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Full text of "women and waqf"

WOMEN AND WAQF 





I 



Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation 

KAPF is an independent governmental body interested in Kuwait awqaf, 
and means of investing them and spending their proceeds as recommended 
by the waqifs within the framework of pertinent legal regulations. 

KAPF was established pursuant to the Amiri Decree # 2571993/ issued 
on 29 Jumada Al Ula, corresponding to 131993/11/. Its mission centers 
round developing waqf, maintaining it and spending its proceeds through 
a developed institutional organization and ongoing communication with 
society. 

Series of translations in philanthropic and voluntary work 

This is one of the projects undertaken by KAPF as part of the role entrusted 
to the State of Kuwait as a coordinating state in the area of waqf as per the 
resolution passed by the conference of the Ministers of Awqaf and Islamic 
Affairs held in Jakarta, Indonesia in October, 1997. 

This book 

This book highlights the contributions of Moslem women in the area of waqf 
over the period of Islamic history, stressing the role played by waqf in favour 
of women and families. It also defines waqf and its types, besides making a 
history survey covering the pre-lslamic, Islamic and modern periods. In the 
end, it approaches the role of Kuwaiti women in supporting waqf and the 
contribution of waqf to the welfare of Kuwaiti women and families. 





;3 g" i Ijj 

State of Kuwait 



Kuwait Awqaf Public foundation 



A Series of Translations on Philanthropic 
and Voluntary Work (12) 




Iman Mohammad Al Humaidan 



Department of Studies and External Relations 
1428 AH - 2007 AD 



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M^l 





State of Kuwait 



KuwiiJt Awqal Public Foundation 



A Series of Translations on Philanthropic 
and Voluntary Work (12) 



WOMEN AND WAQF 



Iman Mohammad Al Humaidan 



State of Kuwait 

Kuwait Aw qaf Public Foundation 

Department of Studies and External Relations 

1428 AH - 2007 AD 



Copyright © 2007, Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation 

Dasma - Block 6 - P.O.Box: 482 - Safat 13005 

Tel: 804777 - Fax 2532670 

WWW.awqaf.org 

E-mail: amana@awqaf.org 
serd@awqaf.org 



First Edition, 1428AH - 2007AD 



Kuwait National Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data 



297.65 Al Humaidan, Iman Mohammad. 

Women and waqf/by Iman Mohammad Al Humaidan.- 

253.902 Kuwait: Awqaf Public Foundation, 2007. 

p.; cm. - (A series of translations on philanthropic and 
voluntary work; (12) 

Depository No. 284/2007 
ISBN: 978-99906-36-73-4 



1. Waqf. 2. Waqf-Kuwait. 3. Charitable uses, trusts, and 
foundations. I. Title. II. Series: A series of translations on 
philanthropic and voluntary work; (12) 

BP 170.25 TLCOO-37267 

AACR2 MARC 



In the Name of Allah, Most Merciful, 
Most Gracious 

"By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you give 
freely of that which you love: and whatever you give, Allah knoweth 
itwell".^*^ 

AI Imran Sura, Verse 92 



{*) All Qur'anic translations herein are taken from The Meaning of the Holy Qur'an by 
Abdullah Yusuf Ali - Amana Corporation, Maryland, USA 




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Acknowledgement 



To the Waqifs, Men and Women, who contributed to the 
development of the Islamic Societies over the years 



May Allah reward them for their good deeds. 



<^ 



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KAPF Foreword 

Waqf, by virtue of being a beneficial, influential, comprehensive 
and sustainable developmental tool, has left its indelible positive 
imprint on the development of Islamic societies and emerged as one of 
the most crucial issues affecting not only the economic activity and 
social integration but extended also to embrace the academic fields. It 
is therefore not strange to find waqf receiving all this attention and 
thoughtfulness from the various governmental agencies, non-govern- 
mental organizations and cultural cycles. 

Based on the aforementioned trends, Kuwait Awqaf Public 
Foundation was established as a governmental independent authority 
following Kuwait nomination as the coordinating state of the waqf file 
at a pan Islamic level pursuant to a decision taken by the conference of 
the Ministers of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs held in Jakarta, Indonesia 
in 1997. Ever since, Kuwait has been working on a number of projects 
in this domain, as follows: 

1 - Waqf Indexes Project. 

2 - Developing Waqf Studies and Researches Project. 

3 - Waqf Databank Project. 

4 - Waqf Cadres Training Project. 

5 - Publishing Awqaf International Journal. 

6 - Presentation of Waqf Experiences Project. 

7 - Waqf Jurisprudential Issues Project. 

8 - Waqf Thesaurus Project. 

9 - Codification of Waqf Regulations Project. 

In its efforts to execute such projects, KAPF has coordinated with 
the Council of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs Ministers' Executive Board 
in Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and IBD Islamic Institute for 
Research and Training in Jeddah. Likewise, KAPF was intent on 
encouraging all waqf-related studies through scholarships awarded for 
this purpose, in addition to conducting Kuwait International Contest 
for waqf researches. Numerous academic publications, including 



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Awqaf Journal and other academic works related to waqf seminars, 
translations, theses, books and other relevant studies were published. 

The book entitled "Women and Waqf is translated from Arabic 
into English and it belongs to the series of translations on charitable 
and voluntary work aiming at highlighting the role played by waqf in 
general, and women in particular in serving society. This series of 
publications belongs to the second project pivoting round the 
development of studies and waqf researches aiming at creating waqf 
awareness and encouraging genuine academic research in the area of 
waqf and voluntary work to realize the sought objectives. 

It is source of pleasure for KAPF to publish this series and to 
make it available to researchers, individuals and institutions interested 
in waqf. 

We hope that this translation will satisfy the needs of readers for 
whom Arabic is not a mother tongue and that it will constitute a 
welcome addition to all that is related to waqf and its role in serving 
societies. 

May Allah help us always to provide what is useful and beneficial 
to our readers. 

Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation 




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Contents 

Introduction 9 

I - Definition and Types of Waqf 13 

II - Waqf over the Years 1 5 

III - Contributions of Moslem Women to Waqf 23 

a - Attending to and reconstructing mosques 25 

b - Healthcare 28 

c - Educational Services 30 

d - Social services 34 

IV - Waqf Contributions in Behalf of Women 39 

V - Kuwaiti Women and contribution to Waqf 43 

a - Familial (Thurri) Waqf 45 

b - Mosque Waqf 46 

c - Charitable Waqf 48 

d - Joint (Mushtarak) Waqf 52 

e - Kuwaiti Women Attend to their Awqaf 53 

f - Statistics on Kuwaiti Women's Contributions 

to Waqf 55 

V - Waqf in behalf of Kuwaiti Women 59 

VI - Conclusion 63 

VII - Waqf Deeds Appendix 67 

VIII- References 89 




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Introduction 

Thanks are due to Allah and praise be upon His Prophet. 

As early as the emergence of Islam, Moslem women are known to 
have been effective members in their societies as history highlights this 
role in charitable work. Such an attitude is actuated by women's 
inborn tendency towards well-doing and charitable work. The mother 
of the believers Zeinab Bint Jahsh (May Allah be pleased with her) set 
an example through giving charities out of the income of those hand 
made items to the poor and the needy. Prophetic tradition tells us that 
the Prophet (Peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said that the 
first of his wives to follow him after his death is the one with 'lengthy 
hands'. When Zeinab died, the wives of the Prophet recognized that 
she was the one with the 'lengthy hands' and that she was foremost in 
charities. 

Moslem women remained on the lead in the areas of social work, 
taking the initiative in alleviating the sufferings of others and extending 
assistance for the sake of developing and promoting their society, 
motivated by gaining God's good pleasure in execution of the Qur'anic 
verse: ^^Then shall anyone who has done an atom's weight of good, see it. 
And anyone who has done an atom's weight of evil, shall see it. '^" 

The institution of waqf in Islam is unique in its type and purposes 
and in what it has achieved, or may achieve, for the sake of individuals 
and societies in terms of benefits as well as protection from indigence 
and poverty. Due to its comprehensive charitable nature, no other 
system can ever match it as it embraces the various classes of society, 
with no discrimination between Moslems and non-Moslems. Saffia 
Bint Hayi ibn Akhtab, the wife of the Prophet, reportedly made a waqf 
in favour of her Jew brother. On the other hand, Moslems created 
several formulas for waqf which covered all that is related to charity 
and God-fearing, starting with water, salt and fire till it reached the 
establishment of comprehensive developmental projects. 



(1) Al Zalzalah Sura, verses 7 & 8 




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This research aims to feature the relation of women to waqf over 
the years and the roie of each party towards the other. It also seeks to 
shed hght on one important area of waqf which has remained restricted 
in the researchers' agendas. Despite the vitality of such an issue and its 
role in highlighting part of our prosperous civihzation, reluctance on 
the part of researchers to approach this subject has always been clear. 
This can be attributed to the paucity of references scattered in 
manuscripts centers and Islamic waqf libraries and institutions of the 
Islamic world. 

This research is based on the hypothesis purporting that the 
relation between waqf and women is a 'reciprocal relation'. As human 
beings characterized by understanding and awareness, women have 
always taken waqf as means to their charities and well-doing in 
recognition of its leading developmental role. On the same lines, waqf, 
as an economic and social institution and an effective developmental 
formula, played a crucial role in attending to women and extending 
help to them in the walks of life. This reciprocal relation, sustained by 
both parties, was always a source of the nation's prosperity and 
progress over the years. 

The first part of the research introduces examples of Moslem 
women's contributions to waqf so as to highlight the antiquity and 
diversity of this contribution by categorizing it into the following areas: 

a - Re-construction of mosques and attending thereto. 

b - Health Services. 

c - Educational Services. 

d - Social Services. 

In dealing with the above-mentioned areas, we do not claim that 
this present research is exhaustive in conveying and presenting the 
models of women's waqf. As mentioned above the sources are few and 
scattered, besides some of them are unpublished. Therefore, we shall 
confine ourselves to presenting some examples of the areas mentioned 
above. 

The second part of the book pivots round the contributions of 
Kuwaiti women, as a model of Moslem women, who spent out of their 



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own monies on the different charitable areas. Statistical tables and 
waqf deeds are attached to this part to show that charitable tendency 
on the part of Kuwaiti women who excelled men, reportedly 
outshining them in areas connected with mosques and the reconstruc- 
tion thereof. 

The findings of this research show that it would be helpful to 
conduct a study to determine to what extent it would be propitious to 
establish a waqf for women which could provide for them, with some 
additions to serve women, children and society. 

Finally, I would like to extend thankfulness and gratitude to Mr. 
Yousef Al Sharrah who volunteered to revise the book from the shari'a 
perspective. Thanks are also due to those who helped me with the 
resources, mainly the Department of Information and Authentication 
at Kuwait Awqaf Pubhc Foundation, the staff of the Deputy 
Secretary-General office for Management and Supportive Services 
who, despite their preoccupation, encouraged me to embark on this 
work. I hope that, through this booklet, I would have added something 
new and valuable about women and waqf. I would also like to 
apologize for any slip a reader may encounter while going through this 
booklet. 

May Allah the Almighty Guide us in the Path of Righteousness 




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WAQF: Definition and Types 

Definition of Waqf: 

Waqf is a genuine Islamic formula which reflects that interaction 
between the values of faith and the values of development in Islam. 
These values distinguish the spirit of Islamic societies from that of 
other societies - that spirit which reflects the role of waqf in 
maintaining a society's identity and coping with its developmental 
requirements. 

Linguistically speaking, Waqf means withholding or retaining^^^ , 
but on the terminological level, it means withholding an asset, which 
could be a house, an orchard or cash money or the like, so that it would 
become unsaleable and inalienable while directing its usufruct to a legal 
channel of spending. 

An owner of a property, house, orchard or cash money or the like 
may dedicate any to a legal channel of spending on an ongoing basis. 
In this case, neither the waqif nor the nazir (administrator) of waqf are 
entitled to sell, offer as a grant or bequeath the asset being dedicated 
unless its usufruct becomes expired, in which case it can be disposed of 
provided that its proceeds should go to the same destination^^*. In 
validating the legality of waqf, Jurisprudents (Faqihs or men of 
learning) relied on evidence from the Holy Qu'ran, the Sunnah, 
consensus and reasoning^''\ In the Hoy Quran, we read the following 
verse 

^^By no means shall you attain righteousness unless you give freely of 
that which you love: and whatever you give, Allah knoweth it well 'In 



(1) Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation Kuwait, 2006 (Definition and Types of Waqf). 
http://www.Awqaf.org 

Waqf nazir is the person in charge of overseeing waqf and managing its affairs in terms of 
rehabilitation and other repairs. 

