIG. 2F). .Iaddend.For binary representations, the former may be
      designated by a binary ONE and the latter by ZERO.
PAR  The operation of the improved color frame system 18 of the present
      invention will now be explained by reference additionally to FIG. 3. The
      30 Hz plant synchronization reference 20 is utilized to synchronize each
      of the VTR's with each other as well as to force the playback VTR's 12 to
      be slaved to the record VTR 14. The latter insures that during an editing
      operation when video information is to be transferred from a playback VTR
      12 to a record VTR 14, the beginning of the record will begin at the
      designated point in time.
PAR  The 30 Hz plant sync source 20 is utilized to derive a 15 Hz frame
      reference signal, by passing the 30 Hz signal through a divide-by-two
      counter 22. The divide-by-two counter 22 conveniently can be provided as a
      part of the logic of the editing system, or it may be provided in the
      record VTR 14. The frame code from the VTR 14 video tape is read out and
      identified at the start of the synchronization cycle. The frame reference
      at the projected start of record is then determined at 26 to see whether
      it is odd or even at the projected start of record.
PAR  Comparison means 28 checks to see if the frame code and the frame reference
      bear the proper relationship, i.e. if proper color phase or frame matching
      exists. If it does, the regular synchronization process is begun and the
      recording from the designated playback VTR begins at the projected "start
      of record", at the proper frame and with the color phase properly matched.
PAR  If the comparison means 28 determines that the frame code and the frame
      reference do not bear the proper relationship, i.e. there will be a color
      mismatch at the projected "start of record", the "start of record" is
      delayed at 30 one frame in time. This is accomplished, for example, by
      slowing down all of the VTR's to "lose" the length of time of one frame,
      i.e. one-thirtieth sec., assuming the NTSC format.
PAR  This has the desired effect of delaying the "start of record" one frame in
      time thereby effectively reversing the relationship between the frame code
      and the frame reference at the new "start of record" thereby insuring
      proper color phase matching. And, since the edit point in terms of frame
      code is not changed, the edit accuracy is not affected.
PAR  A magnetic editing system such as the CMX System 300 uses a small computer
      serving a number of functions such as storing the tentative and final edit
      end points, controlling previewing of edit selections, controlling
      dissolves, fades and special effects, etc. With such an arrangement, it is
      a simple and straight-forward procedure to program this computer to carry
      out the functions designated 24, 26 and 28 of FIG. 3. The flow diagram for
      one such program is depicted to FIG. 6 and is described in greater detail
      subsequently.
PAR  In this manner, the functions carried out by 24, 26 and 28 take place
      nearly instantaneously at the start of the synchronizing cycle. The
      regular editing system synchronization process then takes over, whether a
      delay of the start of record is to occur or not, to force the record VTR
      14 to arrive at the right frame at the right time. Thus, the 4-5 sec.
      "capstan bump" procedure is avoided.
PAR  As explained, the playback VTR's 12 are controlled indirectly, since the
      synchronization process forces them to be slaved to the record VTR 14.
      This means that the record VTR and playback VTR's will be synchronized
      together and the start of record will begin at the designated point in
      time.
PAR  The color time base corrector circuitry which is a standard part of any
      playback VTR suitable for editing corrects the output of the playback
      VTR's so that the output color burst phase matches the phase of the 3.58
      MHz reference 20, independent of the tape color burst phase of record VTR
      14. This is accomplished in the well-known manner by inserting a time
      delay between the tape signal and the output of the VTR. This is the
      principle of operation, for example, of the "Color Tec" system, sold by
      Ampex. See also the Anderson article referred to above. Thus, the color
      phase of the playback VTR's 12 will always be in phase with the 3.58 MHz
      plant reference, regardless if they are slowed down to alter the start of
      record to avoid a color frame mismatch.
PAR  For a better understanding of the operation of the improved color framing
      system 18 of the present invention, reference is made additionally to FIG.
      4, which assumes the NTSC format. For purposes of illustration, in this
      example, the start of record is projected to occur 300 frames, or 10.0
      sec. after the start of the synchronizing cycle, as indicated. However, if
      it is necessary to delay the start of record by one frame, in order to
      perfect proper color framing in the manner described, the actual start of
      record will occur 301 frames or 10-1/30 seconds after the start of the
      synchronization cycle.
PAR  Frame reference signal, indicative of the actual 3.58 MHz reference, from
      the divide-by-two circuit 22, is shown in FIGS. 4A and 4B. The waveform of
      FIG. 4A is 180.degree. out of phase with that of FIG. 4B. As will be more
      fully explained, this illustrates the fact that for a given tape color
      phase, there is always a fifty-fifty probability that the reference phase
      will match the tape color burst phase the "first try".
PAR  A sample of the last two digits, i.e. the frame identification digits of
      the SMPTE time code, of the record tape is represented in FIG. 4C. As
      explained, it is a simple matter with this code to differentiate alternate
      frames; one only need to look at the least significant digit to make an
      odd or even identification. Additionally, it is a very simple matter to
      determine at 26 whether the frame code is going to be odd or even at the
      projected start of record, since the frame code will be the same as that
      at the start of the synchronizing cycle if the projected start of record
      occurs an even number of frames later, such as 300. Of course, the frame
      code will be opposite to that of the start of synchronization if the
      projected start of synchronization occurs an odd number of frames later.
PAR  As previously explained, the frame code numbers bear no set phase
      relationship with the actual tape color burst phase, except whatever the
      relationship is, it stays that way for the length of the recording.
PAR  This may better be seen by reference to the examples of FIGS. 4D and 4E
      relative to the frame code of FIG. 4C. It can be seen there that the frame
      code designation can be either the same (FIG. 4E) or opposite (FIG. 4D) to
      the actual tape color burst phase.
PAR  Thus, whether or not there will be a proper phase match at the projected
      start of record when an insert is made into previously recorded material
      depends not only upon a comparison of the record tape frame code and the
      system frame reference, but also upon a prior determination of the
      relationship between the tape frame code and the actual tape color burst
      phase.
PAR  Accordingly, for making an insert into video material previously recorded
      on the record VTR 14, or to resume a previous edit session, the following
      procedure is followed. First, a trial edit is made. Then the phase
      match-up at the edit point is checked as the edit is replayed, using a
      Vectorscope or other suitable means.
PAR  If the color phase is correct after the edit, and there is a 50--50 chance
      this will be the case, the editor proceeds and the color frame system 18
      guarantees that all of the subsequent edits in that session will be
      properly color phase matched.
PAR  If the color phase match was found to be unsatisfactory, then the editor
      switches switch 32 (FIG. 3). This has the effect of reversing the decision
      of comparison means 28 to require that the parity of the frame code
      relative to the system frame reference be opposite to that which existed
      when the faulty .[.trail.]. .Iadd.trial .Iaddend.edit .[.occured.].
      .Iadd.occurred.Iaddend.. The edit is then rerun and a good recording will
      occur, as will all future edits in that session.
PAR  At the start of an editing session where there has been no material
      previously recorded by the record VTR 14, no operator action is required
      since the color phase of the first recording is immaterial and since the
      color frame system 18 automatically controls the color phase so that all
      future edits in the same session are the same phase as the first
      recording.
PAR  For a better understanding of the foregoing procedure, the waveforms of
      FIG. 4 will now be examined for the situation where video material is to
      be transferred from a playback VTR 12 onto record VTR 14, where there has
      been a previous recording on VTR 14.
PAR  The frame code (FIG. 4C) may either be in parity with the actual record
      tape color phase (FIG. 4E) or be out of parity (FIG. 4D) as previously
      explained. First, consider what happens if the former situation occurs,
      i.e. the situation where the actual tape phase is as shown in FIG. 4E.
      When the operator makes a trial edit and if the system frame reference is
      as shown in FIG. 4A with respect to the frame code, i.e. there is a parity
      match, then the phase match of the trial edit will be correct, since the
      parity of the actual tape phase matches that of the frame code. Thus, the
      operator can proceed on.
PAR  But, if the system frame reference is as shown in FIG. 4B, then the trial
      edit will result in a phase mismatch since the frame reference will not be
      in parity with the frame code and hence the record tape color phase start
      of record. In this case, the operator pushes switch 32 after he discovers
      the phase mismatch. Now the comparison made at 28 will be made so that a
      "correct" result occurs when the frame code and frame reference are out of
      parity. The operator then reruns the recording, which will now be in
      phase, as will future recordings. Only now, a correct comparison will
      occur at 28 when the frame code and frame reference are opposite to one
      another.
PAR  Next, consider the situation where the frame code has the opposite phase to
      that of the record color phase, the situation shown in FIG. 4D. Here the
      situation is just reversed from the preceeding example. If the frame
      reference is as shown in FIG. .[.4B.]. .Iadd.4A, .Iaddend.while the frame
      reference will be in parity with the frame code, it will be out of parity
      with the record tape color phase, and hence a phase mismatch will occur,
      and the operator must enable switch 32 before proceeding.
PAR  If the frame reference is as shown in FIG. 4B, then while it will not be in
      parity with the frame code 4C, it will be in parity with the tape color
      burst phase. Hence, the edits will be correct from the start.
PAR  The foregoing is summarized in the following table:
PAC  Situation I
PAL  Where the frame code is in parity with the tape color phase (FIG. 4E):
PAR  1. If frame reference is as in FIG. 4A, then there will be a phase match at
      start of record, no operator action required.
PAR  2. If frame reference is as in FIG. 4B, then there will be a phase mismatch
      at start of record; operator enables switch 32 before proceeding.
PAC  Situation II
PAL  Where frame code is not in parity with the tape color phase (FIG. 4D):
PAR  1. If frame reference is as in FIG. 4A, then there will be a phase mismatch
      at start of record, operator enables switch 32 before proceeding.
PAR  2. If frame reference is as in FIG. 4B, then there will be a phase match at
      start of record; no operator action required.
PAR  Thus, the first trial edit is made, in effect, to determine the phase
      relationship between the frame code and the actual tape color phase. Once
      this relationship has been determined by the first trial edit, and the
      comparison 28 is programmed to determine what a correct comparison between
      the frame reference and frame code should be, the color frame system 18
      will automatically insure that in future edits, color framing occurs in
      the manner previously described.
PAR  If, in the future, a universal time code is adopted which bears a fixed
      relationship to the tape color phase, then this first trial edit would no
      longer be necessary.
PAR  As previously explained, the functions carried out by blocks 20, 26 and 28
      take place nearly instantaneously at the start of the synchronizing cycle.
      Thereafter, the regular editing system synchronization process takes over
      to force record VTR 14 as well as the other VTR's to arrive at the correct
      frame at the correct time.
PAR  In the event that the projected start of record must be altered by one
      frame, it is necessary to alter the record tape speed and/or position to
      either "gain" or "lose" one frame. One convenient way of accomplishing
      this is to slow down the record VTR to lose a frame, as explained
      previously. If, for example, the projected start of record is 300 frames
      after "start synchronization" and if the starting time is to be dlayed by
      one frame, then the relationship of the average slower tape velocity,
      V.sub.S, to the average normal or regular tape velocity is given by the
      relationship:
EQU  V.sub.S = V.sub.N (300/301)                                (I)
PAL  this relationship is depicted graphically in FIG. 5.
PAR  To reduce the velocity of the record tape, the capstan servo for the record
      VTR is regulated by controlling the electrical signal representing the VTR
      velocity error voltage E. One way to accomplish this is as follows. Prior
      to the start synchronization a number is registered indicative of the
      number of frames which must be counted down before the start of record.
      This value is positive, and as the synchronization process begins, the
      value of this number decreases until it finally reaches zero at the start
      of recording. This value is called the "D-register" value of D.
PAR  At the start of the synchronization process, the tape position P, is also
      monitored. This is done simply by reading the time code of the tape. P
      starts with a value of zero, and adds a digit as the tape progresses by
      one frame.
PAR  The error signal E for controlling the VTR tape transport velocity can be
      derived from the above parameters P and D and from T, the targeted or
      projected start of record, by the following relationship:
EQU  E = T - P - D                                              (II)
PAL  where
PAR  if E > 0 speed up capstan servo
PA1  E < 0 slow down capstan servo
PA1  For example, if the projected delay D.sub.1 for start of record is 300
      frames, but if it is necessary to delay actual start of record by one
      frame, then initially D.sub.2 is set at +301 instead of +300, then the
      change of error, Equation III, becomes:
EQU  .DELTA.E = E.sub.2 - E.sub.1                               (III)
EQU    = (t - p - d.sub.2) - (t - p - d.sub.1)
EQU     = d.sub.1 - d.sub.2
EQU    = 300 - 301
EQU    = - 1
PAL  where
PA1  .DELTA.E = change of error
PA1  D.sub.1 = initial D-Register value
PA1  D.sub.2 = revised D-Register value for color frame change
PAL  Hence, since .DELTA.E is negative the error signal slows down the capstan
      servo. Once the tape capstan has been slowed sufficiently so that one
      frame is lost, and E is zero, the recording takes place at the correct
      time and position.
PAR  As previously stated, the functions carried out by blocks 24, 26 and 28 can
      conveniently be carried out by a programmed digital computer when a
      computer is available such as in the CMX System 300 magnetic tape editor.
      The flow diagram of an actual program to carry out these functions is
      depicted in FIG. 6. Of course, this program is a straight-forward one
      which does not in itself form a part of the present invention. Rather, it
      is described herein to exemplify one way in which the functions of blocks
      24, 26 and 28 can be carried out. Thus, for example, where a computer is
      not available, these functions can easily be carried out by hard wired
      logic circuitry which can be designed easily in a straight-forward manner.
PAR  As explained, the functions carried out by the flow diagram of FIG. 6 occur
      nearly instantaneously at the beginning of the synchronization cycle.
      Thus, the synchronization process described in the preceeding paragraphs
      occurs after the functions are performed by the flow diagram of FIG. 6.
PAR  Referring now to the flow diagram of FIG. 6, at the start of the
      synchronization cycle, block 34 causes the VTR's to start up and at the
      same time begins the D-register countdown explained above.
PAR  At block 36, the parity, i.e. the least significant binary bit, of the
      frame code of the record VTR tape is checked to determine its parity at
      the beginning of the record. This value is denoted R.
PAR  At block 38, the current parity P.sub.1 of the system reference phase is
      read, and at block 40, the parity of the reference phase is computed for
      the projected record start time. This latter value is denoted P.sub.2.
PAR  Block 42 notes a change in parity of the user select button 32 and the
      actual parity of the user select command is determined at block 44.
PAR  The record start time parity R, the reference phase parity P.sub.2, and the
      user select parity U are added together at block 46 to produce a sum S.
      Decision block 48 checks the parity of this sum S. If is is odd, then the
      record start time is delayed one frame and the binary digit 1 is added by
      block 50 so that the output parity is even, which is the required parity
      indicative of a proper phase match. If the parity of S is already even,
      indicating proper phase match, then nothing further is done.
PAR  To effectuate the delay of the record start time, block 50 also increases
      the absolute value of D in equation II above by "one" when the parity
      check of S reveals an odd number. As explained above, this automatically
      insures that the tape capstan is slowed down to lose a frame in time.
PAR  As previously stated, the present invention is applicable not only in video
      tape editing systems but also for use in a single VTR where color phase
      matching is required. FIG. 7 is a system schematic illustration of a
      single standard VTR 54 incorporating the present invention. VTR 54
      includes a tape drive 56 and a tape drive servo system 58 which includes a
      sync signal comparator and time base corrector for controlling a capstan
      drive motor in the tape drive 56.
PAR  The improved color frame system 18' of the present invention is provided to
      insure proper color phase matching for video signals, from a television
      camera or other VTR, introduced through the input 60 to be recorded by VTR
      54. A 15 Hz system frame reference is again derived by sending the 30 Hz
      sync reference signal from plant sync source 20 through a divide-by-two
      circuit 22. This 15 Hz frame reference signal is sent to a comparison
      circuit 28'.
PAR  Prior to recording new video signals, VTR 54 is run back a sufficient
      number of frames so that VTR 54 is brought up to .[.apeed.]. .Iadd.speed
      .Iaddend.and to allow the following sequence to take place before VTR 54
      reaches the point or frame where the new recording is to take place.
      Typically, VTR 54 must be rewound to allow 2-10 seconds of VTR operation
      prior to the time the recording begins.
PAR  During this time, the frame code signals are picked up from the tape drive
      head and are identified at 62 and sent to the comparison circuit 28'. This
      is a signal like that shown in FIG. 4C. Comparison circuit 28' then
      compares the two sets of signals sent to it. If they bear the correct
      relationship, then the VTR 54 is enabled, synchronized and the recording
      begins at the end of the previously recorded segment.
PAR  If the frame code and system frame reference do not bear the correct
      relationship, motor speed reducing circuit 64 controls the drive motor
      speed to lose one frame in time, i.e. to put the frame code in the proper
      relationship with the system frame reference. Once this occurs, compare
      circuit 28' enables VTR 54 and the recording is made.
PAR  A trial run must be made where an insert is to be made into previously
      recorded material. The procedure is the same as with the aforementioned
      editing system; after making the trial run and checking the color phase
      match, switch 32' is pushed by the operator if improper color framing was
      indicated.
PAR  With the color frame corrector 18' installed with VTR 54, VTR 54 can serve
      as the record VTR in an editing system. To prevent possible picture shifts
      introduced by the time base correctors of the playback VTR's, the playback
      VTR's can be equipped with similar color phase correctors 18'.
PAR  In the preceeding embodiments, systems were described wherein the tape
      drive motor was slowed down in order to slip one frame in time. It should
      be understood, however, that the drive motor could be speeded up to "pick
      up" an additional frame or frames, and the same objective would be
      accomplished. In fact, in the case of the NTSC, what is important is that
      an odd number of frames be lost or picked up.
PAR  The SMPTE time code recorded on the cue-track of a 4-track video tape is a
      convenient way of identifying alternate frames recorded on the tape.
      However, other means for identifying alternate frames could be employed.
      For example, alternate frame identification could be inserted within the
      video sync or within the control track. Additionally, other forms of
      identification could be used such as a high frequency signal encoded in
      the audio track or by physically marking the tape.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A color frame system for use with a video tape recorder/reproducer for
      providing color burst phase matching comprising:
PA1  a. means for .Iadd.sequentially .Iaddend.identifying .[.alternate frames.].
      .Iadd.each individual frame .Iaddend.of video recorded on the recording
      tape;
PA1  b. means for detecting the .[.alternate-.]. .Iadd.sequential individual
      .Iaddend.frame identifications to generate alternate-frame identification
      signals .Iadd.from the sequential individual frame identifications
      .Iaddend.to distinguish alternate frames recorded on the tape;
PA1  c. means synchronized with a stable signal source for generating frame
      reference signals at a frequency to provide means for distinguishing
      alternate video frames in time relative to said stable signal source;
PA1  d. means for comparing said alternate-frame identification signals and said
      frame reference signals; and
PA1  e. means .[.responive.]. .Iadd.responsive .Iaddend. to said comparison
      means to control the tape speed and/or position for correcting the
      recording tape frame position relative to said frame reference signal if
      required for proper color burst phase match.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A color frame system as in claim 1 wherein said tape speed and/or
      position control means comprises means for altering the recording tape
      frame position one frame relative to said frame reference signal.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A color frame system as in claim 2 wherein said frame reference
      generating means provides a 15 Hz signal.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A color frame system as in claim 3 wherein said .[.alternate.].
      .Iadd.sequential individual .Iaddend.frame identification means comprises
      the SMPTE time code, and wherein alternate frames are identified odd and
      even in accordance with the least significant digit thereof.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A color frame system as in claim 1 wherein said frame reference
      generating means provides a 15 Hz signal.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A color frame system as in claim 1 wherein said .[.alternate.].
      .Iadd.sequential individual .Iaddend.frame .[.identificatin.].
      .Iadd.identification .Iaddend.means comprises the SMPTE time code, and
      wherein alternate frames are identified odd and even in accordance with
      the least significant digit thereof.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. In a magnetic tape editing system having a record video tape recorder,
      at least one playback video tape recorder synchronized with said record
      video tape recorder and whose color burst phase is automatically
      maintained in phase with a stable color reference signal, .[.and.]. a
      system for providing proper color burst phase matching of video segments
      recorded upon said record video tape recorder comprising:
PA1  a. means for identifying alternate frames of video recorded on the
      recording tape;
PA1  b. means for determining the alternate-frame identification of the video
      frame which will occur at a projected time when video information signals
      are to begin to be recorded upon said record tape;
PA1  c. means synchronized with a stable signal source for generating frame
      reference signals at a frequency to provide means for distinguishing
      alternate video frames in time relative to said stable signal source;
PA1  d. means for determining the state of said frame reference signals which is
      scheduled to occur at the projected time video information signals are to
      begin to be recorded upon said record tape;
PA1  e. means for comparing the scheduled frame reference state with the
      determined alternate-frame identification at the projected beginning of
      the record of video information signals; and
PA1  f. means responsive to said comparison means to alter in time the actual
      start of record if required for proper color burst match.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. A magnetic tape editing system as in claim 7 wherein said means for
      altering the start of record alters the start time by one frame.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. A magnetic tape editing system as in claim 7 wherein said means for
      altering the start of record delays the start time by one frame.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. A magnetic tape system as in claim 9 wherein said frame reference
      generating means provides a 15 Hz signal.
NUM  11.
PAR  11. A magnetic tape editing system as in claim 10 wherein said alternate
      frame identification means comprises the SMPTE time code, and wherein
      alternate frames are identified odd and even in accordance with the least
      significant digit thereof.
NUM  12.
PAR  12. A magnetic tape system as in claim 7 wherein said frame reference
      generating means provides a 15 Hz signal.
NUM  13.
PAR  13. A magnetic tape editing system as in claim 7 wherein said alternate
      frame identification means comprises the SMPTE time code, and wherein
      alternate frames are identified odd and even in accordance with the least
      significant digit thereof.
NUM  14.
PAR  14. A method for use with a video tape recorder/reproducer for providing
      proper color burst phase matching comprising the steps of:
PA1  a. identifying .[.alternate.]. .Iadd.sequentially each individual
      .Iaddend..[.frame.]. .Iadd.frames .Iaddend. of video recorded on the
      recording tapes;
PA1  b. detecting the .[.alternate.]. .Iadd.sequential, individual
      .Iaddend.frame identifications and generating alternate-frame
      identification signals .Iadd.from said sequential individual frame
      identifications .Iaddend.to distinguish alternate frames recorded on the
      tape;
PA1  c. generating a frame reference signal synchronized with a stable signal
      source at a frequency for distinguishing alternate video frames in time
      relative to said stable signal source;
PA1  d. comparing said alternate-frame identification signals and said frame
      reference signals; and
PA1  e. controlling the tape speed and/or position for correcting the recording
      tape frame position relative to said frame reference signal after said
      comparison step if required for proper color burst phase match.
NUM  15.
PAR  15. In a video tape recording system, means for .[.insuring.].
      .Iadd.ensuring .Iaddend.proper color phase matching comprising: .Iadd.
PA1  means for sequentially identifying each individual frame of video recorded
      on the recording tape;
PA1  means for detecting the sequential, individual frame identifications and
      for generating alternate frame identification signals from the sequential
      individual frame identifications to provide a synthetic color phase
      reference; .Iaddend.
PA1  .[.  means for coding each video recording to identify alternate video
      frames to provide a synthetic color phase reference signal;.].
PA1  means for comparing the color phase of a video segment to be recorded with
      the synthetic phase reference; and
PA1  means responsive to said comparison means to control the tape speed or
      position for correcting the recording tape frame position relative to the
      color phase of the video segment to be recorded when required .Iadd.to
      obtain phase matching between the phase of the video segment to be
      recorded and the synthetic phase reference. .Iaddend.
NUM  16.
PAR  16. A video tape recording system as in claim 15 wherein the color phase of
      the video segment to be recorded is locked to a system color phase
      reference signal.
PATN
WKU  RE0297887
SRC  5
APN  764695&
APT  2
PBL  E
ART  212
APD  19770201
TTL  Inverter having forced turn-off
ISD  19780926
NCL  30
ECL  1
EXP  Shoop; William M.
NDR  5
NFG  6
INVT
NAM  Anderson; Thomas E.
CTY  Normal
STA  IL
INVT
NAM  Walden; John P.
CTY  Schenectady
STA  NY
ASSG
NAM  General Electric Company
CTY  Schenectady
STA  NY
COD  02
REIS
COD  50
APN  516772
APD  19741021
PNO  03953780
ISD  19760427
CLAS
OCL  363 97
XCL  363 56
XCL  363133
EDF  2
ICL  H02M  7537
FSC  331
FSS  113 A
FSC  363
FSS  22-25;55;56;80;97;131;133
UREF
PNO  3056077
ISD  19620900
NAM  McCarter
OCL  363133
UREF
PNO  3305756
ISD  19670200
NAM  Doss et al.
XCL  331113A
UREF
PNO  3334312
ISD  19670800
NAM  Funfstuck
OCL  331113A
UREF
PNO  3350661
ISD  19671000
NAM  Bloom et al.
OCL  331113A
UREF
PNO  3369195
ISD  19680200
NAM  Zollinger et al.
OCL  331113A
UREF
PNO  3387228
ISD  19680600
NAM  Randall
OCL  331113A
UREF
PNO  3500168
ISD  19700300
NAM  Merritt
OCL  321 18
UREF
PNO  3601682
ISD  19710800
NAM  Iwata et al.
OCL  363133
UREF
PNO  3646578
ISD  19720200
NAM  Gregory
XCL  331113A
UREF
PNO  3758841
ISD  19730900
NAM  Bourdeau
OCL  321 14
UREF
PNO  3781638
ISD  19731200
NAM  Anderson et al.
OCL  363 56
LREP
FR2  Cutter; Lawrence D.
FR2  Cohen; Joseph T.
FR2  Snyder; Marvin
ABST
PAL  An electrical inverter circuit for converting d.c. electrical input into an
      a.c. electrical output involving the control of active switch elements in
      the primary of an output transformer circuit by, in part, providing a
      further controllable active element in circuit with the active element
      switches such that the primary winding current also flows therethrough.
      Synchronous control means are provided for synchronously controlling this
      further active element so as to increase its electrical impedance during
      at least a portion of each switching transition of the active element
      switch means so as to further aid and promote the rapid and efficient
      transitioning of the active element switches. Various alternative circuits
      are shown for this and for detecting the switch point as a function of
      primary transformer winding current and for further controlling the
      transition of the active switches in combination with the increased
      electrical impedance of the further controllable active element in circuit
      therewith.
BSUM
PAC  INVERTER HAVING FORCED TURN-OFF
PAR  This invention generally relates to an electrical inverter circuit for
      converting a d.c. electrical input into an a.c. electrical output. In
      particular, this invention relates to an improved control for active
      element switches utilized to alternately switch the d.c. electrical input
      through the primary winding of a transformer thus giving rise to an a.c.
      output in a secondary winding thereof.
PAR  Switching mode power supplies of this general type are becoming
      increasingly popular for a variety of applications as evidenced by such
      recent publications as various articles in the Monday, Sept. 23, 1974
      issue of Electronic Engineering Times and the July 1974 issue of Mullard
      Technical Communications No. 123. Switching mode power supplies conforming
      to this general classification are also found in issued U.S. Pat. such as,
      for instance, Nos. 3,161,834; 3,136,958; 3,546,626; and 3,758,841.
PAR  Our own earlier U.S. Pat. No. 3,781,638 issued Dec. 25, 1973 describes a
      switching mode power supply utilizing active element switches (e.g.,
      transistor devices) for alternately switching a d.c. supply current
      through the primary windings of a transformer thus giving rise to an a.c.
      output in a secondary winding. The correct phase and magnitude of control
      power for maintaining sustained repetitive switching operation of the
      switching transistors is obtained in this earlier circuit from a tertiary
      low voltage winding on the output transformer. In addition, our earlier
      issued and above referenced patent (which earlier patent is commonly
      assigned with the instant application) also utilizes a control transistor
      which helps to positively turn the switching transistors "off" at the end
      of each half-cycle of inverter operation as determined by detecting the
      predetermined level of primary winding current.
PAR  The instant invention relates to further improvements in the control
      circuitry for controlling the switching transistors in a switching mode
      inverter and, in the preferred exemplary embodiment, to an improved
      switching control for the particular type of switching mode inverter
      described in our earlier issued and above referenced U.S. Pat. No.
      3,781,638.
PAR  Some of the features of this invention are also disclosed in conjunction
      with another invention of John P. Walden in a commonly assigned copending
      United States Patent Application filed concurrently herewith and entitled
      DC TO AC INVERTER HAVING IMPROVED SWITCHING EFFICIENCY, OVERLOAD AND
      THERMAL PROTECTION FEATURES.
PAR  In the past, switching control over the switching transistors has been
      effected primarily by influencing the bias current available at the
      control leads of such active element switches. For instance, in our above
      referenced patent, a switching control transistor detects a switch point
      at a predetermined level of primary winding current and, in response
      thereto, substantially shunts the base elements of the switching
      transistors to ground potential thus dissipating any forward bias currents
      and thereby turning these switching transistors off.
PAR  It has now been discovered that the switching operation can be enhanced and
      its efficiency can be improved by incorporating still further switching
      control features. For example, the instant invention includes the
      provision of a further controllable active element means in circuit with
      the active element switches such that the primary winding current also
      flows through this further controllable element. Synchronous control means
      are also provided for synchronously controlling the further active element
      so as to increase its electrical impedance during at least a portion of
      each switching transition for the active element switches. This action, in
      the preferred exemplary embodiments, causes a simultaneous and synchronous
      rise in emitter voltage for the switching transistors at the same time
      that the base voltage is drastically lowered. Since, in the exemplary
      embodiments, NPN switching transistors are utilized, this combined and
      synchronous switching control much more quickly and efficiently reverse
      biases the base-emitter junction of the switching transistors and effects
      the desired switching transition.
PAR  It has also been discovered that the increased voltage across this further
      controllable active element (due to its increased electrical impedance)
      may be utilized to further control the dissipation of any forward biasing
      currents at the control or base electrode of the switching transistors.
      This detected increase in voltage is also utilized in some embodiments of
      the invention as a feedback control signal for insuring that the further
      controllable active element is maintained in its high impedance state
      throughout the switching transition period.
PAR  The preferred current apparatus of this invention involves a current
      measuring element (e.g., a known electrical impedance, etc.) connected
      serially in a common collector-emitter switching transistor circuit
      together with a further controllable active element such that the primary
      winding current flowing to either of the switching transistors also flows
      through the current measuring element. Current level detection means
      (e.g., a transistor device with its control element connected thereto) is
      controlled by the current measuring element to, in turn, control the
      electrical impedance of the further controllable active element (e.g., a
      transistor device). However, other alternatives of current detection means
      have also been discovered to have potential advantages. Accordingly, such
      alternate means also form a part of this invention.
PAR  One such alternate current detection means involves a voltage divider
      connected across the current measuring means and a further controllable
      active element in conjunction with a voltage level detection means.
      Another current detection means comprises a current monitor such as an
      inverting current source connected only to the control element of the
      further controllable active element means thus eliminating the need for
      any extra impedance means in the primary winding current path.
PAR  Another alternate embodiment of this invention provides independent base
      and emitter controls for the two switching transistors and a common peak
      current detector for controlling the independent base and emitter control
      circuits.
PAR  Further alternative embodiments of this invention utilize a current
      sensitive latch means (e.g., an SCR like arrangement of NPN and PNP
      transistor devices) to provide a switching control hysteresis effect for
      insuring that positive switching control is maintained during the
      switching transition period until conditions are insured to be proper for
      completing the transition cycle.
DRWD
PAR  These and other objects and advantages of the invention will be more
      clearly apparent upon reading the following detailed description of the
      invention taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings of which:
PAR  FIG. 1 is a detailed schematic diagram of a presently preferred embodiment
      of the invention;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a detailed schematic diagram of an alternate embodiment of this
      invention;
PAR  FIG. 3 is a detailed schematic diagram of still another alternate
      embodiment of this invention;
PAR  FIG. 4 is a detailed schematic diagram of yet another alternate embodiment
      of this invention;
PAR  FIG. 5 is a schematic diagram of a portion of still another alternate
      embodiment of this invention; and
PAR  FIG. 6 is a detailed schematic diagram of a still further alternate
      embodiment of this invention.
DETD
PAR  Although the inverter of this invention will have many possible
      applications, one of the presently anticipated applications for this
      invention is its use in a line cord power supply unit. Such units are
      presently contemplated as very small volume and lightweight devices for
      plugging directly into a conventional 110-120 volt household a.c.
      receptacle. The output of such an unit is presently contemplated as a low
      voltage d.c. output for powering common household appliances within the
      power rating of the unit.
PAR  In such applications, it is necessarily to make the maximum usage of the
      limited available volume and weight. Accordingly, it is presently
      contemplated that the a.c. input would be directly converted to d.c. for
      powering a d.c./a.c. inverter (such as that described herein) operating at
      a relative high frequency) (e.g. 25 kHz). This high frequency a.c. output
      from the inverter would then be rectified and delivered as the final low
      voltage d.c. output from the line cord power supply unit.
PAR  As should be appreciated, operation of the inverter at such a high
      frequency permits transformer isolation and voltage conversion of fairly
      significant power levels without necessitating bulky and weighty
      transformer core materials. It is also contemplated that much of the
      electronic circuitry involved in elements such as the inverter would have
      to be constructed in a monolithic integrated form to meet the design
      restraints in such a power supply application. This invention is
      especially adapted to such an application since the circuitry involved
      herein is especially adapted for monolithic integrated circuit
      construction techniques.
PAR  To obtain high efficiency in such a switched mode power supply, it has been
      discovered that the switching losses in the switching transistors must be
      drastically reduced by properly biasing the transistor during turn off
      (e.g., during switching transition periods). Furthermore, this controlled
      switching bias must be obtained without the use of capacitors or auxiliary
      power supplies to enhance the adaptability of such inverters for
      applications such as the line cord power supply mentioned above.
PAR  Referring to FIG. 1, the starting circuit comprising Q6, D10, R8, R9, R10
      and C2 will first be described. Initially, capacitor C2 is discharged.
      When a d.c. input is first applied to the inverter of FIG. 1, capacitor C2
      begins to charge through resistor R10 with an appropriately preselected
      time constant. When the trigger voltage of Q6 is reached, Q6 breaks down
      and supplies a starting pulse of current to the base of Q1 through R9 and
      D10 and to the base of Q3 through R8. Thus, Q3 is forward biased to its
      "on" condition to complete the common emitter circuit for switching
      transistors Q1 and Q2. At the same time, Q1 is forward biased so as to
      turn Q1 to its on state thus permitting current to flow from the d.c.
      source through the center tap connection of the primary windings, through
      Q1, Q3 and Z1.
PAR  As will be explained in more detail below, transistor Q4, during normal
      inverter operation, is turned to its on state each half-cycle of inverter
      operation. At these times, the accomulated charge on C2 is discharged
      through R11 and D11 thus insuring that C2 never again reaches the trigger
      level of Q6 during normal inverter operation. Of course, should normal
      inverter operation be interrupted for some reason, then C2 would again be
      permitted to charge to the trigger level of Q6.
PAR  As the current builds up in the primary winding W2, voltages are induced in
      the secondary output winding W4 and in a low voltage tertiary winding W3.
      As can be seen from the dot convention shown in FIG. 1, the current flow
      generated in tertiary winding W3 by current flow through W2 and Q1, etc.,
      is in the proper direction to supply base current to Q1 through R2, Q1,
      Q3, Z1 and D1. At the same time, base current is provided to Q3 via D4,
      R3, Q3, Z1 and D1. Accordingly, once inverter operation is initiated by a
      starting pulse from Q6, the switching transistor Q1 and control transistor
      Q3 are maintained in their on conditions by self-induced currents in
      tertiary winding W3.
PAR  The primary winding current passing through W2, Q1, Q3 and Z1 is a function
      of both the load and transformer core characteristics. As time progresses,
      the primary winding current increases due to magnetizing current and,
      ultimately, it increases quite rapidly as the magnetic circuit of the
      transformer approaches saturation. By properly selecting Z1, the
      transistor Q5 will be caused to turn on due to the voltage drop across Z1
      just at the onset of magnetic core saturation and/or during overload
      conditions which would cause excessive current through Z1. The function
      then of Z1 in the exemplary embodiment of FIG. 1 is to maintain the
      base-emitter voltage of Q5 below is intrinsic turn on voltage level until
      the primary winding current flowing therethrough reaches a predetermined
      level. In effect then, Z1 in combination with Q5 acts as a current
      detector with Z1 being a current measurement means and Q5 being a current
      level detector. Ideally, a constant current sink would be utilized for Z1
      but Z1 can also be successfully approximated by a resistor, diode,
      transistor or combinations thereof in a monolithic integrated circuit
      construction as will be apparent.
