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THE DOG 



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COMMITTEE. 




Chairman^UyRD BROUGHAM, F.R.S., Member of the National Institute of France, 

Vice-Chairman-EABL SPENCER. 



Treasurer — SIR I. L. 

Captain Beaufort, R.N., F.R. and R.A.S. 

Lord Campbell. 

Professor Carey, A.M. 

JohnConolly, M.D. 

William Coulson, Esq. 

The Bishop of St. David's. 

Sir Henry De la Beche, F.R.S. 

Professor De Morgan, F.R.A.S, 

Lord Denman. 

T. F. Ellis, Esq., A.M., F.R.A.S. 

Thomas Falconer, Esq. 

John Forbes, M.D., F.R.S. 

F. H. Goldsmid, Esq. 

B. Gompertz, Esq.,F.R. and R.A.S. 

J. T. Graves, Esq., A.M., F.RS. 

M.D. Hill, Esq. Q.C. 

Rt. Hon. Sir J. C. Hobhouse, Bart., M.P. 

Thos. Hodgkin,M.D. 
Henry B. Ker, Esq. 



Professor Key, A.M. 

John G. S. Lefevre, Esq., A.M. 

Sir Denis Le Marchant, Bart, 

Sir Charles Lemon, Bart., M.P, 

George C. Lewis, Esq., A.M. 

Professor Long, A.M. 

Right Hon. S. Lushington, D.C.L. 

Professor Maiden, A.M. 

A. T. Malkin, Esq., A.M. 

Mr. Serjeant Manning. 

Lord Nugent. 

Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart. 

Professor Quain. 

Professor Thomson, M.D,,F.L.S. 

Thomas Vardon, Esq. 

Jacob Waley, Esq., A.M. 

James Walker, Esq., F.R.S. 

Thos. Webster, Esq., A.M. 

Lord Wrottesley, A.M., F.R.A.S. 



THOMAS COATilS, Esq., Secretary^ No. 42, Bedfbrd Square 



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UNDER THE SUPERINTENDENCE OF THE SOCIETY FOR THE 

DIFFUSION OF USEFUL KNOWLEDGE 



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BY WILLIAM YOUATT 



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HEAD OF BLOODHOUND 



LONDON 

CHARLES KNIGHT AND CO. 22 LUDGATE STREET 



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TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER 



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PAGE 



L— THE EAELY HISTORY AND ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION 



OF THE DOG 



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43 



VIII. 



98 



IL— THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.— FIRST DIVISION . . 

r 

III.— THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.— SECOND DIVISION . . 

IV.-THE VARIETIES OF THE DOG.— THIRD DIVISION 

v.— THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE DOG; THE SENSE OF 

SMELL ; INTELLIGENCE ; MORAL QUALITIES ; DOG- 
CARTS ; CROPPING; TAILING; BREAKING-IN ; DOG- 
PITS; DOG-STEALING . io5 

VL— DESCRIPTION OF THE SKELETON. DISEASES OF THE 



NERVOUS SYSTEM :— FITS ; TURNSIDE ; EPILEPSY; 
CHOREA ; RHEUMATISM AND PALSY 



116 



VII.— RABIES 



128 



THE EYE AND ITS DISEASES 155 

IX.— THE EAR AND ITS DISEASES . . . . . leo 

X.— ANATOMY OF THE NOSE AND MOUTH ; AND DISEASES 

OF THE NOSE AND OTHER PARTS OF THE FACE. 
THE SENSE OF SMELL ; THE TONGUE ; THE LIPS ; 
THE TEETH ; THE LARYNX ; BRONCHOCELE ; PHLEG- 
MONOUS TUMOUR . 169 

i 

XI.—ANATOMY AND DISEASES OF THE CHEST: THE DIA- 



PHRAGM; THE PERICARDIUM; THE HEART; PLEU- 

^ 

RISY ; PNEUMONIA ; SPASMODIC COUGH , . . 



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CONTENTS. 



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CHAPTER 



PAOE 



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XII.— ANATOMY OF THE GULLET, STOMACH, AND INTESTINES : 

TETANUS ; ENTERITIS ; PERITONITIS ; COLIC ; CAL- 
CULUS IN THE INTESTINES; INTUSSUSCEPTION; 
DIARRHOEA; DYSENTERY; COSTIVENESS ; DROPSY; 
THE LIVER ; JAUNDICE ; THE SPLEEN AND PANCREAS ; 
INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY; CALCULUS; IN- 
FLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER ; RUPTURE OF THE 
BLADDER ; WORMS ; FISTULA IN THE ANUS 

XIII.— BLEEDING; TORSION; CASTRATION; PARTURITION; AND 

SOME DISEASES CONNECTED WITH THE ORGANS OF 



194 



GENERATION 



222 



XIV.— THE DISTEMPER . 231 



XV.— SMALL-POX ; MANGE ; WARTS ; CANCER ; FUNGUS HiEMA- 



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TODES ; SORE FEET 



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XVI.— FRACTURES 



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XVIL— MEDICINES USED IN THE TREATMENT OF THE DISEASES 



OF THE DOG 255 



APPENDIX.— NEW LAWS OF COURSING 



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CHAPTER I. 




THE EARLY HISTORY AND ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATIOIV OF THE DOG. 

HE D0G5 next to the human being, ranks highest in the scale of in- 
telligence, and was evidently designed to be the companion and the 
friend of man. We exact the services of other animals, and, the task 
being performed, we dismiss them to their accustomed food and rest : 
but several of the varieties of the dog follow us to our home ; they are 

connected with many of our pleasures and wants, and guard our sleeping 
hours. 

The first animal of the domestication of which we have any account was 
the sheep. " Abel was a keeper of sheep." » It is difficult to believe that 
any long time would pass before the dog — who now in every country of 
the world is the companion of the shepherd, and the director or guardian 
of the sheep— would be enlisted in the service of man- 

From the earliest known history he was the protector of the habitation 
of the human being. At the feet of the lares, those household deities 
who were supposed to protect the abodes of men, the figure of a barking 
dog was often placed. In every age, and almost in every part of the 
globe, he has played a principal part in the labours^ the dangers, and the 
pleasures of the chace. 

In process of time man began to surround himself with many servants 
from among the lower animals, but among them all he had only one 
friend— the dog ; one animal only whose service was voluntary, and who 
was susceptible of disinterested affection and gratitude. In every country, 
and in every time, there has existed between man and the dog a connexion 
different from that which is observed between him and any other animal. 
The ox and the sheep submit to our control, but their affections are prin- 
cipally, if not solely, confined to themselves. They submit to us, but they 
can rarely be said to love, or even to recognise us, except as connected 
"With the supply of their wants. 

The horse will share some of our pleasures. He enjoys the chace as 
^uch as does his rider ; and, when contending for victory on the course, 
he feels the full influence of emulation. Remembering the pleasure he 
has experienced with his master, or the daily supply of food from the 
hand of the groom, he often exhibits evident tokens of recognition ; but 
that ,is founded on a selfish principle — he neighs that he may be fed, and 
his affections are easily transferred. 



* Gen. iv. 2 



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EA.IILY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



The dog is the only animal that is capable of disinterested aiFection. 
He IS theonly one that regards the human being as his companion, and 
follows him as his friend; the only one that seems to possess a natural 
. aesire to be useful to him, or from a spontaneous impulse attaches himself 
to man We take the bridle from the mouth of the horse, and turn him 
tree into the pasture, and he testifies his joy in his partially recovered 
liberty. We exact from the dog the service that is required of him, and 
he still follows us. He solicits to be continued as our companion and 
our iriend. Many an expressive action tells us how much he is pleased 
and thankful He shares in our abundance, and he is content with the 
scantiest and most humble fare. He loves us while living, and has been 
known to pine away on the grave of his master. 

As an animal of draught the dog is highly useful in some countries. 
What would become of the inhabitants of the northern regions, if the doo- 
were not harnessed to the sledge, and the Laplander, and the Greenlander^ 
and the Kamtchatkan drawn, and not unfrequently at the rate of nearly 
a hundred miles a day, over the snowy wastes ? In Newfoundland, the 
timber, one of the most important articles of commerce, is drawn to the 
water-side by the docile but ill-used dog : and we need only to cross the 
British Channel in order to see how useful, and, generally speaking-, how 
happy, a beast of draught the dog can be. 

Though, in our country, and to its great disgrace, this employment of 
the dog has been accompanied by such wanton and shameful cruelty, that 
the -Legislature— somewhat hastily confounding the abuse of a thing with 
Its legitimate purpose— forbade the appearance of the dog-cart in the 
naetropohtan districts, and were inclined to extend this prohibition through 
the whole kingdom, it is much to be desired that a kindlier and bett'er 
feeling may gradually prevail, and that this animal, humanely treated 
may return to the discharge of the services of which nature has rendered 
him capable, and which prove the greatest source of happiness to him 
while discharging them to the best of his power. 

In another and very important particular, as the preserver of human 
life, the history of the dog will be most interesting. The writer of this 
work has seen a Newfoundland dog who, on five distinct occasions, pre- 
served the life of a human being ; and it is said of the noble quadruped 
whose remains constitute one of the most interesting specimens in the 
museum of Berne, that forty persons were rescued by him from impending 
destruction. i- & 

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When this friend and servant of man dies, he does not or may not cease 
to be useful ; for in many countries, and to a far greater extent than is 
generally imagined, his skin is useful for gloves, or leggings, or mats or 
hammercloths ; and, while even the Romans occasionally fattened him'for 
the table, and esteemed his flesh a dainty, many thousands of people in 
Asia, Africa, and America, now breed him expressly for food. 

If the publication of the present work should throw some additional 
light on the good qualities of this noble animal ; if it should enable us to 
derive more advantage from the services that he can render— to train him 
more expeditiously and fully for the discharge of those services— to pro- 
tect him from the abuses to which he is exposed, and to mitigate or remove 
some of the diseases which his connection with man has entailed upon 
him ; if any of these purposes be accomplished, we shall derive consider- 
able useful knowledge " as well as pleasure from the perusal of the 
present volume. 



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EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



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Some controversy has arisen with regard to the origin of the dog. 
1 roiessor Thomas Bell^ to whom we are indebted for a truly valuable 



history 



He says, and 



It IS perfectly true, that the osteology of the wolf does not differ materially 
irom that of the dog more than that of the different kinds of dogs differs ; 
that the cranium is similar, and they agree in nearly all the other essen- 
tial points ; that the dog and wolf will readily breed with each other, and 
that their progeny, tlius obtained, will again mingle with the dog. There 
IS one circumstance, however, which seems to mark a decided difference 
between the two animals : the eye of the dog of every country and species 
has a circular pupil, but the position or form of the pupil is oblique in the 
wolf. Professor Bell gives an ingenious but not admissible reason for 
this. He attributes the forward direction of the eyes in the dog to the 
constant habit, " for many successive generations, of looking towards their 
rnaster, and obeying his voice :" but no habit of this kind could by possi- 
bility produce any such effect. It should also be remembered that, in 
every part of the globe in which the wolf is found, this form of the pupil, 
and a peculiar setting on of the curve of the tail, and a singularity in the 
voice, cannot fail of being observed ; to which may be added, that the 
dog exists in every latitude and in every climate, while the habitation of 
the wolf is confined to certain parts of the globe. 

There is also a marked difference in the temper and habits of the two. 
The dog is, generally speaking, easily manageable, but nothing will, in 
the majority of cases, render the wolf moderately tractable. There are, 
however, exceptions to this. The author remembers a bitch wolf at the 
-Zoological Gardens that would always come to the front bars of her den 
to be caressed as soon as any one that she knew approached. She had 
puppies while there, and she brought her little ones in her mouth to be 
noticed by the spectators ; so eager, indeed, was she that they should share 
with her in the notice of her friends, that she killed them all in succession 
against the bars of her den as she brought them forcibly forward to be 
fondled. 

M. F. Cuvier gives an account of a young wolf who followed his 

master everywhere, and showed a degree of affection and submission 
scarcely inferior to the domesticated dog. His master being unavoidably 
absent, he was sent to the menagerie, where he pined for his loss and 
would scarcely take any food for a considerable time. At length, how- 
ever, he attached himself to his keepers, and appeared to have forgotten 
his former associate. At the expiration of eighteen months his master 
returned, and, the moment his voice was heard, the wolf recognised him, 
and lavished on his old friend the most affectionate caresses. A second 
separation followed, which lasted three years, and again the long-remem- 
bered voice was recognised, and replied to with impatient cries ; after 
which,^ rushing on his master, he licked his face with every mark of joy, 
menacing his keepers, towards whom he had just before been exhibiting 
tondness. A third separation occurred, and he became gloomy and 
melancholy. He suffered the caresses of none but his keepers, and 
towards them he often manifested the original ferocity of his species. 

^'h^se stories, however, go only a little way to prove thai the dog and 
the wolf have one common origin. 

It may appear singular that in both the Old Testament and the New 
the dog was spoken of almost with abhorrence. He ranked among the 

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EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



unclean beasts. The traffic in him and the price of him were considered 
as an abomination, and were forbidden to be offered in the sanctuary in 
the discharge of any vow.a 

One grand object in the institution of the Jewish ritual was to preserve 
the Israelites from the idolatry which at that time prevailed among every 
other people. Dogs were held in considerable veneration by the Egyp- 
tians, from whose tyranny the Israelites had just escaped. Figures of 
them appeared on the friezes of most of the temples,^ and they were 
regarded as emblems of the Divine Being. Herodotus, speaking of the 
sanctity in which some animals were held by the Egyptians, says that the 
people of every family in which a dog died, shaved themselves — their 
expression of mourning— and he adds, that '' this was a custom existing 
in his own time." ^ 

The cause of this attachment to and veneration for the dog is, however, 
explained in a far more probable and pleasing way than many of the 
fables of ancient mythology. The prosperity of Lower Egypt, and 
almost the very subsistence of its inhabitants, depended on the annual 
overflowing of the Nile ; and they looked for it with the utmost anxiety. 
Its approach was announced by the appearance of a certain star — SiRius. 
As soon as that star was seen above the horizon, they hastened to remove 
their flocks to the higher ground, and abandoned the lower pastures to 
the fertilizing influence of the stream. They hailed it as their guard and 
protector ; and, associating with its apparent watchfulness the well-known 
fidelity of the dog, they called it the " dog-star," and they worshipped 
it. It was in far later periods and in other countries that the appearance 
of the dog-star was regarded as the signal of insufferable heat or preva- * 
lent disease. 

One of the Egyptian deities^Anubis — is described as having the form 

and body of a man, but with a dog's head. These were types of sagacity 
and fidelity. 

In Ethiopia, not only was great veneration paid to the dog, but the 
inhabitants used to elect a dog as their king. He was kept in great state, 
and surrounded by a numerous train of officers and guards. When he 
fawned upon them, he was supposed to be pleased with their proceedings ; 
when he growled, he disapproved of the manner in which their govern- 
ment was conducted. These indications of his will were implicitly 
obeyed, or rather, perhaps, were translated by his worshippers as their 
own caprice or interest dictated. 

Even a thousand years after this period the dog was highly esteemed in 
Egypt for its sagacity and other excellent qualities ; for, when Pythagoras, 
after his return from Egypt, founded a new sect in Greece, and at 
Croton, in southern Italy, he taught, with the Egyptian philosophers, 
that, at the death of the body, the soul entered into that of different ani- 
mals. He used, after the decease of any of his favourite disciples, to cause 
a dog to be held to the mouth of the dying man, in order to receive his 
departing spirit ; saying, that there was no animal that could perpetuate 
his virtues better than that quadruped. 

It was in order to preserve the Israelites from errors and follies like 



* Deut. xxiii. 18. 

^ In some of Belzoni's beautiful sketches 
of the frieze-work of the old Egyptian tem- 
ples, the dog appears, "with his long ears 



and broad muzzle, not unlike the old Tal 
hot hound. 

« Herodotus, lib. ii. c. 66. 



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EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



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these, and to prevent the possibility of this species of idolatry being esta- 
blished, that the dog was, afterwards regarded with utter abhorrence 
among the Jews.^ This feeling prevailed during the continuance of the 
Israelites in Palestine. Even in the New Testament the Apostle warns 
those to whom he wrote to " beware of dogs and evil-workers ;" ^ and it 
is said in The Revelations' that " without are dogs and sorcerers," &c. '^ 
Dogs were, however, employed even by the Jews. Job says, " Now they 
that are youno-er than I have me in derision, whose fathers I would have 
disdained to have set with the dogs of my flock." ^ Dogs were employed 
either to guide the sheep or to protect ihem from wild beasts ; and some 
prowled about the streets at night, contending with each other for the 

offal that was thrown away. 

To a certain degree this dislike of the dog continues to the present day ; 
for, with few exceptions, the dog is seldom the chosen companion of the 
Jew, or even the inmate of his house. Nor was it originally confined to 
Palestine. Wherever a knowledge of the Jewish religion spread, or any 
of its traditions were believed, there arose an abhorrence of the dog. The 
Mohammedans have always regarded him as an unclean animal, that 
should never be cherished in any human habitation— belonging to no par- 
ticular owner, but protecting the street '^ and the district rather than the 

The Hindoos regard him likewise as unclean, and submit to various 
purifications if they accidentally come in contact with him, believing that 
every dog was animated by a wicked and malignant spirit condemned to 
do penance in that form for crimes committed in a previous state of exist- 
ence. If by chance a dog passed between a teacher and his pupil during 
the period of instruction, it was supposed that the best lesson would be 
completely poisoned, and it was deemed prudefot to suspend the tuition for 
at least a day and a night. Even in Egypt dogs are now as much avoided 
as they were venerated. In every Mohammedan and Hindoo country the 
most scurrilous epithet bestowed on a European or a Christian is 
dog'"f 

This accounts for the singular fact that in the whole of the Jewish his- 
tory there is not a single allusion to hunting with dogs. Mention is made 
of nets and snares, but the dog seems to have been never used m the pur- 

In the early periods of the history of other countries this seems to have 
been the case even where the dog was esteemed and valued, and had be- 
come the companion, the friend, and the defender of man and his home. 
So late as the second century of the Christian sera, the fair huntmg^of the 
present day needed the eloquent defence of Arrian, who says that " there 
is as much difference between a fair trial of speed in a good run, and en- 



* No do'g was suffered to come within 
the precincts of the Temple at Jerusalem. 
E|co Kvves was a prevalent expression 
among the Jews. Bryant's Mythology, 
vol. ii. p. 42, 

^ Phil. ill. 2. 

^ Rev. xxii- 15. 

^ Job. XXX. 1. See also Isaiah Ivi, 10, 
11. 

^ Psalm lix. 6. 

*" Carpenter's Scripture Natural His- 
tory, p, 109. It is a remarkable fact that 



from this faithful animal, the companion 
of man, and the guardian of his person 
and property, should originate so many 
terms of reproach as " dog," " cur," 
« hound," " puppy," " dog cheap," '' a 
dog's trick," " dog sick." *' dog weary, 
« to lead the life of a aog," " to use like a 
dog." All this probably originated m 
the East, where the dog was held in ab- 
horrence as the common scavenger of the 
streets. 



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EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



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snaring a poor animal without an effort, as between the secret piratical 
assaults of robbers at sea, and the victorious naval engagements of the 
Athenians at Artemisium and at Salamis.- The first hint of the employ- 
ment of the dog in the pursuit of other animals is given by Oppian in his 
Cynegeticus, who attributes it to Pollux, about 200 years after the pro- 
mulgation of the Levitical law. 

Of the precise species of dog that prevailed or was cultivated in Greece 
at this early period little can with certainty be affirmed. One beautiful 
piece of sculpture has been preserved, and is now in the possession of 
l^ord Feversham at Buncombe Hall. It is said to represent the favourite 
dog of Alcibiades, and to have been the production of Myson, one of the 
most skilful artists of ancient times. It differs but little from the New- 
foundland dog of the present day. He is represented as sitting on his 
haunches, and earnestly looking at his master. Any one would vouch 
for the sagacity and fidelity of that animal. 

The British Museum contains a group of greyhound puppies of more 
recent date, from the ruins of the villa of Antoninus, near Rome. One 











is fondling the other, and the attitude of both, and the characteristic 
puppy-clumsiness of their limbs, which indicate, nevertheless, the beautiful 



ancient art. 



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The Greeks in the earlier periods of their history depended too much 
on their nets ; and it was not until later times that they pursued their prey 

* Arrian's Cynegeticus, cap. 26. 



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EARLY HISTOHY OY THE DOG. 



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with dogs, and then not with dogs that ran by sight, or succeeded by their 
swiftness of foot, but by beagles very little superior to those of modern 
days.^ Of the stronger and more ferocious dogs there is, however, occa- 
sional mention. The bull-dog of modern date does not excel the one 
(possibly of nearly the same race) that was presented to Alexander tlie 
Great, and that boldly seized a ferocious lion, or another that would not 
quit his hold, although one }eg and then another was cut off. 

It would be difficult and foreign to the object of this work fully to trace 
the early history of the dog. Both in Greece and in Rome he was highly 
estimated. Alexander built a city in honour of a dog ; and the Emperor 
Hadrian decreed the most solemn rites of sepulture to another on account 

of his sagacity and fidelity. 

The translator of Arrian imagines that the use of the pugnaces (fight- 



ing) and the sagaces (intelligent) 

who artfully circumvented and caught their prey 



the more ferocious dogs, and those 

was known in the 



earlier periods of Greek and Roman history, but that the celeres^ the dogs 
of speed, the greyhounds of every kind, were peculiar to the British 
islands, or to the western and northern continents of Europe, the interior 
and the produce of which ^ere in those days unknown to the Greeks and 
Romans. By most authors who have inquired into the origin of these 
varieties of the dog the sagaces have been generally assigned to Greece — 
the pugnaces to Asia — and the celeres to the Celtic nations. 

Of the aboriginal country of the latter there can be little doubt ; but the 
accounts that are given of the English mastiff at the invasion of Britain 
by the Romans, and the early history of the English hound, which was once 
peculiar to this country, and at the present day degenerates in every other, 
would go far to prove that these breeds also are indigenous to our island. 

Oppian thus describes the hunting dog as he finds him in Britain : 
" There is, besides, an excellent kind of scenting dogs, though small, yet 
worthy of estimation. They are fed by the fierce nation of painted Bri- 
tons, who call them agasmL In size they resemble worthless greedy 
house-dogs that gape under tables. They are crooked, lean, coarse-haired, 
and heavy-eyed, but armed with powerful claws and deadly teeth. The 
agasmus is of good nose and most excellent in following scent." ^ 

Among the savage dogs of ancient times were the Hyrcanian, said, on 

account of their extreme ferocity, to have been crossed with the tiger, — 
the Locrian, chiefly employed in hunting the boar, — the Pannonian, used 
in war as well as in the chace, and by whom the first charge on the enemy 
was always made, — and the Molossian, of Epirus, likewise trained to war 
as well as to the honours of the amphitheatre and the dangers of the chace. 
This last breed had one redeeming quality— an inviolable attachment to 
their owners. This attachment was reciprocal; for it is said that the Mo- 
lossi used to weep over their faithful quadruped companions slain in war. 

^lian relates that one of them, and his owner, so much distinguished 
themselves at the battle of Marathon, that the effigy of the dog was placed 
on the same tablet with that of his master. 

Soon after Britain was discovered the pugnaces of Epirus were pitted 
against those of our island, and, according to the testimony of Gratius, 
completely beaten. A variety of this class, but as large and as ferocious, 
was employed to guard the sheep and cattle, or to watch at the door ot 



> ^ 



* New Sporting Magazine, vol. xiv. p. 97 
^ Oppian's Cynegeticus, lib, i. v. 468 — 480 



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EARLY HISTORY OF THE DOG. 



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the house, or to follow the owner on any excursion of business or of plea- 
sure. Gratius says of these dogs, that they have no pretensions to the 
deceitful commendation of form ; but, at the time of need, when courage is 
required of them, most excellent mastiffs are not to be preferred to them. 

The account of the British pugnaces of former times, and also of the 
sagaces and celeres, will be best given when treating of their present state 
and comparative value. In describing the different breeds of dogs, some 
anecdotes will be related of their sagacity and fidelity ; a few previous 
remarks, however, may be admissible, 

A young man lost his life by falling from one of the precipices of the 
Helvellyn mountains. Three months afterwards his remains were dis- 
covered at the bottom of a ravine, and his faithful dog, almost a skeleton, 
still guarding them. Sir Walter Scott beautifully describes the scene : 

Dark-green was the spot, 'mid the brown mountain heather, 

Where the pilgrim of nature lay stretched in decay ; 
Like the corps of an outcast, abandoned to weather, 
• Till the mountain winds wasted the tenantless clay ; 
Nor yet quite deserted, though lonely extended, 
For, faithful in death, his mute favourite attended, 

The much-loved remains of her master defended. 

And chased the hill-fox and the raven away. 
How long didst thou think that his silence was slumber ? 

When the wind waved his garments how oft didst thou start ? 
How many long days and long weeks didst thou number 

Ere he faded before thee, the friend of thy heart ? 

Burcliell, in his Travels in Africa, places the connexion between man 
and the dog, and the good qualities of this animal, in an interesting point 
of view. A pack of dogs of various descriptions formed a necessary part of 
his caravan, occasionally to provide him with food, but oftener to defend 
him from wild beasts or robbers. " While almost every other quadruped 
fears man as his most formidable enemy/' says this interesting traveller, 
^' there is one who regards him as his companion, and follows him as his 
friend.^ We must not mistake the nature of the case. It is not because 
we train him to our use, and have made choice of him in preference to 
other animals, but because this particular species of animal feels a natural 
desire to be useful to man, and, from spontaneous impulse, attaches him- 
self to him. Were it not so, we should see in various countries an equal 
familiarity with other quadrupeds, according to their habits, and the taste 
or caprices of different nations ; but, everywhere, it is the dog only that 
takes delight in associating with us, and in sharing our abode. It is he 
who knows us personally, watches over us, and warns us of danger. It is 
impossible for the naturalist not to feel a conviction that this friendship 
between creatures so different from each other must be the result of the 
laws of nature; nor can the humane and feeling mind avoid the belief that 
kindness to those animals, from which he derives continued and essential 
assistance, is part of the moral duty of man. 

" Often in the silence of the night, when all my people have been fast 
asleep around the fire, have I stood to contemplate these faithful animals 
watching by their side, and have learned to esteem them for their social 
inclination towards mankind. When, wandering over pathless deserts, 
oppressed with vexation and distress at the conduct of my own men, I have 
turned to these as my only friends, and felt how much inferior to them was 
man when actuated only by selfish views." 

Of the stanchness and incorruptible fidelity of the dog, and his disre- 



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EARLY HISTOUY OP THE DOG. 



9 



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gard of personal inconvenience and want, when employed in our service, 
it is impossible to entertain a doubt. We have sometimes thought that 
the attachment of the dog to its master was increased, or, at least, the 
exhibition of it, by the penury of the owner. At all events one fact is 
plain enough, that, while poverty drives away from us many a companion 
of our happier hours, it was never known to diminish the love of our 

quadruped friend. ... 

The early history of the dog has been described, and the abomination in 

which he was held by the Israelites. At no great distance of time, how- 
ever, we find him, almost in the neighbourhood of Palestine, in one of the 
islands of the Ionian Sea, the companion and the friend of princes, and 
deserving their regard. The reader will forgive a somewhat abbreviated 
account of the last meeting of Ulysses and his dog. 

Twenty years had passed since Argus, the favourite dog of Ulysses, had 
been parted from his master. The monarch at length wended his way 
homewards, and, disguised as a beggar, for his life would have been sacri- 
ficed had he been known, stood at the entrance of his palace-door. There 
he met with an old dependent, who had formerly served him with fidelity 
and who was yet faithful to his memory ; but age and hardship and care, 
and the disguise which he now wore, had so altered the wanderer that the 
good Eumseus had not the most distant suspicion with whom he was con- 
versing; but 

Near to the gates, conferring as they drew, 
Argus the dog his ancient master knew, 
And, not unconscious of the voice and tread. 
Lifts to the sound his ears, and rears his head. 
He knew his Lord, he knew, and strove to meet ; 
In vain he strove to crawl and kiss his feet : 
Yet, all he could, his tail, his ears, his eyes 
Salute his master, and confess his joys.a 

In Daniel's Rural Sports, the account of a nobleman and his dog is 
given. The nobleman had been absent two years on foreign service. On 
his return this faithful creature was the first to recognise him, as he came 
through the court-yard, and he flew to welcome his old master and friend. 
He sprung upon him ; his agitation and his joy knew not any bounds ; and 
at length; in the fulness of his transport, he fell at his master s feet and 
expired. 



We 



We 



shall have other opportunities of speaking of the disinterested and devoted 
affection which this noble animal is capable of displaying when he occu- 
pies his proper situation, and discharges those oflftces for which nature 
designed him. It may, however, be added that this power of tracing back 
the doer to the very earliest periods of history, and the fact that he then 
seemed to be as sagacious, as faithful, and as valuable as at the present 
day, strongly favour the opinion that he descended from no inferior and 
comparatively worthless animal,— that he was not the progeny of the wolf, 
the jackal, or the fox, but he was originally created, somewhat as we now 
find him, the associate and the friend of man. 

If, within the first thousand years after the Deluge, we observe that 
divine honours were paid to him, we can scarcely be brought to believe 
his wolfish genealogy. The most savage animals are capable of affection 
for those to whom they have been accustomed, and by whom they have 
been well treated, and therefore we give full credit to several accounts ot 



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this sort related of the wolf, the lion, and even the cat and the reptile • 
but in no other animal— in no other, even in the genus Canis— do we find 
the qualities of the domestic dog, or the slightest approach to them " To 
his master he flies with alacrity," says the eloquent Buffon, " and sub- 
missively lays at his feet all his courage, strength, and talent. A glance 
ot the eye is sufficient ; for he understands the smallest indications of his 
will. ^ He has all the ardour of friendship, and fidelity and constancy in his 
affections, which man can have. Neither interest nor desire of reveno-e 
can corrupt him, and he has no fear but that of displeasing. He is all 
zeal and obedience. He speedily forgets ill-usage, or only recollects it to 
make returning attachment the stronger. He licks the hand which causes 
him pain, and subdues his anger by submission. The trainino- of the do^^ 
seems to have been the first art invented by man, and the fruit of that arl; 

was the conquest and peaceable possession of the earth." " Man " says 
Burns, " is the God of the dog ; he knows no other ; and see how he wor- 
ships him. With what reverence he crouches at his feet— with what 
reverence he looks up to him - with what delight he fawns upon him and 
with what cheerful alacrity he obeys him !" ' 



ij 



If any of the lower animals bear about them the impress of the Divine 
hand, it is found in the dog : many others are plainly and decidedly more 
or less connected with the welfare of the human being ; but this con- 
nexion and its effects are limited to a few points, or often to one alone. 
The dog, different^ yet the same, in every region, seems to be formed ex- 
pressly to administer to our comforts and to our pleasure. He displays a 
versatility, and yet a perfect unity of power and character, which mark 
him as our destined servant, and, still more, as our companion and friend. 
Other animals may be brought to a certain degree of familiarity, and 
may display much affection and gratitude. There was scarcely an animal 
in the menagerie of the Zoological Society that did not acknowledge the 
superintendent as his friend ; but it was only a casual intercourse, and 
might be dissolved by a word or look. At the hour of feeding, the brute 
principle reigned supreme, and the companion of other hours would be 
sacrificed if he dared to interfere ; but the connexion between man and 
the dog, no lapse of time, no change of circumstances, no infliction of 
evil can dissolve. We must, therefore, look far beyond the wolf for the 
prototype of the dog. 

Cuvier eloquently states that the dog exhibits the most complete and 
e_ most useful conquest that man has made. Each individual is 
entirely devoted to his master, adopts his manners, distinguishes and 
defends his property, and remains attached to him even unto°death ; and 
all this springing not from mere necessity, or from constraint, but si'miily 
from gratitude and true friendship. The swiftness, the strength, and the 
highly developed power of smelling of the dog, have made him a power- 
ful ally of man against the other animals ; and, perhaps, these qualities in 
the dog were necessary to the establishment of society. It is the only 
animal that has followed the human being all over the earth. 

There is occasionally a friendship existing between dogs resembling that 



the 



The author pledges himself as to 

Two dog's, the property of 



which is found in the human being. 

the accuracy of the following little anecdote. 

a gentlemen at Shrewsbury, had been companions for many years, until 

one of them died of old age. The survivor immediately began to manifest 

an extraordinary degree of restless anxiety, searching for his old associate 

in all his former haunts, and refusing every kind of food. He gradually 






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ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOG 



11 



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wasted away, and, at the expiration of the tenth day, he died, the victim 
of an attachment that would have done honour to man. 

The Dog belongs to the division of animals termed Vertebrated (see 
'The Horse,' 2nd edition, page 106) because it has a cranium or skull, 
and a spine or range of vERTEBRiE proceeding from it. It ranks under 
the class Mammaeia, because it has teats, by which the female suckles 
her young ; the tribe Ungeicueata, because its extremities are armed 
with nails ; the order Digitigrades, because it walks principally on 
its toes. The genus Canis has two tubercular teeth behind the large 
carnivorous tooth in the upper jaw; and the suh-geniis faimhans, 
the Dog, has the pupils of the eye circular, while those of the wolf are 
oblique, and those of the fox upright and long. 

There has been some dispute whether the various species of dogs are 
of different origin, or sprung from one common source. When we con- 
sider the change that climate and breeding effect in the same species 
of dog, and contrast the rough Irish or Highland greyhound with the 
smoother one of the southern parts of Britain, or the more delicate one of 
Greece, or the diminutive but beautifully formed one of Italy, or the 
hairless one of Africa, or Brazil— or the small Blenheim spaniel with the 
magnificent Newfoundland ; if also we observe many of them varied by 
accident, and that accidental variety diligently cultivated into a new 
species, altogether different in form or use, we shall find no difficulty 
in believing that they might be derived from one common origin. - 

One of the most striking proofs of the influence of climate on the form 
and character of this animal, occurs in the bull-dog. When transported 
to India he becomes, in a few years, greatly altered in form, loses all his 
former courage and ferocity, and becomes a perfect coward. 

It is probable that all dogs sprung from one common source, but 
climate, food, and cross-breeding caused variations of form, which sug- 
gested particular uses ; and these being either designedly or accidentally 
perpetuated, the various breeds of dogs thus arose, and they have be- 
come numerous in proportion to the progress of civilization. Among tfie 
ruder, or savage tribes, they possess but one form ; but the ingenuity of 
man has devised many inventions to increase his comforts : he has varied 
and multiplied the characters and kinds of domestic animals for the same 
purpose, and hence the various breeds of horses, and cattle, and dogs. 

The parent stock it is now impossible to trace ; but the wild dog, where- 
ever found on the continent of Asia, or Northern Europe, has nearly the 
same character, and bears no inconsiderable resemblance to the British 
fox-dog, while many of those from the Southern Ocean can scarcely be 
distinguished from the English lurcher. There is, however, no more 
difficulty in this respect with regard to the dog, than any other ot our do- 
mesticated animals. Climate, or chance, produced a change m certain 
individuals, and the sagacity of man, or, perhaps, mere chance, tounded 
on these accidental varieties numerous breeds possessed of certain distinct 
characteristic properties. The degeneracy of the dog, also, m different 
countries, cannot for a moment be disputed. 

The most natural arrangement of all the varieties of the dog is according 
to the development of the frontal sinus and the cerebral cavity, or, in 
other words, the power of scent, and the degree of intelligence. J. nis 



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ZOOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE DOG. 



classification originated with M. F. Cuvier, and has been adopted by most 
naturalists. He reckoned three divisions of the dog :— 

/:u '^^,''% ^^&^ ^^"^ ^^"""^ "^°^^ ^^ ^^^^ elongated, and the parietal bones 
of the skull widest at the base and gradually approaching towards each 
other as they ascend, the condyls of the lower jaw being on the same 
line with the upper molar teeth. The Greyhound and all its varieties 
belong to this class. 

?' ^}^ ^^^^ moderately elongated, and the parietals diverging from 
each other for a certain space as they rise upon the side of the head 

enlarging the cerebral cavity and the frontal sinus. " - - - - ' 

our most valuable dogs, -^ ^ . , „ 

Sheep-dog. ' ' *" 

III. The muzzle more or less shortened, the frontal sinus enlaro-ed 
and the cranium elevated, and diminished in capacity. To this dass 
belong some of the Terriers, and a great many dogs that might very well 
be spared. ° '' 

This division of the different species of the dog is adopted here as beinff 
the most simple, intelligible, and satisfactory. 



To this class beloncr 



Pointer, Hi 



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CHAPTER 11. 



THE VAKIETIES OE THE DOG 










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THE THIBET DOG. 

FIRST DIVISION. 



The head more or less elongated, the parietal bones widest at the base 
and gradually approaching to each other as they ascend, and the condyls 
of the lower jaw being on the same line with the upper molar teeth. 

To this division belong the greater number of the 



WILD 



The wild dog, as existing in considerable ntimbers or communities, 
seems to be nearly extirpated in the southern parts of Europe ; but there 
are several cases on record of dogs, having assumed the character ol tne 
wild race from which they had descended, abandoning their state o 
domestication, and reasserting their native independence. ^/!^''^^,^ J, 
hound bitch, belonging to a gentleman in Scarisbrick, in Lancasnire, tnougn 



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FIRST DIVISION OF THE 



she had apparently been well broken in, and always well used, ran away 
^ from the habitation of her master, and betook herself to the woods. She 
I killed a great number of hares and made free with the sheep, and became 

i !^i 1 "'f ^' T;-^^'" !' '^' neighbourhood. She was occasionally seen! 
and the depredations that were committed were brought home to her 
many were the attempts made to entrap or destroy her ; but in vain • 
lor more than six months she eluded the vigilance of her pursuers. At 
length she was observed to creep into a hole in an old barn. She was 
caught as she came out, and the barn being searched three whelps were 
lound, which, very foolishly, were destroyed. 

.J^'\^^^f ^^"'"'''''^ *^^ ''^'^'''^ ^^^°^^*y' ^"^' although well secured, 
attempted to seize every one who approached her. She was, however' 

dragged home and treated with kindness. By degrees her ferocity abated' 
In the course of two months, she became perfectly reconciled to her 
original abode, and, a twelvemonth afterwards (1822), she ran successfully 
several courses There was still a degree of wildness in her appearance ; 
but, although at perfect liberty, she seemed to be altogether reconciled to 
a domestic life. 

bpSn^l^^'^W "^"'^ T ^""^^ ^^^ smuggling vessel on the coast of Northum- 
berland He soon began to worry the sheep for his subsistence, and did 
so much mischief that he'*«aused very considerable alarm. He was fre 
quently pursued by hounds and greyhounds ; but when the dogs came up 
he lay upon his back as if supplicating for mercy, and in that position they 
would never hurt him He therefore lay quietly until the hunters ap- 
proached, when he made off without being followed by the hounds until 
they were again excited to the pursuit. He one day led them 30 miles in 
the'nS.-' was more than three months before he was caught, and was 

_ A dog with every character of the wild one has occasionally been seen 
in some of the forests of Germany, and among the Pyrenean mounl ns 
but he has rarely been found gregarious there. In the country on ?he 
eastern side of the Gulf of Venice wild dogs are more frequent.^ Thev 
increase in the Austrian and Turkish dominions, and are found on almost 
every part of the coast of the Black Sea, but even there they rarely 
gather m flocks : they do not howl in concert, as the wolf; nor are they 
doJhZT i"' and larger beasts, like the jackal. Most of these 

tZn ZtrTf """f 1^'^^ elongated, the ears erect, triangular, and 
small, the body and neck large and muscular, and the tail short, but with 
a brush of crisped hair. In many parts of Arabia the wild dog-^ordakhun 
~is occasionally found. In Persia, they are most decidedly cono-re^ated 
together, and still more so in almost every part of India." ^^^t^^^ed 

^ Annals of Sporting, vol.. vi. p. 99. 

^ The superstition of the Arabians and 
iurks with regard to dogs is somewhat 
singular : neither have they much affec- 
tion for these animals, or suffer them to be 
m or near the camp, except to guard it in 
the night. They have, however, some 
chanty for the females that have wheJps. 
As for other dogs, they feed them well, 
and give them good words, but never 
touch them nor go near them, because 
dogs are regarded as unclean animals. 
They particularly drive them away in wet 



weather ; for, if one drop of water from a 
dog should fall on their raiment, their de- 
votion would be interrupted and useless 
They who are fond of hunting make their 
religion subservient to their pleasure, and 
say that greyhounds and setters are ex- 
cepted from the general rule, because when 
not running these dogs are tied up where 
nothing unclean can reach them, and they 
are never suffered to eat any thing unclean. 
Their opinion is the same with regard to 

small dogs, which are kept with great care, 
and no one willingly injures a dog, or, if 




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VARIETIES OP THE DOG. 



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Mr. Hodgson has favoured the Zoological Society with an account of 

THE WILD DOG OF NEPAL3 

the .buansu, and, finding it more or less prevailing through the whole of 
Northern India, and even southward of the coast of Coromandel, he thought 
that he had discovered the primitive race of the dog. This is a point that 
can never be decided. '' These dogs hunt their prey by night, as well as 
by day, in packs of from six to ten individuals, maintaining the chace more 
by the scent than by the eye, and generally succeeding by dint of strength 
and perseverance. While hunting, they bark like the hound, yet the 
bark is peculiar and equally unlike that of the cultivated breeds of dogs, 
and the cries of the jackal and the fox." Bishop Ileber gives the follow- 
ing account of them. " They are larger and stronger than a fox, which 
in the circumstances of form and fur they much resemble. They hunt, 
however, in packs, give tongue like dogs, and possess an exquisite scent. 
They make of course tremendous havoc among the game in these hills ; 
but that mischief they are said amply to repay by destroying wild beasts 
and even tigers." "" 

Wild dogs are susceptible of certain social combinations. In Egypt, 
Constantinople, and throughout the whole of the East, there are in every 
village troops of wandering dogs who belong to no particular person. 
Each troop has its own quarter of the place ; and, if any wander into a 
quarter which does not belong to him jits inhabitants unite together and chase 
him out. At the Cape of Good Hope there are many dogs half-starved. 
On going from home the natives induce two or more of these animals 
to accompany them, warn them of the approach of any ferocious animal, 
and, if any of the jackals approach the walls during the night, they utter 
the most piercing cries, and at this signal every dog sallies out, and, 
uniting together, put the jackals to speedy flight.^ 

The wild Nepal dogs caught when at an adult age make no approach 
towards domestication ; but a young one, which Mr. Hodgson obtained 
when it was not more than a month old, became sensible to caresses, and 
manifested as much intelligence as any sporting dog of the same age.^ 

Captain T. Williamson gives an interesting account of the ferocious 
character of some of these wild dogs. ^' They have considerable resem- 
blance to the jackal in form. They are remarkably savage, and frequently 
Avill approach none but their doonahs or keepers, not allowing their own 
masters to come near them. Some of them are very fleet ; but they are 
not to be depended upon in coursing ; for they are apt suddenly to give 
up the chace when it is a severe one, and, indeed, they will too often prefer 
a sheep or a goat to a hare. In hog-hunting they are more valuable. It 
seems to suit their temper and they appear to enjoy the snapping and the 
snarling, incident to that species of sports." 

He says that many persons affect to treat the idea of degeneration in 
quadrupeds with ridicule ; but all who have been any considerable 
time resident in India must be satisfied that dogs of European breed be- 



every 



he should injure purposely, or destroy one 
of them, the law would punish him. Che- 
valier Darvieux's Travels in Arabia De- 
serta, 1718, p. 155. 

* Heber's Narrative, p. 500. 



b Histoire du Chien, par Elzear Blaze, 

p. 54. 

c Proceedings of the Zoological Society, 

Part I. 1833. 



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16 



FIRST DIVISION OF THE 



pariah, or indigenous dog of that country. The hounds are the most 
rapid in their decline, and, except in the form of their ears, they are 
very much like many of the village curs. Greyhounds and pointers also 
rapidly decline, although with occasional exceptions. Spaniels and terriers 
deteriorate less, and spaniels of eight or nine generations, and without a 
cross from Europe, are not only as good as, but far more beautiful than, 
their ancestors. The climate is too severe for mastiffs, and they do not 
possess sufficient stamina; but, crossed by the East Indian greyhound, they 
are invaluable in hunting the hog.^ 

Colonel Sykes, at one of the meetings of the Zoological Society, pro- 
duced a specimen of 

THE WILD DOG OF DAKHUN^ 

or Deccan, a part of India far to the south of Nepal, and gave the fol- 
lowing description of this supposed primitive dog: — ^^Its head is com- 
pressed and elongated, but its muzzle not very sharp. The eyes are 
oblique, the pupils round, and the irides light-brown. The expression 
of the countenance is that of a coarse ill-natured Persian greyhound, 
without any resemblance to the jackal, the fox, or the wolf. The ears 
are long, erect, and somewhat rounded at the top. The limbs remarkably 
large and strong in relation to the bulk of the animal. The size is inter- 
mediate between the wolf and the jackal. The neck long, the body 
elongated, and the entire dog of a red-brown colour. None of the do- 
mesticated dogs of Dakhun are common in Europe, but those of Dakhun 
and Nepal are very similar in all their characters. There is also a dog 

in Dakhun with hair so short as to make him appear naked. It is called 
the polugar dog. 

THE WILD DOG OF THE MAHRATTAS 

possesses a similar conformation ; and the fact is, that the East Indian 
wild dog is essentially the same in every part of that immense extent of 
country. There is no more reason, however, for concluding that it was 
the primitive dog, than for conferring on the Indian cattle the same 
. honour among the ruminants. The truth of the matter is that we have 
no guide what was the original breed in any country. The lapse of 
4,000 years would effect strange alterations in the breeds. The common 
name of this dog, in the track lying between South Bahar and the 
Mahratta frontier towards Maghore, is 





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DHOLE, 



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the Chryseus Scylex of Hamilton Smith. 
Captain Williamson, in his Oriental ] 
account of the Dholes : 

" They are to be found chiefly, or only, in the country from Midna- 
pore to Chamu, and even there are not often to be met with. They are 
of the size of a small greyhound. Their countenance is enlivened by 
unusually brilliant eyes. Their body, which is slender and deep-chested, 
is thinly covered by a coat of hair of a reddish-brown or bay colour. The 
tail is dark towards its extremity. The limbs are light, compact, and 

^ Williamson's Oriental Field Sports. 



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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



17 



CC 



Strong, and equally calculated for speed and power. They resemble 
many of the common pariah dogs in form, but the singularity of their 
colour and marks at once demonstrate an evident distinction. 

" These dogs are said to be perfectly harmless if unmolested. They do 
not willingly approach persons ; but, if they chance to meet any in their 
course, they do not show any particvilar anxiety to escape. They view 
the human race rather as objects of curiosity, than either of apprehension 
or enmity. The natives who reside near the Kanochitty and Katcunsandy 
passes, in which vicinity the dholes may frequently be seen, describe them 
as^ confining their attacks entirely to wild animals, and assert that they 
will not prey on sheep, goats, &c. ; but, others, in the country extending 
southward from Jelinah and Mechungunge, maintain that cattle are fre- 
quently lost by their depredations. I am inclined to believe that the 
dhole is not particularly ceremonious, but will, when opportunity offers, 
and a meal is wanting, obtain it at the expense of the neighbouring 

village. 

The peasants likewise state that the dhole is eager in proportion to 

the size and powers of the animal he hunts, preferring the elk to every 
other kind of deer, and particularly seeking the royal tiger. It is pro- 
bable that the dhole is the principal check on the multiplication of the 
tiger ; and, although incapable individually, or perhaps in small numbers, 
to effect the destruction of so large and ferocious an animal, may, from 
their custom of hunting in packs, easily overcome any smaller beast found 
in the wilds of India. 

^ " They run mute, except that they sometimes utter a whimpering 
kind of note, similar to that sometimes expressed by dogs when approach- 
their prey. This may be expressive of their own gratification, or 
anxiety, or may serve as a guide to other dholes to join in the chace. 
The speed of the dhole is so strongly marked in his form as to render it 
probable no animal in the catalogue of game could escape him for any 
distance. Many of the dholes are destroyed in these contests ; for the 
tiger, the elk, and the boar, and even many of the smaller classes of game 
are capable of making a most obstinate defence. Hence the breed of the 
dholes is much circumscribed." 



mg 



THE THIBET DOG. 



Mr 



Gardens, gave the best account we have of this noble dog, and the por- 
trait at the head of this chapter is a most faithful likeness of him. He 
is bred in the table-land of the Himalaya mountains bordering on Thibet. 
The Bhoteas, by whom many of them are carefully reared, come down to 
the low countries at certain seasons of the year to sell their borax and 
musk. The women remain at home, and they and the flocks are most 
sedulously guarded by these dogs. They are the defenders of almost 
every considerable mansion in Thibet. In an account of an embassy to 
the court of the Teshoo Llama in Thibet, the author says, that he had to 
pass by a row of wooden cages containing a number of large dogs, fierce, 
strong, and noisy. They were natives of Thibet, and, whether savage by 
nature or soured by confinement, they were so impetuously furious that 
it was unsafe even to approach their dens. Every writer who describes 
these dogs, speaks of their noble size, and their ferocity, and antipathy to 
strangers. 



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FmST DIVISION OF THE 



It is said, however, that the Thibet dog rapidly degenerates when 
removed from its native country, and certainly the specimens which have 
reached the Zoological Gardens exhibited nothing of ferocity. The one 
that was in that menagerie had a noble and commanding appearance ; but 
he never attempted to do any injury. 

The colour of the Thibet dog is of a deep black, slightly clouded on 
the sides, his feet alone and a spot over each eye being of a full tawny or 
bright brown hue. He has the broad short truncated muzzle of the mas- 
tiff, and the lips are still more deeply pendulous. There is also a singular 
general looseness of the skin on every part of him. 



THE PARIAH. 

There are several varieties of this dog. There is a wild breed very 
numerous in the jungles and in some of the lower ranges of the Himalaya 
mountains, They usually hunt in packs, and it is not often that their 
prey escapes them. They generally are very thin, and of a reddish- 
brown colour, with sharp-pointed ears, deep chest, and tucked-up flanks. 
Many persons hunt with these dogs singly, and they are very useful. 
They bring the hog to bay, or indicate the course that he has taken, or 
distract his attention when the sportsman is at hand. 

There is also in every inhabited part of the country the poor desolate 
pariah, — unowned by any one, — daring to enter into no house, but wander- 
ing about, and picking up a living in any way that he can. He is, how- 
ever, of a superior race to the wild dog, and belongs to the second class 
of the dog, although mentioned here in order that we may altogether quit 
the dog of India. They are neglected by the Hindoos ; but the Moham- 
medans of India, and other strangers, consider it an act of charity to 
throw out occasionally a morsel of food to them. They are most of them 
mongrels ; but the benevolent Bishop Heber does them no more than 
justice when he says that he " was forcibly struck at finding the same dog- 
like and amiable qualities in these neglected animals as in their more 
fortunate brethren in Europe." 

Colonel Sykes says of these outcasts, that among the pariahs is fre- 
quently found the turnspit-dog. There is also a small petted variety of 
the pariah, usually of a white colour, and with long silky hair. This 



carry 



Williamson 



of the ditches of the 



Carnatic forts, alligators are purposely kept, and all the pariah dogs 

found in the forts are thrown into the ditches as provision for these 
monsters. Some persons who have kept tigers in cages have adopted the 

same means of supply for their royal captives, putting the poor pariah 
through an aperture made for the purpose in the cage ; and they justify 
themselves by asserting that they thus get rid of a troublesome breed of 
curs, most of which are unappropriated, and which being numerous are 
very troublesome to passengers, often wantonly biting them, and raising a 
yelling noise at night, that sets all attempts to rest at defiance. 

It did not always happen that the tiger killed the pariah put into his 
cage. "I knew an instance," says Captain Williamson, " of one that 
was destined for the tiger's daily meal, standing on the defensive in a 
manner that completely astonished both the tiger and the spectator. He 
crept into a corner, and whenever the tiger approached seized him by the 
lip or the neck, making him roar most piteously. The tiger, however 



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VARIETIES OF THE POG. 

impelled by hunger^^for all supply of food was purposely withheld, 
renew the attack. The result was ever the same. 



19 

would 



.„ . ^ At length the tiger 

began to treat the dog with more deference, and not only allowed him to 
partake of the mess of rice and milk furnished daily for his subsistence, 
but even refrained from any attempt to disturb him. The two animals at 
length became reconciled to each other, and a strong attachment was 
lormed between them. The dog was then allowed ingress and egress 
through the aperture ; and, considering the cage as his home, he left it and 
returned to it just as he thought proper. When the tiger died he moaned 
the loss of his companion for a considerable period." 

A wild variety exists in Sumatra. It is described by Cuvier as " pos- 
sessing the countenance of a fox, the eyes oblique, the ears rounded and 
hairy, the muzzle of a foxy-brown colour, the tail bushy and pendulous, 
very lively, running with the head lifted high, and the ears straight." 
This animal can scarcely be rendered tractable, and even when he is 
apparently tamed can rarely be depended upon. 

As we proceed through the Indian Archipelago, towards Australasia, 
we skirt the coast of Java. Every Javanese of rank has large packs of 
dogs with which he hunts the muntjak, the deer of that country. The 
dogs are led in strings by the attendants until they scent the prey : they 
are then unloosed, while the sportsmen follow, but not at the speed which 
would distinguish the British 'sportsman. ^' ' ^ ' 



bay. 



The animal is generally found at 
The male muntjak usually exhibits considerable courage, and pro- 
bably several of the dogs have been wounded by his tusks. As soon as 
they come up every gun is discharged, and the animal almost immediately 
drops. At other times the mounted sportsmen attack them with a spear or 
sword. Generally, the muntjak does not go off like the stag in any direct 
track, but takes a circular course, and soon returns to the spot whence it 
was started. It perhaps makes several of these circles, and at length 
entangles itself in a thicket, where it is secured. 

These dogs are the indigenous breed of the island, the body lank, the 
ears erect, ferocious in their disposition, and with very little attachment 
to their masters. Such is the account given of them by Dr. Horsfield. 

THE DINGO, AUSTKALASIAN^ OH NEVS^ HOLLAND DOG. 

The newly discovered southern continent was, and some of it still con- 
tinues to be, overrun by the native wild dogs. Dampier describes them, 
at the close of the last century, as "beasts like the hungry wolves, lean 
like so many skeletons, and being nothing but skin and bone." It was 
not until the publication of Governor Phillip's voyage to Botany Bay, 
that any accurate description or figure of this dog could be obtained. 
He approaches in appearance to the largest kind of shepherd's dog. The 
head is elongated, the forehead flat, and the ears short and erect, or with a 
slight direction forwards. The body is thickly covered with hair of two 
kinds — the one woolly and gray, the other silky and of a deep yellow or 
lawn colour. The limbs are muscular, and, were it not for the suspicious 
yet ferocious glare of the eye, he might pass for a handsome dog. The 
Australasian dog, according to M. Desmarest, resembles in form and in 
the proportion of his limbs the common shepherd's dog. He is very 
active and courageous, covered in some parts with thick hair woolly and^ 
gray, in other parts becoming of a yellowish-red colour, and under the' 
belly having a whitish hue. When he is running, the head is lifted more 

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FIRST DIVISION OF THE 



than usual in dogs, and the tail is carried horizontally. He seldom barks. 
Mr. Bennett observes that " dogs in a state of nature never bark. Thev 
simply whine, howl, or growl. The explosive noise of the bark is only 
found among those that are domesticated." '^ • -• ^ ^ '-> 

herds' dogs in the wilds of Egypt as not having this faculty; and 
Columbus found the dogs which he had previously carried to America, 
almost to have lost their propensity to bark. 



Sonini speaks of the shep- 




THE BINGO, 



He does, however, occasionally bark, and has the same kind of snarling 
voice which the larger dogs generally have. The Australasian dogs that 
have been brought to Europe have usually been of a savage and untract- 



able disposition. 

There are several of the Australasian 



dogs in the gardens of the 



Zoological Society of London. One of them has been an inmate of that 
establishment nine years, others more than five years ; but not an individual 
has acquired the bark of the other dogs by which they are surrounded. 

When a stranger makes his appearance, or when the hour of feeding^ 
arrives, the howl of the Australasian is the first sound that is heard, and 
it is louder than all the rest. 

If some of them have thrown off a portion of their native ferocity, 
others retain it undiminished. A bitch and two of her whelps, nearly 
half grown— a male and female— had inhabited the same cage from the 
time that^the young ones were born. Some cause of quarrel occurred on 
a certain night, and the two bitches fell upon the dog and perfectly 
destroyed him. There was not a lim.b left whole. A stronger instance 
of the innate ferocity of this breed could scarcely be given. Even in their 
native country all attempts perfectly to domesticate them have failed • for 
they never lose an opportunity to devour the poultry or attack the sheep 



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21 



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Every domesticated dog coming within their reach was immediately 
destroyed. One that was brought to England broke his chain— scoured 
the surrounding country — and, before dawn, had destroyed several sheep ; 
and another attacked, and would have destroyed, an ass, if he had not 
been prevented. 

Mr. Oxley, Surveyor General of New South Wales, however, gives an 
interesting account of the mutual attachment between two of the native 
and wild New Holland dingos. "About a week ago we killed a native 
dog, and threw his body on a small bush. On returning past the same 
spot to-day, we found the body removed three or four yards from the bush, 
and the female in a dying state lying close beside it : she had apparently 
been there from the day the dog was killed. Being now so weakened and 
emaciated as to be unable to move on our approach, it was deemed a mercy 

to despatch her." 

When Van Diemen Land began to be colonized by Europeans, the 
losses sustained by the settlers by the ravages of the wild dogs were 
almost incredible. The districts infested by these animals were principally 

those appropriated to sheep, and there was scarcely a flock that did not 
suffer. It was in vain to double the number of shepherds, to watch by 
night and by day, or to have fires at every quarter of the fold ; for these 
animals would accomplish their object by stratagem or by force. One 
colony lost no fewer than 1200 sheep and lambs in three months ; another 
colony lost 700. 

The ravagers were either the native wild dogs of the island, or those 
that had escaped from their owners. They seemed to have apportioned 
the country into different districts, each troop having its allotted range. 
At length the evil became so great that a general meeting of the colonists 
was convened. The concluding sentences of the speech of Lieutenant 
Hill forcibly express the extent of the evil. " The country is free from 
bush-rangers: we are no longer surrounded and threatened by the 
natives. We have only one enemy left in the field ; but that enemy strikes 
at the very root of our welfare, and through him the stream of our pros- 
perity is tainted at its very source." The colonists were then few, but 
they cordially united in the endeavour to extirpate this formidable 
enemy ; and, although the wild dog is still found in the interior of the 
island, he is comparatively seldom seen, and his ravages have nearly 
ceased. 

THE CANIS AUSTRALIS KAKARAHE^ NEW ZEALAND DOG. 

A tradition exists in New Zealand of this dog having been given to the 
natives two or three centuries ago by a number of divinities who made 
their descent on these shores, probably Juan Fernandez and his com- 
panions. The sagacious animal has, however, dwindled down to the 
lowest rank of his family, but ill usage has not altogether destroyed his 
worth. In New Zealand he is the safeguard of every village. Should the 
slightest alarm exist, he is the first to ascertain the cause of it, and many 
families have saved themselves by flight, or have taken arms in self- 
defence against the incursions of predatory bands. The New Zealanders 
are therefore kind in their treatment of the dog, except that they occa- 
sionally destroy him for his hide. 

The name formerly given to the New Zealand dog was peroj wnicn m 
some measure substantiates the supposition of Juan Fernandez having 





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22 

visited the country 
dog. 

We will now tn 



rmsT DIVISION of the 

?rro, in the Spanish langua 



The races of 



wiM dogs are there considerably limited, both in number and the districts 
which they occupy. 

In the elevated sandy country north of the source of the Missouri 
inhabited by the " Stone " and the " Black Foot " Indians, is a doubtful 
species of dogs— wolves they used to be called— who hunt in large packs 
and are exceedingly swift ; whose bark is similar to that of the domestic 
dog, but who burrow in the ground, and eagerly run to their holes, when 
the gun of the hunter is heard. The habit of selecting large, open, 
sandy plains, and burrowing there, extends to the greater part of the 
American wild dogs. 

In some parts of North America whole troops of horses are guarded and 
kept together by dogs. If any of the troop attempt to steal away, the 
dog will immediately fly after the horse, head him, and bring him back to 
his companions. 

The wild dogs abound in many parts of South America. In some of 
the forests on the banks of the Oronoko they multiply to an annoying 
degree. The Cayotte of Mexico, described by some as a wolf, and 
bearing no slight resemblance to that animal, belongs to the South Ame- 
rican wild dogs, as do also the Aguara dogs of every kind. These wan- 
derers of the woods are, however, diminished in numbers in every part of 
that continent, and are replaced by other kinds, many of which have been 
imported from Europe and domesticated. Many of the Indian tribes 
have succeeded in reclaiming the dog of the woods, and have made him a 
useful although not a perfectly attached servant. 

The dogs of the Falkland Islands, and the Indian North American 
dogs generally, are brown or gray-coloured varieties of the wild doo- ; but 
they are nearly exterminated. o ' . 



The history of the 



WILD DOG OF AFRICA 



will occupy little space. It has already been stated that in Egypt and in 
Nubia we have the first records of the dog. Many superstitious notions 
were connected with him, and divine honours were paid to him. Those 
times are passed away, and he is regarded with aversion by the Moslem of 
the present day. He is an outcast. He obtains a scanty living- by the 
offal which he gathers in the towns, or he is become a perfect wild dog- 
and scours the country for his prey. His modern name is the deS 
He is of considerable size, with a round muzzle, large head, small erect 
ears, and long and hairy tail, spotted with black, white, and yellow, and 
having a fierce wolfish aspect. These dogs are not, however, numerous • 
but the mischief which they do is often great, whether in pairs they burrow 
m the earth, or associate with others and hunt in troops.^ 

* Poiret, in his Travels in Barbary, as- 
serts that « the dog loses in the East a 
great part of those good qualities that 
make him the friend of man. He is no 
longer a faithful domesticated animal, 
fdithfuUy attached to his master, and] ever 
ready to defend him even at the expense 



of his own life. He is cruel and blood- 
thirsty, his look is savage, and his ap- 
pearance revolting ; carrion, filth, any- 
thing is good enough for him if he can 
but appease his hunger. They seldom 
bite one another, but they unite against a 
stranger who approaches the Arab tents. 



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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



23 





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In Nubia is a smaller dog of the same kind, which never burrows. It 
lives on small animals and birds, and rarely enters any of the towns. _ A 
similar dog, according to Colonel Hamilton Smith, inhabits the neigh- 
bourhood of the Cape, and particularly the Karroo or Wilderness. It is 
smaller than either of the others, and lives among bushes or under pro- 
minent rocks. Others, although not identified with the jackal, yet asso- 
ciating with him, inhabit the uplands of Gambia and Senegal. 

On the Gold Coast, the dog is used and prized as an article of food. 
He is fattened and driven to market as the European drives his sheep and 
hogs. The dog is even more valued than the sheep for human subsist- 
ence, and is deemed the greatest luxury that can be placed even on the 

royal table. 

In Loango, or Lower Guinea, is a town from which the African wild 

They hunt in large packs. They 

In the 



-the dingo. 



dogs derive their name 

fearlessly attack even the elephant, and generally destroy him. 

neighbourhood of the Cape, the country is nearly cleared of wild beasts ; 
but in Cape Town there are a great number of lean and miserable dogs, 
who howl about the streets at night, quitting their dens and lurking- 
places, in quest of offal. No great while ago, the wolves and hyaenas 
used to descend and dispute the spoil with the dogs, while the town re- 
sounded with their hideous bowlings all the night long. 

This will be a proper place to refer to the numerous accounts that are 
given both in ancient and modern times of the immolation of dogs, and of 
their being used for food. They were sacrificed at certain periods by the 
Greeks and Romans to almost all their deities, and particularly to Mars, 
Pluto, and Pan, to Minerva, Proserpine, and Lucina, and also to the moon, 
because the dog by his barking disturbed all charms and spells, and 
frightened away all spectres and apparitions. The Greeks immolated 
many dogs in honour of Hecate, because by their baying the phantoms of 
the lower world were disturbed. A great number of dogs were also 
destroyed in Samothrace in honour of the same goddess; Dogs were 
periodically sacrificed in February, and also in April and in May, also to 
the goddess Rubigo, who presided over the corn, and the Bona Dea, 
whose mysterious rites were performed on Mount Av en tine. The dog 
Cerberus was supposed to be watching at the feet of Pluto, and a dog and 
a youth were periodically sacrificed to that deity. The night when the 
Capitol had nearly been destroyed was annually celebrated by the cruel 
scourging of a dog in the principal public places, even to the death of the 

animal. 

Many of the Greek and Roman epicures were strangely fond of the 
flesh of the dog, and those who ought to have known much better encou- 
raged the use of this food. Galen speaks of it in the strongest terms of 
praise. Hippocrates says that the meat of old dogs is of a warm and dry 
quality, giving strength to the eater. Ananias the poet speaks of dog's 

and "would tear him to pieces if he did 

not seek his safety in flight."— Vol. i. p. 
353. ^ B 

Denon, when in the city of Alexandria, 
in Egypt, says, " I have no longer recog- 
nised the dog, that friend of man, the 
attached and faithful companion — the 



lively and honest courtier. He is here a 
gloomy egotist and cut off from all human 
intercourse without heing the less a slave. 
He does not know him whose house he 
protects, and devours his corpse without 
repugnance." — Travels in Lower Egypt, 
p. 32. 



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flesh served up with that of the hare and fox. Yirgil recommends that 
the fatted dog should be served up with whey or butter, and Dioscorides 
the physician says that they should be fed on the whey that remains after 
the making of cheese. 

Before Christianity was established among the Danes, on every ninth 
year at the winter solstice, a monstrous sacrifice of 99 dogs was effected. 
In Sweden the sacrifice was still worse. ^ ^ « - • ^ 



99 dogs were destroyed. 



On each of 9 successive days. 
This sacrifice of the dog, however, gave way to 
one as numerous and as horrible. On every 9th year, 99 human victims 
were immolated, and the sons of the reigning tyrant among the rest, in 
order that the life of the monarch might be prolonged.^ 

On the other hand, the dog was frequently the executioner ; and, from an 
early period, whether in the course of war or the mock administration of 
justice, thousands of poor wretches were torn to pieces by animals trained 
to that horrible purpose. 

Many of the Indians of North America, and almost of the present day, 
are fond of the flesh of the dog. 

Captain Carver, in his Travels in North America in 1766, 1767, and 
1768, describes the admission of an Indian into one of the horrible socie- 
ties of that country. '^ The dishes being brought near to me," says he, 
'^ I perceived that they consisted of dog's flesh, and I was informed that 
at all their grand feasts they never made use of any other food. The 
new candidate provides fat dogs for the festival, if they can be procured 
at any price. They ate the flesh ; but the head and the tongue were 
left sticking on a pole with the front towards the east. When any 
noxious disease appeared among them, a dog was killed, the intestines 
were wound between two poles, and every man was compelled to pass 
between them." 

The Nandowepia Indians also eat dog's flesh as an article of luxury 
and not from any want or scarcity of other animal food ; for they have the 
bear, buffalo, elk, deer, beaver, and racoon. 

Professor Keating, in his interesting work on the expedition to Peter's 
River, states that he and a party of American oflftcers were regaled in a 
large pavilion on buffalo meat, and tepsia^ a vegetable boiled in buffalo 
grease, and the flesh of three dogs kept for the occasion, and without any 
salt. They partook of the flesh of the dogs with a mixture of curiosity 
and reluctance, and found it to be remarkably fat, sweet, and palatable, 
divested of any strong taste, and resembling the finest Welsh mutton, but 
of a darker colour. So strongly rooted, however, are the prejudices of 
education that few of them could be induced to eat much of it. 

The feast being over, great care was taken to replace the bones in their 
proper places in the dish, after which they were carefully washed and 
buried, as a token of respect to the animals generally, and because there 
was the belief among them that at some future time they would return 
again to life. Well-fattened puppies are frequently sold ; and an invitation 
to a feast of dog's meat is the greatest distinction that can be offered to a 
stranger by any of the Indian nations east of the Rocky Mountains. 

As a counterpart to much of this, the ancient Hyrcanians may be men- 
tioned, who lived near the Caspian Sea, and who deemed it one of the 

a Histoire du Chien, p. 200. The Voyage of Dumont d'Urville, vol. ii. p. 474. 






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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



25 



strongest expressions of respect to leave the corpse of their deceased friends 
to be torn and devoured by dogs. Every man was provided with a cer- 
tain number of these animals, as a living tomb for himself at some future 
period, and these dogs were remarkable for their fierceness. 

DOMESTICATED DOGS OF THE EIKST DIVISION. 













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THE HAKE INDIAN DOG. 



i '* 



Some of the readers of this work may possibly recollect three beautiful 
dogs of this species in the gardens of the Zoological Society of London, 
which afforded a perfect illustration of the elongated head of the dogs be- 
longing to Cuvier's first section. Mr. Bennett, the Secretary of the 
Society, gave an interesting account of them in 1835, derived from the 
observation of Sir John Franklin and Dr. Richardson. 

The elongation and sharpness of the muzzle, and the small capacity of 
the skull, first attract attention. The dog was doubtless fitted for its 
situation, where its duty is to hunt by sight after the moose or rein-deer, 
but would have been comparatively worthless if he was to be guided by 
the scent. Its erect ears, widened at the base and pointed at the top, gave 
it an appearance of vivacity and spirit. Its depth of chest, and tucked-up 
flank, and muscular quarters, marked it as a dog of speed, while its light 
frame, and the length of the toes, and wideness of web between them, 
seem to depict the kind of surface over which it was to bound. It is 
not designed to seize and to hold any animal of considerable bulk ; it 
bounds over the snow without sinking, if the slightest crust is formed upon 
It, and eagerly overtakes and keeps at bay the moose or the rein-deer 
^ntil the hunters arrive. This animal furnishes a beautiful illustration of 
adaptation for a particular purpose. 

The hair of these dogs is white, with patches of grayish-black and 
brown. They are known only in the neighbourhood of the Mackenzie 
River and of the Great Bear Lake in North America. They appear to 
be good-tempered and easily manageable, and soon become familiar even 



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FIRST DIVISION OF THE 



with strangers. They are most valuable to the Indians, who live almost 
entirely on the produce of the chace. In their native country they 
never bark, but utter a whine and howl resembling that of the Esquimaux 
dog ; yet one of the three, who was born a few days after its parents 
arrived at the gardens, while it whined and howled occasionally with its 
parents, at other times uttered the perfect bark of its companions of vari- 
ous breeds around it. 

THE ALBANIAN DOG 

can be traced to a very remote period of history. Some of the old authors 

speak of it as the dog which in the times of ancient mythology Diana pre- 
sented to Procris. Pliny describes in enthusiastic terms the combat of 
one of them with a lion, and afterwards with an elephant. A dog very 
much resembling the ancient stories is yet found in Albania, and most of 
the districts of Greece. He is almost as large as a mastiff, with long and 
silky hair, the legs being shorter and stronger than those of the grey- 
hound. He is gentle and tractable with those whom he knows, and when 
there is no point of duty at stake ; but no bribe can seduce him from his 
post when any trust is committed to him. 

THE GKEAT DANISH DOG;, CALLED ALSO THE DALMATIAN OK 

SPOTTED DOG. 













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rally white, marked with numerous small round black or reddish-brown 
spots. The Dalmatian is said to be used in his native country tor the 
chace, to be easily broken, and stanch to his work. He has never been 



thus employed in England, but is chiefly distinguished by his/ondness tor 
horses, and as being the frequent attendant on the carriages of the 
wealthy. To that its office seems to be confined ; for it rarely develops 
sufficient sense or sagacity to be useful in any of the ordinary offices ot 
the dog. 



THE FRENCH IVlAxilSf 



( 



yCanis laniarius). There is considerable difficulty m descnbingthi. 
variety. The French consider it as the progenitor of all the breeds ot 
dogs that resemble and yet cannot be perfectly classed with the greyhound. 
It should rather be considered as a species in which are included a variety 
of do-s,— the Albanian, the Danish, the Irish greyhound, and almost the 
pure British greyhound. The head is elongated and the forehead flat, 
the ears pendulous towards the tips, and the colour of a yellowish fawn. 
This is the usual sheep-dog in France, in which country he is also em- 
ployed as a house-dog. He discharges his duty most faithfully ; and, not- 
withstanding his flat forehead, shows himself to possess a very high degree 

of intelligence. 



THE GREYHOUND, 



The 



We find no mention of this do^ in the early Grecian recorub. 

the switt- 



pugnaces and the sagaces are mentioned; but the celeres 
footed — are not spoken of as a peculiar 



breed. The Celtic nations, the 



.x..xc.u.tants of the northern continent of Europe and the Western Islands, 
were then scarcely known, and the swift-footed dogs were peculiar to 
those tribes. They were not, however, introduced into the more southern 
parts of Europe until after the dissolution of the Roman commonwealth. 

The dog is, however, mentioned by Ovid ; and his description of coursing 
the hare is so accurate that we cannot refrain from inserting it. We se- 
lect a translation of it from Golding. 

" I gat me to the knap 
' Of this same hill, and there behelde of this strange course the hap. 

In Avhich the beaste seemes one while caught, and ere a man would thmke 

Doth quickly give the grewnd^ the slip, and from his biting shrinke ; 

And, like a wilie fox, he runs not forth directly out, 

Nor makes a winlas over all the champion fields about, ^ 

But, doubling and indenting, still avoydes his enemie's lips. 

An turning short, as swift about as spinning wheele he wips. 

To disappoint the snatch. The grewnd, pursuing at an inch, 

Doth cote^ him, never loosing. Continually he snatches 

In vaine, but nothing in his mouth, save only hair, he catches." 

There is another sketch by the same poet : 

" As when th' impatient greyhound, slipped from far, 
Bounds o'er the glade to course the tearful hare, 
She in her speed does all her safety lay. 
And he with double speed pursues the prey ; 
O'erruns her at the sitting turn, but licks 
His chaps in vain, yet blows upon the flix ; 
She seeks the shelter, which the neighbouring covert gives, 
And, gaining it, she doubts if yet she lives."*^ 



Greyhound. 



^ Overcast, or overrun. 



^ Ovid, Metamorph., lib. i- v. 353. 



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PIRST DIVISION OF THE 




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THE GBETHOUND, 



The English, Scotch, and Irish greyhounds were all of Celtic deriva- 
tion, and their cultivation and character corresponded with the civilization 
of the different Celtic tribes. The dogs that were exported from Britain 
to Rome were probably of this kind. Mr. Blaine gives an account of 
the progress of these dogs, which seems to be evidently founded on truth. 
" Scotland, a northern locality, has long been celebrated for its grey- 
hounds, which are known to be large and wiry-coated. They are probably 
types of the early Celtic greyhounds, which, yielding to the influences of 
a colder climate than that they came from, became coated with a thick 

and wiry hair. In Ireland, as being milder in its climate, the frame 
expanded in bulk, and the coat, although not altogether, was yet less 

crisped and wiry. In both localities, there being at that time boars 
wolves, and even bears, powerful dogs were required. In England these 
wild beasts were more early exterminated, and consequently the same 
kind of dog was not retained, but, on the contrary, was by culture made 
finer in coat, and of greater beauty in form." 

Mr. Richardson, in his History of the Greyhound, gives a different de- 
rivation of the name of this 






dog. 
of Grecian origin — canis Grcecus, 



He says that the greyhound was 



„ , -that Grcecus was not unfrequently 

written Gtcbius, and thence was derived the term greyhound. This de- 
rivation, however, is somewhat too far-fetched. 

Mention occurs of the greyhound in a very early period of the British 
history. He was an inmate of the Anglo-Saxon kennels in the time of 






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YAHIETIES OF THE DOG. 



29 





Elfric King of Mercia, There are paintings of him that can be satisfac- 
torily traced to the ninth century. In the time of Canute he was 
reckoned first in degree of rank among the canine species^ and no one 
under the degree of a gentleman, liberalis, or more properly perhaps a 
freeholder^ was allowed by the forest laws to keep them. Even he could 
not keep them within two miles of a royal forest, unless two of the toes 
were cut off, and for every mile that an uncut dog was found within this 
distance a fine of a shilling was levied on the owner. The nobleman was 
rarely seen abroad without his hawk upon his fist, and his greyhound at 
his side. 

Henry II. was passionately fond of them. John spared no expense to 
procure good horses and swift hounds, and appears frequently to have 
received greyhounds in lieu of money on the issue or removal of grants. 
For the renewal of a grant in the year 1203 he received five hundred 
marks, ten horses, and ten leashes of greyhounds, and for another, in 1210, 
one swift running horse and six greyhounds. 

The Isle of Dogs now devoted to purposes of commerce, derived its 
name from its having been, at this period, the receptacle of the grey- 
hounds and spaniels of this monarch. It was selected on account of its 
contiguity to Waltham and the other royal forests where coursing was a 
frequent amusement. For the same purpose he often took up his abode 
at Greenwich.^ 

Blount's Ancient Tenures abound with instances of the high repute in 
which this dog has ever been held in Great Britain. The holders of land 
in the manor of Setene in Kent were compelled, as the condition of their 
tenure to Edward I. and 11. , to lend their greyhounds, when this king 
went into Gascony, " so long as a pair of shoes of 4c?. price would last." 
Edward III. was partial to greyhounds ; for when he w^as engaged in war 
with France he took with him sixty couples of them, besides other large 
hunting dogs, 

Charles I. was as fond of the greyhound as his son Charles II. was of 
the spaniel. Sir Philip Warwick thus writes of that unfortunate monarch : 
" Methinks, because it shows his dislike of a common court vice, it is not 
unworthy the relating of him, that one evening, his dog scratching at his 
door, he commanded me to let in Gipsy ; whereupon I took the boldness 
to say, Sir, I perceive you love a greyhound better than you do a spaniel. 
Yes, says he, for they equally love their masters, and yet do not flatter 
them so much." 



^ A singular story is told of Kichard 11., 
and one of these dogs. It is given in the 
language of Froissart, "A grayhounde 
called Mithe, who always wayted upon 
the kynge, and woulde knowe no man 
els. For when so ever the kynge did 
ryde, he that kept the grayhounde dyd 
lette him lose, and he wolde streyght 
ninne to the kynge and faune uppon hym, 
and leape with his fore fete uppon the 
kynge's shoulders. And, as the kynge 
and the Erie of Derby talked togyder in 
the courte, the grayhounde, who was 
;wonte to leape uppon the kynge, left the 
kynge and came to the Erie of Derby, 
Duke of Lancastre ; and made to him the 
same friendly continuance and chere as 
he was wonte to do to the kynge. The 



duke, who knewe not the grayhounde, 
demanded of the kynge what the gray- 
hounde wolde do? 'Cousin/ quod the 
kynge, ' it is a greate goode token to you, 
and an evyl signe to me/ * How knowe 
you that?' quod the duke. *I knowe it 
well,' quod the kynge. ' The grayhounde 
acknowledgeth you here this daye as 
Kynge of England, as ye shal be, and I 
shal be deposed; the grayhounde hath 
this knowledge naturally: therefore take 
hym to you, he wyll followe you and 
forsake me.' The duke understood well 
those words, and cheryshed the gray- 
hounde, who wolde never after followe 
kynge Eicharde, but followed the Duke of 
Lancastre." 



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On most of the old tombs in the sculpture of which the doo- is in- 
troduced, the greyhound is represented lying at the feet of his master ; 
and an old Welsh proverb says that a gentleman may be known by his 
hawk, his horse, and his greyhound. 

The following poetical record of the fidelity, prowess, and ill-fate of 



be 



The spearman heard the bugle sound 
And cheerly smiled the morn, 

And many a brach and many a hound 
Obeyed Llewellyn's horn. 

And still he blew a louder blast, 

And gave a louder cheer^ 
" Come, Gelert ! why art thou the last 

Llewellyn's horn to hear ?" 

" Oh, where does faithful Gelert roam ? 

The flower of all his race ! 
So true, so brave ; a lamb at home, 

A lion in the chace ?" 

'T was only at Llewellyn's board 
The faithful Gelert fed, 

He watched, he served, he cheered his 
lord, 

And sentinel'd his bed. 

In sooth he was a peerless hound. 

The gift of royal John ; 
But now no Gelert could be found, 

And all the chace rode on. 

And now as over rocks and dells 

The gallant chidings rise, 
All Snowdon's craggy chaos yells 

With many mingled cries. 

That day Llewellyn little loved 

The chace of hart or hare ; 
And scant and small the booty proved. 

For Gelert was not there. 

Unpleased Llewellyn homeward hied. 

When near the portal seat 
His truant Gelert he espied, 

Bounding his lord to greet. 

But when he gained the castle-door 

Aghast the chieftain stood ; 
The hound was smeared with gouts of 
gore — 

His lips and fangs ran blood. 

Llewellyn gazed with wild surprise : 

Unused such looks to meet, 
His favourite check'd his joyful guise 

And crouched and licked his feet. 

Onward in haste Llewellyn pass'd. 

And on went Gelert too ; 
And still where'er his eyes he cast, 

Fresh blood-gouts shocked his view. 

O'erturned his infant's bed he found. 
The blood-stained covert rent ; 



Wales 



And all around the walls and ground. 
With recent blood besprent. 

He called his child — no voice replied 
He searched with terror wild : 

Blood ! blood ! he found on every side. 
But nowhere found the child. 

* Hellhound ! by thee my child's de- 
voured !' 

The frantic father cried ; 
And to the hilt his vengeful sword 
He plunged in Gelert's side. 

His suppliant, as to earth he fell. 

No pity could impart ; 
But still his Gelert's dying yell 
Passed heavy o'er his heart. 

Aroused by Gelert's dying yell, 
Some slumberer wakened nigh : - 

What words the parent's joy can tell 
To hear his infant cry ! 

Concealed beneath a mangled heap 
His hurried search had missed, 

All glowing from his rosy sleep. 
His cherub boy he kissed. 

Nor scratch had he, nor harm, nor dread. 
But the same couch beneath 

Lay a great wolf, all torn and dead. 
Tremendous still in death. 

Ah, what was then Llewellyn's pain ! 

For now the truth was clear : 
The gallant hound the wolf had slain. 

To save Llewellyn's heir. 

Vain, vain was all Llewellyn's wo : 

" Best of thy kind, adieu ! 
The frantic deed which laid thee low 

This heart shall ever rue." 

And now a gallant tomb they raise 
With costly sculpture decked ; 

And marbles, storied with his praise. 
Poor Gelert's bones protect. 

Here never could the spearman pass, 

Or forester, unmoved; 
Here oft the tear-besprinkled grass 
LlewUyn's sorrow proved. 

And here he hung his horn and spear • 

And oft, as evening fell, 
In fancy's piercing sounds would hear 

Poor Gelert's dying yell ! 



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xt will be evident, however, from the story of the noble hound whose 
mstory IS just related, that the greyhounds of the time were very different 
irom those which are used at the present day. There are no G61erts now 
JO combat successfully with the wolf, if these ferocious animals were yet 
TO be met with in our forests. The greyhound of this early period must 
ave resembled the Irish wolf-dog of the present day, a larger, stronger, 
nereer dog than we are accustomed to see. 

-The owner of GMert lived in the time of John, in the early part of the 
jnirteenth century ; but, at the latter part of the fifteenth century, the 
loilowing singular description is given of the greyhound of that period. 
J-t IS extracted from a very curious work entitled " The Treatise per- 
teynynge to Hawkynge, Huntynge, &c., emprynted at 
Wynkyn de Werde, 1496." 

A greyhounde should be headed lyke a snake, 

And neekyd lyke a drake, 

Fotyd lyke a cat, 

Tayled lyke a ratte, 

Syded like a teme 

And chyned like a bream. 

The fyrste yere he must lerne to fede, 

The seconde yere to feld him lede. 

The thyrde yere he is felow lyke. 

The fourth yere there is none syke. 

The fifth yere he is good ynough. 

The syxth yere he shall hold the plough, 

The seventh yere he will avaylle 

Grete bytches for assayle. 

But when he is come to the ninth yere 

Have him then to the tannere ; 

For the best hounde that ever bytch had 

At the ninth yere is full bad. 

As to the destiny of the poor animal in his ninth year, we differ from 
the author ; but it cannot be denied that few dogs retain their speed be- 
yond the eighth or ninth year. 

There can scarcely be a better description of the greyhound of the 
present day ; but it would not do for the antagonist of the wolf. The 
breed had probably begun to degenerate, and that process would seem to 
have slowly progressed. Towards the close of the last century Lord 
Orford, a nobleman enthusiastically devoted to coursing, imao'ined and 
rightly, that the greyhound of his day was deficient in coura^^e'' and ' per 
severance. He bethought himself how this could best be rectified and he 
adopted a plan which brought upon him much ridicule at the time, but 
f^ZT^. redounded to his credit. He selected a bull-dog, one of the 
smooth rat-tailed species, and he crossed one of his greyhound bitches . 

ln-« fl T\ J ^P* ^^^ ^^'^^^'^ yf\ie\^^ and crossed them with some of 
mf^ neetest dogs, and the consequence was, that, after the sixth or seventh '- 
generation, there was not a vestige left of the form of the bull-dog ; but ' 
ZITT^F ^"^^ ^'^ indomitable perseverance remained, and, having once 
or rl T."" ..^'j ^^^,^.' ^^ ^'^ ""^^ relinquish chase until he fell exhausted 
nn« ?^P^ • . ^"""^^^ '^ "^"^ "^^^o^* universally adopted. It is 

np secrets m the breeding of the greyhound. 

fpo? *^^ stanchness of the well-bred greyhound, the following is a satis- 
r^?. if ^ example. A hare was started before a brace of greyhounds, and 

T^A ,1 r^ ^^''^''^^ °^^1^^' "^hen they were found, both the dogs 

'ina the hare lay dead within a few yards of the each other. A labouring 



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man had seen them turn her several times ; but it did^ot appear that 
either of them had caught her^ for there was no wound upon her. 

A favourite bitch of this breed was Czarina, bred by Lord Orford, and 
purchased at his decease by Colonel Thornton : she won every match for 
which she started, and they were no fewer than forty-seven. Lord Orford 
had matched her for a stake of considerable magnitude ; but, before the 
appointed day arrived, he became seriously ill and was confined to his 
chamber. On the morning of the course he eluded the watchfulness of 
his attendant, saddled his favourite piebald pony, and, at the moment 
of starting, appeared on the course. No one had power to restrain him, 



and all entreaties were in vain. 



He peremptorily insisted on the dogs 

His favourite bitch dis- 



being started, and he would ride after them, 
played her superiority at every stroke ; she won the stakes : but at the 
moment of highest exultation he fell from his pony, and, pitching on his 
head, almost immediately expired. With all his eccentricities, he was a 

kind, benevolent, and honourable man. 

In the thirteenth year of her age, and in defiance of the strange verses 
just now quoted, Czarina began to breed, and two of her progeny, Claret 

and young Czarina, challenged the whole kingdom and won their matches. 
Major, and Snowball, without a white spot about him, inherited all the 
excellence of their dam. The former was rather the fleeter of the two, 
but the stanchness of Snowball nothing could exceed. A Scotch grey- 
hound, who had beaten every opponent in his own country, was at this time 
brought to England, and challenged every dog in the kingdom. The 
challeno:e was accepted by Snowball, who beat him in a two-mile course. 



Malton 



every 



every part of the kingdom, at least in all those that are accustomed to 
hunt in an open country. The last match run by Snowball was against 
Mr. Plumber's celebrated greyhound Speed ; and, so severely contested 
was it, that Speed died soon afterwards. A son of the old dog, called 
Young Snowball, who almost equalled his father, was sold for one 

hundred guineas. i . ^, ^ ,. .i 

The speed of the -greyhound has been said to be equal to that of the 
fleetest horse. A singular circumstance, which occurred at Doncaster, 
proved that it was not much inferior. A mare cantering over the Don- 
caster course, her competitor having been withdrawn, was jomed by a grey- 
hound bitch when she had proceeded about a mile. She seemed detgrmmed 
to race with the mare, which the jockey humoured, and gradually increased 
his pace, until at the distance they put themselves at their full speed. The 

mare beat her antagonist only by a head. The race-horse is, perhaps, 
generally superior to the greyhound on level ground, but the greyhound 
would have the advantage in a hilly country. 

Lord Rivers succeeded to Major Topham and Colonel Thornton, the 
owners of Major and Snowball, as the leading man on the course. His 
kennels at Strathfieldsaye were the pride of the neighbouring country. At 
first he bore away almost every prize, but breeding too niuch in and in, 
and for speed more than for stoutness, the reputation of his kennel consi- 
derably declined before his death. 

In 1797 a brace of greyhounds coursed a hare over the edge oi a chalk- 
pit at Offham, in Sussex. The hare and both the dogs were found dead 
at the bottom of the pit. ' 



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w ^\ .^f o'^her occasion a hare was chased by a brace of greyhounds : she 
stTi ^ T3 ^^ *^^ distance of seven miles from the place at which they 

hJ^ . , ^^ *^® ^"^8^^ "^^^^ ^o exhausted, that, every possible assistance 

oeing given, they were with difficulty recovered. 

^Pft. J'^^^i^ greyhound hunts by sight alone ; not because he is alto- 
gemer devoid of scent, but because he has been taught to depend upon 
searrSf- ' ^"'J t^ift degree of speed which is utterly incompatible with the 
uJh -l ?^ ""^ ^^^ '^^''*' ^* '' ^'^^ ^ P^^k «f hounds, running breast 
scfnt Tl ^ ^IV" ^'f'': ^^^^^ """^^ *^^" ^"^"^"g by sight, and not by 
SeH / •* "^f^J'^f ^^''^ "'^^^ P^^^' ^"^ sometimes, from an unex- 
soon 1 "'"^ "1 ^^t ^^f T ^f ^' *^'^^^ ^"* ^^" ^ ^^ttle while. The hound 
^revl. J •"■' ^ ^"^^""^ ^y ^'^ exquisite sense of smell. The English 
greyhound is never taught to scent his game, but, on the contrary, is called 
on the moment he has lost sight of the hare, the re-starting of which is left 
to the spaniel. 

The English greyhound is distinguished by its peculiarly lon^ and 
attenuated head and face terminating in a singular sharpness of the nose 

the lenlth of the' m""tf ^' "r'" ^""''^ ^^^ *"^ '^-^^^ ^om tht 
as tKLl -T^^ r? ^ ^^''^'' ^"^'P ^"^ ^e^^^res the prey, but, 

d minted /l "^^■'" . '^^ '^l '^'''^ "^ '^^ ^^"^^ ^^« proportionate!; 
of the tote th^p"- "l' '" ^^'^ T"^ ^"^ '^'' ^^P^^^^«" «f th^ «^e«^brane 
ment of Jhe braTn. ^'"'' '^ '''"*' '"^ ^^^^ ^^"^^ ^^^ *^^ ^^^^l-P' 

gre^hound ^l^t T^ ""^ extraordinary acute hearing, and the ears of the 
£rs to be cW ^f compared with his bulk. Markham recommends the 

no?fcing byTh^L wSght '"^P"^' ""''^^ ^^^^^"^^"^ ^^ '^'^ ^^^^ 

distent froTthf?" "^'j' ^i!^^ f ^^**^" consequence, for the game is rarely 
btant trom the dog, and, therefore, easily seen. ^ 

order to^nn '' ^"^ i"^Portant portion of the frame. It should be long, in 
to sei,l Tf r?r?i, """^^ *^^ ^^"f ^ ^^ '^^ l^g^' ^»d thus enable the dog 

thrZ?! . "" §''"'''' ^' ^^ ""^P^d^y P"^"«^e« his course, without 

nrowing any undue or dangerous weight on the fore extremities. In the 

and falT'^'"^ short-necked dog may lose the centre of gravity 

The chest is a very important part of the greyhound, as well as of every 
other animal of speed. It must be capacious : this capacity must hi nJ 
Uined by depth rather than by width, in order that theThouldZ ma? noi 
be thrown so far apart as to impede progression ^o^^aers may not 

for on them dTltsThr f f%fr'^''.' ^^ ^^ material consequence ; 
of exertinT The Jo d^ '""'T tlV^'T ^^^"^^ '^^ ^"^^^^ is capable 
They are f ; in tt! L '^Ti, ^^'^^^ ^^ ^"^P' ^"^ ^^liquely placed, 

this conforma w' ' "" ^^ *^" ^^^ ^^P^"^^ ^"tirely on 

the^elborni? n T""^^ ^' '' i '''' '^''^'^ ^* *^^ shoulder : bulging out at 
The Would h/vP^'r.^ "iT'^ appearance, but makes the do^g slow 

feet, ani the toes neiFh!f S'"'.' ^""^ ■' ''^"^^^*' ^"^ ^^" ««* «" ^^e 
tion of the le^ wh^h t K . T* T '"'■ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^'"^ «r that por- 

straight and m^nl^d ^ ^s between the elbow and the knee, should be long, 
with^ The iZiw; J^'^ ^re circumstances that cannot be dispensed 
of essential impStance ™' ^""^ *^^ ^^^' ^^^"^^^ ^^ *^^ P^^*^™' ^^^ 



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34 FIRST DIVISION OF THE 

With regard to the form of the back and sides of the greyhound, Mr. 
Thacker says, with much truth, that "It is the strength of the back which 
is brought into requisition, in particular, in running over hilly ground. 
Here may be said to rest the distinction between long and short backs, 
supposing both to be good and strong. The more lengthy the back, and 
proportionately strong, the more the greyhound is calculated to beat the 
shorter-backed dog on the flat ; but on hilly ground one with a shorter 



3? a 



back will have the advantage. 

