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Full text of "The Victorian naturalist"

THE 



Victorian Naturalist 

THE JOURNAL AND MAGAZINE 

of the 

FIELD NATURALISTS CLUB OF VICTORIA 

in which is incorporated 
The Microscopical Society of Victoria 



VOL. 74 

MAY, 1957 TO APRIL, 1958 



Hon. Editor: A, B. Court, B.Sc. 



The statements nnd opinions recorded in articles and piiper/i herein are the 

responsibility «f the respective authors and do not necessarily Indicate the poller 

or opinions of the Club. 



Melbourne: 
Brown, Prior, Anderson Pty. Ltd., 430 Little Bourke Street 



Field Naturalists Club of Victoria 



Patron: His Excellency GENERAL SIR DALLAS BROOKS, R.C.B., 
C.M.G., D.S.O., Governor of Victoria, 

OFFICE-BEARERS, 1956-57 

president: 

MR* A. J. SWABV 

20 Grovedale Road, Surrey HilLt*. 

Vice-Presidents: MR. W. L. WILLIAMS, DR. R. M. WISHART 

Immediate Past President! Mr* Tarltori Rayment* F.n.z.5. 
Hon, Secretary: Mr. E. H. Coghill, 15 Baker Avenue, North Kew 

(WL4413). \ ._ .. . 

Hon. Asst. Secretary: Mrs. I* Curtis. XI Monoroeith Avenue, Toornk. 

S.E.2 (BY2937). 
Hon. Editor; Mr, A. B. Court, c/o National Herbarium, The Domain 

South Yarra, S.B.L 
Hon. Asst. Editor, Mr. N. A. Wakefield, P.O. Box 21 , Noble Park 

(UJ8440). 
Hon. Treasurer; Mr, A. G, Hook*, c/o Hooke & Grahatn, 400 Collin* 

Street, Melbourne, C.l <MY 1919; after hours, WF5080). 
Hon. Asst. Treasurer: Miss M, Butcbart, 23 Loch SIp, Hawthorn East, 

E.3. 
Hon. Librarian: Mr. A- Burke, 7 Charles St, Seddan* W.11. 
Hon. Asat- Lib.: Mr. R. D. Lee, 16 The Crescent, Highett, S.2L 
Hon. Excursion Secretary; Miss M. Allender, 10 Hawthorn Avenue, 

Caulfield, S.E.7. - -- 

Council: Dr. W. fierce, Mr. J. R, Garnet, Mr. K. Atkins, Mr, F. Curtis, 

Miss M. Elder, 

COMMITTEES and SPECrAL OFFICERS appointed by COUNCIL 

Sales Officer for Club Publications; Mr. K. W. Atkins, 20 Bank Place, 

Melbourne, C.l. 
Hon. Lanternlsts: Mr. R. Jennisou; Mr. F. Curtis. 
Liaison Officer for New Members: Mr. Tarlton Rayment, C/o National 

Museum, Melbourne, C.l. 
Photographic Liaison Officer: Mr. R. D. Lee. 
Exhibit Steward: Miss J, Wooliard, 24 Smyth Avenue, Mont Albert 

(WXS213). 
Excursions Standing Committee: Secretary. Misa 51. AHender, 19 

Hawthorn Avenue, Caulfield, S.E.7. 
Plant Names Standing Committee: Secretary: Mr. J. H. Willis, National 

Herbarium, South V an j>, S.E.I. 
Liaison Officer for M&ranoa Gardens: Mr. J. Seaton, 350 Alma Road, 

Caulfield (UY 7797). 
Australian Natural History Medalticn Committee: Secretary: Mr. C, 

F. Lewis, 72 Herbert St., Dandenong. 

GROUP SECRETARIES 

Botany: Miss I. M. Dixon, 8 Faircroffc. Avenue, Glen Iris, S.E.6. 
Geology: Mr. A, A. B*ker, 53 Carlisle St., Preston <FJ 0484,; ask fot 

Geology Dept»; after hours, JJ2569); 
Microscopical: Mr. E, Snail, 4 Matlock St, West Preston, N.I8. , 
Entomology and Marine Biology: Mr. J- W, H. Strong, Legislative 

Council, Parliament House, Melbourne, C.2. 

KINDRED SOCIETIES 

Native Plsnts Preservation Society of Victoria: Secretary: Mlse W. 

Waddell. 3 Denham Place, Tporak* S.E.2 (BYl6?6>* . .. 

Yietorian National Parks Association: Secretary: Mr. J. Rob Garnet, 

23 Csmdon St, Pascoe Vale, W.8 (FL4951). 



The Victorian Naturalist 



\ j. 74— \ T o. ] MAY & 1957 No, 8g] 



PROCEEDINGS 



.About 100 members and friends attended the monthly General 
Meeting held at rhe National Herbarium On April 8,. 1957. The 
President extended a warm welcome to several visitors, including 
Adrs. Eddy. who is a keen naturalist and phorographer, from Dai' 
wia. Members learned with sincere regret oi the passing of Mr. 
A* S. Chalk, an old and esteemed member of the Club. An apprecia- 
tion of the late Mr. Chalk will be published at a later date in Tfi$ 
P 7 ictorian Nai-nralisL The President expressed the hope that botii 
our Past President, Mr. Tarltou Rayment, and Treasurer, Mr. 
A, G. Hooke, who are convalescing would be with ns soon. 

The attention of members was drawn to the Extraordinary Gene- 
ral Meeting to be held fifteen minutes before the "May General 
Meeting to consider applications for affiliation by the Hallarat, 
Bendigo, Colac, Creswiek and Winnncra Field Naturalists Clubs 
with the FN,CV 

' After sonic discussion concerning" Club finance, machinery was 
set in motion to enable an adjustment to be made to the Building 
and Contingencies Fund and to direct Council to prepare and submit 
to members an accurate definfl ion of that Fund. 

The President announced that it was proposed to hold a Natural 
History Exhibition as part of the next Moomba Festival, and that 
the Gould League of Bird Lovers had convened a meeting tor thai 
purpose- Mr. Sarovich agreed to represent* the Clnb at that meeting- 
Mrs. Pearl Messmer delivered a talk entitled '* Jungles of "North 
Queensland'', illustrating it with an excellent series of colour slides. 
The lecturer discussed the difficulties facing field botanists in the 
Cairns-Cookrown area, hut emphasized that time and energy spent 
in collecting plants w.is well rewarded. 

Exhibits included fossil shells and gypsum crystals by Mr, Me- 
lnnes and marine shells (Ilmnites) by Mv. Gabriel. Examples n> 
vegetation from the Buffalo Plateau were shown by Mr. Stewart 
and other native plants by Messrs. liannuett and Baase. 

Mr, G, Coghill invited members to visit Monomcath Avenue. 
Canterbury, to see the autumn foliage of the Pin-oak, Quernts 
pahtstris. 



2 7 he I'' it Ivr'nth A'o/ Hmlifl V Oli T4 

MICROSCOPICAL GROUP 

About thirty members attended ihe. April meeting, including those from 
the ncwiy- formed Entomological Croup. The .eticst speaker was Mr. Burns- 
of the staff ot" the National Museum, life subject, being "The Microscope 
with Camera Lucida in Entomology" 1 . Mr. Burns outiuied his technique in 
the preparation cf specimen slides, and rheir subsequent transference ~o paper 
with the aid of the. Camera-Luoda and a sharp-pointed pencil 

Mr. Charles Mkldleton explained the optics ot several types ot Camera 
Lucida to the audience, including the or.c on -Mr, Burns' microscope. 

There were leu exhibits on (he bench featuring entomological subjects. 

Mr. C. Nance will he. the lecturer at the May [5 meeting, hi.s subject bem^ 
''The Cutting', Staming and Mounting of Botanical Sections". 

Mr, C Middlecon has consented to project a number ot slides on the 
screen, so members will kindly note that they need not bring their "nukes?'' 
along. The Botanical Group and ail others nrc cordially invited to l.h'S 
roe*: tim*'. 



NOMINATIONS FOR OFFICE-BEARERS, 1957-8 

At the General Meeting of the Club on April Si 1°57. the following 
nominations were received for Club Orncers and Council tor 1937-8* 

President: Mr. \Y\ L. Williams, 

Vice-Presidents : Or. R. M, Wtshart and Or. W. Gcroe. 
Hon. Secretary I Mr. E, H, Coglull. 
Hon. Asst. Secretary: Mrs. F. Curtis, 
Hon. Treasurer : Mr A. G. Hooke. 
TTnu. Asst. Treasurer. Miss M. Butchnn, 
Hon. Editor: Mr. A. B. Court. 
lion. Asst. Editor: Mr. N. A. Wakefield. 
Hon. Librarian: Mr. A. Burke. 
Hon. Asst. Librarian : Mr. Allan, 
Hon, Excursions Secretary: Miss JU. Atlender. 

Council: Mi$$ M: Elder. Mr. J. R. Garnet. Mr. F. Curtis. Mr. k, B, 
Jenuison, Mr. D, Mclnnes and Mr. H. Haase. 



NEW FUNGI HANDBOOK 

The thin! edition of the Clubs Vtdoruiu 7'(i(K/,y>oiW.y fytd MusJirantix (by 
J. H. Willis,) will be on sale in the very near future, for the price of 7/6. The 
original format is repeated; but nomenclature has been brought up to date, 
extra information is supplied in some chapters, and additional features are a 
firm board cover (as m the recent fern hook) and extra colour plate foe 
frontispiece. 

ARTICLES REQUIRED FOR 'VICTORIAN NATURALIST" 

Although several at tides are in hand for forthcoming issues of Tht Vic- 
torian Nattirati.st, more are required particularly on zoological, geological 
and anthropological subjects. Short nature notes are always welcome even if 
They occupy no inure than a few lines. 



fe*] The \'uhmtv\ frflvfff/jfi j 

COMPARATIVE STUDY OF VICTORIAN BULB FLIES, 
Eumews SPECIES 

(Syrphidae, ftypicral 

P.I AkmUS Xl*HOt*S, MSC , I-.R.K.H- r 

Tho t- vister.ee of tin Mi flies in Victoria has been known for SOTUC 
twenty VCSrS, and ill* species concerned have usually boon rn'eircd 
to Humerus stritjtihts (Fallen'), the Fnropean bulb pest, Inijiiirici 
in the IVepanmem of Agriculture proved that they had been ob- 
served on bulb farms in the Boronia district, Victoria. Recent dis- 
coveries noc only widen their known distribution, but also show 
that they liuve been incorrectly identified Similar misidentiricatious 
have been revealed in England, Canada and United States. 

Ferguson (1926) recorded seven species of Emnerns from Aiw 
iralia, including onlv the one species from Victoria, E. simplex 
Ferguson which was described as now. Knowledge, of the distribu- 
Uon is limited, and species indigenous to other Australian states 
might alio be present in Victoria, Furthermore, at diat time, E. 
slriffttftis (Fall.) had not been rccOr<)ed from Australia. 

For identification of the reccntlydned specimens, the author, in 
co-operation with Mr, R, A, Dunn, consulted overseas literature 
uii bulb flit's and found that the specimen* agreed with the figure* 
and descriptions g\ mi for E. (itba'cithifas f kondani), and not with 
those of iE! stnyotiis and also that the former species outnumbev> 
/: strigottft not only in United States and Canada, but also in 
Europe. Specimens under the name of E. strifjahis in the National 
Museum of Victoria and Department of Agriculture collections, 
also proved, on checking, to he E, tuberculatum except for four that 
agree with the description of E. psltaftts Meijere. The number nf 
species occurring in Victoria is thus increased to three; E, svu[>icv, 
E. tiihrtr.itl(t1t<s, and E, peUains. No specimens of i:. ttnuptarti Fer- 
guson which has been recorded from New South Wales and Tas- 
mania, have been seen ; while E. latipcs Maeqnart is known to the 
author only from New South Wales and Tasmania. Both species 
should also occur in Victoria. 

U thbcfathifits is most often found in narcissus bulbs, but /:*. s1ri~ 
ijittus larvae, according to Hodson ( 1932 ) , also attack ins and par- 
snip, ar.d, according to Collin (J91H), onions and potatoes. Craeger 
aivj Spruijr (1935 ) demonstrated that E, iuhcradatits is associated 
with basal-rot fungi and proved it to be a secondary insect. 

All recent records of E. iubitytitaftts in Victoria have been fro>n 
narcissus bulbs. One specimen in the DcpaitmenL of Agriculture 
collection, Burnley , from A. E. Chandler, Uoronia, and bred by Mr, 
R. T. M, Pescott, S .2.1935 from narcissus, and three- others prob- 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 



Vol. 74 



Plate I 




M 



May 

19V? 



( NhifOia*, FUtorwn IhilU Phr* 



ahlv from the same locality y were identified as H. pcltaius, thus add- 
ing another species ro those known to infest narcissus bulbs, No 
work has been done on the biology of bulb flies in Victoria, and it is 
not certain whether E. strigains will eventually be found in Victoria 
or if all records should be referred to E. tuberculatum. Neither Mr. 
Dunn nor the author have seen E. sfrigaHts from Australia, but for 
identification purposes a figure of the male genitalia is included 
with those of the species already represented m Victoria. 

Ir is now shown that the two rows of spines on the apical vential 
l^trr of the ]*>sterior femora are eltaraeteristie for species and at (he 
same lime are valid characters tor associating males and females. 

Genus Ewmerus Meigen, 1822 

There seems to he some doubt as to whether the above generic 
name should not be replaced by either Citihaetia- Walker ( 1857). or 
Parugof'sis Matsumura (1916). As finality has not been reached 
on this question, it is thought preferable to retain in this paper the 
old and generally accepted name, rather than another which may 
be found invalid later. 

Eumerus simplex Ferguson 

(Fig*. 1-3) 
Humerus simplex Ferguson, 1926, Proc. Linn. Soc, \ r SJV, 51 . 
539, 

A complete description appears in die above-mentioned publica- 
tion. As a supplement to that paper the male genitalia of the type 
specimen is now figured. Tilts species is .separated from F, htber- 
culat-us by the absence of the tubercule near the base of the posterior 
femora, and from E. strigafus by the equal length of both rows of 
spines on the posterior femora. 

No material has been available for study other than the two type 
specimens in the collection of the National Museum of Victoria. 

Life history is unknown. 

Eumerus tuberculoids (Rondoni) 

(Figs. 4-6) 

Mcrotlon fabet ciikilns Rondani, 1845> Noiw. Ann. Sfk tiaf, Bologna 

(2) 4 : 256. 
Etf merits inhere a laim, Rondani.. IHS7, Dipt. Jtoi Prodr. 2: 93. 
humerus tnbe.rcuhUns, Collin, 1920, Ent. won, Mng r 56: 102-106. 
Eumerus tuhetculatus, Latta & Cole, 1933, Motr Bui Dpt. Atp. 

Calij. 22: 145. 

Collin described this species as follows: 

"Resembling sfr'ujatus, but hind femora with a slight rounded 
projection at the extreme base beneath ; basal joint of hind tarsi also 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 
Plate II 



Vol. 74 




[61 



-with a rounded, laterally compressed, projection at (lie base beneath. 
somewhat hiVKU-n by the yellow pubescence. Male genitalia very 
diriVmit. 

"' 5 Vertical triangle rather natrower than in sti'i>jttttix f uwl not 
(pute so shining; /atrial pubescence rHthci yellower: third anrcrmal 
joint not 61) deep and therefore appearing rather longer in propor- 
tion ro its depth. Thorax and srutellmu not quite so shining, owing 
10 slightly coarser punctuation ; on the other hand, the abdominal 
punctuation *5 not quite so coarse or dense as in sin'gatns. Thoracic 
and abdominal pubescence slightly shorter. Pubescence on iht 
abdominal sternites shorter and the Inst visible Semite of somewhat 
dtiTcrent shape. Genitalia very distinct from those of strir/atm-; in 
addition to being smaller in proportion ro size of insect the van .s 
parts are of very different shape and armature, as may be seen by a 
comparison of figs. - . , Hind femora, in addition to die diagnosiic 
characters . . „ rather stouter, and shorter haired, this latter character 
especially applicable to the posteroventral pale hairs. 

**$ Frons rather narrower than in strigat?4S_, and whereas in that 
species the front half of the hons viewed in some lights appears 
distinctly dusted, no dusting except on a narrow strip close to the 
eyes can be traced m fubrn-uhUus, Thorax and scuteiluni with 
slightly coarser punctuation as in the mate,, and with the pubescence 
rather shorter than in striiiatits and distinctly more tawny. Abdomen 
with shorter pubescence. The distinguishing characters -of the hind 
letis of the male can be traced, though not so much developed. 1 ' 

The internal row of spines is about twice the length of the exter- 
nal row, and extends as far as the middle of the femora. 

The figures given by Cohin ( 1 920 j of the English specimens u$ 
tjtbcrattotifs agree so closely whh those from Victoria that there 
is no doubt about the identity of this species. The figures included 
ill this publication are drawn from a specimen, bred January 1957, 
frtfln narcissus bulbs received from Mr. \V. T. Wills, Bayswater T 
Victoria Other specimen.-* were from Carnegie and Hast Malvern, 
bred January-February 1957, 

Eumerus strigarus (Fallen) 

(Figs. 18-19) 

Piphw jlrif/ata Fallen, 1817, Dipt. SittH-, Syrpfita: 61 ; & 
1-mitrnts sinr/ahts, Collin, 1920, But. tnoti. Mao. 56 : 102-106. 
litiwmu strtijfitus, Latta and Cote. 1933. Man. IftiK Deft. //</' 
iaii). 22; 144 

No specimens of this species are known to the author from Vic- 
toria, or Australia, hut as previous records of bulb flies have been 
referred to thus Sp£dck< it is included here for purposes ot com 
parison. Figurci d: the male genitalia are also given, 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 
Plate lit 



Vol. 74 




[S] 



*J,!j3 \ Knots,-;, Vutoritni t*u1t> Pli™ V 

According to Latta & Colt (1933) : "Hind femora much thick- 
ened, with rwo rows of short spines Ivelnw nn apical part, the pQR- 
lerior row continued to or beyond the middle, the anterior row 
present only on the apical third; . . .*' 

Eumerus pel tar us Meijcre 

(Figs. 7-10) 
Eumerus ptltiUns Meijere, 1908, Tijdschr, But. 51 223. 
humerus ptliuins Ferguson, 1926. Prat:. Liun. Snr. A r S.W. 51: 
537, 

This species, although originally described from New Guinea, 
was recorded lay Ferguson from Queensland, where both sexes have 
been bred from native fruit and rotting prickly pear A specimen in 
the Department of Agriculture collection was bred by Mr, R, T. M, 
Pescott 8.2. 35 t from narcissus bulbs received from Mr. A. E, 
Chandler, Uoronia. The range of the species is. not only extended 
to Victoria, but it is also of great interest to find an apparently native 
species breeding in an introduced genus of plants. 

Trie genitalia show great similarity to those of E. lahpes, but 
differ in derails as shown in the figures. Male specimens are easily 
distinguished by the dilated posterior metatarsus and dense silvers 
pubescence on the posterior tibia and metatarsus. Females with 
some white hairs at the apical end ot tibia. 

The rows of spines arc on die apical quarter ol the femora only 
and the spines are tew- in number The definite black and yellowish- 
brown colouration of the femora and tibia separates this species 
from E. hih'pi's, which has biowuish legs. 

Eumerus lotipes Mocquarl 
• (Figs. J I -13) 
Eumerus totrpas Maajuart, 1846, Dipt. E.vof. norni. SuppL 1 : 133. 
Littiiurus laiipos Ferguson, 1926, Proc. Limt. Sac. NS.VV. 51; 
537. 

This species appears to be closely related to E. peltafus, but the 
male genitalia show some minor differences. The. posterior meta- 
tarsus is not quite so much dilated, and the tibia and tarsus are. not 
covered with silvery hairs as in the previous sj^ecies. The- figures 
published in this paper were drawn from a Tasmanian specimen, 
identified by Ferguson and mentioned in his publication ( 1926). So 
far no records of distribution have been available to the author other 
than tltose already mentioned by Ferguson 

Spines are on the apical quarter of the femora only ; the legs -arc 
brown, with only a slight indication of yellowish colouring near the 
base of the tibia. 



10 &9tt*ft ifaivrm faff flv* [ V vai n at 

Eumcrus obliquus (Fobricius) 

(Figs. 14-1?) 

1$fcsYfl ohliiiiui Fabricius, 1805, 5fj$/. ddjtj&i 194. 

Eutncius obliquus Ferguson, 1926, Prtf&. LtttH. Sor. t\'S W. 51; 

535. 

This is an introduced species that Ferguson ( 1926) recorded 
from New South Wales and Western Australia. There are some 
ten or twelve specimens from Western Australia in the collection 
of the National Museum of Victoria identified by S. J. Paramonov 
of C.S.J -KX).> Canberra ; one of these specimens provided the 
genitalia now figured. 

The external row of spines is situated along the edge of a semi- 
circular lobe, but the internal row is normally placed. Tn this species 
the abdominal htuules are touching each other in the middle of the 
abdomen, ;md the general appearance is unlike that of any other 
Australian species. 

Key for Separating Species Discussed 

1. Abdominal markings meeting on the dorsal median line; 
external row of spines pii the posterior femora on the edge 

of semicircular lobe E. obliquus (Fab.) 

Abdominal markings not meeting on the dorsal median line ; 
opines on the posterior femora not on lobes 2 

2. Spines on the posterior femora numerous* rows extending 
about half of the length of femora; posterior metatarsi not 

dilated 3 

Spines on the posterior femora few, rows occupy the apical 
quarter only ; posterior metatarsi much dilated \t\ males . - 5 

3. Posterior femora with prominent tubercle near the base 

E, tuberculoids fRoiul.) 
No tubercle near the base of posterior femora . . . . - . . r 4 

4. Rows of spines of unequal length; anal styles in the male 
genitalia ending in a recurved point toward inside 

E, strufaias (Fallj 
Rows E# spines of equal length; anal styles m the male 
genitalia ending in a blunt triangular apex . F. simplex Ferg. 

5. Posterior legs black, tibia with pronounced yellowish basal 
third ; in the male the much dilated metatarsus and the 
tibia covered with silvery pubescence . . jL pfiltatus Meip 
Posterior fegs brown, wirh less distinct yellowish markings 

on the base ot tibia; male metatarsus dilated, not covered 
with silvery pubescence t E laiipes Macq. 



i :>$7 J 



Nkboi^S, i'-litorian fi.tfftd f-'fjcx 11 



Acknowledgments 

The authoi is indebted to Mi\ 1\ \V Hogan, Chief KntomolngUt. 
Piiuu Research Laboratory, Burnley, for making available speci- 
mens for .study from the departmental collection, and to Mr. R. A. 
Dunn who supplied a number of specimens for study, fur carefully 
checking identifications, and giving valuable criticism, 

REFERENCES 
Coe. R L. )m Uttiicilt. ofrfte Ait te- 10 M ) : S9. 

Collm. J. P., 1920, fztth vwh, MojH\ 56. IUjMOG. 

Craeger. D. H. ( & Snruijr, F« J-, 1935, ifow, fiirt .S\v, Antet: 28:4*0-437. 

Fabricr.'s, J. C, 1803, Syslcum AutUatornin 

Fallen. 1817, Difit. S*Q% Svrpftki: 01 (R). 

Ferguson, E. VV.. 1926. Proc. Lwn, Sac. NSM'\ 51 517-544. 

gaffe, E. R., 1944. £iu. torn, Mou. SO; 109-117. 

Hodson, YV. E. H„ 1927, Afl. eni, Hes. 17: 373-384 

-, 1932. But. cut. Rex, 23: 247-249. 

Latta, R. & Cole, tt. C, 19.13, .'V/w. BnL Dcpt. Ayr. Cntif. 22: 142-152 
Meijere, J. C. H-. WOS, T>nU<:la\ ffnU 51 ; 223. 
Macquart, P. J., 1846, Drftfc girtifi irtritf*. &$/?, 1: 133. 
Roiidaui, C. 1&45. A'tw. #«**- £>». tf«rf, Bologna ($) 4 : 254-267. 
, 1857, Dipt. Up}, Prml>\ 2: S£ 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES 
Plait 1 
Ffck, 
1 Tmidc vlft^v a*' cercui and style. Ei si)?tf>lex t-erg. 

2. Aedeagus of U. simpfrx Fcrg. 

3. Left lcsr from inside (cf), it. xh'-fU'x Perg. 
a — exterior row Ot spines- 

4. Inside view of eercus and style, U. iuifcrruhfnx LRond.). 

5. Aedeagus of £. tuber attains (Rood.). 

6. Left leg frurU inside (.J), E. hibenruhithi- ("Rund ). 
a — exterior row of spines. 

Plate 2 

7. Inside view oi cercus and style, E. peitatits Mcij. 

8. Acdcagus of E. peffatits Mtrj. 

y. Left leg from inside (2), /I. peUatu.i Meij. 
a — exterior row of spine** 

10. Left leg from inside fj}; E- prliatitx Afeij 
a' — exterior row of spines. 

11. Inside view of ccrcus and srylr, E. lotiprs \1nc<\, 

12. Acdeagus of £. talipes Mac<(. 

1,1. Left ley from inside (cf), E. lat'tpes Macq 
a- -exterior row of spines. 

Plate 3 

14. Inside view of cercus and stvIc, E. obltquuj (Fah.). 

15. Aedeagus o( E ohluptus (Fnb.)- 

16. Left leg; from outside [rfrj, E. vbliqttits (fab.) 

17. Portion oi the posterior femur showing lobe and arrangement oi spines 
from outside (cf), E. obiiqt'Hs I'Fab.). 

18. inside view of cercus and styU's, E. strigahis (Fall) (alter ColKu. 1920). 
iy. Aedea^u^ ot /•*. stri'tyatus (Fall.) (after Coilin, 1920). 



it ihe VicUn-um NttlantUsi V*A 74 

SUNDAY NOTES ON THREE VICTORIAN PLANTS 
B, A G Col-mt* 

Proleo<cae 

C0.VO5PERMUM TAXJFOLiCM bin. t(1 R*r\ C&k>t*t$fi1\ nil} CtdW- 

SpiTinmu n. 3 (1808). 
This, species was firtt collected in Victoria by K. Mueller "abreast of Gabo 
Inland on Ihe aattfl lunmnoeki" during September lwE) and _ftl though $M5 
clearly recorded if as a Victorian plant, A. J. Ewart omitted (. . toxijoiimn 
from his Flora of I'ictoria (193(1), apparently under the impression that 
Mueller's record was erroneous. Tl SfrOfe tedb^covcied by the author in lab* 
December 1955. growing [311 healthy flats in association with Xantbu-rrhoca 
iiusuds, about three miles west from Howe Hill and approvimatf.ty the same 
U i stance north from F. Mueller's original locality. Lonfsfrcrm-tuft lu.vitolmw 
i* confined elucrly to ihe consul heathlamfe and raiigns irom the Burdekin 
list nary in Quecnslanrl to north-eastern Tasmania. 

Craapufa&Ofl 

CRASSlir.A KKI.MSIT (KirlM Bergor in ftofafy P{U : am. ed. Z 18a: 389 
(1930). 

Tithtca vrrUttlhns Honk. /jOI* PW, 3: r. 29S (184(0. excl. 

defter., mm. /". uvttcithns. D.G Fttwta 3: 382 (1828). 
f; nxurva Hook. f. /*iW. Torn;. 1 ; 146 (1856). 
C. t'lvwva (Hook. (.) Oteui. in Dauak huh. 4>k. 2* : 40, 47 (1918), 
won C. rccurva N. E. Brown in Cdnrs. Chron. Ser. .1 8: 0&4 

jr^i'fl Mflftlfi Kirk ..J/iirf. /-7or. 142 (JH99;. 

Comparison of a specimen of Croisula Itehjtm (Kirk) Bei^er, collected at 
Greymonth, New Zealand by R. Helms and evidently part ot che type of 
iillaca hchnsii Kirk with typical Victorian specimens of C*. rc^ffr&M (Hook, f.) 
Ostent". reveals no specific differences between the two. Since Helmut. is the 
oldest legitimate epithet available for tins specie? it must be adopted for our 
plant. C. hehn.xii h endemic, in south-caste-rii Ausrralia (including Tasmania) 
and New Zealand and is distinct from C. intricate*- Nets 111 ixhrn PljfiU 
Prciss. 1: 278 (1844-45) — a West Australian plant under which ir is 
sometimes ityuonyuu?ed. 

Mimosa ceo e 

ACACIA DIFFUSA Lindl. in Edwards ML ®$, 8 : t. 634 <1«22). 

Durum 1822 two names were published under At.uciu — A. prasttitUi "Lodtl 
Hot, Cab. 1; t. 6J1 (1822) and A. rh-nutifolw Link h.uum. Plant. Hort, 
hfrol 2; 442 (1822). The former is definitely referable to A. diffusa Lmdl., 
hut the identity ot the second species is open to some doubt at present. finn- 
tjhafn, who studied Acucht spp. m detail was doubtful about -4. {tvwstifo\\a 
tor many years, but in IqTS (Trans. Linn. Soc. Loud- 30; 4.53) he assigned 
thifl species to A. diffusa. Apparently he had examined a link specimen as 
indicated by fhc symbol ' The (fate 011 the plate in Edward* hot. Rzy. is I July 
1822, and this would certainly be the earliest that it was published, Unfor- 
tunately, there is dehmtc evidence that f.nu.m. Phut JivrL be^ot. was pub- 
lished during tnc first half ot 1 822, but the exact date »;n publication o( Bet- 
Cab, caimut be determined »torn either the book itseli or from contemporary 
pnblKaiious, in view oi ihe unrcrtaimy surrotindinc the identity of A\ fjcituti- 
folia and the date oi publication of A prostrata, A diffusa will be retained as- 
the valid name Kir uur Victorian plant, at least for the time beiritr, untH 
detinite evidence to tht contrary is produced, 

* \atirmnl Mr-Tb:iriiirn of V irtoria. 



{lj^] I fttf &>i*rflfifffl NuiwDhst la 

NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK 

(Reserved for yew* Note*, Obttcrvotions «nd Queries) 
NATURE RECORD 

The Jmtinr ,if/c has arranged for the keeping «u" nature records by schools 
and youth gtoupa (no stgffc hrnn), and il provides record books tipon applica- 
tion. Results arc cheeked in March, August and November, prizes, lor iftf 
niOM successful work being given by the Junior Chamber of Commerce. Die 
objective ijj to increase awareness of our native flora, and its need lor eaiv. 
Some mrmbers may like 10 take a hand by encomnging tlie keeping 01 a 
record and by helping with identification. 

— W. Wauwu-i. 



BIROS* NESTS IN FACTORY 

The interior of a. factory near Morwel! might seem lo be a queer nesthr^- 
ptoce for birds. Five large overhead cranes run backward and forward all 
day, while below them electric welding goes oil continuously, accompanied by 
the din ota steam hammer, automatic tinsels and other equally noisy machines. 
Vet every year inajrfiie-larks. :is well as sparrows, mynas, and starlings, nest 
on the overhead cranes, sitting placidly while they travel back and forth 
<ju>tc undisturbed by the- noise and activity below, and taking no notice «<£ 
the workman who services the machinery. There is much speculation in the* 
workshop as to- why the birds should elioose to nest in such a place. Perhaps 
it is because they are safe- from bird and other marauders- No one hanru 
them, everyone is interested m them, .nid one of the. mm recently photo- 
graphed them at the request of the manager. 



PHENYLE AS A BIRO KILLER 

• While head teacher at Rarongarook near Colac, now and again T \vouU1 
find the dead body Of a bird in the vicinity of the school-ground, with no 
outward signs of wounding- or violence of any kind. Over a period of about 
three years. I picked up bodies of Crimson Rosellas, Eastern Rosellas, Red 
Wattle-bird,. Magpie Lark. Blue Wren, Yellow Robin, Grey Shrike-inrush, 
Ntagpie, and other birds. Tt worried me a great deal what could be the cause 
oi so many deaths, so consistently near and in the sxhool- ground. 

Becoming more familiar with the habits of Hie birds as time went on, I 
felt convinced that the likely cause wag my using phenyle to wash out the 
drams in the school-ground and 10 wash out the out office pans. Phenyle 
diluted with water wis run out of the drains a\i<\ lay in pools near the 
school boundary fence; water polluted with phenyle lay in puddles when- 
pans were washed out. In dry weather birds sometimes drank this poisoned 
w-ater and died of its effects. Apparently si very weak concentration was 
Miftieiem to kill. 

I gave up using phenyle as a disinfectant ; instead I used a pine variety of 
disinfectant-deodorant which appears nor to be lethal In birds and is as grind 
or bettei for cleaning purposes. Since I changed over to pine disiniectauK 
a year ajjo there have been no unaccountable deaths of birds 

— Chauu:.s T- Bakboc* 



14 The I'icfvnon Naturalist Vol. 74 

LETTER TO EDITOR 

Hon. Editor, i'liivriwi Naturalist, 

Dear Sir, 

Sincere thank? and congratulations from all nature- lovers should go t*,; 
those persons who guided" the National Parks Bill through the Victorian 
Parliament, mOre especially to Messrs. P. C Morrison and J. R. Garnet, 
without whose untiring work Victoria would still he without any effective 
innervation taws-. That these are so urgently needed can best be seen by 
Clause 7 (ref Vict. Nat. 73: 129) where thirteen areas are listed as Katir>n:i.l 
Parks. A line drawn from Melbourne to Eehuca shows twelve of these in the 
one-third eastern section while two-thirds of the State possesses one National 
Park — Wyperield — perhaps the least known and most neglected of all. 

Yours faithfully 
Portland. Noel F. Lkas. month 



WHAT, WHERE AND WHEN 
F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Saturday. June 1 — Parlour-coach excursion to Rosebud. Leader: Mr. C. 
Lewis. Coach leaves Batmai: Avenue 9 a.m. and will stop near shops 
during- lunch. Members should be prepared for two meals, hut hot drink-* 
will be supplied. Bookings with the Excursion Secretary. Fare . 16/-. 

Sunday, June 9— Geology group excursion to Lysterfield Hills. Leader; Mr. 
A. Cobbctt. Details of excursion will be tfiven at Geology Group meeting. 

Group Meetings: 

(8 p.m. at National Herbarium unless otherwise stated). 

Wednesday, May 15 — Microscopical Group. 

Wednesday. May 29 — Botany Group. Subject : Fungi. Speaker ; Miss V. 
Baalan. The meeting will be held at % p.m. at 19 Hawthorn Avenue, 
Caulficld. and may he reached by taking an East Brighton No. 64, Easi 
Malvern No. 4D ( or Kew-Cotham "Road No. 69 tram to Balaclava Junc- 
tion, Caulrleld, and then walking down Baiaelava Road to the first street 
on the left. These trams pass Caulficld. Balaclava and Malvern stations. 

Monday, June J—Marine Biology and Entomology Group. Meet at private 
entrance to the south end of Parliament. House. The meeting will be in 
Mr. Strong's rooms at 8 p.m. 

Wednesday. June ? — Geology Group. Microscope night for members arranged 
by Mr. Meluncs. 

Makte Alusnoek, Excursion Secretary 

19 Hawthorn Avenue, Caulficld, S.E7 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74— No. 2 JUNE 6, 1957 No. 8S2 



PROCEEDINGS 

Nearly 80 members and friends attended the monthly General 
Meeting fldd at the National Herbarium on May 13, 1957. The 
President extended a warm welcome to new members and visitors, 
and expressed the hope that they would attend meetings as often as 
possible. The President also extended a welcome to Mr.. Tarlton 
Rayment and congratulated him on the good recovery he had made 
from his long illness. 

Dr. M. M. Chattaway delivered an interesting address entitled 
"Dunedin Science Congress and Visit to New Zealand" and illus- 
trated the latter part of the lecture with an excellent series of colour 
slides. 

The President announced that the Natural History Medaltiun 
for 1956 had been awarded to Dr. Serventy of Perth. Mr. 11. T. 
Reeves has been nominated by Council for this year's Medallion. 

A motion, moved by the President and seconded bv Mr. W. L, 
Williams, that Mr. A. W: Jessep be elected as an Honorary Member 
of the CJub ; was carried. 

The following were elected as members of the Club: Mr. F. W. 
Seed, Templestowe (Ordinary) ; Mr. W. G. H. Tregear, Essendon 
(Ordinary); l\lt\ J, I). l.ovis, F.ngland (Country); Mr 5 R. 
Miller, Staweli (Country). 

Miss M. Elder proposed lhat an increase in Club fees and the 
donation of a certain sum of money to an organization such as the 
Beaumaris Sanctuary Committee should be discussed at the General 
.Meeting. The purposes' of such actions would be to foster more 
interest in the aims of the Club, in making money available for 
establishing more sanctuaries for native flora and fauna and for 
s.errinpf some money aside for the Club Rtiilding Fund. 

Extraordinary General Meeting 

An Extraordinary General Meeting was held 15 minutes before 
the General Meeting to discuss the affiliation of the Ballarat, Ben- 
digo, Colac, Creswick and Wimmera Field Naturalists Clubs. As 
these. Clubs had paid their affiliation fees, a motion affiliating them 
with the Club was carried with acclamation. 

15 



16 Proceeds KM? 

Nature Notes and Exhibits 

The President dcscnlwi an unusual growth m a tern prnthatlus, 
Further notes on ihi.s will appear in a later Issue oi The Victorian 
Naturalist. Mr. Garnet commented on three egg sacs of the Red- 
hack Spider which he recently observed. The egg sacs were enclosed 
in a larger sac about two inches in diameter 

Among the exhibits at the meeting were a number of eucalypt 
paintings by Mr. Ilaabeanda specimen ot Grevillea alcaldes, grown 
at Ferny Creek, by Mrs. F. K. Vasey. Other exhibits were a strip 
of lichen, seven [eel long, from the Yarramin tropical forest io 
Queensland and also the fruit of the tropical Native Lemon shown 
by Mr. Stan. Colliver. Hake a lamina ( Pincushion Tree of Western 
Australia) was exhibited by Mrs. D. S l.ewi*. 



Correction 

In the last issue of The Victorian Naturalist the price o» the new edition of 
the Club's l-'ictonan. Ttwdxfopfa and Mushrooms, by J. H. Willis, uvas in- 
;orrectly given as 7/6. This should have been 6/-, ami this error is regretted 

Assistant Required for University Geotcgy School 

An assistant is required by the Geology School, University of Melbourne, lo 
help in sectioning rock specimens, model making, etc. The successful appli- 
cant will be allowed to study part-time at a technical school. Those interested 
should contact the Professor of Geology at the University. 

Escorts for Members Attending General Meetings 

Arrangements have been made lor escorts to meet members and visitors 
wishing to attend general meetings at the National Herbarium, Persons 
desiring escort should assemble at the trdm slicker nearest the fountain <tl 
the corner of The Domain and St. Kiida Road not later titan 7.50 p.m. These 
arrangements will apply to all general meeting's commencing from Morula y 
.text- 



PRAHRAN NATURE SHOW, 1956 

By A. E. Bbuoks* 

On November 19, Sj and 21, the 195t» Nature Show was held, from 10 am. 
to 10 p.m. each day, in conjunction \vi(h the P rah ran and District Cbambei 
ot Commerce a? part of the Olympic celebrations. The auxiliary room at the 
Prahran Town Hall was provided free of charge by the City of Prahran, and 
the Chamber oi* Commerce provided publicity in the form of display notices. 
sandwich boards, references on radio sessions and in newspapers, and by means 
ot some thousands of leaflets. Similar numbers of Olympic booklets also made 
mention of the Mature Show. 

The Mayor of Prahran, Cr. G. J. Furnell, officially opened the show at 
3 p.m. on the first day. Speeches were also made by Mc S- Loxton, il.L.A. ; 
the President and Secretary of ihc Chamber of Commerce (Messrs. Ferguson 

PCJttb 0*"gani7rr of rhi* aho«*>. 



i£j£] Brooks, PitfhrtM Nature Show, 1956 17 

and Jc-imer, respectively), and the F \ T .C V. Presidrnt (Mi. Swaby), ami by 
tlic writer. 

The exhibitors arc to be con^raud&'ed on Cht great variety and excellence 
of ttic displays. Many vterc the result of individual efforts, and with such a 
solid foundation it should be possible on a future occasion iti find m*nv »n«>re 
member; ulio would he prepared to help m providing exhibits. 

There are ninny lesson* to lie- learnt inun this Nature Slum- Tin- fif$( i* 
tha* the Club can still stage shows similar to those held ticiorc the war, An- 
other point is that garden-grown MUive flowers now have a hiR attraction f(Jr 
many penile, also liv** ammati art an eltceiive dlaw <ai'l. particularly tOf 
Children, tMit for adult* as well. 

Those from ojits&C the CM* wbn helped by prov idiot* exhibit*, svpo. ]Vl . 
TT. R- Ballour •.'anthropology), .Mr. W Leach (Australian limbers, cucaly.'t 
fruits anrl other seed capsules.). Air. R. Witlison (rock python I, Mr. R, 
Batiouney and Mr. Shepherd (ernnodilrs'i j and Mrs. Tuld and Mrs. Tcl- 
mewan t Mowers) . 

Owing to the limited amount or space available, tbt; Mines Department 
was the nnjy ciuistdc organi-zaiiou invited to Mage a d»*pUy 7 and it was ret - 
uialy an effective one. 

Mr. Ba)tu\u-' ? uolbt opologkal display included twine made bv Australian 
aborigines from the hark of u boahab-tree,. shields, knives of hone and quarte- 
tte, Stones for throwing pounding, w<\ for grinding feeds such as nardoo. 
There were Jtehtfng sticks and message slicks, baited atones, Uaked axes, 
wonm-eras and pressure- flaked stone s pear-points. 

The Victorian Mmrs Department a^ain had a samjilc of uranium ore on & 
revolving tabic. This specimen, whtrh was B per cent uranium, was placed so 
that, as it approached a Cereer counter, uouttmtous dicks could be heard Jrom 
a loud-speaker Sample.; of radium ore, secondary uranium mineral, and braiv 
nerite "i the glaSE rase roniplered tfat 0(W©ifSi The "M" ti>e-5 Depart input :*!*■>' 
displayed fluorspar and radioactive secondary uranium mineral 'j. wVutS 
fluoresced wl-L'ii ultra-violet tight was directed at them, 

Mr. Swaby displayed the frmts of batiksias, hakess, the woody pear, and 
several c-uculyprv including* |hc very large ones of ihe "Rose of the West", 
£iM&lyphis u/iti roi"(ir ( ttJi, M^ny of these seeds had been s^m From ne#r Mill!* 
cent. South Australia. Garden-grown rlowers sent by Mr. Althoier of the 
Nindctbaua Nursery, Dripstone, N T S W v sbntC fine (jbtitcigia^hs p| casna/iuas 
and a number of feed lines with flowers of various colours j^rowu iroui 
Mcrhcrcou's 1^-tfCC, cooipletexl the exhibits in this section 

Mr. Gabriel's splendid shell exhibits provided une of the |i»ghtighls ^1 tfte 
ATuiw. Thcrt- was an example of the smallest adult shell (rnea5UTing only one- 
thirtieth of an inch), a twtrlve-inch Baler, which is the large? r spwues to be 
found in Victoria, and a case of ian-shelU. Mr. Gabriel further showed his 
ability to stage outstanding exhibits by displays 01" Ule gtOwuVstage* of Vic- 
torian Tock-whollri and cowry shells. The latter, including 1be largest Vie- 
roncm cowryj were enhoncvd by their arranKemeni ill tievs with a black bnrU 
ground. 

Mrs I'rcaiue's extcllcnt di*|>lwv of niarilt^ Jitc created muck interest altd 
inr<iked many questions, x*artirularly from sclKJol-thildten. Mrs. Fresmi? took 
every possible opportMniiy to be present so that -ibe could answer as maai> 
questions as possible. As well as the marine life, a preserved giant -earth- 
worm from f.inpsland served ft? a rc-minder of the days when livxn specimens 
or these proved a arcal attraction at F.N.CV. nature shows. 

Several showcases eonUined colourful bird specimens loaned by the 
National Must-urn nnd the K.A.O.U.. bill it was the large Wedffe-tailcd Eagle 
surmounting the display boards that attracted most attention. 

Live animals must be made a part of any future nature sbow. The Iwo small 
crocodiles, loaned bv Mr. Batrounev ot Kew and trau-$r.orted to and from the 
Miow by Mr. Shepherd of the Prahnm Market, livcnCd up suftkicntly Oil the 



18 Brook*. fVafinw Nciitne Show, 19*6 V\<Z; H ?T 

final night lo bile ihc finger of one of our members who way demonstrating 
how harmless they were. 

''SatDftiy", the eight-foot Rock Python, SefckMft uiuvound bis coils but he 
showed various, siens of movement and attracted much attention, For the 
fcriefk! of anyone who is troubled with mice or rats the even-tempered Sammy 
is for sale ior the modest price of three pounds. 

Mr. A. A. Baker again staged an exhibit of the very high standard wc 
have come to expect oJ him. ft was entitled "The Geology at Melbourne 1 '. 
Photograph*, rock-spc<imens, fossil shells and sharks-' teeth at! contributed 
to the effectiveness of Ihe display. Where are our other geologists when il 
fames to staging exhibits? Why leave it all to Me. Baker? 

Mr, ). R. Garnet W3$ another member who staged an outstanding exhibit 
His live specimens of Kcd-backed and Funnet-web Spiders, mounted speci- 
mens which could be exairirncd in more detail, and the entire *.et-up was 
designed to create the maximum oi interest. Doth specie* arc deadlv, hut 
while the fust prefer* to gel out 61 iW way. the Funnel-web is described m 
very pugnacious. 

Mr W Leach's Australian timbers and display-boat J of the seeds *ud fruit? 
of various Australian plants added variety to the show, while maintaining the 
high standard shown Throughout the exhibit*. 

Several members combined to provide the effective exhibit! of garneu- 
arown native plant*. Bowls \ffi Black and Red-stemmed Green Kangaroo-paw=., 
bspexance Wux-Hower, red and mauve bottle-brushes, many tea-trees ( includ- 
ing one of the most beautiful displays in the show), ihe Round-leaf Tea-tree, 
Mount Barren Grcviltea and many other fine stieeics added to the colour wk! 
excellence of the flower exhibits. 

Mr Reeves's outstanding coloured photographs were shown to advantage 
uii the dividing screens, and the large number of water -colours by Mr. liaa^e 
not un|v occupied much space on the screens but covered much of the ^al! 
space whk.it would othetwise have remained rather bare These water-colours 
were originally executed for (he very worthy objective of interesting Mew 
Australians in our native flowers nod birds. 

Pasters from the Australian National Publicity Association and the National • 
Safety Council, with Black. Cockatoos, aboriginal weapons and native animals 
as their motifs, attracted much attention. 

The attendance throughout the show wis quite- good, hut d was not until 
>fier the procession on the Wednesday night that the. crowd really staited 
to pour in. Although it must have been difficult for many of the people to 
obtain a proper view, the targe attendance Otl this night was very encouraging 
to those who devoted a large amount ot time to organizing the show. 

It is a matter for regret that hetausc- of the limited accommodation in the 
small room, only one 01 two schools were invited to send parties of student-. 
This is something which must receive special attention on the occasion of any 
future show 

The Club gives ib sincere thanks to the exeeltent team of workers who 
helped to set up the show, to those who gave readily of their time to supervise 
during various sessions, and to the worker? who dismantled the show with 
iuch efficiency. 

Ic iif, di'fficule to single out individual efforts, but the valuable work of 
Messrs. Sarovkb. Hooke, Swaby and the Wallaces should be placed on record. 



PROPOSED EXCURSION TO MALLACOOTA 

Would those interested ina. jtArkiuf.roacri excursion to Mallacoou (Boxing 
Day to New Year's Day next, inclusive) , please cxmrict the leader. Mr. N. A 
Wakefield at Of- bijett Ikr June GTntifrfil Meeting, because preliminary 
arrangements must be made immediately. (Phone : UJ&W0). 



JgJ£*l The l~i(tttrinn \'utuKtlist W 

BUNJIL'S CAVE FOUND 

By A. Massouv* 

Huniil, qr Pund-jel, the All-Father, was known and venerate! 
hv all the tribes of north-western ami central Victoria. He \va> 
known to tribes out^de this territory, but by other names: Baianw. 
Daramulum, Mungan-ngana. etc Everywhere he was known a* a 
tiood Spirit, who never harmed man or beast, h was he, in fact, 
who created things as they are today and who gave the tribes their 
law and culture. 

The aborigines of the Varra Tribe, the Wuntnjerri. believed lhai 
Bunjil warmed the sun, and the sun wanned tfjS earth, which 
opened, and the black fellows came out. Bunjil had two wives, and 
gave one of them to his brother. Ho also had two 50ns, whose duiv 
it was to destroy wicked people. Bunjil, they believed, has gone to 
the sky and is now a star, Howitt queues Berak, the last "king" of 
the Varra Tribe, as saying that he was taken, as a boy, outside the 
camp by his mother's brother, who, pm'nting to the star Altair, said 
"See, that one is Bunjil ; you see him and he sees you." This was 
before Batman's time. This tribe, in common with, all the others 
forming the Kulin "nation" was divided into two classes, the Eagle- 
hawk and Crow. Bunjil was the Eaglchawk 

Dawson mentions him as the Good Spirit of the tribes of south- 
western Victoria, but calls him Piromeheeal. He did good to man 
and beast by bringing rain and making grass ami roots grow for 
their benefit. 

In north-western Victoria, amongst the Wotjobaluks, Bunjil was 
a greot man. His wives were two sisters, Ganawarra, the Black 
Swans. His brother's name was Djurt. Bunjil is now in the sky as 
tht* star Fomalhaut. 

As can well be imagined Bunjil was also credited with making 
the natural ieatures of the land. Various caves were connected with 
him. One about two miles east of Bushy Creek, was said by the 
local Wurunjcrri to have been made by him when in anger. Some 
of the aborigines had done something which displeased him, and he 
caused a star to fall and make this particular chasm, Another, at 
Cape Schanck, wab made by him and he much delighted In it, 

Howitt, in his The Xativc Tribes of South-east Australia { l!-*)4 1 . 
mentions one cave connected with Bunjil in a more direct way. He 
writes: "Ail that 1 know of the beliefs of the Mukjarawnint is that 
Bunjil was once a man who was the father of all the people, and 
that he was good, and did no harm to anyone. I may mention here 
as in one sense belonging to this part of my subject, that one of th<* 
A'lukjurawaint said that at one time there wa* a figure of Bunjil 

* Curator of Anthropology, Natiruoil Mu«em>t of ViiHOlia. 



20 



Massola, Hun jil's Cafe Found 



["Vict. Nat. 
L Vtrt. 74 



and his dog painted in a small cave behind a large ruck in the Black 
Range near Stawell, hut I have not seen it, nor have I heard of 
anyone having seen it." 

Naturally, this cave has heen long sought, as the importance of it 
has always heen realized. Hut it was not found. It is probable that 
at times the wrong locality was searched. A. S. Kenyon, for in- 
stance, wrote the following in the Ararat Advertiser, of April 11, 
192<); "Dr. A. \V. Howitt was told by a black fellow at Tyers that 
In the Black Range, the range west of the Cllenelg, there was a cave 
with a painting of Baiamai, the (ireat Spirit. Search has been made 
for this without result." 

Bunjil's cave has been found 
at last! Mr. 1. R. McCann of 
Stawell, inlormed me that 
Mrs. W. A. Collins, the ener- 
getic secretary of the local 
Field Naturalists Club, had 
''run the quarry to earth". 
After persistent inquiries, Mrs. 
Collins has ascertained that the 
locality of the cave had been 
known to some (if the local 
people for years. Soon after 
receiving this news. I was on 
the spot, in the company of 
Mrs. Collins and Mr. McCann. 

The cave is situated in an 
elevated position, on the west- 
ern flank of the Black Range 
and overlooking Lake Lons- 
dale in the distance. One might 
.say it is in the shadow of the 
Grampians, though that range 
is about twelve miles distant. 
The slope upon which the cave is situated is dotted with numerous 
large granitic boulders and sparsely timbered with Yellow Box, 
Long-leaf Box, and at intervals occasional She-oaks and Black 
Wattles. 

On the south side of one of these gigantic boulders is a cave-like 
hollow, almost a crypt, five feet high, seven feet wide, and six feet 
six inches deep. The ceiling is dome-like, the floor is composed of 
granitic gravel, and the back wall is quite smooth and perpendicular. 

On this wall is painted the strangest imaginable figure. At first 
glance it does not appear to he genuine, as it seems to be traced in 
white paint and is quite unlike the work of aborigines. It is the 
figure of a fat man sitting on his haunches, Buddha-like. 43 inches 




Uoulcler showing the cave. 



June "I 

1957 J 



Massola. Bffltjii's C</<r Found 



21 



high and 4 feet 7 inches wide. ( )n the right of this Injure are two 
dogs (which also give the appearance of having been traced ), one, 
facing Bunjil, 13 inches long, and the other 11 inches. 

The figure of Bunjil has some extraordinary looking dots down 
the centre, epaulette-like projections over the shoulders, and stripes 
on the arm>. The>e dot>, epaulette- and -tripe>. are painted white. 
The face ha> two eves, a stroke, for a m^e and an upward slanting 




Runjil and his two dogs. 



curve for a mouth. These are in red ochre, hut almost obliterated. 
Also there are two prominent white dots on the right side of the face, 
suggestive of two eyes, one below the other. The whole looks unreal, 
but on closer examination one must arrive at these conclusions: 

The figures were originally painted in red ochre, not the outlines 
only, but the whole in solid colours, like all the other known figures 
of aboriginal workmanship. Only Bunjil's head seems to have been 
left uneoloured, possibly to show the features of the face. Only one 
dog was painted, also in red. At a later date someone, possibly 
shepherds, lit fires in this cave, very likely while sheltering from 
the rain. This soon covered the walls with a thick coating of soot, 
and almost obliterated the painted figures. Later again, the natives 
(I see no reason why anyone else would want to do it ) picked out 
the details of Bunjil and his dog in white pipeclay added a second 
dog and gave Bunjil a tunic-like jacket conforming to the soldiers' 



22 Massola, fflnrfl/V C.nv A-«W [ y *\ r**r 

L Vol. /4 

uniforms of the last century. Had Europeans clone this thev naturally 
would have used European paint. 

I have said earlier that the cave had heeu known to local people 
for many years; the proof is on the rock itself. On the right-hand 
side of the entrance to the cave there is a large inscription in red 
paint, European paint, not red ochre. It reads: "ALL THIS 
WONDERLAND", and underneath are two names, "H. STAN- 
TON" and "E. ROBSON". Then comes 4 \\IANCAVE'\ under- 
neath again the date. ''25/1/11", and finally "H. STANTON" 
once more. Now Rohson, 1 am told, is the man to whom the land was 
originally leased. It has now reverted hack to the Crown, which is 
just as well, because it will make it easier to have this cave protected 
by a wire enclosure. Mr. \V. Holmes, who has owned land adjoin- 
ing it for 34 years, said the cave has always been known to his 
family and the painting was always as it is now. The district itself 
was well frequented by the natives. They had a permanent camp 
within five miles of this spot. Food, of course, was plentiful, and so 
was water. Innumerable springs dot the hill-side, one within a few 
hundred yards of the cave. Mr. Holmes has ploughed up a number 
of stone axes and other implements on his land. 

There can be no doubt about this being the cave mentioned by 
Howitt, as the description fits it perfectly. It is by far the most 
important site so far reported from Victoria, important, because we 
know who the figure painted on the wall represents. While possibly 
not the most interesting pictorially, it is nevertheless full of interest, 
as the repainting of the outline of figures is not known from any 
other painted site. The outline, as far as can be seen, seems to follow 
the edges of the original painting very closely, also the white button- 
like dots must have been added at this time. They could not have 
been in the original red ochre version, otherwise the eyes, nose and 
mouth would have been white also. Moreover, it was not the habit 
of the aborigines, at least in Victoria, to use two colours on the one 
figure. 

The National Museum is indeed grateful to Mrs. Collins and the 
members of the Stawell Field Naturalists Club for this fine dis- 
covery. It is the third painted site reported by this vigorous body, 
and it demonstrates the valuable work that can be done by 
enthusiastic field naturalists. 



MICROSCOPICAL GROUP 

Air. C. Nance was the lecturer at the May meeting, his subject being "The 
Cutting, Staining and Mounting of Botanical Sections". Mr. C. Middleton 
rounded off this well-prepared demonstration by projecting several slides of 
Mr. Xance's own specimens on his micro-projector. 

Members are requested to bring their "mikes" to the next meeting on June 
19th. as Mr. H. Barrett will be giving one of his very interesting talks on 
"Diatoms" and there will be numerous slides to demonstrate. 



J§J* ] Ttu Vhtotian A'dhmitist 21 

SYSTIMATIC NOTES ON VICTORIAN MOSSES— 6 

By J. H. Wrujs 4 

SUMMARY 

In this paper (he following" seven iicmi are involved; I Synonymy of 
Dit+ifhiiM iUnujCtum (Hook, u & \V't>5. ) Milt, under />. rylvidricurf>ttw 
(C Muell.) Mitt.. 2 Indication that the Victorian record of JJifrtchmn 
t'oicctftim (R. Br. t?r.) Broth, is dubiou*. 3. Synonymy of Acauhn a/nnWu- 
h|#l J&eg under A. fMegrijvlium C Muell. , with transference of the varietal 
epithet arulaium from the former to the latter name. 4 Establishment of 
Phascuw molt? C Muell as a synonym under Pottia (Iruwwotidii (Wils.) 
J H. Willie, ear. objcitra J. H. Willis. 5. Recording of Cryfthacn tasmumctt 
Mitt ex Wils. as new to the Australian mainland. 6. Treatment (following 
G. O. K. Salisbury) of TriquclrMlo titrttijofui Dix. & Sainsb. as a $ynouym 
of AuoHtvifoii loswauirus Broth. — name of a barren plant, at present pre- 
sumed referable to Thuidueeae 7 Recognition of tho getu-ra tjtpufittM 
Hook, i. & Wils. ( HyrjopteryRiaceac) Sitfl kwhynchintn Bruclv & Sehimp. 
(Brachythcciaccac) in the Victorian mos$ flora. 

Ditrkhaeeoe 

t. DtTRILHUM CYl.lNDHiCARVUM <C. Muell. I Mitt, hi 7>«iw. & 
tree, roy, Soc P-fc* 19: 51 <18M>, 

/>. flontyatHtu (Hook. f. & Wils.) M)tt. in 't'raii.v. & Proc, toy, Soc. 

/7cf. 19: .St < 188.1): 
Trifltott'Hifthth rfon'iatn-m Hook. f. & Wils. lit Hook, f l : ti»'u TW*» 

2: 176 (1858); 
T. cyiimlricarpmn l C. Muell.) Wils, in Hook. f. Vlonx Tasm. 2: 

377 (1858); 
Lcplotrichum cylindnrorpuvu C. Muell- in Rat. <?e*f. $ 551 (l8jL). 

Tt is unfortunate that such a well-known name as Diirichum clcwoatuw 
for a common Australasian (and South American) moss should have to be 
discarded;' but, after a&sessing: the available evidence. I am convinced of itw 
synonymy set out above. In J. D. Hooker's flora- Tasmania? Vol * (1658) 
are published Latin diagnoses of Trichmttowum etaitf.tQlitm su. now (p. 176) 
and T\ cyluidricarpttin comb, m>v, (p. 177). Types of both came from Tas- 
mania and, except that the former is described as nwnoiattti ;wr| the latter as 
diottum, the two descriptions show no disparity whatever and refer, almost 
ccrUmly, to one and the v-amc laxon, It 1* doubtful whether C, Mueller's lype 
oi Lc(*toir\chum cylhuiricnrfmm (from rocks a< the Cataract Gorge item* 
Launccstoil — h^j. Mobsman) i* still in existence, and until it can be round 
one's knowledge of the specie* must rent opon \m description alone. 

W Mitten [Trans* & Proc. ray. Sac. KiW. \9 : ;A (IS83>J wa* the first tg 
refer cylbielricarpiwi. and WoH'/a'wn. to their correct fttrtUJ, Ditrtchum, but 
the former epithet is misspelt >> cylind^^ot^t1rttU'tt^ , ' iti Mitten's p^pee and tlu* 
page of the original description is given as 351 instead of 551 — probably 
typographical errors, L. Rodway [Papers & Prvc. toy. .Sot'. Tas. for 1012: 
91 (1^13)]. having; decided that thene two Tu*mauian entities were con- 
specifo, reduced Tricticstonhim cyftudruuitfiMm (C. MueU.) Wils. to synonymy 
under Ditrichuti) elonyatmn (Hook, f. & WOs.) Mill,; the procedure, how- 
ever, should have been reversed. A Gelieeb ha? correctly determined ar; /->. 
sytindricarpnm- an undoubted Grami'iaits (\^ic.) specin»e« o( D, emtitf.Wfim 
m the MeIl>ourne Herbarium 

* .V.nin>njtl HcrlMTium of Vutoril 



Z4 Willis, SysrruuHu Notes on Vietcvhu Mossts~6 [ v ^ f . *£' 

2 DiTf'KitZJM LALCAft&iM ( R. Br U?\ Broth.. 1Q0L 

Thu very rare New Zetland moss (type from tiding limestone roA at 
CaMfc fcfHL Canterbury) is recorded for Victoria hy K. N- Dixon [RuH. 
\ : .Z fnsr ; Mo. 3 47 C Jl)l4) i on the hayis (ft Lt'f'toir'h h.tiin stdibrtichyni-^-'t-m 
C. Wnell., 1898, irom |he Ctamninns (/Vy. Sullivan*. Dixon had examined 
type material of the Utter, hut without truer, and found it "quire identical 
with R. Brown's ni.ii. i. so rat as the vegetative characters go", li Dixon'* 
pronouncement be correct, the disjunctions in habitat and occurence (southern 
New Zealand and western Victoria) are most remarkable; but, in this, highly 
critical gxcup, one is on dangerous ground without trmting capsules in good 
umduion, and I would prefer to tr^ar D. cat car a; cut- as 9 very duhiriiis rei nrd 
rth tar 49 Victoria is concerned. In G. QL IC Salisbury's recent handhuok on 
the mess flora of New Zealand, the description of D\ caiatrcum cove™ also 
U. rtt-fo-Qursmtb (Hampc) J. H. Willis, to which species the Rock and Pillar 
'Range occurrence belongs [sec discussion bv writer in t'ict. tint f%, 7-8 
fMay 1M5)1. 

Pottiocc^c 

i. \CAUfON 1XTEGR1FQLWM C MimM in But ffltft 13; 74$ <t8S5) 

A npirUtutum Jaeg. Mvsc. CUut.: 20 ({S59j : 

FfWSCUM apicuhiiim Hook f. & Wils in Hook. I, Ftora N,Z. 2: 5S 7 

T &3 fig. 1 (185*1). non P. apifttfahim. Dntkl A/iwrr. Rece*\i. 

SUpH i'u Sfitl, jV/tin/. Gt'll- Sp*e\ t%Uf$- frct%d. IfmvfrMi- 8 (l$1!)j. 

A- rKTnCRirOUI.'M C. MuolU w. ARtS'TATl/M (J H. WilliY) 

A n/KWararftm J-ieg., Mr cru'.^iimt J, H Willis in I'ic) jVu/, 70 

170 (jan 1954). 

T have been kindly inronned l private communication) by Protestor Dr. 
R. van tier VVjjk of (jrunintten. Holland, that the name Fhuscwi itjiiculutuni 
Hook, f Sr Wils (1854) & antedated by P. afrit ohmmh B ridel (l*M9> and is 
therefore illegitimate, as a later homonym. S. K. Bridel's description ni the 
old German publication (at Gotha) was based on English materia) — taicr 
referred to Pltoscum citxfiidtititm ITcdw-, var. pUifaiini (TTetlw.) Hook ft 
Tayl, -and it bad been completely overlooked by later compilers ot muss 
catalogue* and iw.hVes, inr.hidm>r the standard works of F- C Pans. This 
means that the specific epithet in Antufon apiaiUttHUL Jaeg. is to be treated 
a:-s new, a&ttCV irom )869. not as a transference o1 Hooker and Wilson's 
JS54 epithet. Thus, /L o^imhti'inh a more rectut i.auie t\i&n A. inLcjtiivlhiitk 
C Muell. (bused on the r.amc taxon) ^.itd, acrr/rding to the. Tnternntional Code 
of ftotauicftl Noinenclattirc, the latter must ufce precedence. 

The change, of Fpec.ifio name, necessitates also a 'tew combination hr my 
v.incti oristnthm (oiigiitally attached to Acauloi: af-tcuJntunv), and thin ii 
v-ftccted .move: The remaining synonyms oi A- mteffrifoJiitm a« 'e A- ft*r(/tf1\<»\ 
i Mitt, ex Wils.) Mitt. A. mitthmiii C. MueLl and A EEwifo-iMtffcil/ll 
Geheeb nt Koth — as Sot out already in Vict. <V<3f. 70: 169 l Jan. 1954). On 
the same p.i^e of \\\<: journal 1 ineiUi«.'nc<> 'A cnis3i>t-n\>tn»i Broth. (nymr'» 
'M«//nn?)" itom New South Wales; Professor van der Wijf, assures me 1hal 
the name was acutaJv published witt! a description by C. M'jcller in tSftiwititn 
II: ll*> (1902). 

*, I'VrilA Om/MMONntl (Wils.) J.lt. Willie wr. Ons'CURA J. H 

Willis in Met, A'rt/. 70: J/1 [fyn 1^5*4) 

Vhaxawt- mttUc C Mutdl in llnkifiyiit 41: IJ9 {JA02J. 

Thi? new varietal epithet was based npnn the type of "Phnscum motto" 
C Murll. (fruni Pirtthooja. Vic J, \VhltJl I HnniEthr m he a manuscrtol n.mic 
. : 'rofes!fot- van der Wiilc again advises that my assumption was aiconect, 



m? 1 Willis, S'r-c/i»;»'.!fir N^ffs flii Victorian Masses— 6 2S 

pointing otU tfrfi f)ta<*c whore MwdJet's now species was validly pnbli c hcd- 
So» in effect, Potiia (tru*nw<>ntHi var. obscn,r/} becomes- a change in rank and 
ijnlhei, with Phasciwi ta>?Hr as a straight synonym. 

Cryphaeaceoe 

S. CRVPHAB.t TJSMAXfCA Mitr. ev WiU„ 1858: JjfttCl' Janucimi 
Kiver, Vic. — on wti boulders at water's edge m gorge tiact r..i 
northern branch, ea, i mile above Wren* Flat (7. //. Willis, Feb. 
1949) , Green's Creek waterfall, ca. 3 mile* N.K. of Bogouu tuwn- 
shlpi Vic — bm #ranodiorite rocks ocfnrtoiently i-fda.died with waKf 

(c. yy. a* v. Nov. iy56>. 

Tins ronsiuuies the 5ri1 record, of the specie* tur the Australian mainland. 
and it h apparently very rare (or overlooked) in Tasmania, being known 
there ooly from the type locality of Jaeky's CrreK — an \\p\m mbutaiy of tilt 
Meander River. Otherwise, according, to G. K, Suii^l.tiii v, it is "wide- 
>pccaci in Yew 7oaiand. Both Victorian colleccionr. .ire barren, but ln;ot the. 
robustness and ^enn-si;inatiu habitat tiler* can be tittle doubt eonccminp, tl*oi» 
idc*bl> When m fruit, C- tfijuwiriru may be diMmguis'hcit iTtWQ it^ corti- 
rolntK n!iy ( ('. tfftalftla, h\' having well-developed peristome teeth (about 
0.4 tjmt l&ig) 

rx AXOMOflON TASMAMCCS' Broth, in ©W. ftUtfJrn t^iVXSta fifrlfe 
42 U7 UW9) 

J'rujux'tri'Ua nn-vijoJUi Dixon & SUrtstttU y i:i J. &:t»/ . L3jk/, 71 : .217, 
T. 2* ffc 3 (Any 1933) 
H. N Dixon was convinced 1b&l this plant belonged to :ht ctevnif. 7Vf<fs|£ 
tftf/M (family Pottuicrae'}. However, Mr. Sairubury states that t!ie type oi 
7. cun'ifittia i.s identical wtlh that o'" AHo*u-i><f>W WtonQfitiiU Broth, from Ml* 
KnockloHy, Ta&- — »■ name ignored in ]„ Tso<hv3ys published revisions of 
Tasm&otau mossei-^and his attitude* h expressed as follows* -[-'Handbook ol 
K.2. tfosM**, fiull. T Q y $n C . A',-- 7 .. K . 5: 474 (1955)1: 

It> generic pCMnVin can scarcely he. considered as established in the 
absence of fruit, but T think that it is probably an Auovtodctt. 
The inability at curnixdent br.volotjidts to decide whether a barren niijii 
belong to i\iv Pottincea? or Thwuiia-ct'cfi (which sic poles apart sysienutic- 
nllyl if astomsbiug-! At nrtSRMH, Aitomodtm- taswamcHs- fa known only iront 
ftv-e widely dispersed legalities — Have'ixk (on .Hawked ^y) arid Owro irf 
New Zealand, the type area of Mt. Knocklofty in Tasmania., (."astlernaine 
(Vic") and Torreus (liorge ( S. An^t.). The tangle Vktumn collection, ibftdt 
by F.'Robbma (Apr 1943), was recorded m /";.-/, \ r ai «3 222 (Feb 1047) 
as TrujuctrrUa at-rvttoini, 

Hypopterygiaeeae — Bratkyrheciaietie 

;. LOI'IDIUM CO.\a.\':\UM Jiook. f. A WiU.. m ilURUYNllltUM 
AVSTRINVM (Tiook f Bj Wil&.) Jaeg. 
These name.s have been reeentlv adopted, with convincing arguments, by 
Mr. S^insbury ["Handbook of N.Z. Motsc^" It pp 4M& 447 resp ClSSSjL 
nod ih c specier concerned are JjUo present in Victoria Mr. H. T CtiiTord, in 
collaboration with the writer l^irr. ,V::/. 68: 137 (Dec, 1951), had merged 
Lopidimtt with HypOt'lcryu'uUM and referred hnrhvuchhtm (titsoinn-m- [sytJ- 
O.ryrrhynchium aitstri*rnm] to the gctfUS PlatyhypMiJiuin Fleisch. (W»n^/y- 
-Jc^uir^te), following Dixon (1927) in the former case and Brotherut 
(1924) m the (utter. Tr ii now ncccssaiv to add both I.npidiuui Hock- t A 
WiU and Eh-rhyDchiutn Brueh, SthJftjp % Qnmh to the hst of Victorian U1&& 
genera and to delete Ph*tyhyt>mdvun 



26 W Victvrmit Naturalist Vol 74 

EASTER EXCURSION, }9$l r WITH THE WtMMtftA FIELD 
NATURALISTS CLUB 

By M. J. I.SSTER 

The twenty-one W cHjoUrw" members were met ftj Dirobo>"»ta on Thursday 
niirM. April 1#. by Mr. Muir, *ecretary of the \Vimi»iera Cluh And wore 
juided ».♦ our two hotels. 