PAR  As shown in FIG. 1, the current detection circuit is common to both the
      main power transistors Q1 and Q2. It is also possible to utilize
      individual current detection circuits for each switching transistor;
      however, the use of a single current detector as in FIG. 1 is preferred
      since it reduces the number of components which must be included in the
      integrated circuit construction and provides for a more symmetrical
      operation of the inverter.
PAR  When the predetermined level of primary winding current is detected by Z1
      and Q5, Q5 turns on as noted above thus diverting base current from Q3 and
      thus permitting Q3 to come out of saturation thereby increasing the
      electrical impedance in the collector-emitter circuit of Q3. Since Q3 is
      no longer saturated, its collector voltage is now permitted to rise
      bringing with it the emitter voltages of switching transistors Q1 and Q2
      to which it is connected. As the electrical impedance across the
      collector-emitter of Q3 increases and as the voltage temporarily increases
      at the collector of Q3 due to the current flow therethrough, diode Q9 will
      act as a voltage level detector in becomming conductive at a predetermined
      voltage level. When this occurs, transistor Q7 is also biased to its on
      state via resistor R14. The conduction Q7 further turns Q3 to its off
      state and maintains it there during the switching transition period. In
      addition, diode D20 will also conduct as the voltage rises at the
      collector of Q3 thus shifting the remaining primary winding current from
      the collector emitter circuit of Q3 to the base-emitter circuit of Q4 to
      cause Q4 to abruptly saturate and reduce the base elements of switching
      transistors Q1 and Q2 to a nearly ground potential through diodes D8 and
      D7 respectively. As previously mentioned, Q4 also discharges capacitor C2
      through diode D11 and resistor R11. Accordingly, the net result of this
      combined control action is to cause the emitter voltage of Q1 to be
      abruptly increased at the same time that the base voltage thereof is
      abruptly decreased thus abruptly reverse biasing the base-emitter junction
      of Q1 to effect a rapid turn off of this switching transistor.
PAR  The stored energy in the magnetic fields of the transformer will
      subsequently cause a voltage reversal on all of the transformer windings.
      After such a reversal, transistors Q4, Q5 and Q7 will have come out of
      saturation due to a lack of forward biasing in the absence of current
      through their respective biasing circuits and base current will then be
      supplied to switching transistor Q2 from the tertiary winding W3 through
      resistor R1, Q2, Q3, Z1 and D2. At the same time, forward bias for the
      base of Q3 is also provided by the tertiary winding W3 through diode D3,
      resistor R3, Q3, Z1 and D2. In this case, Q2 and Q3 have now been turned
      on so that primary winding current passes through the center tap, winding
      W1, Q2, Q3 and Z1. When the total primary winding current through Z1
      increases sufficiently to trigger Q5, another transition switching period
      will begin and proceed as described above to transition Q2 to its off
      state and Q1 to its on state by causing the emitter potential of Q2 to
      rise and simultaneously causing the base potential of Q2 to fall thus
      abruptly reverse biasing the base-emitter junction of Q2.
PAR  Diodes D5 and D6 are provided to limit the reverse peak base-emitter
      voltage across Q1 and Q2 during periods of negative collector current on
      Q1 and Q2 which occur during switching transition periods because of the
      transformer reaction to the current switching transition. An alternate
      possibility would involve placing the cathodes of diodes D5, D6 to the
      collectors of Q1, Q2 respectively instead of the bases of Q1, Q2.
PAR  The secondary winding W4 of the output transformer would be connected to a
      load such as, for example, a rectifier, etc. As indicated in FIG. 1, the
      primary, secondary and tertiary windings are magnetically coupled one to
      another.
PAR  The alternate embodiment shown in FIG. 2 is quite similar, in general, to
      the preferred embodiment of FIG. 1, Accordingly, the same reference
      numerals have been utilized in FIGS. 1 and 2 to denote elements having
      similar functions. The starting circuitry and the basic switching and
      operation of the inverter shown in FIG. 2 is quite similar to that already
      described with respect to FIG. 1. The basic difference between FIG. 1 and
      FIG. 2 involves the current detection technique utilized in FIG. 2. Once
      the inverter of FIG. 2 has been initiated in operation, the primary
      winding current flows through, for instance, Q1, Z1 and Q3. A voltage is
      then developed across Z1 and Q3 which is proportional to the primary
      winding current. A voltage divider Z2 and R7 is connected in parallel
      across this voltage so as to reflect a desired proportion thereof to the
      base of transistor Q5 through Z2. Although the ideal characteristics of Z1
      and Z2 are a current sink and voltage clamp respectively, either can be
      approximated by resistors, diodes, transistors, or combinations thereof,
      etc., in monolithic integrated structures as will be appreciated. When the
      primary winding current through Z1 and Q3 and hence the voltage
      thereacross reaches a desired design limit, Q5 will be turned on as in the
      embodiment of FIG. 1 to initiate a sequence of events causing transition
      between the switching transistors Q1 and Q2. In this embodiment, Q5 is
      already inherently controlled by the increase in impedance of Q3's
      collector-emitter circuit (and hence as increased voltage across the
      voltage divider controlling Q5) thus Q7 from FIG. 1 has been eliminated in
      FIG. 2. Otherwise, the switching transition control is the same as
      previously described with respect to FIG. 1.
PAR  The alternate embodiment shown in FIG. 3 is also quite similar in principle
      to the preferred embodiment of FIG. 1. However, the circuitry in FIG. 3
      provides independent base and emitter controls for the switching
      transistors Q1 and Q2, each of these independent sets of controls being
      commonly triggered by a common current detector. As before, elements shown
      in FIG. 3 having correspondingly counterparts in the circuitry of FIG. 1
      are identified with the same reference characters.
PAR  The starting circuitry of FIG. 3 is the same as that described in FIG. 1.
      The starting current phase from Q6 through R8 provides base current to
      turn on Q3 and, at the same time, through R9 and D10, base current is
      provided to turn on Q1. Thus, as before, primary winding current is caused
      to flow through W2, Q1, Q3 and Z1. When the current through Z1 reaches a
      predetermined level, Q5 will be turned on and, in turn, Q14 will also be
      turned on through D19 and R22. The corresponding control transistor Q15
      for Q2 does not now transition to its on state because of the voltage drop
      across diode D1 which holds the emitter of Q15 below ground potential.
PAR  As Q14 is thus turned on, Q11 is also provided with base current and thus
      turned on through resistor R23 which, in turn, turns Q3 off causing the
      electrical impedance between the collector-emitter of Q3 to rise and,
      accordingly, to cause a corresponding rise in the emitter voltage of Q1.
      The resulting increased voltage drop across R25 provides enough base
      current to maintain Q11 in its on state during the switching transition
      period. Furthermore, the increased voltage at the emitter of Q1 also turns
      on transistors Q13 and Q16, the latter of which abruptly lowers the base
      voltage of Q1. Accordingly, the result of this combination of actions is
      to abruptly raise the emitter voltage of Q1 while simultaneously and
      synchronously abruptly lowering the base voltage of Q1 thus reverse
      biasing the base-emitter junction of Q1 and causing a quick and efficient
      transition of its off state. Transistor Q13 is utilized to provide and
      additional diode voltage drop in series with the base of Q16 to insure
      that Q16 does not prematurely turn on and, in addition, to periodically
      discharge starting capacitor C2 through R11. Since Q12 is inactivated
      during this half cycle, it does not affect operation at this time.
PAR  Subsequently, in the switching transition period, the voltage on the
      transformer windings will reverse due to the stored magnetic energy
      therein thus allowing the primary winding current to flow through Q2 due
      to the forward biasing of Q2 and Q8 by the current now supplied by
      tertiary winding W3 in a manner completely analogous to that already
      discussed with respect to earlier embodiments of this invention. Since the
      circuit of FIG. 3 is completely symmetric with respect to Q2, the second
      half cycle and all succeeding cycles of inverter operation in the circuit
      of FIG. 3 should now be apparent.
PAR  Components R18, R19, R16, R17, R5 and R15 are included to guarantee that
      Q14, Q15, Q10, Q11, Q16 and Q9 respectively remain off in the absence of
      any definite base current thereto.
PAR  The alternate inverter circuitry shown in FIG. 4 involves yet another type
      of current detecting arrangement. Here, most of the circuit is identical
      with that already discussed in FIG. 1 and the same reference numerals are
      utilized for corresponding parts in the two figures.
PAR  It will be noted that FIG. 4 does not include the impedance Z1 as the
      current measuring element. Rather, an inverting current source Q3-Q5 is
      utilized as the peak current detector. No special impedance element such
      as Z1 is required since the Q3-Q5 combination completely provides a
      current sensing means. The direct connection between the collector of Q5
      and the base of Q3 and of Q5 provides an inverting current source. By
      further selecting the active area of transistor Q3 to have a predetermined
      ratio to the active area of transistor Q5 (e.g., to make Q3 roughly 100
      times as large as Q5) a predetermined current inverting gain (e.g., 100)
      is obtainable. That is, where the ratio is 100 to 1, if 1 mA is supplied
      from R3, Q3 will be a 100 mA current source.
PAR  Once started, Q3 will remain in saturation until the collector-emitter
      current therein is equal to the current in R3 times the gain of the Q3-Q5
      current inverting source. At this point, transistor Q3 becomes active thus
      causing the collector of Q3 to rise in voltage with increasing current.
      Once this increasing voltage is detected by diodes D9, D20, etc., Q7 is
      turned on and Q3 is thereby turned off again diverting the primary winding
      current remaining to the base of Q4 with the ensuing switching action
      being exactly as is already described with respect to FIG. 1.
PAR  The portion of control circuitry shown in FIG. 5 illustrates the provision
      of substantial hysteresis in the control circuitry to achieve an
      especially effective and insured switching control over a switching
      transistor such as Q5' shown in FIG. 5. For instance, it has been noted
      that in some instances it is desirable to provide such hysteresis if the
      interwinding capacitance of the transformer is large or if the switching
      characteristics of switching transistor Q5' are extremely fast. In such
      cases, it is sometimes possible to completely turn Q4' off even though
      there may still be sufficient base drive voltage available across tertiary
      winding W3 to partially turn Q5' back on again before the successful
      completion of the desired switching transition period. To avoid this
      potential problem, it is possible to build in hysteresis within the
      control circuitry so that the switching transistor Q5' is forced to remain
      in its off state so long as there is any remaining voltage across tertiary
      winding W3 in a sense that might potentially provide forward bias current
      therefor.
PAR  As the tertiary winding W3 supplies forward bias base current to Q5'
      through R4', control transistors Q2', Q3' and Q4' are all off. In this
      particular embodiment, the primary winding current flows through Q5'  and
      the parallel combination of Q1' and R1'. As the current builds in the
      primary winding and hence in Q5' and the parallel combination of Q1' and
      R1', the voltage across the base-emitter junction of Q2' increases
      sufficiently to turn Q2' on at a predetermined peak current level. At this
      time, control transistor Q1' then turns off causing all of the remaining
      primary winding current to flow through R1' and Q2'. Accordingly, at this
      time, the voltage drop across R1' increases significantly to insure that
      Q2' and Q4' are turned on. Of course, in response to turning Q4' on, Q3'
      is also turned on. As may be appreciated from FIG. 5, the net result of
      these actions is, as before, to cause the emitter voltage of the switching
      transistor to rise while, simultaneously, significantly lowering the base
      voltage thereof thus abruptly reverse biasing the base-emitter junction of
      the switching transistor to cause the desired switching transition.
PAR  In addition, transistors Q3' and Q4' form a current sensitive latch means
      which operates in a manner similar to an SCR thus remaining on until the
      voltage across tertiary winding W3 actually reverses thus lowering the
      current through Q3', Q4' below the predetermined level necessary to
      maintain it in its on condition.
PAR  Although the circuit of FIG. 5 would work without Q1', its provision
      provides a faster switching transition period.
PAR  A more complete inverter circuit employing the SCR type of shutdown
      technique explained in FIG. 5 is shown in the detailed circuitry of FIG.
      6. The FIG. 6 circuit also provides a common current sensing means.
PAR  The starting circuitry is not shown in FIG. 6. Accordingly, the explanation
      of FIg. 6 will begin with an assumption that transistors Q1 and Q10 have
      been turned on. As the primary winding current through W2 increases to a
      predetermined level, the other transistors will remain off. However, as
      the predetermined current level is attained, transistor Q3 will turn on.
      With transistor Q3 turned on, the bases of both Q6 and Q9 are lowered.
      However, Q9 is not turned on since it is still reverse biased at this
      point due to the voltage across W3. However, Q6 is turned on in response
      to the turn on of Q3.
PAR  The turning on of Q6 further results in turned on Q5 and Q4 as may be
      appreciated from FIG. 6. At the same time, Q10 is turned off. Accordingly,
      as in the earlier discussed embodiment, the emitter voltage of Q1 is
      forced upwardly while the base voltage of Q1 is abruptly lowered to thus
      reverse bias the base-emitter junction of Q1 and force the desired
      switching transition. In addition, the PNP and NPN transistors Q6 and Q5
      respectively are connected as shown in FIG. 6 as an SCR type of circuit
      (explained in more detail with respect to FIG. 5). Accordingly, Q5 and Q6
      will remain on until the voltage cross tertiary winding W3 actually
      reverses thus lowering the current therethrough below the threshold value
      necessary to maintain this SCR type of arrangement in its on condition.
PAR  Accordingly, the base-emitter voltage on Q1 is reverse biased as long as
      there is any main current through Q1 and this reverse biasing is
      maintained so long as there is any base voltage in the positive direction
      with respect to Q1 across the tertiary winding W3. The symmetrical
      operation of the remaining component of the FIG. 6 circuit should now be
      appreciated without further discussion.
PAR  Although only a few specific embodiments of this invention have been
      described in detail above, those in the art will appreciate that many
      modifications and variations of these exemplary embodiments may be made
      without materially departing from the novel and advantageous features of
      this invention. Accordingly, all such variations and modifications are
      intended to be included within the scope of this invention ad defined by
      the appended claims.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. An electrical inverter circuit for converting a d.c. electrical input
      into an a.c. electrical output, said inverter circuit comprising:
PA1  a transformer structure having secondary winding means for supplying said
      electrical output and a primary winding means, said winding means being
      magnetically coupled to each other through magnetic circuit means,
PA1  active element switch means electrically connected to said primary winding
      means and electrically connectable to said d.c. electrical input for
      alternately switching said d.c. electrical input to said primary winding
      means for producing corresponding varying magnetic fields in said magnetic
      circuit means and thereby producing said a.c. electrical output in said
      secondary winding means, and
PA1  electrical control means electrically connected to said active element
      switch means for monitoring the magnitude of electrical current flowing in
      said primary winding means and controlling said alternate switching
      operation in response to the detection of current in said primary winding
      in excess of a predetermined level,
PA1  said electrical control means including a further controllable active
      element means in circuit with said active element switch means such that
      the primary winding current also flows therethrough and synchronous
      control means for synchronously controlling said further active element
      means so as to increase the electrical impedance thereof during at least a
      portion of each switching transition of said active element switch means.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 1 wherein:
PA1  said active element switch means comprises two transistor devices each
      having base, emitter and collector elements where the collector-emitter
      circuits of each are separately connected to the primary winding means so
      as to cause differing current flows therein when respectively controlled
      to an on state and where the collector-emitter circuits of each are
      commonly connected in circuit with said further controllable active
      element means,
PA1  said electrical control means and said synchronous control means comprises
      a current measuring element connected serially in said common
      collector-emitter circuit with said further controllable active element
      means and current level detection means electrically connected to said
      current measuring element, and
PA1  said current level detection means is also electrically connected to said
      further controllable active element means for substantially simultaneously
      increasing the electrical impedance thereof upon the detection of said
      predetermined level.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 2 wherein said further
      controllable active element means comprises a transistor device having
      base, emitter and collector elements where the collector-emitter circuit
      thereof is connected in said common collector-emitter circuit and where
      the base thereof is connected to said current level detection means.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 2 wherein said current
      measuring element comprises a device having a predetermined electrical
      impedance.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 2 wherein said current level
      detection means comprises a transistor device having base, emitter and
      collector elements where the base element thereof is connected to said
      current measuring element and where the collector-emitter circuit thereof
      is connected in circuit with the base elements of said active element
      switch means.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 2 wherein said electrical
      control means further comprises:
PA1  voltage detection means connected to said further controllable active
      element means and in circuit with the base elements of said active element
      switch means for detecting said increase in electrical impedance by
      detecting a corresponding temporary voltage rise across said further
      controllable active element during current switching transistion and for
      substantially dissipating any forward bias currents at said base elements
      in response thereto.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 6 further comprising an
      additional means connected for control by said voltage detection means and
      connected to maintain the increased impedance of said further controllable
      active element in response to said detected voltage rise.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 2 wherein said current level
      detection means is electrically connected in parallel across the serial
      connection of said current measuring element and said further controllable
      active element.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 8 wherein said current level
      detection means comprises a voltage divider and a voltage sensitive device
      connected for control thereby.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 1 wherein:
PA1  said active element switch means comprises two transistor devices each
      having base, emitter and collector elements where the collector-emitter
      circuits of each are separately connected to the primary winding means so
      as to cause differing current flows therein when respectively controlled
      to an on state,
PA1  said further controllable active element means comprises two separate
      elements respectively in series circuit with said collector-emitter
      circuits,
PA1  said electrical control means and said synchronous control means comprises
      a current measuring element connected in common with said separate
      elements and current level detection means electrically connected in
      circuit with said current measuring element, and
PA1  said current level detection means is also electrically connected to
      control both of said separate elements for substantially simultaneously
      increasing the electrical impedances thereof upon detection of said
      predetermined level.
NUM  11.
PAR  11. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 10 wherein said electrical
      control means further comprises separate base bias control means each
      separately in circuit with its respectively associated active switch means
      base element and connected for control by said current level detection
      means for substantially dissipating any forward bias currents at the
      respectively associated base elements in response to the detection of said
      predetermined level.
NUM  12.
PAR  12. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 1 wherein said electrical
      control means comprises:
PA1  current monitoring means connected to a control lead of said further
      controllable active element for automatically detecting the current level
      flowing therethrough and for automatically controlling the electrical
      impedance thereof when a predetermined current level is detected.
NUM  13.
PAR  13. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 12 wherein said current
      monitoring means comprises an inverting current source.
NUM  14.
PAR  14. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 13 wherein:
PA1  said further controllable active element comprises a transistor device
      having base, emitter and collector elements where the collector-emitter
      circuit thereof is connected to carry said primary winding current,
PA1  said current monitoring means comprises another transistor device having
      base, emitter and collector elements where said base elements are
      electrically connected together, where at least one pair of said emitter
      and collector elements are electrically connected together and where the
      remaining element of said another transistor device is electrically
      connected to said common base connection and where said transistor devices
      have respectively associated active areas having a predetermined area
      ratio.
NUM  15.
PAR  15. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 12 wherein said electrical
      control means comprises:
PA1  voltage detection means connected to said further controllable active
      element means and in circuit with the control elements of said active
      element switch means for detecting said increase in electrical impedance
      by detecting a corresponding temporary voltage rise across said further
      controllable active element during current switching transistion and for
      substantially dissipating any forward bias currents at said control
      elements in response thereto.
NUM  16.
PAR  16. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 1 wherein said electrical
      control means includes hysteresis means connected to insure that the
      active element switch means are positively controlled to their off state
      during switching transition periods.
NUM  17.
PAR  17. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 16 wherein said hysteresis
      means comprises a current senstive latch connected to the control elements
      of said active element switch means for dissipating current therefrom once
      triggered to a conductive state by detection of said predetermined level
      until the level of such current falls below a predetermined lower limit
      whereupon said current sensitive latch automatically reverts to a
      non-conductive state.
NUM  18.
PAR  18. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 17 wherein said current
      sensitive latch comprises an NPN and PNP transistor device having
      respectively interconnected base and collector elements.
NUM  19.
PAR  19. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 16 wherein:
PA1  said active element switch means comprise two transistor devices having
      base, emitter and collector elements, and
PA1  said hysteresis means comprise separate current sensitive latch means
      respectively connected in circuit with the base elements of said active
      element switch means for dissipating current therefrom once triggered to a
      conductive state by detection of said predetermined level until the level
      of such current falls below a predetermined lower limit whereupon said
      current sensitive latch means each automatically revert to a
      non-conductive state.
NUM  20.
PAR  20. An electrical inverter circuit as in claim 19 wherein said current
      sensitive latch means each comprise an NPN and PNP transistor device
      having respectively interconnected base and collector elements..Iadd. 21.
      An electrical switching circuit for efficiently interrupting current flow
      between a first terminal and a second terminal comprising, in combination:
PA1  a first transistor switching element including a collector, a base, and an
      emitter, the collector of said first element being connected to said first
      terminal;
PA1  a second switching element connected, in series, between said emitter and
      said second terminal; and
PA1  control circuit means which function to initiate interruption of current
      flow between said first terminal and said second terminal by removing a
      control current from said base and simultaneously increasing the
      electrical impedance of said second switching element. .Iaddend..Iadd. 22.
      The circuit of claim 21 wherein said second switching element includes a
      second transistor. .Iaddend. .Iadd. 23. The circuit of claim 22 wherein
      said control circuit means include a third switching element, connected
      between said base and said second terminal. .Iaddend..Iadd. 24. The
      circuit of claim 23 wherein said third switching element is a transistor
      and wherein said control circuit means function to force said second
      transistor into a non-conducting state and to simultaneously force said
      third transistor into a conducting state. .Iaddend..Iadd. 25. The circuit
      of claim 24 wherein said first switching element, said second switching
      element, and said third switching element are npn transistors and wherein
      said first terminal is positive with respect to said second terminal.
      .Iaddend..Iadd. 26. A method for shutting off electric current flow from a
      first terminal through a series semiconductor switch to a second terminal
      comprising the steps of:
PA1  removing current from a control element of said semiconductor switch; and
PA1  simultaneously increasing the impedance of a first auxiliary switching
      element connected in series between a emitter of said semiconductor switch
      and said second terminal. .Iaddend. .Iadd. 27. The method of claim 26
      wherein said first auxiliary switching element is a first transistor and
      said step of increasing the impedance of said first switching element
      includes the step of biasing said first transistor into a nonconducting
      state. .Iaddend..Iadd. 28. The method of claim 26 wherein said step of
      removing current includes decreasing the impedance of a second auxiliary
      switching element connected between said control element and said second
      terminal. .Iaddend..Iadd. 29. The method of claim 28 wherein said first
      auxiliary switching element is a first transistor and said second
      auxiliary switching element is a second transistor. .Iaddend..Iadd. 30.
      The method of claim 28 wherein said first auxiliary switching element is a
      transistor and said second auxiliary switching element is a silicon
      controlled rectifier. .Iaddend.
PATN
WKU  041158733
SRC  5
APN  8469288
APT  1
ART  353
APD  19771031
TTL  Highly stretchable glove and method of sizing same
ISD  19780926
NCL  15
ECL  1
EXP  Newton; Dorsey
NDR  3
NFG  8
INVT
NAM  Stansbury; Benjamin
CTY  Beverly Hills
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  American Hospital Supply Corporation
CTY  Evanston
STA  IL
COD  02
CLAS
OCL    2163
XCL    2169
EDF  2
ICL  A41D 1900
FSC   33
FSS  174 D;178 R;2 A;2 R;178 B
FSC    2
FSS  163;168;169
UREF
PNO  2605548
ISD  19520800
NAM  Clarke
OCL   33  2R
FREF
PNO  288,221
ISD  19151000
CNT  DE2
OCL   33  2R
LREP
FR2  Barger; Larry N.
ABST
PAL  A series of latex rubber gloves for medical use in which a limited number
      of sizes comfortably fit a major portion of the general population. The
      glove sizes are positioned against the hand size distribution of the
      general population so the glove sizes are spaced further apart relative to
      palm circumference, and are spaced closer together relative to hand
      length. The gloves of this series have a comfortable stretch range of
      between 4 and 20% at palm circumference, and a comfortable stretch range
      of 1.5 to 10% relative to hand length.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  Latex rubber gloves are well-known for use by surgeons and other hospital
      and medical personnel. Because the latex rubber gloves are highly
      stretchable, a single glove size can be donned by different persons having
      substantially varying hand size and shape. In the past, latex rubber
      gloves in the medical field have been supplied in standard sizes such as
      61/2, 7, 71/2, 8, etc. It is believed these historical sizes developed
      originally as having a very rough correlation to the circumference of a
      palm area of the user's hand. The glove length was made proportional to
      the circumference.
PAR  Because of the widely varying shapes and sizes of hands in the general
      population, a large portion of doctors, nurses, etc. could not get a
      comfortable fit from a latex rubber glove. This was partly due to areas of
      the glove being overstretched causing a fit that is too tight, or areas
      being understretched causing a baggy portion of the glove. Users often
      found that when a glove fit properly in the circumferential palm area, the
      glove's hand length, particularly in the finger area, was either too long
      or too short.
PAR  A large number of these latex rubber gloves are sold in a prepackaged
      sterile condition, and are discarded after a single use. This makes it
      uneconomical for a surgeon to have a latex rubber glove custom made for
      his particular hand size and configuration. Some people have very wide
      hands with short fingers, and conversely others have narrow hands with
      long fingers. Unlike shoe sizes, disposable surgeon's gloves cannot be
      economically produced and inventoried in various combinations of width and
      length. To do so would result in an estimated 50-60 different sizes.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  To overcome the sizing problems with highly stretchable latex rubber
      gloves, this invention deals with positioning a limited number of sizes,
      11 for instance, against the distribution of hand sizes in the general
      population, so that substantially all of this population can find a glove
      that will comfortably fit them both to length and to palm circumference
      (width). It has been unexpectedly found that there is a much larger
      tolerance for a stretch range (4 to 20%) in the palm circumference area
      than in the hand length area (1.5 to 10%). Within these stretch ranges,
      the glove feels comfortable to the user. Below this stretch range, a glove
      feels too loose, and above this stretch range a glove feels too tight.
PAR  The glove sizes of this invention have been positioned to provide
      overlapping comfortable fit ranges. Adjacent glove sizes are incrementally
      spaced further apart relative to percentage stretch at the glove palm
      circumference area, and spaced are incrementally closer together relative
      to percent at a hand portion of the glove.
DRWD
PAC  THE DRAWINGS
PAR  FIG. 1 is a plan view of a typical user's hand, showing the positions at
      which measurements are taken;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a plan view of a latex rubber glove in its unstretched condition;
PAR  FIG. 3 is a graph showing how a comfortable fit relates to percentage of
      stretch in a hand length portion of the glove;
PAR  FIG. 4 is a graph showing how a comfortable fit relates to percentage
      stretch at a palm circumference of the glove;
PAR  FIG. 5 shows a graph of how a comfortable fit relates to percentage stretch
      at a first knuckle circumference of the glove;
PAR  FIG. 6 is a graph showing how a comfortable fit of the glove relates to a
      percentage stretch at a second knuckle circumference of a glove finger;
PAR  FIG. 7 is a plot of the curve shown in FIG. 3 versus the curve shown in
      FIG. 4; and
PAR  FIG. 8 is a graph showing the positioning of three glove sizes illustrating
      how their comfortable fit stretch characteristics overlap.
DETD
PAC  DETAILED DESCRIPTION
PAR  FIG. 1 shows a user's hand in which a palm circumference is measured at a
      location indicated at 1 and a hand length taken from a wrist area to tip
      of index finger 3. A first knuckle circumference is measured at 4 and a
      second knuckle circumference is measured at 5.
PAR  FIG. 2 shows a highly stretchable latex rubber glove 6 in its unstretched
      condition prior to donning. The palm circumference is measured at 7 and
      the first and second knuckle circumferences measured at 8 and 9 of the
      glove. The length of a hand portion of the glove is measured from a wrist
      area 10 to a tip 11 of the glove's index finger portion. Because gloves
      can vary substantially in cuff length, thickness, and width, a cuff 12 of
      the glove is not included in calculating the length of the glove's hand
      portion. It is in the hand portion of the latex rubber glove where most of
      the ill fitting problems occur.
PAR  Unlike a leather or fabric glove, which is generally nonstretchable, a
      highly stretchable latex rubber surgeon's glove must be substantially
      undersized to provide a comfortable fit. The gloves can have a thickness
      of from 0.005 inch to 0.020 inch to provide tactile sensitivity. A latex
      rubber glove that has very little or no stretch after donning, provides
      the user with a glove that feels uncomfortably too large, even though the
      glove may precisely conform to the hand shape of the user.
PAR  FIG. 3 shows the percent stretch along the length of the glove's hand
      portion as this stretch relates to fit. At approximately 3.5 percent
      stretch the user has what is termed a "perfect fit" on the graph. This
      perfect fit can also extend in the range of approximately 3 to 5%. When
      the stretch goes beyond these figures and extends out to either 2% on the
      low stretch end or 6.5% on the high stretch end, the user still has an
      "adequate fit." Further extending the stretch limit to approximately 1.5%
      on the low end and 8% on the high end yields a "marginal fit," but a fit
      that is still considered comfortable to the user. Below 1.5% stretch the
      user has an uncomfortably loose glove, and above 8% stretch the user has
      an uncomfortably tight glove as relates to hand length.
PAR  FIG. 4 is a plot similar to FIG. 3, but relating percent stretch at a
      circumference of a palm area of the glove to its fit. It is noted that fit
      tolerance in the hand or palm circumference area is substantially greater
      as a percent of stretch than is the hand length shown in FIG. 3. In FIG. 4
      a marginal, but comfortable, fit can extend between 4 and 20% stretch.
      Below 4% stretch the glove feels uncomfortably loose in the palm area.
      Above 20% the glove is circumferentially squeezing the palm to such an
      extent that the glove is uncomfortable.
PAR  FIGS. 5 and 6 are plots of the percent stretch versus the glove fit at the
      first and knuckle circumferences. It is noted that the knuckle areas have
      a substantially greater tolerance in the stretch area than does the glove
      in the hand length area.
PAR  The two most critical areas of the glove are hand length and hand
      circumference. These two variables have been plotted against each other in
      the FIG. 7 plot. This plot resembles an oval configuration that was
      slightly flattened on one side and had its major and minor axes offset
      approximately 1.degree. from the graft's horizontal and vertical axes.
PAR  In FIG. 7, the numerical coordinance have been left off of the left and
      bottom section of the graph, but they have been indicated on the oval
      plots on the graph. For instance, the "perfect fit" area indicates hand
      length can vary from 21/2to 5% stretch. Hand circumference can go from 8
      to 13% in a perfect fit situation.
PAR  Since it is desirable from an economical standpoint to have as few glove
      sizes to provide a comfortable fit to the majority of the population, the
      marginal, but comfortable, glove is of most concern. As shown in FIG. 7,
      the hand length can carry from to 11/2 to 10% stretch and still fit the
      wearer comfortably. The hand circumference can vary within the range of 4
      to 20% stretch and still be comfortable.
PAR  FIG. 8 shows the incremental positioning of three glove sizes to provide
      overlapping comfortable percentage stretch in both the hand length and
      hand circumference areas. Since the gloves no longer bear a relationship
      to the traditional sizes 61/2, 7, 71/2, 8, etc., a new size indicating
      system is preferable. Here the letters of J, K, and L have been used, but
      other sizing designations can be used, if desired. If a surgeon trys on a
      size J glove and finds that the palm circumference stretch lies on the
      dotted horizontal line through glove J, he is getting an "adequate" fit
      and perhaps even a "perfect" fit. In FIG. 8 the small center oval
      indicating the perfect fit has not been shown. If this physician has a
      very long hand, he may require a 10% longitudinal stretch of the hand
      portion of the glove placing his fit in a right hand margin of the
      marginal, but comfortable, fit of the J glove. In this situation, he would
      be better off with a size K glove because his hand would now be fitting in
      the "adequate" fit area that lies between the "perfect" fit and
      "marginal," but comfortable, fit.
PAR  As seen in FIG. 8, the glove sizes are positioned to overlap in the
      comfortable (marginal) fit areas. Because of the greater tolerance in the
      percent stretch in the palm circumference area than in the hand length
      area, the sizes of the gloves are positioned manipulated into positions
      relative to each other as shown in FIG. 8. Here glove J and K are very
      close to each other relative to hand length (horizontal direction in FIG.
      8). Glove sizes L and K are substantially further apart (vertical
      direction in FIG. 8) to reflect the greater tolerance in percent stretch
      at the palm area. While only three glove sizes have been used to
      illustrate this invention, these glove sizes can be of any number, such as
      from 5 to 20 different sizes. A good representative number of sizes would
      be 10-12. Thus, substantially all of the nurses and physicians could
      readily find a glove size that would comfortably fit them whether their
      fingers are long or short, or their hands are wide or narrow in the palm
      area. For instance, in FIG. 8 glove size L is located almost directly
      above glove size K. This indicates that both gloves L and K have
      approximately the same length in the hand area. However, glove L is a
      substantially wider glove (palm circumference shown vertical on FIG. 8).
PAR  The present invention has to do with a series of gloves and their
      particular sizing relationship and the method of positioning the sizes
      against the population distribution of hand sizes. The individual glove of
      this series is described in my co-pending application entitled Glove and
      Form For Making Same, Ser. No. 846,911, filed Oct. 31, 1977. A co-pending
      application entitled Hand Measuring Device and Method of Selecting Glove
      Sizes, Ser. No. 846,924, filed Oct. 31, 1977 describes a device with which
      a physician can measure his hand and immediately determine whether he
      needs a size J, K, or L glove.
PAR  In the foregoing description specific examples have been used to describe
      this invention. However, those skilled in the art will understand that
      certain modifications can be made to these examples without departing from
      the spirit and scope of the invention.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A series of highly stretchable gloves of different sizes, the series
      consisting of gloves with incremental differences in the lengths of the
      glove hand portion that are smaller than the incremental differences in
      the circumferences of the glove hand portion, whereby a reduced number of
      gloves are needed to properly fit a wide variety of hand shapes.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 1, wherein the gloves in the
      series have a percentage stretch range for a comfortable fit at a
      circumference of the glove's hand portion that is approximately twice the
      percentage stretch range at the length of the glove's hand portion.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 2, wherein the gloves in the
      series have a comfortable fit in the hand circumference over a stretch
      range of approximately 16% between its upper and lower limits.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 3, wherein the gloves in the
      series have a comfortable fit when the circumference of the glove's hand
      area is stretched at least 4%, but not more than 20%.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 2, wherein the gloves in the
      series have a comfortable fit over a stretch range of the glove's hand
      length of approximately 8.5% between its upper and lower limits.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 5, wherein the gloves in the
      series have a comfortable fit when the glove's hand portion is stretched
      along its length at least 1.5%, but not more than 10%.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 1, wherein the series has from
      5 to 20 different glove sizes.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 1, wherein the gloves in the
      series are of a latex rubber material having a thickness of from 0.005
      inch to 0.020 inch in the glove's hand area when the gloves are in an
      unstretched condition.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 1, wherein two adjacent glove
      sizes have overlapping comfortable fit ranges at a circumference of the
      glove's hand area; and said adjacent glove sizes can reach a common hand
      circumference by the larger of the two stretching 4% or more and the
      smaller of the two glove sizes stretching 20% or less at the
      circumferences of hand portions of the two gloves.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. A series of gloves as set forth in claim 1, wherein two adjacent glove
      sizes have positions with overlapping comfortable fit ranges relative to
      lengths of the hand portions of the two gloves; and said adjacent glove
      sizes can reach a common hand length by the larger of the two glove sizes
      stretching 1.5% or more and the smaller of the two glove sizes stretching
      10% or less.
NUM  11.
PAR  11. A series of highly stretchable gloves of between 5 and 20 different
      sizes, the series consisting of gloves with incremental differences in the
      lengths of the glove hand portion that are smaller than the incremental
      differences in the circumferences of the glove hand portion; said series
      having at least two adjacent glove sizes that reach a common glove hand
      circumference by the larger glove stretching 4% or more and the smaller
      glove stretching 20% or less in the glove hand circumference; and the
      series has at least two adjacent glove sizes that reach a common glove
      hand length by the larger glove stretching 1.5% or more and the smaller
      glove stretching 10% or less in the glove hand length.
NUM  12.
PAR  12. A method of sizing highly stretchable gloves to fit a wide variety of
      hand shapes comprising the steps of: selecting a limited number of sizes;
      and manipulating  these sizes into positions so that incremental
      differences in the lengths of the glove hand portion are smaller than the
      incremental differences in the circumferences of the glove hand portion.
NUM  13.
PAR  13. A method as set forth in claim 12, wherein the limited number of sizes
      selected are in the range of 5 to 20 different glove sizes.
NUM  14.
PAR  14. A method as set forth in claim 12, wherein the method includes
      positioning two adjacent glove sizes so that these adjacent glove sizes
      can reach a common hand circumference by the larger of the two gloves
      stretching 4% or more and the smaller of the two gloves stretching 20% or
      less in the glove hand circumference.
