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Victorian Naturalist 


of the 


in which is incorporated 
The Microscopical Society of Victoria 

VOL. 73 
MAY, 1956, TO APRIL, 1957 

Hon. Editor: N. A, Wakefield 

The statements ami opinions recorded m articles and papers herein are the 

responsibility of the respective authors and do not necessarily indicate the policy 

or opinions of the Club* 

Melbourne : 
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F.N.C.V. Publications Available 

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f^/fi VICTORIAN NATURALIST: Back numbers, volumes, series and 
sets* from 1884 onwards, may be purchased- Hetmeted Honeytatcr Issue. 
November 1933—1/-; Molle* Fowl hsu*, January 1934 — 1/-; Kaa4a hs%t, 
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Detetnter J9S3 — 2/6; Mammal 1st**, March 1954—2/6. 

NATURE'S LINGUISTS, by A. H Chisbolm. A study of Vocal Mimicry 
Among Ibe birds ot Australia. Price, 2/-. 

A CENSUS OF VICTORIAN PLANTS, by the Plant-names Committee- 
of the Club, containing scientific and vernacular names and distribution 
of all our higher plants. Unbound copies cniy atai/o6/< at I/-. 

WE BREED THE PLATYPUS, by David Fleay, 1/-. 

B.Sc. (2nd edition), available uow. Price, 5A 

descriptions and line drawings of all 116 spectes of the two Stales, and 
■with 33 photographs ; a stiff -covered, square-backed book. Price, 7/6. 

by R. A. Hunt. Tells you how 10 recognize them. Price, 2/6» - 

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TAXIDERMY tL. L. Pray). Kow t© Mount BUCv. AMraale, Flah- etc. 41/3/0.' 
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BIRD AWU BUTTERFLY MIRACLES <B. Ackwoi-thV IUtlaL Vi/ij$, p*at. 1/3. 

MALAYAN ANIMAL LIFE tT weedro * JfArrteon). »i|y«t, U /•/**. P0«t, 1/3. 

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WING'S — INSECTS. BIRDS, MEN (B. SUHaon}. IlluaL it/3/6, pott. 1/2. 

AMERICAN SEA SHELLS (R. T. AbtooUL QuWa to Shells ot UiO Atlantic, Pacific 
and Gulf 3bores. Col. ana B/W puia. fT/3/9. pwl. t/«. 

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£ CO>. plataa. 7 maps and 39 half-tone plat?-?. i3/fi/>, po«l. i /r. 

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A KEY TO THE BUCALYPTS (W. F. Bi»k»ty>, description ot W sptolts and ISO 
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Wo JavUe too to- t-oa? In to t*ur BoUto Bmeion "Roco/d A«nAcxvouh" witu 
John UAatcro rsvry TU«Odn7 QlCtkt, 10.30 p.m., SAW. 

Entomological Ptns »r\»l NaturalUts* R«o,uieito». Optical and 3clentfft« Inatna- 

jrepta New and Secondhand Booka^'oO Australia. New ZealAnd -Art, Flint 

L1|er»t , ure,-N£ifcTal History, ttc. 



The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 73 — No. i MAY jp, 1956 No. 869 


The Genera! Meeting, held at the National Herbarium on April 
Si I9$6i took the form of a combined lueferiiTg with the Anthropo- 
logical Society of Victoria and the Frunkston Field Naturalists 
Club. Mr. John Moir f donor of the Australian Natural History 
Medallion, was welcomed to the meeting. 

Upon receipt of a letter on the subject, the Club decided to joi« 
with the Wnrrmcra F.N.C. in protesting against the proposal to hold 
an open season for possums. 

The President presented the 1955 Australian Natural History 
Medallion to Mr. S, R. Mitchell, of Frankston, and spoke of hi* 
outstanding work in the fields of ethnology and geology. Dt. 
Wishart supported his remarks, and Mr. Mitchell responded. 

.Mention was made of the passing of Mr. F, j, Bishop, and 
Messrs. Swaby and Woollard spoke of hid service to natural history. 

The President referred to the display of witdflowers to be ar- 
ranged by the Bank of New South YVales during the Olympic 
Games, and called I'or suggestions from members as to what, wild- 
flmvers would be available in November- 
Mr. W. L. Williams spoke on the Snowy Mountains in winter, 
and .showed a series of coloured slides of the Monaro and Kos- 
ciusko areas under snow. 

Mr. Hugh Wilson spoke on the deputation to the Premier to urgr 
legisiatjoii lor National Parks. The hope was expressed that a new 
bill would ensure adequate dl the countryside and its flora and fauna 
in tlve reserved area*. 

Mr. H. Stewart referred to the destruction in Western Australia. 
in a four year* period, of 10,711 cables and *9,o71 emus, He re- 
ferred lo National Parks, ami urged tltat there should be some close 
reserves which would uot be despoiled with the idea of making them 
available to people. 

Mr. N. Wakefield asked members to show an interest in the 
Youth Movements Committee which Council had decided should 
he re-constituted. He requested that those who had Club copies 01 
the Victorian Nntumhst should return them 0>" inform the librarian. 
for checking purposes ; and that any back numbers of the journal 
not required further by members, should be handed back to the Club. 

Mr Swaby asked the meeting to vote on the idea of holding an- 
nual Nature Shows. This was approved, though one member spoke 
against the idea stating that the last two shows had returned little 
or no monetary gain. 


Mrs. H. Conway. Miss C BmcJe. Miss E. Herbstreit and Muss 
B Pertott were elected as Ordinary Members, and Mr. G. Booth 
an a Country Member. The President welcomed them to the ranks 
of the Club. Two nominations for membership were received. 

Mr. John Bechervaise was nominated bv the Club for receipt of 
the 1956 Natural History Medallion. 

Exhibits included some marine shells by Mr. Gabriel, aboriginol 
weapon* by Mr. Mollisnn and cultivated native flowers by Mr, 

Mr, Wakefield showed (wo torn Brown Flycatcher nests nud one 
of the Black-Faced Flycatcher which had been commented On in the 
April Naturalist, 

The meeting was adjourned at 10.30 p.m. for the usual con- 


This month, the first number of Volume 73 of the Vu:tonan. 
Naturalist- has been printed, and this issue begins with the title 
page of the new volume. The index is to be incorporated at the end 
pf the twelfth part, that of April 1956, so it will not appear as a 
separate unit- It is considered that this arrangement will be an im- 
provement on that of the past thirty vc&ts, when indexes were 
issued a mouth or so after the conclusion of their respective volumes. 

There is usually a preponderance of (>otanieal material available 
for the journal, so contributions arc invited on zoological, geolo- 
gical and anthropological subjects. Papers and articles should be 
typed or written in a clear hand, with sufficient space, between the 
lines and at the margins for the necessary editing. Authors should 
note the format used in the journal, particularly as regards the 
method of printing dates, reference.?, technical names, etc. 

If the journal pleases you, then consider how it can be improved ; 
it it does not, then make shift to remedy the situation ; but remember 
that ? at all tunes, the Victorian Naturalist is what YOU make it. 


At the Ust meeting oi Che F.N.C.V. Council, it war. decided ihat some of 
i)\e Club's social groups should ba revived, particularly the Marine Biolog> 
Group and uerhaus ijtc Entomological Grou|>. The matter will be brought 
l>eforc the forthcoming May General Meeting, ;i:id those who will not be at 
that ineeting and who are interested in one ox the*e subjects should com- 
municate with Mr, J. W. PI. Strong, c/o Legislative Council, -Parliament 
Hou>?, .Melbourne. 

8$] ft* Viootuw NoUirolui 3 


On Saiuntoy, March 3, about thirty people, including: several hkmhUcj ■ o 
the Cheltenham Park Planning Committee and of the Bcamnav-is Tree Pre 
ttrv&tfoll Society, were present to mspcer the projt,res< made up to dale in 
convening ihc Park into a reserve for native flora. The -Mayor d) MooraJ;fjm 
I LV Wishart) aUo attended during the afternoon 

The ViMory of the Park Planning Committee was briefly traced, from 
I&51 when a pitMtc meeting \v.if called by the Cheltenham Progress A.sio- 
cir*;ior. to consider planting the Park with native flora. One map .shown to 
those pttbcni showetl The general layout of (he Park while s w*tofl wiv 
indit:*ied how it \vsLt divided into hundu:d-ioot uquaica. unci now it wa= 
proposed to arrange various grouping aj plartU 

The strips, earl) a hundred feet wide, running parallel to Park Rood are 
labelled b\ capiul letter*, while ihoae running north and south an designated 
bv small letters Any particular scjoare 13 then identified hy u*in£ on*; capital 
and one .small letter, At the corner of earn square there i«; a white post with 
four IffitctS corresponding to those for trie iour adjoining Squares. 

The »*>rst area inspected had been planted &ri September after the removal 
of two largx* pine trees. Some of (lie plants noted to be doing particularly well 
included Mi'ht-tniCti k\ fieri cifolw, Lescfu->tan!tnt t'iloba, Acacia hro^vmi and 
A A? uitfwvmhi. 13ns purly went on to .ftom^ other a^'eas wb^te acc* 
hanksia species are making .spectacular progress, and Bornviu hoferofihylfa, 
Correa rrflc.xa, Pr^sfaHthcrc species, and Kangaroo Paws were seen to be 
doutg particularly wclJ. 

When the party walked towards the western end of rite Park; '.here wore 
many comment!; on the heautv of ihe two ovals. THe.y arc surrounded by 
truck banjo ot tree*, mcludwy Manila Gttni->, Mahogany Gurtis. hate Pluck 
Waules, Coast Tea-tree, Cherry BaKaris, and Cootamundra VVacttes Swamp 
Cuius and Ked Gums were also seen near the Western Oval, and Sweet 
liitr>aria js gmte eonnuoti there. 

While waking ;ntr way hack along a pathway which passes lo the south of 
the ovals, rtc were joiner! hy Mrs. Temple-Watts who lives close hy ar.d 
visits the Park almost every day. BHc has found nine specie* of orchids which 
slid tjrow in the Park, and she was able to fiii/id the cNcursionists much in- 
formation arotit the many species of birds which frequent the area and those 
which art* known to ncrt there. 

Afte? some furiltcr inspection of the planted area, Mr K- Hante moved 9 
vote pi Uipnks for what he descrihed as a very enjoyable and informative 
excursion, and this was carried with acclamation. The great interest ihown 
Ky Itltefi who attended iva? certanily most encouraging to Ihe leader of the 
Ex-cursio.t, tO the Cheltenham Park Planning; Committee and to the Moorahbin 

— A H Bi-(Oo>;s 


At the March mec:ing of the Group. Mr. K. >V. Atkins lectured on the 
^nhjecr of hotatiy He was assisted hy Mr. C. Middletun who showed rnuN- 
v^rse dcctions etc., greatly enlarged on the ftrcov t^ 1 mean? of hi* excel* 
lent projector. Mr. C. Kance commented cm some of his own slides and Uieir 
staining, ihcy being" screened also. 

The Ajinl meeting" wa^ most dtaC&blUl I^^Ot, «'th Mi W Evans shaking 
on photo-nucrORrapiiy,, hoth in black and white and in colour This wa> 
demonstrated in a very practical manner, 

Although not a microscopical suhjeet, the nhowin^ of Kod.'uh/onus of 
Western Australian wildflower*, hy Miss lean VVoollard, was a delightful 
feature of the meeting. 

for the meeting on May 16, Mi\ D, Mdm^B Mil! take the ;uh>ect qli rock 

Microscopical Croup Rft ™f 

L Vet. n 

sections in the realm of Geology. Members are requested to bring along their 
microscopes and some appropriate slides. 

Mr. Mclime* ha* been elected the Group's new leader. following Ihc retire- 
ment of Dr, K. M. Wisbart Tbe future promises well tor gfbllp activities, 
several new members and it number of encouraging enquiries point tr> rising 
interest »n this, special field, 


While the April issue or the I'tctwia/t Nutuxalis! tvas in press, with the 
arlu.l« entitled "The Brown Warbler in Eastern Victoria*', it was ascertained 
ilial tins bud «*•* listed as Victorian it) three places pntn 10 the publication 
of A. J. Campbell's Ait$t$ oihl Eyys vf An-tfr&t-im Binly Thfc references are 
as .follows : 

$*rn Science kvd&Vd C: 61 (11582)— tinder "Oology tn Australian 

Birds" (Part IV). by A. J. Campbell. 
Victorian NnUtralist 1: 66 (August 1884)— under "Victorian Fauna. Class 

II Avest- Bird/', by T, A. Forbes-Lcitb and A J Cctmpuell. 
yittorian Katnmlist 6' S3 (May-June 1889)— under "Trip to Croajingo- 

long", by Professor rtaklwiu Spencer and C. French, F.L.S. 

Furthermore, the bird vva-s known from the Mirrbell River junnJrs Iflrer 
tcrty years a«o. Tt appeared in a list appended to an arlicle, "Bird-life on the 
Upper Mitchell" (i.e. Deadcoek and Bull decks) , by F. J. Thomas. RcT 
Vutor'um NttlnraliM fl< 200 ('February 1912). 

It would be interesting to know who observed the Brown Warbler in Vic- 
toria prtoc 10 [882! 

An error in citation should be. corrected; hi line 31 of jwjrc 185 of last 
inoncli's yictarion Ntitnro'ixt,, "23*" should read "^63", in the reference to 
FJhotfs parser. 

Also, itt the article last month, near the toot ot oa#e I7S, the word "preswn- 
nb!y" was inadvertently omitted- The distribution, as uivcit by Carophdl, 
should read "from South Queensland to presumably Eastern Victoria". 

— N. A. Wakkfirio 


Tn December last, a boy of twelve. Q valued worker at Sydenham, drew 
attention to a spot on Gardiner's Crock, near the Alamein cricket ground. 
The area has never been cultivated and tins bend 01 the creek has so escaped 
trampling as to be almost free from tntrududmrn. Hit;b summer js not -am 
ideal time lor making a census but 33 species are listed. Il is a "Red Gum 
plant association, one beautiful tree dominating the entrance to tbe ground. 

Plants listed are — Common Ma-.denh.Rir, 3- grasses. Ltizula, Lcpifiox^rma 
hucrate f 8 lilies, Hypoxis, Microtis, Sundew, bursaria, 2 wattles, tfossiticii, 
Poranthera, pnnri^a futmifis, P, tnn-'t floro., Red (Jum (seedling), Silky Te.V 
iree. Swamp Faocr-bark, 2 Ualnragis, .Wit era. Centaury, CtoodzmH ovala 
and Leptorrbynchus temiifoUrij. To the writer, ii appears that east has mei 
west when maidenhair and Coodcniu ovuto mcur in the ^aine small area as 
Cassia vitiala and Pimclco carviflom. 

Fortunately the survival is in Camberwell City and whs looked iafp Ai soon 
as attention was drawn to it. About £>00 square yards have been selected for it 
sanctuary. Tbe Superintendent of Parks and Gardens intends lo proceed with 
the fencing as, *oon as x break in the weather make* available the man hour* 
cow being given to watering the City's young trees 

— W. WtfMU 



The Viitoriun yaturalist 


By Rica Ericksok* and ). IL Wuust 


species dQva (ijbK&wds Attdtricitifi', uHercnd*, ob fonriam corolla 
6'. fisiihiftitu K. MuelF. et $ tyiwWff* F, MucH. *<+tc<J*c s*<l 
ditTcn ah utroque statura parvtore. atque modo auctus (wapo 
uitico>: .£. mm'ckoia fotia pauea infra irondem rosuJatnrn ((olio 
quoquc 1*3 4^jtt. lato) JCTii c »us calyx usitale omm'no glaitdulo- 
nUosus lobis obtusis duin petuJa (quanquam bifida) nou late 
lurcata sunt; .9. fissifolmm folia dispcrsa parva lincaria bractt- 
fot'rviia *oluin tert, eiu*. flos S. tiutsrwofn &rrmltiimis scd calycc 
minus trJaodulo-piloso. 

.tmwn tircit«r 7 cjiv nhn. tfto*>ra, mulufloM, <nm*nto albido-hy.ilino infra frimdeai 
msHlataui fo/io ore. 5, tVjsuUta (fttf bislrt cfliiU**, * s*<&ilia, laic ©vm», ore. J njJii 
lory?*. §c&fru* unicu*. iflfW iftubfo rami* qui <ni«Ttfcrc intern* tncipunit, p; part;hus in* 
Cctit/finus pullior. Calyr linearis, nd ftorlt.anem vix 10 mm. lon^iis mm! usque *<l I? tan), 
prolueens, unvnino jjlatiti* pr*lpf plfortlfll p.'Hifonim (ffl.viHthml prope basin luUwuan: 
tubi pfrhrtws, ftctrfi, coruni aUn&ua p&tie usque rtiJ apices cutmactj Loratlr rue /> mm. 
Imm, prUluU, totalis permwMualititts*, uiN»* qpfUd ccOydv lv>* p*mlb lopfput', lpt«r pcula 
Xrttcftorfc profundi Ua WiSMS JXtftt* *jimiia irgulnritf.r fciq fyrc^liu p.iri yptfrior* bifirfo 
ccctto et tr tent em long'futPni* pctuloj OM aMi»r<.mt MVk uUUV^cttli, pdO p\>sU;riure titHilO 
ls:e cxpamtanti crc. £ mm lonitri* faucn 3pp<ntriimL>r prtminiente*, saltan th:;t tVWiatJ" 
vijnm), Ular, obhivx cl illis .?. tofrritfMJA* 1 vinults, sod ylap>1es inacpitialcs nbecPtcs; Ubcl- 
firm rtiHiunini anifitstum (jlt^utltlVU&jUn Pi sm))-tF ;)c tiil»l cmollti' \ii:r;i ior'Kiinim atlticMni 
Calum»a RratiiU, coroll:i circ. ;equilyiiHa. 

A small sUbrou* |.lam, ahoin 7 cm tffelv with numerous fJowers and a 
tnnuparent whitish caul sheathing the stock below the ba*at rosette of leaver. 

Lcovrx about 5, dark yrc-cn, rosulatc at b;i>e ol stem, more or leis K's- 
Ktlr. broadly tJv^K*,, about 3 rHtr?, long Stapt' iiatfb?, H'ith ]HH)ie;oL>i bra>icbcs 
spreading from lather low on the scape, darker in (he lower parts, with 
minute narrow bracrs subtending the branches and ha<e5- r.-l the rlowers. 
Cofy,\- linear, scarcely 1 coi. at rime of rtcwftrlllg, but kngtlienipg later ro 
12 mm. ; lobes very short, pointMl, two of them connate alnu^st to the apices, 
K'iabrous thtoui-hout^pt r'or a Jew gUndu'ar hairs near ll-e oaics ui the 
lobe?. CoroJlti about 6 mm, wide, pale, with vef,v mieciusi petals ; tube a little 
longer than the calyx lohes, mure deeply iuci*od bftw^en the anterior petal*. 
l J cl(it,i all regularly and widely forked, anterior p;nr bii'id, erects ksi than 
a third the length of the other petals; posterior pair bifid, abmu S mm. long, 
spreading broadly. Throat &ppenda<irs prominent, at JeaM 2 ('as far as seen), 
broad, obtuse and nnufar to tho.'-e of S. SchizitttthUm: btlt no margitial glands 
present, Labfthm situated on the outer wtdl of the corolla tube below the 
incifiion, minute, narrow and pointed- Cvluwn slender, about as long as the 

fzfttfhct ; In ath'yion to the tour broadly forked petals 

V&KMw&Hltylh*' Four-prong Tri^ger-pl^nt, 

h'lihitnt On low-lying u-et gTound near water -course*. 

Ri'piwutatwr /aratitics: NOKTI-IEUN 1 'ERUITOIIY — Pine Creek 
(HOLO"i'Yt 3 E in MEL— J, fi. fthtfwm AfiK )^J4. ex Herb. F- \f 
Reader) ; "South to tributaries of MtKiulev Rivpr" (MEL ai\4 K — /?. Tate. 

Xo. as; ?]882), 

The new species it close to 5. pssiloiitwt F. Mnell. and .S*. wjuacolti F. 
\luell. (of the tropical bub£eous AH<?F?fti*ifo) hi tbe fofn-j of its corolla, but 
dn'fcrs it) hwbit of growth — with stn^te, short, nmeb-brauched scajie. These 

J • Fcu-lra". Holgan, W. A»st, 

f Nabor.Ji H^rharmm d Victoria, S, Varrn, Vic. 

Brick son and Willis, A Avte Triygcr-pltml 

rvict. Nat. 
L Vol. 73 

latter species are l;oth taller and larger. $ musckola is sparsely leafy below 
the rosette which is much larger (leaves 1-2 cm. wide) ; its petals, though 
bifid, are not as widely forked, while the ealyv is usually entirely glandular- 
hairy and has blunt lobes. £ fissilobnm hears only small, linear, bract-like 
leaves scattered along the stem ; the Mower is similar to $, nmsckoln^ but 
with less, glandular-hairy calyx. 

The foregoing description is based upon dried, but well-preserved, speci- 
mens which were found among sheets of St\'fi*iiutn sdiiwitlnt-tu at the 
National Herbarium, Melbourne. Living material should he studied, whenever 
available, since it may yield additional data on the throat appendages— so 
difficult to examine satisfactorily in pressed flowers. 

.Siy!nii\tm q nvdnf it n'oT u rt\ $p. iv»v, 

1. H»1»it ul KrowOS; 2- Basal rnselte of leaves, ami she-nth; i. Viewer, iticluclirtR upper 

IHVrliou of calyx. Far cyni|m.riatm — A. Lvarfs ol .V. tiinycKolu F. Mnvll,, 5- Flower of 

.?. ininr'tcoUi i 6 leaves 0* S\ fisiifobum V MikII 


In our "Critical Notes on Australian Styliduicew^ \V\ct. Nal. 72: 131 
( "Jan 1956)1, the following amendment is necessary to the. paragraph dis- 
ctiftsirfg affinities of I.cvenhookm nctoiutitttUtta: 

In second last line of page, delete the two words "non-umbellate inflores- 
cences" and after "petal" (last line) add— "while the two latter species have 
non-umbellate inflorescences " [The flowers of I. h-planthn are decidedly 
umbellate 1 

-R. E & J.K.W. 

The ! r ienrrhn Nahirnfiyt * 


Port 4 Convex Gc«&«6 

R»>k C. Kkkshaw 

Shell* which have their apical whorl* con*** in -outline ire placed in the 
genera di&CUssed. There U a *roui> wilk and out 4 without, apertttral I-amcllac- 

The cho't C of t l*e krni mnves In |.mb.<hl}' -unfortunate, for iru:rr aft.* some 
tonus referred to in this work J5 "plaualc" which in 1act ate a little convtw 
in outline- However, sludy oi the fartu reveyls that some of these shells ac* 
more eletntc in outline that* th? majority. The adjective "convex'* is us-e.d her* 1 
ouJv lo distinguish these elevated twins Irom those which arc "t-Onca^e" 0», 
more or In;.;, flattened MciiiI>cts of the family 1 1 'irisiat>inui\ic arc* snmctimea 
markedly couvcv in CRlUhifi bwt the farm ut the Clwropi/ivt h subtly different 
and not so elevate as those shells which have developed in a, iy comparison, 
dry habitat. 

lc b noiieetihte thai iliir nrnbilicus U rather wide, in the series without 
aprrtural lamellae, whereas it is narrow to irhmtte m the series with this 
feature, \fo<<ovix iu the orst series, the <rul[iiur<- ftNVrtj to hr> rather holit, 
while in the sufonitpei torale, dentate, genus, the- sculpture T3 very fine, 

Series t — Aperture noi ttantore 

/Vr't.ttf^ii Iredale I9.V5 : In hi* fascinating study ol Western Australian 
l.-uid shells Ircdalc (1939). E#Y£ ;i description of this POIUS* lot the l$P$, 
P tit(nuintzf.t Cox 1 86ft. is a Western Australian shell. Points made were the 
elevation, wide umbilicus, coarse sculpture, loose coiling of the whorls with 
<fccp sutures, radially S^ruffC JtpeJE with rho tip smooth, The aperture i; 
rounded, and very uiiiioim among" the vat ions species, the columella is 
gfn-jMllv rather straight. Many oi the species are decorated wicb inoie i«r 
Je*s defined streaks or flames of colour at intervals on the whorls. There is 
:• whole series of species developed hi Tasmania, some of them having the 
umbilicus narrower than the western species. In the essay preceding this. 
growth stages m a Tftsmaman species were described. There h a Victorian 
specie** F- yailiffi Gabriel which agrees with the Tasiuanian, while /'. takc- 
seithMitrifiHritt (rahriet 1947 has some rc*e-mhlaiK-f% tliou^h ti lacks the colour 
tnarktiiRs and the straight columella. 

OUn'il>ution: Western Australia, 7asmania, Victoria- 

SftfAacdin Ire.dalc t?33; These arc fragile shells with smooth nrntor.onch, 
sdull settlptui'e elevated rihs with radial striae crossed ?>> fatiU spirals i*» 
their interstices. Comjure<l with Psmtttfzra the rihbinj* is more elevate and 
wider spaced, while the type, S. tftitwt&fo Mrdlpy 192'1 l»ai blender upright 
bristles on the major ribs. A similar feature de^cril>ed as "loit£ slender poiiiis" 
occurs in tltv only other species yet dcscrihvd. $, nvuhttl<i Hedlcy 1899, whielt 
ts also said to have the spire level 

DurtTihutkm: Mid to northern N<nv South Wales. 

hfuiiufinn liedale 19,19 : These shells, like Feruagera, have a radially striate 
apex w«h the tip .smooth. The adult saiipture consists 0$ strong, distant 
radial rihs, with close radial striae in the mtersuivs ; the whorls are !oo*;erv 
toih'd. the nmlnlteus wde and ravetnons- There is a fCSCmblaivc ,n Pi'iMotH'ta 
hut the form i:; murr depressed than in thai v-cjjus yy^ ly^ ; s /: r?xtift*r 
Itedalc 1959, and there is a subspecies, firmatitttt Fredale, which has sculpture 
of bold ndges- 

Oi^itihiition : Western Ausualia. 

UtiHttctropfi Iredale 1937 ; Iredale renvarked d resemhfattce to DtnJltcrmta 
*»ul wiuicrul the apertur*! looth. There is a depression near the apertuie on 
the last whorl, the sculpture being lemftrlced as hold. The type ii K .rwrww- 
q$sn T.egrand 187t, and Brazier, who provided Le^raud Willi the description. 
j-einarVed the srulptme as of bold stibrugose stiiae. J.atfr Pelterd referred 

* Klrshaw, StKiUcj on Australian Chtivoh'uUc — 4 rvir.i. N«t. 

I V«| 73 

to ihe holt! "projecting out of the ribs" in his monograph. Authors have scmie- 
IsW£8 Iftcfl descriptive terms loosely in the past, adding to the confusion 
inevitable with such tiny shells. Between the ribs the interstitial sculpture is 
finely striata, and the umbilicus is c*ecpt»oivalJy wide. Iredale gave the dis- 
tribution as South Tasmania, but there arc shells from the Btl>C Tier which is 
in the north-east of the State Gabriel has the species from Victoria. 
Distribution : Tasmania Victoria. 

Tht'tkt'lflmevxflr fredale 1934: This genus was introducer! tor V* Usar/ipnus 
PfciJTei* i§6J, a s-hcll which appear* 1o have more affinity with Pacific than 
Australian forms. U BCWfts a doubtful Qiaropiu, and is very distinctive, the 
sculpture being of close radial ribs with a strong secondary spiral; the shell 
is elevate in contour and strotujly keeled. Consideration of this beautiful shell 
'nay he left to the* experts 

distribution: Lizard Island, N'orrh Queensland 

Series. 2 — Aperture Oentofe 

FiiscU&tfL'utt Irednhr 1937 : Iredale describes a subglobosc form with spirally 
Itrale prolneonck, adnb srnlpttnre almost reliculate, minute umbilicus, ami 
outer hjp with two internal lamellae. The type is fi. bitthntjfpn.ut Pettcrd 
1379. The fine sculpture recalls Ov/Mrr/mm/Vi, a Western Australian genus 
with a cenVave spire and narrow timbiheua. The protoconch sculpture of 
spirals combined with the adult sculpture and umbilical features &Ugge&lgd 
Or(OnuiV(i, Mid to a lesstr degree I'ttfomnuh -»nd these are Victorian and 
Tasmanian and perhaps allied. 

retribution ; N.W. Tasmania (Mi. Bischoffl- 

n t >nthevr>na Tredalc 1933 : ShcU deoresserl convex, elevate s-pire. aperture 
dentate; adu'.t sculpture cuars* sharp ribs, interstires with very fine r^nial 
itrfte, umbilicu* moderately narrow ard deep, the protoconch apparently 
raJuifly rib he 'h Tin: aperture of this shell can only be described a* tub- 
quadrate. Tjtir type is D, difpu* tira/ier 1871. which species ha* a small n.- 
tetual "oblong white callus tooth" near thr base of the aperture, a particularly 
interesting and distinctive aliell, 

Dislr ibutitfli ; : Tasmania (Mt. Wellington). 

Our has- ohset ved that where the protoconch sculpture h spiral the sub- 
sequent sculpture- [s generally finr, on the nther hand where the protoconch 
ha»> radial sculpture, stronger sculpture- tends to dominate the adult. The 
family a» 3 whole tends toward suorur sculpture compared with related 
groups, although l.nomid forms exhibit inam similarities- Both spiral and 
radio) sculpture appear to be ancestral at least in -part. but. the tendency 
toward .strong ribbing may he a comparatively recent acquisition. Shells afe 
seen which bavc some interstitial rililets or striae tending to become stronger 
than others. The genera displaying, *nuintli prolocnnch are variously con- 
nected wirli the other group*, one at least has very simple .strong sculpture 
only, other sculpture havinjf vanished if ever present There is a tendency 
fur some aspectr of both adult and protoconch sculpture W become obsolete, 
and the strong- radial.* and perhaps smooth protoconch to t Humph. Fine sculp- 
ture is perhaps a sign of degenerating sculpture, or simply a retention of 
ancestral sculpture 

Cralopa [refold !94li Tile species C. strottdaisis Coy has alreadv been 
referred to in pari 2 *>i <he-*-. studies ( 1955 a), when it was observed rljjtf rhr 
shell differed in torm from the eenus Gyroccchtrx in which Hedley had 
placed it. It was cmliopaieiJ that <?. Hrvudtrnsis vvoiibj be separated and in 
fact this had already hern done. Thii species was designated the type of the 
genus Cralafu ui a work which had not been seen by the writer when pre- 
vious parts of these, studies were prepared, The essential points of dillereuCe 
are the nature of the spire which 15 not concave but very slightly raised in the 

JSjJJ Kkrshaw, Studio* on Australian Charopida — 4 

figure although Iredale describes it as. flat. The shell is smaller than species 
of Gyroi'oehJea, while even more noticeable is the smaller umbilicus. Iredale 
(1941, p. 269) points out that the shell is more loosely coiled, has very fine 
sculpture, white the protoconch is smooth He added a second species, C, 
intense Iredale 1941, from Byron Bay. 
Distribution: New South Wales, 

Letomflla Iredale 194] : l.ctomala was introduced for the species L. con- 
iorhts Hedley first placed in the dentate genus, Hhophodon Hedley. How- 
ever /-. contcrtus differed as has already been noted by the writer, in having 
toil few apertural lamellae, and the sculpture is much finer. In defining 
Lrtomoh, Iredale draws attention to the large smooth protoconch ; sigmoid. 
rather irregular sculpture; sinuate outer lip, giving a distinctive aperture, 
narrow above and broader below. There arc three lamellae, one on the inner 
Up, and two basal on the outer lip 

Distribution: New South Wales. 

Kj-.y to tup. Gfnkra of Group (r) Convex Gk.sera 

Shell with spire elevate, aperture not dentate. 
Apes radially striate, Up smooth. 
Interstitial sculpture fine striae. 
Umbilicus wide, cavernous. 
Primary adult sculpture, close coarse radial ribs - . Pimo/jpra 
Primary aduh sculpture, strong distant radial ribs . Iipimctunt 
Apex smooth 
Adult .sculpture elevated radial ribs. 

lnterslial sculpture fine radial, taint spiral striae. 

Umbilicus wide, ribs with bristles ^etomedia 

Adult sculpture numerous tine curved nblcis. 
Interstitial sculpture absent- 
Umbilicus narrow . . . . . Crutopa 

Shell carmate. 

Adult sculpture radial ribs with dominant secondary spiral. 

Umbilicus moderately wide ThesMowcnxor 

Shell with marked groove above periphery at aperture. 
Aduh sculpture hold radial rihs, subrujjose. 
Interstitial sculpture fine striae. 

Umhihcus very wide (J diameter) .. .. .. , Hnnnoropo 

Shell will spire elevate, aperture lamellae tew. 

Adult sculpture fine rudials, microscopic spirals 
Protoconth spirally lirate. 

Umbilicus very small, almost absent tJischoffcntt 

Adult sculpture coarse sharp radial ribs. 
Interstitial sculpture line striae. 
Shell with spire depressed, apertural lamellae lew. 
Adult sculpture fine close rugose striae. 
Protoconch smooth. 

Umbilicus wide, shallow , J.* f t(^nah 

Umbilicus moderately narrow, deep .... i . , ,, , Dsutheroan 


Iredale, T. (1939) Jounu Hoy, SVft W- Ausir. xXv U938-39) : 1-74, pJ. 1-5. 

(1941) Guide to the Land Shells of New South Wales. Part 2: 

Austr. Nat- 10. i&) : 262-269. Part 3: op. tit, JI (1) : 1-8. 
Kershaw. R. C (195-0 Viet. A 7 nf 71 to), Oct.: y5-96. 
(1955) P'jtU Nat, 72 (2), June: 28-30, 

10 The Vithwm Jj^JmriSN [ Wrt 


By J. B. Clelanu. c.K.h.., m.d. 

to 1*32. Dehnbardt (CnK ti Hort Camahhd. £<«>. 2 40; published fa 
description of E. tuuutiriutttisis The tree was (hen 40 feet high and 10 
years old. (See Reu/.o A&ostitu. "Cemn Stotici SulU lutiodtiXione DegU 
Ewcatiui ill Iwlia" in L'ftoltu f'-ovrstni*: *; Ahm(ona t At\nf> t'ltl, pt$c. rt. A— 
Moyt/io-Giagiw, l?$Jt; i-o). Agostini says that Ure Horteis CauialOulcu^s 
Ufttt situated on the hill oi Vomero (Naples) Pq a charming position henveen 
the hills of Camaldoli and Posillif o and the Cult -of Naples, at l height of 
<tbout 1/0 metres. It was attached to the v* tr 'ctan Country scar ot Francesco 
Ricciarrli, Count of Cama|rJo-li, Agostini sa>< that the garden was thnrt- 
hved and all the coralypt* rn it have completely disappeared since about 30 
years ago when the majestic trees of the first planting, nearly 1 00 year* 
"Id. were cut off. {Transition by Mrs. ZirmrMUei, Univeivty Library. 

Jn Dulntharill's Latin description. the operculum is given »s cnuioi- 
acuminate and equalling the calyx Now one of the most striking feature* 
of £ rostrattr Schlceht., the one vvlucb gave it its tpecihe name, is tl»e bt*li*xl 
appearancr o* the operculum. It is true that on occasional tree.\, this 
piiched-m *ir tc»ked appearance may not he manifest Every tree on the 
plains round Adelaide- has probably a rostrate operculum, but trees occur 
in the north or South Australia, with buds which are conical. The iititt i& 
merely called globose with no mentton ok the valves. 

The flowering period is givco Ihus: Nov. Holl., Flor. Sep Oot. (tpiottng 
Maiden) "E. rostmkt" in my experience flower* only between the end of 
December, in jamjar) jnd ■» February 

Dehtihai-dt S&&3 that be received it -under the name of ti. pcrstafotui. but, 
receiving the true E ptrsn:ijt>lui later, he perceived a great difference and lu: 
coulil nut approach it to anything eJae. ti, pvrmctfofTa DC is jpven fcy 
Dial <\- as a synonym of the BhtcWbult, E, pitnfarti. This. r£ course, at 
once .stw^csts that lb* s,eed came from New South Wales Where eoutd the 
seed of tftjs cwcalypt, planted in Italy in 1H2J, liavc come from, it it is 
indeed the same species as E. rmtruttt Schlceht and h. Ummrtsihis F 

En 1825. trie only parts of AitftaaHft where the specie* grows that had 
been visited were Kangaroo Island {Robert Brown, Baudm — 1B02), the 
head of Speuccr Gulf and Mt. Brown (Robert Brown, 1202). Port Phillip 
(Grimes aud Fleming. 1&0J> and the western pitting of New South Wales 
(Cunningham and Fraser. Lajchtan near Comfobnltn, 1817) 

The o»|ly jfoce On Kangaroo UUitd where E. canurfduh-nsis crows is on 
the Cygnet River, even close down to its exit to the sea. Mr, H, M Cooper 
the authority on Ihe South Australian part of the expeditions ol Flinders 
ami oi Bnudin, assures mr that niemhers of* these did not visit the Cygnet 
River or its imrnediate neighboorli^KJ, The hods on these txec/s $r»4 
character istically rostrate, Robert Brown was put ashore from "Investv 
Kator" probahly a 3 i trie north of Yaiala Harhour and made directly for Mt. 
Rrown, some fifteen unk-s away, across the. plain between the Flintier? Ramre 
and the <ra. Variou* creeks emerge from the Flhidcrc Range and cross, this 
plain, <oiue fading" cut as they do so. though Ihe plain is only about ten or 
twelve miles wide at its widest. Mr H. M. Cooper of the South Australian 
Museum, and Mr. A. R. R. Htg£inson of Purl Augusta, who know ttyb 
h>caiity well a»:d have studiod Ihe probable route taken by Robert Brown, 
were at first doubtful vhether al»e latter, making a straight course for the 
tiM>unlain later named after him. must inevitably have crossed over one 
of Ihese rreeVs, though he must at least have seen them ncn far off. However. 
a special seatch by Jvlc. Hiegin^ou near the iooi Dt the range revealed a 
small creek emerging near Horrocks' Pass which it seemed Robert Qrowo 

ui!$t fi'iumly have crossed, a ercvk J had Djryseli crossed Mine mcnUlW 
previously, wFien I can* to the came ronelu. c .ion Buds of Red Gums (ttJ w 
were i)-pica*l_«* roitrato, -Mr, Higginsun collected for n>c a number of *air.|iks 
m l<ed Gntm from lTiia arra «p tq Ok* PiUln-RiTcht Paw and amongst these 
diCte win -one at ic-ast whose apercula were not rostraie but resembled thcae. 
h\ LVhnhardT's specimen*. Red Gurus H Baroot?, further ssuith, all had 
ffotrfltc blftjl as far as t examined them 

In 1803, some months before lie arrival of Collins In "Calcutta'' in 
Ocwber, Governor King had iCili Acting Surveyor-General Grime* win t 
gardener Jarrjcs Fleming; W ^^4lfc ftnirfd Pori Phillip . to examine the* 
soil, timber, etc.". Dunne, this ;jere^n nation they discovered the Yarra. ant: 
Iteming iu hit report concluded that 'The most eligible- place fur 5 Rllfc- 
ntcfit that J have seen is on the Freshwater River". i.e. the VarCft 
[A.NZ.A AS Aligns! JQi?- j?tj- /i. rosinun- gtyw on the Yarra. tt u 
barclly likely That hteunryr collected seed of it which inund its wa> eventually 
'v.. State 1 

Ida, in Early Explores in Austraih (Y)2o) has inihlis-hcd Allan 
Cunninghams Journal, tietwecu April 20 and May \?> 3-917, he travelled 
iron) Bathuret to Farewell Hill. On April 25 they made lite Lachlan River, 
probably somewhere rw.11 where Condol.iohn now tuands. lie writes (;> 190) 
"its hantt$ a.r« very high and clothed with Joity timber ot a apectc< of 
Eucalyptus, commonly denominated Black-hutted Gum 1 footnote, presumably 
by the Editor. liiurolyphis piluhitis) , inrlivur.R inward so ss to form in some 
places a kind of atch. with tlte head:; oi the trees r>f Ihfl saints species- on 
the opposite hank. This is obviously the ttiver Red Gunu many old trees 
c*i which havtj a routth dark ban* 10 die trunk-. I?g identification hi the 
footnote a* Ii. pihtliiris, a coastal species, is an editorial assumption based 
on Ihc popular name gtvttl lo it by Cunningham, who purely cannot have 
evanuncd the fnuts. Under the date 27th (April), Cunningham writes, '*I 
Visited 1lt<: rocky fulls on the left kulk with C, Fraber of the 40th Rtigtij who 
had been sent i* one of out panv, in order t" torn) a separate collection of 
?;eeds and specimen* for Earl Baihurst". Vow Dehnhardl says ihat he 
received the s»*eti from which he ^.rcw fc. ctvnoidvteitris a* that of li. firr- 
.<ii 4 tji'(iii whirli is I syiiOnvtn for £. pi! Harris, 3 think llit-refuTe wc can infer, 
with paosiiTerahle confidence, that the seed came either from Allan Cuiinints- 
ham or from Chatk? V'cnScr, and that the mother irtc grow ^o»ticvhcK neai 
Co)%ioholin on the Lachlan. 

T|ten? 1* further e^idi'-i-ee <o ?u£geit ihar Fra*»er collected the seed Ml&s 
\ T anry Burbidge, whilst at Kew in 1954, kmdly examuied l-)<hnhardt'5 
C^ulogue, « copy of which is- in the British Mn<.emn (Natural History.). 
She noteii that te the list ot plants were four Western Australian ones, 
JUtOtH cWtffl< A. flH/ri <'<]*)■£, DidwilS C&ftldwCH£ atvtt /?(,n^'i-iiJ ^<i(Y»U(> ( 3, "Mt>W 
m ]827, Charles Frasw, now the Colonial Botamsl, vfiuirc the Swan River 
in H.W S Success (Captain Jarrtf* Stit'liny)* The shiu culled in at King 
George Sound pT\ the return journey. If the Western Australian seeds in 
the Hortus GunalduJeitsis <amc Ooin Frtmer, Uw> WOrtjd ftjw (htm less dian 
five years In grow and flrw.'eT fff they had flowered wl:en The catalogue was 
prepared) * Jnwi scenvs r;uhcr slion tor Ihuthsin tuwriifCu' Tlit only otheT 
\Vesttrn Australian c.ollcctori would he Roherr lirown and Meiuies with 

Mt*\ fJurhid^e w;u pvuzlexl over /• divcrstjolh Bonpl. bcinq one of Iht 
euuilynts in the e-aMlogue hut this was ^town in Huropv irom seed t.vllectcd 
hy Baudin's Mxpedition, cvidendy from Kangaroo Island. 

Jf II v>^re possible to ascertain where the teed* went to that Fraser sent 
w Karl BaihuTst in 1817, die ^rdution tu ihc problem would prohahly Tie 

* S»»" ' Tht vuU of Chj^es Tr^utT 1 to the Tivct in Ift'J?, wilh liis 0\>it>iou 
on the isiiiiibtciiys^ uf i5ic JUiuct iot II sclUcmnu, iojjoiIici w|e|| Boaiptfl i^rfrtl tn* /* 0. 
Ha> j invbhWjl »»)■ ), G. Ha*, 19U6. Jt«t| Wore iht West Auslruliun N;*f.trj1 H,: , 'f. 
.Society— i«>lK Match 390fi. 

12 O-ECANO. Eucalyptus «imat<iute>tm l^YaL™*' 

clear. £axr Bathurst was Secretary tor War and the Colonies from about 
1312 to 1827 when he became LofO President of the Council (1828-30).^ 

To sum up this aspect, the evidence seems strong that the seed oi i:. 
coma.ldnltnsis came frutn the Lachlatl near Cuttdobolin and was collected by 
Charles Fraser. 

Now as regards The photograph of the type eivwi by T. G- B Osborn 
in Iht* Proceedings of the tinman Society a) New South Wales (Vol. 62, 
1937, Pts. 1-2, Plate IV), Maiden identified the lype i« the Vienna Hcr- 
baiium in 1902 as E rostrate. Why did he not implement his identification? 
He seems to have had no doubt and Mr R H. Anderson, Chief BoUnin 
and Curator, National Herbarium, Sydney, assures me that he has no 
doubt about the identification The buds of nearly iff, but not (flrft* 3tl t of 
the River Red Cunis, hi localities lhat could have been visited before 1322, 
-lie markedly rostrate even in the early stage. The \>wU deputed in the 
photograph are conico-acuminate, but not rostrate. No one intimately ac- 
OoVuiccd wdh the Rtvcr Red Ouiu would at first siKrhi recognize it from 
the photograph, 

1 have been m cot re^pondem-i- with Mr. Anderson and have his permission 
to <|«ole from hi* letters, as follows- 

"We have given a good oral of consideration to the nuestton of the correct 
name for the River Red Gum, This ha.\ involved a review of ttit whole range 
ot sanation within the specie* and the distribution 01 the vanou-s forms- _ 
The River Red Gum include* a mimhcr oi more or less intergradintj ge.o- 
graphic and ecological races, but all of these arc readily distihguUhed, when 
unaffected by hybridisation, I row other red Rum species, providing complete 
material iff available. The fruit shape is characteristic, and it iv. unfortunate 
that the type of fi. ctiman1nleusKf was devoid of fruits. The bud shape shows 
a certain variability, but in most areas the opercnltiut is fundamentally 
hemispherical in outline, with a beak-like process which may vary con- 
siderably in length, being almost absent in some forms, (The shape* of 
both buds and huits are very constant on any one tree) However, trees 
may be found hi which the operculum li more elongated and these are 
especially common m two area* The first of these is |n£ marginal Jtonc at 
the eastern limit oi the range of the River Red Gum, and the more conical 
operculum hcrv Ketns to be always correlated with certain features oi 
juvenile and mature leaver, pedicels and fruit shape which appear to indicate 
hybridisation with F htoktfyi, 11. IciciiLftrni.i and occasionally H. dcnttKtta. 
To other words, these trees arc not "pure' 1 Raver Red Gum. The second 
area includes the Barrier Range area of New South Wales, where two 
d^mutiv^,faA4irt--at— Rivia^Rtd-Guii) -occur, alou^U small, creeks In one o* 
these there i* a decided tendency to a more conical operculum not associated 
with any indication oi hybridity. 

''As well as these, however, occasional trees are found in other areas 
(fg. on the Lacblin River around Condobolm. NSW 1 ) which *re quite 
characteristic River Red Gurus, but nevertheless have a rather conical 
operculum. In these cases there is no evidence of hybridisation and the trees, 
seem lo be merely individual variant; . . 

"The specimen is an undoubted red gum (leaf-ihape, venation, inflorci* 
eence, bud>). It ts not a River Red Cum oi the most usual form foycrcula 
are more conical). It has no fruits or juvenile leaves. It has long pedicels 
>nd is not a good match in general appearance for the n>ual River Red Cum.' 1 ' 
The b»»ds are immature, but couW agree unite well with boiuc of the forms 
with conical ontTcula mentioned above, but would not agree with any other 
ml gum species, 

'There is no doubt thai the trees described by Cunningham as arching 
OKr the river were River Red Cum Many old trees alonjr I he Laclitan. a> 
•*lor\e ollici inland stieams. do have a considerable jimount of old rough 

* Other red ft"" ftjrWIifci 

!-;jri, at the hutt So far as we cau tell the treed flower in December awl 
January, but fairly vecH-dcvelopcot buds have been collected at ^11 seasons. 
Fruits, of rourse, are available over a considerable penod- 

*The only oiher species in the Condnholin district which would lie liVceK 
to hybridise with Rivcj Red Gum 15 /;. dt&Hfata (and related forms). How- 
ever, these are sjtert-jitd&i'lfod forms And hybrids with River .Red Gum 
wotdd nut resemWc the lorty-pediceJJed type spetinieii <y( & i&Hwtdulth&s ' 

Mr- Anderson also writes ; "From the photograph it appeal's to ur- that 
tlie buds of the type are markedly immature The sha|»e oi the operculum 
dm-i riot really seem so very different from fairly normal River Red Gum at 
certain immature stage*" 

We add'' further: "I feel, however, (hat it US. taniaMulcitsi?) 15 "best 
reiitned as the name for the Kivev Red Gun* unless u can he shown thai 
the type does not fall within the ambit of that fperick Whether the type ia 
leprescutaiive of ibe mas' usual form t> ivomeiiclatonally irrelevant 

Nearly all the RireT Red Gums in regions accessible hcJore 1822 have 
markedly lOslratc buds. These buds, in the neighbourhood of Adelaide, for 
instance, take a long lime to mature. Next season's rostrate hiids may be seen 
soon After the link of fioweriog. What « the sigipfteaUKe of meeting with 
occasional tree* in which all the buds show practically 110 rustratiort, whiKi 
all olheis »ti the neighbourhood are rostrate? 

Proie>Jor D. G. Caichoudc has kindly sullied The fdllowfeltf paragraph 
''The irituatr-jn parallels in a striking way die clnu\ variation seen m species 
which have been subjected to expeninenlal analysis ( floiihtgo woritwm Sort 
A*\illea nttUiiohtitn) h is accounted for by the different yeno frequencies 
in different poptilatioiu* showing a fairly regular trend in relation to yeo- 
graphical distribution Unknown factor* of natural Lr3$ctlf>n have brought 
about this regularity, which might be correlated wi4lt depree of aridity." 

As we proceed north in South Australia, the sucker leaves tend to become 
broader and more glaucous I tin* appears even in the northern Flinders 
Ranges.) aiM the oud> tof* their rostra** appearance- Specimens I recently 
collected (IS54> in the Musyravc Ranges and on the Officer arc broadly 
Inn shortly conical. The same appearances are found ill the MacDcnncil 

AnolheT factor of interest is thai many of* the River Red Gums must be 
\try old. some probably a thousand years old. EfVorii are UetOg made to 
ascertain the age by taking wood from the intact centre oi very large trees 
and seeing what i? the relation of CI4 to C12- If fl young Kiver Red Gum 
can .-set seed in ten years, it nuyltt aive rise tr> ten generation*.; in a hundred 
vears 01 '00 in a thousand years, 1 suppose nothing unusual would haj/pcii 
if pollen liom such a young tree, 100 generations removed from a neighbour, 
fertilised the latter After all. the River Ked Gum on the Yarra must have 
been vcmpletcTy separated from those round Adelaide for many thousands 
ot year*, yei no difference can be detected 

To sum up. where does this lead us? I£. carfHiftluU'Hsis probably came from 
the Lachtaii. It is imlil&c the common southern River Red Cum in not being 
rostrate. Jt is cither a mutant ur a hybrid of the River Red Gum. Can a 
minor rmu;oSon he sufficient to establish a variety? If $0, Hie common 
southern River R&J Gum initfht be called /:. en nut hinh' n.-nV var. {cn*)tro£tris. 
Rut this perhaps wtvuld he carrying things io an eMretne ft )- ob\ious, 
however, that it is a pity the name was. ever revived, <incc there, n a 
pOisioiliTv That ii is n bylind, ft wi:tdtl be uitcrcshni* to knuw ivhether a»y 
of its progeny survived and what thev were like. 

/IJtUti tilth;,— Professor Calcheside. *k.s, ha* %\v&\ me permission to 
iikcludc tlic fullowiitg elaboration of the paragraph by him included in the 

"It is common experience that when a widely, or even narrowly, ranftni^ 
ajiteies is analysed eeiieucally it is ii>mu\ to show very considerable genetic 
diversity. In particular, if the frequencies of allelic £eiics arc determined. 

H Ctt.i.ANJ\ Jiucaiyptus carnal di*lenw LvSl «a 

t! is fo>iiii;l Out the population* in dffferdil |.i.v ts of the aiea have charac- 
teristic local gene frequencies. The blood group gene? in humans provide 
* very good example, which has heat studied in great detail. The different 
rsene. frequencies are pretty certainly produced by local selection presumes 
and frequently show a topographical, or .'.ometunes ecological pratlati-in in 
frequencies from one part of the area of distribution to another. Now this 
is likely to happen )o» ah* • the diileieul genes in the mating group that 
constitutes a species, and it is therefore likely that gradation in chara-rfcr*. 
*oniftimcs with mixtures in local populations, will show as one traces a widely 
ranging species from one part of its tauee to another. This is, I tmlik, what 
yen have, in the. hud shape anfl in the shape and rolour of leaves of sucker 
shoots in the River Red Gurri* 

The genetic nature of such clinal variations in character har- heeu demon - 
*t rated iu mo=.t detail for P latitat) o mi* Uinta (by Crrgr.r, 1&38-9. V«tl 
Pkyh'toijist 37: 15 and $ki 29£) and for dclrilJea n/iffefotiuM- and relatives 
•'by Clausen, Keck and Hicsey 1948, (urni'ific Inst, td IV ashing ton, Pt+iitica- 
lion iVo.t-V : 1-9). Jens Clausen has published a book entitled Tkt: F::\tUt)icn 
oj I'tout Sfccwx (Cornell University I'ress \%\'\ which jgivffil a nummary 
account of this kind of experimental taxonomy." 


Trapping is a common methyl of controlling the rabbit eest. ifrwui time 
*o tjmc traps are vtsilfd by wild domi'stic cat*; however, in this instance 
b:rds were the culprits. On several occasions partly devoured rabbits were 
iCnKid, but when the MUiply gave uul the thief biitiselt was caught and proved 
to lie. a l.ittlo Falcon. Releasing him was a problem, as he was far from 
friendly. At a later date partly devoured rabbits were again found firJKl the 
hawk family suspected. However, the new* thief also managed to trap buuselt, 
and proved to he a hoe Tasmauian Ma* krH Owl. Thi* chap was approached 
rather warily, the pervious experience still uesh in mind. But to my 
astonislluieat *ikie bird lay over, partly on its side, while its leg was leteased 
and lined from the trap, the great eyes watching every move. The lt£ was 
lacerated, but otherwise isp damage appeared to have been done; However, 
instead of flying off the bird walked away a few feet, then turned to look 
back After gating at me for the better part or a minute, it movrvl a few 
more feet only to stop and jra*e back again. The process was repeated 
perhaps hnlt-a-doxen times before the bird vanished into the bb$l . t 
wondered whether ii wa* suspicious, but hoped it was ^raiefuL 

— Kon. C Km shaw. 

fM.C.V, Excut&ions: 

3uiv1ay. June 3 — Rolany Croup evcmsion to Open On, "Bacchus Marsh. Take 
8.40 a in. train to Bacchus Marsh irom Spencer Str-vct- Bring, rwi» meals, 
and thermes if hot drink is required as fire* are tiol permitted. 

CrOup Meetings; 

(8 p.m. at National Herbarium). 
VVrYlnesdny, May 1{.> M ictOSCOpical Group 

Wednesday. June 6 — Cieologv (iroup. Subject: Origin of coal Speaker; M>, 
A. A. Baker. 

NOTICE Foi iht next three months the Botany Gntup will meet 111 I Satur- 
day •itternoons a; th? National fferbarium, at Z p.m. The nest meeting 
wdl l/eoo Saturday, May 19. Subject. Carnivorous uiaub. Speak**" MY. 
K\ \V. Atkins. 

— Marif Ali.f>je>e.*-. Excursion Secretary 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 73— Nc. 2 JUNE 7, 1956 No. S?o 


There was a full attendance at the General Meeting of the Club 
at cite National Herbarium on Mav 14- The President extended 
the sympathv of the Club to the Rev. H. M, R. Hupp, of Sydney, 
following the passing 01 his wife, and to rhe relatives Dt the tate 
Mrs. E. £. Peseott 

Honorary Lite Membership certificates were presented to Mr. 
aiid Mrs. Freame, who thanked the Club for the honour bestowed 
on them. 

Mr. Tarlton Rayment delivered die presidential address on 
Dimorphism in Halictine Bees, Mr. Swaby thanked the President 
for his outstanding address and sng'ge.^te.d that if should be pub- 
lished in the Naturalist, 

Five new members were elected: Mrs, K. M. Bow den ami 
Messrs. S. J. Wilson. R Byrne, G. Q. Francis as Ordinary Mem- 
bers, and Mr. W R. Gasking as a Country Member. Four nomina- 
tions for membership were receive/1 

The Kditor reported that Miss Phyllis James, of 22 Grosvennr 
Street, Abbotsford, -was now supplying natural hisLory material — 
minerals, shells, ethnological objects, scientific hooks, etc. Mention 
was made of the Clnb badges which are for sate at 4/- each, and 
particulars were given of the two wooden bookcases or cupboards 
to be disposed of, 

Mr. $waby reported that Messrs. Garnet and Hooke and he had 
met the. sub-committee of the Sir Colin Mackenzie Sanctuary and 
discussed a proposed nature trail in the area. The Club was asked 
to help map our the trail, supply labels tor plants, assist in mam 
tenance, and do some research into the possibility of establishing a 
larger trail in the Coranderrk area later. The Club agreed to this 
and authorized the three persons to deal with the matter. 

The President reported that the Bank of Slew South Wales b;id 
approved of his designs tor the wildflowet display during the 
Olympic Games. Mr Geo. Coghill invited members to visit Mono- 
Ttteith Avenue, Canterbury, to see the autntnti display of the 
Quercus paiu.\trij Miss Wigftn conveyed greetings from Sydney 
naturalists to the Club. 

Exhibits included alpine flowers ( Miss Wool lard) ,. growing 
plants of Rock Quillwort, IsoiUcs Imtniiivr, collected near Tum- 
borumb4, N.S.W.. in May, 1955 (Mr. Wakefield), an Emperor 
Gum Moth cocoon on a marrow plant (Mr Coghiil) ; and a remark- 
able array of fungi (Mr. and Mr. Mollison). 

the meeting adjourned at 10 p.m. for the usual conversazione. 


U- The I'lcttrnm x\'<tturtthst Vol. ?3 


A* the General Mcctiuq tfl the Club on (\tti il 0. 1$5& the loilowing nomina 
|iqiu wer<* received for Club Officer^ aikI Onmcil iVir JQS6-7: 
Piesirieul. Mr. A J. Swnby. 

Vkc President* : Messrs. r- Lewis and YV L. Williams. 
Hon assl Secretary Mrs, F. Oitis 
lion. fCrlwir; Mr. N. A. Wakefield. 
Hon. Assist fcdiior . Mr. A. B. Court. 
Hon Irvisurer ^Ir A. C- Hcoke. * 
Hon. Avst, Treasurer; Miss M. Dutcharr. 
Hon. Librarian: Mr A Burke. 
Hon. A*&t Librarian- Mr. tv D. 

Hon. Escursioiw Secr-etai v : M{i3 M A I lender. £ 

Council . Dr. R. M. Wishsrt. Dr W. Ceroe, Vr J R. Can*!. W K 


On Sunday. Oct*. her 30, four members attended Ihc Botany Croup pxcui- 
sum to thr Tallaroiik Native Plant Sanctuary which was established ,onie -iix. 
years beiorc. A( the lime, in l!fW, there had been no fire tluoiifh <he urea 
Hie many year*. And now u. Stable natural Iffltaftffl has linen attained 

Flic sanctuary is lightly wooded 1 it \$ of poor wW formed ol dtwumoObeiJ 
.'nlurian rock, and it lops a slight rise. From outride the fence the cxrw- 
SioOists could see a wide variety oi plants. Orchids were abundant and 
included two-foot spikes of Scented Sun-orchid, the Tiger Orchid and ihc 
multicolored t 1 'ringed Spider-orchid. 

The uuder^iowth was a medley of low bushes — pale yellow Wedge-peas 
(Ct>»t.t'hfllt>hiu,iit hitcycli), three species of Parrot-pea, two Guinea -flowers 
(HthOcrtio Strict a and H. linearis), and the delicate purplish-blue Finger 
Flower. Amongst the shrubs was a tangle of Stucktwnsin, Running Postman, 
Yarns. Goodenta^, ami a oiauge form of Why Buttons. At ground level, 
hundreds of seedlings — mainly Parrot-peas — were struggling through « mat 
oi Pennywort (HyttrocvtyU 1 to.rtilont). Vaiiablc Stinkwced. Watcr-btuioru. 
Contmon Cup- flower and Matted St John's Wort. The only introduction, 
Shell Grass, is apparently tolerated by native Mora, the Inlter growing vigor- 
ously in association with it- 

Those who doubt the advisability of sudi enclosures should visit Tall.'irook 
in early or rnid- spring. They would he impressed with the value of sanctuaries 
— un roadsides, in schooU;Touiids, 011 private properly and especially on 
otherwise useless land — lor the preservation ami display of our native flora 

K. W, Atkins 


The purpose of the Club Excursion on May 13, I95b 7 was to inspect (he 
impressive hut little known Wilhelmina Falls. These falls lie 00 Falls Creek, 
a tributary of the Mutrmdindi River, which is in turn a tributary at the 
Yea River. They are readied front the Yarra Glen-Mount Slide- Yea Road 
hy turning: h> the light off the main road about lour miles from Glenburn. 

Approximately 50 members ami friends were in the parly and appreciated 
rhc sunny day after the ruin and wind 01 the day before. From the parlour 
curs, cxlemive views over the Yarra Valley were obtained as the road climbed 
the Great Dividing Ranfte. After a brief spell at the lop. Ht. Shclc the cars 
took the road down through the State Forest, crossing rat) recrossiiig Uic 
Yea River Till the cleared country near Glenbum w&J reached. The branch 
read also proved attractive and. the shrubs on the fride of the road srjive 
promiM. of even mocc beauty when flowering. Some of the bush wattles were 
:Uill in bloom and (here were occasional patches of heath- 




« J 

Tullnrook Excursion — 7°.*>5 


Lunch was enjoyed in the sun on the tanks of the Murrmchndi River, The 
foot track which used to lead across the stream had been washed away, hut 
thanks to the forethought of Mr. Haase and the work of Mr. Mclnncs, a log 
art-oss the stream was converted into a temporary bridge. The track, when 
located on (he other side, was reasonably clear and the majority oi' the party 
reached the falls. The track wound up through the Wrote*, striiH^yhark, pepper- 
mint :;nd gum. Some large patches of fungi attracted attention with their 
\^iious and unusual colours; one bi£ |>akh of purple shades being particularly 

The feature oi the falls is (he breadth and length of their passage over the, 
broad tares oi unbroken granite and their location on \viu\ i'rom the bottom 
appears lo be the top of the mountain, the upper portion of their catchment 
being hidden from view- These features were appreciated also by those who 
decided not to try the climb but strolled further up the road and saw the 
faffs from a bend about a nrttlp away. 

Return to the city was rnadr via Toolangi and T Iealesville. 

— R. G. Hemmv 


At a well attended meeting, Mr. D. Melnnes occupied the Chan for the 
first uigbl of his new term or* office After the conclusion [if th* 1 business, he 
demonstrated his versatility by delivering a most comprehensive discourse on 
Geology in Kock Sections". There were some ten microscopes on the bench 
and Mr McTnncs used these to illustrate his poiuts-^oii cleavage, twinning, 
pylart2alion 3 etc., by showing his owu'yj iwjhigs flEtlll mountings. 

The programme committee has arrayed a »yHphu* for several months 
ahead, as set out below. Other Club members are especially asked to noiO 
the July 18 date and arc cordially united to attend- 
June 20 — Mr. H Barrett: "Some Oamaru Diatoms". Illustrated with photo 

slides of specimen^ by Mr. W Ryans. 
luly It! — A4r Tarlton Rayment "Incidence of I'oiJen Grains of Heath on 

Creative Evolution'*. Members lo provide microscopes to show the 

speaker's .specimens for study. 
August 15— Mr. E Snell : "On Mounting Opaque Objects''. Members to 

make the evening a showing of opaque slides, 

FN.C-V, ACCOUNTS, 1955-56 

Purchases — - 

First instalment of books 


Sales . . 


Blocks for illustration of 
books . . . . . . . . , 

AdvL'itisinjj nruUer .. .. 

Stock at date. 

valued at cost £*5 

Balance of order, printed but 
not yet delivered, taken 
at printing cost . , 

Credit balance transferred to 
Building and Contingen- 
cies Fund 








(Figures adjusted to .the nearest £) 




9 8S4 






Subscriptions received — 


Current . _ , 

Life Member* r -, , - 

Safes of Victorian Naturalist ..• 
Advertisements in Naturalist . , 
Interest received— Library Fund 
Donations received ,., 









ictoriun Nufumfist- 


Illustrating' .... 
Despatching , , 

Working Expenses — 

Postage and Telephone . . 
Pruning and Stationery . . 

Duplicating ... . . ., 

General Expenses , 


Donations and affiliation fees 








Total payments (or the vear , 

.Surplus ot Receipts over Expenditure tor 
the year . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ . . 






1 Previous 




























Purchase ol Orchid books , . , I\ 

Bank charges , 1 

Amount of Fund at 30/4/1456 J403 


Amount of Fond at 1/5/1955 .. r ', ,, 
Sales of Victarktn Naturalist .. .. .»_ 

Credit balance from Fern Hook a/c 

Sales of other Publications and badges 
Interest on investments ,.,...,,. 








9 r* 


£36 I 

±35 Balance in Bank on 1/5/1955 
] Interest on current account . . 


Taken into .subscriptions oi this year 
Balance in Bank on 30/4/1956 ,, .. 














BuiidsnR and Contingencies Fund i 1 40ft 

Bank Current Accounts , . .- 

* - 




Dudley Best Library Fund . -»., 50 


Arrears of subscriptions, estimated fr> 


» ♦ . - 



Subscriptions paid in advance — 

Sundry Debtors 





Ordinary .r 505 

Stocks on hand — ■ 


Life membership „. 20 


Fern Books, at cost > » ■ . 



Publications at valuation .. .. 





Badges at valuation 





Brown, Prior, Anderson Ptd. Ltd., 
amount owing- for balance of order 


Investments, at (ace value — 
Pudtev Best Library Fund; 

of Fern Bocks - ■ . . , t . , 


Commonwealth Bonds -. .... 




Surplus of Assets over Liabilities .. .. 


Building and Con'.in^encics 
Fund : 
Commonwealth Bonds , ; ±950 



E.S. & A. Bank m 

Library. Furniture, Paintings, Emdia 







Microscopes and other ecptipwctnt , 







Audited and found correct. 18/5/1956 — 
A, 3 t CHALK \ 

Hon. Auditors 

A- G. HOOKS, Hon. Treasurer 


2{\ 77** IVbvum XaturcMit Vol 73 


Oy Roar. C. Kf.r<haw 

IIic Uuiorluuate UCt that SO many Australian animals Mi COWWDIily 
known under foreign names may have rc> be suffered for some time yet. 
However, when a Hiend tecenily told nw of a "tang-tiroo ral" We has seen 
(lie had 9e>i) a Detiong, {fMfnHflw eimicttSus) [ thought of the Jerboas 
which kept us company in Libya. In this matter pi name?, however, one 
presumes thai hoi many people stop fa consider the difference between a 
"rat -like kangaroo" and a "kangaroo-like rat". But it does, seem desuable 
•bat naturalist* should endeavour to use <he most appropriate terminology, 
una uuloilunalelv this has not always been done. 

The female Bettong. perhaps, ami Hip. Poloroo have some rat-like features, 
hut my iricnrl of the desert is not much like either, except that at hops 6ftvf 
the style ©f the kangaroo. 

The Jerboa is, of course, a true rodent, and is quite distinct from the 
marsupials One is not inclined to regard rodents with favour, particularly 
the common rat and the labbit. However the Jerboa initiated a oenain 
nostalgia til weary soldier*, as well a<; a fellow feeling when the German 
nnvned fire with his artillery. However, the littk let lows provided a s*me 
note in a crazy world when they reappeared after the noise had died away. 

The animals appeared at sunset, from their holes in the ground, Their 
nocturnal habit is probably essential in the heat o£ the summer. The colony 
of which T ■iaw most, lived OP a »nrky ridge W'btrh had a very Utile rnvermg 
of sandy soil The vegetation was sparse, consisting of small shrub*, among 
which the animals boutK'd, Apparently featlcs*. but really rather shy From 
.-i distance they blended very well into the drab background. Their only 
companions were an occasional snake or |ijj*r*l, inlets, and a bird which wc 
called a plover, I did not collect any snails, but some were collected not 
far away in H.e.ypr by another soldier and sent to Mr. Tredalr at the Aus- 
tralian Museum. The Jerboas appeared to include insects and seeds in the 
diet, and presumably also eggrs of the ground- nesting birds 

True rodents are characterised by having only one pair of incisors in the 
upper jaw. There are several genera of rodents having a general relationship 
and/or sntulanty to Jerboas. The Kanyarnn-Rar is a native at- America and 
an ally of me Pocket Gopher, names which mean little to Australian*. 
Tbeie are filco Jutnpiiur Mice which are fvUtid in America, Asia, and .Africa. 
representing various groups. The so-called Jerboa Rat of Australia ha> 
liltle resemblance except cwrrbapc, superficial, but the Australian Hopping 
Mice do seem to resemble the Jeiboa more closely 

However, the Jerboa.** form a distinctive group of whit li an imporUnt 
characTtTiMic j; the lusion of the metatarsal bonts of trie fund foot into a 
single bone wi(h only three toes, although ihcre are allied forms with tout 
or five loes. The Australian rodents have not developed this feature which 
is like yet distinct from the fcattgaroo foot. The Jerboa is rather like a ml 
ill body form with a which recalls Ibat of a rabbit Our friends of the 
desert near T»4iruk in Libya utters presumably (he Egyptian Jerboa, or al 
joast a race of Ikt? lorm, which k widespread, 

JBOVC-Vtow, K. |^j C . 1943 — t : wrr$d Animals of Au&tmlw, 2nd Ed., Sydney. 


The Club w*ihe$ W dispose of two large cupboarrU admirably suitable for 
«$e 3S hoolccascs. The timber of each cupboard is in excellent condition hut 
the extenors ol both ;»e sli«titly Soiled Roth are fnred with wooden rloors 
and ?djn=taMe •shelving. Sizes Both are 6 ft. high and 2 ft deep; oik- h 
4 fi ftiit. wide and the other 5 ft wide. Price: C5 each. Anyone interested 
should contact Mr. N. A- VVakelicW. 

JJUf] Ihr rictorw,, \'<ituralis! 21 


Ky A. Massola* 

During a recent visit to the painted rock shelters in the Grampians 
the writer was fortunate, under the ahle guidance of Mr. I. K. 
McCanu, of Stawell, a keen naturalist and a tireless walker, to visit 
the recently discovered Flat Rock shelter, on the northern flank of 
Flat Rock, the hill just south of Mt. Zero. As this site is as yet 
undcseribed, it is my purpose in this paper to give a preliminary 
description of this latest addition to the numher of known "Art 
Galleries" in this State. 

It is situated in a cave-like shelter formed by the erosion of the 
sandstone scarp which is such a prominent feature of this particular 
hill and of the Grampians generally. The shelter itself is roughly 
seventy feet long and ahout ten feet wide, and it follows the contour 
of the hill. Because of its elevated position it is half way up the hill 
— it commands a heautiful northerly view over mile upon mile of 
country dotted with lakes (the Green Lakes). It is possible that 
from it aborigines of long ago witnessed the progress of Major 
Mitchell's paity coming from the north-east, and closely observed 
all the great explorer's movements on July 20, 1836. when he 
ascended nearby Mount Zero, 

Along the wall and ceiling ui the shelter are seen several groups 
of drawings done in red ochre. They are beautifully preserved and 
some are quite fresh looking, possibly because of the relatively dark 
position they are in. Certainly neither sun nor rain can reach them, 
and as yet they are free from those disfiguring proofs of visits by 
unthinking people. There are no names scribbled over them. 

The designs include Emu or bird tracks, several parallel strokes 
(as in the Red Rock at Glen Isla). three designs of unknown signi- 
ficance which with a little immagination could be mistaken for the 
letters H, E and O. One figure approaches in shape the Langi 
Ghiran "snake", and there are several human hands. These hands 
are not stencilled, as in the Cave of Hands at Glen Isla, but thev 
look as if the maker had immersed his hand in the red ochre and 
stamped it on the wall. In each there is a little unpaintecl region in 
the centre of the palm, which, of course, is just what would happen 
if the hand were pressed against a flat surface. 

As stated, the designs form small groups some distance away 
from each other. On entering the shelter from the left side and 
walking to the right, or north, one sees first a few parallel strokes 
on the ceiling. About three feet away, on the wall, comes a group 
of Rum tracks. A foot away is a "snake" about thirty inches long, 
with several human hands below and a group of strokes above it. 
Another three feet away, on the ceiling, is a large bird track, and 

* Department (> f Anthriipoloj.'} . National Museum uf Victuria. 

Plate I 

Vol. 73 

Location of Ral Rock Shelter — ihv entrance is in the centre of 
the pictnre. 

Hands, strokes and "snake" at Flat Rock Shelter. 


J2g*] Massoi a, Aboriginal f'mntinus 23 

Bye feet further arc the "leilerV\ Hot the next seventeen fee* there 
is only an occasional bird track on wall or ceiling, then comes the 
group of hands. Because of the length ot wall over which the paint- 
ings' are spread it is hard to describe rheir relative position in a 
preliminary review, The writer hopes to be able, in the near future, 
to make a thorough report. 

in 'the meantime steps are being taken to protect this shelter hy 
enclosing it in a wire cage, as has been done at Glen Isla and Langi 
(Jhhan. This is a pity but also a necessity to prevent vandahsvn. 

With this new gallcrv, the known painted rock shelters- in Vic- 
toria are now eight hi number. They are set out below, In ibis Iffit 
the term "Cave" is used because (he localities have long been ealkd 
*nrh. In reality they are ruck shelter*, not caves in the sense of die 
word as E&fsd for the European examples. 
At Glen Isla: The Cave of } lauds. 
. . The Red Rock. 

The small shelter in the vieiniiy of (he last. 
The Cave of Fishes, (Or are they Lizards?) 
In the \mrhein Grampians: The, Cave of Ghosts. 

Flat Rock Shelter. 
. AtiJVll. I.augi Ghiran: The Cave of the Scrpcnr. 
fln ( ^*orih-eait Victoria; The Koetong Valley Shelter 
Doubtless many more await discovery. Members of the F N.C.V 
and -of -walking clubs are asked to report any such discoveries to the 
National Museum of Victoria. 

'! e 

I Mjw birds galore 

*" *f Bv R. R Wish art 

- During the \'ears 1945-53 a friend of mine owned and cultivated 
a ten -acre block about two and a hall miles from MonbuJk. He xwts 
a' haV-helor and during the greaier part of that period did not have 
evWifa, clog to keep him company- On two sides of his house was 
a 'w'i*de t verandah and surrounding this a wild rankle of old-fashioiwd 
garden-containing a few large trees cedar, cypress, flowering gum 
and holly, besides innumerable shrubs — azaleas, rhododendrons, 
brooms, ahelias, weigelias, lilacs, etc. 

; JU^mg observant he soon noted that at times a few species of 
na Wye-birds haunted this area. To encourage them to become regular 
caller^he erected amongst die shrul)bery just off the verandah and 
wijluu'easy reach small wooden stands on which were -pk-iced shallow 
oval tins containing sweetened mixtures — either 7am. honev or 
golden ( syrup and water— the honeyeaters he saw being his first 
objective. "Sugar -anrs"' were a decided menace until adequate steps 
vve're taken (0 deal with them. 

His. efforts soon paid dividends for within a comparatively sltOtf i 

time he had «i varied and interesting visiting list, Kasttun Spiuehills, 
Crescent, White-checked and Singing Honcyeaters were among the 
first to sign the visitors' book. The fact that food dishes were so 
placed that birds could perch on the branch of a shrub and yet drink- 
easily from them imchwbeedly Helped in the initial stages. To. vary 
the menu slightly a thick slice of bread liberally sprinkled with'sugar 
then moistened under the tap wa$ speared on a naiL driven into the 
centre of one wooden platform. All the hoiKjy<#b£*s ifut partial to 
this as an article of diet. :J • 

But others beside-? the sweet-tooths quickly demanded attention. 
Blue Wrens, Scrub Wrens, Yellow Robins and Grey Thrushes were 
furnished with enticing mfcds of cheese, just inside the hack door 
on a bench was placed a hard stale hunk of this commodity'which, 
iv hen scraped with a knife, provided appropriate food tor the. insect- 
eaters. Cake and fruit when available were also on the free, lis!. 

Birds did not live entirely in the garden though some actually 
nested within hs boundaries, for example, Blue Wrens, t Scrub 
Wrens. Bi own-headed Honeyeaters and Grey Thrushes. Thev 
appeared to alternate their time between |be not so distant scrub- 
lands and the extra food supplies* Was it a question of their seeking 
essential vitamins contained only in natural food ffcioufces? I 
winder ! 

The honeyeatcrs while under observation varied tremendously in 
their behaviour Some were pugnacious, others shy and retiring, but 
the majority soon became fearless and friendly. One yartitufar 
Whiie-rared. a really handsome fellow, lorded it over the rest' Me 
could lie seen occupying a food tin "n solitary regal splendour,' 110 
other bird dared cat at the same table. The Whitc-naped and' trie 
Brown-headed were the l^ast timid nt them all. especially the little 
short- hi lied "Brown-caps". These appeared to nest just round the 
corner somewhere, and raised several families in fi season. As soon 
as the infants cnnild teave ;he nest they were introduced to the free 
hand-out by their parents. It was not uncommon to see veryrytmnu 
birds with down still adorning their heads and with jmrnaturebcaks 
being fed by brothers and sisters of an earlier brood, They became 
so lame that they would perch on one's hand or head, on a tin>of 
food being carried from the Mtchen, or on a stab ot bread hcfoVS it 
could be placed in position What daring, dainty little sprites they 
were! -i «*. 

Sometimes the immediate vicinity of the house would be cfitirclv 
devoid of feathtred folk Then like bolts from the blue Brown- 
headed Honeyeaters would literally cascade down through ifhc 
foliage, ft was incredible how many of them tried to obtain & foot- 
hold on the rim of one tin dish at one time* They would stoke jup 
with a fresh supply of calories before going bush once more, in ia 
hurrv After a few long nips oi honey and water, with usually *oW 
uioist bread and sugar for a chaser, they vanished. This -species 
always did things at tht* gallop 




Wismakt. Birds Galore 


It was an unusual treat for any nature I<iver to sit quietly on the 
verandah and be entertained by Mine Host and his adopted family. 
fiusfly scraping away at a piece of stale cheese, he invariably called 
softlv "Come on lenny". Obedientlv the Blue Wren family popped 
out from between the slats of the verandah railing t<> pick up cruml>> 
almost off the toes of his buot>. Yellow Rubins in their usual 
deliberate manner sat and eyed the proceedings solemnly before 
breaking their fast while the more sombre coloured Grey Thrushes 
literally ate out of his hands, and back-stage was a galaxy erf 
delicately tinted honeyeat^rs busily sipping their watery rations or 
peeking away at bread ami sugar to their hearts' content. 

The Scrub- \V mi's Xest in the Workroom 

To return home together late in the day after having been absent 
since early morning was something to remember. Food provided 
first tiling had not been replenished, tins were empty and the baker 
had forgotten to call. What a grand welcome we received! Even- 
bird was doing" its best to emulate Little Tommy Tucker. But thev 
did not sing, they simply yelled for their supper. While food was 
being prepared a cloud of feathered youngsters clung to the wire- 
door, and no collection of babies in a nursery at feeding-time could 
possibly have created more noise — weight for weight. 

All this to me was an object lesson in what love of nature mixed 
with kindness plus a wee bit of patience could do to overcome the 
natural timiditv of our native birds. 

. ... „ . . ,- . rVict. N:il. 

in \\ isu,\kT, Inrdx (nvorc |_ VuJ r, A 

I Hiring e^rly autumn when berries were no longer available 
hungry hordes of Silvereves descended upon the hitherto peaceful 
community. The\ commenced mopping-up o|>erations at once, prac- 
tically monopolizing the food supplies made available for the 
regulars. To counteract this invasion, kind hut stern measures were 
adopted, to wit — enticing the interlopers into special wire-netted 
boxes in which tbev were speedily transported by car to fresh fields 
and pastures new, where they were released. 

One day while seated in the kitchen we were alarmed by a dis- 
tinctly audible commotion among" a family of Rlue Wrens. Hianiing 
a marauding cat we went into urgent action. What a relief it was 
to find that \)'d(\ and Mum were merely doing their utmost to 
shepherd three youngsters from their nesting place in a clump of 
blackberries a short distance away to a more secure haven near the 
house! We were amused to see what hard work they made of it 
and to hear the incessant stream of abuse hurled at the tiny off- 
spring. Xo sergeant-niujor couid have bettered the performance. I 
may mention at this stage that no stray feline enjoyed more than 
one life, and that a very brief one, within cooee of this home-made 

On one occasion a Scrub-Wren built her nest in the folds of an 
old chaff-bag hung over a rail in the workshop under the house- 
She constructed it of fine grass and wood shavings which she picked 
up from the floor and it was within a few feet of a carpenter's 
bench which was used almost every dav of the week. Young were 
successfully reared and were paraded for inspection by the old ones 
on numerous occasions. I regret that in those days I did not possess 
a good 35 mm. camera to make a permanent record of such scenes. 

To my sorrow my cobber no longer lives out along the dusty tree- 
lined road. The house and the garden are as of yore hut bird- 
watching there is a thing of the past. I presume birds still return 
to their old haunts but there is no longer a free counter-lunch pro- 
vided for them. 


Frederick James Bishop, who died in March, was for years a member of 
our Club. His friends remember him as a quiet courteous man, with a boy's 
delight in every wildflower he saw and an expert's power to record it through 
liis camera. Though he was almost seventy and had bad a good deal of ill- 
health of late years, bis enthusiasm was not dimmed nor the perfection of 
his work abated. I doubt whether anyone thought of bim as old. 

For thirty years he illustrated articles on wildrlowers for me. I had only 
to send bim an article and he sent back exactly the photographs that were 
needed, but always far too many, with a note "all duplicates and any extras 
for your own collection". That generosity was characteristic of him. As one 
result of it I have his photographs of over 300 species of Australian native 
plants, and often several pictures of one species, perhaps showing fruit, habit 
and habitat, as well as colour-variations ( tor he coloured many pictures with 
careful art). 

J Uflt 

t"J'J f. /. &Wtdp—#n Atprctjatiow 27 

Often when I have been mircrUin of aflrtfofl -detail oi' structure and Itavc net 
bad a lre-il» specimen, it ha; been possible to examine hip. photograph with a 
]Mn-kct-i-l,i^s, as one would a hvmg flower. He was the photographer ul tHt 
little flowers, the buttercups anil daisies, thr Karly Nancies and bluebells H € 
jitcttircrl Yellow Stars and sundews with as much pleasure as waratah or 
Qttftlfcfl bell- 

Keenly as he wjAyed fib occasional visits ro distant party of Victoria In* 
greatest pleasure was in quiet rambles with his friend, the late W. K. 
Nieholls. Sydenham, Sunshine, and St. Albans, were :hvir happy btfttittgr 
grounds, us innumerable pictures show They show also how many flowers 
nave gfitW irotn those places, today. Hi* home was near Beckett Park and 
Marauoa Gardens, *mt these toe* provided comities* subjects and rf)4ltj#$ 

Although we worked together we rarely met, hut 1 have vivid mimicries of 
ibe few times I visited Ui$ limine, of the garden that was a pleasure to n\\ his 
famiiy, of the warm wrknme, and of the wildrVmver photographs in beauti- 
fully bound volumes tJor he wfta a bookbinoeT diid an e%pen craftsman}. 1 
remctilher how amazed T was when he showed mc his <tudio*\ a laundry iij 
which, with phutogiaphic equipment in pUce, thrre was hardly room :u stand; 
hut most of all 1 rnnrtiLber hU ^nrbusiasm for the work of r* younger phnm- 
S^apher "*]J*v«* yr>u seen Ucrt Reeve*-' picture-."-" hi- a^tf, "They are 
tuagntficeoj j You must see diem " There was real Height in Ins voice. 

His own picture* wen* less spectacular than those he admirul. but in hi.-. 
own sphere he was uiisuTpAiiCrl. He f»H-e.*led thr folic flcw^i* ie> us. Cyno- 
tffbwmi saav^htts often parses unnoticed, spirt from its srmi, hut his pic- 
tures show what a lovely tliinjj it rs. Tiny tan* of ScQMpfo hfiokeri, ^reerush 
flowers oX saUtutsh, the ottaii dusters of lignum ifi bloom* arc all rrvcaJcrt in 
their perfection, not larger than life, hut lifelike, brcugtii dose to our ryes 
by onr who loved them, 

''One who loved thrml" That tvas hi? secret. Next to his happy f&milt 
life he found his greatest happiness in photographing the (lowers, taking 
infinite pains in the smallest and least, and sharing, that happiness with friends. 

We are poorer because a quiet flower-lover no longer goes out to picture 
the wnyside flowers and find endless "pleasure in the Klaranoa plantings, bti* 
we are richer fof what he has done. His phorofifaoh* will no doubt he pre- 
ferred for other generations to study and enjoy. H tfti could preserve with 
them the spirit of single-minded and afTeetiomue eratlsmauship hi winch they 
wcTe takrn wp sh*<ulil he r;;h indeed. 



Howard Jesse Otvgson was horn at Vewcanlc. in ^ew Scutl: W^ltffi 
where In* father was Ttumajrcr of the Australian ARricultural Com()any. lie 
graduated in Arts at the Sydney UtUVCribj aud iftpdftd further' at Cornell 
Uriivcrsiti' in I'S A., ;peiializing in engineering, fie joinerJ the Canadian 
Military forces in World War T and returned tu Australia in 1519. 

His father. Je%sc Gregyjrtj had l>een one of tile pioneers at "Mount W dson 
and there had developed an interest ill ihe local ruralypts JLdward CiTpj>«ni» 
resumed farnnnK- activities on the family property and, except when serving 
with the 2nd AJ.F-. he Jived there until his death. 

After his retirement hi l c J$5. lie continued, the re^cai'die* bifl fnther Itad 
hcigun into Ihe euralypcs, in particular tliorc or the Blue Mountrtins. \ nentdn 
ot great eneiey. Fdwaxd Grefison became a familiar flgute in that area, 
either alone or wrth uieods- of sioular jis^-rcsU. Suou hts Uiiowledee ul the 
puzzling forms of the genu.* in those mountain? became second only to dial 
of h»i .riend and companion of manv rambles, the Koverwid Colin Kurtfc?? 

28 *rfT«»/rf /cm (fftfirtnN- J*tf?-iwi vol 73 

Gregson amassed a |$rgO vol lection of dried specimens o£ cocalypt specie*, 
which, on his death, were bequeathed to the University of New England at 
Amudalc. Readers mav recall his contribution to this loiirual. in February 
1052 (Vol 08, [>l>. 165-17.1). eotitkd "Euealypts of Mi Wilson aiul Mt 
Irvine, N.5AV,", 

My acquaintance with Edward Gregson did not begin until 1052, but 
thereafter many haypy hours were spent in his eomiwy. A man of kind and 
generous disposition, his passing will he mourned by a wide cuclc of friends 
Death came quietly on me morning of November 25, 1955, when he was iu 
his 74rh year. 

— Ofo. W AftHOFEi:. Drip* tout. K.5.W. 


I Reserved r©r your Notes, Observations and Queries} 


A Inuy suburban shopping centre is probably the last place in which one 
would c.\yect to s*e an Eastern Spinvbill {Aconlhorhytuhus Wmtirostris La.), 
However, on Saturday morning, December J, 1955, dozens of people m 
Church Street, Middle Brighton, had a near view Oi (his interesting honey- 
-cater, Tt wa* a cold, dull morning, string southerly winds being accompanied 
by hnvrnnttent heavy shower, an.i ii \% possible that these weather conditions 
may have been responsible for the- bird\ presence in it* unusual surroundings. 

For some weeks previously, the hardware store m this particular locality, 
in lint with the latest advertising technique, had been staging' demonstrations. 
of oticof i he mudern "wonder" pamts, Animated advettisements such aa these 
usually attract a crowd. Consequently, on the morning in question, on ap- 
t>ro£rhmy tins >iore, 1 was- not surprised to hud a crowd gathered. However, 
I was puzrted by the absence of the usual announcements I'rom a loud speaker. 
and by the people peering overhead rather than at the display window An 
Eastern Spinebilr, not a modern "wonder" paint, was the object o"j the crowd's 

The More has an otd-style verauda. tift sheets of roofing iron, and conse- 
quently the veranda, being steeply curved. Glass fanlujlitu admit hgnl tor the 
[1i$plny window*: and, to protect the people beneath Irom falling R'lass in the 
event of breakage, wire netting is fi.xed beneath the- fanlight*. There, flutter- 
ing between netting and '*lass. was the Spinehill, behaving like a moth at a 
lighted wnidow-naiH- on i ?ummcr evening. 

While iume onlookers, in typical human fashion were sympathizing With 
the bird] others took the opportunity to note lis salient feature? and answer 
the questions that weie posed by the junior members of the audience. Along 
one edgt. the netting had become detached from its fastenings and. by "hit gr- 
iniss method* during *** instinctive Mutterings. the bud found iWta cleavage 
and escaped frdm its; imprisonment. But its freedom was short-lived. To the 
bird, tlie tanUgh? was open space and freedom ami, almost instantaneously. 
it was hack a^ain through the mesh ot the ccltutK. only to he a captive once 
i note. 

This performance was re-enacted several times during the ten to fifteen 
minutes I was present Finally, during a brighter interval between showers. 
Kftd &$am hy fliani * rather tha»> by design, the bird, in escaping irom 3is 
prison, flew 1mA* enough from under the veranda to find the open space and 
Jrecdont p| Church Street 

Apart from proving that theie are things apart from modern advertising 
methods to draw a crowd, and apart from illustrating the hazards which the 
invention* o^ man create for nature's creatures, ibis was a perfect demon- 
stration of the blind instinctive oebavtour typical of ami predominant in 
bud life. _-K, Q. Euroitn, 

J a: 

"* r J NnhnalUi* Ntttclntok 


Seeing sunie grey bird* fly imp a garden tree 1 went onl to see what they 
wore; ihere was a gre»* deal of frilling and rtiuteong about in Ihe tree 
xt\t\ as usual (he Rdl Miners were objecting to strangers. T watched the 
dnnule, and a neighbour, who is inirresi^d til birds, joined me. I walked 
back With her ami was away for ahcut leu rmnutes. When I returned, a 
m^^pie was on the Liwn oear the Uec and was snaking savagely at scniifth>n» 
struggling J rflzi over and drove the Mfitgpae off. The *' something'' was a 
nearli fulf> feathered young blaekbrrd. i tried to revive it. kept rt warm, 
eir . but u died ihcjlly after What seemed to me unusual was for a inagfri? 
to attack and kill 3 young bird T$ this usual r TJ^cfe was a ftirthtr incident. 
The oi»|> other youne; bird in the nest, which we have had uurlei observation 
for both this hrood 3imJ a former one, struggled out of the nest and frll ot 
fluttered in- the ground- Fortunately, my Utile grandson Bind I Smw tl»i> ha|M,»en 
ami restored the bird to the nest The mother bird returned at 7 pnv and all 
•vn-med well, bm both mother and baby were gone next morning. 1 Mtp(*ost 
that nestlings, when frightened (as by the fvjht in the trot), sometimes 
»_hinb niii of the dfct. I have sometimes lound de*d nestlings in tlir gardnt 
But 1 dul not lotow thai magpies killed other birds. And where and how 
did the mother blackbird remove ihe nestling r 

— P'SA^CE?, b'Sl-MlSftN, Vermont. 


As everyone 1m*s his uwxi special lavowjtes. it is not liUeW that Ihe 
iwcnty native plants for the garden* wlurh ate- listed below, will meet Willi 
everyone's approval. Fi you agree- thai ten at the plants should have been 
iiM-lwied, then fierliApt the can '>c regarded a.j a gOg<| one; if yotf Col- 
lider fifteen of them should be wi Ihe list, then yon must have a sanden 
in ihe sand are* with the same climatic conditions as the writer. «ud you 
muct have nmilar tastes, too. 

Before £miig ai>> further, perhaps we can agree that a really 01 mandim: 
garden |daiu twist have spectacular flowers borne during a long flowering 
season, foliage ami sba)>r-lmess which givr a pleusing apy»earaiiee throngl*- 
ont the year, and yet U can be propagated readily. ftTows fairly tfuickly, and 
is hardy enough Id stand up to conditions ill the garden withcim, Afty $pccia( 
attention ! NecdJrss to say there are not many kucIi plants, so wc must 
seleet those thai come nearest lo thi-s ideal. 

The difficulties associated with making a U&t of outstanding garden flkntfs 
niay be ijlustralcd by reCcrx^iig 10 the bo-f^nws No jdaut b^s. moi't* delightful 
jiei£uiue than tlte Scented Uoronta (11. ttwya^tttjti'M), hut many conditions 
do not suit i» : the N.SAV. speoes "Native Ko. u e' {B. sCrrnUita), Svr)ti«y 
Bon>nia (/.?, !i\iifotni) and Pale Horonin (B, fl-irilntmia) are all beautiful; 
whtk Pink Boionia \£, mv?Unl) t Pintiaie Bftrtftiq (/? pvamtn) and H?iiry 
BornnU i /? piloxa) are £oori Victorian species. 

Nor can the Tall Boixmia fff. clatter) «r 5. deniiiuliitu, Iwith frum Vv\A , 
he overlooked, but my preference is for a third western species KalRsm 
Horonia (B, hctvrtrphytttj), beCJiUic it 1^ not difficult to pfOflafiaW Of oul- 
tivaie., it is fiiiapely, and has beautiful blossom tlu/uig a fairly long flowering 
)>ei lud. 

!Ieri» is the list: Common Botllc-brush {CatlistemoH spectoxtts), Puik 
Hybrid Thryptomcne (a'T. T. mvicoln) , Koug-leaf Wax-flower (finvsft't'ton 
ittvopcrmdrs-), Kalian Boron ia (/?. hrtrrnfthvlfo), GungWTU f P.ura*vl>hts 
caesia), Conimon Correa (C., Scarlet Honey -myrtle (Mctalett'ti 
ftiUjsus), Pink Grevillca (Gmvilfsa .wuc.ti), Mud^ee Wattle (Acacia ^pcrto- 
bitis), Grass-leal Haktci {H vtvUihm'olQ) , HeiUh-lenvcd B-^iksia <&. 
cfinjo!in) ) Gravel Uotile-brush ( In-auforhn spitrsa), Swan River Myrtle 
( Hypt>C(}tyw7tw robustum), Grooved Dampiera (D fcjrpnUittt\, Conimon 

M tf#imrfl*tf Notebook [ v ^ *;f • 

Heath (UpctCfiji im-pr^xta), Woolly Net-bush (Cnlothamuux villoxtts), 
KwtMti ba.vtm, L'spenmcc Wax-flower {.CSwnKiWuriWfrm Qtilfore). Oval- 
leaf Mjiit-bu^h (Pyintanthvm owUfc-lia), ami Round-leaf Tea-tree (LcftQ- 
xpcntium rotHMiifolrnm) . 