(2) Al Kandari, Faisal Abdullah {2002)The Acltvtly of Kuwaiti Women through Waqf' 
Deeds:Arah Social Studies Magazine, Vol 20, 78 P 15. 

(3) Ghanim, Ibrahim al Bayoumi: Waqf' and Politics in Egypt, Edition 1, Cairo, Dar al 
Shorouq, P 48 

(4) Al Imran, Verse 92. 



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this sense, we read the Prophetic tradition: ^^Ifa man dies, his work is cut 
off except three things: an ongoing charity, a beneficial learning of a 
goodly son praying for him^^' . 

The purposes of waqf, however, are not confined to one's 
posterity, helping the poor and the needy and spending on the Qu'ran 
and mosques, but extend to cover schools, students, hbraries, 
orphanages, attending to children, marriage, repatriation of strangers 
to their homeland, building hospitals, digging water wells, caring for 
animals, protection of environment and more other activities related to 
social development and sohdarity. 

Types of Waqf^^*: 

Ahli (Thurri or Familial) Waqf: 

In this type of waqf, the usufruct goes to specific individuals or 
their posterity from among the relatives, descendants or otherwise. A 
waqif (dedicator) may request the usufruct to inure to a charitable 
agency in case the beneficiaries are extinct. Here, a waqf is initially a 
familial one, but finally it turns to a charitable one. 

Charitable Waqf: 

In this type of Waqf, the usufruct passes to one charitable body or 
more and spending here is made to bring a waqif nearer to Allah 

Joint (Mushtarak) Waqf: 

This waqf is a mixture of both the familial waqf and the charitable 
waqf 



(1) A Prophetic hadith narrated by Muslim and others: Ministry of Awqaf & Islamic Affairs. 

(2) Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation (2006). http://www.Awqaf.org 



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WAQF OVER 
THE YEARS 




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Ancient civilizations knew waqf long time ago and ancient records 
show that people in olden times, irrespective of their religious beliefs, 
knew some financial philanthropic practices, which come very near to 
the Islamic concept of waqf. Nevertheless, these practices differ from 
waqf in terms of purposes, motives and significance. There were some 
examples of charities and ahbas, which were dedicated to places of 
worship, the poor, the orphans, the needy and the disabled. For 
example, there were farms and properties whose proceeds were 
diverted to those charities. Consequently, something similar to waqf 
in form and content was set up, though different in its purposes and 
nomenciature^^\ 

With the emergence of Islam, as early as the epoch of the Prophet 
(PBUH) until the fall of the Ottoman Empire, Awqaf gained ground, 
showed a remarkable increase and played a prominent role in 
establishing a highly civilized Moslem state. Modern civilizations are 
believed to be complementary to past civilizations which accounts for 
the West's interest in trust (or waqf) and thereby creates modern 
formulas therefor. Following is a short historical survey of waqf over 
the years: 

Waqf and the Romans: 

The Romans held Waqf as a Divine right, so the temples, religious 
pledges and offerings were inalienable and unsaleable. This fact 
appears in the record of the Roman emperor, Justinian, which states 
that 'sacred and religious things are the property of nobody because 
what belongs to Allah cannot belong to any human being"^^\ The 
Romans spent generously, through awqaf, on charitable works, the 
poor and the infirm, and viewed such awqaf as different from those of 
the temples, churches and monasteries. 



(1) Caring for Awqaf in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Da'wa and 
Guidance - Undersecretary for Awqaf affairs, Research and Planning Unit (abridged) P 
22. 

(2) Al Kebaisi, Mohammad Obaid Abdullah (2001): Waqf Regulations in Islamic Shari'a, 
Baghdad: Cultural Affairs House, P 25. 



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Waqf and the Greeks: 

Ancient Greek civilization showed a keen interest in waqf where 
revenues were spent on education, places of worship and other 
religious festivities believed to be highly esteemed by the Greek leaders. 
As a result of this interest, they supported and encouraged people to 
dedicate to these religious events because the charitable side was going 
side by side with their roughness in preparing for dealing with the 
disabled. 

Waqf and Ancient Egyptians: 

Several types of waqf were known to the ancient Egyptian 
civilization: there was a waqf for spending on the temples and priests; 
another for spending on the poor and the needy, in addition to what 
may be now called Thurri waqf in which nazara is conferred upon the 
eldest son in each tier. There were awqaf to the sons and grandsons. 
King Ramsis II reportedly offered Abidos temple vast properties and 
the rites for conveyance of the same to the temple were carried out in 
front of vast multitudes of people. Consequently, many people were 
lured to follow this example.*-^* 







Abidos Temple - Luxor, Egypt 



(1) Ai Kebaisi, Mohammad Abdullah (2001), Waqf Regulations in Islamic Shari'a: Baghdad, 
Cultural Affairs House, p 24. 




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Waqf in the pre-lslamic period: 

Arabs knew waqf before Islam and the first waqf to be known was 
the Waqf of Ibrahim el Khalil (May Allah be pleased with him) on the 
Glorious Kaaba. Dedication channels were numerous to the Arabs 
before Islam as waqf was made to the idols and places of worship and 
presumably most important of all was that connected with Kaaba 
Covering which attracted both men and women. It is known that 
Nabila Bint Habab (the mother of Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttaleb) was the 
first woman to provide the Kaaba with silk and brocade covering./^* 
Consequently, Waqf was known during the pre-lslamic period, but the 
difference between Islamic waqf and pre-lslamic waqf is that the 
former was made to win God's good pleasure, whereas the latter was 
made for show off and boastfulness. 

Post-Islam Waqf: 

As early as the emergence of Islam, waqf has been mainly 
connected with social development as revealed in the teachings of 
Islam which call for dedication as a means for getting nearer to Allah 
the Almighty. The mosques of Al Medina al Munawarra built up by 
the Prophet are considered the first waqf in Islam. Likewise, the 
Prophet's companions (may Allah be pleased with them) followed the 
example of the Prophet so much so that Jaber (may Allah be pleased 
with him) says that none of the Prophet's well-off companions declined 
to establish a waqf.*-^\ 

Mosques won the lion's share in waqf in view of their vital role, 
though this process of dedication was not restricted to mosques (as we 
mentioned earlier) but extended to cover other areas of public utilities, 
such as water wells, farms, roads, etc... 

During the Umayyad caliphate, awqaf and their channels of 
spending multiplied so that a special department (diwan) for awqaf, the 
first organization of its type in the Islamic state, was established during 



(1) Caring for Awqaf in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Da'wa 
and Guidance - Undersecretary for Awqaf affairs, Research and Planning Unit 
(abridged)P 22. 

(2) Ibid, p 32 



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the reign of the cahph Hisham ibn Abdul Malek in Egypt/^* 
Consequently, more awqaf and more channels of spending were 
reported to the extent that three departments were established as 
follows: l.the first diwan was for mosques' awqaf; 2. the second 
department was for the Thurri waqf; 3. the third department was for 
the awqaf of the two Holy Mosques. 

This interest in awqaf continued during the reign of the Fatimids, 
the Abbasids and the Ottomans until the fall of the Ottoman Empire. 
During the Abbasids Cahphate, the waqf chief administrator, who was 
called Sadr El Woqoof, was supposed to supervise the administration 
of waqf, besides being entitled to designate the employees who would 
help him carrying out his duties and responsibilities. '^^^ During the 
Ottoman era, waqf had administrative units tasked with caring for it 
and laws were set to organize, manage and define its types*^^*. 

Islamic waqf played a prominent role in economic and cultural 
development and urbanization. Its effects, as we mentioned earlier, 
have extended largely to include various aspects of life.*-"^^ Such a 
distinctive historical role assisted in extending good services even 
during the periods of backwardness and imperialism^^*. 

Awqaf and Modern Civilization: 

European civilization showed a great interest in waqf. In France, 
a law was passed, defining a charitable work as ' something set aside 
out of a capital on an ongoing basis to be directed to a special or 
general charitable work'^^\ln Germany, just like many European 
countries, there was an interest in making waqf on the churches. 



(1) Al Akash, Mohammad Ibn Ahmad, the Experience of Awqaf in the Kingdom of Saudi 
Arabia, Awqaf Journal, Years 3, 4,P 107. 

(2) Al Kebaisi, Mohammad Ahdu\la.h(200l)Waqf Regulallons in Islamic Shari'a; Baghdad, 
Cultural Affairs House, P 39. 

(3) Ibid,? 39 

(4) Al Fiqi, Mohammad Abdul Qader (2003) The Role of Islamic Waqf' in Developmenl and 
the Preservation of Environment, Al Waie Al Islami, Year 5, Issue 456, P 26, 

(5) Al Zumaie, Ali, (1993) Kwaiti Waqf Experience -Towards a Developmental Role of Waqf, 
Kuwait, Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs, P 53. 

(6) Al Kebaisi, Mohammad Abdullah (2001j Waqf Regulations in Islamic Shari'a: Baghdad, - 
Cultural Affairs House, P 28. 



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Similarly, in the United Kingdom, the first waqf bearing those traits of 
Islamic waqf appeared in 1264 through Walter de Merton, the advisor 
to King Henry Ill'-^lXhe U.K is known for dedicating to libraries and 
universities, for example the University of London, Oxford, Cam- 
bridge, etc... In America, cash money waqf is prevalent and it often 
goes to specific purposes through a system known as Trust through 
which such monies are invested and their proceeds are diverted to a 
specific beneficiary*^*. 



(1) Aref, Nasr Mohammad (2005j, Waqf and the Other: Dialectics of Giving, Containment 
and Cancellation, Awqaf Journal, Year 5, Issue9, P 21, 

(2) Caring for Awqaf in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Ministry of Islamic Affairs, DaVa 
and Guidance, Undersecretary of the Ministry, Research and Planning Unit (abridged), P 
25. 




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Contribution of 

iVIoslem Women 

to Waqf 





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Reflecting on the history of ancient and modem civihzations, we 
see that few are the countries that gave women that esteemed status 
conferred upon them by the Islamic civilization. This unique status 
reflected itself remarkably in their generous giving which culminated in 
being involved in waqf They assisted in bridging the many gaps in 
their societies without considering if that contribution will benefit a 
man or a woman. Nevertheless, that role of women was not restricted 
to waqf. A quantitative study about major awqaf revealed that 25% of 
those awqaf were estabhshed by women who also accounted for 14% 
of the nazara over these awqaf.*^^* In this context, the wives of the 
Prophet (PBUH) namely Aisha, Hafsa, Um Habiba, Um Salama, 
Saffia, and the Prophet's daughter Fatima, Asma'a, the daughter of 
Abu Bakr (May Allah be pleased with them all)shared men their awqaf 
and well doing. Some of them played an important role in overseeing 
waqf and administering it. In his waqf deed, the caliph Omar ibn el 
Khattab appointed his daughter Hafsa (one of the Prophet's wives) 
nazir of his waqf^^l Other domains for women involvement in waqf 
can be put down as follows:*: 

First: Attending to Mosques 

The Prophet (PBUH) says, "From among those things which follow 
a Moslem after his death are: a learning which he acquired and conveyed 
to others; a goodly son he survived; a copy of the Holy Qur'an he 
bequeathed; a mosque he built, a house for the wayfarer he set up; a river 
he dug or a charity he paid out of his own monies during his life to follow 
him after his death^\ ^ 



(1) Al Omar, Dr. Fuad Abdullah (200), The Conlrihulion of Waqf' lo Non-Governmental Work 
and Social Developmenl: Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation, P 31. 

(2) Al Hejaili, Abdullah Ibn Mohammad (2002) A Documenlary Waqf Study in Islam: The 
Waqf Deed of Omar ibn el Khattab, Awqaf Journal, Year 2, Issue 3, P 1 16. 

* The researcher divided the domains of waqf into: Constructing mosques and attending to 
them. Health services. Educational services and social services. It should be noticed that 
some domains are overlapped, for example, a waqf is made in favour of a university, with 
a hospital or mosques attached to it. 