NUM  15.
PAR  15. A method as set forth in claim 12, wherein the method includes
      positioning two adjacent glove sizes so that said adjacent glove sizes can
      reach a common glove hand length by the larger of the two gloves
      stretching 1.5% or more and the smaller of the two gloves stretching 10%
      or less in the glove hand length.
PATN
WKU  041158741
SRC  5
APN  8334137
APT  1
ART  353
APD  19770915
TTL  Helmet for use in riding vehicles
ISD  19780926
NCL  3
ECL  1
EXP  Newton; Dorsey
NDR  6
NFG  27
INVT
NAM  Hasegawa; Masahiro
STR  1-11-12
CTY  Nishiazabu, Minato-ku, Tokyo
CNT  JPX
PRIR
CNT  JPX
APD  19770221
APN  52-19992[U]
PRIR
CNT  JPX
APD  19770407
APN  52-42587[U]JPX
CLAS
OCL    2425
XCL    21713
EDF  2
ICL  A42B  302
FSC    2
FSS  425;424;171.3;410;411;412;414;415
UREF
PNO  3223086
ISD  19651200
NAM  Denton
XCL    2410
UREF
PNO  3496854
ISD  19700200
NAM  Feldmann et al.
XCL    2410
UREF
PNO  3860966
ISD  19750100
NAM  Brown et al.
OCL    2415
UREF
PNO  3925821
ISD  19751200
NAM  Lewicki
OCL    2425
UREF
PNO  4054953
ISD  19771000
NAM  DeBarsy
XCL    2425
LREP
FR2  Field; Lawrence I.
ABST
PAL  A helmet for use in riding vehicles such as motorcycles, motorbikes, etc.
      comprises a cap like body made of hard material, a bumping body applied on
      an inner surface of the cap like body, a number of streamline recesses
      formed in the bumping body and extending from a forehead portion to a
      backhead or side portion of the cap like body. When a user wears the
      helmet, the air stream flows through the recesses from the front openings
      to the rear openings of the recesses and thus the temperature and humidity
      inside the helmet are decreased.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The present invention relates to a helmet for use in riding vehicles such
      as motorcycles, motorbikes and the like.
PAR  Nowadays from a view point of safety one who rides motorcycles or
      motorbikes has a legal obligation to wear a helmet. In general known
      helmets are not designed to conduct an air stream inside the helmets. Thus
      particularly in summer a temperature inside the helmet is liable to
      increase and a head of the user gets moist. Therefore even if the user
      wears the helmet for a short time, the user feels uncomfortable. It has
      been known that a safety cap or helmet for general use has several small
      holes in its top portion so as to conduct an air stream through these
      holes by means of natural draught. However such a known construction could
      not be applied to the helmet for use in riding the motorcycles, because
      this type of helmet is used to be closely in contact with the head of the
      user and thus the natural draught effect could not be expected so much.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The present invention has for its object to provide a novel helmet for use
      in riding vehicles such as motorcycles and motorbikes which can obviate
      the above mentioned drawbacks of the known helmets by conducting an air
      stream inside the helmet utilizing a wind pressure during the travelling
      or driving.
PAR  A helmet for use in riding vehicles according to the invention comprises a
      cap like body, a bumping body applied on the inner surface of the cap like
      body, a plurality of streamline recesses formed in the outer surface of
      the bumping body and extending from a forehead portion to a backhead or
      side portion of the helmet, inlet means provided at the forehead portion
      of the helmet and communicated with the recesses for taking the air stream
      inside the helmet, and outlet means provided at the backhead or side
      portion of the helmet and communicated with the recesses for discharging
      the air stream, whereby the air stream introduced through the inlet means
      flows through the recesses and is discharged through the outlet means.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  FIG. 1 is a front view of a first embodiment of a helmet according to the
      invention;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a rear view of the helmet of FIG. 1;
PAR  FIG. 3 is a cross section taken along a plane perpendicular to a plane of
      FIG. 1;
PAR  FIG. 4 is a cross section taken along a plane parallel to the plane of FIG.
      1;
PAR  FIG. 5 is partially cross sectional side view showing a second embodiment
      of the helmet according to the invention;
PAR  FIG. 6 is a partially cut away perspective view illustrating a third
      embodiment of the helmet of the invention;
PAR  FIG. 7 is a partially cut away front view depicting a fourth embodiment of
      the helmet according to the invention;
PAR  FIG. 8 is a partially cut away rear view of the helmet of FIG. 7;
PAR  FIG. 9 is a cross section taken along a plane perpendicular to the plane of
      FIG. 7;
PAR  FIGS. 10 (a) and (b) are perspective views showing a window construction;
PAR  FIGS. 11 (a), (b) and (c) are perspective views illustrating another
      embodiment of the window construction;
PAR  FIG. 12 (a) is a partially cut away front view illustrating a fifth
      embodiment of the helmet according to the invention;
PAR  FIG. 12 (b) is a cross section showing inlet means of the helmet of FIG. 12
      (a);
PAR  FIG. 13 (a) is a partially cut away rear view of the helmet shown in FIG.
      12 (a);
PAR  FIG. 13 (b) is a cross section illustrating outlet means of the helmet of
      FIG. 13 (a);
PAR  FIG. 14 is a partially cut away perspective view showing sixth embodiment
      of the helmet according to the invention;
PAR  FIG. 15 (a) is a partial perspective view depicting a seventh embodiment of
      the helmet according to the invention;
PAR  FIGS. 15 (b), 16 (a), 16 (b), 17 (a), 17 (b), 18 and 19 are partial
      perspective views and cross sections showing five embodiments of the inlet
      means according to the invention.
DETD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
PAR  FIGS. 1 to 4 show a first embodiment of the helmet according to the
      invention. This helmet generally denoted by a reference numeral 2
      comprises a cap like body 3 made of hard material. At a forehead portion
      of the cap like body 3 there is formed an inlet 1 and at a backhead
      portion of the cap like body 3 there are formed outlets 4. The inner
      surface of the cap like body 3 is covered with a bumping body 5 made of
      foamed polystyrene or cork. The inlet 1 and outlets 4 communicate with
      each other by means of a plurality of elongated recesses 6 formed in the
      outer surface of the bumping body 5. These recesses 6 have streamline
      configuration so as to conduct an air stream smoothly from the inlet 1 to
      the outlets through the recesses. On inner surfaces of the portions of the
      recesses 6 which are situated directly behind the inlet 1 is arranged a
      shielding plate 7 which prevents the air stream from flowing directly
      inside the helmet and insures that air stream is forced to flow through
      the recesses 6. In the present embodiment in order to collect efficiently
      outside air into the helmet 2 there is arranged in front of the inlet 1 a
      wind collecting device 8 having an angularly tapered shape. Further on the
      bumping body 5 there is arranged a sheet like member 9 for absorbing
      vibration and this member 9 is made of sponge like material having an air
      draught property. A transparent window 10 is rotatably and/or detachably
      secured to the cap like body 3. Since the wind collecting device 8 might
      injure the face of the user upon falling down violently it is preferable
      to make the device 8 of resilient material such as rubber.
PAR  When the driver rides the motorcycle or motorbike while wearing the helmet
      of the embodiment described above the outside air is taken into the helmet
      through the inlet 1 at the forehead portion by the wind pressure and the
      introduced air stream flows through the recesses 6 almost without being
      subjected by resistance and is discharged through the outlets 4. During
      the air stream passing through the recesses 6 the space inside the helmet
      is communicated with the air stream in the recesses 6 through the sponge
      layer 9, so that the inside space does not become to be at high
      temperature and high humidity. Particularly by arranging the wind
      collecting device 8 at the inlet 1 it is possible to decrease a diameter
      of the inlet 1 and to take in the air stream with a higher efficiency.
      Therefore the effect of decreasing the temperature and humidity inside the
      helmet is materially increased.
PAR  The sponge layer 9 lined on the outer surface of the bumping body 5 may be
      dispensed with, if desired. Then the bumping body 5 having the recesses 6
      formed therein will exist directly inside the helmet 2. The wind
      collecting device 8 may be formed in any suitable shape such as
      trumpet-shape. Further the wind collecting device 8 may be detachably
      fixed to the cap like body 3. In such a construction the device 8 can be
      removed at will and particularly in rain the inlet 1 may be closed by a
      suitable plug so as to prevent rain drops from being introduced into the
      helmet 2.
PAR  FIG. 5 is a partially cross sectional view illustrating a second embodiment
      of the helmet according to the invention. In the first embodiment just
      explained above since the wind collecting device 8 extends from the
      forehead portion of the cap like body 3 when the transparent window 10 is
      opened by rotating it upwards it is necessary to take off the wind
      collecting device 8. In the second embodiment a wind collecting device 8
      is fixedly arranged at an upper portion of a transparent window 10 which
      is made longer in the up and down direction. In a closed position of the
      window 10 a small hole 11 formed in the wind collecting device 8 is in
      communication with the inlet 1 formed in the cap like body 3. In the inlet
      1 there is inserted a ring 12 of resilient material such as rubber which
      is urged against the rear surface of the window 10. Thus the air
      introduced through the wind collecting device 8 does not leak out through
      a junction between the wind collecting device 8 and the inlet 1. In the
      present embodiment the window 10 can be freely moved upwards or downwards
      about a pivot 14 without being prevented by the wind collecting device 8.
PAR  FIG. 6 shows a third embodiment of the helmet according to the invention
      which is a comparatively shallow type. In this embodiment instead of
      forming the outlet at the rear portion of the cap like body 3 several
      outlets 4' are formed in a cloth or flange portion 13 which surrounds the
      neck of the user when the user wears the helmet. Further at the forehead
      portion of the cap like body 3 there are formed two inlets 1. The
      operational effect of the helmet according to this third embodiment is
      substantially same as that of the preceding embodiments.
PAR  FIGS. 7 to 9 show a fourth embodiment of the helmet according to the
      invention. This embodiment is similar to the second embodiment shown in
      FIG. 5. In the second embodiment the inlet 1 could not be easily blocked
      in the closed position of the transparent window 10 and thus upon driving
      in rain rain drops might enter into the helmet 2 or upon driving in winter
      cold wind might enter into the helmet 2. The fourth embodiment can obviate
      such drawbacks by proving a window 15 between the wind collecting device 8
      and the inlet 1. As shown in FIGS. 10 (a) and 10 (b) the window 15
      includes a cover 17 secured to the cap like body 3 at the position of the
      inlet 1, which cover has a through hole 16 having the same diameter as
      that of the inlet 1 and a shielding plate 18 slidably arranged between the
      cover 17 and the cap like body 3. The shielding plate 18 does not move
      freely owing to a suitable friction and can only be slid by an external
      force. At one end of the plate 18 is provided with a projection 19 which
      serves as a knob and a stopper. In this embodiment the shielding plate 15
      is slid after removing the transparent window 10. It may be possible to
      design such a construction that the shielding plate is moved without
      removing the window 10.
PAR  In this embodiment when the window 15 is opened, the air flows into the
      helmet 2 through the inlet 1 provided at the forehead portion of the
      helmet 2 and the air stream flows through the recesses 6 and then
      discharges through the outlet 4 provided at the rear portion of the helmet
      2. Thus the temperature and humidity inside the helmet 2 do not increase.
      Moreover in rain or winter when the window 15 is closed rain drops or cold
      air are prevented from entering into the helmet 2.
PAR  FIGS. 11 (a), 11 (b) and 11 (c) show another embodiment of the window
      construction which is used for a helmet having two inlets 1 at the
      forehead portion of the cap like body 3. For this purpose there are formed
      two holes 16 in the cover 17 which communicate with the two inlets 1 of
      the cap like body 3. In such a construction when the shielding plate 18 is
      pulled out to a first position shown in FIG. 11 (b) one of the holes 16 is
      opened and the other is closed and when the shielding plate 18 is further
      pulled out to a second position illustrated in FIG. 11 (c) the both holes
      16 are opened. In this manner an amount of air introduced into the helmet
      2 can be adjusted.
PAR  The window 15 for the inlet 1 is not necessarily provided on the outer
      surface of the cap like body 3. For example the window may be provided on
      the inner surface of the cap like body 3 and the shielding plate 18 may be
      moved by a suitable lever. Moreover the outlets 4 provided at the rear
      portion of the helmet may be selectively closed. By this measure the
      shielding effect of the window 15 can be further increased.
PAR  According to a further aspect of the invention the air stream can be
      introduced into the helmet without providing the inlet at the forehead
      portion of the cap like body. The following embodiments are constructed on
      the basis of such an aspect.
PAR  FIGS. 12 (a), 12 (b), 13 (a) and 13 (b) illustrate a fifth embodiment of
      the helmet according to the invention. In this embodiment a plurality of
      air conducting recesses 6 are opened at an edge 20 of the forehead portion
      of the helmet 2. As shown in FIG. 13 (a) the recesses 6 communicate with
      outlets 4 provided on the rear portion of the cap body 3. In this
      embodiment the outlets 4 are tapered as shown in FIG. 13 (b).
PAR  When the user rides motorcycles or motorbikes while wearing such a helmet
      there is produced a reduced pressure near the outlets 4 at the rear
      portion of helmet 2 and thus the air inside the helmet is discharged
      through the outlets 4. At the same time outside air is introduced into the
      recesses 6 through the openings 1' provided at the edge 20 of the forehead
      portion of helmet 2. Therefore inside the helmet 2 the air stream flows
      through the recesses 6 from the forehead side to the rear side, so that
      the temperature and humidity inside the helmet do not increase. The
      outlets 4 may be formed at the side portion of the cap like body 3.
PAR  FIG. 14 illustrate another embodiment of the helmet according to the
      invention. In this embodiment several outlets 4' are provided in a flange
      13 which surrounds the neck of the user. In such a construction it is
      possible to flow the air stream through the recesses 6.
PAR  FIGS. 15 (a) to 19 show several embodiments in which means for introducing
      the air inside the helmet 2 with a high efficiency are provided. In an
      embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 15 (a) and 15 (b) a wind collecting device
      30 having several holes 31 is provided at an edge 20 of the forehead
      portion of the helmet 2. In this embodiment the wind collecting device 30
      has a visor like shape. By providing such a device 30 at the forehead
      portion the outer air can be efficiently introduced into the openings 1'
      of the recesses 6.
PAR  FIG. 16 (a) and 16 (b) illustrate another embodiment of the helmet 2
      according to the present invention. In this embodiment on the forehead
      portion of the cap like body 3 is secured a wind regulating device 32
      having a semicircular cross section. By providing such a device 32 the
      efficiency of the wind collecting device 30 is increased.
PAR  FIGS. 17 (a) and 17 (b) depict a further embodiment of the wind collecting
      device. In this embodiment a cylindrical wind collecting device 33 having
      several wind inlets 34 communicated with the openings 1' of the recesses 6
      are provided at the edge 20 of the forehead portion of the helmet 2.
PAR  In an embodiment shown in FIG. 18 a pad body 35 secured on an inner surface
      of the forehead edge 20 of the helmet 2 have several wind inlets 36
      communicated with the recesses 6 formed therein.
PAR  FIG. 19 illustrates a further embodiment of the helmet 2 according to the
      invention. In this embodiment a goggles 10' is connected to a bumping
      member 5 of the helmet 2 by means of a skirt member 37 having a number of
      corrugations. The air is introduced into the helmet 2 through the openings
      1' of the recesses 6.
PAR  It should be noted that the present invention is not limited to the
      embodiments explained above and many modifications are possible within the
      scope of the invention. For example in the embodiments illustrated in
      FIGS. 12 to 19 the openings 1' or holes 31 may be closed in rain or winter
      by means of suitable window constructions.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A helmet for use in riding vehicles such as motorcycles and motorbikes
      comprising:
PA1  a cap like body formed of hard and solid material;
PA1  a bumping body applied on an inner surface of the cap like body; and
PA1  a plurality of uninterrupted streamline recesses formed in an outer surface
      of the bumping body and extending completely from a forehead edge portion
      to a backhead edge portion of the helmet.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A helmet according to claim 1, further comprising a wind collecting
      device which is provided at the forehead edge portion of the cap like body
      and is in communication with front openings of said recesses.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A helmet according to claim 1, further comprising a flange which is
      provided around the rearhead edge of the cap like body and surrounds the
      neck of a user when the user wears the helmet and a plurality of holes
      formed in said flange.
PATN
WKU  041158750
SRC  5
APN  7888279
APT  1
ART  337
APD  19770419
TTL  Hip prosthesis
ISD  19780926
NCL  2
ECL  1
EXP  Frinks; Ronald L.
NDR  1
NFG  2
INVT
NAM  Rambert; Andre
STR  27, AVENUE Lacassagne
CTY  Lyon, 3eme, Rhone
CNT  FRX
INVT
NAM  Bousquet; Gilles
STR  19, AVENUE Beranger
CTY  Ecully, Rhone
CNT  FRX
INVT
NAM  Dejour; Henri
STR  21, RUE DES Deux Fermes
CTY  Bron, Rhone
CNT  FRX
PRIR
CNT  FRX
APD  19760426
APN  76 13189
CLAS
OCL    3  1913
XCL  128 92CA
EDF  2
ICL  A61F  124
FSC    3
FSS  1.9-1.913
FSC  128
FSS  92 CA;92 C
UREF
PNO  2719522
ISD  19551000
NAM  Hudack
OCL  128 92CA
UREF
PNO  3806957
ISD  19740400
NAM  Shersher
OCL    3  1.913
UREF
PNO  3815157
ISD  19740600
NAM  Skorecki  et al.
OCL    3  1.91
UREF
PNO  3894297
ISD  19750700
NAM  Mittelmeier et al.
OCL    3  1.912
UREF
PNO  4001897
ISD  19770100
NAM  Rambert et al.
OCL    3  1.913
FREF
PNO  1,017,927
ISD  19521000
CNT  FRX
OCL  128 92CA
OREF
PAL  Journal of Bone & Joint Surgery, vol. 46-A, No. 7, Oct. 1964, Advertisement
      p. 54, Wright Mfg. Co.
LREP
FRM  Browdy and Neimark
ABST
PAL  The male and female parts of a hip prosthesis each comprise two parts, a
      base fixed to the bone, and an active organ attached removably to the
      base. The upper face of the base has a truncated conical bore with a
      threaded bore at the bottom. The active member has a conically shaped
      projection with a threaded end which matches the bore in the base and
      which is screwed in the base to effectively lock the active member to the
      base. Diametrically opposite flat parts on the base and active member are
      provided to allow the active member to rotate while preventing the base
      from rotating.
BSUM
PAC  FIELD OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The present invention relates to a hip prosthesis, and more particularly to
      an improved ball and socket type hip prosthesis with the elements made of
      two parts, a base fixed to the bone and an active organ attached removably
      to the base.
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The prosthesis is of the type, as described for example in applicant's U.S.
      Pat. No. 4,001,897, with two parts forming a ball-and-socket joint. One
      part, female, is designed to replace the hip socket and the other, male,
      is designed to replace the head of the femur. Each of the two elements of
      this type of prosthesis is composed of two parts, a base attached
      irremovably to the bone and an active organ attached removably to the
      base. The active organ is composed of either a male or female sphere.
PAR  According to a particular embodiment of the prosthesis, as described in
      applicant's U.S. Pat. No. 4,001,897, the base of the male element is a
      plate designed to bear on the upper end of the femur, the bearing face of
      which has a rod designed to engage the femur, and on the other face of
      which is mounted a split collar equipped with a tightening bolt and having
      a threaded bore and a smooth bore. The active organ of this male element
      is composed of a sphere provided with a cylindrical radial projection
      having a threaded zone designed to engage the threaded bore of the split
      collar of the base and a smooth part designed to tighten it in the collar.
PAR  Attachment of the active organ to the base of this male element is thus
      provided by screwing the threaded part of the radial projection of the
      active element into the threaded bore of the base and by tightening of the
      split collar by means of a tightening bolt which ensures that the two
      elements are rotationally immovable with respect to each other.
PAR  It will readily be understood that for effective locking it is necessary
      for the collar to exert a powerful tightening force on the smooth part of
      the radial projection of the active element. To obtain this powerful
      tightening force, it is necessary to have a bolt able to withstand very
      large twisting and pulling stresses without risk of breaking, so that
      bolts with a large cross section are used. As a result, the collar must be
      oversized to accommodate the tightening bolt, leading to relatively large
      male element bases.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  It is an object of the present invention to overcome this disadvantage of
      an oversize collar to accommodate a tightening bolt of large cross
      section.
PAR  For this purpose, the present invention relates to a hip prosthesis,
      especially of the type with a male element base composed of a plate
      designed to bear on the upper sectioned end of the femur whose bearing
      face has a rod designed to engage the femur and, an active element formed
      by a sphere provided with a radial projection with a smooth zone followed
      by a threaded terminal zone.
PAR  In this prosthesis the smooth part of the radial projection of the active
      organ has a conical profile with a slight taper in the direction of its
      free end. The face opposite the face of the base has a threaded bore able
      to receive the threaded end of the radial projection of the active organ.
      Above this threaded bore is a conical bearing surface whose profile
      matches the smooth part of the radial projection of the active organ.
      Means for allowing the active organ to rotate and preventing the base from
      rotating are provided to facilitate mounting of the active organ on its
      base and removal of the active organ.
PAR  Thus an assembly of two matching cones with a slight taper and very
      effective locking of the active organ in its base is obtained, with no
      danger of any organ breaking.
PAR  Advantageously, the means for allowing the active organ to rotate and
      preventing its base from rotating are each composed of at least two
      diametrically opposite flat parts.
PAR  Locking or unlocking of the active organ relative to its base can thus be
      easily accomplished with the aid of two keys.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  The invention will be better understood with the aid of the description
      hereinbelow referring to the attached drawings which represent an
      embodiment of the male element of this prosthesis as a nonlimitative
      example, in which:
PAR  FIG. 1 is a side elevation of the male element before assembly;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a view of the male element similar to FIG. 1 after assembly.
DETD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
PAR  The male hip prosthesis element has a base 2 whose lower face 2a, designed
      to bear on the upper sectioned end of the femur, has a rod 3 designed to
      engage and be sealed into the cavum medullare of the femur. The opposite
      face 2b of the base 2 has a cavity 4 composed of a threaded bore 5 at the
      bottom and a truncated conical bore 6 situated above the threaded bore 5
      with a slight taper toward threaded bore 5.
PAR  Active organ 7 of the male prosthesis element, which is designed to be
      accommodated in the socket of the patient's hip, is composed essentially
      of a sphere 8 provided with a radial projection 9 having a smooth
      truncated conical part 11 matching truncated conical bore 6 of cavity 4
      and a threaded terminal part 12 screwable into threaded bore 5 of base 2.
PAR  It will readily be understood that after screwing threaded part 12 of
      radial projection 9 or active organ 7 into threaded bore 5, male cone 11
      of active organ 7 is locked into female conical bore 6 of base 2. This
      locking can be extremely effective with no danger of threaded parts 5 and
      12 breaking.
PAR  In the embodiment illustrated in FIGS. 1 and 2, to permit active organ 7 to
      rotate and to prevent base 2 from rotating, flat parts 13 and 14
      diametrically opposite pairwise have been provided, into which a key can
      easily be engaged.
PAR  Flat parts 14 provided on base 2 are necessary so that there be no risk of
      damaging the seal of the base 2 in the patient's femur upon repeated
      operation of assembling and removing active organ 7.
PAR  The invention is not confined to the embodiment of the prosthesis described
      hereinabove as a nonlimitative example; on the contrary, it embraces all
      other embodiments within the scope of the invention.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. Prosthesis of the male-female ball-and-socket type comprising:
PA1  a base of the male element composed of a plate designed to bear on the
      upper sectioned end of the femur, the bearing face of said plate having a
      rod designed to engage the femur end,
PA1  an active organ comprising a sphere provided with a radial projection
      having a smooth part followed by a terminal threaded zone, said smooth
      part of said radial projection of said active organ having a conical shape
      with a slight taper toward the free end thereof, the face opposite said
      bearing face of the base having a threaded bore able to receive the
      threaded end of said radial projection of said active organ, and a conical
      bearing surface above said threaded bore with a shape matching said smooth
      part of said radial projection of said active organ, and
PA1  means for allowing said active organ to rotate and preventing said base
      from rotating, said means being provided to facilitate assembly of said
      active organ on said base and removing said active organ.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. Prosthesis according to claim 1, wherein said means for rotating said
      active organ and preventing said base from rotating comprises at least two
      diametrically opposite flat parts.
PATN
WKU  041158768
SRC  5
APN  7448732
APT  1
ART  243
APD  19761124
TTL  Self-contained recirculating toilet system
ISD  19780926
NCL  11
ECL  1
EXP  Artis; Henry K.
NDR  2
NFG  4
INVT
NAM  Cole, Jr.; William
CTY  Oakland
STA  NJ
INVT
NAM  Preis; William R.
CTY  River Edge
STA  NJ
ASSG
NAM  Cole Resdevel Corp.
CTY  Fairlawn
STA  NJ
COD  02
CLAS
OCL    4317
XCL    4319
XCL    4320
XCL    4321
XCL  210 60
XCL  210152
XCL  210167
EDF  2
ICL  E03D  5016
FSC    4
FSS  10;115;78;76;89;80;77;79
FSC  204
FSS  275
FSC  210
FSS  60;152;167
UREF
PNO  2798228
ISD  19570700
NAM  Boester
OCL    4 10
UREF
PNO  3079612
ISD  19630300
NAM  Corliss
OCL    4 10
UREF
PNO  3579646
ISD  19710500
NAM  Lekberg
OCL    4 10
UREF
PNO  3624665
ISD  19711100
NAM  Klingle
OCL    4115
UREF
PNO  3633218
ISD  19720100
NAM  Lekberg
OCL    4 10
UREF
PNO  3728245
ISD  19730400
NAM  Preis et al.
OCL  204275
UREF
PNO  3824632
ISD  19740700
NAM  Bach et al.
OCL    4 12
UREF
PNO  3922730
ISD  19751200
NAM  Kemper
OCL    4 10
UREF
PNO  3939499
ISD  19760200
NAM  Roberts
OCL    4 10
UREF
PNO  3974528
ISD  19760800
NAM  Claunch et al.
OCL    4 10
UREF
PNO  4009104
ISD  19770200
NAM  Behrendt
OCL  210152
UREF
PNO  4017395
ISD  19770400
NAM  Davis
OCL  210167
UREF
PNO  4040956
ISD  19770800
NAM  Selwitz
OCL  210 60
LREP
FR2  Brown; Charles E.
ABST
PAL  This disclosure relates to a self-contained recirculating toilet system
      which includes a toilet bowl having a built-in flush pump and a
      waste-discharge macerator pump with the discharge of the macerator pump
      being connected to a holding tank unit for delivering raw waste into a
      raw-waste compartment thereof. The raw waste is periodically pumped from
      the raw-waste compartment to a combined sterilization and flocculation
      cell unit after which the treated liquid is returned to the holding-tank
      unit and after solids float over weir by virtue of gaseous suspension from
      the treatment in the cells and aided by the outward flow through a
      discharge slit the remaining clarified and sterilized liquid is directed
      into a flush-water compartment of the holding-tank unit for use in the
      next flushing of the toilet. The system provides for repeated use of the
      same water for multiple toilet flushing.
BSUM
PAR  This invention relates in general to new and useful improvements in
      toilets, and more particularly to a recirculating toilet.
PAR  In recreation vehicles of the camping and marine type, waste disposal
      presents a serious problem. While holding tanks have been developed, of
      necessity because of space and weight limitations, their sizes have been
      restricted. As a result, the recreation vehicles can operate only for a
      limited period of time before the holding tanks must be emptied.
PAR  In accordance with this invention, there is provided a toilet system
      wherein the same water which is utilized to flush the toilet is reusable
      over, and over with the raw waste being treated so as to reduce to a
      minimum the solids which must be retained in the system. Basically the
      solids, when treated, are transformed into gases including oxygen,
      chlorine, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Further, sufficient residual
      chlorine remains present to keep the entire system odor free and
      hygienically safe. The water, separated from the solids, is recirculated.
PAR  In accordance with this invention, there is provided a standard marine-type
      toilet bowl which has a built-in flush pump and a waste-discharge
      macerator pump so that the toilet may be operated electrically and the
      waste thereof is thoroughly macerated before it is discharged. The
      macerated raw waste passes into a holding tank unit and then is pumped
      through a cell unit wherein it is electro-chemically treated so as to
      effect sterilization of the waste liquid and solids, and flocculation and
      separation of the solids. The treated waste is then returned into the
      holding-tank unit, wherein the solids are separated from the water and the
      water is directed into a flush-water compartment for re-use.
PAR  The build-up of solids is relatively slow, with the result that the system
      may be utilized over and over a large number of times before cleaning
      thereof is required.
PAR  With the above and other objects in view as will hereinafter appear, the
      nature of the invention will be more clearly understood by reference to
      the following detailed description, the appended claimed subject matter,
      and the several views illustrated in the accompanying drawings.
DRWD
PAC  IN THE DRAWINGS
PAR  FIG. 1 is a schematic view showing the overall system and specifically
      illustrating the details of the holding tank unit, which is shown in plane
      view;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken through the holding-tank unit
      generally along the line 2--2 of FIG. 1;
PAR  FIG. 3 is a transverse vertical sectional view taken through the tank along
      the line 3--3 of FIG. 2 and shows further details of the tank; and
PAR  FIG. 4 is a fragmentary transverse vertical sectional view taken along the
      line 4--4 of FIG. 2.
DETD
PAR  Referring now to the drawings in detail, it will be seen that the overall
      system is schematically illustrated in FIG. 1, the toilet system being
      generally identified by the numeral 5. The toilet system 5 includes a
      toilet, generally identified by the numeral 6, which is in the form of a
      conventional marine toilet bowl 7 having a conventional flush pump 8 and a
      conventional macerator pump 9.
PAR  The toilet system 5 also includes a holding-tank unit, generally identified
      by the numeral 10. The holding tank unit 10 is preferably in the form of a
      unitary structure divided into a plurality of compartments, although each
      of the compartments could be in the form of a separate tank. The holding
      tank unit 10 includes a raw-waste compartment 11 disposed at one end of
      the unit 10 and a flush water compartment 12 disposed at the opposite end
      thereof. Disposed between the raw-waste compartment 11 and the flush water
      compartment 12 is a flotation separation compartment, generally identified
      by the numeral 13. The compartment 13 extends the full width of the
      holding-tank unit 10 between the compartments 11 and 12 and includes a
      main compartment 14 which is centrally located, and a pair of auxiliary
      compartments 15 disposed on opposite sides thereof.
PAR  With particular reference to FIG. 3, it will be seen that the main
      compartment 14 is generally trapezoidal in outline and tapers upwardly
      from a wide bottom to a narrow top. The auxiliary compartments 15 taper
      downwardly, each having a wide top and a narrow bottom. The combined
      widths of the main and auxiliary compartments at the top and bottom
      thereof are substantially equal so that the overall compartment 13 is
      rectangular and of the same general cross-section as the compartments 11
      and 12.
PAR  When the holding-tank unit 10 is in the form of a single tank, the various
      compartments 11 through 15 will be defined by a bottom wall 17, end walls
      18 and 19, side walls 20 and 21 and a top wall 22. Extending between the
      side walls 20 and 21 are transverse partition walls 23 and 24 which define
      the compartments 11, 12 and 13. Also, as is best shown in 1, extending
      between the transverse partition walls 23 and 24 are longitudinal
      partition walls 25 and 26 which divide the compartment 13 into the main
      compartment 14 and the auxiliary compartments 15.
PAR  It is to be understood that the top wall 22 is removable and is secured in
      place in sealed relation to the walls 18, 19, 20 and 21 in any desired
      manner to facilitate cleaning of the holding-tank unit 10.
PAR  It is also to be noted that the main compartment 14 is provided with an
      entrance receptacle, generally identified by the numeral 27. The entrance
      receptacle 27 extends across the top of the main compartment, and one wall
      thereof is formed by an upper part of the transverse partition wall 24.
      Parallel to the wall 24 is a wall 28. Connecting together the walls 24 and
      28 is a bottom wall 29 which also extends between the walls 25 and 26. The
      walls 25 and 26 form opposite ends of the receptacle 27. Finally, the
      receptacle 27 has its own top wall 30. The top wall 30 is provided with an
      internally threaded inlet 31 which is aligned with an opening 32 in the
      top wall 22. It is to be noted that the wall 28 terminates above the wall
      29 so as to define a discharge slit 33 opening from the receptacle 27.
PAR  It is to be understood that the toilet bowl 7 includes a conventional
      discharge, generally identified by the numeral 34. The waste output 34
      receives a discharge from the macerator pump 9 and directs the same into
      piping 35 which, in turn, is coupled to a fitting 36 carried by the side
      wall 20 and opening into the raw-waste compartment 11 near the bottom
      thereof.
PAR  The end wall 18 has a fitting 37 disposed remote from the fitting 36, and
      coupled thereto is piping 38. Incorporated in the piping 38 is a pump 39.
      The piping 38 leads to a sterilization and flocculation and separation
      cell unit, generally identified by the numeral 40. The cell unit is most
      specifically disclosed in our U.S. Pat. No. 3,728,245, granted Apr. 17,
      1973. Accordingly, the specific details of the cell unit 40 and the
      function of the individual cells 41 and 42 thereof will not be described
      in detail here. It is to be noted, however, that the cells 41 and 42 are
      coupled in series by means of piping 43.
PAR  Treated waste material discharges from the cell 42 as at 44 into piping 45,
      which is coupled to the threaded bore 31 and leads into the receptacle 27.
PAR  Liquid received in the receptacle 27 flows through the discharge slit 33
      into the main compartment 14 and then passes from the main compartment 14
      transversely into the auxiliary compartments 15 through submerged
      relatively small openings 46. The liquid (primarily water) then passes
      from the auxiliary compartments 15 into the flush water compartment 12
      through small, submerged openings 47 in the transverse partition wall 24.
PAR  With particular reference to FIGS. 2 and 4, it will be seen that the upper
      part of that portion of the transverse partition wall 23 which forms a
      wall of the main compartment 14 is removed so as to define a notch 48. The
      notch 48, in turn, defines a weir 49 over which liquid from the
      compartment 13 may flow into the raw-waste compartment 11 once the
      compartment 14 is filled to the level illustrated in FIG. 2. Compartments
      15 will be filled at a later time in the treatment cycle by virtue of the
      slow drainage through openings 46. The flush-water compartment 12 is
      filled to it's full capacity at a still later time in the treatment cycle
      by slow drainage through openings 47.
PAR  As is best shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, suitable vent openings 50 are formed in
      the upper portions of the transverse partition walls 23 and 24 so as to
      place the auxiliary compartments 15 in communication with the raw-waste
      compartment 11 and the flush-water compartment 12.
PAR  Referring once again to FIG. 1, it will be seen that the toilet system 5
      includes an electrical system, generally identified by the numeral 51. The
      electrical system 51 includes a source of electrical power 52 typically in
      the form of a battery. The electrical system 51 is controlled by means of
      a switch 53 which, when momentarily closed, will serve to energize timers
      54, 55 and 56. The timer 54 controls the energization of the cells 41 and
      42 and the pump 39 while the timer 55 controls the energization of the
      flush pump 8. The timer 56 controls the operation of the macerator pump 9.
      While separate timers 55 and 56 have been illustrated for separately
      controlling the operation of the flush pump 8 and the macerator pump 9, it
      is to be understood that a single timer could be utilized for controlling
      both pumps.
PAC  OPERATION
PAR  At the initial start-up, a small volume of water, approximately 61/2
      gallons, is placed in the holding-tank unit 10 by flowing it into the main
      compartment 14, with the same flowing into the auxiliary compartments 15
      and the flush-water compartment 12. A small quantity of the water may flow
      into the raw-waste compartment 11.
PAR  If the water utilized is not salt water, a quantity of salt, which may be
      ordinary table salt, is added to bring the salinity of the solution to
      approximately 10% saturated, or equivalent to the salt content of ordinary
      sea water. The purpose of the sodium chloride (salt) in this system is to
      provide a source of chlorine by virtue of electrolysis. The 10% saturation
      of the salt is to provide the proper level of conductivity in the solution
      to keep the operation of the cell unit 40 within the power capabilities of
      a small vessel or autotrailer home. It has been found that any source of
      12-volt direct-current power will suffice to operate not only the cell
      unit 40, but also the entire electrical system 51. Generally speaking, the
      power source 52 may be a standard 12-volt, 100-amphere-hour storage
      battery. Pumps 8, 9 and 39 preferably are powered by the 12-volt
      direct-current power source. However, the control of the cell unit 40
      could be separate from that of the pumps, and thus the pumps could utilize
      an entirely different power supply.