— .*V. 1£. B»ook$. 


Although our native plants are becoming more popular as tfarclcu subjects, 
not a great deal has been clone 1*1 the way or grouping them. Most oE us are 
content to grow as many natives as possible, niacins? them with due n;RaH 
to such features as size, compactness, season and colour oi flowers, and their 
suitability ior a stmny or shady position, a moist or dry one, or an exposed 
or sheltered one. 

Ar Fraiilcsion. quite large, areas of Busily Heath-myrtle (Thfypttivti'HC 
cafyciua) have been success Cully grown, and Mr, J Swanson has effectively 
grouped Q number of plants of sueb species as Swan River Myrtle (Hyf*o- 
cahmma rabustum) , Kalgau Borgnia (#, hct?ti.>f*hylt(i) ) and Broad-leaf 
Wax-flower ( tirwsiFtnvH lanctatatus). 

At the Botanic Gardens, Kangaroo Paws have been effectively grouped 
vt ut»e laige bed and a number of specie* of Correa and Boronia in another; 
At Maranoa Gardens some grouping 1 has been done, and Vtr. & Hatciy hftS 
certainly lost no opportunities to group oucaVypts on hi? property near 
Stawcll, where he has about tour hundred species growing. 

These examples provide the exceptions and not the usual procedure, hut 
At Cheltenham Parte, following on the original planning, of Mr. A. J, Swaby, 
it is proposed to put considerable emphasis on groupings of native plants. 

I: you can supply any information about successful groupings of Aus- 
tralian plants, which' you have seen or have experimented with, the writer 
■would appreciate your comments. 

—A, E. Brooks. Tulip Street, Cheltenham. 

F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Saturday, Jane. j— Geology Group excursion to Open Cot, Bacchus Mafth, 
Xfctre 8.40 a.m train from Saucer Street to Bacchus- Marsh, Bring two 
meals, and thermos if hot drink is required as fires are not permitted. 

Sunday. June 17 — VVarrandyte. Leader: Mr, Ha-asc. Take 11.55 *.m. FrrnUeu. 
Cully Irain, alighl at Rinjrwood, then Warrandytc bus to Fiveways. Bring 
one meal. 

Sunday. July &— Lyrebird excursion to Shcrbiooke Fr-reit, Leader Miss L 
Watson. Take 8 55 A.m. irain to Upper Fermreo Gal!}*, then bus ?y 
Kallista. Bring one meal and a snack. 

Group Meetings; 

(\t Natrona! Herbarium) 

Wednesday. June iO t,H p.m.) — Microscopical Group. 

Saturday. June 30 ("2 pm.) — Botany Group. Speaker: Mr, K. Allans. 
Subject: Tree; in winter. 

Wednesday, July 4 (& p.m. V— ^Geology Group. Sublet: OriKin of Cora) 
Islands. Speaker; Miss B Neitson. 

Preliminary Notice: 

Saturday Jury 14 — Mid-winter Mystery Trip, by parlor coach, approxi- 
mately KW miles, mostly along hifchway*, no walking. Objects: Historical 
and Physiographical, Coach leaves Batman Avenue 8-30 a.m. Bring two 
meals — morning tea available at roadside cafe cu route. Bookings, 18/- 
each, with leader: My K", Siewart, 14 D*yview Terrace, A*cot Vale 
' (Telephone FU 1096). 

— MARifc At-LtivDEF. Excursion Secretary 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 73— No. 3 JULY 5, 1956 No. 871 


About fifty members were present at the Annual Gencud 
Meeting oi the Club, held at the National Herbarium on June 11 
last The retiring President, Mr. Tallinn Rauneiu, was ill til? 
Chair; he welcomed to the meeting Miss Sutherland, a visitor from 
Vancouver in Canada. 

Mr, .Swaby reported that several vigils liatl ht:en paid to the Sir 
CJfrtiM Mackenzie Sanctuary, Hcalesville, by ihc commdtee appointed 
to ;issisr in the making oi a Natn re Trail, and that the first working 
bee would L>e held on July 7, -when as many members as possible 
should attend. Mr. Gnrnor gave a resume of the National Parks 
Bill to he debated in parliament m August, and he agreed to bring" 
heioie Council Several) proposed amendments. 

I he 76th Annual Report of rlifi Club was read by the Secretary, 
and the Treasurer outlined the financial statements. These are in 
this issue of the Naturalist and in last month's issue respectively. 
The Auditors signified thai no report was necessary from them. 

Mt Rayment reported that he had received a letter irom Mr, 
Sarovich advocanng a rearrangement of the Building and Con- 
tingencies fund, but, because of its length, he would not deal 
with it but would take it as signifying the writer's intention to move 
a motion nt a future meeting. 

The election followed of Office-Bearers and Council for 1956-37 
As noniinatioii.s did not exceed requirements, the following were 
declared elected- Mr, A. J. Swaby, President; Messrs. F, Lewis 
and W. T.. Williams, Vice-Presidents; Mrs. F. Curtis, .Assistant 
Secretary; Mr. A. 6. Hooke, Treasurer; Miss M. liutchart, Assist- 
ant Treasurer: Mr N. A. Wakefield, Editor; Mr. A. B : Court, 
As.MStam Editor : Mr. A. Burke, Libia nun ; Mr. R r D. Lee, A.v>*M- 
aril Librarian; Miss M. Allender, Excursions Secretary; and Dr. 
K M. Wishart, Dr. W. Geroe, and Messrs. J. R. Garnet and K. 
Atkjns, Coimeil Members. 

Mr. Rayment vacated the Chair in favour of the new President. 
Mr. Swaby asked that Mcssts. Lustace Coghill and F. Curtis he 
invited to attend the forthcoming meeting of Council, as they had 
agreed to accept office, as Secretary and Council Member re- 
spectively; thus there would be a full team to < manage Club affair*. 
The new President said that major points of policy for the year 
would be the stimulation of the scientific side of Club activities, 


$ PmtHlUw [ 

Vict. Nm 

V-;il. v;i 

and the securing and maintaining of closer contact with fcinched 
societies and vvith country and interstate members. 

Messrs, Chalk ami Evans were again appointed as Auditors 
Mr. V. G. Davidson and Mr. Paul Gcnery were elected as Metro- 
politan Members of the Club, Mrs. F, G, Davidson and Mrs. F. 
Curtis as Joint Members and Master John Walsh as a Junior 
Member. These new members were welcomed to the F N.C V- and 
wished well in their association with the Club. 

Mr, Wooltard suggested that mote prominence be given in the 
Naturalist to the activities of the various Club Croups; the Editor 
commented that such would be very welcome material for the 
journal, as Club activities, including' excursion reports, were always 
given priority over other material. 

There were a number of nature notes and comments on exhibits. 
the latter in particular being very diverse and interesting The 
meeting closed at ahovt 10 pin. fo* the usual convetsazione mid 
perusal of exhibits. 


Hie 76th Annual Report chronicles a year ot satisfactory progress 
and activity for your Club. Membership for the year was 546, the 
same as the figure for last year, new members making up for 
resignations and other losses. The membership comprised 34? 
Metropolitan, 154 Country, 20 Honorary, 5 Lire and 20 junior. 
In addition there are 37 subscriber:* to the Victorian Naturalist. 

Unusually severe losses occurred in the Club during the pa^t 
year through f he deaths of Mrs. T. Sarovich, Mrs. K Woodburn. 
Mis* M. Wise, Sir Russell Grimwade, Major H, VV. Wilson, Mr. 
V. Bibby, Mr. J. Bishop, Mr. A. Burston, Mr. E. Dakin. Mr. A. 
Jenkins, and Mr, II. Smith, all of whom did fine work for the 
Club in the past. 

During the year, your Council, through its .finance Suh Com- 
mittee, kept a close watch on the factors of income and expenditure 
involved, mindful ot the heavy commitment represented by the 
publication of the >ern Book. Consideration was again given to 
publishing the Victorian Naturalist as a quarterly., but it was gen- 
erally agreed that this should be resolved to only in the event ot 
acute Club difficulty. Last year's newly exploited source of revenue 
was tapped even more profitably by the Editor, who pushed sales 
nt luck numbers of the Victorian- Naturalist so vigorously that aw 
extra £ 175 was added to the Club funds. As the financial report ici 
last month's Naturalist showed there was a surplus of £05 on the 
General Working Account for the past year, which has led to a 
satisfactory increase in the Batik balance. 

A major event of the Club year was the publication in December 
ot the re- written and enlarged edition of ihe Fern Book. Sales 
progressed reasonably well, 473 copies being disposed oi to 

*$£] $w\iyv'.v<k Annua! UcpM. WV5fl tt 

April 30, as noted ii% the balance sfteet The book reflects credit as 
a solid achievement for the Club and it* Editor, Mr. N. A. 

Credit and thanks are due LO those who ledured to the Oub 
during the [last year The F*rcbM]eiil\ address, on Dimorphism in 
llalictine Bees, was particularly memorable, as a load account, well 
delivered, ot a highly technical 5.uh|ecc. Innovation of 10-minufcc 
lecrurettes at the General Meetings proved u popular move.. How- 
ever, they did iw.u always continue along the lines originally 
Intended, which was to relate actual experiences or research rather 
than infoTiuatiun at secondhand. An attempt was also made during 
the year to augment the exhibits for the General Meetings 

The. chief meeting of the Club was held on April 9, 1956, in 
conjunction with rhe Anthropological Sueicly of Victoria and the 
Fraukston Field Naturalists Club, for the presentation of the Aus- 
tralian Natural History Medallion to one of our member.*, Mr. 
Stanley R Mitchell, h was an historic occasion, for it was the 
first rime that the Medallion had been presented by another medal- 
lionist, the Club President, Mr Tarlton Rayment. A coincidence 
was that the dossiers for both these recipients- had been prepared 
by Miss 1 .ynetie Voting of this Club. 

During the year, the Club lent its support loa number of worthy 
projects The International Boy Scout Jamboree at Wonga Park 
was furnished assistance by Club members who lectured and 
exhibited. A. proposed Olympic Games Wilriflower Display by the 
Banfe of New South Wales is receiving Cluh support, both artiarie 
and technical. The Club has been asked (and currently has a 
sub-committee working) to assist in staging a small-scale Nuture 
Trail within the Sir Colin Mackenzie Sanctuary, in time fur the 
Olympic Games. The Cluh has continued its never-ending battle 
toward reasonable conservation by protesting against wholesale- 
destruction proposed tor kangaroos in Western Australia, and a 
proposed open .season tor possums in Victoria. We were represented 
loo ar the Australian Primary Producers' Union Conference nn 
conservation problems and in a deputation to the Premier of Vic- 
toria on proposed National Parks legislation. 

Field Naturalists Clubs were formed in two other areas of 
Victoria during the year. We were happy to welcome the Winuuera 
and the Colac Clubs into the ranks of those dedicated to the study 
of Natural History and to the protection of nuiive fauna and flora, 
There are now eight National .History bodies affiliated with the 
Senior Club. 

Work among the Study Groups progressed. The Botany Group 
waa sorely bit by the untimely death in July of its chairman, Mr. K. 
Dakin. The Group is now engaged in an ambitious project, an 
Ken logical Census of Sherbrooke Forest, under the guidance oi 
its Secretary, Mr. K. Atkins. The Microscopical Group b.a»- had W 

active year under Dr. Wishait's chairmanship. They organized an 
interesting evening of culour slides and talks fpr the Genoa I 
jMcetJMg in November. The Geology Group, under Mr. A. A. 
Balcer, enjoyed a year of considerable interest. Larked during the 
year were the Wtldflower Garden Section and the Marine Biology 
Group. A latent interest in the latter has been aroused however, 
rmd efforts are now being made to combine it with an Entomolo- 
gical Group. The, younger generation continued to be served by 
willing workers from the Club Membership. The Hawthorn sulci 
f.Valuan Junior Clubs flourished throughout the year. 

Attendance at some 3i Club and Group excursions was grati- 
fyingly up as compared with last year's figures The Christmas 
holiday trip to Mount Culler was the highlight of such activities, 
;;ikI it was conducted most successfully. 

With the completion of the move of the Club's Library ti> the 
National Herbarium, our last link with the old quarters at the 
Royal Society's Hall was severed. Re-organuation of this valuable 
Chil> asset is now under way, and it is hoped that Club members 
will be enabled to make more frequent and better use of it. 

In conclusion, sineete ihnnks are due to Mr A W. Jessep of 
the Witkiual Herbarium (or the use of ihcir fine facilities ivt nut' 
Chib and Group meetings. 

On behalf of Hie Council. 

19, C McDonald, Honorary Seeretarv. 


The Group coitbiincs to incieasc mMTihp.r.shin and to interest ihnsi* who 
.•trend meeting. Upwards <>( twenty enthusiasts met on June 20 last, aiul *hc 
Chairman, Mr. D. Melnit«. extended a welcome to Mr. and Mn A. J. 
Swahy and other visitors. 

After the routine pveliniinarv business, Mr. II. Barren addressed Spfc 
meeting on ''Some Oarnaru Diatoms" The speaker has made a lifelong study 
oi the group, and stilt collecis material as well as receiving parcels 0* speci- 
mens, both los&d and recent, from overseas. There were eighteen micmsenpe:; 
on the tables, and Mr. Barrett followed the precedent established by Mr. 
McTnncs last month, tf&itig all these id illustrate his r^lk, showing many rare 
and heauriful forms. 

Ur. W. Evans had previously photographed some fifteen pr so q\ Mi 
(iarrett/s drawings of other species, and these were screened through Mr, 
Wnollard's projector and commented on by the speaker. Mr. Barrett con- 
cluded by answering, a number of queries, and he was heartily thanked by the 
Croup Leader, on hehalf of those present. (A summary ot the talk w*l| 
appear in a future issue or the Nittumh'xtl. 

Members are asked ro again bring fhetr inslmmmts for use by Mr. Kayme»d 
hi conjunction with his talk on July 18; and an invitation is wirdi.illy extended 
cr. Ftk.CV. members to be present- 


I'.y Jo 1 1.\ Gin i\s* 

Tile parliamentary exploration pam -.urveyini: tin- riant* \Si the 
;ii'm]mnci] new r* -ad aI"n r L, r the Wontian^aua River linking the 
Xortb Ka-t with I jippsland aroused much interest in Victoria** 
■Catherine [&VCir« 1 h<- mutt* covered the HufTalo Kivcr valley, cross- 
ing the* llarrv Mountains to die Womiaugatiu KJYtf on the sunt!) 
-ide of the Range. The Catherine has its, hcadwater> in die liarn 
Mountains mid joins the Ihitialo River, it<elf a tributary nf the 
f iveiw. at Catherine Station. 

During KaMer, 1^55, Donald Spriggins, Steve Herrigau and the 
writer planned to negotiate the Catherine River 1»»th eJV-ls 
Steven was to make the approach from Mansfield liy walking along 
flit lh>wqua Kivcr, over Mount Howiu, ;it« nit; die Consent Saw 
to Mount Speculation and (hence ujt lo .Mount Despair where Don 
and 1 were lo meet him on Easter Satvirdav. We two lefl Wan- 
gairaua on »iyr tiuUttf cycles on ( iood Friday and proceeded 10 
Catherine Station du-«-ugh DaudongaOale an<] Abbeyard. After 
Dand"ngadale die road narrows to harelv die width of a si&lgje car 
and winds in and ont of rhe hillside making progress extremely 

We left onr Uikttif at Cadterine Station, having covered the -ixiy- 
tive miles [nun Wangaratta in just under three hours. We then 
proceeded up the Catherine valley illicit for the first three miles 
had been cleared of undergrowth. After \W\< the undergrowth along 
the river flats became very douse and we had fren.uentlv to wade 
across the river. There is supposed to be a track all the May up 
the river hut it was difficult to follow and. when we did strike n. 
we could not follow it for hmg\ 

As evening drew uear we made our camp on a grassy tvhtit. The 
vallev floor had widened considerably fit i*^ about half a mile across 
at its widest point / and at ilus particular spot, it would be over 
300 yards and stretched for some four miles, making die area suit- 
able for cattle grazing, and more than once, while moving through 
the undergrowth, we came suddenlv upon startled animals whn 
seemed resentful of our intrusion into their grazing land. At night- 
fall the call of the Hoobook Owl heralded the rising moon over the 
eastern ridge and from the nearby hills the eerie howl of a dingo 
could be heard. 

On Easter Saturday we continued up the river, intending to 
meet Steve at Mount Despair. However we took a wrong branch 
of the river and headed up a tributary. Fortunately it was not long 
before we discovered our mistake and wo decided to cross the 
ridge between ua and the main stream. Thi- was a grout error in 

■ >lttii&V 'at hf Foif-sm, I >i'Moek r 


CiiTTiNs, I'ictoria's Catherine River 

L v 

ict. Nat. 
I. 73 

judgement because when we reached the top of the ridge, we found 
we were at a height of about 3,500 feet ! 

There we had a magnificent view of the Razor approximately 
a mile away. This is a rocky outcrop of 5,000 feet elevation and 
about a mile long, with cliffs about 300 feet high falling away on 
both sides to timbered ridges. At the southern end of the Razor 
and behind several steep ridges was what we thought at first to be 
Mount Despair (4.500 feet). Between it and us were about three 
miles of numerous ridges which we realized afterwards, from 
Steve's description, could not have been our rendezvous. In actual 

> "&■ 

vJlr r S J 

la** fNi 1 

The Highest Peak of the Razor. 

fact Mount Despair was still farther back and was out of sight 
from where we were. Towards the south we could see the hump 
on top of Mount Speculation rising to 5,650 feet — the highest peak 
in the Barry Mountains. As it was 1 1 a.m. and our appointment 
with Steve was at noon, we decided to eat our lunch while we 
reviewed the situation. 

From Mount Despair, Steve looked on an even more striking 
sight. He had an end-on view of the Razor whose top had the 
appearance of a narrow track with steep cliffs dropping awav on 
either side. South-east of the Razor he could see the Viking, our 
view of which was obstructed by the Razor. The Viking is similar 
in shape and size to the Razor, but on one side it has high over- 


1956 J 

Gittixs. Victoria's Catherine River 


hanging cliffs and on the other there is a slope only slightly less 
formidable. It is said that the Viking is Victoria's most inaccessible 
mountain and this is no exaggeration for. besides having rugged 
peaks on three sides, behind it lies the Terrible Hollow through 
which runs the Wonnangatta River in its early stages. The Terrible 
Hollow is reallv a huge valley in the form uf an amphitheatre whose 


// «&*** h"- 

'"-":.. ' f] . . 

f^K*yO THE 



\ '■ 

Sketch-map of Catherine Kiver area. 

walls consist of cliffs which fall 3,000 feet before reaching the floor 
of the valley. 

On failing to find us on Mount Despair Steve headed down the 
Catherine River. It was to be a full day before he came upon us 
fishing not far from the camp. Incidentally, we were able to supple- 


riNs, rictoria's Catherine Rk'cr 

rVict. Nat. 

L v<:i. ~a 

ment our diet «vef the four days with ix dozen delicious rainhow 
trout, most of which were ahout one pound in weight. 

The vegetation in the gullies in the area forming the headwaters 
of the Catherine River is of the luxuriant rainforest type which is 
common in the mountainous country south of the Great Dividing- 
Range. On the lower slopes of Mount Despair there is a mignirlcent 
stand of virgin Alpine Ash {Eucalyptus dclcgatoisis) which looks 
not unlike parts of the Fitzroy Gardens in Melhourne, having no 
undergrowth other than grass. The fern gullies contain the usual 
rainforest birds, and in them may he heard the varied mimicrv of 

Mount Buffalo from Danriongarialv Station. 

the Lvrehird accompanied by the resounding crack of the Eastern 
Whiphird and the calls of various others such as the Golden 
Whistler, the Pilot Bird and the ever friendly Yellow Rohin. 
Lower down the river the treeferns give place to trees — acacias 
and correas — any many hushes. The predominant eucalypt in the 
valley is the Manna Gum (E. viminalis ) some specimens of which 
attain a height of nearly 250 feet, although in the large swamps 
lying on the extensive river flats the Swamp Gum (E. ovaia ) holds 
its own. 

fpjjjj GrrHNS, Victorias Cnlhc'ine Riter 

.VIosc of the ridges in rh-e area are extremely dry and rocky, the 
dry condition being probably due to the f*ct thai "most of the rain 
falls on the somrhftm slopes of the Great Divide and comparatively 
luile readies this region. An interesting fcatute. on the ridges was 
ihat v,-]ld bovvers .such as Parrot-Pea (Di/kcyma (jlaberrinw ) tyh\ 
Piitk-Ji\e. (Tctrothfca pllo-so) \vore in bloom whereas in other 
districts such a.s Creswiek, they arc amount the curliest to flower 
in spring,. Another point worthy of note was the presence 01 die 
dancing mounds of lyrebirds on top of llie ridges. These mounds, 
which were fairly exposed and filled with stones, were very ditferetu 
from those often found in other districts where they are. usually 
sheltered under tree ferns and ntade up of moist earth mixed uiih 
rolling leaves and slicks. 

The ndges were covered mainly with very stunted and poorly- 
formovi peppermints {■$£• dhvs) which were riddled almost rhrongh- 
but hy termites. The owner of Catherine Station told u-» thai hi: 
lias *>rcat difficulty m obtaining timber even for fence post:- iJefcauSC 
of the cxU'iil of the damage done hy pests. The .stiles of some 
of the: ridges with southerly or easterly aspects, whii h die sun 
reaches only between 1 1 o'clock u*\ the morning and 3 o'clock m the 
afternoon, were almost completely covered with Common Maiden- 
hair (.jfiitmtltiity; neflnopicit/ii). This is a most beautiful fHgflj, 
especially when ihe first rays of sunlight make the dew drops 
glisien on their fronds. 

The bird life around the camp was dominated hy (he presence of 
a .small colony of what we thought at the time to he Helmet cd 
Honeyeater.s. Since then, however, we have consulted Mr. J\~. A 
Wakefield on the subject, and it was decided that, in view of the 
locality, the birds were most likely Yellow-tufted Honcyeaicrs. 
Another bird which we also observed for the firfct time was the 
Yellow -ended Black Cockatoo, d pair of which visited our camp 
for a shon period one morning. 

On The last day of camp a ctcitefl foy blanketed the valley giving 
promise- 01 another glorious day. One of our )ast clo.-se-up views of 
the mountains was a very beautiful one, of Mount Buffalo from 
Dandongada-c. The splendour of this sight was heightened by a 
pair of Wedgetailed lilies circling over the mount. How w# 
envied them their freedom and wished that \vi?, loo, could have 
shared their glorious view of that formidable range, the Barry 


About Ch'c&Uritf WH a frigid w«s fls|tu*8 at Colmua and picked u\> a 
Hoard's <?gg on the b;mU of the cr^efc. H* |>ut it ifl 3. match box which, when 
lie returned home on January 6, 1951, he put on a shelf in his garage This 
he forgot until M*y 22, when he ODCtJed it to fiixi a lizard about 1$ italic 
long, alive unci quite active. 

— A. Latham 

40 7Vic Vkformn Kalurolist [ v ^, "if 


Ry Cn>T Rkaitgcvhoik ans> Vokl Lkakmoivth 

In ihi* journal, hi April 1944 (ykt.Not. 60 V?.\-\<i$) one of us (C.B.'i 

dealt with the ?* f'ern species- known irnm within 20 inilps of the Portland 
posi-oihoe Suire rhim wc luvc co-operated closely, and most likely pLaces 
have been investigated Assistance is acknowledge*! from Messrs. C. Stanford 
Of Tymidarra, P. Finck and son Eugene of HeaLhrnont. A. TVTUIard of 
Be^biobelie. T. Power of Byaduk and L. Aitken oi Hey wood. Their interest 
and guidance have contributed considerably to our knowledge 

ft has been considered advisable to extend the sphere of operations to Ike 
houlh Australian border., across to Dartmoor, following the Crawford River. 
tHcoce to Mount Eccles and thence down the Euuioralta 'River. Wt now 
■Include too all groups of the Ptertdophyta, The total is now 48 specie*, which 
is remarkable, far South Australia has less in the entire State even though 
it has 4. do'/en which -we do not. Alt oui species occur within 26 milej- of 
the Portland post-office; 

The order followed is that oi Ferns of t-'icttirtti and Ttunioniit The bracketed 
number:- arc those of the species which appeared in the April 1944 list; the 
asterisk huCtHLtt that a species Is abundant throughout our area. Our thanks 
are due to the Director and Staff of the National Herbarium mid to Mr. N. 
A Wakeheld tor cheek nip specimens and for notes, of old record? 

1. (2,) HYMENQPHYLl.TJM CUPRESSIfORMfc— Allitfs revr. r d ha_s 
been re-established, presumably at the same spot, over some square feet m 
deep split basalt barrier at the junction oi Darlots Creek and FiUroy Riven 
Tyrendat ra. (See yirt. NJtt 66: \29 — November 1949. i 

[Note : Mccottutm aushtitr has been located on a dead Dkksonia trunk in a 
liu*alt cave M Byaduk, so it may turn up m our area, Hurdler south.] 

2. rQLYPITLr.RlUM VSKOSU&— to 3'Cat curtains on damp wall* oi 
large volcanic cave at Mount b'ccles (and in two similar raves at Byaduk) . 

3. (S.) DtCRSOMTA ANTARCTICA— Widespread: numerous ajpng 
upper tributaries oE Moleside Creek (Little- Moleside, Learmonth Creeks 
etc.) i at intervals ;do»iRT Crawford "River, with one notable pocket on a branch 
fcui miles west of Hotspur and at Tin Kettle Creek near Digby. A pUni 
grew loitherly at the ""Nine-mile water reserve". Heathmere, and juvenile 
plants still abound in » narrow shaft at the chalk mine nearby 

4. TODEA R A RRAR A— Plentiful along upper t&iffrvs c*f Moleside Creek 
(Gallows and Little Aloleside Creeks), sometimes with butts three feel r'lirk. 

5. (4.) CYATHEA AUSTRALIS The species western range is ex- 

♦ ended I about twenty fine specimens, Uvn of which are twenty feet high, 
occur along Learmonth Creek ; plants to sixteen feet high grow on an olf- 
branch or Crawford River (East Ciccuwald) ; antf there aie juveniles in 
the chalk mine mentioned earlier 


7, (15.) FFJ.r.AEA FAI.CAT A— Widespread on the Walt atrip from 
Tyrendarra to Mount Kccles, but outy twice* cm limestone: the isolated Cavf 
Hilt outcrop near 1 Icy wood and at rfifl Rock Ravine property at Drik DtuV 

R. ANOGRAMMA LEPTOPHYLI.A— Plentiful pn~ moist .shaded ledge* 
in barriers ot caves of '.be basalt from Ivrendarra to Mount Eccles. &0OW- 

hiiirs (Weils ctf .sporting plants at a time. 

i'"r!o] i*£*UGi!TU0i-r- A LrAmiovrH, fwrnx vf Portland 1}htrect ■*! 

!> 04.) CHEILANTHFS THNU11-*0I.1A— Three additional records; 
cistern bank. Keejrans Bend. Glenelg River; Deep Creek, M» Clay ; and 
chfT above Blacknose Point on the coast. 

10. CYCLOSORUS PENNlGERUS- On moist limestones at inter-.aU 
along the Lower Glcnelg as fat un .15 Dartmoor As well as Molesidc Creek. 
ji occurs along Spttng and Little Spring Creeks farther south, and below 
oM 1 ake Condah Mission Station, on a limestone lace ot DartoU Creek, tliere 
i-< an isolated |>tant. 

11. PHYMATODES DJVERS1F0UUM Trailing over basalt in « 
tanner near The junction of Darlots Geek and Fitzroy RiVTr, Tyrendaria 
(also 111 eaves at Bvaduk), 

12. (6.) CULCITA DUMA — Additional records: PWJ OMft (W. slope) 
and Bayer's Gully (S.£. slope), both 01 Mourn Clay. I In about 1&9I Fckerr 
collected it somewhere *k>tlg the Lower Gletfcetg. hut wc Have nor located, 
it there.] 

14 f$.) HYPOLEPIS KOCOSUI-A— Additional Another drain (3 miles 
S.W. of other) at Gorae W>st ; in swamp* at Gorae. and along Surrey Kin"' 
In the Oitfrsonia pocket west <rf Hotspur, and »i "fill Kettle Creek near 
Dig by, it grows with /■/". pttititafa 

14. HYPOLEPIS MUELLER J— Wakefield identified as such, barren 
maienai from wheie the Surrey River widens at Gorae. 

is. (7.) nyroiJiPTS punctata— ai Little hiolctgUefN Lcwwawii 

Creeks, an extension of its western ran#e. 

17. ATHYRIUM AUSTRALJf— One r«cord on'y, from basalt eaves abonr 
Otidway between Mount Eccles and Lake Condah 

18. (19.) ASPERNIUM FLARFLLTFOLIUM— Common throughout the 
b8&k formation from Tyrendarra to Mount Eccles ; rare at Swan Lake Falls, 
al a cave near mid-MoIeside Creek (both on limestone), at Lenrmonlh CretL 
and Deep Creek, Mount Clay. 

3<J. (21.) ASPLEKJUM ADIANTOIOFS— AUitt 's was the sole State 
record until August 1949 when we re-discovered it along, large split open 
basalt barriers near the junction of Uarlois Creel* and f h>i'Oy River, Tyron- 
rlarra, almost certainly AIHtt'3 original locality (See Vxci. Nat. 66: |2Pi 
November 1949). Later fl was found ten miles farther north, 011 the eastern 
bank of Darlots Creek betow old Condah Mission Station (See Virt. Nat <}?z 
224, March 1951). More recently the species was Unrated at Byaduk caves, 
outside our Portland area. 


21. ASPLEM1UM BULBIFERUM— In craters at Mount Eccles. We £fPl 
wonder where AUitt fouini Jt a.1 'GJenelg. Mouth". <Ti occurs in fair ahiutd 
ancc m Byaduk caves.) 

32. ASPLENJUM TRTCIIOMANES- Several widely scattered records, 
all 011 limestone: high cliff. Keegans Bend. Glenrlg River; Dartmoor; cave 
near mid-Moleside Creek; Rockingham ("reek, Lower Bridgewater; and a 
cove on Stanford's property al Tyrendarra. 

23. PLEUROSORUS RUTTFOLTUS— Unrommuit .m basalt from Tvren- 
darra 10 Mount Ecctes; oil limestone ai Rockingham Creek and Keegans 

24. (17.)* BLECHNUM MINUS. 

25. (16.)* BLECHNUM NUDUM— The bipimurc form occurs at several 
places Gallows and Lenrmonth Crrck.% Fhsruy Kiver, etc. 

4J BuAO0;.Kfr6f.K & Lxakmonth. I'rrnx oi Fnrtfmtd Dhl/tit [ Vol it 


27. BLECflNUM LA NCEO LATUM— Mitl-Mole*icfc Creek ami a nearby 
Rive provide cur only record;*. 

28. DOOD1A MEDIA— At Beyer 5 Gully and another watercourse, both 
oi> die S.E. slope of Mount Ciay 


30. {.12.)* PTER1S TREMULA— It lias accustomed ttseli to divert 
conditions of sflTU rock, exposure, etc. 

31. (11.) HfSTlOPTERrS INCISA— Additional i H degression near 
Johnstone's Creek. Kcntbruck. Eekert collected it from Lower Glenelg in 
1891, (It f§ also at Byaduk caves.) 

32 CTKNITIS SHEPHERDU— In basalt caves at junction of Darlo-.s 
Creek and Eitzroy Rjver; cave near Creek; narrow shaft at 
chalk mine near Heathmere- (Most abundant at Byaduk.) 

3$ (22.) POI.YSTtCHUM PROLTEERUM— Additional: Little Mo'c 
side and LearmoiUh Creaks; gully on S.E. slope of Mount Gay; off -branches 
of Crawford River. 

M (2.)* GLi:iCHl-:\-[A MtCROPHYLT.A. 

35. GLEICHE-NIA CIRCINNATA— One pwch only, ikj-h old "Pipeclay" 
mill site, S.W. of Mount Deception. 


37. SCHI^AEA BIFIDA — One wpveimeu. onbranched, under Xantliarr- 
hoccij near Coolgardie Swamp, Mount Clay. 

j*8. SCH12AEA ASPEKULA— Numerous m heathy country near 'Had 
of Deep Creek. Mount Clay, 

29 * OPHJOGLOSSUM" CORIACETJM— Occurring or. ninny ty\m p£ 

40. MARSILIA HtRSUTA— Only record, in swarm* along Darioi* 
Creek, Tyrendarra, fortunately in a sanctuary. 

41 PILU^RIA NOVAI>H01.f.ANDlAE— On flat, drying swamp to 
Dariots Creek sanctuary, 

42. A7.0LLA EILICUEOTDES— Abundant along: DorMa Creek and 
nearby swamps, often associated with duckweeds and the floating; hc-panc 
Ricdoca* p\tx milans. (Also ftt a spring at Rock Kavmc Drik Drik,) 

43- LYCOFODIUM LATERAT.R— Near^ foot of Little Mourn Kincaul. 
aod !u a swamp 00 the W. Mope of Mount Clay- 

44. PHYLLOGLOSSUM DKUMMOND1I— Long- Heath. Gorae; Emu 
IliK area, between Gorae West and Mount Richmond; Bats' Ridges; and 
Eekert has a reeoni_. "Entrance yf the Glenelg. 1891". 

45. SELAGIMfcLLA ULfGlKOSA— W. slopes 01 Mount Clay; near 
rifle range, South Portland; Upper Surrey River, at Wrights .Swamp and 
near ioot of Littie Mount Ktncaid. 

46 * SELAGTKELLA PRElSStANA — la moist places. 

47, [SOttTES DRUMWONDII— On fiaL drying swamp. DarloU Creek 

48. TMESIPTEEIS BILLARDIERI— Mainly on trunks of Dicksonm, 
hat also on Toilca along Little Moleside Creek. 


The Virionmt Ntfufvitsi <$ 


'including o tiew name for o tropical trigger-plon! I 

By J. H Whi in. 
National Hrrlurii'tn of Virii>rU 
11 :: I .1 iDUJM EKICKSOV*: A Vf* Wflfifii nomcu mtvum. 

[.A- androsuccuw O. Sdwnr* »n tt+ptfzt. Spec. \*au Re&n Kftf. -'/: 

105 (1^27), mm Lindl, In kihi'tirth's Uvh Kt& Z31 Appendi*. . ;.. V£# 

Swan River: xvix (1 Dec. l8Jy V, mv HC. P'octr. Svxt. U<fi ?*' 7*-> 

(Dec. serqs 1&39), J 

\s a Inter homonym, Olio Srhwarr's name Styhdium oitdrnspnmm mnsi 

lapse lor the m*_cts.saiy r,e\v epithet, T have the greatest pJeaKcre in hrstuwriis 

the surname of Mrs. Rica Rnckson (Bolgarl, \V A. )— my Incnd *»»d eol 

(ibor&Mff during so many researches in Ibe fail: tun ling fngger-pUn unvily. 

Mrs, Fjickyju'ii ^alienee, ^^iti'is for minute detail and #ieai artistic sSciil 

fctftve yonc- .i very (our May toward solving tba taxonomk problems coime'-tcd 

witls this ddhcult group , >lie has travelled ex'erttav<ly to study specie* in Ilv 

ftfcju over milch o»' AttsJTRlfa (inrhidir.g rhe tropic*), and everywhere ha* 

made careful colour sketches of t)ie Jiving plauU— working lowaul rt compfs;- 

henvve monograph al all Australian T*l££6Jrfr* which- '5 now neaniie 


5". pntfaiNbTC is a delightful and very characteristic pcrc-mia?. I' has elms? 
ailjtl *'N-<:evthit*jJy hirsute, vcrticillat^ rosettes f.V'-J" udde) ;>om the upycr- 
7iiOsf e»f which ftnif M|i to 20 (bat usually less) ucct ooo fl<>wetwj. |t4liViiw 
peduncles to ft" h>ijf«- ; the calyx lube is elongated the corolla TO»y pink inside 
and Ungbl yellow ev'.emaliy. As far as we know at present, the Krxiies occurs 
only with'n a jhofl distance of Port Vlar-win, Apparently the hrrd ipeeirnem 
-were, found By M. HolUe along tin* Adelaide River in 1»H90 fun-named col- 
lefitkpl id Melbourne Herbarium). P. A. K. Bleeser collected ;t at Koolphryah, 
.W miles oast of IWwm ( on wet s*ndy flMs"), riming the L$?(Psj Ill's 
materia} became the tyra of -5r, an-drosacetott O, Schwarz, Mr^. lirirksoit 
lie»'5<H- obraniod gWCil SiWcHilg *_ sample-., on wliite aUfid along '.he Sluart 
ii-^ltrtay, 2l) miles iroin (July )2, 1^5) ^ind rtlso sevctal I HI Its 
tienif.' (lie town. 
1 Kug^eit "Androsaec Tr»^:^p:ri>!;4iit" as an npr-vopriMt'.- vernacular ttnt:je, 

2. SrYUDiUM l^KOUPMCATUM /?. Br. Prodr. Flor, \ov. TToll. 563 
= 5. piloswm fcflWff, \ T ov. TToll Planr Specim- 2. 6lv T.2l> f IW), 
5n ihe Ptoifromn.i Uohen Brown recognizes both .S. fihisxtJU sort $ vrfn/i'i- 
mfiou, the Litter prestinicd :o differ »n ns redupltCtite kawj ;md feiiDrlCT scape 
•vilti t'tin-trl,o*didar hnirs. ] r A-1i](ibrdtc in his moiiunrMpI-. (jt\ ^tylidifffMfl 
[Dos i J fhw»ni,cuh IV : 27%, Heft J5 : £0 (1VU8)1 fete a fuutnoie to :)ie 
dericriptlon of 6' rcd^pltcatnm, viz.: 

St. {ni</ii>ttt Liilitll . . ia»i >iiK; specks cn iuonibus ci fib^cr'fu tone >u»i 

COili*'"^' 1 «*» c;ft<' i*.iso'iu-:r. 
C A Gardner omit^ S pllotum from hi? Pifuvirralio (1930), 

Throughout the SfUld inlain cotiini'y around E^perance Bay, ifxlendmj 
CsNte.Hy to beyond the Cape l.e Grand Reserve and also occurring on some 
islands oi the Recherche ArcripeTayo, is. a lar.cje 1'riggcr-planr which varies 
a good deal in width of leaves, rolling oi margins, flower colour and dcyrec 
of development of glandular hairs Oower part of scape usually nou-g)andul3i l* 
Th'i i am convinced is Die S. pi(ownt of Labiltardiere, fn/m which .V. rcrfufiti- 
frtwm R, t\r v,m\ not be separated yteciiicallv, 1 sent maleiial from Sandv 
Hoclc bland ( Kecherche ArrhipeU^o) ro Dr. R. PidVt-Sermolli for ccno- 
panson with Labdlardiere'*; type .ar Klorenccs and he replic<i (29f i )/W52') ; 

44 W:u.ik. ,V>i/Vj OH dit.sfrahnn Styhrfm {_ v,j/ v " 

'Vour specimens agree well with the rype of S. pihsutn m all characterise es. 
in the appendages at the throat of the corolla too." 

I SI YLitU'UM ADHKBSSUM SfiiOu Flora Au$r, 4\ 2Z (186$), 

The cpirh^t has, without justification, boon spelt "apprfitsum" hy J, Mild- 
hraed (10QH) and CI A. (iardncr (1930). Mrs. Erickson examined material 
an the Sydney Herbarium labelled .>. cygvoruw W. V, Fit/g (7c»»rH. <£ ^n>t 
Ahwlicr Hot Soc / 9 : 16-17 (June 1902)1. and found tb:»( the specimens rire 
inseparable from our S adprts-suui, var patens [see MiuHeria i l * 16 t.Fch. 
I056.t 1. They dilTer from Fitzgerald'* description or 5. rytfrtorvm in having: 
much shorter loaves (seldom 1 cm., in rontrasl with his I, inches), pink not 
vellow /lowers and without the 5 throat apptnoagt*. The exact nature of 
Fitzgerald's species is stilt uncertain. Out it could ^present an extraordinary 
!frhn oi & tulprcsjnm. 

4 STYf TDll'M MERRAT.UI (F.Mnelt ) PrtiHk lit olw., in Enclcr Bol. 
Jahrb. ,?.i: 596 (1904). 
K. Mtiellci published die species under Cmutaika (nob Styi-idinut) m fcVf 
■V.-rf $ 76 (iSftft) , so it is incorrect to write "S. mcrraltii F. Mue'.L" of 
Mililbrne** and (.jardner have done. The first writer to use the combination 
.SI iiwrrtittii would seem to In- E. Pritzet, in a footnote under his origins! 
'.lescrijitioti of $". didsHt-num • Ue aT*u attribute*! Hie binomial to F. Mueller. 

Xomi. iff Lchvu 
These species arc almost co-extensivc. very similar. c»nd hnve betn com- 
pletely confused in eastern Australia. However, they may he ilUtinguishril 

quite readily as fallows; 

.5* Htxpcctum lacks a basal msette and has the two posterior oetals 
larger than the anterior, longitudinally arranged and almost touching 
throughout their length; whereas S. brachyphytftvm has an obvious 
rosette of radical leaves, the two posterior petal:; smaller than ihe 
anterior and widely separated, almost forming lateral |>airs with -ftAch 
notPtior petal 
h. Rodwny in Tas. Fiara (1903) doos nor, mention $. hr<uhxphyltun\. 
utather does A J- Ewart in fifofa l''ict. (1930) ; J, M. Black syitotrymiz^s it 
under S. riespwhtw hi his Worn S Axtst, (1929), yet the species occurs in 
each of these three States Dr. Winifred M. Curtis recently (Dec 1955) 
found both trigxei -plants rtciwjii* neat T-ow T*Tead at the mouth of ibtr 
Tamar River, fa?, which is Brown's type locality for .V despectwn, 
~(- STV£TmXnT~rEr\Xf?TtY'tkVMr~De; ProdTT~Systr-Matr~?--?8tW- 
(1838), var. MLCRONTFOULM Bfctffc Flora Aim 4 3D n«6*» 
— S. dichobomwfn T)C- I.e., forma. 
Mildhracd. (1908} emphasizes the difficulty of separating certain forms of 
S. icplophvtium from S. ditholommn; and Jars. Rricksou h.i& found tlxat ihr 
two can a.iwear almost identical, the only reliable criterion theji neiug the 
manner in whiclt the anthers are arranged" on the, column — transversely fi^ced 
m the. former, and paralkt to column axis in the latter species, hi ftcnthanYs 
vSt'iety MUffflMiJjfpHiAtt the anthers are placed as for .5", tjichotomttin t not S- 
fcptophyttum. To make a new combination ' r 5*. tiichotvnmm* var. mxicrmu- 
fofium", however, would be superfluous because tiirhptuwrtw iouieiinies has 
deerdedly mucronuUte foliage* Bentham himself v-ynom/inued S~ ti.*u^/r*m- 
/u/hum of Hooker (Pot. Mag. 453^) under S, tiuhoto-tmtm* 

7 ( STYUDrCM ROSEO-ALATUM R, Erirltsm cS /. rf, tUHkili V.ct. 
Wat, 7Z. 133 (Dec 1955). 
The date piven, under the original description, for collection of the 
HOLOTVPF- \\w MF.I.) fs incorrect; it should be Oct, 26, !K& Wl Oct. 17, 




riG J 

The Victorian Nalurahsi 



Ry A, \V\ Dockkiki., Georges Hall, N.SAV. 

Flania efoltatii. Radices eirieieo-viuclefi, ferr plan at, a.ilttsn !3 (yo. lonPae, 
usque ad l tmiu lajsc. Pr-duncuhtS circa $ mm l-?»git$, s^xa? *i*ti rr pt^vjt-pf^ttfflr 
his-pidus. tVdtoetli ctiea 2 nuu. lougi, hispid:. iirarta* pedicM]n<; sfisiintftlfcd 
variabiles, >eii fer? semper magnafc, ad ba&i.-i latae, acuminata* 1 , atute decurvac. 
Rorcs plciumque 2-, subfiivi. v;x aperjernes- SeRtuenfa arijuncta sed noo adhaefen- 
tU; supra aii partem laxerakm curvaU, tn/i-a plana. Sepaln circa 1 mm ionga it 
I mm. lata, cymbiforraia, basin vex&na se!*s patieas gerentia. J?e*.ala smului, (tavTb 
rjreviora, I.&belkini erica 2,5 mm, Ionium {<al^af*W iiidudcus), cyniVfora-*, cteme 
in sumrna frame pra^dttntn; Inbt fottrale* h»gtri, fere scmiQrb»cniar*«, iru-urvat-', 
calcar subcylmdratum, terme, circs 1 mm lonjium. Anthera. rosii'O obtuse, sursum 
carvato^ insiructa. 

Vortb Queensland: Mount Spec (W. W. AbeK : Nov. 1955— TYPE). 

riant leafless. Roots naIe-grey-jL*Teen, almost flat, up to at least 12 era. long 
and 1 mm. or less broad. Peduncle up to 3 mm. long, rather sparsely beset 

TncniophyUum tobalum sp, nov, 

A: Complete plant (about natural size), see. seal*. B: Flower from side: 

C: Flower from below. D: Labelhmi from side (lateral lobe raised), 

E. Column. (B, C, D and £ are shown twice natural; size,) 

with short coarse bristles (which are persistent on old peduncles). Pedicels 
about 2 mm. long, beset with bristles similar tOj but smaller than, those e»f 
the peduncle. Hracts subtending the- pedicels, variable in dimensions, but hngc, 
broad at the base, acuminate, sharply decurved about one-third the distance 
from the base. Flowers 2 as far as is known, pale yellow, rounded laterally 
On top, flatlish below <nid horseshoe-shaped in outline (apart from the spur), 
segments closely appressed but not joined and not widely expanding at their 
apices. Sepals about 2 mm. Ions and 1 mm. broad {when flattened), cyinbi- 
form, a few bristles towards the base. Petals similar to the sepals but a little 
smaller anc^ without bristles. Labelhmi about 2,5 mm. long v including the 
spur, cytnbitorm. with a tooth in front on top; lateral lobes large, almost 

seiuiorhiculaT. incut vwl so that the.y meet in front of the aniliet but are not 
columii-cmorar.injj ; spur subcylindrical, rather <.!riidrr, .ilinnl I mm Ions 
Anther with an up-curved obtuse rostrum . 

Vtifihidfhyfhm hbntuin is not closely related to any of the other three 
Australian species or" the genus. T. Mueiferi Lnidl . T. c.v/nr>i/or»fe Hunt *uul 
T W'tlkuuium Hunt ibut it has close affinities with some extra-AuMtidiitu 
species), Ami it i* readily distinguished I com them (i.c the. three AuMraliAiis) 
l>y its hispid peduncle. e4c.„ this Mature being absent m those throe, and hy 
its relatively much larger bracU and lateral lobes ot the labellum. 
The specific epithet rcfeis to the large lobes of the tabellum 
The collector deserve* the fullest praise for rinding yet another new E$Cf2$£ 
of oiehid. 


Despite the inclemency or the weather elsewhere in the State. May 28 lit?t 
was a pleasant, sunny day \n the valley of I he upper (Victorian) Snowy 
River. A stop was made for hinch at the old r>ine-lo» hut at the eastern end 
dj MeKillop's Bridge under the craggy Mount Ue.ddick. The forest there is 
iminly of Murray Pine, and White Box {BuatlyfHus atbens). and the tatter 
w-as flowering profusely. Notice wn$ taken ot the nectar-eating birds in the 
immediate vicinity of the hut, and there were no fewer than twelve species 
present at the time — ten boueyeaters and two lotiVeets. They -comprised the 
Ked Wattle-bird, Ea&Crti Sninebdl, ihp Whirr-na4tp.1l, "SVII, iw-Tnfrr*i, Fuscous, 
Yellow-winged, Yellow -faced. White-eared, Crescent anil Ke^eut Hoiicy- 
eatetSj and the Musk and Little Lorikeets.. Has a-ny reader noticed such n 
concentration anywhere of the^e fcruilKonyucd necUr-(cvd'-'r>~ 

— N A, WAKK»ltt.O. 

F.N.C.V. Mcerih$*: 

Monday, August IS— "Central Australia', by Mr. [\ Fmchcn. 
Monday. September 10— "Native Plants", hy Alias C. Carbcrry 

F.N.C.V. Fu'urv^ns: 

Saturday, July M Midwinter Mystery Trip, by parlor coach, approxi- 
mately 156 miles, mostly along highways, no walking. Objects Historical 
and Fliysiog.rsphjcal. Coach leavts Batman Avenue 8.10 am. Firing tu-o 
meali — morning tea available at cafe cu route. Uuokings 1&/- each, with 
leader Mr. H. Stewart. 11 Bay view Terrace, Ascot V*l« LJf*1epl»oue 
FU 10%). 

Saturday, July ZB — Botany Group Meeting. Meet 2.15 p-on. at National 
Herbarium. Subject: Plant HcoJogy, Speaker: Mr. K. Allans. 

Saturday, August 4 Geology Group excursion. Collecting day fur Naliufrkl 
Museum. Details at sroup meeting. 

Saturday. August 11 — Inspection ot CS.l.K.O Native Plant Garden. Graham 
Road, HiRliett, and visit to Highctl Nursery, 22 MiddMou Street. HigtifM- 
Leaders : Messrs. E. Swarhretk ami U. A. Echberg. Take 1.50 |i.m, 
Motdialloc irain to TTighert or meet 2 2(\ at Ifigbett station. 

Croup Mc£tin9«: 

(Ji p.m. at National Herbarium.) 
Wednesday, Ju(y 18 — Microseupicat Group. 
Wednesday, August 1 — Geology Croup. Subject Sulphide Minerals Spcik<-T 

Mr. Cobbcrt. 
Preliminary Notice: 

Sunday. August 19 — Parlor coach excursion to Blackwood Leader Mr. 
Williams. Conch leaves Batman Avenue ° a in. Kite 18/-, Bring two meals. 

— Marit. ArxFxnwi, Excursion Secietaiv, 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 73— No- 4 AUGUST 9, 1956 No. 872 


The hall at the National Herbarium, was filled 10 capacity lor 
the Genet al Medina on July 9 test Before proceeding with busi- 
ness, the President welcome*! visitors, and also the new officers — 
Mr. E. Coghill, Hon. Secretary,, and Mr. F, Curtis, Conned 
Member It was learned that Mr. George Coghill and Mr. F Lewi* 
were ill. and it was decided that letters of sympathy should he 
sent to ihem. 

A Idler was received from Dr. M. Chattaway .staling that she was 
Willing lr> ;ict as one of the Club 'a representatives at the forthcoming 
A.N. Z A. AS. conference at Duuedin, Miss Jean Woollard had 
been appointed Exhibit Steward, Mr. Webb had signified his 
willingness to aci on a Youth Movements Committee, and Mr. 
Seacou had agreed 10 take an interest in the Hawthorn Junior Club. 
Mr. Kaymem had accepted the special office of liaison between Club 
members and the National Museum officers, 

Mr Garnet placed hefore the meeting several suggested amend- 
ments to the proposed National Parks legislation, and the Club 
agreed to support them. 

The meeting was then handed over to Mr. John Bechervaise, 
who delivered a most memorable address on Antarctic animal lii'e 
— the Emperor Penguin; Acidic Penguin, Snow Petrel and the 
Weddell Scais. -TFns was followed by Jin outstanding series of 
Kodach'rome slides 0/ the scenery, fauna and flora of the Antarctic. 

It was announced that the nurserymen of the Dandenongs, with 
the Aryus and Your Garden magazine, were to hold a show at 
Kalorama during Melbourne Show week; and the Beaumaris Tree 
Preservation Society is ro organize a function during the first 
weekend in October. 

The President reported that an F.X.C.V, party and a number 
of members of the B.O.C. had attended the Sir Colin Mackenzie 
Sanctuary at ]-JealesviUe on the previous Saturday, and that a 
very satisfactory amount of work had been done in connection 
with the Nature Trail and in the planting of ornamental native 
trees. )i was arranged that working parties should continue opera- 
tions on the first Saturday ot each month. 

The meeting closetf'at about 10.15 p.m. for the usual conver- 
sazione and perusal of exhibits. 


•Ih -/he l'n;{i»ittn No-tuwiift Vol. 7S 


About rhirty members and friends attended The meeting of July 1H. Mr. 
Tarlton Kaymeut was the speaker for the evening, his subject being "Tlie 
Incidence ol Pollen Grains of Heath on Creative Evolution'', A ntimbei t>t 
niiero-^ln.ks ot poller, grains- and of transverse sections of immature flosvi-r- 
biids of Ii*miIis were w>cd to illustrate, the. lerture. These were. fircvifotcd Hi 
various wnvs, some were arranged under microscopes and others projected 
Ivy Mr. "M-ddloton's micro-projector, Miss Woo-lard projected Kodachromc 
slides ot various heath*. Mr. Rayrncnt produced evidence, after studying >ome 
200 species, t.nat ul prttcht nil huatlis are ^elf-poilenatiny. bul that ilioy 
Wrre single- grained pollen cells and would in time require i.n;ect 

Members are advtseU Lkat the slide cabinets are now accessible hi the 
Club Library roowi, with a catalogue to indicate what is available. Mi'. H. 
Barret: Is the custodian Mr. W. Evans is to act as Group Treasurer for the 
collection ot annual sutactiplions horn tliose vho bre unable to attend the 
Club 5 G ,-, nc/i rd Mocrinsr? Mcobrrs are rrqucsred lo hfirg llieir lavouiiLe 
opaque or dark ground slides, and some me-ajis of 1 1 liittu luting them, lo the 
Group Meeting on August 15, ro assist Mr Suell in his demount ration oj -hi- 
technique of preparing and mour.nng such specimens. 


By A. Massol-a" 

The ability of thr Aborigine 1 - to avail himself nf ;ill tha* Nfatnre 
produces fs well known, Thus he is able ro fcuv/we and prosper 
under conditions which would mean certain death to the European. 
Foremost amongst hi.-; needs i$ water, and ihe tunny ways he 
makes. Nature supply it arc almost beyond belief, ftec:s and their 
Touts,, trogs and dew, alt serving his purpose. Less known is the 
Aborigine's ability, under certain condition*, to actually build 
storage tanks lor the cowscivaliou of rain water. 

In the Maryborough district of Victoria three such rock wells 
are known, one being much larger than the others and apparently 
of some age. This last one has been known for a long time, but,, 
although the matter was never in douhf amongst local enthusiasm 
and members of the Maryborough Field Naturalists Club, ft has not 
had official recognition as a well. For instance, in the Melbourne 
Herald of January 22, 1919, there was a note about the "Sucriftaal 
All at* „ or MysTetious Rock'". Apparently the victims were sacri fired 
On the rock, and the blood would collect in the wells! Later, m 
1920. A. S. Kewyou wrote about the "Aboriginal Ptgmenl Quarry'* 
and stated that an ochre of a rich yellow color was obtained from 
the sides and bottom ot the pit. 

The present writer first #rw this rock in July 1955. liavinsr heen 
guided there by Mr. I.. Courtney of Maryborough. At rhe lime 
1 expressed fiftliiC doubts of it having been done by ahr-rigines, as 
il seemed altogether too elaborate, in design and omwrucuon, but 

• Dcpa^mcii" of Anthrotxttftgy, NuUona'. Muavum ■?! Victoria. 


.\| \^m a, .WftVc Hater f! rlls <tt \Iarxh<>rt>u<{h 


having again visiter! thi> site, as well a- the other newlv discovered 
tu ie>. under the guidance uf Mrs. B. Herring, also of Maryborough. 
I have now no doubt that they are water-wells. 

I lie three well.s are excavated Hi outcrops of micaceous sandstone 
and run in a general north-easterly direction through country which 
is particularly dry. The di Mai tec between the two fartheM apart is 

Locution ot Native Water Wells at Maryborough. 
(For details, see text.) 

5| miles as the crow flies, with the middle one, which happens to 
he the first discovered, 5 miles from its south-west partner and 
^ mile from its north-east one. It is possible that they were on a 
track running through the bush and used by the aborigines during 
their seasonal movements between Bet-bet and Deep or Tullaroop 
Creeks, and forming part of a network of trade routes. 

The oldest known, and largest, is situated at the head of a shallow 
gully, Bull Gully (marked A on map), ten chains on the left or 


Massula. Xtitirc Water U'clls al Maryhon>u<ih 

["Vict. Na 
I Vol. 78 


cast side of MacCallum's Creek Road. As the photograph - ..\vs, it 
is a series of four holes or pits excavated in the rock on the ledge 
at the hase of a large outcrop. Three of these holes unite under the 
surface, and form, as it were, one large tank with three openings. 
The excavation was not carried straight down, hut on an inclined 
plane, and at one end the tank is 51 inches deep on the incline and 
nearly four feet vertically helow the surface. 

The choice of this ledge at the foot of the rock i.s of the greatest 
importance, hecause it forms a natural catchment for the rain falling 
on the rock. The narrowness ot the mouths of the holes, onlv six 
to eight inches, is ideal for 
protection against pollution by 
animals and wind, as they can 
easilv he covered with a .-dab of 
stone, and the inclination of 
the excavations would natur- 
ally tend to prevent loss of 
water hv evaporation. The local 
people assure me that this rock 
well has never heen known to 
dry up. 

The other two wells, situated 
one on the right or west side 
of the road to Amherst (C on 
map), just hefore the road 
crosses the ( )possum Cully, 
and the other in a shallow 
gullv at Mosquito Flat on the 
left or east side of the Craigie 
Road (H on inapt, are quite 
small in comparison with the 
first (A i. the former having 
hut two shallow holes and the 
latter three. It is noteworthy, 
however, that in each case the 
holes were heing excavated 
diagonallv into the rock, helow the 1 surface, and that the hole> are on 
a ledge at the foot of the rock. Clearly, these two were in process of 

Although such wells are known from other states, these, to the 
writer's knowledge, are the only artificial rock wells reported from 
Victoria. Hut as the people formerly inhabiting Tuaggara ( Mary- 
borough ) were the Jajaurung, one of the many tribes forming the 
Kulin Nation, which collectively occupied the country from Colac to 
the Baw Haws, and from Wangaratta and Alurchison on the north 
to Port Phillip and Western Fort to the south, it r*j possible that 
this idea mav have spread and that more will come to light. 

Photo: Cha^ 

Maryborough Water Welts 

( Marked "A" on map. ) 



Ry Roy C. Kzrsjm^* 

tlw lec-sltwaK-t iuo*lu$ca ha* e always T^c^-i^d the Modem with cxceprional 
dirrirnltieJL In Victoria, the fir.=r temhlauce o! otder for this fauna ui the 

Sta;e w£fc achieved by C J. Gabnei. but h'5 icsMfs hai-c not Jiece^aiily beat 
in aftrccwenr with those of other worker*. Aft the ftrM r»f a projxv-ed scries 
i)f itarirr* relating f<< Vu eorian mollusca, it was hoped that a briuy'mg together 
of the work of the various ambers would enable a more up-to-date picture to 
tx presented. Since, this work was completed, Dr. McMielntel oi the Australian 
Murfutn has ripGrled ou same revolutionary discoveries m relation to freeh* 
water muswls, which enables a completely new approach to l >e nviclo, 

li is not proposed to debate the arguments put lotw&id by McMicbael 
[.\'<ttitilus Qp (jQ 1955) ; t tie writer v,i&"he> 10 accept them ,k the only $»it«- 
factory rourso. Iredaic had rcvisca the umbels ir. I934, ami again in l°-t> 
and had iuuoducrd various new grouns in the first papei. Otbjiel did jic-1 
Imd these arrrprablp in I9&9, and prgfei refl lo .ni'nc'P '•' Hi*' findings of Colloii 
and t*abriel in 1931, (See reference? iti Ik below) lor the c;nur-oversi.d 
Onis nustrdis lie had retained Hvrirfrtfa. and in :Wn he tvaj correct, aut, &; 
McMicliael '■'«> shown, the lame has bc*q in wre it/r llit vm-ji:« shell. In the 
following bsr the .name Hyr'nicllo a us trait* i= applied lo die shell Fottoti y 
known as J, J rt.f(n'hyrhU-lhi neptritirsnJt&x fOwjwl), and this k undoibtcdly ihc 
correct us'iy.e 

tH interest is the nbysiologieol work o: L>j. ft HmcocK. who has shown 
that there arc ihree phases in I'h^U move-oicinc ftt The coftwiftfl Min'ray nuiss*?! 
(/?«xr. /. i-/w. FrasUxvatcr A'rx J (2) : 25°, 195(1), The shells may he. cIdwa, 
completely open (and leedine;), oi pailly open at a stationary uilermedicne 
position. He hn& desci ib».-d the expulsion of Ihc jrjocttfctficfil larvae, and in a 
later work (Trans. Hoy. Site: S Autf, 74 (2)\ 146 1951 ) dtfftiff&es the ho^t, the ca I lop emerging a? the lively principal host. 

Au interesting point remarked |iy fmcock "was the former belief that tin 
gluctiiihtmi was Q paiasite of the gilts of rffetb; it is m face pa.r^5itic »jh the 
Tuts, ijurmg or hetore the evpulsion of the crlochidia they may be yie^ent ni 
the brunclnae in numherf;. This l«l very early ohr.erreTS to rearard them 3^. 
pajAstres of the niussclg theim-elves. a ceriam i J roi. Jacol>^erL ot CopnihaR^i 
hfting convinced of this. A little more than one hmtfjred ycori &go ni Ch&tl$f- 
worth'j Witc/acinc of K'atMrn! Histcry (Vol. 3. p, 441; they were described 
as disteniliiift the hranchine "in a retmn Wable manner". Dr. i'feiHer, howevst, 
observed the presence of iviniite mii^el nulboiKSi mid concluded he wa* seeing 
the yuunir; this -conclusion was later aocep;ed ntt havinp; been rorrert, Joyce 
Al!3ii {Vi(4 jVu/ 5?-: I6d. \9SA) records inc. discovery oi i. pearl found in % 
mussel by Mrs, Freame, ami iIim'us^cs *ot5 lyjic ol occurrence. 

Miisst;h are fouitd in many places in Viclorw ; a l*tfi« imm'irr of llte^e ate 
Tocordcd by Mr. Gabriel, They may he found itt a liwit' Nlrc&in, or in *i 
billabuus, lagoon, of lake habual. It is very de.^iralilr that more be. leant 
nonhealing the various types of habitat. 9nd ceruin specie? .seem to liave >omc 
preferences. The best opportunity for collecting i; at a nine when river level* 
are low, ifind I have found them even among rock? on the river ht*d. The 
siiclls vary according to environmental fondition-!. wkleji may alTecL grcwtl. 
of the shell in various ways. Dr. Uiscock found that :* younjy animiil ,Vfl 
xccidvnlly to an ucKiMrimn jar without water, withstood dcc.;icjtion at 
22 d-eg/ee* Centigrade far it least three months There are in Victoria several 
sneeies of nuniiTc bivalves Jibted b> Mr. G^liriel in the ^eiierM Sphr.crimv. 
rip1di\pn,$i\iL GyW/tntftr. Tredale has preferred Or, Dal|\ Corlni-tftii\u msloi'i 

S2 Kiiisruw. f'tuviiitth mid t.unixtiitw Mtiliuuu f vol. "?;I 

of CarbiCitkt, and lias himself introduced new groups to replace the first two, 
on the grounds that Australian species arc not regarded as rcferrable, to these 
genera, by extralinutal workers. In general appearance- the shells themselves 
ar similar to the English Orb and Pea shells, but in any case they axe su 
small that close study is needed to recognise the species at all. Hence they 
tend not |<3 fefc popular ; however they may be found in streamy, lakca and 
marshy p/aces. often buried in the mud I have found them ill the hanks; c£ 
■streams, amongst the roots of reeds in the wet mud, They arc said to climb 
reeds growing in the water. 

Iredale bus renamed Gabriel's .Sphotrinm tasttwtikum and records two 
species from Tasmania. If the Victorian shell is not distinct tram the 
Tasmaman. then it is at the moment, a moot point as to whether it be 
equivalent to S. hisnutHtciiw or Iredale'* $ larnsedes. However, ae both these 
shells are from South Tasmaman river system* (rht latter species is from 
Great Lake in the Derwent watershed, and incidentally occurs not in the Lake 
but in the outflow) and one is not yet convinced that they are separable, and 
which, if either, is found m the north of Tasmania, it seems much more 
satisfactory to accept IretUle's. S t-ictoriana . despite the brief diagnosis, until 
it can be conclusively demonstrated that there arc specific differences, or 
conversely, that there are no specific differences, present. It is hoped ^.t a 
later date to make comparisons between shells from various localities in an 
r-ffort to determine the re'ahanships in Tasmania. Collecting to tin*, *vul bw=- 
been done fft several places. 


5uperfeinu> : NAIADACKA 


Subfamily: YliLl: SUM10MAL-; 

VELESUNIO. Iredale Aust. >Uu>l. S (I): h9 {.May 9, \93A). 

(Type- Umo <x>ubif,ntus Phdippi = U. bvloutunsts Conrad.* 

i. VBLBSUMO DA-SUn.LU (V,jia'> 
«87l, tfonvHH, Vniv Villa, Joum. ,(e Couch t ffl £3 sofc xi ) ; m 
1W id. pvitnm Itedale,, far, : 60. VI 3, rug, 4, & » 4, fig. \, 
1934, id. yetexuma Allan. t''ut, Mat. SI (/): J66 (Nov.), with text fig. 

River Yarru. Mrs. Frcame't. .specimen rented by Joyce Allan came from 
l'2vert< - nt, from a !a^oon : 'otY (I e "River Murray". 


1943. Usiatus^ Vctcsiinw Iredale, Aust. <W., 11 (4): 88 (Nov.). 
1934. nwrn, Veleswdo Iredale, it:. : 62. Pi. 3, fig. 7, & PL 4, %. ? 

Type: BcntbaggL N.5.W. (non V avnst PI. 3, fig. 6, & PI 4. rig. 6.J. 
1939 ihustrahs, H\>ndrHa Galirie). Mew. \&ih Mas. Vh-i 11. 129. PI, 4. 
tic. 38. " 

The species hitherto regarded as H, ausimtis has been shown to have been 
confused with a species of Vclesnnio. We are here concerned With the identity 
of the shell figured by Gabriel, and 1 have preferred IT. lestatus for the time 
being. The species is stated by Iredale to be common in Victoria and South 
Avistraba. Gabriel gave distinguishing" point? ${ U, amlngtta Phihppi from hilt 

/V. muvh-atis, however Lifts conception of these forms is identical with that of 
Cotton * Gabriel {Proc Up. $oc Klc/.. 44 (2) h.j. ; 156 & 157, 1932) 
I reduk cites their shell from Reedy Lake as being identical \v*th his V. ct'imo 
The U'etrsunin Imhnncnxis (Conrad) is now known to be V ambiy'**'** 
i Pluhppi) ; Cotton and Gabriel's Jlyrtrlcth h discarded (McMichael, Nfiuhhti 
69 (lj\ 11). Gabriel, thus, includes true w\ attthif/uits as a synonym of his 
H. nuslralis and it this is not /••'. tesiattis as used here, then it should he 
¥ ainiiiituus, in which case f would regard V ~ tc\hHus as a junior synonym 
Unfortunately, on lbs basis of the usage of the name, Gabriel has included 
Irediilc'f. ft- ausiralts" and his "//. orirm' : , but this >s incorrect. 

ALATHV.R1A, Ircdalc. Ar..; 63 (1034). ftf|>e, 4, jtifikMni Iredale.) 


JW4 i<J(k.uwi, AhUhyria Iredalc, /.r. : ri4, PI. 3, ft*. II & \K 4, fig. 11 
1939. wivasi, Jivnctsfh Gabriel, /.r : 130, P\ % %, 39. 

River Murr.iy Tliw shell is not //. ony/oM and approaches nearest to 
/J inrkxmti, while Ircdalc remarks that Cotton & Gabriel regarded "this 
<?roup" (WAif/ivrfu) as Hxrulclht unjytrvf (Ueeve). citing Cranicirton. Gabriel 
had not altered his views 

bubfannly: H VK I DELI 1 N> \E 

HYttiDELlA S^iu^ou, TtMtfi \fufo<\- ?S5 <1Moj. (Type : (.'/»<? 
ausfrahs Lamarck == (/iur> ucpi'iincnxw Conrad, emended.) 


t$19 australis. Unw Lamarck, Anivi. s. i'ert. (Erf. I) 6: SU. 

1850. vaproncusif (sic), Uwo Conrad, P*oc> Awd .W. Sc>- PhiUul. 5 (I) 4 

1932. id. Prapchyrntelh Cotton & Gabriel, &ro£. AV>v. Sew. Vict. 44 (d) 

1934. id. J'ropAivtuiAt* Tredale, I.e. 73 
1OJ0. i t i. Propeh\>ruldnt- Gabriel, it. : 131, PI. 4, fifc, 40. 
1V55. fmstfvltx, Wyr></W/a>kMichack A'WtfJ Of /7>; I* (July). 
Mitchell River, etc., Gippsland, 

J 934. (auslrohsj tiriou, Hyridwiiu Irwlale I.e. : n9 

Jrcdalu's ii. tfrapetti replaces his H. austmii.t, accordingly //. mim hecomw 
U subspecies ol h\ dfapffo'l it is said to conic froni I.ilydalc. 1 do not propose 
lo discus the statu;* ui tins form. Trcdak* flitlCj 'a ni\\y adult specimen !? 
a httle smaller, less wmged, the ^endncardmak less erec( and more rugose, 
the anterior muscJc scars smaller, (he anterior rctrartor-ped>> pit notably <o,'' 
One may appeal to authors not to use comparisons in original definition*; 
they may he supplementary. The practice was heanily condemned a few years 
ago by an authority dealinjii VStfa crustaceans, when iaecd with a particularly 
unfortunate cxanijdf. 

1934. rcnutus, Hyridur.w Iredale, I r. : 09, PI, 5, %. 3, &- PI. 6, fig. 4. 

Latrobe Kieer; Tarra Creek, TanaviJle. Gabriel included several specie* 
under P. cultifilifotmis, however Jredale examined a shell from Tarra Creek 
which ft probably the basis o\ Gabriel's record from that locality 

54 Klkshaw, FhtvKitih <Jtnf Laaislnnr .Vi'iViuni 

Vi-H. Not. 
Vol. 7fl 


1932. )Mffrt('<":rHM'>, PropvhyntUikt Cotton & Gal>neL ^ . • 1S9, PI 16, fig. 8. 
[93-1 lirpCWIViJUt ntitnuoncnsif. P^fich^ridilh Frcdalc, /.r . : 74, PI. $ fijr. 13, 

4 Pi. 6, fi« 0. 

|4& MilrwiWiwi'*. CrofchyruU-tfa Garinel /.c ! 1&, PL 4, fc, 42, 

Narraean River, Thotpdale. One liis i&rae doubt a* to the shell Tredale 
examined. He may have mixed Irs tner&lities, or for that matter, the collector.;. 
He may, hence, have bad the, shell, listed as H. twtratis above, collected b.y 
J, A. Ker*haw from the Mitchell Rive* (and this dirYe*s somrwbat from 
TrexiajVs dhtstratinn of P. nFat*paaet;sir) in whirl* ££$9 his "*uh_speoes" Would 
immediately become a synonym, and had actually at first been placed a? snch 
in this work. In addition the possibility oi a juvende entering info the picture 
has rot made for clarity, and I was ltd to conclude that Iredaie had befell 
more chan one form Dc. Hisei>ck remarks (personal coiimmniealion) :luit 
the paiatypes of P Mtraeiinctitis are a noised series. 

1934. (deprMtit.) vicinalra. Rngeshyr'ta Trcdale,, ; 72, 
1$& ruhoilijnnfiis. / V.^A.v n'M.'a GahKel. f/ ! 1J2. PL 4. hg. 41. 

Mitchell Wwer Ircdale based his subspecies mi shells fro"** tiie Mitchell 
River which Gahriel has continued m regard a? P, c\\\Uli\jotnns litt«Miiu.:b 
as this nam*' is apparently not applicable, H. z&uut-ftg may be used, hut the 
t.Uitns may he questionable, and I do not regard it as confirmed, a.; the 
R. series seems to need further study. 1 understand irom Dr. Hi.tcoek 
that he and Or. McMichael regard {Ot>jofhytia as a synonym, From a 
systematic point 0? view gome may prefer to retain it jja view of the elongate 
';hape and differences of the hinee teeth in the series, which may &?ve it 
sub^reneiic value. Such a course has vofue when taige sr-rirs are involvprl. hi 
preventing a gtflnis from hwmntnir unwit-ltlly whether that argument k oere 
applicable depends on die validity of 1he "species*" involved. 

PROTOfTYRTnF.TJ.A Cotton ft fofcrfcj, fopc. kw. Soc Vict., H (2) ns.: 
X® (1932) 

O'yp*' Umo >ttcueli;rusix UtimanO 

9 i-ROTOHyPfPLLL/l (iLEtVELCENSfS iDem.dml 
1*98. dU'tuttifHAis, Uttio Pennant Prov. Rvx. Svt- Vwl W it.,\, 1 12. fiR. 9. 
19.12, hi. l J n,Ujhxrtth'it« C<ALOii $ GUlrfeT, .'i : 160. PL t6, fig. 9. 
193^ irl- Iredaie, i c: 74. PI. 5. Up. 14. & VI r>. ftp. 14. 

I93f>. ttl (Jahriel, /.c. : 133. PI. 4, kg, 43. 

G'enelg' Kiver. The authors, repaid the genus as primitive, and it may well 
be that they are correct as the physiographic history of the Glene^g' £c£m£ 'o 
lenrl weight to the necessary prolonged isolation which i? pcohably unique m 
Victorian screams. Tliis aspect will not be dealt with here as it i= intended 
to deal wiih it in wctior.s dialling the gastropods. The authors' -enurfc 
that ojm.gated mussels are typical or r. nick- flowing ?treams and "scarcely 
warranted in present day slow-ftow:ny Austr<tliau rivers", is very mi<rtestiiig- 
Thc Glenelu. w certainly a slugaish and mature stream, and one must assume 
tliu! our mussel? have changed then* habits iby adaption in the blentiu;}, for 
Vctcxuwo \r- plentiful m the otien vety swii!t South Esk River in l.'asiriania. 
However Cippslarid streams harbouring ffyrirfrlkt now tend to be sluggish, 
whi:reas tht*y have withtmt doubt known periods of grea'.et Hubuleuce in ihc 
oast A. g;e»ierahzrd View shows lfyriii: f lin in P.astpru Victoria ami thp hi^h 
tiiountainK (/£ depressa tuonticola on Ivosciiisko), VrlesuKW in the \Iutray* 

jffEfl J Kershaw, Flinnatih* and Lacustrine Mvitutfii 55 

Darting:, Goiribonv Ynrra, and Tasmania, and PyotnhyridAh in the Plentlg- 
TJut there is overlapping in the Central system* and 1/1 Tasmania. 

Snpcrfamily ; SPH AERT \CIlA 
CORMCUUN'A D.ill, Trans, Warmer Ffafr inst. 5a-, Pfulari. 3: 1449 

( Type; Corktaih oncost Prime.) 


1K64. emtj&si, Corbicula Prime, Jottrn, de Conch. 12; 151 PI. 7, fig. & 

1938- id Co>bi<-uitna Cotton & God/rev, ,1/<>//\ o/ S. Aust.,Pl.l,Pch'cvt>od>r. 

176 fig. i?y. 

1939. id- Corlnath, Gabiiel, Mew. Afaf. Mh$. Vict, hi : \2(x PI. 4, tie. 34. 
1M$ Jit Cwhiculiua Ivefalr, At4S* /ooL 10 (i) \ 192. 
Murray River. South-central to Western Victoria- 
Family ; SPHArf RIIDAE 

SPHAEKINOVA Iredale, Lr.: IBS (1943). (Type Sphacriniit MOtyilLivmyi 



1939- iCrSWWiiLMti. Sphacnutn Gabriel. I.e. : 127. PI. 4, fig. 35. 
1943. viitorjaiw, Sptun'rinova Iredale, t-k-z 195. 

Southern Vkrtoua. 


1939. prohirmnticum, Sphagnum Gabriel, if.. : 12H, Pi. 4, fijj. 36. 
1943. id. tiphaemto^a Iredale, I.e.; 196. 
Murray River, near Merbeirt. 

AUSTKALPERA Iredale, I.e.: 196 (1943) (Type: Pisitiiuvt ethmdyi 



1882. e.iheridctn, Pnlfiium Smith, Jourii. Unit, Soc. (Loud.) Zool, ir>' 306, 

PC 7, fig. 35. 
1938, id. Cotton & God f rev. i.e.: 179, fc*. 182. 

1M5? ift Gabriel, I.e.: lfiD, PI. 4, % 37. 

1943. id. AttslralptTd %#ate, W ' 196. 
1947. id. Pisitfium Gabriel $? Macpherson, Mem, A**?/. Jffcfr. FiV/. 15: 167. 

Van Yean Reservoir; Southern and Eastern Victoria, 

References to the work oi E. A. Smith and others not quoted above may 
be found by reference to the. work of Iredale nr Gahrirl. 

1 am indebted to Dr. Tan Hiscock for some very useful notes on Australian 
mussels, and to Dr. Donald MeMichacl for a copy of Ins paper from the 


(Summary of talk given by Mr. H. Barrett at the meeting of 
the Microscopical Group of the F.N.CV. on June 20, 1956) 

These arc a. form of microscopic algae of the family Dintatttoceac. The 
structure is not tinlike- a pill box, consisting oi an upper and a lower 
valve and a connecting zone or girdle; the complete cell is called a frustule. 
This has an internal and also an extern;*! mating nf gelatinous matter; it 

>rj B.wttTT. Cc uuueutt on L'/ufrmn \ y^ ^ 

also lias a ticueleus and a plate or granules of endoebrome, cither green or 
yellowish-brown mi colon l' 

What appeal M the miaoscopi<l« most however are tlie siheiotis skeletons 
which >ill ihc Valve* pontes. Thews skeletons are covered with various. 
markings which di'lci according !u the species. The sculpturing on some i^ 
vciy elaborate, while on others It consist* of punctate lines, some comparatively 
course, white others such as Ampin pleura peihicuh, or Wiff&fiia jfwf/a/rtw.*, 
have £-,000 to 114,000 lines- yer inch. As each littt has an average of oft 
pimctae, it is utthe< dimcuM to realise how minute these markings art 

The va|v?s. although exceedingly ihin, are not solid but arc in Uvo layers, 
usually with a supporting framework between them; the interior plate often 
hat fine secondary markirupf. 

They reproduce themselves by vftriotcs modes of conjugation ami also by 
division, the Utter method causing rihhon-Uke growths or chain- like series 
in Which the diatom:, are attached hy one corner only. 

J. heir methods ol growths vary considerably; some ace tf&qhed to weeds 
4ii* roclcs by etalks others grow on weeds in flusters, others are attached in 
weed directly by the lower valve. One of the most peculiar ways in that of 
Ihc DfiHTJi St-ltizoiH'Hia nad Pncwnnnn which gtow in tills interior r>\ the 
fronib, nj <* small plant at tout \\ [ft high (named ttritllrworis riexan^p they 
break in pieces at the slightest touch"). 

The group as a whole is divided into two subfamilies, the (Vwtntw, with 
centrally built valves or arranged in relation to 3 central point, ami the 
/VunufW, with markings arranged in relation to a median hoc. This hoe is 
called the raphe, or psrudo-raphe, and che raphe proper is iu many species 
a cleft communicating with the interior Of the valve. 

Perhaps the most curious phenomenon connected with the Dint own*: ma is 
their jKwver o* movement. This occurs only with diatoms possessing a raphe, 
and \l is considered that the moveitiutt is due to a cut cent set up in the 
raphe, from one terminal nodule rn ihe centre nodule anrfl from this again to 
the Olhtr terminal; this going on continually in both valves ol the fru slide 
;^rJ with the probable help of a Iouruc. tol the interior protoplasm, t'orccs -".he 
Irustule in the opposite direction to the current, winch incidentally can he 
revetted when necessary. 

The greater number of the .species are to he found only ;u ro5sil deposits 
hi various parls of the world. On the Pacific coast of North America there 
ate -numerous marine fossil beds, at Monterey. St. Monica. &t. Barbara, 
\(oreno and many ullie* places In lli« easier it United. States I he re are 
extensive deposits also in Maryland, and in Virginia where the city cl 
Richmond i> built over a depntit ol unknown extent and averaging 2ft feet in 
tl(j<.i;fies> Others dm lucatcd al Archangel and Simbirsk in Rmsia and 
there are several in flune;arv, and all have Iheir peculiar forms, found only 
iu their particular deposits. One of the best of these marine- deposits is located 
at Oamani, N*ew Zealand, H belongs to the Oliuocene period and it surp;nsr.s 
all others I think, m the hcanry and variety of |b« specter round ill il. 


<LciK«pogoo hookcri Sond., o«id ListoMhe montona It. Br. 

v.WI<-Vi is fi,-.*v ffnn^t-Tfetl to rtie frirmf-r genu) I 

B> J. H. Wit.u*.. N.^tonal HerbaL'tum vi Vivtort^. 

LKfCOPOWN MO.NTANUS (K.Br > J. H. WiIUk amk noi- IL^.m^/A.- 

fnvnhno R Ri Pr&dr pftrfi Nov. fJoft : SAO (1*10) |. 

Tlie types of Luwntfa* HWlhWitt JtUii Ltiia.-j^ujnn bmbtft Sondec 

|Ajii*mt/i ?rt: J4H (lMSSH came from southern Tasmania ; but coinp^f^hk 

fiOpuUtious ol both eutitie? extend also to the mainland alps in Victoria and 

SF.. New South Wales. J. J> Hooker rctognt/irj both apecieN m Plfali 

TjWWfiW^f (185*) and remarked &fter his description oi the forme* plant 
(Vol. 1, ik 247] . 'So similar rp J.<:ncopo{ji>n Iwuktri that it is difficult to 
cliiiuugio^h ibem." Fruit of the Ltsstutiht' was. descrilied as "lat&e, white", 
VfMc immature drupes of the Lt'ttcofotjou .ne illustrated ('1! 75) as yellowish, 

F Mueller I/">*i(7«*. PJhjfi -■****! 6: 43 ( S<*i»» . 1867 >| yfnQttplB&A I- 
hfttsln'i'i under ins .i'typfioho wonhum without comment, attributing Id it an 
abundant- ucrnrrvurc l'"en|iin*isii#m'") throughout the alps of Australia and 
Tasmania, with a reappearance in the litKh mounUms of New England, 
N SAY. i Ren Lomond and the sources of Hasting* Kiver) ; he described the 
drupes as li&lil reiK However, frgtifctet ;* aubsviiuent cnitcelion (Sept. l&St>, in 
Horn. MELi, from the summit ot Ml Af.tcedou, He ha* written "Styfifn'iio 
iTHitttotta, car kpok&i. 

G. Ben I ham [Flora Aust 4i 176 i1fl69)| reinsured both specie* undei the 
separate genera ir.erl by Honker, and agam empha-ji/cd ihw grcai ;imilariiv. 
He refer* to an observation by K. C. Gunn. Tljft di.iincu,shed Tajiiiuuiaii 
t>otanUt, thai, whereas Lixxantttv tuontaiui h*s dtitpes lVitli "itioir irnnshn-nu 
pulp" those of Lcuca^oifon haakcri aie tliick nn«J o|kU|oc 

1. H Mwdcji ami E. 13e.tche hPrpr. linn. $iir\ V.J W *3 }t\ Qw* 
1&9S)] point cm onro more the floral difierruees. tliar MfTvt rp *1i-u.inguisb 
(Rft$ t*ft spn. iVh — uirulh ahum 2 nun. long, with heat diets lolxs in /. 
nuw ttWti t hah" .is tony, again and with hearded l>»bcs m L. hoofcrn. I, RoUwxy 
(lOO.v) and A. I. kwirt (1930) ul-,o uphold both sjiec'ks in their resycii\e 
Stale floras ot TasTturuiu aiul Victoria, describing the drupe: of f mon/mM 
as white W red. ihose a\ 9 ■ fo>i*itf*''t a*, white. 1 have jtig) examined mature 
trqils c«f the former plant, h;n in undoubted L. liooken Dom -^aiioui ylpmc 
atid siilMlpnK- ?lation.s in \ jttoria 1 lrtv4 always fotmd the "l<npr$ io be em^il 
red ^ikI opaciuo 

Iti view ol the rtrnaikot'le i-nuiloyjlj between these wo heaths, and 'he. 
fact lliai nt one pcrfetyl von Muetler <ven regarded them as con<-i>ecilic the 
-lii ■■ii-M. naturally anncs, "why jbould Uitv be aligned lo ierwrat*' seners r*' 
In delining I tsspmhr, Bcittham \Pfata Auxt. 4-z 175 (i^fW)l 5TMC5 ihM U 
diffiT* fri«m Leiteopayon "wkly in the want ni the hairs or beards uf tlw 
iohet. ot the osrolla iO universal in that jrcnus." This docs not sc/n» a vory 
saliifadory trtlerion (or 6<egregcptJlfg ^enerd, fS)K:t!^lly wticn the tle^rte lit 
hinrmesa of tlie petals v^nei cbtmftjernbl^ I he lat ee ^enus 
LrxrccpOfttin it.uilt. The type mitorial nf Brown'; Lissatitlu* MAiifmifl fntn 
Mt. H'eHum(on, Tfe, \\ttqj]ic;ilc r*vcciintii.s in MclttOurne Herlxinumf. shuwi 
crowded i>apttlac on ilte corolla lol>c9, and this reature is matched CHACtly 
on ip*ctuH*W iVom Wt- Nelson Bogony tliffh 1'lains, Vic. (6.20(1 ft. alt.). 
By CWl{ejl*ti Lit.uintfw xtrjgfjvti (Sm.) K.Br. [tfis very nuuvuelv |>«pilloie, 
hut not papiHale. lob»?y. It would bo difiVult m drcido wheilici a c^fRan 
Ixnc loiifi I'apiUr-ic or <,hon liairs, hi'th having originated in the ^arne way ! 

fortunately, poll^n-ftrain and (jPiiiftlpM itivvsti^aiions luve ennte to th^ 
icsetk- during recent years, and S. Sniiih White has ihown conchiNively 
[,'iuit. Journ. fiot, J 1 : 61-2 i May 19;oJ ) ihat the h^ploid chroniosotnc uiiinbcr 
ill rule J. U sit n the Spy [it 7_. supnto 1? Bi. au>* i> tfrnjosn CSl|i J l^ Br.] is 7. 
while in /.. im»t/owo and LfUC$#affo$ hoflkcrt it i& 14. Smith-White compares 
ihesc two ali>nie plants cJoscly, and he hints not only the same chromosome 
number but veiy iinulat tetiada of i>olkn and »jihi1ai* «> nodioecic iiofyinorphisin 
among individuals- Ke concludes with the remark, "it is probable thai they 
ciMtttitttle leproduetivelv isolated populations.", and it is obvious th<it he H 
di.siwised to r^Rard Uwrtfl as consfneiic species. Tarlton Payment's mde[>ciulouL 
^and aji-yet unpublished) wr»rk in Mtlln^urni- on noMuiaiinn attrj ]ndkn-ftr.ii«i 
phylcjis, throiiftboul tJic epacridace^us genera, lends weight to this o|Muiou. 

i dm convinced that "Ltswtitthr" bl#nl(bt(! is indeed a L.'f.< nfiotfiVI, in whi-:h 
the corolla heard has either fMilcd 10 devetui) in llic u.tual way »>r is i educed 
to microscopic proportiiwis, and I havt^ made the necessary nonieneUlut.ii 

r.H W'll:s, tew t'uziUhft Atybt fte&itu [ V vi *J L 

<bfm#e accordingly. The view of Smith-White, (and other;*) — that LtucopiitjoM 
hookcri a;td £ Miiw&i&ttj (rnmh, nov.) should be treated as sepaiate species— 
is endorsed. The former has conspicuously bearded corolla lobes 1.2-1.5 nm 
long", m)0 I* I "be; slightly exceeding the raly v , in the al)V- »t ftnwr? 
Ki'vetnber Decembci (as early as Scptemhrr Fit ilutudes of about 3,00U ft, 
hi Victoria), and tUe fruit ripen* quickly, falling before whiter. The Inner 
specks has shorter (about 1 mm.) and virtually edabrous enrol la kpTG? 
(.Aipillate under the mtCTuicopc), with tube riot exceeding I he udyx: it 
lionets January Fehtuftry *M flt< young fruit overwinters, ripening the 
fallowing' summer Svnitfr-Wltltc Tabulates a leaf difference also \Auxt. J num. 
Br-t. J 1 : 6£ (1955)1 — margins Rfontit plane in L hookcri, but manifestly 
recurvec! in L. mtfntuMliS, This distinction rioes fwt aUwyfi hold, however, for 
lowci -altitude examples of honk^ri often display unite, rcvolntr leave.?, 

Li'ucapotjtiu kaok&i is. much the more variable pl;uit---j;rnatl-leaved in the 
high alps where often dwarlid lo a few inches, out attaiiunjgr heights up to 
6 ft. i*i lower nvountn u Valleys (ejr Lurniypnts drtefftitttixis forest a'onj? the 
upper J£-ittK River, .»nd at Oih.irwrra.. Vic.) wherv its leave*, may be frfi \'Az~r 
as to be mistaken f0r those nl L. Imicrolatus. tt ian§es from l-ake Mountain 
eastward to the "N.S.W. bonier, with occurrences on Mr 5. Ruber and 
Buffalo and an isolated at'i>eardin.c on Ml. Maeedon {Encnlypt.u\ doV- 
( occurs there also). L ttwhiaws is restricted in Viclorta to the holiest 
alps above tree-line (e.g. summits qi Mrs. fingflnr, Kelson, Fcatbertort and 
T-oeh), n»Kl it ii. always Quite small; J have not seen H growing in dose 
proximity to the other commoner spocics. A. B, Costin \A Study 0) tfu? 
ftcosvsfr-ws of the Montsro Rt'(/um n] NJ>SV.: 277 (1954)) lUti the. two 
xjjprirs ;ts foftriirisj separate associations in bis- "Qxvfolmtm cMpr'am—* 
Pvd\Karp{is ulpinu.s' Alliance*' 

Melbourne Herbarium pus.sevse* an interesting early collection of CI SluarlV 
frtin Tasmania, labelled "Western Mts. near Cummins Head"; ;l hns the 
beardless corolla of L Wtptfcmtti And comes r.carot 1o tb;it specie?, btlt c:ie 
lubes arc tis long a* kl L. kuokirl and the eorollft tube almost tivteriuediate. 
Pi. R. Melville (Royal Botanic Gnrdens nt Ke\v> lias inspected Ibis material 
iind suggests (^3/J/195S) that it may In*, a hybrid between the two, uuvcr- 
iheless. it reinains yet to be denioiiittAted iHTittinr uatttfal hybridism c*ti 
occur at al* among any of our Ausuahar Hpacriaaccrc. Some Mt. Ro^on? 
collection*.; of /- tn>uk*-*i. on the other baud, show an approach to L. m&\wmnx 
*h f\\t\* *mall ^laHire, smaller flowcrt xM shorter boards (ban nre l)jt(Sl] T u 
the former p.aut. 


By N- A. WAKt-tittu. Noble Pa»>c 
Genus LEUCOPOGON: Some Hirberto Unrecognised Speces 

UlUCOt'OGOW FfLlh'EKUS sp. uov. d)ytmcti«3ntia: tamufi mimerosisMmi 
l|hfo»inC», ^olia iincari-ablonga eonnn margined pi lis longi? Tenu'hus 
scricci* siraedittsl^spicac paucidorae inter folia termuiales. bracttae etcalycis lobi sRjtfrj subfilher fonhi inr- . rorn|, 1 ae tubus peroral* 
(eirciccr OS mm.) lobis ionjrior'bus (circ. I mm), ovarium triloculare. 

HOLOT\ PE: Bogong Hi^lt Plains. Victoria ; Head oi Wilti Horse Creek. 
nr^r Ally's Ha* lea. J H- Willis ., 19/1/ 1 04-7 (MF.Ln 

A low, spreading huvicately bmncbed plant. Ibe Iwigs- lihioun: le.ivrs 
crowded, oniony, acute, up to 4 mm. long and abiiut 1 mm. svure. the n.urjcr:n> 
a htite recurved and IjeaiiiLe' ioflfl fou nlk$ Mrs: sfJkCti abotn 5 mm. lon^ f 
few-flowcre<l, terminal arnongst the leave?;; bracr$ hivX bracteole? acjtc 

*MKI, — ICetV.riuni 3t" Vi<:t'">r : n. Mvlhrurne; K — Royal 3fctanfe *7j 'ieus, 
K<w: i\S\V .V^tiaaal ll;rbnriitm bl New South Wdlei, Syd)i«?> 

ciliau;-t ringed, thr latter aboui half as long as the calyx, sepals about 1 Jinn. 
long, acuminate, minutely friiiRtfil; corolla tube about (J5 mm, Mg, ri*c k»r>es 
i»mi\' j* U>n£ ; ovary 3-loeular. 

Distribution : .Mpine regions oi Victoria (Hotham-Rogoi)& area). 

As well ns the type collection, 3iiot!wr was Made liy Wfltta from ihe \ame 
general area (Buckeiy Ptom eaw of Mount <.ope , J8/l/l^*?>« OiIkcwisc 11k 
>|ieeie* is known from an early -collection made hy F Mueller, presumably 
in December l#54; duplicates of this wen: labelled ' Sources of the. Mitta 
MilU" and "Snowy PfifcittS on the Cobongrj" (.s>cl, and were annotated in 
various ways ^ forms or varieties ot f*$t\&Qp(\fi(m cotHmts, under which 
specie Bentham included ifats materia! in /-'/ora Anxtraticttxh 4 . 191. 

A. tottirnts is an cteet, strongly branched shrub \vu\i leaf margins spmulnsr- 
denticulate, with larger inflorescences and (lowers, and >virh the ovary 

U&C OPOGON RIPARWS sp..nov., oil influrccniuam 1. rifrvftfa* l< Br 
v»We afl'iiMH sed fofiiy majoribub (usque ad IS mill tuii&is* pMCcipne 
ohlauceolaiis acini* t?labris tcmnhus nitidis marjgiuibiis vix rccureatis 
HOI.OTYPR- \l<\e Ikioiij" Geek (Sivnvy River), Wiori.i; K r . A. Wafcv- 
firJd No. Jjj6; 21/9/1.^47; riparian in granite rock crevices; iMEL, dupli- 
cate* to lie r-enl to K and NSW*;. 

