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THE 



Victorian Naturalist 

THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 

of the 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA 



VOL. 60 
MAY, 1943, TO APRIL, 1944 



Hon. Editor; A. H. CHISHOLM, F.R.Z.S. 



The Author of each Article is responsible for 
the facts and opinions recorded 



Melbourne : 
Brown, Prior* Anderson Pty. Ltd., 430 Little Bourke Street 

1944 



THE CLUB'S PUBLICATIONS = 

VICTORIAN PERNS, by Richard "W. Boud, sLkhiM be in 
(lie hands of all fern-lovers, as it contains descriptions of every 
{cm luiovm to occur naturally hi our Sute f tells where to lii«* 
them, how to identify them, nncl how to grow them. Price, 2/-. 

VICTORIAN FUNGI, by J. II. Willis, a beautifully illustrated 
ami highly Informative account of llie Mushrooms and Toadstools 
of Hit- Siftte. Price, 2/6. 

A CENSUS OF VICTORIAN PLANTS, by the Plant-mimca 
Committee of the Qub, contains the vernaculars of all our pUrnU. 

IThliouwl copies only from the Hon. Librarian, price 1/6, posted 
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The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LX— No. i May 6, 1943 No - 7*3 



PROCEEDINGS 

The ordinary meeting of the Club was held at the Uoval Society's 
Hall on Monday, April 12, 1943. The President (Mr" ft Cvosbie 
Morrison) presided and about 80 members and friends attended. 

WELCOME TO VLSITOR5 

Tfcfi President welcomed to the meeting. Lieut. Lee Burcham, 
oi the- US- Marino; and a forestry graduate from the University 
of California. Other visitors included Miss Leumann from S-A.. 
Mr Ricschisk from Doncaster, Mr. W. Rurrows, several memhers 
in uniform and Mr. Ludowici, a member from Sydney. Mr. 
Ludowici brought greetings from the. NS.W. Naturalists* Club. 

SUBJECT FOR THE EVENING 

This look the form ot a symposium on the subject of M §Qii 
Conservation'"' and was dealt" with under the following heads-: 

(a) Genera] introduction- — Mr, Morrison, in his remains 
Kilfcr this heading:, pointed out what erosion Iras done in the more 
ancient countries, as China and India, and drew a parallel between 
them and Australia. 

(b) Botanical side of erosion. — Mr. P. F. Morris pointed out 
that it was removal ot vegetational cover* that caused erosion, and 
said Uial in many cases it was pioneering and advancing civilisa- 
tion that had started it all. Forests were cut or burned down (or 
crop lands, often in the most unsuitable areas; stock was intro- 
duced and greed caused over-stocking and subsequent eating out 
of the flora, Besides these factory rabbits played a large part in 
laud despoiling, due to their habit, of eating- roois- 

(c) Erosion Results. — Mr. F. S. Col liver spoke on some out- 
standing geographical features due to erosion, mentioning and 
showing dlnstraiions of moving sand dimes in Egypt, desert 
country in Peru, great chasms in the loess formations of China, 
bad lands in parts of America, effect of wind on the slime dumps of 
the Band. etc. He pointed out that similar features could and 
would eventuate in Australia. Wind influence was mentioned as 
the most insidious and therefore most dangerous form of erosion. 

(d) Small-Scale Remedial Measures. — Mr. Ivo Hammett, talo 
ing Ins own garden as an example, spoke of the dangers of wind 



v 77/,: Fitifff&hl '\ t >y»}po.u i <„r [V!™?' 

erosion, and described how he had overcome the effects by a capping 
of gravel. He also remarked that since the gravel was spread most 
of the native plants had produced an abundance of seedlings. A 
series of slides showing native plants under cultivation, in the; 
Malice ?,nd at I van hoe, and sections showing how the bed* were 
built up, illustrated Mr. Hammett's remarks. 

(c) Large- Scale Remedial Measures. — Mr. P. Bibby showed 
illustrations of contour ploughing and terracing for hill slopes. 
planting of willow and other trees for river banks, various means 
of diverting river flow from erosion areas, brush laying and subse- 
quent planting for wind-swept areas, and the various means for 
reclamation of eroded gullies. 

In the remarks that followed. Mr. A 1J. Hardy and Lieut. Lee 
Burcham spoke oil theiv ^xpeiiences in conservation matters rtver- 
sears, and Messrs. Lndowici, Gates, Hyaau and Jenkins contributed 
to the discussion. 

REPORTS OF EXCURSIONS 

Reports of Excursions were given as follows. Botanical Garden, 
Mr. H. C. K Stewart; Studley Park, Mr. P. Bibby. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS 

The following were duly elected as ordinary members of the 
Club: Mrs. E, E. Lord/and Mr. R. Whit worth; as Country 
Member, Miss Ruth BemuVr, as Associate Member, Mi.^s CobVetl 

QVugg. 

GEMERAL BUSINESS 

Pfanr. Names Sub-Committee. — A recommendation from the 
Committee was as follows; ''Thai the Plant Names Sub*Commi(tee 
be re-constiutied wirb the following personnel: Messrs. P F. 
Morns. J. H. Willis, P. Bibby, E. E. Peseott, Noel Lothian and 
Dr. C S. Sutton, and that three be a quorum for meetings.*' 

This recommendation was adopted. 



THE FITZGERALD "SYMPOSIUM" 
Since, contributors bctfan to express- thctr views (in the January lumilier 
of tltiS journal), neither Mrv Messir.er, Mrs. MjUcr. nor Mr Rupp has- 
OlStdo any reference to (he great Australian ordudofogist's own bandwniine 
Several of his letters to Baron, von Mueller are preserved at the Melbourne 
H^harium, atttf in these be uiniueslicnahly signs his name with a capital "G ** 
Echoing Mr. Rupp's sentiment, if an educated man 'anuot \vhe his owu 
namf; Correctly, then who can? Mrs, Mc-ssmers precedent: in reuorins*- the 
capiul "G ,T is entirely justified and there should be no twn ways about fflft* 
future citation of ^FiuGerald' 1 :n botanical literature, 

JMtU 11. Wiu.1^. 



SH J FjMin Co!.ema« ( r/itf Stoty of My Honty-Bcrx $ 

THE STORY OF MY HONEY-BEES 
By Edith Coleman, Blackburn, Vic. 

For several reasons it seemed no more than poetic justice thai a 
swanto of bees should settle m this garden. As the daughter of my 
father J could not fail to be interested iu them, for there had 
always been a hive, sometimes two t in his garden. Moreover for 
years I had been filling (he garden with English herbs and cottage 
flowers which for centuries have been regarded as "bee-flowers/ 1 

The: bees came in late October, 1941, to a garden .full of blossom 
When discovered, the fabric of their waxen city had already taken 
shape- It was about as large as a child's football, somewhat flat- 
tened — three collateral leaves of pure white comb with several 
others started. It hung from the top of an apple-tree, and as it 
widened and lengthened it suggested a waxen cave-shawl, or a 
shawl such as a senator might chisel. 

The heo were not molested for it seemed a golden chance to 
note their behaviour when free to follow natural instincts, to 
vpTK without restraint or supervision. Here was living proof that 
the honey-bee (Apis m-cUificn) after centuries of exploitation, is 
not vci fully domesticated, and in thia reversion we were privileged 
to read something of its ancestral ways. 

The swarm had come IQ rest like the Assyrian bees of Isaiah. 
They had settled as the large primitive bee {Apis dorsala) settles 
to-day in Eastern lands where forests literally flow with honey. 
as it flowed in those far-hack days for the men of Israel, wl»e»i 
Jonathan reached up his rod 'and dipped it into an honeycomb." 

Tbi*rr weir many cold days in December, 1941, and January, 
1942, \viih much rain, mid boisterous winds that littered the gar- 
den with broken boughs, The. bees in their naked nest crowded 
between the leaves of comb, wing's extended outward and down- 
ward, so that water ran oft the lips. One could sec the inner he** 
move out, as if to give the outer ones a chance of some warmth. 
It seemed that the}' must perish in then unprotected slate. Later, 
on Mr. Hatnmetl's suggestion, they were covered with a water- 
proof ground-sheet, and soon it was evident that all was well 
with rhem. The combs increased; their amber colour and honey 
scent bore witness io good work among the flowers. 

The apple-trees were humming with bees and every flowering 
plant wavS a tavern to scores of unresting Deborahs, "victims of a 
tyrannical instinct for labour," inheritors of a long pedigree of 
toil. Ceaselessly they foraged, and laboured on the combs, to die 
outworn at six weeks or less, As Bridges laments; <f .Forty days; 
six xmsahbath'il weeks wf lever'd toil wasteth and wcarieth out 
their little frames.** 

The nest was felly open lo the East and West. It seemed 



■4 F.flmt Ccr.r>TAN_. The S'lwy cf My Ihmcy-Hccs RdLlS? 

strange that bees which, under domestication, had loved to work 
in almost lota! darkness, should carry on in full sunlight. 

At no time did I see any fanning; but this is not surprising, for, 
as Professor Romanes points out, fanning is not an inborn 
tendency, but ft evoked by discomforts imposed upon the hecs by 
the bee- keeper. Fanning almost ceased when Huber housed his 
bees in a large hive 5 ft. high. 

The smell of- the honey was delirious. To take it from a naked 
hive, however, required more courage than 1 possess — but I did 
sluriv wavs and means! 

ROBBING THE BEES 

it seemed one had only to so alarm the bees with A puff of smoke 
and, in their eagerness to save their stores, they would fill them- 
selves too full nf honey to curve the body to sting". That process 
sounds easy, bul try it on an nn -walled host free to rush to the 
attack from four directions! An old way whs to suffocate the 
bees in a sulphur pit- Hardy, who had made a study of the 
manners and customs of rural "Wcssex/ 1 desciibes tfc cruel 
method of robbing I he bees. When Fanny (Under the Greenwood 
Tree) protests against the cruelty of it ( her father says; "It you 
suffocate them they only die once. If you fumigate them in the 
new way they come to life and die of starvation, so the pangs of 
death be twice upon them." 

Loudon, in his mammoth compendium of facts for gardeners 
and husbandmen states that T^a Grenee 'has the merit" of having 
shown thai there is neither profit nor humanity in saving bees 
after honey-taking. Mercifully bees are no longer allowed to starve 
after honey-caking. 

In his Malay Arx'.hipeluQf> i published 74 yi-ars ago. A. R. Wallace 
describes the large natural nests built by Jf^h dorsaia on branches 
70 or SO feet from the ground. These nests, 3 or 4 together, were 
built on the underside of a horizontal branch and were often 4 ft. 
in diameter- He tells how the natives robbed the nests at night with 
the aid only of torches Enraged bees chased the sparks instead of 
the robbers; but the men did not go unscathed, nor did Wallace. 

Professor Komanes quotes a significant statement (Nature, 
Vul. xvrt. p. S7i) that European bees when transited to 
Australia retain I heir industrious habits only for the first 2 or 3 
yeats. After that (hey gradually cease to collect honey until they 
become quite idle, and the same, fact is observable with bees trans- 
ported to California, It is obviated by abstracting the honey as it 
is collected. There is a similar statement by Dr Erasmus Darwin 
<hat hecs transported to ihe Barbadoes, where there is ho winter* 
cease to lay up honey So it appeared that T must take the honey 
or entertain idle bees! Perhaps they would revert to nomadic 
habits and follow th« flowering of Eucalypts. 



t.Uy "I 
1013 J 



l.u .i: O-uuhn. The Sioty oj &y Honey-tiff* 



1 had always been interested in the work of bees in pollination, 
bur this was a new experience full of promise to a novice, full of 
surprises, too! As might be expected, the beeo presented many 
problems, 

THE SWARMING 

As the comibs increased emerging young tilled them to overflow- 
ing* taxing all the energies of the comh-buflders, it seemed. 
Swarming appeared b> be imminent. It Ijceame advisable to take 
&ome steps to persuade, my swarms to settle in other parts of the 
garden. J looked up authorities on ''casting," including the quamt 
cla&skts of ancient bee literature which tor some years I had been 
"collec:tmg" ,! as small hoys collect match-box tops, with nothing' 
definite in view, but for pure delight in them. I learned that. 
within certain limits, one was allowed to follow ones bees even to 
a neighbour's Innd. as one drummed with key on pan ' Must I 
really drum them? What would the neighbour? ihink? 

"Bees," says Burton, discussing the response to music of man 
and the lower animals {Anatomy of Melancholy., the only book 
that had power io keep Dr. Jolinson awake all night), "bees 
when ihev hear any tingling sound, will terry he-hind-" On tbir 
other hand, Lawson, the Isaac Walton of gardening and bec- 
husfcmdry, insists that "ringing in the time of casting is pure 
fonet<?/ : 

Modern writers have suggested that diumming, or ringing, 
drowns the shrill piping of the queen, and so prevent? the swarm 
from following her too far. This might necessitate some steps to 
secure another queen. Tt seemed Imperative that I must drum my 
swarm? I gathered from BlacK-more {Springhdven) that when a 
nan is touting for his neighbour's bees the pan must be struck 
softly %i first to tone with the murmuring mob. 1 need not have 
anticipated. The bees knew better than 1 what ihey would do. 
This 'dipping-garden 1 ' apparently suited them and thev meant tt> 
stay. 

Twice the community appeared to break up a little, but in a. 
week, or SO emerging young again filled the combs. 

At night could be heard an elfin biUZ as typical of bees as the 
perfume about the nest. Maeterlinck and others have Stated that 
bees renounce- sleep ; bul do fbey p Taking a torch I several limes 
surprised my bees perfectly motionless, clue perhaps to the new, 
or rather old, conditions under which they were living 

WINTER UEHAVJOUR 

During Ike winter llic bees ware coveied with more sacks, On 
very cold days they appeared not to move,: then, when the weather 
was kinder, they indulged in short flights near the combs. Iv was 
presently obvious that these were cleansing flights, serving two 
v.'Ondf.i'fiil purposes. Kxcrement ?s never, except in verv rare 



6 fcuriu Gou-MAN, Tfo Slory vj M±> Money- R*m [vritfi 



X 



instances due to illness, voided i»n to the combs After centuries 
of necessary suppression in unseasonable weather, evacuation is 
now stimulated only in flight. 

It was noted that die hees returned to a fresh fold of the comb 
where cells had not been tapped, doubtless having exhausted the 
honey in those over which they had previously he£n clustered. 
Even in sunny Australia Winter is a sad tunc for bees thai ave 
not protected, and many perished daily, leaving just enough to 
feed the larvae that were to augment the community m the Spring. 

On very cold days the bees clung together in strings; iiol the 
living ladders which arc MjmetiroCs formed, on which they ascend 
or descend to reach inaccessible parts of a hive ; hut almost lifrfess 
strings from which they dropped and disappeared. It was then 
that one understood the poetic references of ancient authors to 
"garlands of bees." Later 1 was able to accept Soiuhcy's more 
fantastic imagery — l 'a bow strung with bees." 

Nut until now had I been apprehensive of stings. While the 
hive was populous and prosperous f might safely stand within a 
foot of the combs, although the bees always seemed "cd^y during 
windy or thundery conditions. 

On June 5th. 1941 (a windy day) 1 look my first photo, of the 
impoverished hive, lor which, unfortunately, it was necessary to 
hammer stakes into thr sloping grvrnmil to support my camera- 
Very soon, then, I was stun/; art a hand. Half an hour later another 
sting was left behind an car, and next day one caught the hand 
that snapped off Q tiny tvvijj which impeded my view— three brave 
lives loibt m guaiding thai wonderful city. I have never grudged 
them those stings. In each instance 1 saw the bee speed ■straight 
as a dart — a boc-torpedo— to my flesh. I felt that J had discovered 
a better explanation of the term? "bpp-line" than the accepted one 
nf homing-flight. Quinby disagrees with those who saj? tliae a 
warning- is always given before attack, and T am inclined to agree 
with him. After this the bees seemed to blame me for any untoward 
happenings — unseasonable elements or wind-tossed sacks. It must 
be confessed that there was sonx change in my own attitude and 
for a few days ""all the world went softly" about their domain* I 
had discovered that bees are captious folk, "quirk to turn against 
the lubber's touch." 

TAMING VICIOUS RKES 

It looked as if the bees would rule the garden. Could I tune 
tfu-m? Pertigrew (l?75) tells how to tame and domesticate vicious 
bees by getting' diem used to. the human form. He placed a Scotch 
bogfe (scarecrow) in front nf a hive which he dared not approach. 
Although they at first attacked it his bees soon grew, quiet- But 
then my bees' miglu grow fond of their bogle rekI blame mc when 



Jjj* J Fwth C«uii\rA>:. i'lu' Sfoty u{ My ftouty-ttccs 7 

ft was removed ! I read of other methods, but thou^hi it safe* not 
to icst them; and so perhaps I missed the chance ot going down 
to posterity as a woman bec-tamcr. 

According to Professor Romanes (1883) svho sifted records 
from many sources, bees do recognize people lie <Jj5?6tCS Bingley's 
statement that they even lend themselves to tuition, and that 
Wildmau cnuld cause .;l swarm to .settle oh his face without Stmg- 
[rlg him. He could marshal them into companies and battalions 
waiting for his order to march I T-Je even trained them not to sting 
admiring onlookers' 

H A. Pace, in hi.s life <n Thoieau. rclis uf :l clergyman named 
Cotton, ion of a governor of the Batik of England, who took bees 
to Australia ami tu the islands of the Pacific. To the wonder of all 
iu the ship the bees would come when he called them and covered 
him as he lay. After fondling them he would gather them 
together, a* one would gather a mass of loose worsted, into a ball, 
take (hem close to the hive and give the signal for them, to retire, 

'Ueuiarkable as it s<jeuis t iheae nrust be some truth in rhf.se 
stories if wc may tmsl another clergyman, White of Selhorne, 
Writing in 1788 he tells of a boy whom he knew who would 61] 
his shirt with bees He would rap on a hive, as birds are buiil to 
do, and take the bee?, as they emerged, to remove 'heir snugs and 
suck the honey. Kinling't. bee-boy who could pick up swarms in 
his naked hands was probably based on WhitcV bee-sucker 

Mary Mriford. loo. must have had "a WAY 1 with bees. "YonVc 
one ot they an the. bees love'*' said the bee-master who looked after 
Dr. Mitforrl's bees, ".and thatV a lucky thing to be . This inau 
could foretell changes in tire weather from the behaviour of his bees. 
Certainly the temper of the bees may be gauged from the ytntc of 
the weather 

They are said to attack those who go to thtin in anger, or in 
a state, of nervous excitement One thing stands out in the litera- 
ture ol' the bee — they love qtiitefc In primitive times a personality 
was ascribed to them. They must never be angered or grieved or 
ill would hefall those responsible. They must be treated with 
affection and respect. Old bee-masters demonstrated this by taking 
Oil dieir hats to the hive 

Kven i o-day bees are- said to be as much influenced by the bearing 
•of the bee-keeper as by the weather : 

'"'iVwi/ don't you wad where bees (i/'i? 

When the lif/hlnwys f>lny; 
• Nor d\7n:'l you hftlc where hers ore, 

Or chit ilnry'tt- pine awoy." 

lOphng, who took great interest in bees, knew this. When Tom 
Shaesmith (Fuel: of Pook's Hifl) tells the children how lh|S 
frightened fairies of England crowded info the marches during 



R Lo\>ftcv\t\- hi LrQtttttiitws Srnix [ Vol** IX* 

the turmoils of the Reformation, he adds: "Goodwill among flesh 
and Wood is meat and drink to Juries and ill-will is pnoswn." "Same 
as betas/' swl th? buc-hoy. "Bees won't stay by a house where 
there's hating." 

Not so fantastic as it sounds, perhaps. Harmony among humans 
as well as their annuals was once regarded as es^ntia! to success 
on (be land, A man who ill-tmited his wife would influence both 
animals and bees. Again, not so fantastic as it sounds perhaps, 
for bitterness and bickering aftect humane physically as well as 
mentally and, doubtless, react on any animals under their control. 
This theory of health and harmony in the Tanner's family as well 
as among - the farm animals is ,i>ne of the plank* on which Dr. 
Kudolf Stdner based his system of agriculture which is practised 
in many parts of the world to-day. 

(To bf rovithmed.) 



LONGEVITY OF LEGUMINOUS SEEDS 

l : 0«* Just Over a fftftf «. <.:0:ioiUer<M>lc area of the Kings Domain, north 
from the Shrine of Remembrance (Melbourne) has been dissected by a 
complicated sljl-trtncii system of air-raid shelters, auri aa these arc now 
hting rilled in it is opportune to sa>t &tfmeftirtg about the plan<-h(e which 
had so quickly colonised the fre^dy-tumed mounds ot' yellow day sub-.soi1. 

A whnlcsaln invajiinn of graces from the Mj/roimvhn.y areas of nndis- 
torbod lawn was the most prominent feature, Indian Couch, Creeping Bent, 
Pigeon and Rye Grasses JSfifuls tHo principal competitors. 

fiut most interesting of nil wan the appearance ot" healthy plants (some 
now a foot hitjh) of the tour native legumes, Avaaa mailjtiinj^ 
A. pyawniha. A. fonfpfnlia, and K<'nn<cdya prostraHi: \\ if highly 
imlihely that the heavy -seed of these w.ls 4epc*!Uxi by wind and, as it is 
ten rears since the .Shrine approaches were levelled ofr and planted with 
Iftflfn grass mixtare. the leguminous seeds have apparently remained deep 
in the ground and. viable for at te<ist a decade, probahiy ivntf.li l6ttg€f: Tl'-f* 
Ion.e^v)ty of wattle seed is well attested. Mr. P< F, Morns recalls a fine 
crop of Acacia inoWsshm which followed the demolition of a hounc nearly 
90 y«trs old. in Parle Street, South Yarra. Jwjkk JJ, Wii.uv 



DEATH OF MK. THOMAS & A. UOB1NSON 
Members oi the I'.N.C. will join in paying tribute to die memory o-f 
Thorns Aifr^d Robinson, who died at "Choruema," Dutson (Vie.) on April 
23 He would have buen 91 year^ ot age on May h Born af Colhnywood hi 
fa> his aye t:idie;itrs) the. day? when that now-populous area was a |>aradi5c 
of wild flowers, Mr, Kobinsou (a Melbourne Grammar Srhuol boy) borame 
a teacher in the. Education Department and. afterwards a farmer Through- 
out lii.s life he retained the keen interest (ft natUe plants acquired ni yOUtll 
•\!id at < 'ChoM> , en»a" \tc had remarkabln success as a grower and propagator. 
Ti;-erc *ic, f^ih:ip>, 500 specie:-, of native plants growing freely on the 
property. 

Mr, Roh'nsoo l*nd lam? been a mouKer of the FX.C and continued to 
t:u- end his nderevt in the Club's activities. He leaves one WW ami four 
daughters, t$ -whom the QriPJSMifi of all WctDtftm natttrilJjiift is- tendered. 



Sjg j Waiter S. C^irm-;i.i., limjUih Sparrow w /bimWw x ) 

THE ENGLISH SPARROW IN AUSTRALIA 
By (the late) Wai-tux S, Campkeu-, Sydney* 

It )s not possible, F think, to determine how or when the sparrow 
was introduced into Australia. He must have been brought out 
intentionally j r>oc Jifce rats and mice which are voluntary intruders. 

Some sixty years ago sparrows abounded in part^ of the colony 
— now State — of Victoria, more particularly about the City of 
Melbourne and suburbs, where I saw a sparrow for the fir^t time 
in my life. These litlle migrants were quite at home in the city 
streets, enjoying tn the full the streams of water tv« hicli at that 
time were kept constantly Mowing in the wide stone gutters at the 
street sides, to carry to the river Yarra a considerable proportion 
of the cjiy sewage matter. Doubtless the sparrows found in the 
perennial streams abundant varied morsels of choice food on 
which lo regale themselves with ease There, chattering, hopping: 
about, quarrelling, and with a general tone of impudence, were 
hundreds and hundreds which greatly interested me, for I had 
never seen anything like it Ijefore in bird life w Australia 

At the time tn which 1 refer there were no $p»rrows about 
Sydney or suburbs, nor I think about aw towns 01 settlements in 
N.S.\V ; but before very long they appeared, became quite at home 
at once, and increased rapidly This invasion vm regretted by 
many persons interested in our native birds, because it was con- 
sidered that the ubiquitous and prolific, sparrow would oust or 
thin out many of the beautiful, smaller, indigenous species beloved 
by Australians. 

So greatly have sparrows increased (bat some are to be met wilh 
m all the inhabited extra-tropical parts of Australia, if noL within 
the tropics also. In the great wheat-growing districts they have 
become destructive pests, consuming considerable quantities of 
grain, and spoiling a great deal; particularly amongst vaiicties of 
wheat the grain of which "shakes out" easily, thus causing con- 
siderable losses to wheat -growers. 

At railway stations to which wheal is conveyed in lings for 
transmission to markets, large open sheds have ftcflh erected for 
the storage of this wheat These are covered wilh galvanized 
corrugated iron supposed by strangers to Australia 10 be tin In 
these sheds the wheat is stacked and frequently remains there for 
some time, The sides and ends of the sheds being open, sparrows 
in hundreds, if not in thousands, h:tve free access to |he wheat-bags 
at which they peck and peck until large holes are made through 
which wheat poms to the ground. Many times 1 have seen con- 
siderable losses caused in (hat manner by sparrows 

•Mr CamnMI. »*>im?tirn* I>itect<ir of Anrlouluive in N.ffW.. why died « few 
y*»are asro ut lh<> aire of piUiUflO years, vavc mt\ thee* notes in Sydney nlicui MRO» 
Ho haA fotui**dcd tQ revise khr-ra fctrr. *" T ift'l opportunity did i»ot n^c-itr — E<Jf(nv 



During Ms remarkable awl successful < xpcrimcnts in the ntakmg 
of high quality wheats for Australian conditions, my friend the late 
William Furrer was considerably Impeded and annoyed by [he 
attacks of sparrows mi valuable varieties of growing hybrids, some 
of which have turned out to be worth hundreds of thousands, if not 
millions, of pounds, sterling 1u ihe various wheat-growing Suites 
of Australia. Poison was of little or no avail, and resent was 
necessary to ponder and shot, but even then it was difficult to 
keep the little pests away They are becoming remarkably cunning 
Am! ever oh the watch to destroy fjic treasures so tediously created 
by Mi\ Farrer. 

A bam tile diy oi Sydney and suburbs at ihe present time 
sparrows abound in thousands. They seen) to be ever breeding: 
if one nest is destroyed they set to and build another Whether 
they arc more prolific here thai) m England — -as seems probable — I 
am not aware. 

The habits of this bird seem to he just the same as they are in 
England, notwithstanding the change lo a more genial climate 
where ffartiughefttf the ytw plentiful supplies of .some kinds of 
fiymth, a.> well as of insect, foods arc abundant and easily available. 
No doubt some kinds of gram are preferred 10 others such -is 
wheat to vhtiqUe grass- seed &. They are remarkably fond Of 
sunflower-seeds, and also of seedling* qF annuals— grange to say 



•only' those planted out, self-sown seedlings being seldom attacked. 
J ant oblige*; to protect any seedlings of pop]jies I may plant in 
the garden, or sparrows will .speedily make short work of them, 
whereas hundteds of pkmrs close by,, self-sown, remain untouched- 

The lords know ihe tiiAc to a minute — four o'clock n.i the after- 
noon — when 1 feed my poultry with v/heat.. There arc dozens of 
them setting on the fence or amongst the: trees, on the look -out to 
obtain their >:harc% (I may . perhaps interpolate here that a 
number of gold-fish which thrive remarkably well in a watfcrhole 
in my garden, arc just as well aware of the time of feeding as the 
sparrows; (hey are. waiting for me with opening jaws, and some 
will let me rub their backs). 

One day I heard in my yard a great noise, nmnngs- some spar- 
iow.s. 1 looked in and witnessed a curious sight- On a p3tch of 
a few square yards of grass (which I put down lor rhy dogs to roll 
mi and where they may enjoy meat bones) was a tather large 
rib-hone and about six feet away was a voting sparrow with its 
lather standing close by. Pecking away at the. bone was the 
mother, who. as soon as she had detached a swall piece of meat- 
bopped np with i( \o the youngster, who. alter callings oui as loud 
as il could, opened its; beak wide 3UK1 into iLs throat the mother 
popped in Lhe ftted. She kept up this performance for several 
ininu/es. hopping from bone In offspring and from oflVprinp 1o 



*** ] Wai.trk 5. C'Ia MW.U-, V.ugVuh Spwtnw ?J AuMralto U 

Imne al! fltc time. I have ptt/./Jed lUyself to know why it w.'u the 
father and child did not stand i'lo.->e to the lioae! 

Sparrows arc exceedingly useful as scavangcra about cities and 
towns clearing away odds and cuds of bread, meat and other 
rubbish from yards and streets- 3 frequently S£C thein carrytng 
away from garden plants, caterpillar of various kinds. They "also 
attack green aphis on rose hushes and insect scales on trees and 
shrubs. During the limes when white-ants swarm and those fur- 
rushed with wings fly about, sparrow* invariably attack ami make, 
use of them ior food. Moth;; am! butterflies of various; spears are 
used frequently, Occasionally, at long interval*, we are visited by 
thousands of butterflies flying from a south-westerly direction to 
the north, They remain about the suburbs for a few day*, resting 
amongst the native shrubs and Hying about here and Ihcie. 
Duiing that period the sparrows are rematk-ably active in pivrxuit 
of this new game, which when caught is made use of as food I 
have watched a sparrow chasiny* onc 0I these whitish-grey butter- 
flies for move than a quarter of an hoar. The speed kept »p was 
remarkable. In such hunts the sparrow was sometimes siuxessfnl 
in catching thd butterfly, bur at other times the butterfly escaped; 
probably fhe spsnow WAS evhatlsied 

But. the most remarkable subjects of attack by .sparrows during" 
spring and summer, are species or varieties of cicadas which abound 
and keep up a continuous, chorus of sbWJl music during fee period 
they remaiu with us, It seems rGiua rouble to mc that sparrows 
should select such large and rough creatures for their food, 

The male sparrows in my yard frequently have severe fights 
amongst thcn^elvps, pecking .and clawrng at sach other and rolling 
over and over in the dustiest place they can seleci. 1 dnnht 
whether any are killed in, these encounters; occasionally T fmd a 
dead one on the ground, but those may die from old age. The. 
riged ones become very feeble and unable to obtain a sufficiency of 
food. One poor old creature used to come to me, when I was 
•cracking up biscuits for my gold-fish, appealing For a crumb or 
two- 1( was quiie parhetic to see his ineu'ectual efforts to bop to 
Ihe fop of the box o» which I cracked up the biscuit. 



GOATS AND GUM LEAVES 

Has anyone beard of the leaves of the su£ar-£um being injurious 1o yxiaifr? 
A country reader says that a lew leaves were given to each ol iotiv goat* 
tied iu a yard and having access to nothing fl$c injurious. In less than 
lu*o hmsr? after on** died in gTeat n^ony, another was ahnosl dead, T>ut 
recovered, and the other two were not affected. These last two had eaten 
rbc Itfilg narrow leaves of the gum. while the goats poisoned liad taken 
fhc round leaves. On examination (he one thai died showed £K) trace of 
irritation of ll;e ytoinach, hut the lungs and heart were almost Mack anil 
fiitf of txiuKcafetl blood. 



U F, S. Collar, Ptow Rsitutins /r<>™ tfffJfjMg! [ V v5. iS" 

OK SOME PLANT REMAINS FROM MAKSFIELD. 

VICTORIA 

By F. S. Colliyer, Melbourne 

The impressions herewith figured and described, and apparently 
Of a different type from any previously recorded from Mansfield, 
were collected during a short raft made with Mr. F. H. Salau to 
the district at Easter, 1942, They were not found in situ, but were 
taken from a pile of large stone* at the. side of (he road to the 
Broken River just past the Barwite. Road turn-off. At this spot 
the toad h cut through a small hillside and doubtless these rocks- 
came from road repairs that appear to have been made fairly 
recently 

On the low side of the road -a section across the beds enabled 
prospecting to be done, and although no similar specimens were 
found, small pieces carrying the enamelled scales, etc., similar to 
those obtained at Fish Hill overlooking the homestead, were 
collected. Time and position did not permit a thorough iuvesu- 
gniioti into the GMteNQ of the rocks exposed. 

The specimen figured is without doubt of vegetal >lc origin and 
the general habit first seemed to indicate one of the marine algae 
.generally referred to as Bylliotrrtphis or C'hoiufrik\<, 

Unfortunately the preservation of the specimen is not good and 
ali important details are not showing; thus determination must be 
doubtful. Of these two genera, Bythatraphi.i is found in Qrdoviciau 
and Silurian deposits, and Chqndntes ranges from Palaczoie to 
Mesozoic at least, and thus- the age does not admit much toward 
the determination of the specimens. 

The beds from which these rocks were taken are certainly of the 
same age as the red sandstone? of Fish Hiti, and indeed appear to 
be portion of the same series 

These beds, on their fossil content, mainly fish and Lepidodcu- 
(Iron, have been referred to as of Lower Carboniferous age, and. 
the genera of the fish, together with the association of land phut 
rpmains, seems rc> sugge*! at leai*r estuarme conditions when the 
deposits were laid down. From this it is thus quite possible for 
marine algae to be found m association with these other fossils. 

However, looking furl her into fossil plant forms for companions, 
the genu* Spljenopttris in some of its forms (eg.., S. offinis, 
L- el H.) seems to approach closely to the specimen under discus- 
sion. This genus, according to Seward, is "one of those extremely 
useful provisional generic terms where we have no satisfactory 
proof of precise botanical affinity." and fta such may be used to 
designate the specimen until some bviler ptf.-erved m-deiial fa 
obtained. 



THE 



Victorian Naturalist 

THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 

of the 

FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA 



VOL. 60 
MAY, 1943, TO APRIL, 1944 



Hon. Editor; A. H. CHISHOLM, F.R.Z.S. 



The Author of each Article is responsible for 
the facts and opinions recorded 



Melbourne : 
Brown, Prior* Anderson Pty. Ltd., 430 Little Bourke Street 

1944 



THE CLUB'S PUBLICATIONS = 

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The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LX— No. i May 6, 1943 No - 7*3 



PROCEEDINGS 

The ordinary meeting of the Club was held at the Uoval Society's 
Hall on Monday, April 12, 1943. The President (Mr" ft Cvosbie 
Morrison) presided and about 80 members and friends attended. 

WELCOME TO VLSITOR5 

Tfcfi President welcomed to the meeting. Lieut. Lee Burcham, 
oi the- US- Marino; and a forestry graduate from the University 
of California. Other visitors included Miss Leumann from S-A.. 
Mr Ricschisk from Doncaster, Mr. W. Rurrows, several memhers 
in uniform and Mr. Ludowici, a member from Sydney. Mr. 
Ludowici brought greetings from the. NS.W. Naturalists* Club. 

SUBJECT FOR THE EVENING 

This look the form ot a symposium on the subject of M §Qii 
Conservation'"' and was dealt" with under the following heads-: 

(a) Genera] introduction- — Mr, Morrison, in his remains 
Kilfcr this heading:, pointed out what erosion Iras done in the more 
ancient countries, as China and India, and drew a parallel between 
them and Australia. 

(b) Botanical side of erosion. — Mr. P. F. Morris pointed out 
that it was removal ot vegetational cover* that caused erosion, and 
said Uial in many cases it was pioneering and advancing civilisa- 
tion that had started it all. Forests were cut or burned down (or 
crop lands, often in the most unsuitable areas; stock was intro- 
duced and greed caused over-stocking and subsequent eating out 
of the flora, Besides these factory rabbits played a large part in 
laud despoiling, due to their habit, of eating- roois- 

(c) Erosion Results. — Mr. F. S. Col liver spoke on some out- 
standing geographical features due to erosion, mentioning and 
showing dlnstraiions of moving sand dimes in Egypt, desert 
country in Peru, great chasms in the loess formations of China, 
bad lands in parts of America, effect of wind on the slime dumps of 
the Band. etc. He pointed out that similar features could and 
would eventuate in Australia. Wind influence was mentioned as 
the most insidious and therefore most dangerous form of erosion. 

(d) Small-Scale Remedial Measures. — Mr. Ivo Hammett, talo 
ing Ins own garden as an example, spoke of the dangers of wind 



v 77/,: Fitifff&hl '\ t >y»}po.u i <„r [V!™?' 

erosion, and described how he had overcome the effects by a capping 
of gravel. He also remarked that since the gravel was spread most 
of the native plants had produced an abundance of seedlings. A 
series of slides showing native plants under cultivation, in the; 
Malice ?,nd at I van hoe, and sections showing how the bed* were 
built up, illustrated Mr. Hammett's remarks. 

(c) Large- Scale Remedial Measures. — Mr. P. Bibby showed 
illustrations of contour ploughing and terracing for hill slopes. 
planting of willow and other trees for river banks, various means 
of diverting river flow from erosion areas, brush laying and subse- 
quent planting for wind-swept areas, and the various means for 
reclamation of eroded gullies. 

In the remarks that followed. Mr. A 1J. Hardy and Lieut. Lee 
Burcham spoke oil theiv ^xpeiiences in conservation matters rtver- 
sears, and Messrs. Lndowici, Gates, Hyaau and Jenkins contributed 
to the discussion. 

REPORTS OF EXCURSIONS 

Reports of Excursions were given as follows. Botanical Garden, 
Mr. H. C. K Stewart; Studley Park, Mr. P. Bibby. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS 

The following were duly elected as ordinary members of the 
Club: Mrs. E, E. Lord/and Mr. R. Whit worth; as Country 
Member, Miss Ruth BemuVr, as Associate Member, Mi.^s CobVetl 

QVugg. 

GEMERAL BUSINESS 

Pfanr. Names Sub-Committee. — A recommendation from the 
Committee was as follows; ''Thai the Plant Names Sub*Commi(tee 
be re-constiutied wirb the following personnel: Messrs. P F. 
Morns. J. H. Willis, P. Bibby, E. E. Peseott, Noel Lothian and 
Dr. C S. Sutton, and that three be a quorum for meetings.*' 

This recommendation was adopted. 



THE FITZGERALD "SYMPOSIUM" 
Since, contributors bctfan to express- thctr views (in the January lumilier 
of tltiS journal), neither Mrv Messir.er, Mrs. MjUcr. nor Mr Rupp has- 
OlStdo any reference to (he great Australian ordudofogist's own bandwniine 
Several of his letters to Baron, von Mueller are preserved at the Melbourne 
H^harium, atttf in these be uiniueslicnahly signs his name with a capital "G ** 
Echoing Mr. Rupp's sentiment, if an educated man 'anuot \vhe his owu 
namf; Correctly, then who can? Mrs, Mc-ssmers precedent: in reuorins*- the 
capiul "G ,T is entirely justified and there should be no twn ways about fflft* 
future citation of ^FiuGerald' 1 :n botanical literature, 

JMtU 11. Wiu.1^. 



SH J FjMin Co!.ema« ( r/itf Stoty of My Honty-Bcrx $ 

THE STORY OF MY HONEY-BEES 
By Edith Coleman, Blackburn, Vic. 

For several reasons it seemed no more than poetic justice thai a 
swanto of bees should settle m this garden. As the daughter of my 
father J could not fail to be interested iu them, for there had 
always been a hive, sometimes two t in his garden. Moreover for 
years I had been filling (he garden with English herbs and cottage 
flowers which for centuries have been regarded as "bee-flowers/ 1 

The: bees came in late October, 1941, to a garden .full of blossom 
When discovered, the fabric of their waxen city had already taken 
shape- It was about as large as a child's football, somewhat flat- 
tened — three collateral leaves of pure white comb with several 
others started. It hung from the top of an apple-tree, and as it 
widened and lengthened it suggested a waxen cave-shawl, or a 
shawl such as a senator might chisel. 

The heo were not molested for it seemed a golden chance to 
note their behaviour when free to follow natural instincts, to 
vpTK without restraint or supervision. Here was living proof that 
the honey-bee (Apis m-cUificn) after centuries of exploitation, is 
not vci fully domesticated, and in thia reversion we were privileged 
to read something of its ancestral ways. 

The swarm had come IQ rest like the Assyrian bees of Isaiah. 
They had settled as the large primitive bee {Apis dorsala) settles 
to-day in Eastern lands where forests literally flow with honey. 
as it flowed in those far-hack days for the men of Israel, wl»e»i 
Jonathan reached up his rod 'and dipped it into an honeycomb." 

Tbi*rr weir many cold days in December, 1941, and January, 
1942, \viih much rain, mid boisterous winds that littered the gar- 
den with broken boughs, The. bees in their naked nest crowded 
between the leaves of comb, wing's extended outward and down- 
ward, so that water ran oft the lips. One could sec the inner he** 
move out, as if to give the outer ones a chance of some warmth. 
It seemed that the}' must perish in then unprotected slate. Later, 
on Mr. Hatnmetl's suggestion, they were covered with a water- 
proof ground-sheet, and soon it was evident that all was well 
with rhem. The combs increased; their amber colour and honey 
scent bore witness io good work among the flowers. 

The apple-trees were humming with bees and every flowering 
plant wavS a tavern to scores of unresting Deborahs, "victims of a 
tyrannical instinct for labour," inheritors of a long pedigree of 
toil. Ceaselessly they foraged, and laboured on the combs, to die 
outworn at six weeks or less, As Bridges laments; <f .Forty days; 
six xmsahbath'il weeks wf lever'd toil wasteth and wcarieth out 
their little frames.** 

The nest was felly open lo the East and West. It seemed 



■4 F.flmt Ccr.r>TAN_. The S'lwy cf My Ihmcy-Hccs RdLlS? 

strange that bees which, under domestication, had loved to work 
in almost lota! darkness, should carry on in full sunlight. 

At no time did I see any fanning; but this is not surprising, for, 
as Professor Romanes points out, fanning is not an inborn 
tendency, but ft evoked by discomforts imposed upon the hecs by 
the bee- keeper. Fanning almost ceased when Huber housed his 
bees in a large hive 5 ft. high. 

The smell of- the honey was delirious. To take it from a naked 
hive, however, required more courage than 1 possess — but I did 
sluriv wavs and means! 

ROBBING THE BEES 

it seemed one had only to so alarm the bees with A puff of smoke 
and, in their eagerness to save their stores, they would fill them- 
selves too full nf honey to curve the body to sting". That process 
sounds easy, bul try it on an nn -walled host free to rush to the 
attack from four directions! An old way whs to suffocate the 
bees in a sulphur pit- Hardy, who had made a study of the 
manners and customs of rural "Wcssex/ 1 desciibes tfc cruel 
method of robbing I he bees. When Fanny (Under the Greenwood 
Tree) protests against the cruelty of it ( her father says; "It you 
suffocate them they only die once. If you fumigate them in the 
new way they come to life and die of starvation, so the pangs of 
death be twice upon them." 

Loudon, in his mammoth compendium of facts for gardeners 
and husbandmen states that T^a Grenee 'has the merit" of having 
shown thai there is neither profit nor humanity in saving bees 
after honey-taking. Mercifully bees are no longer allowed to starve 
after honey-caking. 

In his Malay Arx'.hipeluQf> i published 74 yi-ars ago. A. R. Wallace 
describes the large natural nests built by Jf^h dorsaia on branches 
70 or SO feet from the ground. These nests, 3 or 4 together, were 
built on the underside of a horizontal branch and were often 4 ft. 
in diameter- He tells how the natives robbed the nests at night with 
the aid only of torches Enraged bees chased the sparks instead of 
the robbers; but the men did not go unscathed, nor did Wallace. 

Professor Komanes quotes a significant statement (Nature, 
Vul. xvrt. p. S7i) that European bees when transited to 
Australia retain I heir industrious habits only for the first 2 or 3 
yeats. After that (hey gradually cease to collect honey until they 
become quite idle, and the same, fact is observable with bees trans- 
ported to California, It is obviated by abstracting the honey as it 
is collected. There is a similar statement by Dr Erasmus Darwin 
<hat hecs transported to ihe Barbadoes, where there is ho winter* 
cease to lay up honey So it appeared that T must take the honey 
or entertain idle bees! Perhaps they would revert to nomadic 
habits and follow th« flowering of Eucalypts. 



t.Uy "I 
1013 J 



l.u .i: O-uuhn. The Sioty oj &y Honey-tiff* 



1 had always been interested in the work of bees in pollination, 
bur this was a new experience full of promise to a novice, full of 
surprises, too! As might be expected, the beeo presented many 
problems, 

THE SWARMING 

As the comibs increased emerging young tilled them to overflow- 
ing* taxing all the energies of the comh-buflders, it seemed. 
Swarming appeared b> be imminent. It Ijceame advisable to take 
&ome steps to persuade, my swarms to settle in other parts of the 
garden. J looked up authorities on ''casting," including the quamt 
cla&skts of ancient bee literature which tor some years I had been 
"collec:tmg" ,! as small hoys collect match-box tops, with nothing' 
definite in view, but for pure delight in them. I learned that. 
within certain limits, one was allowed to follow ones bees even to 
a neighbour's Innd. as one drummed with key on pan ' Must I 
really drum them? What would the neighbour? ihink? 

"Bees," says Burton, discussing the response to music of man 
and the lower animals {Anatomy of Melancholy., the only book 
that had power io keep Dr. Jolinson awake all night), "bees 
when ihev hear any tingling sound, will terry he-hind-" On tbir 
other hand, Lawson, the Isaac Walton of gardening and bec- 
husfcmdry, insists that "ringing in the time of casting is pure 
fonet<?/ : 

Modern writers have suggested that diumming, or ringing, 
drowns the shrill piping of the queen, and so prevent? the swarm 
from following her too far. This might necessitate some steps to 
secure another queen. Tt seemed Imperative that I must drum my 
swarm? I gathered from BlacK-more {Springhdven) that when a 
nan is touting for his neighbour's bees the pan must be struck 
softly %i first to tone with the murmuring mob. 1 need not have 
anticipated. The bees knew better than 1 what ihey would do. 
This 'dipping-garden 1 ' apparently suited them and thev meant tt> 
stay. 

Twice the community appeared to break up a little, but in a. 
week, or SO emerging young again filled the combs. 

At night could be heard an elfin biUZ as typical of bees as the 
perfume about the nest. Maeterlinck and others have Stated that 
bees renounce- sleep ; bul do fbey p Taking a torch I several limes 
surprised my bees perfectly motionless, clue perhaps to the new, 
or rather old, conditions under which they were living 

WINTER UEHAVJOUR 

During Ike winter llic bees ware coveied with more sacks, On 
very cold days they appeared not to move,: then, when the weather 
was kinder, they indulged in short flights near the combs. Iv was 
presently obvious that these were cleansing flights, serving two 
v.'Ondf.i'fiil purposes. Kxcrement ?s never, except in verv rare 



6 fcuriu Gou-MAN, Tfo Slory vj M±> Money- R*m [vritfi 



X 



instances due to illness, voided i»n to the combs After centuries 
of necessary suppression in unseasonable weather, evacuation is 
now stimulated only in flight. 

It was noted that die hees returned to a fresh fold of the comb 
where cells had not been tapped, doubtless having exhausted the 
honey in those over which they had previously he£n clustered. 
Even in sunny Australia Winter is a sad tunc for bees thai ave 
not protected, and many perished daily, leaving just enough to 
feed the larvae that were to augment the community m the Spring. 

On very cold days the bees clung together in strings; iiol the 
living ladders which arc MjmetiroCs formed, on which they ascend 
or descend to reach inaccessible parts of a hive ; hut almost lifrfess 
strings from which they dropped and disappeared. It was then 
that one understood the poetic references of ancient authors to 
"garlands of bees." Later 1 was able to accept Soiuhcy's more 
fantastic imagery — l 'a bow strung with bees." 

Nut until now had I been apprehensive of stings. While the 
hive was populous and prosperous f might safely stand within a 
foot of the combs, although the bees always seemed "cd^y during 
windy or thundery conditions. 

On June 5th. 1941 (a windy day) 1 look my first photo, of the 
impoverished hive, lor which, unfortunately, it was necessary to 
hammer stakes into thr sloping grvrnmil to support my camera- 
Very soon, then, I was stun/; art a hand. Half an hour later another 
sting was left behind an car, and next day one caught the hand 
that snapped off Q tiny tvvijj which impeded my view— three brave 
lives loibt m guaiding thai wonderful city. I have never grudged 
them those stings. In each instance 1 saw the bee speed ■straight 
as a dart — a boc-torpedo— to my flesh. I felt that J had discovered 
a better explanation of the term? "bpp-line" than the accepted one 
nf homing-flight. Quinby disagrees with those who saj? tliae a 
warning- is always given before attack, and T am inclined to agree 
with him. After this the bees seemed to blame me for any untoward 
happenings — unseasonable elements or wind-tossed sacks. It must 
be confessed that there was sonx change in my own attitude and 
for a few days ""all the world went softly" about their domain* I 
had discovered that bees are captious folk, "quirk to turn against 
the lubber's touch." 

TAMING VICIOUS RKES 

It looked as if the bees would rule the garden. Could I tune 
tfu-m? Pertigrew (l?75) tells how to tame and domesticate vicious 
bees by getting' diem used to. the human form. He placed a Scotch 
bogfe (scarecrow) in front nf a hive which he dared not approach. 
Although they at first attacked it his bees soon grew, quiet- But 
then my bees' miglu grow fond of their bogle rekI blame mc when 



Jjj* J Fwth C«uii\rA>:. i'lu' Sfoty u{ My ftouty-ttccs 7 

ft was removed ! I read of other methods, but thou^hi it safe* not 
to icst them; and so perhaps I missed the chance ot going down 
to posterity as a woman bec-tamcr. 

According to Professor Romanes (1883) svho sifted records 
from many sources, bees do recognize people lie <Jj5?6tCS Bingley's 
statement that they even lend themselves to tuition, and that 
Wildmau cnuld cause .;l swarm to .settle oh his face without Stmg- 
[rlg him. He could marshal them into companies and battalions 
waiting for his order to march I T-Je even trained them not to sting 
admiring onlookers' 

H A. Pace, in hi.s life <n Thoieau. rclis uf :l clergyman named 
Cotton, ion of a governor of the Batik of England, who took bees 
to Australia ami tu the islands of the Pacific. To the wonder of all 
iu the ship the bees would come when he called them and covered 
him as he lay. After fondling them he would gather them 
together, a* one would gather a mass of loose worsted, into a ball, 
take (hem close to the hive and give the signal for them, to retire, 

'Ueuiarkable as it s<jeuis t iheae nrust be some truth in rhf.se 
stories if wc may tmsl another clergyman, White of Selhorne, 
Writing in 1788 he tells of a boy whom he knew who would 61] 
his shirt with bees He would rap on a hive, as birds are buiil to 
do, and take the bee?, as they emerged, to remove 'heir snugs and 
suck the honey. Kinling't. bee-boy who could pick up swarms in 
his naked hands was probably based on WhitcV bee-sucker 

Mary Mriford. loo. must have had "a WAY 1 with bees. "YonVc 
one ot they an the. bees love'*' said the bee-master who looked after 
Dr. Mitforrl's bees, ".and thatV a lucky thing to be . This inau 
could foretell changes in tire weather from the behaviour of his bees. 
Certainly the temper of the bees may be gauged from the ytntc of 
the weather 

They are said to attack those who go to thtin in anger, or in 
a state, of nervous excitement One thing stands out in the litera- 
ture ol' the bee — they love qtiitefc In primitive times a personality 
was ascribed to them. They must never be angered or grieved or 
ill would hefall those responsible. They must be treated with 
affection and respect. Old bee-masters demonstrated this by taking 
Oil dieir hats to the hive 

Kven i o-day bees are- said to be as much influenced by the bearing 
•of the bee-keeper as by the weather : 

'"'iVwi/ don't you wad where bees (i/'i? 

When the lif/hlnwys f>lny; 
• Nor d\7n:'l you hftlc where hers ore, 

Or chit ilnry'tt- pine awoy." 

lOphng, who took great interest in bees, knew this. When Tom 
Shaesmith (Fuel: of Pook's Hifl) tells the children how lh|S 
frightened fairies of England crowded info the marches during 



R Lo\>ftcv\t\- hi LrQtttttiitws Srnix [ Vol** IX* 

the turmoils of the Reformation, he adds: "Goodwill among flesh 
and Wood is meat and drink to Juries and ill-will is pnoswn." "Same 
as betas/' swl th? buc-hoy. "Bees won't stay by a house where 
there's hating." 

Not so fantastic as it sounds, perhaps. Harmony among humans 
as well as their annuals was once regarded as es^ntia! to success 
on (be land, A man who ill-tmited his wife would influence both 
animals and bees. Again, not so fantastic as it sounds perhaps, 
for bitterness and bickering aftect humane physically as well as 
mentally and, doubtless, react on any animals under their control. 
This theory of health and harmony in the Tanner's family as well 
as among - the farm animals is ,i>ne of the plank* on which Dr. 
Kudolf Stdner based his system of agriculture which is practised 
in many parts of the world to-day. 

(To bf rovithmed.) 



LONGEVITY OF LEGUMINOUS SEEDS 

l : 0«* Just Over a fftftf «. <.:0:ioiUer<M>lc area of the Kings Domain, north 
from the Shrine of Remembrance (Melbourne) has been dissected by a 
complicated sljl-trtncii system of air-raid shelters, auri aa these arc now 
hting rilled in it is opportune to sa>t &tfmeftirtg about the plan<-h(e which 
had so quickly colonised the fre^dy-tumed mounds ot' yellow day sub-.soi1. 

A whnlcsaln invajiinn of graces from the Mj/roimvhn.y areas of nndis- 
torbod lawn was the most prominent feature, Indian Couch, Creeping Bent, 
Pigeon and Rye Grasses JSfifuls tHo principal competitors. 

fiut most interesting of nil wan the appearance ot" healthy plants (some 
now a foot hitjh) of the tour native legumes, Avaaa mailjtiinj^ 
A. pyawniha. A. fonfpfnlia, and K<'nn<cdya prostraHi: \\ if highly 
imlihely that the heavy -seed of these w.ls 4epc*!Uxi by wind and, as it is 
ten rears since the .Shrine approaches were levelled ofr and planted with 
Iftflfn grass mixtare. the leguminous seeds have apparently remained deep 
in the ground and. viable for at te<ist a decade, probahiy ivntf.li l6ttg€f: Tl'-f* 
Ion.e^v)ty of wattle seed is well attested. Mr. P< F, Morns recalls a fine 
crop of Acacia inoWsshm which followed the demolition of a hounc nearly 
90 y«trs old. in Parle Street, South Yarra. Jwjkk JJ, Wii.uv 



DEATH OF MK. THOMAS & A. UOB1NSON 
Members oi the I'.N.C. will join in paying tribute to die memory o-f 
Thorns Aifr^d Robinson, who died at "Choruema," Dutson (Vie.) on April 
23 He would have buen 91 year^ ot age on May h Born af Colhnywood hi 
fa> his aye t:idie;itrs) the. day? when that now-populous area was a |>aradi5c 
of wild flowers, Mr, Kobinsou (a Melbourne Grammar Srhuol boy) borame 
a teacher in the. Education Department and. afterwards a farmer Through- 
out lii.s life he retained the keen interest (ft natUe plants acquired ni yOUtll 
•\!id at < 'ChoM> , en»a" \tc had remarkabln success as a grower and propagator. 
Ti;-erc *ic, f^ih:ip>, 500 specie:-, of native plants growing freely on the 
property. 

Mr, Roh'nsoo l*nd lam? been a mouKer of the FX.C and continued to 
t:u- end his nderevt in the Club's activities. He leaves one WW ami four 
daughters, t$ -whom the QriPJSMifi of all WctDtftm natttrilJjiift is- tendered. 



Sjg j Waiter S. C^irm-;i.i., limjUih Sparrow w /bimWw x ) 

THE ENGLISH SPARROW IN AUSTRALIA 
By (the late) Wai-tux S, Campkeu-, Sydney* 

It )s not possible, F think, to determine how or when the sparrow 
was introduced into Australia. He must have been brought out 
intentionally j r>oc Jifce rats and mice which are voluntary intruders. 

Some sixty years ago sparrows abounded in part^ of the colony 
— now State — of Victoria, more particularly about the City of 
Melbourne and suburbs, where I saw a sparrow for the fir^t time 
in my life. These litlle migrants were quite at home in the city 
streets, enjoying tn the full the streams of water tv« hicli at that 
time were kept constantly Mowing in the wide stone gutters at the 
street sides, to carry to the river Yarra a considerable proportion 
of the cjiy sewage matter. Doubtless the sparrows found in the 
perennial streams abundant varied morsels of choice food on 
which lo regale themselves with ease There, chattering, hopping: 
about, quarrelling, and with a general tone of impudence, were 
hundreds and hundreds which greatly interested me, for I had 
never seen anything like it Ijefore in bird life w Australia 

At the time tn which 1 refer there were no $p»rrows about 
Sydney or suburbs, nor I think about aw towns 01 settlements in 
N.S.\V ; but before very long they appeared, became quite at home 
at once, and increased rapidly This invasion vm regretted by 
many persons interested in our native birds, because it was con- 
sidered that the ubiquitous and prolific, sparrow would oust or 
thin out many of the beautiful, smaller, indigenous species beloved 
by Australians. 

So greatly have sparrows increased (bat some are to be met wilh 
m all the inhabited extra-tropical parts of Australia, if noL within 
the tropics also. In the great wheat-growing districts they have 
become destructive pests, consuming considerable quantities of 
grain, and spoiling a great deal; particularly amongst vaiicties of 
wheat the grain of which "shakes out" easily, thus causing con- 
siderable losses to wheat -growers. 

At railway stations to which wheal is conveyed in lings for 
transmission to markets, large open sheds have ftcflh erected for 
the storage of this wheat These are covered wilh galvanized 
corrugated iron supposed by strangers to Australia 10 be tin In 
these sheds the wheat is stacked and frequently remains there for 
some time, The sides and ends of the sheds being open, sparrows 
in hundreds, if not in thousands, h:tve free access to |he wheat-bags 
at which they peck and peck until large holes are made through 
which wheat poms to the ground. Many times 1 have seen con- 
siderable losses caused in (hat manner by sparrows 

•Mr CamnMI. »*>im?tirn* I>itect<ir of Anrlouluive in N.ffW.. why died « few 
y*»are asro ut lh<> aire of piUiUflO years, vavc mt\ thee* notes in Sydney nlicui MRO» 
Ho haA fotui**dcd tQ revise khr-ra fctrr. *" T ift'l opportunity did i»ot n^c-itr — E<Jf(nv 



During Ms remarkable awl successful < xpcrimcnts in the ntakmg 
of high quality wheats for Australian conditions, my friend the late 
William Furrer was considerably Impeded and annoyed by [he 
attacks of sparrows mi valuable varieties of growing hybrids, some 
of which have turned out to be worth hundreds of thousands, if not 
millions, of pounds, sterling 1u ihe various wheat-growing Suites 
of Australia. Poison was of little or no avail, and resent was 
necessary to ponder and shot, but even then it was difficult to 
keep the little pests away They are becoming remarkably cunning 
Am! ever oh the watch to destroy fjic treasures so tediously created 
by Mi\ Farrer. 

A bam tile diy oi Sydney and suburbs at ihe present time 
sparrows abound in thousands. They seen) to be ever breeding: 
if one nest is destroyed they set to and build another Whether 
they arc more prolific here thai) m England — -as seems probable — I 
am not aware. 

The habits of this bird seem to he just the same as they are in 
England, notwithstanding the change lo a more genial climate 
where ffartiughefttf the ytw plentiful supplies of .some kinds of 
fiymth, a.> well as of insect, foods arc abundant and easily available. 
No doubt some kinds of gram are preferred 10 others such -is 
wheat to vhtiqUe grass- seed &. They are remarkably fond Of 
sunflower-seeds, and also of seedling* qF annuals— grange to say 



•only' those planted out, self-sown seedlings being seldom attacked. 
J ant oblige*; to protect any seedlings of pop]jies I may plant in 
the garden, or sparrows will .speedily make short work of them, 
whereas hundteds of pkmrs close by,, self-sown, remain untouched- 

The lords know ihe tiiAc to a minute — four o'clock n.i the after- 
noon — when 1 feed my poultry with v/heat.. There arc dozens of 
them setting on the fence or amongst the: trees, on the look -out to 
obtain their >:harc% (I may . perhaps interpolate here that a 
number of gold-fish which thrive remarkably well in a watfcrhole 
in my garden, arc just as well aware of the time of feeding as the 
sparrows; (hey are. waiting for me with opening jaws, and some 
will let me rub their backs). 

One day I heard in my yard a great noise, nmnngs- some spar- 
iow.s. 1 looked in and witnessed a curious sight- On a p3tch of 
a few square yards of grass (which I put down lor rhy dogs to roll 
mi and where they may enjoy meat bones) was a tather large 
rib-hone and about six feet away was a voting sparrow with its 
lather standing close by. Pecking away at the. bone was the 
mother, who. as soon as she had detached a swall piece of meat- 
bopped np with i( \o the youngster, who. alter callings oui as loud 
as il could, opened its; beak wide 3UK1 into iLs throat the mother 
popped in Lhe ftted. She kept up this performance for several 
ininu/es. hopping from bone In offspring and from oflVprinp 1o 



*** ] Wai.trk 5. C'Ia MW.U-, V.ugVuh Spwtnw ?J AuMralto U 

Imne al! fltc time. I have ptt/./Jed lUyself to know why it w.'u the 
father and child did not stand i'lo.->e to the lioae! 

Sparrows arc exceedingly useful as scavangcra about cities and 
towns clearing away odds and cuds of bread, meat and other 
rubbish from yards and streets- 3 frequently S£C thein carrytng 
away from garden plants, caterpillar of various kinds. They "also 
attack green aphis on rose hushes and insect scales on trees and 
shrubs. During the limes when white-ants swarm and those fur- 
rushed with wings fly about, sparrow* invariably attack ami make, 
use of them ior food. Moth;; am! butterflies of various; spears are 
used frequently, Occasionally, at long interval*, we are visited by 
thousands of butterflies flying from a south-westerly direction to 
the north, They remain about the suburbs for a few day*, resting 
amongst the native shrubs and Hying about here and Ihcie. 
Duiing that period the sparrows are rematk-ably active in pivrxuit 
of this new game, which when caught is made use of as food I 
have watched a sparrow chasiny* onc 0I these whitish-grey butter- 
flies for move than a quarter of an hoar. The speed kept »p was 
remarkable. In such hunts the sparrow was sometimes siuxessfnl 
in catching thd butterfly, bur at other times the butterfly escaped; 
probably fhe spsnow WAS evhatlsied 

But. the most remarkable subjects of attack by .sparrows during" 
spring and summer, are species or varieties of cicadas which abound 
and keep up a continuous, chorus of sbWJl music during fee period 
they remaiu with us, It seems rGiua rouble to mc that sparrows 
should select such large and rough creatures for their food, 

The male sparrows in my yard frequently have severe fights 
amongst thcn^elvps, pecking .and clawrng at sach other and rolling 
over and over in the dustiest place they can seleci. 1 dnnht 
whether any are killed in, these encounters; occasionally T fmd a 
dead one on the ground, but those may die from old age. The. 
riged ones become very feeble and unable to obtain a sufficiency of 
food. One poor old creature used to come to me, when I was 
•cracking up biscuits for my gold-fish, appealing For a crumb or 
two- 1( was quiie parhetic to see his ineu'ectual efforts to bop to 
Ihe fop of the box o» which I cracked up the biscuit. 



GOATS AND GUM LEAVES 

Has anyone beard of the leaves of the su£ar-£um being injurious 1o yxiaifr? 
A country reader says that a lew leaves were given to each ol iotiv goat* 
tied iu a yard and having access to nothing fl$c injurious. In less than 
lu*o hmsr? after on** died in gTeat n^ony, another was ahnosl dead, T>ut 
recovered, and the other two were not affected. These last two had eaten 
rbc Itfilg narrow leaves of the gum. while the goats poisoned liad taken 
fhc round leaves. On examination (he one thai died showed £K) trace of 
irritation of ll;e ytoinach, hut the lungs and heart were almost Mack anil 
fiitf of txiuKcafetl blood. 



U F, S. Collar, Ptow Rsitutins /r<>™ tfffJfjMg! [ V v5. iS" 

OK SOME PLANT REMAINS FROM MAKSFIELD. 

VICTORIA 

By F. S. Colliyer, Melbourne 

The impressions herewith figured and described, and apparently 
Of a different type from any previously recorded from Mansfield, 
were collected during a short raft made with Mr. F. H. Salau to 
the district at Easter, 1942, They were not found in situ, but were 
taken from a pile of large stone* at the. side of (he road to the 
Broken River just past the Barwite. Road turn-off. At this spot 
the toad h cut through a small hillside and doubtless these rocks- 
came from road repairs that appear to have been made fairly 
recently 

On the low side of the road -a section across the beds enabled 
prospecting to be done, and although no similar specimens were 
found, small pieces carrying the enamelled scales, etc., similar to 
those obtained at Fish Hill overlooking the homestead, were 
collected. Time and position did not permit a thorough iuvesu- 
gniioti into the GMteNQ of the rocks exposed. 

The specimen figured is without doubt of vegetal >lc origin and 
the general habit first seemed to indicate one of the marine algae 
.generally referred to as Bylliotrrtphis or C'hoiufrik\<, 

Unfortunately the preservation of the specimen is not good and 
ali important details are not showing; thus determination must be 
doubtful. Of these two genera, Bythatraphi.i is found in Qrdoviciau 
and Silurian deposits, and Chqndntes ranges from Palaczoie to 
Mesozoic at least, and thus- the age does not admit much toward 
the determination of the specimens. 

The beds from which these rocks were taken are certainly of the 
same age as the red sandstone? of Fish Hiti, and indeed appear to 
be portion of the same series 

These beds, on their fossil content, mainly fish and Lepidodcu- 
(Iron, have been referred to as of Lower Carboniferous age, and. 
the genera of the fish, together with the association of land phut 
rpmains, seems rc> sugge*! at leai*r estuarme conditions when the 
deposits were laid down. From this it is thus quite possible for 
marine algae to be found m association with these other fossils. 

However, looking furl her into fossil plant forms for companions, 
the genu* Spljenopttris in some of its forms (eg.., S. offinis, 
L- el H.) seems to approach closely to the specimen under discus- 
sion. This genus, according to Seward, is "one of those extremely 
useful provisional generic terms where we have no satisfactory 
proof of precise botanical affinity." and fta such may be used to 
designate the specimen until some bviler ptf.-erved m-deiial fa 
obtained. 







— 
3 7 



Photo.: H. T. Reeves 



Spliaioptcris sp„ frum Mansfidd. 






F -S. Coi.mvhk, Plant Ratnmts from Man* fie td 13 



Thus I suggest the >|:>eciiircn be known as Sphenopteris sp. 

This genus is common in the Carboniferous, and fornix closely 
allied to the figured specimen occur in England and Europe. 

As a further indication. 01 the estuanne and tidal amditinns 
dUntyg the laying down of these sediments may be mentioned the 
-small Brittle-Star described as Cl* Aqanaxter yicqmi-us (Meek and 
Wart lien) {PtM #.£ Vir., Vol. 47, Pt. I. p. 207 ) ? which- was 
found at Mainditniple j%$kr 9 MansficM. 

The photngTiijih here reproduced was taken hy Mr, ]1. 'f. 
Rccves. using 3 very low angle and mercury vapor as the illuminat, 
The det&il of the photo, .actually appears hotter than that shown un 
the specimen. 

To Mr. F Chapman. A.L.S.. etc.. for reading over Jhe nhove and 
suggesting better lenrnnology. and tn the tfaff of ihe Mational 
Herbarinni F6r fniilitfers in checking references and examining 
•specimen* uf algae, the winter extends his cordigl thanks. 



r-uirnrF-U NOTES ON PHALANGERS 

By R. K U.Mnmw, Portland 

]n h recent issue of the t/ict&iiw* NaSitfaUsf there appeared a photograph 
of a Phatanger being" held hy iti owner, Josie Aldridge of Hey wood, Tin* 
•wecR (April) Josie and hoj sister Sy.'via -came along la see me and hail A 
Wpriftg to unfold. The tact fe, "Jermyn 1 ' Has had another set of twins. 
They were but a few days old rtti<£ attz? vigorotJi.lv partaking of a drink 
from tfJCJf mother, they Inekod themselves away in her c-ouch with astonish- 
ing speed. 

Here are some of losie's notes oji her pets: 

"\Ve have given them praefwally everything to cat and ihe only refuy&J* 
are. t'rofl?.. earthworms, and sings. They love almost any kind of morh, hut 
do not Tal<o to the wln(e cabbage -moth. They were very fond of the black 
grubs which were so plentiful about Christmas lima Of fruits, perhaps 
the tomato lakes first preference, especially (he seeds. Jl is really marvellous 
how this can detect by smell the thing's tV.ey like; they come out \try quickly 
for, S-av; a tomato, whereas if the offering is not their favourite toad they 
won't, hurry in the slightest. The white ft rubs, so plentiful in our forest, 
are first labourite of any of their foods. They drink plenty of cold water 
Thc.y also had a helping of Christmas pudding, hut did not get -3d 1 
v Jermyn' i=! a cunning liule scamp and if flies are plentiful she will not woiry 
•to move off my shoulder, for she knows full well that w<- will catch thenn for 
her. The hr^c lot of twins arc now very beautiful and the fur really lovely. 
but. they have- become a little wild, no doubt 0^. account of my being away -on 
-a holiday. Up to this they were very tatne. 

"Here is the. list of things they have 'sampled'; cherry-plums, greengage 
plums, Mackbei'rics, mwlbenies, cooked meat, raw meal, cooked or raw fish, 
apples, grapes, carrots, cakes, jam, honey, milk, beetles, black grubs, white 
ground grubs, files,, moths, and white wood-grubs. 

"•Jermyn 1 wilt be five years old ne*t month am] although >Uk babies iarc 
lovely she still takes pride of place as our favourite." 



J4 nnmv anu Wii.n>, Yrtrti ktud Pi&hr M [voilx' 

TRF YARKA BEND PL'RLIC PARK 
Hv I*. M„ Brucr axo J. H. WlLLts, National f-Uxhtriuiu, Mdhuumc 
! he ^0 lOcutoers di'itl ftknute who assembled al Johiihtun Street fifklifC' 
<m Saturday, JOtli April were favoured with ideal excursion wcatlicT, Mr. 
F. S. Col liver i hi giving a preliminary <-xphuiutkm of »he geafogfcaJ history 
of Studlry Park region, led Oisf D*Tft Uf> tl»c leH hank of liic fiver to Dighr/fi 
FaJfo. L.vcdleirt cliff-facr profiles ol the Silurian iednncntary hedrack 
(upon winch Metfjoitrn.c huficly kmikIs) vjp.it briefly e^ emitted and thf 
ir.fricale folding, faulting 1 . displacement and pinching <>[ strata, the effects 
or hillside crtvv and other interesting features were noted. 

Botanic*) observations occupied the remainder of a pleasant afternoon, In- 
accordance with the- Cluh's project to make hotanical surveys of the i ores ted 
coimoy .still remaining witlizn greater Melbourne di>irkt (a l*Ud$1>te 
policy, now that lxauspan. to mure distant hunting-grounds is so restricted), 
Yxrr-* Bend W#* chosen as Hie firs* reserve W have a sciie* of qua* icfty 
visits. 

The n-iuic Studlev Park ceased to have oflioai status ii» 19*55 when the 
Lauds Department incorporated that area so designated in a larger reserve 
of SS/ acres (excluding over $4$ acres occupied by the Yarra Boulevard) r 
which now embraces Hie country around Fairfield Hospital— between Merri 
Crook on the wwl and' Kow Mental Asylum to the east. For convenience 
ut compiling botanical stannic*, the whole Varia Bend Pflbtfc Piirk is best 
divided imo thtQL distinct seclions, viz,, "Studley Pari*" at previously 
undvr?tc.id, "North Ex*t'' section between Kciv Asylum aixl the river, 
and "Central" section between tue Yerra ; Heidelberg Road, ai.d Merri 
Creek — this IfflCt and largest division is the- fesHSf uifi-restinj; floriMically, 
hUice it covert newer basalt fiiassIaitQ north or cue Yaira which lias been- 
inanifcslly Altered through grazing ;uid consequent rcptacemonr of the 
original vegetation by alien weeds. 

Km more 'ha.n thru- traverses weic undertaken ir- ilic couple of hours of 
daylight available, these embodied the f lopes and river fronlancs irorrv 
Johnston Street Bridge to Dibits Fells, (run tlw Fall* past Iht Grimes 
inemcnnt io steep cliffs near the Fero* J-lajic, from the Boulevard abnvc 
the Ferry ptsl {& Reservoir and alwg ihc river escat-pnicni again to Cipps 
Street fooibru1t*t.\ 

Notwittoaadin^ this unusually dry auiMtnn jeasou which had withered 
the; leaver Ot* iiumy shruK^ (noiahly Myopontm Vtfcosjini and Cassima 
aaUeafo, $tovnt\R on exposed ±\a*xy ftTound), no fewer than 140 higher 
l>]«uti (ffl nauvev and 52 csteUlislltd aliens; were U^fed during the afltr* 
noon, Miid nt the 140 more than a. quarter were uhwived in flovver 

Since Pi M. Reader began a Ce-nsMs of SlUcMey Pari; ve^etstion in |8fi.i 
only two ol our CluV cxeursions (in 1910 and 1919) liOve rjCen COHC0W4 
wirh botany .nit\ <tlK r>ub1t»lftd result); nf both were, very meagre. Of 
Keadcr'i species cataloguttt in 1&35« 36 have not boon re-discovcrcil aud 
at least some of these- must he presumed extitict iit the ar^a, e.g., the 
"M-sadow Monuwnit" {ftotrxr.hutm wwtraTc] which Mr. C French fci)icr 
oolleotcd here in J858. and ltossibty Hibbcrm strain, hut in comixmatiuu 
wc have hceu alilc to 'Add 67 plants, appajeittly recorded for the first? limf, 
thus br*Ulait1fi the aK-t'ine MM"] fo» Stniiley Park- Section io 122 indigenom 
and 77 introduced species. This doe? not include half ^ duzeu spwamodsc 
alicivs vvlneh wc^c noted bnt can hardly yet be regarded as naturalized 
{"Tree-of- Heaven," "Pepper-tree." "Common Ivy," "Japanese Huiiey- 
sucktc," etc.), nor ctocs it touch the lower cryuiogema (mo6S«s, lichens, 
fungi, algfle. etc.}. The figures arc impressive, nuooftli for a reserve within 
three niSa of Mc-lhouinc G.P.O , hut h ii huffed ro BUgriMGiJ the li^-t during 
soring, when small '-ca«»jnal pUitts appear and the other two section* of the 
new Pii^Jic Park are f,>M».im?cd as vvi-U, and to nobh\h t\f thp end of the- 
i*car a coniprclieiiMve checlcltst of the whole flora. 