PAR  After the toilet 6 is used, it is flushed within seconds, this being
      controlled by the timer 55. The flush water comes from the flush-water
      storage compartment 12. The same instant that the flush begins, the
      circulating pump 39 starts pumping waste from the raw-waste compartment
      through the cell unit 40 which is also energized at the start of the
      flush. When the raw waste is within the cell units, it is acted upon in
      the manner described in our U.S. Pat. No. 3,728,245, and gases, including
      oxygen, chlorine and hydrogen, are produced due to the electrolytic action
      on the salt and water.
PAR  The recirculation of the waste from the raw-waste compartment 11 through
      the cell unit 40 continues for a time on the order of 21/2 minutes.
PAR  The treated raw waste from the cell unit 40 enters into the separation
      compartment 13. During this time as the treated solution enters the
      separation unit, tiny gas bubbles attach themselves to the multitude of
      suspended solid particles which are diffused through the treated solution,
      thus causing the solid particles to rise as they are emptied into the
      separation compartment. As the solid particles reach the surface level
      established in the main compartment 14, they flow over the weir 49 back
      into the raw-waste compartment 11. At the same time, a small portion of
      the chlorinated and clarified liquid settles out and passes downwardly and
      through the openings 46 into the auxiliary compartments 15, which function
      as stabilization chambers. From the auxiliary compartments 15, the
      clarified water passes slowly through the submerged openings 47 into the
      flush-water compartment 12, thus gradually refilling the flush-water
      compartment 12 to its maximum capacity to be ready for the next flush
      cycle.
PAR  It has been found that after the 21/2 minute treatment is completed, all of
      the waste water treated is sufficiently chlorinated to kill all bacteria
      therein and thus reduce the coliform count to zero throughout the system.
      Sufficient residual chlorine is present to keep the entire system odor
      free and hygienically safe.
PAR  It has been found that this system may be operated for several months
      without any cleaning or recharging. When recharging becomes necessary, the
      sterile solids that have been accumulated may be easily disposed of
      without any health hazards after the cover or top wall 22 has been
      removed. During use, much of the waste volume has dissipated in the form
      of odorless gas.
PAR  It will be readily apparent that no provision is made for the discharge of
      the waste from the system except by cleaning. Thus no waste may be
      discharged in such a way as to harm the environment. It is appreciated
      that in view of the change of volumes within the system 5 when the toilet
      6 is actuated, and further in view of the formation of gases within the
      holding-tank unit 10, a suitable vent (not shown) should be formed in the
      top wall 22.
PAR  Although only a preferred embodiment of our toilet system has been
      specifically illustrated and described herein, it is to be understood that
      minor variations may be made therein without departing from the spirit and
      scope of the invention, as defined by the appended claims.
CLMS
STM  I claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A self-contained recirculation waste system comprising a disposal unit
      of the type including a flush system having an inlet and a discharge
      system having an outlet, a holding tank unit, a sterilization cell unit,
      said holding tank unit including a flush water compartment and a raw waste
      compartment; and plumbing means coupling said discharge system outlet to
      said raw waste compartment, said raw waste compartment to said cell unit,
      said cell unit to said flush water compartment, and said flush water
      compartment to said flush system inlet, said holding tank unit including a
      flotation separation compartment coupled between said cell unit and said
      flush water compartment.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. The recirculating waste system of claim 1 wherein said sterilization
      cell unit is of the type for effecting separation and flocculation of
      solids within the treated raw waste.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. The recirculating waste system of claim 1 wherein said flotation
      separation compartment is physically disposed between said raw waste
      compartment and said flush water compartment.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. The recirculating waste system of claim 1 wherein said flotation
      separation compartment is physically disposed between said raw waste
      compartment and said flush water comaprtment.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. The recirculating waste system of claim 1 wherein said flotation
      separation compartment is physically disposed between said raw waste
      compartment and said flush water compartment, and is connected to said
      flush water compartment by normally submerged passages and to said raw
      waste compartment by an overflow passage, said flotation separation
      compartment including a main compartment and at least one auxiliary
      compartment disposed alongside said main compartment, respective ones of
      said submerged passages connecting said main compartment with each
      auxiliary compartment and each auxiliary compartment with said flush-water
      compartment.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. The recirculating waste system of claim 5 wherein said main compartment
      tapers upwardly and said auxiliary compartment tapers downwardly.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. The recirculating waste system of claim 6 wherein there are two of said
      auxiliary compartments, and the combined widths of said main and auxiliary
      compartments at top and bottom are substantially equal.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. The recirculating waste system of claim 5 wherein said auxiliary
      compartment has upper vent openings in communication with said raw waste
      compartment and with said flush water compartment.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. The recirculating system of claim 1 wherein said holding tank unit is in
      the form of a unitary structure.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. The recirculating waste system of claim 1 wherein said disposal unit is
      a toilet and said discharge system includes a macerator.
NUM  11.
PAR  11. A holding tank unit for use in a self-contained recirculation waste
      disposal system of the type utilizing a sterilization cell unit, said tank
      unit comprising a raw water compartment, said raw water compartment having
      an inlet for receiving raw waste water and an outlet for supplying raw
      waste water therefrom, a flush water compartment having an outlet for
      supplying recycled flush water, and a flotation separation compartment for
      receiving treated raw waste and water, said flotation separation
      compartment having an overflow discharge opening into said raw water
      compartment for separating and discharging floating waste and a submerged
      outlet opening into said flush water compartment for directing recycled
      water to said flush water compartment.
PATN
WKU  041158776
SRC  5
APN  7807422
APT  1
ART  244
APD  19770324
TTL  Liquid level sensing device and swimming pool water circulation systems
      containing the same
ISD  19780926
NCL  26
ECL  1
EXP  Yasich; Daniel M.
NDR  13
NFG  13
INVT
NAM  Wall; Frederick
STR  707 Belleview Rd.
CTY  Rock Hill
STA  SC
ZIP  29730
CLAS
OCL    417217
XCL   73301
XCL   73304C
XCL  210169
EDF  2
ICL  E04H  316
ICL  G01F 2310
FSC    4
FSS  172.17;172
FSC  210
FSS  169
FSC  137
FSS  392
FSC   73
FSS  299;304 C;398 C;401;301
FSC  361
FSS  283;284
UREF
PNO  2354964
ISD  19440800
NAM  Ostermann et al.
OCL   73304C
UREF
PNO  2651204
ISD  19530900
NAM  Dickinson
OCL   73398C
UREF
PNO  2704342
ISD  19550300
NAM  Fielden
OCL   73304C
UREF
PNO  2863472
ISD  19581200
NAM  Coles et al.
OCL  137392
UREF
PNO  2904732
ISD  19590900
NAM  Houghton
XCL   73304C
UREF
PNO  3134262
ISD  19640500
NAM  Dworzan et al.
XCL   73398C
UREF
PNO  3190122
ISD  19650600
NAM  Edwards
OCL   73398C
UREF
PNO  3537111
ISD  19701100
NAM  Whitten, Jr.
OCL    4172.17
UREF
PNO  3540277
ISD  19701100
NAM  Roth et al.
XCL   73304C
UREF
PNO  3668713
ISD  19720600
NAM  Baker
OCL    4172.17
UREF
PNO  3838601
ISD  19741000
NAM  Dorman
OCL   73401
UREF
PNO  3848627
ISD  19741100
NAM  Page
OCL  137392
FREF
PNO  243,318
ISD  19261200
CNT  GBX
OCL   73304C
ABST
PAL  A liquid level sensing device is provided comprising, in combination, a
      U-tube having two substantially vertical legs in fluid interconnection at
      their lower ends; a variable capacitor in one leg of the U-tube,
      comprising two spaced electrodes receiving a dielectric liquid
      therebetween; a first mobile body in said one leg of a first dielectric
      liquid capable of rising and falling within the space between the
      electrodes and to a level at which it partially or fully fills the space;
      a second mobile body in said one leg of a second liquid having a higher
      density than and immiscible with the dielectric liquid, and having an
      upper surface on which rests the first body of dielectric liquid; a third
      mobile body in the second leg of a third liquid immiscible with the second
      liquid and disposed in operative relationship with the second body of
      liquid; and a fluid pressure communication between said third body and a
      fourth body of the same or different liquid whose liquid level is to be
      sensed, so that the relative level of said first body of first liquid in
      the space between the electrodes in the variable capacitor is related to
      liquid level in said fourth body, communicated as fluid pressure via the
      fluid pressure communication to said third body, and thereby moving the
      second body of liquid and the first body of liquid in the U-tube to a
      level related to liquid level in said fourth body and corresponding to a
      capacitance of the variable capacitor.
BSUM
PAR  Automatic control at all times of the water level in a pool requires prompt
      response to changes in operating conditions, and is not easy to achieve.
      Many attempts have been made, but a fully automated response to all use
      conditions has not in fact been obtained.
PAR  Establishment and maintenance of the water level in a pool when the pool is
      quiescent is relatively easy. One system for automatically maintaining
      pool level, sensing pool level by a float in a surge and level control
      tank, and feeling make-up water to the pool by a float-operated valve, is
      described in U.S. Pat. No. 3,386,107 to G. R. Whitten Jr., patented June
      4, 1968. It is desirable of course to avoid placing a float directly in
      the pool, since not only would a float be in the way of swimmers, but the
      float would also be subject to changes in water level due to wave action.
      These problems are avoided by placing the float in a separate surge and
      level control tank, connected to the pool below the surface, so that the
      control responds only to static pool level. When the static level is below
      a predetermined level, make-up water is added even though the pool surface
      may be turbulent. In the system of this patent, the make-up water is added
      to the control chamber in the tank, in which the float sinks to detect a
      low water level, and excess water is also withdrawn by overflow or drain
      provided through the control tank. However, as noted by Whitten Jr. in a
      later U.S. Pat. No. 3,537,111 patented Nov. 3, 1970, the cost of such an
      elaborate surge and level control tank adds substantially to the total
      construction cost of the pool.
PAR  A further system noted by Whitten Jr. in U.S. Pat. No. 3,537,111 is to
      provide a sump separated from the pool by a ledge which sets a level for
      overflow, and a make-up water supply valve feeding directly into the sump
      under the control of a float. A drain valve is connected to the same float
      for draining the sump to a recirculating pump whenever the sump tends to
      overfill. However, this sytem does not correct flooding of the sump to the
      pool level by rain or overfilling, and no peripheral gutter is provided in
      this system, which also requires the construction of a separate sump tank
      which has to be placed at pool side, rather than located remotely at a
      location which would be both more convenient and less obstructive of the
      deck around the pool.
PAR  Accordingly, in U.S. Pat. No. 3,537,111, patented Nov. 3, 1970, Whitten Jr.
      proposed a modified system in which all water level sensors sense water
      level in the drainage gutter, and not in the pool. The level of drainage
      flow in the single peripheral gutter is detected at one level or a range
      of levels. The gutter has an overflow lip or weir for skimming flow at the
      desired pool height, and delivers overflow to a recirculating pump and
      filter, which may also draw water from drains under the pool surface. The
      detecting means controls a valve in a make-up water supply line which
      either feeds the pool directly, or feeds the recirculating pump, if
      prefiltration is desired. The control is arranged to open the make-up
      valve, if the drainage flow falls below a level that will guarantee
      maintenance of continuous overflow all around the periphery of the pool,
      taking the provision of a hydraulic gradient in the gutter into account.
      If the drainage flow rises beyond a normal operating level, which is
      sufficiently lower than the gutter lip to allow ample space in the gutter
      to receive abnormal flow caused by pool surge, the control closes the
      make-up valve and discontinues the supply to the pool.
PAR  Means is also provided for increasing the rate of drainage of the gutter
      under flooding conditions, detecting the level of the drainage flow to
      control the main drain valve. The control is arranged to partially close
      the main drain valve to reduce the proportion of the recirculating flow
      which is drawn from the main drain whenever the gutter flow substantially
      fills the gutter space reserved for surge and approaches the level of the
      overflow drain pipe. The effect of this is to increase the rate of flow
      taken by the recirculating pump from the gutter, and thus hasten a drop in
      the drainage overflow in the gutter to a suitable operating level. As this
      level returns to normal, the control reopens the main drain valve to
      restore the original proportioning of the recirculating flow taken from
      the gutter and the pool.
PAR  The system does however have an inadequate gutter capacity to respond to
      high gutter flooding conditions.
PAR  Higher than normal pool levels, substantially higher than the overflow lip
      of the gutter, must be prevented from entering the gutter, therefore, by
      covering the gutter with a grille having drain holes whose total area is
      calculated to admit only the maximum recirculation flow rate that can be
      handled by the gutter. Such water is retained on the grille, and
      accordingly washes back to the pool without entering the gutter, which is
      undesirable, since this washes dirt and debris collected on the grille
      back into the pool, and accordingly fails to meet modern health code
      requirements.
PAR  In order to prevent this, it is necessary to provide a gutter system of
      considerably increased capacity, such as a double gutter of the type
      provided, for example, in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,668,712, 3,668,713, 3,668,714
      and 3,815,160 to Baker. However, the control system of U.S. Pat. No.
      3,537,111 is not suitable for use in a double gutter pool.
PAR  In a swimming pool water circulation system, the provision of sensors
      capable of detecting water level at any given stage of the circulation
      system, such as, for example, in the swimming pool, in the gutter, in the
      filter tank, and elsewhere, requires either that the sensing equipment be
      placed directly in the body of water at the stage where water level is to
      be detected, or that a separate chamber be provided in fluid communication
      with the first body, so that the water level therein is the same as the
      water level in the body of water whose level is to be detected. This means
      either that the sensing equipment must take up valuable space, or a
      special chamber has to be provided for the sensing equipment. Neither is
      an entirely satisfactory alternative, because each adds to the expense of
      the pool, and also to the maintenance cost. Moreover, the provision of
      sensors directly in the body of water whose level is to be detected is not
      always possible, particularly when the body of water is the swimming pool
      itself, for the reasons noted above.
PAR  The water level sensing equipment has to be either mechanical or
      electrical. Mechanical level sensors, such as floats and similar
      contrivances, are liable to get out of order, and then malfunction. Moving
      parts can be bent or even jammed when debris floating in the water
      encounters the float and lodges against either it or the parts linking the
      float to the sensing system. Metal parts can corrode, or acquire
      weight-increasing coatings, and then malfunction.
PAR  Electrical devices are usually in the form of probes or electrodes, which
      are immersed in the water body whose level is to be detected. Since a
      given probe or electrode can only detect water level when the water
      reaches the probe, one sensor is needed for each different water level to
      be detected, so that a large number of probes or electrodes may be
      required. This virtually dictates that the probes be set up in a special
      chamber for the purpose. Nonetheless, this type of system poses problems
      of its own.
PAR  It is very difficult to manufacture electric probes which are sufficiently
      sensitive to respond immediately and precisely to a given level of water,
      after the water contacts the probe or electrode. Moreover, the electrode
      surface can become coated, or corroded, or scaled, as a result of which
      the system may malfunction, or even become inoperative. It is also
      difficult to position the electrode so as to detect the precise level
      desired, and it is not easy to adjust the positioning of the electrode to
      detect different levels and maintain such positions, since this requires
      that the probes be securely fastened, whereas the fact that the probes
      must be adjustable in position means that the electrodes cannot really be
      fastened in a permanent way, and therefore can work loose. Besides these
      problems, a voltage must be applied across the electrodes, and if the
      electrical conductivity of the liquid is low, a rather high voltage, as
      high as 150 volts, may be required. This is not always acceptable, because
      of the danger of setting up stray currents through the body of water,
      which can shock the swimmers.
PAR  In accordance with the instant invention, a liquid level sensing device is
      provided that overcomes all of these problems. The device of the invention
      has no moving parts, and no electric current is passed therethrough, in
      contact with the water whose level is to be sensed. Moreover, the device
      requires very little space, and does not have to be placed directly in or
      even near to the body of water whose level is to be detected, but can be
      placed in fluid pressure communication via a passage or tube within that
      body, and is therefore readily concealed and stowed out of the way, even
      in a swimming pool. There are no mechanical parts, and the electrical
      circuitry is completely shielded from contact with water. Since no
      electric parts are in contact with water, they are not subject to
      corrosion or the acquisition of coatings or deposits. While such may occur
      in the portions of the device in contact with water, they do not affect
      the operation of the device in any respect.
PAR  The liquid level sensing device in accordance with the invention comprises,
      in combination, a U-tube having substantially vertical legs in fluid
      interconnection at their lower ends; a variable capacitor in one leg of
      the U-tube, comprising two spaced electrodes receiving a dielectric liquid
      therebetween; a first mobile body in said one leg of a first dielectric
      liquid capable of rising and falling within the space between the
      electrodes and to a level at which it partially or fully fills the space;
      a second mobile body in said one leg of a second liquid having a higher
      density than and immiscible with the dielectric liquid and having an upper
      surface on which rests the first body of dielectric liquid; a third mobile
      body in the second leg of a third liquid immiscible with the second liquid
      and disposed in operative relationship with the second body of liquid; and
      a fluid pressure communication between said third body and a fourth body
      of the same or different liquid whose liquid level is to be sensed, so
      that the relative level of said first body of first liquid in the space
      between the electrodes in the variable capacitor is related to liquid
      level in said fourth body, communicated as fluid pressure via the fluid
      pressure communication to said third body, and thereby moving the second
      body of liquid and the first body of liquid in the U-tube to a level
      related to liquid level in said fourth body and corresponding to a
      capacitance of the variable capacitor.
PAR  Theoretically, there are an infinite number of levels of dielectric liquid
      in the space between the electrodes of the variable capacitor, each level
      capable of modifying the capacitance of the capacitor by a measurable
      amount. Accordingly, by appropriate electrical circuitry responsive to
      such capacitance changes, a sequence of operations in a water circulation
      system can be set up for each new level sensed in the body of liquid.
      Consequently, one such device can take the place of the battery of sensors
      required in prior systems.
PAR  Consequently, and further in accordance with the invention, a fully
      automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter control system
      for swimming pools is provided, comprising a gutter receiving overflow,
      including surge flow and/or skimming flow, across the top of the perimeter
      gutter and adequate for normal and surge flow conditions, and optionally,
      a second gutter receiving skimming flow and also providing additional
      gutter capacity for extraordinary overflow, including relief flow from the
      first gutter in the event of considerable activity in the pool, in
      combination with a level-sensing device as defined above operating from
      fluid pressure corresponding to the level of water in the pool overflow,
      such as in the gutter conduit, or in a balance tank, or in a vacuum filter
      tank, to control the skimming flow and water recirculation between the
      pool and the gutter, and feed from a water make-up supply.
PAR  To control normal pool water level, the device senses a first level of
      water in the overflow, such as in the gutter or balance tank or vacuum
      filter tank, corresponding to below-normal skimming flow, and when this is
      below a predetermined level gives an electric signal that opens a make-up
      valve controlling feed of fresh water from a supply or the water main.
PAR  When the pool level reaches a second higher overflow level at which
      skimming flow via surge weirs or a skimming gutter proceeds, and overflows
      into the gutter, the device senses that new level and gives a signal that
      closes the make-up water valve. The device allows this equilibrium
      condition to continue while skimming flow remains at a rate corresponding
      to a quiescent pool condition.
PAR  Any increase in pool activity above the quiescent condition results in a
      greater-than-normal skimming flow through the surge weirs, and/or skimming
      gutter, and this in turn causes the water overflow level to rise still
      further, in the gutter and elsewhere downstream.
PAR  In the event the gutter system includes one or more surge weirs, arranged
      in weir passages, the device senses a third higher overflow water level,
      corresponding to a low activity pool condition, in which the overflow
      level is above the normal skimming flow level sensed in the pool by the
      device. When the overflow level reaches the third level, the device gives
      an electric signal that actuates a mechanism closing off the surge weirs,
      arresting skimming flow through the weirs, and retaining the water in the
      pool, but allowing skimming flow and/or surges to proceed across the top
      of the perimeter gutter, into the gutter.
PAR  Light pool activity, if increased further, will increase the overflow water
      level such as in the gutter to a level corresponding to moderate pool
      activity. If a two-gutter system is provided, the water level in the first
      gutter will eventually reach the flooding level, and thus an overflow
      connection is provided between the first and second gutters, so that such
      water instead of flooding the first gutter and returning to the pool flows
      from the first gutter to the second gutter.
PAR  Under moderate pool activity, more water flows into the gutter, and
      eventually taxes the normal water recirculation system, which receives
      flow not only from the gutter but also from the main drain in the pool.
      Consequently, the overflow water level, such as in the gutter, rises still
      further, until it reaches a fourth overflow water level. The device senses
      when this water level is reached, and gives an electric signal to increase
      the recirculation system capacity for overflow, such as gutter flow, by
      closing off the main drain valve, causing all recirculation water between
      the pool and the pool recirculation system to flow into the system from
      the gutter. If the main drain were not cut off, the recirculation system
      would be unable to accommodate the increased overflow, in the case, gutter
      flow, and the overflow would begin to back up in the gutter system.
      Consequently, this device prevents flooding of the gutters and back-wash
      to the pool under the increased gutter flow, as a result of this higher
      level of activity.
PAR  Alternatively, or in addition, the device can increase recirculation system
      capacity for overflow by giving an electric signal that opens a
      recirculating flow throttling control valve on the return line of the
      recirculation system. This valve can at normal quiescent or light pool
      activity provide a normal recirculation flow, but upon demand, at moderate
      or heavy pool activity, provide a higher total recirculation flow. The
      throttling valve thus makes it possible to design the recirculation system
      to accommodate any excess flow above the normal recirculation rate, as may
      be required according to the amount of pool activity to be expected, or
      the amount of skimming flow across the top of the perimeter gutter.
PAR  To avoid the restriction of a limited flow through a filter, a by-pass line
      can also be incorporated to allow some or all excess overflow to bypass
      the filter.
PAR  Accordingly, upon a further increase in pool activity to the maximum, or
      operation of the pool at the rim flow level, providing skimming flow
      across the top of the gutter, the amount of overflow into the gutter
      increases still further, Eventually, such activity raises the overflow
      water level such as in the gutter to a fifth overflow water level, at
      which the capacity of the recirculation system is exceeded, and must be
      increased further to prevent gutter flooding and wash back. At this level,
      the device gives an electric signal that opens the recirculating flow
      throttling control valve on the return line of the recirculation system,
      to increase the amount of water drawn through the filter, and/or opens a
      bypass line to bypass the filter, so as to permit the recirculation system
      to accommodate the excess overflow generated under such conditions.
PAR  The device of the invention is double-acting, i.e., actuated at the
      predetermined water level, whether that level is reached by a declining
      flow or by a rising flow. Consequently, a declining flow reverses the
      sequence of actuation response noted above.
PAR  Accordingly, the device in accordance with the invention makes possible a
      control system which automatically accommodates any amount of pool
      activity without gutter flooding or washing back of debris and
      contaminants in the gutters into the pool, permitting skimming flow
      through surge weirs or over the rim of the perimeter gutter, as may be
      desired.
PAR  The automated pool perimeter skimming gutter water level control system of
      the invention accordingly comprises, in combination, a gutter conduit for
      disposition about the perimeter of a swimming pool, and adapted to carry
      water at a level below a predetermined level of water in the swimming
      pool; a retaining wall on the pool side of the gutter conduit, over the
      top of which wall water may flow from the pool into the gutter conduit,
      the top of the wall being placed at a height to maintain a predetermined
      water level in the pool, to provide a skimming flow of water over the top
      at such predetermined water level in the pool, and to allow excessive
      flows, wave actions and surges to flow over the top of the wall into the
      gutter conduit; a water cleaning and recirculating system for collecting
      water from the pool and water flowing into and along the gutter conduit,
      cleaning it, and returning it to the pool; and the device of the invention
      sensing, in sequence, a first water level in the overflow downstream of
      the pool corresponding to a less than the predetermined water level in the
      pool, and responding by giving an electric signal to feed water to the
      pool; a second water level in the overflow downstream of the pool
      characteristic of normal quiescent pool skimming flow and responding by
      giving an electric signal to stop water feed initiated at the first
      overflow level; and a third higher water level in the overflow downstream
      of the pool characteristic of a high degree of water flow wave action and
      surges into the gutter conduit, and responding by giving an electric
      signal to increase water recirculation system capacity to recirculate such
      increased overflow and prevent wash-back from a gutter conduit to the
      pool.
PAR  Another embodiment of automated pool perimeter skimming gutter water level
      control system of the invention comprises, in combination, a gutter
      conduit for disposition about the perimeter of a swimming pool, and
      adapted to carry water at a level below a predetermined level of water in
      the swimming pool; a retaining wall on the pool side of the gutter
      conduit, over the top of which wall water may flow from the pool into the
      gutter conduit; at least one surge weir disposed through the retaining
      wall below the top thereof, at a height to maintain a predetermined water
      level in the pool, and to provide a skimming flow of water through the
      weir at such predetermined water level in the pool, the top of the wall
      being spaced above the weir at a height to retain the pool water within
      the pool perimeter when the weir is closed at water flow, wave actions and
      surges up to a predetermined minimum, while allowing excessive flows, wave
      actions and surges to flow over the top of the wall into the gutter
      conduit; a water cleaning and recirculating system for collecting water
      from the pool and water flowing into and along the gutter conduit,
      cleaning it, and returning it to the pool; and the device of the invention
      sensing, in sequence, a first water level in the gutter corresponding to a
      less than the predetermined water level in the pool, and responding by
      giving an electric signal to feed water to the pool; a second water level
      in the gutter characteristic of normal quiescent pool skimming flow and
      responding by giving an electric signal to stop water feed initiated at
      the first gutter level; and a third higher water level in the gutter
      characteristic of a high degree of water flow wave action and surges into
      the gutter conduit, and responding by giving an electric signal to
      increase water recirculation system capacity to recirculate such increased
      gutter flow and prevent wash-back from a gutter conduit to the pool.
PAR  In a modification of this embodiment, the device of the invention senses
      and responds to the following different water levels in the gutter
      downstream of the pool: a first water level corresponding to a less than
      the predetermined water level in the pool, and responds to feed water to
      the pool; a second higher water level in the gutter characteristic of
      normal quiescent pool skimming flow, and responds to stop water feed
      initiated by the first overflow sensor; a third higher water level in the
      gutter characteristic of a low threshhold of pool activity but excessive
      weir skimming flow, and responds to close at least one weir; and a fourth
      higher level in the gutter characteristic of a high degree of water flow,
      wave action and surges into the gutter conduit, and arranged to increase
      water recirculation system capacity to recirculate such increased overflow
      and prevent wash-back from a gutter conduit to the pool.
PAR  A preferred embodiment of twin-gutter automated pool perimeter skimming
      gutter water level control system of the invention comprises, in
      combination, a first gutter conduit for disposition about the perimeter of
      a swimming pool, and adapted to carry water at a level below a
      predetermined level of water in the swimming pool; a second gutter conduit
      for disposition about the perimeter of a swimming pool, and adapted to
      carry water at a level below a predetermined level of water in the
      swimming pool; a retaining wall on the pool side of the gutter conduit,
      over the top of which wall water may flow from the pool into a gutter
      conduit; the top of the wall being placed at a height to maintain a
      predetermined water level in the pool, to provide a skimming flow of water
      at such predetermined water level in the pool, and to allow excessive
      flows, wave actions, and surges to flow over the top of the wall into a
      gutter conduit; a water cleaning and recirculating system for collecting
      water from the pool and water flowing into and along the first and second
      gutter conduits, cleaning it, and returning it to the pool; and a device
      of the invention sensing a first water level in the overflow downstream of
      the pool corresponding to a less than the predetermined water level in the
      pool, and responding by giving an electric signal to feed water to the
      pool; a second water level in the overflow downstream of the pool
      characteristic of normal quiescent pool skimming flow and responding by
      giving an electric signal to stop water feed; and a third higher level in
      the overflow downstream of the pool characteristic of a high degree of
      water flow, wave action and surges into the gutter conduit, and arranged
      to increase water recirculation system capacity to recirculate such
      increased overflow and prevent wash-back from a gutter conduit to the
      pool.
PAR  Another embodiment of automated pool perimeter skimming gutter water level
      control system of the invention comprises, in combination, a first gutter
      conduit for disposition about the perimeter of a swimming pool, and
      adapted to carry water at a level below a predetermined level of water in
      the swimming pool; a retaining wall on the pool side of the gutter conduit
      over the top of which wall water may flow from the pool into the gutter
      conduit; a second gutter conduit for disposition about the perimeter of a
      swimming pool, and adapted to carry water at a level below a predetermined
      level of water in the swimming pool; at least one surge weir disposed
      through the retaining wall below the top thereof, at a height to maintain
      a predetermined water level in the pool, and to provide a skimming flow of
      water through the weir at such predetermined water level in the pool, the
      top of the wall being spaced above the weir at a height to retain the pool
      water within the pool perimeter when the weir is closed at water flows,
      wave actions and surges up to a predetermined minimum, while allowing
      excessive flows, wave actions and surges beyond such minimum to flow over
      the top of the wall into the first gutter conduit; a water cleaning and
      recirculating system for collecting water from the pool and water flowing
      into and along the first and second gutter conduits, cleaning it, and
      returning it to the pool; and a device of the invention sensing a first
      water level in the overflow downstream of the pool corresponding to a less
      than the predetermined water level in the pool, and responding by giving
      an electric signal to feed water to the pool; a second water level in the
      overflow downstream of the pool corresponding to a second higher water
      level characteristic of normal quiescent pool skimming flow and responding
      by giving an electric signal to stop water feed; a third higher level in
      the overflow downstream of the pool characteristic of a low threshhold of
      pool activity but excessive weir skimming flow, and responding by giving
      an electric signal to close at least one weir; and a fourth higher level
      in the overflow downstream of the pool characteristic of a high degree of
      water flow, wave action and surges into the first gutter conduit, and
      responding by giving an electric signal to increase water recirculation
      system capacity to recirculate such increased overflow and prevent
      wash-back from a gutter conduit to the pool.
PAR  A weir of weirs for skimming flow is not essential, and can be omitted. A
      skimming flow over the top of the retaining wall can be used instead, as
      in U.S. Pat. No. 3,815,160. It is also possible to use skimming slots, as
      in U.S. Pat. Nos. 3,668,712 and 3,668,714, the slots feeding water
      directly into the second gutter conduit.
PAR  The overflow level can be sensed by overflow sensors at any position
      downstream of the pool where a water level correlated with pool activity
      and skimming flow exists, and can be detached. One such location is in the
      gutter. If there be more than one gutter, the second gutter downstream of
      the first gutter is preferred, but any gutter can be used. Another
      location is in a balance tank or vacuum filter tank before the pump,
      receiving gutter flow, in the water recirculation system.
PAR  The water level sensing and control system of the invention is applicable
      to any design of single or multiple gutter perimeter gutter system.
PAR  U.S. Pat. No. 3,668,712 to William H. Baker dated June 13, 1972, provides a
      perimeter skimming gutter for swimming pools including a gutter conduit
      for disposition about the perimeter of a swimming pool and adapted to
      carry water at a lever below a predetermined level of water in the
      swimming pool, a retaining wall on the pool-side of the conduit, over the
      top of which wall water may flow from the pool into the gutter conduit,
      and a plurality of narrow elongated substantially horizontally disposed
      openings through the wall at a height to maintain a predetermined water
      flow, the top of the wall being spaced above the openings at a height to
      retain the pool water within the pool perimeter at water flows, wave
      actions and surges up to a predetermined maximum, while allowing excessive
      water flows, wave actions, and surges beyond such maximum to flow over the
      top of the wall into the gutter conduit.
PAR  U.S. Pat. No. 3,668,714 to William H. Baker dated June 13, 1972, provides a
      nonflooding perimeter skimming gutter for swimming pools including a first
      gutter conduit for disposition about the perimeter of a swimming pool, and
      adapted to carry water at a level below a predetermined level of water in
      the swimming pool, a retaining wall on the pool-side of the first gutter
      conduit over the top of which wall a skimming flow of water may run from
      the pool into the first gutter conduit, a second gutter conduit adapted to
      carry water at a level below a predetermined level of water in the first
      gutter conduit, and a fluid flow connected between the two gutter conduits
      at such level and below the top of the retaining wall allowing water flow
      from the first gutter conduit into the second gutter conduit whenever the
      water level on the first gutter conduit reaches the fluid flow connection,
      thereby inhibiting filling of the first gutter conduit appreciably above
      such level.
PAR  Both skimming gutter designs are quite satisfactory for most sizes of
      swimming pool. If their unusually large gutter capacity can at times be
      exceeded, then the gutter of U.S. Pat. No. 3,815,160 to William H. Baker,
      dated June 11, 1974, can be used.
PAR  This nonflooding perimeter skimming gutter wall permits an adequate
      skimming action at all times, and also provides for virtually unlimited
      surge capacity when the pool is in use, without the possibility of the
      gutter's flooding, or dirt in the gutter's being washed back into the
      pool. This is accomplished by combining a second gutter conduit within a
      peripheral wall of the swimming pool, making available for gutter flow the
      internal volume of the wall, in fluid flow connection with the first
      gutter conduit, and adapted to receive water from the first gutter conduit
      whenever the level of water in that gutter exceeds a predetermined
      maximum, established at the level of the fluid flow connection
      therebetween. This fluid flow connection is below the top of the retaining
      wall, so that the water level in the first gutter conduit cannot reach the
      top of the retaining wall. The second gutter conduit within the wall is
      entirely separate from the first, and is designed to provide an ample
      reserve flow capacity to accommodate any heavy or surge action that may be
      likely to be encountered. The fluid flow connection between the gutter
      conduits can be arranged to skim the dirt off the top of the first gutter
      trough, thus assisting in preventing this dirt from being washed back into
      the pool.
PAR  In this gutter system, the water level in the pool is normally maintained
      at the level at the top of the retaining wall, which consequently serves
      as a skimmer gutter at the pool perimeter. The fluid flow connection may
      constitute a second skimming flow outlet, supplementing and continuing the
      skimming action of the first.
PAR  The term "conduit" as used herein is inclusive of open conduits or troughs
      as well as partially or wholly enclosed conduits.
PAR  In a preferred embodiment of the invention the first gutter conduit is an
      open trough, with at least one fluid flow connection with the second
      gutter conduit in the form of one of a plurality of openings at the
      predetermined maximum level of water in the first gutter conduit.
PAR  The second gutter conduit preferably is a closed conduit. The second gutter
      conduit can be within any peripheral wall of the pool. It can, for
      example, be within the peripheral pool-side retaining wall. It can also be
      within a peripheral external wall of the gutter, on the side away from the
      pool.
PAR  In a preferred embodiment of the invention, a water-feed conduit is
      provided in the gutter for feed of fresh water into the pool. This conduit
      is preferably an integral part of the nonflooding perimeter skimming
      gutter, at the pool-side retaining wall, admitting water to the pool
      through the pool-side retaining wall.
PAR  In the case where the two gutters are separated by a common wall, the fluid
      flow connection between the two gutters can be of any configuration, and
      is in sufficient number and at a high enough level to provide for an
      adequate flow capacity, to prevent the water level in the first gutter
      conduit from appreciably exceeding the height of the overflow connection
      under any water surge or wave conditions in the pool.
PAR  The level of the overflow connections with respect to the bottom of the
      first gutter conduit can be adjustable, so as to provide adjustment of the
      water level permitted in the first gutter conduit before flow via the
      overflow connections into the second gutter conduit commences. This
      adjustment can be provided for by forming the overflow connections as
      vertical slots or with an extended vertical height, and disposing a
      movable barrier member over the overflow connections with the opening or
      openings of the desired size and shape.
DRWD
PAR  Preferred embodiments of the liquid level sensing device and swimming pool
      water circulation system of the invention are shown in the drawings, in
      which:
PAR  FIG. 1 is a longitudinal sectional view through the U-tube of a device of
      the invention, showing the variable capacitor and the line connection to
      the body of liquid, such as water, whose level is to be detected;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a wiring diagram showing the electric circuit operatively
      connecting the variable capacitor of FIG. 1, with level control and/or
      level indicating systems, showing how one can read off the liquid level
      directly and/or adjust the liquid level automatically, as required for
      example, in the water circulation system of FIGS. 3 to 5;
PAR  FIG. 3 is a swimming pool water flow circuit diagram, showing a twin-gutter
      pool perimeter water recirculation system with the automated control
      system of the invention imposed thereon;
PAR  FIG. 4 represents a view of one modular unit of a pool perimeter gutter in
      accordance with the invention;
PAR  FIG. 5 represents a cross-sectional view through the gutter system shown in
      FIG. 4, taken along the line 5--5;
PAR  FIG. 6 is a pool water flow circuit diagram, similar to that of FIG. 3, but
      with the device sensing increase in overflow at a balance line;
PAR  FIG. 7 is a wiring diagram for an electric circuit similar to that of FIG.