(3) Narrated by Ibn Majah. http://hadith,al-is]am.com 



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Mosque Oqba Bin Nafie - Qairawan 

Mrs. Zumrrud Khatoon, the wife of the Abbasid cahph al 
Mustadhi'e, constructed a mosque south of the Mustansiria school 
located on the banks of the River Tigris known as the Mosque of 
Khafaffm, whose minaret is reported to be the oldest in Baghdad. This 
woman is known to have been a lover of charity and well doing, in 
addition to her interest in men of learning and learning. *^^* 




Minaret of Al Khafaffin Mosque in Iraq 

Among the rare female awqaf on mosques is that of Mrs. Fatima 
al Hadhena (died 420 AH- 1029 AD) who dedicated a number of 



(1) Bamouqgi, Akram, Marwan, Nasrat (translated) (2006): Wives and Mothers during the 
Ahhasid Palace, http://www.mesopotamia4374.com/adad2/zawjaat-htm 



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invaluable books and works, some of which still exist, to Oqba Ibn 
Nafie Mosque in al Qairawan. A gilded Qu'ran in Kufi handwriting is 
among those wonderful works. *^^* 

On the other hand, Mrs. Khatoon, the daughter of Mohammad 
Bey, the son of the Sultan, built the Mosque of Fatima Khatoon al 
Kabeer in 974 AH-1566AD. Fatima Khatoon is the wife of the 
Bosnian leader Lala Mostafa Basha who was the governor of 
Damascus during the period from 1563-1569AD. She set up this 
mosque during her tour and the visits to Jenin whose location was 
appealing to the lady. The mosque was set up on the rubble of an old 
mosque built during the early days of Islam in 636AD. Several awqaf 
were dedicated to the mosque, either adjacent to it or in different 
places'^^^Among those who took the initiative to dedicate awqaf to Al 
Azhar Mosque in Egypt after the death of Mohammad Ali were 
members of his family, mainly women, for example Princess Zeinab 
who set up a large waqf in 1266 AH-1860 AD. She recommended that 
spending on charitable purposes, such as salaries and bread for the 
Hanafi scholars should be made out of its proceeds.*^* 



Witf- 




'^■■.■-- 


^ . 1 




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Jt-' 



Al Azhar Mosque - Egypt 



(!) 
(2) 
(3) 



Ashour, Moststafa (2006): Rahhal el Khodoor: Al Alla'a al Sanvml ': Connect to the website 

http://www.islam-online-net/arabic/history/1422/04/article32.SHTML. 

Jenin during the Ottoman rule (2006): Mutah ala Al Rabbit.: Connect to the website 

http://www.taawon4youth.org/modules. php?name-forums&file-viewtopic&- 149 

Ghanim, Ibrahim al Bayoumi (199b): Waqf and FoUltcs in Egypt, Edition 1, Dar Al 

Shurouq, P 214. 



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In his study on Awqaf, Dr. Ibrahim Ghanim referred to the 
number of awqaf dedicated by women which reached 48 out of 163, 
i.e., 29.44% of the awqaf dedicated to al Azhar Mosque. It should be 
noticed here that women accounted for 47.75% of the revenues of Al 
Azhar according to 1940/41 budget. This, no doubt, shows the 
immensity of the women awqaf compared to their limited number.*-^^ 

Among the conspicuous examples of the charitable work is that of 
Um el Banin Fatima Bint Mohammad al Fahri (of the Andalusia 
origin) in the 13^^ Century AH who moved to the city of Fez with her 
family. Her father was a well-off person who died and left two 
daughters behind him: Fatima and Merriam. Fatima reconstructed Al 
Qarawiyeen Mosque in Fez in 1245AH - 1829 AD, so far regarded as 
one of the first universities in the Islamic world. In constructing the 
mosque, she spent generously. Her sister Merriam built another 
mosque in Fez.^^* 




University of Qarawiyyeen - Morocco 

Second: Health Services 

Health services took the hon's share in women awqaf as shown in 
the establishment of hospitals which offered free treatment to poor 
patients, in addition to establishing waqf on medical education. The 



(1) Khafagi, Riham Ahmad (2003): Women Awqaf: An Example of Women Participation in 
Cultural Progress Studies on the Egyptian case in the first half of the 20th century, P32. 

(2) Ashour, Mostafa (2006) Rahbal el Khudoor. Al Ata'a al Summit, 
http://www.islam-online.net/arabic/history/1422/04/article32.SHTML 




<i^ 



mothers and wives of the Ottoman rulers were keen to estabhsh awqaf 
on hospitals, for example the mother of Sultan Murad III, the mother 
of Sultan Abdul Majeed, the Sultana Hafiza and Sultana Turiana. The 
hospital of Sultana Turiana remained in operation until 1927AD/^* 
The wife of Sultan Suleiman al Qanuni built a mosque and estabhshed 
a waqf for it. At that time, there were children hospitals, with a full 
waqf for children to meet their needs, including nurses who attend to 
children. There were also nurseries for illegal children to extend 
necessary medical aid and providing women to suck them^^\ 

In Egypt, Princess Ain el Hayat and Mrs. Huda Sharawi were 
foremost in charitable work; the former sohcited the Egyptian 
princesses to establish Mohammad Ali Foundation in 1327 AH / 
1909AD to fight infantile cholera. The idea of the foundation started 
as a charitable society, teaching girls sewing, in addition to dispensary 
and a medical awareness center for mothers. *^^* 

Similarly, another woman, Qut el Qulub al Demardashia, stands 
witness to charitable work in Egypt. She cooperated with her father 
Mr. Abdul Rahim al Demardash and raised money to build the 
reputable Demardash Hospital in Egypt. The land on which Ain 
Shams University is built is part of the awqaf of this well-doing 
woman. ^"^^ 

Another example is Dr. Zuhaira Abdeen who is known as early as 
the fifties of the 20^^^ century for her continued sincere efforts in favour 
of the poor in general and Moslem children, in particular. She 
established several charitable establishments for children and other 
social classes, for example 'Friends of Cardiac Rheumatic Children', 
Heart and Rheumatism Center in the Pyramids Area, Children Health 
Institute and a Center for elderly women. The services included widows 



(1) Mohammad, Ali Gumaal993): Waqf and lis Developmenlal Role, Semnar of the Ministry 
of Awaf and Islamic Affairs, p 119, 

(2) Ba Dahdah, Ali Ibn Omar (2005): Everything is Free of Charge, Islam on Line 
http://islameiatxom/main?c-247&a-1967 (August 24) 

(3) Ashour, Moststafa (2006): Rabbat el Khodoor: Al Atta'a al Sammit' 
http://www.islam-online.net/arabic/history/1422/04/article32.SHTM 

(4) I Ibid 



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and foundlings, in addition to a waqf for orphans. The activities of this 
woman extended to other parts outside Egypt as it established the first 
medical college for girls in the United Arab Emirates*^^\ 

In Tunisia, Princess Aziza Bint Ahmad (died 1080 AH / 1669 AD) 
took the lead in charitable work when she dedicated all her property to 
charities. She established a bimaristan (polyclinic) known as Al Sadeqi 
Bimaristan.^^^ 




AL Mustansiriyya School - Iraq 

Third: Educational Services: 

Education and all that is related to it received due attention from 
Moslem mothers as a result of their convictions that a society's stability 
can be secured only through the progress and evolution of education. It is 
held as an ongoing human investment, which augments human resources 
development and improves skills and qualifications in the process of the 
social make-up. Stories about Moslem women and their contributions 
are plentiful in history, all of which reflect that effective charitable role in 
developing the Islamic civilization. As an example, we mention here the 
wife of the Caliph al Musta'sem who built AI Bashiria School in Baghdad, 



(1) For more details about Mr. Zuhaira Abdeen, see 'Slmltes on Moslem Women' on the 
website: 

http://www,muslimwomenstudies, com/chair %20ti tie %20ar. htm 

(2) Ashour, Moststafa (2006): Rabbat el Khodoor: Al Atta'a al Sammit'. 
http://www.islam-online.net/arabic/history/1422/04/article32.SHTML. 



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which was a replica of Al Mustansiria School, in which the four schools 
of Islamic fiqh were taught/^' 

Moreover, Zumurrud Khatoon, the wife of the caUph Al 
Mustadhi'e, estabUshed a waqf on a school to which a hostel for 
overseas students. To this waqf, she dedicated all her monies. 
Instructors and jurisprudents were also 

appointed to teach the students^^*. In addition to many schools, 
Shams el Dhuha, the grand daughter of Salah Eddin Al Ayoubi, 
established the famous al Mutasamia School in Baghdad, which she 
dedicated to the four schools of Islamic thought (mazahib).^^* 

In her book ' Women Contribution to Book Waqf in Najed ', Dr. 
Dalai Bint Mekhlid Al Harbi cited several examples of Moslem women 
participation in awqaf during the post-Prophetic and post-Cahphate 
epoch. Sitt el Sham Bint Ayoub Ibn Shadi (died 614 AH - 1217 AD) 
was the most charitable among women as she established a waqf for 
two schools in Damascus (Al Barraniyya and Al Juwaniyya) which 
provided students with learning. 

Al Dar al Shamsi, the daughter of Sultan Al Mansour Noor 
Eddin Omar Ibn Ali Ibn Rasoul was known for her love of charitable 
work. She established Al Shamsia School in Taez, in Yemen. She also 
established a waqf in favour of the Imam, Muezzin, nazir (Qayyem), 
teacher and orphan learners of the Qu'ran. Another school bearing the 
same name was built in Zubaid to which she allocated a good waqf. 
Another example is Merriam (713AH - 1313AD), the daughter of 
Sheikh Ibn el Afif and wife of Sultan al Muzaffar in Yemen, built the 
prestigious Al Sabeqia School and appointed an Imam, a muezzin, a 
Qayyem and a teacher to teach the Qu'ran. There was also a teacher 
who taught al Shafie School of thought, a demonstrator and some 



(1) A! Obaidi, Salah Husain (1983) ' The Institution of Waqf and its Role in Maintaining 
Islamic Traces and Manuscripts': Seminar on Awqaf in the Arab and Islamic World, 
Baghdad, Institute of Arab Researches and Studies, P 92, 

(2) Bamukji, Professor Akram and Marw4 Bamukji, Professor Akram and Marwan Turkish 
wives and mothers on te website: http://www.mesopotamia4374,com,adad2/zawjaat.htm 

(3) Ba Dahdah (Ali bin Omar) "Everything is Free" on the Internet: http://www.islameiat.- 
com/main/?c = 247/&a - 1 697 



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students. She allocated a sufficient waqf to all of them, in addition to 
building another school in Taez to which she allocated a good waqf. In 
her research, Dr. Dalai also reviewed the charitable contribution of 
women through waqf in the Arabian Peninsula in modern times and in 
Najed in particular. Among the women who dedicated books were 
Fatima Bint Hamad al Fadhili al Hanbali Al Zubairia, known as Al 
Sheikha al Fadhilia, who was born and brought up in Zubair (1200 Ah 
/ 1786 AD). She was educated at the hands of some of its sheikhs and 
manifested an interest in collecting books on different subjects. She left 
the city of Zubair and settled in Mekka al Mukarrama. She was among 
the distinguished scholars of the city and dedicated all her books to the 
Hanbali students. Dr. Dalai extols also the role played by some of the 
princesses of the Royal Al Saud family who provided students with 
books and showed interest in promoting the academic movement. An 
Indian woman known as Sawlat el Nisa'a Begum who came to Mekka 
on pilgrimage established Al Sawlattia School in 1292 AH.*^^* Princess 
Iffat Al Thunayyan Al Saud, wife of late King Faisal Ibn Abdul Aziz, 
established Dar Al Hanan School for girl orphans in 1373AH-1955 
AD.*-^^ In the papers submitted to the Seminar of Waqf in the Arab and 
Islamic World, organized in 1403AH-1982AD by the Institute of Arab 
Research and Studies in Baghdad, there was an emphasis on the 
contribution of women to waqf and charitable works, their interest in 
the academic activities and the perspicacity of their mentality in that 
epoch. Women recognized those sciences and speciahzations held 
beneficial to their societies and followed the example of men who set 
certain conditions regarding those disciplines to be taught. Adela 
Khatoon, the daughter of the governor of Baghdad, established her 
own school and annexed it to her reputable mosque, Al Adelia Grand 
Mosque, in 1168AH-1754AD. She set a special condition by which 



(1) Al Omar, Fuad Abdullah: 'Institutional Structure of Waqf in Arabian Peninsul Countries 
'in the waqj' system and civil society in the Arab world: Researches and discussions of the 
Intellectual Forum, Beirut. Center oj Arab Unity Studies, P 584 

(2) Al Harbi, Dalai Bint Mekhlid {1419AH): The role of the Saudi Princesses in promoting 
social and cultural life, an article in Al Jazeera Newspaper. 