\M% J Bnmv A«n Wn us Yon* Bout iWr 1'vrl 15 

Ecologically SlUtlW l'Ark ik complicated and one hesitates to define its 
natural plant communities as n distinct association: Eucalyptus Unwoxylon, 
£. mflh<n?or$ f and 2s. invvhwJis appear as lire dominant trees, (with # 
*i.tfmita dominating tlic ri|hsriaii ehmicnl and ascending hill $jQ|)es for short 
distance*)., while Acacia py<tumtha r A, iw/'/ivm, W. aanaua, Doiiotiaan 
CMffffto, M'yoparmn viy/vxum, M. \mnlorc and Gdodcnw a?M*ta, singly or »rt 
various: mixtures, form a shrub stratum on and around cliff faces. Perhaps 
the Closest affinity is with Dr. K. T, ration'.-; concept of Ike "Red Box- 
Rod Stringybark" association round higher up the a&rtti 3! Warrandyte- 
bl>t the component specie:. there arc* so different: .10 member of Chciio- 
pt>d*(\<t-,v mir or Fuzaitiart'c* js mentioned in the compo'Uioo bul Ut Sludlcy 
Pari: /itriphw semibaccixtvvx, Nhogattw m/Jan-s, H. hiuiaia, Hnchylo*mi> 
Uniftul&xa and M i'snubriattthemum xqitutrralc are coiupicuouv Again, the 
KB- R.S-B- association claims SI least 33 different orchids, wheren* lie; 
species of this family has been," .*.o far reported from Yarra Tfcmi. 

A similar alliance ot Myopontm vixcoAum with Cttcmpodiot/.a* Itn5 (ttcii 
nfxerved on the stony wall* of Morang, Anakie, Wembee, and Lerderderfc 
gorges, but no attempt has been made; in Victoria to classify the vcpirratinu 
of cliff fates. This cMff dement along the lower Yaira grades inUi a 
tnv oi savannah woodland at Studley Park ami I tic latter formerly n^sed 
over juto ahnoM a heathtantl community where the hard Silurian beds are 
tapped with Tertiary sands and giavels toward Kew — such luathland 
element has iuffemt considerable destruction ancc i 7 . M. Kcader's day and 
is by itovv almost nnrcco* n table. The North East Section exhibits -*U 
analogous succession from river cliffs to Tertiary sands near the old Outer 
Circle railway 

It was regrettable to note- the. many Mn*ll shmbs (chiefly "Hop 
Ooodenia") eaten feiflftOst to w round level, presumably by rabbit*: oilici 
recent Hamate to the Pn/Ic liad been caused by small buslunrtf, in tin- 
vicinities of l-hfcht'y Falls and Gipp? St. Bridge-, a/>d at will t)c ittlcrc5ttuK' 
here to ■sec bow winter rains affect the natural regeneration of plant cover — 
Fennel weed was much in prominence near th^ Fftlts and seems to HrHirisli 
with (lUCCCHOve burning along the iiv?r bank, ''improvements" to the 
Boulevard include extensive planting of exotic shrubs, and earth binding" 
creepers, dtkl it j$ ooly to fie tUlljdpfttOd that some oi these; will eventually 
escape into and nimble with the undisturbed native vegetation. 

la conjunction With botanical recordings it is expected that patrons of 
zoology will give soma attention to the animal |jfc of the region. Quite a 
not. ■* worthy find on this first otrt">g was that of a dead uaiive cat 
(JJasynnts vhrrrimts), a ctcaturc ram near Melbourne; Mr. Davul Flcay 
ItaJ a ►amity o^ cUsyun-s under obscr^-ation at Studley I'arV, wiiile Mv 
C I.. Barrett reported ihem ns not unconimou tlierc in 1025 (T'"n. Mi/*. 
vol. 42. f>. ISO, see aho rir. Nat., vol. 49. p, o\3). The present .^tccinien 
was. a full-grown male -md Wfi trust that lie has left a Jttdtc and pnje;(niy 
somewhere in the reserve! 



CARRYING THE BABY 

A comury naiurali$b vfko not loiu inicc watched a wood duel-: hrinft'ine 
down a brood nf ten from the nest in a lljgH lrc«-^poob wa^. Kieky enough 
to be SO tloSfi to them that tie could make no mistake about it In every 
instance tlie mother^ u<infc her beak, rau^lit the duckl>ng by the down on its 
back and flew with it Lo the foot of the tree, Each duckling as it -,vas 
placed on Ihe ground crouclictl fl^t uud nvotionlcas in the }{V£B& until the 
whole hiood had' hcen brought in quirk succession. Then, on A sigi\al ncie 
from the d»ek, v>hirii, hearing perhap^ Cor the hr&l time, they aniteared U» 
fullv understand, they traifed aw^y with her to the nearest water. 



16 fihftll ffifttyUK Gflrtfnu, oVw. & ?>V fin* [T£$ £jj, K 

ttOYAT. BOTANIC GAUDKNS. KfiVV, IN WAfc TIM) 7 

The following notes, based on ini'uiruaiio:! contained in ihe Ut^sl number 
of ti.e journal of tu€ Kew Guild (194!) :dtnw how Kew, despite setbacks, 
I? carrying on. 

Karly m the war it was decided tlnal Kew Gardens should lemaan oprn 
!u the public because gf the rccr c^'ioitJl /adlftnj! it offered. Since thM 
lime, although the face oi ICqw ha-* ch^'ed, this Object hfiB been main- 
tained. _ By ATjjfUSfj 3940. nearly all die male student hart gone into the 
Services, aitd in their place women gardeners were nrtptoycjl- Oc^pitr 
evacuations ftgjjl London, attendances b| L°4t reached B2R0W» some 2,000 
more titan in 1940. 

Over five acres of the -Gardens are now under vegetables. The mam 
enn> heme potatoes, o£ which iwo acre? wen: planted- Other oops grown 
weic kohl rahi, rarror, leeks, heet, swedes, haricot beans, onions, jfCjuasfeeS 
and marrow*. So- successful was the can or. crop that many or' the best 
roots were tasjlt for seed, urohahty the first rime that wrh an activity has 
taken place at Kew. In addition to the acreage m Che Garden* itself, th.ee 
arc further allotments be'iiinrt the Herbarium aiul also nrt Knv Green. 

Considering 1(1 akse Kew has had remarkably Stew boinu*, bin during the 
"/3?iu" H received itt £lfl] 4hat\\ Ivglitecn nigh explore *;0mbs k'l) hi 
many different localities. damafiinn arnonc-tt other thing* the iJucun'A 
Cottage. Palm House; Rhododendron Dell and the PJntttttH,. Others caused 
damage 'O lawns, trees- and garden- beds. Oil homln frll near rhe "Mains 
Mouitd, 1 * causing damage Lo some hue specimens of the Dco'Jar Cedar. 
AnonVr falling; near frh^ Temperate Hmise blew nut ovi-i 7.01)0 pane* of 
glass. Many pbtntfi were damaged by flying glass and ni winter came on 
The ph'ui1> were c.xpo-sed to ifrost and cold winds. Dite to icpl-u-emema of 
plants and Rjass, the damage now i* hrudly noticeable. The Pa Inn House 
also buffered severely, httt-fess g)a*hf was bioken. A* thu house contains 
only tropica) sjimc e these had 'o be immediately aceoranifidarcri elsewhere. 
Bomb b'.asl affected Irtste, not only by checking llmir nonimt growth, but 
hy forcing manv (inrin&nt bods into growth Eoth ntmkv arfd main items 
l«ve been aff erred in trt;*; maimer. 

A I'lagnicnt of vtit oil bomb was fouhd cu»l>edi.ed h: Lh*r t^uak o'* die 
Deodars -ntt the Broad Walk, about 120 y.irrls from rhe rxplo^inn. So 
firmly was it cmbtdded Utat. it ctntld not "be removed without cflusing 
c^rimis damage to the rvee, and so it "remains as a rmuuento oi the timo 
in which we live" Ncvt!) Galiny and one oi Uie Museums were damsged 
hy bTnsi from hoinbs falline neai hy, .Fortunately rhe pric^lost K^Tth 
collection of iKiintinRS had ln:i:n removerL 

Because of tl*e Centenary l^eld during 1941. Kcw 'eccivcd 3 great de*l of 
atttmtio.i. A national broadcast was &i\tn and h heautiiul colour ritrrj 
(of which a ore-view hw Already been irjwi ill Afclboirrnc 1 was made 

The Hcfrbar'tmt also luis stiflaed, aJthoi^i no material damage has as 
yet W.n sustajned Ju^t after the outbreak of war and because of their 
ycienttfic value, nver two-tlnrds oi the ^peeimrns. (ajipro.v. 3^ million cheets^ 
iind over 20 tors flf bool<s were evaeo/itcd wiUS rjai'l ot the Herbarium stafr 
Tin? party split up into :\vo sections, one settling at Oxford and the. other 
In -he ftfidianrts 

Work in the^e sections tufe criTiiinr.ed. nithotiftii there is a marked Ltlc of 
oversell eortesponiNMicj-. hut this i* made up f>v tb^ nunu'rotm iiK(uirit'> for 
information coix^riiin^ the IftcSI flfiraE Compilation £' 'he snpplemcnf^ \a 
tjfc) Uuifx- A>rw.*,?fi and iH{Fi?£ 1 mniotu^iMji arc bemg t.^nUu.icd 

Exhibits hi the tnudCUins have been reorganised an<I ivm' ri'|>rv. l vi;nt'; tnpiral 
intercJts. inr*odin>?, wild pJbnts Frtt liiid and nonltry >eeds ( medicinal *fi4 
dtug pUi:tft whir't can be -xdlecied In rife field, etc. — IvoKi. LbriitA:-.\ 

: 



The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol L3L — No. 2 June 9, 1943 ^°- 7 X 4 



PROCEEDINGS 

The ordinary meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday. May 10, 1943. The President (Mr. 
P. Crosbie Morrison) presided, and about SO members and {fiends 
attended. 

The President welcomed several visitors to the meeting, and 
also expressed pleasure at seeing Mrs. V. IT Milter back after 
illness. 

PLANT NAMES SUB-COMMITTEE 

Mr. J. H. Willis reported that the previous sub-committee not 
having been officially disbanded, the appointment of a new sub- 
committee at the last general meeting now meant that two 
committees existed, and to simplify the matter he proposed to 
move the following addition to the motion passed at the last 
general meeting; — 'That the Plant Names Sub-Committee be 
reconstituted to function as a permanent standing sub-committee 
-of the Club with a minimum personnel of five ; that three members 
shall always constitute a quorum; and that the inaugural personnel 
be Dr. C. S. Sutton, Dr. R. T. Patton, Messrs, P. F. Morris. 
J. H. Willis. P. Bibby, J. W Audas, X S. Hart, E. E. Pescott 
and N\ Lothian " 

Mr. P, F. Morris seconded this motion, which was carried. 

SUBJECT FOR THE EVENING 

* 

This was an illustrated lecture entitled "The Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Ken;/' given by Mr. Noel Lothian. The lecturer, using 
a good series of illustrations, traced the development of the gar- 
dens and showed some of the outstanding features of the present 
time. The effect of the war on the gardens and the part played in 
training' students for administrative positions were emphasized. 

Several questions were asked, after which the President 
■expressed the thanks of the Club to the lecturer and pointed out 
that Mr. Lothian was a graduate of the Gardens, who returned 
10 Australia about two years ago. 



IS FirJrt i\'ah<rctlixtx > Club Pracccdmtjs [vol lx 

PERSONAL 

Letters from Mrs. Blanche E. Miller, Messrs, J. Seaiie, j A. 
Ross, J, Wilcox, and Geo. Lyell expressing thanks far lion. 
Membership Certificates recently received. 

The following were elected as Ordinary Members of the Guh: 
Messrs. J. E. Marshall. N. Stuart, and John Calaby, 

NOMINATIONS FOR OFFICE-BEARERS 

. The following nominations were received for 1943-44; — 
President. Mr. P. F. Morris ; Vice-Presidents. Mr. H. C. E. 

Stewart, Mr, Ivo Hamrnctt, Mr. J. H. Willis; Hon. Editor, Mr.. 

A. H Chisholm. F.R.Z.S.; Hon. Secretary, Mr. F. S. Coiliver; 

Hon. 7\ssistant Secretary, Mr. Noel Lothian; Hon. Treasurer,. 

Mr. E. E. Lord: Hon. Librarian, Dr. C. S. Sutton: Hon. Assistant 

Librarian, Mi". P. Bibbv; Committee. Messrs. A. S. Chalk, H. P. 

Dickins, H. T. Reeves. G. \ f . Hyam, J. H. Willis, A. Grasskk. 
Mr. A. S. Chalk and Mr. A. G. llooke were re-elected a& 

auditors, 

FORESTRY PROBLEMS 

Mr. A. A. Baker moved: — "That this Club bring before the 
Government the injury done to the country by de -fore station and 
soil erosion which may be caused by a policy of settling ex-soldiers 
of thiSj war on the laud, as was. don^ alter the last war, notably in 
South Gipuslaud, the Malice and Beech Forest, where in many 
instances the land was vacated after clearing and is now overrun 
with bracken and rabbits, thus preventing the regeneration of the 
natural forest/' 

Ir was agreed to refer the matter to the Committee for further 
consideration. 

NATURE NOTES 

Mr. Tvo Hammetr reported seeing a Wattle-bird clearing scale 
ofr Acacia trees. 

Mr. V. 34. Miller stated that a lack of bird nests in the trees of 
St. Kilda was noticeable this year. 

Mr. P. Crosbic Morrison reporrcd that a large green vegetable 
bug had crossed the Dividing Range thr's year, and that it had 
been proved by stomach examination that Mud-larks ate large 
numbers of these pests. 



Members arc reminded that Annual Subscriptions' are now rUit*_ Prompt 
attention to this obligation would spare the Hon. Treasurer much work. 



1H™] EWIU Colf.MAK. The Story oj Mv UtmsfiBan !0 

THE STORY OF MV HONl-IY-milKS 

By Edtti-j Coi,iiMA>-, Blackburn. Vic. 

(Continued from May issue) 

It was an okl belief, most common in mediaeval days, but dating 
from Greek and Roman writings of the 1st century > possibly 
earlier, and persisting to the end of the 19th in rural Europe, that 
bees must he told of the death of their owner, otherwise they would 
"pine and divine away," Camerarius writes: "Who would be- 
lieve, if experience did not make it credible, that most commonly 
all (he bees die in then* hives it the master or mistress of the house 
chance to die, except they be presently removed to another place? 
And yet I know that this kith happened fo folk in no way stained 
with superstition" (Historkfd Mrditatiam, Mode's translation.) 
'Telling the bees' way practised in England less than 50 years 
ago. In Frccioits fiane, Mary We.bb > who knew so well the tra- 
ditions of Shropshire, iniakes use of tins old custom. (As soon as 
his father had died, Gideon Sam said in an every day voice "I'll 
go and Jell Hie bees, mother, or we me*r lose Vm," and he told every 
skep.) 

BEE ISHMAELS 

When I was a child my father sometimes took certain "tees" 
from ihe flowers, enclosing them in lirs baud. He templed me 
to emulate linn by pointing out the ones I might safely handle, but 
always my courage failed at the critical moment. I have assumed 
that these were drones although I do not vemeinber my father's 
telling me so. Edwards (J908) states that cr no one lias ever seen 
a drone among the insects that haunt the flowers, or ever seen him 
basking tin a sunlit wall or tree-trunk, like almost every other 
winged atom. Once gone from the hive, he seems to keep in- 
cessantly on the wing until hunger prompts him horro* again.*' Yet 
Maeterlinck (1901) writer of drones "caressing their idleness in 
the midst of tht* flowers." and again, "making for the nearest 
flowers where thev sleep mini ihe afternoon freshness awakens 
them." 

According Jo Quinby ( ISS4-) drones may be taken m the lingers 
with impunity, hut he does not say whether from flowers or the 
combs From Mr. I artton Uaymenl I learned that drones rarely 
visit flowers, and when they do alight it is accidental. 

Virgil sang of bis drones ''bitltug, without sharing m the labour, 
at another's food"; and another old writer has summed him up* 
"We flielh abroad, aloft, and about; and that with no .--mall noise 
as though he would do some great act; hut it is only for lite own 
pleasure, to get htm a stomach; and then returns he to his cheer; 1 " 
and I fear this is the picture that most of us have fnrmeci of the 
lazy drone, 



33 Hun ii Colkman, Tlw Story «/ My HmtfyBees RSwMr 

In November, 1942, when gatdeu Aeoniums were in flower. 1 
partly solved the problem, For three weeks the huge inflorescences 
were haunted by bees which must have found them easy foraging 
Now and ag^in a larger, brighter "bee" aliglited which suggested — 
the wish no doubt being father to the thought — may father's 
'"drones " But these were too swift for me to capture, even in a 
lidded box They were golden and gleaming, witbottr the hairy, 
velvety look ot the hive bee Like Miehelet I thought them too 
jadiant h\ Iheir Oluntinated wings for toilers of the hive. When at 
last 1 did capture several 3 found that: they were without the 
married wings of hymen op tcra. quite obviously flies. 

Later I was able to see them depositing eggs on the walls ot a 
barrel whidi contained liquid manure, and to watch the rat- 
tailed maggots that emerged from them propelling themselves as 
.swiftly about the unpleasant fluid as their beautiful parems. *«3c3 
navigated the air. Some were sen! to Mr, Raymcnt who con- 
firmed t\lf assumpti fljj that they were drone-flies (Eri.tfalis tenax) 
and described them as flower-lovers, . . He added i "The trans- 
parent structures you mention between abdomen and thorax aie 
actually the vestigia! second pair of wings/' 

I still cannot associate these swift radiant creatures with the 
"bees" my father captured io unhurriedly, but memory is some- 
times treacherous- 

SPRINO-SLMMKR BKHAVlOUR 

With the passing of winter it was evident that sufficient bees 
had survived tn tend the developing larvae. When the weather 
was fine one saw many young bees leave the combs for short flights 
close by, returning almost at once to take up their duties in the 
nest. They were much too crowded for a novice to follow their 
doings. 

According (o Ro&rh bees are educated through a succession of 
duties, each bee being - able to perform all the work of the hive 
whcn : her period for that work arrives. He has divided the life 
of the worker-bee into three periods. For two days the newly- 
hatched bee prepares cells for more eggs, and assists with the 
fanning. Then, until 6' days old. she feeds the older larvae. For 
9 days she may then feed the younger larvae The second period, 
of about 30 days, is devoted to receiving and storing nectar and 
pollen brought in by foraging bees; comb-building and, at the end 
of the period, guarding the entrance. Only during the third period, 
of from 20 to 30 days, does she herself go afield to forage for 
nectar, pollen, propolis and water, and this brings her short life 
to a close. The sequence of duties may vary: special circum- 
sfaitces may demand some change in their order. 

I could, of course, read little of this on my crowded combs, hut 



$Sjf] EiiJtti Colkman, ?7i<! jVnry cj My 1ic.*cy*Bc?i 21 

it, was pleasant to reflect chat my three valiant attackers were no 
more than ten days old. 

The hive was photographed on October 7th, 1942. At the be- 
ginning of December the "federation" had so increased that no comb 
was visible. At night when the bees were all home they must have 
been several inches deep, so that we became apprehensive that the 
points of anchorage might give way under the great weight o{ 
bees and honey. When Mr, A, G Campbell saw them he sug- 
gested that there might be danger from enraged bees should the 
nest fall. The weather was very warm. One could discern 
nothing to denote softening of the wax. which occurs even in or- 
dinary hives under high temperature^ and affects the temper of 
the bees. 

However, as they had passed safely through the previous sum- 
mer, and were fairly w r ell shaded with apple and gum trees, nothing 
was done, although the bees were closely watched with a view 
to warning our neighbours should the nest fall. 

DISASTER 

Every evening* I said "They will swann to-morrow, ,f On the 
eve of January 26th, 1943, after a very hot day, it seemed certain 
that something must happen. With such an incredible number of 
bees on the combs and more bees emerging daily, the comb-area 
must surely be tfebted if they were to carry on. At 2 p.m. next 
day (a hot north wind) I found the nest on the ground while hosts 
of bees were flying under and above the roof as if they knew not 
where to take their loads, Some would fly to the fallen nest and 
then off as if to forage again, or perhaps scout for a new site; 
.The strangest thing was that the bees did not appear to blame 
trie, although T stood by for long periods.. As they lay motionless 
on a fallen sack, they resembled the .skin oi an animal. Instead 
of falling on its apex the nest lay flat on one side. It must, I think, 
have slid very gradually and gently, so that many bees on the 
under side had not been crushed. These had crawled on to the 
upper surface where they formed part of a dense blanket of bees, 
apparently protecting the larvae frwri the great heat. 

At S p.m. when, normally, on such a hot day the bees would 'stilt 
be active in the garden or on the combs, they were perfectly still- 
At 8 p.m. the under surface of the roof and the 8 or 10 inches 
of comb still attached to it were covered with bees, and on the 
sack below they were deeper than ever. 

I^ext day (January 28th) at 7 a.m. there was still little tnove- 
rnent and no bees were seen among the usually bee-haunted flowers 
in a bed of bergamot close by. No ill-temper was shown although 
I visited them many times during the morning, always, a little 



22 Ensrtf Gui.gmajj, Tlut Stoty oj My W/>m?y-/?i\?,v Lvo* lx 

apprehensive, and keeping at a. reasonably safe distance: hut dis- 
tance, of course, is nothing to a wrathful bee, 

I wa^ at the nest at 2 p.m. Fifteen minutes later the bees had 
completely vanished — and I had missed one of the most moving 
spectacles, in nature. It seemed remarkable that they should desert 
combs in which there was t-cill .so much honey, and hundreds of 
larva: in all Mag*s f& development. For several days the comb 
was vjsired by many bee$. whether the lawful owners or robbers 
1 had no means of discovering. 

Wishing to examine the eumb I accepted ICirby's assurance that 
bees may be safely immersed in water for 9 hours, and will revive 
frith warmth. I had seen many revive when accidentally washed 
into the bird pools. So taking a hose I made it rain gvntly — on 
the just and the unjust alike. I was able to examine (he illusive 
dmncs as well us a living queen, and larva? in many stages, After 
cutting off ahotil 3 lbs. m order to test honey from any own 
herbs, the nest was. given up to marauders. It weighed (12/2/43) 
with dead bees, larva; and the little honey that was left, 104 lbs. 

The pari of the comh still attached to the rool revealed the 
beauty of waxen architecture. The leaves had been strengthened 
and conjoined Iry mean ft of small flying buttresses. Had it. been 
possible to roof the nest more securely the combs would probably 
have, increased until too close to the ground J but from the ingenuity 
of the bees and the skill they bung to bear on an xinant icipated 
problem, it is certain that they would have met the danger by 
building in safer directions before this stage was reached. 

It is known that bees fly long distances in search of pasture. 
These bees gave convincing proof thai they are glad to forage 
near home if the right nee car be available. Water is necessary to 
tbematalt stages, in rearing broods and in "liquefying honey in very 
cold weather, and they came nght to the house for it. visiting 
bird-pools and the dogs' drinking bowls. I have counted 9 bees 
sipping from a tiny rock pool. 

We had hoped that they might return to the remaining eomh, 
for bees do exhibit attachment to a favoured situation. In this 
district for four successive years a large nest occupied the roof 
fd a shop, entering by « small perforated ventilator in the wall. 
Kipling's bees of Little Lindens, probably based on fact, had lived 
under the tiles of the old farmhouse ever since it was built. There 1 
is a record of 150 years for bees in an Oxford home. 

The garden h;id lost a living charm. The bees had brushed into 
it the finishing touches. They had conjured up pictures of those 
old "sipping gardens 1 * of England, of my own county, Surrey; of 
Mary Webb's Shropshire; of Hardy's "Wessex;" of Kipling's 
Sussex, and Hudson's- Wiltshire, where cottages were "wrapped 
in flowers as in a garment/' and rounded off with hee-skeps. Lastly. 



THE VICTORIAN XATUKALIST 



Vnr.« l\ 



June. 1943 



Ph.\TK II 





N 



June 
UI4S 



I BtiAUGUiUOu-.. Orchidx oi the Portland Bi<itkl 23 



the hoe? enabled me to settle, to my own satisfaction at least seveial 
doubtful points on thef pollination of certain flowers; but this must 
be another story. 

It seeim surprising that more flower-lovers do not. employ the 
bee. In olden days every flowery garden had its bees, until bee- 
farming on a large' scale made it easier to buy honey than to In re 
the bee. Certainly Eucaiypt honey is delicious, perhaps second 
only to the thyme-honey of flowery Hyuiettus, or the heather - 
honey of Scotland; -but is there any finer honey than that gleaned 
from English cottage flowers? 

• It is a fascinating subject on which one is tempted to dwell. 
Lawson's words come to mind: W I will not account her any erf 
my jfood housewife* that wantcth either bees or skilfulncss about 

(Concluded) 



ORCHIDS OF THE PORTLAND DISTRICT 
By CtUrti. BeaIiGLEuOLK, Corae West, via Portland 

The following list of orchids is made available eljtcfly by the 
efforts of Mrs. K. Mellblom. of Portland, .Mr. Murray Holmes, 
of Gorae, and myself, plus the great help wc have received from 
Mr W. H Nicholls, of Melbourne. 

I am mentioning mainly ffivfen localities. v\z. — Gorae and Gorac 
West (forest country) , Cashinorc. Heathmere (wet heath 
country). South Portland Bridgewater and Mount Richmond 
(drier areas, sandy nature, also limestone ridges — all three adjoin- 
ing; sea coast). The Portland district is by no means a large area. 
but is noted for the varied nature of its soils, and this is the mam 
reason why I have divided it into different sections. 

This list excludes all doubtful find*; that is. no orchid is included 
unless determined by our authority, Mr. Nicholls In some cases 
of the rarer orchids I am including the date on which we fir$t 
discovered them. Orchids that have been found throughout arc 
indicated by the word "Alt," otherwise the locality nr localities, in 
initials will be stated, The total of valid species is 81. 

The key is: * Orchids peculiar to Portland :. nog,, approximate 
number of different plants seen; v.r., under 25 plants; r., appearing 
in doxens (under favourable conditions) ; a, appearing in hundreds 
(under favourable conditions) ; v.c, appearing in thousands (under 
favourable conditions). 

D I PODIUM 

PnncWnm Hyacinth Orchid .. All- c. 

GASTRODIA 

.xfisa»u>idesr Potato Orchid -. All; & 



24 



litiACCUnoM?. QwhidH of the Portland Dishirt 



'Vi.,1. Nut. 
- Vul. LX 



PRASOPHYLLUM 



austral. 



Austral Leek-orchid 



G.. GAV., H., C, 



/?rfl"i//(?/to/(?i 


Peat Leek-orchkl 


1942 


Gorac West; 24. 


dffiptctoHs 


Tiny L<*k-orchid 


1933 


G., GAV., SP.; r. 


^dfoasiftaruiu 


Variable Leek- orchid 


1941 


Gorac West; 100. 


; r latum 


Tall Leek-orchid 




All ; t. 


flavum 


Yellow Leek-orchicJ 


i9.ii 


G-. r. : 5 P., H.. v.r. 


Frenchii 


Grateful Leek-orchid 


1934 


Gorac West; 3. 


jmco-viride 


Dusky Green Leek-orchid 


1942 


Bridgewater: v.r, 


yraalc 


Elegant Leek-orchid 


1934 


Gorae West; 140. 


Hartu 


Maroon Leek-orchid 


1942 


Gorac West ; 100. 


■ nigricans 


Dark Leek-orchid 




Gorae; vx. 


OilfifatiiTfi 


Sweet Leck-orchid 




AU_: c 


var. album 


White Leek -orchid 


1942 


Gorae West : V/r. 


fiarviflorwn 


Small-flowered Leefc-orchid 


1933 


Gorae Wc^f, v.r. 


CALOCH1LUS 






»" 


campeslris 


Copper Beards 


1941 


Cnslunore: 1. 


pahuiosMs 


Red Beards 


1934 


S.P., B.; r. 


Robcrtsown 


Brown Beards 




AH except B. : r. 


soprofrhyticus 


Leafless Beard- orchid 


1941 


GAV., 250; C, B. r 


THELYMITRA 






v.r. 


antcunijero 


Rabbit-Ears Orchid 




All; fJC, 


ariitata 


Scented Sun-orchid 


, , 


G. H. ( SR: r. 


rubra 


Pink Suivorcltid 


, , 


G. S.P. G.W.; r. 


fttsco-lutca 


Blotched Sun-Orchid 


1932 


G. C, GAV.: t. 


ftexuasa 


Twisted Sun-orchid 


; _ 


All; c. 


graudiflora 


Great Sun-orchid 




All; C 


ixioides 


Dotted San-orchid 




All; C 


var. Mrrranac 


Purple Sun-orchid 


1932 


S.P. GAV.; 1 ea. 


•Vflfi •"*//- 








dtfformis 


Green Sun-orchid 


1934 


South Portland ; r. 


mtdia 


Tall Sun-orchid 


1932 


South Portland; I. 


pauci flora 


Slender Sun-orchid 




All: v.c. 


*var. Hohncsii 


BJue Star Sun-orchid 


1932 


Gorae: r. 


MICROTIS 


- 






at rata 


Yeflow Onion-orchid 


• • 


Gorae i mr 


obtonga 


Scented Onion-orchid 




G,GW,B.; v.c. 


orbicularis 


Swamp Onion-orchid 


1935 


Gorae West ; c. 


pann flora 


Sniall-tongved Onion-orchid 


• - , . 


All; v.c. 


mwfotia 


Common Onion-orchid 


• • 


All; v.c. 


CORYBAS 








dicmcttictts 


Purple Helmet-orchid ■ 


" 


G.. S.P., GLWii B.i 

M.R.; vc. 


dilatatus 


Stately Helmet-orchid 




All; vr. 


ungiiieufattts 


Small Helmet-orchid 


1932 


G..SP., G.W., 


ACfANTHUS 






MR.: vx. 


caudatus 


Mayfly Orchid 


1933 


Mt Clav, MR.: c. 


ex serins 


Mosquito Orchid . . 




All; v.c. 


rem\orn\is 


Gnat Orchid 




All; vi; 


LfPBHANTJiUS 






itigrieons 


Red Beaks 




All except C,; C, 


BVRXETTJA ,_ 






1 


cuncata 


Lizard Orcldd 


1930 


GAV.. C, c; S.P., 


ERlOCrilLUS .. 


l 




I. 


cucullaUfs 


"Parsons' Band? 


' ' .'* 


'-All; c • • 


LEPTOCERAS 








fimbriatutn 


Fringed Hare-orchid 


J934 


S.P.. North Pott- 
land ; c. 



iw] BEAuci-EJiOLfc;, Orchids oj tkc Portland District 2$ 


CAlADEA'JA 








aitiiiislatct 


Musky Caladenia 


•• 


G., S.P., G.VV, C. f 

H.; i 
All; vx. 


catnca 


Pink Fingers 


! , 


var. pygmaea 


Pygmy Caladema 




All: c. 


cardiochita 


Fleshy-lipped Spider-orchid 


1934' 


C, M.R.; v.r. 


ccngcsta 


Black-tongued Caladcuia - 




G. H., C. r G.W.J 


eiavigcra 


Clubbed Spider-orchid 


i. 4. 


All; fc 


dcjonms 


Blue FiiiriCi 


't r 


All: v.c 


d\ la lata 


Fringed Spider-orchid 




Ail; c. 


filnmentosa 


Tailed Spider-orchid 


in4 


S-ft* 8-1 v.r. 


*hastata 


Mellbtoms* SiJidcr-orchid 


1930 


S.P„ I?., C, G.W.> 


toitfotift 


Pink Fairies 


r. 


s.pVb., c, U*% i 


McnsieSn 


Hare Orchid 




v.c. 
Alt; v-c 


pallida. 


Golden-hued Spider-orchid 


1941 


Gorae West: 200. 


Palersonii 


Common Spider-orchid 




All; tfX. 


var. arenaria 


Tooth-lipped Spider-orchid 


" 1942 


S.P., G.W., C, B.; 


♦var. suavcolens 


Scented Spider-orchid 


3930 


AH*; v.c. 


reticulata 


Veined Spider-orchid 


•■ 


G., S.P, G.W., C. r 

B.: c. 
S.P., B.; v.c. 


*var valuta 


Portland's Spider-orchid 


1930 


Paicrsnim X 








dUatata 


Hybrid Spider- orchid 


1930 


$&, G.W., G., C. r 


CHJLOGLOTT1S 




r, 


rcfiexa 


Autumn Bird-orchid 


1932 


G., G.W.; v.c. 


GLOSS QUIA 








vrnjor 


Large Waxlip Orchid 


, , 


All ; v c. 


DWRJS 








lon-gijolui 


Wallflower Diuns 


, , 


All; v.c. 


pahtslris 


Swamp Diuris 


( . 


B. f G.W.; c. 


fcdnncuiata 


Snake Diuris 


•• 


G.. H^S.P.G.W.; 


sulphurta 


Tiger Diuris 


1934 


Heathmerer v.r. 


OFTHOCERAS 


- 






strictum 


Homed Orchid 




All except G.; r. 


CRVPTQSTYLIS 






Subulata 


. Large-tongue Orchid 


m 


AU: c. 


SPIRANTHES 








sinensis 


Lady's Tresses 




G., S.P., G.W.: c. 


P7EROSTYL1S 








acuminata 


Pointed Greenhood 


• • 


H.j Narrawong; 


■ ahta 


Striated Greenhood 




v.r. 
AU; c. 


barbata* 


Bearded Greenhood 




All; C 


cuciiUata 


Leafy Greenhood 




H,. C, B,; r- 


curia 


Blunt Greenhood 




Mt, Richmond ; r. 


cymiQccphald- 


Swan Greenhood 


1933 


Bridgewater ; c. 


faleata 


Sickle 




All; v-c. 


joliata 


Slender Greenhood 


1931 


All: r. 


\onflijoli& 


Tall Greenhood 




All; c. 


nana 


Dwarf Greenhood 


,. 


All; c. 


nutans 


Nodding Greenhood 


i 


All; v.c. " ' 


parvi flora 


Tiny Greenhood 


' 


All; c. 


pedunculate 


Maroort Hood 


■*-' t 


AH; c. . ; 


vitlata 


Banded Greenhood 


.. 


All except C; r. 



.KELb MAT'UkAL'lStS' CLUB OF VICTORIA 
STATEMENT OF' RECEIPTS 'AND EXPENDITURE FOR 12 MONTHS ENDED' 30th APRIL; 1943. 



g 



Receipts 

Subscriptions — 

• :: Arrears .. .. , £59 2 6 

--'-•^Current.. ., ,. ,-f :. .. ,.'.. 202 14 <> 

In Advance 24 10 4 

Cash Sales of— 

Victorian Naturalist 6 S 3 

Publications 4 IG 11 

Badges - 2 13 2 

Crockery . - _.._.---.. 5 5 

Advertisements in Victonan Naturalist 

Interest Received — 

"Best Fund,' 1 Fixed Deposit £50 

® 2i% si 2 6 

Fixed Deposits t 1 2d 

Commonwealth - Loaite .,.,., 20 5 

. J • 

Balance at Banks on 30th April. 1942— 
State Savings Bank credit ., .. i2G0 7 9 
Less E.S.&A. Bank Overdraft 29 C> 6 



±286 7 4 



19 

4 



22 10 
±332 4 8 



231 -7 3 

£563 II 11 



Expenditure 

Victorum Naturalist — 

Printing ,",-. il73 5 

Illustrating- 42 IS 9 

Despatching ,,,.,- 711 7 

£223 15 A 

Reprints ' 4 1,9 

Postage and Freight . ; . ._ - -- *> 10 6 

General Printing arid Stationerv , . . . _ _. -. 6 17 2 

Library . _ . _ 9 11 6 

"Rent and Caretaking 17 10 

Affiliation Fees .- 1 J-J 6 

General Expenses 8 11 7 

Invested in Commonwealth Loan .. .. ,„ ». 

Balance at Banks on 30th April, 1943 — 

E.5. &A. Bank £23 8 1G 

State Savings Bank 57 16 6 



81 



£553 11 11 



^ 



fej 









£* 


UH2 


6 


7 




200 








£3 










£482 


6 


7 


1 



2. "5 
- f* 



FIELD NATURALISTS' CLUB OF VICTORIA 

BALANCE SHEET ON 30th APRIL, 1943. 



Liabilities 

Late Dudley Best Fund 

Subscriptions paid in advance 

Special Trust Account (in Savings Bank) 



£50 
24 10 4' 
12 15 3 



W 5 7 
Balance, being surplus of Assets over Lia- 
bilities ♦,,,*>,».. 1,540 15 



£1,628 .0 7 



ASSETS 

Arrears of Subscriptions — £69/16/'- 
Estimated to realize 

State Savings Bank — 

General Account £57 16 6 

Special Trust Account 12 15 3 



E.S. & A. Bank- 
General Account , . , - . . . . 

Investments — 
te.S. & A. Bank Fixed Deposits — 

"Best Fund" ■ t5fl 

General 50 

Commonwealth- Bonds — Face 

value .. , 050 

( Market value at this date 
£691) 



Library, Furniture and F.pidiascope — 

At Insurance Value 

Stock on hand of Books and Badges — 
At Valuation — 

Fern Book £40 

Fungus Book . . , . , . , . . . 20 
Club Badges , 4 



£40 

70 11 9 
23 8 L0 



750 fl 
GS0 



€4 
£1,628 7 



^0 



i 



ft 

to 



Audited and found correct on Nth May, 1943. 

A. S. CHALK. 
A. G. HOOKE, 



Hon, Auditors. 



E, E. LORD, Hon. Treasurer. 



& Kum>. A A'.<v Spract of CaMtihn <Qr>hnfviwc) Vv^.hx' 

A NEW SPECIES OF CALOCHILUS (0RCHIDACEA£ ) 

(C. gwtitiiwif, ap. nov t ) 
By the tti:v. H. M R Rwp, Northbritlge, "N.S.W, 
Pfovfa *jrac(ti$ r 20-35 pi\\ altn, jolio august o camHtMtato. Qail/j> 
}ty/J94tf 2, t : lt}r$s 2S t aliquant^ parvi. S'cpalum dorsal^ fate lancc'ilatttm,. 
cucuJtuiiwij circiicr 1 cm. fongnm: scpata taicraliu- lanccotata, vix I cm. 
tonga. Petala nmfta brcinGra, jerc rhombcidafia, fmea cum Hncis Mftj*d« 
purpuras. Labelhtrji gracillhnwn et lon-rtissimnm, pitis loftgis rubro-fnirpureis 
■dense fwbriatum: lamina ad bascm cnunino papulosa, ad apiccm filattt&itastt r 
pitoso, Cohwina brevis, ad basem aim ylandibtft Svpvrahs pvrvis dnobys; 
enthem nutans. Ovarium ma-gnu>m> t covspicue cosiahnn. 

A slender plant from 20 to 35 cm. high, with a narrow 
channelled leaf -sometimes hardly reaching the inflorescence, and 
twu sheathing stem-bracts. Flowers 2-8 7 rather small. Dorsal 
.sepal broadly lanceolate, cucullate, about 1 cm. long. Lateral 
sepals lather narrowly lanceolate, scarcely 1 cm. Jong. Petals very 
much shorter, almost rhomboid, after expansion soon turning" 
inwards in front of the column, brownish with deep reddish-puipfe 
striae. Labellum very slender and very Jong, densely fimbriate 
with long reddish-purple hairs; lamina at the base wholly papillose, 
the papillae gradually lengthening till they blend with the hairs; 
apical portion not a bare- ribbon, but the lamina gradually becoming 
finely filiform, and besec with hairs almost to the rip Gofucrftt 
short, with two small very dark unconnected glands at the bote. 
Each gland has a very short vein entering it fioni above and from 
below, and about midway between the glands is a dark-coloured 
swelling, Anther much bent forward, often emaigiuate. Lower 
margin of stigma conspicuous, dark; upper margin obscure. Ovary 
large, conspicuously ribhed. 

Blackwall Mountain, Woy Woy, Christmas Day. 1933, H. M. R- 
Rnpp. Mount Irvine, Blue Mountains, January, 19-34. Mrs. C A 
Messnxex; January. 1943. Misses J. P. and G. J. Scrivener- 

As will be gathered fj-nm me above data, the new species ha? 
been actually known for over ten year*; but from various causes 
its description has been delayed. Morphologically the flower is- 
most nearly related to Bentbam's C. Rvbertsoiw, but it could not" 
be included in that species. Its outstanding characteristic*, dis- 
tinguishing it from all other species yet discovered, are ! (!) 
Flowering season— midsummer:. (2) Extreme sleuderness and 
great length of the labellum. (3) Anterior portion of lahellum not 
contracting into a bare ribbon, but gradually becoming filiform, 
and clothed with hairs practically to the tip. 

The specific namie is in particular allusion to the lahellum, bur 
n almost equally applicable to the whole flower. The isolated dark 
swelling between the basal glands of the column is interesting, and 
may possibly represent a third gland J but 5t is ill-defined, 



June 
39-43 



! ] p.ar-Y Jffif/5 /?/ }f# J. ,9 KltaWl 29 



DEATH OF MR. A. 5. KENYOtf 



Australia lost a notable and highly useful citizen when Mr. A. S. Kenyon 
<iicd. after a lengthy illness, at bis hotnn zt Heidelberg, Melbourne, nn May 
1 4, 1543. 

Alfred Stephen Kcoyon was horn on December 7, 1867, ai Horncbush. 
near Maryborough (Vic ), ivl» v ic his father. Alfred Henderson Kenton, 
had for some lime a general store. Aftei wards (in 1869.) ihc father 
established diain stores it Beaufort. Ararat, Scawcll and Horsham, In 
1875 he went in ior farming at Bulgaria for several years, until the excep- 
tional drought which culminated* in 1881. and the educational needs of his 
family directed JncU to Mellx>tmte, where he started in l/usinesf- as book- 
seller, stationer, etc at Bridge Road, Richmond. 

A. S. Keiiyou attended St. Stephen's Grammar School, J&idimond, and 
after inatriail'itmy commenced the course for dVfl engineering at the 
Me-fhcyjme (/Diversity; but, accepting the opportunity of obtaining practical 
experience, in 1887 he entered the Public Works Department under Messrs. 
•Checchi and Catani. Next year lie transferred as draftsman to the Victorian 
Water Supply Department, and in 1S9S was Assistant Engineer and in 1901. 
Eiujiueei-m-Coar^c oi Town Supplies and New Proposals- In 1906 
Dr Cherry, Director of Agriculture induced him to join his Department 
as Engineer of Ayruulture. in which active capacity he was employed in 
the important task of developing the Central Mallee district, wrtli its 
difficult problems of water supply and reclamation, clearing and cultivation 
» by traction power. In addition, lectures were given In all the as'icultural 
<T)stricis, and informative article*, published in the Journal of Agriculture. 

At the re-orr/anizan'on of the Department in 191 1. Mr, Kenyon was 
appointed a,« :eninr engineer to the State Rivers and Water Commission, 
lor which hi? varied experience was invaluable. In 1932 tallowed appoint- 
ment as Acting Commissioner, and shortly after as Commissioner. 

Retirement from rile Public Service (in 1935) directed bi< abundant 
energy elsewhere. Having tor some years been honorary Numismatist at 
the Public Library, he wa& appointed to take charge of the collection 
permanently &f*d b'tei to be Keeper of Antiquities. The present excellent 
-condition of these departments, shows His thorough knowledge of the 
subjects, painstaking ability, and capacity for organization. His series ol 
lecture- on bo'.h "subjects were appreciated for their lucidity and Vealltl 
of information. 

h\ ll>C Subject of Ethnology Mr. Ksnyon was an undoubted expert, 
having' through hit outdoor work aver so -.-xtensrve an area fu forest, plain, 
and desert, niei. and- studied the aborigines- and the remains o\ l*»e Stone 
Age iti Australia dc^elv and intelligently, aPd with, an jniuittoii WM "* vas 
remarkable. In the- comparison and relation rf stone artefacts from all 
part* of the world, and bi all ages to the present, his arrangement is most 
illuminating. In this subject also he gave many striking lecture* and 
wrote informative articles. 

Hi* knowledge ol Ihc physiography, geography and natural features of 
Victoria was comprelt-ensivc, especially so in regard to Ihc Malice 3'id 
the Murray River and its affluertfs. It Is keen observation being shown in 
his knowledge oE the geology, flora and fauna of the country*, on which he 
-:ouid always j»ivc first-hand information as 2f held naturalist. 

As a member o? 4he Hinortc&t Society of Victoria for more than 30 
-years, he devoted much time to the study and compilation of the hislory 
of Victoria, mnre particularly of the pastoral period from |814 to .I860, of 
which he made a comprehensive survey. With Mr. "R. V, Rfllf? he riuhlishcd 
Pastures New (1930) and Pastoral Pfoneefa of Port Phillip U9$2) ( whilst 



V'/ir SHiry of [ftfc Mflttec (751445) vividly and completely presents ttiaL 
remarkable area. In these works is a ic liable ami ensuring record of rhe 
liShtural pioneers, For Stale years M*. Kenyon, alternatively with Mi. C 
Daley, giyc monthly lectures on Australian history a; the Melbourne Pohht 
Library. 

Mr. Kenyon also published short histories or fttltafc ot places, such a> 
J 'he St lory ot Wflibnttrne, The Story c{ An-^rati^, llntl^irrtrj, rfttf City of 
£nw*i& also of Swan Hill. Kowtee. en. He aho, as une of the Historical 
5nb-rommittee ior the Centenary Celebrations, eollahotated with Messrs. 
A- W. Greig, C. R. Long and t.. Daley in writing Vtctorio, ihr First 
Cvnlury, Hie official history in 1934. Mr, Kenyon was on the Conmiitte-i 
at t.ie HistoHea) SonVty for many years, and occupied for two years each 
tl:« position* re>i*-cti-vety of President, Hon. Secretary, and Hditw*. 

Hesidfk the wn*ks above mentioned he contributed many articles tti&tOftCftL 
scientific, engineering and' srrxral, to the Press and mac'cuine*. anO lectured, 
to societies and clubs on vsmuus su'jjtvte. 

Mr. Kenyan was. a memher of ajiauv societies a Hid clubs of cultural 
character, in all of which he gave some official service and he.l;i, Of these 
may he mentioned the Field Naturalists' Gut) of Vir.torj, the Anthropological 
Society, tlie Institute of Engineers i Atist.), of each of which be was 
ex-President. Other .societies iu which he took part were the Australian 
and New Zealand^ Association tor the Advancement of Science, the Soc-Cty 
Ot GeneuloR'has, the Royal Society oi Victoria. Uie Attetf&laaai* fttttttUfe 
Oi Mining and Metallurgy, with many kindred societies lu the other States 
and J» America — a widespread connection . 

Mr. Kenyon in 1895 married Miss Alexaiidrica Lcnntmc I>i!cm'nc. who 
thrd in 1905 'their daughter, Justin* (Mrs. 0. C, Tyrer). the devoted 
help-mate of her father, KjjrvivcR the double loss, 

111 Mf, Rei'vnn's nutahle career in the Public Service of VTctorlu, tf 
WC-I as in his honorary association w.Uh dsofuJ societies and institutions, m< 
work. ofTiuial or otherwise, Waa invariably chiiraclcnz.cd hy full knowledge, 
mature judgment, purpose, method, precision, Aiui efficiency, i*nsul Ihg ttS- 
aucccs-s. Vcrsa**'le .-mil K&ftWceiuT, he was dismayed hy nc difficulty, 
fnirpd with a very retentive memory, tinged wifls a keen sense of humour, 
from 3 wisely garnered store of varied knowledge .almost encyclopedic ,l1 
character. Mr. Kenyon always derived pleasure in supplying with facility 
atiid readmes*. useful xnd accurate ijiiomiauai ft) nt'iturcrs over a wide* 
r*nye of khotifthti A clear -and laical thinker ffe considered opinion* on 
matter? of moment always carried great weight, 

Uenwfl and open-hearted in ruture, easily apprciaclwhle and responsive. 
A good raconteur, with a broad, tolerant, and uutlerstanivfnj; outlook on. 
men and manners, Mr. ReuyOit retained a wide circle r>i friends who 
appreciated his distinct nnd attractive pcr&ot\alii v v l valued hta acnuamtaneei 
and r.nw I'iuceroly mourn his lo* c to the •conununity. 

The funeral took place mi May 15, to the TTcidelhcTg Cemetery, wl>ere a 
fo/vire was conducted by the Rev. C. UarUrid (Txeslrj'tcrian) in the 
jpW&\fte of a targe mimber oi mourners- K«pre*Muauves of the F.N.C 
included the Ptwid&Oti Viop-Presideuis. Secrelaiv. Gcitot. and odtcr 
numbers. 



Members nl the F,\ r .C. will sympathize wm-mty w.irli Mr. apt] Tvfr^. W. H, 
Nifhnds. whrrtc 0;<ught<?r Doris (Mts. -P-inlet) rlicd on May t^. »ftCt ml 
illness rrj seveml months^ at the age of 21 year5i. Mr; t'aulet (whose 
lv.?jh?.nd cs hi cite A.i.F.) had been married less tl-.an one y«Lt 



jgffj Afofctu:: ami ftSCQtt, I*aisQuiiUj &)> liucnlyfits 31 



POISONING BY EUCALYPT5 



Considerable attention i« now being directed to the presence ot hydrocyanic 
acid (HCN) in poj*oncnts amounts in various plants. Man) 1 secies of boil* 
wild and cultivated plants in Australia are capable in cctiain urcunti lances 
ot devctopwK hydrocyanic acid, also called prussk acid, wltivh is highly 

puihVMllrtlS. 

The yuautity of poison that can be formed m plants \fx£j vS»'y con-nderably 
with the suge of growth, climatic conditions, and soil. In general, nmtutv 
plants- contain a much smaller percentage of potential aod than do young 
plant*. 1 a nicr P, Ccuch, an American chemist, has shown that sorghums 
grown in the warmer Southern States of America have not poisoned livir 
stock j-o much as thu-'.e, grown farther north, The reason, for the difference, 
l?e states, is probably tliniatic; but little, is known about the exact causes of 
the •ormanon of the poisonous acid in 161$ case. 

%ttcatypfit-$ cfodocalyt . F.v.M. (Sugar Cum) has ofK.it teen the cause 
of many deaths in ail classc* of stock, especially when the trees are looped 
for windbreaks. Both juvenile, and mature leaves have been found to be 
toxic. As in roost cytogenetic plants, the young leaves contain the higtoe&l 
percentage or. HCK. The Poison "Plants £o'inmittcc of N.SAV. gives ihe 
results of extensive experimental and practical worl: on the subject. 
Finnemore, Reichard and Jlarge have isolated a .glycoside whith rhcy 
identified as a prunasin previous? found lit oilier plant:;. Fresh suckers- 
yielded 0-S9%' HCN 

EttcitfyfilitJ vhttinniis, LaTi, (Manna GtmtJ, has Been suspected by me as 
the cause of deaths in Koalas, especially alter fire and other penod* of 
<|uicU j;ro\yth when HCN is likely to develop, l-'uiitetunre, Reirharrl and 
L*r«c tested Jeavts collected Irom Braidwood. N.SAV., and got a pegatiw 
reaction. Other BSlftpftj of auulc and juvem'e leaves irom the different 
localities gave positive reaction and yielded &% HCr\. 

Tit my opinion tin* cliiaf L^u^e*-* au*[ periods of development of HCN are; 
(1) after fire, (2) after drought followed by rain, (3) after a very cold 
sn«p. (4) wurkcd*cmt soil, (5) soiU deficient in lime, ffi) plant* flint have 
bc«»*. injured. 

Tbfc timber of EvMfffttb Iwimf>iihri(\ (Grey Bax) und B >iuuitfolit 
t&*-oucd Gum) are suspected of (tensing skin irritation in buvhyotkers 



ana sawm'titc.- 1 ?. 



P. F. Moras. National Herbammi. 



The note in lasi month's issue* WlCjuJricuT whether tin- foliage <d M<> 
Sugar G'mi is niuifious to goal* reminds tne that iWis gum, Ewnlyphts 
cfa-docctlyj-, Is definitely clashed a? a poison tree — young and old foliage 
alike carrying HCN. Fatalities are more common among' .*.tnrk dtinnp, 
drought 

The earliest record Koes back to J908. It) 1929 g$ Al/ecna, hi New South 
Wales* ai horse and a cow were poisuued. In Denilkjuin in l n J5 sheep and 
cattle were killed after ratine; the lopped foliage. In 1936 a flock of sheep 
suffered severely at Nanuudera and 80 of the animals died. 

Record 4 of die Poison Plants Cnnwiince of New South Wales show 
poisr-iims of sheep, cattle and horses, but coats *tre not mentioned, "From 
May to July seems to be the danger period 

Other Eu-caWpts are known at time*, to contain por-ron in the fuS^ee. 
Por justanee, the aborigine, .would throw branches g( iht* Conlnbah 
(Ettmh.phis Diiirofhetu) into water in order iu poison JUIi. 

E E, Ptstorp." 



32 Ch*™ak, Tt\e late T- 4. Roht'n^u LV3~lX 



THE LATH T. A. ROBINSON 



A note fa the W*. ffat. of last month relates to the passing' of that great 
lover of our native flora, Thomas Alfred Robinson, in his 9lsl year 3 
remember meeting htrn by appointment, on the top o( One Tree Hill, Batwyu, 
about four years ago, to show him something* of our native garden 
(Maranoa) adjoining Beckett Park. I was astonished to find him keeping 
b«s promise in a blinding sheet of tain He nuisl then hav* reached the 
age of R7. His knowledge of the secrets of native plant propagation was 
most impressive Nothing seemed beyond V»>S sjWll in the making of two or 
more plants grow where only one grew before When he retired from 
school-teaching he purchased an inferior plot of land (according to his 
friends) at Dtrtson, near Sale. Having faith and 'jgrectf fingers." he 
succeeded even beyond his own expectations. He rightly named ha 
property "Clionzeraa," for he evidently made it sine for joy. 

For my own part 1 have to cry petcavi. for when some years ago in 
company of Hie l3iree1or of llir Geological Survey (Mr- Baragwanathl I 
visited the limestone quarry at Duison. t referred to the owner as Mr. 
Rohertson, and so the Spot pa^ed down to posterity in my geological report 
us "Robertson' 1 ; ounrryv' At the time my eyes were filled with the liny 
shells called for am s, with which the quarry abounds, and t failed to visit 
the owner's wonderful garden, to my everlasting regret. Some years later, 
however. 1 had the, chance of offering my apologies for the error to rhi* 
grand old gardener. F. Qiapmak. 



APHIDS WANTED 
A noLe from Mr. Hubert Jarvis, the Queensland entomologist, tells an 
interesting story hased on a paragraph in the Mfc Nat by Mr. W. Hunter 
on the pine Podocarpits nffiina. A* a special .unhid occurs on a species of 
Podocarpus in Brisbane. Mr. Jarvis -LSkenl Mr. Hunter to send aphid* front 
P (tjpmn, and these when received wcr* found to include a winged aphid 
of an entirely new species Probably this is the first purely Australian aphid 
yet discovered, all the others (more than 60 species) having been introduced. 
Now Mr- Jarvis suggests that possibly members of the F.N.C. would be 
good enough to send bin) more aphids from any species of Podocarpus. and 
Tow particularly P. atpina. This merely means plucking a leaf or twig 
tarrying Hie aphid?, enclosing it in a tin. and posting the package m Mr. 
Jarvis at the Department of Agriculture, Brisbane — A H C 



HAVE YOU ANY QUESTIONS? 

Arrangements have been n*adc to constitute something in the nature of 
a Nat ore J History "Brains Trust" at the July meeting. That is to sav. 
questions are invited — preferably to be handed in al the June meeting;— anil 
these will be discussed bv members of the pctneJ. The subjects and speakers 
tohtl In-sects. Miss Janet* Raff; Shells, Mr C. J. Gabriel; Rocks. Mr. A. C. 
Ft-o&tiek, Fossils, Mr. F. S. ColKver. 



MOSQUITO BITES 

A correspondent in N.S.W. says tbat tnosquito bites affect Ijfttt painfully, 
firing irritable for days, and he found that a piece of washing-soda, about 
the sue of 3 trncl nut. dissolved in an eggcupful of water, made a very 
good lotion. Th* poison of most Insects is, no doubt, an acid Similar to 
the formic acid of ant bite*, so any alkali neutralizes it. 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. LX— No, 3 July 7, 1943 No. 715 



• PROCEEDINGS 

The Annual Meeting of the Club was held on Monday, June 14, 
1943. The President (Mr. P. * Crbslrie Morrison. MSc) presided 
and about 80 'members and friends art-ended. 

BEREAVEMENTS 

The President announced die recent death of Mr. A. S. Kenyon. 
an ex-president and a member of many years' standing, and also 
that Mr. W. H. Nicholls had recently lost a daughter. Members 
stood in silence as a mark of respect. 

GENERAL BUSINESS 

• The President announced that a Rural .Reconstruction Com- 
mission had been formed and is meeting in Melbourne, and.tjiar 
the committee would watch the evidence, given before it. 
. Mr. F. Lewis, .Chief Inspector of Fisheries and Game, wrote 
stating that a proclamation would shortly be issued giving full 
protection to the Grey Butcher-bird. 

REPORTS OF EXCURSIONS 

Excursions were reported on as follows : — Ferntree Gully 
National Park, Mr. J. H. Willis; Royal Park Cutting, Mr. F. S. 
Collivcr; National Herbarium. Mr. P. F. Morris; Botanic Gar- 
dens, Mr. H. C. E. Stewart. 

'ELECTION OF MEMBERS 

The following were elected as Ordinary Members of: the Club: 
Mr. and Mrs. E. R. Stewart, Messrs. J. Ferguson, C. R Hulett 
E. W, Rieschieck; and as Country Member, Mr. M. M. Furze. 

ANNUAL MEETING 

The Annual Report was received and adopted. 
The Balance Sheet was explained by Mr. A. G. Hooke, who 
paid a tribute to the Hon. Treasurer (Mr. E. E. Lord) for the 



34 Field Naturalists* Chb Proa>r<fvn#s Lv'nr. £tt 

work he had done during his first year in office. Mr. Hooke 
moved and Mr. Chalk seconded the adoption of the Balance Sheer, 
and the motion was carried. The President returned thank* to 
lite auditors for their work 

The retiring President installed Mr. P. F. Morris as President, 
and mentioned that it was just 25 years since Mr. Morris joined 
the Club. 

Other officers were elected as follows: Vice-Presidents, Mr. 
H. C E. Stewart and Mr. Ivo Hammctt; Hon. Editor, Mr. A. H, 
Chisholm ; Hon. Secretary, Mr. F. S. Colliver; Hon Assistant 
Secretary, Mr. Noel Lothian; Hon. Treasurer, Mr. E. E. Lord; 
Hon. Librarian, Mr, P. Bibby; Committee. Messrs. A, S. Chalk, 
G. N. Hyam, H. P. Dickina, J. H- Willis, H. T- Reeves. 

NATURE NOTES 
Question by Member 

Question: The innermost claw of the Cassowary, unusually long 
and straight, is said to have been used by certain aborigines in one 
of their implements. Does anyone know in what implement the 
daw was placed and if its use was limited to tribes if\ those regions 
in which the Cassowary is found? Discussion : Mr. Chishotm 
stated that the claw was quite possibly used as an implement by 
the natives, and mentioned that proof of the strength in the claw 
and foot of the bird was a record of a Cassowary kicking a boy 
and severing the. jugular vein. Mr. Colliver suggested that the 
claw could be a highly specialized loot, and added that in certain 
districts the churingas were carved with a tool consisting of a 
possum's skull with one incisor lefL in. 

Mr. V. H. Miller, correcting a published note, stated that St 
Kilrfa Road should have been given, instead of St. Kilda, in the 
reference to the lack of birds* nests. 

RETIRING OFFICERS , 

The President expressed the thanks of the Club to the retiring 
committee, and paid tribute to Dr. C. S. Sutton, who felt unable 
to carry on as Librarian, after 19 years in that orifice. In thanking 
the retiring President, Mr. Morris Mated that Mr. Morrison had 
set a high standard to follow. 

PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS 

Mr. Morrison spoke on the subject. "The All- Round Man." 
The address was thought-provoking, and a fitting finale, to the 
programme of lectures given during the year. A natural colour 
film of the gleanings of an all-round man illustrated Mr, Morrison's 
remarks. 



fiftt Annual Refou 35 



1*«»J 



SIXTY-THIRD ANNUAL REPORT. 



The Committee of the F.N.C. has pleasure iti submitting the 
63rd Annual Report. 

Membership is as follows: Honorary Members, 16; Ordinary 
Members 230; Country Members, 79; Associate Members, 14; 
total members, 339. This represents a decrease of two on the 
figures of the last year. 

Many of our members are with the services and the following 
we know to be in uniform: K. Ash, E. V. Barton, T. H. Brunn, 
C A. Burley, W. R. Cover, G. I. Dundas, J. Firth, D. C, Geddies. 
D. £. Greenwood, Keith A, Hateley, M. F. Leask, N- Lothian, 
R. G. Matthews, F. N. Morley, C. C Ralph, B. M. Stoggett, 
N. A. Wakefield* j Waterhouse. Possibly there are others, and 
we would be glad to have their names. 

We record with sorrow the death of the following members; 
Miss E. L. Keartland (192<M943), Mr. A. S. Kenyan, M.I.E. 
(Aust.) (1927-1943), Mr. Chas. Fletcher (1935-1943). Mr. 
Fletcher lost his life with the Air Force 'somewhere in Australia. 
An old friend and past member, Mr. T. Robinson, of Dutson, near 
Sale, passed away recently at the age of almost 92. 

All things considered, the attendances at the Club meeting* are 
well sustained and interest' has been maintained with a worthy 
series of lectures during the year Exhibits have fallen oil sorr«- 
what, but this c*n be ascribed to the time of our members being 
taken tip with various home defence activities and long hours in 
wofk. 

vThe Air Force has taken over both the lecture room and hbrary 
room as class rooms and a certain amount of inconvenience to 
members has resulted; but as this is the only upset we have had 
so far, we can be thankful that we still have the use of the rooms. 

The Excursion List had to be curtailed somewhat this year f 
and alterations and cancellations were necessary; nevertheless a 
good programme was arranged and many of the excursions were 
wtll attended, 

Vol. 59 of the Victorian Naturalist has been completed, and 
again the war-time paper restrictions have operated. However, a 
good series of scientific and popular papers has been published 
and our journal's place in scientific literature has been maintained 
Additional overseas and local institutions have been added to our 
exchange list, and many have been the calls for back numbers. 
In this matter it is of interest to note that a series of articles 
by Mr. G. N, Hyam on "Vegetable Foods of the Australian 
Aborigine" have been sought by the Navy and the Commando 
headquarters, 

War conditions have prevented matters pertaining to protection 



$£ Amuai Report [ $£ fg" 

t ■ - • 

of flora and fauna from receiving full attention,' but hi many 
matters recommendations and reports have been passed on to the 
proper authorities . i 

We are still in association with the Department of Information 
and expect so to continue; for the duration. Business relating to 
the Australian Natural History Medallion is still' in. the hands of 
the Club, and we record with great pleasure that the .last recipient 
was Mr David Fleay, B.A.; Dip.Ed., of the Sir Colin MacKcruie 
Sanctuary, Healesvjilc. The presentation of the medallion took 
place at a function arranged by the Bird Observers* Club and the 
l>acb Memorial Club. - ; . " 

No Wild Flower Show was held this year, due to lack of halls 
and manpower, hut we look Eorward to the time when this 'part 
of the Club's activities can be re-instituted. 

This year the Plant Names Sub-Committee has been re-instituted 
and many problems of plant nomenclature arc now receiving 
attention 

The Junior Branch of the Club at Hawthorn is in process of 
formation. To illustrate the working of the Guh a display was 
staged at the Hawthorn Library rooms and this created consider- 
able interest in the district. 

Dutiug the year honorary membership certificates were printed 
and sent to the members so designated. The simple yet dignified 
certificate received general approval. 

At the last annual meeting Mr. Geo. Cogh'U retired from 
active membership after some 48 years of service in. various offices. 
and Messrs. J. and W. H. Ingram retired from the offices of 
Hon. Treasurer and Hon. Assistant Librarian, pnsibtrtis they had 
held for many years. At the last committee meeting Dr. C. S: 
Sutcon tendered his resignation as Hon. Librarian, a position he 
has uccupicd for nineteen years. To these grand old members we 
extend the thanks of the Club for fine service* 

During the year we have welcomed to our meetings visiting 
naturalists and members, of the American Forces stationed here. 
From time to time, too, we have been pleased to see some of our 
country members. 

To Mr. McCrae Howett we give our best thanks for the 
continued use of has rooms as a committee meeting place. A 
comprehensive expression of thanks is extended to all who have 
given or their time and energies toward the advancement of the 
Club and its ideals. 



Mr. diaries Daley writes that on p. 30, Ijuc 27, ui !tte Vic. Nal. fvr Jane 
'190S" should be rciiW.ed by "1940." 



i^l I Mojbuson, The Alt-round Man 37 

THE ALL-ROUND MAN 
- Portion of Presidential Address to the rMM.C, June, 1943. 
By P. Cao&bie Mourisok, M.Sc." 

People in the old days made jokes about the all-round man I 
recall one of them. "Dr* So-and-So . , . Oh, he's a good all-round 
man. The doctors say he's a good goiter and the golfers say he's 
a good doctor i" It is only more recently thai the specialist has 
come in for his share of the bantering, as the man who knows 
more and more about less and less until he knows everything 
about nothing; while, of course, the all-round man is one who 
knows less and less about more and more, until he knows nothing 
about everything. 

There is. indeed, much to be said for the all-round man. After 
all, he it the one who sees most of the game. To take an 
analogy from some of the homely trades, a ne.w house to the 
plumber provides examples of something new, or something to 
be criticised, in the arrangement of the sewerage and the water 
.supply. The bricklayer's eye is alerl for the courses that are not 
quite true, or delights in a perfect job. The eye of the carpenter 
and ol the plasterer cannot fad to be held by the work that pertains 
to his own speciality The architect may criticise the general 
planning.. But it is the man who is looking for a home — the 
all-round man, the man with an nnjanrulicpd eye and an unbiased 
mind — who sees the house as a home, to be lived in and loved. 
True, lie may have to call in all the specialists, one after another, 
to advise, hitn un special points thai might escape his inexpert cye : , 
but the full enjoyment of the house is his, and his alone. * 

We may apply the analogy fairly completely to our work as 
naturalists. We cannot do without our specialists, and I would 
he the last to disparage one of them; hut in (heir own specialities 
they have their reward, arid it is the all-round man who has the 
fullest, most complete enjoyment of nature as a cultural environ- 
ment. 

But to-day the matter goes deeper, far deeper, than that. We 
have all been living very close to our work. So much is being 
[earned day by day that one human mind cannot compass it all- 
II is only comparatively recently that a choice few of ihe world's 
great scientific minds have taken time to deliberately stand off 
and view the whole edifice, and what they have seen has made them 
marvel 

We have liecornc accustomed to regard evolution in terms of 
''natural selection" — in other words, "the survival of the fittest /* 
Every living fixing, plant or animal, is born with slight difference* 
'{or. in some cases, marked differences) from its parents and its 



.16 Mounsox. The AU+mmd M«» [V,£ JSc" 

fellows, while, retaining a strong family tcsemblance. If these 
differences are favourable to its mode of living, says Darwin, they 
are perpetuated. The most efficient animal has first choice of a 
matt, and First pick of the food, while the least efficient goes 
under, and may never perpetuate its kind. So evolution goes on 
toward a grand climax yet to be seen. 

There have been difficulties, though not insuperable difficulties, 
in applying this theory to our known experiences in the field. No 
one has felt quite happy about fhem, though all have hoped to 
clear up the last little discrepancies. 

But the arrangement of our PO-odd elements is nr> less logical 
and orderly, yet they are not endowed with life; they ate not 
subject to the processes of natural selection, or of survival or 
eclipse. Professor Lawrence Henderson, of Harvard University, 
pointed this out some twelve or more years ago. As a biological 
chemist — and a self -declared materialist, therefore unbiased by 
rehgton — he remarked how uniquely the elements carbon, hydrogen 
and oxygen were suited to the creation 'jtnd maintenance of life 
fa animals and plants — three elements out of nearly 100, with 
properties incapable of heing provided by other elements on other 
planets, Henderson remarked further how (he unique suitability 
of carhon dioxide gs a starting-point in the building up of plant 
tissues depended upon the action of chlorophyll and upon the 
alternation of light and darkness, and that, of course, brings the 
astronomical sciences into the picture — the strangely purposive 
arrangement of the Solar System. 

Now, recently, our own Professor Wood Jone& — we like to call 
him "outs" because of the stimulus he. gave to the scientific com- 
munity during his professorship in Melbourne — has carried the 
matter a step further still. In brief, he says if we can only stand 
far enough off to see Nature as a whole, in the light pi all that 
modern science and specialisation has taught us of its component 
parts, we cannot fail to be impressed with the design and purpose 
behind it all. It is not a religious view; on the contrary, it is a 
.strictly scientific view, which provides Immediately a clearer sight 
through difficulties which have pustzTed scientists since Datwm's 
day, and chemists since the announcement by Mendel jeef last 
century of the periodic classification of the chemical elements. 

But though it has been reached in distinction to the views of 
religious writers nod thinkers, it brings our science of to-day 
almost within reach of the fundamental ideas behind practically all 
religions, whether Christian or Mahommedan, Taoist or Buddhist. 

Wood Jones comes down to this in his Purser Lecture delivered 
at Trinity College, Dublin, in December, 1941, published under 
the title nf "Design and Purpose " The conflict between religion 
and science, of which we have heard so much, especially -in the 



JjJjjJ XfAKuisnN, «* AlUoiwd Man 3£ 

biological sciences where die name of Darwin is used, becomes 
now, according- to Wood Jones, an attempt * r re> reconcile the 
findings ot an imperfectly understood science wi(b dicta of am 
imperfectly understood religion/* 

This is the problem that assays the mrulcm youth, who find* 
religion being reduced to an absurdity in times of v/ar when (again 
to quote Wood Jones) "every belligerent country held days of 
prayer in which they dictated to the Almighty the justness of their 
Cause, and demanded His support in order to supplement the 
lethnl effects of their weapons of destruction." 

He quotes the Bishop of Bradford (Dr. A. W. K Blunt) telling 
a Youth Rally that. "God was not just a referee watching and 
controlling che game from aloof, but rather was He the centre- 
forward of the home team, helping to shape its course/' "It 
would," Wood Jones adds, "be difficult to frame a conception of 
deity more stultifying ro the aspirations of youth in Its search for 
some grander realization of the ordering of things/' 

And that is> why I say that the present and the future are with 
the all-round man. The specialist JS needed more than CVWr he 
was, but the study of nature to-day, guided by such great thinkers 
as those I have quoted this evening, holds the greatest rewards 
of happiness and hope in store for the man who can see nature not 
mast minutely, but most widely. 



EXCURSION TO FERNTREE GULLY NATIONAL PARK 

The ixarty of Club members who entrained for a juiigais and lichen foray 
on Saturday afternoon, May J 5th, was increased to nearly 7ff hy the 
presence of first-year trainees from the Teaehets 1 Training College and 
Tejtrr^ritativei t>£ the Workers' Educational Association. Such a lartfC 
twmber of excursionists prevented the digression from main tracks to follow 
the. quest after smaller cryptogams ; but. in -Spile of prevailing grey skies, 
much mud. and" the impossibility of keeping: everyone to a team within 
earshot we believe (hat the* outing: was generally appreciated The lortflf dry 
autumn was reveled in a paucity of fungi, usually so abundant ni ilii* 
season, and out of the tola! of 230 species collected hereabouts during just 
excursions no more than 44 were observed on rh.ifi occasion. A curious 
stalked puffbaJt. bfilrantyces f-iisca, and velvety brawn rosettes of Stcrcmn 
fiUgms Were, however, listed for the first time. Among lichens, the most 
attractive species observed were the pink terrestrial Bacomyccs funffoides 
and Stkra jtissiUata, a wood-inhabiting' species with flattened fronds of 
emc'Cild green 

It was with great satisfaction that wt noted four Lyre-bird?;, busily 
scratching beside the traJc aod quite imperturbed by human company ; none 
exhibited the plumage of an adult male, and it is presumed they were 
cither females or young bird*. — |HW. and P.N. SB. 