      2, but for the water circulation system of FIG. 6;
PAR  FIG. 8 is a pool water flow circuit diagram showing a single-gutter pool
      perimeter water recirculation system with the automated control system of
      the invention imposed thereon;
PAR  FIG. 9 represents a view of one modular unit of the single-gutter pool
      perimeter gutter of FIG. 8;
PAR  FIG. 10 represents a cross-sectional view through the gutter system shown
      in FIG. 9, taken along the line 10--10;
PAR  FIG. 11 is a wiring diagram showing an electric circuit for the water
      circulation system of FIGS. 8 to 10;
PAR  FIG. 12 is a pool water flow circuit diagram, showing a double-gutter pool
      perimeter water recirculation system with the device sensing increase in
      overflow in a balance tank in the gutter overflow line; and
PAR  FIG. 13 is a wiring diagram showing an electric circuit for the water
      circulation system of FIG. 12.
DETD
PAR  The liquid level sensing device shown in FIG. 1 includes a vertical U-tube
      having two vertical legs a, b, of which leg a is made of electrically
      conductive metallic material such as a copper tube, in this case 1/2 inch
      in diameter, and leg b is made of either electrically conductive or
      dielectric material, such as copper, plastic, or steel. The leg a is open
      to atmospheric pressure, and must be electrically conducting since it
      forms one electrode of the variable capacitor c. The leg b need not be
      electrically conducting because it forms no part of the electrical system,
      and can if desired be made of noncorrosive material such as plastic or
      plastic coated metal to prevent corrosion and deterioration when this leg
      of the U-tube is in contact via line connection d with a corrosive liquid
      such as swimming pool water from the water circulation system as in FIGS.
      3 to 13.
PAR  Inserted at the top end of the first leg a is an electrode e which in this
      instance is an aluminum rod. There is an electrical connection f to the
      aluminum rod, in the form of a shielded cable, and a second electrical
      connection g to the copper tube. These electric connections lead to the
      electric circuit whose wiring diagram is shown in detail in FIG. 2, as
      will presently be seen.
PAR  The copper tube a and aluminum rod e thus constitute concentric electrodes,
      with a space s therebetween, and this space is adapted to receive a
      dielectric liquid, in this instance mineral oil o, which is mobile, and
      therefore free to rise and fall in the space s between the electrodes a,
      b, at any particular level. The actual level assumed by the mineral oil in
      the space s depends in the following way upon the water level in the body
      of water whose level is to be sensed and controlled.
PAR  The body of mineral oil rests on the upper surface of a body of liquid
      mercury m, which is also mobile and can rise and fall within the leg a of
      the U-tube. The mercury extends, in fact, through the lower portion of leg
      a and the interconnection i at the base of the U between the legs a, b
      into the second leg b of the U-tube. The actual position of the mercury in
      each leg is dependent upon the weight (pressure) of mineral oil o on its
      left surface, on the one hand, and the pressure of liquid p on its other
      surface in the second leg b.
PAR  The liquid p in leg b in this particular instance is water, because this
      device is inserted as seen in FIGS. 3 to 5 to tap the water circulation
      system of a swimming pool, in the gutter. It can be inserted in any of the
      systems shown in FIGS. 3 to 13, as will presently be seen. The line
      connection d leads to the swimming pool water circulation system, joining
      it in the gutter as shown in FIG. 3.
PAR  It will now be apparent that according to the pressure of liquid p in the
      second leg b, the body of mercury m and in turn the body of mineral oil o
      will either rise or fall in the space s of the variable capacitor c, and
      in so doing changes the capacitance. The mineral oil can completely fill
      the space s or only partially fill the space, according to the pressure of
      liquid p on the bodies of mercury and mineral oil from the second leg b.
      As the level of mineral oil in the space rises, the capacitance of the
      capacitor decreases, and this effect is in turn reflected in a response in
      the electrical circuit, which will now be described.
PAR  The electrical circuit shown in FIG. 2 is divided into two sections A and
      B, the A section representing the head circuit and the B section
      representing the read-out or operating circuit. The head circuit charges
      and discharges the capacitor c in the U-tube. As the capacitance at any
      given moment is related to the level of the body of water being sensed,
      the capacitance in the head circuit, because it is reflected in a
      corresponding reaction in the read-out circuit, makes it possible to
      literally read off the change in level on a scale I for example, and also
      to induce a response so as to modify the level and restore it to a
      predetermined norm. The change in capacitance is measured as a change in
      frequency in the head circuit.
PAR  The head circuit includes a unijunction transistor oscillator UO which is
      in electric connection via line f with the aluminum rod electrode e and
      via line g with the copper tube electrode a of the capacitor c as seen in
      FIG. 1. The unijunction transistor oscillator is arranged to charge the
      capacitor c through the resistance R1 until the capacitor is charged, and
      the unijunction transistor conduction voltage is reached. The variable
      capacitor then discharges through the unijunction transistor oscillator
      and resistance R3 to give a pulse. The frequency of this pulse is
      determined by the value of the U-tube capacitor c. The head circuit also
      includes a monostable multivibrator MV1 in electric connection with the
      unijunction transistor oscillator UO. This converts the pulses coming from
      the unijunction transistor oscillator (which are in a saw tooth form) into
      square waves. Each time the unijunction transistor oscillator pulses, a
      square wave is formed by the monostable multivibrator, and this leaves the
      monostable multivibrator as a series of square waves, totally synchronized
      with the frequency of the discharging and charging of the U-tube
      capacitor.
PAR  In electric connection with the monostable multivibrator is a decade
      counter DC. This receives and counts the square wave pulses from the
      monostable multivibrator MV1, and thereby distinguishes water levels
      sensed via line d which give different length pulses in proportion to
      pressure as reflected in capacitance.
PAR  In connection with the decade counter are three gates G1, G2 and G3. The
      decade counter sends a pulse to gate G1 when 1000 pulses have been
      counted. When 2000 pulses have been counted, a pulse is sent to gate G2.
      When 3000 pulses have been counted, a pulse is sent to gate G3. Additional
      gates can be added to count 4000 and more pulses. As these gates
      individually receive pulses they charge and discharge their respective
      fixed condensors C1, C2, C3, all of which feed pulses into the same line
      L, so that in effect a continuous series of pulses is sent from one or the
      other of these gates in the form of a saw tooth wave, and this is sent on
      to the read-out circuit B via line L.
PAR  The read-out circuit B includes a monostable multivibrator MV2 which
      converts the saw tooth wave form to a square wave. The multivibrator MV2
      is in connection with a rectifying diode capacitor RDC combination of
      conventional type, producing a steady DC voltage, the level of which
      depends entirely on the amount of charge given the condensors C1, C2, C3,
      by the gates G1, G2, G3. This is turn is a function of the time allowed to
      charge the condensors through the gates, which in turn is a function of
      the time taken to count 1000, 2000 and 3000 pulses, respectively.
PAR  These counts are entirely dependent upon the frequency of the wave form
      sent from the monostable multivibrator MV1, which in turn derives its form
      from the unijunction transistor oscillator UO, which in turn is controlled
      by the variable capacitor c of the U-tube shown in FIG. 1. This is a
      reflection of the dielectric mineral oil level in the capacitor c which in
      turn depends on pressure of liquid in the second leg b of the tube. Hence,
      the entire system is in effect controlled by the rise and fall of the
      mineral or dielectric oil in the first leg of the U-tube, which is a
      direct function of water level in the liquid, such as a body of swimming
      pool water whose level is to be controlled. The DC voltage derived from
      the rectifying diode capacitor RDC combination will also be controlled by
      the rise and fall of the mineral or dielectric oil in the first leg of the
      U-tube.
PAR  The several components of the read-out circuit B requiring power operation
      are connected to a power supply at the + and - terminals, as indicated in
      the Figure.
PAR  The steady DC voltage can be used to control the equipment required to
      respond to changes in water level in the system. For each particular piece
      of equipment to be controlled in the pool recirculation system, an
      operational amplifier, such A1, A2, A3, is provided in the read-out
      circuit. These amplifiers are arranged to receive the varying DC voltage
      from the rectifying diode capacitor RDC combination, which is controlled
      by the rise and fall of the dielectric oil in the first leg of the U-tube.
      Connected to these operational amplifiers are potentiometers, P1, P2, P3
      (or as many as are required) and an independent source of voltage is
      provided to these potentiometers. By adjusting these potentiometers, a
      "comparitor" voltage is supplied to the amplifiers such that if the line
      voltage from the system achieves a voltage that is similar to, or diverts
      from, the input voltage to the operational amplifiers as provided by the
      potentiometers, the amplifiers will operate and provide a signal to
      operate relays to control; for example, hydraulic, mechanical or solenoid
      valves, which open and close, to stop or start water flow in selected
      stages of the system.
PAR  The read-out circuit also includes an indicator I which makes it possible
      to read off water level directly from a scale. The indicator I is in
      electric connection with the rectifying diode capacitor combination to
      receive DC voltage, and by appropriate calibration accurately and
      continuously reads the level of water in the body of water connected to
      the second leg b of the U-tube shown in FIG. 1.
PAR  The water circulation system shown in FIGS. 3 to 5 includes the liquid
      level sensing device of FIG. 1 and the electric circuit of FIG. 2 to
      control water circulation in a gutter of a swimming pool.
PAR  The U-tube shown in FIGS. 3 to 5, indicated as 75, is arranged with the
      line connection d leading off the gutter 2 at the periphery of the
      swimming pool. The line d senses water pressure and therefore the level of
      water in the gutter 2 via the pressure on the mercury m in the legs a, b
      of the U-tube, and thereby the level of the dielectric liquid in space s,
      which in turn is reflected in a corresponding capacitance for that level
      in the variable capacitor c of the U-tube.
PAR  The pool perimeter gutter shown in FIGS. 3 to 5 is made in a plurality of
      modular units, which are fitted together on-site and bonded together by
      welding, soldering or brazing in the number required to form the perimeter
      rim of a swimming pool. A sheet of stainless steel or other
      corrosion-resistant metal or plastic material is formed in the
      configuration shown, with a top coping 10, a gutter back wall 11, bent
      forward towards the pool in a manner to partially cover over a first
      gutter 1, and then continuing to form the back wall 12 and bottom wall 13
      of a second gutter 2, the bottom wall 14 and pool perimeter side wall 15
      of a water feed conduit 3, the pool perimeter side wall 16 of the second
      gutter 2, and the top wall 17 of the second gutter 2, which also serves as
      the top rim of the swimming pool, over which water may flow into the first
      gutter 1. The stainless steel sheet terminates in a flange 19, which
      serves as a ledge support for one side of the first gutter 1. A second
      flange 21 is attached by welding or brazing to the back wall 12 of the
      second gutter 2, to serve as the other ledge support for the first gutter
      1.
PAR  The first gutter 1 is made of another sheet of stainless steel, formed in a
      U-configuration, with sides 4, 5, and bottom 6, terminating in flanges 7,
      8 supporting the gutter on flanges 19, 21 of the first sheet. A grille 9
      rests on flanges 7, 8, and covers over the open top of the first gutter,
      so as to prevent bathers from stepping into it, with possibly injurious
      consequences. The grille of course can be omitted.
PAR  In the side wall 5 of the first gutter, there is one or several openings 20
      in the form of long narrow slots providing fluid flow communication with
      the second gutter 2 at the top of the gutter 1. These openings define the
      maximum water level in the first gutter, since water above this level
      automatically flows through the openings 20 into the second gutter. The
      openings are sufficiently numerous and large to accommodate such flow,
      thus preventing flooding of the first gutter.
PAR  Through the pool perimeter side wall 16 of the second gutter are a number
      of narrow, long openings 30, approximately 1/2 inch below the top of the
      top of the gutter. These openings lead to weir passages 31, which
      accommodate skimming flow from the pool, and feed directly into the second
      gutter 2. Thus, skimming flow is separated from surge flow across the top
      17 of the perimeter gutter, which feeds directly into the first gutter 1.
      Flaps 32 are provided across the openings 33 at the inner ends of the
      passages. These flaps on their undersides are pivotably mounted on the
      pistons 34, which are operated hydraulically in cylinders 35. The flaps
      can be lowered to the open position, shown in FIGS. 3 and 4, by drawing in
      the piston, on the suction stroke, or pivoted to the dashed-line position
      shown in FIG. 4, to close off the weir passages 31, by pushing out the
      piston, on the power stroke. The opening and closing of the flaps can be
      effected by any kind of mechanism, however.
PAR  The pool perimeter walls 16 of the second gutter 2 and 15 of the water feed
      conduit 3 meet in a V-notch 22. At the base 23 of the V a third sheet of
      stainless steel is welded, and formed so as to extend inwardly and down to
      define the other sidewalls 24, 25, 26 of the water feed conduit 3, and is
      welded to the bottom 13 of the second gutter conduit 2 at 27.
PAR  A plurality of openings 28 are provided in the pool perimeter wall 15 of
      the water feed conduit 3, for feed of recirculating clean water to the
      pool. These openings can, if desired, be provided with nozzles or jets, in
      known manner, directing flow horizontally or downwardly into the pool.
PAR  There is a direct line connection 40 leading from the second gutter 2 and
      the first gutter 1 to the recirculation system 50, and there is also a
      main drain 41 in the bottom 42 of the swimming pool leading via main drain
      line 44 to the recirculation system. There is a main drain throttling
      valve 43 in the main drain line 44, so that this line can be closed off,
      or partially or fully opened, and there is also a gutter overflow valve 45
      in the gutter line 40, so that this can be closed off. On the downstream
      side of the filter 51 in the water purifying system there is a
      recirculation flow throttling valve 46, which controls recirculation flow
      through the return feed line 52 leading to the water feed inlet 53 in the
      conduit 3. The valve 46 also can be partially or fully opened, or closed,
      increasing the recirculating flow or decreasing it, as may be required.
      The pump 54 maintains circulation of water through the filter 51 and
      return feed line 52 to the conduit 3.
PAR  There is also a make-up water valve 47 in fluid flow connection via a line
      48 to the fillspout 49 on the deck of the pool, permitting introduction of
      fresh water from the water supply, such as, for example, the water main
      supply at the pool location.
PAR  The water level sensing device 75 detects different water levels in the
      second gutter 2, via line d.
PAR  When pool level is below the bottom of the surge weir openings 30, there is
      no skimming flow, and the water level in the pool perimeter gutter sinks
      to level L1. This level is sensed by the device 75 and results in an
      electric signal via gates G1, G2 and G3, condensers C1, C2 and C3 to
      operational amplifier A1, which responds by opening the make-up water
      valve 47, so that water is admitted from the feed line 55 into the line
      48, and thence to the pool at fillspout 49.
PAR  When the pool is full, since the surge weir flaps 32 are open, in the
      position shown in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5, skimming flow takes place at a
      predetermined level through the weirs, and the gutter water level rises to
      level N. The sensing device 75 senses this higher level, and gives an
      electric signal via gates G1, G2, and G3, condensers C1, C2, and C3 to
      operational amplifier A2, and this turns off make-up water valve 47, and
      cuts off feed of fresh water to the pool.
PAR  Next, the sensor 75 senses a second and higher gutter water level L2,
      corresponding to the increased surge weir flow under light pool activity.
      When the water level reaches L2 because there is too much flow through the
      weirs, it is necessary to close the surge weirs, to prevent excessive
      gutter flow. The sensor responds to this condition by giving an electric
      signal via gates G1, G2, and G3, condensors C1, C2, and C3 to operational
      amplifier A3, actuating the cylinder 35 and pushing out the piston 34,
      closing the flaps 32, and closing off the weirs. In this condition, some
      surge flow cascades over the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into gutter 1,
      but gutter 1 has adequate capacity to accommodate such flow.
PAR  A further increase in pool activity will lead to an increased flow of water
      across the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into the first gutter 1. Under
      medium pool activity, the flow fills the gutter 1, whereupon the excess
      spills over into the second gutter 2, through the passages 20. This
      increases the water level in the second gutter, to the level L3, and
      increases the burden on the water recirculation system, which requires
      adjustment to accommodate the increased gutter flow.
PAR  Accordingly, sensor 75 this time gives an electric signal via gates G1, G2,
      and G3, condensers C1, C2 and C3, to operational amplifier A4, which sends
      a signal and closes the main drain valve, thus making it possible for the
      recirculation system 50 to accommodate the increased gutter overflow in
      line 40, the flow through which is now equal to that formerly reaching the
      recirculation system 50 from the combined volumes of the flows in the main
      drain line 44 and gutter overflow line 40.
PAR  Increased pool activity to the maximum activity level further increases the
      amount of water cascading across the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into
      gutter 1, and thence through the overflow openings 20 into gutter 2, with
      the result that the level in gutter 2 rises to level L4. The sensing
      device 75 now sends a signal via gates G1, G2, and G3, condensers C1, C2
      and C3, to operational amplifier A5, which opens the recirculation flow
      throttling valve 46, increasing the rate (and therefore the volume amount)
      of recirculation flow through the recirculation system 50, so as to
      accommodate the increased flow through the gutters. This is so designed as
      to accommodate any maximum flow that may be encountered during maximum
      activity in the pool.
PAR  It is apparent that instead of closing the main drain valve 43, an
      increased recirculation system capacity can also be achieved by opening
      the throttling valve 46. Thus, sensor 75 can be arranged to open valve 46
      instead of closing valve 43.
PAR  It is thus apparent that the sensor system in accordance with the invention
      not only senses and responds to the water level in the pool, but also to
      water level in the second gutter, so as to respond to activity in the pool
      at any desired level, as reflected in higher gutter flow, and adjust the
      water recirculation system to accommodate it without gutter flooding or
      spill back into the pool.
PAR  The necessary gutter capacity to accommodate the increased gutter flow
      during periods of pool activity, whether low or intense, is provided by
      the second gutter, thus ensuring that at no time does water washed into
      the gutter return to the pool without having first passed through the pool
      cleansing and recirculation system via the filter. The response to three
      different levels of activity, low, moderate, and high, is fully automatic
      in all cases.
PAR  As pool activity decreases, and gradually returns to normal, the sensors
      are again actuated in the same order but in reverse sequence, so that the
      water recirculation system responds to the now decreased circulation
      through the gutters.
PAR  Thus, a decrease in the gutter level below level L4, sensed by sensor 75,
      results in a throttling back of recirculation flow throttling valve 46.
      When the level decreases further, to below the level L3, the main drain
      throttling valve 43 is again opened. Further decrease to level L2 leads to
      the actuation via sensor 75 of the piston arrangement to open the flaps 32
      and thus reopen the surge weirs, and this condition is maintained as long
      as the pool is quiescent, at normal pool operating level, i.e., at gutter
      level N. If for some reason, as for example, through heavy use, the amount
      of water decreases, so that level L1 is reached, the sensor 75 opens the
      make-up valve 47, to restore the pool level to normal, and when the pool
      level is normal, the pool sensor 75 shuts off the valve 47, thus ensuring
      adequate skimming flow during periods of quiescence.
PAR  The water flow control system is consequently fully automatic, whether the
      flow to be accommodated is increasing or decreasing, and according to
      whether the activity in the pool is nil (quiescent), light, medium or
      heavy.
PAR  It will of course be appreciated that different degrees of activity
      intermediate these can be accommodated, by provision of additional
      circuitry, and additional positions of either the recirculation flow
      throttling valve, or the gutter overflow and main drain systems.
PAR  A modified system is shown in FIGS. 6 and 7, with the sensor 75 responsive
      to pressure via line d in the balance line 40. In other respects, the
      system is similar to that of FIGS. 3 to 5.
PAR  The sensor 75 senses and responds to pressure in line 40 corresponding to a
      first level L1 of water in the second gutter 2, which is in turn related
      to the predetermined minimum level at which the pool water level is below
      skimming flow level at the lower rim of openings 30, and must be
      replenished. The sensor upon detecting such a low level responds by
      opening the make-up water valve 47, so that water is admitted from the
      feed line 55 into the line 48, and thence to the pool at fillspout 49.
PAR  When the pool is full, since the surge weir flaps 32 are open, in the
      position shown in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5, skimming flow takes place at a
      predetermined level through the weirs, and the gutter water level rises to
      level N. The sensing device 75 senses this higher level, and gives an
      electric signal via gates G1, G2, and G3, condensers C1, C2, and C3 to
      operational amplifier A2, and this turns off make-up water valve 47, and
      cuts off feed of fresh water to the pool.
PAR  The sensor 75 then senses a second and higher pressure in line 40
      corresponding to water level L2 in the second gutter, which is above the
      normal operating level (represented by gutter level N, with the pool
      quiescent, the surge weir passages 31 open, and normal skimming flow
      provided through the surge weir passages via openings 33 into the second
      gutter), and corresponding to the increased surge weir flow under light
      pool activity. When the water level reaches level L2, there is too much
      flow through the weirs, and it is necessary to close the surge weirs, to
      prevent excessive gutter flow. The sensor responds to this condition by
      actuating the cylinder and pushing out the piston, closing the flaps 32,
      and closing off the weirs.
PAR  In this condition, some surge flow cascades over the top 17 of the
      perimeter gutter into gutter 1, but gutter 1 has adequate capacity to
      accommodate such flow.
PAR  A further increase in pool activity will lead to an increased flow of water
      across the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into the first gutter 1. Under
      medium pool activity, the flow fills the gutter 1, whereupon the excess
      spills over into the second gutter 2, through the passages 20. This
      increases the water level in the second gutter to the level L3, and
      increases the burden on the water recirculation system, which requires
      adjustment to accommodate the increased gutter flow.
PAR  Accordingly, the sensor 75, responsive to the higher pressure in balance
      line 40, is in actuating connection with the main drain throttling valve
      43, and closes the main drain valve, thus making it possible for the
      recirculation system 50 to accommodate the increased gutter overflow in
      line 40, the flow through which is now equal to that formerly reaching the
      recirculation system 50 from the combined volumes of the flows in the main
      drain line 44 and gutter overflow line 40.
PAR  Increased pool activity to the maximum activity level further increases the
      amount of water cascading across the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into
      gutter 1, and thence through the overflow openings 20 into the gutter 2,
      with the result that the level in gutter 2 rises to level L4. The sensor
      75 responds to the higher pressure in balance line 40 and opens the
      recirculation flow throttling valve 46 to the next higher open position,
      further increasing the rate (and therefore the total volume amount) of
      recirculation flow through the recirculation system 50, so as to
      accommodate the increased flow through the gutters. This is so designed as
      to accommodate any maximum activity in the pool.
PAR  As pool activity decreases, and gradually returns to normal, the sensor is
      actuated in reverse sequence, so that the water recirculation system
      responds to the now decreased circulation through the gutters.
PAR  Thus, a decrease in the gutter level from L4 is sensed by the sensor 75,
      which thereupon throttles back recirculation flow throttling valve 46 to
      accommodate normal flow. When the gutter level decreases further, to below
      the level L3, the sensor 75 opens the main drain throttling valve 43.
      Further decrease to level L2 leads to the actuation via sensor 75 of the
      piston arrangement to open the flaps 32, and thus reopen the surge weirs,
      and this condition is maintained so long as the pool is quiescent, at
      normal pool operating level, reflected in gutter level N. If for some
      reason, as for example, through evaporation, the amount of water
      decreases, so that level L1 is reached, the sensor 75 opens the make-up
      valve 47, to restore the pool level to normal, whereupon sensor 75 shuts
      off the valve 47, thus ensuring adequate skimming flow during periods of
      quiescence.
PAR  The pool level and skimming gutter control system of FIGS. 3 to 7 is a
      water recirculating system which is controlled automatically by the
      swimming load. The most desirable of the various possible operating modes
      is selected automatically by the control system, dynamically guided by the
      amount of people in the pool, and their activity.
PAR  During quiescence (no persons in the pool) surface cleaning takes place
      through open surge weirs. As swimmers enter the pool causing displacement
      surge and waves, these weirs will automatically and positively close. As
      activity continues to increase, the main drain will close requiring all
      water from the swimming pool to be drawn from the perimeter overflow
      system channels. As the number of swimmers increases and the activity
      level increases, the recirculation (turnover) rate will automatically
      increase, improving the quality of filtration. As the bathers leave the
      pool, the recirculating rate will return to normal, and the main drain and
      surge weirs will open at predetermined levels, as the pool returns to its
      quiescent state. If after reaching quiescence the designed rate of surface
      cleaning is not being maintained, water will automatically be added to the
      swimming pool until this rate is achieved.
PAR  Functionally, the lower of the two gutters, the second gutter, accepts
      water through the surge weirs during quiescence, and continues to accept
      water until it reaches a predetermined level. At this level, the surge
      weirs automatically close, requiring all water to enter the first gutter
      of the perimeter overflow system by passing over the perimeter overflow
      system lip into the upper gutter. Water may flow from the upper first
      gutter directly to the filtration system, or it may pass through surge
      control ports into the lower second gutter. As the pool activity and
      number of swimmers decrease, the upper gutter will drain, the system will
      return to its normal recirculating rate, and the surge weirs will open.
PAR  The system thus responds automatically to user-activated dynamic demand, to
      determine the operating mode, continuously and automatically for the life
      of the swimming pool:
PAR  1. Maintains the water level
PAR  2. Sets the proper surface cleaning (skimming) flow rate
PAR  3. Senses whether the surge weirs should be open or closed
PAR  4. Determines whether the main drain should be partially open or closed.
PAR  5. Increases the recirculating rate as required due to heavy loading.
PAR  In addition to dynamic sensing of the above, this system can be designed to
      provide surge containment capacity and flow rates for up to 3000 gallons
      per minute. It offers completely uniform distribution of clean water to
      the pool; it provides a safety handhold, and it can be supplied with a
      grating, if this be thought to be desirable.
PAR  Due to the increased recirculation rate under heavy loading, the system has
      the further advantage of improving the pool surface conditions for
      competition. The higher gutter flow transfer over the perimeter-rim
      combined with heavier clean water feed has a wave-quelling effect,
      reducing turbulence. If the clean water feed is directed downwardly, there
      is created an upflow in the central portion of the pool, drawn off at the
      perimeter, further reducing wave rebound at the perimeter.
PAR  The large capacity single-gutter pool perimeter gutter shown in FIGS. 8 to
      10 is made in a plurality of modular units, which are fitted together
      on-site and bonded together by welding, soldering or brazing in the number
      required to form the perimeter rim of a swimming pool. A sheet of
      stainless steel or other corrosion-resistant metal or plastic material is
      formed in the configuration shown, with a top coping 10, a gutter back
      wall 11, bent forward towards the pool in a manner to partially cover over
      the gutter 80, and then continuing to form the back wall 12 and bottom
      wall 13 of the gutter 80, the bottom wall 14 and pool perimeter side wall
      15 of a water feed conduit 3, the pool perimeter side wall 16 of the
      gutter 80, and the top wall 17 of the gutter 80, which also serves as the
      top rim of the swimming pool, over which water may flow into the gutter
      80. The stainless steel sheet terminates in a flange 19, which serves as a
      ledge support for one side of the grating 81 over the gutter 80. A second
      flange 21 is attached by welding or brazing to the back wall 12 of the
      gutter 80, to serve as the other ledge support for the grating 81. The
      grating covers over the open top of the gutter, so as to prevent bathers
      from stepping into it, with possibly injurious consequences.
PAR  The top wall 17 of the gutter defines the maximum water level in the pool,
      and serves as a skimming weir, since water above this level automatically
      flows over the top 17, through the grating 81 into the gutter 80. The
      gutter 80 is of a large enough capacity to accommodate all such flow,
      without flooding.
PAR  The pool perimeter walls 16 of the gutter 80 and 15 of the water feed
      conduit 3 meet in a V-notch 22. At the base 23 of the V a second sheet of
      stainless steel is welded, and formed so as to extend inwardly and down to
      define the other sidewalls 24, 25, 26 of the water feed conduit 3, and is
      welded to the bottom 13 of the gutter conduit 80 at 27.
PAR  A plurality of openings 28 are provided in the pool perimeter wall 15 of
      the water feed conduit 3, for feed of recirculating clean water to the
      pool. These openings can, if desired, be provided with nozzles or jets, in
      known manner, directing water flow horizontally or downwardly into the
      pool.
PAR  There is a direct line connection 40 leading from the gutter 80 to the
      recirculation system 50, and there is also a main drain 41 in the bottom
      42 of the swimming pool, leading via the main drain line 44 to the
      recirculation system. There is a main drain throttling valve 43 in the
      main drain line 44, so that this line can be closed off, or partially or
      fully opened, and there is also a gutter valve 45 in the gutter line 40,
      so that this can be closed off. On the downstream side of the filter 51 in
      the water purifying system there is a recirculation flow throttling valve
      46, which controls recirculation flow through the return feed line 52
      leading to the water feed inlet 53 in the conduit 3. The valve 46 also can
      be partially or fully opened, or closed, increasing the recirculating flow
      or decreasing it, as may be required. The pump 54 maintains circulation of
      water through the filter 51 and return feed line 52 to the conduit 3.
PAR  There is also a make-up water valve 47 in fluid flow connection via a line
      48 to the fillspout 49 on the deck of the pool, permitting introduction of
      fresh water from the water supply, such as, for example, the water main
      supply at the pool location.
PAR  The water level sensing system 75, best seen in FIG. 8, is composed of a
      sensor 75 of the invention detecting three different water levels in the
      gutter 80.
PAR  The sensor 75 senses and responds to a first level L1 of water in the
      gutter 80 corresponding to the minimum pool level at which the pool water
      level is below the predetermined skimming flow level above the top 17 of
      the gutter 80, and must be replenished. This sensor upon detecting such a
      low level responds by opening the make-up water valve 47, so that water is
      admitted from the feed line 55 into the line 48, and thence to the top of
      the pool at fillspout 49.
PAR  When the pool is full, since the surge weir flaps 32 are open, in the
      position shown in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5, skimming flow takes place at a
      predetermined level through the weirs, and the gutter water level rises to
      level N. The sensing device 75 senses this higher level, and gives an
      electric signal via gates G1, G2, and G3, condensers C1, C2, and C3 to
      operational amplifier A2, and this turns off make-up water valve 47, and
      cuts off feed of fresh water to the pool.
PAR  An increase in pool activity will lead to an increased flow of water across
      the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into the gutter 80. Under medium pool
      activity, the flow increases the water level in the gutter 80 to above the
      normal operating level N to the level L2, sensed by the sensor 75, and
      increases the burden on the water recirculation system, which requires
      adjustment to accommodate the increased gutter flow.
PAR  Accordingly, the sensor 75 is in actuating connection with the main drain
      throttling valve 43, and closes the main drain valve, thus making it
      possible for the recirculation system 50 to accommodate the increased
      gutter overflow in line 40, the flow through which is now equal to that
      formerly reaching the recirculation system 50 from the combined volumes of
      the flows in the main drain line 44 and gutter overflow line 40.
PAR  Increased pool activity to the maximum activity level further increases the
      amount of water cascading across the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into
      the gutter 80, with the result that the level in the gutter rises still
      higher, to level L3, sensed by the sensor 75. The sensor thereupon opens
      the valves 58, 59, permitting flow in line 57, bypassing the filter 51,
      and opens the recirculation flow throttling valve 46, increasing the rate
      (and therefore the volume amount) of recirculation flow through the
      recirculation system 50, so as to accommodate the increased flow through
      the gutter. This is so designed as to accommodate any maximum gutter flow
      that may be encountered during maximum activity in the pool.
PAR  As pool activity decreases, and gradually returns to normal, the sensors
      are again actuated, in the same order but in reverse sequence, so that the
      water recirculaton system responds to the now decreased circulation
      through the gutters.
PAR  Thus a decrease in the gutter level to below level L3, sensed by sensor 75,
      results in closing valves 58, 59 and thus bypass line 57 and a throttling
      back of recirculation flow throttling valve 46. When the level decreases
      further, to below level L2, sensed by sensor 75, the main drain throttling
      valve 43 is again opened. This condition is maintained so long as the pool
      is quiescent, and at normal pool operating level, reflected in gutter
      level N. If for some reason, as for example, through heavy use, the amount
      of water decreases, so that level L1 is reached, the sensor 75 opens the
      make-up valve 47, to restore the pool level to normal skimming flow level,
      whereupon pool sensor 75 shuts off the valve 47, thus ensuring adequate
      skimming flow during periods of quiescence.
PAR  The wate flow control system is consequently fully automatic, whether the
      flow to be accommodated is increasing or decreasing, and according to
      whether the activity in the pool is nil (quiescent), light, medium or
      heavy.
PAR  It will of course be appreciated that different degrees of activity
      intermediate these can be accommodated, by provision of additional gates,
      condensers, and operational amplifiers, as in FIGS. 3 to 7, and additional
      positions of either the recirculation flow throttling valve, or the gutter
      overflow and main drain systems.
PAR  A further modification of the water flow circulation layout for the pool
      perimeter gutter system shown in FIGS. 3 to 5 is shown in FIGS. 12 and 13.
      In this case, the sensor is arranged to sense water level in a balance
      tank 99 in the gutter overflow line 40. A vacuum filter tank can be
      substituted for the balance tank 99, in the same location, before the
      pump, with the sensors in the filter bed, and the filter 51 omitted.
PAR  There is a direct line connection 40 leading from the second gutter 2 and
      the first gutter 1 into the top of the balance tank 99, and then via
      balance tank line 62 to the recirculation system 50, and there is also a
      main drain 41 in the bottom 42 of the swimming pool leading via main drain
      line 44 to the bottom of tank 99. There is a main drain throttling valve
      43 in the main drain line 44, so that this line can be closed off, or
      partially or fully opened, and there is also a valve 45 in the balance
      tank line 62, so that this can be closed off. On the downstream side of
      filter 51 in the water purifying system there is a recirculation flow
      throttling valve 46, which controls recirculation flow through the return
      feed line 52 leading to the water feed inlet 53 in the conduit 3. The
      valve 46 also can be partially or fully opened, or closed, increasing the
      recirculation flow or decreasing it, as may be required. The pump 54
      maintains circulation of water through the filter 51 and return feed line
      52 to the conduit 3.
PAR  There is also a make-up water valve 47 in fluid flow connection via a line
      48 to the fillspout 49 on the deck of the pool, permitting introduction of
      fresh water from the water supply, such as, for example, the water main
      supply at the pool location.
PAR  The water level sensing system 98 of FIG. 12 senses water levels in the
      balance tank 99.
PAR  The sensor 98 senses and responds to a first level L1 of water in tank 99
      corresponding to the predetermined minimum pool water level at which the
      pool water level is below skimming flow level at the lower rim of openings
      30, and must be replenished. This sensor upon detecting such a low level
      responds by opening the make-up water valve 47, so that water is admitted
      from the feed line 55 into the line 48, and thence to the pool at
      fillspout 49.
PAR  When the pool is full, since the surge weir flaps 32 are open, in the
      position shown in FIGS. 3, 4, and 5, skimming flow takes place at a
      predetermined level through the weirs, and the gutter water level rises to
      level N. The sensing device 75 senses this higher level, and gives an
      electric signal via gates G1, G2, and G3, condensers C1, C2, and C3 to
      operational amplifier A2, and this turns off make-up water valve 47, and
      cuts off feed of fresh water to the pool.
PAR  The sensor 98 then senses a second and higher water level L2 in the tank
      99, corresponding to the increased surge weir flow into the gutter under
      light pool activity. When the water level reaches L2, there is too much
      flow through the weirs, and it is necessary to close the surge weirs, to
      prevent excessive gutter flow. The sensor 98 responds to this condition by
      actuating the cylinder and pushing out the piston, closing the flaps 32,
      and closing off the weirs. In this condition, some surge flow cascades
      over the top of 17 of the perimeter gutter into gutter 1, but gutter 1 has
      adequate capacity to accommodate such flow.
PAR  A further increase in pool activity will lead to an increased flow of water
      across the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into the first gutter 1. Under
      medium pool activity, the flow fills the gutter 1, whereupon the excess
      spills over into the second gutter 2, through the passages 20. This
      increases the water flow in the second gutter, and in the gutter overflow
      return line 40, bringing the water level in the balance tank 99 to the
      level L3, sensed by the sensor 98, and increases the burden on the water
      recirculation system, which requires adjustment to accommodate the
      increased gutter flow.
PAR  Accordingly, the sensor 98 is in actuating connection with the main drain
      throttling valve 43, and closes the main drain valve, thus making it
      possible for the recirculation system 50 to accommodate the increased
      gutter overflow in line 40, the flow through which is now equal to that
      formerly reaching the balance tank 99 and recirculation system 50 from the
      combined volumes of the flows in the main drain line 44 and gutter
      overflow line 40.
PAR  Increased pool activity to the maximum activity level further increases the
      amount of water cascading across the top 17 of the perimeter gutter into
      gutter 1, and thence through the overflow openings 20 into the gutter 2,
      with the result that the level in tank 99 rises to level L4, sensed by the
      sensor 98. The sensor opens the recirculation flow throttling valve 46,
      increasing the rate (and therefore the volume amount) of recirculation
      flow through the recirculation system 50, so as to accommodate the
      increased flow through the gutters. This is so designed as to accommodate
      any maximum flow that may be encountered during maximum activity in the
      pool.