The ribs should also be well arched. 



We would perhaps avoid him with 



sides too decidedly outswelling, but still more would we avoid the direct flat- 
sided dog. 

Without really good haunches and muscular thighs, it has been well 
remarked that the odds are against any dog, be his other points whatever 
they may. It is by the propulsatory efforts of the muscles of the loins 
and thighs that the race is won. The thighs should be large, and muscu- 
larly indented ; the hocks broad, and, like the knee, low placed. These 
are very important points ; for, as Mr. Blaine has properly remarked, " on 
the extent of the angles formed between these several portions of the hinder 
limbs, depends the extent of the space passed over at each bound.'' 

The colour of the greyhound varies exceedingly. Some are perfectly 
black and glossy. In strength and endurance, the brindled dog, or the 

brown or fawn-coloured one, is the best. The white greyhound, although a 

beautiful animal and swift, is not,^perhaps, quite so much to be depended on. 

The greyhound is said to be deficient in attachment to his master and in 
general intelligence. There is some truth in the imputation ; but, in fact, 
the greyhound has, far less than even the hound, the opportunity of form- 
ing individual attachments, and no other exercise of the mind is required 
of him than to follow the game which starts up before him, and to catch 
it if he can. If, however, he is closely watched he will be found to have 
all the intellect that his situation requires.^ 

As to the individual attachment which the greyhound may form, he has 
not always or often the opportunity to acquire or to exhibit it. The 
keeper exercises over him a tyrannical power, and the owner seldom no- 
tices him in the manner which excites affection, or scarcely recognition ; 
but, as a plea for the seeming want of fondness, which, compared with 
other breeds, he exhibits, it will be sufficient to quote the testimony of the 
younger Xenophon, who had made the greyhound his companion and his 
friend. 



* Thacker on Sporting. 

^ The writer of this work had a brace 
of greyhounds as arrant thieves as ever 
lived. They would now and then steal 
into the cooking-room belonging to the 
kennel, lift the lid from the boiler, and, if 
any portion of the joint or piece of meat 
projected above the water, suddenly seize 
it, and before there was time for them to 
feel much of its heat, contrive to whirl 
it on the floor, and eat it at their leisure 
as it got cold. In order to prevent this, 
the top of the boiler was secured by an 
iron rod passing under its handle, and 
tied to the handle of the boiler on each 
side ; but not many days passed ere they 



discovered that they could gnaw the cords 
asunder, and displace the rod, and fish out 
the meat as before. Small chains were 
then substituted for the cords, and the 
meat was cooked in safety for nearly a 
week, when they found that, by rearing 
themselves on their hind legs, and apply- 
ing their united strength towards the top 
of the boiler, they could lift it out of its 
bed and roll it along the floor, and so get 
at the broth, although the meat was out 
of their reach. The man who looked after 
them expressed himself heartily glad when 
they were gone ; for, he said he was often 
afraid to go into the kennel, and was sure 
they were devils, and not dogs. 





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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. . 35 

^onndiooted Tof ^S"^ "^^^ '^^' ^^' " ^ '""'^^^ hard-working, courageous, 
l^efore haH T o ' , '^ "^""^^ ^^"tle and kindly affectioned, and never 

^portsmaS;' Whin "hfu ^7 ^7 T'"^^' °' ^^ ^^^^^^' °^ ^^ f^^^^^- 
away from itip n i,- . actually engaged in coursing he is never 
see whether I Ldf ^'"/^turn he runs before me, often looking back to 

sight of me shotl '""^ !"^ ^^ 1^^ "''^^' ^"^ ^« «««^ ^« ^e again catches 
«^1 If ?swT ^ symptoms of joy, and once more trotting Lay before 

jumps up repel^ri?^^ "" fT^ '^""" ^" ^^^ ^^^" ™« ^^W frind, he 
to us T'^^'f ^*^^ly by way of salutation, and barks with ioy as a ^reetin^ 

heard fr^anv ot'erT^ '^''^"' ??"?/ ^P^^^^' ^^ ^^^^ - ^ " "- 
ashamed in? ^ i ..^' ^"^"^ ""^^^^^ ^ ^^ "«<^ t^^i^k that I oxi^ht to be 

XenS^hoXlirenVn laT^^ '' f '^ ^°^' .T ^^.^^^ ^^''^^'^ ^Lw tha? 
great J spej t^P^^^.^^^ ^:X;^^^ 

Jn^t\Ster 2m tl^hS Lf oS^T ^:r'^~^^ ^ 

by a beautiful symmetrv of form nf vvWI? To , ? distinguished 

he ha. even supiio. spLS'toTa't St fXX rxUbM ''T^''^ 

The utr„iTattenfen''S Mi'"''"-'';"^ ? °^ K'-'yhound. are very simple. 



IS as certain in t}iP«« a^ --^c.^ .u tue qualities oi the parents ; for it 

ing. The bicSon]dl?r\*^ ^T.'^^* ^^^ ^^P^^^« ^P«^ the breed- 
stalch, and sneedv and L H f "^ ^^ ^°^^ '^^" ' *^^ ^^^ ran.^n\^r, 

havearrtedTtthdrfifll • ""^^^ ^^^^l *^^^ *^" ^^*^h- ^^^h should 
to fail Thnt . f^i; ^^g«^r, and with none of their powers beginning 

appearance b-ds fair""";' " ^'''1^' '^""^'^ ^^ ^^^^^^^^ ^^^^ PecuHa? 
ones on either sd?T^ 'J^'^^'^'t^' - ^' *^''^^'*''' ^""^ diminish the bad 

sought Bre J n^" f ^^""^^ ^"^^ *^' ^^* ^^^^ ^*""1^ b« diligently 

spefkiL Xf ?, J'"'"-. J?"^ ^^^' ^^ ^ith^r side should, generally 
female tLrp T h i ^'*^ ""1^^ *° ^^^^^ ^«g«' ^^ethe'r male or 
eight Lnf T? '' T'- ^^'^^ greyhounds, both male and female, 

seSno. " ' ^"? ^Z ^T' ''^Z^''' ^^^^ b^^» the progenitors of dogs pos 
fcessing every stanch and good quality. ^ ^ 

rearing ^^ '''^*'" ^^" ^^^en be scarcely worth the trouble or expense of 

hut'tt ^ndliot fft trT'are S If df/'^n ^'^ .^? ^Y ^ *^^ ^-^ ^ 
ever, to be aa-reed th J n^^f i •. i^ different periods. It seems, how- 

two years of fge "^^^ ^' ^'^"^ "^^ ^"^lify f«r a puppy cu^ after 

situ^atfon^aK^!.*^..^.^ ^^^^^^ in mind is a warm and comfortable 
puppies from th^e m^" supply of nourishment for the mother and for the 

early growth wHl ^^^f -5 ^^'^' ^''^^- ^^^ ^^^ ^^at is stinted in his 
dantly suliirw^^ ^ts owner credit. The bitch should be abun- 

oatmeal, and <rZ^^ I- ' . ^^e young ones with milk and bread, and 

ai, and small portions of flesh as soon as they are disposed to eLt it ; 

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great care, however, being taken that they are not over-gorged. Regular 
and proper feeding, with occasional exercise, will constitute the best pre- 
paration for the actual training. If a foster-mother be required for the 
puppies, it should, if possible, be a greyhound ; for it is not at all impos- 
sible that the bad qualities of the nurse may to a greater or less degree be 
communicated to the whelps. Bringing up by hand is far preferable to 
the introduction of any foster-mother. A glass or Indian-rubber bottle 
may be used for a little while, if not until the weaning. Milk at first, and 
afterwards milk and sop alternately, may be used. 

There is a difference of opinion whether the whelp should be kept in the 
kennel and subjected to its regular discipline, or placed at walk in some 
farm-house. In consequence of the liberty he will enjoy at the latter, his 
growth will probably be more rapid ; but, running with the farmers' dogs, 
and probably coursing many hares, he will acquire, to a certain degree, a 
habit of wildness. It is useless to deny this ; but, on the other hand, nothing 
will contribute so much to the development of every power as a state of 
almost unlimited freedom when the dogs are young. The wildness that 
will be exhibited can soon be afterwards restrained so far as is necessary, 
and the dog who has been permitted to exert his powers when young will 
manifest his superiority in more advanced age, and in nothing more than 
his dexterity at the turn. 

When the training actually commences, it should be preceded by a 
couple of doses of physic, with an interval of five or six days, and, pro- 
bably, a moderate bleeding between them ; for, if the dog begins to work 
overloaded with flesh and fat, he will suifer so severely from it that pos- 
sibly he will never afterwards prove a game dog. In the course of his 
training he should be allowed every advantage and experience every en- 
couragement. His courses should be twice or thrice a-week, according to 
their severity, and as often as it can be effected he should be rewarded with 

some mark of kindness. 

In the ' Sportsman' for April, 1840, is an interesting account of the 
chace of the hare. It is said that, in general, a good greyhound will reach 
a hare if she runs straight. He pursues her eagerly, and the moment he 
is about to strike at her she turns short, and the dog, unable to stop him- 
self, is thrown from ten to twenty yards from her. These jerking turns 
soon begin to tell upon a dog, and an old well-practised hare will seldom 
fail to make her escape. When, however, pursued by a couple of dogs, 
the hare has a more difficult game to play, as it frequently happens that 
when she is turned by the leading dog she has great difficulty in avoiding 
the stroke of the second. 

It is highly interesting to witness the game of an old hare. She has 
generally some brake or thicket in view, under the cover of which she 
means to escape from her pursuers. On moving from her seat she makes 
directly for the hiding-place, but, unable to reach it, has recourse to turn- 
ing, and, wrenched by one or the other of her pursuers, she seems every 
moment almost in the jaws of one of them, and yet in a most dexterous 
manner she accomplishes her object. A greyhound, when he perceives a 
hare about to enter a thicket, is sure to strike at her if within any reason- 
able distance. The hare shortens her stride as she approaches the thicket, 
and at the critical moment she makes so sudden, dexterous, and effectual 
a spring, that the dogs are flung to a considerable distance, and she has 
reached the cover and escaped. 







VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



37 



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the ^^if ^ ^yP^^s has for many years been celebrated for its breed of 
SDorF^'^ T^" ^" gr^rid days, or when the governor is present, the 
come fh ^^^^"^*^^ ^^ ^ curious manner. When the hare is ready to be- 
befn tl ^^^^ °^ ^^^ enemies, the governor rushes forwards, and, throwing 
ston ?^ ^^^ ""^^ ^ stick which he carries, they all instantaneously 
hounH • 1 ^^ now runs a little distance; but one of the swiftest grey- 
.^ nas IS then let loose. He pursues the hare, and, having come up with 

r,Lof^-fVi ,''' ^"^' springing on the neck of the governor's horse, 
send?-J f 5^"" ''• ^^'^ governor delivers it to one of his officers, who 
for T. •?! P ' ^^^^*^ ^® maintains many prisoners of the same kind ; 
Vr V\\ "^* destroy the animal that has contributed to his amusement.'' 
i« X \^ ""^^ according to Mr. Blaine, an ardent courser in his youth, 

IS the best mode of feeding greyhounds at regular work :— " The dogs had 
d lull Hesh meal every afternoon or evening, as more nutriment is derived 
irom night-feedmg than by day, and when sleeping than when waking- In 
the mornmg they were let out, and either followed the keeper aboSt the 
paddock or the groom in his horse exercise, and then had a trifling meal 
ot mixed food, as a quieting portion, until the evening full meal Such 
was^our practice on the days when no coursing was 'contem^ted, and- 
meal th. '^''P*^7 ^^ lowering the quantity and quality of the evening 
^ons tnir"^^ P^^" ""^^ P""'""^ throughout the year. On the day pre- 
befol .n ''"^' '^ ^^^^"tended anything like an exhibition of our dogs 
meal P^rlTfr^ engaged to meet us on the marshes, we gave a plentifSl 
S r.^ *^^P^^^^,0"« day, some exercise also in the afternoon, and a 

will ?'''" • "'^^*' ^^ ^^^^ ^^*^ ^^^^^^ ^^«t^^ «r «^ilk, with a man on 
norseback going a gentle trot of six or seven miles an hour." " 

ivir. ihacker orders the greyhounds out on the fore part of every day ; 

two ?l ""^ ^"^'"^ ^^""'^ ^"d ^* li^^^t^' th^y ^o"ld be much better 
vvu ana two ; then, when he meets with a proper field to loose them in, 
JO give them a good gallop. This will be a greater novelty than if they 
naa been loose on the road, and they wiU gallop with more eagerness. 
J? our days in a week will be enough for this exercise. On one day there 

snould be a gallop of one or two miles, or even a course for each brace of 

dogs. 

The young dog has usually an older and more experienced one to start 
with him. That which is of most importance is, that his leader should be 
a thoroughly stout and high-mettled dog. If he shrinks or shies at any 
impediment, however formidable, the young one will be sure to imitate 
S/ K ? J?^'"''."'® ^"^ uncertain dog, if not a rank coward. Early in 
conlem, "' 'M V!f ' ""^"^ *^''' initiatory trials are to be made. It ii of 

Some im ■ , ^ ^''''"^ ''''^ ^^""^^"^ ^^*"^^^ '^ d^ath as soon as possible. 
fir.t nr.rH^^'^^ ^^* *^° ^^d d^^s should accompany the young one at its 
be cn.T!?''"^'?^''*- ^^*^'" ^^^ ^^^^^ «f the leveret, the young dog must 
oe coaxed and fondled, but never suffered to taste the blood. ^ ^ 
be br„«?"i n''' "^^'""^ *^® training is regularly conducted, the dog should 

health .7 V^^ ^"^^""^ ^'^"^ ^''^' ^^^ *^^"^« contribute so much to 

as necp ^^''™ cleanliness, and friction applied to the skin. Warmth is 

cold w fi^^ tor greyhounds as for horses, and should not be forgotten in 
shonlH . J"* /^ody-clothing is a custom of considerable antiquity, and 
"iu not be abandoned. The breeder of greyhounds for the purpose of 

Scott's Sportsman's Repository, p. 97. t Blaine's Encyclopedia of Sporting, 



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FIRST DIVISION OF THE 



coursing must reckon upon incurring considerable expense ; but, if he 

loves the sport, he will be amply remunerated by the speed and stoutness 
of his dogs. 

A question has arisen whether, on the morning of the coursing, any 
stimulant should be given to the dog. The author of this work would 
unhesitatingly approve of this practice. He has had abundant experience 
of the good effect of it ; but the stimulus must be that which, while it pro- 
duces the desired effect, leaves no exhaustion behind. * 



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THE SCOTCH GREYHOUND 

has the same sharpness of muzzle, length of head, lightness of ear, and 
depth of chest, as the English dog ; but the general frame is stronger and 
more muscular, the hind quarters more prominent, there is evident increase 
of size and roughness of coat, and there is also some diminution of speed. 
If it were not for these points, these dogs might occasionally be taken for 
each other. In coursing the hare, no north-country dog will stand against 
the lighter southern, although the southern would be unequal to the 
labour often required from the Highlander. 

The Scotch greyhound is said— perhaps wrongly^ — to be oftenest used 

by those who look more to the quantity of game than to the fairness and 
openness of the sport, and in some parts of the country this dog is not per- 
naitted to be entered for a sweepstakes, because, instead of depending on 
his speed alone, as does the English greyhound, he has recourse to occa- 
sional artifices in order to intercept the hare. In sporting language he 
runs sly, and, therefore, is sometimes excluded. 

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THE HIGHLAND GREYHOTTND^ OK DEEK-HOUND 

L 

is a larger, stronger, and fiercer dog, and may be readily distinguished from 
the Lowland Scotch greyhound by its pendulous, and, generally, darker 
ears, and by the length of hair which almost covers his face.' Many 
accounts have been given of the perfection of its scent, and it is said to 
have followed a wounded deer during two successive days. He is usually 
two inches taller than the Scotch greyhound. The head is carried par- 
ticularly high, and gives to the animal a noble appearance. His limbs are 
exceedingly muscular, his back beautifully arched. The tail is lono- and 
curved, but assumes the form of an almost straight line when he is much 
excited. The only fault which these dogs have is their occasional ill- 
temper, or even ferocity ; but this does not extend to the owner and his 

family. 

It appears singular that the English greyhound exhibits so little power 
of scent ; but this is simply because he has never been taught to use it or 
K,has been cruelly corrected when he has attempted to exercise it. ' 

Holinshed relates the mischief that followed the stealing of one of these 
dogs :— " Divers of the young Pictesh nobilitye repaired unto Craithlint, 
Kmg of the Scots, for to hunt and make merie with him ; but, when they 
should depart homewards, perceiving that the Scotish dogs did far excel 
theirs, Doth in fairnesse, swiftnesse, and hardinesse, and also in long stand- 
mg up and holding out, they got diverse both dogs and bitches of the best 



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For a set of laws for Coursing Matches, see Appendix. 



itti 




VAEIETIES OF THE DOG. 



39 



kind for breed, to be given them by the Scotish Lords ; and yet not so 
contented, <_they stole one belonging to the King from his keeper, being 
more esteemed of him than all the others which he had about him. The 
maister of the leash, being informed hereof, pursued after them that had 
stolen the dog, thinking, indeed, to have taken him from them ; but they 
not being to part with him fell at altercation, and at the end chanced to 
btrijie the maister of the leash through with their horse spears, so that he 
um aie presently: Whereupon noise and crie being raised in the country 
oy nis servantes, divers of the Scots, as they were going home from hunt- 
ing, returned, and falling upon the Picts to revenge the death of their 
leiiow there ensued a shrew ed bickering betwixt them ; so that of the 
facets there died three score gentlemen, besides a great number of the 
commons, not one of them understanding what the matter meant. Of the 
-ricts there were about 100 slaine." 

Mr. H. D. Richardson describes a cross between the greyhound and 
British bloodhound :— " It is a tall muscular raw-boned dog, the ears far 
larger, and more pendulous, than those of the greyhound or deer-hound 
The colour is generally black, or black and tan ; his muzzle and the tips 
of the ears usually dark. He is exceedingly swift and fierce : can pull 
down a stag smgle-handed ; runs chiefly by sight, but will also occasion- 
fil A "? , ^''^''^- ^"^ P°^^* ^f ^^ent, however, he is inferior to the 



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THE imSH GEEYHOUND. 

This dog differs from the Scotch, in having shorter and finer hair, of 
pale lawn colour, and pendent ears. It is, compared with the Scotch dog, 
fh T.^^^ harmless, perhaps indolent, until roused. It is a larger dog 
tlian the Scottish dog, some of them being full four feet in length, and 
proportionately muscular. On this account, and also on account of their 
determined spirit when roused, they were carefully preserved by some 
Irish gentlemen. They were formerly used in hunting the wolf when 
that animal infested the forests of Ireland. Mr. Bell says that the last 
person who kept the pure breed was Lord Altamont, who in 1780 had 
eight of them.'' 



THE GASEHOUND. 



x. 



the agascBus of former times, was probably allied to, or connected with, 
the Irish greyhound. It hunted entirely by sight, and, if its prey was lost 
the dp ^' .'*.''"^1^ ^®^«^er it by a singular distinguishing faculty. Should 
ueer rejom the herd, the dog would unerringly select him again from 
all his companions : ^ 

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J 

" Seest thou the gasehound how -with glance severe 
From the close herd he marks the destined deer?" " 

bn?^!!!'*® ^^ ^° ^"^ possessed of this quality at present known in Europe ; 
"ut the translator of Arrian thinks that it might be produced between the 
J-nsh greyhound and the bloodhound. 



Sportsman, vol. xl p. 314. b Cell's British Quadrupeds, p. 241 

'^ Tickell's Miscellanies. 



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THE IKTSH WOLF-DOG. 

This animal is nearly extinct, or only to be met with at the mansions of 
one or two persons by whom he is kept more for show than use, the wild 
animals which he seemed powerful enough to conquer having long dis- 
ajpp eared from the kingdom. The beauty of his appearance and the an- 
tiquity of his race are his only claims, as he disdains the chace of stag, fox, 
or hare, although he is ever ready to protect the person and the property 
of his master. His size is various, some having attained the height of 
four feet, and Dr. Groldsmith states that he saw one as large as a yearling 
calf. He is shaped like a greyhound, but stouter ; and the only dog which 

the writer from whom this account is taken ever saw approaching to his 
graceful figure, combining beauty with strength, is the large Spanish wolf- 
dog : concerning which he adds, that, showing one of these Spanish dogs 
to some friends, he leaped through a window into a cow-house, where a 
valuable calf was lying, and seizing the terrified animal, killed it in an 
instant ; some sheep having in the same way disappeared, he was given 
away. The same writer says that his grandfather had an Irish wolf-dog 
which saved his mother's life from a wolf as she was paying a visit at- 
tended by this faithful follower. He rushed on his foe just when he was 
about to make his spring, and after a fierce struggle laid him dead at his 
mistress's feet. His name was Bran.^ 




i^'i 



THE RUSSIAN GREYHOUND 

is principally distinguished by its dark-brown or iron-grey colour — its 

short semi-erect ears — its thin lanky body^ — ^long but muscular legs soft 

thick hair, and the hair of its tail forming a spiral twist, or fan, (thence 
called the fan-tailed dog,) and as he runs having a very pleasing appear- 
ance. He hunts by scent as well as by sight, and, therefore, small packs 
of this kind are sometimes kept, against which the wolf, or even the bear, 
would stand little chance. He is principally used for the chace of the deer 
or the wolf, but occasionally follows the hare. The deer is the principal 
object of pursuit, and for this he is far better adapted than to contend with 
the ferocious wolf. His principal faults are want of activity and dexterity. 
He is met with in most parts of Russia, where his breed is carefully pre- 
served by the nobility, with whom coursing is a favourite diversion. 
Some dogs of this breed were not long ago introduced into Ireland. 



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THE GRECIAN GREYHOUND. 



The author is glad that he is enabled to present his readers with the 
portrait of one now in the menagerie of the Zoological Society of London. 
It is the dog whose image is occasionally sculptured on the friezes of some 
of the ancient Grecian temples, and was doubtless a faithful portrait of 
one of the dogs which Xenophon the Athenian valued, and was the com- 
panion of the heroes of Greece in her ancient glory. 



Sporting Mag. 1837, p. 156. 



'\ 







VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



41 



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W, T. G/TS^n/A^^^ 



THE GKECIAN GREYHOUND. 



^ The principal difference between the Grecian and the English greyhound 
IS, that the former is not so large, the muzzle is not so pointed, and the 
linibs are not so finely framed. 



THE TURKISH GKEYHOUND 



IS a small-sized hairless dog, or with only a few hairs on his tail. He is 
never used in the field, and bred only as a spoiled pet, yet not always 
spoiled, for anecdotes are related of his inviolable attachment to his owner 
One of them belonged to a Turkish Pacha who was destroyed by the bow- 
string. He would not forsake the corpse, but laid himself down by the 
body of his murdered master, and presently expired. 

THE PERSIAN GREYHOUND 

IS a beautiful animal. He is more delicately framed than the English 
Dreed ; the ears are also more pendulous, and feathered almost as much 
as those of a King Charles's spaniel. Notwithstanding, however, his 
apparent slenderness and delicacy, he yields not in courage, and scarcely 
m strength, to the British dog. There are few kennels in which he is 
lound m which he is not the master. 

In his native country, he is not only used for hunting the hare, but the 
antelope, the wild ass, and even the boar. The antelope is speedier than 
the greyhound : therefore the hawk is given to him as an ally. The 
antelope is no sooner started than the hawk is cast oiF, who, fluttering 



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42 



FIRST DIVISION OF THE 



before the head of the deer, and, sometimes darting his talons into his 
head, disconcerts him, and enables the greyhound speedily to overtake and 
master him. The chace, however, dn which the Persians chiefly delight, 
and for which these greyhounds are mostly valued, is that of the ghoo- 
khan, or wild ass. This animal inhabits the mountainous districts of 
Persia. He is swift, ferocious, and of great endurance, which, together 
with the nature of the ground, renders this sport exceedingly dangerous. 
The hunter scarcely gives the animal a fair chance, for relays of grey- 
hounds are placed at various distances in the surrounding country ; so 
that, when those by which the animal is first started are tired, there 
are others to continue the chace. Such, however, is the speed and en- 
durance of the ghoo-khan that it is seldom fairly run down by the grey- 
hounds, its death being usually achieved by the rifle of some horseman. 
The Persians evince great skill and courage in this dangerous sport, gal- 
loping at full speed, rifle in hand, up and down the most precipitous hills, 

and across ravines and mountain streams, that might well daunt the boldest 
rider,"* 

The Persian greyhound, carried to Hindoostan, is not always to be de- 
pended upon, but, it is said, is apt to console itself by hunting its own 
master, or any one else, when the game proves too fleet or escapes into the 
cover. 



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THE ITALIAN GKEYHOUND 



possesses all the symmetry of the English or Persian one, on a small scale. 
So^ far as beauty can recommend it, and, generally speaking, good-nature, 
•^ it is deservedly a favourite in the drawing-room ; but, like the large grey- 
hound, it is inferior^ in intelligence. It has no strong individual attach- 
ment, but changes it with singular facility. It is not, however seen to 
advantage in its petted and degraded state, but has occasionally proved a 
not unsuccessful courser of the rabbit and the hare, and exhibited no small 
share of speed and perseverance. In a country, however, the greater part 
of which is infested with wolves, it cannot be of much service, but ex- 
posed to unnecessary danger- It is bred along the coasts of Italy, prin- 
cipally for the purpose of sale to foreigners. 

In order to acquire more perfect beauty of form, and more activity also, 
the English greyhound has received one cross from the Italian, and with 
decided advantage. The speed and the beauty have been evidently in- 
creased, and the courage and stoutness have not been diminished. 

It has been said that Frederick the Great of Prussia was very fond of 
a small Italian greyhound, and used to carry it about with him under his 
cloak. During the seven years' war, he was pursued by a party of Aus- 
trian dragoons, and compelled to take shelter, with his favourite, under 
the dry arch of a bridge. Had the little animal, that was naturally ill- 
tempered and noisy, once barked, the monarch would have been taken 
prisoner, and the fate of the campaign and of Prussia decided ; but it lay 
perfectly still, and clung close to its master, as if conscious of their mu- 
tual danger. When it died, it was buried in the gardens of the palace at 
Berlin, and a suitable inscription placed over its grave. 



New Sports. Mag. xiii. 124. 







I 





MP' 



VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



43 



^ 



CHAPTER III. 



THE VARIETIES OE THE DOG 



SECOND DIVISION. 



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their insertion^ but rather diverging^ so as to enlarge the cerebral cavities 
c^nd the frontal sinuses ; consequently giving to these dogs greater power of 
scent and intelligence. They constitute the most pleasing and valuable 
division of the Dog. 







•J.OAClcc;o'AS= 



BLENHEIMS AND COCKEKS. 





«pfT^^ Spaniel is evidently the parent of the Newfoundland dog and the 
ilTll • ® . retriever, the poodle, the Bernardino, the Esquimaux, 
ine CMberian, and the Greenland dogs, the shepherd and drover's dog, and 
every variety distinguished for intelligence and fidelity, have more or less 
01 his blood in them. ^ 

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THE SPANIEL 

a^r^^^^^^ ^^ Spanish origin, and thence his name. The ears are large 
r^art ^^?.^''\' *^^ *^^^ elevated, the fur of a different length in different 
thi h !5^ ^^' ^"* longest about the ears, under the neck, behind the 
gns and on the tail, varying in colour, but most commonly white with 
brown or black patches. •' ° ' ^ 

^ There are many varieties of the spaniel. The smallest of the land 
spaniels is ^ 




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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



THE COCKER. 



It is chiefly used in flushing woodcocks and pheasants in thickets and 
copses into which the setter, and even the springer, can scarcely enter. 

" But, if the shady woods my cares employ, 
In quest of feathered game my spaniels beat, 
Puzzling the entangled copse, and from the brake 
Push forth the whirring pheasant." 

^ 

The cocker is here very useful, although he is occasionally an exceed- 
ingly impatient animal. He is apt to whimper and babble as soon as he 
comes upon the scent of game, and often raises the bird before the sports- 
man is within reach : but when he is sufficiently broken in not to give 
tongue until the game rises he is exceedingly valuable. There can 
scarcely be a prettier object than this little creature, full of activity, and 
bustling in every direction, with his tail erect, and, the moment he scents 
the bird, expressing his delight by the quivering of every limb, and the low 
eager whimpering which the best breaking cannot always subdue. Presently 
the bird springs, and then he shrieks out his ecstasy, startling even the sports- 
man with his sharp, shrill, and strangely expressive bark. 

The most serious objection to the use of the cocker is the difficulty of 
teaching him to distinguish his game, and confine himself within bounds ; 
for he will too often flush everything that comes within his reach. It is 
often the practice to attach bells to his collar, that the sportsman may 
know where he is ; but there is an inconvenience connected with this, that 
the noise of the bells will often disturb and spring the game before the 

dog comes fairly upon it. 

Patience and perseverance, with a due mixture of kindness and correc- 
tion will, however, accomplish a great deal in the tuition of the well-bred 
spaniel. He may at first hunt about after every bird that presents itself, 
or chase the interdicted game ; but, if he is immediately called in and rated, 
or perhaps corrected, but not too severely, he will learn his proper lesson, 
and will recognise the game, to which alone his attention must be directed. 
The grand secret in breaking in these dogs is mildness, mingled with per- 
severance, the lessons being enforced, and practically illustrated by the 

example of an old and steady dog. 

These spaniels will sometimes vie with almost every other species of 
dog in intelligence, and will not yield to one of them in fidelity. ^ , A 
gentleman in Sussex had an old cocker, that was his constant companion, 
both in the house and the field. If the morning was rainy the dog was 
perfectly quiet ; if it w^as fine he became restless, and, at the usual time 
for his master to go out, he would take him by the flap of his coat, and 
gently pull at it. If the door was opened, he ran immediately to the 
keeper's lodge, which was at a considerable distance from the house. This 
was a signal for the other dogs to be brought up, and then he trotted back 
to announce their approach. 

THE KING Charles's spaniel, 

so called from the fondness of Charles II. for it— who usually had some 
of them following him, wherever he went — belongs likewise to the cockers. 
Its form and character are well preserved in one of the paintings of the 
unfortunate parent of that monarch and his family. The ears deeply 
fringed and sweeping the ground, the rounder form of the forehead, the 



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VARIETIES OE THE DOG. 



45 



larger and moister eye, the longer and silken coat, and the clearness of 
the tan, and white and black colour, sufficiently distinguish this variety. 
His beauty and diminutive size have consigned him to the drawing-room 
or parlour. 

Charles the First had a breed of spaniels, very small, with the hair black 
and curly. The spaniel of the second Charles was of the black and tan 

breed. 

The King Charles's breed of the present day is materially altered for 
the worse. The muzzle is almost as short, and the forehead as ugly and 
prominent, as the veriest bull-dog. The eye is increased to double its 
former size, and has an expression of stupidity with which the character 
of the dog too accurately corresponds. Still there is the long ear, and the | 
silky coat, and the beautiful colour of the hair, and for these the dealers 
do not scruple to ask twenty, thirty, and even fifty guineas. 

THE SPRINGEK. 

This dog is slower and steadier in its range than the cocker ; but it is a 
much safer dog for the shooter, and can better stand a hard day's work. 

The largest and best breed of springers is said to be in Sussex^ and is 
much esteemed in the Wealds of that county. 

From a cross with the terrier a black and tan variety was procured, 
which was cultivated by the late Duke of Norfolk, and thence called the 
Norfolk Spaniel. It is larger than the common springer, and stancher, 
and stouter. It often forms a strong individual attachment, and is un- 
happy and pines away when separated from its master. It is more ill- 
tempered than the common springer, and, if not well broken in, is often 
exceedingly obstinate. 

THE BLACK AND TAN SPANIEL^ 

the cross of the terrier being nearly or quite got rid of, is often a beau- 
tiful animal, and is much valued, although it is frequently considered a 
somewhat stupid animal. The cocker and the springer are sometimes 
used as finders in coursing. 

THE BLENHEIM SPANIEL^ 

a breed cultivated by one of the Dukes of Marlborough, belongs to this 
division. From its beauty, and occasional gaiety, it is oftener an inha- 
bitant of the drawing-room than the field ; but it occasionally breaks out, 
and shows what nature designed it for. Some of these carpeted pets ac- 
quit themselves nobly in the covert. There they ought oftener to be ; for 
they have not much individuality of attachment to recommend them, and, 
like other spoiled animals, both quadruped and biped, misbehave. The 
breed has degenerated of late, and is not always to be had pure, even in 
the neighbourhood of Blenheim. This spaniel may be distinguished by 
the length and silkiness of the coat, the deep fringe about the ear, the arch 
and deep -feathering of the tail, the full and moist eye, and the blackness 
of the palate. 

THE WATEP-SPANIEL. 

Of this breed there are two varieties, a larger and smaller, both useful 
according to the degree of range or the work required ; the smaller, how- 
ever, being ordinarily preferable. Whatever be his general size, strength 
and compactness of form are requisite. His head is long, his face smooth 



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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



and his limbs, more developed than those of the springer, should be mus- 
cular, his carcase round, and his hair long and closely curled. Good 
breaking is more necessary here than even with the land-spaniel, and, for- 
tunately, it is more easily accomplished ; for, the water-spaniel, although a 
stouter, is a more docile animal than the land one. 

Docility and affection are stamped on his countenance, and he rivals 
every other breed in his attachment to his master. His work is double • 







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THE AVATEK-SPANIEL. 



first to find, when ordered so to do, and to back behind the sportsman 
when the game will be more advantageously trodden up. In both he 
must be taught to be perfectly obedient to the voice, that he may be kept 
within range, and not unnecessarily disturb the birds. A more import- 
ant part of his duty, however, is to find and bring the game that has 
dropped. To teach him to find is easy enough, for a young water-spaniel 
will as readily take to the water as a pointer puppy will stop ; but to 
bring his game without tearing is a more difficult lesson, and the most 
difficult of all is to make him suspend the pursuit of the wounded 
while the sportsman re-loads. 

The water- spaniel was originally from Spain; but the pure breed has 
been lost, and the present dog is probably descended from the large water- 
dog and the English setter. 

The water and land spaniels differ materially from each other. The 
water-spaniel, although when at his work being all that his master can 
desire, is, when unemployed, comparatively a slow and inactive dog ; but 
under this sobriety of demeanor is concealed a strength and fidelity of 



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47 



attachment to which the more lively land-spaniel cannot always lay just 
claim. The writer of this work once saved a yoimg water-spaniel from 
the persecution of a crowd of people who had driven it into a passage, 
and were pelting it with stones. The animal had the character of being, 
contrary to what his species usually are, exceedingly savage ; and he suf- 
fered himself to be taken up by me and carried from his foes with a kind 
of sullenness ; but when, being out of the reach of danger, he was put 
down, he gazed on his deliverer, and then crouched at his feet. 

From that moment he attached himself to his new master with an 
intensity of affection scarcely conceivable — never expressed by any 
boisterous caresses, bvit by endeavouring to be in some manner in contact 
with him ; resting his head upon his foot ; lying upon some portion of 
his apparel, his eye intently fixed upon him ; endeavouring to understand 
every expression of his countenance. He would follow one gentleman, 
and one only, to the river-side, and behave gallantly and nobly there ; but 
the moment he was dismissed he would scamper home, gaze upon his 
master, and lay himself down at his feet. In one of these excursions he 
was shot. He crawled home, reached his master's feet, and expired in 
the act of licking his hand. 

Perhaps the author may be permitted to relate one story more of the 
water-spaniel : he pledges himself for its perfect truth. The owner of 
the dog is telling this tale. " I was once on the sea-coast, when a small, 
badly-formed, and leaky fishing-boat was cast on shore, on a fearful reef 
of rocks. Three men and a boy of ten years old constituted the crew, 
ine men swam on shore, but they were so bruised against the rocks, that 
they could not render any assistance to the poor boy, and no person could 
be found to venture out in any way. I heard the noise and went to the 
spot Mdth my dog. I spoke to him, and in he went, more like a seal than 
a dog, and after several fruitless attempts to mount the wreck he suc- 
ceeded, and laid hold of the boy, who clung to the ropes, screaming in the 
most fearful way at being thus dragged into the water. The waves dashed 
frightfully on the rocks. In the anxiety and responsibility of the moment 
I thought that the dog had missed him, and I stripped off my clothes, 
resolved to render what assistance I could. I was just in the act of 
springing from the shore, having selected the moment when the receding 
waves gave me the best chance of rendering any assistance, when I saw 
old ' Bagsman,' for that was the name of my dog, with the struggling 

boy in his mouth, and the head uppermost. I rushed to the place where 
he must land, and the waves bore the boy and the dog into my arms. 

" Some time after that I was shooting wild-fowl. I and my dog had' 
been working hard, and I left him behind me while I went to a neigh- 
bouring town to purchase gunpowder. A man, in a drunken frolic, had 
pushed off in a boat with a girl in it ; the tide going out carried the boat 
quickly away, and the man becoming frightened, and unable to swim, 
jumped overboard. Bagsman, who was on the spot, hearing the splash, 
jumped in, swam out to the man, caught hold of him, and brought him 
twenty or thirty yards towards the shore, when the drunken fellow clasped 
the dog tight round the body, and they both went down together. The girl 
was saved by a boat going to her assistance. The body of the man was 
recovered about an hour afterwards, with that of the dog clasped tight in 
his arms, thus dragging him to the bottom. ' Poor Bagsman ! thy worth 
deserves to be thus chronicled.' " 



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THE POODLE. 

The particular cross from which this dog descended is unknown, but 
the variety produced has been carefully preserved. It is, probably, of 
continental origin, and is known by its thick curly hair concealing almost 
every part of the face, and giving it the appearance of a short, thick, 
unintelligent head. When, however, that hair is removed, there is still 
the large head ; but there is also the cerebral cavity more capacious than 
in any other dog, and the frontal sinuses fully developed, and exhibiting 
every indication of the intellectual class to which it belongs. 



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THE POODLE. 



It was originally a water-dog, as its long and curly hair, and its pro- 
pensities in its domesticated state, prove ; but, from its peculiar sagacity, 
it is capable of being trained to almost any useful purpose, and its strong 
individual attachment renders it more the companion of man than a mere 
sporting dog : indeed, its qualities as a sporting dog are seldom recog- 
nised by its owner. 

These dogs have far more courage than the water-spaniel, all the saga- 
city of the Newfoundland, more general talent, if the expression may be 
used, and more individual attachment than either of them, and without 
the fawning of the one, or the submissiveness of the other. The poodle 
seems conscious of his worth, and there is often a quiet dignity accompa- 
nying his demonstrations of friendship. 





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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



49 



very- 



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wui almost perform the common offices of a servant : it will ring the bell 
and open the door. Mr. Wilkie, of Ladythorn in Northumberland, had 
a poodle which he had instructed to go through all the apparent agonies of 
p ing. He would fall on one side, stretch himself out, and move his hind 

n^^ u^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^^ ^" great pain ; he would next simulate the convulsive 
throbs of departing life, and then stretch out his limbs and thus seem as if 
Jje had expired. In this situation he would remain motionless, until he had 
nis master's command to rise. 

The portrait of Sancho, a poodle, that was with difficulty forced from 
the grave of his master, after the battle of Salamanca, is familiar to many 
ot our readers. Enticed from his post he could not be, nor was he at 
length taken away until weakened by grief and starvation. ~~ 



with the natural ardour of a poodle. 



Marquis of Worcester 



He by degrees 



-ne was attentive to every command, 

and could perform many little domestic offices. Sometimes he would 
exhibit considerable buoyancy of spirit ; but there oftener seemed to be 
about him the recollection of older and closer friendship 
Pet-nsnt.^ poodle occupies an interesting place in the history of the 

ft the Wtl ™,'n ^'1/°' S."^^"^"^ *° ^ ^^^"^^ «ffi^e^' ^^^ wi killed 

thev could b ^r •'"^- 7^' ^^''""'^ ^^^^ ^^^P^lled to retreat before 
tWs rp^r ,7 *^^'^ .^e^^' ^"d the soldiers wished to carry with them 
ths regimental favourite ; but he would not be forced from the corpse of 

ihlTr T"; ^''^^'^''^ afterwards traversing the field of battle, one of 

f.^. ^''^°^^^^^ the cross of the Legion of Honour on the breast of the 
iduen othcer, and stooped to take it away, when the dog flew savagely at 

nnl^ ^*^j^^^"^^ surgeon, who, before any other animal than the horse was 
acknowledged to be the legitimate object of medical care, did not disdain 
to attend to the diseases of the dog, used to say that there were two breeds 
Which he never wished to see in his infirmary, namely, the poodle and the 
i> orlolk spaniel ; for, although not always difficult to manage, he could 
never attach them to him, but they annoyed him by their pitiful and 
iniploring gaze during the day, and their mournful howling at night 

Custom has determined that the natural coat of this animal shall be 
taken from him It may be a relief to the poodle for a part of his coat 
to be stripped off in hot weather, and the curly hair which is left on his 
Chest, contrasted with his smooth and well-rounded loins and quarters, 

wnfw^'^' ''''^P'"'^**^*'"^"^^' ^^t ^t ^ho^ld be remembered that he 
t W ^r "^^^'^"^^ by nature to be thus exposed to the cold of winter, and 

n^vJi- f ^ ""? ^""^^ '"^ ^'""ble to rheumatism, and that rheumatism dege- 
nerating into palsy, as the well-trimmed poodle. . 

w 

THE BARBET 

ft 

rrn«f"^^^l,P^^,^^^' th® production of some unknown and disadvantageous 
and \.Ti ^i"" *''"'' P'^'"'^^^' ^t h^' ^" the sagacity of the poodle, 
alwa. i/"" ""^ ^"'^'^ "^^^^ th^" bis tricks. It is always in action ; 
self 1 hdgety ; generally incapable of much affection, but inheriting much 
own ^^^ occasional ill temper; unmanageable by any one but its 

ner ; eaten up with red mange ; and frequently a nuisance to its master 
and a torment to every one else. 









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We must not, however, do it injustice ; it is very intelligent, ana xiuiy 

attached to its owner. k + •+ • 

The barbet possesses more sagacity than most other dogs, but it is 
sao-acity of a particular kind, and frequently connected with various 
amusincr tricks. Mr. Jesse, in his Gleanings in Natural History, gives 
a singular illustration of this. A friend of his had a barbet that was not 
always under proper command. In order to keep him in better order, 
he purchased a small whip, with which he corrected him once or twice 
during a walk. On his return the whip was put on a table in the hall, 
but on the next morning it was missing. It was soon afterwards found 
concealed in an out-building, and again made use of in correcting the dog. 
Once more it would have been lost, but, on watching the dog, who was 
suspected of having stolen it, he was seen to take it from the hall table 
in order to hide it once more. 

THE MALTESE DOG 

can be traced back to an early period. Strabo says that "there is a town 
in Sicily called Melita, whence are exported many beautilui dogs callea 
Canes Melitcei. They were the peculiar favourites of the women ; but 
now (a.d. 25) there is less account made of these animals, which are not 
biffffer than common ferrets or weasels, yet they are not small in under- 
standing nor unstable in their love." They are also found in Malta and 
in other islands of the Mediterranean , and they maintain the same character 
of beinff devotedly aifectionate to their owners, while, it is added,— and 
they are not loved the less for that, -they are ill-tempered to strangers. 



THE LION DOG 



is a diminutive likeness of the noble animal whose name it bears. Its 
head, neck, shoulders, and fore-legs down to the very feet,_are covered 
with long, wavy, silky hairs. On the other parts of the dog it is so short 
as scarcely to be grasped, except that on the tail there is a small bush of 
hair. The origin of this breed is not known ; it is, perhaps, an interme- 
diate one between the Maltese and the Turkish dog. 

THE TURKISH DOG^ 

as it is improperly called, is a native of hot climates. The supposition of 
Buffon is not an improbable one, that, being taken from some temperate 
country to one considerably hotter, the European dog probably acquired 

some cutaneous disease. This is no uncommon occurrence in Guinea, 
the East Indies, and South America. Some of these animals afterwards 
found their way into Europe, and, from their singularity, care was taken to 
multiply the breed. Aldrovandus states that the first two of them_ made 
their appearance in Europe in his time, but the breed was not continued, 
on account, as it was supposed, of the climate being too cold for them. 

The few that are occasionally seen in England bear about them every 
mark of a degenerated race. They have no activity, and they show little 
intelligence or affection. One singular circumstance appertains to all that 
the author of this work has had the opportunity of seeing, —their teeth 
became very early diseased, and drop from the gums. That eminent zo- 
ologist Mr Yarrell, examining, with the author of this work, one that had 
died certainly not more than five years old, found that it had neither 






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VARIETIES OE THE DOG. 



51 



incisors nor canine teeth, and that the molars were reduced to one on each 
side, the large tubercular tooth being the only one that was remaining. 
At the scientific meeting of the Zoological Society, the same gentleman 
stated, that he had examined the mouths of two individuals of the same 
variety, then alive at the gardens, in both of which the teeth were remark- 
ably deficient. In neither of them were there any false molars, and the 
incisors in both were deficient in number. Before the age of four years the 
tongue IS usually disgustingly hanging from the mouths of these animals. 

THE ALPINE SPANIEL, OPv BERNARDINE DOG, 



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land ^^H Q peculiar to the Alps, and to the district between Switzer- 

ffPrn f u^" ^^^ P'^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^•'*^ mountains are exceedingly dan- 

feetT !ft "" their steepness and narrowness. A precipice of many hundred 
thp Jf .1, • ."^ °" '^''^ '^'^^' ^"^ perpendicular rocks on the other, while 

ovei '" -If"^ ''''*^' ^'■''^'^" '"^''^ °^ ^^^- -^^ ™^"y places the path is 
aung vvith huge masses of frozen snow, which occasionally loosen and 

^cui, wlien the dreadful storms peculiar to these regions suddenly come on, 

travplT"^ an insurmountable barrier, or sweep away or bury the unfortunate 

1ps« a\ ^^"^^ h® escape these dangers, the path is now become track- 

^ss, and he wanders amid the dreary solitudes until night overtakes him ; 

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and then, w hen he pauses from fatigue or uncertainty with regard to the 
path he should pursue, his limbs are speedily benumbed. Fatal slumbers, 
which he cannot shake off, steal upon him, and he crouches under some 
ledo-e, and sleeps, to wake no more. The snowdrifts on. It is almost con- 
tinually falling, and He is soon concealed from all human help. 

On the top of Mount St. Bernard, and near one of the most dangerous 
of these passes, is a convent, in which is preserved a breed of large dogs 
trained to search for the benighted and frozen wanderer. Every night, 
and particularly when the wind blows tempestuously, some of these dogs 
are sent out. They traverse every path about the mountains, and their 
scent is so exquisite that they can discover the traveller, although he may 
lie many feet deep in the snow. Having found him, they set to work and 
endeavour to scrape away the snow, uttering a deep bark that reverberates 
from rock to rock, and tells those who are watching in the convent that 
some poor wretch is in peril. Generally, a little flask of spirits is tied 
round the neck of the animal, by drinking which the benighted traveller 
may recruit his strength, until more effectual rescue arrive. The monks 
hasten in the direction of the sound, and often succeed in rekindling the 
vital spark before it is quite extinguished. Very many travellers have 
been thus rescued from death by these benevolent men and their intelligent 
and interesting quadruped servants. 

One of these Bernardine dogs, named Barry, had a medal tied round his 
neck as a badge of honourable distinction, for he had saved the lives of 
forty persons. He at length died nobly in his vocation. A Piedmontese 
courier arrived at St. Bernard on a very stormy day, labouring to make 
his way to the little village of St. Pierre, in the valley beneath the moun- 
tain, where his wife and children lived. It was in vain that the monks 
attempted to check his resolution to reach his family. They at last gave 
him two guides, ^ach of whom was accompanied by a dog, one of which 
was the remarkable creature whose services had been so valuable. Descend- 
ing from the convent, they were overwhelmed by two avalanches or heaps 
of falling snow, and the same destruction awaited the family of the poor 
courier, who were travelling up the mountain in the hope of obtaining 
some news of the husband and father. 

A beautiful engraving has been made of this noble dog. It represents 
him as saving a child which he had found in the Glacier of Balsore, and 
cherished, and warmed, and induced to climb upon his shoulders, and thus 
preserved from, otherwise, certain destruction. 




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THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 



The Newfoundland is a spaniel of large size. He is a native of the 
island of which he bears the name ; but his history is disgraceful to the 
owners of so valuable an animal. The employment of the lower classes 
of the inhabitants of St. John, in Newfoundland, is divided between the 
cutting of wood, and the drawing of it and other merchandise in the 
winter, and fishing in the summer. The carts used in the winter work 
are drawn by these dogs, who are almost invariably urged and goaded on 
beyond their strength, fed only with putrid salt-fish, and an inadequate 
quantity even of that. A great many of them are worn out and die before 
the winter is over; and, when the summer approaches, and the fishing 
season commences, many of them are quite abandoned, and, uniting with 



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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



53 



their companions, prowl about preying on the neighbouring flocks, or 

absolutely starving. 

Mr. Macgregor, however, states that "in almost every other part of 
British America they are valuable and useful. They are remarkably do- 
cile and obedient to their masters, serviceable in all the fishing countries, 
and yoked in pairs to draw the winter's fuel home. They are faithful, 
good-natured, and ever friendly to man. They will defend their master 
and their master's property, and suffer no person to injure either the one 






















*^ 



THE NEWFOUNDLAND DOG. 



or the other ; and, how^ever extreme may be the danger, they will not 
leave them for a minute. They seem only to want the faculty of speech, 
in order to make their good wishes and feelings understood, and they are 
capable of being trained for all the purposes for which every other variety 

of the canine species is used." ^ 

That which most recommends the Newfoundland dog is his fearlessness 
of water, and particularly as connected with the preservation of human 
life. The writer of the present work knows one of these animals that 
has preserved from drowning four human beings. 



^ Historical and Descriptive Sketches of British America, by J. Macgregor 







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A native of Germany was travelling* one evening on foot through Hol- 
land, accompanied by a large dog. Walking on a high bank which formed 
one side of a dyke, his foot slipped, and he was precipitated into the water ; 
and, being unable to swim, soon became senseless. When he recovered 
his recollection, he found himself in a cottage on the contrary side of the 
dyke, surrounded by peasants, who had been using the means for the reco- 
very of drowned persons. The account given by one of them was, that, 
returning home from his labour, he observed at a considerable distance a 
large dog in the water, swimming and dragging, and sometimes pushing 
along something that he seemed to have great difficulty in supporting, 
but which he at length succeeded in getting into a small creek on the oppo- 
site side. When the animal had pulled what he had hitherto supported 
as far out of the water as he was able, the peasant discovered that it was 
the body of a man, whose face and hands the dog was industriously licking. 
The peasant hastened to a bridge across the dyke, and, having obtained 
assistance, the body was conveyed to a neighbouring house, w^here proper 
means soon restored the drowned man to life. Two very considerable 
bruises, with the marks of teeth, appeared, one on his shoulder and the 
other on his poll ; hence it was presumed that the faithful beast had first 
seized his master by the shoulder, and swam with him in this manner for 
some time, but that his sagacity had prompted him to quit this hold, and 
to shift it to the nape of the neck, by which he had been enabled to sup- 
port the head out of water ; and in this way he had conveyed him nearly 
a quarter of a mile before he had brought him to the creek, where the 
banks were low and accessible. 

Dr. Beattie relates an instance of a gentleman attempting to cross the 
river Dee, then frozen over, near Aberdeen. The ice gave way about the 
middle of the river ; but, having a gun in his hand, he supported himself 
by placing it across the opening. His dog then ran to a neighbouring- 
village, where, with the most significant gestures, he j)ulled a man by the 
coat, and prevailed on him to follow him. They arrived at the spot just 
in time to save the drowning man's life. 

Of the noble disposition of the Newfoundland dog. Dr. Abel, in one of 
his lectures on Phrenology, relates a singular instance. " When this dog 
left his master's house, he was often assailed by a number of little noisy 
dogs in the street. He usually passed them with apparent unconcern, as 
if they were beneath his notice ; but one little cur was particularly trou- 
blesome, and at length carried his impudence so far as to bite the New- 
foundland 



dog 



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This was a degree of wanton insult beyond 
what he could patiently endure ; and he instantly turned round, ran after 
the offender, and seized him by the skin of the back. In this way he car- 
ried him in his mouth to the quay, and, holding him some time over the 
water, at length dropped him into it. He did not, however, seem to 
design that the culprit should be punished capitally. He waited a little 
while, until the poor animal, who was unused to that element, was not 
only well ducked, but nearly sinking, and then plunged in, and brought 
him safe to land." 

" It would be difficult," says Dr. Hancock, in his Essay on Instinct, ^^ to 
conceive any punishment more aptly contrived, or more completely in 
character. Indeed, if it were fully analyzed, an ample commentary might 
be written in order to show what a variety of comparisons and motives 
and genei^ous feelings entered into the composition of this act." 




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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



55 



No one ever drew more legitimate consequences from certain existing 

premises. 

One other story should not be omitted of this noble breed of water- 
dogs. A vessel was driven on the beach of Lydd, in Kent. The surf 
was rolling furiously. Eight poor fellows were crying for help, but not 
a boat could be got off to their assistance. At length a gentleman came 
on the beach accompanied by his Newfoundland dog: he directed the 
attention of the animal to the vessel, and put a short stick into his mouth. 
The intelligent and courageous fellow at once understood his meaning, 
sprung into the sea, and fought his way through the waves. He 
could not, however, get close enough to the vessel to deliver that with 
which he was charged ; but the crew understood what was meant, and they 
made fast a rope to another piece of wood, and threw it towards him. The 
noble beast dropped his own piece of wood and immediately seized that 
which had been cast to him, and then, with a degree of strength and 
determination scarcely credible, — for he was again and again lost under the 
waves, — he dragged it through the surge and delivered it to his master. 
A line of communication was thus formed, and every man on board was 
rescued. 

There is, however, a more remarkable fact recorded in the Penny Ma- 
gazine. " During a heavy gale a ship had struck on a rock near the 
land. The only chance of escape for the shipwrecked was to get a rope 
ashore ; for it was impossible for any boat to live in the sea as it was tlien 
running. There were two Newfoundland dogs and a bull-dog on board. 
One of the Newfoundland dogs was thrown overboard, with a rope thrown 
round him, and perished in the waves. The second shared a similar fate : 
but the bull-dog fought his way through that terrible sea, and, arriving safe 
on shore, rope and all, became the saviour of the crew.'' 

Some of the true Newfoundland dogs have been brought to Europe and 
have been used as retrievers. They are principally valuable for the fear- 
less manner in which they will penetrate the thickest cover. They are 
comparatively small, but muscular, strong, and generally black. A 
larger variety has been bred, and is now perfectly established. He is 
seldom used as a sporting dog, or for draught, but is admired on account 
of his stature and beauty, and the different colours with which he is often 
marked. Perhaps he is not quite so good-natured- and manageable as the 
smaller variety, and yet it is not often that much fault can be found with 
him on this account. 

A noble animal of this kind was presented to the Zoological Society by 
His Royal Highness Prince Albert. lie is a great ornament to the 
gardens ; but he had been somewhat unmanageable, and had done some 
mischief before he was sent thither. 

A portion of Lord Byron's beautiful epitaph on the death of his New- 
foundland dog will properly close our account of this animal : 

*' The poor dog ! in life the firmest friend, 
The lirst to welcome, foremost to defend ; 
Whose honest heart is still his master's own ; 
Who labours, fights, lives, breathes for him alone." 







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THE ESQUIMAUX DOG 



is a beast of burden and of draught, usefully employed by the inhabitants 
of the extreme parts of North America and the neighbouring islands. 



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56 SECOND DIVISION OF THE 

When the Esquimaux Indian goes in pursuit of the seal, the rein-deer, or 
the bear, his dogs carry the materials of his temporary hut, and the few 
necessaries of his simple life ; or, yoked to the sledge, often draw him and 
his family full sixty miles a-day over the frozen plains of these inhospitable 
regions. At other times they assist in the chace, and run down and 
destroy the bear and the rein-deer on land, and the seal on the coast. 




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THE ESQUIMAUX DOG. 



Their journeys are often without any certain object ; but, if the dogs 
scent the deer or the bear, they gallop away in that direction until their 
prey is within reach of the driver, or they are enabled to assist in destroy- 
ing their foe. Captain Parry, in his Journal of a Second Voyage for the 
Discovery of a North-West Passage, gives an amusing account of these ex- 
peditions. " A number of dogs, varying from six to twelve, are attached 
to each sledge by means of a single trace, but with no reins. An old and 
tried dog is placed as the leader, who, in their simple journeys, and when 
the chace is the object, steadily obeys the voice of the driver sitting in 
front of the sledge, with a whip long enough to reach the leader. This 
whip, however, is used as seldom as possible ; for these dogs, although 
tractable, are ferocious, and will endure little correction. When the whip 
is applied with severity on one, he falls upon and worries his neighbour, 
and he, in his turn attacks a third, and there is a scene of universal 
confusion, or the dogs double from side to side to avoid the whip, and the 
traces become entangled, and the safety of the sledge endangered. The 
carriage must then be stopped, each dog put into his proper place, and the 
traces re-adjusted. This frequently happens several times in the course 



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VARIETIES CE THE DOG. 



57 



of the day. The driver therefore depends principally on the docility of 
the leader, who, with admirable precision, quickens or slackens his pace, 
and starts off or stops, or turns to the right or left, at the summons of his 
master. When they are journeying homeward, or travelling to some spot 
to which the leader has been accustomed to go, he is generally suffered to 
pursue his own course ; for, although every trace of the road is lost in the 
drifting snow, he scents it out, and follows it with undeviating accuracy. 
Even the leader, however, is not always under the control of his master. 
If the journey lies homeward, he will go his own pace, and that is usually 
at the top of his speed ; or, if any game starts, or he scents it at a distance, 
no command of his driver will restrain him. Neither the dog nor his 
master is half civilized or subdued." 

Each of these dogs will draw a weight of 120 lb. over the snow, at the 
rate of seven or eight miles an hour. 

In summer, many of these dogs are used as beasts of burden, and each 
carries from thirty to fifty pounds. They are then much better kept than 
in the winter ; for they have the remains of the whale and sea-calf, 
which their masters disdain to eat. The majority, however, are sent adrift 
in the summer, and they live on the produce of the chace or of their 
constant thievery. The exactness with which — the summer being past 

each returns to his master, is an admirable proof of sagacity, and frequently 
of attachment. 

In some parts of Siberia, on the borders of the Oby, there are esta- 
blished relays of dogs, like the post-horses in other countries. Four of 
these are attached to a very light vehicle ; but, when much haste is re- 
quired, or any very heavy goods are to be conveyed, more than treble or 



quadruple that number are harnessed to the vehicle, 
an almost incredible account of this. 



M 



He is speaking of the voracity of 
these poor beasts, in the midst of the snowy desert, with little or no food. 
" We had unharnessed our dogs, in order to bring them closer together, in 
the ordinary way ; but, the moment they were brought up to the pole, 
they seized their harness, constructed of the thickest and toughest leather, 
and tore it to pieces, and devoured it. It was in vain that we attempted 
every means of restraint. A great number of them escaped into the wilds 
around, others wandered here and there, and seized everything that came 
within their reach, and which their teeth could destroy. Almost every 

minute some one of them fell exhausted, and immediately became the 
prey of the others. Every one that could get within reach struggled for 
his share. Every limb was disputed, and torn away by a troop of rivals, 
who attacked all within their reach. As soon as one fell by exhaustion 
or accident, he was seized by a dozen others, and destroyed in the space 
of a few minutes. In order to defend ourselves from this crowd of 
famished beasts we were compelled to have recourse to our bludgeons and 
our swords. To this horrible scene of mutual destruction succeeded, on 
the following day, the sad appearance of those that surrounded the sledge, 
to which w^e had retreated for safety and for warmth. They were thin, 
and starved, and miserable; they could scarcely move; their plaintive 
and continual bowlings seemed to claim our succour : but there was no 
possibility of relieving them in the slightest degree, except that some of 
them crept to the opening in our carriage through which the smoke 

* Journal Historique du Voyage de M. de Lesseps. Paris, 1790. 2 vols.— tome 1. 



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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



escapes ; and the more they felt the warmth the closer they crept, and then, 
through mere feebleness, losing their equilibrium, they rolled into the fire 
before our eyes," 

These dogs are not so high as the common pointer, but much larger 
and stouter, although their thick hair, three or four inches long in the 
winter, gives them an appearance of more stoutness than they possess. 
Under this hair is a coating of fine close soft wool, which begins to grow 
in the early part of winter, and drops off in the spring. Their muzzles 
are sharp and generally black, and their ears erect. 

The Greenland, and Siberian, and Kamtschatdale are varieties of the 
Esquimaux or Arctic dogs, but enlarged in form, and better subdued. The 
docility of some of these is equal to that of any European breed. 

A person of the name of Chabert, who was afterwards better known 
by the title of ^^Fire King," had a beautiful Siberian dog, who would 
draw him in a light carriage 20 iniles a-day. He asked 200/. for him, 
and sold him for a considerable portion of that sum ; for he was a most 
beautiful animal of his kind, and as docile as he was beautiful. Between 

Chabert, to 



He formally 



the sale and the delivery, the dog fell and broke his leg. 
whom the price agreed on was of immense consequence, was in de- 
spair. He took the dog at night to a veterinary surgeon, 
introduced them to each other. He talked to the dog, pointed to his le<^ 
limped around the room, then requested the surgeon to apply some ban- 
dages around the leg, and he seemed to walk sound and well. He patted 
the dog on the head, who was looking alternately at him and the surgeon, 
desired the surgeon to pat him, and to offer him his hand to lick, and then, 
holding up his finger to the dog, and gently shaking his head, quitted the 
room and the house. The dog immediately laid himself down, and sub- 
mitted to a reduction of the fracture, and the bandaging of the limb, with- 
out a motion, except once or twice licking the hand of the operator. He 
was quite submissive, and in a manner motionless, day after day, until, at 
the expiration of a month, the limb was sound. Not a trace of tlie frac- 
ture was to be detected, and the purchaser, who is now living, knew 
nothing about it. 

The employment of the Esquimaux dogs is nearly the same as those 
from Newfoundland, and most valuable they are to the traveller who has 
to find his way over the wild and trackless regions of the north. The 
manner, however, in which they are generally treated seems ill calculated 
to cause any strong or lasting attachment. During their period of labour, 
they, like their brethren in Newfoundland, are fed sparingly on putrid 
fish, and in summer they are turned loose to shift for themselves until the 

return of the severe season renders it necessary to their masters' interest 
that they should again be sought for, and once more reduced to their state 
of toil and slavery. 

They have been known for several successive days to travel more than 
60 miles. They seldom miss their road, although they may be driven over 
one untrodden snowy plain, where they are occasionally unable to reach 
any place of shelter. When, however, night comes, they partake with 
their master of the scanty fare which the sledge will afford, and, crowdino* 
round, keep him warm and defend him from danger. If any of them fall 
victims to the hardships to which they are exposed, their master or their 
companions frequently feed on their remains, and their skins are converted 
into M^arm and comfortable dresses. 



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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



59 



THE LAPLAISTD DOG. 

Captain Clarke thus describes the Lapland dog : — " We had a valuable 
companion in a dog belonging- to one of the boatmen. It was of the true 
Lapland breed, and in all respects similar to a wolf, excepting the tail, 
which was bushy and curled like those of the Pomeranian race. This 
dog, swimming after the boat, if his master merely waved his hand, would 
cross the lake as often as he pleased, carrying half his body and the whole 
of his head and tail out of the water. Wherever he landed, he scoured all 
the long grass by the side of the lake in search of wild-fowl, and came 
back to us, bringing wild-ducks in his mouth to the boat, and then, having 
delivered his prey to his master, he would instantly set off again in search 
of more." a 

But we pass on to another and more valuable species of the dog 



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THE SHEEP-DOG. 

The origin of the sheep-dog is somewhat various ; but the predominant 
breed is that of the intelligent and docile spaniel. Although it is now 
found in every civilized country in which the sheep is cultivated, it is not 
coeval with the domestication of that animal. When the pastures were in 
a manner open to the first occupant, and every shepherd had a common 
property in them, it was not so necessary to restrain the wandering of the 
sheep, and the voice of the shepherd was usually sufficient to collect and 
to guide them. He preceded the flock, and they " followed him whither- 
soever he went." In process of time, however, man availed himself of the 
sagacity of the dog to diminish his own labour and fatigue, and this useful 
servitor became the guide and defender of the flock. 

The sheep-dog possesses much of the same form and character in every 
country. The muzzle is sharp, the ears are short and erect, and the animal 
is covered, particularly about the neck, with thick and shaggy hair. He 
has usually two dew claws on each of the hind legs ; not, ho\yever, as in 
the one claw of other dogs, having a jointed attachment to the limb, but 
rnereiy connected by the skin and some slight cellular substance. These 
excrescences should be cut off* when the dog is young. The tail is slightly 
turned upwards and long, and almost as bushy as that of a fox, even in 
that variety whose coat is almost smooth. He is of a black colour, or black 
prevails, mixed with gray or brown. 

Professor Grognier gives the following account of thi^ dog as he is 
found in France: — " The shepherd's dog, the least removed from the 
natural type of the dog, is of a middle size; his ears short and straight ; 
the hair long, principally on the tail, and of a dark colour ; the tail is 
carried horizontally or a little elevated. He is very indifferent to ca- 
resses, possessed of much intelligence and activity to discharge the duties 
for which he was designed. In one or other of its varieties, it is found in 
every part of France. Sometimes there is but a single breed, in others 
there are several varieties. It lives and maintains its proper character- 
isticsj while other races often degenerate. Everywhere it preserves its 
proper distinguishing type. It is the servant of man, while other breeds 
vary with a thousand circumstances. It has one appropriate mission, and 

^ Clarke's Scandinavia, vol. i. p. 432. 






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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



that it discharges in the most admirable way : there is evidently a kind 
and wise design in this." 

This account of the French sheep-dog, or of the sheep-dog everywhere, 
is as true as it is beautiful. One age succeeds to another, we pass from 
one climate to another, and everything varies and changes, but the shep- 
herd's dog is what he ever was— the guardian of our flocks. There are, 
however, two or more species of this dog; the one which Professor 
Grognier has described, and which guards and guides the sheep in the 
open and level country, where wolves seldom intrude ; another crossed 
with the mastiif, or little removed from that dog, used in the woody and 
mountainous countries, their guard more than their guide.* In Great 
Britain, where he has principally to guide and not to guard the flock, he is 










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THE ENGLISH SHEEP-DOG, 



comparatively a small dog. He is so in the northern and open parts of 
the country, where activity is principally wanted ; but, in the more en- 
closed districts, and where strength is often needed to turn an obstinate 
sheep, he is crossed with some larger dog, as the rough terrier, or some- 
times the pointer, or now and then the bull-dog : in fact, almost any 
variety that has strength and stoutness may be employed. Thus we obtain 
the larger sheep-dog and the drover's dog. The sagacity, forbearance, 
and kindness of the sheep-dog are generally retained, but from these crosses 
there is occasionally a degree of ferocity from which the sheep often 

suffer."" 

In other countries, where the flock is exposed to the attack of the wolf, 



^ The migratory sheep, in some parts of 
the south of France almost as numerous 
as In Spain, are attended by a goat, as a 



guide ; and the intelligence and apparent 
pride which he displays are remarkable. 



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VARIETIES OE THE DOG. 



61 



the sheep-dog is larger than the British drover's dog, and not far inferior 
in size to the mastiff. The strength and ferocity which qualify him to 
combat with the wolf^, would occasionally be injurious or fatal to those 
who somewhat obstinately opposed his direction ; therefore, in Denmark 
and in Spain , the dog is rarely employed to drive the flock. It is the 
office of the shepherd, to know every individvial under his charge, to, as in 
olden times, ^^ call them all by their names,'' and have always some docile 
and tamed wether who will take the lead, almost as subservient to his 
voice as is the dog himself, and whom the flock will immediately follow. 

In whatever other country the dog is used, partly or principally to pro- 
tect the flock from the ravages of the wolf, he is as gentle as a lamb, ex- 
cept when opposed to his natural enemy ; and it is only in England that 
the guardian of the sheep occasionally injures and worries them^ and that 
many can be found bearing the mark of the tooth. This may be some- 
what excusable (although it is often carried to a barbarous extent) in the 
drover's dog ; but it will admit of no apology in the shepherd's dog. It is 
the result of the idleness of the boy, or the mingled brutality and idleness 
of the shepherd, who is attempting to make the dog do his own work and 
that of his master too. We have admired the Prussian sheep-dog in the 
discharge of his duty, and have seen him pick out the marked sheep, or 
stop and turn the flock, as cleverly as any Highland colley, but he never 
bit them. He is a shorter, stronger, and more compact dog than ours. 
He pushes against them and forces them along. If they rebel against this 
mild treatment, the shepherd is at hand to enforce obedience ; and the 
flock is as easily and perfectly managed as any English or Highland one, 
and a great deal more so than the majority that we have seen. 

Mr. Trimmer, in his work on the Merinos, speaking of the Spanish 
flocks, says: " There is no driving of the flock; that is* a practice en- 
tirely unknown ; but the shepherd, when he wishes to remove his sheep, 
calls to him a tame wether accustomed to feed from his hands. The 
favourite, however distant, obeys his call, and the rest follow. One or 
more of the dogs, with large collars armed with spikes, in order to pro- 
tect them from the wolves, precede the flock, others skirt it on each side, 
and some bring up the rear. If a sheep be ill or lame, or lag behind un- 
observed by the shepherds, they stay with it and defend it until some one 
return in search of it. With us, dogs are too often used for other and 
worse purposes. In open, unenclosed districts, they are indispensable ; but 
in others I wish them, I confess, either managed, or encouraged less. If 
a sheep commits a fault in the sight of an intemperate shepherd, or acci- 
dentally offends him, it is dogged into obedience : the signal is given, the 
dog obeys the mandate, and the poor sheep flies round the field to escape 
from the fangs of him who should be his protector, until it becomes half 
dead with fright and exhaustion, while the trembling flock crowd together 
dreading the same fate, and the churl exults in this cowardly victory over 
a weak and defenceless animal,"^ 

If the farmer will seriously calculate the number of ewes that have 
yeaned before their time, and of the lambs that he has lost, and the 
accidents that have occurred from the sheep pressing upon one another in 
order to escape from the dog, and if he will also take into account the 
continual disturbance of the sheep while grazing, by the approach of 



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the dog, and the consequent interference with the cropping and the diges- 
tion of the food, he will attach more importance to the good temper of 
the dog and of the shepherd than he has been accustomed to do. There 
would be no injustice, or rather a great deal of propriety, in inflicting a 
fine for every tooth-mark that could be detected. When the sheep, in- 
stead of collecting round the dog, and placing themselves under his pro- 
tection on any sudden alarm, uniformly fly from him with terror, the farmer 
may be assured there is something radically wrong in the management of 
the flock. 

Instinct and education combine to fit this dog for our service. The 
pointer will act without any great degree of instruction, and the setter 
will crouch ; and most certainly the sheep-dog, and especially if he has 
the example of an older and expert one, will, almost without the teaching 
of the master, become everything that can be wished, obedient to every 
order, even to the slightest motion of the hand. There is a natural pre- 
disposition for the office he has to discharge, which it requires little 
trouble or skill to develop and perfect. 

It is no unpleasing employment to study the degree in which the several 
breeds of dogs are not only highly intelligent, but fitted by nature for the 
particular duty they have to perform. The pointer, the setter, the hound, 
the greyhound, the terrier, the spaniel, and even the bull-dog,'were made' 
and almost perfected, by nature chiefly for one office alone, althouo-h they 
may be useful in many other ways. This is well illustrated in the sheep- 
dog. If he be but with his master, he lies content, indiff-erent to every 
surrounding object, seemingly half asleep and half awake, rarely mingling 
with his kind, rarely courting, and generally shrinking from, the notice 
of a stranger ; but the moment duty calls, his sleepy, listless eye becomes 
brightened ; he eagerly gazes on his master, inquires and comprehends all 
he is to do, and, springing up, gives himself to the discharge of his duty 
with a sagacity, and fidelity, and devotion, too rarely equalled even by 
man himself. 

Mr. James Hogg, the Ettrick Shepherd, living in his early days 
among the sheep and their quadruped attendants, and an accurate observer 
of nature, as well as an exquisite poet, gives some anecdotes of the colley, 
(the Highland term for sheep-dog,) with which the reader will not be 
displeased.^ " My dog Sirrah," says he, in a letter to the Editor of Black- 
wood's Edinburgh Magazine, " was, beyond all comparison, the best dog 
I ever saw. He had a somewhat surly and unsocial temper, disdainino- 
all flattery, and refusing to be caressed ; but his attention to my commancls 
and interest will never again be equalled by any of the canine race. When 
I first saw him, a drover was leading him with a rope. He was both lean 
and hungry, and far from being a beautiful animal ; for he was almost 
black, and had a grim face, striped with dark brown. I thought I per- 
ceived a sort of sullen intelligence in his countenance, notwithstanding his 
dejected and forlorn appearance, and I bought him. He was scarcely a 
year old, and knew so little of herding that he had never turned a sheep 
in his life ; but, as soon as he discovered that it was his duty to do so and 
that it obliged me, I can never forget with what anxiety and ea«-erness he 
learned his different evolutions, and when I once made him untferstand a 
direction he never forgot or mistook it." 

On one night, a large flock of lambs that were under the Ettrick Shep- 
herd's care, frightened by something, scampered away in three different 




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VARIETIES OE THE DOG. 



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'' On our 



directions across the hills^ in spite of all that he could do to keep them 
together. .'' Sirrah/' said the shepherd, " they're a' awa !" 

It was too dark for the dog and his master to see each other at any con- 
siderable distance, but Sirrah understood him, and set off after the fugi- 
tives. The night passed on, and Hogg and his assistant traversed every 
neighbouring hill in anxious but fruitless search for the lambs ; but he 
could hear nothing of them nor of the dog, and he was returning; to his 
master with the doleful intelligence that he had lost all his lambs, 
way home, however," says he, ^' we discovered a lot of lambs at the bottom 
of a deep ravine called the Flesh Clench, and the indefatigable Sirrah 
standing in front of them, looking ronnd for some relief, but still true to 
his charge. We concluded that it was one of the divisions which Sirrah 
had been unable to manage, until he came to that commanding situation. 
But what was our astonishment when we discovered that not one lamb of 
the flock was missing ! How he had got all the divisions collected in the 
dark, is beyond my comprehension. The charge was left entirely to him- 
self from midnight until the rising sun ; and, if all the shepherds in the 
forest had been there to have assisted him, they could not have effected 
it with greater promptitude. All that I can say is, that I never felt so 
grateful to any creature under the sun as I did to my honest Sirrah that 



morning. 



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THE SCOTCH SHEKP-DOG. 



A shepherd, in one of his excursions over the Grampian Hills to collect 
his scattered flock, took with him (as is a frequent practice, to initiate 
them in their future business) one of his children about four years old. 



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After traversing his pastures for a while, attended by his dog-, he was 
compelled to ascend a summit at some distance. As the ascent was too 
great for the child, he left him at the bottom, with strict injunctions 
not to move from the place. Scarcely, however, had he gained the 
height, when one of the Scotch mists, of frequent occurrence, suddenly 
came on, and almost changed the day to night. He returned to seek 
his child, but was unable to find him, and concluded a long and fruitless 
search by coming distracted to his cottage. His poor dog also was 
missing in the general confusion. On the next morning by davlight 
he renewed his search, but again he came back without his "'child. 
He found, however, that during his absence his dog had been home, 
and, on receiving his allowance of food, instantly departed. For four 
successive days the shepherd continued his search with the same bad 
fortune, the dog as readily coming for his meal and departing. Struck 
by this singular circumstance, he determined to follow the dog, who de- 
parted as usual with his piece of cake. The animal led the way to a ca- 
taract at some distance from the spot where the child had been left. It 
was a rugged and almost perpendicular descent which the dog took, and 
he disappeared in a cave, the mouth of which was almost on a level with 
the torrent. The shepherd with difficulty followed ; but, on enterino- the 
cavern, what were his emotions when he beheld the infant eating the'cake 
which the dog had just brought to him, while the faithful animal stood 
by, eyeing his young charge with the utmost complacency. From the 
situation in which the child was found, it appeared that he had wandered 
to the brink of the precipice, and then either fallen or scrambled down, 
the torrent preventing his re-ascent. The dog by means of his scent had 
traced him to the spot, and afterwards prevented him from starving by 
giving up a part, or, perhaps, the whole of his own daily allowance. He 
appears never to have quitted the child night or day, except for food as 
he was seen running at full speed to and from the cottage.'' 



accomplish more in gathering a flock of sheep from a Highland farm than 
twenty shepherds could do without dogs ; in fact, that without this docile 
animal, the pastoral life would be a mere blank. It would require more 
hands to manage a flock of sheep ^ gather them from the hills, force them 
into houses and folds, and drive them to markets, than tlie profits of the 
whole flock would be capable of maintaining. Well may the shepherd 
feel an interest in his dog; he it is indeed that earns the family bread, of 
which he is himself content with the smallest morsel : always grateful, 
and always ready to exert his utmost abilities in his master's interests. 
Neither hunger, fatigue, nor the worst of treatment will drive him from 
his side, and he will follow him through every hardship without murmur 
or repining. If one of them is obliged to change masters, it is sometimes 
long before he will acknowledge the new owner, or condescend to work 
for him with the willingness that he did for his former lord ; but, if he 
once acknowledges him, he continues attached to him until death.^ 

We will add another story of the colley, and proceed. It illustrates 
the memory of the dog. A shepherd was employed in bringing up some 



^ Annals of Sporting, vol. viii. p. 83. 

** " The Ettrick Shepherd has probably 
spoken somewhat too enthusiastically of his 
dog; but accounts of the sagacity and almost 



superhuman fidelity of this dog crowd so 
rapidly upon us that we are compelled to 
admire and to love him."— Hogg's Shep- 
herd's Calendar, vol. ii. p. 308. 



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VARIETIES or THE DOG. 

Westmoreland 



65 



This 



aog M^ho had never made the journey before. From his assistant being 
Ignorant of the ground, he experienced great difficulty in having the flock 
stopped at the various roads and lanes he passed in their way to the neigh- 
bourhood of London. ° 

In the next year the same shepherd, accompanied by the same dog, 
brought up another flock for the gentleman who had had the former one 
Un being questioned how he had got on, he said much better than the 
year before, as his dog now knew the road, and had kept the sheep from 
going up any of the lanes or turnings that had given the shepherd so much 

Jr ^nn""" •''' ^''"'''''' JO^^™ey. The distance could not have been less 
inan 400 miles."^ 

Buffon gives an eloquent and faithful account of the sheep-dog :— xixi» 
animal, faithful to man, will always preserve a portion of his empire and 
a degree of superiority over other beings. He reigns at the head of his 
Hock, and makes himself better understood than the voice of the shepherd 
Safety, order, and discipline are the fruits of his vigilance and activity' 
1 hey are a people submitted to his management, whom he conducts and 
protects, and against whom he never employs force but for the preservation 
of good order. " If we consider that this animal, notwithstanding his 
ugliness and his wild and melancholy look, is superior in instinct to all 
others ; that he has a decided character in which education has compara- 
tively little share ; that he is the only animal born perfectly trained for 
ine service of others ; that, guided by natural powers alone, he applies 
nimself to the care of our flocks, a duty which he executes with singular 
assiduity, vigilance, and fidelity ; that he conducts them with an admirable- 
intelligence which is a part and portion of himself; that his sagacity asto- 
nishes at the same time that it gives repose to his master, while it requires 
great time and trouble to instruct other dogs for the purposes to which 
tney are destined : if we reflect on these facts we shall be confirmed in the 
opinion that the shepherd's dog is the true dog of nature, the stock and 
model of the whole species." b 

THE DROVER'S DOG 

bears considerable resemblance to the sheep-dog, and has usually the 
same prevailing black or brown colour. He possesses all the docility 
of the sheep-dog, with more courage, and sometimes a degree of ferocity 
exercised without just cause upon his charge, while he is in his turn cruelly 
^used by a brutal master. "^ 

There is a valuable cross between the colley and the drover's dog in 

shirp • ""! "i ' ''''^ ^ ^''''^^'" ''''^ stronger breed is cultivated in Lincoln- 
con • ' ^!i ^* ^^ necessary there, where oxen as well as sheep are usually 

sum K . l^ ^^^ ^""^'^ ^''''^' ^ ^"""^ drover's dog is worth a considerable 
"1 , Dut the breed is too frequently and injudiciously crossed at the fancy 
X tne owner. Some drovers' dogs are as much like setters, lurchers, and 
rounds, as they are to the original breed. ' 

Stories are told of the docility and sagacity of the drover's dog even 
more surprising than any that are related of the sheep-dog. The Ettrick 
^nepherd says, that a Mr. Steel, butcher in Peebles, had such implicit 
^^ependence on the attention^ his dog to his orders, that whenever he put 



Jesse's Gleanings, vol. i. p. 93. 



•> BufFon's Natural History, vol. v. p. 314. 



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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



a lot of sheep before her, he took a pride in leaving them entirely to her. 
and either remained to take a glass with the farmer of whom he had made 
the purchase 5 or travelled another road to look after bargains or bvisiness. 
At one time, however, he chanced to commit a drove to her charge, at 
a place called Willenslee, without attending to her condition, which he 
certainly ought to have done. This farm is about five miles from Peebles, 
over wild hills, and there is no regularly defined path to it. Whether 
Mr> Steel chose another road is uncertain ; but, on coming home late in the 
evening, he was surprised to hear that his faithfvil animal had not made her 
appearance with her flock. He and his son instantly prepared to set out 
by different paths in search of her ; but, on going into the street, there 
was she with the flock, and not one of the sheep missing; she, however, 
was carrying a young pup in her mouth. She had been taken in travail 
on those hills ; and how the poor beast had contrived to manage the sheep 
in her state of suffering is beyond human calculation, for her road lay 
through sheep-pastures the whole way. Her master's heart smote him 
when he saw what she had suffered and effected ; but she was nothing 
daunted ; and, having deposited her young one in a place of safety, she 
again set out at full speed to the hills, and brought another and anotlier 
little one, until she had removed her whole litter one by one : the last, 

however, was dead. 

Mr. Blaine relates as extraordinary an instance of intelligence, but not 

mingled, like the former, with natural affection. A butcher and cattle- 
dealer, who resided about nine miles from Alston, in Cumberland, bought 
a dog of a drover. The butcher was accustomed to purchase sheep and 
kine in the vicinity, which, when fattened, he drove to Alston market and 
sold. In these excursions he was frequently astonished at the peculiar 
sagacity of his dog, and at the more than common readiness and dexterity 
with which he managed the cattle ; until at length he troubled himself 
very little about the matter, but, riding carelessly along, used to amuse 
himself with observing how adroitly the dog acquitted himself of his 
charge. At length, so convinced was he of his sagacity, as well as fidelity, 
that he laid a wager that he would intrust the dog with a number of 
sheep and oxen, and let him drive them alone and unattended to Alston 
market. It was stipulated that no one should be within sight or hearing 
who had the least control over the dog, nor was any spectator to interfere. 
This extraordinary animal, however, proceeded with his business in the 
most steady and dexterous manner ; and, although he had frequently to 
drive his charge through other herds that were grazing, he did not lose 



one 



very 



When 



them when with his master, he significantly delivered them up to the per- 
son appointed to receive them by barking at his door, 
which he travelled lay through grounds in which others were grazing, he 
would run forward, stop his own drove, and then, chasing the others away, 
collect his scattered charge, and proceed. 



/ 

4 



THE ITALIAN OR POMEKANIAN WOLF-DOG. 

The wolf-dog is no longer a native of Great Britain, because his ser- 
vices are not required there, but he is useful in various parts of the Con- 
tinent in the protection of the sheep from the attacks of the wolf. A pair 
of these dogs was brought to the Zoological Society of London in 1833, 







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VARIETIES OE THE DOG. 



67 



and there long remained, an ornament to the Gardens, They appeared to 
possess a considerable degree of strength, but to be too gentle to contend 
with so powerful and ferocious an animal as the wolf They were mostly 
covered with white or gray, or occasionally black hair, short on the head, 

para QnH ■fi^«+ 1 — i 1 1 -11 ,> ^"^ , - -f ' 



The forehead is 

The 



ears, and feet, but long and silky on the body and tail, xue ^urcj 
elevated, and tlie muzzle lengthened and clothed with short hair x.ic 
attachment of this dog to his master and the flock is very great, and he has 

not lost a particle of his sagacity ^"+ -^ ^ . ... 

used as a sh^ep-dog. 



THE CITE. 



IS the sheep-dog crossed with the terrier. He has long and somewhat 
deservedly obtained a very bad name, as a bully and a coward ; and cer- 
tainly his habit of barking at everything that passes, and flying at the 
heels of the horse, renders him often a very dangerous nuisance : he is 
however, ma manner necessary to the cottager ; he is a faithful defender 
of his humble dwelling ; no bribe can seduce him from his duty ; and he 
IS likewise a useful and an effectual guard over the clothes and scanty pro- 
visions of the labourer, who may be working in some distant part of the 
held. _ All day long he will lie upon his master's clothes seemingly asleep, 
but giving immediate warning of the approach of a supposed maraude?! 
^He has a propensity, when at home, to fly at every horse and every 
strange dog; and of young game of ev ery kind there is not a more ruthless 
destroyer than the village cur. 

n. wl" ^""^^ "^f "T^ *^^ following curious parallel between the sheep-dog 
andthecur:-" An exceedingly good sheep-dog attends to nothing but 
the particular branch of business to which he is bred. His whole capa- 
city IS exerted and exhausted in it ; and he is of little avail in miscella- 
neous matters ; whereas a very indifferent cur bred about the house, and 
accustomed to assist in everything, will often put the more noble breed to 
aisgrace in these little services. If some one calls out that the cows are 
m the corn or the hens in the garden, the house colley needs no other 
hint, but runs and turns them out. The shepherd's dog knows not what 
IS astir, and, if he is called out in a hurry for such work, all that he will 
do IS to run to the hill, or rear himself on his haunches to see that no 
sheep are running away. A well-bred sheep-dog, if coming hungry from 
the hills, and getting into a milk-house, would likely think of nothing- 
else than filling his belly with the cream. Not so hi J initiated brother^ 
Buoh^t ? Z ^"^ ^^' ^'^}^' principles of honour. I have known 
never n/'^K ? .?^ among from ten to twenty pails full of milk, and 
nor wn?lH\ '^^^'«.*^^ '''^^"' °^ ^"^ ^^ *^^«^ ^it'^ the tip of his tongue, 
thPT-^ .i''' '"^^'' ""^^^ '"^*' '''' ^"^ ^^^^^ creature to touch it. While 
furf £ ^^'i ! r""/' ^ nuisance, he is very useful in his way, and we would 

all fhp /^ ?? l^r' !^^^ ^^. possess^es a great deal of the sagacity and 
an the fidelity of the choicest breed of dogs." ^ 

thp i^ ^^^ who, according to the well-known and authentic story, watched 

in Q^?!,^'"^ ? ^'' "^^^""'^ ^'^'" ^'^^ y^^""^ "^ *he churchyard of St. Olave's, 
in feouthwark, was a cur. 

The following story is strictly authentic :~" Not long ago a young man, 

Lordl7T"^'^"^Ki''^ ^^"^ coachman, was walking, as he had often done, i^ 

-fc if e s stables at Banff. Taking an opportunity, when the servants 
were not regarding him, he put a bridle into his pocket. A Highland 

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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



cur that was generally about the stables saw him, and immediately began 
to bark at him, and when he got to the stable-door would not let him pass, 
but bit him by the leg in order to prevent him. As the servants had never 
seen the dog act thus before, and the same young man had been often 
with them, they could not imagine what could be the reason of the dog's 
conduct. However, when they saw the end of a valuable bridle peeping 
out of the young man's pocket, they were able to account for it, and, on his 
giving it up, the dog left the stable-door, where he had stood, and allowed 
him to pass." ^ 

THE LURCHEK. 

This dog was originally a cross between the greyhound and the shep- 
herd's dog, retaining all the speed and fondness for the chace belonging 
to the one, and the superior intelligence and readiness for any kind of 
work which the latter possessed. This breed has been crossed again with 
the spaniel, combining the disposition to quest for game which distin- 
guishes the spaniel with the muteness and swiftness of the greyhound. 
Sometimes the greyhound is crossed with the hound. Whatever be the 
cross, the greyhound must predominate ; but his form, although still to be 
traced, has lost all its beauty. 

The lurcher is a dog seldom found in the possession of the honourable 
sportsman. The farmer may breed him for his general usefulness, for 
driving his cattle, and guarding his premises, and occasionally coursing 
the hare ; but other dogs will answer the former purposes much better, 
while the latter qualification may render him suspected by his landlord, 
and sometimes be productive of serious injury. In a rabbit-warren this 
dog is peculiarly destructive. His scent enables him to follow them 
silently and swiftly. He darts unexpectedly upon them, and, being- 
trained to bring his prey to his master, one of these dogs will often in 
one night supply the poacher with rabbits and other game worth more 
money than he could earn by two days' hard labour. 

Mr. H. FauU, of Helstone, in Cornwall, lost no fewer than fifteen fine 
sheep, and some of them store sheep, killed by lurchers in January, 1824.^ 

We now proceed to the different species of dog belonging to the second 
division of Cuvier, which are classed under the name of Hound ; and, first 
we take 



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THE BEAGLE. 

The origin of this diminutive hound is somewhat obscure. There is 
evidently much of the harrier and of the old southern, connected with a 
considerable decrease of size and speed, the possession of an exceedingly 
musical voice, and very great power of scent. Beagles are rarely more 
than ten or twelve inches in height, and were generally so nearly of the 
same size and power of speed, that it was commonly said they might be 
covered with a sheet. This close running is, however, considered as a 

mark of excellence in hounds of every kind. 

There are many pleasurable recollections of the period when " the good 
old English gentleman " used to keep his pack of beagles or little harriers, 
slow but sure, occasionally carried to the field in a pair of panniers on a 



a Travels in Scotland, by the Eev. J. Hall, vol. ii. p. 395. 

^ Annals of Sporting, vol. v. p. 137. 




1-4 









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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



69 



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horse's back ; often an object of ridicule at an early period of the chace, 
but rarely failing to accomplish their object ere the day closed, ^'the 
puzzling pack unravelling wile by wile, maze within maze." It was 
often the work of two or three hours to accomplish this ; but it was seldom, 
m spite of her speed, her shifts, and her doublings, that the hare did not 
fall a victim to her pursuers. 

The slowness of their pace gradually caused them to be almost totally 
discontinued, until very lately, and especially in the royal park at Wind- 
sor, they have been again introduced. Generally speaking, they have all 
the strength and endurance which is necessary to ensure their killing their 
game, and are much fleeter than their diminutive size would indicate. 
Formerly, considerable fancy and even judgment used to be exercised in 
the breeding of these dogs. They were curiously distinguished by the 
names of ^' deep-flewed," or " shallow-flewed," in proportion as they had 
the depending upper lip of the southern, or the sharper muzzle and more 
contracted lip of the northern dogs. The shallow-flewed were the swiftest 
and the deep-flewed the stoutest and the surest, and their music the most 

pleasant. The wire-haired beagle was considered as the stouter and 
better dog-. 



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THE BEAGLE. 



The form of the head in beagles has been much misunderstood. They 
have, or should have, large heads, decidedly round, and thick rather than 
^^"^g ; there will then be room for the expansion of the nasal membrane 
--that of smell — and for the reverberation of the sound, so peculiarly 
pleasant in this dog. 

^ The beagle runs very low to the ground, and therefore has a stronger 
impression of the scent than taller dogs. ~"" - - - 



the scent is more than usually low. 



This is especially the case when 



Among the advocates for beagles, several years ago, was Colonel Hardy. 
He used to send his dogs in panniers, and they had a little barn for their 



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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



kennel. The door was one night broken open> and every hound, panniers 
and all, stolen. The thief was never discovered, nor even suspected. 

The use of beagles was soon afterwards nearly abandoned by the intro- 
duction of the harrier, and by his yielding in his turn to the fox-hound ; 

but the beagles of Colonel Thornton and Colonel Molyneux will not be 
soon forgotten.^ ' 

There is, however, a practice which fair sportsmen will never resort to 
the use of a beagle to start a hare in order to be run down by a brace 

of greyhounds, or perhaps by a lurcher. The hare is not fairly matched 

in this way of proceeding. 



THE HAKHIEU 

J 

occupies an intermediate station between the beagle and the fox-hound. 
It is the fox-hound bred down to a diminished size, and suited to the animal 
he is to pursue. He retains, or did for a while retain, the long body, 
deep chest, large bones, somewhat heavy head, sweeping ears, and mellow 
voice, which the sportsman of old so enthusiastically described, with the 
certainty of killing, and the pleasing prolongation of the chace. With 
this the farmer used to be content : it did not require expensive cattle, 
was not attended with much hazard of neck, and did not take him far 
from home. 

Almost every country squire used in former days to keep his little pack 



of harriers or 



beagles. 



He was mounted on his stout cob-horse, that 



served him alike for the road and the chace ; and his huntsman probably 
had a still smaller and rougher beast, or sometimes ran afoot. He could 
then follow the sport, almost without going off his own land, and the 
farmer's boys, knowing the country and the usual doublings of the hare, 
could see the greater part of the chace, and were almost able to keep up 
with the hounds, so that they were rarely absent at the death : indeed, 
they saw and enjoyed far more of it than the fox-hunter or the stag-hunter 
now does, mounted on his fleetest horse. 