Erect bbHjb* io ! metre i;:gh. trunk to 2,/h eni, diameter: branch^* erect, 
j eddish, .-.Ji^hrly pubescent; kaecs np to 18 mm. Ioii#. I.^ij imo wide, 
UneaX'Umceolate in oblanceoVate. crowded and erect on sienle branches, acme 
and acicular at the apes, margins entire and a little or not recurved, r.l*uiy, 
<jtlfto glabrous except when very young; spikes axillary, '- to 4-fioWcred, 
shorter than the leave*, the axis minutely pubescent ; bracts broad, htuni ; 
sepals about 1.5 matt. Innj», obtuse, minutely eiliate fiinged ; corolla tift»c 
evcecilhig the calyx, the IoIh*s about 1.5 mm. long; ovary ovoid, ptibesceot, 
imperfectly jolocular; style about 1.5 mm. long; stigma globular, 

Distribution ; Snowy T\iver, extern Victoria. 

Besides ibt type material, an earlier collection (in fruit) was made- ftt 
tfete Belong C«*k INA W. N<1 M35; about December Wo), and further 
material (not flowering) was collected in porphyry formation on the Snowy 
.River, east oi Bntcbeii Ridge (N A.W. No. 477J ; aljool 22/1/1953) 

T|iC new sprries ba> ihe inflorcst*"nrc of /.. ctftniaps T£ Bt'., but il diUCTS 
considerably irom it in foHagv. The typical L. enciy'u(e.\ has spreading, d'n^ely 
|iitl>C5ccvit branches: the leaves oblong, bronel at ihe base itnd wilb btuni, 
tTiuconaie apices, the jurl'yce pul>es<ent an<l the margins r-.trorigjy iec«r\*ed. 
In Victoria il is usually more pubescent than in \ T ew South Wales, and in 
eastern Victoria it grows abundantly on sandy heatlilands near ihe fi04£ti 
ir>ct!Miin^ some areas near the Snowy Kiver. Jt is evidait that L. npariux h 
genetically distinct from the widespread specie* 

LUUCOPOGON GFJ. IDUS (?Wh.) comb, w Syn. 7. tomcolohti vat: 
Qetidus lienth, fi Austr, 1 : 186. 

LECTOTYPE: Specimen in MET. (seen by BentUam) bearing thcitriginal 
data " Lencopogon yt'luiux Ferd. Mm:llcr, BarkJy Kangc". Tbcrc are several 
eluplicaieb oi tin*, with various other siniot^tioii^ ; rase, and other materia! 
ei*ed by Bewfhmno (Cobborar : . Monnta»n t i, S.000 it.; Feb 1854; and sumtnil 
of i\lotir»t Baw J3aw, souiCCs of the Yarn*, Albert Range, Dec. I860; botfi 
collected by Muc-Hcrj become Paratypes. 

An erect or spreading shrub; leaves 12-lfi mm. long, obtenKeoUtc or 
obovalc, somewhat ItucK- , ypikes usually about li" nam. long, 4- t»> 8-flc*wcre<t 

fatdani \ tte$A& iS?9 Nttt). long: coralla-tuhe .1-4 mm. kpn&, the Inhes abo\tt 
mm long; PtylC ; 5-2 gnttt. totfcg | ovary 2-iOcular. 

Distribution: Abundant iji the A'jbua'.ian Alpb of Victoria end New South 

LUUCOrOGON NaUHOPHYI-LVS r MmcII fmry. flftjrf. Wivi. J: ,tf. 
byn. L. hnccoiatu.t vnr? atptrstrit F Muell ex Beutb. FJ. -W/ jP I&5. 

Leaves rij>:d, lanceolate, acuminate ( pungent ) , flat, glabrous, upper <uriace.* 
su'iated With 3-7 longitudinal (htmsiwvnt alternately long and sbnrr) 
nerves, mostly about 2 ctn, lon& and 5 nun. wide; spikes in upper axilt and 
one terminal, up to 1 cm. Jong, with few <*up to 81 flowers ! BPPflU 2-3 nut*. 
Ion?;, corolla-iubc shorter than the calyx, the lobcv for.g and spreading 
(ovary said by Bcuiham, /.e\, to have 2. rarely 3, loculi). 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality *'Ou the tup of Mount 
Wjlljum" ; u the Victorian Grampians, presumably collected by Mueller. 

There is only one record of the species for the present ceututy U HfJfft 
made by Mr I". Robbins ot Bcndigo, but there is no specific data with the 

[Lcuccpotjon lanccvtotus R Br. has narrow-lanceolate leaves, usually 
.5-5 Cffi long and about 3-6 imn. wide, thin in texture and with objtcun: 
venation; the spikes are in a terminal cluster, usually not recurved, 1.5-4 on. 
lung, very slender, with numerous (usually &-2H) small flowers; the corolla- 
lube is very short, about the IcjiyHt of the calyx (about 1.5 mm,), with (he 
lobes about 1 mm. long and recurved. It extend* front New South Wales la 
the lowlands o( Kast Gippslaud (Orhost, Cai:n River, etc.). and what \t 
prohah.> a variation of the species (with somewhat crowded flowers and 
spreading coroila-iohcs) occurs at Whsons Piomontory and in *.hc Portland 

T wish to make grateful acknowledgement' fo rhc Director of the National 
Herbarium of Victoria for facilities afforded ill connection with material 
examined in that institution, and lo Mr J. rh Willis it«r the pre.par.Mion of 
'he Latin diagnose* embodied in this paper, 

By Ept*WffT Svki.i/* 

It has so often been the experie occ of the writer, whe-.t be has examined 
botli eye-pieces and objectives for cleanliness, that dust whxh has accumulated 
nn t!re surfaces of [hi &la>> is the rtneroscovt3t's worst enemy, it romt be 
removed periodically. The Ivji5es may *eem to pernirm well enough even 
when very dirty, but that ii no reason for them to remain dirty. Tt is most 
.^atisiyintf. after (denninjs, to note iht brilliance of the surfaces, not to mention 
v.hat it must do to the clarity of the image. 

A good method of is to take two freshly sundered soft cotton 
baadkefchieis (out to be used for damping and the other for drying) and 
a goot'. quality, clean, rather small camel-hau' watCKolovit' brush. The lo&t 
should be kept wrapped up when not in use. Place one ounce of 50 per coil 
-ihohol to which has been added one dtop of glacial ace lie acid, ir a small 
tumbler. Screw the eye tens out of an eve- piece, taking gfltfe to keep the 
fineer* or? the glass. (Hands should be washed beforehand to get nd of 
txcis;, oil horn the pores of the skin.) Take tlic brush and tickle the dust 
from ihc gl«.ss surfaces, paying -particular atiertiuti io where rhv edges join 
tbe mount. Then dip a corner of one of the handkerchiefs in the solution and 
just dampen tt. The solution chncs very otuckly, «o repeated dipping* are 

• Sfrcr«ary *f 1li* Microaoopical Crour. 

required. Gently, with the least pressure required, proceed 10 clew (Vie surface, 
of <J«5.l *»i<J dirt. Tins may have to be repeated nvd or three times hefoTe a 
satisfactory surface appears. Gently rub dry with the lent cradled in lite 
other clean handkerchief. Screw it back "» fifocC 3fin take oat the field tens 
Put {hi cleaned cyc-piccc under cover, awav from floating dtisl til ihc air 
(Titan the Held leu* iii tire same way us the eye lens, llten put it under cover 
Kwftii the other, but do not re-asscmblc at this slttye 

When cleaning, the objective^ it will h* found that most low-power ones 
will screw apart into two pieces to allow the. cleaning <Ji the- surfaces of the 
curnponenls— the front lens and the back leuy Wok the camel-hair brush 
well into ihe mountings at the objectives, especially round the edge* of tin* 
glasses When cleaning, screw ilie comer of the handkerchief into the shane 
of a pencil, dampen in the alcohol, pokt* down into the mount and rotate 
gently over ihc glass. Persevere until they are quite clean, then dry lit the 
same manner Screw I li* - components loosely together ag>tir» until the ih-x1 
process. It is, not advisable to attempt to take .apart any of the higher (tower*. 
and it 15 unlikely that dust will get in between the front and back Jcnse* of 
theft* The ftwl lf|dl cail \K done, apart from jefltffilfi VUem to aH nWwVnr 
maker, is lo clean Hie outer surfaces, 

One > experience is that, even when the pieces arc, then: an: 
r.t til dn*t specks- present, they arc most persistent. The lit^l *'ep •> *8tfi 
the vacuum cleaner Take each eye-piece with ilie eye lens ill position ami 
hold >i carefully with it* open end in the air stream Ltist within the tube. Tickle 
the dtisf wild the brush if il still persists, and allow the tlfftiKl 
lo suck again. Screw the field lens in ttfeirr, l^k<* out the eye fcn> and repial 
ihc process Dissemble the objectives which were screwed together temporarily, 
and hold each component Mi the air stream also, then assemble hrmly bftatlh 
Kxamination, by holding up to the light will show how clean the tonnes arc- 
Cart must be exercised when cleaning with iir, that the coio|H>nents do not 
p.o down into (he dust bag 

While the cleaner is handy, it pays to £o over the inicrusrone also. ;t$ thetc 
are a number of places where it i* difficult to reach with the cleaning rag, and 
the c-ise too may he treated, 


Jt fa with regret that we. inns* record the untimely death of Mr Allan 
Roderick Henderson, U..M , a member ot our Quh tor some years. 

Of wide cuhn»i\ with many eotmuuniiy interests, the late Mr. Henderson 
did not participate fully iw Club activities. He occasionally attended CcnOial 
Meetings however, and, in his leaning*:; towards natural history, evinced a 
passion tor birds. Ou a memorable Club excursion lo Anglesea a few years 
Sgb he acted as host and guide at hjs delightfully situated cottage on the 
foreshore. Some of us were fortunate enough to ubtaiu a gttmgse of a I3rist!e» 
bird near Ins side verandah, and, later, as we were iiiepanng to leave on the 
homeward journey, we plainly hctitd and identified the chills of ihc Geclutrir 
(iround-wreu (Hyfocata (iyrr)wf*y>;ita hctcltt'n) in thick undergrowth at the 
rear of the cottage. The vicinity is the type locality of the sub-species 
fcarlier, our guide had intrrvhtced W5 10 several ne^tj, whilst in a wwl-k alone 
th« ocean beach we obtained evidence of Mr, Henderson'.; intimate knowledge 
of SM-birds 

Mr- Henderson maintained a lively concern for National Parks m Viciuria. 
and was part author of a publication on the subject. Once, upon learning i>f 
the seclusion and unwitivc nature ot the Lakes National Park at Sperrmvhale 
Head, he expressed a wish lo see this area, and confirm for himself the 
statement ihat it embraced at least a thousand acros of tru- indigetUtus Ucath- 
tuyrtle ('1 hryfrtovifric mhfiwliont)), the conservation, ot which prixirtpted our 

Ci Obituary [ V ^j ^ 

Club to obtain its declaration, as a National Park. The visit was planned 
but, because or n"oods m Gippslaud a! the time, it had to be ahandoned. The 
reservation of certain areas of native flora at Auglesea also received practical 
aid from him. 

Mr. Henderson was joint author qj Early Lfclbuurne Architecture, a 
cnastcV illustrated book issued recently. He was prominently associated wit"i 
the Australian Institute lot Internationa] Affairs, Victorian Branch; Vico- 
Chainnar of the Melhourne National Gallery Trust; and President of the 
Victorian l:yc and Ear Hospital He was a partner in the legal firm of 
Messrs. a' .Beckett, Cbomley and Henderson. 

He was an omnivorous reader and be travelled extensively. Several months 
ago he went on a visic abroad. Returning, be embarked on the On>v(.vuy in 
Italy, and as the vessel had left Adelaide on the last stage of the journey his. 
fiearh occurred, very suddenly, on June 18. His remain.; were buried at *ca. 

His business associate? and many friends mourn the loss of 3 gracious 

— R. C E S'riiAVAStr 


F.N.C.V. Meetings: 

Monday. September 10 — \";ttive PUnts, both Wild and iu Cultivation by 

Miss C Carberry. 
.Monday, October 8 — Sarin Uower-bird. by N. A- Wakefield; and Discission 

of Club Projects. 

F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Sunday. August 19 — Blackwood- Combined excursion with members oi ihe 
BeiuLtgO; Ballarat .and Creiwick Cluba. Leader: Mr. WiH'ams. Parloiir 
coach leaves Batman Avenue 9 a.m. Fare 18/-. Brine; two meals. 

Saturday, August 2b — Botany Group meeting. Subject: Domesticated Plants. 
Speaker; Mr. K. Atktns, Meet 2.15 p,m_ at National Herbarium. 

Saturday. September L — Botany Group Excursion to Langwarriu in con- 
junction with Krankstou Field Naturalists. Take 9.10 a.m. Stony PoiiVt 
train, alight at r^angwarrin. Bring one meal. 

Group Meetings: 

(8 p r m. at National Herbarium) 

Wednesday. August 15 — Microscopical Cj-roiip. Mr. E. Snell: "On Mounting 
Opaque Objects' 1 . Members to make tbfc evening a showing of otiu<iiic 

Wednesday, September 5 — Geology Group. Speaker: Dr. Wislrart. Subject: 
Rocks used by the Aborigines. 

Pteliminory Notices: 

Sunday. September 30 — Pariour coach excursion to Cape Patterson. Leader: 
Mr. K. Atkins. Coach leaves Batman Avenue 9 a.m. sharp. Fare 2*>f-. 
Brine two meals- 

October 27-28 — Weekend at Bendiffo. Itinerary: Saturday Afternoon — Ex- 
cursion Evening — Illustrated talk with Kodachmmes. Sunday — Full day 
in Whipstick. Subjects tor both excursions: Mirds and Botany. Transport 
by car or train. Can: pine facilities at White Hills gardens. Hotei reserva- 
tions to be made with Mr. K. Atkins, Botanic Gardens, South Yarra. 
S.E-1. Phone MU 37$5._ aitcf 6 p.m. 

— Mamk Aia.t^utft, Excursion Secretary. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 73— No. 5 SEPTEMBER 6, 1956 No. 873 


There was a full attendance at the National Herbarium For the 
General Meeting 01" the Citib on August 13. Before proceeding with 

the business of the evening the President extended a welcome to 
;t number of visitors. Mr, George Coghib congratulated Mr. Swaby 
on his election'as President and thanked the Club tot* the letter sent 
fo him during his recent illness. 

1 he President referred ro the recent parsing 01 Mi . A. K 
Henderson and Mr. R Cudmore. both valued members of tin: 
CUib r and vo the great loss the F.Nl V_ has susrained by the dc:iih 
of Mr Fred Lewis, Vice-President, tyh& was Korvvrary Secretary 
tor many years. 

It was reported that, in recognition of his long and valued service 
to the Club as Auditor and Treasurer Mr. A. f j. Hooke had (sefifi 
nominated for Honorary Life Membeiship by Mr, F. Cog hi I! .and 
Mr. C. Gabriel. This was approved by the General Meeting. 

Mr. Frank Pitchcn showed an outstanding scrips oi coloured 
slides illustrating the geology and hotany oi Central Australia. 
particularly m the Avers Rock and Mount Olga areas, A vote of 
thanks, moved by Mr. E. S Hanks and seconded bv Mr. Webb.. 
was carried by acclamation. 

Miss lna Watson then gave a 10 minute lecturette ou the subject 
of feathers. 

Mr. Trevor Pescott and Mr. N. R. Harvey were elected 3s 
Country and Interstate Members, Mrs. R. Davidson as Joint Metro- 
politan Member, and Master Nicholas Edyuist as Junior Member. 

A letter from Mr. T. Sarovich was read, giving notice of his mten 
lion to move that the Paulding and Contmgewies Fund be kept 
separate from extraneous receipts and expenditure. This business 
was held over for discussion at the October General Meeting. 

It was announced that the Education Department had accepted 
the Club s tender for the supply of Fern and Fungi Books, A I lei 
considerable discussion it was agreed that Council's action in 
submitting this lender be confirmed, and that, as Council recutn- 
meuded, the reprinting of 2,500 copies of Lite Fungus Book Ik* pro- 
ceeded with. 

Messrs. W collar d and Sarovich offered to help in arranging 
loeallv grown wildfloivers for the show being- staged bv the Western 


64 PracccHwtt [ Vni' Nf * 

Australian Naturalists O.luh; several members signified Ibtii wfli- 
ingriess to help with this Club's exhibit at the kaluraiiiu show ; and 
Mr. Wilson agreed to represent the F.N CV :U the Kiata <hnw 
Mi-. Swab> reported that a very successful working bee had been 
held on August 4 at the Sir Colin MacKeuzic Sanctuary at Hcalcs- 
ville ami that another was arranged for September 2. 

A letter of thanks was scut to Mr iVtiddlelou rnr his wotfc in 
repairing the Club's hi t crop hone, free ot charge, anil Mr. H. 
Dickens was thanked fe* his gift to the Club library of his book* 
on Orchids and Australian Wftdflowtrt. 

The meeting adjourned at L0.4S u ni 


Maiinc shctU of die genus Ncotrirjonui — JV. maryaritucea-oi Victoria and 
Tasmania; N 'jcnima, ;V. Itwutrcki and .V. tfrQVWh o* New South Wales . 
nud 'V untopUma 61 WeMt4H Australia »C J (EaftbnCs)'- 
Rhiuoceros hide wa'king slick (T. H, Sarovich ) , 
Popple Nut* from Grafton, New South Wales (Miss L. Young), 


South Australian plants — Kochia. tfcortjei and ffttfBpltfnMI siijmtan.i from 
Flinders R'ao^c, aad Eucalyptus, kntst'tuia ami £ f0'9$j<fof('fu%«j2 hum Port 
Au^utta (A. R- R. Higyinson of Port Au^u^id, per A, J Swaby), These ore 
r.irely seen in Victoria, and the Sttwhtsma. with its many .shades of colour. 
*hnuld make a good garden plant. 

Mat ine ilielts— AnciUd xelcsiotw from off Tweed Heads, New South Wales ; 
Thatchcria miralnfis from Japan (C. J. Gabriel). 


At the meeting of August 15, Mr. fc. Snell spoke oti the subject of "l'hin 
Opaque Mounting of Dry Objects* 1 He then invited Dr. K, M. Wishart to 
contribute SOttie remark's on the same topic, At the conclusion of this, the 
speakers replied to several questions put to them by those present, ami the 
Oronp Lende*, VIr D. MrTnTic-S thanked Them for their efforts. 

Exhibits included Foraminifera from Kicfojttf Point anrl from the Crml 
Barrier Keet (shown by Messrs. \V. Black and H. Barrett respectively "1 ' aurt 
Dr. Wishart showed the head and pcdipalps of a jumping spider and a number 
of other specimens, specially mounted for the occasion. Mr. Mclmas had 
several exhibits ; these included scales from wings of butterflies, grams uf 
chalk and scales from a Diamond Beetle. Mr. NV. Jlvans exhibited tl>e 
frs&ruvater diatom ffl&fof&rt-i Master John Walsh showed eftgrs of the borne* 
fty ; ami Mr. SneJl showed the bead q{ u small centipede, polyzoa on *eawe.ed. 
and pollen ol tfibixnts in situ. 

On September 19, Mr. A. Pushy will speak on "Amateur Microscopy 
Today' \ 


The F.VC.V. urgently needs sonic additional storage space for *bow 
equipment and for its stocks of the Victorian N'aH^retiUt, the aggregate oi 
which would occupy most of a garage or small room, Would any meinour 
who knows of any such space which may be available, either free or for h re. 
please communicate w;th the Hditor (P.O. Box 2). Noble Park. Phone 
UJ 844(1) 

V)56 I a tot tan \ til u> ii.i, \i d3 


Uv A. Masso* .a* 

\ second nick shelter hearing alfiuTgma) uzftntings Ims Ijjtt.11 

icpoited from Flat Rock Mr A. Hemlev of Stauell accidentally 
(IhfCrtVcrH lllis new shelter while »»ul liking fuf tin recent h 
descrihed uiic in the same locality, (Sot.- I in. Xtlt, ?J ; Jb Juiu- 
1 *>50 ) . So the writer once ngain had the pleasure of \isitiug llie 
area. This time the party consisted of several member 1 *- <u die 
Stawell Fiekl Naturalists Club, including the Secretary* Mrs. \\ 
A. ' *ollm>, ;tnd Mr. I. R. MeCann The latter served as a botanical 
encyclopedia, identifying the wonderful profusion of wild flnwets 
f-ir which the Grampians arc famed. 

The new shelter. Flat Rock Kb, 2. is possibly not as interesting 
pictoriaHy as the earlier, or Xo. I shelter, inasmuch as the design 
consists, solely of a fev\ sttokes done in red ochre, lint it is precisely 
this dearth of pictography which renders tin's particular shelter 
uf major importance. For it presents a prohltm to solve, [-ike Xo 1 
it is situated half way up the hill, and from it, again as in Xo, 1. 
a heautiful view of the country to the north-west is obtained, The 
shelter is cave-like in appearance, ahout \2 feet wide at the 
entrance and only 9 feet deep at its deepest point. The outside 
edge of the ceiling presents a flat, smooth beam-like surface \2 feet 
long and 14 inches wide. It is upon thi-- surface that the aboriginal 
artist painted his strokes in red ochre. Beginning from the left, 
there is a small group of only three strokes, covering a mere 
3 inches by 2 inches of surface; six inches away to the right are 
four more strokes f covering 3 inches by 3J inches; three feet away 
are two more strokes, 4 inches by 1^ inches; a further eighteen 
inches brings us to two more strokes. 3 inches hv H inches. That 
i* all ! 

But this is tlte problem. The strokes obviously were made for a 
purpose. The four little groups i;ive the idea that they were pur 
poselv kept apart. Each stroke m each group L> of the same size 
;md length as the others. Were they records of time or distance, 
*>\ visits bv outlying groups, or memory aids? 

The people who inhabited the locality were apparently a group 
or sub-lribe of the M 'ukjurativitii . Robinson, the Chief Protector 
of Aborigines, called ihcm Poihfhtthtts, and stated that they 
inhahited the country near Mt. Zero {ti'olclcor}. The Mukjafa- 
Miijtf were said to he hut a section of the Wotjohaluk, a lar^O 
Nation which seemed to own all the country from the Grampians 
lo the South Australia horder and north to within twenty miles 
of the .Murray River. Xo doubt the Xorthern Grampians, with 
Us plentiful supply of food and water, must have heen a rallying 
point for all the.^e desert groups. 

• Cnrritor uf Anthrni.i.lnt-y. Wvival MUflfiMm at Vicionu. 

Platk II 

Vul. 73 

Flat Rock Shelter \ T o. 2 

Top : View from slielter towards the Green Lakes 

Bottom : The shelter ; the paintings are on the diagonal face on the 

immediate left of the figure 


i**$ra e ' J Massula. Mure Puintint/s on 1-lut Nock 67 

Ii lias been said that the messengers sent to distant groups were 
in the habit of painting strokes on their amis \\ ith red oehre. 
Each stroke represented a dav, and each day one of the .strokes 
would be rubbed off. The messenger was thus able to tell in 
exactly how maiiv days' time this particular group was expected 
at a certain localit). Would the strikes painted on the ledge of 
this shelter serve a similar purpose"' Again, the headman of each 
section would know, or be expected to know, where each group 
comprising his section could be found. The natives knew just 
how many days' march any particular waterhole or food gathering 
place was from a given spot. Four strokes could mean a four da\s" 
journey, which again would have meant a certain localit)" four 
davs away. Could they have been a very primitive system nj 
writing a message, of informing a possible me-senger just where 
they were to be found ? 

< )nly the discovery of more 1 such painted shelters, enabling 
comparisons to lie made, will perhaps .solve the riddle. < >nee again 
I appeal to members of the Field Naturalists Clubs to report to 
the Xatioual Museum any such discoveries, no matter how trivial 
thev may seem. 


liv A. A, IjRlwtox 

About two miles north of Sunburv, in the valley (if Jackson's 
Creek, there are the remains of a large aboriginal burial mound. 
This is situated on the property known as Kmu Hottom, the 
original selection of George Fvans, who came over from Tasmania 
in the first voyage of Fawkner's ship. Incidentally, he built the first 
building in Melbourne — a sod hut to keep the stores dry. In 1S36 
he settled on Jackson's Creek and built a homestead, now the 
oldest inhabited house in Victoria. In 1 920 the property passed 
into the possession of Mr. Webb, the present owner. He has 
maintained as far as possible everything that Evans had built. 

Some years after moving in, Mr. Webb had occasion to repair 
the private road. Hetween this road and Jackson's Creek there is 
a big alluvial flat composed chiefly of waterworn gravel and soil, 
and on this and overlooking the creek is the circular mound, ninety 
feet in diameter and five feet six inches in average height. Knowing 
that much of it was suitable for road making Mr. Webb instructed 
his men to cart the same to the road. This they did, but when 
working into the centre of the mound they encountered many old 
and decomposed human bones and ashes, unfit for road repairs. 

( )n being informed, Mr. Webb hurried across the flat and saw a 
strange sight. Evidently many bodies had been partially burnt and 
then heaped together on the original surface. Over these a laver 
of well puddled wet clay, four to five inches thick, had be( n 

Ij<i'\t(i.\, An .Ihoritjiiwl Burial Mmintl 

[Vict. Nat. 
Vol, 73 

plastered. Then soil and watcrworn stones from the surrounding 
flat had heen piled over and around the burial. The depressions 
caused by their excavations can still he traced close by. The appear- 
ance of the mound from a distance is extremely like the prehistoric 
ones upon the Dorset Downs in England. 

Air. Webb stopped further carting and then took photos of the 
scene. One of these, a close-up of the clay layer, shows that the 
original dome must have been about eight feet in diameter, but in 
the passage of time this had collapsed in places and had assumed 
a shape remarkably like the coast line of northern Australia. This 
can be seen in the photo. Many years have elapsed since the dis- 
covery, and weather and stock have worn down the excavation and 
merged it with the remainder of the mound. 

The Excavated Burial Mound 

The question arises: What was the purpose of the aborigines in 
covering the remains with a layer of clay? Eortuuately we have the 
evidence of an early settler who observed an identical burial by a 
lower-Murray tribe. After the bodies had been covered with a laver 
of plastic clay the old men of the tribe sat around them in a circle. 
Some distance further back the remaining men of the tribe formed 
another circle, and beyond them again were all the women and 
children. Under the hot sun the wet clay began to dry, and, after 
numerous inspections, the old men detected a crack. Sighting along 
this crack the)' pointed in the direction indicated and announced to 
the tribe that the evil magic which had caused the deaths came 
from there. A war party was sent off in that direction and the first 
strange aborigine encountered was killed and his kidney fat 
extracted. The party then returned with revenge and honour satis- 
fied. In the meantime the remainder of the tribe had completed the 
bitrial mound. 

The Club will be pleased to know that Mr. Webb has prevented 
anv further destruction of this most interesting relic of the blacks. 

* 6l S8r l 3 U? fttarta Rgftirtfr eft 


By J H Wn.Ui, National Herbn'hmt .a' Victoria 

In his /-faro ti/ Victoria (19301. A. I. "(%wajl recognize: U5 species 01 
Cy pi 1*1 ■'{•:! Sitnc th&t fliiW, nam name HiaitgAf have IjePII adopted and 
J5 artdiooiuf irtcejir* nubh^hed for Hie Stale — largely the outcome u| 
r^vi.tuniai .studies undertaken on tl'.e d'lucah genet a Cyftcrm and 5rirf)\ts by 
S. T. ticket J Brisbane) ami in Cnrc.r by R. Nelmcs* (London). There «> II 
remain eleven indigenous species and five naturalized aliens of the. family 
which do not seen) ever 10 have been recorded iut Victoria. 1'licse bring 
the total number of sedyc* in tlic Sl*T€ 10 !5(j &r>ec«et, jmd the following 
arrangement of new records conforms :o the. generic fic'.jueoce in Ew«in*> 
h'ivra. .-VII collections now cited have been lodged in lite National Het barium 
o' Virion*, and recent discoveries which extend die known range of a U\ 
legalized sedges are also recorded as a matter of iutertsi 

i. *cyperus cowrstus Vujii, mm 

Brighton— abundant in gutters along Durrani St re-el {J- H. H Vfo. 

T>i« collection was tKlfirimtted b\ S- T. Bla\c, l?/3/5£ Imioduccd from 
Soulli \5ricft, diis pestiferous species is already riHfurViwd in Wi'fitem 
Australia, South Australia and N-.av bouth Walts, and has been noted in 
Victoria at place-. a* widely ieouiated Si* Lhmbuola and LtikjgA Entrance. l\ 
closely rescmbics C- rotuuditx, fyuj tackf, tlt<: root tubers and has a much 
denser inflorescence of numerous very narrow ajnkchrts. 

2. cypous nrrvu.osus <;o^i/W) $ j\ ahikc, wo. 

T.xke Kattah. Kulkvne National Fwfcsl — growing amongst &". ifVntitr)niult/S 
(Mil. £. Rotnsay, 1/2/W53) 

This delicate link annual (to 4 in. high) was rrcviously known only 
1*1 in tropical Australia. S. T\ Blake identified the collection, IQ/4/53. 

[C pyi/m&us Rcttb., 1773, has been known hunt Viciona only by a frngmtml 
which F. Mueller had collected HccideniaHy with clump of C (K\'tl:Hf}n) 
bffvtloiins Oil the Oven 1 , River (22/2/185.5). W. J. Ztmmer re-di^'vivered the 
MlfXiC? at Mildura ou 7/5/19.35, au«l more recently 1. 17/5/1953* Mrs. E. 
Kamsay has lotind it at Coli?,nau— on the Murray "River" e?w 01 Mn^iu^i 
Tbtf lit * 1c annual, of u>«ilKvort-likc aKuect, has 3 v-'idc diitrihutiun tlsrouyhont 
ailar.d Australia, and ex:t 4 uds to uuuiy uarls ut tlic Old World (A-siu, Africa 
and biirope). 

C tflobojus Ml \7W), had been included on the Viclnrian |>la.u list solely 
on the basirt of two old collections "snriuijs on »he Lower Hume Hive.v, with 
C /flrjfl.r and ".n company with two sye^ics <"*, the Upi;er Hume 
Ktvcr" — both made by K. ^f^KJ]er m Jaimai'y 1S74- T)ie Imi'our oi re 
e*tahlijiiiig Ibis 9 p<?cie< for VSrioiis j?oes to Raieigb A Rlacl*. who found 
it *'in marshy ])lace. c " at. Varkandandah, 10/4/1941. 

C. wholoicies R.Br.. 1810, remains as a sing)e record ior tlw State, \>'\i. 
"•^Pfinqs Ot) rhc l*f>pcr Hnme Kivcf, 3-4D00 1 ', where it fft) collected hv 
b' - Muofk-r in January 1874; it is probable that trWis material attpaJIy CAioe 
from the Kosciusko (N.5.W.) tide oi trie Upj&r Murray. 'I lie Inroad, very 
flar, ^hinin^ ^pikelets wirh rlos^-sct KisTre-c^loured glume? are U:irmMviU<diU\J 

T S£v Notes on AunIt&):;ui Cyf-cniccs." (1 7) in finfa -ffcv, 5i>t. BJ-. fa, Nu. II 
(tyi7). 49, Ng. »5 (1538); Si, Wo, 5 I19^l»; SI, No. 11 U9-KO; 5%, N». 7 ftQtjU 
•>V. ^a. 8 <imi^| wtfl ?*, Ku. 2 OW}. Alsu "A Muii^ranh of Ok C^iiis Biet/flum/ in 
■VtiSnAPa ?i»id KVw Zealand", /.c. 50. Wu 12. S8-132 (19J'5i. 

*.*>'V A KeiJ *o *Irt AristtJtl&n Si'tviti vt Cc/.^ f C?\*!9ctt?}" »\ t'rw t.iun A<v. 
/.«»./., .Session 155, l!>4?-.i: 277-2S5 UP44> 

70 Will-in Addtiums to E^MMMl StjiO* Flm l^'r.i' n U 

ft. •SCIRPL'S RAMULGSUS (M Bn>!<) Shr<>.. \8\4 

Murrav River 3.J&1 ai" Rnd Cltffl — (Ml & DlflSbOH^ "« Kfnadue P<irhth (Mr, 
r Rotusay, 25/4/1951) 

Determined by 5. T. Blake 13/3/52. and most rlktitfEtif* Jtota iff narrow 
crowded uncinate glumes. The species is al*o n«Uii'fih>ed tii Centra! AU&- 
tiaJiit and tUc tar north of South AuMcalia, whore it is presumed to have 
licea introduced with camels from Afghanistan. 


Uevwyn Swamp. Lawloit Parish, 8J nrrilcj H. of Katuva iA. J HtlMfit 
\U>- IBfc W Mi J. 

Determined hy S. T., Blake, ty5/i9$?i And previously known from nmtlieru 
Australia. Queensland (where widtstjrsailj and South Australia urn the 
Murray, In nig original "description [i'uf. iVa*. 53: 116*120 (Sept. 1.046)1 
Mr. Blake anticipated the. occurrence of the species in Victoria- £ flissochtm- 
tkit? **<ay attain 1 ft. in height and is comparatively rubuM ior an annua} 
robber of th^ *id»icnn? tswpti\ its most iute;e*lme Measure concerns, the 
disposition oi flowers — normal herm.mlHorlirr ones hi iIip terminal iuhVir- 
cicencc of \rl large spdcelet:-. and solitary female flowers, hidden within the 
\t$f sheaths at the base \A the cnlrm. 

5. SCIKPUS FORSVTJdlJ Kiihntlhuf, 1913, 

Genoa River grirge, ta. .* mile* above Genoa township — among oranitc 
rorks near tracer's- edge (/, //, IVHtis, 25/1/1947, A ; A, IVuhe field Nos, 
2-TH4 and 3554 25/3/1947 and 5/3/1949 respectively). 

The type was irom Xepean Rivrr N.S.VV (TV- Forsyth, Mar. 1HGs>) ami 
was a?ljed with J, smithii A. Gray of eastern U.S A. — a tufted annual and 
much larger plant. [ am convinced that the Genoa gorge plane th cousprcifV 
wid» the cranial malett&i \.i{ S }\»$ythn (duplicate type in Melbourne tier* 
barmmj ; it ha?, the same comparatively thick, julcatc culm? of resinou* 
appearance (with lines of very minute whitish, pustules) and the same broad 
shining'.. l>lunti-m. membranous glumes 10 the rather large, solitary', lateral 
spikelets, 5. 1". Blake, who examined my collection, remarked (2/7/KM7) : 

Probably S\ Jqfsylhiii as .von suggest, hut urfoi innately the specimen 
is too immature tor arrnratr- companion. Tl appears to he o'.hei wist: 
known only from Die type collecTJou, and thex? is a doubt in my mind .4-. 
to whether ft is really an Australian native ... it is rather distinctly 
different front any other Austuihan species. 

[EUvchans airicJw R.Br., 1810, was rer.entl/ recorded for Viclorifl be 
E J, WcRarron m Coninh. fifS.W. Nat. Herh.&: 13fi (1955). Iln collcciiou 
(No. 4571) wa% from a roadside seepage lit Rceoliworrh towiiship t'J.^/O/l^O) 
and is located at Sydney Herbarium. E. airicluv is close to U. pusilht R.Br., 
differing in the pmence oi tubers on the stolons, longer g"h*mea (3 mm or 
more j and a large conH ! » :,Lni,t: rtylfe ha-e | 

ft *C\RtX DISTJCHA H\rh. 1762. 

Mario at mouth of Snuwv River — on datnu fiats ainonfi:it luxuriant yrasu 
{W. thwkr. Mov. L943). 

Thft Knrasian species does not seem to have been recorded ior Australia 
luiiurt; S : . T. Blake idemifici the collection. 21/3/^41 

7 ; CAREX PrVTSA Hudy, \762 

Creswiik.-'in a Raglan Sttee.' drain (R. V. Stitith. Sept. \9A3 hnd Mar. 

JX-ietmmed by S. f, ftlakt\ ii/WtW^ This iixvics, aho F.ur&yiari. has 
been noted already a. 1 ; an introduction to New Zealand and hi K^H Bitfictiu ; 
309 (7939) E MeUnes recorded a form oi ii iiom Rcllcrjv*, Tasmania. 

flS?"] Wi!.i.i; ( 4Mti»»x to Vtrtariau &if§t FrW* 71 

R. -CAR EX D1VU1.SA Govern., 1794 

IWchuA Marsh U WilU t K/\>/\W—iict, S T- Hla/e. 4/9/1944; Yacka.*- 
dandah (per (rtppshnd & Neflhwn t J h: Urf., 4/10/1940 — rfW. L NVlnies. 
J8/8/l'J4G) ; "Melljonme J.totHJHC (Jarden* — western e\tii v initv of main lake. 
Opposite l.uiiK Island point |7K<. pfttfj <-> U WWf, 17/J1/W2) 

\nothet fofrduafl -species, distnignishcd by Uiu »tnail, pair sessile spikes 
borne #n(t v » I Li|ti(?*lh alonj; ;i slender culm. 

[C iiMciy.hii Nchnes. 1939, wa* foj ten years known only by the type 
eollecnon^/;r/ra/v/'nt.r ju-ththta forest along iwj Omeo-Mi. Hoiham Rtarf, 
near Cabungra ac about 4,00<i it (A*, .4. Black, No. 1 150.000-7, 30/1/1938,). 
Then, almost Mmultaiicousk, it \yos found again by the original collector at 
The Steppes ('29(H) fi ). Western Tiers of central T&fimwtfi i28/l/i94*J> — 
new for thai State, and by the present writer at Btdwcll. Victoria (.18/I/I94H),, 
bordering sphagnum bogs near the Delegate River hridpe on the Bnuan$ to 
f5endoe K'oad (jfbtttsR .5,000 ft.). The very slender nature oi leave;: and ctdms 
is distinctive. 

C hyficntifti V, Muell. ex ttciulv. 1S7B, was Attributed hv Bom ham to 
^Victoria— Munyun« Mountains . . - 6.000-7.000 ft:, (•*. hhidin" |Jan, 1S7«|. 
Al the time when .N f elmc» revved our Atttftfttifttl C^Urs (1944). only tin* 
Mti^Ie type collection wa$ known, and lie repeal* its origin a* "VictonV 
However, the type location ("Munyang Mtns-") is definitely not in ihat 
State, but on tJie Kosciusko plateau. KV5.W.; so the species rshould be deleted 
lioni Virtoriau hsis— as \sas done in EwarVs flora of Victoria (1930) 
Amnnu the lair Or C §. Smton's collections (recently acquired by \U-I* 
bourne J-lerlurium) is on undoubted specimen of C. hvpandro from Cradle 
Mountain, 1 asm an in (Feb 1919)— a new record lor the bland State This 
luyh alpine, ami appatciitly tpiito we, little r.e<lgc nvay he recognised at pOOS 
by n$ thick very congested and dark-coloured in florescence, with minute 
glumes and utricles. 

C. rcrn«rr»w L, 1753 (nnn Autn. Ausi ), was collected by F. \lueller i» 
December 1854 on 'Snowy Plains, between the- Cabongra |— Ccbungra River] 
and Bogong Range", Victoria. It is one of those boreal \peoes which are 
shaTcd with Australia where they occur only as rarities on our alps — Ok 
fems. Sonyrnttt/w lunorw and Cystvpteris itai/ilis belony also to this category 
C* L-aiu'Siftts d«.»es not *eetn to have hern found 3i?atn in Victoria mikc I8S4. 
It appears under the synonymous name C, btrxbau->mi Wahlenb. »i H wart's 
Flora, while his "C. ttmescrns" is referable to C CiTfJn GoodCii — a wnlesprcad 
specie tlk^OOt^nOUt oiir hiijhci* ^Ifniic bOft« ] 

9. CARFX lilCl-IHN'OVLWA Btttii ftv liovk i\ 1^8 

Wimmera l/V. di/cnn, 1Sfi9) ; Dininoola (St h D'.Ahw, 1889) ; Gonlbiun 
Hirer at Mnrcrur-un (R. st jy/irrA*. 4/11/19421; Broken Uivcr. S. of Uooltie 
{P. € SftfnJtPfr 6/10/iVSl). 

The firsi two of tlir^e collecimns were ex^niined and detcrininM hy 
KuUenthal — as variety rMcfcnr-ofhiim of Carer Pumtfa Thnnh.. but he does 
tioi ttieittion a Victorian occutrence in hi< Carer mnnography (Pfttntzcnretch') 
<ti J909 However, J K. 7 ovey recorded C />mum'/<t, v?,r hidicnovioim (Booif 
ex Hook r.) Kitkeniit for Victoria in Pun. Roy, Sot\ VUi. n, Kfcf ffiz 4n 
I' 1921). Ewar: ignored this record in Nora irf )'ictoria (1930), so have ,1. M. 
Hlark (1943) and Nelnies (1944) It is thus MnsidcTetl appropriate to repeat 
ihe reference. The species is abu.nlant on bVufy %ro\m<\ near W»tcr<onvfcs m 
I Ik' WinMi^er.y, Murray Valley and CouJr)urn V<th'ey disukv aiirl it is 
sometimes a nuisance in (^aniens. Closely related to C fr'tw'Ui (Ihc sand 
sedjt;e>. C. lnch***ioMinu» tnjy he distinguished by U?> laMer growth, rather 
ii.iuowei Kvves which an.- never cirenmate %\ ihf- ar' rc ' culms prokciing 
well beyond ilie leai-sheatht, male <jivl:cx nsiwlly sever;:! (more than 4). 

tZ Wli-us. Add*Uons tu Victorian jfafpc ffatii [ Vot'/v^' 

tciiiiitc tflumes (mid oft-;n utricles) with purplish pigmentation, and the utricles 
IftU&A smaller (4-5 mm. lontr. c.f- W ui C". /MinuVa}. 

10. CMiEK JACKtANA Boot*. J84S. 

Head of MifldlS Geek oe&r Rover Scout Hut. BogOng Hij?h Plait's— hill- 
side soaks morasses at about 5.000 ft. (A //. M'i/Zi.r. 2/7/1949, Cfof-jtf 
,\>.vw, eatly Jnn. 1953); £)aw Haw jjlaieao swampv HaU between. Mis. 
Ba»v Raw and Sr. P^ill.ick, c;i 4900 H. \J H. Willi*. W5/\9S\) ; tyfc Rnltcr 
at "The Springs", CJL 5o<!0 ft . aU;i Wt Snrlicv* (J. U WiUU. K/.V195.1) 

The collection hr?t cited was determiner} by H- Xehnes, 22/3 2/1949. and 
Is recording constitutes a remarkable extension m rauj;e of a upt'cic* jiro 
vuiusly considered endemic in the Irid'i- Malesian region (India, Ceydon, 
Malaya and Java). t* will almost certainly V found in ivew Guinea, iiul 
pernaps also in other parts* of the Australian aijp. Although r.imilar in habit 
and ?iie lo <~. brwcuhuw K.R»\ £ jo<khtana differs cuAiiilestly in iU 
grf-tii colour, even shorter inflorescence* which arc i|uire hidden amoruf tlie 
bsoes of the leave*. and in its kmy. narrowly conical utricle; (to 7 rrmi.l 
whn'o are many-venied, bt?t nol ribbed (as in C. btiMt *thms) . Indian and 
Malayan specimens, nt C iuchimux have rather longer culm* and less c»>n- 
scsred spikes than the Victorian. 

it CAKHX TASMANtCA Kiikattluii : 1904. 

Hcvwood township— in shallow dram beside Fo**&l OlJice t/. /i F# i7f',v. 

1 IviVc no doubt that the Hey wood collection is identical w:rh this inxouauoti 
species, previously considered endemic \u Tasmania. Tips of the leaves and 
nracrs become charatteristicaJly withered and circiuiiale, the splicer are short 
and very (.as Ui Pfotttauo lam-eolnhi) . the gUmie-s are short and obtuse 
w:th long-cxcurrcul midribs, whdc tfrc small paU* rUttcntxJ utrkles (to 
5 inni.) have thickened niacins and widely spreading* t-eitll 

12. CAREX IYMX B KcttMA, 1944. 

Gorac West, lifcaf inland- on lightly ;mibered fat o r heavy black toatn 
(A. Ctiff B*'aut)klu>!c> N'o, Mif> 10/1/ 1 954) . fallarai {F MtirJirr, Jan 
ia5J): etc. 

Uoth collections wxre determined riy E. M<:!mc$, 2Ji/j/l955 and \945 
C i.v/nr dirrers Irani C hintfibrachiQla Boeckl. [syn_ C lonyifoiia, K.Br , ttpH 
ThuilLI in it> denser-tlowered, thicker fScJS mm. w:ee) jpikes, the teinale 
flumes more than 2 5 :rrm. tnoad and with wide hvaluie margin*,, A review 
ot alt Victorian collcetivr,is hitherto referred to C. longifolia R.Br fi.e*- C. 
hiiyibrachiata) m Mellxnune Herbaraini yliowy that only titfli (Tainbo Jci>tr 
HUd Glendlg River nenr t)ar\mnor) roidoi'in to Roheri Rrown'> type n>aterir<l 
from Tori Jackson — slender, narrow, loose-Howered spikes, with glumes test- 
than 2 5 mm. broad. The remainder (Corae West. "Haywood. Lake Cornnjia- 
miie, BaJl.Hrat, Batlan. Gjhuiigia. The Cnf>l)0i .is, clc.) arc all refefnljle In 
H9ltnyQ& f $ C. fviu - — a widespread plant rn Victoria. The dilfcrenre upon which 
C, iynr was erected seem ta me rather tTifling.. And 1 would prefer to rejraxd 
il 3s ft variety 0^ C tt\i\qihrar.kii\t(i. 

[C. alxufrhim K. Mueit., 18?4, ^n<\ C\ cwisfxctM Boott. ftS C D. Clarke. 
1"9U8* ace both letatned us Vic'Ofi^n specie* ni Mehnes's key oi 1944. The 
former WW based upon five syntypes — WaJTS River, Mt. Juliett, Mt. Anold 
Baiv Bawfr and "Tarwan" {•=. Tarrago] River. The last two of these collec- 
tion Itcuartic the typc^ r«± Boott's C roiw^unv/, presumed lo dSfjfct Hnm 
£'. alx4>phfh in having the terminal 3pikelet wliolK male A review of ad the 
type material, together with several rexent collections, discloses that C 
iWiPUufy is f>^$ed upon u"itt mconslfiuk details, which are %\0 nlotr tliftn 
inrraspveific variations in the disposition of male flowers nnd lengths of 

S£l io5« b * r ] .unions t* f/Miwiw M& fu-> ia 

is1utiu>, thorn "* run. to mm.):: die <cinnna >nike may be uholl) |>ty -. 
wholly li-Lfiiilc, »cm;de at i he top, or m.dc witIi occasional Female flowers here 
slid TOrfi- ncryv»j<»n*l(y 'iic four unpenvtu-.t ^nlke* arc entire!)' male. 6uvh 
varianoniv arv not correlattd v.". lit any ♦;thvr ditienncii iti uto*s rnufpftvliUii 
lud f hfefrfl mi IteMtarlou in merging C. .cmnfiitmi UjUlft C Cikf>phiU> | 

13. 5CH&SWS R.UlTANb .//fat A, J85H. 

Uarwon River near OecJong (/ tyTBtebrftlift' li'iUtw. 1883). 

TV siffglji VictoHan .simple, although with only immature inflorescences. 
was ao.^r-Mely determined by F Mueller, it stems to have Iw* en(u*eU 
overlooked by levari und other writers on our sedges. Otherwise this aquaiic 
species is known from Tasmania ("in stagnant brackish water" — le&f C. 
Stuart) and South Australia (Kangaroo Island and Encounter Bay). The 
nlanieiiiuus. vciy l&qg leaf lauuine and loiitf c'rutfYy feitiwpa* ^ r ^ distinctive' 

14 SCHU-NUS TESQUORUM / $L 0fw*, 1922. 

<joroke Road about 17 jniies 5. rtf Nihil — 'Jimp depression at southern 
fringe of Utile Desert (J. H WW&, Sejtt. 1948) ; Hca«hnKrc, near Portland 
if. £. mirf P, /J. FftUfe, Dec 1952— Oct. 1^-<x TW?ib- A- Cliff; «- 
liolc, No 1 ;. .^SSl* 55 inclusive) 

Type locality c-f this South Australian specks was "fftliJI &f?twvtj Mittwt 
hnrr rmrt" Mowit Mchff.vrc in fttw;fzivrry f/i;. \l\p I'n'.h/rw't bo'Cf/', but IlO 
Colkcloi <>r date fc mentioned, il was later found a.i Fineouiuer Bu> This 
reference to "the Victorian border" ^ l cms to have escaped the notice of 
F.wart and other recent botanists in our State. S. fcsqiwrum resembles a tall 
lobttit condition ot i?i PpOfj&i Reem. & Softtdt. but differ* m havir-s vi- 
licrianth bristles alu! neriVetly smooth, white trigonous! Outs, 

15. SCHtENUS BRF.VICULMTK Berth.. }H7S [incl. S. ft/fatf F. Muell, 

Grcv*r Ocerm Road, 2 miles- H (*J Point AtWU (B^i Jffd M-ft. &\ Marks, 
Mar. 1947) ; tflack R*nAc ( 5 miles W of Cherry Pool on the Upper Gleitelg 
(/ H. W\U\$, 2/3/1943,1; Big lXscrt. on South Aujti'atiau b^rdec ahaul 
18 miles K o; Scrvfccton (7. h' W*th*, 17/9/1V48) ; near Cdtial>n-ni SptJHfe. 
tittle De^rt & miles S r.i l.^wloH {J, H Wiflis> 11/9/1^9). 

A low. (len?;ely fctrftrf Tiut-iunuin« -;ed«e, with nidd(;u iitflorcyccnce* a,^ iit 
the acinic $. cotyftrot:^* S. T; I'lnke whicli it closely reseinhleh. It js widel.v 
distributed ri'.nirjsi ilirnu^hout the Little TV.sorl (m at least 11 of the 
20 Parches), and is also abundant m 'he Jlig' DcsM't on i,mdv l^eaihlaiui. 
iiow It .'ta<l escaped dctactiou dunny a century of boram'cal expiorattou in 
lhi< Start '-, ctstonishnig. West Victorian example* are identical with th« 
South A tsjulhn .V tspftm' V Muell .'ron Att. I ohy TCi.n^e, K^ngai-Go 
Isliiu?, V^cickc and F.yre Fcninsuh» Mr C. A. Gardner, Covenicnent 
Wotaojst o: Western Australia, reports f)0/?i/\9M}) ;ui follows an a ISiji 
D^sci six-eimen which I etJ.Mint'.od io him for examination: 

The iiiffctmeo oi 5! tepffri V Much, irorw 18 mdes nonh of Service- 
toil. Vic , ?g»*CC2 very wWl with our specimen of .$". brevicuhnis Benth. 
coIVcxed hv i:»rumnii>ud. I would <av that thev were the samc. 

G. K-ukcnthal |ifl Report Sf-n Nm> tt,uj)i Vca 4?. 9<t (June 1938) 1 
made .5', Uppeii a variety oi S- hyrvifuhnit, 

f-S* salyptmtui S. T. Blake, W41, is recorded only by the type collediou 
(Mt. Buifalo, tt'fl S. T. Ulakc. 1933) ; but it is widely disirtbutcd aroand 
the cdjres of sphagnum bogs throntjltoui the Y'\tomn yl|,»s < e.D Lake Mur.- 
tain, Baw Baws, Ml Ske;»e. Mt Uuller, Mt Buffalo, Bsffong High PUir.s), 
and on M t Kosciusko, N.S.W. — in A. 1J. Costin's *' Hlanta^o nmtllcri — 
Sfilfitta ausiruhLiica Alhancc". A collection front E<ho Fh'it Lake Mountain 
</, }I WitHx, 25/I/1M48) sbow^ sUmifta' Owtfnts about 7 mm long, a«d 

74 Win is ArfJitioitt *& 1/Utorian $$$ MfafNfi [ v £*; ^J V 

S. T, Ulakc makes this comment concerning it (8/3/1948) 'I do not recall 
liMv't'fi seen Mich kmg filaments in ScinVniri before.") 

16 RHYNCHOSPORA RUCOSA ffcWJ £ Cttfft 1944 JSvn fl etoutfri 
Vahl. 18061. 

TawOitpa, on G. \. Tonkin's property (AV .4. Black, 30/4/ 1940. 

This collection constitutes the first record of the genus kh$U8bp&Jwii fox 
Victoria, and oi)« suspects that the plant may have been introduced front 
Xcw South Wales or farther north. It i:; a grass-like species, to 2 ft, high. 
Willi a terminal inflorescence ot small Npskrlct? clustered in shoit irregular 
corymb's Tndigenou? to Mvw South Wales and Queensland, ii |s &l«0 widely 
dispersed in tropica) regions or the world. 


By N. A. VV.>Kcrnar>, Noble Park 

Genui GftEVILLEA: Two Undescrthed Species Hitherto 
Included under G. illctfolio 

CHElstLLEA IVtVOrUyLl.A 5 ». nov-; On ymrniatc C itieifoime 8 Br.. 
seil tohorum lohis dentate induntento s-pat'mj pcrt*jrtili uvano subscs-iUi 
villoso Stylo bi'cvi (ctrciter 1 cm. lOitgQJ difFert. 

HOl.OTYPfc: Kang»*0O Fhll (near Bendigo ) I November 1934, A J. 
'ladKuU (MKL; duplicate* to Ik sent to K and NSW'), 

Divaricate tdmib to «3 ft. high; leaves up to 7 cm. long and 5 cm. wide, 
usually divided (often deeply) with (our main lateral lobes which arc 
•dullowfy toothed u ith ■ tew pimgcul points, the venation conspicuously 
reticulated, sparsely pubescent on berth surfaces with short very twisted 
hair.s ; flowers secund in racemes I 5-2.5 cm. long, the pedicels about 1 tnni 
long, the perianth about 5 mm. Iohr and densely pubescent on the outside, 
the ovary subsesssile and densely villose, the style about ] cm. long 

Dtsti, tuition Endemic ill Victoria in the northern auriferous belt (Cast!c- 
maine, Bcndtgo, Skipton and Upper Avoca aicas). 

C (frypphyltcs has hitherto been passed by as a form of C, i7u"ifo/<n. but :Se 
latter species has a more cuncale leaf with the lobes :£ confined to the upper 
hall ^^\<^ usually entire, the vesuture under-leal i£ dense and short, the flowers 
arc stalked (with pedicels 15-2 mm. Ions) and invested with sparse vestiturc, 
the ovary is st.pttate fwith an almost glabrous stalk 2-3 mm. lortu) and 
invested with oppressed hair, and the style is about 17 mm. Iuiik 

GftE^lLLEA STEICLITZIANA sp. nov.; itf*m ex aJHmtate -G. iltaiotiar 
R.Hr., sed foliorunt lobis dentatis induinento *f*ar40 Wfl^O flonbus 
MibsessdibuK -ova no (stipitem incHnlens) villoso stylo basin vers' is 
pubescent* rccedit 

HOLOTYPF: Ueathtamls near Geelong Reservoir. Brisbane Ranges Vit- 
)0mi Sepi Wi 1°*I : %• P R. H. St John (MHt.). 

Divaricate shrub to 3 ft. hiph ; leaves up to 5 cm. Um« and 3 cm. wide. 
usually shallow }y divided wilh 4 main lateral lobes which arc shallow ly 
lonthed with ;t few pungent points, *enatioi) conspicuously reticulaterl. upper- 
surhiccs becoming glabrous, underneath sparsely invested with long :£ straight 
hair*; flowers svetrnd m racemes 2-3 cm, long, the pedicel* abou! I tfflfc, )oj\^, 
the perianth about 6-7 mm. long ;im\ densely pubestenl on ihc outwdc. lha 
ovary ^tipilate (stalk <?-3 mm long 1 ) and densely villotc the style 15-17 mm. 
long and usually sparsely pubescent towards the base. 

• HE!. — NAttonAi H^fwrhftiUVf Vietoua. MeMvmrof K — Ko_»u WlAAId r»4'de«5, Kcw. 
Fnifland; iVSVV - Nntionnl Hcrharium of \'<w South Wales, Sjdney 

r>>-,tj ibur on : Endemic in the Brisbane Ranges. Victoria, and then uopur- 
jSnrty guile plentiful over a coiviidcrabli. area, ill the generis I vicinity oi ihe 
U>\\t)$hip ol Steiglil/ 

U, ttfiyltlsiatia also has been included, tt. file pa,sj with {7. i/nfte/m, bv.l 
differs in lea* shape, and 111 the type ol venture on the leave.-:. on the peiinmb 
jVkI jgfl the ovary ftnd base of ffw <Hyl£, It bearc & nmTirkaSIc, ^iperficul 
resembUutce lo (7. <{rvof>h)ifa t diJTerin^ numly in the lyptf of vestiture on 
tltt* lemrs in ilte si/-: ql tic floats. Ill the uipi-aie ovary ami •lie sotncwlMt 
o-ilKSretil siyle 

L wisii to thanV* the Director enfl stafl 6* the Melbourne National 
Herbarium for facilities in coimrrliPn with this mcarr'v 


By C S. Mi pro*— ox, f.r.a.s.j r.n.M.s. 

Oue is frequently asked lot on Lite choice of a microscope foi a 
particular purpose. Here- I shall ir>' to answer the Naturalist. 

A*- microscopes are designed to fill speciric net*ds in spex lalized fields, a 
very good (or expensive) microscope may not be the most suitable, 

Microscopes to-day arc chiefly designed for : ( 1 ! Medical s?uricm* * 
(?) MeuidniyiiU : (3) (jcologists ; ami (4)^e J-aboratoHes, when' 
torae universal instruments sometimes routine iJ.OljO or mote an? pfuwdra 
The Naturalist appears to have been foryotteu in these days, especially dhc 
mari with not loo deep u pocket. 

The so-called single purpose research microscopes for hiok-fjeal work are 
generally Jink- more thin ;t ntedieaJ .student's microAiope, with a mechanics) 
stage and perhaps a iub*slae,t. Such a:i instrument, with lh~ee 
objectives, viz, lOx, 4Dx. and IllOv oil immersion, .mil two eye-pin «*£ — $s" **od 
K)x, sells to-day for ahnJt il50 and is nut suitable for ihe NaUirali^T He 
requires a greater range or low powers than this, and the IOOx oi; imnier&icn 
objective is seldom, if ever, required. 

How then Can he ehot>se wisely and wcJl f " What s ha old lie look f or ■ 

There are four main features : ii) Objectives i <u) Tye pieces; (ui'i J>tih- 
sta^e condenser ; (iv) Stand. 

{i) Objectives: The lull battery oi objectives best suited to the tiatUi aliSi 
would be a J inch, 2 inch, I inch, 8 mm. and a 3 mm, dry achromatic, not 

While not decrying the apnrliroma'.ic ohjt-ctive tor cerUin cntieal WQfk hy 
an experienced nn<;n>fcopi^t, these bcauiiful and very expensive le'ise* Jirp 
liy no nieaiis siniahte for rhe average naturalist as. unless critically used, tIicv 
may yield poorer images than an achroinat of aimilar ixiwer, '1'he apuchroniat 
is much more sensitive to variation tn tube length and eover-gLiss thicfcue-Sa 
and also has a ni-jrc curved field- These arc disadvantages under ucrtam 
Lircumstaiiceb. The expense of apochronuU i-5 only wartanted where the 
titmnst resolution is necessary for the work in hand and in critical photo- 

The purchase, of aU these lenses- may be too •expensive at nr.5t. If so. 
purchase the 2 inch and S mm., and add the rest as necessary. 

(u) Eyepieces: (jet o-rie eyepiece as hiyh a power as possible, preferably 
an ouhoscopic. and an 3>. huy^nian. 

(iii) Huh-_ma£je Condenser: The best \% n do achtomatir and aplastic 

An aplanalie condenser, not corrected for colour, is also very suitable it' 
utcd with tiLtcrs. Tliesc arc hoth Tather cvpen>i\e but may sometime- he 
houftht secondhand Failing that, then buy an Abhe remdenser, preferahh - 
a 3 leu* form. 

?6 MitMiLtiOK, A Micnucope fur rfa XntuniHsi [ y^L^ 1 

(iv) Stand; Tlic mtwt suitable U a Wcitham Binocular, not ttn^y mace 
but sometimes ava.labte secondhand. Since the Wenham Binocular was 
originally made tor Jong rube lcitsca, it would be well to ace that modern 
liiglt power louse* kvcrc corrected for uiK* win o long tube. This is done by 
means at a correcting lens or alteration to the objective* but on. tw acctjitHt 
ibocM an amateur attempt to alter the lense* himself as this i«. a job for 
tbc e>i>Cfl PcnVianeut damage can result by even unscrewing the objective 
for cfettrmg or (toy other purpose * 

If the lenses purchased with rhe microscope are the originals, no Correci»On 
will he necesscuy. but t^cy ahcutd he tested carefully by an expert at old 
lenses saracriiMH deteriorate. 

1j the choice is limited to a modem instrument, jiUrebase a. sUjkI that can 
be built up by the addition of a mechanical stage, a rack focussing and 
conterin^ si<b-vt*fcie and a binocular body, 

Only a few medical stnden*V, miefuicoiies £aj| be bu;li u(» m th«$ way, 

IS you have any further queries I would be happy to answer them 


By Rr.x C. Km 1 1 aW 

The Southern Army Worm, Pcrsntmiia cminyii ( VVestw.) ha* caused 
considerable damage to pastures and crop* Hi Ta^mnma in tecent yean. 
During the present season CiySS/.Sb) ihe writer has observed the cater- 
pillars feeding on" years in a West Tamac o-'chard. 

The tooths are m flight during September and October, and caterpillars 
ascend the plant stems where ihey ievd 011 the seed heads duruttf November 
jud December. Infestations have reached plague proportions in some years 
and considerable economic damage has resulted. Marlyn $1955) » coord* 
mutual d^magre co the wheat variety "Magnet'', and most crops have been 
infected 10 varying degrees Damage to pears in a West Tamar orchard 
also seems UOTUStlSl and the writer has not noticed a pTior reference tn y.Kh 
an occurrence. 

Round holes were noticed in pears, principally of the Winter Cole variety, 
which at first sighs could have been taken for hail marks. On close inspection 
numbers of caterpillars were observed m sUu-. Infestations of the glasses ot 
the orchard had been noticed, and :t is possible that the caterpillars inoved 
mto the ttees rfUbi?%Wfltrt to the cultivation of the orchard. However, a? the 
object of tlit cultivation was to produce a mulch and not to eliminate the 
c;rass, there was still a goodly amount available standing for the caterpillar* 
to icc<\ on. This was not beavdy infested at all so apparently competition Was 
not an important reason for the movemen; j moreover there were sometimes 
three or tour caterpillars on a very small pear. 

Close observation was made, oi the activity ot" the caterpillars, ami it was 
noted that individuals moved from nUcc 10 plaoc on a pear until a iitc 
Mutable for attach was found. The skin was then rtmoved in small quantities 
by a eitawing motion, and from time to time was placed to one side and was 
not eaten. The skin was removed fiom a eoufehly circular vetch, subsequent 
to which the caterpillar began to eat the fruit. A rounded hole rather larger 
than the brifciuaf opening was excavated, the caterpillars not digging deeply 
itrtG the irilit a* do the codlin moth larvae. 

Ill the case oi the WlPfcl Cole pears the damaged Iru.l may be removed 
during normal fruil thinning operations, but with otftcr varieties not 
normally requiring thinning the low is an economic factor. Most damage 

• iueh un.'iCKWutC of objectives wjh. stitfjcyied { rt a;t .irilclt on "Olean'n* Mitfionnve 
t.cnse/ m 'h-» Jo.irnxl ln>( inomh l.Kuf. A'al f3> (0,1. TK«re v/dl be UOQihOlC^I l» h 
foHhtaoQPft l ?VH a " Arlitk on th* C£Airirtg of lci^cS in W ohj^liw. — Erfiior. 


j Ki.ksmiaw, $4/Rpj »n the it J tny £pcmv 77 

was observed neat the ground, but in some i^es. (mil hi^h in the irees had 
\)c.n\ reached. Because of ihe mode of attack of the caterpillar, the poisonous 
sprays on the skin oi the pears were of no use ir. protecting \\i£ "fil '". 
pasture and cereal erupts control is achieved by dusting- ar sprayintr whh 
O.D.T. insecticide This insecticide is commonly used in orchard programmes 
and an adjustment m the programme ii necessary would be all that is 


Maktvn, E. J. and Hudson., N. M\ (195J)— "Control of ihc Army wot m. 

I 1 (Tetania- eaiufjit {\\ r t£$t\\ ) :n Tasmania". Tijsm. I jf&fit, .?■/ /Jj: 

33Q 33°. 
Martvn, E. J. C1V5S> — "'Report on an Outbreak of the Southern '\rmyworm, 

Pnr.wrtihua (iwhigii (Wcs-tw "t in Tasmania in 1954-55". I'asm, J, Agric. 

J6 (4): Hft-Ol. 


\f» F. S* Cotliver ot the Geology Department, University of Queensland, 
Brisbane, sends tht- following request: 

*'Fnr some years now I have been collecting information relating to Ihc 
various editions of Gilbert White's Natural History of Scfb$rne t oF which. 
over 200 editions arc known. This is many more than i have noted, a;>J it 
seems to me that F.NC V. members might have the volume at home possibly 
in a K'i'tiv different front those 1 have collected or seen. What I would like 
i<; a complete copy of the Title .Pag* 1 as printed, the date, number of pafte*. 
and publisher's name if not already on the title page, original price; and if 
one of a scries, ejr- "100 best books' al". Likewise I would he glad to hear 
about other items pertaining to Gilbert White, for I feel that I must have 
Ttnaied UOtmj? some of them/' 


A large marquee is to be allotted tree to the RN.C V. Tot the display »if 
Austialian flowers, for Club publicity and for sale of publications. Arrange- 
ments for helpers in setting up and supervision will be completed at the 
Se^einber General Meeting. Absentees may telephone Mr. A. J, Swaby 
(\VF 7294) after the meeting for details, including transport arrangements. 


Mr. H. T. Reeves will stage an exhibition, in conjunction with '.he Native 
Plants Preservation Societv ot Victoria, of about 250 hand-coloured photo- 
graphs- of Australian flora, in Kodak Gallery, Melbourne, during the tirsi 
fortnight in October next. The show is to be opened, at .1,30 p.m. on Monday. 
October 1, by Mr. P. Crosbit Morrison, 


The Home Mission Fund of the Congregational Church is hokjiiifra Western 
Australian WOdflowcr Show in the Lower Town Hall on Monday, Tuesday 
awl Wednesday, September 10. 11 and It (Moudav 1.30 )0 -p.m., othei day3 
lO.JO a.m., to 10 p.m.) Admission 2/-, children !/-. 


Dr. Frank Tate fflH lecture on the Rnrner Reef at 8-tfl p.m. on September 
2ft. in ihe National Museum. Colour film. 

7& The Victorian \Uihtralist Vol. 73 


The beautiful .md accurate paintings ot wildflowcrs by the late Miss 
Amy Fuller are the property of the Club, but we have not the facilities ti> 
show them propedy. 

Members may be interested therefore to know that they have been made 
available to the .Miitive Pilots Preservation Society which will he displaying 
some o^ thfm in the Mutual More subway windows. 1 his display is due to 
start on September !7. the pictures will be varied from time 19 time* and sets 
should be on show there tor several wccLb. 


F.N.C.V. Meetings: 

Monday. October ft— Satin Bower-bird, hv N, A. Wakefield; and discussion 
nf Club projects. 

F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Sunaay, September 16 — Botany Group excursion to Hurstbridge. Leader: 
Mrs, Piimhcs. Take* S.S3 a.m. tram to Hursrbridgc. Bnn# one meal 

Sunday. September .30 Farlom couch excursion to Cape Patterson, Leader : 
Mr. K. Atkins. Coach leaves Batman Avenue 3 a.m. sharp. Fare, 25/ - 
B i two meals. 

Saturday, October 6 — Geology Group excursion. Details at group meeting. 

Group Meetings; 

(8 p.m. at National Herbarium) 
Wednesday, September 12 -Microscopical Group. Subject; Amateur Micr<«- 

spOfVy Today. Speaker: Mr, A Busby. Open niftht tor exhibits. 
Monday, September 24— Botany Group. Members' Kodachrorne. Night. 
Wednesday. October 3 — Geology Group. Subject: Igneous Rockt?. Speaker: 

Mr. Blackburn. 

Preliminary Notices i 

Tuesday, November 6 (Cup Day) — Club picnic to Healesviile Sanctuary. 
Leader: Mr. A. J- Swaby. President. Subject: Nocturnal Animals, and 
inspection of .Nature Trail. Coach leaves Batman Avenue 1,0 atit.. leaves 
Sanctuary 7.30 p.m. Bring two meals. Fare, rnchiding admission, JS/-. 

^vovembei 3-4 Weekend at Bendigro. Itinerary ; Saturday afternoon Excur- 
5ioii to Sandy Creek. F.venmg— Illustrated talk with Kodachromes. 
Sunday— Full day in WhipsticJc Transport by Friday evening's or SatuT- 
day's trains cr private cars, Camping facilities at White- Hill Gardens. 
Wednesday. September 12, is final date tor hotel reservations- Bookings 
with £\ deposit to be made with Mr. K. Atkins, Botanic Gardens, South 
Yarra. S.H.I, I'hone, MU 3755. after 6 p m, (Note the amended date ot 

Shows : 

Thursday, September 27 (Cup Day), to Sunday, September 30 General 
Floral Display in Kaiorama Reserve, from 9 a.m. to ](> p.m. (except 
Sunday. 9 am to 5 p.m ). Admission 2/-. children free. (Possible Club 
excursion on irhe Thursday.) 

Saturday. October 6 Q 10 pni.) t and Sunday, October 7 (1-5 p.m )— Wi|d- 
flowers and associated arts. In Beaumaris "East Hall. Cr. Cromer and 
Wells Roads, near Balconibe Koad. Details front A J. Swaby alter 
September meeting 

— Marie- Ai.LEtfUER, Excursions Secretary. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL 73— No. 6 OCTOBER 4, 1956 No. S74 


There was a gtotoS attendance ai the General Meeting ol the 
Club ar the National Herbarium on September 10. Greeting's were 
received from Mi\ T. K N. Lothian, Director of the Adelaide 
Botanic Garden. 

The Secretary stated that he had received a tetter from the. 
executors 01 the late Mr. F. Cudmore indicating that he had !cU 
£100 to the CJul>. 

It was mentioned thai the Club has not at present a representative 
who could attend meetings of the Natural Resources Conservation 
League, and any member who could do so was asked to get in 
touch with the President or Secretary . 

Mt\, Strong offered to make available his room at Parliament 
House for meetings of the Marine Hiology and Entomology Groups, 
and members interested were asked to get in touch with him after 
the General Meeting. Miss J. Hope MaePhcrson was elected as 
a Metropolitan Member of the Club. 

Miss C. Carberry t-xbibiced a series of slicks illustrating native 
flora, mostly from her own garden in Hawthorn and that qf 
Mr. Swansea at Frankston, hut included some wild specimens A 
I'oiiimcntary was given by the President, 

The President explained that the short -lecturettes at meetings 
were intended for members doing research, to let others know 
what was being* done so that -field -work, etc , could be ro ordinated. 
lie appealed to members who could give such talks- to communicate 
with Kirn. 

Mr. Wilbs mentioned the recent dea ! .h of an honorary member, 
Kew H. M R. Kupp; audit was resolved that a letter of sympathy 
be sent to his family. 

Exhibits induded garden -^rown native plants, particularly a 
number of Acacia and Creinllea species, shown h\ Miss Macne. 
and Messrs. Jennison Fisch and Brooks. Mr. Gabriel exhibited 
snme marine shells from southern Tasmania [Peclea novaa-^ekmuiat' 
Reeve, Bquichfomys brfroiu Lam. and Mwiach/ct-mys usperrhmis 
Lam ) ; ami Miss E. Raff showed some hyacinths, grown in bottles 
of plum water, and having very good root systems, 

The meeting closed at' 9.45 p.m. for the usual conversazione*. 


Nutionnl Museum Lecture' On October £6 at 8.15 p.m. Mr P. Croafcic 
Motfiion will lecture in 0V National Museum on "Why our Animals arc 



HO Th* Secretary's tnltotii\ 

•Vtct. Nut. 

- Vol. 73 

To Orchid Liftoffs Mr. J, G Foley, of VV hi taker Avenue, Mont Clare, 
Pennsylvania, USA. wishes to correspond with Australians interested in 
Botany, and perhaps exchange specimens. His special interest is orchids 
and he .states that the climate of his district is about the same as that of. 

Nutate Photographs : The Melbourne Camera Club is organizing an Inlet- 
national Exhibition of Photography in the Melbourne lowti Hall front 
March 1 to 27. Among the ela*s<:s if a special Nature Section, the first »n 
Melbourne, for nature prints and colour slides. Closing date. February 13, 

C on chvlv<tu<s; The M&lacological Club hns published a work cm "Th.iioi- 
dac ' by Mr Bernard Cotton, Curator qj Molluscs,. Adelaide University Price 
1/6 per copy, postage included. Address of Honorary Secretary — 3*1 Glen- 
fcrrie Road, Malvern. 

Birds t>/ tfetv South Woicx. Tin: lllawura Natural History Society has 
■"•ent us, at our suggestion, n number ot copies of the publication Birds 
Recorded from the lihiivorm thitrut These Will be displayed foi s-ile ai 
Club Meetings. Price 2/6. 

Duwdin Srkut-r Conr/rcss: If any member proposes to attend the Congress 
in Duneum from January 16 to 23 { 1957. of the Australian and New Zealand 
Association ior the Advancement of Science, and would like to be accredited 
**■ a delegate from this Qlib, picas* croitact the Secretary. 

Vicinnan Sub Aqua Croup; This body ot tkni-divers feels it ba> got 
beyond (he mere spear-usbing stage and is raiting a seienl»5c interest ifi 
%vnat £oes on under the water. It has written to the Cluh seeking" co-operation 

Further particulars mav be obtained from Mi. H- K. CokMII, Hon 
Secretary, F.N.C.V. 


Tor -j canfiiUrabie t;me now it has been apparent that a substantial bndv 
ul members would like ihe present atrangement iff the Club (Unite to t)c 
altered and some proposals to that end. at present before Council, will 
probably be considered at its next meeting and, if adopted, placed before 
ihe October General Meeting, for consideration. 

Apart from the Life Membership Fund, until lf'47 the Club had only one 
arcount, into whicli all receipts were paid, ond from which alt expenses were 
met. It was substantially in credit some ai the surplus being invested, the 
rest being lit an oicliuiiry bank account. In that year, it was resolved by 
Council 'that a fund be created to be known a* the Buildmp and Contin- 
gencies Fund — a fund to include ail present investments, exception i.sic.l thosi 
M'ectficaKy sec aa'dc far other purposes and to include income from special 
source; siKh as publications and booklets (with the specific exception 01 
the receipts and expenditure connected Willi tlie Club badges), such fund 
(o be available lor nnyiicing the ClobV ^peci.d publication* and the acquisi- 
tion of a Club Building at some future time'". 

This motion was carried and the iuntl set up. It now comprises aboul 

It will be noted that this fund was expresslv made available for fiuaneinp. 
Cluh Publications, and tt is this Expert which is now engaging our attention. 
Some member* fear that if it continues to be jlitsS fot that purpose it will 
gradually lose its charaetct as a "Building and Contingencies Fund" and 
become simply and solely a tuivd for financing Publications To get over 
this. Council is being a^ked to recommend the establishment of 4. separate 
'Publications Fund" and the amendment of the resolution setting up the 
Building anrl Contingencies Fund to make it r.lear that it is not to be Used 
for such a purpose in the future, 

This problem RfSl became acute with the publication of the. Tern BuoJc, 
*uiO it iy accordingly proposed to separate the two funds as /torn May I. 
1955, before that project was. i(coj>t*:<1. The Treasurer assure* ut. that there 
will he- no diihculty 111 doing tins. An earlier dace, which would give rathet 
niurt money 10 the Publications Futtft has alio been suggested. 

If the lirst sugyes'tion ig :<coiHt*tl t the Isuildinu ^nd Cefltimgenru**. Fond 
will continue to receive the proceeds of ^alc o: items published before that 
dak, and also the proceeds ot any special efforts wc may hold in the future. 
and o wiU be reimbursed the expenses of publishing the F<:ru Book, M<l 
be jioi called on to pay for the 2nd edition of ibe Fungus Roo!<. Despite 
live terms of the resolution establishing it. it alfto receives the proceeds o£ 
aale. of Chib hadtfes, and it is proposed that this should continue. 

It is proposed that the new fund will take pvOtf the Fern Hook t and thr: 
new edition o* the Fungiis Book and ajao ^alus of hack numbers of the 
Naturalist \\\ excess of *20 per year. Il will appatently start life with About 
£150 in Otsh, and a very substantial rapital iUVKsTect entirely in utt.v>)d 

Oi course, we all realize that the Building and Contingencies Fund is 
tjinte inadequate for any building purpose, but it is a beginning and the 
ipontors of this idea fee! thai this subdivision of fundi will serve to remind 
us that some of our money is earmarked for the purpose, and perhaps 
encourage u*j to build it y|> io something worth while. 

— F. IT. Connn.i.. Jinn. Secretary. 


'I'.ic Animai Meeting HI *.he Cluli unanimously adopted the policy reconv 
U&titt&l by Council 

('a) To stimuUle the scientific sitle of th«* activities of the CluU 

(b) To establish closer contact with country and interstate members, nl&D 
with affiliated societies and similar bodies in Australia, ior pursuit of know- 
ledge and attainment of aims heM hi common. 

Council will communicate with these societies, inviting their co-operation 
ami fcuggestious. and making; recommendations for activity. 

The matter will be open for discussion at The Octobei General Alcei'n^, 
Members will be requested to offer assistance, skilled or unskilled. The 
following' activities have been proposed: 

(i) Wider circulation and use of the J'trioTtmi Nohtrnhsi by kindred 
fOfC.etios (Mr Wakefield.) 

(ti) Fostering an association of growers oE Australian plants for experi- 
ments tit nurture, propagation and breeding. (Mr. Swaby. ) 

mil Collection of heath seeds for scientific Study, (Mr. RayuwiU,) 

Uv) Studies in ecology. 
• (v) Intensive Study tit jingle plant specie.. 


Mr. K. H. Anderson, Chief Horanist and Cv'aiQi 01 toe botanic Gardens 
^•yd'iey, wnles . 

I should like to jwim out an error ui a quotation from a letter ol* mine 
in an article by Professor CeVUhu in ficl. A'o/. i 7 .?, No. i (May 1956). On 
page ii d 7\\\ line from the foot of the page, appears ". - - the usual River 
Rrd Glim*", and as- a footnote *'* Other red gum hybrids'*. This is dearly 
meaningless. The original reading was "the usual Rivet Red Gum x other 
rrd .earn hybrids-", that is to say the usual specimens of hybrid origin 
derived from River Kcd Cum crossing with other red gums. In a draft 
copy of hi* article sent m me. Professor Clelaud quoted the sentence cor- 
rectly, T assume therefore that the ermr occurred in printing/ 

82 ftot t'~K*»rhm Witurabst Vo! J& 


By Alfred A. Bakfr* 
Presidential Address to FN-CY, May 95 1955 

Thi? paper ouginated itoJM jLJ| investigation into the origin of certain 
highly polished pebbles found near Tnvcrloch. So;ith Gippsland. Victoria 
The possibility of these having been sw-allowcd by animals, and so polished, 
was considered, but a search through literature on the suhjpet a»d an 
examination of viol'ished pebbles available and known to have been swallowed 
Uy animals, clearly indicated that the South GivtMmd pebbles were polished 
by otter means. Data on this is to be published at £ later date. 

That stones have been swallowed and still are swallowed by various 
animals is now (irmly established, but 1he reason for thtS still remains some- 
what uncertain A review of papers written on the subject over the last 
hundred years, shows that this phenomenon :s not altogether a rarity, and 
it does, allow some conclusions to be tormtd on the problem 

Stones, as found in the stomachs of living animals or associated with their 
skeletal remains, are referred to in literature as "gizzard stones", ^OoraCh 
r-tones" and "gastroliths'*. 

The word "gastrolith" was ftr#t used in 185*1 by Muyne, in fi.rpoi. Lev. 
Castrolithus; he defined it as "a stone or calculus in the stomach". In 1880, 
Huxley used the word when describing; he writes: "there are 
found at the side of the stomach, two lenticular calcareous masses, which 
are known as 'crab's eyes', or gastrohihs , 

Roth these refer to calcareous structures which form on the inner walls 
ftj the stomach ot freshwater crayfish, prior to the moult, and are a storehouse 
of rrtatertai which assists in the footling ot lite new carapace. These ostro- 
liths, or "yabbie stones'* as they are called in Victoria, differ entirely, both 
ill appearance and structure, front those which have been swallowed. VV'icland 
( 1906) introduced the word "gastfolirh" when referring to rrnnrU prbWes 
found associated with dinosaurian remains and thought to have been swallowed 
by them. 

Swallowed atones may be of nny variety ot i:atuial rock, eiihcr anguine 
nr rounded in shape, and may have a polished or dull surface. 

"Stones" occurring in the organs of animals, including man, have no 
connection with lite subject ot this paper. 

The following animals have been recorded as stone-swallowers*. 
Extinct reptile* — Klastnosaurufc. Flcsiosanros, Trinacrontcrum, Polycotylus. 

Mauisauru;-, Peloueustes, Cloasaur, AtJantoNaurus, Barosauru:, Tcleos- 

hiring reptile*— Crocodile. Alligator, Lizard, 
Living mflmtt|3i$— Seals (Crab-eater, Fjord, Elephant f/url, Sea licm. 

Dolphin, Porpoise, Walrus 
Living fishes — Shark (Baking), Uofc-ruh. Cod. Hake,, Stmp-ray. Trout 
Extinct bird;— -ProkOotus, Pcxophaps (Solitaire), Dinorni.s (\foa) f Geny- 

Living birds— Penguins (Emperor, King, Adekei. Mutton-bird. Ostrich, 

F.nm, Cockatoo. Parrot. Chough, Plover, 5nH, Pigeon* Grebe. Ib»* (large 

Quantity of "yabbie-stoncs'') , Dotterel; not including over sixty species 

having swallowed gravel, grit, or sajid, 

Extinct Resiles 

Karly geologists searching tor reptilian remains of the Mesozoic period, 
both m £n«laml and in North America, iVccjuenily ir-unn pebble? in ciose 
association Willi the bouts. Considerable discussion arose at the time, as to 
the possibility fyt tlie&e pebbles having been associated with the living animal. 

•Curator. Otology tlejwrtmenL, University M Melbourne 

1956 J 

Baker, The Swall 'ownifj of Stones fay Animals 


However, the finding of heaps of stones in the pelvic region of the skeleton 
resolved the douhts that reptiles of that period did swallow stones. 

Further evidence was ohtained by the rock types of these polished pebbles, 
as they did not always compare with those of the surrounding country, and 
frequently they were the only pebbles in the deposits in which the bones 
were found. 

H. (i. Seeley, in 1877. describes the finding, at the base of the Gault. in 
Folkestone, Fngland ( Upper Cretaceous), "about a peck of ovate and 
rounded pebbles, chiefly of opaque milky quartz, some of black metamorphosed 
slate, and a few of fine-grained sandstone and hornstone ; some of the pebbles 
showing a veined character, such as might be derived from the neighbouring 
Palaeozoic rocks of the north of France". 

Fig. 1 — Protoplotus bcauforti, from the Tertiary of West Sumatra, with a 
compact mass of pebbles associated with bone remains. 

In his "Descriptive Catalogue of the Marine Reptiles of the Oxford Clay", 
C. W. Andrews (1910) states that "in a skeleton of Peloneustes (a Cre- 
taceous Plesiosaur) was obtained a hard mass, lying within the ribs, contain- 
ing many stones of various sizes from that of a hen's egg downwards, and 
no doubt representing the fossilized contents of the stomach. The stones of 
various kimls. included quartz, sandstone and gneiss, and for the most part 
were rather angular with the edges somewhat rounded off". 

In the south central plains of North America, numerous sauropodian 
skeletons have been unearthed, and with these have been associated highly 
polished pebbles. 

Barnum Brown ( 1904 ) states that "in nearly every instance a large 
number of siliceous stones were found associated with the bones of Plesiosaurs. 


Bakkr, I lie Swallowinfi of Stones hy .Animals 


ct. Nat. 
Vol. 73 

In one specimen of which the largest dorsal vertebrae were four inches in 
diameter, there were at least half a bushel of these stomach stones, ranging 
from the size of a walnut to four inches across". 

And in a further paper by the same author (1907): "with a Cloasaur 
skeleton, imbedded in hard concretionary sandstone were found near the 
forelegs, three rounded, polished, well-worn pebbles, measuring nearly three 
inches across. Similar stones had not been seen elsewhere in the deposit". 

From the type specimen of Ailantosaurns immanus Marsh, were obtained 
a number of rounded and highly polished siliceous pebbles ; these were 
considered to be gastroliths. G. L. Cannon (1906) describing these says, 
"no material of similar size, form, surface markings or composition, occurs 
elsewhere in the Atlantosaurus clavs in the vicinity". 

Fig. 2— "Stomach Stones" of Plesiosaur. with portions of the backbone. 

Another record by G. J. Hares (1917) states that "large numbers of 
gastroliths. some very highly polished, others scarcely polished at all, were 
found in the Cloverly Formation of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming, at about 
the base of Pryor Mountain in Montana, in shales containing animal bones. 
Some of the stones were over six inches long, and consisted mostly of highly 
siliceous rocks, jaspers, chalcedony, quartzite, etc. If the highly polished 
stones are true gastroliths. then it is probably that the unpolished ones are 
likewise gastroliths". 

Living Reptiles 

Let us turn now to the living reptiles, where there is ample evidence that 
these still do swallow stones. 

j0g£ J Hakek. The S't\jaHm\.'ii\n of Stones by .inimals 85 

A. M. Recce (1915), in his treatise "The Alligator and its Allies", cites 
gastroliths of from two to three centimetres in diameter as being found in 
the stomach of a crocodile from Madagascar. Also, "in an alligator thirty 
inches long, were fourteen pebbles of irregular size, varying from four to 
seven mm. in diameter, and aggregating six grammes in weight". 

Present day crocodile hunters in the north of Australia have also recorded 
atones in the stomachs of these saurians. Peter Lyell (1950). in ll'ild Life. 
records that: Two cupped handfuls of stones (from the river bed I is the 
average quantity inside an ordinary-sized crocodile. 

S. \V. Williston (1918) gives a more humorous aspect of crocodiles 
swallowing stones; in his book. Water Reptiles of Past, he mentions "an 
old myth, that the crocodile of the N'ile swallows a pebble on each of its 
birthdays, so giving the Arabs reliable information of its age by the number 
of *tones in its stomach". 

Lizards, also, have attained a reputation tor swallowing stones. K. I„ 
Moodie, writing in Seiejiee (1912). records that a living horned toad 
( I'hryiwstiui cornutum Harlan), collected in the Magdalen Mountains of 
Xew Mexico, had "in its stomach twenty large somewhat abraded stones 
of a rock which resembled lava; some of the stones were large for the size 
of the animal, measuring nearly one-third of an inch in diameter. There 
were also in the stomach about 200 red ants. The animal had undoubtedly 
picked up the stones with the ants, and the association was probably 

G. R. Wieland (1900) also mentions that lizards in captivity swallow 
stones from the floor of their cages. 

Living Mammals 

We g<> now to the pinnipedia, where the records are all from living; 
animals. In the report on seals of the Challenger Expedition (1887) \V. 
Turner states that "the dried specimen of a seal's stomach from the Cape 
of Good Hope, often referred to by fishermen and whalers as the "seal's 
ballast bag', contained upwards of twenty smooth pebbles, flattened at the 
sides as if by mutual attrition. 

'"They vary in size; one of the largest is 1J inches in its long diameter, 
and there are several of equal dimensions, but the smallest is not much 
smaller than a coffee bean. 

"Captain Henry Pain, when writing of the sea-lion, says that he has 
seen upwards of twenty-five pounds weight of stones, some of which were 
the size of a goose's egg, in a 'pouch' inside the animal, obviously the 

In Allen's History of the Xorth American P'tkuipeds. (1880) \Y. D. 
Klliot relates that he has opened the stomach in many specimens of 
L'ollorhinus ursinus, and that in the old bulls he has seen stones which weigh 
half a pound, and in one stomach he found about five pounds of pebbles. He 
also possesses the stomach of a sea-lion in which more than ten pounds of 
stones were present, some of which weighed two and three pounds. 

Robert Brown, in his account of the "Pinnepedia of the Greenland Seas" 
(1868), states that he has often seen small stones or gravel in the stomach 
of the walrus, and that this is a habit which it possesses in common with 
the seal (Pfafiru l>arbata) and even the whale (Behtfia eatadon). 

Further records of stone swallowing by pinnepeds is given by K. O. P-mery 
(1941), who "examined the stomachs of eleven dead sea-lions which had 
drifted up on beaches near La Jolla, California. Although most of the 
stomachs were empty, one contained a single flat pebble of sandstone, and 
another had twenty-seven pebbles, mostly of wave-rounded Black Mountain 
metavolcanics and a Jew of shale. Both these types of rocks are available on 
the beaches near La Jolla. Because of the angularity and fragileness of the 


Bakkr, The Si^ullnz^'iuf/ of Stones !>y Animals 

L Vo 

1. ?:i 

shale, it seems likely that the stones had not heen carried very long by the 
sea-lion; although some of the metamorphics seem to he very slightly 

For records of stone-swallowing by seals along the southern coast of 
Australia, Professor Wood-Jones, when writing of seals in the Mammals of 
South Australia (1925) states that "for some reason or other they swallow 
pebbles which lodge in their stomachs. In the case of Arctoccphalus cincrcus, 
the pebbles are of granite and range in size from a tennis ball down to a 
walnut. Depending upon their size, their number varies from half a dozen 
to forty or so. The weight of the mass varies ; a typical set of twelve faceted 
stones weighed five pounds, but in many cases this weight is considerably 

Along the Victorian coast, on Lady Julia Percy Island, where the McCoy 

ig. 3 — -Contents from the stomach of one seal, from Phillip Island, Victoria. 
( Phuto. by G. A. Thomas, from the collections of the Fisheries and Game Dcpt.. Melb. ) 

Society's expedition was held in 1936. 1. A. Tubb and C. \V. Brazenor 
examined the stomachs of a number of young and adult seals {.Arctoccphalus 
tasmaiiicus) . In three pups, there were found near the pyloric end of the 
stomach small pebbles in quantities of four, seven and eight respectively, and 
from one quarter to one half inch in diameter. 

Investigations into the feeding habits of seals along the Victorian coast 
were undertaken by the late Fred Lewis of the Department of Fisheries and 
Game of Victoria in the season of 1928-29 at Seal Rocks, Western Port 
Bay. Results of these showed that "of eight seals taken ... a small male 
had in its stomach, three gurnets, three cuttlefish, and some pebbles ; and 
a big pup . . . stomach empty except for some small stones or pebbles. The 

C iV5e' r J r.AKiH, Tin' Sutttlwimi *>j Stones by .Imutdte 87 

further taking of nine seals showed that tii)h iiik: had pebble^ |i| \ty\ -»*m>;*rli. 
and of titty-seven taken . . . forty-tw-.i wttv found to be empty ur containing 
a hltlc liquid or a lew pebbles Of stones". 

Further investigations were undertaken in iliv season ni 1°4H-4V, when 
seals were taken from l.ady Julia lVrcy Island, off Pun Fairy and at Seal 
Koeks, Western Porl Hay. CM 246 stomachs examined by J. McN'allv and 
J->. I). Lynch, thirty had varying number^ <if ^tonc> m them; the largest 
number ohtamed trum one individual, at Sea! Rock"-, bHn« 133 very --maU 
pebbles of well rounded basalt. In the Mmnach of another fr'Bt! J.ady Julia 
] Vrey islam! were 42 stone-, ranyiuw >" i\pi from tbrcc-mtat ter > V" one- 
quarter of an inch in diameter. 

Ml the pebbles found in (he Victorian seal* were of deiUe black basalt 
this being tlie rock which comprises their habitat. Mo<tty the pebbles are 
well touno!ed and show little or no polish on their burtaee. 

Living Fish 

There is evidence of fish having swallowed stones too. U I- Moodn- 
( loe. eil.) mentions, "large Cretaceous sharks, which have been received at 
the L'tmersity of Kansas Museum, In one specimen, consisting almost 
entirety of scattered vertebral cartilages, there were assorted man> 
hnudi'ed-v of ^tvatly abraded, very* smooth and |Kt}f*t|i3c<1 stones of white and 
black utiart/ite. That tbev belong with the -;hark cannot be doubted on 
account of the association*. 

J. A. Kershaw MWi described a Basking ;drark\ caught off YViiluuiw 
tf.-Ati. iiobsun's Hay. in May 1^02, Wlien considering its food, Sir K. Honu . 
referring to a specimen wbicli be bad examined, states: "The contents ot the 
stomach consisted oi several pads full of pebbles, a quantity of mucous, and 
a small portion of a substance which proves to tie a spawn of a univalve." 

During the years K. t. McKown conducted investigations into 
the food ot troul and the Macu,uarie perch in Australia- Apart from sand 
ami gravel ill the stomachs oi the Brown Trout iSahuo fono), there were 
3k number of specimens of the Kainhow Trout (Saliwo triticu>i) which had 
pebbles in the stojnach. Two trout bad one pebble, three bad two, and one 
oilitainrd three pebbles, 

The greatest number m one individual was sixteen quartz pebbles ot 
various sizes and jaggard in contour, the largest being one ouarter ounce 
in weight; the total weight was one and a half ounces. 

Extinct Birds 

It is with recent birds that the •■wallowing of sand. grit, small pebbles, 
and even brightly coloured objects, is probably more familiar to us. How- 
ever, there is evidence that extinct birds also swallowed (juautities of this 
mineral diet, 

Le<|iiat. in hi-. /'n.vtn/i'J oj • IdViUturcs, written in 1H07. discovered stones 
.isM..eiated will" .skeletons of the Solitaire ( /Vr<t/>/id/\v Solitarixts) — a bird 
allied to the Dodo and like it now extinct — m a cavern on the island of 
Rodriguez, 'and suggested that they may he stomach .stones, J, Caldwell, 
writing in 1K75, after a visit to thc^e caverns say< "I got, both with the 
uiimuted bird and the male bird, the stones mentioned by Leijuat as existing 
in the gizzard. In each case they were found on lifting the sternum and in 
the middle of the ribs. They ai*e basaltic pebbles with rough angles and 
surfaces, and no stone of similar kind is to he found within about two nnlo 
of the caverns. 1 got lour in all. but only two of which t could identify the 
birds they belonged Id." 

I.ambrecht (1*MJ) describes ; t i,,s*il long-necked bird ( Pn<ti<ph>hts /vm( 
fortii from the Tertiary t. -Miocene) rocks of West Sumatra Together 

* Rtjmnluetiim <»f illustration i- incltuird in the |iiL-n«-nl it:i)>rr. 


