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Full text of "World Trade Center Dust Particles and What We Know"

What we now know about the WTC dust 

particles 



Particle quantity and size 

• 1.2 million tons of building 
materials 

• 90% particles >10 Qn diameter 

• 11,000 tons of particles < 2.5 
mm were released 

• Gases and fumes from fires that 
burned until December 19, 2001 




*Lioy et al. Environmental Health Perspectives Vol 110,, July 2002 



Early onset disease: Acute eosinophilic pneumonia 

in a firefighter 




Rom et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002 



Mineralogic analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage from 

firefighter 




(A) Amosite asbestos fiber (uncoated) 



(B) Fly ash particle 



(C) Degraded fibrous glass. 



305 commercial asbestos fibers/10 6 macrophages 



Rom et al. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 2002 



Chrysotile Asbestos 





1 






LUNG CANCER AND ASBESTOS EXPOSURE 



• North American insulators union with 17,800 workers 
followed from 1967-1987 revealed 

► Lung cancer 1 166 deaths 267 expected RR 4.4 

► Mesothelioma 457 deaths (9%) 



1 Synergism with cigarette smoking 
► Risk decreases dramatically after quitting 

• Since the removal of asbestos from insulation materials 
in the early 1970s, death rates have declined for lung 
cancer but continued to increase for mesothelioma 



AotheljPtna 







PLEURAL PLAQUES AND RISK FOR BRONCHIAL 
CARCINOMA AND MESOTHELIOMA 

• Epidemiologic survey of 1,596 men with pleural plaques in 
Uppsala, Sweden, were followed from 1963-1985. 

•Bilateral lesions 

•> 5MM thick and/or calcified, well-demarcated. 

•No remnants of pleurisy, i.e. costophrenic angles not 

obliterated. 

• 50 Bronchial carcinomas observed while 32.1 expected after 
correction for smoking (O/E 1.6; CI 1.2-2.1). 

2.3 (CI 1.1-4.4) with asbestosis 
•1.4 (CI 1.0-2.0) without asbestosis 

• 9 Mesotheliomas with 0.8 expected (O/E 11.3; CI 5.1-21.4). 



Hillerdal G, Chest 1994; 105:144-150. 



WHO" WORKED Z MONTHS 



All Cancer Lung Cancer 




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10 15 10 u 



Elapsed Years Since Onset Of Work 



American Cancer Society Follow-up 
for Long Term Health Effects 

ACS enrolled 1.2M adults in 1982 and a questionnaire assessed age, 
sex, race, weight, smoking, education, diet, alcohol, and occupation. 

500K adults were linked with air pollution data for metropolitan areas 
throughout the U.S. with vital status and cause of death data through 
December 31, 1998. 

PM 2 5 and S0 2 were associated with all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and 
lung cancer mortality. 

Each 10jLig/m 3 elevation in PM 2 5 was associated with approximately 
4%, 6%, and 8% increased risk of all-cause, cardiopulmonary, and 
lung cancer mortality, respectively. 

Coarse fraction PM 10 _ 2 5 not consistently associated with mortality. 

JAMA 2005; 287: 1132-41. 



Adjusted Mortality Relative Risk (RR) 

Evaluated at Subject-Weighted Mean 

Concentrations 



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Representative Images of Carbon in Airway 
Macrophages from Healthy Children 




Carbon in Airway Macrophages and 
Lung Function in Children 



Alveolar Macrophages (AMs) reflect a particle burden from 
occupational/environmental exposure. 

Children aged 8-15 U.K. (excluding parental smoking, house with coal 
combustion) 64 healthy children, 9 with asthma enrolled. Salivary 
cotinine measured. 

PM 10 recorded including hourly near traffic plus annual; PFT; induced 
sputum with C area calculated under light microscopy. 

Each increase in 1.0 jum 2 in C associated with 17% decrease in FEV 1 
% predicted and 12.9% in FVC % predicted; Each increase in 1.0 
jixg/m 3 PM 10 was associated with a 0.115 urn 2 in C. 

Increased primary PM 10 was inversely associated with FEV % 
predicted. 

NEJM 2006; 355: 21-30. 



Associations between Carbon in Airway Macrophages 
and Lung Function in Healthy Children 




0J5 Q50 0.75 1.00 

Median Carbon Area ^m 1 ) 




Q25 0.50 0.75 1.00 

Median Carbon Area (^m 1 ) 




Field Cancerization of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lung 



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Cancer Res 2003; 63: 1727. 



SOMAmers: Unique DNA Reagents for Protein Detection 

Red, green, purple atoms are modified 
nucleotides that provide binding energy 



SOMAmer 



Target Protein 




IN SOLUTION 



BOUND COMPLEX 



• Single-stranded nucleic acids that bind with high affinity and specificity-currently 
available SOMAmers (1,043). 

•The limits of detection average (300 fM) and the overall dynamic range spans 7 logs 
using different dilutions with a ~6% coefficient of variation. 



'PLoS ONE 2010; 5(12): el5003. (December 2010) 



SomaLogic 



Naive Bayes 



n 

c 
o 




1 -Specificity 



Bi (mi:! rkei 


UniProt ID 


Direction* 


Description 


Cadhemi-1 


P12830 


down 


cell adhesion, transcription regulation 


CD30 Ligand 


P32971 


up 


cytokine 

w 


Endostatin 


P39060 


up 


inhibition of ansioaenesis 

4_ K_ 


HSP 90a 


P07900 


up 


chaperone 


LRIG3 


Q6UXM1 


down 


protein binding, tiimor suppressor 


MP-4 


P55774 


up 


monokine 


Pleiotrophin 


P21246 


up 


growth factor 


PRKCl 


P41743 


up 


serine/threonine protein kinase, oncogene 


RGM-C 


Q6ZYN8 


down 


iron metabolism 


SCFsR 


P10721 


down 


decoy receptor 


sL-Selectin 


P14151 


down 


cell adhesion 


YES 


P07947 


up 


tyrosine kinase, oncogene 



89% sensitivity and 83% specificity 



PLoS One. 2010 Dec 7; 5(12):el5003