The harrier was not more than 18 or 19 inches high. He was crossed 
with the fox-hound if he was getting too diminutive, or with the beagle 
if he was becoming too tall. 

The principal objects the sportsman endeavoured to accomplish were to 
preserve stoutness, scent, and musical voice, with speed to follow the hare 
sufficiently close, yet not enough to run her down too quickly, or without 
some of those perplexities, and faults, and uncertainties which give the 
principal zest to the chace. 

The character and speed of the hound much depend on the nature of 
the country. The smaller harrier will best suit a deeply enclosed country ; 
but where there is little cover, and less doubling, greater size and fleet- 
ness are requisite. The harrier, nevertheless, let him be as tall and as 



^ Mr. Beckford at one time determined 
to try how he should like the use of bea- 
gles, and, having heard of a small pack of 
them, he sent his coachmanj the person he 
could best spare, to fetch them. It was a 
long journey, and, although he had some 
assistance, yet not being used to hounds, 
he had some trouble in getting them along, 
especially as they had not been out of the 



kennel for several weeks before. They 
were consequently so riotous that they ran 
after everything they saw, sheep, cur dogs, 
birds of all sorts, as well as hares and deer. 
However, he lost but one hound ; and, when 
Mr. Beckford asked him what he thought 
of them, he said, that they could not fail of 
being good hounds, for they would hunt 
everything. 



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VARIETIES OP THE DOG. 



71 



speedy as he may, should never be used for the fox ; but every dog should 
be strictly confined to his own game. 

Mr. Beckford, in his Thoughts upon Hunting, gives an account, 
unrivalled, of the chace of the hare and fox. Many sporting writers have 
endeavoured to tread in his steps ; but they have failed in giving that 
graphic account of the pleasures of the field which Mr. Beckford's essay 
contains. 

He says that the sportsman should never have more than 20 couple 
in the field, because it would be exceedingly difficult to get a greater 
number to run together, and a pack of harriers cannot be complete if they 
do not. A hound that runs too fast for the rest, or that lags behind them, 
should be immediately discarded. His hounds were between the large 
slow-hunting harrier and the fox-beagle. He endeavoured to get as 
much bone and strength in as little compass as possible. He acknow- 
ledges that this was a difficult undertaking ; but he had, at last, the 
pleasure to see them handsome, small, yet bony, running well together, 
and fast enough, with all the alacrity that could be desired, and hunting 
the coldest scent. 



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THE HARRIEK. 

He anticipates the present improvement of the chace when he lays it 
down as a rule never to be departed from, that hounds of every kind 
should be kept to their own game. They should have one scent, and one 
style of hunting. Harriers will run a fox in so different a style from the 
pursuit of a hare, that they will not readily, and often will not at all. 



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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



return to their proper work. The difFerence in the scent, and the eager- 
ness of pursuit, and the noise that accompanies fox-hunting all contribute 
to spoil a harrier. 

Mr. Beckford pleasingly expresses a sportsman's consideration for the 
poor annual which he is hunting to death. " A hare," he says, " is a 
timorous little animal that we cannot help feeling some compassion for 
at the time that we are pursuing her destruction. We should give scope 
to all her little tricks, nor kill her foully nor overmatched. Instinct 
instructs her to make a good defence when not unfairly treated, and I 
will venture to say that, as far as her own safety is concerned, she has 
more cunning than the fox, and makes shifts to save her life far beyond 
all his artifice." ^ 



J 



THE FOX-HOUND 

is of a middle size, between the harrier and the stag-hound ; it is the old 
English hound, sufficiently crossed with the greyhound to give him light- 
ness and speed without impairing his scent ; and he has now been bred 
to a degree of speed sufficient to satisfy the man who holds his neck 
at the least possible price, and with which few, except thorough-bred 
horses, and not all of them, can live to the end of the chace. The fox- 
hound is lighter, or, as it is now called, more highly bred, or he retains 
a greater portion of his original size and heaviness, according to the 
nature of the country and the fancy of the master of the pack :: there- 
fore it is difficult to give an accurate description of the best variety of 
this dog; but there are guiding points which can never be forgotten 
without serious injury. 

He derives from the greyhound a head somewhat smaller and longer 
in proportion to his size than either the stag-hound or the harrier. But 
considerable caution is requisite here. The beauty of the head and face, 
although usually accompanied by speed, must never be sacrificed to stout- 
ness and power of scent. The object of the sportsman is to amalgamate 
them, or rather to possess them all in the greatest possible degree. This 
will generally be brought to a great degree of perfection if the sportsman 
regards the general excellence of the dog rather than the perfection of 
any particular point. The ears should not, comparatively speaking, be 
so large as those of the stag-hound or the harrier; but the neck should 
be longer and lighter, the chest deep and capacious, the fore legs straight 
as arrows, and the hind ones well bent at the hock. 

Some extraordinary accounts have been given of the speed of the fox- 
hound. A match that was run over the Beacon Course at Newmarket is 
the best illustration of his fleetness. 

and 132 yards. The winning dog performed it in 8 minutes and a few 
seconds ; but of the sixty horses that started with the hounds only twelve 
were able to run in with them. 



The distance is 4 miles 1 furlonp* 



in 7 minutes and 30 seconds. 



Flying Childers had run the same covirse 



" The size, or, as we should rather say, the height of a fox-hound, is a 
point on which there has been much difFerence of opinion. Mr. Ch^lle's 



Mr 



"Warde 



and four 



5. The advocates of the former assert, 
that they get better across a deep and strongly fenced country, while the 



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73 



admirers of the latter insist on their being better climbers of hills and 
more active in cover. As to uniformity in size, it is by no means essential 
to the well-doing- of hounds in the field, and has been disregarded by some 
of our best sportsmen : Mr. Meynell never drafted a good hound on 
account of his being over or under sized. The proper standard of height 
in fox-hounds is from 21 to 22 inches for bitches, and from 23 to 24 for 



dog-hounds. 



Warde's bitches, the best of the kind that our 



country contained, were rather more than 23 inches. 



were 25 inches high. 



A few of his doors 



The amount of hounds annually bred will depend 
^ipon the strength of the kennel. From sixty to eighty couples is the 
complement for a four days a-week pack, which will require the breeding 
of a hundred couples of puppies 
distemper." ^ 



every 






THE FOX-HOUND. 



JNimrod very properly observes, that " Mr. Beckford has omitted a 
point much thought of by the modern sportsmen, namely, the back-ribs^ 
which should also be deep, as in a strong-bodied horse, of which we say, 
when so formed, that he has a good 'spur place ;' a point highly esteemed 
in him. Nor is he sufficiently descriptive of the hinder legs of the 
hound ; for there is a length of thigh discernible in first-rate hounds which, 
like the well-let-down hock of the horse, gives them much superiority of 
speed, and is also a great security against their laming themselves in 
leaping fences, which they are more apt to do when they become blown and 
consequently weak. The fore legs, ' straight as arrows,' is an admirable 



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74 



SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



illustration of perfection in those parts by Beckford ; for, as in a bow or 
bandy legged man, nothing is so disfiguring to a hound as havino- his 
elbows projecting, and which is likewise a great check to speed." ^ ° 

Mr. Daniel gives a curious account of the prejudices of sportsmen on 
the _ subject of colour. The white dogs were curious hunters, and had a 
capital scent; the black, with some white spots, were obedient g-ood 
hunters, and with good constitutions ; the gray-coloured had no very 
acute scent, but were obstinate, and indefatigable in their quest ; the yellow 
. dogs were impatient and obstinate, and taught with difficulty'' 

The dog exhibits no criteria of age after the first two years That 
period having elapsed, the whiteness and evenness of the teeth soon pass 
away, and the old dog can scarcely be mistaken. Nimrod scarcely speaks 
too positively when he says that an old hound cannot be mistaken, if only 
looked in the face. At all events, few are found in a kennel after the 
eighth year, and very few after the ninth. 

Mr. Beckford advises the sportsman carefully to consider the size, 
shape, colour, constitution, and natural disposition of the dog from which 
he breeds, and also the fineness of the nose, the evident strength" of the 
hmb, and the good temper and devotion to his master which he displays. 
_i he faults or imperfections in one breed may be rectified in another ; and, 
If this IS properly attended to, there is no reason why improvements may 
not continually be made. ■' ^ ^ 

The separation of the sexes in the kennel and in the field is one of the 
latest innovations in the hunting world, and generally considered to be a 
good one. The eye is pleased to see a pack of hounds, nearly or quite of 
a size. The character of the animal is more uniformly displayed when con- 
fined to one sex. In consequence of the separation of the two the doo-s 
are less inclined to quarrel ; and the bitches are more at their ease than when 
undergoing the importunate solicitations of the male. As to their per- 
formances in the field, opinions vary, and each sex has its advocates. The 
bitch, with a good fox before her, is decidedly more oflf hand at her work ; 
but she is less patient, and sometimes overruns the scent. Sir Bellingham 
Graham has been frequently heard to say, that if his kennels would have 
afforded it, he would never have taken a dog-hound into the field. That 
in the canine race the female has more of elegance and symmetry of form 
consequently more of speed, than the male, is evident to a common ob- 
server ; but there is nothing to lead to the conclusion that, in the natural 
endowments of the senses, any superiority exists, e 

Ihe bitch should not be allowed to engage in any long and severe 
chace after she has been lined. She should^ be kept as quiet as may 
be practicable, and well but not too abundantly fed ; each having- a kennel 
or place of retreat for herself. She should be carefully watched and 
especially when the ninth week approaches. The huntsman and the keener 
without any apparent or unnecessary intrusion, should be on the alert ' 

The time of pupping having arrived, as little noise or disturbance 
should be made as possible ; but a keeper should be always at hand in case 
of abortion or difficult parturition. Should there be a probability of either 
of these occurring, he should not be in a hurry ; for, as much should be 
left to nature as can, without evident danger, be done, and the keener 
should rarely intrude unless his assistance is indispensable. 

» The Horse and the Hound, by Nimrod, p. 332. *■ Daniel's Fox-ho^T^ r. or^ 

« The Horse and the Hound, by Nimvod7p 355. ' ^" 



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to. 



4 

The pupping being accomplished, the mother should be carefully attended 
She should be liberally fed, and particularly should have her share of 



animal food, and an increased quantity of milk. 

The bitch should not have whelps until she has hunted two seasons ; for, 

before that time it will be scarcely possible to ascertain her excellences or 
defects. -^^ ^^ - ^ , . ^ , . . . „ 

rejected. 



If there are any considerable faults, she should be immediately 



When 



allowed a certain degree of liberty, and should choose her couch and run 
about a little more than usual ; but, when the young ones are born, the less 
they are handled the better. The constitution and appearance of the 
mother will indicate how many should be kept. If two litters are born 
at or about the same time, or within two or three days of each other, we 
may interchange one or two of the whelps of each of them, and perhaps 
increase the value of both. 

When the whelps are able to crawl to a certain distance, it will be time 
to mark them, according to their respective litters, some on the ear and 
others on the lip. The dew-claws should be removed, and, usually, a small 
tip from the tail. Their names also should be recorded. 

The whelps will begin to lap very soon after they can look about them, 
and should remain with the mother until they are fully able to take care of 
themselves. They may then be prepared to go to quarters. 

Two or three doses of physic should be given to the mother, with in^ 
tervals of four or five days between each : this will prepare her to return 
to the kennel. 

There is often considerable difficulty in disposing of the whelps until 
they get old and stout enough to be brought into the kennel. They are 
mostly sent to some of the neighbouring cottages, in order to be taken 
care of; but they are often neglected and half starved there. In conse- 
quence of this, distemper soon appears, and many of them are lost. 
^ Whelps tvalked^ or taken care of at butchers' houses, soon grow to a con- 
siderable size ; but they are apt to be heavy-shouldered and throaty, and 
perhaps otherwise deformed. There is some doubt whether it might not 
be better for the sportsman to take the management of them himself and 
to have a kennel built purposely for them. ' It may, perhaps, be feared 
that the distemper will get among them : they would, however, be well 
fed, and far more comfortable than they now are ; and, as to the distemper 
it is a disease that they must have some time or other. 

From twenty to thirty couples are quite as many as can be easily 
managed ; and the principal consideration is, whether they are steady, and 
as nearly as possible possessing equal speed. When the packs are Very 
large, the hounds are seldom sufficiently hunted to be good. Few persons 
choose to hunt every day, or, if they did, it is not likely that the weather 
would permit them. The sportsman would, therefore, be compelled to take 
an inconvenient number into the field, and too many must be left behind. 
In the first place, too many hounds in the field would frequently spoil the 
sport ; and, on the other hand, the hounds that remained would get out of 
wind, or become riotous, or both. Hounds, to be useful and good, should 
be constantly hunted ; but a great fault in many packs is their having too 
many old dogs among them. 

Young hounds, when first taken to the kennel, should be kept separate 
from the rest of the pack, otherwise there will be frequent and dangerous 



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76 



SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



This is a 



quarrels. When these do occur, the feeder hears, and sometimes, but not 
so frequently as he ought, endeavours to discover the cause of the disturb- 
ance, and visits the culprits with deserved punishment ; too often how- 
ever, he does not give himself time for this, but rushes among thei^ and 
flogs every hound that he can get at, guilty or not guilty. ' 

shameful method of procedure. It is the cause of much undeserved punish- 
ment : it spoils the temper of the dog, and makes him careless and indif- 
ferent as long as he lives. 

Mr Beckford very properly remarks, that " Young hounds are, and 
must be awkward at first, and should be taken out, a few at a time with 
couples not too loose. They are thus accustomed to the usual occurrences 
of the road, and this is most easily accomplished when a young and an old 
dog are coupled together." 

A sheep-field is the next object, and the young hound, properly watched, 
soon becomes reconciled, and goes quietly along with the companion of 
the preceding day. A few days afterwards the dogs are uncoupled in the 
field, and perhaps, at first, are not a little disposed to attack the sheep ; but 
the cry of "Ware sheep!" in a stern tone of voice, arrests them, and 
olten, without the aid of the whip ; it being taken as a principle that this 
instrument should be used as seldom as possible. If, indeed, the dog is 
self-willed the whip must be had recourse to, and perhaps with some 
severity ; for, if he is once suflfered to taste the blood of the sheep it may be 
difficult to restrain him afterwards. A nobleman was told that it was pos- 
sible to break his dogs of the habit of attacking his sheep, by introducing 
a large and fearless ram among them ; one was accordingly procured and 
turned _ into the kennel. The men with their whips and voices, and the 
ram with his horns, soon threw the whole kennel into confusion The 
hounds and the ram were left together. Meeting a friend soon afterwards 
" Come," said he, " to the kennel, and see what rare sport the ram is 
making among the hounds." His friend asked whether he was not afraid 
that some of them might be spoiled. " No," said he ; " they deserve it 
and let them suffer." They proceeded to the kennel ; all was quiet. The 
kennel-door was thrown open, and the remains of the ram were found scat- 
tered about : the hounds, having filled their bellies, had retired to rest. 

The time of entering young hounds must vary in different countries. 
In a corn country, it should not be until the wheat is carried ; in grass 
countries, somewhat sooner ; and, in woodlands, as soon as we please. Fre- 
quent hallooing may be of use with young hounds ; it makes them more 
eager ; but, generally speaking, there is a time when it may be of use a 
time when it does harm, and a time when it is perfectly indifferent ' 

The following remarks of Mr. Beckford are worthy of their author •— 
" Hounds at their first entering cannot be encouraged too much When 
they begin to know what is right, it will be soon enough to chastise them 
for doing wrong, and, in such case, one rather severe beatino- will save a 
great deal of trouble. The voice should be used as well as the whip • and 
the smack of the whip will often be of as much avail as the lash to him 
who has felt it." 

Flogging hounds in the kennel, the frequent practice of too many hunts- 
men, should be held in utter abhorrence, and, if carried to a considerable 
excess, is a disgrace to humanity. Generally speaking, none but the sports- 
man can form an adequate conception of the perfect obedience of the hound 
both in the kennel and the field. At feeding-time, each dog, although 



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VAEIETIES OF THE DOG. 



77 



hungry enough^ will go through the gate in the precise order in which 
he is called by the feeder ; and, in a well-broken pack, to chop at, or to 
follow a hare, or to give tongue on a false scent, or even to break cover 
alone, although the fox is in view, are faults that are rarely witnessed. 

Let not this obedience, however, be purchased by the infliction of a 
degree of cruelty that disgraces both the master and the menial. A young 
fox-hound may, possibly, mistake the scent of a hai^e for that of a fox, and 
give tongue. In too many hunts he will be unmercifully flogged for this, 
and some have almost died under the lash. Mercy is a word totally un- 
known to a great proportion of whippers-in, and even to many who call 
themselves gentlemen. There can be no occasion or excuse for barbarity : 
a little trouble, and moderate punishment, and the example of his fellows, 
will gradually teach the wildest hound his duty. 

That the huntsman, and not the hound, may occasionally be in fault, the 
following anecdote will furnish sufficient proof. In drawing a strong 
cover, a young bitch gave tongue very freely, while none of the other 
hounds challenged. The whipper-in railed to no purpose ; the huntsman 
insisted that she was wrong, and the whip was applied with great severity. 
In doing this, the lash accidentally struck one of her eyes out of its socket. 

Notwithstanding the dreadful pain that must have ensued, she again 
took up the scent, and proved herself right ; for the fox had stolen away, 
and she had broken cover after him, unheeded and alone. After much delay 
and cold hunting, the pack hit off" the same scent. 

At some distance a farmer informed the sportsmen, that they were a 
long way behind the fox, for he had seen a single hound, very bloody about 
the head, running breast-high, so that there was but little chance of their 
getting up with her. The pack, from her coming to a check, did at length 
overtake her. 

The same bitch once more hit off* the scent, and the fox was killed, after 
a long and severe run. The eye of the poor animal, that had hung pen- 
dent through the chace, was then taken off with a pair of scissors. 



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THE COMMENCEMENT OE THE SEASON. 

Durino' the beginning of autumn, the hounds should be daily exercised 
when the weather will permit. They should often be called over in the ken- 
nel to habituate them to their names, and walked out among the sheep and 
deer, in order that they may be accustomed perfectly to disregard them. 

A few stout hounds being added to the young ones, some young foxes 
may occasionally be turned out. If they hunt improper game, they must 
be sternly checked. Implicit obedience is required until they have been 
sufficiently taught as to the game which they are to pursue. No obsti- 
nate deviation from it must ever be pardoned. The hounds should be, as 
much as possible, taken out into the country which they are afterwards to 
hunt, and some young foxes are probably turned out for them to pursue. 
At length they are suffered to hunt their game in thorough earnest, and 
to taste of its blood. 

After this they are sent to more distant covers, and more old hounds 
are added, and so they continue until they are taken into the pack, which 
usually happens in September. The young hounds continue to be added, 
two or three couple at a time, until all have hunted. They are then divided 
into two packs, to be taken out on alternate days. Properly speaking, the 



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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



sport cannot be said to begin until October, but the two preceding months 
are important and busy ones.* 

" It would appear, then," says Nimrod, " that the breeding of a pack 
of fox-hounds, bordering on perfection, is a task of no ordinary difficulty 
The best proof of it is to be found in the few sportsmen that have succeeded 
m It. Not only is every good q,iality obtained if possible, but every im- 
perfection or fault IS avoided. The highest virtue in a fox-hound is his 
being true to the line his game has gone, and a stout runner at the end of 
the chace. He must also be a patient hunter when there is a cold scent 
and the pack is at fault." 

While there is no country in the world that can produce a breed of 
horses to equal the English thorough-bred in his present improved state 
there are no dogs like the English fox-hound for speed, scent, and con- 
tinuance. It would seem as if there were something in the climate 
favourable and necessary to the perfection of the hound. Packs of them 
have been sent to other countries, neighbouring and remote ; but they haye 
usually become more or less valueless. 

As regards the employment of the voice and the horn when out with 
hounds too much caution cannot be used. A hound should never be 
cheered unless we are perfectly convinced that he is right, nor rated unless 
we are sure that he is wrong. When we are not sure of what is goin^ on 
we should sit still and be silent. A few moments will possibly put us in 
possession of all that we wish to know.*" 

The horn should only be used on particular occasions, and a huntsman 
should speak by his horn as much as by his voice. Particular notes should 
mean certain things, and the hounds and the field should understand the 
language. We have heard some persons blowing the horn all the day lono- 
and the hounds have become so careless as to render it of no use. When^a 
hound first speaks in cover to a fox, you may, if you think it necessary use 
one single and prolonged note to get the pack together. The same note 
will do at any time to call up a lost or loitering hound ; but, when the fox 
breaks cover, then let your horn be marked in its notes : let it sound as 
if you said through it, "Gone away ! gone away ! gone away ! away ! 
away ! away ! " dwelling with full emphasis on the last syllable. Every 
hound will fly from the cover the moment he hears this, and the sportsmen 
and the field will know that the fox is away. 

+1, ^\^^ *^^ perfection of the horse, and the perfection of the hound, and 
the disregard of trifling expense, that has given to Englishmen a partiality 
lor held-sports, unequalled in any other country. Mr. Ware's pack of 



Mr 



Middleton 



a Beckford's Thoughts on Hunting, p. 95. 

b Mr. Beckford gives the following ex- 
cellent account of what a huntsman should 
be:— "A huntsman should be attached 
to the sport, and indefatigable, young, 
strong, active, bold, and enterprising in 
the pursuit of it. He should be sensible, 
good-tempered, sober, exact, and cleanly — 
a good groom and an excellent horseman. 
His voice should be strong and clear, with 
an eye so quick as to perceive which of 
his hounds carries the scent when all are 



running, and an ear so excellent as to dis- 
tinguish the leading hounds when he does 
not see them. He should be quiet, pa- 
tient, and without conceit. Such are the 
qualities which constitute perfection in a 
huntsman. He should not, however be 
too fond of displaying them until called 
forth by necessity ; it being a peculiar and 
distinguishing trait in his character to let 
his hounds alone while they thus hunt 
and have genius to assist them when they 
cannot."— Beckford on Hunting, Letter ix. 

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VAUIETIES OF THE DOG. 



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HUNTING-KENNELS. 



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wainscoted to the height of three feet at least. 



It is time, however, to speak of the kennel, whether we regard the 
sporting architecture of Mr. G. Tattersall, or the scientific inquiries of 
Mr. Vyner, or a sketch of the noble buildings at Goodwood. 

The lodging-rooms should be ceiled, but not plastered, with ventilators 
above and a large airy window on either side. The floors should be laid 
with flags or paved with bricks. Cement may be used instead of mortar, 
and the kennels will then be found wholesome and dry. The doorways 
of the lodging-houses will generally be four feet and a half wide in the 
clear. The posts are rounded, to prevent the hounds from being injured 
when they rush out. The benches may be made of cast iron or wood ; 
those composed of iron being most durable, but the hounds are more 
frequently lamed in getting to them. The wooden benches must be bound 
with iron, or the hounds will gnaw or destroy them. A question has 
arisen, whether the benches should be placed round the kennel, or be in 
the centre of it, allowing a free passage by the side. There is least 
danger of the latter being affected by the damp. The walls should be 

This will tend very con- 
siderably to their comfort. 

The floors of all the courts should be arranged in nearly the same way ; 
the partition walls being closed at the bottom, but with some iron- work 
above. The doorways should also be so contrived, that the huntsman may 
be able to enter whenever he pleases. The boiling-house should be at as 
great a distance from the hunting-kennel as can be managed, continuing 
to give warmth to the infirmary for distempered puppies, and at the same 
time being out of the way of the other courts. 

Mr. Vyner gives an interesting account of the young hound's kennel : 
" This building," he says, ^^ should be as far fyom the other lodging- 
rooms as the arrangements of the structure will allow. There is also an 
additional court, or grass-yard, an indispensable requisite in the puppies' 
kennel. The size must be regulated according to the waste land at the 
end of the building ; but the longer it is, the better. At the farther end 
of the grass-court is a hospital for such young hounds as are distempered, 
so contrived as to be remote from the other kennels, and, at the same time, 
within an easy distance of the boiling-house, whence it is apparently ap- 
proached by an ovitside door, through which the feeder can constantly pass 
to attend to the sick hounds without disturbing the healthy lots. Although 
this lodging-room is warmed by the chimneys of the boiling-house, it must 
also be well ventilated by two windows, to which shutters must be attached ; 
ventilation and good air being quite as necessary to the cure of distemper 
as warmth." 



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KENNEL LAMENESS. 



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nature and treatment of kennel lameness. It is a subject that nearly 
concerns the sportsman, and on which there are several and the most con- 
trary opinions. 

This is a kind of lameness connected with, or attributable to, the kennel. 
According to the early opinion of Mr. Asheton Smith, who is a good 
authority, it was referrible to some peculiarity in the breed or management 
of the hounds; but, agreeably to a later opinion, it is dependent on situ- 



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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



ation and subsoil, and may be aggravated or increased by circumstances 
over which we have no control. Some kennels are in low and damp situ- 
ations, yet the hounds are free from all complaint ; and others, with the 
stanchest dogs and under the best management, are continually sinkino- 
under kennel lameness. ® 

Mr. R T. Vyner was one of the first who scientifically treated on this 
point, and taught us that clay is not by any means an objectionable soil to 
bmld a kennel upon, although so many pseudo-sportsmen are frightened 
by the very name of it. ® 

He enters at once into his subject. " I am thoroughly convinced," says 
he, ±rom my own experience, and, I may add, my own suffering, that the 
disease of kennel lameness arises only from one cause, and that is an inju- 
dicious and unfortunate selection of the spot for building. The kennel is 
generally built on a sandbed, or on a sandstone rock, while the healthiest 
grounds in England are on a stiff clay, and they are the healthiest because 
they are the least porous. Although this may be contrary to the opinion 

and prejudice of the majority of sportsmen, it is a fact that cannot be 
contradicted. 

" Through a light and friable soil, such as sand and sandstone, a vapour, 
more or less dense, is continually exhaling and causing a perpetual damp, 
which produces that fearful rheumatism which goes by the name of kennel 
lameness, while the kennels that are built on a clay soil, a soil of an im- 
pervious nature, are invariably healthy. 

" I could," he adds, " enumerate twenty kennels to prove the effect 
the invariable effect— of the existence of the disease on the one part and 
of the healthiness of the situation on the other. I turn particularly to 
Her Majesty's kennel at Ascot, the arches of which were laid under the 
very foundation stones, and yet little or no amendment has ever taken 
place in the healthiness and comfort of the dogs. It is necessary to select 
a sound and healthy situation when about to erect a kennel, and that sound 
and healthy situation can be met with alone on a strong impervious clay 
soil. "We must have no fluid oozing through the walls or the floor of the 
kennel, and producing damp and unhealthy vapours, such as we find in the 
sandbed." With regard to this there can be no error. 

l^imrod, in his excellent treatise on Kennel Lameness, asks, whether it 
does not appear that this disease is on the increase. He asks, " How 
It IS that neither Beckford nor Somerville says one word that clearly applies 
to the disease ; and no one, however learned he might be in canine patho- 
logy, has been able clearly to define the disease, much less to discover a 
remedy for it ?" 



Mr 



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healthiness of the situation on which any kennel is to be built is an im- 
portant consideration. It is essential that it should be both dry and airy 
and It should also be warm. A damp kennel produces rheumatism in doo-s' 
which shows itself sometimes by weakness in the loins, but more frequently 
by lameness in the shoulders, known under the name of kennel lameness '' 

" There 



Mr 



is no disease, with the exception of distemper and mange, to which dogs 
are so liable as to a rheumatic affection of some part of the body. It pre- 
sents almost as many varieties in the dog as it does in man ; and it has some 
peculiarities observable in the dog only. Rheumatism never exists in a 
dog without affecting the bowels. There will be inflammation or painful 



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ia?dL rt^«?i A\-'^°^' "^ '^? ^^*^^*^""^ ^^"^^- It i« «% in some pecu- 
the In.''/ ' ^^' ^""'^ ^'*'^' ^^ ^1^««<^ "« explanation of the cause of 

SDo^^'"'''^ **5f • ^ '"''? >Portant view of the matter, and to him the 
*>portmg world is much indebted. " How is it," he asks " that n or 

iZlZnZl Z rr \^'' ^' 'r-^^ ^^"^^^^^^^' -rtdeedf^/Cunds 
from nnfh • ^"' ""^^«« f^om accident, or becoming shaken and infirm 
trom not having been composed of that iron-bound material which th^ 
labours of a greyhound or a hound require ? How is it that ?n our 
younger days masters of hounds began the season wit! 50 or 60 'couples 
and, bating the casualties, left off at the end of it equally strong'nThe ^ 
kennels and able, perhaps, to make a valuable draft ; whereas we'now hear 
of one-half of the dogs m certain localities being disabled by disease and 
some masters of hounds compelled to be stopped in their work until'tlSr 
kennels are replenished." 



Washing 



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t em,' although it has almost becomeTe IILToVZ en/ 1 m " u 

kenLTin Tf f "' '"' f ^ "^ ^^^^^^^ '' '^ be unnecessary ryei the 

S be on f h^ Tif ' ^"' "P^"''^^ ^^""^^ b^ «t^i^«y avoided. l! 
Should be on the day following, and not in the evening of a huntine-dav 
that washing should take place. ^ nunting-day 

Mr Hodgson told Nimrod, that the Quorn Pack never had a case of 
kennel lameness until his late huntsman took to washing his hounds after 

beW fh.rr T"'- u ^^'"^ ^" *^" ^^'^"i"& ^fter hunting, and we 

oelieve that he was quite right in so doing. 

insfr„n,tT"'f *^' ^^%-''^*^ '^^ ^^^ ^^^^^^" ^*^^^' i« ^i« best and safest 
wffl r Vf ^ ^^""i^g ^^« person ; and, if he can be brought to his kennel 
with tolerably clean feet, as Mr. Foljambe enables him to be brought, he will 
never be long before he is comfortable in his bed, after his belly is filled 

1 here is another mode, as a preventive of kennel lameness, which we have 
tlie best authority for saying deserves particular attention, and that is the 
f requently turning hounds ofl^ their benches during the day, even if it were 
to the ex ent of every two hours throughout the entire day. We do not mean 
to deny the existence of a disease, which, being produced in the kennd^s 
properly termed kennel lameness. Some kennels are, no doubt more un 
healthy and prone to engender rheumatic affections han other's but bv" 

^hTe^irrtrSr at?1 r '^"^ ^^ Tf ^ ^^^^^'^ ^'^ eSg^u'ses^ 

eitects may, at least, be very much lessened, if not entirely obviated. 



LORD FITZHARDmGE's MANAGEMENT. 

He states that the kennel should be built on a dry and warm sitna- 



^ Blaine on the Diseases of the Doff 

p. 140. °' 



^ See Hints to Young Masters of Fox- 
hounds — New Sport. Mag., vol. viii n 

174-290. ■ ^" 

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ation. Of this there can be no doubt : the comfort and almost the exist 
ence of the dog depend upon it. To this he adds that it must not be 
placed on a gravelly or porous soil, over which vapours more or less dense 
are frequently or continually travelling, and thus causing a destructive ex- 
halation over the whole of the building. There must be no fluid oozing 
through the walls or the floor of the kennel, and producing damp and 
unhealthy vapours. When we have not a deep supersoil of clay, one or 
two layers of bricks or of stone may line the floor, and then^ not even the 
most subtile vapour can penetrate through the floor. A clean bed of straw 
should be allowed every second day, or oftener when the weather is wet. 
The lodging-houses should be ceiled, and there should be slaitters to the 
windows. A thatched roof is preferable to tiles, being warmer in winter 
and cooler in summer. 

Stoves in the kennels are not necessary : probably they are best avoided ; 
for, if dogs are accustomed to any considerable degree of artificial heat, 
they are more easily chilled by a long exposure to cold. Their teeth and 
the setting-up of their backs will confirm this. 

Hounds, when they feel cold, naturally seek each other for warmth, and 
they may be seen lying upon the straw and licking each other ; and that is 
by far the most wholesome way of procuring comfort and warmth. 

On returning from hunting, their feet should be washed with some warm 
fluid, and especially the eyes should be examined, and their food got ready 
for them as soon as possible. The feeding in the morning should be an hour, 
or an hour and a half, before they start for the field. 

It is truly observed by the noble writer to whom we have referred, that 
there is no part of an establishment of this kind that merits more attention 
than the boiling and feeding house. The hounds cannot perform their 
work well unless judiciously fed. Each hound requires particular and 
constitutional care. No more than five of them should be let in to feed 
together, and often not more than one or two. The feeder should have 
each hound under his immediate observation, or they may get too much or 
too little of the food. 

Some hounds cannot run if they carry much flesh ; others are all the 
better for having plenty about them. The boilers should be of iron, two 
in number, — one for meal and the smaller one for flesh. The large boiler 
should render it necessary to be used not more than once in four days or a 
week. The food should be stirred for two hours, then transferred to flat 

I- " 

coolers, until sufficiently gelatinous to be cut with a kind of spade. By 
the admixture of some portion of soups it may be brought to any thick- 
ness requisite. The flesh to be mixed with it should be cut very small, 
that the greedy hounds may not be able to obtain more than their share. 
Four bushels and a half of genuine old oatmeal should be boiled with a 
hundred gallons of water. The flesh should be boiled every second or third 
day. Too great a proportion of soup would render the mixture of a heat- 
ing nature. 

Mr. Delme Radcliffe very truly observes that the feeding of hounds, as 
regards their condition, is one of the most essential proofs of a huntsman's 
skill in the management of the kennel. To preserve that even state of 
condition throughout the pack which is so desirable, he must be well 
acquainted with the appetite of every hound ; for some will feed with a 
voracity scarcely credible, and others will require every kind of enticement 
to induce them to feed. 



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83 



When 



Mr. Meynell found that the use of dry unboiled oatmeal suc( 
than any other thing he had tried with delicate hounds. „ xx... ux,.. 
induced to take it, they would eat it greedily, and it seemed to be far more 
neartenmg than most kinds of aliment. Other hounds of delicate con- 
stitution might be tempted with a little additional flesh, and with the 
thickest and best of the trough, but they required to be watched, and often 
to be coaxed to eat. 

The dog possesses the power of struggling against want of food for an 
almost mcredible period. One of these animals, six years old, was miss- 
ing three-and-twenty days ; at length some children wandering in a distant 
wood thought that they frequently heard the baying of a dog. The master 
was told of it, and at the bottom of an old quarry, sixty feet deep, and the 
mouth of which he had almost closed by his vain attempts to escape, the 
voice of the poor fellow was recognised. With much difficulty he' was 
extricated, and found in a state of emaciation ; his body cold as ice and his 
thirst inextinguishable, and he scarcely able to move. They gave him at 
intervals small portions of bread soaked in milk and water. Two days 
afterw^ards he was able to follow his master a short distance. 

This occurrence is mentioned by M. Pinguin as a proof that neither 
hunger nor thirst could produce rabies. Messrs. Majendie and F. Cousins 
have carried their observations to the extent of forty days,— a disgraceful 



period. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE PACK. 



Sixty-five couples of hounds in full work will consume the carcases of 
three horses in one week, or five in a fortnight. The annual consumption 
of meal will be somewhat more than two tons per month. 

^ In feeding, the light eaters should be let in first, and a little extra flesh 
distributed on the surface of the food, in order to coax those that are most 
shy. Some hounds cannot be kept to their work unless fed two or three 
times a day; while others must not be allowed more than six or seven laps, 
or they would get too much. 

In summer an extra cow or two will be of advantage in the dairy ; for 
the milk, after it has been skimmed, may be used instead of flesh. 



About Christmas is the 



There must always be a little flesh in hand for the sick, for bitches with 
their whelps, and for the entry of young hounds.'' 

time to arrange the breeding establishment. The number of puppies 
produced is usually from five to eight or nine ; but, in one strange case, 
eighteen of them made their appearance. The constitution and other ap- 
pearances in the dam, will decide the number to be preserved. When the 
whelps are sufficiently grown to run about, they should be placed in a 
warm situation, with plenty of fresh grass, and a sufficient quantity of 
clean, but^ not too stimulating, food. They should then be marked accord- 
ing to theirjrespective letters, that they may be always recognised. When 
the time comes, the ears of the dog should be rounded ; the size of the ear 
and of the head guiding the rounding-iron. 

This being passed, the master of the pack takes care that his treatment 
shall be joyous and playful ; encouragement is always with him the word. 
The dog should be taught the nature of the fault before he is corrected : 



" Traitd de la Folie des Animaux, torn. ii. 39. 



>> Mr. D. EadcIifFe 

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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



no animal is more grateful for kindness than a hound ; the peculiarities of 
his temper will soon be learned, and when he begins to love his master, he 
will mind, from his natural and acquired affection, a word or a frown from 
him more than the blows of all the whips that were ever put into the hands 
of the keepers. 

The distemper having passed, and the young hounds being in good health, 
they should be walked out every day, and taught to follow the horse, with a 
keeper who is selected as a kind and quiet person, and will bear their occa- 
sionally entangling themselves in their couples. They are then taken to 
the public roads^ and there exercised, and checked from riot, but with as 
little severity as possible ; a frequent and free use of the whip never being 
allowed. No animals take their character from their master so much as 



the hounds do from theirs. 



If he is wild, or noisy, or nervous, so will his 

The 



hounds be ; if he is steady and quick, the pack will be the same, 
whip should never be applied but for some immediate and decided fault. 
A rate given at an improper time does more harm than good : it disgusts 
the honest hound, it shies and prevents from hunting the timid one, and 
it is treated with contempt by those of another character who may at some 
future time deserve it. It formerly was the custom, and still is too much 
so, when a hound has hung on a hare^ to catch him when he comes up, and 
flog him. The consequence of this is, that he takes good care the next 
time he indulges in a fault not to come out of cover at all. 

We will conclude this part of our subject by a short account of the 
splendid kennel at Goodwood, for which we are indebted to Lord W. 
Lennox, with the kind permission of the Duke of Richmond. It 
is described as one of the most complete establishments of the kind in 
England. The original establishment of this building, although a little 
faulty, possesses considerable interest from its errors being corrected by 
the third Duke of Richmond, a man who is acknowledged to have been 
one of the most popular public characters of the day, and who in more 
private life extended his patronage to all that was truly honourable. 
It was to the Duke's support of native talent that we may trace the origin 
of the present Royal Academy. In 1758, the Duke of Richmond dis- 
played, at his residence in Whitehall, a large collection of original plaster 
casts, taken from the finest statues and busts of the ancient sculptors. 
Every artist was freely admitted to this exhibition ; and, for the further en- 
couragement of talent, he bestowed two medals annually on such as had 
exhibited the best models. 

We have thus digressed in order to give a slight sketch of the nobleman 
by whom this kennel was built, and we do not think that we can do better 
than lay before our readers the original account of it. 

Early in life the Duke built what was not then common, a tennis-court, 
and what was more uncommon, a dog-kennel, which cost him above 
6000/. The Duke was his own architect, assisted by, and under the 
guidance of, Mr. Wyatt ; he dug his own flints, burnt his own lime, and 
conducted the wood-work in his own shops. The result of his labours was 
the noble building of which a plan is here given. 

The dog-kennel is a grand object when viewed from Goodwood. The 
front is handsome, the ground well raised about it, and the general effect 
good ; the open court in the centre adds materially to the noble appear- 
ance of the building. 

The entrance to the kennel is delineated in the centre with a flight of 



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steps leading above. The huntsman's rooms, four in number, first present 
themselves, and are marked in the plan before us by the letter C • each of 
them is fifteen feet fourteen inches, by fourteen feet six inches. ' 

At each end of the side towards the court is one of the feeding-rooms 
t^yenty-nlne feet by fourteen feet four inches, and nobly constructed rooms 
they are ; they are designated by the letters B. At the back of the 
feedmg-rooms are one set of the lodging-rooms, from thirty-five feet six 
inches, to fourteen feet four inches, and marked by the letters A and at 
either extremity is another lodging-room, thirty-two feet six inches in 
length, and fourteen feet six inches in width : this is also marked bv the 
letter A. '' 

Coming into the court we find the store-room twenty-four feet by four 
teen and a half, marked by the letter D, and the stable, of the same dimen- 
sions, by the letter E. 

At the top of the buildings are openings for the admission of cold air 
and stoves to warm the air when too cold. There are plentiful supplies of 
water from tanks holding 10,000 gallons ; so that there is no incon- 
venience from the smell, and the whole can at any time be drained, and 
not be rendered altogether useless. 

Round the whole building is a pavement five feet wide ; airy yards and 
places for breeding, &c., making part of each wing. For the huntsman 
and whipper-in there are sleeping-rooms, and a neat parlour or kitchen 

boon after the kennel was erected, it would contain two packs ' of 



hounds. 



THE STAG-HOUND. 



The largest of the English hounds that has been lately used is de 
voted, as his name implies, to the chace of the deer. He is taller than 
the fox-hound, and with far more delicate scent, but he is not so sneedv 
He answers better than any other to the description given of the old 
English hound, so much valued when the country, less enclosed and the 
forests, numerous and extensive, were the harbours of the wild deer. The 
deer-hound and the harrier were for many centuries the only hunting-dogs 
The fox-hound has been much more recently bred. ^ 

The most tyrannic and cruel laws were enforced for the preservation of 
this species of game, and the life of the deer, except when sacrificed in the 
chace, and by those who were privileged to join in it, was guarded with 
even more strictness than the life of the human being. When, however 
the country became more generally cultivated, and the stag was confined 
to enclosed parks, and was seldom sought in his lair, but brought into the 
field, and turned out before the dogs, so much interest was taken from the 
affair, that this species of hunting grew out of fashion, and was confined 
to the neighbourhood of the scattered forests that remained, and enioyed 
only by rojaky and a few noblemen, of whose establishmeni: a kennel of 
deer-hounds had, from time immemorial, formed a part 

Since the death of George III., who was much attached to this sport 
stag-hunting has rapidly declined, and the principal pleasure seems now to 
consist m the concourse of people brought together to an appointed place 
and hour, to witness the turning out of the deer. There is still main 
tained a royal establishment for the continuance of this noble sport • but" 
unless better supported than it has of late years been, it will gradually 



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87 



The stag-hounds are now a part of the regular Crown establishment- 
The royal kennel is situated upon Ascot Heath, about six miles from 
Windsor. At the distance of a mile from the kennel is Swinley Lodge, 
the official residence of the Master of the Stag-hounds. 

Tlie stag-hound is a beautiful animal. He is distinguished from the 
fox-hound by the apparent broadness and shortness of his head, his longer 
cheek, his straighter hock, his wider thigh and deeper chest, and better 
feathered and more beautifully arched tail. His appearance indicates 
strength and stoutness, in which indeed he is unequalled, and he has suffi- 
cient speed to render it difficult for the best horses long to keep pace with 
him ; while, as is necessary, when the distance between the footmarks of 
the deer is considered, his scent is most exquisite. He is far seldomer 
at fault than any other hound except the blood-hound, and rarely fails of 
running down his game. 

Of the stoutness of this dog, the following anecdotes will be a sufficient 
illustration. A deer, in the spring of 1822, was turned out before the 
Earl of Derby's hounds at Hayes Common. The chace was continued 
nearly four hours without a check, when, being almost run down, the ani- 
mal took refuge in some outhouses near Speldhurst in Kent, more than 
forty miles across the country, and having actually run more than fifty miles. 
Nearly twenty horses died in the field, or in consequence of the severity 
of the chace. 

A stag was turned out at Wingfield Park, in Northumberland. The 
whole pack, with the exception of two hounds, was, after a long run, 
thrown out. The stag returned to his accustomed haunt, and, as his last 
effort, leaped the wall of the park, and lay down and died. One of the 
hounds, unable to clear the wall, fell and expired, and the other was found 
dead at a little distance. They had run about forty miles. 

When the stag first hears the cry of the hounds, he runs with the swift- 
ness of the wind, and continues to run as long as any sound of his pursuers 
can be distinguished. That having ceased, he pauses and looks carefully 
around him ; but before he can determine what course to pursue the cry of 
the pack again forces itself upon his attention. Once more he darts away, 
and after a while again pauses. His strength perhaps begins to fail, and 
he has recourse to stratagem in order to escape. He practises the doubling 
and the crossing of the fox or the hare. This being useless, he attempts 
to escape by plunging into some lake or river that happens to lie in his 
way, and when, at last, everj attempt to escape proves abortive, he boldly 
faces his pursuers, and attacks the first dog or man who approaches him.^ 



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^ The late Lord Orford reduced four 
stags to so perfect a degree of subniission, 
that, in his short excursions, he used to 
drive them in a phaeton made for the 
purpose. He was one day exercising 
his singular and beautiful steeds in the 
neighbourhood of Newmarket, when their 
ears were saluted with the unwelcome cry 
of a pack of hounds, which, crossing the 
road in their rear, had caught the scent, and 
leaving their original object of pursuit, 
were now in rapid chace of the frightened 
stags. In vain his grooms exerted them- 



selves to the utmost, the terrified animals 
bounded away with the swiftness of light- 
ning, and entered Newmarket at full 
speed. They made immediately for the 
Earn Inn, to which his lordship was in 
the habit of driving, and, having fortu- 
nately entered the yard without any acci- 
dent, the stable-keepers huddled his lord- 
ship, the phaeton, and the deer into a large 
barn, just in time to save them from the 
hounds, who came into the yard in full 
cry a few seconds afterwards.— Annals of 

Sporting, vol. iii. 1823. 



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THE SOUTHERISr HOUND. 

There used to be in the south of Devon a pack or cry of the genuine 
old English or southern hounds. There is some reason to believe that this 
was the original stock of the island, or of this part of the island and that 
this hovind was used by the ancient Britons in the chace of the larg-er kinds 
of game with which the country formerly abounded. Its distino-uishino- 
characters are its size and general heavy appearance ; its great lena-th o^ 
body, deep chest, and ears remarkably large and pendulous. The tones of 
its voice were peculiarly deep. It answered the description of Shakspere 

" So flewed, so sanded ; and their heads are hung 
With ears that sweep away the morning dew ; 
Crook-knee'd, and dew-lapp'd, like Thessalian bulls ; 
Slow in pursuit, but matched in mouth like bells, 
Each under each." 










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THE SOUTHERN HOUND. 



It was the slowness of the breed which occasioned its disuse. Several of 
them, however, remained not long ago at a village called Aveton Gif- 
ford, \n Devonshire, in the neighbourhood of which some of the most 
opulent of the farmers used to keep two or three dogs each. When fox- 
hunting had assumed somewhat of its modern form, the chace was followed 
by a slow heavy hound, whose excellent olfactory organs enabled him to 

carry on the scent a considerable time after the fox-hound passed, and also 



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oyer grassy fallows, and hard roads, and other places, where the modern 
high-bred fox-hound would not be able to recognise it. Hence the chace 
continued for double the duration which it does at present, and hence may 
be seen the reason why the old English hunter, so celebrated in former 
days and so great a favourite among sportsmen of the old school, was ena- 
bled to perform those feats which were exultingly bruited in his praise. 
The fact is, that the hounds and the horse were well matched. If the 



equally slow and stanch. 



Meltonian 



THE BLOOD-HOUND. 



w 

This dog does not materially differ in appearance from the old deer- 
hound of a larger size, trained to hunt the human being instead of the 
quadruped. If once put on the track of a supposed robber, he would im- 
erringly follow him to his retreat, although at the distance of many a mile. 
Such a breed was necessary when neither the private individual nor the 
government had other means to detect the offender. Generally speaking, 
however, the blood-hound of former days would not injure the culprit that 
did not attempt to escape, but would lie down quietly and give notice by 
a loud and peculiar howl what kind of prey he had found. Some, how- 
ever, of a savage disposition, or trained to unnatural ferocity, would tear 
to pieces the hunted wretch, if timely rescue did not arrive. 

Hounds of every kind, both great and small, may be broken in to follow- 
any particular scent, and especially when they are feelingly convinced that 
they are not to hunt any other. This is the case with the blood-hound. 
He is destined to one particular object of pursuit, and a total stranger 
with regard to every other. 

In the border country between England and Scotland, and until the 
union of the two kingdoms, these dogs were absolutely necessary for the 
preservation of property, and the detection of robbery and murder. A tax 
was levied on the inhabitants for the maintenance of a certain number of 
blood-hounds. When, however, the civic government had sufficient power 
to detect and punish crime, this dangerous breed of hounds fell into disuse 
and was systematically discouraged. It, nevertheless, at the present day, 
is often bred by the rangers in large forests or parks to track the deer- 
stealer, but oftener to find the wounded deer. 

The blood-hound is taller and better formed than the deer-hound. It 

has large and deep ears, the forehead broad and the muzzle narrow. The 

expression of the countenance is mild and pleasing, when the dog is not 

excited ; but, when he is following the robber, his ferocity becomes truly 
alarming. 

^ The Thrapstone Association lately trained a blood-hound for the detec- 
tion of sheepstealers. In order to prove the utility of this dog, a person 
whom he had not seen was ordered to run as far and as fast as his strength 
would permit. An hour afterwards the hound was brought out. He was 
placed on the spot whence the man had started. He almost immediately 
detected the scent and broke away, and, after a chace of an hour and a half, 
found him concealed in a tree, fifteen miles distant. 

Mr. John Lawrence says, that a servant, discharged by a sporting coun- 
try gentleman, broke into his stables by night, and cut off the ears and tail 
of a favourite hunter. As soon as it was discovered, a blood-hound was 






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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



brought into the stable, who at once detected the scent of the miscreant 
and traced it more than twenty miles. He then stopped at a door whence 
no power could move him. Being at length admitted, he ran to' the top 
of the houscj and, bursting open the door of a garret, found the object that 
he sought in bed, and would have torn him to pieces, had not the hunts- 
man, who had followed him on a fleet horse, rushed up after him. 

Somerville thus describes the use to which he was generally put in pur- 
suit of the robber : — 

'' Soon the sagacious brute, his curling tail 
Flourished in air, low bending, plies around 
His busy nose, the steaming vapour snuffs 
Inquisitive, nor leaves one turf untried, 
Till, conscious of the recent stains, his heart 
Beats quick. His snulfmg nose, his active tail, ' 
Attest his joy. Then, with deep opening mouth, 
That makes the welkin tremble, he proclaims 
Th' audacious felon. Foot by foot he marks 
His winding way. Over the watery ford, 
Dry sandy heaths, and stony barren hills, 
Unerring he pursues, till at the cot 
Arrived,^ and, seizing by his guilty throat 
The caitiff vile, redeems the captive prey." 



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is evidently the large, spaniel improved to his peculiar size and beauty, 
and taught another way of marking his game, viz., by setting or crouch- 
^■--. If the form of the dog were not sufficiently satisfactory on this point 
„ .. might have recourse to history for information on it. Mr. Daniel in 
his Rural Sports, has preserved a document, dated in the year 1685 ' in 
which a yeoman binds himself for the sum of ten shillings, fully and 

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efFectually to teach a spaniel to sit partridges and pheasants. The first 
person, however, who systematically broke-in setting dogs, is supposed to 
have been Dudley Duke of Northumberland, in 1335. 

A singular dog-cause was tried in Westminster, in July, 1822 At a 
previous trial it was determined that the mere possession of a dog, gene- 
rally used for destroying game, was sufficient proof of its being actually so 
used Mr. Justice Best, however, determined that a man might be a 
breeder of such dogs without using them as game-dogs ; and Mr Justice 
Bailey thought that if a game-dog was kept in a yard, chained up by day, 
and let loose at night, and, being so trained as to guard the premises, he 
was to be considered as a yard-dog, and not as a game-doo- 

The setter is used for the same purpose as the pointer, and there is ^reat 
difference of opinion with regard to their relative value as sportin--doos 
betters are not so numerous ; and they are dearer, and with great difficufty 
obtained pure. It was long the fashion to cross and mix them with the 
pointer, by which no benefit was obtained, but the beauty of the doo- 
materially impaired ; many Irish sportsmen, however, were exceeding-lv 
careful to preserve the breed pure." Nothing of the pointer can be traced 
in them, and they are useful and beautiful dogs, altogether diff-erent in 
appearance from either the English or Scotch setter. The Irish sports 
men are, perhaps a little too much prejudiced with regard to particular 
CO ours. Their_ dogs are either very red, or red and white, or lemon- 
coloured or white, patched with deep chestnut ; and it was necessary for 
them to have a black nose, and a black roof to the mouth, This peculiar 
dye IS supposed to be as necessary to a good and genuine Irish setter as is 
the palate of a Blenheim spaniel to the purity of his breed. A true Irish 
setter will obtain a higher price than either an English or Scotch one. 
intty guineas constituted no unusual price for a brace of them, and even 
two hundred guineas have been given. It is, nevertheless, doubtful 
whether they do in reality so much exceed the other breeds, and whether, 
although stout and hard-working dogs, and with excellent scent, they 
are not somewhat too headstrong and unruly. 

The setter is more active than the pointer. He has greater spirit and 

He will better stand continued hard work. " 



strength. 



He will generally 



take the water when necessary, and, retaining the character of the breed 
IS more companionable and attached. He loves his master for himself 



and not, like the pointer, merely for the pleasure he shares with him His 
somewhat inferior scent, however, makes him a little too apt to run into 
his game, and he occasionally has a will of his own. He requires ^ood 

mnles Id "«* Partake of the severity which too often accom- 

aS sndf yr'Tf '''' ^ so, the tuition of the pointer. He has more 

the ctr ." ^' P^'"*'"' ^"* ^'' ^^' ""^^^ "^"^'^ Patient courage ; and 
ZvloTtT ' f ^^^r''' """^«^.««^^T ^«d cruel, but leaving the pointer 
wTth • ^1 ^ork,.^i^d eager for it too, would make the setter disgusted 

ZlV'I , "" i"™ ^ """^"'^ ^^'''^'''- ^^ '' ^^ffic^lt' however, always to 
decide the claim of superiority between these dogs. He that has a good 

one of either breed may be content, but the lineage of that dog must be 

pure. The setter, with much of the pointer in him, loses something in 

activity and endurance ; and the pointer, crossed with the setter, may have a 

degree of wildness and obstinacy, not a little annoying to his owner. The 

setter may be preferable when the ground is hard and rough ; for he 



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does not soon become foot-sore. He may even answer the ^. ^^^ ^^ 
springer for pheasants and woodcocks, and may be valuable in recovering 
a wounded bird. His scent may frequently be superior to that of the 
pointer, and sufficiently accurate to distinguish, better than the pointer 
when the game is sprung ; but the steadiness and obedience of the pointer 
will generally give him the preference, especially in a fair and tolerably 
smooth country. At the beginning of a season, and when the weather 
IS hot, the poniter will have a decided advantage. 

Of the difference between the old English setter and the setters of the 
present day, we confess that we are ignorant, except that the first was the 
pure spaniel improved, and the latter the spaniel crossed too frequently 
with the pointer. 

It must be acknowledged, that of companionableness, and disinterested 
attachment and gratitude, the pointer knows comparatively little. If he 
is a docile and obedient servant in the field, it is all we want. The setter 
is unquestionably his superior in every amiable quality. Mr. Blaine says, 
that a large setter, ill with the distemper, had been nursed by a lady 
more than three weeks. At length he became so ill as to be placed in a 
bed, where he remained a couple of days in a dying state. After a short 
absence, the lady, re-entering the room, observed him to fix his eyes atten- 
tively on her, and make an effort to crawl across the bed towards her. 
This he accomplished, evidently for the sole purpose of licking her hand 
after which he immediately expired. ' 



THE POINTER. 






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The pointer is evidently descended from the hound. It is the fox-hound 
earching for game by the scent, but more perfectly under the control of 



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the sportsman, repressing his cry of joy when he finds his game, and his 
momentary pause, and gathering himself up in order to spring upon it 
artificially, converted into a steady and deliberate point. There still re- 
mains a strong resemblance, in countenance and in form, between the 
pointer and the fox-hound, except that the muzzle is shorter, and the ears 
smaller, and partly pendulous. 

Seventy or eighty years ago, the breed of pointers was nearly white, 
or varied with liver-coloured spots ; some, however, belonging to the Duke 
of Kingston, were perfectly black. This peculiarity of colour was sup- 
posed to be connected with exquisite perfection of scent. That is not the 
case with the present black pointers, who are not superior to any others. 

Mr. Daniel relates an anecdote of one of his pointers. He had a dog 
that would always go round close to the hedges of a field before he would 
quarter his ground. He seemed to have observed that he most frequently 
found his game in the course of this circuit.^ 

Mr. Johnson gives the following characteristic sketches of the different 
breeds of pointer : 



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THE SPANISPT POINTER, 

originally a native of Spain, was once considered to be a valuable dog. 
He stood higher on his legs, but was too large and heavy in his limbs, and 
had widely spread, ngly feet, exposing him to frequent lameness. His 
muzzle and head were large, corresponding with the acuteness of his smell. 
His ears were large and pendent, and his body ill-formed. He was natur- 
ally an ill-tempered dog, growling at the hand that would caress him, 
even although it were his master's. He stood steadily to his birds ; but it 
was difficult to break him of chasing the hare. He was deficient in speed. 
His redeeming quality was his excellent scent, unequalled in any other 
kind of dog. 



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THE PORTUGUESE POINTER, 



although with a slighter form than the Spanish one", is defective in the 
feet, often crooked in the legs, and of a quarrelsome disposition. He soon 
tires, and is much inclined to chase the hare. The tail is larger than that 
of the spaniel, and fully fringed. 



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THE FRENCH POINTER 



is distinguished by a furrow between his nostrils, which materially interferes 
with the acuteness of smell. He is better formed and 



jnore 



^ The author of The Field Book says 
that he saw an extremely small pointer, 
whose length, from the tip of the nose to 
the point of the tail, was only two feet and 
half an inch, the length of the head being 
six inches, and round the chest one foot 
and three inches. He was an exquisite 
miniature of the English pointer, being in 
all respects similar to him, except in his 
size. His colour was white, with dark 
liver-coloured patches on each side of the 
head, extending half down the neck. The 
ears, with some patches on the back, wex-e 
also of the same colour, and nimaerous 



small dark-brown spots appeared over his 
whole body and legs. 

This beautiful little animal had an ex- 
quisite sense of smell. Some of the same 
breed, and being the property of the Earl 
of Lauderdale, were broken-in and made 
excellent pointers, although, from their 
minute size, it could not be expected that 
they would be able to do much work. 
When intent upon any object, the dog as- 
sumed the same attitude as other pomters^ 
holding up one of his feet.— The Field 

Book, p. 399. 



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SECOND DIVISION OF THE 



either the Spanish or Portuguese dog, and capable of longer continued 
exertion ; but he is apt to be quarrelsome, and is too fond of chasing the 



THE RUSSIAN POINTER 



IS a rough, Ill-tempered animal, with too much tendency to stupidity and 
often annoyed by vermin. He runs awkwardly, with his nose neir the 
ground, and frequently springs his same " ^ "" 

diviaed nose. 



J J . --^* xxx^ i.x\j^^ iicai Lilt; 

He also has the cloven or 



THE EARLY TRAINING OF THE DOG. 

The education of these dogs should commence at an early period, whether 
conducted by the breeder or the sportsman ; and the first lesson— that on 
which the value of the animal, and the pleasure of its owner, will much 
depend— is a habit of subjection on the part of the dog, and kindness on 
the part of the master. This is a sine gud non. The dog must recognise 
in his ovvner a friend and a benefactor. This will soon establish in the 
mmd of the quadruped a feeling of gratitude, and a desire to please. All 

orocSs^o^blH • ^"^' '^ ^' " encouraged by the master, Ind then the 
process of breaking-m may commence in good earnest 

No long time probably passes ere the dog commits some little fault 
He IS careless or obstinate, or cross. The owner puts on a serious counte 
nance he holds up his finger, or shakes his head, or produces the wh p 
and threatens to use i Perhaps the infliction of a blow, that breaks n^o 
bones oc^sionally follows. In the majority of cases nothing more is re^ 
quired. The dog succumbs; he asks to be forgiven • or iA^ h.. t 
self-willed, he may be speedily corrected withouT an^'serio^s pu^ment" 

• ^ r'fJ'.r^- ' '^' 'J^"^*"'" ^^ " ^«^°'" i" The New Sporting Maga- 
zine for 1833, gives an interesting account of the schooling of the pointer 

or setter, thus commenced. A short abstract from it may not be unac- 
ceptable : — •' 

"The first lesson inculcated is that of passive obedience, and this enforced 
by the infliction of severity as little as the case will admit. We will sup- 
pose the dog to be a setter. He is taken into the garden or into a field 
and a strong cord, about eighteen or twenty yards long, is tied to his collar! 
1 he sportsman calls the dog to him, looks earnestly at him, gently presses 
him to the ground, and several times with a loud, but not an angry voice, 
says, Down ! or ' Down charge !' The dog knows not the meaning of this 
and struggles to get up ; but, as often as he struggles, the cry of ' Down 
charge ! is repeated, and the pressure is continued or increased. 

ihis is repeated a longer or shorter time, until the do-, finding that no 
harm is meant, quietly submits. He is then 'permitted to rise ; he is pa teS 
and caressed, and some food is given to him. The command to rise t 
also introduced by the terms ' Hie^ up !' , A little afterwaXthe same pro 

ltrnggl7 ' '*'"^^''^ ''"' "^ P^^^'^P^ ^^^^^« altogether^ to 

_ "The person whose circumstances permit him occasionally to shoot over 
his little demesne, may very readily educate his dog without havino- re 
course to keepers or professional breakers, among whom he would often be 
subject to imposition. Generally speaking, no dog is half so well broken 
as the one whose owner has taken the trouble of training him. The first 
and grand thing is to obtain the attachment of the dog, by frequently feed- 



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VAUIETIES OF THE DOG. 



95 



ing and caressing him, and giving him little hours of liberty under his 
own inspection ; but, every now and then, inculcating a lesson of obedience, 
teaching him that every gambol must be under the control of his master ; 
frequently checking him in tlie midst of his riot with the order of ' Down 
charge V patting him when he is instantly obedient ; and rating, or castiga- 
ting him, but not too severely, when there is any reluctance to obey. Passive 

obedience is the first 'principle^ and from which no deviation should he 
allotved.^ 

" Much kindness and gentleness are certainly requisite when breaking-in 
the puppy, whether it be a pointer or a setter. There is heedlessness in 
tlie young dog which is not readily got rid of until age has given him ex- 
perience. He must not, however, be too severely corrected, or he may be 
spoiled for life. If considerable correction is sometimes necessary, it should 
be followed, at a little distance of time, by some kind usage. The memory 
of the suffering will remain ; but the feeling of attachment to the master 
will also remain, or rather be increased. The temper of a young dog must 
be almost as carefully studied as that of a human being. Timidity may be 
encouraged, and eagerness may be restrained, but affection must be the 
tie that binds him to his master, and renders him subservient to his will- 

" The next portion of the lesson is more difficult to learn. He is no longer 
held by his master, but suffered to run over the field, seemingly at his 
pleasure, when, suddenly, comes the warning ' Down !' He perhaps pays 
no attention to it, but gambols along until seized by his master, forced on 
the ground, and the order of ' Down I' somewhat sternly uttered, 

" After a while he is suffered again to get up. He soon forgets what has 
occurred, and gallops away with as much glee as ever. Again the ' Down !' 
is heard, and again little or no attention is paid to it. His master once more 
lays hold of him and forces him on the ground, and perhaps inflicts a slight 
blow or two, and this process continues until the dog finds that he must obey 

the command of ' Down charge V 

The owner will now probably walk from him a little way backward with 
his hand lifted up. If the dog makes the slightest motion, he must be 
sharply spoken to, and the order peremptorily enforced. 

" He must then be taught to ' back,' that is, to come behind his master 
when called. When he seems to understand all this, he is called by his 
master in a kindly tone and patted and caressed. It is almost incredible 
how soon he will afterwards understand what he is ordered to do, and per- 
form it. 

" It will be seen by this that no one should attempt to break-in a dog 
who is not possessed of patience and perseverance. The sportsman must 
not expect to see a great deal of improvement from the early lessons. The 
dog will often forget that which was inculcated upon him a few hours be- 
fore ; but perseverance and kindness will effect much : the first lessons over, 
the dog, beginning to perceive a little what is meant, will cheerfully 
and joyfully do his duty. 

" When there is much difficulty in teaching the dog his lesson, the fault 
lies as often with the master as with him ; or they are, generally speakings 
both in fault. 



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Some dogs cannot be mastered but by means of frequent 
correction. The less the sportsman has to do with them the better. Others 

^ Another writer in the same volume gives also an interesting account of the 
management of the setter. 



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will not endure the least correction^ but become either ferocious or sulky. 
They should be disposed of as soon as possible. The majority of dogs are 
exceedingly sagacious. They possess strong reasoning powers ; they un- 
derstand, by intuition, almost every want and wish of their master, and 
they deserve the kindest and best usage. 

'' The scholar being thus prepared, should be taken into the field, either 
alone or, what is considerably better, with a well-trained, steady dog. 
When the old dog makes a point, the master calls out, ' Down !' or ' Soho !' 
and holds up his hand, and approaches steadily to the birds ; and, if the young 
one runs in or prepares to do so, as probably he will at first, he again 
raises his hand and calls out, ' Soho V If the youngster pays no attention 
to this, the whip must be used, and in a short time he will be steady enouo^h 
at the first intimation of game. 

" If he springs any birds without taking notice of them, he should be 
dragged to the spot from which they rose, and, ' Soho !'' being cried, one 
or two sharp strokes with the whip should be inflicted. If he is too eager, 
he should be warned to ' take heed.' If he rakes or runs with his nose 
near the ground, he should be admonished to hold up^ and, if he still per- 
sists, the muzzle-peg may be resorted to. Some persons fire over the 
dog for running at hares : but this is wrong ; for, beside the danger of 
wounding or even killing the animal, he will for some time afterwards be 

^ dght of a gun. The best plan 
to accustom dogs to the gun, is occasionally to fire one off when they are 

being fed. 

"Some persons let their dog fetch the dead birds. This is very wrong. 
Except the sportsman has a double-barrelled gun, the dog should not be 
suffered to move until the piece is again charged. The young one, until 
he is thoroughly broken of it, is too apt to run-in whether the bird is killed 
or not, and which may create much mischief by disturbing the game. 

" Although excessive punishment should not be administered, yet no fault, 
however small, should pass without reproof: on the other hand, he should 
be rewarded, but not too lavishly, for every instance of good conduct. 

" When the dog is grown tolerably steady, and taught to come at the call, 
he should also learn to range and quarter his ground. Let some clear 
morning, and some place where the sportsman is likely to meet with game, 
be selected. Station him where the wind will blow in his face ; wave your 
hand and cry, ' Heigh on, good dog V Then let him go off to the right, 
about seventy or eighty yards. After this, call him in by another wave of 
the hand, and let him go the same distance to the left. Walk straight for- 
ward with your eye always upon him ; then, let him continue to cross from 
right to left, calling him in at the limit of each range. 

" This is at first a somewhat difficult lesson, and requires careful teaching. 
The same ground is never to be twice passed over. The sportsman watches 
every motion, and the dog is never trusted out of sight, or allowed to break 
fence. When this lesson is tolerably learned, and on some good scenting 
morning early in the season he may take the field, and perhaps find. Pro- 
bably he will be too eager, and spring his game. Make him down imme- 
diately, and take him to the place where the birds rose. Chide him with 
' Steady !' ' How dare you V Use no whip ; but scold him well, and be 
assured that he will be more cautious. If possible, kill on the next chance. 
The moment the bird is down, he will probably rush in and seize it. He 
must be met with the same rebuff, ' Down charge !' If he does not obey, he 



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VARIETIES OP THE DOG. 



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deserves to have, and will have, a stroke with the whip. The gun being 
again charged, the bird is sought for, and the dog is suffered to see it and 
play with it for a minute before it is put into the bag. 
^ " He will now become thoroughly fond of the sport, and his fondness will 
increase with each bird that is killed. At every time, however, whether 
he kills or misses, the sportsman should make the dog ' Down charge/ 
and never allow him to rise until he has loaded. 

^ ^^ If a hare should be wounded, there will, occasionally, be considerable 
difficulty in preventing him from chasing her. The best broken and 
steadiest dog cannot always be restrained from running hares. He must 
be checked with ' Ware chase,' and^ if he does not attend, the sportsman 
must wait patiently. He will by-and-by come slinking along with his 
tail between his legs, conscious of his fault. It is one, however, that admits 
of no pardon. He must be secured, and, while the field echoes with the cry 
of ' Ware chase,' he must be punished to a certain but not too great ex- 
tent. The castigation must be repeated as often as he offends ; or, if there 
is much difficulty in breaking him of the habit, he must be got rid of" 

The breaking-in or subjugation of pointers and setters is a very im- 
portant, and occasionally a difficult affair ; the pleasure of the sportsman, 
however, depends upon it. The owner of any considerable property will 
naturally look to his keeper to furnish him with dogs on which he may 
depend, and he ought not to be disappointed ; for those which belong 
to other persons, or are brought at the beginning of the season, whatever 
account the breaker or the keeper of them may give, will too often 
be found deficient. 



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THE OTTER HOUND 

used to be of a mingled breed, between the southern hound and the 
rough terrier, and in size between the harrier and the fox-hound. The 
head should be large and broad^ the shoulders and quarters thick, and the 
hair strong, wiry, and rough. They used to be kept in small packs, for 
the express purpose of hunting the otter. 

Two hundred and fifty years ago, otter-hunting was a favourite amuse- 
ment in several parts of Great Britain. Many of our streams then abounded 
with this destructive animal ; but, since the population of our country has 
become more dense, and game-keepers are more numerous, and many 
contrivances are adopted to ensnare and destroy otters, few are now to be 
found. 



THE TURNSPIT. 



This dog was once a valuable auxiliary in the kitchen, by turning the 
it before lacks were invpnt^d. It had a peculiar length of body, with 



spit before jacks were invented. ^ ^ j^-^i^xxai it^ng m oi ooay, wim 

short crooked legs, the tail curled, its ears long and pendent, and the 
head larp^P in r^v......^.. f. .t.. Ur.^.r It is still used in the kitchen on 



head large in proportion to the body. 

various parts of the Continent. There are some curious stories of the 

artfulness with which he often attempted to avoid the task imposed upon 
him. 

There is a variety of this dog ; the crooked-legged turnspit. 



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THIRD DIVISION OF THE 



CHAPTER IV. 



THE VAKIETIES OF THE DOG THIKD DIVISION. 

The muzzle more or less shortened^ the frontal sinus enlarge 

cranium elevated and diminished in capacity. 

At the head of this inferior or brutal division of dogs stands 



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The round, thick head, turned-up nose, and thick and pendulous lips of 
this dog are familiar to all, while his ferocity makes him in the highest 
degree dangerous. In general he makes a silent although ferocious attack, 
and the persisting powers of his teeth and jaws enable him to keep his hold 
against any but the greatest efforts, so thaf the utmost mischief is likely 
to ensue as well to the innocent visitor of his domicile as the ferocious in- 
truder. The bull-dog is scarcely capable of any education, and is fitted 
for nothing but ferocity and combat 

The name of this dog is derived from his being too often employed, 
until a few years ago, in baiting the bull. It was practised by the low 



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VARIETIES OF THE DOG. 



99 



anddissoluteinmany parts of the country. Dogs were bred and trained 
for the purpose ; and, while many of them were injured or destroyed, the 
head of the bull was lacerated in the most barbarous manner. Nothing 
can exceed the fury with which the bull-dog rushed on his foe, and the 
obstinacy with which he maintained his hold. He fastened upon the lip, 
the muzzle, or the eye, and there he hung in spite of every effort of the 
bull to free himself from his antagonist. 

Bull-dogs are not so numerous as they were a few years ago ; and every 
kind-hearted person will rejoice to hear that bull-baiting is now put down 
by legal authority in every part of the kingdom. 



THE BULL-TEEKIER, 

This dog is a cross between the bull-dog and the terrier, and is gene- 
rally superior, both in appearance and value, to either of its progenitors. 
A second cross considerably lessens the underhanging of the lower jaw, 
and a third entirely removes it, retaining the spirit and determination of 
the animal. It forms a steadier friendship than either of them, and the 
principal objection to it is its love of wanton mischief, and the dangerous 
irascibility which it occasionally exhibits. 

Sir Walter Scott, a warm friend of dogs, and whose veracity cannot be 
impeached, gives an interesting account of a favourite one belonging to 
him. " The cleverest dog I ever had was what is called a bnll-dog terrier. 
I taught him to understand a great many words, insomuch that I am 
positive the communication between the canine species and ourselves might 
be greatly enlarged. Camp, the name of my dog, once bit the baker when 
bringing bread to the family. I beat him, and explained the enormity of 
the offence ; after which, to the last moment of his life, he never heard the 
least allusion to the story without creeping into the darkest corner of the 
room. Towards the end of his life, when he was unable to attend me while 
I was on horseback, he generally watched for my return, and, when the 
servant used to tell him, his master was coming down the hill, or through 
the moor, although he did not use any gesture to explain his meaning, 
Camp was never known to mistake him, but either went out at the front 
to go up the hill, or at the back to get down to the moor-side," 



THE MASTIFF. 



The head considerably resembles that of the bull-dog, but with the ears 
dependent. The upper lip falls over the lower jaw. The end of the tail 
is turned up, and frequently the fifth toe of the hind feet is more or less 
developed. The nostrils are separated one from another by a deep fur- 
row. He has a grave and somewhat sullen countenance, and his deep- 
toned bark is often heard during the night. The mastiff is taller than the 
bull-dog, but not so deep in the chest, and his head is large compared with 
his general form. 

It is probable that the mastiff is an original breed peculiar to the 
British islands. 

He seems to be fully aware of the impression which his large size makes 
on every stranger ; and, in the night especially, he watches the abode of his 
master with the completest vigilance ; in fact, nothing would tempt him to 
betray the confidence which is reposed in him. 



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THIRD DIVISION OF THE 



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Captain Brown states that, " notwithstanding his commanding- appear- 
ance and the strictness with which he guards the property of hi^ master 
he is possessed of the greatest mildness of conduct, and is as grateful for 
any favours bestowed upon him as is the most diminutive of the canine 
tribe. There is a remarkable and peculiar warmth in his attachments. 
He IS avvare of all the duties required of him, and he punctually discharges 
them. In the course of the night he several times examines every thing 
with which he is intrusted with the most scrupulous care, and by repeated 
barkings, warns the household or the depredator that he is at the post of 
duty." ■' ^ 




THE MASTIFF. 



The mastiff from Cuba requires some mention, and will call up some of 
the most painful recollections in the history of the human race. He was 
not a native of Cuba, but imported into the country. 

_ The Spaniards had possessed themselves of several of the South American 
islands, ihey found them peopled with Indians, and those of a sensual, 
brutisli, and barbarous class— continually making war with their neio-h- 
bours, indulging in an irreconcilable hatred of the Spaniards, and detl^r- 
mined to expel and destroy them. In self-defence, they were driven to some 
means of averting the destruction with which they were threatened. They 
procured some of these mastiffs, by w hose assistance they penetrated into 

* Brown's Biographical Sketches, p. 425. 






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VARIETIES OF THE DOG, 



101 



every part of tHe country, and destroyed the greater portion of the former 
inhabitants. 

Las Casas, a Catholic priest, and whose life was employed in endeavouring 
to mitigate the sufferings of tlie original inhabitants, says that " it was re- 
solved to march against the Indians, who had fled to the mountains, and 
they were chased like wild beasts, with the assistance of bloodhounds, who 
had been trained to a thirst for human blood, so that before I had left the 
island it had become almost entirely a desert/' 



TRE ICELAND DOG. 

The head is rounder than that of the northern dogs ; the ears partly erect 
and partly pendent ; and the fur soft and long, especially behind the fore 
legs and on the tail. It much resembles the Turkish dog removed to a 
colder climate. 

This dog is exceedingly useful to the Icelanders while travelling over the 
snowy deserts of the north. By a kind of intuition he rarely fails in choosing 
the shortest and the safest course. He also is more aware than his master 
of the approach of the snow storms ; and is a most valuable ally against the 
attack of the Polar bear, who, drifted on masses of ice from the neigh- 
bouring continent, often commits depredations among the cattle, and even 
attacks human beings. When the dog is first aware of the neighbourhood 
of the bear, he sets up a fearful howly and men and dogs hasten to hunt 
down and destroy the depredator. 

The travelling in Iceland is sometimes exceedingly dangerous at the 
beginning of the winter. A thin layer of snow covers and conceals some 
of the chasms with which that region abounds. Should the traveller fall 
into one of them, the dog proves a most useful animal ; for he runs imme- 
diately across the snowy waste, and, by his howling, induces the traveller's 
friends to hasten to his rescue. 



THE TEHRIER. 

The forehead is convex ; the eye prominent ; the muzzle pointed ; the 
tail thin and arched ; the fur short; the ears of moderate size, half erect, 
and usually of a deep-black colour, with a yellow spot over the eyes. It 
is an exceedingly useful animal; but not so indispensable W accompani- 
ment to a pack of fox-hounds as it used to be accounted. Foxes are not 
so often unearthed as they formerly were, yet many a day's sport would be 
lost without the terrier. Some sportsmen used to have two terriers accom- 
panying in the pack, one being smaller than the other. This was a very 
proper provision ; a large terrier might be incapable of penetrating into 
the earth, and a small one might permit the escape of the prey. Many 
terriers have lost their lives by scratching up the earth behind them, and 
thus depriving themselves of all means of retreat. 

The coat of the terrier may be either smooth or rough ; the smooth -haired 
ones are more delicate in appearance, and are somewhat more exposed to 
injury or accident ; but in courage, sagacity, and strength, there is very 
little difference if the dogs are equally well bred. The rough terrier pos- 
sibly obtained his shaggj^ coat from the cur, and the smooth terrier may 
derive his from the hound. 

The terrier is seldom of much service until he is twelve months old ; and 



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THIRD DIVISION OF THE 






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then, incited by natural propensity, or the example of the older ones, or 
urged on by the huntsman, he begins to discharge his supposed duty. 
An old terrier is brought to the mouth of the earth in which a vixen fox 
a fox with her young ones— has taken up her abode, and is sent in to 
worry and drive her out. Some young terriers are brought to the mouth 
of the hover, to listen to the process that is going forward within, and to 
be excited to the utmost extent of which they are capable. The vixen is 
at length driven out, and caught at the mouth of the hole ;* and the youn 
ones are suffered to rush in, and worry or destroy their first prey. They 
want no after-tuition to prepare them for the discharge of their duty. 
This may be pardoned. ' It is the most ready way of trainino- the 

young dog to his future business ; but it is hoped that no reader of this^orli 
will be guilty of the atrocities that are often practised. An old fox, or 
badger, is caught, his under jaw is sawn off, and the lower teeth are for- 
cibly extracted, or broken. A hole is then dug in the earth, or a barrel 
is placed large and deep enough to permit a terrier, or perhaps two of them, 
to enter. Into this cavity the fox or badger is thrust, and a terrier rushes 
after him, and drags him out again. The question to be ascertained is, 
how many times in a given period the dog will draw this poor tortured 
animal out of the barrel— an exhibition of cruelty which no one should be 
able to lay to the charge of any human being. It is a principle not to be 
departed from, that wanton and useless barbarity should never be per- 
mitted. The government, to a certain extent, has interfered, and a noble 
society has been established to limit, or, if possible, to prevent the infliction 
of useless pain. 

The terrier is, however, a valuable dog, in the house and the farm. The 
stoat, the pole-cat, and the weazel, commit great depredations in the fields, 
the barn, and granary ; and to a certain extent, the terrier is employed in 
chasing or destroying them ; but it is not often that he has a fair chance to 
attack them. He is more frequently used in combating the rat. 

The mischief effected by rats is almost incredible. It has been said that, 
in some cases, in the article of corn, these animals consume a quantity of 
food equal in value to the rent of the farm. Here the dog is usefully em- 
ployed, and in his very element, especially if there is a cross of the bull-dog 
about him. 

There are some extraordinary accounts of the dexterity, as well as 
courage, of the terrier in destroying rats. The feats of a dog called " Billy" 
will be long remembered. He was matched to destroy one hundred large 
rats in eight and a half minutes. The rats were brought into the ring in 
bags, and, as soon as the number was complete, he was put over the rail- 
ing. In six minutes and thirty-five seconds they were all destroyed. In 
another match he destroyed the same number in six minutes and thirteen 
seconds. At length, when he was getting old, and had but two teeth and 
one eye left, a wager was laid of thirty sovereigns, by the owner of a 
Berkshire bitch, that she would kill fifty rats in less time than Billy. The 
old dog killed his fifty in five minutes and six seconds. The pit was then 
cleared, and the bitch let in. When she had killed thirty rats, she was 
completely exhausted, fell into a fit, and lay barking and yelping, utterly 
incapable of completing her task. 

The speed of the terrier is very great. One has been known to run six 
miles in thirty-two minutes. He needs to be a fleet dog if, with his com- 
paratively little bulk, he can keep up with the foxhound. 



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VARIETIES OP THE DOG. 



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A small breed of wry-legged terriers was once in repute, and, to a certain 
degree, is retained for the purpose of hunting rabbits. It probably origi- 
nated in some ricketty specimens, remarkable for the slow development of 
their frame, except in the head, the belly, and the joints, which enlarge at 
the expense of the other parts. 



THE SCOTCH TEHRIER. 



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There is reason to believe that this dog is far older than the English 
terrier. There are three varieties : first, the common Scotch terrier, 
twelve or thirteen inches high ; his body muscular and compact — consider- 
able breadth across the loins — the legs shorter and stouter than those of the 
English terriers. The head large in proportion to the size of the body 
the muzzle small and pointed — strong marks of intelligence in the counte- 
nance — warm attachment to his master, and the evident devotion of every 
power to the fulfilment of his wishes. The hair is long and tough, and 
extending over the whole of the frame. In colour, they are black or 
fawn : the white, yellow, or pied are always deficient in purity of blood. 

Another species has nearly the same conformation, but is covered with 
longer, more curly, and stouter hair ; the legs being apparently, but not 
actually, shorter. This kind of dog prevails in the greater part of the 
Western Islands of Scotland, and some of them, where the hair has ob- 
tained its full development, are much admired. 

Her Majesty had one from Islay, a faithful and affectionate creature, 
yet with all the spirit and determination that belongs to his breed. The 
writer of this account had occasion to operate on this poor fellow, who 



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THIRD DIVISION OP THE VARIETIES OE THE DOG. 



had been bitten under somewhat suspicious circumstances. He submitted 
without a cry or a struggle, and seemed to be perfectly aware that we 
should not put him to pain without having some good purpose in view. 

A third spqcies of terrier is of a considerably larger bulk, and three or 
four inches taller than either of the others. Its hair is shorter than that 
of the other breeds, and is hard and wiry. 



THE SHOCK-DOG 

is traced by BufFon, but somewhat erroneously, to a mixture of the small 
Danish dog and the pug. The head is round, the eyes large, but some- 
what concealed by its long and curly hair, the tail curved and bent 
forward. The muzzle resembles that of the pug. It is of a small size, 
and is used in this country and on the Continent as a lap-dog. It is very 
properly described by the author of " The Field Book" as a useless little 
animal, seeming to possess no other quality than that of a faithful attach- 
ment to his mistress. 



THE AKTOIS DOG. 



with his short, flat muzzle, is a produce of the shock-dog and the pug. He 
has nothing peculiar to recommend him. 



THE ANDALUSIAK^ OK ALICANT DOG, 

has the short muzzle of the pug with the long hair of the spaniel. 



THE EGYPTIAN AND BAHBAHY DOG, 

according to Cuvier, has a very thick and round head, the ears erect at 
the base, large and moveable, and carried horizontally ; the skin nearly 
naked, and black or dark-flesh colour, with large patches of brown. A 
sub-variety has a kind of mane behind the head, formed of long stiff* hairs. 
Buffbn imagines that the shepherd's dog — transported to different cli- 
mates, and acquiring different habits— was the ancestor of the various species 
with which almost every country abounds ; but whence they originally 
came it is impossible to say. They vary in their size, their colour, their 
attitude, their usual exterior, and their strangely different interior con- 
struction. Transported into various climates, they are necessarily sub- 
mitted to the influence of heat and cold, and of food more or less abundant 
and more or less suitable to their natural organization ; but the reason or 

the derivation of these differences of structure it is not always easy to 
explain. 



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GOOD QUALITIES OF THE DOG. 



105 



CHAPTER V. 



THE GOOD QUALITIES OF THE DOG ; THE SENSE OF SMELL ; INTELLI- 
GENCE ; MORAL QUALITIES ; DOG-CAETS ; CROPPING ; TAILING ; 
BREAKING-IN ; DOG-PITS ; DOG-STEALING. 

In our history of the difFerent breeds of the dog we have seen enough to 
induce us to admire and love him. His courage, his fidelity, and the 



His very 



degree in which he often devotes every power that he possesses to our ser- 
vice, are circumstances that we can never forget nor overlook. "^" " 
foibles occasionally attach him to us. We may select a pointer for the 
pureness of his blood and the perfection of his education. He transgresses 
in the field. 



him. 



We 

He lies motionless and dumb at our feet. 



struggle ; 
hand. 



_^ ^ Th^ punishment being 

over, he gets up, and, by some significant gesture, acknowledges his con- 
sciousness of deserving what he has suflTered. The writer operated on 
a pointer bitch for an enlarged cancerous tumour, accompanied by much 
inflammation and pain in the surrounding parts. A word or two of kind- 
ness and of caution were all that were necessary, although, in order to 
prevent accidents, she had been bound securely. The flesh quivered as the 
knife pursued its course — a moan or two escaped her, but yet she did not 

and her first act, after all was over, was to lick the operator's 

iv'om the combination of various causes, the history of no animal^ is 
more interesting than that of the dog. First, his intimate association with 
man not only as a valuable protector, but as a constant and faithful com- 
panion throughout all the vicissitudes of life. Secondly, from his natural 
endowments, not consisting in the exquisite delicacy of one individual sense 

j^^t merely combining memory with reflection— but possessing qualities of 

the mind that stagger us in the contemplation of them, and which we can 
alone account for in the gradation existing in that wonderful system which, 
by difFerent links of one vast chain, extends from the first to the last of 
all thin2:s until it forms a perfect whole on the wonderful confines of the 

spiritual and material world. 

We here quote the beautiful account of Sir Walter ^ 

as described by Henry Hallam : 

« But looking towards the grassy mound 
Where calm the Douglas chieftains lie, 
Who, living, quiet never found, 
I straightway learnt a lesson high ; 
For there an old man sat serene, 
And well I knew that thoughtful mien 
Of him whose early lyre had thrown 
O'er mouldering walls the magic of its tone. 

It was a comfort, too, to see 

Those dogs that from him ne'er would rove, 

And always eyed him reverently. 

With glances of depending love. 



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106 



In man the weight of 

In the 



GOOD QUALITIES OF THE DOG. 

They know not of the eminence 

W hich marks him to my reasoning sense ; 

They know but that he is a man, 

And still to them is kind, and glads them all he can. 

And hence their quiet looks confiding ; 
Hence grateful instincts, seated deep, 

By whose strong bond, were ill betiding, 

They'd lose their own, his life to keep. 

What joy to watch in lower creature 

Such dawning of a moral nature. 

And how (the rule all things obey) 

They look to a higher mind to be their law and stay !" 

^ The subject of the intellectual and moral qualities of the inferior animals 
is one highly interesting and somewhat misunderstood — urged perhaps to 
a ridiculous extent by some persons, yet altogether neglected by others who 
have no feeling for any but themselves. 

Anatomists have compared the relative bulk of the brain in diiferent 

animals, and the result is not a little interesting. ~ „. 

the brain amounts on the average to l-30th part of the body. 
Newfoundland dog it does not amount to l-60th part, or to 1 -100th part in 

the poodle and barbet, and not to more than 1 -300th part in the ferocious 
and stupid bull-dog. 

When the brain is cut, it is found to be composed of two substances 
essentially different in construction and function— the cortical and the 
medullary. The first is small in quantity, and principally concerned in the 

food and reproduction of the animal, and the cineritious in a great measure 
the register of the mind. Brute strength seems to be the character of the 
former, and superior intelligence of the latter. There is, comparing bulk 
with bulk, less of the medullary substance in the horse than in the oj?— and 
in the dog than in the horse— and they are characterized as the sluggish 
ox, the intelligent horse, and the intellectual and companionable dog. 

From the medullary substance proceed certain cords or prolongations, 
termed nerves, by which the animal is enabled to receive impressions froni 
surrounding objects and to connect himself with them, and also to possess 
many pleasurable or painful sensations. One of them is spread over the 
membrane of the nose, and gives the sense of smell ; another expands on 
the back of the eye, and the faculty of sight is gained ; a third goes to the 
internal structure of the ear, and the animal is conscious of sound. Other 
nerves, proceeding to different parts, give the faculty of motion, while an 
equally important one bestows the power of feeling. One division, spring- 
ing from a prolongation of the brain, and yet within the skull, wanders to 
different parts of the frame, for important purposes connected with respira- 
tion or breathing. The act of breathing is essential to life, and were it to 
cease, the animal would die. 

There are other nerves— the sympathetic— so called from their union and 
sympathy with all the others, and identified with life itself. They proceed 
from a small ganglion or enlargement in the upper part of the neck, or from 
a collection of minute ganglia within the abdomen. They go to the heart 
and it beats ; and to the stomach, and it digests. They form a net-work 
round each vessel, and the frame is nourished and built up. They are desti- 
tute of sensation, and they are perfectly beyond the control of the will. 

We have been accustomed, and properly, to regard the nervous system 
or that portion of it which is connected with animal life that which ren' 



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INTELLIGENCE. 



107 



ders us conscious of surrounding objects and susceptible of pleasure and of 
pain— as the source of intellectual power and moral feeling. It is so with 
ourselves. All our knowledge is derived from our perception of things 
around us. A certain impression is made on the outward fibres of a sen- 
sitive nerve. That impression, in some mysterious way, is conveyed to the 
brain ; and there it is received — registered — stored — and compared ; there 
its connexions are traced and its consequences appreciated ; and thence 
a variety of interesting impressions are conveyed and due use is made of 
them. 



THE SENSE OF SMELL. 



brutes 



Our subject 

chanism on which they depend — may be divided into two parts, the portion 
that receives and conveys, and that which stores up and compares and uses 

the impression. , . , 

The portion that receives and conveys is far more developed in the 

brute than in the human being. Whatever sense we take we clearly per- 
ceive the triumph of animal power. 

The olfactory nerve in the horse, the dog, the ox, and the swine, is the 
largest of all the cerebral nerves, and has much greater comparative 
bulk in the quadruped than in the human being. The sense of smell 
bearing proportion to the nerve on which it depends, is yet more acute. 
In man it is connected with pleasure— in the inferior animals with 
life. The relative size of the nerve bears an invariable proportion to the 
necessity of an acute sense of smell in the various animals — large in the 
horse compared with the olfactory nerve in the human being — larger 
in the ox, who is often sent into the fields to shift for himself— larger 
still in the swine, whose food is buried under the soil/ or deeply immersed 
in the filth or refuse,— and still larger in the dog, the acuteness of whose 
scent is so connected with our pleasure. 



INTELLIGENCE. 



We 



our modern authors, whether treating on agriculture, horsemanship, or 
veterinary medicine, and yet there are some singular and very interesting 
cases of aberration of intellect. The inferior animals are, to a certain 
extent endowed with the same faculties as ourselves. They are even sus- 
ceptible of the same moral qualities. Hatred, love, fear, hope, joy, 
distress, courage, timidity, jealousy, and many varied passions influence 
and agitate them, as they do the human being. The dog is an illustra- 
tion of this — the most susceptible to every impression— approaching the 
nearest to man in his instincts, and in many actions that surprise the 
philosopher, who justly appreciates it. 

What eagerness to bite is often display ed by the dog when labouring 
under enteritis, and especially by him who has imbibed the poison of 
rabies! How singular is the less dangerous malady which induces the 
horse and the dog to press unconsciously forward under the influence ot 
vertigo !— the eagerness with which, when labouring under phrenitis, he 
strikes at every thing with his foot, or rushes upon it to seize it with 
his teeth ! A kind of nostalgia is often recognised in that depression which 
nothing can dissipate, and the invincible aversion to food, by means 



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108 



GOOD QUALITIES OF THE DOG. 



of which many animals perish, who are prevented from returnino' to the 

place where they once lived, and the localities to which they had been 
accustomed. "^ 

These are circumstances proving that the dog is endowed with intelligence 
and with affections like ours ; and, if they do not equal ours, they are of 
the same character. *^ 

With regard to the foundation of intellectual power, viz, attention, 

association, and imagination, the difference between man and 



Thus stands the account,— with the 
the impression is made on the mind ; 



memory, 

animals is in degree, and not inliind, 

quadruped as well as the biped, ^ ^^^ 

attention fixes it there ; memory recurs to^t ; Vmaginatk^Vcombinerit' 
rightly or erroneously, with many other impressions ; judgment deter- 
mines the value of it, and the conclusions that are to be drawn from 
It, if not with logical precision, yet with sufficient accuracy for every 
practical purpose. 

A bitch, naturally ill-tempered, and that would not suffer a stranger to 
touch her, had scirrhous enlargement on one of her teats. As she lay in 
the lap of her mistress, an attempt was repeatedly made to examine the 
tumour, in spite of many desperate attempts on her part to bite. All at 
once, however, something seemed to strike her mind. She whined, wagged 
her tail, and sprung from the lap of her mistress to the ground. It was to 
crouch at the feet of the surgeon, and to lay herself down and expose the 
tumour to his inspection. She submitted to a somewhat painful examina- 
tion of it, and to a far more serious operation afterwards. Some years 
passed away, and whenever she saw the operator, she testified her joy and 
her gratitude in the most expressive and endearing manner. 