IjAKKK, 'Ilir Szcallotcinu of Stones hv .hiimals 

rVict. Nat 
L Vul. T!t 

with these bones, and in the vicinity of the stomach, was a compact mass 
of flat pebbles which had been ground and polished.* 

The extinct Moa of Xew Zealand probably supplies the greatest evidence 
of stone-swallowing by strutbious birds. Kxcavatioiis of their skeletons has 
proved the enormous numbers of these birds that bad existed, and the stones 
(commonly called Moa Stones) found associated with their skeletons or in 
heaps apart from them, showed that they had some definite attraction for 
these pebbles, more often than not selecting them with regard to colour. 

Of his visit to the Mackenzie Country in the South Island of Xew Zealand, 
F. Chapman (1884). described three distinct groups of white pebbles ot 
unmistakable appearance. Mostly they were associated with bones, but 
frequently they were found in heaps without bones; an observation expressed 
by other writers as well. Individual heaps of stones collected, which arc- 
considered to have belonged to distinct birds, are given as 3 lb. 9 oz., 4 lb.. 

Fig. 4 — An average collection of gizzard stones of greywackc from a 
Dinornis ( Moa). 

and 5 lb. 7 oz. Included in the last weight were single stones of over 10 oz.. 
and in another series of collections from Lake Manapouri, were sets 
containing 210 stones weighing only 8 oz., 389 stones weighing 4 lb. 7 oz., 
and 342 stones weighing 4 lb. 10 oz., nearly all of which were pure white. 

In a further description of excavations of Moa remains near Oamaru, 
H. O. Forbes (1892) states, "In some instances, beneath the sternum were 
found, lying quite undisturbed, the contents of the stomach, consisting of 
more or less triturated grass mingled with crop stones The quantity of 
these smoothed, rounded (chiefly white quartz) pebbles — in size from that of 
a bean to that of a plum — mingled with the bones was enormous, and would 
if collected have formed more than a cart load. Fxcept where the hones 
were, there were no pebbles of any sort, no small stones nor even sand, 
anvwbere around." 



r J 

Bakkk. The Su-alloiK-iiu/ of Sfoncs by .Animals 


Xot all stones collected by Moas were pure white, as reports are given of 
'dark stones' and "transparent flinty stones' having been found in the heaps. 
Xor were the stones always found to be well rounded. 

Roger Duff (1949), referring to the food of the Moa states, "The number. 
size, and weight of the gizzard stones required by Dinornis }uaxi)in<s tu 
digest his food were more fully realized than ever before when the complete 
>keleton could be found regularly. The average size approximated a half- 
crown piece, but pebbles up to tour inches were noted. Normally, the stones 
and food remains filled a seven pound biscuit tin, and an average collection 
of 220 stones weighed five and a half pounds. The pebbles were of dark grey 
uaterworn greywacke such as occur plentifully in the stream beds of the 
Waipara and its tributaries to the south and the Hurunui and its tributaries 
to the north. The handsome white pebbles found elsewhere were rare. An 
interesting realization was that the majority of the stones showed little 

Fig. 5 — Highly polished gizzard stones, of quartz, chalcedony and jasper. 
(Photo, by G. A. Thomas, from the collections of th^ National Museum, Melbourne). 

evidence of wear. This demonstrated that the small heaps of highly worn 
'Moa-stones' so widely found by farmers breaking into virgin soil, do not 
represent the final remains of a Moa whose hones had disappeared, but 
have been passed or vomited when they become too worn for their purpose." 
Another struthious bird, (rcnyornis newtoni, whose remains are found 
near Lake Callabonna in South Australia, evidently swallowed small stones, 
as E. C. Stirling ( 1900 ) states, "The positions of the bird remains were 
indicated by the presence of circular surface patches of gizzard stones, 
consisting of coarse sand and small siliceous pebbles not exceeding three- 

90 I:\kik. Tin -.S..v//..v^n#/ p/ Mpitft h tnMk Vvl*** 

quartern ot an i uc I i in diameter, tin. 1 surfaces oi which were smooth and 
Worn as if by attrition. 

"'I he sh'Ors ill one entire patch weighed fourteen I ►uncC'v iiml included 

mIjccous sandstone, jasper, claystone (blackened on the outside », bhick 
quart/., clear quart/, chalcedony, together with fragments of blue brittle 
clay with wnffj edges, Such pebbles occurred either MlWtffC'a or in groups 
at various places in the lake, and were the only stono of any kind to hi* 
0)011(1 anywhere tm the surface." 

Living Birds 

Present day birds oi the seas have tins peculiar habit of swallowing stones, 
K. A. Wij^cin f I *>i)7 J . reporting on penguins during tlifi National Antarctic 
expedition 1901 -04. :.talcs. "I he l-'mperor Penguin, its food consisting of 
fish and crustaceans, always contained pehhlcs in the .stomach, found run 
only in tin- Vntittg aiul old, hut even in the stomach of a chick which could 
have emerged from the egg only a day ot two before' . "Kxactly where the 
pebbles come FhMfl ta not at first sight evident, as the birds are never seen 
oh land; probably they are picked up at the- bottom of shallow sens, or 
some of them may be found on floating ice. Occasionally the stones are passed 
with the excreta, and may he found in the radiating pattern v\luch is left 
on the ice-floes when- a company of Kmpcfoi Penguins has huddled, all 
facing towards a common centre for warmth and rest in their spring and 
autumn wanderings". 

Wilson also records the Kmg-lVngnhi ( . lfih'tit)<fyti'.i /nt/io/em, <i ) <n Mat- 
tpiarie Island, and the Adclie Penguin t ty/MWCCfe tulrhar) from Cape Koyd^ 
in the Ross Sca t as ha\fug pebbles constantly in their stomachs, 

Investigations into the feeding habits of the Mullon-MrU ( Short-taded 
Shearwater) on l J lnIIip Inland, Western Port Hay, Victoria, conducted by 
l*\ Lewis { ]<Mo \ and taken over for breeding seasons, showed that in 
40 young birds examined, there wcie no stones in the gizzard or stomach. 
only a bulc sand, and a small proportion. averaging 0..1 gm., of clinker ot 
burnt coal, apparently derived from steamers and often seen floating in the. 
water.-, or deposited on beaches. 

Considerable investigation also has fteen undertaken into the food of 
Australian water and land birds. This has been necessary to prove whether 
"i- not certain typest are injurious to crops, raising of sheep, or hsh in 
the -streams. J Although it is necessary that grain-eating birds obtain sand 
or gut to assist trituration of food in their digestive systems, there have 
been recorded a number ot instances where juibhles have been found in lite 
crop, yi/.2urd or stomach, 

fj. M Mathews (IVOVl records, in his list of hints from the north-west 
of Australia, the Little Corella or Mare-eyed Cockatoo (Kak<ti>>e A'oj//io*jnt) 
having "some small stones" associated with the food. 

\Y. McLennan (1917) records bavins found small pebbles in the Common 
Utouzewmg ( f'hof's eititlct'ttrra) and the Little ( irrbc < P('<nYc/>A f-nfivrnwr) t 

J. l\, Cleland, with co-authors Maiden, Froggatt, Ferguson and Musson 
(1918). in an extensive tabulated examination of the food of Australian 
birds, records ironstone pebbles in the crop of two specimens of a Red- 
checked Parnn ( (tntff royux t/nifirttyi) , tpiart? pebbles ni the stomachs of 
three specimen*- of the White Cockatoo ( A'ti/.'nM-- ,</n(VW/n>, anil two pieces 
of quart/ with many nieces "t black tmueral matter in a simile specimen Itf 
the Pale-headed K'osella ( }*U\t yrrt cits tttt,\iifn,\) , On examination ot seven 
specimen-* hi the White-winged Chough I t\"Y<inr.r intiin(uvh<unf>ltu\ I , 
quartz pebbles were found m all of iheni. 

t-'urther work by K, t, Me^Kcown <!9.Uj on birds irom south-western 

* Mi-wl jKilivi.'<l^ nt Aintr.-tlin are iirntt'Cic-tl hy I.ihv 

J Many *-tir.iiu> nni) sviilet if>fivi*^ in A'ictorU :oi* slocked with ymiittt ('»«.|i liy th»- 
I'tshtrir*. fttLrl tlsnv I A-WnWCIlti 

° m* P ] • BAKtK. Tfo 5u«/W;y of Stow* hy /hmi^ls 91 

\'<w SoOTb Wales, shows that a specimen of the Crested Piffcon Mtypttupx 

lotfwttx) had its "stomach Idled With coarse quarts gravel", the Australian 
Spur -winged Plover (f.ohibyx novae -hoihuduw) had a "small quantity r-i 
nttid and a number of pebbles", a Blank-fronted Hon Ft el I Cti&radriin 
i\ic!c)wf>s) bud ''small pebbles and mud", and Iwo specimen*, of llie White- 
headed Siilr {fifwmti&pvt Inuocephatus) hid small and coarse utwrU 
prhMcs The largest quantity was loimd in a single specimen of the Straw - 
necked fbis {Thrcskiorms j^i'ifci'/|u), whitli Mad m jfW stomach fourteen 
pebbles ranging up to one ij turner ounce in weight- Perhaps of equal interest 
j^. that tliree specimens of lite Australian White Ibis ( I hrtsktor w-S ntolucrir) 
contained 16, 42 and 18 'yahriie stones' of a ire>bu-r*iri' crayfish, and a Music 
lJuek (tihmrfl tehnhi) had two "yabbiv stones' with sand and gravel. 

Finally there aie record* of domestic ummaK and animals Hcfjft tjl ?*«» w 
having stones found in their stomachs »fttl death, and ahhoit^li ibis may 
be won by of mention, the reasons tor ibis unnui be considered with Ihtae 
animals living under natural rondition*. W. J Beal iW-O mentions that 
bogs kept in an enclosed area, when slaughtered, were luund to liWT* in the 
Stomachs of several, enough pebbles each to Till |be two Iipii».1v oi a man. 
and there were smaller C|udn4 iticrs in some instances, 

Reasons (or Sfone-SwollowinA 

Many theories have been advanced to explain this peculiar phenomenon; 
N^ute have prompted definite, investigation into the life histories Ot the 
animals, wink others have attempted to explain l\ in connection with the 
digestive structure, and a few have promoted reason:; without having given 
thought to their possibilities. 

W. H. \Vjc&4 (1908) disru$v$ v»"*" of these iheories in Wis paper "Pebble 
Swallowing Animals", and, with matter published on tins subject since, the 
theory can be placed in the following order: 

(a) A>; ballast. 

(b) Accidental. 

(c) Swallowed with food attached, e.p,. sen anemones, spawn. 

(d) A heady in the food swallowed,, ic fish, err, 
(c) (Sasim. 'chewing gum'. 

(t) Trituration ot food. 

(a) As balfasl. 

This theory, that stone* were swallowed by very fat seal- as Iwllasl (A J. 
Harrison. J8S7 > io allow litem lo sink into deeper water* W,ii llie opinion of 
the sealers of ('ape. Colony, and alhO the co<l-fishers of Newfoundland. Thev 
referred to llie seals' stomachs as 'fcJatlast Bags'. A similar account uppeai? 
in the Report on Zoology of the Challenger Expedition (\V. Turner, 1887), 
stating that sailors considered ihe teals lo swallow stones to enable them to 
dive loi (bhj and they ro'dH dfag$*r££ ihe stones at will and so sutlace a#ain. 

In a pamphlet published by the Ret. Canon Ormvinigg of St. John's, 
Launccston, about 1872 (quoted by F. l-ewis, 1916) it h stated tlm before 
a youoy Mutton-bird could take lo the water, it had to Uke in 'ballast' to 
enable it to get properly balanced 

A. J. Campbell (1900), dealing with the life history of the Muti oil-bird, 
states, "before ihe young birds Follow their parent* to the sea, they devour 
a quantity of *and or gravel; the popular belief is that they ballast them- 
selves. ^0 that if thrown into the water fifty would not drown". 

Tr is worthy of note that although ihe quantity of stones swallowed by 
the various animals outlined in this p-iper appears to he considerable, then 
Weight compared with the weight of the animal itself w-ould not make an 
appreciable difference to the stability of it? movements. Also, it Ira* been 

92 Kakui, The Swolhwittcj of Stouts hy Animals [ v«i. •? 

observed that the seals at least -can disgorge stones that have been swallowed, 
md this is probably accounted for by their method of 'gulping* food, and 
when digestion has reached a certain stage, being, enabled, naturally, to 
regurgitate indigestible parts, which would include Slotted taken during the 
•eanrh fnr foot! or at other times 

An interesting account of Ibis is given by C, A. I'leming (195U of 
riooVers boa-lion, of pergonal experience* at the Auckland and Snares 
islands, to the suult) of New Zealand. 

Tt is certain that the 'ballast* theory is fundamentally impossible and has 
been used hy later writer* without ronsule.ra.tian. 

(l>) Aci'ideutitl 

The accidental theory could possibly account "or a small number of stones 
being swallowed as seals seek their i<»nd m wali*r, and mi shallow waters 
especially. are kept in lurbuleoct hy the waves. Tl*e walrus *inks to 
the va floor, where, as almost standing on its head, H ploughs the hnttow. 
moving in a backward direction, hi search of molluscs which Ituitow )l| the 

Seal pup* have been seett to play with pehbles on ice floes, and the habit 
of playing wiili nearby object* is not uncommon with the young ul must 
animals. Lizards tcitud) and other reptiles eould swallow a few stone? 
accidentally. Birds, ill a hurried search for food', have l^teh MKQ by the writer 
ro pick: up and reject small stones and other inedible substances. Exception 
to this are xtrulhious birds — moa. ostrich and CJBU 

(c) Sivi'tl-oivcd fyflh ft'Ofi nttitrhrd, i.e. st:ii-tmc)ntfH€\', <p>i.7<r,t f Wr 

This theory, simitar to The previous, could account for a small number of 
srones in tl*e digestive system. Although many forms of the lower invertebrates 
attach themselves to rocks, which may subsequently become dishxifted. iJiese 
'O'tii a vwy srnall proportion of the food required by Ihe larger ~venehr*tc,%. 

<J) Already m the ictod sivaUyivdf, /v. fish, etc. 

This theory al<o. as in the two previous ones, Would account tor i-veii * 
lesser number of gastroliths 

<<■) rVar'nY 'thrn-uu) Quiff 

This theory, whicli has been advanced in more recent years, mainly through 
research work <M the p.r.uepodia in Australia, as well as in other countries, 
appears to supply, in part, an answer to the problem as concerns the seal*. 
sea-lions, and others of that group, it cannot, as yet, be used in the case 
0J crocodiles or i|ie birds- 
Research in connection wiih the Victorian seals has shown Ifyftt :»bouf 
twenty -five per cent of seal? are attacked by parasitie worms; and, although 
most of these afte^'ieti seah had stones if) then* stomachs, quite oftcu the 
leverse was the case. 

Investigations ; m a ^ € occurrence of gastric ulcers in sea-imtnmaJs of the 
coast of California, by C V.. Schrocdci and Tl, M Wegefonh £1-935), has 
shown that these mammals swallow the sand of the Iicaches rlicy inhabit, 
which, being composed of volcanic rocks nod containing obsidian (volcanic 
ulass) is the cause of ulcers in the stontachs of die Ltephant Seat, Calltotuian 
Sea lion, and the Galapagos Sea-lion. 

It is thought that possibly the; mammals swallowed the sand to allay 
irritation caused by parasitic worms, but more probably the sand was uscil 
lor trituration of their food, ll is worthy of mention that nematode parasite* 
have been found in the stomachy of several of the MnUun-bml of Phillip 
Island, Western Port Bay. Victoria, by the late Fred .Lewis (loc cit.). 

Another suggestion advanced by H. ttrartcr Howell 0930 b, is that as 
Ihe male pinnepeds ro without food for several weeks i!uti!j>- the breeding 

°*ri2l? r ] B.\K^h f Tbf Swnffowintj of Stones hy /1tin,*««/t W 

season, they may swallow stones to jJWV^m undue atrophy of the stomach, 
by functioning as a sum of a 'cllOWfli igunri ditnttg the pc'iod (hi* sc*' fc 
guarding ihe ha rein. 

(f) Trituration oi food, 

In advancing this tbeoiy, consideration [mist lac given to the structure vt 
the dijfewive system 01 the various animals wc hi#fl refericd in. 

The food of the pjmepedia Consists mainly of fi«;h squids and cruitacca, 
their teeth are constructed lor tearuif: And they can neither biv in a clean ci« 
3i:3fnef nor masticate Small fish are swallowed whole while iarfcer fish arc 
WrU apatt The oesophagus is long and Urge, allowing eat> passage fur a»iv 
object which can he taken into the mouth cavity. The stomach is. simple trt 
form, and auuiuiaiit gastric juice- digests the whole fish. 

In the alligator group, the food consistiii)* of land Of utarine animals, the 
teeth are used for seizing and (caring | the oesophagus comic cr* w;rli a stomach 
made ifl> Of two part*, composed of numerous large inu>cular falds a:ai 
capable of being greatly distended. Theie is »o gi^aid 

The shatka, have sharp vows of teeth lo seize and tear their prey, which 
constat* mainly of small fitfh, Turn ofi p oniony, or the \shale nsh ii ncl 
too targe, arc swallowed, there bcniK no mastication, The food readies Ine 
stomach, composed of Wmgumluial iulds, through a very shui l uesop} atfite, 

Of tie b»ds. wheio tlie food consisls of seeds, fruits, ftva^s, find in some 
specie*. ?ma1l fcfti and cnistacea. there is an absence cf ;eeth. A beak seitcs 
the food, ana U is som-cyed by The action of a longne to the oesophagus ami 
On to 'he iT<in. From the crop it passes, as required, into the gizjurd, where, 
with the »is>is(nj|Ce of ahfading material, such -is sand, gutvel or ;;mall clones, 
llie fetid 14 ftt<wr»d In a di^emihtc; lorm- 
lt will he seen therefore that none oi the animal form* with wlnu 
gastrotitbs arc associated have a perfect mean? of mastication ot their "tood 
in the manner m which it i$ Uken 

With the hirds, it is initio apparent thar vtonc-fwallowing' ii a necessity., 
as they have a true mu.*;Cular gizzard, whereas in the other forms of anim.ih, 
although it is not a prerequisite to the thorough digestion of their lood- it 
etoe.-i provide additional assistance iei its triturarioii- 

A study of the digestive sfrucl'tres of the extinct ancestors of the b'rds 
{if only those parts were jirese rvrd) wnufd do much LO elucidate this 
apparent phenomenon. 


In reviewing "The Swallowing ol Stones by Animals", the question is; 
"Ir. what way will gastroiiths >ie of use to the naturalist Oi scientihc worker;' 

To the £€$logi£ti h P<5 8?cm shown that certain animals have been the 
means of transporting small quantities of anmes. Ry comparing their appear- 
ance, polish or unusual occurrence, with or without bone rem.iinK, flfofe is 
a put-btlnlity IIih( ai least a -rrnutl amount ot tlie Jife in the pasi cmiltl he 
reconstructed. However* it is highly improbable that paMrohths would ever 
he important criteria in determining stratigraphy horvfWi. 

For the hioloK'st, there still remain;; much to be observed of the feedivK 
habits of the animals conc.Tued, as in This way only can accurare decisions 
he formulated 

T wish to express appretiaiiun and sincere thanks to Mrs. G. Mathaci and 
Aliss Jill Massetr, of the Geo1»>g> Department Ttbr.iry at the University of 
Mo I bo time, for their untiring effort? to obtain the many publications requested 
riurmtf the. preparation oi Ibis paper; to Mr. J. McNally, of (be Kisberiey 
and Came .Department, Melhoume^ I -effer thanks for the loan of seal 
ga^trolitlu (FtR- Jj -and the use of •;:npuhli>hed information on the feeding 
habits of Victorian seals; [ wish to thank Mr. K. D. Gill for arranging the 

W Bakeh. Thv Sr\.atimvtii<f of SUmra t>y Animoh ^ Vol.' ?Y 

loan 6f mon (Fig. 5) unci dinosaur gustrohtbs from the collection* o\ the 
National Museum, Melbourne- 

Thkilfc* arc also offered to Or. Roger Duff, Director of the Canterbury 
MuseumC Chri.rxhurch, New Zealand, fctf T>cnnU$ion to reproduce Fitf 4 
and text material in Pyramid VtfUw. Fig. 2 is reproduced from "North 
American PtosvasawV", hy S. W. Wilhstcm, Field Columbian Museum, 
Vol, 1J, Pbb. 73, 1903, and Fi«. 1 appears in the deicriptivc wodc of 
K. Lambrecht (Budapest") on Prytoplutus bcaujartij in Weteuschappelijke 
Mcdedec!ing€i\ No 17. 1931. I wish there-lore, to thank these last &trthc*£ 
for the opportunity f have taken to include these tit this paper 


Abel. Othenio, 1935. Vorzeithche Lebeittspiueu Vcrlag vou Gustav. Jena. 

Allen, J: A., 1880. North American Piuncpeds. US. C*?M. ttnd Ccog, Snrv, 

Shsc. Pub. No. 12 
Andrews. C. W.> 1910- A Descriptive Catalogue of the Mann? Reptile* of 

Oxford Clay. British Museum* London, Ft. 1, np xvi-xvii, 
BeaJ, W J., 1004, Stomach Stones. Stiwcc 20: ?72. 
Brown, B., 1904. Stomach Sconce and the Food of the Plesiosaur*. .Vciciuv 

20; 184-185. 

,1907. Gas-trolilhs. Science 2* I -392. 

CaldweU, J , 1875. Notes on the Zoology of Rodriguez. Prac. ?.ooL Sac. 

Land.: 644-647. 
Campbell. A. % 190X1. The Nests and Rf$5 oj Aastrutimt fhnh. (The- Life 

History of rhe Mutton- birds, pp. 8S5-&92-) Sheffield, Eng. 
Cannon, C. L., 1906 Sauropodan GastroTuhs, Science 24: 116 
Chapman, F., 1884. Notes on (de Moa Remains in the Mackenzie Country,, 

and other localities. 'Trans. <V. Zealand, hist. 16: \72-\7$. 
Cte1aud, I B., 1918. The Food of Australian Birds. Dapt. Aijrw. NSM\ 

Sci, Bull. 15; 1-112. 
tfuffi K 1049. Pyramid l-'otky. Canterbury Museum, C'hristchurch, N.2, 
Emery, K, O.. t94l, Transportation oi Rock Panicky by Sea Mammal*. 

Jouru. Scd, Pet- 2 (2) : 92-93. 
Fleming,, C. A., 19M. Sen l-ions as Geological Agent* Jouru, Scd, Pet 21 

(J) : 22-25. 
Forbes, H. O., 1892. On the Kocent Discovery of the remains of extinct binU 

m Mew Zflatara!) Nature 45 416-418. 
Gregory W. K () 1904. Aner.e Gizzards Science 20: 83S 
Hamilton, A . 1B91 Note* on Moa Gtee&td Stones. Trout* tv.Zcnl fus f 24 

Hares, G, J., 1917. Gastrolitha in the Clovtrlv Formation. Jmirn. Mo.?//. 

Acad, Sci. 7 : 429. 
Harrison, A. J„ 1887. Remarks about Seals, and their ro-culled "Faltest- 

Bag". Prac, Bristol Nat. Soc, 3rd Set., S (3): 290-297. 
Howell, A. B., 1930. Aquatic Mammals. Maryland, U.S.A., p. 314. 
Kershaw, J A, 1904. Notes cu a Rare Victorian Shark, Put, Nat, /9 

(4} ; 62-66. 
Lambrerht. K., 1931 Protefitotus bcoujorii, ein Schlangcnbalsvogel aus dem 

Tertiai* von W. Sumatrd. Wi ten$< k. M*$. D*cnsi. x'a-n den jWij*i<?n?i' Vi 

Nedcrlandsch-lndxc 27, R.iiidoeiiK, pp. ].v24. 
Lcwi'si F.. 1929, Investigations into ihe feeding habits, etc , of Seali m 

VictarJan Waters. (Report) Fisheries and Came Department, Mel- 
— i 1 1946. Feeding Hahits of the Shori-iailed Shearwater ("Mutton- 

birdV The Emu 45: 225-228. 
Luqi$ F. A., 1904. The Swallowing of Stones by Seals. Science 20: S37-538, 
Lycll, P. ; 1950. Money from Mud. Wild Uf* (Melbourne) 12 (1): 28-32. 

Mathews, G. M., 1909. On \b& Birds pi North-west Australia, ¥h& fbntl 

o (2). 53-65. 
\U-Ki?o\vit, K. Ui WSfc 'the Food oi ttircK from South Wcstttu New South 

Wales. A.V<\ /!«.</, )U*s. J9 (&) , H3-VJS. 
— — — 1934. Note; oil the Food of Trout and Manjuarie. Perch in 

Australia, tf&f-i HM% 
— — __ |^ The Food of Trout in New South Wales. fV<*. .-?»*/ #**• 

-, 1936. The Pood gj I»oui an New South WatefK AVr. .4w.r/. A{u& 

J9 f?/! 397-429. 

I9J7, The Food of Trout m New Somh Wales. Ret; -hut, Mas 

20 a), 38-66. 

McLennan, W.. 1917. tfonh Australian Birds. 7*/iff Etff» fl (*\ ilb-231 
Mt\'a%, J, and l.ytic.h, 0.D-, No:rs on ihfl Fond of VfsWutf StZjtfa 

i Fauna Report No. 1) Fisheries and Game Department, Melbourne. 
.Mcwdie. B; L.. 1^U Thr "Stomach-sUvies" ot tecpttto. Scrcnfv Jbi: 

Rrese, A, M M 191 5l The Aihgnlor imd ih sUHm. Putnam* Son*. N V 
Seorocricr, C. R., and YVegefortri, H. M., The Occurrence of Gastric UU*t*r> 

ik 3ca-iiiaiuniAli of the Californinn Coast, their etiology ;ind paihol-ogy. 

Journ. Am, t'et. Med. Ass (N. Set.) 8t' .U.^-342. 
Seelty, N, G.. 1877- On Mouisaurtis Gartincri (Seclty), an Etastuosauriat; 

front The base of the Gautt at Folkestone, hnejuitd. Quart. Joiun. G'tifk 

Sttci Loml S3: 546-54?. 
Stirlii'g, EL C. IWJQj The Fhvslcal Features of Lake Callanonna. A/i'it*. 

Kay Soc. S.J us!-. 1 ^y: 1-1*5. 
Tubh, J A., and Bra2cnor, C W.. 1936. Report.*, ot the McCoy Society for 

Field lnvti ligation and Research, No. L 1-adv fulio Pfiiiv Island 

1935 Hxped Mammals. Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict. 49 fl} : 41v437. 
Turner, W. t 143B7. Ueport on Seals collected during the voyage oi H.M.S. 

Challenge!', in the years 1873-7& Qhdlterifffir 1^ a ports 6H\ 1-240 (Zootojv, 

pp, 136-137). 
Wickes. W.. H., »908. "Pebble Swallowing Animals' 1 , A Sequel to iJifc 

Rfiactic iVme B$<U ft&e Bristol Not. Sor. (Sec 41 11 (1): 25-31. 
YVieland, G. R M I°t)6. Oinosaurian GasUoJiths. $cfcto£f 23: 819-821. 

, JVQ7, Dinosaunan Gastroliths. Science 2b. *S6 67. 

WOUtftOH; S W , 1W, Die Stomach Stones oi' the Plcsiosaurs Scuwc 20 

, 1906. IvJorth Amcnciin PftWHisayts, Llasmr^aurs, Cimolusams, 

And Polyeotvlus. W«i /ow>-»t SV, 2f' 226. 
Wilson, E. A.', ©OK. >lammaHa (Whales and Seals). &?Ph Anto*{t\c 

Jlsped., i Wl-tH Vtf| ^. : i-' ?; 1-66. 
Wood Jones, !', 192a '/*/k? AfouiHvils of South AustrnJui 3 37j (Hand- 
books •:*! Flora and Faima of Sonth Australia. Gov. Printer). 


The leciurrr lor the Septcmher incclmu was Mr Arch. Kusby. Having. 
rer.fiitly Tctnrned -frcmi overseas, Mr. Buyhy was able to give an c-xce'llwti 
Talk an the work bring done at the Cambridge Uinver^ity fot the ^crpetuaucf 
of the lype species of the algae. Thin woTk wa*; commenced hy Freiishoia. iinrt 
Iftft to he conrinued by his successors when he retired. Mr. Busby illustrated 
his talk with Kodacbrome slides taken in the laboratory and showing the 
large racks of specimens m test tubes. He aho showed some excellent seenofi 
t.'ikeii around the city oi Camhridse. itseli. 

The next meeting will have as it& fecturcr Mr C. Mitldleton, whose subject 
will br "Hlumination^w r ith special reference to darfc'fcround". The Ntiveml;n--f 
cretins; will have a lecture on "Metallurgy" hy Mr. A, Termant, ot the hrm 
ot RuwoJts. Please bear these dates in mind, 

06 The t'sctfiritiu tiatnraluf Vol 73 


By N. A, W akshrld. Noble Park 

Genut OLf ARIA: The DcHmitohon of Some SmoJMeoved Species 

The purpose of this section is h» establish the specihe status »j{ fuur .iptC'es 
of Qlrarui winch have hillttfrto been variously identified with one oi more 
ot the three wetl-Vciiowu *peeie>, Q lct>\doph\.ik\ O. fiisriinrnda and 0. mnuu- 
fosit-. Some details of the latter three species are therefore set out below 
before the novelties are presented. Some of the revision deals with species 
which Are not known to occur \r\ Victors*, hot these arc meludrd here for 
convenience in an appendiv to the main part of the section. 

OLEAKlA LliPfVGPHYI.i.A (Pcrs.) Bcuth. Pi Anst. .? : 477. 

iCey Feature*' Leaves in clusters, the outer ones reflexed tightly against 
the stems, mostly about 0-5 nun. long, almost globulin, the subtending ones 
usually longer (even to 2 mm. lomj) and oblong, flower- he-ids sessile ar end* 
of b'aoddeU ; involvicfal bra*ts acute with a dorsal patch, toward*, ihc- 
apex, o( a mixture nt exudation and cottony hairs. 

Distribution : Coasts oi Tasmania, malice areas of. north-western -Victoria, 
and adjoining parts of New South Walts and South Australia. 

CLEAR! J PLOR18UNDA (Hook. \.) BenUt, !.C 

Kev Features - Leaves in loose clusters, mostly 1-2 mm, long, oblong, blunt. 
glabrous, narrowed ta a *horr flat petiole, thin with revolure margins; flower- 
heads very numerous, sessile at ends: ot lateral brauchlels (which arc often 
obsolete however) ; nwohioal bracts mostly obtuse, with a dorsal [<atch. 
toward? the apex, of a mixture of exudation and cottony hair*. 

Distribution; Scattered in the mib-alpi; and lowlands oi .Tasmania and 
Victoria, and in South Australia 

The Olcutiii pimclcudes var minor Benlh. (t.c ' 479) ha< fewer larger 
flower-beads and larger leaves {mostly 3-5 mm- long) but is otherwise the 
same, as O. jioribunda: it is not rctcTrable to O. piutrtcnultt This form 
occurs lit u6rtb-wes.terti Victoria, south-western New South Wales, and ur 
South Australia. 

OLLARIA RAMULO.SA tUbill.) tfentlt. U:: 476. 

Key Features: Stems shortly bristly or aculeate, often cottony alio; leaves 
;± narrow-linear, mostly 5-10 mm. (or more) long, the uw&' SUtiaces usually 
aculeate, the lamina spreading and with re. volute margins,, but the petiole with 
flat thin tying* and slctn-rlaspmgi; (lower-head 1 ; Usually on axillary l_- leafy 
peduncles, or on short slender lateral hnanrjdets , hu'ohiernl bracts acme. 
± ylandular-puhescent on the dorsal surface. 

Distribution: .Lowlands of Tasmania. Victoria, south-eastern "New South 
Wales, and south eastern South Australia. 

OLUARiA LANUGINOSA (J. H. Willis) 0*1. nov. 

Syi Ohwur fatfjfonfa var. UtHttymum J. fit Willis MntHerfo ) : 2y 

Stems thick, rigid, i± woorty-louicntose: leaves formine; globular clusters 
along the stents, incurved and tightly packed, mostly' $-1 ilmi- Jon* (the 
subtending ones oftftt longer), thick, blunt, usually aculeate-tubcmtlaie. 
sessile, the bases broad; flower-heads sessile withm clusters M leave* Lateral 
to the stem*; irtvolucral bracts acute, glandular-ptilivsi-er.r or cottony. 

Distribution. North-western Victoria, south-western New Smith Wales, 
and South Australia, 

This plant was originally considered (by Berulifttn, Mueller and other iO 
to he a form o' 0, IfipidvphyUu-. to which Specie* it Is rrmsL rlosely nllted; it 
is much further removed from 0. florHriturfa (sens, strkLl . 

° ( ^5G T ] WWM$«M* ftoffl .«r Vvioria: New Specirt rtr, 97 

QLEAKIA ALGiDrt jp. nov ( ; a 0. floribunda iHk.f.) Jienth. 

rl'rtli'is, 5Cd foti J5 ptfTCraSKij ^essilibus :.Vjh;nn*culniisdi*1inp,Mimr, .-Cfc aftni- 
tatc 0. l<f*ithf>hyfku' (Pcts-J FVnth .*. qua fecedit Mils at) Kimulos Qpll 
appieseis, ct ah ntrnnjie bract e is gjtfdfaru practerea diffvrt. 

(fol,,tvpe: Bogong Ml- Victoria; Jan. H>?2; frtf A J TaUgcM fJA'El - 
duplicates 1o be sent to K and NSW 1 ), 

Lwiuja sessile in loose cluster*, broadly ovate, usually 1-i mm. *>oni; 
zuricuiAte, thick, bhu'.\, ife margins revfllnte, the upper sur laces siuool'n and 
glabrous; flowcr-hcads senile in leaf-thiWs lateral OH J"' hrancki*; 
imv»hirra1 bracts blunt, glabrous. 

Uislrilxukm J Afea o»' iOUih-easicm Australia (New Stttflh WflA^l — 
Mt:i.1j'3Hg_ Ml&. , VktoHa — Mtfi. Buffalo, Bogong - , Pi: i >v faws T>*nia ii?r 
Middlesex IMain&, Great Lake). 

Tliii &pedes include* the O. ir^tophytht \atv, fawt'nitwi Hook. '• - rf - Jujm 
J. ITS: ami specimens of ir wen variously identified in the Mclbnonk. 
National Herbarium collections a« O. l-rpirlaf'hylfu and G jlMi(>nitdt>, 

Oi.HAh'lA BKALiiYPItVLL.t fcft MiwIJ. ex SosKt.) com}?. nov. 
Absolute Synonym fcvr\t)i\i Opacity f^tytia R Much. <*x :Snnrl. JLttMiAfii 
i5: 455 £1853), 

Eauivale*ii Synanvm; #W cxt-Hfntius F Muett F/.Ufih Pt>vi, .hi,\i S 
69 (1865); OhttTia - r.ciliftitia (P Mucll.) Beuth, /,r ■ 47o.' 

The type specimens trf each of ihe. above plant* are to the Melbourne 
National Herbarium, and they arc certainly couspecifk*. 

In most respects O. bra<;hyfrl\ylfo h similar to 0, fhtit>nmhi. but »l can 
he distinguished at once by iu sessile broad -based leaves, and the lignles of 
10c ray-florets arc normally not longer than their stylo*. There art* some 
vpecimens however with well-developed ligules. 

0. hnuhyfihythi ia apparently confined to South Australia The Mlttcilni 
ut>oti which a Victorian record of the species was based (as ('). it.r Hi folia, ill 
MurJUrui. i: 30) jj actually of O. fuM'/Iom (Sond. el F. MttelJ.) tfeuth 
with the ligiJes of the ray-iloiets abnoMnally well developed 

Of.H-iRf 1 FKfCtVDRS (Stccw.) romb urn 

Syn, : '/Lnrybui, triatufcs Steetz PK Prciss. 1 - 42.1 

Holotypc; Located at MEL (ex Herb. Souder). 

Branchlets -Jz crcet; Jcavcs ohloo^r, blunt, the niav*;ms rcvolutc, mostly 
3-5 itnn loii£,, sc^^He with broad Uysei. UMtfilly actdcaU--tulien;td«te, vrccl 
nlbliK the stems or somewhat spreading and subtending erect cuillary elusrers 
ot tdiortur leaves; flower-heads sessile, terniiuatintr loon or short brane.hlets ; 
the iovuluct'al tu'acts acute 1 , the whole plain very viscid (ou stems, leaves 
and tracts) with a Jittlc cottony vesttturc. 

DUtribuiion : Mio-eastern to soiitheru J'aitnania. 

pr unifies is well di-Sliugiu^hcJ horn 0- roittitJof under wind' Benll^n*' 
synony mixed it. 

(ILEARiA HOOKER1 (Sond.) 13eoi.. Ic 483. 

5yu Eurybia haokcri Sond. /,i\: 463. 

A ttfeeinieii located at MEL, ex Herb Sondcr, ;s *aken to be tlw iwfoivftr 
or this species; it is certainly ihe specimen to winch the oiagnosis a^phes. .m.' 
it ii citett by the author before he sets one any synonymy. 

My ihmil<? are again due 10 the Director oi the .National Herbarium •.»( 
Victoria for the opportunity to investigate material ill that iiistitmkm- 

♦ MIL — National Hefh&dtltn "1 Vicloria. Alrllnntrno. K Kcval XSotani? Gardens. S>« . 
loifiUnd, NSW — N*tional Herkirunn nt S*w S.->vfl WfaJjs. Vyrlnpy. 


Yhf ['*»' ^i/m» teqiitralht Vol. 7A 


This is an authoritative and comprehensive survey ot the cowries not only 
ttf Hie Australian [rVo-Padlfc region, but 'of the whole world. The author 
|$€ given us tar more t'ian a descriptive catalogue of these- varied and 
beautiful specimens of rnnllusca- With great detail ami tuueb collective 
information, she has sit uui riot only to eaten the mteren of the uninformed 
amateur but to c'-arify |lie systematic classification of cowries tor the 
experienced collecror She introduces a great number of newly named species 
and subspecies winch are involved in recent subdivisions of the CStffOMdiM 
and allied groups, but in doing so ix>ints out the reason* lor such rce.laswfica- 
ijoii. This will help many a naturalist not only to obtain a better inea of the 
value of careful classification but also to be able to recognise ma«»y of Ihe 
minor differences that lead to (lie delimitation of the species. 

The hook measutes 10 * 7 inches and contains 224 pages It is cnpiouxly 
and beautifully illustrated by the author, with seven lull colour plates, eight 
}i,ilf-toMc plates and thirty text-figures. These, illustrations are well indexed 
with cross-references 1 to the- pages on which toe respective jhtlls arc dealt 

Coivry Shells 6J World Seas is published by Georgian House, Melbourne 
anri may be bought from Jwoksellers- for i3/3/*. It is a most acceptable 
addition to rhe available up-to-date information on the mollusca of Australia 
and the world in general. 

— K, Mm-fu; 
F.N.C.V. Meetings: 
Monday. Wttw it ft ef i2-~Preparation of Slider Vccont, by Or r> Wiener 

F.N.C.V, KeufMu-i: 

Saturday. October 13— Beacou&ueld <o Officer via Beucoi stield Fe^etvoir. 
Walk of iix miles. Leader: Mi, A, F, Brooks Tvnvel ?iy 15 a. it train 
to Danrlenoug then bus to BeaconshVfd (fare 2/6) where leader wijl 
meet party. Book second return to Dandenong. bring one meal Train 
leaves Officer un return at 3.45 p m 
Sunriny, October !h — Maranoa Gardens. Leader; Mr. A. J. Swaby. Take 
Mont Albert tram to stop 54, Pai'nuy ttoad. Meet leader at sate:- 2.30 p.m. 

Vovembcr 3-4 — Weekend at Bendigo. Itinerary: Saturday aftetuuon — 
Excursion to Sandy Creek. Evening — Illustrated talk with Kodacl* routes 
Sunday — Full day in Whipsiick, Transport by Friday eveuingV or Satur- 
day's trains or private cars. Campincr facilities ar White HUh- Gdftfet|£ 
Wednesday, September 12, is final date ior hotel reservation* Bookme 
with Mr. K. Atkins. Botanic .Gardens. South Yarra, S?.6,l Phone 
MU 3755, after 6 p,flv (Note amended date of excursion.) 

Tuesday, November 6 fC'up Day) — Cluh picnic to He.Vesville Sauduai v. 
Loader ' Mr* A. J, SwflOV, President. Subjects. Nocturnal Animals find 
inspection of Naturr Tra:l. l'arlruir coach leave? {ftUflttin Avenue 30 a.m., 
leaves Snnauary 7.3fl p-m Bnnjr two meal*. Kant:, including admission, 
18/-, Bookings with L'\"cur.sio;t Seererary 

Group Meetings; 

(8 pm, ftf N^tioi ol Hetbar;uni) 
Wedresiiay, October \7 — Microscopical Croup. 
Wednesday, October ol — Botany Group. History of Food Plant*. Sreuker : 

Mr. K Alkius. 
Wednesday. November 7 — Geology Group, Literature .Speaker. 

Mr, E. IX GilL. 

— MARTK ALLEWDER. Exclusion* Seeicuiy 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 73— No, 7 NOVEMBER 3.. 1956 No. 875 


There was a full attendance at the National Herbarium for the 
October General Meeting of the Club, At the request of the Presi- 
dent, one. of the Vice-Presidents, Mr W. L, Williams, took the 

Proposed F.N T ,C V activities as set out in the Naturalist were 
diafiissed, and further suggestions, in wririny, were asked for. Mr. 
Hooke. Treasurer, explained the plan proposed by the Council for 
the establishment of a Publication* Fund, separate trout the HuiUI- 
hig and Contingencies Fund. Mr. Coghill mentioned that tin's plan 
was simpler than that he had outlined i]i the Nvtm'aUst but that the 
financial results ot the ocheiues we're ahuost identical. 

Mr. Brooke undertook to direct arrangements tor the show at 
Prahntn on November 19 to 2J next. Twelve members agreed to 
assist. Following the offer of some space for native flowers in the 
Lower Melbourne Town Hall by the Olympic Civic Committee, an 
F-N-C.V. sub-committee ot three was appointed to deal with the 

Mr. Wakefield gave a talk on a Satin Bower-hird which had 
stayed ioy some months in an Hast Malvern garden, and illustrated 
the subject with colour slides of its bower and a line tape recording 
of the bird's vocal performance and mimicry. 

Jt was noted that this Club requires two more delegate^ to (he 
forthcoming A.N.Z.A.A.S. Conference at Dunedin, New Zealand. 
A letter was received from Mr, K, Atkins, tendering* his resignation 
from the secretaryship of the Botany Cruup. 

Miss H A. Young and Messrs, E. R Backer ;md R. W. Burbury 
were elected as Metropolitan Members, and Miss F. M Hyslop as 
a Joint Member of the F.N C.V. All are welcomed ro the ranks uf 
tbe Club 

Exhibits included cora! shells, shown by Mr. Gabriel, and wild- 
flowers from Broken Hill and the Grampians, tabled by Mr 
Williams. The meeting adjourned at 9 45 p.m, [or the conversazione. 


As Forecast at the October General Meeting, a new account is to be opened 
for publications, and the Building and ContnigcHcie.s Account will retain Che 
investor! funds and tbe interest thereon. 

Tltc show at tbe Prabran Town Hall, cur rem from 10 -a.m. to 10 p.m., 
on Monday, November 19 to Wednesday 21, needs volunteer* to assist witb 
setting up o/urii'jg the previous week-end, to attend during the *bow. aild tO- 


100 .VsrV* frani. Council [ jjjj K7 

dissemble it on -the Wednesday night. These will be called for at the Novem- 
ber General MeelinR. Please brine your diary. 

The Bank of New South Wales, with the assistance of oUr respected ionner 
President. Mr. Tartton Raymer.r. wdl set tip and supervise Us display, in the 
Banking Chamber, Collins Street It is to vim, we '.mdemiiKb from 10 a.m. 
to ]0 a.m., for about five weeks. Pon'-ons are required lo aet as guide? from 
lime to time, lecturing to victors ti:\ exhibits ; the Bank [6 prepared Vb pay (or 
Mictt services. 

T>t. R M. Wishart has been appouued VtecPtW^d.wrt hi place of the )ate 
Fred Lewis; and Miss M, Eider has been appointed to Council. Mr. A N. 
Bilht*. of t^e National Museum, having; been u member 0$ the Club s>fo$t 
June I9ttf. liAs been made an Honorary Member 

Member* desirous of attending meetings of the Entomology and Marine 
Biolo&y Group arc requested to meet Mr. Strong a; the lYovember General 
Meeting, AlfO> the nutter oi stimulating the scientific, side of our activities 
will be further discussed al the next meeliny. and members who have sug- 
gestions to offer should bet the Pi evident before the meeting o',>erts. 


5omc people met at UcaconshVkl 00 Sarurday, October* 1.1. for the 
excursion to (kaeor.fthcld Reservoir. We were very pleased to hud Imt 
eoutiiry members among this number— Mr. R, N. Aur.hterlonh' oi Narracan. 
,OKl Mr, P. Lewi.? and Sjjgtf Lewis from Trafalgar. 

The route followed was along O'NeiH's JloaH, where a wide variety m 
plants was,, to be seen i:\ flower. These included Nodding Grcenhoods. 
(Pu'i'ofiytis nu?(n\s), Tall Greeohoous £P hnqijoJut) Marnonhowh tP, 
fedwiriiitttit)., Spread mi*' Fhiv-lily {fXumclla rcvMn-tti) , Gortttftht) Apple- 
berry (HiUtifrfuta $i'amin\s ) , f .ove-creeper ( Hrt'daHcs era vt>hU>Uc) , aud 
n imerous others, 

A discussion on whether numerous pittosporum specimens Keen by the road' 
side were plants pf the Sweet Piltosporum {P, \mdwh*h*-m) or 01 the Genoa 
Ptttosporuin (P rezwluhttit) naturalized ill the area had to be distoiuiiu'ed 
when it wfts discovered that I hi; iwdtor eou'.d not he decided without M'vi"^ 
tine seed-capsules * 

Birds observed or heard included the Rufous Whistler. Grey Shnkc-Thrish. 
Pallid Cuckoo, and Hroure Cuckoo. 

A pleasant place for lunch was found overlooking the Reservoir, after which 
the walk was continued nlong -the aqueduct, where a >hecp joined trie party, 
li followed the party for about a mile and attempt id 5eiid 11 hack were of 
■ 10 avail; hut to show how independent a ;*heep can he, it departed of its Ov.'n 
accord shortly afterward*. 

Almost immediately ader reaching a road to the east of the Reservoir a 
wonderful patch pf orchids was discovered. There rffrfcrc Fringed Spider* 
vrchids (Colmic*uQ ditaitita), I all TTturis (D. Uyugifffliu), one Large W&vlip 
((ifassmiin major), and, ptfrnraS most beautiful of all, two Common Spider- 
orchids {Cahniema- patcrsowi). one a tall and Hately specimen wiih twp 
flowers. Directly across ihe road several Bearded Grceuhoods (Ptcrnsiylis 
bprh(tlit) were to be seu'*- 

With most of the remaining pan 01 ihe route beititf downhill, good ..imc 
was made to the Officer station, where everyone voter! the excursion a wty 
happy and .successful one. 

—A. E. Biiook» 

1 Koike t pilloapn-uci :s :nt»»« here. Iiut" !•*. ;Mw/m/'»((mm h;t* tccume csUbli^hcd m 
?.bMi«';nicc in district* casi of Alrthnornr, n*. ittfU licing rtisiHrrwrd by zf.rt\* from c-'lttvucJ 
irfcw.— Editor. 


(Digr;t of Presidential Address by Taxltox Eaymkxt, i .i».z .s., 
delivered to the b'.N.C.V. m May 1956) 

For over rhuty yeai s 1 have been studying certain small fGssbnaJ 
f>ees known as Halictns, and the complexity 01 their biology intrigues 
utc today even more than it did when J discovered my first colony. 
Die &CCti are smul! in stature* a hour six or eight millimetres in 
length, hut the group that has held my unlading interest throughout 
the years is comprised ot the highly coloured metallic specks tailing 
within the subgenus Chloral iff us (i e ^coloured Hulictux)- 

And what delightful lirlle gems, they are ! Most have a green head thorax atjd art apricot-coloured abdomen, On several the head is 
almost black, but others ivill he So magnificently iridescent On the 
thorax that even the most hery ojials cannot excel the hnlhance o( 
their colour. The abdomen, too, is no fefs surprising in us range of 
colours, many have the rich dark castan eons-red of the chestnut, 
Ijui Ike majority match the clear orange tints of the aprkut: one r>r 
two are cadmium, verging on yellow. Whatever their tints may b<?, 
the bees are exquisite gems. 

1 made my first acquaintance with rhese chloraliccinc bees m the 
sand) eastern shore of Porr Phillip, when die hilled nl Ihe sen : md 
of the sky were. perfectly itansluoeivi. and ihe Stlna rays were tem- 
pered by the breeze from the sea. ... Ii was a day for the gods to 
dream- So I ( too, fell ur.dCT the spell of Mother Nature, but I did not 

Presently my eyes focussed on a small black ant carrying some 
thing on its back; il was a slued of withered golden leal. Right 
before my startled ga/.e, a minute polished black insect 'shot out of 
the ether 1 ' and attempted to male with the ant, My natural history 
told me something unusual was- .doot. My net cut ,hc air,, and I had 
both insects imprisoned in its meshes'. 

Now 1 can examine rhcrn inticatly under a lens. Yes. a small 
black worker anr, known to everybody, and the other, an even 
smaller halictme bee. not known to anybody 1 (l-ater, mv revered 
mentor and friend, Professor Coekerell, dedicated the species a? 
Cft to* -a tict ps raymenfi Ckll.] For several years afterwards, I spent 
hour? in rhat locality, searching for a black female to correspond 
with Ihe tiny male. 1 never found one, Imr iu due time I did discover 
a colony of the bees, and also the cause of my forgivable error. You 
see> every one of the females, and there were hundreds of them, had 
a mclajliogrccn head and rhorax and an apricot-coloured abdomen. 
And what of the males? There were hundreds of them. loo r but all 
were jcr-black and polished 1 have dissected perhaps thousands nt 
Haticti and 1 am sure, of my facts. 

■ I did discover then the explanation of the initial phenomenon will) 
the am. In the sunlight, the piece oi yellow leaf, thrown over its 

102 K.U.MKJCT _ Diwwpltiw* L> llalkiihfi fires V^ft!*t> 

hack, created the impression of a female haUetine bee with sm 
apricot-coloured abdomen* hence the mate's attempt to effect copu- 
lation. Of couri-;:. scent would assert itself almost immediately to 
remedy the fault, but i* the first headlong flash through the air 
there is no lime to check up all die minutiae uS the eba*e. 

Did I s£; I iound my firer colony of halktinc bees on the sandy 
&i;Ore of Pott Phillip? Of* course 1 did, because I can never forget 
8 * the heart-breaking searching for such tiny shaft* — ihey have the 
diameter of a piece of thin string ; the inevitable contusion brought 
lihcuu by the difference in the colour of the two se.ves, the frustration 
engendered by the avalanches of fine sand that poured down into 
llie smallest evcavations, effectively drowning shafts, cells,, puddings, 
larvae and adults. Moreover, I ifyas increasingly obsessed with the 
fear thai my unsuccessful delving* and concomitant destruction of 
the colonies would eventually leave me without any material what- 
ever tor future researches, f had perforce to abandon my excavations 
in tl>e sandy soil The colonies were too difficult to discover, and Ihe 
exceedingly friable soil, interlaced as it is with a million roriller.s of 
Ihe tea-trees, utterly defeated me and left me very dis-spirited. 

"OW t>dc of research had imi out, and was at its lowest ebb. But 
Ug jne should never forget, kite tide turns, and the flood pours back, 
laden with a full harvest to revivify the heart and delight the. spirit 
with thr richness of its treasure*. The ''high water'' rose fur cieyand 
Sandnngham. ft rolled inland even to Ihe Dandenongs, where 1 
have a friend, Mr. \V. Tl, Rkhnrdson, a welf-known mgineer m 
(he eity, aval one who JhkU the essential relaxation from hi* exten- 
sive business on a inodel fann. ^Now. do nut conclude from this sum- 
mary that nil thi'rtga are possible on a "pocket-handkerchief' That 
would not he true, tot the /arm is ait extensive one. About the home- 
stead is a lovelv garden, where the lawns form green pictures framed 
here and there with arbour* of toses. Well, in the middle of that 
closely tended sward, I find a shaft of Halutus, Of eoui£e, I do not 
expect to disrupt my friends beautiful garden. N*e.verthel$s, 1 re- 
count tu him the problems of the bees. 

''Dig up the lawn," he assures me iostamlv, the gardeners here 
will make the grass quite right again '*' Thank you, Sir ! So the next 
time I visit my friend I take an assistant, and together we tape tbe 
Uwn into areas one foot square and search every square on uur 
hands and knees. We are abundantly rewarded for our care and 
patience, we filld nineteen Tinv hatictine shafts, each, 1 would remind 
you, of no greater diameter than a piece of tine string. Of course. 
I am elated. 

At last I have a quiet place for study : one far removed from the 
vandals of the foreshore and the thoughtless feet of the picnicker*, 
even from the bulldozers of the Council. There are. no disturbing 
intruders, only the friendliness -ind co-operation of a veTy fine em- 
mi. The damp sod pares of! as cleanly and easily a? a piece of cheese. 

3 9 &»; 

RAVMKNT, PlWfrJ /'hiMu mi Hufiitiut' ifr?4 101 

W&Yj I can follow the shafts lo their utmost extremities and mic 
every detail, cells, puddings, eggfe, larvae, everything! 

Hrm shall ] mark the precious nests so arduously delected, and 
so laden with promise for 1hc Iiunre? Ft is essentia! foi me lo iden- 
tify, not only every shaft, but also each bee that (i&es it. Well, I hilM* 
tin hand a number ui roofing nails, the large heads u£ which had been 
previously painted in various colours, and given numbers. I press 
down into the grn$s a nail tor every Oiait, and prepare a diagram 
after triangulating their relative positions. 

I am highly satisfied; I face the new investigations with renewed 
pleasure and hope, and I return to the sea -shore to other woik 
•'.waking- my attention, A week later finds mc hack in Dandenong. 
The weather 15 fine, and i am eager to pick up] once ap;am The threads 
of the research fu the biology of chloralictine bee-.-., 1 luirrv out onm 
the lawn , it 1$ as green and rinse-shaven as e\er But acme Sltfttl? 
change ha$ taken place, one difficult for me to contemplate, even 
nail has been meticulously removed. Al;n-t The colonics are gone' 

My host is no less concerned over my loss. He questions the gar- 
deners Yrs. one man is obviously perplexed. "Who an earth/* he 
asks, "would do such a miserable trick as to sow the lawn with nails 
to blunt the mower?" Nevertheless, the damage U dotlc. The shafts 
arc lost for winter. 3nd my season's patient searching bad been 
altogether in vain. I ]eave the blue Dandenongs bemud me; I am 
frustrated, and unhappy. 

However, there comes a day in spi nig wdie.n my assistant and I 
are indeed successful, and we locate most of the colonies again. Then 
follows the critical investigation, and its surprising results. BtK 
Dandenong is a long way from home, and I ponder over the expense 
and loss of time involved in the study. "Would it be possible/' i 
dream, "to force, train, or deceive wild bees into establishing colonies 
nearer home?" Well, it has never been dune, before., but is that a 
valid reason for my not attempting if j I already know the exact 
depth, contour* and diameter of the >hafis, and at length find a 
similar tough ground in the lawn of Miss 1 . Young, at Toorak 

In the depth of winter, and while die fcefts are still hibernating, I 
make shafts in her lawn, of the: exact size ami contour, and transfer 
to them pupae obtained from Dandenong. My experiments succeed 
beyond my utmost" expectations, Not only have 1 colonies e>lihli--.hcd 
in a convenient location, but I have gained an assistant wlwj has 
vohmteercd to observe them daily and keep a written tecord The 
lady's vigil extends over nearly three years, the longest continuous 
observation of a species recorded in the literature of the science. 
Here is rhr order 1 if the amazing generation."-: 

In spr ing, a brood of virgin females emerge ; all have a green head 
and thorax and apricot -coloured abdomen There is not a nwlr 
amongst them, and the virgins will remain in the parental home 
because there is no sexual urge to call them forth. [The \\orker- 

104 K.u'Mtvv, nwwf-.hi-s/ii in Atofortfilj (ha Uvli^; 


hees similarly do not depart from the parental hive It is the true 
kmalc, the queen, that leaves to found a new home-| This; rule ap- 
rjfies also to human beings; the married daughters depart It found 
new homes, but the virgin sisters remain wilfi the parents under the 
nalal toof-lrec; SO do the bachelor sons. 

The bisexual brood of these highly-coloured virgins will emerge 
in mid summer, and all will be. jet -black males and females. They 
mate over the flowers, and the males soon disappear and die. The 
lecurdated mother wilt depart from the parental nest to establish a 
new colony elsewhere. In autumn, the progeny of the mated females 
will mature, but they will lie invariably black virgins, and. in Out 
cousse.. M*v children will be the highly coloured virgins of the spring 
generation . 

In concluding my address. T am sure there is little need to assure 
you that the problems presented by llaiictus are very difficult Lo 
investigate, because of the maze of galleries which transect the 
architecture in seemingly inextricable confusion. They constitute 
w cll-nigh insuperable difficulties in following the activities of any one 
.specific individual, no matter what system of identification i> used. 

All species dt* not have black males. Ar Portland, Victoria, tbere 
hHvliitttf (Chloralktus) paraifhiiorplms Kaym. (//t...v.), the females 
rji which are hardly distinguishable from Cltlontlictits dimorphns 
Ravin, from Dundenong ; hut surjn'isinglv, Hit- males are as highly 
coloured as the. females. Portland, alas! is a far cry from my home 
for the meticulous study of a small bee, bur it is clearly evident that 
vital gcnctical phenomena awair investigation. A diagram to explaui 
thc genetieai inheritance oi the drone of the hive is easily constructed., 
but the parthenoger.etic virgins cf llaiictus require a much more 
complicated elucidation, 

I am not caller! upon to find an explanation for every observation, 
hut if 1 am permitted to speculate, then I would aay that perhaps 
the many species oi chlorahame bees probably derive as muuitioiis 
jrom some basic stock, such ac. FlnlkfMs erxthrtcnts CklL, and 
whether or not the male fe to be coloured is ilekrmined hy an 
alteration of its genes, 


In a recent -number of the Vittonon A : { |7j; 74 (S«nt, P95fiX] \ 
r-TCfirtfcd RKytUfurtpfltp rugose- fVaJtt) 5 Cale as new to Victoria. Vlr. S J'. 

—J, H Wum-- 

iRev. H. M. R. Rupp, 1872-1956) 

Uy I H. Willis 

/ tit?ck ; jr»/iiirt i Schooling, ivtJ (he Moitslry 

1 Icrman Montague Rucker Rupp ff&$ born on December 27, 1S7Z 
at P<nT Fairy, Victoria* where his father — Rev C L, Herman 
Kupij — We(a then the Cluui'h of Eogim*3 vicar. His Mother ( hc: 
Marie Ann Catherine Kowcroft, daughter ol General Horatio ttOW- 
» roft, who was an Indian Muiiny \eterau) died at Lbe birth, and 
there- \ran only ouv other child, Florence — now \\t< Monypemn. 
^t lit living in Sydney. 

The paternal grandfather had been a >ehnulmuster at Frauhfxui 
na-Oder, Germain. In 1847 (the same year as Baron von Muciler*> 
arrival in Adelaide) he emigrated to Australia with his wife, two 
son* and a daughter; but the father, mother and infant Paul all died 
during the voyage, The young orphaned Herman and Augusta were 
adopted by W Tv A. Rucker. a merchant of early Melbourne* and 
the former ehtld went rirst to Mr. Brook Field 's school. IWellM>unic, 
then to Moore College at Liverpool, N.5.W. He was ordained an 
Anglican deacon iij 18^2 and priest in 1867 ; his whole ministry was 
spent in the dioceses of Melbourne and Baliarat, motif of the parishe- 
facing in western Victoria (Port Fairy. Jvoroit. Coleraine and 
Buuinyong successively), Rev. Rupp senior wedded again in 1874, 
but there were no childien of this laier marriage with "Rachel E. T, 
Kirkpatrick, He died at the age of 79 in 1917. 

The boy Montague Kvtpp's fhrst education was teeeived at a small 
private school connected with the INesbyterian manse at Kon/it- 
Victoria, Nexh he attended the Koroft State School for about two 
vears. and, at the a^e of e!e\en, went for a year lo the Junior Gram- 
mar School, Ceetong, then in charge of his uncle Alfred Roweroft. 

Tn 1685 he became \\ boarder at Geelon*? C-. oi ft. Grammar School 
under the headmastership of John -Hraccbrid^e Wilson, m.a.. k.i..s. 
— noted educationist and aIgotog»,st whose wife was the sister of 
Rupp's deceased mother. Charles Relcher (later Sir Charles, of 
Kenya) was one of his school-mates who kept in touch over the 
years. Rupp remained at Geeloug' Grammar School until Decern 
tier 1891, when he matriculated with first class honours in English 
and History, and also won the Mary Armytage Scholarship from 
GGS- to Trinity College, Melbourne University, He was prefect 
Of hts school in 1&91, played in the football team and won the 
athletic championships (or both 1890 and 1891. The Cusack Russell 
theological scholarship, tor students intending to enter the Rallauii 
diocese, was granted to Rupp ar Trinity College m 1S93. Tfe won 
rlie Wyselaskie Scholarship in Natural Scierce, Melbourne Univer- 

1<M vvn.uie, Paitfi^ of ft 6*»/ &ttlitJtit$$m [ 

Vict, Nat, 
Vol, 7* 

sity. in 1896 and graduated B. A. the following year, having failed it? 
hfe attempt to complete a combined Arts and Science conrse. 

During 1898 he was a lay reader in the Colar Parish and was 
ordained deacon in St, Paul's Cathedral. Melbourne, m 1899 (by 
K^hop Goe tot the Bishop of tiallarat). He then served as curate 
o( Colac-with Beeac until ordination ru the priesthood by Bishop in St. Peter's Church. Ballarat, In 1*KH when he became 
pnest-in-dtorge &fi Beeac Tu l#)3 he accepted the olTer ot senior 
curacy at Tamworth, N.S.W., undfr the. late Archdeacon T K. 
Abbott, and rhe next year WS5 mamed by Archdeacon Abbott to 
Florence Mabel Dowe, eldwt daughter of Richard Dowe — a solicitor 
pj lamworth. 

Subsequent appointments were as vicar of: Warialda, NSW. 
(a parish ranging over about 7,000 square miles of mountainous 
country toward rhe Queensland border) from 1904.6;. Yea, Vic, 
where he went because of bis father's indirfere.nt health (1906-5) ; 
Copmanhur^t. N.S W. (1908-1 1 ), and Banana ( 1911-14 Wu^ani 
rm the mugged uorth-eastern tablelands ot New South Wale*. 

At the beginning ot World War I he was appointed A.ssistanr- 
Seeretary. and later Secretary, to the Australian Board of Missions, 
travelling through many pans of New South Wales. Victoria ynd 
Tasmania irom 1914 to 1920. fn the laitci year be acted a> locmn- 
tenens at Holy Trinity in Hobart, Tas., and was thereafter rector ol 
St- Aidant, Launceston (1921-22). 

In 1923 he returned to New* South Wales, occupying in turn the 
rectories ot "Bulladelah (1923-24), Paterson (1924 30) ;md St 
Mary's Church at We*lon (Jan. 1930— May 19.12). The last two 
were hard depression years, work was exacting and he let t Weston 
ro take three months" rest at Cnlluroy, following medical advice 
September 1932 found him at Ptlbga, of which he wrote. 4 *a aiorc 
dismal, drought-stricken landscape would not be easily- found." Then 
followed temporary work at Hast Maitland (Feb.- Apr. 1933), after 
which Rupp resumed his duties as rector, hrst at Woy Woy ( 1933- 
36) and then at Raymond Terrace (1936 39), In May 1939 he re- 
tired from the ministry on a pension and lived at Northbridge, 
enjoying "one of the loveliest views in Sydney' 1 . After having moved 
\q the re tghboming' iubnrb nl Willonghby in October 1951. lie 
suffered a deterioration in health, and lor the last two years he was 
chronically ill fur weeks at a rime with cardiac asthma ; he died nn 
September 2 last his wife having predeceased him by nnly lour 

While at Pater^uu, Rupp organized. * "restoration" of the old 
church in memory -of its first incumbent, the Rev. John Jennings 
Smith who had taught Queen Victoria before she came to the throne. 
In the course, of these proceedings a Queensland grandson of 
Jennings Scnwft offered a stained-glass window with the Jennings 
Sujiih oxu-of-arim, beautifully coloured; it liad belonged to the 

jnwTj \Vhii>-, J'tissitht of u <*i»\tf ()rju(l*>lthii\t 107 

down 's father, I larold Selwvn Smith in Metlnairnc, ami now stand* 
in ar tlu* pulpit of I'auTsmi C hiireh. During Septcmher 1 ( >4K Uupp 
paid a lust visit to Victoria — to attend (lit 1 < iolden Juhilce of Si 
Au^uM^ue'* (.'hutch of Kngland at Recae, the In >t church hnildin^. 
erected under his charge. 

/ / Hofunnal t lltniinin'itts 

R. |>. Kiiz( ierald I 1*30-02) pioneered ihe field of all- \ustrahau 
urehidolngy ami his sumptuous work in colour. .Iitsltitlimi Oiehids. 
appeared in twelve part* hetween lH?5 and RS'M-. the t'nutl part being 
pti.slhnuion.-v ; a litlle more than 2CJB species were portrayed and des- 
enhed therein. Since the death* gf tjn R. S. Rogers (1042) and 
\\ 11 Xieholls | 1V51 ), undisputed authority in the systematic^ of 
our (h'clihlitcvttt' had Temained with the Reverend Rupp, Indeed, of 
tlfis distinguished quartet, it wwlil lie invidious m say syw hkuIc 
Hie most important contribution ; hut. with tlu* departure of the la-t 
of litem, it is certain thai a great epoch has closed. Who ii<>\\ will 
shoulder their mantle? 

hi a series of three articles tor the .lnstn)/i<tn Owhttl /vY;-/Y;v 
entitled - Memories of an Orchid l.<>vcr" ( I. June I'M! ; II, Sept. 
l'M-1 ; 111, |niie 1''45), and also in "Memories oi Victorian Or- 
chids" j I'M. XuL C)V. 145-fi (Mar 1053) |. Rupp virtually pro- 
vided a hotauical autohiography. His interest in wddfiovvers. he 
records, went hack to the time of earlv hoyhuod at Koroit, where he 
vividly reniemhered fording two spider-orchids tColtuIcnia dilatithi 
and Ci ptitt'i'sonti ) . While his father was stationed at Coleraine. in 
far-western Victoria. Montague explored the local and, even 
after he was sent to school in (icelong at the age of eleven, vacations 
were spent in botanizing around hitme and as far afield as Wannon 
Falls toward Hamilton, lie often holidayed with the Moodie, family 
at lovely Wanrio Vale near the t'denclg River. Mr. \\ ilham Moodie 
being a nephew r * >1 |. G, Robertson who contributed records from 
that district for Renlham's l-'Umt . histraliotsis- — "ll'enihi" ami 
*'// tndit^ are the quaint mis-spellings used hv Rentham. Rnpp com 
piled a "Catalogue of the Wildflouei s of Wundo Vale" in IJftJZ. 

By the time lie left CJed^ng (irammar. he knew hetween 30 and 
40 different Victorian orchids, some from the rich Torquav- 
\iiglesea coastal hcathlauds. Later, I'niversity vacations were spent 
at Buninyong. where Ins father had hecome rector in 1K95. and Rnpp 
was nhle to record 31 orchids for this small district to 1896. It was 
during Trinity College days too that he made the acquaintance ot 
Raron von Mueller (see .Inst. ()rclt AY; 1 6: 41 (June 1941 ) | and 
was thereby spurred on to further botanical endeavours. Ahout this 
time, two of his best-remembered "rinds" were the intriguing ( Junu 
Orchid (Sarcochihts ausiraUs) » epiphytic on prieklv currant hushes 
at Ferntree GulK, and the very rare St<>ut Sun-uichid {Thrlywitru 
vptpavtotde.'i'i at Rortarlingtnn in RX07. The iTtAltrilfrne* Herbarium 

Plate III 

Vol. 73 

Mrs f J'-y * * fdaiiRhiei i 
The Late Rev. H. M. R. RUPP 


* |Sk j Win a, PiiMtuttj of a Crcut Orchiiioitynst H)9 

ha.s .-pecimen.s of vaiious dryland plciuu from )he interior ft Sew 
booth Wales beaiiog Rupp's handwriting ^n<\ the d^te- 1295, llrfl if 
is hoi dear whether he collected these himself during a Uuiversin 
vacation or received them from *on>e correspondent, 

Jl very where Ik: went, orchids were arduously collected ami 
sutdiM. and many were the exciting experiences uL rue chase, In 
S*|>t*mber 1912 at Wollombin, eight miles from liarrabu. lie found 
U new species of Boujwo; this was named B, ntppri by Kdwin Chrcl 
in 1928. The previous year (1927) \J\\ Kugers had named in iii*j 
honour Prit&aphyUum ruppH — a small oiclud from Paterson 
X.SAV. He made only one accent of Mr. Kosciusko, in 191. V During 
Ivr-e V : >39 lie spent a fortnight with his sou-m-law. L. C. Cox ul 
AnnidaLe, <in the lofty and immensely interesting Vfcirringroii Tops 
Qi*c of his la. c -t, bur most pleasant, exploits was through the. Ghi1o*» 
Por^iK (Diihho district) m September 1950 — he wrote glow ngly 
of its floral Measures. 

Contacts were formed with many kindred mind* in all State*; he 
fttst die Tasmanian orchid-lover. Archdeacon ri 53 Atkinson, while 
acmng his Church in that State, and shortly afterwards Df H. 1. 
Kesteven at Bulladdah, M-SAV.--^) specie-, of orchids weie found 
in that rich area. With his fellow orchidolcgitfs, Dr. R. S. Rogers 
and VV. It. Nicholls, a large correspondence grew and continued 
itltfij their deaths | -splendid comradeship prevailed between the three 
and they collaborated variously in a number of researches ! .arrerly 
Knpp also collaborated with E. D. Hatch of New Zealand in investi- 
gyjITttg those orchid yeucrn and species common to hoth sides of the 
T;i>man Sea. 

It is remarkahle that such a specialist, whose mind was packed 
with orchid lore, should have refrained from publication until his 
52nd year! Apparently, his first paper was printed in the .4 ttsf 'ralitm 
ls!at:ifa!i.<t tor April 1924 -**Kntes on the Habits of Certain 
Orchids" [five pa^o:). Thereafn»r he contributed at least 215 
articles lo various natural history journals ami bdeutilk periudicalv 
in adOirinu to publishing two illustrated books — Guide to the Or- 
rkiih of Nltf* Saym IVaks (1U30) and Orchids fff Jffao Sotiftt 
IfVf-k N94J). He aUo wrote the article ORCHIDS for the forth 
coining Atislralimt Em yttopcrdiu {now in Yn Angus & Roberl- 
sou Ltd.) Seventy-two of his coirrrihutious appear in the Victorkw 
Ni.htralist (.with 30 'lew specie*), «fp ifl the rlitxf ration Qrchkl 
AVr/^r, 34 in the North Qtt-eeiis!ti:iil Naturalist and 30 in tin: 
Proc*'t~iii*%qs oj the f. inn-con Society oj~ ^en' South PVufcs. Four new 
genera, all monotypicj and 71 new specie* are described among his 
papers and rcvisional studies of the Common wealth'* oichid floia. 
One ot the new genera was Cry ftnv themes, the single species C". 
sfatrri being discovered at Ahnn Mountain \>quy Bulladdah by E 
Slater in November 1931. This extraordinary plant carries nut it- 
life-hisior}', the production of flowers induced, entirely benearh the 

110 W'liiN, /\iA>my/ of a Gif-itt (}fci\i^ K *io(jisi 

Virt. Mai. 
Vol. 73 

Mill, pVovidmx an eastern analogue to Rh'tzanihclht uaniaen — unique 
aiul also iubterrauoati orchid in south-wesLcrn Australia 

For these outstanding contributions 10 science he received the 
Clarke Medal from the ftoyat Society ol New South Wales in April 
1040, au<l (he Australian Natural History Medallion from the Fie1<J 
•VatuiahsU Club oi Victoria in July 1955. Concerning The latter 
award Rupp wrote whimsically (personal communication] : 

J came through the ordeal of the presentation all right, though I was wo ill 
for several day* beforehand that they thought the function would have tu he 
postponed However,, they got me there, uiul (he «ood fellowship of everybody 
hticked cue n$ tremendously. . . 1 got on my hind U'.^r. and tried to reply. An 
A. B.C. reporter was there and gave tjuUc at good Tcpcrt on the 7 o'clock 
wireless. The *S.:1'7. Her&te ignored it [ im'mg neither a, negro orizc-ti^hlcr 
nor a dubious iocke> '" 

Four months later (20/11/19.53) he wrote s;u(ly, when forward- 
ing" an orchid paper for publication in the I'utoyktti- Naturalist, "The 
enclosure is my swan-song; I can't write anything more" — aucl &a 
it proved to be. 

For years he ha?.) been garnet ing data Jbf a life of the ler.owned 
Tasuianian botanist. Ronald Campbell Gnnn. -.vbom he greatly 
revered. This material is believed lu have been sent for publication 
to the Royal Society of Tasmania, Northern Btnnch, jhuut 1952, 
hut its fate is not "known. 

tiUrtpS large private orchid herbarium, embracing d/0 species, 
had been presented by him to the National Herbarium, Sydney. 
early in 1946. 

His membership of the Naturalists' Society ot New South Wales 
dated from June H*24, the Linnean Society of Mew South Wales 
[vom July 1927, and the Field Naturalists Club of Victoria trum 
March 1934: in February [9#3 (lie K.N.CV. council conferred 
honorary Life Membership upon him. The sympathy of all mem- 
bers in this Club is extended to his son and two married daughter 
who are left tu mourn their illustrious lather. 

[Much of the amterial included in tltfe obituary came from -iinobiofcrarihical 
notes Kindly placed 8rt my disposal hy T\upp<> elder daughter, \f/$. RarJiel 
Cox fii Armirlalo, through Mr. K. Mair of the .Sydney Herbarium. The 
remaiialer has been gleaned from articles, published by the ReV Utipp. from 
personal reminiscences and a voluminous correspondence which T had enjoyed 
with hint during the pas^ 14 years. He was a man of wide culture a luyal 
i.tulerata-udiuii frier Ld, witli deeply sensitive uutUt'e and a delightful sense Ol* 
iiumout that rippled through all fiis letters- -even those wrinen from beds of 
.^u freeing;, or when he was deeply worried by sickness and sorrow anion:; 
■members of hi? family. Although T met him only twice, tor a few hours each* 
lime, there was a propinquity of spirit between vis. and t shall always ireasurtr 
my associanonb wild sueli a iitr — full flfl$| useful far beyond the average, rich 
and vibrant with helpfulness to others, f have prepared a complete Vuhlio- 
ej-apliy ol his writing*, and hope ior it*- lumlkalion in KOOTM appiopiiatt 
joormd J H.W.l 

1956 J 

The J'iclorian Xatitra/ist 



By C. S. MlDDLETOX, F.K.M.S., F.R.A.S. 

On reading the article entitled "On Cleaning Microscope Lenses" by H. 
Snell in Vict. Sat. 72: (August, 1956), I was rather perturbed by some 
statements in it. While agreeing in general with the method suggested tor 
cleaning eyepieces, lens tissue or Kleenex tissue is much better than hand- 
kerchiefs as when new it contains no grit — thus lessening the danger> of 
scratching the lens. 

My main criticism is directed at the instructions for the cleaning of 
objectives. Even a low power objective, when new. is perfectly centred, i.e. 
the front and back components are centred with each other and only under 
these conditions can the objective perform at its best. When the components 
of an objective are unscrewed and reassembled without any attempt at 
centring, they nearly always screw up to a different position, and are 
therefore out of centre with each other. While this does not make a very 

Centring Process 

big difference to the performance of the lens — the loss of from 5 pet cent 
to 10 per cent does render a high quality objective equal to a mediocre lens. 
Should any members of the .Society have followed the advice of the afore- 
mentioned article, the following apparatus may make it possible for them 
to re-centre their objectives. 

This centring device, as shown by the illustration, has a mechanical part 
consisting of a steel ring having the R.M.S. standard thread. This ring is 
so mounted that it may be centred axially by means of the three centring 
screws — A on the side and it may be rocked by means of the three screws 
underneath — B. This is carried on a shaft, which runs in ball bearings and 
may have a pulley wheel at the bottom as illustrated. This is driven quite 
slowly, about 120 r.p.m. or less. 

To use this apparatus, the back component of the objective is screwed into 
the ring. An image of the graticule C in the lamp as illustrated, is focused 
by means of the lens D on to the surface of the back lens of the objective 
and the six screws adjusted until the image remains perfectly stationary 
as the objective is revolved. (See figure.) The second lens of the objective 


M inni.KTdX, Crntriu<! Microscopr Objccth'cs 

rVift. Nat. 
I. Vol. 73 

is then screwed into place and the image-forming rays from the lamp are 
raised slightly to form an image on the second lens. The objective should 
then be tightened or loosened until this image also remains stationary. Should 
it be too loose, and therefore liable to unscrew, a little celluloid dissolved 
in ethyl acetate until it is the consistency of golden syrup may be put on in 
two tiny spots on opposite sides of the lens mount by means of a pin. l."se 
as little as possible of this mixture, as it may run into the threads and 
prevent the objective from being unscrewed again, 

As advised in the article, all high power objectives should be left for an 
instrument maker, as they require much more accurate centring and the 
graticule image is, in this case viewed through a fairly powerful reading 

■ • 

Lamp and Centring Device 


Murraba, Coldstream, Vie. 
September 26, 195o 
Hon. Editor, 
The / icforidn Xaturalist 

Dear Sir, 

The mound on Mr, Webb's property near Sunbury, described by Mr. Brun- 
ton in the September issue of the 1'icforiau Xaturalist, was investigated in 
1934 by myself and the late D. J. Mahony, then Director of the National 
Museum. We had heard it was reputed to be a native burial mound, and as 
such things are otherwise unknown in Australia, we carried out a fairly 
detailed examination of it. Mr. Mahony was a geologist of some standing, and 
I had had some experience of archaelogical excavation. 

""JBf^J &*»» t v E.U,0, -.13 

The mound stands out prominently from its surroundings* and in geiirral 
appearance is most artificial looking. Despite this, however, our conclusions 
wefr that it is a natural feature and not made by man. 

In the open-cut, where some of the nujutid had been removed for graved 
we cut a clean vertical fare right across the centre pari, and -fltajj a trench 
wctl down below t]ic level of lite surrounding ground surface. We thus hai : 
a clean vertical section to examine, and were able to study ihr internal siruc 
tore uf fhe niuuud There were no sloping bedding lines to indicate that the 
nibble, of which the mound consists, had been heaped t*t> from the surrounding 
surface. The rubble is or a quite even consistency lht 'oufthotit, shewing rather 
that the ititxtirl \\a» carved out oi a '.ai'ge deposit of nibble by erosion. At il? 
base there is no dear line of demarcation between the mound and ihe under- 
lying <tac Tlifi one merger into the ofhei 

Towards the centre of tlic mound there is a mass of darker and more carta e 
nibble, w»th an irregular, but fairly well defiutd, outline. Running through 
tins there are veins oi Gl while clay-hke substance, h ii tins thai br»s oe''i 
taker for the rvtiMins of a burial, or bin ials, mid u Ms beei'. assumed 
|tl<7 white sul'sla - trt; is eakinrd bone. Wr found, however, no t ragutec.N of 
htuiv. and the l#Jiftfl material appears to he entirely mineral in eharacter. The 
white veil!* continue down into the underh/ieg clay beneath the mound. I'hry 
have apparently been caused by some process of leaching, by water pe-culaiiny 
ihnmgh thfi nibble Within the darker nibble there ate some very small fiu^- 
rnv'Us ol charcoal, hui HQ\y|*c-Tt is iheiv aiw concentration qi mc$e- The\ 
may w»'ll Uk\C been snnail pieces of wood or root, cat fvmi.vd, nor l>v Pre, bur 
by uicf.l'.iw proeesr- of time, The mass of darker rubble, bad not been .inserted 
into the mound an a burial. The nibble above it had never beer. d*stu;bed. 

There ••$. thuy. ltd real evide-Kc of btutals, and every nidranon that \b*i 
mound Is 0*' natural origin. 

As our rinding* were a'.) negative, we did not publish any details of them 
at rbe time, as perhaps we should have done, but our photographs, pl.-.iu -jud 
drawings were deposited in the nl«5 of the National M'ueuin where they uuv 
be uiipwred by aitynnf imenrc&d in them. 

Yocr.s : nih- 
il A. Caspv 


(Reserved for yo«r Notes. Observations end Queries * 


The IttuMts of this plover (/ ohih>;v ttot't.r-iioUnndttr) ate laiily well known 
and these nottfs are not preset r.ed as representing an/thing new iVy inland 
only io record yjtuc personal* observations of the last Jew years ?A Clarence 
Point ill Tasmania. 

The bold and feiule^ strategy of the Spur-wjnged Dover in defence of 
tre ilfc*i and young I:- common knowledge, and the birds one has watched 3.1'C 
no ex.eptmrs. Recan^e these birds nr*t on the ground life may be rather 
hazardous. Bu! despite the menace of wandering stoik. farm implement 
and so on, the birds appear to retin'n almost to the identical spot each >ear. 
The nest, in a tiny depression, contains two. sometimes tluee egys. winch 
blend so well with the surrouudiuKS ai to be very difficult t*> see. The WSJ 
h e<cupied at night, but in the daytime the sun -appear? to provide the 
lieceiS-Tv warmth. Oit 3 -wonders, *t times, how many *&"* survh'e the rohl 
oi sunless days early in the season, 

Any creature approaching is enticed away by the Iwo birds running' ihntir 
Bftd calling loudly to attract attention away from the nest, If tlu\ (ml?. 1 ; icy 
will take to the w'u# and swooj) On the soioetimes uustuiijectiuR vi?if<jr 

until he moves away- The flrown Hawk is the worst enemy with which our 
plovers have to contend. He will wait his opportunity to approach the nest, 
hut usually he. is observed in time. There will then- he a performance ol aic 
aerobatics fascinating iu the extreme, until the hawk departs* followed by 
the plovers. One always returns almost immediately to resume guard over the 
nest however: the other partuet may follow the hawk lor some distance. 

One morning, ;* hawk had apparently managed to reach the ground near 
a nest without first being observed, and two frantic birds flew about 4 hove 
bun. Fearlllg the worst, T ran to take a hand tft the matter, and was 
relieved to hud rhar the enemy had not reached the nest, and all was attain 
peaceful. More oueu than not only one chick survive?, at leas; one h*G 
rarely seen two. When the ctiiek is fairly well grown, there appears to l>e 
rather more tratf rnixarion between adjoining couples, whose nestj 3 re 
usually a hundred yards or so apart. Perhaps there is a feeling of collective 
security as the chick? are rather more vulnerable. Once the chick is able to 
fly the normal gregarious habit is resumed, and hy late December tlic^ are 
seen in large flocks. One suddenly finds that some fifty birds have been in 
the small area under observation. Assisting to keep the pastures dean they 
are among- the farmers best friends. 

On tliH roeks of the Tamar Uiver l>aok at low tide. I had lhat 
numbers of the small bivalve shell. Modiolus fisuex were at times dislodged 
from position, opened and the animal removed, without any apparent damage 
to the shell. There was some curiosity as to which bird had been responsible, 
bin li have s'mee seen flock* of plovers at the snot several rimes. On investi 
Ration, many freshly opened shells were usually lonnd, so presumably the 
plovers, were responsible The birds may wait an iinporiun'ify lo s**>^C \he 
animal when 1he valves arc parted. T have also seen chitons removed from 
the rocks, but not when plovers were about; these would be bard to shift 
without damaee. 

— RoK- C Kershaw. 

Future F.N.C.V. Meetings: 

Monday, December 10 -''Scenes m the Dolomites of Northern ItaU'*. by 

Dr. G. Chtistenseu ol Foitst Products Division. C.S.I. R.O. 
V/onday, Janunrv 14 — Mcmhers* Mij_*Ht, with \fr, ond MVji F. 3. Colli ver. 

F.N.C.V, Excursions; 

Sunday, November 18 — Seville. Subject: Hclmeted Honeyeatcrs and general. 
Leader*. Mr. and Mrs Hanks. Take 9.15 a.m. War bur ton train to Seville 
railway station where traders will meet party Bring two meats, 

.Saturday, November 24 — Visit to Museum of M>. S. Ti. Mitchell, ^'Arcoona". 
Overport Rd.. Frankston. to see Mr. Mitchell's work! -famous collection of 
Artifacts. Take y 48 a.m. tram lo Frankstoii or meet 10.45 a.m. at Irank- 
ripTi stanon. Bring; one meal. 

Sunday, December 9 — Geology Group excursion. Details, at Group Mee<i|itr. 

Group Meetings: 

(8 p.m. at National Herbarium"! 

Wednesday, November 21 Microscopical Croup, Spt*kvr : Mr. A. Tctmam. 

Subject: Metallurgy. 
Wednesday. November 28 — Botany Group. Speaker: "Mr. H. Haa^e. Subject: 

"Western Australian WildfiWerV', with KodaUuume siides 
Wednesday, December 5— Geology Group, Subject- Origin oE Coral Islands. 

Speaker: Miss B. Mielsou. 

M a»»e AUAtfftEft, Incursions Sccreiarv 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 73--N0. 8 DECEMBER 6. 1956 No. 876 


Honour Conferred on Editor. — At the General Meeting on 
Monday, November 12, 1956, Mr George Co^hiH spoke in praise 
of the efforts of our Editor, Mr. N. A VVukerield, not only in his 
official capacity, but in organizing sales of the Club's publications. 
He moved that the Club confer an Honorary life Membership 
on Mr, Wakefield. This motion was earned with acclamation. 

Olympic EfTom. — Volunteers were called to help al a show at 
Prahrao, in setting up and in lecturing at trie exhibition of wild 
flowers being installed by the Hank of New South Wales, and 
in putting final touches on the nature track at the Sir Colin Mac 
ker.zie Sanctuary. 

Poisonous Australian Spiders and their Venom. — Dr. Werner's 
lecture proved most interesting. He pointed out that there ate 
many recorded instances of deaths from spider bite, both of the 
Red-backed Spider (in all slates) and of the Funnel web Spider 
(mainly in areas near Sydney), He narrated the efforts made 
and the success achieved in preparing an antivenene, and men- 
tioned that our ''red-back'" was so closely related, not only to the 
Katipo 01 New Zealand but to similar species in South Africa, 
Eurasia and North America, that antivenene effective with Hie hire 
of one gave relief with the others This had not so far proved to he 
so with the Funucl-svcb Spider, lliouyh results had been achieved 
in this case also. 

Membership- — Mr, A. 1. Burns, who first joined the Club in 
1916, is entitled to Honorary Membership. Mr. J. C. Johnston was 
admitted as Ordinary Member- Miss Flora TJnyd of Snnbiiry.and 
Mr. A, W. Rose of Kalorama. were elected a.s Country Members, 
and Brendon Wilson as a Junior. 


Mr, C Middlefon waj the speaker at the meeting; on October )7 P his subject 
being "I Humiliation — with special reference to daik ground' 1 . Mr. Middlelon 
referred to and explained the several different methods of illumination ;n 
use UK.ny, inducing the Kohter system and Nelson 1 ? critical method. He also 
mentioned the use of the Abbe condenser oiled to the slide, a method which 
was not used greatly because of its not being well known. The lecturer 
covered all phases -ol the subject very thoroughly, exhibiting several type* 
n! dark-ground condensers, ami mentioned two of the old-fashioned pieces oi 
apparatus which could well be used today, notably the "Leiberkuhn" and the 
Ipfl* ten*. 


116 The Fuianan Naturalist Vol. 73 


By N. A Wakkfield 

Thi? Satin, Bower-bird (PtUnttorhynclttts viofacetis) is widely 
distributed, particularly in the near-coastal scrubs, trotvi Cape York- 
Peninsula in Queensland to the Otway Ranges in Victoria, It i* 
not the purpose of this article to deal with the species in general. 
far much has been written about it and the outstanding attributes 
of these remarkable birds are known to most naturalists. It is in- 
tended here to comment on the occurrence o[ the species in central 
Victoria, and to put on record the story of the visit of a solitary 
bird to an eastern suburb of Melbourne in the winter of this year. 

In 1909, Ksaac Batcy wrote (Emit 7 rj) that Satin Bower -birds 
were frequent visitors, in autumn or rarly winter, to the Jackson's 
Creek area near Sunbnry. up to 1851, but that he knew of none 
there since that date. He recorded loo that the Hurst family of 
Diamond Creek (Hurstbrirlge) told him "forty years ago' that 
these birds used to visit them and attack their fruit 

In A. J , Campbell's Nests' and Eags of Afutrahan Ihrds (1901 } . 
tt is noted that flocks of about one hundred Satm Bower-bird* 
were often sevn in the Gembrook district ; but with the turn of the 
century it seems that this species has become very xmcommon \n 
central Victoria. 

In Donatd Macdonald's nature column in the Anjus of Novem- 
ber 5, 1927, R. A. Paull of "Cam Urea" on the old Monbulk road, 
reported a bower (which he referred teas a nest) in an adjoining 
paddock, and he wrote that the bird concerned visited his house 
"a coupfe of dozen times a day'' 

In 1928, F. E. Howe reported (Emn 21 : 265) that these birds 
were ''plentiful at Whittlesea some years ago' 1 but that be bad 
looked in vain for them there since. Then in 1931, Blanche Miller 
wrote {Emu SI . 14) of a solitary one which came to a garden at 
Deep Creek on the Keiior Plains, building a bower there and re- 
maining for several months. 

Last year a bower and three birds were reported to be at the 
Maroondah Dam, and from Crosbie Morrison's ''Backyard Diary* 
{/{ryus, July 27, 1956) we learn that one was about Warrandyte 
during the winter of this year. 

For the Melbourne suburban area there have apparently been 
only three occasions upon which bower birds have paid visits 
Gregory Mathews, in Birds of Australia, cites a record *"'ou the 
17th September, 1906, in the Melbourne Botanic Gardens, sup- 
posed to be the first time observed in the city". 

Ju the Melbourne B.O.C. Monthly Notts oi July 1940, W 
Hcathcotc wrote of a bower which he observed in the same gardens 
in May of that year. It appears that five of the hiids came there 
''after the 1939 fires and that one staved for some time. It built 

i>«rwniH-r-j W.Krn.i.o, AV.v.-r hini i'uit.s t/Wom<n.r 117 

the houcr (nit of llit* roofs of the Xn\ Zealand Christmas tree, ami 
decorated it round about with blue article*, flowers and cicada cases, 
Xeus ftf tin latest visitor raine U) the writer in a letter fritltl 
Stephen Kerrigan of the School uf Forestry. Crcswick. lie told u1 
the arrival of an immature male Satin Hitwer-hird ill IftJ fainiK"- 
hunifj m Kust Malvern ; nwd the- story went thu-: 

Ma.sbe he lound *ome resemblance in wilder haunts in our hiu bou I 
Mahogany (ium and massed Nhrubbery. From the first he adorned the m11-> 
uf ;i eouph* of upstairs windows, shrouded externalk h\ pilto>porunN I /'■ 
'ituiufahtm). as the stage for hi«- vocal ami c*yuma%tic taleuK 1 siy "ItV 1 ivf 
it hit* a few fiYik^ol' hlue on the rump. Ms bad Jir^t noticed ami recojjnitfed 
him and a:- soon a> 1 learnt of it I absconded ami came down home to ^ee him 
Tholi^h it way OfcQ- cold for Melbourne, I wa* out i i' bed lit vi nioiiuUtf at 
*e*en hi lock to hear and see. 

lie is a fine hie bird about a foot long and, though not satin blue, is vti \ 
beautifully coloured, the delicate greeti and white crcnuhmoo- across In- 
broad chest particularly. Already up to hi-, trick--, In- cantered up and down 
the narrow sill, Mo^vu'K to stare at the wmd"" where tin doubt he Kit? -t 
^Innpse of bmtsclt. all the time singing in great volume. 1 1 i ^ own "vuuf"! !• 
resianWc* the whirring noise of a tractor's starlet motor Hut what a mioiir! 
T heard the White-throated Treerreeper and the Kookaburra, although he 
never broke into tile full cry of the latter 

He.Mdes givmu this rolling hushlaud repertoire, he vigorously cavotls 
along the sill with his "toys" of which he has made a collection — pieces of 
hlue paper, plastic and cloth — the most amusing heme a cap off a Hiro pen 
which he sporN in bis beak like a cigar. Kver* go often he perks the window 
IV I til his strong he;*k so hunt v\ e fi*ar be will soon hrr;tl« it. There';; |)n doubt, 
we believe, ot bun notiemg his reflection, even to the point of vanity, for since 
one ot the windows was washed to >ee turn hetier. be adopted it exclusive of 
the other. 

Of course, this narrow window-sill is a poor place for a hotter — impossible ! 
The wattle-birds make constant attacks Mil Turn and the wind and rain blow 
his "toys" away. But he's there every morning still, from seven tilt ten, filling 
the house with his thrilling mimicry Vou cannot approach the window 
without frightening him, hur by watching through the crack or round the 
door when il is ajar, you see it all. 

Dad leaves out pieces of fruit for him on the sill, and uf these sliced 
banana is the favourite. Besides this though, his staple food is pwtosporum 
berries The pittosporums are in full fruit now and I suppose this is the Ujs 
ailriiitM-n We are all thrilled about bun and will lie sorry to see him go 

Cpon receipt uf thin interest inn news, contact was made with 
"t'Sui* — Mr. (j. S. iSerrigan uf -II (riant Street, East Malvern — 
who proven! to he as about the avian visuof as was his 
son; and he promptly made his house available for photographic 
and other operations, 

One Saturday morning an early excursion was nuide with snit- 
ahle equipment and a ten-mtnutr tape recut'diup, was niadc of the 
vocal performance of the hird on the window-sill. Conditions were 
perfect for tin's o]>cration, Willi an electric power-point in the room 
concerned, a corner tn which one could sit ont ot sight, and even 
a window -catch npon which to harm; the microphone. 