On Friday morning, members of the Wuumcra Cluh Arrived with cars snd 
utilities into which we were com fort ably stowed. They <ook ita wcsl to K»ata 
and then south lo the Kiatn Koivan Sanctuary on the ed£< of ihe Litlle 
Desert. Here the car*, were parked and we all transferred to a large truck. 

Th* Llttlt Dciert 

After passing through a farm property where there were some tuperb 
Yellow Gums {Eucalyptus Iwcoxylcu), the truck followed a sandy track, or 
iotuelfmcs no track at all, into the j.ittle Deaert, Seated (Ml bags of wheat ni 
two rows, back to back down the centre of the truck, we alt hari an unimpeded 
view when Wine kangaroos tame bounding" through the scrub. We continued 
for several miles m the Desert to a salt lake where wc stopped for lunch, 

Tor name "desert" greatly maligns the locality, for it is completely covered 
with scrubby vegetation, ranging in height up to six feet, and with inter- 
mittent clumps of Malice Gums up to 10 or \5 feet high. Six hundred speeics 
bf plants have been listed for this so-called desert! 

Apart from the she-oaks and malice* (many of each being in bloom — ii 
"blootirt ,T is a term one can apply to •easnatinasl), the p>o*t conspicuous 
flowers were the banksias — masses of S. t/raatti covered with their creamy 
Npikes, and lesser quantities of the smaller, more golden-Jlowcted Silver 
Rankjia (B r mnrginaia). There wen* clumps i«f Common Corrca (C rrflcx,i) 
ablaze with green-dipped crimson bells, and sprinklings of bluebells (Hfafafah 
bcrgia) and yellow tfuhiea-flovvers. These could not be missed as we passed 
in the truck, but more dowers were discovered when we stopped -some 
beard-heaths Cranberry Heath (Astrafmua humifusifm-), Flame Heath 
(Astraloma conosief'fwtiles), Shtckhousia. Pimvha spiithvhta, Lorwulra -and 
urass-trccs- Near ihc fihorr, of the lake was a dense, bushy MtlQlaitco (nor 
in bloom) and two or three fine Yellow Gums. 

On going down W the shores of the lake, we found that it was not a lake 
of salt water but of iu//— salt, a quarter of an inch thick with black mud 
Mew. The smooth, gteaonne whiteness of its .surface was broken by the 
tracks of an ennu 

Kioto Lewon SoiKtuo'y 

Alter lunch we returned to the parked cars in the sanctuary, and Mr 
TTately led us to a nesting' mound of the Lowan or Malice J ? owL The mound 
o( sand wan about ten feet hO'oss, about three feet high and was hollowed 
in the centre. The nesting season was over so the mound was no longer in 
use, but, digging gently *n the depressed centre of the mound, Mr. (lately 
unearthed two eggs, each about three inches long, One. Mr. Hatety declared, 
was addled, and he doubted if the other would hatch so late in the ttdscffl, 
hut he replaced rhem both, larger end up as he had found thein, iU*. Hatel>, 
who has spent weeks in a bide-out near a nesting mound, gave us a most 
interesting accoum oi the Lowan's Hie and habits. Later, he took us to a 
larger ne*t that lias betri recorded as being m regular use «nce 190:) aguj* t-har 
evening, we saw the remarkable photographs he has takerj of the l.owan aL 
the mound. 



Tunc 1 
1957 J 



Lts-rek, Etisti'T Extvrswu to Divthvoto ' 27 



Retnrmnn again to the |>arK:ed cars. W& found a most sumptuous afternoon 
tea awaiting us. Before going back to Di rubeola we had only a short time m 
which to note the differences between lift vegetation in the saueutary and 
that of the Little Desert proper, litre was a small .-frjrtVr, grown in some 
quantit), but it <s very localized in irs distribution ami \s uncommon elsewhere ; 
Oinv were Murray Piles {CotUtrh'), another Melaleuca and Brti5.l1 Heath 
(&racti$lonui encoides), 

lit the evening, after a hurried men), we all wont 10 die general meeting -of 
rhe Wimmera Club at ibe ihirc hall in Dimboofa. When the OnlVs business 
was completed. Mr. Hank* showed slides and gave an address on the btsiutjefc 
of our i;uiii trees. Supper concluded the meeting, 

On Saturday the Wimmeta carsi assemble*! again and took us 10 "Mr. 
Difficult at trie itorth-we.stern edge of the Grampian^!. We were delighted 
with the number 6l plants, which were m ttower . everything that was in the 
deceit was there— bigger, bcfTCf and a lot more besides. As well as the 
hanks ias, guinea ftawttrs, hesrd heaths, etc., there weic two species of 
Lt'ptospi'rt'iiiin io b'oom, !<<ts ol tittle bailies of Hie liriuht grron Pine llraiVi 
(Aih^'fouut plmfoUuin) with its yellow, green-tipped upright hells, fSaecfcca 
cvas$iidtia with many tuiy. laveuder-pink flowers. Epatria ivifncssti, the. ijrWPrt- 
helled C 'jru-'t twntuht. AMft|r»il Grwl«>xJ i.Ptfi ustylij rV|wf)tfaJ, (. vfiyoswo. 
Golden Everlasting, txofiio. and a few flowers 00 Use- main bushes of 
Tbryptotncnc. By i*ompanv:»ii, we henan to think tViat fhft Little Desert £x a 
Jirrlc doertlflil 

lit the afternoon our cars took a meandering route through the bush south* 
wanK to some aboriginal drawings. The drawings aie in the shelter of over- 
hanging rocks, and the ^nvrnnnrnt has erected a bl&h wirr-rM-riin*r ferae To 
protect rhi'pt from vandals. 

That tiwtttg we were invited to the home or Mr and W*ft Muir in Dim- 
boola W-c admired Mr. Muu'r heyomaa (and ll'c extent.) ve hc4-JtO«<W l»c 
has umlt), then returned ro the house to see the slides of his South Australian 
trip and those ot Mr- liaaae ot various spots in New *South Wales and 
Victoria. Supper concluded o.nothet' full day, 

Mi'uni Arapiles 

On .Sunday morning we net out for Mt. Arapitcs; about 20 miles west of 
Horsham, It it of sandstone formation similar to that ot the Grampians, which 
ha* a Mecp, rii'^^ed eastern face which, rising' sharply from (lie plain, makes 
thi.s ranee look much higher than it really is. 

First we were Taken to a spot at the foot of the mountain where there were 
many Luishth of Fairy Wax flower (Eriastvmdn obrvahx), unfortunately with 
very mw blooms a* yet At this rather rocky '.«pol. to htm over a stone meant 
the revealing of a scorpion or some larj»e flat r.piders, and Tight among the 
corks was a lafire Ccttitotiua bearing both male and ienicde flowers. Nearby 
were many fair-inicd trciis of Golden Wattle with strangely )iale blossom. 

1'Jie car* then climbed a winding, narrow track amurur more pale-flowered 
Golden Wafftfs, past low rlumps of Cranberry Hcatli growing cm pebbly 
parts near the track (ihe mnutrous scarlet flowers less hidden l»y Foliage- than 
niual), to the parking space just below the fire-watchers' look-out on the top 
•>f Ml. Arapihev Here were more wax-ftowcrs and clumps ot the Rouud-lear 
Mint-bush (I'raxtanthcm rot tmdif alia) with just a few Lihic Moom> 

Mifre Rock 

In the aflecuoon we left Mt. Arapiles tor .Vlitre Rock, a precipitous lirtb* 
fragment which we had obWved Irom the look-Otrt. Mr. Muir led us to his 



.?* L££Tts. Easter Exturuttn to Dtmht>oia \?vt& *??" 

"rind" — the Skeleton Fork-fern, hanging -from crack? in rite uotth face of ill* 
Rock Some t.f 1hr platif wrrc a foot or mnrc Unitf, fjf a greyish rolodr-pjcccpt 
die 1 1 ranched cwiS which were quite a bright orange. Most of the plants 
were safely beyond the reach of any but a mountaineer, so this descendant 
Iron) d phmuive grOuri should survive tor sonic hint- 

On Lne Rock »vc bartktd our first specimen ot Weeding Pttlospurum iP. 
phillyrcaidt-s) ; H w£$ in fniir 

Thar rveniuK we relumed co "Horsham ro bob ilie flower slides q! \Tr. 
Croaker. He showed some splendid close-up shots of orchids, especially of 
the vary my form of the columns, Mr, HftQ&ft followed with views $ Tas- 
mania. I ike the other day?, this one ended with a very good supper, 

On Monday, members divided their interests. Some went Id the Wait 
i\u<sery to see the many native plants that arc *.uhivated 'here, and dtiicffi 
wandered nloufc the Wimmeia River which is fringed with picturesque old 
Kiver Red Gums. Kegret fully we left Oimbonta 50011 after noon. 

£ would like to express here our appreciation ot all that the member* of 
the Wimincra Llub did tor us: Hi wh*t musl -iave been considerable' expense 
to themselves llicy provided transport throughout the week-end, they took us 
or? the beaten track to placer- we could never have known without them, fhr.y 
passed an to 11$ then combined knowledge of the nature lore o( the locality, 
and they were hospitable to lh<\ extreme. Wc arc wry grateful for all their 
kiudneises and wuh the VV'inimera Club and its members continued enjoyment 
of the natural wealth amongst wlurh they Vvc. 



EXCURSION REPORT. LAL LAL AND MOORABOOL FALLS 

Thirty-one members and friends took |«Tl in the excursion to the Lai La) 
and Moorabool I* alls *o the southeast 01 ftallaraT on Sunday, March ?4 The 
liiu was mainly oi interest because of the respective gorges which have het-n 
cut by fcne two streams through the Newer Basalt deposits. The water tumbles 
over solid basalt rocks into these gorges ill almost vertical drops t>l from 
forty to fifty feet deep. The gorges are nked with picurestjue while gbms 
which surprise and please the visitor by their beauty and unexpected presence 
in what is- otherwise an area devoid 01 special iutCKSl 

Before reaching the Lai Lai Falls the party inspected a recent kaolin nuarry 
where ihe ntiaru crystals mixed wilh tne white clay indicated a .eianilic 
deposit- These granitic rocks were also unruvered wh-ve the stream had cut 
down to bedrock at the foot of the Moorabool FatU 

The fail* are located respectively on the Lai Lai Creek and \hc western 
branch <uf the Moorahool River. (.See Bfllfafl sh^et of Military Suivey- ) In 
parts, exploration demanded progress over the btokeu uides and bases oi the 
gorges and the leader teels he ha.-; earned a bad reputation for "scrub 
shoving". Those who ventured up to the \foorabool Falls (the Inl Lai Falls 
arc easily ncee-jsmle) were rewarded by vantage points on the far side Irorn 
which to view the actual drop over which a considerable amount of water wa> 
flowing- for this time of the year. 

On the return joarney a trip was made tu the look-out on Mt. Bt.mmyung 
where the recently improved road enaMed rhc bus to reach fhe top. The view 
over the whole o| the ttallarat district was much appreciated. 

Bird lover* remarked on the absence oi much bird life except for a Rock 
o» thites in the paddock? near T.a1 I.al. BouiiUtt ir-ay have found (be Imp 
laoVm# in intcrftt. hut the white fiitnt* on the ro.vls mid gorges probably 
satisfied the trse l&vers. 

— R G, Hbmmv. 



ftjg J 77u' £iafMrfrt Xuturattst 29 

RE THE SUNBURY MOUND 

[In yh'f. Nut. 7£: n7 (Sept. 1956), A A. Bruut.no published an article 
entitled "An Abunumal Burial Mound". Tht* fc*i followed in f*\e7. Nat, 73: 
112 (.Nov 1950) by a lettet from D. A. Casey in which he reported that his 
examination of the formation concerned suggested that it was a natural 
teaSure. The KiWcirunt A' at u raits t will not become, the medium far a iengthy 
controversy on thfa point, though any Bptt* data pertaining to it will be con* 
siderevi lor publication. A further statement ua= hem tcreivHil by us from 
Mi. ftrnnton, and of ft I lie follnwiua, major part is presented for eiders' 
'"on5Li1crati<-irt — Editor. I 

fn f-Vr Not. 73' 1T2 ( Vov. 1956), D. A. GafrCf indicate* thai the abo'-'eme^ 
never raised wounds over their dead. This, is contrary to the views of an early 

explorer. 

In 7/pv t > fSsped'tiotts ftjo tkl In'cnor o{ £<i.'tcnt .htztntHn, ed, 1 (183K), 
p. $2, Major Mitchell wTote* 

" \|iril i4 ( On this flat wo passed a newly raised tnmulvs. a mnarWdi 
circumstance, musidrrinn, '.he situation . for I ha<l unserved that the nances 
oi the Darling always selected thr higher ground ior burying in; and it 
might be presumed, that, on this part of the Lachlyii, the tribe 1 *vhoj»e marks 
were numerous ot\ the Irces > could find no heights within their territory." 

And on p. 53 the Majdr says: "Tt. struck ine that this gluten which they 
call Balyan, MUtst be the 'start <>f IJfe? to the tribes inhabiting these morasses, 
where tumuli and other truces of human beings were more abundant than 
at any other part of the .Lacl'.Un that 1 had visited." 

Then in 77ir Ahm 'ujinr* */ t'-icftnw 1: 105, tf rough Smyth say* "The 
fifravc is finally completed by raising over it a mound of earth, which is 
generally twelve or eighteen itlcrws in height, and about nine yards ill length. 
and six yards in width.'' 

On p. 110 ibere h an account ot a burial by the Lower Murray blacks wiikh 
was- witnessed hy Mr. T. M. tlu^han in IR5I. He says; "On the death of an 
igetl head man of a tribe, there gathered together near the grave very itrany 
mourners. The women, as is customary, burnt themselves wirh fire-sticks* and 
bowled dismally; and all the- proper rites having been per formed around the 
£rave r which was duty hi a sandhill having a gentle slope toward* the hank ftf 
the Tarn Creek, a mound was finally raised and smoothly coated with wet 
clay. Around the mound a ciicle of sjK'ars whs formed, and by each spear 
sat a warrior. Another set ot less prominent men *at in a utrclt each hy hi> 
spear. Around these, and at a little distance, and fitting further flpwti the 
womeii forn>ed an outer circle. Not a sound was heard from the rummer*. 
Sadly and patiently thty awaited an event which was to be fAUoCd by the 
fleicc sun ovethe.id. The heat was upptessive, but ml murmer arose iu the 
circle*. At lenprlh (he clay which covered the grave cracked, The old men 
drew nigh, and having ascertained tfw direction of the first main fiisore in 
the liryintf clay, they in<t-»;atcd the (Kith which the waniors were to tal<e in 
order to find the person who had practised ^ureeiy crll llieir <Ltajeaseii rcUhve. 
Theie, as elsewhere, it was the duty oi the avengers to brin$ back the Vidney 
fjtrof the first r^fl of attothet' tribe whom they might meet.' 

—A A Bhuktok- 

SOCK RIYIEWr 'BIRD WONdEAS Of AUSTRALIA" 

It w4^ ul VV3& tliat 1 hr;t read and enjoyed A. U. Chishohn's Ufrtf ii'otutw 
of Jitstralui, The book, written in his engaging style, was packed with bird 
Jore of a kind of which tew of us less enterprising field nfiftl&ljsla would 
have been aware had it Hot been gathered together into one U'holly enter- 
Uiriing and instructive hook- 



all The Victorian Naturalist Vol. 7-4 

Altliough I am scarcely a "birdman"., my enjoyment t*« f the book was of a 
kind confessed to by Keats when he. firs; looked into Chapman'* "Homer". 
The hook still ha.* a place on my shelves, although the. 1956 edition tempts 
me to substitute it tor the tajtt pretentious first edition. The fourth is well 
priotod, nicely hound and generously illustrated, The. one colour plate of the 
haricvjuin-plumaged Pitta, photographed by EJlSs McNamara, has special 
point ats an adornment, (or it is of a bud that few have seen, and even tewci 
would have the industry, patience and good fortune to catch it in «'n)our 

This new edition treats at greater length of topics which, in the thirties, 
were ornithological news but, in the rc-iclhnev they have lost nothing at their 
interest, the more so because, since thoie day?, the fund of bird lore ha> been 
constantly augmented and an abundance of the new knowledge has Found tt! 
way into the 1956 hook. 

Yes, it is a. book the field naturalist would be glad to possess, and others, 
not so inclined would he well pleased to read. 

Our copy front tht publishes. Aftgus & Robertson. Sydney. 236 pages, 
pifr a 5*pzge index The pricu, 27/6 

— J. Ro>. Gam net. 

WHAT. WHERE, AND WHEN 

F.N.C.V. Meeting 

Monday, June 10 -Presidential Address and Annual Reports. 

Monday, July 3 — '"Snowy River Valley. Victoria", by V, A, Wakefield, 
Illustrated with colour sliries. 

Mooday, August 12— Members' Photographic .Night Members are invited to 
suhrmt and give Iccturcttes on short series of slides pertaining to natural 
history. Sets of slides should be m the hands of Mr. F. Curtis £13 
"Mooomeith Avenue, Toorak* S.F.2) as soon as possible for selection. 

F-N.CV. Excursions: 

Saturday. June 2i— The Botany Group will hold a winter ramble through the 
Botanic Gardens. Meet £30 p.m. at gate nearest Herbarium. 

Sunday, July 7 — Lyrebird excursion to Sherbrooke. Leader. Mis? Tua 
WftfSOfl. Take 8.55 a.m. train to Upper Fertitree Gully then bug to 
Kallista. Bring one meal and a snack. 

Group Meetings r 

(B p.m. at National Herbarium, unless otherwise stated). 

Wednesday, June 19— Microscopical Group. Speaker: Mr. Barrett. Subject: 

The Diatoms of Port Phillip Bay. 
Saturday, June 29 — The Botany Group will meet at 2.30 p.m. in Mr. Lord's 

room at 514 Little Collins Street (between Km# and William Sti-eets) 

Speaker: Mr. A. J Swaby. Subject; Ferns. 
Monday, July 1— Entomology Slid Marine Biology Group. The meeting will 

he. in Mr. Strong's rooms in Parliament House at 8 p.m. Enter thfOOgH 

pnvate euUartce at south end of Parliament House. 
Wednesday, July 3— Geology Group. Subject J Ice AgifiJfc Speaker, Mr. R, 

TTcmmy. 

Preliminary Notice-. 

iriday. July 12 — Special Entomology excursion to the Museum. Mr. A. N. 
JWi&i Curator ui ln$eets. will be m charge of the party. Meet 7.45 ptro. 
at the main Russell Street entrance, 

Maude AixENnsR, Excursions Secretary 

19 Hawthorn Avenue, Caulfield. S.E 7 



The Victorian Naturalist 

V | 74— No. 3 JULY 4, 1957 No. 883 

PROCEEDINGS 

About -SO memhers and friends attended the Annual General 
Steeling held at the National Herbarium on June 10, 1957. The 
retiring President Mr. A. J. Swaby, chaired jfte meeting. 

The President gave a short address in which he stressed the rtcerl 
for greater scientific activity, and outlined a scheme for a Sub- 
committee of experts to inspire, research and assist in its advance- 
ment. He indicated I hat as ait fix ojficut member of Council, he would 
attempt to launch this scheme during the ensuing year. 

The seventy-sex tilth Annual Report til the Gult was iead by the 
Secretary, and the Frcasnrer's Report was presented by Mr F.vnn-- 
0J1 behalf uf Mr Hooke Consideration of the latter report was 
adjourned until rhis coming meeting w enable member* to Study it 
in print. BqtJi reports are published in this is.sur. together with 
comments on the finances of the Club. 

.Since there were no excess nominations for office-bearers tor the 
year 3957-8, no election was held and the following were appointed 
to the various offices : Drs. R, M. Wislwt and W Ge.roe, Vice- 
Presidents; Mr. K. Jrl. Coghill, Hotiorary Secretary. Mrs. F. Cur- 
11$, Honorary Assistant Secretary; Mr. A- C. Hookc. Honorary 
Treasurer; Misg M. Butrhart, Honorary Assistant Treasurer; Mr. 
A. B. Court, Honorary F.ditor; Mr, N. A. Wakefield, Honorary 
Assistant Kditor; Mr. A. Burke, Honorary Librarian; Mr. Allen. 
Honorary Assistant Librarian ; Miss M. AUender, Honorary Excur- 
sions Secretary; and Miss M. llldcr, and Messrs. f. R. Garnet, F. 
Curtis, D. McJnnes and U. Haase, Council members. Mr. W. L. 
Williams who was the only nominee for the oHice of President, 
declined the position. Tfje matter reverted to the Council in accor- 
dance with the Articles of. Association and at a Special Meeting held 
after the General Meeting, Mr. J. R. Garnet was elected to that 
office. Mr. R. B. Jcunison, who was nominated as a member of the 
Council, declined office, and the election of Mr. Garnet to the office 
of President left a vacancy on the Council which ii is hoped to fill 
ar the next meeting. Mr K\ans was reappointed us Honorjiv 
Auditor, 

The following were elected as members of the Chib J Mr, W. J, I.. 
McCully. Glen Iris (Ordinary); Mr. R. \ J . Di.\on ( North Bahvjn 
(Ordinary) ! Miss-G. M. Davies, Dunboola (Country) ; Thomas C. 
Lawicr. Pnrepunkah (Junior). 

Miss M f Hkler moved that the Annual Subscription be increased 
».<j £5, but (his matter wa> adjourned until the next General Meeting 
because of the lateness ot the hour. A summary of the memorandum 
presented hv Miss F.lder is given hetow. 

31 



iU rronafutas l Vol 7t 

Mr. Swaby mentioned that he had been informed thai an cxeu*- 
MOM of some 700 mile through parrs of the best witdtfower country 
in Western Australia would be held during" next spring, The in- 
clusive cost tram [Perth to Perth would be £25. 

Miss Woollard showed some veiy tnrcresting slides of West Aus- 
tralian floia, especially Slylidium spp, {'I. rigger plants). Some 
slides of the White-pared Honeycatcr were shown hy Mr. Frank 
Puk hen. 

SEVENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL REPORT, 1956-7 

During the year membership has declined slightly J there are now 
309 Metropolitan, 150 Country, 19 Junior, 21 Honorary and 4 Lite 
Members, making a total of 503 compared with 546 for last year. 
Honorary membership was conferred on the Treasurer, Wt A. G- 
Hookc, the Editor, Mr. N. A. Wakefield, Mr. A. U ScOtt and Mr. 
A. W. Jessep. Among members who passed away during the year 
were Rev, H M R, Rupp and Messrs, 'V- R Henderson, F Cud- 
mote, F. Lewis and A, S. Chalk. 

The Club adopted a policy of greater scientific activity <md cit- 
ClAttt were sent to kindred .societies inviting theiu to afliliale with 
us and eucouraging replies were received from them. In particular 
the Ballarat, Bendigo, Colae, Creswick and VVitrimera Field Natural- 
ists Clubs applied for affiliation and were accepted at the May 
General Meermg. In addition, the Beaumaris tree Preservation 
Society enrolled as a subscriber to The yicf-arian Naturalist. The 
Gould League of Hird Lovers also enrolled and has expressed its 
desire to co-operate with us, and at present we are trying to arrange 
a joint exhibition during next year's Moomba Festival with them. 

A long series of discussions on finance took place throughout the 
\ear, and rhe Club now has a General Fund a Building Fund and a 
Publications Fund. It is hoped that this specialisation of functions 
will lead to greater efficiency. 

Many Club publications were sold during the year. The Educa- 
tion Department purchased n large number of copies of Ferns of 
Victoria mid Tastnatna'Axxd the balance of V'ictarlan Toadstools and 
Mushrooms, As more copies 6l the latter were required, a .second 
edition was sent to press and this has now been published. 

The Victorian Naturntist was published as usual. It was the 
medium for the publication of numerous articles dealing with 
systematic botany and many of these articles were financed by the 
Gibson Trust. They are intended as precursors for the forthcoming 
Victorian Mora. 

The Club has been fortunate fit having a number of interesting 
lectures of high standard and our thanks are extended to the lec- 
turers. An outstanding lectin e was that of the retiring President, 



^] $totn&Mr*fh Awwi fUptnh iPhfci 33 

Mr Tarllon Rayment, mentioned in last year's report. Among the. 
othei lectures presented wcrr "Poisonous Australian Spiders" de- 
livered by Dr. Weiner, 'Aiuatciie Birds and Seals" (Mr. Bechcr- 
vaise), Port Campbell Cuast-lnic" {Dr. Baker), ^tfotomfte* 3 (Dr. 
Chnsi^nsen ).and ''Queensland Tropical Jungles" (Mrs. Messmer). 
I hanki> arc extended also to the many exhibitors who made Mem 
l>ers' Night such a success. 

During the year the Club held a naime show ai the Prahran Town 
Half, constructed a Nature Trail at the Cohn Mackenzie Sanctuary, 
and took pan in The wildflowcr draMay given by the Bank of Xiw 
.Soutii Wales as well as supporting other {mictions. <_>ui Past 
President, Mr. Tar Hon Rayment, was largely responsible tor the 
setting up of the wild flower display mentioned above. 

The study groups remained very active during the year, and a 
new one was introduced into die Club — the Entomology i\u<\ Marine 
Biology Group. 

The members of the Miooseopieal Group ieport ihat they area 
happy and industrious hod v. They have been lcJ by Mr. Mclrmes 
with Mr, Snell as the Group Secretary and have shown How then 
speciality serves the l>orani.st, geologist, zoologist, metallurgist and 
other scientists. They have also held discussions on The technical 
aspects of their own speciality. 

The Geology Group, of which Mr, A. A Baker is Secretary, 
continued to hold regular meeting and excursions. Mr. Baker 
reports Ihat the Group fimls colour photography an ideal method 
of portraying and holding interest hi its studies. 

Many interesting and informative subjects were discussed at 
Botany Group meetings during the year. Subjects discussed in- 
cluded "Carnivorous Plants'', Leaf -fall", "Plant Movement", 
"Acacias", "Dispersal of Fruits", "Plant Ecology*', "Heathland 
Flora", '"West Australian Wildflowers", and "Trees of the P-n 
Phillip Area' 1 . The- speakers on the above subject were Mr K. 
Atkins, Miss V. Baalam, Mr. ilaase, Miss Dixon, and Mr. W. I. 
Williams. Mrs. Messmer was guest speaker at the February meet- 
ing at which she showed beautiful slides of native plants. The Botany 
Gtoup lost the set vices of Mil Atkins as Secretary and principal 
speaker., but Miss Dixon carried on the role of Secretary until Miss 
Alleiwlcr took over this position. 

Several meetings have already been held by the new Entomology 
and Marine Biology Group which meets in Mr Strong's rooms in 
Parliament House. Kxottrsions have been held lo Sorrento and 
Seaholme, and Mrs. Frcaiue's collection of Marine Biology articles 
has been inspected. Mr. Strong is acting us Secretary and leader of 
ibis group. 

J hiuy-one excursions have been held by <he Club during tbc year 
and the average attendance has beeu about twenty members Many 



places of interest were visited and various- phases of natural history 
were studied. Two big excursions were the highlights of the year. 
Tbe first, during the first week-end in November, was ro BendigO 
at the invitation of the Bcndigo F.N\C Twenty-five members of our 
Club visited Eaglehawk, Sandy Creek and the Whipstick Scrub 
The second big excursion was 10 Dnnhoola during Easter, Members 
of the Wimmcra F.N.C. showed Iwenty-one of our members ;is 
much of the district as possible. They visited manv places of interest, 
including Mount Arapiles, Mitre Rock, Little Desert, Salt Lake, 
the Lowau Sanctuary and the northern end of die Grampian*. 

There have been several changes in the Council since the last 
Annual Meeting, As foreshadowed ar that meeting, Mr. E. K. Cog- 
hill accepted the post of Honorary Secretary. Mr. Curtis was ac- 
cepted as a member of the Council. Mr. Wakefield resigned as 
Honorary Editor owing to pressure of personal business and his 
place was taken by Mr. A. B. Court, whom we wash well in his new 
office. However, Air. Wakefield is acting ;i* Honorary Assistant 
Kditor. Mr. Atkins, who has rendered valuable service to the CUd> 
itsell and to the Botany Group a? Secretary, has found it necessary 
to relinquish his duties to further his .studies. However, he will be 
fnntinuiufc as Sales Officer. Mr. Lee, the Honorary Assistant 
Librarian, has found it necessary to withdraw from Council, lie has 
rendered Stirling service to the Club behind the scenes and will be 
missed very much. 

.Finally, before dosing tin* report, sincere thanks arc extended 
to those persons who made it possible for us to use the National 
Herbarium as our meeting place. We have approached the Trustees 
of the proposed Cultural Centre, seeking accommodation there when 
it i* built., but wirhout success. An approach is also being made to 
the Museum Trustees 

On behalf ot the Council, 

E. 11. Coc.KiLi., Hon. Secretary. 

ANNUAL ACCOUNTS, 1956-7 

GENERAL ACCOUNT, The total expenses for the year were 
£ 1,050 and income amounted to £1,012. This left a deficit of £38 for 
the vear. Subscriptions, which came 10 i857. were £51 less than the 
pievions year, and other items of ordinary income, totalling £35, 
were L12 less. However, this year there was a special donation of 
il20 [roni the M_ M_ Gibson Trust towards the cost ot certain 
special issues of The Victorian Naturalist, 

The Victoritvn Naturalist cost ±921 to produce and ibis was -4142 
more than the previous vear. This increase was due mainly to the 
cost of producing the special issues mentioned above- 
Working expenses of i 1 29 were £1S more than last >car 



ft will he necessary to exercise cart* during the present year to 
make ends meet, at least in the General Account 

U A LANCE SHF.KT F wish to mention the following* points in 
connection with the Balance Sheet. 

On the assets side, the principal items are the investments ut' the 
three special funds amounting" to £2,084, including stocks of hooks 
now carried in the new Publications Fund, and the item covering the 
library, furniture and general equipment for £1,522. The balance 
in the General Account was £258. 

( >n the Liabilities side, the Building Fund and ibe new 1\;hhea- 
cions Fund now stand at £1,398 and £636 ( including ibe value* of 
tlie stock of publications) respectively. These am*nn its were deter 
mined at the May General Meeting. 

The surplus of assets over liabilities now appeal* .is a lower 
figure than before. This i. ; ; due to the honk stocks, which were 
shown previously as separate assets, and now held 'is pBrf of the 
Publications Fnnd, following the resolution made at the May 
General Meeting. 

FJ£KN BOOK ACCOUNT AND FUNGI BOOK- The Fern 
Book Account shows a credit balance 61 £229 for the year, follow- 
ing sale? of 1,688 copies of the book for £545. The Education De 
parmicnt ordered 1,140 copies and the other 248 were sold else- 
where. The remaining 2,S41 copies now held are brought into 
account at cost (4S$3jm 

The other major puhlicacion, i' r irtorian Tcxidsin-nts oud Mush- 
rooms, is not mentioned iu the account themselves as the last copies 
, of the old edition were sold during the year. The new (second) 
edition has jnst been published and is now available for distribution. 

OTHER MATTERS. There are three other matters which I 
desire, to mention. 

I, An arrangement has been made with Ihe E. S. & A. Bank 
Muich will allow interest at 2$ per cent on money ill the Club's ac- 
counts, and this should increase income by a few pounds each year. 
WE have to thank Mr. Garnet for making the suggestion leading to 
thi* arrangement. This only applies* to money which the Club does 
nor desire to invest in Commonwealth Loans 

2 The General Batik Account is the Clulrs working capital and 
over the last twelve mouths this has fallen hy about £80 1 feel thai 
any reduction below Ibis gear's figure of £258 must be avoided if 
possible and that it must be knit up again — it is the only source 
itooi which money may be drawn to purchase new assets from time 
10 time. 

3. The Finance Committee should meet regularlv and advise the 
Club on financial affairs of all kinds. 

On behalf of the Council. 

A. G. Hookk, Hon. Treasurer. 



FIELD NATURALISTS CLUB OF VICTORIA 
STATEMENT OP RECEIPTS AND PAYMENTS FOR 12 MONTHS ENDED APRIL 30, 1057 

(Figures adjusted to nearest £) 



3 



GENERAL ACCOUNT 



RECEIPTS 



Subscriptions received- 

Arrexpft 

Current . . . ,„ 

Life Members . . 



Sales of Victorian >\ r aturnli$t . . 
Advertisements in Naturalist , . 
Interest received — Library Fund 
Donations received 



Total Receipts for the Year .. ., 

Excess Payments over Receipts for the V'ear 



£44 

804 

9 



m? 

20 

12 

2 

121 

Mtf2 

38 



EXPENDITURE 

Victorian Naturalist — 

Printing , £752 

Illustrating . 90 

Dispatching . . . , , ...... i 79 

Working- Expenses — 

Postage and Telephone ....... ...... £39 

Printing and Stationery 14 

Duplicating 41 

General Expenses ; 30 

Library 3 

Subscriptions, Donations and Affiliation Fees 2 



£921 



129 



i 1.050 



£1,050 









BALANCE SHEET AT APRIL 30, 1*5? 



LIABILITIES 

Special Funds — 

Building Fund 

Publications Fund 

Library Fund ..,-.... 



Subscriptions paid in Advance — 

Ordinary t . . , . , . 

Life Membership . . , , _ , , . . 

Excursion Account , s 

Special Donations in Hand (Screen 1 

Sundry Creditors ; 

Surplus of Assets over Liabilities . r 




-"und) 



mm 



\2& 

20 

69 

1,572 



£3,979 



ASSETS 

Bank Current Accounts — 

E. S. & A Bank— General A/c. . - 
State Savings Bank — Life Members 



A/c. 



Publications Fund — 

Stock of ) 7 (:vn Bo'f^ks at cost 

Stock of Other Books at cost .. t h - . .. , 
E. S. & A- ttgnfe — No. S Account 

Dudley Best Library Fund — 

Commonwealth Bonds, face value .. .. ;. , 
Library, Furniture, Microscopes. Epidiascope. 

Paintings, and other Equipment . . . . . r . . 



£25% 
12 



Slock of Badges r , * m 

Arrears of Subscriptions, estimated to realize ., .- 

Deposit on Hall for Show, J957 

Investment of Funds — 
Building Fund — 

Commonwealth Bonds, face value £950 

E. S, & A. Bank— Ko. 2 Account 44$ 



£270 
41 
50 
12 



18 
85 



1.308 

636 

50 

1,522 

£3,979 






Audited and found correct, 

W. P. J. EVANS. Hon. Auditor 



A. G- HOOKE. Hair Treasurer. 



38 The t'utorion XatuMlist Vol. 74 

FERN" BOOK ACCOUNT 



To Stock on hand at 
1/5/36 at cost— 

4,507 copies 
„ Purchases at cost — 
22 copies 

4,539 
„ Credit Balance . . . . 


E , i845 | 

i 

4 j 
849 I 


By 


Sales-^ 

1.688 copies 
Slock on Hand at 
30/4/57 at cost 
(3/9)- 
2,841 copies . . 

4,529 


. . i545 
.. 533 






*1,G78 \ 


£1,078 













flELD NATURALISTS CLUB, BENDIGO 

The following information concerning: office-bearers, meetings and excur- 
sion* to I>ecentber 1957. has been received from the Secretary ; 
Office-beorei-s: 

President: Miss E. Flanagan. 1_ Violet Street, Betidigo. 
Secretary '• Mr, A. C. Ebdou. 45 Lttf.au Street, Bendigo. 
Treasurer: .Mr, J. Ipscn, Bayne Street. Bendigo. 
Librarian: Mr. J. Kellam, 7 Patrick Street, Bendigo. 

Meetings: 

(Commencing at 7.45 p.m. at School of Mines, second Wednesday in the 

month.) 
July 10 — Subject: New Zealand Travel Talk. Speaker Miss \l Patterson. 
August 7— Committee Meeting. 
August 1^ — Botany (Mr. J. Kellam). 
September 11— Annual Meeting, address by ex-Presidem. 
October 9 — History of Whipstiek (Mr. VV. Perry). 
November 6— Committee Meeting, 
November 13— Birds (Mr. R. Eddy). 
December II— Open, talks and specimens. 
Excursions: 

(Commencing: from Gold Jubilee Statue, 10 a.m. t'or lull day and 2 p.m. 
for half -day excursions). 

Sunday, July 21 (full day)— Locality : Ridge Road, Taradale. Subject: 

Botany. Leader: Mr. R. Allen, 
Saturday, August 17 (half-dav) —Sedgwick, botany (Mr. G. Marshall and 

Mr. C Wilkins). 
Sunday. September H (halfway) — Skylark Culley, botany (Miss E. 

Flanagan) 
Sunday. September 22 (full day) — Wedderburn, botany ('Mr. J. Ipsen) 
Sunday. October 13 (full day)— Whip-stick, botany ( Mr W. Perry). 
Sunday, October 27 ffiill day)— Mitiamo. botany and general (Mr. J. 

Kellam). 
Sunday. November 10 (lull day) — Mt. Tarrengowcr, Maldon, general (Mr. 

A. EbdonK 
November 16 and 17 (week-end) — Woori Yallock with F.N.C.V., birds and 

general (Mr. E. Hanks). 
Saturday, December 14 (halt-rjay) — Meadow Park, birds (Mr. R. All&i). 



*$] The Vuitriaw NotnxttUt & 

MOUNT DULLER EXCURSION 

tCtu<'srmos i9S5— New Yeot 19561 

By KL W '\TKiKs 

/'lie <ire»fy Christmas ftffA of 1955 wiU be remembi red !>;• iftifal a'Wl 

nu\ed feelings, hut to sixteen F.N\C.V. member* who vjsjtvcI Motuu Jiuller. 
its mentory is a standard Wgamst. which the success of future Club excursion-: 
will be >udt'ed. The stay ai the Ivor Wbht^ker Memorial l-<»d>fc "'*^ l>Hn1c 
most cninfoiuble- and enjoyable by the genial hospitality of Air. and Mis. 
Harold Cumnungs. 

The party left Melbourne by motor coach o)i Tuesday, DeccmbiT &?- A> 
way was fftiftk along the Delaiile valley t rwiin ManvrWM. hope* fell, tor 
*\virlin£ hums hid the Roller massif, and the ascent to the chalet Wtfti 
made in dense kg, 

Qjll WedilodRy morning member* strolled QUI in fcp* drifting' ftiwfa x-ei 
hupen the surroundings. The number of .ski lodge:, amid tb<: Snow GtfTiVi 
Mirptiseo* ftfOiffl, *ikI though Hie gruvtih uf this alphv -ullage lUa "hern 
crjlictaeri ;rotu the point of view of flora preservation, u became oh*."" - 
later thnl it ii tin: M-uorner eraxiiuj. I>y cattle tint Iih.^ devastated the atra 
;iih1 caused the spread i>f such alien-, as .sorrel and dover. 

The mist*; rose on TUmsnay ami revealed the splendid oannrania of uocalv-.I 
muses 'and roundeu jhifflttntSL The Chalet ii amongst Snow Bums undo: 
•jehjeh «i'o\v many smaller plants. AjUflU uustnifis and IVahfrnbcri/ut rnur 
Miiiths contributed Ifwil Mves, Gtiinfouta hviirHirtui bore bright onuii»'e Max- 
soms. iWttl i J nhinlhi-ro n;icrnf>hyHir was more colourful there than in the 
lowlands Notable amongst Ihfl granitic rocks WCW Gfr-i'iUca vkiorinr, a tall 
and handsome shrub, and superb specimens at the whitc-flowwed oredtid, 
Caladcr.ta lyalht. 

Hnwit duller, 5,yil lee.l high, js part of the jtfrtiil running westward iron: 
Modnt Howitt (o Timbertop or Warrambat, 14 miles further on. It in a 
bold peak, small hi area, and it contrasts strongly with fBcrtd other mountains 
of the Victorian Alps as it retain* none of tlia extensive tableland cut of 
which these were carved. 

Above the tree-line, beyond the Qiylvt, toward? the summit of Bullcr, 
the sieves were covered with Snow Grass, in tussocks so den^c and re^ilinnt 
l\ut rt member M^^ested rei>i*mt»lfi it "imier-Hnrm^ ffr^Si. Here and there 
wa^ shelter for Ranunculus (apfttCtPifx ami A\ r//oiHwmo, the letter, a pre- 
^■CKH'r- member <lf iim rdi'inv flora, buying lintslnd Otnvfriii^, In both w*it 
4inl dry sjmts, the sweetly'scenred (jityUHWl iiustraltisira j*rew in matv. and 
tTWtbnft anmnysi rhe glass was Pimclcu crlpuw. a tiny pftrt will*, compact 
red and white flowerheodi re.seinlilin^ Victorian po-vics. The matted r/tffflwiVu 
tsrfvlltiofui sent op ivx suv.tll S|fi$<j| of blue flown r*;, 6ud in Wet dei>resMour- 
BTtnv Caw* (ipprvssa with dry khaki -coloured leave* thru rustled tike taffeta 
when disturbed. 

Ahnve the old ski hut on the Onrlbvin slopes, spring* and £0%KS feed •* 
iphajjnum swamp. Here oFvextrpiti nivnt hears its scariet fru;ts in season, and 
Ihc rare snow- wort, DtplospLv Itytltttcofyitf, may he found M oiic searches vii 
I'.anris and knees. As well, this hog is a favoured home ior many interest iiip. 
p^Ulfii IjcHrhry.iUUi Uofjkeri, 4sWii$ ofptM, Lycopti<ttutti ■ ftifhQvitiinu, )t*cftw 
:xwt*n$Hftt, Epiuris brcinfiora, Hyflohnui lateriflora, iipil&bium, and otheTfc. 

The slope towards the crest was a patchwork of shrubbery, Hovea hucjijntia. 
about to flower, was dressed in purple and brown, there were ucres of sjlvery 
O.rylohiuin o}/>cstrc, and amid Lumbled heaps of boulders grew pielvuet^ue 
plants of Pociacarpus alphia. Above all, on the summit, 1 1 jo Forests Comtmv 
sioii lookout struck a note o) mconjmhiy; it has been drsenl^d as "reseinW-iMi; 
a temporary* soft drink kiosk". 



40 Atkins. Ajutw& Bulla- tinurshw \ vliiT 

The .steep norto- western slope i* a natural fock garden equal to anything 
flic sees in a glo*sy English garden magazine. It has a brilliant array cu 
WtWunyw- sfMfolta, the golden Phcbcrliwu phyitaloltuut, yellow spikes of 
Hulhiue huJItoso, hriyht grceu mats u\~ Sclrranthiu biflonts. shrubby Ur/ttt^s 
hmzeahUti, Scnecio pectnu\inx, Banked rantostss'nna espuher-tashion over the 
locks, f'ivht- betonh'ifvlitt- nestling deep down in the crevices, and the honey- 
sweet Grcvilltui tuixtmlis. Rut most glorious of all were the scattered clumps 
Of Euphritsta, with (lowers o( every shade of lilac-mauve. 

Where loose rock debris accumulates on the steep south-western slope the 
striking 4cipltylfa ffhcUiUs was encountered. With its disserted leaver and 
•itout umbels ol creamy flowers, it is among the finest oi Australian montane 
plants, 

Thursday afternoon way Hie longest period without mist or rain, Lt vva*. 
pleasant fr> sit in the warmth of the sun, as BflgOUg moths fluttered about and 
idle skinks scuttled fearlessly here and there, The formation of the lfastetn 
Highlands could be appreciated. River action has dee-ply dissected thi* uplifted 
plateau into valleys overlooked by miwnuit; precipe*, and beetling blulrs. and 
round the horizon one could recagr.i^e Buffalo, Cobbler, Feathcrtop, Stirling, 
Howitt, Srtowy Plains. Magdala, Buw-Baw, and other indistinct mountains 
fading- into haze and clnud. 

As Friday morning gave promise of fine weather, the party r-et nut atony 
the south-western ridge towards WarrambaL Bur grim cloud* ^athcied, log 
settled down. Snow Gums became grey shadows as the storm struck. Jteturu 
was made to the haven of the Chalet, through stinging ltai(, sjep.r din 1 . r,\M 
By Sunday the storm bad abated, but the vegetation was snowed over; only 
an occasional buttercup flower showed through. TradttionaUy. there- ^tiould 
nave been robins with scarlet breasts, but it was Crimson Rosellas that 
chattered in the fog and c-arue down, in their red vests and blue coals, ior the 
household scraps scattered on the snow. 

Despite the inclement weather, the party voted the excursion well worth 
■•v'mh., and were sorry tu have to depart on the Monday morning. 

Rv.,-T.«rNC»N& 

Suttuu. C. S. fl907). "A Botanist at Mount duller." &ich Afa/. 23 fl&l : 

175-k30. 
Willis. T H. 1 itt&J -Amone Alpine Flowers." f'rrr. Mat. 6Z (M}\ 132-140. 
Wqk-eMcl, N A. (1950). "Baron von Mueller'* Victorian Akps." Ktc/. AV. 

66 (9) 163-lAft. 
U95.V*. ' Mount FlulkT ? Botanical Centurv.'* ffiff Vnr 0V ;iV/: 

156-1-58. 
n<ch P. I1953J "Vivittn Mount IMIer/' Phi. AW. m {U)\ ISft-l.i2 



SUMMARY OF MEMORANDUM CONCERNING PROPOSED 
INCREASE IN CLUB FEES 

W&A M- Elder amplified the suggestion tentatively made in her Notice ot 
ifintt--in concerning" die need {or closer attention to the aims pf the dub. These 
r.iitis are clearly set out H the h*vid of the front inside cover of this journal, 
and members, should know them. She also proposed rhat the Annual Suh.vcrip- 
tfoft should be raised to £5, and money allocated irons this- sum tor the follow-* 
ing purpose-*; (11 production ut a buyer Nyttufttlisi uirti a properly laUnctd 
arrangement of scientific and general articles, (2) r.reservation uf Tauna and 
flora OS Australia, with particular attention to that of Victoria- (3) cir- 
culation of knowledge concerning natural history by pubhcaunnfr and pamplv 
Wls. and (4) allocation of some money to the Club's Building. Fund. 



July 

U»57 



J 7 lir I'ntor'mn Xaturalixt 41 



THE NATIVE WATER WELL AT WHROO, GOULBURN 

VALLEY 

Hv A. Massola* 

Ab<»m eight years ago. Mr, H. S. Parris 1 was puzzled about the 
significance of the English equivalent lor the aboriginal name of 
W'hroo when he was carrying out his researches into the history ot 
the fjoulburn Valley. He consulted Tlic .htstralian Race ( K. M 
C'urr), and found that W'hroo was a variant of W'oorro. a word 
i^ed by local natives, the Tauugurong, whose language was knowti 
to early writers { Cnrr inckuled). as the Xgooraialum. Parris found 
that W'oorro meant "mouth*" in this language, but he was puzzled 
by this unexpected meaning and continued hi* researches. Later. 
Miss K. Lewis of lilackburn and Mr. Le Roy of W'hroo informed 
him that there was a water-hole, formerly frequented by the native*, 
somewhere on a low hill known as Spring Hill to the diggers, and 
near the township of W'hroo. 1 le searched for tin's water-hole in the 
company of Mr. A. II. Perrv of Bailiestown and located it. llw* 
the mvstcrv ot the meaning of the name "mouth" was solved to hi> 
satisfaction. 

During a recent visit to the site of the former Aboriginal Pro- 
tectorate of the Goulburn. established bv James Dredge in 1K3 ( >, 
the writer was fortunate in having Mr. Parris for a companion arte! 
guide. A visit to the water-hole was suggested, and as well imagined. 
was readily accepted. 

For those who are nut familiar with the district, it may he men- 
tioned here that W'hroo no longer exists as a town, although it is 
on the map, This famous mining town once had a population of over 
twelve thousand, but only the ruins of a church, a cemetery of 340 
graves, and evidence of mining activities remain. The forest is re- 
clothing the hungry and clayey soil which had been cleared by the 
diggers. It is dense and low. in spite of the lack of water. All signs 
of human occupation are gone with one exception: Mr. Harry 
Petti fer lives there with Mrs. Le Rov who is his sister. They have 
arranged to leave the place for more congenial surroundings and 
then W'hroo will go back to nature. 

The scrub was so dense that it was necessary to enlist the aid of 
Mr. Pettifer to find the cemetery, but he did not know the where- 
abouts of the water-hole. We had no trouble in this respect, as Spring 
Hill is not more than 300 yards south-east from the cemetery, and 
the water-hole was found to be just over the summit, on the south- 
eastern slope of the hill. At this point an outcrop of micaceous sand- 
stone approximately 12 x 8 feet, emerges from the soiL On this out- 
crop an oval hole about 15 inches long and 10 inches wide has been 
sunk to a depth of about 3 feet. It is possible that it may have been 
deeper, but the bottom was covered with loose pieces of rock which 

* tiii.it* n" r j t AnthrujHjIii#y. X\'itinn:il Museum of Victorki, 



42 



Massola, Xutkr Water Well at Whroo 



TVict Nat. 
L Vol. 74 



have fallen in from time to time. Xo doubt this hole was kept clean 
hy the natives who used it, and possibly it was only a slot-shaped 
crevice. It was probably enlarged by the diggers so that they could 
immerse their billies. Native water-holes always have a small aper- 
, ture so that they could protect them against pollution by animals 
and debris, and also against loss of water by evaporation. Animals 




The '"mouth" at YYhroo. 



I'hoto by H. S. Purris 



are still using this well, as we saw abundant signs of kangaroos close 
to it. At the time of our visit (the middle of May) the well was full 
of water, although (according to Mr. Pettifer) no worth-while rain 
had fallen since the day before the opening of the Olympic Games 
in Melbourne (November 22. 1956). No doubt this well was fed 
by ground water percolating through innumerable crevices formed 
by the weathering of the sandstone of which this rock was composed. 
Water also collected from the surface and ran straight into the 
mouth, the north-east corner of which had been worn smooth hy 
the flow of water. The general formation of the ground indicated 
that a channel had been cut from a point near the summit of the hill 
to this corner of the mouth. A second hole (obviously not due to 
natural causes), had been started on the western side of same 
outcrop, but it was only a few inches dee]) and contained no water. 
The water-hole at Whroo is convenient!}' situated on the route 
which the aborigines must have followed between Reedy Lake and 



JulyT 



Massola, Nativtr Water Well ot Wirroo 



«l 



l-ake Coo]>er r As Mr, Patris lias suggested to the present wruer, 
tills route would have passed by the Fenced-in Water-hole, the 
"mouth 1 ' at Whroo, the Waranga Swamp (now a reservoir), and 
then on to Lake Cooper The name ''Fenced-in Water-hole 7 ' is given 
to a natural deep hole on Hack Creek and kept fenced to prevent 
sh©pfi falling iiuo it, When surface water was available, a variant 
of this route would strike across the Tatnra Plains after leaving 



$CAL£ 

9 t 




Locality Map* 



Drawn by A. Neboiss 



Whroo, and reach the Goulburn River (the Waariug of the natives) 
in the vicinity of its junction with Muddy Creek (called Pranjip). 
It would have been dangerous for the natives to go much further 
north because they would run into the territory of the Joti-jota, a 
Murray Rrver tribe with whom they were at enmity. 

The plan of this series of water-holes is very similar to those at 
Maryborough 2 . The local tribe was called the Taungurong and also 
Qorallhi, Noorilim. Ooriallum and Hutherahaluk, as well as other 
appellations. However, it seems certain thai the first mentioned was 
the true tribal name, and that the others were names of local hordes 
or groups. They belonged to the same ''nation" as the Maryborough 
natives, the Jajautung. The component trif>cs of this "nation", 
known as the Kulin, were in close contact with each other, and 
exchanged manufactured products, as well as sisters and daughters 
for wives. Therefore there must have been innumerable "trade 
routes" or pads crossing the country in all directions. Naturally the 
routes passed watering places at convenient intervals, hut where 
there were no natural water-holes available, artificial ones w ere made 



or adapted if the «. otifi^uvation of the terrain permitted. Proof of t.Kis 
trafficking amongst tne trills was found at Reedy Lake-:, Major 
W. J- Day, who pwna a fine property adjoining the timber reserve 
there, possesses a number of stone artifacts collected at various 
times from sand dunes overlooking it, He has, amongst other 
implements, ground-edged axes which came unmistakably from Mr. 
William, near Kilvnore, and others which undoubtedly came from 
the Western District. How did these reach the Tatmgnrong.?? Only 
the discovery of more water-holes marking the "trade routes" will 
furnish the answer. 

REFERENCES 

1. Purris, H. S.. ICarly Mitchehstown & Na^ambie : Vkh Hist, Ma$. 23 
(3) : 126 (1950). 

2. Mass-ola, A., The Native Water Wells at Maryboriuigh, Victoria; 
f-'ir/, Nat. 73; 48 tl5W). 



NATURALISTS* NOTEBOOK 

(ftdsei'ved for your Notes, Observations end Queries! 

AURORA RECORDS NEEDED 

Professor Sydney Chapman's recent paper 'The Aurora m Middle and 
Low Latitudes", Nature 179: ?-W fjfft. 5, W5?li opens up a most iisc mating 
subject and also draws attention to the fart that published records of auroral 
uisplays are "woefully fragmentary and inadequate". Undoubtedly there lie 
rmried in newspaper reports, magazines, ship's Jogs, official records, personal 
diaries and letters many observations on the aurora that would increase our 
knowledge, and even a few gleanings from the past would repay the time *pcni 
on their recovery. Here is a field in which any Australian naturalist, with 
some enterprise, leisure and patience may usefully aid the cause ot* science — 
especially during the present International Geophysical Year. 

!n order to narrow down the search through endless newspaper and non- 
seieminc paragraphs. Pro/ Chapman lists the following dates of greatest 
magnetic storms recorded at Greenwich between 1874 and 1254. information 
On the: aurora mi strut is is most likely to he found near these dites : 

1682 Nov. 17, 20 1938 Jan, 25. fm, 16 

1903 Oct. 31 1940 .Mar. 24 

1909 Sept. 25- 1941 Mar. 1. Sept. 18 

\fl\ May 13 1946 Mar. 2H, Sept. 21 

One of the most spectacular ot all auroras was witnessed on Sept I., 1859. 
visible even from such tropical places as Honolulu, it was intermittently wide- 
spread over the globe for a few nights before and after the maximum 
development. Another fatuous display occurred on Feb. 4, 1872, and was seen 
from at least eight parts of India, from Aden. Mauritius and the West Indie*. 
Anyone who can assist, by searching for Australian (and other) records,, 
\hould copy out the references — if noc too long — and $en<\ them to : 
Prof- Sydney Chapman, r.ft.s. 

Department of Natural Philosophy 
University of Oxford 
England. 
Incidentally, the auroral Tight is now known to result from the entry into 
our earth's atmosphere of positively charged atoms (chiefly oi hydrogen) 



g8} 'J he Vk<o>i<in Nahtmlis* 4S 

toother with electrons; dlfcf tome irom the Mm. during periods oi £re*t 
sunspot activity, and reach the atmospheie with a *pct*J (a» exceeding that of 
meieo/s The belts of maximum aurora! frequency and intensity lio lictwccn 
geomagnetic latitude:, W* (north arid south ) and Ui< two geomagnetic poles, 
with a icdlmg away of frequency Ivoth n»triti and «outh of tb<* Antarctic and 
Arctic Cirfctus. 

I H. Win.-. 

REJUVENATING POWER OF THI COAST CORREA 

When I visile*:! Wilson's PromonUrv recency. J BftlWcH a specimen of a 
snerics of /.cpitfitwt winch subsequently proved to he new for Victoria. Wbilc 
1 was- examining il I Started a small sand-slide. The sand and 1. the Lfpitlimu 
and a Mnall plant of the Coast Correa, Cvnco 'ttha, ad *aimv down htgHlui 
The Correa was a seedling with leaves and a single wiry lap toot nearly ;i 
loot long. If seemed t«»a much to expect i« to grow il it war. replanted there 
in the dry sand, so 1 brought il home. I could not ln|d il when I arrived l»oi'<«*. 
hilt I located it amount 90nte pressed specimens twelve clays later. The rlrv 
root looked ;«sl the b<mk and the leave* were Mill «reen, so I soaked it in 
water overnight and then planted it in the garden. Jt sjtowtd every styfii ui 
graving alter twelve days between dry papers and three week* ill the ground. 

Jn.vx Galhkaith. 
CRICKETS AND SEAGULLS 

During February and March oi this year. Melbourne and suburb h*d an 
nllestation nf the Common Til ark I'icld Cricket. They were- numerous on the 
pavements in the city proper and found their way into many buildings 

The cHcfects wcrcaJso |»*csfcitt in lar^e numhei s at TMark Roc 1 , and weoimi 
watched their flights on fine evenings. \VY made our ^thseriatiMns along the 
srrc-tch oi foreshore between Balcome Read and Ricketts Point The crickets 
emerged from the nearby coastal venet;triou about dusk and at an hottr wbrn 
tjU* Silver Gulls usually ftew northwards to (heir roosting grounds. Dm iug 
eite evening in February, our attention wis drawn to an excited flock of 
several hundred gulls wheeling and darting above the. cliff*. They made a 
lovely sight silhouetted against the twilight sky with the sea as a background- 
CarcJul checking on several evenings when we saw tht: display repeated 
verified rtW iftlftreSfrtoat that the crickets were (lie main, it not the sole, object 
Ol the foraging birds, Most crickets which COfift from among the tea-trees anrf 
flew parallel to the shore, or a short way out to sea, were quicklv snapped up 
only lliu*>o * torch lieaiiod inland seemed lo have much chanen Dl escape. While 
sufficient ligrj.il remained, we coultl still see tbe gulls **liawkwig'' ami darting 
like swill* 

—I. p. fa.«ta 

A NOTE ON THE GiPPStAND MALLEE, EUCALYPTU5 KITSONIANA 

Everyou-e who has travelle^I ihrough South (iinpsland has seen the Gipps- 
land Mnllce, Ettoityptut ifrts&uono. a dwari tucalypt with relativeh' large 
IcJivtb and rather laryt; crowtlei! fnnls- fts buds ar^ in clustcis on seien cm 
flattened stalks, and arran^eil in a circle of iix surroundiiig i central er«-< iMie. 

1 noticed recently on Wilson's Prounontory rhat the pointed caps of srmie d 
the buds bent inwards and -were SO pressed together tliat their sides were 
llatlened. The bud* were poiated and dim at ihar stage and I thought that 
itfcfiy looked Iflrt one bSiJ hud divided into segment-;. I remembered that tbt 
ivestern E. ftr^is.uitn<t had similarly clustered buds which, wben immature, 
were enclosed in a membrane making Ihem look like one larp r e. hud. I found 
hud-soi E k-itsiwitma in all stages: some were comfHetely enclosed and looked 
like green galls about half at\ inch across others had a tattered membta»'e 
which was turning brown and the mflMWd buds were hegiiiuing to separate 



46 Xamralists' ffat&flA Uv^rn' 

m the lips The flattened sides -of the buds rounded otf as they spread into 
position and enlarged to the typical stout blunt -topped shapes. There was no 
trace of the enclosing membrane by this time and the caps which were being 
poshed up by the expanding stamens began to separate, 

I made another interesting discovery. Some of the caps were scarlet and 
came away easily, leaving another one underneath. The operculum was double. 
The buds were well p>rot£Elfcd indeed, first by ihe rrK.losinp: membrane (doubi- 
l*'SS formed by the fused bracts) and then by the double operculum. Both 
characters are known in other species, but it was crtcitinp to find them in 
/:. kitsouiona. As far as T know, the covers of the bud-clusters bfi E f*rcis~ 
mma split symmetrically, but those ot E. kitsdniaiw certainly do not They 
break as regularly as deciduous bark splits from the limbs of a tree 

SALES OIF PUBLICATIONS AND BADGES FOR 1956-7 

The following information concerning sales of Club publications and badges 
during: 1956-7 has been supplied b> the Honorary Treasurer: 

Ferns of Victoria and Tasmania , , , _ ; 

Victorian Toadstools and Mushrooms . 

Key to Victorian Snakes . . . . , , . 

Nature's Linguists .. i( , ...... 

Census of Victoriati Plants 

Various other publications . . - . ... 

Back numbers of I'ictuttmi Naturafnt .. . 

Club badges - . . . . . . 



WHAT, WHr.ftl. AND WHEN 

F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Friday, July 12 — Special F.ntnmnlo^y excursion to the Museum. Mr. A. \". 
Burns. Curator of bisects, will be in charge of the party. Meet 7.45 p.m. 
at the main Russell Street entrance, 

Sunday, July 21 — Botany Group excursion to Ferutree Gully. Take °.4& a ffl 
train to Upper Ferntree Gully or m*et at 10.50 a.m. at the station. Bring 
one meal. 

Sunday, August 11— Geology Group excursion to Frauk.sn.ou to see the collec- 
tion of Mr. S. R. Mitchell. Travel details at group meeting. 

Group Meetings: 

CM p.m. at National Herbarium unless otherwise stated.) 

Wednesday, Juk 17- Microscopical Group. 

l-riday, August 2 — Botany Group. The group will meet at 8 p.m. W Mr. 

Lord's room at 514 Little Collins Street (between King and William 

Streets). 
Monday. August S -Entomology and Marine Biology Group. The meeting 

will be in Mr. Strong*? rooms in Parliament House at 8 p.m. Filter 

through private entrance at ^outh end of Parliament House. 
Wednesday. August 7 — Geology Group. Subject: Minerals- Speaker: Mr. A. 

Cobbett. 

Preliminary Notice: 

Sunday. September & — Parlour-coach excursion to Launch) ng Place and 
Cockatoo. Leader: Mr. Haase. Coach leaves Batman Avenue ai 9 a.m 
Bring two meals Fare >8/-. 

Marii, AlLENOEJ^ Excursion Secretary 

19 Hawthorn Avenue, Caulfield. S.K.7. 



£545 8 


6 


1,18 11 





1 10 





J 2 





1 


o 


2 \6 





47 16 


Q 


5 13 


6 


1744 3 






The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74— No. 4 AUGUST 6. 1957 No. m 

PROCEEDINGS 

Nearly 90 members and friends attended the monrhry General 
Meeting held at (He National Herharinm on July h' t 1957. Mr. J* 
Ros Garnet, the new President, chaired the meeting, Apologies 
for non-alteudance were received from Mr, and Mrs. Swaby, Mr 
and Mrs. Kaywent. Miss Young, and Mr. C. Cogtull. dbe Presi- 
dent referred to the deaths of Dr W J Harris, a keen geolog^M. 
who had been a member of die Chili since October \QH : Dr. Huge 
Kleckei. who became a member m 1927, hnt later transferred to tlw 
Nonh Queensland Field .Naturalists Club: and Dr. j, T Raynieni, 
son of Mr. and Mrs. Tarhnn Kayment. 

The minutes of the lasr meeting were read and confirmed on the 
I notion of Mr. Hanks and carried after bcuTg .seconded by Mr. 
Coui'T. Mr. Saiovich suggested chat the minutes he recorded in 
TVii* VifJorinn A r of(trnlist as soon as possible after their adoption. 

The President announced that Mr. Middleton had been elected 
as- a member of the Council to fill the vacancy left when our Presi- 
dent accepted bis present position. 

Mr. Ilooke moved that the Treasurer's report as published iu 
The Ftcforutn A'atnnttist be accepted, This was seconded bv Mr. 
Woolhrd. 

It was announced that preparations for our Nature Show next 
October in the Frahrau Town Hall were well under way, It was 
arjso announced that the M.oomba Show for next year would he 
held in Preston Motors showroom, and it was hoped members of 
the Club would be able to provide some of the assistance needed, 

The mouon regarding a proposed increase in Club lees presented 
by Miss M. Klder was discussed a* tbc meeting. The Secretary read 
a letter from the Geology Group stating that all members were 
opposed to the proposal to increase fees to £5 per year. After 
several other members bad spoken against the motion, the matter 
was referred back to Council for careful consideration. Mr. .Saro- 
vich suj>g#\sh*d rhar The yictoriitn \ r ahirpii,Kt should be published 
quarterly with monthly news-letters to save expense. 

Mr Wakefield delivered a lecLnre on the Snowy Iviver Gorge 
illustrating it with a series of colour slides, lie emphasized that die 
euvhons of the triangle hounded by the lower reaches of the Snowy 
and the 13 road bent Rivers was one of great interest, from the scenic, 
botanical and zoological points of view, The lecturer suggested (hat 
Llus area would be most suitable for a national park, and Mr Hanks 
moved that Council investigate this possibility. Thii motion was 
seconded by Mr Middleton ;uid carried, 

47 



4S Prcc^np, 1%^,*? 

The Secretary read a Ictlei received from the Fisheries and 
Game Department asking for assistance in nuking a survey of e<1ible 
shell-fish, and enclosing sheet* for this purpose: these sheets wit? 
be passed on to the Marine Biology Group. The R.A.O.U. sent the 
Club a copy of a letter to the M.M.B.W. supporting a proposal to 
plant the Upper Yarra Dam site with Australian trees and shmbs 
and the Club supported this proposal. Mr. Sarovich appealed to 
members to help supply wild flowers for a disi>lay being held in 
Perth from September 9 to W next, 

Mr. Wakefield reported that accommodation had been arranged 
at the Genoa Hotel for members participating in. (he exclusion, to 
Mallacoota at the end of this year. Further notes on this excursion 
appear under "What, Where and When" on page $8. 

The President announced that the meeting would be a ''Members' 
Night" and that those interested in taking part should contact Mr. 
Curtis as soon as possible 

The following; were elected as members of the. Chib : MUs Shirley 
McMillan. East Malvern (Ordinary); Mr. V. Biskupsky, East 
Brunswick (Ordinary); Mr. J. Maurice Wilson, Highett fOrdi- 
nary) ; Mrs. Isa H. Anderson, IVmit Lonsdale (Country); Dr 
C T, James, Rose Park, South Australia (Country) ; Mi W- J- 
Gitccns, c/o 110 Maud Street. Menu Bahvyn (Country). 

Mr, Kenynn asked the Club tc support protests being made 
against the erection of school huts, and also the destruction of tfiWJ 
in Sherbrookc Forest. A motion by Mr. Coghili and seconded by 
Mr-. Webb thai the Club appioach the Government with a view o£ 
having this area declared as B national park was carried. It was 
also suggested that the Club %en(] u letter of protest to the Prcis. 

The following were the exhibits for the evening. Sheath from 
fruit of MonsUra dcliciosa fiom Ft. Vernon, Queensland (Mrs 
Coghill ) ; Volyzoa from RakonnV P.av Mowingiou ( Mr. R. 
T.ukcy); land shell* from eastern Victoria and Sherbrooke Forest 
(Mr. Gabriel) 

The General Meeting closed at 10.20 p.m. 

MICROSCOPICAL GROUP 

Mr, Rob Lukey was tltc lecturer at the moling on July 17 \&&% his subject 
being 'Marine Polyvxia" There were 17 microscopes oh tfl< bench, each 
showing a specimen of these interesting creature*. Mr. Lukey liarl several oi 
his ovyn mountings, and explained the method of preparing- them He at&O 
Ascribed the difference between polygons and. liytlrttfoons, also iKnnti i\; 
out the peculiarities of the separate species and their habitat. 

Mr hukcy'*» command, of his camera enabled him to show sonic bs&lltffwl 
close-ups in colour of several species on lite screen. 

The next meeting on August 21 will he devoted lo an exhibition of acces- 
sories for the study of microscopy. All interested are requested to bring their 
collections of gadyets; interest will be *hn\vn by everyone ;n each other > 
sphere of study. Members are requested to make Apccia'. ctforis for ilii* 
occasion. 



"iJst* J TJt? I'ii'toriaii XtiturtiUtt 

SNOWY RIVER GORGE 

I'V X. A. \\ A KKMKU) 

| Summary nj talk to the F.X.C'A'. mi July &, T'rv | 

i'm* Snowy Uivrr tj-ntiiv* -ome four < r five thoiwiwl ><|uarc nules 
of country, with the LMeaier part ■••*? its valley in Xew South Wales. 
In Victoria, this river i\*> It" follows a suutl^'rlv course through East 
Gippslaud from the State border-line to ( )rhost and thence to Bass 
Strait. As far A$ flow til water i> concerned, it is In: far the largest 
stream m Victoria. 

Much of the upper part of the Snowy valley, in Xew South Wales. 
ha< heeu cleared for grazing purpo>es. and ahotit ( )rbost the rich 
flats are used fur dairying and agriculture; hut almost all the Vic- 
torian tract of the river i< through rushed mountainous com. try, 
much of which h verv rarclv visited hv anyone. 

The Prince's Highway — die "coast road" from Melhourne to 
Sydney — crosses the river at ( )rhost. and, in Victoria, there is only 
one oilier crossing, the '*!■•>% Bridge" which serves the road from 
Buchan. via < iekmtipy, \r, Bonang. This is known officially as 
McKillop's Bridge, it is a huge concrete and steel structure ahout 
nine hundred feet long and >i\ty feet or so ahove water-level, hut 
the road to it is very rough, narrow and steeply graded, and it is 
used only rarely by motor vehicles 

The "Turnhack Koad". leading down to MeKillop's Bridge, gives 
the traveller a taste of the grandeur of the Snowy River valley, but 
for the really spectacular parts of it one must leave the roads and 
investigate some of the gorge tracts through which the river flows. 
What is probably the grandest of these is situated some twenty miles 
to the north-east (if Buchan. a little upstream from where the 
Broadbent River joins the Snowy from the east. 