A short time since, the following scene took place in a street adioinino- 
Hanover-square. It was an exhibition of a highly interesting character^ 
and worthy to be placed upon record. The editor of the Lancet having 
heard that a French gentleman (M. Leonard), who had for some time 
been engaged in instructing two dogs in various performances that re- 
quired the exercise, not merely of the natural instincts of the animal and 
the power of imitation, but of a higher intellect, and a degree of reflection 
and judgment far greater than is commonly developed in the dog, was 
residing in London, obtained an introduction, and was obligingly favoured 



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nary pupils. He thus describes the interview 
Two fine dogs, of the Spanish breed, were i 

with the customary French politesse, the k.„ ^ „_ „„.. _. 

Philax, the other as M. Brae (or spot) ; the former had been in training 
three, the latter two, years. They were in vigorous health, and, having 
bowed very gracefully, seated themselves on the hearth-rug side by side. 
M. Leonard then gave a lively description of the means he had employed 
to develop the cerebral system in these animals— how, from having been 
fond ot the chace, and ambitious of possessing the best-trained dogs, he 
had employed the usual course of training— how the conviction had been 
impressed on his mind, that by gentle usage, and steady perseverance in 
inducing the animal to repeat again and again what was required, not 
only would the dog be capable of performing that specific act, but' that 
part of the brain which was brought into activity by the mental effort 
would become more largely developed, and hence a permanent increase of 
mental power be obtained. 



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INTELLIGENCE. 



109 



This reasoning is in accordance with the known laws of the physiology 
of the nervous system, and is fraught with the most important results. 

We may refer the rea 
work of Dr. Verity, 
Civilization." 



'' Changes produced in the Nervous System by 



After this introduction, M. Leonard spoke to his dogs in French, in 
his usual tone, and ordered one of them to walk, the other to lie down, to 
run, to gallop, halt, crouch, &c., which they performed as promptly and 
correctly as the most docile children. Then he directed them to go 
through the usual exercises of the manege^ which they performed as well 
as the best trained ponies at Astley's. . 

He next placed six cards of different colours on the floor, and, sitting 
with his back to the dogs, directed one to pick up the blue card, and the 
other the white, &c., varying his orders rapidly, and speaking in such a 
manner that it was impossible the dogs could have executed his commands 
if they had not had a perfect knowledge of the words. For instance, M. 
Leonard said, " Philax, take the red card and give it to Brae ; and, Brae, 
take the white card and give it to Philax ;'' the dogs instantly did this, and 
exchanged cards with each other. He then said, '^ Philax, put your card 
on the green, and Brae, put yours on the blue;" and this was instantly 
performed. Pieces of bread and meat were placed on the floor, with 
figured cards, and a variety of directions were given to the dogs, so as to 
put their intelligence and obedience to a severe test. They brought the 
meat, bread, or cards, as commanded, but did not attempt to eat or to 
touch unless ordered. Philax was then ordered to bring a piece of meat 
and give it to Brae, and then Brae was told to give it back to Philax, who 
was to return it to its place. Philax was next told he might bring a piece 
of bread and eat it ; but, before he had time to swallow it, his master for- 
bade him, and directed him to show that he had not disobeyed, and the dog 
instantly protruded the crust between his lips. 

While many of these feats were being performed, M. Leonard snapped 
a whip violently, to prove that the animals were so completely under disci- 
pline, that they would not heed any interruption. 

After many other performances, M. Leonard invited a gentleman to 
play a game of dominos with one of them. The younger and slighter 
doo- then seated himself on a chair at the table, and the writer and M. 
Leonard seated themselves opposite. Six dominos were placed on their 
edges in the usual manner before the dog, and a like number before the 
writer. The dog having a double number, took one up in his mouth, and 
put it in the middle of the table ; the writer placed a corresponding piece 
on one side ; the dog immediately played another correctly, and so on until 



all the pieces were engaged. Other six dominos were then given to each, 
and the writer intentionally placed a wrong number. The dog looked sur- 
prised, stared very earnestly at the writer, growled, and finally barked 
angrily. Finding that no notice was taken of his remonstrances, he 
pushed away the wrong domino with his nose, and took up a suitable one 
from his own pieces, and placed it in its stead. The writer then played 



correctly ; the dog followed, and won the game. 



Not the slightest inti- 
p dop^. This mode of 



^_..„ -, M . ^ _ 

play must have been entirely the result of his own observation and judg- 
ment. It should be added that the performances were strictly private. 
The owner of the dogs was a gentleman of independent fortune, and the 







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MORAL QUALITIES OF THE DOG. 



instruction of his dogs had been taken up merely as a curious and amusing 
investigation.'* 

Another strange attainment of the dog is the learnino- to speak. The 
French Academicians mention one of these animals that could call in an 
intelligible manner for tea, coiFee, chocolate, &c. The account is given 
by the celebrated Leibnitz, who communicated it to the Royal Academy of 
France. ^ This dog was of a middling size, and was the property of a 
peasant m Saxony. 

A little boy, a peasant's son, imagined that he perceived in the dog's 
voice an indistinct resemblance to certain words, and therefore took it 
into his head to teach him to speak. For this purpose he spared neither 
time nor pains with his pupil, who was about three years old when his 
learned education commenced, and in process of time he was able to articu- 
late no fewer than thirty distinct words. He was, however, somewhat of 
a truant, and did not very willingly exert his talent, and was rather pressed 
than otherwise into the service of literature. It was necessary that the 
words should be pronounced to him each time, and then he repeated them 
after his preceptor. Leibnitz attests that he heard the animal talk in this 
way, and the French Academicians add, that unless they had received the 
testimony of so celebrated a person they would scarcely have dared to 
report the circumstance. It took place in Misnia, in Saxony. 

THE MORAL QUALITIES OF THE DOG. 

We pass on to another division of our subject, the moral qualities of 
the dog, strongly developed and beautifully displayed, and often putting 
the biped to shame. 

It is truly said of the dog that he possesses 

" Many a good 
And useful quality, and virtue too. 
Attachment never to be weaned or changed 
By any change of fortune ; proof alike 
Against unkindness, absence, and neglect ; 
Fidelity, that neither bribe nor threat 
Can move or warp ; and gratitude, for small 
And trivial favours, lasting as the life, 
And glistening even in the dying eye." 

It may here be noticed that, among the inferior animals wath large 
nerves and more medullary substance, there are acuter senses ; but man, 
excelJmg them in the general bulk of his brain, and more particularly in 
1:1,™!!!!^^ portion of it, has far superior powers of mind. These are 

In their wild state 



circumstances that deserve the deepest consideration, 
the brutes have no concern 



tion. 
man. 



-P no idea beyond their food and their reproduc- 

in their domesticated state, thev are doomed to be the servants of 
iheir power of mind is sufficient to qualify them for this service ; 
but were proportionate intellectual capacity added to this— were they made 
conscious of their strength, and of the objects that could be effected by it 



^ Plutarch relates that, at the theatre of 
Marcellus, a dog was exhibited before the 
emperor Vespasian, so well instructed as 
to exercise in every kind of dance. He 
afterwards feigned illness in a most sin- 
gular manner, so as to strike the specta- 



tors with astonishment. He first exhi- 
bited various symptoms of pain ; he then 
fell down as if dead, and, afterwards seem- 
ing to revive, as if waking from a pro- 
found sleep, and then sported about and 
showed various demonstrations of joy. 



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DOG-CAETS. 



Ill 



they would burst their bonds, and man would in his turn be the victim 

and the slave. 

There is an important faculty, termed attention. It is that which 
distinguishes the promising pupil from him of whom no good hope could 
be formed, and the scientific man from the superficial and ignorant one. 
The power of keeping the mind steadily bent upon one purpose is the great 
secret of individual and moral improvement. We see the habit of atten- 
tion carried in the dog to a very considerable extent. The terrier eagerly 
watching for vermin — the sporting dog standing stanch to his point, 
however he may be annoyed by the blunders of his companion or the un- 
skilfulness of his master — the foxhound, insensible to a thousand scents, 
and deaf to every other sound, while he anxiously and perse veringly 
searches out the track of his prey — these are striking illustrations of the 

power of attention. 

Then, the impression having been received, and the mind having been 
employed in its examination, it is treasured up in the storehouse of the 

mind for future use. 

This is the faculty of memory, and a most important one it is. Of the 
memory of the dog, and the recollection of kindness received, there are 
a thousand stories, from the return of Ulysses to the present day, and we 
have seen enough of that faithful animal to believe most of them. An 
officer was abroad with his regiment, during the American war. He had 
a fine Newfoundland dog, his constant companion, whom he left with 
his family. After the lapse of several years he returned. His dog met 
him at the door ; leaped upon his neck, licked his face, and died. 

Of the accuracy and retentiveness of memory in the dog, as respects 
the instruction he has received from his master, we have abundant proof 
in the pointer and the hound, and it may perhaps be with some of them, 
as with men, that the lesson must sometimes be repeated, and even im- 
pressed on the memory in a way not altogether pleasant. 



DOG-CARTS. 



These were, and still are in the country, connected with many an act of 
atrocious cruelty. We do not object to the dog as a beast of draught. He 
is so in the northern regions, and he is as happy as any other animal in 
those cold and inhospitable countries. He is so in Holland, and he is as 
comfortable there as any other beast that wears the collar. He is not so in 
Newfoundland : there he is shamefully treated. It is to the abuse of the 
thing, the poor, and half-starved condition of the animal ; the scandalous 
weight that he is made to draw, and the infamous usage to which he is ex- 
posed, that we object. We would put him precisely on the same footing with 
the horse, and then we should be able, perhaps, to aflford him, not all the 
protection we could wish, but nearly as much as we have obtained for the 
horse. We would have every cart licensed, not for the sake of adding to 
the revenue, but of getting at the owner ; and therefore the taxing need 
not be any great sum. We would have the cart licensed for the carrying 
of goods only ; or a separate licence taken out if it carried or drew a 
human being. 

It is here that the cruelty principally exists. Before the dog-carts were 
put down in the metropolis, we then saw a man and a woman in one of 
these carts, drawn by a single dog, and going at full trot. Every passenger 



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112 



CROPPING TAILING. 



execrated them, and the trot was increased to a gallop, in order the more 
speedily to escape the just reproaches that proceeded from every mouth. 
We would have the name and address of the owner, and the number of 
the cart, painted on some conspicuous part of the vehicle, and in letters 
and figures as large as on the common carts. Every passenger who wit- 
nessed any flagrant act of cruelty would then be enabled to take the number 
of the cart, and summon the owner ; and the police should have the same 
power of interference which they have with regard to other vehicles. 

After a plan like this had been working a little while, the nuisance would 
be materially abated^ and, indeed, the consciousness of the ease with which 
the offender might be summoned, would go far to get rid of it. 



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CEOPPING. 



This is an infliction of too much torture for the gratification of a non- 
sensical fancy ; and, after all, in the opinion of many, and of those, too, who 
are fondest of dogs, the animal looks far better in his natural state than 
when we have exercised all our cruel art upon him. Besides, the effects 
of this absurd amputation do not cease with the healing of the ear. The 
intense inflammation that we have set up, materially injures the internal 
structure of this organ. Deafness is occasionally produced by it in some 
dogs, and constantly in others. The frequent deafness of the pug is solely 
attributable to the outrageous as well as absurd rounding of his ears. 
The almost invariable deafness of the white wire-haired terrier is to be 

traced to this cause. 



TAILING. 



Then the tail of the dog does not suit the fancy of the owner. It must 
be shortened in some of these animals, and taken oif altogether in others. 
If the sharp, strong scissors, with a ligature, were used, the operation 
although still indefensible, would not be a very cruel one, for the tail may 
be removed almost in a moment, and the wound soon heals ; but for the 
beastly gnawing off of the part — and the drawing out of the tendons and 
nerves — these are the acts of a cannibal ; and he who orders or perpetrates 
a barbarity so nearly approaching to cannibalism deserves to be scouted 
from all society. 



DEW-CLAWS. 



■ w 

Next comes the depriving of the dog of his dew- claw s~\h.Q supplemen- 
tary toes a little above the foot. They are supposed to interfere with hunt- 
ing by becoming entangled with the grass or underwood. This rarely 
happens. The truth of the matter is, they are simply illustrations of the 
uniformity of structure which prevails in all animals, so far as is consistent 
with their destiny. The dew-claws only make up the number of toes in 
other animals. ^ If they are attached, as they are in some dogs, simply by 
a portion of skin, they may be removed without any very great pain, yet 
the man of good feeling would not meddle with them. He would not un- 
necessarily inflict any pain that he can avoid ; and here in several of the 
breeds the toe is united by an actual joint ; and if they are dissected 
because they are a little in the way, it is a barbarous operation and 
nothing can justify it. 



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BREAKING-IN, 



115 



F 

The cruelties that are perpetrated on puppies during the course of their 
education or breaking-in^ are sometimes infamous. Young dogs, like young 
people, must be to a certain degree coerced ; but these animals receive 
from nature so great an aptitude for learning, and practising that which we 
require of them, and their own pleasure is so much connected with what 
they learn, that there is no occasion for one-tenth part of the correction 
that is occasionally inflicted ; and the frequent consequence of the cruelty 
to which they are subjected, is cowardice or ferocity during life. 

Not many years ago, as the author was going over one of the commons 
in the neighbourhood of the metropolis, now enclosed, he heard the 
loud sounds of the lash and the screams of a dog. He hurried on, and 
found two men, one holding a greyhound while another was unmercifully 
flogging him. He had inflicted many lashes, and was continuing the cor- 
rection. The author indignantly interfered, and the dog was liberated, 
but with a great deal of abuse from the men ; and a gentleman galloping 
up, and who was the ov/ner of the dog, and a Middlesex magistrate to boot, 
seemed disposed to support his people in no very measured terms. On being 
addressed, however, by name, and recognising the speaker, and his atten- 
tion being directed to the whaled and even bloody state of the dog, he 
oflfered the best excuse that he could. We met again some mt)nths after- 
wards. " That hiding," said he, " that offended you so much did Carlo 
good, for he has not been touched since." " No," was the reply ; " you 
were a little ashamed of your fellows, and have altered your system, and 

find that your dogs do not want this unmerciful negro-whipping." 

Stories are told of the kennel-hare— di. hare kept on purpose, and which 
is sometimes shown to the fox or stag hounds. The moment that any of 
them open, they are tied up to the whipping-post, and flogged, while the 
keepers at every stroke call out ^' Ware hare!" A sheep has also been 
shown to them, or still is, after which another unmerciful flogging is ad- 
ministered, amidst cries of " Ware sheep !'' If this is not sufficient, some 
of the wool is dipped in train oil, and put into the dog^s mouth, which is 
sewed up for many hours in order to cure him of sheep-biting. There was 
an almost similar punishment for killing poultry ; and there was the puzzle 
and the check-collar^ cruelly employed, for killing other dogs. 

There is a great deal of truth, and there may occasionally be some ex- 
aggeration, in these accounts ; but the sportsman who is indebted for the 
pleasures of the field to the intelligence and exertions of his horses and his 
dogs, is bound, by every principle that can influence an honourable mind, 
to defend them from all wanton and useless cruelty. There is a dog, and 
a faithful and valuable one, that powerfully demands the assistance of the 
humane — the yard or watch-dog. He is not only for the most part de- 
prived of his liberty, but too often neglected and made unnecessarily to 
suffer. How seldom do we see him in the enjoyment of a good bed of 
straw, or, rather, how frequently is everything about his kennel in a 
most filthy and disgusting state ! The following hint not only relates to 
him, but to every dog that is tied up out of doors. " Their cribs or their 
kennels, as they are called, should be constructed so as to turn, in order to 
prevent their inmates from being exposed to the cutting blasts of winter. 
Where they have no other refuge, all animals seek shelter from the weather 
by turning their backs to the wind ; but, as the dog thus confined cannot 
do so, his kennel should be capable of turning, or at least should be placed 
so as not to face the weather more than is necessary. The premises would 



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114 



DOG-STEALING. 



be in quite as great security, for the dog depends as much upon his ear 
and sense of smell as upon his eye, and would equally detect a stranger^s 
presence if he were deprived of sight." 

In the Zoological Gardens, an old blind dog used to be placed at the 
door of the dissectmg-house. Few had any business there, and everyone 
of them he, after a while, used to recognise and welcome full ten yards off, 
by waggmg his tail ; at the same distance, he would begin to growl at a 
stranger unless accompanied by a friend. From the author's lono- habit of 
noticing him, he used to recognise his step before it would seem possible 
tor Its sound to be heard. He followed him with his sightless eyes in what- 
ever direction he moved, and was not satisfied until he had patted and 



fondled him. 



DOG -PITS. 



the fighting 



that were committed there, I will not now speak. These places were fre- 
quented by few others than the lowest of the low. Cruelties were there 
inflicted that seemed to be a libel on human nature ; and such was the bane- 
ful influence of the scene, that it appeared to be scarcely possible for any 
one to enter these pits without experiencing a greater or less degree of 
moral degradation. 

The public dog-pits have now been put down ; but the system of dog- 
fighting, with most of its attendant atrocities, still continues. There are 
many more low public-houses than there used to be pits, that have roomy 
places behind, and out of sight, where there are regular meetings for this 
purpose. Those among the neighbours who cannot fail of being annoyed 
and disgusted by the frequent uproar, might give a clue to these dens of 
infamy ; and the depriving of a few of the landlords of their licence would 
go a great way towards the effectual suppression of the practice. 

Would it be thought possible that certain of our young aristocracy keep 
fighting-dogs at the repositories of various dealers in the outskirts of the 
metropolis ; and that these animals remain there, as it were, at livery, the 
owners coming at their pleasure, and making and devising what matches 
they think proper ? 

However disgraceful it may be, it is actually the fact. Here is a field 
for " the suppression of cruelty !" 



DOG-STEALING. 



The practice of stealing dogs is both directly and indirectly connected 
with a great deal of cruelty. There are more than twenty miscreants who 
are well known to subsist by picking up dogs in the street. There are 
generally two of them together with aprons rolled round their waists. The 
dog IS caught up at the corner of one of the streets, concealed in a moment 
in the apron, and the thieves are far away before the owner suspects 
the loss. These dogs, that have been used to every kind of luxury, are 
crowded mto dark and filthy cellars, where they become infected by va- 
rious diseases. The young ones have distemper, and the old ones mange, 
and all become filled with vermin. There they remain until a suificient 
reward is offered for their recovery, or they are sent far into the country, or 
shipped for France or some other foreign market. Little or nothino^ is 
done by punishing the inferior rogues in this traffic. The blow must" be 






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DOa-STEALING. 



115 



struck at those of a superior class. I will not assert that every dog-dealer^ 
is in league with, and profits by, the lower thieves ; but it is true of a 
great many of them, and it is the principal and most lucrative part of their 
trade. They are likewise intimately connected with the dog-fights, and 
encourage them, for the sake of their trade as dealers. An attempt should 
be made to bring the matter home to these scoundrels.^ 



^ Mr. Bishop, of Bond-street, has assured 
the_j)ublic, that he is able to prove that 
money has recently been extorted from the 
owners of dogs, by dog-stealers and their 
confederates, to the amount of more than a 
thousand pounds. Surely this calls for the 
decided interposition of the legislature. A 
strange case of atrocity and cruelty was 
related by a gentleman to Mr. Bishop. 
" A young dog of mine," says he, " was 
lost in London, and, being aware that,^ if 
a noise was made about it, a great X)rice 
would be asked for it, I gave out that I 
wanted to purchase one : I was shown my 



own dog. I seized it ; but there were se- 
veral scoundrels present who professed to 
belong to it, and threatened to kill the dog 
if I did not pay for it, I proceeded to de- 
scribe it as my own, stating that it had 

had hack or douhle teeth. Judge of my 
surprise when, after great difficulty, and 
the dog crying greatly, its mouth was 
opened, and all the back teeth had been 
taken out ! I paid two pounds for it be- 
fore they would let me take it away ; but, 
in consequence of the injuries it had re- 
ceived, it died a few days afterwards." 



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THE SKELETON. 







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CHAPTER VI. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE SKELETON. 
DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM:^ — FITS; TUKNSIDE ; EPILEPSY ' 

chorea: rheumatism and palsy. 




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1. The intermaxillary bone. 

2. Nasal bone. 

3. 3. Maxilla superior. 

4. Lachrymal bone. 

5. Zygomatic bone. 

6. Orbit of the eye, 

7. Frontal bone. 

8. Summit of the head. 

9. 9. Occipital bones. 

10. 10. 10. Temporal bones. 



AND ITS FUNCTIONS. 

11. 11. 11. Inferior maxillary or jaw 
bones, 

12. 12, Seven inferior maxillary molar 
teeth. 

13. 13. Six molar teeth of the superior 
jaw. 

14. Canine teeth of the superior and infe- 
rior jaws. 

15. Three incisor teeth of the superior 
maxillary bone. 

16. The three inferior ditto. 



THE TRUNK. 



a, a. a. The ligamentum nuchse. 
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. VII. The seven ver- 
tebrae of the neck. 
13. The thirteen dorsal vertebrae. 
7, The seven lumbar vertebrae. 
21. Os sacrum, or rump-bone. 



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22. 22. Twenty caudal vertebrae — verte 

brae of the tail. 

23. Tiie left os innominatum, 

24. Eight ditto. 

The nine true ribs, with their cartilages. 
The four false ribs, with their cartilages 
0. The sternum. 



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4. 
5. 
6, 



FITS. 



117 



THE 



ANTERIOR EXTREMITY. 



The scapula, or shoulder-blade. 

2. Os humeri, or shoulder. 

3. Radius — the lesser bone of the arm 

4. Ulna — the elbow. 

Os naviculare — the navicular bone. 
Os triquetrum, or triangulare. 
Os pisiforme, or pisiform bone. 
Os semilunare, or semilunar bone. 
Os capitatum — the nail. 



10. Os metacarpi digiti tertii — the third 
metacarpal bone. 

11. Os metacarpi digiti quarti — fourth 
metacarpal. 

12. Os metacarpi digiti quinti. 

13. 13. 13, 13. The first digits of the fore- 
feet. 

14. 14. 14. 14. The second ditto, 

15. The third ditto. 

16. The sessamoid bone. 



THE RIGHT ANTERIOR EXTREMITY. 



1. Radius. 

Ulna — elbows, 

Os triquetrum — the triangular bone. 

Os naviculare— the navicular bone. 

Os semilunare — the semilunar bone. 

Os multangulum majus — the larger 



multangular bone. 

7- Os multangulum 

multangular bone. 



minus — the small 



8. Os metacarpi pollicis — the thumb. 

9, Ossa metacarpi digitorum quatuor — 
the four bones of the metacarpi. 

10. Phalanx prima pollicis — first pha- 
lange of the thumb. 

11. Phalanx tertia pollicis — third pha- 
lange of ditto. 

12. Digiti quatuor — fourth phalange of 
ditto, ,. 



THE LEFT POSTERIOR EXTREMITY. 



1. Os femoris — thigh-bone. 

2. Patella — the knee-pan. 

3. Tibia — the shank of the leg. 

4. Fibula — the small bone of ditto. 
Calcareus — ^the heel. 

-one of the seven bones of 



1. 

2. 
3, 
4, 

5. 

6, Astragalus 
the tarsus. 

7. Os naviculare- 
S. Os cuboideum- 



the navicular bone, 
or cubic bone. 



9. 
10. 
11. 
12. 
13, 
14. 
15. 
16, 
17. 



Os cuneiforma tertium et maximum. 

Os metatarsi digiti quarti. 

Os metatarsi digiti tertii. 

Os metatarsi digiti secundi. 

Os metatarsi digiti primi. 

Phalanges primse digitorum pedis. 

Phalanges secundse. 

Phalanges tertise. 

Os sesamoideum — the sessamoid. 



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THE RIGHT POSTERIOR EXTREMITY. 



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1. Os femoris — the thigh-bone. 

2. Patella — the knee-pan. 

3. Tibia — the shank of the leg.' 

4. Calcareus — the heel. 

5. Astragalus —one of the seven bones of 

the tarsus. 
7. Os naviculare — the navicular bone. 
^. Os cuneiforma primum et medium. 
9- Os cuboideum, or cubic bone. 
10. Os cuneiforma tertium et maximum. 



11. 

12. 
13. 
14. 
15. 
16. 

17. 

18. 
19. 



Os cuneiforma secundum et minimum. 

Radimentum. ossis metatarsi hallucis. 
Os metatarsi digiti primi. 
Os metatarsi digiti secundi. 
Os metatarsi digiti tertii. 
Phalanges primae digitorum pedis. 
Phalanges secundse. 
Phalanges tertise. 

Os sesamoideum — the sessamoid. 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 

FITS. 

24ih Feb, 1814. — A pug vt^as accustomed to howl frequently v^^hen his 
young- master played on the flute. If the higher notes were sounded, he 
would leap on his master's lap, look in his face, and howl vehemently. 
lo-day the young man purposely blew the shrillest sound that he could. 
Ihe dog, after howling three or four times, began to run round the room, 
and over the tables and chairs, barking incessantly. This he continued 
more than an hour. 

When I saw him all consciousness of surrounding objects was gone. 
He was still running feebly, but barking might and main. 






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118 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 



I dashed a basin of cold water in his face, and he dropped as if he had 
been shot. He lay motionless nearly a minute, and then began tostruo^oie 
and to bark ; another cup of water was dashed in his face, and he lay quite 
motionless during two minutes or more. In the mean time I had got a 
grain each of calomel and tartar emetic, which I put on his tongue, and 
washed it down with a little water. He began to recover, and ao^ain be^-an 
to yelp, although much softer ; but, in about a quarter of an houl-, sickness 
commenced, and he ceased his noise. He vomited three or four times and 
lay frightened and quiet. A physic-ball was given him in the evening, 
and on the following morning. 

On the next day, the young man put open the door, and sat himself 
down, and began to prepare the flute; the dog was out in a moment, 
and did not return during a couple of hours. On the following day he 
made his escape again, and so the matter went on ; but, before the expira- 
tion of the week, his master might play the flute if he pleased. 



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TURNSIDE;, OR GIDDINESS 



seen 



This is a singular disease prevalent among cattle, but only occasionally 
^ '" ^1-" ^-- He becomes listless, dull, ofl^" his food, and scarcely 



in the dog. 



recognises any surrounding object. He has no fit, but he wanders about 
the room for several hours at a time, generally or almost invariably in the 
same direction, and with his head on one side. At first he carefully avoids 
the objects that are in his way ; but by degrees his mental faculties become 
impaired ; his sense of vision is confused or lost, and he blunders against 
everything : in fact, if uninterrupted, he would continue his strange peram- 
bulation incessantly, until he was fairly worn out and died ' 

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vulsions. 

I used to consider the complaint to be uniformly fatal. I have resorted 
to every remedial measure that the case could suggest. I have bled, and 
physicked, and setoned, and blistered, and used the moxa ; but all without 
avail, for not in a single case did I save my patient. 

No opportunity of post-mortem examination was lost. In some cases I 
have found spicula projecting from the inner plate of the skull, and press- 
ing upon or even penetrating the dura mater. I know not why the dog 
should be more subject to these irregularities of cranial surface than any 
of our other patients ; but decidedly he is so, and where they have pressed 
upon the brain, there has been injection of the membranes, and sometimes 
eflfusion between them. 

In some cases I have found effusion without this external pressure, and, 
in some cases, but comparatively few, there has not been any perceptible 
lesion. Hydatids have been found in the different passages leading to the 
cranium, but they have not penetrated. 

I used to recommend that the dog should be destroyed ; but I met with 
two or three favourable cases, and, after that, T determined to try every 
measure that could possibly be serviceable. I bled, and physicked, and 
inserted setons, and tried to prevent the utter exhaustion of the animal. 
When he was unable longer to perform his circumvolutions, and found that 
he was foiled, he laid himself down, and by degrees resumed his former 
habits. He was sadly impatient and noisy; but in a few cases he was 
cured. 



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EPILEPSY. 



119 



EPILEPSY 



in the dog assumes a most fatal character. 



It is an accompaniment, or 
a consequence, of almost every other disease. When the puppy is under- 
going the process of dentition, the irritation produced by the pressure 
of the tooth, as it penetrates the gum, leads on to epilepsy. When he 
is going through the stages of distemper, with a very little bad treatment, 
or in spite of the best, fits occur. The degree of intestinal irritation 
which is caused by worms, is marked by an attack of epilepsy. If the 
usual exercise be neglected for a few days, and the dog is taken out, and 
suffered to range as he likes, the accumulation of excitability is expended 



in a fit. 



He is the 



The dog is, without doubt, the most intellectual animal, 
companion and the friend of man : he exhibits, and is debased by some of 
his vices ; but, to a greater degree than many will allow, he exhibits all 
the intelligence and the virtues of the biped. In proportion to his bulk, 
the weight of his brain far exceeds that of any other quadruped— the very 
smallest animals alone being excepted, in whom there must be a certain 
accumulation of medullary matter in order to give origin to the nerves 
of every system, as numerous in the minutest as in him of greatest bulk. 

As it has been said of the human being that great power and exertion 
of the mental faculties are sometimes connected with a tendency to epilepsy, 
and, as violent emotions of joy or of grief have been known to be followed 
by it, I can readily account for its occurrence in the young dog, when 
frightened at the chiding of his master, or by the dread of a punish- 
ment which he was conscious that he had deserved. Then, too, I can under- 
stand that, when breaking loose from long confinement, he ranges in all the 
exuberance of joy ; and especially when he flushes almost his first covey, and 
the game falls dead before him, his mental powers are quite overcome, and 

he falls into an epileptic fit. 

The treatment of epilepsy in the dog is simple, yet often misunderstood. 
It is connected with distemper in its early stage. It is the produce of 
inflammation of the mucous passages generally, which an emetic and a pur- 
gative will probably, by their direct medicinal effect, relieve, and free the 
digestive passages from some source of irritation, and by their mechanical 
action unburthen the respiratory ones. 

When it it symptomatic of a weak state of the constitution, or connected 
with the after stages of distemper, the emeto-purgative must be succeeded 
by an anodyne, or, at least, by that which will strengthen, but not irritate 

the patient. 

A seton is an admirable auxiliary in epilepsy connected with distemper ; 

it is a counter-irritant and a derivative, and its effects are a salutary dis- 
charge, under the influence of which inflammation elsewhere will gradually 
abate. 

I should, however, be cautious of bleeding in distemper fits. I should 
be fearful of it even in an early stage, because I well know that the acute 
form of that general mucous inflammation soon passes over, and is suc- 
ceeded by a debility, from the depression of which I cannot always rouse 
my patient. When the fits proceed from dentition, I lance the jaws, and 
give an emetic, and follow it up with cooling purgative medicine. When 
they are caused by irregular and excessive exercise, I open the bowels 
and make my exercise more regular and equable. When they arise from 



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120 



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DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, 



excitation, I expose my patient more cautiously to the influence of those 
things which make so much impression on his little but susceptible mind. 
If the fit has resisted other means, bleeding should be resorted to. A fit in 
other animals is generally connected with dangerous determination of blood 
to the head, and bleeding is imperative. A fit in the dog maybe the con- 
sequence of sudden surprise and irritation. If I had the means I should 
see whether I could not break the charm ; whether I could not get rid of 
the disturbance, by suddenly affecting the nervous system, and the system 
generally, in another way. I would seize him by the nape of the neck, 
and, with all my force, dash a little cold water in his face. The shock 
of this has often dispersed the epileptic agency, as it were by magic. I 
would give an emeto-purgative ; a grain or a grain and a half of calomel 
and the same quantity of tartar emetic : I would soothe and coax the poor 
animal. Then,— and if I saw it at the beginning, I would do it early,— if 
the fit was more dependent upon, or was beginning to be connected with, 
determination of blood to the head, and not on any temporary cause of ex- 
citation or irritation, I would bleed freely from the jugular. 

The following singular case of epilepsy is narrated by M. W. Leblanc : — 
A dog of small size, three years old, was very subject to those epileptic 
fits that are so frequent among dogs. After a considerable period, the fits 
would cease, and the animal recover the appearance of perfect health ; but 
the more he advanced in age the more frequent were the fits, which is con- 
trary to that which usually happens. 

"^' last fit was a very strong one, and was followed by peculiar 
symptoms. The animal became dispirited. The eyes lost their usual 
lively appearance, and the eyelids were often closed. The dog was very 
drowsy, and, during sleep, there were observed, from time to time spas- 
modic movements, principally of the head and chest. He ahvays lay down 



The 



left 



When 



the left. 

M. Leblanc employed purgatives, a seton to the back part of the neck, 
and the application of the cautery to the left side of the forehead ; but 
nothing would stop the progress of the disease, and he died in the course 
of two months after the last fit. The nearer he approached his end the 
smaller were the circles that he took ; and, in the latter part of his exist- 
ence, he did little more than turn as if he were on a pivot, and, when the 

time arrived that he could walk no more, he used to lay himself down on 
the right side. 

On the post-mortem examination, a remarkable thickness of the menino^es 
was found on almost the whole of the left lobe of the brain. The dura 
mater, the two leaves of the arachnoid membrane, and the pia mater did 
not constitute more than one membrane of the usual thickness, and 
presented a somewhat yellow colouring. The cerebral substance of the 
left lobe appeared to be a little firmer than that of the right lobe. The 
fissures of the cerebral convolutions were much less deep than those of 
the other side. The red vessels which ran in the fissures were of smaller 
size, and in some places could scarcely be discovered. 



CHOREA. 



This is an irregular reception Ar distribution of nervous power a con- 
vulsive involuntary twitching of some muscle or set of muscles. It is an 



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CHOREA. 



121 



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occasional consequence of distemper that has been unusually severe or 
imperfectly treated, and sometimes it is seen even after that disease 1ms 

existed in its mildest form. 

It first appears in one leg or shoulder, and is long, or perhaps entirely, 
confined to that limb. There is a singular spasmodic jerking action of the 
limb. It looks like a series of pulsations, and averages from forty to sixty 
in a minute. Oftener, perhaps, than otherwise, both legs are similarly 
affected. When the animal is lying down, the legs are convulsed in the 
way that I have described, and when he stands there is a pulsating depres- 
sion or sinking of the head and neck. In some cases, the muscles of the 
neck are the principal seat of the disease, or some muscle of the face ; the 
temporal muscle beating like an artery ; the masseter opening and closing 
the mouth, the muscles of the eyelid, and, in a few cases, those of the eye 
itself being affected. These convulsive movements generally, yet not 
uniformly, cease during sleep, but that sleep is often very much disturbed. 
If the case is neglected, and the dog is in a debilitated state, this spasmodic 
action steals over the whole frame, and he lies extended with every limb 
in constant and spasmodic action. 

In the majority of cases, such an expenditure of nervous and muscular 
power slowly destroys the strength of the animal, and he dies a mere 
skeleton ; or the disease assumes the character of epilepsy, or it quiets 

down into true palsy. 

In the most favourable cases, no curative means having been used, the 
dog regains his flesh and general strength ; but the chorea continues, the 
spasmodic action, however, being much lessened. At other times, it seems 
to have disappeared ; but it is ready to return when the animal is excited 
or attacked by other disease. In a variety of instances, there is the irri- 
table temper which accompanies chorea in the human being, and most 
certainly when the disease has been extensive and confirmed. 

Chorea, neglected or improperly treated, or too frequently pursumg its 
natural course, degenerates into paralysis agitans. There is a tremulous or 
violent motion of almost every limb. The spasms are not relaxed, but are 
even increased during sleep, and when the animal awakes, he rises with 
agitation and alarm. There is not a limb under the perfect control of the 
will ; there is not a moment's respite ; the constitution soon sinks, and the 
animal dies. No person should be induced to undertake the cure of such 
a case : the owner should be persuaded to permit a speedy termination to 
a life which no skill can render comfortable. 

Chorea is oftenest observed in young dogs, and especially after dis- 
temper ; and it seems to depend on a certain degree of primary or sympa- 
thetic inflammatory affection of the brain. 

Chorea is often very plainly a consequence of debility : either the 
distribution of nervous power is irregular, or the muscles have lost their 
power of being readily acted upon, or have acquired a state of morbid 
irritability. The latter is the most frequent state. Their action is irre- 
gular and spasmodic, and it resembles the struggles of expiring nature far 
more than the great and uniform action of health. It is not the chorea 
that used to be described, in which there was an irresistible impulse to ex- 
cessive action, and which was best combated by complete muscular ex- 
haustion ; but the foundation of this disease is palpable debility. 

In the treatment of chorea there must be no bleeding, no excessive 
purgation, but aperients or alteratives, merely sufficient to keep the iseces 






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122 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM^ 



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in a pultaceous state, so as to carry off anv sonrPP nf ivr.4+o+- ^ ^i, 

intestinal canal, and partieulariy soL spLfesTf^olrtoX"" "' 
sources of irritation there. To thp^p ^limiiw k^ ^/ i ' . . ^^^q^^nt 

gentle exercise, tonic medicinet afd genetf t^V^^^ n'otfr^ -f 1' 
may be applied-such as blisters over the head Td^pt. ^^"f t^r-irritants 

poll to poU-the application of turpen^L or Ct cture T"t^ ^^^^ 
but all of these will frequently be^f no ^ffect^fdtceasiLtC^^^ 
and fearful increase of irritability will ensue : antispasmodics are LTh^ 
case of no use, and narcotics are altogether powerless Z 7Z Z • 
iron and gentian have been serviceable to a cer^tan extent but 2vT''' 
never cured the complaint. The nitrate of silver willteL 11^^^^^^^^ 
of the practjtioner, and if early used will seldom deceive him It should 

trot'ixth";!' ^T-V^' ^'^"" "^^"^"^ ^"^ «^^^*' - d-s vSyTng 

irom one-sixth to one-third of a grain, according to the size of the dog. ^ 
be or S '•r'''^ l?'u^^^ ^^'^' ^^^' ^"^ ^^e «^^««" «f t^e year, will 

of Jneral dphil r' H """ ^'^'' *^ ^° '"'^ ^^™' ^^^^ ^^^ f«^ symptoms 
ot general debility, and spring or summer are approaching, we may with 

Ltund a'n'd 'r' ^'''"^f '"^^ ' ^^*' '^ ^^^as been^idly Cng 
SeXfneThlt^m rlt^reS ^"' ^^^^^^^^^ ^'^^^ ^^^ ^^"^' ^^^ ^ - 

days, during which he had refused all food, when the do^Sn .T 
country my advice was asked. I ordered a strong 'eSetict^o be fiven to 
h.m and after that a dose of Epsom salts, the insertion of a seton Tnd n 
addition to this, our usual tonic was to be given twice everydavHi^ 

famn^'^Hr ^' rf ^^}^ *^ r* tT ^"^ '*^^^^^ ^b«"<^' although frequently 
tailing. His appetite returned. He continued to improve, and most rapidly 

gained strength and especially flesh. A very peculiar, high-lifting, c W 

of Xlf fo r '''"" "''^'"i '^ *^ ^'^' ^^^^^-^' ^it^ af apparent dXt 
oi signt, tor he ran against almost everything. 

stat^ unti7ttf vll! 'T^ "^^ removed, and the dog remained in the same 
state until the 7th of December. The uncertain clambering motion was 
now increasing, and likewise the defect of sight. He ran afainst almost 

tZinr '"' '^"^ ''^.^S- 'T^^ '^'^'^ -- transparentrr iris con 

P 'culfa'r JZ7"" "' 'P''^'^ '^ '^' ^^"^' '' P^"^ '^' «f the' retina, but a 
pecu lar glassy appearance, as unconscious of everything around it An 

not ?enW Fo:T ^"^ '\ ^^''' ^^^^"g '^' ^^'^ ' P^rh^P^ they were 

that wMch was fn^. 7 ^^^" ^' P''"*'^ '^^^^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ f'^^d, and vomited 
that which was forced upon him. His muzzle was hot ; he could scarcelv 

^ 16^A. He soon began rapidly to recover, until he was in nearly the same 

state as before, except that the sight was apparently more deficient The 

sulphate of magnesia was given every fourth day, and another seton inserted. 

2\st. He continued the medicine and evidently improved, the sight re- 




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CHOREA. 



123 



turning, and the spasms being considerably less. The distemper-ball was 



continued. 



4th January, 1841— The spasms were better; but the vision did not 

In the afternoon he fell into a momentary fit. He almost im- 



redktely rose again,^rnd'proceeded as if nothing had happened. An ounce 
of Epsom salts was given, and then the tonic balls as before. 

22nd The spasms were lessened, the clambering gait nearly ceased, but 
the vision was not improved. The seton was removed, and only an addi- 
tional dose of salts given. -J ui • ^ T-l.o1.ft 

21 th The spasms suddenly and very considerably increased, iiie lelt 
side appeared now to be particularly affected. The left leg before and be- 
hind were most spasmed, the right scarcely at all so. 
left eve was quite gone. The dog had been taken to J 
oculist who attributed the affection of the eye and the general spasmodic 
disease' to some pressure on the brain, and recommended the trial of copious 



The vision of the 



Mr 



^^tsth^The dogVS'dull ; the spasms appeared to have somewhat increased 
and dec'idedly to affect the left side. Fever-balls were ordered to be given. 



At three o'clock this morning 



29th. Considerable change took place. 
I was disturbed by a noise in the hospital. The poor fellow was in a 
violent fit. Water was dashed in his face, and a strong emetic given ; but 
it was not until seven o'clock that the fit had ceased ; he lay until eleven 
o'clock, when the involuntary spasms were almost suspended. VV hen he 
was placed on his feet he immediately fell ; he then gradually revived and 
staggered about. His master brought a physician to see him, who adopted 
Mr. Alexander's idea and urged bleeding. Ten ounces of blood were 

immediately taken ; the dog refused to eat. _ j u + fi,. 

\st February .—The strength of the animal was not impaired, but the 
spasms were more violent, and he lay or wandered about stupid and almost 
unconscious. I subtracted eight ounces more of blood 

2nd The spasms were fully as violent, and no amendment m the vision. 
Eight 'ounces more of blood were subtracted without benefit. A fever- 

ball was ordered to be given. • i x u ^ n 

bVJno amendment; but the bleeding having been carried to its full 

extent' I again resorted to the tonic balls, which were given morning and 
niffht.' The dog was well fed and the seton replaced. 

5th A very considerable amendment is evident. 

9th The spasms rapidly subsided and almost disappeared, 
not perfectly restored ; but the dog evidently saw with his left eye. He was 
taken away, and tonic balls sent with him and ordered to be continued 

6th March.— The dog had improved in strength and no spasmodic attec- 
tion remained ; he likewise evidently saw with his left eye. The tonic balls 
had been discontinued for a week, and his master hoped that all would turn 
out well, when suddenly, while at home, he was seized with a fit that lasted 
ten minutes. A strong emetic was given, which brought up a vast quan- 
tity of undigested food. A strong purging-ball was given to him in tne 

evening. i i, +1tpv 

1 Bth. The dog had lain slightly spasmed for two or three days, when tney 

all at once ceased, and the animal appeared as well as before. »'^<^|: J' 
he was taken with another fit, and again a vast quantity of food was vomiiea. 
These spasms remained two days, but on the 21st the fit returned with the 
same discharge of food. Courses of purgatives were then determined on. . 



Vision was 



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124 



DISEASES OF THE NEHVOUS SYSTEM. 



A strong close of sulphate of magnesia was given every third day After 
four doses had been given it was impossible to force any more upon Hra 
The syrup of buckthorn was tried, but the fourth dose o^f that it^vas i^' 
possible to give. The dog was then sent into the country ; no fit occurreT 
but there were occasional spasms. ^ occurrea, 

23rd September. —He was brought back to town, and I saw Inm Tl • 
the last month he had had many gts. His owner ariengtreon";nt?^^^^^^^ 
the ac ual cautery should be applied to his head. The seaSn-Trnn f 
doctoring was used and applied red-hot to the centre of the hear It w^s 
exceedingly difticult so to confine the doo- as to makp7l.7!?>" r .^ 
effectual, without destroying the skin ^^ application 

Under the influence of the sudden violent pain, he wandered about for 



We 



We chained him 



up in the morning and penetrated through the skin with the budding-iron 

sTanV^'?h • """Z ^T'^"^ rf'""'' ""^ ^^ ^^« ^^^rcely able to walk or to 
stand This gradually subsided, and then he began to run round and round 

and tha increased to an extraordinary velocity : he would Ci He for a 
while with every limb in action. The owner then yielded to alfour wishes 

T^Jl^t t'-'K'^'''' P™^^^^ ^^^d- ^^« ^-bid appearance pr^nte^^ 
itselt m the brain : but, on the inn^r r^l^i^ ^-p ^-u - /J^'^'^t , , piebeniea 

the sagitM suture,' were two '^o^£Z:il^ of Sln\ n^^h ^d 
armed with numerous minute spicula. There was no peculiar inflammatfon 
or vascularity of any other part of the brain. "mammation 

r 

RHEUMATISM AND PALSY. 

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I do not know any animal so subject to rheumatism as the do^ nor 
any one m which, if it is early and properly treated, it is so manag^e'abTe 

miXr anT~P"f "" r ^^l^^ding-a Le or two of the casTo^Jn 
mixture, and an embrocation composed of spirit of turpentine hartshorn 
camphorated spirit, and laudanum, will usually remove^t I two or three 
i^:^:^Z2^^^^ «^- ^P-^-' - -her lesions, suet 

thaT^are M? -n^"' '' \''T'^^' complaint, and often a pest in kennels 
Where the huntsmir ^^^r^^*^^«' .^"^ where bad management prevails, 
vv nere ttie huntsman or whippers-in are too often in a hurry to eet home 
and turn their dogs into the kennel panting and hot; where the beds are 
not far enough from the floor, or the building, if it should be in a suffi 
flT^\ Z^'f f '""f "' ^"^ y^* ^ northern 'aspect and is umheltered 

aStef byt^ftll"'""'" '^'^f' '' ^"^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ halffhe pack 

unusuallvLld^ T^^ "■""' *^'^ '^^^* breast-high, and the morning 

Til L • ^* '^^''" occasionally passes on into palsy. ^ 

tion fo the bowels, atCtion foV^^^^^^^^ -- 

sionally, setons-not where the huntsman generally places^hem on the" 
withers above, but on the brisket below, and defended from thr'teeVof 
the dog by a roller of a yery simple construction, passing rold thrc est 
bet.^en the fore legs and over the front of the shoulders°on e^ier siSe 
The pointer, somewhat too heavy before, and hardly worked7becomes 



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125 



what is called chest-foundered. From his very make it is evident that, 
in long-continued and considerable exertion , the subscapular muscles will 
be liable to sprain and inflammation. There will be inflammation of the 
fasciae, induration, loss of power, loss of nervous influence and palsy. 
Cattle, driven far and fast to the market, suffer from the same cause. 
Palsy is frequent, as in the dog. However easy it may be to subdue a 
rheumatic affection, in its early stage, by prompt attention, yet if it is 
neglected, it very soon simulates, or becomes essentially connected with, or 
converted into, palsj^. 

No animal presents a more striking illustration of the connexion be- 
tween intestinal irritation and palsy than does the dog. He rarely or 
never has enteritis, even in its mildest form, without some loss of power 
over the hinder extremities. This may at first arise from the participation 
of the lumbar muscles with the intestinal irritation; but, if the disease 
of the bowels continues long, it will be evident enough that it is not pain 
alone that produces the constrained and incomplete action of the muscles 
of the hind extremities, but that there is an actual loss of nervous power. 
A dog is often brought to the veterinary surgeon, with no apparent dis- 
ease about him except a staggering walk from weakness of the hind limbs. 
He eats well and is cheerful, and his muzzle is moist and cool ; but his 
belly is tucked up, and there are two longitudinal cords, running parallel 
to each other, which will scarcely yield to pressure. The surgeon orders 
the castor-oil mixture twice or thrice daily, until the bowels are well acted 
upon, and, as soon as that is accomplished, the dog is as strong and as well 
as ever. Perhaps his hind limbs are dragged behind him : a warm bath is 
ordered, he is dosed well with the castor-oil mixture, and, if it is a recent 
case, the animal is well in a few days. In more confirmed palsy, the 
charge, or plaster on the loins, is added to the action of the aperient on 
the bowels. The process may be somewhat slow, but it is seldom that 
the dog does not ultimately and perfectly recover. 

It is easy to explain this connexion, although we should have scarcely 
supposed that it would have been so intimate, had not frequent experience 
forced it on our observation. The rectum passes through the pelvis. 
Whatever may be said of that intestine, considering its vertical position 
in the human being, it is always charged with fseces in the quadruped. 
It therefore shares more in the effect, whatever that may be, which is pro- 
duced by the retention of fseces in the intestinal canal, and it shares also 
in the inflammatory affection of other parts of the canal. Almost in 
contact with this viscus, or at least passing through the pelvis, are the 
crural nerves from the lumbar vertebrae, the obtusator running round the 
rim of the pelvis, the glutal nerve occupying its back, and the sciatic 
hastening to escape from it. It is not difficult to imagine that these, to a 
certain degree, will sympathise with the healthy and also the morbid state 
of the rectum ; and that, when it is inert, or asleep, or diseased, they also 
may be powerless too. Here is something like fact to establish a very 
important theory, and which should be deeply considered by the sportsman 
and the surgeon. 

Mr. Dupuy has given a valuable account of the knowledge we possess 

of the diseases of the spinal marrow in our domestic quadrupeds. 
He has proved 

1. That in our domestic animals the spinal marrow is scarcely ever 
affected through the whole of its course. 



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126 



DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. 



2. That the dorsal and lumbar regions are the parts oftenest affected. 

3. That inflammation of the spinal marrow of these regions always 
produces palsy, more or less complete, of the abdominal members. 

4. That, in some cases, this inflammation is limited to the inferior or 
superior parts of the spinal marrow, and that there is loss only of feeling 
or of motion. 

5. That sometimes animals die of palsy without any organic lesion. 



PALSY MANGE. 

1 Ith February^ 1836. — A Persian bitch, at the Zoological Gardens, who 
w^as well yesterday, now staggers as she walks, and has nearly lost the use 
of her hind legs. Gave a good dose of the castor-oil mixture. 18^A. She 
is materially worse and drags her hind legs after her. I would fain put on 
a charge, but the keeper does not like that her beautiful coat should be 
spoiled, and wishes to try what gentle exercise will do. She certainly, 
after she has been coaxed a great deal, will get on her legs and stagger 
on fifty yards or more. Gave the castor-oil mixture daily. Vdih. She 
is a little stronger, and walks a little better. Continue the mixture. 

Embrocate well with the rheumatic mixture — sp. tereb., sp. camph., liq. 
ammon., et tinct. opii 
2nd March.— 



and give gentle exercise. 



ness 



—She does improve, although slowly ; the charge is there- 
fore postponed. Continue treatment. 30^^, She is considerably better. 
Continue the mixture, and use the embrocation every second day. 

\Oth April. — She has mange in the bend of her arm, and on her chest. 
Use the sulphur ointment and alterative balls, and omit the embrocation 
and mixture. In less than a week she nearly recovered from her lame- 

and ran about almost as well as ever, 30th. She runs about very 
fairly, but the mange has assumed that character of scurvy which I do not 
know how to grapple with. Continue the alterative balls, and the ointment. 

I8th May. — The mange has disappeared, but the palsy is returning; 
she staggers slightly, and droops behind. Give the castor-oil mixture 
and use the embrocation. 

\^th June. — Mange quite gone, but palsy continues to a very con- 
siderable degree. I want to use the plaster ; but the keeper pleads for a 
little delay. Continue the treatment. 

\st July. — I have at length determined to have recourse to the charge. 
A piece of thick sheep's leather was fitted to her loins and haunches. 
IS^A. She appears to be improving, but it is very slowly. 31^^. Very 
little change. The plaster keeps on well : she has no power over her 
hind limbs ; but she eats and drinks as well as ever. 

2Zrd August. 
morning and night. 



No change. 



Give her half a grain of strychnia, 
2Qth. That singular secretion of milk, to which the 
bitch is subject nine weeks after oestrum, is now appearing* Her mammse 
are enlarged, and I can squeeze a considerable quantity of milk out of the 
teats. Give an aloetic pill, and continue the strychnia. 31^^. The secre- 
tion of milk continues. There is slight enlargement and some heat of the 
mammae ; but she feeds as well as ever. Increase the dose of strychnia 
to three-quarters of a grain. 

On the following day she was found dead. In making the usual longi- 
tudinal incision through the integuments of the abdomen, a considerable 
quantity of milky fluid, mingled with blood, followed the knife. There 

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PALSY. 



127 



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was very slight enlargement of the teats, but intense inflammation of the 
whole of the mammary substance. The omentum, and particularly the 
portion opposite to the external disease, was also inflamed. Besides this 
there was not a vestige of disease. 

This is an interesting case, and deserves record, I fear that justice 
was not done to the animal at the commencement of the paralytic affection. 
In nineteen cases out of twenty in the dog, the constant but mild stimulus 
of a charge over the lumbar and sacral regions removes the deeper- 
seated inflammation of the spinal cord or its membranes, when the palsy 
is confined to the hind extremities, and has not been sufficiently long 
established to produce serious change of structure. The charge should 
have been applied at first. The almost total disappearance of the palsy 
during the cutaneous disease, which was attended with more than usual 
inflammation of the integument, is an instructive illustration of the power 
of counter-irritation, and of what might possibly have been effected in the 
first case ; for much time was lost before the application of the charge, and 
when at length it was applied, it and the strychnia were powerless. 

I consider the following case as exceedingly valuable, at least with re- 
ference to the power of strychnia in removing palsy : 

\9th August^ 1836.^ — A fine Alpine dog was suddenly attacked with a 
strange nervous affection. He was continually staggering about and 
falling. His head was forcibly bent backward and a little on one side, 
almost to his shoulder. A pound of blood was abstracted, a seton inserted 
from ear to ear, and eight grains of calomel administered. 2\sL He has 
perfectly lost the use of every limb. He has also amaurosis, perfect blind- 
ness, which had not appeared the day before. He hears perfectly, and he 
eats, and with appetite, when the food is put into his mouth. Gave him 
two large spoonftils of the castor-oil mixture daily ; this consists of three 
parts of castor oil, two of syrup of buck-thorn, and one of syrup of white 
poppies- 2^rd. A little better ; can lift his head and throw it upon his 
side, and will still eat when fed. Continue the mixture, and give half a 
grain of strychnia daily. 24^A. Little change. 21th. No change, except 
that he is rapidly losing flesh. Continue the treatment. 31^^. The 
strychnia increased to three-fourths of a grain morning and night. The 
castor-oil mixture continued in its full quantity. He was fed well, but 
there was a sunken, vacant expression of countenance, 
• 2nd September,' — He can move his head a little, and has some slight 
motion in his limbs. Ath. He can almost get up. He recognises me for 
the first time. His appetite, which was never much impaired, has returned : 
this is to be attributed to strychnia, or the seton, or the daily aperient mix- 
ture. They have all, perhaps, been serviceable, but I attribute most to the 
strychnia ; for I have rarely, indeed, seen any dog recover from such an 
attack. Continue the treatment, 6th. Fast recovering. Medicine as be- 
, fore. \^th. Improving, but not so fast as before. Still continue the 



treatment. 2^th. Going on slowly, but satisfactorily. 
but continue the other treatment. 
l^th October. — ^Quite well. 



Remove the seton^ 



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128 



EABIES. 



* 



CHAPTER VII. 



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KABIES. 

We are now arrived at one of the most important subjects in veterinary 
pathology. In other cases the comfort and the existence of our quadruped 
patients are alone or chiefly involved, but here the lives of our employers^ 
and our own too, are at stake, and may be easily, and' too often are, com- 
promised. Here also, however other portions of the chain may be over- 
looked or denied, we have the link which most of all connects th 
veterinary surgeon with the practitioner of human medicine ; or, rather, 
here is the circumscribed but valued spot where the veterinary surgeon 
has the vantage-ground. 

In describing the nature, and cause and treatment of rabies, it will be 
most natural to take the animal in which it oftenest appears, by which it 
is most frequently propagated ; tlie time at which the danger commences, 
and the usual period before the death of the patient. 

Some years ago a dog, naturally ferocious, bit a child at Lisson Grove. 
The child, to all appearance previously well, died on the third day, and 
an inquest was to be held on the body in the evening. The Coroner 
ordered the dog to be sent to me for examination. The animal was, con- 
trary to his usual habit, perfectly tractable. 



This will appear to be of 
I examined him carefully, 
circumstance could be found about him. 



some importance hereafter. 



rabies. 



No suspicious 

There was no appearance of 

In the mean time the inquest took place, and the corpse of the 



child was carefully examined. One medical gentleman thought that there 
were some suspicious appearances about the stomach, and another believed 
that there was congestion of the brain. 

The owner of the dog begged that the animal might not be taken from 
him, but might accompany him home. He took him home and destroyed 
him that no experiments might be made. 

With great difficulty we procured the carcass, and from some inflamma- 
tory appearances about the tongue and the stomach, and the presence of a 
small portion of indigestible matter in the stomach, we were unanimously 
of opinion that the dog was rabid. 

I do not mean to say that the child died hydrophobous, or that its death 
was accelerated by the nascent disease existing in the dog. There was 
probably some nervous affection that hastened the death of the infant, and 
the dog bit the child at the very period when the malady first began to 
develope itself. On the following day there were morbid lesions enough 
to prove beyond doubt that he was rabid. 

This case is introduced because I used afterwards to accompany every 
examination of supposed or doubtful rabies with greater caution than I 
probably had previously used. 

It is occasionally very difficult to detect the existence of rabies in its 

nascent state. In the year 1813, a child attempted to rob a dog of its 

morning food, and the animal resisting the theft, the child was slightly 

scratched by its teeth. No one dreamed of danger. Eight days after- 



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RABIES. 



129 



^ 



wards symptoms of rabies appeared in the dog, the malady ran its course, 
and the animal died. A few days afterwards the child sickened— undoubted 

cnaracteristics of rabies were observed— they ran their course and the infant 
was lost. •' 

There are other cases— fortunately not numerous— in the records of 
numan surgery, resembling this. A person has been bitten by a dog, he 
nas paid little or no attention to it, and no application of the caustic has 
oeen made. Some weeks, or even months, have passed, he has nearly or 
quite forgotten the affair, when he becomes languid and feverish, and full 
oi tearful apprehensions, and this appearing perhaps during several days 
or more than a week. The empoisonment has then ceased to be a local 
affair, the virus has entered into the circulation, and its impression is made 
on the constitution generally. Fortunately the disposition to bite rarely 
develops itself until the full establishment of the disease, otherwise we 
might sometimes inquire whether it were not our duty to exterminate the 
whole race of dogs. 

The following case deserves to be recorded : on the 21st of October 
1813, a dog was brought to me for examination. He had vomited a con- 
siderable quantity of coagulated blood. I happened to be particularly 
busy at the moment, and not observing anything peculiar in his counte- 
nance or manner, 1 ordered some astringent sedative medicine and said 
tfiat i would see him again in the afternoon. 

In the course of the afternoon he was again brought. The vomiting 
had quite ceased. His mouth seemed to be swollen, and, on examining 
mm i found that some of his incisor teeth both in the upper and lower 
jaw had been torn out. This somewhat alarmed me, and, on inquiring of 
the servant, I was told that he suspected that they had had thieves about 
the house on the preceding night ; for the dog had torn away the side of 
his kennel in attempting to get at them. I scolded him for not having 
told me of this in the morning : and then, talking of various things in 
order to prolong the time and to be able closely to watch my patient, I 
saw,^ or thought I saw, but in a very slight degree, that the animal was 
tracing the fancied path of some imaginary object. I was then truly 
alarmed, and more especially since I had discovered that in the giving of 
the physic in the morning the man's hand had been scratched ; a youth liad 
suffered the dog to lick his sore finger, and the animal had also been 
observed to lick the sore ear of an infant. He was a remarkably affec- 
tionate dog, and was accustomed to this abominable and inexcusable 
nonsense. 

I insisted on detaining the dog, and gave the man a letter to the sur- 
geon, telling him all my fears. He promptly acted on the hint, and before 
evening, the proper means were taken with regard to all three 

1 watched this dog day after day. He would not eat, but he drank a 
great deal more water than I liked. The surgeon was evidently beginning 
10 doubt whether I was not wrong, but he could not dispute the occasional 
wandering of the eye, and the frequent spume upon the water. On the 
^btfi of October, however, the sixth day after his arrival, we both of us 

S? T^ ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^^* ^^^^ ^^^ 5 ^^ ^^^ ^ot' however, die until the 
dUth. I mention this as another instance of the great difliculty there is 

to determine the real nature of the case in an early stage of the disease. 

M. Perquin relates an interesting case. A lady had a greyhound, nine 

years old, that was accustomed to lie upon her bed at night, and cover 

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RABIES. 



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her object after many an effort. 



himself with the bed-clothes. She remarked, one mornings that he had 
torn the covering of his bed, and, although he eat but little, drank oftener, 
and in larger quantity, than he was accustomed to do. She led him to a 
veterinary surgeon, who assured her that there was nothing serious the 
matter. On the following day, he bit her fore-finger near the nail, as she 
was giving him something to eat. She led him again to the veterinary 
surgeon, who assured her that she needed not to be under the least alarm, 
and, as for the little wound on her finger, it was of no consequence. On 
the following day, the 27th of December, the dog died. He had not 
ceased to drink most abundantly to the very last. 

On the 4th of February, as the lady was dining with her husband, she 
found some difficulty in deglutition. She wished to take some wine, but 

was unable to swallow it. 

On the 5th, she consulted a surgeon. He wished her to swallow a little 
soup in his presence. She attempted to do it, but could not accomplish 

She then fell into a state of violent agita- 
tion, with constriction of the pharynx, and the discharge of a viscid fluid 

from the mouth. 

On the 7th, she died, four days after the first attack of the disease, and 
in a state of excessive loss of flesh. 

There can be no doubt that both the dog and his mistress died rabid, 
the former having communicated the disease to the latter ; but there is no 
satisfactory account of the manner in which the dog became diseased.^ 

Joseph Delmaire, of Looberghe, twenty-nine years old, was, on the 6th 
of October, 1836, bitten in the hand by a dog that he met with in the 
forest, and that was evidently rabid. On the following morning, he went 
to a medical man of some repute in the country, who washed the wound, 
and scarified it, and terminated the operation by tracing a bloody cross on 
the forehead of the patient. 

He returned home, but he was far from being satisfied. The image 
of the dog that had attacked him was always before him, and his sleep 
was troubled with the most frightful dreams. So passed four-and-twenty 
days, when Delmaire, rising from his bed, felt the most dreadful trepidation 
— he panted violently — it seemed as if an enormous weight oppressed his 
chest, and from time to time there was profound sighing and sobbing. 
He complained every moment that he was smothered. He attempted to 
drink, but it was with great difficulty that a few drops of barley water were 
swallowed. His mouth was dry — his throat burning — his thirst excessive, 
and all that he attempted to swallow was rejected with horror. 

At nine o'clock at night he was largely bled. His respiration was more 
free, but the dread of every fluid remained. After an hour's repose, he 
started and felt the most fearful pain in every limb — his whole body was 

The former place of bleeding was re- 
opened and a great quantity of blood escaped. The pulse became small 
and accelerated. The countenance was dreadful — the eyes were starting 
from their sockets — he continually sprung from his seat, and uttered the 
most fearful howling. A quantity of foam filled his mouth, and compelled 
a continual expectoration. In his violent fits the strength of six men was 
not sufficient to keep him on his bed. In the midst of a sudden recess of 
fury he would disengage himself from all that were attempting to hold 



ao^itated with violent convulsions. 



^ La Folie (les AniniauXj by M. Perquin. 



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him, and dash himself on the floor; there, freed from all control, he 
rolled about, beat himself, and tore everything that he could reach. In 
the short intervals that separated these crises, he regained possession of his 
reasoning powers : he begged his old father to pardon him, he talked to 
him and to those around with the most intense affection, and it was only 
when he felt that a new attack was at hand, that he prayed them to leave 
him. At length his mental excitation began to subside ; his strength was 
worn out, and he suffered himself to be placed on his bed. The horrible 
convulsions from time to time returned, but the dread of liquors had 
ceased. He demanded something to drink. They gave him a little white 
wine ; but he was unable to swallow it : it was returned through his 
nostrils. The poor fellow then endeavoured to sleep ; but it was soon per- 
ceived that he had ceased to live. 

The early symptoms of rabies in the dog are occasionally very obscure. 
In the greater number of cases, these are sullenness, fidgetiness, and con- 
tinual shifting of posture. Where I have had opportunity, I have generally 
found these circumstances in regular succession. For several consecutive 
hours perhaps he retreats to his basket or his bed. He shows no disposi- 
tion to bite, and he answers the call upon him laggardly. He is curled 
up and his face is buried between his paws and his breast. At length he 
begins to be fidgety. He searches out new resting-places ; but he very 
soon changes them for others. He takes again to his own bed ; but he is 
continually shifting his posture. He begins to gaze strangely about him 
as he lies on his bed. His countenance is clouded and suspicious. He 
comes to one and another of the family, and he fixes on them a steadfast 
gaze as if he would read their very thoughts, " I feel strangely ill," he 
seems to say : ^^ have you anything to do with it ? or you ? or you ?'' Has 
not a dog mind enough for this ? If we have observed a rabid dog at 
the commencement of the disease, we have seen this to the very life. 

There is a species of dog — the small French poodle — the essence of 
whose character and constitution is fidgetinesib or perpetual motion. 

If this dog has been bitten, and rabies is about to establish itself, he 
is the most irritative restless being that can be conceived of; starting con- 
vulsively at the slightest sound ; disposing of his bed in every direction, 
seeking out one retreat after another in order to rest his wearied frame, 
but quiet only for a moment in any one, and the motion of his limbs fre- 
quently simulating chorea and even epilepsy. 

A peculiar delirium is an early symptom, and one that will never 
deceive. A young man had been bitten by one of his dogs ; I was 
requested to meet a medical gentleman on the subject : I was a little 
behind my time ; as I entered the room I found the dog eagerly devouring 
a pan of sopped bread. " There is no madness here,'' said the gentleman. 
He had scarcely spoken, when in a moment the dog quitted the sop, and, 
with a furious bark sprung against the wall as if he would seize some 
imaginary object that he fancied was there. " Did you see that?" was my 



'' What do you think of it?" " I see nothing in it," was his re- 
the dog heard some noise on the other side of the wall." At my 



reply. 

tort: " ^ 

serious urging, however, he consented to excise the part. I procured a 
poor worthless cur, and got him bitten by this dog, and carried the disease 
from this dog to the third victim : they all became rabid one after the 
other, and there my experiment ended. The serious matter under con- 
sideration, perhaps, justified me in going so far as I did. 

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RABIES. 



This kind of delirium is of frequent occurrence in the human patient. 
The account given by Dr. Bardsley of one of his patients is very appro- 
priate to our present purpose: '' I observed that he frequently fixed his 
eyes with horror and affright on some ideal object, and then, with a 
sudden and violent emotion, buried his head beneath the bed-clothes. The 
next time I saw him repeat this action, I was induced to inquire into the 
cause of his terror. He asked whether I had not heard bowlings and 
scratchings. On being answered in the negative, he suddenly threw him- 
self on his knees, extending his arms in a defensive posture, and forcibly 
threw back his head and body. The muscles of the face were agitated by 
various spasmodic contractions ; his eye-balls glazed, and seemed ready to 
start from their sockets ; and, at that moment, when crying out in an 
agonizing tone, ^ Do you not see that black dog?' his countenance and 
attitude exhibited the most dreadful picture of complicated horror, dis- 
tress, and rage that words can describe or imagination paint. 

I have again and again seen the rabid dog start up after a momentary 
quietude, with unmingled ferocity depicted on his countenance, and plunge 
with a savage howl to the end of his chain. At other times he would 
stop and watch the nails in the partition of the stable in which he was 
confined, and fancying them to move he would dart at them, and occasion- 
ally sadly bruise and injure himself from being no longer able to measure 
the distance of the object. In one of his sudden fits of violence a rabid 
dog strangled the Cardinal Crescence, the Legate of the Pope, at the 
Council of Trent in 1532. 

M. Magendie has often injected into the veins of an hydrophobous dog 
as much as five grains of opium without producing any effect ; while a 
single grain given to a healthy dog would suffice to send him almost to 



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about him. " Why do you not kill those flies?" he would cry ; and then 
he would strike at them with his hand, and shrink under the bed-clothes, 
in the most dreadful fear. 

There is also in the human being a peculiarity in this delirium which 
seems to distinguish it from every other kind of mental aberration. " The 
patient," in Mr. Lawrence's language, ^^ is pursued by a thousand phantoms 
that intrude themselves upon his mind; he holds conversation with imaginary 
persons ; he fancies himself surrounded with difficulties, and in the greatest 
distress. These thoughts seem to pass through his mind with wonderful 
rapidity, and to keep him in a state of the greatest distress, unless he is 
quickly spoken to or addressed by his name, and, then, in a moment the 
charm is broken ; every phantom of imagination disappears, and at once 
he begins to talk as calmly and as connectedly as in perfect health." 
. So it is with the dog, whether he is watching the motes that are floating 
in the air, or the insects that are annoying him on the walls, or the foes 
that he fancies are threatening him on every side — one word recalls him 
in a moment. Dispersed by the magic influence of his master's voice, 
every object of terror disappears, and he crawls towards him with the same 
peculiar expression of attachment that used to characterise him. 

Then comes a moment's pause— a moment of actual vacuity — the eye 
slowly closes, the head droops, and he seems as if his fore feet were giving 
way, and he would fall : but he springs up again, every object of terror 
once more surrounds him— he gazes wildly around— he snaps— he barks, 



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and he rushes to the extent of his chain, prepared to meet his imagi- 
nary foe. 

The expression of the countenance of the dog undergoes a considerable 
change, principally dependent on the previous disposition of the animal. 
it he was naturally of an affectionate disposition, there will be an anxious, 
inquiring countenance, eloquent, beyond the power of resisting its influ- 
ence.^ It is made up of strange suppositions as to the nature of the depression 
of mind under which he labours, mingled with some passing doubts, and 
they are but passing, as to the concern which the master has in the affair ; 
but, most of all, there is an affectionate and confiding appeal for relief. 
At the same time we observe some strange fancy, evidently passing through 
his mind, unalloyed, however, by the slightest portion of ferocity. 

In the countenance of the naturally savage brute, or him that has been 
trained to be savage, there is indeed a fearful change ; sometimes the con- 
junctiva is highly injected ; at other times it is scarcely affected, but the 
eyes have an unusually bright and dazzling appearance. They are like two 
balls of fire, and there is a peculiar transparency of the hyaloid membrane, 
or injection of that of the retina. 

A very early symptom of rabies in the dog, is an extreme degree of 
restlessness. Frequently, he is almost invariably wandering about, shifting 
from corner to corner, or continually rising up and lying down, changing 
his posture in every possible way, disposing of his bed with his paws, 
shaking it with his mouth, bringing it to a heap, on which he carefully 
lays his chest, or rather the pit of his stomach, and then rising up and 
bundling every portion of it out of the kennel. If he is put into a closed 
basket he will not be still for an instant, but turn round and round with- 
out ceasing. If he is at liberty, he will seem to imagine that something 
IS lost, and he will eagerly search round the room, and particularly every 
corner of it, with strange violence and indecision. 

In a very great portion of cases of hydrophobia in the human being, 
there is, as a precursory symptom, uneasiness, pain, or itching of the bitten 
part. A red line may also be traced up the limb, in the direction of the 
lymphatics. In a few cases the wound opens afresh. 

The poison is now beginning fatally to act on the tissue, on which it had 
previously lain harmless. When the conversation has turned on this sub- 
ject, long after the bitten part has been excised, pain has darted along the 
limb. I have been bitten much oftener than I liked, by dogs decidedly 
rabid, but, proper means being taken, I have escaped; and yet often, 
when I have been over-fatigued, or a little out of temper, some of the old 
sores have itched and throbbed, and actually become red and swollen. 

The dog appears to suffer a great deal of pain in the ear in common 
canker. He will be almost incessantly scratching it, crying piteously 
while thus employed. The ear is, oftener than any other part, bitten by 
the rabid dog, and, when a wound in the ear, inflicted by a rabid dog, 
begins to become painful, the agony appears to be of the intensest kind. 
The dog rubs his ear against every projecting body, he scratches it might 
and main, and tumbles over and over while he is thus employed. 

The young practitioner should be on his guard there. Is this dreadful 
itching a thing of yesterday, or, has the dog been subject to canker, in- 
creasing for a considerable period. Canker both internal and external is 
a disease of slow growth, and must have been long neglected before it 
will torment the patient in the manner that I have described. The ques- 




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tion as to the length of time that an animal has thus suffered will usually 

be a sufficient guide. 

The mode in which he expresses his torture will serve as another 
direction. He will often scratch violently enough when he has canker, 
but he will not roll over and over like a football except he is rabid. If 
there is very considerable inflammation of the lining membrane of the ear, 
and engorgement and ulceration of it, this is the effect of canker ; but if 
there is only a slight redness of the membrane, or no redness at all, and 
yet the dog is incessantly and violently scratching himself, it is too likely 
that rabies is at hand. 

In the early stage of rabies, the attachment of the dog towards his owner 
seems to be rapidly increased, and the expression of that feeling. He is 
employed, almost without ceasing, licking the hands, or face, or any part 
he can get at. Females, and men too, are occasionally apt to permit the 
dog, when in health, to indulge this filthy and very dangerous habit with 

The virus, generated under the influence of rabies, is 
occasionally deposited on a wounded or abraded surface, and in process of 
time produces a similar disease in the person that has been so inoculated 
by it. Therefore it is that the surgeon so anxiously inquires of the person 
that has been bitten, and of all those to whom the dog has had access, 
'' Has he been accustomed to lick you ? have you any sore places about 
you that can by possibility have been licked by him?'' If there are, the 
person is in fully as much danger as if he had been bitten, and it is quite 
as necessary to destroy the part with which the virus may have come in 
contact. A lady once lost her life by suffering her dog to lick a pimple 

on her chin. 

There is a beautiful species of dog, often the inhabitant of the gentle- 
man's stable — the Dalmatian or coach dog. He has, perhaps, less affec- 
tion for the human species than any other dog, except the greyhound and 
the bull-dog ; he has less sagacity than most others, and certainly less 
courage. He is attached to the stable ; he is the friend of the horse ; they 
live under the same roof; they share the same bed ; and, when the horse is 
summoned to his work, the dog accompanies every step. They are cer- 
tainly beautiful dogs, and it is pleasing to see the thousand expressions of 
friendship between them and the horse ; but, in their continual excursions 
through the streets, they are exposed to some danger, and particularly to 
that of being bitten by rabid dogs. It is a fearful business when this takes 
place. The coachman probably did not see the affray ; no suspicion has 
been excited. The horse rubs his muzzle on the dog, and the dog licks 
the face of the horse, and in a great number of cases the disease is com- 
municated from the one to the other. The dog in process of time dies, 
the horse does not long survive, and, frequently too, the coachman shares 
their fate. I have known at least twenty horses destroyed in this way. 

A depraved appetite is a frequent attendant on rabies in the dog. He 
refuses his usual food ; he frequently turns from it with an evident expres- 
sion of disgust ; at other times, he seizes it with greater or less avidity, 
and then drops it, sometimes from disgust, at other times because he is 
unable to complete the mastication of it. This palsy of the organs of 
masticatien, and dropping of the food, after it has been partly chewed, is 
a symptom on which implicit confidence may be placed. 

Some do<^s vomit once or twice in the early period of the disease : when 
this happens,: they never return to the natural food of the dog, but are eager 



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RABIES. 



135 



The dog also feels 



for every thing that is filthy and horrible. The natural appetite generally 
fails entirely, and to it succeeds a strangely depraved one. The dog- 
usually occupies himself with gathering every little bit of thread, and it is 
curious to observe with what eagerness and method he sets to work, and 
how completely he effects his object. He then attacks every kind of dirt 
and filth, horse-dung, his own dung, and human excrement. Some breeds 
of spaniels are very filthy feeders without its being connected with disease, 
but the rabid dog eagerly selects the excrement of the horse, and his own. 
Some considerable care, however, must be exercised here. At the period 
of dentition, and likewise at the commencement of the sexual affection, 
the stomach of the dog, and particularly that of the bitch, sympathises 
with, or shares in, the irritability of the gums, and of the constitution gene- 
rally, and there is a considerably perverted appetite. 

the same propensity that influences the child, that of taking hard sub- 
stances into the mouth, and seemingly trying to masticate them. Their 
pressure on the gums facilitates the passage of the new teeth. A young 
dog will, therefore, be observed gathering up hard substances, and, if he 
should chance to die, a not inconsiderable collection of them is sometimes 
found in the stomach. They are, however, of a peculiar character; they 
consist of small pieces of bone, stick, and coal. 

The contents of the stomach of the rabid dog, are often, or generally, 
of a most filthy description. Some hair or straw is usually found, but the 
greater part is composed of horse-dung, or of his own dung, and it may be 
received as a certainty, that if he is found deliberately devouring it, he 
is rabid. 

Some very important conclusions may be drawn from the appearance 
and character of the urine. The dog, and at particular times when he is 
more than usually salacious, may, and does diligently search the urining 
places ; he may even, at those periods, be seen to lick the spot which 
another has just wetted; but, if a peculiar eagerness accompanies this 
strange employment, if, in the parlour, which is rarely disgraced by this 
evacuation, every corner is perseveringly examined, and licked with un- 
wearied and unceasing industry, that dog cannot be too carefully watched, 
there is great danger about him ; he may, without any other symptom be 

pronounced to be decidedly rabid. I never knew a single mistake about 

this. 

Much has been said of the profuse discharge of saliva from the mouth 

of the rabid dog. It is an undoubted fact that, in this disease, all the glands 

concerned in the secretion of saliva, become increased in bulk and vascu- 
larity. 

but it never equals the increased discharge that accompanies epilepsy, or 
nausea. The frothy spume at the corners of the mouth, is not for a mo- 
ment to be compared with that which is evident enough in both of these 
affections. It is a symptom of short duration, and seldom lasts longer 
than twelve hours. The stories that are told of the mad dog covered with 
froth, are altogether fabulous. The dog recovering from, or attacked by a 
fit, may be seen in this state ; but not the rabid dog. Fits are often mis- 
taken for rabies, and hence the delusion. 

The increased secretion of saliva soon passes away. It lessens m 
quantity ; it becomes thicker, viscid, adhesive, and glutinous. It clings 
to the corners of the mouth, and probably more annoyingly so to the 
membrane of the fauces. The human being is sadly distressed by it, he 



The sublingual glands wear an evident character of inflammation ; 



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RABIES. 



forces it out with the greatest violence, or utters the falsely supposed 
bark of a dog, in his attempts to force it from his mouth. This symp- 
tom occurs in the hunian being, when the disease is fully established, 
or at a late period of it. The dog furiously attempts to detach it with 
his paws. 

It is an early symptom in the dog, and it can scarcely be mistaken in 
him. When he is fighting with his paws at the corners of his mouth, let 
no one suppose that a bone is sticking between the poor fellow's teeth ; nor 
should any useless and dangerous effort be made to relieve him. If all this 
uneasiness arose from a bone in the mouth, the mouth would continue per- 
manently open instead of closing when the animal for a moment disconti- 
nues his efforts. If after a while he loses his balance and tumbles over, 
there can be no longer any mistake. It is the saliva becoming more and 
more glutinous, irritating the fauces and threatening suffocation. 

To this naturally and rapidly succeeds an insatiable thirst. The dog 
that still has full power over the muscles of his jaws continues to lap. He 
knows not when to cease, while the poor fellow labouring under the dumb 
madness, presently to be described, and whose jaw and tongue are para- 
lysed, plunges his muzzle into the water-dish to his very eyes, in order 
that he may get one drop of water into the back part of his mouth to 
moisten and to cool his dry and parched fauces. Hence, instead of this 
disease being always characterised by the dread of water in the dog, it is 
marked by a thirst often perfectly unquenchable. Twenty years ago, this 

assertion would have been peremptorily denied. Even at the present day 
we occasionally meet with those who ought to know better, and who will 
not believe that the dog which fairly, or perhaps eagerly, drinks, can be 
rabid. 

January 22ndy 1815. — A Newfoundland dog belonging to a gentleman 
in Piccadilly was supposed to have swallowed a penny-piece, on the 
20th. On the evening of that day, he was dull, refused his food, and 
would not follow his master. 21st. He became restless and panting, 
and continually shifting his position. He would not eat nor would he 
drink water, but followed his mistress into her bed-room which he had 
never done before, and eagerly lapped the urine from the chamber-pot. 
He was afterwards seen lapping his own urine. His restlessness and pant- 
ing increased. He would neither eat nor drink, and made two or three 
attempts to vomit. 22nd. He was brought to me this evening. His eyes 
were wild, the conjunctiva considerably inflamed, and he panted quickly 
and violently. There was a considerable flow of saliva from the corners 
of his mouth. He was extremely restless and did not remain in one posi- 
tion half a minute. There was an occasional convulsive nodding motion 
of the head. The eyes were wandering, and evidently following some 
imaginary object ; but he was quickly recalled from his delirium, by my 
voice or that of his master. In a few moments, however, he was wander- 
ing again. He had previously been under my care, and immediately re- 
cognised me and offered me his paw. His bark was changed and had a 
slight mixture of the howl, and there was a husky choking noise in the 

throat. 

I immediately declared that he was rabid, and with some reluctance on 
the part of his master, he was left with me. 2Srdy 8 a.m. The breathing 
was less quick and laborious. The spasm of the head was no longer 
visible. The flow of saliva had stopped and there M^as less delirium. The 



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RABIES. 



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jaw began to be dependent ; the rattling, choking noise in his throat louder. 
He carried straw about in his mouth. He picked up some pieces of old 
leather that lay within his reach and carefully concealed them under his 
bed. Two minutes afterwards he would take them out again, and look 
at them, and once more hide them. He frequently voided his urine in 
small quantities, but no longer lapped it. A little dog was lowered into 
the den, but he took no notice of it. 10 p.m. Every symptom of fever 
returned with increased violence. He panted very much, and did not 
remain in the same posture two seconds. He was continually running to 
the end of his chain and attempting to bite. He was eagerly and wildly 
watching some imaginary object. His voice was hoarser — more of the 
howl mixing with it. The lips were distorted, and the tongue very black. 
He was evidently getting weaker. After two or three attempts to escape, 
he would sit down for a second, and then rise and plunge to the end of 

He drank frequently, yet but little at a time, and that without 

He had 



12 P.M. The thirst strangely increased. 



"When 



his chain. 

difficulty or spasm „ , 

drunk or spilled full three quarts of water. There was a peculiar eager- 
ness in his manner. He plunged his nose to the very bottom of his pan, 
and then snapped at the bubbles which he raised. No spasm followed 
the drinking. He took two or three pieces from my hand, but immediately 
dropped them from want of power to hold them. Yet he was able for a 

moment suddenly to close his jaws, 
with a harsh sound, and frequently started suddenly, watching, and catch- 
ing at some imaginary object. 24^^, a.m. He was more furious, yet weaker. 
The thirst was insatiable. He was otherwise diligently employed in shat- 
tering and tearing everything within his reach. He died about three 

o'clock. 

It is impossible to say what was the origin of this disease in him. It is 
not connected with any degree or variation of temperature, or any parti- 
cular state of the atmosphere. It is certainly more frequent in the summer 
or the beo^inning of autumn than in the winter or spring, because it is a 
highly nervous and febrile disease, and the degree of fever, and irrita- 
bility and ferocity, and consequent mischief are augmented by increase of 
temperature. In the great majority of cases the inoculation can be dis- 
tinctly proved. In very few can the possibility be denied. The injury is 
inflicted in an instant. There is no contest, and before the injured party 
can prepare to retaliate, the rabid dog is far away. 

It can easily be believed that when a favourite dog has, but for a mo- 
ment, lagged behind, he may be bitten without the owner's knowledge 
or suspicion. A spaniel belonging to a lady became rabid. The dog was 
her companion in her grounds at her country residence, and it was rarely 
out of her sight except for a few minutes in the morning when the servant 
took it out. She was not conscious of its having been bitten, and the ser- 

A few weeks afterwards the 



vant stoutly denied it. 
footman was taken ill. 



The animal died. 

He was hydrophobous. In one of his intervals of 



comparative quietude he confessed that, one morning, his charge had been 
attacked and rolled over by another dog ; that there was no appearance of 
its having been bitten, but that it had been made sadly dirty, and he had 
washed it before he suffered it again to go into the drawing-room. The 
dog that attacked it must have been rabid, and some of his sahva must 
have remained about the coat of the spaniel^ by which the servant was 
fatally inoculated. 



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138 



RABIES. 



A dog 



besought them to send at once for their surgeon. 



4 

Another case of this fearful disease must not be passed over, 
that had been docile and attached to his master and mistress^ was missing 
one morning, and came home in the evening almost covered with dirt. 
He slunk to his basket^ and would pay no attention to any one. His 
owners thought it rather strange, and I was sent for in the morning. He 
was lying on the lap of his mistress, but was frequently shifting his posture, 
and every now and then he started as if he heard some strange sound. I 
immediately told them what was the matter, and besought them to place 
him in another and secure room. He had been licking both their hands. 
I was compelled to tell them at once what was the nature of the case, and 

They were perfectly 
angry at my nonsense as they called it, and I took my leave, but went im- 
mediately to their medical man, and told him what was the real state of 
the case. He called as it were accidentally a little while afterwards, and 
I was not far behind him. The surgeon did his duty and they escaped. 

In May, 1820, I attended on a bitch at Pimlico. She had snapped at 
the owner, bitten the man-servant and several dogs, was eagerly watch- 
ing imaginary objects, and had the peculiar rabid howl. I offered her 
water. She started back with a strange expression of horror and fell into 
violent convulsions that lasted about a minute. This was repeated a little 
while afterwards, and with the same result. She was destroyed. 

The horrible spasms of the human being at the sight of, or the attempt to 
swallow, fluids occur sufficiently often to prove the identity of the disease 
in the biped and the quadruped ; but not in one in fifty cases is there in the 
dog the slightest reluctance to liquids, or difficulty in swallowing them. 

In almost every case in which the dog utters any sound during the dis- 
ease, there is a manifest change of voice. In the dog labourino- under 
ferocious madness it is perfectly characteristic. There is no other sound 
that it resembles. The animal is generally standing, or occasionally 
sitting, when the singular sound is heard. The muzzle is always elevated. 
The commencement is that of a perfect bark ending abruptly and very 
singularly, in a howl a fifth, sixth, or eighth higher than at the com- 

Dogs are often enough heard howling, but in this case it is 
the perfect bark and the perfect howl rapidly succeeding to the bark. 

Every sound uttered by the rabid dog is more or less changed. The 

huntsman who knows the voice of every dog in his pack, occasionally 

hears a strange challenge. He immediately finds out that dog, and puts 

'him as quickly as possible under confinement. Two or three days may pass 

over, and there is not another suspicious circumstance about the animal ; 

still he keeps him under quarantine, for long experience has taught him 

to listen to that warning. At length the disease is manifest in its most 
fearful form. 



mencement. 



There is another partial change of voice to which the ear of the practi- 
tioner will by degrees become habituated, and which will indicate a change 
in the state of the animal quite as dangerous as the dismal howl ; I mean 
when there is a hoarse inward bark with a slight but characteristic eleva- 
tion of the tone. In other cases, after two or three distinct barks will 
come the peculiar one mingled with the howl. Both of them will termi- 
nate fatally, and in both of them the rabid howl cannot possibly be mistaken. 

There' is a singular brightness in the eye of the rabid dog, but it does 
not last more than two or three days. It then becomes dull and wasted ; 
a cloudiness steals over the conjunctiva, which changes to a yellow tinge, 



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RABIES. 



139 



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and then to a dark green, indicative of ulceration deeply seated within 
the eye. In eight and forty hours from the first clouding of the eye, it 
becomes one disorganised mass. 

There is in the rabid dog a strange embarrassment of general sensibility 

a seemingly total loss of feeling. 

Absence of pain in the bitten part is an almost invariable accompani- 
ment of rabies. I have known a dog set to work, and gnaw and tear the 
flesh completely away from his legs and feet. At other times the penis 
is perfectly demolished from the very base. Ellis in his " Shepherd's 
Sure Guide," asserts, that, however severely a mad dog is beaten, a cry is 



never forced from him. 



I am certain of the truth of this, for I have again 

Ellis tells that at the kennel at 



and again failed in extracting that cry. 
Goddesden, some of the grooms heated a poker red hot, and holding it 
near the mad hound's mouth, he most greedily seized it, and kept it until 
the mouth was most dreadfully burned. 

In the great majority of cases of furious madness, and in almost every 
case of dumb madness, there is evident affection of the lumbar portion of 
the spinal cord. There is a staggering gait, not indicative of general 
weakness, but referable to the hind quarters alone, and indicating an affec- 
tion of the lumbar motor nerve. In a few cases it approaches more to a 

general paralytic affection. 

In the very earliest period of rabies, the person accustomed to dogs will 

detect the existence of the disease. 

The animal follows the flight, as has been already stated, of various 
imaginary objects. I have often watched the changing countenance of the 
rabid dog when he has been lost to every surrounding object. I have seen 
the brightening countenance and the wagging tail as some pleasing vision 
has passed before him ; but, oftener has the countenance indicated the min- 
gled dislike and fear with which the intruder was regarded. _As soon as 
the phantom came within the proper distance he darted on it with true 

rabid violence. . , ^.l^ r i. e 

A spaniel, seemingly at play, snapped, in the morning, at the feet of 

several persons. In the evening he bit his master, his masters friend, 
and another dog. The old habits of obedience and affection then re- 
turned His master, most strangely, did not suspect the truth, and brought 
the animal to me to be examined. The animal was, as I had often seen 
him, perfectly docile and eager to be caressed. At my suggestion, or 
rather entreaty, he was left with me. On the following morning the 
disease was plain enough , and on the following day he died . K post- 
mortem examination took place, and proved that he M^as unequivocally 

rabid. , , . , j i, 

A lady would nurse her dog, after I had declared it to be rabid, and wlien 

he was dangerous to every one but herself, and even to her from the saliva 

which he plentifully scattered about. At length he darted at every one 

that entered the room, until a footman keeping the animal at bay with the 

poker, the husband of the lady dragged her from the room. The noise that 

the dog made was then terrific, and he almost gnawed his way through the 

door. At midnight his violence nearly ceased, and the door was partially 

opened. He was staggering and falling about, with every limb violently 



agitated. 



„^..^.^ At the entreaty of the lady, a servant ventured in to make a 

kind of bed for him. The dog suddenly darted at him, and dropped and 
died. 



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140 



RABIES. 



A terrier ten years^old, had been ill, and refused all food for three days 
On the fourth day he bxt a cat of which he had been unusually fond and 
he likewise bit three dogs I was requested to see him. I found him 
loose m the kitchen, and at first refused to go in, but, after observino- him 
for a minute or two, I thought that I might venture. He had a reculiaX 
wild and eager look, and turned sharply round at the least noise He often 
watched the flight of some imaginary object, and pursued with the utmost 
tury every fly that he saw. He searchingly sniffed about the room and 
examined my legs with an eagerness that made me absolutely tremble 
His quarrel with the cat had been made up, and when he was not other- 
wise employed he was eagerly licking her and her kittens. In the excess 
or derangement of his fondness, he fairly rolled them from one end of the 

deftro" L"' ^'''' '^"^'"''^ ^ ^^'"^^' '^^ ^^'"'^ '^ permit me t" 

.hnlll T T"^ f ^v!-!^^* t *i' ^^'* aggravated state of the disease 
snows a disposition to bite, t^i^^ -c,.^^^ ^t_ n ,.,,,, 



became rabid. 



The finest Newfoundland dog that I ever saw 
He had been bitten by a cur, and was supposed to have 



Ur^r.^ +1 ^ IT • 1 . — , '^ ' *^'^^ ^"^^ suuuoisea lo nave 

been thoroughly examined in the country. No wound, however, was found: 

the circumstance was almost forgotten, and he came up to the metropolis 
With his master. Wo K/^^^v^^.i„n j-^-„_t i , . ^ , „ _ __ ^ '^ 



refused 



lir SlT"^ "f "^r '-«'"-y o^cTs'bi ZmZ :„ap at 

IV ; 1. ^^I """ ^'''^^' "«^ ^"y disposition to bite. He offered him 

self to be caressed, and he was not satisfied except he was shaken by the 

paw. On the ser^ond rlaxr T oo„. i..-™ tt . \ . ^nctivt^u uy me 



paw. On the second day I saw him. He watched every passino- obfe7t 
with peculiar anxie y and followed with deep attention the^motions of a 
horse his old acquaintance ; but he made no efi^ort to escape, nor evir^ced 
any disposition to do mischief. I went to him, and patted and coaxed 
him, and he told me as plainly as looks and actions^nd a somewhat 

on ?hrf/S"f ^«"^^/^P^-e«« it' how much he was gratified. I saw 1 m 
on the third day. He was evidently dying. He could not crawl even 
to the door of his temporary kennel ; but he pushed forward his paw a 
little way, and, as I shook it, I felt the tetanic muscular action which 
accompanies the departure of life. 