The result was illuminating. Most of the bird's rHVtl notes Wert 
short, loud and very harsh, sonic even icseiviblin^ the .-.uddi'ii 
screeching of u White Cockatoo. The main "performing ' call was 


Plate IV 

Window-sill Performance, with Piece of Knitting-needle. 

Approaching the Buw-er. 

^1956 er J Wakefield. /?<>:irr-/>r></ tisit.? MrHuturtic 119 

the "tractor's starter-motor"— a most apt description — this being 
rendered quite loudly and sustained, with variations, for ahuut 
twenty or thirty seconds. Outstanding amongst the mimicry was 
the call of the Kookaburra; it did hreak into the full "lnugir and 
rendered this much better than the Lyrebird usually doe.--. It gave. 
too, a half-minute imitation of the repeated whistling of the While- 
plumed Iloneyeater and a somewhat shorter rendition of the rather 
similar call of the White-throated Treecreeper. These three items 
were always done in full voice. By turning up the volume of the 
recording, one could hear quite plainly the flying calls of a party 
of Gang-gang Cockatoos and the chorus of a flock of Australian 
Ravens : these recurred several times each but were normally hardly 
audible as the performance progressed, and there were always super- 
imposed on them, without breaking their continuity. numerou> of 
the loud, har^h notes of the bower-bird itself. 

.Much of the bird's time was spent on the window-sills of the 
house next door. Xo, 43, so acquaintance was made with the neigh- 
bour. Mr. \Y. J. M. Davey, who proved to be as interested in the 
bower-bird, and in feeding it. as were the Berrigans. Moreover, his 
garden, with a great silky-oak and some acacias, as well as masses 
of large exotic shrubs, was an even more suitable habitat for the 
bushland visitor. The Dave)- house, too, was made open for natural 
historv operations. 

During August, the activities of the bird were closely observed 
from time to time. One became familiar with its natural call — a 
"clear whistle, from tenor down to base*', as it is described in Xcsts 
and Eggs of Australian Birds; this was usually alternated two or 
three times with a shorter, lower-pitched whistle. 

It was noted that the bower-bird often brought a certain piece of 
blue knitting-needle to the window-sills, and that it always took 
away scraps of blue cloth that were put out for it. Mr. Berrigan 
suggested that it must have a bower somewhere, and an unsuccess- 
ful search was made amongst the massed shrubbery which sur- 
rounds MY. Davey's garden. 

One evening, the latter gentleman reported by telephone that the 
bird had a collection of blue articles under shrubs in a central garden 
bed in front of the house. This was taken to be one of those rudi- 
mentary bowers such as females and juvenile males sometimes 
build, but when it was investigated a few days later, it proved to 
be a perfect playground — platform and bower complete. 

It was situated under a Japanese Maple and a large Pink Pearl 
rhododendron, and it was partly concealed from view by a clump of 
azaleas. The stick platform was about three feet across and the twin 
walls of erected twigs made a small but perfect arbour. Sure enough, 
it was decorated with the scraps of blue cloth, and the piece of 
knitting-needle was there too. But as well, there were two blue- 
lettered cream-bottle tops, a large piece of blue glass and one 
greenish piece, the blue-stained centre of a Biro pen. and about 

Plate V 

Vol. 73 

Location of the Bower: Under tin- large Japanese Maple. 

At the Bower. 

Decemberi WAKWIlOA Hou-cr-binl Visits Mcllwttntr 121 

twenty-four spites of the Grape Hyacinth which had been >t<»1en 
from nearby garden beds. 

Xatnrally, this spot became the centre of interest. Cameras wen- 
set up and a number of black-and-white and several colour sliot^ 
were taken of the bird at the bower. It took no notice at all of two 
cameras within three feet of the bower, and even the firing uf a 
flash-bulb did not disturb it in the slightest. However, it left the 
playground immediately anyone moved within Stgbt of it. 

Two long pneumatic releases were used, and a front rooin at Mr, 
Davey's house was the "hide", with a comfortable arm-chair from 
which to observe the bird, and with occasional cups of tea! It came 
to the bower at irregular intervals throughout the day. either to 
build .and decorate, to paint, or to perform; but it never mixed 
these operations at aiiv one visit. 

The actual decorations were of the blue articles already men- 
tioned, and this bird was interested only in the one shade of blue, 
the dee]) colour of the Grape Hvacinth. it would not touch the pale 
blue forget-me-nots in the nearby garden beds, Kxperiment was 
made by turning over and shifting the cream-bottle tops, but the 
bird immediately readjusted these exactly as it had had them origi- 
nallw ( )n one occasion it had added about a dozen silver milk-bottle 
tops to the layout — an unprecedented thing for a Satin Bower-bird 
to do, and what would be expected of its Spotted cousin — but this 
was only a temporary lapse, for the next day these were all gone 
and only the blues remained. 

The bird spent sonic time each day picking up and rearranging the 
sticks of the platform and in pushing more down amongst the erect 
walls of the passage-way. The latter was done rather forcibly each 
time, with the head held sideways and with a single strong down- 

More visits were made for the purpose of painting than for build- 
ing. This should be called "plastering", for the bird would arrive 
with its beak full of what appeared to be dark material and would 
carefully and systematically work up and down stick after stick of 
the walls of the passage-way, nibbling them with its mandibles. 
Investigation revealed that the medium used was the mastieulated 
pulp of the banana which its human hosts had so kindly provided 
for its sustenance ! 

Most remarkable of all were its performances, both on the window- 
sills and at the bower. It seemed to prefer the former, evidently 
tinder the delusion that it had an audience. It usually had something 
whitish or pale brown in its beak. A favourite article was the yellow- 
ish outside skin of an onion; it kept two such pieces at its bower. 
It might be concluded that brownish articles (such as cicada 
cases) are playthings rather than ornaments at the bowers. 

At one time it would stand high with its body arched and wings 
slightly raised, appearing quite slim; at another it would fluff out 
its feathers and droop its wings, thus appearing plump. It would 


Vul. 73 

Plate VI 

"Plastering" Sticks ->i the Bower— with Banana P«l(». 

Performance at Bower, with < )uiun Peel in Mandible* 

P rt22 b * f ] Whthpui, 3wcr-bu<i VinU Mrtbmmfe 123 

maintain either position, as if in a trance, for a minute or more at 
a lime, giving its "starier-motor" song and its mimicry. Then sud- 
denly it would erect its wings and tfance bark and forth an<J up and 
clown, uttering harsh cries, and, when at a window , vigorously pec k- 
ing Hie glass. All this was done quit* kiudlv ;'md with the beak 
t lamped on whatever plaything it had in its grasp, only B slight 
pulsating of its throat feathers indicating its vocal efforts When 
such performance's- were given without anything in the 1j*»W, this 
was still held closed, except for occasional gaping tit Ihf mandible*, 
this not being connected in any way however with the rhuhm of 
the "song", 

Sometimes the hird perched on a branch in ihe dense shrubbery 
and sang there. On these occasions some different calls were given, 
and several times a perfect imitation was heard of the cry of a fco;ifa 
In time, it became apparent that the bower-bird had a definite re- 
pertoire of calls and mimicry, and that there were at least several 
definrte sequences in which they were usually given One learned 
to recognize its three different kookaburra calls, and it was noted 
that these, rind the hnneveater and treecrecper calls, always followed 
the "starter-motor" Furthermore, the half-minute imitation of the 
White-plumed Honeyeuter did not vary, it always had exactly the 
■same pauses and runs in its sequence of notes. 

The accomplished mimicry of this Victorian bird is particularly 
interesting in view of the comment made bv A. H. Chisholm in 
1946 (Vut. ftfef, 63: 39) that "A. I Marshall has written that 
whereas in the Sydney region he rarely knew ibe Satin-bird u> be 
imitative, he found in the Macpherson Range, Queensland, that 
mimicry was quite characteristic" vocal mimicry, by "green" 
bower-birds, was noted too by Charles Bekher in 7 ft* !hrds oj the 
District of Geelotuf, Victoria; these built a playground on the limbs 
of a pine-tree, in October 1893. 

Furthermore, the Malvern bower-bird was not only a master 
mimic but also a master architect and decorator, even though it had 
not assumed its full adult plumage — the uniform blue-black of the 
old male. There were about a dozen feathers of this colour here 
and there amongst its greenish and brown plmnage, so it was 
evidently approaching its final adult stage, This indicates that it 
was probably about liye <ir six years old- 
Investigation ha* not brought to light anv reason to believe that 
this bird was, an escapee from captivity, for instance, there has 
been none at the £ir Colin Mackenzie Sanctuary for at least a 
year. Its obvious pa*t acquaintance with koala, treecreeper and 
gang-gang suggests that it came from South Gippshmd. 

In 1934, A". H. Chisholm wrote (Vut. h'at, 51 . 128) that the 
bowers "usually face north and south, with the platform (and iis 
decorations) at the northern end". At East Malvern, the platform 
and decorations were at The xnnherty end of the l>ower. It is inter- 
esting that the 1927 report from Moulnilk told oc the bowci-bird 

MA WAtc.mi.ry Bcurrhirtf Visits Melbourne [ y^ -,* ' 

pecking at window -panes, and that Donald Mzcdbnald suggested 
th r dt it was "jealously fighting its own reflection". 

Our suburban howcr-bird was reported in the A(tf in the "Mews 
of the Day" column, on September 6, 1956.. and on October IJ, 
the General Meeting of the F.N.C.V. heard the recording Of its 
vocal performance and saw several colour slides of the bird and 
its bovver. 

The final chapter in (he .story came in a letter hom Mr Davev ; 
on September 20 he wrote: 

During til* last week, he did l*P knocking on the batbrocirn window This 
was mn*L noticeable, .is since June he bad clone so muc?i at it. He ipent a Jot 
or time at the window, preening and eaniig and "fthistlincr. but not knocking. 

The '.lays gradually grew warmer and thir. may have urged him to ehun;.*e 
his habits and eventually move a Way. The COQdftfafl of the bower deteriorated 
a httle, and on the Thursday we raw him working at it for a short time, U 
did not took much unproved, however 

On the Saturday morning (September 15) it was bt fair condition, ttfi 
seemed unusually triendly that morning. fmO bpent <i couple vi hours on the 
western window-sill, ffivhtc a fine performance there, i was working in th-. 
Garden quite near god he took tittle notice oi me. He was on the window at 
2 p.m. when I left borne. At about 3 p.m. Mts. T>avey, who was sitting in 
thf garden, beard him jrivp two picruiig r<dls hut did tint see htm PfCjP 
that moment we have seer, or heard nncbmR of him. 

As 1 heard nothing from him on Sunday morning I looked nt the bower 
and found it almost flattened. Only a few of the heavier .sliekr. were r.umdmg. 

T am hopjng that no barm came to Mflfi Sttfii shall look forward to finding 
Imn in our garden again some future day. 


"Ry Or n, t.c Snutr. Tllaireowrie 

When the first Victorian race of tlic- snull -Skipper Hcspcriita crypsar&yrj 
was found in the Oramp'ius ill 1^ r >0, n was at oncy though i that there would 
probably be .in intermediate race in eastern Victoria. 

When invoking the KpCcies of ft* food pfafrfl Ywtli J. H. Willis id the 
National Herbarium, it was surprising to find that the i>aw-sed&e, Cah*\w 
micfo.stachh, had not before been recorded from this locality despite the fact 
ih.n it urows in piofusion along the Mt. Wiiliatn Hack. However, it had been 
recorded by H.iron von Mueller in Gipiwfand. 

it. 10S4, a.txnmija.*.iii d by my fftft Nicolas, 1 Visjttd the J&&golOtl£ area 
in search of this jtetcfi of Saw-sed^e. After two days.' searching, wc eventually 
fonnd it on a Jimc used forest access track about twenty miles from BrtaaSv 
lutiff, Kei« Nicolas netted a male and we took several larvae On a litter visit 
he took a female and we netted several more males Their number* were 
very limited 

On a recent visit to Mr. N". R. Tinrkle at 1he. M/iith Australian Museum, it 
Tyaj with some interest rliat we checked the series front Gipp&land with ihotc 
from the Grampians and the Blue Mountains. TtiW study confirmed the theory 
earlier nut forward by Mr. Tituble, in his paper in the /cV<v>rrf.< aj thr $<A. 
Must jrtjj, thnt the Gip^s'land *$©e would be more closely allied to ibe N.S.W. 
race licsfierUh trypiarijyro crypsaroym than to the western race H. cryp- 

An interesting ieature is that, while the Blue Mountains race is found above- 
2,GQ0 feet autr the Grampians one between IfiOO aiH 2,\Wl »>et. the Gtppsland 
specimens were taken, at ajri wUitude of beiwecJi ?00 and 400 feet. 

December"] ^ rjcfoHat! \afuralist US 


fix. ]. H. \\ ii. i. is, National Herbarium of Victoria 

Bibbya 7, //. Willis; 

genu> novum austrn-alpinum a Paefylnia X\l. prnximum 
ditTert sporis aeicularibus nmltiseptatis ( spuria DactyliuiC 
unicellulares globosa- vel ellipsoidea- ) . 

Thallus fruticosus. aliquanto radiatus. sparse et irregularitor ramosus [in 
specie unica usque ad 15 mm. altus, glaber, infra ncbraceus, Mipra amhusto- 
brunnescens nitens. pulvinos madrepnnformes vel sub-cerebriformes usque 
ad 10 cm. in latitudine formans. inter musens alpinos — pnecipue Andre<cw 
species — seetis rupes erescens]. Rami late teres, cavernosi, dactyliformes, 
sursum insigniter et irregularitcr inflati, cmiferti ; apices perobttisi ( sub- 
orbiculati). -sparse pcrtusi. Cortex crassus (50-150 mic. ), bypbis ad super 
ficiein perpendiculatis gelifactus. Medulla alba, ex liypliis laxe intertextis 
et irregulariter ramosis (quisque 2-4 mic, diam. ) coiiMstens, centrum 
excavatum relinquens. Apotheeia terminalia. discuidea lecannroidea, rotunda 
vel distorta [in specie unica usque ad 4 mm. lata, subnigra, hypotlicciu bet? 
brimne(i|. amphitbecio mani teste fnrmato sed paratbecio siibnullo. Asci 
clavato-cylindrati, usque ad 70 mic. lnngi. apice obtusi obnubilantes. 
Ascosf>or<c multiseptata?. byalina-, obtuse virgifnrmes [in specie unica 35-40 
X 3 mic.]. 

Hospes algcnsis protococcnideus. 

GENOTYPUS: B. muelleri (V. R, M. Wilson) combinatio nova- 
species unica. 
[Sipjmfr muellen F. R. M. Wilsun in t'iet. Xat. 6: 1/9 (Apr. 1890)]. 

SITUS: Victoria — Mt. Hotbam. inter muscos ad rupes subalpinas alt. 
6000' (F. R. M. Wilson, 17 Jan. 1890— HOLOTYPUS infertilis in MEL) ; 
Bogong Higb Plains, "in cracks of granitic rocks at beads of Middle 
Creek", circ. 5500' (H. T, Clifford 26 Jan. 1948— MEL) ; Mt. Stirling, 
"on granite boulders of eastern scarp", circ. 5600' (J. II. Willis, 8 Mar. 
1953— MEL). 

BIBBYA MIELLERI (F. R. M. Wilson) J. II. Willis 

Thallus fruticosc, to 15 nun. high, sparingly and irregularly 
hranched. somewhat radiate, smooth and polished, ochraceous 
beneath, shiny and becoming scorched brown above, forming stone- 
coral -like or rather brain-like cushions (to 10 cm. in extent) 
which grow amongst and upon alpine mosses — chiefly Andrccca 
species — on rock surfaces. Branches broadly terete, hollow, finger- 
like, curiously and irregularly inflated upwards, densely compacted; 
apices very obtuse and rounded, bearing a few large pits. Cortex 
thick (0 05-015 mm.), gelified, with hypha? perpendicular to the 
surface. Medulla white, of rather loosely interwoven and irregularly 
branched hyplue ( 2-4 mic. diameter ) , leaving the centre hollow ; 
K — , C — . Apotheeia terminal, discoid and leeanorine, round or 
variously distorted, up to 4 mm. wide, almost black, with bright 
brownish hypothecium ; amphitheeium well -developed, but prac- 


Vol. 75 

Plate VII. 


* * . ■■£■♦ 

* * 







-Photo.: H. 

T. Reeves 

5/W;y mucllcri (F. R. M. Wilson) J. H. Willis 

(Parts of three fertile colonies: lower from Mt. Stirling, in plan and elevation; 

upper from Bogong High Plains, the white patches indicating interiors of hollow 

branches eaten off by some animal) 



Wili is V<?i«j Genus 0/ Alpote Ltchan 


lically no parathecinm. 4id clavatc eylmdric, to 07 mm. long, 
darker toward rhe rounded apex Ascospmcs mnltiseptate, hyaline. 
rod shaped, with hhmtish extremities, 35 40 X 1 m;r .1/r/rtf httft 


Mtcr die clcath> gf Rlv F. R M Wilson in 1\*03 and R. A. 
Rastow hi 1920. there was no one in Victoria with a good working 
knowledge 01 the lichen flora. About 1940 the late I 1 , Bibby look 
up the study of these fascinating, if neglected, plants, and in thtr 
course of a lew ycar> he became the only lichen authority anil 
informant of Australia, corresponding regularly with experts in 
Europe and America, His untimely death year was a sad Mow 
to lichenology. One or his most intriguing problems was the rruc 

nature of a tare alpine specie* 
which Rev. Wilson had found 
on Mt. Tfniham m January 
1890 ; the specimen was barren, 
hut Three months later Wilson 
described ii a.s Sipfmla inuciteri- 
No other collections came to 
Ifeht for 5y years: dien, while 
Bibby and H. T. ClifiVd were 
botanizing together on tbf 
Rogwng High Plains (Jan. 
194SJ, tht Utter botanist was 
fortunate enough |i> rediscover 
Sipfmh wifrH'M'i — in quantity and in fruit! The oresenr writer edso 
located material with fruiting bodies on granitic boulders at Mt. 
Stirling, March I953. On Marcli 19, 3951, Bihby sent specimens 
ro the world authority on Antarctic lichens, Dr. Carrol W. Dodge 
of Missouri, who announced (1/6/1953) that a new genus oi 
I'MettctUr was involved; he pointed out the differences from other 
genera in this family and suggested that Bibby SjO ahead with 
its forma! description. Unfortunately, publication had not been 
made up ro the time of Bibby '5 death, and I do not even know 
what he intended to call it. With Dr. Dodge's approval, 1 now 
bestow on it The surname of my late friend and colleague -a?, a 
permanent, fitting in bate to one who did so much toward the 
elucidation of Australian lichens and hepatics. 

Ribbya is hfo&t closely related to the boreal Dactyhna- Nyl. which 
displays a similar madreponform, hollowed thallus with Iecanorinc 
apolhecia, but ihe (after has much smaller, unicellular, spherical to 
elbp.soid spores. Endocewa informis Cromb. of Patagonia also has 
a. dwarf, fruricose, radiate and somewhat hollowed ttiallus. but the 
< is chalk}' and fruitmg body unknown, $i$ktil& 4 shtf genus 
under which Wilson described B. muelferi, is not known in the 
mmmg condition and all species have a solid thalluv 

128 Wiu.c*. Nar CtiM of «W#ift Lichens 

v» lit 

On the <ypc sheer of B mueifen in Melbourne Herbarium some- 
one had pencilled "Dujourca madre^oriformisf', and this collection 
had been j>lace<l in the Dajourca folder. D Tnndreponfvnnis 
(Wiilf.) Ach. occurs on the alps of Europe and North America, 
and is really referable to Dxclytitur madrepoyiformis Tuck. (Jl#66). 
^ift'ormg ftooi BibOya in ics much thinner branches and unicellular 
ellipsoid Sp0f&3 (7-10 x 3-4 mic). The new genus is almasc pfer* 
tainly Of Antarctic origin and «ts occurrence might he anticipated 
in Tasmania, New Zealand and Fuegia. 


By ). K. Garmst 

Ow OttobeT 25, 395C\ the National Park*. Bill was tossed by the Victoria*! 
Parliament With its passage has etiderl a phase of the long campaign, com 
iwmced many years ago by the Field Naturalist*' Club of Victoria ami con- 
tUiMCd unremittingly by the Club and associated mx&uizaiious — a campaign 
Stir a better deal 1or our national parks, for the conservation of nature and 
natural resources. 

We use the term "ptuifc^ 1 advisedly because an Act oE Parliament, o-t itself, 
can only provide the machinery for establishing WIT nature conservation areas 
ou a satisfactory oasis. The real jab remains yet 3ts a task (or die future, ami 
naturalists 'throughout the Sute -will assuredly be called upon to help make 
the new Act a workable instrument. By reason of their acquaintance with 
the natural history of the Slate, its geology and physiography, the ecological 
associations of its flora and fauna, its scenic places and ttyttti of peculiar 
scientific interest, naturalists can contribute a fund of knowledge which 
should be of inestimable value to thr^e who are to be appointed lo carry out 
the provisions of the Act. 

The debates in Parliament on the Bill tended to confirm an opinion already 
belli by some naturalists, that the F.N.CA* hits been far too modest about th? 
remarkable contribution it has made to the cause of nature conservation. 
Perhaps many of the present-Hay members of the Club, as well a* parliamen- 
tarians, are unaware that Victoria owes lo the F.N.CV. the very existence 
0$ the majority of our national parks, The long struggle lo have Wilson's 
Promontory reserved ts recorded in early volume* of the Victcnan Naht'iUist. 
hut the journal has given little prominence to the representation? by natural- 
ists and ihe subsequent negcrttaitons which led to the proclamation Of W>v et ** 
feld r Lakes, Lind. Alfred. Wtin^aa Inlet and Mallacoota Inlet as. well as 
numerous other important nature reserves. 

Despite the growth f population and the steady development of eeononu 
rally utilhtable natural resources, there .still remain areas which should b< 
brought within the .imbii of the National Parks Act All naturalists should he 
alert to see that such areas are not overlooked when the Authority corn 
-meiices a task which it surety will undertake at an early date — a survey of 
the State to determine where new national parks should be established. 

The Act is recognized as an experimental measure, and it remains to be 
seen how effective its administration will be Much will depoul on the amount 
of. money the Government wilt be prepared to set aside for the- work (there 
is no statutory appropriation?) and on the calibre of the individuals chosen 
to serve on the National Parks Authority. The Act contain* only fifteen 
clauses but the provisions are suck that its administration should prove- to be 
reasonably flexible. Sonic of the clauses warrant comment «o that members 
of thc'Cluh will be able to appreciate 1he rroblems which will confront the 
new Authority. 

Docm^rj ftw**, #fl*fs«r/ Par** ^.*> 120 

Cfaus? S inuievUes ihM the Premier oi Victoria will be the Mimitef adiririfll 
sirring the Act. (he objects of which arc to: 

<a) provide for the establishment <ai;ti control of national parks, 

\bi protcri and preserve indigenous platu and animal wild lite and features 

of special scenic scientific or historical interest in natto:tal parka; 
-•' i maintain the existing environment of national jvarks ; 

<ilj provide ior the education and enjoyment oi visitors lo national jiarks 

and to encourage and control such visitors. 

Clause 4 provides Sot the creation 01 the office Or OireclOr -j1 National P»rks 
who is ro Le 1hc executive officer of the National Parks Authority. 

Chtus,,' $ lay? down the constitution of the National Park\ Authority, which 
\i to consist of the Premier or his Ministerial delegate as chairman and ten 
members, meiudmg Ihv Director, the* Secretary \Ui C-*llds or his nominee, the 
Secretary of the Public Works Department or his nominee, the Chairman 
of rhc Forests Commission or his nominee, the. Chairman of the Soil Comer 
vation Authority or Ins nominee, the Director of Fisheries and Oamc. a repre- 
sentative of the Victorian Tourist Bureau, a representative of the Victorian 
Slq Association, a lepresei. relive ot orqumsotiutts concerned with the pro- 
tection of fauna and flora ami a representative of psrsous haying a special 
interest in national parks— Hie last three being honorary, triennial annul- 
ments by the Governor in Council 

Some curi'-^itv -may he amused hy the indu-Out of a representative of ihe 
Victorian Ski Association — particularly when it is understood that none o\ 
the estftltUJ national pari.*- eonhiins m ju-fields in whfl h ski organizations 
are interested. Indeed, such or?aj:i;:aiior.s have sbdwrf little evidence of their 
concern tor the welfare of our natioiml park; or with n«U«'e rjgijj^wrttou 
movements Ttie Member for Bcnairbra, -Mr. T Mitchell, a man ty<sH known 
in *Ui*ing circles, was responsible, for the inclusion af Irje Association. The 
Government wab forced to accept the amendment which desifc':ia:cri tbii body 
to the exclusion of a more appropriate representative. The Government "was 
faced with the- alternative 01 acccpUukc or dropping the Hill altogether to 
avoid defeat. Those who listened to the committee Stage debate itt the Legis- 
lative Assembly can scarcely have failed to he surprised that one so prone to 
utter foolish speeches could exert so much influence in the House- 
Several organizations much more intimately concerned with our national 
narks potfld have furnished a more acceptable representative pu the Authority 
Out even had thev desired it they had no spokesman in Parliament to urge 
their cauxo. The F.N 7 CA ; . ( in fact, wa« sirongly op|vosed to private clubs and 
societies bfiiiK designated in the Act and its views were made known to all 
Member* of Parliament. 

As Vvtll as providing, for the constitution of the Authority the same 
Clause 5 emjiuwers it, a? a body corporate, to acquire, hold and dispone of 
property. From this it May be Inferred that the Authority, as time goe$ on 
will function a< the Victorian counterpart of the British N;ituie Conservancy, 
wli id ( ix able K) acquire, by purchase or through gift sites and object* of 
peculiar scientific interest and importance which are held ill private control- 

Ciiiutr- " i i J 'declarer ys national parks, thirteen areas hstevl in an appended 
schedule. The Authority thus will assume immediate control of a ji amber of 
our important nature conservation reserves. The thirteen parks are: Wyper- 
(eld, Kinglatee. Fern Tree Gully, Wilton"* _Promoiuory, Mown Buffalo, 
Lafces (Sperm Whale Head) L»nd (Euchre Creek Valley), Affn-d (Mount 
Drumnier). Wingan Inlet, Mullacoota Inlet, Tarn Valley, Bu]»ra and 

Cfcjifja 7 ;2} permits, the Governor ut Council (in effect, the Government) 
on the rtcommeudation of the Authority to irnpnee, revoke, amend or vary 
Londitiuns. reUiictioiii and reservatiooj of the terms oi dedication of any 
uationil park This proWsiou appears to have hec-n intjuderl to leaic the wuy 


Gburifttr. Nn&fflti Ftei< Hfl L vol. u 

open for the creation ol national paiks '** rt*e^3 where is contemplated cou- 
litniaiive ot iome measure of economic exploitation already in operation — 
timber-logging, ior exanip'e. 

U is UttblDtfy that the Forests Commission would ever ng-icv to lhc incnr- 
po ration oi. s^y, the Grampian* into our national park system unless it 
could he assured ot the continuity ot its right to Utilize the timber rtSQUfCeS 
o( these mountain**. TN State Rivet'i Commission, also, would expect to 
retain its own measure pi control ot the region as a water catolipieni rcsccv. 

Chiuf? 7 id) pnoviiles for the classification of national parks. From tins 
we may iuicr th£l tht Aut'tioiits can recommend ihc rrpafinn of «>rip.t.ial- 
Iturrnisv rc^erv^s sjcIi as fauna or wildflower sanctuaries, icenie reserves. 
national rnonumentr., and so on. This one can envisage WetTiuee Gorg,e being 
declared a ivnional nark rind classified as a National Geological Monument. 
A system ot classification of nature reserves has been developed and is becom- 
ing internationally recognizee'. Doubtless the Authority will be influenced by 
this, when r^CbmrnciKUTig lite classification of rotr national parks. 

Clause 7 {4) is ot particular importance became it provider that each and 
every uauutut! nark, additional tu those at preseuc scheduled in the Act, can 
be declared a<; national park? only or. the authority of l^arb'ament. in other 
words, new national parks will come into being only by Act of Parliament. 
Once, declared they com* under the complete control ot ibe National Parks 
Anihoriry as picvided in Clause ^. 9 fa) is worth quoting : '*lt shalt be the duty of the Authority unless 
Snrodsiotent with any special purpose Tor which a national park has been 
proclataicd, to maintain every national tfark in its nauiraf condition ft^cl to 
conserve therein ecological association and species oi native pla-Us and 
animals and protect the Riitxial feature* uf the park and Ml far as y.racticablc 
lo exterminate exotic plants and animals therein." 

This clause should be read in conjunction wstli 7 (2).„ 7 (3) and, possibly. 
12 v4t«n it bee/nites evident that the obligation to maintain a national park 
in its natural condition will app!y only to the extent dictated by the "con 
dirions, restrictions and reservaliims" rnentMiued in Clause. 7 (2) or by the 
classification of the park a* determined under Clause 7 (3) Those interested 
in nature conservation niay need CO remain waiclii'ul to >ee tlvat their iuterorc 
ration of tlte sj»i/it of the Act is kept well to the fore. 

Clause 10 provides that no mining lease, or licence shall operate in any 
national park except with the rnnseiu of the Authority This provision is 
likely to have considerable value in view of recent trends in tnincralc^ical 

l.'nder C'Umse U the system oi management of national parks by honorary' 
committees i$ regained and honorary committees may lie retained or appointed 
Ul the discretion of rhe Aiirhnniy. Ifowevpr. all >urh nnmmttteps will ester- 
ase only such powers ait are delegated to it by the Authority lo whom they 
will be responsible. 

CUwsc 1 3 established a ^ptcial National I'arks Fund into wliich will be 
paid all moneys received in one way or another by the Authority— including 
the Parliamentary- appropriation — and from whirh its administrative expenses 
will be paid. The Authority, by the way, will be open to receive pifts aiiJ 
bequests ! 

Such, in essence, is the substance of Victoria's National F-^rks Act. The 
field Naturalists' Club of Victoria will express the thoughts or nil naturalists, 
conservators and nature-lovers when it records its appreciation >A The interest 
displayed by the Government in sponsoring the Bill and the spirit of to 
operation displayed by *il parties, in permiUin^ the measure to he debated £U1 
■loo party nuee There is geud reason, tCKK 10 be grateful to the Premier, Mr. 
Henry Holtc. "for ihc part he persouatlv played in brwjET>ti£ the Bill into beriifi 
Despite its sliotrcoming.s and obvious omissions there is now some hope that. 
<t last, there Is the prospect of a better deal for Victoria "s National Parka *ud 
tor nature con scroti on generally. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

VoL 73— No. 9 DECEMBER 6, 1956^ No. 877 


By Bryan Ganukvia* 

Material recently collected for a list of paper* on the history oi medicine 
in Australia' included a number of artirles in tin* field of natural history- 
Most nE were ultimately excluded Irom the finished work. However, 
as 1 am aware of no reference list of historical papers m tills field it seemed 
that there might be some value in their puhli nation. I know that the list mu?l 
be incomplete. I would be most grateful to learn of omissions.^ which I would 
undertake to collate and publish as a supplement, In particular T would 
appreciate notification nf any papers which have a bearing on the medical 
history of Australia. Far the pa5t two years an effort has been made to collect 
reprints or journal issues relevant to this study in the Museum of Medina! 
History, Medical Society of Victoria, and 1 am anxious that the resultant 
iiltJi and indexes should form as exhaustive a rtierenct work as possible 

The list which follows is limited to historical articles publish p.d in historical 
journal* in Austral*.!. Separate publications, contributions to overseas journal* 
and newspaper and popular periodical articles have been excluded. Some 
papers listed in the major work" are included here when they are concerned 
predominantly with natural history or an acknowledged naturalist. Althouglt 
rare lus been taken to ensure that the references are accurate, I regret ihar 
u eriraplete revision of each entry has not been possible 

Within these hmitatious, which arc unfortunately inevitable as far at lite 
present writer is concerned, the list is presented in the hope that it may be 
a useful cuide for research workers and librarians, and perhaps a stimulus 
to the production of a more elaborate reference work. 

-ACK NOWl in>'MTXT5 

The work of preparing a bibliography oi the history of medicine in Aus- 
tralia was made possible by a grant received from the Wellcome Foundation 
and the Victorian Branch of rhe British Medical Association. My thanks »rs 
due in particular to Dr. £. A Underwood and Dr. F. N. L. Poynter, of the 
Wellcome Historical Medical Museum and Library, for their advice Mil 
fncoitra^ement, and to the lihryries of many institutions in London. Fuller 
acknowledgment ot help received is marie in the major work. 


J Gand&V&j B. An Aunvtalfd ftibliuyrophy of thf Hinfcry .,•/ MrJvYnrv jg 
Australia, in course of publication. 


Backhouse, J, 

Giiliert L. A. "Visit of an Earry Naturalist to Victoria" Pint Nat., 1932, 
fiff- 175. [Relates to the visit oi lames Barkknusc tn Port Phillip in 


• i femora ry Curator, Museum of MctUeril ttist'iry. M< Society of Victoria. 

* Owing t*> rhe t$iibuitnm% printer*' M'd.Jtvs, »t if »ecer.$M*y rg poMiflt tJuj Jihum 
1 057 i>xue during the preceding rmuilh. 


132 Gak&evia, Natural fhsiory hi Australia L^ok 73 

Bancroft. J. 

Derrick, E, H. "The Bancroft Oration : The Spirit of Re search". jlf<?jf- /. 
^■w(v«% 1948, 2: 621. 
Bancroft, T. L. 

Tryon, H. 'Thomas Lane Bancroft, Naturalist". Qlrf, Nat., 1934, !>: 25. 
Bedford, E. S. P. 

Crowther, W. E. L. H. "Dr. E. S. P. Bedford and his Hospital and 
Medical School of Van Diernett's Land ,r . Med. J, Australia, 1944, 2: 25. 
Bennett, G, 

Copplcsou, V. ^Thc Life and Times of Hr, George Bennett'. Med. J, 

Australia, 1955, 2: 273. 
Vifilen E. A-. ''Notable Naturalists i Dr. George Bennett", JPSrfi Nat. f 
11328, i£i 207. 
Betche, E. 

Chccl, E. "Ernest Betche: An Account of his Career", Ami, Nat,, 1947. 
11: 170. 
Blandowski, W. 

Iredaie, X.\ and Whitley, G. P. "Blandowski". Vict, Nat., 1932, 49; 90- 
Brown, R 

tCaiftoq, J. H. "Robert Brown, the Botanist''. A fir P.R.AHS,, 1907. 
( 2 ; 87. 
Considen. D. 

MacPhersou, J. ''Denis Gdilsiden, Assistant Surgeon of the First Fleet". 
MM. 7. Australia, YPJ , 2: 770. 
Crovvthcr, W. L. 

Crowthcr* W. E. L, H, "An Address; Aspects of the TJfc of a Colonial 
Surgeon: The Honourable W. L Crovvfher, f.rcs., cv^.s., Some- 
time Premier of Tasmania". Med. /. Aiistratia, 1942, 2: 283. 
Crowther, W. E. L. II. "A Naturalist'* Voyage irOm Van Diernen's l^nd 

to England". The Emu. 1937. 37: Part 1. 
C.rowfhcn W. FT. r., H. "The Development of the Guano Trade from 
Hobart Town in the Fifties and Sixties". Papers and Froc. Ko\: 
Soc. Tasmania, 1938: 213. 
Darwin, C 

Froggatt. W. W. "Charles Darwin m Australia — January 12 to March 
l.j, 1836". Aust. Naf.> 1936. 9: 180. fSoine notes on the vovage tfl 
H,M.S. denote.} 
Dixson, T. S. U'854 1932) 

Anonymous. "Biographical Notice of Dr. T. Stone Dixfou'\ Aust. Mus- 

Mag„ 1933, 5: 21. 
Dixsou was a trustee of the Australian Museum. 
French, C. 

PrescoU, Ei E. "Charles French". Vict. Nat., 1933, 50: 5?". 
Froggatt W. W. 

Fro^att, \V. VV. ft A Naturalist m Kimherlcy in 1887". slnst, Nat.. 1934. 
9: 69. [An autobiographical stttfty.l 
Gilbert, J. 

Anonymous. "Jolin Gilbert: Centenary of his Death". Aust. Mus, Mag., 
1945, J: 403- (See also. Vict. Nat.. 1945, 62: 9.) 
Gould, J 

Barrett. C. "Notable Naturalists: rohn Gould". Vict. Nat., 1928. 15 : 42. 
Chisholm. A- H. "John Gould's Stolen Birds", Vict, Nat., 1942, 58: 131. 
(See also, Vict. Nat-, 1939, 56 z 22,) 
Harvey, \V. H. 

Lucas, A. H. S. "A Pioneer Botanist ill Victoria**. Vict. NaL, 1933, 
.*?; \%. 

Haswell, W. A. 

Murray. P. D. F, "William Aitchesou Haswell H854-1925J". Aust. J. 
Sa., 1954, 17- 88. 


J CUkdkvta, Natural JItstnry in Australia 133 

HasweN becasne ihe first professor of biology in the University of Sydney 
in 1890. 
Hobsnn, 5- Ct 

Parris, H. S. From Melbourne to ! lie Murray in 1839". Vut. Na\. t 19.^0, 

66: 183 and 203. I Extracts from the diary oi Dr. H. C Hobson.l 
See also, tvenyon. A, 5., ibid., 1932, 4£\ 213; 1930, 47: 9*. 
Hopson, J. 

Barrett, C "Notable Naturalists: John Hopson". Vict. Nai.. 1928, faz 
Kershaw, J A. 

Kershaw. J. A. "Looking Backward*'. Vici. Nat<> 1943. 66, 116. [Recol- 
lections, of Melbourne in the 'eighties from at oatutahsr's viewpoint 1 
Leadbealcr. J. 

Wlnttell, M. "John t^aclbeatcr of the National Museum 1 '. Vict. Nal-, 
1944, oi*: 180. Correspondence, igjj^ 1944, o7 : 23 t 
Lewiii, J. W. 

Ff oggatt, W. W. "The First Field Naturalist in Australia". Aust. Nat.. 
\930,S, 1. 

LhoUky, J. 

MacPherson. J "The Turbulent Dr. Lhotzky", Med. J Australia, 1938, 

1: 661. 
Tredale, T. "Lhorsk/s Lament" Aust. Zoai. 1924, ji 223. 
Macleay, A. 

Walkam, A, B. ''Portrait of Alexander Madeay r \ Aust, Mus Mae/., 

1911, ?\ 328_ 
Macleay, Colonial Secretary of New South Wales from 1825 to 1836, was 
closely associated with the early history of the Australian Museum. 
Masters, G. 

A-M.T.. "Notahlc Naiiirah.sts: George Masters". Vu± Na1. t 1928, *>: J 65. 
Milligan, J. 

Reynolds, J. "Some Tasmania** Naturalists: Joseph Milligan"- The Tas. 

Mrf„ 1926, ;? (N.S.) ; 6. 
MilJigan, a .surgeon, was in Tasmania from 1829 to I860, and is noted as 
a founder of the Tasmanian Royal Society and for work in natural 

Mitchell, f: r.. 

Dalev. C, ''Major T. 1-. Mitchell, Explorer and Naturalist''. Vkt. Nat,, 

1930, 53- 113 
Mueller, F. von 

Daley, C "Baron Sir Ferdinand von Mueller, k.c.m.c;, m.&., t.r $." Vict, 

Hist. Afdff,, 1924, 10; I. 
Willis, J H. ''Ferdinand von Mueller: Nestor of Australian Bolany\ 

Ausi. J. S&, 1948, W: 136. 
Best, U. "Memories of the kindly Baron", Vict. Nttf., 1952, 68: 179. 
Rest, H. "Ferdinand von Mueller, the Man", Vict. Nat, 1?48, 65: 132. 
Campbell, W. £ "Kecol feet ions of the Baron". Vkt, jfrfe 1935, 32: 79. 

Robertson, j. G. 

Rupp, H. M. R. "An Early Victorian Botanist", Vict Nat., 1941, 5S: 30. 
Solander, F> C. 

Anonymous. "Dr. Solauder", Prvc. Ko\ Gccg. Sac , Souih Australian 
Branch, 1922. 24 \ 77 
Stanley, O. 

Chisholm, A. H. "Owen Stanley in Australia". Vut, Nat. t 1943. 60: 62 
Stirling, K. C. 

Verco, J C. "Sir Fdward Slit ling, xt., c.m.g., f.r.5., m.a., U<% (Cantab.), 
Fjt.c.s. <Eng.) ? F.R.c-5., c.m.z.s.: A Note of Appreciation". MaL J. 
Australia, 1919, 1 : 298 

L54 Gmxt>evi\, Natural History in Australia [ IffilSj^ 

Stirling was the first professor of physiology at the University of Adelaide, 
Strange, F. 

VVhittell. H. M, "Frederick Strange: a Biography" Aust. ZooL, 1947. 
11: 96. 
Stuart, G 

Daley, C. vs Charles Stuart, an Earlv Australian Botanist". luci. \ l ot . 
1935, Jfti 106, 132 and 154 
Watcrhouse. G, A. 

Waterhouse. G. A. "Some Natural History Reminiscences". Aust. Afof u 
1915. J: 98, [Deals particularly with the early history of the Natural- 
ists' Society of New South Wales." 
Weindorfer* G. 

Bergman, G. F. J. "Gustav Weindorfer: Some Biographical Notes 3 '. 
Vict. Nat 7 1955, 71 192. 
White, .?. 

MacPhersoii, J. ''Suryeou-Getterrd John White and the Surgeons of the 

First Fleet'. S'yd. Unk>. Med. /., 1928, 21: 115. 
Anderson, D. "John White : Surgeon-General to the First Fleet". Med, J. 
Australia, 1933, ./ 183, 
Woods, J. T. 

AjitmvmOus ''Notable Naturalist!?: lulian Tenison Woods". Vict. Not. 
1928, 45: 194. 


Whitley, G. P "The First Naturalists in Australia". AhsI. Mus. Mag., 

1934. 5: 209. 
Whitley, G. P. "Naturalists ol the First Fleet", dtttf. Mus. Mint., 1938, 6: 

Whitley. G. P. "Some Early Naturalists and Collectors in Australia". 

J. <V P.K.AHS., 1933, 19: 291. 
Gilbert, T* A. "Naturalist Explorers of the Australian Coasts". Vici. Nat, 

1950, 67: 49 and 77. 
freda'e, T. "Naturalists in Australia — The Frenchmen". Aust. Mus. Mao* 

1929. $: J 57. 
Gilbert. L. "Nntural.sts and Australian History 5 *, Vict. MlL 1948, 64: 

194, 217. 
Maiden, j. H. "Records of Australian Botanists (n) General (b) Now 

South Wales". J, £ P. Roy. Soc. NSW. 1908, 42~ 60; First Supplement, 

Report Aust. Assoc. Adv. Science, 1911, J3: 224; Second Supplement, 

J, &. P. Roy. Son, N.S.IV., 1921. 55: 150. 

Maiden's papers on botanists ot other states are listed in the above 

Willis, J. H. "Botanical Pioneer* ot Victoria", Vict. Nat, 1949, 66: W. 

103. 123. 
Fro^gatt, W. \V. "Field Naturalists*'. Aust, Nat.. 1916, 3: $31. 
Whitley, G. "Some Founders of Australian Fish Science". Aust. Mm; Mao., 

1948, 9 ; 242, 
Thomson. E. "The Contribution of Some Women to the Study of Botany". 

Qld. Ata, 1932. S: 34. 
Messmer. C. A. "The Biography of Robert David FiuGerald. rx.s., anJ 

Arthur James Stopps, f.i»s." Vict. Not,, 1931, 43: 231 


Abbie, A. A_ "The- History of Biology in Australia". Aust. J. Sci., 1954. 

17: L [A valuable survey touching on a variety of aspects of science in 

Australia. J 
Scott. E 'The History of Australian Science*'. Aust. J. Sci., 1939. 1: 105. 

(A useful survey of a wide field.] 

Jk iW > ] G*M>Rvr\ K'aluwl Uistcry w ftl4MiM| Ua 

(.'lelau.l, J. B. "'I'll*: Aid»;baM Watson Momoria" Lecture; The Naturalist 
n't Medicine with Particular 1-tefercnce lo Australia" Afe*£ j. AusftnJtc, 
1950, i 54ft [This oimprehensive ami well -documented survey is among 
On? beer Australian historical paper*. Fart L deals * r itli medical naturalist*, 
nutttbly John While, R Bcwn, R, Bynoc, (5, ttenuett, J. MaeGilbvray, 
the BanrrorK E. Stirling J. C. Vtreo ami A. Jeffcris Turner, amidst S 
host o( otViei references antl a brief dljcu-isioii of Hunter's examination 
of the kangaroo , Pan JT, the enninhiititw? or* the naturalist to medical 
kliuu'ledge in Australia, with particular reference to plague, antibiotic* 
aiul anthropology ; Pwrt HI, the naturalist as pathologist and clinician, 
includintr a section on veterinary pathology. An annotated bibliography ii 
a vahicnVc appendix, j 

Gunlou-Tayloi, G. 'The Debt ot Surgiral Science to Australia", Jtust ^* 
V 7, /, .V'Ht|/. 1947. 17: 75. [This admirable and well illustrated survey 
reviews not only surgery, hut physiology, zoology and allied science* a* 
well, Reference in made to specialist branches ot surgery, regional surgery 
and specific disease?, and 'he worts of a large immbci ot Australian 
surgeons is discussed. U Qewi also ftflB lirlks bcttfofct) the English Vtyi 
the Australasian Colleges, notably in connexion with natural history and 
tlie Htmtcrian Musuuni | 

Alexander, W. R. "The. History of Aiolojjy irt Western Australia : Part J, 
J3Jj«:ovenes m the 37th Cemurv" J A'jr Hist, & So- 5>t IV /tin*.. 1914. 
5. 49. 11, \79l-lS29, J Prat. AV?. &tc\ ri--!., 1915. J : S3, ill, 1*29- J &40. 
MA, 1918, .? : .?7. [Not nenlj 

Afusgrave, A, "Tlic Hi.-tory of Australian Entomological Research". Au.*L 
gfjvl, 193(9. 6: 139. [A thorough and admirabfv doaiuieniod account ol 
the subject considered m three sections: 1770-18$); lfcU-I#Sl ; l£62-F.*29. 
Among the medical men mtmtioneri arc L. Leichhardt, G. Howitt and 
J. K. F-Uey. and there arc references to iflcjiral entomology.] 

Taylor, g J-f. "Medical Entomology in Australia". Hcdfh, 1934, J2 88. 
IA short review of Australian Loulrir.mtinus and problcn>» in this fitkl ) 

Mackerras, I. M. "The Jackson Lecture: Australia's. Contribution to Insect* 
Borne Disease". Miv£ /. Awftrviib, 1948. /; 1 57, f,\n excellent review, 
dealing notably with filarial*, malaria, wroa and rickettsial infcerioiiv. 
plague, and some rare conditions, :s accompanied by a #ond bibliography 
under ^jmilar headings] 

Whitfhoufie, F. W. "The Progress and Pn's^fV. Keeds ot Oueciis'aud 
Pnlaeotuology". QtJ, ,Vj/,, IV3D, 7; 30. 

Rainbow. W 4 ' Rrief History of the Australian Museuiu". -4t»rf. Jlfli 

A/u.o., 1922, i: 167. 

Founded in 18^8 under the uarnc "LuloniaJ Musemu '. 
Etykft C. "Viity fears ot Hcieuce*'. Vict. Nat u 1931. W: 67 I Relates 

chiefly ro the Fi»-)d Naturalists* CluU the activities of which are dealt 

wt?Vi undet the beadings of related. .scieuces-J. 
WatM_.ii, i. "The Club and Zoology" Vkt. A : rt/., 1950, f*7- 70. [A Nstoncal 

revtew fi** the ^oobiyical aejcvjtrcs of the Field Natura?isti' C'?ub of 

Victoria. I 
Bafiwrd, F. G A, "The First Qua tier of a Century of the Pirld Katura1iste' 

Club of Vktona ki . t'tct. Nut.. 1906, 2$: 6.1. 

For the period 190V. 921). vec ibio , 1020, J7 : 71 ; Eor the WTtOtl *1V20- 

IMQ, tiW,. 1*^30, •?''. 39. AU three papers are by the tame author 
Daley, C "Kistor> of the Getlot.u Field Naturalists 5 Club". !'».:/, Mat,, 1945. 

•j/ ]W) 

Soe also ArhJejidum |y K Prcscott, .'rVn/., J 945. 6^" 3s3. 
W*i|lid ( J FT "A B<KOitft43 Retrospect'*- Viet, Xat. % 1950, ty «i IRelatcs 

to (lie Field Naturalist*' Club of Victoria! 
FroggaH W. W "Htslor>' oi the Field Naltmdists' SocietJci of Mew Sobtlt 

W3W. rf||/r, Nat-, 1936, 9: 169 anil 185. 

136 Ganoevia, Natural Htsiary in Aiutralta [ v c *j ^ 

Wall, L. E. "Brief History o( the T*smani*n Field Naturalist*' Club'. 

Ttis Nat. 1055, 2 (N.S-): S3. 
Halloran, A. "Presidential Address, Review of the Past Decade". Ait&h 

Zoai, \§2$ t 4: 283. [A review of lite activities of the Royal Zoological 

Society oi New South Wales.) 
Marshall, M. "The Society: The Past unci the Future". Proc. Ro\. ZwL 

Sac. NSJ'V.. October 30, 1946, p. 0. [A resume ot the history of tlic 

Society, ] 
Editorial. "Rova.1 Zoological Socjeiy of New South VVaies: Juhikc Year 

Aunt, Zaal, 3929, 5: 263. 
Wood, H W. "Svdnev Observatory: Its History and Work". Attsf. 1, Sci t 

1939. / : 189. 


Dal I. W , and Stephenson, W. "A Bibliography of the Marine Jiwcrtehrate* 

of Queensland'', Pap. Dtpt. ZooL Univ. QUI.. 1953. i : i\ 
Miller, B. E. *'The Early Years of the Victoria* Naturalist" Vict. Nat., 

1934, s; n. 

Editorial. "Science News A Century Ago"- Ansi. Mas. Afiw.. 1938, 6: 399. 

[A review of the first cataloEtie published oy the Australian Museum 

Daley, C "The History of Flora AunruHams'. I'ict Nat., 1930. 47: 113. 
Anonymous. The Australian Institute of Anatomy". AM. J Sa., 19.3Q. 

Editorial. "The Orations at the Australian Institute ol Anatomy,. Canberra" 

Health, 1933. It: 68. [Relates the history of the Unlford, MacKenzie, 

MacKay and Morrison Orations.) 
Wakefield, N. A. "Mount Uultcr's Bntfrmcal Century ". Vkt. Nat,, 1953, 

69: 156. 
Osbont, T G. R "Australian Plants Collected bv William Dam pier**. 

Aust.J. Sci., 1952. IS: 55. 
Black, R. A, "A Brief History of the Word 'Wattle' and j(fl Application to 

Australian Plants." /fur/ A'y/ , 1928, 7': 60. 
Herbert, D. A- "The Brisbane Botanic Gardens". Qld. Nat., 1952, 14: 69. 

[Their history is reviewed in some detail] 
Daley* C. "The Centenary of flie Melbourne Botanic Gardens". Vict. Nal., 

1946, 6<?: 1%. 
Iredale, T "H MS £u<f<-<K/our B&tifi dutl */wfc ftfo&, 1948, 9: 291. fA 

study of the vessel and its voyage to Tahiti (Capt. J Cook;, with refer 

ence to the work of D C. Solander.J 
Alexander. W. B, "The Earliest Descriptions of Australian Animals" 

Qld. Naturalist. 1924, 4: 107. 
Tredale, T., and Whitley. G 'The Early History of the Koala". Vict. Nat., 

1934, ST: 62. 
Harrison. I. "Historical Notes on (he Platypus* 1 , Attst. ZooL, 1923, 2: 134. 
Troughtort, E "The Kangaroo Family: Origin and Earliest Discoveries". 

Aust. Mm. Mag^ 194?, S: 17. (Kelates to early voyages o( exploration 

to Australia] 
Iredale. T., and Tioughton. E. "Captain Cook's Kanparoo*'. Ansi. ZooL, 

1925. 3: Ml. 

Sfie also Raven. H, C 7. Matttm.. 1939. 30. 50. 
Musgrave. A "Insects of Captain Cook's Expedition", Anst, Mux. Moo., 

1954, //: 232. 265, 303 
Froggatt. W. W. 4v The Destruction of Bird Life in Australia" Aust Zool. 

1917, /: 75. 
Chisholm. A- H. "An Early Victorian Bird List". Vict, Nat, 1941, 58: 71 
Copplcson. V "Shark Attacks in Australian Waters". Med. J. Australia, 

1933. 1: 449. 
Whitley, G. R. "Australian Shark Tragedies" Vxci. Nat,, 1935. 52: 195. 


By Uox c. Kkksimw 

Ak West Head a fauna typical of 'be North Coa&t is dewJoucd. It is t!ve 
faun* of all cNl>o(iod roa\t, fcut it lark* many feature:; of lhat of the exposed 
organic coast. The gastropod Mcfitttrnttt mrlawotrpyns occuis m large ?>?jjt- 
bers here, in contract to the poor development of this species on the I'.a^i 
Coast. Tn<ft alga. Hvrmosirti liprthiti, J& also a nolircahlp feature of this shore ; 
though not forming an linrmosirerum. it nevertheless provides shelter for 
miHK-rous tiuUvitljals 

The EnvH'ukvknv 

\\V*t Head is the westerly of the two rocky headlands at the mouth oi the 
Tamar Kirer North Tasmania, Further to the west, Badger Head « another 
prominent headland A map and a view of West Head from Badger Head Bay 
are Riven by Edwards (1941), who described the coast irom the Tanvr lo 
Marawab in the far north west of 'lasmania. 

The ftftorfc fUW al West Head, proceeding from the eastern or (ireen's Beach 
end, is corky and littered with llTjfC boulders. The. rock is dolertte, an ui- 
trim'vT? lava abunda.n1 in Tasmania. Ill this instance it forms a headland 
which rises- into several Ijdls ot three 10 four hundred feet high, Ine back 
share rises steep I) and is clothed »o* the most part with dense tea-tree scrub, 
Foi sottte distance the rocky shore faces cast, then ir turns to fare the north 
where there fo a levelling out so that one meet:, what appears to be a wave-cut 
platform. Thia is an unusual feature in tile dulerive, tot this tuck is highly 
resjitiirt and has not commonly funned e.Ntetsne phufoims on the rather 
yonthlul Tasmanian coast 

There art- two indentations, one of which has a "'locket' 1 beach. Finally the 
thrnehi'n: lace* to th<: west and ft backed by vertical cliffs., some a hundred 
teet in height. 

The tidal range al the Tamar is approximately seven feet six inches with a 
maximum of ten feet at sprint* tides.* Little other tidal data is available; 
however, a tide $$ii$e has recently been installed at Gecrtfe Totvit near the 
mouth of lh*- River, So far. indications are that the tide does not necessarily 
rise or ebb uniformly there. Flood waters entering the Tamar coincident rvitli 
spring tides result in abnormally hiKh tides. However; these factors are not 
applicable to West Head which is exposed to the waters aud weather oi 
Bass Strait. 

"Records of the temperature oi the sea at monthly intervals taken rt1 the 
exposed northern aspect of the headland, have been kept by the writer from 
February 27, [9bS, to January 29, 195ft The average temperature for the 
twelve tnonthr- was 14-25 degrees Centigrade, i Tabic- l.'l Climatic conditions 
durnlg the twelve months were rather mild, and it may be that the averasre 
obtained here Is a Utile higher than normal in consequence. The leuioeicauie 
was taken inshore, b*H where ito^Mble, at low tide. 

The area is one of winter rainfall with maximum winter condition.? in July 
and August, while maximum heat is generally expected in January and 
February of any year, the range of temperature is a reflection of the mutual 
cycle to be expected. Unfortunately a rigorous time-table could not be adhered 
to and hence the results have considerable shortconmtgs; however they may 
be taken as a general guide. It was loimd necessary to abandon a continuance 
of the programme for |hc time bong. 

The shore may lie clashed aj an exposed Wcky Coast experiencing con- 
siderable wave action, but it tb not oceanic, being centrally situated \i\ relation 

* liitunnatiOn by cuurtesy of the farmer Msster, Cajtl. M. J. MacKensie, 

136 Kershaw. htf/.ftktol Fotma oj Wnt 1hod % T<w. [ v {£, ; ^ 

Tapis 1— SeA Tempskatuke 

Degrees Dctjrsas 

Dare Cetuigradc Date Centigrade 

1955 195a 

27 February . .... ; . 17 2 Ortnber .. .: 12 

27 March 1& 23 Octobefc 14 

L Mav 16 5 27 November 15.5 

ft May 1? 

17 Jul>r .. ,. .... 9 1956 

7 Augiut ... 10 1 January 16,5 

4 September ,. 10-5 29 January .......... 20 

Maximum Temperature recorded 29 January 195*5 20 degrees Centigrade. 
Minimum Temperature recorded: 17 July 1955 -9 degrees Centigrade. 
Average twelve months 14.25 degree*. 

to Bass Strait, Prevailing weather is from the north-west ur south-wesi with 
Winds up to traie force. The average rainfall is in the vicinity g( twenty- five 
inches per annum; the climate is mild aim distinct from the super-humid 
climate further to the west. Easterly winds, sometimes near gales, may bring 
light ram in the early spring. In an abnormal year such as that duiiug, which 
the above temperatures were taken, easterly weather tended to predominate 
for a greatly extended period, ie&nhiop; in considerably increased rainfall and 
hunndity. Normally, greatest dedication way be expected on the shore in 
July and in January and February of any year. 

The appearance of the fauna and the urination oi the area suggest a con- 
dition midway between the exposure of the oceanic rocky roasts and the semi- 
exposed coasts to the south of Tasmania when comparisons are made with 
the. data given by Guiler (lW2a) for these coasts, The available data relating 
to the Bass Strait area has been reviewed by Bennett & Pope (1953) working 
on the exposed coasts at Victoria. 

The terminology used in this work is that adopted by Guiler (1950) in 
southern Tasmania. Most of the observations recorded were made during the 
spring and summer of 1954, but this shore has been under observation by the 
author for a number of years, and more recent notes have al*o been used. 

A site for a transect was selected about three ^tuners ol a mile from 
Green's Beach at a point where 9 reasonably wide srrcK-h of fairly level plat- 
form could be viewed. At this point the shore &g6k north and slopes gently 
into saud below mean low water spring tides. 


Suprv-httorai ■: Terrestrial coastal fauna on steeply sloping back shore. The 
scrub is the habitat of numbers of small birds, and the mollusc, Hetkiirion 
cttvleri occurs on the ground. At the edge of the platform the flora has a 
derided marine fades. 

Supra -lit {oral printfc : The platform slopes gently seaward at the site 
examined and hrnce the various zones are relatively wide, compared with 
nthcr parts of the shore. Metnraphe unifaxctQta Gray is found over some fifty 
feet, but the population is by no means dense. i\L praeiermissa May is present 
but is more plentiful at the. Green's Beach end oi the headland where there 
is probably more spray due to the rougher nature of the shoreline. Ltgxo 
'jttstraliensis Ddnd. has been observed under stones and among si dead seaweed. 

1057 J 

Ksksuaw, faurti/fa? F.vnu(t of )Vrst tfrW, Tas. I : ' 

MidH*!vraI : Initially ttte mollusc McUw>-*is:i mWflif.Wrn,.?/!? Srrtiih is dfrlt!- 
iiai:l and i> very plentiful H5T ai JeaM thirty feet. This i* not rvjjicat nf rtfhei 
Tii-.Jtuntati shores and, resembles Ihe occurrence of this mollusc in Victoria. 
]ii Tasmania, at leait irqni Bridport east, Mcitrnvritj U a relatively mi- 
huptiriani specie*, and this seems to bo irue also in Oil* far north-west and 
wwt On the parent transect il i> found over much of cbe -Oiorc, but is enly 
dominant ahovc the warn barnacle SQflB ft is accompanied by BeH&tciutn- 
ftffiirwr Lamarck rather sparsely, with Anstrocorhlni cmtjtrirtn Lamarck and 
tf, ia*«*m<mi/i7 Wood under stones. Mchnvtita may be seen in numbers on 
the surface just airtir ibe tide, ha* ebbed but Inter move under Atones,. Hfl** 
ttctilfti'ly *s Tne heat Or the sun takes «ff-ect. AustrQcoefyhft i'omiti(t(\ U well 
distributed, bul not especially plentiful, however, in one oi the entail indenta- 
tion* on ait area of flat shingle with plentiful water at &H times low on the 
shore it is vtry plentiful. The barnacle TdmcHfj JWif^w&tfCTtf (Wood) 
occurs very sparsely and most specimen? geen were dead. 

B&ntvcie r?<Jif* On the transect the barnacles occupy between iurty Stud 
fifty feet of the shore, but iVic acm<? is very variable in cunsiUwiou and 
depih a« well as in width, Th? species are Chthtwwlus (Dttj-iuitiius Da/win, 
an<j Chomacsipttrt c&lwma (Spengler) with the eroded forin of Tstrashia 
purfiffosceiis pkutiiul m more sheltered positions between TocJn;. Large 
uncrodecl specimens o$ thii latter species occur above tlte zone a£ already 
mentioned, while uneroded juveniles occur near the foot ol the mid-littural. 
The total depth occupied by the hamades on the .shore is in the vicinity of 
rune feet, Km the actual area w whn.h they are dominant is very much 1efcj>. 
In fjeiicral the zone is easy to trace airing the shore At one nomi a count of 
eleven hundred individuals of the flm two species was made to the square 
foot, but only a few feet away only one hundred were present. This is ap- 
parently due to the uneven and broken surface. On larye boulders the. 
oarnaeles tend to congregate on the south-east faces, that is. i>oi directly 
Facing the open sea. On the sewwafit side they fcre more or less isolated ; hut 
on the platform, boulder* may be covered o» the upper >urfdcc 

Below the barnacle je£no, the alga Hormosim {hiul'sti appears in gutters. 
Numerous Bcmlyicuan .ittrf Ausirm'0\'hlca seek shelter amongst the growth. 
Also observed wen: two sptcics of star-fish, one individual at the pulmouatc. 
Quihvitfhi poteflottfes Quvy & Gaimard. $'xf>Ji<iroehifuri watujeomx tredale 
& May, groups oi Mvtfiuhs pulcx Lamarck, and the anemone, itft&ixQ 
faijrfy^ (Farq.). .•h-tinui is plentiful, notab/y in poofs, bin* at t)ie southern 
end of the headland ir is sparsely distributed beneath stones, M^ontfortula 
eiajtunjrn ICeeve and Si, riujoso Quoy i' Gaimard first appear at this point, 
on the aJsrae. The limpet thia.uuiuco flaminca var, mixta Kecvv is also 
ropr.e<enteii hy a few individuals. 

PatcUa'd Zant: The limpets ate sparsely distributed and the rotk looks 
rafller barv- between the concentration of the bssfti&de? and that of &ltto* 
larwt. €t'fi(vt« SftH&l is- distributed over the exposed surface of this narrow 
"bare" area, which is soon taken tip hy patches of tiny luwacks C'iuwme- 
sifltn anil TfhacHta (uneroded) and patches of .snvaJI, liahtly j^acWed 
.ModiMus putcx. \a elsewhere cm the north c«>ast of Tasmania, .\1odt.tilns 
occurs in pure populnlions, fjut at West Head it is to sma)l patches 
perhap* a foot in extent. In Ihe West Ann ol the Tamar River it it much 
tnore expensive ant! the individuate are itftijcli larger. The ^ceateit devellop- 
ii>*ut Ol the specie;, however wa? seen ht Bndport oil the uf>rth-east sector 
of the iH-'t* toa^t wliete tli* bivalve cover* large areas of the granrtc 
bouhkrs- iind ts of "'normal" sijee. 

O^ the sides of houfdors and gutter* or [toots, Siphonsirta dienw/mtsu 
Quoy & Gaimard i? plentiful. The >ea lettuce. Ohm WIM& iS not touirnoa 

140 KtxsHAW, Inttriufal fasm of Wtst Html, Tot. [Tgj ^ 

urt the PotettcUu aliUostata (Angus) npncars h\i\ is more plentiful 
among the GflJiCd/itla. niij below. 

GoUoltttitt ?pH$* Gftltolivin cmspitnsti Vamarrk forms a thin veneer 
over the rock, making a conspicuous white zone, which is approximately 
two feet hi depth) tferw.rnlly less. It does not develop masses of tubes in this 
exposed area, but does to to some extent near (ireeu'r .Beach where the 
tubes provide some shelter (or iUo»ffortn!r,t autl other forms fcurft us the 
biVailtt KtsfHA Mtl#$h I*ifo?rek The large chUon Potur^r'h.i albida 
Blainville is present, and one specimen was taken nn the warm rubes, Potdl- 
Iflidn iilticctxtata U generally covered by the tubes, while immediately brhw 
them on the smooth rock Cclltimt uilida reappears, with tfrc addition of 
Cotutcmucit snbu>uf:<hfa (Artgas>> Sypiwrochlton vumqeowii, Atislrocovbk'a 
i-n)U(rirta t and At C'jutQnwtota ate present throu^hout- 

ffcrmosv'o bank tit (Turn,) ?)fvQiAuc F/fHiticwaU well developed below 
(the Oolf^hfi'T zone and cmnmimly has Cystofrhorn associated with ft. These 
algae sheher nutnemus ^aftropodv linnrvtiw covrrs a gond deal of the 
surface but is not continuous. It appear** to reach its maximum development 
near the worm tubes and helenv them It is ot Rome importance in sheltering 
the fauna. 

CortttHur attjtic A tvrl of coralline;, is present at the foot of Ific Mid- 
lithiral. Molluiea are plentiful and include the gast t'OfooS Dtitilhais bails Mxa 
(Tenison -Woods ), Cotnhicila luieoluttt (Lamarck), .$nl>niiw?Ja tmdnftita 
f Snfandei }, AuMrocvrhlca couenmzrata (Wood). Chtarodiloma od^ntis 
(Wood), while helow stouer. there are juvenile Faxciotarht (PleitrHploctt), 
MkrastrueO owea (Jonas). :Volvh<tfio(\y ruber (LeuCh), and the chitons, 
{.uhnoihiion clonqcttnt (BlciiMvtHe), and hrhnoradskt tfvanidv (Sowetby), 
The bivalve Kvllia australis h aUn present beneath stones when irere arc 
also- present sponges and other encrusting organisms to "which n often 
adhere*. Several small gastropods are often attached ami others; are parttv 
buried n» the debris below. The alsrae hacbot;t Otners ot the %moM forms; 
hnwever, ft h not inlrnded to discuss these here. A small crab unknown fol 
the wriLer, is also present. 

hifralittiytal Friugt: The algae appear to form a dense population ficm 
here for some distance off-shore. The t>ttt is important not only to the fauna 
it harbours, hut also to the shore as there is a noticeable deadening oi the 
wave avti'_'ii at low water. Among others PhyUo&t-'orv ivtttvsn 1a nonces!, 
but the constituent species have nut been investigated. 

Ascidians arc present but do not appear of importance. 


'I hese notes have been made while investigating the mollusca and hence. 
ti-rVr partie.ulaily to these anunaJs. The mam species appearing on the shote 
have htcn noted and gcucratly show similar feature* of orr.urence to those 
of other pai'tt of the north coast of Tasmania which have been visited 1j> the 
ainhnt Individual d»flerence» oi importance cccut, such ait that ol the 
development of MnUioUts M Rrlc!pi>rt which m&y he due to (oral condition' 
• if llic eiLV*\ron4nent. There are some aflioities with the VicUinan coast, o( 
which the mo*t noticeable is the development of McUnwrUn which here is 
the most e\ten-sivc yet seen in Tasmania. The exposure is not oceanic ami 
jacks spei.ies found only on such Stores. It is considerable, however anii 
'here is a nice #radt/i* of espoutre with eoi.sef|itent variation in cou<ritiHion 
a? the. shore is followed easterly to GrceiV? Reach. However, markedly 
sheltered conditions do not occur a* they do for example at Stanley where 
the exposure grarfes iniO a sheltered mud IUt with numerous Salinntor 
r.oiida, l>ut rhese soon give way to npen bead* conditions with usual North 
Coast beach bivalves, as at Green's Beach. 

?*S??1 kwiUAw, htti'rtidai honmt oi Ktaf Hi-ad, 7uv 141 


JSrVMrrr, J., and Pin**: K. 0. (1953). "Inlonidal Zoiuliou of the Exposed. 
Kocky Shores of Victoria, Toother with a Rearrangement of the fit#>- 
fieoftuiphtcal Provinces oi Temperate Australian Shores" .'Jim/, /. \/<?r. 
.£ ! : rcshiv»l(>r IfywmnJL 1 it): 105-159. 

EiiWAiwfc A, ft < iO^l). "The NovuVWen Cwa*l of Tasmania." fVtfJ. KtfV. 

Guu.ek i£. ft. i lUSOl "The Intcrtidal Ecology oi Tasmania," Pop. Pror. 

RflJ, iVn\ Ttafcl, /••=" J 135-201, 1%. !-!i, 
fl95ia) !he Nature of intertidal donation in Tasmania." •>/'. 

at. $ jj.(5J 

• il°52b). "Thf Marine Al&ffl of Tasmania " op tl/. S6 71-106 

. 1 195-1). "The Intertidal ZonatitHi a| Two Place* lit Southern 

Tasmania." op. W/. 88: 105-1 i SSL 
KtHsuMv, R. C, (1955a). ''Geological Observations oti the West Tamar " 
i *ct, NoL 71 (9) 338-144. Maps 1-2 ( Tan j 

<i955l>). tm n lorn, *jjfr. cii. /J (10) : 153-15(5 (FcoA 
(1955c). »W- <oncL, Dp. fiff. 7i </I> : 175-17'; (Mar) 
U°55d). "A Systematic List of the Mollusca oi Tasmania " 
Pap. Prar. R/>v. Saf, To/m.^t 289-355. 


By. \V t. Wo.uams 

Doubts mu« always . assai I Hie student uS Victoriau orcltids as Ui Hie validity 
of Tlie *|K:cie> l)\wij pnhirhifn lingers l*)iiring the |>eTio*1 l*)*K-J4 I hi nil 
the orchid on several occasions close to lite Grampians, chiefly in (be Pomona! 
area_ There, it (Via invariably .associated with large displays oi DturU pedun- 
culatti, with uti admixture" of Diurt.t mtuu{<rta. On all occasions, only one or 
two spec inton? of Diurit pnlacklhi were found. 

Ouring- i\ vi^it 10 I aire Fya.n$ in early October 1956, T again came across 
the orchid, in a £jx>t where Lhuris pedumjufota (the early, lemon-yellow form) 
wjs abundant, and where I here were also several specimens of D>urts wiocv- 
fata. One clump, consisting of five specimens, was observed, and a further 
very doubtful' specimen occurred about B quarter of a mile away. These, speci- 
iue>is could be divided mlo three groups lor purposes oli study, in the clump 
referred to there were two stems of three flowers each which were in com- 
plete agreement with published descriptions of D, pnhrhih, In the same 
clump were three atoms of two flowers each which differed i« some respects 
f/oiu tht fn^t group The lone specimen differed still Imtlier. 1 shall rotor 
to specimem in each of these three categories as A, B, and C", respectively 

Specimen A had*the general fonu;Uion of Diurii prdwtmFaUt, but was of a 
much n»orc- fioldeii yellow; the dorsal sepal *nd the labclluiu were marked 
with brown blotclK-s or sj>ots, The InU'lhim veas of the l_ypie;d >prtde sluipe, 
coming lu .i pronounced point, though not 50 Innfi or «t shandy pouileil ;U ihe 
label) um of L>. pediwcuhta, The \&\$ pl.ile had tluee raised lines, the centrpl 
one continuing as the central ridge of the tabellum proper, ;is heipt'cns in 
/> f>erfu}irn?att7. The two outer lines, however, did not remain parallel 01 
converge, as is characteristic of the last-named oichid, but diverged, a^ do 
the tiwi lines tn D uttuufalu. The labelbim ivph dittded, as is the case ill both 
O pftlmuufalit and D. u\ac\datu, into three, lobei. The two outer Lobes were 
i.+CJiticul,tte. but ppich smaller than 'hose of D pedimculaUi. The lateral sepals 
vier c parallel or slightly divergent. 

Specimen B differed in rhr following respect* : It wms lumon-ychow rather 
ih^in golden. Exceiit lor a thin streak on cither aide of the saddle ridpe of 
the label turn, it was innocent of brown markings. The labellum, though broad 
mid generally 9|>;oJe-;diaped. did not come to a point ; in fact it was slightly 

14/? \V. I.. Wiluavs, Dtstns pafachila Spiraet \>r ll$b*id ^ v oJ 7 £ * 

indented, as i* commonly the. case in /?. ttiaculatri. One flower on the '-ten 
carried hs lateral sepals parallel, as in £*, ^cdlnwwtotft; die ot«Ct carried 
them crossed, a? in /3, mar.uhta, 

Sriecimen l_" had a lip which W4& m nearly every respect Nile the lip nl 
D maculnta enlarged to about twice the normal si*c The whole orchid, 
including the backs of the lateral pfc£$Js, was faintly UHnhod With brovVn upon 
An otherwise lemon bacWg^omui The plate at the base of the VabeUum, how- 
ever, showed x somewhat indistinct central line, ai in D p#dinu:n}at<t, while 
the mam sec-bon of the middle lobe tended to spread in the horiiontat plan*: 
rathe* than to be saddle-shaped as in f) innc(tf,t1tt The lateral sejwk were 

All three specimens tarried lateral pelah (Wot lay in approximately \\*r 
tame plane. as rhe dorsal sepal (as in D. pcdunculata), hut the petals were 
more nearly orbicular (a* frl !>, moculotn) t 

If the theory that the parent* of D. pcttachiUt are in fact 0. tnocufotp- and 
P. pjihitu'titoin has as much iViondation j*$ 1 thinV, then in specimens A, B, 
atid C t we clearly had to do with three hybrids varying only hi thevr proximity 
10 one pnreut or the other- Tf any observer bftfr noted 0; patackila growing 
entirely divorced from IK paiwnuhOft and P. "WfWoA* or tins found the 
orehid in number?, then the. theory would bis weakened consideiably. 


Dr. G. B. J'ritdiaxd, well-known Melbourne geologist and former niember 
o'\ the Fteld Na-lwalnt* Club, died at h»* home m H&LWthom on AilRU»l 2, 
I9S6, and uas interred ill rhr Sprntgvale Cemetery four days later 

He was hern on October 17, IS69 a* Crravesend, Kent, England, hut whim 
he was three his father died and his mother. «kv Annie Baxter, an Australian. 
returned with het small son to her family in Victoria. He spent his early 
life in Melbourne v'berc Ik was educated at Scotch College. From there he 
went on to the Melbourne. University, but before lie had completed his 
engineering course he decided that hi*, chief interest ln> 6rj geologv and 
kindred science 1 ;. He went to Adelaide, for a year, where he did .some work 
in scknee subjects. When he retvtrned to Melbourne, he v/us given an oppoint- 
ment at the Working \fe<t v s College, now tltc Meltourne Technical School in 
chc School of Mince Department where he remained invtil his retirement in 
1934 is head of the Department. While attached to thi& College he lectured 
at the Metbmtrnt Lin versily in Dental Metallurgy and he, together with Dr. 
T. S. Hall, was icfirtg Professor of Geology at the Melbourne University 
lor three years. While lecturing at the C'lluge hi- 1dO)f nut degrees from the 
Melbourne Univcrsit> ; B.Sc. in l^/el and D.'Sc in 2911. 

Hi* association with the Reid "Naturalists Club commenced in 1902 and 
foi many years he was i won active member. On several octagons he con- 
tributed papers on geology and comJiology lo the Club's meetings and in 
1910 he published a most useful book. The Cc^io^y of M clhounu, a work 
winch, because of its value to field geologists, has become very scarce. 

Aner his retirement L>r Priuhard continued to live an active lite Me 
spent a year or two teaching parr-iimc at Trinity Grammar School Al Fpnr 
iii'.t at the beginning of the 193° 45 war he returned to hU old school. Scotch 
College, to assist teaching soence subjects, as a large immber of the young 
teachers had I Hi to joio the aTmcH Torres He remained there lor ei^ht years 
^m\ when he leSt Vie retired from teaching <.nmptetely. Through out his hffllg 
life he had worlocd oil geological survey "-. and he continued 1o do when 
rccmired ( usually tor oil search purposes) until his fatal illness. At the age 
tit 90 he commenced to compile data on the life -of his uncle. Robert Hoddle. 
Melbourne's hr$t surveyor. Hiss Irene Ptift&titrd hopes to conu^tcie this- wock- 

Dr. Prilcharri was a life memhrr of the Old Scotch Collegians Association 
and a foundation member of the Council. He was ippointed vice-president of 

*W*] OoifiMwy; Crow j/foH} P»Uh,wJ Itf 

Hie Association during- the centaury celebratiioi* of \t* col leg* He WlW 3 
member of the Americjtti Asjorialiojt at Pc'.roJeoin Occdogisn and c member 
of the Geologists Society tyt London. 

For rnOst of the ibavtf uifortoatkm 1 aflfi indebted to Miss JrwiE Prif chard. 

— D J Oivk;.^n 

Mr Fred Lewis, J.P., Vice-President nf the Field Nalurah*?* Club of 
Victoria, whose death occurred on August 7, 3956. was a mrti who ifctU he 
sadly nursed by ail who kiK-w him and by many other? to whom In- was 
perhaps but a nam*. His long and active association with nature con*cr\i;iiun 
mave-roetm ha? {mured for him a pUce in the memory ci Australian 
rtatorslKtv and * special place Ifl the hearty of F.N C V, mciuberv 

In tTOS nc iohiod the State Government Service as ".in oftiucr of iJic 
Fisheries and Gfcinc Section of tnc Pons and Harbours Department Plirij 
when the Section became u separate oflkr in l°-lO, transferred to what flien 
became the Fisheries and Game Department Of the latter he became ihe 
Acting Head in *VH 10 1 9^4, at the age of 42, he hetamc Chief Inspector o) 
Fisheries and Game and permanent head of the Department, an office which 
lie held with distinction unci) hw retirement in 19*1/. 

It was as the TDeriartnieuffi- Chief Inspector that Mr. Lewis became Known 
and respected alike by naturalists, conservators, sportsmen. professional 
rufcermcu and bests oil other* throughout the Stale and br>ond >*:► borders. 
His strong influence in shaping the policy of his Department \% reflect od in 
its jj/vsent hiyh status and in thr scientific approach o{ it* offtcers to the 
problems of nature conservation and the protection of the wiblHfe with which 
it has to deal 

He was never content to make a decision without the justification of laclSi 
and it wa? this trait that kad him to undertake investigations of great bJjti- 
logical importance. Thus, rather than accede to the demands of » voCw 
group that tome animal should be added or removed from the list of ptnOxtc\l 
sperie$, he preferred to investigate first the biological implications and then, 
from the facts gleaned in the held, to determine a course of action. Such work 
took him to almost every part of the State, and the rirat-hand knowledge of 
out indigenous fauna so obtained has been a notable contiibntion IV> our 
knowledge oi the natural history of & number of them One need mention only 
the Koala, Mutton Bird, Lowan, Lyrebird and Seal to recall such work 
published by hint as official Government Reports or as papers and articles 
in such journals as the iVfo/«m Natuuttist, the fimii and Wild Life. His 
most publicly recognised achievement was m the ste)is he took to ensure the 
preservation oi the Koala which, by 1911), had become almost extinct in this 
St8l< Thanlts largely to Fred Lewi* the animal is now nnnly rc-cstabh-hed 
in safe sanctuary. 

lie did splendid work too in having marram grns«. plrmrcd at Cape 
vVoolamai, over thirLy years ago, when serious sand drift? threatened to 
d<-stvu> tltc mutton bird rookeries there-. Through this timely action the whok 
a fen wa> saved and there arc more birds breeding there now thai) there were 
at the beginning of the century, 

Jt was inevitable *}19$ a man ot his Quality and sympathies should, op his 
retirement, seek to maintain ftfc interest in the conservation Ot oor native 
fauna and flora, In 1948 he joined the Fielij Naturalists Club, a body with 
which, ju his ollficial tapaeity, he had always enjoyed amicable reUuVms. In 
rim following year Iw was elected Vice-President, and k'roin April 1951 to 
J Line 1955 was ihe Clubs Honorary Secretary, an office he held with dis- 
tinction. He represented Ihe Club o\\ several important deputations 10 Minis- 
ters of the Crown on occasions when matters affecting national parses and 
nature protection were discussed. He was the Club's delegate to the Victorian 

ta OmrgARV Fnd Lrtms. IS? i*0# f*«nt*f 

National Parks Association, of which body be was a foundation member oi 
Council Ris association Vrjttt Our national parks, wildlife ttlfctv& and tautta 
^actuaries was intimate and of many years standing. And at the lime of iris 
ireath he was a member of the Committee of Management of inc. Spernt 
Whale HwJ (Lakes) National Park. 

He w&3 a good ' mixer", a courteous and friendly man who seemed peren- 
niaHy yo»mig\ fWntflg bis recreation; way iiliologiapby, and in this lie ex- 
celled Ffu black-and-white studies oi native animals were a notable feature 
Of Melbourne photographic exnchi linns, while bis Cine and colour ritnu of 
mature were a delight lo sec. The K.te.CV "lias reason to remember gratefully 
a number o* his. nature tUk% wlu'cli invariably were illustrated by 5-ucu Mm*. 

— ), R. GaNVKT 

frank Alexander Cudrnore was elected lo K.N.C.V. Membership in May, 
1V1X according to an eavly membership, list kittled a* * supplement for the 
April 1913 issue of the Victorian Naturalist. He was elected to the Committee 
in luly 3924 and served for one year; he way nominated for committee lor 
the »eNt year b'»l not elected, and as far as I know lie diet not s**rve the- CJuh 
mi any other cmvial ranaoty . luring his long niemli^rNliip, 

Frank, as he was known to all his Jriends, was never really happy in the 
minSt of thing's, hung much more at home behind the scenes dointf llic 
necessary woik quietly and well and taking a delight in Ihe fobs lhat 
demanded much more patience than is Riven to the average individual. TTis 
close association with the Royal Society of Victoria as their Honorary 
Librarian and hta position as Honorary F'alacoiuolofcjst to the National 
Museum were just suited to his temperament, and masiy year* of careful work 
mi both positions saved for the {titans much valuable literature and fossil 
records. As a fine time Assistant Librarian "working under him ar the Royal 
Society, I remember well there were no short cirts allowed in Ihe standard 
practice he laid down. 

Very earl* in hi? life he slnnved a great interest En collecting fossil <>i all 
sorb. He later specialised in the Australian Tertiary forms and amassed an 
enormous col lection nf Tertiary marine, items from almost every known 
locality. He travelled far and wide in Ins search end on otie occasion made 
an csTtraonJinacy trip by boat down the Murray River collecting from the 
cliff sections and landing wherever possible to search further inland. Everv 
sfieeimeit to him was worth care and proper a Mention and his accuracy in 
recording localities was second to none, so that the Cudmore collection soon 
t>ecante known tor its wealth of material and perfect record. 

1 remember well his technique of ptuimuj plaster of |»ari* into hollow 
specimen* (hat came to light when collecting- in In* nine clays of Balcombe 
Day. then the cutting out oi a solid block oi material For later development 
at home Ry this means he was able 10 obtain ?ood examples of very thin 
r*cttirnxlenm frequently with opines \n place, something not possible by the 
collecting methods usually employed. I remember too liis method of driving 
iron spikes into cliff rices at Torquay, Victoria, and his clwuh-injf up them 
to reach a grood ipecimen or a convenient ledge to work from There were 
rn» short cmis tike» and care in collecting was instilled in all who were with 
hi in at the lime. 

His vast Tertiary collections were housed in beautifully built cabinet*, it 
beim: felt thai nothing makeshift was worthy of holding those wonderful 
relics of past day*. Some years ago the whole collection in thc*e cabinets 
was transferred to the National Museum. Melbourne, whete they now remain 
as a iitoo'uneiU to a great worker ;1n ^ a source of icsrareh mafenal on ihe 
Victorian Tertiaiy deposits that will never lie excelled. 

As librarian to the Royal SDciet> he noted current literature 3nd brought 
important items before fellow worker* and it was mi doing, such things ittat 

1 bt-lieve he was happiest. It was difficult to persuade htm to write anything 
aivl almost as difficult to get him to talk to an audience- He was no* happy 
even in collaboration and I feel >ure we are the poorer in knowledge for 
fix*, introspective attitude. 

Probably iJot many present members oi the F.N.C.V, know that Frank 
Cud more did much in his quiet way to further die Club's interests, and 
in$ny h clue to an imporunt item of Natural History knowledge came to me 
as "Huiiwary Secretary from htm, For instance he told of experiences with 
Wed^c-tailcd iiagks on sheep stations, that give us some goad points in a 
"Slvnjt the Eagles Campaign" we ft* a Club were fighting. 

Ill lv.:;ilth c^nte upon him and The loss, of his wife marie a great d'dfercitce 
to h'i social activities which, at the best. Were never very prominent, and 
gradually he withdrew fioru lib earlier w^ociations and jo recent years, rme 
Heard o; him only at odd time*. He was a irequcut visitor to my home and 
he enjoyed the company of the naturalists who uathered thtre. He felt the 
fireak-iip ot this association a great deal and t think here \vc saw the real 
nun more closely — a kindly person, ir.teremcd in \atutal History beyoivJ 
his fossils and able to take part in the conversation, adding his fjuota of 
items of intcfeftt. 

Ta we h« passing means that one more of the old school ;iatur*h>ts faafl 
Roue, and such do not seem to develop $o readily nowadays, Vale Frank 
Cudnirro — a goad friend and a <*ood fossil hunter! 

Following arc it«ns written by F. A Cudniore t md published in the 

1924 Vol. 41, r.. 346 ('Report op the) Kxcersion lo Moru'mgton, 
}926 Vol. 42, p, 232 A Complete Coral Jnm <w Yhtji\\nt,strnCii wr<t, Duncan. 
I i lust, 

)92<i Vol. 43. p» 78 Extinct verfthrftien from feandwrf* 
192& Vol. 45, p. J32 FosSi) Collection ( Rcpori r>i a visit to inspect the 
Cudmore Collection at his Home.). 

— F. S. Gtj.mvfu 


tftci«rY«4 for youi Notes, Observations end Queries I 


Spring is here in this Gippsland mountain gully. Above the thicket of 
y»ttos|V>rum and blanket- wood the sides oi the gully arc glowing with -|he 
wattle shrubbery, and the gWfn3 reach Up beyond them, while pink heath *nd 
tetratheca cluster round their feet. Tn thi* particular spot, t lately saw a 
lyrebird fly down the igrullv at dusk. Us nest is fifty yards up the creek, hung 
precariously on the side ot a huge sum tree. How that untidy mass of sticks 
and dry moss hang5 there is a miracle. 

Last week 1 startled a wallaby on the hdKidc. u\^ there are often koalas to 
i>c sevn, Some of the feutiu with thick bark have regular track* up them witerc 
thc-*<r "monkey bears" climb, Rr Wills too have then- home herei while wombats 
live a truly glorious existence, if the number of holes k any indication oi their 
ciHoymctu. As chc car went up the. track a few ttigjus ago, one hnnbered 
acruss in us pathway. 

About here there are buds gatoic — fantads, wrens, parrots, wattle birds, 
magjiies golden whiu'ers. and mountain thrushes, to list but a few. There is 
one friendly thrush who comes for lunch scrap? each day. Further down the 
yully there is the home of a coachwl-np bird with a few ye1|r«w robins' nesls. 
Almost straight above, high in a eery tall gum. there is *n eagle's nest— ail 
unruly bundle of sticks forming a rude platform. Some of the slicks ar<r as 
thick as a man's arm, and as long. 

He/met orchids, greenhoods /three types'), mosquito orchids, are flow-exiiuj 

146 NatHraiist/ Notchook [ v (?*j *£*- 

at present There is a tree orchid in bud which still has last year's withered 
[fewer stein hanging from U. Away at the top o» the & filly there are many 
banks of the tiny helmet orchids with their maroon Capi, yellow centre-,, and 
striped Sideboards'*. The nodding greenhoods dance on a -.tinny blopc : with 
a few tinier ones with several heads to each stem, quite nearby. In «unie 
patches ol tlm very rich countryside il k impossible to walk through die bush 
without standing upon orchids ol some kind. 

A few yards below in the creek there are beautiful little tern borers; — 
tree ferns wish moss oi many kinds minted with kangaroo fern upon their 
irunks. There arc other tree ferns with fiddia and young musks growing 
upon them. In places there are huge canopies of clematis over the tree tops, 
with — woe to the unwary explorer — masses of vicious nettles below tbem. 
The gully is so damp that it is quite unsafe to grasp a sapling to help pull 
oneself up the crumbling sides of earth and leaves — as likely as not the tree 
itself will come down upon you. 

There ifi a lyrebird calling down the tfully now, and the thrush i> warbling 
above. From the top end of the gulTy there is a view to the north of miles oi 
green cultivated country— flats and rises, with an industrial centre in trick 
midst, stretching away to the bluenusy oi the Baw Baws, where snow is 

Ein.At.rF. P. BfticwstEh, "N'erreman", via Leon&acha 

F.N C V. Mcehngi; 

Monday, January 14-~M embers' Night, with Mr. and Mrs Colliver. 
Moivlay, February II— Members' Picture Night 

F.N.C.V. excursions: 

Sunday, December 16 — Botany Group excursion 10 Sherbrnoke, Take S-53 
a.m. train to Upper Feruflree Gully, iheii Olinda bu\ to Sherbrooke Junc- 
tion, Bring one meal and a snack. 

Saturday, January 5— Trerncm 1o Boronia. Leaders: Mr. and Mrs. D. Lewie* 
Take 9.1H a.m. train to Upper Ferntree Gully, then bus. to Trcmont. Bring 
I wo meal*. 

Sunday, January 20 — Botany Group excursion lo Sherbrookc. Subject: 
Continuation of Botany census. Take 8.55 a.m. tram to Uppe? Ferntree 
Gully, then bus to EC&ilista. Bring one meal ami a snack. 

Sunday, February \6— Geology Group exeuisioth Details at Group meeting. 

Group Meetings, 

{8 p.m., at National Herbarium) 
Wednesday. January 16 — Microscopical Group. Subject : Entowosirtfa't. 4* 

the common water flea. Speakers \ Mt. Mel ones aod Mr Evans. 
Wednesday, January 30 — Bntanv Group. Subject Acaciaa. Speaker: Miss 

V. Balaam. 
Wednesday, February 6 — Geology Group- 
Preliminary Nnlices; 

Sunday, February 24 — Parlour-coach excursion to Sorrento. Leader Mr. 
Strong. Subjects: Marine Biology and General. Coach Icavo Batman 
Avenue at ° a.m., returns approximately 8.30 p m. tare 17/-, Bring* two 
meals. Bookings with Excursions Secretary. 
Thursday. April 18, to Monday, April 22 (Faster)— DimbooU, under the 
leadership of the Winmiera Field Naturalists Club. Hotel accommo- 
dation is available and bookings, with £2 deposit, should be made with 
the Excursion Secretary by February 25. Further details in February 

Marie Au.FtfotR. Excursions Secretary. 

19 Hawthorn Avenue, Caulhcld, S.E.7. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol. 73— No. iO FEBRUARY 7, 1957 No 878 


Gekejkal Meetixg, December 30, 1956 

The President reported that Dr. Wishart was making satisfactory 
pt ogress after his recent illness, and that Mr. Chas. Okc, one of the 
older Club members, would "be pleased tti receive visits fruui 

.bVmvcj. — The President congratulated and thanked Mr, Rrook< 
Tot his organization of rhe Prahran show, and also those whG helped 
towards its success, particularly Messrs. ami llookc. Mr. 
Rnyment was congratulated on the excellence of the wildflower dis- 
play staged bj The Rank ot „\ T cw South Wales. Tt is proposed to hold 
a Club Show in 1957, and members will he advised on the matier 
arty in the year, 

Policy. — In livthcrance ot the policy outlined ac the Annua! 
Meeting, a circular has been prepared and sent to kindred .societies 
in Victoria, inviting" their help and eo operation. The suggestion 
was made that a committee ot experienced memhers should he 
appointed to help Council in this matter. 

Subject for the Evenmtj — Dr G. Chrrstensen, o( the C.S.I RO. 
Forests Products- Division, gave an illustrated travel calk on the 
Dolomites of Northern Italy. He included some slides of Switzer- 
land, too, for purposes of comparison. IVlr, A. A, Baker spoke an 
dolomites generally und pointed out that Australian occurrences 
were fresh-water sedimentary rocks and not marine deposits as iu 
Europe and elsewhere. A vote of thanks to the speakers was carried 
by acclamation. 

Election oj Members. — Mr. G. M. Boddy of East Geeloug was 
elected as a Country Member, and Mrs. Boddy as a Joint Country 
Member. Two nominations for membership were received. 

S'Uitr floral Emblem*. — M.r. H. C. E. Stewart referred to pre- 
vious attempts by a committee lo establish as a Stare Floral Emblem 
the Common Heath, Epacris imfressa, and as a Tree Emblem ihc 
White Mountain Ash, Eucalyptus rcyuans. Council is to e.sploie 
the matter further, 

Juuior Age Nature Record, — Mr. J. R. Garnet stated that the 
Aft*, Native Plants Preservation Society and Junior Chamber oi 
Commerce has organized a competition for the compilation of lists- 
of native plants, and he suggested that members might give the 
scheme rhcir sympathetic co-operation. 

Nature Nates and Exhibits. — Mr. Garne.i commented on the 
prevalence this season of the Cineraria Moth dt\Ml of dragon flies 


14* Pftfftffttf Hfeir 

Mr, Brooks showed home-grown Callhtemon and Melaleuca, and 
Mr. Atkins one of the many forms of Correa rvflextl, 

Mr Sarovich exhibited introduced land shell*, Helix piscina, from 
Torquay. Other members commented on the abundance of that 
species in the Bellarine Peninsula and Geelong district. 

Mr. Baker tabled samples of dolomite rock. 

Gcxkrai., MKE-rrN-G, January 14, 1957 

The President extended a welcome to all members, and Iwst 
wishes for the New Year. It was decided to send a letter to Mr. 
Raymeitt, conveying good wishes froth the Club and tbc hope that 
he would 3000 be well enough to attend meetings again. 

Cultural Centre. — Mr. George Coghill drew attention to the re- 
newal of activity toward* the establishment of a Cultural Centre 
at VVirth's Park, and suggested that the Club should indicate its 
interest Ml the matter, The President agreed to pursue the matter 
further immediately. 

