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Full text of "CMH Pub 12-3 War Against Germany: Europe and Adjacent Areas Pictorial Record"

The War Against 
Germany 

Europe and Adjacent Areas 



■ 




U,5, Army in World War II 
Pictorial Record 

Seconet EniTMN 



UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II 



Pictorial Record 



THE WAR AGAINST GERMANY: 
EUROPE AND ADJACENT 

AREAS 



CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY 

UNITED STATES ARMY 

WASHINGTON, D.C., 1989 



First Printed 1951— CMH Pub 12-3 



For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office 
Washington, DC 20402-0001 



UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II 



Kent Roberts Greenfield, General Editor 



Advisory Committee 



James P. Baxter 
President, Williams College 

Henry S. Commager 
Columbia University 

Douglas S. Freeman 
Richmond News Leader 

Pendleton Herring 
Social Science Research Council 

John D. Hicks 
University of California 



William T. Hutchinson 
University of Chicago 

S. L A. Marshall 
Detroit News 

E. Dwight Salmon 
Amherst College 

Col. Thomas D. Stamps 
United States Military Academy 

Charles S. Sydnor 
Duke University 



Charles H. Taylor 
Harvard University 

Office of the Chief of Military History 
Maj. Gen. Orlando Ward, Chief 
Chief Historian Kent Roberts Greenfield 

Chief, World War II Division Col. Thomas J. Sands 

Editor-in-Chief Hugh Corbett 

Chief, Pictorial Section Capt. Kenneth E. Hunter 



in 



... to Those Who Served 



Foreword 



During World War II the photographers of the United States 
armed forces created on film a pictorial record of immeasurable value. 
Thousands of pictures are preserved in the photographic libraries of 
the armed services but are little seen by the public. 

In the narrative volumes of UNITED STATES ARMY IN 
WORLD WAR II, now being prepared by the Office of the Chief of 
Military History of the United States Army, it is possible to include 
only a limited number of pictures. Therefore, a subseries of pictorial 
volumes, of which this is one, has been planned to supplement the 
other volumes of the series. The photographs have been especially 
selected to show important terrain features, types of equipment and 
weapons, living and weather conditions, military operations, and 
matters of human interest. These volumes will preserve and make ac- 
cessible for future reference some of the best pictures of World War 
II. An appreciation not only of the terrain upon which actions were 
fought, but also of its influence on the capabilities and limitations of 
weapons in the hands of both our troops and those of the enemy, can 
be gained through a careful study of the pictures herein presented. 
These factors are essential to a clear understanding of military history. 

This book deals with the European Theater of Operations, covering 
the period from the build-up in the United Kingdom through V-E Day. 
Its seven sections are arranged chronologically. The photographs were 
selected and the text written by Capt. Kenneth E. Hunter; the editing 
was done by Miss Mary Ann Bacon. The written text has been kept 
to a minimum. The appendixes give information as to the abbreviations 
used and the sources of the photographs. 

Washington, D. C. ORLANDO WARD 

6 February 1951 Maj. Gen., USA 

Chief of Military History 



Vll 



Contents 



Section Page 

I. THE BUILD-UP IN THE UNITED KINGDOM AND THE 

AIR OFFENSIVE, EUROPE 1 

II. NORMANDY CAMPAIGN 73 

III. NORTHERN FRANCE CAMPAIGN 147 

IV RHINELAND CAMPAIGN: 15 SEPTEMBER 1944-15 DE- 
CEMBER 1944 211 

V ARDENNES-ALSACE CAMPAIGN 261 

VI. RHINELAND CAMPAIGN: 26 JANUARY 1945-21 MARCH 

1945 325 

VII. CENTRAL EUROPE CAMPAIGN 379 

APPENDIX A: LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 439 

APPENDIX B: ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 440 

INDEX 443 



IX 



SECTION 



The Build-up in the United 

Kingdom and the Air 

Offensive, Europe* 



The build-up of the United States Army in the United Kingdom, 
from January 1942 until June 1944, with the huge amounts of supplies 
necessary to equip and maintain the forces and to prepare for the in- 
vasion of northern Europe was a tremendous undertaking. It involved 
the transportation of men and supplies across the Atlantic during a time 
when the German submarine menace was at its peak. The United 
States Navy played a vital role in transporting men and supplies and in 
protecting the convoys while en route. During this period the adminis- 
trative task was enormous since facilities for quartering and training 
such large forces and for storing supplies and equipment had to be 
provided within the limited area of the United Kingdom. In October 
1942 some of the units stationed in the United Kingdom were sent to 
the Mediterranean for the invasion of North Africa. The build-up con- 
tinued after this, well-trained units arriving from the United States. As 
the time for the invasion of France approached, battle-tested units from 
the Mediterranean theater were transferred to England to prepare for 
their part in the assault. In spite of the limited terrain available, large- 
scale maneuvers and realistic amphibious operations were conducted. 
In the early spring of 1944 joint exercises of the ground, sea, and air 
forces which were to make the attack in Normandy were held along 
the southern coast of England. The last of these exercises was held in 
early M ay, the units then moving to the staging areas and embarkation 
points for the invasion. 

While the ground forces were being equipped and trained the 
Allied air forces bombed the fortress of Europe. The Royal Air Force 

* See Gordon A. Harrison, Cross-Channel Attack, Washington, D. C, 1951. 



INTRODUCTION 



Bomber Command carried out the air assault by night and the United 
States Eighth Air Force by day. The first U.S. participation in the 
bombing of Europe from British baseswason 4 J uly 1942, whenAmeri- 
can crews flew six British bombers. During the fall of 1942 the Eighth 
Air Force prepared the Twelfth Air Force for the invasion of Africa, 
and it was not until the beginning of 1943 that U.S. bombers began to 
attack Europe from England in large-scale raids. From that time on the 
attacks on Germany continued with increasing intensity and shattering 
power until, in February 1944, the German Luftwaffe attempted to 
sweep the U. S. bombers from the skies over Europe. After a battle of 
one week's duration over important industrial cities of Germany, the 
Luftwaffe was beaten and supremacy of the air was in Allied hands 
where it remained until the end of the war. 



NORTHERN IRELAND 




U.S. TROOPS arriving in Belfast, Northern Ireland. The first U.S. troops to cross the 
Atlantic after the declaration of war by the United States went to Northern Ireland in 
January 1942. In the same month the Special Observer Group was replaced by 
Headquarters, United States Armed Forces in the British Isles. Shortly thereafter the 
center of concentration was transferred from Ireland to England and the rapid build-up 
of personnel commenced. Logistical planning began in April 1942. This build-up of 
men and supplies was to become one of the greatest logistical undertakings in military 
history. Supplies were shipped from the United States in ever increasing quantities 
until, during the month of J une 1944, approximately 1,000,000 long tons were received 
in the United Kingdom. 



NORTHERN IRELAND 




U. S. TROOPS marching through the streets of a town in Northern Ireland escorted 
by a British sergeant. The first U. S. troops to arrive in Ireland were 18 officers and 
18 enlisted men, the advance party for the first contingent. By 1 June 1944 there 
were 1,562,000 U. S. troops in the United Kingdom. During the early months after 
the U nited States' entry into World War II a large part of the equipment was similar 
to that of World War I. In the succeeding months much was done to improve all 
types of equipment and many of the changes may be seen in the pictures that follow 
in this volume. 



NORTHERN IRELAND 




TRAINING IN IRELAND, FEBRUARY 1942. Before leaving the United States 
members of the U. S. armed forces normally had completed their training, but to 
keep the men at the peak of their fighting fitness programs in firing, field exercises, 
and special problems were begun under varying weather and terrain conditions. M en 
in their late teens or early twenties made the finest soldiers as they had stamina and 
recuperative power far beyond that of older men. This physical superiority often 
determined the issue in heavy and prolonged fighting. 




ENGLAND 




INFANTRYMAN WITH WEAPONS. Soldier is holding a .45-caliberThompson sub- 
machine gun M 1928A1; from left to right are: 60-mm. mortar M 2, British antitank 
gun, .30-caliber U. S. rifle Ml with bayonet Ml attached, .30-caliber Browning 
machine gun M 1919A4, hand grenades, .45-caliber automatic pistol M 1911A 1, .30- 
caliber U. S. rifle M 1903 with grenade launcher M I attached, .30-caliber Browning 
automatic rifle M 1913A2, and 81-mm. mortar M I (top). Infantryman has just com- 
pleted an obstacle course (bottom). 




SCOTLAND 




SOLDIERS LAND FROM AN ASSAULT BOAT during a training exercise in 
Scotland, July 1942. The base of fire of a rifle platoon was its automatic weapons. 
The riflemen concentrated their fire on the impact area blocked out by the automatic 
weapons. The base of fire of a U. S. rifle squad in World War II was the Browning 
automatic rifle (BAR). The man in right foreground is armed with this weapon. The 
two men behind the soldier with the BAR are armed with .30-caliber U. S. rifles M I. 



GERMANY 





TWO TYPES OF U. S. HEAVY, FOUR-ENGINED BOMBERS. Consolidated 
B-24 Liberators on a bombing mission over Europe (top); Boeing B- 17 Flying 
Fortresses dropping bombs on enemy installations in Bremen, Germany, while flak 
bursts around them (bottom). The first U. S. air unit to engage in combat over 
Europe was a light bombardment squadron. Flying British planes, six U. S. crews 
joined six RAF crews in a daylight attack against four airdromes in the Netherlands 
on 4 July 1942. On 17 August twelve B-17's, accompanied by four RAF Spitfire 
fighter squadrons, attacked the marshalling yards at Rouen, France, and successfully 
completed the first U. S. attack over Europe. From these small beginnings the number 
of planes taking part in the raids grew until the average per raid in 1943 was 570 
heavy bombers, a figure that was to be almost doubled in 1944. 




ENGLAND 







11 

THREE TYPES OF ESCORT FIGHTER PLANES over England. From top to 
bottom: Lockheed P-38 Lightning, North American P-51 Mustang, Republic P-47 
Thunderbolt. P-47's were the first to join the British Spitfires in providing escort for 
heavy bombers, the P-38 was available in small numbers in October 1943, and the 
P-51 began to appear in January 1944. At first the 47's flew top cover, but before 
long they began to drop down and engage the enemy fighter planes. As the war 
progressed the escort opened out more and more until it became a huge net to envelop 
the enemy. 



10 



ENGLAND 




A BRITISH POLICE SERGEANT gives road direction to a U. S. first sergeant 
during a march. By the end of June 1944 there was a total of 140,656 Negro 
personnel in the European Theater of Operations assigned to both combat and 
service units. The Ml helmet worn by the sergeant was standardized on 9 June 
1941, and mass production began shortly thereafter. It replaced the earlier 
M1917A1 helmet shown in preceding pictures. 



ENGLAND 



11 




MEMBERS OF THE FIRST OFFICER CANDIDATE SCHOOL (OCS) in the United 
Kingdom decontaminating a building that has been subjected to mustard gas (top). 
M achine gun training at OCS (bottom). Qualified enlisted men were selected from 
units stationed in the British Isles and sent to this school where, upon the successful 
completion of the courses of instruction, they were commissioned second lieutenants 
in the Army of the United States. The first class began in September 1942 and there 
were in all seven classes, each lasting for approximately three months. The OCS in 
England graduated and commissioned a total of 472 men. 




12 



ENGLAND 




A FIGHTER PILOT, standing beside his plane in England, wearing an oxygen 
mask and helmet equipped with earphones. Over his leather flying jacket is a life 
preserver. A number of young men from the United States joined the Canadian and 
British air forces before America's entry in the war. When the U. S. declared war 
these pilots were transferred to the U. S. air force. The strength of the U. S. air 
force in 1940 was about 43,000 men and 2,500 planes. In early 1944 there were 
2,300,000 men and 80,000 aircraft. 



ENGLAND 



13 




INTERIOR OF A B - 17 showing two .50-caliber Browning machine guns. These 
planes were highly complex machines, well armed, with machine guns in front, rear, 
sides, top, and bottom. The man in the picture is working on the gun turret which 
protruded beneath the fuselage. The tank on top of this turret was for oxygen. 



14 



ENGLAND 




AN ORDNANCE SPECIALIST in the repair of optical equipment cleans a pair of 
field glasses, England, September 1942. Ordnance responsibility extended to 
"everything that rolls, shoots, is shot, or is dropped from the air." Its complete cata- 
logue contained 35,000 separate items, ranging from watch springs and firing pins 
to 20-ton howitzers and 40-ton tanks. 



ENGLAND 



15 




A REPAIRED M3 MEDIUM TANK is given final check by Ordnance personnel. 
Every tank, gun, or vehicle, damaged either by an accident or later in combat, which 
could be repaired meant one less new tank to be supplied. As the war progressed the 
medium tank underwent changes as did a great deal of other U. S. equipment. It 
became lower so as to present a more difficult target, the riveted hull was replaced 
by a welded or cast hull, and toward the end of the war the suspension system was 
changed. These, and other mechanical changes, with the addition of better armament 
and armor, made the vehicle a more formidable fighting machine, better able to com- 
bat enemy tanks. 



16 



ENGLAND 




PARATROOPERS having their parachutes inspected before taking off for a practice 
jump, England, October 1942. These troops were equipped with specially designed 
clothing and equipment including helmets with a new type fiber liner and chin strap, 
jump suits with large pockets that could be securely fastened, and boots that laced 
higher up the leg and which had reinforced toes and stronger ankle supports. 



ENGLAND 



17 




SOLDIER BEING TRAINED in the correct method of attack when armed with a 
knife. Note the difference between the uniform worn by the infantryman here and 
that worn by paratroopers on opposite page. 



18 



ENGLAND 




AN ENGINEERCOMPANYATWORK ON AN AIRFIELD in England. By 1 June 
1944 a total of 129 airfields was available in the United Kingdom for the Eighth and 
Ninth Air Forces. In addition there were 3 base air depots, 7 combat crew and 
replacement centers, 2 reconnaissance and 1 photographic reconnaissance fields, 19 
troop carrier fields, 11 advance landing grounds, and 2 miscellaneous fields. Living 
quarters for more than 400,000 air force personnel had to be furnished, plus many 
thousands of square feet of space for storage. 




ENGLAND 



19 




B - 17 LANDING, after having dropped two flares to indicate that it has wounded 
crew members aboard, while two medical crews stand by to give first aid to the 
wounded (top). During raids over enemy territory crew members were sometimes 
wounded by flak or gunfire from enemy fighter planes. A crew member receiving 
medical attention as soon as his plane lands (bottom). In this case blood plasma is 
being administered. Blood plasma, which is whole blood minus the corpuscles, was 
given to those who had lost blood or were in shock. The plasma increased the volume 
of blood and kept the blood stream going. When casualties arrived at a hospital 
whole blood was administered to replace the blood lost and also to relieve shock 
before further treatment was begun. 




20 



ENGLAND 




ENLISTED MEN OF THE ORDNANCE DEPARTMENT operating caterpillar 
tractor cranes to unload a crated gun carriage (half-track) which weighed approxi- 
mately 20,000 pounds. The Ordnance Department maintained a large depot at Tid- 
worth, England. 



ENGLAND 



21 




BOMBS BEING UNLOADED at a U. S.Air Corps Ordnance Depot in England. 
After being stacked the bombs were covered with camouflage nets such as those 
behind tractors at left center of picture. Facilities for storing bombs in any other 
manner were limited. These stacks became common sights along the country lanes 
and roads in England during the war years. (1,000-pound bombs; crawler-type 
revolving crane on tractor mounting with diesel engine.) 



22 



ENGLAND 




MEDIUM M3 TANKS in an Ordnance Depot, England (top). Combat tracked 
vehicles temporarily stored before being issued to the using units (bottom). After a 
vehicle arrived in the United Kingdom there was much to be done before it could be 
issued to the using unit. Tanks were received from the U nited States with about 500 
items of accessory equipment, including small arms, radio, tools, gun sights, and 
other incidentals, packed in waterproofed containers; many were coated with a 
rust-preventive compound. The job of preparing an M 4 tank took approximately 
fifty working hours. Accessories were unpacked, cleaned, tested, and installed; the 
motor and all mechanical components were checked and tuned. When a vehicle left 
the Ordnance depot it was completely supplied, including ammunition and rations. 




ENGLAND 



23 




A 105-MM. HOWITZER MOTOR CARRIAGE M 7 on maneuvers in England, M arch 
1943. This was an open-top, lightly armored vehicle and was the principal artillery 
weapon of an armored division. 



24 



NORTH ATLANTIC 




U. S. NAVY PLANE attacks and sinks a German submarine in the North Atlantic, 
June 1943. The sinking of a British liner without warning by a German submarine off 
the coast of Scotland on 3 September 1939 opened the battle of the Atlantic, which 
continued until 14 M ay 1945 when the last U-boats surrendered at American Atlantic 
ports. Enemy submarines, traveling alone or in wolf packs, sank many Allied ships 
but by the middle of 1943 the menace had been reduced to a problem. This was 
accomplished by the use of the interlocking convoy system that provided escort 
protection along the important convoy routes, small escort aircraft carriers and 
destroyer escorts, and planes, from which hunter-killer groups were formed to seek 
out and destroy the U-boats. 




SCOTLAND 



25 




LIGHTERS PULL ALONGSIDE THE QUEEN ELIZABETH to unload U. S. troops 
in Scotland (top). Representatives of theAmerican Red Cross serving refreshments 
to Waacs who have just arrived in Scotland (bottom). On one trip the Queen 
Elizabeth carried a record load of 15,028 troops. Between December 1941 and June 
1944 the Queen M ary and the Queen Elizabeth transported a large portion of the total 
number of troops to the United Kingdom, running alone through seas in which their 
great speed was their chief protection against enemy submarines. 




GERMANY 








BOMBSTUMBLE FROM THE BAY SOFAN OVERTURNED B -24 BOMBER. The 
plane was caught in a heavy flak belt while on a mission over Germany. During 1943 
the enemy became much more aggressive as he shifted his fighters from the Russian 
front and the Mediterranean theater to western Europe. The German day fighters 
continually harassed U. S. heavy bombers, sometimes following them far out to sea 
on their withdrawal. 



NORTH SEA 



27 






A ROYAL AIR FORCE SEA RESCUE LAUNCH picking up the crew of a B-17 
which crashed into the North Sea while returning to its base in England after a 
bombing raid over Germany. The crew members are in rubber boats and are flying 
a kite to which is attached the aerial of a short wave radio used to signal and give 
their position to the rescue craft. M any bombers were shot down over enemy terri- 
tory and their crews captured, killed, or wounded; others were badly damaged and 
crashed into the North Sea on their return; while still others managed to return to 
their bases even though damaged. M any crews of the planes forced down at sea 
were rescued in the manner shown here. 



28 



ENGLAND 








SOLDIERS PLACING A BANGALORE TORPEDO under barbed wire during a 
training problem in England, August 1943. When fired, the charge would explode and 
clear a path through the obstruction. This method was not only faster than cutting 
through the wire, but also did not expose the men unnecessarily to enemy fire. 



ENGLAND 



29 




MEMBERS OFANAIRBORNEDIVISION loading a 1/4-ton 4x4 truck into a British 
Horsa glider (top). By removing the tail section, the glider could be unloaded in 
approximately seven minutes. Airborne infantrymen in a U. S. glider (bottom). In 
this picture men are armed with .30-caliber U. S. rifles M 1903A3; .30-caliber U. S. 
rifles Ml; .45-caliber Thompson submachine gun Ml; 2.36-inch rocket launcher 
M 1A 1; and .30-caliber Browning automatic rifle M 1918A2. M achine guns, mortars, 
and light artillery weapons were dropped by parachutes and brought in by gliders 
along with other supplies which made the airborne troops a compact fighting unit. 




30 



GERMANY 




AERIAL VIEW OF SCHWEINFURT, GERMANY, October 1943. This city was the 
center of the ball-bearing factories, one of the target priorities picked for destruction 
by the strategic air force. The order of these priorities was as follows: (1) submarine 
construction yards and bases, (2) aircraft industry, (3) ball-bearing industry, (4) oil 
industry, (5) synthetic rubber plants, and (6) military transport vehicle industry. The 
Schweinfurt raid had considerable significance at this time because the Americans 
were still trying to prove the feasibility of daylight precision bombing. This crucial 
raid was made by a force of 228 heavy bombers and there ensued one of the greatest 
battles in Eighth Air Force history. From the German frontier at Aachen, where the 
fighter escort had to leave the bombers because of limited gasoline capacities, to 
Schweinfurt and return wave after wave of enemy fighters attacked the bombers. 



GERMANY 



31 




BOMBS STRIKING THE BALL-BEARING FACTORIES at Schweinfurt, Germany, 
October 1943. Flak over the target was intense but good visibility enabled the 
bombers to make an accurate run and more than 450 tons of high explosives and 
incendiaries were dropped in the target area. Heavy damage was inflicted on the 
major plants. The cost to the attackers was also severe. Sixty-two bombers were lost 
and 138 were damaged. Personnel casualties were 599 killed and 40 wounded. Such 
losses could not be sustained and deep penetrations without escort were suspended. 
Schweinfurt was not attacked again for four months and the Germans were given a 
chance to take countermeasures, which they did with great energy and skill. 



32 



GERMANY 




HEAVY BOMBERS ON A MISSION over southwestern Germany, December 1943. 
Planes at upper level are Boeing B-17's; those at lower level are Consolidated B-24's. 
After the Schweinfurt raid unescorted bomber raids were discontinued until 1944 
when long-range fighters equipped with wing tanks were able to provide fighter 
escort for the B-17's and B-24'sasfar as Berlin. By 1944 the Luftwaffe, although still 
offering a formidable defense, basically had decayed and was very vulnerable to 
Allied air power that was being concentrated against it. By April 1944 the Allies 
had achieved air superiority which permitted full-scale air attacks on Germany, an 
indispensable prerequisite for the invasion of Normandy. 



GERMANY 



33 




B-17's DROPPING BOMBS OVER BREMEN, December 1943. Control of the air 
started with an attack on the Focke-Wulf plant at Bremen in April 1943, but the main 
attacks did not get under way until that summer. On six successive days in late J uly 
Allied air forces attacked the German aircraft industry so successfully that the 
production rate started downward. It was not until February 1944 that the decisive air 
battle came, when for a period of six days of perfect weather a continuous assault on 
the widely dispersed German aircraft-frame factories and assembly plants seriously 
reduced the capabilities of the Luftwaffe. Subsequent attacks affected the entire 
aircraft industry and it never fully recovered. 



34 



ENGLAND 




BRITISH FIRE FIGHTERS combating a fire started by bombs during a German 
night attack over London, February 1944. The Battle of Britain began in August 
1940 and continued on a large scale through October. During the air blitz over 
England the Luftwaffe suffered irreparable losses from which its bombardment arm 
never recovered, even though smaller attacks were carried out until late in the war. 
In daytime raids over England during the Battle of Britain from August to October 
1940, the Germans lost 2,375 planes and crews, while the British lost 375 pilots. 



ENGLAND 



35 




A BRITISH SPITFIRE FIGHTER chasing a German V-bomb over England. Only 
fast low -level ships, such as the British Spitfire or the U. S. P- 47 or P- 51, were good 
at this type of pursuit since the robot bombs averaged well over 300 miles per hour. 
These bombs, launched from sites along the invasion coast of France and the Low 
Countries, caused considerable damage in England and in addition were a demoral- 
izing factor in that one never knew when or where they would strike. The launching 
sites were placed on the list of targets for the A Hied air forces, but because these sites 
could be easily moved and camouflaged they were not completely destroyed until the 
invasion forces took over the areas in which they were located. The first of the 
V-bombs appeared over England on 13 June 1944. 



36 



ENGLAND 




M EM BERS OF AN ENGINEER UNIT operating multiplex machines in the process 
of preparing maps from aerial mosaics. Relief and other features were plotted from 
photographic diapositives, contained in the conical shaped holders on the beam in 
background of lower picture, to sheets on which control and check points have been 
plotted. In these two photographs contours are being drawn on the maps by use of the 
multiplex machine. Contrary to general opinion, France was not a well-mapped 
country. During World War I detailed maps showed primarily trench fortifications 
and special small areas. The Engineers were responsible for making maps, which 
required the services of highly trained personnel. 




ENGLAND 



37 




MEMBERS OF AN ENGINEER TOPOGRAPHICAL BATTALION preparing 
maps of Europe prior to the invasion of France. In 1944 more than 125,000,000 
maps giving more complete details than those shown here were printed for the 
invasion alone. An average of 867 tons of maps was shipped each month from the 
United States. In addition, 3,695,750 salvaged enemy maps were used for reverse 
side printing. Large-scale maps showing beach and underwater obstacles on the 
American and British assault beaches were produced by the U. S. Army Engineers 
in preparation for the invasion. 




38 



ENGLAND 




ANEMOMETER AND WIND DIRECTION INDICATOR being checked by an 
enlisted man of a weather section. Improvements in weather forecasting, instrument 
bombing technique and equipment, and operating procedures had advanced so much 
that whereas in 1942 U.S. bombers could operate on an average of only six days per 
month, in the last year of the war they averaged twenty-two days. 



ENGLAND 



39 




M EM BERS OF A FIGHTER GROUP being briefed before taking off on a mission 
England, 1944 



40 



ENGLAND 




WACS WORKING IN THE COM M U NICATIONS SECTION of the operations room 
at an air force station. No opportunity was overlooked to replace men with personnel 
of the Women's Army Corps both in the United States and overseas, Wacs were given 
many technical and specialized jobs to do, as well as administrative and office work. 
The M edical Corps employed the largest number of Wacs in technical jobs, but other 
technical services such as the Transportation Corps, Signal Corps, Ordnance 
Department, and Quartermaster Corps had many positions that could be performed 
by women as efficiently as by men. 



ENGLAND 



41 




MAIL FOR UNITS STATIONED IN ENGLAND being sorted. The handling of the 
mails through theArmy Post Office (APO) was a function of the A djutant General's 
Department. M ail normally was delivered to the armed forces with the least possi- 
ble delay as it was an important morale factor for men stationed away from home. 
During the last week of M ay 1944 an artificial delay of ten days was imposed on the 
forwarding of all American mail to the United States and elsewhere, and the use of 
transatlantic telephone, radio, and cable facilities was denied to American person- 
nel. British mail was strictly censored by the military authorities from April 1944 
until the invasion on 6 June 1944. These precautionary measures were taken to 
assure the secrecy of the coming invasion. In addition, a block was also placed on 
diplomatic correspondence of all countries except the United States, Great Britain, 
and the USSR. 