On the other hand there are rabid dogs whose ferocity knows no bounds 

shake^^it'^Tr''"''"''' " f ^'^' '^^^«^ ^^' -d «-- it' -d furiously 

shake It. They are incessantly employed in darting to the end of their 
cJiain and attempting to crush it with their teeth, Ld tearing to pieces 
their kennel, or the wood work that is within thei^ reach, /hey a^ere! 
gardless of pain. The canine teeth, the incisor teeth are torn away yet 
unwearied and insensible to suffering, they continue their efforts to e^cLe 
A dog was chamed near a kitchen fire. He was incessant in his endeavours 
to escape, and, when he found that he could not effect it, he seized, in his 
impotent rage, the burning coals as they fell, and crushed them with his 

country benT'on'dtf "".'^" ''l? '^''*', ^'' ^^^"P^' ^^ ^^"^"^ers over the 
country bent on destruction. He attacks both the quadruped and ih^ 

biped. He seeks the village street or the more crowded one of the town 
and he suffers no dog o escape him. The horse is his frequent prey Tnd 
the human being is not al^ay« «afe from his attack. A rabid dog runnW 
down Park-lane, ml 825, bit no fewer than five horses, and fully as manf 

iTil. V 7T '"'^ t T'^T'^'^y "P0« some of his victim^s, and' n^ 
flict the fatal wound. Sometimes he seeks the more distant pasturage He 



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EABIES. 



141 



It is dangerous to dis- 



gets among the sheep, and more than forty have been fatally inoculated in 
one night. A rabid dog attacked a herd of cows, and five and twenty of 
them fell victims. In July, 1813, a mad dog broke into the menagerie of 
the Duchess of York, at Oatlands, and although the palisades that divided 
the different compartments of the menagerie were full six feet in height, 
and difficult, or apparently almost impossible to climb, he was found asleep 
in one of them, and it was clearly ascertained that he had bitten at least 

ten of the dogs. 

At length the rabid dog becomes completely exhausted, and slowly reels 
along the road wdth his tail depressed, seemingly half unconscious of sur- 
roundin*^' objects. His open mouth, and protruded and blackened tongue, 
and rolling gait sufficiently characterise him. He creeps into some sheltered 
place and then he sleeps twelve hours or more. 

turb his slumbers, for his desire to do mischief immediately returns, and 
the slightest touch, or attempt to caress him, is repaid by a fatal wound. 
This should be a caution never to meddle with a sleeping dog in a way-side 
house, and, indeed, never to disturb him anywhere. 

In an early period of the disease in some dogs, and in others when the 
strength of the animal is nearly worn away, a peculiar paralysis of the 
muscles of the tongue and jaws is seen. The mouth is partially open, and 
the tongue protruding. In some cases the d^g is able to close his mouth 
by a sudden and violent effort, and is as ferocious and as dangerous as one 
the muscles of whose face are unaffected. At other times the palsy is 
complete, and the animal is unable to close his mouth or retract his tongue. 

These latter cases, however, are rare. 

A dog must not be immediately condemned because he has this open 
mouth and fixed jaw. Bones constitute a frequent and a considerable por- 
tion of the food of dogs. In the eagerness with which these bones are 
crushed, spicula or large pieces of them become wedged between the 
molar teeth, and form an insuperable obstacle to the closing of the teeth. 
The tongue partially protrudes. There is a constant discharge of saliva 
from the mouth, far greater than when the true paralysis exists. The dog 
is continually fighting at the corners of his mouth, and the countenance is 
expressive of intense anxiety, although not of the same irritable character 

as in rabies. 

I was once requested to meet a medical gentleman in consultation re- 
specting a supposed case of rabies. There was protrusion and discolora- 
tion of the tongue, and fighting at the corners of the mouth, and intense 
anxiety of countenance. He had been in this state for four-and-twenty 
hours. This was a case in which I should possibly have been deceived had 
it been the first dog that I had seen with dumb madness. After having 
tested a little the ferocity or manageableness of the animal, I passed my 
hand along the outside of the jaws, and felt a bone wedged between two of 
the grinders. The forceps soon set all right with him. 

It is time to inquire more strictly into the post-mortem appearances of 

rabies in the dog. 

In dumb madness the unfailing accompaniment is, to a greater or less 
degree, paralysis of the muscles of the lower jaw, and the tongue is disco- 
loured and swollen, and hanging from the mouth ; more blood than usual 
also is deposited in the anterior and inferior portion of it. Its colour 
varies from a dark red to a dingy purple, or almost black. In ferocious 
madness it is usually torn and bruised, or it is discoloured by the dirt and 



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142 



RABIES. 



filth with which it has been brought into contact, and, not unfrequently, its 
anterior portion is coated with some disgusting matter. The papillge' or 
small projections on the back of the tongue, are elongated and widened 
and their mucous covering evidently reddened. The orifices of the glands 
of the tongue are frequently enlarged, particularly as they run their course 
along the frsenum of the tongue. 

The fauces, situated at the posterior part of the mouth, generally exhibit 
traces of inflammation. They appear in the majority of cases of ferocious 
madness, and they are never deficient after dumb madness. They are usu- 
ally most intense either towards the palatine arch or the larynx. Some- 
times an inflammatory character is diff'used through its whole extent, but 
occasionally it is more or less intense towards one or both of the termina- 
tions of the fauces, while the intermediate portion retains nearly its 
healthy hue. 

There is one circumstance of not unfrequent occurrence, which will at 
once decide the case— the presence of indigestible matter, probably small 
in quantity, in the back part of the mouth. This speaks volumes as to the 
depraved appetite of the patient, and the loss of power in the muscles of 
the pharynx. 

Little will depend on the tonsils of the throat. They occasionally en- 
large to more than double tfceir usual size ; but this is more in quiet than 
in ferocious madness. The insatiable thirst of the rabid dog is perhaps 
connected with this condition of them. o i- i' 

The epiglottis should be very carefully observed. It is more or less 
injected in every case of rabies. Numerous vessels increase in size and 
multiply round its edge, and there is considerable injection and thick- 
ening. 

Inflammation of the edges of the glottis, and particularly of the mem- 
brane which covers its margin, is often seen, and accounts for the harsh 
guttural breathing which frequently accompanies dumb madness. The 
inflammatory blush of the larynx, though often existing in a 
degree, deserves considerable attention. 



ery 



very 



There is occa- 



sionally the greatest intensity of inflammation through the whole of it ; 
at other times there is not the slightest appearance of it. There is the 
same uncertainty with regard to the bronchial tubes and the lungs ; but 
there is no characteristic symptom or lesion in the lungs. 

Great stress has been laid on the appearance of the heart ; but, generally 
speaking, in nine cases out often, the heart of the rabid dog will exhibit 
no other symptoms of disease than an increased yet variable deepness of 
colour in the lining membrane of the ventricles. 

No dependence can be placed on any of the appearances of the oesopha- 
gus ; and, when they are at the worst, the inflammation occupies only a 
portion of that tube. 

With regard to the interior of the stomach, if the dog has been dead 
only a few hours the true inflammatory bhish will remain. If four-and- 
twenty hours have elapsed, the bright red colour will have chano-ed to a 
darker red, or a violet or a brownish hue. In a few. hours after this a 
process of corrosion will generally commence, and the mucous membrane 
will be softened and rendered thinner, and, to a certain extent eaten 
through. The examiner, however, must not attribute that to disease which 
is the natural process of the cessation of life. 

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EABIES. 



143 



Much attention should be paid to the appearance of the stomach and 
its contents. If it contains a strange mingled mass of hair^ and hay, and 
straw, and horse-dung, and earth, or portions of the bed on which the dog 
had lain, we should seldom err if we affirmed that he died rabid ; for it 
is only under the influence of the depraved appetite of rabies that such 
substances are devoured. It is not the presence of every kind of extra- 
neous substance that will be satisfactory : pieces of coal, or wood, or even 
the filthiest matter, will not justify us in pronouncing the animal to be 
rabid ; it is that peculiarly mingled mass of straw, and hair, and filth of 
various kinds, that must indicate the existence of rabies. 
' When there are no solid indigesta, but a fluid composed principally of 
vitiated bile or extravasated blood, there will be a strong indication of the 
presence of rabies. When, also, there are in the duodenum and jejunum 
small portions of indigesta, the detection of the least quantity will be deci- 
sive. The remainder has been ejected by vomit ; and inquiry should be 
made of the nature of the matter that has been discharged. 

The inflammation of rabies is of a peculiar character in the stomach. It 
is generally confined to the summits of the folds of the stomach, or it is 
most intense there. On the summits of the rugse there are effusions of 
bloody matter, or spots of ecchymosis, presenting an appearance almost 
like crushed black currants. There may be only a fewof them ; but they 
are indications of the evil that has been effected. 

From appearances that present themselves in the intestines, the blad- 
der, the blood-vessels, or the brain, no conclusion can be drawn ; they are 
simply indications of inflammation. 

We now rapidly, and for a little while, retrace our steps. What is the 
cause of this fatal disease, that has so long occupied our attention ? It is 
the saliva of a rabid animal received into a wound, or on an abraded sur- 
face. In horses, cattle, sheep, swine, and the human being, it is caused 
by inoculation alone ; but, according to some persons, it is produced spon- 
taneously in other animals. 

I will suppose that a wound by a rabid dog is inflicted. The virus is 
deposited on or near its surface, and there it remains for a certain indefi- 
nite period of time. The wound generally heals up kindly ; in fact, it 
differs in no respect from a similar wound inflicted by the teeth of an 
animal in perfect health. Weeks and months in some cases pass on, and 
there is nothing to indicate danger, until a degree of itching in the cicatrix 
of the wound is felt. From its long-continued presence as a foreign 
body, it may have rendered the tissue, or nervous fibre connected with it, 
irritable and susceptible of impression, or it may have attracted and assi- 
milated to itself certain elements, and rabies is produced. 

The virus does not appear to have the same effect on every animal. Of 
four dogs bitten by, or inoculated from, one that is rabid, three, perhaps, 
would display every symptom of the disease. Of four human beings, not 
more than one would become rabid. John Hunter used to say not more 
than one in twenty ; but that is probably erroneous. Cattle appear to 
have a greater chance of escape, and sheep a still greater chance. 

The time of incvibation is diffei^ent in difiTerent animals. With regard 
to the human being, there are various strange and contradictory stories. 
Some have asserted that it has appeared on the very day on which the bite 
Avas inflicted, or within two or three days of that time. Dr. Bardsley, 
on the other hand, relates a case in which twelve years elapsed between 






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144 RABIES. 

the bite and the disease. If the virus may lurk so long as this in the con- 
stitution, it is a most lamentable affair. According to one account more 
than thirty years intervened. The usual time extends from three weeks 
six or seven months. 

_ ^ 

In the dog I have never seen a case in which plain and palpable rabies 
occurred in less than fourteen days after the bite. The avera^^-e time I 
should calculate at five or six weeks. In three months I should consider 
the animal as tolerably safe. I am, however, relating my own experience 
and have known but two instances in which the period much exceeded 
three months. In one of these five months elapsed, and the other did not 
become affected until after the expiration of the ^seventh month. 

The quality and the quantity of the virus may Iiave something to do 
with this, and so may the predisposition in the bitten animal to be affected 
by the poison. If it is connected with oestrum, the bitch will probably 
become a disgusting, as well as dangerous animal ; if with parturition, 
there is a strange perversion of maternal affection— she is incessantly and 
violently licking her young, continually shifting them from place to place ; 
and, in less than four-and-twenty hours, they will be destroyed by the 
reckless manner in which they are treated. In both cases the development 
of the disease seems to wait on the completion of her time of pregnancy. 
It appears in the space of two months after the bite, if her parturition is 
near at hand, or it is delayed for double that time, if the period of labour 
is so far distant. 

The duration of the disease is different in different animals. In man it 
has run its course in twenty-four hours, and rarely exceeds seventy-two. 
In the horse from three to four days ; in the sheep and ox from five to 
seven ; and in the dog from four to six. 

Of the real nature of the rabid virus, we know but little. It has never 
been analysed, and it w^ould be a difficult process to analyse it. It is not 
diffused by the air, nor communicated by the breath, nor even by actual 
contact, if the skin is sound. It must be received into a wound. It must 
come in contact with some tissue or nervous fibre, and lie dormant there 
for a considerable, but uncertain period. The absorbents remove every- 
thing around ; whatever else is useless, or would be injurious, is taken 
away, but this strange substance is unchanged. It does not enter into the 
circulation, for there it would undergo some modification and change, or 
would be rejected. It lies for a time absolutely dormant, and far longer 
than any other known poison; but, at length, the tissue on which it has 
lain begins to render it somewhat sensible, and assimilates to itself certain 
elements. The cicatrix begins to be painful, and inflammation spreads 
around. The absorbents are called into more powerful action ; they begin 
to attack the virus itself, and a portion of it is taken up, and carried into 
the circulation, and acquires the property of assimilating other secretions 
to its own nature, or it is determined to one of the secretions only ; it 
alters the character of that secretion, envenoms it, and gives it the power 
of propagating the disease. 

Something like this is the history of many animal poisons. In variola and 
the vaccine disease the poison is determined to the skin, in glanders to the 
Schneiderian membrane, and in farcy to the superficial absorbents. Each 
in its turn becomes the depot of the poison. So it is with the salivary glands 
of the rabid animal ; in them it is formed, or to them it is determined and 
from them, and them alone, it is communicated to other animals. 



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RABIES. 



145 




^oTiTP i r . ' ^" ^^^ valuable Manual of Veterinary Science, states 
of rnht S" VT'' """"^ ^^^'^ ^"^'^^y interesting, respecting the disease 
ino- np V 1 T" *^''' '^ ^"^ ^® essentially an inflammatory affection, attack- 
ihtJZh^,!^^^ l-o *»"^"«s membrane of the nose, and extending thence 
thlh?- ^ibrnorm plate of the ethmoid bones to the interior part of 
ne Drain, and so giving rise to a derangement of the nervous system as a 

wl^nir^'^T*'''''"'''^'-'''"''''- ^^'^ *^^^^ ^f symptoms constitutes mainly, if not 
yioiiy, tlie essence of an occasional epidemic not unlike some forms of 

mnuenzaor epizootic disease, and the bite of a rabid animal is not always, 

UlTr '"^ f T'. ^f "^^^^^^"^ ^^"'^ °f t^^^ disease, but merely an 
acculental concomitant m the prevailing disorder. Also the disease hydro- 
phobia, produced in man is not always the result of any poison introduced 
into his system, but merely the melancholy, and often fatal result of panic 
tear, and of the disordered state of the imagination. Those who are ac- 
quainted with the effects of sympathy, and imitation, and panic, in the 
production of nervous disorders, will readily apprehend the meaning of the 
Jr^roiessor. 

Some of these diseases speedily run their course and exhaust themselves. 
Oovvpox and farcy, in many instances, have this character. Perhaps, to 
a certain degree, this may be affirmed of all of them. I have seen cases, 
which 1 could not mistake, in which the symptoms of rabies were one after 
another developed. The dog was plainly and undeniably rabid, and I had 
given hira up as lost ; but, after a certain period, the symptoms began to 
be less distinct ; they gradually disappeared, and the animal returned to 
perlect health. _ This may have formed one ground of belief in the power 
ot certain medicines, and most assuredly it gives encouragement to per- 
severance in the use of remedial measures. 

It has then been proved, and I hope demonstratively, that rabies is pro- 
pagated by inoculation. It has also been established that although every 
animal labouring under this disease is capable of communicating it, yet, 
with very few exceptions, it can be traced to the bite of the dog. It has 
still further been shown that the malady generally appears at some period 
between the third and seventh month from the time of inoculation. At 
the expiration of the eighth month, the animal, may be considered to be 
safe ; for there is only one acknowledged case on record, in which the 

disease appeared in the dog after the seventh month from the bite had 

passed. 

Then it would appear that if a species ofquarantine could be established, 
and every dog confined separately for eight months, the disease would be 
annihilated m our country, or could only reappear in consequence of the 
importation of some infected animal. Such a course of proceeding, how- 
ever, could never be enforced either in the sporting-world or among the 
peasantry. Other measures, however, might be resorted to in order to 
lessen the devastations of this malady ; and that which first presents itself 
to the mind as a powerful cause of rabies is the number of useless and 
aangerous dogs that are kept in the country for the most nefarious and, 
in the neighbourhood of considerable towns, the most brutal purposes ; 
without the slightest hesitation, I will affirm that rabies is propagated 
nineteen times out of twentv, by the cur and the lurcher in the country, 
and the fightmg-dog in towns. 

A tax should be laid on every useless dog, and doubly or trebly heavier 
than on the sporting-dog. No dog except the shepherd's should be exempt 



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146 



RABIES. 



from this tax^ unless, perhaps, it is the truck-dog, and his owner should 
be compelled to take out a licence ; to have his name in large letters on 
his cart ; and he should be heavily fined if the animal is found loose in 
the streets, or if he is used for fighting. 

The disease is rarely propagated by petted and house-dogs. They are 
little exposed to the danger of inoculation ; yet, we pity, or almost detest, 
the folly of those by whom their favourites are indulged, and spoiled even 
more than their children. 

We will now suppose that a person has had the misfortune to be bitten 
by a rabid dog : what course is he to pursue ? What preventive means 
are to be adopted ? Some persons, and of no mean standing in the medical 
world, have recommended a ligature. The reply would be, that this liga- 
ture must be worn during a very inconvenient and dangerous period of 
time. The virus lies in the wound inert during many successive weeks 
and months. 

Dr. Haygarth first suggested that a long continued stream of warm 
water should be poured upon the wound from the mouth of a kettle. He 
says that the poison exists in a fluid form, and therefore we should suppose 



that water would be its natural solvent. 



Massey 



the wound is small, it should be dilated, in order that the stream may 
descend on the part on which the poison is deposited. We are far, how- 
' ever, from being certain that this falling of water on the part, may not by 
possibility force a portion of the virus farther into the texture, or cause it 
to be entangled with other parts of the wound.^ 

There is a similar or stronger objection to the cupping-glass of Dr. 
Barry. The virus, forced from the texture with which it lies in contact 
by the rush of blood from the substance beneath, is too likely to inoculate, 
or become entangled with, other parts of the wound. 

There is great objection to suction of the wound ; for, in addition to this 
possible entanglement, the lips, or the mouth, may have been abraded, and 
thus the danger considerably aggravated. There also remains the un- 
decided question as to the absorption of the virus through the medium of 
a mucous surface. 

Excision of the part is the mode of prevention usually adopted by the 
human surgeon, and to a certain extent it is a judicious practice. If the 
virus is not received into the circulation, but lies dormant in the wound 
for a^ considerable time, the disease cannot supervene if the inoculated 
part is destroyed. 

This operation, however, demands greater skill and tact than is gene- 
rally supposed. It requires a determination fully to accomplish the desired 
object; for every portion of the wound with which the tooth could possibly 
have come into contact, must be removed. This is often exceedingly diffi- 
cult to accomplish on account of the situation and direction of the wound. 
The knife must not enter the wound, or it will be likely to be itself em- 
poisoned, and then the mischief and the danger will be increased instead 



of removed. 



Massej 



he advised that, " should the knife by chance enter the wound that had 
been made by the dog's tooth, the operation should be recommenced with 
a clean knife, otherwise the sound parts will become inoculated." 




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a The physician Apollonius, having 
been bitten by a rabid dog, induced an- 



other dog to Uck the wound, " ut idem 
medicus esset qui vulneris auctor fuit," 






A 



RABIES. 

If the incision is made freely and properly round the woxind^ and does 
not penetrate into it, yet the blood will follow the knife, and a portion of 
it will enter into the wound caused by the dog, and will come in contact 
with the virus, and will probably be contaminated, and will then overflow 
the original wound, and will be received into the new incision, and will 
carry with it the seeds of disease and death : therefore it is, that scarcely 
a year passes without some lamentable instances of the failure of incisions. 
it has occurred in the practice of the most eminent surgeons, and seems 
scarcely or not at all to impeach the skill of the operator. 

Aware of this, there are very few human practitioners who do not use 
the caustic after the knife. Every portion of the new wound is submitted 
to its influence. They do not consider the patient to be safe without this 
second operation. But has the question never occurred to them, that if 
the caustic is necessary to give security to the operation by incision, the 
knife might have been spared, and the caustic alone used ? 

The veterinary surgeon, when operating on the horse, or cattle, or the 
dog, frequently has recourse to the actual cautery. I could, perhaps, ex- 
cuse this practice, although I would not adopt it, in superficial wounds ; 
but I do not know the instrument that could be safely used in deeper ones. 
If it were sufficiently small to adapt itself to the tortuous course of little 
wounds, it would be cooled and inert before it could have destroyed the 
lower portions of them. If it were of sufficient substance long to retain 
the heat, it would make a large and fearful chasm, and probably interfere 
with the future usefulness of the animal. The result of the cases in which 
the cautery has been used proves that in too many instances it is an ineffi- 
cient protection. The rabid dog in Park Lane has already been men- 
tioned. He bit several horses before he could be destroyed. Caustic was 
applied to one of them, and the hot iron to the others. The first was saved, 
almost all the others were lost. A similar case occurred last spring ; the 
caustic was an efficacious preventive ; the cautery was perfectly useless. 
What caustic then should be applied ? Certainly not that to which the 
surgeon usually has recourse — a liquid one. Certainly not one that 
speedily deliquesces ; for they are both unmanageable, and, what is a more 
important consideration, they may hold in solution, and not decompose the 
poison, and thus inoculate the whole of the wound. The application 
which promises to be successful, is that of the lunar caustic. It is per- 
fectly manageable, and, being sharpened to a point, may be applied with 
certainty to every recess and sinuosity of the wound. 

Potash and nitric acid form a caustic which will destroy the substances 
with which they come in contact, but the combination of this caustic and 
the animal fibre will be a soft or semi-fluid mass. In this the virus is sus- 
pended, and with this it lies or may be precipitated upon the living fibre 
beneath. Then there is danger of re-inoculation ; and it would seem that 
this fatal process is often accomplished. The eschar formed by the lunar 
caustic is dry, hard, and insoluble. If the whole of the wound has been 
fairly exposed to its action, an insoluble compound of animal fibre and the 
metallic salt is produced, in which the virus is wrapped up, and from 
which it cannot be separated. In a short time the dead matter sloughs 
away, and the virus is thrown off with it. 

Previous to applying the caustic it will sometimes be necessary to enlarge 
the wound, in order that every part may be fairly got at ; and the eschar 
having sloughed off; it will always be prudent to apply the caustic a second 

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RABIES. 



time, but more slightly, in order to destroy any part that may not have 
received the full influence of the first operation, or that, by possibility, 
might have been inoculated during the operation. 



Mr 
reasons 



poisons 



equir 



dormant a certain 



time before their effects are manifested, pass into the system throuo-h the 
medium of the absorbents," (we somewhat differ from Mr. Smerdon°here 
but his reasoning is equally applicable to the nervous system,) "and if the 
absorbents are excited, their action is increased. I am satisfied that even 
in a venereal sore the application of a caustic, instead of destroying the 
disease, causes its rapid extension. Then," asks he, " if the virus on a 
small venereal sore is rendered more active by the caustic, is it not highly 

probable that the same law holds good with respect to the poison of 
rabies ?" 

The sooner the caustic is applied the better ; but I should not hesitate 
to have recourse to it even after the constitution has become affected. It 
is related in the Medico-Chirurgical Annals of Altenburg (Sept. 1821), 
that two men were bitten by a rabid dog. One became hydrophobous and 
died ; the other had evident symptoms of hydrophobia a few days after- 
wards. A surgeon excised the bitten part, and the disease disappeared. 

After a period of six days the symptoms returned. The wound was ex- 
amined ; considerable fungus was found sprouting from its bottom. 

was extirpated. '^^-- i _ -i i i • 
man did well. 



rp,, , 1" - ^ This 

i he hydrophobic symptoms were again removed, and the 
This is a most instructive case. 

In the Journal Pratique de Medecine Vt^terinaire, M. Damalix gives an 
interesting account of the effect of a bite of a rabid dog on a horse. On 
the 8th of July, 1828, a fowl-merchant, proceeding to the market of Col- 
mar, was attacked by a dog, who, after some fruitless efforts to get into 
the cart, bit the horse on the left side of the face, and fled precipitately. 
A veterinary surgeon w^as sent for, who applied the cautery to the horse' 
gave him some populeum ointment, and bled him. Everything appeared to 
go on well, and on the 16th the wounds were healed. 

On the 25th a great alteration took place. The horse was careless and 
slow ; he sometimes refused to go at all, and would not attend in the least 
to the whip, which had never occurred before. In the evening the wounds 
opened spontaneously, an ichorous and infectious pus run from them ; 
there was salivation and utter loss of appetite : strange fancies seemed to 
possess him ; he showed a desire to bite his master. The veterinary sur- 
geon might approach him with safety ; but the moment his owner or the 
children appeared, he darted at them, and would have torn them in pieces. 
The disease now took on the appearance of acute glanders \ livid and 

f'ungous wounds broke out; the stable was saturated with an infectious 
smell, the horse refused his food, or was unable to eat. The mayor at last 
interfered, and the animal was destroyed. In the Treatises on The Horse, 
Cattle, and Sheep, in former volumes, accounts are fully given of this 
dreadful malady in these animals. It may not be uninteresting to give a 
hasty sketch of it in some of the inferior classes. 

liahies in the Rabbit. — -I very much regret that I never instituted a 
course of experiments on the production and treatment of rabies in this 
animal. It would have been attended with little expense or danger and 
some important discoveries might have been made. Mr. Earle, in a case 



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V 




RABIES. 



149 



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in which he was much interested, inoculated two rabbits with the saliva 
of a dog that had died rabid. They were punctured at the root of the ears. 
One of the rabbits speedily became inflamed about the ears, and the ears 
were^ paralysed in both rabbits. The head swelled very much, and exten- 
sive inflammation took place around the part where the virus was inserted. 
One of them died without exhibiting any of the usual symptoms of the 
disease ; the other, after a long convalescence, survived, and eventually 
recovered the use of his ears. Mr. Earle very properly doubted whether 
this was a case of rabies. 

r 

Dr. Capello describes, but in not so satisfactory a manner as could 
be wished, a case of supposed rabies in one of these animals. A rabbit 
and a dog lived together in a family. They were strange associates ; but 
such friendships are not unfrequent among animals. The dog became 
rabid, and died. A man bitten by that dog became hydrophobous, and 
died. No one dreamed of the rabbit being in danger, and he ran about 
the hovise as usual ; but, one day, he found his way to the chamber of the 
mistress of the house, with a great deal of viscid saliva running from his 
mouth, furiously attacked her, and left the marks of his violence on her 
leg. He then ran into a neighbouring stable, and bit the hind legs of 
a horse several times. Finally, he retreated to a corner of the stable, and 
was there found dead. Neither the lady nor the horse eventually suffered. 

Babies in the Guinea-pig. — A man suspected of being hydrophobous 
was taken to the Middlesex Hospital. He was examined before several of 
the medical students ; one of whom, in order to make more sure of the 
aflfair, inoculated a guinea-pig with the saliva taken from the man's mouth. 
The guinea-pig had been usually very playful, and fond of being noticed ; 
but, on the eleventh day after this inoculation, he began to be dull and 
sullen, retiring into his house, and hiding himself as much as he could in 
a corner. On the following day he became out of temper, and even fero- 
cious in his way ; he bit at everything that was presented to him, gnawed 
his cage, and made the most determined eflforts to escape. Once or twice 
his violence induced convulsions of his whole frame ; and they might be 
produced at pleasure by dashing a little water at him. In the course of 
the night following he died. 

Habies in the Cat, — Fortunately for us, this does not often occur ; for a 
mad cat is a truly ferocious animal. I have seen two cases, one of them 
to my cost ; yet, I am unable to give any satisfactory account of the pro- 
gress of the disease. The first stage seems to be one of sullenness, and 
which would probably last to death ; but from that sullenness it is dan- 
gerous to rouse the animal. It probably would not, except in the paroxysm 
of rage, attack any one ; but during that paroxysm it 'knows no fear, nor 
has its ferocity any bounds. 

A cat, that had been the inhabitant of a nursery, and the playmate of 
the children, had all at once become sullen and ill-tempered. It had 
taken refuge in an upper room, and could not be coaxed from the corner 
in which it had crouched. 

It was nearly dark when I went. I saw the horrible glare of her eyes, 
but I could not see so much of her as I wished, and I said that I would 
call again in the morning. 

I found the patient, on the following day^ precisely in the same situation 
and the same attitude, crouched up in a corner, and ready to spring. I was 
very much interested in the case ; and as I wanted to study the countenance 



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150 



RABIES. 



Mr. Millingt 



of this demon, for she looked like one, I was foolishly, inexcusably im- 
prudent. I went on my hands and knees, and brought my face nearly on 
a level with hers, and gazed on those glaring eyes, and that horrible 
countenance, until I seemed to feel the deathly influence of a spell stealing 
over me. I was not afraid, but every mental and bodily power was in 
a manner suspended. My countenance, perhaps, alarmed her, for she 
sprang on me, fastened herself on my face, and bit through both my lips. 
She then darted down stairs, and, I believe, was never seen again. I 
always have nitrate of silver in my pocket, even now I am never with- 
out it ; I washed myself, and applied the caustic with some severity to 
the wound ; and my medical adviser and valued friend, 

punished me still more after I got home. My object was s. , „ ^„ 

at somewhat too much cost, for the expression of that brute's countenance 

will never be forgotten. 

The later symptoms of rabies in this animal, no one, perhaps, has had 
the opportunity of observing : we witness only the sullenness and the 

ferocity. 

Babies in the Fowl. — Dr. Ashburner and Mr. King inoculated a hen 
with the saliva from a rabid cow. They made two incisions through the 
integument, under the wings, and then well rubbed into these cuts the 
foam taken from the cow's mouth. She was after this let loose among 
other fowls m the poultry-yard. The incisions soon healed, and their 
places could with difficulty be discovered. Ten weeks passed over, when 
she was observed to refuse her food, and to run at the other fowls. She 
had a strange, wild appearance, and her eyes were bloodshot. Early on 
the following morning her legs became contracted, so that she very soon 
lost the power of standing upright. She remained sitting a long time 
with the legs rigid, refusing food and water, and appearing very irritable 
when touched. She died in the evening, immediately after drinking a 
large quantity of water which had been offered to her. 

Habies in the ^ac^^er.— Hufeland, in his valuable Journal of Practical 
Medicine, relates a case of a rabid female badger attacking two boys. 
She bit them both, but she fastened on the thigh of one of them, and w^as 
destroyed in the act of sucking his blood. The poor fellow died hydro- 
phobous, but the other escaped. This fact, certainly, gives us no idea of 
the general character of the disease in this animal ; but it speaks volumes 

as to its ferocity. 

Babies in the Wolf. — Eabies is ushered in by nearly the same symptoms, 
and pursues the same course in the wolf as in the dog, with this differ- 
ence, which would be readily expected, that his ferocity and the mischief 
which he accomplishes are much greater. The dog hunts out his own 
species, and his fury is principally directed against them ; although, if he 
meets with a flock of sheep, or a herd of cattle, he readily attacks them, 
and, perhaps, bites the greater part of them. The dog, however, fre- 
quently turns out of his way to avoid the human being, and seldom attacks 
him without provocation. The wolf, on the contrary, although he com- 
mits fearful ravages among the sheep and cattle, searches out the human 
being as his favourite prey. He conceals himself near the entrance to the 
village, and steals upon and wounds every passenger that he can get at. 
There are several accounts of more than twenty persons having been 
bitten by one wolf ; and there is a fearful history of sixteen persons 
perishing from the bite of one of these animals. This is in perfect agree- 



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KABIES. 



151: 



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ment with the account which I have given of the connexion between 
the previous temper and habits of the rabid dog, and the mischief that 
he effects under the influence of this malady. The wolf^ as he wanders 
in the forest, regards the human being as his persecutor and foe ; and, 
in the paroxysm of rabid fury, he is most eager to avenge himself on his 
natural enemy. Strange stories are told of the arts to which he has 
recourse in order to accomplish his purpose. In the great majority of 
cases he steals unaw^ares upon his victim, and the mischief is aifected 
before the wood-cutter or the villager is conscious of his danger. 

The following observations and experiments respecting rabies, by Dr. 
Hertwich, Professor at the Veterinary School at Berlin, are well worthy 
of attention. 

1. Out of fifty dogs that had been inoculated with virus taken from a 
rabid animal of the same species, fourteen only were infected. 

2. In the cases where inoculation had been practised without effect, no 
reason could be assigned why the disease should not have taken place. 
This consequently proves that the malady is similar to others of a conta- 
gious nature, and that there must exist a predisposition in the individual 
to receive the disease before it can occur. In one experiment, a mastiff 
dog, aged four years, was inoculated without exhibiting any symptoms of 
the malady, while seven others, who had been inoculated at the same time 
and place, soon became rabid. Several of these animals had been inocu- 
lated several times before any symptoms showed themselves, while, in 
others, on the contrary, once was sufficient. 

3. It appears that in a state of doubtful rabies, one or two accidental or 
artificial inoculations are not sufficient to create a negative proof of its 

existence. 

4. This disease has never been communicated to an individxial from 
one infected by means of the perspirable matter ; this, therefore, is a proof 
that the contagious part of the disease is not of a volatile nature. 

5. It does not only exist in the saliva and the mucus of the mouth, but 
likewise in the blood and the parenchyma of the salivary glands ; but not 
in the pulpy substance of the nerves. 

6. The power of communicating infection is found to exist in all stages 
of the confirmed disease, even twenty-four hours after the decease of the 

rabid animal. 

7. The morbid virus, when administered internally, appears to be in- 
capable of communicating this disease ; inasmuch as of twenty dogs to 
whom was given a certain quantity, not one exhibited the least symptom 
of rabies. 

8. The application of the saliva upon recent wounds appears to have 
been as often succeeded by confirmed rabies as when the dog had been 

bitten by a rabid animal. 

9. It cannot now be doubted that the disease is produced by the wound 
itself, as was supposed by M. Girard of Lyons, not by the fright of the in- 
dividual, according to the opinion of others, but only from the absorption 

of the morbid virus from its surface. 

10. Several experiments have proved to me the little reliance there is 
to be placed on the opinions of Baden and Capello, who believe that, in 
those dogs who become rabid after the bite of an animal previously 
attacked with this disease, the contagious properties of the saliva is not 
continued, but only exists in those primarily bitten. 



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RABIES. 



1 1 . During the period of incubation of the virus there are no morbid 
local, or general alterations of structure or function to be seen in the 
infected aniraal ; neither are there any vesicles to be perceived on the in 
ferior surface of tlie tongue, nor any previous symptoms which are found 
in other contagious diseases. 

12. This disease is g;enerally at its heiglit at the end of fifty days after 
either artificial or accidental inoculation ; and the author has never known 
it to manifest itself at a later period. 

13. It is quite an erroneous idea to suppose that dogs in a state of 
health are enabled to distinguish, at first sight, a rabid animal, inasnuich 
i'nfeS »'''''''" ^ ^^'''''' ^''''^ when mixed with the secretions of those 

The following singular trial respecting the death of a child by 
hydrophobia is worth quoting :— 

Jones V. Parr?/.— The plaintifFis a labourer, who gets only fourteen shil- 
lings a-week to support himself and his family. The defendant is his 
neighbour, and keeps a public -house. This was an action brought by the 
plaintiff to recover damages against the defendant for the loss of his son, 
seven years of age, who was bitten by the defendant's dog, and afterwards 
became affected with rabies, of which disease he died. 

It appeared in the evidence that the defendant's dog had, some time ago, 
been bitten by another dog ; in consequence of which this dog was tiecf in 
the cellar, but the length of the rope which was allowed him enabled him 
to go to a considerable distance. The plaintiff's child knew the doo- havino- 
often played with him when he was at large. Some time a^^o the child 
crossed tJie street, near to the place where the dog was fastened who 
rushed out of the place in which he was confined to where the 'child 
stood, sprung upon him, and bit him sadly in the face, and afterwards 
violently shook him. The child being thus wounded, a surgeon was sent 
for, who, after having dressed him, and attended him for a certain time 
gave directions that he should be taken to the sea-side, and bathed in the 
salt water. 

u 

This having been continued for some time, the child was brought home, 
and, at the _ expiration of a month from the day on which he was bitten 



evidently 



The surgeon proved beyond all 



shadow of doubt that the child laboured under rabies ; that he had the 
never-falling symptoms of that dreadful affliction ; and that, a little while 
before he expired, he even barked like a dog. The surgeon's charge to 
the father for his attendance was 1/. 6s. 6d., which, together with the 
charge of the undertaker for the funeral of the child, amounted to between 
SIX and seven pounds. Application was made to the defendant to defray 
this expense, which at first he expressed a willingness to comply with but 
afterwards refused ; upon which this action was brought. 
rj ^^^""^ j""™^ *inie the defendant oflfered to pay the plaintiff the sum of 
bl. ^^s bd., and the expense of the funeral and the surgeon, provided the 
plaintitt would bear the expenses of the lawsuit, which he was not in a 
condition to do, as probably it would amount to more than that money 
On this account, therefore, the action was now brought into court. There 
was no proof that the defendant knew or suspected his dog to be mad 
previously to his attacking the boy ; but an animal known ''to have been 

^ Journal Pratique de Med. Vet. 



4 



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RABIES. 



153 



bitten by a mad dog, ought either to have been at once destroyed, or so 
secured that it was impossible for him to do mischief. 

Lord Kenyon observed to the jury, that this was one of those causes 
which came home to the feelings of all, yet must not be carried farther 
than justice demanded. A cause like this never, perhaps, before occurred in 
a court of justice ; but there had been many resembling it in point of prin- 
ciple. If a dog, known to be ill-tempered and vicious, did any person an 
injury without provocation, there could be no question that the owner of 
the dog was answerable, in a court of justice, for the injury inflicted. 
Here was a worse case. The dog by whom the child was bitten had been 
attacked by another that was undeniably rabid. His master was aware of 
this, and placed him in a state of partial confinement — a confinement so 
iax, and so inefficient, that this poor child had broken through it, and 
was bitten and died. What other people would have done in such a situ- 
ation he could not tell ; but, if he were asked what he would do, he 
answered, he certainly would kill the dog, however much of a favourite he 
had been, because no atonement was within the reach of his fortune to 
make to the injured party for such a dreadful visitation of Providence as 
this. It was not enough for the owner of such a dog to say, he took pre- 
caution to prevent mischief : he ought to have made it impossible that 
mischief could happen ; and, therefore, as soon as there was any reason- 
able suspicion that the dog was rabid, he ought to have destroyed him. 

But, if the owner wished to save the animal, until he was satisfied of the 
actual state of the case, he ought to have secured him, so that every indi- 
vidual might be safe. Whether the defendant thought he had done all 
that was necessary, his lordship did not know ; but this he knew, that 
the dog was not perfectly secured, otherwise this misfortune could not 
have happened. 

The care which the defendant took in this case was not enough, and, 
therefore, he had no doubt that this action was maintainable. The jury 
would judge what damages they ought to give. He would refer this to 
their feelings. They could not avoid commiserating the distress of the 
family of this poor man. He should, however, observe to the jury, that 
they must not give vindictive damages ; but still he did not think that 
damages merely to the amount of 61. or 7Z., which was stated to be the 
expense of the funeral, &c., would at all meet the justice of the case. He 
was inclined to advise them to go beyond that, although he did not plead 

There would be costs to be defrayed by the 



vindictive 

plaintiff, well known in the profession under the head of " extra costs,' 



damages. 



1 



even although he had a verdict. If the verdict had been at his disposal, 
he would have taken care that these costs should have been borne by the 
party that had been the cause of the injury. That appeared to him to be 

the justice of the case. 

He trusted that none who heard him would doubt his sincerity, when he 
said, he lamented the misfortune which had given birth to this action ; 
and, with that qualification of the case, he must say that he was not sorry 
that this action had been brought. He thanked the plaintiff for bringing 
it ; for it might be of public benefit. It would teach a lesson that would 
not soon be forgotten, ^^That a person, who knowingly keeps a vicious, 
dangerous animal, should be considered to be answerable for all the acts 
of that animal." There were instances in which very large damages had 
been given to repair such injuries. He did not say that the present case 



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RABIES. 



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called for large damages ; but, if other cases of the same kind should be 
brought into court after this had been made public, he hoped the jury 
would go beyond the ordinary limits, and give verdicts which might ope- 
rate in terrorem on the offending parties. 

Verdict for the plaintiff — damages 36/.^ 

A child was bitten by a rabid dog at York, and became hydrophobous. 
All possibility of relief having vanished, the parents, desirous of putting 
an end to the agony of their child, or fearful of its doing mischief, 
smothered it between two pillows. They were tried for murder, and 
found guilty. They were afterwards pardoned ; but the intention of the 
prosecutor was that of deterring others from a similar practice, in a like 
unfortunate situation.^ 

In 1821, a physician, at Poissy, was sentenced to pay 8000 francs (320/,) 
to a poor widow whose husband died of hydrophobia, in consequence of a 
bite from the physician's dog, he knowing that the dog had been bitten, 
yet not confining him. 



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Sporting Magazine, vol. xviii, p. 186 



^ DanieFs Eural Sports, vol. i. p. 220. 



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THE EYE AND ITS DISEASES. 



155 




CHAPTER VIII. 




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THE EYE AND ITS DISEASES, 

The diseases that attack the same organ are essentially different, in different 
animals, in their symptoms, intensity, progress, and mode of treatment. 
In periodic ophthalmia — that pest of the equine race and opprobrium of the 
veterinary profession — the cornea becomes suddenly opaque, the iris pale, 
the aqueous humour turbid, the capsule of the lens cloudy, and blindness is 
the result. After a time, however, the cornea clears up, and becomes as 
bright as ever ; but the lens continues impervious to light, and vision is lost. 

Ophthalmia in the dog presents us with symptoms altogether different. 
The conjunctiva is red ; that portion of it which spreads over the sclerotica 
is highly injected, and the cornea is opaque. As the disease proceeds, and 
even at a very early period of its progress, an ulcer appears on the centre ; 
at first superficial, but enlarging and deepening until it has penetrated the 
cornea, and the aqueous humour has escaped. Granulations then spring 
from the edges of the ulcer, rapidly enlarge, and protrude through the lids. 
Under proper treatment, however, or by a process of nature, these granu- 
lations cease to sprout; they begin to disappear; the ulcer diminishes; it 
heals ; scarcely a trace of it can be seen ; the cornea recovers its perfect 
transparency, and vision is not in the slightest degree impaired. 

There is a state of the orbit which requires some consideration. It is 
connected with the muscles employed in mastication. Generally speaking, 
the food of the dog requires no extraordinary degree of mastication, nor is 
there usually any great time employed in this operation. That muscle 
which is most employed in the comminution of the food, namely, the 
temporal muscle, has its action very much limited by the position of the 
bony socket of the eye ; yet sufficient room is left for all the force that can 
be required. In some dogs, either for purposes of offence or defence, or 
the more effectual grasping of the prey, a sudden violent exertion of mus- 
cular power, and a consequent contraction of the temporal muscle, are re- 
quisite, but for which the imperfect socket of the orbit does not seem to 
afford sufficient scope and room. There is an admirable provision for 
this in the removal of a certain portion of the orbital process of the frontal 
bone on the outer and upper part of the external ridge, and the substitu- 
tion of an elastic cartilage; This cartilage momentarily yields to the 
swelling of the muscles ; and then, by its inherent elasticity, the external 
ridge of the orbit resumes its pristine form. The orbit of the dog, the 
pig, and the cat, exhibits this singular mechanism. 

The horse is, to a certain extent, also an illustration of this. He re- 
quires an extended field of vision to warn him of the approach of his 
enemies in his wild state, and a direction of the orbits somewhat forward 
to enable him to pursue with safety the headlong course to which we 
sometimes urge him ; and for this purpose his eyes are placed more for- 
ward than those of cattle, sheep, or swine. That which Mr. Percivall 
states of the horse is true of our other domesticated animals : 



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THE EYE 



eyeball is placed within the anterior or more capacious part of the orbit 
nearer to the frontal than to the temporal side, with a degree of pro- 
minence peculiar to the individual, and, within certain limits, variable at 

In many of the carnivorous animals the orbit encroaches on the bones 
of the face. A smgular effect is also produced on the countenance, both 
when the animal is growling over his prey and when he is devourinrit 
The temporal muscle is violently acted upon ; it presses upon the cartfw 
that forms part of the external ridge ; that again forces itself upon and Z- 
trudes the eye, and hence the peculiar ferocity of expression whicHs 
observed at that time. The victims of these carnivorous animals are also 
somewhat provided against danger by the acuteness of sight with which 
tney are gitted. Adipose matter also exists in a considerable quantity in 
the orbit of the eye, which enables it to revolve by the slightest contraction 
ot the muscles. 

We should scarcely expect to meet with cases of fracture of the orbital 
arch m the dog, because, in that animal, cartilage, or a cartiko-o-lirra- 
mentous substance, occupies a very considerable p'art of that arch • bu't I 
have again and again, among the cruelties that are practised on the inferior 
creation, seen the cartilage partly, or even entirely, torn asunder. I have 
never been able satisfactorily to ascertain the existence of this durincr life • 
but I have found it on those whom I have recommended to be destroyed 
on account of the brutal usage which they had experienced. Blows some- 
what higher, or on the thick temporal muscle of this animal, will yevY 
rarely produce a fracture. j rxii^veiy 

A few cas^ of disease in the eye may be interesting and useful 

^.c. T_The eyes of a favourite spaniel were found inflamed 'and im- 



patient of light. _ Nothing wrong had been perceived orthT preceding 

No ulceration could be observed on the cornea, and there was but a 



day. 



slight_ mucous discharge. An infusion of digitalis, w'ith twenty times'the 



-' o ^^^^^^^^.^ ^j^ vixgi..u.Axo5 vvxtn tvvt;uLy limes tne 

quantity ot tepid water, was employed as a collyrium, and an aloetic ball 
administered. On the following day the eyes were more inflamed. The 



collyrium and the aloes were employed as before, and a seton inserted in 
the T)o 1. 



the poll. 

Three or four days afterwards the redness was much diminished the 
discharge from the eye considerably lessened, and the dog was sent home 
fourtrd""^' "^"^^^^ "^^'^ continued, with an aloetic ball on every third or 

Two or three days after this the eyes were perfectly cured and the seton 
removed. 

Case II.— The eye is much inflamed and the brow considerably protruded 
This was supposed to be caused by a bite. I vainly endeavoured to 
bring the lid over the swelling. I scarified the lid freely, and ordered the 

n ^hv.l h^l^. encouraged by the constant application of warm water, and 
a pnysic-Dall to be given. 

On the following day the brow was found to be scarcely or at all 
reduced, and the eye could not be closed. I drew out the haw with a 
crooked needle, and cut it off closely with sharp scissors The excised 
portion was as large as a small kidney-bean. The fomentation was con- 
tinued five days afterwards, and the patient then dismissed cured 
. Case III.— A pointer was brought in a sad state of mange. Redness 
scurf, and eruptions were on almost every part. Apply the mange ointment 



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AND ITS DISEASES. 



157 



I. 



and the alterative and physic balls. On the following day there was an 
ulcer on the centre of the cornea, with much appearance of pain and im- 
patience of light. Apply an infusion of digitalis, with the liquor plumbi 
diacetatis. Pie was taken away on the twelfth day, the mange apparently 
cured, and the inflammation of the eye considerably lessened. A fortnight 
afterwards this also appeared to be cured. 

Case IV. — A spaniel had been bitten by a large dog. There was no wound 
of the lids, but the eye was protruded from the socket. I first tried whe- 
ther it could be reduced by gentle pressure, but I could not accomplish it. 
I then introduced the blunt end of a curved needle between the eye and 
the lid ; and thus drawing up the lid with the right hand, while I pressed 
gently on the eye with the left hand, I accomplished my object. I then 
subtracted three ounces of blood and gave a physic-ball. On the following 
day the eye was hot and red, with some tumefaction. The pupil was 
moderately contracted, but was scarcely affected by any change of light. 
The dog was sent home, with some extract of goulard, and a fortnight 
afterwards was quite well. 

Case V. — A dog received a violent blow on the right eye. Immediate 
blindness occurred, or the dog could apparently just discern the difference 
between light and darkness, but could not distinguish particular objects. 
The pupil was expanded and immovable. A pink-coloured hue could 
be perceived on looking earnestly into the eye. A seton was intro- 
duced into the poll, kept there nearly a month, and often stimulated rather 
sharply. General remedies of almost every kind were tried : depletion 
was carried to its full extent, the electric fluid was had recourse to ; but at 
the expiration of nine weeks the case was abandoned and the dog destroyed. 
Permission to examine him was refused. 

I have, in two or three instances, witnessed decided cases of dropsy of 
the eye, accumulation of fluid taking place in both the anterior and 
posterior chambers of the eye ; there was also effusion of blood in the 
chambers, but in one case only was there the slightest benefit produced 
by the treatment adopted, and in that there was gradual absorption of the 

effused fluid. 

About the same time there was another similar case. A pointer had 

suddenly considerable opacity of one eye, without any known cause : the 

other eye was not in the least degree affected. The dog had not been out 

of the garden for more than a week. The eye was ordered to be fomented 

with warm water. 

On the following day the inflammation had increased, and the adipose 
matter was protruded at both the inner and outer canthus. The eye was 
bathed frequently with a goulard lotion. On the fourth day the eyeball 
was still more inflamed, and the projections at both canthi were increased. 

A curved needle was passed through both eyes, and there was considerable 
bleeding. On the following day the inflammation began to subside. At 
the expiration of a week scarcely any disease remained, and the eye became 
as transparent as ever. 

A curious case of congenital blindness was brought to my infirmary. 
A female pointer puppy, eight weeks old, had both her eyes of their 
natural size and formation, but the inner edge of the iris was strangely 
diseased. The pupil was curiously four-cornered and very small. There 
hung out of the pupil a grayish-white fibrous matter, which appeared to be 
the remainder of the pupillary membrane. 




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•158 



THE EYE 



Six months afterwards we examined her again, and found that the pupil 
was considerably enlarged, and properly shaped, and the white skin had 
vanished In the back-ground of the eye there was a faint yellow-green 
light and the dog not only showed sensibility to light, but some perception 
of external objects. At this period we lost sight of her 

A very considerable improvement has taken place with regard to the 
treatment of the enlarged or protruded ball of the eye. A doo- may ffet 
into a skirmish, and have his eye forced from the socket. If there is little 
or no bleeding, the case will probably be easily and successfully treated 

i he eye must, first, be thoroughly washed, and not a particle of grit 
m.ust be left. A little oil, a crooked needle, and a small piece of soft rag 
should be procured. The blunt end of the needle should be dipped into 
the oil, and run round the inside of the lid, first above and then below. 
ihe operator will next— his fingers being oiled— press upon the protruded 
eye gently yet somewhat firmly, changing the pressure from one part of 
the eye to the other, in order to force it back into the socket. 

If, after a couple of minutes' trial, he does not succeed, let him again 
oil the eye on the inside and the out, and once more introduce the blunt 
end of the needle, attempting to carry it upwards under the lid with two 
. or three fingers pressing on the eye, and the points of pressure being fre- 
quently changed. In by far the greater number of cases the eye will be 
saved. •' 

If it is impracticable to cause the eye to retract, a needle with a thread 
attached must be passed through it, the eye being then drawn as forward 
as possible and cut off close to the lids. The bleeding will soon cease and 
the lids perfectly close. 

Ophthalmia is a disease to which the dog is often liable. It is the result 
of exposure either to heat or to cold, or violent exertion ; it is remedied 
by bleeding, purging, and the application of sedative medicines, as the 
acetate of lead or the tincture of opium. When the eye is considerably 
inflamed, in addition to the application of tepid or cold water, either the 
inside of the lids or the white of the eye may be lightly touched with the 
lancet. From exposure to cold, or accident or violence, inflammation 
often spreads on the eye to a considerable degree, the pupil is clouded, 
and small streaks of blood spread over the opaque cornea. The mode of 
treatment just described must be pursued. 

The crystalline lens occasionally becomes opaque. There is cataract. 
It may be the result of external injury or of internal predisposition. Old 
dogs are particularly subject to cataract. That which arises from acci- 
dent, or occasionally disease, may, although seldom, be reinstated, espe- 
cially in the young dog, and both eyes may become sound ; but, in the 
old, the slow-growing opacity will, almost to a certainty, terminate in 

cataract. - 

There is occasionally an enlargement of the eye, or rather an accumu- 
lation ot fluid within the eye, to a very considerable extent. No external 
application seems to have the slightest effect in reducing the bulk of the 
eye. If it is punctured, much inflammation ensues, and the eye o-radually 

wastes away. '^ 

In amaurosis, the eye is beautifully clear, and, for a little while, this 
clearness imposes upon the casual observer ; but there is a peculiar pel'lucid 
appearance about the eye— a preternatural and unchanging brightness. In 



1 



II 



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AND ITS DISEASES. 



159 



the horse, the sight occasionally returns, but I have never seen this in the 
dog. 

The occasional glittering of the eyes of the dog has been often observed. 
The cat, the wolf, some carnivora, and also sheep, cows, and horses, occa- 
sionally exhibit the same glittering. Pallas imagined that the light of these 
animals emanated from the nervous membrane of the eye, and considered 
it to be an electrical phenomenon. It is found, however, in every animal 
that possesses a tapetum lucidum. The shining, however, never takes place 
in complete darkness. It is neither produced voluntarily, nor in conse- ^ 
quence of any moral emotion, but solely from the reflection that falls on 
the eye. 




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160 



THE EAU AND ITS DISEASES 



CHAPTER IX. 



THE EAU AND ITS DISEASES. 



Bar 



All water-dogs, and some others, are subject to a 
disease designated by this name, and which, in fact, is inflammation of the 
integumental lining of the inside of the ear. When the whole of the body, 
except the head and ears, is surrounded by cold water, there will be an un- 
usual determination of blood to those parts, and consequent distension of 
the vessels and a predisposition to inflammation. A Newfovmdland dog, 
or setter, or poodle, that has been siibject to canker, is often freed from a 
return of the disease by being kept from the water. 

The earliest symptom of the approach of canker is frequent shaking of 
the head, or holding of the head on one side, or violent scratching of one 
or both ears. Redness of the integument may then be observed, and 
particularly of that portion of it which lines the annular cartilage. This 
is usually accompanied by some enlargement of the folds of the skin. As 
soon as any of these symptoms are observed, the ear should be gently 
but well washed, two or three times in the day, with lukewarm water 
and after that a weak solution of the extract of lead should be applied' 
and a dose or two of physic administered. 

If the case is neglected, the pain will rapidly increase ; the ear will 
become of an intenser red ; the folds of the integument will enlarge and 
there will be a deposition of red or black matter in the hollow of the ear. 
The case is now more serious, and should be immediately attended to. 
This black or bloody deposit should be gently but carefully washed away 
with warm water and soap ; and the extract of lead, in the proportion of 
a scruple to an ounce of water, should be frequently applied, until the red- 
ness and heat are abated- A solution of alum, in about the same quantity 
of alum and water as the foregoing lotion, should then be used. 

Some attention should be paid to the method of applying these lotions. 
Two persons will be required in order to accomplish the operation. The 
surgeon must hold the muzzle of the dog with one hand, and have the root 
of the ear in the hollow of the other, and between the first finger and the 
thumb. The assistant must then pour the liquid into the ear ; half a 
tea-spoonful will usually be sufficient. The surgeon, without quitting the 
dog, will then close the ear, and mould it gently until the liquid has in- 
sinuated itself as deeply as possible into the passages of the ear. Should 
not the inflammation abate in the course of a fev/ days, a seton should be 
inserted in the poll, between the integument and the muscles of the 
occiput, reaching from ear to ear. The excitement of a new inflammation, 
so near to the part previously diseased, will materially abate the ori^rinal 
affection. Physic is now indispensable. From half a drachm to a drachm 
of aloes, with from one to two grains of calomel, should be given every 
third day. 

Should the complaint have been much neglected, or the inflammation 
so great as to bid defiance to these means, ulceration will too often speedily 



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CANKER. 



161 



follow. It will be found lodged deep in the passage, and can only be 
detected by moulding the ear ; the effused pus will occasionally occupy 
the inside of the ear to its very tip. However extensive and annoying the 
inflammation may be, and occasionally causing so much thickening of the 
integument as perfectly to close the ear, it is always superficial. It will 
generally yield to proper treatment, and the cartilage of the ear may not 
be m the slightest degree affected. Still, however, the animal may suffer 
extreme pain ; the discharge from the ulcer may produce extensive ex- 
coriation of the cheek ; and, in a few cases, the system may sympathise 
With the excessive local application, and the animal may be lost. 
^ The treatment must vary with circumstances. If the ulceration is deep 
m the ear, and there is not a very great degree of apparent inflammation, 
recourse may be had at once to a stimulating and astringent application, 
such as alum or the sulphate of zinc, and in the proportion of six grains 
of either to an ounce of water. If, however, the ulceration occupies the 
greater part of the hollow of the ear, and is accompanied by much thick- 
ening of the integument, and apparent filling up of the entrance to the ear, 
some portion of the inflammation must be first subdued. 

^ The only chance of getting rid of the disease is to confine the ear. A 
piece of strong calico must be procured, six or eight inches in width, and 
sufliciently long to reach round the head and meet under the jaw. Along 
each side of it must be a running piece of tape, and a shorter piece sewed 
at the centre of each of the ends. By means of these the cap may be 
drawn tightly over the head, above the eyes, and likewise round the neck 
behind the ears, so as perfectly to confine them. 

After all, no mild ointment will dispose such an ulcer to heal, and 
recourse must be had at once to a caustic application. A scruple of the 
nitrate of silver must be rubbed down with an ounce of lard, and a little 
of it applied twice every day, and rubbed tolerably hard into the sore 
until it assumes a healthy appearance ; it may then be dressed with the 
common calamine ointment. 

If the discharge should return, the practitioner must again have recourse 
to the caustic ointment. 

The cartilage will never close, but the integument will gradually cover 
the exposed edges, and the wound will be healed. The ear will, however 
long continue tender, and, if it should be much beaten, by the shaking of 
the head, the ulcer will reappear. This must be obviated by occasionally 
confining the ears, and not over-feeding the dog. 

Some sportsmen are accustomed to round the ears, that is to cut off the 
diseased part. In very few instances, however, will a permanent cure be 
effected, while the dog is often sadly disfigured. A fresh ulcer frequently 
appears on the new edge, and is more diflftcult to heal than the original 
one. Nine times out of ten the disease reappears. 

The Newfoundland dog is very subject to this disease, to remedy which 
recourse must be had to the nitrate of silver. 

Spaniels have often a mangy inflammation of the edges of the ear. It 
seldom runs on to canker; but the hair comes oflT round the edges of the 
car, accompanied by much heat and scurfiness of the skin„ The common 
sulphur ointment, with an eighth part of mercurial ointment, will usually 
remove the disease. 

From the irritation produced by canker in or on the ear, and the con- 
stant flapping and beating of the ear, there is sometimes a considerable 

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THE EAR AND ITS DISEASES. 



efFusion of fluid between the integument and the cartilage occupying the 
whole of the inside of the flap of the ear. The only remedy is to open the 
enlarged part from end to end, carefully to take out the gossamer lining 
of the cyst, and then to insert some bits of lint on each side of the incision, 
in order to prevent its closing too soon. In a few days, the parietes of 
the cyst will begin to adhere, and a perfect cure will be accomplished. 

If the tumour is simply punctured, the incision will speedily close, and 
the cyst will fill again in the space of four-and-twenty hours. A seton 
may be used, but it is more painful to the dog, and slower in its operation. 

The ear should be frequently fomented with a docoction of white 
poppies, and to this should follow the Goulard lotion ; and, afterthat, if 
necessary, a solution of alum should be applied. To the soreness or scabby 
eruption, which extends higher up the ear, olive oil or spermaceti oint- 
ment may be applied. In some cases, portions of the thickened skin, pro- 
jecting and excoriated, and pressing on each other, unite, and the opening 
into the ear is then mechanically filled. I know not of any remedy for 
this. It is useless to perforate the adventitious substance, for the orifice 
will soon close ; and, more than once, when I have made a crucial incision, 
and cut out the unnatural mass that closed the passage, I have found it 

impossible to keep down the fungous granulations or to prevent total 
deafness. 

The following is a singular case of this disease:— 1st July, 1820, a dog 
was sent with a tumour, evidently containing a fluid, in the flap of the ear. 
A seton had been introduced, but had been sadly neglected. The hair had 
become matted round the seton, and the discharge had thus been stopped. 
Inflammation and considerable pain had evidently followed, and the doo- 
had nearly torn the seton out. I removed it, washed the ear well and 
applied the tincture of myrrh and aloes. The wound soon healed. On 
the 14th the ear began again to fill. On the 17th the tumour was ripe 
for the seton, which was again introduced, and worn until the 9th of 
August, when the sides of the abscess appeared again to have adhered, and 
it was withdrawn. Canker had continued in the ear during the whole 
time ; and, in defiance of a cold lotion daily applied, the ear was perceived 
again to be disposed to fill, 
cyst apparently closed. 

was obliterated, and then removed. Six weeks afterwards the swellinor 
had disappeared, and the canker was quite removed. This anecdote is an 
encouragement to persevere under the most disheartening circumstances. 

All dogs that are foolishly suffered to become gross and fat are subject 
to canker. It seems to be a natural outlet for excess of nutriment or 
gross humour ; and, when a dog has once laboured under the disease, he is 
very subject to a return of it. The fatal power of habit is in few cases 
more evident than in this disease. When a dog has symptoms of mange, 
the redness or eruption of the skin, generally, will not unfrequently dis- 
appear, and bad canker speedily follow. The habit, however, may be 
subdued, or at least may be kept at bay, by physic and the use of Goulard 
lotion or alum. * 

Sportsmen are often annoyed by another species of canker. Pointers 
and hounds are particularly subject to it. 

This species of canker commences with a scurfy eruption and thicken- 
ing of the edges of the ear, apparently attended by considerable itching or 
pain. The dog is continually flapping his ear, and beating it violently 



The seton was once more inserted, and the 
The seton was continued a fortnight after the sinus 



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CANKER. 



163 



against his head. The inflammation is thus increased, and the tip of the 
ear becomes exceedingly sore. This causes him to shake his head still 
more violently, and the ulcer spreads and is indisposed to heal, and at 
length a fissure or crack appears on the tip of the cartilage, and extends 
to a greater or less distance down the ear. 

The narration of one or two cases may be useful, as showing the invete- 
racy of the disease. 

Sth Feb. 1832. — A Newfoundland dog, very fat, had dreadful canker 
in both ears, and considerable discharge of purulent matter. He was con- 
tinually shaking his ears, lying and moaning. Apply the canker lotion, 
and give the alterative balls. 

\^th> The discharge considerably lessened from one ear, bvit that from 
the other has increased. Continue the lotion and apply a seton. 

22nd. The dog, probably neglected at home, was sent to me. Both 
ears were as bad as ever, 

26th. The dog is perfectly unmanageable when the lotion is poured into 
the ear, but submits when an ointment is applied. Use ung. sambuci, 5j. 
cerus. acet.3J.,mix well together. Continue the alteratives. 

^Oth. Slowly amending ; the whining has ceased, and the animal seldom 
scratches. Continue the lotion, alteratives, and purgatives. ■ 

lOth. Oct. — Slowly improving. Continue the treatment. 

Vlth. One ear well, the other nearly so. 

24:th. Both ears were apparently well. Omit the lotion. 



2Sth. One ear was again ulcerated. 



Applied the sei^ugo aeris. 



^\st. This has been too stimulating, and the ulceration is almost as great 
as at first. Return to the ung. sambuci and cerusa acetata. 

From this time to the 24th February, 1833, we continued occasionally 
taking out the seton, but returning to it every two or three days ; applying 
the canker lotion until we were driven from it, mixing with it variable 
quantities of tinctura opii, having recourse to mercurial ointment, and 
trying a solution of the sxilphate of copper. With two or three applica- 
tions we could keep the disease at bay ; but with none could we fairly 
remove the evil. The sulphate of zinc, the acetate of lead, decoctions of 
oak bark, a very mild injection of tlie nitrate of silver,- — all would do good 
at times ; but at other times we were set at complete defiance. 

Another gentleman brought his dog about the same time. This was also 
a Newfoundland dog. He had always been subject to mangy eruptions, 
and had now mange in the feet, the inside of the ear covered with scaly 
eruptions, the skin red underneath, considerable thickening of the ear, and 



a slight discharge from its base. 



A seton was inserted and a physic-ball 

Some 



given every second day. The canker lotion had little good effect, 
calamine ointment, with a smalln portio of calomel, was then had re- 
course to. 

- In ten days the dog had ceased to scratch himself or shake his head, and 
the ear was clean and cool. The seton was removed ; but the animal being 
confined, a little redness again appeared in the ear, which the lotion soon 

removed. 

At the expiration of a month he was dismissed apparently cured ; but he 
afterwards had a return of his old mangy complaints, which bade defiance 
to every mode of treatment. 

Herr Maassen, V. S., Wiirtemburg, has lately introduced, and with much 

success, the use of creosote for the cure of canker in the ear, 

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164 



THE EAR AND ITS DISEASES. 



The first experiment was on a setter with canker in his ear. The owner 
of the dog had ordered it to be hanged, as all remedies had failed in pro- 



ducing a cure 



Maassen 



tificat. 31J. This mixture was applied once in every day to the diseased 
part.. In a few weeksthe dog was completely cured, and has since had no 
return of the complaint. In a terrier, and also in three spaniels, the 
eftect of this application was equally satisfactory. In some cases, where 
the disease shovved itself in a less degree, the creosote was dissolved in 
water, instead of spirit of wine. It is always necessary to take away the 
collar while the dog is under treatment, in order that the flap of the ear 
may not be injured by striking against it. 

_ Vegetating Excrescences in the Ear. (By F. J. J. Rigot.)— Produc- 
tions of this kind, which he had the opportunity of observing only once, 
are sometimes united in masses, and completely close the auditive canal'. 
The surface is granulated and black, and there escapes from it an unctuous 
fetid discharge. On both sides the animal is exceedingly susceptible of 
pain, and the excrescences bleed if the slightest pressure is brouoht to 
bear upon them. ° 

He thought it right to cut away these excrescences bodily, which he 
found to be composed of a strong dense tissue, permitting much blood to 
escape through an innumerable quantity of vascular openings. They 
were reproduced with extreme promptitude after they had been cut off or 
cauterized, borne of them appeared no more after being destroyed by the 
nitrate of mercury. J j 

Sometimes, however, twenty-four hours after a simple incision, not fol- 
lowed by cauterization, these productions acquire an almost incredible 



Size. 



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and the patient was destroyed. 



1 



Eruptions- in the Ear.~-A Newfoundland dog had long been subject to 
mangy eruptions on the back and in the feet. They had suddenly dis- 
appeared, and the whole of the inside of the ear became covered with scaly 
eruptions. The skin was red ; there was considerable thickening of the 
ear, and a discharge from the base of it. The canker-lotion was used, a 
physic-ball given every second day, and a seton inserted in the poll reach- 
ing from ear to ear. No apparent benefit resulted. A little calamine 
ointment, to which was added one-eighth part of mercurial ointment, was 
then tried, and considerable benefit immediately experienced. The doo- 
no longer continued to scratch himself or to shake his head, and the ear 
became clean and cool. The seton was removed, and nothing remained 
but a little occasional redness, which the lotion very soon dispersed. 

The owner, however, became ultimately tired of all this doctoring, and 

the animal was destroyed. 

A poodle had had exceedingly bad ears during several months There 
was considerable discharge, apparently giving much pain. The dog- was 
continually shaking his head and crying. A seton was introduced, the 
canker-lotion was resorted to, and alterative and purgative medicines ex- 
hibited. On the 29th of December the discharge from the ear ceased • 
but, owing to the neglect of the servant, it soon broke out again, and there 
was not only much excoriation under the ear, but, from the matting of the 
hair, deep ulcers formed on either side, the edges of the wound were ragged 
and the skin was detached from the muscular parts beneath. Probes vv ere 

introduced on each side, which passed down the neck and nearly met. 




'i- — 




if III 




CROPPING. 



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The smell was intolerably offensive, and the dog was reduced almost to a 
skeleton. I was, for the second time, sent for to see the case. I imme- 
diately recommended that the animal should be destroyed ; but this was not 
permitted. I then ordered that it should daily be carefully washed, and 
diluted tincture of myrrh be applied to the wounds. They showed no dis- 
position to heal, and the dog gradually sunk under the continued discharge 
and died. 

Violent Affection of the Ear. 20th May^ 1828. — A spaniel screamed 
violently, even when it was not touched, and held its head permanently on 
one side, as if the muscles were contracted. The glands beneath the ear 
were enlarged, but the bowels were regular; the nose was not hot; there 
was no cough, A warm bath was ordered, with aperient medicine. 

On the 22nd she was no better. I examined the case more carefully. 
The left ear was exceedingly hot and tender : she would scarcely bear me 
to touch it. I continued the aperient medicine, and ordered a warm lotion 
to be applied, consisting of the liquor plumbi acetatis and infusion of digi- 
talis. She improved from the first application of it, and in a few days was 
quite well. A fortnight afterwards the pain returned. The lotion was 
employed, but not with the same success. A seton was then applied. She 
wore it only four days, when the pain completelj disappeared. 

I have an account in my records of the conduct of a coward, who, 
coming from such a breed, was not worthy of the trouble we took with 
him. He was a Newfoundland dog, two years old, with considerable en- 
largement, redness, and some discharge from both ears. He was sent to 
our hospital for treatment. When no one was near him, he shook his head 
and scratched his ears, and howled dreadfully. Many times in the course 
of the day he cried as if we were murdering him. We sent him home 
thoroughly well, and glad we were to get rid of him. 

Cropping of the Ears. — I had some doubt, whether I ought not to 
omit the mention of this cruel practice. Mr. Blaine very properly says, 
that '' it is one that does not honour the inventor, for nature gives nothing 
in vain. Beauty and utility appear in all w^hen properly examined, but in 
unequal degrees. In some, beauty is pre-eminent ; while, in others, utility 
appears to have been the principal consideration. That must, therefore, 
be a false taste, that has taught us to prefer a curtailed organ to a perfect 
one, without gaining any convenience by the operation." He adds, and it 
is my only excuse for saying one word about the matter, that ^^ custom 
being now fixed, directions are proper for its performance," 

The owner of the dog commences with maindng him while a pnppy. He 
finds fault with the ears that nature has given him, and they are rounded 
or cut into various shapes, according to his whim or caprice. It is a 
cruel operation. A great deal of pain is inflicted by it, and it is often a 
long time before the edge of the wound will heal : a fortnig*ht or three 
weeks at least will elapse ere the animal is free from pain. 

It has been pleaded, and I would be one of the last to oppose the plea, 
that the ears of many dogs are rounded on account of the ulcers which 
attack and rend the conch ; because animals with short ears defend them- 
selves most readily from the attacks of others ; because, in their combats 
with each other, they generally endeavour to lay hold of the neck or the 
ears ; and, therefore, when their ears are shortened, they have considerable 
advantage over their adversary. There is some truth in this plea ; but, 
otherwise, the operation of cropping is dependent on caprice or fashion. 



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166 



THE EAR AND ITS DISEASES. 



If the ears of dogs must be cropped, it should not be done too early 
Four, five, or six weeks should first pass ; otherwise, they will arrow again 

and the second cropping will not produce a good appearance ' 

The scissors are the proper instruments for accomplishing the removal 
of the ear ; the tearing of the cartilages out by main force is an act of 
cruelty that none but a brute in human shape would practise ; and if he 
attempts it, it is ten to one that he does not obtain a good crop. If the 
conch IS torn out, there is nothing remaining to retain the skin round the 
auricular opening ; it may be torn within the auditory canal, and as that 
IS otherwise very extensible in the dog, it is prolonged above the opening, 
which may then probably be closed by a cicatrix. The animal will in 
this case always remain deaf, at least in one ear. In the mean time, the 
niucous membrane that lines the meatus auditorius subsists, the secretion 
of the wax continues ; it accumulates and acquires an irritating quality ; 
the irritation which it causes produces an augmentation of the secretion', 
and soon the whole of the subcutaneous passage becomes filled, and seems 
to assume the form of a cord ; and it fishes by the dog continuing to 
worry himself, shaking his head, and becoming subject to fits. 

Mr. Blaine very naturally observes, that, " it is not a little surprisincr 
that this cruel custom is so frequently, or almost invariably, practised on 
pug-dogs, whose ears, if left alone to nature, are particularly handsome and 
-hang very gracefully. It is hardly to be conceived how the pug's head— 
which IS not nakirally beautiful except in the eye of perverted taste-is 



improved by suffering his ears to remain. 

If the cropping is to be practised, the mother should have been previ 
ously removed. It is quite erroneous, that her licking the wounded edges 
will be serviceable. On the contrary, it only increases their pain, and 
deprives the young ones of the best balsam that can be applied— the blood 
that flows from their wounds. 



Polypi in the Et 



Dr. JMercer, in The Veterinarian, of July, 



The dog suffer- 

He 



1 844, gives an interesting account of the production of polypi in the 
meatus of the ear. He considers that there are two kinds of polypi 
—first, the soft, vascular and bleeding polypus, usually produced from 
the fibro-cartilaginous structure of the outer half of the tube; and, 
secondly, the hard and cartilaginous polypus or excrescence produced 
from the lining membrane of its inner half The first is termed the 
hcematoid polypus, and the other the chondromatous. ^._ 
ing under either generally has a dull, heavy, and rather watery eye. 
moans or whines at intervals. If his master is present he feels a relief in 
pressing and rubbing his aching ear against him. At other times he 
presses and rubs his ear against the ground, in order to obtain a slight 
relief flapping his ears and shaking his head; the mouth being opened 
and the tongue protruded, and the affected ear pointing to the ground. 
1 hen conies a sudden, and often a profuse, discharge of fetid pus. The 
local discharge of pus and blood becomes daily more and more fetid, and 
the poor animal becomes an object of disgust. 

In the first variety of polypus, where it is practicable, the soft and vas- 
cular excrescence should be excised with a pair of scissors or a small knife 
or it may be noosed by a ligature of silk or of silver wire, or twisted off 
with a pair of forceps. Immediately after its removal, the base of the 
tumour should be carefully destroyed by the nitrate of silver, and this 
should be repeated as long as there is any appearance of renewed growth. 



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POLYPUS. 



167 



Any ulcer or carious condition of the meatus should be immediately 

removed. tj r. a a 

In order to protect the diseased parts, a soft cap should be used, ana 

within the ear a little cotton wadding may defend the ear from mjury. 

Dr. Mercer very properly remarks that, in the second or chondroma- 
tous variety of polypus of the meatus, the treatment must depend upon 
the concomitant circumstances. If the tumour is seated close to the 
membrana tympani, and has a broad and sessile base, then it cannot be 
excised or noosed with any degree of success. It must therefore be treated 
by the daily application of the solid nitrate of silver, applied exactly to its 
surface ; and, in the intervals of application, the use of any coUyria may 
be had recourse to. If the substance of the growth be firm and solid, and 
possesses little sensibility, then a very speedy mode of getting rid of it is 
to divide its substance with a small knife ; and, afterwards, by applying 
the solid nitrate of silver, the tumour will soon be sloughed away. _ 

The dog is liable to polypi in the nasal cavity, in the anus, and in the 
vaffina, which it will not be out of place to mention here. 

The polypi of the nasal and of the anal cavities often show themselves 
under the form of rounded bodies, projecting from the nose or anus. 
Their size and consistence are variable— sometimes soft, tearing with the 
greatest facility, and bleeding at the slightest touch ; at other times, solid 
and covered with pituitary membrane. They are generally the result of 
ulcerations, wounds, fractures, perforations of the turbinated bones, sinuses, 
&c. These polypous productions obstruct the passage of the air, and more 
or less impede the breathing. They are best extirpated by means of a 
ligature, or circular compression, on the pedicle of the polypus, and 

tightened every second day. • ^ ^t. 

We may discover the presence of a tumour of this nature m one ot the 
nasal passages, when, on putting our hand to the orifice of the nostril, 
there issues little or no air ; or when we sound the nostril with the finger 
or a probe, or examine it on a bright day. 

The methods of destroying polypi in the nasal cavity vary with the 
texture, size, form, and position of these excrescences. Excision with 
the bistoury, or with scissors, may be tried when the polypus is near 
the orifice of the nostril, and particularly when it is not large at the base. 
Excision should be followed by cauterization with the red-hot iron, by 
which a portion of the base of the tumour is destroyed, and which could 
not be reached by a sharp instrument. To succeed in these operations, it 



The edges of the 



is frequently necessary to cut through the false nostril 
wound may afterwards be united by a suture.' _ 

The ligature, or circular compression, exercised immediately on the 
pedicle of the polypus, by means of a wire or waxed string, and directed 
into the nasal cavity by means of a proper instrument, may be tried when 
the polypus is deeply situated, and particularly when its base is narrow. 
But, for this operation, which is difficult to perform, and which may be 
followed by a new polypous production, when the base is not perfectly de- 
stroyed, we may substitute the forcible detachment, especially when we 
have to act on vascular and soft excrescences. • • .i, + ■ 

The Italian greyhound is strangely subject to these polypi m the matnx 
or vagina. The reason it is difficult to explain. 

A bitch, ten years old, was brought to the author on the 20th Decem- 
ber, 1843, with an oval substance, as large as a thrush s egg, occasionally 




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168 



THE EAR AND ITS DISEASES. 



protruding from the vagma. I advised that it should be removed bv 
means of a ligature ; but the owner was afraid, and a fortnight waTsuffered 
to pass before she was_ brought again. The tumour had raSy increased 
xt was as large as a pigeon's egg, considerably excoriated, aSe rdTcIe 
being almost as large as the tumour i+coif nni.^ I- ' peaicle 

mt and tt , P'™- ?">■ ^li'' *™°"' "' Wearing dispSed toS" 
ate, and the uterus seeming to be drawn back by its weight, I cut oifThe 

tumou,. c ose to the lipture. Not the slightest ^pain seeLd o be gfv n 

^^i f M "T T- .'""■■* "'"' "'«=''• There was, however, a very little 

ooz, g of bloody iluid. which continuing: to the 8th, I iniectedTsitht 
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THE ETHMOID BONES. 



1(59 



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CHAPTER X. 



ANATOMY OF THE NOSE AND MOUTH ; AND DISEASES OF THE NOSE 

AND OTHER PARTS OF THE FACE. THE SENSE OF SMELL ; THE 

TONGUE ; THE LIPS ; THE TEETH ; THE LARYNX ; BRONCHOCELE ; 
PHLEGMONOUS TUMOUR. 

The Ethmoid Bones. — There is some difficulty in describing the ethmoid 
bones ; but we shall not, however, deviate far from the truth if we give 



the following account : 



form 



the cribriform plate ; as they move downwards, they project into distinct 
vesicles or cavities, smaller and more numerous behind, fewer in number 
and larger in front ; and each of them not a simple cavity, but more or 
less convoluted, while the long walls of those cells are of gossamer thin- 
ness, and as porous as gauze. They even communicate, and are lined, and 
externally wrapped together, by the same membrane ; the whole assuming 
a pear-like form, attached by its base or greater extremity, and decreasing 
in size as it proceeds downwards ; the cells becoming fewer, and termi- 
nating at length in a kind of apex, which passes under the superior turbi- 
nated bone, and forms a valve between the nasal cavity and the maxillary 
sinuses. If to this is added, that the olfactory or first pair of nerves abut 
on these cribriform plates, and pass through their minute openings, and 
spread themselves over every one of these cells, we have a tolerably cor- 
rect picture of this portion of the ethmoid bonas. This nerve has different 
degrees of development in different animals, in proportion to their acuteness 
of smell. There is comparatively but little necessity for acuteness in the 
horse. The ox has occasion for somewhat more, especially in the early 
part of the spring, when the plants are young, and have not acquired their 
peculiar scent. In the sheep it is larger, and fills the superior portion of 
the nasal cavity ; but in the dog it seems to occupy that cavity almost to 
the exclusion of the turbinated bones. It is also much more fragile in 
the dog than in the ox, and the plates have a considerably thinner 

structure. 

The ethmoid bone of the horse or the ox may be removed from its 

situation with little injury ; but that of the dog can scarcely be meddled 
with without fracture. Below it are the two turbinated bones ; but they 
are reduced to insignificance by the bulk of the ethmoid bone. The in- 
ferior turbinated bone in the dog is very small , but it is curiously com- 
plicated. 

The meatus contains three distinct channels ; and the air, loitering, as it 
were, in it, and being longer in contact with the sensitive membrane by 
which it is lined, contributes to the acuter sense of smell. The larger 
cavity is along the floor of the nasal duct. It is the proper air-passage ; 
and because it has this important function to discharge, it is out of the way 
of violence or injury. * 




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170 



THE NASAL BONES. 



The lachrymal duct is the channel thrniio-Ji «'h,v )> ^i n 

are conveyed to the lower parts of the nostril A '""^^f^^^^ tears 

mences, aid runs down and along the rinw bone^ ""T ""''' '"^V 
and terminates in the cuticle, in order thTthtl 1 1 • •'" ^"""'^ '^^"' 

of the nose may not be e^.o^feT^^,^^^^^^^ 

momous in inflammation of the eve Thp nvai +^r.r^- t- ^^i^'^^^^" ^cri- 
•11, i,i • X • , -..J^.^ -'^"^ <^ ^3^1 termination of fhk rill n+ ia 
easily brought into view by lifting the nostril 

From some occasional acrimony of the tears, the lining of this duct 
may be inflamed and thickened, or some foreign body, or fome unctuous 
matter from the ci lary glands, may insinuate iSelf into the duct, and ?he 
P^f . tZTlt ' • f ^^' '"' "^^ ^^^*^^d« it, and it bursts ; or hTulcer 

eats through the integument, and there is a small fistulous opening beneath 
he inner canthus of the eye, or there is a constant discharge from it? It 
IS his constant discharge that prevents the wound from healing. In some 
ca s he lachrymal bone IS involved in the ulcerative process fnd become 



fistula 



spaniel, the watery 
The fistula will be 



Whe 



recognised by a constai^, although perhaps slight, discharge of pus. 
The structure and ofiice of the velum palati, or veil of the palate is in 

t': nSr LTcttinfor ?1 ' section between the cavity of the^h^M 
tne nose, and cutting off all communication between them. In the dop- 
who breathes almost entirely through the mouth, the velun? palatTfs 
smaller ; the tensor muscle, so beautifully described by Mr pli " " 
weak, but the circumflex one is stronger and more developed, w hen 
coryza in the dog runs on to catarrh, and the membrane of ^the ph™ 
partakes of the inflammation, the velum palati becomes inflamed^nd 
thickened, but wi H not act as a perfect communication betweenTe mou h 
and the nose. When there is a defluxion from the nose, tinged Wthe 
colour of the food, ancf particles of food mingle with it, ;e hf ve one of 
the worst symptonis that can present itself, because it proves the extent and 
violence of the inflammation. 

In inflammatory affections of the membrane of the nose in the dog, we 
t!"" r^^ him snorting in a very peculiar way, with his head protmd- 

,i;il ff /TT*'^" ^- ^T'^^^ ^' '^^ expiration. An emetic will 
usually afford relief, or gram doses of the sulphate of copper. 

The Nasal Bones.~The nasal bones of the dog (see fig. 2, in the 
head of the dog page 116) are very small, a. they are in alf carnivorous 
animals. Instead of constituting the roof, and Jart of the outer wal 
of the cavity, as in other animals, the nasal bones form only a portion 
and a small one, of the roof. J' '^ poi iion, 

The superior maxiUaries here swell into importance, and constitute 
the whole of the outer wall, and, sometimes, a part of the roof The iaws 
are the weapons of offence and defence ; and as much space as possMel 

seTzfand^fhoirwr «^ ^^^^ ""^?" *^^* ^"^ ^^'^^ the'an£ialto 

masseur rTses froin thr^' -^^^ ^^ -^^ "^"'* P°^"^^^^^ ^^ them, the 
masseter rises from the superior maxillary bone, and spreads over its 

whole extent : therefore, that bone is developed, ^hile the nasal bone s 

compressed into a very small space. The substitution of a portion of 

cartilage, instead of bone, at the posterior part of the orbital ring, in order 

wlSr.^T^ ^^ 7k ''■'^'''''^ ^T^'' °^^^^ P^^t^^io^^ maxillary, round 
which the temporal bone is wrapped, is a contrivance of the same nature. 

1 he scent of the dog is not sacrificed or impaired by the apparent diminu- 



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THE NASAL BONES. 



171 



tion of the nasals; for the cavity enlarges considerably upward, and is 
occupied chiefly by the ethmoid bone^ which, having the greater portion 
of nervous pulp spread on it, seems to have most to do with the sense of 
smell. 

The nasal bones of the dog are essentially different from those of the 
horse, cattle, and sheep. They commence, indeed, as high up in the face 
as those of the horse, their superior extremities being opposite to the 
lachrymal gland ; but that commencement is an apex or point varying 
materially in different breeds. They form, altogether, one sharp projection, 
and are received within lengthened processes of the frontal bone on either 
side. In some breeds these processes extend nearly one-third of the length 

of the nasals. 

The superior maxillary (3.3.) takes the situation of the nasal (2.), 

pushes the lachrymal bone (4.) out of its place, and almost annihilates it, 
reaches the frontal bone (7.) and expands upon it, and forms with it the 
same denticulated suture which is to be seen in the nasal. The action of 
the muscle between these bones, and for the development of which all this 
sacrifice is made, is exceedingly powerful. The strength of this muscle 
in a large dog is almost incredible : the sutures betw^een these bones must 
possess corresponding strength ; and so strong is the union between them, 
that, in many old dogs, the suture between the superior maxillary and frontal 
bones is nearly obliterated, and that between the nasal and frontal maxil- 
lary quite effaced. ^^ 

As the nasal bones proceed downward they become somewhat wider. 
They unite with a long process of the anterior maxillary for the purpose 
of strength, and then terminate in a singular way. They have their 
apexes or points on the outer edge of the bone ; and these apexes or 
points are so contrived, that, lying upon, and seemingly losing them- 
selves, on the processes of the anterior maxillary, they complete, supe- 
riorly and posteriorly, that elliptical bony opening into the nose which 
was commenced by the maxillary anteriorly and inferiorly. The nasal 
cavity of the dog, therefore, and of all carnivorous animals, terminates by 
a somewhat circular opening, more or less in the form of an ellipse. 
This bony aperture varies in size in different dogs, and, as we should ex- 
pect from what we have seen of the adaptation of structure to the situation 
and wants of the animal, it is largest in those on whom we are most depen- 
dent for speed and stoutness. 

The olfactory, or first pair of nerves, have a double origin, namely, 
from the corpus striatum and the base of the corpus callosum. They are 
prolongations of the medullary substance of the central portion of the 
K,..:,. They are the largest of the cerebral nerves. TKmV pmirsp, is 



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exceedingly short ; and they have not a single anastomosis, in order that 
the impression made on them may be conveyed undisturbed and perfect to 

the brain. 

The olfactory nerve is a prolongation of the substance of the brain, and 
it abuts upon the cribriform bone, of which mention has been made. I 
will not speak of the singular cavities which it contains, nor of their 
function ; this belongs to the sensorial system : but its pulpy matter has 
already been traced to the base of the ethmoid bone, and the under part 
of the septum, and the superior turbinated bone. Although we soon lose 
it in the mucous membrane of the nose, there is little doubt that m a more 
filmy form it is spread over the whole of the cavity, and probably over all 




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172 



THE SENSE OF SMELL. 



the sinuses of the face and head.. It is, however, so mingled with the 
mucous membrane, that no power of the lens has enabled us to follow it 
so far. It is like the portio mollis of the seventh pair, eludino- the eye 

but existing in sufficient substance for the performance of its°important 
functions. 

We have frequent cases of ozcena in old dogs, and sometimes in those 
that are younger. The discharge from the nostril is abundant and con- 
stant, and sometimes fetid. The Schneiderian membrane, of more than 
usual sensibility in this animal, is exposed to many causes of irritation 
and debilitated and worn out before its time. Pugs are particularly sub- 
ject to ozffina. I scarcely ever knew a very old pug that had it not to a 
greater or less degree, The peculiar depression between the nasal and 
frontal bones in this breed of dogs, while it almost totally obliterates the 
frontal sinuses, may narrow the air-passage at that spot, and cause greater 
irritation there from the unusual rush of the air, and especially if the 
membrane becomes inflamed or any foreign body insinuates itself 

Little can be done in these cases, except to encourage cleanliness about 
the face and nostrils. It is, in the majority of these cases, a disease of old 
age, and must take its course. 

A terrier uttered a continual loud stertorous sound in breathing, which 

could be plainly heard in our parlour when the dog was in the hospital. 
The animal was evidently much oppressed and in considerable pain. He 
made contmual, and generally ineffectual, efforts to sneeze. When he did 
succeed, a very small quantity of pus-like fluid was discharged ; the doo- 
was then considerably relieved, but a quarter of an hour afterwards he 
was as bad as ever, I ordered a slight emetic every third day. There 
was some relief for seven or eight hours, and then he was as bad as ever 
I could neither feel nor see any cause of obstruction. The owner became 
tired, and the dog was taken away ; but we could not learn what became 
of it. 

Another terrier was occasionally brought for consultation. The dog 
breathed with considerable difficulty, and occasionally snorted with the 
greatest violence, and bloody purulent matter was discharged ; after, which 
he was somewhat relieved ; but, in the course of a few days, the obstruction 
was as great as ever. I am not aware of a single instance of this affection 
of the pug being completely removed. The discharge from the nostrils 
of the bull-dog is often considerable, and, once being thoroughly established, 
is almost as obstinate as in the pug. 



THE SENSE OF SMELL. 



¥^ 



Plow indistinct 



must be that scent which is communicated to, and lingers on, the ground 
by the momentary contact of the foot of the hare, the fox, or the deer ; 
yet the hound, of various breeds, recognises it for hours, and some sports- 
men have said for more than a day. He also can not only distinguish 
the scent of one species of animal from another, but that*' of different 
animals of the same species. The fox-hound, well broken-in, will rarely 
challenge at the scent of the hare, nor will he be imposed upon when the 
crafty animal that he pursues has taken refuge in the earth, and thrusts 
out a new victim before the pack. 

The sense of smelling is, to a certain degree, acute in all dogs. It is 



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THE SENSE OF SMELL. 



173 



a provision wisely and kindly made, in order to guide them to their pro- 
per food, or to fit them for our service. It may possibly be the medium 
through which much evil is communicated. Certain particles of a delete- 
rious nature may be, and doubtless are, arrested by the mucous membrane 
of the nose, and there absorbed, and the constitution, to a considerable 
degree, becomes affected. Hence appears the necessity for attention to 
ventilation, and especially to prevent the membrane of the nose from 
being habitually stimulated and debilitated by the effluvia generated in a 

close and hot kenneL 

M. Majendie instituted some curious experiments on the sense of smell- 
ingy and he was led to believe that it depended more on the fifth pair of 
nerves than on the olfactory nerve. He divided the fifth pair, and from 
that moment no odour, no puncture, produced the slightest apparent im- 
pression on the membrane of the nose. In another dog he destroyed the 
two olfactory nerves, and placed some strong odours beneath the nostrils 

of the animal. 

ordinary state. Hence he concluded it probable that the olfactory nerve 

was not that of smelling. 

The simple fact, however, is, that there are two species of nerves here 
concerned — those of common and of peculiar sensation. The olfactory 
nerve is the nerve of smelling, the fifth pair is that of common sensation. 
They are to a certain degree necessary to each other. 



The dog conducted himself as he would have done in his 



Scent.— Thk leads us to the consideration of the term *^ scent. 



It 



expresses the odour or effluvium which is constantly issuing from every 
animal, and especially when that animal is in more than usual exercise. 
In a state of heat or excitement, the pores of the skin appear relaxed, and 
a fluid or aqueous vapour is secreted, which escapes in small or large 
quantities, adheres to the persons or substances on which it falls, and is, 
particularly, received on the olfactory organs. The hound, at almost the 
earliest period, begins to comprehend the work which he has to perform. 
The peculiar scent which his nostrils imbibe urges him eagerly to pursue ; 
but the moment he ceases to be conscious of the presence of the effluvium, 

he is at a perfect loss. 

Mr. Daniel, in his work on the Chace, very properly observes, that 
'' the scent most favourable to the hound is when the effluvium, constantly 
perspired from the game as it runs, is kept by the gravity of the air at 
the height of his breast. It is then neither above his reach nor does he 
need to stoop for it. This is what is meant when the scent is said to be 

breast-high." ^ 

When the leaves begin to fall, the scent does not lie well in the cover. 
It frequently alters materially in the same day. This depends principally 
on the condition of the ground and the temperature of the air, which 
should be moist but not wet. When the ground is hard and the air dry, 
there will seldom be much scent. The scent rarely lies with a north or 
east wind. A southerly wind without rain is the best. Sudden storms 
are sure to destroy the scent. A fine sunshiny day is not good ; but a 
warm day without sun is always a good one. If, as the morning advances, 
the drops begin to hang on the bushes, the scent will not lie. During a 
white frost the scent lies high, and also when the frost is quite gone ; 
but at the time of its going off the scent never lies. In a hard rain, if 
the air is mild, the scent will sometimes be very good. A wet night 

often produces the best chaces. In heathy countries, where the game 




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174 



THE SENSE OF SMELL. 



brushes the grass or the boughs as it goes along^ the scent seldom fails. 
It lies best on the richest soils ; but the countries that are favourable 
to horses are not always so to hounds. The morning usually affords the 
best scent, and the game is then least able to escape. The want of rest, 
added perhaps to a full belly, gives the hounds a decided superiority over 
an early-found fox ; and the condition of the ground and the temperature 
of the air are circumstances of much importance. 

Such are the results of the best observations on scent ; but, after all, we 
have much to learn concerning it. Many a day that predicated to be a 
good one for scent has turned out a very bad one, and vice versa. An 
old or experienced sportsman, knowing this, will never presume to make 
sure -of his scent. 