Sub jet t for the Evaning. — Mr. Stan Colliver was welcomed; be 
expressed pleasure in once again being back with the Club, and 
conveyed greetings from the Brisbane Club. He ihen showed a 
number of colour slides illustrating geology of Queensland, native 
flowers, the Cumimhin Bird Sanctuary, David Fleay's Fauna Sane* 
U'ary, and the whaling station on Moreton Tsland. The President 
expressed the appreciation of members for this most interesting 

Election o\ Members.— Mr. W. J, Begley and Miss Thelma J, 
Dusting, ot Surrey Hills, were elected as Ordinary Members. 

Invitation to Bcndifjo P.N.C, — It was decided to invite the 
Bendigo Cluh to visit Melbourne for a week-end in -October; and 
it was suggested that the B O.C. be asked to assist with their 

Re-discovery of Thyfaeine, — Mr. Stewart suggested that the Club 
send a letter of congratulation to the Tasmanian Government Fauna 
Protection Board on the re-diseoverv of the Thylacine (Tasmaman 
Marsupial "Wolf or "Tiger"), 

Mr. /, //. Willis. — The best wishes of the Cluh were extended to 
Mr. Willis who is to leave shortly for a year overseas in connection 
with his profession. 

Nature Notes and Exhibits. — Mr D. E. Mclnnes showed a 
Water Flea, with young iu its brood pouch. 

Mr. Swalry exhibited a branch of Wentworth Flame-tree and 
twigs from various native plants, to indicate that now was the time 
to make cuttings. 

Mr. Wnotlard gave notes on the Fringe-lily, and Mr. Colliver on 
the marine stinging animals of Queensland. 


This issi'-e of the Vici&rian Naturalist \a a special one, being 
devoted almost entirely to original contributions in the field of 
systemarie botany. The papers concerned are published wilh a vi&W 
to finali/.injtj .some of the necessary revision to the classification nf 
groups Of Victorian vascular plants, so that the* new names provided 
will be available for use hi forthcoming botanical work*. THs irtnU- 
her is being subsidized by the Maud Gibson TttfSI Fnnrl, the t myites 
of which are organizing rUe |>i q>;* ration of a r><>w k<*y to tins Victorian 


'Sundry N«w Specie*. Verier***, Cembi«oh©ni, Record* 
and Sy/ionynrOes) 

By ). H. Wjixm, National Herbarium of l/fettftra 
Gra mined? 


*pt*cies nova alpina dtsrinciissima pftrici ".Vm'nrft-" (sens. D. K_ 
Htujbesae, 1921) inserenda. e>: -am nit ate .V. Int-bcscciUi? R,Br. et 
4\ mTz/osur J. W Vickery sed al> utn.'i|ue praeeipuc diffcrt : statura 
minore (cuhms cjuam 40 cm. Invvioribus), foliis rigidis teretibus 
5ubpuv'j<-uilbus oninino glo^rii nitemibus, mfloresccmla vix exsefta 
paacirlora (spieulis usque ail 16). arista robwtiorc minus birsuta (ad 
partem inieram omniuo glabra), antheri; rrtiii(lti< 0*1 videntur, 1-1-S 
mm- Ion-sis). 

LOCUS! i VICTORIA (boieah-mitiilalis)— • ifeigotlK HMi Plains, "associated 
with Eticutvptuji niphafthiUt along grav;v slope.s of Middle Qvek near 
Rover Seoul H«r, alt. circa 1050 in. {UOLO'l VFUS ill Herb. MEL. 
PARATYP1 in NSW, K— /. W. M',7/i*, 2 Feb. 1949): lac. til (MF.L 
— 7. /V. f^«% 10 Jan. 1940) . 

Glabrous tufted perennial. Leaf-hhiifs up to 20 cm. long, rigid, almost 
pungent-pointed, tightly inroiled and terete, (except at lijtUlc), about 1.5 ftfto. 
wide at base when flattened out, lower convex surface shining and without 
groove;, upper (bidden) surface shallowly grooved, minutely scabrid AlShg 
The incurving margins ; shcoths 3-4 mm. wide when flattened, often brown or 
purplish, with up to 20 deep dorsal grooves, the apical auricles manifest!} 
filiate and up to 1 nun. high; fitful? very short and truncate, forming a 
minutely cilia tu rim. Cithns rigid, glabrous, grooved, up to 40 cm. high and 
1-1.5 mm. in diameter; nodes 1 or 2, minutely pubescent. Panicle tardily 
Sprfe&ffifltg, its kut scarcely or not exserted beyond the uppermost leat-shealb, 
up to 15 cm- long (awns included), few-flowered (Jess than 10 splkelets in 
all materials examined) ; branches and pedicels filiform, angular and very 
minutely seabrid, the latter 10-20 mm. long widening beneath spikelot and 
bearing a few forwaidly-aflpTc^ed hairs, Spikclcts narrow, elongated, mostly 
erect. GIhm-zs almost equal, about 20 mm." long, hardly diverging, glabrotii, 
tliio. chaffy, translucent and purplish, the shortly acuminate apices hyaline and 
soon lorn; fir^l ^Jtime fmelv 3-ncrvcd almost to ijN&j second or upper glumo 
slightly wider (about 2 mm. when flattened nut) . 5-nervcd below and 3-nerved 
above, both glumes showing a few scattered, irregular, transverse connecting* 
venules toward their apices Lcmnn narrow, cylindrical, 13-15 mm long and 

m Wilus, Fhm *) I'tctoria a*\d JtonJ/i Australia [ Vi yl\ ***** 

about I mm. in diameter, pale brown, bearing scattered appn**srd whin?h hairs 
i.Imosi to lite summit, with longer denser pubescence toward the very short 
callus (coSour O.S-1 mm,), i>ery minutely papillose above, upper margros 
without obvious tabes, AnB$ strongly articulated, (tout, rigid. 7-U) rin. long 
and about 0.4 mm. in diameter at base, vtraight tot about 3 cm. and slightly 
twisted, thai mgenRulale, Lite column occupying about two-thirds of total 
length, minnrely pubescent with white forward-pointing hairs (except lor 
the lower 20 mm. which is almost or quite glabrous and shining. Pah/3 
glabrous, 10-12 mm, long (MmoM equalling lemma). Anthers 3, Hneai and 
exceptionally small (only 1-1.5 mm. long- in material examined). 


This distinctive grass; was at (it at believed to represent a stunted high- 
rnouutam form of S> pnhesern* Ti.TCr , but fm'thrr investigation of its, foliage 
and floral morphology (especially the proportion of glumes, lemma and awn) 
has convinced me that a distinct and kuherto-imdescrihed species is involved — 
^n opinion endorsed by Miss J. W. Vicfcet) in n letter to the writer 
(5/2/195.V). S, nwicola folia within Mis? D. K. Hughes' croup Striata? 
free Kc7v Butt,, 19211 and approaches nearer to $'. pube-surtts and 5*. uwvvsa 
J. W. Vickery (lVSl) than to any other species. It differs from KoTh, how- 
ever, in the shorter very rigid and almost spiny /ullage, much shorter culms, 
very lew-flowered (to IS) scarcely e^srricd panicles and comparatively 
longer kIuuics, lemmas and awns (which arc very *tout Ani\ glahcescent m 
their basal parts). The anthers (to 1.5 mm. long) are exceptionally small for 
the j;rotip Stna'tce, but may not have been itttly developed in the several 
flower* opened for inspection. 

The new species would seem to be endemic on the Bojjonfc High Plain*, 
Vic, above 5.00U ft., and h-u been tutted there only in a Unnted area — heads 
of Rarlcy Valley, WiUI-hors*: Creek ind Middle Creek, eastern slopes at 
MV Cope and at Bucket; Plain, A. B. Cosiin iecnrd> £H^(j />\ihcsrc*^s ior his 
llitcalypitts niphaplnhi Alliance |*eo Xhtdy EcosyrJ, Mntttiro Region ftf-SJV 
365 (1954)]. and it would be interesting to rc-chtclc the identity of this 
plant from suh- alpine terraut ui smith-raster-M N'cw South Wales. 



v;ir(»tiis nova a plant* typica penanthio (sed nou pcdiceVo) omnino 
ofMu'd solum recedit. 

tViite d. }, M Bl:tck hdtra V Aust, eil. 2, t' £fjj (tV4A>- 
— (IcKripUu Anslica tioa Latitia) 

T\'PHS hi Herb. AD $3643058, ex Herb. 1 M. Black-. J, 8 Ctcfand 
leg. Aug. 1944 "idtout 12 plant* near Stilling E. school") ; Stirling 
East (Kerb, AD. ex Herb. J M RUvck. L /?. C.idand. leg. 6 May 1944). 
VICTORIA "Malice^ (probability prope Stattoneui "Pine Plains"! 
<Werh. MET, px Iltrb. C Walter, C. trench h\r. leg. Oct. 1898). 

The purpose of this note is to legale the fete J. M. Black's epithet (which 
was published as a variety, but without thi? obligatory diagnosis in Latin — 
\\.v. reference above) and also to record an occurrence of this plant in north- 
^'t-Stern Victoria. A good bpecimeo, bearing llosvcrs (up tn 6 pel* cluslcr), 
fruits and 5ceds. has been .annotated in detail by Black and is located in the 
i)ew'l)--esteWiihed State Herbarium of bonth Australia: this 1 have examined 
and now dc.tgtiate as TTOLOTYPE. 

The sole constant departure from Hakat vtfta}o- k.tfi nar, vitfain i± in 
ihe totally yiahtitus perianth; but scattered, appresi-ed, centrifixed hair* bc^et 

>\b™»* ] Wiu.t*. fhra .►/ VUioth fflfrf Jtottfl Australia 351 

the petHcal as usual, Bkek (I.e.) further <li<Veieiuiate?s his new variety ^V 

^D^i lying fruits 20-25 mm. ul length, ns against 17-20 mm. in the typical 
hairy- floweret! plane. .Such a distinction, however, cairnol be upheld, becauic 
fruits of the latter iorm frequently stair JO and even 3a nm» — a* noted in 
material at the Melbourne Herbarium The type of car. glahnfara sbowsa 
maximum leaf-length of 5 cm., wheieas leaves on the single Victorian 
"Malice'' collection range to 1 rni. Fret|Hnitly hot Hot always var viiJdta 
i*hihiu a distinctly curved or even uncinate spine at tne leaf-tip, but all 
specimens ot var. ghhnflora (known at present) have pungent paints that aic 
quits straight. Length, thickness, Bind curvature for not) of aj>kal soine, in 
the leaves of hairy -nowrred var. ciHnU- itself Vary sstoni&hin^ly; 2 stout 
funn from the South Australian "Murray scrub" (ftfft F". Mueller, abonl 
1850) l>as many leaves [hat are only 2,5 cm long <T') but 2 mm, »n dj>mcrer. 
[jfitf Jean Cralbraith, Hufcra 7>itt<ita, "Black** and '•While" in Viet. Nat. 66: 
m {Jan, 1!>50)J, 


LXOC/IKPQS L6PTQMP.R?01D£S Jr, Mattl- ,u- Miq, in Vederl. Kniidk. 
Arch. 4: 019 (JB56). 

£, Q^hyHa Mrnth. F*JSm 4osf ft ">jfl (IRHi pro parr*, Eurart (1930) cl 
*l. mo X ]?:. 

The true identity of R. Brown's Ilxorurpos apSyttn has for long been io 
douht, Bentham's description under tins name covets two ojtite di&thKt tapf* 
less plants; (1) a -dense bush 2-6 it- high, with stout thick (to 4 mm.) 
uitim^r 1 branches 1 narrowly grooved between the numerous, close-;*!. 
broadish, fattened ndges), crowded inflorescences mid almost globoid, smooth 
trim minutely pubescent) fruits which at maturity surmount very broadly 
svcollen, brvght-red fleshy s-talks ; (2) a small divaricate tree, usually h-32 M. 
hi^b. with more slender branches t widely grooved and Witli rather Itwcr, 
more acme in tei veiling ridges I and pyramidal, persist colly whhe-hairy, 
manifestly furrowed fruits (to 5 mm. lonpr) with conspicuous flattened and 
swolku HigMauc annum* at the >tmirmt (the llesh.v Ml(S being father 

The writer forwarded material of both entities to the British Museum 
{Nat IIis« ) for can:fu1 comparison with type EL fipIrylU*, and Mr J 1 ; M. 
Csrron of that institution very kindly advised (U/.VI956j that, although ihe 
Browman type is without fruit, its stem striatums closely match those of the 
first plant briefly described above, viz, the atual] stoutly branched bush with 
smooth globoid fruits (my specimen from Streaky Rav, S. .Mist. — lesc- A. J* 
Hicks, Dec. 1"53L This ineam that true Ex near pas apltytUi is restricted 10 
ncar-oaMal, rather and tracts of Sottib and Western Australia, extending 
irom Vorke i'euinsula across Kyre Peninfiula fa^ far north as Warramboo) 
and with isolated occurrences in the western State (eg, between Eipeianrc 
and firasspstch). 

The different, larger, eistvrn plant, umil now kitovtii as B* ophyifa in 
Victoria^ leqnirei- another name and the |»o;5ibihtics were It. dasystachys 
Schlecht-cndal < 1847) and E. tcp1omcrh*t<l?A t r . Miy. M9S0J- both 
cittxl as synonyms <st B. aphytlo l>y Bentliaui (t,c\)- Kerr K. Werner com- 
municated bis opinion i_ 29/6/1956) lint rhc t>'|»r of £. (in\\\\'f<ichys in 
Schle.chteml.irs herlwrtum <at Ualle. Cjermany) is identical with £. ft'^Wt'- 
forms Labill— a very dilterem BpedM from B fiphyffa. On the other band, 
a ftaptoiypC ^jieeimcn (""'Murray J?rruh"> of H. Icploiti/'rfoidex in Xfelbourne 
Herbarium conforms well in stem si nations, to the Victorian Mallet tree 
with pyramid."*! fU1 rowed frtnr*, <wr1 ll i=; toy upiniun that this name imtst 
rej/iace that pf*7i. ophyitn" In Ihe flou; uf NMctoria, New Sooth Walrs and 
QiteensJand ; both gpectes, however, occur in South Australia, 

|Si Willi*, Flora $j Victim ami Souih Atutraifo [ V! ^, * oL 


ATRtPLFX PAFil.LATA I. 11. Willis; 

bpecies nova ob formarn pctiajtthii Iructueri inter cxmgenera:; valde 
di?tmcta plants -;U parvn\ \ J ) <tniiii:t, inoiioicae, conitO'd plurlbus 
prostratis stramlnitoloribiis usque ad JO cm. longis , jniiu cinerea. 
dense Larinaeeo-papillosa, lanceolate vet linearis, pteruivunje 1-2 cm. 
lOQtgft. s;«pe I'asciculata, lOftCgfoiifOS submUgn? nivoluiis. ftnrer masttth 
in t?lomcruKs pnncis glfljpjij Tenninalibus; floret feminci 2-4 in axilli; 
(oltOrum uux, quain inflorescentwe mascula; interiores sunt; pcrian* 
tMum ir\Htif(-rum 3-5 mm, loiig'imi (praceipue 3-4 mm.), 2-3 mm. 
latum, irrcgularitcr trilobatuin vcl subnabetlaturn, basin versus ab 
&P(*£ndiciOt*.i vonspkuis irrtyularihus tr.ollhms papilUformilms 
ttfiteti-uiii, fcractcobs duohus saltern usque ad medium conuexis. 

I'AGATfQ'. VICTORIA (Itoreali-ot-eidcntalis temota) — "Gypsum workmRs, 
about A mile? south-west p( NowingV i h'QLQTi'PUS in Herb MEL, 
rAkATYl'l iii AD, NSW, K—J. U. Willis, 2S Aug. 19551 ; "Clay-van 
at Hcrwftig? 1 (MEL— B. Ritmsay* 23 Jul. 1950) ; "Edge of a saLi-oan at 
Raak" (MEL — /i. Ramsay, 2 Nov, 1949) J "Gyp*nm flat, about 7J milos 
jjfpUft) of lite 65-itule post on Suirt Highway west pi Mfldura" (MfcJL— 
I U. miKK&SW- 1948). 

Tn hahit and superficial appearance, the new species somewhat resembles 
A. lcf'Unarp<'i K. Mitell., hut the fainting, are very dissimilar. 
Branches of A. f>af>iiloht arc proMi'Ale, siei'idet,. .sti aw -yellow and alnlost 
glabrous, contrasting with the sage-grey mealy- papillose narrow and involute 
leaves (api^arinx almost "fasciculate Qfi the shortened latitat branches). Matt 
inflorescences consist of one to several dense. >vlli>\vish, globoid clusters of 
flower* at the ends of brane tilers, the tcmale flowers being in aggregates of 
2-4 in tower leaf axils (both immediately below and also remote tram ttic 
male inflorescences). 

Within the group of species having equal flattened rnutinu-bracteoles, 
united tor more than halt their length and bearing conspicuous appendages 
A. puptihtn approaches A, acutUirncteu R. H. Anderson anil A- cornier a 
I'Jomin; but it differs from these and all orhcr Australian congeners in the 
UHhtcftftt&i lar»e, irregular, soft papillae which form a slar-Hke cluster around 
(he base of the fniiriug-penaolh The upper smooth part of the bracteole is 
flattened, irregularly tridentate or almost flabellau*. and lIW whok is miuutcly 
\$A inaceo os -granular. Tlie few known Victorian occurrences hare all been on 
temporarily damp clay-flats highly impregnated with gypsum, and t)ie species 
Will most probably he found to extend over similar terrain along the Murray 
lands tvi Kuuth Australia and into Inr south-western New South Wale*. 


species nova Ob fOrniam et dimer.siones perianihii (ruetiferi B I'Mekyp- 
tcra (F. MucIL) R H- Anderson atque h. txkhhap^ta i ; . Muell. affinis, 
lied a prioie pilis (oUorum apnre;-S'>villQsis (non arachnoideii) ct 
praeeipue perianth in frucrifero puhescenli lateraliltr cxalato spinis 
multo louL'ioribus dirlert; a B. rcjibwpsila Mi%% semper dense pilosis, 
perianthio [ruidifero *d hjsin excavato atque spinis manifesto com- 
planatts ( rclmatipartiluiii l'urniaiitihu>> tcric rcccdit. 

Prridhthium frtirtifrrnw '£••* .\ ?-^ mm Oma <?)»m ^plnl?) r COi"t«iiil!()vnie, 
ptr|uiWi»fii_rninpbn.iTn.n, lc»HCt U>-C*5lflUml, in \>3Tlv mwHfl minute vub«c«rui; 
lutrttS CJctiioimis l.S-2 n;m. tm'.K>»s (.oA busiri ctrocer 0-5 mm reniij <x<-Jvaiu^l; 
SjtJnne 5 tf, divaric.\(aiv _v»Mt Cfi»U*lansUe. Imshi v*rs.ais £ a*ale«c:r rites (in 
*\*hm uiduralo liucituriUli). caruru 2 iisiuit*' Untginr* 1 -. (l.'&Z.^ mm) ct 2 fj.cnr 

FC M,7- flr> l WIUW. i'torti Of Vktorui owi Svuth Auxtrtrfiu 1.W 

LOCUS: VICTORfA f hnreali-ocddentalis remola<— \Vlerid"ai! Road about 
Ui miles south of Benetook" (HOLOTVPUS ju Hcr»> M£|* MJM* 
WrUS In NSW— £. Raman I Jtf. 1950) j '9w(C war Miltlwa 
iron-links'* (MEL— £. flfttWMjf, 21 Mar. 1950). 
The new species seem? most closely related 10 Pn&sfo /»yiJ».w>ri-/(? Eft 
Xfticll ) R. H. Anderson, which is fairly common in Hoc same region. It Ira* 
x similar s^uat fruilinjj-pertanth with hollowed base, horizontal seed and 
(used spines, which form a horizontal wing -like sJo?k ! hUl t"- r DcriMU) i; 
hairy and without vtMical whirs (rj. ftUhrmts and narrowly 5- winged in 
ti. i?T(uiiyf'frr t i) «mu \hr unequal flattened spines protrude far beyond thCK 
irregularly "used bases ( cf • & small equal spme-lceth to Lbe pcuUigOHat *^d 
quite horizontal disk or wing, of B btechypffipb)* ft. rautsaytr is also a more 
vpnitht plant than #. b*yirh\;pUra and its leaves, although vdlose. wnh 
appre^sed hairs, lack the (jwig interwoven arachnoid hairs ho characteristic 
of the fatter species, iJ. rosm'd R. H. Anderson (iron: Central Australia! and 
B.<±ctttjt/>f'$i?0' F, Afuell. show an approach in the configuration of their tithed 
Jrtiiting-pe-riauths, with 5-6 spines; but i»e periaittli or Wffc Utter is mfhfjut 
an excava'led base (il usually has 1 or 2 hardened decurved basal lobe* or 
flaps) §tf*d fo ?wH (s vertical or almost so, while the spines In both are com- 
paratively longer and neither flattened nor webbed with * connecting v tug 
as in D, rawMtycr, Jn many fruit* sectioned, the seed was found to be 
abortive i minute and shrivelled up). 

The sparine, epithet ^ a tribute to -Mrs. E. Kamray ol Ked Cliffs, whose 
energy and hieb ettUiustfl. : in have been responsible "for the discovery of this 
and several now specks in her district, also for other important additiutiu to 
i>ur Victorian Malite flora, tluiiujj the past decade. 


speiir*. nuva oh farjeui nerianthu -fnictiferi clistinctissima : /ueffruti- 
i-ttlus decunthens. inultn-nmosus: rami * glabrcscentcs.; folia crasta. 
U'Tctut, aipiejc >>utiobtusji, £irc|tcr 4-7 -t I itiui., leniter pilo^a ; flows 
numerosi, in Ekfcillfc iolitat'ii; prnrtntftiiott- friwtitcruw (imacum spinis) 
rircitcr --.5 nud. Ionium ft. latum, paulum complaitatum. in kmjjitu- 
dinem phui coautum, minute et H»ar*e pubefCcnSv tUbo cadtfotmi 
1.5-2.5 mm. longo (a base 0.5-1 mm. tenus cxcavato.i, spinis 2 valde 
divancatia quorum una vtntto ttthcr (I unit, tenus) latetaliter cow- suhnhtus&tiue (.^jsina tettin minma s^|ie adesi) ; (ftum ah«ir- 
tfvum in iructu, hoTUontaJe, 

LOCUS'. VICTORIA (borcnli-OLCidemaJb ren»ota>— 'Mrridian Koad, about 
5-6 miles south «rf Bi'nctciok" [HOLOTYPVS in Herb. MFL, P IfcA- 
TYH iu AD, NSW, BR1, CANB, K E. Ro-msay. 1 Jul, 10501 

The .?nenfic epithet C'casnowary's head^) was chosen in allusion to the 
<uri0U3 shspe oi the rruiltnfi-fjenaulli, which has no parallel among oihKt 
Anstralian tr^eics of Biutxta; in form it also somewhat rescn>lt|c* ft miniature 
lea-j>ot i*/C waierine-C3n. At maturity the fruiting structure is lnrrcl-shai>eil, 
mure or less flattened* finely pubescent, v-criicaHy nbbeij and prcdncef 4 into 
two very unequal appendage-* — rhc- shorter one acirulat. ilie other murh 
broader Uterally-flatlcued and obtuse, with '.he aspect •*>£ a ^houlrler-hke 
cxlcOMiiu Ajr high d>yinitietrjt htsfll|> lo one 5tde ot Llic pcTiantli lube which 
is matufeitiy^excavated at l\\ base. A third \*ei> suiall Spflte »s oMcji presenl 
hetwveu lite two major excrescences. 

In its larger hollowed appendage, the yerianOt ofi B- capttt-cas'tarit bears 
autakbig reietnlddiKx to that of 8ahbtwu\ <u-yoput<\ P. Mttell var, rf^t?»tttiflE 
Ji M. Btaek- a smaller ^Jabiotu plant occurritiK in the same, rvgirm — , but the 
latter is entirely spineless. In view of the (act that seeds on the type specimens, 
of the new Bassiu are totally abortive, ir tray perhaps represent a natural 

154 Wnus, tfam of Victoriu a»4 ftuS Austria [ v^f^ 

inter -generic hybrid between some Dqsvq species, o?. B. umHora, and 
tfahl'iiyit) acroMi'r* tot even Thu-lkcltiw s<ttstt<jittt/su) : lull, whatever its 
origin, tlie occurrence of spines oft I We friMiing-periautW demands classification 
for the present tinder fiassitu 



species nova .--T dailimtom Link maxime accedil, ^ed ^laiur'a umiocc\ 
foliis miuoribus, folioWt; brevioi ir>u& approxi maris fermr glahris, 
(ructu C0'*>»fftraie muko latiore (cius longitude* Miiam lat initio win-its 
ittyni sexics longior) tlistuigwitur. 

('AC/triO: VICTORIA tiu monlmus)— "Foley Hill In Metb. & Metrop. 
Board o» Wtalcs O'Shsnnassy Reserve, about ID miles north-east ot 
War burton, in forest of Eucalyptus McMalfftfsu at 4.200 ft. f :£ 1300 nt. 
ah.J M iHQLOTYPUS cum "fruttibu* in Hern. MEL. ISOTYPf hi 
KSW. K— /. //", &?#&, 18 Feb. WW) J Mt. St. Leonard (PARA- 
TYPUS cum flonrws in Herb. Mtj.l.— Keith Wntstnt, 31 Aug. 19$4) ; 
"Rowallan Scout Camp at foot of Mt. Charlie, Maeedo-n Ranges near 
Ktdde-il. growing with typical A, foaibata along a permanent creek*' 
(MEL—/ H. Willis* 24 Jan. 1954); "Camel'* Hump, Mi MaorioiT 
(MEL. ttiajn NSW, No 8636 J. H. H'Mis, 1 Sept- IW5); Lome 
(NSW, Vo, 8637— £ K fcfcflfli, Feb 1922), 

Small montane or subalpine forest tree 2 6 m. (6-20 ft.] Wi^b. *>ftcti ot 
bushy habit; bark smooth on major limbs and branches, quite glaucous on 
nuuto uf >ouiig. saplings and tile angular bi^ancUels of older trexs. Dipinnate 
foliage retained throughout life. Leavts to 10 cm. long- (usually much less) 
arid 2-4 cm. wide; ptimae clOSe-scL m 10-iO pOKS, 10-20 rtW, Jong, parinmnate, 
with one Urge prominent hemispherical gland at base o! each pair. Lco^cts 
13-3*) on each primary pinna, almost touching or even overlapping [if, 
A fft'alfr.iii*, with sftaee$ between all the leaflets], each 1-2.5 x 5-L mm.. 
obtuse; the surfaces obscurely and minutely toberculate, with a tew very short 
minute hairs, hut appearing green and glabrous [cf~ iorwardly-appressed 
white hairs on leaflets of A dtafbata]. hi ft orescent** consisting of short 
axillary or large terminal panicles of bright yellow heads. Ffourt*- bends 
globoid, wtih 20-30 flowers (as in A. deolbvto) on very short, almost glabrous 
peduncles. Individual flowers 5-|Kixtite, 1.5 mm. long at expansion : Mib- 
lenrting bracteole with sknder hairy claiv and lateral or alntnAt peltate- fringed 
lamina, Cn/v.r with tube talf as long as corolla, obeornc, broadly- and 
shallow ly-'lobcd above; sepal points acute, ciliaie and somewhat recuivcd. 
Pvtttls lanceolate, with rattier granular margins. PcticJt polyaJs 411-55 rtiic. 
diameter, composed of 16 grains (as in A, dtattntta}. Pod oblong, 4-6 x 
i-l cn>.. at optimum development no more tlian six tio»e* as long as bronH, 
and then witfi ahout 9 seeds [cf. seven or more timer- as long as broad in 
A, d/nlfutta where, if only si.\ tinier, then with about S seedsl, striweM. flat, 
smooth, purplish fle.xihle. Steeds rather DfaHqooW arranged, broadly oulong- 
elltflllc about 4 mm. long, black and sliining. with conspicuous while aril al 
l*Lii- 9nd shoet. vtrarghl. slender lunicle l-ill exactly as in A thvltAitu) 


lifts small montane tree Mowers in early etpritfg, aTKl obviously bears a 
i;lose relationMiip to -Silver Wattle iAcncia (tcalholn Link) — hence the 
specific epithet. When 1 first observed A. •iviw-di'ailx.ita, at the western Jimil 
r>i its range ( vi*. South Dullario in the Womlwt Forest nca»* Oaylesford) 
during 1937. 1 wa» inclined to regard it as a stunted, smaibleaived condition 
of the well-known A itcwfhoio (which may Ix-come a tall lores! tree, to 

F ^ nr ] Willis, Hora oj Milan* mttt Santk Australia 1SS 

fW) It). The subsequent examination ot plants, gi owing will] liul quite 
distinct from iir.ilhott^ in the Mr. Mac edon area (and elsewhere 1 has rtvealrd 
significant difference* in foliage auti comparative: dimensions of pods. Leaflets 
in I. Huiut-rl.'alhKitrt are virtually glabrous (only a lew very minute hatr>), 
obtuse at the apices, never more than 2.5 mm lonfi and alnt£*1 roncluny or 
even overlapping along the aides of the rhachis, whereas those of .•? detitbnta 
ace d'stmc'ly hairy (often copiously }, more or less acute, always exceeding 
.* mm. in length, and woaratcd from each other" by narrow spates; die former 
plant also ha* a comparatively much wirier pod — \ej%% than six tunes as long 
as broad. The »oW species hat A rather wide distribution in south-central 
Victoria, hut i* nor abundant; there are no indications of its occurrence w 
any other State. 


species nova A. wi^rottirfit F. Vucll. amjus sed pbylJodiis au&usliori* 
bus. peduueulis birsuri?., v^paloTiun laniinis latioribus, frunu nnilro 
latiorc (duplo vel triplo) et priecipuc seminis funiculo tango bigem- 
rulato reoedit, 

LOCUS' : V f ("TORI A i. occidental is i — " Wuraigwcrin Parish, south of 
K»ata and about 14 miles west ot Dimboola, on sandy frfnptri littt margin 
of Little Desert" (HOLOTVPUS' cum florifcus in Herb MEL— .4. I 
■Wr, 10 Sept. I!I51 - PARtfTYPVS com fmctibits in MEL— .4. .'. G>av, 
24 Feb- 1951 : MRttQTYPHS cum riorums in MEL— nmtt .-I. 7. //rc*r f 
30 Nov. 1%j, ex "Kiata wUdltower display" Oct, IV55I. 

tail jfltftib Ot small spicadm*v 1r ee 2-3 in, |io If) h) high. Ultimate 
brmicMcts slightly angular, puberuluus. Fhyilaiics glabrous, olive- grcwi, 
rather deti*e, each 1-3 cm. x 1.S-5 ntm |ui 5 cm Uoij.; ih viKcavut^ly growing 
sredhnp-.]. linesr, very shoilly perioUte, with sharp imi inate-niuernOaic 
apex; marginal gland small, rather obscure, situated 2-R mm, above base ■--{ 
blade feven more obscure and 10-15 mm. above base m A tunroatrfm F. 
M .iirll 1 , nervation consisting c»i a singhr rather prominent vein, with 
ohsrure lateral reticulate venation (often appearing as longitudinal wrinkles, 
as in A. mictoCttrf-u) InflorcscMUtf a reduced axillary ia<eme or 2-4 bends 
on a short common axis, the whole about half the length oi subtending 
phyllode. Fhiwr-hcads globoid, bright yellow, with 20-30 flowers faj in 
A- Mirrororpi'i) , bull 031 a shortly white-hairy |>eduuc]e 5-10' mm. long [cj. 
Almost glal^roiu; In A. mitrocarpa]. Individual flowers S-partitt, 1.5 nun, long 
at expansion; subtending hracteoic lon^-clawcd with few lar^c hairs, the 
densely firnbrijite terminal lamina ap^ariug almost pellAte. Cttfttt Iwlt 3b 
long fts corolla, the spathnbte and stftftigly nmbriate sepals heinpf tree almost 
to part p-d-iM .-e wider a«d more fimbriate thaii is usual m A. murwrrrr^nj. 
Pr/att rather membranous-papyrareous. prominently veined, laneeolnre- 
oliiptic, with contracTed granular -pa)>illose apices. Pollen polyads 3S-f5 mic. 
diameter, composed of 36 grains (as in A. microcofpu), Po<! .5-5 cm. x 
6-8 mm \ri up to 3mm-, wide in A wnrrnrrjr/vt| p linear, =.trme,hf. more or 
less constricted between seeds, subcoriaccous. hVxible, deep* juirplish-broxvn 
at maturity. .Vmrjr .2-4, longitudinal to shfthtly oblinnc. aboitt 6x3 nun, 
elliptic. bUck; aril i-ety smart and basal, pasMtig into a I'ojnC Mgrnoid funiek 
with double fold \-± 4 mm. long) on one *ide of >etd [cf. the larp;c cmhraHng 
aril and very short, non-folded iuuick- pi A. mcrncurpv], 

L"il/o*'twn:ncl> t the new species was known unly by a single naunaily- 
nccurriug tree: (now ilcud), b»r seedtiit^ propteny lias been brought into 
cultivation fit Wail Forest N\irs«ry, etc. It i* most closely related lo 

1%, ftortoof \'ktor*a fl«e/ SWi AnttraJia Pv&uia* 1 

/(, ^f&Kl^fttt, a familiar Mallee fc-attle, and the phy Nodes are remarkably 
simitar to those of A. mur$carf>a var Imtnris J. M. Black (trorn MonarUi 
South and Mannum, S. Aust.) ; but striking deiNutiires from that specie* are 
Obvious in the fonVy peduncle* oi flower-heads, ilie much broader pods, larger 
seeds and, especially, in the long twice-folded tuuicle ot the seed. A.* an 
appropriate epithet, 1 have bestowed the surname of Alfred J. day (formerly 
Superintendent of the Wimmcfa ToroU Nursery at Wait) who discovered 
the type tree and brought it to my notice-; during the past decade Mr. Cray 
lias rendered meritorious- service in prorogating, popularizing and dtsiiibuiing 
Australian plants for ornamental and reclamation purposes in dry, inland 
areas prone to wind-erosion. 

ACACIA MONTANA fifalftt, var PSTLOCARPA /- h. mjtis: 

v»uct*s nova oh ln*ctutn (jtaOrwa a forma lypica lei ussiataj specie) 
Jafli di>ltuguenda, ceterum vix separabilis, 

t.OCt-'S: VICTORIA foccWenteltH)— 'Shire of Dimboola"" (ff&bO* 
tyPVS in Herb. MKL— F. M. /few/*', Dec. t{W0 ! WfcttWlA River 
fMEL — & Walter. Mar. 1857") : "In railway reserve at Diapur between 
Khill and Kauiva, at 2(t2\ miles iroui Melbourne" (MEL- -F,, Muii. 
Sept, 1946), 
This shrub nf the Western Wimmera has no parallel among any n\ the 
Eynns or Acacia mtmtmxa Renin, known at present. It is remarkable in hearing 
Vjlabroub-viscid (or at inosl slightly graoularl imds. whereas the fruits of 
thii species are normally so densely Manketcd teith coarse white hair thai 
trfeiT surlaces are invisible. The new variety does not A£pe&l to UilYcf signifi- 
eantty in any other feature (of foliage, Rowers or seeds) from typical 
A, montana, otherwise there would be good icason to accord it full specific 
• auk. The 189^ collection, chosen *■> tyjte. 15 in. flttfld fruit and zriymtyHOtrA 
by the label "Acucta tttontatta Be tub., var. d'AItcnii Walter" in Readers 
handwriting; but no evidence can tic found that C Walter ever published a 
description under llu* vaiietnl epithet. There is a fragment, of the same 
entity from Wimmera River in MellKmrne Herbarium ; it was collected by 
C. Walter himself in IIS<7 and is annotated in his- own wri\trtff. but the only 
name appearing on this label is "Acacia". The third, and fairly recent, 
collection from Diapur ui m liowet ; it shows- comparatively shorter broader 
phyl lodes, but pods gathered from the same boshes nine month* later are 
4uitc identical with those of type var. f>sii(Karj>n ('"Shire ot Dirnboola"* ) . 
Or. Isabel Cookson reported {6/3/I95.J) tfitir. the pQ)lCn>gf&ifl number of <hc 
Diapur material.. \u. 8 (\\\o tetrads)) was. identical with that uf t)pical 
A. Montana. 

ACACIA HAKEOLDfcS A, Cfctfir. *.v B<m(h. in fftfa; 

var. ANGU5TIFOLIA (A. f. Ihvarr) J. J! Willis, combiiiatio nova. 
A tivitata A, Ctinn. kk llrnttt. >« HnoW., var. Ettijbrttifeftfl A J &tai1 

LLCTOTVPVS: VICTORIA— "Wlnpstick Scrub N.N.W. ot Bendi K o" 
aierb. i\ttiL-t', /, hiton* M Sept. IV^'J). 
In the Victorian Naturalist 40; W> ("Feb. 1924). the collector of rhi* type 
material, m flavvei and in fruit, wrote as follows; 

A hoW'O'dci '5 the rVptK^fl 6t tlw Wlup^tiftV. tr occtivs in t^-> t)i9rmct foTr.i«, 
\)Mt WWHtiieWpr f cd which these rvmarlcs :i|jply) haviuK very nnrtow ]fhylU«te». 
whilst the rarer form hi* brpQitfal phi HoOo rthO l-lrsct HQwcf beAtls icsriiililiuc 
ih^ narroiA'-ieai.^a form oi" A- pyrnantJui. A bu»»h oi this aperies in SuM bJeiHii 
•A mwund t»f j»ttre gold — is- a sAQ4^fFlU ^'glit. 

Paton was correct The udrrvw-lcaved, virgatr and bm;hy plant (3-6 I'l- 
UigtV\, which h ^uda a magnificent and Cipparently endemie floral feature over 

™?* ry ] Willis. Plaitt of ^fe««Kd wtJ South AnttmHx 157 

much »>f »bc Beinligo Whip-stick scrub, cannot he separated from Acoch 
luikraitfcs except in its labit, rather smaller flower-heads and much narrower 
phyllodc*; more typical and less Auriferous A. hokcttutcs also occurs in lhe 
■same area. 

Thai Ewart (.'.<:.) should have described the Whipslitk plant as a vatkiy 
of Atacin hj/ufoia. with "phyllndes 2 mm. broad* 1 flm complete dtagno&isj, 
is astonishing There *4 a *fi*y narrow-leaved condition of A. ti'jufotn Hi the 
far north-west of the Stale (e.g. in the Red ClittVC'ardross area) ; but tins 
variant, in common with all other forms of ,4. hyithta, differs manifestly 
iron* .4 t^&kcoVtt var. mtguttifttlia m its irregular icw-headed racemes, 
lunger -pedunculate head*, niombform pods winch are always hrittte at the 
constrictions, timber -coloured {uot black) seeds and yellow or reddish ittoi 
white) sigmoid aril which i* folded £-1 t'aucs beneath the seed 

<?) Hybrid oi ACACIA ASPERA Lintff. 

The plant recorded for the &vudigo Whipst'ck scrub aa "A twin sttcro- 
phyik l.indl." by O t Patoo \Vict. Not. 40: 202 <Fcb, 1924)], and thus 
referred by :.ubse<|Ueiu workers, clearly has nothing to do with that low, 
dense, bright green bush with longer, much thicker and almost flossy 
phyllodes. On the contrary, the fonner is. a dingy straggling shrnh to 5 ft, 
tall, with flattened granuLar-resinous phyllodes. It ii suggested that the. 
Whipslick wattle is of hybrid origin, involving Acacia ».«/»r>r7 as one parent 
T|Ve foliage and pods are certainly less bristlv than in this species hut the 
same prominent stipules (to 3 mm. long), and bracteoles in the flower-heads* 
(giving young head.? a Marvjikc appearance), RW prevmt Only a study of 
seedlings, supplemented by geuetieal research, can throw definite light upon 
t)us conjecture 

ACACM KETTLEWKLLMC /, //. Mntfai iu J r oy. So,-. NSW, 4$ 4*4 

A aWrn }. H Maiden $ \v\ F. ninety in /. tew $or, .V.SM' v> ;?* 
A. arvn+htfa. MiMikii & Hlakfly ( '. r - 185 On?) 

Acacto hrttftf&eHut was described (/.r ) from fruit snjr titateriaJ collected 
between HarrictiiHe and Mr St Bernard in nonh-ea^tern Victoria, »he 
description of flo\vvr> being taken Irom a specimen obtained at Mt, Buffalo 
by C Walter ui 1902 Eleven years later the author collahoiatcd with W- F. 
tilakcry in describing two other highland Acacia species from "Buffalo 
Mountains" — both of them also collected by C. Walter in W2. All three arc 
•closely related, and tt js a^iouislung tha», in »heir later diagnosis (drawn up 
without any knowledge of the [>0(U), these avuhors should make no mention 
of obvious affinities with the already*published A. kcttlciwltttr. 

In ibe fOM halfreiMUfy, only mic Ai^eciei ol sUatUx in lhe old jtr&dMtttJ* 
husifoim group has l>een found in the region of M*. BufTalo. Thivshruh is 
decidedly vanal^le in length and comparative width ot phyllode, decree of 
tjlautescenee, nun»bor (1-3) and si/c of marginal gland* and width of pod. 
In general, hrnad- and obtuse-leaved plant* tend 10 have more glandb (2 or 
even 3 per phyllode), while longer- and rather narrow-leaved conditions have 
usually ft single filand and somewhat broader pods. But iberc. is no constant 
correlation n? thefe cbaraiMer.s, and 1 regard A jt.v//(*coW/t^ a,s a polyjnorplnc 
species ol which A. xiwftcn ^n<S A. orcophthi are merely two manifestations 
— lhe former with a second or third gland, lhe latici wuh shorter phyllodes 
hearing single glands Such slight floral and fruiting differences, as occur, are 
inconsequential This mountain species extends aJso into south-eastern Nerw 
South Wales- — from the Kosciusko region to at least as far as Braidwood — 
with an apparent reduction in si*e oi phyllode* towards the northern limit of 
it* range. 

15S Wm.UA, flora of Victoria untf South Auxtratic [ V yal. T?^ 

ACACIA DECORA Kcichb,, 71827 (Herb, \TFX- R, A. BM. 10 Jan. I<«38l: Sugar teat' Peak, 
Vvarbv Ranges near Thnnna fMKl.— /•'. Motky, 20 Sept, & 18 Nnv 

The first records for Victoria or a uce that is not uncommon, in Wagga 
Wagga Oniric, t, KS.W, Affinities arc with A. O^ A, Qmn, (also 
occurring in the Warty Range*), but the inflorescences <it* A, rtYcn/n arc 
<jutl£ terminal, far exceeioug the pity Modes, and ibe stouter peduncles (lorry 
[c/. always tflHDi'Oili m .3. bt\sxfcik\\. 

ACACIA KYBKANENSlb /. H. M<tuk>n 6- (i*. F. Bhkch in J. toy. Soc, 
N.S.W-.aO: 1A8 (1927) 

#i vnuiAx 1. a AAhltin & W. F BUWety Uv "X67 (192?> 

^Ganu cptapftninft and ••!. encodes, with descriptions on adjoining pages ni 
the. same journal. were based upon types from "head of Tuross Rivet, 
Kybean" (N.SAV.) and "Clarence to Wolgait" in the Blue Mountain? 
(N.3.W.) respectively Pods of the former sfriH&s were not *ce»», bur (he 

authors claim this to be "readily distinguished*' from A, arcades in its thin, 
lanceolate. almost acuminate phyllodes, smalt hairy stipules, smaller thicker 
calyx and much larger si/e (o-8 i\,, against 18-24"' n\ A, or*od-ts). These 
differences may hold for individual plants, in idolater? pouulaitony., but puns 
found to be trifling *nd inapplicable when a rang:* of material is studied from 
Various localities, Iri Octohtir 1$48. I w3'« able to visit the very type locality 
(Tuross River head, at Kydra Peak. K/bean) m .•{. byocanctuts. Specimens 
from slender shrubs about 6 ft. hi«h were collected; later they evoked the 
following comment from >1r. R H Anderson, Chief Botanist »nd Curator at 
Sydney Botanic Gardens (B/7/N5J) — "a very Rood match for the type of 
A. arcades Maid. & Blakely, with the .tniatl thick phytlodet*.'" So it seems that 
quite typical /-J, QVfttfof (as to phyllodes) can occur almost at the spot whence 
tyi>e. A. hybcanensis came! It is clear thai pwc species- only is> involved, and 
the original diagnosis of 'f. oreorf#x probahjy tweet, \r> unusually small plant*, 
dwarfed by environment. Since the circumscription o£ A. hyhcauensis better 
fits the more usual appearance of ibe JiKrei-cs, tins name is now chosen for 
retention and the other relegated to synonymy. 

Ill addition to the above highland localities in New Sotuh Wale*. A. 
?;ybea\u-nsn is hef-c rtcofdcil for the first time as Victorian. ft.s. . on the 
mounrom road henveen Wulgulmerang and McKillop** Bridge [Snowy River], 
about 3 miles, iielow Little River tally (J, H. vfattit'fk A*. A. Wakefield. 
17 Jan. 104A — exc-jrtlent fruiting *pe<imciw ) ; on mountain slopes at Freestone 
Creek, north of Briagolong, (F. Mueller, Feb. 1854). Both collection* arc in 
Melbourne Herbarium, and the tatter very old one bad been filed under 
Mueller';, ms label 'Acacia btt-rifolia var. x'cintinu"_ These Victorian repre- 
sentatives exhibit larger yhytjodes (to 2" long) than m either of the New 
South Wales type*; but the hoary pubescence on btanchleis. mttore-Kcoces 
and yuuiUjj foliage is exactly the same. In view of the recent collection of pods 
(on the example Irom tiear I. title Rivef Palls, V*ic-) ( Matden and HlaVely's 
description given for the fruit of A. oreades — they had not seen pods of their 
A. k.\>t*ctui>ct'St3 — ma> he ■.upptementcd as follows : to 5 cm. long x 2 cm. wide, 
very flat, glaucous, hearing up to 7 oblique fcu transverse (not hmijiiudinal) 

ACACIA 1-RK.ESLENa /. //. tYWi*; 

species nova ^*; nftinhatr. //. fRfIati(UB$fak R,Kr. Jt» Ait> sed ditfefl sic 
«tatura nuiioie, cortice heviore. phyllt;dns suhcinereis quae 3-4 neryxis 
coiispicuos parailclos esnihet. iteduncutis mam'fesle hhsutis. Ilonbtti. 

lae-te rlavis, uuetu fcrmo recto <nun<iuain spiraliter involute*) et pr»«ci- 
pi\c 'crmm* arillo alhido uw ad bx$tu softjnts restrin^Hur, 

I'ACATIQ: VlCl OKTA (in MiuntiJ^us oriemaJibu*)— "Rciuli Crock ne>ir 
Bonang, on forest ranges i//0L0TT/ , L ? .S cum IVyritM*? in Tlorb 
Mtllv—W-'. filmier, he|rt. 1940): 'Toley Range in Melb. & Metrop. 
Board or Works O'Sbannasiy Re*cfv<, about 10 talks nonh-essl of 

Warhurton, at upper limit of Iiucalyf>ius itynans forest, about 3,500 ft. 
J ± 1100 m. altj" (PAh'strrPf twin (ructibus in Herb. MEL. NSW— 
y r7 «^«(j I* Feb, 1954) 

StrtAll .montane or suhalpine forest trve 3-0 m. JKkW ft.| high; bark oh've.- 
rufescent, rather smooth (neviT roitfth and hSsurcd a* in A. vnrlnnorjhv 
R Br. ) . branches dense, the ultimate brauchlets wu/ttlar and ujabrou*. Biptn- 
i»atc ioiiAfif discarded after the fir^t seedling leaves wirhei\ PAWfiftftu greyish 
(from a minute innate mealiness), 10-16 x 1.5*4 rm., narrowly to broadly 
fusiform, aetite or subacute, conspicuous Jy petiolate: gland small and obscure. 
3? junction, of petiole and blade (a& in A. mefanQjyfoit) ; nervation consisting 
of 3 or 4 vety bold, piomiuePl, paiallel veins U/. 4-t>, seldom prominent. t« 
//. yttslattttxylnti], Ffirioet-hruds globoid, hrighl yellow, about 30-fhnvered 
(not pallid-creamy and with up to 50 flowers, a* in A- wchw-oxyfou'), each on 
a eomuicutn-itriy wbitc-hajry peduncle VJQ rnrru long \cf. minutely mealy in 
A $itr fatt-ovy I &tt] {luih'iiiiujf fhncers 5-partite, 1.5 rmil. louy at expansion: 
subtending bract eole broadly snathuhte, shortly granular- fimbriate, CVnVr 
■with obconie lube half as lone as corolla, broadly- and shallowly-lobed at the 
■summit, with minutely lacmfoic and slightly granular margins. »Vtffi polyadf 
40-55 niic. diameter, composed of 10 grains, Pad 4-10 rm. x 5-8 mm. t linear, 
straight or slightly curved [cf coiled and often twisted in A. vwhno.rylo?;], 
hardly constricted between the .se-crk, pale brownish, subcoriaceous bm 
flexible, SV-fi/f up to Hi, longitudinal, black and shining, elliptic, about 
•C s. 2.$ runt , aril white, entirely basal, teeming a double, often sigmoid luUl 
beneath the seed and passing insensibly into a Short funicle [4*/. the lonp 
rtddbb aril which almost surrounds thr seed in .1. ui*tan<>.vvhn\. 

The new special has hitherto been miidewnoined in Viaoria J»i a (oiw ot 
BladoVOOd t -ffOOrt mflatwxyhn'^ with ^liirh it jppfrjflftimcs ^rows. AHhroigh 
superficially similar in habit and Coliaee, it may readily l>e disti'iguished l>y 
the nmch SflfoblHcT bark, greyish phyllndcs, bright yi-llow flower-heads on 
hairy peduncles and, especially, by the ^moll white aril which U merely a 
ha^al atachment and does not embrace the *ccd. At present ir appears to be 
confined to moutwue and Mtbalpme sittwhous (hente the epithet *'Jttg£t$1wP\ 
in <4IWj1 Victoria. In addition to the t^vo isolated type localities ttiven above, 
this wattle ha-, beftii noted a* abundant on slopes of the Haw flaws and Ml. 
riur-iall-Tooroitgo forfeit 3rra. where copious seedling- resrrowth followed 
the disastrous fires of Tairuary 1939. 

*\CACtA Qii'JUSlFOLlA A. OlifMC in />•'</ Ceo#r Mem. j\.S W. 34.S 
£Ajif, mS) 

A \"t\\tlkth Su*j. c< DC F^Odr. Xyst, Hat* V2cjiM t'cu- ?' -»5* <A'ov. Ift2jj 
BmUi Acuom oWttstfoltn and A. mturtcxta were s^nouyt»ii»ed by Renthsm 
[J'tora s\u& 2 J98 (18fi4)] h* nierc forms, w»'b narmw and liroad phyllodes 
^e^prdivtly, under typical A lotigif»li>i (Andr.) WtHd. That they are in- 
separable specifically has hecu con firmed through a recent earetul companion 
of types a( Kw by Or. Ronald Melvilk (I l/ll/l^S), and the- name 
A, uu-.'Kjriyo/ta must stand becnu>e >li- valid publication antedate* that of 
A. wtcrttxtti-hy r.even mouth? in 1825. Bui Hcntlum was incorrect ui as*un>- 


VVicris. Vhnv 0} Victoria ffitii South twtrat'M L "VolSp 

ing identity also with A. fongifoh'a, which has rather rhin-tcxturcd and often 
acute phyl lodes, bright yellow contested flowers (appearing Ul early spridfc). 
petals united in lower third and only slightly thickened at apices, nodf almost 
terete ftnd thin-walled A. ohtit&ifolia, hy contract, \* quite, distinct in itr thick, 
leathery, blunt pnytlodcx, pale .yellow or creamy flowers (produced in Jong 
interrupted Dpikes during mid-summer ), Petals almost or entirely free and 
conspicuously bossed at the tips hy a strong thickening, pod? somewhat flat- 
tened and with leathery walls abuut I nun, thick- The latter us typically a 
ironiaiic specie* (very common in the I3lu^ Mountains, N.S VV ), extending 
from south-eastern Queensland to far-eastern Vivtoria, for which State, it 
has never been rtenrrlcd previously. 

Occurrences in Victoria are known from till Genoa district. \U. Ellery 
region and across the Snowy River lo Rutcher's Ridpe between Buchan and 
fielanripy — ap|>arentlv rt$ western limit in the State. Good examples tu 
flower and unit, at the Melbourne Herbarium, were collected ar about 2,01)0 
feet qomc 12 miles north of Murrungowar, along the Cores! road toward Mt. 
tilery (A H. WiUis & J/l A, H-'ah/tcfd, 29 Dee 1951). 

ACACIA PKNDULA A. Ciw>,.. in, (, Do*u 1832 

Henty HiRhwav, 5 miles south of Warracloubcal, on propertv of 
Gordon Smith Cllerb. MEL— M'. A\ IVovd, 3 Mar. 195J). 

This record establishes the first undoubted occurrence. <)t the 'rue Myal? in 
Victoria, although silvery A. pcrninla is well known in parts o( the Riveriiia, 
N.S.W. About hr*=i a dozen very old spreading trees, with Hreasf-hctght 
diameters of 18", are all that now remain of what must once have been a more 
extensive community: loral people call them "blackw<»ods". The writer's 
attention was hrst drawn lo ihe occurrence hy Mr. A. J, Gray (ioriner 
Superintendent of, the Wimmera Forest Nursery at Wail), and it. is remark- 
-able that these very isolated trees should have gone undetected by any botamst 
during almost a century of settlement in this part of the Stare- Several times 
1 have followed up reports by settlers lltat clumps of "Myall" existed near 
the. Murray River (chiefly In the Goulliurn Valley district), hot in every 
instance the surviving tree* turned out to be A. koM\oioph\'iUi ("Varrarj") and 
not A. pauinia, 

i To ft/ CMU'titdvd) 


By i_. A. S. JOHN&OW*' 

1. In montane forests of south-eastern" New South Wales and eastern Vic- 
toria there grows a specks of Prrsttgnui wh>ch has icuatopd iindcscribecl. It 
has been confused *Aith /'. confertiftora Renin, and with P. luctdn K.Br. The 
latter, described from Hie Pvrt Jackjuti district, is quite unrelated and is pro 
bably a hybrid between l J . Uruis (Cav) Oonhit, (t. tafiima I'ers.) and i'. 
Hiiftiris Amir. 

This speries w>H be i»Ay discussed in a Tortheommje; revision of the- eastern 
Australian species of Prrioonio-, where a full list of localities will fee riven. 
The following diagnosis is here published to validate the name for immediate 
use in Victorian publications. 

PKRSOONJA SLLVATICA L, Johnson, sp. nov 

TYPUiCAl ION . Brown Mountain, near Littleton, N.S.W*1e3« E, Bclchr. 
ITJS93. HOT.OTYPE (KSW. No. 20978). fl. 

Arbuscuta. vet inilex } 5-7 m. alius, eorlice cotnpocto laev»qwe. RAmuli 

*irgar> leviter anguUto-striali novelli pubesceutcs rnos. glabrescvvUev. rube- 
sccntes vel purjturascentes Folia conacta IM00C glabret*:eutia. oppo^ta, suh- 
* NW'Omp» Herhanum of A>w Nooth Wiks. S'ydnfi- 

\w?J foi»>'M>N, 7 icy* .Yrcc .V/vrw of Prtsvenin 161 

opposite ahertuve, adsccndentia, subsessiha vel pane peiioliformi ad 0,1 cut. 
longs tcnui \'i_v applauata, oblougo-fcutccoUla vcl aitguMe )aiu.voUi.3 ( rarius 
oblanceolata vel elliptic^, subsessi l»a . A-9 cm, longa, O.u-1.8 \2 0) cm- Jata, acuta 
vcl obwsmsetda semper ftisco-muer unau. oliracea subtor pathdiora. plana v-H 
niargimbtis levissime rocurvatis, venk nromimilis vel subntascum, rare sub- 
trifilmervia, Florcs m ratc-niis :«b1irevi^lis {ad 1,3 cm svd imclige.r is lougiotft- 
hos, ad 5 cm., rharhidibus >ubgUbris) r 2*i5-llorij. avillaribos icrntituhbusvc 
vel raro uuuiudli eornni soUterh in axilltA Mioruni vel lwaeiearuiii, in pedi- 
cel tis breribus i,0.1-u\.t cm.) pnree if rruKmeo- pubescent ibus vel cfobris brae- 
tei« deciduk brevi$ubulat»s sublets**: tepaUi Aava 1. 2-1. .J cm. long* brevity 
can«J;»u cxtus gtiwa (;;; typo!) ve! pare? breviteru.ue fulvo-pubescewa, basin 
versus (wih autheris> eoustricta j amherae 7-0.K cm hmgac. gland ulat dc;v 
tHurrnes incut vae persistent?* vcl tiiti'Tdum in pedicdlis vetustmrihus dccidttriC ; 
ovarium stipitatum fclabrum, glaucrsoens Drupa pruiiH»$n uvoideo-globularis, 
*<f 1.5 citt. long*. 1.3 Ciu-tfassa, bfeviier stipitata, stylo gracili circiter 0,bcui 
Icings (mterdum suhreflexo) coronara, 

f\ sthnthep differs from P. ■ronierliftorn in the taller, alien nee-like Iwfctt, 
narrower leaves, slightly shorter flowers, the glabrous or sparingly pubescent 
tepaLs and the usually lest condensed fofl6rcsctijlc$£ 

2. A second undfscribe.d species is found \u iVit- foot hi IU of the Australia! 
Alps, from the southern pari of tUe Australian Capital Tenitory to the vfc« 
torlauj Alps Tliib will also be treated in detail in a later publication, Loi is 
here describe*! as inllnurs* 

PERSOONt,* SCBVilLUriNA L Johnson, &* m>v 

T\PIFTC VTTON : Island Bend, Upper Snow.' River, K.S Wales ; G. \V 
AKhofer, UIV54. HOLOTYPE ( N3W . No. 2u7J2), "IMS ft", fl 

Frutesc vcl arbusciitri 05-5 im a)his. Ramuli sulie/octi v'tx an^ulati VClufTwo 
tontentosi, oovclii saepc feirivgmei. l-olia altenta rel suhuppOsitft, otov^io 
oblauceolala vtl elliptica, 3-4 em. lon^a. 6-J.3 cm. Jaca. obtusiuscula apicc 
rotundata vol miituie ayticulata, versus ba^in atteniiata rji»am-jv*\iiOHta. iii*r 
pntiur: rccuTvis. ^Tiia mcdiana ulrin^ue jtromiiiula. laterahbtis lore olj«uri5, 
supra virivliit siibter pHlJiJiura. nov-clla uirmqiir *|ritiiusculc pubeueeiititt saepe 
S(tbvelmitia. landern fcr* 1 glabresccntia, svppt minute papillosa. Fl-ircs a,sillare? 
U'i'm' ft:iralibus rare obsote&centi'Dus) solirarii, $ub5e«.«iJes vcl in pedictllis 
brevihus I-D2 cut. loiigis (trudgen's 0.3 cui. auiiientibiis) velutints, crccti; 
tcpala 1.1- 1. J (1.4) cm. longa, brevissime caudata vel aviicutala, «uh autheris 
nlif|tiant(i eoiMricti, theu)t! iulvo- vcl fcrniymeo-pi.i|j»:sceniia; anthciae ().(*$ 7 
ein. loin'- '■■ ; glandular plus minus ve truiicaUe, proiuiimlae, |»err.isteiitc.s . 
,.| nmi Niij;ii.Hnn», L-.l^bnini I J edtceJH tructiferi sober ecti UJ cm lojigi Onipa 
subgiobosa, 13-1.5 cm longa, Q,9-,1.2 en*, lata, arropuxpurea. s)auL0-prtniio^3 
irius rVi^i'^ctei^s ex spectmin? V r ictoneti5T in rW6. MF.L — "Pig River 
between Mt>. Nelson and Bugong'\ circ, 3.J00 pcd. all., leg. I. H. Willis, 
13 J.1946V 

A species of distinctive appearance, hut little l.viown, this ha« been coix- 
(used with *"P\ rcvofnio" S»eb, ex SdU'U. et T {= P -mollis 5<.p.), P covftrii- 
ftom BeiHfi. uutl P. ur/'<ir,v F. MuelUnotie of wtiich it jMrlicuterly resp'«ble$. 
It is distinguished from all other S(K*cif5 by ill* lombhmion of Strftll Itaify 
leaves with recurved Titar?ius, glabrous ovary and short pedicels. The flowers 
are. much shorter ih.ui Ihose of P. afhor^t. 

It «as a close alliiuty with i } riptm K.Br., which has not been recognized. 
"J'he short pedicels, rather long flowers, glabrous ovary and payillo*^ leaf- 
surfaces are characters m common. However, it is re^rtily <listinguo.hedl fri»m 
P. riyida hy ilie leaf characters (not sjiatliudate 01 so markedly aiteunate at 
tlir base as in P ru/ufo, not incurved-spreading, more finely papilloie-scaberu- 
lous) and hy tlie ntitch shorter velvety pubescence of branchleu, leaves and 
tepals, U grow>> auicli laller than P, rtyitfo. ai least at times 

162 the Vkfyhn ft&famUil Vol. 71 


By Ma»y D TrKDM-J?" 1 ' 

.4<NlM SSLVliSfKiS TiiKlaic sn. iwv. 

Arbor 7.5 Jti m alia; fimco griseo, Iwv* , ttflnttfis juveuililms pilis argen 
iris tiei^c puherulis; ramulis vix cosUtiv; foliis ptmiaiiK, S-lS-HtgU, fetaadulft 
nut i ji;/;ilihii< J-3 glaudula parvy *d basin pinna rum inter ptigos mferiures 
foli&rthii ; foliolis i£.VMngi$, 4-X mm. longis, 0.8-1.2 mm. latis, an^uste taiKC- 
oUlis, supra jglabhs. mlia tamper lere -pubescent' bub, apioe acuta, margmibu* 
abaci*; floribus ftovU, in racernis, capitulis globoM*. circa 20-uom; calyce 
mpulari, mintmn. panic aiifciilatn, cihatu; |H-tahs 5, tih+*riK. glabrta, ac litis, 
calycis longUudirtcm circa duplo mpf rantibus : ovano glabro; kgnmine stioi- 
Uto, luteari-otdongo. (>AZ «wfi> lottgu, 06-1 cm lato, glauco, 0SrtV imWttlo, 
inter wmiie eoustricto; sctnimbut nitcrix, longitudinal) hus*. fumcutn jtnimim 
rilit'onin Icmdc in arilhiui pilcifnriucm super scttiinis apiccni intcrcra^ato. 

Hohtfypc; Bodalla Stale I v orest, west of Naioonia, 1(X> it. alt, spreading 
tree 2,S to M) fl high, flowers yellow, hark dark green, when mature turniruj 
greyish, H. F Cnn-ttablr, Kl.9.1953 <\-SVV. 25649), looted in the National 
Herbarium, Sydney- 

Tree about 25 to 100 ft. high: trunk grey, smooth; young braikches ilenselv 
pobcrulons with silvery hair-*; brunches scarcely ridged; leaves pinnate, & 
to Ift-ju^ate. With 2 to 5 jnterju^ary glandi, g small gland at the h-isc q| the 
iowfr pairs of pinnae ; pinnules 2°- to 38 pairs, 4 to 8 mm long, 0.8 to 1.2 mm. 
broad, narrowly lanceolate, glabrous a'(*ave. mostly indecent bHow, Hie apex 
acuK, the margins ciliate; the Mowers yellow, in racemes, fine heads globular, 
about 20 m a head; the ealy* cupula*, very small, slightly angular, filiate, 
petals 5. free, glabrous* acute, twice, as Jong as (be calyx, the ovary glabrous, 
ihfi pod srfpitate. linear-oblong, 6 to 12 cm loitg r G.i> 10 I cm bread, glaucous 
scarcely puberulous, constricted between the Jseedh ; the seeds black. longitu- 
dinal, the funicle hliEorni at nrst, then thickened into a fleshy pileiform aril 
over the top of the seed. 

Dittnbntioti Lower South Coast ot New South Wales and Efetit Gippsland, 
Victoria. New South Whiles : Kotlalla Stale Forest, H. C. Buckeridgo, 
3I1.I95J (NSW aft77); fitft), Sunny Creek, height 50 (t, grey WotUiv 
hnrlc, M. fiowyer, 8.9J95J (NSW. 2^76> Gulf Creek. Nerrigundah, 150 
O. alt., erect *prea<rtr«e ttoe. 25-30 U. high, smooth Iwrk of light colour, £. F- 
Consuble, lti.9.1^ "<NSW 2nfr74) ; ditto, U. C- Ruckeridge, U.19SJ 
CNSVV. 35&7SJU Quaama, Slater, 11.12L1VJ4 (NSW. 8656). VictOffa: 
5oo\vy River area, near YVulgulmerany, alxiul 2,000 ft alt., on rocky outcrop, 
N. A 'Wakefield. No. I'lSo. 17.1.I94S (NSW 4886): Nowa No\va. Prmets 
Highw-iv W Hunter, ft. 1940 (,N r SW. B642) . DeddiU. W. Himier. 11,1940 

This spring-flowcrinp sperie-S forms miite. extensive forests in BaHt Gipps- 
laiiit. Victoria, m New Soiitll Wales it is found in the County ol 
Dampier and southwards toward* in* Boga-Brogo Pa** on Prince's High- 
way, a> well as being scattered fahly generall> in Bodnlla State ForeM ami 
in Crown lantU w€6t to OelOWi'y in the Turo*s River basni, east oi the Main 
Divide. It will grow on low ridges, in gullies and ou steep slopes up to 1,001 
ft in alrituuV lint it t* crmimonest on the hillside*; of sleep gulliec and over 
the Siiddtes of a ridge. According tu Afr. RuckiTKtge's field noics. A- siiveztti& 
favour* slate formations, whereas .^1 mflf7u.nwtf is nredominatit on granite 
country in the Rodalla State Forest. r« onen count ry scattered trce^ grow 
short trunks will* plenty oi hmbs oul generally it ^rows to thickets wliich 
prodnc* tall barrels uu- to 60 ft high clear of limbs. Mature trees grow t<i 
60 or 8(> It- in height buL sometimes up to 100 U Vety jieqv> leereneration 
follows bush fires but without firet, regeuerdhon is practically tid 

* \'*i..nixI ii.-.s.. ■u.-ti. Sydnrt 

A, iftvrstrtx is more closely allied to A. dcalhatv Link than to any other 
member of ibis group of b»viini>at<- wanks. However, in A. dcaWtUa the pods 
are quite glabrous instead (w puberulous, although they arc of a <Jark bluish 
colour just as in A sihwsfris. There i* a single gUnd ft the base of each fitfr 
Of pinnae in .i. dcottmta. whereas there are 2 to 3 interjugary glands as well 
as a small eland at the base of some of the lower pfffta o( pinnae in A. sihcslns. 
Til the Utter .species the pinnules are slightly larger, being 4 id 8 mm. lon»» 
and 0.8 to 1.2 mm. broad, while they arc mostly IS to S mm Jong and 0,2 to 
0.5 mm. broad in A. HtatbittA. The markedly acute pinnule* ot A. vh^stris h*-£ 
a diagnostic feature of this species, distinguishing it from other members of 
the A. ifccHrrt'tts-A. mOtlhJattttt group in eastern Australia 

1 wish to acknowledge with many thanks the very helpful notes on the habr. 
and habitat of A. sihvjctrij; supplied by Mr, H. Butkerirtge of lindalla Stale 


A. roiuvdiftdui Hook in Hot M<uj : (1843), t 4041 

Synonym: A. obtiqua A. Cunn. ex Benin, in Hook Loud, fount t 334 
(1&42), non A ahJu/m Desv. in Jourtt, Bot. 3: 67 (1814). 

A- rotundifolia is characterised by obliquely obovate or orbicular, mucro* 
»ate, J -veined phyllodcs about 4 to I in, Jong. The globular flosver-heacls are 
borne on solitary or twin peduncles which are often longer than the phyllode:; 
This species, which is spreading shrub about 2 to 5 ft. high, occurs ui South 
Australia, uorrh-wesieru and north -eastern Victoria as well a* on the tabic - 
lands and western S^Oftf* of New South Wale*. 


By N. A. Wakkfikui, Noble Park 

Genus 5CIKPUS; A H«w $p*tt«i ol rti* Stctio* 1 wlepii 

SCI FPUS V1CTOK1RNS15 i#, wov. jSep. Isokpis inserenda : planlae 
anmiac culmis caespjtosis erectb usque ad 12 em. altn,, folii laminae 
usiiue ad JS mm. lungae vel saepe absenies; sniculae plerumque. .1-4. 
Jo mm. lougac, hractra us<me ad II mm tonga; glumae ovatae, palUdae, 
carinatac, aO apioon paulutn rccurvatae ; stamen ), styli 3, nux cam*, 
aiibglobo&a, circiter 5 mm lonjca. pautum 3-costatn, granulosa. 

UOLOTVPE: Wimmcra, Victoria; h.<j. F. M. Reader. 1891 (MEL; 
duplicates to be sent to K, BR!, AD, >JSW*).' 

Erec-tly tultcd annua], culms to 12 cm. lone » leaf-blades absent or up to 
15 mm. long ; ^pikelets usually .1 or 4 f 2-5 mm. long, •£ cylindrical ; subtending: 
btact 2-11 mm. long; flumes narrow, the keel prominent, (he wings always 
pale, the apex spreading a little, hypogyuous bristles 0; stamen 1 T style 
.Vfid; nui subglobuiar, .4-.5 mm. long, .3-. 4 mm. wide, obscurely 3'rihbed. the 
face* very convex, pale grey, regularly granular (the comparatively large 
Mirface. rells somewhat raised). 

Distrit'utinu : Victoria — Central, northern and north-western areas uf 
original savannah forest. The species should occur also m adjacent pans of 
New South Wales and perhaps of South Australia- besides the type collection, 
which most likely came from near Dimboola, there are ihe fallowing' speci- 
mens in MEL- Ridiardson River (north of Stawell). Wflj Dr. Cm-die, Glciv 
donald Creek, about 3 miles north of C'cswid*. 3/)/19SJ,. I?9 J H Wi^K & 

* MEL— National licrfaarttim uf Vittuitfl, MtOidiiriM 
K — Koyiil Botanic Gardens, Kcw, Enelaml. 
NEW — National .Hertuiium *>f New South W«1t& Svdiiev 
ill- i — Hotline Museum .>nd lUrb^rmnk, JL.'.Im.:-- QuccihUiiU- 
-\1>- — S<atc Hcrl»rium of South Australia, Adelaide. 

1t>4, Worn of Vutmia: New Species, etc. [?$$£*' 

R, V. Smith; Cunhowcr CTrcck (near Cohuna), teg, Tietlcens ; Wcrnbce. 
hit. FuUager; Mooroopna. 11/11/1942, teg. R. A. Black. 

Mo? I of these specimens had been confused with S\ austnttieusts (Maid. 
•V Befchc) 5. T, Rl-alce This tatter Has a spreading hahit ; far more numerous 
TOtns; -^pikelets fewer in each cluster, smaller, somewhat reddish; and the 
nut is acutely triquetrous, usually much Ion per than wide, and it becomes 
filially pale orange m colour. .S. o-'Uim/fV^/.v belongs to arid areas (north- 
western Victoria to south-western Queensland and Australia) 

The Creswick collection wis reported at .V congrous (Nees) S. T Blake. 
iu Vict. Not, 09; 1^0 (Feb. 195J) , which species Nw broad hyaline openly 
reticulated wings to the glumes, ami an acutely triquetrous nut. This. plant 
extends from Jar-western Victoria (near ^H. Arables and T.cwan Sliirch to 
West Australia 

In habit and the appearance ot the inflorescence, .5*. vtetorit'nsis is not 
rceognixalily different from either SL pfoiyoirfins S. T. Bfake or S- o/n>- 
wrptts S. T- Blake,; both these however have 3-jtnminate flowers; and larger, 
sltiny blark, differently marked nuts. 

Genus PULTtNAtA: Tw« HerheMe Unrecognised Specks 

tHiLTENAHA PLAIYPHYLLA s«, nov.. e.\ amnitate P, tctusve 5m. el 
P (ii*pMiou1t?i WeivJf. Kerf aib utmquc a rharar.tcrihus scqucntihus dis- 
tinguitur: foliii elliptscis, liiurginibm; planis (hand recurvatis), apicc 
cniar^inato (nee rel»i=.n OpC tnilt ronato) 

HOLOTYPE: Ml. Tarrengower, near Maldou, central Victoria to, 
Kcv. W C, Tippctt, October 1*21 1&1EL). 

Svn. . p dppfylpi/ici car jHtrwflorn H. B Williamson (Proc, V$V, $$*. 
VitJ. S2; 212). 

Tali bin nb; leaves elliptical, \-l cm, long. J-6 mio. wide. ur>f>e>* surface 
giabi i-jij: and concave with the midrib not visible, margins Hat apex rounded 
and indented, underneath with the midrib not very prom mem : ftoweis in 
terminal hracteale clusters; hracis broad, entire; hracteolc 1 ; high on the 
calyx-tube, strap-like, pubescent : calyx densely pubeiccnl. 

Distribution . Victoria (^Giampiaiis" ; Mt TarreuKoiver ' WarLv Ranges, 
T. Mnrley, Sept. 1945; Eldorado, H. B. Williamson, Sent 19. 1920; Upper 
Murray District C i'remh Jut.. I88GJ . also New South Wales. 

P, plfltyfrhylhi- is not closely" related to P, daphnoides Wendl. The Inner 
has the leaves cutieale, truncate, mucronate. with recurved margins, ami the 
midrib is very prominent beneath aud a little so ahove; die hrarts are trifid 
At the apex with the middle lobe pubescent, and the bracteotes are lanceolate 

The new sprites is similar to P. stricta Sims ; hut the latter has the leaves 
smaller, pointed and recurved al the apex and recurved at the margins, and 
its bractcolcs arc glabrous except on the margins, 

r*\ pfatyfthvfla h mos* elosely related to P. retnsa Sha . ; the latter differing 
in having Ita I -margins recurved, apex of leaf truncate and ± bilobcd. and 
lhe flower*; and leaves of the latter are ahout half as h\% as those of the 

PVL'fE\ : AEA AMQRNA Sk*. ex ft, A. Wakefield sp nov.; P. iino^hyih 
Stlirad pro.vima, vtd dilTert Soliis liueari oblongis. supra g-laferis apjee 
suhcmarj?inutis et liracieis rulesccntihus orhicularihus, atfinis / J . rrrifttr 
Stn a <|i»a h^ lrtf>^ semper pubescent! apicc vi\ decurvaio el braeteis 
persir.tcntihus trilohalis f«cilc coguo$t:itur. 

HOLO'l YPF: Soec^nien at MR1 .. labelled "Pultr>utr<r W4wftri S*ct/\r, 
Sieber flora nov. Hollandiac N'o. 4I4". 

JB53 J W.AKrriTXt) I'?*n* of jWftyrfc Win Spews. c;r. ]6a 

P. tilMpbyifa *ar ontccno DC, {Prod, i: lit) <s evidently based on one oi 
Siebcr's. duplicate*, or" tb? same :>pecie$. 

Botft Stendel (Ncmot. hot., eV. *': 4I&) and Bemltam (Pf AtufU, 2. 113) 
u*ed Sirber** specific name in synonymy, lint a Ii33 apparently not hulietO' 
been validly published as a. s)*cics. 

Lmv, sparse shrub; branchlcts shortly vdtase ; leave* l>mNK-nUnti£. abopl 
6-12 nun. Inng. and 2-4 mm. wide, glabrous al»ove. margins recurred, aprv 
short and recurved, underneath *parselv villose; flowers in terminal hracteate 
clusters; bracts orbicular, equally pubescent, 3-lobcd tthe cejiual lobe 
vdlo*e). reddish-brown, persistent; calyx pubescent : bractecles high K a ihe 
calyx-tube, filiform, villose. 

DtsTrihtUuiii I South-eastern New South Wales and eanetn Victoria. AjI 
well 3s .Siebcr's specimen* irom Hie Port Jackson area, there are in the 
Melbourne National Herbarium collections of P. awoata irom Ha/elbro"k. 
Braidwood, Wagong* and Twofold Bay — all in New South Wales The 
species was apparently JJfst collected in Victoria by C. £L Grove, ai Orhost, 
nboul sixty vears ago (Melbourne Teachers' College Herbarium); and Inter 
at Welshpool Ujo. A, K Cameron. 27/7/194$), at Caw! River (N.A.W. 
Nos. 3M0 and .1497; about 1946/47) and Upper Genoa kivcr (N.A.W. No. 
.1189, 25/9/194$). 

P. (tMiectia \i similar to P. Hitc^hyih Schfad ; but the laUer lias longer, 
narrower leave* 0*2 cm. long, 1-2 mm. wide) which are pubescent on their 
upper surfaces, ami Us bracts are oblonp. blackish and more coarsely pube- 
scent. It has <K>t been possible for the writer to consult either type material 
or the original description of P. linaphyttii; but it is assumed rhar Smith's 
interpretation of the specie* Ua 7f;nu. Lain. &$$. 9: 2A?) is correct. 

Both these specie? are quite distinct from P. nuitsti, the last having fclabron- 
Icaves with the apex broad and truncated and the midrib never recurved. The 
allied P. strirfa has the lea* obnvate and with fi strong recurved apex, while 
the inner bracts ("and those of P witi-ia also) are entire and fall early letting 
the flower.'. loose, 

Genu* SPY INDIUM; Two New $p«efe* 

SPVMDfUM ClXliKEUM s\>. nov.; S. trtpyttatft (Reiss.) F, Muell. 
ajfims. seel differt foliorum apinbus lationbu?, fulioruni lobis later- 
ahbus obtusis (sine apice inclnrato), lobo medio ± recto fnon vaJde 
rccurvatoL pilis stellatis in superncie (nou simplis), ovario villoso 
(mm hwiter pubescenti). 

HOLOTYPE: Coastal heathlands near Mallacoou aerodrome, far-eastern 
Victoria* N, A, Wakefield No. 4334; 24/1/1957 (MEL; duplicates to be 
-cut tuKaud NSW J. 

Dwarf shrub 5-50 cm. high : leaves obcordale Up to & mm. long and 
,S mm. wide T apex with Large entire lateral lobes and a ania.ll ^straight acute 
central lobe, niargitis strongly recurved, upper-sortaces densely stellate- 
tomencosc, undcr-surfaces with looser lumentum and penni-costate; iurloces- 
cence terminal, eyrnoae; floral leaves (ehy-\vhtte. mostly similar to the stem- 
leaves but a few sometimes tsmall and entire; calyx, and ovary densely villuse 

Distribution: Victoria (Mallacoofa and Grampians). 

S. eittcrfuw was first collertcd by Mueller, in September 18b0, in the 
type locafity, and was. identified as S, i&fl%4mii&i (vkU "bvittrauct of the 
Genoa River, K. Mueller", in Pi. -4i«f. > ; 4Z?)i Other botanists have gathered 
it since at the same place, for it is very abundant there: and '-juitc recently 
it wa s found in western Victoria (Flats K.E. of Grampians, Jan. 1937, Us. 

166 \v ^KftrtEi.D. WW of i'lctoriit: ATdQk Specks <tc [ 

Vtcl. Nut. 
Vol, 78 

A J. SwabyV It is not known to occur outside Victoria, but il should be 
found in the extreme south-east of New South Wales. 

S. ±vr?y{taccniit lias leaves less broad at the apex, with lateral labes 
tcrmiiuted to £ short callous, point ami the central lobe strongly recurved, 
and with the upper-surfaces invevted with simple hairs. It is endemic in 

SPYKIDIUM IftTtBSff &$. (lov, ; 5. spaiJwhto <F. MuelU P. Muell. 

ex Oeiitlu simile, sed rccedit : foliis breviprtbu* (usque ad 3-7 mm. 

loitgis) oblartceolatis (noti spathulatis) ad inargines placiis \jiOti te- 

curv&usj, super nciebus indmut'Tito daiH© appreMO obtcctis (non glabrr- 

9cen4ibu&). inflorcscoiuia eytnosa (now clongau*) 
HQLOTYPE: Specimen m MEL. with data "Sandy Scrub, Watcrhouse", 
presumably irum Kangaroo island. South Australia. 

Leaves oblar.ceolate or obovate, up to 5 mm, long and 2 mm. wide, tM 
apex acute and + recurved, both surfaces invested with dense shiny appressed 
vestiture (shorter and tighter on upper surface) ; stipules lanceolate, entire. 
glabrous; inflorescence cymose. leafy, the individual flower-dusters --3 mm. 
in diameter;, floral leaves creamy white, broader, shorter and less pointed 
than the normal ones and with loose vestiture; bracts broad, reddish-brown, 
papery, a little pubescent ; calyx sparsely villosc. 

Distribution ; Kangaroo Island* South Australia (*<■.<?. Waterhouse, 
Tepper) \ and north -western Victoria ( Shire r>{ Lowan, leg, St. EAov 

/.. uititfum- 'a (he same as the S, ^poUiuhtnui var. uturnpfiyHum B-etub 
iff. Autt. J: 430), the type material of which may be » duplicate of the type 
specimens of the former. 

S spothufatu-iti has the leaves spatluik-dc, ± glabrous on tlie upr>;r surfaces 
and with the margins strongly recurved, and the inflorescence is elongahxl 
along ft central axis. It occur?, in South Australia and possibly in Western 

Genus: HI8BERTIA: A New Species of the Section Euf ibbertlo, 

end Sfime Taiconamic AJjustmont ta M. btlfccrfieri f , Mtfcll. 

Hl&BEKTlA SPATtWLATA sp. nor. Sect Rukibhertiat (sens. Hen- 

thami) inservnda — coins spathulans ct carpclli3 3 t omen tow — ex a.frmi- 
tate H. hcnnanUfoUas DC, sec\ rccedit: lolii* minoribus fetn>is cost* 
percrassa; induincnto miuuto perdeiwo. pilis omnibus stellat is sessili- 
bu.^Quc; florihus mmoribus subse&stlibut-. 

HOI.OTYPlv: Towards Snowy River, cast of Butchers Ridge. eastern 
Victoria: Iff. N. A. Wakefield,' No. 4S32, September 10, 1935 (MEL; 
duplicates, to be sent to K and NSW) 

A diffuse shrub to about 4 ft. hiril and 4 ft. wide; vestiture (on upper 
Stems, both leaf-surfaces, and the calyces) a dense mat of minute, sessile, 
\t el late hairs: leave* spathulate, normally about 8 mm. long and 2 mm wide. 
thick, the ape* bilobed. the margitis somewhat recurved, the upper surtate 
green and with a shallow longitudinal channel, underneath Whitish and the 
midrib green and much thickened, flowers lubscssiltf; stamens numerous 
(normally about 17), surrounding the carpels, staunuodes few (normally 
Tibout i) ; carpels J. tomeniose. 

Distribution: Apparently endtmk but locally abundant m 3 small area 
(detailed above h on a rocky slope in porphyry formation, at about 2,500 fi. 
elevation, associated with H, tmc*$t\s var. <'N/(j?/y/w, in a forest of Eueatyp* 
hts jh?(whwk. A curia f>yc>umtlm and Acocui &hlif$ifv!i$. 

>P mT 7 ] W***W«tf. Ftoiif of Vift&fc* ^ .Sptcicx, etc. 167 

M tjr&lhtflqk) was originally discovered by tin* writer no January 22, 195-1, 
bus il was tiol flowering at the time- A second visit was made to the same area 
on September 1 0, 1955. to collect flowering specimens, nnd though it was 
;-umewhat early in the season, a lew precocious flowers Were found And their 
characters ascertained. 

The species is closely allied to TJ. ficnunn mi folia DC. of eastern New 
South Wales. The latter has leaves much larger (op lo 24 mm, x 8 mm ) ; 
rounded a* the apex, lh< nudrih Thinner; the flower* arc .larger and stalked 
(peduncles up to 15 turn, long) ; and the wsiHure is looser and of larger 
somewhat ditYeieni Visits (nornr simple, some 01 the ^Icllatu i'*tn*» stalVed) 

Two sp-ecies are involved iu the material classified as H. vithtifwri F. 
Muell. by Bent ham (M. .4»«rr. 7: 28). Thcic are as follows. 

niBBflKTlA AS-PERA DC £|tf, U&\ 1- 430 (ifc|S) 

BttA> sh«*ub, upper >tenis densely stellate zt\f\ somewhat long-pilose; leaves 
from narrow to broadly obovale, apex rounded, margins normally only a Utile 
recurved, upper surfaces aiperons- with small tubercle? and small stout 
stellate hairs mixed with a few long pimple ones, underneath usually whicisll 
and densely sleltate-lomentose: flowers on slender peduncles usually with out* 
reduced leal -or Iirart under the i alyx ; sepals ahout 4nmt. long, invested with 
both stellate and simple hair*. 

Distribuli'tn ! Widespread nH south-eastern Australia, ironi south- eastern 
Queensland 10 Vasni*ni» and SOJflln AushatiH. hi aoulh-vseMerti Victoria 3M<\ 
South Australia, the species lacks the usual loupf pilac, and tlie common fonti 
hi Tasmania has larger leave.* arid les.s pubescence. 

Both Plciirontirf? ri)}?w and ft purvifloro, holh of R.Ri. e* T>C. Ms-' 417. 
<1S, are apparently synonyms of //. (Hffi'M. 

HIBBUK'JiA ASTtiROTMCUA !>eU ex Snreiig.) uomb uov. 

1A31S.U Synonym: Ph't\rnndrn ayhirolrit'lHi Sicb, ex Spreiis;. ')<■$/. Of 

Equivalent Synonyms: PU'ttrondra ovak* Labill. Nov Holt. Pi &pfft Z\ 

5 I 14,1 (ISOlJ) ; PlcHfimilr* xcahra R.Br, ex DC fe?.: MS. (Roth these 

specific epithets arc pre-occupied In Whhertia.) 

Sprawling, long-branched shrub; upper branches reddish, bearing fii>e 
stellate hair* and longer setae; leaves obovale to elliptical, usually ±-ac»lc. 
the margin* a little recurved, upper surfaces scabrous with pale tubercles an J 
lOiXfij setae (but no stellate hairs), underneath glabrous or with tiny hooked 
hairs on the lamina (bur ncine. stellate) anil the midribs bejff£r»g stellate hairs 
and btistles; flowers on long slender peduncles; calyx setiferous. 

H. *UTi*r%\ttretui is almost co-extensive with H. ospt'ra, hut it does not occur 
5<1 western Victoria :»r South Australia. 

Genus TIEGHEmOPANAX: A Mew Species Allied to T. sumbucdoloiuv 

llECtfF.MOi'.Ms'AX MULTN'iDUS sp. nov. ob iunoreicentiaol T. som- 
httojvtio (Sieb. ex UC) Viguicr affims, ned dififerf foliis bipuitiatis 
vel cripuuutis; pinnis ultimis eirciter 2 mm, latis, plenirnctue puuMurid**: 
pintiuhs atque loins acutmnati:;, mafghtihtifi intc^ris. 

HOl.OTYPR- W Tree, lu m, north of Buchau. Victoria; HAM. No. 
4833, 2.V1/19-V CMI3L duplicates to be sent «o K ( NSW). 

Bushy shrub, usually low, rarely Jo several feet high] leaves hi- to tri- 
pitinatc, the pmuae (sevoiidiiry and ternary) mostly irregularly pinuatihd; 
the ultimate pioitulei and lubes about 2 mm wide, acuminate, with entire 
margins ; fiosvtr^ and fruit as in T sfln\bitfif&fin£ (Sieb. ex DC.) Viguier. 

168 VVAKrraa-n, Want of Vkiorta; Neiv $ ft civs, tie* [^v^.w* 

pistributtmi: latent Victoria (Mr, Little Dick, near Bnithen, Little 
Kivtr Kails. Wulijulmeranj* ; Mt. Tara, near Bnchan; N*>wa Nowa* Mr. 
Buck, near Orhost; etc); also in *outh-ea stern New South Wale*. 

Typkal 7". MimbuafoHus ha* the leaves once pimme; the pinnae are 
lanceolate iu ovate, acuminate, and with margin.* regularly denllc'ulatt, 1)01 
[Huufltifirl or lobed- This occurs iu New South Wales, from the Sydney-Blue 
Mountains area to New KtiRlaurt 

What is regarded a-< belonging to T. sawhucijoCuts in Victoria, differs- "from 
the typical plant tn having the teai -margins entire, not denticulate, and the 
leaflet* are obtuse or ± acute but not acuminate, This ranges from centra! 
districts iMt. Disappointment, Dandcnong TVanges, etc ) eastwards (Delatitc 
Kivcf, Wilson's Promontory, Mt. St. Bernard, Cann .River, etc.) into New 
South Wales. In (ho atp$ and xtibalps the plant has primary pinnae usually 
linear and obtuse, occasionally only 2-3 cm. long and 2-3> mm. wide. Tin* 
development occurs also at lowtr elevations, where it grades into the typical 
lowland form which has lanceolate to ovate katlcts (occasionally even as 
large as 18 x 13 cm.). F. Mueller applied the ijaJticg Paua,\- vttgusf if f/Iiur and 
F J dendroider respectively to these two forms. The broad form is- occasionally 
bipinnate, with up to about twenty lanceolate pinnae each 3-4 cm. long; but 
such secondary pinnae are not narrow-linear, pirmatind or lobed as are those 
of 7*. >"i'lhfi(fus, 

AH leaf characters mentioned above apply to the foliage of mature 
(■flowcrinc) branches. Leaves of juvenile growths arc less dissected 3nd their 
leaflets may he ir regularly lobed ct coarsely Scolhett or ^ regularly 

tn sunilt-t^stem New South Wales and eastern Cfippsland, where T jam- 
bnafo(ins (forma) and 7'. \tiuHifu1\us buth oo^ur :»tAuKla»Uly, extensive held 
observation over a period of many yeaTs ha*, failer! to reveal to the writer 
any intermediate states or connecting links between the two. 

Genus aSTROTRICHA: A N«w Specie*, ond Comments on Irs Allies 

ASTRQTRICHA PAttViFOUA sp, nov ft) fibres socio A. U>H<*Hoc DC. 
conionnans, sctl jam distinguitur foliis pcrbrevibm angustis (6*15 x 
1-2 mm.) sessdibus nitidis reflects haud auperis ttuberctili pauci inarui 
a ditmt ) . 

HOLOTYPR: Near Providence Ponds, eastern Victoria; /r* T. S. Hart, 
15/U/19L9 (MEL; duplicates to l>e sent to K and NSW). 

A small, erectly branched shrub; leaves crowded and almost all refle^ed. 
sesstle, 6-15 mui. loitg, i-2mm. wide, obtuse, the margins somewhat recurved, 
upper surface shiny and smooth except liar several large tubercles; vesuture 
very sparse and loose, aoort disappearing from the upper stems and the 
branches of the inflorescence; flowers and fruit as in the A- kdifvlia ffroup. 

Distribution. Apparently eiulemie in the dry sandy country of east-central 
Gippsland, F, Mueller collected it 'between Latrobe ajtd Merrimans CreeV", 
buth on April 26. 1853 and in November 1854; there ft D further specimen 
from the type locality (Providence Ponds, kit. ftuth Clarke, 4/11/1951) ; and 
a third area for the plant is indicated hv a j-mall specimen labelled "Avon 
Country, June 1955" (tco. W. Cane). 

This species belongs to a group of closely related forms which have usually 
been retarded a? the one species. The other Victorian representatives oi "he 
group arc as follows: 

A, ledifotia DC— Leaves flat *hoM and oblong to lon£ and narrow- 
lanceolate, a* mm. or more wide, the margin$ hardly recurved, the upper 
Mufaee dull and .nimrtely ?>cabrous; vestituie a tight or loose mat of very 

Fi ?w ry ] WawiWn. Mow i>f f irvwa.- AVv S^Var^ r*fr. **> 

small hairs It grows about the eastern highland; (from the Daitdenong 
Ranges to Mount Buffalo and Mount Ellcry) and in \ r e\v South Wales. 

A lint\rris A. Cwui. c\ Bci^ll?- — Lwn'es narrow-linear, mostly .3-6 cm. long, 
L-l S nun. wide, the margins £ revohttc, the upper 3111 fact ttuN and minmcly 
scabrous-; v«stilun* a deine mat of minute hairs. This specie* ii recorded Erotfti 
Mount Macodr.n, Ov»:tu River and Mitchell Kiver, bW it is trmhi in Mew 
^outh Walts 

A, ojf*crifohn R Mno-ll. ex Klatt. — Leaves linear, 2*u mnt. wkk, the nUr- 
g.»sis strongly recurved, ihe upper surfaces aspptous wltlfl mffflCRftft Urije ^m I 
small lubcrdc*, ; restitute a loose mass of comparatively Urge hnir*. It is 
widespread m the State, bong plentiful in the Grampian an a, m rfjf moun- 
tain's of central Victoria ami in East Gippslaiui- 

A\ rnwsijoffa W. V. Blakcly — Leaves 2-3 cm. long and about 1..S mm. wide. 
narrow-linear, the margins rooluie, the upper surface shiny and completely 
smooth; the vcrtifur^ * tight felry mar, Ji t * re *l tided in tliii State to llic 
Snowy River valley (Sllggan Buggan and the gorges eas-t of Butchery Ririgo-}. 
Ttui Virrorian occurrence 01 the Specie* ha* smaller leases than does the type 
form from New Suuth Wale*. 

[t wish to thank Mr. T. H. Willir: nf Ine renjfljnai IJeitar'Urt vf VicttX'ii ftyr 1ii5 
intere>l ;ti this research ami kir hi* (Vrtg&ttfiaii -of 1H1- Unlit; diagnoses in ttir paver.] 


By Makv 1>. Tjnuau* 


<{Houk. et Grev.) Tiwlalc tt. rotnlv 

\j putMcd 001 to me some years ago by I)r, R, Plchi-Sermolft, there *r<- 
two inccics or Pieurosorus in Australia, namely the conmtou P. rutijolins 
I.K. Br.) Fee and another specie* which Appears to have been generally over- 
looked m Australian fern literature Hooker and GreviMe j» their /rou/r.c 
Pfiityflt* (1827), t. yO, described (tyutuoyrawuta mhghu(fulo40 I'roin a speci- 
men collected by D. Fraser in Australia (without specific locality). It is 
usually a larger than P. rutifolins which S»j characterised by finer, lunger, 
Jcrru^mous, non-glaivJular-tippcd baits on the lamina, rhar.his and stipes. In 
P. s;<-bfjliht'du1osu.<! these hairs are ferruginous but glandular-tipped. Roth 
ipfcie*. have a Wide distribution in Australia, being found under rocks and 
in roclc crevices. /'. rutifoiius occurs in the drier parts of Victoria, Mew Suuth 
Wale>. QuwnBUild, Tasmania. South Australia. Western Australia and tin- 
Mortlicri) 'J>rn'tory, whereas T have examined specimens of P. subgf audit laxux 
from sill of these States except Tasmania. 