TRACHYMENE AND PLATYSACE 

(With particular reitrencc to meii'ibert. o( the iufiuCr Genu*) 

By Jamks H. Willis, National Herbarium, Melboumc 

Riidge* established the genus Tiochywnc in 18M, selecting T incisa as 
his type ficm specimen 1 -, collected around Port Jackson by Robert Brown, 
1802-05. De Candotlc 2 (1828) ^nhstituted his nwn generic H9WC of Didiscvs 
firf the .same group a* Rudge's plant, in the mistaken belief tUdt the Utter 
was referable To J-ahiJUrdiere* Azotdla, whereas Tnrezanmow (iS4*>) ^n<J 
later Muellex used the genus Dhnctcpia for several new congeners of 
7*. t'iiclm, Rudge- 

Although Hentham recognized the just claims of Trochym-cnc and 
correctly applied it in Ins trcauueiit of the Australian UwhelHjnxti far 
"Flore* Austntlicosis (l&ft), Vol. 3, followed by Bailey 1 ' and Rod way,* 
other recent boianisis have favoured ihe later Caudollcati name uf Dntiscus, 
e.g., Mueller 5 lit his later works. Doming Maiden and Bettbe? Black,* 
Gardner,* and Ewart 1fl 

Within the last decade C. Norman, F.1..S., 11 has again opened up t|ic 
involved question of correct nomenclature for this group, finely sifting the 
Interpretations oi previous authors and emphasising the undeniable priority 
daunt of I'rctchymtinc as described and n^Uted by Kudgfi. P. BuwaliU' 8 ' 
»nd B L "Bnrtt 1 * have since come forward to endorse Norman's opinion 
and to make the necessary new combinations for all specie* described under 
Didisciis since Bcntham's day. This is very briefly the history of genuine 
Traehymenes. 

Meanwhile Ihe name "Trachymcue" had been wromjly applied in* 
Au&lralia to another group oi' Umbelliterae generically distinct from Rudgc/5 
type. Norman** shows clearly that the oldest valid epithet for this M.-cono* 
group M PLATYSACE <syn. Siebcra t Reicrjenbach), based cm thtt W«Kt 
AuHralian P. cirrhosa o< Bunge, 184?. He consequently combines the 22 
appropriate specie* under tins wrcftfy restored genus; three species ouly 
aic present in Victoria, so in lieu of "Tr^hyowoc" these now bc<x>me 
Pfaiysatv hetarfipkytta (Benth) C. Norman, F nnaiiU* (Si>b. ex D.C.) 
C Norman, and P. huccola^n f LnhilL) Drucc, Tt'tiehyttuw-c BiMardieri, 
F.v.M., being a synonym of the last-named. 

A3 properly unoVrstood, Traehymai-c now consists oi 40 species, ranging 
ovel the whole Australian continent (two-thirds of the total species), New 
Guinea, and the more easterly spice islands, with one representative its far 
uorlh as Borneo and another in New Caledonia, New Hebrides and Fiji; 
the twelve occurring in New Guinea and/or Celebes mountain stations are 
of comparatively recent discovery, and without doubt still other nude-scribed 
entitles await the more intensive exploration of that region, Following is- 
a complete tfet of species as combined by Beiuham. Buwalda, and Burtt, 
u'idi the ones thai aifecl Victoria designated by the symbol f . 

AUSTRALIA *'*B«fls?«8 r /n (Tuk*.) micrvphvllii 

ypihm, Sir,. J&h* fa**Jty (Oomin) Bum 

. ' .'. i ' in part). part). 

3 °T^n ml i*f#*ii tf«$4 "Sti/ FvM> 

fibril. S. .Moore. ' \ n * ntn jhmaiolia i F.v.M.) 
t'N^iiT (F-rtdl ) Oruee PWiWlfeif (Hooker) ij jniti] 

(syn; print or pa,). Ct*tom fbhifnta fDonun) 

Crmtiniwa, F.r.M. *tflmpn$fyn (Oomlii) BurfL 

tfarhfltarpCt (F.» M.) Burtt (— orwru- afrwcis tDomin) 

fiurtt. fcr^tfj qir-V Rurtt 



m 



Wir.i.fs, Truchymenc and Ptatysace 



At 



mcisoj Rudgc TYPE 

Benth. 

mc race ptxala 

(Domin) Burtt. 
. tcnuijvtht t Domin ) 
Pu- it 

(Domin) Burn. 
ftumiilis (Hook/.) 

Benth. 
scafnften { Doirtio) 

Eurtt. 
Gttttnae (Tate ex 

Domin) Bunt 
liidisiQi&h (Fv.M.j 

Birrit (syn. SWfll* 



sctasn (O. ScJiwarz) 

Burrt. 
Dusenii (Domin) 

Burtt 

Paifcy, 

POLYNESIA 

Cfatttifttt (Montrcm- 
cier) liurtt. 

(syus. Homo, 

NEW GUINEA- 
CELEBES 

funiculi fotia, Stapf. 



Domin (Buwalda). 
koebraisis ( Gibbs) 

Buwalda. 
t'ft^du, Buwalda. 
u,f,rotrichu, BuwakU. 
crodioides, Buwalda 
cckbica, Hems ley. 
*£or&ri>]-0roi» 

(Wolff) BuwaltU. 
tietriioita. Norman. 
tirfabcitfis (Gibbs) 

Buwalda. 
&<i en odes, Buwalda. 
pd'Pillvsa. Bu.watda. 



<Bcntham bestowed the uew name 'amtraiis 1 ' on the Tracltymene already 
described by T«irc*aiiiuo\v (1849) as "Dimetopia auisocarpa" and gave as 
its distribution Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and. 
West Australia,. In 1908 came Doming who added to the confusion by 
splitting Rentham's mvtratis into three species, each with a ww epithet,. 
via. — Didisczts /J.vt.'/ratun, from West Australia, D. macrophyKux and- 
I?. eompQfittfSs from the eastern Stales: Jfefytftotftfr is keyed out (in Latin) 
as having "simple umbels, not disposed in inflorescences like compoimu 1 
umbels/* -whereas composi'ias is stated Jo have ''umbels disposed in inflo- 
rescences which are 13* very compound umbels." 

After examining considerable material from West Australia and compar-- 
jog" it with coastal Victorian and Tasrnanian samples, I cannot agree with. 
Dortun's separation ; tn both eastern and western collections the in florescence - 
varies markedly — sometimes umbels- are <HJilc simple, sometimes slightly 
branched, and at other times highly compound; the fruits and foliage 
appear indistinguishable. Mr. C. A. Gardner, Government Botanist of 
Western Australia, fends support tn my contention that Rsitftwrnii and. 
compositus are one and the same species, but the correct name for our 
common "Wild Parsnip" must henceforth be Trockywme mUocatpQ- 
(Turca ) Burn 

1 have gathered (1957, 1940) Trothyinaic bialata^ (Domin) Burtt. on 
M&lke- sandhills amongst Porcupine Grass at Red Gifts (a new record 
for Victoria) and also in similar country just over the Murray (neai 
Burtundy, N.S.W.). Tins ssweies is recognised by the dotfblffj very narrow. 
seriated wing edgingr the ripe roericarps. Dta'erwts* there is a close afnnity- 
with T. glancifciia (F.v.M.) Beolh Since the latter is represented it*. 
Melbourne National Herbarium frcori nearby Wentworth. doubt arises as- 
to the specific merit of T biatata; it may be merely a form with aberrant 
fruits, and field research over a wide area is necessary to prove the- 
constancy (in association with other characters) of the m'ericarp wings. 

REFERENCES 
' I Tra-M. Linn. Soc. 10 (iSJl). 300. 2. Dot, Moo. IWWk T. 2B76. Alao F*0J/%* 
4 (1880» 7- a Q'to-nd Pforrt pt. 2 I MIL Tit- 4- Tub. Ftoia O&ttj $%> B - $&' 
to Suet, Vic. Pta-ntU (18&7>, 268. 6. "Monti fir. of tfU Genu* PUfanur OMtt)- 
■3 Crn*u* N.S,W, PtwXB (1916). 160. P.. F^ra South Aiixt. (JfiBflJ. 4»7. 9. Bhfifflh 
Ptmtt, Ahtt. Ore, ()9«0J, 10D. 10, FtPrtL of Vie.' (1080). 397. -It -/ot("i- Potnrw* 
CO H'JSO, 287: also 77 O0W>. 207- 12. B(kK*«, Vol. 2 (1P30), 738, 13. Jaum, 
BOXAASC 7fl H941), U, 



A MEW SPECIES OF RYPQLEPIS 
By K. A Wakkptpi.o, Genoa Vtctoffts 

HYPOLEPIS MUBLLERl sp. nw. Rhiswnote taU rrpextcs /r*fx$*U 
as&mhs, trifiittxatt t : rttckibitf et Stipifibus aJLidis twt ontcis, subh-L'tnbtu. 
futymtrbns, Jffcntfbus Sctos parvax sparsos vlfytdbx nytihs; pinmdh pdtaiis 
vrl admits, lobatit, f&r&tlw srtas alUas ntrinqur; tohis aiuUi-vciuUDsu, 
fUtttwqwf integris. r,atpc sorox ptur?7 fcrcnhbits; sorii prrtim!t\^, pariitj 
svcpc nnn margvtahbtts, pUrtemque sine Spwrii* induSnt. 

The type (kspcriplion is taken from a Victor t&n specimen (Mount 
Drummer, Eas-t Gippsland, in % -shaded hillside brush; 6/7/ J 941; K.AWj 
In the "Melbourne National Herbarium there arc specimen; from "Rneldng- 
ham Bay" — R Mueller (Queensland) ; "Waratah, near Newcastle — W. 
Wooils," "Botany Bay — (juHrver/' "Mount Drouiedarv— Reader" (New 
South Wales); "Forests of Dandenongs — Feb. 1875'- F. Mueller, 'Near 
Moe— 1884— D. Spemr.," "South Gippsland— 1893— A. F. Stirling" "Genoa 
River— Reader/' "Kcar Arthurs S^at— 2fi/)/l£42— O Singleton" awl 
"Shady wet banks of Latrobe- River — May IBS.V -F Mueller (Victoria). 
Mueller labelled tlte last-mentioned specimen 35 Fatypoduan Kippitrianum, 
bui this name was never published; so it has been deemed suitable that the 
plant should have its Spcrflfc epithet derived irom the name of lJic great 
botanist who, at Jeac-t once, considered it to be <* distinct flbCCific fornv 

TTie present gen as Tlypolapis was universally adopted only after Hooker's 
Species J'ilicum (1852), iti which many t-pecics were transferred to it from 
the old £ertUS Ch^ilanthc:. These were the true JIyf>olcpis species, with 
conspicuous scale-like mditsia, or well developed spurious indtisia consisting 
of reflex ed and slightly altered lobes of the margin* of the pinnules. Other 
spheres, with the sorr not so conspicuously protected* remained for The time 
in the. genus Potypadium together with some ex-indusiatc species now 
pficed in the genus Dryoptrns. The species concerned, which have no 
indusia, can be jifaced geoeriadly by retei-ence to their vestfture, which 
in the ci^e Of HypoJepit in a pubescence <A jointed ft$n?5 cr setae, where.v; 
specie* of Dtyopteris bear flat scales or paleae Christ ensen'* Dryoptcfis 
punctata (the prer-ent Hypafcpis punctata) included numerous forms from 
many conn tries Of these, there are three in, Victoria which have proven* 
to be specifically distinct — otic is almost fypnal H. pimctata. the secimd i\ 
H. rugvsuln, and the last Is lh: newly described H. MiuHtcri. 

Throughout their ranges, each species sho •.'.■-. considerable vMiulk«n in 
si«o of irondL* decree M serration of pinnules and lobes dc7cfopmr-nt nf 
the snnripvs H()du9b and in veStittlr^. However, the three A^ictorian specica 
can aJwayj; be di-jtingiiishcd by rhc eonibinanon o( most of the *haractcffs(*cs 
given bere for each. 

Ilypohpis ptmcfatft (Thnnb.) Mrtt. Knhn, Kil. Afr. 120 (1668); 
Pclypvdium 'rhunhergr. Fl. Jip. 337 ( l7S4>_ Rhixoute very Tubuvt widely 
rrr.c-p.ing; sfipcj a»d rr<rht5^ (hicl*', sticf^-p^.oescent^ trends 2 to 9 A, hi>;h. 
deltoid, $• to 4-m'nnate, grefn when fresh, hrnwn wh>*n dry. Hull, weak, 
viscid on both sides; ultimate lobts almost entire but distinctly svn nlaie. 
many-vctned ; ?»ori marginal and generally stil>tended by small porn ted 
spurious indnsift Abutid'ant Ell Victoria^ New S'.'Uth W.^les and Qnceas* 
land, and extending to the- Hiriulayfts and Japan. In ihc ea3tcrn l>r\ishe&i in 
humid shaded conditions the rperic^ is best developed ind very pubercetvt ". 
btii "in mo r« open southern parts (Dandenongs. ^b:.) it is smaller ai>d loses 
much of if* pubescence. 

Hypohpis MnoHtri, so nov. BUssjunie extensWefy creeping, branched ; 
frorVb deltoid, I •<> 2J fr, bi^h, tripinnatc, ^ligfhrly harsh :*nrj -stiff; .<<ipcs 
and nichiscs whitish nr golden, rather smooth but often slightly tuherculale. 



JuIyT 
lflJflJ 



Wakefield, New Species of Hypolcpis 



43 



shining, bearing a few scattered stiff whitish hairs ; pinnules stalked to 
adnate, lobed, bearing tiny white setae on both sides; lobes many-veined, 
entire or almost so, often soriferous on both sides of the costule ; sori 
numerous, small, often away from the margin and generally absolutely 
unprotected. In eastern districts of Queensland, New South Wales and 
Victoria; generally in rather dry shaded brushes, hut often in open swampy 
places where plants are sometimes in dense clumps and with fronds stiffer, 
rusty-coloured and much reduced in size of frond and sori. 

Hypolcpis rugosula (Lab.) J.Sm., Bot. Mag. 72 Comp. 8 (1846), 
as "rugulosa" (from Potypodium, Pt. N. Holl. II 92 Tab. 241, 1806), 
Rhizome thin and shortly creeping ; stipes and rachises reddish, tuberculate 
and sparsely reddish-hairy ; fronds small, rather narrow-triangular, 2- to 
3-pinnatc, 1 to 2 ft. high, dull, light-green, weak, pubescent but not sticky; 
ultimate pinnules with a few one-veined lobes; spurious indusia well 
developed. Plentiful in Tasmania, Victoria and eastern New South Wales, 
but also in South Australia (Mount Lofty Ranges) ; generally in very wet 
soil. Small plants in drier brushes are very pubescent, but in Tasmania and 
the Dandenongs the common form is rather attenuated, stronger and almost 
glabrous. 




hi AW Ami. rMi 



Figure 1. — H. rugosula. a, h, c and d: Variously shaped pinnules showing 
the constant features (X 2). e: rachises showing setae, etc. (X 2). f; 
Setae (much enlarged). 

Figure 2, — H. Mttelleri, a, b, c and d: Various pinnules showing the 
almost entire, many-veined lobes, etc. (X 2). e: rachises showing stiff setae 
(X 2). f: Setae (much enlarged). 

Figure 3. — H. punctata, a, b, c, and d: Pinnules, note serration (X 2). 
c: rachises with dense pubescence (X 2). f: Setae (much enlarged). 

(Sporangia removed in some cases to show venation, position of sori, etc.) 



44 Black, An Aboriginal Ccrcvionial C'roumf L Vol LX 

AN ABORIGINAL CEREMONIAL GROUND 
By Lindsay Blacks Leeton, N.S.W. 

On 25th April, 1943, Mr. Forster, Inspector {or the Milparinka 

Pastures Protection Board, stationed at Tibooburra, took the 
writer to a large aboriginal ceremonial ground on Tuerikia Station. 
This property is owned by Mrs. Davies, and once formed part of 
Connulpic Downs Station, at that time a very large property 
joining the Queensland border north-east of Tibooburra. 

This ceremonial ground is situated about one mile north-west 
of Tester's Tank, dose to the Bulloo River flood waters, and about 
eight miles south-east of the Adelaide gate on the Queensland 
border fence. The Adelaide gate is really an historical place, 
being one of the recognized official places of entry for stock 
between N.S.W. and Queensland. 

This very extensive ceremonial ground consists of a series of 
stone arrangements situated on flat ground between two low hills 
which are covered with small stones, commonly known as gibbers. 
From the top of the hill on the eastern side, which at no place 
would be more than 100 ft, high, one can look over the flat grey 
flooded country of the Bulloo River, It is, however, only after 
very heavy Queensland rains that the floodwaters come through, 
and spread over this flat country, and at this point it is about 
30 miles wide. The ceremonial ground extends for about 40- 
chains and contains ten separate stone arrangements. About 70 
yards distant on the south side of some of the formations is a small 
round lake, 100 yards in diameter, which would hold 6 feet of 
water. When full this lake would provide water for those camp- 
ing here for a considerable time, and it probably affords otie of 
the reason for the position of this ceremonial ground, as sites of 
this kind are always close to a good watering place. The Bulloo* 
floodwater country being so close would also mean a good food 
supply, as there would be plenty of game. 

One hundred yards west of the northern portions of the 
formations are a, number of old fire-places, and around these and 
the small lake we found a number of grinders, hammers, and flaked 
implements. 

Arrangement No. 6 appeared to be the main centre; it is most 
extensive and was made from stones up to 12 inches in diameter. 
Arrangement No. 7 is also very extensive, and there are many 
of the small heaps of stones always found at these areas. Amongst 
some of the formations we found well-finished flaked implements, 
some made from flint and others from quartzite. This is the 
first time I have found so many white quartzite implements, as- 
generally material of a more suitable nature was used, 



THE VICTORIAN XATURAUST Vol. lx 

Plate 1 II 



Ji\iy. 1943 





»A" ■ Jp " - 




• - *"¥ *** "*i+~ ■*■■ 




-i 






Stone Arrangement Xo. o. Circle at left hast? is partly covered by sand. 




Central ^urlum ol the Circles, looking from suulh la north. 
Photos, by Lindsay 01a.c:k. 



iuzl' ' AlTMCtt'EM, Goonot* Ftrfsi—Ffnrat IVtuulerlonrf 45 

Some of the sections -had their circles, yards, races -and arrange- 
ments made from smali stones not more than about S inches in 
diameter, but others had scones up- to 12 inches in diameter. The 
surrounding hills must liave been picked over for these large 
■stones, as on the slopes around this area the stones-are generally 
only 3 to 6 inches in diameter. 

It is hard to say how far these stone arrangements extended, 
as some have been partially covered with blown sand. Many of 
the larger stones are practically buried in the silt washed down 
from fhe hirls, which accounts for the formations being so well 
preserved. Some stone arrangements arc found in South Australia, 
and have he.en described by Mountfort and others. « - 

• The only part of New South Wales in which these laige stone 
ceremonial grounds are found is west of the Warrego River and 
north of a line drawn west Irani Bourke. The writer inspected 
another large stone arrangement of the same type as the above on' 
Duulop Station, near Louth, and E. B. Dow lias described others 
in M<mUnd (Vol. 2, No. 5), 



GOOMOO FOREST— FLORAL WONDERLAND 
By Gedo. W. Altkofkk, Dripstone, K.S.W. 

The Goonec forest area, which is situated between Ouhbo and 
Mendoorani central western N.S.W.. is a treasure-ground for 
nature-lovers. A bewildering variety of wild flowers — mostly of 
shrnhby type— paints the land with beauty during the spring and 
taffy summer. The gently undulating country is mostly sandy, 
with here and there low ridges of ironstone and sandstone- 
conglomerate, and is covered with a fairly thick growth of Ironbark 
(Euc. sideroxytou) interspersed with patrhes of a tall Mattee (Euv, 
viritlix) and of C&niarina and Atacm species. 

My brother Peter and I spent an all-too-short day there in early 
September of lasc year, and many were the rarities we. rioted, It 
may be mentioned in parsing that each tidge usually had one 
species in abundance, and in many cases that species would be 
confined to its particular ridge. 

'. The Acati-O. group was well represented, though we were too 
Jate for, the flowering of many species The first one noted was 
A. doratoxylou, here 25 to 30 ft. high and loaded down With 
golden fingers of fragrant bloom. Then came, a small tree, past 
the flowering stage; it is of upright habit and 12 to IS ft. in 
height. Sydney Herbarium places this as a form of A. acinac&t, 
but when it is possible to obtain a flowering specimen I feel 
confident it will prove to be something quite different, Not 
flowering, but very lovely with its smooth stems and very narrow 



phyllodia, was A subulata. This plant, very tare here, ha& 
previously been recorded only from the Upper Hunter valley on 
the eastern fall of the Dividing Range. Another extremely rare 
Acacia seen was A. Havilandii, a lovely low-spreading bush very 
much irke Ar cfitamijotitL One of the feather-leaved types. A, 
cardiophylhx, was noted, and though usually a tall shrub, it waa 
almost prostrate here. The gem of all the low-growing kinds, 
however, is A Brcwmy, an inland adaptation of \4, juniperim, 
forming shapely little bushes 2 to 4 ft. high, with pungent dark- 
green phyllodia and extra large; deep golden flower balk, Ar 
linenta, a low bosh; A. conferla* (Golden Top), in dense thickets; 
A. flexifolia.; A, triptcro, with its recurved "wait-a-while" phy]~ 
todi*; aivd A, undvlifoHa, not unlike a dwarf A. podalynae\oli<tr 
were all more or less common. 

Grcvilleas were represented by G. floribunda (everywhere 
abundant), with its tstrange, goblin-like flowers, and C obt&siflora, 
a rather straggling shrub with green and red flowers. The Blue 
Pincushion, Brunonia austratiSj carpeted the ground in many 
places with colour. As far as the eye could see were undershrubs 
in profusion, amongst those observed being Calytrix tetragona 
(up to 6 ft, and always attractive with its wealth oi starry pink 
or white bfossoms), Iftbberlia stricta, D&mpicra (cmceclata m huge 
clumps of violet-blue, Bc^ckca dettsiflora, Westringia rigida (the* 
most profuse flowering member of the genus I have, yet seen). 
Leptcspormtmi trivolvum, Melaleuca glomerate., M. uncvutio, M- 
pubescens, Myoporum deserti, Dodonao* peduncularis (an ex- 
tremely dwarf form), Pultenaa microphylfa and Daviasut. aticur 
laris. The rare Mhbelia Jgqmg, recorded previously only from 
Penrose (near Goulburn) aud the Nepean River, was located atso. 

In a number of place* that lovely plant Philotheca* mistratis was 
prolific. Individual plants showed flowers much deeper in colour 
than the average, and they ranged from nearly pure white, through 
pinks to lilac, purple and blue. 

Phcbalhtm stenopkylla, covering hundreds of acres, was a very 
striking plant Many ndges were a sea of yellow where this 
species with its masses of star-shaped flowers grew an rank 
profusion. The Boronias were hereabouts represented by .S. 
rosmarinifotia, a straggling undershrub, though 30 miles away, 
on the other side of Dubbo, we found S, ledifotia- var. glabrfy surely 
the most striking of all Boronias ; it* drawback is the strong "foxy" 
odour given off by the leaves when touched. Shapely bushes 5 ft. 
through and about the same in height were seen, literally covered 
with deep rose-red blooms. Wc estimated that the larger plants 
carried up to twelve thousand open blooms. 

A lovely Prostanthsra was P. onpettifotia, plentiful and gay 



saa 



Pescott, TA/> English Sparrow in Australia 47 



with violet flowers. On one ridge wc came across a strange 
ProstauthGm- in fair quantity. Small shrubs of no more than 3 it 
had flowers of a pale bluish-grccn, looking for all the world like 
resting moths with folded wings. This species )s bke P. Leich- 
twrdtii but differs slightly in the formation of the leaves. It may 
possibly be distinct, since P. Leichkardtn is a very rare plant and 
has previously heen recorded once only in N.S-W.— from Cobar— 
and from another locality in Queensland.* 

Many other species were seen and the end of the day came all 
too soon. A thorough exploration of this huge area would duuhtless 
yield many more, wonderful plants and some rarities. 

*Th* description tallies with P-r&stantkcra chtvrantha (Green Mint-bush) 
which is not uncommon in parts of die South Australian and Victorian 
Malice, notably Mitdura district.— Editor. 



EXCURSION TO NATIONAL HERBARIUM 

Mr. P. F, Morris retried that the visit 10 lhc National Herbarium on 
June 5 was well attended, ft party of about forty members and friends 
availing themselves of the opportunity of seeing the 1 collection and library. 
The Director and Government {totw&t (Mr. A. W. Jesseo) give a lecture 
on the drying of botanical specimens and the methods of keeping and 
working the collections. Visitors interested thcrn&elvcs. in the rubber plants 
and rubber substitutes, quinine and Australian barlu' which, are now being 
used in malaria and fevers. The interesting exhibit;; were mostly of an 
economic i^tlure and reminded members thai Uiere is a future for Australian 
plants in commerce. - * 

SfK;cimcns collected by Banks and Solandcr during Captain Cook's voyage 
in 1778 and Petiver's Indian and American plants of 1696 astonished members 
by their excellent state of preservation. 

The -Herbarium was established by Baron Ferdinand von Mueller in 1857 
and ranks amongst tin: larg-cr herbaria of the world. ' r 



THE ENGLISH SPARROW IN AUSTRALIA 

Referring to the notes of the late W S. Campbell as j/tiblnhcd in <be 
Vic. No*, for May, -the writer stated that he saw his first sparrow at 
Melbourne about 1870, when they were present in "hundreds and hundreds.'* 
He remarked that he did not think it. possible, to determine how or when 
the sparrow was introduced into Australia. 

The sparrow was definitely introduced into Victoria in the early 'fifties, 
by the Zoological and Acclimatisation Society of Victoria, when r>0 birds 
were released at the Royal Park and five at Rallarat. it is generally 
considered that an error was made in introducing the £njgttsh house 
Sparrow and not the field gfjttttpnr. , 

About the year 1856 two boys found a sparrow*'. nest *n a street tree at 
Wurntambool, and they were fined $5 for destroying the egg* ! Many o* 
us would like to collect a similar sum for each of the sparrow nests and 
*KiTS we have destroyed. — E. H. Prcscorr. 



4$ VHpptoiinu U Index. Vk. NaUmrisl, V«l UA' PEfl lx* 

SUPPLEMENT TO INDEX, VIC. NATURALIST, VOL LIX ( 
The following literal ions and additions are neccss-arv in Ihe Botanical 
Section : 

For i'Cy&tma accroso-" read Cyathndn.* accroaa. 
"For u Cyothca nwriscus' 7 read Cyothed iM/cerci'iis 
Add DiKfiria tf*tf?*1f*|l Distribution of— J. Hi W»U»s ,, , 6fl 

Add Domestic. Botany— J. H. Willis ..212 

Add Manna- Value of—A. H E- Mattingley 30 

"For "Qrvmoanttmi" read "Drvvwanihwt," 

Arid Plants of the Bavsidc— H. C. E. Stewart . 144 

Add Plants of the Marshes— J. H. Willis ...,-.- 1 44 

Add Podofeph acmnmafa var. rubuitft comb no v. AljWnc Podolepis — 

J. H. Willis .. -. .. .. ., ... M .- ... JM 

Add Pomadcrris ychttina — J, H. Willi? ft? 

After "Prajaphyllvw*' insert in brackets, thus (Section Cr end file mum \. 
Add P fas uphvlium dilJers:if<)nttn and P. BeattafchelH spp. »Ov (illtL) 

— W. H. Nicholfy ' - .. 3. 9 

Add Rftownaccff', Notes on Victorian, Pt 2— J- H, Willis ........ 



EXHIBITS AT JUKE MEETtNC 

Mrs. M. E. Ftcame— A scries of marine biological specimens, including 
sundry poly/oa, Hydractini(i. Sertularw, Gftrqwiiz-, pnx 4 Pcmui-tula, etc 

Mrs C. French — Garden-grown native plants, including Cm-fax rtrflexa 
■var. rubra, Ofcario {Aster) ramnfasa, Lcptospcnnmn xcopttrhwt Wolkcri. 
L, sco pari wiu Sandal L. scoporium Keuitcyi, ' BnctUyphts Lor<)not,i, 

Mr. H, P. Dickins — Water-colour of the Australian water-lily 

Mr J. H, Willis — Living specimen* of the ihree King William pine?- of 
Tasmania (Athr&axis schiiiumdcs. A. cuprcssoides, A. Uvifnlia), together 
with samples of the timber showing' the exceedingly close annual rings. 

Mr. R. G. Painter — Garden-grown native flowers, including Cnrrca- 
Lxivtcneiana, C retlcxa, C, rcflc.va var. rubra, C. rrfie.va var. pnfehctta, 
Grvvilleu rost)zarimi^U<t t G. oieoides, G, oicoidc? var. divtorpha. 

Mr. Ivo Hamrneit — Garden-grown native flowers, including Corrca 
ptdekctJa, Ca-ma artenttsoides. Bat-ckeo. crassifdlia,' DowpitrQ. httweofata. 
Pf-mcien limfolin GwnlUa. sUnMncrii, Battl'sfa eoUiurt, Cofren rrjlnxa var. 
ruhra. 

Mr. F. S. Co-Hirer— Small series m tertiary fossils from Royal Park 
Cutting. 

Afisi Jancr W. RafY — Samples of autumn-swarming flies (Scatiopsc sp.) t 
found clustering in large mast.es on Acacia zn:rikr?fata and other native 
phots; collected by Mr T. S. Hart at Croydon, Vic 



BOTANICAL COLLECTIONS AS PRESENTS TO SEND HOME 
Parties desirous of transmitting to their friend* collections of the flowers 
of this district, hut more especially tnose collected during his lale excursion 
to Adelaide via the Murray River, and return from then: by Lake Alexafl- 
drina, and the coast line, among- which will be found many both new and 
interesting. The undersigned will be happy to supply cases at prices to 
nuix the oonvpnieme ot purchasers. • The collections arc botanical!/ arranged 
and named. -Imd the oarCetn of Seer! accompanied wich a c&rfesi>ondin£ 
specimen of the plant in blossom. Affftiy to the undesigned personalty, at 
the house lately occupied by Messrs. W. Hull and Sons, Flinders Lane, 
Melbourne, or to "Mr. Daniel Harrison, Stationer, .Geelong-. 

DANIEL BL-NCfc- 
Flinders Lane, Sept <$, 1SS0. 

IThe above advertisement is extracted from the Melbourne Afgru of 
September *8, 1350.] 



The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. IX— Na. 4 August 5-, 1943 -No. 716 



PROCEEDINGS ' 

The ordinary meeting of the'Club was held at the Club Rooms. 
Royal Society's Halt., on Monday, July 12, 1943. The President, 
Mr. P. F. Morris, presided and about 80 member&.and friends 
attended • 1 

APOLOGIES ' ' 

Apologies for non-attendance were received from Mr E M. 
Lord and Mr, ). H, Wif/is. 

SUBJECT FOR THE EVENING 
This took (he form of a Natural History "Brains Tnii.t/' the 
panel of experts aud their subjects being; Miss J. Raff, Insects; 
Mr C. J. Gabriel, Shells; Mr. A C Froslkk, General Geology 
and Rocks; Mr. F. S. Collivcr, Fossils. The President invited 
Mr P. Crosbie Morrison to conduct the session 

Question 1. To Mr, A. C. Frostick: "Could gold he found 
along Domain Road, South Yarra?" Amiver: This is debatable, 
as the western end is in the tertiary sands and the eastern end in 
the Silurian sediments. The nearest locality where gold has been 
recorded is Dights Falls, Studley Park, an assay of the small 
quartz leaders in the locality giving a result of approximately 
2 dwL per ton. There is a possibility of finding gold in crush 
rones that are, possibly hidden under the tertiary beds of the area 
Comments ! The President stated that small quantities of gold had 
been found in a shaft some 80 feet deep at the eastern end of 
Domain Road in the early days. 

Question 2. To Mr. C. J. Gabriel; "Arc there any poisonous 
Victorian shell fish? This question to be answered in two parts: 

(a) Have we any shell fish which have a venomous bite or 
sling like the textile cone of the North Australian waters? 

(b) Have we any shell fish that are normally poisonous to eat p 

Answer: (a) As far as is known, no Victorian shell fish is 
capable of giving a bite or sting with injection of poison, but as 
<ertairj cone shells of northern waters are known to he capable of 
so acting, it would be inadvisable to eat or even handle the 
Victorian members of this genus. ' 



50 flWtf Naturalists Club Preeeaimgt Vult.ut 

• (b) Various shell fish are credited with the property of affecting 
the digestive organs, etc, bat it can be stated that this is not due 
to any active poison p^ncipal- Comments; Mr. F. S. Galbver 
stated that at certain tunes in certain parts of America clams and 
oysters were a means of transmitting typhoid fever, Miss Raff 
stated tbit rhe idea that mussels collected off pier pile* were unfit 
to eat probably arose at the time when drains were carried 
along the pier piles. The President stated that he had been stung 
on the lip when eating a limpet. 

Question 3. To Miss Raff: "Are bees colour blind, and if so, 
to what extent? Do they have favourite colours among the flowers 
they visit?" Answer: Bees are sensitive to colour, the range 
extending from between the red and orange to the ultra-violet, 
and apparently they cannot distinguish between red and Wuck. 
Regarding the favourite colour of bees» experiments seemed to 
indicate blue as favourite. Comments-, Mr. Shenvm stated he 
had TKid of l>ces responding to colour training. 

Question 4. To Mr, F, S, Colliver: "Have fossil eyeads been 
found iu Tasmania?"' Answer: Yes. at least four species belong- 
ing to the eveads properly are known — Cycadhcs dowhttg-i, from 
the Launcestou tertiary beds, but thought to have been derived 
from beds of Mesozoic Age; Cycadites mkropkytJa. described from 
the tertiary of Mr. Bischoff by Johnston; an uudescrihed species 
noted from (he Mesozorc of Lords Hill by Walfcom; and another 
specimen from the Niinu locality referred to the genus "Podo- 
7.amites.* f 

Question 5. To Mi. L. J. Gabriel; "Haw is the shell secreted 
by the female paper Nautilus? Is the shell present in all adult 
female Nautili, or is it merely produced at and discarded afler 
the breeding season? Do Nautili breed regularly?" Answer i 
The shell is secreted from glands m the inner side of the large 
expanded wehbed extremities of the two dorsal arms, the so-called 
shell serving as an egg-cradle and as a temporary retreat for the 
female, and is discarded after the breeding season. The shell is 
present in all adult female Nautili/ and once the female provides 
ova she dies ConwnAnts: Mr.. Colliver mentioned that fossil sepia 
hags were no* uncommon at Lyme Regis, Dorsetshire, and that 
the British Museum possesses several .sepia prints tliat used this 
fossil material as the colour medium. Miss Raff mentioned that 
carefully turning the shell with the animal in upside down, then 
waiting a few minutes, and a sudden jerk would dislodge »he 
animal from the shell, 

Question 6. To Miss RafT.* <r Why is tbe Emperor Gum Moth 
called the Australian silkworm? Has any use been made ol the 



w3'] PieU X***™*"*' dub Procwdtnvs 51 

silk i>{ any Australian moth?' 1 Answer: The genus oi the 
Emperor Gum Moth is one of two that are well known as silk 
producers, but in this case., owing to the amount of gum iu the 
cocoon, the silk is of little use. Further, as the caterpillars are 
wanderers in habit, they would be difficult to breed to compete 
with the commercial silkworm Comments : Mr. A. H. Chisholm 
stated that he understood that woven sjlk samples from Emperor 
Gum Moth cocoons had been exhibited at the Crystal Palace,, 
London. 

The session then dosed down, and will continue next mnnth 
with the following subjects and leaders: Botany, Mr. J. H. Willis; 
Ornithology, Mr. A II. Chisholm; and General Zoology, Mr. 
P Crosbic Morrison. 

REPORTS OF EXCURSIONS 
Reports of excursions were given as follows: Zoological Gar- 
dens, Mr. P. Crosbie Morrison; Sherhrooke, Mr. A. II. Chisholm. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS 
On 8 show of hands the following were duly doited as ordinary 
members of the Club: Mrs, D. W\ Lyndon, Mrs. R. A. Lewis, 
Miss V- Wheeler, Dr. William Geroe, Mr. Peter Garner; and as 
Country Memhers, Sgt M. F. Lesfcc and Mr. Eric Muir. 

GENERAL BUSINESS 
Australian Natural History Medallion* — Mr. P. Croibic Mor- 
rison reported on the committee's discussions on this matter, and 
stated that Major Wilson, recently of the Teachers' Training 
College, had been suggested as die Club's nomination. 

NATURE NOTES 

Mr. lvo Ilanunet drew members' attention to example* of the 
Queensland Bean recently sent down by Dr. Flecker (or distri- 
hubon to members. 

Mr. R. G. Painter reported on flocks 01* the White-plumed 
Honey-eater, 2nd .stated he had not seen them in such numbers 
previously- Mr. Chisholm, commenting,, stated that such flocks 
were of common occurrence,, 

Mr. H. Jenkins asked if the drab birds seen with Blue Wrens 
were females or immature males. Mr. A. H. Chisholm stated thfcy 
were probably immature males. Such birds lose their blue colour 
each winter for at least four years. 

Mr. H. C. 2u Stewart asked regarding the calls of the Lyre- 
birds. Were they all imitative, and did some at least belong to 
now extinct birds? Mr. A. H. ChUholm stated it was possihk 



£2 Held Natwatixu' Club Proceeding [Vnl'hx' 

that many of the calls were copied direct from their authors. bur 
wilh respect to the birds of die Sherhrooke Forest he thought that 
they learnt the calls from one another, and thus all the birds of 
the district had similar calls. He further staled that some of the 
calls heard in Sherbrookc arc not heard in New South Wales. 
i Mr. L. W. Cooper reported that recently thirteen Lyre-birds 
were seen along the track from Cement Creek to the top of Ml. 
Donna Buang. 

EXHIBITS 

: Mr. Owen Suigleton ; A comprehensive series of the Fossil 
Australian Cowries. The exhibit included most of the described 
specieSj a series of the largest cowry known (C. yitja^', McCoy) 
and the largest example of the three perfect specimens known of 
the flanged cowry (C, gajtropkw). 

Mr. C. French: Bead or TasseL Flower {Gtirtyn cliiptica) from 
California. 

Mr. C. J. Gabriel* Marine .;hell*. "-tfcnfcs* from Victoria, 
Conus a.\ie\nO>u\ Lam , C, rutilus. Metike, C, sogravci, Catliff; 
from various localities, C, aulicus, Urui, C. geographus, Linn, 
C, llnmhis, Chcm., C. nt&rm#rous } Linn, C. textile, Linn,, C\ tultpn. 
Lam. Also Argonattba, nodosa, Sol., front Victoria, and Nautilus 
poMpifiu'j, Linn, from North Australia. 

Mr. R. G. Painter; Garden-grown native flowers, including 
Epai'ris impressa. Banksia cntHw, Coww reflex**, Corrca rnflcxn 
var. rubra, Gi'cvtika\ Dalfachymiti, G, olvoidcs var. dimorpha, G. 
rosnwrijti folia, Pi'melf® sp. Thryptomaic cttfyr.in(t, LeptospG-rmum 
xcoparium var. grandiflOTmn rosoum. 

Mr. P. Fiseh: Winter-flowering Grccnhoods, Pieroslyhs nutans 
and P. coti-cinn-a. 

Mr. P. Ctosbie Morrison: "Vegetable caterpillars" — caterpillars 
of Ghost Moths (licpialidctc) — affected by the parasitic fungus 
Cordyceps sp. The spores are picked up in the soil by burrowing 
larvae, whose Ussues art; gradually absorbed and replaced by 
fungal tissue without -altering the general contours of the victim. 
Finally the fungus sends up a fruiting body which projects above 
ground and spreads spores to infect the next generation oi 
caterpillars The fruiting bodies are specially prevalent just now 
in many p^rts of the Dandenongs, and recently I saw many 
thousands under pine trees at Kalorama, but there were only 
two pupa-cases on the ground to show that the owners had 
escaped the plague. To the Hepialid population, it must have 
been a greater scourge than Lite- Great Plague was to Londoners 
of the 1 7th century. . * ^ ; 



Wad J KA * Galtoaitit, v4 °AVw" #iV</ fiw/j Ow J^a/i^y 53 

• ■ A "NEW" BIRD FINDS OUR VALLEY . 
* By Jean Galbr'atth, Ty'ers (via Trafatgon). Victoria 

After many years of bird watching in one valley, the years still 
bring delights ; &ttt it is- rarely now that wc sec a new bird, SO 
the visit of a flock of White-backed Swallows las* spring was 
memorable. 

I knew (and know) very little about the species, beyond the 
notes in reference booksv They do not come fnto any bird 
literature with which I am familiar, and wc are wondering rather 
interestedly whether they 'are -.rare or merely unnoticed. - 
• On the 29th- of October last year I spent a day at the Tycr^s 
River, with a companion equally interested in birds. It was a 
m\U) day, with intermittent showers, and the riverside was alive 
with sounds and songs. But though all delighted us; none of the 
birds we saw was the least bit unusual, Our chief entertainers 
were White-hrowe'd Scrub- Wrens and Yellow-faced Honey- 
.eaters. - *. _ ( * . 

When it was almost time to return home I heard a strange note. 
a single indescribable call which might have been made by a frog 
or n bird. At the same moment my companion saw the buds. 
She thrust the field glas^a into my hands 

"Look quickly," she said. "They're swallows of *ome kind, but 
they're not ordinary swallows.'' 

She saw them better than 1 did, hut for so long as we dared 
stay we watched the small flock of swallow-like birds hawking 
up and down the river, apparently dipping in the water now and 
then as they skimmed over; it. 

- They were swallow-winged, fork-tailed, dark, with conspicuous 
•white backs. That; afier long watching, was all we could say. 
for a dense tangle of blackberries kept us from drawing nearer, 
and the birds passed so' swiftly that it was haidly possible <o focus 
the glasses upon them.* We could not name them, but when we 
reached home the reference books left us in no doubt. * 

The opposite (eastern) bank of the river" was vertical and 
graveljy, the water shallow enough for wading . and we had learned 
that White-backed Swallows nested in tunnels in such banks, so 
I had high hopes of finding nests and watching the birds go in 
and out 

A 'week later I visited the eastern bank and hid under a bush. 
watching for the swallows, I saw dramas and comedies; a Fan- 
tailed Cuckoo two yards away seemed to be calling from half a 
dozen different places, while T watched his throat sliiver at every 
trill; a Whipbird'm 'the thicket opposite called intermittently; a 
flock of Beautiful Firetails retreated before a "charm" of Gold- 



54 Jean GArBRAira, A HUfftJ 4 Bird Finds Ottr Vatk} Uvm, hX 

finches; an<l a pair of Yellow-faced Honcyeaters werr ctixturhed 
by a confident tertiam quid. Welcome Swallows slttrnrned tlw 
river up arid down, but nut one White-backed Swallow did J see, 
not one nesting tunnel did I find. 

At last, with eyes blurred with watching the moving water and 
the birds, I turned homeward. The swallows must have been a 
flock out hunting, not a ne.^ing colony as we had hoped. That 
seemed, for the time being, to be the end of the story. 

It wasn't — quite. On November 10th 1 was cycling through 
open country, about four mile* east of the Tycrs River, when 
several White-hacked Swallows skimmed over the road in front 
of me — flying so low and so close that I looked down on their 
white ?>acks — disappearing toward a creek half a mile away. 

There seems no doubt of the species, though I am disinclined 
to be positive when I have never seen a named specimen for 
comjKirison. We have not seen another one. Perhaps we never 
will. Hut that discovery last spring remains a pleasant memory 
and an encouragement still to expect unfamiliar visitors to our 
familiar valley. 



SPIDERS ASSIST BOTANISTS 

Normally I do not tike siadcni. although I admire their handiwork of 
-web weaving. At the Whipstkk near Ramarooka in mid-May, Mr. Perry 
aud I set out to find an elusive botanical specimen Whose name wc wished 
to confirm, Mr, Perry was eager to show me Nephila of the golden web. 
1 did not like the look of bc\ less stiM after running into her net or parlour. 
We found Nephila. on the alert but not spiteful; one thing w^ noted was her 
.cleanliness about her house, for all the refuse of disused or unwanted food 
was- gathered jtito a long waste bag; and fastened on top of the web. wetl 
out of Hie way — quickness of movement was so necessary for ratcHng her 
prey 

There were other spiders with grass-like webs sometimes nearly a fool 
long, the interwoven pieces of grass looking: tike nests in the shrubs, and on 
on«: oi the lower shrubby plants, we made our find, The plant we liad 
searched for as "Dodonaea praciitnbcn.r'' although sticky and extraordinarily 
like it in foliage and general appearance, had small *'ncsts" in whiYh were 
1 tangled the unmistakable achenes of a composite. Our "Dddonaea* had cast 
■ i\$ flowers except the six involuc.ral bracts, but affixed to the wcb-gr»ss 
"n^t" was the cast material which, identified our plant as Otcaria decurrens, 
rather uncommon about here, fot although we hac? walked a mile in a circle 
we saw only a few plants. 

Without the aid of the spider, its nest and the bristles of the achenes 

holding firm to nests within the bushes, we should not have bad our reward. 

Deletion of DadonafQ. procumbent will be necessary and Qlcar\a decurrens 

substituted in my note, Vktorkm. Naturalist, Vol. LIV, No. 8, Dueembcr, 

1942 

A, J T/pcF-tx 



ftgjfl W. II. NiCiiOLLi, Onr PcrpUxmn StotfMbiH 55 

OUR PERPLEXING -SUN-ORCHIDS 

A New Variety; Two Reductions in Status; tl>e Evolution .of a. 

Thfilymftra- Column; and other Notes 

By W. H. Nicholls, Melbourne, 

I. THELYM1TRA TRUNCATA, Roger;** 11 and THELV- 

MITRA MERRANM. Nicholts.< 2 > 

According to my own investigations over a number of seasons 
(since the spring of J 930) these are bur forms of the well-known 
Thclymiira ixioides } Swartz iW 

Th. trunctrta was Hrst found in South Australia (at Myponga) 
irt October. 1917- Rogers reports it as very rare. Th- Mwonc? 
was recorded from Aircy's Inlet, m Victoria (October, 1927-28) 
In a large colleetion of Thelymitra- specimens collected in the hill 
country encircling Mount Cobbler (5,340 ft.) in Victoria during 
January. 1936, and brought home for study, quite .an array of 
columnar forms were in evidence. All of these specimens had 
.been tentatively labelled — after a cursory examination — "Th. 
ixioides, Sw. typical'' 

The above hypothesis, formed after careful examination o£ 
numerous specimens from other Victorian habitats, "was thereby 
fully supported. 

A. representative set of column-forms, drawn mainly from 
Cobbler material, is shown here (see Figures G. to R.-U.V W.). 
These show the gradual evolution of the two forms referred to 
above. The perianth- segments (upper) of both arc usually dotted 
in the typical iximde-fashion. In the case of 77*. MerrantT this 
■ form (which is rare) should be regarded aS transitional, and not 
as a fixed form or variety. It is unquestionably an intermediate 
between Th, ntioides, Sw,> and Th, trun-coia, Rogers. It is not 
confined to the one locality, thus is not, as mentioned by Ewart'4 1 
a "'local form." It is now recorded from a number of habitats far 
removed one from the other. 

But with 77*. truncata the case is different; this form is jnore 
widely distributed (in some districts an abundant plant), ctttr 
sistent in the. size of the plant, length of 1eaf ? likewise hi the .size 
of the flowers. Th. truncata is also consistently few-flowered. 
though, like many other Thelymitra^, variable In the colour of the 
-blooms. 

- Thelymitra ixioideS) Sw., variety Pnmcnta, comi>. twv. (Th. 
trunenfa. Rogers), u >- — I consider that Th, tnuitula, Rogers, should 
be stabilized as a variety. Though usually associated with Th. 
ixioides, the variety truvtcata is not (as is the case with the form 
Merranw) restricted to these areas. Many colonies of truncatti 



Sri Vt, H. Js'tchoiuj, Ow Pfirplrxint) SwQrchuix V\d' tx' 

may be seen in habitats remote from the haunts of typical Th, 
ixio%des\ - , ' 

II, THELYMlTRA PAUC1FLQKA, R.tti\<5' 

Tins in one of our polymorphic species. 'One is sure to contract 
headache if persistent in the dose examination of a larjfe hatch 
of flowers culled from selected districts. No wonder botanists 
have bestowed other specific (now synonymous) titles to one or 
other of its. variations ! 

One form remarkable for the dilated apex to the column middle 
lobe, has been collected in three areas, via., Hrirst's Bridge, Port- 
land, Wonthafgi. How our orchids vary! Tim. this strange- 
.feature, is an inconsistent one, apparent only in approximately 50 
per cent, of the plants examined. (Figures X.Y.) 

Thelymttm pauct-ftnra, R.Dr., variety ilolmcs\i t comb. nov. (77*. 
Hohnesii, Nicholis). ,6> — This is a Portland form, bearing 1-9 
nrh violet flowers. Here the column mid-lobe is somewhat large, 
cuneate and prominently deft, and the hair-tufts of the penicilhite 
lo-hes are usually yellow, sometimes streaked with red. 

A solitary specimen — undoubtedly the above form — was for- 
warded to me by Mrs. F. Mellblom, it suggested a closer affinity 
with R, D. Fit?.Gerald'& West Australian Th. tmtcida^ than 
hitherto suspected. In this particular instance Ihe column mid- 
iobe was very small, the yellow and red hair-tufts in less definite 
tujh] the pemeillatc lobes short and stout. More material, how- 
ever, is necessary for a conclusive diagnosis, for the specimen was 
iiot in a first-rate condition. Only a solitary specimen of Th, 
wmcida ha* been collected — apparently at Wilson's Jnle*. Albany, 
by FitrGerald. 
■ Are these two orchids also transitory forms, in this instance of 
Th. pontiff or a, R.Br. J 

111 THELYMITRA MEDIA, R.Br.. (s > variety cay-wo-lutm, 

uat\ nov. 

■ ' Ptavia gracilis conjummns emu typo {indc fr". D. FitzGirratd 
in " Ai4Str(jlnm Orchids"); omtYmo (florilms execptis), polliA* 
vividis. Flares pauci, 2-5 f circa J 5-2 5 cm. in diometro, Perianth- 
scgmoita carnea supra infra lutca. Columvn cunu-o. lobi i/ffHf* 

■nu'dia magwi: sligma promwums. 

A slender plant 23-40 cm. high. Leaf, stem and bracts a &ott 
shade of glaucous green Leaf linear, channelled, erect, 10-23 cm. 
long-- S tern-bracts 1 -2 i Flo wers 2-5, about 1 ' 5-2 ■ 5 cm . in 

•diameter .^'Perianth-segments pale flesh-pink^ reverse surface Of 

sepals yellow. Column pink, intermediate lobes' very prominent. 



Ail*.! 
UM8 J 



W. H. Nkhoixs, Our PcrpLwing Sim-Orchids 



57 




Thelymkra. For Key, see page 58. 



58 W. H. Nicuolls, Our Perplexing Sun-Orchids Vol. LX 

Stigma prominent. The soft glaucous shade uf green which 
pervades almost the whole plant, combined with the dainty 
hi-coloured flowers (pale pink and yellow) form a neat com- 
bination of colour tones not previously recorded m the ^enus 
Thelymitra. 

The habitat of this newly-found variety is "swampy land at 
Tynong North/* in Victoria. (October-November, 1941 ; collector, 
Mr. J. Leppitt.) Mr. Leppitt is a member of the club and an 
enthusiastic collector and student of our orchidaceous plants. He 
reports this variety as numerous. 

Th. media, in Victoria, is more commonly a robust, large- 
flowered plant. Occasionally it rivals Th. grandi flora, FitzG., the 
"Great Sun-orchid," in height, robustness, and beauty. The larger 
forms, in my experience, are often more abundant than the small 
slender forms, though these oftinies are plentiful also, and well 
distributed throughout media's range (in Victoria). 

The finest examples of Th. 'media I have examined were cot- 
lected near Wan din (C. Barrett) and from Yarra Junction (J. W. 
Audas). From these two localities the specimens possess, often, 
remarkably thick, leathery, somewhat rugose leaves, the plants 
attaining a height of well over 90 cm. 

References 

1. Traais.RaySocS.Austr. xli, 343 (1917)— referred to by A. j. Kwart in 
FlVic* (1930) as a variety of Th. pauci flora, R.Br. 

2. VicNat,, xlvi (nov., 1929), 139. 

3. KongSwisk.Acad.HaiuJL, 228 (1800). 

4. Fl.Vic. (A, J. Ewart), 329 (1930). 

5. Prodr^ 314 (1810). 

6. VicMat., xlix (1933), 263, 

7. Card.Chron., xvii (1822). 433; fig. in AustOrck. ij {FitzG-). 

8. Frodr., 314 (1810). 

9. QrchJZel, ii, 156. 

KEY TO PLATE 

THELYMITRA, Forst 

Fig. A. — Th. media, R.Br., var. carnea»lutea t var.n&v., B, — Column from 
side; C— Column from rear; IX — Column from front. E, — Th. ixioxdes. 
Sw, Column from side ; F. — Same from above ; G. — Four variations of 
column mid-lobe from side; H. — Middle lobe of column from side (upper), 
and from above. Column mid-lobes, form Merrance — i. (from side), J. 
(from rear), K, (from above). L M M. — Column mid-lobes of var. 
tmticata from side; N., O. — Same as L. t M. (but from rear; P.. Q. — 2 
column mid-lobes from above. R. — Th. ixioides, Sw., var. subdifformis, 
Nicb. ; (g) Column from side. S. — Flower 77i. ixu?idcs. var. trmcata* 
T. — Flower Th. ixioides, form Ncrrana, U., V.. W. — Th. ixioides. Heads 
of columns from above; 3 variations of intermediate forms. X. — Th. 
pauci flora, R.Hr. 2 column mid-lobes from side. Y.—Th. pauci flora, R.Br. 
Abnormal form of column mid-tobe. 

(Note: In the majority of the figures the hair-tufts are not shown.) 



fjjj] S R. Mitct«f.t,l, Geology and EUtn-oloyy of Kongorong Hills $9 

CEOLOGY AND ETHNOLOGY OF THE KONGORONG 
HILLS, SOUTH AUSTRALIA 

Ry S. R. Mitchell, Melbourne, 

The coastal belt lying between the Clenelg River in Victoria 
and Kingston in South Australia is portion of an extensive plain 
that forms much of the south-eastern part of the State of South 
Australia. Its chief physiographic features are several vulcanic 
Crater^, among them being Mt. Gambier and Mt. Schank, standing 
.some five or six hundred feet above the plain, and a series of dune 
ranges that run parallel to each other and to the coast, particularly 
pronounced to the north of Milliccnt. They are seldom more 
than one hundred feet above the general level and arc frequently 
indurated. 

"The ranges are generally recognized/' states R. L. Crocker, 
"as representing old coastal dunes or dune remnants connected 
with successive stages in the retreat of the sea in late Pleistocene 
or recent geological times." The Rev. J. E. Woods (1862) 
described the district as remarkably level and only slightly raised 
above sea levef, much of it occupied by extensive swamps and 
morasses, with grassy plains and heath country, also immense 
sandy tracts supporting no grass, with belt$ of short and crooked 
stringy bark and some minor elevations. Ridges or low ranges 
of bills with limestone cropping out (indurated dunes) and ridges 
of sand, the former always well grassed and not thickly timbered. 

The vegetation, he states, comprised Casuarinn, Hurmriu, Bank- 
sic. Eucalyptus and Acacia, and much Pterte (bracken). The 
sandy ridges were generally thickly timbered. 

The abundance of surface water is; accounted for by the flatness 
of the low-lying parts and the absence of watercourses. Much 
of this water could only find its way underground by slow 
infiltration through the soft rock beneath. Lake Bonncy and the 
Dismal Swamp are two of these large swamps, the former extend- 
ing $ome 30 miles to the north-west, with an outlet to the sea at 
Carpenters Rocks. 

The observations of Woods are interesting and indicate very 
favourable conditions for a former aboriginal population. This is 
borne out by the profusion of the stone relics found on their old 
camping places, usually situated on the crests and flanks of dune 
ridges, from which the sandy capping has been removed by wind 
action (and locally known as "drifts"). These sites were then 
dry, sheltered spots, with abundant water and food supplies in die 
vicinity. Settlement has since greatly changed the appearance of 
the country, which is now carrying prosperous fanning com- 
munities. 



-60 S/R. MtTtimLy6i-.tf0tf.jJ tfftf Etlwolotiy of Kohfnimntj Wlis- {" yd/Ex* 

* Much 'of this coastal t>elt is underlain by a white •limestone of 
Miocene Age, consisting mainly of fragment^ material derived 
from bryo*oa, corals, foraminiiera and other -marine organism^ )t 
i* used locally us a building stone, and -being comparatively soft. 
Can be sawn into blocks, which on exposure harden into durable 
cnnsrructional material. 

The ridges of consolidated dune sand are highly calcareous and 
are now quite hard. The sandy capping* result from the leaching 
ouf of the calcium carbonate, leaving the quartz grains as loose 
.sand; Freshly exposed surfaces of these ridges show a remarkable 
sencs of pillars and pinnacles that vary in height from 6 inches 
to 2 feet or more and from 4 inches to 15 incites in diameter. 
These pillars anc very characteristic of the older and harder lime- 
stones. In this ca.se sand has protected the limestone -from the 
denuding agencies without retarding the solvent effect of .the 
nun water which ha.s carried away the limestone between (he 

pillars. 

Associated with the tertiary -limestone is a somewhat poor 
quality flint in masses' of irregular shape, tabular sheets two- 
or three inches fq thickness, and nodules, -usually occurring 
immediately above more or less impervious beds, and on different 
horizons This flint is black, or of various shades of grey, 
buff, or brown. H breaks with ;i well-markerj conchoidal fracture* 
but the fresh surfaces are usually dull, unlike the better quality 
flint, of the- Old World. 

The presence of fetvmaDts of marine organisms indicates -its 
origin as a*, molecular replacement of portions; of die limestone by 
solutions, whereby the calcium carbonate has been dissolved, 
simultaneously with the precipitation of silica in a crypto-rrystalline 
, state. It is known that iome sponges, foraminifcra and djatonc are- 
composed largely of silica which is readily soluble la alkaline 
water Whether this chemical reaction look place during the 
formation of the limestone, where it would he subjected to pressure 
and possibly a rise in temperature, or subsequent to iis elevation,. 
is an interesting speculation. 

The denudation of the limestone has freed some of the flint 
.which noyv lies on the surface wherever it-is not masked by later 
deposits. Wide marine platforms that are exposed at low fide and 
the large quantities -of flint in the coastal shingly piled up by wave 
action indicate the seaward ..extension of this formation. Some -old 
-shingles also extend inland, providing further evidence of a com- 
paratively recent change of sea levels .Both the surface flint -and 
that from, the shingles show much surface alteration in the form 
.of a, brown tsh-grey or >vhite crust or, cortex. 

A visit to rhe Kongorong Hills, south-west of Mt GainWer. was 



TMK VKTOKI \\ \'ATL'KAUST 



Vim., i.x 



A\u?)tst t l'>-U 



Pi. .\-ii-. IV 




shuwing liiiK-stoin. |h!I,Ytv 



♦•f*c 



Typical iliui ;iriif;ifts inmi the Konunroii.ii area. 
Ph.tut-. : S. R. Mitchell. 



wtjJ 5* K Mitchell, (fcpfdfij iW VJimvhffy nj Kon^/tony Ijilfa fi[ 

made for the purpose of investigating some of the camping places 
and hrtifacts of the aboriginals. Seven sties were examined and a 
large number of implements collected. Their abundance in this 
district may be accounted for by the large quantities of flint 
available, and the ease with which suitable flakes could be produced;* 
The outstanding characteristics of the artifacts is the absence of 
any ronvenrionalized types No attempt harj been made to produce" 
any particular form of flake, the principal objective being a flat, 
Or slightly concave, or even a convex surface on which a cutting, 
scraping or hawing edge could he formed by percussion nr pressure 
flaking. The shape, thickness or sue of the Hake or piece of flint 
selected was immaterial, some well-worked or used implements 
being made from very rough or even cavernous flinl, others from 
thick, massive pieces giving rise to high-keeled or horse«hoo1 types.' 

Of 240 specimens examined, 55% retained more or less of the 
■original brownish crust similar to that on the flint lying about in 
the vicinity and were the first flakes struck from the core. 
Apparently little or no flint was obtained from the coastal 
shingles, which invariably has a wlute cortex. AH at these camp.S 
arc at least five miles inland. The small amount of debris, small 
flakes and chips, and the few hammer stones and cores present 
^voulrX indicate that otify usable flakes were taken to the camps. 

Almost every conceivable shape of implement is to he found. 
Some show little use: others have working edge on much of 
the margin- Implements approximately circular, semi -circular or 
<oval are common; others have the effective edge on one or both 
sides, owe end, or on the sides and end ; some have concave notches 
(7 8% ) suitable for scraping round objects and some have 
projecting points, together with a large proportion of crude 
asymmetrical types. It would appear that in most cases the final 
shape largely depended on the original shape of the flake or lump, 
and the amount of re-edging given it during use. 

One interesting find consisted of 15 pieces tyirig within a radius 
of 2 feet, five of these having bam struck from one banded type 
•of flint and six from another. Eight were flakes only, showing no 
.signs of usage and are obviously blanks, the largest measuring 
-5*2 X 3*2 inches. The others show more or less u.se as scrapers 

Another set consisted of 11 artifacts, found within ,i radius of 
A feet, seven having one or more wcll-defmed concave or hollow 
notches for scraping round objects From their proximity to 
each other and the similarity in material, it can be assumed in 
each case that the one artisan made and used them ftn* a similar, 
purpose. 

The majority -of the artifacts found in this locality sliuw mote 
or Jess alteration in the form of a friable crust which may "extend 



<il A H. Cuiskolm, Owen Stanley in Australia \ Vrt. IS 

nearly or quite into the centre. They are usually buff in colour 
through staining by iron oxide, and have a pronounced glossy, 
surface. Chemical analysis proves this crust to be largely silica. 
Long exposure to weather and water containing solvents has 
caused the removal of varying amounts of silica, which may be as 
much as 40% of the original crust. This chemical change has been 
accelerated by the slightly porous nature of the flint, and is probably 
much more rapid than is generally considered. 

Only two o( the larger implements of ftint flaked on two sides 
were found, and one l>adly-weathered ground-edged axe of basalt. 
The former type is very common on some of (he coastal dunes in 
Victoria, together with a coup de poivg type and it is possible that 
many of those described ai choppers should be classed as blanks 
or cores, the purpose of the flaking being to ascertain whether the 
internal flint was suitable, and reserved for future use. 

RtcFKRFKCRS 
Rev, Julian Edmund Woods: Geological Observations in South Australia. 
1862. 

R„ J-w Crocker i "Notes on the* Geology and Physiography of South-east 
of South Australia," '/>tw. Royal Society of S. Anst. t Vol. 65, Fu L" 



OWEN STANLEY IN AUSTRALIA 
By A. H. Ch isholm 

The most important mountains in the Pacific War at present 
are the towering heights of the Oweu Stanley Range, our main 
defence line in Papua. Yet few penple know anything of the 
man after whom they were named — a distinguished figure in the 
Australia of his day, whose grave ts in this country. 

Owen Stanley was a bright youngster in England in the early' 
part of last century. Eldest son of the Right Rev. Edward 
Stanley, Bishop of Norwich, and Catherine, daughter of the Rev. 
Oswald Leycesler, he might easily have become a country parson/ 
Rut the sea was in the boy's blood and at the age of 13 he cntcitd 
a naval college. At 18 he was a midshipman voyaging to South/ 
America, and at 19 he was with Captaut P. P. King (afterwards 
famous in Australia) surveying the Straits of Magellan. What 
better beginning than that could any sea-minded lad have desired? 

During the early 1830*5 Stanley served on a number of ships, 
mainly in the Mediterranean, and notably with a man who after- 
wards became Lieutenant-Governor of Tasmania and a famous 
Arctic explorer, namely, Sir John Franklin. Stanley, too, had* 
a taste of the Arctic; he was there in 1836-7 as lieutenant in 
charge of astronomical md magnetics! observation? aboard H.MS. 
Terror, That experience was to have a curious repercussion in. 
Ait-strafe years Jater, 



'HE VICTORIAX XATURAUST 

Plaik Y 



V*J].. L\ 



,1it(fiisf l 1043 




■ •I Hum Mastlci in Si. Hunim**- LVtiMvrj 
Vnrtti Sydncj 



1 K V 1 1 1' ■! > imhI, 



t*43 J -* **' C|hstt«(pft Onvn Siaufcy w /T»a/ra/ii? 63 

Australia first knew Owen Stanley in \S3S t when, as com- 
mander of H.M.S. BritofHart (and aged only 27) tie assisted to 
establish at Port Essingtou, north-east o£ Darwin, the settlement 
of Victoria, which afterwards became known as the capital of 
North Australia. That visit was the beginning of a long* associa- 
tion of Stanley with this country. In various vessels, particularly 
H.M,S. Rattlesnake, he did a considerable amount of valuable 
work in surveying the waters of North Australia and New Guinea 

During his northern wanderings Stanley frequently returned to 
the little settlement on Port Essington. He was there, for 
example, in August. 1839 — just 103 years ago — and showed his 
resource by organizing and stage-managing the first performance 
of the drama in North Australia, with hardy marines in the female 
parts. The name of the play is not recorded, but the performance 
was based upon a book that had "already performed a voyage to 
the North Pole" (presumably with Stanley), and the scenery was 
painted by Stanley himself with what a chronicler of the day 
termed "earths of the country. 4 ' 

The versatile young officer had, in feet, distinct ability as an 
artist. Between intervals of marine surveying he painted many 
scenic pictures, and a considerable number of these are now in the 
Mitchell Library, Sydney. Showing as they do aspects of early 
Australia, they are a record of historical features. 

Meanwhile, loo, Captain Stanley became well-known as an 
astronomer and general scientist, and he rendered most valuable 
service to John Gould and John Gilbert in their work on the 
birds of Australia. Stanley and Gilbert met at Sydney in 1840, 
when the captain offered to take the bird-man to New Zealand on 
the Britomcri. 

This, then, was the accomplished Englishman in whose honour 
the great bastion of Papua (and fater also a mountain in North 
Queensland) received the name, of Owen Stanley, 

Jn December of 1849 the officers of the Ratih'srtafce examined 
lite Owen Stanley Range. They found the highest peak, Mount 
Owen Stanley, to be 13,205 feet. 

Tragedy developed a few months later. The Rattlesnake 
returned to Sydney and there, on March 13, 1850, Owen Stanley 
died on board his vessel. He was only 38 years of age, hut he 
was worn out by the effects of tropical fevers and by the heavy 
work and responsibility he had shouldered 3s a track-blazer in 
northern waters, Also, he had been stricken by the news of the 
death of his father and his brother. 

Captain Stanley was buried by the Rev. W B. Clarke, in the 
presence of 400 sailors and a large number of civilians, at old 
St Thomas's Cemetery, North Sydney. Ilis grave has fang been 
neglected. It should be a public possession. 



£4 BtftiHB Coumax, Pftj SwariMny of tltr Swaltozvs L Vui. lx 

THE SWARAJ ING OF THE SWALLOWS 

For tnany years, a roed-f ringed lake at ~R lack-bum has afrorded- an 
exceptional Cbstlioe to watch the autumn flocking "of *wallmvs Pot .some 
week* before their northern 'flight ihcy uaihev at Ihc la Ice in Isie afternoon, 
hawk over the wafer fr«r about 20 minutes, an<l eiUei the reed*he<k at 
rundown 

To witness their iirsl morning flight, one MBtt reach the lata before 
•dawn. In typical autumn weather one can just discern the trees, all motion- 
Jess, darkly mirrored in still, brown walcr. Although we know dm the 
swallows arc among them, not a reed stir* until dawn, when t|)& whole 
flock stream* out and up, to where the sky h jusi growing light, They are 
OUt of sight for five minutes or so, when they "become visible agaoi, ihen 
descend n titrlp, before fly in i? off in a south-westerly direction — returniufi 
to the. reeds lust before sundown. It .teems very wonderful that entering 
the reed* fcrul their greeting to the <,uti are so accurately timed, although nut 
more so- than other deeds In their chequered lives. 

For tc* years a small band has roosted, from early in March, on. six 
msulatrrl wire* under the verandah of & Blackburn shop* They arc still 
there [35), and will probably remain through the winter, ft has liecn 
ititerestru£r to note how accurately they are .spaced, like vertical line 1 ; in a 
piece ot brickwork, one line facing east and one west, so that no droppings 
fait oii the lower bird?, Df« Q'Shau^hnessy told me to-day (June 15) of a 
baud of 175 which have ronsu-d under a Ulydale verandah for three years, 
■probably longer. The Olwla OeeV h near, and there is n> one so often 
notes, an area of low-lying, treeless, sedgy land which offers oniroprded 
hawking space. 

During the first two weeks in December, 1942. a flock of about 50 
$ w«t1 Tows visited my y<trdeu. They flew in and out of the tops of some 
stlverleai stringybark trees which ^ruW in the fowlyard. It was beautiful 
*o watch their aerial manoeuvres ns they probably disturbed good insect-food 
in flying through (jenderrt branches. We v-ere puzzltd to know why, for 
two week?, the fowls would suddenly run from the sunny end of their 
^ncfosure to the shady tad, which they had never favoured except in 
extremely hot weather. Thc-v would remain there for hours as if greatly 
alarmed. Egt -Jaywg dropped off sadly. We could flat trace the cause 
until f !tood quietly in the yard and noticed the beautiful pattern of . 
*wift-darting shadow* Ike swallrnvs were weaving" on the ground 
Evidently these shadows suggested hawks. The swallow* loft H? on December 

Recently F came upon the following note on swallows and j>out!ry iff 
Wichelol"? TUc Bird, published in IS56: "They have less cause ihati any 
others to dread the hearts of prey, from their lightness of wing,; and Ihcy 
arc the ftrr-t to warn poultry-coup* of their appearance. Hei\ and pigeon 
cower and seek an asylum as soon as they h<ar the swallows' Mgnal notes." 
is it tht shadow Of the signal note that frightens the fowls? 

Edit* Coi>:m*n 
* A SPIDER'S TRICK 

G. If, Eastos*, of 'J'onrak, sayr- that, while in the garden a few evenings 
iinee, he noticed a large Mack spider lowering- it3elf from a hlftjb hrmidi by 
a single thread. After droppi;i£ thuv some distance :t cast oif a second 
thread to a side branch, and then remained suspended and perfectly still- 
When a small molh fame fltttine near, the spider either cut or cast awsy 
the side stay and Swung oxtr just in time to iotctcept and crach the moth, 
which it ate. This was repeated and never failed u t qafrh the moth or fly.— 
(The Atffter, Melbonrne.) 



The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol- LX-— Ni*. j . September 8, 1943 No - 7«7 

PROCEEDINGS 

The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall' on August % 1943. The President (Mr. P. F. 
Morris) presided and about 90 members and friends attended 

It was announced that Mr. A. F. Fullard, a member of over 40 
years' standing, had passed away, and members stood in silence 
as a mark of respect. 

"BRAINS TRUST," No. 2 

The subject for the evening was "The Brains Trust/' Pail 2, 
with leaders and subjects as follows: General Zoology, Mr. P. 
Crosbie Morrison; Ornithology, Mr. A. H. Chisholm; Bolany, 
Mr. P. F. Morris. 

Question ]. To Mr. Morrison; "What is Atwspides tastnani- 
ensis? Is it an insect, -in animal or a crustacean, and why all the 
fuss about it anyway?" Answer: A freshwater crustacean of 
unique character, and the only living form of permo-carbonifenws 
fossil types. Habitat: The mountain pools of Mt. Wellington, 
Tasmania, with a decided preference for the ice-water pool*. 
Comment: Mr, F. S- ColHver stated that a fossil of the same 
genus is recorded from the Triassic deposits of Brookvale, N.S.W, 

Question 2 To Mr. Chisholm ; ''How many kinds of Bower- 
birds are there in New Guinea, and are they in general the same 
U$ those of Australia?" Anstver: New Guinea is now known to 
have nine species of Bower-birds, as against eight in Australia. 
Only one species is shared by the two countries. Some of the 
New Guinea species, such as the Gardener Bower-bird {Am- 
biyornis) build very distinctive bowers, but the habits of some 
others are not yet known Comment: Mr. P. F. Morris stated 
that a Satin Bower-bird had on one occasion built a bower in 
the Botanical Gardens and had decorated it with paper streamers 
discarded after a Boat Race day. There were also fragments of 
blue glass and a number of aluminium milk-bottle tops. 

Question 3. To Mr Morris "1 have read that the group of 
Euphorbias has members ranging from plants 2 inches high to 
trees 40 feet high. Is this correct, and if so, why are all these 
plants lumped together?" Answer: The statement is entirely 
correct, and 1 would go one belter anrj say that the range in site 



66 Fish? Naturalists' Club Proceedings [ v .^ ' t,x 

i&iromE. cWeifolia'oi France to E: Winkhri m Africa; the first 
beings a delicate little herb of about 1 inch high and the other a 
huge cactus-like growth of 90 feet. The reasons for (he lumping 
together of such apparently diverse plants is that their respective 
fruits and flowers are very closely related in structure. Comment: 
Miss J- W. Baff asked if the Poim.cttia was a Euphorbia-. Answer: 
Yes Mt Fisch asked if Lhc faintly were represented in Australia, 
Answer. Yes. hy many species, 

Question 4. Tu Mr. Chisholm: "Could we have a list of birds 
(hat arc named 'after human occupations, together with notes on 
why they bear such names?" An.x?vrr* Such a list would incfude 
the Miner (Soldier-bird), Scissors-Grinder, Tailor-Bird, Police- 
man-bird (JahiuO? Auctioneer-bird (Logruriner), Carpenter-bird 
(Nightjar), Butcher-bird, etc. (Reasons behind the names were 
also given.) 

Question 5. To Mr. Morrison : "'Why are the Australian 
animals regarded as being primitive?' 7 Answer: Because in the 
case of the Monotremes there is the reptilian character of Maying 
eggs, and in the case of the Marsupials the production of very 
immature young that are suckled in a pouch for some months 
before they are able to fend for themselves. 