This is an area which could be Victoria's really outstanding 
national park, something that would compare favourably with jnany 
of the most scenic parks in overseas countries. It has mighty crags 
of reddish rock flung up against the sky. and come down sheer for 
hundreds of feet to the waters of the river. Furthermore, the flora 
and fauna of the area are unique and well worth) - of conservation 
and of the protection that would he afforded were the area to be 
reserved. 

In December 1951, Mr. John Beehervaise gave the F.N.C.V. a 
talk on the Snowy River gorges, illustrated bv a series of fine colour 
slides. His party had made its way down the river from the Suggan 
Buggan area to Buchan. There have, too, been several canoe expe- 
ditions down the Snowy through these tracts. But the thorough 
exploration of the gorge and cliff area with which we are now 
concerned was accomplished by Mr. Leo Hodge, from about 1950 
onwards. 



so 



W "akki-iki.p. .Vj/iTi'v River iiovtn* 



rVict. Nat 
L Vol. 74 



F fudge is a Country Member of this Club, living at \Y. '1 ree. a 
locality about sixteen miles north of Huehau. For some years it has 
been his hobby to build up a garden of native flora about his home. 
This project lias proved an outstanding success, and the quarter- 
acre block now has plants of some 160 Australian species, ranging 
from trees to small herbs; and the great majority ni these are from 
the Snowy Rivet area. 

During the process of searching the rugged country for suitable 
g&fdetl subjects, some noteworthy discoveries were made. Those 
species occurring in the comparatively small cliff area which we 
are discussing mav well be enumerated here. 




Snowy River Gorge. 
The top of the gxrge is conspicuous on the left. 

Boronia fedifttlht grows here and there over a mile or so of coun- 
try, forming thickets several feet high and clothed in springtime 
with massed reddish blooms. It is certainly our showiest Roronia. 
not known to occur elsewhere in Victoria, and it was a new record 
for the State when discovered by Hodge in about 1M50. 

Wi'stringia creuuio/'hila has recently been "described" — a species 
new to science. It is a remarkable shrub, forming clumps which 
apparently spring from the solid rock of sheer cliffs; and in both 
foliage and blossom it is a most attractive plant, This, too, was 



A !■£?*] WakkfiKui. Smwy Ri; rr Cinr<,e 51 

discovered by Kludge in ahnuc ! ( '?0, and it has never Wen found 
outside the area. 

TJtC Guinca-Hower. ]Jihl>rrliu sputfttthtttt, is apparently endemic 
in i he vicinity of the jjor>;cs concerned. It i- a hudty -dumb up to 
several feet across, and wa- originally HisoavtTtfrt \i\ ihe pu-eni 
writer in VJ$&\ 

The "Snowy Kiver Wattle" has been known to local f* »1 k for 
many \ears, and it was colleUcd to carlv as 1SS3 in A. \Y. i h<wiu. 
'I he Species was nut scientifically named until t9s5 hnwewi. when 
it became . Iiuwitt h.intt^r'unui, Jt ^apparently confined to the Snov\ \ 
Kiver valley and is a feature 6i our particular jgtirgc area. 

The I lop-bush. lUxlaituca rlitniihtfttliu, ha> a similar histor\ . It 
was found by Huron von Mueller m 1-S/J. y;rowhi£r ninny the upper 
Murray Kiver, Imt it was not ^cieutirtealh named until 1**55. and 
the tvpe specimens of this "new ftljccfef" came from cliff led#e> of 
our Stvowv Kiver £or<je. 

[n 194(), the writer found a new* specie of daisy, at Rete Holooa 
(half-way hetween Orbnst and Ikichan ) and also alone; the (j'uoa 
River. Tlii.s was given die name fh'iH,-hynunc rifajritthy G. L. I )avis 
in 1 ( >54. 'I lie plant is known as the ''Snowy Ri\er Daisy", fur it i-, 
a lenturc of the waterside rocks along" the river, including those ill 
the gorge. 

A similar story belongs to an attractive shruhhy Beard-heath. 
This, too, was originally discovered in 1946 at Bete Bokmg ; it was 
named Lcutopogon rifmrius in 1%6: and the Snowy Kiver tjorge 
is the only other place where it has been found. 

Amontf the huge tumbled roek-niasses along the river one finds 
occasional clumps of the K'nn^h Maidenhair, Aqfaiihttti hispnlnluw ; 
and in the shrubbery higher up arc masse,- of Phcl><iliuui .UjitairtHlo- 
SHiJt. Both these are northern >peeies which reach Victoria only hi 
far-eastern Gippslaud. and each is known in the State from hut 
a few spots. 

Apart frojn tbese endemic and rare plants, this clirT area c-mtams 
much of particular botanical interest. ( hie is surprised to find 
several western Victorian species there Where the soil is .shallow 
on extensive rock outcrops, a mixture of Fringed Heath-myrtle. 
Microtttyrfus cif*<ttn$ and Crimson Kunzea, A", parvifoliiu forms 
tangles acres in extent. Lower down towards the river there is the 
so-called Desert Phebaliuin, P, tyhniditlosttiu, growing <|uile lu\url- 
ously, m anything hut desert conditions. 

A remarkable feattue of the hanks of the Snowy Kiver is the 
occurrence of the Forest Ked Gum, Eucalyptus tcrelivnmis. This 
species does not occur as a forest tree anywhere hetween the lower 
Tambo Kiver district and the Rega district of south-eastern New 
South Wales. Along the Snowy, however, httt only up to fiood- 
/r;r/, one finds the Keel Gum growing with Mallee-likc habit, with 
huge; butts and numerous small trunks. This is because these trees 

B 



52 



Wakefield, Snowy Kivcr (ionic 



TVict. Nut. 
L Vol. 74 



originated from seeds brought down, evidently from Xew South 
Wales, by flood-waters, and every major flood inevitably smashes 
the trunks from every one of them, and they must sprout afresh. 
( )n one occasion. Leo Hodge and the writer stood on a mass of 
flood debris which was piled on a rock ledge eighty or a hundred 
feet vertically above the normal river-level. And there were Red 
Gum growing on ledges twenty feet higher up! This gives some 
indication of the nature of the flow of water through the gorge 
during major floods, and from it one can form an idea of the 
country there. 




In the Gorge. 

Wcstrintfia cronnophyUa grows on the vertical cliff. 



During the past five years, the writer has been into this gorge 
area several times, on each occasion with the pleasure of Hodge's 
company. The place is approached by a road which runs for about 
five miles easterly from the Buchan-Gelantipy road, to the old 
Tulloch Ard homestead. From there, a Forests Commission access 
road goes off to the south, parallel to the Snowy. It is about H 
miles from the river and some 2,000 feet or more above it 



August! 
1957 J 



Wakkfieui. Snoz^y River Gorge 



53 



To approach the gorges laterally, that is. from the southerly road, 
<nie must negotiate a tangle of scruh-covered cliffs, with the con- 
stant threat of a major cul-de-sac. However, it is comparatively 
easv to reach the river by a descent tibmg a steep >pur from the 
eastern Tulloch Ard padfl*>ck>\ and thence t<> work down->tream 
into the gorge.-. In doing thi>. one encounters some very pretty rock 
formations, where huge masses of dark blue indurated shale, worn 
smooth by flood-waters, alternate with the reddish porphyry. 




Part of Snowy River Gorge 



This gorge country is one of the only two general areas where 
the Brush-tailed Rock-wallaby is known to survive in Victoria, 
Details of the story of the supposed extinction of this lovely mar- 
supial and of its eventual rediscovery are fully set out in the Vic- 
torian Naturalist of March 1954. Accompanying that report are a 
map and some reproductions of photographs of the countrv. There 
is a general view of the valley, looking north from "Westringia 
Cliff" (where [/'. crounophila was first found) ; a second is of part 
of the gorge, seen from one of the caves wdiere the Rock-wallaby 



54 \V\mmm.i>, Sno;i-\> A'fnr Gvrff* E Vol. ^T' 

camp.s; and a third pictiiru is %i{ the tracks of one ttf iIic-mo animals 
on tin.* sandy floor uf am'ther cave. 

I.vrthirds ai'v alntudanl about the dills , wombats ait* in evidence, 
and it is certain that the area is the home of numerous- glider*, pos- 
sums and such. Rut, as marsupials are mainly nocturnal, it would 
he difficult to determine what species do occur in the locality 

A recent visit to the place, during Easter this year, revealed evi- 
dence of at least one more very rare animal, [fere and there in the 
sand amongst the rocks there were numerous sets of tracks that 
obviously belonged either to n species ot jerboa-marsupiat or else 
to one of the hoppiu^-mouse ^roup of rodents. As such creatures 
belong to the Inland, the discovery of one of them along the Snowy 
Kiver in (lipps)and is as remarkable as is the occurrence of the 
Desert Phebalium there. 

Were this area of gorges and cliffs to become one of our national 
parks, the picturing of it in magazine and brochure would add 
substaotiallv to the tourist attraction to Victoria. The place would 
not be damaged by vandals, for such persons do not visit anywhere 
so removed, ill terms of effort, from the beaten tracks. And. as 
much of it is, and would remain, virtually inaccessible, it would 
continue to provide inviolate s-mctnarv for its unique fauna and 
flora. 

VASCULAR FLORA OP VICTORIA AND SOUTH AUSTRALIA 
(Some Corrections and Additions) 

By J. U. VVu.tjs* 

In a recent paix-r [/ ftrf, \at. 73; 14V- 1W. 1H8-20J (Feb, and Mar. 1957)1. 
I described sundry new species and varieties nf flowering plants, mude several 
new combinations and discussed some synonymies affecting the Victorian 
flora. Since then, additional information has shown the need for certain 
corrections which are &et out hereunder, following tin* same arrangement *>l 
>|>eCHs : 

ST1PA XIV1COLA ./, 1L H'tllis 

[I.e. 150 ( Feb.) | — This new specie? was said to he known only from a 
limited area at the southern end of the Bo|>oiur Hitfli Plains. Its occurrence 
on the Mi. Buffalo plateau is now recorded. A collection made by Dr. R. T. 
Patton, more than a decade atfo, had been placed in the Melbourne Her- 
barium folder of Sfifla WiU'Iteri; !>ut, almost the only points in common 
between the two species are a rij/ui fwhif and evrv h»\<j stout aicns lo the 
larg^e lemmas — otherwise they are quite unrelated and in different subgenera. 
A search through F. X. Hubson's excellent reference collection of Buffalo 
plants (made while he was ranker there during 1950-1, and now housed in 
ihe Melbourne Herbarium) brought t«« lujbt anotlvr sheet of S. m'vicofa. also 
determined as '\S\ tmicflcri" and accompanied by tlie remark "'widely >pread 
on the Horn Plain". These two contributions extend tin- ranee of A7j/>u 
mrn'cA; by 30 miles, and one may anticiiKttt its occurrence* on other nearby 
alpine tracts of the State. Mt.. Buffalo samples arc in a more advanced 



SStj Wii.i.ik. t'hm of ¥tctunu and South .iu-sirottti 35 

flowerine May* than the type, showing ileu the iiiftorcRceiK*: may bear up to 
25 sptkclcJs.. Willi' tlip length ol' matured aiithwr* i* 5 mm. («of 1-1.5 mm., as 
t] noted iti tiiy original description )t 

KXOCAKPOS LEPTOMFRrOJOF.S ( : UucO . ■-.• gjty* 

[A.-. IM (Feb.) |— Thii name had bftMl restored for the- eastern-inland 
Mallet* tree previously referred to t: afittyflux R, Bt [tht epithet inrorrcrily 
5pch "aphylla" by the writer, ich" had overlooked the fact thai Exocurpos is 
u masculine word]. Reason were advanced tor considering p.. tiftkyJJus a 
different species Miialk'r iia;,ire pni) (mil*, IfdtlWf differently striated 
thicker branchkl$, e0- [ii the nvaiflilftQ Or U A. Stanfier. who ii engaged 
in nioiutpraphing fixtu Of fax and other SuWalneCOtis i>enera : wrote to me 
Ironi Switzerland (5/5/1957 i ; 

1 liavt huinr Sunlit* i-i xi'iMiainif tin* ^lifittxHrfJi*- 1 fi>rha ii* iwu (twinrl 

:t JtC'' , 4 . <-'^l\-rnl »*K.ih)llWf«yll ^T l|ie pi -• J T I 1 ,o If MO k, <>/>'i.\ "»'i -act o fil- 

ing :u J'J.-r Vi;/, p. ISl (}"Vft, T$.i?J] flVUU \ *%|hEci! Pwnnsula shO^H '.li.li 
tl:r (T:i?tri'ML tuJiii tjl rfttfttS JUri;ili<m ami iruluiiicin wart tliif It) an noYciimi 
ai } funuiv . 'Jiif ol ihc CmNloditttflUft fuOR' ■ ■ , 'l'licrc Rfci u( CuurK, 
ijifi'i'ici't^ct ii yiuwlh ftMTi, jom! iti iV-iit, I have >eop »uni*.ti'j*.is sfeenucni 
Kont \\><1»rj| AiKri.thn, anw*Wi', t1\M With PfWltrtrV WT rt# U> bt d^> 
liivui«hi.ft front llu* Efl.fi! AiMrnlian jtlntitK - . lit o:l:f»r A ■»«• rattan 
i; tuoltft 1 .'uuul v.Mirmvs oi v*i"t i ;« I ji 1 1 1 ,■* , 

Hoia-»:5ts 111 Sydney and Adtlaide, working" through collections of !£• 
ttfihyitus in then respective State Herbaria, also wrote [personal conn mini* 
CStlOzU] er».presi,ing mabili',* to *ort \]\t uialirnoJs ilUo iwo Uutinct Witlttu! 
St serins fl*^t the MitalU*r, mcvasMted south-roast planl of Sotn.lt aivj Wcsirr^ 
AustralM, lookif.£ so very diO'crent iu branrhlet :\m\ fruiting rbaractrrs frcnt 
the Malice t>*cc ot Victoria, w$&cft) l\ew South Walc-t, Q^eajijajd au*J 
<"ap]^rriitl.v) aljio uonli-wc^U'm Ausji'ali^, is merely a '*pruhoio?/ica! case*' — 
connected 10 ttte latter, uo-inal cottdtiiiou m a gTaclation of forms and quite 
ii»spp.iral>(r sjwifirally. So, BchlIt*Ui wa3 neht in ]87.3 <e\c«pt iti his treat- 
ment of C- rfflOifoc/iy.v ^chlecht^nrlal) an;!, aftPt its brief m^lonnii* i ■ptnr- 
rection, P. tcptowcrtt'tfi's must again sink into the vvdouyiuy of ISxuan-tos 
iififiylh\s! l\ would Jjc nih:rc.slint: to find out if stunted, incrassatcd forms; of 
several orher spcr.irs in tins c:cnu& te.g. H. tptri tvus.. IS. stnchtsnmill twfrft-£- 
xijfji'wis) were also altnhutahlc- 10 infestation l>y thte ?,anie or relat^i 
C3jioodtac<y)ti$ fungi. 

ac:acia kydi'.akf.nsts wV**rt ^JBMfab 

f'cC. t^R (l ? ch.}l— Freestone Creek (uotifi of Bri,4^ti|nn^) .*n<l urm Little 
T<iver Falib (Wnlyulioeian^) wee n'eordec a* Itr st Victoriap IncaUiu-.s fur 
rhis moimmin waulir, A uriH-r viMt to the. latter ri>$.:nct laft April, in com 
pauy ivirh Mr. N. A. WaV-eneM, ahowed that A- /-.Wa'<w.'iui.? is fre»iiient on 
loeUy slopes along the .Boundary Cree'v between Oelaotipy aoel Wulytil 
merang, and aUo alnn^' the torest rciatl liiikiit^ \\ r ul^uliner.m!:. wirh Mt. 
Seldooi-seeu [one of the few oeeurrenecs in Victoria of kttfalyf'tus ftyttpdtt6$- 
sfo t a ihvart 5.aba)pinc malLex, i:; i>m thtf wkme peak]. The original patch bclojjr 
Little Uiver Falls, whi^r.rc fnnrng c^aiH^l^ were gathered iti January 194d 
had hcen burnt out hi a severe hu^li-nrr lVoir year.? later, but it w-as jrrathyin^ 
to ^ee e-\eelleut regeneration ol the wattle for ^liemt a mile alonj; this nr^l. 
A. byth\w*'\)sis is j. shapely grnamentul -plant in the Wulguhnetang district. 
ionniog dense ronnried hLiiiieb (2-b feet high) with a prevailing cast of soft 
jtinkich.grey— ^xcepr iu the 3prinj;riine when tliey are smothered with goKlett 
bla«.Nom. 

tOMASTKLMA .SMTT^I] tP$&) J- H- Wx'Ai, 

[)■<• 197/8 (Mar.)] Mine t&ll sernn- u.t he no -uanitniTy cif oiimioit 
ainon^ spei.ialiits in ihe .Wvr^tVflC, as. \>j a-hai (If aliy> ale the .'.■.iis-Uni 
points of (leijart.inr beltveen seurc.'-'ate genc-a origionny grouped mfar 



Unbent/I Iv. view (if tH ^ tw/d the fiiW that othev Australian bolantsb; ate by 
Ho mtaoi7 pfit Itift R. McVaugh (1<)$6) was correct — although the writer 
MievCR he waji — in tvpilynij* Dc Caudolle't. genus Anucna by 4- florit'tutda 
(now regarded {t$ a pp£Cf4$ of j4n-fjopkttni) t T was, perhaps, ovcr-ba.sty in 
making tUjjt radical name-change for Ully-pilly, a wulrly distributed Aus- 
tralian tree. 11 L&tfi&sMfflp were to He adopted, there arc oibcr -.peties 
tv.;lOii^inij ft Uk -ann; genus ni subtropical anil tropical Australia, New 
Guinea and Imlon.ci.ia, for (tag name* of which new combinations would need 
ro he made In 1949 I inquired of the late Mr. C. T. While concerning hi-? 
altitude to the rplittiug up at limjtMtti in Australia, lie replied (4th October) : 

1 liiinfe Dr. Mer: : ll sprees witli mc ilfcw Iti.n wc cart iccj^uixc two get in a. 
/•ii/yeum (<cns» smicroy to tftlfeiftfifi rt'C falftlCAV rrcc< illld n Tew.* A.1Sfcr3UflM 
•VtJ >t.ilAyan ones, ;inri Syxygiiim. 1 int^nrt to t'o (fisp before I Jeav* for Krw 
rnrljr in 195). 

White made no mention nf rfcmrnu or CVrnWrjiVv, 50 apixwcmly ho 
iinciiikd plaur.t] then ako under Syzygiwn. 

In April !W, W. "R Henderson had published a Ipim paper, "The Genus 
i : nyvnHt (ftffflflf&#) ' n Malava r [Carrftns' tiutktin, Singapore 12: 1-2031 
Kc discussed in detail the splitting up of Eugrnia. and concluded that iv was 
tinpoisihlc to recognize derivative genera in the Malcnan region, as Merrill 
mi<J Perry Jtad Joite — alt of the Miyeesled criteria broke down when avi'ltvd 
lo certain species which formed connecting links between the supposed 
genera; so he reduced the latter to sectional rank under P.tte/enia, 

Quite *<xcnily, K, A. Wifccrt hfiS defended Henderson's attitnde in "A 
Tascononiir. .Study of the Genus Riny^nio {Myytaccae} in Hawaii" [Pacific 
SivVniV 11: 101-180 (.Apr, 195/ j J . The Archipelago's- eight species would 
fall, accotdtit'^ to Merrill and Perry, into Piujenta (in the Harrow sense) and 
Syzyijiwm, separable by the nature of the e.mhryo {fusion or otherwise of the 
cotyledons) and by the decree oi adbercr.ee of Icskh to the cotyledon*. Wil?on 
ivrika its follow* 

Tiii 1 ; conclusions l Jtav: dta-vii , . sduhub' suppoli Hentl<cr$oi»'f rcjprnnn 
t«f thp .cegrrgattmt ry1 bpcgftc of TitttftNiA into the g*hera .tv-VtiK^i :in»l 
iii*jyfc"M« .scimi siitetn. . . AVillie- one nf fSr clinnictct^ 1^ cutJilAut The 
<tc t Tivc of fuaifi-v of cof-'cijons *aT^C* «v«n, wntnn ^ a«ntjle H^'tirs. . . The 
ttUttfaCtcVA of Iht seed . . . rtu iiot justify the splil. 

Uhtil there i« general acceptance among systematise, both here and abroad, 
Mf a workable Stnettfe to t-uhdivide tluymui. I now consider it unwTie to 
Attempt generic ^fti.'.rrtfaririns of our Aubitalioti species and wilr revert to 
frn/emtt snrithii 1'oir. for the: T.illy-pilly. assigning my naint* Lomusti'tnw 
.•:thithii to vy iicmyiny 



OBITUARY: A. S. CHALK 

In Maxvli I'J:?. the Club lost one of its stauiichest supporters and * -well- 
tried friend in the death of Anbrry Chalk. 

lie was horn zv Berwick, and Jeand to know UK bush as a ted. w! Off 
ne^rs and (T55 of birds always fascinated him. Those of us who went on field 
rambles with him, vividly remember his gift for thinking n* did the birds 
when it came to Wlhtg-aJttfi, 'Tout would he the plncc te» took for the nest 
oJ a Waule-bitd," he would say. And, as often as not, there it would he. He 
wa* always happy to lead trips to hi« home, ground— the hush about Berwick 
3j»^ Ber-iroM'-firdd. kfp\ tliere »Pc many memories o'" days w^tchinjc TTchnctrerl 
MoncyenUrs ot Cardinia Creek, and, alter stern warnings on protection, 
being shown fine group* uf the Purple Diurtiy along the milway line. 

We knew hitn a.y a man at kitnUinens and goodwill, avid will remember with 
^ratituife his willinirnwK to tfuirfi his knowledge pi the hu'di. Auhrcv Chalk 
juined the Club m 10^0^ and w.xs President hi Ike year ot the Cltftfe 60t'n 



*1W7*] OBULAkYt A. S, Chalk 5? 

Anniversary — 1940- Not only did fee gi^fl the Club $$ whole-hearted suppor 
by attending meetings with unfailing regularity, but lie gave twcnty-seicn 
years of untiring service aj auditor— a position which he Ue1<l at the nine of 
his death. 

He leaves a widow and two daughter;-, of a previous marriage, lo whom tht 
Onb extends its sympathy. 

— T. M. Watson. 



NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK 

(RtMfvcd for your Nottt, Ot>Mr*Oti»ftt 6n<l Qo*fi*t> 

SALMON- TROUT, WHITEBAIT, GULLS AND fISHEfcMEN 

Salmon-trout wliich had EwXMI pres»*m in the Black Rock area duntiy June 
and early July thii year were in dense schools which came close inshore, 
providing some great spectacles, ']. lioubajiuS of Silver GulU formed lOftfl Wi$ t 
floating quietly while they waited and watched, and now and then the Sainton 
Hout started leaping part'y out of the water, causing, the sea lo onil" in 
a circular area of about 60 feet Uiametet. Immediately the gulls caught Sigh* 
of them, they flew to the outskirts of the bubbling rtu# and seized a share ol 
4itc whitebait which had Bcttl driven to the surface under muss allatk by (Lu 
salmon-trout. A number of waiting fishing-boats were cruising around, and 
no sooner had the gull? located the stvwld the fishermen sped, to the spot and 
H if led (or salmon-trout. Good I unite were taken tot about 10 or IB mmttles. 
then these larger fish took fright and \ch the locality The sea brrame placid 
again and the gulls wailed in big congregations until the "boiling" ol the sea 
—sometimes in a number of places at the same time — started 1 he process off 
over ^gain. The whitebait leapt out of the water on to the beach to escape 
one close inshore attack by the salmon-trout, but they were seized by ihe 
Silvcr Gullf waiting there. I am certain that there has been an increase in 
the Bay population of gulls since the whitebait arrived. But how the incl- 
ination reached the gulls in distant and less favoured areas is beyond rife 

FANTAlL CUCKOO: COINCIDENCE OR HABIT? 

Those who subscribed to WiUi Lif<' awi Qu'.tfo'tr.x may remember tiie repru 
duction, on page M of the niagnirinc's rmal f&Ug i January W-1). nf a letter 
from a very junior naturalist, li read, "A Fantuil CoQCuo cmios to set on 
our elofs bne once every year. Mirarda ManifuM A#c 6" Miranda'* father 
Added that the ''euek^o* visitor has ALWAYS (three years ui succession) 
made for exactly the sanu: perch ; and has alway:; turned up in «he first or 
second week of July", 

About a year ago, on July 13, lV5d, a Fautail Cuckoo was perched on a 
paling fence about fifteen feet fivni the dining-room here at Noble Park. This 
was thought to be niotf umtiual, for t1ic.se bird* normally $\k\\0, the vjuter far 
from the Melbourne area, in warmer, more northern pails. BUT, today (July 
2\ f 1957), there was a Fairrail Cuckoo m». flic amitc fence outside the some 
Ti'indow. On this occasion it was catiitR a "Hairy Mary" caterpillar, and 
shortly afterwards ic Hew onto a nearby apple-dree to catch another. 

There is reason to believe that we have something more than coincidence 
in these observations. Do cuckoos (and perhaps othtr migrating birds) 
normally follow exactly the same routes on their annual movements even 1o 
the extent ot perching in the same trees, or on the same clothes-line-* and 
fences* And, if so, do such routes belong to individual* or to groups* 1 

— N. A. Wakkhf.i-d. 



58 



Naturalists' Notebook [ V ^| *J t( 



SECONDARY L08ES ON A FERN PROTHALLUS 

Some years a>io fl spormg i>lri*it of the small Annual i-eui. Ano<in\mma 
tcptophvlld. was lound in the (tamp shade of basalt boulders. Later a very 
large prntriallus W$ transplanted from tbe same sp»ir awl kept indoors wider 
a glass beaker. It was examined lor antheocha and archctfouia after some time 
had elapsed but none &ft$ found. It was replaced under the glass hi a some- 
what wilted state. A few days later a pacing glance revealed the presence ot 
bright, green specks over the whole of the upper surface These were examined 
under the microscope and proved to be lonftuc-like growths crowded with 
amheridia. Antheridta were also scattered siiifel v over the old surface Other 
ferns have failed to make these growths and no more that could have belonged 
to Ano<mwiUi(\ have been found. This note is published m the hope That readers 
wilt search similar spots duving spring. A?n>'/ramni(t is rarely found, but tins 
might be because it ft no small. Several questions arising from this observation 
im'ftrtt be asked. Where arc plants to be found. Ami rouM similar ircainnrni 
and results be obtained from them 1 Also, could this treatment be applied fid 
prothalli of other ferns? 

— A. J. 5wahy. 



WHAT. WHERE. AND WHEN 

F.N.C.Y. Excursions: 

Sunday. August (8 — Botany (iruup exrursion from Croydnu to itiugwood. 
Take 9Ll$ am. train to Croydon. Bring one meal. 

Sunday, September &-P?u loin -coach excursion lo Launching Place *artd 
Cockatoo. Leader Mr. Haase. Coach leaves Batv);** Avenue At 9 am 
Bring two meals. Tare IS/-. Bookings with lixcursion Setreiarv. 

Group Meetings: 

(R p.m. at National Herbarium unless otherwise stated.) 

Wednesday, August 2 1 — Microscopical Croup. 

Monday, September 2— Entomology and Marine Rinlnjry Group. The. meeting 

will be held in \Ir. Strong's rooms in Parliament House at 8 p nv 

Enter through private entrance at south end of Patliumenl House. 
Wednesday.. September 5 — Geology Group, SuhjecL ; Beginner's Night. 
Friday, September 13 — Botany Group- The group will meet at S p.m. in Mr. 

Lord's room at 514- faille Collins Street (between Kmj* aitd William 

Streets). 

Prcliminorv Notices: 

Sunday, September 29— PaiJoot-coach excursion to Brisbane Ranges. Leader 
Mr. I. Hammett Coach leaves Batman Avenue at 9 a.m. Bring two meals. 
"Fare, 18/-. Bookings with Exeur&ion Secretary. 

Thursday, December 26-Wedncsday, January I— Parlour-coach excursion, to 
Genoa, East Gippsland. Leader; Mr. N A. Wakefield. HeadquaMers will 
be at Genoa where hole' accommodation is available for XI3/10/- for the 
H\x days. Excursions will be made to Mallaconta. Eclcn, Mount Drummer, 
and other places of interest. The but »are will be £6/15/-. including the 
day trips, and there will be an extra charge of 10/- for a day in motor 
launches. Bookings (accompanied by £2 deposit) should be made an sunn 
a* possible with tUe Rxrur=;win Si*rrelary. Further detail-; will he given 
in the next issue of The rttlortftn N'atnradst. 

MARin Ai.tKNn^R, Exeursioo Secretary 

19 Hawthorn AvenitC, Caulfield, S -F«7. 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74— Xo. 5 SEP! EMBER 5 1957 Nee SS5 



PROCEEDINGS 

Nearly 100 members and friends attended The monthly General 
Meeting held at the National Herbarium on lAtttgite): 12,. 1957, and 
the President, Mr. /. Ros Garnet, occupied the chair After the 
minutes of the previous meeting were taken as read and confirmed, 
the various members participating in "Members' Picture Night" 
gave their lecuirettes. A brief summary of each talk is given below, 
in the order in which it appeared 

Mr. Stewart : Ml. PhffalQ JK'titcatt. An interesting series uf co!our 
elides illu&ffatuig the scenic beauties of Mt- Buffalo, and Home 
pictures of some of the native flora highlighted this lecturette. Mr. 
Stewart pointed oui luo or three interesting facts concerning the 
flora of Ems rr-gmn. The Alpine Plum Pine, Podocarpns faiurenda?ia 
( 5yn. P. rtlfhia), grows only on the southern slopes oi ihe ranges. 
He also indicated dmr the flora of one side of the mountains differs 
from that on the other. One slide showed the trunk of a eucalypt 
clasping a large boulder. Mr. Sh-wart rounded oft his lecturette 
with some slides showing smw striking panoramas seen from 
Mr. Buffalo 

Mts. Bennett: A Swarm uj Bees, This short talk consisted of 
a medley of colour slides showing a nest of bees in an old gum. 
and also some slides of Cortex reftaxa in the Cheltenham Park and 
Acocirt podalyriijolia. Another slide, showed two very hardy swim- 
mers on the Sandringhaiu beach on July 29 last! 

Mr. Jeunison: Prcyrinet Peninsula. The general characteristics 
of the coastline of thfe region were illustrated by a scries of colour 
.slides. The coastline is rugged and the cliffs are very precipitous 
with prominent outcrops of red granite which is quarried for 
veneer used in buildings in Hobart. Mr. Jenntsoti also showed 
some- slides of the uncommon Peticil Pine,. Atfo'Qto.vis atfressoides, 
Mt. Pinehin: Birds. Mr, Pinehin illustrated the nest of the Cres- 
cent Roneyeater It is a relatively bulky structure Found in lea-trees 
and consists of bark covered by twigs on the outside and lined with 
fine grass and seeds on the inside. The eggs measure 19-2 x 141 
mm. Very close photographs of both male and female birds were 
shown and it was evident that the male bird was the most brilliantly 
coloured- 
Mis?. Blackburn. Ml. Putter and Mt. Wellington. The Hist slides 
were of Mt- Warrenbat or Mt. Tmibcrtop, a mining settlement 
which once consisted of 2,000 people and three hotels. "Many beau 

S9 



50 rrocwtws FtijUft' 

tiitil vistas were projected on to the screen and some slide*, of 
native flowers including Gammon Everlasting, Helichrysmn bmc- 
tt'otum, and G»Bsa Trigger Plant, SiyHdutm gramivijohum, were 
shown. Miss Blackburn stated that .some of the rock strata con- 
sisted of conglomerate many feet thick. Several slides of l-akc 1 Vili 
Rarng weie also shown, and notes on the surrounding country 
were given. 

Mr. Byrne; Punnel-zvet> Spiders. M the present time Funnel- 
web Spider* are receiving a prominent place in the prc^s and radio, 
and it was topical to see some photographs of these interesting but 
ferocious animals. The body of a fully grown spider measures about 
one and a hall inches across, and the female ts less deadly than the 
male although it looks as agressive The slides showed the spiders 
in various portions and illustrated the attitude taken by them when 
teady to Strike, They rear up so that they can strike downwards, 
hut they can also jump foi wards and strike at the same time. Mr, 
Byrne stared that experiments seem to indicate that the venom of 
the male spider is the more dangerous of the two. 

Bar. Mollison ; The Blue jVfottnixtns. Although this was a short 
talk, the slides of ihe country around Victoria Pass were vety 
interesting. Several scenes of the pastoral country seen from near 
the pa>s were shown with colour shots of Dampicra ^trieta, Acacia 
salu:im, A. jtnnperina and -4. decurrms. 

Miss Woo] lard : Pineapple Heuth, Tdsmmtix, The Pineapple 
Heath, tficltea pandam]olin. is a tall shrub with panclanus-like 
foliage., growing up to twenty-five feet high. Miss Wool laid showed 
some very good close-ups of the flowers and some showing the 
small cap covering the flower being pushed off. There are no caps 
covering the flowers when it is in full bloom. 

Mr. Allan; Cradle Mountain. During January Mr. Allan accom- 
panied a parly of scouts through the Lake St. Clair-Cradle Moun- 
tain Vational Park. Many interesting slides were shown oi the 
various mountain peaks to he found in this region, and it wa$ par- 
ticularly interesting to see a photograph of the chalet built by Mr. 
Weindorfer who was called the "Hermit of Cradle Mountain". 
Other *cem-s showed swampy flats and lakes now occupying the 
bases of old glacial valleys which ate fairly common in that part of 
Tasmania. 

Mr. Wakefield: An Itmtation to Malhcoota, This scries of slides 
gave members some idea of ihe scenery and attractions which will 
be found on the excursion to the Genoa and Mallacoota districts 
trotn December 26 to January 1 next. The Mount Drummer jimgle 
which will be examined during the excursion consists of typical 
tropical vegetation and occurs in patches without any eticalypts in 
them. Among the wildflowcrs shown were Pink Boronia, Horon'ut 



fJjUJf3 I'riyeectiings 61 

Muclten, fhHosporHtu nwolutvm, and Anyophora iulermedia. He 
also showed slides of a mistletoe which patfiwtlafes another mistletoe. 

Mr, Haase: Club Outings, The slides shown in this feature were 
*;ume of the highlights seen on several Club nuling.s, among which 
those tti the Lalal Falls. Ballarat, Phillip Island, Maroondah Dam, 
Lake Mountain, Trentham Falls, Dimboolu and Mount Difficult 
figured prominently- All places were illustrated with colour sKde* 

After the lecuirettes were delivered, the ordinary business of the 
Club was resumed. 

The President welcomed several visitor* 10 ihe meeting and re- 
ceived apologies for non-attendance from Mr. and Mrs.. Hanks. ;uid 
Mr. Matthews, Mr. >cort, a Club member of loii^ standing received 
a certifkntc for Honorary Life Membership. 

Mr. Court reported iliat arrangements for our forthcoming show 
were proceeding smoothly, but stressed thai volunteers are urgt/mlv 
needed In help in setting tip the exhibits. Jt was reported that the 
Morjtuha Show was to hi aji integrated show and would be held 
in Preston Motor** showrooms. A special design for the lav out was 
being prepared and various organizations would be iflbfc to sell 
publications at the show Volunteers will be required to help set up 
the exhibits For this show also, 

A report from Council concerning finance and the proposed in* 
created Club tees was read by the Secretary 11 was decided that 
more enthusiasm instead of more money was required vji the Club. 
and. therefore, there will he no increase in Club fees, at least, for 
the present. Mr. Swaby, assisted by Mr, Middleton, has been 
appointed tfl lead a committee which will act to foster interest in 
tari&us research projects and surveys to be carried out by members, 
and those interested are requested to contact Air. Swaby. 

U was announced that this Club will be holding combined excur- 
sions with the Bend i go F.N.C. during November 16 and \7 next 
(see "AVhaL Whete. *\\\<\ When" on page 74 of this issue) 

The Honorary Secretary, Mr. Cogtull, drew the attention of 
members to the fact that August 13 last was the Centenary of Baton 
von Mueller's appointment as Director of the Botanic Gardens. He 
also mentioned That pamphlets setting out the details of two excur- 
sions to the Grampians on September 2$ and October 5 had been 
forwarded to the Club by the Tourist Bureau. The purpose of the 
excursion is tu visit the wildrlower display and some of the scenic- 
spots of that area. Those interested should contact Mr. Coghilh 

Mr. J. M. Landy, Timbcrtop, via Mansfield, and Mr. L, G. 
Hearson, Fnmkston, were elected as Country Members of the Club. 

Nature Notes and Exhibits. — Mrs. Bailey made some comments 
concerning the Smooth Raiubutan, Alectryon suboncrens* which is 
a very rare tree in Victoria, stating that she had raised some plants 
from seeds obtained from rt specimen growing in Stud ley Park. 



Mr. (jabriel commented on a hivulvc shell smaller than a thrcc- 
penny-pieee. Thi* shell, which was very unusual in that its "arms" 
diverged by about 50 degrees when fully "dosed", is found under 
rocks ailtl in lmrrmvs at Ipw water. Mi:i. Kenneu exhibited a pot nf 
tfTC Nodding Greenhood, Ftcrostylu nutans, with leaves of the Tiny 
Gree.nhnofl, P. pravijiorn^ beside them. Mr Coghil! commented 
that a friend caught a platypus on a dry fly and suggested that 
there is more to find out about this animal. Miss Wigan, in reply 
to a comment made on the presence of the White Egret near Heidel- 
berg by Mr- Savage, said that these birds were iare visitors to 
Melbourne. Three specimens had recently been seen in the Uotanic 
Gardens 

ASSISTANCE REQUIRED FOR F.N.C.V. NATURE SHOW 

The Honorary Organizer of the forthcoming Australian Nature 
Show, 10 be staged in the Prahran Town Mall on October ?0 ( 11 
and 12 of this year, requires assistance from members willing to 
help in selling up and earing for the various displav untt5_ Members 
who cam help in any way arc requested to contact A. B. Court, c/o 
National Herbarium, South Yarra. S-E.l, immediately. Help with 
transport of exhibits, both large and small, is also required, Remem- 
ber, Lhis is a Club show and if it is to be iuctessiul, help must 
he forthcoming from members themselves, THIS MATTER IS 
VITALLY IMPORTANT. 

MICROSCOPICAL GROUP RtPOftT 

The* AtigusL meeting of the Microscopical Group look die form of a micro- 
scope Accessory night fofr which must members brought WOnft their mu-fCi- 
iOJpes ind several pieces of apparatus. These were described for the benefit 
oi those who were noj aware of their uses, and among these articles were a 
number of obsolete pieces of apparatus described )jv Mr. MidGtelon such as 
lieberTcbum. silver-side reflectors, and object tv.ee.zers. Other instruments in- 
cluded were a dissecting -dereoscopic binocular ■microscope, take-apart pond- 
hfe trough, aj>ertometer. pliolo-micrographic camera, special apparatus for a 
micro-projection attachment to a 35 mm. projector, and many others too 
numerous to detail. They illustrate*! the various interests- of the members 
and their uses 

MICROSCOPICAL GROUP FILM NIGHT 

All members .and friend? of the F.N.C.V. are invited to a picture night to he 
held m m National HetbavrtmiAi 8 pm, on 'Vveduesday, Sctt-rabtr IS- 
There will be li hours of interesting and educational films loaned by the 
curtesy of the State Film Centre and the projectionist will i« Mr. Ashley 
Nance The following films will he shown: 

"Tiny Witter Animah". — A study of Amoeba and l J nr»mccu\ uiurjtf time- 
lapse t>holoffrat>h}', 

'The Amoeba' .--This fdm i^ius'r.Hes ttnw this organism captures and 
ingests its prey by the production of pseudopodia. 

"Daphnia ( VVrucr-fleas)". — The life-cycle t>i water-fleas, tl^en food, iiigcs 
tiv? processes, heart action and reproduction are illustrated. 

"Development of Trout",— Time-lapse studies ot their growth from the 
egg :dage. showing blood circulation, formation of eyes, ear-cap?Jle5, brain 
and auotochord. 



Sept 

195 



7 "J /VfUvrrfiNj/.f 63 



''Interdependence of Pond Life". — TJ.ifc is a study of plants, bacteria, in- 
fusoria, larger pond creatures and fish, all of which depend on each other 
lor their exigence. 

"Pond Insects". — This film shows the food hahits. and tin- strugglr for 
survival of the diving water-beetle, may-fiy and dragon-fly. 

"Life Along the Water-ways". — An eleven-minute colour film depicting tin 
many forms of plant and animal life found near pond>. streams and mar^he*. 
awl illustrating the dependence of this community on the water-ways. 

A REINTERPRETATION OF THE CAVE OF THE SERPENT 

By A. Massola* 

The aboriginal painted nick shelter known as 'The Cave of the 
Serpent" was first made known to the world bv an article b\ 
Charles Barrett which appeared in the Herald of April 2, 192V 
In it Barrett stated that this "cave" had been visited the previous 
week by Mr. A. S. Kenvon, who claimed to be the first ethnologist 
to see it. In a subsequent article in the Ararat sldveriiscr, Kenvon 
stated that he had heard of it from a Mr. J. E. Shoebridge of Ouyen. 
Victoria. It appears that the cave had in fact been known previously, 
but had been ''lost" about sixty years prior to its rediscover}-, and 
the vague rumours about its existence had been relegated to the 
realm of fantasy. 

The Cave erf the Serpent is situated on the southern slopes of 
Mount Laugi Ghiran, the "home of the Black Cockatoo", and con- 
sists of a spacious rock shelter ten feet wide and about forty-five 
feet long. It is, of course, open at both ends, as it was formed by 
the splitting in two of a massive granite boulder. These two halves 
moved apart at the bottom leaving a kind of gallery running east 
and west. On the south-eastern corner of this gallery a large slab 
has broken off the boulder and lies at the foot in fragments. This 
left a smooth, niche-like face, twelve feet wide by ten feet high. 
facing north-east and protected at the top by the lintel-like remains 
of the slab. It is this face that the aboriginal artist chose as a canvas 
for his painting. A drawing of this painting was published by A. S. 
Kenyon in .lustralian Aboriginal Art (1929). Unfortunately he 
seems to have drawn it from memory and I feel it may be desirable 
to give a proper rendering of it, especially as, contrary to the opinion 
of other writers, I regard this painting as one of the most sacred 
and ceremonially important ones in Victoria. Why did the aboriginal 
artist only paint on this particular spot? If this design had no cere- 
monial significance, it would not be solitarv. Other paintings, espe- 
cially stencilled hands, would be on the walls of the shelter proper. 
or on the other innumerable huge boulders in the neighbourhood. 

If this shelter were a frequented camping-place there should have 
been found in it the usual signs of aboriginal occupation : remains of 
food (in this case, bones), discarded stone implements, and ehar- 

Cii r at<w of Anthropology, National Museum of Victoria. 



64 



Massola, C(wc of flic Serpent 



rvut 
L Vc 



Nat. 
I 74 



coal in quantity. Kenyon stated: "There is no sign of occupation 
though plenty of evidence of fires. A stone hammer and some chips 
were found in the shelter," Xow Kenyon was a man who knew 
his camping-places, and had this heen an extensively occupied one 
he would have recognized the evidence. He was the first ethnologist 
to see it, and he would have been able to note all the signs. There is 
one more point : water. The aborigines would not choose a camping- 




"The Cave of the Serpent". 
The painted rock-face is protected hy a wire cage. 

place far from water, and I have spent much time looking for it near 
this shelter, though unsuccessfully. Certainly there are birds in the 
vicinity, even bronze-wing pigeons, but there are also quite a lot 
of artificial dams and water-holes from which the sheep can drink. 
We don't know if the birds were there before the dams were built. 

As can be seen by the illustration the principal figure in the paint- 
ing is that of a man wearing a chignon and shown in profile, not full 
face, as Kenyon depicts him. In his hand he holds a snake, not a 
'"disproportionately large boomerang". The tail of the snake ends at 
the nondescript design which is seen on the left. The round designs 
are water-holes or lakes surrounded by reeds. The two club-like 
objects are fish, perhaps eels, and the long, upright ladder on the 
right another snake. 

Here I may be accused of having a very fertile imagination, and 
1 am fully aware of the dangers of trying to identify an aboriginal 
design, but anyone familiar with the bark drawing from I^ike 



ept.l 
957 J 



Sept 
1 



Mas sola. Ca:e of the Serpent 



65 



Tyrrell in north-western Victoria, incidentally the onlv hark draw- 
ing from south-eastern Australia known to he in existence (now 
preserved at the National Museum and of which there is an illus- 
tration in Brough Smyth's .Iborujincs of I'icioria, vol. 1 ), would 
recognize the similarity of the rendering of the water-hole or lake, 
although in the case of the hark drawing it is surrounded hv trees. 
and not by reeds. We must not forget that lakes are plentiful in 
the territory formerly occupied hy this trihe, the Tjapwurong The 




Native Painting at 'The Cave of the Serpent". 

i Drawn fnmi photographs. ) 

two cluh-Hke ohjects are exact replicas of two eels as drawn on a 
bark painting collected by Captain Carrington on Field Island, at 
the mouth of the South Alligator River in the Northern Territory, 
and exhibited in the rooms of the South Australian branch of the 
Royal Geographical Society of South Australia in Adelaide as far 
back as 1887, and reproduced at Plate 18 of Worsnop's Prehistoric 
Arts. This is possibly the oldest known bark painting. Eels, of 
course, were a favourite food of the aborigines, as witnessed by the 



66 Mannoi.a, Cnrc nf fhc $crffiRI U'V^ta' 

number of natives congregating at Lake Bolac and on Salt Creek 
in 1841 for the purpose of feasting on them, and reported by the 
Chief Protector, A. (]. Robinson. The nondescript figure on the 
left, in which the tail of the snake disappears, is common in rock 
paintings in the Olary region of South Australia, although it is there 
generally rendered with the projecting parts upright. The same 
figure has also been reported from the Lverard Ranges and from 
Mootwingee. Kvidently it is the representation of some topographi- 
cal feature, perhaps mountains or caves, or even outlines of stone 
arrangements on ceremonial grounds, such as the one at Lake 
Wongan, twenty miles or so to the south of this spot (see I). A. 
Casey in Tlu: Victorian Xatnralist, vol. 54, 19x38) and in the terri- 
tory of the same tribe. It seems to me we are confronted with the 
pictorial rendition of a myth. The man holding the snake is ex- 
tremely important, as it is the proof of the sacredness of the whole 
painting. The Tjapwurong, like all the other tribes forming part 
of the Mara "Xation", was divided into two totems or classes, the 
White Cockatoo and the Black Cockatoo, and these were again 
subdivided into sub-totems. One of the principal sub-totems of the 
Black Cockatoos was Kartuk or Kirtook, the Carpet Snake. Here 
we have a painting of Kartuk occurring on a rock shelter on the 
slopes of Lang-i-gherin, which in the native language means "the 
Home of the Black Cockatoo". Surely this is not just coincidence. 
This must have been the totemic centre for this faction of the tribe, 
and the painting a rendering of the myth connected with its origins. 
Robinson, the Protector of the Aborigines, here comes to my assis- 
tance, and supplies me with an indirect proof in support of my 
claim. In his report, dated July 20-25, 1841. he states: "The forms 
of two imaginary evil spirits, called by them Orokeet, a male and 
female, of whom they appear to entertain dread, were rudely 
sketched. Orokeet. they say, inhabits the mountains near Lar-ne- 
jeering." A pity he did not give us a drawing of the Orokeets, but 
would not this be a ruse to keep the uninitiated from the sacred 
mount? 1 feel sure there must be more such places on Langi 
(jhiran: the sacred places tit the other sub-totems of the Black 
Cockatoo people. 

There are in fact conflicting rumours about another, perhaps 
two or more caves. One Tom \Vyse, a blacksmith, at Mount Cole 
almost one hundred years ago, was supposed to have discovered 
one not far from the "Hidden Lake" which lies in an elevated de- 
pression between Mount Gorrinn and Langi (jhiran. This lake was 
a favourite drinking place for wallabies and other native fauna, and 
no doubt was also well frequented by the aborigines. Another report 
says that the cave discovered by Tom Wyse is in the neighbourhood 
of the precipitous cliffs on the eastern side of Langi (ihirau. Be it 
as it may, there can be little doubt that there are a number of such 
places awaiting discovery, especially in mountainous districts. 



DCSCRWTtOH Of A NEW SPECIES Of ftDLSOPftiYUUM - O*efridft<«oe) 
FROM QUEENSLAND 

!3y A \V. Doc>i»tJi.L anil S. St. Ojuuh 

t<LLnorH\LLOM fiHi'ot.OruM Dodcr.u e ^ », uowi, sv. aw. 

KhJzouia rigidtitn. Pj-tudflhulln circa 7 -c 6 nun , late ovoinei. j.iriaii ( Oki.-uk - 
niter se ca. 6 mm. secundum rhizorna. 1-otmm ca. 15 x ft mm., oblouguro vtl 
ovatunt. rigkdum, coriaceum, supra panto onah'cu latum, infra canrntum. 
Pe<ht>icufH-i container ca. 15 tiWi longus, braeteis uibm vaginalis pracd?tui. 
PcilicctH AOiitarh geij| saepius geminati, apica)es. QTwriuxt tuberculatum. Floret 
nan lat-e paienles. &$#tf?flj& translueida, liueis tr:bns fusi/n-rubris orn.ita 
SV/yj/mw Horsalc ca. 65 x 2-5 mm,, late ov;:tum, concavum. suhacutum. 
cjariusecus sparse gUndiferum secundum linens. Svpalo. tatrruih ca. 6-5 Js 4 5 
mm., oblique oblongo-ovata, subacute, paulo faleatit, coucava, eNlfinbecv- 
sparse ft iiuiispositc &)andi/efa. rVltfwr tit i x 2 mm., oyata vcl obovata. 
Lttheflytm niscn-rubrurn, ca. 3 75 v . I 5 mm, suhohlonftvm. paido deotrvinn, 
cmiravum; in inu concavilate lamina subulate depressamie nccupatum; mar- 
glries partis tcrtiae proxiime lanelli yuhcrcctee. iitut Lobl fartutitictti rclHnaae 
marlines revalutae (interdum paenc couvoiutee) ; infra duo carinae parallela*:, 
canaUculp augnsto central! separate Cohtuma ca. 2 mm, long;* emsqne w* 
c« J mm. longrus- et wroSft* ad earn declinatus; alae triangulares, rmo nimbus 
supcris interdum indistmcte denUtt<= j sr^pna ovatum; ri>iteJhw\ promintns : 
onlhera rotunda. 

rlolotype: Nonh Queetu'tand, Mi, Lewis, near Mi, Moil&y 
Q DyM.M-Holliind, Augint 10.5V- Herb. N.S.W .). 

Ifhiz^mc rigid. /\>vi«fa!Wo.T about 7 >: 6 mm., broad-ovoid, rimed, spaced 
at interval 6 oi alxmt mm. flJofig rhizome. Lcavcf usually about 15x8 mm*. 
oMonjr or ovate, rigid, coriaceous, slightly channelled above and keeled below 
Peduwles constancy about 15 qi|icu long with 3 »l\cawlfiB brads; ptMtcfj 
usually twinned but occasionally solitary, at the apex'of the peduncle. Owry 
luherculate. Flowers not widely expanding ; sepals und pet ah translucent with 
3 dark red longitudinal stripes. Dorsal sepal about 5x2 .S mm., broad ovale, 
concave, subacute, outer surface sparsely and irregularly glandular along ihl! 
stripes. Lateral s**poi$ about 6*5 X 4-5 mm-, oblifjuely obloofi-ovate, s'.shacuie. 
sliubtly fa>cnK', concave, outer smface sparsely And irregularly gUtndul;n 
Petals alwut .5x2 mm,, ovate or obovate, Lahrlh-m dark red, about 2>7h \ 
S'i mm. f 5ubotil(.ntf.:, sl?glitly decurved, c«.»neave, bottom qi concavity OCCUpieil 
by a depressed subulate p\ate; margmj; of proximal third <unVrect {apneariii.q 
like indistinct lobe*), tJifl remaining margin* completely »'< vohnc [almost 
couvolule) : imd'.T sttr*'ace with 2 parallel keels separ.Ucd \>y a isut raw central 
channel. Cohnnn about 2 mm, long, with a fbfft abuut .1 nun. lory almost at 
right »|l|?lca 10 it,, win^s deltoid. 50:netime5 obscurely toothed on ihe upi'tr 
margin; ifWfna ovate, rvJdcttufJl promment ; iwtker rounded. 

This 5pe^ico has atTmitic^ with fl. RdpmoirQtify ScMu . fl( )$<jtnii</rme \ 7 M- 
Rail and #. Hintvac Rendle, but tt is diati'tRuished irotn them prtmanly by 
ics labellum ; that of the first being convex and ridded, that o{ the second ovau 
and ridded and that of the third convex and greatly decurved. 11 also Ii4i 
bn^ader petals and ieaves than the above 3 spctie> and ha^ 3 bract* on the 
jtedunclc as opposed to their solitary one- 

Tlic specific epithet reters to the margins ot the apical two-thirds of the 
labeUum- 

KXPI-AKATtON OK PLATE IV (i»ajre <ift> 
A. Viewer Irsm ■TtupI, wi.;meiit5 iK|t:ttHted, (atwllum nmoi-eri; U. La(*Mnm Irom-above; 
■ Ut.-fhitf' r.nm i ( iciov , C>. flower from ?u]ti Cdhmm mu) Ovary All flxute^ vanoutl/ 
i-id*r««l. 



THE VICTORIAN' NATURALIST 



Vol. 74 



Plate IV 




Hulbophytlmn nvolutnm Dockrill et St. Cbtwl 

■ Sr. Kvi'hiunt-"!! iif llatc oil !•»({« ft", » 



[ ( ,K| 



^^*] The t'trttntan .Naturalist 60 

NOTES ON XANTHIUM SPECIES, "COCKLEBURRS" 

By P. F. Mowkis* 

The species ot Xanihiwm L. listed hereunder ;ne poisonous I<j 
cattle, sheep, horses, pigs and poultry. A glucoside, known as 
xanlhustrummin, has been isolated from must of the species, and 
this substance is highly developed during the seedling stage bm 
decreases towards the flowering" period. 

Since the early days of settlement in Australia, the number of 
cattle, sheep and other grazing animals has increased enornionslv. 
and today the pastoral industry is worth about .£500-ini)lion each 
year- Losses caused by poisonous plant* have always been recog- 
nized as fairly considerable, and doubtless many thousands of 
animals have -suffered through grazing on the widespread Noogoora 
and Bathurst Burrs. A study of the residues from wool scouring 
mills in most parts of the world shows the great damage done to 
die woollen industry by the hooks on the burrs. 

It is necessary to have uniformity in botanical naming, not onH 
for the woollen, pastoral and manufacturing industries, hut also 
tnr legal prosecutions under the noxious weeds acts Noogoora 
an<J Uathurst Burrs are noxious weeds for the \vhok- Common- 
wealth, and the former, which has been proclaimed as XanthuuH 
sMitiWVwm L. for years, should probably be called X, chitu } nst< 
Mill. 

The following is an abridged revision oi the synonymy and 
localities for -those- species-^f A^Wiwr^ -introduced- into.-AusttaJia 
and represented in the herbaria of the Royal Botanic Gardens, 
Kew (indicated as KEW below), and the British Museum of 
Natural History, London (BM). 

1. XANTHIUM SP1NOSVM L. Spiny Cockleburr or Bathurst 
Burr. 

JSyti.: -V. x0i\tli0(ar(>Q)\ Wall*.; A<-<int!tnAmittttunt sp-noww Kum.l 
KKW: Tamworth, N.SAV... J. IV ftufc 18/4/1951 ; opposite 

l^ivervtcw, Queensland, ( E. Htthbard, 9/1 1/30; Kiugaroy, l rt .V. 

Smidu 1V4/47. 

BM : Port Augusta, Rw, T. S. Lfiii 1S85-6; Morton Bay. Stwirt. 

without date 

2. XANTMWM AMOROSOWLIS Honk & Am. Horse Cowe 

(Syi». .V catharticvHt Co<te & Sermeu. ; A. spinoxum Baker ; A'. 
criacarpon Wallr. ; X. Icitcacarpan Wallr.] 

KEW: N S.W., near jerikterie, J, T. Macktc, 23/4/43. 

$ XANTHIUM ORJBNTALE L. Euroj)ean Cockleburr. 

[Syn. : X. echimitmii Mutt, non Willi!.; X. occidentok Btrt. ; X. 
ilaiicum Moretti ; X. ripartum Lasch; A\ enmtdense Mill.; X. nmrri- 

* Vjnonal Hcrtairium of Victoria. 



/<} Mokmi.v Notes on Xanrivum ^wiw [ Voi.^T^ 

irtnum Walter; A. pemtxyk annum Wallr. j A. ajhfornicioit Greene ; 
.V. orwntaU' Cav. ; A*. riurr.aoi* M & .S ; .Y. 'm iform* Wallr. (Sec 

KKW: Neai Reumark. South Australia. 7, Jf. Black* %/7 f\(\ 
ns .V, ttrciifentah Bert. (.The hulls illustrated in j. M. Black's 
/•/w of South ./luslral-icu g. 503» 1929, under the name of Jf. «*///- 
fomuiiwi Greene, arc immature.) 

The original specimens of this species in the Linnaean, Smith f 
and Horttis CliiTortianus herbaria are named A', orientate, f have 
sorted the collections at the British Museum and Kew herbaria 
and have made comparisons with the help of Messrs. Sandwith 
;md Gannon of: those institutions and the experts in Compositm, 
and they agree with my determinations. The available literature 
has also been studied. 

4 XAXTHIUM CH1NFNSB Mill. NoogoOra Burr 

(Syr*.: A'. rotwcfi'tt.ur FtrnaJd. am! recent authors, not Mil).; >V. pan- 
<jdi$ Wftjlr>5 A. f/hbrcfuin, Rritt. ; A'. orcidrntuU' Bert ; A* /(m#i- 
rostre Wallr.; A. ifkit'o'w/iiVtfnim. DO ; A'. strumanitm M & Chase E 
A*. .r/rw/iinriKiM Rritt. & Brown.] 

KEW; No. 0102, as A\ occidental Bert., Marecba. North 
Queensland, coll. A*. Domin, received Oct. 16, 1922 (Kew) ; More- 
ton district, C. 7". White 11439, 12/5/40; Kingaruy, Queensland, 
L. S. Smith 30&1. 16/4/47, as X, pttiujcnx Wallr.; Gregory Downs 
Station, R. A, Ferry, 9/6/48 (ex CS.LR.O., Canberra) ; Brisbane. 
/, L. Boonmm, Dee. 4 7 1899 (N.S.W. Herbarium as A', cliivense). 

The epithet chinense. is a misnomer The original locality was- 
givdn as China, but this was .subsequently corrected to Vera Cruz. 

5. XANTHIUM STRUMARWM L. Cudclcburr, 

1 have not found any Australian material of this species in British 
herbaria, hut a specimen in KF.W incorrectly labelled as X. stnt- 
nmrium, and collected by C. K. Hubbard at Wellington Point, near 
Brisbane, is a young form of X, chinense, 

H. D. Harrington. Manual of Plants of Cafarado, p. AIR, 1954. 
^ays: "This is a difficult genus with numerous inter gri^MstWU^ 
The last three species Form a complex and perhaps should be united 
under one name ." He refers here to some American fornix of X- 
peunsylviuiicnm, X. italicum, and A", nrientale. Moscoso in Cata- 
hfjites Florae Dmniiujensis. p. 693, 1943, records only A*, fhinvvsf 
Miil r and X, orientals t, (Syn,: X. echinatimt Mijrr.; A r , macro- 
nirptiw- DC. etc.) 

tt is hoped that this article will assist Australian herlKirhim 
-workers in the nomenclature of their material 



Sept 



iept.n 

1957 J 



The / ictorian Xaturalist 



7\ 



REDISCOVERY OF A RARE VICTORIAN TOADSTOOL 
( Hygrophorus lewellinae Kalchbr.) 

By J. H. Willis* 

One of the most exquisite and colourful members of our agaric flora lias 
been collected only twice, to my knowledge, and on both occasions by young 
ladies. For finding the lilac or violet-hued Hygrophorus Iczvcllinae Kalchbr. 
again, after an interval of 7b years, honours go to Miss Rosemary Elsom — 
a pupil of the Melbourne C. of K. Girls' Grammar School, grand-niece of 




\Naturaf size) 



Traced from on' finer/ pairrtina 
of Hygrophorus L£*f£LLtA//£ 

K<?/cfthr. 
by Miss M.M.R. Lewe//i" (&£ r<7rwin,Vrc.y+.G. ie*o) 
— now in tAe Nn&ona/ Her£crr/ur7T of V/c£or/a. 

the former Director of Melbourne Botanic Gardens and an ardent young 
botanical observer. She gathered splendid s]>ecimens of it near the Bass High- 
way, Western Port (in sandy soil under scrub, above a road cutting and 
about 300 yards along the turn-off to Corinella) on July 7, 195(>. Here is a 
brief description of an average specimen : 

Pilcus 3 cm. wide and 2 cm. hi^h. conical and umbonate. glabrous but 
apparently non-viscid, wholly pale violet fading to dull brown from the umbo 
outwards. Stipe concolorous. about (» cm. x U mm., tense, glabrous, polished 
and lustrous, strongly rrstulose. GUIs concolorous to almost white near stem, 
slightly ventricose. adm-xed and at length breaking free, moderately close 
Spores white. n-8 x 4-n mic. smooth, i^ittulatr. 'hlour nil; taste mild and 
insipid. 

* National Herbarium of Victoria. 



71 Wii-Ll'-, Rediscovery of a Rare ^rctormn Vcadstattt [ vol tV' 

Otherwise, the feptasgj was known solely by the type description [Proc, 
Linn* .SV. N'S\H-\ 7: 105 {1882)). drawn up m Latin by Rev. Car] Kalch- 
brenner from material collected by Miss M. M- R Lew^Hin in June 1880, and 
named after her: presumahly Baron von Mueller, a friend of the Lewellm 
family, had sent the notes and specimens to Kalcbbrcnner {in Waltendorf. 
Hungary) who sUded tltat the loadstoo' u&A a "ftwfjn* f&rittffNftf . tot\*i 
lilacinux ", giving its location as Western Port An Knglish version of this 
diagnosis was published in M. C. Cooke's Handbook nf /fiftJrrVdfcui Fmifft r 
p. 76 UB92). 

In the Melbourne Herbarium arc six rather stained sheets of paper con- 
laming 6L crude 1 water-colour sketches of local fungi, made by Mis* LevvelHu 
during a Visit to Mr. and Mrs, George Black at Tarwtn, South Gippsland. 
early in the winter of 1880- No. 42 (on sheet iv) is undoubtedly Hyfjrvphortu 
A,w//i««t\ fttittg Kalchbrenncr's description like ft glove, The present where- 
abouts of that author'-., fungal type* remains unknown to me; hut, if they are 
lost, then Miss Lewellin's impressionistic but quite recognizable painting 
would become the ICONQTYPMol the species, My line -drawing {natural- 
size reproduction herewith) has been traced from Miss Lewellin's sketch, 
aifainst which she has pencilled ihe following held notes : 

imrc pale. Wnc — very rfciie*tr transparent colour— lilac over and under — 
Hint >um — wjy Icntlcr — \\% heathy •^rOMittl «mong (*Wi— Jvhc Hth, 138') 

Why Mueller, in submitting details to Rev Kalchbrermer, should haw 
specified "Western Pon" instead of Tarwin i* no* quite clear. Perhaps, h? 
used the term in a wide regional sense, or pcrha(>s Miss Lewellin's sphere of 
activity extended to the shores of Western Port Bay? In any circumstance. 
T-arvwii is only about 32 miles ES.F, of the now-dufifiitdy-known Western 
Port occurrence, near Corinelta, and this lovely gilled-fun^us would seem to 
be endemic ill southern coastal Victoria. Rosemary Elsotn's plant has a smaller 
(about 3 em.) pUeni* and slightly longer, more slender stipe than in the 
original collection; but such dimensional departure* are quite trining. and 
even the umbonate (not slightly unbilicate. as in type H /wW/nm<*) leature 
of the pileus is v.o obstacle to si,<cinc agreement — Carleton Res [British 
Basidwrnyartae, 1922] describes the common cosmopolitan H. tninwtits a* 
"often umbonatc, then umbilicatc". Ihe colour scheme of Hy/jroplwrus Invel- 
&M# is remarkably similar to that of CoHtiutrtHtts ILlaanus Clel , but th\s 
much more widespread tcadstooi {known also from Wonthaggi district. Vic.) 
has deenrreut gift* of a firm waxy consistency 

NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK 

<R«srrv«4 far your N^fes, Obs«rv«ltons and Qucri**) 

SILVER GULLS AND A WHALE 

About I p.m on Monday, July B last, a whale reported off Black Rock was 
iCfiti travelling towards lilwood. It dived and surfaced in rapid succession but 
spouted only after it had remained submerged it:^ a long period it appeared 
to be vigorous and wctive and \vc could follow its movement? below the surface 
of the water by the actions of D flock of about 200 Silver Gulls which followed 
tt settling over it after it had submerged, hut rising as il surfaced. The birds 
which then Hew low down and around it were probably after the whitebait 
forced to the surface by the whale's manueuvnev It remained in this area for 
about two hour?, moving slowly m y southerly direction. Whether its object 
was. to clean itself of barnack* on the submerged reef, or take advantage ot 
the exigence cd food, I carmot say. 

— E S. Haxks. 



GROUND PARROTS NEAR PAYNFSVILLE 

On several oceasiuns during the past eijrhreen vein's, J have '-.turbed u 
parrot f sometime; a pair) from among ftlftflpck* of ums.s on one or other nl 
three small iitanda which he approximately five milt?* south-ea<,r rrom Payue* 
vi!le and tour mile* eait from Spe.rm»vvha1e Hi-ad Oruervituj them, IvW htrn 
difficult because they fly for onb f.i»«+r* QhlaftcO and J" a icrle.v and ne;/.a»! 
manner away from (he observer. However, on April 2? Ijsi_ t obtained Mil 
•excellent view of one o* them winch perched lor tuily five minutes on a 
tusiocV about fifteen yards from me. It was nearly the* size of a Roselta and 
mainly soli green in colour with the upper jduniagr hYrk^d flfjth biacl." ami 
the outer wing-feathers touched with pale yellow and bloc. The lail was 
finely barred with Mack but the presence of a red spot on the forehead was- 
a distinctive feature. These observations enabled ine to confirm my previous 
belief that this species was the rare Ground Parrot, {*Q£t&&ttts umJlirux 
Unfortunately these islands are too near tl:e mainland to afford protection 
against foxes nod indeed I have seen these marauders <whn across the inter- 
vening channels. However, it is to he hoped that these rare bods will continue 
in find favourable nesting conditions hi this locality. 

— T 7 . C W Rarton 

RE«NT HONEYCATERS 

The three most common eucalypls around Stawell arc Red Ironbark, Long* 
leai Box, and Yellow Guftt Tins >e<ir the Red Jronbark flowered from 
February until May, and in April the Lon^-leaf Pox 'besan its heaviest 
blossoming for many year,";. Then in mid-June vft Yellow Gum .started llowcr- 
injr Tlie.se conditions were ideal for nectar-loving bird*, and the usual popula- 
tion of honeycatcrs, if not increased, was certaiuly more vocal ami conspicn 
ouv Red Wattle- birds with [heir harsh ^laccatu cwlls ajiu 1hc Yellow-loUcd, 
White-plumed, and While-naped Honeyeaters- with their leaser, although 
aWocter, notes provided a daylong chorus. During rhr succeeding few we^s 
a new voice was added. The lovely Recent Honeyeatet which had appeared 
earlier in June was now present in numbers, and its mellow uotei dominated 
(he hushlaud chorus. As I listened to the muted bell-like calls around mc T 
thought that 1 had enjoyed such an experience before, but I had never 
encountered more than an odd pair of Regent Honeyeaters uuril leecntly 
Then 1 remembered thai T had listened to the evening chorus of (he Bird S 
Paradise on the northern slopes of the Owen Stanley Range in Papua. Unless 
my memory is false, th^re is a remarkable resemblance in both unto and ea.II- 
habits ol these two beautiful birds. 

— f, R. MtC*v*. 

A TRUE <iUM FROM THE YACCA, XANTHCRRHOEA SEMIPLANA 

An examination was made of Ihe ^um-tike exu&ant on itijurte< to the scape 
of a Yarca, Xtinrfuirrhom sfimptaua F, Muell culfened Ly the writer in 3 crtiu 
near Memnjfie, South Australia, on April 2& lait. "Crais-trce resm" obtained 
from the cemented leaf-bases of the closely allied A J . aitstrtrtis R. Br, and other 
species, notably -V, tofewui P, Much. iVum Kangaroo fslaud, is ti»ed ill the 
preparation n£ proprietary varnishes and stains, A. K. Pentold, in an article 
entitlcxl "Grahs-tree Resin" [S^ihtty Tfchno(u:)U'al Musruw Bulletin N\» 16 
f)9Jl)l, described the commercial product As "msolubie in water, but soluble 
in alcohol". The Mcningie collections were tested and found to be insoluble it* 
xpiriis and to swell and eventually dissolve in water. Tn weak *ohittons of 
sodium carbonate, the gum takes up the solution to become a thick and fainlh 
amher-colouted jnuolage These properties are churacteristit. uf a true ijun* 
.iM the occurrence of the material on wound* -Off a XtnHwnkotu sp. is ol 
^ome .nteresl. 



7*1 Tim vF&lWmi HntbtodtiA Vol. 74 

WHAT, WHERE, AND WHEN 

F.N.CV. Excursions; 

Sunday. September 15 — Botany Group excursion to Sr Albans, "lake 10-45 
tr:iin rn St Albans. Bring" on*; meal. 

Sunday, September 20 — Farlour-coach excursion to Brisbane Ranges. Lender. 
Mr. I. TIammet. Coach will leave Batman Avenue, at 9 a.m. Rring two 
meals. Fare: lfl/-. Bookings wait Excursion Secretary. 