I have not sees the type of P. subghtntiutosux, but the illnstratiuns of both 
species (especially the lamina! hairs) ill Hooker and CreviMe's fcours Filicum, 
Plate? 90 and 91, are excellent. 1 have examined the holotype ut P. rufilohus, 
mmtely "il'erwrnt, Rif<lrJt {Cuvi*> ( Tasmania, K f^rowu Ko. 7, 1802-05" 
(RM.) which has t* - o specimens with glandular-tipped hairs mounted by 
mislake on the idtnc Shod 1" ill!! JJutyitf at the Kew Herbarium the Jaminal 
hairs art uon* glandular. A tyiucal specimen of P. rutifotins \va< collected by 
J„ A. 5%, Tohmon and V., P ConsMble at Beaumont Hill, 36 miles west of 
Cobar, K.SJK. on June% 1955 (NSW. P7230 ; K. ; US.; UC . T.. | RM ). 
The onlv Victorian tpecuuens of th& species which J have seen, were 
Collected at Euroa. Lencva and Ml. Wychcproof. 

Reprc:sentative specimens o» P subtfhvdulosu? are as follows: New South 
Wales— Slopes of Ml. -Naman, Warrumlmngle Mts-, SJjM fr, alt., untler 

•NartdTfel llethaiiuni nf New SoulU W-jtc;. 

170 Vinuaia. A New CombmaHou in ftyu/ittlMl f V y*j IB* 

moist rocks, Johnson ami Constable, 18.4.1952 (NSW, F2776) ; Pinnae's 
Mountain, & mfe. worth-north-west of Crenfctl, 750 ft alt., ni rock crevices. 
Constable, 2U1W& (tt£>W. P7475) ; Jeuolan Caves, \V. R Biakely, 8.190O 
(NSW. F4578) ; Broken Hill, A. Morris. 5.M920 (NSW F4.W). Victoria— 
Ctoltetn, K. E Williamson. 12 1900 (NSW. P58AJ. Queensland— Wallan- 
g&rra, J 1.. Bowman, 4.1914 (KSW. P4S97). WtbWm A»*t'PlU — Gooseberry 
Hill, ttatlhig Range, A. Morrison, 16,7,1904 (NSW. i75u>6_K Northern 
Territory — Standley Chasm. D Symon, No. fSQ, $6rfcQ5& 

I wish* in thank lb*- Keepers of Botany at the Kew Herbarium and the 
Bcituti Museum of Natural History for enabling me to examine the speci- 
hCtt6 o( Pl4nVowrns in their collections. 


By Ku«.a!.ie Rknnkit 

In tfetJe <&$* $ disappearing native rtora, it is heartening: io discover thai 
the "Will to live' persists in a rcmarkahle manner evtn in spots where !l»c 
annual tiurnmg-ofF Tnifthl he experte/i to destroy m<isl living things. Twe 
plares in mind are suburban railway euUinjts, particularly those oh Ow line 
trom Sandrmgham to Melbourne. Kpt years ft has been a delight to see- oW 
lavotil 1t€fr flower as usual each spring, and bo notice how much of the iivdige 
nous growth manages to survive. v**« include Tea-trees {/.£/>t0.r/tr*ruf>$). 
Wattles (••iftft'm loHfjifoiia, A. arm*ila\* and others. A beautiful specimen nr 
Correa. the so-called "Native Uuschia", about three (eet high, still flourish;:.* 
near Bridge Street. Shroaks (Cttsu&riuii) and Booby.sdla fMyof>vntrti} grow 
Ircety near Btighton Beach, while ar Middle Brighton and at Prahran a 
pleasant surume is our Common Maidenhair (Adii\n(uu\ Mihioputhti) grow- 
ing beneath the coping-«tone' at the edge of (he platform. 

Various euoalypts, pittospni UCn& and hracVen may be seen as for in as 
(rardenvate. From Kippowlea towards "Klstcrtiuick is a very interesting 
patch* where Sweet Bursaria (&. a{>ow&i) and Running Postman (Keuntdya 
prostmUi) are to lie r-eeji. Immediately around ElsttiflYHadc station, on both 
tides of rbc line, is worth a study in itself. Some specimens gathered there 
weie scut to Mr. T S H«<rt fen identification; be replied 

The Elsterrnvick plants arc a reminder of the Did days when we would 
ocwuiivn-aUy take a walk, on the way home from a school M Balaclava, to> 
Brighton, The hill at the railway station cutting may Ik: regarded as quite 
typical of the soils resting direct on the red beds. A tree on the opposite side 
which 1 have not viewed at elosc nuaners is apparently Acncia impfo.rit by 
its summer flowering 

"Pimeieas— P cunjifhw* wit\i attentate leaves and small enrved yelluwibli 
flowers — is o«uite typical of this class ol country. Dt. Sutton did not have it 
on his first list of Sianriringbam flowers, hut 1 mentioned it to him probably 
ffppi the path ai the trip of rh** bie r.uitiue at Brighton Reae.h atation. Resides 
the Hlsternwick cuMme; 1 think you would hnd it at ihe cutting between 
KoOiam Street bridge and Ripponlca stniion, The yimetos survive well, partly 
because the bark is so lough and not leadily eaten oft by >tock in tbe vaddocks. 
and because the railway conditions suit anything which will stanrl burning 
nrT and will shout again from tubers i>r rhizume»i or a woody Tootstnrk. The 
shorter pimeka is / J . hntrttln, rather SQtnftt bracts larger than the leaves and 
item hairy behind the flowers. It is possrble that P. curviflnra h actually 
becoming more prominent, but » eo«Ut easily have been overlgoked a? that 
clasx o( country was worth dealing tor cultivation and was little seen on 
our usual routes from Cheltenham to Sandringharii 

"The '_*verUbUng seems definitely HeUchry&lUb apiculotUHt. The very slender 
plants, stems scabrous and square, ^eems to he flalanynis. species, nneeriain; 
Htilof a {fi& is bwi called Raspwort. 

•The little ciHtinR half * inile SB. Irom £l$ter"wick was mtferent— 
bracken and Basawa. cmcrta — and more tandy *' 

F.iauury j BfJlflCKTT. .Vl.niW of \Ulihc RAUlfe 171 

After Elsteruwick and Ripponlca the natives Ite&frj to disappear and except 
for aii OCCSWiO^l eoeatyot, a bank op. the Windsor side of Balaclava RfctfWW 
ihrubs 01 various kinds, bui evidently mostly e&cai>ecs torn the ^aniens and 
jurklandn .«bovc. 

This h*t is of course incomplete, as it is difficult lo recojfnue all species 
irom a movinj? train, but what arc in evidence are sufficient to raise hof>es 
iluu all the native* which were once widespread in the district may not 
disa i>i;»ear entirely. 

One wonder* ft it auoM he jiussiMe to persuade the RaiWvay Oeponmti'.t 
to maintain auri p)ant more indJiereTirms species which were chardtKrislJc of 
the districts through which me ii«es mn. Such plants r.vel** require any 
attention vikien once established, except to he left alone! 

(The "Jumping- JccV J w 3 nle • 

fcy k. V. Smith, National Herlxiriiim ot Victoria 


species nova iit&ignis oh phyllodia tigma subteretia Dfowinenler nervals 
piittg¥JiTia<Hie * (■ottftividew Beritlr. periuiiCtioTc simulaus. .sett w 
cfcaracteribuA sequentibuR facile disthiguitur. hulritu depregso late 
diffuse ^u^que ad 2 m.) ; tfrrfMftj 'caArlui aPute ohyllodiomm) i-cabti- 
dis; phyflodn' articuio {sine nulvhio manifesto ad caulcni decurreuti) 
et apice puugenti subito et oblique wutoftctuj p tittoiVtofis erdsaoribfra ct 
dense pilosis; fiwihns majoribus, sepalis latioribus. pctalis acutirtrihrus. 
fdamentis multo lonp'oribus ct dciisiwa imricaii*; fttitlu inte&miifofmi 
sed complanatn, in piano tiuo iterum atque itenroi rurstim-prorsum ad 
?e flexo t plica toque (in ruodo ruiraliili "jumpine-jack rrackf-r" pcrstinu 
Ian*), si exietidatur ±30-40 X L>3 mm. nn'ticnti, margunhus periiidu- 
ratis v^lidioribus , semine sine fumculo cvidenti. 

Vef/otio; VlC'fOKlA— regio West Wimmera, in traclibcs desertis inter 
Khill ei ScrvipetaM. 

TV" PI in Hero. MEL: "Buck-shot gravel soils ot railway reserve about 2 
utiles west ui Diapur, where line 3>a;-*cs through Law foil Range" {E*U 
Mmr—HOLOXYVVS cum fructihor- Dec. 1950"; PARATYP1 Dec. 1950. 
at cum floritms Sci>t. 1950), 

A low sprawling bush up to 2 u. high, but spreading to 6 or 7 ft. in diameKf , 
with bahaniie aroma Phyltodcs rigid, spreading, narrow-linear to almost 
terete, up to 4 cm. long and about 1 nun. wide with elliptical crosi-secriou. 
articulated al stem In a PrnfiJJ rough thickening, the apex contracting .suddenly 
aild obliquely mcti a rigid puiiycnt point, .V^rrurr raised and prominent (some 
bolder than others'), 5 to each facf, with 1 on each sidr forming cdjcje ot 
tihyllodi', strongly ni.^tked witti asperities and bearing tines oi ininule inter- 
veuinr£ glandular projections. Stents Rtrottgly ribbed, the ribs marked with 
closely Spaced asperities. Fiowrr-licods gloludav, in axillary clvfi?TX4 6i 2 or ? t 
with ratlier prominently projecting birds. t\uiu).H*lrs about 4 mm, fcliff, rather 
thick dcn&ely silky-hairy. Phnvcrx about 20 pet head. S-parute, Shtmrns 
numerous, mucb tettCEc than flowors, densely intricate. Petals broad-l'oiceolaie 
and noioted. ScfiflU brai-dl.v *pathulate, with riliaTe-ronKbened tips. Pads are 
the mtjist stnktng feature ot the plant, bearing a remarkable resemblance to 
an inrpstine (hence the specific epithet; . albQ to a nre-ci*ncker of the "jurmjHnfc- 
jacV sort; they are narrow < about 1,5-2 mm. vvidei, somewhat flattened, 
compactly folded backwards and forwards (in one plane) about Ave linic^ 
slightly coiisiri'-ied between the s^eds, witb scaUet^d 5*tr»ace hair« and a pro- 
mniemly thickened pale- yellow margin; total length ot the folded frwit 19 
about I M0 mm., but, n cMended. the actual Ivnglh would be 30-40 rum. (rach 

\?Z Smith, A RenH*rk<tOie New Acock* [ ^, 5> 

U -shaped UM is 5-6 mm. wide). Sttdt <l*ik-brown 10 black, dull. smooth* 
About 3 nun. lotiff, with large caruucle ; they lie longitudinally in the pod 
and occupy each <il its horizontal folds, the funicle appears in lie extremely 
minuic and inconspicuous (ticver with a folded aril). 

In its ripid, nearly terete, slronfily nerved and npQgerit phyllodes. this plan* 
resembles A, wthtitndes Bomb., but it differs markedly from litis :li a iwintber 
of important characters, contrasted as follows : 

1- tn A ctfllct tildes the phyllodes are pnmiiiirnf ly articuUled tO a d«*cUfreitt 
"shoulder" which projects boldly from the stem, the nerves extending rifcbt 
down to this clear cut articulation, in A, cntervwrpn the articulation is ob- 
scure and almost right against the stem, from which the nerves are separated 
liy a somewhat thickened base (hut there is no prominent "shnuhler"}. 

2. The nerve* in A. cfatMibtitct are smooth and 3 to each face, whereas in 
A, tnurocarpa Oiey are scahrid and 5 to each face. 

\Nfjte — The ijir. nystophytfa of A. cotieiivules ha*, numerous tine nerves on 
rarh face, hilt pxactly the same, curious articulation as in typical coUetundes. 
Further investigation may justify its recognition as a distinct specie*; but 
it is no mure connected with A. enhrocarpa than \., A. cothuioktes itielf..] 

X The tip of the phyllode in A. caUvJimtlex contracts gradually, and is 
almost straight, whereas in the new species it contracts <juilc suddenly and 
lends to be oblinjuc. 

4. In between the nerves of A. coUetioictes are s-ttoii papillate hairs, white 
ju A. cntcroawpa there are minute glands. 

5 Stems of the. Inrmer species are almost smooth, nr ai inn&t very oh*.rure|y 
lihbed, while in the new one they are strongly ribbed and scahrirl. 

6l TJic podi are aslom&iiiugly different : in A. cotUtioidts broadly flattened, 
*dteh<ly constricted between the seeds, only gently curved and twisted, bill 
distinctly reticulate-veined on the surface; in A. cnterocarptt they show Ibe. 
? m n -te- and extraordinary folded structure already described. 

7. Seed of A. ct-ih-tti-nJes is similar to that of A, vnU'fotarpa, with a pro- 
minent caruncJe, but differs in having a long funicle (doubly folded beneath 
the caruncle) 

8. Peduncles of the flower-heads in A. cntktioitfcs ace slender and almost 
ftlabmue, while in A. anivrocftrpa* tliey are thicker and densely hairy 

9. In the former plant, the petals are spatUnlate mid blunt, sepals wiih 
narrow cta»vs and spathulate hoodeu laminae, while the stamens are neither 
dense nor much longer than the petals; in A. cJffr*rjbtfi?f£g the flowers are 
larger with lanceolate pointed petals, broader sepals and the densely intricate 
stamina! filaments far exceeding tlic pc«K 

10. The habit of the Iwo species is different, /). coHctioirfcs bentg a small, 
erect, densely branched tree, while |he other is only a low widely sprawling 

Although Mr. Hric Muirs very complete and excellent tojite of type 
material (from near Diapur) first drew my attention to this remarkable 
wattle, he was not the first to coiled it A number <d earher collections had 
reached I he Melbourne Herbarium where, Ibey were wrongly determined as 
".f. tvltetioidcs" — none of these, example* are in fruit, so the error is under- 
standable, following are details of these previous ch\ lections ■ 

I Setviccion <Mt*s* Turner, l#8V~ ijmall frafmrn*). 

1- NMl (SB. F.ttty D'Atton ,tl/.VIM>7— now) Hwmi.ik mateiUI). 

*. Yarmc. ahoul 19 ntlfes iv.W. of ^hill tT £- 6co>vV- July 1V4A— 

H<iw»ring lraKmenl). 
4. DiapUf, 0»» erav^Hy north* m ottr-nsmn of Caw-loir Ruint {.4. /. Hicti, 

Sept, 1949— fragments) . v 

T8? 1 *] 7 '"' ?***■*« Nnruntlht 17.1 


By A. li. Couut* 


AC All A (.LfCtFOU/t (,SWij/>) CftHtf, eoipbmatio imkr- 

Wimpia »U,-ifoiui Satis':;- Prfdr. Shrp. $2A (17*J6>; 

41. /iu:i>rri»a Vent. Japt, Mohn, ?:t. 6* US04>; 

.Acecta junipri'iva (Vcjfr ) WUlcL 5>v PAMl*i •#: 104$ (2806). 

An examination of Salisbury'.'; original description of Mimosa ntictjohu 
and his manuscript notes [5u/i,s6nry Unnvwys and Manuscripts Vol. 2. 
jL 1431 kindly transcribed by the British Museum of Natural History sup- 
ports the contention by Beniham and other* that Mimosa ulicifofm and Acaaa 
JHidpflfVia are conspeeific. Since the former of the two names U the older 
and store it was validly described by Salisbury the new combination, as indi- 
cated, must" or- made under Art. 65 of the International Code of Botanical 
Nomenclature (Stockholm, 1950) Unfortmiarely. no Salisbury specimen of 
Mimasa utiei faint has been located,, but he gave as the type locality and 
collector * Spontc naseeutim juxta Port Jackson^ solo arcnosa regit. Hav. 
Burton. 1 * 

ACACIA BROWN IT Stead. r.t DC- Prodr. 2; 449 (J825). 

fctenlhani [Ftor. Aush 2: 332 (1864)1 reduced A, brownii Steud. c* DC. 
[Prodr, *?: 449 (1825)] to a variety of A, miiperhia and cited the following 
as synouvms : A. l\cu uteris R.Br, ill Ait. f. [Hurt. Kew. ed. 2 5: 460 ( LfiJJJi 
non Willd . A. frujiomjorma H Wendl - [in flora 1819: 139 (1819], nou 
A. pftijiuuifnrmis H. Wendh [L'tnttm^til- .4n/r. 38 t. 9 (1820)] : /f. brmwin 
Steud. ex DC I Pnulr. 2 449 (1825)1 : A. arcattlun Spretig. I'm/. IVo, J: 
134 0826)]. 

DcCandoHc cues Sieber n. 463 as the type of .-4. brozvHti, and a duplicate ot 
this type is in the Melbourne Herbarium. The differences belrveen A. uHvifolia 
and .4. JHMperuui var. bnnvnn are sufficient to regard them as different species 
and, accordingly, A. hroxiwri will he restored as distinct specifically from A 


H A fwyumifw tuts H, W**ndl. FW lSl0 ; ftp (1819) proves to be con- 
specific '.vitJi A. broivmi Steud. ex DC, then the former name, beimj the older 
of the two. must he resurrected; but, i'or the time being, A. brewtui will he 
the name used for the low sprawling plant \vhkh hitherto has been called a 
variety of A. jtinifierhia. 

Psrief notes on these two species follow: 

A. broxemi Stead- ex DC. — how swrawtmg shrub, nimly more than 18 Ihrlips high; 
branches fila!rroit=; jihyilodes quadrangular- terete, distaiit, spw:adinj?, sdipules small ami 
deC4dViQlts', fav>ci'-!icAda solitaiy, decj) df4il£c-velluw, Locating S*pR'nib*r-Novcml>cr. 

A , ufirifolia (Sal tab.) Court -HigM shruh 3-(i nmt b:gh; <t ranches pttbe scent \?i 
fnaat towards their extremities); jihyliodes distinctl;- flaMesied vei"ticAH>, often rrowdttl; 
mpOlei; s-mpill and jtertistent i'lftai'i' heud'; sulii.*r;' F trfrani> jelli>w ii\>i>e;ir:ii(r ab early a» 
March and pcriiStir.^ as late a* ScplemlKT. 


MufH.) C.xMirt, rUatu.5 noviis et comhiuatio nova. 

.Vr/eivf'ia»inM-5 tji$u$ux V. Muelt. r'irjt. 0'"'- fof< PW- & L ^- J - (I8W)* 


174 Cdlm'C, Nomautittiu'c of L'ictormn Dirntykdoax ffcja 

in his original deacription F. Mueller gave as the distribution of Euia.tia 
di$ti$u "trow the Flinders Range and St Vincent's dull towards the* Murray 
River ami in the region *A Bacchus Marsh " Several sheens of sjxxitiictis «l 
this variety from these localities bear Mueller's writing, but he did no! cite 
any particular specimen Ziv the type. Accord i ugly, the specimen in Melbourne 
Herbarittirt with lafcet "eollectc4 on the journey through httCfjW regions of 
South Australia as far as Mt. Remarkable" [translate*! T.atin ) by MuclI<T 
is cliioen as the fectulype foi Ihis variety. Etrtoxia uiitrophyMn vai. diffusa 
diftcrs doni the tyjiiral (omi tu the following fcator<s . iinn-spinfscmC and 
erect habit (usually .V4 feet > ; more d isiaifct leaves, which arc ohlong- 
lauceolate to rhomboid; much ft*fcr yellow flowers, which elo not show 
obvions red veins. 

LOTUS' CWjENTUS Cton'/. nomen novum 

Lotus M*tc\Uc>i< NcMeclUetliM in LutoMt* 7t- 453 <IS4S), non t. twittCH* 
Velloso FJor. btntn. .115 U*2Sj ft 7 : t. U5 <I827K nee. /.. mmt'ir-.* 
FiKll. Li *I« t>ul. Sftii". fclrc-/*. f<l! 59 OS3S"l6)- 

As a Later homonym Schlechtcudal's name Lotus tou'nuuts must be rejected 
and replaced by a new name. The epithet tweninsis here given for this tftt&IJ 
plant, which is found in most temperate ruland parts of A tistrrtlin (except 

Tasmania), in allusion to the colour of its Rowers — -the. keels are almost 
dark red. 


PttLBAUUM CLANDULOSUM H»ot: p w. BitLLATlhM U. k. Blatti) 

C'*urt, stains novos et comblnalio nova. 

pUbAhmti bulfatam ). M 6bi-fc in Trtno* AH 1 ! £ft! S -<»tjf, V0_ 160,1 ♦/ 


Several species of Pttctwtittm, btetaiiliiKg P tilaudnttysutH Hook., P- olKOrdo- 
turn Al r Cm in. ex Beuth., / ? . .cmi«w;af<>.r/on, Vent and /\ xtrttvphytiitm 
(ttenth.) R, Muelf, are often dihVnft to distinguish and sonic author^ 
particularly t*\ Mueller anrl Bentham, have expressed doubts about the specific 
merit of ssOttte o( these. Although leaf characters are the chief criteria t&cd 
hi defining most spevie_s of huphvhtiliitm, P. buHafitta J M. Black «s here 
reduced to a variety of P, <j(atrtitt4osutis Hook. The leaver of the variety are 
usually very deeply channelled, prominently keeled and without revolutc 
AftftYgi/Cte; those 0* the typical form are neither channelled, above uor promi- 
nently keeled below, but have lcaf-roaryins winch arc sometimes so revolute 
that the fewer surfaces ol the leaves are almost completely hidden. Ajrart 
from these differences, the two varieties cannot he separated from one another 
by any characters, except perhaps in the degree of hairiness on the lower part 
nf the style (which is stdtele-ntUFv m bulfatttoti but usually gfabrous in the 
typical form). There are no apparent differences, between the ventures of 
the two varieties. 

CORRUA HF.t'LLXA (LabilL) fcnl, jaro\ Malm t; sm)» t. 1.1 (180.1). 

1 his species, with truncate almost toothless calyx, was based on Most** 
■'oxerott- refiexnm. Lahtll [f''^.v. ?" <»0 t. 19 (1799) — pajge 70 in the Eitgh&h 
Edition of thii workl. ft is one o) ihe most complex in the whole of the 
Rutaccac, having been treated in various floras as C rvfyrb Sni.. C* tfCfMtl 
Andr. or C. rt'flc.ra t and has always been a very diuVub sr^cies to study- go 
far as Victorian specimens art concerned, it would seem convxiitent to 
'ecoRo^e four varlehe*., incl»*diii|i the Typical form. Three new combinations 
arc necessary and will here be made for three of these, vu-: 

C. RKFLF.XA {LabiilA Km/., var. TAKUlhAUIS (F. Mneit. e.r Hovk.) C'O'ft 
-Uln> A4VUS ct vuiiititiiuU\» rtuvu. 

C. njiihttaiii F. Mucit. ex Hook in Curtix'x Bot. fluff. Mi I. 4012 U95M. 

| {\hi«t, ^ouunrhhirr of Victorian- Diiotyl.'dflti.f 17: 

C. RKK1.KXA (Labill.) Vent.. var O.l.AHRA iUnttl.) Court, sum* nqiuft e< 
COttik'inaUo riuva. 

<. |liWfai Undl ha Mitch. Thn-r £r/irti IL Aust. I: 48 fl&38|. 
C RKFLEXA <UWt.) Vwt,, vai. PULCHKU.A <Af<ic*<iv i\r -SW.> fcVw*. 
.-rtarttiK turvus ft co»rt»'tniith"t tniV-i. 

I . pHlrhr/{(} Macltav ex 5\v«rt TMr. ,•*«*;. i. 1 flggf^), 

The four varieues may be briefly described ay follows; 

Vir. REFLEXA — Leaves ovate-elliptic, often obscurely iivd^tited, U*» 
tpjeinly reflex ou\ stellate-hairy at least on the lower surface; corolla 
Usually more rhan twice as lojifl as broad, yellow or greenish, pink 
or bitolorcd. (C*. vuhrti Sin. Exot. Bot. 2: 26 (1805-7), C m'tiij Sm. 
tr ISj t. 72; f. xfrccwsa Audr. £<?f. /te^f, & t <}5a 0811), teste 
Ait. f. gft"f T Hutt Kcfy J66 (1414)1* 

Var. C/WDJiVAUS (/•'. flff*^, &r Hook.) CaurfV-Leaves in isolated 
pairs, Hafr<jw-elliptiC with revolutc margins, entice, seldom reflexed, 
coarsely stellate-hatry, at least on the lower surface, and often 
rugose; corolla usually more than twice as tony a: broad, vivid 
scarlet with yeI*ow$reen tips, 

Var- GLABRA (ArW/,) Court — Rather uill shrubs of rocky declivities 
(sometimes riparian); leaves elliptical, almost glabrous on both 
surfaces; corolla al>out twice at* long as bread or leas, jrrceni*h- 

Var, PVLCHELf.A (Mnclay f,t .SV*v/> Court — Low shruhs of western 
heaths or limestone tracts (sometimes in arid Country) *, lca\C5 
usually broadly ovate, almost glabrous on both*; corolla 
about twice as long as broad or less, rosy pink. 

The difficulties facing syste-matists in dealing with this species au'se from 
several sources. Many garden varieties and crosses have been introduced by 
horticulturists, particularly in England, and some of these were described as 
distinct species early last century. The specks nsctf. as indicated above, is 
highly variable and shows j^iesi diversity of form and colour, H must be 
remembered that the four varieties, distinguished above, are only the more 
important ones occurring in Victoria There arc some forms of C, reflex^ 
which cannot be assigned to any one variety ^atisiactorilv. Perhaps^ a genc- 
tical approach to a study of this species, and indeed to the Menus C<)m>a in 
ceneral, would yield worthwhile results. 


3hhciy ms. 

A foTriia typica speciei (ex TaMnania) folio Mibrnlumlo— quaw 
lalo duplo longiore perraro superanti — atquc pacne mteRro (praeter 
ciliis marginibus.) recedit. 

HOLOTYPVS: VICTOR! A— "Grampians" (Herb- MEL— C. Wohtr, 
Oct. 1S88). 

This new vark'iy departs from the typical Tasmauiiui form of the species 
in having almost round leaves — seldom more than twice as )<m£ as broad — 
with almost entire margins (except for the cilia). 

The typical form of 7\ yloudnlosa occurs only in Tasmania, and can Km 
separated easily from mainland specimens On leaf-shape alone; it was first 
described by I.abiljardiere in 1806 from 5)>ecimciis collected In Tasmania. 


binaio uovu. 

Mriros\dcro,\ DhM Cours. Bat, Cult. «l, A }'- 777 (lAflJ 

176 Court, Xoutcmhhtrc &f Fittorfott Dkotyitdtinx t vSl 


M. rnitatosa WHU. /iwtim. P/oiW. //art. Snppl. 31 MKt3j, jioinen 
ilf, MWftfott WiHd. ex Link &?tfm. Pf««, tfPrA B*fW /: £7 (1822). 

Modern systematists working on the jrctiu5 Cvlf*sttwo*t. have overlooked die 
fact thai iVIeir/i.tiikrw rugnfo&n was not validly described until 1822. in 
assuming that the date of valid publication was 1813, they ignored M. marra* 
fmnctata. The description, kindly transcribed by the Director or the Royal 
BolEMUC Gardens, Kew, fits material identified here as C rntjuloxns. DeCati- 
dolle (Pvodr. 3: 223 (1R28)) indicates quite plainly that C. ntgulosat and 
M. vwtrnf*unctnl<t are eonsuccihe and this is taken a* sufficient evidence to 
justify tbt new combination. 

CAI.VTRfX ALPflSTRfS {litutl ) Court, combin-atio »nva 

OfiutyHu Attprxlris Linrll- in Much 3$m trptf It Amsh 1- l?6 (IftJfl). 

Uwttkyu nlpi-Mris (Uiutl > Unite in /?*•/'- Btti. {S<#.) B.rsti. C t. Mtndtr. 
Wtfi 03* f 15*1 7>, 

There are no constant differences between Lhvtzkya Sehaucr and Cnhfftjx 
J.abill. and it seems most desirably to iinitt these two genera- Accordingly 
L. (tlpestrix (l.inril.) Drucc is here transferred to the genus talxlrix. The 
main distinction between the two genera has been the absence of tfwtlS at the 
apices of the sepals in I.ttotskyo^ In Victoria, at least, this dirintCtfon hrcafcs 
down completely, there being 1 no awns in some desert forms of C\ tcir*mo\u* 
Labill In the Pig Desert, and near Lake Hattah also, there is a complete 
•radaiu • . — from specimens which have long fine awns to some without any 
amis at all ft\ M. Reader's rm. variety "itu'wuir"). 


DAMP1SRA PURPUREA RBr Prodr Fhr Xav HoH 588 («10). 

Off •*•/» »fro itHtinlota K Ur I C- 5*7 

U. MlHtti-ifiilia R. Br. I.e. i27. 

£► otoltfoha R. Br. 1 c. 588. 

O. hnnvmii F Muelb r r r«j/m. rlQfl Wmj/. 6: 29 0867). 

Krause in Pflattzcnrckh 427. ^7 (1912) placed D uudnlata R.Br. T 
P. Totiuidifalitt R.Br., I?, ovtxHjolm R,Br, and /?. fatrfiurca K-Br. under £>. 
Orounii F. MueJ) as synonyms. According to Art 16 of ibe International 
Code (Stockholm, 1950) the oldest name must be retained, provided it is 
validly published. Since Brown described the tour species listed above ttf the 
one trine. P. purpurea is chosen as. tl»r WOM appropriate epithet \w\e\' Art 07 
of Hie Code, the other three of his species being reduced to synonymy 


Mr. A. Tennant was guest speaker at ibe November meeting, and took as 
his subject "The microscope in Metallurgy". In a lucid manner be explained 
the various mixtures of the components which go to make up those numerous 
metals used in industry, affecting as they do the tensile strength, hardness. 
and bn'tMetK'W. Um'orninately the epidiascope was not avadabk for use *o 
we missed seeing illustrations relating to the micro "make-up" of prepared 
.specimens Mr. Temvmt WAS accorded o hearty vole of thanks, and. ni reply, 
invited the Club members to his laboratory at Ruwolts to see a more 
comprehensive dijpLay at some future dale. 

The subject for the January meeting was '"Kutomoslraca". the speakers 
delivering their lecture in a novel and unusual manner. The subject matter 
was recorded on 3 tape machine during the holiday* at home- Mr f> Melnucs 
was the main lecturer, ably assisted by Mr. W. Evans, the delivery being 
synchronized with a $i mm. projector showing photos of drawings oi the 
water-flea and Cyclops. 

F 1mt*] Mknucopxeal Grot? 17* 

The lecture for the February meeting is entitled ''Marine Life under tlie 
Microscope" and will be a combined effort ©f Club members. All are asked 
to bring then microscopes, as slices will l>e provided tot exhibition The 
.Marine Biology Group is specially invited to be present. Several speakers, 
including maiine specialists Mrs. Frcame and Mr. R. F ukey, will brier!?- 
uUi'udurr the nutu-cruus exhibits. 

The Afareh meeting will take the form Of a demons! ration outlining 
teidinwnje in the iir^Lutfation of rock s-exitous. hr Hie niirroscape., by Mr. U. 


\ Reserved for your Note; Observations <ind Queues ' 


Protective coloration has been recognized by naturalists the world over ior 
a very long time- Two striking examples we»*e *>rougUr to »>iy notice port 
long ago. 

On a visit to "The Shack" indication* pointed to the fact thai a ffciir of 
Spur-winged trovers were nesting in fl swampy flat about nneTuirtdrrd yards 
av^ay. This marshy tract was much frequented by cattle and its surface *a& 
deeply jioek-niarked by their hooves. The nest was just a slight depression on 
a low grassy mound and contained three eggs. 

Invest (Rations imi a latei tnj> disclosed that incubation had been recently 
completed, a:; only empty broken shells remained As the parent birds \vcre 
slitt c*mtming their activities to a rather limited area, ihc inference was that 
the young were not far away. Binoculars enabled us 10 pick them unl in- their 
dark dull attire -so different from that of the adults, but it was soon obvious 
that wily "two little nigger-boys were lelt out of three". 

Being ajucfolts to liSVe a really ciose-up view of the new arrivals we decided 
id adopt a special form til campaign. Waiting fiatieiitly until the family of four 
Ua4 worked then way to a convenient position on the edge ol the bog, while 
J kepi an eye on proceedings, another of out party moved our suddenly fram 
cover. Instantly the old couple exploded into the air uttering their alarm 
notes T fondly imagined that, with the visual aids J was using, 1 had 
accurately pin-pointed the location of one of the babies; nevertheless, keen 
eyesight plus some little lime were required to detect its liidiinjpkwc- Words 
dre inadequate to describe how well the colour and even the shape of thai 
immature plover blended into its surroundings. It was crouched flat with head 
and neck outstretched and eyes tightly cloWjd in a moist depression agamst 
a background of dark, sandy loam. So effectively did its plumage match the 
damp ground thai U w*s indeed difficult to see it even alter one realized that 
it tvas there. The camouflage was to all intents and purposes perfect. T &honM 
hke to record also that even when placed on ihe palm of one's hand rbe baby 
tonliuuect lo maintain that "dead" attitude. 

fn the second cave i should like |o memion, concealment was not attempted 
ami in place of sombre tones* loud colours were used purely to frighten or |*> 
bluff, Out on a hike someone exclaimed "What's" "Thai 1 ' happened 10 
he a wingless female of a Mountain Grasshopper, a hunch-backed ugly insect 
about an incb long and the colour of old straw* which, when annoyed (and 
she certainly was) raises her elytron to display an abdomen brightly banded 
in rings of hlu<\ rert, white plftd black, lu addition, to increase her repulsive- 
ness, she protrudes a brilliant orange collar round lie*' head. 1 am Mire t!>e 
*tomacli <n any respectahre, even if hungry, bird would turn" at the ntC*'c 

Sight of her. 

— R M. WrsHART. 

178 Tha I' iftorutn Neutralist Vol 73 


F.N.C.V. Meeting*: 

Monday, March 18 — "The Colourful Port Campbell Coastline", by Dr. 
George Baker. (NOTE: Normal General Meeting date changed owing 
to Labour Day holiday.) 

F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Sunday, P'cbruary 24 — Parlour-coach excursion to Sorrento. Leader i Mr 
Strong, Subjects : Marine Biology and General. Coach leaves Batman 
Avenue 9 a.m , returns approximately 8.30 p.m. Bring two meals. 
Bookings with Excursions Secretary. 

Saturday. March 2 — Botany Group excursion to Maranoa Gardens Take 
Mont Albert tram to Stop 54. Meet 2.30 p.m. at main gate. 

Group Meetings; 

(8 p.m., at National Herbarium) . 

Wednesday, February 20 — Microscopical Group. 

Wednesday, February 27 — Botany Group. Subject ! Heathlaud Flora. 

Wednesday, March 6 — Geology Groujx 

Monday, March 4 — Marine Biology and Entomology Group at Parliament 
House Meet 7.30 p.m. at private entrance at south end ot Parliament 

Preliminary Notices: 

Sunday* March 24 — Parlour-coach excursion to Lai Lai and Mooraboo! Falls, 
Leader: Mr, R. Hemmy. Fare, 22/-. Coach leaves Batman Avenue 
9 a.m. Bring two meals. Bookings with F^xcursions Secretary, 

Thursday, April 18 to Monday, April 22 (Easter) — Excursion to Dimbeola 
under the leadership of the Wimmera F.N.C. Hotel accommodation is 
available and bookings, with £2 deposit, should be made with the Excur- 
sions Secretary by February 25. Train leaves Spencer Street at 8 p.m. 
Fare H (Second return). 

Notive Plants Preservation Society: 

Tuesday, March 5— Professor J. S. Turner will show selected colour slides 
at M.CE.G.G.S.. Anderson Street. South Yarra. commencing 8 p.m. 
Admission 2/- Secretary, Miss W. Waddell, 3 Deobam Place. Toorak. 

Victon'on Notionol Parks Association: 

March 4 to March 22— About thirty members ot the National Parks Asso- 
ciation of Queensland, and members o£ the V.N. P. A., will arrive at 
Mount Buffalo on March 4 and camp at the Catani Camping Ground. On 
March J2 they will travel to Wilson's Promontory, where they wilt stay 
until March 22. F.N.C.V. members are invited to join the party cither at 
Mount Buffalo or at the Promontory; those wishing to do so should 
make travel and camping or accommodation arrangements as soon as 
possible with Mr. M. J. Harkins, t Hovviil Street, Glen Iris. 

Marie. AixEXpRft, Excursions Secretary 

19 Hawthorn Avenue. Caulneld, S.E 7. 

The Victorian Naturalist 

^ol. 71— No, 11 MARCH 14, 1957 Nc.879 


Gkn HRAi, MifETKsc. Feuruarv I I, f 957 

Stthjeet of the Evainuj. — This Meeting was. very well attended 
and a varied programme of members' coloured slides was shown — 
travel scenes from Central Australia, flower studies, insects,, loads. 
a scries showing a nesting reed- war bier taken on Dudley Flats, 
between Melbourne and Fuoiseray, and others. The evening was 
voted most enjoyable, and we hope for further (efforts from the 
exhibitors, These were Mioses Watson. Catberry, Elder and Wool 
lard, and Messrs. Sarovich. Harwood, MollUon, Jenmson, Atkins 
and Curtis, 

Cuttunil Centre. — The Secretary reported that he had spoken (6 
die Chief Secretary, Mr. Rylah. about this, and would write lo the 
Trustees of the Centre when they were appointed in the near future. 

Hendiga P jV.C— It is hoped to invite this Club, which lias been 
so good to us in the past, to visit us towards the end ot the year. 

Forthcoming Shoir. — The President announced that Prahrau 
Town Hall had been booked for a show from October 9 to 12. Mr. 
Court had promised to help organize tin's, hut many willing helpers 
will be required. What about your" 

Other Help Needed. — The President also mentioned that buth 
Messrs. Wakefield and Atkins were entering on further studies tins 
year, and would not be able to give as much service as in die past. 
This would leave a number of jobs for those wilting to assist. 

Floral Kmbleni. — The Secretary stated thai he had svni a Ictu-t 
co the Premier |xnnting out that the Common Heath { nn- 
pre$$a) load hceu recommended as the floral emblem of the State,, 
and suggesting that the recommendation be implemented. 

Oihi>r Matters. — A new book on birds of New Guinea was men- 
tioned, also functions being field early in March by the National 
Parks Association. Gould League and Gvovvcts of Australian Plants. 
Mr. Garnet spoke on the Library, appealing fo:* die return of bows 
ho rr owed and asking borrowers to si^n the Borrowers' Book, 

Honorary Membership. — Honorary Members' Certificates were 
presented to the Treasurer, Mr, Hooke, ami Mr. A. N Burns. 1 lit 
Hditor has also been awarded a certificate, but could not be present 
It will be presented to him at a later date. 

Dmih of New South IVoics. — 1 he Bank of New South Wale* 
wrote thanking; members, especially Mr. Kxiyoiem, foi helping t<» 


rvw. p»t. 
L vol. fa 

set tip the wilcUlowei' display during the Olympic period. Coloured 
slides of this display were among tho'^e shown during the evening. 

Vrar Member- — Miss El*fe Butties. 33 Lansell Road, Toorak, 
was elected on the nomination of Messrs. Houkc and Suahy and 
welcomed by tbe President. 

Hxirilntx. — Mr Mdnne> showed mteroseupe slides uf Bryozoa 
and of cross-sections of a sen urchin's spine*. Miss Raff showed 
garden -gruwri kangarOo-paw, and sttila »_)f (»<tm(*fiuairf)MS , and 
Miss Noddy sliuwed variations in eucalypts. 


The meeting of February 20 was ;i well-attended and most instructive HUP 
The subject was 'Marine Biology Under the Microscope" and the discussion 
was opened by Mr. R. Lukey, who covered the items of recent and i<^5ai ! 
Floraminifera, Polyzoa, Hydrozoa, and the red Sea-weeds. Mrs. Fream? 
snokc on Marine worms, Gabs, Rrlltlc Star?. Fish skins. Sponges- Holothti- 
rians and Sea Urchins. 

For rhc March 2\) meeting, Mr XX Meluncs will lead a discussion oi r 
srindin^ znd niauitCing of rack factions, and members ;tre rcmieMed to bWjJ 
ftcit microscopes *md an appropriate slide. 


By Marv I). Timiale* 

At the suggestion o( Prot', R. FI. Holuum several years ago 1 undertook: a 
revision oi the principally tropica! and sub-tropical feffl rcmus Lastrcapst.;. 
Chmg ascribed only four specie-* to this g£uu$ flfll Hnlttnm in bis Fertut oi 
Malaya (1954), page 4°£. stated that many more species especially irom 
Australia should be transferred to it. Below I have given a much emended 
description of Lasireopxii, as Well as making 2& new combinations. Most oi 
these species were previously placed in thyofiteyi.t. then in Ctenitxsf or 
Riuitfjkra by later aolhgrs- 

LASTRZOPSIS Cbing in Bali pan- Mew. /».*/. litcL, Bet. Set:, 8 if) : 
157 (193R) ; emended by Holttum iit fiffM # Afir%*r: 498 (1954"). 

^'vjiojwwj; Pc/y.<'ir/:H;n section I y urupr,i l vslu'hn7>i Keyscrtnig, /^o*. Cyath. 
Buna,; II ( 1373), Drvo filer is subgenus Pnr{it'nt\\Uichitti\ ( Kevserl'tngJ C. 
Chr"in I'td. Sttsk Skr,, .kck S, 6 : 93 I 1980}. Pari* (rolvsttc faun (Keyserliug I 
Chir.g in .SiwynJxettia .5 (V): 239 (1940). 

Terrestrial ferns, Rlnsomc long-creeping, shortly creeping or rarely creel , 
scales- thin, narrowly lanceolate to narrowly ovate, brown or rarely castaneous 
or almost Mack, the apex acute or acuminate, the cells thick-walled, rec- 
tangular or hexagonal, the lamina red or yellow, the margin entire, sh&htty 
•denticulate (rarely markedly denticulate) or with a few fimbriate or glandular- 
headed processes ^ never clathrate not* iridescent, ( /->wrf,s large, decompound. 
qiiinquangular, with the lowest pair oi primary pinnae strongly basiscopically 
produced, catadrcmous throughout or more often anadromous in the upu-?x 
segments* rarely arradromous throughout, viviparous by scaly buds in tome 
atih Australian species, l.tai -margin thickened and decurrent along the costar. 
Mam rJuichu bordered above by two prominent ridges which are continua- 
tions of the thickened leal-margin of the pinna**, the intervening , broad. 

* SfrUOfUt Herbarium, !iv<lney. 

r .Sec CDpclaml, Gsntra t-'itiatm t^J-4 (jW ) 

,^7 ] i iMr/.i.v, /•'/v/ijirw.rry Kcvtsiw of Laxtrrcpsis 1H1 

shallow channel is rarely glabrous bur mostly clothed with t'reiufj'x-haTs 
(short, arlirulafrd, iwbranchcd, reddish Iptrs) or in othn stweies ivjili much 
fottyOX, Finer, articulated, unbranched hairs or rarely glandoloso pubescent. 
Cdslat* raised I'viitx free, the minor vein lets simple 01 forked, reaching 1b:* 
margin of the Icaf-texmeuts in some species, in others ending close 10 the 
margin, or of both type* Si>W orbicular, atnall, terminal or medial oil the 
simple ininoi eemfeis or their acroscopic branches, indu-siate or rarely exmdu- 
siate SpvrtntflHi naked, wait an annulus mm posed of (.1 to J(> thick-walled 
eclh and 8 To V thin-walled cells, the pedicel long and narrow, usually with 
one or more rarely two, oblong or capitate, red or yellow, stalked gtarvU. 
lntfn.m btf&WJ (or rarely black), glabrous (rf villous, Teniforiri-orbicular or 
rarely peluic; the margin crenale, entin or glandular- fimbriate. Sp&rcx 
globo*o-erlipsnw1id. trilateral, with a peri.spnre vihkh i*; crested and with a 
broken or rarely uninterrupted wing, or more usually covered witb balloon-like 
wings over the who-le surface of the spore, carel? black and echinate. (7/d*J|Yu- 
tar hairs* cylindrical or mure rarely rounded, bright yellow, orange or red, 
scattered over the surface of the. lamina, coMae, enstutcs and somcthnri nn 

Ulc Mid (.1*13 

All of the species lisled l*loiv have the thickened leaf-edge (even if it is 
■not very promineui as in one of ihe New Zealand spiciest), but the major 
diagnostic feature of l..uhyop.nx is the configuration oi the upper surface of 
ihe main rhachis. Each of ihe two prominent ndges of the main rbacbis ts 
ccmtimiaus wiUi the leaf-ed^e, whereas in the rtnscly allied genera Polyxti- 
rhoftxiz wind ( iViu/m, i.tcb ridge, if pie&**iu„ tp not continuous with the teaf- 
edgc but in some cases either runs rewards the centre of <he pinnule or by- 
paces' the leaf-segment altogether. 

1. LASTK'BOPSfS TEN ERA (R Rr) Tindale n o>n»b. (Typ? specie*. ) 

Bant synonym : Nephrodutm tcusrvni R Br.. /Vorfr. PL A'. }(rtl.: I4M 
(ISJfl"). Jlohitxpf. Broad Sound (Queensland), picked (on) west bill in 
shady woods, J* brown No. 2J, her Aush., r802-05 (BM., examined V 
Other jyttottyms: Lostrt'ir r?ccdcu& J. Sm. ex T, Moore, in Hard. Chron,: 70S 
(I&55) fiofrtyPc 2 sheets* I the Kev. Herbarium, the first labelled "Gulfing 
Vo. 96. Thomas Moore's Pern Herbarium" and the iccfltod "Luzon (Philip- 
pines). ClAtUbg No, 9V (<7UttlinedJ. LoStWOpVS rfCffe&S (}■ S-m. ) Ching iii 
Bull fm Mem. Inst., £ivl.. 5 (/). 3t>l (1938). Oetotis nrcdctis (J. Sor 
e^c T. Moore) Cope! . /Vrn, Fif.: ]24 (1947). C, Uwra (K. Ur ) Cupel.. )c.\ 

Di&trtiwluin: AiMirrdia t eastei n Queensland), Ceylon, the Philippines 
southern India. Fiji, Sumatra and .Vew Ciiledoiiis. 

if. LAS'l XEOPMS MlCHOSOkA tbndJ.) Tmdale u. comb. 

Rasif. £ yfionytts : \ r split odium tsiicrewmsn F.mll., Pradr. h'l. Nvrfltt.i $ 
(1833) IJvteciotvfu- Sieber Syn Fil. No. 101. Nova HoUandia, Herb. Lugd. 
I^t. No. 9*J8j 3^5 . S46 (JL,). examined. Other synonyms. Nvphrodwm 
pcHttVtoufanntt Colenso in Taxm. fount X'ot. S*i. 2- 16° (I84G). a New 
Xeal-tnd form with slightly ^nailer ultimnle ftetffUFYiis of the fronds. AxpidtMn 
avblMGnjjySvYe Kzt. in Liwumi 13, 3')2 (1850). J-Motypc: Herb. Luyl 
Pat. No, 908, 335 . . . 85J, labelled 'Asp. mtwqfattgvfa>t-c K^e. (A, a^mwfmw 
Betg.) Patxia"* H V»«t llunttc, 11. l.ips IS4,V, (L). examined. Aspidiutn 
tiCMtt4?M4f&H Lowe var. ztitlnsutn- F. M. Bail, iti Rep. Gov. Sci iirpetf Bell*** 
den-Ker 7$ (1889). Hofotypc Top Camp ( Bellenden-Kcr ), Queensland. 
F. M. Bailey CRT? I.) ami isotyi»e (BM.>, examined, Vryop^fU WcWfy 
Dentin in B*f>f Hut. $Sz 57 (|014) v bolotypo as m A. acuminatum var. VJU 
l&smn, Dryopto-is tift>oi>i(U>.ut W. VV. VVatu m Pro*. Linu. .W. h\SW. ,1°: 

- Kglsndiilnse ivtniF n.r< rccoMvd Ifl P v >p^cics. 
t fte> spates hV 92. 

ijtt I "iMDArr., PreHitntnity J&glfion of L(txln*ofisis [ V \l\ **'* 

7?l. 3414 (1915), til. 88, i b. Hvhtypv. Stooey Creek, near Cainis, Quetiis.- 
IhtkI. W, W' t Watts, 7191a (NSW, l^tr>7a>, examined, a very villous form. 

Distribute: Austria {Q-uecusUmd to Victoria) and New Zealand. 

Twn dirTrrent species Wire grouped lay ether by Endlicher under his 
V i» /»>*.- edwt irtU7i'jpHfw m f'rodr. /-"/. iVcrflk. As he 5pecifu-ally refers tc* 
"SielxT's' Syn Fil No. 101, £sp»ifaHii VHCTOS&tUft!* nomen milium, n was 
preferred to take (his specimen winch was- collected tii Australia, as the 
type of .V. jmVw-nww- The otiirir specimen to which EudhVhcr refers, was 
collected by K Bauer m Norfolk Island and is rfdtAI tor.* red in the Natural 
History Museum. Vienna, li is the same specifically as L. enhmtha which 
appear* to he tesTrKied IU Norfolk Isiftlfd I have nut seen any MQIgrill 
similar to Saber's _Syn. Fil No. 101 except from the mainland or' Australia. 

L. uncrown* and L, fcttc/fe have been mucti confused, although the margin 
of the iilti.ii..!'. segments of the lamina is *harr>ly crenate in /-. flftfritfMB 
and entire, obtusely tnoihed or minutely sernda?« in /-. iturrtt Thr rhizome 
ot /,. t&icra is li to 15 mm. in, shortly creeping and very densely scaly, 
whereas in L. mkrownt it is 2 k» 5 mm. ui d»<uw , long-creeping oud ftlotficd 
with very fugacious scales. The intfusia of these two specie* are. distinct 
In /. /..vuvyithey Are dark brown or black, glabrous antf mostly 2 to 0.5 mm. 
broad. The oblong, dark »ed. red-brown or yellow" glands occur cIt*-*Bv alone 
the margin of rhe indusium, L, mkroxonx is characterised by nuitii larger in- 
llcifiEiil wlueh are 0.5 to I mm. bfb&tl They nrc fawn, with a red-brown rentrt 
around which the oblong glands ar* 1 usually clustered. Marginal xluud< are 
more imcomtiKm on the inrJusia of i- iHuroscrd but .sometimes a few, long, 
needle HVe, whitish, simile, septette ban* *r< present, alibrnigli they arc <viten 
glabrous and nccastonallv iiou-glatvhdar. 

Nc('hrvdu<w Inu-rrttntitm Gaud, m PnqvCi roy; BoL: 439 (I828), may be s 
synonym of /.. niicro.wra liutllie holotyp* collected hy Prar-er at Port Jackson, 
\.S.W,, cannot be found. 

3. LASTRHOPSi^' ^tltPUllRDU (Kzc. ex Mett.) Tiiwlale n. comb. 

R,;ui{ xxHOHym ' .4<tf>i<ii">H jh&phfrdii i'i trimmer i3 230 (1850), nomon 
nudum , Melt. ; Fil Hotl. I ips. : 94 (1^56), with clteci ipt»on. Other synonyms- 
La*-frc\i LUrtnirc'tts J. Sin., Cu/, 6'i^. Fentx 59 ( JA>7) Qr$tfM#ri& thpffietdii 
iKve. ev Melt.) C Ghr in |/fei Vflf- *'< 155 (1944). Ctcmhs hwet Cope! . 
i7i?M. Fi7.: 124 H 947). 

f»ic/n7.urji0ii : AlUtl^Hd (iouth c.iMero Queensland, :>Jcv> South \V»h:s. 
Victoria, Tasmania and South Australial. 

4 t..}STkhOe$fS M'lKGhVAXS (F Muell.l U, A. Smith Mil Tnuli.^ 
comb, ct %tat'. uov. 

Bt);Ttc x vtiMi'Vin '. A.xfrulitiw Hrcmtipi)xihim (R Or) Spreng var wnniiiiaHs 
P. MueU." /•>«./»), fc'Jbn W*w3r 5: 137 ( 1866). S'sm.t\if>rs: Clarcno? River, 
Perkier; Richmond Rlvtr, C. Moore and Woreion Bay, F Mueller (MEL). 
The *i)ecimeii coliccicd fcy i>cckter at the Oarenoe River u the best, io ■ *tw 
dcsigu.^tuig it ^t Ike tcciotyff. 

Dixit tbittioti AuMfdh'a (s»>uth-eastern Queensland *fl<4 the Moith Coast ctt 
Nc>v South VV-ites). 

This species ■:, more closely allied to /-. tenvra Llun io any othc iuei»*ibcr o» 
this- gehuS- Like L. Wl'cVift U Is ciiaracierijed by a UuCie, shortly creeping 
rlu£Otne. <lark brown or black, glabrous, glandular mJn r< sori h>rnutig an 
a|uift<il marginal line around the ultimate segments and gfohoso-^.tlifisoida], 
IwlatcTal sIidtcs with UfcTisjto/fcS hearing rounded nrotuberancrs. The twa 
■•pecies uv\y be readdy distius;uislioJ. since the lamina of f. \tt&rn{tifim h dark 
KTecru leathery and very ftlos-y above, wfiereas in L. tenem it is a lighter 
UTeen, dull on the uppei aurface, herbaceous anil Haccid. tn L. tewm lti**re 


*1W 3 "J'indau:, Prrlintinnry Rewsiou 0} Lxistrcopxis W 

are io(t s short, white hairs scattered on the lamina between tlfc minor vein- 
lets, whereas in /.. marc/titans the iamiua is glabrous. The ultimate segments 
ui the frond in L vwr.wmius are ovate-deltoid with a tendency to be dilrued 
towards the centre and each hits wue *harp, apical tooth la L. tenant they 
ate oulong, acute or with several, rather obtuse or sharp teeth, The. frond:* 
oi jL nuinjinmis are usually 4- pinnate (or 3-pi mi ate when yuunj») Out hi 
/_, tencra ihey arc 4-piunatc-pinnatifirl. 

3. LASIREOPStS II1SPWA (Sw.) tftrnkte 11. comb. 

tfiwt'c j>v'">»*.yw : Aspkii-uni hkpidu-m SWi ih -SVAf'tM, Jourp- £- 39 (18Q0), 
1801, O.'Aer jrv'K"fvm,?: J'cfvstichuvi htspitium (Sw.) J. Bin. in Hnnk. JW*'». 
/^c?i. ^: 195 (IB+t). Rumohtn hhputo (Sw,) Cityiel, foam /-**'/.. 114 (KMft< 

Dtstribuhw ; Australia (New Sguth Wales. Victoria, Tasmania), New 
Zealand and the Charhair) Elands 

6. LAS PKEOPSfS DtiCOMPOSITA (R, Hrj Tindrtie u. comb 

ftftfffr synonym: Nrphrofiiiiut tit-f on\ posit uni K Br., fVflflto r 7 /- A'. HolL: 
Hy (1810). t)>/^r .tynwvnu Drxoptrr'tn dm/Uipustio (R, Br.) 0. Kluc. 
tf^ 6>«- />•&<£ 1&12 (1891)- Ctcnitis dcramp^xiUt t% Bij Cope)-. fTc* / r iV. • 

124 (JV47). P(iftipol\'.\t jrfl Wp itrr.i)ittpi>,situvt (5J, 13r,; Chin« in SVtf£fl/J£tlf'fl 
5 (*): 239 (1940).* 

Distribution: Australia {south-c^ieni Queensland, New South Wales and 
cautcrn Victoria). 

7. LASrliROPSLS tt'tJMJWJR.iN UWiu) Tindule ir tfffnft 

O/Lrif •syiicuyn; ! Dryoptcn$ lourmiurou Domin in #//*/. Mo/, iS':i : 45 (1914 > 
Distribution: (notth-eHMteni Uueendand). 

8. LASTHtiOPSIS MUNIT4 (Meti.) Tmdale n. eomh, 

Paste Synouyw PitcgopU'ris muMi/a McU„ Phcy. n\ul Asp.: \A (185B-) 
Other s^monvnts: Potvpotiiuin nxpitfioid'fs F. M. BaiL in 'itoc WftJj, Soc, 
ftvSJV j: ,1*2 (lB»S)v Itofa-pteni tmrf*tfmidii» fitmim in fitir, #0/. tfS-j 44 
(1914) t 7. DryopUrxs htnteyi Maiden et Betche r -C'ww. NS.W.P1.: 2 (1916). 

Distribution', Australia <ttorth-c^stcrn Kew South Wale-, imd south-eastern 

As Melteniiii T type specimens ft the University of Leipzig are said to have 
been destroyed in World War JI, 1 have chosen a lectotype for Plie</t)pt<!rix 
muii'ffti, namely. New Holland (Australia), Sicher Syn Fit, No, 102, Ucrl) 
Lugd. Bat. 908,338 . . . 4-2 (I,-), which ts a good &peci71ict>. 'J'here is alio 
an isotype which 1 examined at the Natural History Museum, PllfW. 

^. L.'lSV'/C/'OP^/y VIEILLAHDII (Mett.) Tindalc. tv comb. 

Basic synonym: Asf*i(iium widardn Melt, in A&f\ t S& A ; (f'. v iw 4, / .-5 . 
7> (I860. 

Distribution : New Caledonia. 

10 LAS'i'HEOPSfS SUfiSHML /:. f (Mett ) '1'iudak n. comlt. 

/?(7,ur ^ynroiyi//; AxpiJimn suhxctii-^uui Mvtf. in j^BW 5< . jVu/, tftfr. -t ^?: 
74 (l86l'i 0/Acr tfvn&nvj?' LVrvi/^.v xuh.Wfh'co (Mett.) Coih'1., Cfifc. f'»/ : 

125 (1947). 

Distribution : pffc<V Calc>dUnt;i. 

U. LASTRBOP.SfS GLABELLA (A. Gm>U Tindalo 11, coinh. 

/wrc xynonx-m ; Ncphrodium qiahcUum A. Cium. in Hook. Comp, Bol. wujc 
^: 367 (18J65 0/Atff jnntMfni/lt- ' CWlitk /UiUlh (A Cunn.) Opel.; C/iii 
Fi/.; Ji4 (1947). 

Distribution; New ff«ftl^3d, Kefiitedoc Islands and Polynesia. 


184 'I iNt>ALtf, Prclumvary Rczdxim of t.mtrcopxU P*fij m* 

12. LASTREQPSiS U'ELVTINA (A. Rich.) Tindale n. cotub. 

Basic synonym : Aspidiuw vctutinttnt A. Rich.. J'ov. i'Astrolnbt 70 (1832). 
Other synonym: Ctcmtis vi'htlhm (A "Rich-) CopcL (7m ftV. : 124 (1947). 

Distribution: New Zealand. 

IS LASTKEOPSfS DAI/ALLIOIDZS (Brack.) Tindale u. comh. 

#<i.rif .fyiumvw J Ltishttt tltn'itthvirirs Brack., L/.S. £.v£/. tvpcd. 1S3S-42 V) : 
202 (1854) Other synonxm: Harafiotvxtichum davafUoidex (Brack.) Ching it'. 
Sunyatscnfo $ (4) ; 239 (1940) 

IHstribution: Samoa, Fiji, Tahiti and the New Hebrides, 

14. lASTRXoPSIS NZPHWD1QIDES (Bak.) Tindale it. comb. 

Basic xym>nym: Deparia nephrodiotdes Bak. in Gard. Cbron. : 253 (1872). 
Other synonym ; Ctc-nifis nephrodwides (Bak.) Ballard in jfCnv Bnti,: 559. 

1954 ([955). 

DistnOutwn : Lord Howe Island. 

\$,LASlllEOPS1S CALAN'fHi (End!) TincUk' il comb, 

#<wr synonym : Ncphrcdinm c>.da.n1h\tm Kudl M Prodr. Ft. Nnrftfc, : 9 (1633). 
Phtrihiition : Norfolk [stand. 

16. LASTkEOPSfS SUBSPARSA (v.A.v.R.) Tindale n. cou^b. 

/><iyic n'Nr-nVw : Drvopicrit subsfxtrw \ /\,\.R. in /??(// ./w^. #<// Z?h/7., *fil\ 
J, 3?.: 1-f ( 1915). 

Distribution; Java and Timor 

17. LASI'ttF-OPStS RUFFSCFN$ (B1.) Chrog in &#. Tun A/m. /n*/. 
0M N ftM 5V*.. * 0) : 160 (1938), 

Basic svnonytnr. Aspidium mfesceux Bl., Ennm.\ 168 (1828). Holotypc: 
tavi, Blumo. Herb, Lugd. Bat- No. 908.338 ... 446 (L)," examined. 0/A.»>- 
sxncnxms : Pefypcdiuni aspidioides V, M. Bail, van tropica F. M. Bail. i*i 
Pn>c/Lmn. So'c. NSW, 5: 32 (1880). Hohtype: Trinity Bay, Queensland, 
P, M. Bailey (BRl. h examined, ftrvvpicris tropica (F. M- Bail.) Domm in 
tUbi Dot, S3: 44 (1914). 

Distribution: Java, Ceylon, New Caledonia and Australia (Queensland). 

18. LASTItGOPSrS nOKi\Gf (Bak> Tindale n. comb. 

Basic svnonym: pjcphrodiwm hornet Bak. in Hook- and Soft. 5y/J, Fi/J> 
r.'rf. 2; 500 (1874). 

■Distribution j Seychelles. 

As suggested by C. Christensen in Bonap,. Notes Pti-r, }6 . 165 (1925) and 
in Dansk Vol Ark, 7; 62 (1932), it i* probable that Dryopteris boiznmi 
(Bak.) (X Ktzc, ot Madagascar, is a synonym of L. homei Admittedly the 
fronds are very similar but without specimens with rhizomes, it wotdd be 
difficult to be Certain that these two species are identical. 

19. LASTBEOPSfS CURRORI (Mett.) Tindale u. eumb. 

Basic xynonym: Asputium currori Melt, in Kuhu r Fit Air.; 130 (1868). 
Other svnonym: Cteniiis citrron (Mett.) Tard. in Not Syst. 14 (4) \ 342 

Distribution: Tropical West Africa. 

20. LASTREOPStS EFVUSA (Sw.) Tindale n comb 

Basic tytwnym. Patypodium i-fftanm Svi n Prodr.: \.U (1788). Other 
synonyms: Dr'yopteris cfjusa (Sw.) Urban, Syinb. A*)L 4: \6 (1903) ; C 

yjy; J Tr\(>\r,r., PtsliiHinnty fftfifivu oj LaSfffttplW \&h 

Cbriscenseuiu l*'i(l Sefsb, Skr H.6: u 7 (llBOj- ftiityjWv^A'ifftW i$vst<w. 
(Sw ) Ctmife in ftufr^Mrtflt 5 <4| ; 239 (1940), 

Distribution ; TromV-al America. 

21. LASTREOPSI5 flXCCMA (Mott.) Ti.uUle n, ajmb 

#ir.fjp fwiorfaw : .'istttitum cxcvihem Mctt. Phc*t- vmi Asp,: *>'J \ 1-858). i 
17, 19.' 

Distribution l-A v (i;id'V to Mexico. 

22, LASTKHOPSIS AMPUSSIMA (IV,) Tinduk it littVfclfe 

/y,7f« ..v»'»"v/'T Pe'vilielfHw onipiisxiutntti TV ., fi^fm:, />V 5H (1^31 ( 
0//irr iwfttfirc Rumohrti otnphsshta (Pr,) Clung in SttLftW ;n (/-J) ; 33 

Distribution : British Guiana, Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia. 

23 LASTREQFSI5 KlLLlFtl < C. Cbr. and Maxon) Tindale n. comb. 

nVv/V sytuntynt : Dvyoptwis killipH C Cbr, and Ma Will in /fmc>\ /Vr.i 
Jftrtti /Jh-4 0938) Oiiwr jyn-onyw FunipoJystirltum killiph i,C Chr. ami 
Maxon) Chiug in Swyu/jemo fi JK) ! 2.VJ (1940). 

Distribution: Panama and Rica. 

24 LASTkEOPSJS CUAEROl'HYLLOlDFS < Pon\) Tmdale n. comb 

tftf.v/V jjHftflO'U*! Polxpothinn- chncrapbx-Uoidcs Fair.. JSfcty 5: 542 (1804). 
Other syntmvtit i Ru-nwkm chwaphviitudiw (Poir.) Ching in fffrfeturfa 3 
<i~2): 3> (1934). 

Distribution: Greater Antilles. 

25. LASTRFJJFSIS FVKF.SLENS (L.) Tindale n. tnjyife 

Basic synonyv- : Fclyporiivnf fiitht'sccns L., Sy..'/. \'oi„ ctt JO, 2 , 1327 ((759). 
Othvr synonym: Rumohm puhescens <I..J Chir.K in .Sirtcwifl 5 (1-2): 35 

•Distribution: West Indies and Venezuela. 

26- ' LASTRBOPSrS LURIDA (Umtenvond and Maxon) Tindale n, comb 

ZtajtV jvhsuvw I Dryopterts lurida Underwood and Maxon in Stosson in 
/?«// Torr. Bui. Chib 40: 183 (J913). pi. 3, f. 1. GWwrr ffiMftym: Rnvtohra 

lurida (Underwood and Maxon) Ching in Smcnsia 5 (1-2) : 35 (1934). 

Dislrxbuhm: Jamaica: 

In /-. lurida and L. pnbescens the ridges on the upper surface of tlie rhachts 
.are less marked and the glands of the frond are capitate and stalked, instead 
of oblong as in most species of this genus 

f have been unable to examine any specimens of L, subrtcedrvx Ching m 
L. simozattwe (Tag.) Tag., "both of which doubtless belong to I.astrc\\ps\s 
according' lo their descriptions, 

1 would like to thank Prof R. 1£, Holtrum for his great hcln diid encourage- 
ment in ibjs revision. Mr. A. H. G- Alston, Mr. C. V. Morton and Mr. J. H. 
Willis also very kindly assisted me in various way?. I wish to thank the 
directors of the following' institutions for their i;cnerou:? loan of " specimens- 
Trie Herbarium, Kew; the British Museum of X'atural HUtory ; Museum 
National d'Histoirc Naturelle, Paris; the Rijksherbafiurti. l.eiden ; Botanic 
Gardens, Singapore J the Herbarium, Bogor ; Gray Herbarium, U.S. A ; 
D.S.I.R., New J Zealand ; .Manual History Museum, Vienna; and the Her- 
baria at Melbourne, Brisbane and Sydney, 

m Ike Victorian Naturalist Vol.. 73 


By U. A. WAKtPiELo, Noble Park 

Genos CRASSULA; A Nortliern Victorian Species Hitherto Umf-ascribed 

CRASSUI.A TRIPARTITA sp nov. inter cougencrns Ausualienac* unicas 
trautes caespiica. erecti, 2-3 cm alti; folia ciixitcr 2.5 mm Itniga, per 
foftata , flores sohlarii, tcvillaref-. stthsessifts, hif^trhti 

HOLOTYPE: Rutherglen, N.E V'irtoria. &gjr. (V. .V Morrow, M/9/W3*> 
1.MEI.; duplicates to be sent to K and NSW >. 

Plant densely tufted, 2-3 em. high, the erect stems utibrandu'd , haves 
perfoliate, ±: triangular, about 1.5 mm. lone, obtuse, the base broadly winged 
and this the widest part ol the (cat ; interuodes 1-2 mm. lorijjj; flowers solitary 
it) the tipper a^ils (tate)y with a second abortive one), sessile oi almost £0. 
each *ubtcnried by one or two much reduced leaves or bracts; sepals 3, 
acumiuate, about 1 mm long; petals 3, acuminate, hyaline, snorter tlf.m the 
>epals, stamens X, stammodrs .1, linear with dialed aivcx, almost as long a? 
I lie stamens; carpels truncate witb a short point ; needs I (rarely 2) in each 
cat pel. light brown. longitudinally costate. 

Distribution', Northern Victoria, As well as the type locality (Ruthcrcrlen), 
the species occur;; at Graytoit (between Nagatnbi& and Heathcote). Jt W3J 
noted in the latter locality by (be writer in 1939, on moist flat 1 ; in open grac- 
ing land; and 0«e only specimen preserved { winch differs tiom type by its 
somewhat branched stems) was lodged in flip North Queensland Herbarium. 
Cairns. C. tripartita is not closely related to any other Australian species of 
the genus. 

Genus WESTRINGIA: Two New Species Endemic in Victoria 

H'iiSTRINGlA C8EMXOPHU.4, $o, «ov. VfW<5 distinct.^ frutcx dense 
rauiosus. u«(|ue ad 60 cm. latus, in rimis mnrorum rupum creseens, baiio 
versus;* con ice scberoso profmide frssmaio pmediius; veriicilli trifoliari, 
foha line-aria, marginihus re volutin ; ramufi Horifcri (caultbUR toliis 
calycibuscmc) tibique albo-toinentosi ; ralycis lobi acuti i(intm tubus lupO 

HOl.OTYPR : Porphyry cliffs above Snowv River, east or Rutchers RitfRe; 
N. A. WakebeUi, No. 4772, about 21/I/195J (MEL; v^lyyes, No-. 4774. 
to be donated to K and NSW). 

Much -branched shrub, growing iri crevices of rock cliff* ; bark, of larger 
&tCpl3 thick, corky, funowed, leave*-, in whorls of $ (iJirely 4), 1-2 cm. long, 
1-2 mm. wide, margins revolt) te, apex obtuse but -t. mucr/inate ; flowers 
solitary in the axils, subscssile, calyx-lobes acute, about hatf as Ions as the 
tube; corolla mauve, about I cm. long, densely Inspkl on the outside, -* 
in the throat, all hve lobes indented at the apex with the lowest tmc more so 
<u;u»te bitched) and longer than the others; rfowerinp. branchlets Z-Q cm. long:, 
universally invested (on stems, leaves and calyces) with dense, -t-apprresed, 
whitish tome»l»«m 

Distribution: Abundant but very localised, on several of the many porphyry 
cliffs overlooking the Snowy River, east ot Butchers Pi.iv. eastern Victoria. 

W . crewtutphtiu wa-» discovered hi about l£50 r by Mr. Leo Hodge of 
\V Tree, and he cultivated it Quite effectively in his native- flower garden. 
The writer collected iotnt material ol it at Hodge's "VVesHirmia Cliff*' on 
Aoglbt 31. 1952 (N. A vVakcbeld, Mo 4687) * and Dr. R- Melville took 
-i i r ' i ■ I : materia] Eroro the same spot at the tunc ot U»e collection of the typp 

' MliL — Aatiu"^ HfitfcHUBU n Vic«irU. Metbountt*.. * 

K3\V— N":uiunaJ tterbaruim nt ?^u, ijt.nth V\ ales, fivancj 

"«•!?] VVaki-mki.u, ftcro u,i I'lLtoria: AVto Sptcies, etc W 

xitccvnens l cited above), and thi& is located at Kew, England, On January 
20. \%A. thh iJift-lavftjj! plant was ubscr.vcd, Wltii binoculars, to be growing 
coo 911 the inaccessible pnx ibices 00 llM oppose (eastern) aftfa of the Snowy 

The species is remarkable fatt its ability to cow on vcuica! eliits, in stroll 
crevices tee-mingly devoid of soil 

Wk'Sl kJA'C'JA CXASSJi : OU/1 sp. nov. valde distinct*: frutcx ercrtup; 
verticilli trifrlian ; Jolia angusto-cl!iptica. crasna, ohlusa, super concava, 
uibcer Senium rujjosa, ufriikpje minute luhfroilata, f^ia ohfeura, rnar- 
ytniliu* baud reourvis ; Mores sulsessiles. ptunuret; calyx 4*!j mm. longus, 
lobis crassis aeuus J. 5-? nun, kmuis; corollar loin mmquani retes!. 

HOT-QTYPE; Junction oi fbe Parish boundaries of Humley. Neilborough 
aitiJ Whirrakee (Beiidigo Wlnpsliek), about 10 usltai north of Httfdigo, Vic- 
toria: fay. John W. Kellam, Sept. In, K>56; "plant* up to 7 ft. high and verv 
spituhv, £fr&Wln*g anion;* Mrt'tlntra- nnouoia mainly' rWBL-i *htfilicates l'* 
be nait to K and NSW. J 

Erect aiuulj; brauchlcts longitudinally rotate, shejilly pubescent; Icauvs 
in whorls of 3, shortly petiolatc, narrow elliptical, 5-15 mm. long, I.5-2.5 mm. 
wide, thick, upper-sur faros concave, underneath becoming wrinkled, both 
ailftftCCS minutely tubeuuiale and slifihtly pubescent, tnarft'nts nkuiltely 
denticulate not recurved, apex obtuse but with a ■sliftht calmsc point, the 
midrib t'-ot apparent except as an indefinite thickening on the mider-imriace; 
flowers stihscfisilf , OPyV 4-5 mm. ion\r, scaly-pubescent, sracrrly ribbed Ibe 
lobes triangular (hick acute and 1 5-2 nun", fong : corolla purple, scaly - 
pubescent outside, sparsely village inside, the lobe* not at all bifid or rctuse 
(the" centra) lower one truncate, the- other* rounded). 

Dixtrihutimt : Apparently confuted to lite Brndigu Whipstick Scrub in rhc 
vicinity ot "Westriueja Kutee". | >ee I'ict. A' erf. .?' T : 95 and Vict. j\'at. 10: 
l°5 and 20$, under the name "IVvshbujia fiiffttfti v»r, i/wWum"]. 

The leaves of If-*', croxsi folia migircst iu affinities with a group oi four 
northern species: \¥. pttnrijalia White and Francis und IV. foikpmi B. 
Ooteati — vAi. h ni wbirb has leaves nbovat^ attd much shorter, aitrl §ciri>|l?£ 
more bristly inside and witb retuse lobes—, II'. tcKitirauli* White and Francis 
— winch has slender uulnaudied stems about 1 ft bigh, acute {'pungeOl) 
leaves and ^ruminate ca>> \-lobes , nnd If'-'. rhi\'Hi Wnid. and Rrtcbe, h^vinn 
acute leavec with z*: definitely recurved niargin.-;, flower. 1 ; jji terminal leafy 
cltHtcts and lUecaJjx glabrous. 

GphlsCNaPHaUUM-, Spec^tc Status for nn Alpine Plant 


Bmsic byilunym: G. coifvtvm var. ? radiean? F. \lucll. ex rlcnth. i-/. 
AuAtr .?• oS4 

f.E(.TOTVP£ "Sumnuvs of the AusirnK-an Alps"' >•*//. F. Mueller, \Thh 
material— sceJi l*y Rentham ami now in M RI- — appears to be part of a suitt 
Of spcciriKilA, now HI vafio.ta hCibin'Hau fcldci^, collected undei* the ordinal 
laf.el •- 

!ti |n ,'.1. \-t. sliioiibia Itiomiuni Mttn. ;• fit: Moimta'iis.^ ntpIfiMmum ahit.idim 
3 6^00 ft Jaii. 'SS, Di. ferU MiifUer. * , 

Stems ascending, J-5 env long:, aris5n# from a maih-hrauched rlhzoniic 
system; leaves disp03ed along the stems, usually crowed bnt pot Of hardly 
forming basal tuffs, densely cortuny (silvery) on both surfaces: flower-heads 
sessile, solitary ur few together in an irrogular leal'y cutyinb; invulucral 
bracts Up to about 4 mm, loOfr, obUiSf, achci'fS Al&ljfOnfr 

Distribution: Australian Alp* of Vichtria New South Wales. Besides 
the type material (Irani !\'c\v South Wales?, there arc at MEI- tipeCtm^Hs 

18$ Uu KJ m?u.. fr'hfa r</ KrMf; \icw Specie j. rfr. [^Jmh* 1 

from "Toward Mr. Holham" rie>/. A J hulgcll. Dec 14, 1014) -anti 
BouOtig Hfgh Plains (S. M. Faw^u. 8/1/1945; J. H. Willis, 1S/1/IM6: 
F. Roljljins. 23/1/1951) No Tasmanian malenal ol the specie* has been .sctii 
by the writer. 

C, rtrgeHtifolium is disiingmshed from ft jnpwiuxun Thunb (Syn C. 
f.allinitm I ahiU.) by its. dense growth — often almost cushion-like, dense le.tvc* 
whkh do not form ba.sat rosette:; arul which do not become glabrous on the 
upper surfaces, and by us fewer and broader (lower heads. The species is 
superficially similar to G tr<ivcr.ui Huok f , but the Utter has definite fo.vettes 
ol basal leaves, Ihe flower heads* arc akvays solitary and rmdunculute. and Ihe 
achenes pubescent. 

Some variation is noted in (». ar<n*)trittiimm — ilu* Bogong material is taller 
dip to lJ cm high), the iuvoUicral hiacts longer (to 6 torn.), and the a<licne> 
sometimes a little pubesrent 


1 Sundry New Specie;, Varieties, Combinations, Records 
and Synonymies! 

By |. H. \Vii.UrS, National Herbarium ol Victor™ 

JDRIMYS XICROPHIUA Rrirmctt/iVr m Uoll. sci Kr feels;. # ft$.%r3fe 

I*, ftrenrafittt sens. t*4rm. f*,£.; 2'>8 (I8C><<)|, p«« t'lMimia F. Mucll. fftWM 
Idrfift, £"(!>. Kltfi i: JO/l MW). lift & 4HWW0 (Voir,) Baill.i 

// piV*rrMMe A. C. Smith 111 7. At twirl Arbvr 24 130 b QS^AJi 

D. ttvictotata (Poir.) Hnill.,* vitr tmrtfit ttlin }. \V. Vicfcrry in Prtn\ t/lM, A'or. 
& S.W 42- tjt ilW?1; 

Z>. r<rephii<i ParuK, var. ^ F, Mticlt, ex Parm. /.r, , ftW <I89<*.). 

Following her description, of Drtmyx htuccohtia vnr\ pannlottu, Mks J. W- 
Vickery (if.)* as "imperfectly known species" P. Parmeutier s D. xetu- 
phifa (thnugnl to l»e probably synonymous with T) UtitcCtrhittt) , lUHtflcti 
(doubtfully a Unwy.s at all) and P wfvntjcdia fatso probably synonymon* 
with Di hmtctitatu) The last name, /}, itttcnutdni, may tie dismissed at once 
as A noinvn nudum, but not so the oilier two — detailed description* <d the:;* 
foliar and stem aoaromicv were mibli&heij by Parmentttr, and his type*, are 
still available for innpfjetion m the Mustum ol* Natural History (Phanerogamic 
Herbarium) at Paris. By courtesy of the Director of vhts Parisian repository, 
I have been enabled to examine Ihe type speameni of D. tcmphilo, ilf t*\n 
varieties aff>ttm and ummtttuo, I), itttit'ticn and what Parmentier eonsideeed 
ai typical £>. aroniaika, $ik$i a study was ilhiminating and has resulted ri 
the Rynonymy set <i"t :<bove 

The unusually thick cuticle (to 15 nnc ) in //. .wrtrphtln in*\>\t<.<\ itf cpillnl 
r»od prompted its author tu write {Lt pp, 225-'6) : 

I.«h culklt^ t'lmkriMuiiie uffiecit imc «iui*AM^uT ci'itsidt'rablc; I'i»fi?-»ieut <h 
(i'ljji.iisseur tr*^s in^trnlf *, lt> stom.-iiti sont immer^6s, 't'ona car.nctfcres )inlit||i*ril mie 

Although tlie lypcs ol D, xcrojtfuh (from ''Australian Alp**) ;imi its var 
ttlpbia (from Haw Haws) are. barren, they are undoubtedly referable to the 
same species, ami even the varietal distinction i? bardN warranted. It U 
egually obvious thai: 1). toHt'eufata v^r. puntfolut J VV. Viekery IV r ) and 
/>. vtckcrianif A C Smith (/.f.) arc also conspccifti with D xt-ropUtln — the 
prior nftmc fftf the (ft?*o»i. 

A. C. Smith, by his dehuitiott of O. vickcrianti m \943 las a compact aJt>m' 
shrub with 2-pctcdouft flowers, c.f. 4-*>> much longer petal? mi D. tavpicf&tcrh' 
foeus-eil attention on the evislenee ol livo <lisiinct species of tltf genus in 

" Njime L-rri>nCuii ? |v .it,|rilnUc<1 t'> t?o»ce bi t).c nutttor r.1 va r f>i*rifoha. 

1957 J, Hom of Pf.fcFfrfy) ivul $eutk Aftf&alif 189 

Victoria But the ottly material he examined firoin the Raw Baw uiunntauvrl 
bad leaves not exceeding fa mm. iq length and s* referable, to an unusually 
^mall-leaved, Mnall-rloweYed state t Parnumier's var, «#&# ) of #. xfro(4tpu ; 
so (hot Smith's definition of the p* ci .- ., i$ both inadequate and misleading 

This dipctaluiis lu^h-inotmtain -specks ranges "widely throughout caster *» 
Victoria, Ihe Australian Capital Territory und south-east i-rn New South 
Wilt s, with a curious northern outlier on the Bamugtoi: Tops, N.SAV. (he- 
tu-oeii Gloucester and Scone, at 5,100 ft. allitude). m leaves vary from a 
minimum of 10 x 2..i mm, on the Baw Bawa. Vic., to a maximum (at leHM in 
all the material so far examined by me) of 100 x 25 mm oji Mi. liJIcry, Vit. 
Corresponding differences occur in number of *tamen* oer flower — 4-6 only 
On the Baw Bmw* to 25 on Mt Ellery. An between the*e extremes, I have 
observed tvCfy possible gradation on various Victorian mountain peako. 

Smith specific* solitary carpel* for his type of IX vickwiann; bur within 
the ivnc area [Briv Buws) it is not unusual to find frmtinfr ipecuncos with 
two Br even three carpel* t»er pedicel- In this region, ami aWo cm Mt. Kllery, 
D j'emfihih anO O, h*#rcofotn (Potr.) Bath occur m close j>p>x>mil>*, tfie 
hitter in shaded Roily-heads', hut no intermediate* or suspected hybrids have 
bean noted Wh*i Smith tailed to point out -were the really important cliarac- 
' ter? of h'flj-h rriuv and muti&my which, in the absence of flowers, will always 
serve to distinguish any form Hi f* vcrttphifa from D (ntuc i ithin — sole retire* 
sciKiftive 'd tbts ^enua in Tasmania. 

J. caves of /}. hvirrolottt .are usually inwtr at the tip, of thiu texture, atid 
they remain o^hc-tirecuhh in the dried staff; those of FJ. xcroph\lo, by con- 
trail, are always ohUisc, of thick ritftd texture {the veins usually obscured) 
and they become charjvlefi*i>e;01y rub^swut — bftofl with a ^Jancou* appear- 
ance as well— when dry. The brancblerv of ihe latter speciec. are consistently 
muffler (finely iuhmitUtts) than in AX ihnittoltffa* 

Microscopically, f). tonrvo/cr/a has tlvc upper cpidermi* of the leaf nearly 
tvfice as thick- a» tbe lower, witb the eintcle coiuptfraiiveiy thin (5-10 mtc) 
— les* llian a tjuattec the total thicknes* of culidc and epidermal cell* com- 
bined—, and uniform recrajigulai palisade telJ* in 2-3 renv? are lifffl devcl&pfd 
under the upper epidemn?' ivb^nas D TPryfrkHa ha- the upper and lower 
C|HiJcmii$ approximately the sontr thiekni;^^, the cuticles f/ffj fhL'k (IIV20 
mlc.J^-ohvirar b*if the total cindtrmis— *, imlv&tlv celfe cd^i^ or irregular 
and \pry indistinct, and the epide.rnial eclH ^e^s than 20 mic. wide (ewiMtlentl> 
■jnialler than m D, tan cantata). 

PariffiUlliei Wa3 justified in cstabhslhr.^ the ^pecie^ JD. TtlPGpbyls, but he 
erred unaccountably in hi; deliinitafion o! 'his and of /> hun-iUafa (which he 
calU rt £>, ut/}T\ivhc6 ') For instance, the statements that rao[>hil<t fiafi wc'l- 
dthned palisade cells in its foliage and that tt&tppftUtfn fecks them should be 
re\eTfied! The «p«Q|»CN (in Paris — "Victorian Alps". rVjf, C. Waltei ) il'at 
he pronounced as typical O. aroiratica is actually identical with lyjx; /?. .r*'ro- 
fiiitiVj ("Australian Alpfc", /f./. P. Mueller), while his D, ,r<-Tof>kiftt var, 
nfwnihfrt (Mt. Bischoff, Tzy) n cerUinly referable to the true U. lanccohto ' 

Such ajtrmialie* have rendered faj niemier's anatoinica! dlfl&nwcft useless 
for imrouv^ oi" yeenrate jpecies-idern-tuealion. and could only have been re>:t»- 
fird by reconrse to hi? actual tyjic matciial.v Comparable f1i/\\-cr»Mg specimens 
(m l^Wbodruje Hetbannml from the same localitit* e*>uhrjyi the conclusiotis 
now drawn from an independent >iudy of ilwse tyoei 

DRJ.MYS LANCHOLATA (/»,»;>.) 1S,)\U. r f «t. Plant- t\ 159 (1&&) 

Wvtli'Tunia huti^iula \\>ir /Iitrxc/. mAHt. Hot ^: ?39 (I808>: 
To.%miti\:tw nrtnrtanra U. h-r. tJi OC ffr0*L I'M fV-rf- na^ \, MS 0&I7.I; 
/>W»'.VJ nrt>»/!t*/»rt» (K. Jtr ex DC I V". MUfll. /Taut/ |fltflf/ ( Cflfi I'tf«. '. 
2021 (|So2;i; 

/>. xtwpMtoi Virtu . f)A'tfmr*r« fftmi. ft ii."/ crt Fr B«n f? -'- 1 

T Nam* meontctlv nbeli "i^, nwfhyiW b> A. C, :-?nuth n A A*lffl$ ^rher. ?4 • 
W« t!943J. 

1!*0 Wn Rs< }'{ont ot Victoria (nal South Anstratiu [ y* ( ,J 

llapintypc* ot IFiw/mmw lanceolate (/ivy. I.abiltardierc) and TasMtmuia 
tirottm lieu- (/f$/, K. Brown ) — both frotn southern T;er-toania — arc in 7VI **l - 
bourne Herbarium and are certainlv oonspecJnc. True Dnmyv Innct'ohU 
rnnpes over' the whole oi Vasioatua (-where no othet member of the gtiTOS 
has becfl collected) and occurs aUo on Strzelecki Peak. Minder'? Island, in 
Mass Slrajl. 1»» VitforM it »k tfj be toUml alinn$t ihrougbniit ihe mountae* 
(erii-gnllies iof the eastern highlands, with isolated western occurrences in 
the Otways, on Mt Matedoii anil the higlit&t peaks uf the Grampian^. It is 
known from Nuuviarra Mountains (, near the Victorian harder 't. nratdwood 1 
il istiict and piUt5 ot' the Blue Mountains in Nee\V South YValc* 

D. lanuf.oJata "\$ usually a larger olant than /.?. .n J tofhtlo- sometimes a tror 
to 30 ft — Midi %i already indicated under flu- latter SjiecicSj Hie lertves are o( 
inucfl thinner texture (with less thickened cuticles), apictflly mere acute am! 
•VeniainiHii olive greenish in the dried state. The (lowers have 4-9 loop., strap- 
shaped petals. Reduced fouus with very small obtnsiah leaves oceut on some 
Tas^oaman jnonnt.-un-tops (e.«. Alt. Wellington); hut thr pttals are ntv^t 
ItiF&'lhau 4 (r./. - in f) xn uphiUi, g| very rarely V X in rrw rnbtKt Mr. Kllei / 
condition], and the leaves have ;dl the anatomical features that distinguish 
this apfcciM from IK srntfhii». 

DnrVlVS MUF.L1.FR1 Parmentk* hi Bull. xcu I'r. Udg. >? : 22o-7. 300 

- Persoonio fjunnii Hook 1. in f.iuui J. Hot 6: BfB (1^ 
P Pairueiirirr remarks [it 227 | : 

1. 1. pl.v» llfin&oe ite Ift ri« »5<t f.n Rtnwdite conlr.-tchcttoii Jivtc <ti:lui ttli<crv»i til*:? 

Its .tiiOe:* Umnyj;, (I jhjssMc Jc vunlftble* IftMSVKUt* *-. 

Anointed out by Wkery U*rttt- /-*»n. $W, ATJf.fV- ^: fco (1057) J douut 
route* iiing llie genetic status of D m'trlhri had been raised by van Tie^hern 
\J /j/'i*.. f'urU N 2&1 '4 (jSOtf.)]- Wy recent esaminalion rf Uie t>pe p»ove^ 
ils ideurity with PrrstwintJ jpuum Hook. I. in the Hro(cace<e — an undeivrniined 
UUpMcM*- Ot tliis T>'|;c collection (fcl.t Victoria. Tas.. /ey. C CJIover) »«f 
'foiiitd in N-Mboinoe Hei bnrinm ni*d it Inurs ti few wery imuiature fruit*. 



vxi-\<:(;ts liuv^ :i idaniii typica (hxrfmhiaftir liahitti sub^rborco, foliis 
tatioribus (I 2.5 cm.) >»ibp:bi]cei)CCiitihus tenniter testis, nuano ctoi%- 
i/rt/o fa.rtt Qxfiv rinati) folio louyiore.) ct floribus ptetK omnino fTavis. 

' AG4T!Q\ VIClORlA ( mor.tiUisV- 'Slopes o) Mt. Mdltock towarO 

Woods Point, at ..bout 4000 ft. [-* 12.^0 m. alt!" (HOLOTVFUS in 

Herb. MFJ— > H LVUtis, 2 Nov 1940) : LaKe ivTcMiMuiii. cire. t?J0 m. 

tXELr—P. ^ Morns 6 J\ J. Rar, Nov. 19281 Upper Thompson River 

(MF.I.— *-t. »K. //oTi'r^ iSfa 236. 18H2) ; "In HucdyPtnt (teUpittotsis 

loicsl nlun£ Fiy'.s tracli, 4 utiles S.K. ti( Wrens Flat, on Upprr Jamison 

River, i.r.. on slopes leading to Mt Skene" (MFl.. rtrni Horibu^ et 

i I'ocfib"^ -J- H- Wiifis. 4$ Feb 1949) j "Grampian*", M»>e locis. de6niti$ 

iMtiy- D.SvMvQn; C. Waiter, Oct 18aS; O. / i^odo*, Oct -Nov. 191"). 

This is the montane platit recorded for Victoria by A. J- F.^art \Pipm 

l nt. cOl (1930J | as "Z^. rfrj'flrPtfW var orhorc-i iVlaiden", but his opinion 

that ir wai ideittkal with the tonic ty arborra caunm he iiphcltl. The latter, 

f> r 5 f publisher] itr. n sivcies, O. vrbcren. by F MneJler and "B Seortevlnoi 

t&iiti Li)t*t 5'eX fl S'W. 7 £2} H&f^J. and subsequently reduced to 

varietal rank by ). \l, Maiden \ix. 23: 25 089SH h restricted io somh- 

ea*leni Qneeui^n'l *w\ New toglaud. NvSVV —from the GlasihoiKe Motitt- 

toiiTi touth LO the Hastinj^ Jviver. It is distincruishsd hy its 0f0fft tafQi? 

M »m h ] Wruis t*I&$ of Fiiwiti m\d South Austral W 

xrrr (to 50 ft, with (ranks 1 ft. ».n more wide), fflvtij harrow leaves Willi fin-* 
■t'ui/'if MrrtfrVW ^omimn, and fcflWtl titty fMb&SA inflorescences The new variety 
lc\x\fioro is a. tail shrub (at most 15*20 ft. high), with lony broad <k» \") 
lather jflauccsrent leaves showing -a manifcMly retievhic venation — although 
■M a* boldly netlcd as in Doi.'icsta liitijolio 12. Br. Its most distinctive feaonv. 
h'-wever, tj. the base and ritftmax* inflorescence which varies from less thiti 
half *& long to longer than the subtending leaf-i individual flower? and fruiu 
art* quite coumarafsle with tbo;u; of* the typical, corymljusc form of the- species 
(Port Javkson. area), but thy Conner are almost who).y yellow and wuhinvl 
conspicuous red-brown markings on the corolla 

In its reticulate foliage and racemes of flowers, var. toriflora would seem 
to approach 0, foJifol'ui, but rhe large persiotnu floral bracts (2-7 mm. loita;') 
of that species immediately separate it. A \ vrescnt the nc.iv variety is Known 
only from Iiucolyf)}\u tteh j >MttM$is forest between the Taggeriy ami Macal- 
Wster Rivers (including Lake Mountain, Ml. Matlock, the Hfgtu Raw* anrl 
Mr. Skene*) , with isolated octm-rcnccs in the Grampians — racemes there sre 
shorter and denser than in the major eastern habitat. 


species nova n|» folia rciitota -aide distincta. P. {■•Icnnuuirftidi I*. Muell 
affinis 9M difitrv lollU latioribiii reclis (baud vecurvattt), rlorihtw 
ftxillarilms, hrarteolis surwcarioMi oralis huu'to f^ityturifjus (calyccrii 
/•V'jfnv.'rj' giauilir — piocmiibelUt, niiuhl uumeiutis nmiuU i>nl.i'snmtibvbi hstintif 

tAi/ulitfi ftvip rvmota, tntertfuii) ftri&o oftptt&Itt) \jt\ vertkityiin, S to min. toogm iimu*i;* ( 

t^c-3. arte rcvoliiu). Ucvilci (Ultittftttfl, lUiidu, acabriiia a pills Uitittrcutat*:., (Mlfrp^fieffl {v->. 
iMUc/OtUU). FfoffM tc«iltf>, jii .lXitbs- WJWTjJtl^U* u, lu'jitb (7/d.vx xrriceo-imh. su-i- 
tiv.iiis ^rlaber?, cirviwt- 3 mm. loiigiir, b-lA)>j.v.m; IcIh drol RwirtritfrfcH jtfiftfH Mr** [itfJrfiMtai 
>at la 1 10 its c< |ia.u!twii loiKjioic*, (nivm: ap-ycni tOtiQd c.».t>i,Ti; lyiaeteoi^ ma^uc, caUivin 
:•><]) 1 2:1 tes rt .-r>p!.e.i"te<, oMtMiKO-ov.itrt:, cnri'iulx!, mucnMulac, Tva-g.-.tjbus \' t \Si4 <t\U 
scacM)»ia «rjiii'jhievii:itnt* CQf&Ut <|V«\W ( CtV.yx d^V*'* loilffi^v, i^i^nr'Hfi oj»H>:)uis itrcvitpi 
1 iu ntf uh-ti-;.; iv-xilli hmiiirt rh<;ml>f>hi.ili4. attufH. m;t)cncu]Jai3. circ. 5 t ■( oinl.: atat 
j-d x. },: mm.; caiiiiac ae^.tti-i'ln s^nuluti*-,!,*, .I-Iuh.u ci'ic. x '2 imti. <)rvit j '.:w viMuunn; 
&tylu» tfUber brcvj$. uncbutus. -i^i'-iM-ii hi u^u-a,!* peUtoiiitn ~ colirtn'id't. 