Question 6. To Mr. Morrison; "Have kangaroos ever given 
birth to more than one young at a time?" Answer: No record of 
this, but if it ever did happen only one oould live, as there is only 
one functional teat within the jxiuclt. 

Question 7 To Mr. Chisholm; "How many kinds of Aus- 
tralian birds are. known to nest in association with each uther, 
and is it for mutual protection r*' Aiunver:. The following can he 
listed: "Wagtails and Mudlarks, 'Man u'codes and Black Butcher-* 
birds, Mopokes and Grey Botchei -birds, Yellow-tailed Tits and 
Magpies. In some cases (as of the Manucode seeking the 
butcher-bird's company) it is for protection; in other cases the 
reason is doubtful, 

GENERAL BUSINESS 

Mr, P. F Morris reported on the excursions to the National 
Museum for the subjects Anthropology. Conchobgy and Orni- 
thology. - . _' . " 

The; liollo wing were duly elected* as Ordinary Member.? of the 
Club: Mr. and Mrs ), Pinches. Miss J, R. Cummin, Messrs. 
L.* P* Kichardson, F. J. Sullivan, R. JVtew, J E, Jewell; and a* 
Country Member, Mr. R. S. Bellinger. 



imj ] * f XKET w R* r,r ' 0* '*• S«WHt»£ of Statist Sp 67 

ON THE SWARMING OF^C^rOPSfi Sf>. <DIPTERA) 
By Janet W. Raff, Melbourne ' 

The purpose of this paper is to record the occurrence of swarms 
of blackish midges {Scatopse sp.) found clustering on trees and 
shrubs at Croydon, Victoria, in the autumn of 1942 and 1943 on 
almost coincident dates. ... 

On 24tb April, 1942. Mr. T. S. Hart observed at Croydon 
swarms that had settled on branches of Acuc-in vcrticilhta- in a 
grassy paddock. He did not know how long they had been there. 
He forwarded specimens to mc» together with some field notes^ 
from which I have copied the following: 'Thin branches were 
bending down -under, their weight, and about 10 feet in total 
length of several twigs was occupied, clusters of flies frequently 
falling off/ 1 

3 have to thank Mr. Hart for drawing: my attention to these 
swarms — a really remarkable sight as I saw them a few days 
later. The tips of (he branches were still bearing clumps of 
flies, giving 'the appearance of small blackish mops. * * 

It may be : of interest to quote Mr. Hart's description of the 
situation of the swarming; "a grassy -paddock lightly umbered in 
parts with various Encalypts, and some Quiuwino and Exocarpns; 
remaining shrubs mainly Bursaria and Ataci® verticilkxtQ., On* 
Acacia veniattata heavily loaded with insects, anothej more 
moderately, others in the same patch apparently free from these 
insects" The- paddock is moderately grazed by a few dairy 
cattle .'/• ' ' 

Swarms were noted also at another spot in the vicinity, namely, 
"on the edge of open grassland and near cultivation (oats, maize 
and potatoes). . The. flies had settled on branches of a Peppermint 
(Eucalyptus australmnd), ^antj also on tea-tree (Leptospenmirtl 
scoparium)"' The swarms were still to be seen some ten days 
later, though, owing to heavy rains, they had apparently been 
broken up to some extent &nd had reassembled; in smaller masses* 1 

This year swarming has again occurred at approximately -the 
same time, Mr, 'Hart informing me in a letter dated 21st April, 
1943, that he had. seen clusters a few days previously in the same 
two" places as the 1942 swarms, on Acacia verticillala, on soiiie 
rushes nearby, and ran other plants- ■ * r - f» - '. ."-• p 

The family Sxotopsida'c'is a. small group of minute blackish flies, 
included by some workers in the family . Bibmiidae.-- .Although 
they are classed along with midges, their bodies are. more Ihick-^et 
than "the better-known of the nudges." Their larvae are < said -to 
live in damp soit feeding and breeding in great numbers -ill 
decaying organic matter. •",,-•*— *"-J -- « - J * *"• r - fct 



68 jANfcf W- Rapf, On the Swmining of ScaJcpsc Sp, \ yff, ^ 

( The Croydon swarms had probably developed in manure and 
genera! decaying matter in or near the paddock cited 

Further instances of this autumn swarming o£ midges in Victoria 
are suggested by the following*: 

(») A report of warms seen in Croydon in 1940, simitar to those o< 
1942 and |MJ. 

(b) A large rna&s of Scatopse sp, (about a cupful), was forwarded to 
the University on 3 1st March, 192$, from Montrose, where swarming was 
seen;, the bpecimens were taken by Mrs_ Donald Thomson from a large 
cluster on "Tree Lucerne." 

- (c) In a report of a Field Naturalists* Club excursion to the Bass Valley 
during Easier, ]<>11 (about April 16th), Mr. E, Brooke NirlmlkO) notes 
that "an interesting feature .... was the findrng of an *ivy' bush, in Hower. 
$warmin£ in parts with small flying bisects (midges). So thick were 
these that at a short distance parts of the green ivy appeared blue-black in 
colour. A leaf two or three square inches in area accommodated hundreds 
of ihc insects. When disturbed by throwing a stick into the bush, they 
(ell off in a cloud 8s thick as smoke." (The blue-black colour of the 
midges suggests ScJtafise.) 

'. Numerous references to ily swarms are to be found in literature, 
and although those dealing with the Scajtopsid-like midges refer 
mostly to spring (not autumn) swarming, it may be of interest 
to quote some of these cases. 

Foster" 1 records swarms of Smtapse atrata occuiring in the 
spring of 1932 in Georgia, U.S.A. These lasted for several days, 
the insects issuing in countless numbers from between corner 
boards of a dwelling house, and were pairing during flight This 
species is one commonly found in Georgia, on the inside of 
windows, especially in basements. 

In the spring of 1901 swarms of Bibio JralerttHf on pastures at 
Lake Forest, Illinois* U.S.A., were described by NeedhanK* 8 * 
Countless numbers were flying in sheltered places in the woods* 
or climbing* on blue grass panides, or resting in. pairs on leaves. 
. Professor Herbert Qs.hnrn U) wrote that in the spring oi 
1891 the white-winged Bibio {Bibio at-bipenni?) was present in 
phenomenal numbers in Iowa, U.S.A., and was attracting attcn* 
tion far and wide. 

Barnes**! refers to an autumn swarm reported. by Douglas aft 
an "all female swarm of Dihphus vulgaris (spinatus Wlk.), a 
Bibionid, on the schooner Topsy on 2nd September, 1880, about 
a cable's length from the Norfolk coast. He reported that they 
were thrown overboard by the shovelful." 

The phenomenon of swarming is indeed a remarkable one, and 
m the case of our local autumn swarms, one wonders wbettacr 
the flies will be capable r>f hibernating over the winter in sheltered 
places, to emerge for egg-laying in tie spring. In this regard it 
is of interest to note that Skuse/*' referring to the spedes 



IMS*] *. Jant-t W. Rafp, On the Sw&rmwst ■>/ Statvps* Sfr 69; 

Sca4opse fenestrates in New South Waltis, -says that II fe very 

abundant in September and October, and that "in the spring 

months it is scarcely possible ta find a window without one or 

two specimens." He had frequently seen hundreds swarming on 

the inside of shop windows in Sydney. 

I'am indebted to Mr. T. G. Campbell, of the Division 'of 

Economic Entomology, Council for Scientific and Industrial 

Research, Canberra, for examining* the Croydon specimens. Hc : 

notes that though they resemble Scatopse jcnestoalis Skuse, they 

differ on some characteristics. 

~, 
• Refebbnces • . 

h Nicholls* E. ft, Victorim Wvtttmh'st, vol ZZ t 1911, p. 151, 

2- Fo&tcr f J, G„ k-n-tonwloguai News (Philadelphia), vol 44, No, 5, 1933, 

p. 136, . 
& Ncedham, J. G.. Ajntncon- Nvtwafist, "vol. 36, 1902, \k ldU , i . 

4. Osboni, H-, Insert Life, vol- 3, Ifi !, p. 479. 
5." Etarocft, H. F., lint ow<> to gists' Monthly Maqasitw (London), vol. 69, 

1933, p. 230. 
6, Skusc. F. A. A., Proceedings Limem Satiety. NSW., 2nd Scr., vol. J, 
' 1888,-y. 1385. 

EXIUBTTS AT AUGUST MEETING 

Mrs. J. J. Freame : A small senes of bird skins. 

Mr. H. P. Dickms:, Yellow form of fiunksip. c.ollina from Gembrook. . 

Mr Ivo C Ilammet : Garden-grown native plants, including GrcvilUa 
laimidulact'a>e 3 G. linearis, G. alpma, G. oleaides S'hohcio oligandra, Brtos* 
temon gracilis, , E. oboiwtts, Diplolaenu grmuitfiora, //wvo lance ottiiJ. 
Tetnpletonia retiwa, Micrt'trcyrhus cit*aiwi, > - ; 

Mr 1\ S. Hart; E'Malyptus- yav>gooya (Melbourne form of B. cn$cm* 
oides). the white stringy-bark ; part (an labelled) from a tree identified by 
Blackely; Ioc, Croydon,- Vic. E. imcrorhynchd (Red Strn'tgy-bark) old 
and young fruits; Ioc,, Croydon, Mwhlviibeekiti- Cmninghaimi (Tangled 
Lignum) grown from a piece roptcd in water; collected at Kororoit Creek, 
Sunshine. .,,.„*. 

: Mr. O. P. Singleton {on behaU ot the _ Geological Museum, Melbourne' 
University) : Geote:t4his ltoU.cn.si.Kj a <\*phaiopod from life Lower Jurassic 
of Metzingen, Wurtemhurg, Germany, showing the ink-bag in position. ' 

•Mr. -F. .5.. Colliver and Mr, O. P. Singleton: A series of Australian 
Tertiary CcphaJupods. including, new species from the Eocene of Pebble. 
Point, near Princetown, Victoria. A series ui Aht-ria. uitstratis, two speci- 
mens of which show colour bnnfiinx, n rare feature in fossils; ' Nautilus • 
Species irom the Eocene "and other Victorian Tertiary deposits; and, two 
specimens of the rare Cuttlefish, .N'otosepia eltftOMcnsU- 

• ■ ' y ■ .■ ♦' > 

NA'l'U&AL HISTORY MEUALLlON 1 », 
Major H. W/* Wilson, for many year* ■■lecturer in nature study at the 
Teacher?' Training College. Melbourne, a iounderr of the i GoukJ League, 
ol Bird Lovers/ and a former chemical adviser on gas to-'tiie A.I.F./na* 
heen awarded the Aufelraliau Natural History Medallion for I942. The 
presentation- will be made at it meeting of the field Naturalists' Club* on 
September 13, • ■ * ■ . t 



70 E. M. Wfcftj, Tt\c Little Mountain [VtttX 

,THE UTTLE MOUNTAINS 

.• By E. M. Wedb, Melbourne 

» * * ■ 

,. I suppose psychologists would find it easy to diagnose a man 
with a passion for climbing hills. Anyway, 1 make ltd apology 
for the habit, although I have not lieen able to indulge it lately. 

The snowclad mountain leaves me cold. It ts too high and 
aloof, and when you get to the top all you can see usually is the 
tops of a lot of other hills. The little mountains are different. 
They are close and intimate and friendly. From .their summits 
you can see life going on all round you — the little farms, the 
patches of crop, the courses of rivers, the bits of forest, and the 
winding roads. You are still in the world of man although not 
of it. 

It is possible to feel friendly towards mountains, and the first 
friend I made was Mount Korong. He stands nobly near the 
roadside between Inglewood and Wedderburn^not very high 
(about 1,400 feet), but truly massive, dignified and old. 

1 have climbed him twice and passed him dozens of times. Even 
when I am past, 1 must turn for one more look. He is an old 
granitic tor, worn down by millions of years of buffeting by wind 
and rain. From his top you can see the remains of the friend* of 
his youth, little stumps of granite hills like the worn-down teeth 
of an ancient animal. They, too, were mountains in the dim past. 

There is something thrilling about the huge granite boulders 
that stand DO the topi and sides of old Korong. They are immense. 
imperturbable end time-defying. They inspire the thought that 
man is little and the universe great. 

Once, in the early afternoon, I drove past old Korong. There 
had been a shower of rain, followed by bright sunshine. The 
rocks on the mountain were wet and they reflected back the 
sunshine from a thousand places. It was a beautiful and dazzling 
sight, like reflections from the windows of a great city built on 
the trill- 
Major Mitchel?, in his explorations of 18.36, turned his 
theodolite on Mount Korong from Pyramid Hill and subsequently 
steered in that direction. When he readied the base he climbed 
it. (Mitchell, too, was fond of climbing hills.) 

Pyramid Hill, in the Loddon Valley, is another fascinating 
old tor. Travelling up from Bndgcwater to Kerang you see it 
rising out of the great plain like a veritable tomtb of Cheops It 
stands practically alone and if you are allergic to hills you cannot 
take your eyes from it. I took the first opportunity to inspect 
and climb it and have since scaled its pointed top a second time. 

To my amateurish eye the granite looks very old .and worn, and 
the geologists agree that it is very, very old Mitchell stood on 



JjJJ*] 1L M. Werij. ?/^ tfcft Momtttwu 71 

the tup of it like a Moses -surveying" the Promised Land and waxed 
lyrical on the beauty of the scene below. 

The most beautiful mountain of all, when seen from the proper 
angle, is Mount Napier, about eight miles south of Hamilton. It 
is an old volcano with a deep crater and alternating steep and 
sloping sides, I had .seen its top often, but it was not until 1 came 
on it from the south that 1 realized how truly lovely it was. 

Coming up from Portland towards Hamilton, you strike cast 
at Myamyn to pick up the Macarthur-Hamilton road. On the 
way Mount Napier presents itself, a perfect thing el misty blue, 
rising symmetrically out of the Milestone plain with gently sloping 
sides leading up to the concave top which indicates the crater, 

As you draw nearer the blue changes to a vivid green, far the 
.slopes arc studded with trees. I made a detour to reach it and 
presently, after a fairly easy climb, Wag on the top- Indications 
of its last lava flow can be picked out along- one of Hie creeks. 

One morning early I jacked a friend in the car and drove tip 
to Castlemaine for breakfast. Alter wards we went on hi Maldou 
and drove to the top of Mount Tarraugower. Old poppet legs 
provide a lookout up there and the sight is more than worth the 
effort. The rocks are mecarnorphic (hornfels) and much more' 
resistant than the suri*ounding granite, 

Then the car took us lo Smeaton on the liallarat plateau 
and presently we were climbing up the steep slopes of Mount 
Kooroocheang. a massive lava heap overlooking the ancient home 
of Captain John Hepburn, who settled in its shadow in the late 
thirties or early forties. There is a monument to Captain John 
M the top andi a grand view of the fertile plateau. 

Down below we could see Captain John's nn«*. old bluestone 
"house and near it his private cemetery, where his hones and those 
of some of his family are laid. On Kooroochcang I picked up a 
pretty sample of a volcanic bomb. 

Just across the way from Kooroocheang, so to speak, is Mount 
Beckwith, a handsome hill from a distance but obviously not 
volcanic. Beckwith is just outside Gunes and 1 had been wanting 
to climb it for some time, but getting to the base by car was not 
easy. Finally we left the bus at a farmhouse and walked what 
seemed to be miles. 

It was a. Steep climb and the day was hut. We scrambled up 
mostly on hands and knees and walked along the ridge to the 
top/ where my companion took off his clothes and wrung the 
perspiration from them. Nudity was safe enough there, but \ 
don't want to put ideas into anybody's head about starting a 
nudist club on old Beckwith ! 



It E. M, Webb, 7V Little Mwttoivr ['$£ 



NjO. 



The rocks are granitic, with pink felspar in them — at least those 
of the trigonometrical station were— and I brought away a sample. 
There must be an easier approach to Beckwith ; I will find it some 
day. 

Then on to Ballarat to drive to the top of volcanic Mount 
Biminyong, the highest above *he. sea of all <hese hifls. The 
lookout there is necessary to get you above the treetops. After, 
that— home in the dark. 

I must not omit referring to what 1 call the smallest mountain 
in the world. Mount Wycheproof is the Mailer's one mountain, 
although it only stands about 300 feet above sea-level and is hard 
to see from anywhere. It also is granitic On its top is a tail 
pole carrying an electric light, put there as a beacon lo travellers 
by a kindly shire council. There are no problems in climbing 
Mount Wycheproof. You just stroll along and are there. 

Mounts Noorat and Leuna m the Western District are worth 
a look. The former has a road to the top. When I climbed 
Noorat a bull eyed me contemplatively as I crossed a paddock, so 
I climbed quickly, 

I mustn't miss out the You Yangs, These, too, are noble old 
hills. On the top of Flinders Peak (originally called Station 
PeakJ you stand alongside the ghost of thai g<eat little man 
Captain Matthew Flinders, who was up there in 1802 having a 
look round. He buried there a cylinder containing a record of 
his visit, but I liavcr heard of anybody finding it. The You Yangs 
arc granitic and are reminiscent of Mount Korong in shape. 

Granite always confers nobility. A favourite exit, of mine 
from Melbourne is over the Lancefield Pass to Tooborac (the 
old-timers wrote it Toobouric). The way lies high up over a 
vast granitic plateau that I have christened "The Grey Country." 
Tt H windswept, and even in spring has always a touch of greyish 
sadness conferred by great boulders and little rocks. To me it 
is exquisitely beautiful and I never tire of passing through it. 

1 nearly missed Mount Arapiles, that whale-like outlier of the 
Grampians, which lumbers out of the Wimmury plain* and is a 
sight to make you gasp when you first see it. You can drive 
up to the top. 

Out.sidc the northern (ace of the Grampians are the remnants 
01 what appears to me to be a very much older range Chief of 
these old hilts is Mount Dry den, which I have climbed, although 
that is no feat because it is worn down by the strife of many 
millions of years. Its rocks (dioiite) are so lough that no 
stonecrusher will look at them. These old hills secrn to me to be 
far more interesting than the Grampians themselves 

There are many more little mountains hi western Victoria that 
I hope to dirnh some day when thi* pestilential weir is over. 



fjjft] £ C, Tom,e, Quarries Used by Abori#w?s 3tt 

QUARRIES USED EY THE ABORIGINES OF'THE 
PAROO RIVER, N.S.W ( 
By C. C. Towle, Eastwood. N.S.W. 

During the month of May,, 1953. I spent several days on 
Tillenbury Station, which is situated on the channel of the Paroo 
River, about 25 miles north of Wilcannia. I had already done' 
considerable collecting of stone artifacts in the vicinity of Wil- 
cannia, including Lake Woytchugga, and had also been about 35 
miles north of Tillenbury in the vicinity of Lake Peery. 

At Tillenbury the stone artifacts were generally similar to 
those found in the areas to the north and to the south Some 
slight but significant variations m the flakework were due to 
certain local conditions, which will be mentioned in this paper- 
After traversing a great part of Tillenbury, especially that part 
near the channel of the Paroo, 1 noted that flakes, core-like* 
implements, cores, and mill stones were lying everywhere in 
abundance. It was evident that the aborigines had had ready 
access to plentiful supplies of materials. 

Qmrtztte Quarry jor Flakes, etc. 

For making flaked stone implements, quartette was used by 
the aborigines in every part of north-western New South Wales. 
Jn texture it varied from fine-grained to coarse-grained. The 
fine-grained material which was found in many arfcas, was 
sufficiently homogeneous to enable the aborigines to produce a 
proportion of finely chipped implements., including the more con- 
ventionalized types, such as the pirries, the crescents and the 
adzes (a hafted type). The coarse-grained materials were much 
more widespread. Of them, some of the coarser-grained and less 
homogeneous varieties were not generally suitable f*or the making 
of implements belonging to the conventionalized types, but they 
provided the aborigines with a plentiful supply of flakes for 
knives and* scrapers of all kinds. 

On nearly all of the camping grounds I found a mixture of 
the coarse-grained and the fine-grained materials. In the areas 
around VVilcannia the coarser -grained materials predominated. 
Near Lake Peery a much greater proportion of fine-grained 
material. had been used by the aborigines. At Tillenbury the 
coarser-grained varieties were so predominant that after several 
days' search only a few implements made from fine-grained 
materia! were collected. 

During my visit I examined the areas on both =>des of the- 
channel. Ac Tillenbury the channel of the Paroo, which is 
normally dry, is more than a mile in width. The low banks on 



7* O C. Towt.r., Quarries Used h Aborigines Lv*L LX 

both sides are marked by lines of sandhills which continue to the 
horizon. At several places along the banks there are outcrops 
<jf quartzite, On the eastern side of the channel, not far from rhe 
southern boundary of Tillenbury, I located along the top of the 
hank | well-exposed outcrop which hail lieen used extensively as 
a quarry by the anodynes, (Plate 1, No. 1.) Many thousands 
at flakes, roughly shaped cores, and shattered stone covered the 
surface of thr. ground Cor a considerable distance. In every 
-direction I found flakes lying undisturbed in small clusters where 
eore* had been broken up by the ahorigincs. The amount oi 
flaking which bad been done was far in excess of acrual require- 
ments, j 

At quarry sites in some other parts of Australia, according to 
Spencer ami Gil1en, 0) Roth,* 2 * and others, the aborigines produced 
large numbers of flakes from which they selected only those which 
suited their requirements or their tastes, fltfe residue was left 
on Ihe site for subsequent us* if the need arose. Apparently the 
aborigine's at Tillenbury also followed the same practice. 

The. flakes obtained hy the aborigines from the material at the 
quarry were on the average large hi ?Jzc. In proportion to the 
number of flakes on the camping grounds in the vicinity, the 
number of implements showing marginal retouch was unusually 
small. Very few of them belonged to any of the conventionalized 
types, The material generally did not appear to be suitable for 
fine marginal Tetoucb. 

The aborigines required large quantities of stone for making 
flaked implements. Where local supplies were obtainable, as they 
were at Tillenbury, the aborigines made the widest use of them f 
even if the materia! was not so tractable as that obtainable 
•elsewhere. Scraping and cutting implements of all kinds could be, 
And were, fashioned from a great variety of rock matetiah if »n 
•any locality -Mutable material was not found for such conven- 
tionalized type* as the. adaes. ic was obtained from elsewhere, 
usually by baiter. At Tillenbury, as I have stated, a few flakes 
of fine-grained material were found, but apparently for nearly 
every purpose die local material adequately met the requirements 
of the aborigines. The paucity of conventionalized types may not 
have been a matter of prime importance to (he aborigines. 

With such an abundance of flakes at hand, the aborigines at 
Tillenbury had small need to spend their time resharpening used 
flakes by marginal retouch. From the evidence which has been 
collected by investigators in contact with the aborigines, there 
cannot be %ny doubt that flakes wirh sharp edges unmodified by 
retouch were efficient implements in the hands of the aborigines. 
Itfourilfard^ and Tindate'** have each given descriptions of tie 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol.. lx 

Pi ate VI 



Si'pfcinlwr, 1943 




No. 1. Situ of qtiartzitc quarry showing outcrop ami stony-strewn 

surface. 
No. 2. Site of sandstone quarry showing stone-strewn surface. The 

outcrop is behind the trees. 
No. 3. Large roughly-shaped stone, in situ, in course of preparation 

as mill stone, 30 ins. X 17 ins. X 3 ins. 

Photos.: C. C. Towle. 



VH%] C ' C * ? 0Wi - T » Quarries U-h'4 by MorujiMt* 75 

work done by the Central Australian aborigines with crudely 
prepared pieces of stone 

At Ttllenbury there were also large numbers of core-like 
implements m&de from the same material as the flakes. Implements 
of this type have been found widespread in western New South 
Wales, 

Quarry for Mill Stones 

It was not until six years after die discovery of the quartzite 
quarry thar the large number of* mill stones which I had found 
in the vicinity or Tillenbury had been satisfactorily accounted for. 
In April, 1939, I was searching for specimens, jin-'the Pondic 
Ranges on; the western side of Tillenbury, not jar 'from its southern 
boundary, In that part there are many '"low ridges where a 
-compact sandstone outcrops in i*eJative1y thin .layers. 

On one of these ridges I located a quarry which extended for 
a, considerable distance along both sides of .the' ridge. (Plate 1, 
No. 2.) From it material for large mi!) stones and for upper 
grinding stones had been obtained by the aborigines. 

The evidence at the site indicated that the aborigines had been 
able to break off from the mass slabs of standstone sufficiently 
large to be suitable, after preparation, for use 'as, mill stones. 
Many large flat stones'were lying on the sandy slopes in all stages 
of preparation. Many had already been shaped into the usual 
■oval type of mill stone. (Plate 1, No. 3.) Parts of the surface 
of some of the stones had also been shaped by hammer dressing. 
In «very direction small fiat pieces of sandstone were strewn on 
the ground. Most of them, after slight preparation, would have 
been suitable for use as upper grinding stones. 

Other Quarry Sites 

In the course of my travels \n iar-westcrn New South Wales I 
have s$?n two other planes where the aborigines obtained material 
for implements — one near Lake Peery and the other between 
Wanaaring and Milparinka, I did not have an opportunity of 
^xamtntug either of them closely. 

It should be mentioned that my nephew, Geoffrey A. Williams, 
participated with me in the finding of both quarries at Tillenbury 
and that he worked with me in the collection of specimens and 
■data. 

I. Spencer and Gitlcn, Across Australia (1912). vol. II, |>. 374. 

Z Ro1h. W. E.. Bull. 7 N.Q.Ethnog. (1904), pp. 16-17. s 

3. Mountfon), C. P., Trdrus RoySocS.AusL. vol. 65 (2), (1<MI), pp. 312-Jfi. 

4. Tinrfale, N. B., Mankind, vol. 3, No. 2 (Oct., 1941), pp. 37-41. 



7o 



Fhrdk. CiiArMAN', A Modem Lhtttarus 



fViL-L N 
L Vol. L 



Hi- 

I.X 



A MODERN LINNAEUS: CHARLES DA VIES SHERBORN 

By Fiu-dk. Chapma.v, Assoc.Liun.Soc.Lond. 

The passing of my life-long friend, Dr. C. D. Sherborn, in London or* 
June 22nd of last year, in his 81st year, came as a great shock to his many 
friends not only there but in all parts of the scientific world, tor his 
reputation as the author of the Indiw Animalium alone has firmly estab- 
lished him as a great bibliographer on the names of animals, second to 
none since Linnaeus wrote his Systcma Naturae of 1758. 

Nearly two years after I bad entered Professor Judd's geological 
laboratory at South Kensington, a small body of local naturalists at Fulham, 

with whom I was then associated, deputed 
me to advertise for new members. The 
result was a solitary letter from a Charles 
Sherborn, dated 4th September, 1883. This 
1 still have. Unfortunately for our little 
cltlb, but not for myself, Sherborn, a little 
later on, had other plans before him, owing 
to his reaction to being eternally a scrivener 
to a Bond Street tailor. About ten months 
after my first meeting, on the advice of our 
mutual friend. Prof T. KupeU Jones, 
Sherborn started on Ins Continental wau- 
ilnings. He had already saved about £10t) 
and decided thereby to visit one or two 
continental centres of scientific learning, and 
to do some intensive study and also brush 
up his French and German* 

After Sherbom's return, at Easter, L8S5, 
mainly enthused by his studies at Strasbourg 
University, we joined in researches on our 
favourite subjects of Gstracoda and Foraminifera at his private room — over 
an undertaker's shop, which bore the Dtckenstan name of lUiltrtude, and 
which was opposite his father's residence in the King's Road, Chelsea 
(No. 540). Here Sherborn was compiling his fine work, the Bibliography 
of fhi' I'nfoininifrra. At that time we conjointly wrote tor the Royal 
Microscopical Society's Journal, the "Forauiinifera of the London Clay," 
which was thrown fortuitously, so to speak, into our lap. For, prior to 
Sherborn' s return from the Continent, the drainage works at Piccadilly had 
been started the waste clay being carted six miles away, to be thoughtfully 
dumped at the back of my father's house at Fulham. Laboratory experience 
at South Kensington had just taught me that interesting results might be 
obtained from the most refractory clays by drying and washing down. .->> 
that by Sherborn's return I was able to gladden his eyes by an unusually 
large display of minute and elegant shells as had never before been found 
in such numbers in the Loudon clay. 

It was during the preparation of the Bibliography <>j tfw Fofamnifera 
in l£8S that Sherborn conceived the idea of a comprehensive Index tp the 
genera and species of animals, fossil and recent, a work that had already 
been supplied for the plants. Already there was in existence the Index 
Kczvensis, which we owe to the foresight of Charles Darwin, who, in 1881, 
made arrangements to meet its expenses out of his 0WTI private estate. 

At the base of all scientific naming of animals and plants there lies the 
principle of the law r of priority; and since present nomenclature under the 




The late Charles Davie*. 
Sherborn, 



5JK"] FnxnK Chapman", /i Mo>!crn t.nmu'MS V 

binonnnaf system of Linnaeus; bey. ns svith (he names of Animate that were 
-described on and aftd January lst 4 1?5& the date of the tenth edition of 
his Sy$te*M Naturae, it is also neccs«ar_v to -ascertain the enrfhst volid 
jiiujL' f/>r f/iyu* specie.^ as well as the exact date of publication. 

The first volume oE the Index by Sherborn brings- the references to 1800 ; 
and in this there are 61,118 direct entries. There are eleven wb%fe$tt£frt 
v^limies, the font of which bring* "the name*; up t<( 185(1 Altogether tht-xe 
volumes, including cross references and classifications, musl contain well 
over one million entries. The first volume appeared in 1902 and the last 
Tn J932. 43 years :iiter the inception of the scheme in ]&90, 

Dr. Shcrtiom. was tveit able to indulge hfo passion for collecting* stamps 
(restricted to South American Stales up to 8 certain date), antiquities, rare 
Mss.. and old books. A recent po^t-card from him said, "Don't leave your 
Gesner (1565) in Australia." Tfis memory hail gone hack ncArly 60 years 
to the time matt I picked up from a London bookseller, lor a feiv : shillings, 
one of the oldest and rarest books on natural history. 

It was a great privilege to know and work With so genial a researcher, 
and the inspiration 1 gained from his friendship, both in London and 
Melbourne, is beyond my power lo express, til my work at the National 
Museum here, f often had occasion to t&i Ins- profound knowledge of 
palaeontology on the nomenclatural side, and I was never disappointed. 

As a later confrere says: ''Of many qualities that endeared him to all, 
his kindness, toleration, ready wit and equable temper, and above all hu 
abundant generosity, viand out, and few who were admitted to friendship 
with 'The Squire* can have failed to benefit by the association," 

"ANTING" WITH APPLE-PEEL 

Some time, ago, when the problem of bird*' "anting" themselves was 
being discussed, a correspondent told of a cockatoo that rubbed apple-peel 
«n itself, and the -question was raised as to whether this would have a 
cleansing effect Information on the point i& •given by TV. Charles McLaren. 
a Presbyterian medical missionary, who has just published m Melbourne 
a booklet entitled Eleven Weeks m o Ja>l>anese Prison Cstf, Dr. McLaren 
says that in the absence of any water for washing in hi*, prison be took to 
rubbing himself with apple peelings, and he found that they were very 
cleansing and also "an excellent and very agreeable dentifrice/' He suggest*, 
therefore, ihat in addition to keeping the doctor away an apple may also 
enable one to dispense with the dentist and the wnsh-basiaT— A.H.C 

POISON' OF THE STONE-FISH 

This interesting note has come from a Club member, Pilot-officer C. €. 
"Ralph, Somewhere in New Guinea; 

"One of the fellows in the camp here trod on a stone-fish a week or so 
hack- At first there was little pain — so little that he was persuaded by hte 
companions that he had merely scratched himself on the ooral. But in -a 
flhort time pain developed and the leg swelled up, and although he is * 
v^ry tuu^h individual he was screaming and half mad with agony. It was 
two hours before he could be Rot to a doctor and he was treated by placing 
the foot in water so hot that the skin ultimately peeled off The acute 'pata 
tasted for six hours in- spite of heavy injections oi morphia and the leg 
was in some degree of paio for about 30 hours. Incidentally he 'was walking 
«n a sandy bottom with just an odd- piece of coral here and there.'* 



*78 Cfcfittirt BABBCTfe "The Camiwrv**' Ph*1f" Lv«L LX 

"THE CAR^JVOROLS PLANTS': A MOTABLE BOOK 

- The Club's Library has been enriched by 3 review copy of The C umivorvits 
Ptcnts, by Dr. Fraud* EruCSt Lloyd> Emeritus Profesior of Botany, McGiU 
University. This notable work forms volume nine of '"A New Series of 
Plant Science. Books," edited by Cr, Fl&ttS Verdoorn and published by Ihe 
Chronica Botanica Company, Wsttham, Mass. y U.S.A. The author -visited 
Australia in 19.1b. when tie delivered a mcmoiublc lecture on tlw subject 
which he haa made his own— the carnivorous or insectivorous- plants. 
Learning was lightened by humour, while Dr, Lloyd's sketches, moving 
pictures and lantern slides were of the same quality as his vivid description* 
of the mechanism of Utricnhriti traps and other marvels in a Plant World 
province known to very lew of our botanists. 

It was itQf privilege tu see much oi Professor Lloyd during m stay |fl 
Victoria; and. lie readily acceded xn a request that lie should write Cor the 
Club's journal a paper on Uirttudarm, with special reference 10 Australia. 
(See l-'ictoritm NaUo-atist, VoL Lilt, Nc. 6.) Besides grvntg a general 
account of Hit Bladderworls, of whick. in certain directions, Australia 
possesses a larger and more varied assortment Than any other geographical 
region, Dr. Lloyd described four new species, one beinC; named Uiri/:ular\a 
tinrustym, in honour of Mrs. William Dunstan, wife of the General Maiv&gcr 
of the Herald & Weekly Times- Ltd One may search through fitry volumes 
ot the Neutralist without hVirrig a more imer'ejting and nnporunt botanical 
article than this by the author o£ the book now beiiuj reviewed 

The Cantwotiym Plants. i* a fintfy-prifucd, well-hlustratcd volume (there 
are 26 plates on sn paper), priced at $6i an expensive book in Australia 
O'A-ing ?o foreign exchange. It is essential to any serious student of Bladder- 
w-rts, Droserav, Ccphafotu-x, Bybfis. and other 'Vnsecr-eatiug" plants, includ- 
ing Fungi (C^rdyccps, Jdoophttgvs, etc.). 

•An hisloj ica.) *re>iew and summacy of -out present knowledge about 
carnivorous plants, ol which there are Some 450 or more species, represent- 
ing 15 genera, is. sriven liy Dr. Lloyd in a wdrk that' is not only Art 
outstanding contribution lo scientific botanical literature, "but also possesses- 
great interest tar the field naturalist. 

Australia has a prominent place i;t The 'Cttrtthmtfte Plantsi A whole 
chapter i> devoted to the Western Australian Pitcher Plant fCtphtittttUt 
fulticut-aris) * another to Bybtvt, cH ivbich only two sveties are known : B, 
gj.eantea, of Western Australia, and B. txtoiftfi'i, native to Arnliem Land* Ire 
the Northern Territory: Out Sundews, of course, 'receive full attention, 
for the ganDS Droscrv* with more than 90 species, reaches lis greatest 
develop* 1 ***- in this country. 

For* more than a decade before he commenced .work on his great book 
Dr. Lloyd Irad b«cn studying- the carnivorous plants" of the world In 1927 
he made an observation of importance in understanding the mechanism. <►£ 
the Ubncnhria trap, when examining a species related, to K yibba, This 
created a desire to Miudy other species of the genu* primarily ta*. determine 
the validity of his conclusions; and the profefto^ feeling that research ill 
this field appeared promising was strengthened ' by the discovery that the 
pertinent literature was sinr/ularly barren, of the, information, most -icededj 
that is to sa>. precise 1 accounts oi the sthicturcof (lie entrance mecKaniiitiV 
oi the traps. Herbarium material, meagre in t the underground parts oi 
terrestrial forms, was of slight value for Ms frurpose; so Dr. Lloyd songht 
trom all tatts'ot the world, adequately preserved specimen?. Thed he found 
it necessary id 'travel* m order to study carnivorous plantt as they grew 
His travels included a journey to Africa, and one h> Africa and Australia; 
The vrat to Albany was in the nature of a pilgrimage to the borac of a 
world-i'amou? itisectivorous plant — ( * i-i-.r, ' -. t- 



fjj£"] Chaises Barrett, "The Cttmivorous Piottls" 79 ' 

Bybtis gfotftfe* was the other lure to the West: this insect-catcher' with 
lovely flowers, called ''rainbow plant" by children, grows freely Lit a swampy 
place not many miles to the south Qi Perth. The other known s£eci& of 
BybUs lias been recorded only from Korth-easteni Anthem . Land, and ihc 
professor, in this case, must needs be content with dried material Few 
specimens of if. tinijoiitu have been collected since its discovery" many years 
ago. When ex£lon*tg, with the Rev, T. T Webb. H. Shcnhcrdion and 
three aborigines, an unknown river of the Aboriginal Reserve. Anthem'' 
Land, I found B. linifolia 'growing abundantly around* rocky po°l=- The 
specimens collected were sent to Professor Lloyd long afterwards, and ' 
reached him in puor condition. Hovvevcr r be was able clearly to sec in 
them how the leaves 311 this species are outwardly circulate: "a somewhat 
surprising fact." „ 

Swampy country round about Darwin, and farther afield, is rich in* 
species of UtricnSarm with trans of various structure. Some of them arc 
scarcely known outside Australia, and had but recently been described when 
Professor Lloyd came here to prosecute his studies. How the mechanism of-- 
the Bladdcrwort trap works was for many years « piuale The key to* 
explanation was found when ftr, Lloyd discussed how the door was rendered' 
watertight The door is latched and waterproofed around. When the latch 
is disturbed by a Very small aquatic anitoa!, such as a water-flea (paphnia), 
the sides of the trap can; spriiig out (like the sides of a rubber hall) and pul) 
in the door and a stream ot water in which the ammal is carried. Then 
the door closes, the wall* pump out the water, and the trap is rc-se< 
within half qn hour. Dr. Lloyd has made moving pictures oS Ujriatfarut 
traps matching wMer-fleas and other victims. This is a. very notable achieve- 
ment, for the largest traps measure only S mm. in length, the smallest 
5 mm. *' 



725.000 'TESTS" KILLED IK II YEARS 

Under this heading' the Brisbane Courier -M 01/ of Klay 20, J943» has^', 
the following note: 

"State Government, through the Lands Department, has paid {A^2\l to 
local authorities as subsidy for combating animal and bird pests in (lie Tast 
M years, In thst period more than 725,000 animal and bird pests-have been. 
destroyed. Annaimcinjr. this yesterday, the Lands Minister (Mr. Walsh) 
satdthat the total included 237,554 marsupial, 2D9.257 dingoes, 142,604' pig*, 
71,515 foxes, 43.SS0 eaglehawks, and 1,145 eaglehawk eggs, 17,041 crow.v 
and 3,587 hares Total cost 'of baits fof the poisoning of dingocs> provided 
free, was i$,(fiQ r exclusive of free railage/* 

It should be added tjut "Eaglehawks" arc the regal Wedgt-tailed Eagles, 
which include among their activities th« destruction of rabbits. Imagine 
the kilting o£ 43,550 of these birds in II years in one State alone' — AH C. 



• 
Mr. "R. M, Trudingcr, who is due to address the September meeting of 
.the FN.C-, has been for about tliree years teacher at the Preibyremu 
•School for Aborigines at Ernabella, in the north-west of South Australia. 
Within a month of h<s arrival alt Ernal>eUa he was teaching the children 
in their own language, and since then he has devoted himself in a 
remarkable manner to the study of the language and the instruction of ths 
children. • ' • 



*o ■ 



Excursion List 



TVict. Net. 
Vol. LS 



EXCURSION lilST- FOR F.N.C.V. FROM SEPTEMBER, 1941 TO 

AUGUST, 1944 

Subject 

Cultivated Native 
Plants 
' Heathlaud Flora 
Birds (B.O.C.) 

"Medicinal Plants 



1943 Locality 

Sept. 4— Maranoa Gardeus 



Leader 

Mr, F. Chapman 



ft 18— East Oakleigh. . 
H 25— Wattle Park 
■Oct. 9 — Melbourne- Botanic 

Gardens 
* „ 17 — Lilydate-Mt. Evelyn- 
Lily dale 
23 — El tbain-Mantmoreney 

2tfov. 6 — Bayswarer-Ringwood 
„ f — Flemington Racecourse 

Dec 11 — Melbourne Botanic 
Gardens 
„ 18 — Blackburn Lake 

1944 
Jan. 8 — Seaford 

„ f— Altona - * 

Feb. 12 — Upper Ferntree Gully 

„ *27— Rickett's Point 
Mar. 11 — Beaumaris 

w 18 — River Yarra 

it 25 — Queen's Park, Moonee 
Ponds 
Apr. S — Seaholm 

„ 22— Frankston 



^May 6— Wild Life Sanctuary 

„ 20 — Mooroolhark 
♦June A — Kalorama 

„ 17 — Herbarium 

July 1— Botanic- Gardens 
„ 22 — Museum 

Aug. 5— Melbourne 

,. 19— Black Rock 
„ 26— Heidelberg 



Mr. F. Salau 

Mr. A, H. Chisholm 

Mrs. E. Coleman 



General 

Birds and Flora 

(B.O.C) 
Orchids 
General (B.O.C) 

Cycads and 
Proteads 
Birds (B.O.C.) 



Entomology and 

General 
Marine Biology 

Ferns 

General (B.O.C.) 
General Geology 
Social Afternoon 



Mr. J. H. Willis 

Messrs. A. S. Chalk 
and P. F. Morris 

Mr. C French 

Messrs. Hill, J Jones, 
A. M. Steinfort 

Mr H. C E. Stewart 

Mr. P. C. Morrison 



Mr. C. French 

Mr. and Mrs. J. J. 

Frearne 
Mr. A. J. Swaby 
Mr. P. C Morrison 

Mr. F. S. ColHver 
Mr. H. P. Dickens 



Wading and Aquatic Miss M. L. Wigan 
Birds (B.O.C.) 



Salt Marsli 
Birds and Flora, 
General {B.O.C.) 

Australian Fauna 



Mr. J. H. Willis 
Messrs. E. S. Hanks, 

A. ,C. Frostick, P. 

Bibby 
Messrs. W ( R. Mau- 

ghan, A. S. Chalk 
Mr. R. G. Painter 
Mr. H. C E. Stewart 



Mr, A. W. Jessop 



Autumn Foliage 
Lyre Birds, Fungi, 

General 
Preservation of 

Botanical Material 
Arboreal Vegetation Mr. H. C. E. Stewart 
Feathers (B.O.C.) Mr. G. Mack 
Building Stones Messrs* A. C Frostick 

and F. S. ColliVer 
Mr. T. S. Hart 
Mr. and Mrs. E, S> 
Hanks 



Winter Botany 
Birds' Nests and 
Wattles (B.O.C) 



"Sunday— -all-day. excursion. 
tDate to be arranged. 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. LX,*— No. 6 October 7, 194 j No. 718 



PROCEEDINGS 

The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on September 13, 1943, The President (Mr. P F 
Morris) presided and about 120 members and friends attended* 

Ir was announced that Mrs. Frank Sides (nee Dorothy 
Satovich) had lost her husband recently- in New Guinea, and the 
Mem. Secretary was instructed to write a letter of sympathy lu 
one fellow-member, 

The President welcomed to the meeting delegates from kindred 
societies who were attending- for the presentation ot the Australian 
Natural History Medallion; and also the Rev. H. C. Matthew,. 
Secretary, Presbyterian Board of Missions Committee, who was 
responsible for the lecturer being available for this meeting. 



NATURAL HISTORY MEDALLION 

The President introduced Major H. W. Wilson. O.E.E., M.C., 
etc., the recipient of the 1942 Award, and also Mr. J. A. Seitz. 
Director of Education, who was to make the presentation. 

Mr. Scitz Outlined the career of Major Wilson as a soldier. 
teacher and naturalist and stated that as Director of Nature Study 
ai the Teachers Training College he was so highly regarded that 
Ins term of office was extended — that after he had 34 years of 
service to his" credit. Mr. Seitz further stated that the winning 
of the medallion was a tribute to the work Major Wilson had done 
in bringing Natural History before school children and the general 
public, as well as to the sound scientific work he had done. 

Major Wilson, in reply, thanked the Medallion Committee for 
the honour accorded him, and Mr, Seiu for making the presen- 
tation. He gave an insight into his early years as a teacher and 
described the origin of Mature: Study in the schools. 

The present Nature Study Director at the Teachers Training 
College (Mr F G. Elford) also spoke, stating how pleased 
members 01 the staff of the Teachers Training College were that 
such an honour should go to their former lecturer. 



82 Fifld tfahtHiligtf Club 1'rocerMw/s RSS? 

TRACKING ABORIGINES 

A lecture entitled *T<adnng Aborigines in the North-west of 
South Australia" was given by Mr. R, M. Tmcfinger, and ns 
illustrations natural-colour motion pictures were shown The 
lecturer, a missionary and teacher at Ernabella ( Musen'n ve 
Ranges) told of the methods used and described how he had also 
been educated by the children whom he taught lie 'emphasised 
that the aborigines were not bong civilised, but rather were being 
taught to live their own lives on an improved pattern. They were 
not taught to speak English, nor were they made to wear cloche?, 
of which they had no need. A special feature of the lecture was the. 
.singing of corroborce songs by Mr, Trudinger and the evbibiriou 
of writing and drawings made by aboriginal boys and girls. 

Mr. S. R. Mitchell, moving a vote of thanks, suggested that 
the Presbyterian Church was to be commended on the choice of 
such a versatile and capable teacher as Mr. Trudingcr. He empha- 
sized the need for broad-minded and sympalbetic education of 
aborigine.s. the- extermination of which always followed on the old 
method of contact with white people. Mr. Mitchell added that 
Mr. Trudinger had educated and impressed the audience by his 
account of a people who are our immediate responsibility. 

Mr. R. H. CrolK seconding the vote of thanks, stated this seemed 
an exemplification of the most successful method of dealing with 
uur dark-skitiucd brethren. Mr. Trudioger's work was admirable, 
a\}<] it merited support in a practical fashion. 

The vote ot thank* was carried by hearty applause. 

GENERAL BUSINESS 

Reports of excursions were given as follows Frankston, Mr. 
J. H. Willis; Mamnoa Gardens. Mr. C. French. 

Prof. J. B- Qeland. of Adelaide University, was elected as a 
country member of the Club 

The President stated that the Junior Branch at Hawthorn had 
been successfully started, and announced the staging of a Natural 
History Exhibition early in October. 

Miss Nance Fletcher conveyed greetings from the Western 
AusUaHan Club, members of winch would gladly contact kindred 
spirits from Victoria. 

Mr. P. Croshie Morrison (for Mr. Marc Cohn, Bcndigo) gave 
aonJt notes on two rare Bcndigo wildflowe^: die White Hovc-a 
(H. hcicrophylla-), and the double form of the Fairy Wnx-flowur 
{Eriosiemon ob&vnlis) 

Mr Tvo H amine tt remarked t»n Grc7:dfea lavmidnlacca from the. 
Grampians. 



°£ L 3 ] Le^sk. A Ccwpino Spot of She "£mui Mfef 33 

A CAMPING SPOT OK THE "EMU MEM*' 

By Maubtce P. I-ra&tc. A 1 F 

This paper describes aboriginal rock carvings which are found 
on &H apparently unnamed creek on Upalinna sheep station, eleven 
miles east of Wilpena Pound, Flinders Ranges, Smith Australia. 

The carvings are [or the most pari m a compact group on both 
hanks uf the creek. The example* of art present many character- 
istics typical of the Flinders Ranges series of carvings, thus being 
worthy ot comparison. Moreover, a few of their features are 
almost unique and may form useful link* in the chain story which 
explains the motive for the extensive carvings about the native*?* 
frequented spots. 

The site is at a dry hole in the creek-bed approximately three 
miles ease of Upalinna head station. This is eight mite;? east-south- 
east of Wilpena Pound and Wilpena Homestead. Upalinna is owned 
by S. A.„ T. P and J. K. Reynolds. and »s not to be confused 
wtth Appcalinna Hill, which is outside the holding in question. 
The new mail route from Hawker, 40 miles southward, to Rlinman, 
4 4 miles northward, passes close by Upalinna Homestead. 

Early in January 1940 die author was uccuiupatried by Mr. G. C. 
Netherway ot RnlUuaf. Victoria, on a visit to Wilpena Homestead. 
The purpose was to obtain direction*; to the site of aboriginal 
carvings believed to exist on Wilpena property. These directions 
wxrr followed until Upalinna Homestead was reached. As this 
had not been mentioned previously, fresh inquiries were made, 
and they led to the examination of the carvings dealt with herein. 
This site is definitely on Upalinna ground and must be disonct 
from the one that was originally intended to be visited. 

From the homestead a bridle path was followed for the whole 
distance, about three miles, first in an easterly and then in a 
northerly direction. At two and a half miles the Cum Creek was 
crossed, and the track wound on to the old chimney wbirh is the 
landmark on the r.e-xt creek, known locally, for lack of a belter 
name, as Pine and Gum CreeU. A 'quarter of a mile downstream 
from the oJd chimney the carvings were located. 

At Pine and Gum Creek the essential factor in the choice of 
the spot has beeu the occurrence of rockholes in the crfcek bed 
One of these is formed against a low cliff on the left side of the 
stream. The other is below a waterfall five feet in height* Tt is 
worthy of note that a waterfall is not a common feature nf the 
sites oi native art, h»l tTOS has no other significance, probably. 
than the conservation of water Here, as in any typical case, 
three walls have hcon formed in the. shape of a U. and all three 
have been utilized by the artibts. 

The figures depicted at this spot include footprints of the 



84 Tcask, A Camping Spot oj*ike "£««* Mrf [ V yui!x 

turkey and the emu, the latter being the predominant type, though 
e*ven it is not numerous when compared with some other localities. 
The figure most characteristic of this site is the U, with its embeJ- 
hshmeots, called the camp symbol. By far the greater number of 
the designs consist of circles, with their additions. Concentric 
circles arc used very sparingly There is a great deal of work 
after the "road map" or ''locality plan" type; in one of these the 
circles are enclosed by a pear-sltaped line; in another numerous 
circles, touching or joined by a line, follow in succession. In all 
of the composite designs it is difficult to determine where one 
ends and the next begins. 

In approaching the classification of the design $ found iu the 
caivings we enter, to a large extent, the realm of Ihenvy, How- 
ever, it is now widely recognized that aboriginal art was used 
chiefly to illustrate the ceremonial life of the natives. Trw whole 
of the figures seen at Upalinna may well fall within this category. 
As the present-day blacks draw incidents from their daily life, it 
is possible thai some forms discussed here were carved for that 
purpose. The apparently meaningless shapes can be explained 
only by the totemic ancestor theory. 

DESCRIPTION OF CARVINGS 

One of the best and plainest of the carvings is the crescent 
with liar shown in the text figure herewith. It is situated below 
ibti waterfall on the vertical wall on the right bank. The bar is 
cylindro-comcal in shape and docs not touch the crescent. JJo. 2. 
close to No. J, has a pointed bar which is joined to the crescent. 
The bar in No 3. adjacent to No. 2, differs from the two former. 
it projects beyond the extremities of the crescent and has the 
addition of a "V and dot. Closer to high water level is No. 4 r m 
which the a.xi* is at right angles to the axes of the previous three, 
<mil in which the bar extends right through tin* crescent. 

On the creek-washed stones in a horizontal plane occur Nos. 5. 
6 and 7. No. 5 lias an extended bar. but in other rcspecls 
resembles No. G. The latter figure may represent an emu's 
(racks, although the two feet do not match, one having a roundrxl 
crescent and the other an almost straight liar. This straight bar 
is seen as a perfect English "T" enclosed by a circle on the vertical 
wall. Again on a horizontal surface occurs No. 7, a very large 
wnu track of the stereotyped broad arrow shape and of symmetrical 
construction. 

No, 6' is found on the left bank. The arrows are true symbolical 
emu tracks, ohe of which does not touch the crescent, The 
crescents themselves, in contrast with some former ones, arc 
asymmetrical 



OcL ' 
1941, 



Leask, A Camping Spot of the "Emu Men" 



85 




Anions the circles No. 9 is quite plain, although the thin lines 
(shown as dotted lines) may be associated with it. These markings 
are found on the left hank near the upper rockhole. Below the 
fall, on the right bank, are the concentric circles, two in number, 
shown in No. 10. They are somewhat elliptical, while those in 
No. 11. four tn number, are more perfect in shape. Tn No, 12. 
on creek-washed stones, one circle merely touches another, but the 
third is truncated. 



86 Leask, A Camping Spot of the "Emu .l/m" [^ lx" 

TIr: ait codes present *eveta3 outstanding F< There is 

no true barred circle, . !y similar 

to those seen in the Fefcii C ■ ' t OiTOruo (S.A ). 

the short arm of the cross does not bisect the circle and is not in 
the same straight line at its intersection of the long arm, both 
tliiftS* " c|tflferii»g " \,js<: an otherwise similar 

figure at k'-.issy i near Carrieton, S.A. The combination of 

arcs in No. 15, only one of which is continuous " > nferciw 

to circumference, form a figure which has not been noticed at 
&itv ■ <d\ r fi Typical til ' p trdi ''' ■ ■ - thi 1 

simple enclosing of obvious enui tracks in a circle; Xo. 10. How- 
ever, it should be noted that among the Salt Creek 
Panaramittee ihtr g\ within two concentric 

c\ ■ U-s, 

I ',.!:,. i ! " Kite) ' figure. 

No. 17, which could be a combination of the eteiiti 

ifst .' ' The work in Xo. IK, a complex design on 

the left vertical bank, is fairly open, showing ihe method of pitting. 
Xo 19 om'- 'fig jf in which tli£ utiCa (rfi IfflWti hi s* 

different direction from those in No. 15, and to which another 
figim been joined. 

On the roughly horizontal, spacious surface towards the left 
Sank of the * i etf p$ , ,i &f 

The darkest line at the left of the illustration i! 
part that appears to have been renewed. Renewal is possibly seen 
in a second figure where recent shallow work 1 jucI 
work, and in a third where ancient grooves are covered with dark 
,.\. '-■ ■ KJii i ,-■< ■ '-"''.. ■ •■- ICtLve the HctU-'i i "ock 

exposed. 

work follows the p c » I. vir line* 

fikIg tfig a group of carvings which probably have i gn 
L , [ft .. 

At .Upaliima. then, is to !>e seen quite a prolific array of 
aboriginal ctfviiit^ Sonte i*i the figure, ( >: ' \. ) /. 9 10, 11, 
ai.' J<i) are well fcnuttffl, gtefefttvpetl f'jrms. < tttar ( " r 
and 14) occur in restricted localities. No, 15. notably, is an 

i ui r» design while many of the variations are not seen 

elsewhere. 

The workmanship is characterized by some deep grooving ant! 
by some open pitting. There is strong evidence in favour of the 
belief that certain parts of the designs have been renewed. 

DISCUS. ?H 

recognized that the crescent itb bar a goo*. 
representation of the camp symbol, as described by C. P. Mount- 



vr-u 



Lkask, A Camping Spot of the "hmn Men" ty 



lord That figured (No. 1) is more perfect than any seen 
elsewhere by ihe writer. The crescent is the camp and the har 
the natives. But it was state:! by the ethnologist at the South 
Australian Museum (Mr. N. B. Tindate) that this very symbol 
is used to illustrate the marks made by a native sitting on the 
ground. When we try to apply both theories to No. 2 we want 
to know why. in either castr, the bar is pointed and why it joins 
the crescent No 3 contains the dot well reconciled to the fire 
at the camp as figured by Mounlford. The bar extending right 
through the crescent in No. i f however, does not appear to be 
true of either a camp or a silling imprint. 

It the artist who carved No. 7, or an artist of equal ability, also 
carved Nos. 5 and 6, there must be sonic significance in the 
departure from the orthodox broad arrow of the emu symbol n 
No. 7. In fact, wc are forced to waver in placing those inter- 
mediate forms in either the camp or the emu group. 

The emu track combined with the camp in No. 8 appears to be 
the symbolic use of these in myth. Perhaps, in one, the emu Js 
leading the camp. 

In ihe illustration of their daily life the aborigines drew hills, 
''some as circle?. Some as ovals." A waterholc was portrayed by 
concentric cinlos. The combination in No. 12 couid be a group 
of hills. 

The simple barred circle, not seen here, in other areas represents 
H head-dress,. » totem pole or a wanigp ; that is, it may have widely 
different meanings. It is possible that the dissected Circles, No.v 
13, 14 and 15, have some obscure meaning also, and it would be 
unwise (o elucidate further without definite comparisons. 

Some of the remaining figures contain units already described. 
h\ No. 20 occur two circles similar to No. 13. The complicated 
result achieved in such as No. 20 is generally recognized to be 
the track of the wanderings of an ancestor. 

In an examination of these figures we may be confronted with 
the problem of the different aspect given by a different artist to 
the same figure- This would account for (lie merging of the emu 
tracks into the camp symbol. 

It is necessary to distinguish between the figures which arc 
isolared. or units. and those which tonu a continuous mass of work. 
The logical course is to regard the designs as being somewhat 
similar to others placed adjacent to them. Thus the whole layout 
ctlects mterpreJation, although it docs not too strictly determine 
significance. 

When the whole scene js cKamintd, the elements (for some 
of the units serve as element) may be seen in their correct 
perspective. Although, in general, the idea of the aboriginal 



68 Lea*k. A Cainpmg Spot o] the "Emu Men" f ^ gjf 

artists practising should be discounted, it must be that these 
elements were used in some way for illustration or emphasis. 
From these discussions we may assume: 

(a) There is an artist discrepancy, ov 

(b) There is a distinction between the element as a unit and 
as part of a combination, or 

(c) There is an increased range in the universality of symbols, 
or, if these are not valid, 

(d) There is a significance in each of the details of variation, 

Finally, at Upatinna there is a total absence. afi far as was 
noticed, of carvings of kangaroo tracks. The predominant track 
ts tltat of the emu. Hence we conclude that this was one of the 
camping spots of the Emu Men. 



EXHIBITS AT SEPTEMBER MEETING 
Mrs, C. French: flouquet ot native flowers (12 species), all gardeu- 

Mr. M. Cohn: Fairy Wax-flower (double form) and white form of the 
common Hovca from Bcndigo. 

Mr. A. H. Matting ley: Live red-back spider (Lairodechts lia^sefiii). 

Mr. V. H. Miller: Dt'HdroHnw j^rorosintm < Orange-hlossom Orchid). 

Mr, S- W Mitchell: Large ground-edge, axe with hatting groove, shaped 
by hammer dressing ; also ground-edge and grooved ayes from Cape Otway. 
Flaked-edge axes with hafling notches; sandstone axe (edge produced by 
hammer dressing and grinding) from near Woori Yallock, Vie, 

Messrs. Ivo Hammett and R. G. Painter: Garden-grown native flowers. 



CAPTAIN OWEN STANLEY 

Ait article published in the August issue of the Vict. Nat. dealt with the 
career of Captain Owen Stanley, of H.M.S. Rattirsmkc. and drew attention 
to the need for preserving his grave, which is in St Thomas's Cemetery. 
North Sydney. Apparently this article attracted the attention of the 
North Sydney Council, for it wrote for copies of the journal and hirer 
(Aufi"tt6t 27) Sydney newspapers reported that the Council had written the 
trustees of St. Thomas's Cemetery, drawing attention to the desirability 
of proper care being given national memorials. After the chairman of 
lliv trustees had replied as well as possible, the Council appointed a com- 
mittee to confer with the trustees on the* preservation of the cemetery's 
monuments of national interest. — A.H-C. 



A Natural History Exhibition under the auspices ol the F.N.C. was 
opened at the Hawthorn Lihrary (near the Town Hall) on Monday last. 
It will continue until the 9th fflet 



Oct. 
194 ft 



ll Au'-xamdv-k, (><uu!-/ty fri?w firtoras 89 



A NEW CRANE-FLY FROM VICTORIA 
(Tipulidae, Diptcra) 

"By CiiAWl.us P, Au:.\AXn£ie, Amherst, Massachusetts, 

U.S.A. 

Daring the past sixteen years I have received /or study and 
naming many striking and beautiful crane-flies from my good 
friend. F. Erasmus Wilson. These were taken by him m South 
Australia. Victoria.. Tasmania, New South Wales and Queensland, 
am! included many scores oi new and rare forms, the types and 
uniques of which are preserved in the Wilson Collection, 
undoubtedly Ihe largest and mosl valuable series of these flits in 
Australia. Very recently 1 received a further shipment that 
included, among" others, three specimens nf a crane-fly that proved 
to he new to science and very distinct from all known allied 
forms. I consider it to be one of the most attractive spccccs of 
tfcefee flies that 1 have ever seen. 

Before describing; this striking novelty T would like to issue an 
appeal to the younger members of the Field Naturalists' Club 
who grtf inrerested in insect collecting to save any specimens oi 
these fragile, long-legged flies that they may ftnd, particularly if 
they are favoured by opportunity to collect in oi't-oi-the-way spots 
or in hitherto little- worked areas. It seems certain that further 
collecting on the Rogong High Plains wilt yield many additions to 
the Victoria list, "since a considerable numlwr of species have been 
talccn in ihe mountains of southern New South Wales that have 
not yei been discovered in Victoria. If such specimens could be 
turned over to Mr. Wilson, they would be sent to me for study 
and would possibly add to our still incomplete knowledge of the 
T ipulidac of the State. 

GYNOPUSTJA (PARAUMNOFHiLA) WILSOMANA SP.NOV. 

Stee large (wing, male, \7 mm. or more) ; antennae with unbrunched 
segments; colour of mesonotum grty. more ycJIuwi-sh on the j>rac>,cti1al 
interspaces; praescutum. with knit conspicuous dark brown stripes; pleura 
lighf grey witli two conspicuous, dark brown, longitudinal nlripns, the more 
dorsal ending at posterior portion of The ruccliotcrg'ite; haltcrt* yellow; 
femora with a yellow siibtcrmfnal ring; rilnne with fl yellowish white 
K&ibtyasQil annulus; tarii brownish black ; Wings yellow, handsomely patterned 
with dalle brown, including larger eosiaf area* f the one in the region oi the 
sigiUa V-shap^d ; irtafe hypopygium with (he gonapaphyvi? appearing ft$ 
alcml&r pointed horns. 

Afitk: Length about 18-20 nun.; winjr 17-19 mm.: antenna about .14* 
3 mm 

Rostrum chirk brown* sparely prninose, palpi black. Antennae with 
scape dark brown, pedicel slightly more reddish brown ; basal fl.ijrel'ar 
.letftncnli uniformly light yellow, the outer ones more nauseated; fhieelfar 
sogmems simple, unhranched, elongate-oval to subeyluulricab with the lower 
face a trim- more bulging than the. upper ; verticils conspicuous, much 



90 Alexander, CVou<'-/fy from Victoria [ Vol lx 

exceeding the segments in length. Head dark grey, the anterior vertex 
slightly more yellowish; anterior vertex elevated into a small conical point; 
setae of posterior vertex black, proclinate. 

Pronutum dark grey, restrictedly in Ensealed medially. MeSGWQtal prac- 
sxutuui with the humeral region silvery grey pruinose, the interspaces nmre 
golden-yellow; disk with four conspicuous dark brown to blackish stripes, 
the intermediate pair separated only by a capillary ground villa except at 
suture, where they are more widely separated ; [iseudosutural foveae large, 
circular in outline, reddish brown ; scutum grey, the Inbes conspicuously 
patterned with dark hrown, the median region less conspicuously darkened; 
posterior sclerites of mesonotuiti grey, narrowlj darkened medially in 
produce a vague stripe; posterior and lateral portions of tnediotergite and 
dorsal margin of pleurotergite blackened, beir® a direct prolongation ai 
tlie dorsal pleural stripe. Pleura 1 i ltIi r grey, with two conspicuous dark 
brmvn luiigitudinal stripe . the mure dursal one involving die ventral 
prnpleura, anepistemutn and dorsal [iteropleurite on to the pOStnotUTOj 
described ; the lower stripe i-- chiefly restricted to the ventral sterna- 
pU urile; dursopleurat region li^ht yellow, I la litres yellOWi L#efiS long 
ami slender; coxae light grey pruinose, vaguely patterned with du\ky, 
especial ty the lure pair ; In •chanter- reddish bn.wn, sparsely prUtno$e : 
femora black, with a conspicuous yellow ring mure than its own length 
from the blackened apex ; libiac brownish black, with a slightly more 
yellowish white ring less than its own length t>eypnd the base; remainder 




ol tegs brownish black to black, Wings (Figure) clear yellow, heavih 
ami conspicuously patterned with dark brown; prcarcular and coital fields 
more saturated yellowj dark areas distributed as Eoltows! Cell i excepi 
at base Willi its central portion blackened; a major area in radial field 
at- mar midway between arcutus and or%»1 Ot R$\ origin of Its; a V-sliaped 
area with the basal arm extending from $Ca caudad across the fork "I A'.r 
to r-m, the outer arm from the Stigma caudad to r-m\ 0th«r area:-, along 
posterior curd, outer end of cell hi M-. tins of longitudinal veins, especiallx 
vein /?■ and a long contimiuus streak ato-ng outer half flf vein R . widened 
miUvardly: still further stains and cloud- ai Fork oi 1/ +*»; along most "i 
veins M and Cit. except on their teal portions, those latter areas tending 
to be broken into individual spots; clouds at near raidlcoglb ol cells Cu and 
1st A, about in transverse aliimmeiil with the origin of Rs ; a conspicuous 
cloud near outer end oi cell ~'ini .1. opposite the narrowest part of the cell; 
veins yellow, scarcely evident in the more saturated ground areas, darkct 
brown in the patterned fields. \ cnationi fa+ +< longer than basal section 
«>j A'.; cell Mi from 2-5 to $ times iu petiole; j/j-i >/ mi»re ihau one-third 
its length bevund the fork of M ', v<-y-i Ulttt ■ ' SKIUOUS, 

Abdomen with tergites reddish hrown to dirk brown, Still darker on 
lateral and posterior portions; stcrnite.H brownish black, more reddish <m 
central portion; hypopygium brownish black. Male hypopygium with die 
caudal Border 1 of tergite strongly emarginate or concave, forming two 
rounded duskv lateral lobes. Outer distMvle a^ in other members of the 



*£{$] Alrxakdeb. Cram-fly jr<m KiWor-'u 91 

subgenus. Inner dististylr witli the basal lobe unusually ferge, rounded, 
conspicuously setiferous. Gonapoimywis appearing as slender, gently 
curved horns that narrow to acute iii)**. Aede&gus a Utile loiigcr than the 

T-ftWtitypfl, ,<£. Mount Donna. Huang, above Warhurton, ultituric 4,000 feet', 
January 21, PJ43 (/'*. fi. Wi/ioa) ; in the Wilson Collection. Pwalopv- 
iyf>cs, 2 (Jef, one preserved in the writer's collection, one retutnccl to 

I take unusual pleasure in dedicating this beautiful fly in honour 
of Erasmus Wilson. To hltfn f more than to any other individual, 
is due our great increase in knowledge of the Australian, 'and 
pairiculmly the Victorian, TinuHdac This is one of the Tnnsl 
striving and distinct crane-flies known to me. It belongs lo the 
group of the vsuhj»cnus having the antennae simple . without 
branches of any sort. Amon^ rhe approximately 3fc§ species 0' 
Partilhiutopfulu now IcuOvvn from Australia and Tasmania, the 
only species having similarly simple antennae art G\t\op!isiia 
(Paralimuophila) indfitota Alexander and 6\ (P.) H/oOiliiilii 
Alexander (and possibly C. (P.) tticoinpta Alexander, the latter 
still known only from the umrpie type that )v>d lost the antennae). 
Elsewhere within the range of the subgenus, all of the known 
Species have the -amennue simple, these including two spedes in 
Neiv Zealand, and rather numerous forms Jh southern Chile at:d 
south-eastern Brazil. 

The present fly superficially resembles eerhiin large and showy 
local members of the getter*, jjusltolimnoplnia /Meander, 
Eplphragma Oscen Sacken. and Linn tophi I a Macquarl, hut is 
readily tokl by the diagnostic features indicated above, The 
Australian spt'cles of Paralmmaphila Alexander with simple 
antennae, as listed above, are much smaller lhan the present fly 
and have entirely different patterns of the wings and legs. 

Wifsoos notes on the occurrence of this fly are of interest and 
1 cjuore this part of his letter: "Spew a week-end en Mount 
Donna Buaog m the Warburton district where I took Eutanyd&rux 
ivilsom Alexander some years ago. We went up to collect a 
.seiies of two alpine buti.eHlies that occur there- 1 got a- very 
fine Tip cicw \o mc from a damp spot under Notholtttf:i.s trees, 
I took several specimens of Avstrolwinophifa pristtm Alexander 
in association with this species. The altitude of 1,000 leet is 
murh higher than Kelgrave where 1 former]) 1 took the Jailer/' 



OB1TUAKY 



Members pi the P.IV.CV". greatly regret the los:, of MitS Ethvl Bagc?, M.A., 
who dic<t in August at her home in Melbourne. Her siskr, J/t&s Kreda 
J3agc, the Brisbane naturalist and educationist, was. present during her 
tllnWs. Miss Ethel Ragx joined the F.K.CA 7 . in 1921 arid bad alwn>£ been 
a keen, if 0,uir», worker. Her father wai) om: ul the- moM accomplished 
naturalists in ihc mrlv days of the Club. 



92 SbffGittfOtiS to Contribute?* of /Irtitks *tt T^xoHOm^ Polony Vyff ^x'* 

SUGGESTIONS TO CONTRIBUTORS OF ARTICLES ON 
TAXONOMIC BOTANY 

Ry Joyck W. ViOiCfciev, M.8C A Sydney 

Writers of articles on taxonomk botany m the I'icl&rian AUttm^ist u$0/ajfcy 
doirc to present not only the technical pari ot their work bin other 
information about the plant and its history of general interest They do rot 
desire !<► itup the technical details to Ihe bare bones, as is done in many 
journals devoted exclusively to this science. On the other hand, they aim at 
sounrl work which will licln and not confuse other workers in the jsame field. 
Confusion can be caused so inadvertently, however, that 1 have ventured 
to make a lew avujficstions, adherence to whtch should tend to make same 
taxononiK papers clearer. 

Taxonomtc botany is- full of inntnmtr.*ble pitfalls ft* the unwary, so the 
first requirement for anyone aspiring to tike up this science is a thomugh 
study of the International Rufes pE Botanical Nomenclature, and mud" 
practice m their interpretation and application. VViilioul such study no one 
should venture to publish anything involving: tht nomenclature oi plants or 
further r.onfusion is inevitable-, Tin?, is 3 faxt jusunV»C'»lly realized In- 
nou-taxonomic workers in oihcr branches ot botanical science Ii is not 
proposed to comment here on matters laid down in th^ international inks 
wbiih can be consulted directly, except to refer 10 a few points which have 
ni>! been ^Ivett sufficient attention in this journal in the past. 

Articles should vft out WTy clearly, and with a suitable use of headline, 
the actual points they vover. Fur instance, the name of a new bpei'ics, 
variety or combination, etc., should be used as a definite heading other above 
or at the commencement of Ihe paragraph dealing' wilt it, and Ihe namit 
should he followed by the symbols for the appropriate categoric*, e.g., new 
species, new variety, new combination, new name, new status, etc., as the 
case may be. "ihe significance is then quickly appreciated by the reader. 
A new combrnatioil should never be hidden away in a paragraph of dfscuv 
.-ion. l.cr the discission follow die dear statement, preferably *n a paragraph 
separate from that giving the technical data Do not be over-mndest and 
sfcet; to modify your work by merely "proposing" or ''suggesting" new 
name* Ry publishing at all you arr introducing these names into botanical 
literature, and no modtsty can magnify your glory if your s»sgesl»on is a 
sound one. or Icssm your Rinlt if it is not , it ran merely verve to cotirnii 
y<}W n-al work in useless verbiage 

Tn the case of new combinations, etc.. the taxonomic history (or synonymy") 
of the species should then be «t out with the authors and preferably 
(heir ulacc and dale ot publication also shown after each name When I 
new combination is disguised in a paragraph of discussion it may be difficult 
to determine precisely on what the author has based it. There is also the 
chance, that it may be entirely missed. 

When a aperies is described which has previously been known under 1 
varietal name, the author should make if absolutely efea* whether he is 
btisinft his species on the variety fin which ca.se the type specimen of ihc 
variety automatically becomes the type of the species) or whether he is 
describing the species Worn anothci spedmen ( which he should then 
d^i^rnaie ihe type) and b merely linking- up the vririmal name as a synonym 
Tn much Australian literature this has not been made clear -in thr fast, and 
umdi furtlter unnecessary work has been stored up tor Hie future. 

When new iikm/s and varieties arc described, the actual type tfirchtwni 
'.hould l< clearly <tu'*tcd as such. "My one s|*ccuncn can be the hofotype, 
evert though Several specimens may be cited. It to far better inr Ihc author 



{JJk ] Bowtu. h "Bhcy'' ft P^^mhtf 93 

to select the type than tor a later worker to be forced In do so. It is alvj 
very desirable to stale in which herbarium the type spec mien is locaied 

All new species and varieties must he accompanied by a Latin description, 
otherwise they will not now he accorded any standing*. 

In discussing variation in a species- the words "tyiw form" should be 
nvojded unless reference in being made to a form actually known to he 
identical with the type specimen. Often, however, those words have been 
vscd when "typical form," "norma! form, 71 "u&ual lorn*'' or "common form*' 
"tvoukt have been more appropriate. 