See website: http://www.suhuf.net.sa/1999jazhd/mar/14/fr.htm 



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each student should put a badge on his chest, which is equivalent to the 
university ID which we know nowadays. ^^* 




University of Cairo - Egypt 

Princess Fatima Bint Ismail was foremost among women who 
spent generously on promoting charitable work in the area of 
education and culture in Egypt. A considerable portion of the proceeds 
of her waqf was earmarked to support civil and military education in 
the seat of the Ottoman Caliphate. '^^^ This woman takes great credit for 
establishing the Egyptian University (now the University of Cairo) at a 
time this project came nearly to a deadlock. Once this woman knew 
that the project was suffering from financial difficulties, she undertook 
to exert sincere efforts to execute that project. She allocated six acres 
out of her own best lands for the project to be erected on. Moreover, 
she allocated 661 acres in Daqahlia governorate out of 3357 acres 
allocated for charitable work to this project. The university's portion 
out of the proceeds of such lands amounted to 40% annually. *^^* The 
support extended by Princess Fatima expanded to cover sending 
talented students on scholarships inside and outside Egypt. '^'^^ In 
another initiative. Princess Fatima offered her own palace to the 



(1) Al Dehayyan, Abdul Rahman (2001) Islamic Awqaf and their CiviUzaliona! Role: Fast, 
Present and Future, first Edition, Al Medina al Munawara, Dar Al Maathir, P 253. 

(2) Khafagi, Riham Ahmad (2003): Women Awqaf: A Model of Women Participation in the 
Civilizational Progress: Studies of the Egyptian case during the first half of the 20th 
century, Issue4, P 3b 

(3) On the Internet: http://www.islam-online-net/Arabic/history/1422/04/article32.SHTML 

(4) Khafagi, Riham Ahmad (2003): Women Awqaf A Model of WomenParticipationin the Civilizational 
Progress: Studies of the Egyptian case during the first half of the 20th century, Issue 4, P 33. 



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university on which the Agricultural Museum was built thereafter. 
Mrs. Qut el Qulub al Demardashia, to whom we referred earlier in this 
book, used to publish books at her own expenses and allocated prizes 
for talented young men of letters. It is interesting enough in this respect 
to mention that the first prize awarded to the famous writer Naguib 
Mahfouz was the prize carrying the name of this woman. ^^* 

Dr. Zuhaira Abdeen, to whom we referred earlier, established a 
house for the poor talented university students, in addition to a 
number of schools for integrated languages and finally she allocated a 
waqf in favour of the children of Bosnia and Herzegovina^^\ History 
also stands witness to the fact that those who destroyed the countries of 
Islam turned to be constructors after God guided them to Islam. In 
Bukhara, the mother of Hulakoo established two schools, each 
catering for one thousand students, after she had embraced Islam. ^''^ 

Fourth: Social Services: 

Moslem women have always manifested a keen interest in playing 
an active role in social development through their contributions, which 
aimed at coping with the social needs which they sensed in their 
neighborhoods. Islam, as early as its emergence, developed this trend. 
In this respect, Nafi'e says:" Hafsa, may Allah be pleased with her, 
bought some jewels for twenty thousand and dedicated them to the 
women of al Ibn El Khattab. Because she paid no Zakat for such 
jewels, she used to use or lend them.*-"^* Similarly, Asma'a Bint Abi Bakr 
made her own house as a waqf so that it cannot be donated or 
bequeathed. Um El Mumineen Um Habiba Bint Abu Sufian dedicated 
a piece of land to her servants and offspring so that this land cannot be 
sold, granted or bequeathed.*-^* During the Abbasid period, the mother 



(1) Ashour, Mostafa {2006):Rabbat el Khudoor: Al Atta' al Sammit 
http://www.islam-online.net/Arabic/history/1422/04/aricle32.SHTML 

(2) For more information about Zuhaira Abdeen, See Studies on Moslem Women om the 
Internet: http://www.muslimwomenstudies.com/chair% 20 title%20. AR.LHTM 

(3) Al Dehayyan, Abdul Rahman (2001) Islamic Awqaf and their CiviUzaliona! Role: Fast, 
Present and Future- Edition 1,A1 Medina al Munawara, Dar Al Maathir, P258 

(4) Al Qasem, Abdul Malek (2006). See the Website: http://www.kalemai.org/sections.php?- 
so-va-va&aid-452 

(5) Ibid 



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of the caliph El Nasser established a waqf (Ribat ) in Mekka El 
Mukarrama in 579 AH - 1183 AD/^* Mrs. Zubaida Bint abi Ei Fadhl 
Jaafar Ibn Abi Jaafar Al Mansour Al Abbasid (Mother of El Ameen) 
and wife of the caliph Harun El Rasheed 
played an important role in the area of waqf. 
She bought the walls and orchards of Ain 
Hunain, withheld their corpuses, and released 
their proceeds to provide water for pilgrims. 
This was called Ain Zubaida. She also 
established several other awqaf whose pro- 
ceeds now amount to 1,621,320 Riyals, 
annually utilized in operating and maintain- 
ing the facihties of Ain Zubaida.^^\ Ain Zubaida - Kingdom 

of Saudi Arabia 




Another example is that of Khatoon, the mother of the caliph El 
Mutawekkel who, on hearing about the drying of the river which 
connects the mountains of Taef and Arafat in the Holy Land, she sent 
messengers to investigate into the subject and to solve the problem of 
river out of her own monies. *^^* There is the waqf of Hanim Bint Ali 
Hasan who in 1934 AD allocated a part thereof (five qirats) to the 
servant of the Zaweya utilized for prayer, the Sabeel and Hawdh used 
by the cattle and the expenses of the maintenance thereof. '■'^^ Another 
waqf is that of the mother of the sultans (Walidatul Salateen) and the 
wife of Sultan Suleiman who allowed commercial goods to be 
transported onboard her ships heading to Hejaz.^^* Waqf on guest- 



* Ribat is a place for the poor or wayfarers. 

(1) Al Harbi, Dalai Bint Mekhlid (2001) Women's Contrihulion lo Book Waqf' in Najed. 
Riyadh, King Fahad Library, P3. 

(2) Abu Raziza, Omar Siraj (2005): Deceloping and Investing Ain Zubaida: Constructing, 
Operating and Maintenance. Awqaf Journal, Year 5,Issue,P124, 

(3) . Bamukji, Akram, Marwan, Nasrat (Translate) (2006) Turkish wives and mothers in the 
Ahhasid Epoch. 

See the Website: http://www.mesopotamia4374,comadad2/zawjaat.htm 

(4) Ghanim, Ibrahim Bayoumi(1998) Waqf' and Politics in Egypt, Edition 1, Cairo, Dar el 
Shurouq, P312 

(5) Mohammad, Ali Jumaa (1993) " Waqf' and its Developmental Role -Seminar on Towards a 
Developmental Role of Waq?^ - Kuwait, Minisry of Awaf and Islamic Affairs. 



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houses, not to mention its role in boosting bonds of kin and 
consolidating social ties, played a prominent role in strengthening 
family status at a local level. Two Egyptian ladies, Ain el Hayat Yousef 
and Fattouma Abu Mandoor, dedicated in 1913 a 20-acre piece of 
cultivable land whose proceeds would go to the entertainment of 
guests. For this purpose, a man known for good deeds should take 
charge of entertaining guests for a consideration out of the waqf 
proceeds. *-^^ Several women diverted their awqaf to those channels 
which contribute to women's interests.*-^* 

In a study about the Egyptian case in the first half of the 20^^^ 
century conducted by Mrs. Riham Khafagi, two aspects were cited 
about women's interest in developing women. The first aspect 
approached orphan daughters, whereas the second aspect approached 
their education and promotion. The areas of dedication were 
numerous and diverse. The waqf of Mrs. Jahla Tousoun, known as 
the Orphanage of Mrs. Jalila, the wife of the reputable writer Ahmad 
Zaki Basha, in 1927 was made in favour of girl orphans. In that 
orphanage, girls received education through learning the principles of 
reading, writing, religion and arithmetic, in addition to other skills, for 
example sewing, cooking and the like. Mrs. Jalila set conditions 
providing the admission of 15-20 orphan girls as stated in her waqf 
deed.*^^ 

Generally speaking and based on their charitable spending 
tendency, women gave their due attention to establishing orphanages 
for boys/'** Another memorable example in this charitable domain in 
famous well-doer Huda Sharawi who established a factory for china 



(1) Ghanim, Ibrahim Bayoumi (1998): Waqf' and Polilics in Egypt. Edition 1, Cairo, Dar el 
Shuroiiq, P325. 

(2) Khafagi, Riham Ahmad (2003); Women Awqaf:' Examples of Women Participation In 
ClvUlzatlona! Progress' - Studel.es on the Egyptian case during the first half of the 20th 
century. Issue 4, Pll. 

(3) Ghanim, Ibrahim Bayoumi (1998): Waqf and Politics In Egypt, Edition 1, Cairo, Dar el 
Shurouq, P313. 

(4) Khafagi, Riham Ahmad (2003); Women Awqaf Examples of Women Participation In 
Civilizational Progress' - Stiideies on the Egyptian case during the first half of the 20th 
century. Issue 4, P24, 



<^:>T 




and earthenware whose proceeds support the education of orphans 
and the sons of the poor Women dedicators (waqifat) were interested 
in extending various social services, for example helping the poor and 
enabling poor Moslems to go on pilgrimage to Mekka, establishing 
guest houses that carried the name of the family to boost social 
communication. Among the other services were the manumission of 
slaves and captives, helping poor girls by providing marriage assistance 
as done by the Tunisian princess Aziza Bint Ahmad, mentioned earlier 
in this book/^* Mrs. Hanifa al Salahdar's waqf assisted widows' 
daughters with their marriage expenses. *^^* 

Al Jawhara, daughter of Imam Faisal Ibn Turki Al Saud, made a 
waqf for the adornment of women and providing dresses and some 
jewels for those girls engaged to marry. Thereafter, this waqf was 
confined to some make-up items, such henna, perfumes and the like.*^^* 
In Al Maghreb al Arabi, women manifested a remarkable presence in 
waqf-related domains. Among 1293 waqfs belonging to Tunisian 
families, 231 belonged to men and 97 belonged to women.^"^* A funny 
example related to waqf is that one established by Mrs. Steita Bint 
Salem al Namras who dedicated part of the waqf to her husband and 
provided stripping him of this advantage in case of a second marriage 
during her life, after her death or leaving Egypt, his homeland. ^^* 



(1) Ghanim, Ibrahim Bayoumi (199bJ.- Waqf and Politics in Egypt, Edition 1, Cairo, Dar el 
Shuroiiq, P325. 

(2) Khafagi, Riham Ahmad (2003^; Women Awqaf:' Examples of Women Participation in 
CiviUzationa! Progress' - Studeies on the Egyptian case during the first half of the 20th 
century, Issue 4, P23. 

(3) Al Harbi, Dalai Bint Mekhlid (1419 AH) The Role of Al saud Princesses in Supporting 
Social and Cultural Life: An article in Al Jazeera Newspaper 
http://www.suhuf.net.sa/1999jazhd/mar/14fr.htm 

(4) Al Tamimi, Abdul Jaiii: Institutional Structure of Waqf in Maghreb Arab Countries: 
Researches and discussions of the Intellectual Seminar (2003): Beirut: Arab Unity Center 
for Studies, P 499 

(5) Khafagi, Riham Ahmad: Discussions on the article dealing second - marriage of men. For 
more details see Mohammad Abu Zahra: Lectures on Waqf, Cairo, Dar el Fikr el Arabi, 
PP 276- 281. 