^.^G'^riO : AUSTIN MJA Ml-UI DIONAL1S— Keiih, "sandy gjfe betuvei. 
:4n<I tidKea in maMce-heatn formation" f NOLO I'V PI'S in Hcr/>. 

MEL— A'- A. .S>fffV <S* P. ffjwwWj 1054) ; BoMOIl ?oBtti Spencer Gulf, 
'^bout 6 mil« north-east of Hon LsneoIiV* (Mlil. — C. IVUhchti, 1851 
Veil £54). 

This ikw South Australian plain differs frpHi W Ml eongeuers in llw 
9caittrc*i ( remote leaves (never crowded along t!te br^r.ehes). The second 
collection, cilci above, had been JVed for a century m Melhonrnc Herrjariurn 
under the name "Phytfota jflmufiSii&rpidfS" (.in r, IWuciler^ handwriting) ; 
hut it denam from all forms oi that specie^ in having distant, enmnaraiivcly 
broader leaves whkh arc never rtKorvedttiueropatc at tlie tips, conspicuous 
axillary flowers B»rl twrw/ fa'tf.* pa f cry tizacMCf which almost envelop tlie 
calyx, r*. pL+urivtrfvitidts has paJcff nV>wex%, almost hidden among tho ntimeroi^ 
dense iasocles oi |L-Ave> ( ;itid nuniite braclOf>K'S at the bu*e of the calyx. The 
recent (tytie) collection U identiojl in nil respects with that Irotn Spencer 
Gulf (Port Lincoln urea), and T am indebted for this nulcrial to Mr* 
Enid L. Robertson (.formerly <jf (h* : \VSi{to InttiiUite, Adel&ide) ^lio supplied 
fhc following imnuTtar.t tield note: 

The two forms ti-?. P, plcttr{i» j froitics am! P n'ttmta) ;uo f^ntt 'li^iiitct, .tiiii 
liDlliinw iu Oit* \\a> of iuttrr.icdiutui ban Iwcn ::Dllfic'.<;»i. TSey ;iyy vci^lj.*' d«Miii 
(tuUhabtc in I be ilela", not ytit* by ilf>|)Rajatig but. ,ils*o (iu:n Ihe fact tN,*it 
t.vj^cal /' ptrlti'wvtreittte ocours o7 <ieci» tffljj] On th<* iidflc* (with 30*i0JSI oi 1 
(tanci), am) it invariably mice's prvtinaoli ; tJW oilier toi m occur*, only nil *v.m.t 
rtftts pettt'CAH ln< nrtffc* lovlt san<i 4 fl. yr *« tlceiO— tlii^ forni III taiJ-ronlr4 
urn] dops not Suckeu 

Vi>2 Win is, flow ,'j/ PirtopKf <*w«f .VciifJ* Wi^i/afui [ {Jj ? * 1 

Since Keitli is only 34 milt's Irorn the Victorian border, it it fftOSt probable 
that the novelty, P. remita will be found to extend into the Rig or Little 
Deserts o> Victoria, where P, frUunnxfrnidcx ii very widespread. 


species JlOva Scoliosis XerofrftdttirH* jWttfl O- hmnwrdtm Meissn. 
prnicnda, a uua WlIiiB glabris grar.ilioribus, alabastrts mmquam dense 
toineutoso- pilosis, bractcolis imtko brevionbns, (Wilms minority* 
pallidiorihus (hauoi saturate rubric), corollar carina perobtusa (baud 
acuta) facile rlistinguitur. 

I ; ruttculus KTHcilis s.-iitcm 50 cm. nltus, rum is. lonps uracil iHus subvifKiitis minute 
(Ulijoceutihits. i'cha 8 10 mm, Jutin'ii, «reclu, gUlnu. sailwticnlriria. (scd nun intifKuulial, 
,\\\r, invnlijta. I'tore* ca*,tiuti, n&i(t ml .3 «m< tnr.'i.tfo <li'H-iu nunc ri>mom tefUtifW, Q&yt 
btl.ilnaiiis ci?cit?r 'I *nm lmi£i»«, in iwhcHlnm <2 nini toftgftjsO :£ raptmi ctwtr.iecus, 
PlrfUS, Ir.nitor pjbcijct'.rm; ir-bi rtuti sujieTntrcsi laii sububtust commit (J>*nc ai^iortu H'ilUll* 
if>bi t frw rHTerioit a>iff<.nH lineA''i-'-vc**ot<»ti, opuus tmii 5 mm- itm^i; hmcirKiJ* (m 
»*ettic«Ilo) Uflvtrl siilmlntar, liRtjufl ail 2 mm. Iodkuc, vtlliwa«, calyctt* tutii ba»m itiuWim 
iv.ciMil«. CvtdthxH vixOJnm 6-7 mm. tOflftUtt Cmia cum CHJBltl 2 mm), >amma <irr. 
"•5 lim^.i x 5»fi nim. bta crbietilAii" remfurmi enatjjin.-iU flnvj* rl merfcum -verso* ."i 
rnl.oro nferVtyta ttlfftlfftqut^ euniift ttl alic ctfe. 5 M4V< t©l*W*j p'lor permit i«a yr-tcilTter 
imguic-iUitA. gbuim dbforrugaWr ffittJRflWl Rencv^ pitr-sitm: sryhi* Rlal-er. 

fOCUSi VKTORLA. (hurcali-oricnialisJ—'Crai^y Charlie's Turntable on 

S ICC, mountain road n«f Clover Dim betwei-n Tawonga and BogOBR 

townships" iHOLO'l VPUS hi Herb- MEL— Awi Caibfoifk 4 N>v. 


A very distinctive specie* by virtue of its (jrect straight, gfzttfOus, eneoid 

leaver and the small (lower; (tersely cluttered ut-ftt'(t<is (with up to 12 flower*) 

at the ends of tang, wry sU-ndcr branches — hence the epithet. It twlonirs to 

the. Section Xi'rofctahim (having a corolla standard not twice as broad tg 

lOftg and only slightly evceedinu; the win^s), but the mrrilla is hardly 

"petsistent" in the single collection Uuown. Z). brnniouUi \tei<sn in Lehni., 

oi sintwtonc lablcJanHs in southern New South Wales, would <ccrn to W 

most closely related, but that specie* dtp Arts in Jtavui£ shorter, Itro^der. 

usually scabrous leaves. woo]h--hairy buds, much darker larger flowers 

(standarcl ^boii( lt> n;m. wirle) and larger, broader, deciduous bracteoles.. 

-Vic. R. n. Anderson (Chief Roranist and Curarot- ar Sydney Boianit 

Gaidcn^), who examined a specimen of fl. capital*, wrote to the author 

( 15/3/ 195t>) : "We can no I milch this Otlhuynnu with anything JVi thft 


BOROMTA LATTPINMA ;. ff, ft -'itta. 

species nova t-.x afrinitate if, pinnate Srti., B. tltujontz Pen fold & Welch, 
73. mucttcri (Be.nrh.) Choc! el #- jJ^rHi Htok. f., sed ditlerl : a pr^l^l 
st>!o ni-tciVi, a &ecnuda et tenia ^t;ltura briwiori robti.stiori fnlns minus 
acuti<; nee fflTtdrti* net s|>arsiiTi tuh-crrulatus, ab uUima foholis di*- 
tantihu*. flcribus itiajoribus pluribn^que, et ah omnibus fotiirfis eras* 
XldribhS lotiftTHnif ('2-7 mm. ) minus afejrffo rhacludihus tvwtifestr 
cdaUx atque staminibm rnulto minus Inr^uti^ (Jfnn*' i/hUtris). 

LOCUS ; VICTORIA inocideutali;;)— "Summit of Mi, William*', m momi- 
bus Gram[>ian« (HQiOTYPUS in Herb. MKL— H. li. Wiliiamwm. 

9 Nov. 1900): loc. cit. fMEl F. Murllcr, Nc^v, l$$3i C, WUHtltni, 

Jan. I8S7: D SutUvw. Nov. 1^71) : specimiua plures in Herb. MKL. e 
Iractn uidcfinito "Grampiaiv^" praitcrea ailsunS 

The new spw-»e* departs from mi other n;coanwed ta\a in Otc Bartwm 
piitrt&tu group by virtue oi its ihick nthi brood (to 7 mm.) leafletb, con- 
spicuously n-'iMififi rharhiaes and very sparsely hairy stamens — often almost 

M i"y;'] Win is, hlorti .,/ rutoria and South AuMralta )W 

yiaurous; the stend<r style i* aboot j*; lung ji (1 »e ovary and capped by ti 
^wall swollen *titfma. 

It Was included by lientbam in his loose circumscription oi tf puwaio $m. 
Wi' mhtfi/cW \Ptoro Jht-il I, 319 tl863)] ( together with clement* from 
Sources of the Ihinyip River" "near Portland Bay" anil "towards the mouth 
ot the GieneJg" all specimens rollected by F. Mueller [ liavr nnt seen cilher 
^tityjM- of var. HHH'Hrrt l'n'jiM Portland $r rbe ("»!enel$\ but I strongly suspect 
that these are referable to a form of 8, (titoxa l.nbill., having leaflets larger 
than usual and completely (glabrouv — a iatnitiar plant in the far south-west 
G»f the State, where no member of the pinuitta group is at present known to- 
occur. K. Cheel, in raising Ueurham'* var. mttfMcrt to specific rank [/. f'OY, 
.Vuf\ NSt$i 5H; \A7 (\9'M)). -clearly iypifi»s this twion by means of the 
niiuvip ftfVftr material, several sheets ol which arc represented in -Melbourne 
Herbanum ; but he Fails to indicate the identity of, or even to discuss, fne 
remaining' ibrce *yntypes of vac w/te//eW — including the Grampians plant 
now described as new. 

8. falipovta has long besui known hi Victoria a:* "B. pinnate ' (fWC EwdfC S 
WflfH ftftittj p 701, and books hy other authors? ; but to continue '*1u(nrymK ,r 
jr under that species would logically require tlie similar hision ot £f> vuwiUri, 
U. ttutjM and &■ tfimm*, whtOi is unthinkable. Analysis nf Uic essential <>H 
ij desirable and might wrll !end support to the recognition of ft. faHpintw U 
a specific eniity. It is a robust and handsome shrub with laigc bright pink 
rtow*"TS (a whirr fwTfl !s atao Vnnwn^, and j$ apparrntly endo-mic in ihe 
Oranipians ; although rather wifely distributed through tbese sandstone 
ftuiff&. the spoocs ftvours mounlam tops — c.jr. Mts. William, Rosea and 

UOKONIA NANA H-M>k Icon Plant. T.270 (IB4CU, 

var PLBESCENS (Btntk.) J fl. rWtffo ctnnbmatio nova. 

B, pt/hf/ci-fplw Sir.., v:ir. ffifojR'Uft Bcnlh. Fhrtt .lntt, 1. J2l {; 
&, /iii/'.^ &. CUd iu .* rv.v. 4*". S.S M. Ml 8(13 I W2*V. 

E. Cheel rai.sed Bculham'* varici.y pubc.tcois (i.e.) to specific rank, as 
ftofriitio hisphln, in die belief tbat tin* endemie Grampians plant was Ittilfii- 
frslU' distinct from all form? u( what was then called "H. f*yl\*#a1ifiilh'\ 
Dr F. McJvtIIc has nccntly shown [Kao /?«//. Ko. 3; 46M65 (1954) | that 
tin 1 true simple leaved and twn)tJffpfa glabrous 8, fiulytjiiltfalui Sni itoes not 
exttftn as far scailh as Victoria or Tasmania, wbere its place j$ taken by ihc 
crttvliaK 1 B, ruma Hr>olc. and its Mrnpte-lcaved, co-extdusive variety 
hysscpifoHa Melville (Ac p- 4o'J)— both distinauisbed from #. pfjh&pHfofiQ 
in having hirsute stems ( with a concentration of hairs in longitudinal groove* 
irotn the decui'rcnt leaf bases), sinminrd lilaments Hot gfadttally nairowinsr 
upwards, baicy styles and les* sprca<iiug stigniatir lolie^ 

Cbecl s B. hKipttht differs Trom typical O. nana only in being mudi m&ib 
futti'} . tin* vhnrt cCwrSe hairs ( U) 0(i mm. long) .ire by no mean? eonbnctl l*> 
hands alon*; the stem, but invert it completely and extend also over the leave*. 
pedicels, calyces, petals and filaments, Within the Grampian-* there i*. every 
acadaiion ^o\)\ densely hairy to sh'ehtly hairy plants, with leaflets varying 
Irani imcar to rotund, and it is deemed expedient to restore Bcntham's 
epinVi ptiih'sceny ior the inoie Itirgute population, making the new Vftfftt&l 
ronthination now calfcd for under HnrtMutt nana. 

BOkON T ,lA ANliMCJNirOi.IA A. Cunw. in Weld, 182?. 

B. tlmliacra Fi Mnt'M. in rVwflti Vfe tvuti ji C 1 8 3 i > ' 

llcntham [Flora rfitfl T; J?l r 1863) J reduced F Mueller's 0nti>\iD 
dcntv.fcrti to carittal rank under /i. Cii<m-oti(ff)Ho A. Cuwl E. Cbecl [7. toy. 
Soc A'i.H'. <^! ^Vl-2 (17^.)/ reinstated it ais « species, with tile cement: 
"tiie structural character of the leaves and hispid sepal*, at well as the distinct 

'M '.Vn t ■'-. llcm fij Viitoyia and South Australia L to. TO 

Utographui-d ruiiyc. mxio* b> w*wr<oit it being regarded as speoficnlly dis- 
niict; (lie Whole plant *e decidedly more hisfriil than /?. anttncmfpHa and the 
flowers arc different." l'h rot.- chow the trauge at if. HHVtttouijolus aiid &, 
i.U atiy n'4, so many variations mi .shape, sfcc *ft4 <ti«scctk»n of leeftcn occur 
with, varying degree* r.t hairiness flat it i* iinpcacticable to recoginxe 
dentifffTQ even as a marked vr.riety, 3^ did Ew-mr |F/t>ro P'tVrf. (&9 (19j0*)"|, 
[ have compared typ.;> »;>! ibrtip nvri s.M'ei* ^ and share the. -(pimm <>f Dr 
Melville, who woie Iro.m Kew (23/3/(055) : "There does not appear to be 
any corurant difference between \IucIKt'> species nnd IS. anemomjofht 
A. Cu;m_ with »Jk tyjjt: of which il has bceo eoiupared." Eo l*er recent 
.<TJirrft*Jif> F/om cf t'oititmnti (l95n). Ur, W. M, Ctirris has omitted B. 
iVK'moiitfrttia altogether ; hut in Meiiwwrne Herbarium there are specimens 
llul wer* coKected on M. Paul's Dome (just cast o( Avoca) by C. Stuart in 
IR48. This early Tasmanian material w comparable with Cunningham*.; Blue 
Mountains tyye ^cxtejjt -.s lo larger size'i and is surdy con specific. 

Cheers /? dctitu/rrvi^f, wb»< h Dr. Melville (2J/J/19.>5) heliewt) worthy 
of specific rank \ea> differentiated by «« aathoi with lite comment "similar 
in general appearance to /?. ienJif/cra F.v.M., hut the leaves arc more eutti- 
0O1Hk1, bei|ig tyrfOS kmate, and life leaflets more or less flattened ioict dentate 
at the apc\." Here a $2 in, the points of distinction from B. wieutonifotia are 
just ax hazy ^.ud lll-dehned m tile held as wete those ptcrp&fliKg 10 separate 
the litter from ft ffrutitjevo. Indefinable transition!, ceeur, and tKr writer 
prefer* lo teftar<t ft*l tiwiHgtiroidei ai another form o£ P. Ep9#fft0&£frr%i having 
in gviicraJ more divided anrl flattened IraflrK the comparatively shorter, 
jtrlahrcjs ca'vx lobes {t 2 mm.) approach those of typical Qfiemomfclia, but 
they arc aUvaj.^ ionner (to 3 inn ) at id hairy in the datligt'*** fornt. 'll;is 
rfcu.'iiyrrcu^.T form extends *'rom N^vv KfRlavtd motJittain^, south through thu 
IityltumJs ol New Suiah Wales LO the JPutjicalix Groups Bass birait, where 
it is luxuriant and abundant on granite [leaks — called "stink-bush" by local 
TgtftfKiQrfi frc.'ii iti oiT»:niively rnn^ent aroraa. 

Both Otitis any Melville regard &nr/mki variabilis Hook, ^s a distinct 
.-species endemic in Tasnuima ; but the Writef wonl<l follon* Kentham in 
releg^linii it U> variutal rwnk unncr & ^tumx'fUJtUui \Florti. Aitvt, 7! $}[ 
( I Boo J] Curtis rmplnnize.'. diit "the species i* polymorptiic" [S'tudcnt's 
J'lom Tns. 1 : 101 (1956) J ; and so it is, grading lrnpttxcvribly on the island?. 
o* H^?.5 St'Jiit into the $*$fag*r4id£$ form o< C". nntmcnifolu?. In general,, the 
leaUeti ai&.l tlieir s-:.v.utulaey divisions are quite glaljrou-i. hroud, obtuse., flat 
aftfl rather disuni giving an alniost Wfiirwuc Appearance l*J tbe loltage. 
There is a specitii<c-n of B. cn/e ?.<;/? iw'/oiw vmj. VaftafrSis (Ktiok.) Benth >n 
Melbourne K.rh.iriiim irotn Porlai button. Vic. (Duhn?on, 1870^. and at 
bat also been repot led fiom tbt WaniLah Bay -Wil^JiTb Prt.»Ti)unlory «rca, 

BOROKTA PARVTFl.ORA Stow TthcIs Nat. Hist 295, T.6 (1798) 

B. ^UitufuM L;ibill- Nov rtcM Plkwl 5AKiMu-n i: 98, T l?rt (t^M.); 
n bnjiiAtr*! J II, Mi«<!*n ic J, M. Bucx (u r»^i»/ roj. $*t. $ Atft. 
j.^; I (I?10. 

iientlum [ Flora A Ml J 324 (1363)1 HyMOiiynnted Ute Ta^nauia" Boroma 
pthnema Labill. under. 8, f>urV2,'lora Sm. without comment, and rhfc opinion 
is nt.:\v einlorsed Hr-wcvtr, Curtis \ Students Ffora Tas. 3: Il>2 (\9$6)] 
TC%\afe£> b. /'//o'/e^iii ior Tasi-iatna and Victoria, di'|>arvr!tl_v consider tng it lo 
he. 5uceihrally distinct from the Port Jackson H. for-vtHont. Kxnminalion oi 
a large ttuho o( mat^rlfiil [torn the tour so .ttb- extern States, in Melbourne 
Herbarium, disclose* no apjtaront line of demarcoilo" ! indeed, Smith's type 
illu<;tr»lii.tu »/» \(j\ L-J & porvifioru might well have been drawn from the 
Souilipott (Tas) material, collected by C .Stuan in the satn^ general region 
Vroin ivhich L&b»lnrdiere obtained ht> B. pitautnw 

A ltf0hjt$1i td (jLtite a ibiTertilt kmo 1 s,»»in.Lrn? the tdentitv <*-fc liorowa 
fatnrttti Maiden X Bbcfc fn f, M. RUrb'.t r/drtj S. Wi^.'wl 2. ^ ? ; 4^4 

IOT j Win.uv Flora cf f-'tr/ona and South Artslralio \'-'^ 

(I94&) the author reunvs both /* f>iifarfj?ef0 W (>ul»*tns for that State, 
K'^arkinc Hrtdei the latter >pecnrs-. "Near the preceding, hut the stems mostly 
erect, the leaves more cimratc towards base, the peduncle shorter ami obeoni- 
cal, not much exceeded oy the leafy bracts, the j>etak obWa and &hoi'tcr than 
tlit sepals . stamens only 4" in Victoria [heie is no such correlation of these 
s fiaracters -even in a single community of plants — and it his been fountl 
quite nHpOssfbtt: to rcioutiuc B. (intuit us as a variety, niudt less a specie*. 
1 am indebted to Mr, A. Clitf. tfeyugleliole, of Gura'c West (Vic.) for an 
excellent nitres of field research, embodied in the following repmt (11/12/35) 

Who* I BCflt tiowti « Fior/niie lr*»s. long .ig«r. -iinl ymt ffifttttlH It K />,>/»■ o**v 
I wo»(1'""icd if isc uMliy lt;»u />. fivrvifltirtr .to well .ir l*orrl:ni*(. I M.irfUe{( for .i 
loittf ijwfe* »nj O'io *U> MU milled iitmii plant* tin our |il»c<< which, r>:i tfcr tymt. I 
ihomfliT Iru) 8 RttiMfrM f\;uer. afl«| |iie>$itn!, J hiUl reason to dlelh rtirm, and 
taifUt>nc ittV stitjjiiv wluin I f<Hi«fl umIv 4 surmcns' At »hf fmck t>l my tiuhO, I 
lifjd ih-niigltrs ih.^t 1 of TllC 8 W«»|N;i1$ wtic rtfWj! ttnidrwin; J tult) l'<:n:y ;md 
Kngmc dfcnnt it, .im1 ratlrrf for a Ui-.nt'H£U ittvoUtroliuil v( \hc iiulM-i. 
Tlti» vrr iliil on ML Ulajf VvY ruillirfeil litmdici'U or llowcis; tin* vnsr niajorirv 
tkad ihe * si -intern.* but ttie Inlrfnr* liad i lo j \V< fouetd foui of On: 
Xiamen* ar* is»rlv .lecnim,..- nil right — tlu^tt Spc <hnmr than th* tttfof |v>iAKr^m 
4, tti cjuiiiunitiR in til* fr*rsh Mate. ywi» "-'an Mitt vlwre ihrs*: iiaincuA fall **ff . . 
t fcjavc out pfCjjAfttil 6j>ieiMiUI m Inch hail tTiicc OJiO»» ElOtoC" WHU ttie [yMovM"« 
ruiuit^. ^. f* w»t B suinpns. 

PHEBAL1UM MlLLnBKANLm /. ft. /fiV/?.r. itaios nftw ct no»«v:n 

t.riojlrnwtt Uitlrbruudii X Mticlt ill Tf.ix.*. p/»7. V>v. I-')./ '; 1i; tlBiV), 

Vrti br^vtffwn I*'. MiwM i/.r). 
l'UrbnH\rni mVpifW -m"> J- M tfl»Ck ft7«M V. .-J«(tl **\ l k 2 -191 nj,». OH 

tSACATIO: AITSTTMLK MKRU^ICWAIJS, ||bj i»< i«.omihus T.ofry <■* 
fiitrossn saUiru iiivciiituT. 

tMCTOTVPUS- h\ fttifi MEI. s]>ccimcn h^oc o.noUoi coniitans — 

4 7L>iu. , f/r>iH>u hitUOn'ntdi* fcrtJ Mlltllcr ; A. trr'S-inlotutin, Mt. I.cifly 3<anp.t , fT, 
Amhrrs re<J f H>r, f«tl .MiK'.Hcr" ii>rohahiht( i r Aum.,)]. 
F, Mueller's description of h'tivstanwit UilU-bromiii (/,<,) e*ol>raccii two 
distinct species, viz. the Victorian Phrbtttimn Jn(<jbmn t.indl. (whidi h>i 
Oesigual^s :*& s»il>5i>ei.ies or variety "iofiijifoHiis*') and a Uiltu^\ inuch >ioaHti- 
leavcd SooLli Ausirailan plant (drsigtiatccl h; mihsp. nr var. "OiCTtftttins'') — 
.unfortunately Mueller flCtitftj iipatrfirieiitl.v u^si^n^d his hri'Vitolivs ckmtni 
10 the "Victori;* Ranges" instr-ail of thv Mt. Lofty Ranges. Since ti*i* autlmi 
reii>acket.l ( ^hii highly ornamental plant - lias been ileserioed hy l>r. 
Liiidlcy as a sijeci<*s . . . uild&E the iwme of Phebuhttw bttahitxi''. he admits 
that the species had a prior tt&A)?, MH\ sO t, htilcbrcnttfii must he rejected a> 
Minerfliiou3 when published. However, it seem* desirable tcf reinMate 
Mueller's epithet for the short-leaved element in bis composite desciivuion. 
tether than cboolfC any other, and, to do this, T have e^tahhsficd the new 
name PUcbaltuut tviUA'rotulii (in accuttlanee with Article -SI of the 5focT(lrt>ifll 
Code, 1950). 

Bt'.ulhaio \j't/nu Attjl I 340 (1^:1) had lonsitWrKl Oiat Onlj one \*ii-inl>le 
species was involved, aivi he syiionyinizeJ /J. hiflcbnwdu under /\ kilohirm, 
ini9-5pellhig the epithet a.-> "hihtebmnrfU ' — a mistake perpetuated since by 
Ewarl (UWO) and Curtis (1956) in Ihcii' r^ftftttl^e lloras of Victoria and 
Tasmania. Other writers, including I. M. Black (19K). have aJo|/ted tlw's 
view. However, iliedifl^rences Ltd baUH, lohage and fruit are so piououneed 
as to iu^-lify fiY.ogfn.iuon of two specific. t;i^a; they may lie summarized as 
follows- .' 

P. Si tf.O&OM— Shrub erect, U> 6 H Inftwmus not CJtCeedhvJ tl*0 last leaves 
L^OtH't H cm lv>»s. Jt Ivii^i .J iJhicC as lo»>fi as hiwid Misnally 
Hiorc.l, oiilon^ to liuMi, u%umIIx lirandi:>i lowwd ccrnt".-, glal»ruus aittl 
UimiMsr; ni.i'fj'iis rtpltfleuThlC. flU|Af»J VeH4<c Tivn i»( tvuii is(raif.t!l, 
with Kriviin.U lws;.V .iiirt ivWiltv \ciol»un 

IW Wi..it5, AtiM iff iHcivm and Sam A#gpv!fo Vvl\ h n 

?'.. HJf.l KfiRA,\'nif—Shrnb (.mil, imtctnnScni, j£ ft 'ugh. Uif.ortsct<!(V r.->r 
cxccedJMK the la hi leaves. iftfJ'f.* lei* pPttti 1 cm. Utttti 3 
ttntlu a* iBUg iis broad of less, vM&tij?-oh&.wneijtc ot tfftM tor- 
elate, brci.ii It *.t »t ba?<\ usually — pcafctritl", n; urging Ant'.r* 
and r.ln'iiys rcvolme. Anthcft Mil. Cotci of fruii jmMxki?, witli 
lateral boaks ,in<H ^tainincut MtSQ£J concentric vemj. 

True PhcWuon biloburtt (type from Mt William m the Victorian Cram- 
piunO extend? across Bag* Strait hlamls to eastern Tasmania, but does n&l 
occur anywhere in South Australia; there, its place is taken by xhc related 
htn smaller /•' hilUl»-f,tiidti which is svctircTdly endemic and uncomuicn n 
i*hc Mi Lofty and Btartt&a Ranges — a)one nxky w^ter-coursc? JKrtwren Mt. 
Lofty proper and Tanunda. The epithet honours the [feme oi I*)r Wilhclrvt 
Killtbckikli a inend ot Baron von Mueller during hi* early residence in 


species, nova ad P. natlii (F. Mueil.) Maiden & Bclcbe [Novae Cam- 
brise Austiabs & Queenilatuhie] et F, htbtrcntcsnm (F, MttclL} ffenth 
[Australia? Occidental^] cvidentor proxime accede-ns, sed a priore 
differ* $tatura parva (baud ISO em.), foliis mmoribus semper arte 
ret'olut'S (nuuquam plant* ) t perianth io multo WltiOre I'nnnquatv 
6-9 nun.) ahjuc petali* baud mms purpureas : w P> tubcrcuhso ujxfrcntia 
tuberculatum (m ramis ct folds), pctalis interne temper lattc )uu*u. 
stftminibus et stylo quam corolla awiiper brevioeibus (vkJetur \ } corolte 
squsnns pcttatis ptfucis (8-12 per petal uru) muho majoribus tU.4-U> 
mm, dimiKt .) beiw disnngtuvur. 

VAGAT10-. V1CTOWA (ocademahs mnwU)- 'Big Defect, on maltee 
samlbill* along the South Australian border fence, about 1 1 milts north ol 
Serviectcm" (MOLD- & PARA-TYPUS in Herh. MKL—A ft. IVi'Ju. 
1? Scpl W4$) : "Big Desert, on ogferi ma1lcc*beal1tlaiid of Bloc*; •&* aJ)oul 
milo north-we$t of Yanac" (MF.L, AD K— /?. MetvitU No. I08£ SH 
W. J. UkUs, l9Scpv 1932). 

A small, stiff, cricoid and non-tut*erculRr desert c-hnin, 30-60 cm, [1-2 ft.l 
nigh, the smaller branches silvery from a dense indumcntuni 01 ov^Tlappm.e 
Iie!la*e $49-le^- Leaves 5-12 \- I nipi M Linear, minutely scabrous but rather 
shining, alniirtt terete from the strongly revohrtc margins (their under 
■silvery surface hidden), obtuse at apex, rigidly spreading at 4O 3 -90° l'ront 
firanch). ftMpfrf eKeeediiii<ly scaly, 1-5 m ^inall uinbellaic- cluster? lcrminat- 
infc tire final branches, on stotit pedicels about as lortg 3l5 the peftSntb 
(4- s ^ Mini ), Caty? to two-thirds the lentflb of ex.pan^ed corolla, purplish- 
scaly, each of the 5* prominent triangular lobes i. 2 mm. long. Petals sfc 4 Mfli 
lonft, elJiplical, ncutish, vivid chrome-yellow and glabrous within, "but cloched 
extcrnaJly wrth comparatively few (to 12), large (to 1 mm wi<le1, cop]tcry* 
hued peltate scales which become torn radially. StajmvttA fil&mcuts 2*3 mm 
long; anthers ratVr large, l-t.2 >; 0*8 omi. Ovo*\: pyfamidat, densely covered 
with silver -white lacerate squamulej; style short and stout <*l-2 trim.) 
becoming glabrous. Fruit not yet 3ecn. 

Except for Pkcbuliwm natui <F Muell.'i Maiden &: B^tche— -a shrub 
5-10 ft high, with brc<ul flat leaves and larger pUfpfe corolla — , the new 
species is the only eastern Auslralian representative of the scclion Enf>he- 
bahum. (peltate-scaly plants) has 1113 (hslhttt mc.v.r Yttlk\ a! least as Long ^^ 
the tube P> hxvaiteuse shares this feature with a group of closely related, 
yellowish-floweTcd species m Western Australia; but the only one of ihe^e 
approaching it at all closely is P, t\$frad&j\tm (F. Muoll) Beritlv. and i hat 
Itas very tubercular branches, leaves revolute but not icabrid. cornpatatively 
longer style and starniii&l filam<ms and much smaller (up to 0,3 moi wideK 

M i*at b 3 Wnus, Uttf* Itf IkiOrin "»"* South .^m.V.m'w W 

0)0 re nomvnH-s peltate tfdlc* «n I he back* »-»f the totals. The epithet 
"/gwih^ia?" alludes to the Victorian Counly of I owa<-\ where I lie specie* is 
known to occur, but it uliHnnbtAcll y ako ranges nonit distance within ihi* 
adjoining South Australiaxi County oi tiuckmgliaiit, 


TKTKATilliC'V STUNOCARPA ) H, fj*8tt*- t 

specie* nova ad ?'. cimiiYiw: Liudb proxime accedes, sed difVcn - statura 
majore* { 1&QU£ ad 150 cm ) lamis siinerionbus atu-nuatis pnctic 
efoli&tU, f'uliih remotU aUe-rnk (inttrdum ba>in versus paucis tcniatH) 
± iCrrwli*, ucdicelli? a SfiUs pullis glandulosis promiuentec muniiit 
('similiter calyce) et fuveoaue- capsuli* rtsagflfe t, usque ad \£ s 4 mm J 
fusiformibux fon-yr a-cummattT. 

I'AGATfO VICTORIA (ftuwvahs) — « Gembrook oWemem versus 1 mill., 
in iOlo ex rupe grajiodiorittca abrosa (HOl-O'f'YPHS in Herb. ML'L. 
P&R4TVPUS h* NSW— #>> WotitMK * t)pc. 1046); tx-mbrnoV 
Ram/es CMBjCj-C U/V/rr. Sept. 188! ) ; Emerald (MEL- .P. ft, U. St. 
Jo fat. Nov. 1903j ; "Junction of [ftfctfC roads on Rysrm's Creek, about 51* 
mile-; north of Labenouchc" (MF.I., NSW, K -/. H Willis* \9 On 

A very distinctive Jilsc-Howci'cd mounUin- forest PnMU. ■apparently restricted 
to the granodiurite waienshed of the Yarra, Larrobe and Bunyin Rubers, Vic- 
toria. The ultimate slender, otten almost leafless blanche;; are weak and trail- 
ing, to 350 till [;?; S ft.] b>ilp p , * tightly 31 abrnns but never hairy I.HQVCt $0t 
rhomboid-orbicular. 5- Id tnm. lung and broad, almost ssssil^, remote, alternate 
(or a few oi the lowermost tcrnutc. as in V. tilht-tn Liiutt.), at least some — 
a* id oilco most— br^nlarly srttTytfc; flora) leavo or bracts narrower and 
much smaller. Pedu-cis both minutely pubesrem ni d densely covered with dark 
erecl gland-lipped bustles- tup to ).? mm. long.) which extend onto tUti calyx. 
/'Viri// flattened, fusiform, up 10 12 mm. Itfnjy and 4 mm, wide (ar centre). 
laperhnj into the lung-acuminate style, verv microscopically pubescent ami 
with scattered p;landular bristle* (much sm.iHei than C'ii c.'^yx) SrnU d.irk 
brown, ellipsoid, 2*3 a 15 inm., almost glabron:-, with pruinineuc whiti$K 
afttj^ld appendage fit distal end (2 uvi'er ovules abortive^. 


T sft-Howi'lM, by virtue of its long, narrow, spindle-shaned eapaiilea — Uenue 
the epithet — is unique m tins genus, all other Irnowu Nicies havmg ohovate, 
apically flattened and btiruiculate fruits, ll most closely approaches T' t atiata 
T.indl., -(vhich often grows hi the wme (ocftlvty, wid n few of iVig lo\vcrmo?t 
leaves are often in Uirees (as in '/'. cifiata) ; but, in addition to the strikingly 
dissimilar fruits, the t46thli foha%e, lotig nafcetf som^svhal rush like brandies 
and constantly gUndnhr-briRtly |»edircls amj*ly jumify recognition of l!lW 
new species. Snectmeus ra Melbounie Herbarium had been variously rtrferrtd 
to r, rihata .nnd 5T- xnl'apkyHn 8tfu1t7, The latlcr is emjrcly ^labious ai\d 
.-ilniost leaflos (<»r with very few scaacred narrow leaves and bracts), having 
short smooth pedicels and only 2 ovule* to each ovary.; ft was collected in th* 
"L'viicr Yam* Hatlyes'' (in'obably near the Baw baws) by r". Mueller dunuy 
jAttUfi/)- 1803, and h also Unovvn from Mt. Kayc awl Combimbar jr» Kaist 
Ciinp6lM.nd t extending across the N.S.W. border to sources of the Cienoa 
River ("type locality)* 


J.OMASTlil.MA SM1TH11 (foir.) J, H, H J r//iV, combinati* nova. 

t.onmitctma i-Uxptica R.nhn, Sxh. Trihir, t(>7 OS3fi'i; 

/;i(yt'iftu C/ttptiM Sin. tu 7'i;iJ!j_ /.I'rir S\>t M* 2Bt <J79<*K «<?;( Lain. (1780,), 

£ rip/mid irtwWu* Voir Evtyti mi*h But Suppl ^t W6 (l3t'.1)i 

.•b-Mk'Ktf ,vm:Vh,'i (Poit.) Merrill & Perry ii. .'. ArMfJ rfffati 1$ : lo U?J8J. 

W Wilms. Horn of Vhiwia and South Auiftraiin [ V y^" «' 

With ^cmie. 2,500 binomials, the genus fftmrtua L. has become so unwieldy 
That modern wciikcrs tend more and marc In recognize derivative genera. The 
difficulty is to find el tar-cut criteria far. these divisions-; hut it seems thai 
li)($?nia in the stricter SeiHe >s largely confined to America, with a few 
outlier* in the Pacific, South-Hast Asian and African regions, while tuwl of 
lite Australian ;pecies hitherto relVried to Fatf-nit* telling cither in ,Tvsyui>/wi 
QgVTtn.i ^rwiL'iw sens auciL var. (#9)1 DC) or ('h'istoitilyx Bl. 

In Taxan .? c ; 136 (Aug. 1956) R McVaugh establishes tJiat the genotype 
ot jsetfwtya DC. is // floribumUi (3m) DC, Utsrd upon Mtrnnuh'ro* floti~ 
tmndu. Stu- which is now accepted *s a species of Angoplu)ra Cav. £3p Anyo- 
plwra flonhundu (Sm.) Sweet) . This Jxmnl so, .ftiwfncl "[alb; uUo the 
synonymy of Anftophota and another generic name ifWjfcl he taken tip for 
Eut/fui(t siuithiV. Lonmstchna »t Raruiesquc [.Yy/s/fl TcUurinna 107 (l&*8)l. 
based directly upon liittfcu-h Afiptio Sm. (ic upon 7*. \mtthii P<>ir ) ii the 
rarli' v st *V&ilahl<? generic name to r*-pUce lite traditional (bur nm Candollean) 
Wcmicvw. tt is re£icMable that such a lamihai tree as the lilly-piMy should 
have to suffer another "ir«ifaiA/wn/"; tnU llie change effected above would 
have been inevitable, with any Qttcuipl to Rjffil up Eugenia. 

FUCALYPTUS PiLF.ATA W. F m<\kcl\; 1034 

Millewa Countv, cm booth Australian border S wiles east of T&olait 
fKe'b MTU— / U Wiliit t &Au& »°5$) 

The first rtcoi'd for Victoria, although this niaJlee species is already 
recorded front tVrTj on tht Murray Pivrt, S- A»Ht»! only 31) wnks to 'he 
tmrih-wfit, Jt is n spectacular, vctj thick-leaved siKer-bruv uee, forming 
pure stands on sandy rises 3nd extending for several miles into far north- 
western Victoria At this eastern extremity ol its range, the tree differs from 
the typical Wer-l Australian form in being glaucous, with comparatively 
broader fruits and rather less subulate valves; but the curious conical, ribbed 
Opefctda (Wt|h hemispherical b;«$c often wider than the ralyX tube) aie 
character! cue 

EUCALPTUS POROSA !■ Xfucll in iftfo hi Xjftfcri (Ciuidfe. Arch. 4: 

m (iB56>. 

E ratuntUnx (F. Mn«tl. rx Mit(.t W I*'. Rlaloelv Kcv hue 21A *lO.My : 
fc'. I'tU'ttito BvUi, var, CflUtttittrtt F. Modi. <x \U». in .VrdrW. Xr«i//i. 

Atctt, P, i >*> (I8SG): 
t:\ i*rford/w MM t'wut /*7w*.» ^m*. H930? rt al , ft^)|. Uthi 

jN. T. i5«rlndSe [/rarw, rtt*. $9& A Aust. /J: 1590611 (V)ec, l°4?)] 
resolved mucb o* die uncertainty and coiu'nsion surroimdm* the *4a&Mfa 
.:umplex" oi South Australian euc;ilypts. Througli tier research if k apparent 
that rhe Liee hiiticrto claltcd R, Q$nfatQ- in westrru Victoria ur- a distinct vpecU*. 
recognisable l>y its lively gieen leaver with imrainar (final ve*li ijmre iift&ty 
Irom the edge nnd the buds curiously wrinkled when dry ("litce a withered and 
dhrnnkcit i»pp^e")- Uiifortuuaiely, Miss $tfn]>Ul|e takes u\> the name £. rWn- 
adtris for this plant, attributing the conilnnation, to F. Mueller and putting 
fc*. poroso- r Afnclt. as a synonym, The epithet talricuUrU, ttowever, was 
published onlv as a variety {of B. odorata Behr), whh "P.. calchculivix 
P. 74 fell. HrriS" citprl in 5 r *t^V<t* •"•> a synnnynt The fnhTnaiior»a1 Code rules 
that -names mentioned in synonymy are not validly published (Art, 46— 
Stockholm, 1950) ; so that W i* Blakcly (/.c.) was the firi.t to validate the 
binomml £ i-nlcuuttrix, which mius< date fi"on> 1^J4 Rurbi«lg< was jitstlfie^l 
i"n stjtun.' ihat fi> ftUriosA "does not warrant separation"- — tfs tyiir in Melbourne 
Herbarium, from rhe Flinders Range, is uiMiueMionably etmspecihe with 
r;. cttUiruUth' Since these iwo epithet* xvere publiKhcrl simultaneously (1856) 
in the same wrW. but P. /►or#)j>i as a spn-jtv vviib detailed diagnosis, the 
latter rnusl ceruinly stand as the correct name <if the encalypt concenied — 
wilb li. *rtVAW/r*.r reduced <t\ synonymy 

1W? 1 W ii-ii- h'lora of Vn-1*me and So\ith Atutralfo 1 99 

In Victoria a, fiorosa is not uncommon in depression* between Ouyen and 
Murray vihc, extending a? scattered communities across the ftig Desert to a< 
far south as the Diinhoola-Kiata. district.. E wart's record for Uu<di\eorch 
(nncter "£. "^'("(r 1 ) is certainly open VO tp'-c$tion, In growth (onn, the 
^pectcK varies from a shapely Bprtsdlilg irt-r, with single trunk about I ft- "• 
diaraeccr, to a biaclcish "wbipstick" mallee thr bark 13 rough and Iwjx.Jifce 
rvCepi Ml Hie smaller, smooth. hrowiu»h-^re> branches 


GKNTIANKM.A DIEMENSIS {Grisch.) J. 1L Witlts. cnrribnir.lio n.,va. 

•CrMrtam? tiiitttciitijt ij'.iich, 6\*r*. 51te£. oVti/t.i'i. ii/*i (;£jyj: 

The wenus Gentuint'fla Mocnch differ.* from Genti-an-a i - in the follow ma 
Mgnifkam chambers , no connective membrane between tlic calyx teeth., im 
small tohe* alternating with lhr. major corolla lobes ( which arc 5 10 9-vcinod, 
nGt .1 -veined as 111 O'cuhenia), dnttrtiK versatile and nectaries present *?»» tin. 1 
corolla (notsr base of ovary). Alt the Australasian species (chiefly mountain 
plants) hitherto referred to Ctnttma shuuld he transferred to C/fniiancfta, 
and l lit above new cumbiiiatimt is made for the single common plaitl of aotlUi 
eastern Australia (in four States}, 

Lab ratal 

car BtfACTROLATA J. tf. W'Mu, sw; 8 RW im.w. 

f rff^/iA F. MueH fmtjm. P.Vo. -'turf .*: M7 (AUr U,Mf 

lu his otiginaJ diagnosis, of f*rosM>illh?fn tjttbtiu frcm the ViclnrMii Uiam- 
piarw, h. Mueller (/**.) drawn attention in th« plant's cujsc relationship to 
F. .wi irqfri R- Br.— 

u ab has reri*tft>ns few! rttffj tfrfj n'VAitintUihs, \*r$ctitoU& k*m4 &rffVwrfW>fiy 

corolla itiauirr framus ttmlHusqiw puhrruhh' 
Alter examining much maierial of ^- ovntr-j/tf -mckidiny its two vanities. 
u:njor titntrr. ll£70[ aod M/W/jtrU1 A. A, Kaonlt.ou [7^-^r Lilffl*, SV NSiV. 
4?~ 26$ (1920)]— I'r-im \ r *triou!> p<irt*> oi \"vw Sooth W-itcn, I ^m led to the 
conclusion that P dffbliis differs ottfv in the constant development of floral 
bracieoks, which a>'c consisicmly longer than m any Kuown forvn of 7 J ( sttMcola 
(wnr. stfict.) ; hot this character alone cannot justify the recognition of two 

P iijruoh varies greatly in size, hatrmess a:»d colour or fiowcrs (purpl-. 
to almost wJtite), while the fedvefl uia>' In- i.anuw vith t-lnscly mtairt,'t;'J 
margin* or broadly cUivtie iiud quite flat , mostly, it is a decumhrnt shrub tM 
only a fw inches in height, The hracteolcs may fsc entirely RbiUttV. rcdurcd 
to niete f>oint^ or t!ibeTCle>, of lib lo ),$ mm. hJUg ( On* maxiintmi devel'jj)me:il 
attained in varieties major ajaf matUatw) . At Jrrvu Bay, KvS.W.^ Dr. li. 
(j^uiba cf.lic. 'ed (.^Q/S/I9ri3) a ionn having microscopic bracrcolcs but verj 
lar£< q-Jabrour; fiowt-r.^, blue-veined at (he thront as in l J . smohflonr F. MueM. 
of inland moinuain*, 

lu Victoria P. tidnlix always has hmcteolcs 2-4 mm. .long, sometimes almost 
as loop; as the caly\; ii^e.if, hut they vnry froin setaCPO*.is (and about 5 mm.) 
in some Grampians collections to niuch broader and shorter in the Man- 
di;ran^ district. Comparablu pO]njlalions with long; lirai-l^Jc-; are loiown from 
Capertee, Molouij, Oul^rmg and the W^'rrinnhce.Rle Ranges, N-S.W 

5n rcdncitig' Mueller's ^nerics to a third vastly of f J , tox'icoln. 1 hiavc 
adopted the new epithet l>rucU , u!<.tUt, inasmuch as a variety 'Wi>i7ijf p would V 
ahi-urd--fiuf upright nhruhi; ro 4 ft, hlfth oe^t;r ar Maryborough, Vic, and are 
proltaJily as Jarge a* any form assumed by /-\ SCFfrlCQra throuyhtmt its ran^t 
Jn addition to rhe Grampians, MarvhurongK ^nd Miindui-anp records, there 
art Victorian occurrences o( l\ .va.rrmla var. brottvoiot<t h\ the BenctisO 

20(1 Wilms, Horn nf innorio ™<i South Austria ( V vJi. r** 

"Wljiustick Scrub" and the Ml YVelKtigtccrt area (between MacallKtw and 
.Avon .Rivers). 

forma AERUGINOSA J. H. tyitiU* 

fi><-»m no*a cb corcl'iur cy>tueu*vir:ilctn laer>iKTfcli'3i.iffV£A&] 

V*| *|M.HCMMrtl) belie tlis-luKU. 

/*. tkfaratttJt.i tens, auctt, V<cf., ko/j K, Muen. 

HQ1 QTYPUS 'J h\ Herb. MEL specimen hflike oomlam eoinitans— "Rock 
Holes bote, Zl\ miles north tii I'anitva and near the South Australian 
border" (I, if. Willis, 29 Aug, 1955)" 

As it occurs in the desert sand-lull country throughout north-western Vic- 
totia (and adjoining parts of South Australia). Prostan-thrnh microfrhytln is 
almost invariably a dinrijurtive shrub with bluc-grcen flowery; out i»» otfier 
States the colour if usually scarfet or purplish. This green form has for lung 
been iden titied in Melbourne Herbarium as "P. chtaruntha K, MuelL" ana, 
a* such, it appear in Ewart's Fl<*ty* 0/ Ficiotia, p. 983 (1^30) The true 
t. chUmntha of South Australia (type from ML Barker Creek I is * tyify 
different plant, distinguished by en indimicnium of spiny -brand tcl (never 
simple, curled) hairs, much larger ribbed calyx (to !2 nun long), slender 
fjedicelh about K> mm king and anthers without the slender appendages found 
in nil forms of P uinryfthylfa; it jia&s not in Victoria, and should be 
deleted from the State's flora. Type v f the original red-flowered P. tnkro~ 
PbylhK which is morphologically almost identical with the (orirta ffftow*^ 
came, from "Kuryalian Scrub" in the lower T.arhlan Rtvcr area, N.S.VV. 
(A. CmnwrjUa-ntNQ, 225, iSl/). 


fiNAPTlAT.TUM UWRttTCOLA /, tf. Wttlis, nomen novum. 

<f- ntputcH»m V. Muell <?.< Hnnk r P/aw /.vm*. /; ,517, T. «M (l$sr*i; ncm 

l/ ( utiu(n:]i\\m V,. K'.>ch in iwits-u «M. 55*1 O0$l). 

The name L*»w/>/m/tiwi at t y^Hmt F. Muell. e.v Hook, i., betru/ a l&Kct 
homonym for (I. al{<iyjt<?titu C. Kficfi (validly published, with detailed deccrip 
tion nl :t Kitmsian plant), tuust lapse am'i he replaced by a new name 1 
have chosen the epithet " uwbricola? for this uncommon plant of south-east 
Australian mountains, In allusion to it? habitat — always >n the shade, perching 
on wet tuck facts ot ledges ami usually associated with waterfalls or QftfiCflcW. 
Mueller's epithet (Kilpigsmcm) was a little inappropriate; for, although thU 
most elegant oi Vntorian cudweeds 'tort aveencf into the nips, it oo.tir*. alsj 
at such comparatively low elevations as the Little River Falls near VVaujnl- 
nierang* and Mason"? Falls (in the Kinglake National Park — it.? nearest 
approach to Melbourne). Other occurrences in the State are at Mis. Coupler, 
Buffalo, St. Bernard, Fealhertup, Spurn ICojj, Bogong and the Cobboras; 
nthcrvvisc tnt Mraintatn Cudwvixl in found only nt the Kosciusko region of 
south-eastern New South Waif:? and, aeeortlinc to L. Rodway £l9wj. "about 
the summit -of mptt mountains" in Tasmania. 

comhinatio nova. 

Jfeiirhryxxm <tatciit H fl. Willi»mson in Prcc. r&y. A'rtc. t>'iet. n. fct- ii: 
2i, T5 W22). 

Type ai this species came from a drv hill-Mde at Lome. Vic, tHerb. 
.MEL— A- C F ColCV ? Her, 1<)2J ) and no «uhv^uenl eollrctirvn h%$ ever 
rearhetl the Melbourne Herbarium^ In his original description, Williatn&on 
stated that the plant bears a ■J»stintt resemblance in habit and £*f\e*ff1 aspect 
to certain spec>es <d Lef>torrU\mihus, but went on to say: **Jt is here placed 
out oi Upton hynchns on account of the shortness of the florets and the 



* ? J Win.1*, /''row uf l-ictoriuottd Sfottfft Australia 20] 

absence of disltitd Cipwurd narrowing of the achcites.'' Neither oi these 
features, however, is of any generic significance pfr w — the writer find* 
tlul flnrels in Williamson's plant are comparatively no shorter than in other 
<|uite Ivpk^l members of l.ttfUcfiiytirhux, while the acholic* flj'<} scarcely less 
narrowed than in /.. sauamntits or L. t^nuifoUus (come flelkhrysotn species 
have achenes distinctly narrowed toward the apex). 

AdnnHcdly Oh* tjonerti. boundaries between Ixftiowhyiwhus and Httirhry- 
sum (in their present circumscription) are often haav, as indeed they are 
between \ht latter scans and tithflivntttn; hut, except for BOWti in the 
snrubby. small-headed section Qzothamnus. species ©f HcUthrysu-m almost 
invnrialily have long or short, sprvadhuj pcuifoid !inni*t<p to inn inner m* 
vohicral bracts — brart* in Lrpt/irrhy-uchus nevei display differ enliaied 
spreading Ittiirme. and in tnbflt species (including /-. tfatesii) they arc narrow- 
lint«r with boldly ci bale- bnibm to marfiins. It might he I hat I. yatcsii 
represents an isolated inier-generic hybrid between rhe*e genera, but tor the 
present it is more satisfactorily placed under Lcf>iorrhynehus' the varying 
uunftcr ol PAPPUS bjjltfti (:fc 20 on disk florets and ± }2 Oil marginal femate 
florets) nko lends weight to this opinion 

C0TU1.A VULGARIS M. h\ Lcvyns |J. S. Air. Bot. 71: (Tuly J Will. 
v 3r AUSTRALASICA /. H- WW 5l 
varietal nova a forma typica. Capensi differ! peduncuhs niaftwfs 
usitate a pilis nds-persis (baud mox glahHs), corollis centralibu* 
acrnenhiquc brevioribus (corolla cifdtcr 1 mm, cf. 1.S-I-? mm. hi 
apociminibus Cnpensihus). 

(', fiUfotia Ainu. audi. AiiKt., ji-jv TtiunK 

VAC AT 10 Forme per toium Australia t.uratropk.* disperse, praxiptic i;? 

trac.tibus humidis ar^uosU satskaue. 

HOLOTyPi'S In Herb MEL, speoimmim scries ex Victoria hanc notulam 
comitans- — "Cotuto ftifalui Thhft. Stwamps, Shire of bimboola. 25/9/1 892. 
Coll. F. M ( Reader" [iSOTYPI m Ad NSW, K] 

Mrs. M R.< has -established <tx.) that two quite distinct, but pitch 
co-extensive, species ui South Afncd had beer, called L'olvla fif-ifalut- Thutib. 
Unfortunately, Tlinnber^'s type specimen (in Ujn>nla University Herbarium. 
Sweden^ 15 too inadequate, to decide tor certain which of these two plants 
should hear the name C. Jf/tfaffo-i but Mtft. Lcvyn* has applied ft to the 
slightly smaller y-pecie^, dirainguished by the distinctly wntffrrf And bribtl) 
achenes oi its disk florets. The other plant, with much larger disk florets and 
almost 3irvcolh v. : 'i.o'tVy vlisW wch?t\e.s, she has de*erU>ed as a new M>eeie.s, 
C". wtfgaris. 

ft reniaintd to be decided which of the two — if, indeed, either'— was con- 
^pecific wtU< the plwnl until now called "C ftUfoW in Australia. The writer, 
having e.vamir.ed type material of C. uitltwris ("Levyus' Ko, 6775 from 
Kc-uil worth Race-eOuric near Cape Town}, finds; that our Australian plant 
combines the (tt^Jt axbene oi thai species with the smaller corolla oi 
C, filifalui; hut h is certainly much closer to the fovmcr plant. The siiffht 
difTcreuces in hairiness (typical u wdfitsnt lilts peduncles fttaifi gtahrott^ a: 
^mhesis) and <\zc oi corollas f 1.5-1-7 mm. long for C. vulgaris) art; at the 
varietal, rather than specific, level; they support the diagnosis of a new 
variety austrafasui), as given above 

SENECIO LJKEARJFOUUS A- ffitk fo Voy Astrolabe (Bot) l\ 129 
H B34 ) 

S. periictfefoti A. Kicb. /,<... [V> i\M4>, 

S, cmcranoi-ics \. Kieh / c. : \2H <1K3-i», nan H, B. & K. I \B-2d) 1 

,»- tfrAArrffeKiiA DC. /-'♦.x/r, JFyri jVrtf -f, 371 Clg-^tJ), 

?. diuyroi'1.1 mils. A- Kich. (1&34). DC. (l&W) «. ttli, iiiMi WilUt 1.I8OJ), 

> 4tyadf*t f Mtwll. XfV ,5v^. W /*Mi»(p jft 339 (1388). 

202 Wn.Ms, flora of V$Mrfc W SfUNt •lurftroJw t Vfl,^ 1 

According to rhe. Fnteruatioual Code 01 Nomenclature, the common Fire 
weed Groundsel may uo longer bear the name Sawdo dryddfu.? or A AfttfJftftit. 
The former binomial was adopted by Ewart I Flora t-'ict. 1 176 { 1930) ] 
and attributed to Sieber. but jSicbef never published a description to accom- 
pany this herbarium name — Sprengel ( 1&?6>, Richard (l&H). De Candolle 
[lQ$j J, D. HooIcct [iS5fii and L Rod way (1903) ail cite "T dryadvts 
Sieb.*' in synonymy under .S. intstwiis, The hrst description validating 5*. 
dryodeiis would seem to be th;it of F Mueller [Krv ftfiB IfiVf Pltaits I . 
33B (1888)], aiKl thereafter this nam* was taken up by Moore & Bttehe 
(18V3), BUck (10J9) And F.war? (1930) ; bat it bad already been rendered 
superfluous by the existence of several rogf ttanit? refernng to the same 
Uxon y, uushaiix VVilld. (1803) is, generally conceded as referable 1o one 
of the forms of St hm-tux Forst. e\ Willd. from Mew Zealand, and not in ilir 
Kireweed Groundsel of south-eastern Australia; so Sprengef, Richard, De 
Candoile. etc were not justilW in ^noting 5*. diyadeus as ft synonym of this 

What name, then, should he allied to Sieber's "5, dryad™.*" <a duplicate 
specimen of which is in Melbourne Herbarium — PL lixs. Nov. Holt. No. 
$71? Si U»^trifoHns, published by A. Richard in 1SJ4 (EjJ ) undoubtedly 
refers to»llie .-:ame entity arfti is apparently the earliest available name; it wa> 
fciwcd upon a (riant having quite glabrous, denticulate and aurieulate leaves. 
and hairy youngr achenes. J>\ vntcrarwidas A. Rich,. published sinut'umeously. 
differed (but not specifically) in its entire, noivaurieulate leaves with white 
cottony indumentum otl the under-surfuees. and glabrous ac hones, but tftffe 
name was antedated by S. cin<rrnrir>iHct H„ E. & K., and is therefore illegiti- 
mate Even iu Victoria, 6\ Hnearifufiits varies considerably in its degree of 
hairiness, development 6t leaf-teeth and basal auricles, so much so that E find 
it impracticable to recognize any very clear-cut varieties. The $. fiersiciftflius 
A. Rich, is a form having: more boldly-toothed leaves, whitish beneath, and 
wa> distinguished by Bentbnm as "S. dti&trafif, var, wticodo-ntus" — based on 
.S. tMfH/tffittJUX DC. (18J8). 

F.N.C.V. fxcunicrts; 

Sunday, March 24— Parlour*coach c\*cur»ion :o Lai Lai and Moorabool Falls. 

Leader Ml R Mcmtny, Coach ta&y&S B&tftrltll Avenue 9 am. Fyro, 22/- 

BHng tv>\» meals. Bookings with lixcUra-ion Secretary, 
Sunday. 31 — Botany Croup excursion to Kalorama Take 9.15 am, 

tram to Croydon, then hwS to Five Ways, Ko.lorama. Leader: Mr. B 

Jcrmtsctt. Hriiu/ one meal and a snaek. 
Snnday, AprR 7 — Geomgy UrOLO. cxeursiun to ftaleombc Bay, Momrngtop 

Travel detail- at Group Meeting. 

Grotfp Me*ti*9t; 

(8 p.m. at National Herbarium) 
Wednesday, March 20— Microscopical Group. 
Wednesday, Maich 21 — Botany Group 
Wednesday, April 3 — Geology Groups Subject. Fossils of Balcombe Buy, 

Morningtou. Speaker; Mr, Nielsen- 
Monday, April 1 — Murine Biol'^y and l--nt" , »nu>logy Gronp *t Farliament 

House, Meet 8 p.m. at private entrance at south end of Parliament Hc'iisc. 

Prelrminary NoHce: 

R;a>tcr. Thurf-day, April IU, to Monday, April 22 — Excursion to Dtmboola 
ujiiler the l^tflKRlip of (he Wimmera F.N.C- Tram leaves Spencer Street 
at S p.m. Fare. M/2/fi (second return) 

Wahjk Au.knokx, Kxcutmcbi Secretary 

1° Ha wl horn AWOUC. CaufnefrJ 

The Victorian Naturalist 

Vol 73- No. 12 APRIL 4, 1957 No. 880 


General Meetjng, Makch IS. 1957 

Club IVedding. — Members resolved to send best wishes to our 
Council Member. Mr. Anbnr Court, on bis marriage to another 
member of tbe staff ol the National Herbarium, Miss Kath Kenna. 

Honorary Member. — The meeting enthusiastically endorsed 
Council's recommendation that Honorary Life Membership should 
be conferred upon Mr. A. L. Scott. 

Entomology and Marine Biology- This group is now well 
launched. It meets on the first Monday in [hfc month ai Mr. 
Strong's rooms at Parliament House, and it is proposed that we 
bold field days on the preceding week-end. Mr. Strong is Group 
Secretary pro tem. 

Helpers Still Needed—The. President, appealed for helpers ill 
the Club 1 -ibrary, to clear up alter meetings, to help prepare for tbe 
Annual Club Show, to assist at the Colin McKeuzie Sanctuary and 
other spheres. 

Affiliations^ — The Secretary mentioned that he proposed to ask 
Council to call an Extraordinary General Meeting, probably im- 
mediately before the next General Meeting, to consider several 
applications for affiliation. 

Tlw Evening's Lecture. — Dr. George Baker gave a lecture on 
"The Colourful Coastline at Port Campbell", illustrated by colour 
slides showing the geological features, including fossils, or thai 
picturesque locality. 

Sclioolhoy Impresses. — Mr. Gabriel reported that he travelled 
from Lome to Geelong wicb a schoolboy aged 9, and said it this 
lad was anything like a usual type he reflected great credit on the 
standard of nature study at his school (Angelsea) and m Victorian 
schools generally, 

Neiv Members. — Miss E. A. Boddy (East Geelong) and Brian 
A, F. Smith (Hughcsdale) and David S Woodruff (Kew) were 
admitted as jumnr members. 

txhii?itx. — Mrs. F. Lewis showed a collection of native axes, 
Mrs, Kreame exhibited small fish (ttlennies), and other exhibits 
included garden-grown plants and fossil whalebone 


Tlti> active Club has decided formally to affiliate with rht: FMCV We 
are ^lari. that our Jang and close association is *,o be regularized in tills 
maoiKr Their Secretary, Mr. Ebdou, tells us Hut their local fmm\ t&3 


M tfcuteo PiM tfmnttists C!ul> [ V vm.« 1 * 

tdvrrtiser, is to publish a weekly column of nature uote.s, including illus- 
trations, provided by the Club. 
Their forthcoming activities arc aa follows I 

MEETINGS (at the School of Mines) r 

April 10— 'Lecture on Geology (Mr. "Robbing. 
May I — CommiUee Meeting. 
May 8 — Lecture o»i Birds (Mr. Ipson). 
June 12 — To be arranged. 


March 24 — Redesdale (Basaltic Column*). 

April 14 — Hcathcotc (Geology). 

May 12— Koala Sanctuary at Casttemamc (Gktreftkl/i 

June 15— Whipsticfc (Wattles). 


By A. C. Beaugliliiolk- and K F. LiiARMO'NTK 

North Byaduk and Byaduk arc scattered settlements len arid 
fnurtem miles respectively south til Hamilton on the Port Fairy 
mad. The caves, though only two miles east at this road at North 
Byadnk,. are seldom visited, and few local residents know much 
about them. However, where there are raves there arc usually 
ferns and mosses, so during the summer of 1955-56 several mem- 
bers of the Portland Field Naturalists Club made four trips and 
thoroughly examined each cave. We were greatly assisted by Mr. - 
Tom Power, of Byaduk, who acted as our guide throughout 

A full geographical description of the area is given by Skeats 
and fames in Pmc. Roy, Soc. Vict, 49: 245 (1937), but tor our 
purpose only a few remarks are necessary so that the "layout" will 
lie understood. When lava overflowed from Mount Napier (eight 
miles cast) it swept down three river valleys, of which we deal 
with that at North Byaduk. In' the first of the she lava flows, sec- 
tions of the river were imprisoned and the water in places turned 
to steam ; this raised bubbles up to sixty Sect high in the viscid 
lava. Round these mounds later flows settled until the final one 
passed over the top. The weight of this was too much and the tops 
fell in, leaving The caves we have today. Some are open for up to 
200 yards and are floored with a confusion of tremendous boulders 
covered with a tangle of ferns and vicious Scrub Nettles {Urtica 
mcisn}, making progress anything hut easy. Other caves are pre- 
cipitous circular holes, descent of which requires ropes; and at the 
bottom of all are underground caves some of which are vast caverns 
in which an*ordinary cottage would be dwarfed. The photographs 
give an idea of each type. 

it appears that Skeats and James descended a few of the eaves, 
■fcg that J. H. Willis's inspection in 1950 was a very hurried one, 
which explains the several new finds made by us in the wake of 
these experienced naturalists. 

1957 J 

Beauftkhole & Learmonth, The Byaduk Cavrs 


There are twelve main caves in the area, some of which are 
connected by long" dark passages which gave us the impression that 
connections between most of them could perhaps be found. AH the 
caves contain ferns, though the species vary, some being in one 
cave only. The Church Caves are by far the largest and can be 
entered by a scramble down a heap of fallen boulders covered with 
lichens and mosses. The two long deep open holes are connected 
by an immense underground passage through which one must 

"'•••5 sf --'" J& 





■ O fS 

Map of Byaduk Caves Area, 

1, 2 — Harwans Caves; -3, 4 — Bridge Caves: 5, 6 — Church Caves; 
/—The Flower Pot; 8— Tunnel Cave; 9, 10— The Turk: II— Fern 


proceed very cautiously amongst great rocks fallen from the roof. 
At both east and wesr ends of the long open caves are large deep 
cavities running for unknown distances. 

In the space between the sunny outside and the limit of light 
inside grow masses of ferns, mosses, lichens and liverworts. They 
are on the 'cave floors, up the walls and hanging down far overhead 
from the roof. The west end of the Church Gave is the richest 
In ierns. Austral Bracken {Pteridiwn esculentum) stops abruptly 
where direct sunlight ends, the plants farthest in having fronds up 
to 1 i ft. 6 in. in length, struggling up to the light, the tallest bracken 
yet reported. The very variable Rock Fern (Cheihwthes tcmiijoliu) 

206 Urtuglehole & Lc*rmouth, The. fiynduft Cava [ V vl\.*V 

and Sickle Fern (Pfliiwa ivlcatti) axe also grAwiug outside, and 
the pretty IHtJfi Blanket Fein (Fleurasorttx riiJijoiinj) hangs to the 
ledges and cracks together with Necklace Fern f Aspleniiim f.ahel- 
Idfoli-ttm). Annual Fern {Anoyramnw IcplaphyUa) was thriving nn 
the occasion of our first visit hut it died away as Mimmer c^me over 
the rock harriers. 

Also on our first visit we had seen one plant 01 the rare Shredded 
Spleen wort {Aspk-mtuu adutnl&tdt'y), growing on a cave wall. 
and we reached it with difficulty over a deep chasm. Bui once 
inside the Church Cave we saw masses 01* this Fern -on the walls and 
root", both damp with soakage- front the top. Readers may remember 
that the only known locality for this splccmvorl in Victoria had 
been at Tvrcmlarra (reported by us in Vict Mot. 66: 129. Nuveitt- 
her 1949, ami fee 67* 224. March 1951) Now wc had found a far 
greater quantity at Byacluk. This find and our next in the same 
cave. Austral Filmy-fern {Meanihtw attstrale) show that no 
botanist had been in there before, as this nltuy-ferns westernmost 
record was previously thcOtway Ranges. 

Many ferns hang from the inaccessible roof, among them Mother 
.Spleen wort (Asplotinm bttfbifcr*tm\ and Kangaroo Fern (Fhyma- 
todvs diver sifoiiitw ) . a very beautiful effect, especially as much of 
the. sple.e.mvort has a. proliferous growth of yonug plant* on the 
tips of the drooping fronds. Shiny Shield-fern (Lastreopsts shep- 
herdn) is very prolific, growing on roof, walls and door. Outside 
among the Austral Broken, Mother Shield-fern (Pofysticlmm proli- 
jrrrum) grows Go a great sue. and two young plants of Soft Tree- 
fern (Oirkiotiia antorclim) are just heyrmd direct sunlight. Ihcy 
are all that remain in this cave of these stately ferns— decaying 
trunks up to 1 B feet long, to show a heauty that has gone - cut down 
many years ago for decorating purposes. These trunks are now a 
mass oi tnosse* and young ferns, among the latter another species 
for this prolific cave, Bat's-wing Fern (Ilisfioptcns weisv). Far 
hack in the limits of light where the walls are wet and dripping 
grows the last rem to he recorded from the Church Cave* — Veined 
Bristletern (Potyphlebutm wnosum), making a total of fifteen 
specie* from the one cave 

In and around these caves we recorded a total of twenty fern 
species. OthCfS were Common Maidenhair (Adianfnm aetkwpicmn) 
in many sheltered corners under heaps of houlders and stone walls, 
Tender Brake (r*tp.ns trnnula) in several caves, and Lance Water- 
fern {Biechtiam lanvaalattmi) which is confined to one cave — the 
Flower Pol. Ruddy Ground-fern (Hyp&lepis rugosttfa) in Fern 
Cave and Au.strat Adders-tongue (Ophiotjfosstun coriovettm) on 
tin 4 dry rocky flats, complete our total. 

The Flower Pot cave is a dense and very beautiful fern garden, 
as well as nnc Other example of man's destruction, in the shape of 

1957 J 

Beau&lehole & Learmonth, The Bxaduk Caves 


rotting tree-fern trunks. Fortunately a fine group of Soft Tree- 
ferns still grows undisturbed in the Fern Cave where the}- are 
inaccessible except with ropes. 

Special attention was paid to the moss flora. We limited our 
activities to two or three caves per trip so that a thorough investi- 
gation could be carried out. At the end of the first day some forty- 
five species had been collected. From then on nearly every cave 
contributed additions, and as with the ferns, certain species are 
apparently confined to certain caves. When the final cave was 
combed, the total had risen to sixty-two species. Of this pleasing 
tally (and we have no doubt that others exist ) eight proved new to 
the Count\- of Xormanbv. The niajoritv of these novelties indicate 

Open Church Cave, with Openings of Underground Caves. 

an extension of range from the Otways ; they are Cvathophoriun 
hulbosum, DistichopliyUum pideliellitui, Goniohryum subbasilarc, 
Hyinowdon piliferus, Lopidium concinnum. Rhychostcgiclla nutri- 
citlata had not been recorded west of Melbourne. The other two 
proved to be important discoveries and warrant special comment: 

Anocctangium bcllii — G. (). K. Sainsbury in his Handbook of 
the Kf%\' Zealand Mosses gives as distribution: "Endemic, the dis- 
tribution is perhaps confined to the South Island". Our record then 
is the first for Australia. It is a feature on the damp walls of several 
caves at Byaduk, indeed it is the commonest moss in the "Flower 
Pot" — forming masses up to several inches across. 


Bcautzk'holc & Learmonth, 1 he Bxaduk Cares 

fVict. Ni 

L vol. v 



Tortclla dak'nui — This moss was known only from the single type 
collection, taken at Pound Bend, Warrandyte, on shaded Silurian 
rocks of steep cliffs along Yarra River ( E. Dakin, Nov. 19, 1951 ) ; 
it was named by J. H. Willis in May 1955, a description with 
illustrations appearing in J'ict. Xat. 72: 6. At Byaduk it occurs on 
the upper surfaces of broken basaltic rocks, small heaps of which 
have been piled near a track in the vicinity of Harman's Caves. Our 
fruiting plants were noted 
among many barren ones. In 
some cases, the operculum 
was still intact and in others 
even the calyptra was still 

In the January 1952 issue 
of this journal (Tict. Xat. 
68: 151) many new moss 
records for Victoria were 
listed. Xo less than eight of 
these have been located also 
at Byaduk. 

Hepatics and lichens are 
also represented in good 
numbers. Of note is the 
hepatic H ymeno phyi u m 
phyllantJiits, which is appar- 
ently new to our far south- 
west ; it occurs in great 
masses on an eighteen-foot 
dead Dicksonia trunk in 
Church Cave. The lichen 
Cladonia amaurocraca forms 
lovely cushions on open bar- 
riers, as it does at intervals 
between Tyrendarra and 
Mt. Eccles farther south ; 
apart from these records it 
is known in Victoria only 
from the Cobberas Moun- 
tains in the east of the State. 

Amongst a wealth of native flora in and around the caves are 
many large bushes of Shiny Cassinia (C. lotigifolia ) , in full flower 
in mid-summer. The Tree: Violet {Hymenanthera dentata), which 
we have always found associated with volcanic barriers, grows to 
an outstanding size on the floor of the open caves. This type of 
country also suits Sweet Bursaria ( B. spinosa) and here as else- 
where its flowers attract hordes of insects. Hanging in great cur- 

Descending the Fern Cave. 

^£7] Bcaugleholc Sr Learmoiith, The Byaduk Coxcj 209 

Urns from Hie wall* ot ihe open caves we found Nodding Saltbush 
(Rhar/odta n\tfeiMS) t some IrfeaStis being ten feet long. It afeenla 3 
peculiar locality in which to find Dcrweut Speedwell {Veronica 
dvrzven tin ) , yet sunic of thc:*c beautiful fluwers grow luxuriantly on 
open cave ledges a]o«g with Austral Storks-bill fJP *elaty vimi hi 
nMstrale ) . V ana!)] e G flfti i nri el ^ .*> i=-» pfsg iautftx) i s wkJespreuc 1 
throughout the lava flow and makes ihe landscape a field of yellow, 
Numerous alien plants abound throughout the cave area. The 
Clubjnoss, Sidag'tnelUt fertttissitw&j trails and hangs gracefully on 
tocks irtfiidc Iianuan's Cave, perhaps the moistcst and coolest cave 
of the group. Ivy-Icaf foad-rlax, Cymbalaria murcJis, a native of 
southern Rurnpp, sprawls mid hangs in great lengrhs, with flnwexs 
here and there, on basalt rocks in the Flower- Pot. 

Strawberry Saxifrage, Sn.nfraffit s-anwmtosn, native ot China 
and Japan, covers several square feet on the floor of Church Cave 
with it> large round leaves, green above and purple below. 

Bed straw, Gnl:*mi tvnernun, is widespread both in caves and 
outside and shows extreme variability in growth, Tree Tobacco. 
Nnolionn gi&Lftt, is represented by a tew scattered bushes. Tin?. 
plant which grows in a number of places in south-western Victoria 
(and elsewhere) is said 1;u have, originated from cultivated crops 
grown by the early settlers as a source of nicotine for use as a 
wonn-drench in sheep. 

The nature ot the country does not lead one to e.\pect a large 
orniihotogical population* but we did make a few interesting records. 
White-backed MugpiCfc (Gymnorhina hyifOlcnc(t) t Ravena (Cotvut 
coronmdes) and Magpie Lark^ (Gnittma tyanoleiica) arc com- 
mon, awl sometimes there ;ire immense flocks of Corellas (Kafcaioe 
tenuirostris) and While Cockatoos (K. galerita), A few Kasrern 
Rosdlas (Ptfiiyccrciis extmius) flew over the Fern Cave during 
une vLsit, and there are probably several other parrot species in 
the .surrounding eucalypti- BfrJds of prey are well represented, and 
we recorded Wedge-tailed Eagle (Uroaeius audax), Whistling 
Eagle (f-faliasittr splu'varus), Swamp Harrier (Circus oppro.Kt* 
■ma>7&), Brown Hawk [FuIc<j ht'H(forn) , .Nankeen Kestrel (/'. 
ewehr aides) and Peregrine Falcon (F, pmun/rvuus) . A pair of 
the l.i^rer were {resting high up on a cave ledge and "dive-bombed" 
us repeatedly. Both Swallows (Hirnvda neo.vcwt) and Kairy 
Martins (Hyhctudidon ancf) had nests on the cave roois. Blue 
Wreni (Mo/umx cyanetts) were in the bracken, Yetluw-tarled 
Thorohills (AcanthisiQ rhrysorrhoa) among the Tree-Violets, and 
White-browed Scrub-Wrens {Scricurms- frontidis) far down in 
*?mi darkness among the rocks. This bird list could without doubt 
be greatly augmented by anyone paving attention to thai side o£ 
thp area's wild life. 
In a number of places swarms of bees have made their hpmes in 

210 Beanglehole & Lcarrrmnth, 77w* Byadnk Cfrtcjs [ Vni, 73 

cracks and fissures on the cave walls, where they will certainly never 
be robbed or disturbed tor no apiarist could Tackle the job with 
any thing less than a pneumatic drill. Tiger snakes are the chief, and 
none too welcome, reptile residents, 

In many places on ledges of open caves wc found a pecnliar 
hlack substance, hard and brittle^ but with handling it became sticky 
and gave off a heavy inoffensive smell- Sometimes it was a loot 
deep and covered a yard ot rock ledge, from which it could be 
chipped off with a hammer At one stage of its history it had been 
pliable and sofl. as the cavities of seoriaceous basalt were filled 
with the material. It was invariably on the north-eastern walls of 
a cave r exposed to sun and rain, and there was no evidenre. of 
Lepage faun above or fall to a lower level. Samples were sent to 
tht National Museum and replies received show thrift is still much 
tu be learnt about this black substance. 

It was suggested first that blacks used the material, then that it 
had came from above from injured tree-roots. Out observations 
indicated that neither was thn explanation. On February 14, 1956, 
Dr. A. \V, Beasley wrote: 

u Mr ( Willis advises thai he collected samples of the black immmy 
material from Byaduk caves in July 1950. He has identified it as 
altered bat [fnano Presumedly the vegetable diet of the bals accounts 
in part for the pleasantly aruinatic odour of the material. Mr. Willis 
has seen identical material in limestone caves on the Nullabor Plain. 
Its occurrence there suggcbied that it oozed along fissures and 
down walls at Tcduccd viscosity* in the presence ot water and 
vegctahlr matter'' (This is not the case, at Byaduk ) "'The material 
is described as almost black, moist and sticky where broken, rjfreji 
with a smooth polished outside <.urtace. On drying >t hecomes much 
harder and brittle.*' On April 23, came Dr. Beas1ey*s final letter; 
"Mr, Nehois-S (Assistant Curator ot Insects) has identified i beetle 
embedded in the black altered bafs dippings as Ptmus tectits, 
and he has also iound a species (as yet unidentified) ot Hy- 
inenoptera (anls). In his opinion the insects will not give a clue 
to the age ot the black material/" 

One ot the writers ot this article found a small vein of similar 
material in a cave on the north face ot Ayers Rock in October 
1952 in this instance it was quite protected from weather So we 
have three occurrences in widely separated localities and in tlifrcicnt 
rock formations— basait (Byaduk), limestone (NuUabori, and 
conglomerate (Aver* Rock). In all three there is nothing to 
indicate what altered the bats" guano, or how long ago this change 
look plane. Ai which lather unsatisfactory conclusion we must 
leave the matter. 

(Wc arc indebted to (tie directors and staff of the National Herbarium and 
Manorial Museum for irwtr kind assistance shrcughnut she preparation of 
thu article.) 

*£$] The \\ctomn Natuhilnt ill 


TV N. A. WakUjejo, Noble Park 

Genut JUNCOS: A Giont Sp-ecies of (he JUNCI GENUINE 

Hitherto Undescribed, trad Comments on Others or* the Subgenus 

Il'KCirS IMGHNS spi nory. disTinefivdiua Subgenus t~*cuui>;i insejooila oh 

eturarreres w*fttMU-*S jini di.iciiminatida; rulnns altmimis (160-175 cm. 

in typo) percrassis (ad basis ± 10 mm d mHorcseeutwm versus u 5 nrtii. 

in diamet.)i medulla interrupt* j inflore&eentia nujnu \ 12-20 nn. !onj»a|, 

perlava, diffusa. unisexual i ; Honbus sal par vis i}etidnihu segments. 

circa 1.3 mm. longis (3 iuterionhus perlate alatis), nnsi.ulmi* stamina 

6 wd ovarium nullum geremibus. ftmineis starnmodiis 6, capsula ovonlea 

ciica 1.5 nim. longa. 
HOLOTVPR: Swamp between Princes Hmhwav and JLatrobe Kiver, 
1 mile west of Rosedale, Victoria; N. A WaVcfield Vo- *H5 ; 22/1/1957; 
kindle specimen; (MEL: duplicate; to be still lo K and NSW*). 

Plants- unisexual, forming extensive thicket > In tfertfouCiW callow vvaWrj 
rtifconies stout, much branched; culms about 2 metres or more high, cylin- 
drical, about 1 cm. or more in diameter at base and 5 mm, towards the 
in|1or<-*.~cuce, smooth, pale the siith almost cork-like and vzrv much inter- 
rupted, leafless; ba^al sheaths up to 36 cm. long tyro 15 mm wide, rulr 
brown to srraw-rohiural. widely dilated j inHorescence up to -0 cm. long, 
dirfuse, much branched, the longest branches l>are fur up to $ cm., the fcflw 
dtviMOUd hair-like, bearing up to 3,000 oi' more mm.nV flower*, the ertet 
flora] bract 15-95 cm. long ; outer perianth segments 1 .5 -J imrl. long', acute ; 
lOnei segments about 1-1,5 mm. long y, broadly winged; stamens 6, 
reduced to flat staminode^ in female flower* , ovary lacking in rustic flowers 
sTijnna? wholly free; capsule 1-1.5 mm, long, broadly obovatc, the apex^te; seeds few. 

JtMCHS nt<ynj fti'OW5 abondaniy iu lagoons ai;d waterways of the uppet 
Murray Kiver district, in which area J. W. Willis reports plants up ir» 
M tepT {iS metres) in bright. It < aippslainl, ihe species" covers some arrr : . 
ot swamp in the type locality (near Rosedale), it fill-, the extensive MeLeod> 
Moras* on the western fringe of Bain;*dale 7 and there is a minor occurrence 
in a tiny lagoon near the 1'rince.s Highway at Brodribb Kiver. Besides the. 
type niaietlaf, there arc In (h? Melbourne National Herbarium qwcimcns as 

Waugaratta, 3881, collector unknown, (female) ; Goulhurn Kiver, \V l ; . 
Gates, !89t, fmalc) ; fiftucfcflk. banks oi Kiewa River, R-alc-igk; A Black. 
11/9/1940. ( female > ; McLeod* Monu>, Baim.yJale, Tv A. Wakefield 
No. 4891, 31/1/1957, (male) ; flrodribb Kiver, K. A. WakeJield No. 4>*I P 
JJ/1/1*J57. ffemale) , Column, per Australian Taper Manufacturers Ltd,, 
U/ll/1940, (male). 

/ tnycvr is evidently (he larger! Jvutm> m tlrc world, and it appears ^40 
to be ibe only dioecious 5f>ecirs oi the prims. 

JUXCUS SURSKCUKDHS sp nov. aflfims J. ra/iuln Rnrh. (-:ptonim rdim 

cttiTusa). sf»d recedit: culnus Iraud i;cabridis. medulla iulenuipta, inrlorcs- 

ccnttae axibus UcviIjus, floribus apiiroximatla 

1IQLOTYP1C : rriuce-S Highway, west of Providence Poutls, eastern Vic- 

lona. H. Am W.ikendd Kb, '1o7i; ^/l/]Qj7, under P.ut-sttyptvs r&h&q 4 

with J\ pofynnttH'titos Buch,, J oushodi Hk f.i /, ftitUn'o Buch- and /. fiili- 

sttulis Buch. 

.Rhizomes tittle-hranched; culms few, up to 60 ein. hi^b, normallv about 
I mm. diam. slroAgly striated; longest Ira.sal sheath slrOiuily stfialod, dull 

* MEL — iCutiunal Hcibutium uf Vmiuriu, .Mdltuurtit: K — Ryvj! Bytantc Gulden?* 
Ktw : "KiiftUnd; NSW — National Htrbariurtt of New South W»li'5. Sydnc, 

212 Wakefield, fftaft fif I'xcUma: Ufa* Scries, etc. Cyli^'f 

brown (sometimes ^hmmg in lower pari) , pith open in texture {tmeroscop- 
icafljr), much interrupted, inflorescence usually 4-6 an. long, consisting uf 
a ftruup of several :t timlaiexal racemes (each 1-2 cm. long and acvcral- 
fiowcred) With a second similar fcroup terminating an elongated bare branch 
above it, sometimes more compound; pefianth segments suhequal, acute, 
2*Z 5 (rarely 3) ItW loni*, membranous-winged; stamens normally (S (fewer 
lu -iome flowers), rarely J: capsule finally about as lone; as perianth, oval. 
in* or slightly Truncate, soeds. very numerous (about LOO). 

/. jM^.r.vioirfiix is widespread m lowland areas, of about 20 inches rainfall 
net annum. Irt Victoria, including the* Gipp*1and plain*., and i1 OOCOti 10O in 
New South Wales and South Australia. 

The distribution of the specks ts indicated by the following specimens in 
the Melbourne National Herbarium: 

KEW SOUTH WAULS: Armi.Un- (Permit) j Part-arjialta (Wonll^ . 
Med way and Nartai (L. Calvert i ; Rockton (hf. A. Wakefield No. 4915. 
38/1 /W57); Bull Plain, Riverina (R. A. Black, 7/6/1940*. VICTORIA 
Kangaroo Flit, near Bendigo (A. J. Tadeell, Oct. 1934) , Cavtlername I'A. J. 
Tadpclh Nov. 1032); Movston (D. Sullivan, Dec, 1871); near Dinihoola 
(data;). SOUTH AUSTRALIA: Satoafe (H VVehl 1891). 

VVtthtn the range of typical /, .snkr£cundns, plants vary greatly in tige ; 
those from Balorme have stems about 10 cm. nigfa and 0.5 mm dlartr. while 
ihe inflorescence is about 15 mm. lam* ; those from Castlemaine have, the 
inflorescence up to \d cm. long (but *ixlrernely sparce) with ihe ultimate 

branches up to 5 cm, long, 

/. sitb3e<:w.du$ is doiely allied to /. ro-d^h; but in the latter Ifte pith o\ 
the cuhu [$ invariably continuous, certain part' (upper colitis, branches of 
inflorescence and backs ol perianth segments"} arc 3ca'jrous_ and the flower* 
are more distant from each other 

i\oie Besides the unique T, ttujeus, there are 9 ypecies t>( the June* fttovbv 
in Victoria. Each shows major variation in development of inflorescence and 
in mw R-.vl.rusivi* hVld observation indicates ihal, (hough various grouping* 
of species occur in many place*, suites of intermediate forms are not to he 
found There aie however Occasional plant* which are- evidently hybrids 
between pairs, of species with which they occur, [t is the intention of the 
writer to enlarge upon these statements at some fntnre. date, and to Tabulate 
tiaU p* 1 * raining fo them, in a survey of the local species of the ,cioyp. 

Gunus PIMECEA: A New Species from the Austiolion Alpi 

PtMELE.4 Bl FLORA sp. nnv. alpina divtmttissima: luftrutox orwiino 
prostvatus, vakdt tAmosus , iolia oval*, 5-9 nun. tonga, muter *rngo*io- 
hirsuta, super glabra; innVrescfuitiae terminalea, nuistpjc biftoTa. idlus 
mvotucraii 4, demuni proiifctaej corolla? tubus, gracilis villosu*, inter 
ruber, lohis brevibus. 

TrOI.OTYPF. S pert men in MF(. ( wirh original hthcl. ''Hiinc'fnsa hi 
oioutium Munyang Mountains grasninjosis atlitudium 4-5 000 ft., Jan, "55, 
Dr. ford. Mueller". Some Sprunacltt, apparently from the same plant, were 
plarcd by Mueller together with some of rather different appearance, in a 
different folder, and labeled "ML i.nskruKka^. 

Stems prostrate, stout, rough, much branched, several inches To over o fi»t 
long : foliage very dense, usually forming a rnaL; leaves all opposite, sub- 
tessilr, ovale. S-9 tnm,, undr.r -surfaces strigr>s«r, iipper-surfaccs irlahrniu; 
InRorescetict's terminal, consisting of 2 flowers subtended by 2, pairs oi normal 
(or slightly larger) teaVclt and with also 2 vegetative buds one or Loth ol 
which later develop into new branchteu: corolla shortly villose, the tube 
about 5 mm. long, the lobes al>out 1.5 mm. long, the interior red. 

IW7 J 

Wakeheld, Ftora vf I'icform; AVtf 1 Strict cU 2\$ 

Distribution: Australian Alps. A'Vtc South WQt&t* As well a> lite tfpt 
collection, there »S another from the Kosciusko Plateau < te$. Alec. B. Cost in, 
April IV47), Victoria: Cobboras Mountains; {taj. F. Mueller; also N. A. 
Wakefield, No. 25^2, 1 2/ 1/1 947, all S.QOO it ; . Prettv Vallev, Bogong- Ht£h 
Plains (■/«. J. H mm* 19/1/1947). 

The specimens collected by .Mueller and cited shove are duplicates of 
^ymypes of P. cu*vijh>ni vfr. atpitta F Mueti. £X Rc-nth. (Ft. ^itstr. 6: XI}. 
In the Australian Alps (esact locally unknown), Mueller collected also some 
specimens of P i-urviftorn which his annotations on herbarium labels show 
that he considered to be the same as hu material of the present P. biftora. 

P. curviflora R.Br, is readily distinguished by »U erect habit. -±. alternate 
foliage, and by its inflorescences being muUiflotvcml and mostly axillary- 
The inflorescence of P. biftora indicates it? affinities, not with P. atrvifiora, 
but with the P. ftam-P. dicholoma group. 


Mr. D. Mclunes was the lecturer at the March meeting of the group, his 
stibpcei being "The Grinding and Mounting of Rock Sections" Mi. Mclmn?e, 
as ULiual, put a great deal of time and thought into tm presentation, with the 
result ui kerning his listeners interested in lhe technique of the preparation, 
grinding, and subsequent mounting hi this interesting brunch of microscopy. 
The dofcu nueroMcvpes (Ml the bench all showed spVQMittxs of rock section*. 
The subject for |he 17th April meeting is entitled. "The Microscope with 
Camera-Lucida in Hi Urinology'' and the -peaker is Mr. Uuriir; of the National 
Museum. All interested are cordially invited ro he present, 


Hon. EJiror, Virtttrntn Vii/rirVrit.rr, 
Dear Sir, 

Since |Fu! publication of the tribute, to the latr Rev. H. M. Ec. Rtipp ("The- 
Passing of a Great Orchidologist" by J H. Willis. Vict, Iftif, ?1: 305-1(3) a 
iHtrtibcr ot iiKjuin'es- have been received concerning the reference on page 110 
to tiara on the life of Ronald Campbell Gurm which was gathered by Rev. 
Rupp a«d ''believed to have been sent for publication to the Royal Society 
of Tasmania, Northern Branch, about 195T". 

In W51, at the request ot this Branch, Mr. W Baulch. one of our mem- 
Ixts, undertook to prepare material tor a biography of R. C Gin in. Mr. Rtipp 
corresi>onded with and sent some notes to Mr Ranleh who informs nic That 
then- Jiotes were returned to Kev. Kupp by the beginning of 1955. Mr. Batdch 
hopes to complete his work early in 1953, 

Yours faithfully 

Fhaxk, Hoii, Secretary 
Northern R ranch. Royal Society of Tasmania 
Xovttiibcr 26, 1956. 

Hon. Rditnr, Victorian 1\' ot nrcilist , 
Dear Srt, 

J wish to draw aUemion to the report oi Proceeding of the General Meet 
ing. December 10, 1956, where it is stated (lines 21-23) "that Australian 
occurrences (of dolomite) were fresh-watet sedimentary fpeka and not marine 
dc].«.isita as in Europe and elsewhere."* 

This is incorrect, as extensive deposits of dolomite or marine origin occur at 
Simthlon, Tasmania; Cudgcgong, New South Wales: and Ardrossan, South 

" Tfii« was recorded 3* M"r. Raker's own statement. Actually, (he. word ''sttiue'* wtti 
inadvertently omitted . r a»i<J the report should U.tvf* t>;id "that <timt Australia" occur- 

214 Letters to the E(Wcr Vvti^n' 

Australia; as well a>: many other places in Australia. That these were *o <le* 
lived is proved by marine fossils ipfl the un-dolomitized portions of the h»*e- 

Other deposits of dolomites, namely, at Mt BUchoft, Tasmania ; ami Broken 

Hit!, New South Wales ; resulted from alteration of basic ami ultrabasic 
intrusions by mineralizing solutions during deposition of the ores leaf!, copper, 
jrinc, etc. 

Only one important deport of dolomite^ as a freshwater sedimentary rock, 
occurs. This is at Comiadai, Victoria, where it is considered that tlierrttel 
springs, occurring during Jake formation,' provided the necessary proportion 
iH" magnesium earoouacc to form a dolomitlc rock. 

Yours faithfully 

Al.FkKD A. Bakek 
Geology Department. University of Melbourne. 


• Reserved for your Notes, Observoharw and Queries) 

During an enjoyable visit lo Mr. and Mrs. ftarrurt of Spcrtmvhale Head in 
October, T saw the. nest of a Welcome Swallow on a ledge under the canopy 
of then* motor-boat, There were eggs in it at the time, but no bird was on it. 
"What happens when you leave home when the bird is not on the nest?" I 
asked- ''She waits for m to come back," was the reply, ''or if we are too 
long Stic flies across to Paynesville and finds the boat and settles down on 
Ihe nest.'' Paynesville is four miles trOm the boats usual anchorage at Sperm- 
svbale Head and there are many boats there. I do not know whether ;he 
swallow has any difficulty in finding her own boat, but I hope her family is 
iiovv hatched, in the nest lined with yuiiiea-fowl feathers. 

— Jean Galbraitji, Tyer.5 
[Did the cgys hatch?— Editor] 

F.NX.V, Excursions: 

Easter (April IS to April iK) — Dtmboola, owler the leadership of the Wim- 
mcrn Field Naturalists Club, Train leaves Spencer Street at 645 p.nv 
NOTH ALTERED TIME. Other detail-, in test month's .VarumM or 
from Excursion Secretary. 

Sunday, May 5— Botany Gruuy excursion to EmeraUl, Subject: Fongi_ Take 
&55 a.m. train to Upper Fenitree Gully, then bus to Kmerald. 

Group Meeting*: 

(ft p.m. at National Herbarium) 
Wednesday, April 1? — Microscopical Group. 
Wednesday, Aiprj! 24 — Botany Group, Subject: Trees of Port Philhp Arc4- 

.^peaker: Mr, W, L. Williams. 
Wednesday, May 1 — Geology Group. Subject What is Ccnimology 3 

Speaker : Mr. Davjilson. 
Monday, \fay 6 — Marine Biology and Entomology Group. Meet & f> ft>- at 

private entrance at south end ot Parliament House. 
Prelirti rnc ry Notice ; 

Saturday, June 1— Mystery Excursion: Rosebud area; Leader: Mr. C. Lewis, 
Parlour coach will leave Batman Avenue at 9 a,m. Fare 16/. Bring two 

— Marie Aluwper. Excursion Secretary 

19 Hawthorn Avenue, Caulfield. S.E7.