Ambiguity should he avoided Tor instance, "a new Victorian genus" 
*uggeMK that a new genus is being described, hut has been used in 
cases which meant d jgentfi newly recorded $QT Victoria. Careful considera- 
tion of the meaning of the words and phrases used will enable future 
taxonumists to avoid misinterpretation of the author's intentions, and will 
eerlainly shorten their work 

The above suggestion*, of course, arc. in no way c*hat*Mivc : but are 
merely a few pofflU noted by the writer in tht course of some work 
•involving the abstracting of botanical literature. 



JS M J3LUEY" A POLYGAMIST? 

According, to a note in a recent issue of the Pftr. Nat., there sccuir lo be 
a doubt whether the familiar Blue Wren is a poly^amist. From a study 
of the specie?' in the Fltarcy and Treasury Gardens some years- ago. over 
a period of three years, J can say for certain that he is not guilty. 

My uncle, the late Dr. Home, and I made friends with two pair* o! 
Blue Wr^ns and regmarly every morning "fed them, especially during the 
breeding season. The pair in the Treasury Gardens became *o tame that 
when I called to them they came to rhe and fearlessly alighted on my Ivrnd 
3ttd took food from me to their young. When the young Jeft the nfcrt 
they also became our friends and we were able to note that, they stayed 
vfth their parents until the following season; thou some of them, apparently 
the young female*, disappeared, presumably having mated up. licit the 
young males stayed with their parents and helped in the feeding of Hie 
young, At the tifarf of tta EjFCCJiUg season the aduU young disappeared. 
leaving their parents with the later young family. This kind of thing, 
tool; place each year. 

Wc met Cue of the first family, a hei» hip], in the Carlton Gardens one 
dKi\. She recognised u* and came to ns for food, but as we had none with 
u= she was disappointed. 1 kept up these observations for three years. 
when, owing lu my uncle's ilJnwft I was obliged to give up t&y friendship 
■wilh these interesting" little birds, Some years fn*cr ; when t .sought them 
out again, I found the male alone with his family (minus his wife) and 
iM-r; he gave up his allotment. They had nested each year in :.he s<*me 
/i I ace 

The other pair were in the Fitzroy Gardens, and all \hh family showed 
•white feathers somewhere in their plumage. This pair never became so 
fearless as the first one and had to be coaxed lo come for lilbits 

I hope that these notes will serve to remove any doubts in, the mind*, of 
ornithologists about the matrimonial habits of the, dainty Blue Wrens. 

(Miss) Heleic Bowie, 



& CH^HOUM, Birds C jt G^pOmk "McJf.<*'*(j,U£" [ V Vrf.Lx" 

BIRDS AS F-XPLOftJiRS' "MESSENGERS" 

When recently losing through this Melbourne Herald of ISS8 I CJmc 
upon severaJ references to iliv exploratory jsurney of B. H Rabhage, who 
was then about to worl< up the western vide of-Lat.c. Torfeus in an attempt 
to round its northern -side a-ad Jink up with tn>re T s track. Although Babfcagc 
hud hcfill ont previously (in 18SS] testing Gregory V report regarding the 
Supposed ^rofiisrt* nature o\ the interior, on this occasion he marie some* 
what slow progress (tflrtjely due to dry conditions), wfth the result that 
the South AuMralian Government became dissatisfied and replaced him by 
Loionel P. G. AVarhurton, then Commissioner of Police. 

At the beiMimng ot the expedition, however, as jS cle-ar from the Hcroht 
rc|x>rt«- BaMiajrc was in strong iwpular favour and was given considerable 
attention by the newsv&l^rs. One oi the newspaper reports is especially 
interesting, ill that it WftRSCWp 1 tne cvp' r,rer as putting forward the novel 
plan of attempting t<\ Catch wild birds and use them as messengers. Th?i 
/il:m, \vr. may 1>o sure, came lo nothing, but it makes engaging reading, 
tic-re xs the rtoajtf report of Babbftgt ! * remark* on the subject, dated sVnh 
Fe&nni? 1858 

''Among the different plans he had thouplit of far die contingencies which 
might arise wa> one which mighl afibrri a sh^hl chance of cniblir.tr f|, c 
public of South Australia to be informed of the whereabout*, and. he 
ii'ir-fed, of (he wefl-doina of Hie expedition The plan he referred to wns 
that, whenever they were not pressed by hunger, they should let loose any 
birds that they might chance to take uninjured, especially such 3s were 
known to IreCitteht'tht settled. dhur.cU. and to attach to iheir legs slios 
r>f parchment with inscriptions in indclibie ink, setting forth the latitude 
ami longitude, together with a few words respecting' the condition of fie 
pRrty. Perhaps, out of every twelve or twenty such w:u^ed messen^e''. 
one might he. shot, and thus, perhaps, after ranking him and bis companion* 
with the gallant but -unfortunate Leichhardt, they might gather the news 
that, at a certain dale, they were ahve and in a certain locality. 

"He wished this to be known as generally as possible, so th.it, if anyone 
chanced to sec a bird with anything peculiar about it, he should hy al! 
means try and shoot it. He had made his intentions known in NSW a>id 
Victoria through his correspondents there, for hf: was quite ignorant as to 
which war .the birds migrated; and some off his little aerial balloons- might 
change to drop down in the other colonies. Tt tnifcbl happen, of course. 
tjjjtt o.ooc of bis message? would he received; hut, m such cases, no shadow 
of a chance should be left untried." 

A. H. Cinsitof.M. 



REQUEST FOR SEED OR 5EF.DT.JNC5 

The Bcurmt. Technological Museum, Sydney, is desirous of obtaining 
fresh SCed! 6] ptvleraJjIy young 1 pi an Li, o( Australian myrtaecou* shrub? 
for important cytoiog-ical research, and wishes to contact any niCTuliet of 
(up Club who woedef fv willing to usWst him. The Jees common Victorian 
v»cocs of LcptospFrmutrt. M'ffUiicma, Khwm, CalHrtcmmi, Bncchra, CWy- 
.*m> etc., arc desired, hm Western Australian member*, of the geneva 
I'ertirordui. Oarxtfima, Wi;fwivmm\ PihtoHthits, Chaxtyefittu'ivvt (cxicpi'nc; 
C nnWva/itrif)-, Mwtzkya, C&tyfrir, Thryptotnatfi and Hypncatymiuo would 
be particularly welcome in that order' and the freight thereupon gladly 
refunded. 



J^J GMrci-T, Snn.'imiftt; oj "MUlfiCs" 95 

SWARMING OF AUnGF-S" 

[n the Vict Nat. of September. I94.V "Miss Janet "Rait wrote, *fl interesting 
paper on che swarming of midges on shrubs- at Croydon, Victoria. _V>art 
from the phenomenon of swarming, h was pointed out that there was arided 
nitercM in the f<iCt trial the occurrence was observed in autumn— evidently 
nn inirer/nently observed habit. 

The penultimate paragraph, with its remark concerning the nnssihility 
of itie5<i diptefa "hiheriuUnie; over the winter ni bheKerc.d plauuri" caused 
me to recollect my having observed what must have been an event worthy 
of putting <>n record, Ori August 7th of this year (in mid-winter) I liftfl 
occasion to visit the Br.ysidc v'tlbgc of M-eCrac, and as I walked along in 
t'ic unexpected warmth oi that afternoon and in the company oi ray little 
daughter, our attention was caught bv what ?oo!;ed Kke a n&p occurrence 
in nature, Severn! brauchlefs of w sturdy 'speeitnen oi Cmnnviuo w.hCi»owi, 
growing among its kind clr#e to Point Nepran n^ri iv A nor ]0I) yards 
from trie Inrcich ami the tea-tree scrub, hung heavy with what looked like 
cations of bktck flowers As the (tee hid finished flowering* only a tew 
weeks previous*.*, it wa>* oi eourtc ajftiutfj {q imagine that £ new set oi 
Hower* (and black ones at thai) had ejecurred. &c t rvaocd up and palled 
the 6o;i?li down to haw a dr^cr *ook. 

When we had brushed the "flowers" from nor face? anil rpmryved n few 
from our eye**, we were able to see tiiat we had disturbed a porn on ot one 
oi ol number o* swano* of tioy black dij>Tcrfc No-epceimcos were collected— 
oonscimnly ;tt any rale— :jor was any minute observation nude, so, for lack 
ol *n accurate classification, 1 label them "niitlges." From memory I 
would jiidjfo then 'o he- no mor? than 2 or J mm. lornr, and eacJi t>L the 
.''iirtnied bra^chk-U held a kwhtui that would fill a teaspoon The swMitS 
exteuded ironi 6 to 12 inches along the wispy hrandnet; and the individuals 
\-ontprisintr it appeared to distribute themselves evenly over that length. 

The small ekiud that expanded and cunrrjctcd above <Mr hcvls eventcnlly 
settled on another braiichlci and aJl was calm again in th&1 ^fjtnniunicy of 
midges. A* we passed tliose trees ne.\r morning on our way to cqj'orc 
the beach the h!ack "flowers" were still there. Ti the nies al<o vwmncd 
on gums, wattles, honeysuckles, tea-trees or cherry ballarLs, al' of which 
v-ce uiierniingied , with the she-oaks, we did not notice them, But, of 
course, they may have been there, too. 

J, Ro& GAftNRT. 



SMALL 1 RIGGER-PLANTS NEEDED POfi EXAMINATION 

The Gt.iss Tri^eer-plant (Siyliffiiwt ,trraiiimt folium) with rail ptnkirh to 
violet spikes U a handsome wildflower, Jyjniliar to »*ost Victorians — it jj 
p.iam amonQ it* \vn<\,- bu- wc h.ivc at least four other StyUdnim< whirh 
in cons^uencc of their dimiivjtivi: size, usually escape observation and arc. 
Mill unpetfeeUy ui\derJtood. Dicing the current spring season the help o ! 
itneresterl roaderfi wou'H he much anprccia.red t in collecting fic^h nuueris? 
(in [fewer, and in iruit if possible) ot .S* caharatttm and 5", parfmxiiiiitn A>»d 
sending - 4,\me to the ;iddicss below: both are tiny annuals with rosukite 
ledve> ( l1owc;ring stenii under 4 niches high, and a ffl?cfCfrt£E ("Of 'i--:'"!', 
rancy soils-: localities on record include" Grami'ian>, Pari land luMnct. 
flrathcotc, Black Rock, rr.ink^lon xvl I.anijwarrin. 

The He<itliC0te district fomi of S. perpimtinw differs markedly from the 
very rleiiratr plant inhabiting- heath lands east of Port Phillip smd may 
represent a distinct specie*. 

T. S. Hart (Croydon), 



06 



C»*i*man. The M<mmva Gcrdcns [ V £,* ?£* 



THE MA RANG A GARDENS 



The excursion to the. Maranoa Gardens which took olnce on Saturday, 
September 4, was favoured with a delightful and sunny afternoon, h $Sti 
a typical early spring day. too early, perhaps, for die Gardens (o exhibit 
their best efforts in Wattle display: yet, of the 58 species Included in the 
matpjtficcKl ftoUtdJOfij there were ai least ?.Q secies in flower. Some oi the 
ours landing; kinds were the Gold-dust, Wyalott#, Queen, Fringed, White 
S.illow, S. Australian Willow, Jumper, Buffalo, Hickory, Sallow, Mount 
Morgan, Alpine. Golden-rain, Dowjiy, Golden or GoM-Pidds. HorM. Golden 
Wreathj Coa?t, River and Varnish Wattle*. 

The. {.irovilleas were especially showy, whiUl: i>r other ProteaceoOs sb»ubs, 
the Gipjjslrmd Waratab (Telopca arcades) * was bravely breaking into 
rrhrjson flowers Amongst other cai ly *jirirt£-t1owcnn(> shrub* We noled 
some- finely-developed masse? of the Grampians Heath-Myriie (f'hiypfO' 
mrnc calyt:ina) 1 and the. SmaH-Ieaved Heath- My rile (IvJiirma^rttit micro- 
l>h\lto>), "the latter making- great -promise for the weeks to comr. hi the 
course of a week or so the thrte species of Clematis (C. ortstofa,, C*. 
gtyr.iitdidt's and C. microphvlb.) will show a fcrodjgf&fcjg display of white or 
creamy star-like blossoms. The several plants ui the Bcudi&o Wax-flower* 
{Eriostewojt) were very attractive and worth while -.n ssnali partlen.% ai 
well £9 the Jowely CJw/4tfjT»rf ftoiu the West. 

Here anrl there strong plant? of the False Sarsanarilla were etowdcel 
wilh their white and deep purple flower?,, almost daizhng in their effort 
WhOU allowed to ramble at wilt amongst a heap of gravelly stones. 

Fkeuk. Chapman. 



INTRODUCTION OF SPARROWS 

The following' interesting paragraphs, clipped front 'tie London JlUtxthiH\l 
/vVm of #4 years ago, have been forwarded by Mr. Arthur Hargreavcs, of 
Ararat 

August 13, 18S°. — It appears from the. papers 1l itLi in New ZcaUnd the 
country, ai [articular seasons, is invaded by armies of calrrniliars, which 
clear oU the grain crop? as completely as if mowed down by a .scythe. 
With the. view of counteracting this plague a novel importation had been 
made. It is UiUS iioticed by the So^tlicrn c'Vux.j: — "Mr. Brodie has shipped 
three hundred sparrows on hoard the Swarttfixfa, earcluliy selected from the 
best hedgerows in England. The food alone, he informs xis, put oil board 
for them- cost tJ8. Tfljs sparrow question has been a long-standing joke in 
'\t.ickland ; bet the necessity to fanners of small birds to keep down tin* 
grubs is admitted on ai! sid£S. There is no security in New Zealand 
mratnst the invasion of myriads of caterpillars whicn dcva*t-it<: chc Ctupf 
Mr Brcwlie has already acclimatised ihe pheasant, which [% abundant in the 
north. The descent from the pheasant to sparrows is somewhat of an 
anti-'.hmax ; but, should the ratter multiply, (he greatest benefit will have 
been con/erred on the country-" 

Suptcmher 24, 1859. — Wc learn that the 300 sparrows imported into New 
Zealand at the ingestion of Mr. Brodie have already done flic lirmers 
immense service by devouring the ratctrpdiore, which have been till recently 
most destructive in that country. The. arrival of the bird*, m fht first 
instance, was treated with universal derision. 



The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. L)L-Na j November, ^ 1945 No. 719 

PROCEEDINGS 

The monthly meeting of the Club was held at Ihc Royal Society's 
Hall on October 11. 191.3. The President (Mr. P. F. Morns) 
presided and about 70 members and friends attended. 

"BRAINS TRUST 

Questions held over from previous sessions were answered 
Question 1. To Miss J. W. Raff: 'What is Heterodoxy 
Spiniger? Is it a fossil, a plant or a louse"''" Answer: A biting 
louse* often found on dogs, but whose natural host is the wallaby . 
Il has transferred from the natural host to a secondary host and 
ranges from 40 degrees North to 40 degrees South, climate pfaying 
a large part in its distribution. Comments \ Mr. F\ Crnsbic. 
Morrison asked whether the foot-grips differ on the sucking and 
biting lice. Answer: In this case Miss Raff was tint able to answer 
with accuracy, but possibly differences did exist. 

Question 2. To Mr. A. H. E. Mattingley (taking the place of 
Mr. A. II. Chisholm) : "How does the Reef Heron kuow when to 
fly out to the islands off the mainland to feed at the turn of the 
tide, seeing that the tides differ from day to day?" Answer: Mr. 
Mattiriglcy suggested that sonic radial rays at present unknown, 
hut due to the tides, affected the birds in such a way that they knew 
when to leave the mainland and reach the islands at the proper 
time Mr. Mattingley further suggested that the word "instinct," 
used to explain such happenings, should be dropped from use t as 
it rather prevented any explanation being given. Comm-ents: Mr. 
E. S. Hanks doubted that such an explanation could be accepted, 
and in any case he questioned whether the birds did fly from the 
mainland as suggested by the question. Mi. H. P. Dickius asked 
if the birds were only affected by one tide, or did they realize that 
there were two tides each day, Mr. Mattingley thought that the 
birds would know of the two tides. Mr. F, 5. CoJHver suggested 
thar until some definite proof could be Ii;hJ that such rays existed 
and affected the birds in any way at ail, it would be better to call 
the reason for the flight "instinct" and be done with it. Mr. Scott 
gave, as a possibly better explanation, the theory that the birds 
were able to appreciate (he slight changes that take place on the 
surface of the earth due to the added Or subtracted weight of the 
water along the shore-line at the tidal changes. 



9* Field NohtratUtr' Chb Proc^'^gt £ V £J; *£* 

Question 3. To Mr. C. J, Gabriel ; "Do you believe (hat the 

most satisfactory classification of the moHttsca has been arrived 
at, and if not where would you make alterations?" Annv-cr: 
Classification of the motlusca has been made on such items as the 
radnJa, anatomical characters of the soft parts, and the shells 
themselves, to jnention only three of many. The personal feelings 
of the worker eoneemed play a large part in such a matter as. a 
classification, e.g., the fossil forms usually are found kclong 
character* to he seen tn the living shell, and thus a. clarification 
based on soft parts would he uselese in dealing with fossil forms. 
Mr. Gabriel also remarked that if it caji he said the best classifica- 
tion had been arrived at. then vc have stopped progress in this 
particular branch of study Covim&nlS'. Mr ColKver suggested 
that the best classification would be one based on the shell itself, 
as by this both recent and fossil forms were comparable with each 
other. Mr. Morrison submitted that anatomical characters of the 
sofi pajts w<julc! possibly he the best grounds for classification. and 
even if the work of the palaeontologist were made more difficult, the 
main item of relationship between forms would have been deter- 
mined. Mr Gates remarked (hat the line of descent was certainly 
i he mo&t important matter to he considered, no matter what the 
classification was hased upon. 

Question 4. To Mr. J. H. 'Willis: "Name six different Victorian 
native plants which are poisonous to animals and give the toxic 
principle* in each."' Answer: Although stock-poisoning by certain 
indigenous plants is well attested, the most recent available work- 
on the subject (Poison Plants of NS h\, 1942) indicates that very 
little js known about the actual poisonous principles involved 
Wc may conveniently group our chief poison plants under three 
broid headings, vi/.., Uiose containing cvanogenctic glucosides, 
thereby yielding prussic acid upon ingestion, those secreting 
alkaloids, and those that prison insidiously by cumulative effect. 
To the first category belong the great majority of toxic species 
and three of the wnrst offenders are: (1 ) F|*t Spurge or Caustic 
Weed; (2) Austral Trefoil, and (3) Spotted Emu-hush or Native 
Fuchaa. These commonly give rise to trembling, shivering, 
frothing at the mouth and rapid mortality, The Emu-bush has a 
higher percentage of prttssic acid than any other Australian plant. 
Astounding variability with local soil conditions, climatic changes 
and stage of growth obtains in most cyanoger.etjc vegetation, so 
that a plant of bail reputation in one district may be quite harmless 
elsewhere, or later in the reason, Among alkalo'd poison plants 
may he instanced the Yellow Rice-flower (the toxicity, due to 
daphnin or a related substance, causes severe gastroenternis) and 
poisonous toadstools, of which the muscarine-yielding "fly agaric'* 
is a good type. Intoxication, with strange hallucinations, is a 



-JJJJ] fifty Naturalists' Onh Prowdin#t 95 

frequent effect, but over-doses end in a lingering, agonising death. 
The Purple Swamson Pea (a coastal trailer) well exemplifies 
cumulative poisoning; indeed, the whole genus S-xxiinsona-, when 
persistently browsed, causes animals to become '^a»s$f**ek , *| they 
wander about in a dazed condition until too exhausted to stand. 
Comments: Mr. H. C. E. Stewart mentioned the apparent immunity 
of our native marsupials and many biros to plants which would 
kill the introduced domestic animals. Mr Ros Garnet drew atten- 
tion to the avoidance of certain cucalypt leaves by koalas, presum- 
ably because of toxic properties, whether cyanogenetic or due to 
high pheJIandrene content- 

Question 5. To Mr. A. C. Frostick : "What evidence is there 
that Teklites are of meteoric origin, and what ii> the weight of 
the largest?" JinitW- Since vhere appears to he no accepted 
record of the observed fal) of tektites, direct evidence of their 
extra-terrestrial origin is admittedly lacking. However, their 
almost unique composition, peculiarities of distribution, and the 
unusual form of some Australian examples, while strongly support- 
ing the meteoric theory, at the same time rules out most of those 
remaining. Furthermore, the recent research of Mr C Baker 
and Mr, H. C. Forster iitto the specific gravity relationships of 
the widespread Australian teklites (AustraliLcs), cleaily demon- 
strates the existence of the chemical gradient long ago predicted 
by supporters of the meteoric theory. The unique form of 
Australite ''buttons," so admirably explained as due to ablation 
resulting from atmospheric friction, also remains an enigma if the 
meteoric theory be refuted Lastly, the one serious objection 
advanced rutins* W acceptance of teklites as acid meteorites is 
the wide divergence of their composition from that oi both the 
stony and metallic meteorites, in estimating the vaiue of this 
objection, it should be rememliered that eighteenth-century scien- 
tists believed the "fall of stones from the sky" to lie a physical 
impossibility, so that at that time the true origin of even meteorites 
was as obscure & that of tektites to-day. In reply to the second 
part of the question. The largest Australite recorded weighs 218 
grams, though Indo-Chimtes may weigh several kilograms. Cow- 
rruinis- Mr. J H. Willis inquired about the age of Australites. and 
whether the aborigines made use of them. Au&tt&rz In the absence 
of any precise age determination the occurrence of Australites, 
both on the surface and in the Quaternary gold drifts, would 
indicate that they are geologically recent yet historically remote. 
The aborigines apparently did make use of them, but not to any 
extent. 

Question 6 To Mr. Colliver : "Is there any fossil proof showing 
ancestry of the highly evolved Casuarina from ancient Gym no- 
sperms. Failing geological evidence, on what is the implication 



100 PieU NafKratisis' Club PrtKccdttxys DvSfcwt^ 

of the relationship by systematic botanists based. Or can the Brains 
Trust briefly outline the probable development (palaeontologieah 
of the Australian Casuarina?" Anrtvcr; Engker and Pram) s 
E'flanzfvjmmlu'-n ({389), the now widely -accepted standard for 
plant classification, gives: "The resemblance of Cosuanna to 
EqiiisetaieM is purely superficial, and a derivation of Casuanna 
direct fiom the Eqttissttucae cannot be considered seriously. Some- 
what greater is the conformity with Ephedra, at least in the course 
n£ the vascular fibres: in floral structure, however, Casuarinas 
show themsHve* as undoubted angiu^penns (plants with ovanes) 
and a comparison with the floral conditions of Ephedra will agtnl 
not permit ihe thought to he entertained of any closer relationship ; 
it may Ut mentioned at the same time that in ihe male flowers oE 
h piwdra a synandrium replaces the single seamen found in 
Casuarmas." AfefcJ to above tnnslatmn by Mr. J, H. Willis; It 
is important to remember that pmeiu-day vegetative structure 
\n many plants (ells us very ljtt«3 of the true evolutionary affinities. 
Because Equi$elu7\i t Ephedra and Casuariita di.vplay a common 
reduction of leaves and a verticillate or whoilcd, "whip-cord" 
habit of growth, this means really no more than the development 
of succulence, for instance, among desert plants ot such diverse 
and unrelated families as Ctwtaceac, Euphorbia-cme, Compositoc, 
/hclcpiadstceae . etc. Herr the swollen, water-holding and pfioto- 
syntheiic stems are remarkably similar and, in the absence of leaves 
and flowers, one family might well be mistaken for another. Then 
again, Camarina is usually reckoned a primitive type and relegated 
to the lowest rank of flowering plants, but is there a valid reason 
for this view? Mere simplification of the floral parts (absence of 
perianth, reduction in number and size of stamens, etc.) is no 
criterion for an ancient type: ihe grasses, willows, and other 
wind-pollinated plants were once called "primitive, 1 ' buy arc now 
more often regarded as highly evolved, There is absolutely no 
foasil evidence 10 linlc up the "sbeokes'"' with any other plant 
family, past or present, and to maintain that they are related to 
Gymno^penns seems to me quite unwarrantable. 

Question 7 To Mr. Colhver: "Has any form ni fossil ever 
been found in Igneous rock?*' Afrswpri Yes. many casts, impres- 
sions and enclosed wood have been recorded from basalt deposits. 
To mention some of the more important ones: in 1S92 portion 
of a Lycopod stem in basalt was. recorded from Bo'uess Coal Field, 
Scotland, by LadelL {TransMdhLCeoISoc, Vol. 6, PI, 3) ; in 
1900 a unique cast of a tree-trunk in basalt from Foot stray was 
described by WalcotL (Proc.RS.Vic, Vol. VII ; in pt. 2; p. 140) ; 
in 1907 Solorfcano- and Hobseu recorded numerous and distinct 
external impressions of female ears of maize, entire grains, ar.d 
carbonusfcd remains of the axis of the ear. preserved in scoria from 
Mexico. {GftnLMog,. Vol. 4, No 5) ; in 1914 Chapman recorded 



j**J] ftVW Xalmathis Club Practrndin^s lOl 

the impression of ihe fruit of a. CttjiUflW in a basalt blade 
jtffcjfa. Vo). 3I> No. 6.) 

Question 8. To Mr. Colliver: "Which of the rival views con- 
cerning the origin of the 'Devil'* Corkscrews' (Daemchelix) do 
you favour ?" Answer: The Daemohelixes, as now known, are 
giant spiral structures iound in widely dispersed areas and 
deposits of various ages: e.g.. they have been recorded irom the 
Miocene of Nebraska, Pleistocene of America, Oligocene of 
Bavaria, and Jurassic of Queensland- Allied forms arc known 
from the Wealdian of England. (Dinocochlea) and have been 
<lt edged from the North Sea. These last two, from their general 
appearance, could possibly be giant mollusca, but for the Queens- 
land form, to winch the question apparently refers, this view does 
not seem possible. Possible explanations are : (a) infilled potholes 
(impossible owing to these structures occurring both horizontally 
and vertically-, (b) concretions (no methods known whereby a 
spiral structure can he formed): (c) infilled animal burrows (no 
spirally-formed burrow known): (d) infilled holes caused by 
decayed roots (no such roots known) ; (e) coprolites. Personally, 
whilst 1 agree that infilled hurrows and root-holes could cause 
such structures, I favour the coprolitic origin; but one must Admit 
that no proof has been found. That they are large for coprolites 
is also admitted, but the same deposits contain remains of two 
Dinosaurs of approximately 50 feet long, and these animals could 
have produced a coprolite of 7 feet, which U approximately the 
length of the Queensland spiral. 

Question 9. To Mr. Colliver: "What is the Fossil Eucalyptus 
Record?" An<%ver\ For Australia, 19 specie?, named, and of these 
tSare accepted by Maiden in his Critical Revision Besides These, 
four living specie* are listed as sub-fossil, eg.. E. obiiqua, ex 
Haddon, Malmsbury and Daylesford; £. amygdathm, x.v .Redruth, 
near Casterton; E. mclliodam, ex Brurhen (fossil wood), and 
E. piperita, ex Mallacoota Inlet (fossil wood). A comprehensive 
survey of the above will be found in a paper on the "Fossil 
Eucalyptus Record,' 7 by Chapman, (Vic NaL, Vol. +2, No. 9, p. 
229.) Of extia-Australiaii described species, some 21 have been 
recorded trom such diverse localities as Tirol, Moravia, Siberia,. 
Poland, Portugal, and America, All ot these are doubtful de- 
terminations. Cretaceous fruits, supposedly of Eucalyptus, from 
Siberia have been proved to be cone scales of a conifer. Dammara 
horeolis. 

This final question brought the "Brains Trust" to a close. 
Several members spoke congratulating ihose who had taken pait 
111 the -series, on the amount of infcirmaticm they had given to the 
meetmys. a *d suggested that a similar .series should be arranged 
in the near future. 



m Fteld Uahiraluts' Chtb Proceedings FvSv? 

REPORTS OF EXCURSIONS 
Reports of excursions were given as follows; East Oakleigh, 
Mr. P. R Morris (for Mr. and Mrs. Sakn); Wattle Park, Mr. 
JE. S Hanks (Mr. Chalk reported per Mr Cooper that a visit to 
the park the following Saturday showed that most ol* the nestb 
noted at our excursion had been destroyed by boys) ; Botanic 
Gardens. Mr. P. F. Morris. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS 
The following were elected as Ordinary Members of the Club: 
Miss H. Parry, Messrs. A. Bates, John Swanstnn, W N. Kewley; 
as Country Member: Mr. R E. Carthew; as Associates; Miss 
Patricia Harris and Master A. N. Carter, 

GENERAL BUSINESS 
Mi P h\ Morris reported on (he Natural History exhibition 
held last wrvfc at the Hawthorn Free Library, and rhankerj all who 
had corunbhled in making the show so suciessfuL he further 
sute«i that Mr. S. R. Mitchell and Mr. and Mrs. Kteame deserved 
a special vote of thanks. 

EXHIBITS 

Mr P. Fisch ; Greenhoods {Ptcrostylis curio-, P. lontjijolw, 
P. nutans), found along Rooming Creek at Doncaster. Also the 
Bird Orchid (Cfrihxjlotlis Cumin), Wallflower Orchid (Diuri.i 
loiityifolta) and garden -grown Prostautitfra (walijolia. 

Mr, J. H. Willis | Curious insect gaits on "Snganvood" 
(Myoporum plat year punt) from the Malice; also lustrous ironstone 
pebbles from SajKlnn^iraiii beach. 

Mr. J Ross Garnet; Female hermit ciab from a whelk shell 
(The relatively few eggs attached to the body of the animal a»r 
but a. small portion q\ (he total number produced.) SjpGcHfcn 
collected at McCrae, 19/9/43. 

Mr. H. P. Dickins: Four studies of Australian flowers. 



i'LUCKY BOTCHER BIRD 

"The butcher bird,'' says an experienced bu&hman, "is a tyrant, but I 
admire tlie pluck with which ho fights for lias own it the female is sitting:, or 
ttoerfi *rc young in the nest. He neve* whittles to his mate, as most other 
birds do when nesting, his tuneful whittle being hoard later in the season. 
Jle will tackle a brown hawk or a crow in defence of his family, and drive 
ihcm of?. 

"And though he destroys so many small bh'th, it is a curious fact that 1 
havr found the nest of the black and white robin and lift black-cared miner 
on the same shrub with the butcher bird's nest, and only a few feet from it. 
yet all living harmoniously together. That is not an uncommon occurrence. 
Many birds which are antagonistic seem to fraternise or at any rate call a 
truce when nesting close together." 



Not, 
164S 







Black, A Mma Aboriginal Art Gallery 



103 



A NEW ABORIGINAL ART GALLERY 
By Lindsay Black, Lecton, N.S.W. 

Some months ago Mr. A, R, Campbell, of Broken Hill, told me 
he knew of a cave containing engravings and paintings on Glenlyon 
Station, western N.SAY. As I knew this was a Gallery which 
had never been recorded, 1 arranged with him to guide a party 
to investigate. 

The position described was in the Scope Range and not a great 
distance from Burke's Cave where there are engravings, paintings. 
and stencilled hands which have been descril)ed bv Dow in Mankind 
(Vol. 2, No. 5. p. 117). 




The chief tave of the Glenlyon painting. 

The party visited the Gallery early in August (1943) and was 
well rewarded. At this Gallery there are a number of rock- 
shelters and one cave. The site is near the Gum or Sixty-Mile 
Creek and is about 60 miles N.E. from Broken Hill, close to the 
main road to Wilcaniria. 

There are many aboriginal Art Galleries In this district, which 
was the home of the Bullalli tribe, and they ar^ all close to large 
water-courses. The aboriginals must have selected these places 
on account of the water supply, both for domestic use and because 
there would be plenty of game in the vicinity of the water. 

The unusual items at this Gallerv were illustrations of two ducks 






Viet, N«t. 
Vol. LX 



and a large egg. One duck painting, measuring thirteen inches 
long and seven inches high, was painted white, but had to be 
chalked over in order to obtain a clear photograph, The other 
duck was engraved, but it was weathered and indistinct and a 
photograph could not be obtained. Close to these two birds was a 
large egg and 24 hands, all painted white. These hands were very 
dear, as they were well sheltered in the cave. On the wall of the 
cave there were also some stencilled hands. Stencilled hands are 
very common, as there are numbers at every Gallery where paint- 
ings are found, and sometimes they are in shelters or caves where 
This Gallery has never previously been recorded. 



SOLDIERS COLLECT BUTTERFLIES IN NEW GUINEA 

The main trial of a soldier's life in New Guinea is his constantly waged 
war against monotony. Many have sought respite from this danger by 
taking an active interest in the study and collecting of local butterflies, which 
must surely rank among the most colourful in the world. 

I am afraid this practice was originally looked upon by many as the first 
signs of the victory of monotony over the average brain. Those 
so weakened were termed "Tropjtt," and looked upon pityingly by the others. 

But time passed, and the students of nature's collection increased to 
become gradually the show piece of the camp. Slowly but surely the interest 
in New Guinea's butterflies became more apparent among the ranks until 
to-day we find quite an army of collectors out each day ^caic 
trails and beside jungle streams for new specimens. 

Rank amateurs having little knowledge of the habits and the entomological 
names of the butterflies, they soon developed a language of their own. 
When, for instance, they refer to an RAAF, you know they mean a black 
and white variety with an Air Force circle on its wings. It is only caught 
The "Tiger" has Richmond Footfall Club's colours — 
yellow and black. It is the most elusive of its kind, and has to be caught 
it\ flight. The Blues are ranked among the most colourful, being a broad 
V-shaped, fantailcd variety, with a beautiful blue silky wing and are caught 
only by decoy. 

Those types so far mentioned are the size of a man's palm when extended. 

The collectors found that many of the species move unceasingly along the 
same jungle trail back and forth over a hundred yards or so. Blues remain 
high among the jungle foliage, hut are attracted down by a decoy of their 
own kind placed in a leafy, sunny spot. Most brown varieties seem I i 
move among 1 the kunai grass, and are beautifully marked in brown and white. 

The butterflies play a most important part in the life of New Guinea flora, 
as their main work is pollination, taking the place of our Australian bee. 
The study of their habits by observation has developed, as did the formation 
ttf a local nomenclature for them. 

The students are as keen as the most seasoned collector, and one can hut 
marvel now at the knowledge they have of the. butterfly and its habits. 
Not only that, but, more important, it seems to have improved their general 
knowledge of the tropics and the jungle and shown to them in a more 
practical way alt those rales and tactics on bushcraft and law we were 
taught from jungle training manuals. 

__ | -, - served a dual purpose, and from the apprecia- 
tion of the butterfly has come a more intimate and ,. > . ,.j [_- i^ 41 

we alt must fight in, and, of paramount Importance, has 

helped lift the local, _: *u v — 

— Fro.:; J tmn (Mem.). 23/10/43. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. lx XovnHbcr, 1943 

Plate VII 




Tliis illustration i>f a wild duck is a painting: it war- chalked over f i u* ill 
purpose of photography. 




Various hands painted in the (ilcnlyoii ( avu. 

Photos, htf Lindsay Wart;. 



S5t|] Colbman, Further Notes on tho Great Bww Stick-hisest |Q5 

FURTHER NOTKS ON THE GREAT BROWN 
STICK-INSECT 

By Edith Coleman, Blackburn, Vic. 

The first female Stick-insect which developed tYoru eggs de- 
posited by my captive had herself dropped .33 eggs on July 16, 
1942 (Pytij Aug., 1942). This insect was kept alone in order 
to count her eggs. She died on January 3. 194.3, during a very 
hot spell. In less than seven nmnths she. dropped 452 eggs. Site 
herself hatched from one of 594 eggs deposited by hei mother in 
les.s than a year. 

It will be remembered that five adult females of this hatching 
were isolated to decide the question of parthenogenesis (fclV.j 
Aug., 1942), Later, two more adult females were placed with 
them, A large cage gave ample room for movement, and for 
plenty of gum-tips. In this cage egg-deposit commenced on July 2 t 
1942, increasing until, at a conservative estimate, some 2,400 eggs 
had been dropped. 

In the mixed cage, pairing, which was continuous for from 24 
to 36 hours, commenced on October 4. 1 9i 2, lasting until March 
5 3 1943, and here egg-laying did not start until October 31. 1942. 
All these adult males had died by fvlarrh 10, 1943. Must of them 
had lost a leg or two, even three. The last of the fanttltt in tlu's 
cage died on August 28, 1945. Some of these, too. had lost a leg. 
Three of the seven isolated female* are still alive, &ound in wand 
and limb. Indeed, none of these was mutilated in any way. 

Some of the eggs from each cage were removed to labelled boxes 
containing hurrius. The rest were left on the floors of the cages. 
All were sprinkled with water from lime to rime. Although some 
of the parents of these eggs hatched in four months from the time 
of deposit, there is at present no sign of hatching, yet the eggs arc 
from 12 tn 15 months old. 

This long hibernation is not unusual* Professor G D. Hall 
Carpenter (Oxford) lias told me of such an instance. Jn Qctohei, 
i!Mt, he received a large (dead) South African Phasmid with her 
eggs, presumably deposited in 1940. The eggs were mounted on 
a card and put away. On -September IS, 1942, he found itat two 
eggs had hatched, but the larvae had not been able to free them- 
selves from the membranes. The card of eggs was transferred to 
a damp chamber, and after four days a living larva emerged, but 
died, probably owing to the lack of its proper food-plant. 

Secciid Hatching 

To return to my own experiments. Lti the meantime, a second 

large family of Stick-insects emerged frum the first 594 eggs. 

On May 24, 1942, Ode egg hatched — -eleven months after the last 

o< the first hatching. Nut unlil October 2, 1942, did another larva 



106 Coleman, Further A T otes on the Great Brown Stick-insect 



rVict Nat. 
L VoLLX 



emerge, the early, or tardy, comer of May 24 being then about 
three inches long- 
Two more hatched on October 18 and two on October 24. One 
of these fell into a dish of warm milk set on the floor for a dog. 
It appeared to be quite dead when I lifted it out, although a 
moment before it had been struggling in the milk; but, although 
only a few hours old. the tiny creature was shamming. Still stiff, 
it was placed on a piece of clean linen, and in a few minutes was 

quite lively again. When lifted to 
[he i;um-tw r igs. it again ''froze'* — 
but it ran under a leaf of its own 
colour when I moved away. 

Hatching continued until Novem- 




ler 



u , 



1942. when I had a second 



Stick-insect showing a re- 
getierating foreleg at the pen- 
ultimate moult. At the hn;:l 
moult this leg will be normal, 
except that it may be slightly 
shorter than the opposed leg. 
Only half the head can be hid- 
den in the hollow of the one 
toreleg- 



fnmilv forger than the first. One 
wondered how many of the delicate 
creatures that emerged during the 
torrential rains of November 4 
would have survived in natural con- 
ditions. At the present time (Sep- 
tember 30) two females and one 
male of this second hatching have 
passed their final moult, but egg- 
laying has not started. Just before 
this take> place the insect rests with 
heavy abdomen reflexed backward, 
a position retained throughout the 
egg-laying period, except when mov- 
ing to feed on fresh leaves. 

Jt is interesting to note that hatch- 
ing of the tirst lot of eggs, assumed 
to have commenced in November, 
1941, lasted until February, 1942. 
In the second batch it began on 
October 14, 1942, and ended on 
November 17, 1942, a much shorter 



period fur the older eggs. 

Regeneration of Lost Limbs 

Occasionallv during ecdy>is a limb is lost. In two instances I 
saw this happen, a bead of green fluid appearing on the newly 
emerged body at the point where a leg had been torn off. The 
insect appears to sorter no discomfort, although when a foreleg 
is lost half of its bead, only, can be hidden in the hollow inner side 
of the remaining foreleg. 

At the next moult a minute protuberance indicates a coming leg. 
With another moult it is a little longer and slightly thickened at 



if»] Ooi-fmak. Farther lVota on tht Grtai Brown Stivh-inwn 107 

the tip- At the next mouli the thickening has curled, like *t little 
pig-'& tiil, aaid at the penultimate moult the cm] is twice revolute. 

At this stage a slight wriggling movement is noticed in the eutJ,, 
especially when the opposed leg is moved, but the regenerating 
leg is not yet used in walking or dinging. With the final moult 
the new leg is almost normal, although it is usually slightly shorter 
than the opposite leg. 

Growth of the regenerated leg i* apparent only after a moult. 
When a. leg is lost after the final moult, regeneration does not take 
pkice. 

The insect illustrated "A r " one uf the second batch, is ?i inches 
from tip of the extended foreleg to end of the "teir-appendages. 
Final moult should soon take place. She is still gfeert. A striking 
feature of the second family bns been the retaining ot their green 
colour until the penultimate moult. 

On November 3 T 1942. I watched a tiny creature lose a middle 
leg during its first moult. On Jammry 26, 1943, this insect was 
5 inches long and had grown a "leg"' % an inch in length. On 
January 30, 1942, it again moulted, ihe new leg measuring ^ an 
inch lo the curl. The opposite (normal) leg was 2 inches long. 
On March IS, ]943 7 after firal moult, the regenerated leg was 
2£ inches long, the opposed one being 2 1 1-1 2lhs inches, 

During the winter little movement was seen in the cages, although 
food was eaten in June and IxiJy. 

The insect illustrated ("A") was photographed twice* the second 
photograph, although taken 24 hours later, show* no change of 
position. An exposure of 3± minutes was necessary, yet little, 
it any movement is shown, so ngid 13 ihe "ircezing" attitude. 



POISON OF THE PLATYPUS 

The following note has been written m a Victorian paper by a resident 
of Dcvonport (Tas.) ; 

A boy engaged in trapping rabbits on * farm in northern Tasmania one 
morning found a Urge platypus caught by one of ils forefeet in a trap, and 
brought jt, still attached to the trap, to our house I impulsively look it by 
the neck, as. one woufd a duck, and tt immediately curlerl Hi body round and 
drove two sharp *purs itiTO my left hand on either side. The agony was so 
intense that 1 fell to the ground, and the creature then ylipj>eri away. In a 
short time my hand was .swollen to ihrce times its normal *iac. and my arm 
wis hkewisc affected. A foment, in which permanganate of po-a$h wa-5 
dissolvcd> having been tried without reducing the pain or swelling, I was 
taken to a doctor. He ordered my hand and arm to be kepi in water (to 
which antiseptic were added) a* near to boding point as couM be borne 
I was in bed for nearly a fortnight, and my hand was landed four tiroes, 
The doctor declared that if I had not been in perfect heal(h I would 
neruin,ly hare lost rny arm and probably my life. As it was I svfifercd for 
many months from the effect of the poison in my system and from loss of 
p&we* in my left hand, the finger-nails of which turned black; while those 
of my right hand became brown. 



108 Wakzfkxd, Revision of ihe Victorian Gfefr&fttKMf t^vSjS? 

REVISION OP THE VICTOR! AM GLEICHBNIACEAE 
By N, A, WAireriEt.0, Genoa, Victoria. 

Til the latest comprehensive Victorian Flora, 1 The family Gfcicheniaceac 
aS represented by the genes GUichenic and 1otir of its <peaes. In 193&. 
however, CHiri*tensen s broke (he family up into five genera, which arrange- 
ment Copland* has adopted, though ihe Utter revives an fldd-Jtional genus. 

The first Austrian species to be described was G, rircinn$ta of Swart*: 
but in 1810 Robert Brown' 1 discarded thus name on the grounds * nat *' ,e 
species was insufficiently described, and he applied specific names to several 
plants, any one of which nrijrht have been SwirU'j species. Subsequent 
writers* regarded Brown's C wkrophylla a» a *ynonym of G. circmnoto, 
and G. dienrfi* of Brown was listed as a valid species But Chri$r<n$£0, 
who recently examined Swartz'j original material, found that the reverse 
was the case, and that it is Brown'* G. dfafrfti which corresponds to 
Swartz's species , so, for our Victorian material, tb«r name G. vucropftxffa 
roust replace our <G. ciuinttata, and the latter name must bo applied to our 
(J. dicQTpa, which becomes a synonym. 

Our other Victorian species now belong to the genus Slichcvus. Robert 
Brown 4 described two or" I hem as Gltichtnw tctwra and G fiobcHata, but 
BeiHhdrn* and subsequent Australian hotanists reduced the former to a 
variety of the Utter, though ChristensenG rightly regards both as distinct 
specie*. The rhirJ Victorian species of Sttchcrus ha*, until the present, 
remained undescribed ; for il has been wrongly identified as G laevigata? 
a species ranging from Malaya to New Guinea. 

Our local species of Glcicheniaceae are distinguished by their tiered 
fronds which consist oi opposite pairs of apparently dicholomous pinnae 
This pattern of growth is called pscuuo-dithotonious, and is brought about 
by the primary pinnae producing only one pair oi oppontc secondary 
pinnae, tho apical part being represented by an undeveloped urcmnate "bud." 
The secondary and the tiertiary pinnae and the apex of the frond behave 
m the siimc manner; though in Ghkhcnin many of these buds often develop 
into frond pans tr» produce a more complicated pattern 
The Victorian genera and species ai*c a* follow" 

Pinnules deeply cut into rounded segments GUhhtmia 

Segments fiat <7. mkropttytla 

Segments forming pouches G. ctrcinnoU} 

Pinnules entire or almost so . . . Stichcrn* 

Pinnules entrrc, widely spreading; recluses bear- 
ing broad scales 5* hbntns 

Pinnules entire, acutely angled, mchiecs scaly- 

hirsute .V, /mrr 

Pinmiks denticulate, acutely angled; rachises 

glabrous or almost so . . ., .. ., .. ,, .. S". flabeffotw 

*'0en«s Ght^h/ann Smith — Fronds btpinnate or ninre compound; seg- 
ments minute, round or ovate ; suri usually composed of .1 or 4 sporangia- 
A small group ol the oriental tropics and further south."3 

G. cira'nwto Swam. (Syn G. die or pa R.Brown*). Stipes and rachises 
wiry, rcd-hrown, scaly-vitlosc ; lobes of pinnules very concave beneath, 
their incurved murginn forming pouches in which the sori arc situated; 
iporangia 2. Distribution; N, Ausu., Q'land., K.S.W., Vic., Tis., N.Zen]., 
N. Caledonia and N. Guinea. 

G, mieropttyilii R Brown 4 (Syn. G. ctrcintutttfi of many writers but not 
of Swam). Similar in most features to the preceding species, but the 
lnbes ui the pinnules forger and flat ; sporangia 3-4 Distribution: Q'land., 
N.S.W., VirvTas.. 5 Austr., N. ZeaJ and N Caledonia. 

"Genus Stichrrus Prcsl.— Rhizome and frond paleaceous or glabresconl ; 
frond in typical development pinnate or bipinnate, its subsequent division 



Nov.] 
IMS J 



U \kkficu>. Revision of the Victorian GUichtniaccoe 



1W 




Wk 11/ ,/j/m 




<Ss^ 




V 



MAW 



pseudo-dichotomous, the growth of the terminal bud being suppressed above 
each node; foliar segments borne on ultimate axes and usually on one to 
three preceding interuodes, nodes without stipular appendages ; veins once 
forked; sori of 1-6 (most commonly 4) sporangia. A large genus, through- 
out the Oriental and American tropics. Presl's diagnostic character, 
reticulate venation, is imaginary." 3 



110 Wakefield, Revision of the Victorian Glcichcniaccae [ V v^*lx" 

ST1CHERUS LOB ATI) 'S sp.nov. Frattdes attar vei breves; pinna 
prhnana 2-4 oppositis paribus dickotonta ratnti divarieatis fcreniibus 
basibus eonfusionem magnarum pinnidarum hbalantw; rachises squama 
tattt acute desiduw; pinnules inleyra? glabra: basibus latis coneurrentibus ; 
sporangia 3-5. 

Synonyms: Gleiehenia flagellars of Batfey 7 and others, not of Bory, and 
Spreng. ; Gleiehenia laevigata of Domin, 8 Ewart 1 and others, not of Willd. 
and Hook. 

Fronds of the typical plant are up to 6 ft. high, arising from a widely 
creeping rhizome and each bearing 1-4 pairs of primary pinnae, the bases 
of which are surrounded by clusters of large lobed pinnules. The primary 
pinnae are forked twice or thrice with widely divergent branches and at 
first the rachises bear large broadly-triangular scales but become glabrous 
later. The pinnules are widely spreading (about 80° to the rachises) and 
are long, tapering, entire, light-green and glabrous above and below, with 
broad concurrent basis. Son are numeious and consist of 3-S sporangia. 
A common species ranging from south-east Queensland through eastern 
Mew South Wales to eastern Victoria, S. lobahts is figured by Bailey 7 (as 
C7. fagellaris), and in the F-N.CV. book on Victorian Ferns ( as G. 
laevigata). Material collected by the author during the past few years 
from east Gippsland has been placed in the Melbourne National Herbarium 
to typify the species. Pigs. 1 (a. to d.) r 

HOLO-TYPE from Mt. Drummer, Vic, N.A.W. 6/7/1941. 

S. tener (R.Brown) Ching. in Sunyatscnia, V. (1940) 2H3, Synonyms: 
Gleiehenia tencra R.Brown; 4 G. flahcHata var. iencra Bentham; 5 and G. 
flabellata (partim) of Brown, 4 Bentham 5 and subsequent writers. 1 Primary 
pinnae 1-3 pairs, each branched acutely twice or thrice fairly close to the 
main rachis; rachises densely scaly-hirsute or rarely almost glabrous; 
pinnules acutely angled, dark green, rather dull, finely silky-pubescent 
beneath, obscurely lobed or nearly entire. The few scattered pinnules on 
the primary rachises are often somewhat lobed, but are longer than in the 
preceding species and distant from each other. Distribution: Widespread 
in Tasmania, Victoria and New South Wales. Figs. 2 {a. and b.). 

For this plant Bentham 5 remarked : "var, tencru, a small alpine form. 
Mount Wellington, Tasmania," while both he and Robert Brown 4 listed 
the following species for Tasmania; so it is evident that Brown himself 
failed to delimitate correctly between two of his own species. 

5. flabellahts (R.Brown) nov.eotnb. (Syn. Gleiehenia flabellata 
R.Brown.*) Primary pinnae 1 or 2 pairs, each branched acutely once or 
twice very close to the main, rachis; rachises glabrous or rarely slightly 
scaly-hirsute; pinnules acutely angled, distinctly toothed, dark-green, shiny, 
glabrous above and below. There are no lobed pinnules, nor do the 
primary rachises bear pinnules. Distribution; Abundant in, Queensland and 
New South Wales ; also in eastern Victoria, and cxlcnding to New 
Caledonia and New Zealand. Figs, 3 (a. and b.). 

The only known Victorian locality for this species is Boggy Creek, near 
Genoa, where a large patch was found in a rocky gorge towards Genoa 
Peak by the writer in September, 1939 — a new Victorian record. 

References 

1. Flora of llctoriu, by A. J. Evvarl. 

2. "Filicinae," by C. Christemk'ii, in Verdoon's Manual of Pteridology. 

3. "Gleicheniaceae of New Guinea/' by E t B. Copeland, in Phil. Journ. So., 
Vol. 7S, No. 4. 

4. Prodromus of the Flora- of tfjno Holhnd t by Robert Browll* 

5. Flora Australian sis (Vol. vir), by George Bentham, 

6. Index Filicum, by Carl Christensen. 

7. Lithograms of Queensland Ferns, by F, M. Bailey. 

8. Fernftora of Queensland, by C. Domin. 



gJJ] "Barfy" Slack Sixths in Engtand 111 

"EARLY" BLACK SWANS tN F.NGLAND 
The folio whig' exit act (sent by Mrs. A. 1 Iarwreaves, ui Ararat) IB 
from the tltujfvatrrl Lrndnn .Vc7.e,v of August 20, 3859; 

"fivemeie now know.* that the Latin proverb which ftposla of the rarity 
id Black Swans has CCa5CCl ro convey a. truth. Excepting that, on the. whole, 
a white swa'.i is s prctrirr ohject, there h no reason \vby r lUe black iov**l of 
rhat fpc^iqs should nr»t be- as ayrmuuii as tire while One Ai a«y rate, the 
breed which is in existence ai Culvers, neat Crfrxhalrnrt, the seat at 
Mr. Samuel Gtnncy. MP for Penrvn. i^ pr^pll& <nou£h to warrant an 
as^rrinn (hat thrre is 00 charter of the proverb being reinstated id its 
truth nucf integrity to justification, however, q1 the aictcnls, '4 may he 
stated that, according to Mt. Could, in hwi work uu AuMrahan Bird?, the 
fust notice on record n:Si»ectinn the -existence <$ vtte: Black Swa-* oc-rurs 
m a letter 1 written ty Mr. WitseiL to Doctor M". Lister about the year J698, 
in which he «ays 'Here is returned a ship which by our Ra«r India 
Compacy was «if.nt to the =ou?b land, cilled JlnHandia Nova'; and he adds 
that Black Swans wifire found there. In \72(> two were brought alive 1o 
Batavia, haying been fn'Octued on the wc$r roast of Australia, near Dirk 
Hanoi's Bay, Captain Cook observed the bird on several parts of the 
COa*r, avid from that lime, it has attracted the attention of evety traveller iri 
Australia. It has not been Jouiiri in d Male of tiaUuc out ot" Auslra ia, and 
it has not yei been set*n on die north coasl; while, on r|ie other hand, it is 
as gene-rally cJistrihuled nvet the whole of thr *ciiithei'n portion (if that vast 
continent, the islands in Bass's Straits, and tin: Mill more southern country 
of Vac Die-men's Land, wherever there are rivers, esru-tnn*. of th* sea, 
Ugoons, and pools of water of any extent In some j-nsranrrt rt occur* in 
sucn numbers, that flocks ol many Ivandieds tr,,ty he seen Together. These, 
birds have he&\ .in different parti of Austral*,* much so.ip.ht after and 
destroyed by the settlers, one mode pursued hein;r to chase theW in a host 
at the lime wlftyt thny shed their primary quill-feathers*, when. beiia; unable 
ro fly, they a='e easily eanrnved. Jn c"i3i>OftUion, unless scrjooslv molested, 
the" Black Swan t% tame. gcrjjCs and liarmleiisi find. SIS if 'Tadtlylhrrnnrs 
donie5!j\ated, there ari! few of the aviaries of Europe which do not contain 
some specimens of the WW, The breeding season, in its stale, oi nalure. 
eommenoes in Octrew and ennri-mrs to lln? middle oi .f."mit.*ry, and ihe ey^* 
In-id ar? from I'-vc to eicm ii) nnmber; they hit ut* a nalc ^ret-n colour, 
ftUijU'tl ill over with bufry brown, tour and a half inctips lon^ by two 
inches and Lhreir-U'Ja rtots \ytum\ The whole of the plumage k browmdi 
black, ihe under surface pfiltf iJwW 'he upper, the icalJiOji of ;hc back 
tipped with gf«yf»h brov^>; primary and spr.i;iodarv reaJoer.s pure svJnlc, 
hill se&ilLTftd pinky scarlet, crossed near the tip with a broad hane" of whittr, 
eyohuhtis pinky fearer, and f<el Uack. 'Ihe specimen* oi the J? lack Swan 
|K»5^=aed by Mr. Cumey. and of which we give at; Illustration, have proved 
sntgulai ly proline, 'J'he parent-bird has laid no less than ranetv-two CJ^ 
-iiirl hashed seventy-three ti'ffft«t3 between January 1554, and July !8?'J." 



TIGER S^'AKr'S CAT 1.3 
A cornespoikt^nt <tates that nu a warm eveiury hr heard dogs hr«Hfinc »rt 
lu> garden, and on goitfg down round tint they were intercsied in a tiger 
srw.kc which wae (Itj i,uanl with it> heJUl ar.O tierk raised al»c-u» A incrte^ off 
the g't'otind 1 *I ttopued within wbuUt 5 LtSM of the Sugjcc and 'ii>t;nc)ly f-r.- 1M l 
i) Call fix times, and eould not be mistaken nhout the source of lite calk-. 
To describe it. take, the word 'sit,* put in front of it the letter 1\ with a 
faie'.v -pereeptiMe pAUfe behveen the two. Other-isise it might be described 
to the escape of a very .sma'l jet of sk-am. Altci sis' such rails a tried to 
escapt. c.i'd frol 1 intervened Tins snake had evidently just shed its skin 
art.l the. co "i. in- bar*-- wcr»- moM distinct." 



112 The titmvsfo CM as a Hunter Pvrt.rx' 

THE DOMRSTFC CAT AS A HUNTER 

Most folk are gWCTG of the fat that the domesucated cat is not necessatdy 
in med of food when pursuing rut, mouse or bird; love of the vtwse befog 
excited in it by a rolling leotws tall or a trailed feather In my youth 1 
had i tabbied ca( wtuch habitually retrieved woundcrl parrots and leatber- 
luuds which h*d fallen to my gun, but beyond the orchard icnce. He always 
t>vought the birds to me, but would eat one f ivc n to him arid later rcKUjgi- 
tale the Jeatherv The ringing noise of 'he ramrod what loading would 
rouse h«n (rout bleep and send liim running to reconnaissance winch often 
scared the fords, 

Near Alexandra there dwelt a toncly widow known; to the youths, ii 
Mother de Vries She was a farmer and was bothered by hares feeding 
on her young oat crop. Tier C&1 hunted In the c«*rly morning and added 
li> lite widow's iood supply by 'dragging home — about 150" yanis — UV hares 
which he CAu^ht, W summer, failing a hare he would naUff a snake — 
black, hrowu or tiger — aiid occasionally a blne-rongurd li*»ro 

In some disli icts house cats "gone native" are numerous And prey on 
rabbits and bird?, Some years ago a farmer near Xarbethottg told me 
that about every ISth rabbit caught in his trap* was- a cat! 

[i was not until recent year* Hint possum-ueimg cats tame to niy notice. 
On sewr.ll oceasiut* 1 bail been shown a cat m tin -COtnttTy which was a 
reputed possum hunter, but I had not seen thr ; hunt or the hill. At Kew 
a few year* ago w< h*d two white can of difverent size and temiwTament. 
Both hail excellent heariujr. The E&v&nT animal rarely left the eremites 
about which he caught mice, sometimes a bud. occasionally n rat. Of 
these he £*C only the mice. "Hie other .and smaller cat, dodging street 
traffic, would cross into a neighbour's paddock, where, notwithstanding 
the neighbour's Uirce dogs, he success tally hunted rabbits, bringing, home 
hit «p*arry over a wire -net ted &.ttv\ G<i two occasions he brought a ringtail 
pos.Mim which apparently was not so toothsome, *.* he ate only portion of it. 

At Mr. Ehta, Mrs. V Trcmayne has a cat which catches possums, 'lTiis 
animal, which .she described as "a generally gpod and respectable cat, l>ttt 
sometimes disgust iiig." devours all but the jaw hones of the uos*uui (mostly 
ringtail, but sometime* silver-grey), including the fur, which, she has not 
seen, Itirn regurgitate After such an tregjr he (swollm like a melon) gnes 
into retreat for a time Kfid misses many meal-limes. On one occasion, when 
Mfi Trcnuyne visited a nest to note the progress 0* a mit*..,! twins' 
development, she found the baby possums "missing" and the cat comfort- 
ably resting on the nest — thus. adding insuh to m>ury. A.D.II. 



HAWK AKD MUTTON-BIRO 
An unusual incident is mentioned by Nfr. J. F. Bourchier, of Kangaroo 
Ground: "On April 22. my attention was attracted bj the peculiar flight of, 
to me, a strange bird. Ol)d on looking a httle more closely, T war surprised 
1o *ee (hat, instead ol one bird oniy, there were two. The second bird was 
clinging upon il*2 first one's back. After flying some two or three hundred 
yards the birds Jell to the ground. I ran to where they felt, and found a 
sparrowbawk with whwt was afterwards identified as a mutton-bird. The 
mutton-bird wa* just dead, uV hawk having tofh die skin on the back ot 
the neck And injured the hack or neck bono. On the night previous there 
was a heavy south wind, and (he mutton-bird ma> have been blown inland. 
When firsi seen lt*e birds weic ?il>out 200 feet in miil-air, and rlcw for 
apprcxiinately 250 yards. The descent was gradual, iiiitil. when aliottt 
50 feel up, they fell hcavilv The hawk was making no attempt whatever 
to i«e its wings, the mutton-bird hying frantically. The weight of the 
mutlotl-bird was 1 ?b. 7$ oz. The air-Jine distance from rhillip Island to 
Kangaroo Ground would be about 60 miles."— (The Argitf, Melbourne.) 



The Victorian Naturalist 



VoL LXi— No. 8 December, 9 1943 No. 720 

PROCEEDINGS 

The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hal! on November 8, 1943. The President (Mr. P.'F 
Morris) presided and about 100 members and friends attended. 

BEREAVEMENTS 
It was announced that a country member of many years' 
standing, Mr. George Alston, of Marec. CA. ; a recently joined 
Grdimry member, Mr. Lance Le Souef ; and a very good friend 
of the Club, the* Rev. C. C. WooVf, had recently passed away. 
Regret of members was suitably expressed. 

SIR JOSEPH BANKS 
The subject for the evening was a symposium on the subject 
"Sir Joseph Banks.. Father of Australia/' in commemoration of 
the bicentenary of his birth. Mr. Ivo Hammet spoke on ''Banks, 
the Man"; Mr. Noel Lothian, ''Voyages and Discoveries," and 
Mr. J. H. Willis. "Banks as a Botanist " The information given 
in these lecturettes made the evening one of outstanding interest, 
not only to the F.N.C. but to a number of members of the 
Historical Society who were present by invitation. 

Mr. C. Daley added to the notes given by pointing out that 
Banks had suggested the use of Port Jackson as a penal colony. 
and that Macarthur had sent sheepskins, emus and black swans 
back to England. He also mentioned that some 40 years ago a 
memorial to Banks in Sydney was suggested and certain subscrip- 
tion lists were arranged for and a considerable sum of money 
collected, but as yet nothing had been done, 

Mr. H. C E. Stewart stated that Dr. Johnson was a friend 
of Banks and apparently nearly came out to Australia at one 
time, and he speculated on how the early history of Australia 
would have been affected if this visit had taken place- 

Mr. A. Wolskel stated that Johnson respected Banks and 
proposed him as a member of a literary club; that Banks was one 
of the pall-bearers at Johnson s funeral, and that it was on record 
that at Banks's request Johnson had commenced a poem on a pet 
goat that belonged to Banks. 



114 FxM h'atiircttsls' Club Proceedings ['vStS? 



REPORTS OF EXCURSIONS 



Reports of excursions were given as follows: Mt. Evelyn- 
Lilydale. Mr. R. G. Painter; Montmorency, Mr. A. S. Chalk; 
Bayswater-Ringwood, Mr. C. French. 



ELECTION OF MEMBERS 

The following were elected as ordinary members of the Club: — ■ 
Misses J. S. Stevenson, D, L, Haywood,, Margaret Fowler, Helen 
Alexander, Violet E. Baleem; Messrs. P. R McFarlane, T. 
Byrne and F. Hallgarten. 



PLEA FOR KOALAS 

Plight of die Koalas at Quail Island. Mr. R. K. Monro 
stated that conditions as he found them on the island were very 
bad and that in a matter of weeks the animals would be without 
food. He suggested that with the offers of help he had received 
from the general public it would not be difficult for a properly 
organized party to take the animals of! the island and crate them 
for transport to other localities. 

Mr. ColliveV moved that a sub-committee to inquire into the 
matter be selected from the general committee. This was seconded 
by Mr. Noel Lothian and carried. It was announced that Mr. 
S. R. Mitchell had offered the use of his truck as a means of 
transport. 

NATURE NOTES 

(a) Mr. A. S. Chalk reported on a Sparrow nesting on the 
ground under a piece of corrugated iron, and also stated that a 
Mud-Lark had nested in a tree at the corner of Exhibition and 
Bourke Streets, 

(b) Mr. C. French reported on a Brown Thornbtll nesting in 
a pot of Cineraria, in the Botanical Gardens glasshouse; it was 
also stated that the young birds had left the nest on 8/11/43. 

(c) Mr. J. H. Willis spoke on some herbarium specimens that 
were collected by Banks (exhibited at: this meeting). 

(d) Mr. R. G. Painter mentioned in particular among his 
exhibits a garden-grown example of the Blue Leschenaultia* 
native to W.A. ; and also an example of Grevillea Barktyawa. 



Jjjj"] Pkjd Naturalists' CM> Proceeding IIS 

EXHIBITS 

Miss G. Auchterlnnic. Dryandra jormOsa and Tclopca specio- 
mfftma, both garden-grown at Narracan, 

i Mrs. C French; Vase containing seven varieties of Leptasper- 
nutm scopanitm, all garden-grown at Canterbury, comprising 
Keatteyi 4 Wallwri., gmndiflorum, album, rubrmn, Sandersi and 
Nichollm,: 

Mrs. M, E, Frturne; Marine shells (Risella ruclanostomu), 
gathered at Altona 8/10/43; eggs were laid under water at top 
of jar at 2 p.m. each day 10th, 11th and 12th October; hatched 
5th November. 

Mrs. F. H. Salau: Garden-grown specimens o£ Banksia arid- 
folia. 

Master Robert Gwynne: Specimen of the Victorian thorny 
oyster, Sound in an -aboriginal midden at Sorrento. 

Mr. C- J. Gabriel. Thorny oysters (Spondyttts tmelhts, Bass 
Strait; 6\ impenalis, China Seas; S. aurantms. Philippines; S, 
gacderdpus, Mediterranean).. 

Mr. Ivo Hammet; Garden-grown native flowers . 

Mr. J. H. Willis (on behalf of the. National Herbarium): 
Specimens collected by Banks. 

Mr. R. G. Painter: 25 species of garden-grown native plants. 



KOALAS ON QUAIL ISLAND 

" Statements having been made, that some of the Koalas on Quail Island 
were in a bad way, several members oi the Committee of the F.N.C., on 
various occasions, have paid visits to the area. Some of the results ot 
their investigations have appeared -in the Press, and have been the subject 
of comment by the Chid Inspector of Fi&hehes and Game (Mr, F, Lewis), 
who also visited the island- The matter of the removal of the animals from 
the island remains in abeyance at present, It will he dncussed later. At 
present it seems certain that there are about one thousand Koalas -on the 
island— a remarkable increase on the number (165) released between 
1^29 and 1933 — and that there is now not sufficient food to maintain such a 
Urge r atony. (Sec plate in this issue.) 



PERSONAL NOTES 

Mr. J. H. Willis, of the Narional Herbarium, has been appointed Assistant 
Editor of the Victt&ian Naturalist. 

Members -of -the F.N.C have, sympathized with Dr. C S. Sutton, an old 
member of the Club and former Librarian, who met with an accident and 
has since beert laid aside. Dr. Sutton is now recovering. 

Bombardier N. A. Wakefield, author of many papers on ferns in tlkcr 
Vic. Not., sends greeting's to members from Somewhere in New Guinea. * 



116 Kekshaw, Looking Bfftkpjprd L vM LX 

LOOKING BACKWARD 
By J. A. Kfjiskaw, C.M.Z.S., Melbourne 

Looking back* over the years to the opportunities available to 
the naturalist in the 'eighties for pursuing his hobbies within easy 
reach of the metropolis, one misses the wide stretches of heath- 
lands with their gums, acacias, banksa* and tea- trees through 
which one used to ramble in quest of birds, insects and plants. 

Practically all those favoured haunts have long since gone — 
have been replaced by innumerable houses, attractive gardens and 
well-made streets. Looking at these places to-day it is difficult 
to realize that one used to wander here [or half a day without 
seeing another human being, where nature was in undisturbed 
possession and where one could find so couch of interest. 

In those days, when entomology and birds and their eggs were 
toy chief hobbies and the enthusiasm of the beginner in search of 
new discoveries took one info out-of-the-way fi1ace-S» the extensive 
areas of heath and scrub around Caulficld, Oakleigb, Brighton 
and Sandringham, still in their native state, had their special 
aUractions. Similarly. Gardiner's Creek, Hcyington, Glen Iris 
and the banks of the Yarra around Kew appealed to the nature- 
lover. 

Studley Park r so well known to our early collectors, with its 
gums, acacias, casuarinas and abundant flowering shrubs, was % 
convenient and favourite resort , It was here that my father, in 
company with Henry Edwards, a distinguished actor of those days 
and a keen entomologist, did niuch of his collecting, dating- back 
to the late 'fifties, the results of which, with material from other 
localities, formed the nucleus of the entomological collection in 
the National Museum. It was here, too, that other well known 
collectors — Charles French, Scnr (i Dudley Best, F. DuBoulay, 
F F„ Dixon and others — all ardent coleoptcrists, found a profit- 
able hunting-ground. Few localities so conveniently situated could 
yield such good results. 

The extensive heath paddocks around Caulfield, long since taken 
over by the builder, but then densely massed with Leptospermunt, 
Rpatris and Wedding-bush ( KicinDcarptes) , and in places by old 
gums and acacias, was one of niy early collecting-grounds, This 
class of country was particularly suitable Cor leptdoptera and it 
was surprising the variety of species one could obtain during the 
long summer evenings. Micro-tcpidoptera- ~Toriricidae, Qaeo- 
phcridae, Tineidac and Celcchhtoe^ctc, — were very plentiful and 
many of the larger groups such as the Gttcm4trin$, Noctnina, 
Liparfds, etc., were by no means uncommon 



The Can I field Park, then known as Paddy's Swamp, extending 
Srorn Hawthorn Road towards the Caulfield railway, now laid 
out in lawns, ornamental trees and attractive flower-beds, was 
then in. its wild state of tiecs and shrubs The reedy swamp then 
occupying Us centre, now an pxcclltnt sports oval, was frequented 
by wild ducks, coots and an occasional white-faced heron. Blue 
wrens, white-fronted chats, yellow -tailed -thornbills and black-and- 
white iantails nested in the low shrubs and gums, and magpies, 
mud-larks, \earlet robins and honeyeaters were numerous. One 
could fepend hours there with profitable results. . 

A little further to the south, in Kooyong Road, were open 
paddocks "timbered with stretches of heal by scrub, well worth 
exploiting. Dr. Godfrey How it*, one of our earliest coleopterists, 
whose collection (still as he left it) is m the National Museum, 
Jived close by and no douht obtained- much of his material there. 
But oT all the localities within easy reach of the metropolis nonr 
could compare in abundance of animal and plant life with the wide 
stretches ol hcathlands which then extended from Brighton to 
Hampton and on to Sandringham and beyond- Now -densely 
populated, the area was then in its primitive state- In parts 
limbered with old gums and acacias, the greater part was thickly 
overgrown with the usual tca-trce, young gums, hanksias. lepto- 
spcrmums and other shrubs characteristic of that area, affording 
ample scope for investigation by the naturalist, be his subject birds, 
injects or plants. 

Within a few minutes' walk from the Brighton railway station. 
Smith's paddock, the property of the late Mathew Smith, a keen 
bird-lover, extended from South Road to the mil way at Hampton 
and hack towards the Bluff Hotel. This was an excel lent collect- 
ing-ground and my favourite resort, where I spent many enjoyable 
rambles, often m company with the late Fiank Spry and W, H .A. 
Rogers, and, during his frequent visits from Sydney, with ihe late 
A, J, North. From there one could wander through open heath- 
lands to Sandringham and right on to Mentone and Cheltenham. 
Birds were. numerous. They included the bronze-wing pigeon, 
scarlet robin, black-and-white tantail. black-faced cuckoo-shrike, 
butcher-bird, shrike-tit, and various honeyeaters. . On two 
occasions I saw- the sacred kingfisher and on another found the 
nest of the ground thrush with three e£gs placed in a sheltered 
portion on the ground within a few yards of South Road. Painted 
quail were often Hushed from among the low -shrubs and many 
birds nested in the dense scrub, including the white-fronted chat, 
white-browed scrub-wren, blue wren, yellow-tailed thornbill, cres- 
cent, white-plumed and white-bearded honeyeaters, silver-eyes, 
etc -. - . . -i - 



113 Kkmkiiaw, Looking Botfovard [\j 



e*. Nit. 

(4 I-'-- 



For the. -entomologist a more enticing colleeting-grouud could 
hardly be found. The abundance of Lcptnspennuirt and other 
flowering shrubs were 3 never- failing attraction for insects of all 
kinds, and tepidopterous larvae in great variety could be obtained 
on the young gums, acacias, banksias, native cherries and smaller 
shrubs, the rearing of which added considerably to one's interest 
and knowledge of their lifc-hi stories. 

Among the larger butterflies, apart from the more common and 
widely-spread painted lady (Pyramcis cardui kershazvi). the 
Australian admiral (P. itett) and the common brown (Hettro- 
nympha M&rope), one would be fortunate to find the handsomely- 
coloured imperial white (Delias harpaiyce) in this locality, 
though fairly common in eastern districts. The blackish larvae 
are gregarious and feed exclusively on the mistletoe (Lorcnthus), 
and before pupating spin a broad expanse of silken web extended 
between the stems of Lheir food-plant, to which they attach them- 
selves in groups of tliirty to fifty or even more- A fine example 
of the web with Lhtrty-threc pupae attached was taken in Smith's 
paddock at Brighton, The wood white (Delias agmippe) was 
more common, its dark-brown, white-spotted larvae feeding 
gregariously On the native cherry {lixocarpus). The smaUev 
browns. XenUa (tconttux and X. hhtggi 3 were plentiful, and the 
small grass yellow (Teri-as 1 .nrntcx) was occasionally taken. 
Scvcral species of the blues (Lycaenidac) flitted among the smaller 
shrubs, including the attractive imperial blue (f of mentis evngoras) % 
the larvae of which feed gregariously on the wattle and arc 
invariably attended by ants, Nticadulm bwcellala, N^ducia agricola, 
AT. serpentaia. and GutdutiJes artisia. At Black Rock Mr. Rogers 
and J were lucky enough to find several pupae of the rather rare 
mistletoe blue (Qgyris <\brota) t whose larvae, like all the Ogyris, 
feed only mi the mistletoe. 