PAR  As pool activity decreases, and gradually returns to normal, the sensors
      are again actuated in the same order but in reverse sequence, so that the
      water recirculation system responds to the now decreased circulation
      through the gutters.
PAR  Thus, a decrease in the water level below level L4, sensed by sensor 98,
      results in a throttling back of recirculation flow throttling valve 46.
      When the level decreases further, to below level L3, the main drain
      throttling valve 43 is again opened. Further decrease to level L2 leads to
      the actuation via sensor 98 of the piston arrangement to open the flaps 32
      and thus reopen the surge weirs, and this condition is maintained as long
      as the pool is quiescent, at normal pool operating level. If for some
      reason, as for example, through evaporation, the amount of water
      decreases, so that level L1 is reached, the sensor 98 opens the make-up
      valve 47, to restore the pool level to normal, whereupon the sensor shuts
      off the valve 47, thus ensuring adequate skimming flow during periods of
      quiescence.
PAR  The pool level and balance tank control system of FIG. 12, like that of
      FIGS. 3 to 7, is a water recirculating system which is controlled
      automatically by the swimming load. The most desirable of the various
      possible operating modes is selected automatically by the control system,
      dynamically guided by the amount of people in the pool, and their
      activity.
PAR  During quiescence (no persons in the pool) surface cleaning takes place
      through open surge weirs. As swimmers enter the pool causing displacement
      surge and waves, these weirs will automatically and positively close. As
      activity continues to increase, the main drain will close requiring all
      water from the swimming pool to be drawn from the perimeter overflow
      system channels. As the number of swimmers increases and the activity
      level increases, the recirculation (turnover) rate will automatically
      increase, improving the quality of filtration. As the bathers leave the
      pool, the recirculating rate will return to normal, and the main drain and
      surge weirs will open at predetermined levels, as the pool returns to its
      quiescent state. If after reaching quiescence the designed rate of surface
      cleaning is not being maintained, water will automatically be added to the
      swimming pool until this rate is achieved.
PAR  Functionally, the lower of the two gutters, the second gutter, accepts
      water through the surge weirs during quiescence, and continues to accept
      water until it reaches a predetermined level. At this level, the surge
      weirs automatically close, requiring all water to enter the first gutter
      of the perimeter overflow system by passing over the perimeter overflow
      system lip into the upper gutter. Water may flow from the upper first
      gutter directly to the filtration system, or it may pass through surge
      control ports into the lower second gutter. As the pool activity and
      number of swimmers decrease, the upper gutter will drain, the system will
      return to its normal recirculating rate, and the surge weirs will open.
PAR  The system thus responds automatically to user-activated dynamic demand, to
      determine the operating mode, continuously and automatically for the life
      of the swimming pool.
PAR  The water flow control system is consequently fully automatic, whether the
      flow to be accommodated is increasing or decreasing, and according to
      whether the activity in the pool is nil (quiescent), light, medium or
      heavy.
PAR  The perimeter gutters and weirs shown in FIGS. 3 to 13 are made of
      stainless steel, but it will, of course, be understood that other metals
      can be used, such as galvanized iron and steel, and aluminum, as well as
      anodized aluminum. Whatever the metallic material, its surface should be
      treated so as to render its corrosion-resistant, as by plating,
      galvanizing, anodizing, porcelain-enamel coating, or painting. It is also
      possible to form the perimeter gutter and/or the weir of plastic material,
      either in whole or in part. There are plastics now available which are
      sufficiently strong to withstand the wear and tear of a perimeter gutter
      system, including, for example, acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene resin,
      polycarbonate resin, polytetrafluoroethylene, polyvinyl chloride,
      polyvinylidene chloride, polyesters, polypropylene, polyamides, and
      synthetic rubbers such as polyisoprene, polybutadiene, butadiene-styrene
      copolymers, and butadiene-isoprene copolymers.
PAR  The preferred construction is from a sheet or several sheets of metallic or
      plastic material, which are formed into the desired configuration, as is
      seen in the cross-sectional drawings. It is usually preferred that the
      coping portion at the top rear of the perimeter gutter extend at least
      partially, and preferably wholly, across an open gutter trough, so as to
      prevent people from stepping or falling into the gutter. Such can also be
      prevented by covering the gutter with a grating or grid of metal or
      plastic, the same or different material from the gutter.
PAR  The use of modular units such as are shown in FIGS. 3 to 13 is preferred,
      because this permits mass production of the gutter and weir system at a
      point remote from the swimming pool, with easy and inexpensive
      transportation from that point to swimming pool construction sites
      anywhere in the world. The modular units can then be assembled on-site to
      form any type or configuration of swimming pool, and any desired weir
      arrangement. The modular units can be made in straight sections for
      rectangular or other straight-sided pool shapes, while curved sections can
      be made for pear-shaped, elliptical, circular, or other curved-side pool
      configurations.
PAR  The modular units can be fitted together by welding, soldering or brazing,
      in the case of metal units; by bonding, using various types of adhesives,
      in the case of metal or plastic units; or by heat-sealing, ultrasonic
      welding, or heat-bonding, in the case of thermoplastic plastic units.
      Plastic units which are not fully heat-cured can be bonded and then cured
      in situ to form a permanent bond on site, in the course of construction of
      the pool.
PAR  The perimeter gutter and weir system of the invention can be used
      completely around the perimeter of a pool, or only partially around the
      pool perimeter, as desired. The most uniform skimming action and gutter
      action is, of course, obtained when the entire perimeter of the pool is
      provided with such a gutter and weir.
PAR  While construction of the gutter and weir in the form of modular units has
      been described, it will also be appreciated from FIGS. 3 to 13 that the
      gutter and weir system can be formed on-site in the configurations shown
      using concrete or plastic material, and can form an integral part of the
      pool wall, by casting or pouring into suitable frames, so that the
      material can harden and set in the desired pool and skimmer outlet shape.
      The construction of the gutter system is sufficiently simple so that this
      type of technique can be employed with good results. Since this requires
      more hand-work, however, and is therefore a more costly method of
      construction, it would not usually be preferred, particularly in the case
      of large pools, where construction costs may be too high to permit the
      luxury of a hand-made gutter system on the pool site.
PAR  The gutter and weir system can also be made from bricks or tiles, which are
      built up in the desired configuration. These can be the usual types of
      materials, preferably with a ceramic facing, so that it is leak-proof,
      with the tiles being bonded together with water-resistance adhesive or
      cement.
PAR  The swimming pool can be equipped with any type of water filtration and
      cleaning recirculation system. The gutters usually feed water therein to
      such systems by gravity. However, recirculation pumps can be provided, and
      the gutters can also be provided with jet water inlets to direct a driving
      flow of water along the gutter, to flush out the gutters, and to drive
      water along the gutter towards the water recirculation system. Such jet
      water inlets are described in U.S. Pat. No. 2,932,397 to Ogden, dated Apr.
      12, 1960.
PAR  Other variations and modifications of the invention will be apparent to
      those skilled in the art.
CLMS
STM  Having regard to the foregoing disclosure, the following is claimed as the
      inventive and patentable embodiments thereof:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A liquid level sensing and control device comprising, in combination, a
      U-tube having substantially vertical legs connected by another member
      putting the legs in fluid flow intercommunication at their lower ends; a
      variable capacitor in one leg of the U-tube, comprising two spaced
      electrodes; a first mobile body in said one leg of a first dielectric
      liquid capable of rising and falling within the space between the
      electrodes and to a level at which it partially or fully fills the space;
      a second mobile body in said one leg of a second liquid having a higher
      density than and immiscible with the dielectric liquid and having an upper
      surface on which rests the first body of dielectric liquid; a third mobile
      body in the second leg of a third liquid immiscible with the second liquid
      and disposed in operative relationship with the second body of liquid; and
      a fluid line connection putting said third body of liquid into contact
      with a fourth body of the same or different liquid whose liquid level is
      to be sensed, the third body moving in the U-tube to a changed position in
      response to change in hydrostatic fluid pressure communicated from the
      fourth body to said third body as a function of fluid level of the fourth
      body so that the relative level of said first body of first liquid in the
      space between the electrodes in the variable capacitor is related to
      liquid level in said fourth body, communicated as fluid pressure via the
      fluid pressure communication to said third body, the third body thereby
      moving the second body of liquid and the second body of liquid moving the
      first body of liquid in the U-tube to a level related to liquid level in
      said fourth body, and corresponding to a capacitance of the variable
      capacitor; and means sensing at least one selected capacitance of the
      variable capacitor and initiating a control reaction responsive thereto.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A liquid level sensing device according to claim 1, in which one
      electrode is of aluminum, and the other is of copper.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A liquid level sensing device according to claim 2, in which the copper
      electrode is a wall of the one leg of the U-tube, and the aluminum
      electrode is disposed in the leg spaced from the copper wall thereof.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A liquid level sensing device according to claim 1, in which the first
      dielectric liquid is mineral oil, and the second liquid is mercury.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A liquid level sensing device according to claim 1, in which the third
      and fourth bodies are of the same liquid.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A liquid level sensing device according to claim 5, in which the same
      liquid is water.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. A liquid level sensing device according to claim 1, in which the
      electrodes are in electric connection with a control circuit detecting in
      terms of capacitance of the capacitor a plurality of levels of dielectric
      liquid in the space between the electrodes of the variable capacitor, each
      level modifying the capacitance of the capacitor by a measurable amount.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. A liquid level sensing device according to claim 7, comprising
      electrical circuitry responsive to such capacitance changes for control of
      a sequence of operations in a water circulation system for each new level
      sensed in the body of liquid.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter control
      system for swimming pools comprising a gutter receiving overflow,
      including surge flow and/or skimming flow, across the top of the perimeter
      gutter and adequate for normal and surge flow conditions, in combination
      with a level-sensing device as defined in claim 1, operating from fluid
      pressure corresponding to the level of water in the pool overflow.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 9, comprising a
      second gutter receiving skimming flow and also providing additional gutter
      capacity for extraordinary overflow, including relief flow from the first
      gutter in the event of considerable activity in the pool.
NUM  11.
PAR  11. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 9, in which the
      liquid level sensing device operates from fluid pressure corresponding to
      the level of water in the gutter conduit to control the skimming flow and
      water recirculation between the pool and the gutter, and feed from a water
      make-up supply.
NUM  12.
PAR  12. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 9, in which the
      liquid level sensing device operates from a balance tank, to control the
      skimming flow and water recirculation between the pool and the gutter, and
      feed from a water make-up supply.
NUM  13.
PAR  13. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 9, in which the
      liquid level sensing device operates from a balance line, to control the
      skimming flow and water recirculation between the pool and the gutter, and
      feed from a water make-up supply.
NUM  14.
PAR  14. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 9, in which the
      liquid level sensing device operates from a vacuum filter tank to control
      the skimming flow and water recirculation between the pool and the gutter,
      and feed from a water make-up supply.
NUM  15.
PAR  15. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 9, in which the
      device senses a selected capacitance corresponding to a first level of
      water in the overflow corresponding to below-normal skimming flow, and
      when this is below a predetermined level, gives an electric signal that
      opens a make-up valve controlling feed of fresh water from a supply or the
      water main; and when the pool level reaches a second higher overflow
      level, at which skimming flow via surge weirs or a skimming gutter
      proceeds, and overflows into the gutter, the device senses a selected
      capacitance corresponding to that level and gives a signal that closes the
      make-up water valve.
NUM  16.
PAR  16. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 15, in which the
      device senses a third selected capacitance corresponding to a third
      overflow water level and gives an electric signal to increase the
      recirculation system capacity for gutter flow by closing off the main
      drain valve, causing all recirculation water between the pool and the pool
      recirculation system to flow into the system from the gutter.
NUM  17.
PAR  17. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 16, in which the
      device senses a fourth selected capacitance corresponding to a fourth
      overflow water level and gives an electric signal that opens a
      recirculating flow throttling control valve on the return line of the
      recirculation system.
NUM  18.
PAR  18. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 15, in which the
      device senses a third selected capacitance corresponding to a third
      overflow water level and gives an electric signal that opens a
      recirculating flow throttling control valve on the return line of the
      recirculation system.
NUM  19.
PAR  19. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 15, in which the
      gutter system includes at least one surge weir, and the device senses a
      third selected capacitance corresponding to a third higher overflow water
      level, and corresponding to a low activity pool condition, in which the
      overflow level is above the normal skimming flow sensed in the pool by the
      device, and gives an electric signal that actuates a mechanism closing off
      the surge weirs, arresting skimming flow through the weirs, and retaining
      the water in the pool, but allowing skimming flow and/or surges to proceed
      across the top of the perimeter gutter, into the gutter.
NUM  20.
PAR  20. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 19, in which the
      device senses a fourth selected capacitance corresponding to a fourth
      overflow water level and gives an electric signal to increase the
      recirculation system capacity for gutter flow by closing off the main
      drain valve, causing all recirculation water between the pool and the pool
      recirculation systems to flow into the system from the gutter.
NUM  21.
PAR  21. A fully automated water level and skimming flow perimeter gutter
      control system for swimming pools according to claim 19, in which the
      device senses a fourth selected capacitance corresponding to a fourth
      overflow water level and gives an electric signal that opens a
      recirculating flow throttling control valve on the return line of the
      recirculation system.
NUM  22.
PAR  22. An automated pool perimeter skimming gutter water level control system
      comprising, in combination, a gutter conduit for disposition about the
      perimeter of a swimming pool, and adapted to carry water at a level below
      a predetermined level of water in the swimming pool; a retaining wall on
      the pool side of the gutter conduit, over the top of which wall water may
      flow from the pool into the gutter conduit, the top of the wall being
      placed at a height to maintain a predetermined water level in the pool, to
      provide a skimming flow of water over the top of such predetermined water
      level in the pool, and to allow excessive flows, wave actions and surges
      to flow over the top of the wall into the gutter conduit; a water cleaning
      and recirculating system for collecting water from the pool and water
      flowing into and along the gutter conduit, cleaning it, and returning it
      to the pool; and a water level sensing device of claim 1, sensing, in
      sequence, a first selected capacitance corresponding to a first water
      level in the overflow downstream of the pool corresponding to a less than
      the predetermined water level in the pool, and responding by giving an
      electric signal to feed water to the pool, a second selected capacitance
      corresponding to a second water level in the overflow downstream of the
      pool characteristic of normal quiescent pool skimming flow and responding
      by giving an electric signal to stop water feed initiated at the first
      overflow level; and a third selected capacitance corresponding to a third
      higher water level in the overflow downstream of the pool characteristic
      of a high degree of water flow wave action and surges into the gutter
      conduit, and responding by giving an electric signal to increase water
      recirculation system capacity for overflow and thereby recirculate such
      increased overflow and prevent wash-back from a gutter conduit to the
      pool.
NUM  23.
PAR  23. An automated pool perimeter skimming gutter water level control system
      comprising, in combination, a gutter conduit for disposition about the
      perimeter of a swimming pool, and adapted to carry water at a level below
      a predetermined level of water in the swimming pool; a retaining wall on
      the pool side of the gutter conduit, over the top of which wall water may
      flow from the pool into the gutter conduit; at least one surge weir
      disposed through the retaining wall below the top thereof, at a height to
      maintain a predetermined water level in the pool, and to provide a
      skimming flow of water through the weir at such predetermined water level
      in the pool, the top of the wall being spaced above the weir at a height
      to retain the pool water within the pool perimeter when the weir is closed
      at water flow, wave actions and surges up to a predetermined minimum,
      while allowing excessive flows, wave actions and surges to flow over the
      top of the wall into the gutter conduit; a water cleaning and
      recirculating system for collecting water from the pool and water flowing
      into and along the gutter conduit, cleaning it, and returning it to the
      pool; and a water level sensing device of claim 1 sensing, in sequence, a
      first selected capacitance corresponding to a first water level in the
      gutter corresponding to a less than the predetermined water level in the
      pool, and responding by giving an electric signal to feed water to the
      pool; a second selected capacitance corresponding to a second water level
      in the gutter characteristic of normal quiescent pool skimming flow and
      responding by giving an electric signal to stop water feed initiated at
      the first gutter level; and a third selected capacitance corresponding to
      a third gutter higher level in the gutter characteristic of a high degree
      of water flow wave action and surges into the gutter conduit, and
      responding by giving an electric signal to increase water recirculation
      system capacity to recirculate such increased gutter flow and prevent
      wash-back from a gutter conduit to the pool.
NUM  24.
PAR  24. An automated pool perimeter skimming gutter water level control system
      according to claim 23, in which the water level sensing device senses a
      first selected capacitance corresponding to a first water level
      corresponding to a less than the predetermined water level in the pool,
      and responds to feed water to the pool; senses a second selected
      capacitance corresponding to a second higher water level in the gutter
      characteristic of normal quiescent pool skimming flow, and responds to
      stop water feed initiated by the first overflow sensor; senses a third
      selected capacitance corresponding to a third higher water level in the
      gutter characteristic of a low threshhold of pool activity but excessive
      weir skimming flow, and responds to close at least one weir; and senses a
      fourth selected capacitance corresponding to a fourth higher level in the
      gutter characteristic of a high degree of water flow, wave action and
      surges into the gutter conduit, and responds to increase water
      recirculation system capacity to recirculate such increased overflow and
      prevent wash-back from a gutter conduit to the pool.
NUM  25.
PAR  25. A twin-gutter automated pool perimeter skimming gutter water level
      control system comprising, in combination, a first gutter conduit for
      disposition about the perimeter of a swimming pool, and adapted to carry
      water at a level below a predetermined level of water in the swimming
      pool; a second gutter conduit for disposition about the perimeter of a
      swimming pool, and adapted to carry water at a level below a predetermined
      level of water in the swimming pool; a retaining wall on the pool side of
      the gutter conduit, over the top of which wall water may flow from the
      pool into a gutter conduit; the top of the wall being placed at a height
      to maintain a predetermined water level in the pool, to provide a skimming
      flow of water at such predetermined water level in the pool, and to allow
      excessive flows, wave actions, and surges to flow over the top of the wall
      into a gutter conduit; a water cleaning and recirculating system for
      collecting water from the pool and water flowing into and along the first
      and second gutter conduits, cleaning it, and returning it to the pool; and
      a water level device of claim 1 sensing a first selected capacitance
      corresponding to a first water level in the overflow downstream of the
      pool corresponding to a less than the predetermined water level in the
      pool, and responding by giving an electric signal to feed water to the
      pool; a second selected capacitance corresponding to a second water level
      in the overflow downstream of the pool characteristic of normal quiescent
      pool skimming flow and responding by giving an electric signal to stop
      water feed; and a third selected capacitance corresponding to a third
      higher level in the overflow downstream of the pool characteristic of a
      high degree of water flow, wave action and surges into the gutter conduit,
      and responding by increasing water recirculation system capacity to
      recirculate such increased overflow and prevent wash-back from a gutter
      conduit to the pool.
NUM  26.
PAR  26. An automated pool perimeter skimming gutter water level control system
      comprising, in combination, a first gutter conduit for disposition about
      the perimeter of a swimming pool, and adapted to carry water at a level
      below a predetermined level of water in the swimming pool; a retaining
      wall on the pool side of the gutter conduit over the top of which wall
      water may flow from the pool into the gutter conduit; a second gutter
      conduit for disposition about the perimeter of a swimming pool, and
      adapted to carry water at a level below a predetermined level of water in
      the swimming pool; at least one surge wier disposed through the retaining
      wall below the top thereof, at a height to maintain a predetermined water
      level in the pool, and to provide a skimming flow of water through the
      weir at such predetermined water level in th pool, the top of the wall
      being spaced above the weir at a height to retain the pool water within
      the pool perimeter when the weir is closed at water flows, wave actions
      and surges up to a predetermined minimum, while allowing excessive flows,
      wave actions and surges beyond such minimum to flow over the top of the
      wall into the first gutter conduit; a water cleaning and recirculating
      system for collecting water from the pool and water flowing into and along
      the first and second gutter conduits, cleaning it, and returning it to the
      pool; and a water level sensing device of claim 1 sensing a first selected
      capacitance corresponding to a first water level in the overflow
      downstream of the pool corresponding to a less than the predetermined
      water level in the pool, and responding by giving an electric signal to
      feed water to the pool; a second selected capacitance corresponding to a
      second water level in the overflow downstream of the pool corresponding to
      a second higher water level characteristic of normal quiescent pool
      skimming flow and responding by giving an electric signal to stop water
      feed; a third selected capacitance corresponding to a third higher level
      in the overflow downstream of the pool characteristic of a low threshold
      of pool activity but excessive weir skimming flow, and responding by
      giving an electric signal to close at least one weir; and a fourth
      selected capacitance corresponding to a fourth higher level in the
      overflow downstream of the pool characteristics of a high degree of water
      flow, wave action and surges into the first gutter conduit, and responding
      by giving an electric signal to increase water recirculation system
      capacity to recirculate such increased overflow and prevent wash-back from
      a gutter conduit to the pool.
PATN
WKU  041158784
SRC  5
APN  7770340
APT  1
ART  243
APD  19770314
TTL  Spa safety drain
ISD  19780926
NCL  10
ECL  1
EXP  Levy; Stuart S.
NDR  2
NFG  4
INVT
NAM  Johnson; Lawrence E.
CTY  Dana Point
STA  CA
INVT
NAM  Conger, IV; William W.
CTY  Santa Ana
STA  CA
INVT
NAM  Moreland; Gerald W.
CTY  Garden Grove
STA  CA
ASSG
NAM  South Pacific Industries
CTY  Santa Ana
STA  CA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL    417217
XCL    4180
XCL    4292
XCL  128 66
XCL  210416R
EDF  2
ICL  E04H  319
ICL  A61H  900
ICL  A61H 3302
FSC    4
FSS  172;172.15-17;173 R;180;191;195;286;288-292;190
FSC  210
FSS  163-165;169;220;416 R
FSC  137
FSS  251;563
FSC  128
FSS  66;369
FSC  D23
FSS  55
UREF
PNO  1999277
ISD  19350400
NAM  Boosey
OCL  210163
UREF
PNO  2689017
ISD  19540900
NAM  Schmid
OCL  210164
UREF
PNO  3288134
ISD  19661100
NAM  Reich
OCL  128 66
UREF
PNO  3345982
ISD  19671000
NAM  Guiler
XCL    4180
UREF
PNO  3571818
ISD  19710300
NAM  Jacuzze
UCL  128 66
UREF
PNO  3940807
ISD  19760300
NAM  Baker et al.
XCL  210169
UREF
PNO  3943580
ISD  19760300
NAM  Carter
XCL  210169
FREF
PNO  7,776
ISD  18940400
CNT  GBX
OCL    4286
LREP
FRM  Gausewitz, Carr & Rothenberg
ABST
PAL  A safety drain for a spa having a recirculating water pump is arranged to
      prevent entrapment, against the drain, of an object or person that may
      inadvertently block flow of water through the drain. The drain body,
      having a first fitting connected to the suction line of the pump, is
      provided with a second fitting connected to a vent conduit that has an end
      open to atmosphere at a point above water level. A by-pass conduit
      interconnecting the pump suction line and the vent conduit avoids
      disablement of the safety function of the vent conduit if the latter
      should become blocked within the drain.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The present invention relates to spas or therapy pools and more
      particularly concerns an improved drain arrangement which will avoid
      entrapment of an object or person that may inadvertently block the drain.
PAR  The common spa or therapy pool designed for home use is much like a
      conventional swimming pool in that it includes a water containing shell,
      drain and inlet connections, and a recirculating water pump forcing water
      into the pool through the inlet connection and extracting water from the
      pool through the drain connection. One of the significant differences
      between the conventional swimming pool and the spa or therapy pool is the
      size of the water container. Whether such a spa is designed and built as
      an adjunct of the conventional swimming pool, to be operated together with
      the pool, or is designed and built to be operated as a totally independent
      unit, it is generally of a considerably smaller size and depth. Therefore,
      the person using the spa is normally positioned much closer to the spa
      drain than such person would be when using the conventional swimming pool.
      In the latter case the drain, which is generally located at the bottom of
      the deepest section of the pool, may be from 6 to 10 feet below the water
      surface. In the case of the spa, the drain, also positioned in the bottom
      at a lower point (which is often in the center of the spa tub or shell),
      may be only a few feet from the surface. Thus, in the use of the spa there
      is a considerably greater likelihood that the user will come into contact
      with the drain.
PAR  Such contact with the drain can be dangerous, painful or even fatal. A
      typical drain is 5 to 8 inches in diameter and thus it is possible that
      the body of a person, when positioned in close proximity to the drain, may
      be drawn down upon the surface of the drain cover to thus completely block
      the drain openings. If the drain is blocked, the person may be entrapped
      and drowned.
PAR  A commonly used recirculating spa pump of 11/2 to 2 horsepower can draw a
      vacuum as high as 22 to 26 inches of mercury. A vacuum of this magnitude,
      drawn upon a drain opening, even where such opening is as small as 5
      inches, may exert sufficient suction forces to prevent a young person, or
      even some adults, from pulling free of the forces exerted by a drain that
      is completely blocked by the body or clothing of such person. If the
      person is able to pull free of the sucking drain, bruises or welts may
      result. In at least one case, a child has been drowned in a spa when his
      abodmen inadvertently covered and blocked the drain, whereby he was
      entrapped at the bottom of the spa and unable to break free.
PAR  Where a spa or therapy pool is provided with a skimmer having an intake
      just below the water surface and a connection to the pump suction line,
      such a skimmer when operating properly will operate to relieve dangerous
      suction at a blocked main drain. However, such skimmers are generally
      provided with valves to adjust relative flow of water through the skimmer
      and through the main drain, which valves are easily and often closed to
      completely stop the skimmer action. Further, the skimmer by its very
      nature incorporates a strainer or basket having relatively small openings
      and such basket is frequently plugged when overloaded with debris or
      floating objects such as balls or plastic toys and the like. Even where a
      skimmer is provided, its intake is below the water surface and thus it
      withdraws water from the pool at all times so that the skimmer valve is
      often closed to disable the skimmer when the spa is in use. Further,
      should the main water level drop below the level of the skimmer input,
      recirculation is disabled because the pump will suck air through the
      skimmer. Therefore, the skimmer is not and cannot be a true safety device
      and, in fact, has not been accepted or approved as such by government
      officials having regulatory authority over safety of spas and swimming
      pools.
PAR  Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide a reliable
      safety device for spa drains that eliminates or minimizes the
      above-mentioned problems.
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  In carrying out principles of the present invention in accordance with a
      preferred embodiment thereof, a spa having a drain that is connected to
      the suction line of a recirculating water pump is provided with a vent
      conduit that is connected to the drain and which has an intake open to the
      atmosphere and positioned above the water level. Preferably the vent
      conduit and the water pump suction line are connected to the drain at
      mutually spaced points thereof and a by-pass conduit is connected to and
      between the pump suction line and the vent conduit so that if the vent
      conduit is blocked within the drain, it will still have an operating
      connection, via the by-pass conduit, to the pump suction line to avoid
      entrapment of an object or person. In conjunction with the vent conduit an
      improved anti-entrapment and strengthened drain cover is provided to
      extend over an area considerably greater than the drain opening and having
      a downwardly projecting peripheral flange providing a pattern of input
      passages to the drain. This pattern is spread over a large area so that
      all of such passages are less likely to be blocked at one time. Further,
      the drain cover or grate is provided with a downwardly projecting pedestal
      that allows a small amount of grate deflection but which provides
      additional support to limit deflection and prevent concomitant breakage.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  FIG. 1 is a schematic view of a spa or therapy pool system embodying the
      safety drain of the present invention showing the by-pass line at
      90.degree. to its preferred position;
PAR  FIG. 2 is an enlarged side view of the drain of FIG. 1;
PAR  FIG. 3 is a plan view of the drain showing the several conduits and water
      lines connected thereto, and showing the by-pass line in its preferred
      position; and
PAR  FIG. 4 is a view of the drain of FIG. 1 having a modified drain cover.
DETD
PAC  DETAILED DESCRIPTION
PAR  As shown in FIG. 1, a typical therapy pool or spa includes a water-tight
      tub or shell 10 of approximately 3 to 10 feet or more in diameter and of 3
      to 4 or 5 feet in depth, although sizes and horizontal and vertical
      configurations are widely variable according to individual desires and
      preferences. The spa has a plurality of aerator inlet nozzles such as
      nozzle 12 (only one nozzle is shown) which are spaced about the periphery
      of the spa shell and connected to an aerator fitting 14. Aerator fitting
      14, which is a known arrangement for mixing air and water, is
      conventionally connected to an air blower 16 by means of an air pressure
      conduit 18 and is also connected to a recirculating water pump 20 by means
      of a water pressure line 22.
PAR  At a lowermost point of the spa shell, there is formed a drain opening 24
      in which is inserted a drain generally indicated at 26. The drain may be
      of many different sizes and configurations but, in the preferred
      embodiment illustrated in FIG. 2, comprises a generally cylindrical body
      having sidewalls 28, a bottom 30, and an open top. The drain body is
      mounted to the spa in any one of a number of conventional arrangements. As
      shown in FIG. 2, the drain body is positioned below the bottom 11 of the
      spa with a gasket 34 interposed between the drain and the spa bottom. A
      clamp ring 36 is positioned above the spa bottom 11, having an opening in
      registry with the drain and spa bottom openings, and secured to the spa
      bottom and drain by means of a plurality of screws, such as indicated at
      38.
PAR  The open top of the drain is protected by a perforated grate 40 having a
      lid 42 covering the opening and extending beyond the drain opening. The
      lid includes a top section seated upon an upwardly and inwardly facing
      shoulder 44 of the clamp ring. The grate is fixed to the clamp ring and to
      the drain body by means of a plurality of screws 46 that extend through
      the lid and clamp ring for threaded engagement in the drain body. To
      further strengthen the grate and prevent breakage, a pedestal 50 in the
      form of a short cylindrical body is fixed to the underside of the grate
      lid 40 and depends therefrom to a point close to but spaced above the
      drain bottom 30. Thus, should a heavy downward force be placed upon the
      grate, it would deflect downwardly together with pedestal 50 until the
      bottom of the latter contacted the drain bottom, at which time further
      support for the mid-portion of the grate lid would be provided to thus
      considerably strengthen the lid while retaining a degree of flexibility.
PAR  Extending horizontally from the sidewall of the drain sidewalls is a
      suction fitting 52 which is connected to a suction line 54 which in turn
      is connected to the intake of pump 20. Thus the pump will recirculate
      water of the spa, drawing water from the drain via fitting 52 and suction
      line 54 and forcing water back into the spa via pressure line 22, aerator
      fitting 14 and inlet nozzle 12.
PAR  With the drain components described up to this point, and assuming for the
      purposes of this discussion that the venting arrangement to be described
      below is not included, this spa presents a major hazard to a user who may
      inadvertently contact the drain grate 40 and, by means of loose and
      relatively impervious clothing, or by means of contact of the person's
      body, block all or substantially all of the openings in the drain grate.
      Should such openings be blocked, the pump continues to run but will
      rapidly extract all water from the drain and draw a vacuum within the
      drain body of as high as 22 to 26 inches of mercury. As previously
      mentioned, even with a drain diameter no greater than 5 inches, a vacuum
      of this magnitude may exert a force upon a person that is beyond the
      strength of such person to overcome. Such person could, therefore, become
      entrapped against the drain and might drown.
PAR  The present invention provides a simple, reliable and trouble free
      arrangement that will help to avoid the creation of such a vacuum in the
      drain. No springs, valves, electrical components or moving parts of any
      type are employed.
PAR  In order to insure that such a large magnitude vacuum will not be produced
      within the drain, the drain body is provided with a second fitting 58 that
      is connected to a vent conduit 60 having an end 62 that is positioned
      above the level of the water in the spa and preferably above the uppermost
      portion of the spa itself. Inlet end 62 of the vent conduit 60 is provided
      with a perforate end cap 64 to avoid entrance of objects that could block
      the vent conduit. Further, the inlet end 62 is preferably positioned in a
      location remote from the tub that is not easily or normally accessible or
      otherwise subject to inadvertent blockage.
PAR  With the described vent conduit, complete blockage of the drain by covering
      all of the apertures in grate 40, will not result in a vacuum of great
      magnitude within the drain since the interior of the drain is connected
      with the atmosphere via conduit 60. Thus the pressure within the drain can
      drop below atmospheric pressure only by the relatively small amount of
      pressure drop between the end 62 of the vent conduit and the fitting 58.
PAR  It is possible, nevertheless, under certain circumstances, that the end of
      vent conduit 60 connected to fitting 58 may be blocked within the drain
      itself. Breakage of the lid of the drain grate could result in an object
      entering the interior of the grate and contacting the opening of fitting
      58, within the drain, thereby blocking communication between the vent
      conduit and the drain. In such a situation, without the by-pass to be
      described below, the drain still could be blocked and exert an entrapping
      and possibly fatal force. To eliminate this possible disabling of the
      safety operation of the vent conduit 60, there is provided a by-pass
      conduit 68 having one end connected to the pump suction line 54 by means
      of a T-fitting 70 that is connected in the suction line. The other end of
      the by-pass conduit is connected to the vent conduit 60 by means of a
      T-fitting 72 connected in the suction line. Both of the T-fittings 70 and
      72 are preferably connected close to the drain to minimize required
      conduit lengths. The by-pass conduit is shown below the drain in FIG. 1
      (and shifted 90.degree. from its preferred position) only for clarity of
      the drawing. It is preferred to position this conduit at the level of the
      suction line 54 and the lower part of vent conduit 60. The latter
      arrangement is shown in FIG. 3.
PAR  With use of the by-pass conduit 68, even blockage of the drain connection
      to conduit 60, that is, blockage of fitting 58 within the drain, will not
      disable the entrapment preventing operation of conduit 60. If fitting 58
      is blocked, the higher atmospheric pressure at conduit end 62 may still be
      communicated to the interior of the drain via vent conduit 60, T-fitting
      72, by-pass conduit 68, T-fitting 70, and the line between fittings 52 and
      70.
PAR  Preferably fitting 58 is smaller than the fitting 52, thereby to decrease
      the flow of water from the drain via fitting 58 and by-pass conduit 68.
      Further, it is important that the fittings 58 and 52 be spaced from each
      other by a significant distance. In the described arrangement, the
      fittings are radially directed outwardly and positioned at diametrally
      opposed points on the periphery of the drain. This provides a relatively
      large cross-section of flow path between fittings 58 and 52 in the event
      of blockage of the drain or grate and thus allows a rapid decrease in any
      vacuum that might be drawn within the drain under such conditions. This
      large cross-sectional area path also minimizes the possibility of blockage
      of the flow path within the drain between fittings 58 and 52, thus further
      enhancing the reliability of this safety system even though the by-pass 68
      provides a redundant or parallel path between fittings 58 and 52. Fitting
      58 alternatively may be connected to the drain bottom.
PAR  It is found that mere connection of a vent conduit to the suction line of
      the pump will disable the recirculation system since, as in a conventional
      skimmer having its intake above the main water level, the pump will
      rapidly extract all water from the vent conduit and thereupon start
      drawing air instead of water. Surprisingly and unexpectedly, the vent
      conduit, when connected as shown and described in this application, does
      not disable the pump, whether or not the by-pass line 68 is employed.
PAR  It is postulated that connection of a vent line directly to the pump
      suction line establishes a venturi effect at such connection which then
      supplies air to the pump intake to disable recirculation.
PAR  In the illustrated vent connection, on the other hand, several factors may
      possibly contribute to the unexpected and surprising result of retention
      of water in the vent conduit during normal recirculation of water via the
      drain. These factors may diminish a venturi effect by decreasing flow of
      velocity of water past the lowermost end of the vent conduit. The area of
      the drain is relatively large and therefore flow velocity through the
      drain is relatively small. The vent conduit has a separate connection to
      the drain and is not merely connected to the suction line. Fitting 58 is
      smaller than fitting 52. Further, to the extent that water flows from the
      drain via "T" 72 and the by-pass conduit, there is a lesser flow and more
      resistance to flow of water from the vent conduit to the pump suction
      line.
PAR  Illustrated in FIG. 4 is a modified version of the grate or drain cover 40
      shown in detail in FIG. 2. As shown in FIG. 4, grate 80 includes an
      apertured lid or plate 82 of a horizontal configuration similar to that of
      the drain, which in this case is circular. However, the lid covers a
      greater area, having a diameter considerably greater than the diameter of
      the drain. Inwardly of the edges of plate 82 is a downwardly projecting
      annular grate support 84 that is adapted to rest upon the shoulder 44 of
      rim 36 to support and secure the grate to the rim and, further, to space
      the lid 82 above the open top of the drain. Screws extending through the
      lid 82 and screws extending through the rim into the drain fixedly secure
      the grate to the drain and to the spa bottom.