42 



ENGLAND 




ARTILLERY UNITS TRAINING IN ENGLAND. A liaison plane flying over a bat- 
tery of 105-mrn. howitzers M 2A1 (top). A 155-mm. gun firing (bottom). 




ENGLAND 



43 




155-MM. GUNS AND 105-M M . HOWITZERS (top and bottom respectively) stored 
in England, 1944. After about 2,250 rounds had been fired, the barrel of the 155-mm. 
gun had to be replaced; in howitzers the number of rounds was higher. 




"5^*- 

**»*- 



44 



ENGLAND 




DIESEL LOCOMOTIVES, TANK CARS, AND FREIGHT CARS lined up in 
England to be used on the Continent after the invasion (top). Caterpillar tractors and 
bulldozers stored at an Engineer depot to be used after the invasion of France 
(bottom). 




ENGLAND 



45 




20GROSVENOR SQUARE, LONDON, U. S. Headquarters of the European Theater 
of Operations (top). U. S. enlisted men passing Number 10, Downing Street, 
residence and office of the Prime Minister of Great Britain (bottom). During the 
period of the build-up in the British Isles, activities and plans were formulated for 
the large and small units scattered throughout the United Kingdom in a group of 
buildings located near the American embassy in London. This group of buildings 
housed the offices of the personnel whose task it was to co-ordinate the activity and 
training of units and, in addition, to handle the problems relating to the build-up of 
supplies for the invasion. 




46 



ENGLAND 




A COLUMN OF HALF-TRACKS advancing along a road during the training peri- 
od in England (top). The second, third, and fourth vehicles in the picture are 75- 
rnm. gun motor carriages M 3. This was the first standardized U. S. self-propelled 
antitank weapon used in World War II, and provided high mobility for the 75-mm. 
gun. It was replaced in M arch 1944 by the 76-mm. motor gun carriage M 18, and in 
September 1944 was declared obsolete. Temporarily stored half-tracks (bottom). 
These vehicles were used as gun and howitzer motor carriages, antiaircraft gun car- 
riages and personnel carriers 




ENGLAND 



47 




ARMORED UN ITS PARTICIPATING IN MANEUVERS in England. In the spring 
of 1944 intensified training was given to all units which were to take part in the 
invasion of Normandy. Light tank M 5A1 (top), medium tank M 4A 1 (bottom). The 
U. S. tank was designed as a weapon of exploitation to be used in long-range 
thrusts deep into the enemy's rear where it could attack his supply installations and 
communications. This required great endurance, low consumption of gasoline, and 
ability to move long distances without a break-down. 




48 



ENGLAND 




MEN OF A SERVICE SQUADRON SALVAGING A FUEL TANK from the wing of 
a P-51. These tanks helped to make the bomber escort planes into long-range planes 
which gave fighter protection to the heavy bombers. The tanks, the fuel from which 
was consumed first, were dropped when empty and the plane then used gasoline from 
its permanent tanks. 



ENGLAND 



49 




P-51'S IN FORMATION. Each plane in this formation has two wing tanks attached. 



50 



ENGLAND 




A MEDICAL BATTALION QUARTERED IN TENTS, Cornwall, England (top). A 
U. S. hospital installed in Quonset huts (bottom). The hospital plan in the United 
Kingdom called for over 90,000 beds in existing installations, conversions, and new 
constructions. The program was later increased by 30,000 beds by using tents for the 
hospital units. 




ENGLAND 



51 




U. S. ARMY NURSE, wearing a helmet and fatigue uniform, preparing an intra- 
venous injection; a kerosene lamp provides illumination. Hospital personnel worked 
under conditions similar to those they might encounter upon their arrival on the 
Continent after the invasion. Army nurses gave widely varying types of skilled serv- 
ice, some of them in field hospitals and others in the general hospitals farther behind 
the lines. World War II was the first war in which nurses received full military 
benefits and real instead of relative officer rank. There were more than 17,000 Army 
nurses in the ETO in M ay 1945. 



52 



NORTHERN IRELAND 




FIRING GERMAN WEAPONS. In order to become familiar with German weapons 
and to learn the capabilities of enemy arms, U. S. infantrymen fired them during 
training in Northern Ireland in the spring of 1944. The men in the top picture are firing 
a German standard dual-purpose machine gun (7.92-mm. M. G. 34). The soldier in 
the bottom picture is firing a German rifle (7.92-mm. Karbiner 98K—Mauser-Kar. 
98K) which was the standard shoulder weapon of the German Army and very similar 
to the U. S. rifle M 1903. 




ENGLAND 



53 




MEMBERS OF AN ARMORED INFANTRY REGIMENT firing U. S. weapons 
during training in England. In 1941 the Ordnance Department began its experiments 
with the rocket launcher, which resulted in the invention of the 2.36-inch rocket 
launcher (bazooka). This was the first weapon of its type to be used in the war. 
Designed originally as an antitank weapon, it was used effectively against machine 
gun nests, pillboxes, and even fortified houses. It required only a two-man team— a 
gunner and a loader— and as it weighed only a little more than a rifle it could be car- 
ried everywhere (top). The crew of a 60-mm. mortar M 2 firing at a simulated enemy 
position (bottom). 




54 



ENGLAND 




AN ENLISTED MAN ON GUARD DUTY at a rail junction in Wales where 
A meri can- made locomotives were stored. The U nited States shipped 1,000 locomo- 
tives and 20,000 railroad cars to the United Kingdom for use on the Continent after 
the invasion. In addition, 270 miles of railroad were constructed in England to facil- 
itate movements. The Transportation Corps was responsible for the movement of men 
and supplies by land and water, and for the operation and supply of a great deal of 
this equipment. Since much of the railroad equipment in Europe had been destroyed 
or damaged by preinvasion bombing by the A Hied air forces, locomotives and cars 
had to be supplied by both the United States and the United Kingdom for use in 
Europe. 



ENGLAND 



55 




AN LST ARRIVES IN PLY M OUTH, England, carrying an LCT(6) as deckload, after 
crossing the A tlantic under its own power (top). The LCT was unloaded by sliding it 
over the side of the LST into the water (bottom). A great many landing craft were 
needed to mount the coming invasion. These were built in the United States and the 
United Kingdom. 




56 



ENGLAND 



: /^^^ 


Hirer!!! 


- 


?3S ? ^? 


i^^^Wil 


• * 




•', ' : ; 




; 


■ 







OUTDOOR STORAGE OF FIELD WIRE which was to be used after the invasion of 
France by the Signal Corps for telephone communications. The large rolls contained 
one mile of wire while the smaller ones had a half-mile capacity (top). The 
Quartermaster Corps, after salvaging shoes, supervised the rebuilding of them in 
English shoe factories and returned the remade shoes to troops in the field. Bottom 
picture shows shoes before and after being rebuilt. 




ENGLAND 



57 




MEN OF A QUARTERMASTER UNIT STORING FIELD RATIONS in a warehouse 
in England, M arch 1944 (top). The U. S. Army was unquestionably better fed than 
any other in history. However, food in combat can never be the same as that in 
garrison or cantonment, since field rations must be nonperishable, compact, and 
easily carried by the individual soldier. Combat rations were improved as the war 
progressed and C rations were supplied in a more varied assortment. Engineer 
construction supplies stored in England in preparation for the invasion of Normandy 
(bottom). The large rolls of wire netting were to be used on the invasion beaches to 
make improvised roadways for vehicles. 




58 



ENGLAND 




PARATROOPERS MAKING A MASS JUMP during their training in England. In 
practice jumps prior to the drop into Normandy there were numerous casualties. The 
injured were quickly cared for and the experience showed airborne medics what they 
could expect during the actual invasion. 



ENGLAND 



59 




REPUBLIC P-47 FIGHTER PLANES (top) and Boeing B-17 heavy bombers 
(bottom) lined up on an airfield in England before being issued to the units who will 
fly them over the Continent against the enemy. 




60 



ENGLAND 




ENGINEERS CONSTRUCTING A PONTON BRIDGE in England during the 
training period (top). M embers of an antiaircraft artillery unit receiving instruction 
from a British officer while training with a 40-mm. automatic antiaircraft gun M I 
(bottom). 




ENGLAND 



61 




^^^^^m 



GUN GREW OF AN ANTIAIRCRAFT ARTILLERY GROUP operating a 90-mm. 
gun Ml near the coast of England, April 1944. In order to cope with the latest 
developments in the fields of high-altitude bombing, a 90-mm. antiaircraft gun with 
longer range, greater muzzle velocity, and a larger effective shell-burst area was 
introduced. 



62 



ENGLAND 




EXHAUST STACKS AND AIR-INTAKE VENTS being installed on a medium tank 
M4 (top). After the installation was completed, the tank was tested off the coast of 
England (bottom). In addition to stacks, the tanks were further waterproofed by 
sealing all unvented openings with tape and sealing compound to render the hull 
watertight. Special attachments permitted rapid jettisoning of any waterproofing 
equipment which might interfere with satisfactory operation of the vehicles when 
on shore. These methods were first successfully used in the invasion of North 
Africa in November 1942. All vehicles which were to be driven ashore in 
Normandy under their own power, through water, and in the face of enemy fire, 
were waterproofed. Ordnance inspectors checked the vehicle in the marshalling 
yards a few hours before the tanks were loaded for the invasion. 




ENGLAND 



63 



i 





LCT(R) FIRING ROCKETS DURING A TEST in Portsmouth Harbor, England (top). 
Close-up of the rocket launchers (bottom). These ships converted from landing craft, 
tank, were equipped to fire as many as 1,000 rockets. 




64 



ENGLAND 





LANDING MANEUVERS. During lateApril and early May 1944 these were held 
for the invasion troops. Infantrymen landing from an LGI(L) (top). A combination 
gun motor carriage M 15A 1 landing on the beach from an LCT (bottom). This was a 
highly mobile weapon, capable of a concentration of rapid fire, and designed for 
antiaircraft defense. 




ENGLAND 



65 




WATERPROOFED TANK RECOVERY VEHICLE M 31 being loaded on an LCT 
during training along the English coast (top). For camouflage purposes, the normal 
appearance of the tank was retained as far as possible. A simulated turret without 
cupola was used and dummy 75-mm. and 37-mm. guns were mounted in place of the 
real guns. Actual armament was limited to two .30-caliber machine guns. A half- 
track 81-mm. mortar carrier M 21 maneuvering on a road in England (bottom) . The 
mortar could be used on the vehicle or separate from it. 




66 



ENGLAND 




BOAT-LANDING DRILL during a training exercise, Slapton Sands near 
Weymouth, Devon, England, May 1944. The infantrymen shown here have their 
equipment as complete as it will be during the actual invasion landings. They are 
descending ladders into an LCVP. Standing with his back to the camera at the top 
of the ladder is an officer, identified by the broad white vertical stripe painted on 
the back of his helmet. Noncommissioned officers had a similar horizontal stripe 
painted on their helmets. 



ENGLAND 



67 




MEN AND TRUCKS ON THE UPPER DECK OF AN LST near Slapton Sands in 
M ay 1944. As D Day drew nearer loading exercises and amphibious operations were 
practiced by the invasion troops. The greatest advantage the United States was to 
have in equipment over the Germans was the multiple-drive motor equipment, prin- 
cipally the V4-ton truck and the 2 1 /2-ton truck. Shown in the picture are: V4-ton 4x4 
truck, 3 /4-ton 4x4 weapons carrier truck, lV2-ton 6x6 personnel and cargo truck and 
2 1 /2-ton 6x6 truck. 



68 



ENGLAND 




AMPHIBIAN TRUCKS CARRY SUPPLIES ASHORE from a coaster under the 
protection of a smoke screen during landing maneuvers (top). A 2 J /2-ton amphib- 
ian truck hitting the beach during maneuvers (bottom). These versatile trucks 
proved invaluable in bringing supplies to the beaches during the early stages of 
landing and during the build-up after the invasion of Normandy. During one of the 
amphibious exercises, which were made as realistic as possible, two LST's were 
sunk by German E-boats. In other respects the training was successful and valuable 
lessons were learned. 




ENGLAND 




LCVP'S CIRCLING NEAR THE MOTHER SHIP while waiting for the signal to 
land on the beach during landing operation training at Slapton Sands (top). M embers 
of an armored unit being briefed at a marshalling area (bottom). At the conclusion of 
the training exercises in M ay all the assault, follow-up, and build-up troops moved 
from their camps to marshalling areas for final staging. 




70 



ENGLAND 




MEN AND EQUIPMENT BEING LOADED INTO LST'S (top) and LCVP's 
(bottom) during the first days of J une 1944 at one of the "hards" (paved strips 
running to the water's edge) in southern England for the invasion of Normandy. 
The training given the assault forces during the amphibious exercises was so thor- 
ough that the final loadings for the invasion were accomplished with a minimum 
of delay and confusion and resembled another exercise more than the real thing. 
Two and one-half years after the f irst U. S. troops sailed for the U nited K ingdom, 
the training and preparation was completed and the large invasion force of U. S. 
and Allied troops was to receive its real test in battle against the enemy, 




NORMANDY CAMPAIGN 



72 



NORMANDY 




The American and British 

Invasion Beaches 

and the Allied Advance 

during the 

Normandy Campaign 
6 June 1944 to 24 July 1944 



SECTION 



Normandy Campaign 



On 6 June 1944 the Allied military forces invaded northern France. 
After long study of the German strength, including coastal defenses and 
the disposition of enemy troops, the Allied commanders selected the 
beaches along the Bay of the Seine for the assault landings. The two 
beaches to be used by troops of the First U. S. Army were given the 
names of Utah and omaha. Those on which the British and Canadians 
of the British Second Army were to land were named Gold, Sword, 
and Juno. The assault began at 0200 on 6 June when airborne troops 
were dropped behind the beaches with the mission of securing exits 
from the beaches. Planes of the Allied air force bombed the coastal 
defenses and shortly after sunrise the Navy began shelling the beach 
defenses. At 0630 the first troops landed on the beaches of Normandy. 
The sea was rough and the assault forces met varyi ng degrees of enemy 
opposition, but the beachheads were secured and the assault and follow- 
up troops moved on to accomplish their missions. The U. S. forces 
landing on Utah Beach moved northwest to clear the northern portion 
of the Cotentin Peninsula and capture the port of Cherbourg. Those 
landing on omaha Beach advanced southward toward Saint-L6. The 
troops of the British Second Army were to advance in a southeast 
direction from Caen. 

The enormous build-up of men and material began immediately 
after the assault. This operation was made most difficult because of the 
lack of port facilities, but before the invasion plans had been made for 
the construction of artificial harbors. The plans were quickly put into 
effect and the harbors were almost completed when a summer gale 
struck the Channel coast destroying most of the construction work. By 
using amphibian trucks and Rhino ferries, and by drying out LST's, 
the build-up over open beaches progressed much faster than was an- 
ticipated and men and supplies were poured into France in ever in- 
creasing numbers. 



74 INTRODUCTION 

While the beachheads were expanded and the build-up continued, the 
infantry and armored units fought their way through the hedgerow 
country toward their objectives. The fighting was slow and costly as 
enemy opposition stiffened in an unsuccessful attempt to prevent the 
Allied advance. With the capture of Cherbourg and Saint-L 6 the initial 
missions of the U. S. forces were completed and the forces were then 
assembled in preparation for the drives south and west from the beach- 
head toward Avranches and the Brittany Peninsula. The British forces 
were to push southward from Caen exploiting in the direction of Paris 
and the Seine Basin. These attacks were scheduled to begin on 19 July 
1944 but because of bad weather the supporting aerial assault was 
delayed and the breakout of Normandy did not get under way until 25 
July. 



ENGLAND 



75 




FULLY EQUIPPED PARATROOPER, armed with aThompson submachine gun M 1, 
climbing into a transport plane to go to France as the invasion of Normandy gets 
under way. At approximately 0200, 6 June 1944, men of two U. S. airborne divisions, 
as well as elements of a British airborne division, were dropped in vital areas to the 
rear of G erman coastal defenses guardi ng the N ormandy beaches from C herbourg to 
Caen. By dawn 1,136 heavy bombers of the RAF Bomber Command had dropped 
5,853 tons of bombs on selected coastal batteries lining the Bay of the Seine between 
Cherbourg and Le Havre. 



76 



FRANCE 



* 













A MARTIN B-26 MEDIUM BOMBER flying over one of the invasion beaches, 
early on D-Day morning. All planes which supported the invasion operations, with 
the exception of the four-motored bombers, were painted with three white and two 
black stripes for identification purposes. At dawn on D Day the U. S. Air Forces took 
up the air attacks and in the half hour before the touchdown of the assault forces 
(from 0600 to 0630) 1,365 heavy bombers dropped 2,746 tons of high explosives on 
the shore defenses. This was followed by attacks by medium bombers, light bombers, 
and fighter bombers. During the 24 hours of 6 June Allied aircraft flew 13,000 
sorties, and during the first 8 hours alone dropped 10,000 tons of bombs. 



FRANCE 



77 




GUN CREW ALERT aboard the cruiser USS Augusta, as landing craft approach the 
coast of France during the invasion, 6 June 1944. The three landing craft nearest the 
Augusta are an LCT(6), an LBV, and an LBK. While the A 1 1 ied air forces were bomb- 
ing installations along the invasion beaches the A 1 1 ied sea armada drew in toward the 
coast, preceded by its flotillas of mine sweepers. Bad weather conditions and high 
seas had driven the enemy surface patrol craft into their harbors, and the 100-mile 
movement across the English Channel was unopposed. By 0300 the ships had 
anchored in the transport areas some thirteen miles off their assigned beaches, and 
the loading of troops into landing craft and the forming of the assault waves for the 
dash to the beaches began. At 0550 the heavy naval support squadrons began a 
45-minute bombardment which quickly silenced the major coast-defense batteries. 



78 



FRANCE 



\, 




OMAHA BEACH ON 6 JUNE 1944. From Grandcamp, cliffs extend eastward to 
Arromanches-les-Bains with only two breaks, one in the V iervil I e- C oil evi II e region 
which was the V Corps area.TheAure River behind Omaha Beach is a serious obsta- 
cle for a distance of ten miles from its mouth, near Isigny. Between theVireand Orne 
Rivers the area is covered to a depth of forty miles inland by bocage (land divided 



FRANCE 



79 




into small fields by hedges, banks, and sunken roads). Observation was limited, and 
vehicle movement was restricted to the roads. The highlands that extend across the 
invasion front, with a depth up to twenty-five miles, are broken with steep hills and 
narrow valleys. Although narrow, the roads in this area are generally good. Vital ini- 
tial objectives were the towns of Carentan, Sai nt-L 6, Bayeux, and Caen. 



80 



FRANCE 




U. S. TROOPS WADING ASHORE FROM AN LCVP at omaha Beach during the 
assault. Elements of two U.S. infantry divisions, with engineer troops and tanks of an 
armored unit, made the first landings. The beaches selected for these landings were 
about 7,000 yards in length. From the beach the ground curves upward and is backed 
by bluffs that merge into the cliffs at either end of the sector. H Hour was at 0630 6 
June. The mission of V Corps was to secure a beachhead in the area between theVire 
River and Port-en-Bessin, from which troops would push southward toward Caumont 
and Saint-L 6, conforming to the advance of British Second Army to the east. 



FRANCE 



81 




INFANTRYMEN WADING ASHORE FROM AN LCT(6) (top). Troops leaving an 
LCVP to wade ashore (bottom). Half-tracks and 2 1 /2-ton amphibian trucks can be 
seen on the beach, and in the background men marching in columns start southward 
toward the bluffs. On the shelf the enemy strung barbed wire and planted mines. 
Lanes had to be cleared through these obstacles before the infantry could advance. 
Beyond this strip containing obstacles, the enemy laid out firing positions to cover 
the tidal flat and the beach with direct fire, both plunging and grazing, from all types 
of weapons. The men landing were fired upon from these positions, which for the 
most part had escaped destruction during the prelanding bombardment. 




82 



FRANCE 




SURVIVORS OF AN LCVP which sank off Omaha Beach coming ashore in an 
LCR(S). The high seas added to the difficulties in getting ashore. Landing craft were 
in some instances hurled onto the beaches by the waves and some of the smaller ones 
were swamped before reaching shore. Others were flung upon and holed by the 
mined underwater obstacles. Some of the assault troops were swept off their feet 
while wading through the breakers. Of these some were drowned and those who 
reached the beach were often near exhaustion. B ecause of the rough seas many of the 
men were seasick during the crossing and arrived on the beach with their combat 
efficiency temporarily impaired by the experience. 




FRANCE 



83 




ARMY MEDICS ADMINISTERING BLOOD PLASMA to a survivor of a sunken 
landing craft on omaha Beach. D-Day casualties for theV Corps were in the neigh- 
borhood of 3,000 killed, wounded, and missing. The two assaulting regimental combat 
teams lost about 1,000 men each. The highest proportionate losses were taken by units 
that landed in the first few hours, including engineers, tank troops, and artillerymen. 
The D-Day casualties of V Corps were much higher than those suffered by VII Corps, 
where the assaulting seaborne division lost 197 men, including 60 lost at sea. 



84 



FRANCE 




WOUNDED U. S. TROOPS OF V CORPS, waiting to be evacuated, take shelter 
under the cliffs near the beach in the Colleville area (top). Some German troops and 
laborers rounded up on Omaha Beach (bottom). The assault troops reached the line 
of the Bayeux-Carentan road on 7 J une. The following day U. S. forces established 
contact with the British on the American left flank. On 9 June U. S. divisions 
advanced rapidly south and west reaching the Caumont-Foret de Cerisy-lsigny line 
by 11 June. 




FRANCE 



85 




MEMBERS OF A SHORE FIRE CONTROL GROU P operating Signal Corps radios. 
M an at left is operating an SCR 284, while the second man operates the hand gener- 
ator GN 45; man at right is using a hand-held radio set, "handie-talkie" SCR 536 
(top). An enlisted man looks up a number before placing a telephone call on a field 
telephone EE 8 (bottom). The function of the Signal Corps was to furnish radio, wire, 
and messenger communications. Often Signal Corps personnel went inland, some- 
times ahead of the infantry, to observe and correct the fire from the naval guns off- 
shore. 




86 



FRANCE 




UTAH BEACH, 6JUNE 1944. 1 n the V 1 1 Corps zone the smooth and shallow beach- 
es in the vicinity of Saint-M artin-de-Varreville are backed by sand dunes that extend 
inland 150 to 1,000 yards. Behind the sand dunes the low ground had been inundat- 
ed for a width of one to two miles, restricting travel from the beaches to four easily 
defended causeways. Farther inland the M erderet River, running parallel to the coast, 



FRANCE 



87 




and the Douve River, from which the ground rises northward to the hills around 
Cherbourg, restrict traffic to the established roads. Sainte-M ere-Eglise, Saint- 
Sauveur, and Barneville are key points on the road nets leading to Cherbourg. 
Southeast of Utah Beach the Douve and Vire Rivers flow into the shallow, muddy 
Carentan estuary which marked the boundary between VII and V Corps. 



88 

■i 



FRANCE 




ASSAULT TROOPS LANDING ON UTAH BEACH ON D DAY (top). Men and 
equipment along Utah Beach on D Day (bottom). The mission of VII Corps was to 
assault Utah Beach on 6 J une 1944 at H Hour. 0630, and to capture Cherbourg with 
a minimum delay. The troops, landing just west of theVire estuary, encountered less 
opposition than any other Allied forces on D Day. 




FRANCE 



89 




INFANTRYMEN RESTING ALONG THE SEA WALL and beginning to move 
inland, 6 J une (top). Advancing southward through the inundated low ground (bot- 
tom). Fortunately, the first elements landed considerably south of the designated 
beaches in areas less thickly obstructed and where enemy shore defenses were less 
formidable than those opposite the intended landing beaches. While airborne troops 
seized the causeways through the inundated low ground to prevent enemy reinforce- 
ments from reaching the beach, the seaborne assault troops struck northwest toward 
M ontebourg, on the road to Cherbourg. 





AN ENEMY SHELL HITSTHE BEACH where U. S. troops are advancing. 



FRANCE 



91 




GERMAN CASEMATED FORTIFICATION inland from the beach (top); 
destroyed enemy gun emplacement (bottom). During 1943 the Germans had devel- 
oped heavy frontal defenses at all the principal harbors from Den Helder to Brest. 
As the invasion threat grew, Cherbourg and Le Havre were further strengthened, 
while heavy guns were installed to block the entrance of the Bay of the Seine. 
Between the ports stretched a line of concrete defense positions and coastal and 
flak batteries. A program of casemating the coastal guns and strengthening the 
defense posts was still in progress on 6 J une. The beaches were mined and obsta- 
cles were placed in the water offshore and on the beaches, but there was no sec- 
ondary defense line behind the coastal defenses which the Germans thought would 
stop the invading troops. 




92 



FRANCE 




MEMBERS OF THE FOLLOW-UP DIVISION aboard an LCI(L) headed for Utah 
Beach on D Day. Other LCI's in the background have barrage balloons flying over- 
head. These balloons were attached by cables to ships crossing the Channel so as to 
keep low-flying enemy strafing planes away from the craft. 



FRANCE 



93 




A MEMBER OFAN ENGINEER UNIT using a mine detector SCR 625. The ground 
outlined with white tape had not been cleared of enemy mines and enemy signs were 
used to mark the mined areas. Army and Navy demolition teams, following the 
assault infantry, found the beach less thickly obstructed than expected, and utah 
Beach was cleared in an hour. Engineers prepared exits from the beach by clearing 
lanes through the mine fields. 



94 



FRANCE 




GLIDERS BEING TOWED BY C-47 TRANSPORTS over the English Channel 
carrying reinforcements for the airborne divisions, 7 June (top). A British Horsa 
glider wrecked while landing (bottom). Six thousand six hundred men of one of the 
two U. S. airborne divisions were scattered over an area 25 miles by 15 miles in 
extent, and 60 percent of their equipment was lost. In general, however, these men 
accomplished their mission successfully. Other gliders were flown in on 6 June but 
suffered considerable casualties. (CG4A WACO.) 




FRANCE 



95 




GLIDERS AND TOW PLANES CIRCLING before the gliders are cut loose for a 
landing, 7 June. On the ground are gliders which landed the previous day, many 
which were wrecked in landing. While one airborne division of the U.S. forces held 
the exists to Utah Beach and stuck southward toward Carentan, the other airborne 
division, despite heavy shelling in theSainte-M ere-Eglise area, also established con- 
tact with the infantry troops pushing inland from Utah Beach early on 7 J une. 