Sunday. Octoher 6— Geology Grou^ excursion to Romsey di&tnct. Detail*, at 
next Group mcccuitr 

Group Meetings: 

(8 pun. ai National Herbarium unless otherwise stated) 

Friday, September (3 — Botany Group. Speaker: Mr. WHsou. Subject: Native 
Plants in Cultivation (illustrated). The Group will meet at 8 p.m. in Mr. 
Lord's room al 514 Little Collins Street (between K»nj2 ami William 
Streets). 

Wednesday. September 18 — Microscopical Group. 

Wednesday. October 2 — Geology Group. Speaker; Mr- A. Blackburn. Sub- 
ject: Igneous Rocks. 

Monday, October 7 — Entomology and Marine Biology Group, The meeting 
will be held in Mr- Strong's rooms in Parliament House at 8 u.rn. Enter 
through private- entrance at south ftrtfl of Parliament House. 

Preliminary Notices: 

Tuesday, November 5 (Cup Day) —Club t>icnic to Strath Creek. Leader: 
Mr. J. Ros Garnet. Parlour-coach leaves Batman Avenue at 9 am Bring 
two meals. Fare: 17/-. Bookings with Excursion Secretary. 

Saturday, November lo, and Sunday, Kovcmbcr 17 — BeutHgn Field Natural- 
ists Club visit to Melbourne, Programme: Saturday afternoon— Altoua 
Salt Works (Leaden Miss L Watson. Subject: Seagulls), Saturday 
evening — Evening at the Herbarium at 8 o'clock. Sunday — Excursion to 
Yellingho (Leader: Mr. Hanks. Subject: Helmeted Honeyeater. The 
outing* will conclude with a visit to the Healesville Sanctuary)- 

Thursday. December 26- Wednesday, January 1 — Parlour-coach excursion lo 
Genoa, East Gionsland. Leader' Mr, Wakefield. Headquarters will be 
at Genoa where hotel accommodation is available for i 13/10/- for the 
six clays. Excursions will be made lo MaHacoora. F.den v Mount Drummer, 
and other places of interest. The bus fare will be £0/15/-. including the 
day trips, and there will be an extra charge of 10/- for a day tnjt in 
motor launches. Bookings (accompanied by £2 deposit) should be made as 
soon as possible with the Excursion Secretary. 

Victorian National Parks Association: 

Wednesday, September 25 — The Annual Meeting: of the Association will be 
held at 7.45 p.m. Lit the Museum Tbeatrette, Lalrobe Street, Melbourne. 
Member* of this Club who are not members of the Association are 
cordially invited to attend. 

Mamt: Au.r.xDKR, Excursion Secretary 

19 Hawthorn Avenue, Caul field. .^.E.? 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74— No 6 OCTOBER 10, 1957 KTd, #5*5 



PROCEEDINGS 

Mr. 1. %, Garnet occupied the Chair and ahont 100 members and 
visitors attended the General Meeting at the NaTional Herbarium 
on September 9, 

The President, referred with feeling to the passing of Mr. George 
Coghill and gave an outline of his 75 years' membership and 60 
years as office-hearer of the Qub. He reported also the death of Mr. 
David G. Stead. Members stood for a minute as a tribute to their 
memory. 

Mr. A. D. Butcher addressed the Club on ""'Conservation ami 
Management of Wild Life", illusrratuig his talk with slides of some 
conservation projects vrt U.S.A. and Canada. An enthusiastic vote 
of thanks was e<irrn*l. 

The meeting' approved of the appointment of Mr. Robert Da\id- 
50ii as a Club Auditor. 

The President congratulated Mr, H. I 1 . Dickins, as it was his 
S5th anniversary. 

Miss M. F. Gramme 1 in of Pearl Beach, New South Wales, and 
Mr. O. Peuker of Horsham were elected as Country Members. 

Mr. E> H, Coghiil commented on an exhibit of pressed wild- 
flowers collected by Mr. George Coghiil in 1886 and lists of those 
collected at Brighton and Cape Woolamai respectively. 

Other exhibits included a "Green Snail" and two opercula col- 
lected by Mr. George Coghill in New Ireland in 1923; Hoveo 
kmgifolia 'from Keenak (Mr. Haase) ; flowers from about Boronia 
Peak in the Grampians (Mr. E. Allan) . leaves and fruit of Bitter 
Quandong, S^nlaiutn imirraytuinm, from the Victorian Malice (Mr. 
E. Hanks) ; AsoUa fiiiruloifivs (Mr. ]. K, Garnet) ; and garden- 
«TOwn native Mowers by various exhibitors. 

BENDIGO F.N.C. VISIT TO MELBOURNE 

t'he following programme has been arranged for tht visit of tHe Bendnjo 
field Naturalists Club tft Melbourne on Saumiav and Suiidav, November 
16 and 17: 

5<U»ifdny Afternoon — Visit tn Akona Salt Work*. Leader; Miss Ina Watson 
(Secretary of the I3.0.C. Altnna Survey Group). Subject: Seagulls and 
Waders. Transport will be by private cars, and members are to meet at 
130 p.m. at the loading ramp, opposite C.T.A. Building, in Flinders 
Street (west of Elizabeth Street), 

Saturday Evening- \8 p.m. at National Herbarium). Speaker: Dr. Margaret 
Chattaway (Forest Products Division, CSI.R.O ), Subject: T/nw mnf 

75 



76 /?cWt>o FAX, Visit 10 McWmmt* UvZi"? 

eucalypti- Member*; arc requested to bring g smalt ptg*Efc for die supper 
which %^ ill conclude tta evening. 
Sunday- -Excursion to YelUngbo. Leader: Mr, E S, Hanks (Convener of 
|he BOC Ttefme(e<l Honeyeater Survey Group). Suhjerl : The Hcl- 
meterl 1 lon^yeatcr. The day will conclude with a late aftennxm visit to 
the- Sir Colm McKenzie Saivauary. Healtsville. Tiansport will b£ by 
private cat's ami parTowr-coach which leave from outside Rail & Welch, 
Fhntfcr* Street, at 9 a.ra Fare IS/-, bookings with t:\ruruinn Secretary. 
Bring two meaU. 

THE CHALLICUM BUN YIP 

By A, Massola* 

Of ah 1 the myths known to the natives of Victoria, none was more 
believed and jret had less amount of detail, than the story of the 
Bun-yip. Indeed, under different uames, this fabulous monster was 
known to most of *hc southern tribes Some of the early settlers, too, 
claimed to have seen it, and William Buckley, the runaway convict 
who lived with the ahongities for Ihirty-two year*, n tendons it fre- 
quently in his Life and Adzwuttires as related to. and published by 
John Morgan in IS52. He even states: 'When alone, I several times 
attempted to spear a Bun-yip 1 ', of which he says that he could never 
see any part of it except the hack, "which appeared to be covered 
with leathers of a dusky-grey color", and '"seemed to he the size of 
a full-grown call/* Brongh Smyth,, in his Aboritjiti-es of i'Uteria. 
gives two illustrations of the supposed Bun-yip, one a tolerably 
good representation of an cniu, made by Kurruk, a W^terrt Port 
black, and the other a nondescript animal drawn hy an aboriginal 
of the Murray River. Regarding this tatter Bun-yip Brough Smyth 
states 4 'Tcie coating of the animal is either scales or feathers: hut 
in truth little is known amongst the blacks respecting its form or 
covering, or habits. They appear to have been in such dread of it as 
to have been unable to take note of its characteristics." This last 
statement just about answers the whole field ol inquiry respecting 
the nature ot* this animal Only on one point did all the tribe* agree ; 
it emitted terrifying bellowings. 

Not generally known is the legend of a Bun-yip that had died, or 
was speared (there are two versions of the story) on the hanks of 
the Hery Creek at Challicum Station, near Ararat It is with this 
particular Bun yip that we are concerned in this paper. The story 
begins when George Wingrreld Thomson, a young sea captain, 
settled on Charley Combe Creek in 1840. and hniH there the original 
wooden portion of the Challicum homestead, in the semblance of 
the cabin of one of the ships he loved so much. 

Previous to his occupation of the land, Charley Combe Crock 
appears to have been the boundary of two groups of the Tjapwurong 
TruV-, the Moorcherrak to the west and the Werrupcrrong to the 

* Curator of Anthropology, National Museum of Victor u 



§£j J Masmh.a, 7 ftfr Clniilicum Jhotyip 77 

•caM. Unfortunately, there are no recants of Thomson's dealings 
with the aborigines, consequently, we do net know if he wnsa^vare, 
ai this early date, that not far from hi* home the Bun-vi]* had his 
domain. However, in July. 1856. Mr \Y. II, Wright, then Cum- 
inivsiouer of Crown Lands for the diMrici, heard from the name* 
that tile figure of a Bun-yip had been traced lutljj ago around the 
carcass of tine of these animal*, and that thev. the names, visited 
the spot occasional! v to re-nuirk the figure, which was ahotit thirty 
leet in length. The locality was .<iid to be about half a mile from 
Chalhatm Station, on the hanks of a creek. Mr. Wright informed 
a friend, M>. R. J*". Johns, Clerk of Petty Serious at Moonabcl. 
ami gifted with an insatiable curiosity for the habits ( if the abori- 
gines, of what he had heard. Tins latter gentleman was aide to obtain 
from .Mr. 1 W. Scott, who was the overseer of the Chalhctim 
Station, a sjvttch m' this Hun-yip figure and a locality phm. T best- 
sketches (Plate V and text figure p. 7Sh. were made in IK07. 

T.uckilv. the National Museum of Victoria j)os.-.cssCs the note- 
books in which Mr. Johns entered all the scraps of information he 
could obtam about -antiquities, not only of Victoria* but of the whole 
world In hi- Xo. ! of 6 voluminous tomes, he carefully inserted 
Scott's sketches, unci added the following in In* own hand writing ; 

lhin->i(>. — A belief in the existence bf sonic j»tantk. au,uaur, ami 
carnivorous animal in deep water -boles on creeks is universal. Anions 
tht Aborigines r>F Vtetona, Sijulli Australia and New SouQi N\ a'ea they 
call this animal **buuyij)" and camujt Ik- induced to luthe in the holes it is 
said to frequent. Many Eumj>eans. especially in the Mount Remarkable 
di.-arict of South Australia, also aver that ijiey have seen it, At Chylliciim 
Station, near Ararat, Victoria, a ftyure is cut on the turf on the hanks uf 
the creek (see rou^h sketch attached) which the natives say was drawn 
Iouk ajro round the carcass of one tif these ammaK as it lay tlierc. 1 first 
heard m" this figure it) July, 1K50, from Mr. \V. JJ. Wright, Commissioner 
of Crown Lands at Geersley on thr Wimmera. He told me that the 
aborigines were* in the habit "f viritii'K Ihe place annually and traeijii: and 
i [earing the outline o) the figure afresh. I have since learned that the larce 
water hole near it is said til he still haunted hy a bunyin, and that an old 
.shepherd ito.MUvcty asserts that he once *a\v it, and wUl not even now 
(IHo7) leave hi-* hut after nightfall. 

Air. Johns mu>t have sent a copy of the sketch to Thomas AVot's- 
no[), Town Clerk at Adelaide, for in this latter gentleman's woik. 
The. pre-historic slrts. Manufactures, Works. Weapons, etc.. of llw 
-lbari<fincs of -lustra/io, which was printed in Adelaide in 1B9/, he 
retells the story much as above, but states that the sketch which 
Johns sent him was made in 1870. This must be an error, unless, pi 
course, he received it on that date. Regarding R fi Johns' subse- 
quent career, the following, may he of interest: Clerk of Petty Ses- 
sions at Mounabel, IS62; Registrar of County Court at Stawtrll 
1X76; Chief Clerk uf the Court of Insolvency, Ararat, 1883; I'olice 
Mnyistrate at She|>parton, ISSS. Service* terminated in 1 ( X)3 when 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 
Plate V 



Vol. 74 



i 



* 



I 










[78] 



Oct. 

1957 



j Massoja, The ClutlHcuni Huu-yip 79 



he was Police Magistrate at Hamilton, where he died in PHO. 
George Whitfield Thomson never returned to the sea. but lived at 
Challicum until his death in \S ( )7. liy this time Challicum had be- 
come one of the most successful sheep stations in the Western Dis- 
trict. At his death the property parsed on to his two ^»ns. whfi. 
however, did not fuilfC survive him, and with their demise it changed 
hands, and later was subdivided into two properties, Challicum and 
Challicum South. 



J 



i 



T^ 










*/w«-rf/.*^«~ #^w,*^ ■■"' .>y^« 



Locality Plan. 



The next document came to me through the kindness of the pre- 
sent owner of Challicum, Mr. J. E. B. White, who obtained it from 
a friend of his in Sydney. It is a newspaper cutting here reproduced 
on Plate VI. Fortunately, this friend had seen it just in time to save 
it from the fire, but it was by then already in the present condition. 
All efforts to trace the name of the newspaper from which it came 
have been in vain. However, Mr. White was able to ascertain that 
Enoch R. Scott was a direct descendant of the Scott who was over- 
seer at Challicum in Thomsons time, ihat he was born there and 



Inter moved In a station in Xnv South Wilier which he named 
CballtcuiiK after hi* birth-place, and that ho had subsequently died, 
leaving some children, who in Mini, left the property and arc now 
living in a Melbourne suburb. They, of course, know* nothing of the 
(hallicuni Hun-yip. With all the facts before tis let us now examine 
what is left of the evidence. 

THE HtW-Yir MYTH 

There appears U\ be little question oF the occasional appearance 
of an animal in inland waters with which (he aborigines were not 
familiar. Kvervthin^ points to this animal being the South l 7 .astoru 
Australian Fur Seal, sometimes called the Eared Seal. It belongs - to 
the species Arciocephalus (asimniicnsis Scott and Lord and is not. u 
Irue seal but a sea-bear. Unlike the seal proper, it has well formed 
cars, and loudly bellows or roars. It is as much at home in fie.sh a.s 
in sea water, and it has been observed by reliable witnesses miles 
from the sea. There are authentic records of seals having been seen 
in Lake Coranganrite m 1K72, and at a later date in Lake Lhurum- 
beet. near Raliand. t hie was captured some thirty miles up the 
Shoalhaven at its junction with Kangaroo Rher, about rii» hi miles 
from Btindanoon (X.SAV.) Another seal captured in the same 
river was found to contain a fully -j^rown platypus in its stomach. 

It is true that the coastal tribes must have been familiar with seals 
and often made a meal of them, for seal bones are common in coastal 
middens; but inland tribes, although no doubt they would have 
heard reports ^jf them, would lie startled by the sudden appearance 
of one at a water-hole, i>r m hearing the unfamiliar bellow. Such an 
apparition would must certainly strike terror into the heart of the 
superstitious natives, and the no less superstitious, ofter illiterate. 
shepherds who tended the flocks in the newly occupied "run?-.". 

As a matter of fact, both the liun-yip of KurniK, as illustrated 
in Krough Smyth's book, and the Challieum Hun-yip, by the simple 
process of imagining the heads where the tails are shown, or vice 
\crsa, and by turning the legs into flippers, would make tolerably 
j»uod sketches of seals. If the originals were seals, or sea-bears, how* 
easily ihry could be changed imo tbe familiar emu by the native 
trying to draw an annual abort winch be h;u| heard only vutfue 
descriptions \ 

T1IK AIJUKICJXKS 
It is amazing how little we know of the Abnn^ine^ of the \\ esiern 
Ihstrict, but hardlv surprising, when one remembers how soitll the 
country was occupied after its discovery, frtctt by the squatters and 
later by tbe ^oht clivers Major Mitchell traveller! through the 
Aiarat district at the end of !S3m. Me reported only small parties of 
native*, the largest bdhgiUiWt *<»rty blacks, who advanced towards 



Kgf-J Massot.a, The Challicum Bun-yip 81 

the camp in a threatening manner. This would be in keeping with 
what we know about aborigines as they split up into numerous 
family groups, each keeping to its own territory and coming together 
only at corroborees. But there is no doubt that the district supported 
a large population, as game and water were plentiful, while the open 
plains were thick with edible roots, By 1S40 the district had been 
occupied by the squatters who. with few exceptions, regarded the 
aborigines much in the same way as we regard the rabbits today. 
They were a nuisance and were ordered, sometimes shot, off the 
"runs". Deprived of their hunting grounds it was not long before 
they were reduced to live by stealing, begging and prostitution 
which, with the attendant corollary of diseases, soon decimated 
them. During the winter of 1841 A. G. Robinson, the Chief Pro- 
tector of Aborigines, visited the remnants of the tribes. Already 
they were badly reduced in numbers, but he estimated that, just 
prior to his visit to Lake Bolac, almost one thousand had assembled 
there for the eeling season. These numbers of course were made up 
from innumerable tribes, as the owners of the Lake, the Booluc- 
burrers, were fewer than eighty. By 1855 the first gold-diggers had 
arrived in the district, although the Golden Epoch did not begin 
until 1857. These men pushed on over the hills and the inaccessible 
places in which the squatters were not interested, and penetrated 
the last strongholds of the tribes. By 1S66. the total remnants of the 
Mount Sturgeon, Hopkins River and Mount Cole Tribes were 
estimated at thirty-six men, women and children. The last Fiery 
Creek black, Tommy Ware, died in 1&S6. 

The end had come so quickly that there was not time to record 
very much about them. As in other aboriginal tribes, no doubt the 
only well-informed persons were the Elders. Most of these would 
be amongst the first victims, Tuurap Warneen for instance, prin- 
cipal headman of the Mount Rouse (Kolor) Tribe, was shot by the 
manager of the local station. With the Elders passed the knowledge 
of which they were the only possessors. 

THE. Bl/X-YIP GROUND DRAWING 

Ground drawings have been reported from all the States and 
Victoria we know of only three. One was the "Heart" found cut in 
the soil near Sale in Gippsland, where the homestead of a station 
by that name stood. Then there was the "Horse".* or at least an 
animal that resembled one, cut on the hanks of the Hopkins River, 
near Wickliffe. 

Then, of course, we have the Challicum Bun-yip. It is obvious, 
from the two drawings of it we possess, that the animal was either 

* Incidentally, the present writer would like more information about this "Horse" atul 
should anyone k«uw about it would they please communicate with him at the National 
Museum. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 
Plate VI 




THE BUN YIP OF CHALUCUM, VICTORIA. 



The Bunyip 



AN old -lime- ir..-tanc*- of nbohrinal art has recently 
cunif m lifer my notia- in an article in a very dilapi- 
dated newspaper Hipping dealing with the bunyip. "a 
mysterious monster of undefined shape and size which 
is supposed by lh>- blatks lo inhabit the deep pools of 
Australian livers ' Such a legend existed among the 
natives o' ihr "Cbatlicnin" locality, and a ground carv- 
ing existed on VWty OhvIc. about 6! miles from the 
station owner, by Messrs. Cooper and Thompson near 
Ararat Viotonu The locality is a Trtw-iess plain; - ""'■ 
■stream ^U'als through the grass. .:nd her. 1 cxiiandt; into 
three large, deep waterholes, a small thicket of scrubby, 
and grotesque gum -trees hanging over one of i 
p>H>R The tradition is meagre in details, but 

blacks sutd that one oi the water- 71 
holes was inhabited by a bunyip. 
which unt' day sot hold ot 
HUcS;U;io'A and iir*vin*d mm. 
The other blackMlows. (teeing 
this, speared the bunyip ii 
dragged him out of the Lctu. 
he lay on ihe grass beside- 
pool they marked his outline on 
the turf, and afterwards removed 
the soil witlvin their marks, leav- 
ing an outline of the monster on' 
the ground. As to the time, the 
blacks could only say it was a 
long time ago. The dimensions of 
the outline are given as 12ft 
from head to fait, although there 
is a discrepancy there, as the 
sketch sho^s 21ft. The natives 
maintained that m.-uiy bimyips 
still exist in other waterholes, so 
that we are not allowed 
hypothesis of an extinct spec&ij 
nor does the monster appear to 
have anything in common with 
the huge ajiiphib'fU'F st"-ians o.' 
tne pre- Adamite world. The story 
of the bunyip is perhaps the only 
extant memory of aboriginal 
mythology, the only analogue in 
Australia (so sterile of rcmancet 
to the beautiful myths of Greece, 
to the gorgeous imaginations of 
Oriental fancy, to the fantastic 
creations of our own fairyland of 
the north,— Enoch R. Scott 





[82] 



jXfJ Macula, The Chailicvm LUm-yip S3 

an emu, gi\ more likely, ? seal. It possibly was speared, or died 
through natural causes, Or* the banks erf one of the water-holes not 
far from Challicum Station. The natives who speared it, or found 
it dead, traced the contour of it in the turf, and ot -course, promptly 
incorporated it in their legends and revisited the place periodically 
dunug 1 heir initiation ceremonies 1o re-enact tilts legend Jt was at 
such times that the younger generations were instructed on ah th* 
knowledge in sacred matters pn&^ssed by their elders. .\"o doubt - 
the drawing was visited hy the elders of the tribe some days previous 
ro the ceremonial time for the purpose of cleaning it and cutting jl 
Afresh, Each time it yr$& cut in, it nece&saWly got a hide latter, until 
it attained the reported length — eleven paces. Also, each tmic it 
looked a little less like it did when originally cut. 

The two sketches of it which wc possess do not agree in si*e, ot 
even in shape- Worsnnp's description rallies wilh Johns', and there 
seems 1o he little doubt that Johns sent htm an exact copy of the 
one rt-piodueed here (Plate V And text figure). Plate VI must have 
come from a different original, also there must have been 3 clilTerenr 
text with it, because Enoch 1\. Scott refers to a discrepancy ui his 
dimensions. However, these details, although of great interest, are- 
not really important, the important part being the lecording of the 
ground drawing at all. 

The exact location of the drawing does not agree wilh the sketch - 
Johns says "about half a mile from CT*allicum Station". Tliia seems 
to be incorrect, because local tradition has it that the drawing was 
00 the banks of a water-hole, now known as the Black Water Hole, 
which is about 700 Ei. .south-east of where Challicum South home- 
stead tiow statute, about tour miles from Cballicum statiou. Tt is 
possible* of course, rhat there may havt been an outstation on the 
site now occupied by the homestead. Challieum South is on the 
Fiery Creek, which was kuowti to the aborigines as Pare-in-gid- 
yalla. Rapid Flood*, but this may have been only the name of a 
section of it, as 11 is well known that the natives preferred tu name 
Individual water-holes, in preference to the whole creek, especially 
if, like (hfc one, i« had the habit of drying up m the ainnmer. and 
only leaving the water-boles. Yalla-y-poora, was another name for 
Fiery Creek, but tliia was further north from Chalhcum South, 
while south of it, it seems to have been called Pracknin-j erring. 

However, to come back to the. Bun-yip. It is not surprising to hear 
that the natives finally abandoned it: There were no natives left 1 
The spot on which (he drawing was cut was kept fenced off for a 
while, then the grass- grew, and the outline became indistinct 
Finally j it was decided that keeping a lot of grass fenced off served 
no useful purpose; so the sheep were ^c<\ on it, and their htvif-s 
completely obliterated what was left of the drawing. The Challicum 
Bun-yip had rejoined its maker 5 T the Tjapwurong. 



84 The Victoria* Naturalist Vol. 74 

A CENTRAL AUSTRALIAN HOLIDAY 

By A^kktte CtrMNUNs, Firbank C.E.CG S. 
(Read before the Hawthorn Junior F.N.C. on February 22, 1957] 

What better way is there of spending a school holiday than by 
taking a trip to Central Australia.? Ft provides an opportunity iu 
see some of Ausralia's original inhabitants, the aborigines, in their 
native -state; lo observe the easiness and to appreciate the unique 
colourings and structure of Our great continent; to study at first- 
hand the flora and fauna ; and to realize the tremendous difficulties 
which have been overcome during the iasl century in order to estab- 
lish missions, educational facilities, hospitals anil reliable transport 
and communications in a region of such climatic extremes. 

Our party, consisting of seventeen schoolgirls and two mistresses, 
embarked for Adelaide on Saturday, August 25, 1956, on the first 
stage of out train journey to Alice Springs. It was not until we 
reached PLrie Junction, north ni Adelaide, that we began to realize 
Australia's gauge problem. Here we changed from 5 ft. 3 in. to 
4 ft. !*+ in. Further north, at Copley, we again changed — this time 
to 3 ft. 6 in., which is the gauge for the rest of the line terminating 
at the Alice. The t-rain travelling between Copley and Alien Sprung* 
is affectionately known to all as the *'Ghan"\ It is a mixed passenger 
and goods train with a modern dicsel engine and was named after 
the Afghan? who drove camel-trains, into the Centre with supplies 
at the end ol last century, 

'I he vsnenery from the Chun was ever-changing. Low hills ro*£ 
out of a sea nf red sand only to become insignificant in the vastness 
of the landscape. Many deserted stone houses, now falling into ruins, 
and rhr. hltarhcd hones of dead auinialb served as Symbols (or the 
many courageous families who have been unable to survive ihfc 
tremendous hardships surrounding them. Places with impressive 
names on the map usually consisted of a house, a tank and a sign 
post, and separated tro:n one another by miles of dry. barren, and 
lonely country. Lake Eyre from the train appeared as a narrow 
shimmering line on the horizon and it was not until we flew nver it 
on our return that we realized its vastness. 

Fortunatelv, as the train was constantly breaking down, we were 
able to collect many specimens of wild flowers, which, due to the 
exceptionally good season, were numerous and varied- At times the 
red soil was partly obscured by a carpet of yellow daisies or purple 
parakeelyas, or the ground was dotted with yellow paddv- melons, 
grey green salt-bush or clumps of prickly spmitev, ^r each stop OT 
collected a small sample oi sand and it was interesting to observe 
the changes in texture and colour Jhal occurred nver even a few- 
miles. 



1 967 3 Ll MS,,N ^ t <»"<•' Jitslrohati ilolUny 85 

it was nui uniil \vc had crossed the bonlei into the Xorthern 
Territory that we caught our first, glimpse <i\ Australia's inland 
fauna. J%$ the train journeyed onwards KVlgatflW* hopped away, 
.ind on one occasion we saw a pair of emu-- stalking across the line 
and a -dingo making for cover. 

On the third d»ty after leaving Adelaide we arrived at Alice 
Springs \\'e left immediately for Palm Valley winch ir. Minuted 100 
miles south-west of the town. As we humped over the seeminglv 
impassable tracks in a four-wheel-drive coach, the landscape held 
our attention as the orange hall of the sun gntduallv sank behind 
the jagged outcrops of the Maedonnell Ranges. When the sun had 
gone the ranges formed a black silhouette again** the greeny-blue 
of the sky. In the earh morning sunlight ;it I 'aim Vallcw on the 
following day, the sand was a moat beautiful red in contrast with 
the green of the gums along the dry creek-bed and with the purple 
of the cliffs encircling die camp. 

While we were walking the two miles to l\ilm \ "alley itself \vt* 
passed numerous small rock pools and the "Lone l 1 ahn" hefore 
passing through the Cycad (Jorge into that part of the vnl|e\ from 
which the place receives its name. It is a tropical paradise with n 
forest of palms, Livhiomi mariur, lowering overhead and whh hright 
wildMowers growing around the edge of the rock pools helow. After 
the hoi walk hack we went "swimniiug'\ We all bravely entered the 
deepest part of the pool — just up to our knees! The water was 
freezing when compared with the heat of the hare rock around the 
pool. 

Another day \va 5 spent in climbing battleship Rock, which forms 
part of a semi-circle of ranges making up the Amphitheatre, Brittle- 
ship Rock is an excellent example of the. many geological formations 
in the Territory which are named because of their resemblance tn 
some object ( )ther examples nre the Sphinx — a piece «if rock jutting 
out from the range — and the Kangaroo Tail at A\cr's Rock. We 
had to he at»M>ted by (wo guide"* when climbing l5;itUeship Rock, 
but the panorama from the top was well worth the effort and aux-iety 
of the climb. 

On otir return from Palm Valley we visited Simpson's. Hmily t 
and Jessie Caps and 'Standi e\ Chasm, all of which are Mutated in 
the Maedonnell Ranges. Of these, Sianrlley Chasm was. the mosl 
memorable. It seemed as it a giant knife had cut a parallel rlab 
Several feet wide out of the range. At middriy the miu shone directly 
down the chasm and the sides reflected their deep orange colour. 
We climbed high up the chasm into the valley bevond and on look- 
ing back the view was breathtaking. 

Several places in the Alice serve as a reminder of the work of the 
Rev. John Flvnn. The Flvnn Memorial Church, designed to repre- 
sent nn aeroplane, was recently built in his honour and ibe entrance 






CimmIxs, Icniraf Australian Holiday 



tViet. Nat. 
Vol. 74 



to it is under a "wing" over a pool of water which svmbolizes the 
outback's greatest need. At each end of the interior wall is a sand- 
stone shield. At one end the shield reaches to the roof, while at 
the other it touches the floor, signifying that though Flynn had his 
head in the clouds he was, at the same time, very much down to 
earth. We also saw Connellan's Airways which is the base for the 
Royal Flying Doctor Service planes, and the Flying Doctor Base 
where there are models and pictures of early planes and pedal wire- 
less sets. We finally paid our tribute to the Rev. Flynn by visiting 

his grave, which is situated two 

r miles out of the town in the 

^^ — m _ shade of his beloved Mount 

(iillen. 

We flew to Melbourne via 
( )odnadatta after ten wonder- 
ful days. We were interested 
to note that the time taken to 
flv over four States was four 
hours, instead of the two and a 
half days required to cross one 
and a half States by train ! 

On our return we took stock. 
When the films were developed 
there were some excellent 
colour slides, and numerous 
black-and-white snaps there 
was a collection of some thirty 
insects, another of about one 
hundred plants and another of 
many rocks and soils collected 
at various places. Of the insects, three species are not named and 
two specimens have been given to the Melbourne Museum. Simi- 
larly, there were two botanical species which are possibly tin- 
described and six specimens have been given to the Melbourne 
Herbarium. In addition, there were such odds and ends as the pelvis 
of a euro, the jaw of a dingo, and shells from the time when Palm 
Valley was under the sea. As a reminder of the native population 
many of us brought back originals and prints of artists' works and 
boomerangs, hunting and killing sticks. These things, together with 
our many memories, will always serve as a vivid reminder of the 
Central Australian trip of our schooldays. 




Twin Ghost Gums, N.T. 



J**] Tiw l&lifaaii Naturalist B? 

VICTORIAN RECORDS FOR SECOTIUM 

(A cemorkabte senvf &* futtgi in tht GasteroMyectct) 
By J. H- Wn.us* 
The gill structure in an occasional toadstool may be so u>a1lormrd that the. 
whole i mirlng-body titers little rcsewblflW U» a nnrm.il specimen o£ the same 
species. StaCh jbcrranr fungi, ire rarely collected and preserved; but, fa 
disregai ctinjr what is believed to be meiely some filled fungus "%n\\r wroi;g n , 
one »s in danger of thrQw*nsj .uv*y drt important record m the little-knovvu 
Kcnus Scc&rinw— close relative of Hie puiTballs, ard far removed systematically 
front the true agarics 

Members o^ o~Vrcunim. have * long or short (sometime* very short) central 
stipe, continued as a columella through the catlike pendium, This peridium 
often ruptures around ihe insertion of the stipe, to expose part of the spore ■ 
bearing tissue — irregularly anastomosing: tramo.1 plates, tuelvimg. large Or 
small cellular cavities. Even as late as |92t) E. Gaumaun placed iIkac fungi 
tO the order Agaricahs; hut Dr. G. H. Cunningham remark-; (hi The 
Gastcromycctes of Aus<T lf lJn and ftfrty Z^afatid, p. 78 (1944)1: 

The taxonomic position of the gcii»s has proved a. problem to most 
workers. . . . The method o[ development and inde.hUcenr nc-fStsrem 
cellular gleba indicate that it is :i Gaaleroutvcete. ... In the majority 
of species the ffleoa lfi typically cellular; one or two. nowever. have 
the. tramal plate-; SQ arranged that the cells are greatly elongated. 
An extreme expression of the lamellar condition is seen in S, 
rnjat'u~flui, t s \ehere Hie irainal plates .ire spaiinudy anastomosed and 
arranged, ?ike the gills or an agaric, vertically around die columella. 
JHe aligns them to the order Hyvwwiiasirnlcx, in Tulasue's family 
$<fftyt\&3/Mie which ronrains, ihe single sremti Sv*'otiitMi, About 38 species arc 
at present known throughout the world (excciniue uonhrnt TCuropc and 
Great Britain), and aft but one of the 1? occurring an Australasia art* en- 
demic — S\ utjuricoides ranges through southern Kur>:»pe ? Xnrtls Africa. Asia 
and North America; it may be introduced in the two Australian lucaiitics 
("W.A.," and Green Hill Kd., S.A.) recorded by Cunningham (Jr.). 

Since 1V44, two more endemic species haee been described: & comae (»s 
".S*. Canei') by Professor Soger .Horn from AV&roa in New Zealand [Rn- 
Mytolt Paris 16 2 : £42 5 {Sept. 1951), and S frapw*v$wn S. 11. Cunn. from 
Cascade Bay on Norfolk Tf.Und [Tram T$fr SoC- S AusL 75 : 14-15 (1952) ). 
Several of the 8 aperies in New Zealand ar$ brilliantly coloured — scarlet, 
violet, hliie or greenish -, b»t the 10 Australian representatives (8 befcg 
mdcinir 1 are n:ostly drah grey Qt hrn-.vnti,U plantS- 

Only two collections >e«m ever io have l>ei'ii recorded for Virrrina, vi?, 
S tcitcacephatuui (crom (..'oimada; pear Bacchus M"arsh, and S\ SftilffiOSHW 
(from ihe Domain, PfelbOUJtltc] ; tl*x former is housed in the herbarium <d 
the Uotany School, Melbourne Uoivcrsity, ^nd the latter— a Ira^mcwary 
Ij'lie — 1» at Kew. linfiland. N(j Victorian .specimen of St'wti'nM' ia m Ihe 
fungal herbarium of the Piatt "Keieaich Laboratory (Dept Affnc. > nr Vtui'ii 
ley, Vic, nor is the gwius represented to \H National Herhariuiu at South 
Yarn?, Vic. TJuting- the past two decades, however, she othei CoHectLOnii of 
Sfft&{it4ts\ liave lH*en made in thj> Slate and, as Tour additional :;pr*r.H:5 art 
concerned, it Is now desirahle to list all Victorian orcunences ; 

I- S ; ACAKH:OU")R.S (Cwn.) Hollos.: Sffldiit^j on a buftaio-xxas-- 
lawn if/, H* WilHs, May 1-037). 

_ This collection h«.<3 nnkntiuiately been lo%t, and <pore details are lacUWig, 
j'rom ihe writer's description of the frcsli pta.iit; but alt odier features ouroc 
* National H«rV^rium o£ Victori;i 



88 Wans, VidvrUia fteconis for .SVr<v<tim [ fo& W 

with those ascribed to .V. ayaricoides. and he has little •doubt that the identi- 
fication was correct. 

2. & COARCTATUM Afffc; Arnold West near Rlieola (H. Walls, June 

1938—Herh. J. H. W.; tf. Ktaftf, May 1939— Herb. Univ. Mclb ). 
Previously known from all the other States excepting" Queensland (tyJW 
wan from Swan Rivet region, W.A.). It is said to have a strong but a^recab^e 
odour when fresh. 

3. S. LEUCOCEPHAI.UM Masscc: Coimadat {S- C M. finweett, ca. 1936 

—Herb. Univ. Melb., del, & refer, G. H. Cunningham 1944). 
Occurring also in South Australia ami New Zealand (type from Auckland). 

4. $ t MELANOSPORUM Berk. : Walpcin* Agric. Research Station thitii 

1955 Herb. Univ. Metb.) ; Abbotsiord bridge, nn Murray River 

between Mildura and Wentworth, fV-SAV. (J, hi. IMUUs, Aug. 1-953 

—Herb- J.H.W.). 

Roth collections were determined by O. H. Uuiminghan). the specie?- is 

otherwise recorded from Western Australia (type locality In Swan River 

region), South Australia and New South Wales — chiefly in dry sandy places 

of the inland. 

5. S. ROD WAY I Ma^fC Mt. Dandenong. on W, Riekeit's jn-opertv 

CThetma Danicll, Mar. 1957— TIerb. J..T.W.). 
This almost slemless little fungus had very monilely veuuculose spores 
about 6 mic, in diameter. The .species was known hitherto only from Tas- 
mania (type area) Dud two collections in the Mt. Lofty Ranges, S. AnsL It 
is almost subterranean, and seen only when scratched out oi the liumus-rich 
soH by burrowing animals. 

6. S. SCABROSUM Cooke & Massed TUe Domain, Melbourne; (/•' 

MuFllrr— TYPE in Herb. K). 

The species is known only by its rather fragmentary type. 
Key to Six Victorian Species of Secotium 

Perithnm glabrous; fileha rusty-coloured, the cells to 3 mm. long; stipc 
slender, \~2.S cm. long; spores verruculose, elliptical, 9-1 t x 5-7 iiijc. 

^-S. Uncock phalli in, 
Pertdium minutely woolly or «c«iLirid 

Gleba dark sepia brown or almost black; spores quite smooth, yuhglntmscr 
Peridhun about j-4 CM. *»igh, with -stipe to 4 cm. , gleba cellular, the cells 
minute- {4-5 per mm.) ; spores 6-11 x 4-8 mic. 

— 5. -mginnospovtMH. 
Pcridutm to 8 cm. high, with short or obsolete stipe; gleba lamellar 
throughout ; spores 5-9 mic. 

— S. af/ariroitles. 
Gleba ochre, tan or rusty-coloured, stipe short, less than 2 cm. long, 
Spores quite smooth, globose, 5-10 rnic. , £leba cells minute (4-5 per mm.). 

— i*. coarctation. 
Spores finely venuculose, globose, fi-10 mic; glcba celh 1 mm. long 
(almost stipelcss plant) - 

• 6*. rcdiiwyi 
Spores coarsely vcrrueutose, ellipsoid. 16-lfl St 8-10 mic; gleba cells to 
3 mm. long. 

— j£ scabrosniiL. 

t'l~h* author MFJftS to register las indebtedness to Dr. Q. H. Cunningham, who Jcindlv 
checked the ident\t;e? of several collections cued alxive. nnd *vhoso excellent munosranh of) 
the AMtf-ah^t 4nd Fj*tt Zealand GustrrvniycrtFt has proved an i^vaJbable fu\t\v ul all 
times.] 



{*£] Tlu Plrtaruu, Multilist «¥ 

MORE NATIVE BIRDS NOW PROTECTED 

Til a Proclamation which comes into etfect Of) SCtffcCtiftftf ^« lV5?i f¥* moic 
nattvc birds ft»e now protected for ttic whole year in Victoria. Tbhj was an 
nouuced by the Director of the Fisheries and Cianie Department recently. 

The majority u! our native birds &r| r>i otc<:(€d aJfcady, and (lie bitds now 
idrled to (lie list are: Zebra, or Chestnut -eared Finch, Red-browed Hindi 
(Waxbtll), Crimson Roflefli, Eastern Rosella, Australian Pelican. 

Finches. — Previously both the dm-hr-- were protected over the hrecfjd'g 
season, but could be taken fur avury breeding during the re<» oi the year. 
The Fisheries and Game Department teeh that aviary -stock for the two 
finches .should have become well established and that these f.«trrl> should now 
have complete protection in trie native htatc. 

Roseftas — These lovely parrots deserve protection all the y**t found for the 
interest, colour, and beauty they bring to the countryside. It is realised that 
ar runes these birdi can become a problem in orchards, but the position will be 
met by the Department taVing a lenient view on the question of isMiing permits 
for cemtml where it is proved die birds are causing economic damage. 

l*t?iam. When lite original Game Acts were being prepared the Pelican 
was not nrcitcf ted # presumably because of its fish-eating habits. The ri-,heHcs 
and (same Department feels that the Pelican does not present any real threat 
to fisheries and deserves complete protection. Ir is nor sufficiently numerous 1o 
be a major factor in foil destruction 

NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK 

IKtiL-rvtd 'or ,-oU' Sfttt*. Ok.L-rVuricn \ ond O UCf ;.- ( v 

NOTES ON SEAGULLS 

It has Jjeeu noticeable ovc« the past few week* duu tarfcc Hocks of seagull; 
have been flying inland. According to the. Northcotc Leader Budijfit, some 
have been congregating iu Haxby Park, Bell Street, Preston, about eight 
miles n'Und. The Herald also reported that floel<5 oi gulls were flying over 
Koilur, nme miles from the Bay, and inUowmgr the ploughs. A wife of J» 
market gardener, who has lived there forty years, lias never seen the gulls in 
such numbers. At Wcstgarth I have watched them passing overhead, pre- 
sumably to and from their new feeding grounds, and have been surprised to 
sec some groups in excellent "V" formation. I had always thought ot euOs as 
I\aphazard, individual and independent fliers rather than gregajfoiiS- Perhaps 
for hi*h roctg-di5tap.ee flying, they need a navigator -leader. When the birds 
arc in formation they fly silently and purposefully, and when Ctkb afe heafcrj 
they come only Irom the unorganized masses. What could he the reason for 
this inland invasion* 1 The weather has not been consistently tough. Could it be 
that fish are scarce ark! ihe numbers of ^eagidls '*rc growing, So thai the birds 
musr supplement their fish diet with worms? 

F.. I. M won son. 

WEDGE-TAILED EAGLE TAKES A FOX 

Shortly after Easter this year, Mr \ r ocl Grig us. ffbo U a trainee at the 
Apprentices Training School at Raleombc, told me ol ili< follow (tig eyiiode 
which took "place during I:a=ter. Tie and his companion had been si anted by 
the incident, hut perhaps did not realUe the importance or" it, though they 
thought it extraordinary. They were enjoying a Camping holiday 00 ft facm 
near Ravenswood, where rabbits were plentiful. Thinking that they might be 
able to *hoor a fny, they leM a He.id rabbit in the optii and sat sud wailed lo 
see v.hether a fox might be attracted to it To then deStjhl, a f$n camr along, 



W Naturalists' Notebook [ v *|; *f 

and as H approached. Ihcy prepared to fire. Suddenly, to ihe .surprise of the 
sportsmen, the fox was plucked from the ground by a Wedge-tailed Eagle, 
and before they could recover their composure, it carried the fox from their 
sight around a hill Mr.- Griggs said it happened so quickly that the fox was 
theirs one second and the eagle's the next. This incident seems to have more 
than ordinary significance and to be well worth placing on record. 

— C. F. Lewis. 

WHAT. WHERE, AND WHEN 
F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Saturday, October l£— W'oodend to Maccdon. Take the 9 30 a.m. express from 
Spencer Street to Woodend. Bring two meals. Return train arrives Mel- 
bourne 7. 12 p.m. 

Saturday, October 26 — Pilgrimage to Baron von Mueller's grave at St- Kilda 
Cemetery for the centenary of Mueller's appointment as Director of the 
Botanic Gardens. Pastor Steineger will conduct a choir which will sing 
two German folk songs, and a short address will be given by Air. J. H. 
Willis- Meet at 3 p.m. at the main gate to the cemetery. Members are 
particularly requested to attend, 

Tuesday. November 5 (Cup Day) — Club picnic to Strath Creek. Leader: 
Mr. J. U. Garnet. Parlour coach leaves Batman Avenue at 9 a.m. Bring 
two meals. Fare 17/-, Bookings with Excursion Secretary, 

Group Meeting*: 

(8 p.m. at National Herbarium, unless otherwise staled.) 

Wednesday, October 16 — Microscopical Group. 

Friday. October 1R— Botany Group. The Group will meet in Mr. Lord's room 
at 514 LHHg Collins. Street at 8 p.m. (between King and William Streets). 

Monday. November 4— Entomology and Marine Biology Group. The meeting 
will he held m Mr, Strong's rooms at Parliament House at 8 p.m. Enter 
through private gate at south end of Parliament House. 

YVednesdav, November 6 — Geology Group. Literature Night. Speaker: Mr. 
E. D. Gill. 

Preliminary Notices; 

November 16-17— Bendigo F-N-C. visil to Melbourne. Details on page 75. 

Thursday. December 26-Wednesday, January 1 — Parlour-coach excursion to 
Genoa district. E>etails in last month's Naturalist. 

Makik Ali.kndkk, Excursion Secretary 

19 Hawthorn Avenue, Caul field. S.K7 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74— No. 7 NOVFMKRR 7, 1957 No §S7 



PROCEEDINGS 

The President. Mr J Rofi Garnet, chaired the General Meeting 
held at the National llerhaiium cm October 1-4 last, lie referred 
with feeling to the loss the Club sustained by ihc death of Mr, J.J. 
Freame who had been a member of the Qub for many years. Mr 
Swabv reported the death of the father of one of our Junior Mem- 
bers, Mr. Maurice Wilson, The sympathies oi the Club were ex- 
tended to Mrs. |. J- Freame and to Mr. Maurice Wifson- 

The subject for (He evening" was '\Recent Discoveries of Fossil* 
at Strathdownic, Western Victoria''. Fossils of various extinct 
animal?, together with colour slides of the localities in which they 
were found, provided a very interesting and educational talk. The 
President extended the thanks and appreciation of the Club to Mr. 
Gill for his address 

A letter received by the Club from the VV.A. Field Naturalists 
Club advised that the Natural History Medallion had been awarded 
tu Dr. Ser verity ai the wildfluwer display held in Perth during 
September. 

Knrh Mr, Garner and Miss Lester commented on the Club's 
nature .show held at Prahran last month. Mr. Garnet said he was 
disappointed with the attendance by members of this Club at this 
.<how. Mi-^s Lester suggested that members should be given at least 
eighteen .months in which to prepare for a major show so that mem- 
bers from within each group would be able to participate in it * A 
letter of appreciation lias been Written" to Mr. Ian Wallace to thank 
hint for the great help he gave in transporting equipment tor the 
show. Another letter of thanks has been sent to Mrs, Freame thank- 
ing' her fur allowing the Club to use smite of her material, although 
Mr. Freame was very ill at the time. 

Mr D.J Dick i son was elected ro Honorary Membership; Mrs. 
S. I.. Ovenden (Fast .Melbourne), Miss L. G. Vollbehr (South 
Varra^and Mr. W. G. Vears ( HighctO WCTC elected as Ordinary 
Members; Mr. A. M. Bald (Harrow), and "Mr R. F, Burn 
(Gcelong West) as Country Members, 

Mr. Wakefield reported seeing a Geli Miner at Noble Park. Mr 
also referred to the consistent germination of mistletoe seeds de- 
posited on branches of various shrubs in his garden. Mr. Swaby 

* It t* haped th«t the constructive rriticiRm* embneiied in Miss Leater'a talk siven 
lit vfeti ls*t meetiftii will be presented in the next i^sae of the Victo-rian> -Vu£ura6'jf, 
toiiet-hvi With a curcful analysis of all as|>ecta of thr whow Any member who -c«res to 
Submit any such triticisnu. On this show may do bc> if he wishes.— Ed. 

91 



M ifrmiiw TO*f 

suggested that members attempt to germinate these seeds which had 
not been through the alimentary canal of birds. 

Among the exhibits shown at the meeting were two epiphytic 
orchids — Dendrobium striolafum from East Gippsland and D. 
gracilliinum from New South Wales — which had been in cultivation 
for many years (Mr. Garnet) ; t\vo species of Mttrex from Cori- 
nella { Mr. P. Fiseh) • algal limestones in process ot formation from 
Biscuit Flat, 20 miles from Robe, South Australia ( Mr. K Hately) ; 
Citrus Gall Wasp (Mr. F. Curtis); Ilaliotis or Ear Shell and 
Pheasant Shells from Rottnest Island, West Australia (Mrs, F. 
Lewis) ; ten native Mowers and one introduced (Mr. A. Webb). 



MICROSCOPICAL GROUP REPORT 

The subject for the evening uf October 16 last wa* 'Fluid Mount*' 1 Mr 
Snell opened the discussion by quoting from literature written by leading 
international authorities on the subject and mentioned the various technique. 1 ; 
employed in making snc.h mount*. After the discussion, Mr, Snell demon- 
strated his 54-inch home-made micro-projector by a number of slide* until 
!he meeting closed. 



HAWTHOfcN JUNIOR FIELD NATURALISTS CLUB 

A report on trie activities- of this club, together with a list of their 
monthly meetings dalinp back to 19-13, has been received from Mrs. Frcame 

On 30th August last, this active club held its fourteenth anniversary 
party at which some thirty members and friends attended. 

This club has purchased a lantern and has now got a small bank account. 

Mrs. Freame, their Secretary, states that she could not have carried on 
over the years without the valuable support of Mrs. Carbines, and Messrs. 
Baker and Fisch. Mrs. Freame appeals (or greater interest from the F.NX.V- 



BALLARAT FIELD NATURALISTS CLUB 

We have received the annual report from this club- It has 12 financial 
members. The nmre-hearers arr.: President, Mr. A_ Sonsee ; Treasurer, Mr. 
E. Cummins; Secretary, Mr. J. R, Wheeler (42 Bradshaw Street. Ballarat). 



NATIVE PLANTS PRESERVATION SOCIETY 

The cluh lias received the 1957 annual report ot tins Society, and, as 
usual, this shows a long list of projects undertaken and successes achieved — 
but also records that expenditure has substantially exceeded income, 

The report makes two encouraging: points : that if soil is undisturbed it 
is almost unk-nown for introduced vegetation to make headway against unlive. 
growth; ami that native plants can "make a come-back" when protection is 
afforded, even although they have disappeared for many years. 



1957* J 'F&P Victorian Xoturalist 93 

THE AUSTRALIAN ABORIGINES AND FOSSILS 

By Ed.mi'M) D. (7xii, i.* 

Flint is a crvpto-crystalline form of quartz, found commonly in 
warm shallow seas with a calcareous floor almost free of terrigenous 
sediment. One of the latest discussions of the formation of these 
nodules is that of Rut ten (1957). The limey environment may he 
connected with the fact that silica is more soluhle in alkaline than 
acid waters (Mason 1952). The source of the silica is probably the 
skeletons of siliceous organisms, such as siliceous sponges. The 
flints found in the Cretaceous chalk of England are famous, and in 
Australia the flints formed in the Lower Tertiary limestones that 
outcrop in the vicinity of the Victorian-South Australian border are 
notable. From the latter, large palaeolithic-looking axes were made 
by the aborigines. The artefacts are so distinctive that McCarthy 
(1938) applied the culture name of Gamhierian to them. At Hollo- 
way's beach, just east of the border (see Geological Survey of Vic- 
toria map), there is an extensive emerged shore platform with 
numerous pebbles of flint eroded from the Tertiary beds (Plate 7). 
On the landward side of the beach are two sand ridges, and on the 
hard ground bared by a windblow in the more landward of the two 
ridges, the writer found two of these tools. 

Unfortunately, no flint tool of this type has yet been found hi situ 
by a person able to estimate the age of the deposit containing it. The 
"culture" is thus undated. Tindale (1957) has doubted whether 
these implements should be regarded as belonging to a specific 
culture. 

FOSSILIFEROUS FLINT IMPLEMENTS 

The flints referred to in the preceding paragraph occur in enor- 
mous numbers along the coast. Plate 7, Fig. 2. shows how they occur 
on the Pleistocene emerged shore platform at Holloway's Beach 
west of Nelson. They have also been observed in Pleistocene rocks 
in the caves of the same district. The aborigines could therefore 
readily obtain these flints from a number of sites along the coast and 
from exposures in caves and sink-holes. The natives apparently 
carried these flints considerable distances, and perhaps traded them 
from tribe to tribe. 

1. THE TALINDERT IMPLEMENT. Casey (1936) de- 
scribed an aboriginal knife of "brown or honey-coloured fossili- 
ferous flint", which was discovered when a drain was being dug on 
the polo ground at "Talindert", south east of Camperdown, Western 
Victoria. The site is on the ash spread of the Mt. Leura caldera 
(Gill 1953), which is of the order of 10,000 years old (Gill 1955) 
since a lacustrine stratum not far below gave a radiocarbon age of 

* Curator of Fossils, National Museum of Victoria. 



THE VICTORIAN NATURALIST 

Plate VII 



Vol. 7-1 




Fig. 1. Holloway's Beach, on coast between Glenelg River, Victoria, and 
South Australian border. Quarternary emerged marine terrace. 

FiC. 2. Early Tertiary flint nodules as they occur at Holloway's Beach. 

These were used by the aborigines for the manufacture of artifacts, which 

were carried to sites hundreds of miles away. 

[94] 



Nov. 
lorn 



Gfix, Tht* Atisiniiian Afuuiymcs au<? J*'nssih 9S 



approximately 13,700 years. The site, has been examined, but there 
is no evidence available of the relationship of the implement lo ihe 
tufT. It can only be stated that the kuifp is as old or younger than 
the latest of the Um layers 

Casey (p. 92) says: "No other example of a blade implement as 
large as this has been found in Victoria-" Another anthropologist 
found reason to doubt the original pruveuance of this specimen 
because it was the only one recorded, in this State at rhe rime, &7<J 
because the Wade is so much like a woman '§ knife as used among 
aborigines in Central Australia. The question was therefore put to 
the author whether this knife might in fart have come from Central 
Australia, 

Examination showed the presence of Tertiary foraminifera, and 
SO the specimen was submitted to Mr. Alan Carter, who recognised 
a ioramiuifer diagnostic of the Lower Tertiary. No Tertiary marine 
rocks arc known trom Central Australia, but, as already mentioned, 
nodules, of flint are common in ihe Lower Tertiary marine rocks of 
the Nelson District. It is therefore probable that the. blade, was made 
■of this material. The site is approximately 130 miles from the 
Vteforinn-.South Australian border. 

Mitchell (1949, Fig 39, p. 41) has since recorded a similar 
implement from Jtiverleigh, Victoria. 

L IMPLEMENTS FROM LORQUON.— In 1955, Pastor 
Les. G. Miles of Lorquon, south-west of Lake Uirul marsh in 
northern Victoria, sent to the writer a number of Mint implements 
which he collected locally- No flint occurs naturally lfi that area, the 
country consisting of Quaternary deposits which are the latest hi u 
long- series of Caino/ok deposits infilling the ancient Murray Gulf. 
Mr- A. Massola, Curator ot Anthropology, National Museum of 
Victoria, described the implements as a series of discoidal scrapers, 
one di which may have been used as an adze stone The Hint is 
fos*ihferous, including forummifera and hrvo/on, hut. most of ihe 
fossils are generically unidentifiable. The pieces of flint are light 
grey. fawn, brown, and reddish brown in colour. 1 .iihologically and 
palaeontologicaJly, it is likely that these flints also came from 1he 
Nelson district. Lorquon is over 100 miles from Nc-hou, 

FOSSIL IN ABORIGINAL CACHK 

The late Mrs. Fcnton Woodbtim of Black Rock, Victoria, col- 
lected many fossil* and other objects of natural history interest m 
Central Australia during the later years of her life. She informed 
me that she found secreted in a cave what appeared to be a piece ot 
grasstree gum, but some who have exammed.it think it may be hat 
guano preserved in a particular manner because of the dry condi- 
tions However, with it wa> a specimen of the well-known fossil 
Thotesshw anotiutht. 



9<J Gill, The Australian Aborigines- rtttff Fossils T ' vSu*J 

fn his review of the Quaternary beds of the Northern Territory. 
1,'Jr. R. \V. fr airbridge (1954) refers to the presence of these fossils 
in the mangrove muds: "A rather common fossil in these emerged 
mangrove muds, found all the way from the West Australian border 
to Queensland, is the crustacean Thalassina anomala.^ It would 
appear that the specimen in question was traded hy aborigines from 
The north coast of Australia down to aborigines in the Centre, for 
whom it would no doubt have considerable teratological significance. 
It may have been a magical object, and as such was kept hidden 
except for the special occasions on which it was used. 

ABORIGINAL AS A COLLECTOR OF FOSSILS 

Dr. F. VV. Whitehouse (1948) wrote an article with this title in 
which he recorded an artefact made from a piece of flinty chert .so 
:ls »o retain a complete specimen of a Cambrian trilobite. Among the 
implements collected from the Nangram Lagoon (where the abori- 
gines gathered each season to feast on the seeds of the large red 
water-lily) were \\vo pieces of fossiliferous rock. 

1. "A fragment containing a portion of a S'^infer and some 
crinotd ossicles." These were noted to he Permian fossils of 
which the nearest known outcrop is at Cracow, 130 miles 
distant. 

2. An ammonite (Myhwros) and a bivalve (AuceiHw) of 
Lower Cretaceous age, the nearest known outcrop of which is 
some 280 miles to the north-west. 

The only satisfactory explanation seems to he that the aborigines 
carried these fossils from distant parts to the Nangram Lagoon. 
Dr. Whitehouse also records an Ordovician cephalopod, CaUioun- 
vcems, shaped somewhat like a cylcr.ni, which an aboriginal brought 
to him. It was picked up ot\ rocks of Cambrian age from which it 
could not possibly have been derived. 

FOSSIL WOOD FROM A M1RRNYONG 

In the paiaeontological collection of the National Museum of Vic- 
toria, is a segment of the silicined trunk of a tree. The specimen 
measures 6 in. by 3 in, by 2 in., is fully silicificd. and stained brown 
hy iron oxide. It was found by Miss A. Bray on a "blackfellows' 
oven" at Piangtl. The more regular surface of the fossilized wood is 
polished, which may he due to much handling by the aborigines., or 
to some natural process such as whirl polishing, Presumably, it was 
collected by the aborigines, and may have been intended for arte- 
facts, or perhaps was .selected for some magical reason. In some 
areas of Australia, including the midlands of Tasmania, silicined 
wood was used bv the natives for implements (see Mitchelh 1949. 
p. 92). 



i9Gv J GitL, The Australian Ahorujmtt and Fossils 97 

REFERENCES 

Casey, D A, 1936 "Ethnological nowV. Mhh. Hat Wtot; Mctb. 9: 90-97. 

Fairbrivfee, R. W\, 1954. Australian Stratigraphy. Univ. W.A. 

Gill E. 0., 1°53. "Geological evidence m Western Victoria relative to the 
auittquhy of the Australia aborigines" Meut. Na-t. Mus. Vict. 18: 23*92. 

. J955* "Radiocarbon dates for Australian aichaeologicuf and geo- 
logical samples". Aust. J. Sci. 18. (2) : 49-52. 

McCarthy, F. D., I9o8. Rcpt, Congr. PrehisK far East, Vhi£u/ajv. 

MiicliHI, S. R , 1949, Stone-Age CrafUmeu. &vo. ( Melbourne. 

KuUen, M. (j , 1957. "Remarks on the genesis r>t flints". Atttitr. / Sci 255: 
432-439. 

'Initiate, tO. B, 1957. "Culture succession in South Eastern Australia from 
T-ate Pleistocene to the present'. Rec. S. A- Mus. 13 (h • 1-49. 

YVhttehouse, V. \V.» 194ft. "The Australian aboriginal as a collector of fo$wl$'\ 
QM.Xat. 13: M»-WK 



MISCELLANEOUS NOTES ON LAND MOLLUSCA 

By Ron. C Kr.RSTfAW* 

.Notes ftn fne mating habits of Limax gagatcs Praparnaud, Hrh- 
coriou atv'ieri Fenis.sac. and Cystapelta peiterdi Tate are included 
with ;i discussion of the habitat ot Cystopzlta peiterdi and Pasma- 
ditta jUUfjennanniae Petterd. These observations have l>ccn made 
in Ihe vicinity of the west arm of the Vumar River, north Tasmania. 

UMAX CAGATES Draparnaml 

The introduced black slug is altogether too common throughout 
Tasmania. Jt is variable m size and colour so far as one has ob- 
served to the present. A pair of slugs was observed in the early 
morning, mating on the flat exposed surface of a piece of bark. 
The slugs, having approached within a few inches of each other, 
began circling so that each followed m the other's tracks. This 
circling was persisted with for some time, at least live minutes, 
until the mucous trail was of some thickness. At a moment when 
the slugs were at opposite points of the perimeter rhey both turned 
toward the centre and moved together whereupon mating took place 
Some tune later they were observed lying about an inert apart, but 
eventually the appatent condition of torpor was thrown off arid 
both vanished from sight. 

IIEUCAmON" CUVIERl Ferussac. 

This species has been observed on numerous occasions in various 
stages- of mating, as tt is especially common on the Tamar r Almost 
invariably the larger individual pursues the smaller when there is 
difference in size in the individuals concerned. The course followed 
is very erratic, apjiarently having no rhyme or reason. The pursuer 

* Honar-ar* A«H>c»iie m Malac*>loy> , Owen "Victoria Mitseupt r Lauritfcaton. 



S3 Ktfs?i.vw\ MkivUunc&nt Notts on Land Mcilnsca 



Vict Xa1 
Vol. 74 



is frequently able to catch up, particularly if there U much difference 
in sue, and on such occasions there is considerable interest manifest 
m the mucous gland of the pursued Animal The pursued then will 
increase sp*ed to move away temporarily. After an indefinite period 
1 he erratic chase ceases and maLhijr takes place. As to how long 
the process lasts one cannot say as there has always been insufficient 
lilUe available to ascertain this point 

i VSTOPELTA PETTERDt Tare. 

During a period of considerably increased rainfall, the native 
slugs became very plentiful in all sorts of situations. Two individuals 
were observed climbing a tree to a point approximately live feet 
from the ground Without any preliminary courtship, at least to this 
point, mating took place. Cystapcltu pellet'di responds very notice- 
ably to variation in rainfall, In periods of prolonged low rainfall it 
hecomes very rare and difficult to find even in more or less marshy 
situations With an increase in rainfall, however, numbers of indi- 
viduals begin to appear within a relatively short period, and if the 
rainfall is persistent and prolonged over many mouths slugs may 
appear in places normally too dry tor them. These adventurous ones 
are probably unable to find suitable places to enable survival as the 
warm weather approaches, and soil moisture lowers. In Inw rain- 
fall areas the species cannot lie said to be normally common or 
gregarious, and usually not more than one individual is se«n at a 
time except when mating. However, during considerable increases 
in rainfall mentioned above, they become very common. 

Cysiopelixi pettcrdi may be considered reasonably susceptible to 
dryness, due to its lack of a shell. Hence an attempt was nude to 
ascertain how much "dryness" it could withstand in order to obtain 
a guide to its requirements lot survival. C. petterdi does survive 
under a wide range of natural conditions, as it is found in wet forests. 
in tea-tree swamps, and in normal sclerophyll forests, and even 
when the rainfall is below 25 inches, The slugs observed were 
collected in dry sclerophyll forest growing on sandy soils a few 
miles from the mouth of the Tamar River. Individuals placed f(i 
a match-box where moisture, hut not air, was excluded, shrivelled 
and dried after three to four hours in several cases, although one 
.survived almost twenty-tour hours Several individuals placed in 
an airtight tin without moisture were found to have shrivelled and 
dried within three hours. Incidentally, individual* for these tests 
were obtained during a period of increased rainfall when they were 
frequent. 

A number of individuals of Ifrh'conon cuvieri were collected for 
testing for comparative purposes. Those placed in a match-box 
remained alive for seven days aftei which they rapidly began to 
shrivel, But in a " airtight tin they survived for less than three days. 
The greater survival ability of this species may be correlated with 



■1ST J 



Kkkmiaw, Misc<timrmu Nvtcs vn Land AJotiunca 90 



lhe fact that in nature its activity continues under much drier con- 
ditions and ©vfer longer periods than any other native uiullusr 

In the West Tamar area prior to 195.1 a very much below a\erage 
ramfall brought virtual drought conditions for many months at a 
time Cys(op<?!ta ffitffrili survived these conditions, and. a> noted 
;ihuve r re*[>onded readily to the subsequent increase in rainfall. 
During the summer months a careful starch was made with a view 
to ascertaining conditions which would enable survival. Ii was 
found under rotting logs and bark in mar>hy areas, but this was not 
considered as a useful guide in dry areas where Cy*/o/>W/'j- was 
very definitely absent from such places It became obvious rhal 
only positions where the presence of moisture was possible were 
likely to yield results, and, furthermore, it would have lo be a 
position where moisture could be relied on for several months at 
a tune at least. There would have to he adequate shelter from the 
Min, and drainage conditions would have to be favourable. 

Eventually live individual was found in a position which met 
these requirements sufficiently lo ensure survival at least during 
the summer month?. This position was a shallow depression in 
which masses erf leaves formed a mulch There was a high proportion 
of shade present from trees and shrubs throughout the day, which, 
coupled with slope and the nature of the sub-surface drainage, would 
ensure moisture for h long period. The slug way found curled up 
on the moist soil beneath the leaves, and appeared to be »n a torpid 
condition, suggesting a state of aestivation Leaves on the surround- 
ing surface outside the depression lav on dry soil. Although a search 
was made of numerous apparently favourable positions only few 
individuals were found despite the abundance uf them a few months 
earlier 

Survival,, then, *Cenis to depend on the mnllnsc heinjj in appro- 
priate surroundings at the onset of dry weather, but now appro- 
priate these surroundings were would depend on their efficiency 
as moisture traps, and in the long run the period during which rain 
was absent would tend ro he the deciding factor. Many Cysiopelta 
must die every year through lack of moisture in areas with a dfy 
summer climate ; hovvevcr, tinder the normal climatic cycle, a breed- 
ing stock apparently survive* through even prolonged dryness. The 
possibility thai eggs may survive long periods of drought may be 
another factor but no information has been obtained in relation to 
CyslopeHu It is of interest ro note (hat after prolonged dry periods, 
the first rains brought out literally thousands of juveniles of the 
inroduced snail HeliccUa ixipwta Montagu, but fortunately a lar.^e 
proportion dwi not survive for long and a feared plague Ju the 
garden did not eventuate. 

Shelled molluscs undoubtedly possess a decided advantage in 
being capable of retaining sufficient moisture within the shell for 
prolonged aestivation. HcUtdrion cmdett, wdnch cannot witlnhaw 



100 Kemsmau, Misxcliimcctts N'tifaS on bttm MoUusca [ ci 



_ Vol. U 



into its shell entirely. is faced with a problem similar to that being 
Cystopclta, Though it is somewhat modified Jiehcanon, as ha* been 
rioted, is able to survive greater condition* of dryness than oihei 
native specks Is this only due to the presence of the shell? By 
comparison with other shelled molluscs this hardh* seems likely, 
although it is not surprising that a srntM* however inadequate, would 
he of some value. There is evidently some other factor involved, 



PASMAQ7TTA JUNGERMANNIAE Peiterd. 

A colony of this paralaomid species was found in a rotting log 
situated in a shaded position in dense hush, and a lengthy search in 
this area revealed only one other colony about a half a mile away, 
Inside the log these tiiiy molluscs were active at all times of the 
year, and with prolonged wet conditions some individuals were 
found moving about under leave? several feet from the log. In the 
Cataract Gor§e at Launeeston. thirty miles south of the above site, 
VY F. Pctterd round this species in numbers crawling on moss- 
covered -.tones. Rainfall and rainfall reliability are somewhar higher 
at 1 .auncestou than at the mouth of the Tamar. and this may account 
for the greater exposure tolerated as suggested by this example. 
This species would seem normally to be gregarious and to live 
in apparently somewhat isolated colonies, Examination of a number 
of individuals suggests that the species is homogeneous. How did 
the colony under notice reach their particular log? A search of 
dozens of logs failed to reveal any more than those mentioned above. 

It may be noted that only well-rotted logs are inhabited by 
molluscs. During prolonged wet weather some Individuals do ven- 
ture forth and these may perhaps furnish a link in the finding of 
a new home when the old one is eventually destroyed. Thus, one 
may imagine that r?tese adventurers may find another suitable log 
in time and establish n new colony while the old one dies with its 
habitat, or falls victim to birds scratching in the final debris. The 
colony mentioned would appear to be a survival from days before 
the laud LB the area was cleared for purposes of cultivation, a matter 
of forty years. ft is not necessarily implied that this present iog 
housed them then, but it seems unlikely that there have been many 
available in the small area in winch they were found. In addition, it 
seems unlikely that they may survive much longer as there is a 
dearth of Iog5 in a Mutable state of decomposition, but it may not 
be entirely out of the question as in this sheltered place there is 
always a quantity of debris in which molluscs may shelter, provided 
suitable fond is available. Drought, fire, isolation, and the activities 
of man are becoming mighty forces m reducing the chances of sur- 
vival of thfeffi tiny creatures in many places where once they were 
perhaps secure. 



NEW RECORDS OP MOSSES FO* AUSTRALIAN STATES 

(Victoria, T«4vn«*t*a an 4 rHe Norther* Territory! 

n> J, S| Wuu** 

Victoria 

WDKEAKA NITIDA Hnok, f, # ffflfe, 1644: S.E. portion o» Mt. Buffalo 
plateau— moist shaded granite rock surfaces a( Dickson Falls, ahuttl 
5,1)00 It. (*'. IK. *ftMtt a N T o 22i W.. Dec. WSft , Ml Builer— 
shaded surfaces of columnar basalt alonp; S. escarpment o* 'Dalrly h . 
growing with I fpyrodati Itujurus. etc., at about 5,400 ff. (/. // 
Willis. Mar. 1953)." 
A robust and usually glossy species of limited distribution in Tasmania. 
Kew 7x aland »nd Auckland Islands. No previous collections have been re- 
corded *rom the Australian mainland, but the species should be sought also 
fit the Wfc Bofn-mg (Vir. J and Kosciusko (N.S.W.) alpine regions. Its quite 
obtuse, broadly elliptic to almost orbicular leaves ha\e short indistinct nerves 
i vanishing about bait- way along the leal > ; They differ manifestly from those 
of all oilier Australasian species, except the Andean ajui Fuegian A, nwisami 
Hook ». & Wtts. { reported irom Campbell and Auckland Islands) which is 
hallmarked by a cylindrical capsule with 4-H slits. 

On April ]0, 19S4i T collected both A, rnfastriv Hedw. and A. shbttfotv 
Marv. ex Hook, on granite rttekl near the summit of Stivelceki Peak tar 
a bom 2,200 ft.'). Flinders UUwd. These connect Victorian and Tasmania;? 
eirxtrrrenccs and ar** the nr^r retmrds of the genus for Uass Strait. 