WAQF 
CONTRIBUTIONS IN 
BEHALF OF WOMEN 





<^ V^ <^^ 



Historically speaking, waqf, with its numerous types reflecting the 
awareness of the nation (Umma), played a distinctive roie in attending 
to women and providing for their decent life and welfare. Saad ibn 
Ubada narrates the following Prophetic tradition: "O Prophet! the 
mother of Saad Ibn Ubada is dead, so what is the best charity? He said,' 
Water', So he dug a water well and dedicated it to Um Saad/ ^ 

The companions of the Prophet (may Allah be pleased with them) 
made awqaf in favour of women, for example al Zubair Ibn El Awam 
made a Thurri waqf, the first of its type. He made waqf of some of the 
houses, which belonged to him so that they cannot be sold or 
bequeathed. Their usufruct passed to his sons and divorcees returning 
to their husbands, but a second marriage forfeits this right of enjoying 
the usufruct of the waqf.^^^ During the Ottoman rule, Moslems had 
many various awqaf, including two major ones allocated for preparing 
indigent women who are preparing for marriage. '^^^ 

Historians, however, recall with great admiration the advantages 
of Salah Eddin Al Ayoubi who provided one of the doors of Damascus 
Gate with two nozzles: one for milk and the other for sugared water. 
Mothers used to come twice a week to take their needs thereof.'-'^* Part 
of the waqf water wells were allocated to women who could not afford 
to pay for water providers. '^^^ Another waqf was allocated to provide 
replacement utensils broken by servants to evade their punishment. ^^* 

Waqf also showed a genuine interest in maintaining family ties 
through the waqf of unhappy wives forced to leave their houses, at a 
time they had no relatives or they come from distant places. Special 



(1) Narrated by Abu Dawood. Website: http://hadith.al-islam,com 

(2) Ba Dahdah, Ali Ibn Omar (2005) 'Everything is Available Free.' Website: littp:// 
islameiat.com/main?/?c-247&-1697 

(3) Al Ahmad, Naser Mohammad (2006) Waqf: Nazaral wa Ahkani; Website: http:// 
WW w. islamdo or . com/k/wakef . htm 

(4) Al Sebaie, Mostafa (\918)Fi-om the Wonckrs oj our CivUizalion, Edition 5, Islami Office, 
Beirut, P: 

(5) Al Fiqi, Mohammad Abdul Qader (2003): The Role of Islamic Waqf in Devehpmenl and 
Preservation oJ Environment, Al Wai el Islami, Year 15, Issue 456, P 26. 

(6) Dawaba., Ashraf Mohammad (2005); A Proposal for Financing through Waqf.: Awqaf 
Journal, Year 5, Issue 9, P49. 



<^: 




houses were established for them and attempts at restoring their family 
life back to normal. This is similar to what is nowadays known as the 
Offices of Guidance and Social Service*^*. There was another waqf for 
protecting the wealth of a woman from the encroachment of a 
husband, son or family^^^The waqf established by Ismail Rifaat in 
1867 known as Bab El Khalq Shelter, which catered for twenty poor 
Moslem elderly women who failed to provide for themselves, is an 
example made in favour of women*-^\ As a top governmental official 
during the reign of Khedive Ismail, Ratib Basha rejuvenated the 
hospice of the poor elderly women which was originally established 
towards the end of the Mamluki era and catered for 21 women. '■'^^ 

In the Sultanate of Oman, there were awqaf established on 
Maja'iz or Pubhc Bathrooms whose proceeds were diverted to 
restoring those bathrooms estabhshed mainly for health purposes*^^*. 
However, nowadays new roles have been assigned to awqaf through 
developmental projects directed to women, for example ' Setting things 
Right among Disputant Couples ' and 'My Own Effort' conducted by 
Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation which will be handled in detail later. 

In the State of Qatar, a large financial waqf for medical care and 
research specialized in gynecology, pediatrics, sterility, diabetes 
mellitus, myocardial and infectious diseases has been established, in 
addition to another program for genetics research which is getting 
underway. "-^^ 



(1) Al Sadhan, Abdullah Ibn Nassaer (2006): Awaqf from a Social Perspective, Ahlan 
Wasahlan Magazine, 

Website: http://pr.sv.net/aw/2006/January/2006/Arabic/brorse, htm 

(2) Al Omar, Fuad Abdull (2000): The Role of Waqf in Non Governmental Work and Social 
Development: Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation, P 31. 

(3) Ghanim, Ibrahim el Bayoumi (1998) Waqf and Politics in Egypt, Edition 1 < Cairo, Dar 
el Shurouq, P312. 

(4) For more details about hospices (Takaya), please refer to Ghanim, Ibrahim Bayoumi 
"Waqf and Politics in Egypt, P 307. 

(5) Ibid 311, 

(6) Qatar Institute or Education and Sciences. 
Website: http://www.qf.edu.qa/output/page43 1. asp 



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Kuwaiti Women and 
Contribution to Waqf 





<^ V^ <i^ 



Waqf in Kuwait is as old as the history of Kuwait itself and well- 
off Kuwaitis used to set up awqaf on charitable and rehgious channels 
more than three hundred years ago. Well-doing is indigenous to 
Kuwaiti people and constitutes one of the noble objectives which 
Kuwaitis pursue to win the good pleasure of Allah. Similarly, Kuwaiti 
women showed a genuine interest in waqf in the same way men did. 
This interest brought about more prosperity and development to waqf 
and reflected this charitable trend attributed to Kuwaiti women. 

Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation* manifests an interest in 
documenting the lives of the waqifs (men and women) in the Giving 
Record of which three issues were published so far. We have gone 
through these records to get acquainted with women dedicators (waqifat) 
and to look at those original copies of the waqf deeds kept at the 
Automated Archive. We have also resorted to the computerized system 
of the e-waqf form designed by KAPF. After analyzing and studying all 
those systems and documents and classifying them according to the 
respective spending channels, we have been able to highlight the roles of 
some women dedicators as examples of some types of waqf. 

In this part, we shall deal with the contributions of Kuwaiti 
women to the various types of waqf, then we shall handle the role of 
women in attending to their awqaf. 

First: Familial (Thurri) Waqf: 

^^Once a human being is dead, his work is cut off except three things: 
an ongoing charity, a beneficial learning or a goodly son praying for 
him''^'^ 

Women contributed to the Familial (Thurri) waqf as shown in the 
following examples: 



(1) A Prophetic hadith narrated by Musdlim / Al Hafez Al Munthiri, Zakieddin / Al Albani, 
Mohammad Nasereddin (1969) Summary of Sahih MusUm, Ministry of Awqaf & Islamic 
Affairs, Kuwait. 

{*) KAPF is a govermental charitable organization interested in waqf and waqf related 
affairs, for example managing, investing and spending waqf proceeds as recommended by 
the waqifs. Besides, it seeks to develop the society from cultural, civilizational and social 
perspectives to ease the burden of the needy. For more about this, please see: http:// 
www. awqaf, org 



<^>: 




In 1240 AH- 1825 AD, Merriam Bint Othman al Qanaie dedicated 
her house adjacent to Abdul Ilah mosque to her daughter Saleha Bint 
Ali Ibn Sarri and their descendants and to Taiba and her son. 




Abdul Ilah Mosque - Kuwait 

In 1339 AH-1921 AD, Sheikha Bint Abdullah Ibn Ghanim 
dedicated her house in Al Mattabba neighbourhood to Mohammad 
and Duaij, the sons of Khalifa al Dabbous and their posterity*-^\ 

In 1366 AH- 1974 AD, Latifa Bint Kulaib al Khudhair dedicated a 
house and three shops behind Fahad al Salem Street to the posterity of 
Sultan Ibn Kulaib Al Khudhair. 

Second: Mosques' Waqf: 

The waqf on mosques prevailed in Kuwait and this type of waqf 
expanded to cover attending to Imams and muezzins through 
allocating residence and salaries for them. This waqf included also 
the maintenance of such mosques and providing them with the 
furnishings and furniture. 

a. Building of Mosques: 

^^He whoever builds a mosque as small as a bird's nest or smaller, to 
him Allah builds a house in Paradis.^\ ^ 



(1) Al Kandar, Faisal Abdulah (2003) The Aclivilies of Kuwaiti. Women as show in the Waqf 
Deeds, Arabic Magazine for Human Sciences, Vol 20. Issue 78, P 18. 

(2) A Prophetic tradition: Website http://www,dorar,net/nihadith,asp 



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Maleka Bint Mohammad Al Ghanim ordered the mosque of Al 
Qatami to be built near her residence. She also dedicated two shops 
adjacent to the mosque, one of which for teaching the Holy Qu'ran and 
the other as a residence for the Imam. She herself attended to the 
mosque throughout her life in 1250 AH- 1834 AD.^^* Similarly, in 
1419AH - 1998AD Haya Bint Abdul Rahman al Habib dedicated a 
property in Hawalli area whose proceeds shall go to the mosques which 
she estabhshed. The surplus shall go to the maintenance and 
restoration of the property. 






Al Qatami Mosque - Kuwait 




Abu Hulaifa Mosque - Kuwait 



(1) Al Kandari, Faisal Abdullah (2002): the Activities of Kuwaiti Women as Shown in Waqf 
Documents - Arab Magazine for Human Studies, Vol 2, Issue 78, P 16. 

(2) Al Tauba Sura, verse 18 



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B. Providing Furniture and Furnishings to Mosques: 

In the Holy Qu'ran, we read the following verse: " The mosques of 
Allah shall be visited and maintained by such as believe in Allah and the 
Last Day, establish regular prayers, and pay Zakat and fear none except 
Allah. It is they who are expected to be on true guidance^\ ^ In 1335 
AH-1917 AD, Amena Bint Ah dedicated a house in Al Mattabba 
whose proceeds shall go the maintenance and furnishings of the 
mosque of Ibn Bisher al Roomi. In 1348 AH- 1929AD, Sara Bint 
Berges dedicated half of her house to her daughters Sheikha Bint 
Medhi and Fatima Bint Othman and then to the restoration of Al 
Sayer Mosque, located in Al Faddagh Neighbourhood. 

b. Attending to Imams: 

In the Holy Qu'ran, we read the following verse:" Who is he that 
will loan to Allah a beautiful loan, which Allah will double unto his credit 
multiply many times? It is Allah that giveth you want or plenty. And to 
Him shall be your return^^^ In 1330AH - 1912AD, Bezza Bint Ghanim 
al Jabr dedicated Ain Sheeha (a farm north to abu Hulaifa) with all its 
trees, wall and annexes to the Imam of Abu Hulaifa mosque, out of 
which he used to draw his salary. 

Third: Charitable (Khairy) Waqf: 

The contributions of Kuwaiti women were diverse to this domain 
and following are some of the respective channels of spending: 

a. Food and sacrifice meat: 

This means providing food and other foodstuff materials 
necessary for the needy in all Islamic countries, either collectively or 
individually. In the Holy Qu'ran, we read the following verse:" And 
they feed, for love of Allah, the indigent, the orphan, and the captive, 
(saying) " We feed you for the sake of Allah alone: No reward do we 
desire from you, nor thanks*\^^^ Sacrifice meat means distributing such 
meat inside and outside Kuwait during the Holy Eid El Adh'ha. In the 



(1) A] Baqara Sura, verse 245 

(2) Al Insan Sura, verses 8 & 9 




<^: 



Holy Qu'ran, we read the following verse." It is neither their meat nor 
their blood that reaches Allah: your piety reaches Him: He has thus made 
them subject to you, that you may glorify Allah for His guidance to you: 
and proclaim the good news to all who do good}\^^^ 

In 1298 AH - 1882 AD, Eida Bint Salman dedicated her house in 
al Awazim neighbourhood and a fishing facility (Hadhra or fish trap or 
weir) to the poor and the needy after her death. 

b. Prayer, Fasting and Reading the Qu'ran: 

In the Holy Qur'an, we read the following verse: ^^Those who (in 
charity) spend of their goods by night and by day, in secret and in public 
have their reward with their Lord: on them shall be no fear, nor shall they 
grieve^ ^^'\ In 1326 AH - 1908 AD, Latifa Bint Mohammad al Shamali 
dedicated a house whose rent would go to prayers, fasting and sacrifice 
meat. 

c. Break Fast (Iftar) and Pilgrimage: 

:^^ Whoever provided food for a fasting man shall have the same 
reward without reducing his reward\ a Prophetic tradition^^*. In 
1420 AH - 1999 AD, Haya Abdul Rahman Al Habib dedicated her 
building located in Hawalli so that the proceeds thereof shall go to 
meals, sacrifice meat and providing food for fasting people in the holy 
month of Ramadhan. Each of these nawafil s\\OM\d be carried out in the 
mosque of Haya Abdul Rahman al Habib. The reward of these acts 
shall reach the woman, her parents and aunts. 

d. Providing Fresh Water Free (Tasbeel): 

^^ Whoever provides a thirsty Moslem with a drink, Allah will give 
him a drink on the Day of Judgment out of the sealed nectar ; and whoever 
provides a hungry Moslem with food, Allah will provide him with the 
fruits of Paradise; and whoever provides a naked Moslem with clothing, 
Allah will provide him from the brocade of Paradise^\ a Prophetic 



(1) Al Haj Sura, Verse 37. 