96 



FRANCE 




AN LCT(5) LOADED WITH REINFORCEMENTS moving toward the beach on 7 
June. In left center is an LCT(R); at right center is an LBV. In the background sup- 
ply ships wait to discharge their cargoes (top). U. S. Air Force glider pilots in an 
LCVP on their way to a larger ship which will take them back to England (bottom). 
After landing their gliders the pilots made their way to the beach to await shipping 
to return them to their bases. 




FRANCE 



97 




AMPHIBIAN TRUCKS (DUKW's) bring supplies ashore on utah Beach, 8 June 
(top). Men and supplies come ashore; on the beach are LCT's (bottom). Between 7 
and 12 June the A I lies concentrated their efforts on joining the beachheads into one 
uninterrupted lodgement area and on bringing in men and supplies. 




98 



FRANCE 




A RAILROAD BRIDGE ACROSS THE SEINE destroyed by bombers of the Allied 
air force. Even though hampered by poor flying weather during the first week after 
D Day, the A Hied air force bombed bridges across the Seine and Loire Rivers. This 
seriously hindered the movement of enemy troops and supplies, and trains had to be 
constantly rerouted in an attempt to reinforce the Germans trying to hold the assault 
forces in the area of the beachheads. 



FRANCE 



99 




WRECKED TRAIN. Three trains were held up on this single track, in the vicinity of 
Chartres, when fighter bombers knocked cars off the track. With the track thus 
blocked the movement of trains was stopped and much of the undamaged rolling 
stock later fell into Allied hands. Within an arc extending from the Pas-de-Calais 
through Paris to the Brittany Peninsula, 16,000 tons of bombs were dropped on 
coastal batteries, 4,000 tons on airfields, and 8,500 tons on railway targets between 
6 and 11 June. 



100 



FRANCE 
AURE RIVER 




TREVIERES AND THE SURROUNDING AREA showing the bocage type of 
terrain. U. S. forces advancing inland from the omaha beachhead were checked by 
the enemy in the Formigny-Trevieres area on 7 June. Formigny was cleared on 8 
June. On the same day the U. S. troops held their positions north and east of 
Trevieres and patrolled the outskirts of the town. The town was shelled by navy guns 



FRANCE 



101 




in the late afternoon. The approach to Trevieres from the high ground just north of 
theAure River was strongly defended and the enemy forces continued to hold out in 
this area until 10 J une when the attacking U. S. forces outflanked and captured the 
town. The fall of Trevieres marked the end of enemy resistance north of the Foret de 
Cerisy. 



102 



FRANCE 




U.S.GUN CREW FIRING A 3-INCH ANTITANK GUN M 5 at a house in which 
enemy troops are holding out (top). In the advance of the Allies from utah Beach 
toward Cherbourg the enemy was often cut off in small groups and surrounded. The 
enemy groups in many cases would refuse to surrender, even though they were cut 
off from their own forces, and had to be eliminated one group at a time. A 90-mm. 
gun M 1 of an antiaircraft battery firing near Vierville (bottom). Though enemy air 
attacks were not a serious threat to the A 1 1 ies and very little opposition was encoun- 
tered, antiaircraft batteries were always on the alert. 




FRANCE 



103 




MULTIPLE GUN MOTOR CARRIAGE M 16 with its four .50-caliber machine guns 
firing at the enemy in support of an infantry advance (top). This vehicle was a 
weapon of an antiaircraft artillery unit, but the lack of enemy air activity in 
Normandy made possible its use in other roles. U. S. artillerymen emplacing a 155- 
mm. howitzer M I in a camouflaged position (bottom). 





FORMATION OF DOUGLAS A-20's over France. The infantry and armored attacks 
were, when possible, preceded by concentrated air attacks. Employing carpet bomb- 
ing methods, thousands of tons of bombs were dropped. Fragmentation bombs were 
used to break enemy resistance without causing extensive cratering which would hin- 
der the advance of tanks. A Ithough these attacks were temporary i n effect, the results 
greatly aided the initial ground attack. Casualties to the enemy were few, but he was 
stunned by the weight of the bombing and considerable confusion ensued. 



FRANCE 



105 




ENGINEERS LAYING WIRE MATTING in the construction of a landing strip near 
Sainte-M ere-Eglise (top). A Republic P-47 Thunderbolt bursting into flames after 
crash landing on the strip; still attached to underside of the wing are rockets which 
were not fired (bottom). An important factor in insuring the success of the Allied 
close-support operations lay in the establishment of landing strips in Normandy, 
from which fighter planes could operate. Work began as soon as a footing was 
obtained on shore and by 9 June planes were operating from these strips. 




106 



FRANCE 




A QUARRY NEAR OMAHA BEACH used by engineer units to supply rock and 
stone for the construction of roads. The tremendous amount of traffic on the roads 
in Normandy, as men and supplies were brought into France over the beaches 
required the services of many engineer units to keep the roads in good repair. M ost 
of the roads leading to the beaches were not hard surfaced but were constructed of 
rock and gravel. 



FRANCE 



107 




ENLISTED MEN PREPARE TO LAUNCH A BARRAGE BALLOON over one of 
the beaches in Normandy. Balloons were attached to cables and by means of winches 
could be raised or lowered to the desired altitude. These balloons were used to 
protect ships and beach installations from low-flying enemy aircraft. When the 
balloons were in position the enemy would not fly low over the beaches for fear of 
running into the cables which kept the balloons in place. 



108 



FRANCE 




MEDICAL CORPS MEN TREATING AN ENLISTED MAN for a wrist wound. 
When casualties entered a battalion aid station within a few hundred yards of the 
front, they were immediately screened and sorted. Wounds were redressed, and per- 
haps morphine or other drugs were given when available. Those whose wounds per- 
mitted were evacuated to the rear, while those whose wounds did not permit further 
evacuation were held, treated, given plasma, and then moved farther back. 



FRANCE 



109 




AN EVACUATION HOSPITAL with a 750-bed capacity, Normandy, 24 July (top). 
Army surgeons perform an operation out-of-doors (bottom). In World War II the 
number of deaths per hundred casualties was one half of that during World War I. 
Responsible for this reduction was the surgical skill and painstaking care rendered by 
personnel of the M edical Corps aided by better surgery, the sulfa drugs, penicillin, 
plasma, and whole blood. 




110 



FRANCE 




ENEMY PRISONERS, taken during the first days of fighting, awaiting transporta- 
tion to England. During the first week following the invasion landings the Germans 
lost some 10,000 men as prisoners. The enemy forces that manned the static beach 
defenses were largely Russians and other non-Germans, but were under German offi- 
cers. Of the German troops, many companies were found to be composed of men 
either under 20 or over 45 years of age. M any of these were of low medical categories 
and their morale was not of the best. 



FRANCE 



111 




A MILITARY POLICEMAN studying French aboard a transport while waiting for 
the landing craft which will carry him to the beach in Normandy. In addition to 
handling informational and recreational activities of all kinds, the Special Services 
Division of theArmy Service Forces distributed pocket-sized soldier guides to the 
customs and languages of the countries where members of the armed forces served. 
The Army, recognizing that the strain created by war must be counteracted by 
healthy diversional activities, arranged motion pictures and USO shows, and 
distributed books, magazines, and athletic and other recreational equipment to 
members and units of the armed forces. 



112 



FRANCE 



VIRE-TAUTE CANAL 




CARENTAN. The approach to Carentan from the east is blocked by the Vire-Taute 
Canal. U. S. forces advancing to secure the bridge on the road from Isigny met with 
enemy resistance from the houses and hedgerows on the east bank and it was not 
until midnight of 10 June that the enemy was driven out and defensive positions were 



FRANCE 



113 



BASIN 







established by U. S. troops. Other U. S. troops moved along the Bassin a Flot and 
crossed the canal on 12 J une, moving rapidly into the center of Carentan which by 
then was ringed by attacking troops. This trap was closed too late to capture most of 
the German defenders, who escaped to the south during the night of 11-12 J une. 



114 



FRANCE 




U. S. TROOPS MOVING INTO CARE NTAN, 12 J une (top). A 105-mm. howitzer 
M 3 firing at enemy positions during the fighting at Carentan (bottom). During the 
night of 11-12 June, Carentan was set ablaze by artillery and naval gunfire, and 
early on the morning of 12 J une U. S. troops entered the town. Its fall marked the 
effective junction of the two U.S. beachheads and the linking up of the two corps 
of the First U. S. Army. 




FRANCE 



115 




U. S. PARATROOPERS PATROLLING THE STREETS OF CARENTAN in a 
captured German Volkswagen (1. Pkw. K. 1 (typ 82)) (top). Airborne troops in a 
jeep towing a British 6-pounder M ark III antitank gun in Carentan (bottom). The 
enemy counterattacks against the U. S. forces in Carentan were unsuccessful in 
their attempts to recapture the city, but were persistent enough to limit the U. S. 
advance to gains measured in hundreds of yards. However, on 17 J une 1944 U. S. 
troops reached the west coast in the vicinity of Barneville, cutting the German 
forces into two groups, one south of the Carentan-Barneville line, the other in the 
Cherbourg area. 




116 



FRANCE 




DOUGLAS A-20'S DROPPING BOMBS on a probable flying bomb launching site. 
The first flying bombs fell on England during the night of 12-13 J une 1944, and the 
regular attacks began three days later. The smallness, the effective nature of camou- 
flage, the comparative mobility, and the ease with which theV-l launching sites could 
be repaired made effective bombing attacks on them difficult. 



FRANCE 



117 








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PART OF A GERMAN ROCKET INSTALLATION captured by U. S. troops. Many 
of these flying bomb sites were captured by the A Mies as they advanced. Although the 
air force had destroyed some by bombing, most of the sites were taken by advancing 
troops and destroyed. 



118 



FRANCE 




A PORTION OF THE ARTIFICIAL HARBOR AT OMAHA BEACH . This harbor 
was in the Saint-Laurent-sur-M er area of omaha Beach and was known as 
"M ulberry A." Breakwaters were formed by sinking ships and concrete caissons, 
and steel bridging formed causeways to the beach. The harbor, construction on 
which began on 7 J une 1944, was designed to provide moorings for seven Liberty 
ships and twelve coasters at one time. By 19 J une it was 90 percent completed. 



FRANCE 



119 




ENGINEERS LAYING STEEL MATTING on omaha Beach at the exits of the cause- 
way which extend to the piers of the artificial harbor (top). Vehicles moving from one 
of the piers over the causeway to the shore (bottom). These floating causeways to the 
beach rose and fell with the tide. The artificial harbors were constructed to facilitate 
the unloading of the large numbers of men and material. 




120 



FRANCE 




DAMAGE TO THE ARTIFICIAL HARBOR AND LANDING CRAFT caused by the 
storm. The greatest detriment to the Allied build-up was not the enemy, but the 
weather. From 19-22 June 1944 one of the worst summer gales in Channel history 
hit the Bay of the Seine. Unloading operations were virtually stopped, the floating 
steel caissons broke free and sank, the concrete caissons moved or were broken up, 
and the beach was strewn with hundreds of stranded and damaged craft. The line of 
sunken ships remained fairly well intact, but as a whole the artificial harbor was 
destroyed and useless. 




FRANCE 



121 





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A TRUCK ON THE BEACH (2 1 /2-ton) and one starting down the ramp of an LST 
(l 1 /2-ton). After the storm wrecked the artificial harbors emergency measures, 
such as using 2V2-ton amphibian trucks to bring men and supplies ashore and 
"drying out" landing ships and coasters, were employed. By "drying out" the ves- 
sels (as in picture) and unloading directly on the beaches, unloading operations 
were carried out. 



122 



FRANCE 




TRUCKS FULLY LOADED with men and supplies leaving a Rhino ferry and being 
helped ashore by a bulldozer (top). A 3 /4-ton weapons carrier rolling through the surf 
toward the beach under its own power (bottom). All the vehicles which made these 
landings through the surf had been waterproofed before leaving England. Since they 
were able to travel only a short distance on land under their own power when water- 
proofed, the waterproofing material was removed soon after the vehicles landed. 




FRANCE 



123 




TRUCKS AND AMPHIBIAN TRUCKS (each is a 21/2-ton truck) on a beach in 
N ormandy. I n spite of the damage caused by the storm, by 26 J une omaha B each was 
discharging 122 percent of its planned cargo capacity. By this time 268,718 men, 
40,191 vehicles, and 125,812 tons of cargo had been discharged over Omaha Beach 
alone. By 1 July the Allied commanders were not as much worried about a German 
counterattack that would threaten the beachhead as about the possibility that the 
enemy might bring in sufficient reserves to create a stalemate in Normandy. More 
room was needed by the Allies to bring in men and supplies to support a sustained 
drive toward the Seine. 




124 



FRANCE 




UNIT ADVANCING TOWARD CHERBOURG stops to inspect a German multipur- 
pose gun (8.8-cm. Flak). When the enemy retreated from the vicinity of M ontebourg 
he destroyed the gun by splaying the barrel. This multipurpose weapon emerged as 
the most publicized artillery piece of the German Army during the North African 
campaign. It was primarily an antiaircraft gun adaptable to antitank and general 
artillery use. In its role as an antitank gun it was fitted with a shield. In its mobile 
form it was towed on four wheels, usually with an 8-ton half-tracked tractor. 



FRANCE 



125 




RESULTS OF ARTILLERY FIRE AND BOMBINGS in Montebourg (top). A 
155-mm. howitzer M I firing on the defenses of the city of Cherbourg (bottom). On 
19 J une M ontebourg fell to the U. S. forces and Valognes was taken the following 
day. The advance on Cherbourg was continued by three U. S. infantry divisions. An 
attack on Cherbourg was launched on the afternoon of 22 June, after an 80-minute 
air and artillery bombardment of the outer defenses, but the enemy at first fought 
back with determination. 




126 



FRANCE 



HILL 171AREA 



BOIS DU MONT DU ROC 




THE BOIS DU MONT DU ROC AREA. On 22-23 June the U. S. troops launched an 
attack from the valley to seize Hill 171. The critical enemy defense areas at 
Flottemanville-H ague and Hill 171 were closely pressed and before dark on 23 June the 
area of Hill 171 was reached and 400 enemy prisoners were taken. The F I ottemanvi lie- 
Hague defenses were bombed by Allied planes and the defenses were taken by the 
ground forces shortly thereafter. The enemy's fortified line protecting Cherbourg was 
then broken and the U. S. troops were ready for the final drive to the city. 



FRANCE 



127 




FORTIFICATIONS AROUND CHERBOURG DAMAGED by Allied shelling and 
bombardment. The German defenders refused to surrender the city to the attacking 
U.S. forces, and on 22 June a co-ordinated attack was launched by the attackers, sup- 
ported by aircraft of the tactical air forces and heavy artillery fire. However, no real 
break-through was achieved by this bombardment and the U. S. troops resorted to the 
methodical reduction of the strong points. It was not until 24 June that the main 
defenses cracked, and the next day the three attacking infantry divisions, supported 
by heavy naval bombardment, reached the outskirts of the city. 



128 



FRANCE 




TWO U. S. INFANTRYMEN ROUTING A SNIPER during street fighting in 
Cherbourg (top). German prisoners taken in Cherbourg (bottom). By 25 June U. S. 
forces were fighting in the streets of the city while the Germans demolished the port 
facilities. At 1500 on 26 June the German commanders surrendered. The Arsenal 
held out until the following morning and fanatical groups had to be eliminated one 
by one. A certain number of the enemy still remained to be rounded up in the north- 
west corner of the Cotentin Peninsula, but on 1 July all resistance in the northern 
Cotentin came to an end. 




FRANCE 



129 




^■^^^^K .-■ 



A MEMBER OF AN ENGINEER UNIT, operating a bulldozer, clears a street in 
Cherbourg (top). M embers of an Engineer unit stationed in Cherbourg take time out 
to prepare a meal in the doorway of a house (bottom). C and K rations were general- 
ly issued to troops in combat. Where there was more time for the preparation of food, 
troops were given the "10 in 1" ration which contained more variety than the C and 
K rations. W hen units were more permanently settled regular messes were set up, but 
during the early days on the Continent just after the invasion, and while the supply 
situation was still critical, troops resorted to eating rations that could be more easily 
transported and prepared. 




130 



FRANCE 



FORT DU ROULE 



ARSENAL AREA 




A PORTION OF CHERBOURG showing the inner harbor and docks. Fortdu Roule, 
built high and secure into a steep rock promontory which stands immediately back 
of the city, dominated the entire harbor area. It was primarily a coastal fortress but 
was also defended against a ground attack. The P-47's which bombed the fort did lit- 
tle damage to the subterranean tunnels housing the big guns. The fort was finally 
taken by infantry troops armed with machine guns, mortars, grenades, pole charges, 



FRANCE 



131 




and rifles. The fort surrendered in sections and it was not until late on 25 June that 
the complete surrender was accomplished. After the rest of the city had been taken 
the Arsenal still held out. This structure, partially protected by a moat, was high- 
walled and well-armed. On 27 June the Arsenal surrendered bringing to an end all 
organized resistance in the city. With the fall of the city every effort was made to 
clear the harbor and repair docking facilities as quickly as possible. 



132 



FRANCE 




THE FIRST SHIP-TO-SHORE GASOLINE LINE, put in operation at Cherbourg. 
During the assault phase the Allied forces relied on canned gasoline, but by 3 July 
bulk supply was being introduced by ship-to-shore pipeline which brought in part of 
the large quantities of gasoline necessary to the A 1 1 i ed forces. 



FRANCE 



133 




ORDNANCE MEN CUTTING ANGLE-IRON with acetylene torches (top). An M5 
light tank equipped with a hedgerow cutter (bottom). During the fighting in 
Normandy armored vehicles found the hedgerows a serious obstacle which they 
could neither cross over nor break through. An enlisted man of an Ordnance unit in 
Normandy devised the method of attaching to the front of tanks rake-like cutters 
improvised from heavy angle-iron salvaged from the underwater beach obstacles 
which the Germans had placed to wreck landing craft. During a period of 48 hours 
maintenance companies of the Ordnance Department turned out 300 of these cutters, 
which enabled the tanks to open passageways through the hedgerows of Normandy, 
and play an important part in the advance leading to the break-through at Sai nt-L 6. 







134 



FRANCE 




.30-CALIBER BROWNING MACHINE GUN M1919A4 being fired through an 
opening in a hedgerow by an infantryman. The July offensive, one of the most 
difficult and bloody phases of the Normandy Campaign and known as the Battle 
of the Hedgerows, was conducted from 7 to 20 J uly 1944. Four U. S. Army corps, 
ultimately employing twelve divisions, were involved in the effort. German rein- 
forcements stiffened, particularly in the hills protecting Saint-L6, and the U.S. 
forces in the Cotentin Peninsula fought their way southward, alongside the U.S. 
troops east of the Vire River, to win ground for mounting the attack which was to 
break through the German defenses at the end of the month of J uly. 



FRANCE 



135 




A 3-INCH GUN MOTOR CARRIAGE M 10 moving along a road near Saint- 
Fromond. While the British Second Army battled furiously against enemy armored 
strength to the east, the First U. S. Army struggled forward on both sides of the V ire 
River in their drive on Sai nt-L 6. The advance was laborious because of the nature of 
the terrain and the poor weather conditions. The enemy rallied to prevent any break- 
through to Saint-L 6, and the British redoubled their efforts in the Caen area where 
the Germans had most of their 900 tanks. 



136 



FRANCE 




TWO GERMAN PANTHERS, heavy tanks (Pz. Kpfw.-7.5-cm. Kw. K. 42-L/70), 
knocked out on a road near Le Desert (top). A damaged German self-propelled 
assault gun {Stu. G. IV with Stu. K. 40-L/48) near Periers (bottom). During the fight- 
ing in the Saint-L6 area the German forces included two corps with elements of no 
less than twelve divisions, including two armored divisions. The losses sustained by 
the enemy armored units removed the possibility of a further large-scale counterat- 
tack west of the V ire River. 




FRANCE 



137 




GERMAN PANTHER (top). U. S. medium tanks M4A1 pass German medium tanks 
{Pz. Kpfw. IV) which were knocked out in the July fighting near Saint-Lo (bottom). In 
hedgerow fighting tanks were expected to give great assistance, by their fire power, in 
dealing with hedgerow strong points but there was always the problem of getting them 
through the embankments fast enough to maintain their support to the infantry. 




138 



FRANCE 




ARMY MEDICAL AID MEN preparing to evacuate wounded (top). U. S. troops 
along a sunken road during the advance to Sai nt-L 6 (bottom). The U. S. losses dur- 
ing this campaign totaled nearly 11,000 killed, wounded, and missing. The Germans, 
as a result of the action, were prevented from regrouping and wore down their last 
immediate reserves for use against a break-through. 




FRANCE 



139 




AN INFANTRY PATROL picking its way through the blasted ruins of Saint-L6 (top). 
Allied and German shelling and Allied aerial bombing reduced Sai nt-L 6 to ruins 
(bottom). The original objectives of the July offensive were not attained except for 
the capture of Saint-L6 on 18 J uly 1944 and the high ground suitable for launching 
the break-through attempt. The ground won was sufficient to give the troops more 
room and better jump-off positions which they needed to break out of Normandy. 







140 



FRANCE 




SAINT-LO IN RUINS after the capture of the city by theU. S. forces. It was shelled 
both by the attacking Allied forces who needed the area to stage troops who were to 



FRANCE 



141 




break out of the hedgerow country of Normandy, and by the enemy forces who were 
trying to prevent the U. S. troops from taking the city. 



142 



FRANCE 







INFANTRYMEN RESTING IN THEIR FOXHOLE. Rain, which continued for 6 
days, delayed the air bombardment and in turn the advance of the First Army which 
had scheduled an attack for 19 J uly 1944. During this period the men were compelled 
to huddle in their foxholes under the dripping hedgerows in conditions of extreme 
discomfort, while the enemy, also entrenched behind the natural defenses of the 
country, was alert to every movement. The low-lying country became a sea of mud, 
stopping further tank operations during this period. 



FRANCE 



143 




JEEP SPLASHING THROUGH A FLOODED ROAD IN NORMANDY. The rains, 
which held up the advance, flooded the dirt roads which by this time were in a bad 
state of repair from the heavy traffic and shelling. On the front of the jeep is an iron 
bar used to cut thin strands of wire that the enemy strung across the roads level with 
the heads of the occupants of vehicles, which traveled with tops and windshields 
down. 



144 



FRANCE 







M^ *±; 



INFANTRYMEN FIRING FROM A HEDGEROW. The man in the foreground is 
shown about to fire a fragmentation grenade using a U. S. rifle .30-calibre M I with a 
grenade launcher M7 (top). Grenade has just been fired (bottom). The terrain 
through which the Allied troops fought was favorable to the defense. In the close 
bocage countryside, dotted with woods and orchards and with fields divided by tree- 
topped embankments where armor could not well be employed, the infantry had to 
wage a grim struggle from hedgerow to hedgerow and from bank to bank, harassed 
by snipers and machine gun posts. On 24 July the troops of the U. S. First Army were 
waiting for the weather to clear sufficiently for an air attack before they attempted to 
break out of Normandy in the area of the Periers-Lessay-Saint-L6 road. 




NORTHERN FRANCE 
CAMPAIGN 



146 



NORTHERN FRANCE 



The Allied Advance 

during the 

Northern France Campaign 

25 July 1944 to 

14 September 1944 



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Northern France Campaign 



On 25 July 1944 the A Hied forces fighting in Normandy were able 
to begin the offensive to break out of Normandy and carry to the 
German frontier. Preceding the ground attack planes of the Allied air 
forces dropped more than 3,390 tons of bombs on enemy positions on 
a narrow front in the vicinity of Saint-L6. The air attack's crushing 
power and its paralyzing effect on the German forces opened the way 
for a rapid and powerful drive by Allied armored and infantry units. 
Cities were captured in quick succession and the enemy troops were 
forced to flee in a disorderly retreat. 

The armored spearheads led the way out the Brittany Peninsula 
which was quickly occupied, with the exception of the fortresses of 
the port cities which were to continue to fight until after the German 
borders had been reached. While part of the U. S. forces were overrun- 
ning the Brittany Peninsula, the major portion turned toward the east in 
the direction of Paris, and British and Canadian troops moved south- 
ward from Caen along the road to Falaise. The battle of the Falaise- 
Argentan pocket was a disastrous defeat for the German forces who 
were trying to prevent the Allies from moving eastward. During the 
fighting in this area elements of two German armies were so disorgan- 
ized and destroyed that their effectiveness was greatly impaired. 

Paris surrendered on 25 August and by the 27th all enemy resist- 
ance ceased there. The advance continued toward the eastern borders 
of France, where the A Hies stopped their rapid drive, and though a few 
further advances were made, 14 September 1944 found them consoli- 
dating their positions along the Moselle River and northward in 
Belgium and Holland. The major port cities of Le Havre and Antwerp, 
which were badly needed by the Allies as ports of entry for men and 
materials, were captured. 



See M artin Blumenson, Break-Out and Pursuit. 



148 INTRODUCTION 

During the Northern France Campaign the expanding Allied forces 
reorganized. The Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force, 
moved to the Conti nent of E urope. T he 21 A rmy G roup was made up of the 
B ritish Second and the Canadian FirstA rmies. The 12th A rmy G roup, com- 
posed of the First and Third U. S. Armies, became operational. In August 
1944 Allied forces invaded southern France and moved northward to join 
those in northern France. This force, made up of the U. S. Seventh and 
French First Armies, made a junction with the northern group on 11 
September. Also during this period the U. S. Ninth Army became opera- 
tional and took over the reduction of the Brittany fortresses. 



FRANCE 



149 




MEDIUM TANK M4A1, equipped with a hedgerow cutter, breaking through a 
hedgerow. The build-up was continuing generally as anticipated and the destruc- 
tion of the enemy forces progressed. On 23 July 1944 the Canadian First Army 
became operational on the left flank of the Allied line. The Third U. S. Army had 
begun moving to the Cotentin Peninsula on 5 J uly and was proceeding on the right 
flank of the Allied line. 



150 



FRANCE 




75-MM. HOWITZER MOTOR CARRIAGES M 8, partially concealed by a hedgerow, 
preparing to fire on enemy positions near M arigny (top). M 5 light tanks pass through 
the streets of Coutances (bottom). The first attack was launched on a narrow front 
across the Periers road west of Saint-L6. This attack was supported by heavy artillery 
and aerial bombardment. While the spearhead units advanced in the direction of 
Coutances, the rest of the First U. S. Army was to exert strong pressure and harass 
any attempted enemy withdrawal. M arigny was taken on 26 July and, though the 
enemy resisted stubbornly while trying to keep a corridor open for the withdrawing 
G erman forces, C outances f el I on 28 J uly. 