\KOFX:T\K(;iUM ? BELLU Brttth. ir Dixmt t l^iri-fnrma: Byaduk— 
"(nrnniiK beautiful cushions on damp basalt walls o> a cave* 1 near 
HarmauS Creek {A- C. Brou. i} lfknU- t No 3899, 2vov, 1955). 
The writer's tentative determination (Nfo. 278W., ]5/2/J9Sr3) was con- 
firmed by Mr. C. O. K. Salisbury (22/2/1956) — EfS far as identification is 
possible from b&riert maRri&I. No ulher species of AnocKtunyu*m is known 
to occur in Australia and, hitherto, A. /»(?//» bad been regarded as an un- 
common New Zealand endemic; it is very close to, and may yet prove to be 
a vaiiant of, the hoieal species -f. fowfiftcfum Sehwfci., .American population* 
of whirl) f. ii bit Aomewhac intermediate characters, Darrvn plains, lacking 
the lateral setae, arc remarkably simitar io cushions of jfl tiififtidtum cyathiror- 
f**wt. and '"Ay even yrow m close proximity to that species; but the drying 
leaves of Anocctanqiuvi are much less crisped (or curate), while the nerve 
is almost always roughened and papillose — h is smooth throughout in 
rlto/tfJBirrVi, Heuuglehole And LearmOulh. nt an excellent paper "The Byaduk 
Caves" [I'ict, ,Ynf. 73: 207 { Apr. 1957*)]. record this mos* with the comment 
"a feature en the damp walls ot several caves ... it is the commonest moss 
in tw Flower Pnr\ forming masses up to several inches across". 

TORTKLLA DAKIXri J. //. H'UHs, BSSi TU.-nfuk— on basalr rock* aloi>g 
road leading to caves, gr&iving with Ptvchamitrutm cTtstrale (A. C. 

Bi'angtchJc? Ko. ^4ft Jati J*JS6>. 

The record is repeated here as a. tribute lo the c?irbusi<*sm and assiduity oi 
the; Collector, Mr. Cliff. "Rcauglehole. who has performed a meritorious «r- 
vice nl eJucidatiug the distribution of all mos.-tes (I In stNxies) in far south- 
western Vidoria^-Tsormanby And Follcti Counties. Ait soon as this rare species 
was described \f'ict Nat- 72. <* (May 1955)], from the single known collec- 
tion fWartandyle}. lie conducted an exbauitive search in bis district and 
e\cntuilly succreded ui tracking down a second -XiNnrptice al the plant, on 
ba_\alt at Byaduk - see habitat note with ihw record hv Beaivflehnle hi riff. 
Stab VS m (Apr. 1957). 

• Nubonal Herlxiriimt of \"iu**uia. 



102 Wiu.t*. AVn- Rttoiyfs t«/ tftfki tor Australian SUtits [ V y^. yj l * 

ALOJNA \MB1GUA (^if/j # Schiwp.) Lnnpr. 1888: Between Lower 
Glenelg River ami Mt£acheros\ ffj County Follat— growing with 
Ceratottwi pntpurais and Tortnla muralis on limestone rocks near* 
pines (/*- C BMitylsholc, No 4020, Sept. I9S3): 

An Apparent inf reduction new to Victoria, but an occurrence jU Mar tot) near 
Adelaide (S. Aust.) was recorded in Vict, iVV. 72 9 (May 1955), This 
species differs from the single indigenous <'l/m'nn mltivaninm (C Muell.J 
Broth, principally m ils leaves, which lack any hair-points. I?pws ot simple 
lamellae densely cover the. upper surfaces of the leave*, In "A J Grout's 
Moss Flora of North Amttfka (1928-40), the plant is treated as a variciy of 
A. alouhs (SthuUz) Kiudb, 

PHILONOTfS AUSTRALIS (Mitt,) Jutf}., 1875 Between Ml. Beauty 
and Belong township — growing with Bfyutit Mimdum on a dun 
illuminated wall above roadside ot S.E.C. construction area, at about 
1,700 it. (C. B. Kay, S.E-C Feb 1956) ."Green's Creek waterfall on 
Belong SJLG race, about 3 miles N E. of Boguitg township (C*. IS, 
Kay t Oct 1956). 

This constitutes the first record of the specie* for the Australian mainland : 
it Had previously been noted only iti New Zealand, Kt'fgoclcn Island **tid Tas- 
mania — a doubtful specimen from St Mary's Pass [sec G O. K. Samsbury 
ill Papers & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tar. $»: .19 (1955)1. As pointed out by Mr 
Saiusbury (who determined this muss fur me, No 27SW., 22/2/ 56 ? lift hlfl 
Handbook of Nt2 Mosses, 1955, P ansiratir differs from the other two 
mud) more common Australian species (P. ttmus and P- scabrifatia) m its 
robust habit preference for very wet habitats ami lodger (2 mm- or more), 
plane-margined leaves which are faleate-secunH as in Hyfmnrti, The two 
Victorian collections are unfortunately barren. 

PSEUDOSCLEROPODTUM PURUM ijivdw.) Pfcisdi.. 1915: Wert 
Portland — forming lanic patchea over ground, soritetimeft with 
Hvfutum iupresstforutr. on fringe of the town reserve (A. C. 
BeoH/jUhole, No, 4025, Sent, |95r>). 

Widespread in the northern hemisphere, atso in Argentina, this robusi 
memher of the Orarhytlircintrw is sometimes known as Neat Meadow Feather 
Moss. The major branches, to 6 inches long, are regularly pinnate with blimr 
ended branchlets, the whole appearing swollen and very translucent wheil 
wet. Knaves arc broadly ovate and closely overlapping, but capsules are 
rarely produced. The species has not been recorded previously from Aus- 
tralia, and it is almost certainly introduced here— jnst as in the two known 
New Zealand occurrences (at Auckland and Tastnan). Throughput Britain it 
is a frequent, abundant moss in wet gra«y places and on shaded banks, fin a 
recent private communication, Dt, D J- Carr ol the Botany School, Mel- 
bourne University, report* occurrences of Ptettdoscleropodium in both the 
Mai-edon and Dandenonp Range areas; he intends to discuss these and other 
probable instances of moss introductions ma forthcoming paper.) 

Y vim OHIO 

ERIOHUS BROWN U Dixon 1927 Volley Fern Gorge near Latmcestcm— 
on hark and tree-fern tntnks in rain-forest of Gordon limestone for- 
mation, at about «0Q it. (Maty 7Wdr. Oec. 1954— "H ,ZT io Mat. 
Kerb. N.S.W.). 
The speries is new to the Commonwealth md makes the third known re* 

prcscntativc of its jremu in Tasmania [£ flexuolU'x i Mitt ) Jaeg. and £. 






'JS&Vl Wli.LiS, A-rrc tfccfoJt of Musses far Australian Slfitn 103 

d>i,ifitUfc.f <"Hook. f. & Wils.) Mitt. Iwiny the other two| \ it had been con- 
sidered endemic in New Zealand where it is wdvly dt»lnboted ( especially q| 
the North Island. although seldom collected, fi brottW is closely related 10 
/;. npicttltttnv, bating a stout glabrous seta (oitlv *..! ntttv Iwag in. ihe Latin. 
ce*ton specimen), the nerve very sliort. and ill-defined or c¥*n lacking; but 
it departs front this and all fiiftcr austral" specie* mi it! very narrow, weal; 
leaf-border. The apiculu> is short hut slender. Mr. Sain^JUrV kindly con- 
firmed my determination ( N T o. 273 W, ?5/y/tV5$.i. 

Northern Territory 

Up to the present time, fifi '"'lore than sever specie* of mosr-es have ever 
been recorded from the vast area (more Uuo halt a trtllior. iKpiart- miles) ot 
the Northern Territory. indeed, until ihc writer pub.h fitted the occurrence o» 
four additional species tyft Vtyt Nat 72: 74-75 f$vpt. L955)1, the only ttecfi 
"known were Fixsidtms wcttMafis Mitfi, Octni'trph'.mttu alhidum Medw, and 
Rrachtmem-um f<rciisiiintwi (Hampe) JsQtf — a single collection of each, r»:- 
TjrcjvtVU'd in the Melbourne rlcrhartuui It is now possible to ;«dd the follow- 
ing eight specie*, making; 15, and there still remain (in m t v moss herbarium) 
five recent collections which boa t.ot be recognized, except as to genua — two 
in A r/sroV/»r and a possible Trit'ltusft'tmkm, Ihiil'ttht iuid J^ohlui UnforUmaleH, 
all these example* are barren — a very common condition among tflUjKe*) 
.xciit rine m Ihc Territory 

Kvett the present talto of 2U species i* astonishingly low. litre all boianU'al 
collectors In North anc Central Australia during the past century,, given hut 
©cant or haphazard attention to the bryophyte flora?' Perhaps mosses 1 have 
not always been gathered a? assiduous!) as have the vascular plants; felj I 
do not believe that an affirmative answer would satisfactorily explain ifu- 
present paucity of recorderl species. As king a^o as 1814 Robert Brown com- 
mented [Appendix TTf of FlindoiV V&ytit/t to Terra JtustmUs, {k 539] - 

III irvcral / I the isl.ienV gif th« thitjih nf f'^nwvlI'VA, hiivinjf u J-'lorA of 
l*hnm'TioK*>HQus yhnH vxccrclmfj 2<i:! iiitfeiiw, 1 <ti4 not OlHr»'Ve i\ tiingle 
• peck's uf HtlxU. 

Baron von Mueller, who: *pciit eleven mouth:; ill the Northern Territory 
With A. C Gregory's expHitinii (lBS3-5ti)< wrote concerning h'issidc^s 
incfanoffe Mitt — "one a\ the only three mosses- seen by me in Notth-wesi 
Australia in 1855 utirt l-8;"0/' later he- remarked [AwJyiiait rmiwiugs of 
AKstynftaw Mosses 1 : d \ 1864) J : "The whole Of tropical Australia with ihc- 
exccpi*09i of t(s cash-ro wei tr-rest -mountain^ is ahnnst totally devoid ui 
irrossfis" Mso R L, Specht, hountst v.'irh tlie N'fitior.at Ge-a^raohic Soc1«iy- 
Smith^orttar. Jnslitution Expedition to Arnhein Land (in co-operation with 
the Australian Government) during April to November H*Wi failed 1o secure 
.V single mo^s. although he covered gfvat disWtiCtie and collected ""-^.500 plant 
specitnctls tincludmj; .* numlier of lichens and tuugi'i. 

Fur a numlvr of years past, ] have had a team of enthusiastic collector* 
constantly on the fook out for mosses ami moss-like plants, hoth in the 
Territory and in far north-western Australia To their effort* entirely J am 
mdchtcrJ ior the record* now being published . but they all have the »amc story 
to tell — very few specifcs. occurring at cotnparalively few and isolated places. 
We'are ta*C6d'vvilh"tht* "in'tritaMe cotK'luslon That' the Territory is quite tlit- 
favQUffthlt jo br?oph_v3es, ,suppt?rting only a *tna?l nutituer (probably less than 
40 specie*) o( tnosies, mostly small ephemcrals; no plenrocJrpous ktttd \m% 
yet beeit found Ti is Altnost certain that intensive uhservattou — especially 
.tlong watercourse, al springs and in temporarily damp >]>ots— will re^Til 
the presence oi certain widely'ranping, minute sprtiec, eg in the ss-yet- 
unrccorded senera Amnion, tSptteitimnn, Gttiuspfrmutn and Oonioiju'tjititit, 
hut their nun>ber wonkt be very lioiited. 



104 VVu.Lts, iVnv Records cf Mqsscs &h Australian States [ V ^ ? J 1, 

TORT ELLA CAI.YCINA (Sckicgr.) Uivon. 1923 Finke River (Rev. ft 

KmpCi 1882 — iu Herb; MEL),; Palm Valley, Fink* gorge area 

(P. Fuch. May 1954—barren). 

A, tardy; variable species, widespread in coastal, calcareous and inland 

regions almost throughout temperate Australia It is recognizable when in 

truit by the long cylindrical penchaetiuu* sheathing the ba*e of the «cta, and 

in »ll stage? l>y the undulate leaves which have at their bases a bold V-sbaocd 

area ot long hyaline cells, subtending several rows of golden anil papillose 

juxtacostal cells. 

POTT! A WIT.LISIAiVA G. O. K, Simubury, 1956: Stanley Chasm. Mac- 

donnelt Ranges, on sleep- boulder-strewn slope fiSiVfl Erkkson, Julv 

1955— TYPE in Herb. Saiusb., No. 18, 380; topi TYPE id Here, 

MEL). 

The author of tin* recentty-rffcwibcrl inosi has remarked [Rev, Bryot- <S* 

I.ichenoL 25 y -4; 217 [1956/1 that "its interest is in inverse ratio to its 

size". The bright of the entire plant (slender seta and capsule uicUldcdl i* 

only 2 mm. 1 — so that much credit is due to the enthusiasm and acute vision 

of the lady collector Mo other member of the genus Ponia has ever heen 

coltccied in the Northern Territory, and the locally endemic P. KTO.rwrtfl 

makes a third known species of the subgenus Schisopfiasiiwn. 

DESMATODON CONVOLUTUS (tfrkt.) 8*Wt, ]9o9: Blatherskite Hil), 
2 miles S- of Alice Springs (M. Kathleen Woodbntn, Aur. 1952 — 
barren) ; Stand Wy Chasm, MacdonneU Ranges, in damp shaded 
rock-crevice among icrns and lichens (M forde. C.S. it I.R.O.. No. 
809, July 1957—iu fruit). 

A hardy, variable, cosmopolitan, and also very widespread species in the 
drier parts of Che Commonwealth (Upper Murchison River, Ntttlarbor Plain, 
Musgrave Ranges, etc.). The hroadish leaves with revolute margins, obscure 
papillose Cells and granular nerve, which widens prominently toward its 
shortly excurrent point, are characteristic features even when fruit is not 
available. 

FUVARIA HYGROMETRICA HWfe.. 1*01- Finke River (Rev. H. Kempt. 
\mi in Herb. MEI.1 ; Palm Valley. Finke gorge area (P. fita* 
May 19i4 — barren) . west ot AUcc Springs township {M. fdithicen 
Woad{iufn, July 1952 — barren) 

Cosmopolitan and" very characteristic with its long setae, oblique arcuate 

sulcate capsule and double pe'istonte. 

FUNARK APQraVMTA f/W.) Broth. t MW: Standley Chasm. Mac- 

donncll Ranges (G. IV. Comube, June 19*5) ; Hugh Rivec Gap. 40 

miles S.W. ol Alice Springs, damp shaded ground under Eucalyptus 

tamaMulcnst's (N. Forcle, CS. & I.R 0., No. S73, Aug. 1957). 

Often abundant in arid parts of Australia, the erect capsules ea^h having a 

conspicuous taperlitg nock (al least as long as the fertile portion) and lacking 

any annulus or peristome ; the collections cited were 1ft fruit. 

FUNARiA ; GLABRA Tay?. % 184<i: Mt Olga, at permanent water-hole, 
growing; with Rictfo sv- under Eucalyptus camatdui^nsis and R. 
trrninaUs (A*, fordc, C5. h l.R.O , Mo 150", June 1956). 

This single collection was Imm the steep bank of a large creek, where it 
formed dense green mats. Fruits are embryonic and useless for purpose*. <if 
identification; but the toothed leave*, whh nerve tailing well below the apex, 
conform well W ihe Circumscription oi F. qlnbra — another common, hardv 
moFE. 



tfitj Willis, fttm Kccards of Mosses for Australia* SwUx 105 

BRYL'AI ARGFKTEUM Hrdw., 1801: Between Macdomiell h Chewing 
Ranges, west of Alice Swings (Afi K<.\ili?ei')> Woodhnru, June and 
July 195:!); Blatherskite HiH t 2 miles S of Alice Springs iSf. 
Ko'thteai Woodtntrn, Aug. 1952) ; Ayer's Rock (M, tfothtftti Wocd- 
burn, Sept. 1955) all collection* barren 

A common ami cosmopolitan plant occurring in a reduced 3ttd barren con- 
dition over rnurh of Central Australia , the obtuse and silvery shooU arc 
unmistakable. 

BRYUM ? PACHYTHECA C. */W/_. 1849: Between Macdouuell A 
Che wings Ranges, west* of Alkv. Springs (Afi Kvlhlfvn Woodhafti, 
Jape and July 1952) ; Blatherskite Hill, ^ miles 5. of Alice Spring 
I Af. KatMscn Wotidburn, Aug. 1952) : Stand ley Chasm, Macdouncll 
Katies (P. FtieK May 1954: G. W CdUhbt, Jmt 1955) ! Talli 
Patu Springs, about 35 miles W- of Haa&i's Bluff (P. FCtflfc May 
1954), Ml Conner — at ihc eastern foot (M. Kuthleat lVc>odburn, 
Aug, 1952) ; Ayer's Rock {M. Kathleen Woodbiiw, Sept. 1955) . 
Ml. Oltfa (-1. Hunhury. Sept 1953)— all collections barren- 
Very hardy and variable (with a large synonymy) and probably the com- 
monest moss throughout the Territory, but rarely seen in fruit- Tts dark red 
capsules with very obtuse, rugose and swollen bases have been aptly likened 
to "an. acorn in it* cup". 

Net? CftlJeffttrin iiimkr r . nufiixert t>y tht> lp:tfr ''\V" ifgntfr 5|>#eiWBW «» 
the wri'-a's own be r bar him. Thai worth "fr-iH'" and ^capSlUV' It* 
owd iMftcad ol the itucUv correct *hcca <ot ifarptyp') 



NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK 

IJUsetve4 lt>t your Nctes, Obtcrvotiens cad Queries) 

SALMON. trout, WHITtBAIT, GULLS AND FISKI3MEK 

Further to Mr. Hanks' note in the August issue of the Victorian 
Vatunrfist {195/.). similar drives of Whitebait by Salmon trout used to occur 
lit intervals of a *cw years in Lonsdale Bight, between Point Lonsdale and 
Qucrnsciiff- 

I have not henrd of them for some years, but this may be due to the lact 
that t arc not such a constant visitor now as formerly. These drives followed 
a regular sequence? — "boiling" of the sea as described by Mr. Hanks, White- 
bait rustling ashore to escape, and big Salmon-trout, mad with excitement, 
dashing backwards and forwards behind them taking any bait ottered. Over 
all, the gulls havered, but 1 do not recall these being so thick as "to suggest that 
^foreign" birds were in attendance- At the Heads we always have plenty of 
our own. 

On one occasion, 1 found a shoal of yountf Barracoota, about eight incl'f-5 
long, driven up the beach in apparently the same manner This drive took 
yUce In the early morning, when no one was on <hc bench, so I cannot say 
whether the enemy was Salmon-trout again, or perhaps the parents of the fish 
concerned. 

Incidentally the "Whitebait" referred to in this note, and presumably by 
Mr. Hanks, is not the New Zealand species, but a much larger fish, one of a 
.lumber oi sirmlar species closely resembling, both in mz? and appearance, liie 
lish canned by the Norwegians under the name of Sild. 

— E. H. Qkvvli. 



106 The yictonnti Naturalist Vol. 74 

WHAT, WHERE, AND WHEW 

F.N.C.V, Excursions and Meetings: 

Saturday, November 16— Combined visit to the Altona Salt Works with the 
Beudigo F.N.C Subject: Seagull? and waders. Leader: Miss I, Watson 
(Secretary of the B.O.C. Altona Survey Group) : Transport will be by 
private ears. Meet at 1.30 p.m. at the loading ramp apposite the C.T.A. 
Building, west ftom Elizabeth Street, hi Flinders Street. 

Saturday. November 16 Combined meeting and conversazione at the. National 
Herbarium fit 8 p.m, with the Beudigo F.N.C. Speaker: Dr. M. Chatta- 
wny (Division of Forest Products, CS.I.R.O-). Subject: Those Odd 
Eucalypts. Members arc requested io bring a small plate for the supper 
which will follow the lecture. 

Sunday. November 17— Combined parlour-coach excursion to Yellingbo and 
the Sir Colin McKeu?ie Sanctuary, Hcatrsville. with the Betuhgn F.N.C. 
Leader : Jfe F. S- Hanks (President of the K.A.O.LL). Subject: The 
ITel meted Honeyeater and General, The parlour-coach leaves Flinders 
Street opposite Ball & Welch at 9 a.m. Bring two meals, Fare, 18/-. 
Booking with the Excursion Secretary. 

Sunday, Decemher E— Excursion to Brigadier Officer's plantation at Olinda. 
Take 8.55 a.m. train from Flinders Srrect to Upper Ferntree Gully and 
rhen bus to Olinda. Bring one meal. 

Sunday, December P — Geology Group excursion to brown c.Or.l deposits. 
Bacchus Marsh. Travel details at Geology Group Meeting 



Group Meetings; 

(8 p.m. at National Herbarium, unless otherwise stated ) 

Wednesday. November 20 — Microscopical Group. 

Monday, December 2 — Entomology and Marine Biology Group, The meeting 
will be held in Mr. Strong's rooms at Parliament House at 8 p.m. Enter 
through private gate at south end of Parliament House. 

Wednesday, Decemher 4 — Geology Group, Speaker : Mr. Baker. Subject : 
Piants of Coal Deposits. 

NOTE: The Bofrony Group will nor meet rhii month because of the Bendigo 
F.N.C. visit. 



Preliminary Notice; 

Thursday, December 26- Wednesday. January 1— Parlour -coach excursion to 
Genoa district. The coach will leave Flinders Street, opposite the Gas 
Company, at 7.30 sharp. Bring: two meals Members are requested to pay 
the remainder of the bu-s tare before, or at, the December meetings Other 
detail? of this excursion have been given in the Victvrum Naturalist for 
September. 

Makir Am-f-nui-r, Excursion Secretary 
- — . 3$ Hawthorn Avenue. Caulneld. S.E.7. 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol- 74— No. g DECEMHKR % 193/ No. 388 



PROCEEDINGS 

About 100 members and friend* attended the monthly General 
Meeting at the National Herbarium ob November 11, 1957. Mr. 
J. I\0i Garnet, who chaired the meeting, announced the death of 
Mrs. rauon, who was the wife ai Dr. Patton, Dr. Fait on has been 
a member of this Club for many years. A welcome was extended 
to Mr. and Mrs- Sfcarkey, of Denmark, Western Australia. 

Mr. R. F. Bum, of Geeloug West, gave a very interesting lecture 
on Victorian sea-slugs. A brief resume on this lecture has been 
supplied by Mr. Bum, He pointed out that because of the lack of 
entbnswism by many of the older Australian conchologtsts, fjbi=s 
group had been neglected in Victoria until recent years. About 
thirty-six species have now been recorded for the State, but there 
••ire more which are known to occur and not recorded. A new species 
was described during; the lecture and this is defined on page 116 ot 
this i.-.sue. Mr. Burn made general remarks on collection, identifica- 
tion, and preservation. He discussed anatomical derails which differ 
quite markedly from species to species and genus to genus. Species 
of the five groups of sea-slugs {Opistkn hran chia) represented in 
Victoria were described and illustrated. Shells from certain species 
were exhibited and colour slides of a number of different types were 
shown to give some idea of the diversity of Victorian sea-slug^. 
Several interesting questions asked during the evening were ably 
answered by Mr, Horn, 

A report was made of the pilgrimage <o "Baron vnn Mueller's 
grave at St. Kilda Cemetery on October 26 last. 

It was announced thai Council had given consideration to \ht 
views propounded by Mi.?!; I .ester concetnm^ shows at t He la*t 
General Meeting, and these have now been referred to the special 
Show Sub-committee. A request from die Muomba Nairn? Show 
Committee asking for volunteers to help set up. care lor, and dis- 
mantle exhibits For the show during March next year was brought 
before the notice of members. 

The Secretary announced that he bad received a letter from the 
federation of Tasmanfan Field Naturalists Clubs advising that EG 
camp would be held at Cradle Mountain in the near future. 

Mr. T. F. ZirMer (Oakleigh ) was elected as an Ordinary Mem- 
ber of the Club; Mrs. T. F; Zirkler as Joint Ordinary Member, 
"Mr- C A. Garxeau .(.Deal Island) as Country Member; and Peter 

JO? 



Killin (Frahran), Ian Disney (Frahran), and Michael Nixon 
(Winsdor) were eiectetl as Junior Members. 

Among the nature notes for the evening were reports from 
Miss Woollard and Mr. Mclnncs. The former commented oil a 
magnificent, display oi Baeckea ranwsismtm and Crr.yiJJea rrpens 
at Toolangi. Mr. Kclnuea said he had seen about >0G black swan* 
at Curdies River. The Secretary, Mr. Coghill, asked if members 
eoutd tell him the meaning of the name "'Boobialla". 

The Lar^e Doddet, Cuxcnta eurnpnea, growing irr- herbaceous 
plants and grass on the. basalt plains near North blssendon, and 
collected on October 27 last, was exhibited by Mr. Garnet. He also 
exhibited garden-grown native shrubs. Marine shells, viz. Hitmplt- 
rt'xia stranqei and Dacosta nudtiincfiilatis {mm Western Port, D. 
ausirahs from Xew Sontb Wales, and Gastnuhaena Uismsuuco. from 
Port Phillip were also shown. The remaining exhibits were garden- 
grown native shrubs exhibited by Mr. Ilaaseand Mrs. Fiseh ; Nidus 
of a Sand Snail by Mr. Hankrs ; Mount Gambicr coralline limestone 
by Mr. Mclnncs; and fungi by Mrs. Bailey. 

The uicetiug dosed at 10.10 p.m. 

FRANKSTON FIELD NATURALISTS CLUB 

The Honorary S-ecietruy oi the above Gut), Mis. Eleanor Wood, ha-- nesut 
the F_r\\(lV\ a list t*( its activities lor the next twelve mouths. A rgrrtial 
invitation has beer, isstted to members of our Club to attend the mefrmgJ 
n\-.<\ excursions. In 1958, monthly nicotines will be held en the fourili Vfm 
pevfoy aoct e veiirsioas to Mr. vUtcncilV "Aiccona" Mtttcum* Gftta Cictk, 
Btaumaris. Knuikston fjuatttea, "Tubbu. R\tbba", und to Mount Martha nnd 
Dronwna. will al«o he. held. 

CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF WILDLIFE 

By A. Dukkavin BvTcn^a, M Sc* 
|>mnmary ot Address read lidorc the. K.N.L.V. <m September 9; L957! 
The role or the Fisheries nnd Game Detriment in primarily one 
ot conservation and management of wildlife resources but these are 
not two unrelated activities because sound management is. a. con- 
servation roob 

Examples of conservation activities readily come to mind. Ow 
of the mo.st successful programmes is that of the conservation of" 
the Koala, the population of which has been built up from an esti- 
mated 1.000 animals in 1937, to a figure in execs* of 50.000 today. 
These figures refer, of course, to Victoria, Another example is 
the recent proclamation adding- the Australian Pelican, Crimson 
Ivosella, Eastern Rnsella, Zebra or Chestnut cared Finch, and Red 
browed Finch (WaxhiH) to the fully protected list. When the 
original Game Acts were being prepared the Pelican was not pro- 

DUfeetoi of Fiiheiies and Game. Vic tot. a. 



iwJ Bl'AHiiH, CoJit\'rv<jUQn mui A-iuncf/siinvit r*f hVilcHifc W 

lifted presumably because of it h fish-eating habits. The Fisheries 
and Game Department feels that the Pelican dors not preseni any 
ical threat to fisheries ami descries complete protection. Ji is net 
sufficiently -numerous to be a niajm factor in rl.<h destruction. The 
Crimson and the Eastern Kosella deserve protection all the yeaT 
round (or the interest, colour, ;nnl the beamy they bring- to the 
countryside. It is realised that these birds can become a problem in 
orchards Ut times, but the position will he met by ihc Department 
taking a lemmt view on the question of issuing permits for cortu>l 
wher« i| is proved the birds are causing economic damage. IVe- 
vmujty, the Zebra or Chestnut-eared Finch and Rcd-browcd Finch 
(WftwDl^ were both protected over the breeding .season, but 
LOllld he taken during the rest: of the year. The ]Msheries UlTct Gnmr 
Department feels that aviary block for these two finches should 
h;u-e become well established, and that Ihese birds should now 
haiT complete protection in the native state. 

TIw current licensed, but not of>cv, possum season is an example 
of management. Here is, a case fit an animal population breeding 
up fci such a level that serious economic damage is being cap&ed. 
Various red gafll£( on which a former group recentlv placed a value 
.if £ 2 DO v&ch as shadc-rrees, are Uiog destroyed- Serious damage 
is hcim; done to pine plantations (other native animate are aUo 
involved here), and damage also is being done to stored grain, (inn, 
vegetable's, and property. The licensed season is aimed at reducing 
the possum population. 

Tlrsre is a growing- reulizai.iou thai regidalwms oIohc are a nega- 
tive approach to conservation and management, ma] in the absence 
of protection of living space (habitat! will srrve Utile purpose For 
example, the greatest need of waterfowl today is adequate and 
.yiitabl? living space, The habitat problem may bi' approached in 
three ways: preservation, management, and manipulation. 

Colour-slides lakcn during a vksit to [W 1 uited Stales in 1954*5 
were used to illir-.trate the habitat problem. Several series bi sh'dcs 
were shown 

The Rrtt series i Ikt-strated the \l'oiamu*-km Wildlife Refuse in 
North Carolina. This, is a groat waterfowl refuge which, to -fulfil 
ils role in a country wiih diminishing swamp and marsh land, must 
be so managed and manipulated -hat it can carry more waterfowl 
lhan it would have carried naturally, This is being achieved by 
forest management, planting of food crops, and encouraging the 
growth of submerged aquatic plants to keep the. water clear, The 
latter is achieved by the reduction of 'wave action and by the 
removal of carp which keep the sdt continuously disturbed when 
they feed on the bottom of the fake 

The Wichita Wildlife Refuge in Oklahoma was illustrated b\ 
the second series, Here a great tract of prairie has been fenced of3f 
and an area ideally suited to buffalo is hemg maintained by sound 



110 BtftCUKft. Conscrwtion and Maiuwcmcnt of H'ikUif<: [^wlh* 

soil and water conservation. The. buffalo nearly disappeared because 
of lns.=. of it* living space. 

Another, wildlife refuge, that of Piedmont in Georgia was, illus- 
trated by the; third, series ot slides. This was established as a turkc> 
management area and conservation has been achieved by forest 
management which gives an "edge effect' 1 . This was done by making 
clearings which increase the actual length of the forest margin or 
"edge", and it is under these conditions that the turkey bTeed.s best. 
Food-crops are planted in the clearings, 

The fourth series showed fish fanning in Alabama. This con- 
sists essentially of water conservation and submerging of barren 
and unproductive laud which is then capable of producing rish crops 
under proper management, Allied activities constitute an important 
industry — the raising of worms for bait, growing of bamboo for 
fishing-poles, and the construction of many thousands of ponds. 

The fifth series covered miscellaneous refuges over a large parr 
of the Unked States and demonstrated that maintenance of habitat 
is the key to conservation. Perhaps the most sr iking example was 
the series of slides showing the Whooping Crane in the Arkansas 
Wildlife Refuge on the Gulf of Mexico. This great rfcfUgfi was 
established in an attempt to save the twenty-odd birds which now 
remain. 

Finally, some groups of slides dealt with the Yellowstone National 
Park in Wyoming, the Crater Take, National F.-nrk in Southern 
Oregon, and the Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument in South- 
ern Arizona. The particular significance of these national paries is 
that tracts of country are being maintained in a natural state. Many 
national parks are great wildlife refuge?. 

Reference was made to the role oi clubs and oigani/.ations such 
as the Field Naturalists Club. We have already entered the era of 
the professional conservationist and wildlife manager. What is the 
mutual arid relative rnle of the Fifld. Naturalists Club which has 
been active fov very many years and which has pioneered activities 
hi some fields, and the Fisheries and Game Department"' Is this 
not a period during which there will have to be reorientation nnd 
adjustments? 



PILGRIMAGE TO BARON VON MUELLERS GRAVE 

(Commemorating the conlenory cf his appointment os Director 
nt Melbourne Botoni< Gardens, August M r 18S7) 

On the balmy .spring afternoon ot Saturday. October 26. ,vivty 
people gathered at SC Kihja Cemetery to participate in an important 
celebration winch had been arranged hy Pastor fe Steimgev (of 
the German Lutheran Church) in conjunction with the Council of 
of the FN.C.V. Mr R. T M PescotU present Director of the 



[JJjj] flilttrtoti&t /■> Warm* ?><m M'teikr'* Gmvr II! 

Botanic Gardens, was in ehatge of lite programme at the graveside, 
and among Ihose welcomed were: the Viet -Consuls for Germany 
(Doctors fovy au«j HinztO ; A'lr, \ J, Hopton. o.B.li\, representing 
Iftc Historical Society of Victoria; ihe President of die Field 
Xaluralists Club (Mr. ji 1?os Gamei). and many members oT 
Pastor Stcinigcr's chinch. Attendance of F M.C. members wlas 
disappointing, and those who could have come missed a solemn 
but inspirational oendsion. 

Three addresses on tra life and work o~ von Mueller were given 
(by Mr. J. H. Willie of die National Herbarium ^tarT, Mr Hopton 
and Pastor Steinigerl, interspersed with two £<;lk-sougK dchghtudiy 
rendered in harmony by ;i choir front the German Lnthctan Church 
under the able haron of Mrs. Ramp — ***Wcr liat died, du schoncn 
Waid" (hy Eichendorff) and \Ibr wunderschbiicn Bcrgeshuhu" 
(Gebhardt'i. A member of the choir (Mrs Ilauerj placed a simple 
fragrant wreath of Mlark WMtlt blossom {Acuria moltissiuia) on 
the grave. Three small shrubs trf Red Boronia (.if, hcterof>hyfla) l 
supplied by the Botanic Gardenst, were planted bv Messrs Garnet, 
Hopton and Pastor Stemiger, under the supervision of; Mr. Pest'oil 
who explained that ihȣ charming West Australian flower was 
one of tN very many named by Baron von Mueller during bis. long 
term as Government Botanist. fl was gratifying lonote the flourish- 
ing State of Borcke<J t Grfytny and other bushes planted within the 
gfiiVC-niiKjig on previous pilgrimages. The area outside the railing 
has now ljee.11 biicked-in rind ihe two eucalypts (Snow Gum and 
Brown Struigy-hark). which were growing ibere ten years ago. 
removed. No weeds are present. This impressive, if humble, com 
memorative function ended with un appropriate recital of the Lord's. 
Trayer in German by the Pastor and his choi iste.rs* 

Of the three speakers, Mr. liopton stressed the value of Baron 
von Mueller's geographical and exploratory work Throughout Aik 
irslia. In some detail he traced the itinerary of that first Victorian 
journey in autumn 1953 when 3,?!00 ittflfcrf were covered during 
three month? in the mountainous triangle between Melbourne, 
Reech worth and Wilson V Fromotnory. before that same year was 
out, he hud penetrated west to the Grampians, through the Malice 
to Wemworth, and back along the Murray to its .sources in our 
highest alps ('2,500 miles in six months 'i. Spring of 1S55 found him 
in tlie Northern Territory with Augustus Gregory's tamous over- 
land expedition. Thus, during his earlier years in Australia the great 
botanist made journeys (mostly on foot or by horseback") totaling 
no lets than 27,000 miles, which would be a prodigious distance to 
any modern explorer using good roads and mechanics! transport. 
ITe was the first white man to ascend many h>gh peaks, and it \$ 
regrettable that the names he bestowed on some of these have since 
been transposed or superseded altogether. In toter years, when held 
explorations were beyond Iris declining vigour. MnwMer encunragrd 



Hi PHijriwUjc to Horon Vo* Mwtfrr'< Ontvf PvJi**' 

aiul sup-vortcxl yotmger mtn in their expeditions to remote plni.es 
— even the Antarctic Ami the Highlands of Now Guinea. 

Pavtor Stemiger spoke feelingly of Mueller's deep religious con- 
victions anil faithful attendance of his church—a refreshing *in<l 
unusual attribute in an age when the elite of science were predomi- 
nantly materialist -unruled, Ferdinand Mueller was certain of his 
God, looking u(xin time and talent as divine gifts to he used crea- 
tively and seeking ever tn find how NaLure could be m;tcle to serve 
the divers needs of mankind "They are known l>y their fruits" was 
u favourite quotation, and hac prophetic of his own enclnnng worth I 
The Rev. Hcrlitx, whrt conducted Mueller's burial service, was also 
at one time the spiritual mentor of Pastor Steirrigcr to whom he 
would recount how the great botanist invariaMy came up at. the con- 
clusion of church services and offerer! thanks for a helpful message. 

Mr. Willis briefly traced Mueller's impact on the scientific and 
cultural life of the community, Irorn his arrival in Australia until 
his death half a century later, mentioning some of the botanist's 
great achievements without minimizing the strain and difficulty 
which often lay behind thcin. Tins address- ts reproduced beluw: 

On Sunday, lOlh October \A%, there ifoHtti -iway the Rrcatcsl Australian 
.jcienusi-s of the last century — Baron Sir Ferdinand von ?>fueller. k.cmc. unci 
holder of miteieen older kniftrMly h&RBttrs F*DfM almost every reipinii* monarch 
in I he wortd. not to mention five university doctorates art! membership with 
tome 150 different scientific societies. Three rtovs la.ter fcifei fuoftal remains 
were interred at this very rwot before *uch an assemblage of distinguished 
and erudite i>tvij)le as Melbourne ha* rarely witnessed before or since The 
hearse was preceded by bandsmen of the Dcntschcr Turn Urran, clad in white 
wiT.li hlacW ami-bands and softly playing the "Dead March" en route 'o the 
ccmetvrv and at the graveside. Wreaths were laid front H»* Excellency the 
Governor of Victoria, the ( lovernmenls of all Australian colonics, (he con- 
filiates ol" Germain. Austria-Hungry. France *«id Denmark, the I ord Mayor 
of Melbourne, the Melbourne University. Melbourne and Sydney Botanic 
r»ar<lcos. and innumerable nerwuut friends and mourners. The grave ilieM 
was bedded wtt?l roses. Rev. Hoi man u Herlit* read the hufial service ami) 
delivered an impressive eulogy on the nobility of the deceased's character — 
his energy and selfless abs-ornncm m Ins beloved science, his boundless gener- 
osity r»nd concern tor the trr>uMrs of others. The Melbourne Liedcrlafel sang 
ninu hunmifnny to the music of Beethoven J T)ay aRaijr his race has nin", 
"Holy niyht O soothe my breast", and "No*.v Hie lalxutur's task is i/er". 

f'ive years afterwards, on "November 26fh. 1901, many notable citizens 
■gathered here again to witness the unveiling frl t hit> iiusginftec'tt obelisk of 
Harcotiri granite bv the first (jovcrnor-Geucral of the Australian Common- 
wealth (the Rt Hon. Karl nf Honc4ouit). and down the intervening fiftv-siy 
year-v there have been numerous |£lftrfeRUQSt9 to keep iireen the memory of 
Ferdinand von Mueller. LVne of his closest friends, Mr, Kcvvidi Kcst. ; eanie 
here every year until 1953 to p&V homage IIfWi <* Pfofsfl tribute We sincerely 
rej*ret lhat the indifferent health of the dear old gentleman, now 94. prevents 
lii< Attendance today — his thought*, fire certainly with jis. 

On sueh all auspicious occasion as this Miiclleciaii Centenary ui flirecir.n- 
ship. and with su many brilliant encomiums in retro-sneeL one is both humbled 
ai»d Kr\,t\y COnftdrJ^s or the |irivilcue 111 speaking to you ttow "Th*; B^n>n" ( jij 

*5rr II Ue*t. 'TeidiriMid \n>* Mueller, thf .Wyn". in Vu*. rVo*. ,1$: \U 7 T(>n 1 Pi K) 



39 V-J Pilgrimage in J3arou vov Mueller & Crave 1 1.1 

he wats often affectionately calico, has been described by met) who knew* turn 
rvell 117 such terms as these; "a star of th<* first maKniUtdV', "the kindest man 
who ever lived", "a mental giant with the heart of -i child', and "one oi -Ik 
most erudite, industrious, open-handed, pure-hcartcd. and lovable- phyloloi'isr 
the century has produced", 

Who wt.r this man of whont people wrote go waTroly, almost extravagantly? 
BncHy the story runs thus 

F.jrly m S347. hnlbsni young IV. Ferdinand AJ-jeKer had iusl graduated in 
philosophy at Kiel University (thou |H*r1 erf Denmark ) , Both parents and In* 
elder sister had recently died of tuberculosa, and the remaining three children 
were advised |i.i niigi,itc to a "warmer climate fecfoft premature death claimed 
Lhem all, They chor-e South Australia, and arrived at Adelaide in December 
1847 after a. five-months voyage around Cape I font Mueller found work a- 
a chemist's assistant at 15/- a week, with ample tmto to induJee his botanical 
tastes: within four year* his deep love for plant life And insatiable Lhjftfti T0 
cv.)»riii,e ill the nV'tai wonder* o( ibis new land, had driven him far and wide 
"-tront the Flinderi Range to fift Oambicr. Specimens wetc* sent m Germany. 
later to Britain, and the young explorer won a good reputation with bIuro|H.*an 
auchoritje*. 

In the Winter of (8S2, when jucr 27, be came to Victoria wild the intention 
id <;pcuiue a chemist's bu>mcss on the newly discovered yald-hclds around 
Castlcmamc, but about that tunc Governor Latrohe wa; Looking; for a colonial 
bputnlit to uvestignte Victoria's veeetytiuu — tlicu unknown to science 
Muelier> qualifications panted him the position, and he immediately set out 
upon ^ji ambitious Ix-umcfd survey of the whole colony. Melbourne's DolOJ&K 
Garden, commenced in le4o. was then a comparatively small establishment, 
controlled by men of v.o particular administrative experience r.ur any academic 
training A director with energy, vision and some scientific background was 
needed, and on Uth August 1857 Mueller was appoinled to the post, while 
MiH continuing in office a*. Government Uotanisl- 

Withtn a year the new Director bad added some 3,700 dift*rei:t kimis of 
plants, built a pavilion and paint house (the first in Australia) and added 
ariatiei to the fGoto^fC&J >e<lion — Ion-runner of the present Zoo Under his 
ueiuus the Melbourne liutantc Gardens soon became tnteinatii/nar.y famous: 
it had no *iva! in the Sow-hern Hemisphere and tew anywhere else Provision* 
numbers of .seed ? .cuume\ crah-s of plants and some 3.tl0<) i»^tvr^ a year pouted 
out to the farthest corners of the wor.M. \ botanic museum (precursor to 
our National Herbarium) iv&9 built during I860, and m ii were housed the 
vast collections of rirted specimens and hgoki .lerumulatod by Mud lor over 
tht. preview* J-5 ycK> Jt was a golden age m ff»ofii *WJ ivia .1 one, and Mel- 
bourne was boianically "on the uup'"— tlToujib the momU* vffcrtt ttf this 
<straordinary man) 

But hit lite Vfafl by !io eoiwij a "pa\U ot" lose?"- sue lie slifferad much Irom 
vvorrv, nisiindersiaiviiite: and ilVhealth. A raaTria^e c-u*xMgeme»u was can- 
celled «i )Sb3 beuMuse ol f.vhnji >trciv f t , .h and n 'irca<! ibid'tnbcrculo^i 6 . w^ft 
inuninen:- J*y the eariy 1870'$ t|w Mellxiumc pjbhc had be#uo clauO'rjjriiifl 
for ,\ wore auract.ve i-ardeit — with le>= =rienKluMlly arrans;^! a^eluinef?tioiis 
of flora ami more in the way ol ma^ed cc'lour, wrclty vistas. ornan:ental 
fouutwuis-, band ruihud,»s and such like To. Iluc !S?3 the O^^tnmenl, doubt* 
le5s under pressure, virtually deposed Mueller from hi; directorship and 
appointed William Guilioyle-, a landscape gardener, in hi< ^teatJ. This crash- 
ui& blow humilialed him beyond utterance anri Iftfl it* intpiim on his remain- 
ing r.vcnty-three years ; he felt he had f»een censured hetore the world, and 
\hai tjiiiustly, and he never set foot inside his beloved Gardens agam — lb* 
very ntenlion of his -former worlc there would agonite him to the point ol 
tears He continued in tbo single <ifitce of Govcrmnoni Botanist until the <ru\ 
~^. term of forty-four years— ^and this cataclysm was really a blessing in dis- 
guise* ioc posterity. It simulta:ieon;ly i^ave the l>o!anic Gardens a much- 



114 P\t&rwni)c to Hum* von Mueller's C'r... [ y jjj *" 1 

needed "face- lift" ami released the erstwhile nitector from &oSoml$tf1)f3?a 

worries. Henceforward, 'he was able to devote far more time to important 
literary projects, and when he died hi* published books, pamphlet* ktxj botani- 
cal papers tad reached the" astnnishmg totnl of more than 800; included wav 
a periodical of twelve volumes written entirely In Latin. 

Truly, Ferdinand Mueller was the ^reaK';( botanical figure Australia has 
ever Unown, probably rhc most nntnble srientist too, and one of Oie r calfy 
great tlpfoters of the nineteenth century Ho encouraged even* partible 
research into p. ant product which might prove beneficial to nun (such as 
eucalyptus on* and Quinine bark), We )f»Vr<y|uCWi the unw-irnmenscly-unnortant 
Monterey Pine to rmr forestry and Marram Grass for binding coastal *mu\- 
dunci, he fostered Atitarctio exploration, and he always inspired people to 
find use mid heaucy side hy side. 

Mueller remained an utterly simple-hearted, loyal and approaclubic man, 
with a very high standard o; responsibility and personal integrity. l\r iva* 
incapable iff fining any mean, frnng, would never turn £ deaf ear upon the 
entreaties at those whom he believed to he in want, and was net intuquontly 
the victim of imposition His mind was beautiful, even poetic- ju many of 
the hViU labels, that he wfote. tor bis collections m La tilt, bear ample evidence. 
Hfirc i* the translation of a typical note accompanying a crntury-old spor.imen 
in M'.dbourne Herbarium- "Gimenttj neiir perennial spttngs Utid torfy&tetl by 
the tnett§K0 SHOW.' 1 Who else could so lyrically, yet succinctly, describe ihe 
habitat ui a little alpine herb? Then, he was u patron oi afi and music. 
Schiller was his Favourite poet whose wonts ("Despair not; therr are- still 
noble hearts that glow tor the august ami ruhlmie"), engraven on this granite. 
50 aptly describe the very nature of rhe otic whose remains lie beneath. His 
baronial motto, \'-irlutc ittgcnioquc valctmtx. was also matched by a lite marie 
strong through blended virtue and inborn gern.is 

What a wonderful privilege for botanists at the Melbourne Itcrharum to 
follow in Mueller's footsteps, working in rhe .same, atmosphere of the old 
"Botanic Museum",, handliner constantly bis books, handwritten notes and 
specimens 1 The deathless, spoil of the founder is unconsciously but certainly 
absorbed . 

As tangible merr.cntoe-, of hi*; invaluable services- to mankind, we have a 
stone monument and lengthy epitaph, a medal that was struck - in l n l"M and 
ihW has been presented to some wo) thy scientist at cacti meeting 51 the *V«ts- 
rrdian and Mew Zealand Association for the Advancement o( Science, *;i 
commemnratjve poMayc stamp that appeared ^s late as $£&t€ttj(beT 194&. a 
biography (R\< Their t'riiitx) which war. published the following' rear, a 
botanical jopruat Aftfgffrt'Mi launched in February 1956. aiul a tew place-names 
t,Mue".ltr River. Glen Ferdinand, etc.) scattered over the Common wealth 
tlcc Muvllcr'i most si^nihVant memorial remains the lovciv Garden that he 
macic world- UAtr.ou*, with its accompanying modern bctfttnlftn MM) hotimcal 
library; here are found the fruit;; or h\r- own labour — living? tree.s, passed 
flower* and the fcjko&S ho wrote, with many others. The-.e national possesions 
are a heritage without price, and one rr.uhl Wish that steps Mjjjkl cveu yrt 
be taken to purchase his house (siiU landing in Arno'.d Street South Yarra) 
and ensure it against any possibility oi, demolition 

And so today we jtjjn to honour the memory of a splendid pioneer, who was 
once a "new Australian" like so many others now settling among us \Vp art 
reminded of the great part played hy people oi nori-Flntiah slock in building 
a better Australia, and such n supreme example as von Mucker's should he 
held ita before <tli vnr young people for generations to cotr e. 

- I H. VVar.t-- 



j5oVJ ^^ e ^* f/orxo,l Naturalist J IS 

A NEW SPECIES OF OPISTHOBRANCHIA FROM VICTORIA 

(Mollusco, Gastropoda) 
By Robert F. Porn 

Ic is now twenty -three years since chc present specks oi Afflaia 
under discussion was first observed and collected. In 1934, Mrs. 
M\ E. Freamc of AUona, Victoria, forwarded a single •specimen 
collected at Akona, Port Phillip Pay, to the Australian Museum. 
Miss Joyce Allan, former Curator of Molluscs at the Australian 
Museum, kindly sent me a copy (in 1955") of the notes and a rough 
sketch of the specimen and it* shell made at that time (in 193'-i-). 

fu J 933, Miss Allan described Agluiu ttirorifja from Sydney 
Harbour* and although this is now thought to be a colour variety 
of a tropical species, it is large and very colourful it was recorded 
from Swan Bay, Queen schflf (inside Port Phillip Hay), hy the 
present writer hi 7. M<t!atoL Soc. A*lSh* 1 \ 13 (1^57). In 1909, 
Vereo described a very fine shell extracted from a specimen 
collected ai. Troubride;e Island, South Australia, as sL rroulmdftcn- 
s£|, From the size of the <hel5, the unknown animal of this specips 
would have been over five inches long. This species is apparently 
known only from the original collection. 

The species described below as new differs greatly from both 
the species mentioned above mainly in sire. Of all the specimens 
known to the writer none is over 20 mm, in overall length, and 
the shell is consistently under 3 mm, in major diameter. 

"J? he type specimen of this species and a shell taken from a para- 
type have been presented to the National Museum, Melbourne. 

NOMKNCLATURAL POSITION OF THK GENUS 
AC LAI A 

Class GASTROPODA 

Sub class OPISTHOBRANCHIA 

Order CEPHALASF1DEA 

Sub-order Philinacea 
Familv Ar/laHdac 
Genus Ac/Iaia 

AGFA I A Row, 1804. 

Animal smooth, soft, dorsally separated into two shields bv a 
transver.se groove. Foor \vide 5 truncate, continued laterally irilo 
two fairly ample parapodia divided posteriorly. Khinophores and 
head appendages absent hut small lumps, laminae or bristles may 
he present: on either side of the mouth. Shell minute, internal, 
fragile, or very few whorls of which the last is usually free. Gill 
large, hipinnare, on posterior right side of body. Radula, jaws, and 
stomach plate.s absent; buccal mass large. Type: A, inrolomla 
Renier. 



THE VICTORIAN' NATURALIST 
Plate VIII 



Vol. 74 




R.F.B 



Fig". 1. — Myiaia qucritor sp. now: a. dorsal aspect: 1). rUht-lateral aspect; 

c, shell. 
Fijr. 2. — Atjhua tamuaa Allan, left-lateral aspect. 



[116] 



30. 



^*J Buii.N. A Ncttt Species of Opisthohrmtchia ff*>m Victoria IV 



AGLAIA QUERtTQR R. F. Burn, sp. nov. 

Small, about 20 mm. long and 4 nun. broad. Body-form cylin- 
drical, dorsally divided into two unequal shields, anterior shield 
comprising about one third of total length; ends bluntly rounded 
Foot broad, continued laterally into small, short and thick parapodia 
always close to the body and never undulating as in other species 
Posterior shield continued rearwards into a thin tunnel-like mem- 
brane enclosing the shell Gill very small, of 4 or 5 Insinuate pimme 
Oil a single arm, in cavity formed by membrane covering free whorl 
ot shell Shell minute, wholly internal, ol* 15 whorls, the outerparr 
being Iree, very fragile, thick along inner edge and membranous 
toward outer margins. General body colour velvet, black flecked 
>\illl light blue, anterior shield with a single blue edging on either 
:;ide of the median line along the posterior edge; inner sides oi 
parapudia pale grey, gtll dull green, shell opaque white. 

J-hthitot ; Povtarliugton (TYPE), one specimen, Jan. 1957. R. F. 
ISuin, Portarlington, two specimens, Aug. -Get, 1954, R. F. Bum; 
t'orcjuay, one spcauien, Dec. 1954, R. F. Burn; Altona, one speci- 
men, 1934, Mrs. Freaine (fa Australian Museum collection;. 

Sfo'ion: Rare, only -single specimens taken, crawUng on sand 
antl under stones (Porarhngton j ; feeding on rotting seaweed in 
rock pool (Torquay) 

ttftiturfis ! Some speoiuens are a dull yellow in general colour 
but these are always heavily maculated with biack. When in 
motion, the posterior membrane is extended horizontally nntil it 
forms a cylindrical funnel, but when it is resting it is contracted. 
A- tatanga, lite other record of the genus from Victoria, is readily 
distinguished from this species. A. toronga has tree parapodia 
which are wavy-edged, and the gjll is large, passing completely 
across the body uude r the shell. The rear edge of the anterior shield 
ia raised up like a protective guard, and the general body colour 
i:> striped with orange and white, 

AHart. Jovco, RU& lie* 4wtf jfW., 18 (&J 

JUNIOR AGE NATOUE RECOftD 

Junior Age is making the summer period (ending on January 31) one fur 
lio1ttia> recording. Record book* arc srUp£rtltd to any jjroup of d'-ree or moire 
junior enthusiasts who will list survivals of original Victorian flora. So iau. 
the work carried out and cammed indicates that age ha* tiulc influence an 
its quality, but ar?.e groups, us well as the opportunities provided by a given 
district, will be taken into acraUut \vh«>n i)rrzc* are awarded in Feh-rttary 
There i? a tendency to overestimate tbe amount of necessary botanical know- 
ledge. However, members of the Club can greatly assist die enterprise ol 
Junior Age by leading or helping a ^roup. 

— W. WadueU-. 



DEATH OF A VETERAN BRYOLOGIST 
(George Osborne King Soinsbury, 1880-1957) 

By 1. H, WfttlS* 

On 22nd July, 1957, Australasia (and indeed the wndd) last a 
very distinguished botanist whose particular interest, was the mess 
flora ot New Zealand and south -eastern Australia. Mr. G. O K. 
Snmsbury died ?»t Napier (North Island, N.Z.) within ten days oi 
a severe chili, shortly after his 77ih birthday, and there is now a gap 
in the ranks oif the very \$iv living austral bryologisti that will be 
extremely difficult (it not impossible) to fill, 

The fourth son of George Edward Sainsbury, a barrister and 
solicitor, he was bom at Napier on 1st June, 1880. As a child he 
went to live in London, but later came back to his homeland and 
received an education at the Wangamii Collegiate School; three 
subsequent trips To Europe were made prior to 1914. He was called 
Ki the Bar about 1903 and practised as a barrister and solicitor in 
Gtsborne (N.Z.) from then until \9tl, when he look up fanning for 
a few years. As partner with a brother, he returned to the Legal 
profession (tn 1917) at Wairoa, where he practised for the ensuing 
29 years until his retirement in 1946, During December 1955 he 
moved from Wairoa into a smaller, more convenient house :it 
Kopanga Road, Havclock North — a secluded situation, with over 
an acre of grounds. 

It Was not until about 1920 that Sainsbury became seiiuusly in- 
terested in botany as a bobby, studying first the flowering plants but 
completely losing his heart to the lowlier Mnsci m 1922 Moun- 
taineering was his great delight, and he combined moss-collecting 
with many a trek through the South Island and the rugged central 
portion t\t trie North Island, The last time he visited Australia 
was in 1909. but that was long before his inclination to look for 
mosses, By 1927 he had begun corresponding with the foremost 
British bryologist, Hugh Neville Dixon — a close association that 
ended only at Dixon's demise in May 1944. The latter savant 
described a genu* Sainsburia in his honour in 1941. and it is regret- 
table that the plant eventually proved to be merely a form of the 
highly variable little moss flssidrns taylnri; but he is perpetuated 
in the name of an hepatic, Rtulula sninsfcurianti F- t A Hodgson 
Sainsbury also exchanged specimens and ideas with other world- 
authorities — notably E. B. Bartram in Pennsylvania and A. T,e Roy 
Andrews tn New York Of these three particular friends ( Dixon, 
Bartram and Andrews) he always spoke in the warmest teems, and 
be respected their opinions very highly, 

Between 192ft (apparently the year of his firsr appearance in 
print) and 1956. Sainsbury contributed at least 39 important papers 

*■ KaUonal Herbarium of Victoiii. 






\Vi;.us. pjCltfh "' H /Y><*'vi frryiijTfWfrf t)*\ 



mi muscoln&ical subjects lo nine different scientific periodicals, in- 
cluding the i'irtorian Xuturafist (three articles). In these puhlica 
KVtftf ihe descriptions of <»nc new faiuilv, two new genera, 39 new 
species (and main' new uoineucluturul eotnhiuations ) rife invoked. 
liven now hi> monntypic new family. thryttikirirHWUUuyt < P'-iSi, 
F> lyn<>v\n only from western Victoria. 

I 'he crowning effort of his hotamcal career Ivjfr ./ fltiiuihcal: Ui 
the W-o' Zi'tiltntti .We.ov*- ( May 1VSS J reviewed in this journal ftir 
Decemher 1955 (72: \17s. Till* handhook 1 4V0 pttgi* and 7(*. 
nlate>i will he of the greatest jyse ti*i -indents tint only in Xew 
Zealand hm in Australia. \<>*>. mr mam V.wlrx i" pftu?. 

broin the Australian point of \iew. pmhahh his ne.M most im- 
portant work is a series of eight [tftjier* pu Wished recently hy the 
Ro\al Society of Tasmania ( U'53-ni, entitled .Yo/ca* on Titxnnnt'httt 
l/.'MWr'A* jrtnn H odwax s Ifffburiitm and enverinu NQ pa^es of com- 
jneut- on the specimen* of the said herliariutn ( which was suh- 
niitted to him In the Hobart I niversuy for thorough examination • . 

Although uii(|uestionablv the leading authority on Australasian 
Mnsci. < ) si mine Sainsbui v was a uieiiculnu* and very lunuhle man 
who (neither rushed into print nor ever sought to air his knowled^' - 
— un1e>s asked for a critical opinion, and tffFtt his years irf experi 
ence would foo gladlv crystallized for the inquirer's benefit. He \va.- 
most conservative in his ideas on speeiation, as the following two 
excerpt*- i from letter.- aecompam fug determination of specimen*- I 
will serve to show . 

OI/H/1953) — Jn>t tht iimih! pohmorphous business that A\e meet with 
again and a&aiu and ajiain — the joy of Carl Mtiller. Colenso unci Co,, 
hut our hflne. These splitters really have the best ill ft because when 
they sec* a moss that looks unusual, they have "lily to publish it a** 
"sp. now" and then turn to die uekt one; thus ihe\ actpiire merit 
and renown and split the cars of the ^roundlin^. 

I 13/1/1955) — I have been eop\ inw out Theliot's .mil Hn. Uterus':* papers 
on the Xew Caledonian mosses antl have been simple horrified l>\ 
ihc latter': "-.plittint;". It i< really ineredihle' 1 >Uspectcd that he had 
dealt \wth the austral niuvse* on those lines, but nevertheless VrtW 
shoeked to .see what ob\tot!s hahit-plmsi?. were raised to the runic ot 
aperies . , Then: Vew Caledonian p;tper-* ure really on a par with 
C M tiller at his ivnrAl. 

During many years {at least since ] {i Z7 I Sain shun was a mem- 
her ot the Hawke's Bay Philosophical Institute (affiliated with the 
Ko\a! Society of \"ew Zenland ), and he also held memhership with 
the British Hnolo^ierd Society. Ai the Auckdand Meeting of the 
Australian and Xew Zealand Association tor the Advancement of 
Science in January, l»37. he read a paper oil '*The Affinities »»f 
Tasmauian and Xew Zealand Mosses". He is survived hv his wile 
(nee Edith Alice Sherratt ) and two daughters. Mesdamcs Amy 
Crihtin and Mildred Harper, the only son (Popham) having been 
killed during o^ierations with the R.A.F. over Xorth Africa. His 



120 



Willis, Death of a I'ctcran Hryo!n<fist 



TVict. Nat. 

L Vol. 74 



id large private moss-herbarium (of 

one to the Dominion Museum at 

ry valuable Xew Zealand part of this 

emoved to the Museum in October 



voluminous correspondence ai 
some 18,350 numbers ) have 
Wellington — the entire and ve 
collection was donated and r 
1954. 

For the past decade the 
writer had maintained a fre- 
quent personal correspon- 
dence with "(i.O.k.S,". to 
whom his sense of indebted- 
ness is immeasurable. In- 
deed, it is doubtful whether 
the thorny path of Victorian 
bryology could have been 
attempted at all without 
Mr. Salisbury's constant 
and genial encouragement — 
he identified scores of puzz- 
ling specimens, pointed out 
many subtleties and pitfalls, 
exercising limitless patience 
and tact in dealing with the 
often fatuous inquiries of a 
raw beginner. Sainsburv's 
enthusiasm for his hobbv 
was infectious and his sense 
of humour keen. His inspira- 
tional letters would scintil- 
late with whimsical "asides" 
(sometimes in Latin) — he 
wrote informally, just as if 
present and talking to one. 
Here is the typical response 
to a message of sympathy, 

when he had to undergo a minor operation on an arthritic wrist in 
September 1953 : 

The "op" went off all right, and I have been home for a week or so, 
but the plaster must remain tin for three weeks. It is a big nuisance, hut 
I can manage to type a hit. Haven't used the mike yet, hut might be able 
to do a bit of rough work with it. Am absolutely browned off, not being 
able to work on the mosses as normally, and, if you have a few speci- 
mens that I could look at in a rough sort oi" way. then I sure would like 
to see them. 

My file of Sainsbury letters is a cherished possession, and I am 
indebted both to these and to the kindness of Mrs. Sainsbury for 
such biographical details as have been set out above. Alas, that I 
never met him in person ! 




The late G. O. 

Photo bx courtcs 



K. Sainsbury 

■ Mrs. /:. A. Sainsbury 



!>*J fhc Pfctoribn NotunUisi \# 



juitj 



OBITUARY. }. Y. WOOLSTENCROFT 



Naiurahsts who visited the Nt*.T»n and Noojec diMncts forty ati<I filly 
years ayo were assured of a warm welcome from the lat-c Mr, Woolstenernit, 
who was a twdem there. He wns kcer.ly interested in the big trees ami fore=d 
-^cec.es o£ those districts and manv ot Itis ipleudid ;>lKjtogTH|>h:; of fern gullies 
■ ii'iFn appeared in ?bc lUclhoume weekly iiaprrs of di-*i period 

John Vouritf Woalsrcm.rofl WAS burn Sfl Bradford, >'ortr?1iirc, F.mAlnnd, 
on January 4. 1871. and came to Australia with his parents in the Rafting *du|i 
L<tthcart durmg M8? hi 18V6 he :,eitted a*. Neenm Junction where he con- 
ducted a business for a number o: years until The railway line was extended 
1u Voojte, in wh"h lou'ii he o|>' nrd the first ^cner;*) More, After his retire- 
ment he lived at Frank st on for many years and ther spent thi* lasi few at 
Scatord where he died on Aituiisl 25. id On: (jge oi 87 years. 

Durir.p his Ux\x residence in (jippsland he witnessed the parsing of much 
0* mi i^ecu Mountain A9'i forest which fioun.dtod in the Kecnm district. At 
thi-i forest vanished tie began exylor hjg the rUKgcd forest country near Mt. 
flaw Baw, II w.is (HI <»ne of ihesr tri]'»\ tiiat th< a "Giant Tree" mi M= Hor^fall 
Wis dneovered and a photograph of this tree was published in the leader 
In l v Xi5 The "Keeiiiti Giant'* was another hti^e tree which misled ueai Itis 
home towtt ;'it iliac tune. Some o( Ins photographs of fern gullies* were among 
rhe he-»r ever raken in the State, and these were mostfy obtained during 
I'vi-ftiitK'^ when everything was dull nod «pj ft-r. Under these conditions, and with 
n small aperture he would ginre exposures en at least ten mmuics and obtained 
cx'el'eiU iesnl'i. He took n vroniinetU part \k\ having Nayook Glen openr" 1 
up J-.ir teunifts in 1915, and he was alio a member or rhe Jrd Pioneers durntfe 
the Vim SVprlrlWar. 

D. j. Dtck^on, 

NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK 

(Reserved tor your Notts, Observations on4 Queries') 

RECONSTRUCTION OF AH ANTV-NC5T AT BABINDA. QUEENSLAND 

During a short-cut t'lTOitgh tropical jerul> near Babinda on a tptir of »V 
Beileiiden-tCer K-tnge, I wilue^-d a/| le^iot.iti^ irvt.-ni O^OC^IUlttS 111 AfilT' 

nesl. 

A freshly brotre-n branrh fTnn> a Bush-lrnion had fallen io the ^TLMind anil 
bad oeett opened by die Ml 1 ai^f: tmnherj of ttnls had come out of the 
nest when it had broken snd Mtaily of litem were in a "panic", except a small 
nuntber wliich concretised 'in -.oni<' ^mrn tenves already \vijii>tg in a ^haft 
of runb&hr. Thcs-e ants appe;.Te:l *o he "Ivtlliny" at thijt K|K|I and makius very 
Uitio movement A large fnojvortion oi' them wci'c t'-i'Cer^Ue and immature 
with iyiiie nvJiiphs e^en (Jtfiifl pt^stia. Apparently som^tliuig was- being' con- 
tHjnidau-d. Persistent M uaratroopers" arrived iroin overhead and discouraged 
u nearer approach on my jw » I. and llie simu!t«ne*m? operation 6t five aj'li 
caused me lo retreat temporarily, 

Hali an hour wen; t>y before f oa^sed thfti way fiR.iin, but T was curious 
lu srcf what had happened w 1 lound the tl*e. 

Vpry i*c?w ant-» were vir*»h1e itoiv extent where thr "halljng" had l>^en taking 
place, awd there the cou&lonfieratwn ol wdrntj; leaves au'l twi«5 had heCu 
milled together, ede,es rolled flat, o\vrlup|)ed, mm\ Ptuok together with that 
woHcIerluIly hue /.ilky-'te^tu/eci tin-eftd-mass seeteted by the iovect-.. The whole 
maM w%t^ roughly the shape and g&p and shapt ol a footba>l, wilh xhe Iscavier 
tUftga .Tfnl Hr^iichps tijt t-i o|5e >)>eh in diameter. These nas-;ed in at same ;>laces 
and out at other,*, but all were tda.*:terrd down to a remarkable dc»rec- Lar^e 
nuisihety of ant* slowly patrolled the exterior of the new nest. Several ante 
hatted into one end ol" tt and others left at the opposite eixl but the trsine 



122 mnMttitf Notebook F&Jl *' te 

m-med very orderly. Mo immature ants were visible now but a gentle nulling 
sound continued from the interior all ihc time I stood Jicarty As no ferocious 
guards, showed up I was encouraged to place a hand on * branch of the Bush- 
lemcu for support. Several dead leaves were intcnr,ingled Willi the Crceu 
one? juet there and when I touched them a rustling and rattling -sound oegau 
and lasted several seconds. While I watched the endeavours of the green 
9nts, I brushed the twigs and leaves again. The rattling Was louder and 
longer than before and seemed like a malch-box: shaken some FfiCt away- 

No apparent cause for this activity was evident so I parted the leaves and 
peered closer. Then things happened. Several jet-black antSt about three- 
stxteenths of an inch long, came out of their home which consisted of a sin&lu 
dead leaf completely curled and apparently sealed at both ends. They raced 
on to their one-lewf hcwi'ic, crowded tocre and vibraicd up and down on the 
spot at a violent rate, with all their heads facing my way. No wonder rhcy 
rustled and rattled I watched for a while and then the "dance'' finished. Aft 
the acts rushed pell-mell into the leaf-home through a hole about the &i*c Of 
a wax vesta. I could not resist one more tap at the tw\gs, Pandemonium btoke 
out again and war. more vioicnl than ever, but as ] watched the "jigging" 
more closely, the ants scored a victory. The sickening smelt of Iheir acid 
penetrated the air nearby and a sudden interne, smarting on my face told 
me that I had been well shot. C departed with feelings of respect toi* both 
varieties of ants and regretted that I had HO camera to record these events. 

When T am in that vicinity axaift 1 will collect some of that beautiful and 
fwe-l'nrraded ants' secretion winch i* so strong and interesting. [uctdcnially, 
the microscope specimens which I intended to collect originally had to wait. 
Nature spring; surprises when they arc lci&* expected. 

—A. G. FhU.nws. 

WHAT, WHERE, AND WHEN 
F.MC V. Meetings: 

MmidAy, December Q— Lecture by fcfci* J. M. J_andy. 
Monday, January 13 — Members Night 

Monday, February H7"-»"Sherbrr)oke and its Lyrebirds", by ivlt. ITalafoff. 
Monday. March 10 — "Our Natural Resources", by Mi*? lua WaUou 

F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Sunday. December 15 — Entomology ana Marine Bliiingy Group excursion to 
SeaCorrL Take the 8.5.^ train from F'mtdcr» Street to Scaiord- Bring; 
one meal and a snack, 

Thursday, Dccembet 26 — WoJtftffdttL January 1— Parlour-coach excursion to 
Genoa district. The o»;tch will leave Flinders Street, opposite the <ja: 
Company, at 7.30 «,m. sharp Bring two meals. Member? .trc recincMed 
to pay the re>m«mder ol the bus fare be lore, or at. the December meeting. 
Other details of this excursion have, been given in the l^iffm'fan :\'atHffi!ist 
for September 

Group Meeting: 

Friday, December 13— Botany Group. Speaker : Mrs. Pinches The Group .vill 
meet m Mr, Lord's rCom at 514 Little Collins Street at 8 p.m. t. between 
King and William Streets!. 