We shall be forgiven if v>^e pursue this subject a little at length. 

There is not only a constant appropriation of new matter to repair the 
losses that animals are continually sustaining, but there is a constant elabo- 
ration of gaseous or fluid matter maintaining the balance of the different 
systems, and essential to the continuance of life. This effluvium, as the 
animal moves from place to place, is attracted and detained for a while 
by the substances with which it comes into contact, or it remains floating 
in the atmosphere. There is a peculiar smell or scent belonging to each 
individual, either generally or under peculiar circumstances. 

The sportsman takes advantage of this ; and, as most species of dogs 
possess great acuteness of olfactory power, they can distinguish, or are 
readily taught to distinguish, not only the scent of the hare from that of 
the fox, but that of the hare or fox which they are pursuing from that of 
half a dozen others that may be started during the chace. 

The dogs that are selected for this purpose are those the conformation 
of whose face and head gives ample room for the development of the 
olfactory apparatus, and these are the different species of hounds ; but a 
systematic education, and too often a great deal of unnecessary cruelty, is 
resorted to, in order to make them perfect in their work. The distinction 
between the scent of the fox and that of the hare is soon learned by the 
respective packs ; and, when it is considered that the hunted hare is per- 
spiring at every pore, and her strength being almost exhausted, she is 
straining every limb to escape from her pursuers, the increasing quantity 
of vapour which exudes from her will prevent every other newly started 
animal from being mistaken for her. 

It has been well observed that when the atmosphere is loaded with 
moisture, and rain is at hand, the gas is speedily dissolved and mingles 
with the surrounding air. A storm dissipates it at once, while the cessa- 
tion of the rain is preceded by the return and increased power of scent. 
A cold, dry easterly wind condenses and absorbs it, and this is even 
more speedily and irretrievably done by superabundant moisture. On 
fallows^ and beaten roads the scent rarely lies well, for there is nothing 
to detain it, and it is swept away in a mxoment ; while over a luxuriant 
pasture, or by the hedge-row, or on the coppice, it lingers, clinging to the 
grass or the bushes. In a sunshiny day the scent is seldom strono- ; for 
too much of it is evaporated by the heat. The most favourable period is 
a soft southerly wind without rain, the scent being of the same temperature 
and gravity with the atmosphere. Although it spreads over the level, it 
rises not far above the ground, and, being breast high, enables the hound, 
keeping his muzzle in the midst of it, to run at his greatest speed. The 



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THE TONGUE. 

different manners or attitudes in which the dog runs afford pleasing and 
satisfactory illustrations of the nature of the scent. Sometimes they will 
be seen galloping with their noses in the air, as if their game had flown 
away, and, an hour or two afterwards, every one of them will have his 
muzzle on the ground. The specific gravity of the atmosphere has changed, 
and the scent has risen or fallen in proportion. 

A westerly wind stands next to a southerly one, for a htmting morning. 
This is all simple enough, and needs not the mystification with which it 
has been surrounded. A valuable account of this may be found in John- 
son's Shooting Companion, a work that is justly and highly approved. 

Mr. Delme Eadcliffe has also, in his splendid work on " the noble 
science *' some interesting remarks on the scent of hounds. He says that 
there is' an idiosyncracy, a peculiarity, in their several dispositions. Some 
young hounds seem to enter on their work instinctively. From their first 
to their last appearance in the field they do no wrong. Others, equally 
good, will take no notice of anything ; they will not stoop to any scent 
durino^ the first season, and are still slack at entering even at the second ; 
but are ultimately distinguished at the head of the pack ; and such usually 
last some seasons longer than the more precocious of the same litter. 



THE TONGUE. 



The manner of drinking is different in the different animals. The horse, 
the ox, and the sheep do not plunge their muzzles into the water, but 
bring their lips into contact with it and sip it gradually. The dog, 
whose tongue is longer, plunges it a little way into the fluid, and, curving 
its tip and its edges, laps, in the language of Johnson, with a " quick 
reciprocation of the tongue." The horse sucks the water that is placed 
before him, the dog laps it ; and both of them are subject to inflamma- 
tion of the tongue, to enlargement of that organ, and to a considerable or 

constant flow of saliva over it. . . , . , 

Extending from the base to the tip of the tongue there is on either side 
a succession of tendons, which help to retain the tongue in the mouth, and 
to curve the edge of it, so as to convey the food or the water to the 
posterior part of the mouth. These all spring from one central cord, and 
ramify over the membrane of the tongue. On opening the mouth, and 
keeping it open by means of two pieces of tape, one behind the upper 
canine teeth, and the other behind the lower ones, and drawing the tongue 
from the mouth and exposing its under surface, a cuticular fold or ridge 
will present itself, occupying a middle line from the base of the tongue to 
its very point. If this is opened with a lancet, a minute fibrous cord will 
be exposed through its whole extent. It is the cord which governs the 

motions of the tongue. 

This cord is, sometimes, foolishly and uselessly detached from its 
adhesions, so far as we can effect it, and drawn forward with a tenaculum 
and divided. There is one abominable course pursued in effecting this. 
The violence used in stripping down the tendon is so great, and the 
lacerated fibrous substance is put so much on the stress, and its natural 
elasticity is so considerable, that it recoils and assumes the appearance oi 
a dying worm, and the dog is said to have been wormed. For the sake 
of humanity, as well as to avoid the charge of ignorance, it is to be hoped 
that this practice will speedily cease. 



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176 



BLAIN. 



In the horse and the dog it is often nnac- 



77ie Blain. — The blain is a vesicular enlargement on the lateral and 
under part of the tongue in horses, oxen, and dogs, which, although not of 
unfrequent occurrence, or peculiarly fatal result, has not been sufficiently 
noticed by veterinary authors. 

companied by any previous indisposition, or by other disease ; but sud- 
denly there is a copious discharge of saliva, at first limpid and without 
smell, but soon becoming purulent, bloody, and exceedingly fetid. On 
examination, the tongue is found apparently enlarged. It is elevated from 
its base between the maxillary bones, and on the side and towards the base 
of it are seen large vesicles, pellucid, red, livid, or purple; and, if the dis- 
charge is fetid, having near their bases ulcers, irregular, unhealthy, and 
gangrenous. 

In the horse and the dog the progress of the disease is slow, and seldom 
extends beyond the sides of the tongue. The vesicles are not of such 
magnitude as to interfere with respiration, and the ulcers are neither many 
nor foul. 

In cattle it is sadly diiferent. The vesicles attain an enormous size. 
They quickly break and form deep ulcerations, which are immediately 
succeeded by other vesicles still larger. The whole membrane of the 
mouth becomes affected ; the inflammation and swelling extend to the cel- 
lular substance of the neighbouring parts, and the head and neck are con- 
siderably, and sometimes enormously, enlarged; the respiratory passages 
are obstructed ; the animal breathes with the greatest difficulty, and is, in 
some cases, literally suffocated. 

The primary seat of blain, is the cellular substance beneath the integu- 
ment of the part. As the sublingual glands stretch along the under 
part of the tongue, and their ducts open on the side of the frsenu^m, it is 
possible that this disease may proceed from, or be connected with, obstruc- 
tion or inflammation of these ducts. Dissection, however, has not proved 
this ; and the seat of the disease, when the swellings are first discovered, is 
chiefly the cellular tissue between the integument and the lateral parts of 
the tongue, and also that between the membrane of the mouth and the 
sublingual glands. 

Post-mortem examination shows intense disease : the small intestines 
are highly inflamed with red and black patches, which are also found in 
the coecum, colon, and rectum. 

The blain is more frequent in spring and summer than at other sea- 
sons of the year. These are the times when the animal is debilitated by 
the process of moulting, and is then more than usually disposed to inflam- 
matory complaints. It is usually an epidemic disease. Many cases of it 
occur about the same time in certain districts, and over a great extent of 
country. When it appears in towns, the country is rarely exempt from 
it. I am not prepared to say that it is contagious either in the horse or 
the dog. I have not seen any instance of it. At all events, it is not so 
virulent in these animals as it is in cattle. 

The vesicles should be freely lanced from end to end. There will not, 
perhaps, be much immediate discharge ; for the vesicle will be distended by 
a substance imperfectly organised, or of such a glassy or inspissated nature 
as not readily to escape. It will, however, soon disappear ; and in four-and- 
twenty hours, in the majority of cases, the only vestige of the disease Avill 
be an incision, not, perhaps, looking very healthy, but that will soon be- 
come so and heal. If there have been any previous ulcerations, or the 



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THE LIPS — THE TEETH. 



177 




slightest fetor, the mouth should be frequently washed with a diluted 
solution of the chloride of lime ; one part of the saturated solution, and 
eleven of water. This will act as a powerful and useful stimulus to the 
foul and indolent ulcer. When all unpleasant smell is removed, the 
mouth should be bathed with a lotion composed of equal parts of tincture 
of myrrh and water, or half an ounce of alum dissolved in a quart of water 
and two ounces of the tincture of catechu added to the solution. I do 
not recollect a case in the horse or dog, in which these medicines were 
not employed with advantage. In cattle, before there has been fetor at- 
tending the discharge, or the constitution has been materially affected, these 
simple means will perfectly succeed. 

If the practitioner is consulted somewhat too late, when the constitution 
has become affected, and typhoid fever has ensued, he should still lance 
the tumours, and apply the chloride of lime and the tincture of myrrh, 
and give a gentle aperient. He should endeavour to rouse and support 
the system by tonic medicines, as gentian and calumba with ginger, adding 
to two drachms of the first two, and one drachm of the last, half an ounce 
of nitre ; but he should place most dependence on nourishing food. Until 
the mouth is tolerably sound, it is probable that the animal will not be 
induced to eat ; but it will occasionally sip a little fluid, and, therefore, 
gruel should be always within its reach. More should occasionally be 
given, as thick as it will flow, with a spoon or small horn. 



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of the dog discharge, with somewhat less efficiency, the same office as in 
the horse, cattle, and sheep ; and are usefully employed in gathering to- 
gether the food, and conveying it to the mouth. The lips also secrete the 
saliva, a fluid that is indispensably necessary for the proper comminution 

of the food. 

Swellings on the inside of the cheek or upper lip, and extending nearly 
to tie angle of the lip, are of frequent occurrence. A superficial sore 
spreads over it, slightly covered by a yellowish, mattery pellicle ; and on 
the teeth, and extending down the gums, there is a deposition of hardened 
tartarous matter, which is scaled off with a greater or less degree of difli- 
culty. It must be removed, or the sore will rapidly spread over the cheek. 
A lotion of equal parts of tincture of myrrh and water, with a few drops 
of the tincture of cantharides, will be usually sufficient to cause the swel- 
ling to subside, and the pellicle to be detached. The lip, however, will 
generally remain slightly thickened. A little soreness will sometimes re- 
turn, but be easily reduced. 



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THE TEETH 



next claim attention. 



the following is the acknowledged formula : 



M 



Incisors, 



6 

6 



1—1 6—6 

Canines, — : Molars, — 

M— 1 ' ^ 7—7" 



42. 



;rhe following cuts exhibit the front teeth of the dog in various stages 
of growth and decay : 

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Fig. 1. 



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THE TEETH. 



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THE TEETH 



Fig. 7. 



179 




The full-grown dog has usually 20 teeth in the upper, and 22 in the 
lower jaw, with two small supernumerary molars. All of them, with the 
exception of the tushes, are provided with a bony neck covered by the 
gums, and separating the body of the tooth from the root. The projecting 
portion of the teeth is more or less pointed, and disposed so as to tear 
and crush the food on which the dog lives. They are of a moderate size 
when compared with those of other animals, and are subject to little loss 
of substance compared with the teeth of the horse. In most of them, 
however, there is some alteration of form and substance, both in the inci- 
sors and the tushes ; but this depends so much on the kind of food on 
which the animal lives, and the consequent use of the teeth, that the indi- 
cation of the age, by the altered appearance of the mouth, is not to be 
depended upon after the animal is four or five years old. The incisor 
teeth are six in number in each jaw, and are placed opposite to each other. 
In the lower jaw, the pincers, or central teeth, are the largest and the 
strongest ; the middle teeth are somewhat less ; and the corner teeth the 
smallest and the weakest. In the upper jaw, however, the corner teeth 
are much larger than the middle ones ; they are farther apart from their 
neighbours, and they terminate in a conical point curved somewhat in- 
wards and backwards. 

As long as the teeth of the full-grown dog are whole, and not injured 
by use, they have a healthy appearance, and their colour is beautifully 
white. The surface of the incisors presents, as in the ruminants, an in- 
terior and cutting edge, and a hollow or depression within. This edge or 
border is divided into three lobes, the largest and most projecting forming 
the summit or point of the tooth. The two lateral lobes have the appear- 
ance of notches cut on either side of the principal lobe ; and the union of 
the three resembles the Jleur de lis^ which, however, is in the process of 
time effaced by the wearing out of the teeth, (figs. 3 & 4.) 

While the incisor teeth are young, they are flattened on their sides, and 
bent somewhat backwards, and there is a decided cavity, in which a pulpy 
substance is enclosed. This, however, is gradually contracted as the age 
of the dog increases. 

M. F. Cuvier speaks of certain supernumerary teeth occasionally de- 

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180 



THE TEETH. 



Without .XX.. .X o 



veloped in each of the jaws. There is much irregularity accompanying 
them ; and they have even been supposed to have extended to seven or 

eight in number. 

The Indications of Age.— The dog displays natural indications of age. 
The hair turns gray to a certain extent as in the human being. This 
commences about the eyes, and extends over the face, and weakens the 
sjo'ht ; and, at ten years old, or earlier, in the majority of dogs, this can 
scarcely be mistaken. At fifteen or sixteen years the animal is becoming 
a nuisance, yet he has been known to linger on until he has reached his 

two-and-twentieth year. 

Among the diseases from which the dog suffers, there are few of more 
frequent occurrence than decayed teeth, especially in towns, or in the 
habitations of the higher classes of society : the carious teeth, m almost 
every case, becoming insufferably fetid, or so loose as to prevent mastica- 
tion ; or an immense accumulation of tartar growing round them. 

The course which the veterinary surgeon pursues is an exceedmgly 
simple one. If any of the teeth are considerably loose, they must be 
removed. If there is any deposit of tartaric acid, it must be got rid of 
by means of the proper instruments, not very different from those which 
the human surgeon employs. JThe teeth must be perfectly cleaned,^ and 
every loose one taken away. "' " ' " ' " 

sufFerable nuisance. 

The decayed and loose teeth being removed, chlorinated lime diluted 
with 15 or 20 times its bulk of water should be applied to the gums. By 
the use of this the ulcers will quickly heal ; the fetor will be removed, 
and the deposition of the tartar prevented. Mr. Blaine first introduced the 
chlorinated lime for the accomplishment of these purposes. 

Two little histories out of a great number will sufficiently illustrate these 
cases. A terrier had scarcely eaten during more than a week. He 
dropped his meat after attempting to chew it, and the breath was very 
offensive. Several of the teeth were loose, and the rest were thickly 
encrusted with tartar. The gums had receded from the teeth, and were 

red, sore, and ulcerated. , r, i \i 

I removed all the loose teeth ; for experience had taught me that they 
rarely or never became again fixed. I next, with the forceps and knife, 
cleaned the others, and ordered the diluted chlorinated lime to be alter- 
nated with tincture of myrrh and water. The extraction of the loose teeth, 
and the removal of the tartar from those that were sound, occupied a full 
hour ; for the dog resisted with all his might. He, however, soon began to 
eat ; the lotions were continued ; and five months afterwards, the mouth 
of the dog was not in the slightest degree offensive. 

An old dog should not be quite abandoned. A pug had only four teeth 
remaining beside the canines. They were all thickly covered with tartar, 
and two of them were very loose. The gums and lips were in a dreadfully 
cankerous state, and the dog was unable to eat. All that he could do was 
to lap a little milk or broth. 

I extracted the two loose teeth, cleaned the others, and ordered a lotion 
of equal parts of tincture of myrrh and water to be applied. 

ISth August, 1842. — A very considerable discharge of pus was ob- 
served with blood from the mouth, apparently proceeding from the cavity 
whence one of the teeth had, been extracted. The dog is exceedingly 
thirsty, and walks round and round the water-dish but is afraid to lap. He 



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THE LARYNX. 



181 



has not eaten for two days. Use the lotion as before, and force him with 
strong soup, 

\5th. The dog has not voluntarily eaten, but is still forced with soup. 
He is very costive. Give two grains of calomel and an equal quantity of 
antimonial powder. 

ISth. He has eaten a very little, but gets thinner and weaker. Continue 
the lotion, 

21th. The ulcers are nearly healed, and the discharge of pus has 
ceased. 

o\sU The mouth is clean, the gums are healed, and there is no longer 
anything offensive about the dog. 







f 



THE LARYNX 

is placed at the top of the windpipe, the exit from the lungs, and is also 
connected with the Schneiderian membrane. At its upper part is the 
epiglottis, the main guard against the passage of the food into the respir- 
atory tubes, and, at the same time, of the instrument of the voice. It 
consists of five cartilages united together by a ligamentous substance, and, 
by distinct and perfect articulations, adapting itself to every change of 
the respiratory process and the production of the voice. 

At the base is the cricoid cartilage^ the support and bond of union of 
the rest. Above are the arytenoid cartilages^ resting on the chordm vocales 
and influencing their action. The epiglottis is placed at the extremity of 
the opening into the windpipe, with its back opposed to the pharynx, so 
that when a pellet of food passes from the pharynx in its way to the oeso- 
phagus, the epiglottis is applied over the glottis, and by this means closes 
the aperture of the larynx, and prevents any portion of the food from 
passing into it. The food having passed over the epiglottis, that cartilage, 
from its elastic power, again rises and resumes its former situation. 

The thyroid cartilage envelopes and protects all the rest, and particu- 
larly the lining membrane of the larynx, which vibrates from the impulse 
of the air that passes. The vibrations spread in every direction until they 
reach the delicate membrane of the tympanum of the ear. That membrane 
responds to the motion without, and the vibration is carried on to the pulp 
of the auditory nerve, deep in the recesses of the ear. The loudness of the 
tone — its acuteness or graveness — depends on the force of the expired air 
and the shortening or lengthening of the chord. Hence it is, that the tone 
of the bark of the dogj or the neighing of the horse, depends so much on 
the age or size of the animal. Thus we compare the shrill bark of the 
puppy with the hoarse one of the adult dog ; the high-toned but sweet 
music of the beagle with the fuller and lower cry of the fox-hound, and 
the deep but melodious baying of the mastiff. I may, perhaps, be per- 
mitted to add to these, the whinnying of the colt and the neighing of the 

horse. 

Each animal has his peculiar and intelligible language. He who has 
long lived among them will recognise the tone of delight at meeting, 
rising into and terminating in a sharper sound ; the strong and elevated 
tone when they are calling to or challenging each other at a distance ; 
the short expression of anger — the longer, deeper, hoarser tone of fear; 
the murmur almost as deep, but softer, of habitual attachment, and the 
elevated yet melodious token of sudden recognition. I could carry on a 



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182 



BEONCHOCELE. 



r 

conversation with a dog that I once possessed for several minutes, and one 
perfectly intelligible to both. 

Inflammation of the larynx is a frequent and dangerous complaint. It 



usually, commences with, and can scarcely be distinguished from, catarrh, 
except that it is attended by cough more violent and painful, and the dog 

Acute laryngitis is not so frequent an occur- 

Blood must be abstracted 



expectorates considerably. 

rence ; but there is much danger attending it. 



to as great an extent as the pulse will bear, or until it becomes evidently 
affected. To this must follow digitalis, nitre, tartar emetic, and aloes, 
and to these must be added a powerful blister. A considerable quantity 
is effused and organised, the membrane is thickened, perhaps permanently 
so, and the whole of the submucous cellular tissue becomes oedematous. 

The dog is subject to sudden attacks of angina. It has been imagined, 
from the appearances that are manifested, that some strange body is arrested 
in the windpipe or the throat. There is no dread of water or of the usual 
fluids ; the dog will lap once or twice from that fluid which is placed 
before him, and turns slowly away from it ; and this circumstance gives 
rise to what is called dumb madness. The dog barks in a particular 
manner, or rather howls like a rabid dog : he is out of spirits, has a strange, 

Frequently 
He refuses 



anxious, altered countenance, and is alternately cold and hot. 
added to this is redness of the buccal and nasal membranes. 



all solid food, and either will not drink or finds it difl[icult to swallow any- 
thing. His mouth is generally open, and contains a spumy matter exhal- 
ing an offensive smell. His tongue, charged with a great quantity of 
saliva, protrudes from his mouth, and the submaxillary glands are enlarged. 
To these appearances are added a yellow tint of the eyes, constipation, and 
a small quantity of urine, surcharged with a deep yellow colour. At this 
period the disease has generally reached a considerable degree of virulence. 
Often the inflammation extends to the back part of the mouth and larynx ; 
and in this last case the respiration is attended by a hoarse, hissing kind of 

sound. 

The progress of the disease is rapid, and, in a few days, it reaches its 
highest degree of intensity. It is always fatal when it is intense ; and, 
when its influence is widely spread, it is a very dangerous complaint. 

Somewhat rarely the subjects of it recover. After death we find great 
redness and injection in all the affected nervous surfaces, and indications 
of abscesses in which suppuration was not fully established. 



BRONCHOCELE OK GOITHE 

' w 

in the dog is almost daily forced upon our notice. If a spaniel or pug- 
puppy is mangy, pot-bellied, ricketty, or deformed, he seldom fails to have 
some enlargement of the thyroid gland. The spaniel and the pug are 
most subject to this disease. The jugular vein passes over the thyroid 
gland ; and, as that substance increases, the vein is sometimes brought into 
sight, and appears between the gland and the integument, fearfully en- 
larged, varicose, and almost appearing as if it were bursting. The trachea 
is pressed upon on either side, and the oesophagus by the left gland, and 
there is difficulty of swallowing. The poor animal pants distressingly 
after the least exertion, and I have known absolute suffocation ensue. In 
a few cases ulceration has followed, and the sloughing has been dreadful, 
yet the gland has still preserved its characteristic structure. Although 




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BRONCHO CELE. 
formed 



183 



has been considerable discharge, viscid or purulent, the upper part has 
remained as hard and almost as scirrhous as before. 

Cause of Goitre.— In many cases, this enlargement of the thyroid glands 
is plainly connected with a debilitated state of the constitution generally 



Treatment. 



and more particularly with a disposition to rickets. 1 have rarely seen a 
puppy that has had mange badly, and especially if mange was closely fol- 
lowed by distemper, that did not soon exhibit goitre. Puppies halt- 
starved, and especially if dirtily kept, are thus aifected ; and it is gene- 
rally found connected with a loose skin, flabby muscles, enlarged belly, 
and great stupidity. On the other hand, I have seen hundreds of dogs, 
to all appearance otherwise healthy, in whom the glands of the neck have 
suddenly and frightfully enlarged. I have never been able to trace this 
disease to any particular food, whether solid or liquid ; although it is cer- 
tainly the frequent result of want of nutriment. , , ., . 

Some friends, of whom I particularly inquired, assured me, that it is not 
to any great extent prevalent in those parts of Derbyshire where goitre is 

oftenest seen in the human being. , . , . ^ . j 

It is periodical in the dog. I have seen it under medical treatment, and 
without medical treatment, perfectly disappear for a while, and soon after- 
wards, without any assignable cause, return. There is a breed of the 
Blenheim spaniel, in which this periodical goitre is very remarkable ; the 
slightest cold is accompanied by enlargement of the thyroid gland, but 
the swelling altogether disappears in the course of a fortnight. I am quite 
assured that it is hereditary ; no one that is accustomed to dogs can doubt 

this for a moment. . /e • 4. a 

I am almost ashamed to confess how many inefficient and 

cruel methods of treatment I many years ago adopted. I used mercurial 
friction, external stimulants, and blisters ; I have been absurd enough to 
pass setons through the tumours, and even to extirpate them with the 
knife The mercury salivated without any advantage, the stimulants and 
the blisters aggravated the evil ; the setons did so in a tenfold degree, so 
that many dogs were lost in the irritative fever that was produced ; and, 
although the gland, when dissected out, could not be reproduced, yet I 
have been puzzled with the complication of vessels around it, and m one 
case lost my patient by hemorrhage, which I could not arrest. 

When the power of iodine in the dispersion of glandular tumours was 
first spoken of, I eagerly tried it for this disease, and was soon satished 
that it was almost a specific. I scarcely recollect a case m which the 
glands have not very materially diminished ; and, in the decided majority 
of cases, they have been gradually reduced to their natural size. 1 first 
tried an ointment composed of the iodide of potassium and lard, witH 
some, but not a satisfactory result. Next I used the tincture of iodine, 
in doses of from five to ten drops, and with or without any external 
local application ; but I found, at length, that the simple iodine, made 
into pills with powdered gum and syrup, effected almost all that 1 
could wish. It is best to commence with the eighth of a grain for a small 
dog, and rapidly increase it to half a grain, morning and night. A larger 
dog may take from a quarter of a grain to a grain. In a tew instances, 
loss of appetite and slight emaciation have been produced ; but men, tne 
medicine being suspended for a few days, no permanent ill ettect nas ever 
followed the exhibition of iodine. 




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184 



PHLEGMONOUS TUMOUR. 



PHLEGMONOUS TUMOUR. 



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A phlegmonous tumour under the throat, and accompanied by constitu- 
tional disturbance^ with the exception of there being little or no cough, 
often appears in the dog. Comparing the size of the animals, these 
tumours are much larger than in either the horse or ox ; but they are 
situated higher up the face, and do not press so much upon the windpipe, 
nor is there any apparent danger of suffocation from them. The whole 
head, however, is sometimes enlarged to a frightful degree, and the eyes 
are completely closed. More than a pint of fluid has sometimes escaped 
from a middle-sized dog at the first puncture of the tumour. 

The mode of treatment is, to stimulate the part, in order to expedite 
the suppuration of the tvimour, and to lance it freely and deeply, as soon as 
matter is evidently formed. The wound should be dressed with tincture 
of aloes, and a thick bandage placed round the neck, to prevent the dog 
from scratching the part, which often causes dreadful laceration. 

These tumours in the throat of the dog are not always of a phlegmonous 
character. They are.rcysts, sometimes rapidly formed, and of considerable 
size, and filled with a serous or gelatinous fluid. 



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ANATOMY OF THE CHEST. 



185 




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CHAPTER XI. 



ANATOMY AND DISEASES OF THE CHEST ! THE DIAPHRAGM ; THE 

J 

PERICARDIUM ; THE HEART ; PLEURISY ; PNEUMONIA ; SPAS- 



f. 



MODIC COUGH, 



The chest is the superior, or in quadrupeds the anterior, cavity of the 
trunk of the body : it is divided into two cavities by a membranoiis parti- 
tion, termed mediastinum ; and separated from the abdomen, or cavity 
which contains the liver, spleen, pancreas, and other abdommal viscera, by 
the diaphraqm, which is of a musculo-membranous nature. ihis mem- 
brane may be described, as it is divided, into the main circular muscle with 
its central tendinous expansion forming the lower part, and two appendices, 
or crura, as they are termed from their peculiar shape, constituting its 
superior portion. We trace the fleshy origin of the grand muscle, laterally 
and inferiorly, commencing from the cartilage of the eighth rib anteriorly, 
and following somewhat closely, as we proceed backward, the union of the 
posterior ribs with their cartilages, excepting, however, the two last. The 
attachment is peculiarly strong. It is denticulated : it encloses the whole 
of the latter and inferior part of the chest as far as the sternum, where it is 



connected with the ensiform cartilage. 



ordinary 



respiration. 



In its quiescent state it presents its convex surface towards 

- - ■> ^ The anterior con- 



the thorax, and its concave one towards the abdomen. 

vexity abuts upon the lungs ; the posterior concavity is occupied by some 

of the abdominal viscera. , . ^. i,^^,« ^^ „„^ 

Thus far we have described the diaphragm as found m the horse, ox, and 
sheep. There is some diiference with regard to the dog. The muscular 
part of the diaphragm is thick and strong in every species of dog, while the 
aponeurotic expanlon is comparatively smaller. From the smaller expanse 
of the thorax of the dog, and the consequent little expansion of the dia- 
phragm, the action, although occasionally rapid and violent-for he is an 
animal of speed— is not so extensive, and more muscle and less tendon may 
be given to him, not only without detriment, but with evident advantage. 
Therefore, although we have occasional rupture of the heart of the dog, 
oftener perhaps than in the horse, there is no case of rupture of the dia- 
phragm on record. , , i,- u 

The cavity of the thorax is lined by a membrane, termed pleura, which 

cov ers the surface of the lungs. r i. a 

The lungs on either side are enclosed in a separate and perfect bag, and 
each lung has a distinct pleura. The heart lies under the left lung; and, 
more perfectly to cut off all injurious connexion or communication ot 
disease between the lungs and the heart, the heart is enclosed m a distinct 
pleura or bag, termed the pericardium. This membrane closely invests tne 
heart, supports it in its situation, prevents too great dilatation when it is 
gorged with blood, and too violent action when it is sometimes unduly sti- 
mulated. Notwithstanding the confinement of the pericardium, the heart, 



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186 



ANATOMY OF DISEASES 



when under circumstances of unusual excitation, beats violently against the 
ribs, and, were it not thus tied down, would often bruise and injure itself, 
and cause inflammation in the neighbouring parts. 

The heart is composed of four cavities ; two above, called auricles^ 
from their shape and two below, termed ventricles, occupying the bulk of 
the heart. In point of fact, there are two hearts — the one on the left side 
propelling the blood through the frame, and the other on the right side 
conveying it through the pulmonary system ; but, united in the manner in 
which they are, their junction contributes to their mutual strength, and 
both circulations are carried on at the same time. 

The beating of the heart in the dog is best examined behind the elbow 
on the left side. The hand, applied flat against the ribs, will give the 
number and character of the pulsations. The pericardium, or outer invest- 
ing membrane of the heart, is frequently liable to inflammation, indicated 
by a quickened and irregular respiration, and an action of the heart, bound- 
ing at an early period of the disease, but becoming scarcely recognisable as 
the fluid increases. The patient is then beginning gradually to sink. A 
thickening of the substance of the heart is occasionally suspected, and, on 
the other hand, an increased capacity of the cavities of the heart ; the 
parietes being considerably thinner, and the frame of the animal emaciated. 

The pulse of the greater part of our domestic animals has been calcu- 
lated by Mr. Vatel, in his excellent work on Veterinary Pathology, to be 
nearly as follows : 



In the horse, 


from 


32 to 38 


pulsations in a minute. 


J? 


OX or cow, 


99 


35 „ 42 


j> 


99 


ass, 


99 


48 „ 54 


4 

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sheep, 




70 „ 79 


}9 


99 


goat, 


99 


72 „ 76 




39 


dog, 


J? 


90 „ 100 


99 


99 


cat, 


99 


110 „ 120 


99 


5J 


rabbit 


• 


120 


99 


J5 


guinea-pig 


• 


140 


99 


99 


crow 


* 


136 




5J 


duck 


r 

• 


136 


99 


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hen 


V 


140 


)9 


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heron 


• 


200 





The pulse of the dog maybe easily ascertained by feeling at the heart or 
I the inside of the knee, and it varies materially, according to the breed, as 
well as the size of the animal. This is very strikingly the case with some 
of the sporting dogs, with whom the force as well as the rapidity of the 
pulse vary materially according to the character and breed of the dog. 

There is, occasionally, in the dog as in the human being, an alteration of 
the quantity, as well as of the quality, of the blood. Ancemia is the term 
used to designate a deficiency in quantity ; plethora the opposite state of it. 
M. D' Arbor relates a very curious account of the former: — 

Two dogs were sent into the hospital of the veterinary school at Lyons. 
They did not appear to suffer any considerable pain. Their skin and 
mucous membranes that were visible had a peculiar appearance. They 
had also comparatively little power over their limbs ; so little, indeed, that 
they rested continually on one side, without the ability to shift their posture. 
When they were placed on their feet, their limbs gave way, and they fell 
the moment they were quitted. In despite of the care that was taken of 
them they died on the second day. 



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OF THE CHEST. 



187 



Incisions were made through the skin, but in opening them no blood 
flowed. The vense cavte themselves did not contain any — there were only 
two clots of blood in the cavities of their hearts. One of them, of the size 
of a small nutmeg, occupied the left ventricle ; the other, which was still 
smaller, was found at the base of the right ventricle. The chest of one of 
them enclosed a small quantity of serosity ; a similar fluid was between the 
dura mater and the arachnoid membrane, and the same was the case in the 
larger ventricles of the encephalon. The other viscera did not offer any- 
thing remarkable, except the paleness and flaccidity of their tissue. The 
great fatigues of the chace, and the immersion of these animals in water at 
the time that they were very much heated, appeared to have been the causes 
of this singular disease. In the Report of the labours of the School of Alfort, 
in the year 1825, the same anaemia was remarked in two dogs that died 
there ; one of them had lately undergone a considerable hemorrhage, and 
in the' other anemia had developed itself spontaneously. 

It is in fact among dogs that this extreme anaemia has been prmcipally 

observed, and is ordinarily fatal. It has been remarked by ""^ ^ 

bullock attacked with gastro-enteritis. 



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chronic malady, or the instantaneous effect of an excessive hemorrhage. 
It is rarely primary. The extreme discoloration of the tissues, and of the 
mucous membrane more particularly; the disappearance of the subcutane- 
ous blood-vessels ; and the extreme feebleness of the animal, are the princi- 
pal symptoms. There also often exists considerable swelling of the limbs. 

The following singular case of a wound penetrating into the chest and 
pericardium of a dog is recorded by Professor Delafond : — 

A mastiff" dog fighting with another was stabbed in the chest by the 
master of his antagonist. Five hours after the accident, the Professor was 
sent for. On the exterior of the sternum was a laceration an inch and a 
half in length, covered by a spumy fluid, from the centre of which was 
heard a gurgling noise, showing that a wound had penetrated into the sac 
of the pleura. The respiration was quick, and evidently painful ; the 
beating of the heart was also strong and precipitate. The finger being 
introduced into the wound, penetrated between the fourth and fifth rib on 
the left side. " Having arrived at the pleuritic sac," says the Professor, 
" I gently tapped the surface of the lung, in order to assure myself that it 
was not injured ; my finger penetrated into the pericardium, and the point 

He bathed the wound with a little diluted wine, and brought the edges 
of it as near together as he could, and confined them with a suture, 

administering a mild aperient. 

On the following day, the animal walked slowly about, seeking for 
something to eat ; he gave him some milk. On changing the dressing he 
tried whether he could again introduce any sound into the wound ; but it 
would only penetrate a very little way ; indeed, reunion by adhesion had 

already taken place. it. 

On the fifth day, the animal was in good spirits ; the wound had a healthy 

red appearance, and all tended to a speedy cure. 

On the eighth day he was sent home to his master, a distance ot two 
leagues from his house. He saw the dog eighteen months afterwards, and 
he was as eager as ever after his game. i t • ^ p 

The following is a case of rupture of the heart :— a black pointer, ot 



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DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 



the Scotch breed, had every appearance of good health, except that she 
frequently fell into a fit after having run a little way, and sometimes even 
after playing in the yard. She was several times bled during and after 
these fits. When I examined her, I could plainly perceive considerable 
and violent spasmodic motion of the heart, and the sounds of the beating 
of the heart were irregular and convulsive. She was sent to the infirmary, 
in order to be cured of an attack of mange ; but during her stay in the 
hospital she had these fits several times : the attack almost always followed 
after she had been playing with other dogs. She appeared as if struck by 
lightning, and remained motionless for several minutes, her gums losing 
their natural appearance and assuming a bluish hue. After the lapse of a 
few minutes she again arose as if nothing had been the matter. She was 
bled twice in eight days, and several doses of foxglove were administered 
to her. The fits appeared to become less frequent ; but, playing one day 
with another dog, she fell and expired immediately. 

The post-mortem examination was made two hours after death. The 
cavity of the pericardium contained a red clot of blood, which enveloped 
the whole of the heart ; it was thicker in the parts that corresponded with 
the valve of the heart ; and on the left ventricle, and near the base of the 
left valve of the heart, and on the external part of that viscus, was an 
irregular rent two inches long. It crossed the wall of the valve of the 
heart, which was very thin in this place. The size of the heart was very 
small considering the height and bulk of the dog. The walls of the ven- 
tricles, and particularly of the left ventricle, were very thick. The cavity 
of the left ventricle was very small ; there was evidently a concentric 
hypertrophy of these ventricles ; the left valve of the heart was of great 
size. 

The immediate cause of the rupture of the valve of the heart had evi- 
dently been an increase of circulation, brought on by an increase of 
exercise ; but the remote cause consisted in the remarkable thinness of the 
walls of the valve of the heart. This case is remarkable in more than one 
respect; first, because examples of rupture of the valve of the heart are 
very rare ; and, secondly, because this rupture had its seat in the left valve 
of the heart, while, usually, in both the human being and the quadruped, 
it takes place in the right, and this, without doubt, because the walls and 
the valves of the right side are thinner. 

Diseases of the investing membrane of the lungs, and the pleura of the 
thoracic cavity, and of the substance of the lungs, are more frequent than 
those of the heart. 

PLEURISY, 

or inflammation of the membrane of the chest and the lungs of the dog, 
is not unfrequent. There are few instances of inflammation of the lungs, 
or pneumonia, that do not ultimately become connected with or terminate 
in pleurisy. The tenderness of the sides, the curious twitching that is 
observed, the obstinate sitting up, and the presence of a short, suppressed, 
painful cough, which the dog bears with strange impatience, are the symp- 
toms that principally distinguish it from pneumonia. The exploration 
of the chest by auscultation gives a true picture of it in pleurisy; and, by 
placing the dog alternately on his chest, his back, or his side, we can readily 
ascertain the extent to which effusion exists in the thoracic cavity ; and, if 
we think proper, we can get rid of the fluid. It is not a dangerous thing 



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PNEUMONIA. 



to attempt, although it is very problematical whether much advanta£e 
would accrue from the operation. With " „ T 7a T 

be tried ; and, to prevent all accidents, a veterinary surgeon should be 

intrusted with the case. 

PNEUMONIA, 

or inflammation of the substance of the lungs, is a complaint of frequent 
occurrence in the dog, and is singularly marked. The extended head, the 
protruded tongue, the anxious, bloodshot eye, the painful heaving of the 
hot breath, the obstinacy with which the animal sits up hour after hour 
until his feet slip from under him, andthe eye closes, and the head droops, 
through extreme fatigue, yet in a moment being roused again by the feehng 
of instant suffocation, are symptoms that cannot be mistaken. 

Here from the comparative thinness of the integument and the parietes, 
we have the progress of the disease brought completely under our view. 
The exploration of the chest of the dog by auscultation is a beautiful as 
well as wonderful thing. It at least exhibits to us_ the actual state of the 
lungs, if it does not always enable us to arrest the impending evil 

Mr. Blaine and myself used cordially to agree with regard to the treat- 
ment of pneumonia, materially different from the opinions of the majority 
of sportsmen. Epidemic pneumonia was generally fatal, if it was not 
speedily arrested in its course. The cure was commenced by bleeding, and 
that to a considerable extent, when not more than four-and-twenty or six- 
and-thirty hours had passed ; for, after that, the progress of the disease 
could seldom be arrested. Blistering the chest was sometimes resorted to 
with advantage ; and the cantharides ointment and the oil of turpentine 
formed one of the most convenient as well as one of the most efficacious 
blisters. A purgative was administered, composed of mutton broth witli 
Epsom salts or castor oil ; to which followed the administration of the best 
sedatives that we have in those cases, namely, nitre, powdered foxglove, and 
antimonial powder, in the proportion of a scruple of the Erst, four grains 
of thp ^poond and two grains of the third. , 

STngesto of the lufgs is a frequent termination of pneumonia ; and in 
that congestion the air-cells are easily ruptured and filled with blood ^ ^^ 
blood assumes a black pulpy appearance, ^^^^"^"V if ^<^^ted by the term 
of rottenness, an indication or consequence of the violence of the disease 
and the hopelessness of the case. A different consequence of mflamma ion 
of the lungs is the formation of tubercles, and, after that, of suppuration 
and abscess, when, generally speaking, the case is hopeless. A full account 
of this is given in the work on the Horse. 
Two cases of pneumonia will be useful : — 

Oct 22nd, 1 820. A black pointer biteh that had been used to a warm 
kennel, was made to sleep on flat stones without straw. A violent cough 
followed, under which she had been getting worse and worse for a fortnight. 
Yesterday I saw her. The breathing was laborious. The bitch was con- 
stantly shifting her position, and, whether she lay down or sat up, was 
endeavouring to elevate her head. Her usual posture was sitting, ana 
she only lay down for a minute. The eyes were surrounded and the nose 
nearly stopped with mucus. V. S. Bviij. Emet. Fever-ball twice in the 

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2 3rU Breathing not quite so laborious. Will not eat. 
as before. Apply a blister on the chest. 24^^- Nearly the same 
5vj. Bol. utheri. 26^^. Decided amendment. She breathes with much 



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DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 



less difficulty. Less discharge both from eyes and nose. Bol. utheri. 
Nov. 7th. Sent home well. 

A singular and not uninstructive case came before me. A lady in the 
country wrote to me to say, that her terrier was thin, dull, husking, and 
perpetually trying to get something from the throat; that her coat stared, 
and she frequently panted. I replied, that I apprehended she had caught 
cold ; and recommended bleeding to the extent of four ounces, a grain each 
of calomel and emetic tartar to be given every fourth morning, and a fever- 
ball, composed of digitalis, nitre, and tartrate of antimony, on each inter- 
mediate day. 

A few days after this I received another letter from her, saying, that 
the dog was bled as ordered, and died on the following Thursday. That 
another veterinary surgeon had been called in, who said that the first one 
had punctured the vena cava in the operation, and that the dog had bled 
to death internally ; and she wished to know my opinion. I replied, that 
the charge proceeded from ignorance or malice, or both. That in one 
sense he was right—the jugular, which the other had probably opened, 
runs into the vena cava, and may, with some latitude, be considered a 
superior branch of it ; therefore, thus far the first man had punctured the 
vena cava, which I had done many hundred times ; but that the point of 
union of the four principal veins that form the vena cava was too securely 
seated in the upper part of the thorax for any lancet to reach it. That 
the rupture of some small arterial vessel might have caused this lingering 
death, but that the puncture of a vein would either have been speedily 
fatal, or of no consequence ; and that, probably, the animal died of the 
disease which she had described. 



SPASMODIC JGOUGH 

is a troublesome disease to manage. Dogs, and especially those consider- 
ably petted, are subject to frequent cough, requiring a material difference 
in the treatment. Sometimes there is a husky cough, not to so great a 
degree as in distemper, but followed by the same apparent effort to get 
something from the throat, the same attempt to vomit, and the ejection of 
mucus, frothy or adhesive, and occasionally discoloured with bile. It 
proceeds from irritability or obstruction in some of the air-passages, and 
oftenest of the superior ones. An emetic will clear the fauces, or at least 

force out a portion of the adhesive matter which is clogging the bronchial 
tubes. 

A cough of this kind, and attended in its early stages by little fever, 
seldom requires anything more for its cure than the exhibition of a few 
gentle emetics, consisting of equal portions of calomel and emetic tartar, 
given in doses varying from half a grain to one grain and a half of each. 

A harsh hollow cough is attended by more inflammatory action. The 
depletive system must be adopted here. A loud and harsh cough will 
yield only to the lancet and to purgatives, assisted by sedative medicines 
composed of nitre, antimonial powder, and digitalis, or small doses of syrup 
of poppies, or more minute doses of the hydrocyanic acid ; this last medi- 
cine, however, should be carefully watched, and only given under surgical 
advice. 

28th October] 1 842. A spaniel was apparently well yesterday, but towards 
evening a violent cough suddenly came on. It was harsh and hollow, and 





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SPASMODIC COUGH. 



191 



terminated in retching. There was a discharge of water from the eyes ; 
but the nose was cool and moist. Give an emetic, and then two grains of 
the James's powder. 29th. The animal coughed almost the whole of the 
night. There was more watery discharge from the eyes, which appeared 
to be red and impatient of light ; the nose continued cool, and the dog did 
not refuse his food. An aperient ball was given ; and twice afterwards in 
the day, the nitre, antimonial powder, and digitalis. ^OtJi. The cough is 
as frequent, but not very loud. Give a mixture of syrup of poppies and 
prussic acid morning and night, and the ball as yesterday. 2i\st. Nearly 
in the same state as yesterday, except that he is not so thirsty, and does 
not eat so well. Give the mixture three times daily. Nov. 1st. He had 
an emetic in the morning, which produced a large quantity of phlegm, but 
the cough is no better. No evacuation during the two last days. Give 
>n aperient ball, and the mixture as before in the evening. 

The prussic acid has been fairly tried ; it has not in the least mitigated 
the cough, but begins to make the dog sick, and altogether to destroy his 

appetite. 

of a drachm of syrup of poppies, and one-third of syrup of buckthorn. 

The sickness ceased, and the cough remained as before. I then gave 
twice in the day half a grain of calomel, the same of opium, two each of 
pulvis antimonialis and digitalis, and four grains of nitre, morning and 
noon, with six grains of the Dover's powder at night. This was continued 
on the 3rd, 4th and 5th of November, when there were longer intervals of 
rest, and the dog did not cough so harshly when the fit was on him. On 
the 6th, however, no medicine was given ; but towards evening the dog 
coughed as much as ever, and a decided mucous discharge commenced 
from the nose and the eyes, with considerable snorting. An emetic was 



Give three times in the day a mixture consisting of two-thirds 



given, and the balls resorted to as before. 

7/A. He appeared to be much relieved by the emetic, 
better, the dog ate well, and had regained his usual spirits- 
It quickly became frequent 



The cough was 
The ball as 



before, 
and violent. 



9th. Slight tenesmus now appeared. 

The dog strained very much ; but the discharge was small in 

Give two drachms of castor 



quantity, and consisted of adhesive mucus 
oil, and the fever-ball with opium. The cough is worse, and the dog still 
continues to strain, no blood, however, appearing. ' Wth. The opium and 
oil have had their desired effect, and the cough is better. \2th. Except 
the animal is kept under the influence of opium, the cough is dreadfully 
troublesome. I have, however, obtained one point. I have been per- 
mitted to subtract four ounces of blood ; but blood had been mingling with 
the expectorated mucus before I was permitted to have recourse to the 
lancet. iZth. The dog is better, and we again have recourse to the fever 
mixture, to which, on the 14^^,1 added a very small portion of the car- 
bonate of iron, for the dog was evidently getting weak. The sickness has 
returned, and the cough is decidedly worse. 16^^. Rub a small quantity 
of rheumatic embrocation, and tincture of cantharides. Vjth. The first 
application of the blister had not much effect ; but this morning it began 
to act. The dog ran about the house as cross as he could be for more 
than an hour ; there was considerable redness on the throat and chest. 
The cough, however, was decidedly better. 18^^. The cough is better. 
Again apply the embrocation. \9th. The cough and huskiness have 
returned. Employ an emetic, and continue the embrocation. 20th. The 
cough is decidedly worse. Continue the embrocation, and give the fever 







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DISEASES OF THE CHEST. 



mixture. 23rd. The embrocation and medicine have been daily used ; but 
the cough is as bad as ever. Balls of assafoetida, squills, and opium were 
had recourse to. 25th. The second ball produced the most distressing 
sickness, but the cough was evidently relieved. The assafcetida was dis- 
continued. 2Sth. The cough, during the last two days, has been gradually 
getting worse. It is more laborious and longer, and the intervals between 
it are shorter. Give another emetic and continue the other medicine. 
SOth. The effect of the emetic was temporary, and the cough is again 
worse, 

Dec. 2nd. Very little change. 5th. The cough appears to be station- 
ary. Again have recourse to the antimony, digitalis, and nitre. 8th. The 
cough is certainly better. Try once more the assafcetida. It again pro- 
duced sickness, but of a very mild character. 12th. The assafcetida 
was again used morning and night. The cough continues evidently to 
abate. 14:th. The dog coughs very little, not more than half-a-dozen times 
in the day. Notwithstanding the quantity of medicine that has been taken, 
the appetite is excellent, and the spirits good. 
less frequent, but when it occurs it is attended with retching. 19th. 
The cough is daily getting better, and is not heard more than three or four 

times in the four-and-twenty hours, and then very slight. SOth. At 
length I can say that the cough has ceased. It is seldom that so much 
trouble would have been taken with a dog- It is the neglect of the 
medical attendance which is often the cause of death. 

Professor Delafond, of Alfort, gives a most interesting and complete 
table of the usual diagnostic symptoms of pleurisy and pneumonia. 



16th. The cough is still 



Pleueisy. 

■ n 

Commencement of the Inflammation, — ■ 
Shivering, usually accompanied by slight 
colicky pains, and followed by general or 
partial sweating. Inspiration always short, 
unequal, and interrupted ; expiration fall ; 
air expired of the natui'al temperature. 
Cough unfrequent, faint, short, and with- 
out expectoration. Artery full. Pulsequick, 
small, and wiry. 

Ausctiltation, — A respiratory murmur, 
feeble, or accompanied by a slight rub- 
bing through the whole extent of the 
chest, or in some parts only. 



Percussion. — Slight, dead, grating sound. 
Distinct resonance through the whole of 
the chest, and pain expressed when the 
sides are tapped or compressed, 

Termiwaizons.— Delitescence. Cessation 
of pain ; moderate temperature of the skin ; 
sometimes profuse general perspiration. 
Respiration less accelerated ; inspiration 
easier and deeper. Pulse fuller and softer. 
Breath of the natural temperature. Re- 
turn of the natural respiratory murmur 
and resonance. The walls of the chest 
cease to exhibit increased sensibility. 

Effusion, false Membranes. — Inspira- 
tion more and more full. 



Pneumonia. 

Commencement of the Inflammation, — 
General shiyering, rarely accompanied by 
colicky pains, followed by partial sweats 
at the flanks and the inside of the thighs. 
Inspiration full, expiration short. Air 
expired hot. Cough frequently followed 
by slight discharge of red-coloured mucus. 
Artery full. Pulse accelerated, strong, full, 
and soft. 

Auscultation. — Absence of respiratory 
murmur in places where the lung is con- 
gested ; feebleness of that sound in the 
inflamed parts, with humid crepitating 
wheezing. The respiratory murmur in- 
creased in the sound parts. 

Percussion. — The dead grating sound 
confined to the inflamed parts. Distinct 
resonance at the sound parts ; increased 
sensibility of the walls of the chest slight, 
or not existing at all. 

Terminations, — Resolution, Tempera- 
ture of the skin moderate. Sometimes 
profuse partial sweats. Laborious respi- 
ration subsiding; inspiration less deep. 
Artery less full. Pulse yielding. Breath 
less hot. Gradual and progressive disap- 
pearance of the crepitating rale. Slow 
return of the resonance. 



Red Hepatization. 
gular and interrupted. 



Respiration irre- 




PLEURISY PNEUMONIA. 



193 



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PLEURISY, 

Auscultation and Percussion, — Complete 
absence of the respiratory murmur, with 
the crepitating wheezing always at the 
bottom of the chest ; sometimes a gurgling 
noise. Vesicular respiration very strong 
in the upper region of the chest, or in the 
sac opposite to the effusion. 

Continuance of the Effusion. — Absence 
of the respiratory murmur gains the mid- 
dle region of the chest, following the level 
of the fluid. These symptoms may be 
found on only one side ; a circumstance of 
frequent occurrence in the dog, but rare in 
other animals. The respiratory murmur 
•increases in the superior region of the 
chest, or on the side opposite to the effu- 
sion. Inspiration becomes more and more 

prolonged. Breath always cold. Cough 
not existing, or rarely, and always sup- 
pressed and interrupted. Exercise pro- 
ducing much difficulty of respiration. 

Hesolution, or Re-absorption of the ef- 
fused Fluid, and Organization of false 
Memhrane, the consequence of Pleurisy, — 
Slow but progressive re-appearance of the 
respiratory murmur, and disappearance of 
the sounds produced by the fluid. Dimi- 
nution of the force of the respiratory mur- 
mur in the superior part of the chest, or of 
the lung opposite to the sac in which the 
effusion exists. Gradual return of the 
respiratory murmur to the inferior part of 
the chest. Inspiration less deep, and re- 
turning to its natural state. 

Chronic Pleurisy, with Hydrothorax, — 
Inspiration always deep, expiration short. 
Cough dry, sometimes with expectoration ; 
frequent or capricious ; always absence of 
complete respiratory murmur in the in- 
ferior portion of the chest. Sometimes 
the gurgling noise during inspiration and 
expiration. Strong respiratory murmur 
in the superior portion. In dogs these 
symptoms sometimes have existence only 
on one side of the chest. The mucous 
membranes are infiltrated ; serous infil- 
tration on the lower part of the chest and 
belly; sometimes of the scrotum or the 
inferior extremities ; generally of the fore 
legs. The animal lies down frequently^ 
and dies of suffocation. 



PNEUMONIA. 

Auscultation and Percussion. — Circum- 
scribed absence of the respiratory murmur, 
without any determined place, in one 
point, or in many distinct parts of the 
lung. The respiratory murmur increased 
in one or more of the sound parts of the 
lungs, or in the sound lung if one is in- 
flamed. 

Passage to a State of Gray Indura- 
tion. — The absence of respiratory mur- 
mur indicates extensive hepatization of 
one lung; a circumstance, however, of 
rare occurrence. When the induration is 
of both lungs, and equally so, the respi- 
ratory murmur and the inspiration remain 
the same, except that they become irregu- 
lar. The cough dry or humid, frequent, 
and sometimes varying. Exercise accom- 
panied by difficulty of respiration, without 
dyspncEa, 



Eesolution or Re- absorption of the 
Products of Inflammation of the Paren- 
chymatous Substance of the Lunqs. — Di- 
minution of the force of the respiratory 
murmur in the sound parts. Cessation of 
the crepitating wheezing. Slow return of 
the respiratory murmur where it had 
ceased. Respiration ceases to be irregular 
or interrupted, and returns slowly to its 
natural state, or it remains interrupted. 
This indicates the passage from red to 
gray induration. . 

Chronic Pneumonia — (Gray Indura- 
tion.) — Inspiration or expiration inter- 
rupted. Cough unfrequent ; suppressed ; 
rarely with expectoration ; always inter- 
rupted. Complete absence of respiratory 
murmur, • . 

(Softening of the Induration, Ulcerations, 
Vomicce, Sfc) — Mucous and wheezing; 
mucous rale in the bronchial ; discharge 
from the nostrils of purulent matter, 
white, gray, or black, and sometimes 
fetid. Paleness of the mucous mem- 
branes. The animal seldom lies down, 
and never long at a time. Death by suf- 
focation, when the matter proceeding from 

the vomicse, or abscesses, obstructs the 
bronchial passages, or by the development 

of an acute inflammation engrafted upon 
the chronic one. 




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194 



ANATOMY AND DISEASES OF THE 






CHAPTER XIL 



ANATOMY OP THE GULLET^ STOMACH^ AND INTESTINES: TETANUS; 
ENTEEITIS ; PERITONITIS ; COLIC ; CALCULUS IN THE INTES- 
TINES ; INTUSSUSCEPTION ; DIARKHCEA ; DYSENTERY ; COSTIVE- 
NESS ; DROPSY ; THE LIVER ; JAUNDICE ; THE SPLEEN AND 
pancreas; INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY; CALCULUS; IN- 
FLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER; RUPTURE OF THE BLADDER; 
WORMS ; FISTULA IN THE ANUS, 

The cesopJiagus^ or guHet, of the dog, is constructed in nearly the same 
manner as that of the horse. It consists of a similar muscular tube 
passing down the neck and through the chest, and terminating in the 
stomach, in which the process of digestion is commenced. The orifice by 
which the gullet enters the stomach is termed the cardia^ probably on 
account of its neighbourhood to the heart or its sympathy with it. It is 
constantly closed, except when the food is passing through it into the 

stomach. 

The stomach has three coats : the outermost, which is the common 

covering of all the intestines, called the peritoneum ; the second or mus- 
cular coat, consisting of two layers of fibres, by which a constant motion 
is communicated to the stomach, mingling the food, and preparing it for 
digestion ; and the mucous or villous, where the work of digestion properly 
commences, the mouths of numerous little vessels opening upon it, which 
exude the gastric juice, to mix with the food already softened, and to con- 
vert it into a fluid called the chyme. It is a simpler apparatus than in the 
horse or in cattle. It is occasionally the primary seat of inflammation ; 
and it almost invariably sympathises with the affections of the other in- 
testines. 

The successive contractions of each portion of the stomach, expose by 
turns every portion of the alimentary mass to the influence of the gastric 
juice, and each is gradually discharged into the alimentary canal. 

As the chyme is formed, it passes out of the other orifice of the stomach, 
and enters the first intestine or duodenum. 

It may be naturally supposed that this process will occasionally be in- 
terrupted by a variety of circumstances, 
the dog is very diflficult to deal with, 
causes. There 



inflaimmation of the stomach of 



It is produced by numerous different 
is great and long-continued sickness : even the most 
harmless medicine is not retained on the stomach. The thirst is exces- 
sive ; there are evident indications of excessive pain, expressed by the 
countenance and by groans : there is a singular disposition in the animal 
to hide himself from all observation ; an indication that should never be 
neglected, nor the frequent change from heat to cold, and from cold to 

heat. 

The mode of treatment is simple, although too often inefficient. The 




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GULLET, STOMA.CH, AND INTESTINES. 



195 



lancet must be immediately resorted to, and the bleeding continued until 
the animal seems about to fall ; and to this should quickly succeed repeated 
injections. Two or three drops of the croton oil should be injected twice 
or thrice in the day, until the bowels are thoroughly opened. The animal 
will be considerably better, or the disease cured, in the course of a couple 
of days. 

There is a singular aptitude in the stomach of the dog to eject a portion 
of its contents ; but, almost immediately afterwards, the food, or a portion 
if not the whole of it, is swallowed again. This is a matter of daily 
occurrence. There is a coarse rough grass, the cynosurus cristatus^ or 
crested dog's-tail. It is inferior for the purposes of hay, but is admirably 
suited for permanent pastures. It remains green after most other grasses 
are burnt by a continuance of dry weather. The dog, if it be in his 
power, has frequent recourse to it, especially if he lives mostly in a town. 
The dry and stimulating food, which generally falls to his share, produces 
an irritation of his stomach, from which he is glad to free himself; and 
for this purpose he has recourse to the sharp leaves of the cynosurus. 
They irritate the lining membrane of the stomach and intestines, and cause 
a portion of the food to be occasionally evacuated ; acting either as an 
emetic or a purgative, or both. They seem to be designed by nature to 
be substituted for the calomel and tartar emetic, and other drugs, which 
are far too often introduced. 

An interesting case of the retention of a sharp instrument in the stomach 
is related by Mr. Kent of Bristol. 

On the 23rd of February, Mr. Harford, residing in Bristol, when feeding 
a pointer-dog, happened to let the fork tumble with the flesh, and the dog 
swallowed them both. On the following morning, Mr. Kent was desired to 
see the animal ; and, although he could feel the projection of the fork out- 
wardly, which convinced him that the dog had in reality swallowed it, yet, 
as he appeared well, and exhibited no particular symptomsof pain or fever, 
Mr. Kent gave it as his opinion that there was a possibility that he might 
survive the danger, and the animal was sent to him, in order to be more im- 
mediately under his care. The treatment he adopted was, to feed him on 
cow's liver, with a view to keep the stomach distended and the bowels open ; 
and he gave him three times a day half a pint of water, with sufficient sul- 
phuric acid to make it rather strongly sour to the human tongue, with the 
intention of assisting the stomach in dissolving the iron. 

On the following Sunday, the skin, at the projecting point, began to ex- 
hibit some indication of ulceration ; and on Monday a prong of the fork 
might be touched with the point of the finger, when pressed on the ulcer. 
Mr. Kent then determined on making an effort to extract the fork on the 
following morning, which he accordingly did, and with but little difficulty, 
assisted by a medical friend of the owner. The dog was still fed on cow's 
liver ; his appetite remained good, and with very little medical treatment 
the external wound healed. The animal improved rapidly in flesh during 
the whole time. He left the infirmary in perfect health, and remained so, 
with one inconvenience only, a very bad cough, and his being obliged to 
lie at length, being unable to coil himself up in his usual way. 

The fork was a three-pronged one, six and a half inches long. The 
handle, which was of ivory, was digested : it was quite gone ; and either 
the gastric fluid or the acid, or both conjointly, had made a very apparent 
impression on the iron. 

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196 



DISEASES OF THE STOMACH. 



Dogs occasionally swallow various strange and unnatural substances. 
Considerable quantities of hair are sometimes accumulated in the stomach. 
Half-masticated pieces of straw are ejected. Straw mingled with dvmg 
is a too convincing proof of rabies. Dog-grass is found irritating the 
stomach, or in too great quantities to be ejected, while collections of 
earth and dung sometimes threaten suffocation. Pieces of money are oc- 
casionally found, and lead, and sponge. Various species of polypus irri- 
tate the coats of the stomach. Portions of chalk, or stone, or condensed 
matters adhere to each other, and masses of strange consistence and form 
are collected. The size which they assume increases more and more. M. 
Galy relates an extraordinary account of a dog. It was about three years 
old when a tumour began to be perceived in the flank. Some sharp-pointed 
substance was felt ; the veterinary surgeon cut down upon it, and a piece 
of iron, six inches in length, was drawn out. 

The following fact was more extraordinary : it is related by M. 
Noiret. A hound swallowed a bone, which rested in the superior part 
of the oesophagus, behind the pharynx, and caused the most violent 
efforts to get rid of it. The only means by which it could be made to de- 
scend into the stomach was by pushing it with the handle of a fork, 
which, escaping from the hand of the operator, followed the bone into 
the stomach. Two months afterwards, on examining the stomach, the 
fork was plainly felt lying in a longitudinal direction, parallel with 
the position of the body ; the owner of the dog wishing mechanically 

to accelerate the expulsion of this body, endeavoured to push it back- 
wards with his hands. When it was drawn as far back as possible, he 
inserted two fingers into the anus, and succeeded in getting hold of the 
handle, which he drew out nearly an inch ; but, in order to be enabled fully 
to effect his object, it was necessary to make an incision into the rectum, 
and free the substance from every obstacle that could retain it. This he 
did not venture to do, and he was therefore compelled to allow the fork to 

pass back into its former position. 

About three months after the accident, M. Noiret made an incision, 
three inches from above to below, and the same from the front backwards. 
He also made an incision through the muscular tissue. Having arrived at 
the peritoneum, he made another incision, through which he drew from the 
abdomen a part of the floating portion of the large intestines, and intro- 
duced his fingers into the abdominal cavity. He seized the handle of the 
fork, which was among the viscera, and free about halfway down, and 
drew it carefully towards the opening made in the flank. The other half 
of the fork was found to be closely enveloped by the origin of the meso- 



colon, which was red, liard, and inflamed. 



The operator freed it by cutting 

The 



through the tissues which held the fork, and then drew it easily out. 
animal was submitted to a proper course of treatment, and in three weeks 
afterwards was perfectly cured. 

The food having been converted into chyme by the digestive power of 
the stomach, soon undergoes another and very important change. It, or 
a portion of it, is converted into chyle. It is mixed with the bile and a 
secretion from the pancreas in the duodenum. The white thick liquid is 
separated, and contains the nutritive part of the food, and a yellow pulpy 
substance is gradually changed into excrement. As these substances pass 
on, the reparation between them becomes more and more complete. The 
chyle is gradually taken up by the lacteals, and the excrement alone remains. 



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TETANUS. 



197 



The next of the small intestines is the jejunum^ so called from its 
being generally empty. It is smaller in bulk than the duodenum, and the 
chyme passes rapidly through it. 

Next in the list is the ileum ; but it is difficult to say where the jejunum 
terminates and the ileum commences, except that the latter is usually one 
fifth longer than the former. 

At the termination of the ileum the ccecum makes its appearance, with 
a kind of valvular opening into it, of such a nature that everything that 
passes along it having reached the blind or closed end must return in 
order to escape ; or rather the office of the caecum is to permit certain 
alimentary matters and all fluids to pass from the ileum, but to oppose 
their return. 

The colon is an intestine of very large size, being one of the most 
capacious, as well as one of the longest, of the large intestines. It com- 
mences at the caecum caput coli, and soon expands into a cavity of greater 
dimensions than even that of the stomach itself. Having attained this 
singular bulk, it begins to contract, and continues to do so during its 
course round the caecum, until it has completed its second flex:ure, where 
it grows so small as scarcely to exceed in calibre one of the small intes- 
tines ; and, though, from about the middle of this turn it again swells out 
by degrees, it never afterwards acquires its former capaciousness; indeed, 
previously to its junction with the rectum, it once more materially differs 
in size. ■■■ 

At the upper part of the margin of the pelvis the colon terminates in 
the rectum^ which differs from the caecum and colon by possessing only a 
partial peritoneal covering, and being destitute of bands and cells. It 
enlarges towards its posterior extremity, and is furnished with a circular 
muscle, the sphincter ani ; adapted to preserve the anus closed, and to 
retain the feculent matter until so much of it is accumulated in the rectura 
as to excite a desire to discharge it. 



TETANUS^ 

a disease of great fatality, often depends upon the condition of the stomach ; 
but it is not frequent in dogs. 

Why the dog is so little subject to tetanus^ or lock-jaw, I am unable 
to explain. Sportsmen say that it sometimes attacks him when, being 
heated in the chace, he plunges into the water after the stag. The French 
give it the name of rnal de cerf^ from stags being supposed to be attacked 
in a similar way, and from the same cause. In the course of nearly forty 
years' practice, I have seen but four cases of it. The first arose from a 
wound in the foot. The cause of the second I could not learn. In both 
the spasmodic action was dreadful as well as universal. The dogs lay on 
their sides, the neck and legs stretched out, and the upper legs kept some 
inches from the ground by the intensity of the spasm. They might be 
taken up by either leg, and not a portion of the frame change its direction. 
At the same time, in their countenance, and by their hoarse cries, they 
indicated the torture which they endured. 

In the third case, which occurred 12th June, 1822, the head was drawn 
permanently on one side, and the whole body formed a kind of bow, the 
dog walking curiously sideways, often falling as it walked, and frequently 

screaming violently. I ordered him to be well rubbed with an ammoniacal 



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TETANUS. 






A favourite dog was missing. 



liniment, and balls of tonic and purging medicine to be given twice in the 
day. The dog gradually recovered, and was dismissed cured on the 20th. 

On the 1 6th November, in the same year, a bull-terrier had a similar 
complaint. He had been tried in the pit a fortnight before, and severely 
injured, and the pain and stiffness of his joints were increasing. The head 
was now permanently drawn on one side. The dog was unable to stand 
even for a moment, and the eyes were in a state of spasmodic motion. He 
was a most savage brute ; but I attempted to manage him, and, by the 
assistance of the owner, contrived to bleed him, and to give him a physic- 
ball. At the same time I advised that he should be destroyed. 

His master would not consent to this ; and, as the dog occasionally ate a 
little, we contrived to give a grain each of calomel and opium every sixth 
hour. In the course of three days he was materially recovered. He 
could stand ; but was exceedingly weak. I ordered the calomel to be 
omitted, but the opium to be continued. Three days afterwards he was 
sent into the country, and, as I heard, perfectly recovered. 

The following is a very interesting case of tetanus, detailed by M. De- 
beaux, of the Royal French Chasseurs : 

Four days had passed, and no intelli- 
gence could be obtained with regard to him until he returned home fatigued 
and half-starved. He had probably been stolen. In the excess of their 
joy, the owners crammed him with meat until he became strangely ill. 
His throat was filled with froth, the pupils of his eyes were dilated, the 
conjunctiva was strongly injected, his neck was spasmodically contracted, 
and the spine of the back was bowed, and most highly sensible to the touch. 
M. Debeaux was sent for : it was an hour before he could attend. The 
dog was lying on his belly ; the four limbs were extended and stiff. He 
uttered the most dreadful and prolonged howling every two or three 
minutes. The surgeon ordered the application of a dozen leeches to the 
chest and belly; laxative medicines were given, and embrocations applied 
to the spine and back. 

Three days passed and the symptoms evidently augmented. The excre- 
ment was dark and fetid, and the conjunctiva had a strong yellow tint. 
Leeches were again employed ; emollient lotions and aperient medicines 
.were resorted to. The sensibility of the spine and back was worse than 
ever ; the animal lay on his belly, stretching out his four limbs, his neck 
fixed, his jaws immovable, his voice hoarse, and he was utterly unable to 
move. 

The bathings, lotions, and aperients were continued, with very few in- 
termissions until the 14th day, when the muscles began to be a little re- 
laxed ; but he cried whenever he was touched. On the 15th, for the first 
time, he began to eat a little, and his natural voice returned ; still, however, 
the spasms occasionally appeared, but very much mitigated, and on the 20th 
the pain had entirely ceased. 

On the 5th of the next month he travelled two leagues with his master. 
It was cold, and the snow felh On his reaching home, all the horrible 
spasms returned, and it was eleven days before he was completely cured.^ 

Mr. Blaine gives the following account of his experience of this disease : 
^' It is remarkable, that although dogs are subject to various spasmodic 
affections, yet they are so little subject to lock-jaw that I never met with 



^ Tetanus observed on a Dog, by M. Debeaux,— Pract. Med> Vet 1829, p. 543. 



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ENTERITIS, 



199 



more than three cases of it among many thousands of diseased dogs. Two 
of these cases were idiopathic ; one being apparently occasioned by exposure 
to cold air all night ; in the other the cause was obscure. The third was of 
that kind called sympathetic^ and arose from extreme injury done to one of 
the feet. In each of these cases the convulsive spasm was extreme, and 
the rigidity universal but not intense. In one case the jaw was only par- 
tially locked. Both warm and cold bathings were tried. Large doses of 
opium and camphor were given by the mouth, and also thrown up in 
clysters. The spine of one was blistered. Stimulating frictions were ap- 
plied to all, but in neither case with any salutary effect."* 



ENTEKITIS. 

Enteritis^ or inflammation of the intestines, is a disease to which dogs 
are very liable. It may be produced by the action of several causes.^ The 
intestines of the dog are peculiarly irritable, and subject to take on inflam- 
matory action, and this tendency is often much increased by the artificial 
life which they lead. It is a very frequent complaint among those dogs that 
are much petted. A cold temperature is also a common cause of disease in 

these dogs. 

I was consulted with regard to a dog who was hiding himself in a cold, 

dark corner, paved with stone. Every now and then he lifted his head and 
uttered a howl closely resembling that of a rabid dog. He fixed his gaze 
intently upon me, with a peculiarity of expression which many would have 
mistaken for rabid. They, however, who have had the opportunity of 
seeing many of these cases will readily perceive the difierence. The con- 
junctiva is not so red, the pupil is not so dilated, and the dog appears to 
implore pity and not to menace evil. 

In this state, if the dog is approached, he will not permit himself to be 
touched until he be convinced that no harm is intended. A peculiar 
slowness attends each motion; his cries are frequent and piteous; his 
belly hot and tender ; two cords, in many cases, seem to run longitudinally 
from the chest to the pubis, and on these he cannot bear the slightest 
pressure. He abhors all food ; but his thirst for water ,^ and particularly 
cold water, is extreme ; he frequently looks round at his flanks, and the 
lingering gaze is terminated by a cry or groan. In the majority of cases 
there is considerable costiveness ; but, in others, the bowels are freely opened 

from the beginning. 

The peritoneal inflammation is sometimes pure, but oftener involves 
the muscular coat of the intestines. Its prevailing cause is exposure to 
cold, especially after fatigue, or lying on the wet stones or grass. Now 
and then it is the result of neglected rheumatism, especially in old and 

petted dogs. . 

The treatment is simple. Bleed until the pulse falters, put the animal 

in a warm bath, and let the belly be gently rubbed while the dog is in the 
water, and well fomented afterwards ; the drink should consist of warm 
broth, or warm milk and water. The bleeding should be repeated, if little 
or unsatisfactory relief is obtained ; and the examination of the rectum with 
the finger, and the removal of any hardened faeces that may have accumu- 
lated there, and the cautious use of enemata, neither too stimulating nor too 

a Blaine's Canine Pathology, p. 151. 



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200. 



DISEASES OF THE INTESTINES. 



forcibly injected, should be resorted to. No medicine should be employed 
until the most urgent symptoms are abated. Castor oil, the mildest of our 
purgatives— syrup of buckthorn assisting the purgative property of the oil, 
and containing in its composition as much stimulating power as is safe — 
and the spirit of white poppies — the most convenient anodyne to mingle with 
the other medicines — will generally be successful in allaying the irritation 
already existing, and preventing the development of more. Even this must 
not be given in too large quantities, and the effect must be assisted by a re- 
petition of the enemata every fifth or sixth hour. On examination after 
death the nature of the disease is sufficiently evident : the peritoneum, or 
portions of it, is highly injected with blood, the veins are turgid, the 
muscular membrane corrugated and hardened, while often the mucous 
membrane displays not a trace of disease. In violent cases, however, the 
whole of the intestines exhibit evidence of inflammation. 

I was much gratified a few years ago in witnessing the decided manner 
in which Professor Spooner expressed himself with regard to the treat- 
ment of enteritis in the dog. "I should deem it advisable," said he, 
" to administer a purgative ; but of what would that consist ? Calomel ? 
Certainly not. I was surprised to hear one gentleman assert that he should 
administer it to the extent of from five to ten grains, and another to say 
that he should not hesitate to exhibit a scruple of calomel to a dog, and to 
all carnivorotis animals. I should never think of exhibiting it as a cathartic. 
I should only administer it in small doses, and for the purpose of producing 
its specific effect on the liver, which is the peculiar property of this drug. 
Given in larger doses it would not be retained, and if it got into the intes- 
tines it would act as a powerful drastic purgative." ^ 

In our treatment of the horse we have got rid of a great proportion of 
the destructive urine-balls and drastic purgatives of the farrier. The 
cow is no longer drenched with half-a-dozen deleterious stimulants. A 
most desirable change has been effected in the medical treatment of these 
animals. Let us not, with regard to the dog, continue to pursue the 
destructive course of the keeper or the huntsman. 

The following case of enteritis, with rupture of the colon, may be 
useful: — 

On March 15, 1840, I was requested to attend a large dog of the bull 

breed, three years old, who had not appeared to be well during the last four 
or five days. 

I had scarcely arrived ere I recognised it to be a case of enteritis. He had 
a dreadful shivering fit, to which succeeded heat of the skin and restlessness. 
The muzzle was dry and hot, as also was the tongue. The eyes were sunken 
and redder than usual ; the breathing was accelerated, but not very labori- 
; the extremities were cold, while the surface of the body was hot and 
painful to the touch. The bowels were constipated, and had been so 
during the last week ; some dung however was evacuated, but it was hard 
and dry, and in small quantities. The pulse was quick, but full; and 
there was a slight pain and considerable irritation in the rectum. I took 
from him ix. of blood before the desired effect was produced, and then gave 
him tinct. opii gr.xiv., et spt. ether, nit. gutt. viij., cum ol. ricini siij., and 
an opiate enema to allay the irritation of the rectum. This was about 8 

o'clock A.M. 



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Proceedings of the Veterinary Medical Association, 1839-40 



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ENTERITIS. 



201 



11 A.M. — The bowels have not been moved, and the pain is more 
intense ; his countenance expresses great anxiety ; he frequently lies on his 
stomach, and the pulse is small but quick. I gave him a little broth, and 
ordered the abdomen to be fomented with hot flannels. 

2 P.M. — He has had distressing sickness, and is extremely anxious for 
water. I introduced my finger into the rectum ; but could not discover any 
hardened fceces. Enemata, composed of mag. sulphas and warm water, 
were frequently thrown into the intestines ; as soon as one came away 
another was thrown up. 

4. P.M. — No better : gave him pulv. aloes 3j. ; calomel, gr. vj. et pulv. 
opii gr. viij. The fomentations to be continued, and the abdomen rubbed 
with a lin. terebinthinse. 

5 P.M. — A great change has taken place within the last hour ; the hind 
extremities are paralysed ; the mouth and ears are cold ; the pulse is more 
hurried and irregular, and almost imperceptible ; the respiration is labo- 
rious and irregular, as is the pulse ; and the dog is frequently sick. To 

be kept quiet. . ^ ^ 

6 Pjvi, — Another change ; he lies panting and groaning piteously ; his 

limbs are bathed in sweat, with convulsive struggles. At twenty minutes 

past six he died. 

A post-mortem examination presented general marks of inflammation ; 

the small intestines were extremely red, while the large ones were in a 
gangrenous state and most offensive, with a rupture of the colon. I did not 
expect to meet with the rupture, and am at a loss to account for it. The 
liver was of a pale ashen colour and very light. I put a piece of it into 
some water and it floated on the surface. The other contents of the ab- 
domen did not show the slightest appearance of disease. 

September 2nd, 1843. — A black pug-bitch, 18 months old, Avas yester- 
day taken violently sick ; the vomiting continued at intervals the greater 
part of the day, and she had not eaten during the last 24 hours. I could 
not possibly get at her on account of her ferocity : as she had not had 
the distemper, and, as I was misled by her age and the watery discharge 
from her eyes, and, as she had had several motions yesterday, I imagined 
that the attack might be the beginning of that disease.^ Learning that 
she was fond of sweet things, I prepared an emetic containing a grain of 
calomel and a grain of tartar emetic : she took it readily, and I promised 
to call on the following day. 

Sept. 3. The weakness at the eyes had disappeared, but there had been 
no motion. On getting at her by main force I found her belly very tense 
and rather hot : she had again been sick, was very eager for water, and still 
refused to eat. The disease was now evident. As she appeared too un- 
manageable for anything else, I produced a physic-ball, in giving which 

I was bitten. 

Six hours afterwards I again went : no faeces had passed : I administered 

two enemas, the second of which was returned with a small quantity of 
hardened faeces and an intolerable smell. I ordered the water to be re- 
moved, and broth to be substituted. 

Sept. 4. The dog is in good spirits, has eaten heartily, and had no 
motion, probably because it was habitually cleanly, and had not been taken 
out of doors. Her owner considered her as quite well, and dismissed me. 
Three days afterwards a servant came to say that all was going on very 
well. 



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202 



DISEASES OF THE INTESTINES 



PERITONITIS. 



Chronic inflammation of the peritoneal membrane is a frequent disease 
among dogs. The animal loses his appetite and spirits : he sometimes eats a 
little and sometimes not ; he becomes thin, his belly is tucked up and 
when we closely examine him we find it contracted and hard, and those 
longitudinal columns of which I have already spoken are peculiarly dense 
and almost unyielding. He now and then utters a half-suppressed whine 
and he occasionally seeks to hide himself. In the greater number of cases 
he after a while recovers ; but he too often pines away and dies. On examina- 
tion after death the case is plain enough. There is inflammation of the 
peritoneal membrane, more indicated by undue congestion of the bowels 
than by the general blush of the membrane. The inflammation has now 
spread to the muscular coat, and the whole of the intestine is corrugated 
and thickened. 

There is another peritoneal affection, aggravated by combination with 
a rheumatic tendency, to which the dog is more disposed than any other 
domesticated animal. It has its most frequent origin in cold, or being 
too much fed on stimulating and acrid food, and probably from other 
causes which have not yet been suflaciently developed. 

Here also no drastic purgative is to be admitted ; it would be adding 
tuel to fire : not a grain of calomel should be used if the life of the animal 
IS valued. The castor oil mixture will afford the most certain relief a 
drop or two of the oil of peppermint being added to it. 



COLIC. 



^ The dog IS also subject to fits of colic, principally to be traced to 
improper food, or a sudden change of food, or exposure to cold. This is 
particularly the case with puppies. There is no redness of the eye, no heat 
of the mouth, no quickened respiration ; but the animal labours under fits 
of pain. He is not quiet for a minute. He gets into one corner and 
another, curling himself closely up, but he does not lie there more than a 
minute or two ; another fit of pain comes on ; he utters his peculiar yelp, 
and seeks some new place in which he may possibly find rest. 

It is with considerable diflftdence that I offer an opinion on this subject 
contrary to that of Mr. Blaine. He states that the treatment of this 
secies of colic is seldom successful, and that which has seemed the most 
efficacious has been mercurial purgatives : namely, calomel one grain, aloes 
a scruple, and opium a quarter of a grain, until the bowels are opened. I 
have seldom found much difficulty in relieving the patient suffering under 
this affection ; and I gave no aloes nor calomel, but the oleaginous mixture 
to which I have so often referred. I should not so much object to the 
afoes for they constitute an excellent purgative for the dog ; nor to a 



was 



snould 1 object to two or three grains of calomel intimately mixed with 



the aloes : from the 
be obtained. 



combined effect of the two some good mio-ht 



CALCULUS IN THE INTESTINES. 



Many persons have a very foolish custom of throwing stones, that their 
dogs may dive or run after them, and bring them to their owner's feet : 



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CALCULUS — INTUSSUSCEPTION, 



203 



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the consequence is, that their teeth are soon worn down, and there are 
too many cases on record in which the stone has been swallowed. It has 
been impeded in its progress through the intestinal canal, inflammation 
has ensued, and the animal has been lost, after having suffered the most 

dreadful torture. 

Professor Simonds relates a case in which a dog was thus destroyed. 
The animal for some days previous to his admission into the hospital had 
refused his food, and there was obstinate constipation of the bowels, to 
remove which aperient medicine had been given. The pulse was acce- 
lerated, there was distension of the abdomen with evident tenderness on 
pressure, the extremities were cold, no fseces were voided, and he occa- 
sionally vomited. Some aperient medicine was given, which was retained 
on the stomach, and enemas and external stimulants were resorted to, but 

two days afterwards he died. n \ 

The intestines were examined, and the offending body was found to be a 
common pebble. The dog had long been accustomed to fetch stones out 
of the water. One of these stones had passed through the stomach into 
the intestines, and, after proceeding some distance along them, had been 
impacted there. The inflammation was most intense so far as the stone 
had gone ; but in the part of the intestine to which it had not reached 
there was not any. This was an interesting and instructive case, and 
should make its due impression. 

Another account of the strange contents of the intestines of a bitch may 

be here introduced. 

A valuable pointer-bitch was sent to the infirmary of Mr. Godwin of 
Lichfield. She presented a very emaciated appearance, and had done so 
for four or five months. Her evacuations for a day or two were very 
thin and copious, and afterwards for several days nothing was passed. 
When pressing the abdomen with both hands, a hard substance was dis- 
tinctly felt in the inferior part of the umbilical region. She was destroyed, 
and upon post-mortem examination, a calculus was discovered in the 
ileum about the size and shape of a hen's egg, the nucleus of which was a 
portion of hair. The coats of the intestines were considerably thickened 
and enlarged, so as to form a kind of sac for its retention. Anterior to 
this was another substance, consisting of a ball of hair, covered with a 
layer of earthy matter about the eighth of an inch thick, and next to this 
another ball of hair of less dimensions, intermixed with a gritty substance. 
The stomach contained a large quantity of hair, and a portion of the 
omentum, about the size of a crown piece, was thickly studded with small 
white calculi, the largest about the size of a pea, and exceedingly hard. 



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INTUSSUSCEPTION. 

1{ peritonitis — inflammation — is neglected, or drastic purgatives are too 
often and too plentifully administered, a peculiar contraction of the mus- 
cular membrane of the intestine takes place, and one portion of the bowel 
is received within another — there is intussusception. In most cases, a 
portion of the anterior intestine is received into that which is posterior 
to it. Few of us have opened a dog that had been labouring under this 
peculiar affection without being struck with the collapsed state of the 
canal in various parts, and in some much more than in others. Immedi- 
ately posterior to this collapsed portion, it is widened to a considerable 



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DISEASES OF THE INTESTINES. 



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extent. _ The peristaltic motion of the intestine goes on, and the conse- 



quence is, that the constricted portion is received into that which is 
widened the anterior portion is invaginated in the posterior ; obstruction 
of the intestinal passage is the necessary consequence, and the animal dies 
either from the general disturbance of the system which ensues, or the 
inflammation which is set up m the invaginated part. 

I will say nothing of medical treatment in this case ; for I do not know 
the symptoms of intussusception, or how it is to be distinguished from 
acute inflammation of the bowels. Acute inflammation will not lon^ exist 
without producing it ; and, if its existence should be strongly suspected 
the treatment would be the same as for inflammation. = •' -^ ^ 

The domesticated dog, from the nature of his food,' more than from any 
constitutional tendency, is liable to constipation. This should never be 
neglected. If two or three days should pass without an evacuation, the 
case should be taken in hand ; otherwise inflammation will be very soon 
established. In order to procure an evacuation, the aloetic ball, with one 
or two grains of calomel, should be given. Beyond that, however, I should 
not dare to go ; but, if the constipation continued, I should have recourse to 
the castor-oil mixture. I should previously examine and empty the rectum 
and have frequent recourse to the enema-syringe ; and I should continue 
both. It would be my object to evacuate the intestinal canal with as little 
increased action as possible. 



DIARRHCEA 

r 

is the discharge of f^ces more frequently than usual, and thinner than 
their natural consistence, but otherwise not materially altered in qualitv • 
and the mucous coat of the intestines being somewhat congested if not 
inflamed. It is the consequence of over-feeding, or the use of improper 
food. Sometimes it is of very short continuance, and disappears without 
any bad consequence ; the health being unaffected, and the character of the 
fajces no otherwise altered than by assuming a fluid character. It may not 
be bad practice to wait a day, or possibly two, as it is desirable for the action 
of the intestines to be restored without the aid of art. I should by no means 
give a physic-ball, or a grain of calomel, in simple diarrhoea. I should fear 
the establishment of that species of purging which is next to be described 
The castor-oil mixture usually affords the best hope of success. 

Habitual diarrhoea is not an unfrequent disease in petted doo-s • in some 
It IS constitutional, in others it is the effect of neglected constipation A 
state of chronic inflammation is induced, which has become part of the 
constitution of the dog ; and, if repressed in the intestines, it will appear 
under a more dangerous form in some other place. 



DYSENTERY 



IS a far more serious complaint. In most cases a considerable decree of 
inflammation of the mucous coat exists, and the mucus is separated from 
the membrane beneath, and discharged per anum. The mucus thus sepa- 



— ^ ., ^..^ v*^ov.xi«,xg^v.^ jjci ciuuiii, ixie mucus tJ 

rated from the intestinal membrane assumes an acrid character it not 
only produces inflammation of the membrane, dangerous and difficult to 
treat, but it excoriates the anus and neighbouring parts, and produces pain 

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COSTIVENESS. 



205 



This disease has sometimes been fatally misunderstood. A great deal 
of irritation exists in the intestinal membrane generally, and in the lower 
part of the rectum particularly. The faeces passing over this denuded 
surface causes a considerable degree of pain, and there is much straining, 
and a very small bit or portion of faces is evacuated. This has often been 
seen by the careless observer ; and, as he has taken it as an indication of 
costiveness, some drastic purgative has been administered, and the animal 

quickly killed. 

No one that had ascertained the real nature of the disease would ad- 
minister calomel in any form or combination ; but the anodyne mixture 
as an enema, and also administered by the mouth, is the only medicine from 
which benefit can be expected. 



COSTIVENESS 

is a disease when it becomes habitual. It is connected with disease of the 
intestinal canal. Many dogs have a dry constipated habit, often greatly 
increased by the bones on which they are too frequently fed. 1 his favours 
the disposition to mange and to many diseases depending on morbid secre- 
tions. It produces indigestion, encourages worms, blackens the teeth, and 
causes fetid breath. The food often accumulates in the intestines, and the 
consequence is inflammation of these organs. A dog should never be 
suffered to remain costive more than a couple of days. An aloetic ball or 
some Epsom salts should then be administered ; and this failing to produce 
the desired effect, the castor-oil mixture, with spirits of bucktliorn and 
white poppies, should be administered, and the use of the clyster-pipe re- 
sorted to. It may be necessary to introduce the finger or the handle of a 
spoon when the fajcal matter is more than usually hard, and it is with diffi- 
culty broken down : small doses of castor-oil should be afterwards resorted 
to and recourse be occasionally had to boiled liver, which the dog will 
rarely refuse. The best means, however, of preventing costiveness in dogs, 
as well as in men, is regular exercise. A dog who is kept chained up in 
a kennel should be taken out and have a certain quantity of exercise once 
in the twenty-four hours. When this cannot be done, the food should con- 
sist chiefly of well-boiled farinaceous matter. 



DROPSY. 



Another disease, which is not confined to the abdominal cavity, is 
dropsy : but, as in the dog it most commonly assumes that form which is 
termed ascites, or dropsy of the abdomen, it may be noticed in this place. 
It is seldom an idiopathic or primary affection, but is generally the con- 
sequence of some other disease, most commonly of an inflammatory 

Dropsy is a collection of fluid in some part of the frame, either from 
increased exhalation, or from diminished absorption, the consequence of 
inflammation. The divisions of dropsy are into active and passive, or 
acute and chronic. The causes are also very properly arranged as pre- 



^^^^ ^ ^ The diseases on which dropsy most frequently 

supervenes are fevers' and visceral inflammations and obstructions. The 



disposing and exciting 



oPfluid co'iS in the abdomen is sometimes almost incredible. It is 





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DROPSY, 

usually accompanied or characterised by a weak, unequal, small, and 
frequent pulse— paleness of the lips, tongue, and gums— flaccidity of the 
muscles, hurried breathing on the least exertion, feebleness of the joints, 
swellings of the lower limbs, effusion of fluid into the integuments or among 
the muscles, before there is any considerable effusion into the thorax or the 
abdomen, and an unhealthy appearance of the cutaneous surface. The urine 
seldom coagulates. This form of dropsy is usually seated in the abdomen 
or cellular tissue. 

The treatment of ascites is seldom perfectly successful. The great ex- 
tent of the peritoneum, the number and importance of the viscera with 
which it is connected, and of the absorbent glands which it encloses, the 
number and weakness of the veins which transmit their blood to the portal 
vessels, and the absence of valves, in some measure account for the 
frequent accumulation of fluid in this cavity. It appears in both sexes 
from the usual causes of inflammatory disease. Unwholesome diet, the 
drastic operation of purgatives, external injuries, the suppression of ac- 
customed secretions and discharges, all are exciting causes of dropsy. 

The animal has suffered materially from mange, which has been appa- 
rently cured : the itchiness and eruption altogether disappear, but many 
weeks do not elapse ere ascites begins to be seen, and the abdomen is 
gradually distended with fluid. When this appears in young and healthy 
animals, it may be conquered ; but when there has been previous disease 
of almost any kind, comparatively few patients permanently recover. 
Irritability of the stomach, and a small and accelerated pulse are unfavour- 
able. If the operation of tapping has taken place, at all times there is 
danger ; but, if there is a thick, brown, albuminous or fetid discharo-e it 
is very unlikely that any permanent advantage will result from the 
operation. 

We will introduce a few cases as they occur in our clinical records. 

November 7th^ 1821. — A spaniel, nine years old, had been, during four 

months, alternately asthmatic or mangy, or both. Within the last few 

days she had apparently increased in size. I was sent for. The first touch 

of the abdomen betrayed considerable fluctuation. She likewise had piles, 
sore and swelled. 

night. 8th. One of the balls has been given, and two doses of castor oil ; 
but no effect has been produced. An injection was administered. 9th. A 
small evacuation of water has been produced, and the bowels have been 
slightly opened. Give a dose of the castor-oil mixture. 10th. The ob- 

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struction has been removed ; the enlargement is somewhat diminished ; 
much water has passed. Give an alterative ball every morning. 14th. 



I ordered an alterative ball to be given morning and 



The alteratives have been continued, and there is a slow but evident de- 
crease of the abdomen. 18th. 1 cannot detect any effusion in the abdo- 
men. Give a pill every alternate day for a fortnight. At the expiration 
of this period the dog was apparently well. 

April 23rd, 1822. — A terrier, ten years old, had cough and mange, 
which ceased. The belly for the first time began to enlarge, and on feel- 
ing the dog considerable fluctuation was evident. He would not eat, but 
he drank immoderately. Give daily a ball consisting of tonic and physic 
mist., with powdered digitalis and tartrate of iron. Ma^ 6th.— Ke is in 
better spirits, feeds tolerably well, but is rather increased in size. Give 
daily a ball of tartrate of iron, digitalis, ginger, and a grain of calomel. 
22ad. Much thinner, the bellv verv considprahlvdimini^lipH • u ^licrhi flnr^- 



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DEOPSY. 



207 



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tuation is still to be perceived. Continue medicine, with a half-grain 
only of calomel. July 17 th. — The medicine has been regularly given, 
and the water of the abdomen has rapidly disappeared, until a fortnight 
ago : since that time it has been once more filling. The medicine was 
ordered to be repeated. August 6th. — The medicine has once more pro- 
duced its proper effect, and the fluid has disappeared. On the \6th^ how- 
ever, the fluctuation was again too plainly felt, and the owner determined 
to have nothing more to do with the case. The animal was never brought 
again, nor could I trace it. That dog might have been saved if the owner 

had done it justice. 

As soon as dropsy appears to be established, proper medicines must be 
resorted to. Foxglove, nitre, and ginger should be first tried in the pro- 
portional doses of one, ten, and eight grains, given morning and night. 
If this does not succeed, iodine from half-a-grain to a grain may be given 
morning and night, and a weak solution of iodine rubbed on the belly. 