FRANCE 



151 




ENGINEERS WEARING CAMOUFLAGE SU ITS clean out a street in Canisy (top). 
Infantry troops set up a 57-mm. antitank gun Ml (bottom). Advances south from 
Saint-L6 reached Tessy-sur-Vire on 28 July, while another attack farther east met 
with severe resistance in the vicinity of Foret de Cerisy. In the British-Canadian sec- 
tor the advance had been halted by a strong enemy belt of antitank guns, dug-in 
tanks, and mortars. 




152 



FRANCE 








MAIL CALL AT THE FRONT (top). The receiving of mail was always an important 
morale factor and every effort was made to get it to the men as quickly as possible. 
Infantrymen reading German propaganda leaflets during a rest period (bottom). 
German planes dropped propaganda leaflets in an attempt to discourage theA Mies in 
their advances. These had little effect on the troops and the advances continued with 
all possible speed. 




FRANCE 



153 




PRISONERS TAKEN BYTHEALLIES during the early part of August. M any of the 
men of the enemy forces were non-Germanic, some were Russians or members of 
Russian units who had been captured by the Germans on the eastern front and sent 
to Normandy as part of the enemy defense units. As the enemy retreat began to 
degenerate into a disorderly rout many prisoners were taken, and on 28 July 4,500 
were captured. 




154 



FRANCE 




FRENCH WOMAN, returning to her home after the German withdrawal, passes a 
knocked out self-propelled antitank gun {Pz. Jaeg. 38 with 7.5-cm. Pak. 40/3). M any 
of the civilians left their homes and towns during the fighting and returned after- 
wards, often to find that they had lost their homes during the artillery shelling and 
aerial bombing. However, in some cases the civilian population stayed in the towns 
during the fighting. 



FRANCE 



155 




MOTOR COLUMN ADVANCING ALONG A ROAD near Coutances. On 29 J uly 
U. S. armored divisions trapped an enemy column about seven miles southeast of 
Coutances. Fighter bombers came in and attacked the closely jammed columns of 
vehicles destroying 137 tanks and over 500 other vehicles. 



156 



FRANCE 




AN ARMORED COLUM N led by a light armored car M 8 stops for a few minutes 
during its advance to Avranches (top). An M 4 medium tank moving through a street 
in Avranches (bottom). On 30 July an armored division closely followed by an 
infantry division closed in on Cranville. Another armored division entered Avranches 
and secured two bridges across the See River. The break-through was completed by 
31 J uly, the area between Granville and Avranches was cleared of enemy pockets of 
resistance, and the U. S. forces struck southward in the direction of Villedieu. 




FRANCE 



157 




ARMORED VEHICLES FIRING ON ENEMY TROOPS during the advance 
southward (top). Tanks and trucks of a French armored division in the assembly 
area after landing and before starting south to join the U. S. forces (bottom). On 
1 August 1944, as the U. S. forces poured around the crumpled German flank at 
Avranches, a major revision was effected in the organization of the A Hied forces. 
The Third U. S. Army became operational and at the same time the 12th Army 
Group headquarters also became operational and assumed command of the First 
and Third U. S. Armies. The 21 Army Group was at this time made up of the 
British Second and the Canadian First A rmies. 









jJgBgf .'- MBS 











158 



FRANCE 



SEE RIVER 




AVRANCHESANDTHE SURROUNDING COU NTRY. After the fall of thecity the 
Allied drive gained momentum and the advancing troops swept out of Normandy. 



FRANCE 



159 




Turning toward the east and the west in two attacks, the A 1 1 ies drove to the German 
frontier and the tip of the Brittany Peninsula. 



160 



FRANCE 




AMMUNITION BEING UNLOADED at an Ordnance dump after it had been 
brought inland from the beach (top). During the advance of the A 1 1 ies south follow- 
ing the breakout from Normandy a maximum effort was required to keep all the 
using units supplied with ammunition. Tankers of an armored unit reloading their 
.30-caliber ammunition belts during the drive southward (bottom). 




FRANCE 



161 




A BULLDOZER (tractor, earth moving crawler, diesel) pulling a jeep from a crater 
(top). Engineers using a truck-mounted revolving crane swing a section of a tread- 
way bridge into place over the Vire River near Pontfarcy (bottom). 




162 



FRANCE 




INFANTRYMEN TAKING A BREAK, their Mi's leaning against the wall of a 
destroyed building. The Third U. S. Army drove southward from Avranches on 1 
August with the mission of clearing the Brittany Peninsula and securing the ports. 
The attacks were spearheaded by armored divisions against only scattered opposition 
and by 3 August Loudeac was reached, infantrymen were closing in on the fortress 
of Saint-M alo, armored units were striking toward Vannes and Nantes, and Rennes 
had been captured. The 21st Army Group and First U. S. Army met dogged enemy 
resistance, but M ortain was occupied by the latter. 



FRANCE 



163 




AN INFANTRYMAN USING HIS HELMET ASA BASIN while washing at a town 
pump. The weather during this period was hot and dry; inland from the coast there 
was little fog. The advancing men took every opportunity during the rapid advances 
to stop for a quick wash. 



164 



FRANCE 




AN M4A1 MEDIUM TANK rolls through a battered French village. After the rapid 
advances through the Brittany Peninsula, U. S. forces were left in front of the main 
port cities to contain the enemy. The Third U. S. Army turned eastward driving with 
strong armored forces on the general axis of Laval-Le M ans-Chartres. The terrain 
that would be encountered in a drive to the Seine would be favorable for the use of 
armor, and the weather was expected to be good. n 4 A ugust M ayenne was captured 
and contact with First U. S. Army units was established. During the next five days 
the drive to the east continued for a distance of 85 miles and the cities of A ngers and 
Le M ans were taken. 



FRANCE 



165 




INFANTRYMEN FIGHTING IN HEDGEROWS near Mortain. Shortly after mid- 
night on 7 August a German counterattack struck the U. S. infantry division in the 
area of Mortain. By morning, when the enemy had penetrated the First Army line 
some three or four miles, Allied aircraft equipped with rockets attacked the enemy. 
Three U. S. divisions were quickly shifted to the area and for the next three days a 
fierce battle raged as the Germans tried to cut the corridor through which the T hird 
Army was advancing onto the plains of western France. On 11 August, M ortain was 
re-entered by the First Army. 



166 



FRANCE 




U. S. ARTILLERY OBSERVATION POST near Barenton, between Mortain and 
Domfront. After the failure of the German counterattack in the vicinity of M ortain 
the only alternative for the enemy was to retreat, and a gradual withdrawal was made 
toward the Seine River. During this period two simultaneous battles were fought: one 
by First Army troops and those of 21 Army Group around the Falaise-A rgentan pock- 
et, the other by the T hird Army which was driving hard to the Seine River. 



FRANCE 



167 




INFANTRYMEN OF THE FIRST ARMY advancing in the vicinity of Sourdeval 
against the withdrawing enemy forces. The Canadian First Army advancing south- 
ward along the Caen-Falaise road was to join forces with the U. S. troops advancing 
eastward. The Germans put up a strong defense against the A Hied troops advancing 
to encircle them. 



168 



FRANCE 




AN M 4 M EDIUM TANK, rolling into Dreux, passes a German antitank gun (7.5-cm. 
Pale. 40). On 14 August the Third Army was ordered to leave sufficient forces to hold 
Argentan and to take advantage of the enemy's disorganization by continuing the 
main advance to the east. Advances were made against Dreux, Chartres, and Orleans. 
On 15 August Dreux was captured and on 17 August the First Army took over at 
Argentan. On 18 August the Thi rd Army forces swung north to seize crossings of the 
Seine River below Paris and to begin the deep encirclement of the German troops 
south of the river. 



FRANCE 



169 




TWO TYPES OF U. S. TRACKED VEHICLES, each mounting a 105-mm. 
howitzer. 105-mm. howitzer motor carriage M 7 (top); medium tank M 4A3 with 
105-mm. howitzer (bottom). 




170 



FRANCE 




CONVOY CARRYING GASOLINE ALONG RED BALL HIGHWAY. These are 
4-5-ton trucks (tractors) towing 2,000-gal Ion semitrailers (top). A 12-ton truck tow- 
ing a 45-ton trailer loaded with ammunition, stops along Red Ball Highway (bottom). 
With the resistance offered by the retreating enemy at a minimum during this period, 
fuel was a more vital requisite than ammunition. Approximately a million gallons of 
gasoline were needed at the front every day to enable the armored columns to main- 
tain their headlong rate of advance. 




FRANCE 



171 



m *153kti> 




MILITARY POLICEMAN DIRECTS TRAFFIC ON RED BALL HIGHWAY. The 
three essential supplies were food, ammunition, and gasoline, and to get these to the 
armored spearheads as quickly as possible a system known as the Red Ball Express 
was instituted. By this, a circular one-way traffic route was established across France 
from the beachheads to the fighting zone and back again. All civilian and local mil- 
itary traffic was prohibited the use of the Red Ball Highway, and along it the convoys 
swept at high speed day and night. 




IT = , = Ml 



RAILROAD EQUIPMENT BEING UNLOADED FROM A SEATRAIN at Cher- 
bourg. Motor convoys could not handle the vast quantities of supplies needed to 
maintain the A 1 1 i ed fighting forces and it was necessary to supplement these convoys 
with rail transportation. The first scheduled run was made between Cherbourg and 
Carentan on 11 July 1944, using mostly salvaged French equipment. As soon as the 
Cherbourg port facilities were sufficiently restored, equipment was brought over 
from England and put into service. 




DESTROYED RAILROAD EQUIPMENT. So greatly had the French railroads 
suffered that over 900 locomotives and a third of the rolling stock used had to be 
supplied from Allied sources in England. In addition to replacing locomotives and 
cars, bridges had to be constructed, wrecked trains had to be cleared, and tracks 
had to be replaced. Damage by Allied bombings at every major junction and mar- 
shalling yard had to be repaired. These tasks fell to men of the Corps of Engineers 
and the Transportation Corps. 




174 



FRANCE 




AN INFANTRYMAN ARMED WITH AN Ml RIFLE looks at two German rocket 
launchers left behind by the enemy (8.8-cm. Racketenpanzerbuchse) . The German 
weapon was of larger caliber and was heavier than the U. S. rocket launcher but sim- 
ilar in appearance and operation. 



FRANCE 



175 




SIGNAL CORPS MAN OPERATING A SWITCHBOARD BD71. This small 
switchboard weighed approximately fifty pounds, had six lines, and was used with 
headset HS30, ear plugs, and chest set microphone. The set was generally used by 
regiments and smaller units. When the break-through came at the end of J uly 1944 
the speed of the advances imposed a heavy strain on the communications person- 
nel. Spearhead units relied mostly on radio communications, but a line net of great 
complexity was required in the rear areas to cope with the amount of traffic 
involved. Civilian communications were of limited value because of the lack of 
maintenance during the years of war destruction, and within four months of D Day 
the A Mies laid over 100,000 circuit miles of telephone line. 



176 



FRANCE 




A PORTION OF THE CITY OF FALAISE which was occupied on 17 August by 
Canadian First A rmy troops who had pushed down the Caen-Falaise road. This city 
on the northeast corner of the Falaise pocket was on the north corner of the encir- 
clement in which the German troops were trapped. 



FRANCE 



177 




A PORTION OF THE CITY OF ARGENTAN, the southeast corner of the Falaise 
pocket. On 12 August the Third Army armored divisions were at Argentan and 
Ecouche with infantry divisions in support. The enemy struggled to escape from the 
pocket through the gap between Falaise and Argentan and concentrated on removing 
his armored units, leaving the infantry to hold off the A Mies. A considerable part of 
eight armored divisions managed to escape from the closing Allied pincers but left 
behind a great proportion of their equipment. On 20 August the trap was closed on 
more than seven infantry divisions and parts of two armored divisions. By 22 August 
the enemy in the pocket had been eliminated. 



178 



FRANCE 




INFANTRYMEN PICKING THEIR WAY THROUGH DEBRIS and rubble in 
Domfront in pursuit of the fleeing enemy. When the Falaise-A rgentan pocket was 
closed, Allied divisions inside the pocket pressed in on the remnants of the German 
divisions. 



FRANCE 



179 




INFANTRYMEN FIRING ON THE ENEMY during the house-to-house fighting in 
Saint-M alo (top). Infantrymen prepare to fire on enemy positions in Saint-M alo 
with their .30-caliber Browning machine gun M 191 7A 1 (bottom). During the rapid 
advances to the east, the fighting on the Brittany Peninsula was still going on. On 
17 August the last Germans in the citadel of Saint-M alo had been captured, and the 
U. S. division taking the city was moved to the southeast to cover the Loire flank 
west of Tours. 




180 



FRANCE 



LE PETIT BEY 



LE GRAND BEY 



CITADEL 




THE HARBOR AT SAINT-MALO. In the strongly defended forts in and around 



FRANCE 



181 



FORT NATIONAL 



FORT DU NAYE 




the harbor stubborn groups of Germans held out against the U. S. attacking forces. 



182 



FRANCE 




, + 



SWABBING OUT THE BARREL OF AN 81-MM. MORTAR Ml before firing. 
During the battle of the Falaise-Argentan pocket U. S. artillery poured shells of all 
calibers into the pocket, and Allied aircraft hammered the Germans relentlessly. 



FRANCE 



183 




PREPARING TO FIRE A 60-M M . MORTAR M 2. The intense artillery fire and 
aerial bombing littered the countryside with all types of German vehicles and 
equipment. German commanders were able to control only small groups of their 
troops, so great was the confusion. 



184 



FRANCE 




KaBsl^KKBI^BNl^KiiHBZu 

INFANTRYMEN, ARMED WITH CARBINES M1AND RIFLE Ml, discuss the 
action in which they have taken part (top). Engineers of an armored division relax in 
a French town during the advance of the U. S. troops (bottom). In the battle of the 
Falaise-A rgentan pocket the Allies did not accomplish the utter destruction of the 
German forces in Normandy, but the enemy troops were broken as an effective fight- 
ing force and the way across France was open. During this period enemy losses 
included 70,000 killed and captured. 




FRANCE 



185 




MEN AND VEHICLES ADVANCING TOWARD PARIS (3-inch gun motor carriage 
M 10). Mopping-up the Falaise-A rgentan pocket was assigned to troops of the 21 
Army Group, while the First Army forces moved eastward. The Third Army was 
again moving eastward, and by the evening of 25 August the A 1 1 ies held most of the 
Seine River west of Paris. On 15 August the Seventh U. S. Army invaded southern 
France and moved northward to join forces with the A 1 1 i es in northern France. 




186 



FRANCE 




240-MM. HOWITZER Ml FIRING on one of the Brittany fortresses (top). 
Cannoneers sight their 105-mm. howitzer M 3, from a camouflaged position, during 
the seige of Brest (bottom). By 25 August only the three fortresses of Brest, L orient, 
and Saint-N azaire still offered resistance. A co-ordinated attack was launched on 
Brest by three infantry divisions supported by artillery of all calibers. 



>vLJ ■ J 

r 







FRANCE 



187 




INFANTRYMEN AND AID MEN ADVANCE ON BREST. In this area the Germans 
blew up pillboxes to avoid their capture and some of the U. S. attackers were killed 
or wounded in the blasts. 




A PORTION OF THE HARBOR AT BREST. This city on the Atlantic Ocean, with 
its good docks and harbors, was desirable as a supply port of entry. The enemy forces 
held out here until 18 September 1944, at which time the A 1 1 i es had moved so far to 




the east that the distance from Brest to the front lines was too great to make Brest an 
important landing point. Also the port was so badly damaged during the fighting that 
it became practically useless. 



190 



FRANCE 




MEMBERS OF THE FRENCH RESISTANCE FIGHTING in the streets of Paris. 
The A Hies had originally intended to bypass Paris so as to avoid its destruction in an 
assault. On 19 August 1944 fighting between the Germans and the French Forces of 
the Interior broke out in the city. The French were soon in need of relief, because of 
the shortage of ammunition, and Allied forces were shifted to take the city. M eeting 
with little resistance, a French armored division and a U. S. infantry division entered 
the city and by noon on 25 A ugust the German commander formally surrendered. 




FRANCE 



191 




PA R I SI A NS SCATTER as a German sniper fires at them during the celebration of 
the A 1 1 i ed entry into Paris (top). U. S. troops march down the Champs Elysees dur- 
ing a victory parade in Paris (bottom). The last German resistance ceased in Paris on 
27 August, and the next day the city was turned over to a French general who was to 
be the military governor. 




I rl 

m 






I- 




192 



FRANCE 







AN 8-INCH GUN Ml BEING TOWED INTO POSITION by a high-speed 18-ton M 4 
tractor (top). The crew of an 8-inch howitzer fires on the enemy across the Seine 
River (bottom). The Canadian First Army cleaned up the enemy pockets west of the 
Seine by 31 August, and the U. S. forces regrouped to pursue the enemy east of the 
river and begin their drive toward Germany. 




FRANCE 



193 




TOWED 155-MM. GUNS Ml CROSS A BAILEY BRIDGE over the Seine. U. S. 
troops advanced northeast from the Seine River bridgeheads to take Reims and 
Chalons-sur-M arne. 




3-INCH GUN AND .50-CALIBER MACHINE GUN of an M 10 tank destroyer fire 
on enemy troops trying to destroy a M arne River bridge. On 26 August Chateau- 
Thierry was captured. On 28 August Chalons-sur-M arne was taken and the following 
day Reims fell. 



FRANCE 



195 




AN M 4A1 TANK passes a burning German vehicle. By 30 August Sai nt-D izier was 
reached and on 31 August the ground east of the M euse River near Commercy was 
seized while Verdun was captured and the meuse Rive crossed in that area. At the end 
of August the drives of the First and Third U. S. Armies were slowed down by lack 
of fuel. 



196 



FRANCE 




ENGINEERS LAYING A GASOLINE PIPELINE in France, In an effort to transport 
fuel to the front-line units of the A Mies, three fuel pipelines were laid across France. 
This also relieved the road traffic which became more and more congested as the 
number of Allied troops in France increased. 







FRANCE 



197 




MEDICAL AID MEN MOVE UP UNDER FIRE to give first aid to a wounded in- 
fantryman (top). A wounded German is given medical aid by U. S. soldiers (bottom), 
by 3 September first army troops had cleared most of the army's zone south of the 
Belgian border. On that day the remnants of twenty disorganized divisions were 
trapped before they could reach the Belgian border and 25,000 men were quickly 
liquidated. The British entered Brussels on 3 September and were also closing in on 
Le Havre, one of the major port cities on the coast. 




-i^fC 




198 



BELGIUM 




A LIGHT ARMORED CAR M8 ENTERING BELGIUM. On 1 September 1944, 
Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force (SHAEF), was established at 
Versailles and assumed the active direction of the 12th and 21 Army Groups. During 
this period the main problem was that of supplying the racing armored columns since 
the only points of entry were the beaches and Cherbourg, a distance too far removed 
from the A Hied forces advancing to the German frontier. By early September supply 
trucks were traveling 600 to 900 miles in round trips to carry fuel, ammunition, and 
rations to the combat units. 



BELGIUM 



199 




75-MM. HOWITZER MOTOR CARRIAGES M8 in Belgium (top). 155-mm. gun 
motor carriage M 12 firing in Belgium (bottom). In spite of the shortage of supplies 
the pursuit of the enemy continued between 4 and 14 September 1944, with the great- 
est A Hied gains being made on the northern front. On 4 September the British forces 
captured the port city of Antwerp, one of the greatest prizes of the war. On 12 
September the city of Le Havre surrendered. These two cities were of extreme impor- 
tance because of their port facilities and their nearness to the battle front. In both 
harbors the enemy had carried out measures to render the ports useless, but they were 
not too badly damaged to prevent repair. 







200 



FRANCE 




LIGHT ARM ORED CAR M 8 of a reconnaissance unit stops during its drive through 
Belgium toward the border of the Netherlands (top). Advancing infantrymen ride on 
a 3-inch gun motor carriage M 10 (bottom). By 14 September 1944 the sustained 
drive of the First Army had stopped and the Germans were righting on their own soil 
for the first time in many years. 




FRANCE 



201 




INFANTRYMEN M OV ING AN ASSAULT BOAT down to the banks of the M oselle 
River at Dornot (top); crossing the M oselle (bottom). Efforts to obtain enough gaso- 
line were generally unavailing and most of the units of the Third Army were halted 
at the Moselle. On 5 September a crossing was made north of Nancy while on 8 
September another was made below M etz. The Germans made numerous counterat- 
tacks and occupied the forts around M etz, determined to hold the line in this area. 




GERMANY 




BOEING B-17 FLYING THROUGH HEAVY FLAK over Germany en route to a 
target (top). The Heinkel aircraft factory during an air attack (bottom). 




GERMANY 



203 




MARTIN B-26'S RETURNING FROM A MISSION along the German border in 
support of the Third Army's ground attack. The medium bomber in the upper fore- 
ground of the above picture had operated in the ETO for some time, as is shown by 
the dark-painted fuselage. The plane in the lower foreground has an unpainted fuse- 
lage which enabled it to attain higher speeds. 



204 



FRANCE 




INFANTRYMEN CROSS THE MOSELLE as a ty^ton truck carries wounded men to 
the rear (top). M4A1 medium tank fording a canal (bottom). On 10 September an 
attack was launched to secure bridgeheads over the M oselle below Epinal, which was 
reached on 14 September. The city of Nancy fell on 15 September. 




FRANCE 



205 




INFANTRYMEN ADVANCING in the outskirts of Brest. While the Third Army was 
battling a determined enemy on the M oselle, U.S. forces were still trying to reduce 
the fortress of Brest. On 5 September the Ninth U. S. Army became operational in 
France and assumed the task of eliminating the remaining fortresses on the Brittany 
Peninsula. 




AN 8-INCH GUN Ml FIRING ON GERMAN INSTALLATIONS in Brest. Artillery 
units attacking Brest were reinforced, mostly with medium and heavy caliber guns 
and, after sufficient ammunition had been accumulated, a strong attack was launched 
on 8 September by three infantry divisions. 



FRANCE 



207 




90-MM. GUN MOTOR CARRIAGE M 36 firing at an enemy pillbox in Brest (top). 
76-mm. gun motor carriage M 18 guarding a street intersection in Brest (bottom). On 
14 September the fortress of Brest was still for the most part in German hands, 
despite all efforts to reduce the strongly fortified positions. 




208 



FRANCE 




NEWLY 
River. 



CONSTRUCTED TREADWAY PONTON BRIDGE over the Moselle 



RHINELAND CAMPAIGN 
15 September 1944-15 December 1944 



210 



RHINELAND 




SECTION IV 



Rhineland Campaign 
15 September- 15 December 1944' 



On 15 September 1944 the A Hied forces that had invaded southern 
France came under control of the Supreme Commander, Allied Ex- 
peditionary Force. This added the 6th Army Group to the forces 
opposing the enemy along the German frontier, making a total of forty- 
eight Allied divisions in the European Theater of Operations. In a little 
over three months, 6 June- 15 September 1944, the Western Allies had 
carried their offensives from the Normandy beaches to the western 
borders of Germany. During the next three months little, if any, 
progress was made. Several factors contributed to this general slow- 
down. As fall and winter approached, rain, mud, and snow greatly 
hindered operations and made living conditions extremely trying. The 
terrain became more difficult since many rivers and streams had to be 
crossed and rough, wooded, and hilly country was encountered. Enemy 
resistance stiffened as the A Hies reached the German border. But more 
important than any other single factor was the problem of supplying 
the large forces which had advanced so rapidly that they had outrun 
their supplies. 

During this period, as the Allies came to the West Wall and the 
Rhine, severe fighting took place all along the front. Some of the most 
difficult operations of the war in western Europe occurred during the 
Rhineland Campaign as battles were fought in the Arnhem area, the 
Schelde estuary, the Huertgen Forest, the Aachen sector, the Metz and 
Saar regions, and the Belfort and Saverne Gaps. On 15 December the 
efforts of the Allies in the Rhineland were interrupted when the enemy 
broke through the lines in the Ardennes, causing a shift of troops to 
the A rdennes to rei nforce the I i nes there. 



*See H. M . Cole, The Lorraine Campaign, Washington, D. C, 1950; and Gordon A. Harrison and 
Forest C. Pogue, Jr., The Rhineland and Central Germany, now in preparation for the series U. S. ARM Y IN 
WORLD WAR II. 



FRANCE 



213 




ENLISTED MAN WALKING THROUGH MUD in his bivouac area. The Allied 
advance was halted at the German border by poor weather conditions, difficult ter- 
rain, stiffening German resistance, and, most of all, by lack of supplies. At this time 
the decision was made to employ the greatest strength in the north to attain flanking 
bridgeheads across the lower Rhine River beyond the main fortifications of the West 
Wall. This area was chosen for the drive si nee the terrain to the south was considered 
unsuitable for a rapid advance because of the mountainous and forested country. 



214 



ENGLAND 




PLANES TOWING GLIDERS take off for the invasion of the Netherlands, 17 
September 1944. The First Allied Airborne Army launched its attack to secure a 
bridgehead across the Rhine in the Arnhem area. Complete surprise was achieved 
and the drops and glider landings were effective and in most cases were made in the 
prescribed areas. During the following ten days the fighting was severe with repeat- 
ed German counterattacks. However, the railroad bridge across the Waal River in the 
Nijmegen area was captured on 20 September and remained in Allied hands. By the 
end of September the corridor was widened somewhat and the operation was consid- 
ered a success even though the Allies were forced to evacuate most of the attacking 
troops after numerous casualties were suffered. 



THE NETHERLANDSAND GERMANY 



215 




PARATROOPERS ADVANCING UNDER ENEMY FIRE in theArnhem area (top). 
A captured German self-propelled assault gun {Sturmgeschuetz 7.5-cm. Stu. K. 40) 
(bottom). During the entire operation in the Netherlands which lasted forthirty days, 
from 17 September to 16 October 1944, over 5,500 planes and 2,500 gliders trans- 
ported 34,000 men, and over 1,900 vehicles, 500 artillery pieces, and 5,000 tons of 
supplies. The airborne army suffered more than 13,000 casualties in killed, wounded, 
or missing. 