PAR  The grate has a peripheral downwardly projecting flange 86 formed
      integrally therewith. The flange has a lower edge in contact with or
      spaced just above the bottom of the spa at points positioned considerably
      outwardly of the drain itself. Flange 86 is formed with a number of
      passages to permit flow of water radially of the grate through the flange
      along the bottom of the spa and below the lid 82 and thence into the
      drain. Although these passages may be provided as a number of peripherally
      spaced apertures extending through the flange, it is convenient to form
      the bottom edge of the flange in an irregular form, such as with a
      plurality of recesses or slots 88, or as a scalloped edge, to thereby
      define a plurality of radially directed water flow passages between the
      flange and the spa bottom. These peripheral passages are in addition to
      the apertures formed in the horizontally extending central portion of the
      lid, which apertures are similar to those illustrated in FIG. 3.
PAR  Integrally formed with and depending from a central portion of the lid 82
      is a pedestal 90 having a lower end 92 that is positioned closely adjacent
      to but spaced above the bottom of the drain. A plurality of strengthening
      gussets 94 are formed integrally with the pedestal and lid, extending
      radially outwardly from the pedestal to further strengthen the grate. Thus
      the grate may deflect for a small distance, such as 3/16ths of an inch for
      example, until the bottom of the pedestal contacts the drain bottom
      whereupon the central portion of the lid acquires a strong support to
      prevent further deflection and decrease the possibility of breakage of the
      grate.
PAR  The relatively great extent of the grate and the location of input passages
      about its periphery, provide a plurality of input passages grouped in a
      pattern that minimizes the possibility that all of these will be blocked
      at one time. Thus this particular grate configuration provides a further
      redundant safety feature to still further minimize the possibility of
      buildup of a dangerous suction within the drain.
PAR  The described safety venting of the drain is effective and reliable.
      Redundant features are employed so that although likelihood of certain
      failure modes are minimized by the design, the occurrence of such failures
      will not render the safety system inoperable. The system is of the utmost
      simplicity, involving no electrical, electro-mechanical, or other moving
      parts, and thus will exhibit high reliability over a long life of
      operation in a highly corrosive environment.
PAR  The foregoing detailed description is to be clearly understood as given by
      way of illustration and example only, the spirit and scope of this
      invention being limited solely by the appended claims.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. In a spa including a shell with a water inlet, a drain completely
      submerged at the bottom of said shell, a recirculating water pump having a
      suction line connected to the drain and a pressure line connected to the
      inlet, the improvement comprising
PA1  safety apparatus for decreasing suction forces exerted upon an object or
      person that may inadvertently block flow of water into the drain, to
      thereby avoid entrapment of such object or person at the drain, said
      apparatus comprising a vent conduit having an end at the bottom of said
      shell connected with said drain and having an intake open to atmosphere
      and positioned above water level of said shell, said vent conduit
      extending externally of said shell and upwardly from said drain and the
      bottom of said shell to said intake; a drain by-pass conduit connected to
      and between said pump suction line and said vent conduit, whereby blockage
      of said vent conduit within said drain will not disable operation of said
      vent conduit to avoid entrapment.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. The apparatus of claim 1 wherein said drain comprises an open top body
      and wherein said suction line and said vent conduit are connected to
      substantially spaced points of said body.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. The apparatus of claim 1 including means for restricting flow through
      said by-pass and vent conduits relative to flow through said suction line.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. The apparatus of claim 3 wherein said drain comprises a body having an
      open top positioned at the bottom of said shell and having side walls
      extending below the bottom of said shell and wherein said pump suction
      line and said vent conduit are connected to said body side walls at points
      mutually spaced by a major dimension of said body.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A spa comprising
PA1  a water containing shell having side walls and a bottom,
PA1  a water inlet in said shell,
PA1  a pump having a pressure line connected to said inlet, and having a suction
      line,
PA1  a drain mounted in said shell, said drain having an open top positioned
      substantially at said bottom and having wall portions extending below said
      shell bottom, said drain having first and second drain fittings in said
      wall portions below said shell bottom, said first fitting being connected
      to said pump suction line, and
PA1  a vent conduit having one end connected to said second drain fitting and
      the other end open to atmosphere at a point above water level of said
      shell; a drain by-pass conduit connected to and between said pump suction
      line and said vent conduit, whereby blockage of said vent conduit within
      said drain will not disable operation of said vent conduit to avoid
      entrapment.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. The spa of claim 5 wherein said drain includes a bottom, and including a
      protective grate overlying said drain, said grate including a perforate
      lid spaced about and covering said drain and extending beyond said drain
      wall portions on all sides, means for securing said lid to and supporting
      it from said drain, said lid having a circumferential flange projecting
      downwardly therefrom, said flange being formed with passage means for
      flowing water to said drain from a plurality of points adjacent the
      periphery of said lid and spaced radially outwardly of said drain wall
      portions.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. The spa of claim 5 wherein said second fitting is smaller than said
      first fitting.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. The spa of claim 5 wherein said drain comprises a body having a bottom
      and an open top, a grate secured to and extending across said top in
      spaced relation thereto, and a pedestal fixed to said grate and projecting
      therefrom to a point close to but spaced from said drain bottom.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. The spa of claim 5 wherein said drain fittings extend radially outwardly
      from said wall portions at points mutually spaced about the periphery of
      the body, said vent conduit extending externally of said shell, outwardly
      from said drain wall portions and upwardly from said shell bottom.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. A spa comprising
PA1  a water containing shell,
PA1  a water inlet in said shell,
PA1  a pump having a pressure line connected to said inlet, and having a suction
      line,
PA1  a drain mounted in said shell and having first and second drain fittings,
      said first fitting being connected to said pump suction line,
PA1  a vent conduit having one end connected to said second drain fitting and
      its other end open to atmosphere at a point above water level of said
      shell, said drain including sidewalls and a bottom, a protective grate
      overlying said drain and including a perforate lid spaced about and
      covering said drain and extending beyond said drain sidewalls on all
      sides,
PA1  means for securing said lid to and supporting it from said drain, said lid
      having a circumferential flange projecting downwardly therefrom, said
      flange being formed with passage means for flowing water to said drain
      from a plurality of points adjacent the periphery of said lid and spaced
      radially outwardly of said drain sidewalls, and
PA1  a pedestal carried by said lid and projecting downwardly therefrom to a
      point close to but spaced from said drain bottom whereby a relatively
      small amount of downward deflection of said lid will cause said pedestal
      to abut said bottom to provide further support for said lid.
PATN
WKU  041158792
SRC  5
APN  7073402
APT  1
ART  177
APD  19760721
TTL  Water recirculation system
ISD  19780926
NCL  11
ECL  1
EXP  Cuchlinski, Jr.; William A.
NDR  3
NFG  10
INVT
NAM  Toms; Ed P.
CTY  Arlington
STA  VA
ASSG
NAM  The Water-Cyk Corporation
CTY  Vienna
STA  VA
COD  02
CLAS
OCL    4318
XCL    4322
XCL    4323
XCL  210138
XCL  210175
XCL  210533
EDF  2
ICL  E03D  126
ICL  B01D 2110
FSC    4
FSS  1;2;3;10;115;209 FF;DIG. 19;318;322;323
FSC  210
FSS  83;167;175;205;206;513;533;138;153
UREF
PNO  1200126
ISD  19161000
NAM  Mitchell
OCL  210205
UREF
PNO  1946163
ISD  19340200
NAM  Hiett
OCL  210153
UREF
PNO  2190812
ISD  19400200
NAM  Wahlmark
XCL  418119
UREF
PNO  2974800
ISD  19610300
NAM  Fleischmann
XCL  210205
UREF
PNO  3112497
ISD  19631200
NAM  Call
OCL    4  1
UREF
PNO  3183525
ISD  19650500
NAM  O'Brien et al.
OCL    4  1
UREF
PNO  3594825
ISD  19710700
NAM  Reid
OCL    4  2
UREF
PNO  3815159
ISD  19740600
NAM  Delaney et al.
OCL    4 10
UREF
PNO  3849305
ISD  19741100
NAM  Manjikian
XCL  210138
LREP
FRM  Mason, Mason & Albright
ABST
PAL  A system to be incorporated in new or in existing buildings where the waste
      lines of lavatory sinks, showers and clothes washing machines are
      connected to a storage reservoir for accumulation of water therein. This
      accumulated water is filtered and treated and thereafter used for the
      operation of water closets of toilets, the storage reservoir providing for
      the gravitational separation of solids from the water which are
      periodically flushed from the reservoir into the sewer. The pumping action
      which delivers the accumulated water to the water closets of toilets may
      be hydraulically operated by a portion of the water drained to the storage
      reservoir.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  One of the most essential ingredients for life is wholesome, palatable
      drinking water. Throughout the history of mankind, wars have been fought
      over the possession and ownership of bodies of potable water. Man may
      exist for weeks upon nothing but water and its essential value has always
      been recognized.
PAR  In modern times, through industrialization, urbanization and population
      growth, vast sources of clean water have been eliminated or so
      contaminated as to be rendered unfit for human consumption. The invention
      involves a system whereby available water supplies are more judiciously
      utilized by improved and more effective distribution, thus saving an
      additional twenty-five percent, or more, without harmful effect to the
      consumer or the community.
PAR  In household sinks and showers of conventional systems currently in use,
      the water is soiled by soap and material washed from a person's body, and
      discharged to a sewer drain. With laundry washing machines the sewer
      discharged water is soiled by the detergent and the dirt from the laundry.
      With rain water the detritus is largely leaves, twigs and air borne soot.
      Such water is commonly referred to as "gray water."
PAR  In water closets of toilets their proper functioning is predicated upon the
      provision of a proper liquid volumetric vehicle, usually several gallons
      of water are required to carry off the waste contained therein. It is not
      essential that the water used in these devices be potable in the strict
      sense. The waste entailed in conventional systems is not only of natural
      resources but also is an unnecessary drain on the user.
PAR  The invention provides a system where the liquid discharge from the sinks,
      showers and washing machines of a household is stored in a suitable
      reservoir, supplied to the water closets when needed and then ultimately
      discharged to the sewer.
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE PRIOR ART
PAR  A patent to Call, No. 3,112,497, issued Dec. 3, 1963, discloses a water
      conservation system where the same water is used for two purposes before
      being discharged. An O'Brien et al, U.S. Pat. No. 3,183,525, issued May
      18, 1965 relates to a water conservation device for use in a fallout
      shelter. A patent issued Mar. 2, 1971, to Kemperer, 3,567,032, discloses a
      diaphragm type pump used in a recirculating sanitary system. A patent to
      Reid, U.S. Pat. No. 3,594,825, issued July 27, 1971, is directed to a
      system for storing water that has been used in a shower or basin and
      reusing it in a flush toilet. Of particular interest is a pamphlet
      entitled "Demonstration of Waste Flow Reduction from Households"
      EPA-670/2-74-071, September 1974, distributed by U.S. National
      Environmental Research Center, Office of Research and Development, U.S.
      Environmental Protection Agency Cincinnati, Ohio, 45268. This pamphlet
      discusses various means for the conservation of water and including
      consideration of systems for recycling water that has been used for
      washing and showering, so that it may be used for flush toilets or the
      like.
PAR  A patent to Lankton, U.S. Pat. No. 2,419,319, issued Apr. 22, 1947 relates
      to a portable housing unit adapted to be prefabricated as a factory item
      and mounted as a unit in a building.
PAC  BRIEF SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  An object of this invention is, broadly, a practical household system
      wherein all or a portion of the water that is usually discharged to the
      sewer is treated and preserved for use in another facility before its
      ultimate disposal.
PAR  A further object of this invention is a waste water conservation system
      comprising a practicable process and apparatus for sanitizing and reusing
      the waste water from sinks, showers and washing machines for water closets
      of toilets.
PAR  Another object of this invention is a process and apparatus for the
      conservation of water, comprising the accumulation and storage of rain
      water from roof gutters, to be admixed with water from household sinks,
      showers or washing machines and ultimately used for water closets of
      toilets or garbage disposals.
PAR  A yet further object of this invention is a process and apparatus as
      above-mentioned, wherein a disinfectant material is added to the stored
      liquid prior to use in the water closet.
PAR  Alternatively, the salvaged water may be caused to flow through, or
      otherwise be exposed to, a supply of iodine crystals which cleanse the
      water.
PAR  Other objects, adaptabilities and capabilities of the invention will appear
      as the description progresses, reference being had to the accompanying
      drawings, which:
DRWD
PAR  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  FIG. 1 is a schematic sectional view through a household illustrating one
      form of the invention;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a similar view illustrating a modification of the device;
PAR  FIG. 3 is an enlarged detail of the storm water sediment trap;
PAR  FIG. 4 discloses another modification for use with an outdoor tank;
PAR  FIG. 5 shows a further modification for use with a hydraulic ram;
PAR  FIG. 6 is an enlarged detail in secton illustrating the mixing of chlorine,
      or the like, and bluing with the previously used water;
PAR  FIG. 7 is a wiring diagram of the pressure responsive system for the tank;
PAR  FIG. 7A is a pump wiring diagram;
PAR  FIG. 8 illustrates an alternative water cleaning apparatus; and
PAR  FIG. 9 illustrates the apparatus of the invention in a self-contained
      transportable unit.
DETD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS
PAR  In FIG. 1 the house 10 is provided with conventional float tank water
      closet 11, lavatory 12, tub 14 and washer 15. The lavatory, tub and washer
      are connected to a source of suitable clean uncontaminated water through a
      conventional piping system which forms no part of the invention as such
      and has not been illustrated for the sake of clarity. The waste lines from
      these facilities are not, however, connected directly to the sewer line as
      in a conventional system. Instead, inasmuch as this water, known as "gray
      water," after having been used, remains relatively clean, it can again be
      used for flushing toilets. Therefore waste lines 18 are connected to a
      settling storage tank 19. The washer 15 is provided with a discharge line
      18a which discharges into an open-sight train 18b.
PAR  Storage tank 19 is provided with baffles 20 in its bottom portion and a
      valved drain system 21. The drain system is provided for the periodic
      removal of sediment, dirt and grit, and the like, which settles to the
      bottom thereof. It will be noted that the tank 19 is disposed at a level
      below the main or first household floor 22 and therefore conventional
      gravity flow to the tank suffices for the purpose of collecting the gray
      water. The tank and its essential components are preferably enclosed in a
      separate compartment or box-like holder as described hereafter with
      reference to FIG. 9. Deodorant pellets may be added to the contents of the
      tank to remove odors, impart an unpleasant taste to the water, or color
      same or any combination thereof. Thus an important feature of the
      invention is in the provision of a filtering, chlorinating and bluing
      system for this reused gray water. A deodorizing canister designated
      generally by reference numeral 23, is provided on an upper portion of the
      tank 19 and contains a supply of liquid sanitizer, deodorizer and soft
      blue coloring agent which is gravity fed into the gray water in tank 19 in
      controlled amounts. FIG. 6 shows an alternate embodiment wherein a
      canister 27 is supported in a container 23a which is mounted by a bracket
      18a affixed to line 18 and is provided with a conduit 24 having a tip 25
      disposed in the flow path of the gray water flowing through the waste
      lines 18, immediately prior to discharge into the settling storage tank.
      Tip 25 is split as at 26, the bisection being of a character and
      sufficiently thin that it normally prevents the flow of the liquid 27 from
      its interior, except that upon being wetted on its exterior by the water
      flowing in the waste lines 18 it permits the flow of the liquid 27 to
      intermix in selected amounts in the flowing water. Thus it will be seen
      that this chlorinating means functions only while the gray water is being
      added to the tank and the tip 25 is wetted.
PAR  A flow reversible pump designated generally by reference numeral 28
      automatically functions to displace water from tank 19 into the gray water
      feed pipe line 29 and to maintain the desired pressure therein. Water in
      this pipe is pumped to an upper portion of the household into an upper
      storage tank 30 which is of diaphragm type to maintain pressure through
      the gray water feed system. The tank may be hidden in a closet or be in an
      attic or at any appropriate location where danger of the water therein
      freezing does not exist. A line pressure switch 53 is interposed between
      the pump 28 and the tank 30. Upon flushing water closet 11, gray water
      from the upper storage tank 30 flows through the conduit 29 thereto to
      replace water flushed from the tank of water closet 11. This flushed water
      and wastes are discharged to the sewer line 32. The drain system 21 of
      tank 19 also discharges to the sewer line 32. If desired, the upper
      storage tank 30 may be disposed in the general region of the main storage
      tank 19, as at 30a, for example, The function is essentially the same
      since the entire system is maintained under pressure by the pump 28 and by
      the head of pressure above the diaphragm whether in tank 30 or 30a. Tanks
      30 or 30a also function as a reservoir for the several water closets. When
      the water closets are flushed, the fall in water level in the tank results
      in a lower pressure upon the line pressure switch 53 which, in turn
      actuates pump 28 to refill the tank 30 or 30a and repeat the cycle. Pump
      28, as previously indicated, is preferably reversible to back-flush
      periodically, for example, every 24 hours. Piping arrangements, per se,
      for reversing pump 28 are well-known and therefore are now shown.
PAR  A tank pressure switch 54 acts as a safety cutoff for pump 28. If the water
      level in tank 19 drops too low, switch 54 breaks the circuit to the
      electric motor 55 of pump 28 which will not then operate. Further, the
      tank pressure switch 54, on a fall in pressure in tank 19, causes the fill
      solenoid 34 in conduit 37 to open. As shown in detail in FIGS. 1 and 7,
      this causes fresh water from the building's fresh water system via a fresh
      water inlet to fill tank 19. Conduit 37 also has a manually operated gate
      valve 36. The manual fill 35 which by-passes the automatic fill may be
      used if necessary. This manual fill comprises a gate valve 35b in a
      conduit 35a. Both conduits 35a and 37 carry fresh water to a tank fill
      funnel 38 and a furthe conduit 39 which leads into tank 19. It should be
      noted that there is an air break between the conduit 37 and the funnel 38
      to prevent the least possibility of contamination of the fresh water
      system. Valve 36 in conduit 37 is preferably adjusted to ensure that the
      flow of fresh water provided therein is not at a rate to exceed the
      capacity of funnel 38 for drainage into tank 19.
PAR  The valved drain system 21 is opened for a few moments periodically to
      drain off any sediment from tank 19. Also inasmuch as the quantity of
      water flowing into tank 19 from the washers, showers, etc., is normally
      greater than the quantity pumped out for water closet use, the water level
      in tank 19 rises and the gray water passes through an overflow 39a and is
      discharged to sewer line 32. This action is utilized to remove any surface
      film which may accumulate on the surface ot the gray water. In larger
      buildings such as office buildings where this system can be incorporated,
      the reverse situation occurs and some makeup water is normally required.
PAR  Waste lines are vented conventionally as indicated by reference numeral 40
      and check valves 41 are appropriately disposed in the system to prevent
      back flow. A strainer 42 is positioned in the pipe line 29 prior to pump
      28 to prevent passage of solids therethrough. Reversing action of the pump
      28 cleans the strainer.
PAR  Instead of utilizing the disinfecting system shown in FIG. 6, the system
      shown in FIG. 8 may be substituted. In this modification a receptacle 43
      containing iodine crystals 44 is directly and removably interposed in the
      waste line 18 so that all gray water flowing to the settling storage tank
      must pass therethrough. The iodine crystals, like the chlorinating and
      bluing solution, function to deodorize as well as cleanse the stored
      water. The iodine crystals, in normal household use, have been found to
      remain effective up to a year before being replaced. The crystals may be
      added from time to time into receptacle 43 by removing a plug 43a. Line 18
      which passes through the top of receptacle 44 almost touches the bottom of
      receptacle 43 whereby the crystals are slowly dissolved into the gray
      water passing therethrough.
PAR  In the arrangement shown in FIG. 1, the kitchen sink 16 with its garbage
      disposal unit 17 are connected to a waste line 45 and the material
      therefrom is discharged directly into the sewer line 32. Vent for the
      waste line 45 is designated by reference numeral 46. Lower level fixtures
      such as the lavatory 47 and a water closet 48 also discharge directly into
      sewer line 32; however, the water closet 48 receives its water through the
      pipe line 49 connected to the pipe line 29. The pipe providing the lines
      29 and 49, which carry the recycled gray water, may, if desired, be of
      distinctive color and character such as yellow plastic. This provides an
      additional safeguard against accidental use of gray water for an undesired
      purpose.
PAR  In FIG. 7, the electrical components are shown diagrammatically. The main
      electric power supply (120 volt, 60 cycle) is designated by reference
      numerals 50 and 50a; the main disconnect switch by 51; magnetic starter
      for motor 55 by 52; line pressure switch by 53; tank pressure switch by 54
      and pump motor by 55.
PAR  In FIG. 7A the pump wiring diagram is indicated whereby the power supply
      comprising 120 volt, sixty cycle AC conduits 107 and 108 feeds to a timer
      106 which ordinarily retains in an opened or inactivated condition a
      further conductor which is a continuation of line 107 designated 107a.
      Solenoids 105 (for a valve 21a) and 105a (for a valve 42a) cause drainage
      from tank 19 for a predetermined period of time; say thirty seconds once
      in each twenty-four hour period, into sewer line 32 whereby sediment and
      the like which is collected in the bottom of the tank 19 and in the
      strainer 42 are discharged.
PAR  Line pressure switch 53 activates electric motor 55 when pressure in
      conduit 29 is sufficiently low as may be caused by the flushing of a
      toilet (FIG. 7). Tank pressure switch 54 in a like manner actuates the
      fill solenoid 34 and at the same time inactivates motor 55 when water in
      tank 19 is low. This condition continues until sufficient tank pressure
      has built up to open the tank pressure switch 54 which closes the circuit
      to the line pressure switch 53 and permits the pump 55 to operate. This
      provides a safety measure inasmuch as if the water in the tank 19 is so
      low as to actuate the tank pressure switch 54 the lack of water for
      suction may cause damage to an operating pump 28.
PAR  In FIG. 2, a modified arrangement for water conservation is illustrated. In
      conventional arrangements, storm water is either discharged directly to
      the soil or to a sewer line. In either instance its obvious usefulness as
      a liquid volumetric vehicle is lost. In FIG. 2 the storm water accumulated
      from gutters 56 is conducted by downspouts 57 to trap 58. The gutters are
      provided with screens 59 to eliminate leaves and twigs. Trap 58, shown in
      detail in FIG. 3, comprises a further debris trapping screen 60 of concave
      configuration and disposed atop the receptacle 61. A discharge conduit 62
      connects to the receptacle at a point below the bottom of the screen. This
      conduit is in communication with pipe line 63 which carries the water to
      tank 64. A valve 65 is disposed in the line 63 to limit the flow of water
      as desired in case of a heavy storm condition or of a large roof area. A
      check valve 66 prevents the back flow of water from tank 64. In this
      arrangement the drains from the lavatory, tub and washer are as
      illustrated in FIG. 1. If, however, it be desired to use only storm water
      for the water closet, drain 67 may be entirely omitted. The lines from the
      tank 64 to the water closet 11 and 48 and therefrom to the sewer line are
      also the same as in FIG. 1. Further, where it is not desirable to
      discharge storm water to the sanitary sewer, or where a septic field is
      utilized, a high limit switch closes a solenoid 68 in the storm line. The
      solenoid is normally closed but opens at a low water point in the tank 64
      and remains open until the tank is filled.
PAR  In FIG. 4, the system is further modified for use with an outdoor tank 69
      mounted on a concrete base 70 disposed below ground. A manhole 71 is
      provided, and a suction pipe 72 and vent 73 are utilized for evacuating,
      as necessary, and venting the tank. The lavatory, tub and washer water
      are, as before, fed to tank 69 through pipes 74 similar to pipes 18. An
      overflow line 75 discharges excess water from the tank to the sewer,
      whereas pipe 76 feeds water from the tank to pump 28 for circulation to
      water closet 11 and the system otherwise as disclosed with reference to
      FIG. 1.
PAR  In FIG. 5 the salvaged gray water is recycled by a hydraulic ram or pumping
      device 77 which preferably comprises a water pump driven by a hydraulic
      motor of a type disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 2,190,812, through the ram
      discharge line 78. This system is advantageous in the event of electric
      power failure or where no power is available. With the hydraulic device,
      as the water flows through the pipes 18a portion thereof is pumped through
      line 78 to storage tank 30 for reuse. The remainer flows into the tank 19.
      Preferably this system also includes electric motor 55 which drives pump
      28. However, it will be appreciated that device 77 may be substituted for
      the pump 28, including motor 55, in the embodiment shown in FIG. 1
      provided the necessary energy for pumping a portion of it needed for the
      water closets.
PAR  It should further be noted that in tall buildings which are provided with
      cooling tower water, such water may readily be utilized for water closet
      flushing. At present, this cooling water is usually wasted by being
      discharged to the sanitary sewer. The discharge from such a cooling tower
      may be connected to the downspout as is the gutter 56 in FIG. 2.
PAR  Referring to FIG. 9, apparatus in accordance with the invention is
      illustrated in a self-contained transportable unit. This unit, designated
      generally by reference numeral 80, is contained in a parallelepiped
      framework structure which has a width of approximately 30 inches, a length
      of approximately 60 inches, and an overall height of about 64 inches. The
      diameter of the holding tank 19 is 30 inches and the diameter of the
      pressure tank 30a is 20 inches. Although in FIG. 9 an overflow line 39a
      appears to extend beyond the length dimensions of the unit, in actuality,
      this line extends in the corner space defined between the outer
      circumference of the holding tank and the box-shaped frame 81. It will be
      noted from FIG. 9 that frame 81 includes a platform 81a which directly
      supports motor 55 for pump 28. Also supported on the frame 81 via a
      further platform 81b is pressure tank 30a, and on a backboard 85, an
      electric timer control box 82, and an electrical connection panel 84. Gray
      water supply line 18 terminates within tank 19 in a receptacle 43a which
      has at its bottom a plurality of small apertures 43b and is filled with a
      filtering agent which can be sand of a selected grade and may include a
      slowly soluble bluing agent or the like for coloring the water. Mounted on
      backboard 85 is a fresh water inlet 37a which includes a gate valve 36
      controlled by solenoid 34. The manual fill by-pass 35 includes a gate
      valve 35b. The inlet 37a and bypass 35 lead to conduit 37 which is spaced
      above a funnel 38 which, in turn, leads into the interior of tank 19. Also
      mounted on backboard 85 is a filter 86 which has small diameter water
      conduit lines 86a and 86b leading from the upper and lower aspects
      thereof. Such lines connect to conduit 29 on either side of a gate valve
      87 which is disposed in a conduit portion 29a that connects a pump
      discharge conduit portion 29b and the bottom of the pressure tank 30a. A
      further gate valve 90 is disposed in the discharge conduit portion 29c
      which connects pump discharge conduit portion 29b with the gray water
      outlet 29d.
PAR  In this embodiment the drain system 21 includes a gate valve 42c which is
      manually operated and a solenoid operated valve 21a. The valve 21b is a
      check valve to insure that the liquid flows in the system 21 in the
      direction of arrow 91 only. Strainer 42 is disposed between the inlet of
      pump 28 and the outlet conduit portion 29c of holding tank 19 in which a
      gate valve 92 is also disposed prior to the strainer. Within the tank 19,
      a float 94 is received which is connected by a rod 95 to a float valve
      switch mechanism 96. Stop 97 is secured to rod 95 proximate mechanism 96
      whereby when the float 94 is lowered, switch mechanism 96 is actuated by a
      stop 97 to open solenoid 94 and admit fresh water through valve 34 and
      conduit 37 into funnel 38. Such water continues to flow until another stop
      100 which is secured to rod 95 proximate to and under mechanism 96 rises
      to actuate mechanism 96 whereby the solenoid valve 34 is no longer
      energized. When such occurs, resilient means within the solenoid valve 34
      causes it to close.
PAR  Unit 80 is installed usually in the basement of a dwelling in an
      appropriate location and connections are made with the gray water supply
      18, a sewer line 32, the water closet gray conduit 29 and a fresh water
      conduit 37a. Also electrical connections are made to the control box 82
      and connection panel 84. In operation, gray water supplied to the tank 19
      is filtered and dyed by the material 44a contained in a receptacle 43a. In
      the event that amount of gray water supplied to the tank 19 exceeds its
      capacity, the excess overflows through line 39a to the sewer 32. If, on
      the other hand, not enough gray water for the purposes of the apparatus is
      retained in tank 19, the float 94 drops and as previously explained, fresh
      makeup water is added via the fresh water conduit 37. Water closets are
      supplied by means of the pumping action of the pump 28 whereby water is
      drawn from the holding tank outlet 29e and discharged through conduit
      portion 29d. Pressure is maintained on the system by the pressure tank 30a
      and motor 55 of pump 28 is actuated by the reduction of pressure in
      conduit 29 through a pressure responsive switch which connects into box 82
      to activate motor 55 via electrical line 100. The pressure responsive
      switch involved is designated by reference numeral 101 and is connected to
      tank 30a via conductive line 102 and to the control box 82 via a further
      conductive line 104.
PAR  As pressure changes within pressure tank 30a a small amount of water passes
      through liquid conduit lines 86a and 86b and filter 86 which contains
      iodine crystals. By this means, iodine in the amount needed is introduced
      into the system. In this connection, although valve 87 is normally a gate
      valve, it can be a check valve which allows a surge of water from pump 27
      to enter tank 30a via such valve but it requires that water passing in the
      opposite direction pass through filter 86.
PAR  Box 82 contains a 24 hour timer and at appropriate times of the day,
      preferably after holding tank 19 has been inactive for a period, say at
      4:00 a.m. or 5:00 a.m., the valve 21a is caused to open by means of a
      solenoid 105 which is electrically connected to the timing device in box
      82 and sediment and the like which is collected in the bottom of tank 19
      and also in the strainer 42 is caused to drain via the line 21 (gate
      valves 42b and 42c being normally in an open condition). An appropriate
      period is provided to accomplish the necessary draining, say 30 seconds to
      1 or 2 minutes. After such appropriate period, the timer box 82 causes the
      solenoid 105 to close valve 21a whereupon the drainage ceases.
PAR  Although the preferred embodiments of the invention are described above, it
      is to be understood that the invention is capable of other adaptations and
      modifications within the scope of the appended claims.
CLMS
STM  Having thus described my invention what I claim as new and desire to secure
      by Letters Patent of the United States is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. A water conservation system comprising: means distributing clean water
      to selected household facilities for use therein; drain means in said
      selected facilities other than facilities which have as their primary
      function the disposal of human waste for delivering said water from said
      selected facilities to a settling tank at a level below said facilities
      for the gravitational separation of solids therefrom; water pump means
      associated with said settling tank, said pump having conduit means for
      receiving water from said tank and delivering pressurized water to a
      storage receptacle at a pressure level above that of said facilities,
      water purification means adapted to destroy microorganisms therein which
      is associated with said settling tank for treating all water delivered
      from said drain means passing through said settling tank; and other
      household facilities associated with said storage receptacle for drawing
      water therefrom, as required.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. A system in accordance with claim 1, further comprising means on said
      settling tank for discharging surface film and timed automatic means
      periodically removing gravitationally separated solids therefrom, said
      settling tank having a concave bottom with a drain at the lowest part,
      said solids being removed through said drain.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. A system in accordance with claim 1, further comprising electrical
      actuated valve means controlling the flow of said water from said water
      pump when water in said tank is at a predetermined low level whereby to
      prevent improper flow thereof.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. A system in accordance with claim 1, wherein a movable frame is provided
      for carrying and for the compact arrangement of said settling tank, said
      water pump means, said water purification means, a timer for periodically
      actuating means to discharge solids from said settling tank, said settling
      tank having a concave shaped bottom wherein a drain for discharging said
      solids from the lowest point of said bottom is provided, and means to
      provide electrical and liquid connections to the remaining components of
      the system.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. A water conservation system which comprises a washing facility and a
      drainage conduit therefrom located at a first level, said conduit
      providing first liquid passage means to a second level substantially lower
      than said first level, an outlet leading from said conduit not higher than
      said second level, hydraulically powered pumping means provided in said
      conduit at said second level, liquid storage means provided at a third
      level substantially higher than said first level, further liquid passage
      means from said pumping means to said liquid storage means for conveying
      thereto part of the liquid drained from said washing facility through said
      conduit, the other part of said liquid energizing said pumping means, and
      liquid conductive means from liquid storage means to the water inlet of a
      water closet.
NUM  6.
PAR  6. A system according to claim 5, wherein said outlet is received by a
      tank, an electrically driven pump associated with said tank to receive
      water therefrom, a pipe from the outlet of said pump to said liquid
      storage means, control means associated with said pump and said tank
      whereby liquid in said tank is selectively conveyed by said pump to said
      liquid storage means when said tank is not substantially empty of liquid.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. A system according to claim 6, wherein said control means is also
      associated with said liquid storage means, whereby said pump is
      selectively activated to convey liquid in said tank to said liquid storage
      means when said liquid storage means is substantially empty of liquid.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. A system according to claim 6, wherein make-up water is selectively
      provided to said liquid storage means when the pressure therein reduces to
      a predetermined level.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. A water conservation system installation in a building which comprises a
      washing facility and a drainage conduit therefrom located at a first
      level, said conduit providing liquid passage means to a second level
      substantially lower than said first level, a storage tank receiving said
      liquid passage means at said second level, pump means associated with said
      tank adapted to convey water therefrom to the water inlet of a water
      closet, rain collection means on the roof of said building, rainwater
      passage means with a rainwater container and sediment trap means therein
      leading from said collection means to said tank, and water purification
      means which destroys microorganisms therein and which is associated with
      said tank for treating all water received in said tank from said liquid
      passage means associated with said tank.
NUM  10.
PAR  10. A system according to claim 8, wherein a strainer and settling means
      with sediment discharge means is located in said rainwater container and
      sediment trap means.
NUM  11.
PAR  11. A system according to claim 9, wherein automatic valve means is
      connected in said rainwater conduit means, said automatic valve means
      interconnected with liquid level responsive means provided in said tank
      which is adapted to open said valve means whereby rainwater is conveyed
      from said rainwater container means to said tank only when the liquid
      level in said tank is relatively low and for a sufficient period of time
      to fill said tank.
PATN
WKU  041158806
SRC  5
APN  8245282
APT  1
ART  243
APD  19770815
TTL  Flush valve control assembly
ISD  19780926
NCL  9
ECL  1
EXA  Little; Willis
EXP  Aegerter; Richard E.
NDR  2
NFG  6
INVT
NAM  Gruenhagen; Henry William
STR  2030 Ebers
CTY  San Diego
STA  CA
ZIP  92107
CLAS
OCL    4325
XCL    4326
XCL    4378
EDF  2
ICL  E03D  134
ICL  E03D  114
ICL  E03D  312
FSC    4
FSS  67 A;1;18;34;37;57 P;57 R;325-327;378
UREF
PNO  2690567
ISD  19541000
NAM  Quebbeman
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  3237211
ISD  19660300
NAM  Brown
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  3546715
ISD  19701200
NAM  Wustner
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  4000526
ISD  19770100
NAM  Biela et al.
OCL    4 57P
LREP
FRM  Brown & Martin
ABST
PAL  A control system for a toilet flush valve includes an automatically
      controlled vent valve for controlling the venting of the flush valve to
      provide a long flush or a short flush controlled by a combination of the
      toilet flush handle and a float controlled latch within the tank.
BSUM
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The present invention relates generally to flush toilets and pertains
      particularly to a water saving flush valve control system.
PAR  A critical shortage of fresh water exists throughout much of the world and
      many of the Western states of the United States. This shortage is due in
      part to drought conditions which have existed for some time and in part to
      expanding population and use of fresh water. Much of the water used is
      wasted because of wasteful practices and wasteful water using applicances.
PAR  One of the most wasteful appliances of the civilized world is the flush
      toilet. The average flush toilet uses between 5 and 7 gallons of fresh
      water per flush and is flushed as many as a half of a dozen times per
      individual per day. This comsumes or more particularly wastes, a
      considerable amount of water.
PAR  It is therefore desirable that some means be avilable to conserve water and
      yet provide an effective flush toilet.
PAC  SUMMARY AND OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
PAR  It is therefore the primary object of the present invention to overcome the
      above problems of the prior art.
PAR  Another object of the present invention is to provide means for conserving
      water.
PAR  A further object of the present invention is to provide means for
      conserving water in a flush toilet.
PAR  A still further object of the present invention is to provide an effective
      and simple control means for permitting the use of a minimum amount of
      water for flushing a toilet.
PAR  In accordance with the primary aspect of the present invention a toilet
      flush valve is provided with vent control means for controlling the
      closing of the flush valve in response to a predetermined lever control
      depression for selectively obtaining a long or short flush of the toilet.
DRWD
PAC  BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  The above and other objects and advantages of the present invention will
      become apparent from the following description when read in conjunction
      with the drawings, wherein:
PAR  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view partially cut away, showing the flush
      control unit installed in a toilet tank.
PAR  FIG. 2 is an enlarged rear elevational view of the flush control unit,
      showing the short flush action.