(2) Al Baqara Sura, verse 274 

(3) Hadith Sharif, Sunan ibn Maja - Websitehttp://hadith.al-islam,com 



<^^ 




tradition^^*. In 1356AH -!937AD, Sherifa Bint Jabr al Ghanim 
dedicated a house in Sharq Area in favour of charitable works, for 
example sacrifice meat to herself and her parents, and to providing 
fresh water and food free in pursuit of Allah's good pleasure in this 
world and the world to come. Likewise, in 1417 AH - 1996 AD, Nora 
Hussein Al Khargawi allocated one third of her estate to charities and 
philanthropic works which reach her after her death, such as digging 
water wells in Islamic countries and building mosques or orphanages. 

D: Manumission of Slaves: 

In the Holy Qu'ran, we read the following verse: "fiw? he hath not 
made haste on the path that is steep. And what will explain to thee the path 
that is steep? It is freeing a bondman" /^^ Another example is Meitha Bint 
Misbeh who, seeking Divine reward, freed her slave Bakheet and his wife 
Warda and provided them with money. Then she dedicated the house, an 
amount of money and the weirs to their slaves and their posterity in 1263 
AH - 1847 AD.*^' Mrs. Hessa Bint Sheikh Humoud al Jassar likewise freed 
her woman slave Zafarana and dedicated her house to acts of charity and 
to her daughter Fatima and her woman slave Zafarana. In 1292AH - 
1875 Ad, this waqf deed was executed. ^"^^ 

E. All Charities: 

This term indicates an authorization made by a waqif and appears 
in his waqf deed to divert his money or any property to any charitable 
channel which is likely to bring about good and mercy to him after 
death. In the Holy Qur'an, we read the following verse: ^^The parable of 
those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is that of a grain of corn: 
it growth seven ears, and each ear hath a hundred grains. Allah giveth 
manifold increase to whom He pleaseth: And Allah carethfor all and He 
knoweth all things.^ ^ 



(1) Narrated by Imam Ahmad- Websitehttp://hadith,al-islam.com 

(2) AlBalad Sura, Verses 11,12,13) 

(3) Al Kandari, Faisal Abdullah (2002): The Actiities of Kuwait Women through Waqf 
DeedsiArab Magazinefor Human Studies, Vol 2, Issue 7b, P20. 

(4) Ibid, P20 

(5) Al Baqara, verse 261. 



<^: 




In 1340 AH - 1921 AD, Mrs. Sabeeka Bint Mohammad al Sumait 
established waqf for all charities in the hope that she, her parents and 

sister would receive the reward in this world and the Hereafter. 
Sheikha Moodhi Al Mubarak Al Sabah dedicated one third of her 
estate to all charities: providing food for the hungry, clothing, shelter 
for widows and orphans, assistance to the sick and the bereaved. 

F. Attending to the Disabled: 

In the Holy Qur'an, we read the following verse: " By no means shall 
you attain righteousness unless you give freely of that which you love: and 
whatever you give, Allah knoweth it weir/-^^ In 1403 AH - 1983AD, 
Mrs. Munira Ahmad Mohammad Al Awaisi dedicated one third of her 
estate to the Kuwaiti Society for the Disabled located in Cairo Street. 




H.H. the late Amir Sheikh Sabah Al Salem Al Sabah 
lays the foundation stone of the Disabled Society 



(1) Al Imran, Verse 92. 




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G: Supporting Students: 

^^ If anyone travels on a road in search of knowledge, Allah will cause 
him to travel on one of the roads of Paradise. The angels will lower their 
wings in their great pleasure with one who seeks knowledge, the 
inhabitants of the heavens ad the earth and the fish in the deep waters will 
ask forgiveness for the learned man. The superiority of the learned man 
over the devout is like that of the moon, on the night when it is full, over 
the rest of the stars. The learned are the heirs of the Prophets and the 
Prophets leave neither dinar nor dirham, leaving only knowledge, and he 
who takes it takes an abundant portion^\^ ^^ 

In 1416 AH - 1995 AD, Mrs. Moodhi Sultan el Issa dedicated an 
amount of KD 50,000 /- (Kuwaiti Dinar fifty thousand only) in 
support of students. 

H. Caring for Du'at (CaUers to Allah): 

Narrated by Abi Hazem through Sahl ibn Saad (May Allah be 
pleased with him) the Prophet said," / swear by Allah, it will be better 
for you that Allah should give guidance to one man through your agency 
than that you should acquire the red ones among the camels ^^^ In 1422 
AH - 2001 AD, Mrs Dalai Abdullah el Ajeel dedicated an amount of 
25,000 /- (Kuwaiti Dinar twenty five thousand only) to the Du'at at 
Islam Presentation Committee (IPE). 

Fourth: Mushtarak (Joint) Waqf 

In the Holy Qu'ran, we read the following verse: ^^^^ The parable of 
those who spend their wealth in the way of Allah is that of a grain of corn: 
it growth seven ears, and each ear hath a hundred grains. Allah giveth 
manifold increase to whom He please th: And Allah careth for all and He 
knoweth all things ■' The Mushtarak waqf is a combination of both the 
familial waqf and the charitable waqf. Among the prevalent examples of 
this waqf are the following examples; 



(1) Produced by Imam Ahmad and Ashabul Sunan through Abu El Darda'a Websi. 

(2) A Prophetic tradition narrated by Moslem on the internet: http://hadith.al-islam.com 
* Best type of camels 

(3) AlBaqara, Verse 261. 



<^>: 




In 1285 AH - 1868 AD, Mrs. Fatima Bint Ahmad El Hejaili 
dedicated her house located in Sharq Area to her daughters Munira 
and Nora, daughters of Mubarak, and her son Fahad Ibn Mohammad 
provided that they should act in her behalf in terms of sacrifice and 
charities and to do all that ought to be done to a dead person by a 
living one. One third of the house is offered to each of them without 
discrimination between a male and a female. After the daughters, the 
property shall pass to the posterity of the son, leaving nothing for the 
posterity of the daughters. 

In 1299 AH - 1882 AD, Nahya Bint Marzouq El Ghareeb 
dedicated her house to her posterity and their descendants as long as 
they reproduce, provided that they should provide food and sacrifice 
meat to her, to her parents and husband Rasheed, and his parents in 
request for the Divine reward. 

Fifth: Kuwaiti Women Attitude towards tlieir Awqaf: 

Reflecting on the role of Kuwaiti women in the area of waqf, 
one does not fail to notice that positive and lively sense of the 
initiative and readiness to do acts of charity and attend to waqf. In 
this respect, there is an interesting research carried out by Faisal 
Abdullah Al Kandari*^^* in which he touches upon the activities of 
Kuwaiti women in caring for their awqaf. He cited tree major types 
of activities, for each of which he provided examples. Here are some 
of these examples: 

- First: Most waqf deeds state that women used to go to the judge to 

register the case of sale, waqf or otherwise in front of him. The 

following are examples: 

In 1285AH - 1868Ad, Fatima Bint Hamad Al Hejaili went the 

judge Mohammad Ibn Abdullah al Adsani and announced that she 

dedicated her house to her daughters Munira and Nora, the daughters 

of Mubarak, and her son Fahad Ibn Mohammad. She recommended 

them to provide sacrifice meat and charities in her behalf. In her waqf 



(1) Al-Kandair, Faisal Abdulla (2002) Activities of Kuwait women as shown in waqf 
documents, Arab Magazine for Humanitarian Sciences, Volume 2, Issue 78, pp 21-25. 



<^^ 





deed, she allocated equal shares for each and, further, she provided 
that after the death of her daughters, the usufruct should pass to the 
posterity of her son Fahad. This means that 
the posterity of the daughters are not entitled 
to any advantages. Similarly, Fatima Bint 
Ghanim al Hurais went to the judge Moham- 
mad Ibn Abdullah Al Adsani in Jumada el 
Ula, 1315 AH, corresponding to February 
1917, and dedicated her house to sacrifice 
meat and meals in behalf of her and her 
parents. 

- Second: Women themselves used to carry out sale and purchase 
transactions related to different properties, whether these are shops, 
houses or otherwise. Such transactions were carried out by men and 
women alike or both were involved in one transaction. Examples to 
validate these facts are numerous. For example, Mrs. Moodhi Bint 
Butty Ibn Madroush sold her house to Sara Bint Suleiman for 80 
riyals. Thereafter, Sara dedicated the house to meals served in 
behalf of her and her husband Duhaim, then the to the posterity of 
her daughter Thaqiba. The judge Mohammad Ibn Abdullah Al 
Adsani put down the sale formula in 1297 AH, corresponding to 
May, 1880. Issa Ibn Khalil and Iskander were witnesses to the 
document. 

In Rabie Awal 1335 AH, corresponding to 29 December, 1916, 
Fatima Bint Mohammad Ibn Shalhoub bought from Jasem Moham- 
mad Al Bloushi his house located in Mirqab for 200 rupees and handed 
over the full price to the owner. Once the house passed to her, she 
dedicated it to meals and sacrifice meat in behalf of her and her 
parents. 

- Third: Kuwaiti women assumed the job of a waqf nazir (adminis- 
trator) and used to collect the proceeds, maintain the property and 
implement the waqif s will, for example providing food and meat 



^^^ 




and spending the money surplus in charities. There are numerous 
examples, which stand witness to women who assumed nazara or 
delegated it to other women, whether relatives or friends.. An 
example is found in Fatima Bint Ghanim al Hurais who dedicated 
her house to meals and meat and assumed nazara throughout her 
life. Thereafter, the nazara was passed to her daughter Nahya Bint 
Nasser al Khurais and her offspring. 

In Shawal, 1329 AH, corresponding to July, 1921, Munira Bint 
Khalifa al Werai'a bought from Khalaf Ibn Abdul Karim el Jabri, as 
per the power of attorney conferred upon him from his aunt Jawza, the 
house located in Al Mutran neighbourhood for 80 riyals. She dedicated 
the house to meals and meat in behalf of herself and her parents. 
Munira Bint Sheikh Duaij was appointed nazir of this waqf. 

It should be noticed that in some cases women delegated their 
powers to other women to act in the way they deem convenient on her 
behalf in respect of a waqf. An example is Al Yazia Bint Awad who 
granted a power of attorney to Habbaba Bint Sabah, who in turn sold 
the house of her principal to Khalifa Ibn Ahmad Ibn Sinan for 170 
riyals in Shaaban 23, 1321AH, corresponding to November 14, 1902. 

Sixth: Statistics of Kuwaiti Women Contributions to Waqf 

Based on the e-waqf Form developed by KAPF and the type of 
waqf (Thurri, Mosques, Khairy or Charitable and Mushtarak ), the 
number of waqifs (men and women) has been calculated. The number 
of such forms with well-doers, companies and corporations amounted 
to 549. Well-doers and companies were excluded due to the difficulty in 
identifying the gender therein, the number of awqaf amounted to 481, 
out of which 256 are for men and 225 for women. The percentage of 
women waqifs as indicated in this statistics is 47%, which indicates a 
truly high percentage on the part of Kuwaiti women in the area of 
waqf. In this respect, see Figure 1: 



* Some awqaf indicated in the waqf deed do not refer to the type of waqf. 




Comparison between the number of Men and Women Waqifs 




Males 


256 


Females 


225 


TOTAL 


481 




charitable thurri mushtarak masques 



D women awqaf 



Type of Waqf 


Female Awqaf 


Percentage 


Charitable 


180 


80% 


Thurri 


20 


8.89% 


Mushtarak 


14 


6.22% 


Mosques 


11 


4.89% 


Total 


225 


100% 



Looking at Figure 2 dealing with women awqaf according to the 
type of waqf, we notice that women awqaf in the area of Thurri waqf 
amount to 20, i.e., 8.89% of the total number of this type of waqf. 
Meanwhile, women awqaf on mosques amount to 1 1, i.e., 4.89%. This 
stands in sharp contradiction with the women charitable waqf which 
amounted to 180. Furthermore, the number of Women Mushtarak 
waqf is 14, i.e., 6.22%. 



<^:>T 




From the above-mentioned statistics, we notice that there is 
noticeable tendency on the part of women towards charitable waqf. 
Women usually have a strong passion towards the poor, needy, 
orphans and other charitable domains. This tendency towards the 
charitable domain in women is higher than their tendency towards the 
Thurri waqf, often held by many that it gains priority in women. 

Figure 3 draws a comparison between the numbers and 
percentages of women awqaf to their total number, in addition to 
the percentage of men to their total number divided according to the 
type of waqf. It is noticed that women involvement in charitable waqf 
is higher than that of men, taking into due account that women 
involvement out of their total number reaches as high as 80 %.Men 
involvement, however, is 63.28 % out of the total number. Men take 
precedence over women in mosques' waqf in which men capture 20.7% 
versus 4.89 % for women. 