216 



GERMANY 
















3^ 




1 > 






. 



? 



INFANTRYMEN FOLLOWING A TANK during the advance north of Aachen 
(top). Infantrymen riding on an M 4 medium tank-dozer through the West Wall, 
while others follow on foot (bottom). The last two weeks in September were spent 
by the First Army in probing the enemy's defenses along the frontier. On 2 
October an attack was launched across the German border about eight miles north 
of Aachen. Progress during the next two weeks was slow as troops fought their 
way through six miles of West Wall, or "Siegfried Line," fortifications. 




GERMANY 



217 




A 57-MM. ANTITANK GUN Ml being unlimbered from a half-track during the 
street fighting in Aachen (top). A Browning .30-caliber machine gun M1919A4 
being fired at the enemy in Aachen (bottom). The German troops in Aachen refused 
a surrender ultimatum on 11 October 1944, and during the next three days the city 
was subjected to intense aerial bombardment and artillery fire. Infantrymen entered 
the city on 13 October and after fierce house-to-house fighting almost completely 
occupied Aachen by 20 October. The following day the garrison surrendered, making 
Aachen the first German city to fall to the Allies. The First U. S. Army then began 
preparations for a drive to the Rhine as soon as supplies and reinforcements should 
become available. 




218 



GERMANY 



WEST RAILROADYARDS 




A PORTION OF THE CITY OF AACHEN. During the bitter fighting the Allies 
found it necessary to use all types of artillery weapons, from the 155-mm. gun to the 



GERMANY 

LOUSBERG 



219 




smaller guns of tank destroyers, at point blank range to reduce the heavily fortified 
buildings occupied by enemy troops. 



220 



FRANCE 




BRIDGEHEAD ACROSS THE MOSELLE south of M etz near A rnaville. While the 
U.S. First Army was driving toward the Rhine in the vicinity of Bonn and Cologne, 
the Third A rmy was holding its positions pending the improvement of the supply 
situation. The Ninth Army moved up from Brittany and took its position between 
the First and Third Armies in the Ardennes sector. The battle of Brest ended on 18 
September 1944, and except for enemy resistance in the Atlantic coast port cities 
of Lorient and Saint-N azaire, the Brittany Peninsula was completely in Allied 
hands. 



FRANCE 



221 




M4MEDIUM TANKS on a street in Luneville (top). U.S. troops firing a captured 
German 88-mm. gun in the vicinity of M etz (bottom). The period from 25 
September to 7 November 1944 was the most unproductive phase of the U. S. Third 
Army's operations on the Continent. Troops closed in on the Moselle north of 
Thionville and consolidated their positions east of Nancy. On 18 September the 
Germans launched a counterattack near Luneville but were stopped in their tracks. 
Two other attacks on 22 and 24 September were also stopped and the Germans 
began to retreat on the night of 1-2 October. 



*\^c 




222 



GERMANY 




FIVE-GALLON WATER CANS loaded in a quarter-ton trailer being filled at an 
Engineer water point. The Engineers were responsible for the purification of drink- 
ing water and set up water points from which all units located in the area drew their 
daily supply. 



BELGIUM 



223 




BREAD BEING PLACED ON COOLING RACKS in a Quartermaster bakery after 
being removed from the ovens. 



224 



FRANCE 




INFANTRY M EN FIRING a .30-caliber Browning machine gun M 1917A1 on the 
outskirts of M etz (top). Infantry patrol entering M etz (bottom). For two months the 
U. S. Third Army was stalled in the vicinity of M etz, the fortress which would have 
to be captured before any substantial advance eastward could be made. M etz domi- 
nated three invasion routes into Germany from France: the valley of the Moselle 
through Trier and Coblenz; the K aiserslautern Pass through Saarbruecken to M ainz 
and Worms; and the route through the Saverne Gap from Sarrebourg to Strasbourg 
and the Rhine. Only once in modern times had the fortress of M etz fallen to an 
attacking army— in 1871 the defending French troops surrendered to the Prussians. 




FRANCE 



225 




90-MM. GUN MOTOR CARRIAGE M 36 in Metz. The capture of M etz was 
hindered by rain and floods which canceled the heavy air support and made the 
advance difficult for the ground forces. The attack started on 8 November with only 
artillery support and it was not until 22 November that the city was finally clear of 
all enemy pockets of resistance. The last of the forts which ringed the city was taken 
on 13 December. The Third Army was then confronted by one of the strongest 
sections of the West Wall, and since its reduction would require a vast amount of 
artillery support, the attacks were suspended until the necessary ammunition could 
be brought up. 



226 



FRANCE 



MOSELLE RIVER 
CANAL 



FORT ST.JULIEN 




THE CITY OF M ETZ showing the location of two of the forts which ringed the city. 



FRANCE 



227 



ROUNDHOUSES 



FORT DE QUEULEU 




These and other forts presented problems to the assaulting troops. 



228 



GERMANY AND FRANCE 







THANKSGIVING DINNER AT THE FRONT. During October and November 1944 
the cold, rain, fog, and floods made living conditions of the front-line troops 
miserable. The battle against the weather was as difficult as that against the enemy. 




FRANCE 



229 




ENGINEERS HAULING BRIDGING EQUIPMENT in flooded areas of the 
M oselle River. The flooded rivers and smaller streams made the task of bridging 
extremely difficult during this period of the fighting along the German frontier 
since, in addition to the wider than normal spans necessary to cross the rivers, the 
weather was cold and rainy, adding to the hardships of those employed in the task. 



arJaW-.-aT 








■* < 

'■ 




** f jM r # : .a 


T> if^^*^ mmn f « ~" * 




v - 




_ 



230 



GERMANY 




TRACK EXTENSIONS being put on the track of a medium tank. The maneuver- 
ability of tanks and other tracked vehicles was greatly hampered by mud along the 
front lines. Confronted by a problem more serious than anticipated, Ordnance per- 
sonnel quickly designed and started production of track extensions at the rate of 156 
separate pieces for each tank. Civilian manufacturing facilities were utilized in 
France and Belgium and before the program was completed 1,500,000 extensions 
had been made and welded to the tank tracks. 



FRANCE 



231 




AN M4A3MEDIUM TANK fitted with track extensions maneuvering through soupy 
ground. Track extensions were so devised as to give better flotation and traction 
through the November mud. 



232 



GERMANY 




105-M M . HOWITZER M 3 shelling enemy positions. After the capture of Aachen 
the First and Ninth Armies prepared for a new offensive. The initial objectives were 
to capture bridgeheads over the Roer River in the vicinity of Dueren and make 
advances toward Juelich. At the same time the defensive positions in the Ardennes 
area were held. After a four-day delay the weather cleared and planes of the A Hied 
air forces began the attack. Several towns including Dueren and Juelich were 
reduced to rubble. 



GERMANY 



233 




MEDIUM TANKS FIRING during the assault toward the Roer River (top). 155-mm. 
gun motor carriage M 12 firing on enemy held positions (bottom). In spite of the 
elaborate preparations made for the attack and the great concentration of combat 
power, progress was extremely slow. Each of the towns was woven into a network in 
which each house had to be reduced, and each foot of the muddy ground was defend- 
ed to the last by the enemy troops. The attack plowed on determinedly in the mud and 
cold and on 3 December 1944 the Ninth Army came to the Roer. The First Army also 
attacked until the river was reached. (Note the newer type track with cleats on the 
treads to give better traction.) 




234 



GERMANY 




3-INCH GUN MOTOR CARRIAGES M 10 move up in the Huertgen Forest area. 
Troops of the First and Ninth Armies had been fighting their way toward Schmidt 
since September in one of the most bitterly contested actions of the war. One of the 
major obstacles in the advance was the Huertgen Forest which covered roughly the 
triangle of Aachen-Dueren-M onschau. In the vicinity of Schmidt were dams which 
controlled the level of the Roer River, and while these were still in enemy hands 
water could be released flooding the valley of the Roer. It was therefore considered 
necessary to take this area and the dams before the river was crossed by the attacking 
U. S. forces. 



GERMANY 



235 




INFANTRYMEN pushing through the Huertgen Forest near Vossenack, Germany 
(top). Vehicles moving up a muddy road through the forest (bottom). The Germans 
had strengthened this natural barrier by the clever use of wire, pillboxes, and mines, 
and the U. S. infantrymen, restricted by the rough wooded terrain, were forced to 
fight for the most part without the aid of artillery or air support. On 13 December 
the attack on the dams was renewed but the going was still slow. Casualties to the two 
armies advancing in this area were high. 




236 



GERMANY 



KALL RIVER 



OUTSKIRTS OF VOSSENACK 




KOMMERSCHEIDT AND THE SURROUNDING AREA. The terrain of the 
Schmidt and Vossenack areas, like that of the H uertgen Forest, was hilly and wooded. 



GERMANY 



KALL RIVER 




The Roer River dams in this area were important objectives for the A Hies during this 
part of the campaign. 



238 



GERMANY 




TIRED, DIRTY, HUNGRY INFANTRYMEN eat their first hot meal after fifteen 
days of siege of the town of H uertgen. 



GERMANY 



239 







BATTLE-WEARY GERMANS who were among the last to surrender after the battle 
of the Huertgen Forest which lasted for several weeks. 



240 



FRANCE 




MINE EXPLODER T1E3 attached to a medium tank. This model was an improve- 
ment over the earlier one because of its chain-driven exploder disks. On the first 
models the exploder disks rolled freely and were not power driven. The new model 
also had a higher degree of indestructibility and greater maneuverability and could 
be driven in mud eighteen inches deep and across broken terrain. TheTlE3 could be 
driven across a Class 70 military bridge. 




GERMANY 



241 




FIRING ROCKETS during the fighting in the Huertgen Forest area. In the above 
pictures 4.5-inch multiple rocket launchers T27 are mounted on 2 J /2-ton trucks and 
consist of eight tubes in a single bank. Two banks are mounted on each of the trucks 
with the rockets being fired at half-second intervals. 




242 



FRANCE AND GERMANY 







FOG OIL being used to produce a smoke screen to limit observation during river 
crossings. This function of the Chemical Warfare companies was utilized in covering 
the activities of troops at ports, airfields, docks, and harbors in addition to concealing 
vital points from direct enemy air observation during advances and river crossings. 
When the danger of aerial attack was practically eliminated it was still used against 
ground observation. By means of a generator the fog oil was converted into a white 
fog which was used effectively whenever the wind conditions were not strong enough 
to disperse the screen too rapidly. 









*EMb0W^ * 




... 7% 





BELGIUM 



243 




90-M M . ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN M I being fired at a German flying bomb passing 
over Belgium. Liege was subjected to an attack by these robot bombs and suffered 
considerable damage. Because of the great speed of these weapons it was difficult to 
combat them, but later with the utilization of the newly developed proximity fuse, the 
seriousness of the threat of the flying bombs diminished. 




SEVENTH ARMY VEHICLES CROSSING THE MOSELLE. During the later half 
of September the 6th Army Group's positions were consolidated, boundaries were 
adjusted, divisions were shifted into their proper zones, and plans were made for the 
advance to the Rhine. 




FRANCE 



245 




4.2-INCH CHEMICAL MORTAR being fired during the advance of the Seventh 
Army, October 1944. 



246 



FRANCE 




THREE INFANTRYM EN of the Seventh Army looking down on a village in France 
from a hilltop which has been under heavy mortar and artillery fire. 



FRANCE 



247 




- ' 



" 












INFANTRYMEN CLIMB UPON AN M5 LIGHT TANK in preparation for an 
advance. I n N ovember 1944 the Seventh A rmy was to make the mai n effort of the 6th 
Army Group in an advance toward Sarrebourg and Strasbourg. In the south the 
French First Army was to drive through the Belfort Gap. 



248 



FRANCE 




ARTILLERY LIAISON PLANES grounded in the Seventh Army area. In theVosges 
mountains snow drifted over the roads, the temperature dropped below freezing, and 
streams overflowed their banks. 



FRANCE 



249 




INFANTRYMEN OF THE SEVENTH ARMY advance through snow and sleet.The 
attack of 6th Army Group was to breach the Vosges mountains whereupon the two 
armies would join in the Rhine plain to isolate the enemy's Vosges positions. Short 
of artillery ammunition, the troops slugged it out with the enemy over difficult 
terrain and in increasingly bad weather, with the infantry carrying most of the burden. 



250 



FRANCE 




■SSjS 




SEVENTH ARMY ARTILLERYMEN loading a 105-mm. howitzer M2A1. The 
attack was launched, after an all-night artillery preparation, in a snow storm on the 
morning of 13 November 1944. At noon on 14 November the French First Army 
jumped off in its attack. On 16 November the French broke through the Belfort 
defenses and on 20 November reached the Rhine. Mulhouse fell on 22 November 
despite a quickly established enemy defensive line. 



FRANCE 



251 




A 105-MM. HOWITZER MOTOR CARRIAGE M7 being fired on German positions 
in the Rhine Valley (top). Infantrymen wait in a shallow zig-zag trench before 
advancing (bottom). On 20 November Sarrebourg was captured and on 22 November 
Saverne fell. By 27 November Strasbourg and its ring of defending forts had been 
taken. After the collapse of the enemy positions in the Vosges, the Seventh Army 
attacked northward and by the middle of December had crossed the German frontier 
on a 22-mile front and penetrated the West Wall defenses northeast of Wissembourg. 
In the meantime the German forces which had been driven from the Vosges main- 
tained their bridgehead in the Colmar area, which became known as the Colmar 
pocket before it was finally liquidated. 







252 



GERMANY AND BELGIUM 




REWARDS FOR STANDING IN LINE: men receiving typhus booster shots (top); 
men exchanging their French and Belgium francs for German marks (bottom). 




BELGIUM AND GERMANY 



253 




» 



WOUNDED SOLDIERS BEING EVACUATED in tracked vehicles during the 
winter months. Cargo carrier M 29 (top) ; half-track personnel carrier M 3 (bottom). 




254 



FRANCE 




OPENING THE VALVE ON A GASOLINE PIPELINE. The critical fuel situation of 
September, which had stalled the armored divisions at the West Wall, was materially 
improved by December. At that time three main pipelines were constructed or under 
construction: one for the northern armies, one for the central armies, and another for 
the southern armies. 



FRANCE 



255 




FIVE-GALLON CANS BEING FILLED WITH GASOLINE at a distribution point. 
On 15 December 1944 the armies had from a five- to nine-day supply of gasoline on 
hand while the Ninth Air Force had over 600,000 gallons of aviation gasoline and oil 
stored in the Namur area. 



256 



BELGIUM 




ARMY SUPPLIES BEING UNLOADED at Antwerp. The greatest single factor in 
the improved supply situation was the port of Antwerp which became operational 
on 27 November. Despite heavy attacks from the German "V" weapons the port 
discharged cargo which was badly needed by the forces fighting along the German 
frontier, utah and omaha Beaches ceased operations in November and then only the 
larger port cities were used as supply ports of entry. 



FRANCE 



257 




AMPHIBIAN TRUCKS LOADING SUPPLIES into railroad cars after bringing them 
ashore from ships in the harbor of Le Havre (top). In addition to Antwerp, the major 
Allied ports were Le Havre, Ghent (opened in January 1945), Rouen, Cherbourg, and 
Marseille. An enlisted man reading a directive, signed by the theater commander, 
concerning the conservation of tires, an effort made to curtail the wasteful use of 
equipment and supplies (bottom). While in general the supply situation was much 
improved over that in September there were still critical shortages in a wide variety 
of items including antifreeze, tires, post exchange rations, miscellaneous signal 
equipment, and some winter clothing. 



, 









Vl« 

lta <T ■>«■- 



■ ■ ;v./ 

- ... 

- ■.*. IT b ^ ^™, 



. .. . 



$u*?&*$+-<U+^ 




258 



BELGIUM 




21/2-TON TRUCKS PICK UP RATIONS at a Belgian railhead (top). 10-ton 
semitrailers loaded with rations at Antwerp, ready to be hauled to the forward 
depots (bottom). The multiple-drive motor transport vehicles were continuously on 
the move and made possible the supplying of troops during the rapid advances. 




ARDENNES-ALSACE CAMPAIG 



260 



ARDENNES-ALSACE 



SECTION V 

A rdennes- Alsace Campaign 



In mid-December 1944 the Allies stopped along the German 
border, but continued to attack in theSaarand Roer regions, while they 
concentrated the majority of their strength for an attack in the north. 
The Germans, taking advantage of their continuous front along the 
West Wall, planned a counterattack to strike the Allies in one of the 
weakest portions of the line— the Ardennes sector. The ultimate goals 
of this German operation were to capture the port city of Antwerp, 
sever the major Allied supply lines emanating from that port, and 
destroy the Allied forces north of the Antwerp-Brussels-Bastogne 
line. 

Early on the morning of 16 December the German armies struck the 
A Hied troops located in Belgium and Luxembourg. TheAllies holding this 
portion of the line were too thinly dispersed to offer any great resistance 
against the powerful enemy attack and were forced to fall back. While the 
defenders fought the Germans, Allied armies shifted their drives and 
troops were rushed to the A rdennes to rei nforce the hard hit units along the 
front from Monschau to Echternach. After severe fighting during late 
December 1944 and early January 1945 the Germans were defeated and 
by 25 January the A I lies were once more ready to move toward Germany 
through the West Wall defenses. During the A rdennes- Alsace Campaign 
winter set in and the cold weather and snow-covered terrain made opera- 
tions and living conditions extremely difficult. 

During this period the British forces in the north eliminated the 
Germans in the Roermond triangle and captured the enemy bridgehead 
west of the Roer River. The U. S. and French troops of the 6th Army 
Group fought a determined enemy in Lorraine and Alsace and by 25 
January had driven the attacking Germans back across the Moder 
River. 



262 INTRODUCTION 

The Ardennes- Alsace Campaign, which delayed the Rhineland 
Campaign for six weeks, secured no major terrain objectives for either 
side. The Germans, who had employed some of their best remaining 
units, lost nearly 250,000 men, 600 tanks and assault guns, and about 
1,600 airplanes. The A Hies suffered 72,000 casualties. 

On 6 January 1945 the Fifteenth U. S. Army became operational on 
the Continent and was assigned to the 12th Army Group, taking over 
many of that army group's responsibilities in the rear areas. 



BELGIUM 



263 




GERMAN SOLDIER WITH AMMUNITION BELTS moves forward during the 
enemy counterattack in the Ardennes. German morale was higher than at any time 
since the Allies had landed, partly because the individual soldier had been propa- 
gandized into believing that this was the opportunity to destroy the A 1 1 i ed troops in 
the west. At 0530 on 16 December 1944 three German armies attacked on a 50- 
mile front in eastern Belgium and northern Luxembourg. This battle was popular- 
ly known as the Battle of the Bulge. 



264 



BELGIUM 




ENEMY TROOPS PASS BURNING U. S. EQUIPMENT. The initial German 
attacks, following a heavy artillery preparation, were launched all along the front, 
roughly from M onschau to Echternach. The first objective was to secure the high 
ground of the HoheVenn but the drive by the enemy met with stiff resistance and 
he was forced to commit his armor before noon on 16 December. Further attacks 
in the northern sector were no more successful and by night the Germans were still 
fighting at the approaches to the Elsenborn Ridge. 



* '^'^T^*"*^?* 




BELGIUM 



265 




A GERMAN SOLDIER waving members of his unit forward. Spurred on by ex- 
pressions of the German commanders such as "Forward to and over the M euse" and 
"We gamble everything now— we cannot fail," enemy troops drove forward in a 
determined effort to defeat the A Hies. South of the Elsenborn Ridge in the vicinity 
of the Losheim Gap U. S. troops were overwhelmed and forced to withdraw. By 
evening the enemy, though blocked in the north, had broken through the thinly held 
American line and drove toward Stavelot and Huy, the first objective on the M euse 
River. Still further to the south in the Echternach area, the U. S. forces stopped the 
enemy after he had made limited gains. The Allied situation along the front was 
extremely grave. 



266 BELGIUM 



TYPICAL ARDENNES TERRAIN. The rough, wooded tableland of the Ardennes in 
eastern Belgium and northern Luxembourg is broken by many small streams which 
become serious obstacles during periods of heavy rain or thaw. TheArdennes contains 



BELGIUM 267 



a fair primary but poor secondary road system. Because of the rough terrain the main 
centers of the road net assumed great importance during the Battle of the Bulge. 
Heavy snow made infantry maneuver difficult and seriously limited tank movement. 



268 



BELGIUM 




GERMAN "KING TIGER" OR "TIGER ROYAL" heavy tank passing a line of cap- 
tured U. S. soldiers being marched to the rear (top). U. S. prisoners of the enemy 
taken during the early fighting in the Battle of the Bulge (bottom). Two U. S. reg- 
iments near Saint-Vith were surrounded and most of the men were taken prisoner 
before U. S. reinforcements could arrive on the scene. The enemy attacks on 
Elsenborn Ridge were stopped by these U. S. reinforcements on 17 December, but 
this help came too late to save from capture the men shown above and those of an 
artillery battery who were caught by an enemy armored column south of M almedy. 




BELGIUM 



269 




AN INFANTRYMAN PAUSING IN HIS ADVANCE through the forest. During the 
first ten days of the battle confusion reigned as hastily shifted troops arrived to 
reinforce the efforts of the isolated units attempting to halt the enemy attack. 



270 



BELGIUM 




A BATTERY OF 155-MM. HOWITZERS Ml being emplaced (top). M embers of an 
airborne division moving up through the forest (bottom). On 18 December German 
patrols passed through a gap between M almedy and Saint-Vith and continued as far 
west as Werbomont. Other enemy troops tried to push north through Stavelot but 
were stopped by a blown bridge over theAmbleve River and by an improvised task 
force consisting of U. S. infantrymen, engineers, and tank destroyers. Engineer 
demolitions and effective use for the first time of the new proximity fuze by 
artillery strengthened the north shoulder of the growing salient. During the first 
week of the Battle of the Bulge most planes were grounded because of extremely 
poor flying weather. 




BELGIUM 



271 




BATTLE-WEARY TROOPS being relieved of front-line duty as reinforcements 
arrive to take over (top). Infantrymen batter down the door of a house where German 
snipers are holding out in the town of Stavelot (bottom). On 19 December the north 
and south flanks continued to hold, and road centers of Saint-Vith and Bastogne were 
still occupied by U. S. troops though almost surrounded by the enemy. The enemy 
captured Stoumont but the U. S. forces strengthened the line between M almedy and 
Stavelot and with additional reinforcements began to attack the enemy east of 
Stoumont. To the south the enemy took up blocking positions south of the Sauer 
River with some troops as far west as theArlon-Bastogne highway. 




272 



GERMANY 




CREW OF A MULTIPLE GUN MOTOR CARRIAGE M 16 waiting to fire on an 
enemy plane as vapor trails fill the sky. On 20 December control of the First and 
Ninth U. S. Armies passed to the 21 Army Group, while the Third U. S. Army and 
a corps of the First Army remained under 12th Army Group control. On 23 
December the weather cleared sufficiently for planes of the Eighth and Ninth U. S. 
Air Forces and the British Bomber Command to begin a large-scale aerial assault 
on German positions and installations. The German planes which were sent up in 
greater strength than at any other time since the invasion were no match for the 
Allies. On Christmas Day the First U. S. Army launched an attack and made con- 
tact with the British forces in the northern section of the front. For the first time 
since 16 December a continuous Allied front was established. 



BELGIUM 



273 




PART OF AN ARMORED DIVISION of the Third A rmy moving into the Ardennes. 
At the beginning of the Battle of the Bulge Third Army was regrouping for an 
attack on the West Wall in the Saar area. On 18 December an armored division was 
turned north toward the Ardennes sector and was followed by an infantry division 
the next day. The 6th Army Group was turned north to take over the area held by 
Third Army, which during a period of six days broke off its general attack in the 
Saar region, turned left, moved more than a 100 miles over unknown winter roads, 
and mounted an attack with six divisions. 



274 



BELGIUM 




C-47's CARRYING SUPPLIES to surrounded U. S. troops in Bastogne (top). 
Infantrymen in Bastogne (bottom). WhileThird Army was advancing to relieve the 
armored and airborne troops in Bastogne, the battle for the city was being waged. 
The enemy surrounding the city numbered 45,000 while within Bastogne there 
were about 18,000 U.S. troops. The commander of the troops in the city refused to 
surrender to the Germans and continued to hold out against all attacks. The defend- 
ers, cut off from their sources, were supplied by airdrops during this period. On 24 
December over 100 tons of supplies were dropped. 




BELGIUM 



275 





* 4 




INFANTRYMEN FIRE AT GERMAN TROOPS in the advance to relieve the 
surrounded paratroopers in Bastogne. In foreground a platoon leader indicates the 
target to a rifleman by actually firing on the target. In Bastogne the defenders were 
badly in need of relief, they were attacked nightly by German aircraft, supplies were 
critically low in spite of the airdrops, and the wounded could not be given proper 
attention because of the shortage of medical supplies. After an advance which had 
been slow, U. S. relief troops entered Bastogne at 1645 on 26 December 1944. 



276 



BELGIUM 










■ -V*- . ' ' • 

>" a. -~ ; -- - n,L ~ 



INFANTRYMEN ADVANCE ON BASTOGNE (top). Prisoners taken during the 
advance on Bastogne being evacuated (bottom). With the arrival of U.S. relief 
troops were forty truckoads of supplies which were delivered during the night of 
26 December. 625 wounded men were evacuated from the area and the battle con- 
tinued since the enemy had shifted a large portion of his attacking troops in this 
area. On the night of 26 December when the German advance was halted the T hi rd 
Army, consisting of eight divisions and parts of two other battered divisions, faced 
elements of eleven German divisions between the M euse and the M oselle. 




BELGIUM 



277 



V / 







105-MM. HOWITZER MOTOR CARRIAGE M 7 of an armored unit on the alert 
near Bastogne. By 27 December more than thirty-five corps artillery battalions 
were firing approximately 19,000 rounds of ammunition daily in support of the 
Third Army. By the end of the year that army was supported by over 1,000 guns of 
105-mm. caliber or larger. Christmas night the Third A rmy's artillery began using 
the new proximity fuze, which proved particularly effective in interdicting road 
junctions and harassing enemy positions. 



278 



BELGIUM 




ENGINEERS UNLOADING BARBED WIRE which was used in defensive meas- 
ures against counterattacks. 



BELGIUM 



279 




ENGINEER PLANTING AN ANTITANK MINE on the shoulder of a road as a 
defensive measure during the fighting in the Ardennes. 