Preliinmfiry N^tic? : 

Sunday. January IV — Parlour-coach excursion to Point Lonsdaie. Leader* 
Mr. E, K, Coffhill. Local member? may join (urty at Ka^cm bench. 
Gcclong, at approximately I0.o0a.ni., ot Hi Marcus State School at ahnui 
11.30 -a.cn. Coach leaves Batman Avenue at *> a.m. Fare, 18/~ for Mel* 
beiui'te members. Bring two meals. Bookings with Excursion ^eer-nary 

Mauje Auj;vijw<. Excursion Secretary 

19 Hawthorn Avenue, Caul field, $.K7, 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74— \ T n 9 * JANUARY ft, 1958 2Cu *&'>' 



HENRY KINGSLEY AS A NATURALIST 

By N. A. WAKKrm.n 

l« the introduction fco one edition of Henry Kmgslcv's first 
book, Tk* Recollections o) Geoffrey Jlnndyn, we read that it \% 
"3 pioneer among colonial and Australasian novels'; mid perusal 
of ir* pages reveals that the author was a well-informed and 
observant naturalist. He was born in 1830, came to Australia in 
1853, and the_ first edition of the novel appeared in 1859. There- 
after, until his untimely death in 1876, he averaged a book a year. 

From the eighteenth chapter onward, the setting of the Recollec- 
tion* purports to he in the Monaro district of southern New South 
Wales, and, though it becomes evident that details of topography 
are fictitious, almost every chapter contains some element of 
natural history very appropriate to the region, As the story js told, 
the scenario contains such details as; 

Warning lories and brilliant parroquetst fly whistling, not unmusically, 
through the gloomy forest, and overhead in the higher fields of the *jr, 
still lit by the last rays of the sun, cuunlles* cockatoos wheel and scream in 
noisy joy , t . 

Below u$ in the valley; a mob of Jackasses' 2 were shouting and laughing 
uproariously, and a magpie 3 was, chanting his vesper hyimi from ft lofty 
tree. 

MYiira Creek , . the most troubled locality ior snakes diamond, black, 
carpet, and other . , . These watcrholcs were the haunt rif the platypus and 
the tortoise. Here, too. were flocks of black duck and teal, and as you rode 
past, the merry little snipe would rise from the water's cd?c, and whick 
away like lightning through the trees. 

A wee native bear, barely eight inches Ion?. — a little Rre.y heast, comical 
beyond expression, with broad flapped ears, . , . hii mother sits aloft, grunts 
indignantly at the abstraction of her offspring, hut , , . £ue.s on with her 
dinner of peppermint leaves. 

... a thousand parrots flew swiftly in flocks, whistling and screaming from 
tree to tree, while wattle-birds and numerous other honey-eaters clustered 
on the flowering baul<sias. The spur-winged plover and the curlew ran swmly 
among the grass, and on a Ull dead tree white cockatoos and blue cranes 4 
watched the intruders curiously. 

. . a glorious violet and red King-fikhei 5 perched quite close and, dashing 
into the water, came forth with a tish. and fled like a ray of lifi'ht along the 
winding of the river A colony of little- shell parrots, 6 too, crowded on a 
hough, and twittered and ran to and fro Cmite busily . r • 

* Published IVocmher 1(5, 1957. 

123 



124 VVAxmet.0, Henry Kinyttey as a \ x <itura(tit \ 



Vict. N«t. 
Vol. 71 



King&ky '§ characters had the habit of appearing dramatically 

and unexpectedly in the scene, even though they had been left on 

* the other side of the wot Id. Thus, Frank Muberly. the curate of 

Dnim$tou, Devon, becomes a Dean in New South Wales. And 

we read of his merry laugl: 

sending i he watchman cockatoo screaming aloft to alarm the flock, or 
startling tlie brilliant thick-clustered lories 7 (richest coloured of all parrots 
in (he world), <o they hung chattering on some silver-leaved acacia, bending 
with their weight the fragile houghs down towards the clear still water, 
lighting up the dark ^ool with strange, bright reflections of crimson and 
blue; startling, too. the feeding doe-kangaroo, who .skipped slowly away, 
followed t»y her young one — 50 slowly that the watching travellers expected 
tier to stoji each moment, and cotitd scarcely believe she was in full llight 
till she topped a low ridge iud disappeared. 

It is likely that 3 person of Kinsley's ohvioiiR interest in natural 
history would have made the acquaintance ol Or, Ferdinand 
Mueller, German emigrant and newly appointed Victorian Govern- 
ment Botanist; and one wonders it the latter is the original of 
die author's l< \h . Mtilhaits" whom we see ar one slage "fctteeRfig 
ni spectacles before his new GreidHcti tictorm\ the handsomest of 
the Grevilteas« the first bud ol winch is bursting into We". (Mueller 
originally dexcrihed his Greinllea vhivrtue in ISSS.) 

And one wonders too if (Jr. Mueller ever thought as Kingsley 
Ra6 Or. iVfalhau*. speak; 

tf Linnaeus wept and prayed over the first piece, of English furze which he 
*a\v, what everlasting Mtie)tlr<g*uottle hysterica he would tiave £one into in 
this country ! 

ft is the chapter about "IIow they all went hunting for sea 
anemone** at Can** ( harbanv' that the naturalist in Henry Kingslpv" 
is most ap|>areiir. His description seems to he of Green Cape, on 
the south coast oi New Soulh Wales, and the following extracts 
are surely an account of his own excursion there a hundred years 
ago. Here arc- tour of the passages ; 

The aimospbere was so amazingly pure, that miles away across the pi** us 
the travellers could distinguish the herds of turkeys (bustards) stalking to 
and f ro . . . 

Then a green swamp, thiough the tall reeds the native companion, king of 
cranes, waded majestic; the brilliant porphyry water-hen,* with wallet hill 
hikI legs, flashed Hke a sapphire among the emerald green watcr-jedge. A 
.-hallow lake dotted with wild docks, here and there a group of wild *wAJ9, 
black with ted bills. Moated calmly on its IXjsOtiu - - - A sudden rocky rise. 
clothed with native cypress (li.vorctirpus — Oh my botanical readers M , honey- 
suckle (Jlavfiun) she-oak (Castutrina). and here and titer? a slumed yum 
. . . and joou Ihcy saw the broad belt of hrown sandy heath that lay along 
lilt stiOrr 

Mow they began to see the little red brush kangaroo. 9 and the P.rc.y forester," 1 
skipping away in all dhections; and had it been Slimmer they tvould have 
been startled more than once by the brown snake, and the copper snake, 
deadfttst of their tribe. The (tainted quail, and the brush quail' 1 (the lar^e^i 



19M J 



WAKWiM.fi, If wry Kvif)sk'y as u Na/tittifist 125 



of Australian game bird*, I believe), whirred away from beneath their boras' 
led, and the pround jwrrot, 12 green, with motlhne.s of gold and black, ro$e 
like a partridge nom 'he heather, and Hew low. Here, too-, the Doctor flushed 
a •'While's thrush", 1 * close to «u outlying belt of forest, and got into a 
great state of axcitemtrit about it. "The only known bird," he said, which fa 
fotmd lit Fvirope, '\mejica, and Australia .itiWe^ Then be pointed Out Hit 
emu wren, n little liny brown fellow, with lonj? hairy tail feathers, flitting: 
{rota hush to bush r and then, leaving ornithology, he called their attention 
lo rhe wonderful varictv of vegetation that they were riding through; Hakeas, 
Acaaas, tirevilleas, ami what not. I" S-r>nO£ Una t>rown heath wontd )i3yc 
been a brilliant mas* of flowers; but now, nothing was to be seen save a few 
tall crimson spikes of Rpacris, and here ;md there H hunch cj{ lemon-oilo'ared 
Correal. 

Then prizing down once more, she ww beneath the crystal water b hed ul 
flowers, daidirts. mmincvilusei, camnrions, chcyMMbemurrw, of every colour 
hi trie rainbow save blue. "Sea. anemone*." said the Doctor, '"actinias, Ktpulas 
mui sabellas . . there is nothing J ever have seen like that great crimson 
lellow with cream coloured tentacles. I suspect he has nevei been described. 
The ronutioH Knrojieaii .ineironr they call trossictnni.) |ij something iike him, 
but not half so fine." 

Even urhen the Iktucs of the book, together with Captain 
Dcbhorough and his troopers, had the terrihic Tuuan and hi$ 
bushranger ^ang at hay. and "every golden fem-htmgh, and every 
coign of vantage among the rocks, hegan Let hlaze arrd crackle with 
gun and pistol shot/', Kingsley did uoi forget that il was the 
Australian countryside still : 

All ahcjui among the fern and ili£ flowers, among the lemon sltruus, and the 
tartfficd vines, men fought, and fired and struck, and cursed , while the little 
blown bandicoots scudded swiftly away, and the deadly ?nake hid himceif 
in his darkest lair, arrn^hted. 

And when the leader of the "miscreants'* escaped and set about 
crossing the snow -envied alps, we learn that it wAs 

Mot for him to sic, as he went on and 017, bow the hardy Dicksonia still 
nestkid in stunted lufis 3\uon% the more sheltered side ft id lies, Jong after her 
tenderer si.ster. the Queenly /Msnphila, bad been left behind 5 * . . . His bone's 
feet Dl't'Shed through t-ir: delicate aspletriunt, 1 * 1 the VrnuV-hatr of Australia; 
the <ars;ipanlla ,fi soil hung in icmU purple lut'ts on the golden »vaute, and 
the >'c^rlei cornea :urked tUHOWg the broker) quartz. 

So (he author UnVes necessary prccauuoos to ensure that the 

flora is properly appreciated, insisting that wc 

go Up with bmi, not cursing heaven and caitb, a> he did, but iioticiix? how, 
as we ascend, the scarlet wreaths of Kennedy*, and the tutmoc (irevillea give 
place, to the golden Grcvillca and the red Hpaeri;; then comes the white 
Kukris, and then the ^rass trees, gettmfe smallex and scantier as we go. till 
the little blue Gentian, blossoming boldly among the sliypery crags, tells, us 
rhxt vet have nearly reached the limits oi vegetation. 

The reader who knows our alpine plants will say that Kingsfcy 
is rather wide of the mark in this last ]«issa£e, but such a lapse 
should not detract front the pleasure of encountering, in a dramatic 
novel, the ''morepork chanting his monotonous cry", the "Tittle 



126 VV ( \KrriG.u. Henry /uh</.v<Vv m 3 tfAifffflffal [ -fe Sj** 

grey flying squirrel", the "great grt# moths ( 6oifgung$) , \ the 
"native passion -flower, .scarlet and orange", and a host uf other 
acquaintance* of the Australian naturalist 

Rut what i& "tht tender sweet-scenteyl o.\ali$ 1 the winter fl<<nt:r 
of Australia' 1 ? 

NOTBS 

1. These "parroquets", retercd to elsewhere as ''an exceedingly bcnotJtuJ 
parrot .. , , a Blue Mountain", arc evidently our Rainbow Lorikeet. 

2. "Oaccto giyantea", according to an author'* footnote, tffis being, a 
.synonym for D. giyaSj the Laughing Kookaburra. 

3. An author*, footnote describe the bird: "Magpie, a large. pied (.row 
Of all the birds I have ever seen, the cleverest, the most .grotesque, and 
the most musical. The splendid melody of his morning and evening 
song is as unequalled as it is undescribable." 

4 r White-faced Heron 

5. This is the Azure Kingfisher, which is actually blue and orange in colour 

6. Budgerygah. 

7. Crimson TCosella. 

3. Eastern Swamphcn, Porph\rio we-lanoUi-s, 
9. Red-necked Wallaby. 

10 The common Great Grey Kangaroo used to be called tr)« "Foiester". 
M. Brown Quail. 
12. Now rare, the Ground-parrot. Pezt*fi<)n<s ti-t/llicus, may still be see" in 

the heathlands near Green Cape. 
13; This seems to auuly to- the Australian Ground-thrush. The bird u 

confined to eastern Australia, but there are closely related species 

o^eoeas. 
H. Sofl Treefern, Uieksania mUarctiai, and Rough Treefern, CytrtJwa 

austrahy, respectively. 

15. Evidently this is an error tor Adianl\mK the genus to which our 
Conunou Maidenhair belongs . 

16. Purple Corul-pea. liardcnbcTtno i*okicci\. 

MOOMBA NATURE SHOW 

This show will be F&gfed in Preston Motor? Shownxmi from Saturday. 
March 8. until Saturday, "March 15, I0S8. [t will be officially opened on 
March S, at 2.30 p.m., by the Lord Mayor ot Melbourne and will close at 
9.30 p.m, on the following Saturday It will be an integrated show by Mel- 
bourne's natural history organization!;, including the F.N.C.V. Special features 
planned include short seties of appropriate colour glides and film*), and 
Mr. Alex Walker, the well-known bird-call imitator, will demonstrate his 
skill- Special attention will be paid to growing native plants and yArek-n- and 
nursery-grown vvUdffowcrs will probably he shown. Volunteers from the 
Club are required to help with running the show. The Structural pan will b*.' 
-Ct up on the evening of March 6, the background of plants arranged on the 
following day, and the dismantling on March 17. Since many »-i>itors. 
especially school children, are expected, supervisors svill need to be rmeered 
for duty between 9 30 a.m. and 9 30 p.tti, each day ot fhe show. Members of 
tlie Club who arc able- to help in any ot the above-mentioned ways arc urfced 
to send their names to cither the President or Honorary Secretary as won 
at possible so that the organizing committee will know the rcsotircc^ it can 
use. 

fiattrnibcr, we hope that members of the Club will make a worthwhile 
contribution to this show which will be an outstanding feature cf the Monmba 
Carnival. For this purpose, it is hoped that as many members as possible 
will assist. 



Jon, 

10f»S 



1 77f/ Victorian Ntitiihilist \Z7 

A LIST OF VICTORIAN CLAVARIACEAE 

I'Witfi on artificial key to the eleven genera of known 
representation in the Stole) 

By }. H. Wilms* 

IMTROnUCTlON 

Since the appearance of M. C. Cooke's Handbook of Australian 
fifufji in 1892, there have been three important, descriptive publica- 
tion's embracing the '"coral fungi" (C!avariai'eac) of Victoria — all 
vviiluu the past two decades, vi*, by j. 13. Oland 3 , S. G. M. Faw- 
cett 2 and E. J. 11. Corner. 1 The last amber's comprehensive world 
monograph (720 pages, 298 text figures and 16 colour places) ap- 
peared in 1950 and involved many radical changes in nomenclature 
an<l in generic concepts: for instance, die old genus Clozwrici of 
other wrircrs in our fungi has been split into at least seven derivative 
genera. 

Coiner 1 shows (hat, of ConkeV 25 clavariaceous species ;ittri- 
btited lo Victoria, 7 were synonymous with otber species dealt with, 
while 4 are very doubtfully Victorian and may be the result of mis- 
dctermmatious. Me synonymtzes 17 of the specific names used by 
FawceU in her critical Studies 2 of 1939/40, including two of hex 
own new species (davaria palluittros&a and C. cacpifol&yosa). With 
the necessiry for such sweeping adjustments in this group of v«*ry 
beautiful and popular fungi, it is desirable that an up-to-date list ot 
Victorian species be published. 

The following census of 36 Victorian members has been adopted 
from Corner's monograph, and includes those names from the three 
above-mentioned Australian publication?^ 3 - 4 uhich have now been 
reduced to synonymy. Genera and their constituent species are 
alpIialx^icaHy arranged, and all species endemic in Australia eairy 
th** prefixing (.t ) * ten °^ tU?$4 endemics occur in Victoria,. Phy- 
a'i fi latr in au str •ahen sis, Raiiwria capita fa, R. filirirola and Ramario'p- 
sis (orifhamru's being peculiar to that State (as far as existing re- 
cords would indicate). Chivuliva. rompluuaia is presented as. ap- 
parency, a new record for Victoria -on the writer's field observa- 
tions. Five species from neighbouring States are interpolated in 
smaller type, since it is most probable that they will eventually be 
found to occur in Victoria also. Corner's colour plates ot several 
widely distributed taxa are cired, and for each species on the list 
brief nores are provided regarding habit and colour; unless other* 
wise stated^ (be habitat is terrestrial. Thi* paper concludes with an 

• K-BUonnl TUHiavium of Victor**. 



128 Wau.% A Usi of Victorian Cbvariacmc [ y*j \|" fc ' 

artificial key to Victorian genera, which is based upon Corner's 
work, but it must be borne iu mind that the key characters are drawn 
up from Victorian representatives and may not always apply to 
species occurring elsewhere. 

ALPHABETICAL ARRANGEMENT OF SPECIES 

APHELARIA 

DENDROfDES (fungh.) Comer, 1950 (Corner 1 t. cot. 14 
(middle)] — To 7 cm.; much brandied and of tough texture; 
dingy-white, clay-coloured, buff or greyish, 
[syn. Ckwarkt hr'tda Kalchhr*} 

CLAVARIA 

ACUTA Fr., 1821 [Comer 1 1. col 2 (4)1—2-5 cm.; simple and 
very fragile : .shining white. 

VERMICULARIS f>„ 1821— To 8 cm. (usually much less) • 

simple ; white, pale yellowish with age. 

[syn, C, frngilU Fr. 4 ; C. mnelien Berk* J 

ZOLLINGER! Lh^ 1846 [Comer 1 t col. 1 (1-2) |— To 8 cm. 
(usually much less) : copiously but loosely branched to almost 
simple, delicate; deep violet or amethyst to lilac-pink, often 
with slaty-grey or brownish tints. 

[syn. C. nymanuma P. Heim. 2 ; ?C, bissoseriana sens. 
Fawc. 2 ', non Sacc. ) 

CLAVARTADELFHUS 

JUNCEUS (Fr. > Corner, 3950— To 15 cm, ; simple and filiform 
(on dead leaves and twigs in rain-forest) ; pallid ochraceous to 
drab. 

CLAV1CORONA 

PVXIDATA (Fr.) Dotv, 1947, 
var. ASPEROSPORA (Faivcett 2 ) Comer in obs., 1950— 
To 1.2 cm. ; copiously and pyxjdately branched, toughly gela- 
tinous with peppery taste (on logs and other dead wood) ; 

pinkish-cinnamon or clay-coloured to hazel-brown. 

CLAVULINA 

CTNEREA (Fr.) Sdiraet., ISSS [Corner* l col, 4 (1)]— To 
10 cm.; stout, variously branched, longitudinally rugulose, 
sometimes cristate; grey to darkly cinereous from the first, or 
frequently tinged purplish. 



Jan. 
10SS 



| Wn.us, A List of Victorian CUivariaceae \29 



CR1STATA (Fr.) Schroef., 1888 [Corner 1 fe col. 4 (4) J- To 
S en), (often much less) ; much branched and exceedingly 
variable, generally cristate. ; whits at first, often becoming 
yellowish, ochraceous or even fuliginous. 

(inch Cfuvaria corollouics Fr. — ut var. coralloides Corner, 
1950. komell (also Fawcett 2 ) failed to find any Mis- 
tine! limit'' between C. cinerea, C, crista to and C, 
rngosa Fr.] 

COMPLANATA Comer (ut. nom. nov.) T 1950— To 15 cm.; 
with slender branches, much flattened upwards: creamy-white 
to pale apricot ("pale pinkish tussore, becoming: brownish".*) 

[syn. Clav-orio compkm~ata Ctel , 3 non de Mary. A New 
South Wales species, apparently new lo Victoria where 
noted by 7. H. Willis at Creswiek ( 1931 ) and Cockatoo 
(6/1934, 4/1936)] 

SUB'KUGOSA {Clef.) Comer, 1$$0 [S.AJ— To 5 an.; simple or irregu- 
gularly branched, rugose; "white to pale greyish-brown". 

TASMANICA (.Berk.) Corner, 1950 [Tas.J — To 4 cm.; simple and soli- 
tary (on tree-few trunks) \ fuliginous, 

VINACEO CERVJNA (del/) Canirr. 1950 [S-A/j— To 5 cm.; irregu- 
Inrly hranchni ; vinaceous fawn. 

CLAVULLN'OPSIS 

AMOENA (Zoll & M%r^ Corner, 1950 [Corner* t. col. 8 (3. 
fj)]— To 12 cm.; simple or forked, cylindric to flattened r often 
rugulose j pale lemon-yellow to bright orange-yellow or apricot. 

[.syn. Clnvaria (twaf&w sens. CId., 3 Fawc./ non Pers. ex 
Karst, nee Cke. & Mass. : C. frtsifonms sens. Gel./ 
Fawc., 2 non Fr. ; C. inavqualis sens Cke.* non Fr. ; 
C. ptitlidoyotca Fawc.^J 

iARCHERI (Berk.) Corner, 1950— To 12 cm. (usually much 
less) ; simple, cylindric or somewhat flabeUate; orange. 

| syn. Clavaria- onranfio Cke. & Mass./ non Pers, ex 
Karst. ; ?C jntlchni sens. Fawc., 2 non Peck.] 

BIFOKM1S {Alk.) Corner, 1950— To 4 cm.; simple or several 
times slenderly branched; dull white to buffr 

[syn. ICkivaria subtilis sens. Fawc., 2 non Fr.] 

fCFN'NAMOMEA (fkv:, 2 ) Comer, 1950— To 5 cm.; slightly 
and dichotomously branched, with flattened axils, or rarely 
simple ; cinnamon to pinkish-buff. 

[syn. IClavaria H-nibrinella sens. Fawc,* non Saccj 



330 Willis, A List of Victorian Chtvaruiauw Uvvl^t' 

CORALLIXO-ROSACEA (del) Comer, 1950— To 12 cm.; 
simply or rarely slightly branched : vivid coral-pink to coral- 
red. 

[syu, }Chrvaria rosea sen*. Cke. ? 4 non Fr.] 

CORNICULATA (/*>.) Comer, 1950 (Corner' L col. 10 fi)] 
—To 8 cm. ; usually 2 or 3 rime.* dichotouiously branched from 
a slender base; egg-yellow to ochraeeous-yellow. 

[syn. Clavarla- fasiigiata Fr. 4 ; C\ muscoides Fr. 2,4 ,] 

tLUTEOSTIRPATA (h'aivc*) Comer, 1950— To 7 cm. ; simple, 
rarely bifid; stem distinct and shining yellow, club often flat- 
tened and pate yellow. 

[Corner 3 suggests that this may he a furm of the variable 
C amo£na.\ 

MIN1ATA {Berk.) Comer, 1950 [Corner 1 t. col. 7 (4 r 7)] — 

To 10 cm. (occasionally to 15 cm.) ; simple, but often flattened 

and variously dilated; whole rich orange-pink to flame orange. 

[syn- CUivciria caepicolorosa Favvc. 2 ; C. ndyabeuna sens. 

Fawc., 2 non Imai— a monstrous condition, known as 

"Flame Fungus"] 

var. sanguinea Corner, 1950 [Corner 1 t. col 7 (2-3)] — deep 

rose red to blood-red. 

[syn. Clavarla cardhialis Bond. & Pat.) 

HEFLEXULA 

FASCICULA*RIS (Bres.& Fat r ) Comer, 1950 | Corner 1 t. col. 
15 (4), as /,>, lilac eo-hr tinned sp. nov.] — To 8 mm, ; clusters of 
simple or sparingly branched, deflexed, spine-like, rfe tough 
teeth (on damp (W:m\ wood) ; pale lawn, whitish or with lilac 
tints. 

[svn- D. lilaeeO'brwmett Corner 1 — recorded as new to 
"Australia by D. A, Reid in Knv Hull 1957: 133 (1957), 
on the basis ot a collection from Tarra Vallev. Vic. 
(N. E. M. Walters, 14/9/1955); otherwise, known 
only from Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines and Samoa.] 

LENTARIA 

MUCTPA (Fr.) Corner. 1950 [Tas.1— To 20 mm.; mostly simple, some- 
ttoies torktcl nitu 2-6 ascending branches; white To nale yellowish. 
[syn. Ctexxiria alba sens, l.loyd, non Pers-l 

MYXOMYCIDIUM 

f PENDULUM Mass., 1899-5-15 mm.; solitary, pendujous, 

obconic (oii old wood) ; white, hyaline and watery-gelatinous. 

[Recorded by J,'H. Willis in Vict, Nat. 52: 76 (Aug. 



"J*5g] Wn.us. A List of Victorian Cfafariocffle UI 

3935) as new to Victoria— from Sherhrooke Forest 
(1935), also noted at Cockatoo (1935) and Daylcsfnrd 
(7/1937), tJfWl] 

PI1VSALACR1A 

fAUSTRALIENSIS Corner, 1950—4-13 mm.; single but gre- 
garious, capitate (on old wood) ; white becoming yellowish. 
[syn. P. infiaia sens. Fawc 2 , non (Schw.) Peck ) 

PTERU1.A 

PHYLLOPHU-A (MrAlp.) Cover, J950 [Tas.]— To 25 mm. ; simple or 
wiih few irregular divaricaic branches; white to pale ochre. 

R:\ MARIA 

IJOTRYTOIDES {Feck) Comer,. 1950— To 12 cm. high x 

20 cm. broad ; massive, copiously branching from ground ; 

pallid cream below, pinkish toward the rose-pink abortive tips. 

|syn. Clavarta botryiis sens. Cke r * Fawc.. 2 non Fr j 

ICAPITATA (IJoyd) Comer, 1950— To 10 cm. high x 20 cm. 
broad ; massive, cauliflower-like, copiously branched with ad- 
herens paler, swollen capitate apices; maize yellow to pallid 
orange-yellow, with dull honey-yellow tips. 

CRISPULA (Fr.) Quel., 1888— To 5 cm. or more, resilient, 
slender, divaricately branched (on wood and woody debris) ; 
tan to creamy-ochre. 

tFiLICICOLA (Fazcc. 2 ) Corver, 1950—2-4 cm., with many 
crowded slender branches (on tree-fern trunks) ; pure white 
or maize to ochraceous-biiff, 

Fl.ACCFDA (fr.) Ric.kctt, 1918— To 6 cm.; slender, with erect 
crowded branches (under pines) ; pale cream to cinnamon or 
brownish-ochre. 

(syn. Chvttria ubistina sens. Cke.. 4 Fawc., 2 , non Fr.] 

FLAVO-BRUXNESCOS (Atk.) Corner, 1950, 

var. ATJREA (Coker) Cower, ' 1950— To 15 cm, high x 
20 an. broad ; bulky, irregularly much-branched ; ochraceous- 
buff to rich orangc-ycllow. 

[syn. Chwaria fiava sens. Cke,,* Fawc,, 2 non Fr., C, flava 
Ft., var. aurca Coker.j 

FORMOSA (Fr.) Quel., 188&— To 20 cm. high (or more) x 
15 cm. broad; much branched from base (bitter to taste and 
poisonous) ; pinkish-buff to orange-pink, with lemon-yellow 
lips or wholly pale yellow. 



\}2 VVjuLb, A List of yic(onun CUtvonocciw (_ y j 7 £ ' 

FUMIGATA (Peck) Cormr, 1950— To 10 cn>. high and broad : 

nfteti massive, with crowded branches; wholly lilac, becoming 

dark-ochraceous or bistre, but violet hues persisting at the tips 

[syn Clavaria- jenuica sens. Coker, Fawc., 2 non Karst | 

GRACILIS (Fr.) QueL 1888 [Comer 1 h col. 13 (5) |— To 
10 cm. high x 5 cm. broad ; slender, sparingly to much branched 
(under pines ) ; white or clay coloured to cinnamon. 

HOI.ORUBEU-A (Atk.) Comer , 1950—To 20 era. high and 

broad ; much but loosely branched j cinnamon or light tan to 
rosy-vinaccotiSt 

[syn. Clavaria anstratiana, Cleb 3 ; C ', ru^sce^xs sens, Coker, 
Fawc, 2 non Fr.J 

tOCHRACEO-SALMONICOLOR (CleL) Corner, 1950—To 
15 cm. high and broad; compact, massive, much branched : 
light yellow to ochraceous-salmon or pinkish-orange. 

[The expanded and cauliflower-like tips are almost inter- 
mediate in character between those of R. capitata and 
Ft. fiavo-brutineuens var. aprea.) 

SANGUINEA (Cokcr) Corner, 1950—To 8 cm. high and 
broad ; cauliflower-like, with numerous branches ; pale creamy- 
white to egg-yellow, all i>arts turning blood-red or brownish- 
red when bruised. 

ISINAPICOLOR (CleL) Comer, 1950—To 10 cm, high and 
broad; rather slender hut much branched; pale yellow, mus- 
tard- or orange-yellow. 

[Near R. fluvo-lminnescens, but much more slender; 
sometimes forming "fairy rings" in the forest,) 

STRICT A (Fr,) QucL t 1888, 
Wr< CONCOLOR Corner, 1950—To S cm. high x 5 cm. 
broad ; with numerous fastigiate slender branches (on woody 
debris; odour often fragrant or radish-like); pallid tan to 
cinnamon-brown, becoming reddish-brown. 

(syn. Clavaria s trie tn sens. Coker. Fawc., 2 non Fr.) 

RAMARtOPSIS 

CROCEA (Fr.) Comer, 1950 — 1-5 cm.: slender and delicate, 
with a few laxly diehotomous branches; golden yellow to 
chrome-orange. 

[syti. Clavaria halchbrcnncrt F.-Muell. 4 ] 

+LOR1THAMNUS (Berk.) Corner. 1950—To 4 cm.; with a 
few straight branches; "pallid umber". 

[Fawcett* synonynuV.ed this under Ramarw slrickt (Fr.) 



(u™ ] Wrurs. A Usi <>/ VktOrttw Ciavarwceae JJ3 

Quel., remarking: "there is no doubt that Havana 
fortfltavntus is merely an abnormal form of it."] 

Cooke's 4 record?; for Victoria of Clav<triti aryilfaevti Tu\, C krouibliobii 
Vr , C~ pistithnis Pf- 0.nd C rosea Fj*. are very dubious ant! the specimens upon 
whkh tluey were bshed need to be carefully checked. 



REFERENCES 

Corner, E. J, H. — A Monograph of Ckwaria and Allied Genera (Oxford 

L'mvcrsity Press. 1950 > . 

E.nwcett, S. G. M- —Studies on the Australian Ctmwrinrcoe in Ft^c Wj'i 

.W Kicr. N.S. 51 _ 1-20, T. i-v (Jan. 1939) ; 51: 265-280, T. xvii-xsm 

(July \939); 52: 153-lu3, T. vi-vii (Mar. 1940). 

Cleland, J, B. — Toadstools and Mushrooms a-M Other Larger Fungi dl 

South Australia 2 263 269 (Govt. Primer, Adelaide. lone 1 935). 

Cooke. iS. C— Handbook of" Australian FriugK 193-204 (1«92)' 



ARTIFICIAL KEY TO GENERA IN VICTORIA 

Fruiting body simple or branched; if ever k>s than 20 mm. high ;iud 
growing on wood, then neither dcflcx.e.d >*or swollen at apex , , , , 3 

Fruinug-body simple or slightly branched, in small clusters, minute ('to 
8 mm. long), consisting- of pale brown, whitish or lilac, doiv*nvar(i- 
puinthig spines (growing on wiVhI) . . . . . . . , Defiei uln 

Fruiti nobody always simple, very small (to 15 mm. long>, whitish, 
with a much sit'ollen u-pical head ., ► . .... 2 

Hr*d erect, rounded Physalacriu 

Head pendulous, abeatic (watery-gelatinous) _ Myxomyeidtwu 

branches pyxidate, with sterile cyatrnrorm and profiteminj? apices 
(flesh fanghiy gelatinous, usually with peppery laste; large gloeucy- 
4 1 1 d i n present; habitat on wood) .. , . . Cinvirmituti 

Branches nwer pyxidate nor oaihifcnm at apices (flesh not tough 
and gelatinous; no gloeocystidia; habitat nut on wood, but sometimes 
ort fallen leaves and twigs) ,._,,,_ , . rr 4 

Spore*, pale ye/hio to ferruginous, ellipsoid and usually with .several 
guUutae (fruiting -bodies branched, often much so. and usually fruU- 
sive . . r . , , . . - ,- . . , , . . fr > Rnmarin 

Spares white, usually subglohose, 1-cutUte or sometimes a^nUale . . 5 

Hyphae without clarnp-ronnerrions. Ferniidanly septate ( giving r» 
juicy-brittle texture to the f ruitiug-hody > .. .. Chvqnn 

Hyphae without r_lamps t but not s-cconrianly septate (texture tough 
and almost leathcty) . hJ . \ „ .. . . - . r ., ,. . .. Aphetctria 

Hyphae hearing clomps, not secondarily septate (texture various, but 
not very brittle rtOr leathery ) lf . , ...,,., , , -- 6 

B^iidia sulhyiindtie; sterigmata 2 (fruiting-bodie.v usually with irregu- 
lar flattened brom hfs) . , ..... , - •,., (ImmUnn 

B.i.sidia chnmte- Meriginata 4 ... .. . .. .. 7 

Spores finely eekinutoie; iruiting-bodics with a jeiv branches 

Rantoriopsis 

Spores smooth: fruitioR-bodies usually X}>H^6 and often viduUy 

coloured . . / . . . , . ► , , . . . . , . * 8 

Habitat terrestrial, spores I -guttata «. -. .. .. ChvuHnvpsts 

Habitat on dead leaves and fallen twigs; spores ag'uUate^ (fniiting- 
body fi'ijorm) . , - - , - ._ _ Clovarmdelphns 



IJ4 7 he I'uionou ffinifltttftf [ V -£!i. v*' 

SOME ERRONEOUS BIRD RECORDS FOR GIPPSLAND 
By N. A. WAKRiahto 

Recently, (lit vvritei summarized the iulorniation available 00 the hirtl* oi 
C»ipprl;tnd, from '//ic £*w», 77*r Viehynau NaiuralUt, H.OC. MotiUhty A^WJ 
atlu other sources Tt is obvious that ft number oi erroneous leports have been 
published from time to time. and the purpose of tbfi followirig;c.Gmnieots i* 
to place on record cotrections au<l queries ir* connection with Ironic which 
appeared in the Vtitoritm .'Vniwnn'rTf This ?lwukl he of value when Mi index 
is prepared to the journal. 

The "Checklist" referred to below is the Official (Wjtfyf 0/ j(/te £hr<f« />/ 
Australia, compiled by a committee of the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' 
Union and published i» \92tt. 

I Ret. Vttt. Nat. X LQ&SQ1 — "Descriptions of Some Australian Birds 1 
K;*ffs Not Previously Described 1 ', by T. 1*. Lucas. 

P. 104, VVHLTF.-YV WGF.1) PETREL. The report rcat}, "F.arly j^st season 
a friend brought in the eggs of this species from some ol the small islands 
nff K.t^i G'ppsland T " 

According to the CfwchUst, this Bf&eaes (Ptcrotlraintt teucopierti) breeds 
at Gibbagc Tree Island. off Port Stephens, N.S.W. possibly Lucas confused 
trie locality with Cabhagctrcc in Easr Gippsland; in any case- the species has 
►iot been authentically recorded (or Vkioiiati seal 

2. Ret. I'f t /. Rfal 2; 150 154- "To Wilsons Promontory Overland", by 
J. B. lirejjory and A. H. S. Lucas. 

p, 154 COCKATOO PARROT Thi* specks (fel not onhe*w»»e been 
iccoKted for Gippsiaud^ and it h txtiemc-ly unlikely thaL the record for 
WiUons Promontory is correct 

p 153. "flocks of little LOVE BIRDS". This name is normally Applied to 
the Budgtrygalu which species has never been authentically recorded for 
Gippsland. Tn this ease the species observed would have been the Blue-wHiged 
Parrot (tfeophcuui chrywstoma) , a bird often noted in the area. 

sM Ref. Vici. Nat. 3: 39 — A "Whistling Owl" is reported as 1 urine, been 
exhibited at a K.N.C.V. meeting (12/6/1886) hy Mr. C Frcnrlv The 
identity o( the specimen rema'ns obscure; possibly it was the Winking: 

Owl (Nmax comtivatis) . 

4. Ref. Vict. Nai. fi: 1-38— "Trip to Croajinpolong", by Baldwin Spencer 
and C trench. On page H one reads, 'X)i birds, the following 1i*t 
(kindly ropplied bo us by Mr. C. Frost) gives the names of those 
noted." They include these fnur : 

p. iS, Pardafpttti <fuadmmnitts. This name applies to The FOft TV- 
SPOTTED PARDALOTE. wFife*] is endemic ut Tasmania. The bird ob- 
served wan evidently the Spotted Pardatoie {I*, ptmttatus), winch is common 
in the area concerned but which was not mentioned by the writer-;. 

P. U. DryuwttcA bmmeatwm. This is the SOUTHRRM SCRUB- 
ROBIN, a bird confined to the Mallee of Victoria. South Australia and 
Western Australia. The origin O* this erroneous record i* 1 ibscure. 

p. 3& ,)f<:lithreptu.-i fjuUms. It is most unlikely that this bird, the &1.ACK- 
CH1NNED HONFYfc'Al'EK. was met with in the areas visited. Rvislmily, 
the bird seen was the White-uaped Houeveater (M, Jnnatus) which, though 
common in the forests of Cinfljmgolong, was not mentioned by the writers 
(See Note 1 below.) 



j*58 1 W>KFFrKi.&, Btrontrot^ Hird JtcrcrJs for Ci>/>jfam/ 1*5 

V- 3$, Chvactfris ,icpti£/<?«j The specie* referred to, the BRO\VN_ TREE- 
CREEPER (=: C, piewtmuji), docs not occur in the areas vfsited by Sjpfttctf*4 
parly. On the other band, the Wltitc-chroated Tree-creeper (C U'uevphtta*), 
wltirh wa* not mentioned in tiie report, [ft abundant throughout the country 
contented <See AV< 7 ^ below ) 

5 Ref Pfr* tytfft 12: 76-81— -Trip to Malheoota Intel", hy 0. Lc Sou,t 

p. 79, BROWN rREfi-CKREF*ER. From the RSwtefy Mn« report applies 
to the C<**mi River district. The preceding comment applies aho in this ca.se. 

I> 80, OSPREY. A pair arc reported from along the Genoa River on JltM 
way ;o MaHaconta. 'J big. is evidently an error bated on observation of 
Whirling Eagles ithxliciitur xfhrnurus), which are generally p.> be fittfll fa 
the place concerned but which are not included hy the writer in his report. 
(Sec- \'ofc 3 Mow ) 

6. Rci. Wcr, Jteft 13: 18-22— ' \ Trip lo Wullacoou". by D. Ij Sonef. 

p. IP. 'M.itile Brown SericomU". TltU is reported nesting at Tonghi Creel; . 
The name applies tfl the BROWN SCRUB-WREN (.V. itmmhs), \»ln*jli 
•According to the CJu'ckttft, is endemic in Tasmania and Bass Strait fclanu* 
There is some doubt h* to whether this specie* is specifically distinct [ront 
the mainland White-browed Scrub-wren (S\ frmitaUs). and ;onie observer* 
believe thai certain mainland »vcxaniftis arc no*, different from some ul 
S- Imnnlis fium Tasmania However, as typical 5. fratffifis occurs plenti* 
fully at 'J Ought Creek but h not mentioned by Lc Soucf, no significance 
should be attributed to hi.; uw here of the name of the Tasmania!* bird. 

p. >u ).U\OWN TREE-CREEPER. This n included in a 1i*i "Not* and 
eggs fount! in country around MalUooora". Again the writer seems to have 
rms-identified the White-throated. Trce-crccpcr 

7. RcT Vict. Khtt, 15 60— Under the title "A New Rinl far Victoria", 
A. J. Campbell wrote, ''The Great Sandpiper, f.'rtuf/a enntsirostrh. 
exhibited at the August HKGttttfi of the Field Naturalist Chib of 
Victoria, was collected by Mr, J. B. Mason, of Hie Ports and Harbours 
Department, at the Gippsland Lakes, during the autumn of 18 5". The 
je|K*cies M now known as the GREAT KNOT [Catidns iniU'.rostris). 

in /VVWs rtfirf BffifiS of Attsfrntimi Bird.*, on page SJ2. Campbell corrected 
this record Oui.< : "'In exhibiting a %kin before the F.N.C.V., 1H98, \ was xoiuc- 
what too harjy hi extciKling the locality (Lo. of 1\ frc^ki^trifi to Victoria, 
Afterward* . . 1 proved it to be the Common Knot." < Sec .W.v f below.) 

8. Ref. Wa. Mtt. 25: 149-J5I— "BwUjrichI Survey <>t Wilsont Prumon- 
tor>" On page 149 i> the Hih-heading ''Report on Zoology by T\ K H. 

St John", under which aw>car : 

p, ]50 t tV/^of/nV/* ttlhifroiu. WHITE-FRONTED HONEYKATER. Bin 
the habitat of this bird is the dry inland part of the State. Jl is Hot known to 
what species this NfW actually applies. 

|jl 150, Neophsnw cfcgmis. Grass Purrakeet. This iiHine applies to klflS 
ELEGANT PARROT, which doc-, nor occur in Oippslaiid. The bird ob< 
served would be the similar Blue-winded. Parrot (A r . chrysvrtwna-), 

l> 150 PgthtfttpJfQia QilWfii RcfJ-throated Thickhead. The GILBERT 
WHISTLER (P. iuomati;), as the bird i> now called, inhabits dry inland 
areas of ilio Sute- Thh record would apply to a juvenile phase of the Olive 
Whistler [/*. o/iVvu-va), a species which occurs on Wilsons Promontory. 

p. l$t Pvudion U'ncflct>p!H)Io f OSPftEVi (See Naie J below) 



\S6 Wam nr.ut. 8r>'i,fteout Bint Records for (,'ipf>itfan<1 [yj| ?£*' 

p. 150. Ptttohyas ottstratis, Dotterel. This bird, the AUSTRALIAN 
DOTTEREL, does not. visit Gipp^and The observation would apply io tin* 
Red-capped Dotterel < i, hartuiriits tikxandrinus). a resident at the Promon- 
tory but not listed by the writer. 

9. Rel. Kit/. /Vox. 34 121-127— "Notes of o Visit to Mailacoou Ittttf. 
by Chas. Daley. 

p ( 1^7. 'Flinders Pigeon" is evidently an error for "Flinders Cuckoo", now 
known as the KOEL (Eudyfwmys oricntulis). This was reccrderl (Ivy a 
specimen) from Maliacoota shortly before Dairy's visit. 

(Ou page 126, the writer sweepmgly records for the area "all the smaller 
Warblers, Robins, Tits, Wrens, Flycatchers. Cuckoos, etc- . .' , anrl his 
mention of the Bristle-bird would hardly be from observation, but rathei on 
the strength of the report of the RA.O.U. visit there m 1914, > 

10 Kef t'UI. Nat. 44: J0J-30S— ''Excursion to Sealers Cove", by Chas. 
Daley 

p 305i "SklM Gull". This ptobnb'y applies to immature Pacific Gulls 
{Gabianus pinificus) such as one usually sees accompanying adults of their 
rpecies. 

II. Ref, Vict Niki 58: IOM 07 --"Birds ok Craa;ii)*olone". bv N A 
Wakefield. 

Both this and the following contribution were write" before the writer 
had MitTicieiit appreciation of the need for scientific accuracy ami of the 
von fusion which ran rrsitlt frot" the publication of unconfirmed dala. Il is 
necessary now to make these comments: 

p 103, GREEN -WINGED PIGEON Hie recording of <Wj tortl (Cat- 

sophaps fhrysoth/on?) from the Genoa- Wincan River area must he rescinded. 
Il was based on a doubtful sight record and on unconfirmed local tepott by 
^ casual observer. 

1) 104, LITTLE BITTERN" The repnrring ft? this species (fAfihrychi** 
»i*»Mfi/j) referred to an unconfirmed local report. Tt could be authentic how- 
ever, for ll»c bird hn> bftcfl rteOftfed frOttl *be Becra district some mile* io 
the north (Rel. Lmtt IB: 303). 

p. 105. PINK ROBIN, It is very doubtful that any bird seen -was rcaNy 
this species, Of recent years the Rose Robin (Peinnca r$$i$) has been 
observeil many times in the areas concerned, but not the Pink (P. rWiuo- 
jjaster}. Hence the original report should be disregarded. 

P- 105, TASMANTAN MASKED OWL. Having recently examined 
museum specimens from Tasmania, the writer can now state that the bird 
caught at Genoa was a typical mainland Masked Owl tTyto uoznu-Uot- 
tfindiae) . 

(The reference, on page 105. to the Ground Parrot {Ptzoporus uiatlUitj;) 
Ah a "superb whistler' 1 was also based on hearsay. In cuuuecliou wilh this 
species, io a paper entirlcrl "Down Mario Way" {F.nm 18: *fi5-271), ihe 
writers state tnai V>| ihe numerous birds seen . . not one uttered *.nv call 
or noLe of any Viml". 'Hun loo has been the present writer's experience.) 

)2. "ReJ. Vict. Xitt. Sir: 7fi-?Z— Jl Bird Notes from Cirwjingolong", by 
N" A. Wakefield. 

|i 70, PIX'K ROBIN. Again the twit!*. reierreO lo ivfti almost certaml> 
the Rose Robtn. 

p. 71, ROSE-CROWNED FRUiT -PIGEON*. Tfe* if ** crroi for i>e 
Red-crownod FVuit-pifteuu (Piilinopics regijui) . 



iJm J Waremeld, Etroutous Bird Records for SibfokUli 137 

j). 71, RED-CAPPED ROBIN. The photograph referred to appeared irt 
The £mhi 29, Plate u, opp. p 46. with the caption "Red-cupped Robin — 
Malhtcooi't Inlet" The mvd concerned is obvious*.* the Scat let Robin 
{Prtroica multicolor), and the other is not authentically recorded lor Gipps- 
Ivutd, 

JX Ref KiV> fttf 5«: 11.M14— "A Parrialote Puzzle", by .lean Calbraith. 

p. 114, YELLOW-TAILED PARDALOTK. The description given h cer- 
tainly not that of a Yellow-tailed Pardaloto. i! appear; to be of an aberrant 
Spotted PardaJote (Pnrdafahi* pwctnlux), in which the normal red are* 
above the base of the tail is almost completely replaced by yellow 

14. Ref Wd- ATfl/. 59: 49-54— "Sydenham Jntet in the Autumn", by 
M. L. Wtgan. 

p, & YKI.LOW-THROATKD SCRUB-WREN. This h said to Itave 

I wet i observed in the same habitat as that Ot the White-browed Scrub-wren 
(Scricotnis frontofh), and it may be assumed that it wa.s but a variation of 
the latter. (See !\'vte 5 below.) 

p. 53. BLACK-CHINNKD HONEYKATGR. tfrttf this ami the White- 
naped are recorded, (See Note I below.) 

|j. Rol, If'ut. >\'ol 51. *A Camera litter vrcw with tbe Fairy Tvrn". by 
R.. T, Little) nhns 

FAIRY TERN. Except lor the introductory comments, the whole ol litis 
-ii' 1 1: deals with the Kittle Tent (Sttirmt nlhifnms). In particular. the two 
accompanying plates portray well the distinctive )nad luarbtag* of the latter 

species in it?; breeding plumage (See .Vote 6 below J 

Note 1 If the Black 'dunned lloneyeater is to be found anywhere in 
Gippsland. u should be in the drier, more open area^s such a*, the Murray 
Pine districts of I he upper Snowy River valley, not in the heavy forests. It 
has not been jvoted by the several competent observers who have iiivcftiigjled 
this country. However, there is a single sight record of the bird from nortli 
of MarYra — one specimen in a list which includes 15 White-napcd Honey- 
eaters (World fitrd Day Lists. /JMJ- p. 24— Suppl t-i B.O.C. N'ntc.r. Melb.) 

II would t)C interesting to have this possible occurrence confirmed. 

A r y/c 2; The Brown Tree-creeper is restricted in Gippsland to the dry 

open forest areas' the upper Snowy River vnlley (including Suugau Dug pan. 
Pcddick and Wulgulmerang) and the MavTra-BairmwIale rli;trie<. 

Kate 3 Tltcre is no confirmed record of the Oxprey fur Victoria, and the 
species evidently should not have been included in ). A leach.* An Atti- 
irattnn Bird Book, which was intended to include only birds of this State 
John Gould collected a specimen in southern Tasmania, apparently a solitary 
"stray" which was far from the normal habitat of the species. 

fVki& i\ The Great Knot also should not have been included in An Ausiru- 
Han Bird Book', Campbell's correction, cited above, escaped the notice of the 
compilers of i ho 8 0.C- booklet field Cn'ufa in ttn> Wodrrs, for they included 
for this spectes 'specimen from Gippsland Lakes (Vic.) r 1895". 

Note 5: Of the Yellow-throated Scrub-wren, A. G. Campbell wrote (i'lim 
34 : 263) : "Its furthest south is BuJIi, and while it is said to have hec'i 
recorded m e-astcrn Gippsland, no defimtc record of Ibis occurrence can be 
found". 1-xcept that the species occurs somewhat south of Bulli, Campbell's 



US YVakeheui, Erroneous liirri Kvcords for ^ifiPsttwd f i 



ict. Nai. 
Vol. %i 



Statement minis up the situation, and thi& l>t rrL should be deleied from 
Victouan lists, 

.\*/>ti- (j: Of tile two small tcru\ only the Fairy Tern (S, nereis) was 
known to occur in Victoria when An Ausirtilhti Bird Book was first pub- 
lished. The Little Tern (5. allnfrom) was recorded at Mallacoota by the 
R A.O.U, Camp-out there in 1914 (Ret Ewu 14: 126-1441. In Victoria, the 
Fairy Tern gauges fast to the Wilsons Promontory area, while the Little 
Tern comes west as fat* as the Gippsland Lakes. It rs not known whetlrer the 
two ever overlap in Gippslaud. 

It is the inletnion o( the picsent writer to deal with further erroneous bird 
records, in papery in this journal and in The Rmu, and to discuss more fully 
sonic of the statements outlined in the above notes. 

MICROSCOPICAL GROUP REPORT 

On Wednesday, November 20 last. Mr. C. Middfeton gave a talk entitled 
"Colour" in which the colours of the spectrum were demonstrated on the 
screen with the aid of a spectroscope. He also exhibited three lanterns fitted 
with lenses and nlrers to show the crTr-rT.s of producing complementary colours 
and for mixing them by projection. There was 3 large number o{ interesting 
r-pccimeiii under the microscopes such as butterfly scales, silver crystals, 
transverse and longitudinal sections of Echinus spines, elytra of a Diamond 
Beetle, chemically produced iridescent crystals, and spicules oi Corgonux. 

The programme committee of the Group men on Wednesday* November 27 t 
and drew up a tentative programme of subjects for the coining year. During 
January and February, when pond-life is most prolific, Mr. D. McTnnes will 
speak on "Protozoans" during January (see below h and it is hoped that an 
expert on the Rotifer will speak during February. 

WHAT, WHERE, AND WHEN 

F.N.C.V. Excursions: 

Sunday, January 19 — Parlour coach excursion to Point Lonsdale. Leader ; 
Mr E. H. CoghilL Local member* may join party at Eastern Beach, 
Gcclong, at approximately 10,30 aitr, or at Marcus Stale School at about 
II, 30 a.m, Coach leaves Batman Avenue at a.m. Fare, IS/- fur Mel- 
bourne members, Bring two meals. Hooking** with F.xcursion .Secretary. 

Saturday, Jauuaty ^5 — Botany Group exrursion to FftoHcfttY Gardens 
Leaders; Miss Baatan and Mrs- Pincbes. Meet 2.30 p-m. z\ main gate 
of the gardens. Ballarat Road. Fuotseray. 

Sunday. February 9 — Geology Group excursion, Details will be given at the 
Group meeting. 

Group Meetings; 

(% p.m. at National Herbarium, unless otherwise stated.) 

Wednesday. January 15 — Microscopical Grovip Suhjrct : Protozoan?. 
Speaker: Mr. D- Mc I tines. 

Monday. February 3- -Fntomolo^y and Marine Biology Group. The meeting 
will be held in Mr\ Strong s tooms at Parliament House at S p.m Enter 
through private gate at south end of Parliament -House. 

Wednesday, February 5 — Geology Group 

— MAKie AUfeNDfcR, Excursion Secrciary 
19 Hawthorn Avenue. Caul field- S.V.J. 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74— No 10 FEBRUARY 6, 1958 No. 890 



PROCEEDINGS 

GENERAL MEETING, DECEMBER 9, 1957 

About i 20 members and friends attended the Monthly General 
Meeiing chaired by Mr. J. Ros Garnet who extended a welcome 
to Mr, Tarlton Raymeni alter his long illness, lie also welcomed 
Mr J M. Landy from Timherrop. 

Mr, Landy spoke on ihe school at Timbertop, It is a branch of 
Geelung Grammar School and is situated at the loot of Mt. Thnber- 
top. near Mansfield. Mr Landy pointed out that one of the aims uf 
Hie school was to give (he boys training in fending far themselves 
and lo give them a chance of leading; a healthy out-of-doors- life for 
part of the. time. Members noted with interest that sporting" activities 
were almost completely replaced with other activities such as 
hiking, cutting firewood for winter, and caring, for the grounds 
immediately surrounding the school. They apparently had to do 
nearly everything for themselves, except mending and cooking. A 
normal school curriculum is followed and the results obtained so 
far have proved very satisfactory, During the week-ends, nearly 
all boys hike through the nearby hills r but Mr, Landy pointed out 
that at the beginning of the school year the areas around Timbertop 
were zoned for two main reasons. First, they were not permitted 10 
go beyond a certain distance for fear that some students might 
become lost — they had to learn their way through the nearby 
countrywide before thev were allowed to go further* away; and 
secondly, they must be conditioned to hard hiking before any k)tig 
journeys were undertaken. During the whole thne students were at 
Timbertop, no one was truly lost, though occasionally a few boys 
arrived back at the school a few hours late. One activity which many 
of the students enjoyed was photography and many excellent colour 
slides were shown during the evening's meeting- Some of the photo- 
graphs were of very high standard and showed that the boys had 
much patience and ability. All members present: at the meeting 
agreed that theGeelong Grammar School is lo be highly commended 
for making it possible for their students to enjoy some of the many 

139 



... „ .. r v <«* Not. 

facets of nature- After ably answering several questions, Mr, handy 
was thanked tor a mcui interesting and i)tformutnw lecture. 

Several matters were hroughl before the notice of members by 
the President and Secretary Another appeal wa? marie tor helpers 
Eor the Moomba Nature Show (please mer 10 The Victorian 
Naturalist for Jaruiaiy 1958, page 126), This matter is impcrrtant. 
The final financial result of the Prabran Nature Show beld h?\ 
October indicated a profit of nearly twenty-two pounds, due mainly 
to the kindness of the Pnihran Town Hall authorities. MenVber^ 
were also informed that the Library Committee was now tu the 
formative stage and that only one more member was needed- The 
Lome League of rUishluvers was affiliated with the F.N.C.V. on 
the motion of Mr, Coghill and seconding by Mr. Curtis. 

The following members were elected to the Club: Mrs. 1. C. 
Harding, Hawthorn (Ordinary Member) : Mr. T Connor Koroit 
(Country) Mr P. EL Pinck, Heathiuerc (Country). The Rev 
A. j. Matter of Berwick was. elected to Honorary Membership. 

Amongst the exhibits at the meeting were Land Shells. Suca-nta 
mistntfis Ferussae and Pupoi,(k$ udelaidae Ad. & Aug. (Mr. Saro- 
vich and Mr. Gabriel); tasciation in Flatwecd. Hy}>$cluteris 
raduata (Mr. Wakefield) : Y'acca Gum from Xttnthorrhoexi atn- 
frolis, demonstrating its -solubility in nlcohol (Mr Garnet) ; shelis. 
Pfuunnulla aitstruUs and Bnlkma boicmica, From deposits several 
thousand years old at Point Lonsdale (Mr. Coghill ) : garden-grown 
native plants^ including an interesting Caiiiste-mon (Mr. ErooVe^i. 

GENERAL MEETING, JANUARY 13, 1^58 

Mr. J. Roy Garnet extended a welcome to Mr and Mrs. Stan 
0»Htver who can>c south from Brisbane for a short stay in Mel- 
bourne. The President referred with considerably feeling In the 
death ox Mrc. J. VV". H. 5rrou£, wife" of a prominent member of our 
Club. He also announced that Dr, Chattaway's mother had reached 
94 years of age. It w;ts also announced that the Australian Natural 
History Medallion had been awarded to Mr. liryant who has* been 
editing The Rmtt for a considerable time. 

There were three speakers for the evening: Miss Woollard, Mr. 
Coghill, and Mr, CoMtver, 

Miss Woollard illustraled an interesting talk on parts of Western 
Australia by a series of colour slides. Among these were Cahtdznia 
flavo, /ludrrsonia- spp., Pelropliita sp,, and Rankda coccinea. Many 
other slides: were shown and species of the famines Pratentvae and 
Epdi-riditceae teetned tu predominate. Several photography of the 
district around Albany were also shown. 

Mr. Coghilt gave a very short talk on the recent F.N.C V excur- 
sion to Kast Gippsland.* He said that some thirty members and 



igggjj PforredingLX 141 

friends all ended the* excursion to the area. A feature oi the trip was 
a visit to the Guudwtn Sands by two separate parlies of members. 
He also mentioned that some Punncl-web Spidery were noted. 

Mr Cnllivrr begdfl his krtnrcttc 4 by expressing his pleasure ut 
being hark at a F.N.O.V meeting and brought greetings from the 
Queensland Field Naturalists Club. 'Phi*: Ouh ha$ yearly enmpouts 
at the .*>ea-side or in the bush, alternating them. Mr, Col liver began 
his series of colour slides by illustrating ihe Queensland University 
and the Botanic Gardens. The well-known BoatjahzviHea is a veir 
promiscuous plant in Queensland and the speaker mentioned in 
passing that one gentleman at Indooroopilly was growing aboul 
twenty kinds of this beautiful plant. Some other interesting slidi s 
jhpwed pans of the Brisbane River and several well known beaches. 
One of the outstanding features illustrated during the talk was Che 
Unions Glasshouse Mountains. These consisted of tall and almosc 
iiiaecessJbie pinnacles which are really the massive cores of extinct 
volcanoes. At one private saucmary, bread soaked iu a mixture of 
honey and water is fed daily lo hundreds /sometimes thousands) of 
lorikeets at *1 p.riL The birds seemed to know the feeding time and 
apparently ;ire not afraid of humans. Mr Collivetr commented on 
the performance of the Bottle-nosed Grampus (commonly called 
Porpoise) ac Point Danger, near Burleigh. Other .slides were taken 
from Mr David Fleay's Sanctuary which Is in the same district. 
Mr- Fleay demonstrated the sluggishness of the ''ferocious" Taipau 
and the speed at which the Common Brown Snake can rnove. It was 
stated that the basalts at Cimiiinghrun's Gap were rich in zeolites, 
and that other fossils, had been found in the -same area. Other in- 
teresting features uf the calk were the red loams near Chdders and 
the organ pipe-like rocks ot algal origin at Paradise Creek. The 
tine origin 0$ the former are not known and ihey have been called 
Red Soil Residual* by Professor Bryan of the Queensland Univer- 
sity. Mr. Collivcr also commented that one of the "organ-pipes' hat) 
heen traced fur abuut 400 feet, thus demonstrating its great age, He 
finished oil Ins interesting and informative talk with several colour 
slides of some crater likens on the Atherton Tableland and notes on 
slug's, snails, and the Pitta which !S a bird that surrounds its ucsl 
with large numbers of snail shells. 

Among the exhibits for the evening were CrQivm (Mr. Garnet) ; 
the New South Wales Christmas Rush (Mr. lewis) ; Kangaroo 
Paw (Miss Raff) ; tascia-ted FuUcvmii gunmi (Mr. Webb) , eueu- 
Ivpt leaves showing insect galls (Mr Coghill) ; Crotvea orWa/.t 
grown under garden conditions (Mr. Brookes). 

• A «mr> ixhcnsi ve report ->f ihis- excursion will be fi:"Ctt later id :i -tihsfyjnent issufr r>f 



\42 The Vkhnim Nittvn&st V<>(. 74 

EMBEDDING OF BIOLOGICAL SPECIMENS IN PLASTICS 

By A. Sten* 

Dining the past several months I have been carrying ciut a scries 
of experiments in Che embedding of specimens in locally produced 
Australian plastics Though these experiments are not yet com- 
plete, the results obtained are encouraging inasmuch as they show 
in practice that the suitability of some Australian plastics for em- 
bedding biological specimens is in no way inferior to that of plastics 
produced in overseas countries. The embedding of specimens in 
such material is in great favow in many places, especially in 'Eng- 
land and U.S.A. Numerous references in literature dealing with 
embedding procedure have been published and a number of patents 
relating to this process have been granted abroad already 

Among plastics manufactured in Australia one should name 
methyl met hacry late- -the first synthetic resin used as. an embedding 
medium. It was first marketed In the USA, in transparent sheet 
form in 1936, and as modelling powder m 1937, If is a derivative of 
acrylic acid. At present methyl mcthacrylate is widely itsed in the 
plastic industry and by almost all scientific bodies dealing" wiih ihe. 
embedding of biological specimens It is considered as the hest from 
the standpoint of brilliance, clarity and permanence of the com- 
pleted mounts. Polylite 8005 is another plastic which snows, very* 
promising results and belongs to the group ok polylite resins which 
are liquid, thermosetting in nature, arid convertible into solid trans- 
parent blocks even at room temperature by the addition of cata- 
lysts. Polylite resins are heal, corrosion, water and weather resis- 
tant, light in weight, and of .great strength. Besides, these properties 
polylite 8005 also shows high transparency and good colour, rapid 
release of bobbles, and excellent solubility in ketones, esters and 
some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Uncatalysed stability of this plastic 
is as long as six months. All these properties make polylite 8005 an 
ideal medium for embedding certain kinds of biological specimens-. 

My experiments with these, plastics were limited to embedding 
of botanical material (with previous preservation of natural colours) 
and also insects, shells and bones. The embedding technique em- 
ployed during this work is outlined in the following pages 

I am indebted to Mr. Robert Bosvvcll, the head of the Dcptntment 
of Preparation m the National Museum of Victoria, for the accom- 
panying photographs and for the moral support he gave mc. with- 
out which my experiments would not fSjve been successful. 

■• A^isiant I'retijrMor, National Museum at Victoria. 



Feb. 

1958J 



j STEN. Embcdd'vui of Biological Specimens in Plastics 143 



PREPARATIOX OF SPECIMENS FOR EMBEDDING 
FLOWERS AXD LEAVES 

Flowers and leaves should he treated in special solutions to pre- 
serve their natural colours. The following three hasic solutions were 
used in the experiment. 

RP-SOLUTIOX (Red and Pink Flowers) 

This solution consists of 100 parts by weight of tertiary butyl 
alcochol (C4HUOH), one part of thiourea (XfLCSXPL) and two 
parts of citric acid (C«Hh0 7 ). Experience shows also that the 
weight proportions are not final and can he varied with the same 
results. 

BG-SOLUTIOX (Blue and Green Material) 

This is prepared from tertiary butyl alcohol, thiourea and sodium 
citrate ( XaaC^Hr.Oj ) in the same weight proportions as for the 
RP-Solutiom viz., 100: 1 : 2. 

IXTER-SOLUTIOX (Intermediate Solution) 

For satisfactory preservation of intermediate colours, the same 
four compounds should be mixed; two parts of thiourea, two parts 
of sodium citrate, two parts of citric acid and 200 parts of tertiary 
butyl alcohol by weight. 

Solutions keep better in labelled glass jars. Flowers and leaves 
are placed in the jars so that they are completely covered with the 
solution and left for 10 to 24 hours, depending on the nature of the 
material. The temperature should not be below 20°C., but it should 
not be very high, since some colours are inevitably lost in boiling 
solutions. After the material is preserved, it should be removed 
from the solutions and dried in an oven at a temperature of approxi- 
mately 50°C. 

BOXES, SHELLS, AXD INSECTS 

Before bones are treated, they should be completely degreased, 
bleached, and dried. After drying they should be placed in a jar, 
covered with liquid plastic, and treated in a vacuum desiccator to 
remove all air bubbles and allow the plastic to penetrate. If a 
vacuum desiccator is not available, special attention must be given 
to removing air bubbles. It is necessary to keep shell specimens in 
plastic for a while to fill the inside of them before the curing process 
is commenced. Insects may be treated in a similar manner. 

If methyl methacrylate is used as a medium, the best cells for 
embedding purposes are glass vessels which are broken after the 
process of curing is completed, but the hard blocks of polylite 8005 
could be easily separated from the cells if this is used. 



THK VICTORIAN' XATURAT.IST 
Plate IX 



Vol. 74 





[144] 



m*l STEN, Embedding a) Biohcjicol Specimens iff Plasties 145 

EMBEDDING OF SPECIMENS TN METHYL 
METHACRYLATE 

The basic materials and equipment for this process are as 

follows . 

1. Meihyl methacrylate (Monomer) or "Kallodoc 
Solution' 5 1 

2_ Acrylic granules. 

3. Caustic soda solution (XaOH). 

4. Anhydrous calcium chloride (Cad-?). 

5. Blocks of acrylic perspex sheets. 

6. Litmus paper. 

7. Glass funnel. 

$. Vacuum desiccator. 

9. Glass cups. 

10. Electric oven, 

1 1. Polishing equipment. 

The ''KaJlodoc Solution" contains a stabilizer which should be 
removed by washing with 5 per cent caustic soda solution in a 
funnel until it is no longer alkaline The monomer separates into 
two layers, a clear upper layer over a hrown liquid which is removed 
from the funnel. The washed residue is then collected in a glass con- 
tainer and some anhydrous calcium chloride added To dry it. After 
24 hours it is ready for the curing procedure. For some work it is 
desirable to reduce the solution to the consistency of syrup by add- 
ing some acrylic granules or small pieces of perspex. This causes 
taster setting but it is harder to avoid air bubbles. After the speci- 
men is dehydrated and treated in the vacuum desiccator, it is trans- 
ferred to a suitably-sized glass dish, where the curing process is 
carried out. A circle or square' plate of perspex which is cut out to 
fit the bottom of the dish is a good base for the specimen. If poly- 
merization is to be done layer by layer, the specimen is placed on 
the perspex base in the dish, a thin layer of methyl methacrylate 
syrup is poured in and the whole is put into the oven. During the 
process of curing, air bubbles appearing should be removed with a 
long needle. To avoid evaporation, the dish should be covered with 
a lid. When polymerization is completed and the top layer is dry, 
the dish is removed from the oven, allowed to cool, and the glass is 
bVokcu. The released block is then levelled with sand-paper and 
polished. One of the serious disadvantages of this plastic is a dis- 
agreeable smell spread by the monomer which irritates the eyes. 



Ut STEK, Embedding of Biolfifjical SpfifaltW 6l Phsiics [^ JJ* 

EMBEDDING OF SPECIMENS IN T POLYLITE 8U05 

The following materials and apparatus are necessary Fr>r em- 
bedding: 

1. Polylite plastic S005. 

2. Catalyst No. 2 

3. Class vessels. 

4. Vacuum desiccator. 

5. Electric oven 

6. Glass- jars, 

Polylite S005 in the measured quantity necessary to fill the glass 
dish is mixed with catalyst (2-5 per ceni'i and stirred in a separate 
glass container. Then it it. allowed to stand for 20 minutes to com- 
plete the catalysis The catalyzed polybtc plastic is poured into the 
glass dish to cover approximately a garter of the volume, of the dish 
which is then placed in the oven at a temperature of-45°C. for about 
2 hours. The remaining polylite will not solidify at room tempera- 
ture for at least 10 hours, Then the dish is removed from the oven 
and the specimen from the vacuum desiccator is fixed to the plastic 
base. Then a thin layer of plastic is poured into the dish which is 
placed in the oven again until the plastic dries. The dish is three- 
quarters filled with polylite plastic and the plastic dries in the oveu. 
The final layer of plastic is applied and the dish is again placed in 
the oven until it dries. It is then removed and allowed to cool. The 
block can be easily separated from the dish by placing the blade of a 
knife between the walls of the plastic block and the diah. The block, 
with the specimen now inside it» should be levelled with sand-paper 
and polished. 

The results obtained with polylite 8005 arc satisfactory. The 
whole process of embedding is quite simple and can be completed in 
12-24 hours depending on temperature and the percentage of cata- 
lyst used in the process, This plastic is good for embedding both 
hard and soft subjects, bur my experiments with embedding soft 
subjects in polyhtes are not yet completed. The main difficulty faced 
at present is the preservation of natural colours which the process 
destroys in soft sections such a heart, kidney, stomach, etc. 

Plate TX. (p. 144) illustrates examples of biological specimens 
embedded in plastics. 

Generally speaking, embedding of biological specimens m Aus- 
tralian produced plastics is a new field of activity which will no 
doubt find wide application in the near future, especially for educa- 
tional purposes. Fragile specimens such as subjects of general and 
applied entomology, samples of seeds, examples of mimicry and 
species which are easily contused such as centipedes and millepedes, 
and anatomical specimens could be placed in plastic blocks and used 
vnth great value in schools, colleges and universities. 



jjjjg] The Victorian Naturalist 147 

VICTORIA'S LADY WILDFLOWER-ARTIST 
(Amy Vordy Fuller, 1869-1944) 

By J. H. Willis 

Western Australia had its Emily Pelloe and visiting Marianne 
North ; South Australia its Rosa Fiveash ; Tasmania, Louisa Mere- 
dith, and various States (as well as Xew Guinea ) shared Mrs. Ellis 
Rowan. Among the most valued assets of the Field Naturalists 
Club of Victoria are 230 water-colour studies of native Australian 
and South African flowers by the late Miss Amy Fuller, who died 
in August 1944 and whose work testifies to her reputation as a great, 
if not the premiere, Victorian wildilower-painter. These picture* 
were bequeathed to the Club in her will, were immediately insured 
for £200, and are now housed for safe keeping at the National 
Herbarium of Victoria. Selections of them have been exhibited at 
practically every nature show organized by the F.N. CA". and. even 
before the donor's death, they were a familiar feature of animal 
displays. 