This being ineffectual, recourse may be had to tapping, taking care 
that the trocar is not plunged sufficiently deep to wound the intestines. 
The place for the operation is directly on the linea alha^ or middle line of 
the belly, and about midway between the pubis and the navel. The whole 
of the intestinal fluid may be suffered to escape. A bandage should then 
be applied round the belly, and retained there a week or more, 

Mr, Blaine very properly states, that the difference between fatness and 
dropsy is, that the belly hangs pendulous in dropsy, while the back bone 
stands up, and the hips are protruded through the skin ; while the hair is 
rough, and the feeling of the coat is peculiarly harsh. It may be dis- 
tinguished from pregnancy by the teats enlarging, in the latter case, as 
gestation advances, and the young ones may occasionally be felt to move. 
In addition to this it may be stated, that the presence of water is readily 
and unerringly detected. If the right hand is laid on one side of the belly, 
and the other side is gently struck with the left hand, an undulating 
motion will be readily perceived. 

In old dogs, dropsy, under the title of " anasarca," is an unfrequent but 
occasional accompaniment of ascites. If pressure is made on any parti- 
cular parts, they yield and continue depressed for a longer or shorter 
period of time, and slowly and by degrees regain their natural form. ^ The 
skin is dry and distended, and with no natural action ; the circulation is 
languid and small, the muscular powers are diminished, the animal is un- 
quiet, the thirst is great, the tongue is pale, the appetite diminished, and 
the limbs 'are swelled. The best mode of treatment is the infliction of 
some very small punctures in the distended skin, and the application of 
gentle friction. The majority of cases of this kind are usually fatal, and 
so is almost every case of encysted dropsy. 

A dog had cough in February, 1825, Various medicines were admi- 
nistered, and at length the cough almost suddenly ceased, and evident 
ascites appeared. The thirst was insatiable, the dog would not touch food, 
and he was unable to lie down more than two minutes at a time. Digitalis, 
cream of tartar, and hydrarg. submur. were given on the 9th April. 
On the 13th he was much worse, and apparently dying. He had been un- 
able to rise for the last twelve hours, and lay panting. I punctured 
the abdomen, and four quarts of fluid were evacuated. 14^A. The pant- 
ing continues. The dog will not eat, but he can lie down in any pos- 
ture, l^tlu The panting is diminished, the appetite is returning, and 



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208 



DROPSY. 



water continues to ooze from the wound. 17 tk. The wound healed on 
the night of the 15th, and already the fluid begins to collect. The medi- 
cine still continued. 20th. The spirits good, and strength improvino'; but 
the belly is evidently filling, and matter is discharged from both the' nose 
and eyes. 26th. The swelling a little diminished, respiration easy, and 
the dog walking comfortably about, and feeding well. May 1 3^^.— The 
swelling, which for some days past diminished, is now again increasino- • 
but the dog is strong and breathes easily. Medicine as before. 24tL The 
dog is thinner, weaker, filling fast, and the thirst excessive. R Crem. 
tart., ferritart. 31]., pulv. flor. anthemid. siiij., conser. ros. q. s. : divide in 
bol. xii. : cap. in dies. 27th. During two days he has been unable to lie down 
more than a minute at a time. Again tapped : fully as much fluid was 
evacuated as before ; but there is now blood mingling with it. 30th. Much 
relieved by the tapping, and breathes with perfect ease ; but, now that the 
enormous belly is reduced, the dog is very thin. Bol. continued. June 8th. 
Within the last three days the animal has filled again with extraordinary 
rapidity. R Ferr. tart. Bj., opii. gr. i, pulv. gentianse Bj., cons. ros. q. s.: 
f. bol. capiend. in dies. ISth. Is again strangely distended; I advised, or 
rather solicited, that it might be destroyed ; but this not being granted, I 

At least a gallon of dark-coloured fluid was 
22nd. Again rapidly filling, but not losing either flesh or 



once more tapped him. 

evacuated, 
strength. July 4th. 



The 



Once more punctured, and a gallon of dark-coloured 
fluid evacuated. 12th. Again filling and rapidly losing flesh and strength. 
26th. Once more tapped: immediately after which he appeared to be re- 
vived, but almost immediately began again to fill. Aug. 2nd. He had 

eaten tolerably ; appeared to have nothing more than usual the matter with 

him, when, being missed for an hour, he was found dead. No examination 
was permitted. 

In 1824 a spaniel, six years old, was brought to the infirmary. It 
had had an asthmatic cough, which had left it. It was now hollow in 
the flanks, the belly pendulous, and an evident fluctuation of water, 
owner would not consent to any operation. An aloetic physic-ball, how- 
ever, was given every fifth day, and a ball, composed of tartrate of iron, 
digitalis, nitre, and antimonial powder, on every intermediate morning 
and night. The water evidently accumulated ; the dog was sent for, and 
died in the course of a week. 

There are a few medicines that may be useful in arresting the effusion 
of the fluid ; but they too often fail in producing any considerable benefit. 
The fox-glove is, perhaps, possessed of the greatest power, combined with 
nitre, squills, and bitartrate of potash. At other times chamomile, squills, 
and spirit of nitrous ether may be tried. 

The following case, treated by the administration of iodine, by Professor 
Dick, is important : — 

A black and tan coloured retriever was sent to me labouring under 
ascites. He was tapped, and two quarts of fluid abstracted. Tonics com- 
bined with diuretics were given, but the fluid continued to accumulate 
and in three weeks he was again tapped, and another two quarts drawn 
away. The disease still went on, and a fortnight afterwards a similar 
quantity was withdrawn. Various remedies were tried in order to check 
the power of the disease, but without effect, and the abdomen again be- 
came as much distended with the effused serum as before. 

He was then put under a course of iodine, which soon began to show its 




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THE LIVER. 



209 



beneficial influence by speedily allaying his excessive thirst ; and in about 
a month the wliole of the efFused fluid was absorbed, although from the size 
of the abdomen it must have amounted to a similar quantity to that drawn 
off on the previous occasions. The dog's appetite soon returned ; he gained 
flesh rapidly, and has continued quite well, and, from being a perfect 



skeleton, soon became overloaded with fat. 

Induced by the great benefit derived in this case from the iodine, I took 
the opportunity of trying it on a Newfoundland dog similarly aiFected. 
He was put on a course of iodine, and the quantity of the drug was 
gradually increased. As absorption rapidly commenced, the fluid was 
completely taken up ; but, partly in consequence of pushing the medicine 
too far, and partly from extensive disease in the liver, unfavourable sj^mp- 
toms took place, and he sunk rather imexpectedly. Still, however, from 
the obvious and decided advantage derived from the medicine, I have no 
doubt that iodine will be found one of the most efficient remedies in 
dropsy in dogs. . 

Iodine is a truly valuable drug. When first introduced into veterinary 
practice it was observed that it readily accomplished the reduction of the 
enlarged glands that frequently remain after catarrh ; but it was presently 
evident that it reduced almost every kind of tumour, even the growth of 
tubercles in the lungs. Professor Morton, in his Manual of Pharmacy, 
has admirably described the different combinations of iodine. 





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THE LIVEK 




of the dog seems to follow a law of comparative anatomy, that its bulk 
shall be in an inverse proportion to that of the lungs. The latter are 
necessarily capacious ; for they need a large supply of arterial blood, in 
order to answer to their rapid expenditure when the utmost exertion of 
strength and speed is required. The liver is, therefore, restricted in its 
size and growth. Nevertheless, it has an important duty to fulfil, namely, 
to receive the blood that is returned from the intestines, to separate from 
the blood, or to secrete, by means of it, the bile ; and then to transmit the 
remaining portion of it to the lungs, where it undergoes the usual process 
of purification, and is changed to arterial blood. In the performance of 
this office, the liver often undergoes a state of inflammation, and disease 
ensues, inveterate, and setting at defiance every means of cure. Both the 
skin and the urine become tinged with a yellow effusion. The animal is 
dull, and gradually wastes away. 

In a few days the yellow hue becomes more intense, and particularly on 
the cuticle, the conjunctiva, the iris, the gums, and the lips. A state of 
fever becomes more and more perceptible, and there are alternations of 
cold and heat. The pulse varies from 80 to 120 ; the dry tongue hangs 
from the mouth ; the appetite ceases, but the animal is peculiarly desirous 
of cold water. The dog becomes restless ; he seeks to hide himself; and 
he groans, if the parts in the neighbourhood of the liver are pressed upon. 

Frequent vomitings now appear, slimy, and evidently containing gall. 
The animal becomes visibly thinner, obstinately refuses all solid food, 
and only manifests thirst. He begins to stagger as he walks ; he with- 
draws himself from observation ; he anxiously seeks some dark place where 
he may lay himself with his chest and belly resting on the cold ground, 
his fore legs stretched out before him, and his hind legs almost as far 





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DISEASES OF THE LIVER. 



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It terminates in congestion 



behind him. The fever increases, the skin becomes of a dark yellow 
colour, the mucous membrance of the mouth and conjunctiva is of a dirty- 
red, the expired air is evidently hot, the gaze is anxious, the urine is of a 
saffron yellow, or even darker: in short, there now appears every symptom 
of inflammation of the liver, with jaundice. 

As the disease proceeds the animal begins to vomit masses of a yellowish 
green substance, occasionally mixed with blood. He wastes away to a 
skeleton, he totters in his walk, he is half unconscious, the pulse becomes 
weak and interrupted, the temperature sinks, and death ensues. 

The duration and course of the disease is deceptive. It occasionally 
proceeds so insidiously that several days are suffered to pass before the 
owner perceives any marks of disease, or seeks any aid. The duration of 
the disease is usually from ten to twelve days. 

of blood in the liver, or a gradual restoration to health. The latter can 
only take place in cases where the inflammation has proceeded very slowly ; 
where the commencement and progress of the disease could be discovered 
by debility and slight yellowness of the skin, and especially where speedy 
recourse has been had to medical aid. 

The predisposing causes of this disease are often difficult to discover. 

The dog, in warm climates, seems to have a natural disposition to it. As 
exciting causes, atmospheric influence may be reckoned, sultry days, cold 
nights, and damp weather. Other occasional causes may be found in 
violent falls, bruises, and over-feeding. Fat petted dogs that are easily 
overheated by exertion are often attacked by this disease. The result of 
the disease depends on its duration, course, and complication. If it is 
attended to early, it can generally be cured. If it has existed for several 
days, and the fever has taken on a typhoid character — if the yellow hue is 
perceptible — the appetite failing, and vomiting ensuing, the cure is doubt- 
ful; and, if inflammation of the stomach has taken place, with high fever, 
vomiting of blood, wasting away, and fits occurring, the^e is no chance 
of cure. 

When simple jaundice alone is visible, a moderate laxative of sulphate 
of magnesia and tartaric acid, in conjunction with some aromatic and 
mucilaginous fluid, or, quite in the beginning of the disease, an emetic, 
will be found of considerable service ; but, when the yellow colour has 
become more intense, and the animal will no longer eat, and the fever and 
weakness are increased, it is necessary to give calomel, tartar-emetic, cam- 
phor, and opium, in the form of pills, and to rub some strong liniment on 
the region of the liver : the doses of calomel, however, must be very small. 
If inflammation of the stomach appears, mucilaginous fluids only must be 
given. Bleeding may be of service in the commencement of the disease, 

but after it is hurtful. 

This is an account of hepatitis as it occasionally appears, and particu- 
larly on the Continent ; but it does not often assume so virulent a character 
in our country. There is often restlessness, thirst, and sickness, accom- 
panied by much prostration of strength; or general heat and tenderness. 
Occasionally there is purging ; but much oftener constipation, that bids 
defiance to almost every medicine. The principal or almost only hope of 
cure consists in bleeding, physicking, and blistering on the right side. 

Of bilious disease, assuming the character of inflammation, we have too 
many cases. It may be spontaneous or brought on by the agency of other 
affections. Long-continued and inveterate mange will produce it. It is 






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JAUNDICE. 



211 



often connected with, or produced by, distemper, or a dull inflammatory 
disease of the liver, and it is generally accompanied by pustular eruption 



on the belly. 



The skin is usually tinged of a yellow hue, and the urine 

The suffusion which takes 



is almost invariably impregnated with bile, 
place is recognised among sportsmen by the term " yellows.'' The re- 
medy should be some mercurial, with gentian and aloes given twice in the 
day, and mercurial ointment well rubbed in once in the day. If this 
treatment is steadily pursued, and a slight soreness induced in the mouth, 
the treatment will usually be successful. Mr. Blaine observes, ^^ A mo- 
derate soreness of the mouth is to be encouraged and kept up. I have 
never succeeded in removing: the complaint without it.'* 



JAUNDICE. 



M.W 



and treatment of jaundice in the dog. 

The prevailing symptom of this disease in the dog is a yellow dis- 
coloration of the skin and the mucous membranes of greater or less 
intensity. It generally announces the existence of very serious disease, 
as inflammation of the liver and its excretory ducts, or of the gall-bladder, 
or the stomach, or small intestines, or contraction or obliteration of the 
excretory ducts of the liver, in consequence of inflammation of these 
vessels, or the presence of concrete substances formed from the bile. The 
dogs in which he found the most decided traces of this disease laboured 
tinder diarrhoea, with stools of a reddish brown or black colour for one, 

two, or three days. 

The causes of jaundice are chiefly over fatigue (thus, greyhounds are 
more subject to it than pointers), immersions in water, fighting, emetics 
or purgatives administered in over-doses, the repeated use of poisonous 
substances not sufficiently strong at once to destroy the animal, the swal- 
lowing of great quantities of indigestible food, and contusions of the 
abdominal viscera, especially about the region of the liver. The most 
serious, if not the most common cause, is cold after violent and long- 
continued exercise ; and especially when the owners of dogs, seeing them 
refuse their food after a long chace, give them powerful purgatives or 

emetics. 

The treatment should have strict relation to the real or supposed cause 
of jaundice, and its most evident concomitant circumstances. Some of 
these symptoms are constant and others variable. Among the first, what- 
ever be the cause of the disease, we reckon acceleration of the pulse ; fever, 
with paroxysms of occasional intensity ; and a yellow or reddish-yellow 
discoloration of the urine. Among the second are constipation, diarrhoea, 
the absence or increase of colour in the fa^xal matter, whether solid or 
fluid. When they are solid, they are usually void of much colour ; when, 
on the contrary, there is diarrhoea, the fseces are generally mingled with 
blood more or less changed. Sometimes the dejections are nearly black, 
mixed with mucus. It is not unusual for a chest affection to be compli- 
cated with the lesions of the digestive organs, which are the cause of 

jaundice. 

With these leading symptoms there are often others connected that are 
common to many diseases ; such as dryness and heat of the mouth, a fetid 
smell, a staggering gait, roughness of the hair, and particularly of that of 

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JAUNDICE. 



the back; an insatiable thirst, accompanied by the refusal of all food ; loss 
of flesh, which occasionally proceeds with astonishing rapidity ; a tucked-up 
flank, with hardness and tenderness of the anterior part of the belly. 

The jaundice which is not accompanied with fever, nor indeed with any 
morbid change but the colour of the skin, will require very little treat- 
ment. It will usually disappear in a reasonable time, and M. Leblanc has 
not found that any kind of treatment would hasten that disappearance. 

When any new symptom becomes superadded to jaundice, it must be 
immediately combated. Fever, injection of the vessels of the conjunctiva, 
constipation, diarrhoea, or the discoloration of the urine, require one 
bleeding at least, with some mucilaginous drinks. Purgatives are always 
injurious at the commencement of the disease. " I consider," says M. 
Leblanc, '' this fact to be of the utmost importance. Almost the whole of 
the dogs that have been brought to me seriously ill with jaundice, have 
been purged once or more ; and either kitchen salt, or tobacco, or jalap, 
or syrup of buckthorn, or emetic tartar, or some unknown purgative pow- 
ders, have been administered. 

" Bleeding should be resorted to, and repeated if the fever continues, or 



the animal coughs, or the respiration be accelerated. 

subdued, and the number of pulsations are below the natural standard 

the excrements are still void of their natural colour 



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if the constipation 

continues, or the animal refuses to feed — an ounce of manna dissolved in 
warm water should be given, and the dog often drenched with linseed tea. 
If watery diarrhoea should supervene, and the belly is not hot nor tender, a 
drachm or more, according to the size of the dog, of the sulphate of mag- 
nesia or soda should be administered, and this medicine should be repeated 
if the purging continues; more especially should this aperient be had 
recourse to when the faeces are more or less bloody, there being no fever nor 
peculiar tenderness of the belly. 

" When the liquid excrement contains much blood, and that blood is of a 
deep colour, all medicines given by the mouth should be suspended, and 
frequent injections should be thrown up, consisting of thin starch, with a 
few drops of laudanum. Too much cold water should not be allowed in 
this stage of the disease. Injections, and drinks composed of starch and 
opium, are the means most likely to succeed in the black diarrhoea, which 
is so frequent and so fatal, and which almost always precedes the fatal 
termination of all the diseases connected with jaundice. 

" In simple cases of jaundice the neutral salts have seldom produced much 
good effect ; but I have obtained considerable success from the diascordium, 
in doses of half a drachm to a drachm. 

" Great care should be taken with regard to the diet of the dog that has 
had jaundice, with bloody or black diarrhoea ; for the cases of relapse are 
frequent and serious, and almost always caused by improper or too abun- 
dant food. A panada of bread, with a little butter, will constitute the best 
nourishment when the dog begins to recover his appetite. From this he 
maybe gradually permitted to return to his former food. Most especially 
should the animal not be suffered to take cold, or to be left in a low or 
damp situation. This attention to the food of the convalescent dog maybe 
thought to be pushed a little too far ; but experience has taught me to 
consider it of the utmost importance, and it is neither expensive nor 
troublesome." 



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INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY. 



213 



THE SPLEEN AND PANCREAS. 

The spleen is generally regarded as an appendage to the absorbent 
system. Tiedemann and Gmelin consider that its specific function is to 
secrete from the blood a fluid which possesses the property of coagulation, 
and which is carried to the thoracic duct, and then, being united with the 
chyle, converts it into blood, and causes an actual communication between 
the arterial and absorbent systems. According, however, to Dr. Bostock, 
there is a fatal objection to this, namely, that animals have been known to 
live an indefinite length of time after the removal of the spleen, without 
any obvious injury to their functions, which could not have been the case 
if the spleen had been essentially necessary for so important a process. 

A knowledge of the diseases of the spleen in the dog appears to be less 
advanced than in any other animal. In the cases that I have seen, the 
earliest indications were frequent vomiting, and the discharge of a yellow, 
frothy mucus. The animal appeared uneasy, shivering, the ears cold, the 
eyes unnaturally protuberant, the nostrils dilated, the flanks agitated, the 
respiration accelerated, and the mucous membranes pale. The best treat- 
ment I know is the administration, twice in the day, of a ball composed of 
a grain of calomel and the same quantity of aloes, and five grains of ginger. 
The dog frequently cries out, both when he is nioved and when he lies on 
his bed. In the course of three days the yellow mucus is generally dis- 
appearing, and the expression of pain is materially diminished. 

If the bowels are much constipated after two days have passed, two 
scruples of aloes may be given, and a grain of calomel ; frequent injections 

may also be administered. 

We are almost totally ignorant of the the functions of the pancreas. 
probably is concerned in assimilating the food, and converting the chy 
of the stomach into chyle. 



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INFLAMMATION OF THE KIDNEY 

is a serious and dangerous malady. This organ is essentially vascular in 
its texture ; and although it is small in volume, yet, on account of the 
quantity of blood which it contains, and the rapidity with which its secre- 
tions are performed, it is disposed to frequent and dangerous inflammation. 
The immediate causes of inflammatory action in this viscus are blows and 
contusions in the lumbar region; hard work long continued, and the im- 
prudent use of stimulating substances employed as aphrodisiacs; the pre- 
sence of calculi in the kidney, and the arrest of the urine in the bladder. 
The whole of the kidney may be affected with ansemia or defect of blood, 
or this may be confined to the cortical substance, or even to the tubular. 
The kidneys are occasionally much larger than usual, without any other 
change of structure ; or simple hypertrophy may affect but one of them. 
They are subject to atrophy, which may be either general or partial ; or 
one of the kidneys may be completely wanting, and this evidently the con- 
sequence of violence or disease. 

Hydatids, although seldom met with in the human kidney, are not un- 
frequently found in that of the dog. All these are circumstances that have 
not received suflScient attention. 



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CALCULUS. 



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CALCULOUS CONCRETIONS 

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are of far more frequent occurrence than is generally imagined, but they 
are not confined to the kidneys ; there is scarcely a portion of the frame in 
which they have not been found, particularly in the brain, the glandular 

substance, and the coats of the intestines. 

I cannot say with Mr. Blaine that I have seen not less than 40 or 50 
calculi in my museum ; but I have seen too many fearful examples of the 
complaint. There has been usually great difficulty in the urinary evacua- 
tion, and at length one of the calculi enters the urethra, and so blocks up 
the flow of the urine that mortification ensues. 

^ M. Lautour relates a case of renal calculus in a dog. He had occa- 
sionally voided his urine with some difficulty, and had Avalked slowly and 
with evident pain. August 20, 1827, a sudden exacerbation came on, 
and the dog was dreadfully agitated. He barked and rolled himself on 
the ground almost every minute ; he made frequent attempts to void his 
urine, which came from him drop by drop. When compelled to walk, his 
hind and fore legs seemed to mingle together, and his loins were bent into 
a perfect curve ; his flanks were drawn in ; he could scarcely be induced 
to eat ; and he evidently suffered much in voiding his fseces. Mild and 
demulcent liquids were his only food. Warm baths and injections were 
applied almost unceasingly, and in eight days he seemed to have perfectly 
gained his health. 

In March, in the following year, the symptoms returned with greater 
intensity. His hind limbs were dragged after him ; he rapidly los^t flesh 
and his bowlings were fearful and continuous. The same mode of treat- 
ment was adopted without any good effect, and, his cries continuing, he was 
destroyed. 

The stomach and intestines were healthy. The bladder was enlarged 
from the thickness and induration of its parietes ; the mucous membrane 
of it was covered with ecchymoses ; the kidneys were three or four times 
their natural size ; and the pelvis contained a calculus weighing 126 grains, 
composed of 58 grains of uric acid and 58 of ammonia, with 10 grains of 
phosphate of lime. 

Of the nature and causes of urinary calculi in the bladder we know very 
little. We only know that some solid body finds its way, or is formed, 
there, gradually increases in size, and at length partially or entirely oc- 
cupies the bladder. Boerhaave has given a singular and undeniable proof 
of this. He introduced a small round pebble into the bladder of a dog. 
The wound perfectly healed. A few months afterwards the animal Avas 
killed, and there was found a calculus of considerable size, of which the 
pebble was the nucleus. 

Occasionally the pressure of the bladder on the calculus which it contains 
is exceedingly great, so much so, indeed, as to crush the calculus. A small 
calculus may sometimes be forcibly extracted, or cut down upon and re- 
moved ; but when the calculus is large, a catheter or bougie must be passed 
up the penis as far as the curve in the urethra, and then somewhat firmly 
held with the left hand, and pressing against the urethra. A scalpel should 
be taken, and an incision made into the urethra. The catheter being now 
withdrawn, and the finger or a pair of forceps introduced into the bladder, 
the calculus may be grasped and extracted. 



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INFLAMMATION OE THE BLADDER. 



215 



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says 



There are some instances in which as many as 20 or 30 small calculi 
have been taken from the bladder of a dog. Twice I have seen calculi 
absolutely crushed in the bladder of a dog ; and Mr. Blaine says that he 
found no fewer than 40 or 50 in the bladder of a ^ Newfoundland dog. 
One of them had passed out into the urethra, and had so blocked up the 
passage that the flow of urine was prevented, and the animal died of mor- 
tification. 

With much pleasure I refer to the details of Mr. Blaine with 

to the management of vesical calculi. " When a small calculus, 
he, " obstructs the urethra, and can be felt, it may be attempted to be 
forced forward through the urethra to the point of the penis, whence 
it may be extracted by a pair of forceps. If it cannot be so moved it 
may be cut down upon and removed with safety ; but when one or more 
stones are within the bladder, we must attempt lithotomy, after having 
fully satisfied ourselves of their existence there by the introduction of 
the sound- to do which it must be remembered that the urethra ot 
the doff in passing the bladder proceeds nearly in a direct line back- 
wards, and then, making an acute angle, it passes again forwards to the 
bladder. It must be therefore evident, that when it becomes necessary 
to introduce a catheter, sound, or bougie, it must first be passed up the 
penis to the extremity of this angle ] the point of the instrument must 
then be cut down upon, and from this opening the instrument may be 
readily passed forward into the bladder. The examination made, and a 
stone detected, it may, if a very small one, be attempted to be pushed 
forward by means of a finger passed up the anus into the urethra ; but, as 
this could be practicable only where the dog happened to be a large one, 
it is most probable that nothing short of the operation of lithotomy would 
succeed. To this end, the sound being introduced, pass a very small 
gorget, or otherwise a bistoury, along its groove into the bladder, to effect 
an opening suflficient to admit of the introduction of a fine pair of forceps, 
by which the stone may be laid up and extvaiCted:'— Blaine's Canine 

Pathology, p. 180. 



INFLAMMATION OF THE BLADDER 

is of frequent occurrence in the dog ; it is also occasionally observed in 
the horse and the ox. It sometimes appears as an epizootic. It is gene- 
rally announced by anxiety, agitation, trembling of the hinder limbs, 
frequent attempts to urine, vain eflforts to accomplish it, the evacuation 
small in quantity, sometimes clear and aqueous, and at other times mucous, 
laden with sediment, thick and bloody, escaping by jets, painfully and with 
great difficulty, and then suddenly rushing out in great quantity. To this 
list of symptoms colic may often be added. The animal drinks with avidity, 
but seldom eats much, unless at the commencement of the complaint. 
The skin is hard and dry, he looks at his flanks, and his back and flanks 
are tender when pressed upon. 

During the latter portion of my connexion witl 
assumed an epidemic character. There was a very great drought through 
almost every part of the country. The disease was characterised by general 
uneasiness ; continual shifting of the posture ; a tucked-up appearance ; an 
anxious countenance ; a quick and noisy pulse ; continued pantmg ; the 
urine voided in small quantities, sometimes discharged drop by drop, or 



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216 



DISEASES OF 



complete stoppage of it. The belly hot, swelled, and tender to the touch ; 
the dog- becoming strangely irritable, and ready to bite even his master. 

1st May, 1824.— Two dogs had been making ineffectual attempts to 
void their urme for nearly two days. The first was a terrier, and the 
other a Newfoundland. The terrier was bled, placed in a warm bath and 
an aloetic ball, with calomel, administered. He was bled a second time in 
the evening, and a few drops of water were discharged. On the followino- 
day, the urine slowly passed involuntarily from him ; but when he attempted 
to void any, his efforts were totally ineffectual. Balls composed of camphor, 
pulv. uva ursi, tinct. ferri mur., mass purg., and pulv. lini. et gum. arab ' 
were administered morning, noon, and night. On the 5th the urine still 
passed involuntarily. Cold lotions were employed, and tonic and astrin- 
gent medicines administered, with castor oil. He gradually got well, and 
no trace of the disease remained until June the 6th, when he again became 
thin and weak, and discharged much bloody urine, but apparently without 
pain. The uva ursi, oak bark, and powdered gum-arabic were employed. 
On the 12th he had become much better, and so continued until the 1st of 
July, when he again exhibited the same complaint more violently than 
before. He was exceedingly tender on the loins, and screamed when he 

was touched. He was bled, retnmfid tn liia nvn nr«i nnrl r>nwrlovori 



srum 



and recovered. I saw him two years afterwards apparently well. 

The Newfoundland dog exhibited a similar complaint, with nearly the 
same accompaniments. May 1 .—He was disinclined to move ; his belly 
was hard and hot, and he was supposed to be costive. Gave an aloetic 



ball with iron. 2nd. He has endeavoured. 



in vain, several times to 



void his urine. He walks stiffly with his back bound. Subtract eight 
ounces of blood ; give another physic-ball, and apply cold affusion to the 
loins, ^rd. He frequently attempts to stale, and passes a little urine at 
each time ; he still walks and stands with his back bound. Syr. papav. et 
rhamni, with tinct. ferr. mur., a large spoonful being given morning and 
night. 4:th. He again tries, ineffectually, to void his urine. Mist, et pulv. 
5th. Unable to void a drop of urine ; nose hot ; tongue hangs down ; pants 
considerably; will not eat; the countenance has an anxious character. 
Bleed to twelve ounces ; apply cold affusion. Medicine as before, with 
cold affusion. 6th. Appears to be in very great pain ; not a drop of water 
has passed from him. Medicine and other treatment as before. In the 
evening he lay down quietly. On the next morning he was found dead. 
All the viscera were sound except the bladder, which was ruptured ; the 
abdomen contained two quarts of bloody fluid. The mucous membrane of 
the bladder appeared to be in the highest state of inflammation. It was 
almost black with extravasated blood. On the neck of the bladder was an 



enlargement of the size of a goose's egg, and almost filling the cavity of the 
pelvis. On cutting into it more than two ounces of pus escaped. 

On June 29, 1833, a poodle was brought to me. He had not been ob- 
served to pass any urine for two days. He made frequent attempts to void 
it, and cried dreadfully. The bladder could be felt distended in the abdo- 
men. I put him into a warm bath, and took from him a pound of blood. 
He seemed to be a little relieved. I did not leave him until after mid- 
night, but was soon roused by his loud screams, and the dog was also 
retching violently. The cries and retching gradually abated, and he died. 
The bladder had burst, and the parietes were in a fearful state of in- 
flammation. 



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THE BLADDER. 



217 



A dog had laboured under incontinence of urine more than two months. 
The water was continually dropping from him. The servant told me that, 
three months before, he had been shut into a room two days, and, being 
a cleanly animal, would not stale until he was liberated. Soon after that 
the incontinence of urine was observed. I gave the usual tonic balls, with 
a small portion of opium, night and morning, and ordered cold water to be 
frequently dashed on the perinseum. A month afterwards he was quite 
well. 

Comparatively speaking, profuse staling is not a common disease, except 
when it is the consequence of bad food, or strong diuretics, or actual in- 
flammation. The cause and the result of the treatment are often obscure. 
Bleeding, purging, and counter irritation, would be indicated to a certain 
extent, but the lowering system must not be carried too far. The medicine 
would probably be catechu, uva ursi, and opium. 

At times blood mingles with the urine, with or without coagulation. 
The cause and the source of it may or may not be determined. Generally 
speaking it is the result of some strain or blow. 

A terrier bitch, in January, 1 820, had incontinence of urine. No swelling 
or injury could be detected. I used with her the simple tonic balls. lOtli 
Januart/.—She is now considerably better, and only a few drops are ob- 
served. 2nd February. — The disease which had seemingly been conquered 
began again to re-appear ; the medicine had been neglected. Again have 
recourse to it. 4^A March, — The disease now appears to be quite checked 
by the cold lotion and the balls. 




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A CASE OF RUPTUKE OF THE BLADDER. 

This is a singular account, and stands almost alone. 

The patient was a valuable spaniel belonging to that breed known as 
^' The Duke of Norfolk's," and now possessed in its full perfection by the 
Earl of Albemarle. Professor Simonds shall give his own account : — I 
was informed that almost from a puppy to the time when he was two years 
old, the dog had always been delicate in his appearance, and was observed 
to void his urine with difficulty ; but there were not sufficient indications 
of disease for the owner to suppose that medical attendance was necessary 
until with a few days of his death, and then, finding that the act of staling 
was effected with increased difficulty, and accompanied with extreme pain ; 
that the dog refused his food, was feverish ; that at length there were fre- 
quent or ineffective efforts to expel the urine, the dog crying out from 
extremity of pain, and it was sufficiently evident that great mischief was 
going on, he was placed under my care ; and even then he was walked 
a mile and a half to my infirmary. 

My attention was immediately directed to him ; the man who brought 
him informing me that he seemed much easier since he left home. On 
examination, I at once pronounced that he could not recover ; in fact, that 
he was rapidly sinking ; but, from his then state, I could give no opinion 
with regard to the precise nature or extent of his disease. He was placed 
upon a bed in an appropriate apartment, with directions not to be dis- 
turbed, and in a few hours he died. 

The post-mortem appearances were the abdomen containing from four 
to five pints of fluid, having much the character of, but more bloody than, 
that found in cases of ascites. The peritoneum seemed to be dyed from 




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218 



WORMS. 



its immersion in this fluid, as it showed a general red hue, not apparently 
deeper in some parts than in others. There was an absence, to a great 
extent, of that beautiful appearance and well-marked course of the minute 
blood-vessels which accompany many cases of original peritonitis. Ex- 
tending the examination, I found the bladder to be ruptured, and that the 
fluid of which I have spoken was to a large extent composed of urine 
mingled with some other secretion from the peritoneal investure of the 
abdomen and its viscera, probably produced from the presence of an 
irritant, the urine being brought into direct contact with the membrane. 
Farther research showed that this rupture of the bladder was caused in 
the manner which I have stated. The post-mortem examination displayed 
a chronic enlargement of the prostate gland of a considerable size, causing 
by its pressure a mechanical obstruction to the passage of the urine. Death 
in this instance was not immediately brought about by the abnormal state 
of the original organ affected ; but the prostate gland, having early in the 
life of the animal become diseased, and, being gradually increased in size, 
became a cause of still more serious disease, attacking more important 
organs. 

WOKMS. 

There are various kinds of worms to which the dog is subject : they 
have occasionally been confounded with each other ; but they are essentially 
different in the situations which they occupy, and the effects which they 
produce. '' 

The ascarides are small thread-like worms, generally not more than 
six or ten lines in length, of a white colour, the head obtuse, and the tail 
terminating in a transparent prolongation. They are principally found in 
the rectum. They seem to possess considerable agility ; and the itching 
which they set up is sometimes absolutely intolerable. To relieve this, 
the dog often drags the fundament along the ground. 

All the domesticated animals are subject to the annoyance which these 
worms occasion. They roll themselves into balls as large as a nut, and 
become entangled so much with each other that it is difficult to separate 
them. Sometimes they appear in the stomach, and in such large masses 
that it is almost impossible to remove them by the act of vomiting. It has 
been said that packets of ascarides have been collected in the stomach 
containing more than one hundred worms. These collections are rarely 
or never got entirely rid of. Enormous doses of medicine may be given. 



and the worms may not be seen again for several weeks ; but, at length, 
they reappear as numerous as ever. 

Young dogs are exceedingly subject to them, and are with great diffi- 
culty perfectly freed from their attacks. 

Another species of worm is the teres. It would resemble the earth- 
worm in its appearance, were it not white instead of a red colour. They 



very 



often attended by fits. Occasionally they crawl into the stomach, and there 
produce a great deal of irritation. 

Another, and the most injurious of the intestinal worms, is the t(Ema 
or tape-worm. It is many inches in length, almost flat in the greater part 
of its extent, and its two extremities are nearly or quite equal. Tape- 
worms associate in groups like the others, but they are not so numerous ; 
they chiefly frequent the small intestines. They are sometimes apt to 






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WORMS. 



219 



coil themselves, and form a mechanical obstruction which is fatal to the 

dog. ^ 

The presence of all these worms is readily detected. There is generally 
a dry, short cough, a staring coat, a hot and fetid breath, a voracious appe- 
tite, and a peculiar state of the bowels ; alternately constipated to a great 
degree, or peculiarly loose and griping. In young dogs the emaciated 
appearance, stinted growth, fetid breath, and frequent fits, are indications 

not to be mistaken. 

At other times, however, the dog is filled with worms with scarcely any 
indication of their presence. Mr. Blaine very properly remarks that it 
does not follow, because no worms are seen to pass away, that there are 
none : neither when they are not seen does it follow even that none pass ; 
for, if they remain long in the intestines after they are dead, they become 
digested like other animal matter. 

The means of expelling or destroying worms in the intestines of the dog 
are twofold : the first and apparently the most natural mode of proceed- 
ing, is the administration of purgatives, and usually of drastic ones ; but 
there is much danger connected with this ; not merely the fseces wiH be 
expelled, but a greater or less portion of the mucus that lines the intestinal 
canal. The consequence of this will be griping and inflammation to a 
very dangerous extent. Frequent doses of Epsom salts have been given ; 
but not always with success, and frequently with griping. Mercurial 
medicines have been tried; but they have not always succeeded, and have 
often produced salivation. One method of expelling the worm has been 
adopted which has rarely failed, without the slightest mischief — the 
administration of glass finely powdered. Not a particle of it pene- 
trates through the mucus that lines the bowels, while it destroys every 
intestinal worm. The powdered glass is made into a ball with lard and 

ginger. 

The following account of the symptoms caused by tsenia may be mterest- 

ing. A dog used to be cheerful, and particularly fond of his master ; but 
gradually his countenance became haggard, his eyes were red, his throat 
was continually filled with a frothy spume, and he stalked about with an 
expression of constant inquietude and suffering. These circumstances 
naturally excited considerable fear with regard to the nature of his disease, 
and he was shut up in a court, with the intention of his being destroyed. 
Thus shut up, he furiously threw himself upon every surrounding object, 
and tore them with his teeth whenever he could seize them. He retired 
into one of the corners of the court, and there he was continually rubbing 
his nose, as it were to extract some foreign body ; sometimes he bit and 
tore up the earth, barking and howling violently ; his hair stood on end, 

and his flanks were hoUow- 

During the whole of his disease he continued to recognise his master. 
He ran to him at the slightest word. He refused nothing to drink ; but 
he would not eat. He was killed on account of the fear excited among the 

neighbours. 

The veterinary surgeon who attended him suspected that there was some 
affection of the head, on account of the strange manner in which he had 
rubbed and beaten it. The superior part of the nose was opened, and two 
tsenise lanceolatse were found : it was plain enough that they were the 
cause of all the mischief. •• 

The proprietor of the dog nevertheless believed that it was a case of 




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worms: 



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rabies ; he had the caustic applied to his hands, and could not persuade 
himself that he was safe until he had been at the baths of Bourbonne 



There 



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communicated 



a worm inhabiting the stomach of young dogs, the Ascaris 
a frequent source of sickness, and occasionally of spasmodic 
colic, by rollmg itself into knots. It seems occasionally to take a dislike 
to its assigned residence, and wanders into the oesophagus, but rarely into 
the larger intestines. A dog had a severe cough, which could not be sub- 
dued by bleeding or physic, or sedative or opiate medicines. He was 
destroyed and one of these ascarides; was found in the trachea. Others 
find their way into the nasal cavity ; and a dreadful source of irritation 
they are when they are endeavouring to escape, in order to undergo one 
of the changes of form to which they are destined, or when they have been 
forced into the nostril in the act of vomiting. 

I once had a dog as a patient whose case, I confess, I did not under- 
stand. He would sneeze and snort, and rub his head and nose along the 
carpet. I happened to say that the symptoms in some respects resembled 
those of rabies, and yet, that I could not satisfy myself that the dog was 
rabid. The mention of rabies was sufficient, and in defiance of my re- 
monstrances the animal was destroyed. 

The previous symptoms led me to examine the nasal cavity, and I found 
two of these ascarides, one concealed in the middle and the other in the 
upper meatus, through neither of which could any strong current of air be 
forced, and from which the ascarides could not be dislodged. 

The following case, 

. . :— I lately had the 

body ol a dog sent to me : his owner sent the following letter by the same 
conveyance. " My keeper went out shooting yesterday morning with the 
dog which I now send to you. He was quite lively, and apparently well 
during the former part of the day ; but towards evening he was seized 
with violent vomiting. When he came home he refused to eat, and this 
morning about eight o'clock he died. As I have lost all my best dogs 
rather suddenly, I will thank you to have him examined, and the contents 
of his stomach analyzed ; and have the kindness to inform me whether he 
has been poisoned, or what was the cause of his death." 

On opening the abdomen, the viscera appeared quite healthy: the 
stomach was removed, and the contents were found to be more decidedly 
acid than usual. The acids were the muriatic and acetic : the finding of 
an increased quantity of these is far from being unusual. There was°not 
a trace of arsenical, mercurial, nor any other metallic poison present. Of 
the vegetable poisons, I can only say that there was not the slightest trace 
of the morbid effects of any of them. The pericardium and the left side 
of the thorax contained a small quantity of bloody serous fluid, and the 
heart was full of black blood. The left lung was a little inflamed. The 
trachea contained some frothy yellow mucous matter, similar to the con- 
tents of the stomach. In the larynx was found one of those worms occa- 
sionally inhabiting the cavities of the nose, and which had probably escaped 
from the nose while the dog had been hunting, and, lodging in the larynx 
had destroyed the animal by producing spasms of the muscles of the larynx! 
The worm was about one inch and a half in length, and had partly penetrated 
through the rima glottidis. Another worm about the same size was found 



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FISTUI^A IN THE ANUS. 



221 



X 

in the left bronchia, and a still smaller one among the mucus of the trachea : 
there were also four others in the nose. 

Several years ago I found some worms of thefilacia species in the right 
ventricle of the heart of a dog, which had produced sudden death by in- 
terrupting the action of the valves. 



._^ _^ ^ jf tape-worm, by Mr. Reynold: 

On an estate where a great quantity of rabbits are annually destroyed 
in the month of November, we have observed that several dogs that 
were previously in good health and condition soon became weak, listless, 
and excessively emaciated, frequently passing large portions of the tape- 
worm. This induced us to examine the intestines of several hares and 
rabbits ; and, with very few exceptions, we found each to contain a perfect 
tape-worm from three to four feet in length. We then caused two of the 
dogs whose cases appeared the worst to be separated from the others, feeding 
them on potatoes, &c. ; and, in eight or ten days, after voiding several feet 
of the worms, they were perfectly restored to their former strength and 
appearance. The worm disease, hitherto so formidable to the spaniel and 
pointer, may in a great measure be fairly attributed to the custom of 
giving them the intestines of their game, under the technical appellation 
of " the paunch." The facts above stated, in explaining the cause of the 
disease, at the same time suggest the remedy. 



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Lancers of the Body Guard, was requested to examine a dog who strained 
in vain to void his urine, often uttering dreadful cries, and then eagerly 
licking his penis. M. Seon, after having tried in vain to abate the irri- 
tation, endeavoured to pass an elastic bougie. He perceived a conical body 
half an inch long protruding from the urethra with each effort of the dog 
to void his urine, and immediately afterwards returning into the urethra. He 
crushed it with a pair of forceps, and drew it out. It proved to be a worm 
resembling a strongylus, four and a half inches long. 



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moving about. 

ing extracted, the urine flowed, and the dog soon recovered.^ 



It was living, and 
The worm be- 



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FISTULA IN THE ANUS. 

This is a too frequent consequence of piles. It is often the result of the 
stagnation of hardened fseces in the rectum, which produces inflamniation 
and ulceration, and frequently leaves a fistulous opening. If we may judge 
what the quadruped suffers by the sufferings of human beings, it is a 
sadly painful affair, whether the fistula is external or internal. Whether 
it may be cured by a mild stimulant daily inserted to the bottom of the 
abscess, or whether there is a communication with the opening of the rectum 
which buries itself in the cellular tissues around it, and requires an opera- 
tion for its cure, it will require the assistance of a skilful surgeon to effect 
a cure in this case. 



a Prat. Med. Vet., Fev. 1828. 



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222 



BLEEDING, 



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CHAPTER XIII. 



BLEEDI]^5G ; TOItSION ; CASTKATIOlSr ; PAKTURITION ; AND SOME 
DISEASES CONNECTED WITH THE ORGANS OE GENERATION. 



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BLEEDING. 

This operation is exceedingly useful in many accidents and diseases. It 
is, in fact, as in the horse, the sheet-anchor of the practitioner in the ma- 
jority of cases of an inflammatory character. There is some difference, 
however, in the instrument to be used. The lancet is the preferable 
instrument in the performance of this operation. The fleam should be 
banished from among the instruments of the veterinary surgeon, 

A ligature being passed round the lower part of the neck, and the head 
being held up a little on one side, the vein will protrude on either side of 
the windpipe. It will usually be advisable to cut away a little of the hair 
over the spot designed to be punctured. When a suflflcient quantity of 
blood is abstracted, it will generally be necessary, and especially if the dog 
is large, to pass a pin through both edges of the orifice, and secure it with 

a little tow. 

When no lancet is at hand, the inside of the flap of the ear may be punc- 
tured with a pen-knife, the course of a vein being selected for this purpose. 
In somewhat desperate cases a small portion of the tail may be amputated. 

The superficial brachial vein^ the cephalic vein of the human subject, 
and the plat vein of the farrier, may be resorted to in all lamenesses of the 
fore limb, and especially in all shoulder-wrenches, strains of the loins, and 
of the thigh and the leg, and muscular and ligamentous extensions of any 
part of the hind limbs ; the vena saphena major ^ and the anterior tibial vein 
may be punctured in such cases. 

The quantity of blood to be abstracted must be regulated according to 
the size and strength of the dog and the degree of inflammation. 



eight for a large one. 



very 



TORSION. 



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artery-forceps for the arresting of hemorrhage. I shall do but justice to 
him by describing his mode of proceeding. He seizes the divided vessel 
with a pair of torsion-forceps in such a manner as to hold and close the 
mouth of the vessel in its teeth. The slide of the forceps then shuts its 
blade, and the artery is held fast. The artery is then drawn from out of 
the tissues surrounding it, to the extent of a few lines, and freed, with 
another forceps, from its cellular envelope, so as to lay bare its external 
coat. The index and thumb of the left hand are then applied above the 
forceps, in order to press back the blood in the vessel. He then begins 
to twist the artery. One of the methods consists in continuing the torsion 
until the part held in the forceps is detached. When, however, the 



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TORSION. 



223 



operator does not intend to produce that effect, he ceases, after from 
four to six revolutions of the vessel on its axis for the small arteries, and 
from eight to twelve for the large ones. The hemorrhage instantly stops. 
The vessel which had been drawn out is then replaced, as the surrounding 
parts give support to the knot which has been formed at its extremities. 
The knot becomes further concealed by the retraction of the artery, and 
this retraction will be proportionate to the shortening which takes place 
by the effect of the twisting, so that it will be scarcely visible on the sur- 
face of the stump. It is of the utmost importance to seize the artery 
perfectly, and to make the stated number of twists, as otherwise the secu- 
rity against the danger of consecutive hemorrhage will not be perfect. 



Mr. W 

formed at Paris. 



He brought back a full account of it as performed there, 



and availed himself of an early opportunity of putting it to the test before 
some of our metropolitan surgeons. A dog was placed on the table, the 
forceps were applied, and the operation perfectly succeeded. 

A few days afterwards a pointer bitch was brought to my infirmary, 
with a large scirrhous tumour near the anterior teat on the left side. It 
had been gradually increasing during the last five months. It was becom- 
ing more irregular in its form, and on one of its tuberculous prominencies 
was a reddish spot, soft and somewhat tender, indicating that the process 
of suppuration was about to commence. 

I had often, or almost uniformly, experienced the power of iodine in 
dispersing glandular enlargements in the neck of the dog, and also those 
indurated tumours of various kinds which form about the joints of some 
domesticated animals, particularly of cattle ; but frequent disappointment 
had convinced me that it was, if not inert, yet very uncertain in its^ effect 
in causing absorption of tumours about the mammae of the bitch, 
also been taught that the ultimate success of the excision of these enlarge- 
ments depended on their removal before suppuration had taken place, and 
the neighbouring parts had been inoculated by the virus which so plenti- 
fully flowed from the ulcer, I determined on an immediate operation ; and, 
as the tumour was large, and she was in high condition, I thought it a 



Having 



first trial of 



She was well physicked, and on 



the third day was produced before my class and properly secured. I had 
not provided myself with the torsion forceps^ but relied on the hold I 
should have on the vessel by means of a pair of common artery forceps ; 
and the effect of these imperfect instruments beautifully established the 
power of torsion in arresting hemorrhage. 

Two elliptical incisions were made on the face of the tumour, and pro- 
longed anteriorly and posteriorly about an inch from it. The portion of 
integument that could be spared was thus enclosed, while the opposed 
edges of the wound could be neatly and effectually brought together after 
the operation. The dissection of the integument from the remaining part 
of the face of the tumour was somewhat slow and difficult, for it was in a 
manner identified with the hardened mass beneath ; but the operation soon 
proceeded more quickly, and we very soon had the scirrhus exposed, and 
adhering to the thorax by its base. About two ounces of venous blood 
had now been lost. 

I was convinced that I should find the principal artery, by which the 
excrescence was fed, at its anterior extremity, and not far from the spot 
M here the suppuration seemed to be preparing : therefore, beginning pos- 



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224 



CASTRATION, 



teriorly, I very rapidly cut through the cellular texture, elevating the 
tumour and turning it back, until I arrived at the inner and anterior point, 
and there was the only source of supply ; the artery was plainly to be 
seen. In order to give the experiment a fair chance, I would not enclose it 
in the forceps, but I cut through it. A jet of blood spirted out. I then 
seized the vessel as quickly as I could, and began to turn the forceps, but 
before I could effect more than a turn and a half I lost my hold on the 
artery. I was vexed, and paused, waiting for the renewed gush of blood 
that I might seize the vessel again ; but to my surprise not a drop more 
blood came from the arterial trunk. That turn and a half, considerable 
pressure having been used, had completely arrested the hemorrhage. lean 
safely say that not more than four drachms of arterial blood were lost. 

The wound was sponged clean : there remained only a very slight oozing 
from two or three points ; the flaps were brought together, secured by the 
ordinary sutures^ and the proper bandages applied. The weight of the 
tumour was twenty-two ounces ; there was no after bleeding, no unpleasant 
occurrences; but the wound, which had been nearly six inches in length, 
was closed in little more than three weeks. 

Pie will essentially promote the cause of science, and the cause of hu- 
manity, who will avail himself of the opportunity which country practice 
affords of putting the effect of torsion to the test ; and few things will be 
more gratifying than the consciousness of rescuing our patients fi'om the 
unnecessary infliction of torture. 

In docking, it will be found perfectly practicable : our patients will 
escape much torture, and tetanus will often be avoided. The principal 
danger from castration has arisen from the severity with which the iron 
has been employed. The colt, the sheep, and the dog will be fair subjects 



for experiment. 



tery 



lence too frequently resorted to in operating upon the others, have destroyed 



thousands of animals. 



CASTRATION. 



This operation is performed on a great portion of our domestic animals. 
It renders them more docile, and gives them a disposition to fatten. It 
is followed by fewest serious accidents when it is performed on young 
animals. The autumn or spring should, if possible, be chosen for the 
operation, for the temperature of the atmosphere is then generally uniform 
and moderate. It should be previously ascertained that the animal is in 
perfect health ; and he should be prepared by a mash diet and bleeding, if 
he is in a plethoric state, or possessed of considerable determination. If 
it is a young animal that is to be operated upon, an incision may he made 
into the scrotum, the testicle may be protruded, and the cord cut without 
much precaution, for the blood will soon be stayed ; but for older animals 
it will be advisable to use a ligature, applied moderately tightly round 
the spermatic cord a little more than an inch beyond its insertion into 
the testicle : the scalpel is then used, and a separation effected between 
the ligature and the testis. The vas deferens needs not to be included ; a 
great deal of pain will then be spared to the animal. 

The ordinary consequences of castration are pain, inflammation, en- 
gorgement, and suppuration. The pain and suppuration are inevitable, 
but generally yield to emollient applications. The engorgement is often 
considerable at first, but soon subsides, and the suppuration usually abates 



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^ARTtlMTION. 



225 



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in the course of a few days. It has been said that the castrated dog is 
more attached and faithful to his master than he who has not been 
deprived of his genital powers : this, however, is much to be doubted. 
He has, generally speaking, lost a considerable portion of his courage, his 
energy, and his strength. He is apt to become idle, and is disposed to 
accumulate fat more rapidly. His power of scent is also very considerably 
diminished, and he is less qualified for the sports of the field. Of this 
there can be no doubt. It has been said that he is more submissive : I 
very much doubt the accuracy of that opinion. He may not be so savage 
as in his perfect state ; he may not be so eager in his feeding ; but there 
is not the devotion to his master, and the quickness of comprehension which 
belongs to the perfect dog. 

The removal of the ovaries, or spaying of the female, used to be often 
practised, and packs of spayed bitches were, and still are, occasionally 
kept. In performing this operation, an opening is made into the flank 
on one side, and the finger introduced — one of the ovaries is laid hold 
of and drawn a little out of the belly ; a ligature is then applied round 
it, just above the bifurcation of the womb, and it is cut through, the 
end of the ligature being left hanging out of the wound. The other 
ovary is then felt for and drawn out, and excised and secured by a liga- 
ture. The wound is then sewed up, and a bandage is placed over the 
incision. Some farriers do not apply any ligature, but simply sew up the 
wound, and in the majority of cases the edges adhere, and no harm comes 
of the operation, except that the general character of the animal is essen- 
tially changed. She accumulates a vast quantity of fat, becomes listless and 

idle, and is almost invariably short-lived. 

The female dog, therefore, should always be allowed to breed. 
Breeding is a necessary process ; and the female prevented from it is sure 
to be affected with disease sooner or later ; enormous collections and 
indurations will form that will inevitably terminate in scirrhus or 

ulceration. 

A troublesome process often occurs when the female is not permitted to 
have young ones, namely, the accumulation of milk in the teats, especially 
if at any previous time, however distant, she may have had puppies once. 
The foundation is laid for many unpleasant and unmanageable complaints. 
If she is suffered to bring up one litter after another, she will have better 
health than those that are debarred from intercourse with the male. 

The temporary union which takes place between the male and female 
at the period at which they are brought together is a very singular one. 
The corpora cavernosa of the male and the clitoris of the female being 
suddenly distended with blood, it is impossible to withdraw either of them 
until the turgescence of the parts has entirely ceased. 



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PAKTUKITION. 

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The pupping usually takes place from the sixty -second to the sixty- 
fourth day ; and the process having commenced, from a quarter to three 
quarters of an hour generally takes place between the production of each 

puppy. 

Great numbers of bitches are lost every year in the act of parturition : 
there seems to be a propensity in the females to associate with dogs larger 
than themselves, and they pay for it with their lives. The most neglected 

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PARTURITION. 



circumstance during the period of pregnancy is the little exercise which 
the mother is permitted to take, while, in point of fact, nothing tends more 
to safe and easy parturition than her being permitted or compelled to take 
a fair quantity of exercise. 

When the time of parturition has arrived, and there is evident difficulty 
in producing the foetus, recourse shovild be had to the ergot of rye, which 
should be given every hour or half hour, according to circumstances. If 
after a certain time some, although little, progress has been made, the 
ergot must be continued in smaller doses, or perhaps suspended for a 
while ; but, if all progress is evidently suspended, recourse must be had 
to the hook or the forceps. By gentle but continued manipulation much 
may be done, especially when the muzzle of the puppy can be brought 
into the passage. As little force as possible must be used, and especially 
the foetus little broken. Many a valuable animal is destroyed by the 

undue application of force. 

If the animal seems to be losing strength, a small quantity of laudanum 
and ether may be administered. ^^The patience of bitches in labour is 
extreme," says Mr. Blaine; ^^ and their distress, if not removed, is most 
striking and affecting. Their look is at such time particularly expressive 
and apparently imploring." When the pupping is protracted, and the 
young ones are evidently dead, the mother may be saved, if none of the 
puppies have been broken. In process of time the different puppies may, one 
after another, be extracted ; but when violence has been used at the com- 
mencement, or almost at any part of the process, death will assuredly follow. 

June 15, 1832. — A spaniel bitch was brought to my infirmary to-day, 
who has been in great and constant pain since yesterday, making repeated 
but fruitless efforts to expel her puppies. She is in a very plethoric 
habit of body ; her bowels are much confined, and she exhibits some ge- 
neral symptoms of febrile derangement, arising, doubtless, from her pro- 
tracted labour. This is her first litter. Upon examination no young 
could be distinctly felt. 

Place her in a warm bath, and give her a dose of castor oil, morn- 
ing and evening. 

June 16. — The bitch appears in the same state as yesterday, except 
that the medicine has operated freely upon the bowels, and the febrile 
symptoms have somewhat decreased. Her strainings are as frequent and 
distressing as ever. Take two scruples of the ergot of rye, and divide into 
six doses, of which let one be given every half hour. 

In about ten minutes after the exhibition of the last dose of this 
medicine, she brought forth, with great difficulty, one dead puppy ; upon 
taking which, away from her, she became so imeasy that I was induced to 
return it to her. In about a quarter of an hour after this I paid her 
another visit ; the puppy could not now be found ; but a suspicious appear- 
ance in the mother's eye betrayed at once that she had devoured it. I im- 
mediately administered an emetic ; and in a very short time the whole 
foetus was returned in five distinct parts, viz. the four quarters and the head. 
After this, the bitch began to amend very fast ; she produced no other puppy; 
and as her supply of milk was small, she was soon convalescent. 

Twelve months afterwards she was again taken in labour, about eleven 
o'clock in the morning, and after very great difficulty, one puppy was 
produced. After this the bitch appeared in great pain, but did not suc- 
ceed in expelling another foetus, in consequence of which I was sent for 



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PAETURITION. 



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about three o'clock p.m. I found her very uneasy, breathing laboriously ;^ 
the mouth hot, and the bowels costive ; but I could not discover any trace 
of another foetus. She was put into a warm bath, and a dose of opening 
medicine was administered. 

About five o'clock she got rid of one dead and two living puppies. 

2nd. She is still very ill ; she evinces great pain when pressed upon the 
abdomen ; and it is manifest that she has another foetus within her. I 
ordered a dose of the ergot, and in about twenty minutes a large puppy 
was produced, nearly dying. She survived with due care. 

I cannot refrain from inserting the following case at considerable length : 

SepL4y 1820. — A very diminutive terrier, weighing not 5 lbs., was sent 
to my hospital in order to lie in. She was already restless and panting. 
About eight o'clock at night the labour pains commenced ; but until eleven 
scarcely any progress was made. The os uteri would not admit my finger, 
although I frequently attempted it. 

At half-past eleven, the membranes began to protrude ; at one the head 
had descended into the pelvis and the puppy was dead. In a previous 
labour she had been unable to produce her young, although the ergot 
of rye had been freely used. I was obliged to use considerable force, 
and she fought terribly with me throughout the whole process. At half- 
past one, and after applying considerable force, I brought away a large 
foetus, compared with her own size. On passing my finger as high as 
possible, I felt another foetus living, but the night passed and the whole 
of the following day, and she ate and drank, and did not appear to be 

much injured. 

Several times in the day I gave her some strong soup and the ergot. 
Some slight pains now returned, and by pressing on the belly the nose of 
the foetus was brought to the superior edge of the pelvis. The pains 
again ceased, the pudenda began to swell from frequent examination, the 
bitch began to stagger, and made freqvient attempts to void her urine : 
with extreme difficulty in accomplishing it. I now resorted to the crotchet ; 
and after many unsuccessful attempts, in which the superior part of the 
vagina must have been considerably bruised, I fixed it suflSciently firmly to 
draw the head into the cavity of the pelvis. Here for a while the shoulder 
resisted every attempt which I could make without the danger of detrun- 
cating the foetus. At length by working at the side of the head until 
my nails were soft and my fingers sore, I extracted one fore leg. The other 
was soon brought down ; another large puppy was produced, but destroyed 
by the means necessary for its production. This was the fruit of two hours' 

hard work. 

She was completely exhausted, and scarcely able to stand. When 
placed on the ground she staggered and fell at almost every step. Her 
efforts to void her urine were frequent and ineffectual. 

At four o'clock I again examined her ; the external pudenda were sore 
and swelled, and beginning to assume a black hue. It was with con- 
siderable difficulty that I Could introduce my finger. A third foetus 
irregularly presented was detected. I could just feel one of the hind 
legs. No time was to be lost. I introduced a small pair of forceps by 
the side of my finger, and succeeded in laying hold of the leg without 
much diflSiculty, and, with two or three weak efforts from the mother, — I 
could scarcely call them pains,— I brought the leg down until it was in 
the cavity of the pelvis, I solicited it forward with my finger, and, by 

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228 



PARTURITION. 



In the afternoon she again took a little 



forcibly pressing back the labia pudendi^ I could just grasp it with tlie 
finger and thumb of the right hand, tlolding it there, I introduced the 
finger of the right hand, and continued to get down the other leg, and 
then found little difliculty until the head was brought to the superior edge 
of the pelvis. After along interval, and with considerable force, this was 
brought into the pelvis, and another puppy extracted. This fully occupied 
two hours. 

The bitch now appeared almost lifeless. As she was unable to stand, 
and seemed unconscious of every thing around her, I concluded that she 
was lost : I gave her one or two drops of warm brandy and water, covered 
her up closely, and put her to bed. 

To my surprise, on the following morning, she was curled round in her 
basket ; she licked my hands, and ate a bit of bread and butter ; but 
when put on her legs staggered and fell. The pudendum was dreadfully 
swollen, and literally black, 
food : she came voluntarily from her basket, wagged her tail when spoken 
to, and on the following day she was taken in her basket a journey of 70 
miles, and afterwards did well ; no one could be more rejoiced than was 

her master, who was present at, and superintended the greater part of the 
proceedings. 

The beneficial effect of Ergot of Rye in difficult Parturition. — The 
following case is from the pen of Professor Dick : — On the 10th instant, 
a pointer bitch produced two puppies ; and it was thought by the person 
having her in charge that she had no more. She was put into a com- 
fortable box, and with a little care was expected to do well. On the next 
morning, however, she was sick and breathed heavily, and continued 
rather uneasy all the day. 

On the forenoon of the following day I was requested to see her. I 
found her with her nose dry, breath hot, respiration frequent, mouth hot 
and parched, coat staring, back reached, pulse 120, and a black fetid dis- 
charge from the vagina. Pressure on the abdomen gave pain. A pup 
could be obscurely felt ; the secretion of milk was suppressed, and the 
skin had lost its natural elasticity. 

Tepid water with a little soap dissolved in it was immediately injected 
into the uterus, which in a considerable degree excited its action ; and this 
injection was repeated two or three times with the same eifect. 

After waiting for half an hour, the foetus was not discharged nor brought 
forward ; therefore a scruple of the ergot of rye was then made into an 
infusion with two ounces of water, and one-third of it given as a dose ; in 
half an hour another one-third of it ; the injections of warm water and 
soap being also continued. Soon after the second dose of the infusion, a 
dead puppy was expelled ; the bitch rapidly recovered, and, with the ex- 
ception of deficiency of milk, is now quite well. 

This case would seem to prove the great power of the ergot of rye over 
the uterus ; but, until more experiments are made, it is necessary to be 
cautious in ascribing powers to medicines which have not been much tried 
in our practice. It is not improbable that the warm water and soap might 
have roused the uterus into action without the aid of the ergot ; and it is 
therefore necessary that those who repeat this experiment should try the 
effects of the medicine unaided by the auxiliary. 

The Professor adds, that the great power which this drug is said to have 
on the human being, and the apparent eflPect in the case just given, suggest 



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PUERPERAL FITS. 



229 



the propriety of instituting a further trial of it, and of our extending our 
observations to cattle^ amongst which difficult cases of calving so frequently 
occur. 

Mr. Simpson thus concludes some remarks on ergot in difficult parturi- 
tion. This medicine possesses a very great power over the uterus, rousing 
its dormant or debilitated contractility, and stimulating it to an extra per- 
formance of this necessary function after its natural energy has been in 
some measure destroyed by forcible but useless action. The direct utility 
of the ergot was manifested in cases where the uterus appeared quite ex- 
hausted by its repeated efforts ; and certainly it is but fair to ascribe the 
decidedly augmented power of the organ to the stimulus of the ergot, for no 
other means were resorted to in order to procure the desired effect. Its 
action, too, is prompt. Within ten minutes of the administration of a 
second or third dose, when nature has been nearly exhausted, the parturi- 
tion has been safely efifected. 

Nature proportions the power and resources of the 

In her wild undomesticated state 



Pue 



mother to the wants of her offspring, 
she is able to suckle her progeny to the full time ; but, in the artificial 
state in which we have placed her, we shorten the interval between each 
period of parturition, we increase the number of her young ones at each 
birth, we diminish her natural powers of affording them nutriment, and 
we give her a degree of irritability which renders her whole system liable 
to be excited and deranged by causes that would otherwise be harmless : 
therefore it happens that, when the petted bitch is permitted to suckle the 
whole of her litter, her supply of nutriment soon becomes exhausted, and 
the continued drain upon her produces a great degree of irritability. She 
gets rapidly thin ; she staggers, is half unconscious, neglects her puppies, 
and suddenly falls into a fit of a very peculiar character. It begins with, 
and is sometimes confined to, the respiratory apparatus : she lies on her 
side and pants violently, and the sound of her laboured breathing may be 
heard at the distance of twenty yards. Sometimes spasms steal over her 
limbs ; at other times the diaphragm and respiratory muscles alone are 
convulsed. In a few hours she is certainly lost ; or, if there are moments 
of remission, they are speedily succeeded by increased heavings. 

The practitioner unaccustomed to this fearful state of excitation, and 
forgetful or unaware of its cause, proceeds to bleed her, and he seals her 
fate. Although one system is thus convulsively labouring, it is because 
others are suddenly and perfectly exhausted ; and by abstraction of the 
vital current he reduces this last hold of life to the helpless condition of 
the rest. There is not a more common or fatal error than this. 

The veterinary practitioner is unable to apply the tepid bath to his larger 
patients, in order to quiet the erythism of certain parts of the system, and 
produce an equable diffusion of nervous influence and action ; and he often 
forgets it when he has it in his power to save the smaller ones. Let the 
bitch in a fit be put into a bath, temperature 96° of Fahrenheit, and covered 
with the water, her head excepted. It will be surprising to see how soon 
the simple application of this equable temperament will quiet down the 
erythism of the excited system. In ten minutes, or a quarter of an hour, 
she may be taken out of the bath evidently relieved, and then, a hasty and 
not very accurate drying having taken place, she is wrapped in a blanket 
and placed in some warm situation, a good dose of physic having beea 
previously administered. She soon breaks out in a profuse perspiration. 
Everything becomes gradually quiet, and she falls into a deep and long 



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PUERPERAL FITS. 



sleep, and at length awakes somewhat weak, but to a certain degree re- 
stored. 

If, then, all her puppies except one or two are taken from her, and her 
food is, for a day or two, somewhat restricted, and after that given again 
of its usual quantity and kind, she will live and do well ; but a bleeding 
at the time of her fit, or suffering all her puppies to return to her, will 
inevitably destroy her. 

A bitch that was often brought to my house was suckling a litter of 
puppies. She was foolishly taken up and thrown into the Serpentine in 
the month of April. The suppression of milk was immediate and com- 
plete. There was also a determination to the head, and attacks resembling 
epilepsy. The puppies that were suffered to remain with the mother, 
were very soon as epileptic as she was, and were destroyed. A seton was 
inserted on each side of her neck. Ipecacuanha was administered ; and 
that having sufficiently worked, a small quantity of diluted sulphuric acid 
was given. A fortnight afterwards she was perfectly welL 

Inversion of the Uterus in a Bull Bitch after Pupping. Extirpation 
and Cure. By M. Cross, M. V., Milan. — In July, 1829, I was desired 
to attend a small bull bitch six years old, and who had had puppies four 
times. The uterus was completely inverted, and rested all its weight 
on the vaginal orifice of the urethra, preventing the discharge of the 
urine, and thus being the cause of great pain when the animal endeavoured 
to void it, or the faacal matter. The uterus was become of almost a black 
colour, swelled, softened, and exhaling an insupportable odour. Judging 
from this that the preservation of the uterus was impossible, and reckoning 
much on the good constitution of the patient, I warned the proprietor of 
the danger of its reduction, even supposing that it was practicable, and 
proposed to him the complete extirpation of the uterus as the only means 
that remained of saving the bitch. 

Armed with his consent, I passed a ligature round the neck of the 
uterus, at the bottom of the vagina, and drew it as tight as I possibly 
could. On the following day I again tightened the ligature, in order to 
complete the mortification of the part, and the separation of the womb. 
On the Ihird day I extirpated the womb entirely, close to the haunch. 
There was very slight loss of blood, but there ran from the walls of the 
vagina a small quantity of ichorous fluid, with a strong fetid smell. The 
operation was scarcely completed ere she voided a considerable quantity 
of urine, and then searched about for something to eat and to drink. 

The portion of the uterus that was removed weighed fourteen ounces. 
The mucous membrane by which it was lined was in a highly disorganized 
state. From time to time injections of a slight infusion of aromatic plants 
were introduced into the vagina, and the animal was nourished with liquid 
food of easy digestion. 

The first day passed without the animal being in the slightest degree 
affected ; but, on the following day, in despite of all our care, an ichorous 
fluid was discharged, which the dog would lick notwithstanding all our 



efforts to prevent it. 



The general health of the animal did not seem to be 

We continued our aromatic infuftir^n nnH 



in the slightest degree affected 

our regimen. 

On the fourth day after the operation, the cords that had served as a 

ligature fell off, and all suppuration from the part gradually ceased, 

October 20th. — Three months have passed since the operation, and she 
is perfectly well. 



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DISTEMPER. 



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CHAPTER XIV. 



THE DISTEMPEK 



By this singular name is distinguished a prevalent disease now about to 
come under our consideration, which was first observed on the continent. 
The rapidity with which it spread, the strange protean appearances which 
it assumed, and its too frequent fatal termination, surprised and puzzled 
the veterinary surgeons ; and they called it "la maladie des chiens," the 

disease or distemper in dogs. _ , ^ xi u x 

It is comparatively a new disease. It was imported from France about 
one hundred years since, although some French authors have strangely 
affirmed that it is of British origin. Having once gained footing among 
us, it has established itself in our country, to the vexation and loss of the 
sportsman, and the annoyance of the veterinary surgeon. However keepers, 
or even men of education, may boast of their specifics, it is a sadly fatal 
disease, and destroys fully one-third of the canine race. 

Dogs of all ages are subject to its attack. Many, nine and ten years 
old, have died of pure distemper ; and I have seen puppies of only three 
weeks fall victims to it ; but it oftenest appears between the sixth and 
twelfth month of the animal's life. If it occurs at an early period, it 
proves fatal in the great majority of cases ; and, if the dog is more than 
four years old, it generally goes hard with him. It is undeniably highly 
contagious, yet it is frequently generated. In this it bears an analogy to 
mange, and to farcy and glanders in the horse. 

One attack of the disease, and even a severe one, is no absolute security 
against its return ; although the dog that has once laboured under dis- 
temper possesses a certain degree of immunity ; or, if he is attacked a 
second time, the malady usually assumes a milder type. I have, however, 
known it occur three times in the same animal, and at last destroy him. ^ 

Violent catarrh will often terminate in distemper ; and low and insuffi- 
cient feeding will produce it. It frequently follows mange, and especially 
if mercury has been used in the cure of the malady. When we see a 
puppy with mange, and that peculiar disease in which the skin becomes 
corrugated, and more especially if it is a spaniel, and pot-bellied or 
ricketty, we generally say that we can cure the mange, but it will not be 
long before the animal dies of distemper ; and so it happens in three cases 
out of four. Whatever debilitates the constitution predisposes it for the 
reception or the generation of distemper. It, however, frequently occurs 
without any apparent exciting cause. 

That it is highly contagious cannot admit of doubt. A healthy dog 
can seldom, for many days, be kept with another that labours under dis- 
temper without becoming affected ; and the disease is communicated by 
the slightest momentary contact. There is, however, a gr^t deal oi 
caprice about this. I have more than once kept a dog in the foul-yard ot 
my hospital for several successive weeks, and he has not become diseased. 



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DISTEMPER. 



So far as my experience goes, the contrary 



Inoculation with the matter that flows from the nose, either limpid or 
purulent, and in an early or advanced stage of the distemper, will, with 
few exceptions, produce the disease ; yet I have failed to commxmicate it 
even by this method. Inoculation used to be recommended as producing a 
milder and less fatal disease. *^ - ^ 

has been the result. 

Distemper is also epidemic. It occurs more frequently in the spring 
and autumn than in the winter and summer. If one or two dogs in a cer- 
tain district are affected, we may be assured that it will soon extensively 
prevail there ; and where the disease could not possibly be communicated 
by contagion. Sometimes it rages all over the country. At other times 
it is endemic, and confined to some particular district. 

Not only is the disease epidemic or endemic, but 'the form which it 



assumes is so. 



every 



fits ; at another, in the majority of cases, there will be considerable chest 
affection, running on to pneumonia ; a few months afterwards, a great 
proportion of the distempered dogs will be worn down by diarrhoea, which 
no medicine will arrest ; and presently it will be scarcely distinguishable 
from mild catarrh. 

It varies much with different breeds. The shepherd's dog, generally 

speaking, cares little about it ; he is scarcely ill a day. The cur is not 
often seriously aflTected. The terrier has it more severel y, especia lly the 
white terrier. ""' ' ^ ' - 



The hound comes next in the order of severity; and after 
him the setter. With the small spaniel it is more dangerous ; and still 
more so with the pointer, especially if he has the disease early. Next in 
the order of fatality comes the pug ; and it is most fatal of all with the 
Newfoundland dog. Should a foreign dog be affected, he almost certainly 
dies. The greater part of the northern dogs brought by Captain Parry 
did not survive a twelvemonth ; and the delicate Italian greyhound has 
little chance, when imported from abroad. 

Not only does it thus differ in different species of dogs, but in different 
breeds of the same species. I have known several gentlemen who have 
laboured in vain for many years, to rear particular and valuable breeds 
of pointers and greyhounds. The distemper would uniformly carry off 
five out of six. Other sportsmen laugh at the supposed danger of dis- 



This hereditary pre- 

and is not 



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temper, and declare that they seldom lose a dog. 
disposition to certain kinds of disease cannot be denied, 
sufficiently attended to. When a peculiar fatality has often followed a 
certain breed, the owner should cross it from another kennel, and especially 
from the kennel of one who boasts of his success in the treatment of dis- 
temper. This has occasionally succeeded far beyond expectation. 

It is time to proceed to the symptoms of this disease ; but here there is 
very considerable diflftculty, for it is a truly protean malady, and it is im- 
possible to fix on any symptom that will invariably characterise it. 

An early and frequent symptom is a gradual loss of appetite, spirits, 
and condition : the dog is less obedient to his master, and takes less notice 
of him. The eyes appear weak and watery ; and there will be a very 
slight limpid discharge from the nose. In the morning there will, per- 
haps, be a little indurated mucus at the inner corner of the eye. This 
may continue two or three weeks without serious or scarcely recognisable 
illness. Then a peculiar husky cough is heard, altogether different 
from the sonorous cough of catarrh, or the wheezing of asthma. It is an 



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DISTEMPER. 



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apparent attempt to get something from the fauces or throat. ' By degrees 
the discharge from the eyes and nose, and particularly the former, will 
increase. More mucus will collect in the corners of the eye ; and the eye 
will sometimes be closed in the morning. The conjunctiva, and particu- 
larly that portion which covers the sclerotica, will be considerably injected, 
but there will not be the usual intense redness of inflammation. The 
vessels will be large and turgid rather than numerous, and frequently of. 
a darkish hue. 

Occasionally, however, the inflammation of the conjunctiva will be 
exceedingly intense, the membrane vividly red, and the eye impatient of 
light. An opacity spreads over the cornea, and this is quickly succeeded, 
by ulceration. The first spot of ulceration is generally found precisely 
in the centre of the cornea, and is perfectly circular : this will distinguish 
it from a scratch or other injury. The ulcer widens and deepens, and 
sometimes eats through the cornea, and the aqueous humour escapes. 
Fungous granulations spring from it, protrude through the lids, and the 
animal evidently suffers extreme torture. 

A remarkable peculiarity attends this affection of the eye. However 
violent may be the inflammation, and by whatever disorganization it may 
be accompanied, if we can cure the distemper the granulations will dis- 
appear, the ulcer will heal, the opacity will clear away, and the eye will 
not eventually suffer in the slightest degree. One-fourth part of the 
mischief in other cases, unconnected with distemper, would inevitably 
terminate in blindness ; but permanent blindness is rarely the consequence 

of distemper. 

It may not be improper here shortly to revert to the different appearance 
of the eye in rabies. In the early stage of this malady there is an unna- 
tural and often terrific brightness of the eye ; but the cornea in distemper 
is from the first rather clouded. In rabies there is frequent strabismus, 
with the axis of the eye distorted outwards. The apparent squinting of 
the eye in distemper is caused by the probably unequal protrusion of the 
membrana nictitans over a portion of the eye at the inner canthus, in 
order to protect it from the light. In rabies, the white cloudiness 
which I have described, and the occasional ulceration with very little 
cloudiness, and the ulceration, are confined to the cornea; but a dense 
green opacity comes on, speedily followed by iilceration and disorganization 

of every part of the eye. 

The dog will, at this stage of distemper, be evidently feverish, and will 



shiver and creep to the fire. 

flesh. 



He will more evidently and rapidly lose 



The huskiness will be more frequent and troublesome, and the dis- 
charge from the nose will have greater consistence. It will be often and 
violently sneezed out, and will gradually become more or less purulentj 
It will stick about the nostrils and plug them up, and thus afford a consi- 
derable mechanical obstruction to the breathing. : 
The progress of the disease is now uncertain. Sometimes fits come on, 
speedily following intense inflammation of the eye ; or the inflammation 
of the nasal cavity appears to be communicated, by proximity, to the 
membrane of the brain. One fit is a serious thing. If it is followed by 
a second within a day or two, the chances of cure are diminished ; and if 
they rapidly succeed each other, the dog is almost always lost. These fits 
seldom appear without warning ; and, if their approach is carefully watched, 
they may possibly be prevented. 






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DISTEMPER. 



However indisposed to eat the dog may have previously been, the 
appetite returns when the fits are at hand, and the animal becomes abso- 

Nature seems to be providing for the great expen- 
diture of power which epilepsy will soon occasion. The mucus almost 



lutely voracious 



entirely disappears from the eyes, although the discharge from the nose may 
continue unabated ; and for an hour or more before the fit there will be 
a champing of the lower jaw, frothing at the mouth, and discharge of saliva. 
The champing of the lower jaw will be s^^n at least twelve hours before 
the first fit, and will a little while precede every other. There will also 
be twitchings of some part of the frame, and usually of the mouth, cheek, 
or eyelid. It is of some consequence to attend to these, as enabling us 
to distinguish between fits of distemper and those of teething, worms, or 
unusual excitement. The latter come on suddenly. The dog is appa- 
rently well, and racing about full of spirits, and without a moment's 
warning he falls into violent convulsions. 

We may here, likewise, be enabled to distinguish between rabies and 
distemper. When a person, unacquainted with dogs, sees a dog struggling 
in a fit, or running along unconscious of every surrounding object, or 

snapping at every thing in his way, whether it be a human being or a 
stone, he raises the cry of "mad dog,'' and the poor brute is often sacri- 
ficed. The very existence of a fit is proof positive that the dog is not mad. 
No epilepsy accompanies rabies in any stage of that disease. 

The inflammation of the membrane of the nose and fauces is sometimes 
propagated along that of the windpipe, and the dog exhibits unequivocal 
proofs of chest affection, or decided pneumonia. 

At other times the bowels become affected, and a violent purging comes 
on. The faeces vary from white with a slight tinge of gray, to a dark 
slate or olive colour. By degrees mucus begins to mingle with the 
faecal discharge, and then streaks of blood. The faecal matter rapidly 
lessens, and the whole seems to consist of mingled mucus and blood ; 
and, from first to last, the stools are insufferably offensive. When the 
mingled blood and mucus appear, so much inflammation exists in the 
intestinal canal that the case is almost hopeless. 

p The discharge from the nose becomes decidedly purulent. While it 
is white and without smell, and the dog is not too much emaciated, the 
termination may be favourable ; but when it becomes of a darker colour, 

I and mingled with blood, and offensive, the ethmoid or turbinated bones 
/ I are becoming carious, and death supervenes. This will particularly be 

the case if the mouth and lips swell, and ulcers begin to appear on them, 
and the gums ulcerate, and a sanious and highly offensive discharge pro- 
ceeds from the mouth. A singular, half-fetid smell arising from the dog, 
is the almost invariable precursor of death. 

When the disease first visited the continent it was regarded as a hu- 
moral disease. Duhamel, who was one of the earliest to study the cha- 
racter of the malady, contended that the biliary sac contained the cause 
of the complaint : the bile assumed a concrete form, and its superabundance 
was the cause of disease. Barrier, one of the earliest writers on the subject, 
described it as a violent irregular bilious fever. Others regarded it as a 
mucous discharge, or a depurative; and others, as a salutary crisis, 
removing from the constitution that which oppressed the different organs. 
Others had recourse to inoculation, in order to give it a more benign 
character; and others, and among them Chabert, considered that it 



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possessed a character of peculiar malignity, and he gave it a name expres- 
sive of its nature and situation — nasal catarrh. It exhibited the ordinary 
symptoms of coryza ; it was a catarrhal affection in its early stage ; but 
it afterwards degenerated into a species of palsy. The causes were un- 
known. By some, they were attributed to the natural voracity of the 
dog ; by others, to his occasional lasciviousness ; by others, to his frequent 
feeding on carrion, or the refuse of fat and soups. 

There is no doubt that nasal catarrh is, to a very considerable de- 
gree, contagious on the continent. It often spreads over a wide extent of 
country, and includes numerous animals of various descriptions. It is 
complicated with various diseases; and particularly, at an early stage, 
with ophthalmia. It may be interesting to the reader to trace the pro- 
gress of the disease among our continental neighbours. It commences 
with a certain depression of spirits ; a diminution of appetite ; a heaviness 
of the head ; a heat of the mouth ; an attempt to get something from the 
throat ; an insatiable thirst ; an elevated temperature of the body ; a dry 
and painful suffocating cough ; and all these circumstances continue from 
twenty to thirty days, until at length the dog droops and dies. 

The duration of distemper is uncertain. It sometimes runs its course 
in five or six days ; or it may linger on two or three months. In some 
cases the emaciation is rapid and extreme: danger is then to be ap- 



prehended. When 



attenuated, or 




almost wasted, there is little hope ; and, although other symptoms may 
remit, and the dog may be apparently recovering, yet, if he continues to 
lose flesh, we may be perfectly assured that he will not live. On the 
other hand, let the discharge from the nose be copious, and the purging s^^ 
violent, and every other symptom threatening, yet if the animal gains a - 
little flesh, we may confidently predict his recovery. 

When the dog is much reduced in strength and flesh, a spasmodic affec- 
tion or twitching of the muscles will sometimes be observed. It is usually 
confined at first to one limb ; but the most decisive treatment is required, 
or these spasms will spread until the animal is altogether unable to stand ; 
and while he lies every limb will be in motion, travelling, as it were, at 
the rate of twenty miles an hour, until the animal is worn out, and dies 
of absolute exhaustion. When these spasms become universal and vio- V 
lent, they are accompanied by constant and dreadful moans and cries. ^ 

In the pointer and the hound, and particularly when there is little dis- 
charge from the eyes or nose, an intense yellowness often suddenly appears 
all over the dog. He falls away more in twenty-four hours than it would 
be thought possible ; his bowels are obstinately constipated ; he will neither 
eat nor move ; and in two or three days he is dead. 

In the pointer, hound, and greyhound, there sometimes appears on the 
whole of the chest and belly a pustular eruption, which peels off in large 
scales. The result is usually unfavourable. A more general eruption, 
however, either wearing the usual form of mange, or accompanied by 
minute pustules, may be regarded as a favourable symptom. The disease 
is leaving the vital parts^ and expending its last energy on the integument. 

The post-mortem appearances are exceedingly unsatisfactory : they do 
not correspond with the original character of the disease, but with its 
strangely varying symptoms. If the dog has died in fits, we have inflam- 
mation of the brain or its membranes, and particularly at the base of the 
brain, with considerable effusion of a serous or bloody fluid. If the pre- 




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vailing symptoms have led our attention to the lungs, we find inflammation 
of the bronchial passages, or, in a few instances, of the substance of the 
lungs, or the submucous tissue of the cells. We rarely have inflammation 
of the pulmonary pleura, and never to any extent of the intercostal 
pleura. In a few lingering cases, tubercles and vomicas of the lungs have 
been found. 

If the bowels have been chiefly attacked, we have intense inflammation 
of the mucous membrane, and, generally speaking, the small intestines 
are almost filled with worms. If the dog has gradually wasted away, 
which is often the case when purging to any considerable extent has been 
encouraged or produced, we have contraction of the whole canal, including 
even the stomach, and sometimes considerable enlargement of the mesen- 
teric glands/ 

The membrane of the nose will always exhibit marks of inflammation, 
and particularly in the frontal sinuses and ethmoidal cells ; and I have 
observed the portion of membrane on the septum, or cartilaginous division 
of the nostrils, between the frontal sinuses and ethmoidal cells, to be 
studded with small miliary tubercles. In advanced stages of the disease, 
attended with much defluxion from the nose, the cells of the ethmoidal 
bone and the frontal sinuses are filled with pus. 

Ulceration is sometimes found on the membrane of the nose, oftenest on 
the spot to which I have referred— occasionally confined to that ; and now 
and then spreading over the whole of the septum, and even corroding and 
eating through it ; generally equal on both sides of the septum ; in a few 
instances extending into the fauces ; seldom found in the larynx, but occa- 
sionally seen in the bronchial passages. The other viscera rarely present 

any remarkable morbid appearance. 

The distemper is clearly a disease of the mucous membranes, usually 
commencing in the membrane of the nose, and resembling nasal catarrh. 
In the early stage it is coryza^ or nasal catarrh ; but the affection rapidly 
extends, and seems to attack the mucous membranes generally, determined 
to some particular one, either by atmospheric influence or accidental 
causes, or constitutional predisposition. The fits arise from general dis- 
turbance of the system, or from the proximity of the brain to the early 
seat of inflammation. 

This account of the nature and treatment of distemper will, per- 
haps, be unsatisfactory to some readers. One thing, however, is clear, 
that for a disease which assumes such a variety of forms, there can be no 
specific ; yet there is not a keeper who is not in possession of some sup- 



a The following is a very frequent and 
unexaggerated history of distemper, when 
calomel has been given in too powerful 
doses : — 

August 30, 1828.— A spaniel, six months 
old, has been ailing a fortnight, and 
three doses of calomel have been given by 
the owner. He has violent purging, with 
tenesmus and blood. Half-an-ounce of 
castor-oil administered. — 3\st. Astringents 
morning, noon, and night. — Sept, 6. The 
astringents have little effect, or, if the 
purging is restrained one day, it returns 
with increased violence on the following 
day. Getting rapidly thin. Begins to 



husk. Astringents continued. — lOth. The 
purging is at last overcome, but the huski- 
ness has rapidly increased, accompanied 
by laborious and hurried respiration. 
Bleed to the extent of three ounces. — 1 1th. 
The breathing relieved, but he obstinately 
refuses to eat, and is forced several times 
in the day with arrow-root or strong soup. 
— ISth. He had become much thinner and 
weaker, and died in the evening. No ap- 
pearance of inflammation on the thoracic 
viscera, nor in any part of the alimen- 
tary canal. The intestines are contracted 
through their whole extent. — Veterina- 
rian, ii. 290. 




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posed infallible nostrum. Nothing can be more absurd. A disease attacks 
ing so many organs, and, presenting so many and such different symptoms, 
must require a mode of treatment varying with the organ attacked and the 
symptom prevailing. The faith in these boasted specifics is principally 
founded on two circumstances — atmospheric influence and peculiarity of 
breed. There are some seasons when we can scarcely save a dog ; there 
are others when we must almost wilfully destroy him in order to lose him. 
There are some breeds in which, generation after generation, five out of 
six die of distemper, while there are others in which not one out of a dozen 
dies. When the season is favourable, and the animal, by hereditary in- 
fluence, is not disposed to assume the virulent type of the disease, these 
two important agents are overlooked, and the immunity from any fatal 
result is attributed to medicine. The circumstances most conducive to 
success will be the recollection that it is a disease of the mucous surfaces, 
and that we must not carry the depleting and lowering system too far. 
Keeping this in view, we must accommodate ourselves to the symptoms as 

they arise. 

The natural medicine of the dog seems to be an emetic. The act of 
vomiting is very easily excited in him, and, feeling the slightest ailment, 
he flies to the dog-grass, unloads his stomach, and is at once well. In 
distemper, whatever be the form which it assumes, an emetic is the first 
thing to be given. Common salt will do when nothing else is at hand ; 
but the best emetic, and particularly in distemper, consists of equal parts 
of calomel and tartar emetic. From half a grain to a grain and a half of 
each will constitute the dose. 

This will act first as an emetic, and afterwards as a gentle purgative. 
Then, if the cough is urgent, and there is heaving at the flanks, and the 
nose is hot, a moderate quantity of blood may be taken — from three to 
twelve ounces— and this, if there has been previous constipation, may be 
followed by a dose of sulphate of magnesia, from two to six drachms. 

In slight cases this will often be sufficient to effect a cure : but, if the 
dog still droops, and particularly if there is much huskiness, the antimonial 
or James's powder, nitre and digitalis, in the proportion of from half a 
grain to a grain of digitalis, from two to five grains of the James's powder, 
and from a scruple to a drachm of nitre, should be administered twice or 
thrice in a day. If on the third or fourth day the huskiness is not quite 
removed, the emetic should be repeated. 

In these affections of the mucous membranes, it is absolutely necessary 
to avoid or to get rid of every source of irritation, and worms will generally 
be found a very considerable one in young dogs. If we can speedily get 
rid of them, distemper will often rapidly disappear ; but, if they are suffered 
to remain, diarrhoea or fits are apt to supervene : therefore some worm 
medicine should be administered. 

I have said that vomiting is very easily excited in the dog ; and that for 
this reason we are precluded from the use of a great many medicines in 
our treatment of him. Calomel, aloes, jalap, scammony, and gamboge will 
generally produce sickness. We are, therefore, driven to some mechanical 
vermifuge ; and a very effectual one, and that will rarely fail of expelling 
even the tape- worm, is tin filings or powdered glass. From half a drachm 
to a drachm of either may be advantageously given twice in the day. 
There may generally be added to them digitalis, James's powder, and 
nitre, made into balls with palm oil and a little linseed meal. This course 



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should be pursued in usual cases until two or three emetics have been 
given, and a ball morning and night on the intermediate days. Should 
the huskiness not diminish after the first two or three days, if the dog has 
not rapidly lost flesh, I should be disposed to take a little more blood, and 
to put a seton in the poll. It should be inserted between the ears, and 
reaching from ear to ear. 

When there is fever and huskiness, and the dog is not much emaciatedj 
a seton is an excellent remedy ; but, if it is used indiscriminately, and 
when the animal is already losing ground, and is violently purging, we shall 
only hasten his doom, or rather make it more sure. 

It is now, if ever, that pneumonia will be perceived. The symptoms 
of inflammation in the lungs of the dog can scarcely be mistaken. The 
quick and laborious breathing, the disinclination or inability to lie down, 
the elevated position of the head, and the projection of the muzzle will 
clearly mark it. More blood must be svibtracted, a seton inserted, the 
bowels opened with Epsom salts, and the digitalis, nitre, and James's pow- 
der given more frequently and in larger doses than before. 

Little aid is to be derived from observation of the pulse of the dog ; it 
differs materially in the breed, and size, and age of the animal. Many 
years* practice have failed in enabling me to draw any certain conclusion 
from it. The best place to feel the pulse of the dog is at the side. We 
may possibly learn from it whether digitalis is producing an intermittent 
pulse, which it frequently will do, and which we wish that it should do : it 
should then be given a little more cautiously, and in smaller quantities. 

If the pneumonia is evidently conquered, or we have proceeded thus 
far without any considerable inflammatory affection of the chest, we must 
begin to change our plan of treatment. If the huskiness continues, and 
the discharge from the nose is increased and thicker, and the animal is 
losing flesh and becoming weak, we must give only half the quantity of 
the sedative and diuretic medicine, and add some mild tonic, as gentian, 
chamomile, and ginger, with occasional emetics ; taking care to keep the 
bowels in a laxative but not purging state. The dog should likewise be 
urged to eat ; and, if he obstinately refuses all food, he should be forced 
with strong beef jelly, for a very great degree of debility will now 

ensue. 

We have thus far considered the treatment of distemper from its com- 
mencement ; but it may have existed several days before we were con- 
sulted, and the dog may be thin and husky, and refusing to eat. In 
such case we should give an emetic, and then a dose of salts, and after 
that proceed to the tonic and fever balls. 

Should the strength of the animal continue to decline, and the discharge 
from the nose become purulent and offensive, the fever medicine must be 
omitted, and the tonic balls, with carbonate of iron, administered. Some 
veterinary surgeons are very fond of gum resins and balsams. Mr. Blaine, 
in his excellent treatise on the distemper in his Canine Pathology, 
recommends myrrh and benjamin, and balsam of Peru and camphor. I 
much doubt the efficacy of these drugs. They are beginning to get into 
disrepute in the practice of human medicine ; and I believe that if they 
were all banished from the veterinary Materia Medica we should experi- 
ence no loss. When the dog begins to recover, although not so rapidly 
as we could wish, the tonic balls, without the iron, may be advantageously 
given, with now and then an emetic, if huskiness should threaten to return ; 



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but mild and wholesome food^ and country or good air, will be the best 
tonics. 

If the discharge from the nose become very offensive, the lips swelled 
and ulcerated, and the breath fetid, half an ounce of yeast may be admi- 
nistered every noon, and the tonics morning and night ; and the mouth 
should be frequently washed with a solution of chloride of lime. 

At this period of the disease the sub-maxillary glands are sometimes 
very much enlarged, and a tumour or abscess is formed, which, if not 
timely opened, breaks, and a ragged ill-conditioned ulcer is formed, very 
liable to spread, and very difficult to heal. It is prudent to puncture this 
tumour as soon as it begins to point, for it will never disperse. After 
the opening, a poultice should be applied to cleanse the ulcer ; after 
which it should be daily washed with the compound tincture of benjamin, 
and dressed with calamine ointment. Some balls should be given, and 
the animal liberally fed. 

