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Specification of Letters Patent No. 699, dated April 21, 1838.

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, Denmon G. Stone, of the village of Naponock, 
in the town of Wawarsing, in the county of Ulster and State of 
New York, blacksmith and machinist, have invented, constructed, 
made, and applied to use a new and useful improvement in 
preparing the iron part or portion of narrow axes, broad axes, 
hatchets, and carpenters' adzes, and punching and shaping the 
same by the machinery of a single machine so that they shall be 
ready for welding the steel upon them when they have undergone 
the operations of the said machine, which said inventions is 
called and known by the name of the "axe-machine," and is 
specified and described in the words following—that is to say:

This invention or improvement consists of the combination in a 
single machine of parts hereinafter specified as new and of the 
machinery hereinafter described for performing the operations, 
first, of cutting the bars of iron previously rolled and prepared 
for that purpose into pieces of any desired length, as 
represented in Figure 2, Plate 1. Secondly, punching the eye of 
the ax in the said pieces after they have been heated to a red 
heat in a furnace. Thirdly, driving a steel handle through the 
eye, so as to handle the same and preserve the proper shape 
during the subsequent operations. Fourthly, shaping the ears of 
the ax in one die, and smoothing and reducing it in a second die. 
Fifthly, pressing and shaping the ax in another die after the 
steel has been welded in. The shears or cutting machinery (No. 1 
of drawing) are composed of two levers Nos. 1, and 1, Fig. 1, 
Plates 1 and 2, fixed in shafts (No. 2) and are composed of iron 
or other suitable material, the ends of which project beyond the 
shafts and being armed with steel 21, 21, Fig. 4, cut the iron 
bar as it is presented to it in the usual way of cutting bar iron 
for that purpose.

I do not claim anything as original in this mode of performing 
that operation.

The levers are worked by eccentric wheels, Fig. 2, Plate. 2, one 
of which is shown in Fig. 4, same plate, which are fitted into 
strong iron rims, No. 22, Figs. 3, and 4, at their ends, which 
rims are of such elliptical form that the largest diameter is 
twice the distance from the center of the shaft on which the 
eccentric wheel revolves, to that part of the circumference of 
the wheel farthest from the said center of the shaft. The shafts, 
No. 2, 2, on which the said levers are fixed are placed one 
directly above the other. Each of these shafts is both a fulcrum 
for the lever fixed on it and a bed for the dies before 

When the iron has been cut and properly heated it is introduced 
into a chamber (No. 3) Figs. 1 and 5, Plates 1 and 2, formed  by 
a base or stand of cast iron or other suitable material (No. 4) 
which stand is fixed at the sides by keys movable at pleasure to 
regulate the size of the chamber according to the size of the ax. 
The sides of the chamber are formed of pieces of cast iron or 
other suitable material fixed permanently in the base or stand 
above mentioned and through an opening of any size that may be 
desirable in one of those sides, a slide (No. 5) composed of iron 
or other suitable material enters which is moved into the chamber 
for the purpose of pressing and holding the iron firmly in its 
place. This is worked by means of a cam (No. 6) and lever (No. 
7,) which lever as the cam revolves pushes the said slide forward 
or backward, holding the iron firmly in its place until the punch 
in the sliding shaft (No. 8), has penetrated it as far as it is 
permitted to do. The backward motion of the slide when releases 
it when it is taken by the workman and inverted for the purpose 
of presenting the opposite side to the punch. A screw, No. 24, at 
the closed end of the chamber regulates or sets the iron for the 

The punch, Fig. 6, No. 25, Plates 1 and 2, is formed of steel of 
proper shape and dimensions for the eye of an ax, hatchet, &c., 
and is fastened into the socket of a hollow sliding shaft of 
iron, No. 8, supported by a stand (No. 18) attached to the main 
stand (No. 7) with suitable boxes by one or more keys. This 
sliding shaft is fixed into the end of a lever beam (No. 9, 9, 9) 
which is fixed upon and worked by the shaft through which the 
upper lever composing the shears passes. After the iron has been 
thus punched through in this chamber it is placed in a second 
chamber (No. 10) Fig. 11, under the other end of the lever beam 
(No. 9, 9, 9). This chamber is of similar construction to the 
first except that it is closed on both sides and has no slide. 
This is for the purpose of driving the steel handle, above 
mentioned through the eye. This steel handle of proper form and 
size to correspond with the punch used in the first chamber, is 
then forced through the eye of the ax by a sliding shaft (No. 11) 
supported and worked in the same manner as the sliding-shaft (No. 
8) at the end of the lever beam as last above mentioned, and the 
ax is then ready to be introduced into the first of the dies 
before mentioned.

The two main shafts (No. 2, 2) are armed with dies (No. 12, 12) 
upon the upper side of the lower and the lower side of the upper 
shaft, which are fastened in their places with keys and may be 
changed at pleasure. The main shafts are fixed in iron stands 
(No. 17, —) of suitable proportions similar to those used in 
machines for rolling iron and are worked by the main levers as 
above mentioned. The first dies (No. 12, 12) are of such a form 
that the ax is pressed so as to bring out the ears of the ax to a 
proper shape, Fig. 11, Plate 2, and Fig. 3, Plate 1, by means of 
the figure given to the dies, and the vibratory motion 
communicated to the shaft by the main levers as aforesaid. The ax 
is then taken out and introduced edgewise into a second set of 
dies in the same shaft so as to press the edges into proper 
shape, Fig. 4, Plate 1, and Fig. 13, Plate 2. It is then passed 
to the third pair of dies in the same shaft where it is again 
smoothed down and receives its final shape, Fig. 5, from the 
figure of the dies and is then ready to be split (as at Fig. 7) 
in chamber (No. 19) for receiving the steel chisel, Fig. 12, 
worked similar to the punching operation. After the steel which 
may be fitted for that purpose by heating and cutting to shape, 
Fig. 3, and pressing in a die of proper form, Fig. 14, has been 
welded in the ax and hammered to near its proper shape it is then 
passed into a fourth set of dies, No. 20, in the same shaft where 
it is pressed into its proper shape and is then ready for 

The above described parts of the machine are to rest or be fixed 
upon a bed plate (No. 13) of cast iron or other suitable 

The whole machine is to be worked by water power, steam or any 
other mechanical power of sufficient force, which may be 
communicated to the eccentric wheels, Figs. 2 and 23, Plate 2, by 
means of a pinion wheel (No. 14) cog wheels, &c., with a balance 
wheel (No. 16) to regulate the motions of the eccentric by a 
driving pulley, No. 27.

I claim as my original invention—

1. The combination of the various parts above specified so as to 
make a single machine capable of preparing axes for the steel as 
above described.

2. I also claim as my original invention the first chamber above 
specified as to the manner of holding and releasing the ax by the 
means above specified and of punching the eye as set forth and 
specified, in combination.

In testimony whereof and that the above is a true specification 
of my said invention and improvement as above described I have 
hereunto set my hand this seventh day of September one thousand 
eight hundred and thirty-seven.

D. G. STONE. [l.s.]

In the presence of

Ralph I. Lockwood, A. H. Southwick.