The Club owes a debt of gratitude to Miss Molly Elder and 
John Hechervaise who, in 1954. carefully mounted all the paintings 
on strong white cardboard — a very desirable, if onerous, under- 
taking — and their attached linen flaps now enable the separate 
pictures to be pinned for future exhibitions without damage fcu the 
corners ( which unfortunately happened to some of them in former 
days). Although Amy Fuller needs no better memorial than her 
own delightful handiwork, some account of her life and accomplish- 
ments is long overdue. The following biographical notes are pre- 
sented in an attempt to satisfy this need, and for many details the 
writer is indebted to Mrs. V. H. Perry of Canterbury (daughter 
of Miss Fuller's elder brother, Arthur). 

Born at Geelong in 1869, Amy was the youngest among four 
daughters and second-youngest child of John Hobson Fuller who 
had migrated from England, first to South Africa and subsequently 
to Geelong in Victoria where he practised as an accountant. Her 
two brothers followed the paternal business lead, the elder (Arthur 
John) founding the Melbourne accountancy firm of Fuller King Jy 
Co., the younger (Robert Arnold) settling in New Zealand; all 
six children have now passed on. The girls had unusual artistic 
ability. Florence, who never maned, was a talented oil-painter; 
she spent seven years in Europe ( 1893-1900 ) , studied under British 
and French tutors and saw her work exhibited both at the London 
Academy and Paris Salon. In South Africa Cecil Rhodes gave her 
portrait sittings, while her delicate Australian scenes are repre- 
sented in the public galleries of the six States [see article on Flor- 
ence Fuller in A.A.A. for September 1st, 1904, p. 595 — where she 



148 



Willis, i f ictoria's Lady Ji'ihfflowr-.-lriist 



rvict. n 

L Vol. 7 



Nat. 
4 



is described as "one uf our best artists" |. Another sister was Mrs. 
C. C Lance, wife of the Xew South Wales Commercial Agent in 
London; her rich contralto voice gave pleasure to many audiences, 
and she took solo parts in Handel's Messiah with Sydney Phil- 
harmonic Society, as well as playing the piano skilfullv and very 
sweetly. The third sister, Mrs. F. W. Parsons, at one time in- 
structed students of art. 

Amy received her education at the Presbyterian Ladies' College, 
Melbourne, was a very keen sportswoman and later played A grade 
tennis. Incidentally, a niece (Sylvia Lance, now Mrs. Harper of 

Sydney ) won the Women's 
National Tennis Champion- 
ship of Australia, and she was 
chosen by the L.T.A.A. to 
captain an Australian group 
of women tennis players visit- 
ing Western Europe and 
America in 1925; this team 
scored notable victories 
throughout Britain, in France 
and Belgium. 

Music was Miss Fuller's 
chosen career, and her debut 
as a vocalist came at the age 
of 20 in Melbourne during 
LS89; subsequently she ap- 
The late Miss Amy Y. Fuller. peared also as soloist with the 

photo by courtesy Mi»n Gwen Neighbour. Melbourne Liedertafel. By 
1K94 she had sung on concert platforms in Perth and South Africa; 
thereafter she taught singing both in Melbourne and Western 
Australia, where resident for a number of years. Even as late 
as 1913 this gifted ladv took some advanced singing lessons herself 
from Madam Minna Fischer in England, and there she met many 
musical celehrites — notably Ada Crossley, Liza Lehmann, Amy 
Woodford Findon, Madam Christian and Conningsby Clark. In 
more leisured hours Amy played cards with great enthusiasm and, 
at one time, gave lessons in bridge. As an early member of the 
Arts and Crafts Society in Melbourne, she was among the first 
exponents of poker-work and painting-on-wood ; she decorated 
innumerable boxes, murals, etc., and her designs in all these projects 
were dominated by native trees and blossoms. From time to time 
she held exhibitions of her handicraft. An old friend has described 
her hands as "very tiny and pretty and always busy". 

But it is for her water-colours oi the flora that Miss Fuller 
enjoys a lasting reputation with the Field Naturalists Club of Vic- 
toria. She was elected to membership in September 1914 and, at 




mi] Willis. Victoria'* Udy WMUwev Artist 319 

the Club meeting ot June 14th, 1915. read a fascinating paper 
("Some Sotitli African Scenes miuJ Flowers") which was published 
ii) The Ifictotiah Naturalist two months later (Vol, 32, pp. 57-64). 
Herein she write* 

Jc was only my iove of flowers ;hat prompted me to firtil a way to 
ljre*ervo the memory of the tllfiuSaffltb tit natwo flower* ihat came onder 
niy notice whilst 1 was living in Cape Town with my relatives. 

With modest restraint, the fart is not menlioned that she stayed 
there with her uncle, Sir Thomas Fuller who was then Agent- 
General., and that on many occasions she met Cecil Rhodes. All 
enthralling account of her week spent on the Zambesi River, 
Rhodesia (at ami near "the majestic Victoria Kails) occupies four 
(/ages: one can set" the fresh green fairyland of palms, terns, tropica! 
trees and moss-covered boulders (all encircled by perpetual niin- 
bov\s from the play of sunlight on drifting spray), titanrie baobab 
trees resplendent with large hibiscus-like blooms and hung with 
cucumbei -shaped fruits to 13 inches long, hippopotamuses cavorting 
in the river shallows, lurking crocodiles and, as a grand climax, the 
tremendous yawning chasm of the Falls itself — where any visitor 
can only gaze and gaze "Sn speechless amazement", while the fine 
spray rises "like white smoke of some huge bush-nee* . That was 
m 1 SQ3 or 1894 during her first 18-inonths' sojourn in Africa, which 
she was to revisit in 1898 en route to England; two further periods 
were spent amtd the wonders of the Cape flora, the last in 191 3-14, 
and Miss Fuller reported having painted "about 325 South African 
specimens, which the late Prot. MacOwan named for me, also 
' 165 West Australian flowers which were named by the late Dr. 
Morrison" (a total of 490). She then commenced the portrayal 
of Victorian and New South Wales kinds, 

During her London visit of 1914, the. authorities at the Reryal 
Botanic Gardens expressed a desire to purchase part of the flora! 
paintings for Kew Herbarium, 'choosing the flowers that were 
must uncommon, and of which they had no representations other 
than pressed specimens" Thus, wrote Amy, ''it was with a heavy 
heart that I parted with the 102 sheet* which they selected, us my 
flowers have always been very dear to me". The present writer 
can find no mention of this purchase in any available report on the 
acquisitions of Kew, and it would be interesting |o know the true 
position with regard to these 102 delineations. Together with the 
230 now held by the F.K.C.V., these, make up only 332 — wfwt has 
happened to the remaining 158 (ac least), which the artist claimed 
to have painted? 

A note in The Victorian Naturalist [33- 97] compliments Miss 
Amy Fuller for having organized the instrumental and vocal music 
at th£ Club's big Wildflower Show in Melbourne Town Hall on 
October 3rd, 1916. Her name is on the published membership list 



)50 Wu.us. Victorias Lady Wi\djton.*r* Artist [ V *£ ^ 

for 1920, hue not on the 1932 or 1940 lists: so, sometime ill Ihe 
1920s she would seem to have dropped out of Club activities and 
allowed her membership to lapse At the time of her election Miss 
Fuller redded at Canterbury (Stanley Grove), later she lived at 
Hawthorn (Berkeley Street) and finally at Kevv (Princess Street). 
She died suddenly in Melbourne from a hean seizure on August 
1 3th, 1944. and her remain* were cremated at Springvate three days 
rater, So passed £way one of the most ver»alile. vivacious ^nrl 
charming gentlewomen the Club has been previleged to number 
among its ranks. 

BOTANICAL BOOK RSVIEWS 

By J. H. Willis 

1. Kow to Know West Australian Wtldtbwtrs, Part II. 

W. E. Bt ACKALL & B, J. GRIEVE University of Western Aus- 
tralia Press, Nedlands, Jan. 1957. BV* x S". I9fi page;, 4 plates v* 
colour Price 30/--J 

II \*s more thsw three years since the first pan of Dr. W. E BlacV-alVh 
handbook was accorded biief mention in The I'ictorian -Naturalist [71: 100 
(Oct. 1954)1. In the interim there lias been a steady demand for thb popular 
pictorial work, and the publication of Part Tl (early in 3957) is most K f ali- 
tying. Kow the book appears under joint authorship, [or the simple reason 
that Dr. Brian Grieve baa done the lion's share of work for the new part. He 
was confronted by a number of handwritten, unscripted and incomplete 
manuscripts for which he tyQtigttt many of the keys to completion, constructed 
entirely fresh one* ann" provided drawings of much greater detail — showing 
r branchlet or leafy shoot with flower?-, as welt a*, the individual organs of 
diagnostic vaiue. Altnoiisjfc the ground work and general format ot \be 
original "Rlackall rrss. remain the same, the chief body-detail results from 
enthusiastic effort on the part oi Dr. Grieve, Much credit is also due to Miss 
Joon Rayner who scripied the Hunt copy and reproduced the hundreds- ot 
illustrations, and to Mrs. K. Holland who undertook the final organisation 
•: typing and checking of indices, etc-) 

A pleasing addition to the Index « Scientific Names is a locality column 
indicating, for each species, the botanical districts in which plants are known 
to occur — viz. Irwin, Austin, Avon, Coolgardie, Darling-. Warren, Stirling 
and Eyre. Page numbers run on serially from p. 321 of the Usl key (to 
Eucalyptus) in Part I, continuing as far as p. 45° Thus, the new part is less 
than half the sir.e of its predecessor ; but it -embrace? -4e>0 species in such large 
and pulling genera as Hibbcrtui (63), Pimchu (32), Dotfmaca- (26} and 
Fvanktnia (29), the entire families Rhanmacae. Mc-nHteac and Stcrcutiazeoc. 
All ninjor groups of vascular plants up to and including the Myrinwc (by 
Engter and Prantl's arrangement) have now been treated; Part It also in- 
corporates the 165 species of, temperate West Australian Gooihft/acene so that 
slndcnls may have, without further delay, n ready guide 1o the colourful and 
unusually interesting members of this typically Australian family — the dust 
jacket «ory attractively features a display of Blue Leschenaultia (L Inlrtm^- 
Only the groups QnUfffaceae to Compositac remain, and these, presumably, 
will constitute a final and rather larger Part III of the scrie3. 

No praise can be too lavish for this highly successful attempt — the first of 
Its kind in Australia — to present a large, very complex, regional flora (of 



Jjjjj Wilms. Botanical Book ketrifua 1 i 1 

some 4,000 species) in simple language and by means of clear, unambiguous 
tine-drawings for each specie* The accessory key ta plant tommies, oxiitarm- 
tory notes, jrlos.sary and two Indices ate admirably sci out and remarkably 
heir trow typORiaptueal slips With a J&rtuig board-binding, a^d filial iti>£Cl1 
blank page* fur notes, the present volume — 511II moderaiHv priivd At 30/- 
niay be laken conveniently on fitW excursions, and its rote as ait indispensable 
wol-nf-rradc KMT practising botnnijts m the West ts assured. Grower* of the 
spectacular south-western flora 11* eastern State*, ^rnd in New Zealand, \yfll 
also he clad to avail thcm$cK<*s of s^ieh a handy, workable key to ideciitus. 
"Ih*w to Khuu>" ranks worthily ivith the btsl among Australia's growing 
om put of useful botanical huralute 

2. Tfce Tonic PloMt of Western Auttrolia 

C. A. GARDNER & K. W. UKNNETTS [West Australia* News 
papers Ltd,, Perth, Autf- I05& 9 J" * 7j*\ -S3 pag-;s. 52 plates an colour 
45 ink-drawings. I'cice 54)/- ] 

Systematic botany, as a purply oVurbed and academic >tudy t i> of imexest 
to very feiv Australians indeed; but when it can be Drought to bear direct!? 
on some phase of the country's primary productivity — flur "bread-and-butter" 
>upply — , both the interest and importance are heightened immensely- hi 
tropical as well as rempcratc parts Of Western Australia, substantial losses of 
grazing annuals (sheep, cattle, horses ami goats) have Wen ascribed W the 
ingestion of native plants rf>8J were variously toxic, From the days of early 
settlement "Yurk Koud puisOn" was- a problem to stockmen, and other sus- 
■peered plants {Champion Bay tmismi, Candy up poison, etc ) took rheir pnimfar 
names from those district* where trouble occurred The West seems to be 
endowed, or cursed, with a tar greater variety of poisonous "wildflowcr* ;.han 
any othei larae pari ot the GommomveHlth Obviously, jm anthonulive *uide 
to these vegetable offender! ** de riyueitr. 

There have been occasional descupuvc articles and brochure* involving 
sonic of the proven poisoners; but time was ripe for a realty comprehensive 
work- Thai need has now teen supplied in Thv Tvxit Pfouts 0) iVcstern 
shi.tfralin — by the fortunate collaboration of Mr. C A Gardner (Government 
ijotanist) and Dr. M. \V\ Renncirs (Principal oi the Animal Health and 
Kutrniuii Laboratory, Perth) . They have produced an BitCfylent hook covering 
0// the, known species oi poison plants rhroughouL the whole State- both 
indigenous and ualuralued. The binding, very strong txiper, 'bold fornnt and 
choice of the type leave link* to be desired- Specie* are arraused .systematic- 
ally (Eugkr and Prautl scheme) in family yroups, which arc pimply demic-d : 
and, fAr each of the 127 spfvies discussed in der.di, there is g good description — 
understandable to the non-technical man— with an accnaor of iltf loxtciiy 
1. signs, Mmiptorns, •-irTect on animal oifians. etc.l As aanouncetl hy the blurb 
on the iiojl-,Mcket, tlie ivurk "enables y*>tora1i'-ts miq fanner; to recognise 
symptoms of poisoranK 1 and suggests means by wliitli erarJiunitou OT ioxtr 
plants ma>- be ctTecled". Mnnv ot\wf suspected plants arc mrniioned under 
their respective groupings. Keys arc prcd'idc(l to dijtioe'uiatl Certain species iit 
dirhentt genera, e ff, tfdtfv$$ and Vatum, the combined key for Oxylabuwi 
-(iit.itrofobiutii (attractive hut deadly leguminous sUl ub*) embracing 32 speciev 

A very pleasing leaturt nt thffi book if the variety of splendid portraits 
much more accurate and artistic than most that have hitherto accompanied 
publications on the poison plants or weed* oi the Cornmnnwcahh The. 45 
fuH-i&gc ink drawing? uphold a hif;lt srandard of botanical illustration ^hat 
one lias come to expect of Mi*. Gardner, while the 37 repioductions in colour 
from "Aater-colours by Edgar Dnll arc A delight. The latter had aiready ap- 
peared in D stnaU booklet einiiled Poisov Plants oi Stwth-ivcstcm stusttvfut. 



IU WllLlK, Botanical Book l&tfbcp [^ ^ 

published by tyKfitf -Wtyalum Newspapers. T,ut to l!>37i »n'l tf> these Mr 
Caxdnrr h&H added IS bj lufe own superb painhngs. FOT 3 mine of information 
On jlllfi rxtreit*ly important but fascinating subject, and tor such a wcaltn of 
pictorial art, (he tost oi £2/10/- >s moderate among present book prices. 

3, PAreai Ticei of Australia 

FORESTRY AND TIMBER BUREAU, Department oi tftft Interior 

[Common wealth Government Printer, Canberra, Auq. 1957. 9£" x 6j"- 
230 pajyes. 11 plates in colour, 91 half-tone plates. Price 42/-. J 

l r or aU its comparative youth and sparse population, the Commonwealth 
is certainly not tmmcrtrally deficient in tree bocks, R. H. Anderson's TrccA 
n} A'e-;t* Sonih Wales (^nd edition -195?) and D- Y>. France's shtstroiww Fni/t 
Forcu Trees being two publications of outstanding meat. Then there hhvc 
been ojder works, Mfe Baker and South' j elaborate Pints o/ -^Kiffflft* (191'». 
devoted to particular sections of the arboreal flora., but a handy guroe 1o ill 
the commercial timber-producing specie* has lwit beun a desideratum. Our 
federal Forestry and Timber £U*tftfU has r*sc»t to the occasion, aertd, thtougb 
rite united error 1 3 of an enthusiastic team (particularly Messrs. N. Hall, R. D. 
Johnston and C. D. Hamilton of Canberra), we now have a piece ol compact 
hotantrnl literal'ire — t'orrst Trent. n\ ft lift *;iJtr\ — which -niy te;chmril Iibrviry, 
practising forester or general pbytologist would be proud tu own. 

Although the book lays no claim to comprehensiveness, never before have 
so many Australian tree-specie* been presented III CCfttpftrflbfc derail. Two 
(Ktges of int'onnatton accompany each of the H2 species chosen, 67 being 
eucalyprs, for. -is emphasized by Director-General U. ]. Rodger in fru briei 
-preface 'T.ucalypi forest covers nearly 95 pet' cent of the fovesKo! land oi 
Australia, ewiseuueutly most of the tree:; described and illustrated in this book 
belong* to tins typically Australian (jCJlttt.. 

Specie* of Eucalyptus h^vt hee;i anangeil according to Bfakely's standard 
Ki'$ to the Hucalypts (1934). On each left-hand (even-numbered) page ft a 
very full destHpltuu of llifl tree, neatly summflrucrl under the beftd&gS o( 
bark, leaves, inrtoresce.nce, fruit and wood, with notes on sire, form and 
hahitat, accompanied fcy a rucid inset line-map of Australia to show dis- 
tribution (in heavy black). The common name i* the main beading (hi hold 
c^piul typc) t with its accepted botanical equivalent italicized in the right-hand 
Corner. The oppotitt: or rtuht-hano' page is devo'ci entirely to illustrative 
detail: LTJ situ photographs to portray the habit ok the tr« ; a close up oi its 
bark, juvenile aiuj rnStUKt.' foliage to s*L*le. hurts and fruits (ot cone* m the 
case ox conifers) tlsei to scale These pictures. <uv really good, that of White 
Sallee (.or Snow Gum) on pact pja being a camera-man'.? dream. Then, ac 
the beginning of the hook, there arc cloven full-page reproductions of colom- 
phnfoftiaph* depicuijc eucaly^ls in distinctive forest formation The We.ct 
Australian iliots (of karri, wand on. and salmon Rum) are vividly failhkU ; 
hut, for ni'mc reason, the colour register oi eastern ipecics- -especially ro^c 
gum and pink btoodv^jod do page 19 — is detective, tlie subjects looking un- 
naturally bleached and ghostly. 

Tn general, the •iiv-c-is tropical and cabinet- wood tree?, such as Castanos- 
prrtmim. Ccdrsla, Cryptoairya, Dysoxylmn, Fteeccnrftts ami Phtdersiu 
snecifs, are excluded because they Were already so well aiv^red in Australian 
AVt/w Fofxist f'nes hy t-Taflcts A map oi Aosiraha, tin'ed to show comnieiciid 
{orcft regions with 10-mch isob>ets (up to the 40-incb zones). Jt yloss^ry i>f 
technical terms aiod gC4ie>al index serve to complete thjs excellent handbook 
which i* printed on glossy art paper between strong board cl»vci> Of black 
ciotV. D$hi\y lettered in silver. 



NATURALISTS' N0TE800K 

,k-ser,ed ro* y- u r Notes, Observations and Queues 

LITTLE WATTLE. BIRD VERSUS TIGER SNAKE 

While hi South Cippsteud during the ChriM mas-New Year holidays, t wit- 
nessed 2 most intiTKSiinjr aiul unusual encounter between i -3-it. Tiger SnAe 
and a UuJe Wattlt-bini Tb* loc^l land-owners 1$ whom I described ^l»e 
event, said that in all their years of experience they had never seen ;u\y jc* 
clii'.ntton on the part ot' Wattle-birds to declare war on sr..tkc> chough they all 
agreed that theft birds, to suy the ledst ot it, were very pugnacious. One 
Farmer — a kfcfn observer Ariel fell excellent shot— stated that he had secured 
many a good fox-pelt in the past by noting the behaviour Ot Wattle-onus, <* 
few of which would at lime* take particular delight in "buz/in^'' Reynard 
Ufnil their unwelcome tactics forced the. animal to break from cover. 

f lef? "The Shack" one perfect summer'^ morning to collect our daily ra»ion 
ol trilk a:\| cre*m from the nearest farmd:ouse, leaving mv wife sitting in ihe 
5IU1 writing letters. On my return some time later she hrealhle^ly announced, 
"There's a sr.ake in the wood-heap -i"d a bird mounting .yuan I." To nty in- 
quiry as to whetlii-r or not the turd wa^ a Kookaburra *he answered in the 
negative. 

While l>u>y with Iter correspondence* jhe «M;i startled to heat* a loud flap- 
piVty of wings close at hand. Looking up she saw within a few feet of where 
she w.if. felled a it»ake being "dive-bomhed" by a bird She jjyve me s viv*d 
description ot the- scene with (be snikt making only slnv. progress lowanls 
cover. It hau apparently wasted precious eime ar.d energy attempting to *inke 
upwardv at its fast-flying opponent. Our wood-heap wa> at the hull oi an old 
honeysuckle tree and wai the usual conglomeration oi' hack fe«s for the open 
6re-i»Iacc. tea-tree roots, 3|>lu wood. hits, of fruit-eases tor kindlmg, etc. Tb 
my surprise, <M a low branch, with a bjrdVtye view of the situation, was a 
Little Wattle-bird. 

Armed with a stout slick. [ vigorously and as F imagined thoroughly 
prodded and poked tt the heap o( wood without seeing any sign ot our Un- 
wanted visitor, and I naturally eoncludcd that it had disappeared into the 
scrub dlotijj, the hank: of the creek some yards distant Rut sBU DfXr "guardian 
angel" (to quote my wife's expression) sal on a hough ui a strategic position 
silently regarding my futile effort?. 

Casing to mind the old rhyme abou; 'A wise oM owl lived Ifl an oak" 
though Cn this instance it happened to be "a wattle-bird hi a Bauksia ", 1 de- 
cided to tra>t rhe hfrdN j udgmenv ratlwr th<ui my own, and accord StVgly 
retired indoors to keep a watchful eye -ci rt events through a convenient window. 
For considerably more than hull an hour by my watch out* feathered irien/l 
painstakingly examined the wood-heap from every suitable perch and from 
every conceivable angle, occasionally flying clown and literally peering into 
all the holes and devices between the various pieces of wood, One could not 
help but marvel at the bird's vigilance and patience. As the minutes ticked by, 
the betting shortened to odds-ou that the Tiger" was ttill, At ]eu.vi, a 
temporary inhabitant of our wood-pile. 

Eventually, however, n emerged and the teccottl round of the contest com- 
menced Down swept "the fighter" in a power-0»ve 10 »etiew hosuiltte*. 3o J 
sallied forth, stick in hand to render any help neces^arv. , That snake certainly 
deserved some sympathy, It could make little or no head-way towards ihe 
creek-bed and safety and was obviously on the defensive wjtJl its Tieck and 
the greater pan of its body flattened, out. At time? it -attempted to countcr- 
^tracfc but the Furious onslaught? from ihcair were being conducted at loo 
fast a ttrono lor its comfort, and the almost constant belting the reptile tva$ 
receiving -trom the bird's Wttgs mnst have made it Jecl very weary indeed. 



154 Naturalists' Notebook [ V ^ §* 

One quick blow behind the head was all that was necessary to terminate the 
battle. In the language of the classics it was "a sitting shot' 1 . 

But still our bodyguard was far from satisfied.. For some considerable iitnc 
that bird surveyed the dead snake with it;- head first on one side and then on 
the pther, occasionally swooping' tow over the corpse to ascertain whether 
there was any more fight Lett in it. 

As wattle-birds are bmsh-tongucd honcycatcrs and nest above ground-level, 
why all the commotion? 

— K. U. W JAM ART. 

MICROSCOPICAL GROUP 

The attention of all members of the F.N.C.V. is drawn to the next meeting 
of the above Group, to be held at the National HevfxMrhnn at 8 u.tn. en 
Wednesday. February tft when the guest speaker will he Dr. MavweU Oark, 
the eminent geneticist of the University of Melbourne and whose research 
work is well known. His subject wilt he ''Radiation Genetic*'', ^iease make 
this meeting wottli while by your personal attendance. 

Mr. D McTnites was the lecturer at the last meeting. With the aid of about 
sixteen microscopes on the bench, those present were invited to search ior the 
'"Protozoons" in samples of poud water. This novel approach gave each person 
an opportunity ol identifying at least one specimen amon^ this Urtre group 
which includes the flagellates, Amvehvj ciliated Paramecium, etc. 

WHAT, WHERE AND WHEN 

F.N.C.V. Excursion; 

Saturday, February 15 — Excursion to the Botatuc Gardens. Subject; Pciiul- 
Ji[e. Leader: Mi. D. McTnncs. Meet in uwr of tile kiosk at 2 p.m 

Group Meetings? 

(8 p.m. at National Herbarium, unless otherwise stated.) 

Friday, February 1*1 — Botany Group. This Group will resume meetings at the 
National Herbarium tins year, Mid each meeting will he precede*! by a 
short talk de-ding with bonny for beginners commencing at 7-'l5 p.m. 
The first speaker will be Mr. Swaby. and he will be followed by Mr. 
Atkins who is to deliver an illustrated lecture on "HearhJands" later in 
the evening. New members are cordially invited, to attend. 

Wednesday, Fehruary 19 — \firrr/«rn[>ical Group Subject : r\adi*Uiou G«*»>£- 
ritSL Speaker; Dr. Chirk (lecturer in Zoology at the University or Mel- 
bourne). All members of the Club are invited to attend this meeting. 

Monday, March 3 Entomology and Marine BioFogy Group The meenue 
will be held in Mr. Stromas rooms in Parliament TTouse at 8 pan Fitter 
through private entrance at south end o£ Parliament House. 

Wednesday, March 5— -Geology Group. Members Wight. Subject; Geology 
Holiday Experiences. 

Preliminary Notice: 

Sunday. March 16— Combined excursion with the Rendigo F.N C to Bnrfold 
and the Mitchell Falls, Leader Mr. F. Kobbius. The par lout -coach will 
leave Batman Avenue at 9 a.m. Fare, 19/-. Bring- two meab Bucking i 
With iixCUrsiou Secretary. 

Maims Alul.-hwa, Kxcursion Secretary 

(9 Hawthorn Avenue. CaulficM. S.E7 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol, 74— No, 11 MARCH 6, 1958 No. 891 



PROCEEDINGS 

About 140 mei Libers and friends attended the General Meeting 
at the National Herbarium on February 10, 1958. Amongst visitor;-; 
welcomed to the meeting was Mihs Anita Bogild from Denmark, 

The main item of the evening WHS an informative address and 
a comprehensive, colour film on the lyrebirds of Sherbrooke. Forest, 
by Mr. K C HalatnrT. A summary oi the talk is published elst • 
where in this issue. A hearty vote of thanks, proposed by Mr. 
E. S. Hanks and seconded by Dr. M. M. Chattaway, was carried 
by acclamation. Mr. A. D. Butcher, Chief Inspector of the. Fisheries 
3nd Gmne Department, intimated rhat measures were now being 
taken ro deal with the foxes in Sherbrooke. 

Meinlw?xs were, informed that Miss Marie Argo had agreed to 
become the ChiVs Assistant Librarian. Ir wan announced that 
the next General Meeting would he held on Tuesday; March 11. 
as the normal meeting night (Monday, March 10) would be a 
public holiday. 

It was learned that the recipient oi the Australian Natural His- 
tory Medallion for 1957, Mr C. E. Bryant, would be in hospital 
for some lime, and that the medallion tyoulc! be presented to him 
by the Presidem of the National Parks Association, at the April 
General Meeting of rhe K.N.C.V., if Mr. Bryant were able to 
attend. 

The President spoke of a proposed membership drive, and 
requested that those already in the Club should endeavour to in- 
terest others in its activities. 

Members were invited to contribute, by voluntary donation, to 
a new -fund for Club improvement*. Details of this are net out 
on the following page. 

Mrs. A. Duncan, of Canterbury, and Mrs. J„ Wceks r of Kuna- 
wadme, were elected as ordinary members', and Mr=. P. M. Wilson, 
of Highett, as a joint member of the Club. TilCSC were welcomed 
by the President to the ranks of the F.N.C.V. 
* Mr. K. A. Wakefield handed the President a cheque for £'2/2/-, 
received as a donation to the Club irom Mr. L. B. Wallace, of 
Gipsy Voint in East Gippsland. This was placed in the new im- 
proves nents fund, 

The President reported that the basalt columns ("Organ Pipes") 
of Sydenham, were likely to be sold lor quarrying purposes, and 
it was resolved that immediate action be taken to endeavour to have 
this natural monument preserved. 

The Meeting clnsed, after cununcms ou exhibits, at 10.20 p.m. 

[155$ 



136 Tk* Victorian Naturalist Vol. 74 

NATURE NOTES AND EXHIBITS 

Mr E H. CoRhill reported seeing a Black. Swan on a reef in the open 

sea oft' Point LomdaSc. 

Mrs. Daisy Wood exhibited several paintings of scenery and olpine wild- 
flowers, resulting Irorn her recent tup to Mount Hothartt She showed, too, 
an interesting' collection of the flora, particularly of shrubby everlastings 
(HHichrysum) and other composites. 

Mr. J. R. Garnet had on tlUpUy the comti of a. gregarious paper-wasp 
(Rhvpalidia sp), collected on January 2o", 1958, from overhanging rock 
faces near Crooked Icivcr at Talbotvillc, and from which some adult wasp* 
had since emerged. 

Miss E. Raff tabled flowers and fruit of the Swan Plane (GoMfihecarfius 
fntticesus) and a jar ot ripened seeds. This plant is. native to South Africa 
and is the principal food of the Wanderer Butterfly- 
Mr. C. J, Gabpel exhibited >pecimens of the four native Victorian Cone 
Shells: Ftoraconus anemone. F. scynxvei and Pqtvicomis ntdlu; from 
Western Port Bay, and F\ornconus smtflctoni from chc Portsca Back Beach. 



F.N-C.V. FINANCES: A CALL FOR DONATIONS 

During the currency of the present Club year, h very .heartening trend 
lias become apparent in F.NX.V. affairs. With the aid of active sub-com- 
mittees, which consider policies in connection with finance, library and 
ahows respectively, your Council has implemented a vigorous policy which 
should have far-reaching and beneficial effects on the Club's future. 

On November 2(}. 195?, the Finance Sub-Committee formulated a report 
which was received by Council on November 26* following, and, after due 
consideration, adopted by the latter on January 28 last Two of the f>»ra- 
eraphs of the report read as tot lows, 

"It notes that well over /100 is needed to bring the Library up to date 
especially as to binding, which is badly in arrears, that a modern projector is 
needed that the Naturalist is deprived of much of its scientific value for 
want of a cumulative index, and that many other projects of a permanent 
character are calling for consideration. It therefore recommends that Council 
call for donations towards a fund to be expended on these matters, as 
Council sees fit. 

''It was reported that the late Mr. Cudniore had left £100 to the Club. 
In view of his interest in Library work, it is recommended that this amount 
be donated to the proposed fund." 

At the Genera) Meeting of the Club on February 10, ihc President placed 
this matter before the member* present. The response on the spot was very 
gratifying^ and ihc new fund is now welt under way, 

The rc-or>£amV.3tion of the library and the provision of further facilities, 
for the benefit of both City and Country Members, will entail a considerable 
amount of hard work by the comparatively few office-bearers and others who 
are in the position to undertake these tasks. For those who are not able 
to devote time and energy to F.N.CV, administration, this "Club Improve- 
ments Fund" now provides an avenue by which many will be able to help 
in an equally effective way. 

Contribution* to the fund may be made at General Meetings, or sent to 
the Honorary Treasurer, F.N.CV .* 400 Collins Street. Melbourne, CI. 



Mar. *| 
V.*S8 J 



The I'ict/irian Xaturalist 157 



LYREBIRDS OF SHERBROOKE 

By K. C. Halakokf 
(Summary of Address to F.X.C.Y.. February 10, 1957.) 

Until recently, it was customary to study birds as specie-, 
making deductions fruin what were nften superficial, though 
numerous, observations. The idea that real knowledge of the habits 
of birds begins when they are regarded and observed as in- 
dividuals is now gaining ground, and this is particularly applicable 
with birds of high order of intelligence, to which category lyrebirds 
certainly belong. 

Actually, much of our knowledge of these is based on observa- 
tion of several individual males. James, the first to befriend a 
human, provided the late Ambrose Pratt with most of the material 
for his Lore of the Lyrebird. Timothy, and later, Spotty, were the 
objects of years of study by R. T. Littlejohns and L. H. Smith, 
and they figured in many incidents recorded in their respective 
books and articles. Naturally, generalizations should not be made 
from observations in such a restricted field. Instead, comparison 
of much data is necessary to sort (Hit habits common to the species 
and those peculiar to individuals. 

Six years of observation at Sherbrook convinces me that every 
lyrebird has its own personality, temper and behaviour, likes and 
dislikes. They differ just as humans do. Some, especially young 
birds, are extremely curious, others do not give you a second look. 
Some devote much time to romance, others prefer a substantial 
repast first. Some are shy and evasive, others tolerant or even 
friendly. Undoubtedly they recognize persons, even after long 
absences or in different dress. And Ambrose Pratt's seemingly in- 
credible storv. of the lvrebird called James, and Mrs, Wilkinson of 
Ferny Creek, no longer appears fantastic to ine. A similar friend- 
ship could be developed and maintained on the human's not the 
bird's initiative, as it was in James's case. 

For years, patiently and persistently, I cultivated friendly re- 
lations with several of the Sherbrooke lyrebirds. Love and ad- 
miration, rather than the idea of exploitation, were the motives: 
and the results have indeed exceeded all expectations. To tame a 
shy, wild bird hi its natural habitat, provides a thrill beyond ex- 
pression. Spotty provided a comparatively easy start, but graduallv 
the field was extended to less approachable individuals and the 
overtures usually resulted in sympathetic response. 

It was a strict rule never to betray a bird's confidence, and, as 
always, it paid to be honest. Nothing could compare with the 
satisfaction felt when the bird demonstrates its trust and even 
affection ; when at your call it comes from the depths of a gully ; 
when, instead of your seeking the bird, it follows you through the 
forest as you call caressingly ; and above all, when the strong black 



158 



Halakokk, fA'rrhirtis of Shcrbrookt 



[Vict. Nat. 
Vol. 74 



beak confidently, and with surprising gentleness, touches your 
palm as it takes your modest offering of food, while you are holding 
your breath, overwhelmed with joy and admiration' 

The list of such unforgettable moments grows with every visit 
to the forest. Now, a hen-bird graciously accepts a small musk 
twig which she dropped and which you have placed in her path, and 
she carries it to her nest and incorporates it in the structure. You 
feel that your collaboration has been appreciated. 

Another time, finding Spotty vainly seeking food in the hard, 
dry soil, you manage to shift a heavy moss-covered log a few 
inches, and the clever bird comes immediately to the area of wet 
soil and rotten wood for his first substantial meal that daw Your 
satisfaction is greater than if you were eating your choicest dinner 
in the best hotel in Paris. 

Later, you are resting, and a 
year-old chick busily scratches 
your shoe, trying to determine 
the nature of the strange thing, 
while from a few yards away, 
"mum" watches with what 
seems to he an amused took. 
Or you are watching Spotty at 
bis courting, singing and lift- 
ing his wings as he follows the 
object of his interest; and he 
suddenly remembers he is 
huugrv, and comes to snatch a 
quick "counter lunch" from 
your hand, then hastily re- 
turns to his wooing. 
Birds occasionally respond to the imitation of certain calls. One 
hen-bird used to reply to me in Pilot-bird's language. Once, when 
approaching Spotty at his singing. I imitated a kosella to announce 
myself. He at once repeated the call, but in corrected, more musical 
version, and he uttered it from time to time through the song, as 
if to impress it on my mind. He has done this once more since then, 
hut not again. Either my rendering \m> improved or he has given 
me up as hopeless ! 

Several years ago, a half-matured male came to wade in the 
pool near which I was sitting in Odel Gully, I pressed the release 
of the old 16 mm. Kodak movie camera, borrowed for the occasion, 
and it whirred loudly. Hut when it stopped, the bird turned to me 
and gave a perfect rendering of a camera-motor, hut not mine! I 
recognized the sound of a Bolex H16 with which a photographer 
had been filming lyrebirds at that spot. It was as if he were saying. 
*i can do hetter than von. Listen!" 




and Spotty 

Avenue 



Clematis 



,95gJ JlAi.Ai-Pir. Lyrebirds vj SUsrhnmkc 159 

One friendly hen-bird used to stand on tip-toe, looking into my 
palm for the dainties I was preparing t' » otter lier ; and often. 
becoming impatient, she wotild -match the first morsel triiiu be- 
tween the finger** of the Other baud. Once, before going lo her 
nest. I went to the creek to wash my hand?-', and heard sm excited 
voice from (he track; "Look! There's a bird, right hehind you!" 
Sure enough, as 1 had not announced myself on arrival, she h;u| 
decided to find me on her own initiative. The startled observer* 
were a young tourist couple, and they wanted to know, '"1* it 
your bird?" "What is its name?" and s<> «.n. 

Tht're are also obligations in every friendship, and your truMing 
winded friends may call upon you for help. ( )nce. Spotty became 
quite excited, uttering alarm hisses almost in my face, a thing he 
had never done before. I did nut realize the trouble, due to "the 
>tupid human luck of perception", and managed to quieten him 
with soothing words. However, a few da\s later, we investigated 
more persistent alarm hisses near the *ame spot and found a hen- 
bin! excitedly jumping on logs and stomps, calling and looking 
upward. Then we saw it. a great owl with a freshly killed possum 
in its talons. A male lyrebird soon jnined the commotion, and 
we hunted the owl away, fallowing from tree to tree. Two young 
male birds joined in, and the four lyrebirds followed us, taking no 
notice erf our shouting and arm-waving. I'M. when the owl was out 
of their own territory, they immediately forgot the recent danger, 
just as children do. and began to play. 

To love the Ivrebird first, and to allow the desire for pietine* 
only a second place, may produce some comical frustrations. 
My friendship witli Spotlv especially since I have concentrated on 
movies, has grown to such a proportion that, on seeing me. he 
terminates his business and comes lo me. Often 1 have crept to- 
wards him through the bracken, hoping tti obtain a few feet of his 
matinee performance, onlv to be recognized before 1 wa> near 
enough, and to have him immediately tokl his tail and come to me 
with an in(|iiiring, friendlv look, Hut I never regretted such fwal 
opportunities. 

These are a few of one's experiences in Sherbruokt\ Some mav 
think them too idyllic to be true, but m» magic power is ne<*<lcd to 
achieve such close relations with the lyrebirds, I believe anyone 
with sufficient love and patience can do the same. 

There are however a few hardened and suspicious hearts that 
canned be won. Spotty "s original mate died about two years ago. 
and his new spouse was such a case, The story begins with the 
at rival of a raven in the vicinity of the nest, which was high in the 
fork of a great Mountain Ash. Wacky, as we called the hen, was 
on the last stage of her (light to the ncbt, but on hearing the in 
truder. she flew down from the branch. Later, she sat near the 
nest and repeated the raven's call a dozen times to the chick, hv 



The Victorian Xaturalist 
Plate X 



Vol. 74 




Lyrebird's Toilet 
Above: Spotty Takes a Dip, in (Met Gully. 
Below : Drying operations. Note tin* Tail-feather in Beak. 

[160] 



j^g j Halafoff, Lyrebirds of Shcrbrookc 161 

way of a lesson. Imagine my consternation when, a fortnight later, 
when the chick had left the nest, Blacky saw me approach and, 
jumping on to a log, imitated first the raven, then a dog. then an 
owl. and so on. I got the idea that she was telling the chick thai 
I was worse than them all. The lesson was apparently a success, 
for I was never ahle to approach within filming distance of that 
chick ! 

But most of the lyrebirds are of friendly disposition, and if you 
follow that St. Francis path, the number of your winged friend** 
will grow steadily. They will locate and follow as you wend your 
way through the forest, and feed, play and sing near where you sit. 
Some of them will spend the day in your vinicity, bathing, preen- 
ing, performing, chasing each other, and coming to you for morsels 
of food. It reminds one of scences from Disney's "Snow-\vhite'\ or 
perhaps it mav awaken more ancient memories of a blissful Garden 
of Paradise. 

My films are but by-products of friendship with the lyrebirds, 
all taken with a normal-focus lens and hand-held camera. I resented 
the idea of planting a tripod or a series of shining reflectors in 
front of nest or mound, thus interfering with a bird's normal 
routine. They are free too from any kind of fake, such as the placing 
of a piece of bark over a nest, the removal of natural screening 
from about a mound, or — worst of all — the fishing of the chick 
from a nest and the placing of it on the platform. One wonders in- 
deed how anyone can enjoy such photographs, remembering the 
frantic alarm cries of the hen and her chick. Besides, such a picture 
is valueless to the serious ornithologist who knows that a young 
chick does not come on to the platform until about to leave the nest. 

Normally, the chick is practically invisible, sitting deep in the 
cavity, except during the delivery of droppings or to catch an 
occasional ray of sunlight. So there is little of it on my film until 
it is out of the nest. Then mother allows me to film her offspring, 
for she recognizes a harmless creature who is even helpful on 
occasions. 

The result of our friendly relations was that they acted naturallv 
in my presence, only becoming agitated or afraid when strangers 
approached. For the most part, 1 was the lone witness of the 
recorded events, which included a "kiss" which occurred while I 
was standing above the mound in full view of both birds. 

But neither colour film nor words can reproduce that fairv-tale 
atmosphere that is part of the lyrebird's very being. It is what was 
stressed in Littlejohns' and Pratt's books. I wholeheartedly agree 
with their sentiments. The lyrebirds to me are much more than 
ordinary, however rare, birds; they are the winged fairies of Sher- 
brooke Forest, its silvery voice, its enchanted soul. Eight years 
ago I came under the spell while reading The Lore of the Lyrebird. 



162 



Halafoff. Lyrebirds of Shcrbrooki- 



[Vict. N 
Vol. 7A 



\*ict. Nat. 

74 



A year later I saw Sherbrooke and my first lyrebird, and 1 have 
been in love with both ever since. 

We tend however to forget that these birds are precariously 
balanced on the brink of extinction, due to low 7 fecundity and to 
natural enemies. The ever-increasing foxes and stray cats are re- 
sponsible for losses of chicks, few of which survive beyond two 
vears of age. There is also human interference with nesting birds 
and their offspring, causing occasional but too frequent loss. The 
encroaching on Sherbrooke of settlement and man's activity, and 
the increasing disregard for the ban on motor traffic through the 
forest tracks, is driving the lyrebirds deeper into the gullies or caus- 
ing them to migrate. 




Glory of the Lyrebird's Tail 

Already, many feeding areas which used to provide for dozens 
of birds, mostly north of the firebreak and Clematis Avenue, are 
practically empty. Their numbers have diminished sharply over the 
past few years, mainly due to fatalities to young chicks. This must 
be checked before it is too late, otherwise the tragic vision of an 
empty, silent Sherbrooke, devoid of its lyrebirds, may become a 
reality. That would be a sorry day for nature-lovers and tourists 
alike, as there is no substitute for those uniquely tame lyrebirds 
whose presence we are inclined to take for granted. 

Overseas tourists are not much interested in Moomba or the 
foundation of the King Street bridge ; they ask to see the natural 
wonders of the country. Of these, the lyrebirds are perhaps the 



Mar, 1 
i»»6 J 



JfAtAFOFF, Lyrebirds of Slwrbrookc 163 



greatest, and Sherbrooke is the only place where the.y are tame 
enough to be seen easily. It is to he hoped that effective measures 
will he taken to protect (his great tourist urtractiou ftom further 
spoliation. Already, an effort to deal with io.NC.5, *tray dogs and 
cats is under way; but we should spare no effort until Victoria's 
most precious gem — Sberbrooke Forest is proclaimed a National 
Park and SO placed, together with its unique Tyrehird populahrm, 
under the shelter of efficient administration. 

THE AUSTRALIAN NATURAL HISTORY MEDALLION 
1957 Award to Charles E« Bryant 

The congratulations of the FieM Naturalists Club of Victoria is 
extended to Charles Bryant nn whom has been conferred the 1957 
awani of the coveted Australian Natural History Medallion. 

Ir is scarcely necessary to list Bryant's achievements m the 
ranse of natural history in this country, for his long association 
with the Royal Australasian Ornithologists' Union and its journal. 
The Entity has made his name familiar to ornithologists and bird 
lovers throughout Austialia and far beyond its shores. However, 
we may mention some ot his notable attainments -not all of them 
necessarily related to Ok* purpose nf the Award. 

Nature photography has been one of his interests, and Bryant's 
bird studies are w r cll known and much appreciated by Ehoffi who 
have had the pleasure ot seeing them in illustration of any of his 
lectin es. For the past twenty-five years, the editorship of Th& Krhu 
has been one of his spare-time occupations, and the standing of this 
journal in ornithological circles bears witness in Ihe care and 
sound knowledge of its editor. 

Members of the Club know him as its legal adviser jri the matter 
of its incorporation as a limited lability company some years back, 
no less than for his affability and eloquence as a speaker «md 
lecturer on the- natural history of birdhfe. Some will recall his ex- 
ploits of younger days as a walker and mountain tramper. There 
is a select baud of people who have crossed the Barry Mountains 
in the north-easlern alps, in the days when the Barries were a for- 
midable challenge to walkers The Melbourne Walking Club has 
a special and honoured designation for these folk — "The Barry 
Mountaineers", an honour for which Bryant has qualified and one 
h-e shares with our -esteemed member James Willis and the late 
Bill Burston. 

l-astly we should, perhaps, recall that Bryant is an Honorary 
Associate in Ornithology at the National Museum of Victoria and 
he is One of the Trustees of the famous Ingram Trust which eome* 
10 OUT notice occasionally. 

— J, R. Gar n ft 



lt>4 The pKtwum Naturalist Vol. 74 

F.N.C.V. GEOLOGY DISCUSSION GROUP: SYLLABUS FOR 1958 

Meeting — February 5: Geological Holiday Fxpenences, by meuihers. 
Mecting — March 5. Geology in Colour, by members. 

Excursion— Saturday, March 8: Olivers Hill, Frankston. Leader: Mr. Baker. 
Meeting — April 2: Petrology, with the Microprojector, by Mr. Mc.Innej.. 
Meetmg^May 7: Introduction to Sedimentation, by Mr. Baker. 
Excursion— Surtday. May il: Melbourne Hill-Cave Hill, Lilydale. Leader: 

Mr. Baker. 
Meeting — June 4; Living Fossil;;, by Mr. Nielsen. 
Meeting — July 2: Mineral:;, by Mr. Cobbett 
Lxcursian — Saturday. July 5; Mineral Gallery. National Museum. Leader: 

Dr. Beasley. (This excursion is .subject to alteration. ) 
Meeting — August 6; The Coar.thne of Victoria, by Mr. fcisch. 
Meeting — September 3: What is a Fossil?, by Mr. Jeffrey. 
Excursion — Sunday. September 7: Mystery Excursion. Leader: Mr. Hernmy. 
Meeting — October 1 : Further Studies in V'olcanism. by Mr. Blackburn. 
Meeting — November 5: Literature Night, with Mr. Gill. 
Excursion — Sunday. November 9: Glacial Rocks of Coimadai. Leaders*. Mrs. 

Davies and Mr. Dodds. 
Meeting— December 3: Gem Stones, by Mr. Davidson. 

The Group meetings are held at the National Herbarium. The L>omain, 
South Yarra, commencing at 8 pm, on the dates shown. Details ot excur- 
sions are given at meetings prfredmg 'hem, ot may be obtained from the 
Group Secretary, Mr, A. A. Baker, Phone JJ 2569, 

BENDIGO F.HX— SYLLABUS TO JUNE 1959 

Meetings at School ot Mines, 7.45 p.m., on soeond Wednesday of each 
month (except April) : 

February 12: Holiday Observations, by members. 

March 12: History of Basaltic Flow and Basaltic Columns of C'ara- 

paspe, by Mr. F. Robbing. 
April 16: Specimens and Lecturette^, by members. 
May 14; Colour Slides Display, by Mr. W, Soilw. 
June 11 : Nature on Postage Stamps, by Mr. E- Phillips. 

Excursions are as follows: 

Saturday, February 15 (half day)— General; Axe Creek and Sugarloaf 

Hills. Leader: Mr. J. KeUam. 
Stmdoy ? March 16 (Kill day) — Geology and Basaltic Flous: Barfold, 

Milchell Falls. Leader- Mr. F. Robbins. 
Sm*day, April 20 (full day) — Aboriginal Quarries: Mount Willi ant 

Leader : Mr F. Robhins. 
Saturday, May 3 (half day) — Botany: Blue Jacket Reservoir. Leader; 

Mr A. Kbdon. 
Sunday. May 18 (full day) — Birds and General: Lake Cooper. Leader: 

Mr. U. Allen. 
Sunday, June 29 (half day) — Acacias , Whipstick Leader: Mr. W. 

Perry. 

Members ot other Naturalists Clubs, who may be visiting Bendigo. are 
invited to attend functions of the local Club, 

Secretary: Mr. A. C- Fbdnn, 45 Lucas Streel, P.endigo. 



Mar. "I 
1958 J 



The Victorian Xaturitlist 165 



BOOK REVIEW 
J. H. Willis: "Victorian Toadstools and Mushrooms" 

Though not the first appearance of this hook, it merits more than 
passing comment, for. although published by the F.X.C.Y., it was 
never reviewed in thi> journal. 

Vascular plants are usually well documented ; and popular, 
illustrated booklets on these groups have long heen availahle to 
the student in south-eastern Australia. There was no simple local 
guide however, to anv group of the lower plants, and Willis made 
the hrst major step towards the rectification of this state of affairs. 

His hook deals with the Gilled Fungi — the agarics. Tu popular 
terms these are. as the title of the work indicates, our toadstools 
and mushrooms. In turn. 120 species are treated, and one learns 
their features, where they grow and their culinary merits. 

It is interesting to note that several of the larger toadstools are 
"both delicious and flavoursome" ; and the popular misconception 
that all toadstools are poisonous is further dispelled hy the infor- 
mation that "90 per cent of all deaths from fungal poisoning are 
caused hy one particular species which is unknown in our con- 
tinent". 

As well as dealing with gilled fungi, the hook devotes about one- 
fifth of its length to other groups: Punks. Black-fellows' Bread. 
Coral Fungi, Puff-balls and the like, and the remarkable Vege- 
table Caterpillars. 

There are copious illustrations. The four colour plates provide 
an aggregate of 26 species in their attractive natural hues, there 
are 13 half-tone plates, mainly of photographs in situ, and the 18 
text-figures include ten lucid line drawings by the author. 

The first issue of this book came in 1941. as 1'ictoritin Fungi, 
and it appeared again in 1950 as Jlctorian Toadstools and Mush- 
rooms; so this third issue is actually the second edition of the 
present title. Earlier issues were merely stapled into thin covers; 
but now we have a book durably bound, with stiff cover and 
lettered spine. It is larger than before — about 100 pages including 
the plates, the arrangement tends towards greater clarity, and an 
index has heen added. 

Two omissions occurred during the editing and printing of the 
book, The attractive frontispiece should have been acknowledged 
to the late Mrs. Ellis Rowan ; and in line 4 of page 78, one needs 
to insert the phrase "and Inonotus tabacinus on Xothofagits;" be- 
tween Fomes tasmanica and Inonotus dryadeus. 

The book is modestly priced at 6/-, and it may be obtained from 
leading booksellers, or (post free) from the Sales Officer, 
F.X.CW., National Herbarium, South Yarra, S.E.I, 

— N\ A. Wakefield 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74 




Tin- F.X.C.V. Fungus Book 



[166] 



ERRONEOUS OR DOUBTFUL RECORDS OF BIRDS FOR GIPPSLAND 

By N. A. Wakkmfld 

The following comments are supplementary to tbnse published wirier 
similar title in the January 1958 issue of this journal: Vict. Vof 74 : 1. If -I. TO, 

While it is realised that stray bird specimens may reach places far re- 
moved from their *n>rttial habitats, the writer considers tha: it g better 
to err on the critical .side and to regard ai erroneous any unconfirmed 
record which is out of keeping with what is now a fairly clear picture of 
Species distribution in the region concerned 

it would be gratifying it further information were to come to light to 
substantiate some of the records discussed, hut in the meantime it is con 
sidered that Circumstantial evidence discredit (he following ones. 

1. Ref. J-Vi, Nat, 22 191-22.5— "Excursion to Wilson's Pr.miomory"'. On 
page 199 is the entry: "Mrs. Hardy ha?, kindly furnished . . . a list of 
specie*" This includes the following' 

p. 301, PFuifacr,K*r a r tjouidi. This is the WHITE-BREASTED COR- 
MORAKT r but the record would apply to the Little Pied Cormorant which 
is common ill the area but not noted by the writer. (Sec Notr 1 below) 

pi 201. Trinyottfcs hypolcucus. This name applies to the COM MOW 
SAMDPIPER, it species rarely observed in Victoria- and not oiberwise re- 
corded for Gippslaud. Probably ihe entry was based on observation of the 
I .title Stint, not mentioned by the Wnler but one oi Ihe "additional" species 
noted by another member of the party tj A. Kershaw )_ 

\l £0f, Pnffm-us nsjshmfU. This is the LTTTtJE SHEARWATER, but 
the record would apply to the Fluttering Shearwater (P. $aiw). The laller 
frequents Victorian waters and should have heen included, in place of the 
former, in J. A. Leach's An AustraJam (iird Booh. 

2 Ref. Vict. Nut. 25: 149-151— "Biological Survey of Wilson's Promon- 
tory", under "Report on Zootomy by P. R. H. St. John' . 

p, I50 s ChcrmHoeca Uucoxtcrniim . . . Black and White Swallow. This 
refers to the WHITE-BACKED SWALLOW, a bird of the vnland. and 
it is most, unlikely that it wan reaUy observed at lYlfaooS Pi'OMkwtOry, 
Probably the report was based oil ohseivatioiis ol the Tiee Martin, a 
specie^ not listed by St. Joint Ixii viudi w usually present in the area 
during the warmer part.-, of llie year. (See Note 2 below) 

p. ISO, Phahcraamtv yiHtkli . . . WHITE-BREASTED CORMORANT 
Again this record would apply to the Tattle Piod Cormorant, a species not 
mentioned by the writer. (See Note K p. 168.) 

3. Ref- J'V/. Not. 46 209 2 10— "Excursion to Msllar.ooia Inlet", hv 
V. II. Miller The WHITE-BREASTED CORNfORANT is listed. 
again evidently III error for the Kittle Pied Cormorant. 

4. Ref. Mitt. Stot, f>8: 102-107— "Birds of Cioaiiiiyoloiiy'", bv N. A. 
Wakefield. 

p. 103. It js interred that the KED-TATLF.O BLACK COCK MOO 
visits the coastal areas; hut the birds observed (at Mallacoo'a) would ha*"* 
been the Glossy Blade Cockatoo. (See Not? $ below.) 

p. 104. Both WHISTLING TREE-DUCK and PLUMED TREF-- 
DL'CK are mentioned here, based Oil reports by a local sportsman These 
may well be disregarded, as neither ?i»ccies has otherwise been recorded for 
r.ippsland. This also applies to Uw comment *m the same birds fcn Vict. MM, 
59 ; TL 



J& VV*kkf:eiu, Retards of Birds for Citfpshntl [ ^ ?? 1 - 

5. ttef. Vict Nat. 59 ; 49-54-"Sydcnl>am Inlet in the Autumn", by M. Lw 
Wjgan, 

On p. 53 "a Pitfall party of BLACK-TAILED NATIVE HENS" is 
recorded. On Taie occasions this species makes sporadic invasions into cen- 
1ral Victoria, but il h not known to appear in Gippslan<L It is considered 
most unlikely that a Rroup of these birds eowld have been in Jar -eastern 
GippsUind in early 1942, a period when no marked southern movement of 
the species was apparent. 

<>, Ret Viet, finp. 59; 70-72— "Bird Notes from CrDHJingolons". by N. A. 
Wake field. 

pp. 70-71. Comments on the PLUMED EGRET, GREATER FRIGATE- 
BIRD. REGENT HONEYEATER, GKEENSHANK. and WHIWBREL 

were inctuded ptl the authority of an Inexperienced local observer Hence, 
incite seeking specific information on species distribution would do well ti> 
regard these as erroneous records 

p. 71 The BLACK CURRAVVON'G % recorded at Orfosl. The bird con- 
cerned was with a neck of the Pied Currawnng from which it appeared to 
differ in having a larger bill and different call-notes. Hut trie Black Curra- 
wong is nov» regarded as being endemic in Tasmania. 

Also, if the DJAMOXD DOVE mentioned here was correctly identified, 
St was most likely an escapee from aa aviary, tor the species lias not other- 
wise been recorded front Gippsland. 

7. Ret Kfcft A r tff- 60; 53— "A New Bird Finds Our Ysifeft by Jean 
Galbraith. 

to this article, flocks of the WHTTR-BACKED SWALLOW are re- 
ported as having been seen neaT Tyers on 29/111/L942 and IQ/l 1/1942. This 
D apparently another ca.se of mis-identification, (See Nvtn 2 below.) 

Note 1: The Little Pied Cormorant: 15 tv'idesprcad in Gippsland, both 
ahnut the. coasts and inlets, along inland streams and flfl lagoons and darns. 
Apart from its small size, its lonjr, tail and whit? flank distinguishes il (torn 
the White-breasted (or "RtacV-faceri''! Cormorant The lattet appears to 
be rare in Gippsland. being apparently confined there to maritime rocks nod 
the sea Facial colouration is not dependable as a diagnose feature, for 
immature birds of the smaller sprcies may br iTuitP dark about the face. 
The distribution details set out tn .-hi Australian. Bird Bank by J. A. Leach 
are rather misleading. 

Note 2: The White-backed Swallow occurs in nonhent Victoria, fre- 
quenting comparatively arid areas. A group of these birds bred in the 
vicinity of thr You Yang a in iWQ and remained about the area, {or almo-t a 
year, This is the only known authentic record of the species for southern 
Virroria, 

Note ■? The Glossy Black Cockatoo, which is by no means glossy in 
appearance, itrtii ruainly Tor wholly) on seeds of species of Caruarum ; and 
it often comes south from eastern Kcw South Wales into parts of East 
Gippsland. The Red-tailed Black Cuckatu-o is, as far a* Victoria is i-oncerued. 
An inland or western species. Tbi: latter lias a varied diet, and many years 
ago it used to visit the Melbourne area and even South Gippsland (See 
A. L North, in Vict. Nat. 12: 136.) 

Nate ft A correction must he made 10 thr comments on the White- winded 
Ferrel in the January 3958 issire of this journal (Viet. Nat. 74: U4). A 
specimen was immd at Portland in 1952 and the specie* authentically re- 
corded for Victoria for the first time. (Ref. Tha Emu 5$: 149.) 



A DISTINCTIVE WIST AUSTRALIAN PHEBAUUM IRUTACtAtt 
By J. H. Wilds* 
PHEBAL1UM C^NAUCULATUM (F Muiil. rt Uu) J. N. U'tUu t 
tomb. nov. 
Enostrttuin <anattiuf\ilus V, Mncll, c< Tate w Tvotts, ttty. S&c. S .iujt, 
16: W (iW6> 

Vatjatio, Australia Occidental*, per region?* intcriorrs- auriferac Jate 
difr widens. 

LISC'J ' OTYPUS : In TIerb. MEL, specimen h»nc notulani comitans — 
"Ilrtostemon tnbercnfosttx F« v. M. var (twietiL Between Victoria 
Springs and Ularing, 7-9 Ocr. IK75, Jess Younp,". 

As pointed out by Murder anil Tate (I.e.), the Drttmtnoiid collection (No, 
63) cited by Remhftin FAv. ^u.sf, 1 : 343 (1803), Utyfgr PhcbaliuiH tuJu'rcah- 
sum {,¥. MueJh) Renin,, is refer Able to a distinct species which they desc»ibc 
as £tio$tcnu>n cattatieuU'tits. Bcmrww's diagnosis of /* luhprruUnnm U evi- 
dently a composite one, embracing two specific element; (at least), and his 
state-mart that leave* 01 (*. tuber tffntftftft have the 'upper surface channelled" 
and the "margins sometimes recurved" is misleading — the. upper surface is not 
chaiHtelted (except m Kwart's £rwste?nau future tttows vat', ttitfivphyllurf 
oi uncertain alfiijny"} and the margins are always sttyifftfy rVW&ta C A, 
Gardner perpetuates. Bern-ham's error in his iinnn?. Plant. Occid. 70 (I9J0), 
by riling F.rinsteiiWn cutmlutJalUi as a synonym of P. mbercttinsum- The 
former species is actually much closer to P. filifnHum Turcz., with similar 
long-terete, invohife IcJues; bw it has CX^tsCi, tuberenlfue foliage than in 
P. fiHJoUnm and the branches also are distinctly tuberculate 

P. canafiaJatu-m is well represented at the Melbourne Herbarium by speci- 
jnens from the inland gold fields — Ml. Churchman to Coolsardie, All these 
examples show stiffly erect, but slender (15-25 X 8-1-2 mm.) shining leaves, 
which arc somewhat thicfceticxl toward their obtuse tips and which impart a. 
rather broom-like aspect lo the twigs. On a specimen (Herb. MET.) from 
Cow-Cowing. W,A. Wfftr Koch No. 1232, Sept. 19W), the collector ha* 
written "petals pink" — which may be a. further feature o( P. canohcttfatwn. 

In Western AtiOfalia the whole snbgenrrie assemblage. I'.uphehaUuwi, spe- 
ciated chiefly by Ir-af characteristics, stands in dire need of revision — with a 
balanced evaluation of specific limits The precise differences (if constant) 
between P. niicvaphvllnui Pure;:., P. druutmoudii Renth., nnd P. tuber cuhswm 
(F. Mttcll.) BentU. need re-dehning, whilst the status of Efiostemon trru-rttW/u 
F, Muetl, from the Eyre coastal district, oi inland K- mtei-mfdiux Ewartj and 
B\ (lU'rrcuJaias vat. wcgaphylfas Fwartj warrant careful invest'fistkm — they 
do not appear, even, as synonyms, in Gardner's flnt*ntcratio of 1930, Mean- 
while, I feel .instifioj- in atCoHfng P. arttoiiinhituru 5tK.*cibc rank; at least, 
il ii quite a& circumscribed as any other Western entity now heniK regarded 
as a vpecies. 

MICROSCOPICAL GROUP 

On Saturday. February 15. approximately thirty members of the F.N.C V. 
visited thr* Botanic Gardens Ljke to collect specimens of pond-life for 
exhibition at the Croup Meeting un Wednesday. February I9i There w*is a 
EOjJd attendance Also to hear Vt. Maxwell CtafW deliver his nddrcis on 
"Radiation Oneties" ot) the Wednesday evening, The interest of the Group 
was evidenced by the ninny Wst<on$ ajked at |hc conclusion of the address- 
Mr. Robert Lukey is to be the speaker m the next meeting on March 19,. h«* 
subject being "Kydiolarians" Piease bring appropriate slwk? for exbibiti<M> ( 



• K-'tirmnl H^rhurfum of Victori»- 

t prtw. ntv. Soc. Vtet. n, 5»v |1| ffM5 (19041 



J7l> Thv Victorian Nattmtttst Vol. 7*4 

EXCURSION TO AYEP.S ROCK 

A three-weeks bus* tour to Central Australia, accommodating 36 persons, 
Win be conducted by Mr. G. C. Kenncwell, Bull's Motor Tours, Adelaide. It 
will leave Melbourne on August 16, and return on September 7, 1958. The 
route will be via Adelaide. Woomera, Lake Rsrt r Coober Pedy, Everard 
Ranges. Avers Rock (3 days). Mt. Olga (3 days). Henbury. Alice Springs 
and MacDonnell Ranges {,3 days). 

Each member will be required to provide bis or her own camping gear 
and eating utensils, preferably packed in an army kit-bag. weight not to 
exceed 50 lb- All provisions will be arranged by the organizers and a chef 
will accompany the tour. 

The cost pes person will be £60. and applications should be sent to Mrs, 
R. A. Sinclair, 22 Haldane Street, Beaumaris, XeL XF4515, accompanied 
by a. deposit of £20, the balance to be paid on or before Tune 23, 1958. The 
deposit will be refundable to June 23. and the organizers reserve the right 
to cancel the tour if circumstances warrant it. 

WHAT, WHERE, AND WHEN 

F.N.C.V. Meetings: 

Monday, April 14— Presentation of 1057 Natural History Medallion to C £, 
Bryant. 
"Club Excursion to Genoa District", by Stf, A. Wake- 
lie Id. 
Monday, May 12— "How to Collect Injects", by A. N. Burns. 
Monday. June 9 — Annual General Meeting and Pre&kkut'i. Address. 
Monday. July 7 — Members' Night. 

F.N.C.V, Excursions: 

Sunday, March 16— Combined Excursion with Bendigo F.K.C, to Barfold 
and Mitchell Falls, Leader- Mr. F. Robbms. Parlour-coach will leave 
Batman Avenue at 9 a.m. -Fare, 19/-. Bookings with Excursion Sec- 
retary. Bring two meals. 

Saturday, March 29— Entomology and Marine Biology Croup excursion to 
Wonga Park. Take the 9.45 am. Uain W Croydon, tber. bus to Wonga 
Park. Bring one meal. 

Q 

Group Meetings: 

(E 5>m, at National Herbarium, unless otherwise staled ) 

Wednesday, March 19— Microscopical Group. 

Friday, March 21 — Botany Group. This meeting will commence at 7.45 

p.m. with a short talk by Mr. A. J Swaby, dealing with ''"Botany for 

Beginners". Speaker for the evening will be Mrs, Pinches. 
Members are reminded that meetings are being held at the National 

Herbarium again, and there will be somebody at the corner of St. 

Kilda and Domain Roadi at 7,40 p.m. to accompany anyone who doc3 

not wish to cross the Domain alone. 
Monday, March 31 — Entomology and Marine Biology Group. The meeting 

will be held hi Mr. Strong's rooms in Parliament House at 8 p.m. 

Use private entrance at south end of House. 
Wednesday, April Z — Geology Group Speaker; Mr D. McTnncs. Subject: 

"Petrology— With a MicroprojcCtor\ 

— MAlttR Af.LKNDEK Excursion" Sechetany 
19 Hawthorn Avtmnc, Caulfiehl SE.7 



The Victorian Naturalist 



Vol. 74— No. 32 APRIL 10 : 195* No. S92 

PROCEEDINGS 

Mr. J. R Garnet presided at til* General Meeting at the National 
.Herbarium on March 11 last. He referred to the sudden death a 
few days before of Mr. P C. Men i »son, Director of National Farki 
and well-known naturalist and journalist Mr, Morrison jomotl 
the Club in July 1918, was Honorary Secretary in !$l9«2b and 
President in 1941-3 ; and he was awarded the Australian Natural 
History Medallion for 1947- Mr. Garnet was supported in his 
eulogy by Mr. A. D. Butcher, Director of Fisheries and Game. All 
present stood for a minute in silent tribute. 

Miss Tna Watson delivered an address, "Our Natural Heritage"; 
and the talk was illustrated with an outstanding series of colour 
slides. The President conveyed the thanks ol the Meeting to Miss 
VVaison. 

U was announced that nominations for the 1958 award of the 
Natural History Medallion should be handed to the Secretary 
before the ( ouncil Meeting of March 25. 

The President reported that the Finance Sub-committee had 
recommended that members be invited to become ''supporting 
members", by paying an additional 10/- or more over and ahovc 
the normal annual subscription This was put to the Meeting as 
a motion and carried. (See page 173. ) 

A letter was received from Mr. J. H. Willis stnjgestiflg that two 
of the Amy Fuller paintings be donated to her nieces. This was 
agreed to, and it was decided too that two of the. collection should 
be displayed at each General Meeting. 

Members wert reminded that nominations ior Office-bearers and 
Council would he received at the April General Meeting. 

New members were elected . Mrs. K 1. Baldwin of Buayip, and 
Mr. Victor Jacobs, Mr. K. C, Ilalai'ofT, Miss joy Scott and Mis* 
Annette Cummins oi the Melbourne area. The President extended 
them a cordial welcome lo the ranks of the Club. 

Members were invited to practise for the Club Nature Show 
by preparing exhibits for the "Members* Night'' to be held on 
July H nest, 

A number of nature notes were given and e\hibits commented 
upon, and the gathering adjourned for the usual conversazione. 

r.N.CV, RULR 

Members who wish to have a copy of the Club's 'Articles of Association" 
viitW/or the Ity-law.% may obtain same*, by ntakmj* application to the Honorary 
Secretary. 

[171] 



\7$ Thr Valerian iVaUwhtt Vt>L 74 

NATURE NOTES AND EXHIBITS 

Miss Vc-MiiK showed, a collection ot artctacts and geological specimens from 
Uarwon Heads. Snails from ihe Mediterranean had emerged from lt>e 
conci etions. 

Mr. CogJull showed specimens of millipedes from Nonh Kew. and men- 
tioned that thoiijrli tVie> were in plague number* on one side of his street, 
iney had not appeared on the other 

Mrs. Pbclt reported seeing many small seedling Cabbage Palms unrler the 
adult ones hi TCast Gippslaod, and remarked Otj the- absence ot any intcr- 

The President reported that, in his garden, in the forenoon tit a warm, 
sonny February clay following the mid-month rains, the opercula from the 
flower-buds oi an eight-year old Mahogany Gum commenced to tain down 
with a tteady paUerinj;. Beus J rum 3 nearby hive promptly swarmed in the 
tlowen tor the abundant nertar despite the falling caps, 

Also, Mr. Garnet exhibited two 'pectineal oi young bf the Wlute-hpped 
Snake (Dent sown coronc^des var. mi.sUri, Krcfft'i- The toother, 15 If), long, 
was Collected Umeath :» ln£ *t King lake On \Oirch I, and later, by accident, 
&ft$ killed A brood of four young, each about 5 in long, ilearly showing ihe 
characteristic whin: lip. were found ou dissecting open the parent itnakc, 

TH£ CLUB'S ANNUAL PICNICS-NOVEMBER 5. 1957 

Strath Creek was selected an Ihe. central (joint of a "round trip" excursion 
on Cup Pay 1957 btxausc it was a district of considerable natural history 
ir.tereM and one not hitherto visited by the Club. As leader, the President 
introduced an innovation for excursion.*; oi this type by providing each 
member of the Dftfty with a duplicated "ilitiocaty", which included notes on 
many features oi natural history -mo oi historical *igni fiance (or the wftok- 
of the route. The weather throughout the day was delightful and Ihps tlip 
party of about forty participants vrttte ahle to take full advantage of Ihe 
information thus provided. By means of il those unfamiliar with the districU 
traversed were enabled to appre.ciarc the all-important influence oi a .geo- 
logical formation or. both rhc ecology and scenery. 