. The skippers (H esperidae) were restricted in species, the 
smallest (Tarattroeera (Mipyria) being: the most plentiful from 
December to March among patches of sword-grass (Cladmm). 
He spirilla donnysa, Dispar compacta, Amsynta tastrtawco and 
Padraona lascivia also occurred in this locality. 

Moths, as one might expect, were abundant and in great variety, 
so much so that il would be out of place to give more than ai 
glimpse of the specie-*. Among the larger kinds was the heavy- 
bodied, night-flying goat-moth (Trictena argentata) , dark greyish- 
hrowo with broad sirvcry-white bands on the fore-wings and 
measuring about five inches in expanse. It could frequently be 
found by day at rest on the larger tree-trunks, though more often 
attracted to the light of street lamps. The larvae are subterranean 
in habit, boring deeply into the soil and feeding on the roots of 



JjSj Kwtsn*w. Ltiokvuy Backward 119 

the eucatypts. They are often attacked by a species o( Cordtceps, 
a curious fungus which transforms them into the so-called 
"vegetable caterpillars/" Other species of this family (Hcpialuive) 
are often similarly attacked^ as well as the larvae of some beeHe-s 

The wattle goat-moth {Endoxyla eucalypti), measuring some 
five inches across the expanded wings, could occasionally be taken 
at rest on trunks of the larger wattles, in the wood of which its 
larvae feed. The largest and one of the most handsome specie* 
(Chelefttvtyx collesi) measures up to six inches across the wings. 
It is of a beautiful cheslnut-brown with greyish-brown base and 
towards the outer edge Of the upper wings. The lower wings are 
chocolate-brown with brownish-yellow outeT borders. The bulky. 
hairy larvae, which feed on the eucalypts and pupate under loose 
bark, arc nearly five inches, Jong and covered with fine blackish 
hairs with several rows of conspicuous yellow spiny tubercules- 

Tbe -sn-r;illed cherry-borer (Cryptophasa nnipuncta). a hand- 
some saUny-white moth with a small black spot on each upper 
wing, feed* in the stems of the common honeysuckle, but has alv> 
adapted itself to fruit trees of various kinds. The Banksia-matb 
{Danima banksia), whose prettily-marked brownish larvae, spotted 
with Wack-murghied white spots, fee<] on young banksias and 
habeas, was common. When disturbed the larva raises both head 
and tail over its back, at the same time protruding a red, fleshy, 
forked protruherance from under the first segment find ejecting 
a sticky fluid from the mouth, no doubt as at means of defence. It 
pupates under the soil. Another striking species, not often taken 
on the wing though easily reared from the larva, is Hyleora inclyta. 
The larva, about three inches long, is green, the dorsal area flat- 
tened and finely serrated along the margin. It feeds on the leaves 
of the young gums. 

The large group of the Geometers, represented by numerous 
genera — Cryptiph&na t Selidosema, Chlewas, Hydriomena, Xan- 
thorhoe. and many others — are characteristic of these heathbmds. 
M:my of the ?arger species are usually to be found resting on 
tree-trunks or old fences, rbeiT expanded flattened wings so closely 
assimilating their immediate surroundings that they are easily 
overlooked Others, such as the smaller "Carpets" (Xanthorhoc . 
Hydrinmena, Taxzatis, etc, ) J camouflage themselves on the ground 
among tow-growing shrubs. Their slender naked larvae, the 
well-known "Foopers." feed on a variety of trees and shrubs. 
When resting they remain perfectly rigid at an acute angle sup- 
ported by a fine silken thread from the spinneret beneath the 
mouth, and so closely resemble a twig or leaf as to deceive the 
most careful observer. 



120 Kershaw, Looking Bachmd VvdhSSi 

. Mtct'o-lcpidoptera. including the Fymlidina, Hie Tortrttid(\<! 9 
QeropJumda^ Gclcciiidae, 7 hwidae, etc.,' most of which are. 
Lcautifully marked and brilliantly coloured, were well represented 
and well repaid the efforts of the collector. 

Among [lie Coteopteia one rnukl always rely Oil gorxl results. 
Buprestuis. parlirul.arly the* .omaluir sj Hides. Iinjgicitns, weevils, 
click- beetles (Llateriifoc), Cfcriiiaa. MorddlidtU, Chrysamelidac, 
and oilier families, were abundant. Hymennpfrera, Dtplera and 
the smaller groups, attracted [>y the ahnmlanre of flowering trees 
and shrubs, were in great variety. 

Although those delightful hunting-grounds [ 13vr ] Dn g since had 
to make way for the. ever-growing demands of settlement, it is 
good to look hack to those earlier duv.s and fo live over again in 
retrospect the enjoyment and experiences of those quiet and 
profitable rambles. 



A *m\V CAPSID ON BVDUS GIGANTEA 

Professor F. E. Lloyd's new book, The Camworom Plants, reviewed in 
the Fie, Nat for September, 1943, has an appeal Alike to entomologist -vid 
hofiniii, Of particular interest is the chapter cm two specie* of Bybtisi 
the genus of insect-catching plants confined to Western and North Australia. 
Byltfit gif/Ajntcv harbours a bug. which Professor Iloyd states »- s fl capsR! 
'{wiiitfle^K)- Tin's capsiri turns oul to be a new genus, and is to Ik- ttcscrtbed 
by Dr W K. China, pi the British Museum, a task doubtless delayed, by 
the exigencies of war. The extraordinary feature of the new insect is 
that )t rjas a commensal rvLilion tc* lite plant, actually feeding on other insect 
victims imprisoned by the sticky secretion, but itself immune lo imprisonment 
To uuote the hook: "While small insects in general sre caught by the 
mucilage secreted by the stalked inlands, this capsid moves about trecly 
without difficulty, iust as do similar insects, also caps ids, over the surface 
ot Droswa leaves in Australia, Wi|J of die African genu? Roridrda. once 
thought to be carnivorous. I Tow the. insect manage* mis is a bit pBfflcBn|& 
It as noticeable* that il prefers to wOllt on 'the upper leaf surface where 
there are a very few .and * usually smaller glands, but when alarmed it 
progresses rapidly in any direction, without becoming entangled with the 
mucilage." Willi characteristic thoroughness. Professor Lloyd enhanced 
tri^ chapter by photographs on the pUut with insect inset. 
- •• . - H.CE-.5. 



MOVEMENTS IN MASS 

Referrnnp In a report about great numbers of frogs crossing the road 
one night between Uandenorig and Caulfield, Mr. F R Baker (Larpcnt) 
tayx that a friend told him cd a similar occurrtnce in the Stony Rises on 
the Prince's' Highway, between Pirron YaUoak and Pornborneit. The 
icascm for such migrations, lie suggests,- may be that the season hairing in 
many localities been a very moi.it one. a greater number of. I' rug* than usual 
readied maturity, and runuinu short ol food were' moving otrt on the first 
convenient wet night. As such movement* always occur at night, they may, 
except on a road or in some bare spot, easily escape notice. 



THH VICTORIAN' NATURALIST \'m, J-\ Ih-ccmha-, t*M,* 

Plaik VIII 




Section uf western side of Quail Island < \<>v., l l J-U>. ?liuwin$ dead aiul 

dying trees and a Koala. X'oU' thick undergrowth. 
Photo, hy A, H. Chisholm. 



S|j|] vjakkft. Rtonbtot Around Pohfawt 12f 

RECOLLECTION'S OF RAMBLES AROUND PORTLAND 

By .L Ros. Gaeni-.t, Melbourne 

In ilie spring of 1936 my wife and I journeyed to Pot-thud to 
spend a holiday with our two friends Mr. and Mrs. Mellblom. 
Now, readers of the Victorian NottifOiiH who interest themselves 
in botany and more especially in our native orchids will readily 
guess that with such a host and hostess our time would not be 
devoted entirely to examining the relies of early settlement at 
Portland,* interesting as they undoubtedly are In fact our 
holiday was cammed with excursions to spots where wild flowers 
flourished and orchids abounded — sometimes in startling profusion. 

In the preceding summer many parts of the district had been 
swept by fire of unknown (but by our hosts not entirely 
unsuspected) origin and the heathlands had responded to the 
treatment by providing a wild flower siiow far more pleasing and 
instructive than many we had seen previously. Portland, one need 
scarcely say, has far more to offer the botanist than rare orchids, 
but as our interests were restricted by both inclination and limited 
time, we almost ignored the Portland Bpronias, Corrcas and ferns 
and stuck to our orchids 

Our recollections of this* very pleasant series of trips by foot, 
by horse, bicycle and car have been stirred by reading Mr, C 
Beauglehole's. list of the orchids of the Portland district (Vic. Net., 
1943, lx, 23), and rather to our satisfaction we noted that we 
had. in our short sojourn there, come across almost 60 per cent, 
of the species recorded in that list. In only two other localities 
had we unearthed a greater number of species — 58 from the 
Beaconsfield area, a tally resulting from several rambles covering 
all four seasons, and 69 from the Grampians, in a crowded fort- 
night in the spring of the previous year (1935). 

Scanning Mr. Beauglehole's list the first interesting item to 
catch our eye is "Thelymitra pautiftora var. Holmem" marked as 
being peculiar to the Portland district. Two years previously Mrs. 
Mellblom had geen good enough to obtain for us, from Murray 
Holmes, a plant of this orchid de-senbed in 1933 as a distinct 
species (Vic. Nat., 1933, xlix, 263), and the plant was kept in 
cultivation for some years, during which time it flowered at the 
appropriate season on several occasions- We were thus able to 
examine it carefully and at leisure and familiarize ourselves with 
its -characteristics, which, we agreed, were not very peculiarly 
different from those of some forms of Th, pauciflora. This 
conviction was brought home to us very strikingly during the last 
week in October of last year (1942). 



122 jjUKKltt I&tvthtes Arattftti Portland L v<£ LX 

Wc were holidaying at McCrae at the time and through a grassy 
?<!opc hard by Point Nepean Toad we ottcn trod our way through 
dozens of small sun orchids.' The 28th of the month was one of 
those muggy days presaging rain and the Thelymiirae of the 
district responded in their peculiar way hy expanding their Mowers 
for all to sec. 

Among the hosts of Th. paucifiom in this spot were the com- 
monly seen pale-mauve, lilac- or bluc-pcbilled star-like forms, with 
one, two or three flowers and slender items and leaves, together 
with a number of striking variants with ricitly colouied sepals and 
petals — violet, heliotrope, purple, and with columns al*o deeply 
coloured, hooded and cleft to various degrees. Several of these 
variants fitted perfectly to the original description of Thelymitra 
ffohtmv, while others varied even more strikingly from the little 
star-like type form of Th. pandflora. 

Next on flic Portland list comes "Microti* atraUi — Gorae,, very 
rare/' We had journeyed out to the distort near Mt, Clay and 
on a bright humid day Gitfad&ti&q Pat&rsonii var. Mavi>okns was 
ficcn in great abundance, its rather olive-green flowers emitting a 
slightly mtjslsy and faintly lemon-scented odor. Picking a bunch 
of a hundred flowers tvould have made little difference to the 
display in those sodden turfy paddocks. The plants averaged 
about 12 inches in height and 2- and 3-flowercd specimens were 
not unusual. This variety is not peculiar to Portland, as is 
generally believed, since three or four years ago Miss E. Rossirer 
(now Mrs. Ross), of fjcdlcy, South Gippsland, sent us a 
collection of "spiders" from her South Gippsland haunts and 
among them were several good specimens of this -scented spider 
orchid. 

Further rauibles on the gentle and very moist slopes approaching 
Mt. Clay brought its upon colonies of M . atmto not yet in flower 
hut distinguishable from M, orbicularis by its yellowish colour and 
the lack of that peeuliai angular kink at the point of emergence 
of the flower stem. In this spot there were hundreds of plants 
to be seen (hat October. Near Heath men 1 wc hoped to see the 
regal specimens of Thelymitra itrmidifora- that arc common in that 
area Although Mrs. Mellblom had seen them hut a short time 
previously, all had vanished, we guessed, into the hands of the 
school children who roam the area. However, we did have the 
satisfaction of discovering a large colony of what would almost 
certainly be Cfrilogfottit rcfl.i"xa iri a stretch of heath and Hibbertia 
just beside the Heathmere railway station, and then further along 
the road a small clump oF Gostrodia sesmmides, 13 of them; »*rt 
bud at the fnot of an old tree-stump. 



5Jj] C^ftSUTj RmuMrt Ar^aui Portland 123 

• 

Another excursion in the direction of Cashmore rewarded us 
with by far the best display of Bxrneitia cuneata we had ever seen. 
In a paddock at that time in process of. being converted into a 
tomato garden, were several small lagoons fringed with burnt 
sticks commemorating the gTass trees and other tea-tree and 
heathy 'vegetation that grew there in the previous- spring. Among 
the sticks gleamed the waxy-white flowers of plants of the Lizard 
Orchid, some with stems hardly an inch high carrying but one or 
two flowers, others with sturdy five-inch stems and four, five or 
six flowers, One specimen from this area, now treasured in my 
own herbarium, has seven flowers, but this unusual floral 
exuberance is remarkable in that five ot these flowers arise from 
the main rachis while the other two arise from a subsidiary stem 
which emerges from the subterranean portion of the main rachis. 
It may be of interest to record, in passing, a similar phenomenon 
occurring in Colochifas campesiris (the plant which we in Victoria 
have, for so long, labelled C. cuprcus). We collected two of 
several such curiosities in the swamp to the north of the recreation 
reserve at Upper Beaconsfield in November, 1936 

Although in our pursuit 01 orchids we have roamed many miles 
and explored many districts, we have yet to find a district where 
"spider" orchids thrive so well and 'in' such variety as at Portland. 

At what Mrs. Mellblom identified as the "Hard-up Hills we 
found the South Australian form of C r?r«Ywfo*a— practically the 
typical form — a small, predominantly red-flowered plant, growing 
on the gravelly slopes in great profusion. At the opposite end of 
the district, out towards Cape 'Nelson, we rode one fine day and 
while sitting in the saddle 4 we spotted what, to Mrs. Mellblom, 
was a new record for Portland — a solitary specimen of the dark 
-crimson flower of C. fitamentosa. We quickly tethered our horses 
and searched Hie sandy coastal slopes for more and were soon 
rewarded by finding dozens of flowering plants, all under six 
inches high and generally with one or two flowers One plant had 
three flower? and another two., one of which consisted of only two 
perianth segments, without eveu the vestige of a column, labellnm 
•or ovary 

Tn this same direction, but nearer the town, we came upon the 
robust form of C. reticulata, which at the time puzzled us as to 
just where it should fit in the taxotiomic scheme Mr Nicholls 
has since settled that point, and lightly so, by classing it as variety 
valida (Vic Na,l, t 1943, lix, 189) Near the old racecourse we 
saw another type so far only known from Portland In. my 
"herbarium specimens of this ptent, received from Portland in 
previous years, had been kept apart as a probably new and 
unnamed species and when we finally saw it in its habitat, growing 



124 <iA**i:r. Kambics Atontut PorUwi l^ti.uc' 

abundantly and not noticeably intermingled with irs congeners, we 
were Quite convinced that the plant merited specific rank. Happily 
Mr NicLulis has also been impressed with its distinctiveness and 
iVlelJbJom's spider orchid now carries the la be] Caladeitia httitata. 

k was during one of our evasions around Portland that voting 
George Bennett — a very enthusiastic wild-flower hunter — found a 
Cakidcnia with two leaves! As it was a non-Howering plant we 
were unable to learn to just what species ir belonged. Anyhow, 
George's "'find" is worthy of note as being quite unusual in plants 
of this genus. 

Turning to the Portland greenhoods, we recollect noticing 
numbers of Pnroslyliz cytmocephalo- out at the 'Tlard-up Hills' 1 
(in the direction of Cashmore and fully six miles from Bridge- 
water), hence Mr. LJeanglehole's record of "Biidgcwatt-r only" 
for this species could he amended by this addition, as could also 
that of Diuris paluxlris, which^grew on the same bandy hillside 
ai the grcenhood , , ' 4+ 

Out towards-^HeywoodiAVC saw a .number of Ft. foliate And 
among them we're several dbuble-rlowered specimens, These Port- 
femd greeeihoods'^eie^pf much iijoie solid construction than are 
those found on the. Dandenorig, Ranges and its foothills. The stems 
were sturdy, the leaves of ratheratougher texture; and the whole 
plant was rather scabrous — features-, generally absent from (he 
near- Melbourne 'gracilis' 4 variety. 1 '^ .. A| t) 

At the Rridgewater Jakes we^were shown Pt, rucullaic growing 
in crowded,colonies on the sfeepvgrassy slopes above the lakes and 
among them was one double- flowered plant which was sacrificed 
to the ardor of the collector of the party. 

It is., in passing, interesting' to' recall that Pt. continm has 
not been recorded from the Portland district, although the plant 
if: so widespread in Victoria and, in fact, known horn al) Statt-.s 
except Western Australia- My own records indicate m that ft 
extends from Cape Howe, in far eastern Victoria) right along the 
coastal strip to Port Philip. Further west it is found in sundry 
areas from Cormadai through to the Grampians. This apparent 
inconsequent distribution is, of course, common enough in botanical 
records and one readily realizes that it would be far more 
astonishing if it did not exist. 

Such are the recollections, and the digressions they have evoked, 
that were aroused simply by a list of plants. There were many 
more that arc hardly pertinent to the pursuit or hobby of orchid- 
himting; they are the subject of other interests not Worth record- 
_ing. When, more peaceful days come upon us we may hope to 
revisit Portland and see for ourselves some of those treasures we 
missed in 1936. 



PLANT NAMES SUB-COMMITTEE 

First J.irt of Recommended ATtfw and Ch-awtjed V ernaculQrs 

Since its re-constitution last May, the Plant Names Sub-committee o. 
our Club ha3 met regularly once a month at the National Herbarium, by 
Wind pc^WSKW of the Director and Government Botanist, Mi*. ,V W. 
Jcsscp. It has been agreed thai any matter affecting the nomenclature of 
Victorian vegetation shall came within the scope of ttyifi sub-romtiYttteo'fc 
activity, but the primary aim will lie production and maintenance (at least 
in rnaniiBfiipr form, available for publication) of a completely up-to*'daie 
Ccnuis paying due attention to the scientific and vernacular names of all 
vascular planlv both Indigenous and naturalized. 

Many additional species have been recorded for the State iinee. the 
appearance of oitr 1928 Census, and where good common names are uot 
already employed elsewhere, it has been necessary to invent appropriate 
ones in &ach instances. Then, St is considered that a number of existing 
■vernaculars leave much to be desired'— *orae vtfere ill-chosen, others faulty 
translations oi the Greek or Latin epithets, and still others in disagreement 
with names already standardized outside Victoria. The CS. and I.R. 
(Bulletin 156) has recently established standard common names tor most 
Australian pasture ptonts and weeds, thi.v admirable work ttpresentrugf the 
general opinions of many expert? throughout the Commonwealth Where 
vernacular names in our Census differ," ,we would do well to replace them 
by tiie standards which the C.5. and'I-R. has now adopted 

It will thus be appreciated that a systematic revision of the State's 
vascular flora (embracing probaldyj 2,800 iwpecies) is no small undertaking, 
inasmuch a? the Plant Name? Subcommittee must consider each proposed 
nomenclature change in the b'glit'of the six principle* prefacing- t|te 1928 
Census and reach unanimity in every instance- 

From time |0 time as successive groups of names axe revised, ihe sub- 
committee intends to publish its reeo.inmenda< ions in die Afcrtirotof. This 
will appfse alt Cl0b member* of r what is being done *nd at the same time 
afford them the opportunity to alter 'or ^improve any suggested vernaculars 
which they deem still unsuitable j^the absence of such criricbm will be 
interriTetod a*, an expression of general approval by the Club. 

"Revision of the 106 Victorian ferns and fern allien being now complete, 
tit new and/or changed common names are submitted as hereunder; Those 
bearing an asterisk (♦) are not regarded as wholly satisfactory, and 
specimens of the plants concerned will be exhibited at a monthly general 
meeting so that members may offer heLpful suggestion.? for mole appropriate 
naming. 

PTEKIDOPHyTA 

For Todm harbttm, change "King Fern" to '* Austral Kim* Fern." , 
Add Sf.hi3(H'a aspcruh, ""Rough Comb Fern." 
„ M&rxMn tmoitxtifctJut, ""NTarrrrw-leaf Nardoo." 
,. SHcherns tewr, "Silky Kan Fern," (Confused *wj1b GfakbcnU 
ftabetfata.) 
Foe Mecodiwn rarnm f change "Rare Filmy Fern" to **NitmVw Filmy 
Fern." 
MecrtAium austmlc, change "Austral Filmy Fern" to "'Winged Fjlmy 
Fern/' 
Add MtH'odium dU&taitm, "Handsome Finny Fern." 

„ ny^uaippkyllufn pAt&iait, "Alpine Filmy Fee",'' 
>"nr HytHCtiopkxHum cuprt'ssiformtf (not 77. l\mkritfgcn$t}* change "Tun* 



bridge — " to "Common Filmy Fern." 
•For Macraglena caitdata, change ''Large Bristle Fern" lo "Narrow-lobe 
Bristle Fern/' 
Poiyphlebtum veuosum. change "Bristle Fern to "Veined Bristle 
Fern."' 
Add Cyalhca LckkhardMana t l JPrickly Tree-fern." 
Lyathea mar>:rtxcens t "Giant-frond Tree-fern/* 
*i-or ('itta'ta tmrin (formerly DtivaUia), change "Rainbow Fern" to 
"False bracken." 
,. Hypakpis punctata, change "Ground Folypody" to "Sticky 
tlypolepis/' 
Add Uypo/cpix rugosida, "Rufous Hypolepis-'' 
„. Hypolepis MuclU-ri, 'Talc Hypolepis.*' 
„ t ittdnaya micro phylfa, "Lacy Wedge Fern." 
For Ptcns trittata (not P. tongifolia), change "Long Sickle Fern" to 
"Chinese Brake." 
fr Pieris twibrosa, change "Shade Brake Fern/' to "Jungle Brake." 
., Ptiris cowans, change "Hairy Bracken" to' "Netted Brake. • 
„ Blechnnui peima-tnarino^ change "Alpine Fern" to "Alpine Water- 
iern/' 



Add BtechtvuPi^proceravjj/'llikrd Water-fern," 
„ Ufrcfaimn rfilijarnic, "Climbing Water-fern.' 1 
„ Domita -media, "Common 'Rasp Fern," 



For Doadio t aspvra t change "Rasp Fern" 10 "Prkkly Rasp Fern." 
„ Aspktthtm tiiiuftatutoi, change "Shore SpleenwOi't/' to "Blunl Shore 
Spleenwor't. M 
Add AxptetuuM xrterdpritmh ..-."Large Shore Spleenwort." 
,, Asplvniwn arfiantoidex, "Willow 4 Spleenwort." 
_„ Dipiosiwn japonicmn, ''Small Shade Spfecmvot't." 
For Dryapterts Sfteph&dii f contused / Vitfa D. decomposite </.v.), change 

"Shiny Shield Fern'* to "Shiny Wood 'Fern." 
**Add Drycpieris -detvUipoxiia, "Trtm^Wood Fern." 
* M Dryopicris tenera, "Broad Wtfodt Fern." 
For Dryopteris mmphalis (not D, mhifix), change "Soft Shield Fern" 'to 
"Soft Wood Fern." "' &* 
„ Cydophoms r&fzbffis (not C. serpens), change "Creeping Polypody" 

to "FeK Fern" 
„ Polypodium pu^tuhtmuu change "Scented Polvpody" to "Fragrant 

i J o*y|Jorfy." 
fr Lyrapodwn fasti&iaiMn (not 1. ctavatum), change "Common 

Ctubrnoss*' to "'Mountain Cltibmosa." 
„ Lycopodinw variivtn, change "Tall Clubmos^' to "Variable. Club- 

moss.** 
„ Seluginttlla Preisxiavc, change "Tiny Qubmoss" to "Tiny 

Selaginella." 
,, Srfafjiitella uikjivrixn, change "SwArnp Clubmoss"' to "Swanip- 
Selaginella.'* 
Add SiUaomcJla Krmtsxiana r "Krauss Sclaginella" (introduced — not 5. 
stolonifera.'). 
Isoctts humitior, "Covered Quillwort/' 
For fsoctrs Drummandn, change "(Jmllwort'' to "Naked Qtiillwort/" 
Add Twvsi ptcris BUhtrdkrij "Long Fern Clubmoss." 1 All previously 
w Ttnesij'ieris ovata. "Blunt Ferti Qubmoss." > included in 
Tvis.siptfris ponw, "Small Fern GUbmbgs,* J T. f ami cutis 



j. H. Wiw.is, Secretary, Plant Names Stib-coinimu*e. 



jjjgj 'J he praectttl Mudlark 127 

THE GRACEFUL MUDLARK 

Dk Jackson (Brisbane) has been impressed by the qualities in the 
grallina or peewit {more frequently called the mudlark bi Victoria). "I 
wonder whether you would agiee with me that it holds at least WW records 
amongst birds? In the Australian Bird Cook there is some brief aeknow* 
ledgment o{ hs dainty, cleanly appearance, but no suggestion that it hold* 
the record in this respect. 1 have been watching it lor hall a century almost 
daily, and for some years 1 have been on the look out £or a dirty peewit. 
I have never seen such * thing. This strikes me U being all ihc more 
remarkable because the bird seems tc frequent the muddy banks of river* 
and swamps, etc. and it even builds its nest of mud. Yet l -zan almost lie 
sure that I have never seen a specimen of this little bird with it? feathers 
even ruffled. One would think that somehow or another it would get ^mc 
of its feathers smeared with mud* or dirt oi some kind 

"The second record which I think this bird holds is that it has more 
calls, each different from the other, than any Other bird. The call from 
which it derives its name of Pcewee' is perhaps the most common of these, 
but I am sure I have counted between 20 and 30 different calls from this 
bird at various times Indeed, even now I frequently hear something that 
strikes nie as different, though my ear has been listening to it, as 1 say, for 
half a century. Among its frequent calls is one that sounds like 'Spill his 
tea — SpilL his lea.' and another one like 'Who'' took it? Who took it?' the 
last being quite metallic in its charactcrV'^H Fiona Nature Notes in the 
Melbourne Argus some year? ago,) * • *i" ' • " *" 

• 6*1*0 ,lll*» t 



mid-Victorian Vandalism 

Field naturalists in common -wittjrdecent-mitided citjxens everywhere are 
often angered at the detacement.-of natiqnal and natural monuments by 
what someone has- aptly termed the ^basest form of autography/' Scratching 
and carving oi names on public property is a senseless habit which would 
seem to reflect the only bid fon fame*>(gr infamy) o* which a certain 
element in our community is capable, u 

The F.N.C.V. has more than once aiied its views on such wilful damage 
to unusual geological features, as rock oytcrops near Stawcll, an,d to rare 
survivals of aboriginal art, and it is not long since the authorities were 
obliged to put a metal casing round the wtx>den mast-head ou the observation 
tower at Feititree Gully National Park (One-tree Hill) in order to prevent 
a collapse through continued whittling with pocket-knives. But are we 
any worse than our grandparents in this regard? An interesting negation 
\a impliwl by the following extract from Bailliere's ,SoM Australia* 
CtZTeUteroi 1867); 

"There is a good carriage road to the very summit (of Mt. Lofty), where 
a roofed shed, with table and seats, has been erected for the convenience 
o: picnic and pleasure parties, and whence a most magnificent view over 
rh* fertile Adelaide flat, the intervening ranges, and far out into the gulf 
■ oi St Vincent, may be had on a clear day. A cairn of stones supporting 
a fiagstarT has also been erected, and the table aod seats in the arbour ate 
literal)? covered with the names of persons who have visited ihe place" 

J, H. Wiuis 



Mr H. J, Blackk, of Ararat, reports having found recently a Red 
R<3$cl1a'.f nest containing nine eg*; 5 Eight young ones were hatched. It is 
a rare event for a parrot to have so many epgs in the one clutch- 



32* "Xadiol Rays" at "huhntiF*/ tv&$t 

DEATH OF JffR HENRY TRVO^ 

The death of Mi, Heiiry Tryon, former Government Entomologist of 
Queensland, which occurred in Brisbane on November IS, severs one of 
our [ftSt links with the pioneering period of natural history in Australia. 
Aged 87 years at death, Mr. Tryon waF an accomplished scientific "all- 
rounder," and iti earlier years he enjoyed the friendship of Or. [sCocge 
Benneu> Sir A. C Gregory, and many other men notable in the annate oC 
science ill this country 

Mr. Tryon wa* barn in lingland and came to Australia at an early ag<. 
Eh 1884 he assisted to found the Royal Society oi Queensland, of which he 
became first hon. secretary, with A. C. Gregory as president. In ISS5 he 
organised stltartlptitfhj nj Queensland for H. O. Forbes to resume and 
complete explorations in New Guinea (Baron von Mueller Hid the same in 
Victoria), and in 1886 he delivered an inaugural address to the uewly- 
fonncd Field Naturalists' Section of the K.oyal Society of Queensland, Jn 
later years Tryon took a leading pan ix\ all scientific and natural history 
movements in Queensland, and his versatility became apparent in the 
Writing of papers on subjects ranging from, rock-painting*, to orrtitholoiry. 
His chief interest, however, was economic cnlamulotry; in this he did 
valuable work over many years, Moreover, he was a member of a 
Commission to inquire into* the extermination of rabbit? by disease, and a 
member oi the CornmissionWhirH'as a result of a world tour introduced 
the cochineal insect to Queensland for the destruction of prickly pear. 
When he rctired^from the Department of Agriculture/, in 1929, he had 
completed nearly -if) years in tl\e, service of the State Government, 

Personally Tryon was a quaint" mingling of staid scientist and practical 
joker. He loved to indulge in' ^'leg-pulling 1 ' on occasion, and his udemn 
demeanour UMulty enabled him^to get .away with it. Sometimes, too, he 
could be a hit "difiViilr,* 1 hut hi3* tantrums never lasted long. All in all, he 
vrhs z very distinctive figure and ;pr»c^ whose memory, v. ill ever be recalled 
by those who knew him. 

hsSpA ,; f A. H. CttisnatM. 



"RAOIAT. RAYS" OK 'INSTINCT'? 

To the Editor. 

Sir, — All scientists no tloubt will agree with Mr, Colli ver (£*rft Nnt. t 
Nov., 1943) "thai until some definite proof could he had thai such rayj 
[radial rays at present unknown] existed and alTected ihc birds in, any 
wny at all, it would he better lo call the reason for the flight 'instinct.' " 
The. hereditary impulse for all animals to seek for food and to complete 
the sexual act, and the migration of certain Lirds such a* Swallows, can 
best Ik described ^ instinct; and if- at any Suture period, it may he 
possible to give SOrifle definite reason of how this instinct if caused, based 
fell deiinite experimental evidence, then it might be known by &oirie Other 
name. If the Wcvi IJercra dwells on the mainland, is he not, abtc to see tlie 
sUte of Urn tide itoiij ln< perch before flying to his feeding ground? The 
islands arc usually not far from the mainland shore, 

B. Pr.fCKWt 

Gurus, 
Vorrb Queensland. 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. LX — No- 9 __ January 7, 1944 No.jzi 

PROCEEDINGS 
The monthly meeting of the Clufe was held at the Royal Society's 
Hall on December 13. 1943 The President (Mr. P. F. Morris) 
presided and about SO members and friends Dtreoded. 

BEREAVEMENT 
Mr. F. 5. Colliver announced the death 01 Mr. F. Chapman, 
A.L.S., F.R.M.S., F.G.S., etc... a Cfakb member of over 40 years' 
standing, and members paid a tribute of respect to his memory. 
(An obituary notice will appear in the February issue of this 
journal.) 

"CONTINENTAL DRIFT' 1 
The subject for the evening was a lecture on ''The Theoiy of 
Continental Drift/' and was given by Mr- A. C\ Frostick. Mr. 
F. S. Colliver and Mr. J. II Willis spoke, on the sublet from 
the zoological and botanical points ot view. AH speakers were 
cordially thanked for an interesting discussion. 

KOALAS AT QUAIL ISLAND 

Mr. A. H. Chisholm gave, a summary ot the controversy that 
had continued upon this matter during the past month, with 
naturalists holding that the Koalas were in danger of starvation 
in some parts of the island and officials claiming that the situation, 
was satisfactory. At least four parties of naturalists,- including 
several officers of the F.N.C., had visited the island, and all had 
agreed that many ot the Koalas — the total was estimated to be 
nearly LO0O — should be moved to suitable areas on the mainland. 
Mr Chisholm added that, in order to attempt to reach some 
jinality in the matter, he had interviewed the Chief Secretary 
(Mr, Hyland), and, after considerable discussion,, the Minister 
stated that he was having a careful watch kept, upon the island, 
with a view to removing some of the Koalas if developments 
proved them to be in danger. 

The matter was referred back to the Committee, it being agreed 
that, as responsibility rested with the Minister, we must accept 
liis pledge that the Koalas would not be allowed to die. 



■ 



1J0 i ; icM Xohtvatist*' Cinb Pmcccdnw Vv«\lx 

EXCURSIONS 

The President asked members to bear in mind that ihe conduct 
of any excursion was entirely in die hands of the leader of that 
outing. Members should never go ahead q{ the main body of 
the party and collect items of interest before others had seen 
them 

Excursions were reported on as follows: — Flemington Race- 
course. Mr. A. M. Stein fort; Botanic Gardens, Mr. H. C E. 
Stewart, 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS 

The following were elected as ordinary members of the Club : — 
Mrs, Paul Fisch. Miss Isla Goodwin. Miss Vera Rasmussen, 
Mr. Alex W. McKemieand Mr. Hugh McKnigbt; and as country 
members Mrs. Seccomfoe, Miss Lorna H. Davies, and Messrs. 
W. E. Richards, William Ricketts and Albert A. Cook. 

EXHIBITS 

Mr. H. P. Dickms: Three water-colour drawings of wildflowcrs 
and a model of the Endeavour, the ship mentioned frequently 
during the Banksian discussion at last meeting. 

Mr. 1\ S. Hait: Hakea seedlings, collected near Croydon, Vic. 

Mr. V. H. Miller: Two stems of Cywbidhivi htvianwrt, one 
4 ft. long with 19 blooms, the other 4 ft. 6 in long also with 19 
blooms; also a flowering plant of Dendrobhon chrysoto.vmn. 

Mr. Ivo C. Hammet: Garden-grown specimens of Kunzea 
scrkca, Hatgania cyanea, Melaleuca fulchcUa t Veriicordia 
ptumosa. 

Mr. C J. Gabriel: Marine shells, Lwomo* momilla. Gray; front 
Bass Strait. (This is the largest living Victorian gasteropod.) 

Mr. H. T. Reeves. Hand-coloured photographs of native 
flowers. 

Mr. A. A Brunron: Concretion collected near the level at 
which the Keilor skull occurred at the type locality. 

Mr A, D. Hardy: Phebalimn sqiiamcum (Satinwood) fruiting 
twig- from tree 25 ft. high at Kew ; grown from ;» seedling collected 
in the Otway Forest, 1905. 



Just as this issue was going to pres< Mr. David Fleay. Director ol |(]Q 
Hcalesville Sanctuary, telephoned to report (hat he had succeeded in breed- 
ing the Platypus All naturalists will cordially congratulate Mr. Fleay on 
this fine achievement, which is a mailer o! world-wide interest. 



HERBS AND BIRDS 
By Euivh Coleman, Blackburn, Victoria 

A handsome herb with fragrant silvery foliage, a slip of which 
was given to me three years ago by -Mrs. Woodburu (Black 
Rock) has proved of extraordinary interest. The exquisite daisy- 
like flowers, with prominent white ray-florets, are honey-scented. 

The bitterness of leave* and stems suggested an Artemisia, and 
because ot the colour and large size of the flowers I hoped the 
plant would prove to be A> foctiHarti , which I had vainly tried to 
obtain. This* accoroing to the late Sir A, Hort, is the only 
species pil Artemisia with notable flowers, and the only one winch 
likes moisture. (Hybridists are now offering large-flowered 
'"varieties.") Specimens were sent to the National Herbarium 
but could not be traced, and so were sent on to Kew The 
authorities at Kew were puzzled and asked tor more material, 

In the meantime I came upon an illustration (leaves only) in 
the London journal Gardening (Feb., 1939), labelled Pyrcthrmn 
ptanmcaeflorum. As the silvery leaves fitted the mysterious 
plant perfectly it was sent to the Herbarium. With this illusiKinon 
Mr. Willis was able to "verify" our plant as Chrysanthemum 
ptarmicacjioruiti, originally described by Webli and Eertholet, 
between 1836 and 1850, in an uncommon French publication. Mr. 
Willis wrote: ''Unfortunately there is neither description nor figure 
among the thousands of tones at the Herbarium, and all I can 
discover js that the species is a native of Canary Island.*, where 
it was very rare in 1903 and may now even be extinct'' There 
the matter* rested. 

A further reference (My Garden, 1942) by Professor IE. S. 
Lyttel to C. pt<i.rmic(i£ jlonmi as "perhaps the must beautiful of all 
silver plants, with elegant white, ferny foliage.'* confirmed the 
name determined by Mr. Willis, I tried m vain to trace the 
source of the plant. It had been given to Mrs. Wood bum by 
Mrs. T. Imrie of Ivanhoe, who thought it could only have come 
to her through a Melbourne nurseryman. 

This season ray daughter saw a very large plant ot it, in full 
flower, at a Bayswater nursery in which we have discovered ducr 
veiy rare herbs — an example of traditional interest \\\ these fascina- 
ting plants, since it seems that the father of the Baysw.uer 
nurseryman had published a hook on the subject. The flowers 
of the Bayswater plant are larger than mine, with several more 
ray-florets — piobahly due to better cultivation. 

The long-sought Artemisia hcti flora, too, is now firmly estab- 
lished in my garden, and has fully justified all that Sir A, Hort 
claimed for it. The small white flowers, home in incredible 



_ ,, . .mi fViet. Not. 

\M Crti-i;MAA\ Nrrbs am Btau |_ y^ i, x 

numbers on long, graceful smns, are indeed "notable/* hut the 
plants need shelter from hot winds and plenty of water. This and 
the silvery Pyretbrum are certainly two of the most beautiful 
herbs known to me. 

The prettiest part of the story follows. 

At the end of October, 1942, T found every leaf stripped from 
my small Canary Islands Pyrethmm Many lay beneath the. plant 
g$ though they had been cut off by hail. Only the flowers 
were left Fortunately new shoots soon appeared, Late in 
October the same thing happened to this plant, now very much 
larger, and to another smaller one. Fallen leaves with pieces of 
stem-baik attached showed that they had been torn off hy 
force. 

My daughter, who saw goldfinches dose to the plant, stood 
quietly and watched the leaves being carried away- She Uacked 
(he culpiiis to a nest in a tall pittosporum tree some" 40 feet 
distant. .It was being woven with the silver leaves. The nest 
was examined later and found to be constructed almost entirely 
of the rare Pyretbrum, with a few wiry stems which proved to be 
hUeu, infertile flower-stems of Cootanmndra wattles. An attempt 
to pull out the knotted flower-stems showed how wonderfully they 
keyed-in, short as rhey <W- The nest was lined with horsehair 
and thistledown. 

Why was die Pyrethmm chosen ? The Mlvciy colour could 
trardly have been the sole attraction, since many other silver plants 
grew near, one of them (the Ghost-bush) almost touching the 
Pyretbrum. The fact that the leaves were worked into the founda- 
tion of the nest seemed to preclude their selection for decoration. 
Their feathery shape would certainly Lend them to lacing and 
entangling in the fabric, keying--m almost as securely as the 
knotted wattle-stems. 

Was it perfume 5 It Is an interesting fact that all the Pyre- 
thrums are regarded as ''insect flowers/' Both leaves and flowers 
arc used to protect beds, wardrol>es and upholstered furniture 
from injects. Insect powders are made From the dried flowers 
of several species, and oils extracted from them are made into 
toxic fly-spray*, chiefly from those of the Dalmatian species. 

Did the goldfinches know that these leaves are repellent to 
insects? If birds arc clever enough to employ ants to combat 
body vermin, why not repellent leaves for their nests? 



An odd circumstance in bird-life i» the report that a pair of Mud-larks 
{Gratlwd) have nested recently in an elm Bt the intersection of Bourkc and 
Exhibition Streets, Melbourne, practically in the Centre of the city. W/ud 
far the nest appears to have been obtained from watered grass-plots in the 
street. Where the birds get food is best known to themselves. 



Jftn. 

1 914 



SAFEGUARDING A RARE SEAIJIRD 
Uy A. H. CuiShOLM: 

Representation* made recently to the Minister for the Army 
by the ornithologist of New South Wales and Victoria have saved 
a colony of rare scabirds— the only group of it-5 kind knnwn to 
breed in Australian waters — which for many years have had 
their headcpiaiters on Cabbage Tree Island, Port Stephen*, N.S.W. 
The plain face is that the island was being used by military forces 
us a bombardment arca r and when this came to the notice of 
bird-students they called the Minister's attention to the danger 
thus constituted — the extermination of a colony of birds which 
Australia could not afford to lose, The Minister acred promptly — 
he directed the bombarding forces at once to turn their attention 
lo some other island. 

The species in question js the White-winged Petrel (Pierodronm 
Icucofitera), sometimes kuowu also as the Gould Petrel. Dark 
above and white below, with a freckled face, this bird is one of 
the most charming of Australia's seahirds. Petrels in general are 
bulky and aggressive, the white- winged species is smallish and 
gentle — its actions are coy and its voice resolves into a prett} 
parrot-like piping, Moreover, its appeal is increased by its rarity, 
since ir i.s not known to breed anywhere in Australian waters 
other than on Cabbage Tree Island. 

The species was first made known by John Gould, who, soon 
after his return from Australia to England an 1840, received a 
specimen said to have heen taken on Cabbage* Tree Island. There 
is no record of any uaturalists visiting tne island for seventy years 
after that date, so that A. J. Campbell presumed that the species 
no longer bred there. However, certain Sydney ornithologists 
strayed on to the island in 1910-11 and found the birds breeding, 
and in November of 192S vanous members of the Royal Austra- 
lasian Ornithologists' Union, when camped on the mainland near 
by, made a point of visiting the spot 

, Wc found Wedge-tailed Petrels and Fairy Penguins abisndaar 
on the islands, but neither of those birds held for us tlie appeal 
exercised by the quaint little petrels. The colony was found to 
be in possession of a rocky gully on the hillside of the islaud. 
Many pairs were nesting, each breeding bird being tucked away 
m a crevice or beneath a rock, and in each instance the sitting 
bird uttered only a soft "Tec-tee-tee 11 on being disturbed. 

AH of us became very attached to those pretty sca-wandcrers. 
That was why we acted promptly, when apprised of the receut 
situation, in appealing to the Minister to save the birds from <he 
war-rime menace that threatened to exterminate them. 



134 SlitJtEJt A Puzzling Record |_ v„i lx ' 

A PUZZLING RECORD 
By Blajpcjie E Mttxer, Melbourne 

A recent paragraph in the newspapers intimating that action had 
been taken to ensure the safety of the nesting colonies of the 
White-winged Petrel on Callage Tree Island, N.S.W., reminded 
me of a record that bas caused me. from time to time, considerable 
thought. 

A memorable visit to the island in question, in 192S. was 
followed closely by the acquisition of ihc early volumes of our 
journal. The intriguing story of "White-wings" was still fresh 
in my mind when I read the "Descriptions of some Australian 
Birds' Eggs not previously described," amongst them being Mint of 
the White-winded Petrel. The eggs bad been exhibited at the 
Club (October 13, 1884) by Dr. T. P. Lucas, brother of A. IL S. 
Lucas, tbc first Editor of fbfe Victorian Naturttlht, The list, as 
printed, us remarkable for its inconsistencies, \r\ that some of the 
specific names are spelled with capitals. For the information of 
those readers not having ready access to Vol I it may not be 
amiss to re-publish the description: 

Oisivcfhfa tf&c&$fp'& White-winged Petrel. Eiirly last season a friend 
brought mo the v&gs of ttfc species from sonic of tJie small islands off 
^ast GIppslaml. It lays one egg at the end of a bole, about one foot 
in depth. Tfa eg#s vary considerably. .Some. tiK ruumlcd, atligri rounded 
ovate, creamy white, slightly chalky appearance, and with the peculiar 
musty, fishy smell. 1 inch 6 lines X 1 inch 3 Ykrws, to 1 inch 7 line* Vt 
1 inch 6 lines. Breeding Reason; August nmi September 

At Cabbage Tree Island no nesting burrow was made, tbc single 
egg being laid on tbe. fallen debris, sometimes under it. and even 
in crevices between rocks and stone*. 

Whatever doubts may have obtained concerning tbc authenticity 
of the egg exhibited by Dr. I.ixas. the record appears to have 
passed unchallenged, so far .is the journal can show, yet A J. 
Campbell, in bis Nfisfx and Eajfjs, writes of the White- winged 
Petrel: "Ncsl and eggs undescribed." 

Of the otber sr* M Ttew w descriptions by Dr. Luras. Campbell 
gives full credit for four, but is discreetly silent regarding the 
remaining two. I have been told that some authorities considered 
rhat the eg£ exhibiled and described by Dr. Luc&> was referable 
to the Cook* Petrel, which was given full specific rank in the 
Official CiiecMist, 1913. but placed with "White-wings" in tbe 
second edition, 1926. 5o$ the question still arises : Was Dr. Lucas's, 
description of the egjr actually the first? 

We are now assured thai Cabbage Tree Island is the sofc habitat 
of this chaste Petrel, but there used to be no hesitation about 
placing it on tbe various list* of Victorian birds. Previous to the 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. lx 

Platk IX 



January, l l >44 




\v Fiitr-wingccl Petrel bruudingi among rocks, t abhage I rev Maml 

PhDtO A II < hl-h..lrpi 




Canary Islands Pyrethrum, the leaves of which were tiscil hy (idkltiiielies 
for nesting purposes. 
Photo. : Edith Colemnn. 



JgJJ ] Kui-r. fotyflj CflHI^JfrfM o ffrty Botanical Specie*? IAS 

publication of the new descriptions, a list of Victorian birds, 
compiled by T. A. Forbes Leith and A. J. Campbell, was printed 
in the fe^fei Nat. and included therein: "No. 359. Pleradroma 
(Aistrefaia) leucoptera Glct, WhUe-wiuged Petrel." A revised 
edition, edited by A. J. Campbell for 'be Gerlang Naiuraiist and 
published in June, 1894. deleted some names and added others, so 
thai although the number differs we again find the Petrel exactly 
as above. It was also placed on the Victorian list, some years 
later, hy J. A. Leach, whw not unly employed the opinions of 
leatfing ornithologists and oologists, but had the advantage of 
the advice of the authorities at die National Museum. Even more 
surprising was the distribution given to the species by Dr. .Ramsay 
in Itis Tabular List, and bv Robert i-lall in his Key to fffe FStrrts 
of Australia*, J 906. 



WHAT CONSTITUTES A NEW BOTANICAL SPECIES? 
By the Rev. H. M. P. Ruwy >Jorihbndge, N.S.W 

The queslion is undoubtedly on important otic, but the person 
who attempts to answer it may perhaps be reminded of the old 
proverb concerning the venture of fools oi) ground where angels 
hesitate. Nevertheless I propose to take the risk, at least by 
di5.eus.1in5 the mailer; but I preface my remarks by making it 
clear that what I have to say is based upon my experience with 
the QrchidarMtc alone, that being the only family of plants within 
which I have ventured the establishment of new specie*. 

Criticisms r>f the work of both professional and amateur 
taxoncunic botanists most frequently come from one or the other 
of two opposite schools of thought. On the one hand are those 
who seem to view with grave suspicion every publication of a 
new species, and who are ever ready with the charge of hair- 
splitting On the other hand are those to whom every variation 
from a type, or at least from a typical form, appears to mdicatc 
the necessity (or a new species. Between these extremes RFC the 
ninrt 3 open-minded folk, who endeavour to form an impartial 
judgment upon the questions whether a plant is sufficiently 
distinctive in its characteristics to merit specific rank, or whether 
it should hu included within the limitations of a species already 
desciibcd and recogmzed. 

/. C Willis, in bis Dictionary of Flowerift-g Plants and P*n?s 
(5th ed., pp, 451-2). remarks that exactjy ro define it species is 
impossible. A species rs\an artificial unit of classification invented 
by man ; Nature pays no heed to specific rank. As Willis goes on 
to say.' "Each man rn practice arrives at his own conception some- 



1J6 R«w, tfrftOi Cwstttittcs y ffttv Ihfomro) Vftfflf* l%«)Xx* 

where between (or at) the extreme* usually called Limiean aiut 
Jordanian species/' Jordan might lie ternicd the protagonist r»f 
"hair-splitters/* for he gave specific rank to forms e.Nlribhmg 
only minor and insujiiiueaut divergences trom a given type, 
provided .such divergences* were constant, and reappeared in 
successive generations- The Lhmeau System, on the other hand, 
makes allowance lor small variations within one. species., and 
sometimes retains eren more consideiabk V£j*f&ti|fl>i5 By crcairn£ 
wh.\f>eaes. varieties, s it bvtvriv tit's, and farm*. 

It should be fairly obvious that a too rigid adherence to euner 
of these system? may give rise to irritating confusions ; on the one 
hand by multiplying species on very trivial grounds, on the other 
hand by "dumpinif* inLo tine species several forms exhibiting 
character* quite outride the hounds of the original description. 
OH the whole, if err I most. 1 should prefer lo err by an excess 
of Jordanian rather than of Liunaean method For it is annoying 
to have to deal with what one considers a superfluity of species, 
it is fat inore annoying to be unable to discover the identity of a 
plant which has been dumped into a species in spite of outstanding- 
distinctions. It is sometimes argued that original deMrnptions 
can always be amended to rover variations which were nut contem- 
plated by tlie author; but such a course is open tu most serious 
objection, and is highly undesirable unless it 15 unavoidable. What 
jighr have you or I to alter another man's description? Generally 
speaking, none whatever. 

As usual, howevet,. the rule has exceptions, and cases do occur 
where amendment is inevitable. For example, Robert Brown 
( Frodr. 331 ) described the labellum of Cymbidimn suave as entire, 
that iK'ing the only fonu he bad seen. But since flowers of this 
■species are known to have lahella varying" from entire, through 
several obscurely-lobed forms, to one which is definitely trilobate, 
either Brown's description must be amended, nr else, one or more 
new species must be created solely based upon the degree of 
Inbation of the iahellum, which is absurd. Similarly, some of 
Beutham's, descriptions are unsatisfactory because he worked 
upon herbarium specimens only, and sometimes misled features 
which arc obscured or obliterated in the drying process. 

Nevertheless it remains true that we should avoid as far as 
possible any alterations in an original description, which is not our 
own. In most cases it is better to give a new description in our 
own terms, indicating wherein the original description h<as proved 
to be defective. 

The difficulties conirontini'. any attempt to decide whether a 
particular plant k merely a variarit from the typical form of an 
older .species, or is so distinctive in its important feature? that it 



j<i«'« J tttyt* WiHti Cvtistihttrs a ?l?W BoUmWal $pcr>n? 1.17 

should be given specific rank, are much greater in some genera 
than in others. Among Australian orchids, such difficulties are 
notorious in the following genera ; Habemwifr, Dntris, Microtis, 
PrasOphylhtvi, Cakidcvia, and Dcvdrolmm^ They arc most acutely 
felt in connection with species which by common consent are 
recognized as variable; aud in ail probability they are accentuated 
by the existence of natural hybrids. 

Strictly speaking, however, we are not warranted in assuming 
that a flower which exhibits a combination of important character- 
istics oi two known species is J$W fario a natural hybrid between 
thetir The circumstantial evidence in that direction may be strung, 
and should certainly be mentioned, but it is not. conclusive. Cleat 
pioof of hybridization couid only be secured by crossing the 
suspected parents; aud even that migbt fail, since the dominant 
influence of one parent might produce an artificially raised hybrid 
differing considerably from the supposed natural hybnd. 

Occasionally the circumstantial evidence tor natural hybridiza- 
tion is so overwhelming That we may reasonably accept it, as in 
the case of (he so-called hybrid between Glasxodm major and 
G. minor } not uncommon in some areas of New South Wales. 
Here we have a flower exhibiting features of both supposed 
parents, and it only occurs where both are present in conside tabic 
numbers. It docs not appear to reproduce itself; and fligrc is 
no other species of Clossodia known within 2.000 miles (approxi- 
mately). 

One or two features may be mentioned which, though con- 
spicuous, should fce given Httle weight in determining the status 
of a plant. The rolour of the flower is an unreliable criterion. Tu 
many species ft is so nearly constant that it is usually included in 
the description; but even among these the unexpected may occur. 
and flowers supposed to be consistently mauve or blue may appear 
in some locality ciad in white or yellow. DimensionSj whether of 
the plant or its flower, are by no mean* unimportant, and should 
never be* ignored in descriptions; but their value may be discounted 
by the strange occurrence of giants and dwarfs, and by differences 
due to climatic or soil conditions. 

Morphology is the factor which must weigh moat with MS 
when determining the status of a plant; and in particular the 
morphology of the flower. That of the plant, of course, is 
important, independently of its flower, but generally speaking it 
is more obvious, and calls for less study You would not waste 
lime debating whether a Pferosty/is habitually bearing basal leaves 
on the stem ^nd an inflorescence of several very small flowery 
could be identical with one devoid of basal leaves on the stem 
and having one large flower. 



138 Mupv, Whot Coustthttcr a iWw Bofoukftf. Sfffil? [ v,,i' r.,x' 

But when you come to the morphology of the flower, things are 
not so ea^y. It is impossible to formulate rules defining what 
skill constitute a variety and what shall constitute a new species* 
because it would first of all be necessary to have an exact definition 
of a species to b3se the rules on Common 5en.se, and the desire 
to avoid causing confusion either by the unnecessary multiplication 
of specks or by including too many different forms in i>ne 
species, must guide our treatment of the plants wc arc dealing 
with In a discussion in this journal (Vol. LIX Dec. 1942, pp. 
137-140) on the section Qenoplcihim of rhe genus Prasopliyllnm, 
1 have pointed out the fallacy of ignoring morphological distinc- 
tions between small flowers because they cannot be delected with- 
out the aid of a magnifier. If such distinctions would constitute 
specific difference between flowers as large as a dinner-plate, 
then they constitute .specific difference between flowers no bigger 
than a pin's bead. Sue simplv has no bearing on the matter at 
all. 

If I am doubtful of the identity or status of a particular flower, 
T must begin my investigations by comparing it with what seem to 
be its nearest relatives. For example, let us suppose someone has 
szwt me flowers which, as I can tell at a glance, belong to the 
genus Diuris. They bear considerable resemblance to those of 
more than one species of Diuris known to me; let us say D. sul- 
phuwa, D. paladuUr, and D. brevifolift. By studying' the published 
descriptions of ihe.se, and by comparing' the strangers with actir'l 
specimens or drawings if that bt possible, 1 am to rule out 
D. sutpltimut and D, bi-evijolia. Mv flowers are so like those of 
D. palachilo thai the non-botanist would probably call them identi- 
cal, and accuse mc of hair-splitting if I demurred. Bui I observe 
that, apart from minor differences, the stranger has a rhomboid 
tabclfum with very small lateral lobes, whereas that of D. fxthidtifa 
is spatulate or shovel-shaped, with large and prominent lateral 
Inbes If this distinction is consistently maintained in all the 
available specimens, it is of too much importance in the morpho- 
logy of the flower to be dismissed as a mere variation : I am 
justified fn giving the new flower specific rank. If, on the other 
hand, some of the tabelta -are almost spatulate, and some have 
large lateral lobes like those of D. paiaclnta, I should probably only 
cause con fusion by creating % new species, and it would be far 
better to recognise chat D. {nihchil^ sometimes varies from the 
typical form m 

Mistakes, ot course, will sometimes be made: even the great 
ones ot the botanical world are not infallible, so we need not worry 
if occasionally we find ourselves wrong, To make mistakes i c not 
fatal: to refuse to adrmt our mistakes is! 



?S J l.owi. Extra-Urri-xtrtn? Lite )39 

EXTRA-TERRESTRIAL LIFE 
J3y E ( E. Loru, Melbourne 

Is lite, as we know it here, or indeed auy other sart of life 
■possible* or probable on other worlds but our own? What is the 
•present state of knowledge on this subject? 

The question as to what life really is» naturally presents itself 
at this stage, and is extremely difficult to answer. The living cell 
feeds, grows, responds to environment and reproduces its kind. 
The force behind this process we call life. Certain conditions 
have been observed and found essential to the maintenance of 
such liie, 

Professor Hartung (Melbourne University) has summarised 
-these essential requirements under five headings: — 

J. SUITABLE CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT. The protoplasm of 
•the living cell is built o f carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur. 
-phosphorus, and other elements.. Ti 1*5 practically certain chat all of these 
are present on .neighbouring worlds, 

2 LIQUID WATER That is, neither Uoztn nor vaporous Water is 
-the one liquid in which nature performs all her work on earth. If 3* 
-difficult to conceive of any sunahlr substitute for water. 

3. SUITABLE TEMPERATURE. Tn spite, of tin; vast range Q< 
letrqjcratures prevailing in the universe., known life can only exist within 
:a very r arrow margin. 
4 FREE OXYGEN. 

5. LIGHT. In tlie laboratory of a plani'i leaf. light, by ftc TV<N$H of 

photo-synthesis, together with chlorophyll, water and carbon dioxioV, pfaryf 
^U essentia) part in the production of starch mid sugars fur the maintenanc 
rof all forms nt life. 

With our present Icnowledge of the Solar System and the 
Universe, can we find, then, llie4€ ftVC basic conditions obtaining 
•on another world; and if so, have we any further inductions thai 
life fo prubauly existing there? The temperature margin seem?, at 
once to fule out all members of our system excepting the. Moon, 
Venus and Mars, It eliminates also all other hot stars in the 
universe with the exception of possible distant planetary systems, 
and the cool dark partners of binary or double stars. Of such 
systems or partners our knowledge is hopelessly inadequate on 
account of their vast distances. Wc. are left therefore to consider 
the Moon, Venus and Mars. 

The Moon. A reference to II G. Wells* delightful fiction. 
"^Tirst Men in the Moon'* is .justified here, because the scientist- 
author's description of lunar surface conditions are very true to 
.ascertained facts — his principal error being hts allowance, at lunar 
sunrise, of a very slight atmosphere Careful observations have 
since disproved this. With neither air nor water, and alternations 



J40 \Smt. fi.vhn-icrrrstriat Lih' [ y ol( |Jy 

of severe heat and cold, the moon's surface ife most tintavourable- 
to life; hut it might conceivably exist iu tile deep cavernous- 
interior where remaining supplies of air and watet imgh.1 "be 
retained near the central cure. 

Fenus, Being closer to the sun than the earth — 07 compared, 
with 93 millions of miles— the surface of Venus would he mu<h 
hotter but for one factor: it is completely slTfourlcd in dens*--, 
cloud, which ts all that we sec when observing The Composition 
of the cloud was thought to be water-vapour, but Drs. Adams- 
and Dunham (Kaemprlett. 1940) fcjafen to have proved }t to be 
largely carbon dioxide, Seventy per cent, of the sun's light is. 
reflected, and much of the remainder is probably absorbed, by the- 
cloud material. The atmosphere is rarer than on earth, Watr*r r 
oxygen and light therefore are all in short supply on Venus, and 
conditions for life are probably hazardous, though not impossible. 
Carbon dioxide is certainly favourable to vegetation. So much 
for our nearest planetary neighbour until, perhaps, advanced 
photography using ultra-violet rays can penetrate the eluml 
envelope, 

M-jrs. Here fiction has surely had free play since, in 1877,. 
Schjaparclh declared he saw the famous "eanali" (Italian, chan- 
nels) on the surface of this planet. 34ut let us face the fads iit 
oidci' 

Martian atmosphere is rare, resembling the upper levels ot Mt. 
Everest, Temperature is necessarily low on account ot distance 
from *he sun (140 million miles), But not so low as was thought. 
Later.i measurements aecoidmg to Kuentprrert {Science To-day anrx 
1 o-moirotv, 1940 j give a minimum of 15° F_ at south pole in 
summer, and 65° F. south temperate zone. Nights would be cold. 
lint nor moTc ihan New r York in winter. Chemical environment 
would bt favourable to cell structure as found in earth life. The 
water content is low ; and certainly the areas once called "seas" 
are not water. Di. Wright has photographed Mara at Mt. -vVilsto 
wuh light of different colours and discovered yellow waiciy 
clouds floating at a height of 1 5,000 feet, white Dr. V. M. Slipher 
at ."Flagstaff claims to have conclusive evidence of water vapour. 
O xvgen on Mars is scarce — bet wn;i J one hu nd redth and one 
thousandth of a given area on earth, Waterfield. (Hmtdrcd Vmif.r 
of Astronomy,, 1938) states ; "The spectroscopic evidence thar 
o\ygen exists, if at all, only iu the smallest amounts, seeing - 
indisputable, and practically excludes . the possibility of animal' 
life'*: also, "it is extremely probable that There is. some form of* 
vegetation on Mars.'* Bernbard.. Bennett and Rice (A r w Hand- 
book of the Heavais, 1941) Mate: ''Many reputable astronomers — ^ 



] '41 

probably a majority of them — believe there is at least plant life on 
the planet. And the existence of vegetation presupposes con- 
ditions which might possibly support some kind of animal life.*' 
The positive argument for vegetation is based on seasonal colour 
changes from greenish to brown, observed over much of Mars* 
•surface by M. Antoniadi and others. 

We have yet to consider the so-called "canals." From 1894, at 
■the famous Flagstaff Observatory in Arizona, Professor Percival 
Lowell, with his assistants, using a splendid 24-inch telescope, 
-made prolonged observations of Mars. Maps were ultimately 
produced showing a network of straight but very fine lines, 
radiating from ''centres/ 1 and linked in an amazing design over 
the whole ot the planet. But trouble was pending. Other famous 
astronomers, particularly at Mount Wilson, where larger tele- 
scopes had been installed, became openly critical of Lowell's 
•claims, affirming that no such "canals'* were visible through their 
instruments, nor would the camera record any such network. 
Lowell^ reply was that Flagstaff was better placed atmospherically 
and that due to air currents and slight earth tremors photography 
of such delicate lines was not possible. It is interesting to note 
what Sir James Jeans wrote in 1034 {Through Space and Thne) : 
*' Photography is for technical reasons uusuited to the recording 
of very fine markings and it is quite possible, as the canal observers 
•claim, that these are best seen by the eye" 

Should the existence of "canals" be established, the following 
"hypothesis may be borne in mind : The Martian water supply 
to-day is utterly inadequate to fill a vast network of waterways; 
"but Mars is a far older planet than the Earth, and if, long ages 
ago when both water and oxygen were plentiful, intelligent beings 
took action to conserve the planet's dwindling water content, what 
we view to-day might be the monuments of their ancient work, 
lower forms of life only now persisting. 

One may yet ask: Cannot life elsewhere be of a basically 
different kind to that found here? Consider this for a moment* 
The substance of earth-life is built around carbon, with which 
no other element can compare for its ability to form countless 
•compounds. Sherwood Taylor (World of Science, 1938), states 
that ''chains of more than three or four atoms cannot be made by 
any other element except carbon," 

There we must leave our inquiry for to-day. Science of 
^to-morrow may blaze new trails. Perhaps improved photographic 
technique, coupled with the great 200-inch telescope being erected 
on Mount Palomar, may yield further knowledge. Who can tell? 



142 



Wakefield. Two New Species of Tmcsiptcris 



[Viet. Nat, 
Vffll.LX 



TWO NEW SPECIES OF TMESIPTE1US 

By N. A. Wakefield, ex-Genoa, Victoria, now on Aclivc Service 

The genus Tmcsiptcris was first discovered in New Zealand and other 
Pacific Islands (R. G. Forster), and the original species {T> tatwensis) 
was described by SprengeU in 1799 under the genus Lycopodium. In 1800, 
Bernhardt originated the genus Tmcsiptcris, typified by Sprenget's species, 
Labillardiere, 3 in 1806, referred a Tasmanian plant to T. taunnijis; but this 




7". parva and T. ovata, new species. 



] 

was described by Endlicher* in 1833 as Tmesiptt'ris Billardicri ; though 
Robert Brown 5 had, in 1S10, included at in his Psilohtui truncalitm from 
the Port Jackson area. Endlicher* 5 had previously described PsUotnm 
l r arstt l ris. form found in New Zealand and Norfolk Island. 

Subsequent botanists included all the above, and several other forms* 
under the original species |see discussion by George Bentham 7 ) ; P. A* 
Dasgard^ attempted to set up several forms as species, lit originated the 
names T. lameoiaia and T. elongata; but, unfortunately, he disregarded the 
work done by earlier botanists whose names have priority. 

This is unsatisfactory; for investigation has proved that there is a 
number of well-defined species, with constant differences in habit, size and 
shape ut leaves and fruits, and in geographical radge. The purpose of 
this pai>er is to deal with the four Australian species, which are as follow: 

Tnwsiptcris Biliardieri Endl. 4 "joins a pice truncal is mucronc $ct<wco, 
7\ tannense Lab." Stems ■)> to 2 feet long; leaves large, 4 to \\ inches long, 
sparse, 4 to to the inch, very broad especially at the upper base, tips 
truncate and then with nvueronate points ; capsules very large, pointed. The 
form illustrated by Liibillardicrc is plentiful in Tasmania and Victoria, 
and extends into Xew South Wales (Mount Dromedary* Blue Mountains). 
Psihtum trnncalnni. which Endliehcr included as a synonym, is a distinct 
species. ( Sec below.) 

TMESIPTERIS PARI A sf>. noi\ Plantis parvis; joliis &W&. 
nnntcrosis, atigustis, sub-fafculis. iiciniitHijiis, Hon sclOt'CO'iintCi'onalis ; 
capsitii's porvis rotitndis. 

Stems short, 3 to 5 incches long ; leaves numerous, about 15 per inch* 
narrow, sub-falcate, hardly mucronate at the tips, about J inch long ; 
capsule verv small and rounded. 

Habitats: Karlo Creek, 1/3/1941 (type); Mount Drummer, 14/6/1941; 
Harrison's Creek (Mallacoota Inlet), 7/2/1943 : all m East Victoria and 
collected by the author. Also, "Terra GippslancL" Dallachy ; Waratah 
Bav (South Gipps.), Rossiter and Heathcote, 1939; Dandenong Ranges. 
Chas. Walter, 1883: Mount Dromedary (N.S.W.), Reader, 3/8/1880. 

TAJESIPTERIS OJ'ATA sp> ton; Plantis parvis : foliis parvis. oralis, 
nnmerasis, apuibus carnm obtusis sctacco-miuratiatis; iapsulis part-is 
rotumiis. 

Plants small, up to 6 inches long ; leaves small, up to f inch Jong, 
crowded, numerous, about 15 per inch, ovale, lips rounded and mucronate; 
capsules small, rounded. 

Habitats; Mount Drummer, 1/6/1941 (type); Howe Ranges, 8/2/1943 
(both in East Victoria*) ; N. A. Wakefield. Also, Dandcnongs, Dallachy, 
Jan., 14*50 ; and probably South-east New South Wales, 

In the accompanying plate, the two new species are shown, about natural 
size. 

Both T. parva and T ovnfa are very abundant in the East Gippsland 
"jungles" on trunks of trcefems. 

Tmssiptcris tntneata (R. Br.) Dcsv,* (Psilotum truncatum R. Brown. 5 
excluding the synonym T, tannense Lab., and the Tasmanian locality, ) 
Stems up to 9 inches long ; leaves up to an inch long, narrow-linear, tips 
very truncate or bilobed, and with mucronate points ; capsule usually 
rounded, rarely pointed. Typified by Brown's Port Jackson specimens, 
wul extending from Mount Dromedary, N.S.W., to Cairns. Queensland. 

REFERENCES 

I. SchraJ. Jour*. (1799), 1. 267. 2. Schrad. Journ. (1800), ii. 131, t, 2. /. IV. 
3. /'/. tf»Vs HoU» i»- IAS, t. 252, 4. Prod. Ft. Nor/.. 6. S. Prod. Fl. Not: Hall.. 162. 
bl Icqmwt., t- H5. 7. Flora Auatralieitais, Vol. VII. p. 681-2 (1878). 8. he 
hotfiniHU; \\, IK, 213 (1891). 9. Ann. For. Liv». Par., W, 192 (1827). 



144 



CoLfiM.AN, A S r ew(n Victorian Crkkci 



r Vict. Nat. 
L Vd, LX 



A NEW(?) VICTORIAN CRICKET 

The following notes, with sketch, were sent to me by Mr. F. O'Donuell, 
of Newbridge, Victoria. They relate to what appears to be a cricket hitherto 
unrecorded tor Victoria. 

In a period of 15 years Mr. O'DonuclI has found specimens only three 
times, at various localities about Pooyong, where he was stationed until 
recently. They were found in rabbit burrows, some ten feet from the 
entrance. There were adult male and female and newly emerged young. 
From Mr. O'Donnell's sketch the insects seem identical with, or closely 
related to, a cricket illustrated in Froggatt's Australian Insects as 
Pachychamma sp. 




THE NEW ( ?) CRICKET- 1. Male without hind leg (actual size). Body, 
11 mm-; hind leg, 62 mm.; overall, 125 mm, (5 ins.). 2. Hind leg of male 
(62 mm,)- 3. Female without second leg. Body and ovipositor. 19 mm.; 
"hind leg, 43 mm.; overall, 83 mm. (3£ ins,). Found with young (2 mm.) 
10 feet in rabbit burrow, April, 1942. No sign of wings or elytra. 

Tillyard records Pachychamma fascijer, the weta of New Zealand, as 
occurring abundantly in old tunnels near Wellington. In this species both 
sexes measure 8 to 9 inches from tip of the antennae to end of hind leg. 
The absence of wings or elytra in Mr. O'Donnell's insects points to a*i 
entirely subterranean existence. 

From the absence of descriptive matter in both Froggatt and Tillyard, 
little or nothing seems to be known of the life-history of this interesting 
cricket, Mr. O'DonncIl was digging for ferrets in the burrows. Country 
members may find this a clue. — Emth Coleman', Blackburn, Vic. 



The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. LX. — No. io February 10, 1944 N°& 7 22 



PROCEEDINGS 

The monthly meeting q{ the F.N.C was held on January 10, 
1944. Mr. Ivo HanmieL Vice-President, presided in the absence 
through illness of the President, aud about 100 members and 
friends attended. 

A welcome was extended to several new members and country 
members, and to Flyuig-OfTiccr C C- Ralph, on leave from New 
Guinea, 

"VARIOUS BIRD PROBLEMS" 

Lecturing on this subject, Mr. A. H. Chisholm discussed briefly 
certain remarkable developments among birds generally and 
Australian species in particular, He dealt with the curious habit 
of certain Wood-swallows of sleeping in s\varms like bees; the 
striking nesting habits of the Mistletoe-bird, Painted Honeyeatcr.. 
and Shrike-tit; inter-tropical, migration ; the problems created by 
the extraordinary play-habits and vocal mimicry of Bower-birds; 
the practice of "anting" by certain birds; the nesting association 
of certain birds with other living things, notably wasps ; the puzzle 
caused by birds which decorate their nests with snake-skin, and 
the problem of injury-feigning by various birds. Several decora- 
tive nests were exhibited as illustrations of one portion of the 
lecture. 

Mr. A. S. Chalk followed with an address on "Some Aspects 
of Melbourne Bird-life." He made general remarks on native 
buds seen in the city and suburbs and suggested that these could 
be increased considerably in numbers if more native trees were 
cultivated, Attention was given also to introduced birds, and it 
was stated that Melbourne carried 11 species in varying strength, 
a greater number than any other city in Australia. 

Mr. Fulton inquired regarding the range of the Spotted and 
Northern Bower-birds. Mr. Chisholm replied that the break 
between the two species was at a point slightly north of Central 
Oueensland. 

Miss N. Fletcher reported having seen a White-lhroated Tree- 
creeper near Sydney apparently "anting" itself. She asked it this 
had been observed previously and also what Australian species 



(i& Field Naturalists' Club Proceedings Vvltx 

had been seen to "ant." Mr. Chishoim replied that this was the 
first record of the practice with the Treecreeper, and that the 
species known to have applied ants to their bodies in Australia 
were the following: Starling, Thrush, Blackbird, Mmah (intro- 
ductions) , Grey Jumper, Magpie-lark, Rufous Whistler, Satin 
Bower-bird, and Lewin Honeyeater (natives). Much the most 
consistent follower of the practice was tMe Starling, and the befet 
time to watch for exhibitions was at present or in early autumn. 

Mr. V. H. Miller mentioned that when lime was placed in a 
bird-bath more Starlings and Doves than usual seemed to be 
attracted, and he asked if this might be regarded as a variant of 
"anting." Mr. Chishoim replied that tins was possible, adding that 
some years ago a discussion arose on the practice of certain birds 
dropping pepperina berries in baths, apparently to "strengthen" 
the water. 

Mr. F. S. Colliver suggested (and Mr. Chishoim agreed) that 
live shells round on birds could not reasonably be ascribed to the 
birds arranging food supplies, but rather could be taken to mean 
that the shells attached themselves to the birds when disturbed. 

GENERAL BUSINESS 

Mr. Chishoim reported that the platypus had been bred, for the 
first time in captivity, at the Healesville Sanctuary, and showed 
photographs of the baby platypus taken by Air, David Fleay, 
together with other interesting pictures of immature platypuses 
and echidnas. In this matter the meeting agreed unanimously to 
accord a hearty vote of congratulation to the Sanctuary Director,, 
Mr. Fleay. 

Mr. P. Crosbie Morrison showed films of wild life on Lake 
Corangamite, of the breeding of a Brown Thonibill m a flowering 
shrub, and of the plight of the koalas on Quail Island. This last 
film aroused much sympathy in the audience, and the committee 
was urged to continue to watch the situation closely. 