PAR  FIG. 3 is a top plan view of the flush control unit.
PAR  FIG. 4 is a sectional view taken on line 4--4 of FIG. 2.
PAR  FIG. 5 is a sectional view taken on line 5--5 of FIG. 2.
PAR  FIG. 6 is a view similar to a portion of FIG. 2, but showing the full flush
      action.
DETD
PAC  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF A PREFERRED EMBODIMENT
PAR  Turning now to FIG. 1 of the drawing, there is illustrated a control valve
      assembly in accordance with the present invention, designated generally by
      the numeral 10, is shown mounted on the upper edge of a flush tank 12 for
      operation in conjunction with a flapper valve 14, normally seated in a
      valve seat 16 controlling the flow of water from the tank 12 into a toilet
      bowl for flushing purposes. The normal toilet flush assembly includes a
      handle 18 pivotally mounted in the wall of tank 12 and including an arm 20
      secured thereto on the inside of the tank, and to which a chain 22 is
      connected for connecting to the flapper valve 14. the flapper valve 14 is
      of the conventional inner chamber type having a generally semi-spherical
      configuration, with a hollow interior opening into the drain pipe portion
      of the valve.
PAR  The valve control assembly 10 in accordance with the present invention is
      designed to operate in conjunction with and become responsive to both the
      flush lever or handle 18 and the level of water in the tank 12.
PAR  As best seen in FIGS. 2 through 5, the valve control assembly in accordance
      with the invention comprises a base or bracket member 24 having a
      generally U-shaped bracket portion 26 for extending over the upper edge of
      the wall of the tank 12 for mounting the bracket beneath the lid of the
      tank. The valve assembly bracket simply hooks over the upper edge of the
      wall, as best seen in FIG. 3, and the cover of the tank rests on the
      bracket holding it in place. The control assembly includes a valve body
      defined by a cylindrical bore 28 defined by a semicircular portion of the
      bracket member 24 and a clamp member 30. The clamp member 30 is secured in
      place by suitable means, such as a screw 32. The valve bore may be further
      defined by a flexible tube 34 having a tubular metal or rigid insert 36 as
      shown in FIG. 4 The upper end of the tube 34 extends beyond the upper edge
      of the bracket and valve housing defining a valve seat 35 which, because
      of its resilience provides good seating and sealing. A vent plug or valve
      member 40 is pivotally mounted on the base or bracket member 24 by means
      of a rocker arm 42 which is pivotally mounted by a suitable screw 44 to
      the bracket 24. The rocker arm 42 is in the form of a lever having a
      pivotal pin 46 on the opposite end thereof from the valve member 40, to
      hold the upper end of a float rod 48.
PAR  An adjustable float 50 constructed of a suitable light weight floating
      material is adjustably secured to the lower end of the float rod 48 and is
      adjustably attached thereto by suitable means such as a screw 52. With
      this arrangement, the float 50 may be adjustably positioned along the
      length of the float rod 48. The center of gravity and buoyancy of float 50
      is offset to one side of the pivot axis 46.
PAR  The apparatus includes a latching mechanism for latching the valve in the
      closed position for certain circumstances. This latch mechanism comprises
      a latch notch 54 formed in the float rod 48 for engaging a latch bar 56
      secured to and made integral with and extending outward from the bracket
      24.
PAR  The latch operating mechanisms comprises a bell crank 58 having a first arm
      60 for engaging the float rod 48 between the pivot pin 46 and the notch
      54, forcing the float rod 48 to the left into engagement with the notch
      bar or latch bar 56. An arm 62 of the bell crank includes a pin 64 for
      engagement by the arm 20 of the convenional flush control of the toilet.
      The bell crank is pivotally mounted by suitable pin, such as a screw 66,
      to the bracket or base member 24. A stop member 68 prevents the bell crank
      from pivoting downward and away from its operating position.
PAR  The flexible vent tube 34 is secured at the upper end thereof in the clamp
      body member and at the lower end to a suitable fitting 70 for connecting
      the lower end thereof to the ball or flapper valve of the flush tank. The
      flush valve 70 as illustrated in of the flapper type having an inner air
      chamber 74 and a lower opening 76 into the air chamber 74. The air chamber
      communicates with the drain line from the tank into the bowl. The outer
      walls of the flapper valve seat against the valve seat in the flush
      assembly.
PAR  Installation of the present system as illustrated is such that the bracket
      or base member 24 is positioned such that the pin 64 of the bell crank 58
      will be engaged by the outermost end of the acutating arm 20 of the flush
      handle 18. As best seen in FIG. 6, the flush handle and the flush control
      apparatus of the present invention are preferably adjusted such that the
      outer end of the flush arm 24 engages the pin 64 of the bell crank 58 near
      the uppermost end of its travel. The flush arm 20 engages the pin 64,
      pivoting the bell crank in counter clockwise direction into engagement
      with the float rod 48, forcing the latch notch 54 into latching position
      or engagement with the latch bar 56. In this position the valve 40 is
      seated into the valve seat 35, maintaining the valve in a closed or
      non-vented position. This maintains a seal of the chamber 74 such that the
      flapper valve will float when pulled away from its seat, thus, as long as
      the valve 40 is maintained in its seated position the flapper valve, once
      pulled away from its seat, will float and keep the flapper valve open
      until the tank 12 has been fully drained, so that the valve 14 is either
      pulled into the seated position or the flow or level of water drops below
      the opening 76 thereof to vent the valve, forcing it back into its seated
      position.
PAR  By the present invention, the venting of the chamber 74 of the flapper
      valve 14 is selectively controlled by the flush handle 18. With the
      apparatus installed in position, the water level 78 will be above the
      float 50, such that the valve 40 will be closed and the float rod 48 will
      be in a position to be latched by the bell crank 58 upon flushing the
      tank.
PAC  OPERATION
PAR  In operating the apparatus of the present invention, when installed as
      above described, the flushing cycle is controlled by the length of time
      that the flush handle 18 is held down. For example, for a short flush the
      handle 18 is pulled downward until the flapper valve 14 is unseated and
      arm 20 engages the pin 64 pivoting the rod 48 into latch position.
      However, upon releasing of the flush handle 18 prior to the water level 78
      dropping below the float 50, the force of the water acting on the float
      will tilt the float and float arm in a counter clockwise direction out of
      the latched position, such that as the water drops the float will pull the
      float rod 48 downward, thus moving the rocker arm 42 and the valve 40 out
      of its seat. This immediately vents the chamber 74 of the flapper valve 14
      causing it to fall into the closed position. Water then refils the tank 12
      and as the water rises in the tank, the float 50 pushes the rocker arm 42
      upward in a counter clockwise direction, again seating the valve 40.
PAR  In order to obtain a full flush, the flush handle 18 is held downward with
      the latch in the latch position, as shown in FIG. 6, until the water level
      78 drops below the float 50. Once the water level drops below the float
      50, the weight of the float and its offset center of gravity, as seen in
      FIG. 2, will tend to maintain the latch in its latched position, as seen
      in FIG. 6, preventing the venting of the flapper valve 14. The flapper
      valve 14 will then stay open until the tank is fully emptied. At this time
      the flapper valve will close and the normal control mechanism of the tank
      wll refill the tank until the latch control float moves the latch from its
      latch position and simultaneously seats the valve member 40 in readiness
      for the next cycle.
PAR  Thus, it will be seen that the latch will function to maintain the valve 40
      seated for a long flush and the float 50 functions to pull the valve 40
      open for the short flush with the latch in the unlatched position. It will
      be appreciated that the off center position of the float 50 functions to
      tilt the float or pull the float in a counter clockwise position in
      response to a water acting thereon for raising it and will tend to pull
      the arm 48 in a clockwise position in response to a lack of water thereon.
      In other words the offset weight of the float 50 will pull the arm 48 in a
      clockwise position about pivot 46 and maintain it in a latched position.
PAR  An additional stop member 72 is positioned to stop the pivotal movement of
      rocker arm 42 downward under the weight of float 50. The length of arm 60
      and the pivot point 66 of the bellcrank 58 are such that the upper end of
      arm 60 will engage float rod 48 below pivot 46 in order to insure pivoting
      of rod 48 into latching engagement at 54 with 56. The pressure point (i.e.
      line of force) of arm 60 on rod 48 must also be between pivot 46 and fixed
      pivot 44 in order to pivot the rocker arm 42 counterclockwise such that
      valve 40 seats.
PAR  While the present invention has been described and illustrated by means of
      a specific embodiment, it is to be understood that numerous changes and
      modifications may be made in the apparatus without departing from the
      spirit and scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
CLMS
STM  Having described my invention, I now claim:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. Vent control assembly for a flapper type flush valve comprising:
PA1  a valve body having a bore,
PA1  tubular means connected to said valve body for communicating said bore with
      the air chamber of a flush valve,
PA1  a valve member mounted on said body and comprising a rocker arm having a
      valve plug on one end for engaging said valve bore and selectively movable
      into and out of engagement with said valve bore for either selectively
      closing or venting said air chamber, and
PA1  a float assembly connected to the other end of said rocker arm and
      responsive to the level of water acting thereon for controlling said valve
      member.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. The vent control assembly of claim 1, including latch means for latching
      said valve in a closed position.
NUM  3.
PAR  3. The vent control assembly of claim 2, wherein said latch means is
      responsive to said float to maintain a latched condition when water is
      below said float and responsive to water acting on said float for
      unlatching said valve.
NUM  4.
PAR  4. The vent control assembly of claim 2, including latch means for latching
      said vent valve in a closed position, said latch means including means
      responsive to the toilet flush arm for biasing said latch means into a
      latched position.
NUM  5.
PAR  5. The vent control assembly of claim 4, wherein said float assembly
      comprises an elongated rod pivotally connected at its upper end to said
      rocker arm and supporting said float at its lower end, and
PA1  said latch means comprises a notch in said rod, and a fixed latch bar for
      engaging said notch
NUM  6.
PAR  6. The vent control assembly of claim 5, wherein said valve body comprises
      a support bracket for mounting inside and near the upper edge of a flush
      tank, and said rocker arm is pivotally mounted on said bracket.
NUM  7.
PAR  7. The vent control valve of claim 6, wherein said bracket is of a
      generally rectangular configuration having top, side and bottom edges and
      a genrally U-shaped supporting member at the upper edge for hooking over
      the upper edge of the wall of a tank, said valve bore is disposed adjacent
      one side edge and oriented vertically, and said means responsive to a
      toilet flush arm comprises a bell crank pivotally mounted adjacent the
      other side edge having one arm for engagement by a toilet flush arm for
      moving said float rod into latching engagement with said latch bar.
NUM  8.
PAR  8. The vent control valve of claim 7, wherein said valve bore is defined by
      a clamp having an annular gripping surface and an end of a flexible tube
      disposed in said clamp and defining an annular valve seat.
NUM  9.
PAR  9. The vent control assembly of claim 8, wherein said float is adjustably
      secured to said float rod for adjustment vertically along said rod, and
      said float is disposed on one side of said float rod for tilting said rod
      away from said latch bar in response to the buoyant forces of water acting
      thereon when the water level is above said float and for tilting said rod
      toward said latch bar position under the weight of said float when the
      water level is below said float.
PATN
WKU  041158814
SRC  5
APN  8186375
APT  1
ART  243
APD  19770725
TTL  Toilet flushing assembly
ISD  19780926
NCL  2
ECL  1
EXA  Footland; L.
EXP  Aegerter; Richard E.
NDR  2
NFG  4
INVT
NAM  Stone; Andrew Joseph
STR  457 Beach 124th St.
CTY  New York
STA  NY
ZIP  11694
CLAS
OCL    4326
XCL    4415
EDF  2
ICL  E03D  114
FSC    4
FSS  67 A;249;250;67 R;56;326;325;324;415;395;396
UREF
PNO  2351672
ISD  19440600
NAM  Engel
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  3768103
ISD  19731000
NAM  Robinson
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  3964109
ISD  19760600
NAM  Street et al.
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  4017912
ISD  19770400
NAM  Young
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  4042982
ISD  19770800
NAM  Contreras
OCL    4 67A
LREP
FR2  Collard; Allison C.
FR2  Galgano; Thomas M.
ABST
PAL  An improved toilet flushing assembly is provided of the type which includes
      a water tank, a water discharge pipe disposed at least partially within
      the tank, and which has an opening at the upper end thereof, defining a
      primary flush valve seat, a flush valve ball communicative with the flush
      valve seat, means for moving the flush valve ball between an open and
      closed position relative to the primary flush valve seat, and a generally
      upstanding overflow pipe disposed within the tank and having a lower open
      end which communicates with the discharge pipe. The improved assembly
      provides an overflow pipe having an opening therein disposed at a level
      above the primary valve seat, which opening defines a secondary flush
      valve seat. A movable valve member is disposed within the tank for
      communication with the secondary valve seat and means are provided for
      moving the valve member between an open and closed position relative to
      the secondary flush valve seat, so as to permit, in the open position
      thereof, a partial discharge of the water held in the tank through the
      overflow pipe and, in turn, the discharge pipe, while the primary flush
      valve ball remains in a closed position relative to the primary valve
      seat.
BSUM
PAR  This invention relates to an improved toilet flushing assembly. More
      particularly, it relates to an improved toilet flushing assembly which
      permits a partial discharge of the water contained in the tank.
PAR  Toilet flushing assemblies are, of course, well known in the art.
      Typically, they include a water tank, a water discharge pipe disposed at
      least partially within the tank and having an opening at the upper end
      thereof, defining a primary flush valve seat, and a flush valve ball
      communicative with the primary flush valve seat. Means are also provided
      for moving the flush valve ball between an open and closed position
      relative to the primary flush valve seat, to respectively permit the
      discharge and containment of the water introduced into the tank. Usually,
      these means include an external, pivotable handle mounted on the water
      tank which is coupled to a generally horizontally disposed trip arm
      located within the tank which, in turn, supports a generally vertically
      disposed trip hook or wire. The trip wire is connected to the shaft of the
      flush valve ball and, upon the pivoting of the handle and trip arm, raises
      the flush valve ball to permit discharge of the water to the toilet bowl.
      While devices of this type have worked quite well and are widely used,
      they have been found to be generally unsatisfactory in that they always
      permit a full discharge of water from the tank, which is often not
      required. This results in the wasteful use of considerable amounts of
      water, as well as in increased operational costs.
PAR  While attempts have been made to improve upon the above-noted deficiency,
      the assemblies proposed are generally complicated and are not easily
      adapted to existing, conventional flushing assemblies. Some require a
      complete redesign of an existing toilet assembly, while others have rather
      complicated constructions. In addition, so far as is known, no presently
      available flushing assembly deals with this problem in the highly
      effective, yet relatively simple manner herein proposed.
PAR  Accordingly, it is an object of the present invention to provide an
      improved toilet flushing assembly, which permits the partial discharge of
      water from the water tank, so as to minimize water usage and operational
      costs.
PAR  It is also an object of the present invention to provide such an improved
      toilet flushing assembly, which is easily adaptable to existing toilet
      flushing assemblies.
PAR  It is a further object of the instant invention to provide such an improved
      flushing assembly, which is simple in operation, highly reliable, durable
      and easy to install.
PAR  It is still another object of the present invention to provide such an
      improved flushing assembly, which is economical and may be constructed
      from readily available, commercially produced parts.
PAR  Certain of the foregoing and related objects are readily attained in a
      toilet flushing assembly of the type which includes a water tank, a water
      discharge pipe disposed at least partially within the tank and having an
      opening at the upper end thereof, defining a primary flush valve seat, a
      flush valve ball communicative with the primary flush valve seat, means
      for moving the flush valve ball between an open and closed position
      relative to the primary flush valve seat, to respectively permit the
      discharge and the containment of the water introduced into the tank, and a
      generally upstanding overflow pipe disposed in the tank and having a lower
      open end which communicates with the discharge pipe. The improved toilet
      flushing assembly provides an overflow pipe having an opening therein
      disposed at a level above the primary flush valve seat, which opening
      defines a secondary flush valve seat. A movable valve member is disposed
      within the tank for effecting sealing engagement with the secondary valve
      seat, and means are provided for moving the valve member between an open
      and closed position relative to the secondary flush valve seat. As a
      result, when the valve member is moved to an open position, a partial
      discharge of the water contained in the tank is effected through the
      overflow pipe and, in turn, the discharge pipe, while the flush valve ball
      remains in a closed position relative to the primary valve seat.
PAR  Preferably, the means for moving the valve member includes a float member,
      a pivotal rocker arm having a first leg to which the float member is
      secured, and a second leg disposed beneath the first leg, to which the
      valve member is secured. The means also include means for pivoting the
      rocker arm in a first direction to permit movement of the valve member
      from the closed to the open position thereof, so as to permit partial
      discharge of the water contained in the tank. Upon partial discharge, the
      float member is lowered as the water level drops and causes pivotal
      movement of the rocker arm in a second direction, opposite to that of the
      first direction to, in turn, cause movement of the valve member from the
      open to the closed position thereof. The assembly is thus automatically
      set for repetition of the flushing cycle.
PAR  Most advantageously, the rocker arm is pivotally mounted on the overflow
      pipe, and the means for moving the rocker arm includes a pivotal handle
      mounted externally on the tank, a generally horizontally disposed,
      elongated trip arm mounted withint the tank, one end of which is coupled
      to the handle to permit pivotal movement of the trip arm about the inner
      end thereof, and an elongated trip hook, secured to the trip arm, having a
      lower depending end which engages a third leg of the rocker arm.
PAR  In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the overflow pipe has a
      cylindrical flange extending laterally outwardly therefrom, having an
      outer, open end which defines the secondary flush valve seat, and the
      valve member comprises a generally cup-shaped element having a channelled
      rim which sealingly engages the outer end of the flange in the closed
      position thereof. Most desirably, the rocker arm has a generally S-shaped
      configuration, the upper and lower ends of which define, respectively, the
      third and second legs thereof, with the first leg being disposed between
      the upper and lower ends thereof.
PAR  Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent
      from the following detailed description, when taken in connection with the
      accompanying drawings, which disclose a single embodiment of the
      invention. It is to be understood that the drawings are designed for the
      purposes of illustration only, and are not intended as a definition of the
      limits and scope of the invention disclosed.
DRWD
PAR  In the drawings, wherein similar reference numerals denote similar elements
      throughout the several views:
PAR  FIG. 1 is a perspective view of a toilet in which the improved toilet
      flushing assembly embodying the present invention, is installed;
PAR  FIG. 2 is a cross-sectional view, in part elevation, taken along line 2--2
      of FIG. 1, illustrating the improved flushing assembly embodying the
      present invention;
PAR  FIG. 3 is an enlarged, elevational view, in part section, taken along line
      3--3 of FIG. 2;
PAR  FIG. 4 is an enlarged, fragmentarily-illustrated elevational view, in part
      section, of a portion of the flushing assembly shown in FIG. 2 and
      illustrating movement of the rocker arm to an open position, to effect a
      partial discharge of the water contained in the tank; and
PAR  FIG. 5 is a view similar to that of FIG. 4, but showing pivotal movement of
      the rocker arm to a closed position to effect stopping of the partial
      discharge of water.
DETD
PAR  Turning now in detail to the appended drawings, therein illustrated is a
      novel toilet flushing assembly, embodying the present invention, which is
      installed in a conventional toilet, such as that shown in FIG. 1. As can
      be seen more clearly in FIG. 2, the toilet includes a generally
      rectangular water tank 11 having a lid 12. Tank 11 is supplied with water
      by means of a water supply pipe 13. Water supply pipe 13 extends through
      the base 14 of tank 11 and is coupled to an upstanding inlet pipe 15, the
      top end of which supports an inlet valve 16. A movable inlet valve plunger
      (not illustrated) is disposed for communication with inlet valve 16. The
      valve plunger is coupled to a float arm 18 of a float 19, which rises and
      falls relative to the water level in tank 11. As water enters tank 11
      through inlet valve 16, the water level and, in turn, float 19 will rise
      until it reaches a predesired level, at which point it will cause the
      inlet valve plunger to be pushed down into inlet valve 16, thus cutting
      off the supply of water. Conversely, when the water is flushed from tank
      11, causing the water level to fall, float 19 will drop and, in turn, lift
      the valve plunger and open inlet valve 16, to permit filling of tank 11
      with water.
PAR  Water is discharged to the toilet bowl 22 by means of a drain pipe 23, the
      upper end of which extends through base 14 of tank 11, and opens into the
      interior of tank 11, to define a flush valve seat 24. The upper end of
      drain pipe 23 is also connected to an upstanding overflow pipe 25. A flush
      valve shaft bracket 26 is mounted on pipe 25, and slidably supports a
      flush valve ball shaft 27 of a flush valve ball 28. Flush valve ball 28
      normally sits on valve seat 24, to prevent the discharge of water from
      tank 11. Flush valve ball 28 is raised off flush valve seat 24 by means of
      a toilet flushing assembly, which includes a pivotable handle 30 mounted
      externally of tank 11 (see FIG. 1), an elongated trip arm 31 which is
      generally horizontally disposed within tank 11, and which has an inner end
      32 which is coupled to handle 30, and a generally vertically disposed trip
      wire 34, which is supported on the outer end 33 of trip arm 31 and which
      has a depending lower bent eyelet end, which is slidably supported on
      flush valve shaft 27 between the mounting bracket 26 and the upper
      abutment end 20 of valve shaft 27.
PAR  By depressing handle 30, the outer end 33 of trip arm 31 will pivot
      upwardly about its inner end 32, lifting trip wire 34 and, in turn, flush
      valve shaft 27 and flush valve ball 28, thereby permitting the water to
      run from tank 11 through drain pipe 23 and to bowl 23. As the water is
      flushed from tank 11, the flush valve ball 28, guided by its shaft 27 and
      bracket 26, will drop and come to rest atop valve seat 24, thereby
      shutting off the discharge of water from tank 11. Concurrently, due to the
      drop of water level, float 19 will be lowered to open inlet valve 16 and
      thereby permit tank 11 to be refilled. Typically, a bowl refill pipe (not
      shown) is provided between the inlet valve 16 and overflow pipe 25, which
      permits bowl 23 to be refilled during refilling of tank 11; overflow pipe
      25 providing a connection to drain pipe 23 which bypasses valve seat 24.
PAR  As can be appreciated, due to the foregoing construction and mode of
      operation, each time handle 30 is depressed, a full discharge of water is
      effected, which, as previously pointed out, is sometimes not needed and,
      in fact, wasteful. To alleviate this problem and permit a partial
      discharge of water, overflow pipe 25 is provided with a cylindrical flange
      40, extending laterally outwardly therefrom at a level above valve seat 24
      but below the desired water level, for full discharge. The outer end of
      flange 40 defines a secondary flush valve seat 41 (see FIG. 4), which,
      when opened, will only permit a partial discharge of water from tank 11. A
      generally S-shaped rocker arm 42 is pivotally mounted on overflow pipe 25
      by means of a mounting bracket 47 and pin 48. Rocker arm 42 includes an
      upper leg 43 disposed above its pivot axis, a lower leg 44 disposed below
      its pivot axis, and a central leg 45 disposed between its upper and lower
      legs 43,44, which supports a secondary float 46. The lower leg 44 of
      rocker arm 42 supports a generally cup-shaped valve member 50, having a
      grooved, rubber rim 51, which is disposed for sealing engagement with
      secondary valve seat 41. As can be seen more clearly in FIG. 3, a
      generally U-shaped bracket 53 is mounted on trip arm 31 between the ends
      thereof, and is held at a fixed location thereon by means of a screw 56
      received through both bracket 53 and arm 31. The upper eyelet end 57 of a
      secondary trip wire or hook 52 is supported on screw 56. Trip wire 52 has
      a lower, hook-shaped end 55 which is received about upper leg 43 of rocker
      arm 42.
PAR  When handle 30 is partially depressed, it will cause trip arm 31 to pivot
      upwardly about its inner end 32 and, in turn, cause trip wire 52 to be
      raised. The raising of trip wire 52 will, in turn, raise upper leg 43 of
      rocker arm 42, causing it to pivot about its pivot axis (i.e., pin 48). As
      a result, lower leg 44 of rocker arm 42 will be pivoted away from flange
      40, in turn, causing disengagement of valve member 50 from secondary valve
      seat 41. Consequently, the water will flow through flange 40 and through
      overflow pipe 25 and drain pipe 23 and into bowl 23. While the water is
      being flushed, float 46 will descend with the drop in water level,
      causing, in turn, rocker arm 42 to pivot back and effect reseating of rim
      51 of valve member 50 against secondary valve seat 41. Generally, there is
      a normal vacuum condition existing at seat 41, due to the fact that the
      overflow pipe is generally empty when not in use, and the water in tank 11
      holds valve member 50 tight against seat 41, preventing leakage. If a full
      flush is desired, handle 30 is turned all the way, as in normal use. This
      causes trip arm 31 to also raise trip hook 34 and, in turn, flush valve
      ball 28, in the usual way; the spacing between lower end 35 of trip hook
      34 and the upper abutment end 20 of flush valve shaft 27 preventing flush
      valve ball 28 from being raised when handle 30 is also partially
      depressed.
PAR  As can be appreciated, the instant flushing assembly is readily adaptable
      to conventional toilet flushing assemblies, requires few additional parts
      and only a slight modification of the conventional assembly set-up. The
      device can be readily installed and be made from readily-available,
      metallic or plastic commercial parts.
PAR  While only a single embodiment of the present invention has been shown and
      described, it will be obvious to those persons of ordinary skill in the
      art, that many changes and modifications may be made thereunto, without
      departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.
CLMS
STM  What is claimed is:
NUM  1.
PAR  1. In a toilet flushing assembly of the type including a water tank, a
      water discharge pipe disposed at least partially within the tank and
      having an opening at the upper end thereof defining a primary flush valve
      seat, a flush valve ball, means for moving the flush valve ball between an
      open and closed position relative to the primary flush valve seat to
      respectively permit the discharge from and the containment of the water
      introduced into the tank, and a generally upstanding overflow pipe
      disposed within the tank and having a lower open end which communicates
      with the discharge pipe, the improvement, comprising:
PA1  said overflow pipe having an opening therein disposed at a level above said
      primary valve seat which opening defines a secondary flush valve seat;
PA1  a movable valve member disposed within said tank for effecting sealing
      engagement with said secondary valve seat; and
PA1  means for moving said valve member between an open and closed position
      relative to said secondary flush valve seat, so as to permit in said open
      position thereof, a partial discharge of the water held in said tank
      through said overflow pipe and, in turn, said discharge pipe, while said
      flush valve ball remains in a closed position relative to said primary
      valve seat, said means for moving said valve member includes a float
      member, a pivotable rocker arm pivotably mounted on said overflow pipe by
      a mounting bracket and pin and having a first leg extending generally
      axially to which said float member is rigidly secured at the end of said
      first end remote from said bracket and pin and a second leg, disposed
      beneath said first leg, to which said valve member is secured and means
      for pivoting said rocker arm in a first direction to permit movement of
      said valve member from said closed to said open position thereof, so as to
      permit partial discharge of water contained in said tank, said float
      member being lowered as the water level drops and causing pivotable
      movement of said rocker arm in a second direction opposite to that of said
      first direction to, in turn, cause movement of said valve member from said
      open to said closed position thereof; and wherein said rocker arm includes
      a third leg and wherein said means for pivoting said rocker arm includes a
      pivotable handle mounted externally on said tank, an elongated trip arm
      generally horizontally disposed within the tank, one end of which is
      coupled to said handle to permit pivotable movement of said trip arm about
      said inner end thereof, and an elongated, generally vertically disposed
      trip hook secured to said trip arm, having a lower depending end which
      engages said third leg of said rocker arm; and wherein said rocker arm has
      a generally S-shaped configuration, the upper and lower ends of which
      define, respectively, said third and second legs thereof, with said first
      leg disposed between said upper and lower ends thereof.
NUM  2.
PAR  2. The assembly according to claim 1, wherein said overflow pipe has a
      cylindrical flange extending laterally outwardly therefrom, having an
      outer, open end which defines said secondary flush valve seat, and wherein
      said valve member comprises a generally cup-shaped element having a
      channelled rim which sealingly engages the outer, open end of said flange
      when in a closed position.
PATN
WKU  041158822
SRC  5
APN  783148&
APT  1
ART  243
APD  19770331
TTL  Flush valve for toilet tanks
ISD  19780926
NCL  9
ECL  1
EXP  Artis; Henry K.
NDR  3
NFG  9
INVT
NAM  Paulus; Paul
STR  3394 Paris Blvd.
CTY  Westerville
STA  OH
ZIP  43081
CLAS
OCL    4327
XCL    4326
XCL    4345
EDF  2
ICL  E03D  114
FSC    4
FSS  67 A;34;37;58;55;287
UREF
PNO  934353
ISD  19090900
NAM  Prichett
OCL    4 37
UREF
PNO  2066796
ISD  19370100
NAM  Muller
OCL    4 58
UREF
PNO  2237294
ISD  19410400
NAM  Easley
OCL    4 37
UREF
PNO  3665526
ISD  19720500
NAM  Hoffman
OCL    4287
UREF
PNO  3869733
ISD  19750300
NAM  White
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  3903551
ISD  19750900
NAM  Johnson
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  3913149
ISD  19751000
NAM  Brinton
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  3916455
ISD  19751100
NAM  Longdin
OCL    4 67A
UREF
PNO  4042982
ISD  19770800
NAM  Contreras
OCL    4 67A
LREP
FR2  Harrison, Jr.; Van D.
ABST
PAL  Disclosed is a flush valve for toilet tanks comprising in a general form a
      hollow tubular member having a valve head on its lower end and adapted at
      its upper end to seat with a second valve head. The lower end rests in a
      valve seat located in or near the bottom of the flush tank. A second valve
      head is positioned on or seats in the upper end of the tubular member. It
      is positioned so that it can be raised a short distance to permit the flow
      of water into the top of the tubular member and from thence into the stool
      below.
BSUM
PAC  NATURE OF INVENTION
PAR  This invention relates to flush valves. More particularly it relates to
      flush valves for controlling the amount of water dispensed to a toilet
      bowl.
PAC  BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION
PAR  The conservation of water is a matter of ever increasing importance.
      Erratic patterns of snowfall and rainfall, increased concentrations of
      population, and increased costs of making raw water acceptable to
      community use necessitates reduced consumption of water in many areas.
PAC  OBJECTS OF THE INVENTION
PAR  One object of this invention is to provide a flush valve for a toilet tank
      wherein alternative amounts of water can be consumed in the flushing
      operation. Still another object of this invention is to reduce the amount
      of water used in flushing a toilet stool. These and other objects of the
      invention will be readily apparent from the following description and
      drawings attached hereto.
DRWD
PAC  DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
PAR  In the drawings:
PAR  FIG. 1 is a front elevational view of a flush tank, with a portion of the
      tank broken away, showing a preferred embodiment of the flush valve of
      this invention in place.
PAR  FIG. 2 is a sectional view of the flush valve in FIG. 1 taken along the
      line 2--2 in FIG. 1.
PAR  FIG. 2A is a cross sectional elevational view of a valve-seat adaptor in
      which the valve of FIG. 2 may be seated.
PAR  FIG. 3 is a horizontal cross section of the valve in FIG. 2 taken along the
      line 3--3.
PAR  FIG. 4 is an elevational view of another embodiment of the invention with a
      portion broken away.
PAR  FIG. 5 is an elevational view of still another embodiment of the valve of
      this invention.
PAR  FIG. 6 is an elevational view of still another embodiment of the valve of
      this invention.
PAR  FIG. 7 is another embodiment of the valve of this invention.
PAR  FIG. 8 is a vertical cross sectional view of an alternative valve head
      configuration.
DETD
PAC  SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION
PAR  Briefly stated this invention comprises a flush valve primarily for use in
      a toilet flush tank having a tip lever and a drain opening near or in the
      bottom of said flush tank comprising:
PA1  (a) a first tubular member having a longitudinal bore therethough and
      adapted at its upper end to seat and seal against a valve head;
PA1  (b) a first valve head fixed on the other end of the first tubular member
      and adapted to seal against the drain opening in the bottom of the tank;
PA1  (c) a guide engaging said first tubular member and adapted to guide it
      vertically;
PA1  (d) a second valve head adapted to seal against said one end of said first
      tubular member;
PA1  (e) means for attaching said second valve head to said trip lever;
PA1  (f) means attached to said first tubular member for arresting the upward
      travel of said second valve head relative to said first tubular member;
      and
PA1  (g) means for equalizing the pressure between the interior of said first
      tubular member and the atmosphere when the water level around said first
      tubular member subsides below the top of said first tubular member.
PAC  DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
PAR  In the following description the flush valve of this invention is described
      as used in a flush tank equipped with a trip lever and flush handle
      attached to the lever for initiating flow of water from the tank and also
      equipped with a water inlet valve whose opening and closing is controlled
      by a float. The water inlet control valve and float control attached
      thereto do not form a part of the invention described herein.
PAR  FIGS. 1, 2, 2A and 3 depict the most preferred, and it is believed best,
      embodiment of the flush valve of this invention. In FIG. 1 reference
      numeral 2 denotes generally the bottom of a toilet flush tank 1 having a
      drain opening 3. Drain tube 4 is fixed in opening 3 with a water-tight
      seal. The top end of drain tube 4 terminates in a valve seat or is
      otherwise adapted to form with valve head 5 a water tight seal when the
      opposing surfaces of each are seated together and water fills the tank 1.
      Bowl refill tube 6 connects to the water inlet control valve (not shown)
      and to drain tube 4 at a point below the juncture of valve head 5 and the
      top of drain tube 4. Bowl refill tube 6 supplies water to the trap of the
      toilet bowl connected to drain tube 4. It is preferable that the top of
      the drain tube 4 terminate somewhere near the bottom of the tank.
      Positioned rigidly in drain tube 4 is guide member 7. In FIG. 2 guide
      member 7 is shown as a rigidly fixed crossmember 8 supporting a coaxial
      collar 9. Rod 10 is free to slide in collar 9 but has at its lower end a
      circular flange 11 which prevents it from slipping upward completely and
      out of collar 9. The configuration of guide member 7 can, of course, be
      changed without departing from the spirit of the invention.
PAR  Rod 10 extends into upper tube 12 which carries on its lower end a valve
      head 5 adapted to seat against the top of drain tube 1. Crossmember 14 is
      attached to the interior of tube 12 and to rod 10 so that the two are
      aligned coaxially. Optionally rod 10 can be fixed in a sliding
      relationship with crossmember 14 but the more rigid structure is
      preferred. Mounted near the upper end of tube 12 is a third guide member
      15 constructed much as in the manner of guide member 7. Rod 16 is free to
      slide in collar 17 rigidly supported by crossmember 18. Again a flange 19
      prevents the withdrawal of rod 16 from collar 17. Rod 16 extends upward
      into a second tube 20. A second valve head 21 is fixed to the bottom of
      tube 20 and is adapted to form a water tight seal with the top of tube 12.
      A rigid crosspiece 22 attaches rod 16 to the interior of tube 20 in a
      coaxial alignment. Tube 20 extends vertically to a height slightly above
      the desired water level in the tank. The top of tube 20 is linked by any
      means desired such as bale 23 and hook 24 to the end of trip lever 25.
PAR  If it is desired to flush only liquid waste from the toilet bowl attached
      below the flush tank by drain tube 4, the trip lever 25 is raised by means
      of flush handle 26 to a point where tube 20 and valve head 21 attached
      thereto are lifted out of contact with the top of tube 12. Water will then
      flow in through the top of the tube 12, down through the center of tube
      12, through drain tube 4, and into the toilet bowl. In the event it is
      desirable to flush solid waste from the toilet bowl, and a greater volume
      of water is required, trip lever 25 is raised by means of flush handle 26
      to a point where flange 19 engages collar 17 and tube 12 and valve head 5
      are raised out of contact with the top of drain tube 4. The flow of water
      through bowl refill tube 6 is regulated solely by the inlet valve on the
      water inlet line 27.
PAR  It is not readily apparent in this embodiment of the invention, but the
      open-ended hollow tube 20 serves the important function of admitting air
      to the interior of the tube 12 after valve head 21 has reseated on the top
      of tube 12 and the function of eliminating any pressure differential
      between the interior of tube 12 and the atmosphere. An appreciable part of
      the interior volume of tube 12 may still be filled with water when valve
      head 21 seats on tube 12. If no means is available to equalize the
      pressure between the atmosphere and the interior of tube 12, this retained
      water will cause valve head 5 to seat prematurely before all water present
      in the tank has flowed into drain tube 4. If, however, any pressure
      differential is eliminated, no water will be retained inside tube 12 and
      the flow of water through drain tube 4 will be unimpaired.
PAR  In FIGS. 1 and 2 the flush valve of this invention is shown as an original
      part of the flush tank design. FIG. 2A illustrates how the valve of FIGS.
      1 and 2 can be adapted to other tanks. In FIG. 2A reference numeral 28
      desi