\9 fW 



m 



Dmen 
■ women 



Type of 
Waqf 


Women 


Percentage 


Charitable 


162 


63.28% 


Thurri 


23 


8.98% 


Mushtarak 


18 


7.03% 


Mosques 


53 


20.70% 


Total 


256 





Type of 
Waqf 


Women 


Percentage 


Charitable 


180 


80% 


Thurri 


20 


8.89% 


Mushtarak 


14 


6.22% 


Mosques 


11 


4.89% 


Total 


225 






<^:>r 



With respect to women awqaf according to the specific channel of 
spending, KAPF statistics indicate the sacrifice meat comes first in 
charitable spending channels, followed by providing food, then comes 
third all charities, followed by other channels in which women used to 
show interest and care for. 




-^^^ 



Waqf in Behalf of 
Kuwaiti Women 





<^ V^ <i^ 



This study approaches that reciprocal relation between waqf and 
women. We have already dealt with the role of Kuwait women in the 
area of waqf. Alternatively, there are many domains in which waqf was 
helpful to women. KAPF has undertaken several developmental 
projects in behalf of women, for example: 

First: My Own Effort 

This is a family-related project undertaken by the Ministry of 
Social Affairs and Labour in collaboration with the KAPF Waqf Fund 
for Social and Scientific Development . It aims to provide training to 
those social categories which receive assistance form the Ministry of 
Social Affairs and Labour, including divorcees, widows, old maids, 
modest families. This training centers round getting those people to 
acquire certain skills through joining training courses conducted by 
My Own Effort project to reach self-sufficiency. In this respect, we 
must recall the Prophetic tradition,: Nobody has ever eaten a better 
meal than that which one has earned by working with one's hands. The 
Prophet of Allah, David, used to eat from the earnings of his manual 
labour'\^^^ 

Second: Setting Things Right Among Disputant Couples: 

Civilized countries are interested in promoting family awareness 
held by society members as one of the main pillars for protection 
against the threats that endanger family life. To this end, awareness 
campaigns are conducted via different media. People in charge of 
extending familial guidance felt the necessity for setting up this project 
called Setting Things Right Among Disputant couples through KAPF 
Waqf Fund for Scientific and Social Development. The Fund aims to 
minimize divorce cases, advocate reconciliation and setting things right 
among couples, besides disseminating familial awareness among the 



* Waqf Funds are moulds enjoying relative independence and are interested in calling for 
waqf and waqf activities, each in its respective area. This is carried out through an 
integrated vision which observes the needs of the society and priorities. It also takes into 
consideration the activities undertaken by the governmental and non-governmental 
agencies. For more information, see Waqf Funds - KAPF - Kuwait-Nov 1996, P4. 

(1) Prophetic Tradition, Fat'h Al Bari on the Internet: http://www.hadith.al-islam,com 



<^:>r 




society members. The program assists in getting them to acquire 
certain skills, which help them overcome the problems they are likely to 
encounter. Cases are also followed up after settlement of differences or 
after divorce. 

Third: Guidance Center 

Many people fail to go successfully in this life at a time things are 
getting more complicated, not to mention the adverse effects the Iraqi 
vicious invasion left on the people of Kuwait. Getting acquainted with 
the means of success and overcoming crises require rich and lengthy 
experiences which people may stand in need of. To this end, KAPF 
appointed a number of counselors and specialists to extend assistance 
to those people suffering from psychological, social or educational 
problems. In addition to those projects, women come up to occupy 
prestigious positions through the Waqf Funds and Projects, which 
extend assistance to the various categories of the society, including 
women. The Contest for the Holy Qur'an and Reciting is available to 
males and females. In extending its services, the Waqf Fund for Health 
Development attends to health and to people with special needs without 
discrimination between males and females. Similarly, there is the 
Student Project which extends assistance to male as well as female 
students. 




^^:>r 



CONCLUSION 





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Through this research, I have tried to present a documented 
overview of women-waqf relation, laying emphasis on the contribu- 
tions of Kuwaiti women. It has been made evident in this research that 
the high awareness which Moslem women enjoyed reflected itself in 
their attitude towards waqf as an effective developmental tool. Women 
have assisted in pushing the wheel of development and their women 
awqaf expanded to embrace mosques, and attending thereto, educa- 
tional, health and social services which may fall under all charities. 

It was an enjoyable journey in the world of the pioneering Moslem 
women, our mothers and grandmothers who set unparalleled examples 
of charities and well doing. In spite of the lack of references on this 
subject, I feel that I have, through Allah's Grace and blessings, 
presented something valuable. Through this research, I would like to 
stress the importance of the following conclusions and recommenda- 
tions: 

1 - The positive attitude of Moslem women and their responsiveness 

to the needs of their societies. They played crucial roles as early as 
the emergence of Islam. We can also sense that encouragement of 
the Islamic society to women in the area of waqf. 

2 - The diversity of women contributions to waqf as their awqaf 

embraced all charities, for example constructing and maintaining 
mosques, health, educational and social services which are 
essential for the society and addressing the requirements of the 
age. 

3 - There is a mutual relation between waqf and women as women 

enriched the waqf potential through their awqaf. 

4 - Speculating on the waqf deeds and based on the respective studies 

at KAPF, we notice that both men and women enjoy that 
tendency towards charitable waqf. On drawing comparisons, we 
find that that the tendency towards charitable activities is higher 
in women, whereas men are more attracted to dedication to 
mosques and their construction than women. This may be 
attributed to that daily spiritual relation between man and 
mosque, whereas the kind and merciful nature of a woman and 



<^>r 




her nearness to her family make her more sensitive to the needs of 
her society. 

5 - The paucity of academic studies on women contributions to waqf 

calls us to encourage researchers to approach this topic, taking 
into consideration the growing interest in waqf studies. This can 
be achieved through contests, prizes and other means suggested 
by waqf centers worldwide. 

6 - The recommendations focus on forming a study to assess the 

needs for establishing a waqf for women, whose aims are the 
following: 

a - Improving the status of women at the social, educational, 
cultural and professional levels. 

b - Utilizing the women's potentials in the process of social 
construction. 

c - Extending support to the governmental and non-govern- 
mental agencies involved in women-related activities. 

d - Establishing centers for women studies and researches in the 
hope of monitoring the needs of women and providing 
statistics about their social, political and economic status. 

e - Encouraging women's initiatives and recognizing creative 
women. 

In addition to all that has been mentioned before, we should point 
out that policies must be set to avoid any duplicity in the activities 
conducted by other funds. This will ensure that there will be an 
integration with the programmes conducted by other women-related 
governmental and non-governmental agencies. 

In conclusion, I hope that I have managed to provide an idea 
about the contributions of women to waqf and the role of waqf in 
attending to women-related issues. I wish also to view this research as a 
starting point, which, hopefully, will lead to other more specialized 
studies in the hope of enriching our libraries in this domain. 

May Allah the Almighty Guide us in the Way of Righteousness. 




^^^ 



WAQF DEEDS 
APPENDIX 




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First: The Holy Qu'ran 
Second: The Prophetic Sunna 

Third: Books and Studies: 

1 - Abu Raziza,Oman Riraj (2005): ^^Developing and Investing the 

awqqf of Ain Zubaida - Aw qaf Journal , Year 5, Issue 9 

2 - ^^Awqqf in the Past, Present and Future" (1993): 1'^ Edition - 

Kuwait, Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs - Waqf Sector - 
Economic Researches and Studies 

3 - Bayoumi, Mohammad Ali Fahim (2001): "Provisions of the Two 

Holy Mosques in Egypt during the Ottoman Rule, V^ edition, 
Cairo, Dar el Qahera lil Kitab. 

4 - Al Tamimi, Abdul Jaiil (2003): "Institutional Structure of Waqf in 

Arab Maghreb Countries", Beirut, Arab Unity Studies Center. 

5 - AlHejaili, Abdullah Ibn Mohammad (2002: "Waqfiat Omar ibnel 

Khattab, Awqaf JournaP\ third issue. 

6 - Al Harbi, Dalai Bint Mekhlid (2001): "Women Contribution to 

Book Waqf\ King Fahad Library, P 3. 

7 - Khafagi, Riham Ahmad (2003): "Women Awqaf, A case study of 

Egypt during the first half of the 20' century". 

8 - Khafagi, Riham Ahmad: "Discussions on women's condition in a 

second marriage of their husbands" , See M. Abu Zahra: Lectures 
on Waqf, Cairo, Dar el Fikr el Arabi. 

9 - Dawaba, Ashraf Mohammad (2005): "Finance through Waqf, 

Awqaf Journal", ninth Issue. 

10 - Al Zumaie, Ali 91993): "Kuwaiti Experience in Managing Waqf\ 

Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs. 

11 - Al Sebaie, Mostafa 1978: "From the Wonders of our Civilization" , 

fifth edition, Beirut, Al Maktab El Islami. 

12 - "Giving Record ": (2003) KAPF. 

13 - Sharawi, Huda (2003): Huda Sharawi Notes, Damascus, Dar El 

Mada. 



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14 - Al Dhuhayyan, Abdul Rahman (2001): ^^Islamic Awqaf and their 

Role in Past, Present and Future'\ Medina el Munawarra, Dar El 
Maathir. 

15 - Aref, Nasr Mohammad (2005): Waqf and the Other Person's: 

Dialectics of Giving, Containment and Cancellation, Awqaf 
Journal, ninth Issue. 

16- Al Obaidi, Salah Husain 91983): Awqaf and their Role in 
Maintaining Islamic Manuscripts, Baghdad, Institute of Arabic 
Researches and Studies. 

17 - Al Akash, Mohammad Ibn Ahmad (2003): ^^ Awqaf Experience in 

the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Awqaf Journal , fourth Issue. 

18 - Al Omar, Fuad Abdullah (2000): "Contribution of Waqf to non- 

Governmental work^^ KAPF. 

19 - AlOmar, Fuad Abdullah 92003): '' Institutional Structure of Waqf 

in Arabian Peninsula,''^ Beirut, Arab Unity Studies Center. 

20 - ^^ Caring for Awqaf in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabid\ Ministry of 

Da'wa, Guidance and Awqaf: Research and Planning Unit 
(Abridged). 

21 - Ghanim, Ibrahim Bayoumi (1998): ^^ Waqf and Politics in Egypt^\ 

first edition, Cairo - Dar el Shurouq. 

22 - Al Fiqi, Mohammad Abdul Qader (2003): ''The Role of Islamic in 

Development and Protection of Environment" , Issue 456. 

23 - Al Kebaisi, Mohammad Obaid Abdullah (2001): "The rules and 

Regulations of waqf in Sharia, Baghdacf\ Dar El Shu'oun Al 
Thaqafia. 

24 - Al Kandari, Faisal (2002): "the Activities of Kuwaiti women 

through Waqf Deeds , Arab Magazine for Human Studies", Vol 20, 
Issue 78. 

25 - A group of Pioneers (2002) KAPF 

26- Mohammad, Ali Jumaa (1993): "Waqf and its Developmental 
Effect" ,SQminaT entitled "Towards a Developmental Role of 
Waqf\ Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs. 



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27 - ^^Seminar on Awqaf in the Arab and Islamic Worlds (1983)": 
Baghdad, Institute of Arab Studies and Researches. 

Fourth: INTERNET SITES: 

1 - Al Ahmad, Nasser Mohammad (2006) Waqf: Nazarat wa Ahkam. 

http://www.islamdoor.eom/k/wakef.htm 

2 - KAPF (2006) Definition and Types of Waqf 

http : l/ww^ . a wqaf . org 

3 - Ba Dahdah, Ali Ibn Omar (2004) Everything Free of Charge 

http://islamiat.com/main/?c-247&a-1697 

4 - Ba Muqgi, Akram, Marwan, Nasrat (Translated) Wives and 

Mothers During the Ottoman Era. 

http://www.mesopotamia4374.com/adad2/zawjaat.htm 

5 - Jenin during the Ottoman Rule (2006). 