Reports of excursions were given by Messrs. A. S- Chalk 
(Blackburn Lake) and C. French (Seaford). 

The following were elected as Ordinary Members: Miss Y. 
Crawford. Mr. Philip Greenway, Mr. Raleigh Black, VV/O. J. A. 
Blackburn; and as Country Member, Mrs. V. Tremayne. 



jsm* 3 Ww,fl > W<M Life in (fe M*ww FortS\$ 147 

WILD LIFE IN THE MURRAY FORESTS 

By E, M. Webb, Melbourne. 

The Murray River, from Echuca ujistrtam, runs mostly through 
a huge forest of swamp redgum. Where the forest ends I do 
not know, but recently I travelled 85 miles upstream from Echuca 
in the lugging steamer Adelmde and we were still in the redgum 
region. 

The rivermen have two names lor this area, namely, the Barmah 
Forest and the Yeilima Forest. The Barmah Forest begins at the 
township of Barnmh, some 30 river miles from Echuca and about 
half the distance by road. I take it that the Yeilirna Forest starts at 
Yeilima, which is represented by a very attractive farmhouse 
surrounded by green lawns and paddocks of rich soil. After that 
one break some 65 miles from Echuca, the forest doses in again 
on both sides of the river. 

This is a most attractive trip not available to the many. The 
Adelaide, is no pleasure steamer. She hauls empty barges upstream 
and brings them down loaded with something like 200 tons of 
logs chained to the outriggers of each. They could dispense with 
the barges if redgum would float, bat it won't. 

Thtse forests aie all in country subject to inundation, The 
swamp redgum must have access to the Murray water or it will 
die. Also, if it is inundated all the time it will die r and the same 
thing happens if it is never inundated. On the banks, of course, 
where the river never overflows, the tree roots strike down below 
water-level and the redgum lives until erosion clears away the 
soil from the roots, when die tree falls into the river and becomes 
a snag. 

Since the fnrasr is all in swamp country, it is likely to remain 
a forest for all time. I hope it does anyway. There is nothing 
more alluring or stimulating than the primitive wilderness of this 
country. It is timeless and ageless. It was there thousands— 
possibly millions — of years before the white man came here, and 
I trust it will be there thousands of years hence — even though I 
won't he here to .enjoy it. 

These swamp redgums are the "Yarra" trees mentioned many 
times by Major Mitchell in his books of exploration. They are on 
the Murray and all its tributaries. Mitchell found them on the 
Darling, the Lachlan and the Murrumbidgee. They sit around 
the billabongs of these streams, and the}' are beautiful trees. 
Stand in a Murray forest when the sun shines and look up. Above 
in the foliage you will find a jewel, house. 

The rivermen tell me that if a sapling is completely covered by 
flood waters it will die, but if one leaf is showing above the water 



148 Webb. Wild Life "t tix> Murray Fo^m V$Xx 

it will live, 1 hey should know, for they live with the forest and 
it is an open hook tu them. 

I made two trips upstream. The first was in the Hero, which 
hauls 3 firewood Large and is skippered by Captain Hilary Hogg, 
the youngest skipper on the Murray, Half way to Barmah and 
just after rounding Cape Horn, we ran into a Mallet duststorm 
I had made the remark that there were no storms ai this Cape 
Horn, but I was wrong. 

. This storm was a magnificent sight. It rose before us in great 
grey cumulus clouds, like the .smoke from a bushfire. Up and up 
it piled in the sky until it blotted out die sun. The air wpa 
•deathly still 

A sort of dim yellow light was about us, in which the trunks 
of the redgums turned a ghastly white and the leaves paled as if 
with fear. Suddenly we were in the thick of blinding red dust 
and then rain began to pour down. A great wind arose and bent 
the trees in gale fury, stripping some of them of branches and 
sending a few of the giants, crashing- It was an awesome time. 

Cape Horn is a peninsula jutting out into a sharp river-bend, 
but there are many worse bends farther up. Nine Panel Bend 
and Green Engine Bend are real hairpins where steamers going 
upstream on the one side and downstream on the other side ate 
travelling in the same direction. 

On this trip you pass the entrance of the Goulbum River and 
the Broken Creek and the offshoot of the Edward River and 
Culpa Creek which latter runs into the Edward farther along. 

As soon as you pass Barmah you are in the forest proper and 
the lake country, with I-akc Moira on your left and Lake Victoria 
on. your right. Here is where a crowded bird-life begin?, White 
egrets flew before us, alighted on trees, waited for u$ to catch up 
and went on again. The steamer's speed is 3£ to 4 mrles an hour 
upstream, which was a bit slow for these graceful fliers 

Here we were in the country of the nankeen heron, with it* 
copper-coloured wings and back. White ibis floated among the 
trees., but the straw-necked ibis was absent — there was a grass- 
hopper plague further north and the straw-necks were up there 
having a feast. 

Black duck and teal winged swiftly past and thousands cf wood- 
duck fled before us. Many small families of duck could be seen 
scurrying away into the bush. The swans and pelicans are few 
this year but I was told they were absent nesting. 

The sky was sometimes black with cormorants. Flights of 
screeching white cockatoos went on all day long. One* at a 
landing-stage, while taking on firewood, I saw blue wrens. 

Past Barmah and the lakes the Murrav narrows to what the 



rfveymen call the Little River Here, (-here is hardy room for two 
steamers to pass and to make matters worse someone years ago 
planted a few willows on the bank. These make the river narrower 
•still. 

Up by Tony's Bend there is a reach of osiers and weeping 
willows that achieves a rare beauty. The willows are increasing 
because every time a log barge hits Ibe. willows- and ii does that 
often — the broken hits of branch float downstream until they are 
held up by a snag. These bits then take root in the bank and 
•more willows are born- 
Tony's Bend, by the way, has a. history. Ic is named after an 
Italian who many years ago built himself a house right on the 
bend. An empty outrigger barge took the corner too close one 
day and the outriggers ripped the side out of Tony's house. Tony 
came out, wrung his hands. and screamed; "Yon pnlla my house 
down! Oh, you pulla my house down!*' So at is always Tony's 
Bend now, and a nasty corner it is, Coining downstream in the 
Adelaide the. skipper and mate fling theimclvcs frantically on the 
wheel to put il hard over. The Hero tan get round in one try, 
but generally has two stabs a( it. 

Going up in the Hero we saw a platypus swimming and on 
another occasion, from the deck of the Addoide, T saw a tnx 
paddling across from Victoria to Ncw ; South Wales. 

Somewhere above Tony's Rmd a white kangaroo used to be 
seen bopping about. Many a rivermun or a timber-cutter tne.d 
to shoot it but it seemed to liave & charmed lite. Then a slwper- 
.cutttr wrote to the Zoo to ask what it would pay him to cupturc 
the white kangaroo alive. He had visions of i20 or £30 for such 
a prize, hut he was offered only £2 so he never tried. 

Ear up in the forest we saw kangaroos-;— two mobs of them — 
with half-grown joeys speeding away with mothe.i and father. 
About the same place on the New South Wales side Captain 
Barney Kmks, of the AdAmds, drew my attention to a couple of 
emus with their half-grown flock of little ones. The emus were 
quite unmoved by the presence of the vessel so we had a j^ond louk 
it 'them. 

From the deck of the Adelaide X saw at different times two 
snakes swimming across the river — both black as far as T could 
see. Up at Black Kngine, beyond Veilima, where the AdelnidJs 
trcw was loading logs, a foolish snake swam across from New 
South Wales past the nose of the barge. As soon as it landed it 
•died It too wag black but not very big. 

The rivermen tell me that all animals in the forest have been 
seen swiniming^across the river. These include kangaroos and 
emu?.. I can't say that \ ever Heard of theNt two swimming, hut 



ISO Wbwb, Wild Life in thf Murray hvrcjtx [ v ^. LX* 

Barney assures me that they do. Barney has been on the river 
ail his young life arid knows it thoroughly. 

These men oi the river arc keen observers. T sat la the wheel- 
house of the Hero with "Tiny" Tuck, the long and strong mate, 
and whenever a bird flew by Tiny named it for ipe. lie too has 
spent long years on the river. 

One morning there was Murray cod for breakfast, caught the 
nigh l before- It came from a 12-poutnier and it was delicious. 
AH. Maslon, the engineer of the Adeiauic* cooked it, and he is a 
pretty good cook, 

I have been dreaming of the Murray forests ever since- 



EMERGENCE OF ADULT SAWFLIES 

By Maurice F. Lkask, A.I.F, 

Adult sawflies observed \n the Battarat (Vic.) district ^mcrgctf 
chiefly in the month of March. There were some few emergences 
in early and late summer, but. a large number appeared in March, 
beginning on the 17th, when no fewer than twelve cages yielded 
adults on the same day. 

This prompted me to compile a separate list tor one day. The 
counting on the 27th showed a total number of sixteen cages 
producing a total of seventy-three adults. These results are from 
some 160 experiments conducted during four years. However, 
the larvae concerned here were all captured in the spring of 1939, 
As the method of collecting larvae determined that several 
bunches were taken in the same area, the coincidence of species 
over a restricted series is readiiy understood. The identifications 
are based on samples sent to Mr H. Hacker, of the Queensland 
Museum, who determined Experiment Number 108 as Perga 
dorsalis, Experiment Number 118 as a species uE Pscu4optrga r 
and Experiment Number 121 as a species of Peryagmpta. The 
other identifications are my own- 
Detailed weather reports from official charts were kept in art 
attempt to trace the control of weather factors over emergences, 
and the influeuce of the periodical droughts. 

A tabic is appended to show in convenient form the. number* 
of individuals concerned in the emergences. This table has been 
isolated from the general record of the numbered experiments. 
It will he seen that tht females far outnumber the males though 
a glance at further totals reveals that there is apparently no fixed 
proportion. However, it is as yet too early in the investigations 
to make dogmatic assertions on this or any other point. 

If a slight compromise may be niadc in the way of a summary, 



Feb 
ie*4 



| Leask, Emergence of Adtdt Saw flies 151 



it has been found that Perga dorsalis from Ballarat previously 
had emerged in December, and again in February; now the same 
sj>eeies (which is from Carapook in the Western district of 
Victoria) emerges in March. 

At least the results indicate that the adults can be bred in large 
numbers. In the case of these in particular, too, it is proved that 
some of the many species remain underground only from spring 
till the following autumn, and from autumn till the following 
spring. 

Perhaps the most decisive assertion, if the only definite one, is 
that Perga dorsalis and an unidentified species of the genus Perga- 
grfrpta emerge on the same day. By further comparison it is hoped 
that a more complete list may be made of the adults which emerge 
at the same time. 

With final conclusions still far in the future, these results at 
least forrn a useful addition to the series of investigations into the 
months of emergence, the influence of weather and the food-plants 
favoured by the larvae; in turn, this study will aid the systematic 
classification of the adults of the various species, 

RESULT OF EMERGENCES ON ONE DAY (27/3/40) FROM 
CAGED SPECIMENS 



Experiment 


No. of 


No, of 


No. of 




Number 


Females 


Mafe.s. 


Adults 


Identification 


95 


2 




2 


Pergagrapta 


97 


4 




4 


Pergagrapta 


$8 


4 




4 


Pergagrapta 


101 


I 




1 


Pergagrapta 


m 


6 




6 


Perga dorsalis 


107 


19 


1 


20 


Perga dorsalis 


109 


$ 


1 


6 


Perga do-r sails 


110 


2 




2 


Perga dorsalis 


113 


I 




J 


Perga dorsalis 


116 


6 




6 


Perga dorsalis 


117 


5 




5 


Perga dorsalis 


m 


3 




3 


Pergagrapta 


120 


2 




2 


Pergagrapta 


121 


7 




7 


Pergagrapta 


123 


2 


- 


2 


Pergagrapta 


124 


2 




2 


Pergagrapta 


Totals 16 


71 


2 


n 





Weather; Bar., 30 in.; Temp., 81-5; Rain, nil; for mth, to date, 40 pis.; 
sunny conditions controlled by high pressure belt- 



]52 Th* Late frcdmck Ctiotmon f virt 



MM 



1HE LATF- PRTCniLRlCIv CHAPMAN 



By the death of Frederick Gunman, A.l.S,, t'.RM,S,, rtc, which took. 
place suddenly al his l>omc *t K>w 00 December 39, 194.\ in his. 80th year,. 
w€ have lost one who. during a ceriod of scientific work extending, over 
more than *i>t> years, contributed greatly to the development of a popular 
interest in the wonders of rtatural science. 

He once described himself As a broad naturalist rather than a ^colo^isl 
and los remarkable ranjjc of knowledge justified tiiia view, for, in addition 
to that associated with Ma profession or palaeontologist, he was a finrr 
entomologist, a Kood botani*t v ' and could speak with authority on almost 
every phase r-f natural history. Apart from this lie had the -personality 
winch inspired others with some o£ fua Own enthusiasm for the thulfjs 
wfricH. throughout his long I lie, were such a joy to lnm. 

Mr Chapman was born in London on February 13. 3804. It i& wot 
surprising thai he became a scientist, for his father wa* technical assistant, 
first to the famous. Michael h'araUay, and then to Professor John Tyudall, 
and took part in many of their epoch-waging experiments. The most 
powerful influence in Mi. Chapman's, early life, however. was his eltlci 
brother, Robert, who was a physic iM hut had in*dc ntjrrnAonpy, pho-rnj*i:ipliy 
and botany his r-xtra hobbies*' Of btw, Mr. Chapman lias written: "'In 
many v/ays he imparted- to me, .especially on my early boyhood, a great 
lore of nature. Loth artistic and technical. In particular, 1 owe to him a 
debt beyond word* for m» carry cnlhustn>* in me the study of that most 
beautiful and imrigiring group of marine ur^uuibins, forauiiwfcra " 

In 1881 Frederick Chapman was selected by Professor ) VV Jud-J as 
laboratory assistant in the geology department of the Royal College of 
Mines. Then 18 years of age, he remained in the department until he 
came to MeUmurrte m 1902, twenty year? later. While thnre, he qualified 
as a teacher of geology and physiography and made a number oi friendship* 
with men who did much to direct the course of his iife. 

Mr. Chapman's energy during that period, as; later, was apparently 
inexhaustible, and a constant stream of papers on poWuut-.ilogy, geology 
and zoology flowed front his pen. Probably the best-known oi Uiese, in 
view of the subsequent application of micro-patacomolofcy to oil searclv 
is his "ForaminifoTA of U»c Gault of Folkestone,** a work which was 
practically the first piece of siratigrapbical zoning by means of the 
fc-rainitiilcra. Tim was greatly valued by lorn and one of the* last acti- 
bf his lift w*t. to give one of tl»c writers 01 this notice bn bound copy of 
the work —an act which ltd the recipient (o feel that the end id hi* old 
friend was near. 

Hii first paper on the f oramiui fcra, written with Shcrhorn and published 
in 1886. was on the London Clay of Piccadilly. This was followed by 
many others, and in 19*)2 he published the pione-er ic*t*book on the 
foraminifcra, which until I92S remained the only work of it* kind. 

The second period of Chapman'* tile began- in 1902, when Ik VW 
selected for the post of fxilaeoniolngist to the National Museum, Melbourne, 
on the recommendatfon of Pnafessor JudiL Prior to this. Professor McCoy 
had' acted as State Palaeontologist in addition to his dutio as ProfMw 
of Zoology at the University of Melbourne, where the fossil collections 
were then located. Mr. Chapman 1 !* first duty on his unval in Melbourne 
was to arrange and name the collections of fossils, both Australian and 
foreign, in the National Museum, a wry large task which he carried wit 
with conspicuous success. r r 

He then began the publication of lire Ionjr serio of worts on AustrslJan 
fo.^il',, general geology, and natural .history, for which he will best be 
rrmenibeicd here ; These include "New or LitrJe-known Fossils m the 



Ftt>. 1 



TJi,' t <dc Prcdtrtck Chapmen 155 



N'arnnnl Must-urn," the report* on the Malice and Sorrento Bores, his 
text-hook Att^trafMiH- F<>$sils t and many other*. He also wrote reports on 
collections of fossils sent to him' from i New Zealand, .South Africa, and 
elsewhere, as woU as on the recent [oraminifeTa dredged by the Shackle/on 
and Mawsort expeditions lo the Anlarclic. 

Kc£arditig Chapman's work pnhlnhed in (he U'irtnrum Nrtturvtu-t, ihe 
tirst was oil the- ^hGnjham Camp-out in 3902, very shortly ahc-r he joined 
Ihe &oaety. STnce ihen approximately 100 papers' and notes by hrm have 
IftrtH nulilkhcjtl to this journal. Of thtiC, ioramini+cru took the greater 
oar*, but j>orue iiruwrUiu pMi>m on foeiil plants, were included. 

>U Chapman continued his work as Palaeontologist to the National 
Museum until 1927, when #he beginning -of serious oil search U\ Attftlttltfi 
lOd to hi* apOomtment by the CnrrmirmweaUh Government os first Com 
irninwwdth Pnlwcontologiat. He held this position until bis nitiremenl in 
li).16 at the age <tf 7£ During this period h« was atsisUid by Miss Irene 
Ctf^pin, B.A... who succeeded him a* Commonwealth Palaeontologist. From 
J902 onward ht also served a* Palaeontologist to the Geological Survey of 
Victoria, and from 1920 Lo 1&32 was part-time Ltcturrr in Palaeontology 
at She University nf Melbourne. 

Ui addition t-~i his nrofe*sirir»ai worV, Mr, Cnapmai>« Iivm the Utile of 
his arrival m Victoria tmtil two or |hr*f years ago, took- an active tmi fit 
the hfc of the scientific bodies ot the OammonweaJth and of WtuiM. 
where he lield *jHiCc Jor many years in the. Royal Society. Ihit Field 
Naturalists' Club, and Oic M ier<*uryical Society, being for a tinie President 
oi each. He aha served as Australian representative uu Uic International 
Commission oil 2ooi0£ical Nomenclature, 

1 With the limited space at our 'disposal, mention can only he madfr of 
Mr, Chairnian'N work, Hf&n from his lectures, nl tx>|ittlan*inR an interest 
in natural science through his many newspaper article* and broadcast talk* 
on scientific subjects and i«rionaiitie-s And his books such as Open Air 
StiiJics «.» AaMraliO] 3i»d The Book r/j >*omj7jf. 

Ajwut from Ills scientific activities Mr. Chapman was Icerniy interested 
in gardening- and his garden at Balwyn aod later at lus- son's home in Kew 
was a Mecca for all ch-isf whn shared with him a love of out native plants. 
For many years and up to the time of his death he-. was Ibmrirary Curator 
of the Maranoa Native PJa.it Gardeo in Beckett Park. Balwyn. where he 
was particularly proud of the mimhtr of rare native shrubs and Trees which 
were being successfully cultivated. 

Iriose >v1io took nart in the Field N'aturalistv' OuVs excursions when 
he acted lil leader will always remember his small, active figure and. the 
'iund Hi nUurmitioii which he made so freely available to mx listeners. To 
all be waa the same— a simple* unassuming scicutist. He had an old-world 
courtesy — unfortunately rarely met with to-day — which never deserted him, 

To his scientific work Chaytnau brought an active, alert, well-funvishcU 
miud and a great determination, the prc&enc€ of which was. not always 
Suspected because of hi* fjuif-t, almost gentle di'mranour. (%$ u writer he 
fir/messed a gift oi popular exposition of liis subject, and was also interest- 
ing as a speaker, although he was at times inclined, when before an 
audience, to fcpeak too quietly. Like every true scientist hu was always 
readv to adiuit what be had-bc**n m error, for he frequently Sdid tliat ihe 
only man .who never m^de a mistake was the man who never attempted 
anything- During his lifetime his work tfos rccoRmsod 1>y many uttcnlffic 
flncicties. The list of honours he received is too long to he Riven here, 
and tfie reader is referred to the 1938 edJtlOU of Who's tyfo in A^troim 
for particular*, h can. however, be- noted that in 1941 he was awarded 
the ; Australian Natural fJfistory Medallion One of' the moat eloquent 
iribuees to his work came buaq the late Sit Edge-worth" David;- who said; 



1S4 The Late Frederick Chapman UvXut 

"Mo one since the lime of Robert Etberidgc, Jun., has mure enriched our 
knowledge of the past forms of life in. Australia and adjacent regions than 
has this worker, whose ability is matched to a marvellous industry. He 
has hecn long and favourably known as a writer of popular scieftftfic 
articles in the Australian press, and deserves the gratitude of the public 
for the happy interest he has added to human life." 

In his private life Mr. Chapman was more fortunate than most, for 
not only did he have work which he loved, but he enjoyed good health 
up to his death, and in his wife, who will be remembered with affection 
by al! who knew her, he had a wonderful companion and help to him in 
his work. He leaves a son, Brigadier W, D. Chapman of the A.I.F., and 
a daughter, Miss W. M. Chapman, to whom our warm sympathy is 
extended. 

W. ;. Parr, 

F. S. COI.LTVER. 



J would like to add my token of esteem to my friend the late Frederick 
Chapman, Honorary Curator of Maranoa Gardens. While I have been 
in charge over several years, Mr. Chapman's frequent visits were always 
a delight to me. Full of enthusiasm, he would roam around the grounds 
keeping an eye on the labels and admiring the flowers or pruning som« 
out-of-hand shrub. Only a few days before his death he told of his plans 
for a glass-house so that he could raise some of our native plants for the 
gardens. I shall miss him keenly, for his kindly advice will always be 
valued by me, and one can only hope his successor will carry on the work 
planned by this learned and loved man. 

W G. BuftY, 

Marauioa Gardens 



EXHIBITS AT JANUARY MEETCNG 

Master Le?He Woolcock: Scale insect on tea-tree from SeaiortL (Noted 
by Mr. French as probably a new species.) 

Mr. C C. Griffiths: Larvae of Banksia Moth (Danima banksiee), taken 
at Seafcrd. 

Mr. R. G. Painter: Seven species of native flowers, garden-grown, 

Mr T. K. Griffiths: Native fern, Adiantum cuneatuin> var. gratuiiceps. 

Mr C G. Gabriel: Australian marine shells. 

Mr. J. H. Willis: Detply-pigmented eg£ of a domestic duck, which had 
previously laid only white eggs, and which died upon passing the blue-green 
sample- (Cloaca also heavily stained with blue-green.) 

Mr. R; D. Lee: Leaves of Eucalyptus ficifotio, showing peculiar markings 

and colours. Specimens from a tree in the Brighton Grammar School 

grounds- 
Mr F. S. Colliver: Silver Bream skeleton and skin, all that was left 

after sea-lice had attacked the fish. 
Mr, F. Hallgarten: Specimens of the Banksia Borer taken during the 

Seaford excursion. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIS'I 



Vol. i,x 



February, 1944 



Platk X 




Last photograph of Fmlurick Chapman (riRlit), with Mr. F. S. Collivcr 
(Hon. Sec., K. X.C.I, taken at Marano.i Gardens nn September 4, 1943. 



««" J Christensen, Nezv Combination m Dryopteris 155 

A NEW COMBINATION IN DRYOPTERIS 

By Carl Christensen, Copenhagen, 

Dryopteris Shcpkerdi (Kunze) C.Chr, comb. nov. 

Syn. Aspi&ium Shepherdi Kunze, Linnaea 23: 230, 1853 (nomcn). Met- 
tenius, Fil.HortJJps. 94, 1856, with descr., Aspid.u.Phcg. no. 163. 
Mephrodium Shepherdi Fee, CVn.FtV, 305, 1852 ( ?, nomen purum). 
Lastrea atrovirens J. Smith, Cat xitit, Ferns, 59, 1857 (not Drvoptcris 

atrovirens C.Chr, 1907). 
Aspidium acuminatum Lowe, Ferns, 6 pi. 11, 1857 (not Witdenow, 
1810). 

Lastrea acuminata* Moore, Index Fit. 84, 1858. 

Dryopteris acuminata Watts. Proc.Linn.Soc N.S.Wales 41: 380. 392, 
1916, C.Chr, Index Fit. Supp. Ill, 80, 1934. 

The three specific epithets were all applied to plants cultivated in 
European gardens, and supposed to have originated from Australia ; first 
in England (1822), and later in Germany by Kunze; and it seems probable 
that the species might have been raised from spores from Sieber's Australian 
-collection. 

The best description was given by Mettenius in Fil.B art. Lips., p. 94, 
1856, which is here copied: 

"Rhisoma obliqwm; folia V (foot) longa, membranacea, rigida, in 
utraquc papina, in costis coxtufisque, una cum petiolo, pubcscentilosa, paleis 
tenuibus intermixes, deltoideo-ovata, acuminata, basi trtpitinatisecta vel 
otnnina bipinnatisecta, segnwnta primaria petiolata, ovata, acuminata,; 
secundaria infima breviter petiolata, superwra adnata et ala decurrente 
juncta, ebasi cuncata vel inf 'erne cuneata, supeme trtweata, ovato-oblonga, 
obtusa; inferiora inaequaliter serraia; laciniae basales, subsolutae, oblongae 
vel semtoblcmqae, obtusae, antice acute serratae, nerzntm ramis %ndhrisis\ 
raritis furcatis, pimatum, superiores nenmm fitrcatum in ramo antico 
fertitem excipientes^ Sort dorsales, majusculi, utrinque ad eastern seg- 
mentorwm vel lacimarum basalium uniseriati; indusium reniforme, mem- 
branaceum, olabrum, cum sori maturitatc deciduum. 

Patriar 

I possess two leaves of a cultivated plant (Hort Berol.) named A, 
Shepherdi Kunze and probably originating- from the original stock. They 
match perfectly a specimen from Bulga Creek, N.S.W.. coll. W. W. Watts, 
1915, and kindly sent to me by Miss Alma Melvaine. It was named 
D* acuminata; and it is quite certain that the N.S.W, plant, in later years 
known under that name, is D. Shepherdi. The name acuminata is a yfear 
younger than Shepherdi and, moreover, invalid in the genus. 

The species is very closely related to D. decamposita but clearly different 
l>y the oblique, thick rhizome and shape of the lamina, etc. The systematic 
position of D. decomposita and its allies is not quite certain, but I think it 
should be placed in the subgenus Polystkhopis. 



(The manuscript of the above was received by the Sydney National 
Herbarium through correspondence with C. Christensen in a letter dated 
August 22nd r 1938. It was held, however, until the completion of an 
investigation of several allied species, the results of which are embodied 
in the following paper. — N. A. Wakefield.) 



156 



Wakefield, Revision and Additions to Dryoptcris 



rvkt. Nut* 

L Vbl LX 



REVISION AND ADDITIONS TO DRYOPTERIS 
By N. A. Wakefield, A.I.F. 

In 1810 Robert Brown 1 described two species of the present genus- 
Dryopteris, namely, Nephr odium teitentm from the tropics, and N* 
decompositum from the Port Jackson area. George Bentham,2 working 
in England with herbarium specimens and not having access to Brown's 
types, failed to distinguish between many closely allied species, so that his 
description of Aspidium decompositum embraces four species which are 
now rightly recognized as distinct. Strangely enough, one of these is 
D. tenera, while that specific name was applied to a different species native 
of north-eastern Australia. 3 

F. M. Bailey 3 began the splitting up of BenthanVs A, decompositum 
when he described an ex-indusiate form from Queensland as Poiypodinw 
aspidioides, which is now a synonym of Dryoptcris qitcenslandica of Domin. 4 

Then in 1916 W. W. Watts 5 recognized the tufted form of south-eastern 
Australia as Lowe's Aspidiutn acuvunatum, but, as has been seen in the 
accompanying paper by Christensen, the specific name Shepherdi has 
priority, so that the species is Dryoptcris Shepiterdi. 



















Key to Illustrations 

Fig. 1 — Dryoptcris decomposita, a secondary pinna (X 1) ; a, a pinnule 

(tertiary pinna) (X 2) ; b> a typical rhizome (much reduced). 
Figs, 2 a, b, c — Corresponding parts of D. tenera. 
Figs. 3 a, b, c — Corresponding parts of D. Shepherdi. 

D. decotnposita has been correctly recognized in New South Wales and 
in Queensland?; but in the former State the true D. tenera was lumped 
with it, while in Queensland the latter was given the name £>. aibo-villosa 



1044 J 



W*KJ&nr.U>, Rftw&a <?nrf Additions h> Dryapurin 35T 



fcy Watt? * P- $hcp)icrdi Las long been known in Vh tori.* (as D drf-oni* 
pattta). 9 but it was only very recently Mint- D, h'/tcru and D dscmitpoMtat 
were discovered in this State Our local species are as follow:. 

U. Shcpkcrdi (Jl.Tir ) C.Chr. ( Synonyms- • titphradium decompasiutm 
of Rod way J but not of R. Brown, Qryttptctis decompasita of Black* and 
Ewart$) Rhizome erect; fronds tufted, \-2 it. high, uaruiw-tnauguhr, 
light- green, shiny. tflabrom; but willi tmbestent si J pes and radices, ivvicc- 
or tfiricc pinnate with large lobed pinnules: lobes obscurely tombed and 
bearing a Jew large nasi The "Shiny Shield T'cm" of Victoria. Ois- 
iribulion, Tasmania, South Australia tMt. Lofty ftatfge), Victoria, New 
South Wales, and un-th -eastern Queensland. In wet mountain gullies. 

O. rencrn (K.browii) C.Chr. (Synonyms, Nephrodhtw trwenwi R, 
Brown* ; Aspdtum Int-cruvt Sprcn^., Mueller,*" four not of Raitcy.s Bcn- 
thanl 2 lior (JDvynpUrh) of Dornin,-* ctv* ; Hryopteris albwiUaw Wl \V. 
Watt*. 6 ). Rhianmc lung, thin aiul. creeping, not scaly; frond* distant, 1-5 
ft, high, deltoid, light green, shiny, glabrous, but witfe pubescent stipes and 
racluses. twice or thrice pinnate with long.- rather narrow, lobed pimmles; 
lobe^ somewhat tootlind 'utd bearine numerous, large son. Distribution*, 
Queensland, New South Wales and eastern Victoria. ThU. species- is a, 
new Victorian record, first noted hy Mr. Frank Robbing who collected 
specimens from "The Spring" at Mount Drummer in 1936. It has since 
been found to grow abundantly in other .nam of the Drummer area (Karlo- 
Creek. 1°40. K A W.) and about MallacooU Inlet, forming very extensive 
patches on ''jimele' 7 floors. 

D dec oviposit* f R.Brown) Kxe. (Synonym*: Ntphrodtnm decowpositwn 
lit Brown*; Avpidinim ddcompvsitum Spreuc., Bailey* and partly of Ben- 
mxifl ; iVcphrod>vm lan/.itvlhm- Baker j bf'jOt'kW htncthbti Dumm*). 
Rhizome short, thick, scaly, slightly creeping"; fronds close together i-3- 
it Juglt, deltoid, £reyi.«-h-greeu, rather chill, finely pubescent throughoutr 
thrice to 4-pinna.te wit" deeply dentate pinnules; sotj small and very 
numerous. Distribution, Queensland.* New South Wales ami eastern 
Victoria. This is another new Victorian leCoid, Uie only known habitat 
for the State being* a eruUv beside Malluronta Inlet, opposite Gipsy Point 
(20/9/41. N.A.W.). \ 

The iourth Victorian species belongs to a di ft dent .section ol the genus; 
it is recognised by its once-pmiLate frond? with Ion*' dentate pinnules, thc 
Jobes of which each bear several .sori in two. rows. !i» name 1*. D. U$fitptt\tU$ 
( Porf t. ) Conelanri. { Synonyms : PotyPo/iium tymfihofa Foister ; Pai^ 
pudium mtilfe Jaeij ; Ncphrodmm moftc R. Brawn 1 ; Aspidxuvu ))\cflte SwarU, 
BcmJian>3; Oryoptci'is powsitica Domttl,' 3 JBlack* and others, not of J.ntn, 
and O.Ktje.: /?cjiv/>fcr/.? a'nt-tata Ewart,® not of Fo»"sk and ChriaKtneu.) 
D~ nvwphotu has heejt recorded lor Victoria only from the western district 
(°.K<. Curdic's. Kivsr), and -it is otherwise, found -in the warmer parts nf alf 
tin* inanu'rimt Stales and from New ^e-aland to Malaya. * 

Oyyopturrt •jio^H(\ ( A.Cunn.) • COtr. is .1 Kc-w Zealand specie?. ftWI 
icvorijlcd from Australia, -for winch it has at times hecn reported due to> 
errors ill determination* • • ■ 

fccfemuvs: 

\_ PrtHf^rmns of //*■.- Flora ii/ New Hut land, by Robrrt Brown; 2. P'hra 
OHXtmlknsis. b> Georpe flcmham (Vol. Vil); .1, Ulhoarauto -of gtftMf^^flftrf 
t r crns, by F. M. Bailey; 4. iWtjffrTfl of Qttfenshiid. by C Domin ; 5. 
ftvh- UmL &.V. tfiSM* Vol. 41. m 380-2, l9li>; 6. rii«o. Vol 39, n, 771, 
IV14; 7 Taa. Flora, by 1-, Rodney; «, Flma South Antt., by 1. M\ Black, 
r i r tora- Vic- by A. J ( Hwart; 10, Key SytL Kre. Plants, by F. - Mueller ; 
IL Index Fiiic, bi Cnvisl^nKd. ' 

1 



158 Baity Platypus J>ifertst$ the World UvXx.X 

BABY PLATY1UJS INTERESTS THE WOKLD 

The birth, of a baby platypus in captivity at the Heatcsville Sanctuary, 
-us briefly recorded in the list issue of the Vkiorian Naturalist) is, a matter 
-of very considerable zoological importance. It will he reported upon in 
■detail IhIct, in this journal, by the Director of thr Sanctuary (Mr. David 
Fle-zy), Meanwhile, it may he noted that the event aroused keen interest 
among the public as well as in natural history circles* a pomi ti\W WS8 
neatly expressed by the Gossip writer of the Melbourne Sitx-Piriorial in 
lbe following verse- - 

Jock Oitd Jilt 

No-Ve fitted fhtt bilk 

And cleared u£ loU of uiysUry 

And now ran claim 

Vitdymp fame 

By making natural histM-y. 

The interest was not restricted to Australia. Newspapers in both 
"Britain and the United, Stares tVsuiired the novel event, and on the following 
•day the London Tinws cabled for a photograph oi STw strange babe, which 
was sent immediately by beam wireless, 

A curious development was that in their haste 1* feature the young 
platypus some London lepers overlooked the war in Mew Guinea! This 
odd fact is mentioned in the following cable message to the Melbourne 
Snn-Piciorial, which Appeared on January 7: 

London, Thursday. — The birth of a baby platypus bn Jack and Jill at 
the Healesville "platypussary" was widely featured in the London press 
Australia gained some of the liveliest publicity since the battle of El 
Alameln. Londoners who turned their eyes from adjacent headlines 
-announcing the monotonous Russian victories and the more monotonous 
Italian stalemate found Australia put back on the map with a vengeance. 
One business man on his way to London after a meagre wartime breakfast 
wis heard to inquire if platypuses were edible. Australia's zoological 
sensation coincided with ihc omission by most morning paper* of a single 
dispatch from the New Guinea and other Pacific fronts. Australians can 
be proud of their platypus. 

Australia's platypus romance to-day inspired the Ttoiiy Mail rhymster to 
contribute the following two verses, headed "Lullaby far Platypus" - 

Hi*sh+a-bye, Platypus, Pride of ike Zoo, 
Baby shall figure in fratUre't Who's Who, 
Mummy poBl fondle and Daddy iviU brag. 
While all the zoologists' tongues are away. 

Shush; Utile rnaiHiMl, you're not 0&1 that Situxrt. 
This ts no titm to expect a star pari. 
Sleep— aha remove that smith' off your biH, 
Wc are making more history than Mw yon wW. 

When this issue of the Vic, Hob went to press the baby platypus had" not 
•enierged from the nesting burrow— -it had previously been seen by Mr. Fleay 
only through opening the burrow, after which it was hastily returned. 
However, the mother has been eating ravenously of laic, and it is supposed 
that this is due to demands made upon her by either one or two young. 
•whirh may be expected to appear very soon.-^-A H-C. 



BANKS1AK BICENTENARY 

Sir Joseph i*anks ws» bom on February 13th, J 743, and the occasion. 
was commemorated by a symposium on hta life and work at the F.N.C.V. 
Vovcmber Meeting, a verbal date having been, fixed in consideration ol 
the flowering plants then available to exemplify some of the actual 
Australian species discovered by the great explorer-scientist himsell. A 
Danel ol three speakers gave 20-miTiute discourses, oi wliich the following. 
is a precis. 

1. Banks, the. Man 

Mr. Jvo Hamtnet spoke of the family background and oi Bunks' insatiable 
thirst after natural history, ' even as a young Etonian when orthodox 
knowledge of the classics left him cold. Though horn a child of fortune, - 
with 3 handsome inheritance upon attaining his majority, he never uscd- 
his wealth ior stli- aggrandisement, but spent it freely in (he promotion - 
of scientific knowledge for the benefit of humanity ; he was rnaguanimous- 
and democratJcaJly-ininded in $pite of all inducements to a life of easy 
luxury. He became successively president of the Roya! Society, first and- 
honorary director oi Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, Baronet, Knight of the 
Bath, and Privy Councillor, yet withal remained humble and ever sought. 
to avoid personal acclann— his will expressly desired that there be no 
elaborate funeral rites and no monument to his memory. 

Banks maintained a beautiiul charity toward the investigations and 
opinions ol iellow-scioiUsis at home or abroad, those in enemy countries 
not excited. So far did hi* sterling reputation extend that impecunious 
countrymen, stranded in distant port* of Germany ana Russia, were able 
to raise loans through b\? good name and secure the -wherewithal for their 
return to Britain. 

During 42 years* continuous presidency of the Royal Society, the* 
catholicity of his achievements is astounding— matters of moment tiom Hie 
coinage of the realm to town water supplies, from botanic gardens and- 
crop diseases to navigation and exploration, all received the pronouuee- 
rnenls of his wisdom- Besides his invaluable scientific work on the famou* 
Endeavour Expedition (1768-71), he encouraged the colonisation of Poru 
Jackson and retained a lively interest in Ihe welfare of the infant settlement, 
corresponding 3t great length with the various colonial governors up to the 
time oi his death in 1820. More than all else it is his identification with the 
early charting mid development oi our continent that has earned for Banks- 
the affectionate and well-deserved title "Father of Australia" 

IL Voyages act Discoveries 

Mr. Noel Lothian made use of and also quoted freely fvoni the 
BanksJan Journals to emphasize the characteristic thoroughness, keen 
observation, linguistic powers, wit, tact, and strong personality of the 
diarist Banks loved travel and did not shirk uncomfortable experiences 
in out-of-the-way or unknown places. Hi? first and last big journeys were 
to co3d, inhospitable regions ol the North Atlantic: he was the rlrst man- 
to study the flora of Newfoundland and Labrador, whither he went m 3766. 

Banks' golden opportunity came with that momentous three-year expedi- 
tion culminating in the discovery oi eastern Australia Highlights of the* 
EwizoBHiw voyage were dealt with in humorous vein by the lecturer 1 *- 
Encounters between -Ranks and the officialdom of hoth Madeira and Brafil 
are worth mentioning. The crew was forced to remam an board for one' 
otil ot hve precious days spent at Madeira in deference to a courtesy tall 
from the governor, and Banks whiles; "We contrived to avenge ourselves. 
upon His ExotUency by means of an electrical machine which, npom 
expressing his desire to sec, we shocked him fully as much as he chose.*" 



'The Brazilian auHioriues further Tiled him by forbidding anyone to land 
without Portuguese credentials ; nevertheless B»iik» MmiEEltd himself 
ashore, Shew all he could oj the native and vegeta^ou, ami, upon surTeruij: 
further hostile ile.lay^ fa sailing- from the harbour, wrote that "a more 
insolent people could i)ot be found, many rums were this day expended 
irpnn'Kts Excel leney " 

< Glimpses 01 Ti^rra del" Fncgo and Tahili are accompanied in the jnuniai 
by faithful portrayals ol tlie inhabitants-, their manners and culture; New 
Zealand is circumnavigated and contact made with the warlike Maoris, 
whose tood is stated la consist of "rub. clogs, and enemies' 1 I 

The coasting along Australia from Capes. Howe to York reveal^ among 
other wonders, tbgje Qt our Great Barrier Keef, which Banku discovered 
to have "a si^et totally unheard erf in the South Seas or elsewhere." .Having 
■touched sour-hem New Giifrlta and Timor, the Endcav-our berthed at Batavia 
for much-needed repairs, hut her occupant* differed acutely iront the 
unhealthy malarial surroundings- Despite a severe attack of iover, Banks 
-never neglected to write up hi; impressions of (he country' Uf{d its Inhabitant'; 
.a-~ accurately as possible. 

Ba<,k in England, he -immediately set jhuut to describe and publish his 
scientific findings, bul first essayed tu accompany Cook again on a second 
vY>ya$e to the Soulh Pacific This project was defeated by a petty fogging 
Admiralty, but Banks* annoyance was offset to some extent by hft own 
specially commissioned excursion to Iceland — here he was among the first 
'party u( men to aSCettd the active volcano, Mt. Ifccla. Thereafter Banks 
settled down in London, (hough continuing by nvexy meant to yrnmote 
further global exploration?, So» he ha* Jeit a mafk on Australian gcography 
that few indeed have excel led. 

IB. "Banks' Rf/rAvicAt. Gickivs 

"Mr J, H. Willis, who concluded llie symposium, expressed astonishment 
that .inch jcant reference should be made to Banks in the standard histories 
ol bourn and botanist* — Cnmhiirftfe and Ovfotd University publications 
■dismiss him with an occasional sentence or a mere footnote 

Banks really witnessed the emergence of botany as a noble seicnen from 
the mythical trappings o! medieval obscurantism. WH'.Ie a boy at Eton, 
he manifested strung- tuAinical leaning-;, paying certain women sixpence 
tier plant (presumably of different soecies) to scour the countryside in 
search of herbarium material for study. At d;is tune his only teAt-book 
-wa? Ceraide's old Htrball— probably the 1<53j edition— and when 74 lie 
wrote in retrospect: "How immense liaa been the improvement of botany 
since ! attached myself to the study, And what immense facilities are now 
offered Students that had not an existence till lately I" 

The painstaking methods of a good collector ajo well exemplified in his 
journal references to Australian vegetation: 300 new yUnts, all with 
rlescTiptlnus in five folio volume;, were brought home to England ns a 
•result of the Endeavour expedition, but through pressure of official duties 
and subsequent departmental red tape they did not see the press for t.50 
years — alas, poor Linnaeus! Some idea of the intensity collecting done 
at Botany Bay during the weekS. sojourn rn**y br gauged from the fact that 
it took Banks a whole day to carry ashore the 200 <|uir»s til pressing jNltfer 
^rnd dry it oft in the sun. thereby sveguaivling his valuable specimens from 
destruction by mould. 

Surnmtn.gr up jufi impressions of New Hot laud, which was viewed after 
a comiirlerahte drought and found tr> be sadly deficient *.n water -fruits and 
native reliables, our great scientist describes die land as "in every respect 
the iiios* batten country I have seen . . the soil could not he supimswl 
in yield much to the support of man." The naive description o$ a banana— 



-4V* 



' J QankswH Bicentenary 161 



first encountered at Tvio de Janeiro — would ecoke merriment -nowaday*, 
-while the eulogies Upon Bonxsxui fiaMfifer (tho wonderful Palmyra Palm) 
fill -three pages of Banks* journal. - . ..• . i . 

. As initial .director at Kcw, Banks laid an excellent foundation, employing 
-expeits m every department — the brUlianl -Aunnan artist .Francis B&UfiT 
-completed 14S4 plates of new plants, under the ahlc -supervision of Sir 
Joseph foa* more than .50 years. He was .instrumental in the establishment 
of hotanlc gardens at Jamaica, St. .V incent, . and Ceylon, -where experimental 
plantings -of tea and rubber .were advocated, with what succcs* we can 
now appreciate. The application of knowledge to men's needs was. ever a 
primary concern, and all but one of Banks'. nine known somnific writings 
are on agricultural subjects (blight, mildew, rust, apple aphis, potato 
-culture, etc.) . .... , , 

At a period when France and England .were. more or, less continually at 
war, Baulks rose high above inflamed nationalism, and cui.no fewer than 
•eleven occasions he had restored intact io foreign naturalists (he collections 
that hi> own countrymen had seized as legitimate pitaeg of war; thus* 
LabiHardfera'^ extensive herbarium was returned to France unopened with 
•the asi-urancc- that he would *'not steal a- single botanical idea from those 
who had gone in peril of their lives to get them. 1 ' • 

l! is Hue Banks did not publish much; nor can he be reckoned as a 
tayonomic toaster in the <en«e of Linnaeus dc Jussieu or Robert Brown; 
but he teas great in discovering, encouraging, inspiring and materially 
assisting a l>atta!ion of younper men who soon outshone him m the written 
word, B.g., Dryander, Brown, Hooker, Cunningham, etc. They made use 
-of his funds. his manuscript?, Uh collections, his amazing Jilifary, his ideas 
•-and suggestions— all through life he gave things away %nd took no credit; 
who would say this was anythiiig hut the quintessence of a great botanist? 

The Linmaean Society sprang directly from a recommendation made to 
the ardent young: botanist. Dr. (afterwards Srr James) Smith That UnnacuY 
celebrated herbarium and library tie acquired for .the British nation. It was 
•done Some years later, when writing a panegyric on his o'd friend, Smith 
-coupled his name with that of the immortal Isaac Mevrtnn. 



NEW GUINEA SCENARIO 

Scene: A. jungle. Various case-hardened Diggers, carrying a variety of 
^camouflaged) weapons, aUe^naielv creeping and charging wildly around trees 
and through thick scrub. Cries of "There he goe>; look out, look out. the 
little So-and-so is right on you" "By jovc, I'd like to get this Moke.' 1 A 
•soldier Junges and curses again. There is movement on the right flank; 
the men silently take up concealed positions and wait breathlessly. A tense 
Stillness supervenes. Then Hell breaks loose again. In their eagernesi 
to join the fray and help iheir mates, men, caught in Interminable creepers, 
fall to the ground their clothes torn and faces *nd hands bleeding. Then 
a prisoner comes in; then another. Their captor*, proud and smiling, 
-guard them closely and refuse to hand them over. For a quarter of an 
hour Ihe oat lie rolls on with grmt ferocity. Away 1o the left. Dtgeers, 
veterans of desert and jungle, are crawling on hands and knees 1o make 
■a wide encirclement. Cunning, resolute chaps these. Suddenly they charge 
again. They join forces with the men on the right. The battle is over 
and the party retire* after Carefully posting sentries. The prisoners arc 
put to death. There is no quarter in this ruthless campaign, Australia 
must pay the cost, but, in the long run,' many an Australian home vrill be 
brighter- Australians chasing Japs r No — Australians chasing buUerflie*. 

— From the Sydney Buflvtm. 



162 The Theory of ConHuentet Drift VyXvx^ 

THE THEORY OF CONTINENTAL DRIFT 
< Precis of kcitirc by A. C Fiwtick to the F-N.C r December, 1943.) 

Even -a cursory -examination of the facts bearing upon the sontinrntal 
distribution of plants and animals is. sufficient to disclose many anomalies. 
it being ottcn difficult 1*3 account for deduced migrations, oi both living ana 
fossil arganiMns, and to explain the climatic changes to frequently pullu- 
lated by the palacunlulogist- in illustration of lite former piobJeiti, the 
occurrence of the Arctic bcecii in Australia, while JP nearest living relatives 
appear in such widely separated area* as New Zeland and South America, 
15 typical of innumerable: similar examples. 

In explanation of the Hist of (lie two problems rnetfcbotted. land-bridges. 
ticking the different continents, at vanous times, were Jong ago invoiced. 
These tand-ovidgca, or bridging continents as. lime geologists seem to- 
require, having permitted the necessary exchange of Ufc forms, 
were (iresumed to have -foundered beneath the waters of the oceans 
they formerly bridged. It .frequently happens, however, that the depth 
of water standing above the 3ite oi these supposedly vanished bridges is 
tir-t merely moderate, hut noi nifreiiucntJy achieves some thousands oi 
fathoms. Conicqocntly the disciple* of the rival -conception of the per- 
manence oi the -ocean basins, invoking a doctrine fchicb js now conceded 
Kg have amply demonstrated thai ihc continents are isostatrcalJy balanced, 
daJttt that it uv not possible ior continental areas to be elevated as a whole 
above sea level; nor. conversely, is it possible toe an unloaded continental, 
area lo sink to the level of the deep Efpa floor. Small changes of level, 
amounting to perhaps several hundred metres, do occur durnig marine 
transgression?: at the margin of a continent, but it is not to be conceded 
thaL the difference between these and the abyssal submergence -of a continent 
is mereb one oi decree. 

The theory of continental, displacement, or coutiucmnl drill, implies a 
possibility that, in the past, certain, of the continental blocks adjoined one 
another, and that they have subsequently drifted to their present position. 
It is thus in accord with the couceptioti of the pennaneucc of the ocean 
hasirif. rn w far as 1he latter cavils at land-bridges. At the same time, it 
goes lar toward explaining the bulk of the anomalies connected with plant 
and atiimal distribution, without requiring large-scale vertical moremcnU 
oi land masses in defiance of isastasy. Moreover, it tends to reconcile tbe*e 
two rivaL doctrines, in one ease hy supplying land-bridges by direct 
continental contact, and in the other by pOi-tulating, not permanent..* of the 
continents .and ocean basins as separate entities, but by relative permanence 
of continental and oocamc areas as a whole. 

Oi the tnany diverse attempts to explain climatic changes, that claiming. 
migration of the potes appears to be the most feasible. However, since 
astronomers stoutly deny the possibility of a shift of the earth's axis nJ 
revolution, relative movement of the crustal layers atone- W relationship 
to the poles b:*s been invoked. 

Indeed, it has been claimed by the protagonists of the theory of continental 
drift that it is highly improbable chat this very difficult problem will ever 
be satisfactorily solved unhl the principles of orthodox geology are modified 
in recognition oi the theory they uphold. This same theory, first givei* ft 
practical form by Professor, Alfred Wegener, is capable of assembling an 
immense number of otherwise isolated facts, chiefly geological ;nd biologica1 r 
into an intelligible whole, if the primary assumption at a relative change 
in position of tJie continents be conceded. Hence it J? lo be regretted that, 
*o far, no force capable of bringing shout such a change of portion hat 
been discovered, and attempts to obtain instrumental proof of it remain 
inconclusive. 



. 044 ' J Bird Motrs frotu jVp.w Cauwa \63 

BIRD MOTES FROM NEW GUINEA 

i a«n writing mainly to send Ute description of the playground of one 
of the New Guinea B'ower-bird*. I found it during November its the scrub 
akmir «v cio* creek or> a coastal plain, about a mile from the coast. It was 
situated above the creek bod under a canopy at* twig* and creepers, about 
eight feet from the, edge of the scrub. The particular area is inhabited by 
a small reddish wallaby and by wild yigs, hi iac; 1he tatter had been 
rooting wily a few iett irom tltc actual bower. 

The playground itself, consisted ol a raided plutiorm of sticks on which 
die two walls and passage-way of lite bowel' were built, the whole structure 
bcnif spoilt Juree feet hi diameter and eighteen tm'hc? high. The foundation 
was nf Urge and small vi'i Ut . with the surface irrefpilar, being built tip 
very neatly, however, about six inches above uV ground, and fipttted off 
level with small twig; for several inches from each end at die passage-way. 
The upper part of the playground consisted of two walis. of thin twigs, 
cite length being nine Inched ami the wXXlli *bout five inches The general 
height ol the walls was .about rriiie inches, but many u[ Ibe longer sticks 
reached well ever a foot above tin? nlauorni. Tit? passage- wn.v had "very 
rompac*) and .--traight inner walls and floor, .and wa; only about three inches 
wide — which is rather lurrirw in comparison with the size of rhe bird. 

The decoration ol the IjOwvt cOUsisted wholly i>i hunches of small green 
and fcrey;sh berries. Some were scattered alien the platforms at each end 
of the passage, and tome were on ibe sticks of rhe inner waits of the 
passage-way. All told, there were about a *;corc of hunches of berries, 
representing thiee different kinds. 

When 1 fifSt came: to New Guinea i hail visions only d| dense jungle, 
oitds of paradise, hornbills, etc. It was quite a thrill to find that my 
first acquaintance was our old fnend rhe J-scky Winter. A pair of them 
had their "nesi" a few tVct ahnve the fly that we erected over our rations, 
and weie worried neither by our presence nor by the constant roar of 
fijrhicr planer passing low overhead au they rose from, a nearby aerodrome. 

It was not long before I renewed several more of my Victorian 
acquaintances — the serct^h and flashing colours of Hie ninbow-loriSceel, 
the friendly "Chirra-ohirra" of fhe Willie Wagtail* and the many-hued 
U-auly 0? the rainbow-bud. The Australian raven li quite cwnmon,. and 
doliar-hirds have passed over with their foiling night once or twice The 
white cockatoo seems cinite out of place in the jungle, when one has been 
used to it Oil the plains of Ciippslaml and northern Victoria; and the. harsh 
■cackling of the blue- winged kookaburra 13 a poor recompense lor the loss 
of rollicking: notes of oui own laughing jack 

Another old friend is the peaceitil dove, which made its nest about ihree 
feet from the ground on rhe erl^e of a truck track in our prc-itiU camp area 
ft took no notice of the constant passing oi men and trucks within two 
fed nl thv. nest, and eventually hcoame so tame that it would not leave the 
nest when handled. One oi the two Bgjj* (ailed., but the uthrr produced a 
chick ao healthy that its weight eventually broke the t>r»l nest down, so 
the fcumly shifted to a nearby stump. The mother presented a rather 
ludicrous fifeure, straddling the full-grown youngster, and raising her 
vflrm threanngly iJ it were interfered with 

NotcMAW A. Waxf.fielo, New Guinea. 

I The nird chiefly referred to above fe probably the Fawii.fcrcar.lwl 
Bower-bun! ICtenm&dcra emmiventrix) , which occurs >n the Cane York 
region 33 well &• tn New Guinea and the Luuisiade Archipelago, it h 
Strongly given to the use of green berries for decorative purposes. — Editor.] 



164 Help for HMtwntlfi SmftSOrt UvSiut' 

HELP FOR THE HEALESVILLE SANCTUARY 

A lady member of the Field Naturalists' Qub has written to tltc com- 
mittee offering: to donate £2$ to Mr. David Flcay, in recognition of his 
admiral*)? work at the HeaJesville Sanctiu.iy. She suggests that olher 
members of the Ouh may he willing to increase (he .winunr >o IS(> or mojt 
The committee approves oi this suggestion and invites members to show 
their appreciation^ oi Mr. Flcay's \ r aluable work by subscribing to the 
testimonial. Mi*. Fleay his agreed to ^cucpt the money, but not for personal 
Use; it wiH be devoted, at his discretion, to improvements in ihc Sanctuary. 
Donations should he sent either to Hie Treasurer or Secretary of ttie Club, 



WHEN SPIDERS "BLUSH" 

Recently, while attempting to draw a large wolf-spider (probably Lycoso 
r#tn4$\t) from iU ph\ I noticed that the two chclicerae were ft brilliant 
red in colour, a frnmre which T had not previously observed. Upon 
capturing this spider ami imprisoning her Ml a glass tube, I saw that this 
colouration was merely transitory, and was caused by some internal — rather 
thsin external— change of pigmentation. Further experiments revealed that 
these changes were due to physical reaction* related to the spider's senses. 
i.e., to changes of surrounding;;, pain, excitement, etc. A fly placed in the 
observation box caused the spider to ''blush" red, until Some time after it 
wa-i impaled upon her fangs, the eoloui fading- gradually until it finally faded 
at the point that the ehelirprao form** a junction with the carapace. I hav'e 
not seen notes relating to these phenomena in any boot? mi spielers, and would 
be glad of any information from observation*. — Brian M- Sukcett (Cpl , 
1st Aust. BCD.), Bandiana. via Wodonga, 



A PLEASANT HOBBY 

You kiKtw, of course, that many of our lads in New Guinea have 
adopted bobbies of various kinds, the most popular, perhaps, being the 
catching and preserving of ihe t>cautiful butterflies of the rcjriun. Now T 
learn from a naturalist friend that Bombardier Norman Wake-held, an 
ejw-schocifeacber from East , Gipp'.land T has %C\r\e one heMer. An authority 
on ferns (of which he has found many new km.!, in Victoria). Wakefield 
spends most of his leisure in the North fa collecting ferns on the mountains, 
and. he has now gathered 'no fewer than 160 sprcies.. How, you may ask, 
does lie preserve Iris specimens ? The explanation is simple. : he dries them 
ifl mn£*>zinrs. ovrr the cookhouse fiie. thus preventing mould and blackening, 
and J gather that results are entirely satUfactory. What the cook has to 
say on the point is not recorded. — "The Rouseahout" in Melbourne I!rr,\!tt. 



An odd circumstance m mrd-hfe is the re|x>rt that a pair of Mud-larks 
((Jm'/ow) have ntttpjd recently in an elm at the intersection of BourJcc and 

Exhibition Streets, Melbourne, practically in the tC"tre of the City. Mud 
for ibe nest appears to have been obtained from watered grass-plots in the 
street Where the' birds get food is l>rs| known to rhomseKts. 



The Qbb Koonis were entered recently by a thief or ;hieves who 
destroyed some correspondence. Will anyone who has sent money to the 
hall ajid has cat received an acknowledgement please write to the Tfrtn, 
Treasurer; 

- 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. LX. — No. ii March 9, 1944 No. 723 

PROCEEDINGS 
The monthly meeting of the F.N.C. was held on February 14, 
1944. The President, Mr, P. F Morris, presided and about 80 
members arid friends attended, 

"INTRODUCING THE STARS" 

Mr. P. Croshie Morrison gave a short account of astronomy and 
notes on the various items to be seen in the heavens. He followed 
with a practical demonstration with the aid of a 3}-inch tele- 
scope, A very interesting evening; was spent by all concerned. 

GENERAL BUSINESS 

Mr. David Fleay wrote thanking the Club for congratulations 
received on the birth of the baby platypus. The President men- 
tioned the appeal launched to enable a worth-while donation to 
be given Mr. Fleay for use in the Sanctuary. 

Reports of Excursions were given as follows ; Aliona, Mr. P- F. 
Morris (for Mrs. Freame) ; Fernlrec Gully, Mr. Swaby 
. The following were elected as ordinary members; Mrs. M: Kath- 
leen Woodburn, Miss A. M. Burton, Mr, H. Fulton; and as 
country member, Mr. James Leverett. 

Mr. A. D. Hardy reported on a fire at Sperm Whale Head, and 
stated that practically the whole of the reserve was burnt over. 

The meeting endorsed the announcement by Mr. A. D. Hardy 
that Mn R. H. Croll had consented to act as the Club's repre- 
sentative on the Bush Fire Prevention Committee, recently formed. 
Mr. Croll had been appointed chairman of the publications sub- 
committee of the new organization. 
- 

NATURE QUESTIONS 

Question : What is the origin of the name "aqmliiittm 1 in Bracken 
Fem? Answer; Mr. A. D. Hardy suggested that the specific 
epithet was in allusion to the stelar outline of a "spread-eagle** 
plainly visible when a leaf-stalk is cross- sectioned near its attach- 
ment to the rlm.omc. Mr. J. H. Willis supported this explanation, 
which had been put forward by the English botanists Sowerby 



266 I'idd N*u*ya!istS Club Ptocitojpfyt UvtiXx' 

iind Smith in 1807. Miss Raff mentioned the similar case of 
"Sotomon's Seal/' in which slices of the tubers hear a fanciful 
resemblance to that wis*? ruler's jmperial teal 

Question : What is the life-history oF the fern Azollal Answer 
Mr. J. H. Willis explained that, unlik* ordinary ictus, each fertile, 
floating Azolla frond bears two distinct, kinds pt sporangia — un<* 
with numerous microspores, the other with solitary ruacrospores ; 
lhe.se spores are ncvei .shed from their respective sporangia, hut 
germinate inside them. The resulting prothalli are very small, 
lack chlorophyll, aud arc wholly dependent on the parent sporo- 
phyte (i.e., the Azolla frond) ; they hieal< through tlteit containing 
sporangiaL walls into *hc surrounding water, and antherozotds 
from male prorhalli on rhe micmspnnmgia swim towards the macro- 
-.sporaugial female protlialli. The resulting zygote is apparently 
able to over-winter and then rapidly develop into a new Azolla 
plant when favourable conditions arrive. 

Question (by Sir Frederick Mann) ; Is the Musk Duck decreas- 
ing in numbers, and why? Answer* Mr, V. H, Miller suggested 
that the decrease might he due to the bird being" "goad eating." 
Mr. K. ft. .Hanks said, he thought the numbers were about sta- 
tionary. Miss N. Fletcher stated that the bird is not seen on the 
saltpans at Altona now, and suggested lhat it is definitely decreas- 
ing near Melbourne. 

EXHIBITS 

Mr. C. C Griffiths: Pupa of Rnnksia Motb (Danima firiHftshe) from 
larva taken at Senior rt 8/1/44. 

Mr. M. Lothian: Herbarium specimen:; of WoUhnhergxa. 

Mr. O. 1* Singleton : Herbarium specimen of the newly -described tree- 
fern Cyathi'Q> mercesrem Wakehcbl, from a tributary of the. Parker Ktv*.r r 
southern Qtways, 5 mile** znbt o$ Hordenn V;*le; aJio a scries of Australian 
Tertiary and Recent Tri^onias, including a new species from Die Eocene 
Of Perth?* Point,, near Frinr.etown. (Two Jurassic, species included for 
comparison.) 

Mr H. C E. Stewart: Adult moth, cnonon and effffs of Authda bcuta\ 
also female shorl-liometl grasshopper. Monislria conxpcrxa (wingkis) ; 
l>oth collected at Mount Buffalo; altitude 4,500-5.600 feel. 

Mr A- N"- Charter: A rM!ecli«jn of recent DRwt fo*Mf Cowries* including 
the Victorian form Cystica an/juste ta t GntcWn, and its varieties ^i^rWte, 
Gray j comprint, Cray ; bievhr, Gankoin; and dfctivis. Sowerby. All collected 
at Rlindfts. Vic. 

Mr. C. T. Gabriel : Marine internal shells : P^fotwfla scajrMta*. Mart, 
W.S.W.; D. 0tgti£ Raru,\ Mauritius; D. rmnfrhii, Cuvter, Mauritius, 

Miss Ina Watson: Nebt of the Bbtck Houeyeater. 

Mr. R. C- Painter: Fourteen species of garden-grown native pldnu. 

Mr, I\ Griffiths: "Devil's Coach-horse" {Crraptoilux crythrectiphahtt ) \ 
atsn PcHiwa (P/m.?) jakuio, sickle fctw. *tiowbig- bipirmale fronds (found 
at National Park, Keintrtr Gully). 

Mr. E. Ncuman ; Fowil wood from Open Cut, Yallouni, 

Mr. F. Hallgarten * ,\ ^crieb of ia^c-moth cocoon* 

Mr. F. S ColJiver: Largv land Mollusc found on the franks uf tlie Nile 
after Hoods. 



™44* ] Gnx, Bwlt Cave at Fanwute W7 

BASALT CAVE AT PANMUKE, WESTERN VICTORIA 
By the ftfck Edmtjnd D. Gill, b.a., bd v Melbourne 

The large cave m basaltic rock at Panmure, winch is the subject 
oi tins paper, is situated between the township of Panmure and 
Mount Warniambool, a few hundred yards north-west of Prince* 
Highway 2nd south-west of the road to Framlingham. 

T was taken to this cave by Mr. Alex. Wilkins of Warniambool, 
who tells me that the cave used to be entered by a small hole at 
ground-level which led down steeply, into the southern end of the 
cave. A couple of yeirs ago the cave was partially opened during 
quarrying operations. The cave is now entered through a slit in 
the rock at the north end of the floor of a small quarry. The 
narrow opening admits one to a steep ramp 33 feet long, with 3 
drop oi 25 feet. The ramp consists of soil and small stones which 
have filtered through the entrance. As the quarry is about 15 feet 
deep, this means that the floor 01 the cave at the southern end is 
40 feet below ground-level. However, the cave is nor so far from 
the surface at the northern end, as the floor of the cave rises in 
that direction. 

The cave was explored by means of torchlight, but even powerful 
torches seem to give very little light in such caves I presume 
that this is due to the dark walls absorbing the light rays, and to 
the fact that the air is very pure in the sense that it i& not full of 
light- refracting particles like the atmosphere outside. 

By mean? of a half-chain tape it was determined that the southern 
arm of the cave is about 114 feet long, the western arm 230 feet r 
and the eastern -arm 147 feet. The greatest length of the cave is 
therefore 344 feet. 

A feature of interest is that the tw^o northern amis of the cave 
are more or less parallel to one another. This i3 taken to be due 
to their following major joint-planes developing in the cooling 
lava. It is considered that the cave owes its origin to the draining 
of liquid lava from the solidified or semi-solidified lava round 
about it The evidence in support of this origin may be summarized 

thlU : 

]. The cave throughout is roughly semi-circular in cross-section, 
i.e., there is a flat floor and an arching roof The floor is strewn 
in places with large pieces of rock which have fallen from the 
roof, which is thus also mjade irregular. Nevertheless, the flat 
floor is character! site of the whole cave. The two northern arms 
terminate by the floor meeting, the roof rather than by the sides 
coming together, or a general attenuation in all planes, This js 
particularly noticeable in the north-western am) of tlve cave where 
the termination is quite wide, and is formed by the floor rising 
to i^ett the roof. These facts are consonant with the theory of 



)(& GlU, 1$fl&it CCVC Ot Panmwv [ vStt^ 

lava drainage. By the action of gravity, the flowing lava would 
form a flat surtax which would become the floor of the cave upon 
cooling. Caves iormed by gas in the lava do not have flat floors 
because the gas pressure is more or less equal in all directions. 

2, There is a general drop in the level of the floor of the cave 
from north to south. Such a drop of level would be necessary for 
drainage, particularly if the lava were viscous* The mam vestibule 
oC the cave is practically meridional in direction, indicating that 
the drainage was from north to south, and this corresponds with 
the general stupe of the sub-basaltic terrain (Miocene limestone). 
Both in pre-basahic times and in post-basaltic times die general 
drainage of the Western District has been from north to south. 

A lava drainage cave £ mile long and 20 to 50 feet high has 
been described from Arizona (Emmons, TTriel, StaufYer and 
Allison, 1939, p. 300). Skcats and James (1937) have brought 
to notice a number of lava cavea at Porndon and Byaduk. 

The floor of the Panmurc etive is covered with chocolate soil 
and the rock debris to which reference hfcfc already been made. 
The cave is fairly dry, there being dripping water in but few 
places. The decomposition along the joint planes, the depth of 
soil on top of the basalt, and the physiography of the present 
terrain, suggest that the lava flow in which the cave occurs is not 
a recent one geologically. Some Western District flows have been 
shown to be probably as old as Pliocene in age (Hills, 19.18; Gill* 
1943). 

REFERENCE LITERATURE 

Emmons. W, H. ( Thiol, G A., Staufftr. C F., a»d All. son 1 S.. 1939: 

Geotoqy — Principles rind Process, New York 3nd London. 
Gill. E to 1943: "The Gcolo^r of Warrnambool M rW for. Soc. Vn. t 

Vol. 55 OuO, Pt. % pi>. 133-154 
Hills. E S, 1938: "The Age and Physiographic Relationship ot (lie 

Cainozoic Volcanic Rocks of Victoria." Proe. Roy. Sec Vic. Vol. 51 

<n.s.). Pt. I. i>i>. 112-139. 
Sktars. E- W. t and James, A- V G, )°37, "Basaltic Barriers aid Oilier 

Surface Features of the Newer Basalts of Western Victoria " Ptoc. 

Roy. Soc. Vk., Vol. 49 (its.), Pt. 2, pp. 245-292. 



THE NATURE OF FIRE-BALLS 

Replying to a question at the last meeting of the F.N.C Mr. P. C Morrixrm 
said that the nature of fire-balls was still imperfectly understood, hut they 
were generally regarded as electrical and in the same group ab the various 
types of lightning. Some fire-balls, however, were almost certainly m&s&cs 
t?( incandescent gas caused by the oassajic of a meteor that had burnt itself 
out- Messrs, Swaby, Hardy. Jenkins and McKetwie added to- the discussion, 
which created a good deal of interest. 



, 2 2J J Morrison, ftiirv<k*iuQ ihe Star.* !09 

INTRODUCING THE STARS 

SUPSTANCIS 0g AN ADDRESS PfcLTVERED 70 THE F.N-CV., 

February 14, 1944, kv P. Chore jk Morrison 

'U tHc blnrs would appear one. night in a -thousand yjeao;, now wouVl 
men believe and adore, and preserve for many generations the remembrance 
af the City of God which had hocu yhowu, BtiL every Hiftht come out 
U)C9e Cflvoyj of beauty, dud Jighl the universe with their smile." 

Astronomy js the oldest o( Llie sciences, and for thousands u£ 
years it was the peopled science, requiring only simply-constructed 
instruments or none at nil for its study. Only since the discovery 
of (he telescope has it pushed its way beyond the reach of ordinary 
people. Vet there is much in the sky to delight the eye of rile 
<*asual observer who has no instrumental aid. 

In the early days the Steffi were The study ot the shepherds who 
watched their flocks by night; they were the people who, thousand* 
of years before Christ, recognized The difference between the fixed 
stars, which retained the same relative positions year in and yeai 
out and formed recognizable patterns or constellations in the sky, 
and the slcllae planet&e, or ''wandering stars/' of which they recog- 
nized five which continually changed fheir (notions against the 
starry background. They also saw occasionally a third kind of 
"star" which they called stcllac conwtae, or 4; hairy stars" — the 
comets 

The names of the stars and of the principal constellations have 
come down from those misty corridors of history; they were 
associated with early mythology or with the seasons of the farmer 1 * 
year in Babylon and Egypt. The. progress made by early observers 
without optical instruments is anmmg — for example. Eratosthenes 
ot Alexandria, a Greek astronomer who flourished around 276- 19ft 
B.C, calculated the circumference of the earth from astronomical 
considerations. His answer was 25,000 miles, while the actual 
figure is 24,899 miles — an error of only 0-4 per cent. ! And thai 
was to a day when there wa< no agreement even that the earth 
was a sphere. 

Now we recognize ihe earth as merely one. of the planets, and 
not hy any means the largest ot them. We Know chat the planets 
^rernuch closer |o us than the fixed .stars arc — they* are merely 
non-luminous satellites of our own sun. which is itself a star;. all 
the planets shine by light reflected trum the sun. If thct stin wen: 
suddenly extinguished., the moon and all the planets would cease 
to siting but the stars would not he affected. 

The sun, the planets, and the moons which accompany many 
of the phricis, are known coltecuvely as the solar system. To- 



170 Mokpjson, iutrodutuisj the S'tan [ JV *$* 

give an approximate idea of their relative sizes and their distri- 
bution in space, we may take the. head of an ordinary pin to repre- 
sent the earth. The slightly blunt point of a second pin | inch 
away would represent the moon on the same scale, and the sun 
then would he represented by a 3-mch orange at a distance of 
25 feet. Still on the same ^cale the nearest of the fixed stars 
would be somewhere about Eucla, on the Great Australian Bight, 
1000 miles away. The nearest star visible to the naked eye is 
Alpha Centauri. die brighter of the two Pointers Lo the 
Southern Cross, distant 4* iight years or about 25 million million 
( 25 ,000,000>0(X>.000) mi les 

To recognize the stars it js necessai-y to know the patterns of 
the more important constellations. ati6 the easiest way to begin 
is wrth the twelve constellations ot the Zodiac — the hand in the 
sky stretching from cast through a point somewhat north of the 
zenith and down to the west. This js easily recognized as the 
general path of the sun, the moon, and all the planets — mm of 
the p!anefs is ever found outside this hand. , 

The Egyptians divided it into twelve "houses" or ''signs'" of 
equal sue, and the sun traversed the whole baud in the course of 
the year, moving from "sign" to "sign'" month by month. r J"hen* 
order is remembered easily from the old mnemonic rhyme: 

lite Rain, the liutt, the Heavenly Twins- 
And next file Crab the Lion shines* 
Tli** Virgin and the Scales, 
The Scorpion, Archer, mid JTi'-Goat, 
The Man who holds the watering-pot, 
And Fish with ghltentl* tails. 

These twelve constellation* are to he followed from west to 
east, through north. The Ram (Aries) is faint and difficult to 
pick out. The Bull, on the other h^nd, is easy ; its major parti are 
a V inverted or lying on its side, formed of rive main stars, and 
a little distance away the Pleiades or Seven Sisters, a tiny well- 
known group. The Twins (Gemini) are recognized by the two 
ritst-irmgntiude stars Castor and Pollux, looking much like our 
southern Pointers, but in the path of the Zodiac instead of in the 
southern sky. The Crab (Cancer) is also faint and fairly difficult 
to recognize, but Leo, the Lion, shows very plainly as the form 
<»f a sickle, with the bright star Regulus in the handle, followed 
by a triangle. The very brilliant star Spicu marks the centre i>i 
Virgo, the Virgin; the Scales (Libra) are indistinct; but the 
Scorpion is one of the most easily recognised of the constellations, 
Itke an enormous question-mark on its £}4Cj Kberally marked out 
in slat's, and with the cml of the tail lying w the Milky Way. The 



JjJjJ ] CoLtMAK, Strongc Root Formation in € for ry~ba! tart )71 

remainder arc less distinct, but with these as a start, they may 
be followed from any gfaf chart 

Now, using these constellations a£ landmarks (or better, perhaps, 
as '\%kymaiks r '), the others may be followed step by step. A 
puzzling stranger in an otherwise recognizable constellation near 
the Zodiac will prove to be a planet. 