280 



BELGIUM 




BASTOGNE AND THE SURROUNDING AREA. Although the corridor which 
had been opened to Bastogne remained in U. S. hands it was far from secure as it 
was less than 300 yards wide in some places. The Germans were passing to the 
defensive in other sectors and concentrating on their attacks in the Bastogne area. 



BELGIUM 



281 



BASTOGNE CREEK RAILROAD 








The mission of the Third A rmy was to widen the corridor, push attacks on Saint- 
Vith, and at the same time reinforce its attacking units. During this period of the 
fighting in Europe adverse weather conditions added greatly to the problems, and 
the snow-and sleet-covered roads hampered the movement of troops. 



282 



BELGIUM 




SOLDIER TAKES TIME OUT TO WASH HIS FEET and put on dry socks. The 
cold weather combined with the snow and dampness caused many cases of trench 
foot during this period. It was difficult when wearing the regular leather shoes to 
keep one's feet dry and warm, but frequent washing and changing of socks helped. 



LUXEMBOURG 



283 




AN ENLISTED MAN PUTS ON A NEW PAIR OF SHOEPACS, The shoepac, 
which was supplied to as many of the troops as possible at this time, helped to 
overcome the heavy incidence of trench foot among the U. S. troops fighting in 
cold and extremely wet climates. This shoe was rubber-bottomed with a leather top 
and was worn with a heavy ski sock and felt innersole. 



284 



BELGIUM 








INFANTRYMEN WEARING SNOW CAPES over their normal clothing. Snow 
caught the U. S. troops without adequate camouflage, and strenuous efforts were 
made to improvise white suits out of mattress covers and linen collected from the 
civilians. 



LUXEMBOURG 



285 




CAMOUFLAGED LIGHT ARMORED GAR M8 and one that has not been paint- 
ed white, showing the effectiveness of snow camouflaging (top). A crew member 
of a 90-mm. gun motor carriage M 36 throwing paint on the bogie wheels after 
painting the vehicle (bottom). Tanks, vehicles, and guns were camouflaged with 
white paint. 




286 



LUXEMBOURG 




• • 



KNOCKED-OUT U. S. MEDIUM TANKS. During the last few days of December 

1944 the main effort in Third Army zone was concentrated in the vicinity of 
Bastogne, while the situation in the rest of the army area remained static. A rmored 
and infantry attacks achieved small gains during which many German counterat- 
tacks were made. Echternach was re-entered on 29 December and all enemy forces 
south of the Sauer River were cleared. The armored divisions continued to advance. 
One, in repulsing several counterattacks, suffered heavy casualties. On 3 January 

1945 the last German attack was made on Bastogne. It was unsuccessful. 



FRANCE 



287 




MEN OF AN INFANTRY DIVISION climbing into box cars to move from the 
Brittany Peninsula to the U. S. Third Army zone. On 9 January 1945 a new attack 
was started after fresh troops had been brought into the battle area. The Germans 
offered fierce resistance in order to keep open their escape route to the east. On 16 
January elements of an armored division of Third Army contacted those from First 
Army, closing the German salient just one month after the enemy had launched his 
counteroffensive in the Ardennes. 



288 



BELGIUM 




INFANTRYMEN BIVOUACKING IN THE WOODS (top) ; field mess (bottom). 
Living conditions during the best of times were not too pleasant for the combat 
soldier, but during the winter the hardships were greatly increased. 




LUXEMBOURG 



289 




* : 






U. S. LIGHT TANKS which were captured by the enemy during the Battle of the 
Bulge. Some of the more serious U. S. losses during this period were 1,284 
machine guns, 542 mortars, 1,344 jeeps, and 237 tanks. Not all of these losses were 
the result of units being overrun— there was some evidence of unnecessary aban- 
donment of equipment, particularly among inexperienced troops. 



290 



BELGIUM 







MEMBERS OF AN ARMORED UNIT STAND GUARD beside their dug-in 
medium tank near M anhay, Belgium. From 27 December 1944 to 2 January 1945 the 
First U. S. Army was reorganizing and preparing to attack the Hotton-Houffalize 
axis. Heavy fighting continued all along the First Army front and by 30 December 
the important traffic centers of M arche, Hotton, and M anhay were secured. 



BELGIUM 



291 




AIRBORNE INFANTRY MEN on the alert man their .30-caliber machine gun (top). 
A member of a cavalry reconnaissance squadron checks his .30-caliber machine 
gun (bottom). 




P"M 



292 



BELGIUM 




AIRBORNE TROOPS LOADING A SHELL into a 75-mm. pack howitzer M 8. 
Between 16 December and 27 December First army artillery units fired more 
ammunition than at any other time during the war except during the Normandy 
Campaign. An average of 800 weapons fired over 750,000 shells. 



GERMANY AND BELGIUM 



293 




LOADING A 105-M M . SHELL into the howitzer of a Priest (top); snow on the 
camouflage net over a 155-mm. howitzer M I helps conceal its position (bottom). 




294 



BELGIUM 




AN ARTILLERY PLANE with newly attached skis taking off (top) 
planes grounded during the bad weather (bottom). 



observation 




*. 



• .._.■■ 






GERMANY 



295 





j 



MEN STRINGING BARBED WIRE DURING A BLIZZARD (top); tank crews 
keeping warm as they eat their rations (bottom). 




296 



BELGIUM 




MANHAY, BELGIUM . On 3 January 1945 an attack was launched west of M an- 
hay in the First A rmy zone. Visibility was reduced to 200 yards and the temperature 
was near zero. The few roads were coated with ice and the snow off the roads was 
waist deep making it extremely difficult to maneuver. During the first day advances 
of almost 4,000 yards were made before a heavy snowfall halted the assault. On 5 



BELGIUM 



297 




January the attack was resumed and the La Roche-Vielsalm road was cut. La 
Roche was captured by the British on 10 January. The British troops were then 
withdrawn to regroup for the Rhineland Campaign. The Germans began to with- 
draw from the tip of the salient after becoming convinced that they had lost in their 
attempt to halt the Allies. 



298 



BELGIUM 




ELEMENTS OF THE FIRST ANDTHIRDARMIES made contact at Houffalize on 
16 January. While the U. S. units were still understrength, replacements to the the- 
ater had increased. Despite heavy fighting and poor living conditions, morale was 
high. 



BELGIUM 



299 




^ 1* 



4r 



-<*'■ 



^ 



155-M M . GUN M 1A 1, with its barrel camouflaged by white cloth, firing in the 
Ardennes. The junction of First and Third Armies at Houffalize marked the 
achievement of tactical victory in the Ardennes. On 17 January the First Army 
reverted to 12th Army Group, but the Ninth U. S. Army remained under 21 Army 
Group. With the enemy withdrawing from the Ardennes the Allies resumed their 
advance toward the Rhine. 



300 



BELGIUM 




TWO GERMAN PRISONERS BEING BROUGHT IN (top). Papers of a U. S. 
vehicle driver being checked by a guard at a road intersection (bottom). During 
the fighting in the Ardennes some German paratroopers were dropped behind the 
U. S. lines. Others dressed in U. S. uniforms and driving U. S. vehicles were operat- 
ing behind theAmerican lines. 




GERMANY 



301 




"KING TIGER" OR "ROYAL TIGER" (Pz. Kpfw. VI (B) "Tiger" with 8.8-cm. Kw. 
K . 43) (top). This tank, weighing 75 tons and designed for defensive warfare or for 
penetrating strong lines of defense, made its appearance in combat in 1944, It had 
heavy frontal armor and an 88-mm. gun which could traverse 360 degrees. 
Germany heavy tank, the Panther {Pz. Kpfw. with 7.5-cm. Kw. K. 42-L/70) (bot- 
tom). This tank, introduced in 1942, weighed 47 tons and had sloping frontal armor 
and a 75-mm. high-velocity gun. 




302 



FRANCE 




BARBED WIRE BEING STRUNG as a defensive measure in the event of another 
enemy counterattack. In mid-January the enemy was still able to maintain a cohe- 
sive line, but the critical situation on the Russian front made necessary the shifting 
of troops to the eastern front while withdrawing to the security of the West Wall all 
committed troops facing the western Allies. 



FRANCE 



303 




A SIGNAL CORPS LINEMAN repairing damaged telephone lines. 



304 



FRANCE 




A TRUCK-MOUNTED CRANE swinging the barrel of an 8-inch gun from its 
transport wagon (top), and placing it on its carriage (bottom). The gun and cradle 
were transported on one vehicle and the carriage on another. 




FRANCE 



305 



i i 




• \ c 



A CAMOUFLAGED 8-INCH GUN Ml located in the southern portion of the Third 
Army zone. This gun was capable of firing a 240-pound projectile a distance of 20 
miles. The troops left in this area were placed on the defensive during the fighting 
in the Ardennes sector. Heavy artillery in the area fired on enemy installations in 
the triangle of the M oselle and Saar Rivers and West Wall fortifications. 



306 



BELGIUM 




A M EM BER OF A GLIDER REGIMENT, armed with a rifle and a rocket launch- 
er, returning from a three-hour tour of guard duty. 



BELGIUM 



307 




A TANKER SEWS HIS CLOTHING on an old sewing machine in front of his 
M 4A3 medium tank. 



308 



BELGIUM 




SUPPLIES MOVING THROUGH BASTOGNE, 22 January 1945, on their way to the 
front-line troops. By the first of the year materiel losses in the Battle of the Bulge 
had been replaced and the combat units were again prepared to move forward. 



LUXEMBOURG 



309 




MEDICAL AID MEN dragging a boatload of medical supplies down a snow and 
ice covered road to the banks of a stream they are to cross. From 17 to 24 J anuary 
theThird Army continued to attack through Houffalize and reached the northern tip 
of Luxembourg on 24 January. In an advance to the east bridgeheads north of 
Clervaux on the Clerf River were secured on 23 January. During this period most 
of the area between the Sauer and the Our Rivers was cleared of enemy resistance. 
In a hurried effort to withdraw as many vehicles as possible the enemy lost over 
1,700 vehicles to planes of the U. S. XIX Tactical Air Command. 



310 



BELGIUM 




biAE 



A MEMBER OF AN 81-M M . M ORTAR CREW listening to firing orders from a 
battalion command post. 



BELGIUM 



311 




INFANTRYMEN ADVANCING UNDER ENEMY SHELL FIRE. On 15 January 
1945, on the left of the First Army zone, an attack was begun from the Butgenbach- 
M almedy positions. By 19 January First Army had secured the defiles southwest of 
Butgenbach. The attack launched toward Saint-Vith continued to gain ground, and 
on 23 J anuary Saint-Vith was recaptured. 



312 



BELGIUM 




FIRST ARMY TROOPS, wearing snow camouflage capes, advance. 



BELGIUM 



313 




MEN OF AN AIRBORNE UNIT preparing to board trucks which will take them to 
a rest area after being relieved at the front. On 24 January the First and Third 
Armies' boundary was shifted north in the general line Saint-Vith-Losheim-Ahr 
River and attacks were to be renewed on the Saint-Vith-Bonn axis. First Army was 
to breach the West Wall and secure the high ground in the vicinity of Blankenheim, 
whileThird Army was to attack with its left wing to cover the First Army. 



314 



GERMANY 




AN M 5 LIGHT TANK guarding a road in the U. S. Ninth Army area, 22 January. 
With the collapse of the German salient in theArdennes, preparations were made 
for the offensive to the Rhine by 21 Army Group. The Germans held the triangle 
south of Roermond between the M euse and Roer Rivers. This was a serious threat 
to the left flank of the Ninth Army and had to be eliminated before the army could 
advance across the Roer to the Rhine plain. The task of eliminating this salient was 
assigned to the B ritish Second A rmy and by 26 J anuary was completed. 



FRANCE 



315 




SEVENTH ARMY TROOPS entering a fortress of the M aginot Line, near Bitche, 
France, which had been taken in the December fighting. Reduction of the strongly 
defended forts of the M aginot Line was halted when the Arsennes fighting began. 
The new Seventh Army front included the three following areas: the Saare Valley 
in Lorraine; the low Vosges mountains; and the northern A Isace plain between the 
mountains and the Rhine. 



316 



FRANCE 




^S^K^C. 



MEMBERS OF A SEVENTH ARMY ARTILLERY UNIT unloading powder 
charges for their 240-mm. howitzer (top); 3-inch gun motor carriage firing on 
enemy positions at night (bottom). On 20 December 1944 the 6th Army Group 
abandoned its offensive and relieved the Third Army in the region westward to 
Saarlautern to defend against any enemy penetration in Alsace-Lorraine. The 
offensive was stopped even though many pillboxes in the West Wall had been taken, 
and during the last ten days of December the Seventh Army regrouped its forces 
and deployed its troops. 




FRANCE 



317 




CONVOY M OVING UP in the Seventh Army area during the fighting in Alsace 
(top); vehicles moving over snow-covered roads through the Vosges mountains 
(bottom). 




318 



FRANCE 




BITCH E, FRANCE. The Seventh Army prepared an alternate main line of resist- 
ance along the old Maginot Line (Sarreguemines-Bitche-Lembach-Hatten- 
Sessenheim) and a final defensive position along the eastern slope of the Vosges. 
On 1 J anuary 1945 the Germans attacked in the area between Sarre and Rohrbach 
and drove ten miles into the U. S. lines, where the appearance of powerful armored 



FRANCE 



319 




reserves of the U. S. forces and Allied counterattacks caused the enemy to curtail 
its operation. Another New Year's Day attack by the Germans in the Bitche area was 
a more serious threat. After stubborn fighting on the part of the A Hied troops the 
attack spent itself on 7 January. In the Bitche salient the fighting continued until 
20 January before becoming stabilized. 



320 



FRANCE 




TANKS OF AN ARMORED UNIT moving along a slippery road during a heavy 
snowstorm. In other 6th Army Group areas there was action along the front. As U. 
S. troops withdrew to the M aginot Line so that French troops could take over this 
portion of the front, the Germans followed closely. French troops in the Strasbourg 
area contained an enemy attack from the Colmar pocket. There was heavy activity 
in the U. S. zone near Hatten where the enemy, after suffering heavy losses, failed 
to break through the U. S. troops. 



FRANCE 



321 







■ 



CAMOUFLAGED TANKS and infantrymen, wearing snow camouflage capes, mov- 
ing over a snow-covered field. Toward the end of January a heavy snowfall slowed 
operations and on 25 January the enemy struck his final blow near Haguenau, 
F ranee. n 26 J anuary the G ermans were driven back across the M oder R iver. 



322 



FRANCE 




MEMBERS OF A CANNON COMPANY near Haguenau keep warm as best 
they can. 



RHINELAND CAMPAIGN 
26 January 1945-21 March 1945 



324 



RHINELAND 



The Allied Advance 
during the 

Rhineland Campaign 
15 September 1944 
to 21 March 1945 



'. - * 






■I 



•Amnem 



/", 



If Ni|megen 

*Ant*e'P 



'*& 



JT 






#•* 



Cherbourg 




LKjloqr>r» 

W-.r/- * •■r^.si.s nZ^r'-W-- 



-' u 



- - 







SECTION V 



Rhineland Campaign 
26 January-21 March 1945 



At the successful conclusion of the Ardennes- Alsace Campaign the 
Allies again turned their attention to the Rhineland. Between 26 
January and 21 March a major objective was achieved: the German 
troops which tried to halt the advance were cut off and destroyed, thus 
eliminating future enemy action west of the Rhine. 

When the Rhineland Campaign ended the Allied Expeditionary 
Force numbered over 4,000,000 men organized into a well-balanced 
military machine, with combat elements ready to strike the final blow 
against the disintegrating enemy forces. On 21 March 1945 the First 
U. S. Army held a bridgehead across the Rhine about twenty miles wide 
and eight miles deep and had six divisions on the eastern bank of the 
river, while the remaining Allied troops were prepared to cross in their 
respective zones. 



326 



BELGIUM 



ftrimiliWi i i i 










DEEP SNOW SLOWED MILITARY TRAFFIC. With the completion of the 
Ardennes- Alsace Campaign the A Mies again began their advance to the Rhine after 
having been delayed for six weeks. 



GERMANY AND FRANCE 



327 




RIFLEMEN moving through snow-covered, wooded terrain (top). A 105-mm. 
howitzer M 3 firing in support of the infantry advance (bottom). On 24 January the 
First U. S. Army was to begin an attack to breach the West Wall and secure the high 
ground in the vicinity of Blankenheim, while part of the Third Army was to attack 
with its left wing to cover the First Army. The rest of the Third Army front was to 
begin an aggressive defense. 




328 



BELGIUM AND GERMANY 




ADVANCING THROUGH THE SNOW, men wearing camouflage suits blend in 
with the snow-covered ground, while those without white suits stand out plainly (top). 
Infantrymen waiting in their snow-covered foxholefor an artillery barrage which will 
start an offensive (bottom). On 7 February 1945 the attack was halted with both 
the First and Third Armies deep in the enemy's fortified zone. 




BELGIUM 



329 







FRONT OF AN M 24 LIGHT TANK showing its 75-mm. gun, newer type track, 
and torsion bar suspension. When the offensive halted attention was given to attack- 
ing the Roer dams. The enemy took advantage of the wooded country, deep valleys, 
many streams, poor roads, and the fortifications of the West Wall in an effort to halt 
the advance. Bitter fighting developed but by 2 February the U. S. forces had reached 
a point within two miles of Schleiden. On 8 February the Canadian First Army struck 
the German forces west of the Rhine, the first of a series of attacks that were to 
destroy the enemy. 



330 



FRANCE 
SAAREBOURG SAARE RIVER 




SAAREBOURG AND THE SARRE RIVER AREA. This picture is typical of the 
rolling, wooded country, broken by river and deep valleys, through which Allied 
troops advanced during the fighting along the German frontier. The area was im- 



FRANCE 



331 



NIEDERLEUKEN BEURIG 




portant during the Lorraine campaign since the enemy forces might join the German 
troops striking northwest from the Colmar pocket, or at least threaten the rear of the 
U.S. Seventh Army. 



332 



FRANCE 




AN M 4 M EDIUM TANK-DOZER cleaning a street in Colmar (top). German pill- 
boxes along a road leading to the Colmar plain (bottom). 




GERMANY 




THE TOWN OF BREISACH, Germany, during a heavy artillery shelling. 



334 



GERMANY 



VAUBAN CANAL 



WIDENSOHLEN CANAL 




NEUF BRISACH, FRANCE. On 20 January 1945 U. S. and French troops of the 
6th Army Group began an offensive converging in the direction of Breisach, Ger- 
many, on the eastern bank of the Rhine. This operation was aimed at the total reduc- 



GERMANY 



335 



RHONE-RHINE CANAL 




tion of the Colmar pocket west of the Rhine. On 1 February the U. S. forces had 
advanced to within three miles of Neuf Brisach while on the same day the French troops 
closed up to the Rhine. By 9 February the Colmar pocket had been eliminated. 



336 



GERMANY 
CITADEL 




THE ROER RIVER AT JUELICH, GERMANY. The U. S. Ninth Army's assault 
northeast from J uelich was to be the first of a series of U. S. drives to the Rhine. 
This attack was to begin on 10 February 1945. On 9 February the Germans blew open 
the discharge valves of the dams in the Schmidt area and although the area was 



GERMANY 



337 



ROER RIVER 




cleared of enemy troops by the evening of 10 February, it was too late to stop the 
flooding of the area. The Roer River attained a width of 400-1,200 yards, a high 
water condition which was to last for two weeks, and prevented the scheduled U.S. 
attack. 




LOADING .50-CALIBER AMMUNITION into the wing of a P-47 Thunderbolt 
fighter plane. On 22 February one of the greatest aerial operations of the war was 
carried out by nearly 9,000 aircraft taking off from bases in England, France, the 
Netherlands, Belgium, and Italy. The targets, the German transportation facilities, 
covered an area of over a quarter of a million square miles. 



GERMANY 



339 




DESTROYED RAILYARD AT RHEINE, Germany, on the main line leading from 
Berlin and Hannover into the Netherlands. One of the most important targets of this 
attack was the German railway system. The enemy's attempts at defense were com- 
pletely ineffective as the bombs hit control points, railroad yards, roundhouses, and 
bridges. The attack so seriously crippled traffic that the railroad system did not 
recover during the war. 



340 



GERMANY 



mm m 







» '(Ml !«'• 






1 Hi ■ ^ * . Hi ■ ' ■ | 




ROER RIVER TREADWAY PONTON BRIDGES. Early on the morning of 23 
February the Ninth Army jumped off after a heavy artillery preparation. Covering the 
right flank was a corps of the First Army. Because the enemy was surprised by this 
attack only moderate opposition was encountered and by the end of the first day 
bridgeheads two to four miles deep were held, infantry troops were east of the Roer 
River, and seven bridges were being completed under a heavy screen of smoke. 




GERMANY 



341 




A PORTION OF MUENCHEN-GLADBACH. After crossing the Roer the U. S. 
units advanced to within seven miles of the Rhine and closed in an M uenchen-Glad- 
bach by 28 February. On 1 March one infantry regiment cleared the city which had a 
population of 170,000 and was the largest German city captured up to that time. 
Located twelve miles from the Rhine, it was one of the approaches to the Ruhr. On 3 
M arch contact was made with the B ritish and by 5 M arch the U. S. N inth A rmy 
had closed up along the Rhine on its entire front. 



342 



GERMANY 




MEDIUM TANK M26 WITH A 90-M M . GUN equipped with a muzzle brake, 
introduced in combat early in 1945 (top). Both the light tank M 24 and the medium 
tank M 26 used a torsion bar type suspension which replaced the volute spring suspen- 
sion of earlier models. Troops of the U. S. First A rmy approaching the Rhine (bot- 
tom). In the First Army area an attack was launched on 23 February simultaneously 
with that of the Ninth Army in the north. By 5 M arch First A rmy troops had secured 
all their initial objectives west of the Rhine. 




FRANCE AND GERMANY 



343 




A GERMAN ANTIAIRCRAFT GUN on medium tank chassis (Pz. Kpfw. IV with 
2-cm. F iakvieriing 38) (top). German 380-mm. rocket projector on Tiger E chassis 
{Sturmmorser) (bottom). The German insistence on holding west of the Rhine cost 
two enemy armies large quantities of material and heavy losses in manpower. 




344 



GERMANY 




155-MM. MOTOR GUN CARRIAGE M 12 firing on enemy installations (top). 
Infantrymen searching for snipers in Pruem, Germany (bottom). In the Third 
Army area probing attacks toward the West Wall were resumed on 7 February 1945. 
Self-propelled 155-mm. guns proved particularly effective in knocking out pillboxes, 
and by 12 February Pruem was cleared. 




GERMANY AND BELGIUM 



345 





C-47's DROPPING SUPPLIES TO INFANTRY TROOPS (top). 2?-ton truck 
bogged down in the mud (bottom). Weather and terrain placed a heavy burden on 
engineer troops maintaining the roads. As the ground began to thaw one of the 
main supply lines became impassable for a time. Over 190 plane loads of rations, 
gasoline, and ammunition were dropped to one division to maintain its attack. 




LUXEMBOURG 




INFANTRYMEN MOVING PRISONERS to the rear across a river near Echter- 
nach (top). Assault troops crossing the Our River (bottom). Bridgeheads were 
secured over the Our and Vianden was cleared by 20 February. Between Vianden 
and Echternach troops pushed into the West Wall. 




GERMANY 



347 




FRIED EGGS BEING SERVED FOR BREAKFAST, a special treat for the men 
stationed near the West Wall (top). Troops moving through dragon's teeth of the 
West Wall fortifications (bottom). By 23 February two corps of the Third Army had 
fought their way through the West Wall to the Pruem River. 




348 



GERMANY 








CAVALRY RECONNAISSANCE TROOPS passing a German 75-mm. antitank 
gun in the outskirts of Saarburg, Germany (top). Firing a .30-caliber machine gun 
M 1917A 1 (bottom). On 21 February Saarburg was cleared by one task force of the 
Third Army, while a part of an armored division drove north and cleared the tip 
of the Saar-M oselle triangle the next day. 




BELGIUM 



349 





zm»* 



A SIGNAL CORPS MOTION PICTURE CAMERAMAN wading through the 
mud of the February thaws while photographing the activities of a military unit. By 
the end of February the Third Army was advancing toward Trier and Bitburg. By 5 
March 1945 Trier was captured and preparations were being made for the final 
drive to the Rhine. 



350 



GERMANY 




TROOPS OF THIRD ARMY waiting for the order which would start a drive to 
the Rhine. The two armored vehicles are German armored personnel carriers (top). 
Tanks and infantry entering Andernach (bottom). The Rhine city of Andernach 
was captured on 9 M arch and contact was made with U. S. First A rmy units the 
next day. 




GERMANY 



351 



> 





A M EDIUM TANK of an armored division of the U. S. FirstArmy knocked out by 
enemy artillery fire. During the first week of M arch the FirstArmy advanced toward 
the Rhine with parts of its forces while others launched a strong attack from Euskirchen 
to converge on the T hi rd Army area in the vicinity of Ahrweiler. 



352 



GERMANY 




HANDIE-TALKIE. An infantryman, armed with a carbine equipped with a grenade 
launcher M 8, using a handie-talkie radio SCR 536. 



GERMANY 



353 




AN ARTILLERYMAN 
spotting and observing. 



DIRECTS FIRE, using an azimuth instrument Ml for 



354 



GERMANY 




THE CITY OF COLOGNE on the banks of the Rhine. U. S. First Army forces 
took Cologne on 7 M arch. The enemy had withdrawn most of the veteran troops 
who had defended the city and left its Volkssturm troops to be battered by the 
advancing U. S. soldiers. By 9 March the First Army zone was cleared of enemy 
troops west of the Rhine. 




GERMANY 



355 




FIRST ARMY MEN AND EQUIPMENT crossing the Ludendorf railroad bridge 
which became known as the Remagen Bridge. This was the only bridge across the 
Rhine which was left intact. The attention of the First Army was focused at Remagen 
during the critical days of securing a bridgehead over the Rhine. The capture of this 
bridge was an unexpected windfall, because the retreating enemy troops had placed 
charges and were to blow the bridge at 1600 on 7 M arch. The first U. S. troops reached 
the bridge at 1550 and as the first charges began to explode army engineers cut the 
wires to the others. Thus the bridge, while damaged, was still intact and enabled 
the U . S . forces to cross the river. 