The passage along the Hume. Highway through the volcanic plains be- 
tween (iohnrj* and Kilmorc provided a sharp contrast with the rolling, 
deeply dissected hills of the silurvan formation hetwecn ilrnsdford and Strath 
Creek anil the forer.t country between Flowerdalc and Kuiglake West. 
From the summit of Pretty Sally over which the Hume Highway crnssc* 
the lireat Dividing Ranue, the panoramas are fine, hut those seen from 
the top of She Oak Hill and the Murchison GfiJ are magnificent. Between 
She Oak Hitl (so-called because several Casuarinas ^ t i 1 1 survive on or 
near its summit) and the Gap, a stop was made near Tyaak to examine 
liabyminca <"r Keedy) Creek. The stream, a tributary of the Goulhurn 
Ktver, was of interest became oi its charming diirroundimss and by reason 
ol the presence of several horizontal rock bars tiirou&h which jt had cut 
and. possibly, as it fi cue of ihe streams responsible tor scouring. th« auri- 
ferous reefy hidden tu the suiroiiudmi? bilte and valleys. 

Some iti'les- further on the otd coach road, clearly visible on the tox* of 
Mui'Chison fap ant j )qxvc down where it again crossed the road, ttrst^ a 
last point of interest for inspection before the descent along the steeply wind- 
ing road 1o the %piict little- settlement of Strath Creek. There wo lunched 
in the shade of sonic stately old eucaly-pt.s in the town&hipV picnic ground 
beside the State School. 

After lunch the tarty journeyed along the valley oi King Parrot Creek 
into which stream Strath Creek (lows. Both streams ate frequented in season 



hy nngkrs, and the nee bneii bank* p/ovide ^belter Cor an abw'tdaicve of 
bird life. The road to riowerdate follows die course of Ore creek a* it 
wanders quietly tluot»«)i its broad swamp) enllev lowrtida Stftltl Creek and 
an occasional stop was marie to examine tli*- birds Several Hocks cd Strain 
necked ites and White Cockatoos were seen, and the bird observers noied * 
nnnnVr of other bwamp birds, particularly during the >Tup v»tien attention 
v.*as diverted ro a radio descripiion ot t)>c Melootrrne Clip. 

Not a great deal of attention was given (a the botany m tie stopping 
plarts, hut special features were noted for Future frlonor inspection Amoutf 
the plants seen were some Route-brushes {C\iiiistcmon), nor yet hi bloom, 
on the bank; of Dafciyufmga Creek, betide every stream a profusion of Rfaek 
Wattle, Hit tender yennu: pods clustered in profusion and Kleaminj? bright 
crimsou hi Hie sunlight, mistletoe, sometimes in flower, on every second 
cucalypi along the roadside near the Gap, a cluster of bright golden WtHtkk 
on the hank of the same road, Sun Orchids and Rock Fern on the old 
coach ro&d, tea-trees, wattle.s und eucalypts on the topiles ot tlve King PairOt 
Creek, reeds ajtd rushes in the swamps, 1 ree Violeis galore on the way io 
KfOwerdale. and then, further on, the vegetation & typical c-1 the >ijun30 
forest ai we left the cretk valley and rose to the heights pi Tammy's Hut- 
Ac K-itie^Iakt West we stayed for an aheruoon me-'J] ami, lowar'U lliti cud 
oi a very vltasant day, descended irom the ranges to Whiltlesea, and thence 
back fo Melbourne through much the same kind of country we had parted 
through on the journey out iu live morning: roek-sirewu basalt plains wUb 
Weft Pcd Caul .savannah and grass torids 

— j. H- Garnet 



"SUPPORTING MEMBERSHIP" OF F,N.C.V. 

At its meeting on bVhruary 20, 1958. the Finance Sub-committee decided 
u(Wti tlie recommendation that a system c-f "Supporting Membership" be in- 
troduced into Uus Club. It wa^ coitsiilereii that this might result in sufficient 
evtra genrrat income to avoirs either an overall increase i«t annual snhs/riplion 
rales or a reduction in tlic amenities now enjoyed by member?. Ft wa* pointed 
out thai a similar system is in operation in the Melbourne Bird Observers' 
Club, and that it is the yetieraJ rule with clubs of this kmd in some overseas 
couutrms. 

This fecornmetiijation WAS approved by Council on February 2$; and on 
March 11, Mr. E. H. Cochin moved in General Meeting, "that Members bv 
.invited to turcotoe Supporting, Members by payinu. an yddftlOTial subscnutioi* 
of 10/* or moic jjcr 3*ear, siicft membership to be a private matter and tn 
confer no extra priviltRC or distinction", After sortie discussion, including n 
suR<e5tion that the standard of Ihe l r icton<nr /VV/t"*/'/' sboo'd be reduced 
instead, Mr. Cogliill '* mutton was seconded by \h*s M. hlld^r, and the Meet- 
ing carried it by an almost unanimous vole. 

it mnit he emphasised that the animal subscription rates for F.K.CV. 
membership remain unchanged, and that no nie.mbei ahoulOj (eel in fo\y way 
obliged tO increvist Ins or her scibscnplion urtd thus lo became a Supporting 
Member. Such action should be completely voluntary unc 1 . should he taken only 
l*y thftee \shn fcvl both able and e.'illing io do so. Those who choose io bccXanC 
Sit|»porting Members should ldd to their normal svibscription foe the 1958-M 
CUi.b year, any sum ihcy tee) aueUued tu. from 10/- upwards. 

This matter is now put before all members for their individual considera- 
tion, as parr of your Council's attempt to carry on a vigorous, prngrvisive 
policy of maintaining and improving the work of the Cub and its service IU 
members despite the increased eusti. to br met a.^ a result uf such a policy 



374 The Victorian N'atkfaltst Vp| 74 

THE DISCOVERY OF THI SYDNEY FUNNEL-WEB 
SPIDER (ATRAX ROBUSTUS) IN VICTORIA 

By N. A. Wakefield 

On January 26 last (1957), while g&theiing- wood in the bush 
on the south-west fringe of the township of Mallacoota in East 
GippslancL the writer found two large spiders under a suable 
billet ot wood. These were preserved in methylated spirits and 
submitted eventually eft the National Museum of Victoria. Mr. 
R. A. Dunn reported that he could not distinguish them from 
Atro.r ro(n(Stus l the notorious funnel-web spider of the Sydney 
area. 

At about the same time as this discovery, Mr. A. R. Wakefield 
captured and preserved a similar spider from under a log in the 
vicinity of Noorinbee in the Catin River valley, about fifty miles 
west ot* MaJlacoota. These three specimens were examined also hy 
Dr. Saul Weiner who was at the time endeavouring to develop a 
serum to counteract the effects of the venom of this species. He 
too considered that they were Atmx robustus. 

One of our Cluh members, Mr. E. Byrne of Black Rock, found 
further examples of the same spider while at Mallacoota during 
the following taster season, and he showed some spectacular 
coloured slides 64 these individuals at the General Meeting ot the 
F,N.C V on August 12, 1957. 

All were females however, and it was considered necessary to 
have an adutt male specimen to establish the identity of these spiders 
beyond doubt. The task of pioviding such was passed on to our 
country member, Mr. f'\ J. Auckland of "Sunny Corner", Malla- 
coota He was informed of the habits of the species and it was 
suggested that he investigate the bush in the vicinity of his home. 
Although that is about three miles from the site of the original 
discovery, the search proved most fruitful 

In a letter dated May 6, 1057, Mr. Huekland wrote: "We could 
have filled dozens of jars. One big log which we turned over had 
six under it. We turned logs over and "\o\wid wehs; some were nol 
uu-.lcr the ground at all, but in a sort ot tunnel scraped out where 
the log was partly buried in the soil. The tunnel oi course was 1mcd 
with the silk-like web. Some were nearly a foot under the ground. 
Wc got to the stage where we were tipping spiders out of the 
jars in ordei K> put better specimens in. There is no doubt ahuut 
them coming out fighting; we saw them with the venom, as you 
said, dripping from their tangs." 

Out* of the specimens from near "Sunny Corner" was an adult 
male, and its characters were those which distinguish At tax robtts- 
tu$ from other species of the j^'enus. 

On June 16. the writer investigated the granitic area known as 
"Genoa Foils" beside the Princes Highway about three miles west 



April") 

1958 J 



Wakkfield, Sydney Fimrui-uxh Spider in I'ictoria 



175 



of Genoa, and found further examples of Airttjr robnstus; and the 
next day, a score or so more were found, including further males, 
under logs and amongst granitic rocks on a ridge a mile north-east 
of Xoorinhee. One of these became a television star, and performed 
most ferociously too, on ABV2 in the programme "Melbourne 
Magazine" on June \ { K 

The female funnel-web spider is stout in build, with compara- 
tively short legs, and is black in general colour. The underside 
shows a patch of reddish hair about the jaws, two pale patches on 




Female Funnel- web Spider at Home. 

The lair was revealed when a log was rolled away 
at Noorinbee. Fast Gippsland. 



the forward part of the abdomen, and whitish leg joints. The largest 
Victorian specimen found so far was of the following dimensions: 

Leg span: Front to hack — 2-4 in. (6 cm.) ; side to side — 2 in. (5 cm.). 

Cephalothorax : 05 in. long, 4 in. wide (13 mm. X 10 mm.). 

Abdomen: 0-6 in. long, 0-5 in. wide (15 mm. x 13 mm.). 

Jaws: 0-3 in. long (7 mm.). 

Total length of body, including jaws: 1-4 in. (3-5 cm.). 

The male is smaller in body but its legs are much longer in 
proportion. As in other species of the group, the pedipalps (or 
"feelers") of the male are each terminated by a reflexed needle- 
pointed segment somewhat resembling the sting of a scorpion ; but 



The J'ictorian Naturalist 
Plate XII 



Vol. 71 




-A^ 




v 



SI 



/i 



X 







Examples of the Funnel-web Spider, Atrax robustus, from 
Mallacoota, Victoria. 

Upper left : Female, ready to strike. 

Upper right : Male, in fighting attitude. Note spurs on tibiae of 

second pair of legs. 
Middle and lower, left : Female, upper and under sides respectively. 
Middle and lower, right : Corresponding views of male. Note the 

distinctive pedipalps. 

(Specimens are shown about natural size.) 



[176] 



"ual'l U'AKF.FfKLn, Sydney Fmi*u>l.-wcb Spider m Victoria \?7 

it is tlie remarkable spur on one .segment (the tibia) of each (A 
the second pair of legs in the male that distinguishes Attux robust>t\ 
from other related spideis. (See Plate XII.) 

The genus Affqx embraces some right species, and it ranges 
from Queensland to Tasmania Although members of the family 
(Diplundnr) are popularly known as "trap-door spiders", thev d<^ 
not construct hinged doors at the mouths of their holes, it is best 
therefore to refer to them as ''funnel-web spiders". 

These, together with many species that do make hds for thru 
burrows, belong to the sob-order Mygalomorphae of the spiders 
(Order Arancjda), These mygalomorphs have the fangs hinged 
in Such a fashion that they are parallel and point forward when 
the spider rears up to strike In other groups, the fangs pQinc 
towards each Otlt£r and operate pincer-fashion. 

Thus, when the funnel -web spider becomes aggressive, it tears 
up wiHi two pair* nf Jegjj raised ;m<j spread out; then it strikes 
forward and down, attempting to grapple and cling with its legs 
and thus drive its fangs in The fangs of a large specimen are about 
u quarter-inch long, and, when the spider is aggravated, drops of 
clear venom make bead*, alxxit as big as pins' beads, at the tips. 
Persons who have been bitten recount that it took a strong blow 
to diidod^e the attacker. 

Alruiv is held responsible for the death of five persons tti the 
Sydney area, the first in 1927 and the last in 1949. A hoy two 
years of n#e and a girl of five each died within about an hour and 
a half of being biUen.. and a youth of fourteen mid two women each 
died within about twelve hours. In two of these eases the killer 
was not kept for identification, but the other three spiders proved 
to be males. Thus it seems that Airax reverses Kipling's law, that 
' "the female of the species is more deadly than ihe male". 

There have been many other reports of bites by both males.- and 
females of the Sydney funnel-web spider when the victims survived, 
111 facr, in some cases the spiders apparently injected little or no 
venom. Several of the survivors were treated as for snakebite, wilh 
IigatUi ing, incisions and the induction of bleeding". As the venom 
is neurotoxic (that is, affecting the nervous system) the effective- 
ness of this treatment would seem to be in its removing a propt>i- 
tion of what might have been a lethal amount of venom. 

The mates in particular often wander somewhat at night, and 
many have been found inside houses in the Sydney area- Some bites 
have been due to spiders taking refuge in footwear. The normal 
*'deit M is in a rock crevice of under a stone or piece of wood, and 
from the mouth (here is the typical funnel-shaped weh. usually 
with severaL "'guy-ropes" to hold it in position. Moisture is neces- 
sary, and the spiders won die if placed in dry conditions or in 
sun light 



ITS Waxcfigld, Sydney Funnel-web Spinet w Victoria [^j^J 1 " 

Until this year, Atrax zabastHs was (taught to he restricted to 
central -eastern New South Wales, from the Costard, area (sixty 
miles north of Sydney) to Lakcmfoa, south ot\ and a little outside, 
the limits of the city It was -suggested by vnnie that Hie occur- 
rences south of Sydney Harbour were accidental, the spiders 
having been introduced from the north, in loads of earth and such. 
In view of their discovery in eastern Victoria however, one suspects 
that they are present ill south-eastern districts of New South Wales. 

Since a report of the finding of Atrox in East Gipp&land was 
published in the S&H on June 8, 1957, a great number of spiders 
nf related species have been sent tri the writer for comment They 
have come from about Melbourne and Gc'dony; and from both 
central Gippsland and the north-east of the State Examples of 
these are awaiting the attention of Mr. Dunn, and it is intended 
that notes on them will be published eventually in the Victorian 
\ : (ifttnUwt, 

During the past year, the writer has searched lor funnel-web 
spiders about the Orbo&i district, in the vicinity of the Gipp&land 
Lakes and in the sandstone gorges of the Mitchell River valley. 
Other species of the Mygntomorphac are present in each of these 
areas but Atnui' rofntsttts has not been found Available evidence 
suggests that tins latter is restricted to the granitic country of the 
Cann River-Genoa -Mallacoota district and that "it is not elsewhere 
in Victoria. 

aooK ftiviiw 

Tke PotetH and Forest Condif ions in fhe Territories of Popuo and New Guinea 

J. S. WOMKRSLEY & T R McADAM (Government Printer. Port 
Moresby, A,ug 1957. 9J" x 7". 62 pages. 9 photographic figures. Mo 
price indicated. | 

Dirtm*? World War H more than 9Q million super fed of s&wn timber, 
worth about £2,000,000, left the forest mills of tftrfW Guinea. At the name 
Mine, forci-l resource surveys Wtf$ pushed ahead in ihe Territory, ami ihe 
collection of wood samples witli voucher botanical specimens became the 
nucleus- oi a Teinlories Herbarium M 1a»e — now augmented to some 12, 000 
sheets of specimens. Since 1950 a Land Resource Survey team has concen- 
trated on the collection of field data, while aerial photography of vast regions 
is keeping pace witli the ground assessment These facts wc learn from i small 
but highly informative Government booklet "which was brought out la*t year 
/or the benefit of the British Commonwealth Forestry Conference held in 
Australia. 

The joint Author^ (Womersley ami McAdam) are to be complimented on a 
worthy contribution to the ecological literature of our near-north They 
describe succinctly the principal forest formations of New Guinea (including 
their dominant trees), discuss foTest policy, give notes on 22 of The nvotc 
abundant and useful iree-speoes and conclude fcfth ft bibliography of impor- 
tant references to the flora and timbers of Papua-New Guinea There 3re 
several good photographs of tree communities, that uf the pine Araucaria 
klinkii being impressive. Appendix ITT comprises a freM key to the arboreal 
species of certain tidal forests; this h the work of Mr. A G- Fiord, formerly 
Plant Ecotogiit at Lae and r member of this Club 

-J. H- Wrens 



^'3 7 fir Kirrcnti., S'vutraftsi m 

FURTHER OBSERVATIONS OH THE GEOLOGY OF THE TAMAR RIVER 

By 'R'.'N' C KrKSIIAlV 

Introduction 

Jit Tasmania, the extensive estuary of the Tdr.iar kivcr pj lire most conspicu- 
ous Jeature of ihc Vurlh Coast Some feature?, of tie ailjacent tot^fcraphy at!d 
Oie relation oi this to the rivtr are discussed. 

An outline of eoitic of the ideological feature* of the valley WW %cr SW in 
a ptcvto'K wori; (Kershaw, lSw>, tttf Certain notes vveie hold over jfttf 
further study A paper fey Carey i\9A7) lud been overlooked, lM the ^nsuis'i^ 
jmyer is correlated with hi; work- 

The Tamar area v»iM he dtscu*sed T first in relation to f>r<^riH-itay features 
and secondly in relation to the Ternary takes. The^e notes are fftrt a detrfitnl 
study oi rftc fitology of the ai?» .. I hey are marie, in conjunction U'th considera- 
tions of general ecology 

Present Physiography 

I. Ct*oH Witt. Hcitdtaudi 

The mouth of the Tamar h hounded by Low Head on fljs east and West 
Head to the west* these being terminals of low dolorim range:;, Low ITc-arf 
jutting" pttt into Ras*. Srraii, is a rounded hill of moderate height fringed by 
a sloping primary major platform eroded in the dolerite (terminology : 
Jut&on, t9S>0). The totloltorc is grtii>'y and of moderate slope, there bung rtO 
precipitate cliff as at Wc*t Head. To the e.ast the sandy heach is barked by 
dunes, with Five Mile Bluff the next nTomincm fcarnre. Between Low H-ew\ 
and Ceot#e Tov»«, the cstuar> shore pastes iiom dolerite to Permian sedi- 
ments above which are terrace d«po>.ii.<-. 

West Head is a muc:t more exUniMve and higher hca<IUnd than ;j Low 
Head, The dolcrirr rises in a series of |>*aLs injneri to the west in a cnminuntia 
range with a sheet ft£4rp face pasfcmg irto the sea as vertical cliff'3 ft hundied 
feet high. The latidwatd end of thiai scarp is partly masked by talus At the 
h'nt u£ this slope art* sand-dunes, all fixed by vegetal jflfl, lining the shore 
westerly to Badger new. There, is no high vertical clirr on rhc northern 
aspect of Wesr Head. The shoreline, is & sloping rnck platform littered with 
boulder and rubble, steep fri places but elsewhere almost flat lu\e a true wave- 
eroded ntatioim. Compared with Low Head, the. platform here Ita* le^s sea- 
ward -lope, oiherwi.si: the shoreline is similar, 

Two indentations mark major joints in the rock at West Head On Che 
eastern side of the more westerly of these, the platform ends in a vertical lace, 
only a few Jeei high though the aspect is Similar to the clnf hue. Tins inden- 
tation is entirely rocky, and on the western side the surface, which is imimiseJ 
at Infill Itde, i\ flat, shingly and hoi drier Mrfwn. 

The second indentation 'has a pocket-beach deposit, more extemive than 
the lirSt| with patches of gtavel tiy well &s the HHiid above it and A'isli a con- 
^picuou* gap in the headland behind. The headland vs divirleo by these joints 
Into three peak*, and it curves finally to the south-east where the steeper 
shore bears [title resemblance to a *'plat^ot in". Its behaviour, may be deter- 
mined bj' a further joint hue, but there is a considerable yap in the dolerite 
exposures betsveeu the wrstem aspect of the headland and the Stockyard Hills 
a trw milerj to the south. The soiid rocky shore given way first to shingle and 
boulders, then to Green's Resell. 

Tin? hacksliore o( tlie be-udland, apart Irom the vertical cliff hue, 15 sr>ep; 
it is approximately iifly feet high and counts i»f sandy soil. Tins is scrubby 
and it levels out above, except tor the remnant of an auauit dune, and h 
nassfti inland some, distance before rifling again to the peaks of the dotenie: 
bills The shore platform, wbicti has the aspect ol a primary major platform, 
is considerably modiJied in places due to the masiive nature of the dolente 
rock Its seaward edge jesses into sand, arid lher*t i< ik» apparent evidence oi 



180 Kkkshaw, Gtrto.w of the Tawr River [ v *jJ; *J L 

a lower level platform except at the indentations where the features are Struc- 
tural. The broad feature* of the headland are similar to Badger "Head, bul 
there the shoreline is eroded ar.n«s:? vertical Strata* of metainorphic rocks, and 
omteqncntly it is irregular with deep gutters and with huge hoohlpr*. an ntaccs, 
fftd there fs little actual surface Dial form eut in the ru=.islant Asbestos Kaotre 
series. 

At C recti's Beach the dimes arc lower than those of Badger Head Bay, and 
there is no protection at the eastern end of the beach. There is a deposit of 
ttolfrite .shingle, from which ^if-jn t the br^ch turns 3mithr.r ly aivj becomes the 
western shoreline of the estuary, ft is. then continuous as far as Kelso, with 
fringes of dolcrite shingle visible on The tibial flats Behind Ihe tlune^ at Green's 
iJeach there is a flat area backed "by a Meep scarp approximately HO feet above 
M.L.W.? , anf. this appears to tic a former yhondine. or similar a#e to the old 
bay behind the dnnrs at the we«.t*xn end of Badger Head Hay (Edwards, 1W1 ). 
The scarp is continuous with the headland and curve? toward* Kelso, and ibe 
lower levels rise gradually in relation to it, apparently passing into the 
Stockyard Hill*. 

The flood plain behind the shoreline north or Kelso |i*es gently to tyfccl tin* 
scarp taee, bul near the shot-: it lends w be marshy, U appeals to be repre- 
sented to a rather more limited degree on the eastern side pi the estuary. 
where the higher level 11 the mure extensive. Behind the scarp of the western 
Short, the Stockyard Hills rise front the plain surface which extends between 
these hill? and the West Head in (he direction of the Ashe;to$ Range and alv> 
southerly be'hujo! tt»c Stockyard TTJIls. T6W8frj the Aihcsto-. Range the*** is a 
marked rise in the terrain, R?fl£ng hrst into tire foothills and (tieq into the 
main range Near ttadger Head there ire old beach $m\k\s viMbttv mid the 
dramaee is mounded by the dunes. At Badger Head the lower hills are cut 
hya very ivell-markud former bay with old sea cliffs in the main range itself 
<Fd wards, 1W1) 

2. tcfiiury f-\iu(is * 

Carey (l°47> defended a series of Uolts hi the L<u"Keslo3i district, which 
have gh$Q rise to a jerire of horsts, and two extensive troughs, which he 
named, tire Tpmar Trough and the Crr.sgy Trough West of the Ocsv Trough 
are the Great Western Tier*, and ea=i of die Tamai frniigh, 'ramp-;*' rUe to 
the Hen Lomond Plateau which is- also a horst. Frrcn the lower Tamar, two 
levels arc ftadiL di see n i line to the ea*t, apail from the Ben Lumuild-MuUut 
Arthur block, and these level* arc prae'icilb' continuous except fpr the ileuv 
mcisioJi o* the Fourteen Mile Creek which enters the Tamar at East Arm. 
'I.'he higher level (above 1*000 Cwsr) ends nior^ or less abruptly m the \foum 
Direction KanjGre ; the second, which passe* into the Ceorg-e Range at George 
Tuvvn, is ^eveial hundred left lower but a series, of "fooThills" continues, to 
Low Head. 'Hie Wuugh? appear to have bee* > dowtuearns, with their batiks 
remaining higher than the central areas. The erosion of these Hanks has left 
the low dolcrite ranges on ?aUt side of the river On the West Tamar, low 
dolerilc hills extend from TrevaJlyn main range U»>cU (Edwards. 1941 » 

Carey f 19471 described a teries or" faults in the Launceston District, wliiclt 
have given Hue to a scries of hor*te, and two extensive troughx which be 
named the 'J. amai Trough and the CressyTrou^'n \Ypm of il>e Cressy Trough 
are the ijreat Western Tiers., and east oi the Tamar Trough "rami^" fee CO 
lite Ben Li.tmond Plateau wjnclt ii alsu a horst !*roin the lower Tamar two 
levels are readily duecrniblc to Hie east apart Ironi the Hen tomciid Mount 
Arthur Work, and these levels are practically continuous except for the 4e^t) 
incision ot U»e Fourteen Mile CVeek which enter-i the Tamar at the East Arm. 
The higher le»el (aboic l.UOO *«t) ends niorc Or less al>riij.rlly in the Mount 
T 1 irceiiini Kange. The second, which passe* into the Geojge Ranse at George 
, Town, is several hundred Jeet lowei; but a scries of "foothills" continues to 
I ow Head. The Tamar Trough may have ended in the vieinity of the DrviTs 
Llbow or 5'dntoudi. Ureshwater mus&els of the Tertiary Lacustrine Serres 



APrtil 

llftS J 



Kkj&hmv. Gccloffy of the Tomat f?tWr 



m 




sketch Map of Geology, Lower Tamar River, North Tasmania. 



IS: Kf.rshaw. CeotvM of the Uttwr Kivrr l_ V \^T' 

aic fouilU as kOs: lis fit toast as Ur as Supply Bay. The dole rite ridges of |iw 
Blackwood Hill* and also that passing into the George Range may be the 
result of erosion The question whirb arises here is whether or not the note.rite 
was origwtalry continuous from the Blackwood Hills to the vicuuly o( llic 
river mi-nth. Thin would require a yfesl removal or dolerite Irom this area 
•ml this is not unlikely. 

There is an outcrop ot Permian till at the southern end of Kel*o Kay, ami 
this inay overlie. Ibe dolerite which outcrops nearby Along the West bank of 
ibe cMiiary from ihr Kcbsii area., &omo wide, expanses o( dolerite shingle may 
also mark the presence, ot dolerite below the tidal flats. On the eastern; bank 
-here is an outcrop of Permian sediments between George Town and Low 
Head, but otherwise dolerite is present throughout, -although the. rock is usually 
masked by terrace deposits. George Town i$ <utuatcd on dolerite whieti may 
br wpii in ihe river-bank sf the township. Between Clarence Point acid George 
Town the river is noticeably constricted, but it opens again into a rorisidcrabti' 
exploit southward, in Ike Bell Bay-BcacHy Point area Between this area, 
Ea.«t Arm anil Supply Ba>, Moriarty's Reach is again constricted and flanked 
by dc-lrrhe up-stream 10 the Devil'* F.lbow. On ih< wcsl bank the riiain feature 
is ihc Blackwood! Hills as previously noted. 

One envisages (lie possibility that the Beauty Point- Bell Bay area marks a 
I rough, the extent bf wIikIi is not clear, aa tfiere is also (lie possibility thai 
dolerite extended from the 1 Blackwood Hills to Anchor Point a< a rid^e hut 
was since removed by erosion, Permian segments arc e*po<;ro at West Arm, 
Middle Arm *nd between Rcacons-ficld and Ynik Town, iit places well above 
5ca level. However, clays similar to those at Rcauly Point are found over all 
this area and about BeaconsTielut 

Dolerite wfes apparently cuutiiuioua bttween the Anchor 1'oint-Kelr.o flay 
area and the Ueori»e Range. Bur from the Kelso Hay George Town area 
norllu-rly the siJiralirm is less tflW"- If the sliinylf* indiralr? (In. prt $e nee of a 
dolcntc basement, as sccim probable, then the most likely T*>5sihi1ily is that 
the river occupies a considerable fault between the "Low Head block" anil the 
"West Head block". There may be a small trough but Una Tl not at all certain. 
Tht presence ot the Jault i% suggested by the selection of this Kite- tor the 
efi>Mon iif the ilranuirc syvtem, which sxfni* to nave been determined vi-ry 
early in the physiographic hbtdry p| the present features. It is remarkable 
that the river should have eroded a course through so rinrrh dolerite, when 
setter Penman beds e.<isr -nearer the Asbestos Range and appear 10 t>e the 
only significant rock nt a line to Badger Head Bav. This line, with dolerite 
on lite one side and the Asbestos Range C41 the other, would seem ihe logical 
course for the mam drainage outlet, Ufljfc»5 sumt other 1a< b#r vredisposecl i.hc 
prcxent outlet and directions -nf drainage. 

Tlic presence of the Permian beds in the present outlet area on both banks 
<nt the ntrtf &Ugg£stfi ibai such beds fonned parr of (he covistal scatp and lay 
on 9 dolerite baserueait thus eoD<ion above prfiHCtlC ^ea level between the 
Ceorge Towo-CJareiKC PoaW area and the river montli would be coiopara 
lively r^pid. Hence, \i a considerable fault is alio postulated, one may envisage 
a strong early influence for a drainage outlet in the present position and of 
the present magnilndr. Despite ihc resistance of Ihe dolerile. erosion must 
have l<en tar cuouRb advanced to ensure the determination of the Mure 
nminagc. HovveveT, it «ems probable tbat another faclor also had some in- 
fluence, that is. 'he draining of the Tertiary lake or lakes 

The Permian beds in the West Arm show a iiMrk^d di|i, which does not 
apiiear (o be related to the dolerite but which may be related lo a Beauty 
I '.irit-B*H Bay trough if such exists. One can envisage the Hanks of this 
trough miug well above the centre iu the saiue way as the T^mnr Tnyugh, 
with the exception that, on the western shore, the Ilsutks ate in Penman, and 
possibly S'luriau, deposits instead of dulerite The former presence of doJerife 
between the ftUckwnod Hills and Author Point may o* may not di»coiinl 
ihe idei> tif a trough extending: toward York Town or Bcaccmsh'eSd. However, 



*?"•'] K/.Rsnaw. GsoU><rj< of the Totofif River 18J 

^11 the -features may he due to erosion aided in part >iy bulk- line*. and j>o.;KiMy 
small grabeits. There is ;io ilvubt. \\m\ there hat been a cr>at dr-al of civsiim, 
■but several ai>|»arcnr alterations in <t;a level ba\v in torn halted iIip procesv 
mfiiled il»c valley and afcam terommeucod arrive er-asion. 

The- |ireicut trend 01 the couiltrj bno the Tatnar is only ;ui*roSJGii fuminc 
Pmni fW'jjei Heail to (lie Asbcsio* Range I lie terrain el-ine* in the «at1itr 
direction, toward Hie Tamar.but it is brftiJUiK im by the marked scant at VVe*t 
Head, with the tidge flf dolerhe ending there This are'* is occupied vvirh what 
have heei: lei mod Quaternary yednnei'cs, which, :»s has been rcmarVrd above 
are continuous with the higher terrace level*, in tin* West Head- Kelso area 
I in pail) 4 nd Arc prnhahly representative of ]H?Or&la.cial high sea-;. The*e 
sediments presumably lie on Permian sediment as these outcrop further inland 
<it YurV Town. FtuweVei £cj fm as iv known, the whole area from here 1o 
the coast is masked hy late sediments. Die T&tuar valley it ttaccaVc >mo Has* 
Strait, and thoTe veins no evidence of another valley of any tinte near it. 
.Hence thote deposits, for winch flic Tam.ir rt5<*Jf *s fWr ftSpOtlsbfa are ug 
doubt due to intcrgladal eustatic variation* of the sea. Fairbridgc (J94VJ 
believes iVat the luimgrjaphy of B^;-a Strait indicates * ernrien-type structure. 
and it was in this trough that the former "Tamar Major Kiver" formed iis 
valley, fbis type of afriscWWC seem* In accord with that predominant in the 
Tamsr valley and watershed. 

Carey (1947} was doubtful of ihe existence of a Trevallyn Fault**, and 
iVns ridge gl doliTiV* may be traced So the Blackwood B)li& It was interpreted 
by Carey as renresentmtr the elevated flank of the Tamar Trough, as already 
remarked. Tt is flanked to the west by the Glen Dim FauU, which is apparently 
conlinuuus and tiaxeable in places, wnli the fault scarp" at West Head. Near 
Bcac«>irsneld there has been much erosion on thi> hue and Fcrmiau Ivds are 
exposed alone Middle Arm Creek and Mnlille Arm, while lit Dcacuiufield a 
deep lead indicates erosion hy n former stream to 270 iVer bclou* present s**a 
level. The nrcseol svffo'cc is lately occulted to Teriiary clays wliic"i ( between 
Beaconstie'd and West Ann, pass under Quaternary gravels. "W& area may 
be pari of :hc graheu jn^tulalvd in 1lie Bell Bay- Deputy l\iim art*a Thr^e 
clays acid firavbl^ arc lurllar discussed below. 

The Woclr eVvated between ihc Clen Dhu Kauh and the Breadalbanc Fa-jh 
L6 TCpresented in Uie ^cancoiuJicW area by the Blue lid), Cahbapc Tree Tiers 
and the Blue Peaked Jdill, and it po^j-ibly exteijd$ as iar -is the rlolwell area. 
but there arc other faults in ihe an.*a. some of which are indicated bv Mont- 
gomery and Ward (. 18^92) - Further north the block i^ represented by the 
series of hi I is Stfslkhtij the Asbestos Range- Between Ihe Brc-aoalliane Faalt 
and lite H»d^t» ^aidt the ' Hantrtiocky Hills Hnrst" passes into the Asbcsto*. 
Kange, and it is the highest of the blocks. Ar tli* itnminocky Htlls near 
KpplKjf, soulh rd l^uitccHton, a hriphi oi 1,574 ieet is leached, and tioxtli of 
J r TanW*tord the height i< the same or greater, but it falU to .» iew hundred 
reel at Badger Head. When iliv AsbeAob Xangc »s viewtrd from the west w 
iUt vicinity of the .Rubicon Estuary, two levels arc visible, and ihe tower of 
these is thought by the wTitrr to lie representative of the block between the 
Tl^dspen and F.on?l'ord PattlM. From live ii.^etet Devuiiport Ki>ad, after pass- 
ing this level, a marked depression itiay be seen befvire the A^bcstiw RftUg*! 
prupcr There h aii^Hier at the Gieu on the Exeter side of the range, which 
is like a small $n|l]en till the Hreadalbane Fault line The road ri^e*. ^teejjy 
from Jiere toward F.xerer,. as tlwuif>l ascending ;i iuult acajrp. 

3. 'I he Tertiary Dtcf Lead 

On Hie West Tatnar. nnitb of tin? T-tlackwocd HilU, the dole-rite »s itsprfr 
senred only by more or less tsolatfd hills, until tht- Stockyard Hills are 
reached; but t!if 3 c are |I0( t.\t^t^sivc jiikO then: i? another :.hort gao i»>wrird5 
West Head. Between the niaHe%vood Mills and Anchor fomt on the West 
Arm (above which lies one of the hills) doleiite lias been found a* ^mall 
bou!de;s UC Sandy Beach, bin otherwise h appears absent irom this wide gap. 



This gap is otcupiod by Ihe Beauty Point — Ilfravitlc 'peninsula" hcnvceji 
Middle Arm 4iul West Ann, which shows several stages of erosion .and 
deposition independent of the- dolerite. Thus- an acteictlt stream appears to 
have flowed through Ok RraronsfirM area to inspection Hearl on the Tamar 
til the nmidle of the gJltf^. This was infilled with basalt (said to be low^r 
Pliocene) ami ihe drainage impounded, while, presumably. Lateral streams 
developed, perhaps tin* forerunners of those now entering Middle Arm >nni 
"West A i nt. The flow was apparently breathed hv the Tamar near Middle 
Island. The aneiem streams flowed from the A*I».$t03 Range across the 
rjoterfte to ihr Tamar. removing most o» lite dolerite from the "fiap" area. 
while t#"»c Imrnrrli.tlpiy pn--hasaltic and post basaltic areanK eroded llieir heds 
in lite Permian The terraces indicate thai these valleys were sutiseuAKrntly 
"filled" and renewed several times. 

The Heacons-rield Deep Lead, which is also called the Brandy Creek Deep 
Lead, appear* to occupy a narrow, rather deep valley representing approxi- 
mately 41)0 loel oh erosion The width 01 the valley, *s. indicated by the basalt 
at Inspection Hftild, and the clays at Bcaeonsficld (which appear lo he resuUml 
front iht decay of the ttfiflAfl ). sfew narrow and suggest rapid erosion. However 
the harrlnes* of the Silurian heds in which this valley was -cut may hav*r had 
a bj£uif»cant effect in c.onfrollimr, the extent of the valley, Montgomery and 
Ward < l$Vi) indicate a fault below the It-ad and thts alv> could Save a bear 
iny mi the nature of the valley. Singleton 1 1941 J potts On aj;c of the kad 
At Adelaide*)!, and phyMOyraphie evidence suggests this age or younger, not 
Lower Pliocene, as ha? been suggested also. Theie is no reason to believe, 
that [hei'C has bf*en depression in thU area .since the Lasali, r,o the depth of the 
ancient s-lremn •? an indication of the- -sea It/vel «>f that lime. That would thus 
he about 270 fed loner thai) the present Carey (1947) found no evidence of 
uplift of ciMtsenoeticC. and lie regarded the basalt as indicative of the thalweg 
nf Pliocene drainage of the time. The basalt tics on the ciays and graved 
of the partly filled valley and apparently paibes only a little below sea level 
al inspection Rk*4 WhiSh sny.t,'ests that the $t& level had been rising again — 
if a eustatrc approach to the problem is to be taken The evidence letuL* \o 
suggest the lall of ll»e sea priur to the onset of gtaciatioit at the "betnrminfi" 
at the Pleistocene, and the vise subsequent to the first jglaciat stage, of which 
no evidence ha* been previously recorded trom Tasmania. Thu would ferm 
duhinn* on present rurrclatinns, but there is evidence that climatic deteriora- 
tion may actually he dated from the Kaluunftu- AdeUiide.au houndar>, accord- 
ing lo Fleming: J 1953) . This then would indicate an earlier stage 3ml greater 
depth than previously noted in Tasmania, so far at is known to the wriler. 

4. The Clay* and CfivrvU 

The clays whirh may \» observed south of Heaoon>field and which pas* 
wuler the gravels capping rul^es north of the lowiu he on the PuritUMI bedrock 
<md may he rieiivcd from the erosion of the ancient peneplain (Carey, IW). 
Tttey are Htm Where tltey lie on the Permian hut have been traced, below sea. 
iRVtl at Beauty Point and below the fca»alt (TwHvvtrees. 1914) Mtrnojgh 
rhry occur al a lower level than Hie basalt. 1hcy arc also at higher levels, mj 
that thr. e_\a«t relationship at lite moment is obscure The clays themselves 
were eroded hetore the next depositions! tihajj*-, that of Ote gravels, 

The gt'tvcl he<ls lie on ihe ridges flanking the J'amar between Bcaeonsficld 
atuJ West Arm an<l tl.cnrr toward West Head, Ai the West Arm the bed? 
rxiend a considerable distance down the side of the rnJ^e fringing tlic D5r,|h» 
wr.M side of the Arm and also on the opposite side. Clay is found only a few 
feet below the surface near the lop off die ridgr A cheek indicated, that only 
one ben* was present and thai it follows the contour of an old snrfac?, suggest- 
ing Ui-tf the mnlerlvtne clays had formed a Sand surface before the deposition 
of ihe gravels. The surface or the vlay is nncveti and tUrk coloured, but this 
.:ouM he due to learhinK frnm the present surface soil- There is Jitth; to indi- 
cate the presence of B lormer soil surface on the clay, and it u "possible rli-«t 



3mT3 ' Kkkmiaw. Gevh.jy &i the Tavwr Anvr Ifci 

U was returned before ihe grave* wai deposited. The present topography 
appears lo conform lo some txtem iti place* wrlh Hie old surface At tin toot 
01 the ridge is a marshy area through which 3 seasonal stream flows when 
there is sulbctem water It flows (tartly around one or' the doleritc lnU< — 
marked on the writer's i«ap fK>r$ruw, 1955ft) as Bull'* Hill-^iind it is. 
IrtOSfA »M> to fiftem or twenty 'eel below the preteiil surface near the hill in 
narrow "tpjrgei » before emerm.e lite Tamar, 

An ^rea of giavct is to be found on '.hi* banks of Anderson's Creek hear the 
Settler's Kaiuje, some miles from the AY est Arm. To their lower reaches, 
Anderson's Creek, Massey's Creek and York Town Rivulet lie in u wide 
valley incised ill Pcfwfrtttl sed»me»Us. In litis valley, near Anderson's Creek 
where 1he old mine tramway crosses tills stream, there »s al=n an arpa of 
Tertiary clays, which suggest* that tilts valley is older than these deposits. The 
main streams have cut oew valleys in the floor of this old valley, hut tJjffV 
atC of BO great extent. However, these streams have contributed to extending 
the older vaMe> . due io the s«rcessive phase* of deposition and erosion, involv- 
ing clays, gravels, and probably Pleistocene terrace deposits a? well. The ■'ore- 
day Anderson s Creek'* was presumably a tributary d) the Beaconsheld Deep 
Lead stream. (.See also comments in previous, section.) 

A considerable ao>pum oi erosion mtlsr have followed the deposition) Of ihe 
gravels, as (hej have been removed entirely ftom some even deep areas *ik! 
do not seem lo be related to later gravel deposit'- associated with terraces. 
The well-worn pebble-- of these latter deposits appear to have considerable 
affinity Uitli the IVrinian conglomerates and were conceivably partly derived 
front thps source On flje other: hand, the whire gravels appear riiore hkely 
to be a derivative of the Silunan bed?, 'ic-n BcacooslteU. These bed* were 
elevated by the Tertiary uplifts, and Permian heds lying mi ihenn -.vrrt re- 
moved early, whereas the beds from which lite pebbles wouM liave Hern 
derived fie at lower level and were not elevated near lleaconefiold. Neverthe- 
less Pe^on'ao t$ preserved at hvffif^i level.; south of Reaconshekl. 

Jn the vicinity of Block Tl, Oatence Point 5uh division, pai the West Arm. 
the greatest depth of gravel in this are;* is found This is a quarry sin* on a 
Jul I -top which reaches 1JS0 led above .M L.W.S. Tide The cravel bed is 
approximatr-Iv eight fee* thick in places. As elsewhere the beds lie on clay, hut 
hCi'C rtc >ln'fatc of UK clay is more noticeably black and Rtitty fat depth* of 
up to two inciter or * little titer e. This >ite is of particular itue/e^t, for in 
addition to r ej* reset iiing the fwnltest point norUt-east along the West Arm at 
which gravel is found before lite dolerite hiils mten'ene, cx|K-sures show ihar 
the he<U here lie above dolerto. Moreover, in the floor of ihe iiuarry, there 
is ait exposure of a rock of similftr nature to ttte Permian e^nosed nearby hi 
the West Ann, but Uits is vttCf >ma!l and henot uncertaiti. I'lnalty, some fout 
feet dearth of (toe white sand i* preserved over a small area lying on the 
tfrave) at the highest point. Near the sand fcxftpttutG there is an exposure of 
fine white Rill, about two feet thick* somewhat lower than the loo of the r r and 
bea but above the base, i'ltc serpience of beds on this quarry srlc from The top 
is as follows : 

if) Sand .tud/or j;ri| 4 feet 

(h) Gravel ... 8 feet 

Yt\ L:i *> I 2(\ feet 

\d) Permian ? S ' '^ ,m 

(e) BdSdatc 25 feet 

<f> Terr.tre s..nds .. at 12.1 feel above Mf.VVS 

Beds a, h and c appear Lo lit on the surface of a ridfce or hill, a* noted else- 
where on the Ann. Thus the gwel at the sides of (he quarry is- at 4 lower 
level than ihe clay in the renlre Moreover, the mea.suremetit'i given arc ol 
the ejpoBurea and are not necessarily emnvalont to the depths, of the bod*. The 
doJen'te exposures are in the form of surface stones arid boulders wiih some. 
paiche=. nf solid r*»rk. Below »hc dolente, the ridge levels ool on a surface of 



186 Keksilaw. Gt'oloyy of the tamar Rivxr [ y'j 1 * ' 

MRdy sod which is uilcrpreted as a high-level terrace- This level ii continuous 
along the ridge ftbo*e the West Ann, toward the southwest, until tlie vitinily 
of block \7 where there is a gentle rise again. Kmm this point ihe gravel beds 
begin to increase again from practical insignificance tn u depth of two or three 
tee*) but the depth is reduced again Kuther on as ihc terrain falls toward YoiJc 
Tmvn Rivulet hi a northerly direction tlie gravel fallow* the line of the 
• liUrilc lulls which reach to higher altitudes than the Lrds Nortn-eaM. across 
the dnteritc.- there is a snail area of gravel between Anchor Point and Clarence 
Point rather nearer the Janer KqtOEuiljri ThJ* has evidently been preserved by 
the surrounding dolertte, and nil other traces on the Tamar side oi the hills 
h-U'e long Kilirv been temuved l>y the- river erosion 

At the West Arm, seasonal drainage ha* cut a narrow \altcy between Ldocks 
12 and 13. and in the bed of the stieain Permian tnudstone is exposed near the 
comer of the. orchard id block 13. i 'his -exposure in the stream bed is observ- 
able most of the way down the slope* to the West Arm, bur the water apc.cars 
to |"pn on 'he saiiiacc of H>e mrU and is not incised nTf|a *t Snme gravel lies- 
on the surface of the rock and seems to have been rrdepositfd from trie higher 
beds, whuch arc fifteen or twenty feel above and very thin here. The hanki of 
the stream show a rxmutlerafile depth -of blackish sandy soil, but HO attempt 
xvb6 made to discover what lay beneath thi$ apart from the muthtoae in the 
stream bed. 

A chance excavation alongside a dyke between Clarence Pontt and Kelso 
revealed a small ^Mickct of white gravel M a slightly tower level than the 
nearby terrace gravels. This |>Kket presumably accumulated against the dyke 
when »t stood, out as a reef in the pre-reTrace stream. There are line white 
sands al this point also, lltQiu^t at a somewhat higher level ami iu»l related 
to tl»e dyke These may be related to the small deposit in On. <|mtrry referred 
lo tihove, but the latter is one hundred leer higher, 

5. Thr Tcrtia* J f-^cs 

Fairbridfiie (l°4°'i concluded that the dolcine intrusions did not necessarily 
'bul^e up t>»t central strip of Tasmania, but. while remaining alawe .sea level, 
the area reacted as a "down warp", During peneplanatiou, a f>rcat 4teal uf 
dolor itc was removed f Carey, 194/ t Following the uplifts, streams wnrlting 
hctcV from the toast would not need to cut through much dolerite at first, and 
it has been suggested already that the presence of a fault and of Permian rocks 
probably assisted in Uelhting ilie lower Tamar. fcSul a considerable body r* 
mained in the Ulackwotiil Hills area and to the east as indicated bv the rock 
still preserved and by the rtCteSslty to envisage a OOtuiw .'table tlutk iuipouiuU 
iHg the draiuape to form f-ake Tamar 

The presence of the clay about Bca cons Held. Beauty i'oint and the West 
Arm area, and even somewhat further atielJ — apparently not related to The 
take Tamar deposit*, which have al£o heen regarded as of Tertiary -^ge — 
& as Jfr. E P. toll ka>, pointed out to me. must bkcl> to be lacusrrine in 
Ofi^iH, If the clay which Twelve-trees 1 1914 ) described as sur>basaUic in the 
[njpectuyn Head area is the same. Then Tertiary age tends lo be substantiated. 
but nothing definite, can be Enid. The clay reaches much higher: than the basalt 
iu (he 4rcd aud is at least six feet thick in many places where it is associated 
with the white gravels, but it is, very inucli thicker in the Bt.-a.uly Point ^rea 
wlutfe it hat- been bored 10 rxlow sea kvel (Twelvetrees. I9H). A lake is 
envisaged for the beauty Point-Bell Bay area which, when it filled this hasin, 
overrk'wed the surrounding country-side and deposited a veneer of clay Dyer 
its extent Tile cUy aupears to he older tlwn rhc basalt and is certainly found 
aT much higher topographic levels, as already noted. 

Over 1 .000 feet of sediments aeeannulated in Take Tamar over a va$r i>eriod 
of tmie, and i» see»tt«i f/ta( i\ /east ^00 or WO teet of dolerite was removed 
;<Kcf ttt( Irtkc began to drain, "I here ,_• no evidence that any factor other than. 
the Tertiary uplifts was responsdile for the formal ion of the lakes. Tlii*. i* 
'finpoMaut 3i the uplifts were stated by Carey (T947J to be LpWQr Miocene. 



*#r] Kkksma*-, Get fogy of tfu Tama* tfiVrr 1*7 

Mr. H I) fitll informed me, and this has 5ir.ce ht-en pnhhbheu (CHI & Banks. 
1956). kViJll |w bari ovidericc that 1I10 lake beds .^'C. much older than was ot*- 
riously thought. So it must be presumed thai the eat hen uplifts ar<- also older 
than lihherlu believed Gill ik Banks (19S6l now place rhi- eoimneueemenr 
qJ faulting in the Lower Terliaiy, i.e. Lower Qlieoeenc or earl er, 

llic possibility -or even probability of a smaller lake ninth ul 3 nke Tanar 
raises new points III (T$ejrT£ the dvaiuaye- yatiein. Intiead of havcie to envisage 
ore block of dolcrde impounding drainage coiueq'jent to the uplifts, two ftWSI 
he envisaged Tlic wrivi lw* alroadv drawn ,*tl(*ittum in the i-rc HI dMrihu* 
tuai of the dolerite it* the ari*a which ctfrtstnnEs the Tamar between Gcorflc 
Town grid Clarence Point »nd again at Moriarly\ Resell It has beer, sur- 
et<ted already that Lake Tamar ended in the vicinity of tbr Devil'i Elbow, 
nod the dolerin* i* assumed to have been continuous between the ftlarxwood 
HiHaanosf. Wnri.it ty'? Rr.irh KtwarrJ JVIniint Direction and towaid the QfQr& 
Range. Similarly it is assumed to have been continuous from the Gvorec 
Range- across llic river hoin George Town to Ctarenee Point anil the >ei *e-5 
of dolerite bills, as they arc now. out the west bank. The fact that much \ea 
Evidence, by way Of lacustrine deposits, u prrsem to indicate inr rvigtrnce of 
the more northern lake, is in*, especially significant", as this is easily accounted 
foi t;y the probable amount 01 erosion over the i>erind. The clay may Itave been 
very much deeper over ibe jtfhtfle apfi* than is now mdi-ated, as fl it.s* all botfl 
subjected to erosion for a long period, and in -some places it is presetted at 
all only bfCAU60 of Ibc suh«rquent dcposaHou of the gravel beds- Tn additicw, 
if the lake is to be assumed to be as old as would be rn.uired for the relation- 
ship to Lake Tamar 10 have existed, erosion must 'nave commenced on it r - 
deposits lifltE before the larger iakc was affected Surely u nmst have peon 
drained heforc drainage til Lake Tamar was much advavired. 

i'he dtaina^e b|*ul worked back <("<Wn the COfWP, |iossibly dlo*i£ a FaiiJl I'^c, 
and cut a gort.e between George Town and Cla'C-Ttoe Pond. The lak; im 
l»Otindc(l by llii* dn.erite l>tocV ua 1 -- thirn drained, and itivam.s ikvL'lo|uv| from 
tbc luffher land itz ihfc c<inrsc*fi itf already fXjStiHjg nniyir drams ivfto the x >kv. 
Tins higher laud was presumably tliat noiv reprcrented by the Asbe^to^ Ranpe 
and Mount Direction, wloeh would necessarily liave oi'igntally been the only 
features aLvive the I9I1C bed*. Tbi> itrrinu development would be most rapid 
from the AslirsTo* Pan.gv 5> tl Howitl over rlay and d;<M rcrmian ^dimerdi 
Bcc'.iuse i:-f the diatnliMlion of the sediments, the major stream eventually 
develope-d a?onp '.he line of ihr Brandy CikU nceji Lead to Inspection Head 
—with a tributary OS tiibutaries ancestral to Audei soo v s Creek, which edso 
lies in an area where much erosion U ayioarettt. Due to the concentration o' 
tin- drainage tnv.ard lite Tns|iorhon Hearf aTpa, all tht: atM'arenr dnl^rite has 
been removed from thi: area r-stcpt for a few boulder*. 

Another main tributary omc fiVun the east, probably ll.e aiiceitoi 01 the 
present Foorteeu Mile Creek pa Ikere Is a considerable ga» iu the rah^s m 
that area, and it found a courst.- doA-n from the dolerite in the Hast Ann area. 
.'V trihniary o t'us 5trfam t WOffeCng; Iviek alonp, ihe MtitiaiTyi Reach line, is 
envisaged a:i breaching irVjirobibly nearly brimmiitg Lake 'laifsar. From ihnn 
on erosiOti WOUlO be pfogtessivelr acet-leraied and a classic gOff£ 1 «.it through 
the dolerite, vlnle the rapid growth of the future "l'3inar would soon aiSUnK 
the aw:eaidanry from the fteaconsnelri fita*anL 

Once connection was m.uk\ tin- tfOUtsd of the Tfttlfftf w<*i crrtain, as a va^t 
new watershed was then opened. Carev 1 1947) envisage* the subsequent courm 
of event* as Che rapid ^COtlrtftg of the SOfl hike sediirtetus out»? 'be head of 
erosion reached Laonceitoti, where the South Hsk was faced with the task 
of cuTtiwr. the yre^ent g>"»rge ihrotip.h the fault blacks i»t its uxtli G/ilfith 
Taylor 09221 quoted the gor^e as evidence o\ la»e. nphit and *1so rpm<*rked 
that i* had been :,uggpsted as evidence M the eustatic variations of tk<? 
riei-stocctie. 

The *vhwl? urocess was well advanced when a presumed fissure cruptr n OJ 
basa'd frlled tlie valley of die Rraronsficld stream and for a time Wocked the 



188 Kershaw, Geotoyy of the Tttm<ir River [TSft » 

Tamar. It i* possible, but it does not seem at all likely, so fef as oi»e can judge 
from the evidence, that the basalt impounded the Tamar to a sufficient height 
to account for the c'-iys of the Beaconsficjd- Beauty Point area; and this 33 
not regarded as a reasonable explanation, even if it must be admitted that 
the explanation already advanced ir; not particularly clear from 1 he evidence 
available In anv case the Tamar would rtyt long be blocked by vhe basalt, aTid 
subsequent erosion would readily remove all evidence other than rhe remaining 
basalt itself. There are no other erosion features v.hictt cannot be accounted 
for satisfactorily by the Hypotheses advanced above. 

Ivcwis (1927) bad envisaged lute movements, and Fairbridtre (1949) agreed 
with fatal, suggesting movements of a few hundred feet, possibly as late as 
early Pleistocene. However, Carey 1.1947) found no evidence of such move- 
ments in the Lamiecston uea That the basalt extends below sea level at 
Middle bland, simply indicate* the thalweg of drainage. us pointed out by 
Can.y (ii\) Montgomery and Ward v. 3 S92 > regarded the 270-foot deep lead 
as evidence of a 300-foot negative movement, hue this seems unlikely and 
smother theory has been advanced herein tu account for the features coincident 
with the lead. Carey {I.e.) rcinavk* the drowning 0! the valley as doc to a 
270- foot rise in seal level some ten thousand year* ago. It is not intended to 
discuss tins or the evidence 01 the terraces here, and notes on those near the 
mouth of the river should be presorted at a later date. 

On the evidence a> it hftj been interpreted, the sea does not seem to have 
reached the present Tamar until after the formation ol Bass Strait, fn fhtt 
previous notes (1055, p. 555) it was stated that eusUtic fluctuation^ could not 
have affected the jiresent Tamar prior to the "Yolaude GtacratKm" ; this is 
quite incorrect as n stands, apart from any consideration of the actual a#e of 
that gke'Mtioti It Had bw** -intendedi^jryuggestJ-hat •eatunfihe conditions did 
not develop until alter that epoeh. 

Carey S. W. (1947)— Geology of the J.auuccston District. Rcc. Q. Vict, ftftis, 
U (1) 3M& Pis 4-5. 

Edwards. A. B. (1941)— The North-West Coast of Tasmania. Proc. Raw 
Soc Vtt4 t 53 < 2) 2.^-69. Pis, 8-10, 

Fairbridge, R. (1949)— J he Geology of ffltfc Country Around Wadktamuna, 
Tasmania, mp. Proc. Roy. Soc Tasmania for I94S: 111-49, PI5. 5-9. 

Fleming. C A (IQSol— New Evidence for Correlation of Marine Pliocene- 
Ait*. J- Set. 15 (A): U5-6. 

Gill- E. D.. and BatVks. M. K- 0°S6) — Cauwoic History of Mowbray Swsnip 
and Other Areas of North-Western Tasmania, Kec. Q> Vict J4W., New 
Scries No. 6; M2. Pis. 1-7. 

Jutson, T. T f W50) — On the Terminology and Classification of Shore Plat- 
forms. Proc- Roy. Soe. Fir/ i>2 {JV: 71-&. 

JOrrfth&w, R. C, (195S)— Geolnyical Observations on the West Tamar. t'ict. 
N«.t, 71 138-44; 154-6; 175-9. 

Levt'ts, A, N. (1944) — Time Scales in the Development of Tasmanian Physio- 
graphy. Paf> Proc. Roy Sot. Tosm. for 1944: 19-39, Ph. 2-5. 

- (1927) — Note mi the Isost*tic Background of Tasroatnoti Physio- 
graphy. Pat. Proc. Roy. Sac. Tasffi. for 1926 : 1-24. 

Montgomery, rV u sitd Ward. W. F /1892}— 3?0tK on a Carbonaceous Dcfjosil 
in Silurian Strata at Beaconsneld, Tasmania. A*tL Asmk Adv. Set. 4~ 
321, 

Singleton. F- A. (1941)— The Tertiary Geology 01 Australia. Proc. Roy, Soc 
fcid. S3 (ll: 1-125, Pla. 1-3. 

Tayk*, GciffUh (1922) — Some Geographical Mote, on a Model of the National 
" Park at M< Fivld, Tasmania Pup. Proc, Roy $oc Tasm. for JQ21: 185. 

Twelve-tree^ W". H- (IV14)— On Cement Material* 31 West Ann- Gtvt. 
Snrv Report 4. 



**£] The Victorian Naturalist 189 

ADDITIONAL NOTES ON NORTHERN TERRITORY MOSSES 

By I. M. Wiu.ts* 

In the Fit (oriaa Naturalist, Vol. 74, pp. 104—.^ (November 1957), 
I recorded eight species of masses a* new to the Northern Ter- 
ritory, it is now necessary to adjust one of these records and to 
add two more species to the twenty already known from the 
Territory. 

FUNAR1A APOPHYSATA (Tnyl.) Broth,. 1903. 

Determination of the Hugh River Gap specimen (I.e.) is erron- 
eous, having been made from very immature fructifications. Subse- 
quently, this damp sod of Fwinrui plants was put aside, and in time 
many of the setae elongated: the capsules ripened and shed their 
opercula. To my amazement, the colony was not /*. apophysata at 
all, but a mixture of F. glabra Tayl. and F. gracilis Broth. ! Both ©f 
these ;itc peristomal* species but live latter has nor been noted in 
Central Australia previously. Following are the details of the two 
new records 

FUNARIA GRACILIS {Hook.j. & li'its.) Droth., 1903: Hugh 
River Gap, 40 miles S.W. from Alice Springs, on damp 
shaded ground under Eucalyptus mma Id it lends (N. Forde, 
CS-LR.Q,, No. £73, Aug. 1947) ; Staiwlky Chasm, 30 miles 
west from Alice Springs, along water-line of a shaded per- 
manent spring (H. Forde, C.SLR.O. No. 947, Oct. 1957) : 
Mt. Liebig, about 34 miles west from Haast Bluff (Profes- 
sor j. B. Cleland, Aug. 1957). 

BARBULA TORQUATA TayL 1846: Ml. Sir Henry., almost on 
South Australian border. L7 miles S.W. from Kulgera Home- 
stead, under granite rock-ledge with ClimUhu-s (N, Forde, 
C.S.I.R.O., No. 891, Sept. 1957). 

These mossey are both exceedingly widespread species in the 
southern half of the Commonwealth, occurring in many semi-arid 
parts of South and Western Australia. The former is distinguished 
by its erect peristomate capsule on slender setae, the latter by its 
papillate, obscurely arcolatc foliage (revolute at margins) which 
becomes spirally twisted in the dried state. 

MICROSCOPICAL GROUP 

Ai die meeting- cm Wednesday, March 19- MY. Robert Lukey spoke on the 
group of minute marine creatures known as Radiulariaus. This was demon- 
strated by projected copies of illustration* from reference books, and sixteen 
nncro.ncouis on the bench were devoted to examples of lite -creatures, 

Tor dcuils of the next meeting, sec "What, Where and When". The Micro- 
scopical Group would like to *ee a greater percentage of Field Naturalists at 
its meetings, as it feels they are missing something ioU-rosling and instructive 

* X-itirmal Tf^ratrhipt of Victoria, 



190 77n VUtoruvt XtUurntixt Vol 74 

NATURALISTS' NOTEBOOK 

I Reserved" for your Note*, Observations and Queries I 

NOT6S ON WILSON'S PROMONTORY. MARCH 1057 

South Ginusland's weather would not irn>»rc.s our QuceruJaod visitors to 
Wilson v Pionitimury National Park in mid-March It ranged from heavily 
overcast to wet at times except tor the very last day of their stay. That day 
was perTecL. and ahuwed the glorious beaches and headland* of Otc Prom, 
at their best. 

Signs ol* the recent rough weather were the bodies ol several Lillle 
Penguins washed uO on the beach, aud the flocks 6i seagulls that begged 
hopefully for straps ronnU each cottage door and campsite 

Wallabies. lingtail possums and wombat:-, were jileutiful and tame, indc.vl 
it is an eye opener to note lite confidence of beast? and birds that are never 
hunted trf shot al. Even Vbe shy deer allowed themselves to be sc?pt occasion- 
ally Rabbits, unfortunately, are still A\ loo numerous atKl are a bad adver- 
tisement for oiir National Park. They *eeiu long-legged and gaunt compared 
with the rye-and-clover ones oi the farming country. With the introduced 
deer they must compete seriously with the native herbivora for the available 
tood supplies. 

Several garden escapes are to be seen in the vicinity of the old building 
sites at Darby River, the worst of iheih* io iny mind, bong 'be ftcshy-kavcrf 
Stvu-iio mtl'fcunoiiU'X; a rampant creeper. ThU is also established ai Tidal 
River. 

The heathlands of the Prom, seem to carry a few floweis at all seasons of 
the year, The Common Heath showed patches of pfeftt and white and il*e 
Ked Correa waa in bloom. 

YauaUie Plain, au we alt know, has soue imdci Ibc plough, and even some 
of the wide roadsides are spoiled fold scratched bare by the constant passage 
of beavv rnaclnitrry There still remain, however some very gaud roadside 
strips, tl»e best of which is near the Promontory end of the SolnWr Settle- 
ment Fstntc- Where the tocid rises srighrly wish a bauksia tree on either 
aide, the flora is r1e-«n and unspoiled, and well worth enclosing. Introduced 
«;rns5rs will not make much headway tliere without the aid oi superphosphate 
or of ramping cattle. 

Again, on the Foster sick of the Estate, I here are two good wide area*, 
islanded between the straight telegraph line and the bend of rhc road where 
it skirts the rise In tune to oomc. when productive farms line the road 
acros* the plain, these roadside leserves would show the nature of the 
original flora and emphasize the enormous changes that science has wrought 
upon ihe face of nature. 

As I drove alone along the deserted road across the grassy plain that 
lies between the sand-hills and the valley of the Darby Rivet, IWO entut nrar 
the road brought me to a stop. In the hope of attracting them closer I 
waved a bright scarf oiii of the window and awaited result*. The two w*re 
curious but uneasy and just milled aro»u>d in one spot. Four more emus of 
holder spirit appeared on the scene and they all approached and closely 
inspected the car, the big leader stretching his neck from side lo side, and 
emitting at intervals that peculiar drumming gTiint that expresses surprise 
m emu language. The human voice in reply put them at once to Hijrht, or 
to be mnre truihiul. to fright. The vyhoife party ran off over the skyline, 
their feather: like grfttS skirts flopping dumbly abuvc skinny legs. I have 
seen the Yauakie emu? before, but always at a distance, and it was £ ve^y 
pleasant experience to have ttirtn ettnc so done. 

— Ellen Lynw?i, LFoxcarnA 



*HJ] The Victorian Naturalist 191 

CRE5WICK FIELD NATURALISTS CLUB 

This Club held us fourth Annual Meeting on Wednesday, February 12, ici 
the new R.S.L. Club-room. Office-bearers for 195S were elected, as follows; 

President— Mr. A. R Dunn* 

Vice-President — Mr. A. C. Sonsee. 

Hon, Secretary and Treasurer — Mr. H, L, Barclay, 

Committee — Messrs. C Eddy, S. Norihcote. E. Prendergast and E. Votgt. 

The Secretary read ihe annual report, which covered a year of variety in 
nature subjects dealt with by members. The subject fur the evening was a 
tafk on the Australian Pbalangers; and among the exhibits were fwe species 
of snails, a number of beetles and a small snake, The last was an example 
of the While-lipped Snake, D.enisonia iort>twutcx, which is venomous though 
too small to harm humans, 

Three new members were nominated for election at the following' meeting. 
Meetings are held on the second Wednesday of each month, and, on behalf oi 
the Club, the President extends a cordial invitation to any visitors from the 
F.N.C.V. or other Clubs who may be able to attend at these Cre&wick meeting*. 



WHAT, WHERE AND WHEN 

F.N.C.V. Meetings 

Monday, April 14— Presentation of Natural History Medallion to Mr. C F- 
Bryant. 
**F.N CV. Excursion to Genoa District", by N. A. Wakefield. 

Monday, May 12 — u How to Collect Insects", by A. N. Burns. 

Monday, June 9 — Annual Genera? Meeting, and Presidential Address. 

Monday, July 14 — Members' Night. 

F.N.C.V. Eiccursions: 

Sunday, April 20 — Botany Group Excursion to Emerald. Take 8.55 a.m. train 
to Upj>er Fcrntree Gully, then bus to Emerald. Bring one meal. 

Sunday, May 4 — Parlour-coach excursion to You Yangs. Coach leaves Batman 
Avenue u a.m> Fare 16/-. Bring two meals. Bookings with Excursion 
Secretary. 

Sunday, May U — Geology Group Excursion to Cave Hil! f Lilydale. Travel 
details at Group Meeting. 

Gf*up Maetiftgi: 

<8 p.m. at National Herbarium, unless otherwise slated) 

Wednesday. April In — Microscopical Group Speaker: Mr. Charles Mtddicton. 
Subject : "Getting the Most out of an Ordinary Microscope' 1 , 

Friday, April 18 — Botany Group. To begin at 7 45 p.m. with a talk "Botany 
lor Beginners" by Mr Swahy, after which there will be a Members' Pic- 
ture Night You are invited to bring slides. An escort will be available 
from the corner of St Kilda and Domain Roads. 

Monday, May 5 — Entomology and Marine Biology Group. To be held in Mr. 
Strong's rooms at Parliament House at 8 p.m. Enter through private 
entrance at south end of House. 

Wednesday, May 7 — Geology Group, Speaker: Mr. Baker. Subject: "Intro- 
duction to Sedimentation". 

—Marie Allkkder, F.xcursion Secretary, 

19 Hawthorn Grove, Cauifeld, S.E 7 



INDEX 

1'AUK.S 

Australian Natural History Medallion .., .. 163 

Aurora Records Needed 44 

Anthropology— 

Australian Aborigines and Fossils . , 93 

Bimjirs Cave Found ., .. 19 

Challicum Bun-yip 76 

Native Water Well at Whroo, Goulburn Valley t . ... ^. a 41 

Reiuterprctation of the Cave of the Serpent . 63 

Re the Sun bury Mound . , , - Tl f „ 29 

Dot a xv — 

Botanical Book Reviews . . . . 1 50 

Bulbaphyliwm revolutum Dockril! tt St. Cloud, sp, nov. -• -. .. 67 

Coast Correa, Rejuvenating Power of the .. .. 45 

Fern Prothallus, Secondary Lobes on a ,. 58 

Fun«*i— 

Clavariaceae, A List of Victorian .. 127 

Rediscovery of a Rare Victorian Toadstool 71 

Sccotum, Victorian Records of .. u 87 

Gippsland Malice, Racalyphix kttxaniwia, A Note on ftS 

Mosses — 

Additional Notes on Northern Territory Mosses 189 

New Records of Mosses for Australian States t 101 

Systematic Notes on Victorian Mosses — 6 23 

New Species of Bulbophyllum from Queensland, Description of . . 67 

Phekalium canaliculatumiF. Muell. et Tate) J. H* Willis, comb, rtov, 169 

PhebaHwn (Rutaceae), Distinctive West Australian , . - t. 169 

Sundry Notes on Three Victorian Plants 12 

Vascular Flora ot Victoria and South Australia , . - 54 

Xanthium Species. "Cocklchurrs", Notes on , .. ., 69 

Yakka, Xanthorrhoca semipfano, A True Gum from the 73 

Conservation and Management of Wildlife , , 108 

Central Australian Holiday . . . . , , . . 84 

Ernbcdding of Biological Specimens in Plastics 142 

Excursion Retorts — 

Easier Excursion, 1957, with the Wimmera Ficid Naturalists Club 26 

Lai Lai and Moorabool Falls . . , , 28 

Mount Butler Excursion (Christmas 1955-New Year 1956) .. -. 39 

The Club's Annual Picnic— November 5. 1957 172 

Excursion to Ayers Rock 170 

Exhibits, Nature Notes and 16, 156 r 172