(At the conclusion of the brief address, members were invito! in examine 
Jupiter, showing the four (ftftt brilh«mt 0( hi* II moons, and Saturn, with 
i(s remarkable sysLem of rings, through a -31-incli refractor set up in the. 
grounds, Conditions were Jar from perfect, but these objects, and the 
(i-reat Nchula in Orion, were well seen by ino&t members. ) 



STRANGE ROOT FORMATION IN CHERRV-BALLART 
By Edith Coleman, Blackburn, Vic. 

In July. 1943, it was necessary to have cut flown a large Cherry - 
hallart (liAOrar{ms ctipressijoniris) which grew on our land at 
Healesville. It was a beautiful, three-pronged tree, almost as high 
as the house, which we had enjoyed for 25 years. Decay was 
evident at the base of one fork, and this had been cut down 
previously. The others, although apparently sound, were leaning 
over the house, and it was thought that they, too. might be unsound. 
We had been told by the woodcutter that these trees arc apt to 
H snap off like a cairol " 

When the tree was cut down it was seen that each of the stems 
contained within il a living root- The roots had started in n sound 
part of each stem, growing downward to feed on decayed nutter 
beneath The one illustrated' commenced at 8£ feet from the 
ground. It was measured hy the woodcutter* an experienced man, 
who drew my attention to the soundness of the wood in which the 
root had started, and to the distance it had travelled before reach- 
ing decay, and branching. Here more roots were produced, which 
spread out, forming a bed for themselves in the comparatively soft 
matter of what had seemed a perfectly sound stem. The freshly 
exposed roots were *o£t, moist and of a reddish colour, 

When the photograph was taken, nearly six months later 
(12/1/44), they had dried and contracted. The thong-like part 
then measured 2$ inches in circumference. Tt had dried wilh a 
hatk-like formation resembling that of the stem of the tree. For 
the purpose of the photograph, the root was pinned to a white 
dnrvi The left-hand picture shows the werjge-shaped section and 
the soundness of the wood m which the root was formed^ also I he 
distance it travelled before branching. 

It seems surprising that the whole of this root formation, which 



172" Colkman, Strmipc Root Formation ix Oirrry-Oathvt [ K} r y 

is .v.* inches in length, was -still 5 feet 9 inches [vom the grdimd. 
and was completely enclosed within an apparently .sound stem. 
The right-land picture shows the outside of the wedge in which 
development commenced. 

'fhe toot in the second stem started at 3) feel from (lie grotmcl 
Thc circumference or the stem which contained it w.is 25 inches. 

Although I can suggest* no certain reason to- these strange 
interior mot growihs in Exocarpns they offer naturalists a fas- 
cinating study. They raise, too, an interesting question. Many 
leaning trees -and shrubs send out. new branches winch secure 
balance. One may see this in the garden. Some trees, when emsinn 
threatens rheir hold on the earth, send out fresh roots from the 
stern, often many feet from the ground, The.se., growing outside, 
the stem, nnt inside as in the case pi the Chciry-ballart, sometime* 
shoot outward at first, then downward, eventually reaching ground 
in which they become securely anchored. 

Gertrude J ekyll [Home and Gnrden. 1901) gives a remarkable 
photo, of a Scotch Fir. It is growing near the top oi a steep 
bank. The soil has been almost washed from its roots, which 
appear to have scarcely any hold on the bank. The situation has 
been saved by the transformation of its tap-root into a stem, with 
j. root-system of its own. This tap-root stem is even thicker than 
the true stem above the normal roots. The new roots are. securely 
anchored in the earth at the bottom of the steep bank. The trans- 
formation from tap-root to stern seems all the more complete 
because it is covered with what appears to be a true bark, like that 
of the upper stem, separating into scale-like plates. 

It seems probable that the Exocwpus was sending down, from 
within, new: roots the upper part ut which would later be trans- 
formed into stem. These roots would vServe. either to anchor the 
sound parls of the tree or % more probably, to take their place in 
l he earth as new trees, when wind or decay should complete the 
destruction of the parent tree. This theory is strengthened by the 
bark-like covermg of the thong-like roots which resembles that 
on the adult stem. 

Root -parasit ism in JZxocarptts has been fully demonstrated by 
Dr. Margaret Benson aiid Dr. T. A. Herbert, -and probably accounts 
for the grove-like growth of these trees. Such interior roots as 
the ones just described may also account for grove growth — more 
convincingly. I thhik, than seedlings, which are rare. 

In April, 1943, a disastrous fire destroyed or scorched many of 
our Cherry-ballarts. A number of thvse has produced new growth 
showing reversionary leaves, which I have previously described 
(Vict. Nat., Sept., 1934). It has been interesting to tiote a seed- 
ling oi the Pale-fruit Cherry-ballart (E stricta) which escaped 
the fire, showing these Tarragon-like reversionary leaves. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST Vol. j.x 

Platk XI 



March. 1944 




Root of Cherry -hallurt which developed in an nppamitly sound stem ;il 
a distance of H\ foot from the ground. A wtdge-shaped section eul from 
the stem showing (left) sound wood, (right) outside of ilie section. 



"*4 ] Willis, Dryoptcris pcnnujcra 173 

DRYOPTRRIS PENNIGERA, A NEW FERN RECORD 
FOR VICTORIA 

By James H. Wilus, National Herbarium, Melbourne 

To Mr. Owen Singleton goes the honour of augmenting our 
list of Victorian pteridophytes (now 107) by yet another species 
and, as this latest discovery is of a Dryoptcris } its record in our 
journal follows fittingly upon the revision of that genus by N. A. 
Wakefield in the February number. 

The only once-pinnate species of "wood-fern" hitherto found 
in Victoria is Dryoptcris nymphalis (syns. mollis, dentata, para- 
sitica) y and its occurrence is based on a solitary specimen from 
Curdie's River, 1883 — preserved at the National Herbarium — the 
nearest other location being cliffs of the lower Murray near 
lllanchetown in South Australia. Late in January, 1943, Mr. 
Singleton came across a small clump of simple-pinnate Dryopteris 
on calcareous soil along the western branch of Sherbrooke River, 
Waarre pine plantation, west Otway region. Since this spot is less 
than 20 miles from the original Curdie's River site (farther west), 
it was presumed that he had established the survival of D. nymphalis 
60 years after the first and only collection there. Specimens of 
this interesting find were lodged at the National Herbarium, and 
there they rested for a year under the name "nymphalis." 

Last December, Miss J. Somerville (of Hobart Museum) 
brought to Melbourne some specimens from Mole Creek and 
Copper Creek (near Smithton), N.W. Tasmania, which she stated 
had been identified as Dryoptcris pcnnigera by a New Zealand 
authority; these also grew on limestone formation and agreed 
perfectly with Mr. Singleton's recent Otway collection! 

Thus followed a closer scrutiny of all exsiccate Australian and 
New Zealand material in the nymphalis and pennigcra groups, and 
we were able to confirm both Miss Somerville's Tasmanian and 
Mr. Singleton's plants as true D* pvnnigera; the old Curdie's 
River sample and the lower Murray specimens typify D, nymphalis. 
This means that we have two species of once-pinnate "wood-ferns" 
in Victoria and, as both seem to be confined to a small area west 
of the Otways, they are among our rarest ferns. 

The Sherbrooke River record of D. pennigera is also, apparently, 
the first undoubted one for the whole Australian mainland. Domin 
(in Prodromus einer Faruftora Queenslands* p. 46) mentions that 
the occurrence of this species in Queensland is based on a single 
frond which Amalie Dietrich gathered long ago at Port Mackay 
and which Luerssen provisionally included in pcnnigera; he knew 
of no other Australian collection but, as the species is distributed 
from the Philippines to New Zealand (where abundant), Domin 
considered its reappearance here very possible. 



174 



Willis, Dryopteris pennlgcra 



"Vict*N*t. 

. Vol. LX 




Dryopteris nymphalis: 1. Half frond (deltoid in shape). 

la. Ultimate lobe with indusiate sori. 
D. pennigera; 2. Half frond (fusiform). 2a. Ex-indusiate sori. 



1W« 



*] &-ACK. DfxrtipHmi ■of a New Ettiaiypt Ff)hnd 175 



Following arc the chiei points of difference between die- species 
discussed above: 

D. nyvtpMh (Fof&l) Copland D. penn/etera (Korst) C.Chr. 

!. Fronds narrowly deltoid, brevier 1 Fronds fusiform, the ptiniae 
)ictow. gradually decreaangr in length 

towards the ba*e. 
2 f Lobes of pinnae in 20 or more 2. Lobes ot pittnac in 12 io 16 parr*, 
pairs, almost crttite. usually crenate. 

3. Midrib paler 1ban the. frond in % Midrib darker in colour thaw lite 
colour. frond, 

4. Indusium prcsem and comspicu- 4. Induiium lacking, f-poramvia 
ous. naked from the first. 



DESCRIPTION OF A NEW EUCALYPT HYBRID 

By Rat-Pigh. A. Black, Melbourne 

X EUCALYPTUS mHWto ("BUTTERCUP PEPPERMINT") 

(mdiata x dk'cs) R. A. Black hybr. nuv. , 

Arbor 40-50 pedes ttlta (tirca 12*1$ ih). Corfice, ttspcro, persistant! 
sintiti " Pepper mint" '-arbori szewkinm portem ItuHtvin inferiarnu, tfvtfUM 
in rivtns lew et (holhoto niijue_, $c<)vtmtis lanciis dc?, or lie ante, J : <)!ia Juvctatia 
aiuvMt'i-lcttii-.calafa vci t&to-lcmeeofota, holia Mat urn alterua angti-slo4(ii\c$o~ 
lata pel hnceofata. Inftorescattia, in mnbcHh. UmbelioiK axillares, 6-12 
florae. Gemmae cla/vota*, pedicellate. Operculum hemtiphtYicmt, apicutatuin, 
Antherae renifdrwes, Fntcius pedkeUata globoso -artco lata, o w>i< longn. 
? «tu>, lata, trunca&Q, crossa, orificio c(Hitr&r.ti t <f-tocidu 

VicroitiA.— On eastern slopes of Buttercup Creek, BoorooHte, Mansfield, 
County of Dclatite, in Silurian soil formation, in mixed cuca^ypt forest, 
mainly young ol about 40-50 }cars old,, intersperbcd with vCMige-o of old 
forest; ca 1060 St January 12, 1941, Black No. 352-003— <1), (Type), 

A small to medium-spreading tree, branching freely from about 5 it! 
from the ground. Timber soft and ^umniy, of a pile colour. Juvenile 
leaves irregularly opposite, shortly stalked, 4-10 cm, long;, ]-2-5 cm. broad; 
intra marginal vein somewhat near edge- of leaf; lateral veins obscure, 
diverging at nn angle of from «J(M8 decrees, mature leaves shortly stalked, 
apicnlate, dtrk green, rt-13 cm. long, ±-34 cm, broad; lateral veins diverging 
from 15-17 degrees, StalEcs of umbels angular to laterally eompressed r 
£-1 cm. long. Calyx-tube almost as long as operculum. Anthers reuiform, 
2-celIed, but hardly or not a? all confluent. Gland minute and terminal. 
,DUk flush tyjth edge of fruit, thin. 5-6 mm, in diameter, Valves triangular 
in shape, small and deeply sunk, Fruit stalked, broadiy urceolate, 6 mm. 
lout and 7 mm. broad, truncate, walls rather thicki&h, orifice contracted. 
All fruits examined, 4-cel'icd. 

The rarity of E todiodivss might be the result of tand-deaiing by stock- 
Men, there being a comparatively large adjacent area ol once loreit-Iand. 
now turned *nto bush paMtire. 

Before the lamented death of Mr W. F. BlakeJy, Eucalyprologist of the 
National Herbarium, Sydney. I had closely conferred with him with respect 
to this new hybrid. 



One nighi having disabled a tiger snake with a. blow, I lifted it to a 
hare spot alongside a humcaoe l.imp 3 was carrying. This snake uttered 
a ibrill call — a succession of high-pitched staccato notei — and was answered 
from a point pertaps 20 or 30 jards away. I have several times heard the 
call, bnt only this time was sure thai it came from a snaloe.— "Bushman." 



176 



Jfcurr, A A'aw Spines &) TUtlyiMtw 



\ 



VJcLJhi. 
Vpt. LX 



A NEW SPECIES OF THELYMITRA 
T. RETECTA $, nov. 

by R'cv. H, M. R. Rl-pp, Northbridge, N.S.W 

Plan to- Qruciiis. 2i f -66 cm, alto. Folium crasstiuij ffftta&Wfrftftftj 9*20 <m. 
longum. Floret 3-20. circa ?»5-i ltd. irons diamflrimi-, caeru-Uu vcl purpura. 
Xcpiifun* tlorsale Hutu* ffnaw segment-a attcro. Lohrlhw pa hi hides. Cohimrnt 
sine mitra } ad posterior?™, al-r-itptisswte ttvneata, sref aJis IxiierrJfhns oblongs 
dnabis; (obi penialtoti ma<ym. rtecti, fliwt: atoc ct tobi penuiHati itftii/rex 
01*<MI tJHthera. Anthcra spiado fififarmi, 

A slender plant 22-66 cm. high, with a thick 
channelled leaf 9-20 cm. lonjr; stein bracts 2. 
leaf-like. Flowers 3-20. about 2 5-3 cm. across 
the dimeter, blue, purplish* or pink, or com* 
billing* these shades. Dorsal sepal broader than 
any other segment. J.aheUmn resembling \\\t) 
pairc4 petals but a little shorter. Column with- 
out any hood, very abruptly truncated "behind 
at or below the base of the anther, but with 
an erect oblong lateral wing, orange-coloured, 
on either side, its margins minutely denticulate 
or crcnulatc except on the anterior side, the 
back oi the column with a conspicuous dark 
orange baud josi under the summit, PemciHato 
lobes erect, with large dull yellow luirtuftv 
Anther with Q long: filiform point, scarcely as 
high as the top of the column wings, and con- 
siderably lower than the hairtufts. — Gravelly 
Beach, on the Tamar River below Launccston, 
December, 194,1. Neil Burrow*. 

This interesting species was found in .sub- 
stantial numbers by Mr Burrows, who is lu 
be congratulated on his discovery. In addition 
to a living specimen, he sent excellent pencil 
sketches which were most useful. Morpho- 
logically, Hie flower v? perhaps neaTcr to T. 
Irmtota Rogers , Maw to aoy othev Hnowo 
species, but it has very distinctive characters 
of its own, a* a study of the description will 
show. The specific name ("uncovered 1 ') is in 
allusion to the complete absence of any pro- 
tective hood above the anther, 

Mr, Burrows report? that the new species 
grows in association with the Veined S-.tn- 
Orr.hid (T, vennxo RBr.), with which it has 
little in common morphologically beyond the 
generic chinaae'*. H? has also observed thai 
although the flowers during cool and cloud) 
weather do not expand a.t all. tej-tilizariou of 
the ovary takes place, and (he sjiecio? is evidently seif-pollin^tm,!:. or ai 
least cajfHblc of self-pollination. 




ThdywitW reieeta, 
Rispp.sp.nw. A, plant 
about half natural size. 
B, column from the 
front; /iJ. hair-tut t; 
w, wing ; o, anther : 
s, stigma. t_, column 
from the back; 6, 
deep orange hand. D. 
column from the side. 
one wing and hair-tuft, 
removed. B, C. D all 
greatly cntatgod. 



Mr. P. Crosbie Morrison left recently for a lecture tour iff "North AuMtaha 
under the auspices of inc. Army Education Service. 



"1NST1XCT" OR "RADIAL RAYS"? 
To the Eduor. 

Sir, — Tbc wo*d "inslina." as applied to the. action* .if hirds, anion I* 
and IflB^sct^ has never ptofesscd 16 explain what thn faculty i,s, hut 
designated a sense of which wc know nothing, Since we begin to Vnow 
more about radiation and radial waves, the explanation oi tills &ensc 
appears to bt dear enough. There docs not seem to be any doubt that 
birds, etc. have the J acuity of receiving the radial waves, which we now 
know -are emanated from all thing;, that are on the earth's surface. 

Tbflre are innumerable instances oi' the actions of bird;;, etc., which could 
be given to substantiate that statement. Fabre, tlie French naturalist, 
observed that when a Great Peacock Female butterfly emerged iroin the 
chrysalis one morning, in his laboratory, a whole swarm of males invaded 
the place that night. It seemed as if the serise of smelt had been guiding 
the male*. Fabrc shattered this hypothesis, although he did -not recognize 
the /act by placing substance* of overpowering obnoxious effluvia near the 
female, which had no effect on the collection of males. He placed the 
female under a glass bell, where the males coaid see her, and a tray 
containing a layer of sand, on "which the female -had passed the preceding 
.day and night, covered with a piece of wire gau*e, being in hi 1 : way. he 
placed it on the floor at the other end oi the rcom, where little tight could 
penetrate. To his surprise no male* stopped at the glass- bell, wlwrc the 
female could be plainly SWfti but they all fl*w to the. tray and alighted on 
the wire dome. 

Georges Lakhavsky. another observer, carried out a similar experiment 
with the same specie:; of butterfly, with a piece pi cotton wool jor her 
restntg-pLice, instead of the saud-tray. and came to the conclusion that it 
wr** -not the spfendoiir of ber colouring, nor was it airy smell given off 
by her, that attracted the males, but raihec micro-organic cells, radiating 
according to a scale of determined wavelengths from itifjniteoimal psrlicle* 
given oft by her ovaries. To support the latter contention, when he dipped 
the cotton wool into pure alcohol or corrosive sublimate (both oi which 
would have no effect on odoriferous enluvia) the males stopped coming 
to the wool. The.sc solutions would destroy the living cells which gave 
off the radiations that attracted the inale*. 

Of bats the latter observer says^ Tt is commonly believed that it is 
lo the acuity of the senses of smell and hearing that the bat owes its 
ability of approaching its prey. This may be adurissable under stick 
conditions as the calm atmosphere of the countryside In Paris, I have 
often watched bats from my balcony, on racing days, amid the uproar of 
a great crowd and the noises of thousands of cars* setting" up vibrations in 
the r<ir, saturated with the products of petrol COicbustion. , Amid this 
JeaJening din aud vitiated atmosphere* it fo neither the sense of smell nor 
that of hearing that guides the bats straight towards insects which they 
catch 3s easily as in the Undisturbed silence of the countryside. The bat 
is roost probably attracted to thcr.e insects by the radiations they OWlti 
which is not influenced by noise or by petrol furncft. 1 ' 

CtMte,i«b.-ration uf your space forbids me giving further instances pointing 
M the use of radial waves by birds, animate and fwtttts, a; an explanation 
of the faculty or scrtve, which we rovoe by the word 'instinct." 

Yours, 

• Ai.fiww A, Cook. 

Walkexstun, 

Mackay, QueeuslamL 



178 MAiriNfiLKV, Radkl Rays aW fW fichovicur {^{ ""* 

RADIAL RAYS Attn BIRD IJEHAVIOL'R 
To the Editor 

Sir, — II surprises jhc to find tliat Dr. H- Flecker is unaware that radial 
rays are ai pieseiu unknown to him. Most rays, \t not all, arc classified 
as radiating in character. There ir- a multiplicity of radiating rays wed 
known to scientists which emit or radiate energy. For instance, the rays 
o. radium are emitted or radiated, likewise many others There -are- ako 
tile rays which have been separated "from the parent raj, like tlK varum* 
rays composing light, such as trie violet ttfl.9 sttHJ infra-red ray. 

By using a comprehensive term embodying all radiating rays by the 
vimple word indicative of their natural behaviour ai radial rays T am in 
keening with the strict sense of the classi fixation of and nomenclature of 
radiating rays. This, therefore, needs no defence but the converse .itLkudc. 
It is but a broad classification of what/ I* At* present known to <J5$s| 

I mieht be permitted to point out that the disputed word' "instinct" has 
hpfltt rejected as redundant in the dictionary of basic .English. This i* 
exactly what I claimed lor it and stated thai it was a redundant word of 
lirrte, if any, value as a criterion. 

To indicate that radial action is not mere conjecture m its action on 
hind behaviour, lei me cite the result of ail experiment made willt radial 
ray.; on rhe 2nd July, \924, at J radio station near Valencia. Spain, with 
a Hock of earner pigeons. They were released when the station was 
transmitting and it was noted that these, birds could not gtt their hearings 
and" kept flying about in Circles. When the station ceased transmission it 
was nut long before the birds got ihcir direction and dew away. 

Dr. Flecker further rrentinns that the hereditary impulse- of all animals 
to seek for fond i\ instinctive, Now il is well known that anirmls rescind 
t-.i the stimulus or stimuli of their environment. It is likewise- known thai 
paTt of the environment is composed oi radial rays of sortie of the many 
varieties composing the group of radial rays-, or WjUHtt, ot beams, or 
CUffCOUi, by which some persons designate them. Without their organic 
structure plus environmental stimulus operating in conjunction, hereditary 
impulses would not arise in animals, hence since the environment i$ portly 
composed Of radial currents, hereditary impulses are primarily due in part 
to radial action. 

Electronic researches have revealed the eleclrir rnrrcnN qt the brain and 
tlicir movement* throughout the nervous system, Jc^dial r>iys :ue the 
subject uf interne research at the present time, particularly for use in our 
war services. 

! hay* shown that radial rays of the eiivitomuCiU act upon the organic 
ilriKttuc of animals which respond to i* insofar m theiy organic mechanism 
permits. Surely this is not to be called '"instinct" 

The mystery of bird migration, as is the nature of electricity, are 
problems still unravelled completely, but what i* curiam is that some form 
of ray in the environment surrounding (he bird acts upon it in directing 
its course, and must motivate its action, as with the reef heron or other uird 

Kays are at present radiated to airmen for directiuiial guidance. Why 
should not nature's v-j.y£ act directly on birds and animals? These creature* 
do not require ihera to be lw messed for use as in srtme, jmdances human? 
do for their benefit, 

Y*-»urs, etc., 

Kew, Vic. AurH-.ih: H, E, MAmNCLEY. 



*£"] Baifx Phtfpk* Mokes Dehill 179 

ttATW PLATYPUS MAKES DEBUT 

The first- baby platypus to be born in tafilivify, ivfo'ch c^ts^d world-wide 
interest when its Inrth was tthxouMtd PW Jatimry 3. made its first pwiic 
op pear attve at Hta»ie$villc &n February 22: 

It is now revealed that the infant is a "girl," and the only one Ol O'o 
brood. Hopes that twins, or even luptet.% mitfht be .found in the 1on# 
westing-burrow have not keen iVlrilbvl Nor h&S the 50ft eggshell, from 
which the babe emerged, been found. 

When the Director of the Sanctuary. Mr. David Flcay, opened the burrow 
on January 3 and discovered the youou vl a 'yi>">. tKc ou'-cr little creature, 
then about nine weeks old, wat sightteft and bellies and whj covered with 
>horl >jj|ky fur. 

Now her eyes are open, (Che i? able to swim, and the fur has become, long 
arid rich. Her body-lentilh. too, has .greatly i.-xite.'VSed — bv fivfl or six indies 
s\\\$t January 3 — ancl tiwshor* beak 01 iofauev has grown almost to maturity. 

The mother platypus. Jill (who ha* nyw passed her sisih year in tSe 
Sanctuary), was drily ten inches in length wbeu she wa* picked up some 
three-quarters <>( a mile from wafer. Her babe is- already fourteen inches 
lone;, only two inches shorter (at 3J months) than her <H-yenr-old mother. 

Already, too, the rahc has become a film \ tar She. together with both 
iwrents, gave an exhibition on February Zl for The Heratd -Ciuesound News 
Service. 

The babe herself offered »v_i objection to tins publicity, other than to 
emit a few quaint tfrnwis, rather like those of % broody hen, Jill, however, 
was somewhat Coy. 51ie wait to the? length of seizing Mr. Flcay's fingers 
in her rubbery beak and trying to pull them away Irani her precious infant 
Jack, rbe father, took a more detached interest in die proceeding. 

Thi* babe emerged from the nest on February 26 — seventeen w< j eks after 
hatching. It is now on pubbc view. 

A.rT.C. 

NKSTlNG ODDITY 

Wriliiig from 'Willigobung, J. W. Cunningham says I "While away on ft 
visit to my nephew's place, Tj-tree, Krycunda, we occupied a room oubide 
which a grape vine was growing- In this vine were Iwo Wagtails, who 
were building two nests, within six inches of each other, and about 1be 
same level. Wc used to watch them every morning, Jrom 5 to. 7, and they 
IKOd to build the two HEMS alternatively. There Were not Sour Wagtails. 
3J, not having much to do, I used to stand or sit in the garden tor hours 
watching them, and there were never more than two hiiiUinfe. As the 
Willie Wagtail is such a pugnacious and cheeky chap, one would not expect 
two birds to build close together. When we Ieft> the two nests were nearly 
finished." 



GENERAL NOTES 

A number oi members have responded cordially to the invitation to 
support the Held Natnrsfim' Fund for the use of Mr. David Fleay. of 
Ihe Healesville Sanctuary, u) recognition of his sound work. Further con- 
tribution? will be welcomed. 

The date of the death of Mr, Frederick Chapman was Decemher 10, not 
December 19. as misprinted m the last issue of the Vic* UwL The photograph 
accompanying- the obituary notice was taken by Mis? M, L, Wigan, 

Copies pf Dr. F K. Floyd's Carttkwous Plants, reviewed in the Vic. Nat. 
iast September, can now be obtained front Angus and Robertson. Sydney. 



)A0 John /urmftWrri of (ftp National MitSx*w [ VaL'LX 

JOHN LEAI>BEATER OF Tgjfc NATIONAL MUSECMT 

?3enjarmii Leadneater em iabhshed a natural history busmen tti Loudon 
at the Ivefpniimfc ai the iti«etoc«th century, after Mv Vigur.i, in 1833, mimed 
tilt Pink (Major Mskficll) Cackaroo Myitoltipft-Hs teadbtater* from :t 
SQCrfffftirj *t j'p-pt iod by the firm. In IR3? £ould named a jmrrnt <mpidtVd by 
rhc firm Ptaiyccrcys ignihs, "but the species is not nowadays accepted, the 
type-specimen being considered to be a hybrid of am aberration. 

Henjatritn's son, John Lend heater, horn *hout ISGO, was first in partner- 
sb*[> Wtfh Ills father in the natural Imtory business, ami after the death Of 
the senior partner, continued it. He was a Fellow of the Royal Society 
and "a man as well known abroad as at home, LOr Ins tove 0* science and 
tnlcmed productions." He died on May 28, 1852, at his residence, 19 
3rewer Stfeet, GoMe>t Square. London It will be remembered that John 
HouW lived in Broad Stieet, Golden Suusre. 

John Leadlieater hatl two sous, Beujauun and Jotoi. Benjamin 
carried on the Pju6ine3S in London, at lea*t for a few years, and, 
in 1851, was elected n Fellow of the Linnoan Society <if London. The 
second son, John, came to "Melbourne and, with, one Williams,, established 
a natural history business, "collecting for the London House* {sole agents) 
nil the various branches at the Natural History of Australia wi a large 
jcalc, especially Mamnttlia, etc.. for anatomical examination, in spirits." 

It is not known how long the Melbourne business continued — it possibly 
c£tn<? to an end through the failure of the London c'labhahmcrW — but John 
Lcadbcater became assistant and taxidermist at the National Museum. After 
him, E. P. Ramsay named the Ptte&fafakS Icadbraceri (the Spotted Parda- 
lotc^ in 18o7, and, In the same year, Professor I". McCoy named Ptitatis 
Irrttrihcatcn <thc Helmeted fTnneyeater>. In JS74, Kendall Broidbem 
collected some Fig- Parrots at CardwfilJ, Queensland, and disposed of them 
to several museums in Australia The {penmen received at Melbourne was 
itameti Cyclnpiitta teadb/ratcri by Professor l r . McCoy, aitd the name nowa- 
days has prloTiiy over names given to the bird at the same time by Gonld 
Slid Dry Rwnsay 

Thus we have John Leadbeater commemorated by ihe scientific names <>i 
three Australian birds; but there is little on record about his life. As he 
worked in Melbourne at a comparatively rccait period, it should not be. 
difficult fur one cut the spot to find some references m i.utitettjporary tiews- 
pnpers cither ft? the firm of Leadhcatcr and Williams, or <o Leadbcftier 
alone. Will Torne mcnuV.r take up the ta?5c oi placing; on record sunie infor 
•nation about the life of this farmer 4axidermist to the -National Museum? 
ft. M. WmrjFXL, Bridgetown, Western Australia. 

I To the afcove bird-uamca awarded m honour *A Leudbeatcr should be 
adffcd that of a very distinctive mammal, Cyiwoktliifrns UofibwiM. the very 
raie Leadbeater's Posxutn. — tj>3va*.| 



FERNTREE GULLY EXCURSION 
'I'ltc attcridancc at tins outing, on February 12, was ahout 20 The aft-er- 
iviou was- spent in poinding out species handy to (he trrjck and little real 
search w.ns made. On!}- twenty fifyecjw were noted. This is definitely not 
dnc to removal of ferre, For the hillside is wtjl covered A more d]lb?fut 
search should reveal mutiy more sped<:s and I suggest that this be done 
by a smart party c»f studCDts oi fenis 10 StcerUin just what js lett unl 
where loaited. The only discovery of special rmercst was a large patch of 
PliAftty! faJcfihi (Siclde Fein), with inauy Inpiunatiml fronds. Thfis bctng 
the near^t unlly fp Melbourne now remaining, it tu'ight be of some viluc 
to introduce species, which are now missing, into *nmc> suitable sites. Thth, 
students might have available th-e nujortty of our ferns It should he eJisy 
|0 obtain the co-operation of the Tnauajfemcrrt- 

A. J. SwAisv. 



.• 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. LX«— No. 12 . April 6, 1944 No. 734 



PROCEEDINGS 

The monthly meeting of. the Club was held at the Royal Society's 
Hall on March "13, 1944. The President (Mr. P. F. Morris) 
presided and about 100 members and friends attended. 

REPORTS OF EXCURSIONS 

Reports of excursions were given as follow: Rickert ? s Point, 
Mr. P F. Mortis (for Mr. P. Crosbie Morrison) ; Beaumaris, Mr. 
O. P. Singleton, who stated that a good outing was slightly 
marred by high tide; River Yarra trip, Mr. H. P. Diekins, who 
praised the descriptive commentary rendered throughout the after- 
noon by Mr. P. F. Morris. 

ELECTION OF MEMBERS - 

The following were elected as Country Members of the Club ; 
Messrs. Aldo Massola, H, E. Finlayson, F. O'Doimell; as 
Associate Member; Master Arthur Court; as Ordinary Members: 
Mrs. C. P. Phillips., Miss PL C Down. 

GENERAL BUSINESS 

Mr. T. S- Hart drew attention to the present flowering- in the 
Botanical Gardens of the Tree Geebung (Persoonia wrborea) t mA 
•Mr, J. H. Willis stated that there was at least one living specimen 
in the Dandenong Ranges near Sherbrooke Falls — probably the 
closest spontaneous example to Melbourne. 

Mr. S. R- Mitchell reported on the Junior Branch at Hawthorn 
and thanked all who had contributed to the success of a plant 
demonstration (collection, preservation, photography and analysis 
of specimens) held last month; Mrs. Freame was especially 
mentioned for her interesting exhibrt'of microscope slides. 

Messrs. E. E. Pescott and W. H. Ingram, two past officers of 
very long standing, were welcomed by the President, who also 
expressed pleasure at seeing the Messrs. Dunn, senior and junior, 
as well as other visitors. ; : v 



1*2 FMd Naturalists' Club Procwtfiiw Vi%\vx 



NATURE QUESTIONS 



Question 1 : is it only the female mosquito that bites? Answer' 
Mr. V. H. Miller cited an excellent article in the Age of several 
days ago which definitely attributed the spread of malaria and 
dengue fever to female mosquitoes. Mr. A. D. Hardy made a 
correction lo the question — the female insect is a vegetarian 
except at breeding-time, when she does not bite but becomes a 
blood-sucker. 

* Question 2- Curvier is said tn be responsible for naming the 
Frogmouth Podargus (supposedly derived from "gouty foot"). 
What is the explanation of the "gouty fool" as applied to this 
genus of birds? Answer; Mr. A. E. M&tlitigley surmised that 
the name would be in allusion to the curious Kmping gait of a 
frogmouth. which walks as if afflicted with gout in the feet. 
Mr. A. H. Chisholm suggested that Mr. H. Wolstenholme tva* 
uncertain of such a derivation, hut recalled a humorous writer 
who breezily ventured to explain it in terms of "Pod t Jt a seed- 
vessel, and "Argxs^ & newspaper! Mr. E, E. Pescott challenged 
the translation "gouty foot," and said that Ihe first-named frog- 
mouth was in all probability not an Australian species, thereby 
necessitating reference to older ornithological works in other 
countries- 
Question 3i Ddes the Oiannef-billed Cuckoo visit Victoria and, 
if so, are there any recent records of parasitic nidification? 
Answer: Mr. Chisholm stated that although this northern bird 
did occasionally appear in East Gippsland (and there is one record 
even for Tasmania), k has never been known to deposit an egg 
in our State. For a cuckoo, It is a large species and has earned 
the name "storm bird" in Queensland; several young channel-bills 
may be hatched in a single nest and it is not customary for them 
to eject their foster-brethren. 

Question 4: Is the Rufous Fantail a frequent suburban visitor 
in summer-time? Answer: Mr. Chisholm, supported by Mr. 
Matbngley, replied that the bird was more likely to be seen near 
Melbourne during spring, in course of its migration toward Ihe 
mountain gulfics where it nests in the summer months. Mr. 
Hanks mentioned the appearance of odd birds at Footscray and 
even in Flinders Street 



RETURN OF BOOKS ON LOAN 

The Librarian requests lhal all borrowers of books from the Club library 
have Khfeps returned by the end of the month, for the purpose of a complcltt 
stocktaking:. 



$£*!] " ' Mukhu) the Desert Blossom-. <tt Broken Hilt 18? 

MAKING THE DESERT -BLOSSOM AT BROKEN HILL 

Introducing this subject at the March meeting of the F.N.C., 
Mr Royce H. Mew briefly sketched the physical and climatic 
environment of this rich mining centre — altitude about 1,000 feet, 
in the Barrier Ranges; rainfall 2 to 16 inches withjan average of 
less than 10, but very reliable ; temperature varying from winter 
frosts to frequent heights of more than 100* "F. in summer; soil 
type mainly red clay and limestone, with. the top layer badly 
eroded in recent years, 

Settlement'begaira ltttle.niorc.than fifty years ago, when Broken 
HiJI was a mining camp, heavy inroads were soon made upon the 
natural timber resource*, which gradually receded until all sound 
wood had been removed- for a considerable distance around the 
growing town. The sparse undergrowth became trampled and 
eaten by droves of wandering stock and the wind had free play 
with a soil now denuded of its original plant cover. 

Something had to be done and quickly, if the mines were to be 
manned for many years longer, Zinc Corporation invited sugges- 
tions for combatting this ugly problem of wind erosion and was 
impressed with one put forward by Albert Morris, a naturalist 
who had devoted his life to the study of inland vegetation. Morris's 
idea was to make a conveniently-sized. area both stock and vermin 
proof and to plant it with trees suited to the district. 

The scheme was adopted and an area of twenty-two acres 
was surrounded by a six-foot galvanized iron fence; the first 
trees (12-inch seedlings) were planted out h\ January, 1937, and 
waste water pumped into a reticulating system from showers and 
septic tanks at the mine. Drift sand which threatened to cover 
the fence was held in check by plantations of quick-growing 
Myoporum, Old-man Saltbush, and various Acacias. As the 
scheme evolved, trees were introduced along every possible road. 
unsightly hummocks were covered with rockeries of cacti and 
trailing native plants; vegetable patches sprang up, in favoured 
sites, and special types of trees were found that would thrive on 
minerali2ed ground and slime dumps* e.g., Tea-trees and. Athols 
(Tamicri* apliytfo). 

Farther south than the original Albert Morris Park, planting* 
of. citrus and nut trees were made and al! seedlings were initially 
raised at the residence of Mrs. Morris, now acting as Botanical 
Adviser to Zinc Corporation in continuance of her late husband's 
magnificent work. Between 1936 and 1943 a total of 34-.00O 
individual plants were transplanted from tins, including sixteen 
different kinds of eucalypt and nine wattles. 

The speed with which natural regeneration of indigenous plants 



Ifti Afakwg the Ue££*t Btossw nt Bvoton Niit [ V v*,£j t 

followed the fencing, even without irrigation, was amazing, and 
t|ie mine directors lost no time in havmg larger tracts fenced fa 
and left for the native flora to stage a "comeback/' At present 
ten areas, comprising a total of three and a half square miles, have 
ijeen enclosed: these stretch in an arc from the south-east to the 
north- western* portions of the city, and at the close of 1942 no 
less than 208 species of native plants were recorded as occurring 
in them. - , " - 

n Since the establishment of this protection belt the ground 
surface has had constant protection and, even during drought 
seasons, dry herbage has acted as a sand binder. The result ha* 
been a marked diminution of local dust-storms, useful birds have 
followed the flora back again; but not the least benefit is the 
development of a "home consciousness" among district progress 
associations. 

During I93g> 4,000 .eucalypti and 500 athols were added to a 
public park. People have rebuilt oVet abandoned dllotntcnts and 
townsfolk are no longer so eager to visit Silvcrton (eighteen miles 
west) for their recreation. With changing public outlook has 
come a pride in the appearance and beauty of the town; the mine 
managements are to be congratulated on their whole-hearted 
efforts to render Broken Hill more pleasing and habitable for the 
people who depend on them* 

The full value of the reclaimed areas will not be 't'caKzed for 
some years yet, but the Albert Morris Park is a. striking; indication 
of what may be achieved against great odds, and an object lesson 
indeed for other inland towns. 

" With the kid of statistics, slides, and two strips of cinematograph 
film in colour, Mr. Mew supplemented his remarks on natural 
regeneration as a prime check to soil erosion in and Australia 
At the conclusion of this instructive address, enquiries were made 
regarding the source of water supply in such a low rainfall area 
and the cost per acre ofj regeneration. To these questions the 
lecturer replied that sufficient natural precipitation was held back 
during good rain years in reservoir*; near Silverton and some teri 
miles to the north-cast, hut as to costs he could not divulge mine 
secrets; fencing was rather more than i$Q per mile, but mainten- 
ance of the reserves Was very cheap. 

IDue credit should be given to James A. Kcast. Manngcr of the 7Ai\c 
Corporation, **0r Ins vision of tho modern iwvij. at Broken JIM ant? for his 
detenirinatian to comnier wifnendfy nottire by science and lo inspire good 
fcuwnship.— Ed.} 



1944 J Coleman, A Long-eared Tree-' Grasshopper" 185 

A LONG-EARED TREE-"GRASSHOPPER M — 

HERMIT OF THE GUM-TREES " ; 

By Edith Coleman, Blackburn, Victoria 

After a fire swept through several acres of our forest land at 
Healesville early in 1943, it seemed necessary to safeguard the 
cottage from further fires in the summer by having sapling-growth 
and uuderscrnb removed, as well as some of the scorched trees. 
This work was commenced in June, 1943- It went to our hearts 
to see living trees felled, but there were compensations. 

The unrestricted growth of twenty-five years had hidden al! 
except the tallest of the white-gums, in which we delighted, and 
had veiled all hut the summits of the mountains, Monda and 
St. Leonards, which had once seemed so near to us. Moreover, 

the dense growth had banished 
.many birds that once haunted 
our valley. The woodcutter, 
known to everyone as "Bill/' 
was an artist with the axe. His 
instructions were to thin out only 
enough trees to secure safety and 
to open up the view. It was some 
compensation to watch our axe- 

Long-eared Grasshopper (Parky* artist opening up long-closed 
JiY/iw tongkornis) natural size. vistas> and | )e f orc j on g we aIm0Sl 
Below, ovipositor from the rear , . : ,r- , ■ " , 

and the m (X«; eggs ami ceased to regret the lost trees. 

larva (natural size). Best of all r he brought tack 

many birds that had deserted t 
for more open forest land ; and soon the valley was again full of 
bird voices. In war time it was not possible to have the trees 
grubbed. They were cut a foot or two from the ground. At first 
we were greatly troubled over the blackened stumps Bill left, but 
again there were compensations — so many birds seemed to choose 
the stumps for their sun-basking r and even. I thought, ate the* 
charred bark. Does the red breast of a robin ever look more 
cheerful than when seen from a blackened stump? Another 
compensation was the chance afforded to study several creatures 
which nested within the trunks of trees, quite beyond my reach. 
Three times in July, as Bill cut the fallen stems into lengths 
for stacking, he almost sliced into the nest of a large tree-dwelling. 
long-eared "grasshopper," which Mr. John Clark identified as 
Pachytillus longicornis, hut which I cannot match with any 
creature described by Tillyard. Certainly the "ears" (antennae) 
are long, being 12 cm. in length, greatly exceeding the length of 
the body. : - i 




186 



Coleman, A Lonq-earcd Tree-" Grasshopper" 



r vict. Nut. 

L Vol.LX 



In each instance a V cut had exposed a large cavity in which 
a mother Long-ear "brooded" a mass of several scores of eggs 
which were held together by a little silk. When the cut was made 
in a still-standing tree the mother dropped to the ground. One 
antenna was cut near the tip. The other two mothers remained 
on guard. A well-directed bite reminded me that the female 
of the species is more deadly than, the male. 

The curious features of this grasshopper were the entire absence 
ef wings and the shortness of the ovipositor. The "hopping" legs 

did not suggest the ability 
to vault. On January 12, 
1944, I watched a female 
Tree - hopper ( Katydid ) 
emerge from her nymphal 
skin. The most astonishing 
stage was the withdrawal 
of such a long ovipositor 
(21 mm,) from a body 
only 17 mm. long. It 
seemed as if a silvery, 
almost fluid, organ were 
being withdrawn, with great 
effort. This soon hardened 
into the very efficient 
golden-brown tool with 
which we are familiar. 
Later I watched her "sew" 
gum-leaves into a little 
day-time house, using for 
the purpose a fine silk 
thread. 

My grasshopper used 
silk too, but her very short 
ovipositor seemed quite in- 
adequate for penetrating 
bark, or even crevices, to 
cradle her eggs. She must, 
I think, take advantage of 
existing holes, although the 




Nest and eggs of Long-eared Tree- 
""grasshopper" in stem of Eucalypt (Grey 
Box). Mother and half-grown specimen 
have been placed outside for photograph. 
(Healesvi)le: July, 1943.) Note the very 
broad forepart of the body. Many eggs 
were dislodged and lost when the tree 
was felled. 



sawdust entangled among the silk suggests that her mouth parts 
are capable of dealing with wood, as well as fingers- 
Sections of the stems containing nests and two of the brooding 
mothers were brought to Blackburn. The outsides were sprayed 
from time to time to simulate rain and dew. A month later one 
mother died. Her eggs appeared to be infertile. In the other 



tm'3 Coleman, A Long-eared Tree* 4, Grasshopper" W 

nest the eggs gradually became swollen and darker in colour. On 
November 2 1st, 1^43, two larvae emerged. Next day there were 
four more. 

Soon the cavity was animated by scores of long antennae, which 
crossed and recrossed the dark cavity like searchlights in a war- 
time sky. It was interesting to watch the tiny creamy-white 
grub-like creatures, with gTeat dark eyes, struggling from the egg, 
crumpling it back towards the 'end ol the body, and making a 
tremendous effort, to release thc'lrjng antennae (22 mm. in length). 
When several were placed in a box for closer observation, the 
fine white antennae were scarcely visible against the white lining 
of the box. In two hours the larvae became pale buff in colour. 
Five hours later they were dark, slaty-grey. 

Here was a family 1 was puzzled to, feed. Mr. Clark tells me 
that this grasshopper eats the under- bark pi .trees; but the hark 
covering these sections was no longer living and could afford, 
one thinks, little nourishment. I shirked the problem hy leaving 
it to them. Within a week they had disappeared. Except for; a 
few infertile eggs and a little silk h thc cavity^ was empty. V; 

In several other trees we found many half-grown specimens. 
These were in stems that were riddled with tunneSs,. so it seemed 
certain chat our grasshoppers live;, move, and have; their being 
entirely within the trees. The name. Long-eared -"Grasshopper" 
seems rather inapt for a creature that : neither hops. nor eats 
grass. Although the long antennae probably do serve as additional 
hearing organs, as well as organs- of touch and smell, a .bearing 
oi^an is situated on the tibiae of the forelegs. ,Nor does the family 
name Orlhoptera (straight-winged) fit. a wingless creature. U is 
possible, of course, that the males are winged, j : J .; , * 

As Mr. O'Donnell had recently been -interested in an' insect 
which led a somewhat similar buried existence, I sent the sped* 
mens to him. In the sketch which he kindly made for me the 
'short ovipositor is shown from the side and the rear. I had 
■wondered whether it might carry an extrusible ovipositor and 
asked Mr. O'Donnell to decide this point by dissecting the 
specimen. He found it "neatly set into its own muscle system/' 
but it did not appear capable of extrusion or withdrawal. 

As Mr. Gark's species has a long oviposttot, and as I cannot 
check mine with anything in Ttllyard, is it possibly an uodescribed 
species? . ," 

- 



168 Om.VMAN, TitrUtrnt MrvlvU Stick-in*,'* t [VntM?* 

, 

FURTHER NOTES ON THE GREAT BkUWN 
"' * STICK-INSECT 

By Edith Coleman, Klackburn, Victoria 

- Link loud was taken in June and July, 1943, by my 
domesticated Stick-insects, but feeding was resumed in August- 
At the end of the month the wire roofs were deported and all 
were busy among the gum twigs in the evening. There were 
twice as many males as females in this second hatching. Mating 
commenced oil October 15th, 1943. Before long there were flfflisy 
adult females swinging hammock-wise From roof "or twig, the end 
of the abdomen reflected over the back in a half circle. Obviously 
egg laying was imminent. 

Art interesting feature of this brood was the retention of the 
green colour right to the final moult and even later. Some were 
bronzy-green, others pale buff, and three were quite grey- I 
Wondered it this was due to some change in the properties of 
the gum -leaves: 

On November llth, 1943, one larva emerged from an egg 
dropped in the mixed cages (males and females) and soon there 
were many more (second generation under domestication). A 
strange feature of this second generation was the assumption nf 
brown colouring at a much earlier period. Some were quite brown 
when only 2| inches long (measured from end of abdomen to 
tips of outstretched foretega). 

There were now so many in the cage that it was not easy tu 
check' the number of moults, bin: the first one certainly take* place 
earlier than I had tbuught One which I watched (January 14th, 
1944) measured exactly one inch. The anall transparent shed 
skin/ which t have heside me, is almost invisible lying on deep 
gold paper. At this date there were about an equal number of 
browns and greens. 

My first Stick-insects seemed to prefer adult foliage of various 
Eucalypts, although juvenile foliage of Messmate, Blue-gum, 
Peppermint and Mealy Stringy-rhark was eaten. 

On February 11th, 1944, I gave them stump sprouts Front three 
Sugar-gums which had been cut down. They looked so beautiful 
and so tempting that I felt sure they couldn't resist' them. Next 
day scores of small Sticks were dead in the cages. Only those 
which found a Uttlc Messmate, or ones that fasted, survived. It 
seemed strange that they had become accustomed to the juvenile 
foliage or other species, including Silver-leaf Stringy-bark. 
Evidently that of the Sugar-gum contains some principle toxic to 
insects. 

So far my suggestion of parthenogenesis appears groundless. 



*fl7?3 Small Ston-c Slab showing Grooves made by Aborigines 189 

SMALL STONE SLAB SHOWING GROOVES MADE BY 
THE ABORIGINES 

By C. C Towle, Eastwood, N.S.W. 

During a visit in the year 1940 to the aboriginal middens at 
Murramurang on the South Coast of N,S.W., I found the stone 
which is illustrated in the accompanying plate. It is a water-worn 
slab of fine-grained sandstone, 12 inches in length, 6 inches in> 
greatest width and 2 inches in thickness. 




Small stone stab showing grooves made by aborigines. 

Photo, j C. C. Towle. 

The aborigines did not modify its shape, but for some purpose 
or other they have made several very shallow longitudinal grooves 
on each of the two flat surfaces. The extent of the grooves 
actually made by the aborigines cannot now be fully ascertained,. 
because one surface shows considerable weathering and the 
opposite surface was used as a grinding stone after the grooves 
had been made. As a consequence, some of the grooves have 



190 Small Stone Slab showing Grooves made by Aborigines [ Vert ' h % 

been partly obliterated. On this surface there are also many 
pittings similar to the marks found on anvil stones. I have 
marked in pencil the grooves as they now appear on each surface. 
Several of them are not less than 7% inches in length. Their 
greatest depth is one-sixteenth of an inch. They were made by 
an abrading or rubbing process, and not by scratching or scoring 
the surface, 

_ A few somewhat similar but smaller stones have been found 
of late years near Cronulla, a few miles south of Sydney. (Records 
Aust. Museum, Vol. XXI, No, 1, 1941, p. 17.) Some of them 
have relatively deep grooves. A small specimen has recently been 
found near Dee Why, a few miles north of Sydney- ^ 

The use to "which such stones were put is conjectural All of 
them have been found .on the coastal middens. This seems to 
indicate .that their purpose was utilitarian.' It has been suggested 
that the grooves were made during -the process of sharpening the 
points of spears (E, -Bramell, op. cit^p, 18). There is no doubt 
that by rubbing a harder or more resistant material to and fro 
on the surface of the stone the' grooves would be very rapidly 
formed, Because of this, it is not easy to understand why so 
few stones of the kind described have been found along the coast 
north and south of Sydney, where, there are adequate supplies 
of suitable sandstone. 



EXHIBITS AT MARCH MEETING OF F.N.C 

Mr. T. S. Hart: Acacia Maidenii, new for Victoria and collected by Mr, 
W. Hunter at Newmerella and Corringle near Orbost; flowers in long 
spikes (early winter), but in their absence the tree could be mistaken for 
the Lightwuod (A. implexa). 

Messrs, H. and A. Lindner, of Vectis South (per Mr. I Hammet) : 
Series of garden-grown native flowers from north-west Victoria. 

Mr, Tom Griffiths*. Specimen of'Batswing Fern (Histiopteris- incisa) 
-cultivated in a fern-fibre basket. 

Mr. A, A. Brunton; Bones of a 'blackfcllow from the cliffs south of 
Red Bluff, Sandringham,. 

Mr. Fred. Hallgarten: A small but remarkable case-moth cocoon of 
uncertain identity ; the case composed of varying materials arranged in 
distinct segments or "storeys," 

Mr. Owen Singleton: Sharks* teeth of several species and associated 
fossils from Miocene strata at Beaumaris, including a very rare gastropod. 

Mr. A. N. Carter: Collection of marine shells made al Rickett's Point 
on a recent Club excursion, including Cerithium vicnachtts. Diodora lineata 
and Bumarcia jumigaia. Also jaws of the fish Hctcrodontus pkillipi and 
Diodon blochti 

Mr. C. J. Gabriel : Introduced land shells (Vtillonia pulchella. Vitrea 
cellaria t HeliceHa barbara, Helicelta caperata, Helix pisam, and Helix 
aspersa. the common or garden snail, which found its way to Australia on 
a pot-plant shipped from France in 1843). 

Mrs. M. E. Freame: Gigantic crab from Portland, Victoria. 



iKjj L&A3K, Association of Two Types of Sgwfiy Larwe 191 

* 
ASSOCIATION OF TWO TYPES OF SAWFT.V LARVAE W 
SINGLE COLONIES 
, , . By Maurice F. Lrask> A.I.F. 

In the past ii ha* always been observed, as far as can be ascertained 
from the reference that colonics of s'awfly Jarvae were monotyped as far 
«s specks is conccrncd- 

In recording the habits of larvae, Yuasa (1922, Illinois Bid. Afj».) 
lues such term* as "larvae free leaf-feeders,'' 'Vubgrcfianous," "sometrtpts 
SeniigrcKanmj*.," "larvae solitary" or ".solitary or gregarious." These terms 
imply that the larvae m a .bunch all belong to the one species. The 
compilation of the notes of. experiments in the present serins was made 
with this idea in mind. Although several of the records show whether the 
larvae were in a compact bunch or scattered, and whether n single bonch 
splil logo underground inter mittenlly, no -definite conclusions were reached. 

The sketches acrompanyjng my records sometimes show •fibmc slight 
variation in colour and size, presumably differentiating between females 
(larger) and males -(smaller), a variation which is borne out by the adults. 
No definite separation has yet been made in, Ike latvae to follow up this 
sexual character. ■ 

These remarks apply to all specimens collected in the Batlarat district 
(Victoria), 

The first hint of some drastic new arrangement was discovered when 
■collecting at Carapook, near Castcrton, in the Western District of Victoria, 
and 150 miles west of Ballarat- Here, -in Experiment -39, taken on Sept. 2; 
IMS, I collected larvae on the same tree and "mixing almost as one brood/' 
that showed a great variation in colour. Some were black larvae and 
•some wvre ointdsh. They showed, in addition, a great variation in sj/c; 
1here were larvae tin to two inches long: and "adjacent to them and crawling 
-over them** were tiny brownish larvae only Jive-eighths rrf zn inch loujj.- 

In the light ol the then known facts, tltefre variation* were assumed to 
he due to the presence of males and females or to moulting, and in the 
case of tinier larvae, to young ones mixing- with the old. Experiment 39 
.yielded several emergences, beginning on March IV, 1939. The adults wete 
.2f>r»2iTrtt1y qjf| the same species, *'wHli white mat kings on sides of abdomen." 
These individuals were identified by Mr. R. B. Benson of the British 
Museum < Natural History) as "very close to Pergagi*apt(t. gravenhorsti. 

To make a special investigation of the problem, a series ot thirteen cases, 
totalling approximately five hundred larvae, were collected at Carapcck 
on October 15. 1939 

The sarjie feature, the "mingling" oi larvae at rest on the food-plant, 
w*« again evident, but on' this occasion it was approached more methodically. 
Some cages were filled with large Mack larvae only, some with smalJ 
•pinkish only, and some (as they occurred) with large black together with 
small pink larvae. On March \? r 1940, the emergences began, and for 
approximately one month cages yielded Pergt% dorsal* f only. Then there 
-was a juil of approximately one month. Thereafter, for approximately one 
month, the SGitu' Coper yielded "a specie*; oi Pfrgagrapta" 

This means the association of the two genera, that is, their living together 
m the larval stage. 

Naiitrk or the AssncfivrcoN 

Some hunches contained large black larvae only ; snirn: contained small 
pink larvae only. Many hunches that were in a compact mas* on the stem 
<r>nt,aincd ljlack and ninV intermingled. 



192 Li.sSK, efcttifoffWI •'/ ffW Typnx $ S\v;>fh Lari'a* [ v^'^X* 

Other buncbo of the tervae, ill nearly every ca5e. dropped off the stem 
when being picked. Th<« tfiey * revealed a number of small pink larvae 
inside Hie bunch of Urge black," When I djmbe/l to the top ol tiie tree to 
secure Experiment 107,' 'eighty-fire larvae of -both types threw tlicrn&clvcs 
off and tumbled over ray head and shoudcrs. One cage recorded a*, "large 
Mack ■.otily'Vjproduoed die two types of wlUltv, showing that the pink 
t'emaibed hidden within the bunch nf black. 

• ,; ( PliTA"-s ov* EMranv.vrKx 

: The record shows Pcrga dorsufis from the Baltarat dibtrtet emerging itr 
December, February nod. March/ with Pergograpto in March • (chiefly). 
whereas from Carapook Pcrfjd darsatix emerged chiefly in Vfarch P with 
FcTQQprapta ini April and May. . ' 

yUp to the present Perqn dorsaits and Ptraagt9f*t<* are the only two found 
to-merfte- into single colonics- It should be noted, as detailed *n thc- 
appended table, that in. emergences Perga^r&pia all came after Prrga 
dorxatis, and not intersxiersed with' them. Yet the date of going under-' 
ground was intermittent,- .as with single broods, and.it could not be said 
that FirQpQrafla pupated £ month; after P*-rya dottafa. ...-..' r . 

ft fa fortunate that this association is of two insect* so diMirtctfy 
difFeinig in, colour and size in both the -immature and themamne Stages. 
{PtTQa doT3otis adult is large, grecuUh blue; Prryabrapta aduLt u medium 
Arse, brown, with white-barred abdomen.) Tt k Hie association, not 01 .tw<r 
ipecies, but of two genera? ' ■ 

i e -; . - Conclusion* 

•I " * T 

r Originally, many of the icarHer notes were uul compiled deliberately tc 
prove the fact of association, .so that irrelevant observations occurred The* 
hew habit is recorded from one restricted area .only, namely, Carapook imdf 
Casterton. The niost tfn usual feature in the case is the association of the 
i wo genera only in that district. This habit sliovdd be"' constant, and' 
furtber investigations *re recruircd to find if it hold*..' good 'in differing. 
localities. ; •• hi . •;;■' i 

^Tt'inay f)t a character willi isolated range, owhui to the special comliticmV 
whichoccnr ae Carapook., The schoolgrwmd is welt plained with trec;£ 
forming an "oasis" in an' otherwise treeless neighbourhood. Despite thia,; 
it cannot be assumed that association occurred due to lack of food, for many: 
of the Red Owns arc full-grown trees, ft may be that the small larvae- 
have sought, tbe large, for,,. protection, am! rest within the shelter of the 
fearsome .outer layer.,, : . -,|,,v „ • • , .■ 

As the larvae doubtfully seek shelter from enemies, and probably do not' 
strive for extra .temperature , at nighvnstne Pcryaa scatter nt/night t<f 
feed, it is evident tu3t the .season for this living m company He? in some-- 
obscure, .^mbiqtic "relationship; each type Of larva Confers a benefit on the" 
other.. Evidently, .£be .r^lprianfirup, whatever it be, ends filter, the larval. 

Usually one species of- larvavinhabits' one food plant. At CarajHtok both 
types were found oti Encdfypttt's rpsfrala. and on £. s ideroxylbri-. "' There' 
may yet be: found further connection between the- fund plants and the in^eds*- 
Which, tend to form. Mnfclc^coJonies. - ^, - _- ... ... 

Errors were eliminated m IW9 by placing the larvae in • their r.ages Wttfc 
also entering the record. on the spot. Furthermore,, the records cover tw 
seasons, several cape* and several repiits, ail with 'e^ncidinjf results. , 

A table comnTJsing a .summary isolated from the- vWjpVsj VvcutOs " jS 
appende'd. ' , ,"', . 



Aurin 



J3iULjuu.iioi.ic, l ! cnis rtf tfw Portland . Qisftict 



m 



-.Experiment; 
Ifct. 

106; 



■ 



no; 



. Tab?.b i» -Emergences ; " '. .*; J, 
1 Pupated ■ • " " • • Emerged. 

: 'P&jfM* •"•"' : ' Pcraatfrapta} 

Pevi,ii only, N f. I m:, 17/3/40 - • ■' 

4/H/J9 > 1, " ' **1 8/3/40 T ' 

' 1 10 f., J m.( 24/3/40 
- V ■ H..- : , 73/4/40 

Pt'tfjayraftta only, ..'■■ r "^ . 



!.; 



Pcraa and t v _ - 
Ptvqagrapta- 
29/10/39 L . 

Pe«fl and 

Tfr<jaarapta t 
to 5/11/39 

r\T#a awl 

Pfrgxtyraplo, ! 

• to 12/11/3.9' 



-4 f. f 1 -in , J 7/3/40 

3 (.. " 18/3/40 

19 L l--m., : 27/3/4Q 

I m„ 17/3/40 
] ^ . 18/3/40 
3 f., 1 m-, 24/3/40 
.5 J'., 1 m., 27/3/40 

16 «.,,2m; 24/3/40 
' 2 1. " •• 27/3/40- 



- 





. - > • 
"■ I * 


1 f., 
Kit 

3 J:; 


29/4/40 

. 5/S/40" 

6/5/40 


(ft. 
1 *•, 

1 f., 

:1 f- 


■ 28/4/40 
V29/4/40* 
6/5/40, 

.7/5/40; 


1 f.,< 

1 f ■, 

2 f>, 

3 f. 


28/4/40 
.29/4/40 
-6/S/40. 

•7/5/40 


1 f.,' 


■6/5/40' 


'■' 





FF.KMS OF THE PORTLAND DISTRICT . ... , 
Ry Cuv*F Bealjclehole, <jorac West, Victoria '• * * 

Although there is nothing, near Portland to compare with the deep, 
.shaded mountain gullies ofGippsIand (or even of [the Grampians, some, 70 
miles north-cast),, a casual visitor to this south-west corner of the State 
■would be agreeably surprised if guided to such a spot as "Jackass" on the 
F'titroy River, Ml Deception. Here grow tree-ierns by the hundreds some 
with fronds of 11 ft/ span, and at least nine other fern species are to be 
iioted hereabouts. • 

Within* a radius of approximately 20 miles from Portland post office 
no fewer thati 22 different ferns have been collected ; of these only seven 
firow abundantly ihrougboui and are indicated by ' art asterisk v in the. 
dialogue which follows. "The remaining species are restricted to certain 
areas; some are rarities, anrTtwo have never been' re-discovered since their 
first" -location in the 1860V at Darlot's Creek by Mr. William AUitt (an 
early curator of Portland- Gardens). "•"-" 

My thanks are due to the director and staff of the National Herbarium 
for many determinations, notes, and -records of previous collectings here. 

. ' Systematic, Arrangement , (with notes) '. 

1. Schisaa fistttJosa—'Camh Fern," ' Although known from the Gram* 
?>lai)s and "in South Australia (Mt; Compass, Clarendon, etc.), Tthis 
uncommon fern is ' apparently a quite, recent '.addirkvM to the flora oi 
Portland. I have located (Nov., 1943)* numerous plants in heathy country 
at.Gorae West, most^of them about 9 inches: high.*- - r 

*2 Gfrichirnio ■mic* r ophytto-^- u Cc>i: ; dft .Fern", (non G, tircinnaia— sy n. cT. 
diciirpa).- For the- four miles along Swan Lake Creek this lacy, tdui able 
.and very popular' fern is most prolific, scrambling to height* flfp* dozen 
feet amongst tile swamps scrub; in places there are millions of '.young 
plants oiity a few ibches high. " ,_ " "«."_ 



1JW BxAitm.FHOtF., fccrns t>f the Portland Pi.strkt ^ vtr CX 

3- ft')W?^A)^H»< cbPrtssif&rw— "Common Filmy Fern" (nan /f. 
tmbridgcnse) . Gathered in Darlok's Creek hy Allitt some SO yean ago. 
I hive not *ccn it there, nor anywhere else near Portland. 

4, Cyatfoa tutttralu — "Rough Tree-fern'* (formerly Alsophitu). 
Extremely rare, for I know oi only two specimens in the whole district r 
the** are both situated in a gorge opening on to the Surrey River at 
Gorae, and the larger plant has a trunk of 7 feet with frond* nearly 
tO feet Jong. The Tecord is interesting indeed, a* it constitutes the 
western-most limn for this species in Australia. 

5- D-ieksonia antarctica— -"Soft Tree-fern. 11 There are only two locations 
now: the place called "Jackass" Ofl Fitzroy River at Mt Deception, where 
specimens range from tiny sporeliiigs to ones with trunks up to 9 feet 
high, and along Surrey River at about 4 miles below the Gorge — here are 
the remains of plants with fairly )arRe trunks, while many youiuj ones 
are growing in the shelter afforded hy Prickly Currant bushes (Cvprostnc 

Tree-ferns (presumably of this, species) once grew in Swan Lake Creek, 
but what were not "lifted" have been destroyed by fires. ■ W. Allitt also' 
collected Uicksonia at Glenelg' River mouth, just two miles this side of 
the South Australian border, and Baron von Mueller m Jimettonc c*vc« 
wC*t ol-Mt. Gwbier, S A,„ as early ax 1S57. 

<j, Cnh'iltfi dubui — "False Bracken" or "Rainbow Fern" (formerly 
Itevallio). Apparently confined to the same gOTge ax GyathdX otttkaUt, 
but extending in large colonies over an area of iev»iral acres; the prwailinfr 
ycllow-grocn colour contrasts pleasantly with the bracken's sombre 
verdure. Heights vary from a few inches to about 4 feet, twt I have seen 
6 ft. specimens. 

?. Hypotepis pvttclala — -Sticky Hypotepiv" A puzzling fern to place 
on account of its variability — I would Say our Artist variable species. There 
arc only two occurrences to my knowledge, viae.; Surrey River. Gorae, 
where unusually big colonies occupy many acres, grid FiUroy River, Mt. 
Deception— fine example* here are more than 6 feet tall. 

8, Hypatepis rnf/nsnla — "Rufous Hypolepis." A .smaller fern than the 
preceding, fronds rarely exceeding 15 inches. I have only one definite 
record — a drain at Gorae West, but unfortunately some nocturnal anjtnaf 
has made hacks and tunnels through the heart ot the small colony, which 
is now on the verge of extinction. (Melbourne Herbarium notifies atr 
Alh'tt collection of H, rngasnJQ from near PortUnd) 
Q,*Liud4aya linearis — "Screw Fern.". After bracken, the inofrt widely 
distributed of all our ferns. Il favours sodden, peaty ground nM occurs 
in mats often under two inchc* high, as a result of which one m?.y easily 
overlook il. 

*!0. Pteridiim aquHMum — "Common Bracken." Inhabit every type of 
soil, the most luxuriant growth occurring at the "Jaekiss/* Mt. Deception, 
where 10 feet high fronds have been measured. Bracken is the only fern 
other than dspUtximn obtusatim to be found on Lady Julia Percy Island* 

II. HistitxpUrit mruo— 'Batswing Fern.** Gorae West and Cashmorc 
are my only records for this elegant pfeuit, Tn each instance it is limited* 
to drain? ! tender, almost translucent uncurling fronds of pale blue-green 
rise majestically to S, 6 or even 7 feet and project above Ihc hanks 1nus 
claiming th^ interest of any passing enthusiast. 

)2. Pttris tmtmt* — "Tender Brake." Observed at Mt. Deception, Gorae 
West *nd Swan Lake, large examples sometimes attaining 6 feet. The 
colowr variation with development through different shades of green is « 
conspicuous feature. 



*»<"] BEAUtt.KiTot.y;, f'nrns of the Portland District 195 

*]$. Adiantum acthiopieim — "Common Maidenhair.'* The largest colony 
I have found is along Surrey River, Goiac» clothing lofty banks at the 
deepest part of the stream Though evincing a 1 preference for damp, 
&hady places, Maidenhair grows also on high hills at Heywood. 

14. Ckeitanthc? tcwmjoUo— "Rock fern.** Here, 3* elsewhere, a very 
hardy species. Acres have been covered on the highest lulls of Oak Bank 
(north-west of Hcywopdj. and the iueged sides of Darlot's Creek at 
Ty/endarra exhibit an abundance of Rock Fern, the plant is a suspected 
stock poison. 

15. Ptllaa fatcatu — "Sickle Fern.*' A small colony only, comprising a 
few dozen plants has been located among basaltic rocks along Darlot's 
Creek Tyrcndarra, 

*I6. Blcchnttm- midiWi — "Fishbone Kern" (non B, discolor of N.Z.). 
Popular, well-known species, with fronds usually }, but up to 5 icet long. 
1 have counted 1S8 pinnules on out-size fronds. Sometimes the develop- 
ment of a little trunk gives 1h*i appearance of tm- ferns in niimaiune; tlus> 
is particularly noticeable 3fter bush fires. 

♦17. Blcehnum eapense— *'Sofi Water Fern." The best examples are 
to he viewed at Gorae (Surrey River) and Mt. Deception (Fitaroy River J. 
In the former locality some >i>ecimens have crown trunks up to 2 .ieet 
high and fronds of almost incredible si*c— 8 feet' long by Z feet wide I 
A handsome form (notably at Mt. Deception) h.is deeply and regularly 
serrated leaflets. 

"18. Dleohttnm proceruin — "Hard Water Fern.'* Practically ca-exten- 
sive with the preceding and nearly as tali, but coarser and rhwomic— tt docs 
not tend to develop trunks. I have also observed this species with deep 
serrattd pinnules at Mt- Deception and Swan Lake Falls. 

19. Atplvuium fiabetlijolium — "Necklace Fern." So far my only record 
for this hardy hut charming little trailer is Tyrendarra, where the rocky 
walls of Darlot's Creek arc inaccessible to rabbits. W. AUitl gathered it 
also at Glenelg mouth. Probably the "Blanlcet Fern" [PIet*ros$rm) r 
which favours simitar habitats, also awaits discovery here. 

20. JjptaiTttw obtu4<th*?n> — "Small Shore Spleenwort." A very rare, 
but most interesting Victorian fern, since it flourishes under the influence 
of salt sea spray. Tlie only State records are Mallacoota Inlet, a few 
islets .off Wilson's Promontory, and Lady Julia Percy Island. The last- 
named location is actually just beyond our specified circle of 20 mites, but 
could be considered as an outlier of the Portland flora ; the exact spot is 
"Fern Cave. Seal Bay, at south end of island." (Shore Splccnworts are 
more plentiful on ihe rocky cliffs oi northern Tasmania and most abundant 
in New Zealand.) 

21. Asplcnwm frracmorsimtr~ u FofU&d Spleenwort." }tfot collected since 
its discovery on Darlot's Creek f3st rentury by AJIitt; incidentally, this is- 
the sole Victorian record for the fern, which may now be extinct jo, our 
State.- It is still to lie. found, in South and Western Australia. 

A, bnlbifrrum was taken by Allitt from the mouth of Glenelg River and 
perhaps may yet be located within the 20-miJc arc around Portland. 

22. Poiystiehum aeuteatum~- "Common Shield-ferc," The vernacular is> 
hardly true of our district, as I have seen only a fetv plants, viae. — ■ at Gorae 
and Swan Lake Falls. Allitt had it from the latter place too. 



ERRATUM 



I. In the previous number of this journal (Vol. <5v\ p. 179) "Floyd" 
should read ''Lloyd*' in the second last line. 



tVutt Nat 
Vol' Sft 

CORRECTIONS IN RECENT .VICTORIAN FERN- 
NOMENCLATURE 

1. Distribution of Aspkninm AmwovMm In Vol. h? o( this journal 
($. 116, Oct., 1940), N. A. Wakefield reports the rare Forked Splccnw»n 
from three localities in SW. Victoria, viz.— Darlat's Creek near Portland, 
Grampians, and Lady Julia. Percy Island. Actually, only one collection hai 
ever been made in this State and is labelled (Melb- Herbrti.) ; "Darlot's 
Creek near the Grampians. Allitt" This information is no donbt respon- 
sible for Wakefield's second record, txJt the source of Darlot'fi Creek at 
Lake Condah is more than 40 miles south-west of the nearest Grampians 
and has no connection, physiographic or botanical, with that mountain 
chain. The third record from Julia Percy Island is obvtousty a mistake 
for the marine tern Aspkninm oblumtim, which occurs tn sea CMes at 
the southern extremity of the islet, 

2 Spelling of JTh/i/o5tuift In placing this genus on our Victorian Census 
(Vict. Nat, t Vol. 58, p. 140, Jan., 1942). Wakefield has followed JknthanVs 
adoption of the letter V instead at' V (see fL Aiui., Vol. ?„ j>. 774), 
but most recent taxonomfsts are agreed on the use of 'V a< in works by 
Domin, Christensen and Hotttum 

3, Correct Citation rot Slkherus fiabelFatns.—In establishing this 
binary (Vict. Nat:, Vol. 00, p. 110, 1943) N. A. Wakeheld was apparently 
unaware that Dr. Harold St. John had already made the same combination 
eighteen months before (q.v. Qa&uonat Papws of ftishop Musrwn, Hawaii, 
Vol. 17. p. SI, 1942) : thus, the name of our rare ovrem Fan FcjPl must be 
Written Slicherns pmlwfaS fR.Br.), H, St. John. 

4 Incorkkctly Laufxied Ficurfs. or Ttttesipteris flarvo and T. aval a. — 
JTJie epithets- appearing beneath Mi. Wakefield's tyj>c illustration of the above 
in Vict, Nal., Vol, 6*0, p. 142. I°44, should he franfposed: the left-hand 
three- fronds are of 7*. ovata, while those on the right represent T. parva. 

J. H. Wiuta. 

THE MUSK DUCK IS NOT "GOOD HATING" 

Were it not that the ftie$6$to Naturalist has such a wide circulation, ihc 
statement in the March issue (p. 166) that the Musk Duck >s *good 
eating'* might t>ass as an amusing example of the mistakes that sometimes 
appear even [n Maid scientific tomes. However, it may prove misleading, 
at some future date, to; someone gathering together the published references 
to this rathtr odd snecaei of duck- Most students of bud*life arc aware 
that, for the pot-hunted, the overpowering odour of the Musk Duck is a 
more effective deterrent than legislation. ■ Mr. V. H. Miller was not likely 
to make the remark attributed to hhu A?, an angler, he is too well aware 
of the persistency 'of the 'repulsive smell to, take a. Musk Duck into any 
residence. Even the practical joker knows better than to "plant" a 
"Musky" in another man's "boat! Briefly, the facts are In answer to the 
President's query, I statci that any decrease would certainly not be due 10 
the fact lhat they were being eaten! The distortion of that simple reply is 
due solely to war*titne conditions. 

> £ - " : *■' '- 2J BCANCKF, E. MtLUft. 

PERSON At NOTE 

At the February meeting oi the Club, Mr. Noel Lothian intimated his 
recent transfer to a northern Army post and the consequent necessity of 
his relinquishing \\*e office of assistant secretary. The President ipakt 
in appreciation of Mr. Lothian's loyal services and extended to htm the 
best wishes of the CFnh, expressing hope that he would find much beauty 
and interest in his new environment.