356 



GERMANY 




THE LUDENDORF BRIDGE four hours before it collapsed (top). The bridge after 
itfell into the Rhine (bottom). After capturing the bridgetroops were rushed across 
in pursuit of the retreating Germans while the engineers set to work to repair the 
damage. Enemy planes made repeated attacks on the bridge and it was shelled by 
long-range artillery. At 1430 on 17 M arch the bridge buckled and fell into the river 
only a few hours before the repairs would have been completed. 




GERMANY 



357 




PONTON BOATS AND FLOATS being moved to the Rhine in the Remagen 
area (top). Treadway bridge across the Rhine near Remagen (bottom). During the 
period 11-16 M arch the bridgehead was expanded north and south and all attacks 
gained ground despite the arrival of enemy reinforcements. Treadway and heavy 
pontoon bridges were built across the river. As the Rhineland Campaign came to an 
end, six divisions were east of the Rhine and six more were ready to cross in the 
First Army zone. 




358 



HONNEF 




ROLLING, WOODED AREA EAST OF THE RHINE, typical of that encountered 
by the Allied troops in their advance into Germany. A small portion of Honnef, 



GERMANY 



359 



BRODERKONS BERG 




between Bonn and Remagen, may be seen in the extreme upper left portion of 
picture. 



GERMANY 




MEDICAL AID MAN dressing the wounds of an infantryman. 



GERMANY 



361 




WOUNDED SOLDIERS being evacuated by air to hospitals in Paris and London. 



362 



GERMANY 



SAAREBOURG 



BEURIG 




AN ENLISTED MAN looking across the Saar River valley between Serrig and 
Saarburg. The village of Serrig is in the foreground. In this area the forward edge 
of the West Wall, over two miles deep, followed the eastern bank of the Saar River. 
An antitank ditch skirting the southwestern side of the village of Serrig and a com- 
munication trench in the lower right hand corner are visible. U. S. vehicles may 
also be seen dispersed through the area. 



GERMANY 



363 




SPRING CLEAN-UP. An artilleryman takes time out for a bath during a warm 
spring afternoon while other members of the 105-mm. howitzer crew remain near 
their piece. 



364 



GERMANY 




A MEDIUM TANK being ferried across the M oselle River (top). Artillery shelling 
Bingen (bottom). From 11 to 13 M arch the Third Army cleaned out the Germans who 
remained north of the M oselle. The Third Army next regrouped its forces and started 
an attack toward Bingen and Bad Kreuznach to prevent the enemy from retreating 
across the Rhine. The attack was then to continue southeast to secure a crossing site 
somewhere between M ainz and Worms. At the same time a drive to Kaiserslautern 
was to begin and Coblenz was to be reduced. 




GERMANY 



365 




ENEMY EQUIPMENT destroyed during the U. S. advance (top). Infantrymen 
moving on the double past a fire started by enemy shelling (bottom). 




366 



GERMANY 




A THREE-MAN ARTILLERY CREW preparing to fire a multipurpose 88-mm. 
gun captured in Germany. 



FRANCE AND GERMANY 



367 




LIGHT TANK M 24 firing (top); medium tank M 26 crossing a muddy field (bottom). 










'»- *■, 



368 



GERMANY 




SOLDIERS WATCHING VAPOR TRAILS left by bombers on their way to bomb 
Germany. 



FRANCE 



369 




INFANTRYMEN USING FOOTBRIDGES to cross a river while engineers com- 
plete a Bailey bridge. On 15 M arch three corps of the Seventh A rmy began attacks, 
one in the heart of the important Saar industrial area around Saarbruecken, the second 
driving toward Zweibruecken and Bitche, and the third from the M oder River. 



370 



GERMANY 




75-M M . HOWITZER motor carriage M 8 firing on enemy positions. 



FRANCE 



371 







TUBE AND RECOIL MECHANISM OF AN 8-INCH GUN M I on the way to the 
front. 



372 



FRANCE 





■*Jvl W' 







i' 






SEVENTH ARMY TROOPS ENTERING BITCHE (top). Infantrymen marching 
cross-country on their way to Germany (bottom). 




GERMANY 



373 







• ' ** A. -' ft' 



-iCS> 






ae 






**i _'" a*<-'i '. <"• ?*#/ Jt~Z,*' 



DRAGON'S TEETH, part of the West Wall defenses (top). Infantrymen climbing 
over obstacles as they advance through the West Wall into Germany (bottom). The 
advance of the Seventh A rmy through the dense mine fields and fortification of the 
West Wall was necessarily slow. 




374 



GERMANY 




155-MM. MOTOR GUN CARRIAGE M 12 FIRING. 



FRANCE AND GERMANY 



375 




TWO TYPES OF MINE DETECTORS. At left, AN/PRS-1 type; at right, SCR 
625 (top). M ine detectors were developed by the Signal Corps primarily for use by 
Engineer troops. Signal Corps repairmen splicing wires of an underground cable 
which was damaged by artillery fire (bottom). 




376 



GERMANY AND FRANCE 







INFANTRY PLATOON BEING BRIEFED before making an assault (top). Soldiers 
taking a ten-minute break during a march to the front lines (bottom). 




CENTRAL EUROPE CAMPAIGN 



378 



CENTRAL EUROPE 




SECTION VII 

Central Europe Campaign 



The Central Europe Campaign began on 22 March 1945 with units 
of the First U. S. Army across the Rhine in the Remagen area. On the 
night of 22-23 March elements of the Third U. S. Army crossed the 
river at Oppenheim. As the First and Third Armies crossed the Rhine 
the Fifteenth U. S. Army took over the area west of the river from Bonn 
to Neuss. On 26 March the Seventh U. S. Army crossed the Rhine 
north and south of Worms and, after meeting stiff resistance on the river 
bank, broke through the enemy and quickly expanded the bridgehead. 
The Ninth U. S. Army crossed the river south of Wesel while the 
British Second Army crossed north of the city. Elements of the First 
Allied Airborne Army dropped east of the Rhine and linked up with 
the ground troops east of the river. In many respects this was the most 
successful airborne operation that had been carried out up to this time. 

After the Allies were firmly established east of the Rhine the great 
German industrial area of the Ruhr was encircled and the defending 
troops captured. The advance through Germany was rapid and met 
with little opposition except in scattered areas. The Russians drove into 
Germany from the east and enemy troops in trying to escape capture 
by the Russians surrendered by the thousands to the western Allies. 
As the U. S., British, and Canadian troops in the north reached the 
line where it was expected they would meet the Russian forces, they 
halted. The Third and Seventh U. S. Armies continued their drives 
into Czechoslovakia and Austria where a junction was also made with 
the Russians. 

On 2 M ay 1945 the German forces in Italy surrendered. Two days 
later elements of the Seventh U. S. Army met those of the Fifth U. S. 
Army, coming from Italy, at the Brenner Pass. On 9 May 1945 the 
surrender of all the German forces became effective, marking the end 
of the war in Europe. 



380 



GERMANY 








* ^ 



k*£*E&ii?+&S 4 




TROOPS LOADING INTO AN LCVP to cross the Rhine (top). Engineers con- 
structing a pontoon treadway bridge over the Rhine (bottom). A steel treadway bridge 
was completed by 1800 on 23 M arch 1945, and the following day a heavy pontoon 
bridge was completed. By noon on 25 M arch a second treadway bridge was completed. 
The crossing of the Rhine in the Third Army area gained complete tactical surprise 
and the enemy offered only scattered resistance. By the evening of 24 M arch three 
divisions held a bridgehead ten miles wide and nine miles deep. These divisions were 
closely followed by two more, making a total of five on the east bank of the Rhine. 





INFANTRYMEN BOARDING AN LCVP to cross the Rhine (top). An assault 
boat raft ferrying a 90-mm. gun motor carriage M 36 across the Rhine (bottom). 
Troops of the Third U. S. Army first crossed the Rhine at Oppenheim on the night 
of 22-23 M arch. Utilizing assault rafts and attacking without artillery or aerial 
preparation, six battalions were across the river before daybreak with a loss of only 
twenty-eight men killed and wounded. Following the assault boats were landing craft 
and DUKW's. The LCVP's were manned by naval personnel who arrived at the 
river an hour after the assault began. 




382 



GERMANY 




JEEPS AND TANKS CROSSING THE RHINE at Boppard, Germany. On 24 
M arch 1945 a crossing in the rugged Rhine gorge north of Boppard was made and by 
25 M arch a bridgehead eight miles wide and three miles deep was held. A treadway 
bridge was constructed at Boppard. 



GERMANY 



383 




AN INFANTRYMAN COVERS A GERMAN as he surrenders. In the First Army 
area an attack from the Remagen bridgehead was carried out, and preparations were 
made to advance to the Kassel area. 



384 



GERMANY 




ARMOREDTROOPS MOVING TO THE FRONT as prisoners are marched along 
the autobahn to the rear (top). Infantrymen entering Frankfurt (bottom). The 
bridgeheads along the Rhine were expanded and on 26 M arch Third Army troops 
entered Frankfurt. The advance moved northward toward Kassel.The Fifteenth Army 
was instructed to takeover the west bank of the Rhine from Bonn to Neuss by 1 April, 
to assume command of the division which was guarding the Brittany ports, and to be 
prepared to occupy, organize, and govern the Rhine provinces as the 12th Army Group 
attacks progressed eastward. 




&*£&*. 




GERMANY 



385 




FRANKFURT ON THE MAIN RIVER, showing the Frankfurt cathedral. By 28 
March Frankfurt had been half cleared of enemy troops and Hanau completely 
cleared. Part of a large enemy pocket west of Wiesbaden had been mopped up and 
contact was made between the First and Third U. S. Army troops. 



386 



GERMANY 




CAPTURED FOURTEEN-YEAR-OLD BOYS who were members of the "Air 
Guard." On 28 March First Army troops were closing up along the upper Lahn 
River. Infantry divisions quickly followed the armored spearheads to mop up enemy 
pockets of bypassed troops and to clear the areas which had been taken in the rapid 
advances. In six days the shallow Remagen foothold had been expanded to a lodge- 
ment area sixty-five miles deep. The advance to Kassel continued. 



GERMANY 



387 




CROSSING THE RHINE NEAR WORMS, GERMANY. U. S. Seventh Army 
troops crossed the Rhine near Worms at 0230 on 26 M arch. These forces met small 
arms and scattered mortar fire while crossing and, after landing on the east bank of 
the river, met stiff enemy resistance north of Worms. South of Worms the troops 
reached the far shore with little opposition but as they moved eastward the resistance 
increased. Two panzer counterattacks were turned back during that morning. By 
evening of 26 March the bridgehead had been expanded to an area of fifteen miles 
wide and seven miles deep. 




388 



GERMANY 




A DUPLEX-DRIVE TANK (DD tank), with its flotation device raised, entering 
the water (top); flotation device after being lowered (bottom). The canvas flotation 
device made the tank vulnerable to mines and objects floating in the water. 




GERMANY 



389 




GERMAN PRISONERS being marched westward across the Rhine as troops of the 
Ninth Army move eastward into Germany (top). Enlisted men at their .50-caliber 
Browning machine gun HB M 2, alert for enemy aircraft (bottom). The Ninth Army 
was to attack south of Wesel with its main bridging area at Rheinberg. 




390 



FRANCE 




r~ , ^/ > 



TOW ROPE BEING ATTACHED TO A GLIDER as the First Allied Airborne 
Army prepares to take off for landings east of the Rhine in the 21 Army Group area. 
The mission of this army was to break up the enemy defenses north of Wesel and 
deepen the bridgehead to facilitate the link-up with the ground forces. The airborne 
troops took off from bases in England and France and converged near Brussels. The 
troops began landing on 24 M arch 1945 at 1000 and during the next three hours some 
14,000 troops were transported to the battle area by over 1,700 aircraft and 1,300 
gliders. 



FRANCE 



391 




PLANES AND GLIDERS loaded and waiting to take off for the landings east of 
the Rhine (top). Aerial view of planes and gliders before the take-off (bottom). 
Losses were comparatively light for an operation of this size. U nder 4 percent of the 
gliders were destroyed and fifty-five aircraft were lost. 




392 



GERMANY 




LIBERATORS OVER THE RHINE shortly before they dropped supplies to the 
airborne troops which landed east of the Rhine. Immediately after the glider landings, 
a resupply mission was flown in very low by 250 Liberators of the Eighth U. S. Air 
Force. It met heavy flak and fourteen planes were shot down, but 85 percent of the 
supplies were accurately dropped. 



GERMANY 



393 






MEMBERS OF FIRST ALLIED AIRBORNE ARMY after landing near Wesel. 
On the ground the airborne forces met with varying resistance. Bridges over the Issel 
were seized and 3,500 prisoners were taken. This airborne operation was the most 
successful carried out to this time. The attack had achieved surprise and the airborne 
troops reorganized quickly after landing. Ninth Army troops held a bridgehead nine 
miles wide and three miles deep by the end of the day (24 M arch). 







GERMANY 




A NINTH ARMY CONVOY on the highway leading to M uenster, Germany. 



GERMANY 



395 




SIGNALMEN ROLL A REEL ASHORE on the east bank of the Rhine after 
laying a submarine cable on the bottom of the river from a DU KW (top). Destroyed 
equipment left behind by the retreating enemy (bottom). On 25 March the First 
Army broke out of their Remagen bridgehead, the Third Army reached the Main 
River, and contact was made between the British Second Army and the Canadian 
First Army. 




396 



GERMANY 




WHITE FLAGS OF SURRENDER hang from buildings in a deserted street of a 
German town (top). As infantry troops march through a town, an old woman looks 
at a demolished building (bottom). During the advance into Germany many towns 
surrendered to the A Hied troops and the biddings remained undamaged. However, 
in some towns enemy troops offered resistance and fighting and shelling ensued. 
In one week five A 1 1 i ed armies were on the east bank of the Rhine and twenty-four 
bridges had been constructed to replace those which were knocked out. During this 
period the Allied casualties were much lighter than had been expected. The last 
German line of defense had been shattered. 




GERMANY 



397 




* P*Vc 



TWO KNOCKED-OUT GERMAN SELF-PROPELLED GUNS {Pz. J aeg. Tiger 
with 12.8-cm. PJ K 44). This vehicle, called aj aegdtiger, was the most formidable 
self-propelled antitank gun used by the Germans during the war. It consisted of a 
12.8-cm. PJ K 44 (L/55) (less muzzle brake) mounted on a Tiger B chassis. The gun 
could penetrate 6 to 8 inches of armor at 1,000 yards. Weight of the vehicle was 
77 tons. 



398 



GERMANY 




MEDIUM TANKS M26 moving through Wesel on the way to the front. 



GERMANY 



399 




P-47 FORCED DOWN OVER GERMANY (top). B-24 which crash-landed in 
Germany (bottom). 




400 



GERMANY 




GERMAN V-BOMB found by the U. S. troops as they overran Germany (top). 
An enemy jetpropel led fighter plane (bottom). 




GERMANY 



401 




CIVILIANS WATCHING U. S. TROOPS as they advance through Duesseldorf 
(top). A transportation corps train moving over a bridge which was constructed 
across the Rhine at Wesel by the engineers (bottom). With all three Allied army 
groups established on the east bank of the Rhine plans were made to encircle the 
Ruhr. By 1 April 1945 a trap was closed which formed a 4,000-mile square pocket 
and included the Ruhr industrial area. 




402 



GERMANY 




N«^ Ni& 



SEVENTH ARMY TROOPS ADVANCING after capturing the town of M er- 
gentheim (top). Engineers operating an assault ferry across the Neckar River in 
Heilbronn (bottom). On 28 March the Seventh Army launched its attack out of 
the Worms bridgehead. The assault was halted on 4 April when strong resistance was 
encountered at Heilbronn. On 31 M arch the French First Army crossed the Rhine 
at Speyer and Germersheim and on 4 April captured Karlsruhe. 




GERMANY 




t 



4.5-INCH MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHER T34 mounted on a medium tank. 
The Germans stubbornly defended the industrial area of the Ruhr even though an 
army group was caught in the trap with little hope of escape. On the A Hied flanks, 
advances were made as the enemy began to disintegrate. 



404 



GERMANY 





C-47 TRANSPORT, carrying gasoline, lands on an airstrip in Germany (top). 
Ten-ton semitrailers in Germany with four 750-gal Ion skid tanks loaded with gasoline 
(bottom). The versatility of these tanks made it possible to use them on a number 
of different types of vehicles. During the last months of the war the rapid advances 
of all the A I lied troops made fuel supply a difficult problem. Fuel was transported by 
every available means to assure the troops an adequate supply. 




I i 



GERMANY 



405 




LINEMAN of a Signal Corps construction battalion fastening wire to an insulator 
on the top of a telephone pole at Bingen on the Rhine (top). Liberated slave laborers 
help themselves to food and supplies in a store in Hannover (bottom). With the 
liberation of the slave laborers who had worked in German factories many problems 
arose, and Allied M ilitary Government offices were established as quickly as possible 
to cope with them. 




406 




^ 




GERMANY 

V 







INFANTRY M EN AND TANKERS take time out for a short rest during their rapid 
advance. n 4 A pri I the N i nth A rmy was to start an attack southward and the F i rst 
U.S. Army was to drive to the north. While these two armies were eliminating the 
Ruhr pocket, the Fifteenth Army was to hold the line on the Rhine. 



GERMANY 



407 




MACHINE GUNNERS of a First Army division covering a road intersection (top). 
Infantryman passes burning U. S. vehicles that were ambushed by enemy troops 
(bottom). During the first fighting in the Ruhr the enemy showed spirit. On 4 April 
ten counterattacks were launched in an attempt to break out of the pocket. Heavy 
fighting continued in many towns with the civilians fighting alongside German soldiers. 
Dug-in self-propelled guns supported the German infantry. The line was drawn 
tighter by the Allies and on 10 April Essen, home of the great Krupp armament 
works, was cleared by the U. S. assaulting troops. By 13 April the mopping-up stage 
had been reached. 




408 



GERMANY 




• flfci 

















PRISONER OF WAR ENCLOSURE. On 14 A pril the Ruhr pocket was split in two, 
and prisoners arrived in such large numbers that A Hied facilities were taxed to the 
limit. On 16 A pril the eastern half of the pocket collapsed and two days later the 
pocket ceased to exist. There were 325,000 prisoners, including 30 generals, count- 
ed as they were taken. This represented twenty-one divisions as well as many non- 
divisional units. 



GERMANY 



409 




INFANTRYMEN PASS A DEAD GERMAN as they cross a stream (top). Third 
Army troops climbing a steep hill in the mountainous region (bottom). On 10 April 
the Ninth, First, and Third Armies resumed the attack to the east with twenty-two 
divisions. Only in the Harz M ountains was any serious organized resistance encount- 
ered. The Germans had hurriedly assembled about 10,000 men to form an army 
which was initially to break through into the Ruhr pocket. When that failed it was to 
break through to the Thuringian pocket. This also failed and the small army which 
represented the last of the German manpower was encircled by the U. S. forces. 




410 



GERMANY 




VEHICLES OF AN ARMORED DIVISION passing through a burning German 
town. On 18 April the three armies were along the Elbe River-M ulde River- Chem- 
nitz-Plauen-B ayreuth line which was a restraining line established because of the 
probability of contact with the Russian troops advancing from the east. In the north 
the 21 Army Group was advancing on Bremen and the Elbe between Wittenberge 
and Hamburg. 



GERMANY 



411 




ENGINEERS, building a bridge across the Saale River, pull a tank across on one 
of the ponton sections (top). M agdeburg, showing the results of bombing (bottom). 




fs^"~~ *A 



Ik 



412 



GERMANY 




TANK DESTROY ERS moving through the destroyed town of M agdeburg. Scenes 
such as this were found in many German cities by the advancing Allied forces. M ost 
of the buildings were reduced to rubble by aerial attacks and artillery shelling, and 
many streets had to be cleared before the troops and vehicles could pass. 



GERMANY 



413 




TRAFFIC MOVING ACROSS THE MAIN RIVER at Wueraburg (top). A 
medium tank climbing the bank of a small stream after breaking through the light 
wooden bridge (bottom). There was little activity in the 6th Army Group between 
4 and 18 April except on the northern portion of the army area where the Third 
Army right flank was covered. On 5 April Wuerzburg was cleared after three days of 
heavy fighting. 




414 



GERMANY 




AN ARMORED COMBAT COMMAND moving toward Nuernberg (top). A 
German civilian, waving a white flag in surrender, comes toward a half-track which 
is about to enter Geisselhardt after shelling buildings in that town (bottom). 




GERMANY 



415 




INFANTRYMEN MOVING DOWN A STREET in Waldenburg during the 
Seventh Army advance. The French First Army cleared Baden-Baden and Pforzheim 
and by 15 April Kehl was cleared and preparations for crossing the Rhine at Stras- 
bourg were made. 



416 



GERMANY 




INFANTRYMEN CLIMBING OVER RUBBLE as they clear snipers out of Nuern- 
berg. By 18 April part of the Seventh Army was in the battle for Nuernberg. Other 
troops of that army were halted for nine days around Heilbronn and along the 
Neckar and Jagst Rivers. 



GERMANY 



417 




ENGINEERS MOVING PONTONS TO THE DANUBE to start bridging oper- 
ations (top). Infantrymen crossing the Danube over a footbridge (bottom). The 
Third Army advanced down the Danube while the First and Ninth Armies held in 
place, having reached the line where the meeting with the Russians was to take place. 




418 



GERMANY 




U. S. OFFICERS AND ENLISTED MEN MEET RUSSIAN TROOPS in Ger- 
many. On 30 A pril a division of the N inth U. S. A rmy made contact with the Rus- 
sians at A pollensdorf . Troops of the First U. S. Army had met Russian troops earlier. 




GERMANY 



419 




MEN OF AN ARMORED DIVISION running through the smoke-filled streets of a 
German town (top). Firing on an Austrian town across the German border (bottom). 
M ost of Czechoslovakia and a large portion of Austria was left for the Russians to 
occupy, but the advancing troops of the T hi rd U. S. A rmy entered both these coun- 
tries during the last days of the war. 




420 



GERMANY 




GERMAN SOLDIERS. The First and Ninth Armies, during the latter part of April 
and early M ay 1945, handled thousands of German soldiers and civilians who were 
trying to escape the advancing Russians by crossing the El be River into the American 
zone. 



GERMANY 



421 




CAPTURED U-BOATS in a submarine construction and repair yard in Bremen 
harbor. Over forty submarines were found by the Allies in this yard. 



422 



FRANCE 




SUBMARINE PENS AT SA INT-NAZAIRE, on the Brittany peninsula. No attempt 
was made to capture these U-boat pens as the Allies advanced through France and 
Germany, but they were surrounded and contained until the end of the war. 




AUSTRIA 



423 




"v* .'~3il&!*>iS2r 



TANKS AND TRUCKS of a Third Army armored division fording a stream during 
their advance into Austria. In the foreground is a medium tank M 4A3 (76-mm. long- 
barrel gun with muzzle brake) with horizontal volute spring suspension and an im- 
proved, wider track measuring twenty-three inches. 



424 



AUSTRIA 




SB 11 








MOVING INTO AUSTRIA. 




GERMANY 



425 







& 




», 



'f -^ 7*r -S* >Ss 





1&' A L}ii 





GERMAN PRISONERS being marched to the prisoner of war enclosure by Third 
A rmy military police. During the period from 22 A pril to 7 M ay the Third Army 
took more than 200,000 prisoners while suffering less than 2,400 casualties. 



426 



AUSTRIA 




A GERMAN HORSE-DRAWN CONVOY moves along a winding mountain road 
in A ustria to surrender. From 1 April 1945 until the end of the war the three armies 
of the U. S. 12th Army Group took over 1,800,000 prisoners. 



GERMANY 



427 




SOLDIERS CROSSING THE DANUBE (Seventh A rmy). The two armies of 6th 
Army Group launched a drive into southern Germany, the area where the remain- 
ing German forces supposedly were to make a determined stand. 



428 



GERMANY 




AN ASSAU LT BOAT crossing the Danube. Seventh Army men met no opposition 
here. In the Black Forest and the SchwaebischeA I ps troops of the Seventh Army met 
some opposition and there was some fighting as two German armies were trapped and 
destroyed. 



GERMANY 



429 




CAPTURING GUARDS AT DACHAU, ten miles northwest of Munich (top). A 
few of the guards of the concentration camp remain standing with their arms raised 
while the majority lie on the ground, waiting to be taken prisoner. An enlisted man 
gives his cigarettes to inmates at Dachau (bottom). On 29 A pril troops of the U. S. 
Seventh Army captured Dachau and released over 30,000 prisoners of many 
nationalities. 




430 



AUSTRIA 




TROOPS TAKING COVER as members of a German officer candidate school fire 
on them. These enemy troops offered the Seventh A rmy considerable resistance before 
they were taken. In this area snow remained on the ground until late spring. 




AUSTRIA 



431 




SEVENTH AND FIFTH ARMY TROOPS MEET at Nauders, A ustria. On 4 May, 
Seventh U. S. Army troops captured the town of Brenner in the Brenner Pass, and a 
few hours later contact was made with elements of the Fifth U. S. Army which had 
fought its way up the Italian peninsula. On the same day Berchtesgaden was entered. 



432 



GERMANY 



_y/,6/J 




A GERMAN CIVILIAN reading of the surrender of the German forces in a division 
newspaper. On 7 M ay 1945 the Germans signed the surrender terms which were to 
become effective at 0001, 9 M ay 1945; 8 M ay, however, was designated as V-E Day 
(Victory in Europe). In some remote areas fighting continued until 11 M ay. 



GERMANY 



433 







MEMBERS OF THE STARS AND STRIPES STAFF grab copies of the extra edi- 
tion as they come off the press, proclaiming V-E Day (top). U. S. sailor and soldier 
celebrate V-E Day in London (bottom). 




434 



FRANCE 




MEN MARCHING TO THE DOCKS AT LE HAVRE to board a ship that will take 
them home to be discharged under the new point system. M en with the highest num- 
bers of points were sent home first for discharge. These numbers were determined by 
the total number of months of service, total number of months overseas, number of 
awards and decorations, and the number of dependents. 



FRANCE 



435 




U. S. LIBERATED PRISONERS OF WAR leave a plane at Reims on the first lap 
of their journey back to the United States. 



436 



ENGLAND 




FLOODLIGHTS ILLUMINATE BIG BEN on the Houses of Parliament as the 
lights go on again in London on V-E night after being blacked out during the war 
years. Early in M ay 1945 there were approximately 4,500,000 troops under the com- 
mand of the supreme commander in Europe. Casualties for the western Allies num- 
bered over 800,000. At the end of the war there were nine Allied armies, totaling 
ninety-three divisions, on the Continent. 