<http://www.taawon4youth.org/modules.php7name ^forum- 
sand > file ^ vie wtopic^ 149 

6 - Al Harbi, Dalai Bint Mekhlid (1419 AH) Saudi Princesses and 

their Role in Promoting Social and Cultural Life, Al Jazeera 
Newspaper. 

http://www.syhuf.net.sa/1999jazhd/mar/14/fr.htm 

7 - Al Sadhan, Abdullah Ibn Nasser (2006) Awqaf from A Social 

Perspective, Ahlan wasahlan Magazine. 

http : //pr. s V. net/aw/2006/j anuary2006/arabic/bro wse. htm 

8 - KSA, Ministry of Islamic Affairs, Da'wa and Guidance: Nine 

Books of Sunna 

http : //hadith. al-islam. com 

9 - Abdeen, Zuhaira - Studies on Moslem women. 

http://www.muslimwomenstudies.com/chair%20title%20arl.htm 

10 - Ashour, Mostafa (2006) Rabbat el Khudoor: Silent Giving. 

< http://www. islam-online > . net/ Arabic/history/ 1 422/04/arti- 
cle32.shtml 

1 1 - Al Qasem, Abdul Malik (2006) Waqf 



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http://www.kalemat.org/sections.php7so ^ va&aid ^ 452 
12 - Qatar Institute for Education and Sciences 
http://www.qfedu.qa/output/page431.asp 

Fifth: Automated Systems: 

1 - Automated Indexing System: KAPF, IT Center. 

2 - Waqf E- Form: KAPF. IT Center 

Sixth: Sources of Photos: 

- Al Azhar Mosque, Egypt. 
http.arab-photo.com 

- Oqba Ibn Nafie Mosque, Qairawan. 
http://www.alarabimag.com/arabi/atlas/morocco.htm 

- Al Qarawiyeen Mosque, Morocco. 

- University of Cairo 

- The Seal of the Judge Mohammad Ibn Abdullah Al Adsani. 
www.awqaf.org 

- Ain Zubaida, KSA. 
http://www.. pr.sv.net 

- Al Mustansiria School, Baghdad. 
http://www.islam-online.net/arabic/history/1422/10/arti- 
cleOI.shtml 

- Abu Hulaifa Mosque: Kuwait Al Roomi Book:Adnan Ibn Salem 
Ibn Mohammad (2002) / History of Old Mosques - Edition 3 - 
Kuwait - Al Manar Bookshop. 

- Al Abdullah Mosque - Same Source above. 

- Al Qatami Mosque - Same Source above 

- Abidos Temple, Luxor, Egypt 
www.ncpd.org.eg 

- Minaret of al Khafaffin Mosque, Iraq. 
http://www.mesopotamia4347.com/adad2/zawjaat.htm 

- Laying the foundation stone of the Disabled Society, Kuwait.. 




^^^ 



The Author 





Name: 

Iman Mohammad Al Humaidan 

Nationality: 

Kuwaiti 

Qualifications: 

B.Sc in Computer Science and Statistics, 
University of Kuwait, 1981 

Experience: 

Deputy Secretary General for Management and Supportive 
Services (Asst Undersecretary-in-Status) 

- Member of the Board of lyas Technical and Academic Education 

- Member of the Senate of the Islamic Economy Information at 
Excellence Center, Faculty of Administrative Sciences, University 
of Kuwait 

- Director of KAPF IT Center, 1998-2004 

- Supervisor of the Technical Office at the Civil Service Commission, 
1997-1998 

- Senior Systems' Analyst, Director of Systems' Development 
Department, Supervisor of Systems' Development Department at 
the Administrative Staff Follow up and Grievances Department: 
Council of Ministers, 1993-1995 

- Programmer, Assistant Systems' Analyst at the Ministry of 
Planning, 1981-1991 




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A list of books and studies published 

by Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation in the area 

of Waqf and Voluntary Work 

First: Winners of Kuwait International Waqf Contest: 

1 - The Contribution of Waqf to non-Governmental Work and 

Social Development - 1421 AH / 2000 AD by: Dr. Fuad Abdullah 
Al Omar 

2 - Modern Trends in Developing Waqf Investment: 1421 AH / 2000 

AD by: Dr. Ahmad M. Al Saad and Mohammad Ali Al Omari 

3 - Waqf and non-Governmental Work in Modern Islamic Society 

(Jordan Case). 1422 AH/2001 AD by Dr. Yasser Abdul Karim El 
Hourani Waqf Regulations and the Codification Movement in 
the Modern Islamic World (The Case of the Arab Republic of 
Egypt), 1423 AH - 2002 AD by Attiya F. Al Weishi 

5 - The Movement of Codifying Waqf Regulations in Modern Egypt, 

1424 AH / 2003 AD by Ah A.F. Jebreel 

6 - Waqf and its Role in Supporting Education and Culture in the 

Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the last hundred years: 1 424 AH 
- 2001 AD by Khalid Ben Sulaiman Al Khu waiter. 

7 - The Role of Waqf in Culture and Education in the Arab and 

Islamic Communities (Malaysia as an example), 1424 AH / 2001 
AD by Sami M. Al Salahat 

8 - Institutional Development of Waqf Sector in Islamic Commu- 

nities: The Case of the Arab Republic of Egypt, 1427 AH - 2006 
AD. by: Meliha M. Rizq 

9 - Institutional Development of Waqf Sector in modern Islamic 

Societies, (Case of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) by Mohammad 
A. Al Akesh, 1427 AH / 2006 AD. 

10 - Waqf Media and the Role of Mass Communication Media in 

developing and supporting the Performance of waqf Institutions 
by Sami M. Al Salahat, 1427 AH / 2006 AD. 



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11 - Developing the Islamic Waqf Institution in the light of the 

western Experience, (A case study) by Dr. Osama Al Ashqar, 1428 
AH / 2007 AD. 

12 - Investing Waqf Monies - Economic conditions and Development 

Requirements by Dr. Fuad Abdullah Al Omar, 1428 AH / 2007 
AD. 

Second: Theses 

1 - The Role of Islamic Waqf in Promoting Technological Skills, 

1425 AH 2004 AD 

by: Abdul Latif M. Al Suraikh 

2 - Waqf Nazara, 1427 AH - 2006 AD by Dr. Khaled Abdullah 

Shuaib 

3 - The Role of Waqf in Developing the Civil Society (KAPF as an 

Example) 1427 AH - 2006 AD by Dr. Ibrahim Mahmoud Abdul 
Baqi 

4 - An Assessment of the Waqf Investment Efficiency in Kuwait by: 

Abdullah Saad Al Hajery, 1427 AH - 2006 

5 - Islamic Waqf in Lebanon (Ph.D) by Dr. Mohammad Qasem Al 

Shoom, 1428 AH / 2007 AD. 

6 - A Documentary Study of the Voluntary Work in the State of 

Kuwait: A Sharie Approach and Historical Survey by Dr. Khaled 
Yousef Al Shatti (in print) 

Third: Books 

1 - Jurisprudential Regulations and Waqf Accountancy Principles 

by Dr. Abdul Sattar Abu Ghuddah and Dr. Husain H. Shehata 
1998 AD. 

2 - Waqf System in Modern Apphcations: A set of experiences 

undertaken by states and communities by Mahmoud Ahmad 
Mahdi 1423 AH/2003 AD. 

3 - Le Waqf en Algerie a I'epoque Ottomane XVII e - XIX e by Dr. 

Nacsedine Saidouni, 1428 AH - 2007 AD 



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Fourth: Seminars and Courses 

1 - Waqf and the Civil Society in the Arab World, May 2003 AD by: 

A group of thinkers and academicians. 

2 - 'Les Fondations pieuses (waqf) en mediterranee: enjeux de 

societe, enjeux de pouvoir" by a group of thinkers and 
academicians 2004 AD. 

Fifth: Booklets 

1 - A Summary of Waqf Regulations: First Edition by Dr. Issa Zaki, 

Nov 1994 and second edition in November 1995 AD. 

2 - Islamic Waqf Areas and Dimensions (in collaboration with the 

ISESCO - Rabat, Morocco by Dr. Ahmad Al Raysouni, 1422 AH 
-2001 AD 

3 - Islamic Waqf Developing Methods of Work and Aalyzing some 

Modern Studies by Dr. Ahmad Abu Zaid, 1421 AH - 2000 AD. 

Six: Awaf Journal - a biannual hournal interested in waqf and charitable 
work. 

1 - Zero issue, Shaaban 1421 AH /Nov 2000 AD 

2 - First Issue, Shaaban, 1422 AH / 2001 AD 

3 - Second Issue, Rabie Al Awal, 1423 AH / May 2002 AD 

4 - Third Issue, Ramadan 1423 AH / Nov 2002 AD. 

5 - Fourth Issue, Rabie Awal 1424 AH / May 2003 AD 

6 - Fifth Issue, Shaaban, 1424 Ah /Oct 2003 AD 

7 - Sixth Issue, Rabie Thani, 1425 AH / June 2004 AD 

8 - Seventh Issue, Shawal 1425 AH / 2004 AD 

9 - Eighth Issue, Rabie Awal, 1426 AH / May 2005 AD 

10 - Ninth Issue, Shawal 1426 AH / Nov 2005 AD 

11 - Tenth Issue, Jumada Al Ula 1427 AH / June 2006 AD 

12 - Eleventh Issue, Thul Qida 1427 AH / Nov 2006 AD 

13 - Twelfth Issue, Rabie Thani 1428 AH / May 2007 AD 



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Seventh: Translations of books on Charitable and Voluntary work 

1 - Community Trusts: A New Force in Philanthropy by Kalpana 

Joshi and translated by Badr Nasser Al Mutairi 1417 AH/1996 
AD. 

2 - Fundraising for non-Profit Organizations - A Guidebook for the 

Assessment of Fund raising - 1997 AD by Ann L New and 
assisted by Wilson C. Levis, translated by KAPF 

3 - International Aid Charities in Britain, 1998 AD by: Mark 

Robinson and translated by Badr N. Al Mutairi. 

4 - The Characteristics of the British Experience in Charitable and 

Philanthropic Work, 1994 AD translated by Badr N. Al Mutairi 

5 - Philanthropic Organizations in the USA by Elizabeth Boris and 

translated by KAPF 1417 AH/1996 AD.. 

6 - Accountancy for Major Charities: Charity Commissioners for 

England and Wales, July 1998 AD, translated by KAPF 

7 - Third Generation NGO Strategies: A key to People-Centred 

Development by David Korten 1421 AH/2001 AD. 

8 - Make a Difference: An Outline Volunteering Strategy for the UK. 

Written by: UK Home Ministry, translated by Kuwait Awqaf 
Public Foundation - Time Waqf Project 1424 AH/2003 AD. 

9 - Islamic Waqf Endowment, 2001 AD, translated into English 

10 - Kuwait Awqaf Public Fondation: an Overview. An introduction 

of Kuwait Awqaf Public Foundation (Translated into English) 
2004 AD. 

11 - A Summary of Waqf Regulations, 2006 AD (Translated into 

Enghsh). 

12 - A Guidebook to the Publications of Waqf Projects Coordinating 

State in the Islamic World, 2007 AD. 

13 - Guidebook to the Projects of the Waqf Coordinating State in the 

Islamic World 2007 AD. 

14 - Women and Waqf by Mrs Iman M. Al Humaidan, 1428 AH/2007 

AD. 



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Eighth: Waqf Indexes 

- Index of the State of Kuwait, 1999 AD. 

- Index of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and Palestine, 1 999 AD. 

- Index of the Islamic Republic of Iran, 1999 AD. 

- Index of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, 2000 AD. 

- Index of Arab Republic of Egypt,2000 AD. 

- Index of Morocco,2001 AD. 

- Index of the libraries of the United States of America,2001 AD. 

- Index of Turkey, 2002 AD. 

- Index of the Waqf Literature in India,2003 AD. 

Ninth: Waqf Jurisprudential Issues Seminar 

- The first seminar was organized by KAPF in collaboration with the 
IBD Islamic Institute for Research and Training in Kuwait on 
Shaaban, 1424 AH / Oct 2004 AD and researches and papers were 
presented 

- The second Waqf Jurisprudential Issues Forum was organized by 
KAPF in collaboration with the IBD Islamic Institute for Research 
and Training in Kuwait on Rabie Thani, 1426 AH /May 2006 AD 
and researches and papers were presented 

Tenth: Studies 

1 - Polling Citizens about Charitable Spending in the State of 
Kuwait, 1424 AH - 2003 AD. 

Eleventh: Media Publications: 

1 - Guidebook to the waqf Coordinating State's Projects in the 

Islamic World, 2007 AD. 

2 - Guidebook to the Projects of the Waqf Coordinating State in the 

Islamic World, 2007 AD. 




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Depositeal at KAPF Information Center on 30/6/2007 under number 41