Should fits appear in an early stage, give a strong emetic ; then bleed, 
and open the bowels with five or six grains of calomel, and a quarter of 
a grain of opium : after this insert a seton, and then commence the tonic 

balls. 

The progress of fits in the early stages of the disease may thus be 
arrested. The occurrence of two or three should not make us despa 






II 



but, if they occur at a later period, and when the dog is much reduced 
there is little hope. This additional expenditure of animal power will pro- 
bably soon carry him off. All that is to be done, is to administer a strong 
emetic, obviate costiveness by castor oil, and give the tonic balls with 
opium. 

Of the treatment of the yellow disease little can be said ; we shall not 
succeed in one case in twenty. When good effect has been produced, it 
has been by one large bleeding, opening the bowels well with Epsom 
salts, and then giving grain doses of calomel twice a-day in a tonic 

ball. 

While it is prudent to obviate costiveness, we should recoHect that 
there is nothing more to be dreaded, in every stage of distemper, than 
diarrhoea. The purging of distemper will often bid defiance to the most 
powerful astringents. This shows the folly of giving violent cathartics in 
distemper ; and, when I have heard of the ten, and twenty, and thirty grains 
of calomel that are sometimes given, I have thought it fortunate that the 
stomach of the dog is so irritable. The greater part of these kill-or-cure 
doses is ejected, otherwise the patient would soon be carried off by super- 
purgation. There is an irritability about the whole of the mucous mem- 
brane that may be easily excited, but cannot be so readily allayed ; and, 
therefore, except in the earliest stage of distemper, or in fits, or limiting 
ourselves to the small portion of calomel which enters into our emetic, I 
would never give a stronger purgative than castor-oil or Epsom salts. It 
is of the utmost consequence that the purging of distemper should be 
checked as soon as possible. 

In some diseases a sudden purorino:, and even one of considerable 



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purging, 
violence, constitutes what is called the crisis. 



It is hailed as a favourable 



symptom ; and from that moment the animal begins to recover ; but 
this is never the case in distemper : it is a morbid action which is then 
going on, and which produces a dangerous degree of debility. 

The proper treatment of purging in cases of distemper is first to give a 




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good dose of Epsom salts, in order to carry away any thing that may offend, 
and then to ply the animal with mingled absorbents and astringents. A 
scruple of powdered chalk, ten grains of catechu, and five of ginger, with 
a quarter of a grain of opium, made into a ball with palm oil, may be 
given to a middle-sized dog twice or thrice every day. To this may 
be added injections of gruel, with the compound chalk mixture and 

opium. 

When the twitchings which I have described begin to appear, a seton 
is necessary, whatever may be the degree to which the animal is reduced. 
Some stimulating embrocation, snch as tincture of cantharides, may be 
rubbed along the whole course of the spine ; and the medicine which has 
oftenest, but not always, succeeded is castor-oil, syrup of buckthorn, and 
syrup of white poppies, given morning and night, and a tonic ball at noon. 
. If the dog will not now feed, he should be forced with strong soup. As 
/ soon, however, as the spasms spread over him, accompanied by a moaning 
that increases to a cry, humanity demands that w^e put an end to that which 
we cannot cure. Until this happens I would not despair ; for many dogs 
have been saved that have lain several days perfectly helpless. 

As to the chorea which I have mentioned as an occasional sequel of 
distemper, if the dog is in tolerable condition, and especially if he is 
gaining flesh, and the spring or summer is approaching, there is a chance 
of his doing well. A seton is the first thing ; the bowels should be pre- 
served from constipation ; and the nitrate of silver, in doses of one-eighth 
of a grain, made into a pill with linseed meal, and increased to a quarter 
of a grain, should be given morning and night. 

We should never make too sure of the recovery of a distempered dog, 
nor commit ourselves by too early a prognosis. It is a treacherous disease ; 
the medicines should be continued until every symptom has fairly disap- 
peared ; and for a month at least. 

It may be interesting to add the following account of the distemper in 
dogs by Dr. Jenner. Several of our modern writers have copied very 

closely from him. 

^^ That disease among dogs which has familiarly been called the ' dis- 
temper,' has not hitherto, I believe, been much' noticed by medical men. 
My situation in the country favouring my wishes to make some observa- 
tions on this singular malady, I availed myself of it, during several suc- 
cessive years, among a large number of foxhounds belonging to the Earl 
of Berkeley ; and, from observing how frequently it has been confounded 
Avith hydrophobia, I am induced to lay the result of my inquiries before 
the Medical and Chirurgical Society. It may be difficult, perhaps, 
precisely to ascertain the period of its first appearance in Britain. In 
this and the neighbouring counties, I have not been able to trace it 
back beyond the middle of the last century ; but it has since spread uni- 
versally. I knew a gentleman who, about forty-five years ago, destroyed 
the greater part of his hounds, from supposing them mad, when the 
distemper first broke out among them ; so little was it then known by 
those most conversant with dogs. On the continent I find it has been 
known for a much longer period ; it is as contagious among dogs as the 
small pox, measles, or scarlet fever among the human species ; and the 
contagious miasmata, like those arising from the diseases just mentioned, 
retain their infectious properties a long time after separation from the 
distempered animal. Young hounds, for example, brought in a state of 



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health into a kennel, where others have gone through the distemper, 
seldom escape it. I have endeavoured to destroy the contagion by order- 
ing every part of a kennel to be carefully washed with water, then white- 
washed, and finally to be repeatedly fumigated with the vapour of marine 
acid, but without any good result. 

" The dogs generally sicken early in the second week after exposure to 
the contagion ; it is more commonly a violent disease than otherwise, and 
cuts off at least one in three that are attacked by it. It commences with 
inflammation of the substance of the lungs,, and generally of the mucous 
membrane of the bronchi. The inflammation at the same time seizes on 
the membranes of the nostrils, and those lining the bones of the nose, 
particularly the nasal portion of the ethmoid bone. These membranes 
are often inflamed to such a degree as to occasion extravasation of blood, 
which I have observed coagulated on their surface. The breathing is 
short and quick, and the breath is often fetid ; the teeth are covered 
with a dark mucus. There is frequently a vomiting of a glairy fluid. 
The dog commonly refuses food, but his thirst seems insatiable, and 
nothing cheers him like the sight of water. The bowels, although gene- 
rally constipated as the disease advances, are frequently affected with 
diarrhoea at its commencement. The eyes are inflamed, and the sight is 
often obscured by mucus secreted from the eyelids, or by opacity of the 
cornea. The brain is often affected as early as the second day after the 
attack ; the animal becomes stupid, and his general habits are changed. 
In this state, if not prevented by loss of strength, he sometimes wanders 
from his home. He is frequently endeavouring to expel by forcible expi- 
rations the mucus from the trachea and fauces, with a peculiar rattling 
noise. His jaws are generally smeared with it, and it sometimes flows ovit 
in a frothy state, from his frequent champing. 

" During the progress of the disease, especially in its advanced stages, he 
is disposed to bite and gnaw any thing within his reach ; he has sometimes 
epileptic fits, and a quick succession of general though slight convulsive 
spasms of the muscles. If the dog survive, this affection of the muscles 

He is often attacked with fits of a different de- 
scription; he first staggers, then tumbles, rolls,, cries as if whipped, and 
tears up the ground with his teeth and fore feet : he then lies down sense- 
less and exhausted. On recovering, he gets up, moves his tail, looks 
placid, comes to a whistle, and appears in every respect much better than 
before the attack. The eyes, during this paroxysm, look bright, and, 
unless previously rendered dim by mucus, or opacity of the cornea, seem 
as if they were starting from their sockets. He becomes emaciated, and 
totters from feebleness in attempting to walk, or from a partial paralysis 

of the hind legs. 

fourth week, and then either begins to show signs of returning health 

(which seldom happens when the symptoms have continued with this de- 
gree of violence), or expires. During convalescence, he has sometimes, 
though rarely, profuse haemorrhage from the nose. 

" When the inflammation of the lungs is very severe, he frequently dies 
on the third day. I knew one instance of a dog dying within twenty- 
four hours after the seizure; and in that short space of time the greater 
portion of the lungs was, from exudation, converted into a substance 
nearly as solid as the liver of a sound animal. In this case the liver itself 
was considerably inflamed, and the eyes and flesh universally were 



continues through life. 



In this state he sometimes lingers on till the third or 



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tinged yellow, though I did not observe any thing obstructing the biliary 



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In other instances I have also observed the eyes looking yellow 
" The above is a description of the disease in its several forms ; but 
in this, as in the diseases of the human body, there is every gradation in 
its violence. 

" There is also another affinity to some human diseases^ viz., that the 
animal which has once gone through it very rarely meets with a second 
attack. Fortunately this distemper is not communicable to man. Neither 
the effluvia from the diseased dog nor the bite have proved in any 
instance infectious ; but, as it has often been confounded with canine 
madness, as I have before observed, it is to be wished that it were more 
generally understood ; for those who are bitten by a dog in this state are 
sometimes thrown into such perturbation that hydrophobic symptoms 
have actually arisen from the workings of the imagination. * Mr. John 
Hunter used to speak of a case somewhat of this description in his 
lectures. 

" A gentleman who received a severe bite from a dog, soon after 
fancied the animal was mad. He felt a horror at the sight of liquids, and 
was actually convulsed on attempting to swallow them. So uncontrol- 
lable were his prepossessions, that Mr. Hunter conceived he would have 
died had not the dog which inflicted the wound been found and brought 
into his room in perfect health. This soon restored his mind to a state of 
tranquillity. The sight of water no longer afflicted him, and he quickly 
recovered.'' ^ . 

Palsy, more or less complete, is sometimes the termination of the dis- 
temper in dogs. 

It is usually accompanied by chorea, and it is then, in the majority of 
cases, hopeless. Setons should be inserted in the poll, being then, as nearly 
as possible, at the commencement of the spinal cord. They should be well 
stimulated and worn a considerable time. If they fail, a plaster composed 
of common pitch, with a very small quantity of yellow wax and some 
powdered cantharides, spread on sheep's-skin, should be placed over the 
whole of the lumbar and sacral regions, extending half-way down the thigh 
on either side. The bowels should be kept open by mild aperients, in order 
that every source of irritation may be removed from the intestinal canal. 

Some mild and general tonic will likewise be useful, such as gentian and 
ginger. 



^ Medico-Chirurgical Transactions^ 21st March, 1809. 



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SMALL-POX. 



243 



CHAPTER XV. 



SMALL-POX ; MANGE ; WARTS ; CANCER ; FUNGUS HJEMATODES J 



SORE FEET. 



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SMALL-POX. 

In 1809, there was observed, at the Eoyal Veterinary School at Lyons, 
an eruptive malady among the dogs, to which they gave the name of 
small-pox. It appeared to be propagated from dog to dog by contagion. 
It was not difficult of cure ; and it quickly disappeared when no other 
remedies were employed than mild aperients and diaphoretics. A sheep 
was inoculated from one of these dogs. There was a slight eruption of 
pustules formed on the place of inoculation, but nowhere else ; nor was 

there the least fever. 

At another time, also, at the school at Lyons, a sheep died of the 
regular sheep-pox. A part of the skin was fastened, during four-and- 
twenty hours, on a healthy sheep, and the other part of it on a dog, both 
of them being in apparent good health. No effect was produced on the 
dog, but the sheep died of confluent sheep-pox. 

The essential symptoms of small-pox in dogs succeed each other in the 
following order : the skin of the belly, the groin, and the inside of the 
fore arm becomes of a redder colour than in its natural state, and sprinkled 
with small red spots irregularly rounded. They are sometimes isolated, 
sometimes clustered together. The near approach of this eruption is 

announced by an increase of fever. 

On the second day, the spots are larger, and the integument is slightly 

tumefied at the centre of each. 

On the third day, the spots are generally enlarged, and the skin is still 

more prominent at the centre. 

On the fourth day, the summit of the tumour is yet more prominent. 
Towards the end of that day, the redness of the centre begins to assume a 
somewhat gray colour. On the following days, the pustules take on their 
peculiar characteristic appearance, and cannot be confounded with any 
other eruption. On the summit is a white circular point, corresponding 
with a certain quantity of nearly transparent fluid which it contains, and 
covered by a thin and transparent pellicle. This fluid becomes less and 
less transparent, until it acquires the colour and consistence of pus. The 
pustule, during its serous state, is of a rounded form. It is flattened 
when the fluid acquires a purulent character, and even slightly depressed 
towards the close of the period of suppuration, and when that of desicca- 
tion is about to commence, which ordinarily happens towards the ninth 
or tenth day of the eruption. The desiccation and the desquamation 
occupy an exceedingly variable length of time ; and so, indeed, do all the 
different periods of the disease. What is the least inconstant, is the dura- 
tion of the serous eruption, which is about four days, if it has been dis- 

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SMALL-POX. 



I have never seen it in dogs more than eighteen months 



tinctly produced and guarded from all friction. If the general character 
of the pustules is considered, it will be observed, that, while some of them 
are in a state of serous secretion, others will only have begun to appear. 

The eruption terminates when desiccation commences in the first pus- 
tules ; and, if some red spots show themselves at that period of the malady, 
they disappear without being followed by the development of pustules. 
They are a species of abortive pustules. After the desiccation, the skin 
remains covered by brown spots, which, by degrees, die away. There 
remains no trace of the disease, except a few superficial cicatrices on 
which the hair does not grow.. 

The causes which produce the greatest variation in the periods of the 
eruption are, the age of the dog, and the temperature of the situation 
and of the season. The eruption runs through its different stages with 
much more rapidity in dogs from one to five months old than in those 
of greater age. 

old. An elevated temperature singularly favours the eruption, and also 
-renders it confluent and of a serous character. A cold atmosphere is un- 
favourable to the eruption, or even prevents it altogether. Death is 
almost constantly the result of the exposure of dogs having small-pox to 
any considerable degree of cold. A moderate temperature is most favour- 
able to the recovery of the animal. A frequent renewal or change of air, 
the temperature remaining nearly the same, is highly favourable to the 
patient ; consequently close boxes or kennels should be altogether avoided. 
I have often observed, that the perspiration or breath of dogs labouring 
under variola emits a very unpleasant odour. This smell is particularly 
observed at the commencem^ent of the desiccation of the pustules, and when 
the animals are lying upon dry straw; for the friction of the bed against 
the pustules destroys their pellicles, and permits the purulent matter to 
escape ; and the influence of this purulent matter is most pernicious. The 
fever is increased, and also the unpleasant smell from the mouth, and that 
of thefseces. In this state there is a disposition which is rapidly deve- 
loped in the lungs to assume the character of pneumonia. This last 
complication is a most serious one, and almost always terminates fatally. 
It has a peculiar character. It shows itself suddenly, and with all its 
alarming symptoms. It is almost immediately accompanied by a purulent 
secretion from the bronchi, and the second day does not pass without the 
characters of pneumonia being completely developed. The respiration is 
accompanied by a mucous rale which often becomes sibilant. The nasal 
cavities are filled with a purulent fluid. The dog that coughs violently 
at the commencement of the disease employs himself, probably, on the 
following day in ejecting, by a forcible expulsion from the nostrils, the 
purulent secretion which is soon and plentifully developed. When he is 
lying quiet, and even when he seems to be asleep, there is a loud, ster- 
torous, guttural breathing. 



"^ 



MANGE. 



The existence of certain insects found burrowing under the skin of the 
human being, and of various tribes of animals, has been acknowledged 
from the 12th century. In the 17th century correct engravings of these 
insects were produced. On the other hand many doubted their existence, 
because it had not been their lot to see them. In 1812, Gales, a pupil in 





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MANGE. 



245 



the hospital of St. Louis, pretended to have found some of them. They 
were put into the hands of M. Raspail, of Paris, who proved that they 
were nothing more than the common cheese mites ; and substituted by 
Gales for those seen by Bonomo. 

Professor Hertwig, of Berlin, has given a graphic sketch of these in- 
sects (Veterinarian, vol. xi. pp. 373, 489). 

Mr. Holthouse states that, ^^ placed on the skin of a healthy individual, 
they excite a disease in the part to which they were confined, having all 
the characters of scabies ; that insects taken from mangy sheep, horses, 
and dogs, and transplanted to healthy individuals of the same species, pro- 
duce in them a disease analogous to that in the animals from which they 
were taken; and that there are too many well-attested cases on record to 
permit us to doubt of scabies having been communicated from animals to 



man. 



A 



Mange may in some degree be considered as an hereditary disease, 
mangy dog is liable to produce mangy puppies, and the progeny of a 
mangy bitch will certainly become affected sooner or later. In many 
cases a propensity to the disease will be speedily produced. ^ If the puppies 
are numerous, and confined in close situations, the eflBuvia of their tran- 
spiration and feecal discharges will often be productive of mange very diffi- 
cult to be removed. Close confinement, salted food, and little exercise, are 
frequent causes of mange. 



Mange 



a. frequent form which this disease assumes. It 
assumes a pustular and scabby form in the red mange, particularly in 
w^hite-haired dogs, when there is much and painful inflammation. A pecu- 
liar eruption, termed surfeit, which resembles mange, is^ometimes the 
consequence of exposure to cold after a hot sultry day. 
appear, from which the hair falls and leaves the skin bare and rough, 
mange sometimes takes on the character of erysipelas ; at other times there 
is considerable inflammation. The animal exhibits heat and restlessness, and 
ulcerations of different kinds appear in various parts, superficial but ex- 



Large blotches 

Acute 



tensive. 



Bleeding, aperient and cooling medicines are indicated, and also 

A weak 



applications of the subacetate of lead, or spermaceti ointment, 
infusion of tobacco may be resorted to when other things fail, but it must 
be used with much caution. The same may be' said of all mercurial pre- 
parations. The tanner's pit has little eflficacy, except in slight cases. 
Slight bleedings may be serviceable, and especially in full habits ; setons 
may be resorted to in obstinate cases. A change in the mode of feeding 
will often be useful. Mild purgatives, and especially Epsom salts, are 
often beneficial, and also mercurial alteratives, as 7Ethiop's mineral 
with cream of tartar and nitre. The external applications require con- 
siderable caution. If mercury is used, care must be taken that the dog does 
not lick it. The diarrhoea produced by mercury often has a fatal effect. 

Unguents are useful, but considerable care must be taken in their appli- 
cation. They must be applied to the actual skin, not over the hair. In 
old and bad cases much time and patience will be requisite. Mr. Blaine 
had a favourite setter who had virulent mange five years. He was ordered 
to be dressed every day, or every second day, before the disease was com- 
pletely conquered. 

Cutaneous affections have lately been prevalent to an extent altogether 
unprecedented on this and on the other side of the channel. In the latter 
part of 1843 the disease assumed a character which had not been known 



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246 



MANGE WARTS. 



among us for many years. The common mange, which we used to think 
we could easily grapple with, was now little seen: even the usual red 
mange with the fox-coloured stain was not of more frequent occurrence 
than usual, but an intolerable itchiness with comparatively little redness 
of skin, and rarely sufficient to account for the torture which the animal 
seemed to endure, and often with not the slightest discoloration of the 
integument, came before us almost every day, and under its influence the 
dog became ill tempered, dispirited, and emaciated, until he sunk under its 
influence. All unguents were thrown away here. Lotions of corrosive 
sublimate, decoction of bark, infusion of digitalis or tobacco, effected some 
little good, but the persevering use of the iodide of potassium, purgatives, 
and the abstraction of blood very generally succeeded. 

The sudden appearance of redness of the skin, and exudation from it, 
and actual sores attending the falling off" of the hair, and itching, that 
seemed to be intolerable, have also been prevalent to an unprecedented 
extent. This mange, however, is to a certain degree manageable. A dose 
or two of physic should be given, with an application of a calamine powder, 
and the administration of the iodide of potassium. 

Mr. Blaine gives a most valuable account of mange in the dog, part of 
which I shall quote somewhat at length. Mange exerts a morbid consti- 
tutional action on the skin ; it is infectious from various miasmata, and 
it is contagious from personal communication. In some animals it may be 
produced by momentary contact : it descends to other animals of various 
descriptions ; there is no doubt that it is occasionally hereditary : it is 
generated by effluvia of many various kinds ; almost every kind of rancid 
or stimulating food is the parent of it. High living with little exercise 
is a frequent cause of it, and the near approach of starvation is not unfa- 
vourable to it. The scabby mange is the common form under which it 
generally appears. In red mange the whole integument is in a state of 
acute inflammation ; surfeit, or blotches, a kind of cuticular eruption 
breaks out on particular parts of the body without the slightest notice, 
and, worse than all, a direct febrile attack, with swelling and ulceration, 
occurs under which the dog evidently suffers peculiar heat and pain. Last 
of all comes local mange. Almost every eruptive disease, whether arising 
from the eye, the ear, the scrotum, or the feet, is injurious to the 
quality as well as the health of every sporting dog : the scent invariably 
becomes diseased, and the general powers are impaired. 

There are several accounts of persons who, having handled mangy dogs, 
have been affected with an eruption very similar to the mange. A gentle- 
man and his wife who had been in the habit of fondling a mangy pug dog, 
were almost covered with an eruption resembling mange. Several of my 
servants in the dog-hospital have experienced a similar attack ; and the 
disease was once communicated to a horse by a cat that was accustomed 
to lie on his back as he stood in the stall. 

WARTS. 

These are often unpleasant things to have to do with. A Newfoundland 
dog had the whole of the inside of his mouth lined with warts. I applied 
the following caustic : — Hyd. sub-corrosivi 3j., acidi mur. 3, alcoholis 
3iiij., aquae 3ij. The warts were touched twice every day, and in less 
than a fortnight they had all disappeared. 
. Another dog had its mouth filled with warts, and the above solution was 



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WARTS — CANCEE. 



247 



applied. In four days considerable salivation came on, and lasted a week, 
but at the expiration of tliat time the warts had vanished, i he owner oi 
the dog had applied the solution with the tip of her finger ; she experienced 
some salivation, which she attributed to this cause. 

The skin of the dog, from the feebleness of its perspiratory lunctions, is 
ensible to the influence of diaphoretics : therefore we trust so much 

,. ,. z' „ l.^ .^ ^^^;^^ocnc. r^f iho aVin nf that animal. 



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CANCER. 



This is a disease too frequent among females of the dog tribe, and occa- 
sionally seen in the male. Its symptoms, local and general, are various. 
They are usually very obscure in their commencement ; they increase with- 
out any limit ; they are exasperated by irritants of any kind ; and in the 
majority of cases their reproduction is almost constant, and perfectly 

* -IT 

''' wTth regard to the female, it is mostly connected with the secretion of 
milk. Tw'o or three years may pass, and at almost every return of the 
period of oestrum, there will be some degree of enlargement or inflamma- 
tion of the teats. Some degree of fever also appears ; but, alter a tew 
weeks have passed away, and one or two physic balls have been administered 
evervthino- goes on well. In process of time, however, the period oi 
oestrim i1 attended by a greater degree of fever and enlargement 
of the teats, and at length some diminutive hardened nuclei, not ex- 
ceeding in size the tip of a finger, are felt within one of the teats, hy 
degrees they increase in size ; they become hard, hot, and tender. A 
considerable degree of redness begins to appear. Some small enlarge- 
ments are visible. The animal evidently exhibits considerable pam when 
these enlargements are pressed upon. They rapidly mcrease, they 
become more hot and red, various shining protuberances appear about the 
projection, and at length the tumour ulcerates. A considerable degree 

of sanious matter flows from the aperture. _ . ^r, t, . j 

The tumours, however, after a while diminish m size ; the heat and 
redness diminish ; the ulcer partly or entirely closes, but, after a while, 
and especially when the next period of oestrum arrives, the tumour again 
increases, and with far greater rapidity than before, and then comes the 
necessity of the removal of the tumour, or if not, the destruction of the 
animal. In the great majority of cases, the removal of the cancer does 
not destroy the dog, but lessens its torture. The knife and the forcqjs 
must usually be resorted to, and in the hands of a skilful surgeon the lite 
of the animal will be saved. . 

When the cancer is attached to the neighbouring parts by cellular sub- 
stance alone, no difficulty will be experienced in detaching the whole ot it. 
The operation will be speedily performed, and there will be end oi the 
matter • but, if the tumour has been neglected, and the muscular, the cel- 
lular, or even the superficial parts have been attacked, the utmost caution 
is requisite that every diseased portion shall be removed. Mr. biaine adds 
to this that '' it must also be taken into the account, that, although in the 
canine cancer ulceration does not often reappear in the ^^'l['^'^'''^\f^\b™l 
the operation has been judiciously performed, yet when the ^onstitution ha 
been long affected with this ulcerative action, it is very apt to show itself m 
some neighbouring part soon after.". 



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248 



FUNGUS HiEMATODES — SOKE FEET. 



FUNGUS H^MATODES. 



In the month of March, 1836, a valuable pointer dog was sent to Mr. 
Adam of Beaufort, quite emaciated, with total loss of appetite, and with 
a large fungus hsematodes about the middle of the right side of his neck. 
It had begun to appear about five months before, and was not at first larger 
than a pea. Mr. Adam gave him a purgative of Barbadoes aloes, which 
caused the discharge of much fetid matter from the intestines. At the ex- 
piration of three days he removed the tumour with the knife. There was 
a full discharge of healthy matter from the wound. During the period of 
its healing the animal was well fed, and ferruginous tonics were given. In 
a little more than three weeks the wound had completely filled up with 
healthy granulations, and the dog was sent home to all appearance quite well. 

At the expiration of three months another tumour made its appearance 
near the situation of the former one, growing fast ; it had attained nearly 
the size of the other. Mr. Adam removed it immediately, ordering a 
system of nutritive feeding and tonics. It appeared at first to go on 
favourably ; but, five days after the removal of the second one^ a third 
made its appearance. 

This was removed at the expiration of another five days ; but the animal 
was totally unable to walk, with very laborious breathing and cold ex- 
tremities. A cathartic was given and the legs bandaged ; but the wounds 
made no progress towards healing, and at the end of three days he died. 
On exposing the cavity of the thorax it was almost covered with variously 
formed tumours, from the size of a pigeon's egg to that of a small pea. 
The intercostal muscles had many of these adhering to them, and a few 
small ones were developed on the heart. There were three on the dia- 
phragm, in the centre of which matter was formed. The blood-vessels, 
kidneys, &c., were free from disease. These tumours were white, or nearly 
so, rather hard, and of a glandular substance. The external ones were soft, 
red, and almost destitute of blood-vessels, except the first, which bled con- 
siderably. There was dropsy of the abdomen. 



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SOUE FEET 

constitute a frequent and troublesome complaint. It consists of inflamma- 
tion of the vascular substance, between the epidermis and the parts beneath. 
It is the result of numerous slight contusions, produced by long travelling 
in dry weather, or hunting over a hard and rough country, or one covered 
with frost and snow. The irritation with which it commences continues 
to increase, and a certain portion of fluid is determined to the feet, and 
tubercles are formed, hard, hot, and tender, until the whole foot is in a 
diseased state, considerably enlarged. The animal sadly suffers, and is 
scarcely able to stand up for a minute. Sometimes the ardour of the chace 
will make him for a while forget all this ; but on his return, and when 
he endeavours to repose himself, it is with difficulty that he can be got up 
again. The toes become enlarged, the skin red and tender, and the horny 
sole becomes detached and drops. Local fever, and that to a considerable 
extent, becomes established ; it re-acts on the general economy of the 
animal, who scarcely moves from his bed, and at length refuses all food. 
At other times a separation takes place between the dermis and the epider- 
mis, which is a perfect mass of serosity. 



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SORE FEET. 



249 



Still, however, it is only when all this has much increased, or has been 
neglected, that any permanently dangerous consequences take place 
When violent inflammation has set in, the feet must be carefully attenclea 
to, or the dog may be lamed for life. One or two physic-balls may be 
given ; all salted meat should be removed, and the animal supplied witn 
food without being compelled to move from his bed. The feet should be 
bathed with warm water, and a poultice of linseed meal applied to theni 
twice in the day. If, as is too often the case, he should tear this off, the teet 
should be often fomented. It is bad practice in any master of dogs to 
suffer them to be at all neglected when there are any tokens of inflamma- 
tion of the feet. The neglect of even a few days may render a dog a 
cripple for life. If there are evident appearances of pus collecting about 
the claws, or any part of the feet, the abscess should be opened, well 
bathed with warm water, and friar's balsam applied to the feet. _ 

When the feet have been neglected, the nail is apt to grow very rapidly, 
and curve round and penetrate into the foot. The forceps should be ap- 
plied, and the claws reduced to their proper size. ^ ., , ,. ,, 

If there are any indications of fever, or if the dog should be continually 
Ivino- down, or he should hold up his feet, and keep them apart as much 
as he can, scarifications or poultices, or both, should be resorted to. 

When the feet of a dog become sore in travelling, the foolish habit ot 
washino- them with brine should never be permitted, although it is very 
commonly resorted to. Warm fomentations, or warm pot-liquor, or 
poultices of linseed meal should be applied, or, if matter is apparently 

forming, the lancet may be resorted to. , , , , . 

Dogs are frequently sent to the hospital with considerable redness between 
the toes and ichorous discharge, and the toes thickened round the base of 
the nails, as if they were inclined to drop off The common alterative 
medicine should be given, and a lotion composed of hydrarg. oxym. gr vi., 
alcohol 3i., et aq. calcis jiiij., should be applied to the feet three times 
every day. Leathern gloves should be sewn on them. These cases are 

often very obstinate. 

Generally speaking, the dog has five toes on the fore feet and four on 
the hind feet, with a mere rudiment of a fifth metatarsal bone m some 
feet : but, in others, the fifth bone is long and well proportioned and 

advances as far as the origin of the first phalanx of the neighbouring toe. 




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FRACTURES. 



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CHAPTER XVI. 



FHACTURES. 

These are of not unfrequent occurrence in the dog ; and I once had five 
cases in my hospital at the same time. 

In the human subject, fractures are more frequent in adults, and, perhaps, 
in old men than in infants ; but this is not the case with the smaller animals 
generally, and particularly with dogs. Five-sixths of the fractures occur 
between the time of weaning and the animal being six months old ; not, 
perhaps, because of their chemical composition, that the bones are more 
fragile at this age ; but because young dogs are more exposed to fall from 
the hands of the persons who carry them, and from the places to which 
they climb ; and the extremities of the bones, then being in the state of 
epiphysis, are easily separated from the body of the bone. When the 
fracture, takes place in the body of the bone, it is transverse or somewhat 
oblique, but there is scarcely any displacement. 

A simple bandage will be sufficient for the reduction of these fractures, 
which may be removed in ten or twelve days, when the preparatory callus 
has acquired some consistence. One only out of twenty dogs that were 
brought to me with fractures of the extremities, in the year 1834, died- 
Two dogs had their jaws fractured by kicks from horses, and lost several 
of their teeth. In one of them the anterior part of the jaw was fractured 
perpendicularly ; in the other, both branches were fractured. Plenty of 
good soup was injected into their mouths. Ten or twelve days afterwards, 
they were suffered to lap it ; and in a little while they were dismissed 
cured. 

It will be desirable, perhaps, to describe our usual method of reducing 
the greater part of the fractures which come under our notice. 

I. — The humerus was fractured just aboA^e the elbow and close to the 
joint. The limb was enclosed in adhesive plaster, and supported by a firm 

The bones were beginning to unite, when, by some means con- 
cerning which I could never satisfy myself, the tibia was broken a little 
above the hock. Nothing could well be done with this second fracture ; 
but great care was taken with regard to the former. The lower head of 
the humerus remained somewhat enlarged ; but the lameness became very 
slight, and in three weeks had nearly or quite disappeared. Nothing was 
done to the second fracture ; in fact, nothing more than a slight annular 
enlargement, surrounding the part, remained — a proof of the renovating 
power of nature. 

II. — A spaniel was run over by a light carriage. It was unable to pvit 
the left hind leg to the ground, and at the upper tviberosity of the ileum 
some crepitus could be distinguished. I subtracted six ounces of blood, 
administered a physic-ball, and ordered the patient to be well fomented 
with warm water several times during the night. On the following day no 
wound could be discovei'ed, but thei'e w^as great tenderness. I continued 
the fomentation. Two or three days afterwards she was evidently easier. 



bandage. 




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FRACTURES. 



251 



I then had the hair cut close, and covered the loins and back with a pitch- 
plaster. At the expiration of six days the plaster was getting somewhat 
loose, and was replaced by another with which a very small quantity ot 
powdered cantharides was mingled. At the expiration of the fifth week 

she was quite well. 

III. — The thigh-bone had been broken a fortniglit. It was a com- 
pound fracture : the divided edges of the bone protruded through the 
integuments, and there was no disposition to unite. It is not in one case 
in a hundred that an animal thus situated can be saved. 




We 



efforts, and the dog was ultimately destroyed. 



IV. 



f 



I saw it on the third day, 



when much heat and swelling had taken place. I ordered the parts to be 
frequently bathed with warm water. The heat and tenderness to a con- 
siderable degree subsided, and the pitch plaster was carefully applied. At 
the expiration of a week the plaster began to be loosened. A second one 
was applied, and when a fortnight longer had passed a slight degree ot 

tenderness alone remained. p , , n . • rn, 

v.— The following account is characteristic of the bull terrier, ihe 
radius had been broken, and was set, and the bones were decidedly united 
when the dog, in a moment of frantic rage, seized his own leg and crushed 
some of the bones. They were once more united, but his wrist bent under 
him in the form of a concave semicircle, as if some of the ligaments of 
the joint had been ruptured in the moment of rage. It was evident on the 
following day that it was impossible to control him, and he was destroyed. 
VI.— A spaniel, three months old, became fractured half way between the 
wrist and the elbow. A surgeon bound it up, and it became swollen to an 
enormous size, from the adhesive plaster that had been applied and the 
manner of placing the splints. I removed the splints. On the following 
morning I had the arm frequently fomented : a very indistinct crepitus 
could be perceived at the point of the humerus : I applied another plaster 
higher up, and including the elbow. The hair not having been cut suffi- 
ciently close, the plaster was removed, applied much more neatly and 
closely, and the original fracture was firmly bound together. No crepitus 

was now to be perceived. w, . , , , 

I saw no more of our patient for four days, when I found that he had 
fallen, and that the elbow on the other side was fractured within the 
capsular ligament. A very distinct crepitus could be felt, and the dog 
cried sadly when the joint was moved. I would have destroyed him, but 
he was a favourite with his master, and we tried what a few days more 
would produce. I enclosed the whole of the limb in a plaster of pitch, 
and bound it up without splints. Both the bandages remained on nearly 
a fortnight, when the fractures were found to be perfectly united, and the 
lameness in both legs gradually disappeared. , . ., 

YII^ July 22, 1843. A spaniel was frightened with something on the 

bed, aiid fell from it, and cried very much. The instep, or wrist, of the 
right leg before was evidently bowed, and there was considerable heat and 
tenderness. It was well fomented on the two following days and then set, 
and adhesive plaster was tightly applied, and a splint bound over that. 
2^th. The foot began to swell, and was evidently painful, i J^® °^^^j" '^^"" 
dage was loosened a little, but the inner bandage was not touched. Aug. 4 
The bandage, that had not been meddled with for eleven days, now appeared 
to give him some pain. For the last two days he has been gently licking 



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FRACTURES.: 



and gnawing it. The splints were removed ; but the adhesive plaster ap- 
pearing even and firm was suffered to remain. 26th, Everything appeared 
to be going on well^ when he again leaped from his bed. The wrist was 
much more bowed^ and was tender and hot. Simple lint and a firm calico 
bandage were had recourse to. 27th. He is unable to put his foot to the 
ground, and the joint is certainly enlarging. An adhesive plaster, made 
by a Frenchman^ was applied at the owner's request, over which was 
placed a splint. The dog soon began to gnaw the plaster, which formed 
a sticky but not very adhesive mass. Before night the pain appeared to 
be very great, and the dog cried excessively. I was sent for. We well 
fomented the leg, and then returned to our former treatment. Thei-e was 
evidently a great deal of pain, but it gradually passed over, and a slight 
degree of lameness alone remained. 

I have great pleasure in adding the following accovmts of the successful 
treatment of fractures in dogs by Mr. Percivall : 

" Hopeless as cases of fracture in horses generally are, from the difficulty 
experienced in managing the patient, they are by no means to be so 

I have in several instances seen dogs recover, and with 
very good use of the parts, if not perfect restoration of them, when the 
accidents have been considered, at the time they took place, of a nature so 
irremediable as to render it advisable to destroy the animals. 

"May 4, 1839. A valuable Irish spaniel fell from a high wall, and 



regarded in dogs. 



# 



On examination, I found the os humeri frac- 



tured about an inch above its radial extremity, causing the limb to drop 
pendulously from the side, and depriving the animal of all use of it. The 
arm, by which I mean the fore arm, was movable in any direction upon 
the shoulder, and there was distinct crepitus : in a word, the nature of the 
accident was too plain to admit of doubt ; nor was there any splinter or 
loose piece of bone discoverable. I directed that the animal might be 
laid flat upon his sound side in a hamper, or covered basket or box, of 
sufficient dimensions, but not large enough to admit of his moving about ; 
to have his hind legs fettered, his mouth muzzled, and his injured parts 
covered with a linen cloth wetted with a spirit lotion. May 5, The parts 
are tumefied, but not more, nor even so much as one might have expected. 
Continue the lotion. 6th, At my request, Mr. Youatt was called in to 
give his opinion as to the probability of effecting a cure. He thovight from 
the inconvenient situation of the fracture, that the chances of success were 
doubtful ; and recommended that a plaster, composed of thick sheep-skin 
and pitch, cut to the shape of the parts, should be applied, extending from 
the upper part of the shoulder down upon the arm, and reaching to the 
knee ; and that the whole should be enveloped in well-applied bandages, 
one of them being carried over the shoulders and brought round between 
the fore legs, to support the limb, and aid in retaining the fractured ends 
in apposition. Prior to the application of the pitch plaster the hair was 
closely shorn off*. Thus bound up, the dog was replaced in his hamper, 
and had some aperient medicine given to him. 8th. The medicine has 
operated 5 and he appears going on well, his appetite continuing unim- 
paired. 10th. He growls when I open the basket to look at him. On 
examining him (while his keeper had hold of him), I found the plaster 
loosening from its adhesion; I took it off* altogether, and applied a fresh 
one, composed of the stopping composition I use for horses' feet. June 7. 
Up to this time everything appears to have been going on properly. The 






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FRACTUHES. 



253 



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fracture feels as if it were completely united, and, as the plaster continues 
to adhere firmly, I thought the bandages enveloping it, as they were often 
getting loose, might now be dispensed with, and that the dog might with 
benefit be chained to a kennel, instead of being so closely confined as he 
has been. In moving, he does not attempt to use the fractured limb, 
but hops along upon the three other legs. July. He has acquired pretty 
good use of the limb. Being now at liberty, he runs about a good deal ; 
halting, from there being some shortness of the limb, but not so much as 
to prevent him being serviceable, as a ^slow' hunter, in the sporting- 
field. 

" About a twelvemonth ago," continues Mr. Percivall, " I was consulted 

concerning a blood-hound of great size and beauty, and of the cost of 50/. 
that had been a cripple in one of his hind limbs for some considerable 
time past, owing, it was said or thought, to having received some injury. 
After a very careful handling and examination of the parts about the hips, 
the places where he expressed pain, I came to the conclusion that there 
had been, and still existed, some fracture of the ischial portion of the pelvis^ 
but precisely where, or of what nature, I could not determine ; and all 
the treatment I could recommend was, that the animal should be shut up 
within a basket or box of some sort, of dimensions only sufficient to enable 
him to lie at ease, and that he be kept there for at least six months, with- 
out being taken out, save for the purpose of having his bed cleansed or 
renewed. His owner had previously made up his mind to have him 
destroyed : understanding, however, from me, that there still remained a 
chance of his recovery, he ordered his groom to procure a proper basket, 
and see that the dog's confinement was such as I had prescribed. The 

man asked me to allow him to have his kennel, which, being no larger 
than was requisite for him, I did not object to ; and to this he had an iron 

lattice-door made, converting it into a sort of wild-beast cage. After two 
months' confinement I had him let out for a short run, and perceived 
evident amendment. I believe altogether that he was imprisoned five 
months, and then was found so much improved that I had him chained to 
his kennel for the remaining month, and this, I believe, was continued for 
another month. The issue was the complete recovery of the animal, very 
much to the gratification and joy of his master, by whom he is regarded 
as a kind of unique or unobtainable production. 

" The fractures of dogs and other animals must, of course, be treated 
in accordance with all the circumstances of their cases ; but I have always 
considered it a most essential part of their treatment that such portable 
patients as dogs and cats, &c., should be placed and kept in a state of con- 
finement where they either could not, or were not likely to, use or move 
the fractured parts ; and, moreover, I have thought that failure, where it 
has resulted after such treatment, has arisen from its not having been suffi- 
ciently long persisted in." 

In the opinion of Professor Simonds, when there is fracture of the 
bones of the extremities, a starch bandage is the best that can be employed. 
If applied wet, it adapts itself to the irregularities of the limbs, and if 
allowed to remain on twelve hours undisturbed it forms a complete case 
for the part, and affords more equal support than anything else that can 

possibly be used. 

The following case was one of considerable interest. It came under 

the care of Professor Simonds. Two gentlemen were playing at quoits, 




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FRACTURES. 



and the dog of one of them was struck on the head by a quoit, and supposed 
to be killed. His owner took him up, and found that he Avas not dead, 
although dreadfully injured. It being near tlie Thames, his owner took 
him to the edge of the river, and dashed some water over him, and he 
rallied a little. Professor Simonds detected a fracture of the skull, with 
pressure on the brain, arising from a portion of depressed bone. The dog 
was perfectly unconscious, frequently moaning, quite incapable of standing, 
and continually turning round upon his belly, his straw, or his bed. It 
was a case of coma ; he took no food, and the pulsation at the heart was 
very indistinct. 

" I told the proprietor that there was no chance of recovery except by 
an operation ; and, even then, I thought it exceedingly doubtful. I was 
desired to operate, and I took hina home. 



oc- 



" The head was now almost twice as large as when the accident 
curred, proceeding from a quantity of coagulated blood that had been 
effused under the skin covering the skull. I gave him a dose of aperient 
medicine, and on the following morning commenced my operation. ^ 

" The hair was clipped from the head, and an incision carried imme- 
diately from between the eye-brows to the back part of the skull, in the 
direction of the sagittal suture. Another incision was made from this 
towards the root of the ear. This triangular flap was then turned back, 
in order to remove the coagulated blood and make a thorough exposure 
of the skull. I was provided with a trephine, thinking that only a por- 
tion of the bone had been depressed on the brain, and it would be neces- 
sary with that instrument, to separate it from its attachment, and then 
with an elevator remove it ; but I found that the greater part of the pa- 
rietal bone was depressed, and that the fracture extended along the sa- 
gittal suture from the coronal and lamdoidal sutures. At three-fourths 
of the width of the bone, the fracture ran parallel with the sagittal 
suture, and this large portion was depressed upon the tunics of the brain, 
the dura mater being considerably lacerated. The depressed bone was 
raised with an elevator, and I found, from its lacerated edges and the extent 
of the mischief done, that it was far wiser to remove it entirely, than to 
allow it to remain and take the chance of its uniting. 

" In a few days, the dog began to experience relief from the operation, 
and to be somewhat conscious of what was taking place around him. He 
still requires care and attention, and proper medicinal agents to be admi- 
nistered from time to time ; but with the exception of occasionally turning 
round when on the floor, he takes his food well and obeys his master s 



call. 



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255 



CHAPTER XVII. 



Mr 



MEDICINES USED IN THE TKEATMENT OF THE DISEASES OF 

THE DOG, 

These are far more numerous and complicated than would, on the first 
consideration of them, be imagined. The Veterinary Surgeon has a long 
list of them, suited to the wants and dangers, imaginary or real, of his 
patients ; and he who is not scientifically acquainted with them, will occa- 
sionally blunder in the choice of remedies, or the application of the 
means of cure which he adopts. Little attention may, perhaps, be paid to 
the medical treatment of the dog ; yet it requires not a little study and 
experience. I will endeavour to give a short account of the drugs, and 
mode of using them, generally employed. 

The administering of medicines to dogs is, generally speaking, simple 
and safe, if a little care is taken about the matter, and especially if two 
persons are employed in the operation. The one should be sitting with 
the dog between his knees, and the hinder part of the animal resting on 
the floor. The mouth is forced open by the pressure of the fore-finger and 
thumb upon the lips of the upper jaw, and the medicine can be conve- 
niently introduced with the other hand, and passed sufficiently far into the 
throat to insure its not being returned. The mouth should be closed and 
kept so, until the bolus has been seen to pass down, 
describes the difference between the administration of liquid and solid 
medicines : — ^^ A little attention will prevent all danger. A ball or bolus 
should be passed completely over the root of the tongue, and pushed some 
way backward and forward. When a liquid is given, if the quantity is 
more than can be swallowed at one effort, it should be removed from the 
mouth at each deglutition, or the dog may be strangled. Balls of a soft con- 
sistence, and those composed of nauseous ingredients, should be wrapped 
in thin paper, or they may disgust the dog and produce sickness." 

Dogs labouring under disease should be carefully nursed : more depends 
on this than many persons seem to be aware. A warm and comfortable 
bed is of a great deal more consequence than many persons who are fond 

Cleanliness is also an essential point. Harshness 
of manner and unkind treatment will evidently aggravate many of their 
complaints. I have sometimes witnessed an angry word spoken to a healthy 
dog produce instant convulsions in a distempered one that happened to be 
near ; and the fits that come on spontaneously in distemper, almost in- 
stantly leave the dog by soothing notice of him. 

Acidum Acetum { Vinegar). — This is useful for sprains, bruises, and fo- 
mentations. 

Acidum Nitricum {Nitric Acid; Aqua Fortis).—Thxs may be used with 

advantage to destroy warts or fungous excrescences. A little of the acid 
should be dropped on the part and bound tightly down. The protube- 



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of their dogs imagine. 



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MEDICINES. 



A surer 



ranee will slougli off and healthy granulations will spring up. 
applicationhowever is the nitrate of silver. 

Acidum Hydrocyanicum {Prussic Acid).— This is an excellent appli- 
cation for the purpose of allaying irritation of the skin in dogs ; but it must 
be very carefully watched. I have seen a drachm of it diluted with a pmt 
of distilled water, rapidly allay cuticxilar inflammation. The dreadful de- 
gree of itching which had been observed during the last two or three years 
yielded to this application alone ; and to that it has almost invariably 

Yielded, a little patience being used. 

Acupuncturation is a practice lately introduced into veterinary surgery. 
It denotes the insertion of a needle into the skin or flesh of a person or 
animal suffering severely from some neuralgic affection. Iheneecleis 
small and sharp : it is introduced by a slight pressure andsemi-rotatiog 
motion between the thumb and fore-finger, and afterwards withdrawn with 
the same motion. This should always employ a quarter of an hour at 
least, and in cases of very great pain it should continue two hours ; but 
when the object is to afford an exit to the fluid collected, mere puncture 
it sufficient. It is attended with very little pain ; and therefore it may be 
employed at least with safety if not with advantage. The operation was 
known and practised in Japan many years ago ; but it was only in the 
seventeenth century that its singular value was ascertained, in 1 8 lU some 



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Youno-dog that he had cured of distemper, except that a spasmodic affection 
of the left hind leg remained. He applied a needle, and with fair success. 
He failed with another dog ; but M. Prevost, of Geneva, relieved two mares 
from rheumatism, and an entire horse that had been lame sixteen months. 
In the Veterinary School at Lyons acupuncturation was tried on two dogs. 
One had chorea, and the other chronic paralysis of the muscles of the neck 
The operation had no effect on the first ; the other came out of the liospital 
completely cured. In the following year acupuncturation was tried with- 
out success in the same school. Four horses and two dogs were operated 

upon in vain. ' . ^ ., • / ^ 

. Adeps {Hog's Lard) forms the basis of all our ointments. 

less, inodorous, and free from every stimulating quality. 

Alcohol (Rectified Spirit) .-This is principally used m tinctures, and 
seldom or never administered to the dog in a pure state. 

Aloes, Barbadoes.—Yvom these are formed the safest and best aperi- 
ents for the dog— consisting of powdered aloes eight parts, antimonial 
powder one part, ginger one part, and palm oil five parts ; beaten well 
together, and the size of the ball varying from half a drachm to two 
drachms, and a ball administered every fourth or fifth hour. Mr Blaine 
considers it to be the safest general purgative. He says that such is the 
peculiarity of the bowels of the dog, that while a man can take with im- 
punity as much calomel as would kill two large dogs, a moderate-sized 
doa: will take a quantity of aloes sufficient to destroy two stout men. ihe 
smallest doo- can take 15 or 20 grains ; half a drachm is seldom too much ; 
but the smaller dose had better be tried first, for hundreds of dogs are 
everY year destroyed by temerity in this particular. Medium-sized dogs 
usually require a drachm ; and some large dogs have taken two or even 

Alteratives \re medicines that effect some slow change in the dis- 
eased action of certain parts, without interfering with the food or work. 

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MEDICINES, 



257 



The most useful consist of five parts of sublimed sulphur, one of nitre, one 
of linseed meal, and two of lard or palm oil. 

Alum is a powerful astringent, whether employed externally or inter- 
nally. It is occasionally administered in doses of from 10 to 15 grains m 
obstinate diarrhoea. In some obstinate cases, alum whey has been em- 
ployed in the form of a clyster. 

Oxide of Antimony y in the form of a compound powder, and under the 
name of James's powder, is employed as a sudorific, or to cause a deter- 



mination to the skin. 



(Tartar Emetic) 



besides its effect 
on the skin, is a useful nauseant, and invaluable in inflammation of the 
lungs and catarrhal affections of every kind. The Black SesquisulpJiuret 
of Antimony is a compound of sulphur and antimony, and an excellent 

alterative. 

Argenti Nitras — Nitrate of Silver {Lunar Caustic). — I have already 

strongly advocated the employment of this caustic for empoisoned wounds 
and bites of rabid animals. In my opinion it supersedes the use of every 
other caustic, and generally of the knife. I have also given it internally 
as a tonic to the dog, in cases of chorea, in doses from an eighth to a quarter 
of a grain. A dilute solution may be employed as an excitant to wounds, 
in which the healing process has become sluggish. For this purpose, ten 
grains or more may be dissolved in a fluid ounce of distilled w^ater. A few 
fibres of tow dipped in this solution, being drawn through the channel 
which is left on the removal of a seton, quickly excite the healing action. 
Occasionally one or two drops of this solution may be introduced into the 
eye for the purpose of removing opalescence of the cornea. In cases of 
fungoid matter being thrown out on the cornea, the fungus may be touched 
with a rod of nitrate of silver, and little pain will follow. 

The Peruvian Bark, or its active principle the disulphate of quina, 
is a valuable tonic in distemper, especially when combined with the iodide 
of iron ; the iron increasing the general tone of the system, and the iodine 
acting as a stimulant to the absorbents. 

Blisters are occasionally useful or indispensable in some of the casualties 
and diseases to which the dog is liable. They are mostly of the same de- 
scription, and act upon the same principles as in the horse, whether in the 
form of plaster, or ointment, or stimulating fluid. Blisters can be kept on 
the dog with difficulty : nothing short of a wire muzzle will suflfice ; Mr. 
Blaine says, that for very large dogs, he used to be compelled to make use 
of a perforated tin one. The judgment of the practitioner will determine 
in these cases, as well as with regard to the horse, whether the desired 
effect should be produced by severe measures or by those of a milder cha- 
racter, by active blisters or by milder stimulants : the diflaculty of the 
measures to be adopted, and the degree of punishment that may be inflicted, 
being never forgotten by the operator. 

We have stated in our work on the Horse, that " the art of blistering 
consists in cutting or rather shaving the hair perfectly close ; then well 
rubbing in the ointment, and afterwards, and, what is of the greatest con- 
sequence of all, plastering a little more of the ointment lightly over the 
part, and leaving it. As soon as the vesicles have perfectly risen, which 
will be in twenty or twenty-four hours, the torture of the animal may be 
somewhat relieved by the application of olive or neat's-foot oil, or any 
emollient ointment. 

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MEDICINES. 



" An infusion of two ounces of the cantharides in a pint of oil of turpen- 
tine for several days, is occasionally used as a languid blister; and when 
sufficiently lowered with common oil, it is called a sweating oil, for it 
maintains a certain degree of irritation and inflammation on the skin, yet 
not sufficient to blister ; and thus gradually abates or removes some old or 
deep inflammation, or cause of lameness." " ., j 

Iodine in various cases is now rapidly superseding the cantharides and 

the turpentine. „ , . , i- • • ^i. 

Calomel— Sumdent has been said of this dangerous medicine m the 
course of the present work. I should rarely think of exhibiting it, except 
in small doses for the purpose of producing that specific influence on the 
liver, which we know to be the peculiar property of this drug. In large 
doses it will to a certain extent produce vomiting ; and, if it finds its way 



into the intestines, it acts as a powerful drastic purgative. 

-^^ ■ •' Tliis is a most valuable medicine. 



It is 



y^u^tui ^ov (Oleum Bicini). . , 

usually combined with the syrup of buckthorn and white poppies in the 
proportions of three parts of the oil to two of the buckthorn and one ot 
the poppy-syrup ; which form a combination of ingredients m which the 
oleaginous, stimulant, and narcotic ingredients happily blend. _ 

CatecAw.— This is an extract from the wood of an acacia-tree {Acacia 
catechu), and possesses a powerful astringent property. It is given in 
cases of superpurgation, united with opium, chalk, and powdered gum. A 
tincture of it is very useful for the purpose of hastening the healing prin- 
ciple of wounds. Professor Morton says, that he considers it as the most 



valuable of the vegetable astringents. ^ i . 

•Professor Morton gives an account ot the use ot clysters. 

for which they are administered are — 1. To 



Clysters. 



The objects, he says, ... , at . • i 

empty the bowels of faeces : thus they act as an aperient. Also to induce 
a cathartic to commence its operations when, from want of exercise or due 
preparation, it is tardy in producing the desired eff^ect Clysters ope- 
rate in a twofold way : first, by softening the contents of the intestines ; 
and, secondly, by exciting an irritation in one portion of the canal which 
is communicated throughout the whole ; hence they become vahiable 
when the nature and progress of the disease require a quick evacuation ot 
the bowels. The usual enema is warm water, but this may be- rendered 
more stimulating by the addition of salt, oil, or aloes. 2 For_ the pur- 
pose of killing worms that are found in the rectum and large intestines : 
in this case, it is usually of an oleaginous nature. 3. For restraining 
diarrhoea ; sedatives and astringents being then employed. 4. lor ' nou- 
rishing the body when food cannot be received by the mouth. Cxruei is 
generally the aliment thus given. 5. For allaying spasms m the stomach 

^" Cower .—Both the verdigris, or subacetate, and the blue vitriol of sul- 
phate of copper are now comparatively rarely used. They are employed 
either in the form of a fine powder, or mixed with an equal quantity ot 
the acetate of lead in order to destroy proud flesh or stimulate old ulcers. 
They also form a part of the segyptiacum of the farrier. There are many 
better drugs to accomplish the same purpose. _ 

Creosote is seldom used for the dog. We have applications quite as 
good and less dangerous. It may be employed as a very gentle excitant 
and antiseptic. 



^ The Horse, p. 501. 







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i 



MEDICINES. 



259 



eparata 



opium, is exceedingly useful ; indeed, it is our most valuable medicine in 
all cases of purging, and particularly the purging of distemper. 



Digitalis 



It is a direct and powerful 



sedative, a mild diuretic, and useful in every inflammatory and febrile com- 
plaint. 

Gentian and Ginger are both valuable ; the first as a stomachic and 
tonic, and the last as a cordial and tonic. It is occasionally necessary, or 
at least desirable, to draw this distinction between them. 

Chloride of Lime is a useful application for ill-conditioned wounds and 
for the frequent cleansing of the kennel. 

.Epsom Salts, or Sulp/iate of Magnesia, are mild yet effective in their 
action : with regard to cattle and ^heep, they supersede every other ape- 
rient ; for the dog, however, they must yield to the castor-oil mixture. 



The common mercurial ointment is now comparatively little 

In direct 



Mercury 
used. It has given way to the different preparations of iodine. 



and virulent mange, it is yet, however, employed under the form of calo- 
mel, and combined with aloes, but in very small doses, never exceeding 
three grains. It is also useful in farcy and jaundice. The corrosive sub- 
limate is occasionally used for mange in the dog, and to destroy vermin ; 
but it is a very uncertain and dangerous medicine. 

Palm Oil would be an excellent emollient, if it were not so frequently 
adulterated with turmeric root in powder. It is far milder than the 

common lard. 

Nitrate of Potash is a valuable cooling and mild diuretic^ in doses of 
eight or ten grains. 

Sulphur is the basis of the msot effectual applications for mange. It is 
a good alterative, combined usually with antimonials and nitre, and parti- 
cularly useful in mange, surfeit, grease, hide-bound, and want of condition. 

Turpentine is an excellent diuretic and antispasmodic ; it is also a most 
effectual sweating blister and highly useful in strains. 

The Sulphate of Zinc is valuable as an excitant to wounds, and promotes 
adhesion between divided surfaces and the radix. 



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260 



LAWS OF COURSING. 









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APPENDIX 



THE NEW LAWS OF COURSING, 

As Revised and Enlarged at a Meeting of Noblemen and Gentlemm, held at the 

Thatched House Tavern, St. James's Street, June 1, l«^y. 

I Two stewards shall be appointed by the members at dinner each day, 
to act in the field the following day, and to preside at dinner. They shall 
regulate the plan of beating the ground, under the sanction of the owner 



or occupier of the soil. 



iretary 



shall'form a Committee of Management, and shall name a person, for the 
approbation of the members, to judge all courses— all doubtful cases shall 

be referred to them. . , j i 

III. All courses shall be from slips, by a brace of greyhounds only. 

IV The time of putting the first brace of dogs in the slips shall be 
declared at dinner on the day preceding. If a prize is to be run for, and 
only one dog is ready, he shall run a by, and his owner shall receive for- 
feit • should neither be ready, the course shall be run when the Committee 
shall think fit. In a match, if only one dog be ready, his owner shall receive 
forfeit ; if neither be present, the match shall be placed the last m the list. 

V If any person shall enter a greyhound by a name diff"erent Irom that 
in which he last appeared in public, without giving notice of such altera- 
tion, he shall be disqualified from winning, and shall forfeit his match. 

VI. No greyhounds shall be entered as puppies unless born on or alter 



runnm 



VII Anv member, or other person, running a greyhound at the meet- 
ing, having a dog at large which shall join in the course then running, 
shall forfeit one sovereign ; and, if belonging to either of the parties 
running, the course shall be decided against him. 

VIII The judge ought to be in a position where he can see the dogs 
leave the slips, and to decide by the colour of the dogs to a person ap- 
pointed for that purpose : his decision shall be final. ,< ^ . 

IX. If, in running for prizes, the judge shall be of opinion that the 
course has not been of sufficient length to enable him to decide as to the 
merits of the dogs, he shall inquire of the Committee whether he is to 
decide the course or not ; if in the negative, the dogs shall be immediately 

put again into the slips. _ . , , . .- 

X. The judge shall not answer any questions put to him regarding a 

course, unless such questions are asked by the Committee. ^ ^, . , 

XI If any member make any observation in the hearing oi the judge 
respecting a course, during the time of running, or before he shall have 
delivered his judgment, he shall forfeit one sovereign to the fund ; and, it 



V 





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■ i 



1 



i 



LAWS OF COURSING. 



261 



either dog be his own he shall lose the course. 
of^he judge, he shall forfeit two sovereigns. 

. When a course of an averao^e lene^tl 



impugn 




the judge shall be unable to decide it, the owners of the dogs may toss 
for it ; but, if either refuse, the dogs shall be again put in the slips, at 
such time as the Committee may think fit ; but, if either dog be drawn, the 



run 



XIII. In running a match the judge may declare the course to be un- 



decided. 



Jidi 



own property, for a prize, his dogs shall not run together, if it be possible 
to avoid it ; and, if two greyhounds, the property of the same member, 
remain to the last tie, he may run it out or draw either, as he shall think fit. 



XV. When 
wear a collar. 



greyhound 



her sight, the owner shall lose the course ; but, if a greyhound drops 
from exhaustion, and it shall be the opinion of the judge that the merit 
up to the time of falling was greatly in his or her favour, then the judge 
shall have power to award the course to the greyhound so falling, if he 
think fit. 

XVII. Should two hares be on foot, and the dogs separate before reach- 
ing the hare slipped at, the course shall be undecided, and shall be run 
over again at such time as the Committee shall think fit, unless the owners 
of the dogs agree to toss for it, or to draw one dog ; and if the dogs 
separate after running some time, it shall be at the discretion of the Com- 
mittee whether the course shall be decided up to the point of separation. 

XVIII. A course shall end if either dog be so unsighted as to cause an 
impediment in the course. 

XIX. If any member or his servant ride over his opponent's dog when 
running, so as to injure him in the course, the dog so ridden over shall be 
deemed to win the course. 

XX. It is recommended to all union meetings to appoint a committee 
of five, consisting of members of different clubs, to determine all difficulties 
and cases of doubt. 

^ r 

r 

TTie following general rules are recomme?ided to judges for tlieir guidance : 

The features of merit ar 

The race from slips, and the first turn or wrench of the hare (provided 
it be a fair slip), and a straight run-up. 

Where one dog gives the other a go-by when both are in their full 
speed, and turns or wrenches the hare. (N.B. If one dog be in the 
stretch, and the other only turning at the time he passes, it is not a fair 
go-by.) 

Where one dog turns the hare when she is leading homewards, and 
keeps the lead so as to serve himself, and makes a second turn of the hare 
without losing the lead. 

A catch or kill of the hare, when she is running straight and leading 
homewards, is fully equal to a turn of the hare when running in the same 
direction, or perhaps more, if he show the speed over the other dog in 
doing it. If a dog draws the fleck from the hare, and causes her to wrench 
or rick only, it is equal to a turn of the hare when leading homewards. 




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262 



LAAVS or COUESING. 



When 



the lead, it is equal to a turn. , , , • • 

N B It often happens when a hare has been turned, and she is running 
from home, that she turns of her own accord to gain ground homeward, 
when both dogs are on the stretch after her : in such a case the judge 
should not give the leading dog a turn. ^ 

There are often other minor advantages m a course, such as one dog 
showing occasional superiority of speed, turning on less ground, and 
running the whole course with more fire than his opponent, which must 
be left to the discretion of the judge, who is to decide on the merits. 

P 



LOCAL "RULES. 



I. 



1. The number of members shall be regulated by the letters ^n the 
Alphabet, and the two junior members shall take the letters X and Z, if 

"" II 'The members shall be elected by ballot, seven to constitute a ballot, 

^ir Trn\r:ft:^^^^^^^^^ proposed to be balloted for as a member 
shall be placed over the chimney-piece one day before the ballot can 

take pla^e^. ^^ .^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^-^^^^^ ^^ unless put up over the 
chimney-piece, with the names of the proposer and seconder, at or before 
dinner preceding the day of the ballot, and read to the members at such 

V 



dinner. 

V. Every member shall, at eacn meeuug, luu c* ^.^j..^^..^ .... 

Tironertv, or forfeit a sovereign to the Club. i j 

^ VI No member shall be allowed to match more than two greyhounds 
in the first class, under a penalty of two sovereigns to the fund, unless such 
member has been drawn or run out for the prizes, in which case he shall 

hA allnwpd to run three doors in the first class. 

YII If any member shall absent himself two seasons without sending 

his subscription, he shall be deemed out of the Society, and another chosen 

in his^plac^.^ greyhound shall be allowed to start if any arrears are due to 

thi'^ Societv from the owner. - . n .i e 

IX iny member lending another a greyhound for the Purpose of 

saving his forfeit (excepting by consent of the members present) shall for- 

'"X Tn7meS; running the dog of a stranger in a match shall cause 
the name of the owner to be inserted after his own name in the list, under 

a ripnaltv of one sovereign. ^ . , i • 

XI No stranger shall be admitted into the Society s room, unless in- 
troduced by a member, who shall place the name of his friend over the 
chimney-piece, with his own attached to it ; and no member shall intro- 
duce more than one friend, , ,, , , u 
duce more ^^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^lubs shall be honorary members 

of rtiis Society , and when present shall be allowed to run their greyhounds 
on payment of 'the annual subscription. 
XIII. This Society to meet on the 



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and course 



on the 



following days. 



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INDEX. 



AcupuNCTURATiON, used in neuralgic af- 
fections, 256 ; mode of performing, 256 
. Adam, Mr., on fungus hsematodes, 248 
Adeps, the basis of all ointments, 256 
African wild dog, description of the, 22 
Agasaii, British hunting dogs, description 

of, 7 
Age, the indications of, 180 

Albanian dog, description of the, 26 
Alcohol, only used in tinctures, 256 
Alicant dog, description of the, 104 
Aloes, Barbadoes, the best purgative, 256 
Alpine spaniel, description of the, 51 
Alteratives, the most useful, 256 
Alum, a powerful astringent, 257 
Amaurosis, symptoms of, 158 
American wild dogs, description of the, 22 
Anaemia, description of, 186; causes of, 

187; post-mortem sipipeRYSinces, 187 
Anasarca, nature of, 207 

Andalusian dog, description of the, 104 
Angina, nature of, 182 

Antimony, the oxide of, a sudorific, 257; 
the black sesquisulphuret of, an altera- 
tive, 257 

Anubis, an Egyptian deity with the head 
. of a dog, 4 

Anus, polypus in the, 167; fistula in the, 

221 
Aquafortis, a caustic, 255 

Argus, the dog of Ulysses, 9. 

Arrian on hunting, 5 

Artois dog, description of the, 104 

Ascarides, a species of worms, 218 

Ascites, see Dropsy 

Attention, an important faculty, 111 

Auscultation, use of, 188, 189 

Australasian dog, description of the, 19 

Barbary dog, description of the, 104 

Barbet, description of the, 49 

Bark, Peruvian, a valuable tonic, 257 

Barry, a celebrated Bernardine dog, anec- 
dote of, 52 

Bath, use of in puerperal fits, 229 

Beagle, description of the, 68 

Bell, Professor, opinion on the origin of 
the dog, 3 

Bernardine dog, description of the, 51 

Billy, a celebrated terrier, 102 

Bladder, inflammation of the, 215; rup- 
ture of the, 217 

Blain, nature, causes, treatment, and post- 
mortem appearances of, 176 

Blaine, Mr., opinion on kennel lameness, 
80; on tetanus, 198; on dropsy, 207; 



on calculus, 215; on distemper, 238; 
on mange, 246 
Bleeding, best place for, 222; directions 
for, 222 ; useful in epilepsy, 120 ; useful 
in distemper, 237 

Blenheim spaniel, description of the, 45 
, Blisters, uses of, 257; composition, 257; 
mode of applying and guarding, 257 

Bloodhound, description of the, 89 

Brain, comparative bulk of in different 
animals, 106 ; description of the. 106 

Breaking-in of hounds, 76 ; cruelty dis- 
advantageous, 113 

Breeding of greyhounds, 35 ; should al- 
ways be permitted, 225 

British hunting-dogs, Agassei, description 
of, 7 

Bronchocele, nature of, 182; causes and 
treatment of, 183 

Biiansu, or Nepal dog, description of, 15 

Buffon, opinion as to the origin of the 
dog, 104 

Bull-dog, description of the, 98 ; crossed 

with the greyhound, 31 
Bull terrier, description of the, 99 

CiECUM, description of the, 197 
Calculus, nature, causes, and treatment of, 

214; in the intestines, causes of, 202; 

cases, 2C3 
Calomel, a dangerous medicine, 258; 

should not be used in enteritis, 200 

Cancer, symptoms of, 247; treatment of, 

247 
Canis, genus, 11 
Canker in the ear, causes, symptoms, and 

treatment of, 160; cases of, 162 
Canute, laws concerning greyhounds by, 

29 
Cardia, description of the, 194 
Castor oil, a valuable purgative, 258 
Castration, proper time for, 224; mode of 

performing, 224 ; not recommended, 225 
Cataract in the eye, 158 
Catarrh, a cause of distemper, 231 ; nasal, 

235 

Catechu, an astringent, 258 
Caustic, lunar, the best, 257 
Cayotte, description of the, 22 
Chabert, anecdote of the dog of, 58 
Chalk, an astringent, 259 
Charles I., anecdote of the dog of, 29 
Charles II/s spaniel, description of, 44 
Chest, anatomy and diseases of the, 185; 

proper form of, in the greyhound, 33; 

in the fox-hound, 72 



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INDEX. 



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Chest-founder, nature, causes, and treat- 
ment of, 124 

Chloride of lime, uses of, 259 

Chorea, nature of, 120; causes, 121; treat- 
ment, 121; cases, 122; in distemper, 
240, 242 

Chryseus scylex, or dhole, description of 

the, 16 
Claret, a celebrated greyhound, 

Classification, zoological, 1 1 

Climate, effect of, 1 1 

Clysters, uses of, 258. 

Coach-dog, description of the, 26 

Cocker, description of the, 44 

Colic, causes, symptoms, and treatment of,. 

202 
Colon, the, 197 ; rupture of the, 200 
Colour of the greyhound, 34; of the 

pointer, 93 
Constipation, causes and treatment of, 204, 

205 

Copper, preparations of, and their uses, 

258 
Coryza, the early stage of distemper, 236 
Costiveness, causes and treatment of, 204, 

205; means of preventing, 205 
Cough, spasmodic, nature and treatment 

of, 190 
Coursing, Ovid's description of, 27 ; anec- 
dotes of, 31, 32; laws of, 260; general 
rules for the guidance of judges, 261; 

local rules, 262 

Creosote, a dangerous medicine, 258 ; use- 
ful in canker, 163 

Creta, an astringent, 259 

Cropping of the ears, 112; deafness fre- 
quently caused by, 1 12 ; disapproved of, 
165 ; proper method of, 166 

Cross-breeding, effect of, 11 

Cuba, mastiff of, 100 

Cur, description of the, 67 

Cyprus, greyhounds of, described, 37 

Cynosurus cristatus, an useful emetic, 

195 

Czarina, a celebrated greyhound, 32 

Dakhun wild dog, description of the, 16 
Dalmatian dog, description of the, 26 
Danish sacrifices of dogs, description of, 

24; dog, description of the, 26 
Deab, description of the, 22 
Deafness frequently caused by cropping, 

112 

Deer-hound, description of the, 38 

Delafond, Professor, his table of the diag- 
nostic symptoms of pleurisy and pneu- 
monia, 192 

Dentition, formula of, 1 77 

Dew-claws, 112; their removal unneces- 
sary, 112 

Dhole, description of the, 16 

Diaphragm, description of the, 185 
Diarrhoea, causes, nature, and treatment 
of, 204 ; habitual, 204 



Dick, Professor, on rabies, 145; on the 

use of the ergot of rye, 223 
Digestion, the process of, 194, 196 

Digitalis, the uses of, 259 
Digitigrade, an order of animals, 11 
Dingo, description of the, 19 
Distemper, origin of the name, 231 ; is a 
new disease, 231 ; causes of, 231 ; is 

contagious, 231 ; is epidemic, 232 ; 

effects on different breeds, 232 ; symp- 
toms, 232 ; nature of, 234, 236 ; dura- 
tion, 235 ; post-mortem appearances, 
235; treatment, 237; a cause of epi- 
lepsy, 119; sometimes terminates in 

palsy, 242 
Dog, early history of the, 1 ; used as a 

beast of draught, 2; for food, 2, 23; 
uses of the skin of the, 2 ; origin of, 3, 
1 1 ; mention of, in the Old and New 
Testaments, 4, 5 ; anecdotes of the saga- 
city and fidelity of, 8 ; changes produced 
in, by breeding and climate, 1 1 ; zoolo- 
gical description of, 11; natural divi- 
sions of, 1 1 ; sacrificed by the Greeks 
and Romans, 23; by the Danes and 
Swedes, 24 ; African wild, 22 ; Alba- 
nian, 26; Alicant, 104; Alpine spaniel, 
51; American wild, 22; Andalusian, 
104; Artois, 104; Australasian, 19; 
Barbary, 104; barbet, 49; beagle, 68; 
black and tan spaniel, 45 ; Blenheim 
spaniel, 45 ; blood-hound, 89 ; British, 
7; bull, 98; bull terrier, 99; coach, 
26; cocker, 44; cur, 67; Dakhun, 16; 
Dalmatian, 26; Danish, 26; drover's, 
65 ; Egyptian, 104 ; Esquimaux, 55 ; fox- 
hound, 72 ; French matin, 27 ; French 
pointer, 93 ; gasehound, 39 ; Grecian, 6 ; 
Grecian greyhound, 40 ; greyhound, 27 ; 
Hare Indian, 25 ; harrier, 70 ; Highland 
greyhound, 38 ; Hyrcanian, 7 ; Iceland, 
101 ; Irish greyhound, 39 ; Italian grey- 
hound, 42 ; Italian wolf, 66 ; Javanese, 
19; King Charles's spaniel, 44; Lap- 
land, 59 ; lion, 50 ; Locrian, 7 ; lurcher, 
68; Mahratta, 16; Maltese, 50; mastiff, 
99; Molossian, 7; Nepal, 15; New- 
foundland, 52 ; New Zealand, 21 ; otter, 
97 ; Pannonian, 7 ; pariah, 18 ; Persian 
greyhound, 41 ; pointer, 92 ; Polugar, 
16 ; poodle, 48 ; Portuguese pointer, 93 ; 
Eussian greyhound, 40 ; Russian pointer, 
94 ; Scotch greyhound, 38 ; Scotch ter- 
rier, 103 ; setter, 90 ; sheep, 59 ] shock, 
104 ; southern hound, 88 ; spaniel, 43 ; 
Spanish pointer, 93 ; springer, 45 ; stag- 
hound, 86 ; Sumatran wild, 19 ; terrier, 
101 ; Thibet, 17 ; Turkish, 50 ; Turkish 
greyhound, 41; Turnspit, 97; water- 
spaniel, 45 ; wild, 13; wolf, 40 
Dog-carts, prohibition of, disapproved, 2 ; 
should be licensed, 111 

Dog-pits, 114 
Dog-stealing, 114 



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265 



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4 



Dog's-tail grass, the use ofj 195 
Dogs, Isle of, origiu of tlie name, 29 
Dropsy, 205 ; causes of, 205 ; cases of, 206 ; 

treatment of, 207 
Drover's dog, description of the, 65 
Duodenum, the, 194 

Dupuy, M., on diseases of the spinal 
marrow, 125 

Dysentery, nature of, 204 ; treatment of, 

205 

L 

Ear, diseases of the, 160; vegetating ex- 
crescences in the, 1 64 ; eruptions in the, 
164 ; cropping of the, 165 ; polypi in the, 

nature and treatment of, 166 ; pain of, 
an early symptom of rabies, 133 
Egyptian worship of the dog, 4 ; dog, de- 
scription of the, 104 

Elfric, King of Mercia, possessed grey- 
hounds, 29 
Emetic tartar, uses of, 257 
Emetics, useful in distemper, 237 
Enteritis, causes, symptoms, and treatment 

of, 199 

Epiglottis, description of the, 181 
Epilepsy, causes of, 1 1 9 ; treatment of, 1 1 9 ; 
cases, 120; puerperal, 229; in distem- 
per, 233, 239 
Epsom salts, a purgative, 259 
Ergot of rye, use of, in parturition, 226, 228 
Esquimaux dog, description of the, 55 
Ethiopia, a dog elected king of, 4 
Ethmoid bones, description of the, 169 
Extremities, bones of the, 117 
Eye, distinctive form of the, 3, 1 1 ; diseases 
of the, 155; construction of the, 155; 
cases of disease of the, 156; congenital 
blindness, 157; ophthalmia, 158 ; cata- 
ract, 158; amaurosis, 158; appearance 
of in rabies, 138 ; appearance of in dis- 
temper, 233 

Pamiliaris, sub-genus, 11 

Feet, sore, 248 

Femur, fracture of the, 251 

Fighting-pits, 114 

First division of varieties, 13 

Fistula in the anus, causes and treatment 
of, 221 

Fits, symptoms of, 1 1 7 ; treatment of, 1 1 8 : 

distemper, 233, 239; puerperal, 229. 
i^ itzhardinge. Lord, his management of 
^ hounds, 8 1 

Flogging hounds, disapproved of, 76 

Food, the dog used for, 2, 23, 24 ; of the 
greyhound, 36 ; of the foxhound, 83 ; 
_ insufficient, a cause of distemper, 231 
^ore-arm, fracture of the, 251 
I^ oxhound, description of the, 72 ; size and 

proper conformation of, 72 ; pupping, 
74 ; treatment of whelps, 75 ; breaking 
m? 76; management in the field, 78; 
general^ management and food of, 83 ; 

Lord Fitzhardinge's management, 81 



Fractures, most frequent in young dogs, 

250 ; of the humeinis, 250 ; of the thigh, 
251 ; of the femur, 251 ; of the radius, 

251 ; of the fore-arm, 251 ; of the shoul- 
der, 252 ; of the pelvis, 253 ; of the skull, 
253 

French pointer, description of the, 93 
Fungus hsematodes, a case of, 248 ; post- 
mortem appearances, 248 

Gasehound, description of the, 39 
Gelert, the dog of Llewellyn, poem on the 
death of, 30 

Gentian, a stomachic and tonic, 259 

Ghookhan, or wild ass, hunted by Per- 

* sian greyhounds, 42 

Giddiness, nature and treatment of, lis 

Ginger, a cordial and. tonic, 259 

Glass, powdered, the best vermifuge, 219, 

Goitre, nature of, 182 ; cause and treat- 
ment of, 183 

Good qualities of the dog, 105 

Goodwood kennel, description of, 84 ; plan 
of, 85 ^ 

Grecian dogs, description of, 6 ; sacrifices 

of dogs, 23 ; greyhound, description of 
the, 40. ^ • 

Greyhound, description of the, 27 ; pup- 
pies, cut of, 6 ; origin of, 28 ; known in 
England in the Anglo-Saxon period, 28 ; 
old verses describing the, 31; cross 
with the bull-dog, 31 ; proper conform- 
ation of, 33 ; colour of, 34 ; breeding, 
35; rules for age, 35; food, 36; 
training, 36 ; laws for coursinff with 
260; English, 27; Grecian, 40 f High- 
land, 38; Irish, 39; Italian, 42; Per- 

mn, 41; Russian, 40; Scotch, 38: 
Turkish, 41 

Grognier, Professor, description of the 

French sheep-dog, 59 
Gullet, description of the, 194 

Hare Indian dog, description of the, 25 
Harrier, description of the, 70 

Head, bones of the, 116; form of in the 

foxhound, 72 

Heart, description of the, 186; action of 

the, 186; rupture of the, 187 
Hecate, dogs sacrificed to, 23 

Hepatitis, causes, symptoms and treatment 
of, 210 

Hertwich, Professor, on rabies, 151 
Highland greyhound, description of the,38 
Hindoos regard the dog unclean, 5 
Hogg, James, anecdotes of his dog, 62 
Hog's lard, the basis of all ointments, 256 
Hound, the various kinds of, 68; blood, 89; 
fox, 72 ; otter, 97 ; southern, 88; stag, 86 
Humerus, fracture of the, 250 
Hunting with dogs first mentioned by 

Oppian, 6 

Hunting-kennels, 79 






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Huntsman, the requisites of a, 78 

Hydatids in the kidney, 213 
Hydrocyanic acid, useful in cases of irri- 
tation of the skin, 256 
Hydrophobia, see Rabies 
Hyrcanian dog, description of the, 7 

Iceland dog, description of the, 101 
Ileum, description of the, 197 
Incontinence of urine, 217 
India, degeneration of dogs in, 15 
Inflammation of the lungs, 189; of the 

stomach, 194; of the intestines, 199 ; of 
the peritoneal membrane, 202 ; of the 
liver, 209; of the kidney, 213; of the 
bladder, 215 ; of the feet, 249 

Intelligence of the dog, 107; anecdotes 
illustrative of the, 108 

Intestines, description of the, 197; inflam- 
mation of the, 199 

Intussusception, nature and causes of, 203 ; 

treatment, 204 
Iodine, a valuable medicine in goitre, 183 ; 

in dropsy, 208 
Irish greyhound, description of the, 39 ; 

wolf-dog, 40; setter, 91 
Italian greyhound, description of the, 42 ; 

wolf-dog, 66 

James's powder, a sudorific, 257 
Jaundice, causes, symptoms, and treat- 
ment of, 211 
Javanese dog, description of the, 
Jejunum, description of the, 197 
Jenner, Dr., on distemper, 240 
Jews regard the dog with abhorrence, 4 
John, kept many dogs, 29 ; received grey- 
hounds in lieu of fines, 29 

Kamtchatka, uses of the dog as a beast 

of draught in, 2 

Kararahe or New Zealand dog, descrip- 
tion of the, 21 

Kennel, description of, 79; Goodwood, 
84; plan of Goodwood, 85; for watch- 
dog, construction of, 113 ; hare, use of, 
113; lameness, nature of, 79; causes of 
80 ; means of prevention, 81 

Kidney, inflammation of the, 213; hyda- 
tids in the, 213 
King Charles's spaniel, description of, 44 

Lachrymal duct, description of the, 170 
Lapland dog, description of the, 59 
Lard, the basis of all ointments, 256 
Larynx, description of the, 181; inflam- 
mation of the, 182 
Laws of coursing, 260 
Leblanc, M., on jaundice, 211 
Leonard, M., his exhibition of dogs, 108 
Lime, chloride of, the uses of, 259 
Lion dog, description of the, 50 
Lips, functionsof the, 177; swellings of the, 
177 



19 



Liver, description of the, 209 ; functions 

of the, 209 ; inflammation of the, 209 
Llewellyn, poem on the dog of, 30 
Locrian dog, description of the, 7 
Lunar caustic, the best, 257; recommend- 
ed for bites of rabid dogs, 147 
Lungs, inflammation of the, 189 ; con- 
gestion of the, 189 
Lurcher, description of the, 68 

Madness, canine, see Rabies 
Magnesia, sulphate of, a purgative, 259 
Mahratta dog, description of the, 1 6 
Majendie, his experiments on the olfactory 

nerves, 173 
Major, a celebrated greyhound, 32 

Maltese dog, description of the, 50 

Mammalia, a class of animals, 1 1 

Management of the pack, 83 

Mange, nature of, 244 ; is hereditary, 245 ; 

the scabby, 245 ; treatment, 245 ; causes 
of, 246 ; frequently causes goitre, 183 
Mastiff, description of the, 99 ; used in 

Cuba to hunt the Indians, 100 
Matin, description of the, 27 
Maxillary bones, description of the, 170 
Meatus, description of the, 169 
Medicines, a list of the most useful, 255 ; 

mode of administering, 255 
Medullary substance of the brain, 106 
Memory of the dog. 111 
Mercury, preparations of, 259 ; uses of, 259 

Milk, accumulation of, in the teats, 225 
secretion of, connected with cancer, 247 
Mohammedan abhorrence of dogs, 5 
Molossian dog, description of the, 7 
Moral qualities of the dog, 110 

Nasal bones, description of the, 170 

' catarrh, nature of, 235 

cavity, polypus in the, 167 

Neck, should be long in the greyhound, 33 
Nepal dog, description of the, 15 
Nerves, description of the, 106 
Nervous system, diseases of, 117 
Newfoundland dog, description of the, 52 
New Holland dog, description of the, 19 
New Zealand dog, description of the, 21 
Nimrod, opinion on kennel lameness, 81 
Nitrate of potash, a useful diuretic, 259 
Nitrate of silver, a caustic, 257 ; recom- 
mended for the bites of rabid dogs, 147 ; 
useful in chorea, 122 ; in canker, 161 
Nitric acid, a caustic, 255 
Norfolk spaniel, description of the, 45 
Nose, anatomy of the, 169 ; diseases of the, 
172 ; discharge from the, in distemper, 

234 

Olfactory nerves, size of, in different 
animals, 107 ; development of the, 169 ; 
description of the, 171 

Ophthalmia, symptoms of, 155; causes of, 

158; treatment of, 158 ' 



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INDEX. 



267 



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Oppian, the first who mentions hunting 

with dogs, 6; description of British doffs 
by, 7 ^ 

Orbit of the eye, form of the, 155 
^rford, Lord, first crossed greyhounds 

with the bull-dog, 31 ; death of, 32 
Utter-hound, description of the, 97 
J^Jvaries, removal of the, 225 
Ovid, description of coursing by, 27 
Ozgena, nature and treatment of; 1 72 

Palate, veil of the, 170 ; inflammation of 
the, 170 

Palsy, causes of, 125; treatment of, 125; 
a consequence of chorea, 121 ; a conse- 
quence of distemper, 242 

Palm oil, an emollient, 259 

Pancreas, functions of the, 213 

Pannonian dog, description of the, 7 

Pariah, description of the, 18 

Parry, Captain, description of the Esqui- 
maux dogs, 56 

Parturition, time of, 225 ; management 

during, 226 ; use of the ergot of rye, 

226, 228 ; inversion of the uterus after, 
230 

Pelvis, fracture of the, 253 
Percivall, Mr., on fractures, 252 
Pericardium, description of the, 185; case 
^ of a wound in the, 187 
Peritonitis, symptoms and treatment of, 

202 

Persian greyhound, description of the, 41 
^eruvian bark, a valuable tonic, 257 

Phlegmonous tumour, nature and treat- 
ment of, 184 

Pleurisy, nature of, 188 ; diagnostic symp- 
toms of, 192 

Pneumonia, nature and treatment of, 189 • 
diagnostic symptoms of, 192 ; in distem- 
per, 238; a consequence of small-pox, 244 

Pointer, compared with the setter, 91 ; 
early training of, 94 ; breaking-in, 96 ; 
English, 92 ; French, 93 ; Portuguese, 
93 ; Russian, 94 ; Spanish, 93. 

Pollux, the introduction of hunting with 
dogs attributed to, 6 

Polugar dog, description of the, 16 

Polypus in the ear, 166 ; in the nasal and 
anal cavities, 167; in the vagina, 167 

1 omeranian wolf-dog, description' of, 66 

Poodle, description of the, 48 

Portuguese pointer, description of the, 93 

potash, the nitrate of, a useful diuretic, 259 

i:'russic acid, useful in cases of irritation of 
the skin, 256 

Puerperal fits, causes, nature, and treat- 
ment of, 229 

Pulse of various animals, 186 
Pupping, see Parturition 
ir'urging m distemper, 234 ; should be 
avoided, 239 



Pythagoras, his high opinion of the virtues 
of the dog, 4 



Eabies, 128 ; cases, 129 ; early symptoms, 

131 ; progress, 135 ; post-mortem appear- 
ances, 141; causes, 143; period of incu- 
bation, 143 ; duration, 144 ; nature of the 
virus, 144 ; nature of the disease, 145; 
treatment of persons bitten, 146; in the 
horse, 148; in the rabbit, 148; in the 
guinea-pig, 149; in the cat, 149; in the 
fowl, 150; in the badger, 150; in the 
wolf, 150 ; trials concerning the death of 
persons by, 152 

Radius, fracture of the, 251 

Ratclifie, D., on scent, 175 

Rectum, the, 197 

Retriever, Newfoundland dog used as, 55 
Rheumatism, nature, causes, and treatment 
of, 124 

Richard II., anecdote of the dog of, 29 
Richmond, the third Duke of, built Good- 
wood kennel, 84 

Roman sacrifices of dogs, description of, 23 

Rounding the ear in canker, disapproved 
161 ' 

Rottenness of the lungs, 189 

Rupture of the heart, case of, 187; post- 
mortem appearances, 188 ; of the colon 
200; ofthe bladder, 217 

Russian greyhound, description of the, 40 • 
pointer, description ofthe, 94 ' ' 

Saliva, state of in rabies, 135 

Salts, a purgative, 259 

Scabby mange, nature and treatment of 
245 ' 

Scent, the term, 173; description of, 173. 
mfluence ofthe atmosphere upon, 173 ' 

Scotch greyhound, description of the, 38 • 
terrier, description of the, 103 ' 

Scott, Sir Walter, anecdote of the dog of 
99 ; verses on the dogs of, 105 ' 

Second division of varieties, 43 

Seton, useful in epilepsy, 119 

Setter, description ofthe, 90 ; early train- 
ing of, 94 ; compared with the pointer. 

Sheep-dog, description of the, 59; anec- 
dotes of the, 59, 63 ; supposed by Buffon 
to be_ the original type, 104 ; French, 
description of the, 59 
Shock dog, description of the, 104 
Shoulder, fracture of the, 252 ; proper form 

ofthe, m the greyhound, 33 
Siberian dog, description ofthe, 57 
Simonds, Professor, on fractures, 253 
Simpson, Mr., on the use ofthe ere;ot of rye, 

229 t> J ^ 

Skeleton, description ofthe, 116 

Skin, uses of the, 2 

Skull, form of, adopted as the arrangement 

of the varieties of the dog, 1 1 ; fracture 

of the, 253 

Small-pox, symptoms of, 243 ; causes of, 

244 ; treatment, 244 
Smell, the sense of, 107, 172 



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Snowball, a celebrated greyhound, 32 
Sore feet, causes of, 248 ; treatment, 249 
Southern hound, description of the, 88 
Spaniel, origin of the, 43 ; description of 

the, 43; Blenheim, 45 ; King Charles's, 

.44 ;■ Norfolk, 45 ; water, 45 
Spanish pqinter, description of the, 93 

Spasmodic cough, nature and treatment 

of; 190 ■■'-..■. 

Spaying, mode of perYorming, 225^ 
Spleen, functions of the, 213;/<B«eases of 

the, 213 '^ • -^ 

Springer, description of the, 45 / 
Staghound, description of the, 86 ; anec- 
dotes of the, 87 * ., 
Staling, profuse, 217 ^ 
Starch bandage, useful in fractures, 253 

Stealing of dogs, 114 

Stomach, anatomy and diseases of the, 194 ; 
case of the retention of a sharp instru- 
ment in the, 195 

Strychnia, a valuable medicine in palsy, 

127 
Sulphur ,the basis of applications for mange, 

259 ; a good alterative, 259 
Sumatra, description of the wild dog of, 19 
Surfeit, an eruption resembling mange, 245 
Swedish sacrifices of dogs, description of, 24 
Sympathetic nerves, 106 

TiENiA, a species of worm, 218 

Tailing, 112 

Tape-worm, the, 218 
Tapping in cases of dropsy, 207 
Tartar emetic, a useful medicine, 257 
Teeth, distinctive arrangement of the, 11; 
description of the, 177; cuts showing 
various stages of growth and decay, 178, 
179; supernumerary, 179; diseases of 
the, 180 ; very early lost by the Turkish 

dog, 50 
Teres, a species of worm, 218 
Terrier, description of the, 101 ; training 

of the, 102; anecdotes of the, 102; 

Scotch, description of the, 103 
Tetanus, causes of, 197; symptoms and 

treatment of, 198 
Thibet dog, description of the, 17 ; cut of 

the, 13 

Thigh, fracture of the, 251 
Third division of varieties, 98 
Thyroid cartilage, description of the, 181 
Toes, sore, 249 ; number of, 249 
Tongue, description of the, 175 ; mode of 
drinking, 175; worming, 175; blain, 

176 

Torsion, mode of performing, 222 ; for- 
ceps, 222 

Training of the greyhound, 36 ; of the fox- 
hound, 77 ; of the pointer or setter, 94 

Trimmer, Mr,, description of the Spanish 
sheep-dog, 61 



Trunk, bones of the, .116 

Tumour, phlegmonous, nature and treat- 
ment of, 184 

Turkish dog, description of the, 50 ; grey- 
hound, description of the, 41 

Tumside, nature and treatment of, 118 

Turnspit, description of the, 9 7 

Turpentine, uses of, 259 



Unguents, use of, in mange, 245 
Unguiculata, a tribe of animals, 11 
Uterus, case of inversion of the, 230 ; 
tirpation and cure, 230 



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Vagina, polypus in the, 167 

Van Diemen Land, ravages of wild dogs 

in, 21 

Varieties, three divisions of, 12; first 
division of, 13; second division of, 43; 
third division of, 98 

Vatel, his observations on the pulse of dif- 
ferent animals, 186 

Vegetating excrescences in the ear, nature 

and treatment of, 164 
Vermifuge, glass the most effectual, 219, 

237 

Vertebrated animals, what, 1 1 

Vinegar, useful for fomentations, 255 

Voice, change of in rabies, 1 38 

Vyner, Mr., opinion on kennel lameness, 80 

Warts, treatment of, 246 
Washing of hounds disapproved of, 8 1 
Watch-dog, frequent ill-usage of the, 113 
Water-spaniel, description of the, 45 ; anec- 
dotes of the, 47 
Wild dog, description of the, 13; of Africa, 
22; of Australia, 19; of Van Diemen 

Land, 21 
Williamson, Captain, account of the wild 
dogs of Nepal, 1 5 ; on the degeneration 
of dogs in India^ 15 ; description of the 

dhole, 16 
Wolf, supposed to be the origin of the dog, 

3 ; anecdotes of the, 3 

Wolf-dog, Irish, 40 ; Italian, 66 

Worming the tongue, a useless practice, 

175 

Worms, varieties of, 218; symptoms of, 
219 ; means of expelling, 219 ; cases of, 
219; a cause of sudden death, 220; 
causes of, 221 ; a cause of epilepsy, 119 ; 
a cause of distemper, 237 

L 

Yellow distemper, nature of, 235 ; treat- 
ment of, 239 
Yellows, the, 211 

2iNC, sulphate of, a valuable excitant, 259 
Zoological classification of the dog, 1 1 



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LONDON: WILLIAM CLOWES AND S0N3, STAMFORD STRiiiET. 



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