Appendix A 
List of Abbreviations 



BAR 


Browning automatic rifle 


cm. 


Centimeter 


DD 


Duplex drive 


DUKW 


2 ! /2-ton 6x6 amphibian truck 


E-boat 


Small torpedo boat (German) 


Flak 


Fliegerabwehrkanone (antiaircraft artillery gun) 


J a eg. 


Jaegdtiger (tank-destroyer) 


K. 


Kanone (gun) 


Kar. 


Karabiner (carbine) 


Kw. 


Kraftwagen (motor vehicle) 


Kw. K. 


Kampfwagenkanone (tank gun) 


LBK 


Landing barge, kitchen 


LBV 


Landing barge, vehicle 


LCI 


Landing craft, infantry 


LCR(S) 


Landing craft, rubber (small) 


LCT 


Landing craft, tank 


LCT (R) 


Landing craft, tank (rocket) 


LCVP 


Landing craft, vehicle-personnel 


LST 


Landing ship, tank 


M. G. 


M aschinengewehr (machine gun) 


mm. 


Millimeter 


OCS 


Officer Candidate School 


Pak. 


Panzer abwehrkanone (antitank gun) 


Pz. 


Panzer 


Pz. Kpfw. 


Panzerkampfwagen (tank) 


SCR 


Signal Corps Radio 


SHAEF 


Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary 




Force 


Stu. G. 


Sturmgeschuetz (self-propelled assault gun) 


Stu. K. 


Sturmkanone (self-propelled assault gun) 


U-boat 


Submarine 


WAAC 


Women's Army Auxiliary Corps 


WAC 


Women's Army Corps 



Appendix B 
Acknowledgments 



Acknowledgment is made to the Keystone Press Agency, Ltd., Lon- 
don, England, for the first photograph in this volume. All other 
photographs came from the Department of Defense and were taken 
from the U. S. Army files, except for those accredited below to the 
U. S. Navy, U. S. Air Force, and U. S. Coast Guard. (At the time 
these photographs were taken, the Coast Guard was operating as a 
part of the Navy.) 

U. S. Navy: pp. 24, 77, 94b, 96, 110b, 122 

U. S. Air Force: pp. 8, 9, 12, 18, 19, 26, 30, 31, 32, 33, 35, 38, 39, 48, 49, 76, 78-79, 
86-87, 94a, 95, 98, 99, 100-101, 104, 112-13, 116, 118, 126, 129a, 130-31, 
140-41, 155, 158-59, 176, 177, 180-81, 188-89, 202, 203, 218-19, 226-27, 
236-37, 266-67, 280-81, 296-97, 318-19, 330-31, 334-35, 336-37, 339, 341, 
358-59 

U. S. Coast Guard: pp. 80, 88a, 92 



UNITED STATES ARMY IN WORLD WAR II 

The following volumes have been published: 

The War Department 

Chief of Staff: Prewar Plans and Preparations 
Washington Command Post: The Operations Division 
Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare: 1941-1942 
Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare: 1943-1944 
Global Logistics and Strategy: 1940-1943 
Global Logistics and Strategy: 1943-1945 
The Army and Economic M obilization 
The Army and Industrial Manpower 

The Army Ground Forces 

The Organization of Ground CombatTroops 

The P rocurement and Training of Ground CombatTroops 

The Army Service Forces 

The Organization and Role of the Army Service Forces 

The Western Hemisphere 

The Framework of Hemisphere Defense 
Guarding the United States and Its Outposts 

The War in the Pacific 

The Fall of the Philippines 

G uadalcanal: The First ffensive 

Victory in Papua 

CARTWHEEL: The Reduction ofRabaul 

Seizure of the Gilberts and M arshalls 

Campaign in the Marianas 

The Approach to the Philippines 

Leyte: The Return to the Philippines 

Triumph in the Philippines 

Okinawa: The Last Battle 

Strategy and Command: The FirstTwo Years 

The Mediterranean Theater of Operations 

Northwest Africa: Seizing the Initiative in the West 
Sicily and the Surrender of Italy 
Salerno to Cassino 
Cassino to the Alps 

The European Theater of Operations 

Cross-Channel Attack 
Breakout and Pursuit 
The Lorraine Campaign 
The Siegfried Line Campaign 
The Ardennes: Battle of the Bulge 
The Last Offensive 



The Supreme Command 

Logistical Support of the Armies, Volume I 

Logistical Support of the Armies, Volume II 

The Middle East Theater 

The Persian Corridor and Aid to Russia 

The China-Burma- India Theater 

Stilwell's Mission to China 
Sti I well's Command Problems 
Time Runs Out in CBI 

The Technical Services 

The Chemical Warfare Service: Organizing for War 

The Chemical Warfare Service: From Laboratory to Field 

The Chemical Warfare Service: Chemicals in Combat 

The Corps of Engineers: Troops and Equipment 

The Corps of Engineers: The War Against] apan 

The C orps ofE ngineers: The War A gainst G ermany 

The Corps of Engineers: Military Construction in the United States 

The Medical Department: Hospitalization and Evacuation; Zone of Interior 

The M edical D epartment: M edical Service in the M editerranean and M inor Theaters 

The Ordnance Department: Planning M unitions for War 

The Ordnance Department: Procurement and Supply 

The Ordnance Department: On Beachhead and Battlefront 

The Quartermaster Corps: Organization, Supply, and Services, Volume I 

The Quartermaster Corps: Organization, Supply, and Services, Volume II 

The Quartermaster Corps: Operations in the War Against] apan 

The Quartermaster Corps: Operations in the War Against Germany 

The Signal Corps: The Emergency 

The Signal Corps: The Test 

The Signal Corps: The Outcome 

TheTransportation Corps: Responsibilities, Organization, and Operations 

TheTransportation Corps: Movements, Training, and Supply 

TheTransportation Corps: Operations Overseas 

Special Studies 

Chronology: 1941-1945 

Military Relations Between the United States and Canada: 1939-1945 

Rearming the French 

Three Battles: Arnaville, Altuzzo, and Schmidt 

The Women 'sArmyC orps 

Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors 

Buying Aircraft: Materiel Procurement for the Army Air Forces 

The Employment of Negro Troops 

Manhattan: The U.S. Army and the Atomic Bomb 

Pictorial Record 

The War Against G ermany and Italy: M editerranean and Adjacent Areas 
The War Against Germany: Europe and Adjacent Areas 
The War Against] apan 



Index 



Aachen, Germany, 217, 218-19 
Aerial bombardment. See 

Bombardment, aerial. 
Air attacks 

Allied, 8, 24, 26, 33 

briefing for, 39 

German, 34 
Air bases. See Airfields. 
Aircraft, Allied, 35 

bombers, heavy, 8, 13, 19, 26, 
32, 33, 59, 202, 399 

bombers, light, 104, 116 

bombers, medium, 76, 203 

burning, 26 

damaged, 399 

fighters, 9, 48, 49, 59, 105, 
338, 399 

gliders, 29, 94, 95, 214, 390, 
391, 393 

identification of, 76, 95 

liaison planes, 42, 248, 294 

naval, 24 

on fire, 105 

transport planes, 94, 214, 345, 
404, 435 

wrecked, 393 
Aircraft, German, 400 
Airfields 

construction of, 18, 105 

France, 391 

Germany, 404 
'Alligators." 22 See also 

Landing craft. 
Ambulances, 317 

converted jeep, 204 



American Red Cross, 25 
Ammunition 

.30-caliber, 160 

.50-caliber, 338 

240-mm. howitzer shells, 316 

German, 263 

mortar shells, 182, 245, 310 
Ammunition dump, 160 
Amphibian trucks, DUKW's, 

68, 257 
Amphibious landings. See 

Landing operations. 
Andernach, Germany, 350 
Antiaircraft guns 

40-mm., 60 

90-mm., 61, 102, 243 

German, 343, 366 
Antitank guns 

3-inch, 102 

57-mm., 151,217 

British, 6, 115 

damaged, 154 

German, 154, 168, 348, 397 
Ardennes Forest, 269, 270, 284 
Argentan, France, 177 
Armored vehicles, 198, 200. See 

also Vehicles. 

German, 350 
Army Post Office, England, 41 
Artificial harbor, Omaha 

Beach, 118 
Artillery 

8-inch guns, 192,206,371 

8 -inch howitzer, 192 

75-mm. howitzer (pack) , 292 



Artillery — Continued 
105-mm. howitzers, 23, 42, 
43, 114, 186,232,250,327, 
363 
155-mm. guns, 42, 43, 193, 

299 
155-mm. howitzers, 103, 125, 

270, 293 
240-mm. howitzer, 186 
German, 366 
mortars. See Mortars, 
observation planes, 42, 248, 
294 
Artillery barrage, 364 
Assault boats, 7, 428. See also 

Landing craft. 
Assault guns, German, 215, 397 
Autobahn, 384 

Avranches, France, 156, 158-59 
Azimuth instrument, 353 

Bailey bridges, 193, 369 
Ball-bearing factory, on fire, 31 
Bangalore torpedo, 28 
Barbed wire, 28, 110, 191, 207, 

278, 302 
Barrage balloons, 77, 92, 97, 

107, 123 
Bastogne, Belgium, 280-81, 308 
"Bazookas," 53, 185. See also 

Rocket launchers. 
Beaches 

British sector, 76 

Omaha, 78-79, 80, 81, 82, 
84, 106, 118, 119 



444 



INDEX 



Beaches — Continued 

Utah, 86-87, 88, 89, 97 
Belfast, Northern Ireland, 3, 4 
Beurig, Germany, 330-31 
Big Ben, V-E night, 436 
Bingen, Germany, 364 
Bitche, France, 372, 318-19 
Bivouac area, 288 
Bois du Mont du Roc, France, 

126 
Bomb, robot, 35 
Bomb damage, 139, 151, 154, 

156, 217, 344. See also 

War damage. 

fortifications, 127 

France, 125, 178 

Germany, 339, 340, 354 

railroad bridge, 98 
Bomb strike, Schweinfurt, Ger- 
many, 30 
Bombardment. See also Air 
attacks. 

aerial, 8, 31, 33, 116,202 

artillery, 333 
Bombers 

heavy, B-17, 8, 13, 19, 32, 
33, 59, 202 

heavy, B-24, 8, 26, 32, 399 

light, A-20, 104, 116 

medium, B-26, 76, 203 
Bombs, 1,000-pound, 21 
Boppard, Germany, 382 
Breisach, Germany, 333 
Bremen, Germany, 33 
Bremen harbor, Germany, 421 
Brest, France, 188-89, 207 
Bridges 

Bailey, 193, 369 

damaged, 98, 355, 356, 402 

footbridges, 369, 417 

ponton, construction of, 60 

ponton, heavy, 387 

railroad, 401 

treadway, 161, 208, 240, 340, 
357, 382 



British troops, 4 

Broderkons Berg, Germany, 

358-59 
Bulldozers, 129, 161. See also 

Tractors. 

Cameras 

moving picture, 349 

still picture, 349 
Camouflage, 103, 125, 314 

8-inch gun, 305 

antiaircraft gun, 61 

armored car, 285 

German, 91, 117, 124 

gun motor carriage, 285 

helmet, 108 

howitzer, 277 

suits, 151 

tanks, 150, 204 Canals 

Rhone-Rhine, France, 334- 
35 

Vauban, France, 334-35 

Vire-Taute, France, 112-13 

Widensohlen, France, 334-35 
Carbine Ml, 184. See also 

Small arms. 
Carentan, France, 112-13, 114, 

115 
Cargo planes. See Transport 

planes. 
Casualties, 83, 84, 108 

evacuation of, 138, 204, 253 

German, 409 
Causeway, floating, 119 

damaged, 120 
Celebration, V-E Day, 433 
Champs Elysees, 191 
Cherbourg, France, 128, 129, 

130-31 

enemy fortifications, 127 
Civilians 

French, 191 

German, 396, 401, 405, 414, 
432 



Clothing 

camouflaged, 151, 265, 284 

decontamination suits, 1 1 

German, 265 

paratroop, 16 

pilot, 12 

repair of, 307 

shoepacs, 283 

winter, 11,284,292 
Colmar, France, 332 
Cologne, Germany, 354 
Communications, 40, 166 

equipment, 56 

hand generator GN 45, 85 

repair of, 375, 405 

SCR 284, 85 

SCR 536, 85, 352 

short wave aerial kite, 27 

switchboard BD71, 175 

telephone lines, repair of, 303 
Construction 

airfields, 18, 105 

bridges, 369,381 

pipeline, 196 

ponton bridge, 60 
Convoy, motor, 155, 170, 308, 

317,357,394,424 
Crane, truck-mounted, 161 
Cub plane, 42 

Dachau, German, 429 

Danube River, 417 

Debarkation of troops, North- 
ern Ireland, 3 

Depot 
Engineer, 44 
Ordnance, 20, 22, 43 

Distribution point, gasoline, 255 

Domfront, France, 178 

Dreux, France, 168 

Duesseldorf, Germany, 401 

DUKW's, 68, 97 

Enclosure, prisoner of war, 408 



INDEX 



445 



Evacuation 

of casualties, 138,204, 361 

of pilots, 96 
Exercise fabius, 66, 67. See 

also Training. 

Falaise, France, 176 
Ferry, Rhino, 122 
Fighter planes 

P-38, 9 

P-47, 9, 59, 338 

P-47, damaged, 399 

P-47, on fire, 105 

P-51,9,48, 49 

British, 35 

German, 400 
Fire fighters, British, 34 
First aid. See Medical opera- 
tions. 
Flak, 8, 202 
Flooded area, 229, 248 
Footbridges, 369, 417 
Fort de Queuleu, France, 

226-27 
Fort du Roule, France, 130-31 
Fort Saint Julien, France, 

226-27 
Fort Sebastian, France, 318-19 
Fortifications, 216, 347 

dragon's teeth, 373 

German, 91, 315, 332 

German, damaged, 127 
Foxholes, 142, 228, 328 
Frankfurt, Germany, 384, 385 
French Forces of the Interior, 

190 
Fuel tank, 48 

Gas masks, wearing of, 4,11 
Glider pilots, evacuation of, 96 
Gliders, 29, 94, 95, 214, 390, 

391 

British, 29, 94 

wrecked, 94, 393 



Gun crews 

antiaircraft, 102 

naval, 77 
Gun motor carriages, 200, 225, 

233, 234, 285, 344, 374 
Guns 

8-inch, 192, 206, 304, 305, 
371 

155-mm., 193, 299 

antiaircraft, 90-mm., 102 

antitank, 3 -inch, 102 

antitank, British, 115 

German, 91, 124, 221 

Half-tracks, 65, 217, 253, 414 

on fire, 264 
Hand grenades, 6, 142, 274 
Harbors 

artificial, 118, 120 

Antwerp, 256 

Bremen, 421 

Brest, 188-89 

Cherbourg, 130-31, 132, 172 

damaged, 120 

Saint-Malo, 180-81 

Saint-Nazaire, 422 
Headquarters, ETO, London, 45 
Hedgerow cutter, 133 
Hedgerows, 134, 144, 149, 150, 

165 
Helmets, 163 

camouflaged, 108 

World War I, 4, 6 

World War II, 16 
Hill 441, Germany, 358-59 
Hospitals 

England, 50 

evacuation, 109 
Howitzers. See also Artillery. 

105-mm., 114, 232, 250, 327, 
363 

155-mm., 103, 125, 270, 293 
Howitzer motor carriages, 23, 

251,277,370 



Huertgen Forest, Germany, 

234, 235, 241 

Infantrymen, 128, 129, 144, 
152, 162, 163, 165, 179, 
182, 187, 201, 205, 228, 
238, 269, 274, 282, 376 
aboard ship, 92 
column of, 81, 89, 97, 167, 

216, 249, 312, 372 
German, 197, 263, 264, 265 
in glider, 29 
wounded, 197 

Invasion. See Landing opera- 
tions. 

Invasion beaches. See Beaches. 

Invasion operations, 96 

Invasion preparations, 70, 75. 
See also Training. 

Jeeps, 29, 244, 326 

with wire cutter, 143 
Juelich, Germany, 336-37 

Kommerscheidt, Germany, 

236-37 
Landing craft 

assault boat, 7, 428 

converted to rocket launcher, 
63 

LBK, 77 

LBY77 

LCI, 64, 92 

LCR, 82 

LCT, 55, 64, 65, 77, 81,96 

LGVP, 66, 69, 70, 80, 81, 
380, 381 

LST, 55, 70, 121 

LST, deck loaded, 67 

LVT, 22 
Landing operations, 76, 78-79, 

80, 81, 86-87, 88. See also 

Beaches. 
Liaison plane, 42 

equipped with skis, 294 



446 



INDEX 



Life preservers, 7, 12, 82 

Life raft, 27 

Living conditions, 228, 288, 

322, 363 
London, 34, 45 
Lousberg, Germany, 218-19 
Ludendorf Bridge, 355, 356 
Luneville, France, 221 

Machine guns 

.30-caliber Browning, 11, 
134, 179, 217 

.45-caliber, 6 

.50-caliber Browning, 389 

.50-caliber Browning, air- 
craft, 13 

German, 52 
Magdeburg, Germany, 411, 412 
Mail call, 152 

Main River, Germany, 30, 385 
Maneuvers, 29, 47, 64. See 

also Training. 
Manhay, Belgium; 296-97 
Map making equipment, 36, 37 
Maps 

Ardennes-Alsace, 260 

Central Europe, 378 

Great Britain, xii 

Normandy, 72 

Northern France, 146 

Rhineland, 210, 324 
Marshalling area, England, 69 
Masks 

gas, 11 

oxygen, 12 
Medical aid, administering of, 

19, 83, 108 
Medical aid men, 19, 83, 108, 

138, 197, 204, 253, 309, 360 
Medical operations, 309, 360 

immunization, 252 

surgery, 109 
Mess, 129, 238, 288, 295, 347 
Metz, France, 224, 226-27 
Military police, 171, 357 



Mine detectors, 88, 93, 375 

Mine exploder, 240 

Mine field, German, 93 

Mines 
antipersonnel, 93 
antitank, 279 

Montebourg, France, 125 

Mortars 
60-mm., 6, 53, 183 
81 -mm., 6, 65, 182,310 
chemical, 4.2-inch, 245 

Moselle River, 201, 204, 208, 
220, 226-27, 244, 364 

Motor carriages 
gun, 46, 64, 103, 135, 185, 
194, 199, 207, 233, 234, 
285, 344, 374, 412 
howitzer, 150, 169, 199, 251, 
277, 370 

Mud, 213, 222, 231,234, 345 

Muenchen-Gladbach, Ger- 
many, 341 

Neckar River, 402 
Negro troops, 10, 103, 107 
Neuf Brisach, France, 334-35 
Niederleuken, Germany, 330- 

31 
Night firing, 316 
Nuernberg, Germany, 416 

Observation posts, 166, 353, 

362 
Obstacle, tank, 216, 373 
Officer Candidates School, 1 1 
Omaha Beach, 78-79, 118 
Optical equipment, repair of, 14 
Our River, 346 
Oxygen mask, 12 
Oxygen tank, 13 

Pack howitzer, 292. See also 

Artillery. 
Parachute jump suit, 16, 75 
Parachutes, 58 
Parade, Paris, 191 



Paratroopers, 58, 306 

Paris, 190 

Pillbox, German, 332 

Pipeline, gasoline, 132, 196, 254 

Pistol, automatic, .45-caliber, 6 

Plasma, administrating of, 19, 

83 
"Priest," 23 
Prisoners of war 

Allied, 268, 435 

German, 84, 110, 128, 153, 

239, 276, 300, 346, 383, 

384,386,389,408,425,429 

Propaganda leaflets, German, 

152 
Pruem, Germany, 344 

Queen Elizabeth, 25 
Quonset huts, 50 

Railroad 

bridge, 98, 401 

destroyed, 173 

equipment, 44, 54, 172, 173 

French, 173 

yards, 218-19, 405 
Railroads 

Belgium, 256, 258 

damaged, 339 

France, 99, 112-13,226-27 

Germany, 339 

Recreation, 184 
Red Ball Highway, 170, 171. 

See also Roads. 
Remagen Bridge, Germany, 

355, 356 
Repair shop, Ordnance, 14 
Rescue launch, British, 27 
Rescue operations, 82 
Rheine, Germany, 339 
Rhine River, 354, 356, 357, 380, 

381, 382, 387 
Rhino ferry, 122 
Rhone-Rhine Canal, 334-35 



INDEX 



447 



Rifles. See also Small arms. 
.30-caliber Ml, 6, 7, 29, 144, 

162 
.30-caliber M1903, 6 
.30-caliber M1903 A3, 29 
.30-caliber M1918A2, 6, 29 
.30-caliber M1919A4, 6 
M 1 with rifle grenade, 27 1 
German, 52 
River crossings, 201, 244, 346, 
364, 369, 380, 381, 387, 
402, 409, 427 
Rivers 
France, 98, 140-41, 161, 201, 
204, 208, 220, 226-27, 244 
Germany, 30, 330-31, 336- 
37, 340, 354, 356, 357, 364, 
380, 381, 382, 385, 387, 
402,411,417 
Luxembourg, 346 
Road signs, 286, 424 
Roads 
Ardennes, 266-67, 271 
Austria, 424, 426, 427 
Belgium, 198, 280-81, 296- 

97, 312 
France, 78-79, 86-87, 126, 
136, 138, 150, 155, 157, 
158-59, 167, 170, 185, 195, 
226-27, 229, 247, 320 
Germany, 216, 234, 235, 236- 
37, 264, 394, 398, 425 
Rocket launcher site, German, 

117 
Rocket launchers. See also 
Small arms. 

2.36-inch, 29, 53, 185, 306 
4.5-inch, 241, 403 
German, 174 
Rocket projector, German, 343 
Roer River, 336-37, 340 

Saale River, 411 
Saare River, 330-31 
Saarrbourg, Germany. 330-31 



Saint-L6, France, 139, 140-41 
Saint-Malo, France, 179, 180- 

81 
Saint-Nazaire harbor, France, 

423 
Schweinfurt, Germany, 30, 31 
Seatrain, 172 
Seine River, 98 
Serrig, Germany, 362 
Shell fire, German, 90 
Small arms, 6, 29 

carbine, 184 

German, 52 

machine guns, 134, 179, 217, 
291 

rifles, 162,271 

rocket launcher, 2.36-inch, 
53 

Thompson submachine gun, 
75 
Smoke screens, 68, 242 
Street fighting, 205, 217, 224, 

407 

Cherbourg, 128 
Submachine guns, .45-caliber, 

29, 75. See also Small 

arms. 
Submarine pens, German, 422 
Submarines, German, 421 

bombing of, 24 
Supply operations, 122, 132, 

170, 171, 256, 257, 258, 308, 

404 

aerial, 95, 345 

German, 99 

Normandy, 123 

Utah Beach, 97 

Tank destroyer, 412 
Tanks 

damaged, 136, 137 

French, 157 

German, 136, 137, 268, 301 

light, 47, 133, 150, 247, 289, 
314, 367 



Tanks — Continued 
medium, 15, 22, 47, 62, 137, 
149, 156, 160, 164, 168, 
195, 204, 221, 230, 231, 
233, 244, 307, 332, 342, 
351, 367, 388, 398, 403, 
414,419,423 
on fire, 351 
waterproofed, 62, 388 
with hedgerow cutter, 133, 

149 
with rocket launcher, 403 
with track extensions, 230, 
231 
Tanks, containers 
fuel, 48 
oxygen, 13 
water, 50 
10 Downing Street, London, 45 
Tents, 50, 109 
Terrain 
Ardennes, 266-67 
Austria, 426, 430, 431 
Belgium, 280-81,296-97 
England, 35 
flooded, 229 

France, 78-79, 86-87, 95, 98, 
100-101, 126, 140-41, 
158-59, 176, 177, 220, 226- 
27, 318-19, 330-31, 
334-35 
Germany, 236-37, 336-37, 
358-59, 362, 373, 409 
Thanksgiving Day dinner, 228 
The Stars and Stripes, V-E 

edition, 433 
Tractors 
diesel, 161 

high-speed, 18-ton M4, 192 
Train, German, wrecked, 99 
Training 
England, 6, 23, 28, 29, 42, 46, 

53, 58, 60, 65, 66, 68, 69 
Northern Ireland 5, 17, 52 



448 



INDEX 



Training — Continued 
Officer Candidate School, 1 1 
Scotland, 7 
Transport planes, C-47, 94, 

345, 404, 435 
Transport ship, British, 25 
Treadway bridges, 208, 240, 

340, 357, 382 
construction of, 161 
Trench, 251 

Trevieres, France, 100-101 
Troops. See also Infantrymen. 

German, 420 

Russian, 418 
20 Grosvenor Square, London, 

45 

Utah Beach, 86-87, 88 

Vauban Canal, France, 334-35 

V-bomb, German, 400 

Vehicles 
ambulances, 19, 109, 317, 326 
amphibian trucks, 68, 97, 123 



Vehicles — Continued 
armored car, 156, 157, 198, 

200, 285 
bulldozers, 44, 129, 161 
burning, 407 
cargo carrier, 253 
damaged, 395 
French, 190 

German, 115, 195, 420, 426 
gun motor carriages, 46, 103, 

135, 185, 200, 207, 225 
half-tracks, 46, 65, 217,414 
horse-drawn, 420, 426 
howitzer motor carriages, 

150, 169, 199 
jeeps, 29, 326 
on fire, 195 
semitrailer, 258, 404 
tank recovery, 65, 216 
tractor, 20, 21, 44, 192 
trailer, 170 

trucks, 18, 121, 123, 170 
weapons carrier, 122 



Vire River, France, 161 
Vire-Taute Canal, France, 
112-13 

Waldenburg, Germany, 415 
War damage, 129, 155, 364, 
385, 389, 411, 412, 415, 
416 
Water tanks, 50 
"Weasel," 253 

Weather conditions, 5, 228, 229, 
249, 250, 253, 255, 266-67, 
288, 295, 320, 326, 430 
Weather forecasting equip- 
ment, 38 
Widensohlen Canal, France, 

334-35 
Women 
American Red Cross, 25 
Army Auxiliary Corps, 25 
Army Corps, 40 
Army nurse, 51 
Wuerzburg, Germany, 413 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1988 203-040/80010 



PIN : 039019-000